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Full text of "A treatise on the vine; embracing its history from the earliest ages to the present day, with descriptions of above two hundred foreign and eighty American varieties; together with a complete dissertation on the establishment, culture, and management of vineyards .."

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TREATISE ON THE VINE; 



EMBRACING ITS 



HISTORY FROM THE EARLIEST AGES TO THE PRESENT DAY, 



DESCRIPTIONS OF ABOVE TWO HUNDRED FOREIGN, AND 
EIGHTY AMERICAN VARIETIES; 

TOGETHER WITH A 

COMPLETE DISSERTATION 



ESTABLISHMENT, CULTURE, AND MANAGEMENT OF VINEYARDS. 



" The Vine too, here her curling tendrils shoots, 
Hangs out her clusters glowing to the south, 
And scarcely wishes for a warmer sky." 



BY WILLIAM ROBERT PRINCE, 

AIDED BY 

WILLIAM PRINCE, 

PROPRIETOR OF THE LINNJEAN BOTANIC GARDEN, 

Vice-President of the New- York Horticultural Society ; Member of the Linnaean Society 

of Paris ; of the Horticultural Societies of London and Paris ; of the Imperial Society of 

the Georgofili at Florence ; Honorary Member of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, 

etc. etc. 



NEW- YORK : 

PUBLISHED BY T. & J. SWORDS, G. & C. & H. CARVILL, E. BLISS, COLLINS & CO. 

G. THORBURN & SONS, NEW- YORK; JUDAH DOBSON, PHILADELPHIA; 

J. B. RUSSELL, BOSTON; GIDEON B. SMITH, BALTIMORE; 

JAMES WINSTON, RICHMOND ; AND JOSEPH 

SIMMONS, CHARLESTON, S.C. 

1830. 



. 



Southern District of JVeta- York, ss. 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the twentieth day of September, A.D. 1830, in the fifty-fifth 
year of the Independence of the United States of America, William Robert Prince, of the 
said District, hath deposited in this office the title of a book, the right whereof he claims as author 
and proprietor, in the words following, to wit: 

" A Treatise on the Vine ; embracing its history from the earliest ages to the present day, 
with descriptions of above two hundred foreign, and eighty American varieties; together with 
a complete dissertation on the establishment, culture, and management of vineyards. 
" The Vine too, here her curling tendrils shoots, 
Hangs out her clusters glowing to the south, 
And scarcely wishes for a warmer sky." 

By William Robert Prince, aided by William Piince, proprietor of the Linna:an Botanic Garden, 
Vice-President of the New-York Hoilicultural Society; Member of the Linnsean Socioty of 
Paris ; of the Horticultural Societies of London and Paris ; of the Imperial Society of the 
Georgofili at Florence ; Honorary Member of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society, etc. etc." 
In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, entitled " an act for the encourage- 
ment of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors 
of such copies, during the time therein mentioned." And also to an act, entitled " An act, sup- 
plementary to an act, entitled an act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies 
of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times 
therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and 
etching historical and other prints." 

FREDERICK J, BETTS, 
Clerk of the Southern District of New- York. 



J. SEYMOUR, PRINTER, JOHN-STREET. 
If' 



To HENRY CLAY, 
OF KENTUCKY: 

SIR, 

IT is with sentiments of gratification and pride, 
that I inscribe this work to one, ,who through life 
has been the undeviating patron of American in- 
dustry; whose name is interwoven with the various 
objects connected with the development of our Na- 
tional resources ; and whose unwearied efforts have 
been devoted to imparting that impulse to our 
domestic pursuits, which is best calculated to ad- 
vance the high destinies of our Republic. The 
knowledge of these interesting facts carry the con- 
viction with them of the peculiar appropriateness 
of the present Dedication. But, sir, the additional 
circumstance, that you, more than thirty years ago, 
united with many of our fellow citizens in forming 
an association for promoting the cultivation of the 
Vine in our country, renders this act still more 
apposite and forcible in its application. 

With an ardent desire that your course may be 
crowned with the most auspicious results, 

I am, 

With the highest respect and esteem, 
Your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM ROBERT PRINCE. 



PREFACE. 



THE formation of a code of rules for any partictfar species of culture, is an 
undertaking arduous in itself, and at the same time attended with great re- 
sponsibility. The author in the present case is sensible of the peculiar delicacy 
of the task, and whilst he is desirous of devoting his unwearied exertions, to- 
gether with any degree of ability he may possess, towards perfecting the object 
in view, he must at the same time crave from his fellow-citizens, the extension 
of their kind indulgence towards its imperfections, premising that any errors 
into which he may have been inadvertently led, will cheerfully be orrected 
when apprised of their existence. In the present case it is far from the preten- 
sions of the author to claim or aspire to entire originality. A species of culture 
recorded from the time of Noah, and which has been extending in Europe, from 
the period of the birth of our Saviour to the present day, and withal one of the 
most interesting character, could not fail to have received the aid of the bright- 
est talents of every age towards its advancement and development. 

It is with the various species of culture long known to the world, as it is 
with political knowledge; our Government and National policy derive their 
perfection from a consideration of the experiments made by the nations which 
have preceded us. Our country in like manner borrows from every other 
nation the lessons of experience they present, and profits by the intelligence 
of her citizens, in seeking to enforce and improve upon what others have 
acquired. 

Of similar character must be the introduction of the vine culture, and the 
establishment of the wine press. We must collect from the four corners of the 
earth all that combined intelligence and experience can offer, and then mark 
out the course most profitable for us to adopt, adding thereto such im- 
provements as our own knowledge would indicate. In accordance with this 
view of the subject, it is the anxious purpose of the author that this work 
should present the concentrated intelligence of every clime derived from all the 
experience of the past. 

The vineyards of Europe are composed solely of the varieties of a single 
species of the vine, and thataforeign one transplanted to her soil. In our country 
numerous species and varieties are every where met with, springing up sponta- 
neously in our woods and prairies, nature's own gifts unaided by culture or by toil. 
Hence we possess not only all the advantages that France and the other wine 
countries enjoy, from our having already introduced the choicest varieties which 
those climes can boast, but this advantage is enhanced by the numerous varie- 
ties which our own country presents to us. And in a comparison of our natural 
situation with Persia and other countries of the east, as regards the number of 



VI PREFACE. 

species, we enjoy, by parity of reasoning, advantages tenfold those which were 
originally possessed by them, as they commenced the vine culture with a single 
species alone. 

In Europe the culture of the vine has been profitably extended to the 51 of 
N. lat. and in some cases to the 52. Allowing the present difference in climate 
or temperature to be 10 between similar latitudes of that continent and our 
own, it thence follows that vines of the foreign varieties may be advantageously 
cultivated to the 42 in our own country, and perhaps the intensity of our sum- 
mer heat may extend the limit somewhat further to the north. But taking this 
as the extreme limit where profitable crops can be obtained for the purpose 
of making wine, still their culture can be extended much farther for the purpose 
of table fruit, and as an article of luxury. But an obvious course immediately 
presents itself for extending vineyards profitably as far north as they are in 
Europe. This is the use of our native varieties of the hardier description, some 
of which being found growing, naturally as far north as Lower Canada, do not 
fail to succeed even in that country. Thus it appears that although there exists 
a present difference of about 10 between the temperature of our country and 
that of Europe, the hand of nature has implanted our soil with vegetable pro- 
ductions of a hardier character, capable of supporting the severities of climate 
in a degree fully proportionate to the variation referred to. And I may also 
here mention the peculiar property most of our native vines, and particularly 
the northern species, possess, of flowering at a much earlier period than foreign 
vines, which is of itself equivalent to an increase in the length of the season. 

But even the difference of climates referred to, together with our occasional 
late spring frosts and variableness of the atmosphere, will, it is anticipated, be 
greatly diminished, and gradually subside as a more general culture of the soil 
takes place ; when the forests are removed so as to lay bare the earth to the 
regular influence of solar heat, and the collections of stagnant water become 
dried up, an advance towards which point has been already realized in some of 
the best cultivated parts of our country. 

The ancient descriptions of the German territory, and of France to the north 
of the Cevennes, confirm our belief that the climates of those countries were 
formerly of a character similar to our own, and that they have varied from the cir- 
cumstances attendant on general cultivation. Diodorus Siculus tells us that 
the large rivers of the Roman provinces, the Rhine and the Danube, were fre- 
quently frozen for their whole depth, and thereby rendered capable of support- 
ing enormous burthens, in so much that the Barbarian hordes preferred that 
season for their invasions. 

By the preceding remarks it will be perceived, that the culture of the vine 
may be made profitable even to the remotest northern and eastern sections of 
the union, and my own opinion is, that by the course recommended, it can be 
extended farther to the north than it has been in Europe. 

The pursuit itself is one both ennobling and inspiring, and is calculated to 
elicit the best propensities of the human heart, and as will be shown, it is one 
which kings and potentates have not failed to honour with their personal atten- 
tion. On the other hand, it is indispensably necessary for us to adopt it, if we 
expect ever to taste wines equal to the more luscious ones of France, as those 



PREFACE, Vll 

claiming that character arc not susceptible of transportation by sea without 
being adulterated. 

It will also be the purpose of the present work to show that the Vine culture 
is in no wise difficult, that any failures which have taken place were far more 
the result of erroneous management than of any incapacity of the soil, and 
that the numerous difficulties which have been thrilled in our ears for the thou- 
sandth time, exist only in the brains of those who have propagated them. In 
fact, any person of the least information, after being taught the management of 
a single vine, may without difficulty proceed in a similar course with a whole 
vineyard. It is in fact a species of culture where one head will serve to direct 
a great number, and in which after once instructed, no after difficulties need 
arise, and this consideration is one of particular moment, when we take into 
view its peculiar applicability to the situation of the labouring population in the 
southern states. 

Another prominent advantage which this culture presents, is that it turns to 
account soils and situations unsuitable for other objects, for Young relates in his 
travels through France that he found every variety of soil, from a heavy clay to 
a light blowing sand, and all exposures whatever, and every situation from a 
perfect level to the steepest hills, to afford profitable crops of grapes ; for where 
their quality is not suitable for the finer wines, they are made use of for distilla- 
tion into brandies. Indeed, it is a fact so noted, that the very finest wines are 
produced on the declivities and the poorest soils, that a ditty oft sung by con- 
noisseurs contains the following stanza : " 

"Toujours le bon vin croit surlcs montagnes, 

Dans les rochers, et sur les coteaux ; 
Celui qui croit dans les rases campagnes, 
Ne vaut rien, & cause des eaux." 

In France alone the vine culture gives employment to two millions of labour- 
ers, without enumerating many subordinate mechanical branches that are bene- 
fitted by it; and it is attended with immense national advantages, which it forms 
apart of the purpose of the present work to fully discuss and explain. 

Agriculture is the great basis and the source of national prosperity, as gene- 
rally conceded. This fountain of our wealth is however sometimes oppressed 
to such a degree as to make those engaged in it cry aloud for encouragement, 
and assert that their claims are frequently neglected or inefficiently supported. 
These circumstances appear plainly to present an appeal to our consideration, 
and to call upon our national government to pursue the course long since adopted 
by France ; that of favouring and encouraging the introduction and culture of 
every foreign product which our climate is capable of maturing and perfect- 
ing, and calculated to develope our internal riches, by bringing into useful action 
those vast domestic resources which have too long lain dormant in the bosom 01 
our soil ; a proper attention to which would place us in an attitude of independ- 
ence of foreign supply. 

A great advantage resulting from such course is this ; that where a particular 
branch of agriculture languishes or is depressed, by the produce becoming dimi- 
nished in price from a superabundance of supply, a new channel for national 
industry will not only afford profit to those actually engaged in it, but by with- 
drawing a portion of the population from other objects of pursuit, tends to secure 



V1H PREFACE. 

an appropriate division of labour, and thereby to cause other products to realize 
a fair valuation. It is not by turning its whole attention to one point, that a 
nation advances its resources, but by seeking to develope the natural riches of 
every description which her soil and climate are susceptible of furnishing ; thence 
realizing, first, the necessary supplies for her own population, by which she se- 
cures to herself a sure and regular market for her products to a certain extent, 
and secondly, a surplus sufficient for foreign export. 

Another great benefit which will result from an assiduous improvement of our 
national resources, is that it must permanently secure to us the balance of trade ; 
the prompt tendency of which will be to produce a return of all our public stocks 
now held in Europe, the interest on -which is annually draining from ias an enor- 
mous taxation on our labour. 

It is a subject of gratulation that the public attention seems so fully drawn to 
the culture of the grape. It was not until after immense difficulties that the 
vine was brought to its present state of successful culture in France ; and it 
should be no cause for discouragement, if some experiments are made in this 
country without the anticipated success. In fact, so many causes exist by which 
an error in judgment, or the want of the necessary information, may produce a 
failure, that it would be a miracle if all were to succeed. Already, for years, 
has the vine been most successfully cultivated on the Rhine ; and in latitude 50 
degrees, the most choice Rhenish wines are made. Recent accounts tell us of 
vineyards having been established in the more northern parts of Germany, and 
in high latitudes in Russia ; and the Swiss have been, for a course of years, most 
plentifully supplied with wine from their own soil. Shall then America alone 
be debarred from this, one of the bountiful gifts of nature ? Shall a country, 
possessing every variety of climate which is combined in all the wine countries 
of Europe, and extending through all the degrees of latitude which are there 
deemed the most genial to its growth and produce, be said to be totally inap- 
propriate to its success ? Shall it be said that a plant, which culture has accom- 
modated to almost every other clime to which it has been introduced, can find no 
spot whereon to flourish, in a country extending from the 25th to the 47th degree 
of latitude ; and that we can boast no such congenial soil in an empire, whose 
bounds are the St. Lawrence and the Gulf of Mexico, and whose settlements 
already extend from the shores of the Atlantic to the sources of the Missouri ? 
It is high time such delusions of blinded theorists should give way to the lights 
of reason and of judgment, and that the culture of the vine, to every variety of 
which we have a soil and climate suitable to offer, should assume that importance 
to which it has already attained in countries possessing comparatively few ad- 
vantages. Let, then, the beams of intelligence, which are imparting so much 
benefit to mankind by their wide diffusion, disperse these clouds of ignorance aod 
error from the enlightened horticulturists of the American republic. 



HISTORY OP THE VINE, &c, 



GRAPE VINE VITIS. 

CLASS, PENTANDRIA ORDER, MONOOYNIA. 
NATURAL ORDER Vites. 



THE Vine derives its generic name from the Latin word, 
vincire, to bind, than which no other can be more appropriate. 

The appellation, " The Vine" as used by different authors, 
invariably refers to the varieties of one species, the Vitis vinifera 
of botanists. 

The Grape Vine is universally known to be a trailing, 
deciduous shrub, with a twisted irregular stem, flexible branches, 
decumbent, or supporting themselves when near other trees by 
means of its tendrils ; the bark is of a light or dark brown colour, 
separating in strips from the stalk and renewing itself annually; 
the leaves generally large, but vary in form and appearance, 
being entire, serrated, more or less lobed, downy or smooth, 
of a lighter or darker shade of green, or with a reddish tinge 
during summer, but varying at maturity in autumn; those 
varieties of which the predominating colour is red, almost in- 
variably changing to, or are tinged with some shade of that 
colour, and those which produce white, green, or yellow grapes, 
changing to a yellow colour without being tinged with purple, 
red, or scarlet. The breadth of the leaves varies from five to 
ten inches, and the length of the petiole from four to eight 



BOTANICAL DEKCKIPTIOJS. 

inches : the flowers are produced on the shoots of the same 
season, which shoots generally proceed from those of the year 
preceding ; they are of a greenish colour and fragrant odour, 
are produced in the form of a raceme and expand in June. 
The berries are of a variety of forms, of various colours, and 
differing also in flavour, which is poignant, elevated, and 
grateful. 

The flowers have each a five-toothed calyx, and five almost 
colourless petals, which are caducous ; five stamens, and a 
superior ovarium surmounted by a stile and obtuse stigma. 

Each berry should contain naturally five heart-shaped seeds: 
but many varieties, originating from culture, have but three, 
others but two, and sometimes one, and there are others which 
have none. 

The tendrils are opposite to the leaves, and may be con- 
sidered as abortive clusters, and can be made to produce fruit 
by destroying the real clusters when they first show themselves, 
breaking off at the same time the extremity of the shoot on 
which they grow, so as to cause the sap to flow into them. 

The eye, or bud, is surrounded by three or four scaly 
coverings, under which, especially on the upper part, there is 
an adhesive substance of a white or red colour, which protects 
it from the effect of rains and winter frosts. The fruit in its 
wild state is black, very small,with large seeds, and without 
flavour. 



CHAPTER I. 

Early history of the vine its origin and native country 
Early use of wine among the Romans. 

Various historians have traced the culture of the vine to the 
earliest periods, and the scriptures bear ample testimony of the 
high estimation in which it has been held from the first ages 
of the world. 

In the ninth chapter of Genesis, we read that one of the first 
acts of Noah, after being saved from the deluge, was to plant a 



EARLY HISTORY OF THE VINE. 1 1 

vineyard. " And Noah began to be an husbandman and he 
planted a vineyard;" thus plainly indicating that the planting a 
vineyard was even at that early day, deemed one of the primary 
and most important acts of him who tilled the earth. It is 
equally certain from this circumstance, that vineyards must 
have existed and been objects of particular attention before the 
deluge, otherwise Noah could not have possessed the knowledge, 
and made their formation one of the first acts after his miracu^ 
lous preservation, and restoration to the pursuits of husbandry, 
it being one of the principal duties of Noah to communicate to 
mankind the knowledge possessed before the flood. 

Among the blessings held out to the Israelites as productions 
of the promised land, the vine is particularly mentioned, " a 
land of wheat and barley and vines;" and the spies which were 
sent into the land of Canaan to ascertain its riches, on their 
return bore a cluster of grapes on a girdle between them. The 
vine is also frequently mentioned by the ancient patriarchs and 
fathers, as a type or emblem by which to represent the riches 
of a country, or the flourishing condition of a nation, tribe, or 
family, " Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt" &tc. Psalm 
Ixxx. " Thy wife shall be as the fruitful vine" &LC. Solo- 
mon also speaks of its power to gladden the heart, and to 
banish sorrow ; and " generous wine" has been for ages 
deemed a fit oblation for fallen man to offer to the Deity, and 
to mingle in the sacred offerings of his homage. 

Even among the heathen nations of antiquity, the vine was 
held in the highest esteem and veneration. The invention of 
wine was ascribed by the ancient Egyptians to Osiris, by the 
Latins to Saturn, and the Greeks elevated Bacchus to the 
rank of a deity, for having brought the vine from Arabia Felix ; 
and after first cultivating it himself, he transmitted it to every 
country which submitted to his conquests, and taught its 
use and value to man. He is represented by Pliny to have 
been the first who ever wore a crown, and as the god of vin- 
tage and of wine, his crown is formed of the vine ; and its 
twining branches bedecked with clusters of fruit, is still selected 
as an emblem to indicate hilarity and gladness. Tvvpn the; 



ORIGIN OF THE VINE. 

crown of Juno was also made of the vine. Plato, one of the 
wisest of men, and who so particularly restrains the use of 
wine within reasonable bounds, and so severely censures its 
abuse by excess, remarks, " that nothing more excellent or 
valuable than wine was ever granted by God to man." Among 
the ancient Romans, wine was principally used for sacred pur- 
poses in the worship of their gods, to which object it had 
been appropriated by the inhabitants of the East, previous to 
the foundation of that empire. 

To show still further that the ancients were well aware of 
its abuse as well as of its worth, although we find Bacchus 
generally represented with a countenance full of jollity, yet 
he is often depicted as an old man, with his head encircled by 
the vine, to teach us that wine taken to excess will induce 
enervation, destroy our health and strength, and render us 
weak, loquacious, and childish, like old men. 

In the earlier ages wine was used without dilution ; and the 
Athenians mention Amphitryon as the first who mingled it 
with water ; and it is said that to this circumstance we owe the 
origin of the fable of Bacchus having been struck by a thun- 
derbolt, and cast thus inflamed into the bath of the Nymphs 
to be extinguished. 

Origin and native country of the vine, fyc. 

Not only, as Chaptal truly remarks, are we indebted to 
Asia for civilization and the arts, but also for the most of the 
cultivated grasses, fruits and vegetables, and even for the vine. 
By some authors it has been supposed to be a native of Syria, 
but none of these appear to have possessed any proofs on the 
subject. The accounts of Andre Michaux, who found it in 
the woods of Manzanderan, and of Olivier, member of the 
French Institute, who saw it in many parts of the mountains 
of Curdistan, as well as the circumstance that the most part 
of our acclimated fruits, and our domestic animals, come from 
upper Asia, banish all doubt of the fact that Persia is its na- 
tive country. 



EARLY USE OF WINE AMONG THE ROMANS. 13 

Pallas also found the vine growing naturally upon the Cas- 
pian and upon the Black sea, and it is also very common in 
the Crimea. 

The introduction of the vine to those countries where it is 
now cultivated to the greatest extent, was gradually from more 
eastern climes, whence it was first brought to the southern parts 
of Europe. In the time of Homer it grew spontaneously in 
the island of Sicily, and probably upon adjacent parts of 
the continent ; but it was not improved by skill, nor does 
it even appear that the rude inhabitants extracted a liquor 
from it. It was not until a thousand years after this period 
that Italy could boast, that of the fourscore most celebrated 
wines, more than two-thirds were the produce of her own soil. 

A highly interesting and curious account is given by Dr. 
Sickler, of its gradual migration to Egypt, Sicily, and Greece. 
The Phoenicians, who had widely extended their commerce, 
and who frequently explored the coasts of the Mediterranean, 
introduced the culture of the vine into the isles of the Archi- 
pelago, and afterwards into the 'island of Sicily and into 
Greece ; and lastly, to Italy, Provence, and the territory of 
Marseilles. 

Early use of wines among the Romans. 

During the first period of the Roman empire the culture ot 
the vine attracted but little attention, for Romulus forbade the 
use of wines in the libations then customary in the sacrifices of 
the Asiatics, and restricted them to milk as a libation on the 
funeral piles of the dead. Numa maintained this custom, 
and forbid wine at funerals, and he only permitted them to 
make use of such wine in their libations to the gods as had 
been made from vines that were well pruned, as Pliny asserts, 
in order to render the pruning of the vine an object of ne- 
cessary care to those who cultivated it. 

Wines were so rare and expensive in Rome during the early 
life of Lucullus, that but a single draught was allowed at a 
repast, however sumptuous the feast and entertainment might 
be in other respects : and Varro tells us that Lucullus never 



14 EARLY USE OP WINE AMONG THE ROMANS. 

saw at his father's table Greek wines served up but once at each 
meal, but, that on his return from Asia, he bestowed oh the 
people as a largess, more than a hundred thousand gallons of 
such wine ; and that Hortensius at his death left to his heir 
above ten thousand barrels filled with the esteemed wines of 
Greece. 

Pliny mentions having drank wines that had been made dur- 
ing the consulship of Opimius, which was about two hundred 
years before. He also concludes that the vine was very rare 
in Italy in the reign of Numa, and adds, that wines did not 
come into much repute until six hundred years after the foun- 
dation of Rome. 

Varro states a fact which shows the high value then set on 
wines, that Mezentius, king of Tuscany, aided the Rutilans 
of Ardea in their wars against the Latins, for no other hire 
but the wine and the vines which were in the territories of the 
Latins. It was to Ruma that Italy was first indebted for the 
abolishment of the interdiction promulgated by Romulus, and 
Pliny remarks, that politicians made use of the circumstance 
of this privilege being granted for its free use in religious 
sacrifices, as a means to promote and encourage its extensive 
culture, and the result seems to have fully responded to these 
exertions, for vineyards soon after became so numerous, and 
their produce so abundant, that wine not only came into 
general use, but the use of it was often carried to excess, and 
even the Roman fair are said to have partaken too freely of 
the enjoyment. This excess caused the enactment of the law 
against its use by women in any case whatever, under penalty 
of death, and by men until they had attained the age of thirty 
years. Fabius Pictor tells us of a Roman lady who was 
starved by her relations because she had opened a cupboard 
which contained the keys of the wine cellar ; and Macennius 
killed his wife with a cudgel on account of having caught her 
drinking wine out of a tun, and being tried for it, was ac- 
quitted of murder. Cato mentions, that the custom among re- 
lations of kissing women when they met, was to ascertain by 
their breath if they had been drinking wine. But this cus- 



ANOIEN? VINBYARfcS. 15 



torn is said also to have had its inconveniences from the eager- 
ness which some evinced in offering and others in receiving 
the proof of that abstinence. 

But the law that has been referred to could not, from its too 
great severity, be effective or of long continuance, in regard 
to the use of an article which had become so common and 
abundant ; and it was consequently soon altered so as to fix 
the age of thirty years as the period after which it might be 
drank by all, and finally they were compelled to alter it again, 
and allow an entire freedom in its use. 

The same abuse of wine caused a similar law in the Mar- 
seilloise republic ; but there, as among the Romans, its extreme 
severity was an obstacle to its application, and it was in like 
manner annulled. * 



CHAPTER II. 
Ancient Vineyards. 

It would be a task both pleasing and interesting, to form a 
chronological table of the formation of the principal French, 
Spanish, German, and other vineyards; but the various histories^ 
of national agriculture furnish us with no doicuments suffi- 
ciently precise on that subject, and whatever may be said of it, 
we have not a complete one from Pliny of those of early date : 
the only course, therefore, by which we may attain to correct 
conclusions, is to examine with care the books and manuscripts 
which exist on the subject, and to draw from each its quota of 
knowledge, and to condense them as far as possible under one 
head. It may however be deemed worthy of remark, that at 
the second epoch of the planting of vineyards in France, 
present circumstances fully prove, that the propagation of 
the vine extended itself in the neighbourhood of Marseilles, 
in the direction from the meridian sun. The culture afterwards 
advanced in two directions, almost diametrically opposed, to 
the north and south-west ; the first penetrated Dauphiny, by 



ANCIENT VINEYARDS, 

the numerous hills of the Rhone, the shores of the Saone, and 
all that famous coast formed of small mountains, which traverse 
Burgundy, from the meridian to the north, thence extending 
by the country of the Sequanois, (Franche Comte, or Jura,) 
upon the left bank of the Rhine, on the hills of theMarne, of the 
Moselle, and of those which border on the Sielle. The second 
branch directed itself towards Languedoc, Gascony, and Gui- 
enne. It is probable that from these two principal branches, 
ramifications may have extended to the interior, according to 
the relative situations of the different provinces, and to the 
connections which existed between the inhabitants. There is 
no doubt, also, that the inhabitants of the contiguous districts, 
procured their vines, and a knowledge of their culture from the 
vignerons of Guienne, and that the inhabitants of Auvergne, 
Bourbonnois, Nivernois, and Berri, received theirs from the 
people of Lyons, and transmitted them in like manner to those 
of Tours, Anjou, and their environs. The inhabitants of 
Gatinois, Orleans, and the Isle of France, received theirs from 
the vineyards which formed the ancient boundaries of Burgundy 
and Champagne. The vine was planted and its culture com- 
municated with an inconceivable rapidity, when contrasted 
with the difficulty which exists at the present day, in causing 
the best precepts and the best modes of culture to be adopted, 
It is true, that in reverting to former periods, we perceive that 
the proprietors of extensive domains did not disdain to devote 
themselves personally to rural pursuits, and that sovereigns 
themselves were not strangers to agricultural employments. 
The first dukes of Burgundy established vineyards on their 
own account ; and we learn from their Ancient ordinances, how 
much they prided themselves on the possession of the finest 
wine country in Christendom, and the duke of Burgundy was 
often designated by the title of " prince of good wines." Nei- 
ther were the kings of France unmindful of the advantage of 
extending the culture of the vine in their dominions. The 
edicts of Charlemagne furnish proof that vineyards were at- 
tached to each of his palaces, with a press and every instru- 
ment necessary in the making of wine ; the sovereign himself 



ANCIENT VINEYARDS, 17 

engaging in the principal management with his vignerons. The 
palace of the Louvre, as well as the other royal residences, has 
had a collection of vines attached to it since early in the twelfth 
century, and in the year 1160, Louis the younger assigned 
annually from its produce six hogsheads of wine to the cure 
of St. Nicholas. 

Philip Augustus, in the year 1200, possessed numerous vine- 
yards at Bourges, Soissons, Orleans, and various other dis- 
tricts of country, and the royal vineyard of Coucy, formed of 
vines obtained direct from Greece, is often mentioned in history. 
In fact, so numerous did the variety of wines become about 
this period, that among the fables of the thirteenth century, 
there is one composed in the reign of this sovereign, entitled 
the " Battle of the Wines," in which are enumerated the very 
great number of French wines then held in high repute, and 
those who feel a great interest on this point, would doubtless 
be gratified by referring to it. 

Since the year 1200, a century has not passed away without 
augmenting the number of districts and of vineyards worthy 
of note, and adding to the list of wines which merit our 
approbation. Others have in like manner declined and lost 
the esteem they once possessed. The vineyard of Mantes, 
once counted among the most distinguished, has long since 
lost its reputation from inattention to maintaining it. 

Deschamps announces that even in his time, the wines of 
Burgundy and of Champagne were rivals in renown. The 
plantations of the vine in the environs of Paris, existed at a 
very remote period, as the emperor Julien lauded the wines 
they yielded, but the reputation they possessed for several 
centuries no longer exists. The primary cause of this change 
is attributed to the vast increase of the population of Paris for 
the last century. The great number of artisans and workmen, 
who centered in that city, in consequence of the wants of the 
opulent inhabitants, caused the hotels, taverns, and pleasure 
gardens, to be greatly increased. These places of resort, 
being constantly filled by consumers, in no wise particular in 
their taste, they created a permanent market, and constant 

3 



18 AKtJIENT VINEYARIJS. 

demand at all periods. The proprietors of vineyards, being thus 
assured of an advantageous sale of whatever quantity they could 
make, without the expense of sending it to a distant market, 
decided on increasing the quantity even at the sacrifice of the 
quality. The ease and cheapness with which they could enrich 
the soil of their vineyards, by procuring manure so cheaply in 
Paris, powerfully seconded their views. It was only neces- 
sary further to neglect the culture of those vines whose pro- 
duce was small, and to increase in their stead, those kinds, 
however indifferent in quality, that yielded great crops, to 
annihilate the celebrity these vineyards had before acquired 
and justly merited. 

The vineyards of Orleans have also failed of possessing at 
all times the same degree of favour. The decline into which 
they have fallen, may also be traced to the immense consump- 
tion, not as wine, but for the purpose of conversion into brandy 
and vinegar. Under these forms, the produce of the Orleans 
vineyards is sought after by various nations to such a degree, 
that doubtless many proprietors deemed it of little interest to 
strive to maintain the ancient character of the wines. In 
1666, the king of France presented to the king of England., 
two hundred hogsheads of wine, consisting of Champagne, 
Burgundy, and Hermitage, they, without doubt, being deemed 
the best of that day. 

In the Memoirs of Tully, we find the history of the wine of 
Arbois, and some amusing anecdotes that rendered them cele- 
brated. 

I will only further notice one of the largest and most cele- 
brated wine districts of France, namely that of Bordeaux. The 
major part of the wines made in this territory, having for 
centuries continued to be a most important object of export, 
rather than of home consumption ; it is not very surprising 
that our writers, as these wines were in general little known, 
should have omitted to give us more than a partial account of 
their merits. Ausone, who lived in the fourth century, praised 
their excellence in many of his writings. Mathieu Paris, also 
comments upon their value in 1.251 ; and it is proved by thf 



INTRODUCTION OF THE ViiNE INTO CHANCE. 19 

registry of the customhouse of Bordeaux, that in the year 1350, 
no less than one hundred and forty one vessels left that port, 
laden with 13,429 pipes of wine; the duties of which were, 
5104 livres of their currency. Froissard also states, that 
in 1372, there arrived more than two hundred sail of vessels 
to load with wine. 

I shall confine myself here to the foregoing remarks; but the 
vineyards of this district occupy so distinguished and impor- 
tant a rank among the finest in France, and are objects of so 
much interest on account of their immense export, (a point 
which Americans must particularly aim at ; ) that I shall here- 
after enter more minutely into the details, and describe the 
principal cms, or favourite vineyards, which have acquired for 
it so much celebrity. 



CHAPTER 111. 
Introduction of the vine into France* 

The vine appears to have been introduced into France at a * 
remote period. It was very early transmitted to the Narbon- 
nese province of Gaul, but the cold was so intense to the north 
of the Cevennes, that in the time of Strabo it was deemed im- 
possible to mature the grapes in those parts of Gaul. This 
was doubtless caused by two circumstances : first, the climate 
had not then become ameliorated to the degree it afterwards 
acquired by cultivation ; and secondly, the vine being a na- 
tive of a much more southern region, needed that acclimation 
by culture which it in time attained. These difficulties were, 
however, gradually surmounted, or vanished from the effect 
of concurrent circumstances. It was also brought by the Phoe- 
nicians to the territory of Marseilles, at the time they founded 
the well known city of that name, where it was multiplied to 
such a degree, that many vineyards celebrated for their pro- 
duce existed in the republic of Marseilles, and in the province 



* INTRODUCTION OF THE VINE INTO FRANCE. 

of Narbonne, when Julius Caesar conquered the Gauls ; and 
there is good reason to believe that the first vineyards of Bur- 
gundy existed in the age of the Antonines, but the other parts 
of Gaul and Helvetia (Switzerland) were totally without them 
at that time. Indeed, a circumstance is related in history, that 
about this period a Swiss blacksmith having crossed the Alps 
into Italy, on his return brought back some grapes and some 
figs, which caused the whole nation to determine on emigrat- 
ing to so desirable a country, producing such delicious fruits, 
and that they departed, after setting fire to their towns and vil- 
lages, but were repulsed in their attempt to pass the Alps by 
Julius Caesar ; and also a second time in attempting to cross 
the river Saone, and go round the Alps by Nice. 

Strabo remarks, that the vines of Languedoc and Provence 
produced the same fruit as those of Italy, which was doubtless 
the case, they having all one common origin. Whether the 
success was greater or less which attended the vineyards at 
antecedent periods, it is certain that about the year eighty-five 
the culture of the vine had already covered many of the hill 
sides of the southern and middle departments of France, and 
was gradually extending itself to the rest of Gaul, when Do- 
mitian, finding there was a great scarcity of grain in the 
Roman dominions, attributed it to the vast increase of vine- 
yards in Italy and the provinces, which he considered as form- 
ing a cause that rendered agriculture too much neglected, and 
deeming also their existence to so great an extent as an incite- 
ment to sedition from the encouragement they gave to intem- 
perance, he issued an edict prohibiting the planting of any 
new vineyards in Italy, and ordering the whole (some histo- 
rians say one half) of those in the provinces to be destroyed. 
The date of this edict is said by some to be the year 85, 
and by others 92 of the Christian era. This privation lasted 
nearly two centuries, during which no vineyards could be 
planted without permission of the emperor, and the provincials 
did not receive permission to replant them until about the 
year 280, when Probus, after numerous victories, which 
gave peace to his empire, evinced a great desire to encourage 






INTRODUCTION OF THE VINE I-VTO FRANCE. ^1 

agricultural pursuits in all the provinces, and rescinded the 
edict of Domitian. The renewal of this privilege appears to 
have been received with great satisfaction ; for tradition still 
retained in the memory of the Gauls the great advantages 
that species of culture had afforded them, and the vines of 
Sicily, Italy, Greece, the Archipelago and Africa, were again 
transplanted to the provinces of Gaul, and became the origin 
of the innumerable varieties which now cover with vineyards 
the territories of France. The formation of these new plan- 
tations of the vine are said to have presented a delightful and 
inspiring spectacle. Crowds of persons of both sexes and of 
all ages were seen spontaneously and enthusiastically devoting 
themselves to an occupation in which all could take part to 
that gratifying restoration of liberty, the replanting of vine- 
yards. It appears, also, to have been about this period (though 
some authors say it was in 270) that the vine was planted in 
the northern parts of Gaul, and about the rivers Rhine, Mo^ 
selle, and Maine, and in Hungary. The vineyards of France 
had very early attained to celebrity, wines having been even 
exported from them to Italy during the reign of Vespasian. 

In the beginning of the fourth century, Eumenius mentions 
the vines of the territory of Autun, which had become de- 
cayed from age, and the first plantation of which was entirely 
unknown ; and M. D'Anville supposes the Pagus Arebrignus 
to be the district of Beaune, celebrated even at the present day 
for some of the finest vineyards of Burgundy. St. Martin 
planted vines in Touraine before the end of the fourth cen- 
tury ; and St. Remi, who lived about the end of the fifth, 
left in his will to different churches the vineyards which he 
possessed in the territories of Rheims and Laon, with the 
slaves which he employed to cultivate them. The export ofl 
wines, however, from Bordeaux to England, did not commence 
until about the year 1 1 72. 

* I 



* INTRODUCTION OF THE VINE INTO BRITAIN. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Introduction of the vine into Britain. 

There appears to be much difference among authors as to 
the precise period when the vine was first introduced into Bri- 
tain. Some conclude it must have been as early as the tenth 
year of the Christian era, as at that period a great part of the 
island was in possession of the Romans, who had introduced 
the luxuries of Italy wherever they settled, and that as the 
culture of vineyards formed at that period one of the most im- 
portant in their own country, they could scarcely have failed 
to introduce this also ; and from the circumstance that Augus- 
tus was then emperor, in whose reign it was common to send 
the sons of the British nobles to Rome to be educated, it is 
deemed improbable that during such frequent intercourse the 
culture of the vine could be neglected. On the other hand, 
Pliny, who writes so fully on the vine, does not mention its 
existing in Britain ; and it appears from Tacitus that it did 
not exist there in the time of Julius Agricola. We also read 
that in the year 85, Domitian, as has been already stated, pro- 
hibited by an edict the planting of any new vineyards in Italy, 
and ordered those in the provinces to be destroyed, which 
edict was not rescinded until the reign of Probus, about the 
year 280, at which period the Britons are particularly men- 
tioned by Vopiscus among the provinces which partook of 
the privilege. Whatever difference exists, therefore, about 
anterior dates, there can exist no doubt as regards the era 
last named ; and that, at all events, Britain was indebted to 
the Romans for its introduction, is a point generally conceded. 
Some have advocated the possibility of its earlier introduction 
by the Phoenicians, who are said to have planted the vine in 
the Mediterranean isles, as well as in several other parts of 
Europe and Africa ; and, as accounts exist of their having traded 
to Britain for tin, it has been conjectured that they may also 
have planted the vine on the shores of Britain. As this sup- 






INTRODUCTION OF THE VINE INTO BRITAIN. g$ 

position, however, has nothing to confirm it, it is only inte- 
resting on account of its affording additional circumstances to 
prove that the vine was originally brought from Asia. 

Vineyards appear to be first mentioned in Domesday book, 
which states that one at Rageneia in Essex, which was com- 
prised of a park and six arpennies of land, yielded in a suc- 
cessful season "twenty modii of wine ;" and also names 
another at Ware, covering a similar space, which had but re- 
cently been planted. Bede, who finished his history in 731, 
mentions the existence of vineyards in several parts of Bri- 
tain ; and the first vines were no doubt planted in the southern 
parts of the island nearest to Gaul, whence they were doubt- 
less received, as vineyards had there already acquired cele- 
brity ; and the neighbourhood of Winchester was formerly so 
noted for vines, that Twyne supposes the city to have taken 
its name from that circumstance. 

Ample proof can be deduced of the existence in former 
periods of vineyards at Canterbury, Rochester, Hailing, and 
in Northamptonshire, Cambridgeshire, Gloucestershire, Mid- 
dlesex, and various other parts of Britain ; the isle of 
Ely was denominated by the Normans the " isle of vines," 
and the bishop of Ely, shortly after the conquest, received 
three or four tuns of wine annually as tithes from his diocese. 
Some vineyards are also mentioned as having existed in the 
eighteenth century, one of which was in Sussex, belonging 
to the Duke of Norfolk, from the produce of which there 
were in his cellar in 1763, above sixty pipes of excellent Bur- 
gundy. 

In regard to the decline of British vineyards, her historians 
have left us much in the dark ; but the authors of that country 
endeavour to account for it by stating, that as their intercourse 
increased with the continent, it was found more advantageous 
to import wine than to depend upon the product of their own 
soil, which must have been uncertain from the variableness of 
their climate ; in addition to which, the very low price at 
which it was obtainable from abroad, must have caused its final 
neglect in England. Part of France being also in the time 



INTRODUCTION OF THE VINE INTO BRITAIN. 

of the Henries under the control of Britain, that circumstance 
would doubtless accelerate the importation of her wines, and 
the general advancement of agriculture in Britain proving it 
to be the more lucrative, must likewise have contributed to the 
abandonment of vineyards. 

The suppression of the monasteries must also have tended 
much to the destruction of the vineyards, for it was the reli- 
gious fraternities of the dark ages which (as Harte observes) 
spread out from Italy in all directions, that carried with them 
the knowledge of agriculture and gardening, and there ap- 
pears consequently little doubt that orchards and vineyards 
were common appendages to abbeys and monasteries from 
their first establishment, at least in the southern parts of the 
island, as the monks who emigrated from Italy had been so 
much accustomed to the habit of drinking wine at their meals, 
that it had become in a manner necessary to them, and these 
gardens and vineyards no doubt existed until the time of the 
reformation. 

Grapes first came in demand as a table-fruit at the begin- 
ning of the sixteenth century. They appear, however, to have 
become rare in England about the year 1 560, during the reign 
of Elizabeth, and from that time their culture seems to have 
declined for a long course of years. Since the commencement 
of the present century, great interest has again been awakened 
to the culture of the vine, both among their scientific hor- 
ticulturists and among the numerous amateurs of this fruit, and 
grapes for the table are now produced in great quantities and 
in the highest state of perfection in that country by artificial 
culture in houses suitable for forcing their growth in a greater 
or less degree, also against walls, and in some cases in open 
exposure ; and it is now a well-known fact, that grapes of the 
finest quality for the table, the product of their own soil, are 
a regular article of sale in the London markets for nine 
months in the year. In regard, however, to the successful re- 
establishment of vineyards, the question is yet undecided ; the 
great humidity of the atmosphere and deficiency of sun, pre- 
senting impediments difficult to be surmounted ; still it is very 



' 



AGE OF THE VINE. 



possible that by a judicious selection of such varieties as suc- 
ceed best in Switzerland, Hungary, America, &c. the southern 
shores of Britain may yet become the seat of prosperous 
vineyards, 



CHAFfER V. 



Age of the vine Us spread size size of the bunches and 

berries. 

In regard to the age to which the vine will survive, we have 
various accounts in the numerous authors who have written on 
the subject. Pliny names a vine which had existed six hun- 
dred years. Miller tells us that the vineyards in some parts 
of Italy will hold good three hundred years, and that vines 01 
one hundred years of age are yet accounted yoiung. The 
learned Professor Bosc, late administrator of the celebrated 
garden of the Luxembourg, at Paris, established by the French 
government, states that there are vines in Burgundy of up- 
wards of four hundred years of age. Some authors say that 
in point of age the vine equals or even surpasses the oak. 

In our own country we have yet been unable to ascertain 
the age to which it will attain ; and the period that has 
elapsed since its discovery would, according to some authors, 
be insufficient for that purpose, had the experiment even been 
commenced at the landing of Columbus. But I have never 
myself seen a vine, among the thousands that fill our forests, 
that had died from the effects of age. 

Spread of the vine. 

The extent of the branches of the vine is, in favourable situ- 
ations and circumstances, fully commensurate with its produce 
and the period of its endurance. 

In the hedges of Italy and in the forests of our own coun- 

4 



"26 SPREAD OF THE VINE. 

try the loftiest poplars, oaks, elms, and other lords of the 
woods are overtopped by their twining branches, and in many 
instances trees are wholly covered by them. Speechly tells us 
of a vine which, in 1789 was growing in the open air, trained 
against a row of houses in North allerton, Yorkshire, and which 
formerly covered a space of one hundred and thirty-seven 
square yarcls, having existed (in 1789) above 150 years, and 
that it was judged it would have extended, if permitted, to 
three or four times that space. The circumference of the 
stem of this .vine, which died recently, was at a short distance 
from the ground three feet eleven inches. 

The vine planted by Mr. Eden, at Valentine House, in Es- 
sex, (England) in 1758, which is the Black Hamburgh, and 
the parent of the vine at Hampton-court, has a stem nineteen 
inches in girth, and has extended itself to upwards of two hun- 
dred feet in length, and covers above one hundred and forty- 
seven yards. This vine is said, at remote periods, never to 
have produced less than three hundred weight of fruit annu- 
ally, and sometimes four hundred and a quarter. The ave- 
rage profit was not less than eighty pounds sterling annually, 
when the grapes ripened in June ; but afterwards when the 
hot house was kept warmer, so that they ripened in March, 
the crop is supposed to have been frequently worth 300/. per 
annum. The soil in which it grows is a light, loose, brownish 
mould, about two feet in depth, on a bottom of loose sand and 
coarse gravel ; and it is probably from this soil being less 
congenial to it, and its receiving less attention, that it has been 
surpassed by its offspring at Hampton Court. It however 
continues so productive, that it produced two thousand ripe 
bunches in 1819. 

The celebrated vine at Hampton Court, which was planted 
in 1769, has a stem thirteen inches in girth, and a principal 
branch one hundred and fourteen feet in length, the whole vine 
occupying above one hundred and sixteen square yards, and 
in one year produced two thousand two hundred bunches of 
fruit, each weighing on an average a pound in all, about a 
ton. 



SIZE OF THE VIMS. ^7 

Valerianus Cornelius mentions a vine that encompassed and 
surrounded a good farm house with its branches, and Colu- 
mella states that Seneca had a vine which produced him two 
thousand bunches of grapes in a year. 

But although it is but latterly that the attention of our 
country has been particularly drawn to the culture of the 
grape, and but ten years have elapsed since our native " Isa- 
bella" was brought into notice, I doubt not there are vines 
now to be found covering as many square yards as those be- 
fore enumerated, and which have even produced as many clus- 
ters of fruit, although the diameter of the stock is not in any 
case one-fourth of the size to which the former had attained. 
The native Catawba, the Alexander, the Scuppernon, and va- 
rious others, are of such rapid growth, that it needs but a few 
years to form vines of equal extent and produce with those so 
famed by the ancients and moderns of other climes. 

Size of the vine. 

The vine is considered and classed as a trailing shrub, yet 
there are numerous instances where, in a wild state, it has ar- 
rived at great dimensions, and there are even cases where it has 
done so (though to a less degree), when subjected to the cul- 
ture bestowed on it by man, several instances of which have 
been already enumerated. 

The size to which the trunk or stem sometimes attains is so 
great, as to have been formed into planks of fifteen inches in 
breadth, and also to have been used in furniture and statues. 
The wood is of the greatest durability, and Pliny states that 
none is of a more lasting nature, and that vines were with justice 
in olden times, on account of their great size, ranked among trees. 
Both he and Theophrastus also make mention of a vine which 
had attained a bulk sufficient to make a statue of Jupiter, for 
the city of Apollonium ; and the columns for Juno's temple at 
Metapont were also made of the vine. The great doors of the 
cathedral of Ravenna were also made of vine planks, some of 
which are twelve feet long and fourteen to fifteen inches broad. 



* SIZE OF THE VINE. 

the soil of that country producing vines of prodigious growth. 
Another vine is mentioned by Strabo, who lived in the reign of 
Augustus, as growing in Margiana, which was twelve feet in 
circumference, who also states, that the vines there produced 
bunches of grapes two cubits or a yard in length. At Ecoan, 
near Paris, the seat of the late Duke of Montmorency is a 
table which we are assured was made from the body of a single 
vine. 

Olearius affirms that he found many vines near the Caspian 
Sea whose trunks were as big as a man ; and on the Barbary 
coast vines are now growing of surprising dimensions, some 
of them having trunks eight or nine feet in circumference. 
There was a vine at Besanqon, in France, which died in 1793, 
that had a trunk one metre and eight decimetres in diameter. 
But what renders these facts the more astonishing is, that a 
tree or vine, which grows in such a wreathed or twisted man- 
ner, more like a rope than like timber, and needing the sup- 
port of others, should attain to such a bulk and firm consis- 
tence. It is not, however, to be expected that vines frequently 
pruned and dressed will pften attain to such great dimensions, 
as the vigour of the stock is by such means transfused into the 
branches, and exhausted in the production of fruit. Such ex- 
traordinary dimensions and such great age are not to be 
looked for in cold and incongenial climes ; although instances 
have occurred in England, and other northern climates, where 
being placed in a genial soil and situation, they have attained 
to an amazing size and expansion. 

.Size of the bunches and berries, 

Almost incredible as the magnitude to which the vine has 
attained in some cases, may appear, it will doubtless equally 
amaze some persons to know the size to which its bunches and 
fruit have arrived. We have accounts of fruit and clusters 
of such extraordinary size as to appear incredible to our usual 
conception of grapes. We learn from Heutius that in Crete, 
Chios, and other islands in the Archipelago, the vines afford 



SIZK OF THE BUNCHES AJSD BERRIES. 2 

bunches of grapes of from ten to forty pounds weight each. 
Chios, now Scio, which has been often brought to mind during 
the recent struggle of Greece, has long been celebrated for 
its vineyards, and its wines have been immortalized by the pen 
of Virgil. Pliny gives us an account of Rhemnius Palaemon, 
a renowned Roman grammarian, who bought a farm within 
ten miles of the city of Rome, for which he paid six hundred 
thousand sesterces, and that he so improved it by cultivation, 
that the produce of his vines in a single year sold for four hun- 
dred thousand sesterces. His vines produced " such huge 
and mighty clusters of grapes," that the people went from all 
quarters to see them. The great success which attended his 
effort was attributed by some to his deep learning, while others 
accused him of using magic and the black art. The bunch 
of grapes which was borne on a girdle by two of the spies on 
their return from the land of Canaan has been already referred 
to ; and the grapes of Damascus at the present day are often 
found to weigh upwards of twenty-five pounds the bunch. 

We find in the publications by John Heyman, professor of 
oriental literature in the university of Ley den, and in those of 
Egidius Van Egmont, envoy from the states to the king of 
Naples, who have given their observations on the present con- 
dition of ^Asia Minor, that in the town of Sidonijah, which is 
situated at four hours' journey from Damascus, some of the 
grapes were as large as a pigeon's egg, and of most exquisite 
taste. These circumstances corroborate the opinion already 
advanced and generally entertained, that the species of grape 
now so widely disseminated, and which has been so long cul- 
tivated throughout Europe and elsewhere, is a native of Asia. 
The cause of our not hearing more at the present period, of enor- 
mous clusters of grapes growing in the eastern parts of Syria, 
is to be attributed to the circumstance of that portion of coun- 
try having been for eleven centuries, since Abubeker overran 
it, under the dominion of the Saracens, and they being of 
the Mahommedan faith, and the use of wine consequently pro- 
hibited, it may be very reasonably supposed that the culture 
of the vine has been almost totally neglected. 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 

Several remarkable vines, at present existing in England, 
have been already mentioned. A collection belonging to the 
Duke of Portland, at Welbeck, is said to comprise above a 
hundred kinds; and it was he who, in 1781, made a present 
of a bunch of grapes to the Marquis of Rockingham, which 
grew in his vinery, and weighed nineteen pounds and a half. 
This bunch was nineteen and a half inches in the greatest dia- 
meter, four and a half feet in circumference, and twenty-one 
and three quarter inches in length, and was conveyed a dis- 
tance of twenty miles by four men who carried it by pairs in 
their turns, suspended on a staff. This was of the variety well 
known by the title of the Syrian grape, and now found in 
several collections in this country. 

In the year 1821, a bunch of white grapes was produced in 
the garden of the Hon. F. G. Howard, at Elford-hall, Staf- 
fordshire, which weighed fifteen pounds. 

In the vineyards, however, in the north of France and Ger- 
many, where vines are grown as dwarf standards, the general 
produce is only from three to nine bunches from each vine. 



CHAPTER V. 

Preliminary remarks on soil, culture, fyc. 

It is perhaps universally known that the nature of the vine 
varies in different climates, and that its produce is also ope- 
rated upon by the same influence. It is therefore necessary 
to be acquainted with the cause of these differences in order to 
establish certain general principles, and to know not only 
what these are, but to be enabled to foresee and anticipate their 
results. 

These causes consist in the difference of climates, in the 
nature and exposition of the soil, in the character of the sea- 
sons, and the methods of culture. We will therefore discuss 



CLIMATE. 31 

*" 

in succession the operation and effect of these different agents, 
and then deduce the natural consequences, both in respect to 
the nature of the soil in which the vine is cultivated, and to 
the kind of culture which appears most suitable to it. 

The general principles which we shall establish in speaking 
of -each of these causes separately, will allow of many excep- 
tions : this will be easily perceived when we reflect that the 
operation of one of these causes may be perhaps counteracted 
by the union of all the other agents, which prevent or destroy 
its natural effect. In another case the excellence of the soil, 
the appropriateness of the climate, and the quality of the vine, 
may counterbalance the effect of exposition and afford good 
wine in a situation where, if we considered the exposition 
alone, we should judge the produce would be of bad quality. 
But the principles are not the less established ; and the only 
importance that can be attached to these apparent contradic- 
tions is, that in order to ascertain the true result in every case, 
it is necessary to take into account the operation of all the in- 
fluential causes, and to consider them as the necessary ele- 
ments of the calculation. 

Climate. 

The vine is now considered as a native or as naturalized in 
the temperate climates of both hemispheres. The culture of 
vineyards in the old world extends from the twenty-first to the 
fifty-first degree of north latitude, or from Schiraz in Persia, 
to Coblentz, on the Rhine : some authors, however, only ex- 
tend its southern limit to the twenty-fifth degree of latitude. 
Vineyards are also to be found near Dresden, and in Moravia ; 
and the above limits also include the southern coast of Eng- 
land within the vine region. The vineyards of Germany, 
situated beyond the fifty-first degree, are, however, considered 
dubious in regard to their product. 

It is affirmed by some writers that it seldom flourishes within 
twenty-five or even thirty degrees of the equinoctial line, so as 
to produce good fruit ; but this statement would exclude it 



CLIMATE. 

from some countries where it is known to prosper. Thunberg 
says, that grapes do not ripen very well in Japan, and are not 
high flavoured ; but Browne and Lunan tell us that the Mus- 
cadine grape ripens well in Jamaica, maturing all its berries 
nearly at the same time, which it produces in clusters of from 
eight to ten pounds weight, the pulp of the fruit having been 
found to be less watery and more fleshy than in those of the 
south of France, and that two crops and often three are pro- 
duced in a year, as has been the case in some other West India 
islands. They consider that it would yield a mellow and rich 
wine if attention were paid to it. It is therefore remarkable 
that sufficient attention has not been there devoted to it, even 
to raise wine for their own consumption. The author has also, 
at the request of several skilful horticulturists resident there, sent 
to that island assortments of the finest varieties of grapes, and he 
deems this ample proof, that they had been generally found to 
succeed ; but it is possible their culture may have been con- 
fined to the mountain lands, which are much cooler than the 
plains. 

It appears difficult to reconcile the statements, that the 
vine will not succeed in tropical climates, with the fact that 
many varieties support the greatest artificial heat of our hot- 
houses not only uninjured, but with every favourable result to 
be derived from an increased and accelerated vegetation ; but 
I will not discuss this point further at present, it being suffi- 
cient for my purpose to consider the limit as set down by the 
authors who have been referred to. 

We now come to the fact universally acknowledged and 
adopted, that all climates are not suitable to the culture of the 
vine. If it grows and appears to vegetate with vigour in 
very northern climates, it is nevertheless true that its fruit 
would not attain there to a sufficient degree of maturity ; and 
it is an invariable truth, that beyond the fifty-first degree of 
latitude, the juice of the grape does not possess those princi- 
ples necessary in fermentation to produce good wine. 

It is with the vine in respect to climate as of all other vege- 
table productions. We find at the north a vigorous growth. 



CLIMATE. 



33 



the plants well nourished and very succulent ; whilst the south 
presents us only with productions replete with aroma, resin, 
and volatile oil. Here every thing is converted into spirit, 
there all is employed in imparting vigour. 

The characters so marked as regards vegetation, are also 
extended to the phenomena of animalization, where spirit and 
sensibility appear to be the appendages of southern climates, 
whilst strength is the attribute of the inhabitants of the north. 
Some travellers have observed that several insipid vegetables 
of Greenland acquigtfjt taste and flavour in the gardens of 
London. Reynier noticed that the melilotus, which in warm 
countries has a penetrating odour, possesses none in Holland ; 
and it is well known that the most subtle poisons of particular 
plants, and of many animals, are extinguished and lose their 
potency by degrees in those which exist in climates further 
north. The saccharine quality of some vegetables is not 
perfectly developed except in tropical countries ; the sugar 
cane, often cultivated in our gardens, possesses scarcely any 
of the saccharine principle ; and the grape itself is sour, harsh, 
and insipid, when cultivated too far north. 

The aroma or perfume of the grape, as well as the saccharine 
principle, are then the result of a bright and constant sun. The 
sour or sharp juice which is contained in the fruit at its first 
formation, cannot be suitably elaborated far to the north, and 
this primitive character of immaturity is still retained when 
the return of frost congeals the organs of maturation. 

In like manner the grape at the north, possessing to a great 
degree the principles of putrefaction, contains scarcely any 
element of spirituous fermentation ; and the juice expressed 
from it, when it has gone through that process, produces a 
sour liquor, containing barely sufficient alcohol to prevent the 
advance of a putrid fermentation. 

With regard to the vine, as well as every other production of 
nature, there exist climates which are peculiarly suitable, and in 
Europe it is in those which lie between the thirty-fifth and 
fiftieth degrees of latitude, that the most beneficial results are to 
be attained from the culture of this most valuable vegetable pro- 

5 



34 

duction. It is between these two points that are to be found 
the most renowned vineyards, and the countries most cele- 
brated for their wines, 'such as Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, 
Austria, Hungary, Transylvania, and a part of Greece. But 
of all these countries, France presents by far the greatest 
extent of vineyards, and no one of the others possesses as 
great a variety of temperature, or such a diversity of soil 
and exposition. From the shore of the Rhine to the foot of 
the Pyrenees, the vine is almost every where cultivated, and 
we find in this extensive vine region jhe different species of 
wines most esteemed for their delicacy of flavour, as well as 
those most prized for their spirit. In that country they are 
also produced in such abundance, as not only to suffice for 
their own immense consumption, but to furnish the nation 
with infinite resources derived from this species of culture, 
which form an object of export to numerous nations in the 
character of wines, and in that of the choicest brandies obtain- 
ed by distillation. The very great variety of wines which 
France produces, causes also within her own limits an active 
trade between the different departments ; but although climate 
gives to its productions a general and indelible character, 
there are circumstances that modify and restrain its effects; 
and it is only by turning to advantage its principal operations, 
by a skilful attention to their application, that we can succeed 
in deriving from them the best results of which the climate is 
susceptible. It is from inattention to this particular, that we 
see produced in the same climate, wines of various qualities, 
because the soil, exposure, and culture, often modify and pre- 
vent the immediate effect of this great agent. 

In respect to another point of view, the most intelligent 
writers affirm, that there are some kinds of vines which will 
not allow of being cultivated indiscriminately in this or that 
locality. The soil, climate, exposition, and culture, must all 
be peculiarly appropriate to their inflexible character, and the 
least variation causes an essential change in the produce. 
These writers attribute it to this cause, that the vines of Greece, 
when transported to Italy, no longer yielded the same wine ; 



CLIMATE. 35 

and that the vines of Falerno, cultivated at the base of Vesu- 
vius, have changed their character ; and experience has con- 
firmed, that the vines of Burgundy, transported to the south of 
France, do not produce wines equally delicate and agreeable. 

The French writers state, that the qualities which charac- 
terize certain wines, cannot be re-produced in various places, 
and that to attain this object, it would require the constant 
influence of the same causes, and that as it is impossible to re- 
unite all these, it must be necessarily expected that changes 
and modifications will ensue. 

Much, however, as I have studied various authors on these 
points, I do not feel willing to allow, that triflim: variations in 
climate produce so great changes as are frequently attribut- 
ed to them, and think that very great allowances are to be 
made for the wide differences which exist in the mode of cul- 
ture, and particularly for the, great variations in the process 
adopted in making the wines. The most eminent writers of 
the French Institute assert that more depends on a judicious 
selection of the varieties of grapes, than on the climate. It 
is however a just conclusion, that warm climates, by favouring 
the formation of the saccharine principle, produce very spirit- 
ous wines, inasmuch as heat is essentially necessary to their 
production. 

But it is requisite that the fermentation should operate in 
such manner as to decompose all the saccharine matter of the 
grape, without which we would have only very sweet wines, as 
is observed in some hot climates, and in those cases where the 
saccharine juice of the grape is too dense to attain a complete 
decomposition. 

Cold climates can only produce weak wines, of little body; 
but these are sometimes agreeably perfumed. The grapes in 
which there exists but little of the saccharine principle are not 
adequate to the formation of alcohol, which constitutes the 
whole strength of wines. But as, on the other hand the heat 
produced by fermentati m of these grapes is very moderate, the 
aromatic principle is preserved in all its force, and contributes 
to render these wines very pleasant, although they are weak. 



36 



SOIL, 



When the weather becomes cold in the first days of October, 
it often happens in the climate of Paris that the grape ceases 
to ripen, and the berries rot in succession; and the wine made 
from such grapes is deficient in strength, and of short durability. 

Soil 

The vine will grow in every species of soil, but its produc- 
tions are all modified according to the nature of that in which 
it is cultivated. There is a manner of cultivating it, founded 
upon its natural properties, which is essentially beneficial, and 
which, without being prejudicial to its duration, causes it to 
yield constant crops, and imparts perfect maturity to the fruit, 
It cannot be doubted that the earth, according to its nature, 
modifies after a different manner the alimentary principles of 
plants, and also, that it will have in itself a decided influence 
upon the quality of wines ; but this advantage will be so much 
the more sensibly felt, according as the soil by its nature may 
possess more influence upon the maturity and perfection of the 
grapes. 

If we were to form our judgment of the quality of the wine, 
by the vigour of vegetation, it would be to the soils that are 
rich,humid, and highly manured, that we should confide the vine 
culture. But experience has taught us, that scarcely ever is 
the goodness of the wine in proportion to the growth of the 
plants. It might be said that nature^ ever careful in the 
distribution and appropriation of each description of soil to a 
particular species of product, reserved the dry and light soils 
for the vine, and assigned the culture of grain to those which 
are rich and strong. 

Hie segetes, illic veniunt felicius uva. It is by a link of this 
admirable distribution, that agriculture covers with varied pro- 
ductions the surface of our plaint ; and it is only incumbent on 
us not to interrupt the natural order, and to apply to each 
locality the culture that is most suitable to it, in order to obtain 
in almost every situation both abundant and varied crops. For 
although the vine accommodates itself in, fact to every species 



SOIL. 37' 

of soil, provided it is not impervious to the extension of its 
roots, nor saturated with stagnant water; yet, in order to 
have grapes which abound in the saccharine principle, it is 
necessary to plant them in a dry light soil. The nature of -the 
soil is consequently one of the most important points to be 
examined. 

Strong and clayey soils are not in any respect suitable to 
the culture of the vine, for not only are the roots deprived of 
the power to extend themselves and ramify to a suitable de- 
gree in such stiff and compact soils, but the facility with 
which they become sodden with water, and their tendency to 
retain it, cause a continued state of humidity, which rots the 
roots, and imparts to all the vines an unhealthy appearance, 
which is the precursor of their final destruction. It is of 
strong soils that do not partake of the injurious qualities which 
belong to clay soils, that I had previously spoken. In such 
the vine grows and vegetates freely, but this vigour of vegeta- 
tation itself is essentially detrimental to the quality of the 
grape, which attains with difficulty to maturity, and generally 
produces wine without spirit or flavour. Nevertheless, soils of 
this description are sometimes appropriated to the vine, be- 
cause the abundant produce makes up for the deficiency in the 
quality ; and it is often more advantageous to the proprietor 
to plant vineyards than to raise grain, as on such soils they 
require but little culture. Besides, the weak but abundant 
wines furnish a suitable drink to travellers of all classes, and 
can be used for distillation. It is well known to all cul- 
tivators that humid soils are not suitable to the vine. When 
soils are continually saturated, whether they are strong or 
light, they are equally incongenial to its success : in many 
cases the vine languishes, rots, and perishes ; and even where 
the vegetation is vigorous, the wine obtained will be watery, 
weak, and destitute of flavour. 

Calcareous soils are in general proper for the vine ; being 
arid, dry, and light, they afford a support suitable to the plant. 
The water with which they are impregnated at intervals, cir- 
culates and penetrates freely throughout the whole, the nume- 



&v SOIL, 

rous ramifications of the roots absorb it at all their pores, and 
in all these respects a calcareous soil is very favourable to the 
vine. In general, wines made from such soils have much spirit, 
and the culture of them is so much the more easy as the earth 
is light and loose ; it has been also observed, that arid soils 
seem to have been exclusively destined for the vine, as the de- 
ficiency of water, of vegetable mould, and of fertility, repels 
the idea of any other culture. 

But there are soils still more favorable to the vine : these 
are such as are, at the same time, light and sandy or gravelly ; 
the roots glide easily through a soil which the mixture of light 
earth and of rounded pebbles renders very permeable ; the bed 
of gravel which covers the surface of the earth, protects it 
from the parching heat of the sun, and whilst the vine and the 
fruit receive the benign influence of that planet, the root be- 
ing suitably nourished, supplies the sap necessary for the ad- 
vancement of vegetation. Soils of this character are called 
by the different titles of gravelly, freestone, stony, sandy, &c. 
Volcanic soils yield also delicious wines ; and it is mentioned 
by Chaptal, that he had possessed opportunities of observing 
in many of the southern parts of France, that the most vi- 
gorous vines and the choicest wines, were the produce of vol- 
canic remains. These primitive soils having been a long 
time operated upon in the bosom of the globe by subterranean 
fires, present us with a close combination of almost every 
principle of the soils of the earth, these being perfectly inter- 
mingled, half vitrified, and decomposed by the combined ef- 
fects of air and water, furnish all the elements requisite for 
favourable vegetation, and the heat with which they have been 
impregnated, seems to impart itself successively to all the plants 
which are cultivated on them. The Tokay wines, and also 
the finest Italian wines, are produced on volcanic remains. 
The last bishop of Agde cleared away and planted with 
vines the old volcano of the mountain at the foot of which 
that ancient city is situated, and these plantations now form 
one of the richest vineyards of that district. 

There are places on the widely varied surface of our globe 



where the granite no longer presents that durability, and that 
unalterable appearance which form the general character of 
that primitive rock. It appears crumbled and dusty, and only 
presents the eye with the semblance of dry sand, of a coarser 
or finer description. It is on these mouldering remains 
that in many parts of France they cultivate vineyards ; and 
when a favourable exposition unites to aid their advancemem% 
the wine is of superior quality. The famed Hermitage wine 
is produced from a soil of this description. It is easy to de- 
cide, in accordance with the principles which we have laid 
down, that a soil similar to the one just described cannot fail to 
be congenial to the production of good wines. Here are found 
at once that lightness of the earth which readily allows the roots 
to extend, the water to pass through, and the air to penetrate ; 
the gravelly surface which moderates and arrests the solar heats ; 
that valuable combination of the elements of earth whose union 
appears so advantageous to every species of vegetation. 

From the result of various observations, it seems that all 
light soils, whatever be their colour, when porous, fine, and 
friable in their composition, and which allow the water to run 
freely off, both from the surface and the substratum, are the 
most suitable for the plant and for the quality of the wine. 

The agriculturist, therefore, who is more anxious in regard 
to the quality than to the abundance of his vintage, will estab- 
lish his vineyard in light and gravelly soils, and will not select 
a rich and strong soil, except with the intent of sacrificing ex- 
cellence to quantity. 

But notwithstanding the principles that have bee.n advanced 
are proved by nearly all the observations and experiments yet 
known, there are nevertheless particular exceptions which ap- 
pear to controvert in some degree their universal application ; 
for Latouche observes, in the Memoir of the Society of Agri- 
culture of the Seine, that the esteemed vineyards of Aix, Eper- 
nay and Hautvilliers on the Marne, have the same exposures, 
and the same soil, as the grain fields which surround them- 
It has however been remarked, that there probably exist dif- 
ferences of importance not discoverable at first view, but which 



40 SOIL. 

need a careful inspection to enable a correct judgment to be 
formed ; and indeed we well know that the surface of the 
earth often presents a very uncertain criterion by which to 
judge of its formation at some distance beneath; and as it is the 
subsoil that imparts the most influence to the roots of the vine, 
so it is to that we are to look for the most important results on 
its produce. 

It is observed by the same writer, that the primitive soil 
in the vineyards which occuoy the first rank in Champagne, is 
found covered over with aiSpmificial surface which is formed 
by the cultivators, from a mixture of turf and very rotten ma- 
nure, of common soil found at the foot of the hills, and some- 
times of black putrid sands. These species of soil are trans- 
ported into the vineyards at any periods of the year, except 
during the time of vintage. 

Notwithstanding, however, the propriety of being circum- 
spect in selecting soils, still there are frequent instances where 
excellent wines and bad wines are produced from the same 
kind of soil. 

In general where lands are of great value, those only should 
be devoted to vines where the soil is thin and inappropriate by 
nature or position for the production of grain, &c. because it 
is in such as these that the vine finds the degree of humidity- 
requisite to cause the grapes to attain to full size, and not so 
much as to counterpoise the action of solar heat in the forma- 
tion of saccharine matter, and in evaporation at the period of 
maturity, on which depends the excellence of the wine. By 
such course, a tract of land which would have yielded nothing 
but bushes, on account of its being too hilly, or so stony as 
not to be susceptible of ploughing ; or having a thin soil, inca- 
pable of retaining during the heat of summer sufficient moisture 
for the growth of other products is made to yield a large 
revenue, often far greater than that produced by good soils 
under other species of culture. 

A rich soil, as has been already stated, is advantageous 
when great product is required, but not when the quality is 
the object sought for; as the growth is so much prolonged. 



SOIL. 



41 



and the leaves become so much larger, that vegetation does 
not cease until after the heat has subsided, and the grapes are 
too much sheltered from the rays of the sun ; whose heat, as 
already remarked, is itself the true cause of the formation of 
the saccharine matter* 

The vine having roots which are in part perpendicular, and 
partly horizontal, it consequently accommodates itself equally 
to a deep or a shallow soil. To other motives of preference 
for soils of the latter description may be joined the considera- 
tion, that the roots feel more easily the effect of the solar heat ; 
that their vegetation is more speedy in the spring ; that they 
elaborate the sap more perfectly during the summer ; and that 
the grape attains sooner to maturity in autumn. And I cannot 
too fully impress the fact, that as it is the intensity of heat 
which with the selection of the variety, influences to the great- 
est degree the quality of the wine, it is necessary to take ad- 
vantage of every circumstance, in order to increase that in- 
tensity ; and in every country the grape which ripens a month 
sooner whilst enjoying the heat of a summer's sun, must be 
sweeter than that which ripens after the heat has diminished. 

The fruit of the vineyards in the environs of Bonn, which 
are planted upon basalt, ripens sooner and more perfectly than 
those planted upon the neighbouring calcareous hills, and 
furnishes consequently better wine ; therefore the former vine- 
yards rent at a higher rate than the latter. In a memoir of 
Rozier he remarks, that the good kinds of grapes do not afford 
superior wines in Burgundy, at Cote Rotie, &c. except when 
the summer and autumn have been hot, and the fruit has ac- 
quired a perfect maturity. 

Influence of soil, dye. on flavour. 

There are a great many localities in France and other 
countries, where the wines have a peculiar flavour, often not 
agreeable, and which is termed taste of the soil, and the opi- 
nion is generally entertained that it is the nature of the soil 
which causes it. What has probably given rise to and sup- 



SUBSTRATA OF VINEYARDS 

ported this opinion is, that wines which had HO bad taste have 
acquired it when the vines which produced them have been 
too highly manured with the filth of streets, night soit,'&c. 
I will make one observation, which induces thelbelief that it 
is not always by passing into the sap that this bad taste is 
produced, but that it is sometimes communicated to the fruit 
by means of simple emanation. A vine on a trellice fixed in a 
garden at the angle of a building, extended half of its shoots 
in a yard ; heaps of manure were placed under this part of 
the vine, and the grapes became bad, but those on the other 
part retained their quality. This vine was the chasselas. 

Substrata of vineyards in France. 

The greater part of the vineyards of France are in a soil 
composed of clay and limestone, sometimes primitive, as 
those of Langres, Nuits, Chalons, Moselle, Barrois, Haut- 
Rhin, Haute-Saone, Doubs, Jura, and Haute Marne, and 
sometimes secondary, as those of Entre-deux-mers at Bor- 
deaux, and a part of those in the environs of Paris, &c. The 
greatest part of the vines of the departments of Champagne, 
which are well known to yield estimable wines, are planted 
on a chalky soil, where often there is not more than five or 
six inches of earth, or rather of marl, above the rock, insomuch 
that in dry seasons the vines suffer greatly, as was the case in 
1810. Latouche attributed to the chalk the weakness of the 
Champagne wines, but other authors seem with more justice 
to attribute it to the deficiency of heat in that climate. 

The nature of the soil next to be noticed is a gravelly clay, 
such as that of the graves of Bordeaux, the environs of 
Nismes, Montpellier, and the coast of the Rhone, &c. There 
are fine wines and very bad wines on the decomposed remains 
of granite, as those of Cote-Rotie, Hermitage, Romaneche, 
Chenard, and Beaujeu among the former, and some localities 
of Upper Burgundy, Vosges, Cevennes, and Limousin among 
the latter. 

The vines of Anjou grow on soils whose base is slate 



IN FRANCE. 43 

(schist,) which is deemed excellent, and they produce white 
wines, whose saccharine and sparkling character assimilate 
much to those of Cote-Rotie, St. Peray, &c. ; and similarly 
situated are also the esteemed vineyards of Oberwesel, Kaub 
Vogtsberg, and Kulhberg on the borders of the Rhine. 

Volcanic remains yield often, as has been already stated, 
wines of the first quality, among which may be enumerated 
a part of those of the Rhine, those of Vesuvius, Etna, and 
Rochemaure ; but in some cases they afford very indifferent 
ones, as those of Auvergne ; however, in the latter district 
the climate is cold, on account of its elevation, which may 
cause their want of excellence. Argillaceous soils tha^ retain 
the water which falls on them, never produce any but indif- 
ferent wines. 

There are many localities where, under a surface of mode- 
rate thickness of clay and limestone, there are found beds of 
rocks of moderate thickness, broken and split in every direc- 
tion. These are deemed exceedingly favourable for the cul- 
ture of the vine, as a portion of the roots insinuate themselves 
into the interstices, and there find in the heat of summer, not- 
withstanding the dryness of the surface, a degree of humidity 
fully adequate to their growth. It is upon the same principle 
that soils which contain the most stones are preferred in many 
districts of France, and that Rozier was successful in his ex- 
periment of causing his vineyard to be paved in the environs 
of Beziers. 

Instances sometimes occur where a vineyard whose superfi- 
cial soil is apparently the same in every respect, will produce 
in different sections of it, wines of various qualities. Of this 
description M. Dussieux cites the small vineyard of Morachet 
or Mont Rachet, as a striking example, it being distinguished in 
three parts, not by any variation in the soil, exposure, or varieties 
of the grape, but according only to the difference in the quality 
of the produce ; and whilst the wine from one section sells at 
twelve hundred francs the piece, that from the second com- 
mands but eight hundred, and from the third but four hundred. 
This variation is attributed no doubt justly to the nature or 



~*4 .EXPOSITION. 

position of the substrata or beds on which the soil rests, and 
on which culture can have no effect, as the effects of labour do 
not extend to a sufficient depth. It has been suggested, 
however, that possibly the vines of the several parts are not 
all of the same age, and a great difference in this point is 
known to carry with it important variations in the results, as 
will be shown hereafter. For my own part, I do not put 
much faith in those miraculous accounts ; and am fully per- 
suaded that where real differences exist, they may be readily 
traced to a plain and adequate cause, and that the mystery 
which some lovers of the marvellous have long delighted to 
hang over nature's simplest operations will, when they are sub- 
jected to suitable investigation, be no longer allowed to ob* 
scure our vision and to deprive us of real light. 



CHAPTER VIL 

Exposition. 

Even the same climate, the same culture, and the same soil, 
often produce wines of very different qualities ; and it frequent- 
ly occurs in wine countries, that the summit of a mountain, 
whose surface is completely covered over with vineyards, yields 
in its various aspects an astonishing variety of wines. Were 
we to judge of places by comparing the nature of their pro- 
ductions, we should be led to suppose that every climate and 
every species of soil had combined to furnish the various arti- 
cles which are frequently in fact but the produce of contiguous 
soils, possessing different exposures. 

This variation in the productions of the earth arising from 
exposition alone, is perceptible in all the results which depend 
on vegetation ; the wood cut in that part of a forest which 
fronts the north, is much less combustible than that of the same 
kind which grows on the south. Odoriferous and sweet tasted 



EXPOSITION. 4 

plants lose their perfume and flavour when they are cultivated 
in rich soils with a northern exposure. Pliny had even noticed 
in his day, that the wood on the south side of the Appennines 
was of better quality than that growing in other aspects ; and 
every one is well acquainted with the effect of exposition upon 
vegetables and fruits. 

These phenomena, so sensibly felt by all the products of 
vegetation, are more particularly so by the grape ; and a vine 
exposed to the south yields fruit very different from those which 
front the north. Even the surface of the vineyard, possessing 
a greater or less inclination, although the exposure is the same, 
gives rise to many variations. The summit, the middle, or the 
base of a hill yield very different crops. An exposed summit 
feels the immediate effect of every change, and of every move- 
ment which arises in the atmosphere; the winds injure the 
vines, the fogs have a constant effect upon them, the tempera- 
ture is there more variable and cold ; all these circumstances 
united cause the grapes in such a situation to be less abundant, 
to attain more slowly and imperfectly to maturity, and the 
wine which is made from them is inferior in quality to that 
produced on the middle of the hill, whose position averts the 
injurious effects of most of the causes I have enumerated. 
The base of the hill presents, in its turn, serious inconveni- 
ences. The general goodness of the soil will, without doubt, 
support the growth of a vigorous vineyard, but the fruit is neither 
as sweet, nor of as pleasant a flavour as about the middle of 
the hill ; the air is constantly filled with humidity, and the 
earth continually saturated with water, which enlarge the fruit 
and advance vegetation to a degree prejudicial to the quality 
of the wine. 

