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Full text of "Trees and Shrubs: An Abridgment of the Arboretum Et Fruticetum Britannicum; Containing the Hardy ..."

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>• ' 



1 



TREES AND SHETJBS; 



AN ABRIDGMENT OF 



S^^t %thmthxm tt ^xvdxainm ^ritEnmamt : 



CONTAtNINO 

THE HAKBY TREES AND SHRUBS 

OF BRITAIN, 

N.ATIVE AND FOREIGN, 

SCIENTIFICAXLY AND POPULARLY DESCRIBED; 

WITH XHEiR PROPAGATION, CULTURE, AND USES; 

' ^ AKD 

ENGRAVINGS OF NEARLY ALL THE SPECIES, 



BY J. C- LOtTDON, r.L.S., H.S., &c, 

AVTMOR OF '*T2rtT*ACB, TAKM, AND VILLA ARCHITECTURB." 



FREDERICK WARNE & CO., 

BEDFORD STREET, STRAND. 
New York : SCRIBNER, WELFORD, & ARMSTRONG, 

I8;5. 

OL. 



^ 

/-^2 
/61S 



f 



PREFACE. 



Ikis Abridgement of the Arboretum et Fruticctum BriUmnicum contains. — 

1. Obaracters and short Popular Descriptions of all the species and 
fBiieties of hardy trees and shrubs now in British gardens, with directions 
fix- their culture; including the soil most suitable for them, their pro- 
pegatioD, and their uses in the arts, &c. 

2. EngraTings of all the species which are described, with the exception of 
half a dozen. The whole arranged according to the Natural System ; all the 
engra?iiigs being to the scale of two inches to a foot, or one sixth of the 
natural size. 

3. The Scientific Names and Scientific Synonymes of all the species ; and 
thor Popular Names in the languages of the different countries where they 
are indigeaous or cultivated. 

4. An Alphabetical Index to all the species and varieties, with thdr 
synoojrmes. 

5. A Tabular Analysis of the Leaves, by which the name of any species 
of tree or shrub described in the work may, in general, be discovered, from 
a small portion of a shoot with the leaves on. 

6. Specific Characters, Descriptions, and Figures of some species, more 
particularly of pines, firs, and oaks, which wefe not in the country in 1838^ 
vben the large work was completed. 

In a wordi, though this Abridgement does not include all the interesting 
and useful information on the natural history of trees which will be found in 
the larger work, or an^ of the portraits of entire trees which constitute so 
distinguished a feature m it, yet it contains all that is necessary to enable the 
reader to discover the names oi the different species, and to ascertain their 
culture, propagation, and uses in Britain ; in snort, all that is essential for 
the nuneryman, gardener, and forester. 

The most remarkable circumstance connected with this Abridgement is, 
that the Author has been able to obtain figures of nearly all the species. 
For the drawings or specimens fi*om which these additional figures were 
taken, be is indebted to the kind assistance of various Public Institutions, 
and of several of the most eminent botanists and possessors of herbariums 
and living collections in Europe and North America. 

The Institutions to which he is under obligations are, the Linnean and 
Horticultural Societies of London, the British Museum, the Museum of 
Natural History of Paris, and that of Berlin : and the Botanists who have 
kindly lent him drawings or specimens include the late A. B. Lambert, Esq. ; • 
Sir W. J. Hooker; Dr. Lindley; the late Professor Don; George Don, 
Esq., who prepared the characters of the Orders and of the Genera ; 
Messrs. I^oddigbs ; the late Professor DeCandollb ; M. Alphonse De 
Candollb ; W. Borrer, Esq. ; P. B. Webb, Esq. ; Baron De Lessert ; 
M.MicaAUx; Stgnor G. Manetti ; M. Otto; M. Charles Rauch; M. 
Fra?(cis Rauch, who made most of the drawings; and Drs. Torrey 
and Gray : to all of whom ; to the Curators of most of our Botanic and 
Horticultural Gardens, and those of many foreign ones ; and to all Nursery- 
men and Gardeners, both at home and abroad, who may have rendered him 
assistance, he b^s to return his most sincere thanks. 

To the Council of the Horticultural Society of London he is under especial 
obli^tions, for their permission to make drawings from the cones and other 
specimens sent home by their collectors, Douglas and Hartweg, and for 
authorising him to procure information from their intelligent and experienced 
niperintendent of the arboricultural department of the Garden, Mr. George 
Gordon, A.L.S. ; and to Mr. Gordon he is indebted for the ready and 
obliging manner in which, at all times, he rendered his assistance. 

Bt^water, AprU^ 1843. J. C. L. 

A 2 



i* 



CONTENTS. 



BDumeratlon of th« Genera and Speclei, with ttuAr Tarietiei and STnooTinei, In the order 
in which ther are deecribed in the work ..... 

An Analysis of tne commoner Tree* and Shrube of Britain, with reference to their Uses 
in ueeAil and ornamental Flantatlont ...... 

An Analyf it of the Genera of the lYeee and Shrube described in this Abridgement, 
according to their Leaves > ..... 

Explanation of AbbreTlationt, Accentuation, Indications, ftc ... 



The Species described in detail 
EXO'GEN£. 

DlCHLAMT'DBJB. 



itaaunculfccem 
Clematfdem . 
WinterdcAT - 
Fmoaiacem - 
Uagnol'dccw . 
AnoHdcea 
Menlspermioesi 
JBerberdcem - 
Aurantiicec > 
CrucilcesB 
Clst4ce« 

nilAcea 

Tefnstr6midctf« 

Hj pcrlcAceae > 

ifceriicea 

CkpparidicesB 

iKicul4ce« > 

fiitpindicesB . 

fvMotm 

XanthoxyUtcesB 

CbrUcem 



Stapbyleiic 

C^la>tricesB • 

.^quiroliicaa 

JS(hamnice0 > 

Humalinloem 

Anacardiicec 

Leguminicess 

RoActtt 

Calycaiithikce* 

Granatluse* > 

TkmarlcAcea 

i*hiladelphikcesi 

Nitrari&ceK . 

GrossiU4ce« > 

Escallonid^r^r 

Hydr&ngesB > 

Umbellacese . 

Hamamelldioesi 

ArallAcea 

Oomlcfss 

LorantUicem 

i;kprif6Udoes» 



CoDMntk 
Page T. ItU. 
T. UU. 
vl. ItU. 

Tl. 

Ti. ItU. 

Tl. 
Tl. 

Tl. iTil. 

ItU. 

tU. 

tU. 

tU. 

Til. 

tUI. 

TiU. iTll. 

TUi. ItU. 
iTiU. 

IJC iTiU. 

ix. 

ix. ItUI. 

Ix. 

X. 



Cal^eifldnt, 



X. 

z. 

X. iTin. 

xi. ItUI. 

xlL 

xU. ItUI. 
xU. ItUI. 
XTl. ItUL 

ZXT. 
XXT. 
XXT. 

xxtI. 
xztI. 

ZXTl. iTUf. 
ZXTtt. 
ZXTia 

xxtUI. 
xxTiU. 
XxriU. ItUI. 
zxTUi. ItUL 

xxxi. 



Test. 



1 
3 



nil 



nil 
nil 
so nil 

17 

SI nil 

88 

89 

41 

ma 

68 

M 

es 

68 
71 
74 Ills 

78 ins 

113 

123 1113 
134 

135 1118 
141 
145 



147 
148 

165 ins 

166 1113 

183 

184 1118 

194 1114 

889 1114 

453 

456 

457 

459 

467 

468 1115 

489 

493 

494 

498 

49) 1116 

501 1116 

608 

518 



Jambikcec - 
Lonicdrecr - 
JSubiicese 
Compdsitse > 
Ericaceae 
Stjrkcem 
Haleu'dcfiB - 
SapotacuB 
Aoenicea 
Oleaceae 
Jasminlicese • 
WpocynicesB . 
i<8clepia(/^« 
Blgnun/ocoe . 
SoIanAcea - 
ScroDhularikcese 
Labiacec 
/^erbenicesB - 



CoBiMita. 
xxix. IvilL 
xxix. iTiU. 
xxxL 
xxxi. 

xxxi. iTlU. 

XXXT. 

ZXXT. 

XXXT. 

XXXT. 

XXXT. ItUI. 

ZXXTii. 

xxxtU. 
xxxvil. ItIU. 
xxxtU. 

XXXTii. iTUi. 

xxxtUI. 
xxxvlii. 
xxxviU. 



Chenopodilu 
i'olygunicea 
Lauraceae 
Tliymelicesi * 
SanttUiicae - 
Alieagniccae > 
ilrisioluchtkcesB 
A'aphorb/dcor 
ArtudirpesB • 
L'lmAceie 
•/uglandAcesi 
jailcicese - 
Betulictm 
(TorylAocK - 
Garrydce« . 
Platanftcess - 
Aalsamicea 
Afyriulcem > 
Guetace^B 
Taxuett 
CuDiiersB . 
iibi^tinsB 
Cupr6s«inB . 
£mpecrdcem> 



MONOOBLAMY'DXB. 



xxxviii. 
xxxvlji. ItUI. 
xxxix. 
xxxix. ItIU. 
xl. 

xl. ItUI. 
xl. 
xl. 
xl. 

xU. ItUI. 
xHU 
xUU. 

xlTl. ItUI. 
xItU. ItUI. 
U. 

U. iTiU. 

U. 

U. 

IL 

11. 

U. ItUL 

U. 

It. 

ItL 



AniUoess 
LUlAce* 



BNDO'GENJE. 

.iTi. 

ItU. 



Pegt T 

lis 

IXTli 

Ixxil 



513 1116 

536 1116 

544 

545 

553 1116 

617 

619 

688 

684 

627 1116 

654 

656 

658 1117 

660 

663 1117 

670 

673 

676 



674 

677 1117 

681 

686 1117 

6l>3 

GM 1117 

701 

708 

705 

714 1117 

731 

744 

831 1117 

845 1117 

986 

987 1118 

931 

934 

937 

938 

946 1118 

947 
1067 
1090 



1088 
1099 



Supplementary Figures ...... 1105 

Supplementary Spedee - . . . . -1111 

List of Authorities for Generic aod Spedflc Names > - - 1 1 19 

Lilt of Books retered to .*...• 1194 



Glossarial Index 
General Index 



1186 
1148 



a.e 



-•- By turning to the pages of the Contents, the whole of the species and Tarietles, with their 
STnonymet, of anT genus or order, may be seen at a glance ; and. by turning to the General Index at 
the e&d. any particular spedes, whether known by iu general name or its srnoDTme. maT be found 
ataBee,boai1£^theContentoandlnthebodyofSework. —^ "^ « ^y«»y»«. ""V n» k«wi 



ENUMERATION 



OP TBI 



GENERA, SPECIES, AND VAWETIES, WITH THEIR STNONTMBS, 

8CIENTIEIC AND POPULAR, 

III m OBDSE IN WHICH THET ARB DB8CRIBBD. 



Id tbc MlMteg Tabia the STBoorniM btp printed In Ttalles. English tpeeiflc name* are omitted 

ten tfaej are merdy traBaUtioDt of the sdentiflc names. French, German, and Italian generie 

aaes an, «lth few exoeptloas, not given when they are the same, or nearly the same, as the scien- 

dflc ones; and the spodllc names an only glTen in these languages when they are ^ynonymea, and 



Class I. EXO'GENiE. 
Subdiv. I. DICHLAMYDE^. 



SubcL I. THALAMIFLO'R^. 



Seeti I. 

Fmutfampinm 

or fnritt, mmmenmts or ike 

Ste m nu placed omnotite ike 

Faab, 

KamtnculdceiF, 

Tribe L Clwmati'mm. 
L Clk'hatis L, ' 2 

^irgim's Bower, Ladies* 
Bmer: CUmatUe, Ft. ; f^aid- 
nfe. Gcr. i Oematide, ICal. 

5i Flammmla Dec. 

1. Flammda L, -3 

C.*mf Gerard, C. nsarifnna 
AIL FeL, C. svatufelrm Sal. 
Prod., CpemcmlAUi Thon.: 
Swee ft ee mk d Virgin' t Bower: 
Ckmetiteodormde^ Fr.; Sekofife 

2 ntimdifdliA 2>ee. S 

V* ffufjtiuu Ten. 
S maritmia Dee* - 3 

4 rab^lU Dee. - 3 

5 ccipitosa Dee* - 4 
C. e^ipitbta Scop. 

C. mmmmla Bctt. 
6paniculaU - - 4 
C. pemkmtata Tbtm. 

1 orientalis jL. - 4 

C iiM Momch, C. ghi£ca 
Wjji, C^^rafcAca Hort. : 

X dun^nsis i2^fz. - 5 

C Jtefnii Loar. ooeb. 

4. VitAlhalr. - . 5 

TnweUer's Joy.— C. dlfara 
Vanii., C. tMiu Com., r/enia 
Gcr. ft Lobi, VlUb nlgr* Fuch.: 
M Mot's &«rrf. BtrnduUk^ 
^rmmum T.B., WHd CUmber, 
^taimu cumber: CUmatiU 
»■<■*. ¥t, ; Gemeime WcM- 
vcir, Gcr. } f'sir Mum, ltd. 

0. Tirgioiana L. - 6 
C. nwnrfaili MilL DkL, C. 
«*<ifWe Monch sopp., C. M- 
tmiMs Hoit.: BroaiM Co- 
''^r.B. 



2 brscteJUa Dee, - 6 
C. ftroctedto Momch. 

6. grata Wall, - 7 
C. odordta Hort., C. frArr- 

«aia Hort, a tupaUnsit Hort. 

7. Vi6rna JL. - - 7 

C. purpkrea ripens Ray: 
LeaikoTfjIowertd V. B., Ameri~ 
can TrmteUer*$ Joa^ Virginian 
camber. Purple Oimber: Cli- 
maiite Viome, Fr.; GlockenblU- 
tkige Watdrebe, Ger. 

2 cordata - - 7 

C. eordbta Sims B. U. 
C. SfauU 5(irt A. B, 

8. cyUndrica 5iou - 8 

C. eritpa Lam., C. Vidma 
Bot. Rep., C. divariedta Jacq. : 
Long-Jlowered V. B.: dimame 
d tongues FieurSt Fr. 

9. reticulata Walt. - 9 

C. rdsea Abbott, C. 5iMsU 
Book. 

10. Hendenona Chan. 9 

$ ii. FiHeiOa Dec. 

11. fl6rida TViun. - 10 

AfTMCTif Indiea Desf , Afrd- 
f Aa« ;f3rtf a Pers. : Cldmaiite d 
grandes Fleurs^ Fr. ; GrosMU" 
tkige Waldrebe, Ger. 

2 flore pl^o Hort - 10 

3 fl. pi. vioUceo - 10 
C./. 5fVMI(fll D. Don. 

C. Siebdldti Paxt. 
C. hkoolor Hort 

12. Gserulea Undl. - 1 1 

C iisftmf grandifBkra Sieb., 
a grandifibra Hort 

13. Viticella /.. - 1 1 

VUieaia delioidea Mcench: 
Bed-JUnaered Ladies' Bower, 
Gerard: Italienische WaUrebe, 
Ger. 

1 oeriilea - - 12 

2 purpiirea - - 12 

3 miiltiplex G. Don 12 
C. pulckella T^n. 

4 tenuiiolia Dee. - 12 
C. ten. htuitdfUca Toam. 

A 3 



5 baccaU Dec - 12 
C. eampanifibra Hort. 

14. campaiiiil6raj9ro/.12 
C. viomSides Schrader, C. 

par9(flbra Dec 

2 panrifldra Fi$.G9L 12 

15. crispa Xr. - - 13 
CJidre crispo DIIL BIth. 

§ ill. Cheir6p§i$ Dec. 

16. cirrhosa Zr. - - 13 

htrdgene drrkhsa Pers. : TVo- 
velier's Joy t^f Candia, and S/do* 
MfM Traveller's Joy, Gerard; 
Spanisk Wild Climber, Parkins. ; 
Evergreen Clematis: ClJmatile 
d VriUes, Fr. ; Ett^achbOUirige 
Waldrebe. Ger. 

2 pedicelUta Dec. - 14 
C. pedicelldta Swt. H. B. 
C. baleirica Pers. 

C. drrkbsa Sims B. M. 

3 anguBtifolia - - 14 
C. baUdrica Rich. B. M. 
C. ca^cina Alt 

C. pofymirpha Hort. 
CUmatite de Makon, Fr. 

§ iv. ANem<mi/7dra. 

17. mont^na JTiffm. - 15 

C. vsenumifibra D. Don. 

Other Spedes.—C. holoserfeea 
Pwrsk, AgustlcKblhi Nnttali, 
Drmnmdndit Tor. A Gray, 
narvifldm Nutiall, lasiintba 
yvtL. UnearllobaDrc, Pitch- 
mi Tor. ft Gray, pub^sceos, 
eitifblia, Buchan^dna - 16 

II. i^TRA^GENB L. - 16 
CUmatis I.«m. & Dec. : Jtra. 
gene, Fr. and Ger. 

1. alpina L, • -16 
CUmatis cterklea Banh., CU- 
matis a:phfui MilL Diet & Dec., 
A. aiulrlaca Scop. & B. M., A. 
elemat\des Grants : Atrageine 
des Aipes, Fr. ; A^en Atragene, 
Ger. 

2 White flwfi. Dec. 16 

3 sibirica? - -16 
A. sibirica L. 



VI 



CONTENTS. 



2. siblnca L. - - 1 7 

A. alp\na Gmel. tc Fall^ Cli- 
mati$ *mHea MUL Diet. & Dec. 

2 Blue flws. B.M. 17 
A. ockotinsis PalUs ? 
A< aiphta L. ? 

3. americana 5i/}/^ - 17 

Qlimatis verticfUdrfs Dec. 
2 obliqua Dou. MS. 17 

0/A^r Species and Varietfet, — 
A. ochotfncU /»a//.( A. siMrica 
Tar. ?}, ^. columbUkna A''u/^ 
{Clhnatis columbiuna Tor. & 
Gray 1. p. 11.) - - 17 

Tribe II. Pmohia'^ckm. 

I. Pmo^siA L. - 18 

The Vttonj.— Peony ^ Pionp : 
GicAtterrote, Ger. ; Rosa del 
MonUt Span. \ Peonia, Ital. 

I. Mnuian Sims - 18 
Tree Pnjony.— P. arbhrea Dn. 
P. st{ffru*i<Asa B. Rep. : Pivoine 
Moutan^ Fr. ; BaumartigeGicAt- 
terrose, Ger. : Hoa-Ouang, and 
Pt'Iteang-Km, Chinese. 

1 papavericea ^. iZ. 18 

2 B4nksti B. R. - 19 

IT. Xanthorhi^zaL. 19 

The Yellow-Root. 
1. flpiifolia V Merit, - 20 

Xanthorise d FeuiUes de PersU, 
Fr. ; SeUert'e-bUUtrigeGelbumrz, 

Winteracesd, 
I. Illi^cium L. " 20 

Aniseed Tree : Baditme^ Ants 
tUriUt Fr. ; SUmanis^ Ger. ; 
BadianOf ItaL 

1. floridi^nuin El/is 20 

Florida lUicittm, Red-fUneered 
Anise-seed Tree Mor. Hl»t.: Ra- 
diane de la Ftoride^ Fr. ; Un- 
ackter StemaniSf Ger. 

Moffnolmcess. 
I. MagsoXta L. - 21 

The Magnolia. — MagnoNe, 
Fr., Ger.,& Ital.; Bieberhaum^ 
Hart 

§ i. MagnotiietTum. 
1 . grandiflora L, - 22 

Laurel Bmf, B^ Laurel, Large 
MagnoliOf Laurter tulipier, Fr. ; 
Grossbhtmiger Magnoliet or 
Bieberbaum^ Ger. ; Magnolia 
IVipanOt Ital. 

2 obovata .^tV. . 22 

3 exoni^iisis Hart. - 23 
Af . /f. laneeoldta Ait 

Af . /r- stricta Hort. 
M.g./erruginea Hort 

4 angustifolia ^or<. 23 

5 praeVox Andry, - 23 

0/A«- Tar*. — M. g. vdra, 
M. g. latifblia, M. g. exoni- 
§nsfs var., M. g. rubiglndsa, 
M. g. rotundifblia Swt, Bd.g. 
elliptica AH., M. g. longifbUa 
unduUta, M. g. esonl^nsit il 



fleur deml^iouble, M. g. cana- 
licul^, M. g. floribunda, M. g. 
fbllis-Tarleg&tia, M. g. mogor- 
d§agis ... 23 

2. gla^caL. - - 25 

M. frdgrans Salisb. : Swamp 
Sassttfras, Beaver-wood, White 
Bay, Small Magnolia, Swamp 
Magnolia : Magnolie gtauque, 
Fr. ; Albero de Ciz«<ora, Ital. 

2 seinpervirens Hort. 25 

3 Thomsoni^Tia Tbp. 25 
3f . gl. var. mJiJor B. M. 

Other Vars. — M. gl. Gordo- 
liidna, M. gl. BurchelliufMi, 
M. gl. longifblU Pursh, M. 

51. Cardbuii {M. Cordon J. 
Lnlght.) - - 26 

3 triretala X. - 27 

M. umbri/la Lam., M. Ji^on- 

ddsa Salisb. : Umbrella Tree, 

Umbrella Magnolia, Elkwood: 

MagmUii Parasol Fr. 

4. macrophylla Mx, 28 

M. Micha6A\ Hort. : Large- 
leaved Umbrella Tree, Amer. 

5. acuminata L. - 29 

M. rUstica, M.pentuulvanica, 
Blue Magnoliat Cucumber Tree, 
U. S. 

2 Cand6lli Savi - 29 

3 maxima Lodd, - 29 

Other Vars. — M. itriita, M. 
IatiR>Ua . - 29 

6. cordata Mx. - 30 

7. auriculata Lam, - 31 

M. Frdseri WaU., M. aurtcu- 
Idris Salisb. : Indian Physic, 
N. Amer. 

2 pyramidfLta . 31 
M. pyramiddia Bartr. 
M. Frdseri pyramiddta Nt. 

§ ii. Gwiilimia Rott. 

8. conspicua Salisb, 33 

Yulan Magnolia. — M. prieia 
Correa, M. Yulan Detf.: Yu 
Lan, Chinese: LHy-Jlu>d M. : 
Mamolier Yulans, Fr. ; Ynlans 
Bieoerbaum, Ger.; M. dot Fi- 
ori di Giglio, Ital. 

2 Soulangeana - 33 
M. Soulangeina. An H. P. 
M.Soulangein»Swt,B.F.G. 

Other Varieties, or Hybrids. 
— M. c. S. speciftsa, M. c. S. 
Alexandrlna • - 33 

9. purpikrea Sims - 35 

3#. obovdta Thun., M. disco- 
lor Vent, M. denuddta Lam. : 
Obovate-lvd M.: Magnolier dis- 
colori, Bon Jard., Magnolie bi- 
eolorf Dun., Fr. ; Rolhe Bieber- 
baum, Ger. 

2 gr&cilis - - 35 
M. Kbbus Dec. 
M. tomentbsa Than. 

Other Varieties M. p. de- 

nudftta Lam., M. p. discolor 
VejU., M. p. filiflOra Lam.. 
a dwarf var. (M. obovdta n^- 
mila of Cassoretti) . 35 

II. Liriode'ndron L, 36 

The Tulip Tree. 



I. Tuliplfera Z/. - 36 

The Poplar, White Wood and 
Canoe Wood, Amer.; Virginian 
Poplar, Tulip-bearing LUy Tree, 
and Saddle Tree, Eng.: Tulipier 
de Virginie, Fr. ; Virginischer 
Tulipeerbaum, Ger. ; tuUpiere, 
lUL 

2 obtusf loba Mx, - 36 

L. integrifblia Hort. 
Yellow Wood. 
Yellow Poplar. 
Other Vars. — L. T. acutf- 
fulia Mt., L. T. fl^va Hort. 36 

Anonacece. 

I. Asi'MiNA Adanson 38 
Anndna L., Orchidocdrpum 
Mx., Porci&se sp. Ten., Uvd- 
ria Tor. ft Gray: Custard 
Apple: Astminier, Fr. ; Flas- 
chenbaum, Ger. 

I. triloba Dun. - 38 
Annikia triloba L., Porci/Ut 
triloba Pors., Orchidocdrpum 
arietinum 7ILx.,Uvdria triloba 
Tor. & Gray: Papau, Amer.; 
Asiminier de Virginie Fr.; An- 
nana, Ital. 

Other Species^— A. panrifldra, A. 
grandiflbra - > 89 

Menispermhcea, 
I. Menispe'rmum L. 39 

The Moonteed.—MMisperme, 
Fr. ; Mondsaame, Ger. 

1. canadense L, - 40 

M. canadense var. m Lanuurk, 
Af. anguHtum Morach. 

2 Jobiituin Dec. . 40 
M. virgtnicum L. 

3 «mildcinuni - 40 
M. tmilddnum Dec. 

2. dauricum Dec, - 40 

T^ilophus Ampelisdgria Fit. 
M. canadhue fi Lam. 

II. Co'cci'Lus Batth, 40 

The Cocculus. — Menitpir- 
mum L., WendUmdiM. WiOd., 
Andrdphilax Wendl. 

I. carolinus JDc - 41 

Menisp. caroHnum L., FKnuf. 
MiuHa populifolia WUld., ^n. 
drdphilax scandens Wendl., 
Baumgdrtia. scdndens Moench : 
Coccola, Ital. 

Berberaceae. 
I. Be'rberis L. - 42 

The Berberry. — Pipperidge 
Bush : Eyine vmette, Fr.; Ber- 
beritxe, Ger.; Berbero, Ital. 

1. sibirica Pall, - 42 

B. a/<dtca Pal. 

2. vulgiiris L. - • 42 

B. atnhtsis Preil. B. macro- 
cdfTtti of some : PipperidgeTree, 
Dr. Turner : E'pine vinette Fr.; 
Oemeine Berberitxe, Ger. 

2 lilktea - - 43 

3 dlba . - 43 

4 riolacea - 43 

5 purpiirea - 43 
B. innomindta Kalm. 



CONTENTS. 



VU 



6 n^ni 

7 d6icis 



- . 43 

- - 43 

8 up^nna - - 43 

9 longifolU - - 43 

10 glaSca - - 43 
B.glahca Booth, 

11 mitis - - 43 

12 proTinciilis - 43 

a emai^nata WiUd. 44 

4. cretica L, - 44 

& c. hmxifdUa Touni. 

5. cratae'^gina Drc. - 45 

6. iberica Stev, - 45 
B. vtUg^ V. (bfriea Dec, B* 

<fh^nm Wal. 

7. canadensis Jfitf. 45 
B. Mitedru Mxm B. «. cono- 

dfMii Hart. MilL 

8. sinensis Desf. - 46 

B. vmlgdriM ThunB. 

9. du'eis D. Don - 47 

10. 6iixif6Iia Lam, - 47 

11. actinadintha MartAl 

12. heterophylla t7t». 48 

B. UieiJbUa Font, B. Metu- 
paita Sm. 

13. Anpetrifolia Xam. 48 

14. dealbata Lindl. - 48 

B.glatea Hoit. 

15. asiatica Roxb. - 49 
Tike Lycimn of Dio§eorfdet: 

B. Unddria Lech. : Ite AaMm 
Arterry. 

16. aristata Dec. - 49 

B. CMtrU JkicA., B. oN^tMt/- 
/Mmi Basb^ B. nnimit Detf. 

(MA«r 5pem» qf B^rberls. — J9. 
Coriiria Aoylr, chinfosb Gilf.. 
ruMriiblJji Loin., corymb5u 
Hook, et Am,., glomerita 
An»I. «« ilm., GreTillMJMi 
GUI. 

II. VLhu&viA Nutt. 50 

The Mahonia, or AMhberry./^ 
B^rberit qf Amtkon^ OdoUhnan 

1. fasciculkris Dec. 50 

Berberis pinndta Lag., B^r- 
tmriBf a u ic ui d ru Pen. Cjc. 

2. i^quifdlium Nutt. 51 
Birberia A?v<fafiiHm Pfa. 

2 nutkana Z)ec. 

3. nervosa Kutt. - 52 
B€rber1«fi«rvd«aPh., M,glU' 

mieea Dec, Birberia gtemdcra 
Pen. C}C. 

4. ripens (r. Don • 52 
B^rberis Aqu(fbliwn Lindl., 

Berberia ripen* Pen. Cyc, B. 
Aquif. ripau Tor. * Grejr. 
2 r. mscieularis - 53 

Otker Sp^e$ <^ Mak^niM. — M. 
tenuifolia, M. nepalfaiais, M. 
ocanthifblia, H. <ragacanth6- 
Idea, M. caragatuemi^ - 03 

8eet.XZ. 

Carpetta solitnrvt oreotmate; 
FUuxnia parietal (UUU Part 






^tke Capsule tekieh tMeSeedt 
are attacked to adhering to 
theSideeorWaiUo the Ovary 
or Germen\ attached to the 
Wait* or CeiU of the Ovary. 

CrucidcecB, 
I. Fe'lla . - 53 

The VelU 
1. Pseudo-Cytisus i^. 54 

Creia- Rocket V. HUegrt- 

fdiia SaL : Fatur-CgUae, 
Stramcharttge VeUe^ G 

CistacetB* 
I. Ci'sTUs X. - - 54 

The Ciituf, or Rock Boee.^ 
HoUy/tote^Genrd ; Oum Cittut: 
CisU, Fr.; CUten Bo$e, Ger.; 
GMo, Ital. 

1. purpikreas Lam. 55 

C. crmem Hort. Kew. 

2. incanus L. ' - 55 
C dUndu* Hort., C. cymdna 

Dec. 

3. corbariensis Pour. 55 

C. taMtffUlhu Dec. C. po- 
ptU(/dliw minor of some nurae- 
riea, C. h§hridut Pourr. 

4. j^opulifolius L. - 56 

5. /aurifoiius L. - 56 

6. ladanfferus L. - 57 

L<kUmOt ItaL 

1 albifldrus Dec. - 57 
C. LcdoM Clua. Htot. 

2 maeulAtus Dee. - 57 
S plenifoliiu Ait, - 57 

7. c^^prius Lam. - 57 

C. tadan^frnu Bot Mag., C. 
ttenopkgUu* Lk., C. Molicifb- 
Uu$ of Mme. 

Other Speciee of CUtus.— C. he. 
teropnf lloi, C. cr^ticus, C. 
criipus, C. Cupeniftfiwf. C. 
hirsiitut. C. lixus, C. Tlliftflus, 
C. oblongifblius, C. undula- 
Utut, C. falvlaefbliiu, C. longl- 
fdliua, C. piilotepalua - 7b 

11. HeLIA NTHEMUM 58 

The Hellanthemum, or Sun 
Ro»e.—CUti'$p. 'L.zHeUanthemet 
Fr.i Sonnen Gttrtel, Ger.; EU. 
antemo, Ital. 

1. vulgare G^ert. - 58 

Cittus Helidnthemttm L. ^e. 

farfet/ee. — Pale jellow 
double-flowered, Lee't new 
double jellow. 

2. surrej&num Mill. 58 
Cutn* surrd^tnus L. 

3. lerpyllifolium ilfii/.59 
Cittus •erpyUifhUut L 

4. ffrandifldnim Dec. 59 
Outae grand^brm Scop. 

5. tatiricuxn FurA. • 59 

6. apenninum Dec. - 59 
CittuM apennhnu L., Cfflttf 

UtpidMaBLam.'.Erba botton- 
eina, Itai. 

A 4 



7. macr&Dthum iSfi^f. 60 
2 miiltiplex Swt, - 60 

8. can^scens Sivt. - 60 

9. Ayssopifolium 7Vn. 60 

1 crocatum Swt. . 61 

2 cCkpreum Ao/. -61 

3 multiplex Swt. . 61 

10. scabrosum Pers, 61 
Ciflw acabrbnu Alt. 



OvarlMM eoiitary; Placenta 
central, {The Column in the 
Fruit to which the Seeds are 
attached oentralt and not ad^ 
hertngtotheSideasinSeet.ll.) 

M^alvdcecB. 
I. fTiBi'scus L. - 62 

The Hibiscus.— J&tomV, Fr., 
EiUsch, Ger. ; Ibisco, Ital. 

1. syriacus L. - 62 

Alihiea Friitex: Xetmie des 
Jardins, Fr.; Syriseher Eibiach, 
Ger. 

2 foliis yariegatts - 62 

3 fldre variegito - 62 

4 flore purp^reo - 62 

5 fl. purp. pldoo - 62 

6 flore r^bro - - 62 

7 flore &lbo • - 62 

8 flora &lbo pUno - 62 

Tilidce(B. 
I. Ti'LiA D. - 63 

The Lime Tree.— I.nM« Tree, 
Gerard : Lind, Anslo-Sax. ; 
Tt'Ueul, Fr. ; BasthUtz^ Ger. ; 
Linde, Ger. and Dutch ; TigUa^ 
Ital.; 2Ylo, Span. ; L//M, Russ. 

1. europs'a L. - 63 

T. m<«rm«rf^a Dec, T. w/- 
/ri)rr:i Hayne, T. e. boredUs 
Wahl. 

1 parrifolia - - 64 
T. mtcropA^/la Vent., &c. 
T. «. ear. > L. 

T. ubn^dlia Scop. 
T. sylvtttri* Desf. 
T.parvHdlia, Ebrh. 
T. cori///a Mill. 

2 grandifolia - 64 
T. platypkfUa Scop. 

T. cordifblia Bess. 
T. europee a Desf. 
T. grandifblia Sm. 

3 interm^ia - - 65 
T. intermedia Hayne. 

T. ^latvphpUa minor H, 

4 laciniata - - 65 
T.platyph. laeinidta Hor. 
T. akspUnifdlia n^a HorL 

5 rCkbra - - 66 
T. ooHnth\aea Bosc. 

T. eordUina Hort. Kew. 
T. «. ^ riibra Sibthorp. 
T. e. y Sm. Fl. Brit 
T. grand^/tUafi Sm.E. Fl. 

6 parrifolia adrea 66 

7 grandifolia aiirea 66 

0/A«- Varieties "With ra- 

riegated leaTet, T. vltUbUa, cob 



vm 



CONTENTS. 



trUmia. frandifbllB 8m^ oo- 
nllllna (ijn. eurofkt^a Hook. 
Load.), mutibllis, lite brac- 
teilta, pr«i*cox,p7nmi(Ulit,iii- 
lermraia, twiuiRkUa, obllqua, 
europK^a, Sm.t parvi^Ua Sm., 
argfotaa (sya. 4lda W. A K.) 

B.(eur.)&lba W.^IC. 67 

T. americdna Da Rol, T. or- 
gfntea Deif., T. roinHdi/ttia 
Vent., T. tomeiUbta Mflench. 

3. americana L, • 68 

T. gtdbra Vest., T. earoU-. 
M/^iMTWanffenh., T. eatMd6n$i» 
Mxm T. glMra Dec. : Smooth- 
iMf, or btack. Lime Tree, and 
Jisiu Wood, Amer. 

8 heterophjlU - 69 
T. heteroj&gu Vent., ftc. 
S &Iba - - 69 

T. dlba Mx., Ac. 
T. Uu(fidra Forth. 

4 pub^ens - 69 

T. pub^tcent Ait., &c 

leptoph^lla VenL 



r. p, 
-fl 



I. Malachodb'mdron 

Car. 71 
The Malachodendron.— £<«. 
ifrda L* //jrtir., SlewdrtU L. 

I. ovatum Cat>. - 71 
StndrAaL peHtagfmia L*H£rit., 

StewdrAtLMalaehodind. Miller : 
SUwartia d dnq Styles, Fr. 

II. SxuA'RT/il Cay. 72 

The Stuartia. 

U vireinica Cuv. - 72 

SiewSrAtkMaUuhodindron L., 
5l«4rda marfl4iad/c»Bot.Rep.: 
Stewartia d «m Sfyte. Ft.; £«»- 
grifflicke Stuartie, Ger. 

III. Gordo'n/4 EUis 73 

The Gordonia. 

1. Lasianthus L, - 73 

Loblolly Bay. — HypMeum 
Lasiintkut L.iGordonia d 
Feuiitet fiabree^ rr.; Lamgetief. 
lige Goraonie, Ger. 

2. pubescens L*Her, 73 

LacatkeaJIdrUa 89l.,Prank. 
ffnia ameriedma Manh. : IMe 
Frat^kiinia, Amer. ; Behaarte 
Qordomit Ger. 

Uypericdcea:. 
I. ^ype'ricum L, 74 

The St. John's Wort.— 
Puga J>€Bnumiim : MiUe Per- 
tuis, Tr.iJoh af M ueknn U.t Ger. ; 
IpericQ, Ifeal. 

§ L Afcyrfia Chois. 

A. Stglet comtmnUif 8. 

1. el^tum AU, . 75 

2. hirdnum X. - 75 
TrdHr^itm Cluf., Aftdrofte'- 

MMMi fo/tidum Bauh. : 3/0/^ 
pertuu d Odeur de Bouc, Fr. 
S obtusifolium Z>ffc. 75 



S minus i>tfc. - 75 
B. Siylee^ommoftUif 0. 

3. Kaimianttm L. - 75 
H. BarirdnAnm UilL: Fir- 

gmia St. Jokm'M Wort. 

4. Uralum Ham. - 76 

5. calyclnum L. - 76 

Androeat^mum Constantino. 
poUtdnum Jl, mde., Wheeler** 
Journey: iAe latTgeJlwd St, 
John's Wort, the largC'Jhng 
Tutsan, the Terrestriat Sun, 
Aaron's Beard: MiUe Pertuis 
dgrandes Fleurs, Fr.; Gross- 
biumiger Johanniskramt,Qer.i 
Jsciro, Ital. 

§ ii. Perfordria Choia. 
A. Sepals entire* 

6. proUficum L, - 77 

H.JbUdsum Jacq., H. KalmL 
inum JDtt Boi, 

B. Sepals toothed, usually with 
the Teeth glandular. 

7. ffmpetrifoliuin IV, 77 

OM<r Species qf HMrfrfnun. — 
H. nepal6nse Juiyle, H, ad. 
pr&sum Bartr.,H. rosraari- 
nlfblium Lam., H. ^alioldet 
Lam., H. facciculit Lam. 77 

II. i^NDROSf'MUM C%.77 
TheAndrotannuin,or7W<aM. 
— . Uypirieum L.; iliMlrofimtf, 
Fr.; Johamniskraui, Ger.; J». 
droseme, Ital. 

1. officinale il/iiiofli 78 
CoramonTutian — Ofmenan 
Italdrum L'Obel, Hypericum 
Androsie*mumL.:ParkLeaoes: 
Androsime officinale, Tr.\Breit' 
blattriges Joitmniskraut, Ger.; 
CidUana, Ital. 



AcercUxtB. 
I. AcEfL L, ' - 79 

The MM>le, and The Syca- 
more. — Errahle, Fr. ; Akom, 
Ger.; i<c«fo, Ital. ; Arce, Spun. 

A. Leaves simple, or only 
sHghtfy or oceasiunaUy toded. 

1. oblongum fVaU, 79 

A. laur^ium D. Don ; A. 
Buxlmpila Hamitt. 

2. tat4ricum L, <• 80 

T^rza-ntodon, orLocust-tree, 
Rofs. 

B. Leaves iUtAed, or trifidj 
rarely b-lobed. 

3. spic^tum Lam. - 80 

A. moii«d»«m Ait.A. penn- 
sylvdnicum Dn Ko\, A. par- 
vyldrum Ehrh.: Mountain Ma- 
ple: E'rable de Montague, Fr.; 
Berg Ahom, Ger.; Acero di 
Moniagna, Ital. 

4. Striatum L. - 81 

A. pennsyladnicum Lin. Sp., 
A. canadhue Marsh. ; Snaae- 
harked Maple, ■ Moose Wood, 
Dog Wood: E'rable jaspi, Fr. 

C. Leaioes h-lobed. 

5. macrophyUum Ph, 82 



r 6.0latanolde8l/. - 83 

VorwayMaple: Prahleplane, 
or E'rable de Norvege, Fr.; 
Spitx Akom, or Spitzbtattriger 
Ahom, Ger.; Acero riecio, Ital. 

2 Lobdln - - 83 
A. LobiRl Tenore. 
A. fktotonowl. Don's MUL 

3 vari^atum Hart, 83 
albo-variegdtum Hayne. 

4 aiireo>var. Hort 83 

5 laciniatum />ee. 83 
A. p. erlspum Lauth. 
Eagle's Claw Maple, 
Hawk's Foot Maple. 

7. saccli&rinum L, 85 

Sugar Maple, Hard Maple, 
Bints-eye Maple Amer. ; Aeers 
dei Canadd, llal. 

2 nigrum - - 85 

A. s. fi nigrum Tor. ft G. 
A. nigrwm Mx. 
Mack Sugar Tree, or 
Hock Maple, Mx. 

8. Psei^do-Pldtanus iS.86 

The Sycamore, or Great Ma- 
ple, Plane Tree, Seotch ; E'ra- 
ble Sycamore, Fr. ; Ekrenbaum, 
Ger. ; Acero Fico, ItaL 

2 opulifolia *. - 86 
A. opulifbUum Hort. 

A. irilobdtum Hort. 
A. barbdtum Hort. 

3 longifolia - - 86 
A. Umgifblium Booth. 

4 flavo-variegita - 86 
A R. lutiscnts Hort 
Corstorphine Plane. 

5 &lbo-variegata - 86 

6 purpiirea Hori. - 86 

(»A«rFanWi«.— HodgkiDs*B 
Seedling, Hort, Soc. ; Leslie's 
Seedling, Hort. Soc. i A. P. 
BteD6ptera Hayne Dend.; A. 
P. macmptera Hayne Dend, ; 
if. Pseud. micr6ptera Hayne 
Dend. - - 86 

9. obtusatum JTtV. - 88 

A. Tteapolitdnum Tenore ; A. 
h0bridum Hort. Soc. Oard. : the 
Neapolitan Maple, 

S coridceum - 88 

A. eoridceum Bosc. 
S ib^ricum - - 88 

A. ibiricum Bieb. 
4 lobatum - - 89 
A. lobdtum Fitch. 

D. Leaves 5> rarely 1-lohed. . 

10. O'palus Ait. - 89 

The lUllanMaple. — A. ro- 
tundi/bUum Lam.; A. itahtm 
Lauth. ; A. vilibsum PresI ; 
r E'rable Opale, Fr.; Loppo, 
Ital. 

11. circinatum PurM 89 

12. palmatum Thunb. 90 

13. erioc6n>um Mx, 90 

The White Maple.— A. dasy- 
edrpum Willd. ; A. tomentbsum 
Hort. Par. ; A.gla^eum Marsh.; 
A. virginidnum Duh. ; A. ri- 
brum Wangenh. ; SOver-ivd, or 
soft. Maple, U. & ; Sir Charles 
Wager's Maple ; E'rable d 
Fruits cotonneuM, Fr. ; Bauher 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



UL 



i 



fviehcs. — A. ooccfnram. A, 
■Bcrocfcrpmn, A. Mrlduzn, A. 
Ktm, Ac^ pf tkc Kur. 
acnei . . - M 

14. rubram L, - 91 

L firgHuintam Henn.; A. 
tBoc^ettm Ait.; A. glaiea 
llAnh. ; A. candimimmnYi alii 
A. »wi.nvm Sjiacb: Sqft 
Mapk, SKWsqv Xa^fc. 

3 btermediuin Lodd. 92 

15. inon^)essulanuiiLL.92 

A. fr«ia6Mi JfoBnch ; A. tfi' 
yMus Dub.; A. trOobatmm 
Lan : JVon&neAer Akom, 
Ger.; ^crrv aimorr, lUl. 

16. caoip^treX. - 93 

JOdatr Atom, Ger. ; Gal- 
fcai. 0r ftfipii, lul. 

2 fdliB rariegatis - 93 

3 bebecarpum Dec. 93 
A. eeanUtre WaUr. 
A B^ Opiz. 

4 eoliinuin ffallr. . 93 
A.tfffme, and 
A. iMtrDcarptm Opix. 

5 siBtrkcuin Titi/f. 93 
(Ucr Farietia, _ jf. c. Ic 

T^itoB lotftf.. ^. c n&oum 
LaM^ A. taiiiicani, and A. 
fafndaom • . 93 

17. creticom L. - 94 

A. kelenpksUam WiUd.; A. 
ttmpenuems L. Man!.; A. 
«A<B<!ftom SiUliorp. 

0*«^>rt*f ^ A*<rr. — A. 
«Ukbb Mx., il. opaliftdium, 
i- BuatcMe Aim., >I. par- 
Jwtaa TcKcci, J. gUbnim 
iofT., A. iriparcltum Nntt. 
mSS^ a. crandidenCitum 
ywtt.MSS. . -94 

II XsGD-inxtMasn. 122 

T^ NcfOBdo, or Aur EUer.— 
AerrL.- Negaodium .R4ffit. 

Ijiaxinifolium NutL 1 2S 

A'crr Ncgdndo £.. 

y.aerrojrfn Momcb. 

Keg. dnrrrc-diatKin JRaio. 

A»k^K4 Mgple. 

BhdkAtA. 

^ratki Gvtn^rolllioola 

iflppawtr toa g. Ital. 
ScrtspntnC Z>o» 122 

3 vidaeeum J9ool& 123 

ftjer %cwi..M caUf&rnicum 
7ir. 4 Gray. 

I -fi'scoLus JL. - 124 

9tiamam Tooni. : Marronier 
OaAe, Fr. ; ffnttaffflnfe, Ger. 

I- Hippodistanujn Zr. 1 24 

MpteUUmmm rulgdre Trn. : 
•J^WKT ^Jbdr.^r.; Gr- 
*»*«*«<«■*, G«r ; Jiar. 
2 ««««, or Jppoccastma, 

Sflorepleoo . 124 

S a6m>.fBTkg«tiim 1 24 

4 argfotco-tarieg. 124 



5 incisiiin J9oo<A. 124 
JE. vplemfdita Hort. 

Orttfr Fiorc^J?. H. crfg- 
. pom, D)gTum, pne'cox, stria- 
tum, tortu<»«uiii, Ac. - IM 

2. (H.)ohioensisAfx.l 25 
JE. otiohuiM Llndl., ? JS. p^ji- 

tfda Willd., JE. eekinAta Huhl., 

iE. if/dArir Tor. A Grajr, />4via 
I okmemu Mx.» P^triji gtdbra 

Spacli : GAib Suekege, Fetid 
I Buckejfe, Amer. 

j 3. (H.) rubic6ndaLi.l26 

I £. cirmra Hort., £. rhtea 

Hort,, JE,. coctinea Hurt., S.. 

I H. var. rtt&fctfndian Schubert, 

; JE. 'WatMonHnA Spach : Whit- 

ley's Fine Scarlet. 

2 rosea - . 127 

iE. rhua Hort. 

Other VarieUet.^Vrh\i\ey*t 
New Scarlet, iE. H. ameri- 
cftoa - - - - 127 

4. gUbra fTi/W. . 127 
d. (g.) p41Iida »^t//(/. 127 

11. PaVw Boerh. - 128 

Tbe Paria.— fiiid(rry«. SinootA. 
fintaed Horseeke*tnut Tree. 

1. rubra J^i. - 128 

S/ictdut Pdvia. i., JE. Pania 

« rtora Hayne, PdoU parvi- 

Jtdra Hort.: SmaU Buckeye^ 

Amer. : Marronier Pavie, Fr. \ 

Marrone di Pan, Ir«L 

2 argiita (7. Don - 129 

3 sublacini4ta fPa^«. 129 
.£. P. jirrrdte Hort 

4 hikinllis - - 129 

P. hkmiUsG. I>on. 
JR. kikmUU Lodd. 

2. flavai>4-c. - 130 

X/setdn* fiava Ait., JE. /it/M 
Wangfa., Piria l^tea Polr. • /A*- 
SuTMf Budceye^ the Big Buck, 
eye^ Amer. ; the YeUno Horte- 
ckestmU. 

3. ((.) neglecta G.DnA3l 

JE'MCuhuneglicta Liadl. 

4. macrocarpa J^V/r/. 132 
£'«& p. nufcrocdrpa Lodd. 

5. discolor 5w/. - 133 

JE'fcii^M discolor Ph., JE. P. 
^ discolor Tor. & Gray. 

6. macrostachya LoisA^ 

JE'sculus parvifibra Walt, 
jE. maerostdchya Mx., P. a/6a 
Foir., P. ^tfW/f Poit, Macro- 
tkgrttu discolor Spacb. 

Other Kinds of Pel^ia^P. cali- 
f6rQlca Tor. 4 Gray {JE'scu- 
Jka ca^t6mica Mutt.), L76afi 
Hort Soc. Gard. - . iM 

Sapindaceit. 

I. KoLRBUTE'R/itf Lx. 134 
The Kolreuteria. _ Sapindus 
tp. L. fil. ; aOrettieria, Ual. 

1. paniculata Laxm. 135 

Saahtdus ehmfnsis L. fil., K. 
panAr'nloldet L'HMt. 



1. Fi^is Z. - - 136 

The Grape Vine.— GAid, Gel- 
tic ; Vid^ Span. ; Ttgne, Fr. ; 
Viu, Ital. i >r«n, Ger. 

1. vinifera L. - 136 

rt^n«, Fr. } Gemeiner Wetn- 
stock, Ger. ; ViU da Vino, Ital. 

2 foliis incanis • 137 
Miner's Grape, or Miller's 

Black Cluster Grape. 

3 fol. rubesc^ntibus 137 
The Oarei Graoe. 

4opiif61. laciDiosaX.lS7 
Ciotat, Fr. 
File d'JSghiiio, ItaL 

2. ji!!Abru8ca L, - 137 

The Fox Grape. —V. taurina 
Walt.: Filxiger fVeisi, Ger.; 
Abrostme, Ital. 

FarieUes. — Tbe Isabella, 
Schuylkill or Alexander's, 
Cauwba, and Bland's - 137 

3. estivalis Mx. - 137 

The Grape Vine V. vin^era 

atnericdna Marsh., V. inter- 
midia Muhl., V.palmdta Vahl. 

4. cordifolia Mx» - 138 

The ChickcnGrapfc— V. indsa 
Jacq., V. vulpma L. spec. : the 
If inter Grape, the Frost Grape, 

5. ripiiria Mx. - 138 

The sweet-scented Vine. —V. 
odoratissima Donn : Figrte de 
Batlures, Amer. 

6. vulplna L. - - 138 

The Bullet Grape. —V. rotun- 
difblia Mx. : Muscadine Grape, 

II. Ampelo'psis Mx, 139 

V'Uis sp., Cissus,sp.: Anwe- 
louide, lul. 

1. /icderacea Mx, - 139 
FiTe-leared l*y.—llideraqufn- 

qnefblia Lin. spec, \Uis quin- 
auejblia Lam., Cusus hederdcea 
Ph., C. quinquetdlia Hort. Par.. 
VW/s hedur. Willd., Ampeldp- 
sis qninanejhlia Hook.: Ftgne 
lierge, Fr. ; Jungfem Reben. 
Ger. ; Fite del Canada, ItaL 
2 hirsiita T. §• G>. HO 

y< kirs^ta Donn 

Cisjw hf cfiT. /B hirsila Ph. 

2. bipinnata .il/.r. - 140 
VJ/i* flr6dr<ra Willd., V. W- 

pmnita Tor. A Gr., ClwtM s<6n« 
Pern. : f //* dt'l Carolina, Ital. 
O/A^rr 5p«aV« qf Anme/6psis. — 
A . inclM ( VI//S f nirifa N utt. ) ; 
cordita JIfdr. ( Cissta Ampel6p' 
sis Pers., and \Uis indioUa 
Willd.) ; capreol&u G. Don 

i\i(is capreoldta D. Don), 
L. b6trya Dw. - - 140 

III. Ci'ssus L. - 141 

The C\%wi*.—Ampel6psis and 
VUis in part. 

1. orientalis Lam. - 141 
The Ivy Fine. 

Xanthoxylacete, 
I. Xantho'xylum //. 142 

Toothache Tree. — Katnp* 



CON TENTS. 



mdimUBqftm.: davaUer, Fr.\ 
SUUhwekMXt Ger. ; Samioittio, 
lUl. 

1. /raxineum IVUld, H2 

Common Toothache Tree. — 
ZanihdJtvlum ramiflArum Mx. ; 

2. mU« Willd. Enum. : Z. cari- 
A«*MMi 0«rt., not of Lam. ; Z. 
americdnum Mill. Diet. ; Z. j 
cMmi Hirculit var, Lin. ip.; ' 
Z. frtolf7»Mm HooIl., not of 
Mx. : ClavaUer a FeuiUe* de I 
/V^^n^. Fr. ; EMcKen-bdHtrigei \ 
ZakHweMkoU, Qer. ; Frassmo i 
fptiiMo, Ital. iPr/cil%r^<A,Amer. 

S virginicum - 143 ■ 
X. vtrfinicum Lodd. Cat. I 
fX.(i.) triedrjmm. i 

2. (/) tric4r|>uin Mx. 1 43 | 

Z.C(iro/tiMdjuunLani.,Tor.* ' 
Gray { Fagira (nuimfWa Lam. 
111. 

OMer Slpcefei qT XamiMt^lmm. 



_X. mtte FraUL, Aaxlneum i 
Tor. ^ Grog. - - - 143 | 

II. Pte'lea L, - 143 
Shrubby Trefoil. — Belli^da 

Adanu : Ormede SamariCt Fr. ; 
Lederbtume^ Ger. 

I. trifoliata L. - 144 

Shrub^ Tr^oil: Orme de 

Samarie d irou FemfUea^ Fr. ; 

tUr^bldtirige LederbUune, Ger. 

2 pentapbylla Mun. 144 

S pub^scens PurA 144 

Ot*«r 5^ct>« qf Vtilea, — P. 
Baldwinii Tor. ft Gray - 144 

III. AiLjtiJTUs Desf. 145 

The AiUnto. — 'RkiU Ehrh. : 
Verne du Japan. Fr. ; GSuer- 
AflMM, Oer. } AUantOf Ital. 

!• glandulosa Detf. 145 
if. prooirm Sal., BAw Ah»m- 



lodifMlroM Momch, R. coeodf »- 
(frvn Ehrh., R. sinhue EUli: 
AMtaMke glamduleuMt Fr. ; c/rii- 
n^tfr Offttanftawn, Ger. i Albero 
tUParadito, ItaL 



A^tf Bfnobasie ; that is, A»- 
uriaTin a fieiku Beeeptade, 
untk which the Style U am- 

Coridcea. 
I. Coria'ria Niu. 146 

Redoult Fr. ; Oerberstrameh, 
Ger. 

1. myrtifolia L. - 146 

Futtet dee Carromemrt, or 
Bedout a FemUet de Myrte, 
Fr. ; Myrtenbtdttriger Gerber- 
strameht Ger. 

OOrr 5p«t:f>t qf Coridria.'^C. 
nepaleniii fVall. PI. At. Rar., 
C. sarmentbsa Font. - 146 



Subd. IL CALYCIFLO^RJB. 



Staphyledcea, 
I. Staphyle^a L, 147 

Bladder.Nut Tree Sta»hy~ 

lodimirtm Toum. : Staphaier, 
fame Patackirr, Fr. \ Pimper' 
mmse, Ger. ; St^fiUer, Ital. 

1. trif6lia L. - - 147 

Siaddfr^Smi Tree : Staphilier 
i Fetulies temie*, Fr. ; Fir- 
ginitche PimpemmeSt Ger. 

8. pinnata Z>. - 148 

Staphyludfndrom pinndtnm 

Rj^: Staftkttkr i Femiifs aUies 

Fr. \f^emfine Pimpemnts ^Gfr. ; 

Lacrime diGiobbe. or Pittmcehio 

/aiio^ ItaL : Job'i Tears. 

Celcistrdcea:. 

1. Evo'sYUvs TVn. 149 

Spimtlp Trr« — fW/im, Bom- 
mrt dc Pi^rt. or Bote d Lardoire, 
Fr. ; Sjtindeibmum^ Ger. ; £90- 
mmto, ItaL 

K eurofMpHis £. - 149 

E. rmJt^dns MiU. Dirt. ; Pn\k' 
fiwiVr, Gerard; L«}-»«r Brrrp, 
D yirtMtf ; GattfrtJff 7V«v : 
/\o*i/« d'Smrvpe. \r. : Bmmrt 
de Pretrt rowMram. Fr, ; *r- 
airnif ^JMMrfW&tnrM, Ger. ; &•- 
retu d» Prfte, hal. 

9 Uttfohus LodLCoLlSO 

S fol. Tariegatis L.C,\^ 

4 fructu AJbo I.. C 150 

5 nanus LodtL Cat. ISO 

2. verrucosus Scop. 150 

E. n«r.i^itf>^ Ifpr^ims Lin.: 

Fr.; M jrsAf^T .^*i-J> .?«•», 
Ger.; fW^TM MTm\)M« iLtl. 



3. Iati»o:ms C. B-ish. 130 

R rtf-.'rsi^wj rtar. S. Lin. : 
nkMra i i-*lff* Frm::ies, Fr. ; 

G«T. ; fbMrM aa^^^^fiMr, Ital. 



4. nanus Bieb. - 151 
B. camoisiemm Lodd. 

5. atropurpiVeus Jq, 151 

E. carolinifnsfs Marth., ? E. 
lotifblius Marth. : BmmimgBmsh^ 
Amer. 

6. americanus Xr. - 152 

B. sentpernrtns Martn.« E. 
attemifbims Mcrach : the Bmm- 
ing Bmsh, Siratrberrif Tree, 
Aner. 

S angustifoHus - 152 
•wr. fi Tor. ft Gray. 
? E. amgmstiJbtimM rursh. 

3 sarmentosua Nmtt. \52 
oar. y Tor. ft Gray. 

4 obovatus Natt. - 152 
rar. i Tor. ft Gray. 

E. obordtms Dec. Prod. 

7. HaimItonMnMxWl.153 
E. atrop mr p krtms Wall. F1. 

Ind. 

Othfr Sperfrt 0/ V.m6nymms.'-~ 
E. Japthitcus Thumb,. jap«Sni- 
cus fNiis raripgat is, garcin ite- 
I fblius AAr6. grdssos Ho//., 
micrinthiu D. I>tfn. lOiidus 
D. DoM, rcfain^us ITotf.. tin- 

Sons tt'aU., f\kber Botb.. 
mhriitu* WaU., Indicos 
, H'yne^igxas H*<i//., tubcri- 
fl^rus BimtH/; ThunWrftamms 
Blume, peoduluA IVaU.^ frlgi- 
dus WaU, - - - lU 

II. Cela'strcs Zr. 154 

Stair Tire EuonfwtSkles 

Morack : CfLtstre, Fr. ; Cdas- 
Kr, Ger. 