The most favourable exposure for a vineyard is between 
the rising and mid-day sun. Hills that are situated above a 
plain, through which there runs a river or a constant stream 
of water, afford the best wine; but it is preferable that they 
should not be located too near to it. 

An exposure fronting the setting sun is deemed very unfa- 
vourable : the earth dried by the heat of the day, presents 






.EXPOSITION. 

towards evening to the oblique solar rays, which are almost pa- 
rallel with the horizon, only an arid soil deprived of humidity ; 
the sun also in such case by its position is enabled to penetrate to 
the lower part of the vines, and darts its rays upon grapes 
which are unprotected, heats and dries them, and ripens them 
prematurely, stopping their growth before they have attained 
their usual size, and before the proper period of their maturity 
has arrived. 

Nothing can afford a more correct judgment of the influence 
of exposition, than to view one's self the effects in a vineyard, 
located on uneven ground, which is here and there planted 
with trees ; in one place all exposures seem concentrated upon 
a single point, and there are presented all the effects which 
should result from it. The vines, shaded by the trees, push 
out long thin shoots, that yield but little fruit, which only 
attains a late and imperfect maturity. On the most elevated 
part of the vineyard, which" is generally less covered, the vege- 
tation is less vigorous, but the fruit is of better quality than in 
the low bottoms. It is invariably on this part most exposed 
to the sun, that we may meet with the finest grapes. 

Thiebaut de Berneaud remarks that an eastern aspect would 
be preferable to all others, if it did not expose the plants during 
the first warm days of spring, to be blasted by the burning 
rays of the sun operating upon the small isicles, each of which 
acts as a lens. A southern exposure (he continues) is generally 
too hot in a warm climate, and a western one is least to be 
desired, as the plant there receives a direct heat, after the 
early hours of the day have abstracted the moisture, and there- 
fore dries and burns it ; and he recommends as a general rule, 
that in southern regions an eastern aspect should have the 
preference, and in northern ones that a southern exposure 
should be selected. 

A northern exposure has been generally regarded as the 
worst for vineyards, from the consideration that the cold and 
moist winds retard the maturity of the fruit, and that from 
this cause it must remain sour, harsh, and devoid of sweet- 
ness, and that the wine partaking of course of these qualities. 



EXPOSITION 41 

must consequently be weak and of inferior flavour. It will 
be necessary to weigh the probability of these effects which 
appear to apply fully only to the more northern latitudes, or to 
localities peculiarly unfavourable. This opinion, so often ad- 
vanced by intelligent writers, as well as the general principles 
which we have previously laid down in regard to the effect of 
exposition, has to contend with many exceptions. The wines 
of the Rhine, so much esteemed by many persons, are pro- 
duced from vineyards having a northern exposition ; at least 
in the valley of the Rhine as far as Bonn, and in that of the 
Meuse as far as Liege, the famous vineyards of Epernay and 
Versenay on the mountain of Rheims, are exposed directly to 
the north, although in latitude 49 deg. 15 min. and in the dis- 
trict which terminates the successful culture of the vine in that 
direction. 

The vineyards of Nuits and of Beaune, as well as the best; 
of Beaugenci and Blois, face the rising sun ; those of Loire- 
et-Cher front the north and the meridian indiscriminately ; the 
finest crus of the vineyards of Indre-et-Loire, and the best 
hills of Saumur, face the north ; and among the finest wines 
of Angers we find some made in every exposure. There are, 
m fact, few wine districts in the east of France, where some 
vineyards have not a north exposure, as is well known, and 
frequently these are the vineyards whose produce is the most 
esteemed as wines, as I will show hereafter. It may, there- 
fore, with justice be argued, that advantages are to be derived 
from a northern exposure which are of the greatest importance. 
In a climate subject to late spring frosts, such a situation is 
calculated to retard the expansion of the foliage, until the 
period of danger shall be past or nearly so. Vines, there- 
fore, which have a northern aspect, possess a great advantage 
over others, because they are far less subject to the disastrous 
effects of spring frosts, and in our country where the heat of the 
summer sun is so powerful, and the atmosphere becomes dur- 
ing that period so filled with caloric, I think the vines cannot 
faiJ to receive a sufficiency of its influence to perfect the ma- 
turity of the fruk, particularly in the middle and southern part? 



48 



EXPOSITION. 



of the Union. One of the greatest difficulties we have yet 
had to contend with in some sections of our country, has been 
late spring frosts, and this would by such an exposition be in 
a great degree removed ; and I think the subject worthy of 
the particular attention of those who plant vineyards, in order 
that experiments may be made calculated to give us a full 
and perfect knowledge in regard to any advantages that may 
be derived from such a course. 

The further we advance to the north, the more necessary it 
appears to be to plant vineyards only on the hills, in conse- 
quence of the greater action of the sun's rays, and of the 
diminished influence of the humidity of the soil. Localities 
exist in cold climates which are so sheltered that they expe- 
rience during summer a degree of heat equal to hot climates. 
These are such as have a southern exposure, and are shut in 
by mountains from the north, east, and west winds. The 
deeper the -vallies, the more easily the culture of the vine is 
extended to the north, as is proved by those of the Rhine, 
Moselle, &c. ; and the greater the angle formed by the hill 
side, the more directly will the vine receive the sun's heat, and 
it will consequently mature its fruit more perfectly, and yield 
superior wine in proportion to the steepness of the mountain. 
Exposition is therefore deemed one of the primary considera- 
tions in the location of vineyards in Germany, and in the north 
and middle of France, and the same rule must be applied to 
their location in the northern parts of our Union, where in- 
numerable localities of the description referred to are to be 
every where found. 

In the department of Arriege, at the foot of the Pyrenees, 
the vineyards are planted half way up the highest mountains, 
in spots entirely covered with large smooth stones, and many 
of the fine vineyards of Tokay lie on the highest flanks and 
ridges of a promontory exposed to the north and west at the 
confluence of Bodrog and Thibisk, and are covered with large 
calcareous pebbles. 

" Bacchus amat colles" says Virgil, and many persons sup- 
pose that good wine cannot be made in plains. This supposi- 



EXPOSITION. 



49 



tion is generally true in relation to northern climates, but there 
are, nevertheless, a great many vineyards in plains, or on 
lands almost level in every country which possesses vineyards. 
The districts of St. Denis and Sandillon, department of 
Loiret, and those which yield the finest Orleans wines, are 
plain lands. Medoc, in the department of Gironde, is en- 
tirely a champaign country, and there we know are situated 
the famed vineyards of Lafitte, Chateau-Margaux, Larose, 
Leoville, Branc-Mouton, &c. the wines of which are high 
flavoured, pure, smooth, velvetty, full of body and spirit, with 
flavour resembling that of the violet or the raspberry. The 
same remark will apply to a great number of the wines of 
Languedoc, to the well known vineyards of Tpnnere, to 
Chablis, in the department of L'Yonne, the banks of the 
Rhone, and to those of the department of Charente-inferieure : 
in Burgundy there are also several excellent vineyards that 
are similarly situated. 

In cold latitudes it is requisite to plant vineyards as distant 
as possible from woods and water, as both these render the 
atmosphere more cool. It is in cold climates particularly that 
a dry soil is to be preferred to a moist one, in cases where 
the quality of the produce is of particular importance. In 
hot climates the vine yields abundantly without much care, but 
in northern latitudes it requires skill to accomplish the desired 
end. 

Vineyards may be cultivated with success on mountains in 
a country where the natural climate of the plains and in the 
valleys would not admit of it. The more elevated the moun- 
tain, the more the temperature is diminished. Vines therefore 
planted on those in hot countries that are very high, find 
themselves in a similar climate to those planted in the plains 
and vallies of temperate and cold latitudes. It is from this 
circumstance that the vine is cultivated in Abyssinia, on Mount 
Lebanon, on the high table lands of Mexico, and the Cordil- 
leras on the route from Buenos Ayres to Chili, when it will 
not succeed in Sennaar and other places similarly situated. 

7 



aO EXPOSITION. 

The middle part of the hills, as has been noticed, yield in 
all cases the best wine, because the grapes ripen there better"; 
and it has been constantly remarked that those on the most 
elevated and on the lowest part ripen latest, the former because 
they are exposed to the winds, and the latter because their 
roots are in a more humid situation, and they grow more vi- 
gorously. The skirts of hills and slopes gradually swelling 
from a plain are suitable positions for vineyards. 

Narrow vales, ravines, and dells, through which a stream of 
water flows, are not good locations for vines on account of the 
winds and currents of cold air prevalent in such places, and 
the damp, fog, and mists arising from evaporation. It is not 
to be understood that vines will not succeed in the vicinity of 
a stream of running water, for the contrary opinion has been 
already advanced ; but that such streams are disadvantageous 
only when the vineyards are located too near them in the 
colder latitudes, or when in such or more southern climates 
the location is so contracted as not to admit of a free and 
open action to the air, as well as to the solar rays : the vine- 
yards on the Rhone, Gironde, and Marne bear witness to the 
strength of these arguments. 

Although heat is absolutely necessary to ripen and to give 
sweetness and flavour to the grape, it would be erroneous to 
suppose that by its sole influence it can produce all the effects 
desirable. We can only consider it as an agent necessary in 
the elaboration, which presupposes that the earth supplies the 
juices which are requisite in the operation. Heat is a necessary 
agent ; but it is not to be supposed that its influence may be 
exercised upon a parched soil, for in this case it burns rather 
than vivifies. 

We sometimes witness in the burning climates of the south, 
that the natural heat of the sun, seconded by the effect of re- 
verberation from certain rocks or particular soils, parches up 
the grapes which are there exposed to its power. The flourish- 
ing condition of a vine, and the good quality of the grape, 
depend therefore upon a proportionate influence and upon a 



SJtiASOXS. 51 

perfect equilibrium between the water which is to supply the 
aliment of the plant, and the warmth which can alone facili- 
tate the elaboration. 



CHAPTER VIII. . 

Seasons. 



It is a well known fact that the character of the season ma* 
terially affects the quality of the wine, and its influence may be 
naturally deduced from the principles which we have esta- 
blished in speaking of the effects of climate, soil, and expo- 
sure, since we have stated the influence which humidity, cold, 
and heat exercise on the formation and the quality of the 
grape. In fact, a cold and rainy season, in a country natu- 
rally hot and dry, will produce the same effect upon the 
grapes as a northern climate ; this variation in the tempera- 
ture, by making climates more like each other, assimilates 
their various productions. 

The vine delights in a regular heat, and as the grape at- 
tains to perfection only in dry and sunny situations, there- 
fore when a rainy season keeps the soil in a constant state of 
humidity, and maintains in the atmosphere a cold and moist 
temperature, the grape will not acquire either sweetness or 
flavour, and the wine made from it will necessarily be weak 
and insipid, although abundant. Such wines are preserved 
with difficulty, the small quantity of alcohol they contain be- 
ing often insufficient to preserve them from decomposition ; 
and the great evaporation which is natural to wines of this 
description, causes movements that continually tend to change 
their character. .These vines often become ropy, and some- 
times turn to vinegar, but their small portion of alcohol does 
not even allow of their making good vinegar ; they also con- 
tain a great deal of malic acid, as will be shown hereafter ; 



52 RAINS, 

it is this acid which gives them a peculiar taste, a sourness 
which is not acetous, and which forms a prevalent character in 
wines, according to their deficiency in spirit. 

The influence of the seasons upon the vine is so well known 
in every wine country, that for a long period previous to the 
vintage, they predict what will be the quality of the wine. 
In general, when the season is cold, the wine is harsh and bad 
tasted; when it is rainy, it is weak, with little spirit, and 
abundant, and it is destined in anticipation (at least in the 
south of France) to distillation, because it would be both 
difficult to preserve and disagreeable to drink. 

We will now consider the effects of seasons, with all their 
attendant variations, and the difficulties to which they give 
rise under their respective heads, and point out as far as pos- 
sible how these natural obstacles to success may be counter- 
acted or modified in their injurious effects. 

Rains. 

A rainy season in any climate, or under any circumstances? 
is neither beneficial to the vine nor to its crops. The effect of 
continued rains upon the vine, and upon the produce of the 
vintage varies however according to the season at which they 
take place. If in winter, they stop the labour, at least where 
the soil is composed of marl, or apt to become miry, and the 
ploughing, trenching, pruning, and other operations are con- 
sequently impeded. In the spring at the time the vines begin 
to shoot, they cause a premature expansion of the buds and an 
excessive growth of the branches and leaves, which is injuri- 
ous to the fruit, and causes a diminution in the number of 
bunches, and also of the berries on them. When the grapes are 
in flower, rains produce the coulure, or blight, especially if the 
weather is cold at the same time ; when the grapes are half 
grown, they stop their growth, in consequence of the sap be- 
coming watery and deficient in nourishment ; when the fruit is 
more advanced, they tend to prevent their acquiring that sac- 
charine flavour which is proper for them, and cause them to 



POOS. 



ripen slowly ; alter maturity they retard the vintage, and cause 
the grapes to rot. This delay of the vintage is more or less 
in proportion as the rains are cold or of long continuance. 

-.>* ' '-'" *" 

Fogs. 

Fogs are injurious to the stock, flower, and fruit. Their 
effects are to render the vines more sensible to frost as well in 
spring as in autumn, and they have a tendency to advance the 
coulure or blight of the blossoms at the former season, and to 
retard the maturity of the fruit at the latter. The moisture 
they deposit saturates the plant so completely, that it exposes 
it to very great injury from heat arising from a sudden ap- 
pearance of the sun. Most of the evils, however, which are 
attributed to fogs, are produced by cold, without which they 
would not exist, and fogs must therefore only be considered as 
secondary agents in the evils they create. 

Droughts. 

If a superabundant humidity is injurious to vines, extreme* 
droughts are not less so. When of a minor degree, a drought 
prevents the leaves and fruit from being fully developed ; in its 
greatest, it dries up the former and shrivels the latter, which 
destroys all prospects of a crop, and produces, even in subse- 
quent years, effects analogous to autumn frost. When these 
excessive droughts happen at the period which precedes that 
of the maturity of the fruit, the grapes become sooner coloured, 
gain less in size, have a thicker skin, and juice less sweet, and 
yield less wine, and that of a worse quality. These effects are 
more or less felt according to the climate, soil, exposition, &c. 
By planting the vines close, and by sheltering them from the 
sun's heat by trees, hedges, &tc. these inconveniences could be 
removed, but these means are repelled by the fact that weather 
moderately hot and dry is that which best advances the good 
quality of the produce of the vine, and that the injuries re- 
sulting from such a course would more than counterbalance 



54 FROSTS. 

its benefits. In northern latitudes vines are more sensibly 
affected by a drought than in southern ones, because their 
roots are not as strong, and they are less accustomed to it. 
The foliage of vines during a drought puts on a yellowish ap- 
pearance and no longer fulfils its functions, which can alone 
be prevented by watering them. 

Frosts. 

The vine being a native of warm climates, is subject to be 
affected by frosts ; this is the most formidable and most fre- 
quent of the evils to which its nature exposes it. Cultivators 
should therefore do every -thing to protect it from their effects, 
and to diminish the injuries resulting therefrom. It is proper 
these injuries should be considered under three heads. The 
first comprises early autumnal frosts : these dry up the foliage 
before its time, injure the shoots whose wood is not yet ripened, 
prevent more or less the maturity of the fruit, thereby causing 
the wine to be of bad quality, and tend even to the destruction 
of the crop. Varieties that vegetate late, especially when the 
vines are not strong, are more exposed than others to the be- 
forenamed effects. These frosts, by preventing the branches 
from completing their maturity, often produce consequences 
which are felt by the crops for succeeding years. When vines 
are materially injured by frost, it is best to prune them down 
to a single eye, and not to leave any long shoots, thus resign- 
ing the prospect of an abundant crop to the necessary re- 
establishment of the strength and vigour of the vines. 

Under the second head are the severe winter frosts, which 
attack the branches after the leaves are fallen. Their effect 
upon the crop of the ensuing year are similar to the preced- 
ing, although in a less degree, as in this case it is in general 
only the upper part of the shoots which is affected ; but it is 
far more disastrous when the whole shoot is injured, so that 
no living buds remain, because the vine is then forced to form 
new shoots from the old wood, an operation of much difficulty, 
and which produces such feeble branches, that it is generally 



FROSTS. 55 

more advantageous to plant a new vine than to depend on it. 
It has been remarked that vines which are left tied to the 
poles are more liable to be injured by the severe winter frosts, 
than those which are loosened and left to trail on the 
ground. This fact is sufficiently explained by the circum- 
stances of the snow often covering and protecting them, and 
by the emanations of caloric from the earth. It is, therefore, 
based on conclusive circumstances, and should be generally 
known and adopted. It is very seldom that the old wood of 
vines is frozen, and it is known when this does happen there 
is no other course but to dig up the vine. A vine whose 
branches have been partly frozen should be pruned later, so as 
to distinguish the living buds, and to cut off the shoots above 
them. 

The third head to be considered is confined to spring frosts. 
They are very frequent, and occur in the south of France, 
as well as in the north, as may be equally said of our own 
country for nearly its whole extent. There are some locali- 
ties, which from the quickness or delay of vegetation, are more 
subject to these than others, for a frost which kills a shoot that 
is only three or four days old, does no injury to one which has 
grown twelve or fifteen days. From this cause it arises that 
certain kinds are more subject than others to the effects of 
these frosts, and thence the necessity of considering the selec- 
tion of the varieties a primary object of our attention, the 
great importance of which will be dwelt upon in the sequel. 

It has been remarked, that of two neighbouring vineyards, 
which were situated as much as possible under similar circum- 
stances, the one which had been in the spring the latest worked, 
was the most susceptible of the attacks of frost. This fact 
would indicate that after having terminated the winter work 
previous to the expansion of the shoots, no other work should 
be done until the period when frosts are no longer to be 
feared. 

It has been noticed that the shoots of vines slightly frosted, 
which had not previously had the sun's rays upon them, are 
not destroyed ; and also that on this account vineyards are 



56 FROSTS. 

worse situated whose exposure faces the rising than those 
which face the setting sun. From this remark it has been con- 
cluded that in every case where by means of pumps they could 
moisten the shoots before sun rise, or by smoke could inter- 
cept the solar rays for a few moments, they could prevent the 
effects of frost, and this has been frequently proved by expe- 
rience. The difficulty and expense of doing it are the only 
preventives to its more frequent adoption. It should, however, 
be added for the satisfaction of those who wish to employ 
smoke, that it should be prepared at the windward side of the 
vineyard, of litter or dead leaves, mingled with bushes, fee. 
the whole being made somewhat moist, and that the fire should 
be kindled half an hour before sunrise ; the important point 
is, that this mass may burn without flame, and cause as dense 
a smoke as possible over the vineyard. 

In some vineyards the effects of frost have been prevented 
by protecting each vine on the sun side with branches of pine 
trees, thereby sheltering them from winds and the sun's rays. 
A celebrated proprietor, in a season which was unsuccessful 
to neighbouring vineyards, secured* by this course a crop 
double that of any of his neighbours, and of better quality. 
An hundred francs sufficed for the expense of protecting by 
this mode five arpents of vines at Silleri, whose produce sells 
at six francs the bottle. Since this practice was found to be 
successful, it has been much extended, and it is said in all cases 
with beneficial effect. Branches of cedar, or of any other 
evergreen trees, would answer equally well if those of pine 
were not easily procured, but the latter can scarcely be found 
wanting in any part of our country. 

In the department of Jura, and in Piedmont, the vines are 
laid down and covered with earth during winter, less with a 
view to guard them against freezing, than to retard their spring 
vegetation and to shelter them from the late frosts of that sea- 
son. They are treated in a similar manner, and doubtless for 
similar reasons, on the borders of the Rhine, and in the envi- 
rons of Astracan. 

The effects of spring frosts upon the vines vary according: 



JiAlL, WINDS, FIRE-BLlGH'f . 57 

to their intensity, and to the period when they take place. 
They frequently diminish and even annihilate all prospect of 
the year's crop ; but it is only when very destructive and very 
late, that they injure those of after years. When the young 
shoots perish entirely, those which replace them produce little 
or no fruit ; but great care should be taken of them, in order 
that their abundance of leaves may repair by autumn the in- 
jury sustained by the roots in the spring-. There are some 
vignerons who, from experience, do not touch the vines so situ- 
ated during summer, a course recommended both by theory 
and practice, but this is not to be understood as forbidding the 
pruning of the shoots frosted in the spring, an operation indis- 
pensably necessary immediately after the occurrence, and in 
doing which Olivier recommends that the shoots which are 
very much injured by the frost had better be cut close to the old 
wood. 

Hail, winds, Jire-blight, $c. 

Next to frost, hail causes most injury to the vine. Its ef- 
fects are felt in various ways : it tears the leaves, and prevents 
them fulfilling their operations, injures the young shoots, and 
thereby causes a loss of sap ; it breaks the skin of the grapes, 
which, when they are yet green, prevents their growth, and 
when ripe, causes a loss of the juice. It is considered as 
generally advisable where vines are injured by hail, to prune 
shorter or to leave fewer branches to the vine, so that the 
plants may regain their strength the ensuing year. 

Winds have also a great effect upon the vine ; the dry east 
winds, the cold north winds* and the rainy winds of the south- 
west, are equally injurious at the several stages of its growth, 
and particularly so at the period of flowering, and at the ap- 
proach of the fruit to maturity. Violent gales break down 
the poles, tear the foliage, &c. No rules can be prescribed on 
this subject, as they vary according to climate and situation. 
There are certain localities, however, which are more exposed 
than others to storms, and planting vineyards in such places 

8 



HAIL, WINDS, FIRE-BLIGHT. 

should be as far as possible avoided. Winds nevertheless in 
the spring of the year are useful, and diminish the action of 
frosts, as is continually exemplified in the vineyards on hills, 
when compared with those in vallies. 

There are two attacks the vine sometimes receives in French 
vineyards, which are termed bridure. loathe first the leaves 
redden suddenly, and fall off in a couple of days, this ope- 
rates against the growth of the fruit, which becomes shrivelled 
and falls off; it is in the summer season after a fog, and dur- 
ing southerly winds, that this most frequently happens. In the 
second there are only some spots, different in size and more or 
less numerous, formed on the leaves, which injures them, but 
the evil is seldom of importance, except the fruit is attacked in 
the same manner, when the injury sustained is very serious. 
The means pointed out to prevent these effects, such as smoke, 
&c. are not always practicable on a large scale on account 
of the expense. In some vine districts, they guard against 
them to a certain degree, by planting the Vines in rows run- 
ning from the rising to the setting sun. It is well known that 
the rising sun, when shining on these ranges, only strikes di- 
rectly on those which commence them, and that the dew has 
time to evaporate before the sun gets far enough to the south, 
or is sufficiently high for its rays to affect the residue. Parti- 
cular consideration in respect to this mode of planting the 
vines is highly recommended. 

There are many attacks of different characters to which the 
vine is also subject in common with other trees, &c. but which 
it does not seem requisite to discuss here at length, and our 
intelligent countrymen will know how to make use of the pro- 
per discretion in order to remedy them. Some of the most 
important, however, will be noticed in the sequel of the 
work. 



CHOICE OF VARIETIES. 59 



CHAPTER IX. 

Influence of the variety choice of varieties effect of the 
age of the vine on the quality of its produce, fyc. 

. . :^y;v,v y v ;, -; , v ,,-_>, [ 

The influence of the variety of the grape on the results of 
culture is deemed of such importance, that the selection of the 
vines is one of the primary considerations which the planter is 
to have in view in the formation of his vineyard. Indeed some 
intelligent French writers oji the subject state, that it is the 
first point to which attention is to be given. And notwith- 
standing the great effect of soil on the wine, some very emi- 
nent authors contend that the variety of the grape has far 
more, and mention, as evidence, that many varieties of the 
grape have so peculiar and decided a flavour, that it cannot 
fail to he imparted to the wine which is made from them. 

It is with the selection of varieties for a vineyard as with 
trees for an orchard ; if a man who plants an orchard uses 
from economy, or other motives, only natural stocks, or trees 
ingrafted with inferior and common kinds, he can succeed in 
forming an orchard, it is true ; but he discovers after it has 
come into bearing, that it is absolutely valueless from the worth- 
lessness of its produce, and he is either under the necessity of 
regrafting it .anew, and waiting another long period for it to 
attain a second time to bearing, or has totally to eradicate the 
miserable stocks, and replant it with such kinds as are really 
valuable. Perhaps of all the false attempts at true economy, 
that of planting an orchard or vineyard with inferior fruits, or 
unsuitable varieties, is the most weak in itself, and the most in- 
jurious to him who pursues it. 

It is well known that there exist in the vineyards of France 
and other countries, an immense number of varieties of the 
grape, some earlier, some later ; some with smaller, and others 
with larger fruit ; more or less sweet ; with larger or smaller 
bunches; some with purple berries; others with red, white, 



60 CHOICE OF VARIETIES. 

gray, yellow, or greenish berries. These varieties produce 
not only in the same climate, soil, and exposure, and with the 
same mode of culture, wines differing in character, but even 
the wine of each respective variety sometimes varies with dif- 
ferent circumstances. 

There is no vigneron who is not aware that a certain variety 
of grape in his vineyard yields the best flavoured wine, the 
best wine for keeping, or a greater quantity, &c. ; but he is fre- 
quently at the same time ignorant that there are in other districts, 
often very near him, varieties with which he is unacquainted, 
some of which are preferable in certain respects to his own. On 
this account there have been intelligent men, who after many 
years residence in different vineyards, have discovered the 
necessity of making known these choice varieties, and for near- 
ly half a century, the French writers who have treated on the 
culture of the vine, and on the art of making wine, have con- 
tinually solicited the publication of a work which would pro- 
perly arrange the nomenclature, and the absolute and com- 
parative value of the respective kinds. 

The ancients were sensible of the inconveniences of planting 
a great number of varieties together, especially late kinds with 
early ones, as affecting the quality of the wine; but they con- 
sidered, with reason, that it was prudent to plant, in separate 
divisions, three or four varieties of the best quality and of dif- 
ferent colours; because, on the one hand, if one variety failed, 
the others would probably succeed; and on the other, they 
might, by mixing them, obtaia wine of good character and 
good keeping, they therefore recommended visiting the vine- 
yards at the period when the grapes are mature, in order to 
mark such vines as are valueless, and which ought to be 
dug up in the ensuing winter. 

This is the course pursued by the proprietors who are 
anxious of preserving the celebrity of their wines, a celebrity 
which vignerons, when they are not partners in the crops, 
incline to diminish, because in their endeavours to increase the 
quantity produced, they plant kinds which yield the most 
bunches and largest fruit, but which generally afford in north- 



CHOICE OF VARIETIES. 01 

ern climates quite inferior wines. It is the course last referred 
to that forms the true cause of the deterioration of vineyards. 

Who is there can doubt that the saccharine principle is per- 
fected in proportion to the maturity of the grape, and who 
therefore can deny the advantage of a selection for northern 
climates, of those which ripen earliest f The early varieties 
having a greater chance of arriving at maturity in cold coun- 
tries than later ones, they should therefore^be preferred for such 
locations. Who can deny, when the expenses of culture are 
the same for those which yield but little as for those that yield 
abundantly, that we may easily increase the product of a vine- 
yard by a selection only of the best. 

Much difference of opinion exists as to the number of varie- 
ties which it is advisable to unite in a vineyard ; but all agree 
on this point, that they should comprise such only as ripen at 
the same time; and where the vineyard contains many varieties, 
and the wines are inferior in sweetness or flavour,- it is recom- 
mended to diminish the number of vines which give it that 
character, which is deemed far preferable to adding sugar or 
honey in their composition. For it is well known that some 
varieties are more saccharine, others more prolific, &tc. and 
that consequently a proportionate mixture of particular kinds 
is requisite to produce wines of good quality. 

The influence of the variety upon the quality of the wine is 
not of recent discovery, but is stated by Cato, Celsus, and 
Columella among the Romans, and Olivier de Serres among 
the moderns, who place a judicious selection in the first rank 
of considerations demanding attention from those who plant 
the vine. This influence acts directly or indirectly : directly, 
when a variety at maturity has or has not by its own nature a 
quantity of saccharine matter ; indirectly, when ripening be- 
fore or after the diminution of the summer heat, it can acquire 
or not the quantum of saccharine matter in this or that climate. 

From this cause the pineau of Burgundy, and all other 
true varieties of the pineau, and the morillon hatif de Jura, 
among the black; the fie-vert of Jura and the melier of Paris, 
among the white ; yield every where goqd wine whereas the 



CHOICE OF VARIETIES, 

meunier, the garnet of Burgundy, the saumoireau or gouais of 
Aube, produce every where bad wine ; and the terret of Gard, 
the aspirant of Herault, the bouteillant of Bouches-du-Rhone, 
among the reds ; and the broumesque of Aude, and bon*bou- 
lenque of Vaucluse, among the whites; which afford good 
wines in those departments, yield only miserable ones in the 
vicinity of Paris, for want of sun to acquire suitable maturity. 

Unfortunately a great number of vignerons strive to obtain 
quantity rather than quality ; in which case they select, of the 
reds, the carignan of Herault, the chaliane of Drome, the 
feldlinger of Bas-Rhin, the merveillat of Vaucluse, the pique- 
poule of the upper Garonne ; and of the whites, the clairette 
of Vaucluse, the courtanet and the semillon of Lot and Ga- 
ronne, the lourdaut of Drome, the melon of Cote-d'or, the 
sauvignon of Jura, all of which are good varieties; or of the reds, 
the croc-noir of Mayenne, the raisin-rouge of Cantal, the mou- 
tardier of Vaucluse ; and of the white, the rochelle of Seine- 
and-Marne, the piquant-paul of Basses-alpes, the saint-pierre 
of Charente-inferieure, the vicane of the same department ; all 
of which varieties produce weak wines. 

The garnet, notwithstanding the inferiority of its wine, has 
been preferred by the French vignerons, because it yields crops 
often tenfold, and on account of its forming new clusters 
when the first are injured by frost, and also because it succeeds 
in every soil and exposure. It was this variety that by an or- 
dinance of Philip the Bold was torn up in the vineyards of 
JBurgundy in 1395, and which again in 1731, as well as the 
melon, was destroyed in the vineyards of Franche-Comte, by 
an order from the 'parliament of that province, but which, not- 
withstanding, unfortunately (say French writers) is widely 
cultivated in the north-east of France. 

It seems to be understood that grapes with thin skins afford 
the best wines, but although that may be generally the case in 
the north, witness the pineau, I <Jo not think that inlhe southern 
districts those with thick skinis should be rejected. The dif- 
ference in the varieties of vines in relation ta the climate 
ought to be taken into serious consideration, especially when 



CHOICE OP VARIETIES, 63 

they are transported from the south to the north, for the majo- 
rity not finding in the latter climate the degree of warmth re- 
quisite for maturing their fruit, cannot yield those superior 
high flavoured wines, for which they are so valued at the 
south. Proofs of this were afforded at the garden of the 
Luxembourg, where the vines of the south were remarkable 
for the vigour of their growth, and the size of their berries 
and clusters, and also for the small degree of flavour possessed 
by their juice. 

Many varieties of grapes require a more fertile soil than 
others, from their being of a more vigorous growth, and con- 
sequently requiring a greater portion of the nutritive principle 
to support them. This is more particularly the case in the 
southern varieties, which, as I have stated, are most vigorous 
and strong in every respect than those of the north, often pro- 
ducing an immense number of clusters, in some cases weighing 
several pounds each, with berries an inch in size. The pulsare 
of Jura may be cited as proof on this point, because it forms 
the basis of the good red wines of Salins, Arbois, and of 
Lons-de-Saulnier, and grows better in a clay soil than in any 
other, producing large berries, and numerous arid well filled 
bunches. This vine, so justly esteemed in the vineyards of 
Jura, will even succeed on wet clay soils. There are some 
other considerations in relation to this subject which should 
not be lost sight of, such as the age to which each variety of 
grape will remain in a productive state, &c. but these I leave 
to the reflection and decision of others, and to further experi- 
ence. 

But as ail plants indifferently do not flourish in the same 
soil, a selection should be made of such varieties as are best 
calculated to succeed in the situation in which they are to be 
planted. It has been sometimes noticed that when a very 
vigorous variety is planted too near a feeble one, the former 
absorbs all the nourishment from the other, and often causes 
a blight of its blossoms, (coulure) and in some cases even 
causes its death. 



04 EFFECT OF THE AGE OF THE VINE 

In the vineyard of Epernay there are two sub-varieties of 
the pineau, one of which is regularly barren when the other 
is overloaded with fruit. 

It has been already stated that it is considered by the best 
writers an injury to have too many varieties in the same vine- 
yard, for it is a fact as well in the vineyards of the south as in 
those of the north of France, that those which comprise the 
least number of varieties produce the best wines, although 
some persons advocate a contrary doctrine. The sweetness 
of a grape is not always an indication of a good wine grape, 
for the chasselas does not make good wine, whereas grapes of 
a harsh taste make excellent wine. On this subject, however, 
I will enter more into detail hereafter. 

Effect of the age of the vine on the product. 

The influence of age, which has been remarked in regard 
to other fruits to have the effect of rendering them smaller and 
less numerous, but more sweet, is also extremely powerful as 
relates to the vine, of which there exist thousands of proofs. 
It is to this influence that they attribute in Burgundy the su- 
perior quality of their finest vineyard of Clos de Vougost, 
and it is to this also that is to be attributed the well known 
difference which exists between the wines of Migraine near 
Auxerre, Closet near Epernay, and the remainder of those 
vineyards ; and indeed, facts of this kind are cited in almost 
every vine district. 

The increase in the vigour and abundance of sap, which is 
so perceptible in young vineyards formed by scions from these 
aged vines, together with their consequent increase in pro- 
duce, proves that the age to which these old vines have en- 
dured is attended with no exhaustion of the variety. On the 
other hand, the fact that the oldest varieties in the Burgundy 
vineyards are selected as the basis of those of Champagne, 
and of many vineyards in the department of Haut-Rhin and 
other districts of France, affords proof conclusive that nature 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. (55 

is competent to the continued fertility of any of her produc- 
tions, where they have a suitable soil and appropriate culture, 
to a period ad infinitum. 

In conclusion, however, it may be remarked, that in southern 
latitudes, where the climate is sufficiently warm to mature 
every variety, it is not necessary to make the selection of vines 
with a particular regard to early maturity, and therefore in 
such localities the soil may justly be made the primary consi- 
deration ; but in climates farther to the north, or in other re- 
spects inappropriate, the selection of the variety must neces- 
sarily occupy the first point for our consideration, and is that 
on which the entire success depends. 



CHAPTER X. 

Nomenclature of grapes. 

Distinctions of the varieties of the vine have long been 
obscure and empiric, and there yet exists a multitude of kinds 
in regard to which no general points of agreement have been 
established, or terms and characters agreed on as permanent 
expressions by which they may be universally designated and 
recognised. 

The names given by the Romans to their vines differ so 
much from those of modern date, that it would be difficult to 
recognise them, and to realize their identity with those of the 
present day, and a few instances only exist where they can be 
distinctly identified, or where the titles have remained un- 
changed. Virgil has given us the names of some of the kinds 
most celebrated in his time, and Pliny is quite copious on the 
subject, but even his list is far from being perfect. 

Columella, one of the most intelligent and distinguished 
Latin natural philosophers, particularizes (De re rustica, lib. 
iii. cap. 2.) fifty-eight varieties of the vine. Crescenzio, the 

9 



66 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 



restorer of Italian agriculture, enumerates forty varieties which 
were peculiar to the peninsula in the third century. (Opulus 
Ruralium^ commodorum, lib. iv. cap. 3 and 4.) Alonzo de 
Herrara distinguished important differences in fifteen of the 
principal Spanish varieties. (Agricultura Generalis, lib. iii. 
cap. 2.) 

Lestiniin his travels in Asia gives the names of twenty-one 
varieties of grapes cultivated at Cyzique, which proves that 
they knew how to distinguish them in Asia Minor as they do 
in France. 

Tusser, in 1560, mentions, only " white and red," grapes. 
Parkinson, who was more of a horticulturist, gives in 1629 a 
list of twenty-three sorts, including the white muscadine, and 
several others now common in our gardens. Ray, in 1688. 
enumerates thirteen sorts, as then most in request. Rea, in 
1702, gives most of those in Ray's lists, and adds five more 
kinds, recommending the red, white, and the D'Arbois or 
royal muscadine, two frontignac varieties, and the blood red, 
as best suited for the climate of England. Bradley, in 1 724, 
gives a list of forty-nine varieties, as then most esteemed in 
France, but does not attempt to reconcile their identity with 
the names in English catalogues. Miller describes fifty-two 
varieties^ and adds the names of about a dozen more. 
Speechly enumerates in detail fifty varieties, and gives a list, 
with short descriptions, of about twenty others, but many of 
these are synonymous. Forsyth, in his last and much im- 
proved edition, describes fifty-five varieties, and gives the 
names of twenty-eight more, but even with the increased cir- 
cumspection of that author, he has placed a number under 
different names which are identically the same fruit. Mr. 
London in his " descriptive catalogue," enumerates fifty-six 
varieties, and states that he could have extended the list to 
triple that number, but unattended with sufficient descriptive 
particulars to render it of real use. The four last named au- 
thors of course refer to grapes cultivated in Britain. 

In the last edition of the celebrated work of Duhammel du 
Monceau, entitled, " Traite des Arbres fruitiers, Art. Vigne, 5 ' 



.NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES, 67 

we find ninety-one varieties exactly described by name, and 
partial details touching a number of others. 

In the catalogue published by the London Horticultural 
Society, they enumerate one hundred and fifty-nine varieties 
or different names, principally those known in British col- 
lections, and not including the French wine grapes to any 
extent ; they mention in addition eight varieties of American 
grapes. That society has as yet favoured us with no descrip- 
tive catalogue of their several merits, or with a final arrange- 
ment of their synonymes. 

On this, therefore, as on numerous other subjects, we must 
turn to France for a more perfect knowledge of its details. 
There we find that many years since, the wisest maxims which 
time and experience had approved, were consolidated in the 
works of the celebrated Rozier, on the culture of the vine and 
the art of making wine. The labours of Dussieux and Lata- 
pie aided to render the knowledge of the subject more com- 
plete, and each contributed his portion to the perfection of 
that culture which has enriched for centuries the domains of 
France. 

Much, however, as Rozier and Latapie had laboured for 
the attainment of a perfect knowledge of the different varie- 
ties of the grape, it was destined for the celebrated Chaptal, 
minister of the interior, to form a collection, by the aid of the 
French government, which should rival all others. This 
famed chemist, during the consulship in 1801, obtained from 
every district of France all the known varieties, which were 
by his order concentrated in the Luxembourg garden, the 
object being to assemble the various kinds in one spot, in order 
to ascertain their qualities undei the same circumstances, and 
to compare them at the same time. This labour, so arduous 
and so interesting, was continued by M. Champagny, his suc- 
cessor, aided by members of the Institute, who examined some 
thousands of plants, and described five hundred and fifty vari- 
eties, one hundred of which were figured by Redoute. From 
accurate observation of this immense variety of vines, the fol- 
lowing conclusions have been definitely formed : 



Oo NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

That there is no vineyard of any considerable extent which 
possesses varieties peculiarly adapted to itself alone, and that 
some of these varieties could be much more advantageously 
cultivated in other vineyards than those now found there. 

Also, that there are kinds which should be cultivated at 
Paris, much in preference to those existing there, and they 
cite among these six varieties of muscat, superior in every 
point to those common there : one of which, the muscat- 
noir-du-Jura is so early that it may be eaten the middle of 
August, and another, le muscat de Hongrie, has berries twice 
the size of the common red muscat. 

It was also ascertained that the order of maturity varied in 
some degree, but the franc-pineau was found to be one of the 
most regular in this respect. The morillons of Doubs and of 
Jura, which ripen there in August, are recommended for 
northern vineyards in preference to the meunier and melier, 
which are a month later. 

It was ascertained that under the name of garnet, there 
were two varieties, one of which produced bad wine, and the 
other excellent. The only reason for planting the inferior one 
is on account of its abundant produce, but being much culti- 
vated in Burgundy, it tended to the deterioration of the wine ; 
happily, however, in the course of this investigation, it has 
been ascertained that there are at least fifty varieties of colour- 
ed grapes not known in the environs of Beaune, which are 
twice as productive, and which from their sweetness and fla- 
vour are calculated to yield wine very similar to that of the 
true pineau. 

It was to the distinguished and liberal Professor Bosc, that 
was confided the duty of comparing and classing the Luxem- 
bourg collection. The groundwork of the classification 
adopted by him was the colour, form, and size of the fruit; 
the surface, margin, texture, colour, and position of the 
leaves ; and the redness, greenness, or variegation of the foot- 
stalks. From a combination of these eleven characteristics he 
formed one hundred and fifty-six classes, in which he stated 
might be placed every possible variety of the grape. Even 






NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 69 

this highly intelligent professor found great difficulties in this 
task, arising from the innumerable varieties, possessing slight 
shades of difference in one point or another, with which the 
whole territory of France abounds. 

In the year 1802, the catalogue of the Luxembourg col- 
lection presented two hundred and sixty-seven sorts, arranged 
under the following heads : No. I, vines with black oval fruits, 
thirty-seven sorts ; No. 2, black round fruits, ninety-eight 
sorts ; No. 3, white oval fruits, forty-four sorts ; No. 4, white 
round fruits, seventy-three sorts ; No. 5, gray or violet oval 
fruits, five sorts ; No. 6, gray or violet round fruits, ten sorts ; 
in all two hundred and sixty-seven varieties, which was after- 
wards increased to more than double that number. 

It must be a subject of great regret to every lover of hor- 
ticulture, that this noble establishment has been abandoned 
and broken up by the French government, as it possessed, 
when fostered by national power, a degree of permanency 
scarcely to be looked for in individual establishments. 

A most elaborate descriptive list of the varieties of the 
grape is contained in a Spanish work entitled, " Ensayo sobre 
las variedades de la vid commun, qui vegetan en Andalusia, 
&c." by D. Simon Roxas Clemente, librarian to the Madrid 
Botanic Garden. This author founds his distinctions of vari- 
eties on the character of the stern, shoots, leaves, flowers, 
clusters, and berries. He describes one hundred and twenty 
varieties, comprising them under two sections, the downy and 
smooth-leaved. 

The most extensive catalogue of grapes at present culti- 
vated in any one collection, in France, contains two hundred 
and seventy-seven varieties, all properly arranged as to colour, 
form, &tc. besides which the same proprietor has many which 
are not yet so regulated. Notwithstanding, however, all the 
exertions that have been made, and the studious application of 
many of the most eminent French horticulturists to this inte- 
resting subject, great uncertainty still exists in the nomencla- 
ture of many varieties of the grape, and in their observations 
already made, it was found that often the same kind was called 



NOMENCLATURE OF UKAPES. 

in different vineyards by six to ten names. This confusion in 
the nomenclature they regulated as far as their experience per- 
mitted, by adopting the title of most general application, and 
arranging' the other names as synonymes. 

In my own observations I have frequently found great diffi- 
culty in attaining to exactitude in the synonymy, and in some 
cases, have not yet been able to arrive at satisfactory conclu- 
sions. My collection of vines, comprising above four hundred 
and fifty varieties, of which I will speak more in detail in the 
sequel of this work, under the head of American Vineyards, 
promises me great aid in the attainment of so desirable an 
object, and each year will shed new light on the various points 
of interest, which must be developed in the culture of such an 
assemblage, from every vine country. 

I now propose giving descriptions of as great a number of 
varieties of the grape, as can be consistently done at the pre- 
sent period. These descriptions have been revised as far as 
possible, with scrupulous attention, others, where my own 
observations did not suffice, have been extracted from the most 
noted authors of the day ; and although I neither claim for 
them, nor for myself, the possession of infallibility, it can be 
truly said, that every point has been carefully viewed, with 
the intent of increasing the general stock of information, on a 
subject of such great interest to the prospects of our country. 

In describing the varieties of the grape, I will commence 
with the foreign ones, which are all of the one species, Vitis 
vinifera. I will then continue by describing the different 
varieties, which are natives of our own country, and which are 
of several distinct species. 

The foreign grapes may be properly divided into and placed 
under distinct heads or groups, as far as possible, such as the 
Chasselas, Muscat, and other table grapes ; and those kinds 
which are generally considered as wine grapes, and are only 
occasionally and partially used a& table fruit. 



.NOMENCLATURE OF GRAFE3. 1). 



CHASSELAS GRAPES. 

The grapes of this class, are among the most esteemed table 
fruits of France, they are all of a round form, but vary in the 
other characteristics. In regard to the white varieties, there 
has been much difference of opinion, and I can truly say, I 
have taken more pains to regulate the synonymae of the Chas- 
selas grapes, than of all others combined, and with far less 
satisfaction to myself; for the European publications contain 
such a heterogeneous mass of contradictions, that no correct 
decision could be formed from them. I have in this, therefore, 
as in similar cases, based my conclusions on Duhammel, and 
one or two more principal works of authority, however much 
others might differ from them, and have thrown my own ex- 
perience into the scale. 

WHITE, OR GOLDEN CHASSELAS. PR. CAT. No. 66. 

White chasselas. 

Golden chasselas. 

Chasselas, \ 

Chasselas dore, f n , 

Sar.sur.Aube, ? J 

Bar-sur-Aube blanc, j 

Chasselas blanc. 

Chasselas croquant, Haut-Rhin. 

Chasselas dur. 

Chasselas dor6 de Fontainbleau, Beaunier. 

D'Arbois, or D'Arboyce, > ~ fT , ,. . 

Royal Muscadine, I Of En g hsh autho ^- 

Vitis acinomedio, rotundo, cxalbojlavescente. DUH. 

This variety of the grape is considered the chasselas, par 
excellence, of the French collections, and is more extensively 
cultivated there than any other variety, which has caused it to 
receive in different localities, a great diversity of names. The 
leaves are of medium size, pretty deeply serrated, and bordered 
with large, but not very acute indentures. The clusters of 
fruit are generally large and long, and the most part of them 
shouldered. 



i NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

The berries are round, varying somewhat in size, the medium 
ones are about eight lines in diameter, and rather less in height. 

The skin is firm, but delicate, of a light green, which at 
perfect maturity takes a yellowish tint, and on the sun side 
becomes of an amber colour. The flesh is very melting, white, 
a little inclining to green, with abundant juice, which is very 
sweet and agreeable. It has two to four seeds, which are 
green, marked with gray, the shoots are of a light yellow 
colour, and stronger than those of many other vines. This is 
the most esteemed of all the grapes cultivated in the climate of 
Paris, ort account of its excellence and long continuance. Its 
berries not being too closely set, it ripens the more readily. 
An exposition facing the dawn, the mid-day, or the setting sun, 
are found equally suitable to it. At Paris, and its vicinity, it 
is cultivated in the espalier form, and the best mode is deemed 
that of training two main branches horizontally in opposite 
directions, and to cause the fruit to be produced from shoots 
which spring from these two main branches. This course is 
adopted at Thomery, where immense quantities of this fruit 
are raised for the Paris market ; and as I shall give the system 
there pursued in detail, under the head of culture, it is unneces- 
sary to say more here on the subject. Under the culture 
generally adopted at Thomery, the fruit ripens from the 
fifteenth to the end of September, but in open culture it is 
about fifteen days later. In the vicinity of New-York, it is 
mature early in September, and the clusters of fruit may be 
preserved until May. 

In the department of Aube, in France, it is found to make 
very good wine, but it does not keep long. The wine made 
from it near Paris, they say is very weak and without body. 

It will be seen that I have placed the chasselas croquant 
of Haut-Rhin, as a synonyme ; I however received it thence as 
a distinct variety, and it is so placed by a horticulturist of 
great intelligence, but who, I think errs in this case. In adopt- 
ing it as a synonyme, I have followed the Die. d' Agriculture, 
now deemed a standard work. In the new Duhammel, and other 
standard French authors, the white and the golden chasselas, 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 73 

are not put down as distinct, and I have therefore considered 
them as the same. 

Most of the French vines which have been sold here, as the 
white and the golden chasselas, have proved to be identically 
our common white muscadine, or early white sweet water. 

There is a sub-variety of this grape, called La Blanquette, 
or La Donne, common in the vineyards of Gironde, Dordogne, 
and Charente, which is a good eating fruit, but the wine is 
similar to that made of this. I have seen in the grape houses 
at Boston, apparently two varieties, varying considerably in 
the size of the fruit, the larger distinguished by some as the 
royal muscadine, and by others, considered synonymous with 
the smaller one. It is possible, that culture and the lessening 
the number of bunches made the difference ; but I am of opin- 
ion that they are distinct, and that the larger is the kind just 
described, and the smaller the early white muscadine ; a point 
which may be decided by close examination of the foliage. Be 
that as it may, this is one of the very best grapes for forcing in 
houses to supply our tables, and one of the most easy to suc- 
ceed with by open culture. 

I also met with a variety at Charlestown, (Mass.) called by 
its possessor golden chasselas, whose joints were much closer 
than the common sort, and which made less wood ; in regard 
to these differences, there could be no mistake, as the two 
kinds grew near each other. This, as well as the others, I 
have under culture in my experimental vineyard. 

As this variety makes but little wood, it is therefore diffi- 
cult to increase ; the berries are larger than the common kind, 
of fine flavour and appearance, and are stated to ripen two 
weeks before the other. It differs also from the common sort, 
in having large and small berries on the same cluster, and a 
gentleman, distinguished for his knowledge on the subject, in- 
sists that it is the true golden chasselas of the old French 
authors, and not at present readily obtained in France. Indeed 
I have only met with this variety in two gardens in our country. 

Some English authors mention the royal muscadine, as pro- 
ducing bunches weighing six or seven pounds ; but I must 

10 



' 4 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

acknowledge, that I have never seen any near that weight ; iu 
fact, if the bunches average one, to one and a quarter pounds, 
they are considered of fair size, and from one and a half, to 
two pounds, is considered large ; and it takes a very good 
sized cluster to be of the latter weight. 

MORNAIN BLANC, Dun. PR. CAT. No. 75, 

Meslier, and sometimes Melier. 
Morna chasselas. 
Blanc de Bonnelle. 
White Mornain. 

Yitis, uva longiori, acino rufescenti et dulci. 

This grape greatly resembles the white chasselas in the 
bulk and shape of the bunch and the number of the berries ? 
which are very round, not crowded, and of a pale yellow 
colour. They become of a russet hue on the sunny side in 
the same manner, and the pulp is sweet and of pleasant 
flavour. In fact, it is called the chasselas in some districts 
of France. It is not subject to the blight or coulure, and 
is found profitable to plant as a wine grape, particularly in 
vineyards for white wines. It is also justly considered a fine 
early table grape, and ripens well even in the north of France. 

Duhammel states, that there is a marked difference between 
it and the chasselas, particularly in the foliage ; the leaves 
are pale green on the surface, whitish and slightly downy 
beneath, and are divided into five pretty deeply divided lobes, 
which are very crenate. It ripens in August. 

It is my opinion that this grape now exists in different col- 
lections in this country, and in a number in France, under the 
title of the true chasselas, and that it is from this cause so 
much confusion exists as to a proper arrangement of the sy- 
fionymes of these varieties. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES; 75* 



EARLY WHITE MUSCADINE. PR. CAT. No. 3, 



Early sweet water, 

AugiLst sweet water, > Of American collections; 

White sweet water, j 

Chasselas mou ? 

Golden chasselaS, > f^ c 

de FonlainUeau,, Of some coll <=ction s . 



This is a round grape, with a thin skin, and of a delicate 
flavour ; it is a great bearer, and resembles the white chasselas 
in almost every respect, except that it ripens much earlier, be- 
ing usually in perfection from the 20th to the end of August 
in this vicinity, and in Massachusetts in September. It is re- 
commended as particularly suitable for the country, and for the 
more northern latitudes, where, with attention, it will be sure 
to yield plentifully and regularly. In this latitude it needs no 
winter protection, and is one of the most suitable grapes for 
the purpose of supplying the city markets. I do not notice 
this grape distinguished in the French descriptions, so as to 
be assured of a correct application of the synonymes, and un- 
less it be the Mornain or Morna-chasselas last described, it 
must be synonymous with some other of the varieties of the 
chasselas, but I venture the supposition that it is the same as the 
preceding one. Some vines imported and sold among us un- 
der the two latter titles among the synonymes, have proved to 
be identically the same as our white muscadine. 

RED CHASSELAS. PR. CAT. No. 68. 
Chasselas rouge, Duh. 

Vitis atino media, rotunda >, rubello. Duh. 

This is a sub-variety of the white chasselas : the bunch is 
commonly of smaller size, composed of berries which are not 
quite as large, and are slightly tinted with red on one side ; 
those which are not exposed to the sun often remain a light 



76 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 



green. It ripens rather later than the white, being at maturity 
about the 20th to 25th of September. 

WHITE MUSK CHASSELAS. PR. CAT. No. 69. 

CHasselas musqu, Duh. 

Vitis acino medio, rotunda, albido, mosehaio. Duh. 

The leaf of this is of less size, and of a deeper green than 
that of the white chasselas ; it is also less deeply lobed, but its 
border is more acutely indented. 

The bunch and the berries are nearly of the same size as, 
the white variety, and the latter are rather more closely set and 
usually contain two seeds, which are small and gray ; the skin 
also much resembles the white in its firmness, but is not crisp 
and crackling like the Muscat ; the colour of the berry is yel- 
lowish white, and the pulp is white approaching to green, 
with abundant juice, which is sweet and musky. It ripens at 
the end of September, and is considered superior to both the 
white and red varieties. If it is inferior to the white muscat, 
it has the advantage of earlier maturity, and will consequently 
succeed where that will not. 

YELLOW CHASSELAS OF THOMERY,PR. CAT. No. 71. 
Chasselas de Tomery. 

This grape is round, and of a yellowish colour when ripe, 
it is high flavoured and much esteemed as a table fruit, and 
ripens in September. Although several French authors of 
celebrity place this distinct from the white chasselas, I will 
not undertake to say that it is so, until I have more fully 
tested it. 

CHASSELAS GUIS. PIROLLE. 
Gray cJtasselas. 

Mr. Pirolle mentions having discovered in the garden of M. 
Deschiens at Versailles, a superb large fruited variety of the 
chasselas, round, of equal size, of a fine gray colour, with the 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 77 

berries at a suitable distance from each other on the clusters, 
which are well formed. The flavour of the fruit is very 
agreeable, though not equal to the Chasselas of Thomery. 

PURPLE ROYAL CHASSELAS. PR. CAT. No. 72. 
Chasselas royal. 
Chasselas rouge royal. 

This is held in esteem as a table grepe. The berries are 
round, of a dark red or purplish hue, and of pleasant flavour. 
The whole aspect of the plant is peculiar on account of the 
redness of the foliage, and the tints of the same colour which 
prevail on other parts of the vine. There are several other 
varieties which are less known, such as the violet chasselas, the 
black chasselas, and the chasselas de la madelene with white 
fruit ; of these I am not enabled to give detailed descriptions 
at the present time. 

In some catalogues they enumerate the chasselas blanc 
precoce de Kienzheim, as a distinct variety ; the chasselas- 
rose I consider to be a synonyme, and therefore omit it ; the 
variegated chasselas, or chasselas panache, will be found under 
the title of Aleppo grape. 

CIOUTAT. PR. CAT. No. 7. 

Ciotat, Duh. 
Raisin d'Autriche. 
Vigne lasciniec. 
Parsley-leaved chasselas. 
Parsley-leaved muscadine. 
White parsley-leaved muscadine. 
Austrian grape. 
Tardaria grape. 

Vitis folio lasdniato, acino media, rotundo, albido. Duh. 

The leaves of this variety are small and palmated, being 
divided into five principal lobes, each of which is finely and 
deeply serrated, the edges being also indented ; its dissimi- 
larity in foliage makes it easily distinguishable from every 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES, 

other variety. This has generally been considered so nearly 
allied to the white chasselas, as not to differ from it in its 
fruit j. it nevertheless is very distinct even in that particular, 
the bunches, although similar in form, are much smaller and 
more thinly furnished ; the berry not quite as large nor quite 
as round. The growth is also far less strong and the pro- 
duce much less abundant ; and in fact, it is a weaker plant 
in all its parts, the size of the leaves being much less. The 
colour of the fruit, flavour, and time of ripening, are how- 
ever the same, although some consider the quality rather 
inferior. Its period of maturity is from the 15th to the 20th 
of September. Theie is a variety of the chasselas called 
Ciotat in some French lists, whose leaves are not divided like 
the above, and it is not therefore the genuine kind. 

Raisin dfeuille d'Ache, Duh. 
Persillade de Bordeaux, Rczier. 

Vitis apiifolio, acino media, rotunda, rulro. Rozier. 

This is a sub-variety of the preceding differing only frortl 
it in the red colour of its berries, and in its foliage more 
closely resembling that of parsley. It is much more rare than 
the former, and I have found great difficulty in obtaining it. 

WHITE SWEET WATER. PR. CAT. No. 4. 

Pareyl druyf of the Dutch. 

This has large round white berries, much resembling the 
royal muscadine in appearance and taste, the skin and flesh 
being delicate and juicy ; the berries on the side of the bunch 
next the sun are often clouded with spots of a russet colour. 
It is much esteemed, and ripens in September. I consider 
this as a variety of the chasselas, and I should not be at all 
surprised if it should be identified with one of the other cul- 
tivated varieties, and probably with the white chasselas. 



NOMENCLATURE OF 






BLACK SWEET WATER. PR. CAT. No. 5. 

The bunches of this variety are short and closely set, and 
it has small roundish berries, which are sweet and agreeable, 
and ripen in September. I do not consider this a variety of 
the chasselas, but I place it here in order that it may follow 
the one before described, it being generally placed in connec- 
tion with it. 



FRONTIGNAC, AND OTHER MUSCAT GRAPES, 

The grapes of this class are celebrated for their high musk 
flavour, and are among the most estimable for the table. Some 
of the varieties are used in particular districts of France for 
sweet wines, and are also applied to a similar purpose in other 
countries, as will be pointed out hereafter. 

In consequence of a higher value being set on the varieties 
of the muscat in France, and they being also more rare in the 
collections than most other kinds, greater inaccuracies, and 
more deceptions have been experienced in the importation of 
them, than in those of any other class. 

The epithet Apiana^ given to some grapes, and especially 
to the muscats, seems to be intended more particularly to desig- 
nate the varieties which the honey bees attack, as the word 
appears to be derived from Apes, or Apium, bees. 

WHITE FRONTIGNAC. PR. CAT. No. 77. 
Muscat blanc, Duh. 
Muscat blanc de Frontignan. 
Muscata bianca. 

Vitis apiana acino medio, subrotundo, albido, moschato. DUH. 

This is a highly esteemed grape for the table, the leaf is not 
deeply serrated, but it is of a darker green, and more acutely 
dentated, than that of the white chasselas. The five lobes 
which divide it are unequal, the middle one being much broader 



SO 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 



than the others ; the bunch is long, narrow, almost conical, and 
terminates in a point ; it does not swell out at the top like the 
chasselas, nor have shoulders as that generally does. 

The berries, which are about the size of the chasselas, are 
in general very closely set, so that some persons thin them out 
in order to advance their maturity ; their form is a little elon- 
gated, and rather larger at the head than at the extremity. 

The skin is firm and crackling ; light green, with a slight 
bloom, and of an amber hue on the sunny side. The pulp is 
melting, white with a blueish cast, and of a high and exquisite 
musk flavour. The seeds are small, white, marbled with gray 
or violet, and ordinarily three or four in number in each berry. 

Formerly, a great deal of wine was made from it at Fron- 
tignan, Rivesaltes, and Lunel, but at present, very little is 
made at those places. It has much body, and a decided taste 
of the fruit, with a fragrant bouquet, and is said to improve by 
age. That usually sold in our wine stores, I presume, is of a 
secondary quality. 

The Parisians complain that it rarely attains to perfect 
maturity in their climate, and that it requires the jwarmth of 
the south to perfect its exquisite flavour. It is sufficiently ripe 
in the south of France about the first of August ; and it is 
customary at the city of Aix to make use of it on the sixth of 
that month, at the metropolitan festival, on the day of the 
transfiguration, when, after blessing a number of baskets of 
this fruit, the finest clusters are selected, and the juice expres- 
sed into the sacred chalice, after which, the residue are dis- 
tributed to those who assist in the ceremony. 

It is cultivated considerably in the grape houses in the 
vicinity of Boston, ripening a little later than the chasselas. I 
do not recollect having there seen it subjected to open culture, 
but I saw fruit of later maturity under successful management. 
In the vicinity of New-York, it ripens in September, and I 
consider it one of the most luscious and desirable grapes with 
which our tables can be furnished. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 81 



RED FRONTIGNAC. PR. CAT. No. 78. 

Muscat rouge, Duh. 
Vitis Apiana, acino media, rotunda, rubro, moschato. DUH. 

The foliage of this grape has the same form as the preceding, 
but is a little larger, and the leaf, as well as the petiole, be- 
comes early tinted with deep red, approaching to violet ; the 
bunch is elongated in the same manner as the former, though 
in some cases it is rather shorter, and also less furnished with 
berries, because the flower being more delicate, is more sub- 
ject to blight ; the skin is firmer than the preceding, of a lively 
red, almost purple on the sun side ; of a paler tint, seemingly 
marbled with yellow and light red on the side which is shaded; 
the flesh is firm, of a blueish white, full of juice, of a high and 
most agreeable musk flavour, and most of the berries have but 
one seed. 

Although this grape has not quite as fine a taste as the 
white, it is, nevertheless, highly esteemed as a table fruit ; 
and besides being very good, has the merit of attaining to an 
earlier maturity, which in this latitude, is about the 20th 
of September. 

BLUE, OR VIOLET FRONTIGNAC. PR. CAT. No. 80. 

Muscat violet, Duh. 
Madere. 

Vitis Apiana, acino nwgno, oblongo, violaceo, moschato. DUH. 

The foliage of this variety differs but little from that of the 
white, the bunch is also nearly of the same form, composed of 
berries somewhat elongated, having a hard skin, of a pretty 
dark violet colour, covered with a bloom. The pulp is a little 
greenish, replete with very pleasant juice, of a musk flavour, 
although perhaps less so than in the two preceding varieties. 
Each berry contains two to three seeds, and the fruit is at 
maturity in September. 

11 



NOMENCLATURE. OF GRAPHS. 

EARLY VIOLET MUSCAT. 

Muscat violet prtcoce. 

Under this title I have received from the shore of the Rhine, 
a grape, described as particularly valuable, by the eminent 
horticulturist from whom it was received ; for, in addition to 
the fine properties it possesses, in common with other muscat 
grapes, it has the advantage of ripening so much earlier, that 
it matures its fruit in much more northern latitudes than they 
are found to succeed in. 

BLACK, OR PURPLE FRONTIGNAC.P R . CAT. No. 79. 

Muscat noir, Duh. 
Muscat negrt of Provence. 
Black Constantia. 

Vitis Apiana^ acino medio, sitbrolundo, nigricante, moschalo.-'D\>ii. 

The leaves of this are much less serrated than those of the 
other varieties of muscat, and they are sometimes so little 
lobed as to appear almost entire ; the berries are round, and 
not so large as the blue variety ; the skin is black, or of a 
very dark violet colour, covered with a bloom ; the pulp has a 
light tint of red under the skin, and is full of juice, which is 
pleasant, sweet, and musky. Each berry generally contains 
four small pointed seeds, that are reddish on one side. This 
has long been considered as being the grape from which Con- 
stantia wine is made ; it is not equal to the white frontignac, 
but it ripens much better in northern climates, yields a good 
crop, and is at maturity in September. I saw under cultiva- 
tion in a grape-house at Boston, a variety which had been 
obtained direct from the Cape by the intelligent proprietor, and 
was considered by him quite distinct from this. In the Lon- 
don Horticultural Society's catalogue the black Constantia is 
not placed as a synonyme, which indicates that some doubt 
existed on that point, which they will doubtless solve by after 
investigation. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 83 

GRIZZLY FRONTIGNAC. PR. CAT. No. 81. 
Muscat gris. 

I describe this grape separately, merely because some En- 
glish authors have done so, and in order to elicit inquiry, and 
to settle the point of accuracy hereafter. Duhammel does 
not enumerate such a variety, neither, is it named by the 
standard French authors, but one that does mention it omits 
the muscat rouge. Is it not, therefore, reasonable to consider 
this synonymous with the red variety, although Miller, For- 
syth, Speechly, and half a score of other English authors con- 
tinue to enumerate it ? Speechly describes it thus : berries 
somewhat larger than the white frontignac, round, colour 
brown and red intermixed with yellow ; which description 
seems to apply to the red variety when ripened in a shady situ- 
ation. A very intelligent horticulturist at Boston told me he 
had vainly endeavoured to distinguish any difference. It is at 
maturity in September. 

WHITE MUSCAT OF ALEXANDRIA. PR. CAT. No. 82, 

Muscat d* Alexandrie, Duh. 
Muscat d j Alexandrie blanc. 
Passe-longue musquee. 
Passe musqute. 
Passe musquee blanc. 
Muscat d'Espagne. 
Pause musqute blanc. 
Muscat de Panse of Provence. 
Alexandrian frontignac. 
White muscat of Jerusalem. 

Vitis Apiana, acino maxima, ovato, e mridiJlavescente^moschatoJilex- 
andrina. DUH. 

The leaves of this variety are more deeply serrated than 
those of other muscats, and they are bordered with smaller 
and more pointed indentures, the bunch is very large, very 



84 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



long and irregular, composed of fine large oval berries, which 
are rather larger at the summit than the base, and about an 
inch in length ; they hang loosely on the cluster, and present 
a beautiful appearance. The skin is firm, of a light green on 
the shade side, and of a slight amber hue on the sunny side, 
when at complete maturity. The flesh is firm and crisp, re- 
plete with musky and perfumed juice, which is excellent when 
the fruit is perfectly ripe ; each berry contains one or two very 
small seeds. Duhammel puts the Malaga as a synonyme, but 
the grape best known to us by the latter name, is widely dif- 
ferent : the same author puts the Muscat d'Espagne as syno- 
nymous. 

This grape seldom ripens in the latitude of Paris, unless in 
very hot seasons, and only when cultivated as an espalier in a 
southern exposure ; but in southern France it is deemed among 
the most exquisite fruits. It has the advantages of keeping a 
long time, and of making excellent preserves. 

I scarcely think we can calculate with any certainty on 
crops of this grape in the vicinity of New-York and north of 
it by open culture, unless the situations selected are peculiarly 
favourable, as the season is scarcely long enough. Some 
distance to the south, however, it will be sure to succeed. It 
is one of the favourite varieties planted in grape houses in 
England, and also in the vicinity of Boston, where I have 
met with it in high perfection. 

VIOLET MUSCAT OF ALEXANDRIA. PR. CAT. No. 84. 

Muscat d' Alexandria violet. 

Although a grape is mentioned by some authors under this 
name, I do not find it described by any that has come within 
my notice ; I however have a grape to which I think this title 
will justly apply ; the fruit is a long oval of rather large size, 
violet colour, and very high mu?k flavour, and powdered with 
a fine bloom. It is very delicious, matures its fruit perfectly in 
my garden during the month of September, and I consider it 
one of the best table grapes. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



85 



BLACK MUSCAT OF ALEXANDRIA. PR. CAT. No. 83. 

Red Muscat of Alexandria. 
Red Muscat of Jerusalem ? 
New muscat of Jerusalem, Forsyth. 

0{ French 



This grape is described by Forsyth as resembling the white 
except in its colour. It is not enumerated by Duhammel or 
Chaptal under any title by which it can be readily recognised, 
but I have doubtingly put down the Malaga-du-Lot of some 
French authors and of the Luxembourg collection as a sy- 
nonyme, and I doubt not all the English titles quoted apply to the 
same fruit, although they are described as distinct. 

The bunches ripen in October, and it is therefore too late 
a kind for this latitude, but will succeed south of the Poto- 
mac. There is a variety of grape called in some French lists 
Muscatelle-du-Lot, which may possibly be the same as this. 
It is stated in Miller that the black muscadel contains berries 
of different sizes on the same bunch ; some of the berries are 
large and long, and they are somewhat flat and compressed 
at the ends. It is also there mentioned that the leaves change 
to a beautiful scarlet in autumn. 

WHITE MUSCAT OF LUNEL.PR. CAT. No. 86. 

Muscat de Lunel. 
Lunel. 

The vicinity of Lunel formerly produced a considerable 
quantity of muscat wine, and the celebrity of this grape is 
doubtless attributable to that circumstance. It is not enume- 
rated by Duhummel and other distinguished authors as speci- 
fically distinct from the other varieties, and I therefore doubt 
its being other than a synonyme. I received the vines now grow- 
ing in my vineyard from the vicinity of Lunel, and shall be 



BQ NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

speedily able to decide the point myself. English authors 
describe it as distinct, and state that it has large oval berries 
of an amber colour sometimes clouded with russet, with deli- 
cate flesh, and full of vinous juice, that it bears well, is 
highly esteemed, and forms pretty large bunches. 

MUSCAT D'ESPAGNE. 

This variety, which Duhammel puts down as a synonyme of 
the white muscat of Alexandria, is enumerated in some French 
lists as a distinct variety. I have it under culture, but I have 
not yet sufficiently tested its merits to give an opinion in re- 
gard to them, nor to prove it to be other than a synonyme. 
In addition to those already described, the following varieties 
are enumerated in French publications Muscat hatif, muscat 
blanc-variete, muscat gris hatif, and muscat panacho, which 
are considered as distinct varieties, and which I have conse- 
quently imported, and now have growing in my vineyard, 

WHITE MALAGA. PR. CAT. No. 85. 
White Muscadel ? 

The variety which is largely imported in jar under this 
title, is different from the white muscat of Alexandria, parti- 
cularly in flavour. The berries are very large and oval, skin 
thick, flesh firm, and very pleasantly flavoured ; the bunches 
grow very large. It does not ripen until October in this lati- 
tude, and is therefore not suitable for open culture except fur- 
ther south. 

I however saw this grape growing under open culture the past 
season in the garden of Zebedee Cook, Esq. near Boston, with 
a far greater appearance of attaining to perfect maturity than 
I ever before witnessed in so northern a latitude, and I am 
told one bunch actually matured its fruit. This success was 
no doubt attributable to the excellent management and great 
intelligence which were developed in the culture of the dif- 
ferent representatives of the horticultural family which partook 
of his fostering care. In his garden I saw also a round-ber- 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 87 

ried variety he had received from Malaga with the fore- 
going. 

RED MALAGA. 

Red Mascadel.Pn. CAT. No. 90. 
Red Smyrna. 

Of this variety we have latterly had considerable importa- 
tions from the Mediterranean in a fresh state, packed in jars. 
The vines are also cultivated in our collections, but in this vi- 
cinity the fruit can very rarely attain to maturity, as the period 
of ripening is not until October ; the berries are exceedingly 
large, of along oval form, the skin thick, flesh solid, the taste 
and flavour sweet arid pleasant; the foliage is particularly 
marked, with reddish veins and tints. This is considered by 
some persons to be the same as the red muscat of Alexandria, 
but as it has not a high musk flavour, I doubt the accuracy 
of that supposition. I think it is probably, however, the same 
as the red muscadel and raisin grapes of the English authors, 
and the red Smyrna grape described by them is also no doubt 
the same fruit. 

Speechly says the berries of the red muscadel are large, 
oval, and of a beautiful red colour, and the skin thick and 
flesh hard, similar to the raisin grape. He also states that 
the bunches often weigh six or seven pounds, and are most 
elegantly formed of berries of an equal size, and that the 
leaves change in autumn to beautiful red and green shades. 
This description agrees with my own observations, except that 
I have not seen bunches weighing over three to three and a 
half pounds. 

MUSCADEL. 

Under this head are described by English authors three dis- 
tinct varieties, the white, red, and black. I consequently im- 
ported them, and have them now under culture in my collec- 
tion ; but believing that they will prove to be synonymous with 



88 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



others described, I have withheld distinct descriptions of them, 
and have placed them as synonymes where I think they belong ; 
the descriptions given of them by English authors are ex- 
ceedingly indefinite. 

WHITE RAISIN GRAPE. LANGLEY POM. 

This, and the red raisin grape of English authors, doubt- 
less refer to the varieties of the Malaga grape used in making 
raisins, and are very probably synonymous with two of the 
varieties under the preceding head ; for to all reasonable 
intents, the titles of Malaga, Muscadel, and Raisin grape, 
refer to the same fruit, and probably are so ; the black raisin 
grape appears, however, to refer to a different variety. 

AUGIBERT NOIR. 

Black raisin, Loudon. 

Mr. Loudon places the black raisin grape described by 
Forsyth, as synonymous with the augibert noir, and as that 
author is celebrated for the accuracy of his descriptions, it may 
justly be deemed to be correct. The augibert noir I have in 
my collection, it is a dark coloured oval grape. 

Mr. L. mentions that it is large and has a thick skin. 
Forsyth states, that the black raisin grape has large black oval 
berries, and that the flesh is firm and Speechly gives it the 
same characteristics as the two authors previously referred to, 
and adds, that it forms long handsome bunches. I do not 
consider it a grape calculated to succeed north of the Potomac. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

TABLE GRAPES OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES. 

The following are celebrated table grapes cultivated in 
England, France, our own country, and elsewhere, the quali- 
ties of which are so various, that I have not been able to form 
them into distinct classes. I have, however, in many cases, 
placed those in succession whose characters most nearly assi- 
milate. 

BLACK HAMBURGH. PR. CAT. No. 13. 

Franc-kental, Duh. 

Frankenthaler of the Dutch. 

Hampton Court vine. 

Esperione of some Boston collections. 

Warner's black Hamburgh. 

Frarikendale. 

* 

Salisbury violet. 

Vitis uvd media; acinis avoides, saturate violaceis,dulcibus. DUH. 

It is this grape which is stated by English authors to have 
produced at Hampton Court, on a single vine, more than a 
ton weight of grapes in one season, as mentioned at page 26. 
The leaves are almost smooth on the under side, or very 
slightly pubescent ; they are pretty deeply five lobed, with the 
border unequally indented. The bunches are six to nine 
inches in length, regularly shouldered, and descending to a 
point, so as to form an elongated triangle ; there is a greater 
regularity throughout the bunches generally, than in those of 
most other grapes, and they commonly average in weight 
from one to one and a half pounds, though many are met with 
weighing two pounds. I have never seen bunches weighing 
four pounds, as some books state, although I have viewed 
them under every favourable circumstance ; and I wish those 
who are unacquainted with the subject to understand that it 
takes a large sized cluster of grapes to weigh two pounds. 
The berries are large, oval, somewhat rounded, of a deep 
violet colour approaching to black ; they are sweet, of a delicate 

12 



90 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

consistence, and of very pleasant flavour ; the only fault is, 
that the skin is rather thick. 

The vine is remarkable for the strength of its shoots, which 
often produce several bunches the second yea'r from the 
layer or cutting, and can always be made to do so the third 
year without injury. It is a regular and great bearer, and 
held in high esteem for that and its other qualities. In Eng- 
land it is considered one of the most uncertain to ripen in 
open culture, but in the vicinity of New-York it succeeds 
perfectly in that manner, and matures its fruit towards the end 
of September. 

At Boston it is cultivated on garden trellices, and ripens 
well in warm seasons and in favourable situations ; it is also 
there cultivated to a very great extent in grape-houses of a 
cheap construction. 

I am not certain that the true Esperione is a synonyme of this 
grape, but vines received from England under that name by 
different persons about twelve years ago, and which came from 
different places, are now in full bearing, and are decidedly the 
same. It may be that as the distinctions were less understood 
at former periods than at the present time, errors were then 
committed in the cases referred to, and that the real Esperione 
is different. 

RED HAMBURGH. PK. CAT. No. 15. 
Gibraltar. 

The fruit of this is rather oval, of a dark red colour, and 
when fully ripe, some of it will become quite black. It has a 
rich vinous flavour, and is ripe about the same period as the 
black. It is an excellent grape, and ripens well in^open cul- 
ture in this latitude, maturing its fruit by the end of Sep- 
tember. 

WHITE HAMBURGH. PR. CAT. No. 16. 
Portugal. 
Lisbon. 
Clapiers 1 

This grape, which I have eaten the present season in 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



91 



great perfection, has oval berries of very large ske, with a 
thick skin : they resemble the Malaga in taste, and in form 
also, but are considerably smaller. The clusters are shoul- 
dered, and formed of small divisions or grappillons, the berries 
are not very closely set, having distance sufficient to mature 
readily. A bunch which I saw the present season in the 
grape-house of the Hon. John Lowell, near Boston, weighed 
above three pounds, and was the largest and most beautiful 
cluster of the kind I have ever seen ; other bunches weighed 
generally rather less than two pounds. 

This vine will ripen its fruit with skilful management under 
open culture in this vicinity. There appears to be some doubt 
as to the last synonyrne. 

PURPLE HAMBURGH. PR. CAT. No. 14. 

I do not find this described as distinct by Speechly or For- 
syth, but in the London Horticultural Society's catalogue it is 
placed separately. A friend of mine who has a number of the 
vines under culture in the same garden with the black variety, 
considers them as different, although their general characters 
bear much affinity : there is only a slight variation in the co- 
lour, and the clusters are not so long. 

ESPERIONE. PR. CAT. No. 12. 
Turner's early black. 
Hardy blue Windsor. 

In the new edition of Forsyth the following description of 
this grape is given : it has large shouldered bunches ; the 
berries vary much in shape, sometimes round, frequently flat, 
rotund, and indented at the apex, with the remains of the 
stile there is often a groove on one or both sides, decreasing 
from the head downward ; skin of a deep purple colour, inclin- 
ing to black, and thickly covered with bloom ; the flesh ad- 
heres to the skin. It has a pleasant taste, but is not high 
flavoured or rich. The vine is very hardy, a great bearer, 
and ripens its fruit with the sweet water and muscadine. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

I have already remarked that some vines sent from England 
for this kind proved to be the black hamburgh. I have some 
vines however in bearing, which I received two years since 
from an undoubted source, and I shall soon be able to deter- 
mine whether they are in reality as distinct as the description. 

OEIL DE TOURD. PR. CAT. No. 53. 
Chalosse. 
Prunelas. 
Dove's eye. 

This is not considered in France as an esteemed table 
fruit, there being so many superior to it ; the berries are white 
and of an oval form. It has been cultivated in several gar- 
dens around New-York as an eating grape. Among the 
French it is better known by the second title, but in this vici^- 
nity is more generally called by the first. 

STRIPED ALEPPO. PR, CAT, No. 7, 
Morillon panache. 
Chasselas panacht, Duh. 
Raisin suisse. 
Raisin d'Alep. 
Pineau noirin . 
Suriss. 