1. sdtndens L, - 154 

, B omr rr am des Arbrn, Fr. j 
I BatrmmSrJrr. Ger. ; AuUcr- 



Other Xpftifs <^ Criistrms C. 

buIUtitt PImh.. nepAMnsis 

Lodi^ nrncaathilWuft Lodd.^ 

1 IM 



III. Nemopa'kthes 154 

IlicHfides Dum. Court. 
1. canad^is Dec, 155 

Vlee canadinsis Mx., X./w- 
cieuldris Rafln., IVm delic6tmla 
Bart. n. Vir., ? Prteot /ftcitfM 
Ait. Hort. Kew. s Home d» 
Canade, Fr. 

Other Species nf Crlastrdce^.^ 
Migtemae chiUnaU Dec 155 

KquifolicLceie. 
L Mroi^ND^f Jacq. 156 

ritt Pursb, OreSphUa Nntt. 

I. tnjrrtifolia Am//. 156 
Vlee Myrsfmites Purah. Ore- 
SphUa mgrtifiMa Nutt. 

I II. TYsx !». - 156 

The HoIIt.— Afvt^nrai Tni., 
I G»it. : /fu«. Fr. : StechpalaUp 
I or IfrtZt^, Ger. ; /Ikv. Ital. 

A. Leaoes spn^f-ioothed. 

: 1. ylquifolium L. - 157 

Cim»»r<m /i.'Jl.'jr, Hmh-er, Hmi- 
frre^ H^J'tr, Fng. ; Le Home, 
Fr. : .S €'chpaJme, Stechlamh, 
Huise. i\ri.i/4/.'nt, J/ffM.Mi«>nk, 
KUn^-bmsch. Ger. ; ScAmU*^ 
har,H'i±^ Dutch ; Sttkpaiwie^ 
l>anish ; Jermek, CkristUfru, 
Swedish : iriK^^wrAW^tf. Ortro- 
i(/. PA/if5. Rius.; Agrifolio^ 
IxsX. ; Jcrio, Span. ; Azroimho^ 
Port. 

a. rarieties detigmmtedjivm the 

F.^'-m, Jiagmitmdt; Tkidtmess, 

' SHr/joe^ or Margm et the 

2 h^erophyllum ffir.158 

5 angustifolium A2. 158 
I 4 latifolium ^orf. 158 

; 5 alticlereiise Hort. 158 

6 marpaatum HrL 158 



CONTENTS. 



XI 



7 liurifolium Hart. 158 

8 cilUtum HarL - 158 

9 ciliatum minus Ht, 158 

10 recurvum HorL 158 

11 serratifolium Hrt. 158 

1 2 crispum /Toft. - 158 

13 ferox Hmrt. - 158 
Hedgekog Holly. 
Houx-htrissoHt Fr. 

14 crassifolium Hart, 159 

15 sen^acens Svt. - 159 

Ix Varietie* desipuUed from the 
Colours of the Leitf. 

16 dibo-marginatum 159 

17 a{ireo-marginatuml59 

18 albo-pictum Hort. 159 

19 a{ireo-plctum Ht. 159 

20 ferox arg^nteum 159 

21 ferox aureum Ht. 159 

c VarieheM designate fixym the 
Colour of the Fmit. 

22 fructu luteo Hrt. 159 

23 frijctu kXho HorL 159 

24 fr6ctu nigro Hort.\59 

2. (.1) baldirica jD. 160 

The Minorca Holly.— I. hqui- 
Jhlhan var. S I,<azn. Diet., I. 
maderfnttM WiUdL EDum. 

3. op^ca AU. - 160 

American HMj.-'Agrifdttiim' 
pvlgdre Clajt. Fl. yixgin., I. 
Atj^ptlium GroDOT. : dunkel- 
b&ttrige Steckpabnet Get. ; 
JgrtfiUio a PogUe di Qmereia, 
Itai. 

2laxifl6ra • - 161 
I. lariflbra Lam. 
I. opaca var. Nutt. 

3 magelUnica - 161 

B. Leava lootAed, aerrated^ or 
erenatet but not tpiniy. 

4. Perado Ait. - 161 
I. maderhm$ Lam. 

5. Ctunne Alt. - 161 

Broad-leaved Daboon HoUj.— 
hqvifbtium Curolfntiue Catesb., 
I. caroliniina Mill. Diet. I- 
cassinoldrt Lk. En. : tie Cos- 
tena of the American Indians^ 
Rafin. 

6. angustifolia WWd. 162 

I. myrUfbtia Walt &c., I. 
TOBmartnifiiUa Lam. 111. 

7. voraitoria AU. - 162 
South Sea Tre«. — I. Casslne 

9ira Walt., 1. \^>Aatrina Jacq., 
Casflne Per^gua MUL Icon.^ I. 
CauitM Mx., I. rettg0sa Bart., 
I. .fyridAna Lam. 111. : houjt 
apiitlackiru'jFT. \ True Catsinet 
C^a$ina, Florida; the Yapon^ 
Virginia ; tAe evergreen Cas- 
senOt or Caskioberry Btith, 
Eng. 

C. Leaves quite entire^ or 
nearly so. 

8. JDahoon Wall. - 162 
L CaMlne mUd. 



IIL Pri>*os L. - 163 

Winter Benr Agiria Adan- 

lon: Apalaneke^ Fr. ; Wmler- 
beeret uer. 

$ L Pnuvlde* Dec 

1. deciduus Dec. - 164 

riex itrinMes Ait. Hort. 
Kew., rtex deddua Walt. FL 
Car. 

2. ambiguus Mjt. - 164 

CaMlne earolsniina Walt FL 
Car. 

§ ii. Ageria Dec. 

3. verticillatus L. - 164 

P. fadi/blius Willd. Enam., 
P. GronbvH Ms.. P. oonffrtus 
Moench, P. wrunifbUus Lodd. 
Cat. 

4. laevigatus Pursh 165 

5. lanceolatus Ptir<A 165 
P. canadhuti Ljon, P. Htd- 

du* Hort. 

§ iii. Wintirtia Moench. 

6. glaber L. - 166 

Ink Berry ^ Aroer. 

7. coriaceus Pursh 166 
P. g/afer Wata. 

Varieties. — Learet broader 
than those of the ipeciM, 
oboTate-lanceolate and 
acuminate: and leaves 
narrower, lanceolate, and 
acute - - .166 

OAer Species pf Prhiar. — P. 
dOblus Q. Don, P. atomiriua 
Nutt 166 

Kham7idce€e. 
I. Zi'zYPHUS Tovm. 167 

The 3»^ubB.-^t0ubier, Fr. ; 
Judeftdom, Ger. ; GiuggioiOj 
Ital. 

1. vulgaris Lam. - 167 

Rhamnus Zizvvkus Lin. 
Spec. ; Z. satlva Desf., not of 
G«rt.; Z. JOJuba MiU. Diet., 
not of Lam. : J^fubier eultivi, 
Fr.; Brustbeeren, Ger.; Giug- 
giolo, ItaL 

Other Species qf Uxypkms Z. 

sinensis Lxun.. Z.splna Chrls- 
tt', Z. flexu5»a, Z. incdrva 168 

IL Paliu Rus L. 168 

Christ's Thorn. — Paliure^ 
Port-ehapeau, Fr. ; Judendom, 
Ger. ; Paliuro, Ital. 

1. aculc4tu8 LaTR. 168 

P. pitasus Dum. Cours., P. 
auslrdlis Gcrt., P. iwi^arif D. 
Don, Rh&nmus "Paliurus Lin. 
Spec., Zixyphus Vali^rus Willd. 
Spec.: Christ's Thorn, or Ram 
qf Libya, Gerard: E'pine de 
Christ, Arpalon,Porte-chapeau, 
Fr. ; g(^UgrUrr Judendom, 
Oor. ; uiuggioio salvatico, Ital. ; 
A7(n, in the herb-shops of Con- 
scantinopic. 



Other Species qfTlez - 163 I 2. (»•) virgatus Don 169 



III. BERCBE'H/if N. 169 
(En6plia Hedw. F. Gen. and 

Schulc. Systi 

1. Tol6bili8 Dec. - 170 

Bhitmnus vombilis Lin. ill. 
Suppl., Jacq. Ic. Rar. ; TAxyphus 
voMilis Wnid. Spec ; (EndpUa 
voliMUs Schult. Syst. : Supple 
Jack, Virginian. 

IV. i^HA^HNUS Lam. 170 

The Buckthorn. — Serprun, 
Fr.; H^egdom, Get. ; Ramno, 
ItaL; the Ram, or Hart's, ThorUt 
Gerard ; Box Jhom. 

§ L MareoriUa Neck. 

A. A/dtf^mitf Toum. — lowers 
refemose, b-ckjft Evergreen 

1. illaternus L. - 171 

Malimus VhiU^ea MilL 
Diet. : Alatema, Ital. 

2 bdedricaif. Par. 171 
R. rotundifblius Dum. 

3 hispinica H. Par. 171 

4 angustifolia - 171 
R. ClksA Willd. 

5 foliis maculatia 171 

6 foliisaiireU - 171 

7 foliis arg^nteis - 1 72 

2. hfbridus I,'.HCTt^. 172 

R. iurgundiacus Hort. Par., 
R. sempervhrens Hortulan. 

B. "Khdnmus Dec Ftowers 4- 

Utfl, in Fascicles 

a. SraneUets terminating in a 

Thorn. 

3. cath&rticuB L. 172 

The H'hile Thorn of the mo- 
dem Greeks. 

4. tmctor'ms Waidst. 173 
R. cardiospirmus Willd. 

Herb, 

5. infectoiius X. - 173 

^ Avignon Berry. — R. 1/fcium 
Scop. Cam. ; Dwarf, oryellow- 
berried, Buehthom: Nerprun 
des Teinturirrs, Graine d' Avig- 
non. Krrprun teignant, Fr. ; 
fBrbender FFcvriorn, Ger. ; 
Cervinopin, ItaL 

6. saxdtilis L. - 173 

R. longifblius Mill. Diet.: 
5<fita Wegdorut Oer. ; Xyob 
Ilaliano, Ital. 

7. 6uxifbliu8 Poir. - 173 

? R. bttfi^r'aw Brot. FI. Luf., 
Jjfcium buxtfdtium Bauh. 

8. lydoides L. - 174 

9. Er>thr6xylon P. 174 
2 angustissimum Dec. 

R. lycioldes Pall. Fl. Ross. 

b. Branchlets not terminated by 

Spines. 

10. dahuricus Pa//. 174 

11. a\mfb\m%L'Her. 175 

2 franguloldes 2)ec. 175 
B.frangulS\des Mx. 

12. alp!nus L. -175 
2 grandifolius - 176 



CONTENTS. 



mdntaaiBqfin. : CiavaUer^ Ft. ; i 
ZaknwekJMz, Get. ; SantoisiiOy 
Ital. 

l./raxineum WUld, 142 
(5ominon Toothache Tree. — 
ZantMdxulum ramiflArum Mx. ; 
Z. mt/tf willd. Enum. ; Z. caW- 
ba^um Gcrt., not of Lam. ; Z. 
americdnum Mill. Diet. ; Z. 
cliLva Hirculh var. Lin. tp.; 
Z. tricdrpum Hoolc., not of 
Mx.: aavaiier a FeutUes de 
FrhUy Fr. ; Eichen-bldUriges 
ZaAnwekkottt Ger. ; Fraumo 
fpinofo.Ital. i Prickly AA^hxaer. 
2 virginicum • 143 

X. virfimctfm Lodd. Cat. 

fX. (I.) tricdrpum. 

2. (/.) tricarpum Mx. 1 43 

Z. caroUfUtnum Lam., Tor. ft 
Gray: FagirafrArm{/dAaLam. 
111. 

OM^r 5/wctet q^ Xamhdgyiwm. 



~X. mite HYiVd, yt-axineum i 
Tor. 4- Gr<v. - - - 143 

IL Pte'lba L, - 143 

Shrubbv Trefoil. ^ BellQda 
Adam* : urmede Samarie^ Fr. ; 
Lederblmne^ Ger. 

1. trifoliata L. - 144 

Shrubby Tr^ott : Orme de 
Samarie d trots FeuiUett Fr. ; 
dreyb&tirige Lederbhune^ Ger. 

2 pentaph^ila Mun. 144 

3 pub^scens Pur$h 144 

0<A«r 5p«ci« q^ Ttilea. — P. 
Baldwin/! Tor. ft Gray - 144 

III. AuLtNTUsTyesT. 145 

The Ailanto. — HMt Ehrh. : 
Verne du Japon^ Fr. ; GStter- 
baumt Ger. ; JUanto, Ital. 

1. glandulosa Desf. 145 
J. prooira Sal., RA« AvpM- 



lodf«tf»v« Moencb, fLcaeodh^ 
dron Ehrh., R. cMiwe Bills : 
AyUmihe glmtduletUt Fr. ; drU- 
s&er GStterbamm, Ger. ; Albero 
diParadiio, ItaL 

8eot* ZV. 

P^ruit an*oban'es that A, A»- 
terteain a fleshy Reoepiade, 
with which the Style a amf 
timtous, 

Coridcede* 

I. CORIA^RIA Niu. 146 
Redoult Fr. ; Gerberstraweh^ 
Ger. 

1. myrtifoUa L, - 146 

Fustet des Corroyeurs^ or 
Redout d FeuiUes de Myrte, 
Fr. ; Myrtenbldttriger Gerber^ 
stnmcht Ger. 

Other Spea'es qf Coridria. — C. 
nepalfeniis fVail. PI. As. Bar., 
C. larmentbM Porst. - 146 



Subcl. II. CALYCIFLO^RiE. 



StaphyUacede, 
I. Staphyle^a L, 147 

Bladder.Nat Tree Staphy- 

lodindron Toum. : Sfaphilier^ 
faux Pistachier, Fr. ; Pimper' 
mus, Ger. ; StttflUer, Ital. 

1. trifdlia L. - - 147 

BLtdder-Nut Tree : StaphUier 
i FeuiUes temies, Fr. ; Vir- 
ginische PimpemusSf Ger. 

2. pinnata L, - 148 

Staphyladindron pinndtum 
Ray : StapMUer d Femlles aiUes 
Ft. i gemeine Pimpemuss,Ger. ; 
Lacrime di Giobbe, or Pistacehio 
/alto, ItaL : Job's Tears. 

Celastrhcea. 
I. ^uo'nymus Tm, 149 

Spindle Tree. — Fusain, Bon- 
net de Pritre, or Bois d Lardoire^ 
Fr. ; Spindelbaum^ Ger. ; Evo- 
nimo, ItaL 

1. europseVs L, - 149 

E. vulgdris MiU. Diet. ; Prick- 
timber, Gerard; Louse Berry, 
Dogwood; Qatteridge Tree: 
Fusain d'Europe, Fr. ; Bonnet 
de Prftre commun, Fr. ; ge- 
meine Spindeibaum, Ger.; Be- 
retle di Prete, Ital. 

9 latifolius Lod.Cat.150 

5 fol. variegatis L. C. 1 .50 

4 fr6ctu ilbo L. C. 150 

5 nanus Loaid. Cat, 150 

2. verrucosus Scop. 150 

E. europteSu Irprbsus Lin. : 
Fusain gateux^ Ou verruquetix, 
Fr.; Warziger Spindeibaum, 
Ger.; Fusaria verucosa, Ital. 

3. latifolius C. Batth. 150 
E. europa^'vs wmt. 2. Lin.: 

Fusain d targes FeuiUe*^ Fr. ; 
breitUdUriger Spindeibaum, 
Ger. ; Fusaria maggiore, Ital. 



4. nanus ^t?5. - 151 

E. cauc&sicum Lodd. 

5. atropurpureus Jq, 151 

E. carolinitnsis Marsh., ? E. 
latifblius Blarsh. : BumingBush, 
Amer. 

6. americanus £. - 152 

E. semperHrens Marsh., E. 
altemifbtitts Monich : the Bttm- 
ing Bush, Strawberry Tree, 
Amer. 

2 angustifolius - 152 
var. ft Tor. ft Gray. 

? E. angustiJbUus Pursh. 

3 sarmentosus Nuti. 152 
var. y Tor. ft Gray. 

4 obov&tus ^vtt, - 152 
ear. Jt Tor. ft Graj. 

E. obovdius Dec. rrod. 

7. HamiltontflnwWl.153 
E. atropurpUreus Wall. F1. 

Ind. 

Other Species qf Y,u6nymus. — 
E. jap6n!cus Thunb., jap<Sni- 
cus fuiis TariogdtiSt/rarCTnic- 
fblius Roxb., gr6ssus WalL, 
mierfinthus D. Don, lOcidus 
D. Don, echlnitus Wall., tln- 

Sens Wall., glkber Roxb., 
mbrlitus WaU., Indicus 
Hfyne^kgUM WaU., subtrl- 
flin-us Blume, Thunberg/dnau 
Blume, p^ndulus WcM.^ frlgi- 
dus WaU. - - - 153 

11. C7ela^strus L, 154 

staff Tree. — EuonymSUes 
Moench : Cilastre, Fr. ; Celas- 
ter, Ger. 

1. sdindens L. - 154 

Bourreau des Arbres, Fr. ; 
Baumm S rder, Ger. ; Bitter' 
sweet. Waxwork, Amer. 

Other Species of CelSstrus. — C. 
bulliUus Pluk.y nepaltesls 
Lodd., 0yracanthifbUufi Lodd., 

154 



III. Nemopa'nthes 154 

JUcilMes Dum. Coura. 
1. canadensis JOec, 155 

Vlex canadensis Mx., N.fas- 
ciculdris Raftn. V/ex deticlUula 
Bart. Fl. Vir., ? Trhtos Htddus 
Ait. Hort. Kew. t Houjt du 
Canade, Fr. 

Other Species of Celastrdeete.— 
Mdytenm ehU6nsls Dec. 165 

Kquifolihcece. 
L Mygi'^nd^ Jacq. 156 

l^lex Purth, OreSjAHa Nutt. 

I. wiyrtifolia NtUt. 156 

tlex Myrstnites Pursh, Ore- 
6phiia voyrtifbUa Nutt. 

II. Tlex L, - 156 

The Holly— A^wCri^/wm Tni., 
Gtert. : Houx, Fr. ; Stechpaime, 
or Heilse, Ger. ; lUce, Ital. 

A. Leaves spiny-toothy 

1. .^quifolium L, - 157 

Common ZTo/Zy, Hulver, Hut- 
fere. Holme, Rng. ; Le Houx, 
Fr. ; Stechpaime, Steehlauh, 
Hulse, Chriitdom, Mausdom, 
Kleexebusch, Ger. ; Schubbig 
hardkelk, Dutch ; Stikpaime, 
Danish ; Jemek, Chnsttom, 
Swedish: Waefbseheld, Ostro- 
kqf, Padub, Russ. ; Agri/biio, 
Ital. ; Acebo, Span. ; j4z«vttiAo. 
Port. 

a. Varieties designated flrom the 
Form, Magnitude, Thickness, 
Surface, or Margin qf the 
Leaf. 

2 hetcropbylJum Ht. 158 

3 angustifolium JJt. 158 

4 latifolium llort, 158 
Water HoUy. 

5 altacler^nse Hort, 158 

6 marginatum /fr<. 158 



CONTENTS. 



Xi 



7 Irarifafiom Hori. 158 

8 dliatom HarL - 158 

9 eUiatum minus ^Tf. 158 
lOTccuTTum Hart 158 
11 ferratifoliinn Hr£. 158 
li cnspnm Hort - 158 

13 lerox Bart. - 158 

Hotu-khtMsen, Fr. 

14 crassifoliam Hart. 159 

15 KD^scens Sv<. - 159 

h. forutref d^njpiofrrf from the 
CUoun^tkeLt^. 

16 tibo-nuirgtnatuTn 159 

17 aureo-inargtnatuml59 

18 albo-pictum Hort. 159 

19 aureo-pictum Ht. 159 
SO fiiox argenteum 159 
ii feroi aureum HL 159 

c VariOia daiguated firam the 
Cokmr of Ike FrmU. 

22 fruetu luteo HrL 159 

53 fructtt flbo ^orf. 159 

54 fructa Digro ^or^ 159 

2. (.f) bdedrica D, 160 

Tbe kfaMKrai HoUy.—L Afvi- 
;UiiB>« rar. ) Lcm. Diet. I. 
mmktimm WilkL Emim. 

3. opaca Aii. - 160 

Aioesicao HcSlj.—Agrf/Mimm' 
ta^ifv Clajt. Fl. VirglD.. I. 
Aam^feUmm Grooov. : dunJtei- 
h&Ur^^ Sleekmalme, Ger. ; 
Jgr^atia a Fog/tie 4» QMerda, 
Icai. 

Slaxlflora . - 161 
L fanfCsraLam. 
I. iipsra Mtr. Nutt. 

3 maizeilanica - 161 



B. Leawct looAed, aerratedt or 
errmate, bml not tping. 

4. Perado Alu - 161 
I. 



5. CatstneAiu - 161 
Broad-leaved Daboon HoUj. — 
AfsiifMna* Cmroimhue Catetb., 
1. orB/nudiNi Mill. Dkt. I. 
t»namoaan lJk.£.n.: ike Cob- 
^ tke Amerieem IndUaUt 



6. angostifolla WUId, 162 

L i^rttjbtia Vfalt &c., L 
niiwiMj lUt/tUa Lam. lU. 

7. Tomitoria AU. - 162 
SooUi Sea Tree. — I. Cautne 

•rrs WalL, L l^^irma Jacq.. 
Casque Perigua MilL Jean., T. 
CoMtina Mx^ L reUgibea Bart., 
L^jrtfdaa Lam. lU.: ffocu 
ayirfnr*iiif|,Fr. ; Trme Canine^ 
C^aiaa, ^orida ; tke Yapon, 
tffrpnia; tke ewrrgreem Cos- 
or Caakioberrjf Busk, 



C Lemes quite entire, or 
nearlfso, 

8w Dahoon Wall. - 162 
L Canine WiOd. 



OikerSpcdaqfTtex 



- 163 



III. Pri>«os L. - 163 

Winter Berrr. — Agiria Adan- 
sod: Jpalancke, Fr. ; IVinter- 
beere^ Ger. 

§ L Vrinindes Dee. 

1. deciduus Dec. - 164 

tlex yrinijUdes Alt. Hort. 
Kew., TU* ieadua Walt. FL 
Car. 

2. ambiguus 3fr. - 164 

Casdne carofiiu'diM Walt FL 
Car. 

§ ii. Ageria Dec. 

3. verticillatus Zr. - 164 

P. ^adifdlitu Wllld. Enum., 
P. Grondvil jtfjr., P. eonffrhu 
Moeach, P. wtmifiUiut Lodd. 
Cat. 

4. laevigatus PurtA 165 

5. lanceolatus PurrA 165 

P. canaaknm Ljon, P. Ikd- 
dm» Hort 

§ ill. fFintSrUa Moench. 

6. glaberL. - 166 
Jnk Berry t Axner. 

7. coriaceus Pwnh 166 
P. gOber Wats. 

Varietiet — Leavet broader 
than thow of the species, 
obovate-lanceolate and 
acuminate: and leaves 
narrower, lanceolate, and 
acute <- - - 166 

Otker Species qf Trinog. — P. 
dOblus G. Don, P. atomirlua 
Nutt 166 

^RJiamiiocece. 

I. Zi'zYVHVsToum, 167 
The Jaixiba.—JHfukier, Fr. ; 
Jadendom, Ger. ; Gtuggioio, 
Ital. 

1. Tulgaris Lam, - 167 

Bkkmnus ZisMpkut Ltn. 
Spec. ; Z. saUva Desf ., not of 
Gart.; Z. Ji^uba MiU. Diet,, 
not of Lam. : Jujubier etdtivt^ 
Fr. ; Brtutbeeven^ Ger. ; Giug- 
gioto, ItaL 

Otker Spedet of Zts^fpkus Z. 

sinensis Lam., Z.splna Chris- 
ty, Z. flexubMi, Z. Incdnra 168 

IL Paliu'rus L, 168 

Christ's Thorn. — Paliure, 
Pori-chapeenty Fr. ; Judendom, 
Ger. ; Paliuro, Ital. 

1 . aculeatus Zram. 168 
p. pftastis Dum. Cours., P. 

auUrdlts Geerl., P. bulgitris D. 
Don, BAamflitf "Paliiirus Lin. 
Spec., Zih^Am PalArus Willd. 
Spec. : CArisft Tkom, or Bam 
&r Libya, Gerard : E'pine de 
Christ, Arpalan^Porte-chapeau, 
Ft. ; g^UgfUer Judendom, 
Ger. ; Givggiolo saivatioo, Ital. ; 
X//n, In the herb-fthops of Con- 
stantinople. 

2. (a.) virgatus Don 169 



in. Bbrchb^aiN. 169 

(EnApUa Hedw. F. Gen. and 
Scholt. Syst. 

]. voldbOis XXfc. - 170 

fUiAnmus uoMOis Lin. fil. 
Suppl., Jacq. Ic. Bar. ; Zix§fpku$ 
ooAlbms Waid. Spec. ; (Enbptia 
eo/ftAilM Schult. Syst.: Supple 
Jack, Virginian. 

IV. /7ha'mnus Lam, 170 

The BuclLthom. — NffyTinm, 
Fr.; fVegdom, Ger. ; Ramno, 
Ital. ; Ike Ram, or Hart 's. Thorn, 
Gerard ; Box Thorn. 

§ L Mareorilla Neck. 

A. hlaUmusTwxra. — Ftowers 
rMxmose, b-dtft Evergreen 

1. illat^rnus L. - 171 

Alatfmus Tkitl^a MUL 
Diet. : Alatema, Ital. 

2 bale4rica/f. Par. 171 
R. roiund(fbiius Dum. 

3 hisp&nica H, Par. 171 

4 angusrifolia - 171 
R. ClksA WiUd. 

5 folils maculatis 171 

6 folils a(ireis - 171 

7 folils arg^nteis - 1 72 

2. hfbridus VHerit. 172 

R. ourgundiOGus Hort. Par., 
R. semperv i r ens Hortulan. 

B. Bk&nmus Dec. — Flowers i- 

cl^l, in Fascicles 

a. Braneklets terminating <■ a 
I%om. 

3. catb&rticus L. 172 
The Hkite Tkom of the mo- 
dem Greeks. 

4. tmctonus Waidst, 173 
R. cardiosphvnis Wllld. 

Herb. 

5. infectorius L. - 173 

Avignon Berry. — R. L0cium 
Scop. Cani. ; Dwarf, oryellow- 
: iiet 



berried. Buckthorn, 
des Teinturiers, Grained^ Avig- 
non, Nerprun teignant, Fr. ; 
fHrbender Wegdom, Ger. ; 
Cervinopin, Ital 

6. saxiitilis L, - 173 

R. tongifblius Mill. Diet.: 
Stein Wegdom, Ger. j Lycio 
Italiano, Ital. 

7. Juxifolius PofT. - 173 

? R. huxifblius Brot. Fl. Lus.. 
'Lficium buxifbiium Bauh. 

8. /ycidldes Zr. - 174 

9. Er>thr6x>lon P. 174 
2 angustissimum Dec, 

R. \ycioldes Pall. Fl. Ross. 

b. Branchlets not terminaied by 
Spines. 

10. dahiiricus Pa//. 174 

11. a\mfd\iu8VHer.l75 

2 franguloides Z>ec. 175 
R./ran|f«ZoU<«» Mx. 

12. alpiDus JS. - 175 
2 grandifolius - 176 



Xll 



CONTENTS. 



13. pumilus jL. - 176 

R. mptttri* Scop. Carn.: 
Ranno spaecasastit lUl. 

§ iL Frangvkt TouriL 

14. carolini^nus^a/:;.176 

15. FrangulaZr. - 177 

Berry-bearing Alder i Ner- 
prun Bourghte, Atme noi'r, Fr. ; 
glntier Wegdom, Ger.; AIno 
nero, lul. 

2 aogustifdlia JBbrt 177 

16. latifdlius I/'/Z^r. 177 

Otker SpecieM qf HAijnnut.— 
R. persicifblius Bert, R. 
ffmygd&Unus De^., R. pru- 
nilDllai 6'm., R. Slbthoip- 
idmu Schult. (lyn. R. pubis, 
eem Sibth. Fl. Gnec.), R. 
Funhidnut Dec., (syn. R. 
tdnfJbUu* Punh, not of L* 
H^rltler), R. olelfbUus Hook., 

B. umbftlUUus Cav. Icon., R, 
ftturlfbUus yult.. R. cr6ceiu 
^tfft., R. lanceoUtui Pursk, 
R. parYlflyliut Tor. % Qratf, 
R, rerrugineuB NutL, R. csSi- 
fdniicus Esck.f R, texfosii 
Tbr. ^ Grt^f, R. pubiuent 
Fi, Qnec, . - - 178 

V. Collb't/j* Com. 178 

BMdmnui in part 

1. hdrndfi LinM. - 179 
C./irwe GiU. ct Hook. 

Other Species qf Coliitla, — C. 
splndsa, C. ttlfcina, C. ephe- 
dra f^t-nt. Ckoix (sjrn. llA&tn- 
tuu E'phedra Domb., Rcta- 
nilla E'phedra Brong.) . 179 

VI. CeanoVhosL. 180 

Red Root. — BAumnus species 
L. : Ceanothe, Fr. ; iiakeb' 
baum, Ger. ; Ceanoto, Ital. 

1. americanus L, - 180 

Red Root, New Jersey Tea. 

2 Pitcheri Tor. & Gray. 

3 herbiceusT. & G. 180 
C. perhmis Pursh. 

C. otfdtus Desf. 

4 intermedius T.G. 180 
C. intermedius Purth. 

2. aziireuu Detf, - 180 

C. cteriUeus La(c. Gen. et 
Spec., C. bicotor Willd. in Schlt. 
8jtt. 

2 inter ra^dius - 181 
C. intermedius Hort. 

3. thyrsMoruB Etch, 181 
C: omUm ey^jamt Booth, 

Baumann, &c. 

4. velutlnus Doug, 181 

5. coilinus Z)o»g. 182 

Other Spedes qf Ceanbthus.^ 
C. oTMis, Q. unguineiu, C. 
orngknus, - - - 183 

Homalindcea, 
L Aristote'l/^ H. 182 
1. Mdcqid L'Herit. 182 

il. glonduibsa R. & P.. i<. 
Ificqui m i>rc. JProtf. 

2 foUis variegatis 183 



Other Species of AriUati&aL. " 
Az&ra dentku R. kP., Atixa 
integrifblU - - - 184 

Anacardidcece. 
I. Pista'cia L, - 184 

The PUtachia TerebMhus 

Jus*. 

1. vera i. - - 185 

T.qfflcindrum Hort. Kew. : 
Pistachier, Fr. ; Pistaxiem- 
bourn, Ger. ; Pistacchio^ ItaL 

2 trifolia JLin. ^/>ec. 185 

3 narbon^nsis j9. Af . 185 
P. reticuUUa WilUL 

2. Terebinthus X. 185 

Venetian, or Chian.Turpentine 
Tree. — Tereblnthus vulgdris 
Toum., P. v^ra Mill. Diet: 
Pistaehier Teribinthe, Fr. ; 
Terpentin Pistacie, Ger. ; Tere- 
bfnlo, Ital. 

2 spbsroc&rpa 2>^. 185 

3. Zrentiscus L. - 186 

The Mastic T^ee: Como copra, 
Ital. 

2 angustifolia Z)ffC. 186 
P. massiliinsis Mill. Diet. 
P. ang. massUiin. Toum. 

3 chUN.DuHam, 186 
P. ch\a Desf. Cat. H. Par. 

Other Species qf Fistdaa.—P. 
atUintlca 1)^4/: - - 186 

II. Buv'sL, - 186 

The Sumach. -^ Sumac, Fr. ; 
Stsmaeh, Ger. ; Rii, ItaL 

§ i. CStinus Toum. 

1. C6tinus L. » 187 

Venetian Sumach. — Cdtinus 
CoK^grta Scop. Carn., Moench 
Mcin., Cdtinus eoridcea Duh. 
Arb : Venus Sumach, Fenice 
Sumacht Wild Olive : Sumach 
Ftatet, or Arbre out Pirwrues, 
Fr. ; PerUcken Sumach, Ger. ; 
Scotano, ItaL 

§ ii. Sdmach Dec, 

2. typhlna L, - 187 

Stag^ Horn Sumach.— R. vir- 
ginidna Bauh. Pin. : Virginion 
Sumach : Somaeeo pdosc^ ItaL 

1 arborescens - 188 

2 firut^scens - 188 

3 viridiflora - 188 
R. viridifldraJ?oit. 

3. glabra L, - 188 
Scarlet Sumach. 

1 hermaphrodita 188 
R. ir'd^a Willd. Spec. 

2 dioica - - 188 
?3 cocclnea - - 188 

R. carolinidnum MilL D. 
R. ilcgans Ait., Lodd. Cat. 

4. venenata Dec, - 189 
Poison Wood, or Swamp, Su- 
mach. — R. vfmix Lin. Sp.. Big. 
Med. Bot I Toxieodhtdron pin- 
ndtum Mill. Diet : Poison Su- 
mach, Poison Elder. 

5. Coriarialr. - 189 
The Elm-leaved Sumach: Su- 



mac des Corroj/eurStTr.', Gerber 
Sumach, Get. ; Somaeeo iZM. 
Ital. 

6. copallinaL. - 190 

Mastwk-4ree'ieeved Smnack. 
2 leudtntha Jocg. 190 

7. Toxicodendron L, 190 

R. Toxicodfndron, and R. ra- 
dicans L., Dec., Don'i MiU.,ftc. 

1 guercifdliutn 7.^ C?. 1 90 

R. T. fi querci/blium Mx. 

2 radicans T, ^ G, 191 
R. T. m mdgdre Mz. 

R. 7. fi radieans Tbr. 

3 microcdrpon T. j- (?. 1 9 1 

R. r. 9^ microedrpon Mx. 

§ iii. LMdium Dec 

8. aromaticum Ait, 191 

R. suaviolens Alt, R. trifoll. 
dta Lodd. Cat, R. canadinsis 
Marth., Lobddium aromaticutn 
Raf., TurpUtiSi Rqf., SchmAhi^ 
Desv., tHjfrica trifolidta Hort. 
Toticodindron crendtum Mill. 
Diet. 

Other Species qf RMSt R.pb' 

mila Mg., R. diveratloba Tor. 
A Gray (R. lobdta Hook.). 
A. trilobkta ^tfttl, Jt. ia&rina 
NuU. . - 192 

III. DuvAU'^ Kth. 192 

Schhtus sp. Andr., Amuris sp. 
Car. 

1. dependens Dec, 192 

Amyris polyoma Car. Ic. 
Schinus dephwUns Ort. Decad., 
DwfoH^ depindens m Hook. 
Bot. Misc. 

2. ovata Lindl, - 193 

3. latifolia GUI, - 193 

D. dephidens y Hook. Bot. 
Misc. : Huinghon, Chili. 

Other Species qf Dwtaitk D. 

dentilta Dee. {Sehtnus denldta 
Bot. Rep.), D. shiuita Lindl, 

Legumindcece, 

Sect. I. SOFSdREM, 

L SOPHO^RA R. Br. 195 

Sopfabrae spec. Lin. Gen. : 50- 
phore, Fr. and Ger. 

1 . jap6nica L, - 1 96 

S. sinica Rosier Joura. Phya. 

2 varicgata Hort. 1 96 

3 p^ndula HoH. - 196 

2. heptaphjlla L, - 197 

II. Virgi'lw L. - 197 
1. lutea Mx. - 198 

YeOow Wood. 
III. PiPTA'NTHUS S, 198 

1. nepalensis Stvt, - 199 
Therm6psis^ lahum^fbb'a D. 



Don, Anof^is indtca Wall 
MS., BapUsia nepalinsis Hook. 
Ezot FI. 

Sect. II. Lo'TKJt, 
IV. U\kxL, - 199 

Tne Fune — Akmc, Fr. ; Heck' 
•— *, Ger. i Ulice, Ital. 



CONTENTS. 



xw 



nUa HDl. Dkt., R. imiermtdta 
Soolange-Bodin. 

4. hispida L. - 836 

Rom Acada. — R. Tb$ea N. 
I>n HanLj R. momtdma Bartr. 
Voy., M$ditfm6meme Mapidm 
Roxb. 

3 nkaa, Dee. - - 237 

3 rdsea Punk - 237 

4 macTophf 11a Dec. 237 
A grtindifidra Hort. 

XIII. Cili?.<(5-4^iV:4L.237 
Siberian Pea Tree — RMnAM 

1. arbor^scens Lam. 237 

ilofrmia Caragina Urn. jjp., 
>r. D« Ham.y Fail. Fl. Rou. ; 
Cun^aa. siMriea Rvr: Ancm^ 
^cacfe d« SOMe, RobnUe de 
SibMe, Jrbre atu Pots de* 
Rtuset, Fr. ; Sibiritehe Erb- 
temtamntf Germ. ; QproeMkt 
Bum. 

2 indrmis Hort, - S38 

2. (a.)iiA^afiaPoir.238 

JSoMffia Altagina Poff. #1. 
Jion., VBirit. 8tirp.\ Cara- 
gi^a mieropk^tta Lun. Diet. 

3. (a.) microph^llaZ).238 

JZoUnSa micrvpA£Ua PaU. Fl. 
Boss., CaragiDa Altagina var. 
Poir. Suppl. 

4. (a.) Reddwski D. 238 
2 pm'coz /tscA. - 239 

5. (a.) aren&ria IXmn 239 

6. irat^ceDS Dec. 239 

RoMmia, fruKsetna Lin. Sp., 
Pall. Fl. Rost.s C. digUdia 
Lon. Diet. 

1 latiioliA - - 239 

2 angnstifdlia - 239 

7. (f.) m6lli8 Best. 239 
JioftMa mtSUii Bleb. Fl. 

Taur. Soppl., iZoftmia tonwn- 
Idra Flsch. Hon. Gorenk., Ca- 
ragina /nri($een* war. mdUii 
Dec. Prod. 

8. jpygms^a Dec. - 240 

JZooinia fffgmti^'a Lin. Sp., 
FaU. Fl. Ross., Amm. Roth. 
2 arexuLria J*ttcA. •• 240 

9. spinosa Dec. - 240 

Rokmrim. tpimdta Lin. Mant., 
A>Mfiia ^i^ruyr Pall. Fl. Ross., 
Jto6ti«ia «ptewi««fi»ui Laxm. 
Nov. Act. ret., Caragina/?rw 
lism. Diet. 

10. /ragacanthoides 240 

Rotin^M. tragaeamihSideM PaU. 
Vof. Act. Pet., RotimlM, maerO' 
€6ntka hodd. Cat. 

ll.jubktaPotr. - 241 
RAhOAjmbdta Pall. In Act. 
F«t. Aitr., Lodd. Bot. Cab. 

12. grandifldra Dec. 241 

RoSmAA groftd^fldra Bieb. Fl . 
Tnir. 

13. Chamlagu Lam. 241 
Chtneia Caragia.— JtoWiiia 



Chaml&gu VBMt. SHrp., N. 
DuHamt. 

XIV. Halimodb^ndron 

Fitch. 242 

Salt Tree. — Holodhidron 

Deo. lA4m. ined. in Soc. Phjs. 

Gen., but not of Petit Thouari. 

1. argenteum Dec. 242 

iZoAixia Halodtndron Lin. FIl. 
Suppl., Pall. Fl. Rois., Cara- 
Bftna arghttea Lam. In Pall. 
•Itin. ed. Gall. 

1 Yulgare Dec. Ft. 242 

2 brachysdma D.P. 242 

3 Siev^rsti - - 243 
H. SievtrAi Fitek, 

2. (a.) Bubvirescens 243 

iSoMfiU tr^flbra L'H^rit. 
Stirp. Mot., H. argfnieum fi 
amMriseena Dec. Prod. 

XV. Calo'ph ACA F. 243 

I. wolg^ca Fisch. 243 
CpttimnigridaHa Pall. Itin. ; 
CpUauaptmndtm Pall. FLRos. ; 
C^iiaua wOsirieua Lin. FlI. 
Suppl., N. Du Ham. ; Cotktea 
vmgSricaLaan.; Adtnoc&rpua 
woQhuia Spreng. Sjrst. 

XVI. COLU^EA R. Br. 

Bladder Senna. — Rt^ue- 
tumdier, Fr. ; Rlaaenbatum, 
Germ. ; Setma/alaa, Ital. 

1. arbor^cens L. 244 

C. UraHa Roth Fl. Germ. 

2. (a.) cni^nta AH. 244 

Oriental Bladder Senna. — C. 
oriemidlia Lam. Diet., N. Du 
Ham. \ C. aamgmnea Pall. ; C. 
ipUra Schmidt Arb. ; C. M- 
miUa Scop. 

3. ra.) m^ia WiUd. 245 

4. (a.)hal^ppicaZrm.245 

C. Poofeftli Ait, Hon. Ktw., 
SekmUU, Arb. ; C. iairia Mill. 
Diet. ; C. prodmbena L'HMt. 

5. nepal^sis Hook. 245 

XVII. ifSTRA'CALUS Dc. 

The Milk Vetch. ~ Asiv-i- 
galma ap. of Lin. and others : 
AatragaUt Fr.; TragmUf Gm.i 
AatragalOt Ital. 

1. TVaeac&ntha L. 246 

Great Goat's Thorn.— A. maa- 
alUtnaia Lam. Diet., Dec. Astr., 
Don's MiU. 

Other Ugneoua Spedea t^ Aa~ 
trigaku. — A. altUcos Lodd. 
Cab., aristktus UHir. Stirp., 
breTlfbllus Sot. Cab., massi- 
Utesis Lam. (? A. Tragaein- 
tka Tar.) - - - M6 

Sect III. JTiDTSA^aajB. 

XVIII. COBONI'LLA K 

CorofUHa ap. L. and others : 
CeroniUe, Ft. ; Kromtoicke, 
G«r. ; Gimeatra de Roaeo, Ital. 

1. E'merus L. - 247 

Wmerua m^for MU. Ic. 1. 189. 



f. 1., E. fltiaor Mill Ic t. I8S. 

1 S., Cpaueifibra Lam. Fl. Fr. 

2 juncea L. - ^ 248 

Sect IV. Phaseolx^. 
XIX.WistaW^N. 248 

Glycine ap. L, TAvrtimAiw 
Elliot, Kra^nkUk Rqfin. 

1. frutescens Dec. - 249 

Glytine J^ruUaoena Lin. Sp.. 
AV^ frutHeena Ph. 1*1. Am. 
Sept., iiia^iiyiiMM J^rutiaoena 
Walt. Fl. Car., JViatHna. ape. 
cibaa Nutt. Geu. Amer., 7>yr- 
aanibuaJrtUiaeena Elliot Joum. 
Acad. Sci. Philad., Pkaaeo- 
Ufkiea Hort. AngL : The Kidney- 
bean Tree. 

2. chin^nsis Dec. - 249 
Gl6cine ehininaia Bot. Hag., 

G.amhuia Bot Reg., fT. Com. 
sejw^a I^OHdoit m If. R. 

Sect V. Ca881k'^. 
XX. Qledi'tschia 249 

Acde»a j». Pluk.: P6vier. 
Fr.; Gleditachie,G«r.iGledit. 
aia, Ital. 

1. triac&nthos Z. - 250 

The Honej Locust.— G. tria- 
cAtUhoa var. a potttaptrma 
Mart. Mill. : Q. mr/UoAa Walt.; 
G. apimbaa Du Ham. ; Acdeia 
triaeanikoa Hort. Aedcia ame* 
ricdna Pluk. . FHier d^Ami- 
r^vet Fr. ; Pava americana 
Ital. ; Tlkomaf Acacia^ Sweet 
Z.ocMS/,United States; Canmge 
a M^, Canada. 

2 in^nnis Dec. - 2.W 
6. U^a Hort. 

3 brachycirpa - 250 
G. brachiftMrpa Pursh. 
G. triac&nthoa var. fi Mx. 

2. (t) monosp^rma 251 
"nie Water Locust.->G. earo- 

Unenaia Lam. Diet., G. agud. 
tica Marsh, G. triacantka Gcrt. 
Fruct. 

3. sinensis Lam. - 252 
G. kdrridaWlUd.8ip.'. Ptwier 

de la Chine, Fr. 

2 in^rmis N. Du H. 252 
G.Jap6nica Lodd. Cat 
G.Javdniea Lam. 

3 mi^or Hort. - 252 
6. AtffrAia m4for Lod. Cat. 

4 n^na ^oif. - - 252 
6. A^rrAfs n^im H. Soc. 

5 purpiirea ^Torf. - 252 
G . h6rrida pnrpbrea Lod. 

Other Var. qf G. ainhiaia. 
— G. chinfosls iPotta). 

4. (s.) macrac&ntha 254 

O. /erox Baudr. : Pttier i 
groaaea E^pinea, Fr. 

5. (s.) ferox Dci/: . 254 

G. orientdUa Boso : PSvier 
hiriaai, Fr. 

6. c&spica Detf. - 254 

G. caapidna Bosc. 
2 subvir^scens ^orf . 254 
F49ier werddtre, Fr. 



X!V 



CONTENTS. 



2 p^ndulus - - 216 

3 purpur&acens H. 216 
G. L. nurj^reum Hort. 
C. AddnA Poir. 

C. hxoeeineumBuvaa.Cat, 
The punte Laburnum, 
TkeKartet LtAunmm, 

4 ir^grans Hort, 217 

4. Weld^naVis. - 217 

5. nigricans L, - 218 

6. sessilifolius L. - 218 

7. triflorus UHerit. 219 

C. villdsuM Pour. Act. TouL 

6. patens Z. - - 219 

C. penduRntu Lin. fli. Supp.; 
C ^andifibrus Dec. Prod.; G^- 
nif/a tomentdsa Polr. Supp. ; 
Spdrthun pitftu Un. Sjst, 
Brofe. F1. Lu«., not of Cav. ; 
Spartium rrandiflbrtan Brot. 
Fl. Lau. ; SarotAamnus piUtu 
Webb Iter HUpan. 

9. icoparius L^. -'219 

Common Broom. — SpSrtium 
Boopirium Lin. Sp. Smith Eng. 
Bot., Geniita Mcopdria Lam. 
Diet., not of Vill. ; G. kirsita 
Moencli Meth. : Gen£t d Baiais^ 
Otnet eommiM, Fr. ; gemehu 
PJriement Ger. 

2 &lbu8 HoH. • 220 

5 flore pleao Hort, 220 

§ iiL CalycStome Lk. 

10. spinosus Lam, 220 
Spartium gpmbsufn Lin. Sp. 

1 1. tribracteolatus W, 22 1 

12. lanfgerus Dec, 221 

SpSrtmm taiUgerum Desf. 
FL Atl.. Caiifc6tomevmb$a Lk. 
Enum., SjMrd'iifnvflfdmmBrot 
Fl. Lufl. and Poir. Voy. 

2 rfgidus Dec. • 221 

§ iv. 7\tboc^iuui Dec. 
A. Flower* white or whiUah, 

13. leucanthus - 221 

B. Fiowert purple. 

14. purpilkreus Scop, 222 
2 flore &Ibo Hort - 222 
S flore rdsoo - 222 

C. Flowers peUow. 

15. elongatus W, ^ K, 222 

16. multifldrus Lijid, 222 

C. eiongdtui Hort. not of Kit. ; 
C. eUmgdhu mmti{fidnu Dec 
Prod. 

n.faicktmW.^X: 223 

VarieUet — C. trifldrui Lrf., 
C. ruth^nicus Lorf., C. de- 
cdmbeoa Lod: 

18. austriacus h, - 223 
2 nova Zod - 223 

19. supinus Jacq, • 223 
C. hftade$ Pour. Act. Tout. 



20. hirsutus L. - 224 

C. staOntu Bertol. PI. Gen., 
not of Lin. ; C. trtflbnu Lara. 
Diet, notof L'HerlL ; O. Tour- 
n^fin-tOiuut Lois, in N, Du H, 

21. capitlitus Jacq, 224 
C. Ai'rriMw Lam Diet, C. 

suphuu lAvk. Sp. ' 

Varieties or Sjfnoiwmeg. ^ C^- 
tisus austrlacus Lod., C ca- 
n6»cens Fiseh. qf Got., C. ura- 
I^nsis Lorf., C. calyclnui Lod., 
C. parvifblius Lod.^ C. hinik- 
tua Lod., C. tuplnus Lod. 224 

22. ciliatus Wahlcnb, 224 

23. polytrichus Bieb, 224 

§ v. Ijot^ides Dec. 

24. argenteus L, - 235 

LdtuM arginl. Brot Fl. Lus. 

25. calycinus Bieb, 225 

C. pauciflbna WiUd. sp. 

26. nknus Wi/ld, - 225 
§ vi. ChrondnihuM Dec. 

27. orien talis Lois, 226 
C. orientdlitt Ac. Gerard & 

Vail. Herb. 

Other Spea'cM of Coitus C. 

«61icus Gnu,, C. racem5tus 
Mamoch. 

VIIT. Adknoca'rpusZ). 

1 . hispanicuH Dec, 227 

Cj^ttsus hisp&nietu Lam. 
Diet., C. tMomCrhu L'H6rit 
Stirp., N. Du Ham. 

2. Boissien Webb 227 

A. dec6rtieans Boia. Not. sur 
I'Abiei Plnsapo : Raca vi^fa. 
Span. 

3. interm^dius Dec, 228 

C$iinu eomjdiedtuM Br. Fl. L. 

4. parvifdlius Dec, - 228 

Cptitus parvifbinu N. Du 
Ham., Lam. Diet efXdusive of 
tlie irna. ; CptiMiu divaricdhu 
L'Hferit StlTK: C^tisuM com- 
plicdtusVec. Fl. Fr. ; Sp6r- 
tium eonutUciltim Lois. Fl. 
Gall. 

5. telonensis Dec. 228 

C^listu tekmtnsi* Lois. Fl. 
Gall., N. Du Ham. ; Spdrthun 
compliedtum Gouan Hort. 
Monsp., exclusive of the syn. 

IX. Ono'nis L, - 229 

The Rettharrow. — Andisis 
et VAMt M<Bneh Meth. : 
Arrvte-bauf, Bvgrame, Fr.; 
Hauheehel, Ger. 

1. fhiticdsa L, - 229 
2 microph^lla Dee. 229 

2. rotundifolia L. - 229 

O. lati/dlta Asso Syn., Lin. 
Mant. ; Vdtrix rohamd^blia 
Mcench. 

Other Species qf Onbnis. — O. 
tribracteita Dec. - - 229 

X. Amo'^rpha L, - 230 

Bastard \nd\go. — Bomtfidia 



Neck. Elem. : Famg InMgo, 
Fr. ; Vnform, Ger. ; Amo^a\ 
Ital. 

I. fruticdsa L, - 230 

Wild Indigo^ Amer. ; Faux 
Indigo, Fr. : Indaeo Bastardo, 
Ital. 

2 angustifolia Pun. 230 

S emarginata AcrsA 2dO 

4 Lewin't Ld. Cat 230 

5 caeriilea Ld. Cat 2SO 



2. (f.) glabra Desf, 230 

3. (f.) nana iVTtttt. - 231 

A. microphpUa Pursh Fl. Am. 
Sep. 

4. (f.) fr^rans Swi, 231 

A. n^na Sons Bot. Mag-, not 
of others. 

5. (f.) croceo-lanata 231 

Taimy Bastard Indigo. 

6. (f.) canescens Nt, 232 
I t A. pubiscens Pursh. 

XL Eysknha'rdt/.* H. 

DalbSrgia. Spreng. SysL App. 

I. amorphoMes H, 232 

DalbSrglA amorphoides Spr. 

XIL Robi'n/^ L. 233 

The Locust Tree. — Pseud- 
acdeia Tourn. Inst., Moench 
Meth. : Bobinier, Fr. ; RobiniS, 
Ger. 

1. Pseiid-^cacia L, 233 

False Acacia. — JEsckynSmenc 
Pseudacdcia Roxb., PseuAacd- 
da odordta Mopnch Meth.: 
Locust Tree, Amer. ; Bastard 
Acacia, Robinier faux Acacia, 
Acacia Mkmc, Carouge des Am4- 
ricains.Fr.; gemeine Acade, 
Ger. ; Falsa Acacia, Itai. 

2 flore liktco Dwn. 234 

3 in6nnis Dee. - 234 

4 crispa Dee, - 234 

5 umbraculifera2>e.234 
R. inkrmis Dum. Court. 

6 tortuosa Dec . 234 

7 «opAor<vfolia L. C, 234 

8 amorphaefolia Lk. 2?4 

9 stricta Lk. - 234 

10 procera Lodd. Cat, 234 

11 p^ndula Ort. Dec. 234 

12 monstrosa L. C 234 
IS macrophylla L.C,2SA 

14 microphylla L. C. 234 
R. angusttfblia Hort. 

15 specUbifis 2>«fii. 234 
Acada agapante of th« 

French Nurseries. 

16 latisiliqua Pr. Cat,234 

2. viscdsa Vent, - 235 
R. glvtinbsa Bot. Mag.. R. 

numtma Bartram : Rose-Jlovf' 
ering Locust. 

3. dubia Fouc, - 236 
R. hjbrida Audlb., R. am- 

bigua Poir. Soppl., f R. eeki-. 



CONTENTS. 



Xf 



lfi]l.Dkt^Jt. 



4^ hispida L. - 236 
Boae Acacia. — R. rbtea V. 

Db Ham^^g. i—iiiihiii Baitr. 

Vof^ M»ekgmAma»e MapidM 

Soxb. 

2 lubia Hee. - - 237 
S »^6CA PkMA - 237 
4 microphylla D«c 237 
JL gi iwrfljyarc Hort. 

XILL C^^6^^/uL.237 

^beriio Pea Tree— iloMula 
1. arbor^scens Xom. 237 

5^rw^-w riftirtcn Baj: /bNtae 
^iMcir dip SiUrie, BMmie de 

Ft. ; Sibifiteke Erb- 

Genn. : 




2 inmnis Hart - 238 



S. (a.)^IAa^aiiaPoir.238 

BuKnlm Altagina PolE. A 
Bou^ VB6rit. SHrp.i Cara- 
gina wHkivpkjBa Lam. Diet. 

3. (a.) microph^IlaD.238 

MWa Mtcropi^Al0 PaU. Fl. 
rasiaa AJtag 



4. (a.) Redowski D. 238 
2 pne*coz /UdL - 239 

6.(B.)ara[iaria2>(mn 239 

6. firut^scens Dec. 239 

JfaMaii fnai$eem» Lin. Sp., 

Fatt. FL Boai.; C d^gUiia 

1 ktifilia . - 239 

2 amnistilSlia - 239 



l.(L)m6V&ABeu. 239 

Amiiala mSBiB Bleb. Fl. 
Tur. Scqml., RothA^ tomen^' 
Itoa FlKh. uort. Gorenk., Ca- 
9ar. mSlUs 



8. pyema a J>c. - 240 

Mmia pggmte^ Lin. Sp., 
FkD. FL Boia., Amm. Bnth. 
2 aienaria Itadb. . 240 

9. ^nnosa Dec, - 240 

Arfiaia jyiAiawi Lin. llant., 
AiJiwia jSra* Pail. FL Bom., 
Jbhirii iB^amiiti'iaii Laxm. 
Nov. Act. ret, Camgiiia/AncMr 
Diet. 



Chaml&gu VEtrit. Stirp^ N. 
Dm 



10. ^ragacantholdes 240 

Jfefiiada fr^gflBanMcOifef PaU. 
Vov. Act.Pet, AoMiria 
Lodd-Cat. 



IhiuUta Pair. -241 

IMUt^Jmbdim Pali, in Act. 
Ffet. Aalr., Lodd. Bot. Cab. 

12. gnndifldra D^c. 241 

Mai^gramdi/ldra Bleb. Fl. 



13L C3a«i/d^ Lam. 241 



XIV. Halimodis^ndron 

J^cA. 242 

Salt Tree. — Haiodindrom 
Dee. Mtei. Ined. in Soc. Plijrt. 
Gen., but not of Petit Thouara. 

1. arg^Dteiitn Dec. 242 
JZoAmU Halod6mdnm Lin. FiL 

Soppl., Pall. Fl. Rost., Cara- 
Bua argfntea Lam. in Pall. 
.Icin. ed. Gall. 

1 vulgire Dee, Pr. 242 

2 brachys^ma D.P. 242 

3 Siev^rstt - - 243 
H. Sievtna Fisek, 

2. (a.) subvir^ens 243 

AoMaia trmra L*H6rit. 
Stirp. Not., H. arghiieum 
tmbmr($cau Dec. Prod. 

XV. Calo'phacaF.243 
1. wolg^ca Fisch. 243 

Cptitmnigrieaiu Pall. Itin. ; 
CgHtmafitmitu* Pall. Fl.Roe. ; 
G^tinu toidtdfieu* Lin. FU. 
Suppl.. N. Da Ham. ; CotJbUa 
CKwarrica Lam. ; Adenocarpus 
too^huis Spreng. Syst. 

XVL OoLU^EA R. Br. 

Bladder Senna. — Bagme- 
mamUeTt Fr. ; BUuenbaumt 
Germ. ; Sauut/aUOy ItaL 

1. arbor^cens L. 244 

C. kintaa Roth Fl. Germ. 

2. (a.) cnienta Ait. 244 

Oriental Bladder Senna. — C. 
orientdUM Lam. Diet., N. Da 
Ham. *, C. soHgmmea Pall. ; C. 
Sptera Schmidt Arb. ; C. Ml- 
mOia Scop. 

3. M media Willd. 245 

4. (a.)hal^ppicaZfm.245 

C. PoedeUl Ait, Hart, Kew., 
Sekmidi, Arb. ; C. istria HUl. 
Diet. ; C. proeimbau L*H^rlt. 

5. nepalensis Hook. 245 

XVII. i^STRA^G ALUS Dc, 

Tbe Milk Vetch. — A«lr^- 
galmt 9p. of Lin. and others : 
Jstragalet Fr. ; TragarUt G«r. ; 
AMtragaiOt Ital. 

1. Tragacantha L. 246 

Great Goat's Thorn.— A. mof- 
$iUSn*ia Lam. Diet., Dec. Astr., 
Don's Mill. 

OAer t^neont Speda (tf As- 

ir6gahu A, altkicus Lodd. 

Cab., aristfttus L*B6r. Stirp., 
brerlfbUui Bot, Cab., massi- 
litesis Lam. (? A Tragae&i' 
Ha var.) - - -946 

Sect III. jSkDTSA^SJB. 

XVIII. COBONI'LLA N. 
CormMa sp. L. and others : 

CoromiOt, Fr. ; JCroMwfc^tf, 
Ger. ; Oinestra de Bo$co, Ital. 

1. E'merus L. - 247 

MTmerut miyor MU. Ic. t. 18S. 



f. L, jr. Mbwr Mil. Ic. t. I3S. 