Striped morillon. 
Variegated chasselas. 
Striped muscadine. 
Vitis acino rotunda, media, bipartite nigro, bipartite albido. ROZIEK. 

This grape was brought to France during the crusades, and 
is one among the many proofs which exist that the age of a 
variety is no preventive to its vigour and fertility when it en- 
joys a suitable climate and soil, and is under proper culture. 
1 have not adopted the title of chasselas, because I have found 
those I have cultivated to be decidedly of the family of the 
morillon, having the same form, size, and taste, and ripening 
at the same period. 

The leaves are dark green, divided into lobes of consider- 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 93 

able depth, and are bordered by large and unequal inden- 
tures, and about the commencement of autumn their upper 
surface is spotted with red and green, resembling Aleppo let- 
tuce, and is also very slightly pubescent; the under side is 
downy, which gives it rather a whitish appearance. The 
clusters are from four to six inches in length, formed of rounded 
berries of medium size, which have generally but one seed. 

On the same plant are produced white fruit, black or dark 
violet fruit, and fruit of two colours, some of the berries be- 
ing half of each colour, and others striped with greater or less 
divisions of each. The variations are often found on the same 
cluster, some bunches will be entirely black, others with a few 
white berries, and other clusters will be almost entirely white, 
having only a few dark violet or striped berries intermixed.- 
Duhamel remarks, that the violet coloured bunches are more 
sweet and pleasant, and possess more of a vinous flavour than 
the white ones. I have not thought of noticing when eating 
the fruit if this was the fact, but if so it may be readily ac- 
counted for by the greater action of the sun on the coloured 
berries, maturing them more perfectly. This grape is con- 
sidered worthy of culture as an object of curiosity ; it is one 
of the most hardy varieties, and ripens its fruit at New- York 
the end of August or beginning of September, and would 
without doubt mature its fruit at Boston, and probably for 
some distance north of it. It is a good bearer, and the wine 
made from it is good, keeps well, and imparts strength and 
durability to those with which it is mixed, which is another 
proof that it rightly belongs to the morillon or pineau class, 
and not to the chasselas. 

WHITE ST. PETER'S. PR. CAT. No. 18. 

St. Pierre blanc. 
Moscori. 

(' \ 

This is a large and very handsome fruit, the bunches are large 
and shouldered ; the berries of oval form, sufficiently distant 
on the cluster to ripen well, and of excellent quality. 



' NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

It has been until latterly very little known, but is coming 
much into repute in the vicinity of Paris, and the north of 
France, as it ripens its fruit well there. I have had crops from 
it for three years in my vineyard, and they arrived at perfect 
maturity in every instance ; and I consider it capable of being 
cultivated with the same ease as the common white chasselas, 
and that it will ripen as soon. 

BLACK ST. PETER'S. PR. CAT. No. 17. 
Black grape from Palestine. 

This has a large and rather oval berry with a thin skin, 
of a deep black colour when ripe ; the bunches are large, and 
the flesh juicy ; the leaves are very much divided and the fruit 
ripens at the end of September or beginning of October. The 
berries are subject to crack, for which reason it is not deemed 
suitable for forcing in houses. 

WEST'S ST. PETER. PR. CAT. No. 19. 
Black Lombardy. 

This has large black berries of excellent flavour; the 
bunches are of fine appearance, and the grapes are highly- 
esteemed. 

BLACK PRINCE. PR. CAT. No. 20. 

This is an excellent grape, of a blackish purple colour, 
covered with a bloom ; the berries are moderately large and 
of oval form ; the skin is thick and rather harsh ; the pulp 
white and of pleasant taste, and the juice sweet and of good 
flavour. The bunches grow large, sometimes weighing a 
pound and a half; the fruit ripens well, and the vine is a good 
bearer. 

It is considered an excellent grape for rearing in houses, 
and also succeeds well in this latitude by open culture. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 



95 



BLACK MOROCCO. PR. CAT. No. 28. 

Raisin de Maroc, Duh. 
Maroc, or GrosMaroc. 
Raisin Turc. 
Raisin dAfrique. 

Maroquin, ) Erroneously. 

Maroquin d'Espagne, $ 

Barbarous. 

Morocco. 

Le Ccsur. 

Ansley's large oval Hack. 

Vitis acino maxima, ovato, saturate, molaceo. Dull. 

The leaf of this vine is large, deeply serrated, bordered 
with large and acute teeth supported by a large and long pe- 
tiole. The bunch is of great size, composed of large berries 
somewhat oval, and rather more swollen at the summit than at 
the base. The skin is hard and thick, of a deep violet with a 
fine bloom ; the pulp is of a bluish white, full of agreeable 
and high-flavoured juice when the fruit is perfectly ripe ; each 
berry contains two large seeds. 

I find I have two varieties, the one received from France 
being a long oval, whereas the one obtained from England 
partakes very little of that form. This grape seldom ripens 
perfectly in the latitude of Paris, and is not eaten in perfection 
except in the south of that country ; it can, therefore, scarcely 
be expected to succeed regularly in this vicinity by open cul- 
ture, but it ripened with me the present year about the 1st of 
October. 

SYRIAN. PR. CAT. No. 40. 

Jews. 
Syrie. 

This is the variety referred to at page 30, as having produced 
in England, a bunch weighing 19 i pounds. It is also sup- 
posed by many, to be the species found by the spies sent by 



96 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

the Israelites, a bunch of which they cut down at the brook of 
Eshcol, in the southern part of Canaan, and bore on their re- 
turn between two, upon a staff. Numbers, Chap. xiii. 

Be this as it may, it certainly has produced the most enor- 
mous clusters that the gardens of Europe can boast, and has 
been nearly equalled only by the Gros Guillaume, which being 
black, would form with this an admirable spectacle, when 
growing in the same house or the same vineyard. 

The berries of the Syrian are white, large, and oval, with a 
thick skin, and solid flesh the bunches handsomely formed, 
and of enormous size, making a noble appearance. 

Although it is generally considered a coarse fruit, it is not 
more so than the Malaga, which we so often import in jars ; 
and it may be kept in perfection on the vine for many months, 
or be preserved fresh in jars, in the same manner as the grapes 
we import. The berries sometimes require thinning, in order 
to advance their maturity ; that is, in climates where the sea- 
sons are not of sufficient length, but in the southern states no 
attention of that kind is required. 

It is a prolific bearer ; but it may be taken as a general 
standard, that the size of a bunch lessens the number in due 
proportion, and that, be the clusters as large as they may, there 
will not be on a vine of a given size, a greater weight of fruit, 
than on one of another kind of equal size, of an equally thrifty 
variety. 

GRAND GUILLAUME. PR. CAT. No. 255. 

Gros Guillaume, 

Rognon de Coq, of Provence, 

Vitis uvd maxima et longissima, acinis mqjoribus, <$-c. 

This variety is, according to Garidel, one of the most in- 
teresting, and produces bunches which weigh from twelve to 
fifteen pounds. Mr. Michel states, that the clusters are so 
large, and the berries so nnmerous, that they can seldom be 
found with the whole perfectly ripe at the same time. When the 
berries begin to change colour and ripen, the thinness of the 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 97 

skin allows them to be subjected to the attacks of bees and 
other insects, which injure the fruit, and thereby render it liable 
to decay and fall off. In other respects, this grape is not cal- 
culated to keep long, and the juice although pleasant, is not 
high flavoured. 

Some cultivators and amateurs have essayed to preserve the 
bunches in brandy, and have completely succeeded. It is 
often called by the name given as the last synonyme. This vine 
was cultivated in the Luxembourg royal garden, having been 
obtained from Aix. The shoots of those growing in my vine- 
yard, surpass many other kinds in size and vigour. 

WHITE SEEDLESS CORINTH. PB. CAT. No. 24. 

Corinthe blanc, Duh. 

Corinthe sans pepins. 

Kishmishi. 

Uvapassa bianca. 

Corinthian vine. 

White Kismish, Trans. Lond. Hort. Soc. 

Yellow stoneless. 

Vitis acino minima, rotunda, albido, sine nucleis, Corinthia. DUH. 

The leaves of this vine are large five lobed, the three centre 
ones being large, and the lateral ones less distinct, the edges 
are also irregularly indented. The upper surface is green, and 
the under side so very downy, that it appears almost white. 
The bunches are four to five inches long, and are composed 
of numerous berries, of very small size, closely set, and covered 
with a bloom, and of the same colour as the white chasselas. 

The flesh is very melting, and full of sweet and very pleasant 
juice, and the grapes ripen early in September. 

The berries have no seeds, nevertheless, there are some found, 
(but very rarely,) containing seeds ; in such case, the berries 
containing them, grow four or five times as large as the others 
on the same bunch ; which goes to prove, that if all the berries 
were fertilized, the bunches would acquire a much larger size. 
Tn fact, the vine is large in all its parts, except in its miniature 

13 



98 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

fruit, which is truly of that character, when compared with the 
other parts of the plant. The trunk or body becomes, per- 
haps, the largest of all the varieties of vines. It advances in 
size and extent doubly what other kinds do in the same period. 
Duhamel mentions the body of a vine of twenty-five years oi 
age, which was thirty-three inches in circumference, at the 
height of a man's head. This speedy development in its dimen- 
sions, is the result, without doubt, of the little exhaustion occa- 
sioned in the production of abortive fruit of not more than a 
quarter of the natural size. There are several other varieties 
whose merits are yet little known, but the most of which are in 
my vineyard, among them is the blue corinth, or Corinthe 
violet, whose fruit is also seedless and larger than the white ; 
it is very subject to bleed, and the fruit rots so rapidly in the 
north-eastern departments of France, that they have given it 
the title of Passe, or Passeritte. There is also the Red 
corinth, which is much liked, and the Gros corinthe with seeds, 
besides which, there is a large seedless variety, said to bear 
more resemblance to the chasselas grape, and to be a sub- 
variety of it with smaller fruit, possessing less sweetness. 

I have not put down the Smyrna raisin as a synonyme, in 
accordance with some English authors, because the two grapes 
are perfectly distinct, and in truth, it would require a. grape of 
twice the size of this to make a Smyrna raisin ; the latter has 
also the semblance of seeds, whereas the white corinth has not 
in general a vestige of the kind. 

BLACK CORINTH. 

Currant grape. 

Zante. 

Black Ascalon. 

L am not aware that this differs from the Corinthe violet 
already referred to. It is described as having a small roundish 
berry, generally without a stone, of a deep black colour, and 
closely set on small short bunches. The juice is sugary, and 



.NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 9 

it ripens at the end of September, or beginning of October, 
but will not last long. 

WHITE CORNICHON. PR. CAT. No. 22. 

Cornichon blanc, Duh. 
Crochu of Provence. 
Pisutelli of Marseilles. 
Cucumber grape. 
Finger grape. 
White girkin. 

Vitis acino longissimo, cucumerformi^ albido. DUH. 
' . ' M 

The leaf of this is large, and so little serrated that it ap- 
pears almost entire, but it is bordered with large and pointed 
teeth ; the bunch does not contain a great many berries, and 
these are fourteen to nineteen lines in length, and but six lines 
in diameter in their largest part, which is rather nearer the 
summit than the base. These berries are of a very peculiar 
form ; they are curved like a cucumber, diminishing in size 
towards the peduncle and much more at the other extremity, 
without however terminating in an acute point. The skin is 
hard, covered with a bloom, and is of a clear green or whitish 
hue, which becomes a little yellow at perfect maturity. In 
each berry are one or two seeds terminated by a point. 

The singular form of this grape, and its pleasant taste 
would cause it to be much sought for if it ripened better in 
the colder latitudes ; but in that of Paris it only ripens occa- 
sionally when very hot seasons occur, and where the situation 
is very favourable. For the same reason it sometimes fails in 
this vicinity, and it is only further south that it can be culti- 
vated with full success. A red or violet variety is mentioned 
by Duhamel, but I presume he referred to the following, 
which until latterly was but little known. 






100 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

VIOLET CORNICHON. PR. CAT. No. 23. 
Cornichon violet. 

Vitis acino longissimo, cucumerformi, violaceo, fyc. 

The leaves are very large and but slightly lobed ; the ber- 
ries are long, largest at the base, and somewhat curved at the 
apex their length is in proportion to their average breadth, as 
two and a half or three and a half to one. When quite ripe 
they are in general entirely blue, but in climates where they 
cannot perfect their maturity, they often remain green at the 
base. The wine is harsh, and it needs a mixture wklff sweeter 
grapes to render it agreeable. It ripens later than the preced- 
ing ; the remarks, however, applied to that in respect to cli- 
mate will also apply to this. 

Forsyth speaks of a variety with black berries, but there is 
no such one in the French lists that have met my eye, or in 
those of this country, nor do other English standard works of 
late date enumerate it. 

It is said to be called in France Dedo-de-dame, and I notice 
a grape under this title in the catalogue of the London Hor- 
ticultural Society, but they omit the Cornishon violet may 
they not therefore be the same ? 

VERJUS. DUH. 

Bourdelas. 

Bordelais. 

Agyras. 

Grey. 

Gregoir. 

White verjus. 

Vitis acino mojor, ovato, e viridiflaveseentC) 4*c. DUH. 

The leaf of this grape is very large and slightly serrated. 
The bunch is also very large, formed of many wings or divi- 
sions ; the berries are oval, rather larger at the apex than at 
the base, pretty closely set ; the skin is thick and very firm., 



DiOMENCIATURE OF GRAPES lUl 

witli a slight bloom, and of a light green acquiring a tint of 
yellow when the fruit is very ripe ; the flesh is also firm, white 
approaching to green, with abundant juice. Each berry 
usually contains four seeds of moderate size. 

This grape is cultivated in some departments only for 
using in an immature state for different domestic purposes. 
Before it acquires full size, the verjuice is expressed from it of 
which such great use is made in the kitchen for various sauces 
and seasonings. Excellent preserves and marmalade, and a 
pleasant syrup are also made from it. When it has even attained 
perfect maturity, which seldom happens in the latitude of Paris 
or in that of New- York, it is not very pleasant for eating, 
because its taste is rather insipid and not high flavoured. The 
wood is the strongest and most vigorous of all grapes ; it 
grows with such force and rapidity, that in order to have a 
great deal of fruit the system of long pruning must be pur- 
sued. 

Besides the foregoing, there is a black variety much culti- 
vated in the south of France, (see catalogue No. 24,) and a 
red variety is also described, but this last is, however, not held 
in as much esteem as the others. In the vicinity of Bordeaux 
it comes to perfect maturity, and it is considered of value in 
the vineyards to mingle with other grapes. The verjus has 
matured its fruit with me the present season ripening the first 
of October. 

VERBAL VERDAOU Dun. PR. CAT. No. 54. 
Aspiran of Languedoc. 

Vitis pergulana, uva perampld, acino oblongo. 

This is one of the sweetest and finest grapes for the table. 
The bunches are beautiful, and formed of very large white 
berries, which have a thin skin, but are firm and contain but 
one or two small seeds. Being from Languedoc, it does not 
succeed in the latitude of Paris, and will not in this vicinity 
unless in a highly favourable situation, and a very hot season. 
It would, however, be suitable to localities south of the Poto- 



102 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 



mac. There are two varieties of grape known under thi& 
name. 

CLARETTE BLANCHE. PR. CAT. No. 284. 

Clairette, Dull. 
Clareto of Provence. 

Vitis fertillissima, uvd seroiina, ac'uusminutis, subflavis, fyc. 

This variety is very productive ; the clusters ripen late, and 
remain perfect a long time ; the berries are of medium size, a 
little pointed, of a whitish yellow, and are very sweet tasted. It 
is better to keep for eating than to use for making wine ; there 
is a red variety which does not appear to differ very materially 
except in the colour. 

OLIVETTE BLANCHE, Dun. PR. CAT. No. 295. 

Vitis acinis albis, acuminatis. 

This grape is cultivated in the vineyards of Provence, and 
as it keeps well, they collect them and hang them up, and 
they are preserved in that manner until the beginning of sum- 
mer. The fruit is white and of an oval form. 

OLIVETTE NOIRE, DUH. PR. CAT. No 259. 

Vitis uvd serotind, acinis nigris, ovatis, acuminatis, fyc. 

The clusters of this grape are very large and long, and 
composed of berries hanging rather loosely on long pedun- 
cles ; they are large, olive form, and very hard, although the 
skin is delicate ; the flavour is excellent, and it is equally good 
for the table and for making wine, but is not much used for the 
latter purpose. 

RAISIN DE POCHE, Dun. 
Tres dur, ou de Poclie. PR. CAT. No. 361. 

Vitis uvd ampld, acino ovato, violaceo, durissimo. DtfH. 

The leaves are not very deeply lobed, but are bordered with 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES! . 

large and irregular indentures. The bunch is eight to ten 
inches long, composed of oval berries of pretty large size, very 
firm, and of a clear violet colour, which are not easily mashed, 
whence they have derived the name they bear, which means in 
English, pocket-grape. 

RAISIN PERLE, DITH. 

Rognon de Coq. 
Barlantin. 

Pendoulaou. > ,. 
RindePansso,l ^ ^ovence. 

Vitis pergulana uvd perampld, fyc, 

The leaves are dentated and divided into three lobes, which 
are almost formed into five by the division of the two lateral 
lobes into smaller ones ; the berries are of quite unequal 
sizes, but mostly not large ; they are oval, 'of a pale pearly 
green, and full of sweet rich juice, and are borne on separate 
very long peduncles ; the bunches are long and loose, beiag 
formed of several shoulders and small divisions. This variety 
is cultivated to a great extent in many vineyards, the fruit when 
fully ripe has a slight musk flavour, and the wine made from it 
whether white, pale, or red, is generous and excellent. It also 
makes very rich and fragrant marmalade, 

It thrives best in a strong loam, calcareous or marly, and 
situated on a declivity. Humidity is very injurious to it at the 
period of flowering, and its effect is to cause blight. In cli- 
mates too far north for it, it is much injured by spring and fall 
frosts, and does not readily recover from their effects. Being a 
vigorous variety, it does not require frequent renewal by pro- 
vignage or layering, and it may be subjected to long pruning 
without fear of exhausting the plant. 

ROUDEILLAT. DUH. 

Vitis octno rotundo, albo,flavescenti, dulci et duro. 

This variety is very common in all the vineyards of Pro- 
vence, nevertheless it is seldom used for making wine, it being 



104 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

generally preferred for eating ; the skin is so delicate that it 
does not keep long. Garidel places it among the most delicate 
table grapes. 

PLANT DE LANGUEDOC, DUH. PR. CAT. No. 344. 

Yitis maxima ; uvd perampld acinis albido viridis, fyc, 

This vine produces large bunches, the fruit is of good size, 
of a round form, a greenish white colour, and agreeable flavour ; 
it requires to be gathered as soon as it is ripe, and if to be used 
for passerilles, it should not be collected until after the sun 
has caused the evaporation of the humidity, and it is well to 
twist the stem some days before the bunches are gathered. 

PLANT DE SALES. PR. CAT. No. 302. 
Le Salt, Duh. 

VitisfertUlissima, uvd perampld, acfilisfulvis, oblongis, fyc* 

This grape is cultivated less for the purpose of wine than for 
being preserved. The cluster presents an amber hue, the 
berries are small, oblong, and marked with small reddish spots. 
There is also a white variety ; both are cultivated at Mar- 
seilles, but the fruit which bears the same name at Aix, and 
which is spoken of by Garidel, is different from both I have 
here mentioned. 

LE PICOTE, DUH. 

Vitis uvd ampld, acinis albidis elfulvis, magnis, oblongis, fyc. 

The joints of the shoots of this variety are very near to each 
other. The bunches are formed of whitish berries, which are 
large and oblong, and have very sweet juice ; the skin is firm, 
and dotted over with reddish points. This fruit is. more 
esteemed for the table than for wine. 

LE POOUMESTRE. DUH. 

Vitis mutabilis, pergulana, fertillissima, fyc. 

The fruit produced by this vine does not ripen until towards 
the end of December. The berries change from white to red 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES*. 105 

and to black, when they have attained to their maturity. This 
variety often blossoms, and produces fruit twice the same year. 
It is not unfrequent in southern climates, to gather and eat the 
fruit from it in May, when the second crop is not fit to gather 
until December. 

BARLANTIN, DUH. 
Danugo of Provence. 

Vitis pergulana, uvd maxima, perampla et serotina, fyc. 

The fruit of this variety keeps a long time and very seldom 
rots ; the berries are as large as the damask plum. It ripens 
about the end of September ; is round, and of a dark violet 
colour, has a thick skin and pleasant flavour. 

ESPACNIN, DUH. 

Marroquin, or Espagnin. PR. CAT. No. 206. 

Vitis duracina, acino magno, nigro, rotunda, fyc. 

This variety is cultivated in Provence, its shoots grow to a 
less height than most other kinds, and its fruit, which is large, 
round, and black, ripens about the end of September, and is 
deemed very suitable for wine. It is confused by some authors 
with the black morocco. 

PASCAOU BLANC, Dun. 

Vitis fertttlissima, uvd perampla etprecia, acinis rotundis, fyc. 

This variety is pretty common in the vineyards of Provence, 
the joints of the shoots are very near to each other ; the berries 
are greenish white, and of a round form ; the fruit most ex- 
posed to the sun takes a ruddy tint, and ripens the end of 
August, or beginning of September. They are excellent for 
making white wine, which it is necessary should be made 
speedily, as the grapes being very early, are readily attacked 
by bees and other insects, which detract from their quality, 
and accelerate their decay. In Provence they also cultivate 
another variety, which differs only in being of a black colour, 
;ind is known by the name of Pascaou 

14 



106 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



COLUMBAU. PR. CAT. No. 285. 

Le Coluiribal, \ ^ , 
Le Coloumbau, \ D 

Vitis uberrima, racemis mediocribus, aciniS nigris et albis. 

This grape is cultivated in all the vineyards of Provence, 
where it is known by the title here adopted ; the wood is of a 
blackish red colour, and the joints are near to one another. 
The fruit ripens about the end of August, at the same period 
as the pascaou, to which it has some resemblance, both in form 
and taste. Its produce is very abundant, and if not gathered 
as soon as mature, it speedily rots. It does not require particular 
care in regard to pruning, which circumstance is confirmed by 
a provenc.al proverb, which says, "prune me well, 'prune me ill., 
plant me always." This grape is also considered a table 
fruit, having a sweet and agreeable flavour : there are two 
varieties, the white and the black. 

ANGULEUX, Dun. 

Vitis adno oblongo, duro, angulari et rufescenti, 4*c. 

Garidel designates this variety as very singular, on account 
of the particular form of its berry, which is oblong or angular, 
of a reddish cast, and of sweet and exquisite taste ; and he states 
at the same time, that it is very scarce, 

RAISIN DE LA PALESTINE. 

Under this title, Mr. Pirolle states there is a variety of grape 
cultivated by Mr. Boursault, of Paris. The vine is very vigor- 
ous ; the clusters eighteen inches to two feet long ; berries large, 
and oval, of a golden yellow at maturity, and sufficiently 
spaced on the bunch, to allow of their ripening at the end of 
September or commencement of October ; the pulp is of very 
pleasant taste. The plant appears to be productive, but it is 
recommended in that latitude to train it against a wall, and to 
leave but a moderate number of clusters, in order that it may 
attain to maturity in that climate. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES 107 

UGNE DE MARSEILLE. PR. CAT. No. 371. 

* 

This vine, which is one of those whose fruit is most esteemed 
for the table, is from the. south of France, and matured its fruit 
with me the present year on the twenty-fifth of September ', 
the berries are round, whitish, with some gray tints where fully 
exposed to the sun. The Ugne-lombarde also ripens in Sep- 
tember in my vineyard ; the fruit is white and a little oval. 

CASCARALO BLANC. PR. CAT. No. 317. 

This has fruit of a musky flavour, the berries are of oval 
form, and have often a tinge of red on them ; it is a pleasant 
table fruit, and ripens well in this latitude. In France it is 
cultivated more particularly for wine. 

ST. VALENTINE. PR. CAT. No. 167. . ^ 
Saint Valentin. 

This vine produces berries which are of rather oval form and 
very sweet ; their colour is white or a little tinged, and they 
ripen well in this latitude, being mature on the 1 5th or 20th of 
September. 

PIQUE POULE BLANC. LANDES. 

The fruit of this kind is round, white, and of pleasant 
flavour for the table, and ripens about 20th September. It 
was by mistake omitted in my catalogue of vines : there are 
several other varieties, some differing in quality and others in 
colour : this is from the department of Landes, in France. 

DE CANDOLLE. PR. CAT. No. 157. 
Riesentraube. 

This vine has round fruit of purple colour and of large 
size, which comes to maturity about the 30th September. It 
is valued in France as a table fruit. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

* 'afcr * ' 

LARGE DAMASK. PR. CAT. No. 160, 

Gros Damas. 
Damas le gros. 

This is also cultivated in France as a table variety. The 
berries are very large, very oval, and of a purple colour, and! 
ripen about the 10th to 15th September. 

GRINIOLO. 

The berries of this are round, white, and of fine flavour, 
which circumstance renders it suitable for the table. It ripens 
in my vineyard the 15th of September. There is a grape cul- 
tivated in the south of France, called the Grinoli, which has 
black fruit. 

TERRE PROMISE. 

Terra promessa. 

This vine is stated by authority on which I can rely, to pro- 
duce fruit of extraordinary size ; it being only recently ob- 
tained, I am not enabled to give further details. 

MONTPELLIER. PR. CAT. No. 162. 
Raisin de Montpellier a grandes grappes. 

This vine is of vigorous growth and bears well ; the bunches 
are very large, and the fruit of good flavour. It is considered 
in France a valuable table variety. 

ASPIRANT BLANC, SEEDLESS. PR. CAT. No. 153. 

Aspirant blancsans pepins. 
White seedless aspirant. 

This variety has produced fruit with me ; it is white and of 
very pleasant flavour, with the advantage of containing no 



NOMENCLATURE OP GlIAPES. K&9 

seeds. I take this to be the kind mentioned by some authors 
as a seedless variety of the chasselas. 

I 

BLACK MUSCADINE. PR. CAT. No. 8. 

This has berries of medium size, which are round, of a 
black colour and beautifully powdered with a purplish bloom; 
it bears well, ripens in September, and makes a fine appear- 
ance ; the flesh is not as delicate and juicy as the white mus^ 
cadine. 

BLACK DAMASCUS. PR. CAT. No. 21. 

Worksop Manor grape. 

This grape, although late at maturity, is deemed an excel- 
lent and valuable variety ; the berries are round, large and 
black ; the skin thin and the flesh delicate, rich, juicy, and of 
very fine flavour. On the same cluster are contained berries 
of different sizes, the large ones containing but one seed, and 
the small ones generally none. 

PITMASTON WHITE CLUSTER. PR. CAT. No. 33. 

This is a fine table variety recently brought into notice in 
the English collections. It originated from seed at Pitmaston. 
near London, and is there held in much esteem. 

BLACK LISBON. 

Black Portugal. 

This I consider synonymous with the black hamburgh, to 
which the English authors state it bears a great resemblance. 
The fruit is stated by them to be large, of globular form, 
with a thin skin, black and juicy, and the bunches shouldered. 
I presume the black Portugal of some authors refers to the 
same grape. As I have vines growing, I shall be able to test 
all these points. 



1 10 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

GREEK GRAPE. 

Speechly mentions this in his list of grapes, and states that 
the berries are of moderate size, of rather an oval form, and of a 
blueish white colour, growing close on the clusters, which are 
of handsome shape and moderate size ; the fruit is of delicate- 
taste and much esteemed, and the leaves grow on very short 
foot -stalks, and resemble those of the sweetwater. 

I have some vines which I received from Europe as a variety 
of the Tokay, that produce an early pleasant table grape, of 
the same taste as the white muscadine, but with little flavour, 
and which have been considered by some connoisseurs to be 
the same as this variety. 

RAISIN DE CARMES, HOOKER POM. LOND. 
Raisin de Cabo. 

This vine has very large berries, of an irregular oval form, 
and of a dusky reddish purple colour, covered with bloom; 
the skin is thick ; the pulp firm, juicy and rich, with some 
acidity ; the bunches are long and the berries loosely set. 
The vine grows freely and is productive. 

EARLY WHITE GRAPE OF TENERIFFE. 

The berries of this variety are of medium size and of round 
form, the skin thin, and the pulp very juicy and sweet. It 
has been for a long period cultivated in English collections, 
and its berries and branches have a great resemblance and 
affinity to the white muscadine. 

RED GRAPE OF SYRACUSE. 

This is one of the old varieties long since introduced to 
the London collections ; the berries are very large and fine, 
of an irregular oval form and of a red colour. 






NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. Ill 



GOLDEN GALICIAN. 

A Spanish grape of a yellow colour, and passable in point 
of flavour; the berries are of good size, of an oval form, and 
the flesh firm ; the foot-stalks are of a pale yellow colour. 

BRICK GRAPE. LANCIEY POM. 

This is described by Forsyth as having small berries, nearly 
oval, and of a deep red colour, with a thin skin and very 
sweet juice ; its title is derived frgm its colour. I have no 
doubt it is synonymous with some other described variety, and 
is said to be with the flame tokay. 

BLACK GRAPE OF TRIPOLI. 

This is a well known grape of the English collections ; the 
berries are large, round and black, and have each but one 
seed ; the pulp is rich and juicy ; the foliage is vigorous, and 
puts on a beautiful appearance in autumn. 

WHITE GRAPE OF ALCOBACA. 

This grape, carried from Portugal to England a long time 
since, where it has been cultivated in their collections, has 
white berries, which are large and oval, with a thin skin and 
juicy flesh ; the clusters are large and long, and without 
shoulders. 

DAMSON GRAPE. 

. ' - / ' " '&'*!* 

Under this name Speedily describes a vine, the berries of 
which are very large, oval, and of a beautiful purple colour, 
growing loosely on the bunch, which is of large size ; the 
leaves also large, and more thick and succulent than those of 
any other sort. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

. 

<-v;' 5 - ' ;*- 

BLACK CAPE. PR. CAT. No. 42. 

I saw this grape in great perfection in 1828, in the garden ot" 
Samuel G. Perkins, Esq. near Boston. It was on the 9th of 
October, and the fruit was then not quite ripe, the vine being in 
open culture ; the bunches were very large and shouldered, 
some of the largest which the vine had produced, weighed 
two pounds. A shoot which one of the vines had made in 
1827, produced about fifty bunches in 1828. The berries 
varied a great deal in size part of them were the largest I 
had ever seen, and resembled good sized plums, others were 
not above two-thirds, and some but half the size of the largest ; 
the taste and flavour of the fruit were very pleasant. The 
vines, though large, were regularly covered during the winter 
months, as is in fact the course pursued at Boston in regard 
to nearly all foreign kinds. 

This vine was originally brought in a tub from the Cape of 
Good Hope without any name, but from the circumstance of 
its origin, received the above title. It bears an affinity in 
several respects to the black Damascus and Morocco, and may 
possibly prove a synonyme of one or the other. It may justly 
be deemed a most valuable acquisition to our stock of vines. 

NORTON'S LARGE OVAL PURPLE. PR. CAT. No. 48. 

I received this valuable grape from Dr. Norton, of Rich- 
mond, a gentleman distinguished for his general knowledge 
in horticultural pursuits, and particularly so in regard to the 
vine. He remarks that its fruit is decidedly the finest he had 
ever seen, and that his French friends say that they have never 
seen better in any part of Europe. He also states that the 
vine resists more than is usual, the influence of frost and the 
variation of the weather during the winter season. 

This vine was received by Mr. Wickham, from London, 
and is therefore, without doubt, known there under another 
name". 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPl^. 113 



EARLY OVAL. 

By this title a grape is known and cultivated around Bos- 
ton which is much valued ; the fruit ripens very early, the 
skin is thin, and the flavour delicious ; the berries grow close, 
and are generally thinned out by cultivators. 

I noticed a large number of very thrifty vines in the nurse- 
ries of the Messrs. Winships at Brighton, in whose collection 
are also concentrated a great variety of the choicest kinds of 
vines to be found in the grape houses and gardens around 
Boston ; in addition to which, they have a large assortment of 
fruit and ornamental trees, plants, &c. which they show great 
enterprise in extending. 

JULY GRAPE. PR. CAT. No. 1. 

Maurillon hatif, Duh. 

Madeleine. 

Morillon Jtatif. 

MorilJon noir hatif. 

Petit morillon hatif. 

Raisin precoce. 

Raisin de la madeleine. 

Early black cluster. 

Magdalen. 

Vitis pr&cox of Columella. 

Vitis acinoparvo, subrotundo, nigricante, pracoci. DUH, 

The leaves of this vine are small, of a light green hue above 
and beneath, and the borders indented with large teeth some- 
what pointed ; the bunches are small and very compact $ the 
berries which compose them are also small, round, and of a 
blackish violet colour, covered with bloom they are sweet 
but not high flavoured, the principal merit consisting in their 
early maturity, it being the earliest of all foreign grapes ex- 
cept the one next described, and in this vicinity ripening its, 
fruit early in August. It serves as an appendage to the des- 
sert where persons pride themselves on the earliest fruit. The 

15 



114 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

soils most congenial are such as are light and loose, and it 
southern exposure is also deemed preferable in order to ad- 
vance the maturity, but I have found it do well and ripen early 
in very indifferent soils and unfavorable exposures, and I con- 
sider it by no means difficult in regard to these points. 

1SCHIA. 

Thrice bearing vine. 
Raisin des trois rtcoltes. 
Pr^coce noir, ou des trois rtcoltes. 



insana, 

This peculiar variety of the vine, which is alluded to by 
Virgil (Geor. II.) and also by Pliny (Hist. Nat.) appears to be 
a native of the island of Chios, from which it was carried to 
Calabria, and the island of Ischia, where it is known by the 
title of "Uva di tre volte 1'anno," or, " Vine of three crops 
a year." 

The fruit possesses a most agreeable flavour and much 
sweetness, and has the different qualities deemed necessary for 
making good wine. The vine is of very vigorous growth, so 
much so, that long pruning is deemed preferable to cutting 
close. When the vine is at the age for bearing, the first and 
largest crop ripens in latitudes corresponding with New-York, 
and where the vines have a southern exposure, from the 10th 
to the 15th of August; the second crop from the 25th of Sep- 
tember to the 5th October, and the third, which is a mere de- 
monstration, from the 25th October to the 10th November, un- 
less the growth of the vine should be stopped by frosts. 

Th'e two last crops are produced by an appropriate system of 
pruning. About the 10th or 15th of June, just as the blos- 
som has past and the fruit becomes formed, the ends of the 
strongest shoots must be cut off two to three joints beyond the 
last bunches this will cause new shoots immediately to spring 
from the joints of the new wood that are left, which will un- 
fold in due course a second crop, and as soon as the blossoms of 
fhese secondary clusters have fallen, the operation of pruning off 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 115 

< 

the shoots must be renewed with these as in the first instance, 
which will cause the formation, but with less rapidity than be- 
fore, of a third set of shoots, from which will be developed a 
third crop of clusters. These last it is better never to prune ; 
and the fruit on them, which is but scanty, seldom attains to 
maturity in high latitudes. 

A light and rich soil is preferable for this vine, and in 
droug hts it would be better to irrigate it. To obtain the three 
crops in this latitude, espalier or lattice trailing is indispensa- 
bly necessary, accompanied by a southern exposure. 

In open field culture two crops only, and the second rather 
indifferent in point of size, have been obtained from it, but 
in the vicinity of Paris in the year 1825 this grape exceeded 
all that had been anticipated from it ; vines trained in the es- 
palier form gave an abundant crop fully ripe the 18th of 
August ; a profuse second crop was at perfect maturity on the 
20th of September, the fruit of which was larger and in 
greater quantity than the first ; and at the same period the 
berries of the third crop had formed, and the vines presented 
a fourth crop of blossoms. The season being particularly 
favourable, the latter ripened on the 30th of October ; they 
were abundant, about the size of common peas, of good ap- 
pearance, but slightly acid. Some writers have confounded 
this with the Madeleine or Morillon hatif, but their only re- 
semblance is in colour and early maturity. 

BLACK TOKAY. 

* 
New black cluster. PR. CAT. No. 2. 

This grape I received from my esteemed friend the Hoii* 
Jonathan Hunewell, of Boston, whose liberality and general 
attainments in horticultural pursuits are so generally known 
and appreciated. 

It is an exceedingly vigorous and productive variety, and 
supports the cold better than most of the foreign kinds usually 
cultivated, and cuttings planted in my nursery have formed in 
a single season vines nearly or quite as large as those of ouv 



f * 



116 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

native varieties of the same age. The fruit is of medium size, 
black and of pleasant flavour, is suitable for the table, and 
has also the qualities requisite for making good wine. It has 
been called by some persons Black cluster, and being re- 
ceived by me under that title, and finding it different from the 
kind usually so called, I enumerated it in my last catalogue as 
the " New black cluster." It is possible it may prove syno- 
nymous with one of the dark varieties of Tokay, which will 
be found under the head of wine grapes. 

PROBYN'S LARGE WHITE. PR. CAT. No. 11. 

Under this title I have in cultivation a variety which I re- 
ceived from Edward Probyn, Esq. of New-York, in whose 
garden is now growing a very large, flourishing, and produc- 
tive vine, which affords annually numerous shouldered clusters 
of excellent white fruit ; the berry is round and of large size ; 
the skin firm, and the juice very sweet and delicate. Some 
bunches have been exhibited by that gentleman, weighing 
about 1 1 pounds. I do not mention it here from a considera- 
tion that it is distinct from all others, but to show that it is not 
the kind wbich it has been considered by several intelligent 
horticulturists. By such it has been pronounced to be the 
royal muscadine, from which I find it to differ in several 
respects ; particularly in this, that it is one of those kinds most 
sensible to early frosts, and to the severity of the winter in our 
country exposures ; where, if unprotected at that season, the 
young vines are killed to the ground, and older ones often much 
injured ; whereas the royal muscadine is well known to be one 
of those which best support the cold. It is doubtless a variety 
introduced from the south of France, or some other southern 
climate, or perhaps a seedling from some grape from that 
quarter. Mr. Probyn states, that his vines support the severest 
winters entirely uninjured, although he affords them no pro- 
tection. But this is to be attributed to their being in a city 
garden, where the great shelter and ameliorated atmosphere 
consequent on such a congregated mass of dwellings, generally 
cause the most tender southern varieties to succeed. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



WALKER'S LARGE WHITE. PR. CAT. No. 10. 

This is a very large and fine grape ; the colour, as the title 
indicates, is white, the form oval, and the taste and flavour very 
agreeable ; the bunches are shouldered and very large, and 
have received the encomiums of several members of our Hor- 
ticultural Society. It is very distinct from the preceding, and 
the fruit of larger size. The vine, which is the parent of 
those found in our collections, is growing in the garden of 
the late Dr. Walker of New-York, to whose politeness, 
and that of his son, I am indebted for the vines in my posses- 
sion. 

ROUGH BLACK, GIBBS. PR. CAT. No. 142. 

This variety was received from the imperial garden at 
Schoenbrun, near Vienna, by Col. Gibbs, of this island, to 
whose -politeness and liberality I am indebted for it, as well as 
for many other varieties received by him from the same source, 
to which I have added his cognomen. 

This vine is prolific in its crops, and the grapes are consi- 
dered very good. 

AUSTRIAN MUSCADEL, GIBBS. 

This is from the same collection as the preceding, and ought 
probably to have been placed with the Muscat class. The 
vine is hardy and exceedingly prolific, but the grapes ripen 
late ; the bunches are large and the fruit white, but it has not 
yet sufficiently matured here to pronounce upon its quality. 
It needs short pruning, and would also succeed better further 
south. 

The following additional varieties now in my vineyard ^ 
received from the same source Queen, Blue Sylvan, Rough 
white, Red cruger, Little silver white, Early Leipsic, Red 
Sheerkat, Tckete-tara-gomer, and some others, including the 
Blue cartager, which will be found under the head of wine 



118 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

grapes. The Austrian varieties, which are principally derived 
from the Hungarian collections, it is expected will become in 
most cases acclimated to our country. In regard to the suc- 
cess of those in Mr. Gibbs' collection, that gentleman has given 
some details on the subject at different periods in the Ame- 
rican Farmer. 

BLACK PARSLEY LEAVED. 

Lombardy of some American collections. 

I have in my vineyard a variety of the parsley-leaved grape 
which produces black fruit, and which I do not see mentioned 
in the European authors, unless it be synonymous with the 
red parsley-leaved already described. I find this has been 
sometimes called the Lombardy, meaning doubtless the Flame 
tokay, the two latter names being used by some authors sy- 
nonymously ; but it can scarcely be that, as the colour of the 
grape of the one I am now describing is stated to be of much 
darker colour than the fruit of the Flame tokay attains. The 
foliage is very lasciniated, and resembles the others of the same 
class. 

QUEEN, GIBBS. PR. CAT. No. 131. 

, 

This has round berries of good size, which are white with 
a bloom, and a little coloured on the sun side ; they are sweet, 
and of very pleasant flavour, and the bunches are also of good 
size. 

FENDANT VERT. PR. CAT. No. 121. 

This grape, which I received from Lausanne, (Switzerland) 
is a native of the canton of Vaud. It is a table fruit re* 
sembling the White chasselas, and delicious to eat. It also 
yields a wine like the Rhenish, is one of the kinds least sen- 
sible to the cold, and, what is deemed of great importance 
there, the produce Js not injured by manuring. Its title is 
derived from the circumstance of the berries being crisp, and 
crackling in the teeth when eaten- 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 119 

Having made the request of my Lausanne correspondent, 
who owns a vineyard and is extremely intelligent on the sub- 
ject, to send me such vines only as are there cultivated with 
most success, he transmitted to me eighteen varieties, which 
will be referred to and enumerated in the course of the 
work. 



In addition to the table varieties of the grape which I have 
already described, there are a number not so generally known, 
but which are most highly valued for the same purpose, in the 
southern and middle parts of France, of which I will here give 
a list ; the numbers which precede them refer to their enume- 
ration in the author's catalogue. 

Black round grapes. 

218 Peyran noir, 238 Terre moureau noir, 

230 Raisin piune, 239 Terre de barri noir, 

245 Ugne noir. 

Black oval grapes. 

247 Aspirant, 267 Raisin noir de pagez, 

Ouliven, 273 Ulliade, Baches du Rhone. 

274 Ulliade rouge. 

White, or yellow oval grapes. 

280 Calitor blanc, 296 Panse commune, 

286 Dure peau, 88 musquee, 

288 Galet blanc, 299 Picardan, 

293 Joannen blanc, 304 Raisin blanc de pages. 

305 Raisin des dames. 

'.,*# 'v'.i^ 

White, or yellow round grapes. 

314 Augibert blanc, Raisin de Notre Dame, 

319 Clarette ronde, 355 Ugne blanche, 

323 Doucinelle, 356 de Malade, 

357 Ugne Lombarde. 



120 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 



Gray, or violet oval grapes. 

359 Clarette rose, 360 Damas violet, 

362 Martinen. 

Gray, or violet round grapes. 

364 Grec rose, 369 Plant de la barre rouge, 

371 Ugne de Marseille. 

The following are also mentioned in French lists, as valu- 
able table grapes. 

154 Blussard blanc, Pernan, 

155 Blussard noir, or Be- 261 Perlossette, 
losar a gros grains. 57 Precoce blanc, 
Perle rose, 370 Raisin de Genes, 

166 St. Antoine, 

With the fund of information furnished by the various 
authors that have been enumerated as the basis, great advan- 
tages are afforded to future experimentalists, to extricate the 
history of the vine from a labyrinth of confused names, and 
perhaps no means would be as effectual in attaining this end, 
as critical examinations made by the members of the various 
agricultural and horticultural societies which now every where 
exist, of the kinds cultivated in their respective vicinities ; the 
result would no doubt terminate in the formation of a correct 
nomenclature, more particularly with regard to the most esti- 
mable varieties. 

At present, we are very deficient in information, even in 
regard to the native varieties of our own country, and the 
number of valuable vines that have been brought to notice, 
within the few years that attention has been paid to the subject, 
as will be particularly detailed under the head of " American 
Vineyards," prove that no historian bears witness of any clime 
which was originally so rich in indigenous varieties, the result 
of the spontaneous efforts of nature, unaided by the arts or 
culture of man. 



NOMENCLATURE OF RAPES. 



WINE GRAPES. 

1 will now proceed to describe the varieties which are most 
generally used for making wine, and which form the major 
part in the finest known vineyards. Under this head are neces- 
sarily included many varieties that are very estimable as table 
grapes, but whose most important use in foreign countries be- 
ing for wine, they are consequently placed under this head. 

BLACK CLUSTER. PR. CAT. No. 94. 

Maurillon, Duh. Manosquen. 

Maurillon noir. Merille. 

Morillon noir. Noirien, or Noirier. 

Pineau noir, of Burgundy. Massoutel. 

Pineau de Bourgogne, Chaptal. Gribalet noir. 

Auvernat, or Auvernas. Farinau. 

Auvernat noir. True Burgundy. 

Pimbart. Small black cluster. 
Black Orleans. 

Vitis uva mediocri, sublaxd, acinis didcibus, nigricantibiis, 

This variety has leaves slightly five lobed and very regularly 
indented ; the bunch is of moderate size and shouldered ; the 
berries are rather oblong and hang loosely, and are about the 
size of the white muscadine ; the taste is pleasant, with a pecu- 
liar flavour. It is not considered a table fruit, but is highly 
prized for wine, and ripens its crops unifoimly, and at the 
same time as the white chasselas. It stands the frost 
well, being one of the most hardy kinds. The crops are 
not great, but the wine is rich, keeps well, and has an agree- 
able bouquet. The Maurillon class, of which the finest vine- 
yards of Burgundy are composed, and the different varieties 
of which are deemed the staple of the vineyards of France, 
owes its name, which is derived from the word maure, to the 
black colour of this the original variety, and many other 
black grapes which are not of the family of the Morillon of 

i6 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

Pineau, are called in other French vineyards by the names ot 
Maurillon noir, &c. and this is known under all the appella- 
tions given as synonymes. It ripens here the beginning of 
September. The class of maurillons originally came from 
Italy ; but this is the only one which has retained its primitive 
name, and is described by Baccius, whose treatise on the vine 
was written in 1566. It constitutes rather a bad comment on 
the theory of " exhausted varieties," that this very aged vine 
should have the preference in France at this day over all others. 
Under the title of Pineau or Pinot a great number of red 
and black varieties of grapes are found in various French 
vineyards, which are in fact totally different in character, and 
serve only to make inferior wine ; great care and circumspec- 
tion are therefore necessary to obtain the genuine kinds. The 
title Pineau was originally applied to such varieties only as 
produced berries shaped like the pine cone, but some kinds 
having round berries are now justly included in the same class, 
being varieties of the same family, similar in quality but vary- 
ing in form. 



WHITE MORILLON. PR. CAT. No. 95. 

Maurillon blame. Duh. Weiss -kloefner* 

Morillon blanc. Moruain. 

Auvernat blanc. Daune. 

Mdier, or Mdier blanc. Daunerie. 

Weiss-klefeln blanc. Beaunier. 

Burot. Wliite auvernat. 

Vitis priecox ; uva elongatd, acino rotunda, dbojlavescenti, et dulci. 

The clusters of this variety are longer than those of the 
preceding, and the berries are nearly round, of .moderate size, 
not very thick set, of a greenish white, which becomes blended 
with pale yellow at full maturity ; they are rather more sweet 
and agreeable than the black variety. 

The leaves are slightly lobed, and are bordered with large 
indentures ; they are of considerable size, green on the upper 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES.. 

* 

side, whitish and downy beneath, and supported on large long 
petioles. 

This grape ripens here at the end of August or beginning 
of September, is a pleasant early table fruit and makes good 
wine, which keeps well ; the grapes may also be kept fresh 
through the season. It is said to thrive best on sloping ground 
inclining to the west or south, but I consider it by no means 
difficult in this respect as I have haa some vines for several 
years in a most unfavourable locality where they have never 
failed to do well. It has the same hardihood in supporting 
frost that is common to the class generally. 

PINEAU-FRANC. PR. CAT. No. 102. 

Franc-pineau, Duh. Pinet. 

Bon plant. Pignolet. 

Raisin de Bourgogne, ^ Pinsale. 

Maurillon noir, > Erroneously. Pincaou. 

Morillon noir, y 

Vitis acinis minoribus, oblongis, dulcissimus, GARID. 

The bunch of this grape is small, of rather a conical form, 
supported by a very short peduncle, and formed of oblong 
berries closely set, of a flesh coloured red. The leaves are 
dark green, lightest beneath, and covered on both sides when 
they first expand with down, which is not the case with the 
Morillon noir ; they are supported on long petioles, and are di- 
vided into three principal lobes, which are slightly indented on 
their edges. 

This vine is not very productive, but its fruit has an excel- 
lent taste and produces the most delicate wines of Burgundy. 
The wood is red and the joints near to each other. It will be 
perceived that this grape is known by various names in the 
different French vineyards, and it is often confused with the 
other varieties of the Pineau or Morillon. 



124 



.NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



GRAY BURGUNDY. PB. CAT. No. 100. 



Pineau gris. Le Soli. 

Griset blancj Duh. Le Grennetin. 

Petit muscadet.] Fromenteau. 

Auvernat gris. Gentil gris. 

Ringris. Weiss Tdcfeln griss 

Malvoisic. Grau kloefner. 

Pouitti. Bureau. 
Gray Auvernat. 

Vitis minis, minonbus, duldbus et griseis, GARIU. 

This has leaves of a lively green hue and slightly lobed ; 
the clusters are short, moderately large, composed of round 
berries which are pretty close, of a grayish colour, and of a 
sweet and perfumed flavour. There were vineyards formerly 
in France composed entirely of this grape, and the fine vine- 
yard of Pouilli is still so in a great measure. It is also found 
in the vineyards of Provence, and is known in the different 
districts by a great variety of names, and often confused with 
other varieties as the synonymes evince. The white wine made 
from it is in high esteem, and deemed the third best in France. 
It abounds in alcohol and has much body, is clear and mellow 
with a fine bouquet. The vine is said to succeed best in a 
sandy or gravelly soil, and on inclined and warm exposi- 
tions ; but a celebrated vigneron has informed me that it will 
succeed in almost any situation that is open and airy, It is 
very hardy and one of the least difficult in point of culture, 
and in addition to its wine properties, is esteemed as a table 
fruit. 

BOURGUIGNON NOIR, DUH. PR. CAT. No. 104. 

Trousseau du Jura. Damas. 

Tresseau. Grosse-serine. 

Plant d y Aries. Pied-rouge. 

Plant de Roi. Cdte rouge. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 125 

Boucares. Gourdoux. 

Etrange. Rouge de Bourgogne. 

Red Burgundy. 

Vitis acino oblongo, minus acuto, w'gro et duld, GARID. 

This grape has in its berry a great resemblance to the 
Pineau-franc, but it is less elongated in proportion to its size, 
and the bunches are not so compactly formed. Its leaves are 
rather obtuse at the apex, divided into five distinct lobes, regu- 
larly indented and supported upon a short very red petiole. 
This variety is also known under a great many common names, 
as is designated by the synonymes. It yields good crops, and 
succeeds well on strong soils, and is, in common with its con- 
geners of the pineau family, deemed among the most valu- 
able that are cultivated for wine. 

BOURGUIGNON BLANC, DUH. PR. CAT. No. 105. 

White Burgundy. Mele. 

Pineau blanc. Gueuche blanc. 

Feuille ronde. Menu. 

Picarneau. Gouche. 

Vitis uvd conferta, acino ovato, viridi lutescenie. 

The leaf is large, slightly covered with down, and of a 
much paler green beneath than above, indented on its edge, 
but not distinctly lobed. The clusters are composed of ber- 
ries somewhat oblong and very closely set, which become of a 
fine yellow colour at the period of maturity. 

AUVERNAT ROUGE CLAIR. PR. CAT. No. 98. 

Rose Burgundy. Fromenteau, Sprenger. 

Gris rouge. Gentil rose ? 

Rothliehtner. 

This grape is much cultivated in .the vineyards of Cham- 
pagne, in connexion with the Auvernat blanc and Auvernat 



126 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

*> 

gris, to form the far famed wine of that name. It resemble? 
in its general qualities the other varieties of the same family, 
its principal variation being in its colour. It ripens also at 
the same time, maturing its fruit here early in September ; the 
vine is hardy and of easy culture. In the vineyards of that 
part of France situated on the Rhine, it is extensively culti- 
vated, and succeeds well, yielding abundant crops and afford- 
ing excellent wine, which has much body and an aromatic 
flavour. 

In addition to those described there are other varieties of 
the Pineau or Morillon family, such as the Morillon gros vio- 
let, Pineau de coulange, Pineau fleuri, and various others. 
The Morillon panache will be found under the head of striped 
Aleppo among the table grapes. 

The appellations Pineau, Auvernat, and Morillon are often 
indiscriminately applied to different varieties of this family. 
The varieties are also known by a greater number of names 
as synonymes than any other class, which arises from their 
being far more extensively cultivated, and from their having 
received new titles in the different localities to which they have- 
been from time to time transplanted. 

MEUNIER, DUH. PR. CAT. No. 93. 

Maurillon-Taconn. Meunier a saint noir. 

Fromentt. Farineux noir. 

Hesseau. Noirin. 
Savagnien noir. 

mUer grape, * O f the English. 

Miller s Burgundy, ) 

Yitis subhirsuta ; uvd brevi, crassa ; acino nigro rotundo. 

This variety has considerable affinity to the -Catalan. Its 
leaves are trilobate, the two lateral ones being crenate ; when 
young they are covered with white down, which easily dis- 
tinguishes them, from which circumstance this vine has acquired 
the title here adopted. The cluster is short and thick, com- 
posed of round black berries, which are of good size and set 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 



127 



rather close ; the juice is pleasant, sparkling, and vinous. It 
is pretty common in French vineyards, and is cultivated on 
account of yielding good crops, and enduring for a long 
period. It succeeds best in sandy and light soils, but will 
flourish in almost any open and dry location. It is very hardy, 
of easy culture, ripens here early in September, and answers 
very well as an early table grape. Some English authors 
state that it takes its name from Millet who raised it from seed, 
but the French give a better reason for its title as mentioned 
above, and they are no doubt correct. 

SAVAGNIEN BLANC, DUH. 
Meunier blanc. Matinie. 

Meunier a saint blanc. Uni-blanc. 

White Miller grape. 

Vitis subhirsuta, uvd crassd, acino albo, subovato. 

This variety differs from the preceding by the minor lobes 
of the leaves being more distinct, and its berries being white, 
rather larger, and a little oval. It must not be confused with 
the sauvignon, which is a very distinct fruit. This vine must 
be the variety of the Meunier described and figured by some 
authors with white berries, and also called by others White 
Miller grape. The fruit is sweet and agreeable in flavour, 
and makes passable wine. The vine will thrive in a meagre 
soil and is not readily injured by frost, but when the blossoms 
are destroyed by it they are not renewed that season. It is 
generally cultivated in French vineyards, and is not subject to 
a blight of its blossoms. 

WHITE SAUVIGNON. PR. CAT. No. 106. 
Suavignon, Duh. Servignen. 

Sauvignon blanc. Sucrin. 

Saumgnen. Fie. 

Maurillon blanc, erroneously. 
Vitis serofina, aeinis minor ibus, acutis^Jlavo-albidis, dulcissimia. 

'> "*j|i v.' 1 . .' . . f . 

The leaves of this vine are scarcely lobed at all, but the in- 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

dentures are pretty deep and very regular. The bunch is 
short, formed of rather small berries, which are white approach- 
ing to a yellow hue, more particularly on the sunny side, where 
at the period of maturity they are covered with small brick 
coloured points of remarkable appearance. This vine was 
formerly far more common in the French vineyards than it is 
at the present day. As the fruit possesses much perfume, it 
imparts to the wine a peculiar character ; and not being 
greatly sought after, the culture of this vine has been conse- 
quently neglected. It ripens here early in September. I 
have a variety received from an American collection under 
the name of Red Sauvignon ; but as I do not perceive such an 
one named in the French catalogues, I presume there must be 
some error in regard to it, and that it is synonymous with some 
variety known under a different title. 

LE MOURVEGUE, Dun. 
Mourvedt. Mourvebrt. 

Vitis serotina; adnis nigris, mediocribus, rotundis, duldbus. 

This variety is very common in the north-west part of 
France, where it is known by different titles. It is not pre- 
ferred by those who are particularly tenacious of the quality of 
the wine, and are regardless of the quantity of the produce ; 
the berries are black, round, of pleasant taste and medium size. 

MOURVEDE FARINOUS, DUH. 

Vitis serotina adnis s^ibamplis, nigris, rotundis, tyc. GOUPFE. 

This variety only differs from the preceding in its berries, 
which are larger, and have an appearance as if dusted over. 
These two varieties are among the choicest for making wine, 
and are not less agreeable for the table. As they are late in 
the period of vegetation, they are very hardy, and succeed 
readily in localities exposed to cold and humidity. Their 
juice is high coloured and sweet, and is in France much used 
in making a kind of domestic ratafia, which is much sought 
after, especially when it is prepared with care. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 129 

LE BRUN FOURCA, DUH.-- PK. CAT. No. 156. 
Gros Taulier, of some vineyards. Plant de Bordeaux. 

Vitis uvd ampld ; acinis nigris, magnis, rotundis, fyc. 

The title here adopted from Duhamel, is that by which this 
vine is known in Provence, and it is found under culture in all 
the vineyards of that district of France, and considered excel- 
lent for wine and pleasant for the fable. Although called 
Gros taulier by some persons, it differs however from the 
taulier, of which we shall speak hereafter. Its shoots are 
not rampant, and the branches are not so red ; its leaves are 
larger, of a darker green, and more deeply serrated. It is 
not so early as the Taulier, but earlier than the Mourvede, 
and also more easily affected by frosts than the latter. It 
is cultivated in the same expositions, and its fruit is not sub- 
ject to rot. 

LE TAULIER. 

Plant de Manosque. Manosquen. 

Vitis acino nigro, rotundo, duriusculo, suavis, saporis, succo ragro, labia, inficieuti. 

This vine seems nearly allied to the Pineau of Burgundy, 
which forms the greater portion of the vineyards of that pro- 
vince, and which should not be confounded with the Franc- 
pineau. There are few grapes which have such a variety of 
names. The leaves of this vine are round and indented, green 
and shining above, and light green beneath ; the peduncle is 
red, and the shoots are very rampant. It is one of the most 
estimable varieties that can be cultivated ; it yields a strong 
bodied wine that is rich and pleasant, and very suitable for 
transportation, and the fruit, although the skin is thick, ripens 
perfectly. 

LE CATALAN, DUH. 

Vitis acino subrotundo, nigrifmoUL 

This variety, very common in Provence, matures its fruit at 

17 



130 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

the same time as the Mourvede, with which it is often con- 
founded. The leaves and wood of the two resemble each 
other, but there is a wide difference in their fruit. The Cata- 
lan has a woody stem, the bunches are shouldered or winged, 
the berries are generally larger and their juice is very sweet ; 
the Mourvede, on the contrary, has a delicate stem, the bunches 
are of small size and not winged, the berries closely set, and 
they have not a very high flavour, being, as Garidel expresses 
it, minus suavi. 

M. David states his having formed a plantation with 
vines, which he had received direct from Alicant, and that he 
found they corresponded both in growth and in fruit with the 
Catalan, which abounds in the vineyards in the neighbourhood 
of Aix. 

Although people often confound the wines made from the 
Catalan with those of the Mourvede, it is proper to observe, 
that there is some difference between them. Those of the 
Petit-Mourvede, or le Mourvegue, contain a greater portion of 
colouring juice, and are more convert and more generous. The 
Catalan is preferred for vineyards, because it yields the most 
without any sensible depreciation in the quality. This, and 
the two preceding varieties, merit a preference in vineyards 
where it is an object to have wines that will keep a long time, 
or such as are suitable for exportation. 

The wine made from the two sorts of the Mourvede, even 
when the fruit has acquired its full maturity, is austere when 
new, but it acquires in a short period its mellow and saccharine 
flavour. The cultivators consider its use as beneficial, and 
prefer it to all other wines, because it is more nourishing and 
strengthening. 

ALBILLO CASTILLAN, DUH. 

Vitis uva subcylindrica ; acinis obovatis, confertis, mollibus, viridibus succosis&imif. 

The leaves of this vine are a little irregular, commonly 
palmated, a little wrinkled and uneven on the upper side, and 
thickly covered with very close white down on the under side. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 1J1 

The clusters are of medium size as well as the berries, which 
are so excessively delicate and succulent, that the juice entirely 
runs out with the least pressure. Their taste is very sweet 
and pleasant, but they are not high flavoured, and they ripen 
very early. 

The title Albillo, is a general term under which the 
Spaniards, and particularly the vignerons of Andalusia, con- 
nect many classes of grapes, which are evidently very nearly 
allied to each other, and which they afterwards designate 
separately by adding a second title, pretty much in the same 
manner that botanists apply specific names. 

JOANNEN BLANC. PR. CAT. No. 293. 

Jouanen, Duh. Raisin de St. Jean. 

St. Jean. 

Vitis prcecox, acino acuto, siibviridi, dulci et molli. 

This variety is rather common in the vineyards of Provence 
where it receives its title, from the circumstance of its ripening 
just after St. John's day. Its leaves are slightly lobed, some- 
times to so small a degree as not to be noticed. The fruit 
ripens with me the twentieth of September ; the bunch is of 
medium size, composed of oval formed berries, of a greenish 
white colour, which are very sweet. There is a sub-variety 
with black berries, which is commonly called Jouanen negre. 

DOUCEAGNE, Dun. 

Vitis prcecox, acino rotunda, subviridi et duldssimo. 

This variety is not of as early maturity as the preceding, but 
ripens as soon as most other kinds, and it is also cultivated in 
the vineyards of Provence. The berries are white, round, 
and sweet. 



v 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

DOUCINELI.E NOIRE, Dun. PR. CAT. No. 189. 

Vitis uvu media ; acino subrolundo, ex violacco nigricante, dwro. 

The leaf of this vine is large, divided by slight lobes, and 
bordered with large and unequal indentures. The bunch is 
five or six inches long, composed of berries which are very 
close and compressed, of a dark violet colour approaching to 
black, with a thick and brittle skin. It is cultivated in the 
vineyards of Provence. 

JAEN NOIR, Dun. 

Vitis uvd magndj acinis confertis, duris, negcrrimis, cute crassissinu/. 

The leaves of this are palmated or lobed, of a dark green, 
which becomes tinted with a reddish violet as the fruit ap- 
proaches to maturity ; the under sides of the leaves are 
covered with down, which does not adhere very closely. The 
bunches are large, weighing in some cases five pounds, com- 
posed of berries of medium size, round and closely set, with a 
very thick and very hard skin, which is of exceeding black 
colour. There are many sub-varieties of this grape which are 
not of so dark a colour, and there is even one which produces 
white fruit. In all, or nearly all the provinces of Spain, they 
cultivate some varieties of grapes under the name of Jaen, or 
Jaen blanc, but this is the only one or the principal one from 

which wine, is made in various places. 



BOUTEILLANT, Dun. PR. CAT. No. 177. 
Cayan, of Marseilles. 

Vitis acino nigro, magno, rubenti et subaustero. 

This variety is common in the vineyards in the environs of 

Aix, in Provence, and is also cultivated at Marseilles, where it 

,is known by the title given as a synonyme. The grape is 

large and black, and is of the first quality for wine as well as 

for the table, 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES, 133 

UNI BLANC, DUH. 

Vitisfertillissima, uvd laxd, elongata, fyc. 

Among other characteristics this vine differs from the pre- 
ceding by its leaves of rather round form, very rarely lobed, 
and not very dark green ; the cluster is loose, very long, com- 
posed of round berries, which are of a greenish colour, but 
become russet next the sun and sometimes a little reddish ; the 
skin is thick and the flavour of the fruit sweet without insi- 
pidity. This grape is cultivated in Provence, and is one of 
those which keep well. 

UNI ROUGE, DUH. 

Vitis uvd longiori, acino rufescenti et dulci, 

This variety is also cultivated in Provence ; the flowers 
are very subject to blight, which often renders it sterile, but 
when it is productive, it yields exquisite grapes, which make 
excellent wine. There are two other kinds, which are consi- 
dered as subvarieties, and are mentioned by Garidel ; one is 
called in Provence Uni-rouge-de-Partus, and only differs from 
the above in the colour of its berries, which are of a deeper 
red ; the other produces berries which are harder and sweeter, 
the bunch is also smaller and more elongated, and the fruit 
does not redden until it has attained to perfect maturity. 

UNI-NOIR, DUH. 

Uni-negr, of Provence. 

Vitis uvd longiori, acinis raris, nigro-rubentibus, subausteris. 

This vine is cultivated in the vineyards of Provence, where 
it is known by the second title given above. It does not make 
much wood, and its branches are generally very short. The 
fruit does not yield very good wine. 






NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

PLANT ESTRANI, Dun. 

Vitis uva perampld, acino rotunda, subflavo, pimctis nigris notato, fyc. 

The fruit of this variety is round, large, of rather an amber 
colour, marked with small black points, and has a very sweet 
and agreeable flavour. It is pretty common in the vineyards 
of several districts in the environs of Aix, in Provence. 

LISTAN COMMUN, Dun. 

Vitis uva magnd, acinis ovato-subghbosis, subconfertis, dbis, cute tenui. 

This has leaves of medium size, irregularly palmated, of a 
dark green above, and covered beneath with white and close 
down. The bunch is large, formed of berries which are 
rather small, almost uniform in size, a little flattened at the 
base and at the top, and pretty closely set ; they are of a 
greenish white where they are shaded, and of a rather dark 
yellowish gray where exposed to the sun. This vine is found 
in many of the provinces of Spain. At San-Lucar, it forms 
nineteen-twentieths of the vineyards, and is the basis of all the 
excellent wines of that country. At Rota there are also en- 
tire vineyards composed of it. It is one of the varieties held 
in most esteem at Malaga for making wine and also for eating. 
At Grenada they only cultivate it for the purpose of eating 
the fruit when fresh. 

This vine has several sub-varieties, the two principal are, 
one with red fruit, and the other with very black fruit. 

GROS MUSCADET, DUH. PR. CAT. No. 31. 

Muscat fume. Muscadere . 

FromenM. Muscadet. 

Malwisie. 
Vitis Apiana ; acino rotunda etfunwsu. 

Two varieties of the Muscadet are found in many vineyards, 
thele gros or large, and the petit or small ; the leaf of the one 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 135 

we are iiow describing is of a dark green hue on the 
upper side, and of a whitish green beneath, but without 
down ; it is supported on a long petiole, divided by five 
nerves, and is slightly indented on its border with only a sin- 
gle serrature of much size, which is on the right side. The 
colour of this grape is very peculiar, being between a white 
and a rose colour ; the bunch is of moderate size, as well as 
the fruit, which is extremely sweet and luscious ; it yields well, 
and the fruit ripens early in September. I consider it one of the 
most desirable grapes for the table which ripen at that period ; 
and on account of its extreme sweetness it is a very estimable 
variety to mingle in vineyards with grapes of harsh flavour, 
or in cases where it is desirable to render the taste of the wine 
more sweet, and to use it for the purpose of an essence grape. 
The vine is very hardy and of easy culture. 

The Petit-muscadet, which is also sometimes called Musca- 
dine or Muscadere, has leaves of smaller size, lobed and bor- 
dered with teeth that are more acute. 

TERRE BOURRE. 

This vine I deem one of the most desirable for vineyards 
on account of its vigour and productiveness ; it seems also to 
support our seasons well ; the berries are purple, of oval form, 
and of a pleasant vinous flavour, and the plant is a great 
bearer. It ripens with me about the 15th to 20th September, 
and is also an agreeable table grape. 

i #> '."- . . 

MARVOISIN. PR. CAT. No. 368. 

The berries of this vine are of good size, and of a gray 
colour, the form round or a little oval, and the taste sweet 
and agreeable ; they ripen about the 15th to 20th September 
and are pleasant for eating, as well as being a wine grape. 

NAVARRO. 
This vine produces purple fruit of moderate size and of 



136 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



rather oval form, which ripens with me about the 20th of Sep- 
tember. It is from the department of Dordogne (France,) and 
I am not yet certain whether it is distinct from the variety 
called Navarre, (see Cat. 158) in the department of Landes. 

LEHRMANN. PR. CAT. No. 159. 

The fruit of this variety is round, and of a purple colour, 
and the vine is very prolific. 

EPICIER. PR. CAT. No. 190. 

Spicier grosse espece. Large epicier. 

This variety has round fruit of a purple colour, and ripens 
here from the 15th to the 20th of September; there is a va- 
riety with smaller fruit ; both are from the department of Vienne 
in France. 

GRAY TOKAY. 

White Tokay. Pn. CAT. No. 144. Tokai, Duh. 
Tokai gris de Hongrie. Tokai blanc. 

Hungarian Tokay. 

Vitis uva pawd, acino rotundo, minima, rubescenti. 

The appellation gray, being most appropriate as con- 
veying a more correct idea of the real appearance of the fruit, 
I have here adopted it in preference to the specific term white, 
by which it is most generally designated in this country. 
Duhamel distinguishes it by the single term Tokai, thereby 
conveying the idea of its being the one so termed par excel- 
lence and in preference. The leaves of this vine are rather 
deeply five lobed, and bordered with large teeth, their upper 
surface is very smooth, and the under side is covered with a 
slight whitish down. The bunch is about three to four inches 
in length, and is formed of small berries of a rounded ovate 
form, and of a grayish red hue. The flavour is rather plea- 
sant and saccharine, and it is used by some persons as a table 
fruit. It is this grape which is said to form the largest propor- 



NOMENCLATURE OF GKAPEfc. 137 

tion or basis of the vineyards in the country so celebrated for 
the excellence of the wines it produces. 

BLUE TOKAY. PR. CAT. No. 14S. 
Tokai bleu. Tokai, Haute Pyrennees. 

This is one of the most vigorous and strong growing vines 
with which I am acquainted ; it is also very productive. The 
fruit ripens with me about the 10th of September ; the berries 
are purple, of moderate size, their taste and flavour tart and 
sparkling, with that peculiar gout which I fancied bore a 
strong similarity to the famed wine of that name : it is not a 
pleasant fruit for the table. I have also had the Tokai de 
Hongrie noir to produce fruit with me the two past seasons, 
the berries of which are of oval form. I have besides the 
Tokai bagnol, Tokai de Lunel, &c. 

FLAME TOKAY. PR. CAT. No. 147, 

Flame-coloured tokay. Rhenish. 

Lombardy. Brick. 

The leaves of this vine are much more divided than most 
other sorts, and the upper surface is of a deep green hue ; 
the berries are round and of a bright red or flame colour, 
the bunches are .regularly formed, and are stated by some 
authors to attain to the weight of six or seven pounds. It is 
said to be sometimes called in England the Rhenish grape ; hjit 
this title and that of Tokay illy apply to it, if it came originally 
from Lombardy, as one appellation would indicate. 

There is no doubt it is synonymous with some other & the 
described varieties cultivated in French collections, but no 
author has yet arranged its synonymy. It is possible .that it 
may be the same as the Malvoisie-rouge-d' Italic ; but ney f ejr 
having compared them myself, I have no means of deciding, 
and therefore barely hazard the conjecture as to that point. 



138 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

LACHRYMA CHRISTI. 

Lacrima ChristL Raisin de Vtsuve. 

This is the variety that produces the celebrated wine, which 
bears the first title given above. The famed vineyards which 
produce it are planted on the volcanic remains, composed of 
the residuum of the lava which has for ages flowed from the 
crater of the celebrated volcano of Vesuvius, after having been 
decomposed by subterranean fires. I am not acquainted with 
the particular character of the fruit, and it is only during the 
present year that I have been able to procure genuine vines of 
it. It is said that the vine is a native of and peculiar to 
Naples. 

A neighbour of mine has a vine which he received from 
Austria under this title, that produced fruit the summer of 
1828 ; the berries were of a black colour. My own vines, which 
were received from a different and much more direct source, 
have not yet produced fruit. 

RED MALMSEY. PR. CAT. No. 27. 

Malvoisie rouge a" Italic. Malvoisie rouge du Po. 

Red Italian malmsey. 

This is a vine of most vigorous growth and flourishing ap- 
pearance ; the fruit is dark red, of round form and suitable 
for wine, and is also considered a valuable table grape. 

WHITE MALMSEY. PR. CAT. No. 26. 
Malvoisie blanc du Po. Merrisie 1 

This grape is white and of an oval form. It is placed 
among the wine grapes in the French collections, but I pre- 
sume will be also deemed worthy of cultivation among our 
table varieties. It has been much used in some districts for 
making wine, and mingling in vineyards with other varieties. 
The grape described as the Malmsey muscadine, or Malvoisie 



.NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

musquee by some English authors, and stated to resemble the 
Royal muscadine, is a totally different fruit, and must be only a 
variety of the chasselas, and quite probably may be synony- 
mous. Some English authors have also placed the Cioutat, or 
Parsley-leaved chasselas, as synonymous with this, which is a 
greater error still, as there is no affinity whatever. 

MALVASIE. PR. CAT. No. 294. 

This variety matures its fruit here about the 20th of Sep- 
tember, which is white and of oval form ; being of late intro- 
duction, the vines produced only some weak clusters the pre- 
sent season, insufficient to decide upon its merits. It is culti- 
vated in France mostly as a wine grape. 

MALMSEY MUSCADINE. 

'"* ..i . . - . *./.'' . ' 

Malvoisie musque. 

I mention this separately for fear of error, but I presume it 
will prove synonymous with some other already described. 
It is said to have considerable resemblance in appearance 
to the white chasselas, but to have a smaller leaf and 
cluster, with fruit sweeter and more highly flavoured. This 
vine is stated to have been originally brought to France from 
Montserrat, and to be a favourite in the vineyards about Turin. 
It is a most important grape at Madeira ; and it is said that Ma- 
deira wine of fine quality cannot be made without it, it being 
the essence or syrup grape for the wines of that island. 

LENOIR. PR. CAT. No. 50. 

This variety was obtained from Mr. Lenoir, who resides oa 
the high hills of the Santee river, and is supposed to have been 
raised by him from seed, which must have been that of a fo- 
reign vine, as this is a variety of the foreign species. It is of 
very vigorous growth, and produces small black fruit which 
ripens there in July and here in August, being one of the 
earliest grapes ; the fruit is handsome, rich in saccharine mat- 



140 .NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

ter, and never rots, even in that hot climate. It is not -a great 
bearer; but if it is a seedling, it may change in that respect with 
age. Mr. Herbemont has made wine from it, which resembled 
Burgundy. This gentleman has also in his vineyard a grape 
he calls the Lafitte, which was brought by General Wade 
Hampton from the vineyards of Mr. Lafitte, and was then 
stated to be the variety from which the claret bearing that title 
is made. He has also a large white grape, which he calls Malm- 
sey, not knowing its real name ; it is beautiful in appearance 
and very excellent for the table, and it also makes supe- 
rior raisins and never rots. Another white grape of very large 
size, which he calls, for want of the real title, Bosc, after the 
celebrated French professor of that name ; this has not suc- 
ceeded as well with him as the others. Also an exquisite grape 
that yields abundantly, and is green when ripe, which was 
brought from France by General Davy, when he was our mi- 
nister there. He has another he calls Deodata, which is a 
very rich white fruit ; it came from the Luxembourg collection 
with the one called Bosc, but the true names of both were 
lost. 

LE MONASTEL, MOUNASTEOU, Dun. 

Vitisferacissima ; acinis nigris, cute crassd, foliis maximis, fyc. 

The fruit of this vine is mediocre in point of quality, as 
well as the wine which is obtained from it. The vine is very 
productive, but not of as great durability as the most part of the 
vines cultivated in Provence, in consequence of which they 
have established a proverbialism in the district where it is cul- 
tivated, that " this vine makes the father laugh and the son 
weep." I presume this description of Duhamel refers to the 
vine called Mounesten in my catalogue No. 211, under which 
title I received it from France. 

PLANT D'OOURUEOU, Dim. 
Plant d'Auriol. 

Vitis uvd perampld ; acinis nrgris, maximis, densis, SfC^ 

leaves of this vine are almost entirely smooth, both 



.NOMENCLATURE OF CRAPES. 141 

ibove and beneath ; its bunches are large ; the berries also 
large, black, and closely set. This grape should be used as 
soon as it is ripe, the delicacy of the skin not allowing it to be 
long preserved. 

VARAGfNAN, DUH. 

Raisin de chien. Rin de chin. 

Vitis uva magnet ; acvnis oblongis, subyiagnis, pettucidis, fyc. 

The bunches produced by this vine are rather large ; the 
berries elongated, shining, and tender, with but little flavour ; 
nevertheless the wine it produces is very good. It has ac- 
quired the titles given above as synonymes, on account of 
dogs eating it in preference to others when they pass through 
the vineyards. 

PLANT DE VENEOU, DUH. 

Vltis uvd perampld, acinisrotundis, carnosis, subalbidis et serotinis, cute crassci. 

This variety is pretty common in the vicinity of Aix, espe- 
cially in the northern part of that district. Its fruit is late at 
maturity, and produces bunches of rather large size, with round 
whitish berries that have*i thick skin.' 

'. ' ' H< ^Pf^ , ;, ' 

* 

LE ROUSSELI, DUH. 

Vitis precia; uva antpla^ atinis rubris, magnis, rotundis, dmsis, cute tenui, fyc. 

This is one of the first vines to vegetate in the spring ; the 
grapes which it produces are large, round, and of a reddish 
colour, very closely set on the cluster they are sweet and have 
a thin skin. It attains to maturity in favorable latitudes at 
the end of September, and is one of the most estimable grapes 
both for the table and wine, but the delicacy of its skin ren- 
ders it necessary to gather it promptly, as it would soon rot. 



4ii NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

PLANT DE SAINT GILLES, DUH. 

Vitis maxima, uvd subampla, acinis, nigris } minimis, rotundis, fyc. 

This vine shoots vigorously and becomes very strong ; its 
bunches are large ; the berries black, round, and small, possess- 
ing a sweet and agreeable flavour. This variety is cultivated 
at Saint Gilles, in Languedoc, upon the river Rhone, and pro- 
duces excellent wine that will keep a long time. 
\ 

PALOMINO COMMUN, DUH. 

*.v -^*-- '* V' 

Vitis uva media ; acino nigro, molliusculo, subdulci, et subpellucido. 