1 &, C. jNiiie(|fdra Lam. FL Fr. 

2 juncea L. - p 248 

Sect. IV. Phaseolkm. 
XIX.WisTA^/>iN. 248 

Glycine ap, L., T/^»A»tku9 
Elliot, Ara^RAia iZ<|4n^ 

1 . fhit^scens Dec. " 249 

Gl^itne /haiscem Lin. Sp.. 
A>Aw JrtUiseeni Ph. FL Am. 
Sq)L, An6n§fmos fruf6$eens 
Walt. Fl. Car., fVist^na. tpe- 
cidsa Nott. Geu. Amer., TAyr- 
$a$tiAusfruti$eens Elliot Joum, 
Acad. Sci. Philad.. PAomo- 
loidrf Hort.AngL: TkeKidne^- 

2. chinensis Dtfc. - 249 

Glpeine ckinimu Bot. Mag., 
G.amhuia Bot Reg., If. Cms. 
se^K^na Z>o«Hion m li. B. 

Sect. V. Cassik^a. 
XX. Gledi^tsch/^ 249 

Ai:3c<a sp. Pluk.: Pkvier, 
Fr.; Gleda$ekie,Ger.iGledit- 
s^Ital. 

1. triac&nthos X. - 250 

The Honey Locust.— 6. tria- 
dntkoa 9ar. m poltftpfrma 
fifart. MUl. : G. meOobaWalt.; 
G. apindta Du Ham. ; Acdeia 
iriae&tUkM Hort. Acdeia ame- 
riedna Pluk. . Fivier tAmi- 
riqwe, Fr. ; Fa!ta amerieana 
Ital. ; TTkonuf Acacia, Sweet 
Zaet(«/,Unlted States; Caromge 
a iiiel, Canada. 

2 in^rmifl 2>«c. - 2.90 
O. to>/sHort. 

3 brachycirpa - 5250 
G, bradqfc&rpa Pursh. 
G. triaedntkot 9ar. fi Mx. 

2. (t.) monosp^rma 25 1 

llie Water Locusts— O. caro- 
UnSnsit Lam. Diet., O. agmd. 
tica Marsh, G, iriacdntkaGmtt. 
Fmct. 

3. sinensis £am. - 252 

G. AM-Hto Willd. Sp.: FSvier 
de la CUne, Fr. 

2 in^rmis iV. i>tt //: 252 
G.JapSnica Lodd. Cat 
G.iovantoi Lam. 

3 m^or ITort. - 252 
G.b6rridam4forljoi.Cat, 

4 Dana ^orf. - - 252 
6. kdrrida ndna H. Soc. 

5 purpiirea Hart, - 252 
G. k6rrida purpurea Lod. 

OtAer For. <2f G. sinSnsit, 
— G. chinfosis (Potts). 

4. (s.) macradiiitha 254 

G. Jerox Baodr. : FMer d 
groues E'pinea, Fr, 

5. (s.) ferox Derf, • 254 

G. orientdUa Bosc : F^rier 
UHssi, Fr. 

6. cispica Derf, - 254 

G. caapidaia Bosc. 
2 subvir^flcens ^orf. 254 
Fi9ier vard&tre, Fr. 



XVi 



CONTENTS. 



Other Sorts (^GleOltekim, — G. 
micrac&ntha Hori. Soc. Gard, , 
G. Bdmu Hort. Soc. Gard., 
G. prtf cox Hort. Soe. Oard., 
G. aquitica Lodd. (G. mono^ 
sp&ma)^ G. orlentklii I.otftf. 
(0.j9rox). 

XXI. Gymno'cladusX. 

1. canadensis Lam, 255 

Kentucky Coin»e Tree Gut'- 

landhMdioica Lin. Sp.; Hffper- 
amtkera dioica Vahl Svmb., 
Duh. Arb. : Nicker Tree, Stump 
Tree, United SUtes: Bonduc 
Cktqta'er, Fr.; Chicot, Canadian; 
Ceutadi4cherSchusserb€nan,Ger. 

XXn. (Tb'rcis L. 256 

The Jndas Tree Siliguas- 

trum Toum. Inst., Moench 
Meth. : GocMw. Fr. ; Judas. 
haum, Ger. ; Aibero de Giuda, 
Ital 

1. i^liqu&strumXr. 257 

Silimtostrum orbiculdiitm 

Mcench Meth.: Love Tree; 

Gamier eommtm, Arbre de 

Judte, Fr. ; ArM ^Amor^ 

Span. ; Judashamn, Ger. 

2 parviflorum 2)ee. 257 

S fldre 41bido . 257 

4 rosea - . 257 

2. canadensis L, 258 

Sib'quastntm eorddtum 

Ifcanch Meth. : Red Bird Tree, 
Amer. ; Gatnier de Canada^ 
Boutom rouge, Fr. 

2 pub^soens PA. . 259 

Sect I. Awranx^iLM Jiu. 

I. iluY^GDALUS 71 261 

The Almond Tree Aw^gdO' 

iSphora V9ck.i Amandier,rr. ; 
Mandelbamm, Get. ; Mandorto, 
Ital. 

1. nknaL. - - 262 

Prteaw •'Nerm/» GmeU A. 
nitna war., A. tw^drit Dec. : 
Amandier nain, rr. ; Zver^ 
chemandeL Ger. : Peschino della 
China, Itai. 

2 ge6rgica Dec • 262 
A. ge6rgiea Detf. Arb. 

3 caiDp&tris Ser, 262 
A. Mnqa^ifrtlt Better B* 

num., Hort. Fl. Aatt, 
Ixxld. Cat. 
A. BesserMaoL SdMt. in 
Cat. Hort. Vlndob.. 
1818, and Lodd. Cat. 

4 sibirica Lod. Cat. 262- 

2. inc^na Pall, - 263 

A ndna var. mcdna Gulden- 
itad and Arb. Brit., A. tomeitm 
insula Lodd, Cat, 

3. communisZf. - 263 
1 amira Dee, - 26S 

The bitter Almond. 
Amandier amer, Fr 
OemeineMande/baumGmrm 



2 d61cis Dee, - 264 
The tweet Almond. 
Amandier d petits Fruits, 

Amande douce, Fr. 
Susse Mandel, Ger. 

3 fl. pUno Bavm, C, 264 

4 fol. Tarieg. B, C 264 

5 frfigilis 5'«r. - 264 
A./ragais Hell. 
Amandier des Dames, "S, 

Du Ham., Noit. J. F. 
Coque moUe, Amandier d 

Cogue tendre, Fr. 
Abeilan, Provence. 

6 macrodlrpa Ser. 264 
Amandier d gros Fruiis' 

N. Du Ham., Noitette 
Jard. Fruit. 
Amandier Suitane, Anum. 
dter des Dames, Aman^ 
dier Pistache, Ft, 

7 petnc6\deA Ser, 265 
Amandier-Picher, N. Du 

Ham., Noitette Jard 

■ 

Other Varieties - .265 

4 orientalis Aii, - 265 

A. argtntea Lam. Diet., N. 
DuUam. 

II. Pe'rsica Tottm, 265 
The Peach Tree kmOgdalus 

sp. of L. A Just., Trtdlocar- 
pwf Neck. Elem.: PSeher, Fr.; 
i^rtcAmAottm, Ger.; Pesc»„ 
Ital. • 

1. vulg^s Mill, 266 

AmpgdaiusTirsica L. Sp.: 
P&«« duveteuse, Fr. j i^tcAe, 
Mor. 

1 The free-stone common 

Peach . 266 

Ptche, Ft, 

2 The cling-stone com- 

mon Peach 266 
Poole, Ft. 

3 fldre pldno Hort, 266 

4 ilba LindL 266 

5 foliisvariegitisK 266 

6 compr^ssa ITort 266 
TheAat Peach of China. 

2, (y.) laeVis Dec. 267 

The Nectarine Tree.-.Am4v. 
da/us Tersica Lam. Diet., A. 
TSrsica Neetarina Ait. Hort. 
Kew. : PSehe Usse, Brugnom, 
Ft, ; Peseo noee, Ital. 

1 The free-stone Nee- 

tarine - 267 

Ptche Usse, Fr. 

2 The cling-stone Nec- 

tarine - 267 

Brugnon, Fr. 

III. ^RUENfACA T. 267 
The Apricot — Tritnus sp. of 

Lin.and othert: AbHcotier, Fr.; 
Aprikosenbaum, Ger. ; AM. 
cocco, ItaL 

I. vulg^s Lam, 267 

PrftiiM Armeniaca Lfn.Sp.: 
AMcoeco americano, Ital. 
1 ovalifoUa Ser. 268 
Ahricot Atuommois, A, 
prieoee. A, hiame. Ft. 



2 cordiiolia Set. - 868 

3 foliis variegatis ^.268 

4 flore pidno Hoff. 268 

2. dasycirpa Tert. 868 

A. atropurviirea Lolt. in N. 
Du Ham., Prinus daspedrpa 
Ehrh. Beitr.. P. Armeniaea 
nigra Detf. Cat: ^ black 
Apricot. 

2 jwrsictfolia Xott. 269 
A. persieifdIiaL Don'tMiU. 
Abncot noir d PeuWes de 
PScher, Fr. 

3. (v.) sibirica Pen. 269 

PHb»tM sibirica Lin. Sp. 

4. (f.) brigantiaca P. 870 

Prftnw brigantiaca VilL 
DauDh.. Dec R. Fr., Loia. in 
N. Du Ham. 

Other ^edes qf Armeniaea.^ 
A. peduncuUta Led, - vo 

IV. pRu'NUS Toum. 870 

vr^* JH"™- — ^runSphora 
Neck. Elem., Prftmw sp. of 
L. and othert i Prunier, Ft. ; 
^fj/ltfww, Ger. ; Pmno, Ital. 

1. spindsaZr. - 271 

Common Sloe Thorn.— P. m/^ 
r^«rr/* Fuch. Hitt., Ray Syn. : 
Blackthorn : Prunier tpinettr, 
PruneUier, E'pine noire, or 
Mere-dU'Sois, Fr. ; SchUa- 
dom, or Schlen PJIaum, Ger. 2 
Prugno or Prunello, Ital. 

1 vulgaris Ser, - 271 
P. spinbsa Loit. 

2 foliis varieg. Ser. 271 

3 microc&rpa WaHr. 271 

4 macrocdrpa ^^Eflr. 271 
5oyata Ser. - 271 
6 fldre pl^no - 271 

2. insitftia L, - 27E 
TheBulIace Plum P. *«/- 

ee*m> prai'coe dltwr Tourn- 
r.ssfMstrismdforR^y: Pm^ 
nier sauvage,FT. i A/fatous in 
Dauphlny; KirschenPjlaume, 
Ger. 

1 frticiu nlgro ffrt. 272 
2f. likteo-^bo /rr<. 272 

3 fructu riibro^rf. 273 

4 flore pldno Deic, 273 

3. dom^tica L, • 273 

P. sathfa Fuchi ft Ray : Prai. 
m'er domestigue, Fr. ; gemettse 
Pflaume, Ger. ; 5ta«io dbMc*. 
IKO, Ital. 

2 flore pWno Hort, 273 

3 foliis variegatis ^.273 

4 ormenibides iSer. 273 

4. (d.)myrobalana£.274i 

P. Myrobdlan Du Ham., P. 
murobaiana Lolt., P. ceras\fera 
Ehrh. Beitr.: VirginianCherrw, 
Barly Scarlet Plum : PrwUer 
Myrobalan, or Cerisetie, Fr. 4 
Kirschpfiamne, Ger. 

2 foliis Tar. N, DuB. 974 

5. cdndicans JBal^ 275 



CONTENTS. 



XVll 



6. Cocow^Ua Tenore 275 

f . maritiina Wangen. 275 
? P. aOHBthi^la Mx. FL Bor. 



fe. pabesceoji Poir. 276 
9. diYaricata Led, 276 

0cherS^«cK*4fPrftintf - 376 



V. Ce^rasus Juss. 276 

The Cherry — Lammctraswa 
Toarn.. Prflwwi jp. L. : Ce- 
ri$itr, Fr. ; Xincke, Ger. ; CY- 
&2to» ItaL 

§ i. Cerai^pAora Dec. 
The Cfacri7-tieariiig KiodA. 

A. Speda cmltiMxtfd/or tMHr 
Fruit. 

\.s\\v&ia\&Bauh. 277 
SpiiB W fwr i amd Garden 
3itfMf> — C. ovnov If (men, 
K. Dq Ham.. Don's MiU. ; C. 
^ign WSL Dice, aoK of Alt. ; 
Vrkmm nimm Lin. Sp. ; P. 
nwBMr.B^^WUld. Baiim. ; 
P.aiaH Mr. ^ ^ X Eng. Flor. ; 
P. mtgrieiau aai. P. v^nVi Ehrb. 
Bcitr.: Gtan, Bigarremt, Co- 
TiMt, CcToom, Smail Stack. 
ISaek Her^ardMrey Biaek 
Hart, Stack Mmxard, Ike 
Merrf Tru of the Cheshire 
Maiasu; ike Sierrie* in Suf- 
iilk: Mfrisier, Merise grtuse 
tnire, Gn^mer, Bigarreatttiert 
Himmkr, Ft. ; Skue Kt'rscke, 
Ger. i Ctrtjfiolo, Jtal. 

1 Merisiers or Merries 

277 

2 Gulgniera or Gean.s 
(C./afi(Ua2>ec.)277 

3 Heauouers, the hel- 

OKt-cbaped Cherries 
(C. JuiiAna. Tar. 
heftamjina DcS) 278 

Var. far Ornament. 
C. a. duracina 2 ^ore 

pleno Ilort. - 278 
Ueriueri Flettrsdoukfrs, 

or Mtrisier Benuncu- 

ber, Fr. 

4 Bigarreautiers, the 

Bigarreaua, or hard- 
fleshed Cherries ^C. 
chrddjia Dec.) 278 

2. nilgaris Mill. - 278 

, St/memjfmet and Garden 

Samea. — dr. dvmm Morach ; 

Prtew CiratuM Un. Sp. ; C. 

ionhuis Pen, Sjm. : C. capro- 

^ Dte. Prod., Don's IhU. ; 

P. aasiera sod P. adda Ehr. 

Beitr. ; P. ChoMat 9ar. n Eng. 

fwr.: Ckerry^KentiskorFlem- 

n* Orrry, Morello, Mag Duke: 

CoTv ^ MoiUmorency, Cerise 

* Psra, On'sr a Frwit rondSy 

t/nrifr ^ AV^rrf, Cerister. and 

^"►attwr in some proriiices, 

Fr. ; Samre Kirscke, Germ. ; 

••««». sr CiZwg/o, luL 



Ornamental Varieties. 

2 flore semipleno if. 279 

3 fldre pl^no Hort. 279 

4 jsersicifldra .fibrt. 279 

5 foliis Tariegatis £r.279 

Fruit.bearini[ Varieties. 

Selection exemplifjfing tke 
d(fftreni forms wkick ike 
varieties of tke cultivated 
ckerries assume^ standard 
(m**.— The Bigarrrau.Bot. 
ner's Yeltow, the Kentish 
Cberry. the Mar Duke, the 
Morello, D'Ostheim - 379 

6 Mardscka - - 280 
Prima Martacha Jaeq. 

B. Species or Varieties culti- 
vated as ornamental or cu* 
rious. 

3. (v.) semperfldrens 281 

frknus sempefjldrens Ehrh. 
Beitr.. P. serStina Roth Catal.: 
tke Weeping Cherry, tke AIL- 
saints Ckcrry : Cerise de la 
Tbussaint, Cerise de St. Martin, 
Cerise tardive, Fr. 

4. sernilata (;. i>o» 281 

VrUnus serruldta, Lindl. 
Hort. Trans : tke double Cki- 
nese Ckerry: Yung-To^ Chinese. 

6. Pseudo-Cerasus 282 

PrJbmf PseUdO'Cirasvs 
Lindi. Hort. Trans.; T.pani. 
euldta Ker Bot Reg., but not 
of Thunb. ; Yung-To, Ckinese. 

6. Ctiamaecerasus L. 282 

Siberian Clierry — C. inter' 
media Poir. Diet. ; F.frutiebsa 
Pali., arcording to Beiser ; Co- 
rona pkmila C. Bauh., accord- 
ing to Pall. Fl. Ross. ; Chanue- 
eirasus/ruticdsa Ten. Syn. 

7. prostrata jS^. - 282 

Pr&ntMprosfrd/aHort. Kew. 
and Lab. PI. Syr. Dec^ P< in- 
cdna Stephen in Mem. Soc. 
Mosq. 

8. ©ersicifolia Lois. 283 
rritnus persicifdh'a Desf.Arb. 

9. borealis Mchx. - 283 
Vrknus borealis Poir. Diet. : 

tke Nortkem Choke Ckerry, 
Amer. 

10. piiinila Michx. - 283 

YrUnus pUmila Lin. Mant., 
Pui^sh Fl. Amer. Sept. ; C^- 
rasus gla6ca Moench Meth. : 
Ragtuuninier, Hega, Menel du 
Canada, Fr. 

11. (p.) deprdssaPA. 2*^4 

C. pikmila Mich. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., not Primus ptinnila L. 
P. SusquekAruB Willd Enum. 
ed. 3. : Sand Cherry, Amer. 

12. pygmae'a Lvii. 284 

Triiniu ppgme^ a Willd. Sp., 
Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. 

13. nigra Lois. - 284 

VrUnus nigra Ait. IIort.Kew., 
Pursh Fl, Amer. Sept.. P. 
americdna Darlington in Amer. 
I I.yc.N.H. of New York. 



14. hyeinklis Michx. 285 

PHbsM Ay^md/w Michx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer., Pursh Fl. Amer. 
SepL, Elliot Carol. : tke black 
Ckoke Ckerry, Amer. 

15. chicasa Midix. - 285 

PrJhiiM diieasa Pursh Fl. 
Amer. Sept., P. insititia Walt. 
Carol.: Ckickasaw Plum in 
Carolina. 

16. pubescens Ser, - 285 

Trhnus pubiscens Ph. Fl. 
Amer. Sept. and Lodd. Cat. ; 
P. spkicrocSrpa Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., not of Swarts. 

17. pennsylvanica L. 286 

Yrhnus pen$uulvdnica L. fil. 
SuppL, Pursh ¥1. Amer. Sept., 
Willd. Baum. ; P. laneeoliUa 
Willd. Abb. 

18. jap6nica Loit. - 286 

vAmus Japdniea Thunb. Fl. 
Jap. and Lindl. in Bot. Reg., 
P sinfnsis Pers. Ench. 

2 miiltiplex Ser. - 286 
AmCgdalus pkmila Lin. 
Blant. 

19. sinensis G. Don 287 

20. *alicina G. Don 287 

PHknact tatia'nn Lindl. in 
Hort. Trans. : Cking-Cho-Lee, 
or Tung' Ckok- Lee, Chinese. 

Species belon/png to ike preced' 
tag Subdivtson (B.), not vet 
introduced.^ C. Phdshia Ha- 
railt., Trknus cerasoides D. 
Don, C^rofM* Pdddum JRoxb., 
C. glandul5sa, C. ispera, C. 
inclsa Lois., C. biimills Mor. 

§ ii. Vadiviri Ser. 

The true Bird- Chprry Kinds of 
C£rasu8. 

A . Species <^ Bird- Cherry Trees 
already in Cultivation in 
Britain, 

21. Mahdleb Mill. - 288 
TrknusTAahtkleb L. Sp.: Bois 

de Sarnie Lude, or Prunier otlo- 
rani, Fr. ; Makalebs-kirscke, 
Ger.; Ciliegio canmo, Ital. 

2 friictii flavo Hort. 288 

3 latifolium Hort. 288 

22. Padus Dec. - 289 
Pri^cM Vddus Lin. Sp.» 

Hook. Brit. Flora, Smith's 
EngL Flora : Bird-Cherry, 
Fowl Ckerry, Hag-berry Swt. : 
Cerpsier 4 Grappes, Mertsi<r 
d Grappes, Laurier-Puticr or 
Puiiet, faux Bois de Ste. Lucie, 
Fr. ; Haff.bier, Swedish ; Trau- 
beden Kirsche, Ger. ; Ciliegio 
ramosa, Ital.^ 

1 vulgaris Ser. - 289 
C. Vddus Dec, N. DuHm. 

2 parviflora Ser. - 289 

3 riibra Ser. - 290 
C. Vfhlus ftHctu rkbro 

Dec. & Lois. 
PrtbiiM riibra W., accord- 
ing to Ait H. K. 2d ed. 

4 bracteo^ Ser. - 290 
ViUius racimosa Hort. 



XVIU 



CONTENTS. 



23. virgimana Mx. 291 

Vrimu* rUbra Ait Hrt. Kew. 
1st ed.. WlUd. Abb. ; P. argiua 
Blgelow in Litt : Cermer de 
Vir/iinte, Fr. ; Virginisehe 
Kinche, Ger. ; Wild Cherry 
Tree, Atner. 

24. (v.) ser6tinaL*.291 

American Bird-Cherry Tree. 
^TrUmu i€r6tina W\\\d. Ab., 
P. virgiru'dna Mill. Diet. 

2 retuisa Ser. - 292 

25. m6Uis Doug. - 292 

26. CapoUin Dec. - 292 
TrUnus virginiiina Flor. 

Mexic. Ic. and MSS., P. cana. 
dhuit Moc. et Setse PI. Mex. 
Ic. ined.. Hem. Mex. 

27. nepalensis Ser, 293 
Tritmu gluwifhUa Wall. 

MSS. 

B. Svfcifi of Bird- Cherry Trees 
which have not vet been in- 
troduced, or (if which we have 
not seen Plants. — C acumi- 
nilita fVall,^ C. emarglnjlta 
Doug., C. caprictda G. Don 
(P. caprictda Wall., P. un- 
dutdta liamtU. In D. Don's 
Prod. Nepal., C. undulata 
Dec.). C. canadensis Lois., 
C. elUptlca Lois., C. panlcu. 
Uta Lois. - - - 2B3-4 

§ iii. LaurocSrcui, 
The Laurel-Cherry Trees. 

28. luHitanica Loit, 294 

Common Portugal Laurel. <>• 
PrftntM lusitanica Lin. Sp. : 
the Cherry Bay : Cerisier Lau- 
rier du Portugal, Fr. ; Axarei- 
ro, Portuguese. 

2 Hixa Ser. - 294 

TrUnus Htxa Broussonet. 
P. inultiglanduSbsa' Cay . 
C. }lixzlV.etB.Hist.C. 

29. Laurocerasus L. 295 
Common Laurel..— PHknia 

Lauroc6rasus Lin. Sp. : Cherry 
Bay, Cherry iMurel : Laurier 
au Lait, Laurier Cerisier, Lau- 
rier Atnandier, Fr. ; Kirsche 
jAfrbeer, Ger. ; Lauro di Tre- 
bisonda, ItaL 

2 varlegata Hort, 295 

3 angustifob'a Hort. 295 

.30. caroliniana Mx, 296 

Fritnus caroliniina Ait Hrt. 
Kew., P. semperv\rens Wllld. 
Knum., VdduscaroUniilnaWXL 
Diet. : Wild Orange, Amer. 

Sect II. Svi^MKM, 
VI. Pu'rsh/^ Dec. 297 

Tigarea PA. Fl. Amer. Sept., 
not of Aublet 

1 . tridentita Dec. - 297 
Tigarea tridentdta Pb. Fl. 
Amer. Sept., not of Aublet. 

Vri. K^'rria Dec. 298 

U.hbTU L., C^rchorus Tbunb., 
Spiraea Camb. 



I.'jap6nica/>ec. - 298 

Riibus Jap6nicus Lin. Mant., 
C6rchorus jap6nicus Thunb. 
Fl. Jap., Spirar'a japdnica 
Camb. Ann. Sci. Nat. : Spirte 
du Japon, Fr. 

2 flore pUno 298 

VIII. Spikje'a L. - 299 

Spiraea sp. Cambessedes 
Mon. Splr. in Ann. Sci. Nat. : 
Spirde, Fr. ; Spierstaude, Ger. 

§ i. Physoearpos Camb. 

1. opulifolia L. - 299 

Vtrginittn Guelder Rose, 
Nine Bark, Amer.; Evonimo 
del Canadd, Ital. 

2 toment^Ua Ser. - 300 

3 mon6gyna - 300 
S. monogyna Torrey. 

2. capitata Ph. - 300 

S. opuiifblia var. Hook. 

§ ii. Chanue'dryon Ser. 

3. chamasdrifolia L. 300 

S. cantonihtsis Lour. 

1 vulgaris Cam. 3f on. 300 

2 mddia Ph. Fl Am. 
Sept.y Camb. Man. 300 

3 oblongifolia CM. 301 
S. oblongifblia Waldst et 

Kit. Pi. Hung. 

4 subracemosa Ser, 301 

5 incisa Hort. - 301 
S. diama:dri. latifdlia Ht. 

4. (c'.)«lmif6lia5r7;.30l 
S. chamadrifblia Jacq. Hort 

Vindob. 

2.phyll&ntba Ser, 301 

5. (c.) flexuosa Fit, 301 

S. alpma Hort Far. accord- 
ing to Camb. & Fisch. In Litt., 

5. sibirica Hort. 

Varieties or Sunonymes. — S. 
flexudsa latuitliii Hort., S. 
dadrlca Hort., S. ulM(flUia, 
S. carplnlfblia, S. tetulsefblia, 
in Messrs. Loddiges's Collec- 
tion - - - - 308 

6. (c.) f ratffigifolia L.302 

7. (c.)ietulaEf6liaP.302 

? S. corymbdsa Raf. In Desv. 
Jouru., 'r S. cratagifbUa Lk. 
Enuin. 

8. cuna Waldst. et K, 302 

9. trilobata L. - 303 

S. triloba Don's Mill. 

10. alpina Pall. - 303 

11. Aypericifolia X)r?. 303 
lAypiricum fr^Oex Hort. : 

Italian May. 

1 ural^nsis Ser. - 303 
S. crendta Lin., Fisch. in 

Lltt, and Don's Mill. 
S. hypericifblia Camb. M. 

2 Plukenettafuz Sr. 304 
S. hyprn'ci/blia Lin. Sp., 

Ph., Don's Mill. 
S. li. var. $ Dec. Fl. Fr. 



3 acuta Ser. - - 304 
S. acutiJbUa Wllld. Knm.« 

Camb. Mon., and D. M. 

S. sibirica Hort Par., ac- 
cording to Camb. Mua. 

S. ambigua Pall. 

4 crenata Ser. - S04 
S. obovdta Waldst. et Kit. 

? in Willd. En., Camb. 

Monog., Barr. Ic. Bar. 
S . hypericifblia y Dec. Fl . 
S. crendta Lin. Sp., Cam. 

Mon.. Don's MiL, Lo. C. 

5 savr&nica Ser. - 304 
S. savranica Besser in 

Litt.. Don's Mill. 
S. creniUa Pall. Fl. Rou. 
S. hypericifblia var. fi Ion. 

gifbUa Led. Fl. R. A. lU. 

6 Bessenana Ser. 304 
S. ereniita in Litt. 

S. savrSniea BetserikiM 
Don's MiU. 

Other Varieties or Shjfnot^fmea. 
— S. Inflexa (Hort. Soc. 
Gard.), S. obuvita Wendland 
(Hort Soc. Gard.), 5. ar- 
g^ntea (Lodd. Collection), S. 
cuneJita (tfo.), S. ndna (do.}, 
S. alplua (do.), S. acutifblla 
(do.), S. decf&mbens (do.) 304 

12 (A.)^halictrdide8 305 

S. aqwlegifblia Pall. Itin., S. 
hypericifbtta var.Jldpo, and S. 
afyina latifbtia. 

13. cuneifolia Wall. 305 

S. caniscens Don. Prod., Dec 
Prod., Don's Mill. ; S. arghttets 
Hort 

14. pikowiensis Bet. 305 

15. ceanothifblia Hn.'d03 

16. corvmbdsa Raf. 306 
2 sororia - - 306 

S. sorbria Pen. In Ht. Br. 

17. racciniifolia Z) J>.306 

S. adiantifblia Hort. 

18. laxifldraLzW/. 306 

19. bella Sims. - 306 



§ iii. Sptrdria Ser. 
20. <alicif6Iia L. - 307 

Spiree^a/rktex Hort. : Bride- 
wort, Queen's Keedtetcork. 

1 cirnea Ait. Ht. K. 307 

2 alpestris Pal Fl. 307 
S. alpfstris Don's Mill. 

3 paniculata WiUd. Sp.y 

AU. H, K. - 307 
S. alba Ehrh. Beitr. 

4 latifoHa Willd. Sp. 307 
S. obovdta Raf. in Litt., 

not of Walldst et Kit. 
accordinff to Willd. En. 
S. carrintfulia Willd. En., 
Don's Mill. 

5 grandiflora - 308 
S. grandiflbra Lod. Bt. C. 

6 taurica - - 308 
S. taurica Hort. 

Other Varieties or Synonymes, 
— S. canadensis, S. ttrtice- 
fblia, S. lacinlilta, S. chams- 



CONTENTS, 



XIX 



drifblU, S. UoceolUa, 5. 
cm7|»inifblta, 5. reflexa, S. bu 

21. Menziesa Hook. 308 

22. tomentosa L. - 308 

S. DougidMii Hook, FL Bor, 



23. lasTigata L, - 30.9 

S. aUaicinsi$ Lax. Nor. Act. 
Petrop.. S. alxdiea Pall. FI. 



24. oriaeiolia iSini;;^ 309 

$ IT. Sorharia Ser. 