This vine differs from the Listan-commun in its leaves, 
which are not of so dark a green on the upper side, and are 
less downy beneath ; by its smaller cluster composed also of 
smaller berries placed less closely. It is cultivated in the 
Spanish vineyards, and particularly at Xeres, at Rota, and 
at Paxarete. 

MANTUO CASTILLAN, DUH. 

Vitis acinis raris subrotundis, intense viridibus, durts, serotinis. 

This is one of the varieties cultivated in Spain, and next to 
the Listan-ctfmmun, its fruit is the most esteemed at San- 
Lucar for eating, and the clusters when suspended will keep 
a long time. The berries are nearly round, firm, and of a 
greenish colour. They distinguish in that country many sub- 
varieties of the Mantuo, one of which produces violet coloured 
berries. 

TINTILLA, DUH. 

Vitis uvd sublaxd; acinis parvis, rotundis, nigris. 

The leaves of this vine are slightly wrinkled, covered beneath 
with white and close down, they are five lobed and bordered 
with medium indentures. The bunches are composed of 
small berries, not closely set, and very succulent, yielding a 
very black juice of a peculiarly sweet flavour, rather insipid. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 143 

with a little sharpness. It is this variety which yields the 
famous Rota wine, known under the title of Tintilla de Rota. 
It is also employed for the purpose of giving colour to the 
must of other grapes, of which it is intended to make red 
wines ; it forms a sixth part in the Malaga wine. 

MOLLAR NOIR, DUH. 

Vitis uvd magnd, acinis magnis, rotundif, mollissimis, nigris, sapidis. 

The leaves are a little wrinkled and have a reddish hue at 
the time of expansion, and are afterwards of rather a clear 
yellowish green colour, and are covered beneath with a pro- 
fusion of white down. The bunches are pretty large, some- 
what irregular, composed of roundish and very obtuse berries, 
which are black, with a very thin and delicate skin. This 
vine, which is cultivated in the Spanish vineyards, has also a 
sub-variety, that only differs in respect to the colour of its 
berries, which on the same cluster are black, red, reddish, and 
some quite white. It appears in this respect to resemble the 
striped Aleppo grape. 

:Y ' BENADU, Dun. 

Spart, of Languedoc. 
Vitis uvd media ; acino subrotundo, duro, dulci et vix sapido, fyc. 

The leaves of this vine are somewhat rounded, very slightly 
lobed, and of a moderately dark green hue. The bunches 
are of medium size, composed of roundish berries, which, are 
set very closely to each other. There is a sub-variety called 
the Gros-benadu, which is distinguished by its berries being 
half as large again with a harder skin, and with flesh that is 
more soft and insipid. 

.These varieties are cultivated in Provence, and are known 
there by the name I have adopted, but in Languedoc they are 
called by the title given as a synonyme. 



144 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

MOUSTARDIE, Dun. PR. CAT. Nd. 212. 
Saure, of Languedoc. 

Vitis uvd media ; acino subrotundOj saturate violaceo. 

The leaf of this vine is not a very dark green, divided into 
five deep lobes, the centre one of which is much the largest and 
most projecting. The bunch is of medium size, composed of 
pretty large rounded berries, of a deep violet or nearly black 
colour. The vine is very productive, and furnishes a very 
deep coloured wine. It is called by the name adopted in 
Provence, and by the synonyme in Languedoc. 

BOURBOTJLENQUE, Dim: 
Frappade. 

Vitis uvd parvd, acino subrolundo, rufo, duro et dulci. 

This vine, which is also cultivated in Provence, has small 
three lobed leaves, bordered with numerous teeth, which renders 
them almost frizzled. The bunch is small, composed of roundish 
berries, of a reddish colour and of a firm consistence, and of 
a very sweet flavour without insipidity. I have a black variety 
in my collection, called Bourboulenque noire. 

GRE ROUGE, Dun. 

Vitis uvd crassd, acinis subparvis, et subrotundis, rubescentibus. 

The foliage of this vine is of a delicate green, and the leaves 
are deeply divided into five lobes, the middle one of which is 
far larger than the others. The bunch is thick, composed of 
berries set pretty closqly to each other, which are round and of 
a reddish colour. 

Near the village of Cornillon, in the French department of 
Gard, there is a vine of this kind whose trunk had attained in 
1 824 the size of a man, and whose shoots spread out in every 
direction on the branches of a large oak. This single vine 
has produced in one season three hundred and fifty bottles of 
a rose coloured wine of pleasant flavour. 






NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 145 

ROCHELLE NOIRE, Dun. PR. CAT. No. 232. 

Faigneau. Vigane. 

Vitis uvd nigro, rotunda, motti. 

The leaves of this vine have very long petioles, ol' a line 
green on the upper side, white and downy beneath, divided 
into five lobes, the principal ones of which are of greater 
depth than the others, and doubly indented on their edges. 
The bunches are composed of rounded berries of a black 
colour. This vine is common in the vineyards of the west 
part of France, where it is known by the two titles given as 
synonymes. There is a variety called by the same name, and 
cultivated in some districts, whose berries are of oval form. 
(See Pr. Cat. No. 270.) Both kinds are in my collection, 

ROCHELLE BLANCHE, DTJH. PR. CAT. No. 349. 

Vitis acino albo, rotundo molll. 

This is a variety of the preceding, differing only in the 
colour of its fruit, which is white. 

FOLLE BLANCHE. PR. CAT. No. 287. 

RocJtelle verte, Duh. Sauvignon vert. 

Enrageat. Meslier vert. 

Uni blanc, of Provence. Roumain. 

Blanc-verdet. 

Vitis acino rotundo, cdbido, duko-acido. 

i 

The leaves of this variety are of a pretty dark green oa 
the upper surface, covered over with an ash coloured down 
beneath, and divided into five unequal lobes ; the bunch is of 
medium size, composed of closely set berries, which are of 
very pleasant flavour when at perfect maturity, with a soft skin. 
The crop of this grape is in general abundant, and the wine 
produced by it is reputed to be very advantageous for the pur- 

19 



146 



HOMEHCIiATUJtiS OF GRAPES. 



pose of making brandy. It is extensively cultivated in the 
vineyards of Languedoc. 

ROCHELLE BLONDE, DUH. 

Vitis acino rotundo, albo, dulco-ctcido. 

This appears to be merely a subvariety of the preceding ; its 
foliage differs, however, in being only three lobed and of a 
much paler green colour, and the fruit also presents the same 
difference, being much whiter than the former. 

TEINTURIER, Dun. PR. CAT. No. 30. 

Tinleau. Noireau. 

Gros-noir. Morieu. 

Teinturin . Portugal . 

Noir d'Espagne. Roussillon ? 

Alicante. Claret, supposed erroneously. 

Moure. The Dyer. 

Vitis acino nigro, rotunda, duriusculo, suavis saporis, succo nigro, labia inficicnti. 

The leaves are divided into five lobes, which are bordered 
with deep teeth, and long before the maturity of the fruit they 
become nearly of a flesh colour ; the bunches are of irregular 
form and terminated by a truncated cone, and are composed 
of round berries of unequal size, which yield by expression a 
juice of very deep colour. This grape is only cultivated in 
France for the purpose of colouring other wines, for when 
manufactured alone, it furnishes a harsh and austere wine of 
disagreeable taste. It is common in the vineyards of Orleans, 
and in those of Gatinois, and is also disseminated in other 
quarters, where it has received the various titles given as sy- 
nonymes. 

This grape is sometimes confused with the following, and 
by some writers the Teinturier and Alicant are named syno- 
nymously, and^by others this has been called the Claret grape ; 
but it seems agreed by the most eminent authors that I have 
perused, that this and the following are totally distinct, and St. 
Pierre. RQ?ier. Ghaptal, and Duhamel all agree that this 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 147 

variety yields wine fit only for dyers and for colouring other 
wines. Still it is possible that some of the miserable harsh 
wine which is sent to this country under the name of claret, 
may be the produce of this grape. The fruit ripened with me 
the past season about the 15th of September. 

BLACK SPANISH. PR. CAT. No. 29. 
Negrier, Duh. .Hamonal. 

Alicant or Alicante. Raisin de Lombardie. 

Raisin d'Ati-ante. Port-wine grape. 

Gros noir d'Espagne. Large black cluster. 

Claret grape. 

Vitis UK a perampldj acinis, nigricantibus, niajoribus. 

This grape resembles the Teinturier, because its juice is 
equally red, but it is far superior in qualitj^, and it is this grape 
from which Oporto or Port wine is made : besides the bunches 
and the berries are larger, and the leaves have a greater ex- 
pansion. It is known in the various districts and countries 
where it is cultivated by a great variety of titles, as the list of 
synonymes indicates. In English authors it is generally de- 
scribed under the first and third, and the three last names stated 
above. It ripens here towards the end of September, and 
there is no doubt it is one of those to which our attention 
should be particularly devoted in the formation of vineyards, 
as port wine which is produced from it, is in such general use 
in our country, that the wine made from it here would be sure 
of a ready market. The American wine would also be far pre- 
ferable to the imported, as it would be unnecessary to adulterate 
it by such an addition of alcohol as is added by the Portuguese 
to ensure a safe transmission across the ocean. The por- 
wine we import contains a greater portion of alcohol than any 
other wine brought into our country, with the exception of 
sherry and madeira, which do not greatly differ in that respect. 

There is another grape, called in France Gros-noir of Cha- 
rente, which may possibly prove synonymous with the Black 
hamburgh or Frankenthaler, although enumerated in some 
French lists. I have not yet tested it sufficiently to decide the 



148 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

point. I have already remarked in speaking of the foregoing 
variety that this is often confused with it, and in fact the two 
are often called by the titles of each other even in some of the 
wine districts of France. I take this to be the variety from 
which the best claret wine is made. 

GOUAIS BLANC, Dun. PR. CAT. No. 331. 

Gouas. Bourgeois. 

Gros-blanc. Mouillet. 

Plant madame. Verdin blanc. 

Vitis' uvd media, sublaxd, acino subrotundo, albido. 

The leaf is entire and not distinctly lobed, but is bordered 
by a large festoon with irregular teeth ; the petiole is some- 
what slender, and of a grayish colour. The bunch is of me 
dium size, formed of pretty large berries of a whitish green 
colour, having a little resemblance to those of the white fron- 
tignac or muscat blanc, but less closely set on the bunch. 
This grape is known by a variety of names, the principal ones 
of which I have enumerated. It ripens about the middle of 
September in this latitude. 

BLACK GAMET. PR. CAT. No. 32. 

Garnet noir. Chambonat. 

Game ncrir, Duh. Saumoritte. 

Vitis uvd media, acino nigricante. 

This grape yields almost universally very abundant crops. 
In certain districts of France and in particular expositions, it 
enters largely into the composition of the best wines. In 
other places the cultivators extirpate it from their plantations. 
Every point in this variety denotes a vigorous vegetation ; 
its leaf is thick, of a dark green hue, bordered with large fes- 
toons whose edges are irregularly indented, but not divided 
into distinct lobes. It ripens here before or about the middle 
of September, is exceedingly hardy, and of the easiest cul- 
ture. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES, 149 



GOUAIS NOIR. PB. CAT. No. 64. 

Petit game, Duh. Noir. 

Gueuche noire. Verreau. 

Vitis uvd media, sublaxd, acinis vix dulcibus,nigerrimis. 

This grape is known in the different districts of France by 
the various titles given above; it resembles in the form of the 
bunch and of the berries the Morillon of Burgundy, but it 
has neither the same flavour nor same sweetness, and it is of 
much blacker colour. 



MANSARD, DUH. 

LeDamour. Le Grand noir. 

Le Vert gris. 

Vitis uvd ampld, pyramidatd, acino majori, nigricante. 

The leaf of this variety is large, thick, of a deep green, and 
bordered with slight indentures in comparison to its size ; the 
bunches are very large and of a pretty regular pyramidal form, 
and it is not uncommon for them to attain to nine or ten inches 
in length, and to four or five in breadth at the base ; the ber- 
ries are large and set moderately close. 

MARLEAU, DUH. 

Le Languedoc. Le Troyen. 

Le Coq. L'Ardonnet. 

Le Conors. Le Balsac. 

Vitis uvd sublaxd, acinis nigris, quasi villoso-sericcif. 

This grape is of a beautiful velvetty black colour, and the 
berries are set moderately close on the cluster ; the leaf is lobed, 
and is remarkable for the delicacy and irregularity of the in- 
dentures on its edges. Its shoots denote a great deal of vigour 
both by the size of the wood, and by that of the eyes or joints. 
It is known by a great number of appellations in France, as the 
list of svnonvmes given above denotes. 



150 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

LOUXTENDRE PECOUE, Dra. 

Raisin a grappes molJes. 
Vitis uvd mediocri et oblonga ; atinis rotundis, minutis, dulcibus, fyc. 

The bunches of this vine are of oblong form and not very 
large, the berries are small, and round, and have an agree- 
able flavour ; the skin is thin and dotted with reddish points ; 
the peduncle which supports the cluster is rather soft than 
woody, and it is from this circumstance it has received its titles. 

TIBOTJREN TIBOULEN, DUH. PR. CAT. No. 240. 

Antiltoulen. 
Vitis uvd minuta, acinis mediocribus, nlgris, rotundis et raris, cute crossa, $c. 

This vine derives its name from that part of Provence, 
where it is the most particularly cultivated, which is Antibes, 
at Marseilles. Its fruit, which is one of the earliest among the 
black and red varieties of grapes, is very sweet. It yields a 
wine slightly coloured, very saccharine, and which becomes 
sparkling by keeping, but requires a great deal of attention to 
preserve it. This variety would be very productive, if the 
blossoms were not subject to the blight or coidure. The berries 
which ma.ture are very distant from each other on the bunch, 
which renders its culture but of little profit. The wine it pro- 
duces scarcely ever enters into the commercial sales, as it will 
not bear transportation ; the proprietors of French vineyard? 
therefore who make it with care, keep it for their own use. 

PLANT DE RAGUSE, Dun. 
Ragusa grape. 

Vitis minuta; uv&parvd ; acinis albido subfulvis, rolundis, fyc. 

This vine, which is very remarkable on account of its long 
Punches, was brought from Ragusa to Marseilles, by M. 
D'Hercules. An excellent pale wine is made from it in France, 
which has much reputation and is sought after even by foreigner? 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES, 

PLANT SARDOU. Dim. 

Vitis acini's albidis, magnis, subrotundis, et densis, cute tenui, fyc. 

This is supposed to have been introduced to France from 
the island of Sardinia ; the berries are whitish, round and rather 
large, and very closely set on the cluster. In favourable 
climates it ripens from the fifteenth to the twentieth of Sep- 
tember. The delicacy of its skin renders it subject to rot. 

LE GOMBERT, Dun. 

Vitis Minis dbidis, subfulms et dulcibus, cute crassa, fyc. 

The branches or shoots of this vine have their joints very 
near to each other, and are of a reddish colour. The fruit 
is white, and of an amber hue on the sunny side, and has a 
pleasant taste. 

LE RIN BRUN, Dim. 

Vitis acino nigro, rotundo, molli. 

This vine throws out a great deal of wood, and the joints 
are very near each other. The grape is black, round, and 
soft, and is subject to detach itself easily from the bunch as it 
approaches maturity, which arises from the delicacy of its skin y 
which is but slightly attached to the peduncle. 

RAISIN BARBAROUX, DUH. 
Raisin Grec. 

Vitis uvtiperampld; acinis rufescentibus maximis, rotundas, fyc,' 

This grape, which ripens in warm climates at the end of 
August, and here about the middle of September, is equally 
good for wine as for the table, but it will not keep long and 
easily rots. 

BROWN, OR CHOCOLATE COLOURED PR. CAT. No. 8. 
This was received from France about thirty years since : 



152 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

the vine is of very vigorous growth, and a great bearer, 
and seems to suit our climate well, and to be very hardy ; the 
fruit is oval, of a sprightly flavour, and the bunches large and 
shouldered ; it is an excellent wine grape, but in this vicinity 
ripens late, the period of maturity being at the end of Septem- 
ber. Dr. Vandevere of this island, whose zeal in the vine 
culture is well known, has had some extremely large bunches 
of fruit from vines of this kind. 

VERDILHIO. PR. CAT. No. 110. 
Verdelho. LOND. HORT. Soc. CAT. 

This is well known to be the grape which gives strength 
and body to the wines of Madeira, and is generally considered 
the best wine grape of that island. It may rather, in point of 
ripening, be considered an early fruit. I received this, the 
Nigrinho, the Tinta, and the Violet from a wine house of high 
repute in Madeira, and they stated to me, that these were the 
finest grapes known there for the making of wines. 

VIOLET MADEIRA. -PR. CAT. No. 108. 

This vine, which I received direct from Madeira, is one of 
the most hardy I know of. It has withstood our severest win- 
ters unprotected and uninjured. It is also very productive, and 
the fruit is of a pleasant vinous flavour. 

This vine also suits the climate well in this vicinity, and 
flourishes exceedingly in all seasons. I have never seen any 
appearance of unthriftiness, or of inclination to mildew. I 
consider it as a most valuable grape for vineyards, and I doubt 
not his one of those which form the basis of the fine vineyards 
of Madeira. 

Thomas McCall, Esq. of Georgia, stated to me that a vine 
which he received from me of this kind, made a shoot in one 
season eighteen feet long fifteen feet of which was perfect 
wood and the remainder immature. He also stated to me that 
lie considered it a beautiful fruit, and that he deems it a superior 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 15'3 

wine grape. In the season of 1828, the first year his vine 
was of any size, it produced a second crop, one of the bunches 
of which was nearly ripe when the frost came. 

TINTA. PR. CAT. No. 112. 

Negramole. Negra molle. 

The fruit of this vine is rather oval and of a purple colour, 
the taste and flavour pleasant and sparkling. It ripens here 
about the 20th of September, and is consequently one of 
those which succeed well ; the bunches are shouldered and 
divided ; the leaves five lobed and indented on their borders 
and downy on the under side they also become tinted with 
purple as the grapes advance to maturity, I consider it as 
different from the Teinturier of France, although some writers 
have supposed it the same. I received a number of the vines 
direct from Madeira, and have them now in full bearing: in my 
vineyard. This is the principal grape of which the far-famed 
Tinta Madeira wine is made, which commands a higher price 
than the kind in general use, and I think it one of those 
which may be relied on for success in vineyards formed in this 
latitude ; and in fact, so far as my experience has tested them, 
the vines of Madeira seem particularly adapted to our cli- 
mate, and I do not recollect a failure of any of them. It- 
would therefore without doubt be of great advantage to ob- 
tain all the fine varieties from that island, as there are pro- 
bably many which we do not yet possess. 

* - 
BLACK MADEIRA. 

This grape I received direct from Madeira; it produces 
abundantly, and is one of those that agree best with our clt- 
mate ; the fruit is very juicy and of a pleasant flavour, and 
seems well calculated both for wine and the table ; it ripens in 
August. This vine I have found to be so nearly allied to the 
Meunier as to present no specific distinction, and I only men- 
tion it here to give place to the remark, that having received 

20 






154 JVOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

it from that island,. seems to prove that this grape is also one 
of the varieties which, united, produce the Madeira wine. 

PURPLE MADEIRA. PR. CAT. No. 109. 

This is a small pale purple grape, loosely set on long 
bunches ; they have a vinous perfume and flavour when ripe, 
but the taste is not pleasant, and they are not suitable for the 
table. 

HERBEMONT'S MADEIRA. PR. CAT. No. 113. 

This is an excellent grape either for the table or for wine ; 
the latter has been sold in South Carolina for two dollars per 
gallon before it was five months old. The vine is vigorous 
and an abundant bearer ; it is remarkable on account of the 
young branches having white spots on them, as if a white pel- 
licle had been partly peeled off. 

I received this variety from our distinguished fellow-country- 
man, N. Herbemont, Esq. of South Carolina, who has given 
us such elaborate and interesting communications relative to 
his experiments in the vine culture. He states that he has not 
been able precisely to trace its origin ; but supposing it from 
some circumstances to have come from Madeira, he has called 
it by that name until the true one is ascertained. The excel- 
lent wine made from this grape is called " Palmyra," by Mr. 
Herbemont, being the name of his plantation, where probably 
the first wine was made from it in this country. 

WARRENTON. PR. CAT. No. 36. 

This grape I also received from T. McCall, Esq. of Georgia, 
who informed me that it was originally obtained from Madeira. 
The foliage is of a light green colour ; the juice of the grapes 
is white, and although the fruit has no peculiarity in its taste, 
still the wine is of an exquisite nut flavour, similar to that of 
a fine hiccory nut, a circumstance which proves that the fla- 
vour of the wine does not always follow that of the fruit. It 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 



155 



ripens its fruit in Georgia from the 10th to the 25th of August ; 
the berries are round, of moderate size, and nearly black, and 
are set pretty close on the bunches, which weigh about five 
ounces each. The wine becomes of an amber colour, is less 
strong than Madeira, (doubtless because that has so much 
brandy mixed with it) and is of exquisite flavour. 

Mr. Me Call says that he deems it a very valuable variety 
for wine ; and his knowledge and general intelligence on the 
grape culture are too well known not to be highly appreciated. 
It obtained its present name from its being cultivated in War- 
ren county, Georgia. 

ADLUM'S MADEIRA. PR. CAT. No. 114. 

This, Mr. Adlum states, he obtained for the true Madeira 
grape, a title which has been often inadvertently applied, and 
one in nowise definite, for on that island there is a great variety 
of grapes of every colour and quality ; this vine grows lux- 
uriantly, but is not very hardy ; the berries are dark purple., 
grow on long clusters, and are not pleasant for the table. 

ROUND VIOLET MADEIRA. 

Under this title I have received some vines from my esteem- 
ed correspondent, T. McCall, Esq. of Georgia. I am not 
acquainted with the particular properties of the variety, but I 
know it must have valuable qualities, or he would not have 

sent it to me. 

. 

MONSTROUS VIOLET. 

This vine I received from France under a title entirely er- 
roneous ; I have, therefore, adopted the above name, not 
knowing the true one. It is of very vigorous growth, form- 
ing very large and strong shoots ; the berries are of very 
large size and round ; greenish white until they attain towards 
the period of maturity, when they change to a light violet 
colour. Their appearance would induce the expectation of 
their being a fine table fruit, but they are, in fact, quite the 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

contrary, being harsh and austere in taste, and of no use ex- 
cept for wine. It is a grape of such marked character, that 
I think its true name may be soon discovered. 

L'YVERDUN BON VIN. PR. CAT. No. 127. 

Liverdun* L'eric noir. 

Liverdon des Voges. 

This grape, a native of Yverdun, Canton of Bern, Swit- 
zerland, flourishes in the most unfavourable situations as to 
soil and exposure. It is extensively cultivated in the north of 
the department of Meuse, (France) lat. 49 deg. 30 min. and 
also in the department of Meurthe. Even on the north side 
of hills, where no other grape will succeed, it is said to pro- 
duce abundantly in seasons when other kinds are blighted* 
The berries are of a dark purple or black, of oval form, and 
of an agreeable flavour, and about the size of the Burgundy. 
Its wine is considered of a secondary quality, but is far supe- 
rior to the harsh Spanish wines which are so much used here* 
I have had this grape under culture for six years, and have 
found it to be very hardy ; indeed, I have never protected it, 
and it has been invariably uninjured. I consider this grape, 
and the other vines from Switzerland, and those from the vici- 
nity of Mentz, lat. 50 deg. 10 min. where the Rhenish wines 
are made, as decidedly the best to be cultivated in the eastern 
states for the purpose of making wine. As for indulging the 
expectation, that the grapes of the south of France and Italy 
will flourish to the north of New-York, it is sacrificing the 
plainest deductions of reason to an ephemeral indulgence of 
fancy. 

RED SWISS. PR. CAT. No. 130. 

This grape I received from the vicinity of Lausanne, in Swit- 
zerland. It is represented as a very good wine grape, ripen- 
ing early, and yielding in that country great and regular 
crops in unfavourable situations. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 157 



BLUE CARTAGER, GIBBS. PR. CAT. No. 116. 

This is a wine grape received from Vienna by Col. Gibbs, 
of this island, to whose politeness I am indebted for this 
as well as many other varieties received by him from the same 
quarter, to which I have added his cognomen. It is said to 
yield the best Hungarian wine, and is deemed by the gentleman 
above referred to as very suitable for vineyards in the western 
states. From this grape is made the Bunda or Osen wine, and 
by a particular process, the Munster tokay wine. It is of vi- 
gorous growth, and often forms shoots of great length : the 
fruit ripens about the 20th of September. 

FELDLINGER. PR. CAT. No. 120. 

The fruit of this celebrated Rhenish vine ripens with me 
the 20th September ; the berries are round or a little oval, 
whitish, with a slight wtinge which gives them a gray appear- 
ance. It is a native of the department of Bas-Rhin, in 
France, and succeeds well on the borders of the Rhine. 

OLWER. PR. CAT. No. 129. 
Ollwer. 

This vine succeeds best in a warm exposure ; the wine made 
from it has attained celebrity in the northern departments of 
France, near the Rhine, on account of its use, being consi- 
dered a preventive against the gravel. Whether any other 
pure wine would not have quite as much effect in this respect, 
amateurs will determine for themselves. It is much cultivated 
in the north of France, and I imported two thousand vines the 
last spring from the borders of the Rhine. 



158 MOMfcftCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



FACUN BURGER BOURGER. PR. CAT. No. 119, 

VAllemand. Facon Wane. 

Weisser Burger. 

The fruit of this vine is white, replete with sweet juice. 
The vine yields abundant crops, and is very extensively culti- 
vated in the vineyards on the Rhine, where it is highly es- 
teemed. It is very hardy, of easy culture, and calculated to 
suit this climate, and possesses the advantage of succeeding in 
strong as well as light soils. The wine is also stated to be 
perfectly fit for use the first year. 

RED BURGER. 

Sourger or Burger. V 'Allemand, le rouge. 

Facon rouge. Rother Burger. 

This is also cultivated in the same vineyards as the preced- 
ing, but differs from it in the colour of the fruit, which, as its 
name denotes, is red. There is another variety, called " Thai- 
Burger." 

ROTHE HINTSCHE. PR. CAT. No. 139, 
Hinsch, or hintsch. Wiein hintsch, 

This has dark coloured fruit, which is of oval form ; and in 
the Rhenish vineyards where it is much cultivated, the crops 
yield abundance of wine. It is a hardy variety, ripening here- 
in September. 

PETIT RAUSCHLING. PR. CAT. No. 133. 

Rausclding, le petit. OrtliebscTier. 

Kleine rauschling. Kni-perU. 

This is one of the most productive varieties of the grape, 
and is very extensively cultivated on the Rhine, where it is 
much esteemed. The fruit is white, round, about the size of 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 159 

the Pineau, and of pleasant vinous flavour. It is one of 
those vines which are least affected by the changeableness of 
the weather, and is consequently well calculated for vineyards 
in climates subject to great variations in this respect. It will 
succeed in almost any soil, and yields wine fit to be drank the 
first year. In consequence of its great celebrity, I obtained it 
at different periods and from various persons, by whom it was 
sent me under different names, which I have now arranged in 
the list of synoiiymes. 

GROS RAUSCHLING. PR. CAT. No. 134. 

Grand rauschling. Rauschling^ le grand. 

Grosser rauschling. 

This is one of the vines most extensively cultivated in the 
Rhenish vineyards, and particularly those of the northern part 
of Fra*nce bordering on the Rhine. It is very hardy and of 
easy culture, grows vigorously, and yields large crops and 
abundance of wine. It is one of those best suited for vineyards 

in this latitude. 

~\ ' ' ,' 

VICANE. PR. CAT. No. 311. 
Vicame. 

The berries of this vine are white and of oval form. It is 
a native of the French department of Charente-inferieure, and 
is extensively cultivated in the French vineyards situated near 
the Rhine. 

RIESSLING. PR. CAT. NO. 137. 

Clairette de Limoux. Kleiner riessling. 

Petit riessling, RiscJding. 

This is also one of the varieties which form the major part 
of the vineyards in the north of France on the Rhine, and 
is cultivated also near Limoux, in the department of Aude ; 
the fruit is white, the vine very hardy, of easy culture, and it is 
one of those that succeed the best among the kinds that have 
been introduced to this vicinity. 



NOMENCLATURE OF RAPES 

RIESSLING, LE GRAND. PR. CAT. No. 138. 

Grosser riessling. 

This is a variety of the same class as the preceding ; the 
fruit is of larger size, and the vine is cultivated in the Rhenish 
vineyards with the former, but I believe it is not as much es- 
teemed. 

The information that has been given in regard to the ten 
celebrated Rhenish varieties last described, has been derived 
from the highest possible source, being communicated to me 
by the proprietor of one of the most extensive vineyards on the 
Rhine, whose culture has been eminently successful, in con- 
sequence of the very judicious selections he has made in res- 
pect to the varieties of vines. It is therefore with the fullest 
confidence that I recommend them to my fellow-citizens, as 
calculated to succeed for vineyards in this latitude, and pro- 
bably still further north. In addition to these, my Rhenish 
friend states that the Morillon, or Pineau noir, the Pineau blanc, 
Pineau gris, and Auveras rouge clair, succeed admirably in 
the Rhenish vineyards, and with the ten foregoing varieties, 
form the basis of the fine vineyards of that section of country. 

I have at least given a pretty strong proof of my firm opin- 
ion of the success of these fine varieties in our country, having 
imported the last spring above thirty thousand vines, of these 
kinds alone, which are now in my nurseries. 

WHITE CONSTANTIA. 

Under this name I have a vine received from Paris, which 
has produced excellent fruit. The berries are white, of oval 
form, the flavour and taste resembling the chasselas. It grows 
vigorously, and bears well. Thomas McCall, Esq. of Georgia, 
to whom I sent a vine, pronounces it a beautiful fruit. I do 
not consider the name above stated as its true title, and there- 
fore, although the fruit is excellent, I omitted it in my cata- 
logue. The true name will probably be discovered by com- 



.NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 1H1 

paring it with the other varieties in my vineyard, as soon as 
they all produce their fruit. 

VIOLET CALABRIAN. 

Under this name I also received a vine from Paris, which I 
have omitted in my catalogue for the same reason as the pre- 
ceding one. The fruit, however, being good, I on that ac- 
count notice it here. The berries are large, of pleasant flavour, 
violet colour, and they ripen during the month of September. 

BORDEAUX PURPLE. 

1 have omitted this vine in my last catalogue from a suppo- 
sition that it was probably a synonyme. It was imported about 
ten years since by Miles Smith, Esq. of New-Brunswick, (N. J.) 
from Bordeaux. Some of the scions were presented to me, 
and they produced a dark purple grape, of pleasant vinous 
flavour, arriving at maturity early in September, and for want 
of the real name, I gave them the title at the head of this 
article. The vine is hardy, and the fruit bears a great affinity 
to the Pineau family. 

ELLIOT'S LARGE WHITE. 

Mr. Smith, of Burlington, (N. J.) places this among the 
foreign grapes, and so I have always considered it, but in a 
description recently received, it is stated to be a native vine. 
I think there must be some mistake in this latter supposition, 
and perhaps the vine is not the genuine kind. I have not my- 
self seen the fruit, but it produced fruit with a correspondent in 
Salem, Massachusetts, the present season, which, however, 
owing to some cause, did not come to maturity. 



21 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

GRAPES CULTIVATED IN THE CRIMEA. 

Extracted from travels through the southern provinces of the Russian Um- 
pire. By P. S. Pallas, Counsellor of State to the Emperor of Russia. 

Shira-Isyum, a large mellow fruit of an oval form and deep 
green cast when reared in a moist soil, but approaching to 
white in dry situations ; it has an uncommonly thin skin, and 
yields a great deal of juice ; this grape matures sooner and is 
more productive than any other of the Crimean vines, it is used 
for wine and is a pleasant table grape, it corresponds with the 
Aspirant or Verdal of the French, and the Grime Junker of 
the Germans. 

The Kakura-Isyum, is, for Ihe excellence of its juice, the 
most distinguished grape of all Crim-Tartary, to which and 
the three succeeding species, the wines of Sudagh and Koos, 
are chiefly indebted for their superiority ; the clusters are large 
and rather loose, the berries are oval, mellow, and very sweet, 
of a yellow or greenish hue, with a bloom of pearly white ; it 
has some resemblance to the Riesslingof the Germans. 

Terrgiillmek, the berries are small, of a yellowish pearly 
white, very thin skin, and uncommonly sweet. 

Mysliket, this resembles the great Riessling of the Germans* 
it has loose clusters, and moderately large berries of a round 
form, and of a speckled brown colour, they have a strong mus- 
cadel flavour and are as sweet as honey. 

Shabash, this vine grows very strong, with short joints of a 
reddish brown colour, it grows rapidly and bears a profusion 
of grapes, the berries are sometimes as large as a crow's egg, 
of a greenish colour with a white bloom, thin skin, and when 
housed in October, will keep till February, and by keeping 
acquire additional sweetness. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

Khadym-Barmak,or Lady's Finger, this vine grows strong 
with short joints, the clusters are large, the berries are white 
and formed like the last joint of the little finger ; ripen early ; 
the flesh is firm and very sweet. 

Arsakhi, or Goafs Teats, the finest and richest of all the 
Crimean grapes for table use, the clusters are frequently two 
spans long, the berries are the thickness of a large finger, and 
upwards of an inch and a half in length, tapering towards the 
end, though obtuse ; they are of a greenish yellow colour, the 
flesh is firm and adheres to the skin, the wood is strong with 
short joints, the old stocks stand erect like trees, the fruit may 
be preserved to a late period of winter. 

The Balaban-Shabash, or Great Shabash, is perhaps the 
largest grape growing in the world, the wood is strong with 
short joints, the clusters are not very large, the berries hang 
closely together of a perfectly globular form, and are equal hi 
size to the English walnut or Madeira nut ; the flesh is firm, of 
a pale greenish yellow, covered with a chalky white bloom, 
the taste though rather watery is sweet and pleasant, the trunk 
frequently attains the size of a man's thigh. 

The Kirmisi-Misk-Isyum, or Albura, is a muscadel grape of 
u beautiful coral red, strong growth and long twigs, the under 
side of the leaves is marked with strong red veins and a very 
fine downy velvet, the berries are round and of an agreeable 
muscadel flavour. 

The Asma, a vine with lofty branches, is much cultivated in 
the Crimea, and is used in making the wines of Sudagh and 
Koos, and along the whole southern coast ; of all the vines, it 
produces the tallest and strongest stems, the branches of which 
are trained to poles and frequently climb above the trees, its 
leaves are large and coarse to the touch, of a dark green colour, 
the under side has a velvet-like roughness, the clusters aro 



.NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPHS. 

large and weigh several pounds, the berries are also large and 
ef an oval form, of a dark brown colour with a blueish bloom. 

Tanagos, a luxuriant species of vine with a large stem and 
branches, and produces fruit in great abundance ; the clusters 
frequently weigh from six to ten pounds, ;he berries are round 
and of a brownish red colour, the skin is thin, the fruit though 
watery, is of pleasant flavour and may be preserved a long 
time ; this, as well as a large proportion of the Crimean 
grapes, has the under side of the leaves downy. 

Pallas says, the grape is an indigenous production abound- 
ing in the mountainous parts of the Crimea. 

There is a great variety of other foreign vines, whose cha- 
racteristics being less known and not defined with sufficient 
accuracy, I am unable at present to give details in regard to 
them with the requisite precision, and therefore am compelled 
to defer noticing them until they have been sufficiently tested in 
my experimental vineyard ; I will, however, at the end of the 
present work give a complete list of all I have under culture, 
in order to afford those who' are desirous of an opportunity of 
obtaining information from time to time, in relation to the merits 
of any of the varieties, omitted at present to be described. 

Among the vines which may be deemed objects of parti- 
cular interest and curiosity, one may be mentioned that is now 
flourishing in the garden of Sir Joseph Banks, which was 
obtained from a park near Berkeley, (England,) where young 
shoots are found annually springing up among the grass from 
old roots which still possess life, and which are the remains of 
an ancient vineyard. The produce of this vine will be of 
much interest, from its making known to us one of the kinds 
of grapes planted in British vineyards in former ages, and it 
is hoped the particulars on the subject will before long be 
made public, as the vine has probably produced fruit ere 
this. 



A'OMENCLATUKE OF GKAPES. 105 

AMERICAN GRAPES. 

The varieties of vines which properly come under this head 
may be divided into several classes, arising from the peculiar 
circumstances of their origin, viz. 

Vines of original native , species. 
Varieties of original native species. 
Varieties obtained by admixture of nntive species. 
Varieties obtained from seeds of exotic grapes. 
Varieties obtained by admixture of foreign and native va- 
rieties. 

Although some of these classes are already numerous B 
others are yet very limited, and from the short period of time 
that has elapsed since the public attention and that of intelli- 
gent connoisseurs has been particularly drawn to the subject 
in such a manner as to elucidate the various points, and to ob- 
tain precise information, it is yet impossible to form a definite 
arrangement of all our varieties. The perfection of this de- 
sirable object must therefore remain for future labours ^ but it 
is to be hoped an end so desirable will not be lost sight of by 
the amateurs of the vine throughout our country, and that 
each will, by developing the various points which fall within 
his notice, contribute his mite towards a perfect arrangement 
of the various classes, a precise nomenclature, and a know- 
ledge of the peculiar qualities of the respective kinds. 

ISABELLA. PR. CAT. No. 385, 
Gibbs 1 grape. 

Vitis labrusca. v Isabella. 

This grape is said to be a native of South Carolina, and 
was introduced to this state by Mrs. Isabella Gibbs, the lady 
of George Gibbs, Esq. of St. Augustine, who then resided at 
Brooklyn, Long Island, and in honour of that lady has been 
called Isabella Grape. It is a dark purple fruit, of a large size, 
oval form, and juicy, and equals some of the secondary European 



166 



rVOMENCLATURfl OF GRAPES. 



grapes ; and for vigour of growth, and an abundant yield, 
exceeds any other yet cultivated in this country, and requires 
no protection during the winter season. General Joseph 
Swift informed me, that a single vine in his garden produced 
above eight bushels during several successive seasons. In 
some instances vines have been stated to have produced a still 
greater quantity, and large vines of this kind, producing as- 
tonishing crops, are now to be met with in various parts of our 
country. There is no grape which will yield a greater quan- 
tity on a given space, or that can be made more lucrative in 
cultivation for market than this kind. 

It also promises to take an important stand in this 
country for the purpose of making wine, as it possesses the 
requisites to insure success in making wine of a fair quality, 
or for making brandy equal to that of France. I have made 
wine from it of excellent quality, and which has met the ap- 
probation of some of the most accurate judges in our country. 
Indeed, this grape, of which but a single vine existed in any 
garden in 1816, and which I, at that time, met with in the 
possession of the gentleman before mentioned, and deemed 
worthy of notice and a name, has now become disseminated 
to the remotest parts of the Union, and has been sent to a 
number of the countries of Europe, and to Madeira, fee. ; and 
although it has never been offered to the public as on an equa- 
lity with the highly cultivated and delicious table grapes of 
France, still it offers to any one who chooses to plant it, a 
plentiful crop of pleasant fruit, without requiring from him 
the least care, or needing in winter the least protection, how- 
ever cold may be its situation. I have also ascertained that 
the bunches may be dried, as raisins, with the greatest facility, 
and that they may be preserved in dry sand, sawdust, or any 
other similar substance, for many months, in the most perfect 
state. 

In regard to pruning, which to a certain degree is advanta- 
geous with all vines, it has been remarked in relation to this, 
that if the vines are much trimmed at the summer pruning, the 
fruit is very apt to rot and fall of. 



NOMENCLATUAE OP GRAPES. 167 

A peculiarity exists with regard to several of our native 
varieties, which is particularly exemplified in the Isabella ; it is 
that of being twice-bearing, or of producing a second crop of 
fruit on the shoots of the same year, which is frequently the 
case with this vine ; but the grapes seldom attain to maturity, 
unless in a season when the autumnal frosts are long protracted. 

WHITE SCUPPERNONG. PR. CAT. No. 398. 
Scuppernong. Roanoke. 

American muscadine. Hickman grape. 

Vitis rotundifolia. PURSH. 

The most perfect account of this grape that I recollect to 
have seen, is from the pen of James G. Hall, Esq. of Curri- 
tuck, North Carolina, and published in Vol. IX. No. 18, of 
the American Farmer ; and as this grape is more particularly 
cultivated in that region of country, I give some remarks, ex- 
tracted from his communication, in preference to my own. 
This grape (he states) is a native of the north-eastern part of 
North Carolina, and grows spontaneously on Roanoke Island 
and its vicinity, and formerly was called the Roanoke Grape ; 
but, as its excellence as a wine grape was first tested at Scup- 
pernong, the grape has obtained that name abroad. The par- 
ticular excellence of it is the richness of the grape, and the 
longevity and hardiness of the vine. The vines in North 
Carolina are never pruned, and receive little attention other- 
wise. If they were pruned, and properly attended to, he con- 
siders that a far greater abundance of fruit would be produced. 
The grape is round, white, very sweet, and of a good size ; 
the latter circumstance depending much on the vigour of the 
vine. They are pleasant for the table, and contain a large 
quantity of saccharine matter, so happily united with the acids 
of the fruit, as to render them finely flavoured for the palate 
and highly prized for wine. It is the opinion of many intelli- 
gent persons, that the Scuppernong, or Roanoke wine, has a 
richness and a peculiarly fine flavour unknown in the foreign 
wines which reach this country. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

The shoots of this vine are very peculiar on account of die 
grayish appearance of the bark, and for their delicacy and 
smallness ; but they are produced in such profusion, and are so 
thickly covered with foliage, that where the vine is left without 
pruning, the fruit is almost totally* obscured from the sun. The 
leaves are smooth, light green, and very shining, not lobed but 
regularly indented ; they are small compared with those of 
most other vines, seldom exceeding two and a half to three 
inches in the greatest diameter, and in fact it may be said that 
the whole aspect of the plant is of a peculiar character, bear- 
Ing no resemblance to any other species. The blossoms ex- 
pand in June, and later than those of any other vine I am ac- 
quainted with ; the berries, which ripened with me the past 
season for the first time, were as round as a bullet, of a light 
green hue even when at full maturity, and of the size of the 
largest chasselas ; the skin is very tough and rather thick ; the 
seeds green ; the juice is abundant, very sweet and pleasant, 
^nd of peculiar flavour, and when ripe entirely free from any 
pulp. It is a pleasant fruit for the table, and judging from 
the skin, I should suppose it could be kept a long time in per- 
fection for eating. The clusters are never large, but very 
numerous ; the berries are very loosely and separately set, 
which greatly aids their perfect maturity. The fruit did not 
fully ripen with me the past season until the 1 5th of October, 
but the vines had been left without pruning, and the clusters 
were hidden from the sun. I think by judicious pruning, and 
by training the branches separately, so that the fruit would 
be more exposed, it would ripen much sooner. 

This vine may be readily distinguished from the black va- 
riety by the colour of the tendrils, which are green. All its 
advantages considered, it promises, at no distant day, to form 
the basis of innumerable vineyards in different sections of the 
country. I have not, however, hitherto considered it as suit- 
able for this latitude ; but I am now fully convinced that it 
may be cultivated here also with success, though I scarcely think 
it would ripen its fruit, sufficiently early much further to the 
norfh. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPHS, 169 

Some persons have claimed both this and the Isabella as 
foreign varieties ; hereafter perhaps we shall hear of foreigners 
claiming our lakes and our mountains, which they might do 
with quite as much justice. 

It is a dioecious species, and in order to obtain crops it is 
necessary to have vines of both sexes; from inattention to 
pursuing this course, many persons have failed in obtaining 
fruit, and have therefore asserted 'that their vines were barren 
without taking sufficient pains to examine into the cause. 

I have received from a Virginian correspondent, the follow- 
ing descriptive remarks concerning a vine in his possession, 
and as they evidently refer to this variety, I give them here : 

" The wood is smooth and remarkably hard, rarely exhibit- 
ing that shaggy appearance of the bark usual with most other 
vines ; the bark of the old wood is of a light iron colour, 
that of the young wood is of a brighter hue, marked with 
small specks of grayish white ; the leaf is finely indented or 
serrated, and highly glazed both above and below ; it is 
tough and durable, remaining attached to the stem until the 
hardest frosts. The berry is of a greenish white colour, the 
skin of a satin like texture, varied by minute chocolate 
coloured dots. It is pulpy, but easily dissolves in the mouth, 
and is of a honey-like sweetness and musky flavour and scent. 
The berries are congregated in bunches of from two to six 
each, the weight of the largest being eighty grains and the 
smallest forty grains. The vine is a great grower and abun- 
dant bearer ; its flowers have no odour ; and it ripens its fruit 
here (Virginia) the last week in September. The fruit differs 
from the Black Scuppernong only in respect to colour." 



1*0 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

GREEN SCUPPERNONG. 

Green muscadine. Wild green muscadine 

Vitis rotundifolia,) far. 

This was sent me from the interior of the state of Georgia, 
it may prove to be different from the white variety, but it is 
quite probable also it may be synonymous with it, as the fruit 
of that is of a greenish hue. 

BLACK SCUPPERNONG. PR. CAT. No. 399. 

Purple scuppernong ? Bull grape. 

Red scuppernong ? Bullet grape. 

Muscadine. Bullus. 
Bullace. 

Vitis rotundifolia, v. nigra. MICHAUX. PURSH. TOREY. 

I have not seen the fruit of this vine ; but as it is produced 
from the seeds of the other in far the greater proportion, it 
may justly be considered as the primitive species, and the 
fruit no doubt is of the same form and possesses the same qua- 
lities, with the exception of the colour, which is dark red or 
purple, and in some cases black. The tendrils being pur Je 
easily distinguish it, without seeing the fruit ; the foliage is 
also of a darker hue and the leaves much less in size than the 
white variety, but resemble it in other respects. I think it 
quite probable that there are several distinct varieties of the 
Scuppernong with coloured fruit, as the descriptions of different 
persons vary as to the colour In North Carolina the purple 
or dark variety is by some people preferred to the white, and 
is far more generally cultivated there, being that from which 
the wine is mostly made. The greatest weight of any berry 
of either of these varieties that I have seen noticed, was of one 
produced at Washington city, which weighed 82 grains ; but 
it is probable that berries of greater weight have been pro- 
duced in its native state and elsewhere. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 171 

The wood of the different varieties of the Scuppernong is 
very hard, which is doubtless the cause why they do not grow 
as readily from cuttings as the generality of other vines ; for in 
most instances those who have pursued this course of culture 
have met with a total failure. From this circumstance the 
plants are more scarce in the nurseries than other native kinds. 
The vines of this species spread their branches to a great extent ; 
and I have been informed by a gentleman residing near New- 
bern, North Carolina, that those cultivated in that vicinity, are 
planted thirty feet from each other. As the flowers of this 
species expand nearer the period at which European vines pro- 
duce their flowers than is the case with our natives generally, 
it offers great advantages for obtaining hybrid varieties by 
admixture of the pollen. 

There is one remark in respect to seedlings obtained from 
this grape that I can make from experience as well as from 
the statements of others, which is, that one plant only in 
about fifteen or twenty will be of the white variety. 

In regard to the Bullace, which is a synonymous title for 
this grape, but which I think is often applied equally to the 
other varieties of this species, a lady correspondent at Che- 
raw, South Carolina, makes the following remark : " There 
is one kind of Bullace which I formerly cultivated and thought 
a delightful fruit. The vine is about twenty miles distant 
from this place, and from neglect the fruit has become small 
and is not yet ripe (Sept. 4th.)" 



AMERICAN BLACK MUSCADINE. 

Purple muscadine. Muscadine. 

Wild muscadine. Bullace. 

Bull, and Bullet grape, 

Vitis rotundifdia, var. 

, '* - , 

This vine is a variety of the same species as the preceding, 
but not of equal quality. It and the succeeding variety are 



172 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

frequently met with in Virginia, but the natural locality of the 
preceding one is further to the south. This is by some con- 
sidered a tolerable fruit, and contains much more saccharine 
matter than the Sloe, which is probably the original species ; 
the berries are black, and a correspondent states that they 
are marked here and there with white specks, which are not 
observable in the Sloe variety. 

SLOE GRAPE. 

Vitis rotundifolici) var. 

This vine, which is probably the original whence the im- 
proved varieties of its race have emanated, is inferior to all the 
others enumerated. The fruit is sour and scarcely eatable, and 
of a dark purple or black colour. Dr. Norton remarks to me 
that this and the preceding variety are to the White and Black 
Scuppernong of Carolina, what the Hughes' crab apple is to 
the Golden pippin. I have two varieties which differ in respect 
to size. 

BLACK OVAL MUSCADINE. 

Vitis rotundifolia, v. avata. 

This I received from a friend in Georgia. It is no doubc 
a variety of the native muscadine, and will be interesting on 
account of the form of the fruit, as so few of our native vines 
produce oval berries. I have also received a vine under the 
same name from Tennessee. 

TENNESSEE ISLAND GRAPE. 

An intelligent correspondent informs me that he thinks from 
information he has received, the vine called as above in Ten- 
nessee, will prove to be the best native grape of that state, and 
he has in consequence commenced cultivating the vines. He 
has not himself seen the fruit ; but as the tendrils of the vines 
are different in colour, he expects the fruit will differ also and 
prove to be of two varieties, purple and white. This vine de- 
rives its appellation from the circumstance of its growing 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 173 

wild and in great abundance on the islands in the Tennessee 
river, and my friend has furnished me with the following de- 
rails. The vine is stated to be naturally of dwarfish habit, a 
great bearer, and to produce fruit of good size ; the leaf re- 
sembles the Scuppernong or native Muscadine, and the stock 
that of the common small grape. He values it the more par- 
ticularly, because no insect troubles the foliage, although other 
vines are much injured by the green caterpillar, which often 
destroys their leaves in toto. He mentions that the oval and 
round black muscadine grapes grow naturally in that state, as 
well as some other varieties. 

I expect the vine above described will prove to be of the 
Scuppernong family, and it is quite probable it may be the 
genuine Scuppernong already described as a native of North 
Carolina, comprising the white and black varieties which are 
distinguished by their tendrils. 

ALEXANDER. PR. CAT. No. 372. 

Sclmylkill muscadel. Pape of Good Hope grape, 

Spring Mill constantia. Tasker *s grape. 

Vitis labrusca v. Mexanderia. PRINCE. 

This vine is a sure and plentiful one in its crops. It has 
been erroneously called, at the Spring Mill vineyard and at 
Philadelphia, the Constantia, or Cape of Good Hope grape, but 
is unquestionably a native of our own country, and originated 
in the vicinity of Philadelphia. It is stated to have been 
first found growing on the rocky hills near the Schuylkill 
river, above the upper ferry, previous to the revolutionary 
war, by a Mr. Alexander, gardener to one of the Penns. 
The berries are black when fully ripe, sweet, and of a slight 
musky flavour, but contain a pulp. Wine of a fair quality 
has been made from this grape in different sections of the 
Union ; and Mr. Adlum, of the District of Columbia, and 
a number of other gentlemen, have succeeded in making from 
it wine of quite a pleasant flavour. I have also in my pos 1 - 



174 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 



session some wine made from it several years old, which is oi 
very agreeable flavour, but not equal to that I have obtained 
from some other native varieties. This vine was largely cul- 
tivated by Mr. Tasker, whence it received one of its titles. 

It seems proper here to remark, that Mr. Adlum makes a 
distinction between the Alexander or Schuylkill muscadel, 
and the Spring Mill Constantia. The leaves, he states, are 
very similar, but a difference exists in the appearance of the 
clusters of fruit, the latter being the handsomest ; both have 
a pulp, and the Alexander has a little of the Fox grape fla- 
vour, but the Spring Mill Constantia has not any of it ; it is 
sweet, without any musky flavour. Mr. Adlum, however, 
considers both as American grapes, as they most certainly are. 
The author has cultivated them separately, so that amateurs 
might gratify themselves by contrasting the two in their expe- 
riments. 



CLIFTON'S CONSTANTIA. PK. CAT. No. 406 

Cape of Good Hope grape. 
Vitis lalrusca, mr. 

I should not enumerate this under a head distinct from the 
Alexander were it not that Mr. Adlum conceives there is some 
distinction. It is stated to have originated in the garden of 
Mr. Clifton, Philadelphia, and Mr. C. remarked that it was 
a chance seedling, unsown by any one. It was obtained from 
him by Peter Legeaux, and extensively planted at the Spring 
Mill vineyard ; and it has been imposed on the public as the 
genuine Constantia of the Cape of Good Hope. It is some 
satisfaction to know that Americans were not concerned in 
this deception. It has the same, qualities as the Alexander 
for wine, and they are generally cultivated and considered as 
synonymous, although it appears the two have been obtained 
from different vines which have not as yet been traced to ono 
original source. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES, 175 



CATAWBA, PR. CAT. No. 377. 

Catawba tokay. Tokay. 

Muncy, pale red ? Red muncy ? 

Vitis Utbrusca, v. Catawba. PRINCE, 

This is a large grape, of a lilac colour, and in some situa- 
tions, covered with a beautiful bloom, giving to it a blueish 
purple appearance. The berries have a slight musky taste, 
and delicate flavour ; hang loosely on the bunches, which are of 
good size ; and, in fact, they are beautiful to the eye, very 
abundant bearers, make an excellent wine, and are tolerable 
for the table. The pulp diminishes and almost disappears when 
they are left on the vine until they attain to perfect maturity. 

The colour of the fruit is much varied according to its rela- 
tive exposition; such as is fully exposed to the sun's rays is pur- 
ple, that but partially exposed is of a lilac hue, and those clus- 
ters that are completely obscured and shaded, are nearly white 
and the berries almost transparent; even in this latter position, 
where of course, the maturation is retarded, the fruit is sweet, 
but is devoid of that musky flavour which is acquired by that 
portion fully exposed to the sun and heat, ft is earlier in 
ripening than the Bland, and the berries and clusters are of 
equal and often rather larger size. 

Although this grape is said to be from the river Catawba, 
still there is much uncertainty on that point, as I am informed 
by Thomas M'Call, Esq. of Georgia, a gentleman now far 
advanced in years, that, in his boyhood he knew the Catawba 
from its source, to where it loses its name in that of the Wa- 
teree, and that no such grape was known there. Mr. Adlum 
states, that he procured it from the garden of Mrs. Schell, at 
Clarksburg, Montgomery county, Maryland, and that the 
family informed him it was called by this name by the late 
Mr. S. but they knew not whence he procured it. The vine 
in Mrs. S.'s garden has produced in one season, about eight 
bushels of grapes ; and eleven vines belonging to Joshua John- 



176 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES, 

stone, Esq. of the same state, and which were reared from that 
of Mrs. S. have already produced about 30 bushels of fruit 
at one time. The grape called, by Mr. Adlum, Red muncy, 
and found by him wild in Maryland, and also in Ly coming 
county, Pennsylvania, proved to be very similar to this kind. 
Mr. A. considers this grape "to be worth all others, indige- 
nous or exotic, as a wine grape," and that a greater variety 
of wines may be made from it than from any other, 

ELSINGBURGH. PR. CAT. No. 380. 

Elsenburgh. Elsenborough. 

Blue Elsingburg. SmarCs Elsingborough- 

Vitis labrusca, v. Elsingburgensis. PRINCE. 

This grape was found near the town whose name it bears, 
in Salem county, New-Jersey, where it would probably have 
remained unregarded, had it not been brought into notice and 
cultivation by Dr. Hulings. It is a very sweet, juicy fruit, 
and of a blue colour ; it is very hardy, exceedingly productive, 
and promises to be valuable for wine ; the leaves assimilate to 
those of the European vines much more than those of our native 
varieties generally do, and in colour they resemble the Bland. 
The bunches are of middle size, and the berries hang loosely : 
it ripens at the same time as the Meunier, and is free from 
pulp or musky taste, and has generally but two seeds. It is 
undoubtedly a native, all the characteristics of which it bears. 
Its wood resembles that of the Isabella; but the fruit approxi- 
mates more to the Meunier of France than any other American 
grape. 

RAISIN DE COTE.PR. CAT. No. 395. 

Of this grape, a native of Louisiana, there are two varie- 
ties, which are found through a vast extent of territory from 
the Attakapas to the Missouri. The variety or species most 
known, is dark blue and round ; skin rather thick, and the 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 177 

fruit somewhat pulpy, extremely sweet and not musky. The 
above title is one given by the French settlers in that district 
of country. 

RED BLAND. PR. CAT. No. 374. 

Eland's pale red. Blond's Virginia. 

Powel. Eland's Madeira. 

Powal. Red scuppernong. 

Eland's fox grape. Carolina 

Vitis Idbrusca Blanda. Mazzei grape. 

Red English grape, > 

r, ,. , > ot some districts of Virginia. 

English grape, > 

Vitis Blanda. 
Vitis BlandL PRINCE. 

The foliage of this vine is of a pale green hue ; 
the bunches are shouldered or divided, and are five or six 
inches in length, and sometimes more. The berries are of 
a round or oblate form, of a pale red colour, good size, juicy, 
sweet, and of very pleasant flavour. In some cases they are 
said at full maturity to become of a dark purple or red wine 
colour ; it is an agreeable table fruit, with a thin skin and little 
or no pulp, and is also a wine grape of very superior order to 
many of the varieties cultivated as such ; indeed, a person has 
but once to taste this grape to form his decision on this point. 
It has been supposed for many years to be a native of Virginia, 
and its origin has been the subject of much discussion. A 
Virginian gentleman, whose opinion I highly respect, stated 
to me that it was an Italian grape, and was brought from 
Italy by Mr. Mazzei, and his statements had so much weight 
with me that I almost resigned my own judgment thereto ; but 
I have now to aver that it is certainly a native, and that vines 
sent to Col. George Gibbs, of this island, from North Caro- 
lina, under the name of the Red scuppernong, have proved to 
be identically fliis same variety, and vines have also been re- 
ceived by others from that state which have afforded the same 
result. It appears, also, that this grape was cultivated in our 
country before Mr, Mazzei visited it, and the vines he brought, 

23 



178 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



however closely they may have resembled it, could not there- 
fore have been of this kind. 

Another fact is certain, that several native vines which I 
have received from different parts of our country, so greatly 
resemble in foliage, wood, and manner of growth the real 
Bland grape, that I strongly suspect further examination 
will identify them with it, and prove that this variety is found 
wild in more than one state of the Union. And even among 
those native varieties, whose fruit essentially differs, there 
are several whose foliage possesses the same general character- 
istics, particularly in regard to colour and form, insomuch 
that I doubt not but further investigation will class them un- 
der one head as the varieties of a single species, distinct from 
V. labrusca, or form them into a group of natural hybrids. 

It appears that Colonel Bland, of Virginia, was among the 
first that brought this vine into notice and cultivation, from 
which circumstance his cognomen was attached to it at that 
time, by which title it has been most generally known since. 

The original vine is said to have been found on the eastern 
shore of Virginia, by Col. B. who presented scions of it to 
Mr. Bartram, and to the late Samuel Powel, Esq. and some 
of the persons who obtained it from the latter gave it the 
title of Powel grape after him. 

Dr. Norton, of Virginia, the gentleman previously referred 
to, and whose opinion certainly merits much weight, differs 
from me in the statements here advanced as to its origin, and 
in a recent letter makes the following remarks : " It is hardly 
probable that this fruit should have escaped my observation if 
it was indigenous to my country, having walked so repeatedly 
through the forest lands in most quarters of the state, always 
having an eye to its productions. No such grape belongs to 
America, I assure you ; I have found grapes resembling the 
Bland on the borders of neglected old fields ; and amongst 
the ruins of the gardens which were established in the early 
settlement of the country, the Bland grape itself. The first I 
considered as a seedling of the Mazzei grape, but I have never 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 179 

known it to equal the stock whence it came. The existence of 
tlie last is easily accounted for : I can but infer that superficial 
observers have furnished you with slips from one of these two 
sources." On my own part, I will only further remark, that 
in regard to the claims of its foreign origin, I think it will be 
quite in time to consider them r when we are presented with 
an imp&rted variety resembling it. 

Heretofore this grape has been deemed unsuitable for lati- 
tudes to the north of this state ; but it is now found to succeed 
perfectly at Boston, where, the past season, the fruit has at- 
tained to complete maturity by the last of September or be- 
ginning of October. 

COLUMBIA. PR. CAT. No. 378. 
Rackoon grape. Raccoon grape. 

Vitis (KStivdis ? v. Columbia, PRINCE. 

This grape was found, by Mr. Adlum, on his farm at George- 
town. The bunches are small, but numerous, and the berries 
round, deep purple, approaching to black, thinly placed on 
the cluster, and about the size of a small fox grape, but have 
not that peculiar scent which fox grapes possess. It has con- 
siderable pulp, but is quite sweet when fully ripe, and yields a 
high coloured juice ; in rich grounds its shoots are as strong, 
and its leaves as large as the Isabella, and the latter are of a 
brick colour on the under side. 

WORTHINGTON. PR. CAT. No. 404. 

Vitis labrusca ? v. Worthingtonii. PRINCE. 

This is a native found near Annapolis, Maryland. It is 
smaller than the common fox grape, and black ; it yields a 
very highly coloured juice, is a very great bearer, and, by 
some is much esteemed ; the juice has been used to mix 
with that of other grapes in making wine, in the same 
manner as the Teinturier is in Europe, to which it imparts a 
fine colour, and agreeable flavour. When the fruit is fully 
ripe, it is tolerably sweet, with a considerable degree of as- 
tringency, Mr. Adlum states, that by mixing the wine of 



180 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

this kind with that of the Schuylkill grape, it imparts a cha- 
racter between port and claret. 



.MUNCY, PALE RED. PR. CAT. No. 391. 

This grape was discovered in Lycoming county, Pennsyl- 
vania, and also in Maryland. The foliage much resembles 
the Bland ; the fruit is of a pale red colour, and hangs 
loosely on the bunches, which are of good size. It ripens 
late, is sweeter than many native grapes, and the vine is pro- 
ductive. It is considered by Mr. Adlum, of Columbia, quite 
an acquisition to our collection of American grapes, as being 
capable of producing excellent wine. This grape has, by 
close comparison, been found so similar to the Catawba, as not 
to be readily distinguished, which would seem to favour the 
idea that the Catawba did not originate in Georgia, but is, 
in fact, a native of Maryland. Some persons have remarked 
that there exists a slight difference in flavour between this and 
the Catawba. 

BLACK FOX. PR. CAT. No. 381. 

Purple Fox. Vitis taurina, Walter. 

Vitis vulpina, Bartram. 

Vitis labrusca, v. nigra. MICHAUX. PURSH. TORRET. 

This is the wild variety most common in this state and to the 
north and east of it. The fruit is a very deep purple or black, 
generally of large size and oblate form, and the berries hang 
loosely on the bunch ; they have a strong fox-like scent, 
which I think is possessed to a greater degree by this than by 
the red and white varieties ; the skin is thick and the pulp 
tough, but in some cases varieties have been found wild which 
possess those disadvantageous qualities to a much less degree ; 
and in some vines which have been reared from seeds or im- 
proved by culture, they are scarcely perceptible. In this sec- 
tion of country large vines are almost every where to be met 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES 181 

with overrunning the hedges and mounting trees ; the berries of 
this and the other varieties of the same species are collected 
and sold in large quantities in our markets in a green state at 
the period when they have nearly attained their full size, and 
then serve to make excellent tarts and preserves, and are also 
used frequently for pickling. 

As far as past experience has extended, it appears that 
better seminal varieties are obtained from this than from the 
red fruited kind ; but further experiments may prove that this 
remark is not without exceptions. Although this vine makes 
strong shoots, and grows vigorously, extending its branches 
over hedges and spreading over trees of moderate size to a 
considerable distance from the main root, still it is considered 
as one distinguishing mark of the species that it never mounts 
to a great height, whereas the varieties of Vitis sestivalis often 
ascend the loftiest trees of the forest. 

WHITE FOX. PR. CAT. No. 383. 

Vitis labnisca, v. alba. 

This vine produces large berries of oblate form, which vary 
somewhat in size on the same bunch ; they are not perfectly 
white, but are tinged with a pale russet or amber colour. Al- 
though a coarse grape, yet it is a more pleasant fruit than 
some other varieties, and is considered by those who do not 
possess the finer kinds, as a tolerable eating grape. The 
leaves are large ; the vine is of rapid growth, and produces 
plentiful crops. 

It is believed to have afforded berries of greater weight 
than any other native or exotic vines in cultivation ; several 
specimens were exhibited at York, Pennsylvania, the past year, 
from a vine which had been transplanted from the forest and 
placed nedr a spring, the average size and weight of which 
were far greater than what the vine produced in its natural state. 
One of the larger berries weighed 153 grains, another 162, 
and a third 164 grains, and the latter measured three and 
three-eighth inches in circumference. 



182 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

From such variations produced by trivial attention, it may 
justly be inferred that this variety may be subjected to far 
greater melioration and improvement by proper attention to 
its culture, &c. and by the production of seminal varieties. 



RED FOX. PR. CAT. No. 382. 

Vitis labrusca, v. rosea. 

The fruit is large, of oblate form, and of a brick red colour ; 
it has a hard pulp, and not a great deal of juice, but is very 
odorous or musky ; it makes the most exquisite confectionary, 
in the form of jelly this is made with an equality of sugar, 
the fruit being strained to separate the skins and seeds (water 
with it of course) it must then be evaporated slowly, until 
of the proper consistence ; the flavour of the jelly is rich and 
delicately musky. 

Professor Gimbrede has reared several varieties of this 
grape from seeds, some of which are of very large size, and 
others sweeter than the common variety ; the whole class, 
however, is deficient in high vinous properties. 

BAUCHMAN'S RED FOX. 

Vitis labrusca, v. rosea maxima. 

This vine I received from C. Bauchman, Esq. of Pennsyl- 
vania, a gentleman who possesses a great fund of information 
in respect to the different varieties of grapes, their culture, &c. 
and who has, in connection with his friend Jacob B. Garber, 
Esq. of the same state, rendered me great aid on important 
points, with regard to the respective qualities of our native 
vines, and the success attending vineyards in that state, &c. 

The fruit of this vine is of remarkably large size, measur- 
ing frequently above three inches in circumference. In its 
flavour and colour it resembles the common red fox. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 183 

r -. 

; 

TEXAS, DIVERSE LEAVED. PR. CAT. No. 402. 
Vitis dwersifolia. PRINCE. 

1 have received a species of grape from the border of Texas, 
which I have named as above, on account of the very great 
variation in the form of the leaves, a part of which are simple, 
others three lobed, and some fiv.e lobed ; they are also very 
downy on the under side. The person who sent it states, that 
they do not run much to vines, but grow about three or four 
feet high, and then bend over and fall to the ground ; and 
that they produce a great abundance of very good grapes. 

Having cultivated this vine two seasons, I have found it to 
be less inclined to form long shoots than other native varieties ; 
one shoot, however, has attained to eight or nine feet in 
length. The vines being small and weak when received, they 
have not yet produced fruit, but I anticipate having fruit next 
year. 

I have also some vines, the seeds of which my correspon- 
dent writes me, " were procured from the north-west pass of 
the Rio Grande, or Rio del Norte, in Texas, five hundred miles 
west of St. Antoine, and one thousand from Natchitoches." 
He states that they grow in abundance on the Rio Grande, 
and are tolerably large and fine flavoured. 

TEXAS, CURIOUS FOLIAGE. PR. CAT. No. 401. 

Vitis diversifolia, var. 

\ 

This vine I received from a source different from that of the 
other Texas variety I have described. It bears much resem- 
blance to that in its dwarf growth, but differs in foliage ; the fruit 
I have not yet seen. My correspondent, who sent this kind, 
remarks thus, in a letter recently received " Instead of the 
Texas grape being sour, as I described it heretofore, the better 
opinion seems to be that it is a large, slightly reddish fruit, 
very juicy, sweet, and with little or no pulpy coherence, of 



184 . NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

course a good table grape. In the prairie country of Texas, 
where it abounds, the old grass is annually burnt off, and the 
vine shares the same fate ; in the spring season it shoots out of 
the ground from the old roots very luxuriantly, and falls all 
round upon the ground, borne down by the multitude of its 
fruit." 

j . V, /" 

MISSOURI. PR. CAT. No. 390. 
Missouri seedling. 

Vitis Missouriensis. 

The fruit is as sweet as the Meunier, and has not more 
seeds ; its appearance is similar to the Elsingburg. Some of the 
grapes of that region have been found to have a superabun- 
dance of seeds, from which this is free. This vine may, by 
culture, prove a valuable acquisition. 

LONG'S ARKANSAS. PR. CAT. No. 386. 

Vitis LongiL PRINCE. 

This grape, which was found by Major Long on or near 
the Rocky Mountains, possesses foliage so very peculiar, as to 
distinguish it from all others I have seen. The leaves are 
deeply indented on the edges, and of singular appearance, 
bearing some affinity to those of the Scuppernong, but three or 
four times the size ; the wood rather delicate in point of thick- 
ness, but surpassing every other, except the Vitis riparia, in 
its rapid growth, and overrunning every thing in its vicinity. 
The fruit, however, is small, sour, very full of seeds, and will 
not bear a comparison with the Missouri and other American 
grapes. This, the Isabella, and the Elkton, are considered to 
be the best to use as stocks to ingraft on. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 185 

LUFBOROUGH. PR. CAT. No. 388. 
Vitis labrusca, var. 

This is a fox grape, found about two and a half miles from 
Georgetown, district of Columbia. It is larger and better 
than the Elkton, and has a very rich appearance. The ber- 
ries are quite large, colour dark purple, and juice very sweet, 
with the flavour common to fox grapes ; the pulp, however, 
dissolves in the fermentation, as is the case with many other 
varieties, and it makes a very good red wine. 
f 

ELKTON. PR. CAT. No. 379. 

Vitis labrusca, v. ElktonL PRINCE. 

A very large native fox grape, of a deep purple colour, with 
beautiful crimson coloured juice ; the fruit quite fragrant. It 
has much pulp, but has been considered by some as capable of 
making good wine, though I do not know that the experiment 
has been yet made with it separately. 

PELL'S ILLINOIS. PR. CAT. No. 405. 

Vitis Ulinoensis. PRINCE. 

This is a native sent me by the Hon. G. T. Pell, of Illinois, 
and which he states " in unskilful hands has made good wine." 
It was found wild in the prairies of that region. I have re- 
ceived from the same gentleman seeds of several varieties 
found on the borders of the prairies, which are now growing 
in my garden. Among these is a variety of the same species 
as the preceding one, but which he states differs from it in the 
form of the bunches, they being shouldered like many of the 
foreign kinds. 

24 



186 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

MUNCY, BLACK. PR. CAT. No. 392. 

Vitis labmsca, var. 

This was found on the same farm as the pale red Muncy, il 
is a very productive vine, but the fruit being harsh and unplea- 
sant, is not considered worthy of cultivation, though it is 
possible, that wine made from it might become meliorated by 
age, and at all events it might answer as a subsitute for hock 
wine. 

NORTON'S VIRGINIA SEEDLING. PR. CAT. 393. 

Vitis JVorfoni. PRINCE. 

This very distinct variety owes its origin to Doctor D. N. 
Norton, of Virginia, whose assiduity and devoted attention to 
the culture of the vine for a period of years place him among 
the distinguished connoisseurs of the subject. It was raised 
from the seed of the Bland, which fructified in the vicinity of 
the Meunier or Miller's Burgundy ; there exists, consequently, 
some probability that it is a hybrid between these two. In 
appearance the vine much resembles the former of the two, to 
which its foliage closely assimilates. 

The shoots are strong and vigorous, and of a red colour. 
The vine resists the cold of the most severe winters, never 
failing to produce fruit and that most profusely, thriving even 
without pruning, and requiring, at most, but a partial use of 
the pruning instrument, and almost equalling the Isabella in 
its rapid extension ; like that vine it is also well calculated for 
arbours, bowers, large espaliers, &c. The fruit is of the 
darkest purple or black colour and ripens in September, but 
will remain on the vine with a great increase of the saccha- 
rine principle (as is the case with the finest wine grapes of 
France) until the end of October in this latitude, and until 
the first of November in Virginia. The bunches are usually 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 187 

eight or nine inches long on the old and strong vines, and 
weigh about a quarter of a pound each ; the berries begin to 
form a conical bunch on the stem at a distance of several 
inches from the place of its attachment to the wood ; they 
are round and a little flattened at the end, and about the size of 
the Meunier ; they do not contain a great quantity of juice, but 
what they yield is of the richest quality; the skin is replete 
with a violet coloured matter, which imparts to the wine a shade 
equal to the Tinto Madeira, which last it resembles as well in 
taste as in appearance. 

In conclusion, I will state a remark of Dr. Norton, to* whom 
I am indebted for the most part of the foregoing description, 
that " for the purpose of making wine, this is hardly to be 
excelled by any foreign variety." 

YORK MADEIRA. PR. CAT. No. 407. 

It certainly is a pitiful course for Americans to be continu- 
ally adopting foreign titles for the natural productions of their 
own soil. It would seem to indicate a total unbelief in the 
value of our indigenous productions, which I trust is but sel- 
dom the case, for I had hoped that the period at which we un- 
dervalued the blessings which Providence has showered on 
our favoured land had long since passed away. I cannot re- 
frain from giving place to these remarks from the great con- 
fusion and misconception which is caused on all sides by this 
false nomenclature, and I propose that the foreign titles be 
dropped in every case and appropriate ones substituted. 

This vine, with the foreign title of Madeira, is a genuine 
native, and proves, on examination, to be the same as the Al- 
exander, or Schuylkill muscadel. It is very extensively culti- 
vated in the vineyards in the vicinity of York, Pennsylvania, 
and it is this kind which is at present relied on in those vineyards 
for a crop, but the native variety called there the Claret, and 
the fine native Catawba, are expected by some of the most 
intelligent cultivators of that locality to take precedence and 
supersede the variety first named. 






NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

YORK CLARET, 

Vitis labrusca, var. 

This is also a genuine native, but has been erroneously 
called Claret grape. It is cultivated in the vineyards near 
York, Pa. where it is much esteemed for wine, and its culture 
is fast extending there and elsewhere on account of the high 
value in which it is held, it being generally preferred to the 
Alexander. 

It differs from the Alexander in several respects : the vine 
is smaller in its parts, though of a more flourishing appearance, 
the foliage is of a darker green, and it retains its verdure 
later in the season than almost any other vine ; the bunches 
and berries are smaller than those of the Alexander, and the 
latter are more closely set on the clusters, and the produce of 
the vine is more abundant. When perfectly ripe it is without 
pulp and very replete with sweet juice, which is nearly as dark 
as a Morello cherry. It is thought by the cultivators at York to 
agree better with the climate than any other, and the general 
opinion seems to be, that wine of a very superior quality may 
be made from it. When perfectly ripe the fruit is as fine for 
the table as the better part of our native kinds, with the ex- 
ception of the Catawba, Isabella, and one or two others. 

YORK LISBON. 

Vitis labrusca, var. 

This is also one of the varieties cultivated in the vineyards 
of York bearing a foreign title, and has considerable affinity 
to the Alexander, but the grape is larger and a little elongated ; 
and the pulp is more acid. 

It also differs in being a coarser and more pulpy fruit, 
and in possessing more of the fox flavour, and it is inferior 
to that for wine and the table. The plant is also of larger 
and more vigorous growth than either that or the Claret above 
described. It is found to be a sure grape in its crops, and is 
much cultivated in the vineyards referred to. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 189 

HERBEMONT'S ARENA. PR. CAT. No. 373. 

Arena, of Herbemont. 

This I received from the gentleman whose name it bears. * 
It was called by him Arena, on account of its being a native 
of sand hills, that being the situation where it is found wild in 
South Carolina. It makes a very excellent red wine, which is 
thought by Mr. Herbemont to be the very first in rank among 
American wines made of native grapes. It improves greatly 
by age, and when sixteen months old has been much approved 
by amateurs ; and at an exhibition of wines by Mr. H. to the 
Agricultural Society of South Carolina, it received their enco- 
miums and was pronounced a very superior wine. 

JORDAN'S LARGE BLUE. PR. CAT. No. 38. 
Jordan's blue. 

I arranged this vine in my catalogue among the exotic 
varieties, as such I judged it to be from casual observation of 
the foliage. Mr. Smith, of New- Jersey, however, thinks differ- 
ently, and enumerates it among the native varieties ; I there- 
fore give the account of it which I received from him. He 
states that it was brought to New-Jersey from New-England 
by Richard Jordan, Esq. that it is a large blue pulpy grape 
growing in large bunches, and that it is said to have yielded 
wine that was preferred by the Agricultural Society to Madeira. 
My original vine was obtained from the same source, whence 
the above description proceeds. I have not yet myself seen 
its fruit, but shall have a crop the present year, which will af- 
ford an opportunity of giving a final decision as to its foreign 
or native origin. The leaves of my vines greatly resemble 
those of the foreign varieties ; and as it is possible that an er- 



190 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



ror may have been committed at the time of receiving the 
original plant, I have obtained several others to compare 
with it. 



MORRIS' SEEDLING MALAGA. 

" 

Large Blue Seedling from the White Malaga. 

This vine was reared from a seed of the White Malaga by 
the lady of Richard Hill Morris, Esq. of Pennsylvania, and 
from the sportive character of the species produced blue fruit. 
The berries are large and rather closely set, and it is an ex- 
cellent table fruit. 

COOPER'S WINE. PR. CAT. No. 39. 

This grape I am informed by Caleb R. Smith, Esq. of 
New-Jersey, is a native of that state, where it was first intro- 
duced to notice by Joseph Cooper, Esq. The vine is of 
vigorous growth, and produces abundantly ; the berries are 
round, of a medium size and purple colour, and those which 
are ripened in the most favourable situations are tolerable for 
eating, its particular value however is for the purpose of mak- 
ing wine. By an inadvertency it was placed in my catalogue 
under the head of exotic vines, but I presume it is justly en- 
titled to be considered a native. 

CARTER'S FAVORITE. PR. CAT. No. 376. 

The foliage of this vine has much similarity to the Bland ; 
the fruit I have not yet seen, but it is represented as a valua- 
ble grape by my esteemed correspondent George Carter, Esq. 
of Virginia, who has concentrated at his seat in that state a 
great variety of the most choice and rare vines, exotic as well 
as native, besides a very large collection of other fruits. Mr. 
C. does not state that it is positively distinct from all others, 
but leaves that point to be determined by experience. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 191 



DENNISTON GRAPE. 

The first notice of this vine I received from Isaac Denniston, 
Esq. of this state, and I give a description recently received 
in his own words. 