25. jorfnfdlia i. - 309 

MomchSfetb. 



2a]pinm PaLFLR. 309 
S- gramdijibra Swt. H. Br. 

26. Iixi<ileyajiaWal.3J0 
A Seittiiam pfSBtda . aiO 



Sect. III. PomtTi'Li. 



IX. J?U*BCS i. - 311 

The Bramble— iloncr.i^dm. 
te^<T. Fr. ; Himbeere, Brom- 
fecracroni, Cer. ; Bcmo, luL 

S L XeoMv penofe, o^S — 7 
fai/lete. 

1. auberectus ^mi^. 31 1 

R. iKoesMr HaU., R. pt^dtms 
•* - A N., not of SuppL to Hng. 
Bqc_ which is a muJJer fonn of 
h atflidi JF. f ^. ; R. coty/ii 
/?.^fe« Wahlcaberg. The whole 
axKwdiDg tt» Uadl. Syn. of the 
Brit. Fl. 

2. affiiiis W.Sf N.^ 312 

B. coffiasf Dec. ; R. fuftUw 
Sailth io Eng. Fl.. LlndL in 
Stb. Br. fl cd. 1.; R. pliedtma 
B«Ttr a En^. Bot. SuppL 

2 bracteosus Ser. . 312 
R. e. y ft a W. ft N. RaU 



7. cae^sius L, - 314 

The Devberry. 
S ar\'ensis ff^. ArA. 315 
R. pscfdtf>c<rVim WHhe. 

3 grandiflorus Ser, 315 

4 piu-vifolius fTol. ^\5 

5 fol. varieg. ^orf. 315 

8. cor>Iifoiius SnM 315 

R. vmigariM W. ft N., R. 
memorHtua Hejme. 

2 canus Wai 315 

3 giaudulosus IT. 315 

R gloMduldsuM Spreng. 
Aeeordmg to Dr. Lindley, the 
faUotomg Bn'tuk kinds qf 
nkdtumojf beatsociatedtcith 
R. corytifblhu Smith, either 
at related nedeB^ or at wf 
rieties : — A. macroph^Uus 
FF. * if., R, eBTpinll^Iiua W. 
\N., R. Wico-Ater W. & K., 
». KS^leri W. ft N.(R. iiiA- 
tidut W. ft N.), R. fflandu. 
Iftaui Smith, R. riidl* W,M N. 
(R. echiHdttulAadl. Stu. ed. 
I., Hort. Brit), R. diversl- 



i 



a micraDtfaus i>. Dr. 3 1 2 

R. fomd/drus Land, in Bot. 
B«3^ Mort. Brit. 

4. ocddentalis L. - 313 

R. MiriFnMdiHU Hort., R. 
tdie'm fihieim n^ro Dill. : the 
Amaericam BramSu. 



5. Jds'ns Z/. - - 313 

Tbp coennoa Raapberry. — B. 
' '^ Lam. Fl. Fr. : 
Fr ; gemeine 
re. Germ.; Frambo, 
mL ; Ao4p>«, Pramboiie, 
ny md e -herrf/, Johns. Ger. 

2 microphallus f^. 313 

Otrdem Tar*. ~ Red-fmited, 

YeUoV'fruited, White- fruit- 
ed, and ooe vhJcb bears twice 
Qthe j«w. 

f 5. Lanet dligitaU^ of 
3 — Sleafidtu 

e. hsia&tus W, - 314 



fWiiM LindLSmt. ed.l., (R. 
drversifdihu Weihe, Hort. 
Brit.) - . -316 

9. spectdbilis Ph, 316 
R. ribt/dMu Willd. Herb. 

10. fruticosus L. - 316 

Thecommon Blackberry R. 

disev/or ft R abri^tmt iu Lindl. 
Syn. of Brit Fl.ed. 1.: Ronee 
commune, Fr.j Rankende Htm- 
beere, Ger.j Row Momtano, 

2 pompdnius Ser. 3 1 6 

R,/ruticd$u9 * W. ft N. 
8 ta6ricus /Torf. 317 

4 fl^re roseo-pl^no 
jBowr. Cat . 317 

5 foliis variegatis 317 

6 leucocdrpus Ser. 317 

11. hlspidusZf. . 317 
R. trivitUit Michx. FI. Bor. 

Amer., R.procimbem Hiihl.. 
ILftageUdrU Willd. 

§ iiL Leaves iobed, noipin~. 
fuUe or dUgUate. 

12. odoratusZr. * 317 

YLoccideni^a Hort., bat not 
of Lin. : the Virginian Ra$p~ 
berrif, the,tlowering Ra$pberry: 
Ronee odorante, Fr. ; Row del 
Canaddy ItaL 

13. nutkanu.s Moc. 318 

R odordtut Hort, not Lin. 

Species and Varieties qf Rd- 
bus best deserving qf CtUtiva- 
tion in British Gardens, as oma^ 
mental Shrubs - > 183 

Other Sorts qf ShmbbuRubuses. 
—R. macropetalua Dtn^. MS. 
in Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., R. 
dellciftwt Torrejf in Ann. 
Lye, R. tniicem Smith In 
Reel's Cyd. (R. eordifdUus 
D. Don) . . 319 

X. Potbnti'lui L. 319 

The Shrubby Cinquefoil.— 
a 2 



PoteniiUe, Fr j Fingerkraut, 
Ger. 

1. fruticosa L. •319 

2 dahurica Ser, - 320 
P. dahurica Nest Pot. 
P.fruticdsa fi Lehm.Pot. 

3 tenuiloba Ser. - 320 
P.fruticdsa fi Nestl.Pot., 

Lehm. Pot. 32. var. >, 
P. Jlorib6nita Pursh Fl. 

Aroer. Sept, Watson 

Dend. Brit., 
P. tenutfblia Schlectend. 

Berl. Mag. 

2. glabra Lodd. - 320 

P. fruticdsa alba Busch. 

3. Salesovii Steph. 320 

CoMARUM pal6stre L. 

320 
PotentiUa Cbmarum Scop. 

XI. CowA^/^ D. Don. 
l.plicata D.Don 321 

Sect. IV. iZo'sEjB Dec. 

XII. JZo'sA Toum, 321 

The Rose Tree. ^Rhodd- 
pAoraNeck. Elem.: Rosier, Fr.; 
Rosenstock, Ger. ; Rooxeboom, 
Dutch ; Rosi^o, Ital. ; Rosai, 
Span. ; Rosiera^ Portuguese. 

§ L Ferdces Lind. Monog. 
1. ferox Laivr. . 322 

R. kamtsch&tica Red. Ros., 
R. kamtschatica fi/eror Ser. in 
Dec. Prod., R. cchindta Du- 
pent. 

S nltens LindL in Bot. 

Reg., Ser. in Dec. 

Prod. - - 322 

2. (f.) kamtschatica 322 

§ ii. Braetedta. 

3. bracteata Wend/, 323 

Lord Macartney's Rose. 

2 scabricaulis JLtitd.323 

3 flore pleno Hort. 323 

4 MariaLeonidalT. 323 

' 4. microph^llai?ar&. 323 

Hoi-ton/i-.hong^ Chinese. 

5. involucrata Jioxb. 324 

R Lindleykna. Tratt. Ros., R. 
pal4stris Buchan. (Ham.) MS. 

§ ilL Cinnamdmea Lindl. 

A. Species Natives of North 
America. 

6. liicida Ehrh. - 324 
R. rW>ra lUcida Rosslg. Ros., * 

R. lUcida Jacq. Fragra. : Rose 
Turneps ; Rosier d Peui/les de 
Prine, Fr. 

7. nltida W. . .S25 

R. Redutea. rttfiscens Thory 
in Red. Ros. : the dwarf La- 
brador Rose. 



XX 



CONTENTS. 



d. i2apa Bosc - 325 

R. tirgida Pen. Bnch., R. 
'rnxini/bUa Dumont in Coun. 
ut. Cult. 

. par vj flora Ehrh, 325 

liie Pennsylrantan Rote.— R. 

hUmilU Marth Arb., R. caroli' 

nihna Mich. Fl. Bor. Amer., R. 

caroUrui y eti Alt. Hort. Kew. 

2 flore pleno Red. B, 326 
lO./raxinifolia Bork, 326 

R. virginidna Mill. Diet., R. 
blanda « Sol. MS., Jacq. Frag., 
K. cor^n6d.vaBosc.Dict.d* Agr., 
K. alphta fi Ait. Hort. Kew., 
R. alphta Uf^via Red. Rm., 
Lawr. Ros. 

Other North American SpecieM. 
—R. \Vo6daJi Lindl., B. Ca- 
rolina Lin.t R, LLndldy^ 
Spreng. 

B. Spxie$ Native$ qf Nepal. 

11. raacrophyilaL.326 

C. Spedei Native* qf Continental 
Europe. 

12.cinnam6ineaJ?f«/. 326 

R. faecundhstma Muncli. 
IlauKT., R. mqfdiis Henn.Diss. 

Ot/ier European Species not 
Natives of Britain.— R. fru- 
tet6rum Be*s.^ /I.ta6ricaA>6. 
and B. dahtxrica PaU. 327 

O. Species Natives qf Britain. 

13. (c.) mamlis Retz. 327 

R. miUica Fl. Dan., R. spi^ 
norissima Gorter. Ingr., R. col- 
lincola Klirh. Beitr., R. cinna- 
mdmea Eng. Bot. 

14. Bicksoniana L. 327 

§iv. PimpineUifdluBUndl, 
A. Species Natives of Europe. 
IS.alplnalr. - - 328 

R. rupistris Crania. Austr., 
R. monspcQaca Gouan Monsp., 
R. intrmis Mill. Diet., R. hp. 
brida Vill. Dauph., R. Inge- 
n^ria VIU.. R. bifldra Krok. 
FL Sib. 

2 lae'vis Sir. not Desv. 

or Red. - 328 

R. SanguisSria nu^fdris, 

4c., Dill. Elth. 
R. alphta glhbra Detv. 
R. a. vulgdris Red. Ros. 

3 speciosa Hort. 328 
Drummond's Thomless. 

Other Varieties. • 328 

16. suavis Willd. - 328 

17. sulphurea Ait. 329 

R. hemisphtrica Hcrm.Dls*., 
R. glaucophylla Ehrh. Bcitr.. 
ISibsa UUea fio ^e pleno Rai Hist., 
R. liuea Brot. Fl. Lus. : the 
double yellow Bose. 

18. sanguisorbifol J>. 329 

R. spinosissima var. sangui. 
sorbifbba Lindl. Ros., R.spittos. 
var. fnatropk^lla Scr. in Dec. 
Prod. 



B. Species Natives qf Siberia. 

19. grandifldra LindL 329 

R. pimpinellifblia Bieb. Fl. 
Taur. 

C. Species Natives qf North 
America and Siberia., 

20. lutehcens Fvrth 329 
R. hispida Curt. Bot. Mag. 

2 1 . my riac^ ntha Dec. 330 

R. parv^ia Pall. Ross. ?, 
'SLprovincidlis Bieb. FLTaur. ?, 
R. spinosissima var. j| myria- 
cantha Ser. in- Dec. Prod. 

22. revdrsa IV. <J- K. 330 

D. Species Natives qf Britain, 

23. spinosf ssima Zr. 330 

Tlie Scotch Rose. 

Varieties ... 330 

24. ruWUa 5^;nJ/A - 331 

25. hib^rnica Smith 331 

26. Wf Isoni Borr. - 33 1 

27. involuta SmUh - 331 
R. nivdlis Donn Hort. Cant. 

28. SaWni Woods - 332 

Var.—B. S. gr4clUs H. S. 

29. Donirina Woods 332 
R. Sabm\ LindL Ros. 

§ v. CentifiUcB Lindl. 

30. damascena Mill. 332 

The Damask Rose. — R. bet- 

S'ca Mill. Diet. ; R. calenddrtim 
[unch. HausT. ex Bork. Holz., 
Rosslg. Ros. ; R. b^era Poir. 
Ruppl., Red. Ros. : Rose d 
quatre Seasons. 
Varieties . . - - 333 

31. centifolia L. - 333 
The Provence, or Cabbage, 

Rose. — R. provincidlts Mill. 
Diet., R. polyanthos Rossig. 
Ros., R. caryophyllea Poir. 
Suppl., R. unguieuJ^a Desf. 
Cat., R. vdrians Pohl. Bohem. 

1 provincidlis Mill. 333 
The Provence, or Cabbage, 

Roses I among which are, 
the royal and cabbage blush, 
the carmine, the cluster, the 
Duchesse d'Angouleme, the 
Provence (of which there 
are upwards of 20 subvars.), 
the prolific, the striped nose, 
gay, and the Versailles. 

2 muscosa Mill, - 334 
The Moss Bases; among 

which are, the common 
single, the common double, 
the blush, the dark, the 
striped, the white, the 
crested moss, and many 
others. 

3 pompdnia Dec. - 334 

The Pompone Bases N. 
Du Ham., R pompbnia Red. 
Ros. ; among which are, the 
Rose de Mcaux, the mossy 
de Meaux, the dwarf, and 
small Provence, the Rose 
de Rheims, and the com- 
mon and proliferous pora. 
pone. 



32. gillica L. - 334 

R. centtfbb'a Mill Diet, R. 
sylvdtica Gater. Mont, R. rit- 
bra Lam. FL Fr., R. hoUtse- 
ricea Rossig. Ros., R. b6lgica 
Brot Fl. Lus., R. blanda Brot. : 
Rose de ProvinSt Fr.; Essig 
Rose, Ger. 

Varieties - - - 834 

§ vi. ViUdsiB. 

A. Natives of Middle Europe, 
not (tf Britain. 

33. turbinata Ait. - 335 

The Frankfort R<ise.— R. cons- 
pttnuliUa Ehrh. Beitr., ¥Lfiran~ 
eq/ortidna Munch. Hausv., R. 
ftran<;furUnsis Rossig. Ros. 

1 francofurtdna Ser. SS5 

2 orbessina Ser. - 335 

34. ftlba L. ' - 336 

R. usitatissima Gat Montaut>. 

B. Natives qf Europe and 
Britain. 

35. villdsa L. - 336 

R. mdllis Sm. in Eng. Bot., 
R. towentbsa $ Lindl. Roa., R. 
hetcrovhylla Woods, R. pomt- 
/era Herm. Diss. 

Varieties . - - 836 

36. tomentdsa Sm. - 336 

R. vWbsa Ehrh. Arb.. Du 
Roi Harbk., Fl. Dan. ; R. tnoi- 
lissima Bork. Holz. ;. R. di»&ia 
Wibel Wirth.; R. viUdsa 
Huds. 

§ vii. RubiffindseB Lindl. 

A. Species Natives qf Britain. 

37. rubiginosa L, - 337 

The Sweelbriar, or Eglan- 
tiue. — R. suavifbHa Lightf. 
Scot., Fl. Dan. ; R. Eglant^ria 
Miil. Diet., Lin. Sp. ed. 1. ; 
R. agrislis Savi Fl. Pis.; R. 
rubigiubsa parvifidra Kau. 
Enum. 

Varieties - - - 337 

38. micrantha Sm. - 337 

R. rubigindsa 6 micrantha 
Lindl. ,Ros., with erroneous 
synonymes. 

39. sepium Thuil. - 337 

R.helvitiea and R. myrtifblia 
Hall., R. can}na Dec. FL Fr. 
ed. 3., R. agrSstis Savi PM. Pis. 
R. biscrrdta Mer. FL Par. ex 
Desv. 

40. inodora - - 338 

R. dumetdrum Eng. Bot. ; 
R. Bdrreri Sm. Eng. FL, Don's 
Mill. : R rubigindsa var, ino^ 
ddra Lindl. Ros. 

B. Species Natives qf Middle 

Europe, 

41. lutca D. Don - S.'iS 

R. Eglantdrla Lin Sp., Red, 
Bos. ; R. faftida Herm. Diss. ; 
R. chlorophylto Ehrh. Beitr. ; 
R. eerea Kossig. Ros. 

2 subrtibra Red. R. 338 

3 punicea Lind. R. S:i8 
R. punicea Mill. Diet, 

Rossig. Rot. 



CONTENTS. 



XXI 



B. cfwMwawfti B. FLGer. 

K. Iktea hieoior Jmcq. \tn. 
d(4>., Lovr. Bm.. fit M. 

R. Egi fMoHora Red. Roa, 

R. £^. Mcolor Dc. Fl. Fr. 
4florepleiio . 338 

WmitmuTs 49mUe peOow 
Suptet Brimr, 
5 Hoggit D. Don SS9 

Hogx*M§felknff Jmer. Bote. 

0KAcr Spedes hOonflng to tkiw 

Seetiem /L ib6nca Sm, R. 

riuiiirfn Sm.. R. Kltkii 
Bess^ JZ. nttTdoIens Pwu-tk^ 
B. MoptegtoKT Homb. 

$ vui. Gbiums landl. 



A. Sptctfs 



qfSrOiMim. 



42. caniaaX. - 339 
R. dMmidHt Beclist. Forrtb. ; 

R. gmdrga^fnsu Bat. FI. Main. 
ct Loir., Bed. Roa. : R. glaiett 
Ujte. ; R. mrwfmsu Schnnk Fl. 
M.; R.giamei9een$ Mer. Par. ; 
R. Mjfeiu Mer. ; R. teneriffimn* 
Doaa Hott. Cant. ed. & ; R. 
atmticdta Adiar. Acad. Handl. 

2 acipbjUa UndL 339 

R. aapk^ia Rao., Rod. 
Ofikr ymrietirt, - - 339 

43. Fo-steri Sm. - 339 

R. eeiDna /8 * r Woodc in 
Lia.Trai». 

44. duinet6niinT&iii/.340 



R. leataalha & aeutiflUa 
Baac in Dec. Fl. Fr.« R. aeptum 
BorUi. ex Baa. Enum., R. 
laitHOitt Bess. Prim. H.GalL, 
R. ftiifiaft^/kya Gmd. Fl. Bad. 



45. sanneDtacea Sw. 340 

R. fUmrmkjiUa Winch Geog. 
Du., R. oBMbi Roth FL Ger. 

46. cff'sia Sm. - 340 
B eoMOM pmbiscnu Afi. 

Bo&. Suae. Tent., R. omma C 
€^'siM UndL Rot. 

B. Speda NattPes ^ MidtOe 
Europe. 

47. rubrifolia ViU. - 340 

B. antteJEdre Rqna. Act.Laos., 
B. rwkie6»da Hall. fll. in Roem. 
Airh,, B. Arida Andr. Ros., 
B naatwiamfgymArZ/a/toRed. 

C. Species Kaitpe* of Asia. 

48. caucasica Pfl//. - 341 
R. Umdntha Bleb. Fl. Taur. 

49. indica JD. - - 341 

B. dnica LJo. Sytt., B. »em- 
perfiifrefu camea RoMig. Rot. 
B. iatfaca dkhiinsu temipUna 
Ser. Mel., B recUnita fi&re 
taimmnkfiki Red. Rot.: IA« 
aoiiiM^ Rate^ the hlutk China 
Scte, tke Tett-teenud Ro$e : 
Botfrr imHen, Rom Tki, Fr. \ 
Jmdiaeke Rounder. 

S NotsettiaM Ser. 342 

porpiim Red. 342 
nivea - • 342 
Aimt Vibert. 
Sa&xhn - - 342 
SmWa YeOovNoiteUe 



3 odoratissiinaZtiuiL 342 

R. odoTttihuiwta Swt. Hort. 

Sub. Lood. 
R. imdictt Jrignmt Red. 
Roe. 
Tke fweetett, or tea~ 

scented, China Rote. 
Rose a Odeur de Tkd, Fr. 

4 loQgifolia LindL 342 
R. Umgifblia Willd. Enum. 
^.snsperfloreiu var.j.tV. 

DuHuB. 
B. uUicifiitia Hort. 

5 pikmilaLiiuiL i2. 342 

6 caryoph^llea iZed. 342 

7 pannosa jRed - 342 

8 cxuhkt^ Red. a$id Don" 9 

MilL - - 3-12 

9 Frasen^na Hort. 3 12 
lOrugaLiiMfl. B. R. 343 

1 1 ocliroleikca B. R. 343 

12 flav^scens - - 343 

The true tea-scented China 
Rose. 

13 filairisD. Don -343 

50. semperflorens C. 34-3 

Kjdioersffdlia Vent, (els., K. 
bengoKnsig Pers Eoch., 11. 
tndica Red. Ros. 

51. Lawrencedna S. 343 

R. semperjlbrens minima 
Simi Bot. Mag., R. acumindta 
vnr. m acunu'ndta KfHl. Ros., 
R. indica LawreucekiUL Red. 
Ros. 

52.8ericeBiLindI. - 344 

§ is. S^ttyliB Lrndl. 

A. Species Natives of Britain 
and other Parts of Europe. 

53. systyla Bat. - 344 

R. cotOna Sm. in Eng. Rot , 
R. stjfldsa Desv. Journ. Bot., 
R. brevistvia Dec Fl. Fr. Sup., 
R. hractedta Dec., U. systyla « 
ovdte Lindl. Kos. 

54. arv^nsis Huds. - 344 

/2. Sfflvfstris Hem. Diss. ; R. 

scdndens Manch Weiss. ; R. 

herpirhodon Ehrb. Beitr. ; R. 

H^ieri KtoIc. Sites. ; It. J(isia 

Mcench Meth. ; R. serpens 

Ehrh. ArlMir. ; R. sempervtrens 

Rosslg. Ros. ; W. revetts Gmel. 

Fl. Bad. Al^., Jacq. Fragm.; R. 

rdmpans Itryn. Mem. Laus. 

S ayreshirea Ser. - 345 

R. capreol^ta N'eill in 

Rdln. Phil. Journ. 

3 hybrids Lindl. R. 845 

B. Species Natives of Middle 
Europe. 

55. (a.)semper\'iren8345 

R. tcandt^u .Mill. Diet. R. ba- 
le£rica Desf. Cnt., Pers. Encli.; 
R. atrov'treus Vir. Fl. Ital. ; 
R. semperv'irrna giobd^a Red. 
Ros.; R. sempervtrens var. u 
seandens Dec. Fl. Fr. 

3 Russelliana - 346 
3 Claret - - 346 
'Ike Rose Clare. 

a 3 



C. Spea'es Natives qfJsia, and 
one qf them of Africa. 

56. niuUifl6ra7'Aun^.346 

R. JIdifa Donn, R. fldrida 
Poir. Suppl., R. diffusa Koxb. 

2 Grevillei Hort. - 346 
R. Ro*b6reki\ Hort. 
'R.platyphifUa Rtii. Ros. 
Tke St-ven Sisters Hose. 

Boursauitt Hort. S47 

57. Brunonii Limll. 347 

R. ^rdirnii Spreng. ggst. 

58. iiioschata Mi//. 347 

R. opsotffmma Khrli. Beltr., 
R. fttanduttfera Roxb. 

2 flore pleno G. Don 347 

3 nivea LinHl. B. R. 348 
R. nirea Dupont, not of 

Dec. 
R. wi. f rar. rbsea Ser. 

4 nepal^nsis L^ndl. 348 

Other Fars. — Tiio fringed. 
Princesse de Nassau, and 
Tea-scented • - 348 

D. Sjieeies Natives cj North 
America, 

59. iTibifolia 7?. ^r. 348 
§ X. Banhs\kn8a Lindl. 

60. sinica AU. - 349 

llie trifoliate-leaved Ciiiua 

Rose R. trijolihta Rose Diet. 

ox Poir., IX.temota Poir. Sup., 
R. cherokeensit Donn Hort. 
(*ant., R. niven Dec. Hort. 
Monsp., Red.Kos., U. hpstrix 
Lindl. Monog., R. taoigata Mx. 

6 1 . Banks/or R. Br. 349 

R. BanksUina. Abel Chin., R. 
inirntis Roxb. 

2 lutea Lindl. - 349 

62. microdirpaLm^/. 350 

R. cytnbsa Trait. Ros. 

63. hvstrix lAndl. - 350 

Other Species and Varieties oj 

IXbsa ' . . -3.')0 

Soil and Situation - - 3.^) 

XIII. LoVk^ Limll. 352 

Rdsa sp. Pall & Lindi. in 
Ros. Monog. 

1. berbcri^oVin Liiid/. .S52 
R. simpUciJbiia Sai. Hmt. 
Allert. ; II. berlMM i/o/in P-il, 
Lindl. Ros. #lonog. French 
edition, Dec. Prod , Spreny. 
Sjrst., Wallrotb Mouog. 
Varieties - - - 3.0J 

Sect. V. Po*MEAC Lindi. 

X IV. Cr \TJE"(i V s Lind/. 

The Thcrn. —Crat^'fiut and 
MispHus sp. L. and others : Ne- 
JIfer, Alisier, Aftl.vp'ne, Fr. ; 
Doom, Vxbeer, Mhprt, Gcr. ; 
Doom, Dutch ; Cratscgo, Ital. ; 
Esptno^ Span. 

§ i. Coccinect. 
1. coccinea L. - -353 

C. asft'vdlis Booth ; }A(spil»s 
testivdlis Walt. Fl. Car.} M. 



XX u 



CONTENTS. 



eocdnea Mill., N. Du Hsxn. : 
Tkomle$9 American Azaroie: 
N^'er icarlate. Ft. ; Schar- 
lacArothe Mispel^ Ger. ; Laxxe- 
ruolo rosso, Ital. 

2 coriJlina - - 354 
C. coraUfna Lodd. Cat. 
C. j»yrif6rmis, and C. 

pectinhta^ of lome col. 

3 indcntata - - 854 
C. indentAta Lodd. Car, 
C. ge6rgica Doug. 

4 mkximaLod.Cat. 354 
C. c. spindsa Godefh>7. 
C. acerifblia Ilort. 

C. fflabcUdta Hort. 

5 neap>olitana Hort. 354 
MSspiius constantinopoli- 

tdna Godef^oy. 

2. glandulosa W, - 354 

?C.sangtunea Pall. FL Ros., 
"^yiSsDitus rotundifbUa Ehrh. 
R., Pj^riM glandtUdsa Moench 
C. rotundifolia Booth. 

2 succul^nta FUch. 354 
Mispilus suceuiinta B. 

3 subvillosa • - 355 
C. subvillbsa Flsch. 

§ ii. Punctata. 

3. punctata Ait, - 355 
C. Crus-galU Du Rol. Mj«. 

Df^iM eunei/blia Ehrh. Beitr., 
M. ptmctdla Lk. Enum. M. 
Cornelia Lam. Encyc. 

2 rikbra Pktr«A - 356 
C. ediJis Ronalds. 

3 riibpa stilcta ffort,356 
C.p. stricta Ronalds. 

4 aurea Ptirsh - 356 
C. p.Jldva Hort. 
C.(fii/rf'< Ronalds. 
C.^Jtfi>Lodd. Cat. 

C. perUaafnafldva GodeF. 

5 brevispina Doug. 356 

4. /jyrifolia ^/7. - 356 

Cleucoohla^os (vhitc-barked) 
Moenrh WeUs., C. radidta Lod. 
Cat. 18.36, C. Umtfntbsa Du Roi 
Harbk., C. lalJbUa Per*., 
Mispilus lat\fbU'a Lam. Enc, 
M. calpodindron Ehrh. Beltr., 
M. ^pyrifolia Link Enum., M. 
comifbfia Poir., C. iatifUia Ro- 
nalds, C. corwjblia Booth: 
LaxtaroUo perino, Ital. 

§ iii. MaeracdntiuB. 

5. macrac^ntha Iwm/. 357 

C. glanduldsS fi macr&ntha 
Lindl., C. spina tongissima 
Hammersmith Nursery, Cpy. 



rffidia Torrey. 
2 minor 



- 358 



§ iv. Crus-gaUi, 
6. Cr(is-galli L, - 358 

C. lacida Wanff. Am., Mill. 
Diet.; C. cunrffbtia Lodd. Cat.; 
Mfspi'lus lUcida Ehrh. Beitr., 
M. Cr6s-gdUi Poir. ; M. Ajw". 
mdiis Wait. ; .M. cuneifbUa 
Moench : Sefiier Pied de Coq, 
Fr. ; Gliinxende MispH, Ger. ; 
LaxzaroUo spiiioso, Ital. 

2 splendens Dee, - 359 
C. !\rbftt'fblia and C J|> n- 
dWM Lodd. Cat. 



Spyracanthif.i^ec. - 359 
C. pyracanthijhlia Lodd. 

Cat. 
"Uespilus Ikcida Dum. 
Cours. Bot. Cult. 

4 ralicifolia Dec, - 360 
C. Mlicifblia. 

5 linearis Dec, • 360 
Mispilus tinedris Desf. 

Arb. 
C. linedris Lodd. Cat. 

6 nana Dec. Prod. 360 
Mispilus ndna Dum. Sup. 

7. {c.)ovalifdlia//oni.360 

C. eUiptica Lodd. Cat, C. 
CrUs-gatli oveUifiOia Bot Reg. 

8. (c)^runif61ia^of(? 361 

Mi»ptlus \irttnijblia Poir. 
Diet., C. caruiiuidua Lodd. 
Cat. : LcBcxtrttolino, ItaL 

§ V. Nigra. 

9. nigra IV, ^ K. - 362 

Mispilus nigra Willd. Enum., 
C. earpatica Lodd. Cat. 
? r. fiisca /oc^. - 362 

10. purpurea Bote 363 

C. san^inea Hort 
2 altaica - - 363 
C. aUdiea Lodd. Cat. 

$ vi. Z>oti^ia«ii. 

11. Douglas/i Lindl. 364 

$ vii. FltiviB. 

12. flava /(t^. . 364 

C. glanduldsa Mx. Fl. Bor. 
.Amer., not of Walt, j M^*- 
pilus MicAaHgii Pers. ^. ; C. 
cardinidna Poir. Diet.; C. 
Jlaviuima Hort.; C. ?turbi' 
ndta Pursh. 

13. (f.)lobataJ?Mc 365 

Mispilus lobcLta Poir. Suppl., 
C. /4/co Poir. 

14. (f ) trilobata Z. 366 

C. spinosusima Lee. 
§ viii. Apiifolia, 

15. /ipiifolia iVfr. - 366 
C. Oxyacdntha Walt. Ca- 
rol., C. Vipiifbiia rn^or Lodd. 
Cat. 

2 minor - - 366 
C. zpiifblia Lodd. Cat. 

§ iz. Microcdrpa, 

16. cordata M*//. - 367 

Mispilus Pbandpvrum L., 

M. corddta Mill., C. populi- 

fblia Walt. Car. and Pursh 

Sept., M. acerifblia Poir. Diet. 

17. spathulata E//ioi 367 

C. microearpa Lindl. Bot. 
Reg., Cjldrida Godefroy. 
2 ge.'jrgica - - 368 
C.grdrgfca Lod. 

§ X. Azaroli. 

18. Azarohis L. - 368 
Vjrus Azarblus Scop Cam.^ 

J. BauA. Hist. ; Mispilus Asa- 



r61us AH. Fed., N. Du Ham. : 
N^'er AxaroU, Niftier dt 
Naples^ B'pine d'Espaene, 
Pommettes d deux Closes^ Fr. , 
Axarol Mispel^ Ger.; Azxe' 
ruolo, Ital. 

Vars. —In the N. Du Ham. 
are enumerated : — L Afes* 

Eilus ArbniOj with the leaves 
airy beneath ; 2. Asarole, 
witi) large deep-red fruit ; 3. 
Azarole, with yellowish white 
fruit; 4. Azarole, with long 
fruit of a whitish vellow ; 5. 
Azarole, with double Howeri ; 
6. The White Azarole of 
Italy. ... - 369 

19. (i4.) marocc^na 369 

? C. tnaHra Lin. fil. Sup. ac- 
cording to Dec. : Sarrour^ 
Arabic. 

20. y^ronia Bosc - 370 

M^«pi/i»Ardm'aWilId.Enum. 
SuppL and N. Du Ham., C. 
Azardlus fi Willd. sp., C./issa 
Lodd. Cat. 

2 1 . orientalis Bosc 37 1 

Mispilus orientdlis Tourn 
and Poir. Suppl., C. odoratis^ 
sima Bot Kep. and Lod. Cat., 
C. tanacet{fblia var. /3 taHrica 
Dec. Prod. 

2 sanguinea - 371 

C. sanguinea Schrad. Ind. 
Sem. H. Ac. Got. 1834. 
C. orientdlis Lindl. Bot. 
Reg. 

22. tanacetifolia P. 372 

Mispilus tanacetifblia Poir. 
Diet, and N. Du Ham., M. 
pinndta Dum. Cours., ? M^^ 
pUus Cels^nsL Dum. Court. 
Suppl. according to Dec. : 
Laxxeruolo iurco, Ital. 

2 glabra Lodd. - 372 

3 Leeana - - 372 
C. ineisa Lee. 

Lee*s Seedling^ Hort. 

§ xi. Heterophylla. 

23. heterophylla F. 374 

$ xii. OzyacdnifuB, 

24. Oxyacantha L. 375 

The common Hawthorn.— P^ 
racantha of the Greeks ; Mes' 
pilus Oxunc&ntha Gcrtn. and 
N. Du Ham. : E'pine blanche, 
noble E'pine, Bois de Mai, 
ScueUeir Aubipine, NeJUerAub- 
ipine, Fr. ; Hagedom gemei. 
nerWn'ssdom,C,er. ; Hagetoan, 
Dan. ; Hagelorn, Swed. ; A' 
canta da Stcpe, Atxarolo salva- 
tico, and Bianco Spino, Ital. ; 
Espino bianco. Span. : White 
Thorn. Maybush, Quick, Qutck- 
set. May. 

A. Varieties d^fftring Jhmt the 
Species in the general Form 
and Mode qf Growth. 

2 stricta IamL Cat. 375 
C. O. rigida Ronalds. 

3 pendula Lod. Cat. 376 

4 reginas ffort. - 376 
Qiu-t-n Mary's "norn. 

5 Ceisidna Hort. 37*" 



CONTENTS. 



XXUl 



6capitata Sm. Ayr 377 

7 flexuofia Sm. Ayr 377 

B. Varietiet ifffhing im the 
Cokmr cf tie Flomers. 

8 roseo Hart. - 377 
Ppmier Marrom, Fr. 

9 punicea Lod. Cat 377 
C. O. rdteatw^irba Hort. 

C. Varieties difiring m the 
Dn HoffmaU or Strudmre <^ 
tkenmmt. 

10 miiltiplez HwL 377 
C. O.jOrrpinio Hort. 

llpunioeafl. pldno377 
ISmooogyna • 377 

C. WMitfiymi Jacq. 
IS ap^tala Lod. CaLS77 

D. rmrieties dfffirmg m tke 

TtBK^ Hovering. 

14 pne cox Hort. - S77 
Tbc Glastonbary Thorn. 

15 aabirica - - 377 
C. tOiriea Lodd. Cat. 

16 tnmjUinicA B. 377 

E. f arietta differing in the 

Cehmr qf tke Frma. 

17 melanocarpa - 378 
C. Jissa Lee. 

C. O. ptatypk^Oa Lod. 
Cpiaiypk^la LindL 

18 OKrenina - . 378 

COhftrUkxABosc. 
C. OitWria Lodd. Cat. 
CortemaiiM Lodd. Cat. 

19 aurea Hort, - 379 
CJtara Hort. 

50 aurantiaca Booth 379 

51 leucodrpa - 379 

F. Farietks differing in having 

Ae Pnui vfoolhf. 

22 eriocii^ lAndL 379 
C. eri od rpa Lodd. Cat. 

G. Farieba differing in ike 

Perm </ tke Leopet. 

23 obtuaata Dee. P. 379 
HispAwa Oxtfocemtka in- 

iegrifbUay> a]lr.Scbed. 
C. fUffaeanihoideM Thuil. 

Fl. Bot. Reg. Dec. Fl. 
C. OttfoenntMa Fl. Dan. 
Tke n'ench Haufikom, 

24 ftiercifblia B. 380 
25]anmaia - - 380 

C. laeintiUa Lodd. Cat. 
26ptendifoHa - 381 

C. pteri/Uia I^od. Cat. 
37 oxrpbylla Afoac. 381 

H. rarieUet diffhring m the 
Odamr <ff the Leaves. 
28foIii9aurv»I,.C.381 
C.kittseent Booth. 

29 foliU arg^uteU 381 

30 lucida - - 381 

i xiii. PartifiUit. 
25. parvifioKa AH. - 383 

M^«p>tesan2Ur£iPers.STli. ; 
M. lomensbsa Poir. Diet. ; M. 
«f ftoca ryw Lin. 111. Snppl. ; 
H. parrt/bUm Wati. Deod. 
Brit ; Cratai'guM tomentbsa Lin. 
Sp., Trev £hr. ; C. utt(fldra 



, Da Roi ; C. turbin^ia Pnrsh ; 

C. viridig^ axiUarit^ hetul(niiia^ 
: JI6rida, Unedria Lodd. Cat. : 
h Gooseberry-leaved Thorn, Lord 

Jlesr*s Thorn. 

' 2 florida - . 383 
CflSrida Lodd. Cat. 
3 grossulariapfolia 383 
C. Unedris Lodd. Cat 

26. virgfnica Lodd, 384 

C. virghu'dna Hort. ; C. ma- 
thnldta Michx., Liodl. ; C. rt- 
ridis Hort. 

$ xiv. Mexic^neu 

27. mexicana JV/or. 384 

C. stfpuJdcea Lodd. Cat, C. 
Lambert^nh Hort. 

$ XT. Vyraedniha. 

28. Pvrac4nthaP«-#.385 

Mfsp'tius Vyrac6ntha L. : 
Evergreen Thorn : Bnisson ar- 
dent^ Fr. ; immergrllne Mispelt 
Ger. , Jgaxxino, Ital. 

2 crenulata .^ort. - 385 
C. erenuldta Hort. 

XV.STRANViE'S/^ L.403 
Crat^gus in part. 

1. glaiicescens LindlMS 

CraUe^gtu glaUcdVfaM Cat 

XVI. Photi'ma L. 403 

Cralee^gus sp. L. 

1. semilata Lt;/<//. 404 

Cratw^gusgldbra 'Iliiinb. Fl. 
Jap., Bot. Mag., Lodd. Bot. 
Cav., CoUa Hort Ripul. 

2. arbutifblia Lhdl, 404 

Cratar*gus arbutijdlia Alt. 
Hort. Kew. 

3. iiite^grifolia Lind/. 405 

Forus inleehrima Wall, ex 
D. Don ProcT Fl. Nep. 

4. diibia Lindl - 405 

fA4spilm bengaUntis Roxb., 
M. tmctbria D. Don Prod. 
Fl. Nen.. Crataegus Shlc6Ia 
Sain. JmSS. 

XVII. Cotonea'ster. 

tiispifus sp. L. : N^'er eo- 
tonneux, Fr. ; Quftten-Mispel, 
Ger. I Cotognastro, Ital. 

$ i. Leaves deciduous. 
Shrubs. 

1. vulgaris Lindl. - 406 
JAismha Cotonedster Lin. 

Sp., OBd. Fl. Dan. ; N^iet 
cotonneux, Yr. ; QuiltenMispely 
Ger. ; Saieiagnolo, Ital. 

1 erythrocarpa Xecf. 406 

2 melanoc^a !.«/. 406 
Mispihu Cotone&ster Pa^. 

Fl. RoM. 
M. melanoc&rpa Fiich. 
C mciaisooirjM Lodd. C. 

3 depr^ssa Frits Nov. 
Snec, Dec. Prod, 

2. (v.) tomentosa L.406 

Vispihu tomentdsa WlUd. 
a 4 



Sp., not Lam. ; M. enocarpa 
Diec. Fl. Fr. Synopa. and Sup. 

3. (v.) laxifldra Jacq.407 
2 unifl6ra Fischer 407 

4. denticulata - - 407 

§ ii. Sub-ereryreen or deci- 
duous. TaO Shrubs or low 
Trees. 

5. frigida WaU. - 407 
F^rut Nfissia Ham. in Prpd. 

Fl. Nep.^ Dee. Prod. , 

6. (f.) affinis Lindl. 408 

Wftpilus integirrima Ham. 
MSS., M. qffflnis D. Don 
Prod. Fl. Nep., ? C. kumdna, 
in Lodd. collection. 

7. acuminata Lindl, 409 

Mtspilus aeumtndta Lodd. 
Bot. Cab. 

8. nummul&ria LtW/.409 

C. eUhaica Hort., EriobS- 
try a elltptica Lindl., Tilispihu 
CuMe /Tor/.. ?C. teViS In 
Lodd. collection. 

$ iii. Leaves evergreen, 
leathery. Low Shrubs, 
with prostrate Branches ,• 
TVtitVer*, but not pro- 
perly Creepers. 

9. rotundifolia Wall. 4,\0 

C. microphylla fi U'va-Hrsi 
Lindl. Bot. Reg., C. U^va-^rH 
Hort. : the Bear berry -leaved 
Nepal Cotoneaster. 

10. (r.) microphvlla4Il 

11. (r.)Auxif61ia'H^.41l 
2 marginata - - 4 1 1 

C. marginata Lindl. 

XVIII. Amel/nchier 

^6spilus L., T^rus W., 
Ardnia Pers. 

1 . vulgaris Maench 4 1 2 

lAispilns AmelAnchier Lin. 
Sp., Jacq. Fl. Austr. j Ppnu 
Amel£nchler Wild. Sp.; Aronia 
rotundtfblia Pers. Srn. ; Cra* 
tai'gus rotundifblia Vsan. ; S^r- 
bua Amettnchier Crantz: Alisier 
Amelanchier, Amekmchier des 
Bois, N^ffier d FeuiUes rondes, 
Fr. ; Felsenbime, Ger. ; Fero 
cervino, Ital. 

2. (v.) Botryapium 412 

"HUtpibts canadfntis Lin. 
Sp., ML arbbrea Michx. Arb., 
Cratai'eus racembsa Lam. 
Diet., r^rus Botrydpium Lin. 
ftl. Suppi. ; Arbnia Botrydpium 
Pen. Syn., the Canadian Med- 
lar, Snotpy Mespiius, June 
Berry, wild Pear Tree ; Ali- 
sier de Choisy, Amelanchier de 
Choisy, Alisier d Grappes, Fr. ; 
Trauhienbime, Ger. 

3. (v.) sanguinea - 413 

Vyrut sangulnea Piirth Fl. 
Amer. Sept., Arbnia sangui- 
nea Nutt, Mftpilus eanadin- 



5cxiv 



CONTENTS. 



ti$ y rotuniijblia Mirhx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer. 

4. (v.) ovalis Dec, 413 
Cratte'etu spicdta Lam. 

Diet. ?. Mftpfltu Amel^nchier 
IValt. 6'rtr., A. parv^dra 
Doug. MSS.: M. canadtiuit 
rar. at ovdiis MIchx. Am., P^- 
rus oviJis WillA Sp., Ardmia 
ovalis Pers. Syu. : Amelan- 
chier du Canada, AUner i E^pi, 
Ft. ; nmdbiattrfge Bime, Ger. 

2 subcordata Dec. 414 
Ardnia ntbcordAta Raf. 

' M^/iM microcdipa Raf. 

S seihi-integritolia 414 

5. (v.) floridaLiW/. 414 
2 parvifolU - - 414 

A. parvifbiia Hort. Soc. 

XIX. ilfE'spiLUs Z.414 

The Medlar — Mfspthu sp. 
of Un. and others, MrspiM- 
phora sp. of Neck. : Xifiitr, 
Ft. j Mispel, Ger. ; Nespolo, 
Ital. 

1. germanica L. - 413 

1 sylvcstrisMiiZ>ic.4l6 

2 stricta Dec. Ait 416 

3 diffiisa Dec. Ait. 416 
Cultivated Varieties. — 1 . 

BUke'B large-fruited Medlar ; 
2 Dutch Medlar ; X Netting, 
ham, or common, Medlar; 
4. Stoneless Medlar. 

2. Smkhii Dec. - 416 

M. grandifidra Smith Exot. 
BoL ; M. lobdta Poir., Hook. 
In Bot. Mag. 

XX. PY'RvsLindL 417 

The Pc.ir Tree. -- P^rus 
Mdlus and S6rbus Tourn., 
TuruM and Sorbus L., Pyr6 
phorum 



Neck. 



and Apyr6phorum 



§ i. PyrSphonan Dec. 
1. communis L, - 417 

P. A\hras Gsrtn. Fnict, 
P. svtvSstn's Dod. Pempt, 
Pyrdsttr Ray Syn.: Poiricr, 
Fr. ; gimeine Birne, or Bime- 
baum, Ger. ; P^ro dumesticoy 
Ital. ; Pfro, Span. ; Gruschka, 
Russian. 

1 y^'chras Watlr. - 417 

. 2 Pyraster WaUr. 418 

S foliis variegatis 418 

4 fructu variegato 418 

5 sanguinolenta « 418 

6 flore pleno - - 418 
Poire de PArmSnie B. Jard 

7 jaspida - •418 
Bon Chrftien i Bois jnspi 

Bon Jard. 

8sativaZ>ec. - - 418 
Subvars. — Beurr^ Dlel, 
Beurre do Rans, Bezi de la 
Motte, Glout Morceau, Na- 
poleon, Swan's Egg: and 
the following Scotch Pears 
recommended by Mr. Gorrie, 
as forms adapted for land, 
■cape scenery, ~~ the Bearie, 



the Golden Knap, the Elcho, 
the Busked Lady, and the 
Pow Meg . - -419 

2. (c.>alvifoliaZ)«'. 421 

Aureliant or Orleans Pear; 
Poirier Sanger ^ D'Ourch in 
Bibl. Phys. Econ. Mai, 1817, 
p. 299. 

3. Tc.) nivali.s Lin,fil.^2\ 

4. (c.) 8inaica77iota7z421 
P. Sini^i Desf. Arb., N. Du 

Ham. ; P. pSrsica Pers. Syn. : 
the Mount Slnal Medlar. 

5. (c.) ^alicifolia L. 422 

P. eltragtii/blia Pall., P. 
orientdlis Horn. Suppl., P 
(c.) elaagniyblia Arb. Brit 
Isted. 

6. (c.)'imygdaHf<rirmis422 

p. sylvSs'triSf Magnol Bot, 
P. saliciftMa Lois. Nut. 

7. sinensis Lindl. 422 

P. commiinis Lois. Cochin, 
P^ sinica Roylo 111. : Ri vulgo 
h'as, Japanese: the Sandy 
Pear^ Snow Pear, Sand 
Pear : Sha Lee, Chinese. 

8. bollwylleriana - 423 

P. boUwylleridna J. Bauh. 
Hist., P. PoUverlA Lin. Mant., 
P. aurictddris Knoop Pomol. 

9. variolosa Wall, 424 

P. Pfishia Ham. est Herb. 
Lin. Soc. 

10. Micha(ixtt Bosc 425 

1 1. Indica CoUbr, - 42o 



$ ii, Ma/iw. 

12. .^falus L. - 425 

P. Ma/itf fn2/t«Wa]Ir.Sched., 
"Mdlus eommknis Dec. Fl.Fr. : 
Pomtnter commune Ft. ; ge- 
meine Ap/elhcuim, Ger. ; Pero 
Melo and Melo Porno, Ital. 

13. (Jl/.) ac^rba D, 426 

P^ntf yitklus austera Wallr. 
Sched., "Sldhts adrba Merat 
Fl. Par., M. eommitnis tylvis- 
tris Desf., P. Ma/vj sylvistris 
F\. Dan., P. ^Idlus Smith 
Eng. Bot. : Pommier sauva- 
geon, Fr. ; Holzaj^elbaum, 
Ger. ; Melo salvatico, Ital. 

14. (M.) /jrunifolia 426 

The Siberian Crab ; P. Md- 
lusS h^brida Ait. Hort. Kew., 
? Mdlus h^brida Desf. Arb. 

15. (M.) baccata Zr. 427 

Milus bacciUa Desf. Arb. 

16. {M.) diofca W. 427 

p. apetala Munch, llauvs., 
Mdlus dioica Audib. Cat. 

17. (M.) astrac6nica427 

Miltts astracanica Dum. 
Coiirs. : Transparent de Mos- 
covie. Glace de Zelande : the 
transparent Crab of English 
Nurseries. 

Selection of Vars. ~ Tho 
Red Astrachan ; the White 
Astrachan \ Che Black Crab ; 



the Court pendu plat : the 
Lincolnshire Holland Pippin; 
the Tulip Apple ; the violet 
Apple ; the Cherry Crab, or 
Cherry Apple ; the Supreme 
Crab ; Bigg's Everlasting 
Crab - • - - 428 

18. coronkriaZr. - 429 

"Sldlus corondria Mill. : Crab 
Apple, the sweet-scented Crab, 
Amer. 

19. (c.) angustifolia 430 

P. corondria Wang. Amer., 
Mdlus sempervirens Desf. 
Arb., P. pkmita Hort. 

20. spectabilis AU. 431 

The Chinese Crab Tree. — 
Ma/ttf snectabilis Desf. Arb., 
N. Du Ham. ; Mdlus smSngis 
Dum. Cours. 

Species of which there are oniy 

very young Plants m Britw'sA 

Gardens. 

P. Siev^rstt Led. Fl. Alt. . 432 

P. nov. sp. Sievers in Pall. 

Nord. Beitr. 
P. Schdttff Ledcb. - . 432 
P. stipuUcea Hort. - - 433 

§ iii. A^ria Dec 

2 1 . Ana Ehrh. . - 432 

CraUe'gus A^ria var. « Lin 
Sp., Mispilus AV/a Scop. • 
Sdrfrtff A'ria CranU Austr. 5 
A^ria Theophrast\ L'Obei : 
white wild Pear, white Leaf 
Tree, red Cheis-Apple, Sea 
Ouler, Cumberland Hawthorn, 
Gerard : Alisier AUoncAier 
Aiisier blane, Fr. ; Mehlbeer 
baum, or Mehlbaum, Ger. 
Aria, or ^rba montana, Ital. , 
Mostaco, Span. ; Axelbeer,Duk.i 
Oxilbeer, Sured. 

1 obtusifolia Dec 433 
P. A. ovdiis Hort. 

2 acutifolia Dec. 433 

Crata'uus kmgifblia N. 

Du Ham. 
? Vyrus alpina Wllld. En. 

3 undulata LindL 433 

4 angustifolia LindL^SS 
P. A^ longijblia Hort. 

5 rugosa LiruU, . 433 

6 cretica LindL - 43S 

P. A rotundifblia Hort. ; 
P. gra\a Hort. 
P. A. ediOis Hort 
CratoTgusgrtt^ca Hort. 

7 bullata LindL - 433 
P. A. acumindta Hort. 

22. {A.) intermedia 43* 

Qruttg^gus AVra 8 Lin. Sp., 
C. scdndica Wahlenb., C. 
suicica Ait. : Alisier de Poh~ 
tainehlrau, Fr. j Schwedischer 
Mehlbaum, Ger. 

1 latifolia - . 434 
Crataegus latifbUa Folr. 

Diet., Du Ham. 
S6rbus latifblia Pers. 
CroteV*** denidta ThuiL 

2 angustifolia - - 435 
P. ediais Wilid. Enum. 

23. vestita Wall. - 435 

Hrus nepalinsis Hort. ; 
S6rbus vestUa Lodd. Cat. 



CONTENTS. 



XXV 



I« ; p. cfmaia D. Dob Prod. 
F.. Sep. 

§ IT. Ibrmtnarw Dec 

24. tonninaiLi Ekrk. 436 
CretOf'guM torrmmMis Lin. 

9^. ^ith Eng. Bot ; S^6iiff 
ti/rmtmilif CranU Austr. : tke 
Mapic. learned strriet Tree: 
Mukr 4£ BoU, Fr. ; Ebbeer- 
ham, Ger. ; CiawardeUo, or 
ilattgua-eUo^ Ical. 

25. nvularis Doiig/. 437 

P<nc-ttek, the luniia of the 
fruit is th« laDKua^e of the 
CiwDook trite of Indians. 

§ T. Eri6iubta Dec 

26- irilobato Dec. - 437 
CnuTpa trUohdta LabilLt 
Pear. Sappl. 

§ TL S^Kwff Dec 

?7. aariculata X)rc. 438 

Sirbm amrievIiHa Pen. Sjn. 

28. pinnatifida Ehrh. 438 

Sertef A^frntfa Lio., Dec i 

PiTVf i^ftn^ Smith FL BriU, 

i:r4 at \k illd. : lAe Bastard Ser- 

tree Tree, • 

'i Unugiziosa - - 438 

Speodiila - - 439 

S. Ay6rite phtSuia Lod. 
4 arb6scuU Dee. - 439 

29. aucQparia G^erin. 439 
T^ ]4oantain Ash .— SSrbus 

•sn^rM Un. Sp. ; Mismbu 
onporiaAll.: Q«<idfcfl« Trff. 
kmtk Bam^ viid Ask. trild 
SfTTice^ f^iektu Tree, Rowan 
Trcz\ /few Tree, Boon Tree, 
RoOdaa, Baatry, Mountain Ser- 
PKf. fVitcken, viid Sorb, 
^-hettn, WkUten, Wiggen 
Tree : Sorbier des OisdewM, or 
Sarbkrdes Oiselaue, Fr. ; Vogel 
Beerhamm, Ger. ; Soibo salva- 
Ua. luL 
2fructuluteo - - 439 

3 foliis Tari^atis - 439 

4 eutigiata - - 439 

20. amenckrOL Dec, 440 

Stfrtef cwiericdna Ph. Fl. 
Bor. AnKT., ^t'illd. Enom.; 
S. aaericama rar. /9 Michx. FL 
ABcr. ; P. canadinsis Hort. 

31- imcrocaq>a Dec. 441 

S($ri«j aueup^'a a, Mx. Fl. 
Bar. Ancr., S. micranika Dum. 
Coon., S,miar9cmrpa Fb. Fl. 
Ai&er. SepC 

32. .Sorbus Garrln. - 442 
Th« Troe Serrlce — S^*«» 
iomestica Un. Sp. ; P^rv* do- 
mUtica Smith in Eng. Bot., 
WaDr. Ann. Bot.. Don's Bfill. : 
the Wha^ Pear Tree: Cor- 
flVMT, or Sorbier eultivi, Fr. ; 
SfeferHngsbaum, or Sperber- 
baun^ Ger. ; Sor6o domesU'eo, 
Ital. 

2 iDsli{5nnis XoddL 443 
La Corme-Pomme, Ft. 

3 pyri£5rinis Lodd, 442 
1« Carmt'Fairtt Fr. 



33. Ianugin6sa J>c. 443 

p. A^Ancfa Umuginbsa Hort., 
Stfrtet /oNitfniosa Kit. In Utt., 
and Lodd. uat. 

34. spuria Dec. - - 444 

p. kpbrida Mcench Wei»s. 
S6rbm spbria Pers. Sfn.. MJs- 
mZiu sorbtfbtia Bosc^ & >K'ats., 
Dend. Brit, not of Smith ; P. 
sambticifbUa Cham, and Don'i 
MilL 

2 p^ndula Hort. - 445 
S. hpbrida phidula Lod. 
P. spuria sambacifbUa 
Hort Brit. 

35. foliolosa WaU. - 445 

other Spedes^P. hlrdna FToff. 
Ca*. '^ - . -446 



§ yiL i^c&noracAts Dec 

36. flrbutifoliaXf.Jf/. 446 

Crataegus j^ri/btfa Lam. 

Diet., ArdiuVi ftynfdiia Pers. 

Syn., ?Crflto'fitf #«T3/a Polr. 

SuppU Mitpitms arhmtifbiia 

Schmidt Arb.. MiU. Diet. 
2 intermedia LindL 446 
S seT6tina lAndL - 446 

4 pumila - - 446 
^ispUuM pdntila Lodd. 

37. (fl. ) melanocarpa 447 

T.\rbuttfdUa fi Willd. Sp., 

Arbnia wbutifhlia Pers. Syn., 

'Ufspilus capitdta Lodd.. M. 

JtortbUnda Lodd., M. jp^Acnu 

Lodd Cat. 

2 subpub^ens L. 447 

38. (fl.)floribundalr. 447 

39. (a.) depressal/. 448 

40. (a.) pubensl*. -448 

41. (fl) grandifcilia L. 448 

§ Yiii. Chanuemespilw Dec. 

42. Chamaemespihis 449 

Craia'gtu Chamarmi$pilu$ 
Jacq. Austr., M^«piV«tt Cbanue- 
mespUtts Lin. Sp., S^fto* CAo- 
m^nispUus Crantx Austr.: the 
Bastard Quince : niedriger Mis. 
petbtttan, Ger. ; CamemespoiOt 
Ital. 

Otber Species qf P^nis. — P. 
alnlfbfiaLrmU., P.tomeiitdsa 
Dec. Prod., MditM tomentdsa 
Dum. Cours., P. nibicfinda 

XXL Cydo^nia T. - 450 

The Quince Tree. — Pvria 
sp. Lin., Coignassier, Fr. ; 
^'tfaiddSfm, Ger.; Cotogno, 
Ital. 

1. vulgaris Pct"*. - 450 
Pj^rvc Cydbnia Lin. Sp., Jacq. 

AiMtr. ; C. europa^a Sav. 

1 pyriformis /forf. 450 

2 malif6rinis Hort. 450 

3 lusiOnica Z>« H. 451 

2. sinensis T^cmin - 451 
PjfTM sinhuis Poir. SuppL 

3. japonica Per*. - 452 
7virui Japbniea Ttaunb. FI. 



Jap. and Bot. Mas., Cb^eno. 

m&es Japonica Limfi. Lin. Tr. 
2 flore 4lbo - - 452 
S fl. s^mi-pldno - 452 

Calj/canihdcecB. 
I. Calyca'nthus L. 452 

American Allspice. — Ctf/y- 
canfiii sp. Lin., Lam., Willd.; 
BUttnirlSk Du Ham^ not of Lin.; 
Beurrer\A Ekret Pict. ; Aw- 
leria Adans. Fam.; Pompa^ 
doikrz. Buckos : Calycanthe, 
Fr. ; GevUrxstrauck (spice 
sbmb). Ketch Biume, Ger.; 
Caltcanto, Ital. 

1. fl6ridus L. - - 453 

The Carolina Allspice. — C. 
«/^ritfs Walt. Car. : sweel-scenied 
shrub, in Carolina ; common 
American Allspice : Calycanthe 
de la Caroline, ¥r. ; Carolinische 
Kelch Blume, Ger. ; Pompadur 
Ital. 

1 ob16ngus Dec. - 453 

2 ovitus Dec. - - 453 

3 osplenifoliuB L. C. 453 

4 ferox Lodd. Cat 453 

5 glaucusLorf. Ca<. 453 

6 inodorusLocf. Cof. 453 

7 longifoliusLorf. C. 453 

8 variegatusZ.o(/. C. 453 

2.(f.)gla{icus H^i//rf.454 

C. drtilis Walt. Car., Lindl. 
Bot. Beg., Giiimp. Abb. Hols., 
Don's frfill. : the Jertile -flowered 
American Allspice. 

2 oblongifoliusiVirf. 454 
C. oblongijdlius Hort. 