" The native grape which I before mentioned I had acci- 
dentally become possessed of, was first known to me about 
seven years ago. It was found ^on an island in the Hudson 
river about thirteen miles below Albany, a person who had 
discovered it in bearing, afterwards brought the vine to my 
son-in-law Dr. Elliot, and I planted it in my garden* It pro- 
duced grapes the size of the Isabella, and I think it a much 
finer table grape than that. The pulp is similar to the Isabella, 
the colour yellowish red, and it has a Jittle of the musky taste, 
and when ripe is uncommonly fragrant. The vine is luxu- 
riant and a great runner. Being indigenous and hardy, it 
of course does not require to be protected. I have no name 
for it, nor have I ever heard of any vine in this part of the 
country, of the same or of a similar character." Mr. D. fur- 
ther remarks that in removing his vine he lost it, and therefore 
gratulates himself that he had previously presented some young 
vines to other persons, which prevented the extinction of the 
variety. 

HENRICO. 

I received this vine from Virginia, where it was found grow- 
ing wild in the county, whose name it bears. It is represent- 
ed as producing berries the size of the Bland, and clusters of 
half the size ; the colour pale blue or purplish, taste sweet and 
agreeable. 

CUNNINGHAM. WOODSON. 

Two varieties of native vines have been sent the past year 
from Prince Edward county, Virginia, under the above titles, 
and are now under experimental culture in the garden of a 
gentleman possessing much information on the subject, and 



192 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES, 

who will fully test their merits they are both represented to 
produce fruit as large as the Bland, but to be no wise like it 
in other respects, being superior in productiveness and flavour, 
and are also said never to mildew or rot. The former of these 
varieties has been formerly designated as the " Prince Ed- 
ward" grape ; but two varieties having been found in that 
county, the person who sent them adopted the titles which 
head this article, by way of distinguishing them. 

MILLINGTON'S WHITE. 

This vine was discovered in Missouri by Dr. Millington 
of that state. It was found north of the Missouri river the 
fruit is of good size, very juicy, and rather tart, and the skin 
is thin, each berry generally contains three seeds. 

SOLANDER'S LARGE PURPLE. PR. CAT. No. 400. 

This grape is highly esteemed in Missouri, whence I receiv- 
ed it. Having possessed it only a short period, I have not yet 
seen its fruit ; but from the description I have received, I pre- 
sume it will be among the most valuable of our natives. 

SWATARA. 

I have received from my respected correspondent, John 
Weidman, Esq. some vines of a variety, distinguished in his 
vicinity by the above title. He considers it as distinct and 
worthy of attention. From the same gentleman, I have also 
received vines of a red fox grape, which he states is more 
sweet than the common blue variety. 

HYDE'S NATIVE BLACK. 

This vine is from the vicinity of Catskill, and was brought 
into notice by Wilkes Hyde, Esq. on whose farm it was found 
in a wild state. He informs me that its fruit is black, of the 
usual size of a pistol ball, that it has no hard pulp, but is 
rather, astringent, it contains a great deal of juice, which is of 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 193 

a dark claret colour, and which he thinks would yield a valua- 
ble wine. The vine is of very luxuriant growth and a great 
bearer. 

HYDE'S ELIZA. 

This variety was originated from seed in the garden of the 
same gentleman, who sent me the preceding one, where it has 
borne fruit for two years past. 'It is a flourishing vine, the 
fruit is of medium size, blue when ripe, very sweet and has no 
hard pulp, it is at maturity the last of August, and continues 
until the end of September. Mr. M. states that he considers 
it a preferable fruit to the foreign Black cluster ; and that when 
the berries commence turning blue, it is visible only in small 
spots, which at first view appear like the commencement of 
decay, a circumstance he has not noticed in any other grape. 
Mr. H. remarks, that he calls it " the Eliza, because it was 
reared and nurtured by a beloved daughter." 



SWEET SCENTED. PR. CAT. No. 389. 

f . . ' .. ' . . .' f - * 

Male sweet scented. Vitis odoratissima, Donn Cat. Nuttall Mss. 
Vitis riparia, MICHAUX. PURSH. TORREY. 

This is a dioecious species, and I have never yet had a vine 
to produce fruit, and I believe others have been equally un- 
fortunate in this respect, for I have never seen a fruit-bearing 
vine in any collection. The fact is, that nearly or quite all 
the old vines in this quarter have been propagated from a sin- 
gle original vine, and they are all therefore of one sex. I 
have at present, however, some seedlings of one year's growth, 
which I consider to be of this species, and which doubtless 
comprise both sexes, and I shall ere long have fruit from them. 
Michaux says, that this species principally abounds on the 
shores and islands of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and Pursh 
states, that fertile plants are rarely found north of the Potow- 
mac, but that barren ones extend far south of it. 

25 



194 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



The foliage bears considerable affinity to that of Long** 
Arkansas, the leaves are unequally toothed, and slightly trilo- 
bate; the flowers are very sweet, somewhat resembling in 
fragrance the Reseda odorata. 

It is a curious fact, and indicative of the general prevalence 
of male plants, that neither Michaux, Pursh, or Torrey, de- 
scribe the fruit of this species. 

Mr. Nuttall stated to me, that the vines growing on the 
Mississippi, called the June grape, are of this species, which 
he considers the true Vitis odoratissima, and that the true 
Vitis riparia is a distinct species. Muhlenberg also enu- 
merates them as distinct, but appears to consider this as Vitis 
riparia, and annexes to Vitis odoratissima, the name of Ber- 
mudian grape. 

In consequence of there being no exhaustion of the sap, by 
production of fruit in the male variety of this vine, it grows 
with exceeding rapidity, and spreads out its numerous branches 
in every direction, soon covering a very large space so densely, 
as to render it in a great measure impervious to the sun's rays, 
and to the effects of storms. It is therefore very commonly 
cultivated in this vicinity, as a covering for arbours and other 
places, where shelter and concealment are desired. 



WINTER GRAPE. PR. CAT. No. 396. 

Chicken grape. Vitis serotina, Bartram. 

Frost grape. Vitis incisa, Jacq. 

Small frost grape. Vitis vulpina, Wild. Torrey. 

Vitis cordifolia. MICHAUX. PURSH. NUTTALL. 

This is a grape so well known, that a description may almost 
be deemed superfluous ; the berries are round, of very small 
size, and loosely set on the bunches, they are of a purple 
colour, and so tart and astringent as to be unpleasant for 
eating; they are, however, supposed to become somewhat 
meliorated by the operation of frost, and on that account are 
more sought for by boys and others after they have been sub- 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 195 

jected to its effects. The leaves are abruptly acuminate, 
bordered with irregular acute teeth, and are smooth on both 
sides, with the exception of a slight pubescence on the veins 
beneath. There appear to be two varieties differing in the 
shape of the foliage, one of them having the leaves much more 
divided or palmated than the other. 

It is the latest in ripening of all our native grapes, and the 
fruit hangs on until late in the autumnal months, and some- 
times till Christmas. The vines grow vigorously, often 
mounting and spreading over lofty trees, and are very suitable 
for forming with their numerous branches, a speedy covering 
where shelter is required, the foliage of the variety with pal- 
mated leaves is the most pleasing, but neither of the varieties 
is of any particular value, and I believe they have not yet been 
cultivated for any use of the fruit, which is alike unsuitable for 
the table or for wine, but might be used for vinegar and ver- 
juice. Pursh mentions, that this species is found in a wild 
state from Canada to Florida, which opinion I presume is cor- 
rect. I have received from Virginia a vine said to be of this 
species and to produce pleasant fruit. 

GARBER'S ALBINO. 

Vitis labrusca, v. baccis albidis, magnis ovalis. PRINCE. 

This new and peculiar variety I received from my much res- 
pected and very intelligent correspondent J. B. Garber, Esq. 
of Pennsylvania, a gentleman who with untiring zeal has 
sought to investigate the various points calculated to advance 
the vine culture, and to bring to view the merits of the respec- 
tive varieties. The original vine was raised by him from a 
seed of the native variety erroneously called at York the Lisbon 
grape, and which is described at page 188. It is the only one 
out of forty or fifty plants that he has deemed really worth 
increasing. The vine, in its general aspect, resembles its 
parent, as also does its fruit in size and form ; the berries are 
about as large as those of the Isabella, egg-shaped, and of a 
greenish white colour ; they contain a pulp which is sweet and 
are a very agreeable table fruit ; the berries hang loosely on 
the bunches, which are of good size. 



196 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

The foregoing description was received from Mr. G. who 
kindly presented me with rooted vines and cuttings, and who 
very justly remarks, that as it much resembles the York Lisbon, 
Alexander, &c. in its growth, and yet produces white fruit of 
oval form, it may be considered an anomaly among the native 
varieties. From these considerations, and the circumstance 
that an oval white native grape has long been a desideratum, 
this variety is peculiarly interesting and merits to be particu- 
larly distinguished ; I have, therefore, (with permission) given 
it the title of " Albino," to which is annexed the cognomen of 
the distinguished horticulturist who originated it. 

CAREER'S RED FOX. 

Vitis labrusca, var. 

This was received from the source whence I obtained the 
preceding one, and Mr. Garber states that it was raised from the 
same parcel of seed (all of the York Lisbon) at the same time and 
in a similar, manner ; and that although he had not a Red fox 
grape on his farm at that period, it approximates so closely to 
that variety as to be evidently one of that class, and was the 
only one among the whole number of seedlings that bore such 
affinity. The berries are round, of the size and flavour of 
the common red fox, but Mr. G. thinks them something 
sweeter : they ripen about four to six weeks later, and their 
colour where exposed is a pale, greenish red, but those con- 
cealed from the sun are nearly green. 

As this vine was reared from the seed of a dark purple 
grape, is appears probable that the pollen of the red fox vari- 
ety, borne by the wind, had impregnated the particular flower 
by which the seed of this vine was produced. 

HONEY GRAPE. PR. CAT. No. 384. 

The original vine of this fine native variety grows about 
eight miles distant from Philadelphia, and was only brought 
into particular notice within the last three or four years. It is 
only with great difficulty that it can be increased by cuttings, 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 197 

which renders it still scarce. The leaves are very deeply five- 
lobed, with irregular indentures on their borders, and the un- 
der surface is covered with down. The fruit is as sweet as 
the Meunier, the clusters larger, and as closely set with ber- 
ries, and it is deemed one of the best native grapes of our 
country. 

Such is the description which I have received from a cor- 
respondent who is distinguished for intelligence and accuracy, 
and from whom I received this vine. 

NORTH CAROLINA WHITE. 

A grape so entitled is cultivated in some collections, said to 
have been received from North Carolina, and to be entirely 
different from the White Scuppernong. I have not seen any 
one who is acquainted with the fruit, but the person who origi- 
nally procured it from Carolina was informed that the berries 
were white and of good flavour, and that the vine was a great 
bearer and a native. Of the latter point, however, I have 
some doubts, and having only recently obtained it, have 
never seen its foliage, by which that fact can be readily deter- 
mined. 

CAROLINA. PR. CAT. No. 375. 

This vine was sent me by a Virginian friend, who received 
it from Carolina as a distinct wild variety, and on that account 
he gave it the above name. It has since proved to be identi- 
cally the same as the Bland. 

KENRICK'S NATIVE. 

Vitis labrusca, wr. 

I give this title to a vine sent me by Wm. Kenrick, Esq. of 
Newton, who having heard of an indigenous vine producing 
white oval fruit, has taken great pains to obtain it. Its qua- 
lities have been highly rated to him, but I omit any details un- 
til experience shall have more fully tested that point. I deem 
it an act of justice here to remark that Mr. K. is extremely assi- 



198 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

duous in his endeavours to discover new and valuable varieties 
of fruits, and few persons evince greater discrimination and 
judgment than are shown in the written comments I have re- 
ceived from him on this and other species of culture. The 
nurseries of the Messrs. Kenrick are too well known to need 
particular mention here. 

ORWIGSBURGH. PR. CAT. No. 394. 
Orwigsburg. 

Vitis Orwigsburghi. 

The highest authority for information relative to this grape 
is that of Dr. W. E. Hulings, who named it and brought it 
into notice. That gentleman, at first, thought it decidedly 
an indigenous fruit ; he now considers it only an American 
variety of a foreign grape ; and in this latter opinion I con- 
cur, on account of the appearance of the foliage, and the 
general growth of the vine ; the fruit is juicy and the flavour 
excellent. The vine is productive and is consequently very 
worthy of cultivation ; the colour is white, the skin thin, ber- 
ries larger than the Meunler, and quite sweet. 

The original vine which was brought into notice, and from 
which the vines in the different collections have been propa- 
gated is growing in Schuylkill county, about three miles from 
Orwigsburgh, Pa. It is generally considered to be a seedling, 
and if so, it comes under the head of American varieties from 
seeds of exotic vines. It is nearly allied to the chasselas 
family, and is probably a seedling from the white variety. 

The vine, although hardy, is not more so than the White 
Muscadine, and it is not more regular in ripening its wood, if 
even it is as much so. It is quite as subject to the mildew as 
the chasselas vines are, and requires the same precautions to 
prevent its effects. The fruit ripens in September, about the 
same time as the White Chasselas. I do not consider that it 
can claim any advantages over the White Muscadine, if in- 
deed it equals that in valuable properties. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 199 



VITIS .ESTIVALIS. PURSH. MICHAUX. TOEREY. 

Summer grape. Bunch grape. 

Little grape. Blue grape. 

Vitis intermedia) Muhl. Vitis sylvestris, vel occidentalism Bartram. 

. _ v 'y'Cfj TH/ff i ' rA-i ! i j'li }*. 

The leaves of this vine are three to five lobed, dentate on 
their borders, and when young are covered beneath with a 
russet down, that becomes less perceptible on the old leaves, 
which are nearly smooth, except on the larger veins ; there are 
several varieties, one of which has the leaves very deeply lobed> 
and is the V. sinuata of Pursh and others. The V. laciniosa, 
Lin., and V. palmata, Vahl., are also supposed by Torrey to 
be referrible to different varieties of this grape, with very di- 
vided leaves. In some of our forests where the soils are rich, 
vines of this species ascend to the tops of the loftiest trees, 
their naked shoots extending from the ground to the upper- 
most branches sometimes 60 and 80 feet from the earth. The 
flowers expand the beginning of June, the berries are of small 
size, and globose form, of a dark blue colour, and pleasant 
flavour, they are rather closely set on oblong bunches, and 
attain to maturity at the end of August or in September 
the best varieties are deemed valuable to cultivate for wine, 
but the merits of the greater part of them have been as yet but 
partially tested. Michaux, and Pursh rank this species as 
a native of Virginia and Carolina, but it is frequently met 
with in Maryland and Pennsylvania, and is not uncommon in 
New-Jersey and in this state. The common appellation for 
it among the inhabitants is Summer grape, and by them it is 
readily distinguished from the fox grape or V. Idbrusca, by 
its inferiority in size, and being unattended with the disagree- 
able fox-scent which that generally possesses. I have been 
thus particular in giving the leading characteristics of this 
species, as many of the varieties of grapes which I have enu- 
merated or partially described, it was found impossible until 
further investigation in regard to their qualities, to refer to the 



200 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

particular species to which they belong ; the most part of those 
deficient in such reference belong either to V. Idbrusca, or V. 
testivalis, and I should suppose that those found north of the 
forty-first degree, belong wholely to the former of these species, 
whose native locality extends as far north as Canada. 

It has been remarked that a large proportion of our native 
vines are males, (or have abortive germs,) and are consequently 
sterile, and that this is particularly the case with Vitis (Bstwcdis. 
My opinion is, that this remark will not bear a general appli- 
cation, and will only hold good with respect to three or at 
most four of the well known species, and two of these, V. 
riparia and rotundifolia, I think are truly dioecious. 

SUSQUEHANNA. 

Deininger's grape. 

In regard to this vine it is unnecessary to enter into details, 
and it is deemed sufficient to state, that those vended by the 
above titles and which were much lauded at the time as a 
superior native variety, have proved to be indentically the 
French Meunier or Miller grape. 

WINNE. PR. CAT. No. 403. 
Buck grape. Columbian. 

Vitis Idbruscctj var. 

This is a native variety which has attracted attention within 
the last few years. It obtained the name I have adopted from 
the circumstance of the first vine that attracted notoriety, 
having been found in the garden of Mr. Winne at Albany. 

The fruit is of medium size and of the darkest purple 
colour ; when fully ripe it is generally considered equal in 
sweetness to the Alexander, but inferior to the Isabella. 
There is no doubt but it will prove a good wine grape. In 
all cases to test the real merits of a grape, the fruit should be 
left on until fully matured, and not be plucked as soon as it 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 201 

has changed colour, it is from the latter course that so many 
of our native grapes are undervalued by persons who do not 
allow them time to attain to perfection. The Buck grape (so 
called) growing in the garden of B. D. Buck, Esq. of Con- 
necticut, where the vine has been for about ten years past, is 
now considered synonymous with this, and the history of that 
vine is stated to be as follows : It was obtained by Mr. B. from 
Albany, of a person who brought it from Pennsylvania, this 
accounts in a rational manner for its being the same as the 
grape called at Albany, the Winne. Mr. B. states that the 
fruit of his vine is purple, the berries close set, the form more 
round than oval, pulp about the same as the Isabella, cluster 
not very large, and that it never sheds its fruit, which is in eating 
from eight to ten weeks, ripens in September, and hangs on 
the vines until destroyed by the frost. It is a great and con- 
stant bearer. This vine has been judged to have upon it at 
one time fifteen bushels. It has never been trimmed, and is 
now in a very flourishing state. From a consideration of the 
circumstances, a possibility arises that this vine may prove 
synonymous with some one of v the varieties cultivated in Penn- 
sylvania, and known there by a different name; and indeed it 
is supposed by some to be the same as the Alexander, which 
is so widely cultivated in that state. A correspondent at Al- 
bany mentions, that t the berries produced by his vines are of 
a round form, black when at full maturity, and possess more 
pulp than the Isabella. 

In a publication with regard to this grape, the assertion has 
been made, that it was brought from Bourdeaux, but that it 
is called a native of Albany. It is however in fact a genuine 
native, and bears those indelible marks of indigenous origin, 
which cannot be mistaken by any one the least conversant 
with the subject. 



202 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

TROY GRAPE. 

Purple Hamburgh, of Troy, N. Y. 

A vine called by the second title above stated is much cul- 
tivated in the gardens of Troy ; but as it is a genuine native, 
and the common appellation is so very incorrect and calculated 
to create much confusion, I have adopted a different one and 
called it the Troy grape. I am not certain, however, but ex- 
perience may prove it to be synonymous with some other na- 
tive variety. I made the following description from actual 
observation the past year, and think it a valuable native 
grape. 

The leaves are smooth above and downy beneath, partially 
three-lobed, with slight indentures, the teeth terminating in 
small points ; the fruit is of very good quality, and the flavour 
pleasant, with a little of the fox taste ; the form somewhat 
oval, and the size about that of the Isabella, to which it bears 
considerable affinity. It is a very hardy, vigorous vine, pro- 
duces large crops, and the fruit is held in much estimation. 

. ^ ' i ' , 

NAZRO GRAPE. 

This vine was originated from seed by Henry Nazro, Esq. 
of this state, a gentleman much devoted to the culture of the 
grape, the parent vine is the Troy grape which I have just 
described. 

The seed which produced the Nazro grape was planted in 
the fall of 1825, and the vine has borne fruit the two seasons 
of 1828 and 1829. The berries hitherto produced, have been 
of medium size, and only about half as large as those of the 
parent vine, they are of oval form, sweet and of very pleasant 
flavour, possessing less of the fox taste, and seem in these 
respects to be quite an improvement on the original- Those 
I have eaten (and which were politely sent me by Mr. N.) had 
in no case more than one seed, and one berry had none. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 203 

They ripen at Troy the latter part of August. The circum- 
stance of the diminution of seeds in this seedling is worthy of 
particular note, as most authors attribute such diminution to 
a long course of culture and a continued increase from cut- 
tings ; but here is a seminal variety, in its youth and full 
vigour possessing a characteristic generally supposed to de- 
rive its existence from age and exhaustion. Where now rests 
the basis of their arguments? 

Mr. N. remarks, that although the fruit hitherto produced 
has been rather small, still it is probable that its size may be 
increased as the plant advances in age. The vine was sent to 
me without a name, but I have thought it correct and just to 
call it after the person to whom it owes its origin. 



BEAVERDAM. 

This variety originated in Virginia, and derives its title from 
its native locality. It was sent to rne with several other va- 
rieties by my highly respected friend and correspondent Tho- 
mas S. Pleasants, Esq. of that state, who may be justly ranked 
among the most ardent friends of the vine culture. The fruit 
is dark purple, the berries scarcely a size smaller than those of 
the Bland, with a thin skin, and from one to two seeds in 
each ; they are sweet, juicy, and slightly pulpous, and are 
devoid of that musky flavour belonging to the Isabella and 
Alexander, to which some object. The bunches are large and 
winged, the berries of beautiful appearance and not closely set. 

Mr. P. considers it the finest native grape that has come 
under his notice, and states, that the original vine is such a 
well known favourite, that it is invariably robbed before the 
fruit comes to maturity, and that he has but once been able 
to obtain any in a perfectly ripe state. It is represented also 
by the people in its vicinity, to be superior to any of the wild 
grapes they have ever tasted, and in fact equal to most of those 
that are cultivated, and the owner of the original vine regards 
it as a treasure. It is of course not equal to the Chasselas, 



204 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

and Frontignac grapes ; but as an American native variety, 
I have no doubt it will on cultivation be deemed a most valua- 
ble grape, and the probability is, that it will make good wine. 
The original vine grows on a barren old field, surrounded by 
three trees, the effect of which must be to starve the plant and 
fruit. Its natural position therefore is not an advantageous 
one. If such be its character in a locality, where it is evident- 
ly stinted in its aliment, surely its merits may be enhanced by 
transplanting it to a better situation. The fruit on the original 
vine ripens about the middle of September, but cultivation 
might probably hasten its developement and maturity. 

A letter very recently received from Mr. P. contains the 
following additional remarks, which are highly interesting : 

" In the perusal of a proof sheet of your Treatise just re- 
ceived, I was forcibly struck with an observation you make 
in your description of the Bland grape, where to prove its 
native origin, you state that identically the same grape has 
been received from Carolina under the name of Red Scupper- 
nong, and that several native vines received from different 
parts of our country greatly resemble it in foliage, wood, and 
manner of growth, &c. Now the " foliage, wood, and man- 
ner of growth" of the Beaverdam grape are precisely like the 
Bland, only that I cannot speak certainly of the appearance 
in putting out in the spring, not having had my attention 
drawn to their great similarity soon enough to determine the 
resemblance in that point. I did not heretofore have full faith 
that the Bland grape was a native ; but I am now fully satisfied, 
and I entertain little doubt but that the Beaverdam is a variety 
of the same family. There is another strong point of resem- 
blance ; the bunches of the Beaverdam are, it is true, larger 
and longer, but in other respects they are exceedingly alike ; 
the berries on the Bland are, we know, generally scattering, 
not from any deficiency of bloom, but from an inaptitude per- 
haps to set themselves, so that the result is, there are many 
stems on the bunches without fruit. This peculiarity appears 
also to apply to the Beaverdam. I should therefore think it 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 205 

highly probable they are of the same class, and I have merely 
made these remarks to corroborate your views showing that 
the Bland is a native." 

In addition to the foregoing exceedingly fine variety of the 
Bland family, the author has to state that a strong probability 
exists of the discovery of a fine white variety of the same class. 

MARYLAND PURPLE. 

This variety I received from the same source whence I ob- 
tained the preceding one. It is a native of Maryland, where 
it was found growing in the woods ; the berries are stated to 
be of tolerable size, of a purple colour, and remarkably sweet 
and juicy, and attain to maturity in October. It was not 
brought into garden culture until the past year, but had at- 
tracted particular attention where growing in a wild state. 
I had proposed to give to this the appellation of Pleasant' s grape 
after the worthy contributor ; but as he states that the partial 
opportunities as yet afforded for examination have not been 
sufficient to speak decisively of its merits, I decline such course 
in this case, but with the determination to adopt that title for 
one of the finest unnamed varieties in my possession, as soon 
as I can make the selection of one worthy of it. 

LOUISIANA. PR. CAT. No. 387. 

This title has been adopted for a vine received from the in- 
terior of the state whose name it bears. It has not yet pro- 
duced fruit here, and details on that head cannot therefore be 
given at present. 

GRISWOLD'S SEEDLING. 

This vine was reared from the seed of a foreign variety by 
John Griswold, Esq. of Columbia county, in this state; the 
berries are blue, and the vine produces abundantly. 



20G NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES, 



SCOTT'S GRAPE. 

This fine variety was presented to me by George W. Jef- 
freys, Esq. of North Carolina, at the particular request of the 
discoverer, Gen. John Scott of the same state. In a letter re- 
ceived from the latter, he remarks " The original vine grows 
in the woods, on the bank of a small stream ; it is old and 
large, and runs to such a height upon a tree, that none of its 
branches can be lowered so as to form layers for planting. 
No other vine of the same variety has yet been discovered. 
Its fruit ripens about the first of October, the berries are round 
and about the middle size, skin thin, flesh juicy and delicate, 
and the flavour very fine. It belongs to the class of white 
grapes, is of an amber colour when ripe, and when used for 
tarts does not colour the pastry. As yet I have not been able 
to succeed with the cuttings, and apprehend that like our far- 
famed Scuppernong, and many others of our native varieties, 
it cannot readily be propagated in that way." I have reared 
about twenty fine seedlings from the above named vine, which 
have grown vigorously, and being now in the second year's 
growth, will no doubt produce fruit the ensuing season. 

BAILIE GRAPE. 

This title I have adopted for a fine native variety, received 
from Samuel Bailie, Esq. of Virginia, a friend and correspond- 
ent, to whose philanthropy and liberal sentiments I cannot 
render justice in any common terms. The present is one of 
thirteen varieties he has transmitted to me, all of which were 
collected in their natural localities, and whose relative merits 
will form an object of future investigation. 

Mr. B. describes the fruit to which I have given his cog- 
nomen to be of medium size, of a red colour, and free from 
pulp, and considers that it will be a fine grape when brought 
into regular culture, to which it has never been submitted 
until the present year. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 207 

CLARKE'S GRAPE. 

This variety was also received from Virginia, and is called 
after the proprietor of the plantation on which it was discov- 
ered. The original vine is very large and old, and extremely 
productive, the bunches and berries are of good size, the grapes 
ripen well, and are in perfection in August, and hang a long 
time on the vine. They .are exceedingly sound and firm, 
sweet and well tasted, and the person who owns the vine, 
states that his mother used to have the grapes gathered in the 
fall and put up in a barrel, (a layer of straw and a layer of 
fruit,) and that they were preserved in this manner during the 
winter as plump and sound as when first packed away. 

SMALLWOOD. 

This fine native vine I received from E. Smallwood, Esq. 
of North Carolina, who exercises much discrimination in re- 
gard to the qualities of valuable fruits. He esteems it the 
most desirable variety for making wine, although he has also 
the White and Black Scuppernong. The fruit he remarks 
is about half the size of the Muscatel grape. 

POND'S SEEDLING. 

This is a variety raised from a seed of the Black fox grape, 
by Mr. Samuel Pond, of Massachusetts. Mr. P. states in a 
letter to me, that the bunches are long and of good size, the 
berries round, purple, and juicy, with a thin skin. He con- 
siders it one of the best native varieties, and states, that its 
growth is remarkably vigorous, with proportionably short 
joints. One shoot of the past season measured twenty-seven 
feet, and on another of the same age he counted fifty-seven 
joints. 

GALE GRAPE. 

This vine I received from Samuel Downer, Esq. of Boston, 
who obtained it from Troy, in this state, and informs me that 



208 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

it was raised from a seed of a Smyrna raisin, by Miss Gale of 
the latter city. Mr. D. who has seen the fruit, represents the 
vine to be very vigorous and prolific, the clusters of uniform 
appearance, handsomely shaped without shoulders, and round- 
ed at the top and base ; the berries not quite as large as those 
of the Meunier or Miller grape, but of beautiful appearance, 
devoid of pulp, replete with pleasant juice, and set with great 
compactness on the bunches. Having myself examined the 
foliage particularly, I find it to bear so strong a similarity 
to the Meunier, that it is evidently of that family : the fruit I 
have not seen, but Miss Gale informs me that it very much 
resembles the Black cluster. 



NASHUA. 

A correspondent in Pennsylvania writes me, that he has two 
varieties of grapes received from the state of Maine, which are 
reported to be very fine, one of which is called by the above 
title ; neither has yet fruited with him, and he is unable to 
give descriptions of them at this time. I make them here a 
subject of record to elicit future investigation. 

WINDSOR. 

This vine I received from our highly intelligent and spirited 
fellow citizen, John C. S. Monkur, Esq. Corresponding Secre- 
tary of the Maryland Society for the promotion of the vine 
culture. He states that it was found growing wild twelve 
miles north of Baltimore, at Windsor, the plantation of George 
Fitzhugh, Esq. It is very luxuriant, a great bearer, and has 
every appearance of our common chicken grape, but very 
far exceeds it in the deliciousness of its fruit. The clusters 
are large and long, the berries round, of a blue colour, in size 
larger than the ordinary wild grape, and replete with a grate- 
ful juice, resembling in taste the Meunier or Fromente. It 
ripens there the last week in August, and makes an excellent 
wine. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 209 

OWENS' WHITE. 

For this variety I am indebted to William Owens, Esq. of 
Virginia, who has favoured me with the following remarks in 
regard to it : the berries are very large, weighing from one 
hundred and twenty to one hundred and thirty grains each. 
It is a variety of the Fox, and possesses a pleasant degree of 
the muskiness common to that class of grape. Mr. Owens 
states, that he has discovered a number of interesting wild 
varieties differing in size, flavour, and colour, some inclining 
to green, others of a yellowish white, and one of a purple 
colour which is of good flavour and of very unusual size, the 
berries weighing from one hundred and fifty to one hundred 
and sixty-five grains each. 

Another is an extremely rich black grape, flattened at the 
ends, and about one inch through its longest diameter, the 
skin thin, pulp a very deep rich purple, which upon the re- 
moval of the skin displays the granulated sparkling appear- 
ance that some water-melons exhibit when cut. Another is 
a large red grape, skin very thin, and when separated from 
the fruit, of a beautiful clear red, pulp solid, but sweet and 
musky. Another called white, but with some berries approach- 
ing a light amber, owing perhaps to greater maturity. Ano- 
ther, which is a variety of the summer grape, has bunches large 
and open, the berries of a small size, with a black polished 
surface, they are of exquisite flavour, and accompanied with a 
perfume that always reminds one of the pleasant odour exhaled 
by the woods in the spring when the flowers are in bloom. Mr. 
O. made in the summer of 1829, about nine hundred and fifty 
gallons of wine from native grapes, and computes the number 
of wild varieties of the fox-grape that he has discovered to 
exceed twenty, and of the summer or fall grape to exceed thirty, 
many of the latter differing very widely in flavour and com- 
plexion, and those of a purple or black colour in some instances 
covered with a blue mist or bloom, the largest measuring 
about half an inch in diameter. He has also met with several 
varieties of the winter or frost grape, and deems that some of 

27 



210 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



the varieties he has discovered may without doubt be hybrids 
between the respective species. 

WILLIS' FREDONIA. 

Jersey grape. Guernsey grape. 

For this vine I am indebted to John Willis, Esq. of Mary- 
land, so well known as a most skilful and intelligent amateur 
of horticulture, and to the title adopted I have attached his 
cognomen. A very particular description of the famous vine 
in Mr. W.'s garden was published in the American Farmer 
the past year. He states to me that it is now of six years 
growth, and spreads its branches to the extent of one hundred 
and twenty feet, the diameter of the main stem being only 
eight inches and three-eighths, and that he calculates the pro- 
duce the present season will be more than ten thousand bunches. 
The vine is not troubled with insects, the fruit is black and 
pleasant for the table. Mr. W. has not been able satisfactorily 
to trace this variety to its original locality. 

WILLIS' LARGE BLACK. 

Great Hack muscadine. 

I received this variety from the same source as the preceding 
one. Mr. W. remarks, that its fruit is particularly valuable for 
preserving, that when used for such purpose it loses the musky 
or fox flavour, and becomes delicious. The berries he states, 
are very large, often measuring three inches and one-fourth or 
more in circumference. The vine was brought originally from 
Roanoke, and represented to be of exceedingly vigorous 
growth. The third year sixteen shoots were allowed to grow, 
and when measured in autumn from motives of curiosity, the 
vine was found to have run in one season one hundred and ten 
yards. According to a traditional account of the southern 
Indians, this vine and the White Scuppernong have been in 
bearing among them for more than five hundred years ; but 
notwithstanding this, some of the white inhabitants attempt 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 21 1 

to trace the introduction of these natural products of the soil 
to Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Richard Willis. 



PERFUME GRAPE. 

A native vine of North Carolina, which received the above 
title from the late General Jones of that state, is thus described 
in the American Farmer, by A. J. Davie, Esq. " The vine 
grows on a small island of the Roanoke, a few miles above the 
Great Falls. It is surely the only vine of the kind in the 
state, perhaps in the world, as I have had all the islands care- 
fully examined, and another cannot be found. Its colour is 
purple, about one third larger than the common grape of 
the woods, slightly elongated, a difference in shape which 
distinguishes it from all others [? auth.] ; in its flavour it is un- 
rivalled, and when eaten diffuses a most grateful perfume. I 
prefer it to the Scuppernong. How it may succeed for wine, 
no one can say, but for the table it equals the best French 
grapes. Its fine flavour and rarity have determined me to 
propagate it both by seed and cuttings, and to offer them to 
those who wish to cultivate the finest vine of this and I believe 
of any country." [? auth.] 

WEBB'S GRAPE. 

This was discovered by Samuel Webb, Esq. of Philadel- 
phia, near the town of Woodbury, about ten miles north of 
Philadelphia. The berries are large, being as he states, about 
three inches in circumference, and their colour black when 
fully ripe. 

PALE RED VIRGINIAN. 

This is represented to me to be a very sweet and fine grape, 
with little or none of the musky taste, the original vine grows 
on the borders of a rivulet in Goochland county, Virginia. 



212 NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



EARLY BLACK SUMMER GRAPE. 

This is also a variety from Virginia, which state seems 
particularly prolific in natural varieties of the vine. The 
fruit ripens early, and is of good size. The esteemed friend 
who presented it to me remarks, that the parent vine is very 
beautiful, shooting out its long branches, which in the grape 
season present quite a striking appearance. He further com- 
ments on the difference which obtains in that section of our 
country, between the summer or bunch (V. (EStivalis,) and the 
fox grape (V. vulpina.) The former is in general much 
milder in its flavour, and considered by many persons as very 
pleasant fruit. The fox always has a rank or musky flavour 
in a greater or less degree. 

He further remarks on the propensity of the former to mount 
to a great height, and of the latter to seek a more humble sup- 
port, as has been already stated in the previous pages of this 
volume. 

PROLIFIC CHICKEN GRAPE. 

This variety is from Goochland county, Va. The fruit is 
quite pleasant, and much superior to that produced by the 
generality of vines of the same species, and ripens in the 
month of August. The vine is a great bearer, whence it 
derives its title. 

KELLOGG GRAPE. 

This title I have applied to a fine variety found wild at 
New-Canaan, Fairfield county, Connecticut, and introduced 
by J. W. Kellogg, Esq. of this island. That gentleman has 
informed me that the fruit is of larger size than the Isabella, of 
purple colour, and oblate form. It is quite sweet and fra- 
grant, with somewhat of the fox flavour, and contains a pulp. 
The vine grows with surprising vigour. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 213 

ADDITIONAL INDIGENOUS VINES. 

I have also received from different quarters, vines of a num- 
ber of varieties said to be native, but of whose merits and 
qualities, sufficient information is not possessed at present to 
give more than a list of their names. Among these are the 
following: Penniman's, Thompson's, Large Blue, Large 
Fox of different varieties, Early white of two varieties, Sloe 
and native Muscadine of several varieties, &c. These have 
all been planted as specimen vines in my experimental vine- 
yard. 

VARIETIES FROM SEED. 

In the summer of 1828, I published a circular soliciting 
from persons residing in the various sections of our country, 
the seeds of such native varieties of the vine as were found in 
their respective vicinities. I received from all quarters of the 
Union, considerable parcels of seeds, in some cases with short 
descriptions, and in others without any. These were mostly, 
in accordance with my requests transmitted by mail, an ex- 
pense I have cheerfully submitted to as well in regard to these, 
as to seeds of other interesting native productions. From the 
various sources referred to, I have reared a numerous progeny 
of vines, of the most interesting of which I here annex a list, 
designating at the same time the State from which they were 
received, together with the titles and descriptions which were 
attached to them by the contributors. 

FROM MISSOURI. 

Fall grape, No. 1 being the largest and finest of its kind. 

Do. No. 2 secondary in regard to the size of the fruit. 

Do. No. 3 smallest fruit. 
Black winter grape. White grape. 

From a different source. 
Black wild summer grape, ripe in October. 
Do. winter do. ripe in November. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 

From another source. 

Lowland grape, grows naturally in low ground and has 
very peculiar foliage. 

The first three of the eight preceding varieties from Mis- 
souri, are very productive, and Dr. Millington has made 
eight barrels of wine from vines of those varieties in a single 
season. 

FROM SOUTH CAROLINA. 

River swamp grape. Do. very acid. 

Sand hill grape, much larger than the preceding sort, and 
not so sour. 

Do. a different variety. Bullace grape. 

Garden grape. ) ^ 

Do. larg! dark purple. j tw natlve vanetles mtr - 
duced to garden culture on account of their quality. 

FROM VIRGINIA. 

Monstrous fox grape. Large sloe do. 

Maryland purple do. Beaverdam do. 

FROM TENNESSEE. 

Winter grape. Coon grape. 

Purple native grape. Blue do. 

White do. 

FROM OHIO. 

Hill grape of the Scioto. 

FROM ILLINOIS. 

Prolific grape, from the border of the prairies, two varieties. 

In addition to the plants reared from seeds of the various 
preceding varieties, I have since taken great pains to procure 
scions from the original vines, so as to perpetuate the identical 
kinds that had attracted attention in their natural state, and I 
have succeeded in transferring nearly the whole of these scat- 
tered productions of our country to my experimental grounds, 
where they will without doubt, thrive and flourish, living me- 
mentos of the horticultural riches of our country. 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 215 

I have also reared a great variety of seedlings from the cul- 
tivated kinds, both native and exotic ; these have not yet fruited, 
but when of sufficient age may be expected to produce a great 
diversity. Among them are a number from the Isabella, a part 
of which are from seeds impregnated by the Bland and the 
Meunier ; others from the Alexander, Bland, Meunier, White 
Rochelle, White and Red Malaga, White and Black Scupper- 
nong, Nazro, Scott's, Troy vine, and from Gimb rede's Fox 
grapes of the sorts exhibited to the Horticultural Society. 



GENERAL REMARKS. 

I have now completed the descriptive list of American vines, 
as far as could be done consistently with the present state of 
knowledge on the subject, and the precision and accuracy 
required. In doing this, no vine has been knowingly de- 
scribed under different heads or distinct titles ; but on the con- 
trary, all the claims to a separate origin and to peculiarity 
of character, have been examined doubtingly, from a desire to 
curtail the nomenclature, and to restrain it within correct 
bounds. It is however very possible, and even probable, that 
future examinations of those kinds but recently received from 
such numerous sources in the wide spread regions of our land, 
and which have in most instances never been submitted to a 
comparison with each other, may by a critical investigation of 
the particular properties of each, prove many which are now 
deemed distinct varieties, to be so similar as to ideutify them 
with each other, and consequently to render it necessary and 
proper to unite them under the same heads. 

With regard to the synonymse, the greatest perspicuity has 
been exercised, and that part has been rendered as perfect as 
the circumstances would admit ; and although, future experience 
may considerably modify that portion of the nomenclature, 
the arrangement so far as at present perfected, will I think 
add greatly to the diffusion of a correct knowledge of the re- 
spective varieties, and to the identity of such as have been 
hitherto considered distinct from each other. 



216 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES, 



American species of the Vine. 

In order to concentrate whatever light can be thrown on 
the subject matter of the present work, I have extracted the 
following dissertation from the Medical Repository ; Hexade 
2. vol. I. 

Account of the Species, Hybrids, and other varieties of the Vine of 
North America, by William Bartram, Esq. of Pennsylvania. 

The most obvious characters which distinguish the grape- 
vines of America from those of the old continent, are, 1. The 
berries of all the American species and varieties that I have 
seen, approach the figure of an oblate spheroid ; that is, the 
poles are flattened, and the transverse diameter is longer than 
the polar : however, I have observed that Alexander's grape, 
and some of the bullet grapes, approach nearer to an oval or 
ellipsis, which is the figure of all foreign or European grapes 
that I have seen : viz. a prolate spheroid. 2. Most of the 
American species and varieties have a glaucous and yellowish 
pubescence on the under surface of their leaves. 3. All that 
I have observed in the northern and eastern districts of the 
United States are polygamous ; i. e. those vines which bear 
fruit (female) have hermaphrodite flowers (pentandria mono- 
gynia) ; but the males have only five stamina, without any 
female organ, and are always barren. One would suppose, 
from Walter so strongly marking this character as to induce 
him to place Vitis in the class Dicecia, when Linnaeus and 
the other European botanists have placed it in Pentandria, 
(he himself being an European,) that all the grape-vines of 
the old continent are hermaphroditous and pentandrian. I 
know not, from my own observation, whether the Bull-grape 
of Carolina is hermaphroditous or dioecious, and therefore 
rest satisfied with Walter's assertion. 

With regard to the vine of America, I find a great difficulty 
in discriminating the species from varieties of hybrids, which, 
perhaps, may be partly accounted for from some of our vines 
being dioecious, and there being a greater number of male 



NOMENCLATURE OF GRAPES. 



217 



vines than of fruit-bearing ones, whose farina fecundans, 
mixing with the air and winds, is carried to a great distance to 
the female organs of hermaphrodite flowers. I shall now give 
my opinion of the distinct species or established races from 
which all the varieties or mules have originated. 

1st. The Common Blue Grape, or Bunch Grape, Vitis 
sylvestris, or V. occidentalis. This is the most common grape. 
The acini or berries are of the oblate figure, of various sizes 
on different plants, and of various tastes. Some are sweet 
and pleasant enough, having a musky flavour. They are 
nearly as large as the Burgundy grape : are black when ripe, 
having a glaucous bloom, like the damson plum. The leaves 
of this species are large : their under surface covered with a 
clay-coloured down or pubescence. They are tri-lobed, each 
lobe subdivided or dentated. Some varieties have very deep 
sinuosities, almost touching the mid-rib. 

2d. Fox-Grape, Vitis wlpina, ofBartram, V. foliis cordatis 
subtrilobis, dentatis; subtus iomentosis, Linn. Spec, plant. 
V. vulpina dicta Virginiana alba ; Plucku. aim. 392. Vitis 
vulpina dicta acinis peramplis purpureis in racemo paucis, 
sapore fatido et ingrato praditis, cute crassa carnosa, Clayt. 
n. 696. The last part of the description is decisive ; every 
word true when applied to our fox-grape of Pennsylvania ; 
and Dr. Clayton's authority should be relied on, as he was a 
native of Virginia, spent his life there, and was an excellent 
botanist. The leaves of the fox-grape are large and lobated, 
not much unlike those of the common bunch grape, but not so 
deeply sinuated and toothed ; their under surface thickly 
covered with a yellow pubescence or down ; the fruit bunches 
short, having few acini or berries on them, but these few are 
large, and of an oblate figure. Some are as large as a musket- 
ball, others are of different sizes, and the colours are black, 
red, purple, green and white, when ripe. All possess a strong 
rancid smell and taste, have a coriaceous skin, and a tough jelly- 
like pulp or tegument which encloses the seeds. Between this 
nucleus and the skin is a sweet lively juice, but a little acerb 
or stinging to the mouth if pressed hard in eating them. There 

28 



218 NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 

is another property of this grape which alone is sufficient to 
prove it to be the Vit. vulpina, that is, the strong rancid smell 
of its ripe fruit, very like the effluvia arising from the body of 
the fox, which gave rise to the specific name of this vine, and 
not, as many have imagined, from its being the favourite food 
of the animal ; for the fox (at least the American species) sel- 
dom eats grapes or other fruit if he can get animal food. 

The vines, though they make vig6rous and extensive shoots, 
never mount high, but ramble over shrubs and low trees to a 
great distance from the original root. This appears to be the 
V. taurina of Walter, and the V. labrusca of Linnaeus. 

3d. Bull-grape, Vitis taurina of Bartram, Vit. vulpina 
of Linnaeus and Walter. This excellent grape is called by 
the inhabitants of Georgia, Carolina and Florida, Bull-grape.* 
The preceding species is called fox-grape from Pennsylvania 
to Florida. The bull-grape has a stiff, ligneous, smooth stem, 
of a pale ash-colour, and mounts to a great height by climbing 
up trees. The leaves are cordated and serrated, thin, and both 
surfaces naked or smooth. The racemes or fruit bunches short, 
containing fifteen or twenty grapes at a medium. The berries 
or acini are large, near the size of a rifle-ball ; of a black colour 
when ripe ; having a bluish nebula over them, which being 
rubbed off, they appear of a deep blood-colour. In figure 
they approach to an ellipsis or prolate spheroid : however, at 
a little distance they appear black and round. This species 
is deservedly esteemed the best native grape in America, and 
would make a rich and delicious wine. The juice is sweet, 
rich and lively, and there is but little of the tough jelly-like 
substance enclosing the seed. The skin of the grape is rather 
thick, yet there is a sweet melting pulp within, which mixes 
with the saccharine juice when eaten. This undoubtedly is 
the first American grape which merits attention and cultivation 
for wine. It thrives in every soil and situation from the sea- 



* Mr. Bartram stated that the word bull was an abbreviation of bullet ; the 
grapes being so called from their approaching nearly the size of a bullet. The 
name, " taurina" is, therefore, not the most proper. 



NOMENCLATURE OP GRAPES. 219 

coast to the mountains ; it even thrives and is fruitful when 
growing in the barren sand-hills of Carolina and Florida. 

4th. Winter-Grape, Vitis serotina. Cotyledon palmated. 
This is a vine remarkable for its sweet flowers. It mounts 
to the top of high trees ; the stems and twigs more hard and 
ligneous than the bunch grape, to which I think it approaches 
the nearest. The leaves are small, cordated, smooth, thin 
and serrated. The fruit bunches branched, but the berries 
small and black, not so large as currants ; the fruit not ripe 
till late in the autumn, and the juice extremely sour and ill- 
tasted, so that even birds will not eat them till meliorated 
by the winter frosts. 

I shall now mention the varieties that appear to me to have 
arisen from a commixture of the several species or races. 

Alexander's or Tasked s grape, is a large grape, black or 
blue, the size of the fruit of the Vit. vinifera of the old conti- 
nent. The grapes approach to the elliptical figure. They 
are, when fully ripe, perfectly black, and as sweet as any grape. 
(?auth.) Many persons think them too luscious. Before they 
are quite ripe, some think they possess a little of the stingy 
flavour of the fox-grape, but my taste never could discover it. 
It has been supposed to be a hybrid between Vit. sylvestris 
(common bunch grape) and Vit. vinifera, because it was found 
on the rocky hills near the river Schuylkill, above the upper 
ferry, in the neighbourhood of an old vineyard of European 
grapes : but I believe it to be an American. 

Blanks grape. This is an excellent grape. The bunches 
large, branched, and well shaped, six or eight inches in length. 
The berries large, about the size of the common white grape 
of Europe, and round or oblate ; when perfectly ripe, of a 
dark purple or red wine colour ; the juice sweet and lively, 
having a little musky flavour, with a small portion of an agree- 
able astringency, somewhat like our best bunch or wild grapes, 
though much sweeter than any of them. If this grape is what 
I take it to be, a genuine American, it is a hybrid or variety. 
It was found in Virginia, where it is called the Virginia mus- 
cadel, and sent to me by the late Col. Bland. This excel- 



220 NOMENCLATURE OP CRAPES. 

lent grape bids the fairest, next to the bull-grape, to afford a 
good wine. 

There seems to be no end to the varieties of Vit. syfaestris, 
or bunch grape, in size and taste of the fruit, as also in the 
leaves. There is a middle-sized round grape, called Raccoon- 
grape, which appears to be much of the nature of the fox- 
grape. It is black when ripe : has much of the stingy taste 
and rancid smell of the fox-grape, and the tough jelly pulp that 
envelopes the seed ; the skin thick ; but it is not more than 
half the size of the fox-grape. 

Thus it appears to me that we have in the United States 
four species of Vitis or grape vines, viz. 

1. Vitis sylvestris, or Vit. Americana, or occidentalis, com- 
mon bunch grape. 

2. V. vulpina, fox-grape. 

3. V. taurina, bullet-grape. 

4. V. serotina, winter-grape, by some called Bermudian 
grape, and innumerable varieties and hybrids. 

By varieties I mean different sorts of an individual species, 
and by hybrids, spurious offspring by intermixture of species. 
Of the latter sort are, 

1. Alexander's or Tasker's grape.* 

2. Bland' s-grape. 

3. Raccoon-grape.* 



* I 'differ in regard to these being hybrids, they are varieties and nothing 
more. AUTH. 



221 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON CULTURE. 

THE French boast that their country possesses greater 
advantages than any other for the successful culture of the 
vine, and that for centuries her vineyards have been regarded 
as one of the principal sources of her territorial riches, and 
that the exportation of their produce has been the certain 
means of making the balance of trade with foreign nations at 
all times in her favour. If we banish from our recollection 
the once luxuriant fields of now enervated Italy, and pass from 
the recollection of the genial climes and bright sun of Spain 
and Portugal, we shall doubtless be compelled to acquiesce 
with the sons of France, so far as relates to the eastern hemi- 
sphere, but when we recur to our own happy country, combin- 
ing every variety of clime and soil, with the conscious know- 
ledge that she is yet but in her infancy, and look forward with 
the gaze of anxious hope to her high destiny, can we as Ame- 
ricans fail to reply to that nation in her own language : 

Voila I'Amerique ta rival ! 

Too long indeed have the natural riches of our soil remained 
subject to the bias of contracted vision, and dormant beneath 
the eye of prejudice. Too long indeed have Americans listen- 
ed to the counsel of strangers to their country and to its in- 
terests, rather than seek for facts in the bosom of her grate- 
ful soil, thereby allowing their own reason and intelligence to 
be the dupe of foreign ignorance, envy and rivalry. " France," 
says a French writer, (who seems more conversant with flowers 
of rhetoric than with those of horticulture,) " possesses in her 
vineyards mines of wealth, whose advantages are furnished by 
natural causes which secure to her a superiority in this respect 
which no other nation can dispute." Happily for ourselves 
we live in an age and country in which the people are but 
little prone to credit such exclusive possession of nature's gifts, 
and it will create exceeding disappointment in all unprejudiced 
minds, if the lapse of a few short years shall not place this 
affected superiority of France among the fictions and delusion! 



222 PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON CULTURE. 

of former ages. Bountiful nature, replete with benevolence, 
has bestowed on us every favour within her gift, and asks only 
of man to aid the developement of her intrinsic riches by 
the hand of culture. As to the assertions advanced by some 
foreign writers, that the same grape varies so much by re- 
moval as to entirely lose its character, and that the same kind 
of wine can in no case be made from it in different localities, 
they certainly cannot be supported by facts, and have prin- 
cipally obtained currency and credence by repetition ; for as 
positive proof to the contrary, we may quote the Pineau class, 
which has every where been recognised from the remotest pe- 
riods, and cannot be mistaken for any other ; and the Meunier, 
which is only a subvariety of the same family, can never fail 
to be distinguished. We may also enumerate the Muscat 
family, which can in no case lose their identity or the pecu- 
liarities of their class. That the quality of the fruit may be 
varied by soil, climate, &c. to a certain degree, is acknow- 
ledged and has been already avowed; the grapes may also 
be less mature and spirituous in an unfavourable situation, 
or they may not mature at all in a too rigorous or northern 
locality, but it not does thence arise that the grape loses its 
character any more than might be said of an orange tree, 
which when transplanted too far north should perish totally. 
For much as its product may be varied and modified by the 
operation of diverse causes on the maturity of the fruit, and 
by changes in the process of making wines ; still the primitive 
character is maintained, and the same grape may be recog- 
nized ; and however remote the countries may be in which it is 
planted, a doubt can scarcely exist but that a similar climate 
attended by the same mode of culture, and a like process 
in making the wine, will be attended with similar results. 
Numerous titles have been applied to the same vine in different 
districts, which have been by some supposed to have been in- 
fluenced by attendant changes of character, but which are 
in fact the result of the simplest causes, and arise in the same 
manner that some of our best known apples or peaches, in 
transmission through our country, receive numerous appella- 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON CULTURE. 223 

tions derived from the names of their owners or the fancy of 
their cultivators. 

The vines of Madeira may be enumerated as succeeding 
among us to an eminent degree, exhibiting the greatest vigour 
in their growth, and yielding in favourable locations fruit and 
wine which combine virtues equal to those whence they were 
derived. 

In making our selections, the principal point to be observed 
in addition to the natural properties of the fruit, is the necessary 
applicability of the variety to the severity or mildness of the 
climate, a subject which has been already fully discussed in 
the chapter commencing at page 59. 

It is however within the bounds of reasonable supposition, 
that species peculiar to any country with their attendant va- 
rieties, may in some cases possess a natural aptness or applica- 
bility to their respective regions. But even this peculiar 
adaptation subsides after removal by long culture ; for it must 
be borne in mind, that the species of the vine now the most 
cultivated, -was a stranger to all those countries where it now 
receives its fullest developement ; alike to the vineyards of 
France, Tokay, Spain, Oporto, the Cape, and the Madeira 
isles. And even in several of the West India islands, beneath 
a tropical sun, a number of varieties are successfully culti- 
vated, a fact of which European writers seem to be absolutely 
ignorant. 

The extent of our territory over which the vine culture may 
be advantageously diffused, will afford a subject for much 
speculation. A doctrine advanced by European writers, is, 
that the region of the maize culture is also that of the vine. 
This region in France extends from the Mediterranean coast 
nearly to the Loire, including Poitou, and the country south 
of a line from thence to Nancy. The wine country of France 
extends from the Mediterranean to the north of that line, since 
profitable vineyards are found in Champagne, Maine, Orleans, 
and the central part of Lorraine, where the maize is never 
cultivated as a crop. By parity of reason, the vine may be 
cultivated with equal profit, from the gulf of Mexico to those 



224 PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON CULTURE. 

parts of the union which lie rather further to the north than 
where the maize or Indian corn is to be considered a sure crop. 
So conscious of this character of adaptation to climate, are 
even the vignerons of other countries, that demands have 
already been made for our native varieties, to be transferred 
to other climes, and the author has already at the request of his 
correspondents, transmitted a number of American varieties to 
Marseilles, Germany, and other parts of Europe, and even to 
Madeira ; and it has been asserted, than an American vine 
introduced into France some years since, and known by the 
title of Bedford grape, is now held there in much estimation. 
This vine was carried from the town in Pennsylvania, whose 
name it bears, and is most probably the Alexander, and there- 
fore not equal to many others of our natives. 

The following remarks are from the pen of Professor Nuttall of 

Harvard University. 

" It is probable that hybrids betwixt the European Vine, 
(Vitis viniferd) and those of the United States, would better 
answer the variable climates of North America, than the un- 
acclimated vine of Europe. When a portion of the same in- 
dustry shall have been bestowed upon the cultivation of the 
native vines of America, which has for so many ages and by 
so many nations, been devoted to the amelioration of Vitis 
vinifera, we cannot imagine that the citizens of the United 
States will be longer indebted to Europe for the luxury of wine. 
It is not however in the wilds of uncultivated nature that we 
are to obtain vines worthy of cultivation, were this the case, 
Europe would to the present have known no other Malus than 
the worthless austere crab, in place of the finest apple ; no 
other Pyrus than the acerb and inedible Pyraster or stone 
Pear, from which cultivation has obtained all the other va- 
rieties. It is from seed that new and valuable varieties are in- 
variably to be obtained. There is however at the present time, 
a variety of one of the native species cultivated under the name 
of " Eland's grape," a hybrid no way in my opinion inferior 
to some of the best European grapes." 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON CULTURE. 

The Peach and the Vine being natural productions of the 
same region of the east, the opinion has been uniformly 
adopted, that a climate favourable to the one could not fail to 
be suitable to the other. And where, let me ask, does the 
former thrive to a greater degree than in many sections of our 
country ? From the shores of Long Island, and even much 
farther north, to the most southern limits of the union, the 
peach flourishes and produces fruit of the highest quality. 
In the south of France and Italy, the culture of the more 
choice and delicious varieties had given to those climes a fame 
to cope with which required the possession by other countries 
of such as combined equal natural merits. The choicest they 
could boast have been latterly introduced among us, and we 
have also originated many most luscious seminal varieties ; 
and those who possess them know from their own experience, 
and from the opinions of others who are familiar with the pro- 
duce of the countries referred to, that in this fruit we have no 
longer a rival in Europe. Hence we may deduce the most sure 
prospects of an equal success for the Vine, whose culture when 
compared with that of the Peach, is yet in its infancy. 

The power, wealth, and happiness of France, are principal- 
ly attributable to the foresight she has evinced in the introduc- 
tion to her soil of the most valuable natural productions of 
other countries. It has been remarked that perhaps no enter- 
prise in rural economy devised by the genius of a single man, 
has carried with it more important results than the first 
plantation of the Mulberry in the garden of the Tuilleries, 
formed at the commencement of the seventeenth century, by 
the command of Henry IV. At this moment, though but lit- 
tle more than a century has elapsed, during only the latter 
part of which suitable attention has been paid to the culture 
of silk, the value of the raw material amounts to $4,700,000, 
and that of its fabrication to above $16,000,000, making 
a total of about $21,000,000. The Olive, the Almond, 
and the Fig, were in like manner adopted in the agriculture 
of France, together with numerous other fruits of minor im- 
portance. The vines indigenous to her soil were absolutely 

29 



226 PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON CULTURE. 

worthless, and those originally brought from other countries 
were not superior in quality to many of the native kinds 
found in our forests ; and the number of esteemed French 
varieties, even as late as the year 1720, was far less than 
we are already able to enumerate as the natural products 
of our woods and prairies, the spontaneous gifts of nature, 
unaided by the hand of man. Yet, at the present period, 
that adopted country of the vine has nearly 4,000,000 of 
acres devoted to its culture, which yield an annual product 
of one thousand millions of gallons, of the average value of 
more than $150,000,000. 

And what country ever presented a more eligible theatre for 
agricultural pursuits than the United States ? The land pro- 
prietors are not oppressed by feudal tenures, exorbitant taxes, 
vexatious tithes, or exhausting poor rates. The land is both 
fertile and cheap, and the great diversity of soil and climate 
seem to invite the introduction of the varied products of other 
climes. The country penetrated in every direction, even to 
its remotest bounds, by navigable rivers, and intersected by 
canals and artificial roads, offers every advantage for speedy 
transmission of its productions. 

What a revolution has not the introduction of cotton already 
effected ! What results does not the silk culture already pro^ 
mise us as our reward at no distant day ! 

The Sugar Cane, for which France and the residue of Europe 
are dependent on the Indies, already forms a most important 
item among our productions, and promises ere long to be 
ranked among our exports. 

The product of the vine in like manner will be ours, with 
all its attendant advantages and blessings. The olive culture 
is already extending in the south ; and the almond, the fig, the 
date, the orange, lemon, lime, citron, filbert, maron, pomegra- 
nate, guava, stone pine, and almost every other production 
which has been heretofore enumerated among our importa- 
tions, are destined hereafter to become the abundant pro- 
ducts of our own fields, and articles of supply to other na- 
tions. Such are the happy coincidences of country, of cli- 



PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON CULTURE. 627 

mate, and of government, that all which is required of us is 
but to exercise our judgment and our skill in perfecting the 
advantages which nature has so liberally tendered ; by the ex- 
ercise of which, the balance of trade, of wealth, and of power, 
cannot fail to be for ever secured to us. 

The present extent of American vineyards, and the rapid 
advances now making in their formation, do not properly con- 
stitute part of the present volume ; but on that subject the most 
ample and detailed information will be given in the ensuing 
one. I will here therefore only give some cursory remarks on 
that head from the pen of an intelligent writer of Pennsylvania. 

" The vine culture seems to have become a favourite pursuit 
with the agriculturists of the present day, and forms an object 
of great promise in York county, Pa. Experiments have 
already shewn that the vine will not only flourish in the poor- 
er soils of that county, but that excellent wine can be made 
there, and that vineyards will become as profitable as any 
other agricultural pursuit. A portion of the lands in York 
county is poor and thin, commonly called barrens, and it has 
been proved that the vine succeeds well on it, and twenty 
acres of it, which can now be bought at from $6 to $10 per 
acre, when planted with vines, and at maturity, will be more 
productive to the owner than two hundred acres of the best 
land in the county, devoted to other culture. There are per- 
haps not less than thirty or forty vineyards within twenty miles 
of the borough of York, and nearly all commenced within 
three years. Should this disposition increase, and as a con- 
sequence the wine-press be made to take the place of the dis- 
tillery, it will benefit the morals of the community. Among 
what are called civilized nations, the vice of drunkenness has 
always been found to prevail most extensively where the vine 
is not cultivated ; while on the other hand, where that culture 
is widely extended, the temperance of the people is proverbial." 

Similar sentiments and like prospects of success seem to 
pervade all parts of our country where the culture of the vine 
has received merited attention ; and the daily increasing devo- 
tion to the subject in the formation of additional vineyards, 



228 PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON CULTURE. 

will ere long cause each section of our republic to respond to 
the efforts of the others. 

The information which I have elicited on this head from 
every part of the union, and which will form part of the matter 
of the ensuing volume, evinces when concentrated, advances 
so much greater than could well have been anticipated at this 
early stage of our progress, that I doubt not it will strike with 
amazement even the most sanguine friends of the vine. Suffice 
it here to say, that a degree of perseverance and enthusiasm 
seems to pervade all the votaries of this delightful pursuit, and a 
warm and friendly interchange of views and sentiments exists 
among them, which has been comparatively unknown in other 
species of culture ; and although the operators, from being 
disseminated over so great an extent of territory, are conse- 
quently more widely separated from each other, still the exist- 
ence of a connecting link, by friendly co-operation in one 
common cause, may justly and appropriately assimilate their 
united exertions to that joyous period in the history of France, 
when during the reign of Probus, thousands of all ages and 
sexes united in one spontaneous and enthusiastic effort for the 
restoration of their vineyards. Nor indeed when the far 
greater limits of our territory are considered, can the com- 
bined efforts of our fellow-countrymen fail to produce effects 
even more important, from the greater extent of their influence. 

The opinions of some political writers, that we should con- 
tinue to import adulterated wines and spirits of all kinds, in 
order to afford the government the means of thence deriving a 
revenue of a per centage on their value, even at the sacrifice of 
the morals of the nation, and the diminution of its wealth, by 
a course seemingly less objectionable, because less direct ; but 
which is not less fatal in exhausting our resources ; seem fast 
merging to that oblivion, where the desire and the pride of a 
truly national independence should consign them ; and we may 
hope that the day is not far distant, when America will fully 
establish and claim a rivalry with the most favoured lands of 
the vine and the olive, and proudly disclaim being tributary 
to any foreign clime. 



REMARKS ON CULTURE. 229 

CULTURE. 

The consideration of culture naturally divides itself into 
three parts. 

First, The great or vineyard culture, comprising that of 
fields and plantations on an extended scale, for the manufacture 
of wines, brandies, and raisins. 

Second, The small or garden culture, on a more limited 
scale, for the supply of the markets with fresh fruits, or for 
family supplies alone. 

Third, Hothouse culture, where artificial heat is resorted 
to, either to obviate the effects of climate, or to advance the 
maturity. 

In viewing the subject, I shall commence by considering it 
in its more extended and most important character, which will 
necessarily comprise many remarks of general applicability, 
and equally referrible to the more limited species of cultiva- 
tion, 

Great or Vineyard Culture. 

It is a subject of much difficulty to prescribe the proper 
course of culture required by the vine in every country. So 
many circumstances are connected with its growth, the excel- 
lence of its fruits, and the abundance of its crops, that a different 
treatise would almost seem necessary for every country, climate, 
and exposition. 

To what country is our attention most particularly drawn 
for lessons on this interesting subject ? To France ! to " La 
belle France!" which has emphatically stripped from ancient 
Greece her prerogative, and become "the favoured land of the 
vine and the olive." Spreading as she does over the same 
degrees of latitude as are embraced by our own country, with 
the advantage on our part of a still wider domain, it is to her 
we may look with reason for instruction suited to our proper 
circumstances, and we may be willing with pride to learn from 
a nation celebrated for her liberality in the diffusion of all 
knowledge connected with the sciences and the arts. 



230 GREAT OR VINEYARD CULTURE. 

The manner of cultivating the vine presents in general 
great differences ; but in every district, whatever may be the 
exposition and situation of the soil, the cultivators follow esta- 
blished practices. All the methods adopted, notwithstanding 
their variations, may be nevertheless essentially good, but it is 
impossible at the same time that they should suit every coun- 
try, I will not^ therefore undertake here to describe the whole. 
From the high state of perfection to which the vineyards are 
carried in Provence, Duhamel has adopted the course of 
management there practised as one proper to impart general 
instruction, and from the last edition of his work published 
in 1825, I shall extract what is deemed most important to 
my purpose. 

The culture having a powerful influence upon the epoch of 
maturity, and upon the quality and size of the fruit, it is to 
the choice of a judicious system in its operations, that we 
should bestow our particular attention. The principal object 
of a vigneron, is that the grapes may acquire the saccharine 
matter, which is the true principle required in the fermentation, 
and this is only to be obtained by using all possible means to 
complete the maturity of the grape. The heat which accu- 
mulates in the earth during the summer, begins to exhale from 
it as soon as the nights become cool, which is very frequently 
before the grape is completely mature. It is therefore advise- 
able to keep the vines trained low, so that the grapes may 
be much nearer the earth in a cold climate, and may re- 
ceive the benefit of that heat. This influence of heat from 
the earth varies much in several respects. It is greater in 
black soils because they absorb more of the solar rays, and 
also in vineyards where the plants are distant from each other, 
because the rays can then penetrate to a greater degree ; and 
upon declivities and sloping lands, because they receive more 
of the sun's heat, and on dry soils, because the heat is not car- 
ried away by the influence of water. This heat continues 
longer on the hills and against walls and places sheltered from 
winds, than on the summit of mountains and in plains. The 
great quantity of leaves, stalks, and poles, form a covert, which 



GREAT OR VINEYARD CULTURE. 231 

prevents the rapid evaporation of that terrestrial warmth, and 
it is from this effect that they account for a result contrary to 
one of the precedents already stated, which has been observed 
in certain vineyards around Paris where the vines touch, but 
nevertheless often attain to an earlier maturity, than neigh- 
bouring vineyards where the vines are more remote. 

An entire misconception appears to exist among some cul- 
tivators of the vine in the, colder latitudes of our country. 
Acquainted as they are with the difficulty of maturing many 
varieties of grapes in their respective locations, they apply 
manure profusely for the purpose of insuring success, which by 
causing the plant to advance greatly in the growth of its wood 
and foliage, and to continue this state of verdure to a much 
later period, has absolutely an effect directly the reverse of 
what was desired and anticipated, by retarding the growth 
and maturity of the grapes, and often serves to prevent their 
ripening at all, when otherwise they would not have failed to 
have been perfectly matured. 

So many facts conduce to prove the influence of culture 
upon the quality of the fruit, and consequently on that of the 
wine, that no one can be ignorant of it ; the bunches which 
ripen in Sicily, and in the isles of the Archipelago, on the 
tops of the tallest trees, in Italy on trees cropped down to ten 
or twelve feet in height, in the plains of Languedoc to stocks 
but two or three feet in height, could not ripen in the north 
unless trained within a few inches of the ground or against 
walls. This indicates what is really the fact, that if is indis- 
pensable that a different course of culture be pursued, applica- 
ble in each case to the respective climate where the vine is 
planted. Vineyards planted upon very steep hills require a 
different mode of treatment from those which are on plains, 
and those in moist soils from others in dry situations. Different 
varieties of vines also need some variation in their manage- 
ment, and inattention to these points is the reason why many 
have failed of success, who have endeavoured to improve the 
quality of their wines by the introduction of plants from the 
most celebrated vineyards, without adopting the methods of cuK 



232 GREAT OR VINEYARD CULTURE. 

ture pursued by those who were successful in their management. 
The details which will be given hereafter, when speaking of 
the different French vineyards will fully establish these facts. 
The Romans reared their vines by fastening them to certain 
trees, as the poplar and the elm, &c,, whence these trees were 
said to be wedded to the vines, which gave rise to Ovid's ele- 
gant and entertaining story of Vertumnus and Pomona. The 
vines, as has been already stated, mounted to the very highest 
branches of the loftiest trees, and even overtopped them ; and 
Pliny states that on this account the grape gatherers, in time 
of vintage, put a clause into their covenants when they were 
hired, that in case their , feet should slip and their necks be 
broken, their employers should give orders for their funeral 
fire and tomb at their own expense. This mode of culture is 
still continued in that country, as well as in many parts of 
Sicily, where Swinburne tells us, in the walks under the rocky 
cliffs of Posilipo, the peasant is seen swinging from the top 
of a tree on a rope of twisted willows, engaged in trimming 
the poplar and the luxuriant tendrils of the vine, while the 
whole vale rings with his rustic ditty, which so naturally brings 
to mind the verse in Virgil 

" Hinc alta sub rupe canet fronrlfttur ad auras. 1 * 

The lopper shall sing to the winds under the lofty rodu 

Preparing the Ground. 

Although various modes are pursued in the preparation of 
soil by trenching or ploughing it to a greater or less depth, 
and in extending this preparation to the whole field or only 
to broader or narrower strips where the rows of vines are to 
be planted, still there cannot exist a doubt that the more per- 
fectly this first operation is accomplished, and the more light 
and mellow the earth thereby becomes, the more rapid will be 
the advance of the vines from the advantages thus afforded for 
the extension of the roots. The French writers universally 
allow, that in preparing for a vineyard, it is preferable that 
the whole ground should be trenched to the depth of one foot 



PREPARI3SG THE GROUND* 233 

and a half, and that at all events this should extend a foot or 
more in breadth, where the rows of vines are to be planted, 
which operation is usually performed the year previous to 
planting. The French vineyards being mostly on stony ground, 
it is often necessary to dig out many of the stones in order to 
facilitate the extension of the roots, and to render the after 
working of the ground less laborious. In such cases these 
stones are gathered in heaps or placed as at Cote-Rotie in 
lines, in such manner as to prevent the soil being washed away, 
thus affording economical terraces much more solid than those 
formed by hedges of shrubs, as is generally the method pur- 
sued. London seems averse to cultivating the earth to a great 
depth, and makes the remark, that "in nine cases out of ten, 
the unfruitfulness of the wall trees in England is owing to the 
too great depth and richness of the borders, and the continual 
cropping and digging of their surfaces ;" but other writers in 
speaking of the vine, state that the ground should be dug to 
the depth of two and a half or three feet. The safest measure 
to pursue, is to read all that others have to say, and then to ex- 
ercise one's own judgment. 

The course which I should most approve and recommend, 
both from considerations of economy in labour and beneficial 
results, is to plough to as great depth as can be done, with 
four oxen or horses and a plough of proportionate strength, 
or by having two ploughs to follow each other ; this opera- 
tion should be performed early in the season, after having 
covered the surface with a good coat of compost or rich loam, 
or if stable manure can alone be had, it should be that which is 
old and decomposed, and where all scent has evaporated ; after 
two or three weeks 'have elapsed, harrow it and clean it from 
noxious weeds. This ploughing and after harrowing can be 
repeated twice or thrice ^during the season at suitable periods 
from May to November, and the oftener it is performed the 
better, as it serves not only to render the soil completely per- 
vious to the roots, but also ameliorates it by subjecting every 
part of it to the operation of the atmosphere, and by allowing 
the evaporation of superabundant humidity. At the last 

30 



234 PREPARING THE** ROUND. 

ploughing in October or November, it is particularly recom- 
mended to furrow to as great a depth as possible, by the use 
of two strong ploughs to follow each other. The coverings 
of compost, or decomposed stable manure, can be repeated at 
more or less of the several ploughings, and in all cases with 
great advantage. During these preparations of the soil, all 
large stones should be removed, as they would obstruct future 
operations, but the smaller ones will be rather beneficial than 
otherwise. 

The final harrowing in November will leave the ground in 
a suitable state to receive the vines, the various ploughings 
having mellowed the earth to the depth of nearly or quite 
two feet. Another method of preparing the ground, and 
generally deemed still more advantageous, is by double 
trenching, which is performed in the following manner, in 
case the operation is extended to the whole surface. Mark 
oat a given plot, either an oblong or a perfect square, then 
strike a line at one end, and mark off a strip of two feet in 
width, from this dig out the earth to the depth of two spits, 
which remove by a cart or wagon to the opposite extremity, 
this of course will leave an excavation for the whole breadth 
of the plot of two feet in width, and about the same depth ; 
next strike the line and mark off another strip of two feet ad- 
joining the first ; from this remove one spit or foot of earth 
and throw into the first excavation or trench, on this throw a 
thick coat of compost, rich loam, or manure of the description 
before mentioned, and above this throw a second spit of earth 
from the second trench ; the result of this operation is that 
about a foot of the surface mould is placed below, and a foot 
of the lower mould is brought to the surface, with a layer of 
manure between the two. This process is to be continued 
till the plot is completed, and it will be at once perceived that 
the requisite quantity of manure should be placed on the 
ground previous to commencing the other operations, this 
should be laid in heaps of about a cart load each. The prin- 
cipal objection to this mode of preparation is the enhanced 
expense attending it when compared with the former mode, 



PREPARING THE GROUND. 235 

but when men are employed who understand it, the requisite 
disbursement is not so great as would be supposed, and no 
men are in general more competent to its performance than 
the Irish emigrants. 

I have found the expense of this mode of preparation to ave- 
rage about $12,75, for every ten thousand square feet of sur- 
face. It is probably as much on account of the expense as from a 
consideration of the labour in. removing the stones, that in many 
vineyards established on stony soils, they trench only a narrow 
strip of ground where the row of vines is to be planted, and 
this course may be in like manner pursued by those among 
us who are averse to incurring greater expense, and in doing 
it the following mode may be pursued. Having marked out 
by lines the strip to be trenched, dig out the earth to the depth 
of one foot, and throw on one side of it, and remove the earth 
to the depth of another foot, and throw on the other side ; 
then recommence by throwing the former at the bottom of the 
trench, and after covering it with a thick coat of compost or 
manure, place the remainder of the earth on the top of it. It 
will readily be understood, that as the advantage of preparing 
the whole plot in this manner i proportionably greater than 
that of a part only, in like proportion to the breadth of the 
strips of ground thus trenched, will be the advantages derived 
from it, by affording the means of a more wide and easy ex- 
tension of the roots. 

Those consequently who are willing to incur the disbursement 
requisite for an entire preparation of the ground, will reap ad- 
vantages far exceeding the difference in expe-nse, and I would 
recommend that in planting a vineyard which without doubt 
may stand for ages, no parsimony or false economy be introdu- 
ced ; but that every disbursement be considered according to its 
relative importance as connected with the great object in view. 
Where the planting of the vines is deferred till spring, the 
ground should be again ploughed to as great a depth as pos- 
sible as soon as it is sufficiently dry, and be followed by the 
harrowing as before. The more compact the soil, the 
deeper it should be worked in preparing it. If it is low arid 



PLANTING VINES. 

wet, particular pains should be taken for draining off any stag- 
nant waters. 

Planting Vines. 

In all climates where the excessive cold is not an insur- 
mountable objection, the fall planting is to be preferred. And 
the advantage is the same with the vine as with fruit trees. 
It allows a sufficient period for the ground to become settled 
and compact about the roots, and the latter become prepared 
during the same space of time, to throw out the small fibrous 
roots whose vegetation commences at the first return of spring, 
uninterrupted by any retardment which a spring removal is 
calculated to produce.. Their growth in such case seems un- 
affected by the transition, and the settled state of the earth 
which allows the young roots to extend themselves promptly, 
forms a powerful protection against the effects of drought, 
whereas when they are removed in the spring, the looseness 
of the earth for a considerable period, retards the advance of 
vegetation, and renders them liable to much injury, thereby 
causing many vines to entirely fail unless they are nourished 
by frequent waterings. 

In the colder latitudes however, spring planting will be ab- 
solutely necessary on account of the climate, for it is well known 
that vines planted in the spring become by the summer's 
growth, established in the soil, and acquire sufficient strength 
and vigour to resist severities of climate, which would in many 
cases prove fatal to them if planted in the autumn, whereas in 
the latter case sufficient time would not be allowed for the roots 
to take hold of the soil, and to establish themselves in their new 
position. In removing the vines it is necessary to keep the 
roots moist from the time they are taken up until replanted, and 
they should be also well watered immediately after planting. 

An intelligent Swiss correspondent advises me, when plant- 
ing to dip the buts of scions and the roots of vines in a mixture 
of cow droppings and water. The holes for the vines should 
be two feet deep, and the same square or in proportion to the 
size of the vines, being made in all cases sufficiently capacious 
to allow the roots to take their proper position. 



PLANTING VINES. 237 

The autumnal planting should take place at the fall of the 
leaf, say in the eastern states after the 20th October ; in the 
middle states, and as far south as Georgia, it should be per- 
formed in November, and in Alabama, Louisiana, and Flori- 
da, in December. I am convinced that where the winters are 
severe, early fall planting is much more advantageous than 
when it is deferred, as the vines will form young roots the 
same season, which will greatly aid them in supporting the ap- 
proaching rigours of the climate. But where the great seve- 
rity of the winter renders spring planting necessary, it should 
be performed at the earliest possible period after the frost has 
left the earth, which in this latitude is generally from the 5th 
to the 15th of March. 

A new vine should not be placed in the precise spot whence 
an old one has been removed, but the earth must be allowed 
time to resume its natural vigour. 

The earth that is used to fill in the holes or trenches, should 
be pulverized ; and in doing this, and in every other operation, 
it is very desirable that the earth which has been meliorated 
by the influence of the atmosphere, be placed at the bottom, so 
as to be nearer to the roots. 

As a measure of economy, the trenches for planting may be 
opened with a heavy plough, which can be run several times 
in the same furrow, until it is of the requisite depth, and any 
additional clearing out of the earth deemed necessary can be 
done with the spade. 

In planting vines, the French writers recommend giving 
them an oblique, or rather a curved position, by laying the 
root across the bottom of the hole, and leaning the upper part 
of it to one side, and assign the same reason as given for 
planting cuttings obliquely. 

in all plantations of vines care should be taken that they 
be as far as possible of uniform size and strength, as young 
ones do not prosper to an equal degree when mingled with 
older and stronger ones. 

If the ground has been well worked and prepared beforehand 
the holes for planting the vines need not be more than a foot 



538 



DISTANCES TO BE OBSERVED IN PLANTING. 



or eighteen inches square, with a depth of one and a half or 
two feet according as the size of the plants may require, but 
if the previous preparation has not been thoroughly performed 
they should be two feet every way. In planting cuttings in 
prepared ground, no larger holes are required than can be 
made with a pin of iron or hard wood, called a dibble, such 
as is generally used in planting cabbages, &c. 

In planting vines, leave the buds always open to the air and 
free from covering ; some persons cover the whole vine when 
they plant, which is an erroneous procedure, as a rooted 
vine will support itself, but the ground when raised often be- 
comes heated by warm rains, and rots or moulds the vine, in' 
consequence of which many perish. 

Distances to be observed in Planting. 

The distance at which it is desirable to plant vines cannot 
be subjected to any fixed rule, but should be regulated by cir- 
cumstances, and must depend upon the kind of culture desired 
to be adopted, upon the wish to have more wine or that of finer 
quality, and also on the nature of the soil. Those who wish 
to form hautins or high trained vines, and those who form trel- 
lices which admit of their extension, should plant the vines 
more remote than they who train their vines low. It is also to 
be considered, that the less the vines are confined as to space, 
the better are they nourished, and the more are they exposed 
to the beneficial influence of solar heat ; but in poor soils, 
if placed more distant, they will attain to a greater age than 
in rich soils. In the department of Ain, the vines are planted 
in quincunx, and at a foot and a half distant, an arpent thus 
containing 5000. 

Vines planted in double rows, with a space of two feet be- 
tween them, and a space of three feet intervening between every 
two rows, are by many deemed the most advantageous in regard 
to duration, abundant produce, and quality; because they have 
the more space to extend their roots ; and their foliage and 
fruit partake more fully of the beneficial effects of air and sun. 
The intermediate space need not be lost, for some branches can 



DISTANCES TO BE OBSERVED IN PLANTING. 239 

be trained to occupy it, or it can be sown with lentiles, beans, 
barley, turnips, &c. When it is desired in a warm climate to 
have abundance of wine without exhausting the soil, the vines 
must be placed at a greater distance, six, eight, and even ten 
feet apart, and they can be ranged in parallel rows, with the 
branches trained horizontally in the line of the rows, by means 
of poles fixed in the ranges of the vines. It is also an excellent 
method, where it is desirable to raise grain, and other articles 
on the same ground to plant the vines in ranges, at the distance 
of twenty or thirty feet, for not only do they produce excellent 
wine, and abundant crops, but in hot climates the vines trained 
in palisades shelter and increase the productions of the in- 
tervening spaces. It is now well understood, that the more 
space the vine is allowed whence to derive its nourishment, 
with the more air and more sun ; the greater will be the ad- 
tantages derived from it, in addition to which it requires less 
labour. The warmer the climate, the greater the distance 
at which vines should be placed from each other. In the 
neighbourhood of Paris, which is one of the most northern 
localities of vineyards, they plant them but two feet apart, 
which is the least possible distance that should ever be allowed. 

In the detail of the different modes of culture pursued in the 
respective vineyards of France, I shall state the distance gene- 
rally adopted in each. 

In Italy, the vines are left to mount the trees, but although 
this culture may suit a climate so hot, that the shade of the 
branches will not prevent the ripening of the grapes, still it 
is unsuitable to more northern locations, where vines so trained 
could not mature their fruit, and consequently would not pro- 
o!uce good wine ; indeed it is asserted that in every climate 
where they are thus trained, the wine is inferior. 

The most simple manner of establishing a vineyard to be 
cultivated in hautins, or high trained vines, is to plant trees 
headed down to eight or ten feet, of about two inches in diame- 
ter, and at two toises distance from each other, and when they 
become established, to plant beside each tree from one to four 
vines which are first trained on the branches, and are then led 



240 DISTANCES TO BE OBSERVED IN PLANTING, 

in festoons from one tree to another. The intermediate soil 
is usually cultivated in grain or vegetables. This species of 
culture when it is properly attended to, produces an effect very 
pleasing to the eye. In some parts of Italy, this mode of cul- 
tivation is pursued by planting dead trees to support the vine, 
which last twelve or fifteen years. In Trevisan, they make 
large trenches at twenty feet apart, and ten feet from each 
tree, which are planted in quincunx. They put -therein four 
vines two feet and a half from each other, which are after- 
wards trained along until they approach the trees that are 
to support them ; this practice is much recommended. 

One of the most advantageous and agreeable modes of culti- 
vating the vine, is to plant it in quincunx or in a line, with trees 
alternately, which must be kept very low, say two or three feet 
high only, and on which are left a small number of shoots an- 
nually ; the distance between the trees to be ten feet. The vines 
must be pruned in such manner that they may have every year six 
branches, each one of which is to be attached to the tree near- 
est to it. These branches form festoons, producing quantities 
of grapes which are near enough to the earth to enjoy the bene- 
fit of the heat emanating from it, and are not deprived of that 
of the sun. Maples have been generally employed for this 
purpose, but some eminent writers prefer the hawthorn, be- 
cause its growth is more slow, it also accommodates itself to 
poorer soils, and its foliage does not cause so much shade. 
Vines thus trained are to be found in the island of Madeira. 

It has been a matter of surprise that this practice, so in ac- 
cordance with theory, has not been more generally adopted ; 
for if living trees were deemed objectionable, stakes could be 
used to supply their places. There are indeed some localities 
where they substitute for trees, poles of the size of a man's 
arm, six or eight feet in height, and divided or forked towards 
the top. These are sunk deep in the earth, at the distance 
of six or eight feet, and at the foot of each is planted a vine 
whose shoots are conducted from one to the other by degrees 
in the form of festoons. In some of the most southern de- 
partments of France, the vines are planted very distant from 



DISTANCES TO BE OBSERVED IN PLANTING. 241 

each other, the vine is trained with a single stalk to the 
height of two feet, and the plough is frequently used to do the 
labour. 

In Burgundy, Champagne, and in the environs of Paris 
and Orleans, and other places in that section of France, the 
vines are trained as near the earth as possible, each one to 
a pole or stake, and the labour is done with a pick-axe. And 
even in Italy, near Barletta, the vines are trained only two 
feet in height, in order, as it is said, to mature the grapes 
the more. In some of the islands of the Archipelago, and 
in a few instances in France, the vine is left to run upon 
the ground ; and Zalloni states that it does not appear to in- 
jure the quality of the wine produced from those he noticed, 
as would probably be the case in a climate less warm and dry. 

Some eminent French writers, taking into particular consi- 
deration the great quantity of wood consumed in countries 
where it is scarce, do not object to the culture of the vine 
without poles where it is practicable, on account of the econo- 
my which can thereby be exercised in saving time and ex- 
pense ; but my own impressions are, that in any case such 
course would be but a false economy, and would cause in its 
results far greater loss and injury to the crops than the amount 
saved by it. So plentiful however is the article of wood 
throughout our country, that it need not be made an object of 
great consideration. 

In the vineyards in the vicinity of Bordeaux, Rochelle, 
Lyons, and Angers, the young vines are trained on poles, 
while the old ones are kept quite low, and the ground is work- 
ed with the pick-axe. 

The extraordinary difference in vigour and other charac- 
teristics between the American and foreign vines, indicates 
that a corresponding variation in the distance at which they 
are to be planted, is not only reasonable but necessary. And 
from the greater developement which our native vines seem to 
require, I conceive that they may be much more successfully 
cultivated by being allowed to cover a much larger space than 
is assigned to foreign vines, and that their crops under such 

31 



242 



REARING PLANTS FOR VINEYARDS. 



circumstances will be much more abundant. I therefore think 
that if the rows are planted six feet asunder in the same man- 
ner as the foreign sorts, the vines should be placed twelve feet 
apart in the rows, so as to give space for training of at least 
double the portion of wood allowed to the exotic kinds ; and 
it is my opinion, drawn from their apparent natural character, 
that the produce from each vine placed at such distance, will 
be far greater than from two vines planted at half the dis- 
tance. 

Distinctions must doubtless also be made between the 
native varieties, as some among them grow with an exceeding 
degree of vigour, and seem to render an extensive develope- 
ment absolutely necessary to their success, while other kinds 
are less prone to extend themselves than many of the Eu- 
ropean varieties. These variations in character, and the 
opinions of the most intelligent vine growers of our coun 
try on points connected therewith, will be made the subject of 
after comment. 

Rearing Plants for Vineyards. 

M, Antoine David, a celebrated French writer, most appro- 
ved of the custom now prevalent, of forming nurseries of 
vines, in order to have at all times a supply of rooted plants, 
which having been reared in the vicinity of the spot where 
they are destined to be permanently planted, evince by their 
progress, whether they have met with that appropriateness of 
soil (terrenum aptissimum) which is requisite for a speedy 
and perfect developement. These nurseries furnish all the 
plants required to replace such as have failed or may languish. 
The plant has in this case the same age, and will allow of 
forming provins if necessary. 

He also supports this practice by the observations of Colu- 
mella, whom Olivier de Serres called his master and oracle. 
In stiff soils, where scions meet with numerous obstacles to 
their speedy establishment, rooted plants alone should be em- 
ployed, as their success is certain, and if planted with proper 
care, and attention to manuring, a vineyard may soon be form- 
ed both durable and of abundant produce. 



REARING PLANTS FOR VINEYARDS. . 243 

When rooted plants are not obtainable for the purpose, 
there are two other methods of obtaining vineyards, viz: from 
scions and from layers. In Provence, cuttings or scions are 
seldom used, but preference is given to layers, because they 
are much less subject to perish, have more strength to resist 
the extremes of cold and heat and unfavorable weather, and 
also because they grow much faster, and consequently yield 
fruit at an earlier period. Nevertheless cuttings may be plant- 
ed in place of layers in light and sandy soils, but stiff soils 
absolutely require rooted vines for the purpose. This mode 
of raising the vine was long known to the ancients, and by far 
the greatest number of authors who have treated on agricul- 
ture, have supported the precepts of Columella. These, as I 
have already stated, are generally followed in Provence, and 
Duhamel asserts that they may be adopted universally, without 
fear of error. 

Some authors however prefer scions to large rooted plants, 
and these again differ on the point of preference between 
scions composed wholly of new wood, and those which have a 
joint or more of the two years' old wood. It is also a ques- 
tion whether scions had better be planted at once in the situa- 
tions they are to occupy, or whether it is best to plant them the 
first season in a nursery, whence they can be transplanted the 
next year. In planting the scions, they should be put a foot 
or more in depth, and French writers recommend that in the 
operation the lower end should be curved, which, by causing 
a greater accumulation of sap, as it ascends more slowly 
when they are thus placed, disposes them to form roots more 
speedily. When rooted plants are used, this precaution is 
unnecessary ; and these, it has already been mentioned, it is 
deemed most advantageous to plant in autumn. 

In the formation of vineyards, Duhamel deprecates the cus- 
tom of mingling a great variety of grapes in one plantation, 
and attributes to this cause the inferiority of the wines in some 
of the most favoured regions of France ; and states that it 
should not be forgotten that every grape has a distinguishing 
principle peculiar to itself, and that as some kinds will enter 



244 



REARING VINES FROM CUTTINGS AND EYES. 



speedily into a state of fermentation, when others will be slow 
in that process, these opposite characters may injure both the 
perfection of the wine and its preservation. 

Rearing Vines from Cuttings and Eyes. 

Various methods have been adopted and pursued in this 
species of propagation, for while some persons differ in the 
length and number of eyes allowed to each cutting, many vary 
in regard to allowing a greater or less portion of the cutting 
to remain above the surface of the ground, while others cover 
them totally with the earth. 

A difference also exists in respect to position, and in placing 
them either perpendicularly, obliquely, or horizontally in the 
ground. Some writers insist that wood of two years old 
should alone be used for cuttings, others that there should be 
a portion of the old wood to form the base of the cutting, 
while by others this is deemed of no possible importance, and 
by some who prefer the young wood altogether, is considered 
rather detrimental. The most common course pursued to form 
cuttings, is to leave to each three joints or eyes, the wood 
being cut smooth off close beneath the lower one ; these are 
planted either perpendicularly or obliquely at a sufficient depth 
to entirely cover two of the eyes, and to consequently leave 
one above the surface. In some cases the earth is then raised 
so as to entirely cover the upper part of the scion, but that 
portion is more generally left entirely free and open to the air 
The same method is adopted by others with this difference, 
that but two joints are allowed to each cutting which conse- 
quently only admits of one to be beneath the surface. 

It might perhaps be advantageous where the upper part of 
the cutting is left exposed to cover the end with a composition 
of beeswax and rosin, but I do not recollect to have ever seen 
this measure adopted. French writers advocate the use of 
long cuttings containing four or five joints, in order that by 
placing them for a greater length in the ground, they may 
thereby form from the several joints distinct sets of roots. 
But so far as experience has tested the fact among us, the 



HEARING VINES FfcOM CUTTINGS AND EYES. 245 

finest vines have been raised from short cuttings of only one 
or two eyes, and itf seems to be rational that single eyes should 
make the most perfect plants, as I look upon it as one of the 
axioms in horticulture, that a young plant is the more perfect 
in proportion as it is divested of any section of an old one. 
The only advantage that appertains to long cuttings which I 
can perceive, is that by extending to a greater distance in the 
earth, they are more protected against the effects of drought 
during the first season ; and in planting vineyards on declivities 
they are less likely to be torn away by floods of rain, &c. 

Much stress is laid by some on the point of placing the cut- 
tings in a sloping or oblique position in the earth ; but having 
myself practised both this and the perpendicular position in 
my plantations, I have never discovered any difference as to 
their success. It is said that in some parts of Germany they 
practice the following mode : Having formed cuttings of 
three eyes each, they dig holes at suitable distances where the 
vines are to be permanently located, and place two of these cut- 
tings horizontally in each, and cover them with earth to the 
depth of about one inch and a half. By this mode it is said 
very few fail, and it being on the same principle as plant- 
ing eyes, but with thrice the means for success, I doubt not 
it is an excellent plan to pursue. The practice of raising vines 
from single eyes or joints is now very prevalent. It is neces- 
sary in preparing them to leave half an inch of wood, both 
above and below the joint ; some persons leave an inch each 
side, and others half an inch above, and two inches below the 
joint. These are planted from one and a half to two inches 
-below the surface with the bud uppermost, and their positions 
may be marked by stakes to prevent their being disturbed. 
Moderate waterings sufficient to keep the cuttings moist, but 
not wet, are beneficial in case the season should prove dry. 
I have understood that the following method has been prac- 
ticed in South Carolina, with success : A piece of moist 
ground having been selected, the eyes were prepared by cover- 
ing the ends with a composition of beeswax and rosin, and 
they were then placed ione inch below the surface, and covered 



46 REARING VINES PROM CUTTINGS AND EYES. 

with half an inch of fresh stable manure, water was next pour- 
ed on to settle the earth around, and a covering of moss 
spread over the surface to preserve moisture. The manner 
of proceeding just detailed seems more particularly applicable 
to the southern states, and to localities naturally dry and arid, 
for in general, very moist soils are objectionable for nurseries 
or plantations of the vine. Dr. Hillings has remarked to me, 
that some varieties do not succeed from eyes equally well as 
by other modes, and cites the Honey grape as an instance. 

In the states north of the Carolinas, the spring is the most 
proper season for planting cuttings, on account of the frequent 
extreme severity of the winters in many parts, which would 
greatly injure or destroy them. Even a top covering as has 
been suggested by some persons, would be insufficient in this 
latitude, although it might suffice south of the Potowmac. 
In the more southern states it is generally preferred to plant 
them in November and December, although many defer it 
till February and March, and even April, and succeed very 
well in case their buds are not too far advanced. Berneaud 
states, that a year or even two is deemed to be gained by fall 
planting, and that it is said if half the slips are planted in the 
fall, and the residue the following spring, that at the end of 
five years, the former will have borne fruit three times, while 
the latter will have borne equally well but once ; there can be 
no doubt that the planting of cuttings in the fall, carries with 
it the same proportionate advantages, as planting trees at the 
same season, as it in like manner allows time for the ground to 
become settled, and prepares the scions to push out their young 
fibres at the first incitement of vegetation. The difference in 
effect between planting trees in spring and autumn, is full two- 
thirds of a season's growth, besides a great saving in the lives, 
and my opinion is, that advantages fully equal are secured by 
pursuing the same course in the planting of vines and scions. 

The season of pruning the vines is that at which it is most 
convenient and advantageous to prepare the cuttings, and this 
is performed either in the autumnal or winter months. But 
should it be inconvenient to complete their preparation at that 



REARING VINES FROM CUTTINGS AND EYES. 247 

moment, the shoots may be cut into suitable lengths and buried 
in the earth, or placed in some other situation calculated to pre- 
serve them sufficiently moist to await a period of leisure. The 
wood selected for cuttings should be from vigorous shoots and 
such only as are perfectly ripened. The rules for the preservation 
of cuttings from the time they are prepared till the period for 
planting them, are based on the simplest principles, being 
merely to preserve the vital principle without an advance of 
vegetation, or with as partial an advance as possible. Any 
method therefore which may be adopted to effectually preserve 
this vitality, will ensure general success. The best course, and 
one which I have regularly pursued, is to bury the cuttings 
upright for two thirds their length in boxes of clean sand, or 
to cover them entirely in barrels filled with the same. They 
can then be placed in a cellar or any other place free from frost 
until wanted. It is recommended as much more advantageous 
to keep them in an ice house, but this cannot be done by every 
one. The preferable situation for them is where the cuttings 
will be so cold as not to vegetate, and at the same time, retain 
sufficient moisture to preserve life. The sand should be moist 
but not wet enough to rot the scions, and it should be clean to 
prevent their becoming mouldy. With a proper regard to 
these precautions, there need be no doubt of a successful result* 
Another method of preserving cuttings, is to dig a hole in 
sandy soil of sufficient depth to be out of the reach of frost, 
where they can be placed with layers of sand between each 
layer of scions, and the remainder of the hole be filled up with 
hay, straw, or sand. In this situation they can safely remain 
until the middle of March or beginning of April. In most 
cases it is beneficial before planting the cuttings, to soak them 
for some hours in water by way of refreshing them. It is 
not necessary to defer planting the cuttings until after all 
spring frosts are past, because the natural vegetation of vine& 
is very late, and a considerable time will elapse before the 
cuttings push out shoots. I prefer forming my plantations of 
them in March, and I have never known any to be injured by 
frost ; for indeed the developement of the foliage of grape vines 



248 REARING VINES FROM CUTTINGS AND EYES. 

generally takes place so late in the season, that it very sel- 
dom happens in this vicinity, that there is an after return o 
frost. 

If the general method is to be pursued of rearing the vines 
in nurseries preparatory to placing them in their destined loca- 
tions, the cuttings may be planted in rows from two to two 
and a half feet asunder, and about a foot a part in the rows, 
where they can be allowed to remain until they have made 
one or two years' growth according to the option of the pro- 
prietor. Some persons prefer raising vines in pots, but this 
method is too troublesome to be pursued on a large scale, ' 
and where so much greater facilities are offered by open cul- 
ture. Those who adopt it commence their operations early 
in the spring, and generally use single joints to each end of 
which they apply composition or plaster ; these are then 
planted at a depth of one and a half inches in rich soil, and 
well watered to settle the earth : the pots after being thus pre- 
pared are placed in a hot bed and regularly watered, where 
by the middle of May or June, they will attain sufficient 
growth to allow of their being turned out of the pots and 
placed in the garden or vineyard intended for their reception. 
Here the vines should receive occasional waterings until they 
become established in their new position. If however it is 
preferred to plant the cuttings at once in a permanent situa- 
tion, the following course can be pursued : After the distances 
have been marked out and the holes prepared to receive them, 
the planting can proceed by adopting such one of the different 
methods as may be preferred, but in all cases I would recom- 
mend that three scions be set in each place thus marked out, 
in order to allow for any failures, and I consider it preferable 
that two of these should be suffered to grow, as one can be 
afterwards removed; and the third (if that should succeed also) 
can be destroyed or be transplanted the ensuing season. By 
thus planting an extra number of scions, you secure yourself 
against the injury resulting from failure, and you increase the 
chance of a successful growth three to one ; and the value of 
the extra scions is nothing, when compared with the time that 



LAYERING OR PROVIGNAGE. 249 

might be lost, and the disappointment that often ensues, from 
planting single scions. 

A difference of opinion exists about the treatment of cuttings 
the first year, for while some urge with seeming propriety to 
prune them to one shoot, others contend that by leaving all 
that may appear, the stock acquires additional strength. 

Layering or Provignage. 

This is an. operation very generally pursued in vineyards, 
and it is only those who cultivate the vine in hautins and on 
palisades that do not practise it. In Burgundy especially, 
and in other more northern vineyards, this is the^general cus- 
tom. The branches or shoots intended for layers should not 
be shortened or pruned the previous season. The manner of 
performing the provignage, is by opening the ground to the 
depth of from six inches to a foot, in proportion to the size of 
the shoot, whichis then laid into it and covered with earth, 
the extreme end rising from the further side, and supported 
by a stake or pole. Care should be taken to remove any 
eyes found upon that part of the shoot leading from the parent 
stock to the layer. The operation should take place either 
in the fall or early in the spring, and the layers, unless the 
branch selected is of extraordinary size, will be well rooted by 
the ensuing fall, but if of very large size, they will require a 
year longer. If intended to be removed, the period for trans- 
planting them is the same as recommended for other vines, 
when they should be cut off close to the parent stock. The 
principal object of this practice is the increase of the vines ; 
but it offers other important benefits, which I will here enu- 
merate : the branch being bent, the shoot which comes from 
it yields more and better fruit ; forming new roots it draws 
more sustenance from the earth, and consequently the fruit 
becomes larger ; it renders it easy to keep the grapes at a 
short distance from the ground in climates where that course is 
necessary ; and lastly, in vineyards where this course is prac- 
tised, new vines are not required, for there, as is the case in 
Burgundy, the provins not being separated from the parent 

32 



250 LAYERING OR PROVIGNAGE. 

vines, the plants can be preserved for centuries, which is 
favourable to the quality of the wine, as is proved at the Clos- 
de-Vougeot, Marcs-d'or, Migraine, and many other vineyards 
where the superiority of the wine is derived from the age of 
the vines, which are four or five hundred years old. In this 
respect the vine culture of Burgundy is to be preferred. 

The inconveniences of the provignage in respect to the 
young plants when separated from the parent vine, as is done 
in many vineyards, are that it weakens them and prolongs the 
period during which inferior wine is produced from a defi- 
ciency in their age and strength. Some proprietors form 
provins of a whole vineyard of old vines, in order to renew 
it, which is considered an excellent course. It is also a good 
method to replace by this plan any vines that have died, or 
vacancies which may exist in a vineyard. In France, these 
provins or layers are only made from old stocks of five to 
eight years' growth at least, as younger ones are too much 
injured and exhausted by the operation ; and indeed, if des- 
tined to be detached from the stocks, they must in all cases 
be more or less hurtful to the parent vines. It is therefore 
always deemed better to have recourse to propagation by cut- 
tings. A vineyard from layers comes soonest into bearing, 
but one grown from cuttings endures the longest, and is the 
most productive. Those therefore who prefer the wiser course 
of making a present sacrifice, in order to ensure future advan- 
tage, will prefer the latter; whereas, they who seek for im- 
mediate gratification will choose the former. 

Layers may also be made from shoots of the same year, if 
laid down in June, and the ensuing fall or spring can be taken 
off and planted where desired. Another method of raising 
layers, is to take flower pots or coarse baskets or boxes of 
about a peck measurement, before vegetation has begun ; and 
train a shoot through the centre of each which must rise above 
and be pruned to three strong buds, the pots or baskets are 
then to be filled with light rich soil, and a stake placed by 
each to support the vine. They should be watered occasion- 
ally through the season, and will produce fruit the same year. 



REARING VINES FROM SEEDS. 251 

Iii the fall, the old shoot can be cut off just below the basket, 
which can now be removed without deranging the roots, in 
order to plant the vine in a vineyard or garden. When 
baskets are used, they are often planted without removing the 
vine as they soon decay ; but if pots or boxes are used, the best 
course is, after preparing the holes for their reception, to turn 
them out with the earth entire, which can readily be done by 
proper attention, and these vines will then be ready to bear 
fruit the ensuing year. 
" "f, : : . / 
Rearing Vines from Seeds. 

This method of propagation when judiciously pursued, car- 
ries with it many advantages. It serves frequently to acclimate 
species, the original varieties of which are little calculated to 
succeed, by the production of such as have characteristics 
better suited to their new location. It also frequently ori- 
ginates varieties of superior worth and excellence to the 
parent stock. And by a renewal of the original vigour of the 
species through a perfectly natural channel, it serves to give 
to its offspring all the primitive vigour which characterised the 
plant. It is indeed nature's grand restorative of whatever ex- 
haustion may have taken place from any causes whatever. 
For although there can be no reasonable doubt but that Pro- 
vidence has afforded the means of perpetuating the gifts of 
nature without limit of time, still as vines are propagated al- 
most entirely from scions, and but seldom by ingrafting, it is 
probable that the effects of a long culture in this way may be 
more sensibly demonstrated, than where the natural growth of 
the variety is aided by ingrafting it on young and vigorous 
stocks. 

Seeds intended for planting should be carefully preserved 
either dry or in sand until the first approach of spring, the 
ground should then be prepared by making it extremely rich, 
mellow, and light, a heavy soil being entirely inappropriate. 
In this drills may be made about twenty inches apart, and 
three-fourths of an inch deep, into which the seeds can be 
dropped at a distance of about six inches from each other, 



\ 



252 REARING VINES FROM SEEDS. 

they having been previously soaked in water for a few hours. 
Immediately after planting, the ground should be watered to 
cause it to settle, and whenever the weather is dry this should 
be repeated. Some persons in order to obtain a greater growth 
the first season, sow the seeds in pots during the winter 
months, and place them in a hot bed, where by regular atten- 
dance they attain sufficient size by the middle of May, to be 
planted out in nursery rows. 

When the plants have grown to the height of nine or ten 
inches, stakes of about three feet in height should be placed 
between every two vines, and to these they can be trained 
allowing in no case but one shoot to each plant. These can 
be subsequently treated in the same manner as plants of the 
same age raised from cuttings. There will however be some 
among them which will not bear fruit, and the proportion will 
be greater or less according to their parentage. As soon 
therefore as these barren ones can be designated with preci- 
sion, they can be engrafted with such varieties as may be pre- 
ferred. 

Major Adlum states that probably not more than half the 
number of seedlings will produce fruit. Dr. Rulings states 
that in his experiments, principally made with seeds from the 
most southern and western states, including some from Owa- 
chita, he found only about one in seven to bear fruit, on which 
account he ceased rearing any more. Others have been more 
successful, and have had a greater proportion of fruitful vines, 
than is named by either of the preceding gentlemen. For my 
own part, I consider the proportionate success in this respect 
depends altogether on the species. Our northern ones are 
known to be almost wholly polygamous, whereas several of the 
southern varieties are dioecious ; it thence follows that we may 
have a large proportion of barren seedlings from the latter, 
when we would scarcely have any unfruitful ones from the 
former, and as a natural proof of the latter remark, how very 
few barren vines do we discover in our hedges and woods ? 

Having now in progress nearly or quite ten thousand seed- 
ling plants reared from natural varieties, and from an admixture 



REARING TINES FROM SEEDS. 1253 

under every variety of circumstance, I shall be able to test 
the above point to ample satisfaction. 

It has been remarked by Mr. Poiteau, in the annals of the Paris 
Horticultural Society, that improved varieties seldom originate 
in regular nurseries, but are generally produced by chance, 
and found in woods and hedges, where the finer sorts are little 
known, and where such as do exist are mismanaged and ne- 
glected. Mr. Knight has also advanced facts to prove that 
a crab fecundated by the pollen of a good fruit, produces 
better kinds from the seeds than can -be obtained from the 
seeds of good fruit. We have also the authority of Professor 
Van Mons, that the Flemish horticulturists in their attempts 
to obtain new sorts, do not prefer the seeds of meliorated fruit. 
The law of nature that " like begets or produces like," it is 
contended by the writer first quoted, is not always uniform 
among domesticated animals or highly cultivated plants. 

These remarks are no doubt for the most part just and ap- 
propriate, and apply equally to the grape as to other fruits, 
nevertheless as we have every day the most decided proofs 
that the law of nature referred to, is very general in its influence, 
I would advise in all cases where a union of varieties is 
desired, that one of them should be of the most choice descrip- 
tion, in preference to blending two natural or inferior varie- 
ties ; and seeds produced by such combination, I should cer- 
tainly deem better calculated to yield fine fruit, than that 
obtained from natural or inferior varieties alone. As to the 
necessity of pursuing this course of seminal reproduction for 
four to six generations, as advanced by some European wri- 
ters, it is certainly not susceptible of argumentative support 
where the first union is a judicious one, and is rather calcu- 
lated to weary the patience of the experimentalist than to 
result in any decided benefits. 

In all attempts at artificial fecundation, I would recommend 
that one of the varieties selected be of native origin, as there 
exists no want of hybrids between European varieties alone ; 
a large proportion of those now in cultivation having been 
doubtless produced by natural admixture of the pollen, in the 



254 INGRAFTING VINES. 

vineyards where they originated. For the purpose of hybrid- 
izing, the varieties of Vitis astivalis should be selected in pre- 
ference to those of Vitis labrusca, on account of the much 
higher vinous properties of the former ; and there cannot ex- 
ist a doubt but that we may readily produce well acclimated 
hybrids between the native and foreign varieties, without the 
trouble of continuing the course of reproduction for many 
generations, although such reproduction from species so dis- 
similar may continue to present additional modifications of 
character. 

Some French proprietors who are willing to incur present 
disbursements, and to await a considerable period for the re- 
turns, plant whole vineyards of seedlings, which form "durable 
vines, and when raised from seeds of valuable sorts yield crops 
of good quality. I have understood that Mr. Overdoff of P'enn- 
sylvania, has a very flourishing vineyard formed of seedling 
plants, which were first reared in his garden, and after the first 
year, transplanted into his vineyard. 

Ingrafting Vines. 

The vine differs from other trees in having no liber or in- 
ner bark, nor cortical coverings, and it consequently may be 
ingrafted without its being requisite to bring the two barks in 
contact, as the sap ascends by the different capillary vessels 
without any distinction between liber, cortex, or wood, whilst 
the sap of other trees is exclusively conducted between the 
wood and the bark. Cleft-grafting is the method generally pur- 
sued in France ; and in some districts of the departments of 
Gironde, Bouches-du-Rhone, Cote-d'or, and L'Yonne, this 
method of propagation is much practised and esteemed, but 
some object to inserting white varieties on red ones. The 
process of ingrafting the vine is by no means a novel one, 
having been long since in use as stated by Columella, and 
other ancient authors who give ^details on the subject. 

It is not considered by French writers as of much impor- 
tance, but I think in our own country, it offers far more bene- 
ficial results than in any other, from the well known circum- 



INGRAFTING VINES. 255 

stance that most of our native vines possess a degree of vigour 
and repletion of sap, which far surpass those obtained from 
other climes ; the circumstance therefore of giving additional 
developement to foreign vines by ingrafting them on our na- 
tives, merits particular consideration, and may be the founda- 
tion of a new species of vine culture in our future vineyards. 
Speechly remarks, that in England, the ingrafting of vines is 
but little attended to, although of so much importance ; as a 
bad vine may be improved without loss of time, and he states 
that he has had fine grapes from the same year's grafts, the 
shoots from which if permitted would have run from thirty to 
forty feet, the first summer. He mentions a vine of the Syrian 
kind in a hot house at Welbeck, which produced sixteen 
different varieties of grapes from as many graftings. 

William R. Armistead, Esq. was among the first who 
adopted the practice in our own country, he having ingrafted 
in 1819, four vines of the native blue or bunch grape of Vir- 
ginia, with the sweet water variety, which in the third season 
produced upwards of two barrels of fruit. And at his sug- 
gestion, Col. Gratiot made similar attempts by inserting " the 
Portugal or Lisbon grape, such as is usually received in jars, 
upon the Fox grape, the plants of which were transplanted 
from the swamps only the previous autumn, which experiment 
was also eminently successful." 

The period for the operation is when the sap begins to 
rise, and it seldom fails of success when performed in the 
ground. If it is desired to have many varieties ingrafted on 
one vine, that can be done successfully by trailing the several 
branches under ground to the points desired, and then in- 
grafting each in the earth in the manner hereafter Detailed. 
It is preferable that the scions be cut some time previous, and 
that they be preserved in the same manner as cuttings are 
until required for use. The principal benefit to be derived 
from ingrafting, is to transform a vineyard in a short space of 
time which contains many varieties into one, containing as few 
as may be deemed advantageous, or to entirely or partially 
change a vineyard, when the varieties contained in it are 



"256 INGRAFTING VINES. 

deemed unsuitable or of little value. It also is the means of 
furnishing a prompt supply of exceedingly fine cuttings to be 
used for that mode of culture. Another advantage offered 
is, that the common wild vines of large size found in our woods 
and hedges, can either by being ingrafted in their respective 
positions, or by being transplanted into gardens for that pur- 
pose, afford the means for a prompt and abundant supply of 
fruit. Indeed the facilities offered by this process are such 
that no vine of indifferent quality need hereafter to be de- 
stroyed on that account, as it may be so readily converted to 
one of the most choice description. The graft should in pre- 
ference have sufficient of the two years old wood to form the 
tongue which is inserted in the stock, with one or two joints 
of the one year old wood to rise above the stock ; but when 
shoots of the last year have formed vigorous and well ripened 
wood, they will answer the purpose. I think two buds or 
eyes quite sufficient for a graft, and in general, more advan- 
tageous than a greater number ; but where the stock is of 
extraordinary size, three buds may be allowed ; the best size 
for a graft is that of an ordinary cutting, but where the stocks 
are exceedingly large, I think it desirable that the grafts should 
be larger than usual. The best stocks are such as are about 
an inch in diameter, but those of all dimensions can be used for 
the purpose. Dry weather is the most suitable for the opera- 
tion, and the period generally selected for its performance in 
this latitude, is from the first to the tenth of April, although it 
has been effected successfully at a much later period, and in 
some cases even after the vine was in full leaf, where the scions 
were sufficiently retarded. In the southern states it should 
take place early in March or even sooner in some parts. A 
decided advantage is gained by its early execution, which is 
equivalent to a gain in the length of the season, and therefore 
allows time for greater growth. 

The most common method pursued is cleft grafting, which 
does not essentially differ from ingrafting apple and other trees 
on the same principle. The usual course is to lay the stock 
bare, by clearing away four to six inches of the ground, or aa 



., 

INGRAFTING VINES. 257 

far as where the .first roots appear, at which point it must be 
sawed off, and the surface made perfectly smooth. The stock 
is then to be carefully split with a strong knife or other in- 
strument calculated for the purpose, and if necessary, a sharp 
wedge may be used to open the incision until the graft is in- 
serted, which on being withdrawn, will leave the scion firmly 
retained in its position by the pressure of the stock. Where 
the vines are very large, two scions may be inserted, and if 
both succeed, one may be pruned off, or trained so as to di- 
verge as much as possible from the other. It will readily be 
perceived, that the graft before insertion must be made of a 
wedge shape to suit the incision, and the tongue or slope should 
be from three to four inches in length. Vines thus ingrafted 
do not require clay or composition of any kind, but only to 
raise the earth over the stock and around the graft, so as to 
leave the uppermost bud even with the surface, after which 
nothing more need be done than to give them moderate water- 
ings occasionally during dry weather. 

The buds will expand in about a fortnight or three weeks, 
one only of which is usually allowed to grow, and this as it 
advances should be carefully trained to a pole, stake, or other 
support, and the superfluous lateral shoots be pruned or rub- 
bed off. With proper attention, and in rich soil, they will 
grow from eight to twelve feet according to the variety, and 
in all ordinary cases fruit will be produced the first season, 
though this may rather be deemed a disadvantage, and should 
not be allowed except where it is particularly desired to test 
its character, as it serves to weaken the plant. Robert Sin- 
clair, Esq. of Baltimore, ingrafted some scions of the Isabella 
on the Chicken grape, during the season of 1829, one of 
which grew twelve feet, and the other nine, and the lateral 
shoots on the two measured thirty feet. Another mode which 
comes under the head of pivot grafting, and which may be 
adopted where the stock is too large to be cleft, is to saw off 
the vine beneath the surface of the ground, then to bore a hole 
in the centre with a sharp gimblet or some other instrument 
calculated to cut smoothly, and to proportion the place for 

33 



258 



INGRAFTING VINES. 



insertion somewhat to the size of the graft, next trim the scion 
into a pivot form with a rounded point, so as to fit the hole, 
leaving a slight shoulder of bark on one side, and press or 
drive it gently into its position, the earth must then be raised 
around it in the same manner as before prescribed. 

Some operators, apply clay or composition to cover the 
place of junction, while others deem it of no importance, as 
the earth serves to exclude the air. In many cases this method 
has been particularly successful, and some shoots have grown 
from twelve to sixteen feet the first season, and produced from 
twelve to twenty-five clusters of fruit. Some persons state, 
that where the stock has been very large, they have attained 
equal success, by boring two or more holes in different parts 
of the wood indiscriminately, and inserting a scion in each, 
which grew in this manner as well as by any other course. 
In some cases the stocks have been removed from the woods 
to the garden at the period of ingrafting ; and Mr. Herbemont, 
of South Carolina, states, that he has dug up vines in the woods 
in April, even after they had begun to grow and had leaves 
formed, which he carefully ingrafted and replanted, and that 
several of these produced ripe fruit the same season. Mr. H. 
has been also particularly successful in using the Isabella vine 
for stocks, and has ingrafted several hundred of them with his 
fine Madeira grape, (which is the same as the Warren or War- 
renton,) many of which produced fruit the same year, and at- 
tained a length of from twelve to twenty, and even thirty feet 
with a proportionate thickness. In one case he has had a 
single vine to grow in four months, so as to cover an arbour 
seven feet high, and about ten feet square. 

The skill of Mr. Herbemont has even turned the advan^ 
tages offered to a new account, and instead of pruning off the 
lower branches, he has layered them the first summer with 
success, thereby having layers in the fall, made during the 
summer, from grafts inserted in the spring. So very speedy 
3. course however may be more readily consummated in the 
southern states, than in this section of the Union, and layers 
made the second summer from wood of a year old, are much 
to be preferred. 



INGRAFTING VINES. 259 

A correspondent in Massachusetts writes me, that he has 
pursued split grafting with great success by using composi- 
tion which he greatly prefers to clay, this he puts on warm, 
and ties over it a piece of bass very tight. Grafts set after 
this method into strong stocks of the Black Cluster grape, 
about the first of April 1829, grew fourteen feet the same sea- 
son, and made strong wood : he thinks ingrafting may be 
safely performed in that State as late as the first of May. 
A friend in the island of Cuba, also advises me of his having 
been very successful in grafting many fine French varieties 
on wild vines of that island, which are there found in abun- 
dance, and thinks this may perhaps form a new era in the cul- 
ture of the vine in tropical climates. In the autumn, the in- 
grafted vines should be treated the same as others of equal 
size and vigour, and be pruned accordingly, the weaker ones 
may be cut down to a few eyes only, and the larger ones be 
left of a length proportionate to their strength. They never 
fail to produce well the second year, and where the stocks are 
very vigorous, and the variety inserted on them is of the 
same character, they attain to a most rapid and extraordinary 
developement. It is asserted that grafts, particularly where 
the white are engrafted on the black varieties, are apt to die 
in eight or ten years, when apparently in full vigour, and 
where the wood is perfectly united ; but this misfortune may 
not perhaps be without causes and exceptions, which a skilful 
culture may discover and avert. I think the insertion of the 
graft so low, that it may form roots from its own wood, is 
calculated in some degree to obviate the difficulty, and this 
can in most cases be accomplished. 

It is almost needless to add, that all tales about ingrafting 
the vine upon the cherry and other trees, are alike fabulous 
with those of ingrafting the peach on the willow, the rose on 
the currant, and other similar accounts. Equally erroneous 
do I deem the remarks that the stock of the vine has a greater 
influence upon the graft than results from a similar opera- 
tion performed on other species of fruit ; but that such in- 
fluence does exist in many and perhaps all cases to a certain 



260 VINEYARDS ON HILLS AND DECLIVITIES. 

degree, I think I have sufficiently shown in a communication 
recently addressed to Dr. James Mease, of Philadelphia, and 
which I shall shortly make known to the public. 

Upon small stocks which are about the size or but little 
larger than the scion, whip or tongue grafting is found to be 
preferable. Another method well calculated to ensure success, 
is ingrafting by approach, which is performed in the same 
manner on vines as on fruit trees. 

Vineyards on Hills and Declivities. 

Vines in France are rarely planted on the surface of the 
soil, but in trenches differing both in breadth and depth, some- 
times regular, parallel and longitudinal, running from one 
en4 of the ground to the other, or transversal, and perpen- 
dicular for the length of the piece of ground. There are a 
great number of vineyards in France where the vines are na- 
turally or by art, disposed in terraces rising one above the 
other. Lasteyrie has figured in the second volume of his 
work, entitled Collection of devices adopted in Agriculture, 
a hill of Catalonia which is completely arranged in'terraces 
for the culture of vines. This being considered the most 
preferable mode, I will give explanations hereafter in what 
manner they may be formed with little expense by the means 
of transverse walls. Many vineyards which are located on 
steep hills or mountains, have a wall of stones placed along 
the lower side of each row, to keep the soil from washing ; 
this is ah essential point, and where vineyards are so located, 
must be considered a necessary part of the first cost of a pro- 
per preparation ; and it is a general remark, that the more 
stones in a vineyard the better, provided they are not a pre- 
ventive to suitable culture. If stones are not to be had for 
the above named purpose, logs of wood might be used. It is 
much to be preferred however, that vineyards on hills and de- 
clivities should be divided by terraces, made nearer to each 
other in proportion to the steepness, and these not formed by 
walls as is often the case, but by low hedges which prevent 
the earth from being carried off by ordinary rains, without 



. 

VINEYARDS ON HILLS AND DECLIVITIES. 261 

any danger of their being swept away themselves by streams 
of water during severe storms, as the numerous roots form a 
support for them against such effects. 

The arrangement of the vines differs also on great declivities 
from that on other locations, not being ranged in straight lines, 
but planted in curves or in the form of an amphitheatre. And 
in order to equalize the maturity of the crops where several va- 
rieties are to be planted in the same vineyard, the earlier kinds 
should be planted in the most elevated parts, and the later 
ones in the middle ranges. 

The Domestic Encyclopedia contains the following directions 
in regard to vineyards planted on declivities : " To prevent 
your hills where they are steep, from being washed away by 
showers of rain, I would recommend short straw mixed with 
chaff, the shives of flax and hemp, the chaff of flax seed which 
is also an excellent manure, old half rotten salt hay or bog 
hay, free from grass seeds, which should be spread thin be- 
tween the rows ; if it be spread thick it keeps the ground too 
long cold and wet in spring, which retards the growth of the 
vines. The use of these I have experienced to be profitable, 
and very much to hinder the soil from washing. The follow- 
ing method has also been found very effectual, without doing 
injury to either the vines or the crop : After the ground has 
been made loose and mellow, lay broad flat stones close along 
the lower side of the vines, these not being very heavy do not 
pack the ground too close, nor press hard upon roots of the 
vines ; they reflect great heat up to the vine and fruit, which 
helps to bring it to full maturity, they preserve the soil against 
washing away, they keep the ground moist in the driest times, 
and hinder too much rain from penetrating the roots near the 
head of the vine, which chiefly occasions the bursting of the 
grapes after a shower of rain, when they are near ripe." 

The effect of elevation upon the geography of plants merits 
our particular consideration by its influence on the vine. In 
Europe they generally reckon that a degree of latitude af- 
fects the mean temperature nearly in the proportion of one 
hundred and eighty or two hundred yards of elevation, or vice 



262 PLANTING TREES, ECT. IN VINEYARBS. 

versa : it is also the generally received opinion that where maize 
comes to perfection, the vine will succeed ; but in France and 
other countries the culture of the latter has been successfully 
extended much further north than the former. De Candolle 
remarks, that the most elevated point at which he has found 
maize grown as a crop, is in the department of the Lower 
Pyrenees, above the village of Lescans, at about the elevation 
of one thousand yards. Now if we take our departure from 
that point which is in the 43 of latitude, and proceed five 
degrees upon the same meridian line,* we come to the neigh- 
bourhood of Mans, and to the south of the department of 
Ille and Vilaine, which is precisely the northernmost point 
where maize is sown as a crop. 

The vines of Velai, says M. De Candolle, are those which are 
at the greatest elevation of any I have seen in France, culti- 
vated as vineyards. The^ elevation of the town of Puy is 
computed at six hundred and thirty-two yards, and the vine- 
yards that belong to it go up to about eight hundred. Now 
if setting out from that point, which is a little beyond 45 of 
lat. you take four degrees to the north upon the same meri- 
dian, you come to a stop between Rheims and Epernai, that 
is to say, very close upon the northernmost limit at which the 
vine forms a branch of husbandry, the town of Rheims being 
in lat. 49 30'. 



Planting Trees, <$fc. in Vineyards Hedges to protect them. 

The custom adopted in some wine districts of planting trees 
in the vineyards, such as the peach, apple, olive, nut, and 
cherry, is very improper, for as the direct action of the sun is 
the main essential, in order to mature the high qualities of the 
grape, the effects of this powerful agent should be in no wise 
counteracted, and every tree therefore that can interpose a 
shade and shut out its rays, at the same time that it exhausts 

* I say upon the same meridian line, because it is well known that in the 
same latitudes there exists a great difference between the east and west of 
France. 



PLANTING TREES, ETC. IN VINEYARDS. 263 

the soil, should be cleared away. It is true, that in the year 
1797, the French vineyards in the departments of L'Yonne, 
and Cote-d'or, that were not sheltered by trees, had their vines 
frozen, but the principle notwithstanding this exception, is strict- 
ly correct, and without particular attention the grapes where so 
situated will not attain that ripeness and maturity of the sac- 
charine properties which constitutes their chief value. The best 
French authors however state, that although trees and hedges 
are injurious to vineyards, when so close as to come in con- 
tact with the vines, and to shade them or cause a greater de- 
gree of humidity, still hedges are of great advantage when 
planted at a short distance, and in such directions as to shelter 
the vineyards from the cold east and north winds, and from 
the moist west winds. 

Trees being acknowledged as injurious when planted in 
vineyards, are not other vegetable productions likewise objec- 
tionable ? When the vines re reared in nurseries, all kinds 
of vegetables are very injurious, by drawing from the earth a 
portion of its nutritious qualities, and it follows, of course, 
that they are so in vineyards, in proportion as they are cul- 
culated to drain the soil. Of this character are the different 
species of grain, also turnips, potatoes, peas, beans, cabbage, 
&c. Lupins and lentiles however are said to be no wise in- 
jurious. A young vineyard is injured more by cultivating 
other vegetables in it than an old one, because the roots spread 
through a less proportion of the ground, and therefore have 
less means of support, and the progress of new plantations is 
exceedingly impeded by pursuing this course. It is therefore 
preferable that nothing be introduced that can in any degree 
lessen the strength and richness of the soil. 

Berneaud recommends that the rows be made four and a half 
feet apart, and the vines planted ten feet from each other in 
the rows. He also recommends, and it seems very con- 
sistent with good policy, that the vines be placed opposite in 
every second row, so that those in the intervening ones be op- 
posite the centre of the intermediate space between the vines of 
the other ranges ; a plan of arrangement often adopted among 
us with plantations of other descriptions. 



264 PROPPING AND TRAINING. 

Illf- *. * ,, ;J,i ' -^Si^ 

Propping and training. 

In a great number of vineyards, ' especially those of the 
north of France, they place in the ground near the stem of 
each vine, a pole or stake to which the shoots are tied by 
means of bands of straw, bass, rushes, or branches of the osier 
or willow. This practice is considered by them as indispen- 
sable, but nevertheless there are some who do not pursue it. 
The advantage of these poles is, that the grapes are better 
exposed to the benign influence of the solar rays, and that a 
greater number of vines can be placed on a certain space of 
ground. 

The principal difficulty which the French find in this course 
is, that it increases the expense in consequence of the high 
price at which the poles are sold, the labour necessary for 
sharpening them, and for placing and displacing them ; also 
in restraining and straitening the shoots, which are naturally 
bent, so as to favour the direct ascension of the sap. Not- 
withstanding the decided preference eatertained for training 
the vines on poles, various methods are proposed by French 
writers as substitutes for this practice, on account of the enor- 
mous quantity of wood which is required, and the rapid dimi- 
nution of the forests in that country ; but as we labour under 
no apprehensions from such deficiency, we shall of course pursue 
that practice. In the vineyards in the environs of Rochelle, 
and on the declivities near the town of Argence, department 
of Calvados, no poles are used, and the branches trail on the 
ground until the grapes are nearly ripe, they are then all 
raised up and tied together at the top, and thus form their own 
support ; the fruit being outwards is by this course exposed to 
the sun, but the crops are inferior and deficient. 

In some French vineyards where the vines are of a very 
vigorous character, two poles or stakes are used for each, 
and twice the quantity of wood allowed to the vines, and in 
others, several slender poles are stuck into the ground around 
the vine in a circular manner, to each of which a shoot is train- 
ed or fastened ; but in such cases a proportionably greater 



PROPPING AND TRAINING. 



2G5 



distance must be allowed between the vines when the planta- 
tions are formed. 

The proper period for poling the vineyards, is immediately 
after the first spring cleaning, before the vines commence 
growing, sometimes however it is done after the second clean- 
ing, at which time the shoots have acquired a part of their 
growth. They should be put deep in the earth in order that 
they may not be blown down by the winds, and great care 
must be taken during the operation, not to injure the roots, 
nor break the buds of the vines. In France, the trees used 
for poles are principally the pine, the fir, the tree box, and oak 
and chesnut split up ; willow, poplar, and other trees whose 
branches are prompt to vegetate should not be used for poles. 
The posts and poles should each have the end that goes into 
the ground well covered with melted pitch. Col. Gibbs in- 
forms me, he has found universally, that poles were Better than 
trellices ; indeed in vineyard or field culture, this method of sup- 
porting the vines will almost necessarily be adopted, as well on 
account of the advantages it offers, as the increased expense 
that the use of trellices would create. However, those that 
prefer that species of culture as generally pursued, will find the 
subject discussed hereafter, under the head of " Garden culture." 

The colder the climate, the lower the vines should be 
trained, in order that the grapes may ripen better, because ex- 
perience teaches us, that those which are a short distance 
from the earth, profiting from the shelter which is afforded, 
and from the caloric which emanates from it during the night 
whenever the temperature of the atmosphere diminishes, ac- 
quire a superior quality. 

When vineyards are located on steep hills, the Tines can 
be trained higher, because the grapes profit from the reverber- 
ation of the sun by the earth, in the same manner as if planted 
against a wall. The operation of tying the shoots is omitted 
in the greater portion of the south of France, while in the 
northern departments it is deemed of the utmost importance. 
Where a great desire exists for economizing, a discrimination 
may be made between the vines of stronger and those qf weak- 

34 



266 LOW TRAINING. 

1 



er growth, but I doubt the wisdom of such parsimony. The 
most suitable time for tying is just after the flowering is over, 
the young shoots have then attained a considerable growth, 
and being weak require to be protected against the effects of 
winds, which are apt to break them entirely off if not thus pro- 
tected. In the operation particular care should be taken not 
to interfere with the clusters of fruit, and the branches should 
be separated as much as is convenient or consistent. 

It has been observed that the vines of our contry when in 
their natural state, seldom or never throw out bearing shoots, 
until they reach a lofty position near the tops of the trees 
on which they ascend, when the branches assume a horizontal 
or descending inclination. From this fact horizontal training 
has been deemed preferable to that in an oblique direction or 
fan form. Dr. G. W. Chapman, of New-York, states that by 
experiments he has made, he finds that the shoots coming 
from those branches bent downwards are more productive than 
from the ascending ones. 

From a due consideration of all the attendant circumstances, 
it seems necessary that we should adopt in the training and 
consequent pruning of our native vines, some principles of 
operation different from those usually applied to foreign ones, 
it being a necessary requirement resulting from the great dis- 
tinction in character, as the methods pursued most success- 
fully with the one, would doubtless often prove inappropriate 
and perhaps highly injurious to the other. 



Low training. 

The practice of low training was first pursued by the 
Greeks, and was introduced by the Phocian colony into the 
district of Marseilles. The knowledge of it has been spread 
with the culture of the vine far to the north where it has been 
generally adopted, and is esteemed the most easy and advan- 
tageous for cold latitudes. Various modifications have how- 
ever been introduced, and the height to which the vines are 
trained varies from one to five feet. 

In Medoc, and also in the environs of Grenoble, Lyons, 
Orleans, Autun, and even in some vineyards of Rheims, and 



HIGH TRAINING. 



267 



Laon, the vines are attached to low stakes or trellices raised 
only about a foot above the ground. In the departments of 
Bouches-du-Rhone, Aube, Gard, Herault, and in fact in most 
of the southern departments, the stocks are very wide apart, 
and are allowed to be but two feet in height, and the fruit 
branches are trained along at about the same elevation. In 
some vineyards the stocks are very short, and so strong that 
they support themselves, and the young shoots rise from them 
and fall over to the earth. In other districts the vines are left 
entirely to trail on the ground, but the wines, as has been al- 
ready stated, are in such cases inferior and the crops much less. 
In the young vineyards near Bordeaux, Angers, Lyons, &tc. 
where the plants were formerly left unsupported, they have 
adopted the use of props on account of the great vigour and 
length of the shoots. 

High training. 

In adopting the practice of high training according to either 
of the modes in use, it is requisite that the varieties selected 
as well as the plants themselves be of a vigorous character, and 
that the soil be rich and capable of supporting the additional 
growth required. At the commencement of this species of 
culture, the strongest shoot only is left to each vine at the 
first pruning with about a foot of the new wood, and all the 
buds or eyes except the two uppermost are rubbed off and de- 
stroyed. At each subsequent pruning one additional branch 
is left with two eyes to each until the fourth pruning, when 
four or five shoots may be left, the vine having attained the 
desired height. If the soil is not highly favourable you must 
in succeeding years adopt the same system of pruning as pre- 
scribed for short pruned vines, but if it is of excellent quality, 
and the other circumstances also favourable, you may leave 
two or three shoots of eighteen to twenty-four inches in length, 
with all their eyes upon them, which must be curved or bent 
over and tied with the ends downwards to the several props. 

High trained vines are less subject to injury by frost and 
produce more fruit, but the wine made from them is in general 



268 



SAUTELLES OR PLEYONS. 



inferior to that from low trained vineyards. High vines are 
also more expensive as they need taller props, and require at 
least three to each plant, one of which must be near the 
main stock, and the others at convenient distances, the stem 
and branches must be tied with strong twigs of osier, as from 
the quantity of fruit they will require to be well supported. 

Sautelles, or Pleyons. 

The culture by sautelles is allied to the preceding, and is 
principally in use in vineyards where the greatest desire is 
quantity. Jn-this case the branches are left nearly their whole 
length, and after being inclined or bent in the form of a bow 
are attached to poles with the end downwards, and a twist 
given to each where the bend commences, in order to impede 
the passage of the sap, which might otherwise flow too rapidly 
and run to leaves. 

At the time this operation is performed, a new shoot is left 
to grow, which causes the root to suffer but little, because this 
shoot no more than makes up for the feebleness of the vege- 
tation of the main branch. It is worthy of note that if the 
long branches are not soon bent, the produce instead of being 
great, will be but small, for the sap rising with rapidity, 
bursts the wood-buds which are the most elevated, and only 
glides by the fruit-buds which are the lowest, whose fruition is 
often entirely destroyed when the shoot is very vigorous, or 
the season moist and hot. Vines planted on arid soils will 
not always support this species of culture, the same has been 
remarked of the feeble varieties from their nature itself. In 
some vineyards near Paris, and elsewhere, they bury the ends 
of the sautelles in the earth the spring after their crop has 
been produced, and form layers from them that are cut off the 
following winter, which practice is recommended. 

In Orleans, sautelles are often left two or three years, which 
is very injurious to the crops, as in such case the branches and 
berries become small. This method of pruning and training 
may be adopted for covering bowers and arbours, where it is 
requisite the shoots should be of considerable length. 



PYRAMIDAL OR CONICAL TRAINING. 269 

A fn Tranche Compte another mode is pursued. No stakes 
are placed at the sides of the vines, but short props are set in 
the ground which have forks at about two feet from the earth, 
across which poles are laid on which short stumps have been 
left at about a foot from each other. In some cases these 
poles are rested in the forks of old vines. The main branches 
are then trained along on them from which the new shoots 
spread in every direction, and the vineyard seems covered 
with foliage while clusters of fruit hang beneath in the shade. 
The labourers have to creep under in order to destroy the 
weeds, which are less numerous however on account of being 
overhung by the vines. This manner of training is extremely 
inappropriate in the colder latitudes, and can only be found 
useful in very warm localities, for the sun being shut out from 
the fruit, cannot perfect the high vinous properties which con- 
stitute almost the sole value of the crops. 

Pyramidal or conical training. 

This mode pursued in many German vineyards has been 
also adopted in a number of French ones, from a desire of ob- 
taining large crops with less uncertainty, labour, and expense. 
In planting vineyards for this object, the only difference to be 
observed is, that the rows be eight feet apart, and the vines 
set out at the same distance checkerwise in the rows. 

The first operation in giving form to the vines takes place 
at the second annual pruning in autumn or spring, when two 
shoots should be left, one with five, and the other with six eyes. 
In the spring of the third season, strong posts nine feet high 
and six inches in diameter, are to be placed in regular rows, 
one to each vine, around which the two shoots are to be trained 
spirally in the same direction, with a space of about four 
inches between each turn. The branches are regularly tied, 
and the main shoots when they have attained a suitable height 
are topped. A small crop of fruit will be produced this season, 
and at the annual pruning the two highest shoots are treated 
as before, and the lateral branches called side runners, which 
are intended to fill up the pyramid, are cut down to three buds 
each. 



270 PYRAMIDAL OR CONICAL TRAINING, 

The ensuing year which is the fourth, the vines will begin 
to exhibit the pyramidal form, and may be made triangular, 
quadrangular, or hexangular at the option of the cultivator, 
but a circular form is generally preferred as most convenient. 
The training of the two principal branches is continued as 
before, in a spiral direction ; and when the berries are formed 
all the shoots from the side runners are shortened to six eyes> 
which in addition to giving them strength, facilitates the cir- 
culation of air : the loftiest shoots must also be tied and topped 
as in previous years. 

This season a crop of from twenty to thirty bunches will be 
produced by each vine, which is as much as ordinary vines 
do when at full size ; although these will not then have acquir- 
ed more than one fourth of the height and breadth they are 
intended to attain. In the spring of the fifth year, as that sea- 
son is usually selected for the operation in cold climates, the 
two upper shoots are pruned and trained as heretofore, and 
particular care taken to tie the different branches before vege- 
tation commences, the last year's shoots on the side runners 
are then cut down, the strongest to four buds, and the weaker 
to one and two buds ; and when the fruit has again formed, 
they are topped and shortened as before. A crop of thirty 
to sixty bunches is generally produced from each vine this 
season. The same course of pruning and training is pursued 
the seventh, eighth, and ninth years, until the spiral shoots have 
reached the top of the post, after which all that rise above it 
are pruned off every spring, and the lateral shoots are allowed 
rather more length. During these years from fifty to one 
hundred clusters will be produced by each vine. 

In the after management, there need be no fear of allowing 
too great an extent to the circumference, and if it is desired 
to continue the shape, the pruning and clipping can always be 
executed in accordance thereto, proportioning those operations 
in all cases, to the strength and vigour of the branches. Two 
eyes will suffice for the young shoots, and some of the side 
runners and laterals should be occasionally thinned out where 
too close and numerous, as in such case they weaken and in- 
jure each other and lessen 'the produce. 



COUNTER ESPALIER TRAINING, 

The circumference of the base should be twice, and in tem- 
pestuous situations thrice that of the summit, as the vine thence 
derives strength and support. The crops produced by this 
course of culture are very abundant. A vineyard of two thou- 
sand stocks trained in this manner with every necessary atten- 
tion, yields an annual produce of twenty-six thousand gallons 
of wine, while on the other hand six thousand vines cultivated 
after the common mode of low training, yield in ordinary sea- 
sons but from eight hundred to thirteen hundred gallons, and 
in the best seasons only two thousand six hundred gallons. 

Counter espalier training. 

This system is now pursued in a number of the French de- 
partments, and much approved. In plantations where it is 
adopted, the rows are planted six feet apart, parallel and 
athwart each other, so as to be equally benefited by the sun. 
The training commences at the third or fourth years' growth 
of the vineyard, at which period, posts about four feet high 
are placed in regular lines, at half the height of which there 
is a line of lattices placed crosswise, and at the top another 
range placed in a straight line. 

When the vines are of sufficient growth, the shoots at both 
sides are led backward and forward in an oblique manner 
along the range of cross trellices, until the espalier is perfectly 
formed, and the spaces at each side of the stocks are entirely 
filled up. They are trained after this manner until they reach 
the upper trellice to which they must be tied. After the trel- 
lices are completely filled in this way, the ends of the shoots 
should be clipped off. This mode of serpentine training has 
a very advantageous effect on the circulation of the sap whose 
passage is rendered more regular and conducive to an abun- 
dant yield. The shoots have the full benefit of the solar heat, 
by which means the fruit ripens well and perfects its flavour, 
and the crops are rendered abundant. 



ZT& PRUNING. 

Pruning. 

This, as well as the other operations should be performed 
when the weather is dry, the advantage of which experience 
proves, and the instrument should be sharp and calculated to 
cut smoothly and expeditiously. There are indeed three sea- 
sons when experienced vignerons deny access to their vine- 
yards ; first, when the ground is wet, because the labourers 
passing to and fro press down and pack the earth ; secondly, 
when the vines are in blossom, because disturbing theni in 
any way at that period is calculated to produce an abortion 
or coulure ; thirdly, when the fruit is at or near maturity, 
because the people are apt to pluck the fairest and best ripen- 
ed grapes which is considered an injury to the whole bunch. 

In the arts of horticulture, I have never taken as a posi- 
tive guide the rules of any other country ; convinced, as I 
am, that the exercise of common sense reasoning, will bring 
one to the wisest conclusions as to the course to be pursued. 
Thus, with regard to vines, it is evident that as the small la- 
teral branches are for the most part unproductive, and as their 
absorption of avast portion of sap, which might otherwise 
pass into the main and fruit bearing branches, renders them 
worse than useless, they should be in no way encouraged far- 
ther than is absolutely necessary to the safety of the plants. 

All forcing of the natural functions of the vine, or of any 
other plant, is alone rendered necessary by inappropriateness 
of the climate and other circumstances, to afford equal success 
by a natural development. 

A person to prune skilfully or to direct the labours of 
others, should possess a knowledge of its eflects both from 
theory and practice, so as to be able to foresee the effects of 
its every application. The object of pruning the vine is to 
increase its produce, to obtain from it annually equal crops, 
and to render the berries larger and of earlier maturity. Its 
operations are based upon the same principles as when ap- 
plied to other trees ; but the vine possesses one peculiar 
characteristic, which is, that the fruit being produced on shoots 



PRUNING. 273 

of the same year, renders this management much more simple, 
In fact it is sufficient to know that the lower buds yield the 
fruit-bearing shoots, in order to understand it ; and to indicate 
to us that it is proper to cut the past season's shoots down to 
as many eyes or joints only, as we deem the plant capable 
of supporting, the number of course is to be varied according 
to the vigour, soil, nature of the variety, or other causes, and 
the operation is only to be extended to shoots of the preceding 
year. The deviation of the sap from its perpendicular pas- 
sage, effected by annual primings, is favourable to the produc- 
tion of fruit by causing it to flow with less rapidity ; and even a 
sterile vine (those truly male excepted) may be made to yield 
fruit the ensuing year, by breaking the shoots between the 
two growths at about half their height, without entirely sepa- 
rating the upper half, and there is no injury where branches 
Iiave not produced fruit the previous season, in allowing them 
to Temain of good length when pruning them, because their 
sap not having been exhausted^ can support a large crop. 
Short-jointed shoots being generally deemed the most fruitful, 
should be left in preference to long jointed ones, if equal in 
other respects* 

On this subject we can only lay down general rules lo be 
adopted, wholly or partially according to the circumstaaces. 
As relates to our native vines, I think die precise period of 
(performing the principal pruning, is not a matter of very great 
moment ; for as there is o danger of injury arising from it, 
the fall, winter, or early m the spring will perhaps answer 
(equally well. On this and the other operations connected witfi 
the subject, every vigneron should in frequent instances exer- 
cise his own judgment 

The vine is among the number of vegetable productions 
whose foliage and fruits are wholly produced on the shoot of 
die same year- This fact at is important to be acquainted 
with, for it is upon this, that is based a part of the principles 
upon which die culture of the vle is founded. It being also 
at the lower part of the shoot thai die clusters of fruit are 
formed, that is another circumstance equally important in tlie 

35 



274 PRUNING. 

subject to be taken under consideration ; for not only must 
there be a young shoot to produce wood, but that shoot must 
spring from the wood of the preceding year, as those which 
spring from the old wood are usually sterile. A pointed bud 
indicates a sterile shoot, and on the contrary, a blunt or 
rounded bud announces a fruitful one, and the larger it is 
the more productive. 

Notwithstanding the pruning operation requires to be well 
understood, still where labourers are correctly instructed, it 
will not be a matter of great difficulty, and in France, it is 
done every where by women and children. It appears how- 
ever to there be an object of complaint, that it is frequently 
neglected or badly done, and that deficient crops and bad 
wine are often caused by two much or too little pruning. 

Improper pruning has even an influence on the crops of 
succeeding years, and upon the duration of the vine. The 
most important points to be considered, are : that when too 
many sterile shoots are left on the vine, they abstract and con- 
sume a great portion of the sap which should have nourished 
and matured the fruit ; that when too many bearing shoot* 
are left, they exhaust the vine, and cause not only the sub- 
sequent crop to be poor, but even the vine itself often 
dwindles for some time. A greater proportion of shoots and 
leaves should be left to vines located on dry hills, and on 
those having a southern exposure, and less in shady and moist 
situations, because in the first instance it favours the enlarge- 
ment of the berries, and in the latter it prevents them from be- 
ing too watery. It sometimes happens that the wood of the 
shoots is not sufficiently ripened before frost, and that they 
are consequently injured thereby. In such cases it is best to 
prune close, that is, down to but few buds, in order that vigor- 
ous shoots may replace the injury sustained, and in no case 
should green or immature wood be suffered to remain, as it 
would not fail to perish afterwards, and even to affect in some 
degree the mature wood connected with it. 

Where vines have been injured by frosts or bruised and 
broken by hail, they should be pruned sufficiently close to take 
off all the injured or defective wood ; this operation ought 



PRUNING. 275 

not however to be hurried, but time should elapse sufficiently 
to show if any of the buds have vigour enough remaining to 
allow them still to produce fruit which they frequently do even 
in such cases. No neglect should take place in removing at 
the annual winter prunings all wood that is old and dry, 
which should be cut oft* close to the healthy shoots, for when 
suffered to remain, it retards the circulation of the sap, and its 
influence is felt by the Wealthy branches. 

The vines subjected to low pruning are cut down to two or 
three eyes, and those high trained often to a single eye, because 
the vegetation of the young shoots is strong in proportion to 
their reduction in number, and to the diminished height of the 
plant. It is most prudent however to leave more than a single 
eye, because there is a risk that the one may perish, which not 
only causes a loss of the fruit, but that of the vine itself, if it 
is a weak one. 

Judgment must necessarily be exercised in this operation, 
and more particularly in a country possessing so much solar 
heat as our own, and it is indispensable that a number of buds 
be left proportioned to the strength of the shoot and the 
abundance of sap, for vines trimmed too much and pruned too 
close, afford less wine, especially if they are of strong growth. 
Further remarks on close pruning upon the system adopted 
at Thomery, &c. will be found under the head of " Garden 
culture." 

It seems very certain that the extreme heat of our climate 
renders it optional with us whether we shall pursue or not, the 
system of close pruning to its fullest extent, as adopted in many 
European countries. I must confess myself considerably a 
convert to the system of long pruning in that portion of our 
country where the summers are long and the heat great, and 
in regard to our most vigorous native vines, I think this sys- 
tem alone can be attended with the greatest success. Even in 
France long pruning is preferred where the growth of the 
vines is very vigorous. In support of the opinion that close 
pruning is not requisite to abundant produce of our native vines, 
the most productive Scuppernong vineyards in North Carolina, 



276 PROPER PERIOD FOR PRUNING. 

are in many instances not trimmed at all, and the wild and un- 
tutored vines which cover our hedges and mount our loftiest 
forests, bend beneath the abundance of their produce. 

Much greater space must be in such case allowed in plan- 
tations of native vines, and to show the extent to which this 
may be carried, an instance will be hereafter detailed where 
eight Scuppernong vines cover a quarter of an acre, and pro- 
duce crops of amazing quantity. The opinion has also been 
already advanced, that many of our native vines require a 
different mode of treatment from that bestowed on foreign 
ones, and to render the information as complete as possible 
on that head, I shall introduce in the course of the work the 
most approved modes that have been adopted by our coun- 
trymen. 

Proper period for pruning. 

The celebrated Olivier de Serres affirmed, that late pruning 
was advantageous in the greater produce of fruit thereby 
caused, and advanced the maxim in his work, that the earlier 
the vine is pruned, the more wood it makes, and the later the 
more fruit ; and he founds that opinion on the circumstance, 
that when the pruning is done late, there is a loss of sap, and 
that when vegetation is weakened, but not in too great a de- 
gree, it augments the number of bunches and lessens the 
chances of abortion in the flowers. 

It is nevertheless acknowledged in all vine countries, that 
the earlier the pruning and the sooner the sap flows, the more 
vigorous are the shoots and the more abundant their produce. 
Pruning therefore immediately after the fall of the leaves is 
advantageous in all climates where there is no danger that 
frost during the winter may injure the branches, nor that the 
spring frosts may affect the young shoots ; but in cold climates 
it is necessary to retard this operation as much as possible, and 
likewise mother localities, where the expositions are subject to 
spring frosts. The pruning of the vine before winter in cold 
climates renders the remaining part of the shoots more sensi- 
ble to hard frosts, therefore it is not pursued in French vineyards 






PROPER PERIOD FOR PRUNING. 277 

north of Lyons ; for if done in the fall it would be necessary 
to leave an extra bud, from a calculation that the upper one 
would be destroyed by frost or otherwise injured. It is of 
importance where a vineyard comprises many varieties whose 
period of maturity differs, to prune the late kinds soonest in 
order to accelerate their shooting. 

Mr. Le Ray de Chauniont deems it the best time to prune 
the vine in this part of our country when the hardest frosts are 
passed, which in this latitude is about the fifth to the tenth of 
March, and still later at the north, and earlier to the south. 
Others deem the fall the preferable period, and when so much 
difference of opinion exists, it would be well for everyone who 
has an extensive vineyard at stake, to make experiments on a 
few vines at each season so as to decide for himself. If the 
autumn is preferred, it should be performed after the wood is 
well matured and the leaves have fallen, and on a fine dry day. 

Berneaud says that autumnal or early winter pruning is im- 
prudent in the colder latitudes, as by advancing the vegeta- 
tion it renders the vines more liable to be injured by frost, 
and that it should be deferred until the freezing season is past. 
He recommends the first half of March as the best period for 
vineyards in the central and northern French departments, 
and for countries of similar temperature. 

The following article on the subject, is from the pen of the 
very intelligent secretary of the Maryland society for promoting 
the vine culture, J. C. S. Monkur, Esq. 

" It is often asked us, when it is the proper time for pruning 
grape vines ? We observe in the works upon the vine, a great 
discrepancy of opinion on this particular part of its culture. 
That this is an all important procedure to the health, duration, 
and profit of the vine, no one can contend to the contrary ; 
but we are inclined to believe, that the great stress urged on 
the particular time it should be done, does not deserve the 
consideration which has been given it. In accordance with 
our observation, the time bears but little relation in importance 
to the manner of its performance, provided we shall have it 
finished before the commencement of the circulation of the 



278 PROPER PERIOD FOR PRUNING. 

juices peculiar to the vegetable. Hence the difference of time 
observed in the writings of the different individuals upon this 
subject, who have, no doubt, been guided in their choice by 
the effect of climate upon the production of early and late 
vegetation. Some insist it should be done about the middle 
of October, or at the fall of the leaf, ' rather than defer it till 
spring, because the tender parts of those young shoots, if left 
on, are subject to decay in winter, or they are apt to grow late 
in the year, so the tops of the shoots are tender, and early 
frosts will pinch them, and then they frequently are killed down 
a considerable length, which weakens their roots ; but if they 
are cut off early in autumn^ the wound will heal over before 
bad weather, and thereby the roots will be greatly strengthen- 
ed.' On the other side, the advocates for spring pruning, 
tell us the proper time for this operation, in the middle states, 
is the latter end of February, or first week in March, much 
earlier in the southern states, and very little later in the eastern. 
Forsyth cautions us not to prune till the beginning of Febru- 
ary, unless in case of an uncommon forwardness in the season. 
It is common, he continues, with some, to begin pruning soon 
after the fall of the leaf, before the wood becomes hard ; but 
if the frost set in before the wood is hard, especially after wet 
summers and autumns, it will be much injured. He has seen 
vines almost killed after autumnal pruning. In the Vine- 
dresser's Manual, by Thiebaut de Berneaud, it is remarked, 
' that the principal point is to know and seize the right time 
for pruning. To do it too soon advances vegetation and ex- 
poses the young buds to the nipping of the cold, or even 
spring frosts ; if too late, it retards the development of the 
buds, and perhaps destroys the fruit buds by their becoming 
drenched with the bleeding sap during the night ; or perhaps 
a late frost happens, and finds the retarded sprouts so backward 
and tender that it will entirely destroy them. In some warm 
countries, some pruning should be performed after the fall of 
the leaf; it gives the grape a greater chance for ripening and 
becoming sugary ; but to prune in fall or beginning of the 
winter in cold countries, is imprudent : it is proper to wait 



CLIPPING AND TOPPING OF THE VINE. 279 

until the black frost is over ; and it should only be done when 
the weather is fair, dry, and without appearance of rain. After 
the sap begins to circulate, it is improper to prune the vines, 
unless such as are sprouting too luxuriantly, and which re- 
quire to be weakened ; those in a proper condition it weakens 
too much ; they seem exhausted and yield only poor fruit,' 
However, in despite of the directions before us, we have for 
these six years pruned~p. large collection, both of foreign and 
native vines, for cuttings for the gratification of friends, in 
every week, from the fall of the leaf to the middle of March, 
without having from very close attention, even observed any 
injury done ; and therefore feel satisfied, that it can be per- 
formed safely at any time after the complete fall of. the leaf, 
until immediately previous to the circulation of the sap, which 
effect, sooner or later takes place, according to climate, situa- 
tion, and disposition of the vines. This process we discover, 
usually happens in this state, from the beginning to the middle 
of March, yet we are aware that certain species of the vine, 
are more forward and begin vegetation earlier from disposition 
and situation than others ; but it will be in time, if pruning 
be done in Maryland and the other southern states, the last 
week in February or the first in March ; but by no means 
should it be delayed longer than the middle of March. It is 
the manner of pruning that deserves our serious and attentive 
consideration ; for on its correctness, doubtless, very much 
of our future success depends." 



Clipping and topping of the vine. 

One of the operations of the summer pruning takes place 
after the fruit is formed, and is called clipping. It is intend- 
ed to remove the superfluous shoots, in order to throw the 
strength into those bearing fruit, and it also affords more air 
to the plant. In performing it, the useless branches should be 
pruned close to the stalk, but the laterals should be taken off 
between the first and second joint, and in no case should they 
be twisted off or broken. Where two or more shoots come out 
at one joint, but one of them should be suffered to remain* 



280 CLIPPING AND TOPPING OF THE VINE* 

A sound discretion should be exercised as to the number of 
shoots to be pruned off, for by leaving too great a number to 
form new wood, we deprive the fruit branches of the necessary 
support, and by allowing too many fruit bearers we exhaust 
the stock, the effect of which is felt for several subsequent sea- 
sons. This measure should be pursued several times during 
the season, according as the humidity or dryness of the wea- 
ther may by their influence on the growth of the vines render 
it necessary. 

The branches pruned off from the vines may be used as pro- 
vender for horses, cows, and sheep, which are very fond of 
them ; but as they are very heating when eaten in a green state, 
it is best to spread them until sufficiently dry, and then put 
them in stacks or barns for winter fodder, when if mixed with 
hay or straw, cows will fatten upon them, and their milk be 
increased both in quantity and quality. 

There is another operation that comes under the head of 
pruning, which is called topping, or pinching off the shoots, 
and consists in taking off the extremity of the shoot, in order 
to stop its growing longer, and to enlarge it as well as the 
fruit. This is practised in nearly all the vineyards in the 
north of France, but not in those of the south. If executed 
properly and moderately, it produces the effect above men- 
tioned ; but if done too soon or immoderately, it not only tends 
to different results, but retards in a great degree the maturity 
of the grapes, because new shoots spring up which draw off 
the sap, more especially if the weather be rainy. As it is.when 
the berries have nearly attained their size that this is to be 
performed, it should consequently be confided to skilful hands. 

We stand much in need of some general principles applicable 
to our native vines by which to regulate the summer pruning, 
for the adoption of European maxims in this case will be some- 
times attended with injurious results. I have found that prun- 
ing off a great portion of the young shoots of the Isabella vine 
at midsummer, when the fruit was about half or two thirds 
grown, caused a great portion of the berries to decay, turn 
black, and fall of, which I take to be another proof that the 



PRUNING AND TREATMENT OP A YOUNG VINEYARD. 281 

superabundance of sap generated in our vigorous native vines 
must be allowed greater facilities for passing off through its 
natural channels. 

In regard to pruning off the tendrils which some consider 
important, it has been proved to yield no apparent good or harm. 
In some places they take off the leaves of the vines in order to 
make the fruit ripen sooner by exposing them more to the sun 
but this nearly always has a contrary effect, and when done 
too soon or to too great an extent, alters the flavour of the 
juice. Another point worthy of consideration is that the 
foliage by protecting the fruit from cold winds, and stopping 
the passage of the warm vapours which rise from the earth 
during the night, produces more effect than the rays of the 
sun, which at that season are feeble and often obscured by 
clouds and fogs. 

Taking off the foliage is therefore of no benefit in vineyards 
and of no use except in giving more colour to table grapes, 
such as the chasselas, &c. and it would not probably be much 
practised in Europe, if they were not in want of the leaves as 
food for cattle. At all events it should only be resorted to 
when the summer has been so moderate as to create great 
doubts respecting the maturity of the grapes, which is not 
likely to often happen in our country, where fhe quantum of 
solar heat in the most unfavourable seasons, is fully adequate 
to the maturity of our native varieties, and no doubt by pro- 
per attention, equally so as respects foreign vines when appro- 
priately located. 

Pruning and treatment of a young vineyard. 
The first year after the plants are placed in the vineyard, 
I would allow only one shoot to grow, and an examination 
for this object should take place as soon as the scions or rooted 
vines begin to shoot, leaving only one of the most promising, 
and pruning off the rest ; this should be carefully pursued every 
three weeks throughout the season, during which period, all 
lateral branches should be quickly taken off, as they not 
only impoverish the main shoot, but greatly prevent the ri- 
pening of the wood. 

36 



PRUNING AND TREATMENT OP A YOUNG VINEYARD. 

At the regular fall or winter pruning, this shoot should be 
shortened to about three or four eyes, according to the strength 
of the plant, and where very weak, it would be best to leave 
but two eyes, observing always to cut off the shoot three 
inches above the uppermost eye of those that are to remain. 
During the second summer, there will be no further attention 
necessary, but to keep down the lateral shoots ; in doing which, 
you should proceed thus : ^Having left two of the most pro- 
mising shoots, and rubbed off all the others, continue to ex- 
amine the vines every two or three weeks, and carefully prune 
off all lateral shoots whatever, throughout the season ; in 
doing which, I have found it of advantage, where the lateral 
shoot was strong, to leave the first joint remaining, that it may 
take off the superfluous sap, and prevent the bursting of the 
main bud, which should not push out till the ensuing season. 
These single joints thus left remaining, can be altogether taken 
off at the final pruning. This course will bring you to the 
conclusion of the second season, when at the autumnal prun- 
ing you should proceed as follows : To the very strong vines, 
I would leave eight buds ; to those less so, six ; and, to those 
which still seem quite weak, from three to four buds, accord- 
ing to your own judgment on the subject. 

During the third summer from three to four shoots may be 
left, and the same precautions used in suppressing laterals, &c. 
as before prescribed, and they can in autumn be pruned down 
to such number of buds as you consider the vine calculated 
to sustain. There is another point to be considered in the 
pruning operation, which is, to preserve about an equal pro- 
portion of wood for each side of the vine, for where a great 
difference is made in this respect, the sap is apt to be drawn 
too much to the stronger one, and thereby weaken and im- 
poverish the other. 

In pruning, the knife should be made to enter at the side 
opposite the uppermost bud left, which will cause the highest 
part of the slope to be above the eye, by which any bleeding 
or drops of rain will pass off at the lower side of the slope 
without injury to the bud. At the fourth pruning the vine 



PRUNING BARKING LAYING BARE THE ROOT. 283 

will have attained its proper shape, and from that period they 
are classed and trained according to the systems of short and 
long- pruning, and therefore no further directions will be found 
necessary than to follow such of the general principles laid 
down as may be deemed best calculated to ensure success, and 
to prune frequently and sufficiently, so as to stop at all times 
the lateral shoots, where they are calculated to impoverish the 
vine without any manifest advantage ; in a word, to force by 
art into the main branches of the vines, that sap which, with- 
out such aid, would be lost in superfluous, weak, and useless 
shoots. 

Pruning to restore the vigour of vines Taking off the bark 
Laying bare the vine root. 

A vine may be renewed by cutting it down below the sur- 
face of the soil, and suppressing the most of the shoots which 
spring from it. In general, unless it be necessary to form 
provins to fill up the ground, there should be but one left, 
and that ought to be the strongest ; this should be pruned the 
ensuing winter down to a few eyes as with a perfect vine ; 
sometimes suckers keep springing up from the root for several 
years, which must be destroyed. This manner of renewing 
the growth of vines is founded upon the principle that the 
vigour of trees is increased in proportion to the regular course 
of the sap, and to its not being caused to deviate in its course 
by angles or windings ; and these it is well known are numerous 
in an old vine that has been annually pruned, whereas there 
are none in a shoot which rises directly from the root. This 
method is pursued only in a few localities, and it is to be re- 
gretted that it has not been more generally adopted in cases 
that require it. In some instances where vines have undergone 
great exhaustion, they are allowed to lie fallow as it is termed, 
during which period they receive no pruning. 

With all trees the removal of the old and rough bark is 
found of great benefit, and this course has been applied by 
many French vignerons to their vines with equal advantage. 
Its effect is by allowing th new bark a more full expansion 



284 LAYING BARE THE ROOT GIRDLING. 

to encourage the growth of the shoots ; and it also destroys 
great multitudes of insects which usually shelter themselves 
beneath it, and deprives others of the means of concealment 
and preservation. Its general influence is to produce a greater 
development of the plant, and it is therefore efficacious in 
advancing its health, and increasing the quantity of the fruit. 
I notice a procedure recommended by French authors, of 
which I must acknowledge I cannot see the benefit. This is, 
to remove the earth at the beginning of April from around 
the stock to the depth of five or six inches or more, for the 
purpose of destroying all suckers and superfluous roots. For 
suppressing any shoots this procedure does not seem requisite, 
as so very few ever make their appearance in that position, that 
it would not be worth the labour, and as the few that may occa- 
sionally appear can be otherwise removed with so much less 
trouble. That the base of the vines should be entirely free 
from suckers, all must agree in opinion, and if other less easy 
methods are insufficient for success, then that of clearing the 
soil away around the vines may be adopted ; but the vineyards 
among us, so far as I have seen, are very little prone to form 
an abundance of shoots beneath the surface of the ground. 
As to suppressing any portion of the roots, I deem it an injury, 
and therefore the practice in that respect is worse than useless, 
for it may be taken as an axiom in horticulture, that the 
more perfectly the roots are allowed to form and extend them- 
selves, the more vigorous will be the plant and the more abun- 
dant its produce. Some recommend also where the branches 
on one side of a vine are more flourishing than on the other, 
that a part of the roots be cut away on the luxuriant side, but 
under such circumstances it is certainly more advantageous to 
enrich the soil with manure near the part least vigorous, and 
to thereby afford it sufficient nourishment to compete with the 
other. 

Girdling or Incisure. 

This operation is best performed with scissors expressly 
calculated for the purpose, the two edges of which form a ring 



GIRDLING OR INCISURE. 285 

when united, and thus encircle the shoot. A sharp pruning 
knife, with a smooth edge and hawk's bill, will also answer the 
object, but will not execute the work with equal expedition. 
It is more particularly pursued among us, in order to advance 
the maturity of the fruit, and increase its size and quality. 
Its primitive introduction among the ancients was to prevent 
the coulure or blight ; and Theophrastus, Pliny, and various 
other writers, mention it as a practice adopted by the vignerons 
of their respective periods. 

It has also been recommended and practised on various 
trees by Olivier de Serres, Magnol, Buffon, Duhamel, Rosier, 
Thouin, &c. the latter of whom carried his experiments to a 
great extent, and proved its powerful effects not only on the 
various species of stone fruit, on nut and berry-bearing trees 
and vines, but on various other families of the vegetable king- 
dom. The principle, upon which it is based, is the well known 
theory of the progress of the sap, which ascends in the wood 
and descends through the bark, and which by this process is 
retained above the incision, at the same time that its ascent 
through the wood is not prevented, by which circumstances 
a far greater proportion is distributed throughout the upper 
part of the branch, thereby causing the vegetation to be great- 
ly increased, the fruit and branch to be enlarged in size, and 
the maturity of the former to be advanced. 

It may be advantageously adopted in very rainy seasons, 
and when the cold or dampness is such as to render the ma- 
turity of the crop veny uncertain. But in vineyard or field 
culture it should not be resorted to in fine seasons, as its object 
there is simply to counteract the injurious effects, or the un- 
favourable variations of climate ; and it should only be ap- 
plied to strong and vigorous vines, and then not frequently, 
unless they are particularly sterile and subject to blight. It 
may be done on either the old or new wood, and in Europe is 
generally confined to that of the preceding year ; but one of 
our most intelligent experimentalists, S. G. Perkins, Esq. of 
Massachusetts, recommends operating on the two year old 
wood ; when done on the young wood, the shoots^are apt to 



286 GIRDLING OR INCISURE. 

be broken by the wind, which inconvenience is not felt by the 
old wood, which is firm and strong. 

There are two periods for its performance, having different 
prominent objects in view ; to prevent the blight of the blos- 
soms, it should be performed between the time the sap begins 
to ascend and that when the flowers expand, and the period 
generally preferred is from six to eight days previous to their 
expansion. When done at this period its influence will extend 
also to the fruit. The other period of execution is when the 
fruit is fully formed, which is about the end of June or begin- 
ning of July in this latitude. 

Various modifications have taken precedence in the manner 
of its performance, which has become reduced to a course readily 
understood and performed. Take the scissors or knife before 
referred to and pass it round a branch where the bark is smooth 
and cut down to the wood ; and at a quarter to a half inch be- 
low, in proportion to the strength of the vine, make another 
circular incision parallel with the first, then by a perpendicu- 
lar cut from the one to the other, you may readily remove the 
ring of bark thus loosened from the branch, which should be 
done quite down to the wood, so as not to leave any portion 
even of the liber or inner bark, to form a connection of the 
parts thus separated. 

In seasons when the growth of the vine is very vigorous, 
the 'incision will sometimes become closed, in which case it 
must be re-opened ; but the partial incrustation which serves 
for an after connection must be allowed to remain, if the 
shoots are intended to be layered as provins, or if it is desired 
to preserve them for any other object. Care should be taken 
not to cut into or wound the wood, but simply to take off the 
entire bark that surrounds it. 

The following rules are adopted in France in its perfor- 
mance : In girdling vineyards of low pruned vines, the inci- 
sion is made on the -wood formed the previous year, and below 
each fruit bearing shoot. In vineyards high trained, the in- 
cision is made at the commencement of the curve, or bend just 
below the twist previously spoken of, or in case that has been 



MANURING. , 287 

omitted, just at the place where that is generally made, the ob- 
ject of both being to accomplish the same end in a greater or 
less degree. On strong stool vines, where the shoots are very 
vigorous, the incision is made on the fruit branch itself. 

The fact of incision forming an infallible preventive to the 
blight, if executed skilfully and opportunely, is established on 
the basis of numerous and repeated experiments, made on vines 
subject to its effects. 

Viewing the operation however in application to entire 
plantations of vines, it can only be pursued by causing the 
more speedy exhaustion of the stocks they contain, and at the 
sacrifice of the greater duration of the vineyards. The very 
basis of this procedure proves conclusively the exhaustion 
which must necessarily be produced in the lower section of the 
shoot thus treated, as well as in the main stock, by the non-re- 
turn of the sap ; and the consequent inappropriateness of its adop- 
tion except where the branches operated upon, can be totally 
dispensed with at the autumnal pruning, or be layered as perma- 
nent pro vins, which latter course secures the great concentration 
of sap in the upper part of the shoot, for after advantage and 
profitable development. But in garden culture where the fruit 
of each season is produced on branches brought forward the 
preceding one, and where those that have produced fruit are 
removed at the end of the same year, this course is less objec- 
tionable, and its advantages may render it worthy of adoption. 
In such case the highest fruit branches and those which pre- 
sent the greatest show of clusters should be selected for the 
operation ; and particular care be taken that the incision is 
made above the shoots intended for forming new wood. One 
of the most beneficial results of girdling, is that, by hastening 
the maturity, it allows of open culture in climates where a suc- 
cessful result in this respect could not otherwise be attained. 

Manuring. 

The vine possesses the faculty of seeking by its roots for a 
great distance the sustenance it requires from the soil, and can 
therefore subsist in the same spot an indeterminate number of 



288 MANURING. 

years if the ground is fertile ; but every consideration recom- 
mends us to plant it in poor soils, and these soon become ex- 
hausted by it. It therefore requires frequent manuring in 
order to support the abundance of its produce, although a 
powerful motive opposes the use of it, which is that it injures 
the quality of the wine, and even gives it a bad flavour. On 
hill sides, the soil of vineyards becomes exhausted, and the 
number as well as the size of the grapes finally diminishes, 
which leads necessarily to a deterioration of the quality of the 
wine, of which many old neglected vineyards furnish ample 
proofs. At all periods the friends of good wine have been 
opposed to animal manures, they being the only ones essentially 
injurious. It is to the use of the filth of the city of Paris, 
that is attributed in part the bad quality of the wines of its 
vicinity. A moderate portion of manure will not do much 
injury ; but as the crops are increased in proportion to the 
quantity, sjuch quantities are often used even in some of the first 
vineyards of France, as greatly to injure the wines. 

It is therefore recommended where the quality of the wines 
is the main object, to manure but moderately, and to select 
vegetable manures in all cases in preference to those produced 
by animals where such can be obtained. The deposits on 
the shores of rivers and creeks, the cleanings of ditches and 
ponds, and earth from roads and yards are recommended as 
proper for manuring and enriching the soil of vineyards. 
Fresh earth may also be transported from grain fields and 
meadows, or from woods. A suitable compost may likewise be 
formed with the earth of the vineyard, the leaves of trees, dry 
weeds, the parings of lawns, &c. 

But the course least practised, and yet deemed most bene- 
ficial, is that of raising crops of particular plants every second 
or third year, for the purpose of ploughing or digging in. 
There are many annual plants that may be sown immediately 
after the vintage, which could in most parts of the union, 
attain a growth sufficient to be dug or ploughed in the same 
season. Buckwheat is particularly recommended for this pur- 
pose, being easily cultivated and ploughed in, and as producing 



MANURING. 289 

the desired effect, but as its operation is not very durable, the 
practice should be renewed every second or third year. 

Columella mentions that the ancients used a species of lupin 
for this object, and on the luxuriant hills of Damazan, in- the 
department of Lot and Garonne, the same practice is pur- 
sued. The lupin is in flower at the period of tillage, and is 
then turned under, thereby forming a strong and valuable 
manure with but little expense. It is found particularly ad- 
vantageous to light sandy soils, and I would recommend its 
more general use. 

There are also many other annual plants which might be 
converted to manuring the soil by this mode. In the depart- 
ment of the Rhone, they manure their vineyards by sowing 
winter vetches in October, and turning them under ground 
towards the middle of May, and this practice is approved by 
both theory and use. Another plant very suitable to this kind 
of culture is the faba sativa, or Egyptiari bean, of which we 
have many varieties under the title of horse bean, Windsor, 
long pod, &c. these can be planted annually in the inter- 
vening spaces, and after gathering the first beans, the remainder 
with the plants can be dug under in June. 

In some vineyards they collect bushes of heath, furze, and 
briars, and also the prunings of trees, and bury them near the 
roots of the vines during summer, in order to ameliorate ihe 
soil, and the effect is said to be beneficial for several years* 

The celebrated Olivier de Serres says that the third and last 
working of vineyards which is performed after the vintage, is 
absolutely necessary to the progress of the vine, and to the 
increase of its produce. This is usually done in autumn ; and 
if the vigneron does not wish to delay it until the leaves have 
fallen, he can as soon as the grapes are gathered, commence 
it by having women and children to go a-head of the work- 
men to pull off the leaves from the vines, and throw them on 
the ground, which are dug in by the labourers to manure the 
soil. This work can be delayed until after the leaves have 
fallen, when dry however they are far less enriching to the 
soil than when green ; but for my own part I am averse to all 
defoliations of the vine except by the course of nature. 

37 



290 MANURING. 

If notwithstanding the disadvantages, animal manures are to 
be used, still it is advisable, that they should be left to become 
completely decomposed by the atmosphere ; for which reason 
they ought not to be employed until they are two or three 
years old, and have lost their scent. It may be well to re- 
mark, that there are some animal substances which greatly 
enrich the soil and do not injure the wine, such as horns, and 
horn shavings, hair, claws, and nails, these have also the ad- 
vantage of only becoming decomposed when the atmosphere 
is both warm and moist, which is the time when they can im- 
part the most benefit. 

Autumn is the most favourable period for manuring vine- 
yards, and the vigneron is then more at leisure to attend to 
it, the manure likewise has time during winter to become more 
decomposed, and consequently will impart less odour to the 
fruit. 

Frequent manurings are deemed far more advantageous 
than doing it very abundantly at one time, and are calculated 
to produce less variation in the quality of the wine. The 
manure should be spread equally over the surface, so as to 
afford general benefit to the roots in every direction, and not 
be placed in large quantities near the root of the vine only, 
as is often practiced. It is also deemed prudent when animal 
manures are used, that only part of the vineyard be manured 
at one time. As a conclusive proof of the great influence of 
manures on the fruit, we may cite the vineyards of Aunis, and 
its neighbourhood, where sea weed alone is used for the pur- 
pose, and where the grapes not only partake of the scent, but 
by being subjected to chemical process are found to yield 
alkali. 

In the vineyards on hills and declivities, which are formed 
by transverse hedges, walls, and ditches, the vigneron collects 
every year, or every second year, the earth which has washed 
down from one terrace to another, in order that it may be 
carried up again and replaced ; this custom has a tendency 
also to enrich the soil and merits general adoption. 

Plaster would doubtless be beneficial at the usual distance 



MANURING. 291 

from the sea coast if sprinkled on the soil, but when sprinkled 
on the leaves it is supposed it would be injurious, as by caus- 
ing- them to be enlarged to a great degree, it might retard the 
maturity of the fruit. The disadvantage of powerful manures 
plentifully applied, must be considered as more particularly 
affecting the grapes of very delicate flavour, which make the 
finer wines. They produce little or no effect on those of a 
coarser and more common character, and none on brandies. 
Being therefore a most powerful auxiliary, and one which so 
greatly increases the produce, it may be very liberally applied 
without fear of injury, except in the case first mentioned. 

Ashes may be classed among the most suitable manures, 
and from its plentifulness and cheapness among us, may always 
be obtained in sufficient quantities. Its use is deemed advan- 
tageous both to mingle with the earth in filling up the holes or 
trenches where the vines are planted, and to incorporate with 
the soil in the various operations of preparing or manuring it. 
Its value may be justly appreciated from its similitude to vol- 
canic remains, which are so well known as the most propitious 
soils for the production of superior wines. 

Where the vineyard is based on a rocky foundation, moist- 
ened ashes is often strewed at the bottom of the trenches, and 
also mixed with the soil used in filling them up, as it serves to 
maintain the freshness and looseness of the ground, and to 
counteract the effects of reflected heat. 

An easy method of forming a compost suitable for vines, 
is to spread layers of dung, and of sods, or good rich mould, 
one above another, which should remain for one or two years 
previous to using, during the latter part of which time, it should 
be twice or thrice turned over, and the parts well mixed and 
incorporated with each other. Lime, ashes, dead leaves, and 
the black soil found in forests, formed by decomposed parts 
of vegetation, are most valuable additions to this compost. 

Horn shavings, which I have already mentioned as an ex- 
cellent manure, may be obtained at the comb factories in 
many of our cities, and when obtainable at a reasonable rate, 
say at two or three cents per bushel, should be purchased for 



292 WATERING VINEYARDS. 

the purpose, to mingle at least with less durable manures. 
Blood forms a very powerful manure, and should not be ap- 
plied too close to the body of the vine, as its influence is so 
quickly communicated to the fruit. 

Dr. J. W. Smith, of Lockport, in this state, remarks, that 
he has found coal dust, cinders, and scales of iron, or black 
oxide of iron from the blacksmith's forge, when properly mixed 
with fine garden mould, to be incomparably the best manure 
for the vine, and to surpass his most sanguine expectations ; 
he was led to make the experiment from the well known fact, 
that vines thrive best in volcanic districts. 

Where the plants languish or fail to flourish, the causes 
should be particularly examined into, and where necessary, 
some soil of a different nature be added ; if the ground be too 
light and thin, some strong rich mould should be dug in around 
them ; but if on the contrary, it is heavy, light or sandy earth 
should be mixed with it ; this operation should take place in 
autumn. 

In many cases where vines become sickly, and their leaves 
turn yellow, and put on the appearance of decay, the follow- 
ing method of manuring them may be beneficial by affording 
prompt relief; fill some casks or tubs half full of fresh cow 
droppings, and the remainder part with water, and after it 
has stood thus for two or three days, pour off the water and 
sprinkle it over the leaves, and around the roots of the plants. 
I think this much superior to summer manuring, by digging 
in around the roots of the vines, a course that is particularly 
objectionable, as it is apt to disturb the young roots at the 
principal period of their growth. 

Watering vineyards. 

Pallas states, that they generally water their vineyards in 
the Crimea, and it is sometimes practised in the environs of 
Milan, and Olivier remarks, that this course is much in prac- 
tice in Persia. But its use is repelled by the best vignerons 
of France, &c. from the great injuries which arise from it ; 
for where the vines are watered the juice of the grape becomes 



TILLAGE OR WORKING OP VINEYARDS. 293 

weak and vapid, and the wine consequently inferior in body, 
flavour, and spirit. Water plentifully applied to the Isabella 
and other pulpy native grapes at the time of their changing 
colour, and continued to their period of maturity, is said to 
have the effect of dissolving the pulp. 

Where vineyards are planted on a rocky bottom, and thereby 
subjected to injury from droughts, it were adviseable to use 
the augur which might open a stream of water capable of 
rendering great and permanent benefit to the vineyard, 

Tillage or working of vineyards. 

The object of tilling the ground is the development of its 
principles, as far as calculated to advance the particular 
species of vegetation in view, which necessarily combines the 
destruction of nauseous weeds ; and the loosening and lighten- 
ing of the soil, in order to render it permeable to the air and 
to the passage of the roots, and to admit of the evaporation 
of too great humidity. For these various operations a judi- 
cious discrimination should be exercised as to the period most 
suitable for each, and in wine countries certain general rules 
have been adopted, which I will detail. It has been already 
mentioned, that at the time of flowering no work should be 
performed, and access to the vineyard should not be allowed. 

New plantations require particular attention to the tillage, 
both on account of the great necessity of increasing by every 
means the strength and vigour of the young vines, and to de- 
stroy the far greater profusion of w r eeds which then make their 
appearance. 

Frequent ploughings are very beneficial, and in this early 
stage of the vineyard can be performed without danger of 
injury either to the branches or the roots, which the great ex- 
tension of the vines in after years may prevent. Four plough- 
ings should therefore be annually performed the first and se- 
cond years, after which a less number may suffice. 

In the first operations of tilling a young vineyard, a small 
hollow should be formed around each vine stock tQ catch and 
retain moisture for the roots, and care should be taken at all 



*294 TILLAGE OR WORKING OF VINEYARDS. 

after labours, that this[hollow remain, or that it be formed anew 
as often as necessary. 

In all the dressings I would suggest particular care not to 
injure or cut off any of the roots, for notwithstanding we have 
the high authority of Berneaud, to cut up and destroy the 
roots next the surface, 1 must entirely dissent from its pro- 
priety. In accordance w r ith this opinion, the digging and 
hoeing should be performed lightly immediately around the 
vine, and deeper at more distance from it in order to preserve 
the roots near the surface, for I have yet to learn from M. 
Berneaud, for what reasons they are not equally as beneficial 
to the vine as those that penetrate to a greater depth. My 
own opinion is, that their influence is more immediately felt 
by the vine, as they so quickly profit by the dews and light 
rains, as well as by being more immediately operated upon by the 
atmosphere, from the influences of all which the lower roots 
are so much farther removed. 

Vineyards when well and properly worked, require four 
annual tilling operations; the first is ploughing, when the ground 
should be as deeply worked as possible ; this should be per- 
formed during winter, but where the winter frosts are too 
severe to allow it, it must be done late in autumn, or very 
early in the spring ; the other three are dressings with the 
spade or hoe, during summer to destroy the weeds. The first 
should be performed some days previous to the flowering, the 
second when the fruit has attained about one third its size, and 
the third when it commences changing to the colour of ma- 
turity. Some vignerons bestow but two dressings by delaying 
the second, and omitting the last, but the advantages gained 
by three dressings are more than equal to the difference of 
expense, for labour is equivalent to manure, and in some 
places where even four summer dressings are given, they find 
advantage from it. High trained vineyards from the manner 
of their arrangement admit fully of the above mode of treatment; 
but in most of the low trained vineyards, there is only oppor- 
tunity for once tilling during the summer season, for when the 
branches have spread around, there is danger of bruising or 



TILLAGE OR WORKING OP VINEYARDS. 295 

breaking them and of injuring the fruit '. two ploughings 
would in such case be advantageous, one in the fall and the other 
early in the spring before vegetation commences, and the dig- 
ging should take place at as late a period as will answer, say 
the middle or latter part of August. I would recommend 
however that in adopting any species of arrangement and cul- 
ture for a vineyard, such course be pursued as will allow of 
several summer dressings without difficulty, as I think their 
advantages too great to be passed over for the attainment of 
any other object. 

Deep tillage is particularly required in loam and clay soils, 
in order to render them mellow and permeable. Vines attain 
sooner to perfection in light soils than in stiff ones, but their 
duration is longer in the latter. 

In vineyards on hills and declivities, it is proper in working 
them to throw up the earth as much as possible, instead of dig- 
ging it down as is often done. It is true, the labourer has a 
more difficult task, but by this course the upper part of a vine- 
yard will not be stripped of its soil. Some proprietors in order 
to carry the advantage as far as possible, considering both 
circumstances, have the ground worked diagonally, a course 
which must be approved of. When the first working or 
digging of a vineyard is done from east to west, the next 
should be from west to east, or according to this rule in what- 
ever direction it may be. The two or three latter cleanings 
of the vineyard are called weedings, and are in general done 
with the hoe, to destroy the weeds which have accumulated, 
and which would extract the richness of the soil, injure the 
ripening of the fruit, and favour the influence of frosts. It 
is asserted by many writers, that summer culture of light soils 
causes the evaporation of moisture, and renders the soil more 
dry. In my experience, I have found the result directly the 
reverse. By digging a dry soil in a drought, the quantity 
of moisture seems to be increased, for the fertility is greater, 
and the plants flourish more than when it is omitted. 

In many vineyards, especially those of Orleans, the earth 
is made more elevated in the line containing the vines than in 



296 IMPLEMENTS O* LABOUR. 

the intervals, this practice is beneficial in humid soils; but 
hear Paris, the course is directly the reverse ; for the vines 
are planted in trenches which do not get filled up for many 
years. There is in the vicinity of Paris, a mode of working 
vineyards which merits notice. Immediately after the poles 
are taken down, which is in November, they take off the sur- 
face of the soil with the pick axe, to the depth of two or three 
inches, and form this earth into small heaps in the intervals 
between the vines. After the pruning is completed, which is 
early in the spring, they give a deep digging to the vines, in 
which operation the heaps referred to are scattered again. 

Implements of labour. 

The labour bestowed on the vine varies in many respects 
in almost every vineyard. In many of the southern depart- 
ments of France, they use the plough ; in the north, the hoe 
and pick-axe of various forms, and sometimes even the spade 
and pitch-fork. The plough is particularly recommended for 
economy, and next to it no instrument expedites the work as 
well as the mattock used in the neighbourhood of Paris, of which 
the iron plate is a foot in length, and six inches in breadth, and 
the handle bent and very short ; but it always forces the la- 
bourer to stoop very much while working, and fatigues him 
extremely. In our extensive stores of agricultural imple- 
ments, are to be found various articles applicable to the vine 
culture, among which one called the " Cultivator" seemswell 
calculated for the purpose, others are so constructed as to per- 
form the work of many hoes at the same time, and at a com- 
paratively great saving of labour. I merely touch on this 
subject to awaken the minds of vignerons to a proper selec- 
tion, and to the consideration whether we may not select more 
suitable and economical implements for the purpose than 
such as are usually recommended or now in use. 

French writers state, that of the three principal sorts of 
hoes, that which has a square iron answers best for compact 
soils, where there are few stones ; the triangular one for those 
of the same character that are stony, and that with two or 

!* 



OF THE ADVANCES AND DISBURSEMENTS, ETC. 297 

three forks for light soils that are stony or pebbly : the hoeing 
should be done as deep as possible, and requires strong la- 
bourers, being the severest part of the tillage. The small 
spade with the iron rounded, is also considered among the 
most expeditious and least fatiguing and is much commended. 
In conveying new earth or manure to the different parts of a 
vineyard, the wheel-barrow seems best adapted where there is 
not space sufficient to allow the passage of a cart ; and where 
the plantations*ire on the sides of hills, they use in France, 
a kind of scuttle-shaped basket which is found convenient for 
the purpose. Even where a cart can pass through the vine- 
yard, it is apt by its weight, and the trampling of the horses, to 
press the ground too much, it is therefore deemed preferable 
to use it only to transport the manure to the outer side of the 
vineyard, whence it can be removed by wheel-barrows. 

Of the advances and disbursements to be made by the proprietor. 
The wisest course that can be pursued by the proprietor of a 
vineyard, is to superintend it himself with the utmost care, and 
not to be parsimonious in disbursements for the annual ad- 
vances. The earth returns with usurious interest the treasures 
that are confided to it. We shall hereafter detail some othe 
disadvantages attendant on the management of this species 
of property. The formation of vineyards requires nothing 
more than the purchase of beasts, of implements of husbandry, 
of vines, &c. which being primitive expenditures like those 
attendant on grain farms, &ic. it will be only requisite to 
make an accurate estimate ; first, of the annual expenditures 
required for culture ; and secondly, of the returns that should 
be derived from that culture, which points are seldom suffi- 
ciently understood. The former comprises, first, the price to 
be paid the vigneron for the different labours which he is 
bound to bestow on each acre of vines, in case the proprietor 
employs another to oversee and conduct his vineyard; secondly, 
the poles where they are necessary ; third, the manure when 
required ; fourth, the casks commonly used ; fifth, the ex- 
penses of the vintage and making the wine at the press. 

38 



298 PAY OP THE VIGNERON. 

The proprietor has a right also to an indemnity, in order 
to make amends for occasional losses by any extraordinary 
calamities, such as hail, insects, &c. because these injuries form 
no part of what is deemed a common crisis. To cover this 
indemnity will not require much less than the tenth part of the 
total medium product. 

.-* 

Pay of the Vigneron. 

There are some districts in France, where it is customary 
to give the vigneron for compensation, the third, half, or two 
thirds of the crop, to pay all the expenses and labour ; and 
where consequently the owner receives a revenue more or less 
according to the produce. But this course seems to be de- 
precated by intelligent French writers, who say that the result 
of this mode of arrangement is as injurious to the interest of 
the proprietor, as to the vigneron and even to the vineyard 
itself. For in such cases the vines are often badly cultivated ; 
that is to say, the vignerons bestow on them the least possible 
labour, pay no attention to repairing injuries and expend no 
money, insomuch that but inferior crops can be realized from 
them. Cases are even witnessed where the vignerons, con- 
trary to the desire of the proprietors, destroy good vines 
which yielded moderate crops, in order to substitute what are 
called grosses races, or great bearers, which yield a more 
abundant produce, but make bad wine, thus evincing no con- 
cern whether the reputation of the vineyard is injured or not. 

In other instances the vignerons when in debt, diminish the 
value of the wine by agreeing to sell it at any price, and thereby 
sacrifice the interest of the proprietor. It is consequently far 
preferable, as has been recommended in another place, that a 
vineyard should be under the immediate direction of the pro- 
prietor ; or if it is not, that he should pay a vigneron a regu- 
lar compensation, and himself make the advances necessary 
for its management. Doubtless, however, in most cases, in 
the formation and management of vineyards in our own coun- 
try, the proprietor and the vigneron will be united in the same 
person, which will ensure a proper attention to the various 



WINTER PROTECTION OF VINES. 299 

duties required, and will also cause a saving of the expense 
.of one family, which in France is generally intermediate 
between the owner of the vineyard and those who labour 
in it* 

Winter protection of vines. 

The considerations attending protection against the ri j 
gors of winter will be necessarily much varied according to 
the varieties under culture. Our native varieties so far as 
they have been tested, need no provisional care on this point; 
nevertheless some attention to it may be required hereafter by 
a part of the vines latterly introduced from our extreme southern 
limits, and from the province of Texas. At present however, 
we have only to consider the relative hardihood of foreign va- 
rieties, as they alone necessarily claim our attention at this time. 
Many of these will support our severest winters, others need 
particular care, or they perish partially or totally. But this 
necessity for protection varies according to the section of the 
union in which the vines are located. Too much discrimina- 
tion cannot be exercised in selecting judiciously the kinds to 
compose the vineyard, a subject which has been already dis- 
cussed ; and after all my own experiments I have come to this 
conclusion, that to establish vineyards of the most profitable 
description, with a certainty of regular crops in localities north 
of the highlands in this state, native varieties alone should be 
selected; and the whole of the eastern states will of course 
be comprised in this remark ; for although vineyards of 
foreign vines may prosper, the annual product and consequent 
profit, and above all the certainty and regularity of crops 
would be much less. 

Foreign vines from Germany, and from the northern and 
middle departments of France, support the winters of this 
latitude after attaining two year's growth, and so do many of 
the varieties from more southern climes, after attaining four and 
five year's growth, while manyof the latter, particularly those 
from the Mediterranean, perish almost totally by its effects. 
But even the most hardy kinds, it is necessary or preferable 



300 GARDEN CULTURE. 

should be protected the first winter, and those rather less hardy 
the second winter also, for a vine of a year old will frequently 
perish by cold, when one of the same variety of three year's 
growth will remain uninjured. A vineyard in a northern ex- 
posure where the frosts are very severe in their effects, will of 
course want more effectual protection than one facing the 
south. Different means are used to guard vines against the 
cold : in Denmark the vines are tied up with evergreens during 
winter, which may be an eligible course where the stocks are 
too large and strong to be bent down. The use of 'horse and 
other manure, straw and litter of horses, or cattle, is objection- 
able, as they are apt to becomfc heated during warm rains or 
moist weather, and thereby create serious injuries. The more 
dry and cool the vines are kept, the better ; for which reasons the 
covering of the vines should not be performed until the warm 
weather has subsided, and should be removed as soon as the 
danger of severe frosts is past. For the purpose of covering 
I prefer common sand, as it keeps the vines sufficiently cool 
and dry, at the same time that it subserves the other objects 
required. The following directions I have found suited to 
this latitude, and they can be modified to suit any other : 
In the course of the month of November, bend each vine gently 
down, and if long, form it into a coil, and stake it to keep it 
In its place ; after this, proceed to cover it, hilling the sand or 
earth up from four to six inches, and sloping it to cast off the 
rain. In the last week of March, the vines must be carefully 
uncovered, and trained along the lattices, or tied to the poles 
or other supports designed for them. These directions for 
covering vines during the winter, are only necessary for the 
climate north of the Potowmac ; for in the more southern 
states, no protection of course is necessary. 

Garden Culture. 

The principal differences which distinguish the garden 
culture from that of vineyards, Js the greater labour and atten- 
tion bestowed on the former, attended with a degree of ex- 
pense which the latter would not admit of, as from its far 



GARDEN CULTURE. 301 

greater magnitude and extent, a degree of economy is rendered 
indispensably necessary in the details. Another is, that by 
means of garden culture the vine is made to yield fruit for the 
table much farther north ; grapes being thereby produced in 
great perfection in the gardens and hothouses of Stockholm 
and St. Petersburgh. 

On this and on every other species of culture there exists 
a contrariety of opinion. I shall therefore give the modes 
generally adopted as the most advantageous. It seems to be 
the general opinion that trellises for training vines against the 
sides of walls should be placed about nine inches to a foot 
from the wall, also that the walls should be painted black or 
tarred, and the results of some experiments are hereafter given. 
I will further remark that to such perfection has the culture 
of the vine attained in the most disadvantageous climates, that 
I doubt not we shall ere long have the fig, pomegranate 
and other southern fruits subjected to a culture based on si- 
milar principles and attended with equal success. The authors 
of the Bon Jardinier, published at Paris, give as the climax 
of the art of cultivating the vine on trellises or walls the course 
practiced at Thomery, a village near Fontainbleau, which 
supplies the markets of the metropolis with the most delicious 
fruit principally of the White Chasselas variety. 

This mode of culture now approbated in England, w r as like 
many other improvements not adopted there until a considera- 
ble period after it was appreciated and pursued in this country, 
and the very figures given in their publications in regard 
to the mode of training, &c. were anticipated by those of Mr. 
Dean, deposited at the office of the N. E. Farmer ; and the 
Hon. John Lowell very justly remarks, that to us "it is some 
satisfaction to perceive that the English cultivators appreciate 
it as highly as we did." 

With the original work now before me, I deem it altogether 
unnecessary to make a new version,when so perfect a transla- 
tion exists, as that made by Mr. Lowell, and I consequently in- 
sert that here, accompanied by some remarks from his pen ; and 
I feel gratified at this and every other opportunity of paying 



302 CULTURE Otf THE VINE AT THOMERY. 

a passing tribute to one, alike to be reverenced and esteemed 
for his great intelligence on the subject of horticultural science, 
for his general urbanity of manners, and for the distinguished 
liberality which has marked his course. 

The practice of shortening the fruit branches is often adop- 
ted in garden culture in cold localities, and sometimes even in 
vineyards, as stated at page 280, its object being to cause a 
greater accumulation of the sap in that part of the shoot which 
supports the fruit, and to prevent its exhaustion by a great 
and sometimes unnecessary extension of those shoots ; and if 
these branches are to be pruned out in autumn, and their places 
supplied by new ones the ensuing season, their great extension 
is of no use whatever, and it is in such case much the prefera- 
ble course to husband the sap in the manner before named. 
This operation is executed in cold and unfavourable localities 
as soon as the berries are fully formed, and in others when 
they have attained two thirds or nearly their full size. The 
period should be selected according to the circumstances of 
the occasion, which should also have their influence in deciding 
upon the number of buds or joints to be left beyond the last 
cluster of fruit, the number of these to be allowed being pro- 
portionably greater according to the warmth of the climate* 
the duration of the summer, &c 

Culture of the Vine at Thomery. 

The walls against which they train their vines are about 
eight feet high, (Berneaud says seven) and are covered with a 
coping or cornice which projects about nine inches. This pro- 
tects the vine against frosts and against the violence of rain, 
without shading it too much, and it also prevents the upper 
shoot from pushing too vigorously. These walls are furnished 
with trellises, the upright standards of which are two feet apart, 
the sloat, or horizontal pieces or rails, nine inches apart, and 
the lower one six inches distant from the ground. 

The grape border along this wall is dug and manured to 
the width of five feet at least, and to the depth of fifteen dr 



CULTURE OP THE VINE AT THOMERY. 303 

eighteen inches. If the soil is wet, they slope the border so as 
to throw off the water from the wall. When the border is 
prepared, they open a trench at four feet distance from the 
wall and parallel to it, and nine inches deep, and having 
ready prepared a quantity of layers or cuttings sufficient for 
the purpose, they lay them across the trench at the bottom with 
their tops towards the wall, and at a distance of twenty inches 
from each other, they then cover them with four or five inches 
of soil, and tread them down, at the same time raising the 
upper end which was placed towards the wall nearly to a per- 
pendicular, the trenches are then filled two thirds full, and the 
residue of the soil spread over the border ; they next put into 
the trench three inches of manure, which keeps the plants 
fresh and moist, and prevents the ground from becoming dry 
and hard. In March, they shorten or cut in the plants to two 
eyes, they weed and dress the ground, and water the border 
the first season, if the heat of the weather renders it necessary. 
Scions and young plants of the vine require a moderate degree 
of moisture to aid them in forming their roots. The young 
shoots are tied to props, and every thing done that is necessary 
to favour their growth. The following season, if any of the 
vines have several branches, the'most luxuriant is left, and all 
the others carefully pruned off. The vine is again buried in 
autumn, in the same manner as before detailed, and in this 
manner the culture is continued until the shoot retained reaches 
the wall. Every time however when a new shoot is thus laid 
down, it is pruned down to the strong and perfect wood, well 
furnished with buds. It generally requires three years before 
the vine reaches the wall, but in the meantime, it produces 
annually some fine clusters of fruit. 

We now come to the formation of the bearing branches 
[cordons.'] If the wall is eight feet high, you should make 
five such branches on each side ; the first six inches from the 
ground, and the four others eighteen inches apart upon the 
horizontal rails of the trellis or espalier, arranged previously 
so as to effect this object. The stalk destined for the lowest 
bearing branch should be cut off just at the height of the shoot, 



304 CULTURE OP THE VINE AT THOMERY. 

if it has at that place a double eye or two eyes. If it has not, 
you must cut it above the eye which is next above the lowest 
rail of the trellis. These two eyes are destined to furnish the 
two lowest branches (to right and left) on the lowest rail of 
the trellis. The one that is too high must be bent down 
gently, and that which is too low, trained up and fastened to 
the trellis, so that both shall be in the some horizontal line. 
The second bearing branch [cordon] being at two feet from 
the ground, cannot be formed as soon as the first, the third 
will be still later, and so on. Whatever be the height to which 
you propose to carry your stalk or stem, you ought not to 
advance it more than twelve or fifteen inches each year, and 
should preserve its lateral buds to increase its growth and fur- 
nish fruit. But as soon as the stem has reached the requisite 
height, it is absolutely necessary to suppress and cut off all 
lateral buds on the main stem throughout. Let us now sup- 
pose all the stems arrived at the requisite or proposed height, 
and that their two last or upper branches are extended to the 
right and left to form the two arms of the bearing branches : 
we will now show how these two arms or branches are to be 
cut till they have gained the length of four feet each. The 
first year you will cut so as to have three good eyes from four 
to six inches apart. Two of these eyes will be cut so as to 
form bearing wood, and the third will be employed to lengthen 
the branch. Care must be taken to train vertically the shoots 
destined to bear the fruit. At the second cutting the bearing 
shoots thus trained vertically must be cut, leaving two eyes or 
buds ; and the terminal branch in like manner must be so 
trimmed as that there will be three eyes, two of which will be 
reserved for bearers, and the third to prolong the shoot as in 
the former year, and so proceed till each lateral branch shall 
have attained the length of four feet. Each branch ought 
then to have eight bearing eyes or shoots, all if possible on 
the upper side. When all the five plants shall have reached 
their height and length, you will have on a surface of eight 
feet square, (or sixty-four square feet,) eighty bearing branches, 
which being pruned to two eyes, will each form two branches, 



CULTURE OF THE VINE AT THOMERY. 305 

bearing two bunches each, making three hundred and twenty 
bunches on eight feet square of surface." 

The eyes at the bottom of the shoots of the grape are very 
close together and extremely small. There are no less than 
six in the space of two lines, or the fifth of one inch. When 
you cut the bearing branch long, say one or two inches, 
these little eyes become extinct and do not push ; but if you 
cut close to them, they grow and give very beautiful bunches. 
Able gardeners are well aware of this, they frequently cut at 
a distance of one line only or even less. It is for this reason 
that these branches never become long under their manage- 
ment. 

Those who are ignorant of the nature of the vine, cannot 
conceive how a bearing branch shall have given fruit for 
twenty years, and not be at the end of the time an inch long. If 
there be more than two buds that start from the same branch, 
it is absolutely necessary to suppress or pinch off the surplus even 
if they have clusters on them. It is necessary to treat the young 
shoots very tenderly in training, because they easily break off 
when they are young. You ought not to force them into a 
vertical position till the berry of the grape is large ; till then 
all you have to do is to take off all shoots which have no 
grapes, to break off tendrils, and to pinch off the extremities 
of the bearing shoots after the flowering has past, in case they 
grow too long. When the grape has nearly attained its size, 
it is beneficial to water the fruit from a rose waterpot in a man- 
ner resembling rain. This makes the skin tender and increases 
the size of the berries. You gradually uncover the fruit and 
expose it to the sun to heighten the colour and improve the 
flavour. If you, wish to leave it out till after frost, you may 
cover the bunches with paper bags, which are of use also in 
protecting them from insects and birds. 

We admire, (says the Bon. Jardinier,) as many others do, those 
branches of the vine, which are carried to two hundred feet in 
length, and we admit that there are parts of a wall, which can 
only be covered by branches, the roots of which are very distant, 
but we know, that when a branch has extended beyond a cer- 

39 



306 CULTURE OP THE VINE AT THOMERY. 

tain distance, it no longer gives fine bunches, but at its ex- 
tremities; the spurs at the centre no longer produce any thing 
but small clusters, and soon die of inanition. This inconve- 
nience doubtless occurred to the Thomery gardeners, and by 
an admirable calculation, they fixed upon the length of eight 
feet for each vine. It follows from this arrangement, that the 
sap is equally distributed to all the spurs, and that all the 
bunches are well nourished, and more beautiful. 

We should also here remark, that, though the branches at 
Thomery are only eight feet long, they do not throw out ex- 
traordinary shoots, because the plants being set at twenty 
inches only apart from each other, their roots dispute or 
contend with one another for nourishment. The cover of 
the wall also extending over the vine nine or ten inches, con- 
tributes to check the growth, consequently the vine uninjured 
by any excess yields fruit with all the qualities which it is sus- 
ceptible of acquiring. 

" Such" says the translator, " is the strong, and to my 
understanding, the sound language of men, living in a country 
which has cultivated the grape ever since the invasion of 
Julius Caesar, before the birth of our Saviour, and which 
raises one million of pounds of grapes, for every pound raised 
in England and America united. In revising the English 
and French authorities on the culture of the vine, the result is^ 
that in the British works I find nothing but chaos, and as you 
would naturally expect from people who raise the grape as a 
luxury only, no two writers agree with each other as to the pro- 
per mode of training or pruning, and every new writer from 
Hitt to Hay ward, has his own scheme. I would not intimate, 
that in forcing grapes the English gardeners are not eminently 
successful, but they are so in twenty different ways. They 
are so attentive, so neat, so utterly indifferent to expense, that 
success is hardly to be avoided. In France, on the other 
hand, it is an affair of subsistence ; it is the great staple of 
their whole country, even to the north of Paris ; yes, to a 
latitude four degrees north of Quebec. 

" The Thomery gardeners have adopted the most economi- 



CULTURE OF THE VINE AT THOMERY. 307 

cal, and the most simple mode of training. It is a point 
susceptible of mathematical demonstration, that no mode of 
training but the horizontal one can give so great an extent of 
bearing wood without interference. The horizontal mode of 
training has one other good effect ; it checks the tendency to 
useless, injurious, and enormous growth." 

We have every reason for supposing that these small and 
almost invisible buds are really the most fruitful ; for, even in 
the old mode of pruning, it will be observed that the lower- 
most good buds produce fruit first, when the vines commence 
bearing. 

" To me," says the translator, " some of the remarks of the 
writer are wholly new and truly surprising. I had no idea 
that the small and almost invisible buds at the root of the 
branch were those which produced the exquisite grapes sold 
in Paris, under the name of Chasselas de Fontainbleau. It is 
true, that last year I thought I had discovered an anomaly in 
the grape. I found a fine shoot filled with fruit growing ap- 
parently out of the side of an old branch as big as a man's 
wrist. I deemed it so strange that I was upon the point of 
asking some friends to come and see it, but upon examining 
it more closely, I found that there had been a shoot there the 
year before, which the gardener intended to extirpate, but did 
not rub off at its base. It is these buds scarcely visible, that 
furnish the fruit. To show the productiveness of the vine 
in some certain cases, Mr. L. states at a different time, that he 
had at the extremity of one branch, ten pairs of bunches, fully 
ripened, growing in the space of one foot." 

The following additional particulars in regard to the 
Thomery culture may be interesting : Along the walls at 
three feet distant from each other are iron hooks soldered with 
lead to support the braces of the trellis. The trellis is formed 
by nine horizontal slats, or lattices, fastened by iron braces to 
the hooks above mentioned, and on these are trained the 
main branches of the vine. The perpendicular supports are 
about two feet in height, and fastened to the horizontal ones 



308 CULTURE OP THE VINE AT THOMERY. 

by strong iron wire. The vine shoots are generally tied to 
the different parts of the trellis with old soaked rushes. 

When the heat of the summer is past, and the benefit to be 
derived from the foliage is nearly suspended, a part of the 
leaves that hide the grapes from the sun are taken off, which 
allows the fruit to become more highly coloured. The Tho- 
mery cultivators deem an easterly exposition the most favour- 
able, on which the sun shines until one or two o'clock. 

In order to hasten the formation of new plantations against 
walls, many persons use at the commencement rooted vines 
that have been propagated in baskets, by which means a crop 
is obtained much sooner than by cuttings. 

Another mode of culture adopted by many of our intelligent 
cultivators, is detailed in the Massachusetts Agricultural Re- 
pository, from which I make the following extracts. After 
going through the preparatory culture for the first three years 
in rearing young vines from cuttings, and concluding the la- 
bours of the last one, by leaving two shoots to each vine, the 
weaker one with two eyes and the stronger with three eyes, 
the writer commences the fourth year thus : If you keep your 
vines properly dressed, you may have your first fruits without 
injury to your plants. After this the system to be pursued 
must depend on the strength of your vines, and this will de- 
pend on the goodness of the soil and the care you take of your 
plants. But as a general rule, the following points must be 
attended to. 

" 1. The number and length of your fruit branches must 
always depend on the strength of your plant, the wood branches 
are always to be cut down to two eyes. 

2. No more branches should be left on the vine than it can 
nourish well, and abundantly ; this will depend on its age, 
and the soil in which it grows. 

3. The branches should be cut in alternately for wood and 
fruit branches, observing to cut for wood branches as low 
down on the plant as possible, so as to renew your wood near 
the bottom annually. No shoots should be permitted to grow 
from the old wood, unless wanted for this purpose. 



CULTURE OP THE VINE AT THOMERY. 309 

4. No more shoots should be permitted to grow than can 
be laid in clear and handsome, and without confusion on the 
trellis, and so as to admit the sun and air freely among the 
branches. 

5. The laterals should be rubbed out of the wood branches 
six or eight eyes high, and those that are permitted to remain 
should be pinched in to one bud. The laterals on the fruit 
branches should be rubbed out from the insertion of the shoot 
to the uppermost fruit inclusive, and the others pinched in as 
above. If the shoots are very strong, the upper laterals may 
be allowed to grow, to take up a greater portion of the sap ; 
but this should not be done unless there is danger of the eyes 
bursting in the main shoots. Be careful always to keep the 
shoots tied up near their top. 

6. Never leave more than five good eyes on a fruit-bearing 
branch, unless your vine is confined to a narrow space, and 
you are obliged to preserve only two or three fruit branches ; 
in this case the length of the branch must correspond to the 
nourishment it will receive from the plant. Select the roundest 
and fairest branches for fruit, and the lowest and most feeble 
for wood. The closer the buds are together, or the shorter 
the joints of the branch, the better they are for fruit ; these 
may in general be cut to three, four, or five eyes according 
to their strength. But in vineries covered with glass, where 
two fruit-bearing branches only are left on strong vines ; 
twenty, thirty, and forty buds are sometimes left on fruit 
branches. 

The foregoing rules will be sufficient for any one to form 
a vineyard sufficiently large to supply himself his friends, 
and the market with grapes." 

In cultivating vines to form bowers, cover arbours, &e. such 
one of the modes of training can be adopted as may best suit 
the purpose of the cultivator, and such varieties of vines be 
selected as best accord to the locality. 



310 HOTHOUSE CULTURE OP VINES. 

Painting walls black. 

This course appears to be very conducive towards advanc- 
ing the maturity of fruit. Mr. Daws, of Slough, near Windsor, 
has made the experiment of painting a wall covered by a vine, 
one half black, and leaving the other half in its usual state. 
That part of the vine which covered the black wall ripened 
the grapes earlier, and yielded about three times the weight 
of fruit that the other half produced. A writer in the N. 
E. Farmer also remarks, that " experience has proved that 
a vine of an uncommon size, which even in the hottest years 
would not produce any ripe fruit, has for several years (since 
this practice was adopted) regularly yielded the finest grapes, 
and that all other fruits, the trees producing which are planted 
against the black wall ripen much sooner than those in the 
neighbourhood." A correspondent recommends substituting 
for paint, a tar composition, on account of its smell being so 
offensive to insects. This is formed by an union of charcoal 
four-fifths, and slaked lime one-fifth, mixed with tar ; and is 
to be applied hot. 

Hothouse culture of vines. 

Speechly remarks that every hothouse intended for grapes 
should be either built on a dry soil or where the situation 
will allow of its being made so. If the ground be wet or the 
soil inappropriate, the necessary measures should be adopted 
to change their character, by forming drains to carry off the 
water, and by either mixing other soils with the natural earth 
so as to give to it the requisite adaptation, or by a removal of 
the local earth, and replacing it with that suitable to the pur- 
pose. The first operation necessary is the formation of the 
bed into which the vines are to be planted immediately in front 
of the building. This should extend its whole length with a 
depth of two feet, and a breadth of six feet, and a variation of 
dimension in the latter respect by contraction or extension will 
be attended with correspondent effect on the vines and their 
product. Having prepared a space of the dimensions desig- 



HOTHOUSE CULTURE OP VINES. 311 

nated, and the natural soil being entirely removed therefrom, 
I would advise covering the bottoms with a layer of gravel 
one or two inches thick to drain off superabundant moisture, 
after which it should be filled with a mixture of such soils and 
manures as are best calculated to secure the object in view, 
full information relative to which will be found under their 
respective heads. 

Speechly prescribes the following mixture as most proper 
for the purpose, and states that it is the same as was used in 
planting the famous vine at Welbeck. " One fourth part of 
garden mould (a strong loam), one fourth of the swarth or turf 
from a pasture where the soil is a sandy loam, one fourth of 
the sweepings and scrapings of pavements and hard roads, 
one eighth of rotten cow and stable-yard dung mixed, and one 
eighth of vegetable mould from reduced and decayed foliage." 
The swarth should be laid in a heap till the grass and roots 
decay and then be turned over and broken with a spade, after 
which it should be added to the other materials, and the whole 
be worked together until the several parts become perfectly 
well mixed and incorporated. If this compost be mixed some 
time previous to use, it will be the better, but if time will not 
permit that, they can be mixed as well as possible by working 
them over at the time. Many persons make use of a much 
more simple mixture of materials, and take only one half good 
garden mould and one half well rotted manure, which are 
either well mixed up beforehand or spread in layers whilst 
forming the bed, and mixed up as well as possible at the time 
of the operation. Were I to suggest a variation I would 
recommend the following : one fourth strong garden loam, 
one fourth light sandy loam, one fourth decomposed vegetable 
mould from swamps or woodlands, and one fourth well rotted 
manure. 

After the bed has been filled up with this prepared soil, it 
is better it should remain some time to settle previous to plant- 
ing the vines ; or if the vines are planted immediately, an al- 
lowance should be made of two or three inches for the settling 
of the ground, and consequently of the plant itself. The 



312 HOTHOUSE CULTURE OP VINES. 

vines selected for the purpose of planting in this bed should 
have each one shoot of vigorous well ripened wood three and 
a half to four feet in length, the part above this length being 
pruned off. In planting the vines, the same measures are to 
be pursued as in other cases, always remembering that the 
more carefully the operation is performed, and the more ap- 
propriate the preparation of the ground, the more prompt and 
satisfactory will be the results. The shoots are to be con- 
ducted through small holes made or left for the purpose under 
each rafter, and if the extreme end of the shoot will reach the 
lower end of the rafter inside, it will be all that is necessary* 
As the eyes or buds are liable to be injured in leading them 
through these apertures, it is best to put a little moss around 
the upper part of the stem, and to wrap over this two or three 
folds of paper which can be tied round with bass matting, and 
should be removed when it has attained its position, and the 
end of the shoot can then be carefully fastened to the rafter. 

The summer clipping or trimming and other operations at 
that season, are the same as prescribed in the general direc- 
tions on that subject. The pruning is the operation which 
here requires the most notice ; and Speechly remarks that the 
period when the leaves of the vines begin to fall is the best 
for its performance, which in a hothouse generally happens in 
December, and in relation thereto he recommends the follow- 
ing course : At the first year of pruning, if the vines are of 
great vigour and have grown remarkably strong, one shoot 
may be left the whole length of the rafter if not over twenty 
feet, and the other pruned down to three, four, or five buds, 
but where the vines are only of moderate growth, the principal 
shoot should be only half the above length. The intent of 
this mode of pruning is, that the former should produce fruit, 
and the latter make wood for the ensuing season, and the rule 
is to train each of the shoots to a separate rafter. At the se- 
cond pruning the branch that has borne fruit is cut down to 
three or four eyes, and the new formed branch is allowed the 
length requisite for a bearing shoot. 

However, when any of the vines appear weak and have not 



HOTHOUSE CULTURE OP VINES. 313 

made shoots more than eight to ten feet long, it will be best to 
prune all of them down to two, three, or four eyes, in order 
that the vine may form stronger growths the ensuing year. 
The principal object to be considered in pruning is to keep 
each of the rafters furnished with a vigorous shoot, every other 
one of which is for fruit bearing, and the intervening ones to 
form wood for a successive crop. Young vines are only al- 
iQwed to furnish one bearing shoot, but those of large size and 
;great vigour may be made to cover a number of rafters in 
proportion to their strength. In general cases however, but 
two fruit-bearing branches are left, which in pruning are often 
allowed twenty, thirty, and forty buds to each. Where it is 
desirable to have a fruit bearing branch to each rafter, the 
shoots intended to form wood can be trained in the interme- 
diate space, if that is sufficient for the purpose, or in any other 
direction not otherwise occupied. The houses are generally 
warmed by flues of the usual construction, but they may be 
very eligibly heated by steam without increasing the expense. 
Genera] Derby, of Salem, has his house heated by hot water 
after the manner recommended by Loudon. 

There is much less expense attendant on erecting houses 
for this object than is generally supposed, as they may be built 
upon a very cheap construction, and they will serve at the 
same time for the protection of pots of greenhouse plants 
which can occupy the ground floor. In the sequel of the 
work, I shall insert different plans for their construction, 
with the comparative expense of each, and especially of one 
of the cheapest description, which is much in use around 
Boston. 

In relation to any other points necessary to be understood 
in this species of culture, the reader is referred to the several 
heads, where they are amply discussed. 

The numerous grapehouses and the extent of the. garden 
culture of the vine in the vicinity of Boston, far surpass the 
advances made in any other locality of the union. These 
not only form the means of private supply to their owners, but 
afford a great abundance for the public markets, and during a 

40 



314 HOTHOUSE CULTURE OF VINES. 

visit to that place in the autumn of 1829, I heard it computed 
that the quantity of choice table grapes, the produce of that 
season in the environs of the city, would amount to one hundred 
thousand pounds, which, considering its northern locality, and 
the infancy of this mode of culture in our country, is certainly 
a degree of progress worthy of our admiration. 

A marked intelligence and skill seemed to every where 
exist among the votaries of this interesting culture ; and from 
one of those who seemed pre-eminent in the success of his 
course of management, I recently solicited the details of the 
practice he had adopted, which I now have the satisfaction of 
transcribing, at the same time commending to those interested 
in the subject, the good sense, discernment, and intelligence 
which distinguish the whole course of the remarks. 

"The success I have had is to be ascribed to some care in 
the first instance, in preparing my borders. The compost is 
in no part less than two feet in depth. As to the ingredients 
of this compost, they were such as are recommended in the 
standard works for the vine. Since my vines came into a 
bearing state, the soil has been further enriched by a liberal 
allowance of stable manure spread and dug in during the au- 
tumn every year. In this way a vigorous growth of the vine 
has been secured. To ensure fruit in great abundance and 
also of good quality, I have given much attention all through 
the season to close dressing keeping the vines clear of super- 
fluous wood ; by extirpating in the first place, the lateral 
shoots from the fruit-bearing branches ; and secondly, by top- 
ping these last, all but the leading one, at a point a few eyes 
above the fruit, and the leading shoot also when it has attained 
such a length, that there is little danger of the bursting of such 
buds as are wanted for the following year. Whether the cane 
or the fan shape be the better form for the vine to afford the 
greatest quantity and best quality of fruit, I have as yet no 
settled opinion. My vines have all been trained in the latter 
form. The English gardeners, generally, I believe, prefer 
the cane form : those with whom I have conversed on the sub- 
ject say, that by their method they get as much or more fruit 



HOTHOUSE CULTURE OF VINES. 315 

with less wood on the vines. If they are correct, I should be 
inclined to give the cane training the preference, especially 
if the fruit obtained be as large and fine ; but of this I have 
some doubt. I intend to make a fair experiment of the two 
methods. 

" After the vine comes into leaf in the spring, there is no 
longer any danger of bleeding from pruning. From this period, 
I have allowed myself to cut out during the growing season, 
any quantity of superfluous wood, the present years' shoots 
for example, which were expected to give fruit, but have none. 
Indeed at the autumnal pruning, I am accustomed to leave 
more shoots, and some of them of a greater length, than they 
should be according to common rules for the coming season, 
which are to be left or taken away at the blossoming time, as 
they promise to be frukful or not, or as may be expedient in 
laying in the branches at the training. By this practice my 
chance of a good crop is more certain of course than it would be 
were I to leave no more shoots at the autumn pruning than I 
expected to preserve the following season. I attach no little 
importance to frequent pruning during summer, looking over 
the vines once in a fortnight or oftener, and cutting out strag- 
gling shoots, if any there be. Of this I make now a particular 
mention, because I think I have noticed that cultivators of the 
vine are apt to neglect pruning wholly for weeks together, and 
the consequence of this neglect is, that the bearing wood re- 
served for the following season is not so strong as it would 
otherwise be ; nor, as I think, can the fruit of the next year 
be so fine. In estimating a crop we sometimes, indeed most 
commonly, are contented to enumerate the bunches of fruit ; 
paying no regard to the weight, when in fact, as we all know, 
a few clusters only of large berries, all well grown, are worth 
a great many bunches, the fruit of which is but imperfectly 
filled, and of which a considerable part of the berries wholly 
fail. Insufficient pruning is probably one cause of this par- 
tial failure of the fruit. So also we see often a luxuriant 
blossom on the native vine in a wild state, and no fruit attain- 
ing to perfection, or if any but a small quantity in proportion 



316 DIFFICULTIES ATTENDANT ON VINE CULTURE. 

to the promise in the early part of the season. As a protection 
of the vine against the ravages of insects, and injury by mil- 
dew, I have found the sulph'ur wash, now generally known, 
effectual. Nor is the use of it, as far as I can perceive attend- 
ed with any injurious consequences to vegetation. The grape, 
with such care as I bestow, and so much I think neither bur- 
thensome nor expensive, is as sure a crop as any other of 
the more delicate fruits. Shelter from cold winds is impor- 
tant, and I would by no means venture to express so much 
confidence as to the certainty of the crop in our climate, 
without this advantage. My own garden is protected by hills 
on the north and east. My vines are all of the imported 
kinds except one of the Isabella, which I have planted as a 
curiosity on account of its singular 'productiveness.'* 



Difficulties attendant on the vine culture Natural causes Errors 
in management Political causes Ability of the proprietor 
Attacks of insects, <SfC. 

First, in regard to natural causes, the vine is subject to 
numerous accidents, which often render it unproductive during 
several successive years, it being necessary nevertheless to be- 
stow on it the same attentions as if it had yielded its crops. 
Added to which when there happens a season of great abun- 
dance, the price of the wine declines so much that the sale of 
the crop will not always reimburse the advances of previous 
years. 

Errors of culture relate to cases where the vineyards are 
badly located as regards soil and exposure, where the vines 
are badly selected, or where the tillage, the pruning, and the 
training of the vines are so badly executed, that they do not 
yield sufficient to reimburse the expenses they occasion. It 
might also be added that the passion for vineyards is such 
that in some districts of France, there are not people enough 
of other professions to consume the produce, or conveniences 
sufficient to allow of its export, which cause the wines to be 
sold at a very low rate. 

Political causes consist in the regulations with regard to 



ATTACKS OP INSECTS, ETC. 317 

duties which are often of such a nature as to afford no encour- 
. agement to the owners of vineyards to increase their produce, 
or enlarge their extent by expensive disbursements. They 
also relate to maritime wars, which render great injury to the 
export commerce ; and to restrictions of any kind, which affect 
in a greater or less degree the egress of the wines to the most 
profitable foreign markets, or their internal transportation to 
the different sections of the country producing them. In ob- 
viating the great expenses which would otherwise attend the 
latter, internal canals are of immense importance, by facili- 
tating the transport of so burthen some an article, at a com- 
paratively small charge on its value. 

The condition of the proprietor is a subject also worthy of 
particular consideration. When several unpropitious seasons 
succeed each other, if he is poor he cannot make the advances 
necessary to continue the vineyard in a good condition, nor 
await a rise in price when it is unreasonably low, and he is 
therefore placed at the mercy of speculators who enrich them- 
selves at his expense. It is therefore from all considerations 
more advantageous that the vines should be in possession of 
persons who possess the means of making liberal disburse- 
ments at any necessary period, and who have also the ability 
to await the offer of such prices for their wines as will yield 
them a profit. 

Some of the difficulties above enumerated, it will be per- 
ceived, apply more fully to other countries than to our own, 
and particularly to those where the vine culture has been ex- 
tended far beyond the home consumption of its produce ; and 
there appears to be none but what the vignerons of our country 
may surmount by application and perseverance. I now come 
to the consideration of the one relating to insects, and other 
animal attacks. 

There are several species of insects, worms, and birds which 
often cause injury to the vine. The insects and some species 
of worms attack the leaves, and in particular cases the fruit : 
they are also troubled in France by a worm which sometimes 
attacks the roots, more especially in the newly formed planta- 



318 ATTACKS OF INSECTS, ETC. 

lions. Certain species of birds are very fond of the grapes 
when ripe, and occasionally do much injury ; but I should sup- 
pose on the other hand, that many of the birds would render 
mere benefit than the contrary, by consuming great numbers 
of the insects and worms. Fortunately for our country we 
are at present less injured by the attacks of numerous insects, 
Sic. than are most of the wine countries of Europe, and it is 
therefore unnecessary here to enter into the consideration of 
the different species, and the separate characters of those 
which are yet unknown among us. I will now therefore only 
discuss the subject, so far as it relates to ourselves at the pre- 
sent period, and will dwell more fully upon it when giving 
the particular details of the vine culture of the respective 
countries in the ensuing volume. 

Mr. David Kizer, of Washington City, has communicated 
to Dr. Samuel L. Mitchill, in a letter, dated July 14, 1829, 
four specimens of an insect which he found on the grape vine. 
It is capable of doing injury to the fingers of those who handle 
it; and of producing considerable pain and inflammation. 
There seems to be an emission of a venomous fluid. He saw 
a honey-bee pierced through its body and killed by the wound. 
It would seem that the food of this powerful and devouring 
insect, says Mr. K. is the honey-bee. He has given it the name 
of the Pelican Bee-Catcher. As the specimens are in excel- 
lent preservation, it may be expected that further entomologi- 
cal researches will be made by the savans. 

A Boston writer complains of the attacks of a species of 
insect, the males of which he states have white wings striped 
with brown, and the females no wings whatever ; these are found 
stationed on the underside of the leaf, and are said in some 
cases to have been innumerable. They feed on the epidermis 
or outer coat of the leaf, and were so destructive, that many 
persons in that vicinity some few years since abandoned the 
culture of the grape in open gardens, after trying many expen- 
sive and troublesome remedies without success. This insect 
appears to have been particularly injurious to plantations of 
vines surrounded by woods and water. 



ATTACKS OF INSECTS, ETC. 

Another Boston writer in reference to the insect above 
named, makes the following remarks. " It makes its first ap- 
pearance in June, but is most abundant in August, and if 
allowed to increase, destroys the vegetative principle in the 
leaf, and the plant languishes, the fruit mildews or moulders, 
and the crop is lost. Alkalies and tobacco juice have been 
tried as remedies, but although partially effective, have not 
been found completely so. To remedy this evil, however, you 
have only to make a small light frame twelve or fourteen feet 
long, in the form of a soldier's tent, but with hinges of leather 
where the top joins, so that this tent may be shut up or opened 
at the bottom to any width you may require, according to the 
height of your trellis. This light frame, which should be 
made of slats of boards from one to two inches broad, may be 
covered with an old sail, or some cheap glazed cotton cloth 
which will stop the smoke, leaving cloth enough loose at each 
end, to close over, and prevent the smoke from escaping when 
the tent is spread over the trellis. 

" A few tobacco stalks moistened and put on some coals in 
a pan, will be sufficient to smoke the vines thoroughly : and as 
the tent is easily moved along the trellis on some small wheels, 
one man may, in a few hours, extirpate this enemy of the vine- 
yard. Vines that are already attacked by this insect to any 
great degree should be smoked in June, July, and twice in 
August, or oftener if you find the insect is not completely 
destroyed. 

" The insects are first seen on the under part of the leaf, with- 
out wings very active but easily destroyed if touched. They 
afterwards assume the winged state, when it is very difficult 
to get at them, as they fly off on the vines being touched. 
They are yellow, striped with brown across the back. The 
moment the smoke ascends, the winged insects quit the leaves 
and fall to the ground dead or alive ; the young ones perish, 
but the older ones will revive if not destroyed in their torpid 
state. To effect this, you have only to cover the ground 
under the tent with a piece of wet cloth before you begin to 
smoke, to which they adhere until the tent is removed, and 



320 ATTACKS OP INSECTS, ETC. 

they are revived by the atmospheric air ; to prevent which 
you will roll, or twist, the cloth each time that you remove 
the smoke-house, or tent, and replace it again each time before 
you smoke, by which means they will be effectually destroy- 
ed. This simple and cheap operation will keep your vines 
clear of this troublesome and destructive insect, and you may, 
if the season be warm, insure a good harvest ; if otherwise, 
you will be sure, if the vines be girdled, to ripen a portion of 
your fruit at least." 

Rose bugs are also m some cases very destructive to vines. 
They may be attracted from a vineyard by planting a hedge 
of rose bushes at the same time the plantation of vines is 
formed ; their preference for which plant will serve to draw 
them off from attacks on the vines, and when they have 
accumulated on the rose bushes, they may be destroyed 
without much labour, by adopting the following method: 
As soon as the bugs are seen to collect on the roses, take a 
vessel about half filled with water in one hand, and hold it under 
the infested flowers, and with the other hand or a stick, disturb 
the bugs, and they will instantly fall into the water, from which 
they cannot extricate themselves. In that way great quantities 
of them may be collected, which by throwing into hot water 
are in a moment destroyed ; and half an hour so spent for a 
few mornings will entirely get rid of this evil. 

Another remedy or preventive recommended by some per- 
sons to obviate the attacks of bugs, &c. is the following : 
Take of sulphate of soda (glauber salts) one ounce, and dis- 
solve it in a quart of water, and then sprinkle this liquid mix- 
ture over the plants and vines. It is said to be a preventive 
against all destructive insects, but I have not myself tried it. 
It has also been suggested that a decoction of aloes, or of 
walnut leaves, would probably be found efficacious applica- 
tions for driving insects from vines or preventing their attacks, 
as they have been proved very effectual when applied to other 
vegetable productions ; it having been found that plants may 
be protected from such attacks by being washed with a solution 
of bitter aloes, and without any apparent injurious effects re- 
sulting therefrom. 



MILDEW. 



321 



Wasps are also enemies to grapes, and to prevent their in- 
jurious attacks, it is recommended in the Dom, Encyclopedia, 
to hang uj) here and there, along the outer rows, phials half 
filled with water, well sweetened with honey, molasses, or 
coarse brown sugar ; the mouth of the phial should be of suffi- 
cient size for the wasps to enter easily, but not much larger ; 
as they soon find out the molasses by the scent, and getting 
into it, are drowned. Another mode is to take wide" earthen 
pans, and cover them over, with honey or molasses without 
water, and place several of them at suitable olistances the whole 
length of the vineyard ; every wasp to leeward, that is, within 
reach of the scent will come to the feast, when they will soon 
entangle themselves in the molasses, and by attending to them 
you may make it a deadly feast to nearly all that come. 
When the wind changes to a different quarter, the pans can 
be placed along a. different side of the vineyard. 

Birds commit depredations on the grapes when they have 
nearly attained their maturity, and one of the best modes to 
keep a vineyard free from their attacks, is stated to be that of 
.destroying their customary food in the vicinity, particularly 
such as ripens about the same time as the grapes, and which 
consists chiefly of wild cherries and poke berries. 

Mr. Legaux is said to have practised the following method 
of driving away birds : He having noticed that they only 
committed depredations just before the rising and setting of 
the sun, employed two boys to patrole the vineyard, each with 
a whip in one hand and a rattle in the other, making all the time 
as much noise as they could for an hour and a half. This 
process was continued about three weeks every year. 

Mildew. 

Much discussion has arisen as to the point whether this sub- 
stance is of an animal or vegetable nature, but be it plant 
or animal, certain it is, that sulphur alone or a solution of sul- 
phur and lime will totally suppresa it. The first mode adopt- 
ed in using the sulphur, was to apply it in a powdered state 
to the bunches of fruit when they were wet, so that the mois- 

41 



322 MILDEW. 

ture might cause it to adhere. This was found a perfect 
remedy for the mildew or mould, without any ill effect what- 
ever being produced on the grapes. The same Application 
to the leaves of the plant, if not absolutely successful, is a very 
great check to the prevalence of the insects which infest the 
foliage ; the sulphur should be shaken over the leaves while 
they are hi a moist state, and if not fatal to the insects the first 
time, this ought to be repeated. The effect seems to be to render 
the leaf less palatable to them,, the expense is trifling, and 
the labour small in comparison with the value of the fruit. 

The introduction of the use of sulphur may be considered 
as forming a new era among us in the culture of foreign 
grapes ; but of all the means that have been tested for the 
suppression of the mildew, the following has proved the most 
successful, and in fact renders us completely master of its ef- 
fects in so much that it can never hereafter be deemed a 
preventive to successful culture. 

Take a pint and a half of sulphur, and a lump of the best 
unslaked lime of the size of the fist, put these in a vessel of 
about seven gallons measurement, let the sulphur be thrown 
in first, and the lime over it, next pour in a pail of boiling 
water, stir it well, and let it stand half an hour ; then fill the 
vessel with cold water, and after stirring well again, allow 
the whole to settle. After it has become settled, dip out the 
clear liquid into a barrel, and fill the barrel with cold water, 
and it is then fit for use. You next proceed with a syringe 
holding about a pint and a half, and throw the liquid with it 
on the vines in every direction, so as to completely cover 
foliage, fruit, and wood ; this should be particularly done 
when the fruit is just forming, and about one third the size of 
a pea, and may be continued twice or thrice a week for two 
or three weeks ; the period for the whole process for one or 
two hundred grape vines need not exceed half an hour. 

So all powerful is the influence of this application, that 
even at Newport, R. I. where it is well known the atmosphere 
is exceedingly moist and often surcharged with fogs, the most 
eminent success has attended its use ; whereas those who 



MILDEW* 323 

omitted it there have wholly failed in obtaining crops on ac- 
count of the superabundance of mildew, which even extended 
its influence to the vines of the Isabella and other native 
grapes. As a proof of this great success, I may instance 
the vines in the garden of Capt. Jacob Smith, of that place, 
which principally consist of the White Muscadine, or Chasselas 
variety. 

Aside, however, from the complete power thus obtained over 
the mildew, the application of this liquid preparation is also 
very beneficial in preventing the depredations of insects, as 
remarked by an intelligent cultivator at page 316. 

The following remarks, on a subject similar, are from the 
pen of the Hon. Richard Peters, formerly president of the 
Philadelphia Society for promoting Agriculture. 

" On garden plants I have long and freely used flour of 
sulphur (and on some vines particularly) to destroy and expel 
grubs and flies. I have perceived them to thrive, but attri- 
buted their vigour to being freed from annoyance. I have 
also used sulphur water on fruit trees to banish or destroy 
aphides* On most plants I use plaster, and therefore have 
supposed the gypsum alone had benefitted them. A small 
infusion of sulphuric acid, in a large proportion of water, 
promotes vegetation and banishes insects from garden plants. 
It would be well to make some experiments on a variety of 
plants with the sulphur alone, on those of the trefoil tribe 
especially. I do not see why sulphur in substance should not 
produce effects similar to those of its derivative, sulphuric 
acid. But plaster is with us cheaper, and in greater plenty." 

Assurances have been advanced from every quarter of the 
powerful influence of sulphur against the whole tribes of 
insects and worms which infest and prey on vegetable produc- 
tions ; it has also been found to be conducive to the health of 
the plants to which it has been applied, and it has been as- 
serted, that peach trees in particular were remarkably improved 
by it, and seemed to absorb it. The common mode of apply- 
ing it to plants, is to tie up a portion of the flour of sul- 
phur in a piece of muslin or fine linen, and then to dust it 



324 BLEEDING OF THE VINE. 

over the plants ; or it may be thrown on them by means of a 
swan's down puff, or with a common dredging box. 

Bleeding of the vine. 

The great flow of the sap, usually denominated the bleeding- 
of the vine, most persons contend is highly injurious, while 
others have advocated that the use of preventives is an in- 
jury. Leaving this point to the good sense of our cultivators, 
my own opinion is simply this, that where it is deemed benefi- 
cial to accumulate and husband the sap, it must be equally so 
to take means for its preservation. In the consideration of 
this subject it is requisite to keep always in view, that the vine 
only bleeds before the growth commences, when the sap has 
no other means of exhaustion ; and that it ceases on the expan- 
sion of the foliage. One method used to prevent the bleed- 
ing is to take a piece of moistened bladder and fold it over 
the end of the shoot, and bind it round tightly with pack- 
thread. The remedy deemed most effectual however, is the 
following : Immediately after the branch is pruned in the 
spring, or in any case where bleeding has commenced, apply 
to the wound pulverized plaster of Paris, which the moisture 
there generated will aid in completely obstructing the flow of 
the fluid. It has been suggested to use for this purpose plas- 
ter prepared for cement by calcination, which probably much 
increases its absorbent quality, as well as the property of har- 
dening speedily, or of setting, as it is technically termed. 

Couhire, or blight of the llossoms. 

The flowering of the vine is exceedingly important, as on it 
wholly depends the crop, and at this period the vines should 
not be disturbed by working among them. The shedding or 
abortiveness of the blossoms is called by the French coulure, 
and they have given particular directions, and cautions to be 
observed at the flowering season in order to prevent it. Some 
varieties of vines are much more subject to it than others, 
either from nature, or from being planted in too dry or too 
moist a soil, or from flowering too early or too late. It is 



THE VINTAGE. 325 

Remarked by the French, that the Corinth grape may perhaps be 
naturally more inclined to be abortive, on account of its hav- 
ing no seeds ; but I have found that variety to be particularly 
fruitful. The most skilful vignerons cannot always counteract 
this blight, it is nevertheless sometimes caused by pruning too 
much/; by working the vineyard at an* improper period ; or by 
manuring too abundantly. There is but one vineyard known 
in France where they pinch off the ends of the bunches before 
flowering, in ordtr to prevent the coulnre and increase the size 
of the berries, and it may be reasonably questioned whether 
these means produce the result. A proper attention and an 
appropriate discretion in the pursuance of the various rules 
and directions laid down' in this work, will be calculated to 
obviate this, as well as the other difficulties particularly inci- 
dental to the vine culture. The foreign vines are in this 
locality so late in expanding their foliage and flowers, that I 
apprehend no difficulty in any case on that head ; and indeed 
their bloom is produced at a later period than that of most of 
our native varieties, of which the Scuppernong is one of the 
most tardy, both in the development of its foliage and of its 
flowers. 

The vintage. 

The vintage is a season of mirth in all wine countries, and 
appears to have been equally so in the earliest ages. Isaiah's 
prediction concerning Moab is particularly characteristic on 
this point. '" And gladness is taken away, and joy out of the 
plentiful field, and in the vineyards there shall be no singing, 
neither shall there be any shouting ; the treaders shall tread 
out no wine in their presses ; I have made their vintage shout- 
ing to cease." ' 

In some parts- of France the vintage of the white grapes 
does not commence until that of the black ones is nearly or 
quite over. The former are left to hang as long as possible 
before gathering, because thereby the wine obtained from them 
is stronger and of better flavour. It even sometimes happens 
that snow is on the ground before they are gathered. This 



326 REPUTATION OF VINEYARDS. 

difference in the period of the vintage of the white and the 
black grapes arises from a delay in the maturity of the former, 
which circumstance may doubtless be correctly accounted for 
by the greater operation of the sun upon dark coloured fruits, 
than on those of a paler hue. The vines are often entirely 
divested of foliage before the crops are gathered, and at such 
time present a beautiful appearance ; and it is a fact that the 
vintage is not generally performed in France, until after there 
has been considerable frost, which is not deemed an injury to 
the grapes when their maturity is previously far advanced. 

The effects of frost are well known in regard to various 
products of vegetation. It not only converts mucilage into 
starch, but the latter into saccharine matter, instance the freez- 
ing of potatoes, which gives them a sweetish taste, probably 
by converting the starch which they contain into sugar. 
There are several of our indigenous fruits which are alto- 
gether unpalatable until the operation of frost has divested 
them of their acid or astringent properties, and imparted to 
them a degree of sweetness and mildness of flavour among 
which is the frost grape, so called from this circumstance, the 
persimmon, and some others. 

In regard to the particular manner of gathering the crops 
as practised in the European and other foreign vineyards, 
the subject will be discussed hereafter under the heads of the 
respective countries. 

Reputation of vineyards. 

It is a well known fact, that among the vineyards which 
have at different periods acquired great renown, there are some 
which have only existed for a time, and others whose reputa- 
tion has been but of ephemeral endurance, because a single 
circumstance may suffice to destroy it, or obliterate its remem- 
brance. A change of the proprietor or ownership is generally 
followed by a new method of culture. The circumstance of 
the cultivation being less carefully attended to ; any neglect 
in the management or renewal of the vines most appropriate 
to the situation and climate ; a less degree of care or any 



REPUTATION OP VINEYARDS. 327 

omission of attention in the fabrication of the vines, is often 
sufficient to cast discredit, perhaps for ever, on the produce of 
a vineyard. Examples also frequently present themselves, 
more especially in the vicinity of the large cities of France, 
where the consumption is immense and the sales' consequently 
certain ; in which the proprietor of a vineyard sacrifices the 
consideration of quality to that of quantity in his wines, from 
which cause it consequently results that his vineyard does not 
thereafter enjoy that fame which it had acquired under a to- 
tally different manner of directing it. 

In the period when Italy was in the greatest prosperity, her 
vineyards were planted with those kinds of vines that had ac- 
quired the highest celebrity, which were brought from the 
most famous parts of the earth, and thence she acquired the 
reputation of producing the finest wines. It is not therefore the 
eagerness for gain or the negligence of the cultivators to which 
is to be attributed the present oblivion in regard to the Italian 
wines of Massica, of Cecuba, and of Falerna, so highly ex- 
tolled by Horace and his contemporaries. The Romans- also 
held in great estimation the vineyards of Scio, of Coz, and 
other renowned places, whose produce gave delight to their 
banquets ; and in fact, the wines of Greece, the Malvoisie, 
and Candia, were not unknown to them. Some of the wines 
then so famed, still retain a partial celebrity, but by far the 
most of them are no longer known. Nevertheless, France 
produces wines which have lost no portion of their celebrity 
during a succession of fifteen centuries ; and how many others 
exist that are but little known to us, whose merits it is only 
necessary should be fully understood in order to compete v per- 
haps advantageously with those of the first rank. It is with 
the reputation of wines as with that of men, to spring from 
the obscurity where they had remained unnoticed. It is not 
always sufficient of itself to possess real merit, but often re- 
quires the addition of some favourable event or adventitious 
circumstance not at all times to be met with. Who, in fact, in 
travelling through the fine wine countries, has not drank in 
some obscure district, wines of such delicious flavour that their 



328 DURATION OP VINEYARDS. 

bare appearance on the tables of the affluent would serve to 
acquire them renown ? 

The nobility who attended Louis XIV. to his coronation, 
restored to the 'wines of Sillery, Hautvillers, Verseriai, and 
other vineyards in the neighbourhood of Rheims the celebrity 
they had formerly possessed, and which they have since en- 
joyed. The wines of Romanee, and those of Bourdeaux, 
owe their fame in part to skilful management, but more parti- 
cularly to certain fortunate and coincident circumstances, too 
well known to be repeated. 

Duration of vineyards. 

The vineyards in which' they replant the vines every twenty 
or thirty years, do not yield wines of fine quality or of long 
preservation, and more generally the vines are left to the age 
of fifty to a hundred years. It is seldom, except in Burgundy, 
that vines are met with which have been planted for three, 
four, and five centuries. The wood of young vines is more 
porous than that which has become hardened by age, and the 
sap which it circulates is more watery ; such vines produce 
more grapes, but these yield a wine less generous and less 
susceptible of preservation, and it is often not until twelve or 
fifteen years have expired that a vineyard is considered as hav- 
ing attained to perfection in regard to the quality of its wine. 
Those vineyards that are renewed continually with provins 
or layers, which are separated from the main vines when two 
years old, are considered in the class of young vineyards. 

Uses of sweet grapes. 

Sweet and luscious grapes yield in general but inferior 
wines, from the same causes that apples of a similar character 
afford cider of the least excellence. But they are useful 
nevertheless for a variety of purposes. Very -sweet, luscious, 
and high flavoured varieties are suitable for what is termed 
essence grapes, in order to be mixed with others less sweet 
and high flavoured in making wine, as they substitute the 
saccharine quality, and impart an artificial flavour, which 



USES OP SWEET GRAPES. 329 

easily approximates, being so nearly allied by natural affinity. 
The next purpose for which they are highly estimated is that 
of a delicious and salutary table fruit, eaten in a fresh state 
as plucked from the vines ; after which follows their preserva- 
tion in a fresh state for the same purpose. 

The art of preserving grapes was well known to the Ro 
mans, and Columella gives a particular account of the man- 
ner in which they were preserved, both in his time and in that 
of his uncle Marcus Columella. He recommends that they 
be put in small jars capable only of containing one bunch, 
and states that the fruit should be gathered quite dry at a 
time when the sun is on it, and that after being cooled in the 
shade, the bunches should be suspended in the jars, and the 
vacant space filled up with oat chaff, all the dust having been 
previously blown from it. The jars should be well baked 
or burned, and not such as imbibe moisture ; the tops of the 
jars must be covered over, and pitched so as to keep out the 
air. 

The preserved grapes imported into England are princi- 
pally from Portugal, and are contained in large earthern 
jars closely cemented down. Besides those exported by 
Portugal to different foreign countries, large quantities are 
shipped from Smyrna, Trieste, fee. and sustain the voyage to 
this country so well that they form regular annual appendages 
to the fruit shops of our large cities ; those which are usually 
imported into our country are very large oval white and pur- 
ple grapes of excellent flavour, with a thick skin however, 
and without the musk flavour so much prized in many sorts, 
those possessing that character not being perhaps susceptible 
of preservation for so long a voyage. 

For full success in this process, it appears to be deemed 
necessary that a selection be made of such varieties of the 
grape, as have thick and strong skins, and many of our na- 
tive grapes being of this description, would without doubt be 
suitable for the purpose, and none more so of those that I 
have met with than the Scuppernong, whose skin is thick, and 
exceedingly tough and strong. The Dure-peau, White 

42 



330 USES OF SWEET GRAPE*. 

Malaga, the black and white Hamburgh, and a great number 
of other excellent grapes, have likewise thick skins, and are 
calculated for this object. 

The weight of a berry depends not only on its size, but on 
the thickness of its skin, and texture of the flesh, the lightest 
being the thin skinned and juicy sorts, as the Muscadine, Chas- 
selas, &c. and berries that are considered large of these kinds 
will weigh from five to seven pennyweights, and measure about 
an inch and a half in girth. A bunch of good size of the 
same sorts, may weigh one and a quarter, to one and a half 
pounds, and of the very largest size two pounds, but the aver- 
age of fair sized bunches is one, to one and a quarter pounds ; 
a bunch of the Black Hamburgh of good size will weigh nearly 
or quite two pounds, and bunches of the very large varieties 
of grapes will weigh three and four to six pounds. 

Another use made of sweet grapes is for the purpose of dry- 
ing, and thereby forming raisins and currants. Laborde in 
his account of Spain, gives the following description of the 
mode of drying raisins : In the province of Valencia, they 
make a kind of ley with the ashes of rosemary and vine 
branches, to which they add a quart of slaked lime ; this ley 
is heated, and a vessel full of holes containing the grapes is 
put into it. When the bunches are in the state desired, they 
are carried to the naked rocks, where they are spread on beds 
of the field artemesia, and are turned every two or three days 
till they are dry. In the province of Grenada, particularly 
towards Malaga, the grapes are simply dried in the sun with- 
out any other preparation. The former have a more pleasant 
rind or skin, but a less mellow substance ; the skins of the 
latter are not so sugary, but their pulp has a much greater 
relish ; therefore the raisins of Malaga are preferred by 
foreigners, and are sold at a higher price. To this their 
natural qualities may likewise contribute, they being larger 
and more delicate than those of Valencia. 

Having now gone through the subject matter proposed, for 
for the present volume, I shall conclude by transcribing the 
opinions of an enlightened cultivator of our own country 



VINEYARD, GERMANTOWN. 331 

this interesting subject, and although his communication 
should more properly be placed with others of its class under 
the head of American vineyards in the second part of this 
work, I cannot refrain from inserting it here as one of general 
and immediate interest, and as a specimen of that skill, enter- 
prise and intelligence which it may be expected will be de- 
veloped when we come to the discussions under that head. 

Copy of a letter from Edward H. Bonsall, Esq. to the author. 

" Vineyard, Germantown, Pa. February 1830. 

" I received your communication, in due course, and feel 
under obligations for the kindness which prompted it. In 
accordance with the invitation contained in it, I shall now 
proceed to give a cursory sketch of my practice and 
experience, so far as I understand your proposition to ex- 
tend. I may premise, that I commenced planting my vine- 
yard in the spring of 1825, with from seven to eight thou 
sand cuttings, which I extended over three acres of ground, 
arranging them with a view to the vines being when grown, 
at distances of four by seven feet from each other. There 
was an average of two cuttings in a place. From the time of 
planting (say first of April,) for a period of six weeks, there 
was but about one-fourth of an inch of rain, and the sun fre- 
quently warm. The vegetating principle was put in action, 
the sprouts started, and deriving no nutriment from the soil, 
many of them were soon killed, and dropped off, I raised 
something beyond one thousand. The early and most impor- 
tant part of the next season was almost equally unfavourable, 
which combining with the necessity of starting with very few 
of some of the varieties, I was desirous of cultivating exten- 
sively, (and from which I have since been propagating, and 
gradually extending my stock,) greatly obstructed the com- 
pletion of my establishment, so that there are yet some vacan- 
cies to be filled. I have now about three thousand five hun- 
dred in their proper places, and upwards of one thousand more 
to be renewed. I have such confidence in the business being 
both practicable and profitable, that I contemplate planting 



332 METHOD OP CULTIVATION 

one and a half acres more on a site well suited to the purpose, 
adjoining my present establishment. 

" Some of my vines produced fruit in 1827, pretty freely 
in 1828, and last year very largely, when my vintage produced 
eight barrels of wine, beside my making sale of a considerable 
quantity of fruit in Philadelphia, &c. The ensuing season, 
I shall probably have more than double the quantity, as there 
are constantly new vines coming into bearing, and also others 
approaching their full capacity, which had previously made 
only a first or a second effort. 

" As regards the varieties with which I have had most suc- 
cess, and to which I give the preference, I am unhesitating in 
ranking as the three foremost, the ' Catawba,' the York, (Pa.) 
' Black Madeira,' and the * Isabella.' These seem to possess 
all the requisites for our purpose, more particularly as wine 
grapes, and some persons admire them for the table also. 
They all produce excellent wood, ripening the shoots almost 
to the extreme end, even in the most unfavourable seasons, and 
without any protection, pass through our coldest winters as 
securely as the oak of the forest. The l Catawba' and ' Isa- 
bella' yield extra-abundant crops of fruit, and the York 
Black Madeira is also a very good bearer. Their fruit 
rarely fails to arrive at fine maturity, and is rich in saccha- 
rine matter, the basis of wine. The * Alexander' I am 
cultivating pretty largely, but my estimation of it is on the 
wane. It does not produce as good wood as those just 
mentioned, and is less certain of ripening its fruit. I have 
some plants of the North Carolina ' Scuppernong' coming 
forward ; but from conversation with some of my friends, who 
were familiar with it at the south, I doubt its adaptation to ex- 
tensive culture. They say, that as the berries commence 
ripening, they immediately loosen their connection with the 
stem, and by slight agitation, fall in great numbers, as is the 
case with most of our Fox grapes. I have upwards of thirty 
additional varieties, several of which have not produced fruit, 
so as to enable me from personal observation, to place an esti- 
mate on them ; and such as have, I do not think worthy of be- 



AT THE VINEYARD, GERMANTOWN. 333 

ing brought into competition with the three first mentioned. 
There are some, the * Elsenborough,' Orwigsburg,' &c. 
the fruit of which is good, and generally ripens, but they 
hardly seem fitted for vineyard culture, on account of defi- 
ciency in the size of the fruit, amount of produce, &c. 

" The wine Dr. Hulings alluded to was part of a cask of 
one hundred and thirty gallons, made by me three years since, 
from the ' Alexander' grape, purchased of some of my neigh- 
bours, my vines not having at that time come into bearing. 
It has been pronounced by connoisseurs in Philadelphia, to 
be very similar in its character to a good Madeira, excepting 
that it was rather more mild. 

" My vineyard is situated between the Schuylkill and Dela- 
ware rivers four miles from the former, and eight from the 
latter, at an elevation of three hundred feet above their level, 
having an aspect facing S. S. E., with a sub-stratum of light 
isinglass soil, and seems well suited to the purpose. From 
my experience, both on my own premises and at other places, 
it is my judgment that we should reject almost all the foreign 
varieties, especially where our object in cultivating them is to 
make wine. 

" 1 shall now proceed to make some statements on the sub- 
ject of planting, training, &c. and as my experience, since 
commencing the business, has suggested some variations from 
my original plan, I shall rather detail what I would do, than 
what I have done. I think the plan laid down by most writers 
for preparing the ground and planting, is much more expen- 
sive than is necessary, and that it is calculated to deter many 
persons from undertaking the business. To dig the ground 
from eighteen inches to two and a half feet deep with a spade, 
is in this country no trifling task, and in comparison with the 
common process of farming, looks truly formidable. My plan 
would be, to start two ploughs with strong teams, one imme- 
diately behind the other, in the same furrow, each of them set 
deep, and after the ploughing is completed, harrow it tho- 
roughly. Then, in the direction the rows are intended to be 
planted, run parallel furrows across the field, at the distance of 



334 METHOD OF CULTIVATION 

eight feet from each other. Afterwards cross these at right 
angles, five feet asunder. In the opening at the intersection 
of these furrows, plant the cuttings or vines. Of cuttings, if 
they are short-jointed, I think from nine to twelve inches in 
length is sufficient, observing that the upper eye or bud is firm 
and good. Then place them in the ground (at the intersections 
as above) such a depth that the upper eye is even with the ge- 
neral surface of the surrounding earth, and draw the earth to 
them till it is level, pressing it lightly with the foot. If the 
plough has not made an opening the full depth, the cutting can 
be forced down with the hand. In case rooted plants are to 
be set out, if they are not large, the opening at the intersec- 
tion will be found to be nearly or quite sufficient to receive 
them, when the earth can be drawn in as before. In this way 
a large number can be planted in a short time, and at a trifling 
expense. 

" Contrary to the common opinion and practice, I think I have 
satisfactorily ascertained that late spring planting for cuttings 
is attended with more success than any other time. Last year 
I planted in nursery beds, from two to three thousand cuttings 
as late as from the middle of April to the middle of May, 
with better success than at any previous time. In this case, 
the slips should be kept in a cool damp place, a cellar or Ice- 
house, where vegetation may be held in check. To ensure 
their freshness, sprinkle them occasionally with water. Pre- 
vious to planting, cut them a proper length, and place them 
with their lower ends three or four inches in water, in a tub 
above ground, where they may soak three or four days. At 
this season, the temperature will be likely to be such as will 
spur vegetation at once into healthy and vigorous action. In 
the fall, or early in the spring is preferable for rooted plants. 
In the autumn of the first year, after the frost has killed the 
unripe part of the young shoots, they should be pruned down 
to the mature firm wood, and then with a hoe hilled over with 
the surrounding soil, which will completely protect them through 
the winter. If left without protection the first winter, many 
of them will perish. 



AT THE VINEYARD, GERMANTOWN. 335 

" My mode of training, as far as I am aware of it, is en- 
tirely peculiar to myself, and as regards fitness and economy, 
(taking the average of a given number of years) I think is 
superior to any thing I have met with. I take chesnut posts, 
the thickness of large fence rails, seven feet in length. These 
I plant along the rows, at distances of ten feet from each other, 
and at such a depth as to leave five feet above the surface of 
the earth. Then taking three nails to each post, and driving 
them to within half an inch of their heads, the first, two and a 
half feet from the ground, a second midway between that and 
the top, and the third near the top, I attach No. 1 1 iron wire, 
(one degree soft is best) firmly to one of the nails in the end 
post, pass on to the next, and stretching it straight and tight, 
give it one turn round a nail in the same line as the one to 
which it was first attached. Having in this manner extended 
it along the three courses, the whole length of the row, my 
trellis is formed. I have had a portion of my vineyard fitted 
up in this way for three years, and experience has confirmed 
the superior fitness of the plan. It is not its least recommen- 
dation, that it possesses in a degree the character of ' labour- 
saving machinery.' A very important and extensive labour* 
making portion of the operations in the vineyard during the 
summer, is the attention required by the growing shoots to 
keep them properly trained up. They grow and extend them- 
selves so rapidly, that where the strips of the trellis are lath, 
or where poles are used to support the vines, unless very 
closely watched, they fall down in every direction, in a very 
unsightly and injurious manner. Here, the wire being small, 
the tendrils or claspers eagerly and firmly attach themselves to 
it, and thus work for themselves, in probably two-thirds of the 
instances where the attention of the vigneron would otherwise 
be required. There is free access afforded to the sun and air, 
and no hold for the wind to strain the frame, &cc. &c. 

" I shall not enter into a minute description of my manner 
of pruning, but may just say, that after the vines have attained 
a full capacity for production (say five years from the cutting,) 



336 VINEYARD, OEHMANTOWN. 

my view is to prepare them for bearing an average of fifty 
clusters to each, leaving several shoots of from three to five 
joints on a vine, for this purpose. When fresh pruned they 
will not be more than four feet high, at their greatest age. 

" Although I have succeeded in making good wine, and 
hope still to succeed, as that made last autumn, two hundred 
and forty gallons, in four separate casks, all promises exceed- 
ingly well. I do not consider that I have any settled prac- 
tice, it being yet in some sort a matter of experiment. I 
therefore feel that it would be premature for me to treat on this 
branch of the subject. The important fact, and which is as- 
certained beyond dispute, is that we can make good wine in 
this country, I believe, equal to the better qualities of foreign. 
An interest in the business has already been awakened, and is 
rapidly extending itself through a large portion of our coun- 
try, and practical instructions on the subject, accompanied by 
an exhibit of its proceeds, when actively and judiciously pro- 
secuted, seem called for by the exigencies of the present time, 
and will no doubt, by prompting to the more widely extended 
culture of the vine, prove a public benefit at the same time 
that it greatly promotes the personal interests of those wha 
engage in it. 



CATALOGUE 



DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF GRAPES 

AT PBESENT CULTIVATED IIS 

THE VINEYARD OF THE AUTHOR, 

ATTACHED TO THE 

BOTANIC GARDEN. 



THE foreign grapes included in the following assortment 
are reared from plants imported direct from the most celebrated 
collections in France, Germany, Italy, the Crimea, Madeira, 
&c. ; and above two hundred varieties are the identical kinds 
which were cultivated at the Royal Garden of the Luxem- 
bourg at Paris, an establishment formed by royal patronage 
for the purpose of concentrating all the most valuable fruits 
of France, and testing their respective merits. They will be 
found enumerated in the catalogue of that establishment, it 
having been an object of particular care to adopt and con- 
tinue in my collection the same titles there approved for their 
correctness. 

Many of these will be found to differ essentially from grapes 
cultivated under similar names in some parts of the United 
States, as in many instances the possessors of grapes of doubt- 
ful origin have attached to them the names of old established 
fruits, or have made "their importations from persons abroad 
who have deceived them ; and on this point I am happy to 
say, that the experience of a long course of years has brought 
me into correspondence with those who are above deception. 
But to place their identity beyond the possibility of doubt, 
specimen vines of every kind have been planted out for bear- 
ing, and persons desirous of seeing the fruit can view them at 
the season of ripening, 

43 



338 



CATALOGUE OF GRAPE VINES. 



In order that persons establishing vineyards may make their 
selections judiciously, and with a proper regard to latitude 
and locality, I have attached to a great number of varieties 
the name of the particular department of France where each 
originated ; therefore, by turning to the map, the latitude will 
be ascertained. The synonymes are carefully arranged, and 
in no case is the same fruit knowingly twice enumerated in 
this list, and where a doubt exists, it is so stated. 

T denotes celebrated table grapes. ) T sucfi at are described in this 

, , i , , > work, these designations are not 

W Celebrated Wine grapes. { attached, being- unnecessary. 

L those from the garden of the Luxembourg. 



1 July grape 

2 New black cluster, or Slack Tokay? 

3 Early white muscadine 

4 White sweet water 

5 Black sweet water 

6 Black muscadine 

7 Striped Aleppo 

8 Brown, or chocolate coloured 

9 Bordeaux purple 

10 Walker's large white 

11 Probyn's large white 

12 Esperione 

13 Black Hamburgh 

14 Purple do. 

15 Red do. 

16 White do. or White raisin, having 

proved synonymous 

17 Black St. Peter's 

18 White do. 

19 West's St. Peter 

20 Black Prince, supposed identical 

with 29 

21 Black Damascus 
522 White cornichon 

23 Violet do. or Olivette noire 

24 White seedless Corinth 

25 Blue Corinth 

26 White Malmsey 

27 Red do. 

28 Black Morocco, from France, oval 

fruit 

29 Black Spanish, Black Lisbon, or 

Portugal, or Black Prince 



30 Teinturier 

31 Gros muscadet 

32 Black garnet 

33 Pitmaston white cluster 

34 Clapier's white, T 

35 Selby's white, T 

36 See 113, having proved synonymous 

37 Naebacker's muscat, (Jidlum) 

38 See 408 

39 See 409 

40 Syrian 

41 Black Grecian, T 

42 Black Cape 

43 Bretagne rouge 

44 Regners dc Nice 

45 San giorese 

46 Mamolo 

47 Deo data, 1 white 

48 Norton's large oval purple 

49 Seedling muscadel, T 

50 Le noir'? 

51 Lafitte? 

53 Oeil de Tourd 

54 Verdal 

55 Napoleon, from Elba 

56 Meyer blanc, L 

57 Prcoce blanc, L 

58 De pcrigord, L 

59 Carprara, L 

60 Charsclle, L 

61 Franconie, black 

63 Laan hatif, white 

64 Gouais noir, or petit game 



Chasselas grapes. 
Which are all celebrated table fruits. 



66 White or golden chasselas, or Chas- 

selas of Fontainbleau 

67 Golden do. distinct from 66 
63 Red chasselas 

B9 White musk chasselas 

70 Violet chasselas 

71 Yellow chasselas of Thomery, sup- 

posed syn. 0/66 



72 Purple royal chasselas 

73 Chasselas blanc de la magdelene^ 

Prov. 

74 Black chasselas, Doubf. 

75 Mornain blanc 

76 Cioutat 



CATALOGUE OP GRAPE VINES. 



339 



Fronlignac, and other Muscat grapes. 

The grapes of this class are celebrated for their high musk flavour, and are 
among the most estimable for the table, and a few are used in France for 
sweet wines. In consequence of these varieties being more highly valued in 
France, and even much more rare there than most other kinds, more decep- 
tions and inaccuracies have existed with regard to them than any other class ; 
and it is with great satisfaction I can state that these are of undoubted 



character. 

77 White frontignac, or True While 

Constantia 

78 Red do. 

79 Black, or purple do. 

80 Blue or violet do. 

81 Grizzly do. 

82 White muscat of Alexandria 

83 Black or red muscat of Alexandria 

84 Violet muscat of Alexandria 



85 White Malaga 

86 White muscat of Lunel 

87 Muscat panache 

88 Pansemusque"e, Boiiches du Rhone,!* 

89 White muscadel, supposed same as 85 

90 Red Muscadel, or Malaga 

91 Augibert noir, Black muscadel, yr 

Black raisin 

92 Muscatelle, Lot. 



Burgundy grapes. 

All of which are very celebrated for wine, and form a greater porportion in the 
vineyards of France than any other class of grapes the most of them are also 
pleasant table grapes. The three varieties, No. 95, 98, and 100, form the 
vineyards which produce Champagne wine. 

93 Meunier, Bas Rhin, L 

94 Black cluster, Bas Rhin, L 

95 White morillon, L 



98 Auvernat rouge clair 



100 Gray Burgundy 

102 Pineau franc, Haute Saonne, L 

104 Bourguignon noir, Seine etMartie^L 

105 Bourguignon blanc, HauteMarne, L 

106 White sauvignon, Haute Pyrenees,L 



Madeira grapes. 
All of which are celebrated for wine. 



107 Round violet Madeira 

108 Violet or blue Madeira, or Tinta 

Madeira 
\ 09 Purple do. 

110 Verdilhio 

111 Niffrinho 



112 see 108, having proved synonymous 

113 Herbemont's Madeira, Warren or 

Warrenton 

114 Adlum's do. 

115 Black do. 



German and Swiss grapes. 

These are principally celebrated as wine grapes ; and I have information from 
the highest sources, that those numbered 119, 133, 134, 137, 138, 139, 144, and 
145, are considered among the most valuable for vineyards, on account of 
their abundant and regular crops, and their resisting the severest winters un- 
injured. In addition to these here enumerated, a number of varieties of 
grapes are cultivated in Germany which are necessarily arranged under other 
heads in this catalogue, including the principal part of the Burgundy grapes ; 
and I am assured by a gentleman who has a very extensive vineyard on the 
Rhine, that the grapes numbered 1, 7, 93, 94, 95, 98, 100, 104, and 105, sup- 
port there all the rigours of the climate, and produce immense and regular crops. 



1 16 Blue cartager 

117 Blue sylvan 

118 Black shearcat 

119 Facuri, white, very celebrated for wine 

and abundant crops, L 

120 Feldlinger, Bas Rhin, L 

121 Pendant vert 

122 Copette, productive 

123 Gentil brun, L 

1 24 Grand khlefner, '? syn. of 100 



125 Blanc du Rhin 

126 L'Allemand le rouge 

127 L'Yyverdun bon vin 

128 Muller reben, L 

129 Olwer 

130 Red Burger, or Facon rouge 

131 Queen 

133 Petit rauchling 

This last is very celebrated for 
wine and for abundant crops, 



340 



CATALOGUE OF GRAPE VINES. 



134 Gros rauchling 

135 Red cruger 

136 Red Swiss 

137 Riessling, clairette de Limoux> L 

138 le grand 

These two last named are very 
celebrated for wine and for their 
abundant crops. 

139 Rothe hintsche, L 

1 40 Pendant gris 

141 Rough white 



142 Rough black 

143 Shumroy 

144 White or gray Tokay 

145 Blue do. 

146 Black do. Tokai d'Umgrie noir-, W 

147 Flame do. 

148 Tokai de Lunel, W 

149 bagnol, W 

1 50 Rousseline blanc 

151 Rouge de la Dote 



Grapes received from the border of the Rhine in the most northern Department 
of France, but whose native localities are mostly unknown. 



161 Monstreux 

162 Montpellier 

163 Perle? diamant 

164 Plant gentil 

165 Rouge espayot, Landes 

166 St. Antoine 

167 St. Valentine 

168 Terret, Htrault 



152 Amarot, Landes 

153 Aspirant blane, seedless 

154 Blussard blanc 

155 noir, Belosar gros 

156 Le brun fourca, Bouches du Rhone 

157 De Candolle 

158 Hermann 

159 Lehrmann 

160 Large damask 

The following grapes being less known, and the most of them being in no other 
collection in our country, I have placed them under distinct divisions as to 
colour and form ; the name of the Departments of France where each origi- 
nated being in italics. Those marked T are particularly celebrated for the 
table ; the others, although cultivated for wine in France, are many of them 
line table fruits also. Those marked L are from the famous royal collection 
of the garden of Luxembourg. 

Black, purple, and red round grapes. 



169 Almandis, Gironde, L 

1 70 Alexandrie noir, Doubs, L 

171 Aramon noir, Gard. L 

172 Arrouya, Haute Pyrenees, L 

173 Baclan, Jura 

174 Balavri, Po, L 

175 Balsamina, Po, L 

176 Bordelais, Muyenne, L 

177 Bouteillant, Var. 

178 Camarau rouge, Haute Pyrenees, L 

179 Canut noir, Lot, L 

180 Chailloche, Cliarente, L 

181 Claverie rouge, Landes, L 

182 Coda di volpe, Po, L 

183 Cornet, Drome, L 

184 Cortesenera, Po, L 

185 Courbu, Haute Pyrenees, L 

186 Croq, J\layenne, L 

187 De'goutant, Charente, L 

188 Dolceto, Po, L 

189 Doucinelle noire, Bouches du Rhone 

190 Epicier, Vienne, L 

191 Espar, Herault, L 

192 Folle noire, Charente Inferieure,L 

193 Francois noir, Jlube, L 

194 Grenache, Gard. 

195 Grinoli, Po, L 

196 Gros-noir, Charenie, L 

197 Grosse-serine, Isre t L 

198 Gruselle, Drome, L 



199 Jacobin, Vienne, L 

200 Lambrusquat, Haute Pyrenees, L 

201 Lardau, Drome, L 

202 Lignage, Maine et Loire, L 

203 Magdelene noire, Seine, L 

204 Maclon, Isere, L 

205 Mansein noir, Landes, L 

206 Marroquin or espagnin, T L 

207 Marseillais, Vaucluse, L 

208 Materot, Gard. 

209 Melon, Jura, L 

210 Mauzac noir, Lot, L 

211 Mounesten, Var. 

212 Moustardie", Prov. 

213 Ncgret, Haute- Garonne, L 

214 Nerre Haute Marne, L 

215 autre variete" , HauteMarneJL 

216 Panpegat, Gard. 

217 Pascarnoir, Var. 

218 Peyran noir, T 

219 Picardan gros, Vaucluse, L 

220 noir 

221 Pied de perdrix, Haute Pyrenees, L 

222 Pineau noir, Yonne, L 

223 Cote (Tor, L 

224 Piquepoule sorbier, Dordogne, L 

225 noir, Dordognc, L 

226 Vaucluse, L 

227 Landes, L. 
238 Plant droit, Vaucluse, L 



CATALOGUE OF GRAPE VINES. 



341 



*229 Raisin noir, Drome, L 

230 prune, Gouan, T 

231 Rive d'alte, Lot, L 

232 Rochelle noire, or Vigane, Seine et 

Marne, L 

233 Saint Jean rouge, Herault, L 

234 -Sanmoireau, /Seine et Marne, L 

235 Sirodino,Po, L 

236 Sparce menue, Vaucluse, L 

237 Tinto, Jlrdtche, L 



238 Terr6 moureau noir, Gard. T 

239 de barri noir, Gard. T 

240 Tibouren, or Tiboulen, Var. 

241 Touzan, Lot et Garonne, L 

242 Tripier, Jllpes Maritimes, L 

243 Trompe-chambrie're, Bouches du 

Rhone 

245 Ugne noir, Bouches du Rhone, T 

246 Verjua 



Black, purple, 

247 Aspirant, He-wit, T L 

248 Barbera noir, Po, L 

249 Bourdelas, Jura, L 

250 Boudales, Hautes Pyrennces, L 

251 Bouteillant, Bouches du Rhone, L 

252 Brune, Maine et Loire, L 

253 Carignan, Herault, L 

254 Chaliane, Drome, L 

255 Grand guillaume, Bouches du 

Rhone, T L 

256 Merbregie, Dordogne, L 

257 Merle" d'Espagne, Landes, L 

258 Navarre, Landes, L 

259 See No. 23. 

260 Plant de malin, Cote <f or, L 



and red oval grapes. 

261 Perlossette, Drome, L 

262 Pineau fleuri, Cote rf'or, L 

263 de Coulange, Yonne, L 

264 noir, Fienne, L 

265 Pulsare, Haute Saonne, L 

266 Raisin per 16, Jura, L 

267 noir de pagez, Guard. T 

268 rouge, Drome, L 

269 espagnol, Landes, L 

270 Rochelle noire, Seine et Marne, L 

271 Servent noir, Herault, L 

272 Teinturier, Vaucluse, L 

273 Ulliade, Bouches du Rhone, T 

274 rouge, Herault, T 



White, or yellow oval grapes. 



275 Aramon blanc, Herault, L 

276 Bon blanc, Doubs, L 

277 Bourret, Drome, L 

278 Boutinoux, Drome, L 

279 Bourgelas, Vosques, L 

280 Calitor blanc, Gard. T 

281 Cecan, Haute Garonne, L 

283 Chenein, Fienne,L 

284 Clarette blanche, Bouches du 

Rhone, T 

285 Columbau, Gard. T 

286 Dure peau, Bouches du Rhone, T 

287 Folle blanche, Charente Inferieure,L 

288 Galet blanc, Gard. T 

289 Gamau, Drome, L 

290 Gros Orleans, or white Orleans 

291 Grosse perle, Seine et Marne, T 

292 Jacobin, Vienne, L 

293 Joannen blanc, Bouches du Rhone, T 

294 Malvasie, Pyrenees Orientates] 



295 Olivette blanche, Bouches du 

Rhone, T 

296 Panse commune, Bouch.du Rhone ,1? 

297 Pique poule, Lot et Garonne, L 

298 Piquant-paul, Basses Jllpcs, L 

299 Picardan, Herault, T 

300 Pied sain, Mayenne, L 

301 Plant pascjtf, Bouches du Rhone, L 

302 Plant de sfles, Bouches du Rhone, L 

303 Plant vert, Tonne, L 

304 Raisin blanc de pages, Gard. T 

305 des dames, Bouches du 
Rhone, T 

306 Raisin perl<5, Jura, L 

307 Rajoulen, Lot, L 

308 Servinien, Fonne, L 

309 Trompe chambrie"re, Bouches du 

Rhone, L. 

310 Verdat, Vaucluse, L 

311 Vicane, Charente-Inferieure, L. 



White, or yellow round grapes. 



312 Aligote", Cvte d'or, L 

313 Assadoulc bouvier, Gard. L 

314 Augibert blanc, do. T 

315 Blanc doux, Landes, L 

316 Cammarau blanc, Haute Pyrenees,L 

317 Cascaralo blanc, Po, L 

318 Chopine, Jlisne, L 

3 1 9 Clarette ronde, Bouches du Rhone,T 

320 Claverie, Haute Pyrenees, L 

321 Dammery blanc, Yonne, L 

322 Doucet, Lot et Garonne, L 



323 Doucinelle, Bouches du Rhone, T 

324 Fid jaune, Vienne, L 

325 vert, do. L 

326 Forte queue, Deux Sevres, L 

327 Fourmentg, Jlisne, L 

328 Gouais jaune, Vienne, L 

329 petit, Jura, L 

330 Granache blanc, Gard. 

331 Gouais blanc, Moselle, L 

332 Guillemot blanc, Landes, L. 

333 Gulard, Haute Garonne, L 



342 



CATALOGUE OP GRAPE VINES. 



334 Herman! blanc, Seine el Marne, L 

335 Latrut, Landes, L 

336 Lourdaut, Drome, L 

337 Marmot, Landee, L 

338 Mauzac blanc, Lot, L 

339 Merle blanc, Landes, L 

340 Nebiolo, JPo, D 

341 Piquo poule, Haule Garonne, L 

342 Lot et Garonne, L 

343 Plant de demoiselle, B. du Rhone 

344 Plant de Languedoc, Bouches du 

Rhone, T 

345 Printanier, Haute Pyrenees, L 



346 PrunySral, Lot, L 

347 Raisin blanc, Po, L 

348 Rivesaltc, Charente 

349 Rochelle blanche, Seine et JVfame,L 

350 Rougeasse, Lot, L 

351 Saint Jaume, Landes, L 

552 Saint rabier blanc, Charente, L 

353 Semillpn, Lot et Garonne, L 

354 Servinien cendre, Fonne, L 

355 Ugne blanche, Bouches duRhone t T 

356 Ugne de malade, Bouches du 

Rhone, T 

357 Ugne lombarde, Vaucluse, T L 



Gray, or violet oval grapes. 

358 Blanquette violette, Pyrenees 1 361 Tres dur, ou de poche, Prov. T 

Orien, L 362 Martinen, Prov. T 

359 Clarette rose, Bouches duRhone,T 363 Piquepoule gris, Herault, L 

360 Damas violet, Herault, T L 

Gray, or violet round grapes. 



369 Plant de la barre rouge, Bouches du 

Rhone, T 

370 Raisin de genes, T 

371 Ugne de Marseille, Bouches du 

Rhone, T 



364 Grec rose, Gard. T 

365 Vaucluse 

366 Gromier violet, Cantal, L 

367 Marroquin gris, Bouches du 

Rhone, L 

368 Marvoisin, Loire, L 

The Departments which compose the districts of Burgundy, Champagne, and 
other celebrated wine districts of France, can be seen by reference to the 
map, and the names of the Departments being attached to the foregoing list 
of grapes, it will easily be perceived which ki 



ands are used for the wines of 



those respective localities. 

American native grapes. 

All the following are genuine American species and varieties, except No. 394, 
which is a native variety of a foreign species, and No. 408 & 441, deemed dubious. 

397 Palmated leaved winter grape 

398 \Vhite scuppernong 

399 Black scuppernong 

400 Solander's large purple, seedlings 

401 Texas, curious foliage 

402 Texas, diverse leaved 

403 Winne 

404 Worthington 

405 Pell's Illinois 

406 Clifton's Constantia (? syn. of 372) 

407 York Madeira, (? synan. of 372) 

408 Jordan's large blue(? native, Auth.) 

409 Cooper's wine 

410 Black round muscadine 

411 Black oval do. 

412 Bailie 

413 Bachman's red fox 

414 Beaverdam 

415 Clarke's 

416 Coon 

417 Cunningham 

418 Denniston 

419 Early white 

420 Early black summer 

421 Gale grape 



372 Alexander 

373 Herbemont's Arena 

374 Red Bland 

375 See 374, being synonymous 

376 Carter's favourite 

377 Catawba 

378 Columbia 

379 Elkton 

380 Elsingburgh 

381 Black fox 

382 Red do. 

383 White do. 

384 Honey 

385 Isabella 

386 Long's Arkansas 

387 Louisiana 

388 Lufborough 

389 Sweet scented, for arbours 

390 Missouri 

391 Muncy, pale red 

392 black 

393 Norton's Virginia seedling 

394 Orwigsburgh 

395 Raisin de cote 

396 Winter grape 



CATALOGUE OP GRAPE VINES. 



343 



422 Garber's Albino 

423 red fox 

424 Green scuppernong ? 

425 Hyde's Eli/a 

426 native blue 

427 Henrico, supposed identical with 417 

428 Hill grape of the Scioto 

429 Illinois prolific 

430 Kellogg 

431 Kenrick's 

432 Large blue 

433 Maryland purple 

434 Millington's white 

435 Missouri white 

436 black autumnal 

437 black winter 

438 Monstrous fox 

439 Nashua 

440 Nazro 

441 North Carolina white 1 

442 Owen's white 



443 Pale red Virginian 

444 Penniman's 
4.45 Pond's seedling 

446 Prolific chicken grape 

447 Scott's grape, seedlings 

448 Sloe 

449 large 

450 Smallwood 

451 Swatara 

452 Thompson's 

453 Troy grape 

454 Vitis a-stivalis 

455 Webb's grape 

456 Weidmar's red fox 

457 Willis's Fredonia 

458 large black 

459 Windsor 

460 Woodson 

461 York Lisbon 

462 Claret 



Foreign Varieties, 

The most of which are of recent introduction, w designates white grapes, 
and c coloured grapes. 



463 Arbois, Maine et Loire, w 

464 Austrian muscadel, w 

465 Biron, Lot, c 

466 Black Corinth, Zante currant, or 

Corinthe noir du Moree 

467 Black Morocco, of the English col- 

lection* 

468 Black Zinfardel, of Hungary 

469 parsley leaved 

470 Blanc madame, Haute Pyrenees, c 

471 Chasselas pre"cocedeKienzheim 

472 Doucinelle, Bouchesdu Rhone, w 

473 Early oval 

474 Elliot's large white 

475 Gouais petit, Jura, w 

476 Grande Corinthe avec pepins 

477 Gre" rouge? c 

478 Griniolo,w 

479 Gros rouge, c 

480 Gutadel 

481 Hansteretto 

482 Lachryma Christi, or .Raisin de 

Vesuve 

483 Lombardy 

484 Monstrous violet 

485 Muscat d'Espagne 

486 violet pr^coce 
4S7 gris 



488 Navarro, c 

489 New red Muscat of Alexandria 

490 Ouliven, Pouches du Rhone, c 

491 Perkin's Constantia, c 

492 Perlerose 

493 Pernan, Cote cPor, c 

494 Picardan, Heraidt, w 

495 Piquepoule blanc, w 

496 Poonah 

498 Raisin de notre dame, Benches du 

Rhone, w 

499 Raisin perle 

500 rouge, Cantal, c 

501 Red muscadine, may be same as 68 

502 parsley leaved 

503 sauvignon ? 

504 Salviner, w 

505 Sauvignon blanc, Jura, different 

from 106, w 

506 Savagnien blanc,or.Aleunier 6/anc,w 

507 Spence's seedling 

508 Sultana, nearly seedless, w 

509 Terre promise 
5 JO Terre bourre,c 

511 Verjus, w 

512 Violet Calabrian ? supposed synon- 

ymous with some other 

513 Oval white Constantia? do. do. 



344 



EXPLANATION 

OF ADDITIONAL SYNONYMES OF THE VARIOUS VINES, 

Ascertained since the respective descriptions were printed. 

Black muscat of Jerusalem, is Black Frontignac. 

Gibraltar, is Red Hamburgh. 

Burgundy, of English collections, is Black Cluster. 

Lisbon, ^ 

Portugal, f of the English 

Valentia, t collections, ^ are Black Spanish. 

Prince, J 

Lombardy, of some, according to Miller, 

Black Muscadel, ) A ., 

Mogul grape, \ e Augibert noir. 

Chasselas violet, of the French, is Black Muscadine. 
Petit Chasselas, ditto is Cioutat. 

Early white grape of Teneriffe, is White Muscadine. 
Black Cluster, or Munier, of Miller, > M 

Vitis lanata, C. Steph. Praedium Rusticum, \ * 
Green Chee, is Greek grape. 

melting, is Fendant vert. 

Imperial Tokay, is Gray Tokay. 

Le Cour, or Frankindall, of Miller, is White Musk Chasselas. 

Malmsey Muscadine, ) rT7 ,. , 

MalvoisieMusque, \ of English collections, are White.Chasselas. 

Muscat rouge de Frontignan, is Red Frontignac. 

noir de Frontignan, ) 

Purple Constant**, \ are Black Front,gnac. 

Red Muscadine, of the English, is Red Chasselas. 

Red Rhenish, ditto, is Flame Tokay. 

Rose grape, of the Americans, is Red Bland. 

Stillward's sweet water, is White sweet water. 

Vitis taurina, of Bartram, is Scuppernong and the varieties of the 

American Muscadine. 
Warner grape, is Black Hamburgh. 
White Lombardy, is White grape of Alcobaca. 
White Raisin, | are White Hamburgh. 



ERRATA. 

PAGE. LINE. 

30 21 Chap. V. should read Chap. VI. 

64 21 Vougost, ditto Vougcot. 

f>6 38 and in several other places, Dukammel should read Duhamel. 

77 22 Pr. Cat. JVo. 7, should read, Pr. Cat. No. 76. 

87 4 Mascadel, ditto Muscadel. 

109 24 hamburgh, , ditto Hamburgh. 

1GO 1'J rfuvcras, ditto Auvcrrms. 

180 15 Georgia, ditto Carolina. 

182 20 & 22 liauchmttn, ditto Bachman. 

226 2f> The Sugar Cane, ditto The produce of the Sugar Cane 



INDEX. 



FRONTISPIECE A cluster of the Isabella grape, the berries two-thirds the 

usual size, and less closely set than is usually the case. 
Dedication ... 

Preface 
Class Order Natural order - 



PAGfi 



CHAP. I. 



Early history of the vine 

Origin and native country of the vine, &c. 

Early use of wines among the Romans 

CHAP. II. 

Ancient vineyards 

CHAP. III. 

Introduction of the vine into France 

CHAP. IV. 

Introduction of the vine into Britain 

CHAP V. 

Age of the vine Spread of the vine 
Size of the vine - 

Size of the bunches and berries 

CHAP. VI. 

Preliminary remarks on soil, culture, &c. 
Climate - 

Soil- 

Influence of soil, &c. on flavour 

Substrata of vineyards in France - * 



Exposition 



CHAP. VII. 



CHAP. VIII. 



CHAP. X. 

Nomenclature of grapes 
Chasselas grapes 

Cioutat 

Frontignac and other Muscat grapes 
Table grapes of different countries 
Wine grapes 

44 



10 

12 

13 



15 



19 



22 



25 
27 

28 



30 
31 
36 
41 

42 



44 



Seasons ^ 
Rains ... . 
Fogs Droughts - ... 
Frosts 
Hail, winds, fire blight, &c/ * 


51 

52 

54 
57 


CHAP. IX. 




Influence of the variety Choice of varieties 
Effect of the age of the vine on the product 


59 
64 



65 
71 
77 
79 
89 
121 



346 



INDEX. 



American grapes - - 1 65 

Additional indigenous vines Varieties from seed 213 

General Remarks ou nomenclature - 215 

American species of the vine 216 
Account 01 the Species, Hybrids, and other varieties of the vine 

of North America - ... 216 

Preliminary remarks on culture - 221 

Remarks from the pen of Prof. Nuttall - . - 224 

Culture Great or Vineyard culture ... 229 

Preparing the ground ...... 232 

Planting vines - . . '. _ _ . 236 

Distances to be observed in planting - - 238 

Rearing plants for vineyards - - 242 

vines from cuttings and eyes 244 

Layering or Provignage - - 249 

Rearing vines from seeds - 251 

Ingrafting vines .... 254 

Vineyards on hills and declivities - - 260 

Planting trees, &c. in vineyards Hedges to protect them 262 

Propping and training - 264 

Low training - - - 266 

High training - . 267 

Sautelles or Pleyons 268 

Pyramidal or conical training - 269 

Counter espalier training - 271 

Pruning - 272 

Proper period for pruning - - - 276 

Clipping and topping of the vine - 279 

Pruning and treatment of a young vineyard 281 
Pruning to restore the vigour of the vines Taking off the bark 

Laying bare the vine root 283 

Girdling, or Incisure 284 

Manuring - - 287 

Watering vineyards - ... 292 

Tillage or working of vineyards - 293 

Implements of labour 296 

Of the advancements and disbursements to be made by the proprietor 297 

Pay of the Vigneron 298 

Winter protection of vines - 299 

Garden culture 300 

Culture of the vine at Thomery 302 

Painting walls black Hothouse culture of vines - 310 
Difficulties attendant on the vine culture Natural causes Errors in 
management Political causes Ability of the proprietor 

Attacks of insects, &c. - 316 



Mildew 

Bleeding of the vine - 

Coulure, or blight of the blossoms 

The vintage 

Reputation of vineyards 

Duration of vineyards 



321 
324 
324 
325 
326 
328 
Uses of sweet grapes Preservation of grapes in a fresh state 

Relative weight of berries Making Raisins 328 

Manner of culture adopted for the vine in the American vineyard, 

the property of Edward H. Bonsall, Esq - 331 

Catalogue of vines at present cultivated in the vineyard of the author 337 

Additional synonymes of vines 344 

Errata 344 



INDEX. 



347 



FOREIGN VARIETIES OF THE VINE. 



PAGE 

Jgyras 100 

Albillo Castillan 130 

JllicanL Raisin $ Alicant e 146 147 

Anguleux 106 

Jlnsley*s large aval black 95 

Jlntiboiilen 150 

Arsakhi, or Goat's teats 163 

Asma 163 

Jlspiran, of Languedoc 101 

Aspirant blanc, seedless 108 

sans pepins 108 

Austrian Muscadel 117 

grape 77 

Auvernat, or Auvernas 121 

Gray, or gris 124 

noir 121 

rouge clair 125 

White, or blanc 122 

Balaban Shabash, or Great Shabash 163 

Barbarous 95 

Barlantin 103 105 

Beaunier 122 

Benadu 143 

Black JJscalon 98 

Burgundy 344 

Cape 112 

Damascus 109 

Garnet 148 

Gibraltar 344 

grape of Tripoli 111 

grape from Palestine 94 

Lisbon 109 344 

Lombardy 94 

Morocco 95 

Orleans 121 

parsley leaved 118 

Portugal 109 344 

Prince 94 344 

Spanish 147 344 

Tokay 115 

Blanc de Bonnelle, 74 

verdet 145 

Blue Cartager 157 

Tokay 137 

Bon plant 123 

Bordeaux purple 161 

Boucards 125 

Bourboulenque 144 

Bourdelas. Bordclais 100 

Bourgeois 148 

Bourger. Burger 158 

Bourguignon blanc 125 

noir 124 

Bouteillant 132 

Brick 111 137 

Brown, or Chocolate coloured 151 

Bureau 124 

Burot 122 

Cascaralo blanc 107 



Cayan 

Cioutat. Ciotat 

Chalosse 

Chambonat 

Chasselas, Bar-sur~Jhibe 



PACK 

132 

77 
92 
148 
71 

blanc 71 

blanc 71 
blanc pre"coce de Kien- 

zheim 77 

croquant 71 

D\Flrbois, or D'Jlrboyce 71 

de Thomery 76 

ttore 71 
(lore de Fontainbleau 71 7'5 

dur 71 
Golden 71 75 

gris, or Gray 76 
La Blanquette,or La Donne 73 

Moma- Chasselas 72 

JV/ou ? 75 

musque 76 

panach6 92 

Parsley leaved 77 

Petit 344 

Purple royal 77 

Red 75 

rose 77 

Rouge 75 

royal, or rouge royal 77 

Variegated 92 
Violet, Black, De la 

madelene 77 

White 71 

White, or golden 71 

White musk 76 

Yellow, of Thomery 76 

Clapiers ? 90 

Clairelte. Clareto 102 

de Limoux 1 59 

Claret 146 147 

Clarette blanche 102 

Columbzu.-Columbal.-Coloinnbau 1C6 

Constantia, Black 82 

Purple 344 

White 160 

-True White 344 

Corinth, Black 98 

Red 98 

White seedless 97 

Corinthe Wane 97 

Gros 98 

jioir du Morle 344 

sans pepins 97 

violet 98 

Corinthian vine 97 

Cornishon, White, or blanc 99 

Violet 100 

Cote rouge 134 

Croc/iw, of Provence 99 



348 



INflEX. 



Cucumber grape 99 
Currant grape 98 
Damas 124 
legros 108 
Damson 111 
Danugo 1 05 
Daune. Daunerie 122 
DeCandolle 107 
Douceagne 131 
Doucinelle noire 132 
Dove's eye 92 
Early white grape of Teneriffe 110 
black cluster 113 
Elliot's large white 161 
Enrageat 145 
Epicier 136 
Espagnin 105 
Esperione 89 91 
Etrange 125 
Facon rouge 158 
Facun. Burger. Bourger. Fa- 
con blanc 158 
Faigneau 145 
Farinau 121 
Farineiix noir 134 
Feldlinger 1 57 
Fendantvert 118 
FeuUleronde 125 
Fie 127 
Finger grape 99 
Flame Tokay 137 
Folle blanche 145 
Franc-kental 89 
Franc-pineau 123 
Frankendale 89 
Frankenthaler 89 
Frappade 144 
Fromente 126 134 
Fromenteau 124 125 
Frontignac, Alexandrian 83 
Black, or purple 82 
Blue, or violet 81 
Grizzly 83 
Red 81 
White 79 
Garnet noir. Game noir 148 
Gentilrose 125 
g-m 124 
Gibraltar 90 
Golden Galician 1 1 1 
Gouais blanc. Gouas 148 
noir 149 



Gourdoux 
Grand Guillaume 
Grau Hefner 
Gray Burgundy 

Tokay 
Greek grape 
Green melting 

Chee 

Grey.Gregoir 
Gribalet noir 
Griniolo 



125 
96 
124 
124 
136 
110 
341 
344 
100 
121 
108 



Gris rouge 
Griset blanc 
Gros blanc 

noir 

noir d'Espagne 



125 
124 
148 
145 
147 



Rauschling. Grand Rausch* 

ling. Grosser Rauschling 159 

Guillaume 96 

Muscadet 134 

Taulier 129 

Damas 108 

Grosser riessling 160 

Grosse serine 124 

Gueuche noire 149 

blanc. Gouche 125 

Hamburgh, Black 89 

Purple 91 

<** Red 90 

Warner's black 89 

White 90 

Hampton Court tine 89 

Hardy blue Windsor 91 

Hinsch.Hintsch 158 

Hungarian Tokay 136 

Ischia 114 

Jaen noir 132 

Jews 95 

Jouannen blanc. Jouanen 131 

Kakura Isyum 162 

Khadym Barmak, or Lady's finger 163 

Kirmisi Misk Isyurn, or Albura 163 

Kishmishi 97 

Kleine rauschling 158 

Kleiner riessling 159 

Kni-perle 158 

Lachryma Christi.-Lamma Christi 1 38 

Large black cluster 147 

Damask 103 

VMemand 158 

le rouge 158 

L'Arragnan 141 

Le Brun fourca 129 

Cahors. Le Troyen. Le Bal- 

sac. L'rfrdonnet 149 

Catalan 129 

C(Kur 95 
Damour. Le Grand noir. Le 

Vert gris 149 

Gombert 151 

Languedoc.Le Coq 149 

Monastel. Mounasteou 140 

Mourvegue" 128 

noir 139 

Picote" 104 

Pooumestre" 104 

Rin brun 151 

Rousseli 141 

Sale 104 

SolLLeGrennetin 124 

Taulier 129 

Vend noir 1 56 

Lehrmann J36 






INDEX. 



349 



Lisbon 

Listan comnnm 

Liverdon des Voges 

Lombardy 

Louxtendre" Pecoue" 

Lunel 



90 
134 
156 

118 137 

150 

85 



L'yverdun bon vin. Liver dun 156 

Madeira, Adlum's 155 

Black 153 

Herbemont's 154 

Purple 154 

Round violet 155 

Violet 152 

Madeleine. Magdalen 1 i 3 

Madere 81 

Malaga, White 86 

Red 87 

Black! 85 

duLotl 85 

Malvasie 139 

Malwisie rouge d'ltalie. M. rouge 

du Po 138 

blancduPo 138 

musquee 139 
Manosquen.-Massoutel.-Meritte 121 129 

Mansard 149 

Mantuo Castillan 142 

Marleau 149 

Maroc, or Gros Maroc 95 
Maroquin. M. d?Espagne 95 103 

Marvoisin 135 

Massoutel 121 

Matinie 127 
Maurillon or Morillon 

blanc.-Morillon blanc 122 127 

hatif. Morillon hatif 113 

noir. Morillon noir 121 123 

noir hatif 113 

panachi 92 

petit Morillon hatif 113 

striped 92 

Taconni 126 

White 122 

Melier. Melier blanc 74 122 

Merrisie ? 138 

Meslier 74 

Meslier vert 145 

Meunier 126 

a saint noir 126 

blanc. Meunier a saint 

blanc r 127 

Miller grape. Miller's Burgundy 126 

white 127 

Mogul 344 

Mollar noir 143 

Monstrous violet 155 

Montpellier 108 
Morillon, see Maurillon. 

Morocco 95 

Mornain blanc 74 

Moruain 122 

Moscon 93 



MouiUet 

MourS.Morieu 
Moustardie' 
Mourvede. Mourvtbrc 
Mourvede 1 farinous 
Muscadel 

Stack 

Red 



Jtfuseaefei. Muscadere 

Muscadine, .tfm&er 
Black 

Early White 
Malmsey 
Parsley leaved 



148 
146 
144 

128 
128 

87 
85 
87 
86 
134 
75 
109 
75 
139 
77 
344 

.Rot/a* 71 

Striped 92 

White 75 344 

White parsley leaved 77 

Muscat, Black muscat of Alexandria 85 

blanc. M. blanc de Fron- 

tignan 79 

d'Alexandrie violet 84 

d> Alexandria. Idem blanc 83 
depanse, of Provence 83 
d'Espagne 83 86 

Early violet 
gris 

Muscat de Lunel 85 

negre, of Provence 82 

New Muscat of Jerusalem 85 
noir 82 

noir & Alexandria 85 

noir de Frontignan 344 

Red Muscat of Alexandria 85 
Red Muscat of Jerusalem? 85 
rouge 81 

rouge de Frontignan 344 
r>toZe 81 

Violet Mus. of Alexandria 84 
JFTuYe Muscat of Lunel 85 
Jfftite Mw*. of Jerusalem 83 
Muscata bianca 79 

Myshket 162 

Navarro 135 

Negramole. Negramolle 153 

Negrier -147 

A r et0 6/ac/fc ctester 115 

Noir 149 

d'Espagne 146 

Noireau 146 

Noirien, or Noirier 121 

Mrirfo 126 

Norton's large oval purple 112 



Oeil de Tourd 
Olivette blanche 

noire 

Olwer. Oliver 
Ortliebscher 
Palomino commun 
Panse musquee 



102 
102 
157 
158 
142 
83 



350 



INDEX. 



Pascaou blanc 105 

Passe longuc musquce 83 

musquee. Passe musquee 

blanc 83 

Pendoulaou 103 

Pcrsillade de Bordeaux 78 

Petit Rauschling 1 58 

Riessling 159 

game 149 

Pied rouge 124 

Picarneau 125 

Pimbart 121 

Fineau franc 123 

deBourgogne 121 

blanc 125 

gris 124 

noir 121 

noirin 92 

Pinet.Pignolet.PinsaU. 

Pincaou 123 

Piquepoule blanc 107 

Pisutelli 99 

Pitmaston white cluster 109 

Pknt Estrani 134 

de Bordeaux 129 

de Languedoc 104 

de Manosque 129 

de Raguse 150 

de Roi. Plant d 1 Aries 124 

de Saint Gilles 142 

de Sales 104 

de Veneou 141 

d'oourueou. Plant d'Au- 

riol 140 

madame 148 

Sardou 151 

Portugal 90 146 

Port wine grape 147 

Pouille 124 

Precoce noir, oudes trois recoltes 114 

Probyn's large white 116 

Prunelas 92 

Queen 118 

Ragusa 1 50 

Raisin Barbaroux 151 

afeuilles d'Ache 78 

a grappes molles 150 

Black 88 

d'Afrique 95 

tfAlep 92 

d'Autriche 77 

deBourgogne 151 

de Ca&o 110 

tie Carmes 110 

de cfoien. /?m de chin 141 

de la Palestine 106 

de la Madeleine 113 

de Lombardie 1 47 

de Maroc 95 

de Montpellier a grandes 

grappes 108 

de poche 102 

den trois recoltes 114 



Raisin de St. Jean. St. Jean 
de Vesuve 
Grec 
perle 
precoce 



Turc 
White 
Ramonat 

Rauschling) le petit 
Ze grand 
Red Malmsey 

Burger 

Burgundy 

grape of Syracuse 

Rhenish 

Smyrna 

Swiss 
Resseau 
Rhenish 
Riesentraube 



de Pansso 

Riessling 

le grand 

Rischling 

Rochelle blanche 
blonde 
noire 
verte 

Rognon de Coq 

Rose Burgundy 



131 
138 
152 
103 
113 
92 
95 
88 
147 
158 
159 
138 
158 
125 
1 1 
344 
87 
156 
126 
137 
107 
124 
103 
159 
1 60 
159 
145 
146 
145 
145 

96 103 
125 



Rothe Hintsche. Rhein Hintsch 158 

Pother Burger 158 

Rothliehtner 125 

Roudeillat 103 

Rouge de Bourgognc 125 

Rough black 117 

Roumain 145 

Roussillon 146 

St. Peter's, White 93 

Black 94 

West's 94 

St. Pierre blanc 93 

St. Valentine. Saint Valentin 107 

Salisbury violet 89 

Saumorille 148 

Saure 144 
Saumgnon blanc. Suavignon. 

Saumgnen. Sermgncn 127 

vert 145 

Savagnien blanc 127 

noir 126 

Shabash 162 

Shiralsyum 162 

Spart 143 

Striped Aleppo 92 

Sucrin 127 

Sweet water, Black 79 

Early. August 75 

Stillward's 344 

White 75 

Swiss 92 



INDEX. 



351 



Syrian. Syr-ic 
Tanagos 
Tardaria grape 
Tcinturier. Teinturin 
Terre promise. Terra promessa 
Terre" bourre 
Terrgullmek 
The Dyer 

Thrice-bearing vine 
Tibouren. Tiboulen 
Tinta 
Tinteau 
Tintilla 
Tokai. Tokai blanc. T. gris de 

Hongrie 

Ueu. Tokai, Haute Pyre- 
nees 

Trts dur, ou de Poche 
Tresscau. Trousseau du Jura 
True Burgundy 
Turner's early black 
Ugne de Marseille 
Uni blanc 

rouge 

noir. Uni negre 
Uva passa bianca 
Verdin blanc 
Verdilhio. Verdelho 



95 
164 

77 
146 
108 
135 
162 
146 
114 
150 
153 
146 
142 

136 

137 
102 
124 
121 

91 
107 

127 133 145 
133 
133 

97 
143 
152 



Verjus. While Vcrjus 100 

Verdal. Verdaou 101 

Verreau 149 

Vicane. Vicamc 159 

Vigane 145 

Vigne lasciniee 77 

Violet Calabrian 161 

Vitis vinifera 9 

insana. V. triferct 114 

prcEcox, of Columella 113 

Walker's large white 1 17 

Warrenton. Warren 1 54 

Weisser Burger 153 

Weiss kloefner 122 

klefeln blanc 122 

gris 124 

White Burgundy 125 

girkin ' 99 

grape of Alcobaca lit 

Kishmish 97 

Lombardy 344 

Malmsey 138 

Mornain 74 

seedless Aspirant 108 

Tokay 136 

Worksop Manor grape 109 

Yellow stoneless 97 



AMERICAN VARIETIES OF VINES. 



Additional seminal species and 

varieties 213 214 

Alexander l'73 216 219 

Arena, of Herbemont 189 

Bailie 206 

Beaverdam 203 
Bland, Red. Eland's pale red. 

Bland s Virginia. Bland's 

Madeira. Bland s fox 177 219 

220 224 

Blue Elsingburg 176 
Buck 200 
Bull. Bullet 170 171 218 
Bullace.Bullus 170 
Bunch.-Blue grapc.-Littlc do. 199 217 
Cape of Good Hope 173 174 
Carolina 177 197 
Carter's favourite 190 
Catawba. Catawba Tokay 175 
Chicken grape 194 
Clarke's 207 
Clifton's Constantia 174 
Columbia 179 
Columbian 200 
Cooper's wine 190 
Cunningham 191 
Deninger's 200 
Denniston 191 
Early black summer 212 
Elkton 185 
Elsingburg. Elscnburgh. El- 
se nboro ugh 176 



English grape. Red English 177 

Fox, Black 180 

Bachman's red 182 

Purple 180 

Red 182 

White 181 

Frost grape. Small frost 194 

Gale 207 

Garber's Albino ] 95 

red fox 196 

GibVs ] 65 

Griswold's seedling 205 

Henrico J91 

Herbemont's Arena 189 

Hickman ] 67 

Honey 196 

Hyde's native black 192 

Eliza 193 

Isabella 165 

Jersey. Guernsey 210 

Jordan's large blue. Jordan* s blue 189 

Kellogg 212 

Kcnrick's native 197 

Large blue seedling from White 

Malaga 190 

Long's Arkansas 1 84 

Louisiana 205 

Lufborough ] 85 

Maryland purple 205 

Mazzei 177 

Millington's white 192 

Missouri. Missouri seedling 184 



352 



INDEX. 



Morris' seedling Malaga 


190 


Solander's large purple 


192 


Muncy, pale red 


175 180 


Spring Mill Constantia 


173 


Black 


186 


Summer grape 


199 


Muscadine 


170 171 


Susquehanna 


200 


American 


167 


Swatara 


192 


American black 


171 


Sweet scented.- Male sweei scented 


193 


Black oval 


172 


Tasker's grape 


173 


Great black 


210 


Tennessee Island grape 


172 


Purple 


171 


Texas (two varieties) 


183 


Wild 


171 


Tokay 


175 


Nashua 


208 


Troy grape 


202 


Nazro 


202 


Vitis aestivalis 


199 


North Carolina white 


197 


JBlandi. V. Blanda 


177 


Norton's Virginia seedling 


186 


cordifolia 


194 


Orwigsburgh 


198 


incisa 


194 


Owen's white 


209 


intermedia 


199 


Pale red Virginian 


211 


labrusca 173 181 182 185 


186 


Pell's Illinois 


185 


188 197 


200 


Perfume 


211 


odoratissima 


193 


Pond's seedling 


207 


riparia 


193 


Powel. Powal 


177 


rotundifolia 167 170 171 


172 


Prolific Chicken grape 


212 


serotina 194 


220 


Purple Hamburgh 


202 


sylvestris. Tel occidentalis 


199 


Rackoon. Raccoon 


179 220 


217 


220 


Raisin de Cote 


176 


taurina 160 218 220 


344 


Red Muncy 


175 


vulpina 180 


194 


Roanoke 


167 


Webb's grape 


211 


Rose grape 


344 


Wild green muscadine 


170 


Scott's 


206 


Willis' Fredonia 


210 


Schuylkill muscadel 


173 


large black 


210 


Scuppernong 


167 


Windsor 


208 


Black 


170 


Winne 


200 


Green 


170 


Winter grape 


194 


Purple 


170 


Wood son 


191 


Red 


170 177 


Worthington 


179 


White 


167 


York Claret 


188 


Sloe 


172 


Lisbon 


188 


Smallwood 


207 


Madeira 


187 


Smart's Elsingborough 


176 







ABBREVIATIONS OF REFERENCES. 

Pn Cat. Prince's Catalogue, 25th edition. In all subsequent 
editions the leading titles in this work will be adopted. 

Clayt. Clayton Flora Virginica. 

Donn. Cat. Bonn Hortus Cantabrigiensis. 

Duh. Duhamel Dumonceau, Traite des Arbres fruitiers, nou- 
velle edition, 1825. 

Garid. Garidel. 

Goufe.M. Gouffe de la Cour. 

Hooker Pom. Lond. Hooker Pomona Londinensis. 

Linn. Linnaeus Systema vegetabilium. 

Langley Pom. Langley's Pomona. 

Muhl. Muhlenburg Catalogue. 

Pluck, aim. Pluckenett Almagestum Botanicum. 

Trans. Lond* Hort. Soc. Transactions of the London Horticul- 
ral Society. 



353 



PRINCE'S TREATISE ON THE VINE. 

The second part of this work is now in preparation for the press, and will be 
published as soon as a sufficient number of subscribers is obtained. The sub- 
ject matter which it will embrace is 

THE PARTICULAR HISTORY OF THE VINE; 

Comprising a Topographical Account of all the known Vineyards throughout 
the World, and including those, of the United States ; with the modes of cul- 
ture, and the varieties of grapes peculiar to each : whence correct conclusions 
may be drawn, sailed to all the various climates and soils of this country. 
To this will be added, an ample detail of the various modes of making Wines, 
with every particular necessary to render any one a complete Vigneron. 

This work will comprise all the important information contained in the new 
edition of Duhamel, published in 1825 also that contained in the Nouveau 
Cours Complet d\4griculture, edited by Members of the Royal Institute of France ; 
together with such additional information as is found in the works of .Rozier, 
Chaptal, Julien, McCulloch, Forsyth, Speedily, Berneaud, and other authors of 
celebrity. It will form an octavo volume of about 300 pages, and the price will 
be $1.50. A limited number of copies will be published, and those who remit 
the amount of subscription in advance will have the preference. 

In addition to the other matter contained in this volume, information will be 
quoted from the writings of most of the following gentlemen, from a majority 
of whom letters have been received oil the subject, and in relation to the others 
named, reference will be made to their vineyards already established, the suc- 
cess of which will be detailed, as well as the varieties cultivated in each. 



Mrs. Mary Griffith. 

J. M. H. Taylor. 

Prof. Bosc, late Administrator of the 
Royal Garden of the Luxembourg. 

Chey. Soulange Bodin, President of the 
Linnzean and Horticultural Societies 
of Paris. 

Robert Boiling, Junr. Esq. whose com- 
piled " Sketch of Vine culture," has 
been politely presented to the au- 
thor. 

Hon. Jonathan Hunnewell. 

Gen. Thomas McCall, who has present- 
ed me with a detailed manuscript of 
his experiments and success in mak- 
ing wines, and also with some speci- 
mens of the p'roduce. 

Nicholas Herbemont, Esq., from whose 
vineyard I have also received speci- 
mens of some choice wines. 

Dr. J. C. S. Monkur, Cor. Sec. of the 
Maryland Society for promoting the 



Vine culture. 
Gen. Dearborn, President of 

Horticultural Society. 
Dr. D. N. Norton. 
Thomas S.Pleasants, Esq. 
Robert Manning, Esq. 
Jacob B. Garber, Esq. 
Christian Bachman, Esq. 
Thomas Eichelberger Esq. 
Martin Crull, Esq. 
Charles Nea, Esq. 
Christian I, Hutter, Esq. 



Mass. 



Col. George Gibbs. 

Edward Stabler, Jan. Esq., from whose 

vineyardjjsome specimens of excellent 

wine have been received. 
Robert W. Withers, Esq. 
Abraham Morrison, Esq. 
J. Ld Ray de Chaumont, Esq. 
William Kenrick, Esq. 
James J. Beatty, Esq. 
Messrs. Beatty & Looser. 
John Willis, Esq. 
Isaac Denniston, Esq. 
Dr. Adrian Vandeveer. 
Nathan Bridge, Esq, 
Capt. Fay. 
J. O'Fallon, Esq. 
L. Gex, Esq. 
George Small, Esq. 
Richard Hill Morris, Esq. 
Col. Clandinen. 

Joseph W. Torrey, Esq. of Michigan. 
W. S. Gibbes, Esq. 
E. Smallwood, Esq. 
James Falls, Esq. 
S. W. Pomeroy, Esq. 
W. Owens, Esq. 
James Williams, Esq. 
A. B. Spooner, Esq. 
S. Boyden, Esq. 
I. Cable, Esq. 
M. H. Tucker, Esq. 
G. I. F. Clarke, Esq. 
Samuel Downer, Esq. 
William Ellison, Esq. 
45 



354 



J. Field, Esq, 

William Blackledge, Esq. 

S. Maverick, Esq. 

H. Bry, Esq. 

M. Amoureux, Esq. 

Joshua Lindley, Esq. 

N. Chapy, Esq., of Cuba. 

Robert B. Currey, Esq. 

George Wilson, Esq. 

Dr. Spengler. 

Messrs. Groll & Shelby. 

Jessup & Co, 



Mr. Metz. 

Gish. 

Miller. 

Becker. 

Barnetz. 
- Upp. 

Hinkel. 

Sulsbach. 

Forembach. 

Wildie. 

Francis Linck. 
And a number of others. 



A^LSO *OW IN PRESS, 

" THE POMOLOGICAL MANUAL ;" 

Comprising descriptions in detail of the various Garden Fruits, viz. Apples, 
Pears, Peaches, Plums, Cherries, Apricots, Nectarines, Almonds, Walnuts, 
Chesnuts, Mulberries, Quinces, Filberts, Gooseberries, Raspberries, Strawber- 
ries, &c. &c. The number of varieties therein described will be very great, and 
will embrace all those comprised in the ne'w edition of Duhamel, a work for 
which the first cost at Paris is over $400 . an( ] a } SO) the most important of those 
contained in the Pomological Magazine and other works of the highest note, 
the objectjjeing to concentrate at a cheap rate all the pomological information 
necessary and requisite towards making a judicious selection from the great 
variety of Fruits, of such kinds as are best calculated to suit the wishes and 
purposes of cultivators. 

This work will be published in two parts of about 200 octavo pages, each part 
of which will be complete in itself, and persons can subscribe for one or both as 
they think proper. The terms will be $1 for each part, which can be remitted 
in advance. The first part will be ready for delivery in October. 

The most convenient and least expensive mode by which persons in the inte- 
rior can receive these works, is by ascertaining from their local bookseller, the 
address of the house they deal with in New- York, on transmitting which to the 
author, the books desired can be deposited with them to be forwarded. 

ALSO, WAS RECENTLY PUBLISHED, 

A SHORT TREATISE ON HORTICULTURE, 

BY WM. PRINCE. 

Pp. 206, embracing descriptions of about one thousand species and varieties 
ot Fruit and Ornamental Trees and Shrubs, Bulbous Flowers, Green-house 
Trees and Plants, &c. Price 75 cents. Some copies of this Treatise have been 
made up with stitched covers, so as to be transported by mail, and the postage 
thereon is only from 12 to 20 cents, according to the distance ; and some copies 
of the Treatise on the Vine are made up in the same manner. 

Any person remitting the cost of five copies of any of the above works, shall 
receive a sixth gratis. 

The following distinct Catalogues relative to the different departments of the 
establishment may be obtained of the different agents, or by direct application 
to the proprietor, and are distributed gratis : 

No. 1. Fruit and Hardy Ornamental Trees, Shrubs, and Plants, pp. 86. 

No. 2. Bulbous and Tuberous rooted Plants, pp. 24. 

No. 3. Green-house Trees, Shrubs, and Plants, pp. 44. 

No. 4. American Indigenous Trees, Shrubs, and Plants, pp. 47. 

These Catalogues can be transmitted by mail, at a postage of \\ to 2 cents 
per sheet, accordingly the distance. 



355 



The following information may be acceptable. 

The five principal Horticultural and Agricultural papers published in our coun- 
try are the following : 

American Farmer, published weekly, edited by Gideon B. Smith, Esq. Balti- 
more. A change has recently taken place in the editorial department of this 
paper, and Gideon B. Smith, Esq. is at the head of this very useful and widely 
circulating periodical. Mr. S. being well known as a writer of fine talents 
and great application, there cannot fail to be a manifest improvement in this 
publication, as the numerous avocations of the former editor did not permit 
him to devote an equal degree of attention thereto. Mr. Smith has particu- 
larly distinguished himself by his very intelligent and scientific communica- 
tions in relation to the Silk culture, and various other subjects, and has thereby 
connected himself with the great interests and improvements of our coun- 
try. It may therefore be justly said, that he assumes his present station with 
an enviable title to public respect and patronage. We understand with satis- 
faction that he proposes to establish at Baltimore, an Agricultural Repository 
of the most extensive kind. 

New-England Farmer, published weekly, edited by Thomas G. Fessenden, Esq. 
seconded by J. B^Russell, Esq. the proprietor, Boston ; and supported by the 
writings of many of the first agriculturists and horticulturists of our country, 
among which are some judicious writers, who are investigating the characters 
of our native fruits. 

New- York Farmer, published monthly, edited by S. Fleet, Esq. New- York, 
Southern Agriculturist, do. monthly, edited by J. D. Legare, Esq. Charleston, 
Western Tiller, edited by I. P. Foote, Esq. Cincinnati. 

Mr. John B. Russell has established at Boston, in connexion with his other 
business, a very extensive Agricultural and Horticultural Repository, for the sale 
of every variety of Garden and Field Seeds, Trees, Bulbous Flower Roots, &c. 
of which he has published a catalogue. His seed establishment, connected as it 
is with various branches devoted to similar objects, among which is a great Re- 
pository for implements, &c. and the well-conducted paper referred to, with the 
Horticultural Hall also in the same building, may be considered in its extent and 
usefulness as second only to that of Messrs. Thorburns in New-York, and forms 
in itself a central depot, most conveniently situated for the dissemination of 
articles throughout the eastern section of our Union and the British Provinces. 

Adjoining the above establishment, is the very large Repository for Agricultu- 
ral implements of every description, established and conducted by J.R. Newell, 
Esq. and which, from the numerous specimens of valuable articles therein con- 
centrated, presents a similarity to the Patent Office at Washington. 






TO 



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ir-ttttssSSr**. 

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