3. (f.) laevigatus IV. 454 

C. ferax Michaux Fl. Bor. 
Amer.. C pennsylvdnicus Lod 
Cat 

II. CHIMONA'NTHUSi^. 
The Winter Flower. — 3/?- 
ra/f'a l^ees Act. Soc. 2iat. Bonn, 
Calycanthi sp. Linn. 

1. fragrans Lindl. - 455 

Calyc&nthusprai'eox Lin. Sp., 

Ait. Tlort. Kew., Curt Bot 

Mag., Lam. 111. ; MerM». frH. 

eans Nees Act. Soc. Nat. 
mn. J Cf^bai, or Rbbai Ksempf. 
Amer.: the Winter Flotoerj 
Calf/cante de Jcmon, Fr. ; Ja- 
panische Kelch Blume, Ger. 

2 grandiflorus Lind.455 

3 idteus Hort. - 455 

4 parviflonis Hort. 455 



Granatdcece, 

1. Pu^NiCA Toum. 456 
The Pomegranate Tree.— 
J%e Carthaginian Apple : Gre- 
nadier, Fr. ; GranaU, Ger.; 
Melograno, Ital. j Granados, 
Span. 

1. Granatum L. - 456 

1 riibnim Dec. Prod A56 

2 rub.fl.pl. Trew - 457 
I S albescens Dec. iV. 457 



XXVI 



CONTENTS. 



4 alb^ens fl.pldno 457 

5 flavum Hort. - 457 
2. (G.) nana L. - 457 

p. americina ndna Tourn.« 
P. Grandlum ndmtm Pers. 

TamartcctcecB. 
I. Ta'marix D«». 4^8 

The Tamarix— TAt; ip0etVr« (/ 
Tdmarix qf authors that have 
4-5 $UiTnen»: Tamarft, Fr. « 
ramamAm, Ger.: ramafiee, 
Ital. 

I. g&lUca L. ' 458 

T. narbonifuis Lob. Ic, 
Tamarigctu gdUicui All., Ta- 
fiMmotf penidndms Lam. FI. 
Fr., not of Pall. : Mirice^ Ital. 

Varietiet - - - 4S8 

II. Myrica'riaD^«.459 

The species <^ Tdmarix qf 
authors that havemonade^thous 
stamens. 

1. germanica Desv. 4^9 

Tamarix germanica Lin. 
Sp., Tamartsctts decandrus 
Lam. Fl. Fr., Tamarix decan- 
dra Mcsach, Tamariscus ger- 
m&nicus Lob. Ic. : ^Tamaris 
d'AUemagne, Fr. ; Deutschen 
Tamarisken^ Ger. ; Tttmarigia 
piceola, leal. 

2 dahiirica Dec. - 459 
Tdmarix dahitrtca WUld. 
Act. Berol. 

VhiladelpJidcetB. 
1. Philade'lphusL.460 

The MockOrange. — Syrlnga 
Tcnm. Inst., not or Lin. : Pht- 
ladelpkus. Fr. ; Pfeifenstraueh 
(pipf shrub), Ger. ; Filadeipho, 
Itai. ; jPip« Privet, Gerard ; 
the Syringa of the gardens. 

§ i. Stems stiff and Untight, 
Flowers in Racemes, 

1. coronarius L, - 460 

Svrlnga swtveolens Moench 
Mech.: tpohlrirchetuter Pffif- 
rnstrauch, Ger.; Fior anguJot 
lUl. 

1 vulgaris Sch.Han,46l 

2 nanus Mill Diet. 461 

3 florepldno L.C^.461 

4 varieg^tus L. Cat 461 

2. (c.) inodorus L, 461 
Syringa tnodbra Moench ; 

P. Uuus in varioui English 

fardens : Silindia senx* odore^ 
Ul. 

3. (c.) Zeyhen &fch.461 

4. verrucosus SchradM2 

P. grandifldrus LindL Bot 
Reg., Lodd. Cat. 1836, 

5. (v.) latifolius SchM2 
P. puh^scens Cclf. Hort., 

Lois. Herb. Amat. 

6. (v.)floribundus S, 463 



7. speciosus Schrad. 463 

p. grandifldrus of German 
gardeners, V . grand{flihrus Idx- 
us of other gardeners. 

8. Gordonidnus Lin. 463 

§ iL Stems more slender, 
rctmbling, twiggy, and 
loose. Flowers solitary, 
or 2 or S together. 

9. laxus Schrad, - 464 
V.hUmUis Hort., V.pubts- 

cens Lodd. Cat. 1836. 

10. (1.) grandiflorus 464 

P. inodbrus Hort., P. iOMUs 
Lodd. Cat. 1836 

1 1. hirsutus NutL - 464 

P. viUbsus Lodd. Cat., P. 
gracilis Lodd.. Cat. 

12. tomentosus lVal/.4S5 

P. nepalSnsis Lodd. Cat. 
1836, ? P. triftdrus Royle. 

Other Sprcies qfFhiladiiphus 

P. mexic^nus Sch. - 465 

IL Deu tzia Thun. 465 

Fhilndelphus, in part; Lep' 
lospirmumt in part. 

1. scabra - - 466 

2. (s.) corymbdsa 466 

D. canficens Sieboldt, Vhi- 
ladilphus corpmbdsus Wall. 

Other Species of Dn^/xla. — D. 
staminea R. Br.(FAiiadilvhus 
stamineu* W.), D. Bruuonm 
Wall. (Lrj>tospirmum sed' 
brum W.) . - .466 

III. Decuma'riaX. 466 

Fors/fthla, fVait.^not of Vahl. 

1. barbara L. - - 467 

D. radicans Moench Mcth., 
D. Fors^thisi Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer.f D. prostrdta Lodd. 
Cat. 

2 sarment^sa Dec. 467 
D. sarmentbsa Bosc. 
Forsylhi^ sc&ndens Walt. 

NttraricU:ea. 

I. Nitra'ria L. - 468 
1. SchrSberiL. -468 

1 sibirica • 468 
N. sibirica Pall. Fl. Ross. 

2 c^pica - - 468 
N.caspica Pall. Fl. Ross. 

Other Species of NitrAria.—V. 
tridentku Dt'V- - - 468. 

Grossulacece, 
I. RfsEs L. - - 468 

Grossuldria Toum. ; Chry^ 
sobdtrya, Caloh6trj/a, Core6sma^ 
and Ribes Spach : GroseHier\ 
Ft. ; Johannisheere, Ger. ; 
Kruisbes, Dutch ; Uva SpinOt 
Ital. ; Grossetia, Span. 

§ i. GrossuLciri<B Acb. 
Gooseberries. 

GroseiUer i Maquereau^ Fr. ; 



StaehMeere St^rsmcA, Ger. , 
Kruisbes, Dutch ; Utra Spitsa, 
Ital. J Grosella, Span. 



A. Flowers gr^ntsh white. 

1. oxyacanthoides Zr.469 

2. setosum LindL, 470 

3. trifldrum W. - 470 
R. staminewn Horn. Enum. 

Hort. Hafn. ; R. f. ifi^/iw 
Hort. 

4. (t.) niveum Lind/A70 

5. (t.) Cyn6sbati L. 47 i 

R. f trifldrum var. 

1 fr6ctu glabro - 471 

2 fr{ictu aculeato - 471 

6. (t.) divaricatuno£>.471 

R. rtrifidrum Mr., R. 
f Grossuldria var. triftHra 
subvar. 

7. (t.) irriguum Dot*. 472 
R. t triflbrum var. 

8. hirtellum Mchx. 472 

9. gricile Michx, 472 

10. aciculare ^^wt/A. 472 
R. Wva-crispa Sievers in 

Pall. Nord. Beytr., ? Pall. Fl. 
Ross. 

1 1. Grossularia L. 473 

R. {Tra crispa (Ed. Fl. 
Dan., Grossularia hirsUta, 
Mill. Diet., R. TTva-crispa 
var. 5. sativa Dec. FI. Fr. : 
Feaberry, Cheshire and the 
North of England ; FcabeSy 
Norfolk; Groxert, in Scot- 
land : Groseiller d Maquereau, 
Fr. ; Griselte, in Piedmont ; 
gemeine Stachelbeere^ Ger. ; 
Vva Spina, Ital. 

2 iTva-crispa Smith 473 
R. ITva-crtspa Lin. Sp. 
TPva^rispa Fuch. Hist. 
IPva-spitta Math. Valgr. 
R. JT'rrt crispa var. \ syl- 

vfstris Berlandier. 

3 spinosissima BerL 473 

4 reclinata ^er2. - 473 
R. reclindtum Lin. Sp. 
Grossuldria reclindta Mil 

Diet. 

5 Beaseriana Berl 473 
R. h^bridum Bcsser. 

6 subin£Tmis /?«■/. 473 

7 macroedrpa Z)cc. 473 

8 bracieata Berl • 473 

9 himalayana - 473 
R. himtUaydnum Royle. 

Other Varieties The Red 

Champagne, or Ironmon- 
ger, Horseman's Green- 
Gage, the Red. 

B. lowers red. 

12. speciosumPf/rM 474 

Ti.stanAneum Smith in Rees's 
Cycl., Dec. Prod. ; ?R./mcA*- 
I6ldes Fl. Mcx. ic. ined. ; R. 
triacanthum Menxiea. 



CONTENTS. 



XXV 11 



)X Menziesii Pb. - 475 

R./frM Smith In Ren** Cyd. 

ttfecr Specie*. — R. microphf U 
Um H.B.et KtaUk. 

J iL Botrycarpmm Dec. 

14. orientale Potp. - 475 

15. sax4tile PalL . 475 
?1L fl^wnm SieTcn ia Pall. 

lionLBcytr. 

16. Diacaotha L,fti. 475 

17. Ucustre Pow-. - 476 
>R. osysaBidad«Mlchx.Fl. 



2 ecfainituin - - 476 
R. edkmdhim Doogl.MS. 



§ uL Ribesia 2>. 
Qimnu. 
Btbei ^ecia of Linncot and 
others ; (Medolna, Core&$ma 
Jod Bflbb Spaek: Gro$anlie$ 
Ok Grmpmn^ or Gro$Hilur 
fiTWMii .Fr. ; JokammOeere, 
Gcr.; iZaamteoM, Dutch: 

A. Havmgreeahk. orgreenith 
frifetp. or ri!)riSABiA ; md Fruit, 
mmKM State, red. 

18. rabrum L. - 477 

R. n^e S. Da Ham. ; 
CrMeiBBrr ep wwin i, Fr.; ^«- 
flenr AiUamubeere, Ger. ; 
iflAcnm JboK, Dutch ; iltte* 

mew, Ital. 

1 syWestre 2)«c i^V. 477 

S hortense Dec. - 477 

R. rttriMi Lois. Kour. 
Dkc. 

3 earoeum BerL M, 477 
R. r it$mm domfgticum 

ibaods cameit Wallr. 
Scb«<L 

4 tariegitum Dee. 477 

5 llbum Z>e»f. Co/. 477 
Giotiis luteo variegatis 

Duh. - - 477 

7 foliis albo variegatis 

DmH, - - 477 

8 sibtTieinn Oldaker 477 

19. (r.) alplnum L. 477 

R. dMcKBi Masters. 
1 sterile WaUr, Sched. 477 
R. dkoscioM jf crach McCb. 
S baeciferum ITo^r. 478 

3 pibiuhmi LhuU. - 4 78 

4 &liis Taricg^tis - 478 

80.(r.)petTOuni W^.478 

R-«^a»«ngffDelarh. AavergD.: 
Xflo caraUmo ItaL : /Ae teocilu' 
kmed Ckrrtmt the red Marsk- 
maUoy-ieaved Carrant. 

21. (r.) spicatom R. 478 

The TYet Cmrramt. 

22. (r.) caqiathicum 479 

t. flrf/ r tomw RoclMl ex R. 
etScholtci. 

23.(r.)niultifl6rum 479 

t.9pkdtmm Scfaultes GEstr. 
fLell., R. ritifblhem Hort. 



24. (r). albinervum 479 

25. acuminilcum W, 479 

26. (r.)trifiduni Jfjr. 479 

BL Fkiven greemiMh ifeUow, 
sometimes with the Tipt^the 
Sepait and Petals red. Fruit 
black. 

27. nigrum L. - - 480 

R. ^iteteiiiMcrachMeth.: Capi* 
and Pohrier, Fr. ; tckwartse 
JoMamtubeerey Ger.; i{r6rf ne- 
ro» Ital. 

2 bAcca flivida ITorf. 48 1 

3 b^cca Tiridi HorL 481 

4 foliis Tariegatis V, 481 
Selection qf Garden Va- 
rieties. ~- BlaclL Naples, 
large Black. * 

28. (n.)tri8tePfl//.-481 

R. altdicum Lodd. Cat. 

29. (n.) floridum -481 

'tLnigrum 2 Lin. Sp., R. 
^nnsjfivanicum Lam. Diet., 
R.recurvdtum Mich. FI. Bor. 
Amer., RiMsium nigrumt Ac, 
DiU. Elth. 

2 grandiflorum HoriA82 
R. r^«M Mx. Fl. Bor. 

3 parviflorum ITort. 482 
R. ameriednmm Mill., 

R. pennsylvanicmn Cels. 
R. camfMRtt/dftcm Hort. 

30. (n.) prociiiribens 482 

R. po^carpon Gmel. Syst. 
Veg. 

31. (D.)pro8tratuni 482 

R. glandulbsum Ait. Hort. 
Kew. ed 1 .. R> canadense Lod. 
2 laiiflonim - - 482 
R. ({ffi'ne Duugl. MSS. 
R. laaijldrum Pursh Amer. 
Sept. 

32. (n.) resinosumP. 482 
R. on'mia^ ^atros, R.recli' 

mUum Hort. 

33. (n.) punctutum 482 

R. glandaldsum R. ft P. FI. 
Per., not of Ait., Don's Mill. 

34. (n.) heter6trichum 

Meyer - - 483 

35. (n.) bracteosuin 483 

36. (n.) viscosissimum 

Pursh . - 484 
Core6sma viseonssima Spacb. 
Ann. des Scien. Mat. 1835. 

37. (n.) hudsonianuin 

Rkhardion - 484 
ILpetio&re Dougl. Hort Tr. 

38. placiale WaU. - 484 

39. inebrians Lmdl 485 

40. cereurn Dougl. • 485 

C. Flowers deep red. Fruit 
black. 

41. sanguineum P. - 486 

'B.JOkolaiteetnn Smitti in Rees's 
Cycl., Catob^rya sanguinea 
Spacn. 



2 glutioosum - 486 
R. filutindsum' Benth. 

Hort. Trans. 
R. OMgOstutn Dougl. MS. 

3 malviceum - - 486 
R. malviceum Benth. 

4 atro-riibens Hort, 486 

42. atro-purpiireiim 487 
\ Flowers deep purple. 

Leaves rather pu- 
bescent beneath, but 
smooth and glabrous 
above, as well as the 
branches. 

2 Leaves rather pu- 
bescent beneath, but 
hispid from bristles 
above, as well as the 
petioles and stems. 

3 Flowers paler. Leaves 
pubescent above, but 
most pubescent below. 
Branches smooth. 

$ iv. SymphScalyx Dec. 

43. aureum Punk - 467 

R.|MiZmd/ifln Desf.Cat. Hort. 
Paris, Chrysobitrya revolita 
Spacb. 

1 prae'cox Lindl, - 487 
R. frigrans Lodd. Bot. 

2 villosum Dec, Pr, 488 
R. tongiflbrum Fraser 

CaUl. 

3 serotinum LindL 488 

44. (a.) tenuiflorum 488 

R. a4treum CoUa Hort. Rip. 
Append., "R. fidvum Berl. in 
Dec. Prod., K. missourihisfs 
Hort., CkrjfSobdtryaLindleyiiiA 
Spack. 

1 fhictu nlgro - - 488 

2 Mctu liiteo - 488 

45. (a.) flAvum Co«. 4S8 

R. aUreum 3 soHgtuneum 
Lindl. in Hort. Trans., R. 
palmdtvm Desf. Hort. Par., R. 
atireunt Ker Bot. Reg., not of 
Pursh ; Ckrysob6trya mter- 
midia Spach. 

EscallonmxBS. 
L /'TEA L. . - 489 

Cedrela Lour. ; Dieondngia 
Mlchx. 

1. virginica L. - 490 
n. Escali.o'n/^M.490 

Steredxylon R. & P. Fl. Per. 
Prod. 

1. rubra Per*. - 490 

Stere6xylon ritbrum R. ft P. 
1 glabriuscula Hook, ei 
Am, - - 490 

2albifl6rai/%. ef ^.491 
E. glandulhia Bot. Cab. 
I 3 pub^scens U, et A. 491 



xxvm 



CONTENTS. 



2, montevidcnsis D. 491 

E.floribUnda var. fmmtevi- 

dhuh Schlecbt. in Linnca; 

E. bifida Link et Otto AbbUd. 

2 floribdnda - - 491 

E. flaribdnda H. B. et K. 

3. illinita Pretl - 491 

Other Specfet qf EteaUhnXtL. 
— E. resin6M Pert, {Store- 
6rylon resttibsum Ruli et 
Pavon). E. puWeral^ntaPrrf. 
(Stercoxulon puiveruiintum 
Ruiz et Paron) - - 491 

Saxifrdgece. 

Tribe Htdra'nokjb. 
I. Hydra^'ngea L. 492 

Hydr&ngea and Hortintla, 
Juis.i Idroftgea, Ital. 

A. Spca'et Natives qf North 
America. 

1. arbor^scens L, - 492 

//. vuledri* Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., H. /rut£$cens M<sDch 
Meth. 

2 discolor Ser. •> 493 

2.(B.,)cordaiaPursk 493 
2 georgica - - 493 

h. geSrgica Lodd. Cat. 

3. nivea Mich.r, - 493 
H, radiala Wal. Fl. Car., not 

of Sm. 

2 glabella Ser. - 493 

4. oiiercifolia Barir. 493 

H radidla Smith Icon. PIct. 
12., but not of Walt. 

B. Species Natives qfAsia. 

5. heteromalla Don. 494 

6. altfssima IVall, - 494 

Other Species qf Hydr&ngea 

H. Hortensm Sleb. {II. har. 
ttnsis Smith), H. vestlta 
WaU. . . - .494 

Umbell&cea. 
1. .Supleu'rum T. 495 

The Hare'g Ear. — TVndria 
and Bupristis Spreng. Syst. : 
Bupliore, or Oreille de Uevre, 
Fr. ; Hasenohrlien, Ger. 

1. fruticosum L. - 495 

TendriA fnUicdsa Spreng. in 
Schultei Sjrst.; Bt^istis/ru- 
ticbsa Spreng. Mag. ; ^seli 
tethiSpicum Bauh. Pin. ; ^seli 
frhtex Mor. Umb. 

Other Species of Bmleiinsm. — 
B. fVut£>censL., B. gtbralti- 
rlca Lam. (B. arbor iscens 
Jacq.Ic. R.) • - - 495 



AraliacecB. 
I. Ara'lia L, - 496 

The Angelica Tree. — AriUim 
sp. Lin., Ariiite vine Blum. 

] . spinosa L. - - 496 
Araite, Fr. and Ger.; Angdiea 



^n'nosa, Ital.; Spikenard^ N. 
mer. 

8. jap6nica Thunb, 497 

II. T/e'dera Swartz 497 
The Ivj.^Ardliasect. Gym- 
ndptentm Blum. Bijdr., Utdera 
and Ardlia sp. Lin. : Lierre^ 
Fr. ; Ephen, Ger. ; Edera, Ital. 

I. Helix L, - - 497 

1 vulgaris Dec - 498 

2 canari^nsis Dee. 498 
H. canarOnsis Willd. 
The Irish, or Giant, Ivy. 

? 3 chrysocdrpa Dec, 498 
H. pottica C. Bauh. 
H. chrysoc&rpos Dalecb. 
H.*Dion0sias J. Bauh. 
H. Helix Wall. 

4 fol. arg^nteis L. C.498 

5 fdliis aiireis L. C. 498 

6 digitata Xoef. Cb/. 498 

7 arbor^scens Z. C. 498 

HamameliddcecB. 
I. JTamameYis L. 499 

The Wych Haael. — Trilbpus 
Mith. Act. Acad. Nat. Cur. & 
App. : Hamamelide, ItaL 

1. virginica Ir. - 499 

Hamamelie de Firginie, Fr. ; 
Firginische Zaubemuss, Ger. ; 
Pistacchio nera delta Firginia, 
Ital. 

2 parvifolia iV«<<. - 499 

3 macrophylla - 499 
H. macroph^Ua Pursh. 

II. F0THERGl'LLi< L. 

1. nlnifolia L. . - 500 

F. Gdrdenl Michx. Fl Bor. 
Amer., Hamametis monoica 
Lin. ex Smith in Rees** Cycl. 

1 obtiisa SifM B.M. 500 
F. mdjor Bot. Cab. 

F. sdnijblia Lin. fil. Sup. 

2 aciita Sim» - - 500 
F Gardrni Jaeq. Ic. Bar. 

3 major SivM B. M. 500 

ConidcetE, 
I. Co'rnus L, - 501 

The Dogwood — ComouiUer, 
Fr. ; Hartriegel, Ger. ; Cor- 
niolo, Ital. 

§ i. Nudiflora Dec. 

A. Leaves alternate. 

1. alternifolia L, - 501 

C. altima Marth. 

B. Leaves opposite. 

2. sangufnea L, - 502 

C. foe*mina Ral. Syn., Fifva 
Miwttiiu'a Matth. Valgr. : Fe- 
male Cornel, Dogberry Tree, 
Hound Tree, Hounds-berry 
Tree, PricJtwood, Gaten, or 
Gotten Tree, Gater or Gatter 



Tree, Catteridge Tree^ «»«* 
Cornel: Comottiller sauvage, 
snnguin, or frmetle, Pw'ne, Or 
Bois pmnais, Fr. ; rother Hart- 
riegel. Ger. ; Sangutnello, ItaL 

2 P6rshii Don's M. 502 

C. sangtiinea Pursh. 
S foliis variegatis - 502 

3. alba Z. - - 503 

C. stolonifera Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., C. tatarica Mill. Icon. 

2 circinata Don*t M. 503 
C. a'ra'nita Cham, et S. 

3 sibirica Lodd, Cat. 503 

4. (a.) stricta L, - 50.3 

C. fastigihia Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer. ; C. sanguinea Walt.^ 
but not or Lin. ; C. cyanocdrpoa 
Grael. Syst. Veg., C. cana- 
dhuis Hort. Par., C. eteritiea 
Meerb. Icon., but not of iMm. 

2 asperifolia - 504 
C. asperifdlia Lodd. Cat. 

3 sempervirens - 504 
C. sempervirens Lod. Cat. 

5. (a.) panicul&ta H, 504< 

C. racembsa Lam. Diet. ; C. 
fce*mina Mill. Diet ; C. dtri- 
fblia Hort. Par 

2 i\h\A9i Ehrh. - 504 

3 radiita Pursh - 504 

6. (a.)Bericeai:r'J7. 504 

C. lannginbsa Mich. Fl. Bor. 
Amer. ; C. alba Walt. Fl. Car., 
but not of Lin. ; C. c^rUlen 
Lam. Diet. ; C. Ambmum Du 
Roi Harbk. ; C. rubiginbsa 
Ehrh. Beitr. ; C. femtginea 
Hort. Par. ; C. candiditsima 
Mill. ; C. cyanocdrpos Moench, 
but not of timet. 

2 oblongifolia Dee. 504 
C. oblongijblia Rafln. 

7. (a.) circinata L'//. 505 

C. tomentdsa Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., C. ntgdsa Lam. Diet., 
C. virginiina Hort Par. 

8 obl6nga WaU. - 505 

C. paniculdta Hamilt. ex D. 
Don Prod. Fl. Nep. 

§ ii. Invclucrdtce Dec 

9. m^s L. - - 505 

The Cornel, or Cornelian 
Cherry Tree. — C, masetiia 
L* Her it. Corn., Long Cherry 
Tree : Cornelia, Comouilier 
mdle. Comes, Comeiiles, Fr. ; 
Komel Kirseke, Hartriegel, 
Ger. ; Corgnolo. Ital. 

2 fructu cerse colons 

N. Du Ham. 506 

3 variegatus - 506 

JO. floridal,. - 507 

Firgim'an Dogtoood. 

Other Species of Cbmus. •— C. 
gr4ndis Schlecl., C. ofBdnhiia 

507 

II. BENTHA*M/i< L. 507 

C6mms sp. Wall, Dec, and 
G. Don. 



CONTENTS. 



XXIX 



I. fradfera Lmdl, - 506 

C^mai* cmpOdia Wall, fax 
Bath, F1. Ind., Don's MUl.: 
aa«-«M, in 'Sep^i Jtt«- 
■nvrv, in Seranpore. 
Okr Spro«i <{f ifeafUMia.— 

B.jap6nica - - - S« 

LoranthdcecE* 
I Ki'scujf X. - 508 

Tbe HUUctiM. — Jf iMrUtiw, 
Gw, or G«y. Fr.; JfiKl, or 
Jfijcel, Ger. ; riaco, or FocftM, 
luL ; L^atddcisa, Span. 

i. album X. - - 509 

II. Lora'sthus It. 510 
K europaB^ L, - 511 

III. AtrcVBA Thunb. 5 1 1 

A6c«l»£<rMR^.wf]Mra., £4- 
Sattri). Prod. 



1. jap6i!ica TTIwi^. - 511 

Prad. : motud-Ua^d Lamrelt 
LmureL 



Caprt/bliacecB. 

SecL I. ^AMBuVziK. 

L 5AjiBU*cus Toum, 513 

Tbe Elder.— PAyleiDiM Lour. 
Gotitu, tait not of Lin. 

A LeawtM pmmate. Flowers 
orcorjfmdou. 



1. nigra L. - - 513 
Bamrirw, or Ai«r Tree, Am- 

tree, ScoCcbj 5a0va«, Fr. ; 

Hatuttder, Ger. ; Sambuco, 

ItaL; 5ai»co, and Samtmeo, 

Spn. ; rUeder, Swed. ; tfi^itfr, 

Dan. 

2 nrescens -Oec. - 514 

S. nritertu Deaf. Arb. Fr. 

Sleucor&rpa- - 5J4 

4beuiiiU - - 514 

S. iadm'dta MUL Diet. 

5 rotondifolia - 514 

6 monstrosa - - 514 
S. mtmstrdta Hort. 

7 foliis argenteis - 514 
SloliisluteU - 514 

2. canadensis L, - 515 

B^ LtmteM pimnate. Fkneer* 
pamcUd. 

3. raceinofia L. - 515 

S. momt^M Cam. Epit. ; S. 
crrviM Tabem.: ^dmteeo mon- 
ItaL 
2 kciniau iTorA - 515 

3. (r.) pubens Mx, - 516 

S.r«XMa«a Hook. F1. Bor. 
Abu not of Lin.; S.pubiteefU 
Lodd-^t. 

Slieptapb^Ua^oo&.516 



XL KiBU RNUM //. - 515 

O'/m/iw, Vt»tfnttim. and TV 
MM. Tourn. Inst. ; ViMnwrm 
and (ypntus Moench Meth. : 
Viorne^ Fr. ; SekneebaU^ Ger. ; 
rUmrmo, Ital. 

§ i. TiiiM Tourn. 

1. Tinus L. - - 516 
The Lauruatinoa. — V. \auri- 

J6rme Lam. Fl. Fr., Ti»M 
Tourn. Inst., Tiitia laurifblia 
Borkh. in Boem. Arch. : the 
Lamntstme, wild Bate Tree, 
Gerard : Fiome, Laurier Tin, 
Ital. ; Lorberrartiger Scknee- 
ball,or Schwaikenstrauch^GeT. ; 
Lc^gro salvaticoy and Lauro 
Tino, Ital. 

2 Yi\TtaiAit.H.Kew. Sn 
V. Tmuf Mil) Diet. 
y.lueidum Mill.. Fers., 
Schultes. 
Sli^cida^t/. - - 517 

4 Tirgata ^if. - •'»17 

5 stricta Hort, - 517 

5 ii. yUnimum Tourn. 

2. LentagoZr. - - 517 

Tree VAumum, Canada Vi- 
burnum : Viome tw'sante, Fr. ; 
Btm-bOUrwer SekneebaU, Ca- 
nadiscke Sckwalkenbeerttrauch^ 
SekwaUenstrauch, Ger. 

3. ( L. ) joninifoliurai/. 518 

V. Leni^o Du Roi. 

4. (L.)j5.yrifoliuniP.518 

5. (L.) nudum L. - 519 

V. pyrifbiivm Folr. 
2 squamMum -519 
V. tquamdtum Willd. En. 

6. catsinoXdes L. - 519 1 
\.pumct&ium Rafia 

7. (c.)l2Bvigatum JF. 519 
V. ctuXnoides Du Roi Harbk., 

V .lanceoidUum Hill.Hort.Kew., 
V. caroUnidnmn Hort., Gas- 
sine paratua Lin. Mant, C. co- 
rymodstf Mill. Icon. : Thi ame- 
rieano, Ital. 

8. Lantana L. - - 520 

The Wayfaring Tree. —V. to- 
mentdntm Lam. Fl. Fr. : wild 
Gvetder Rose, pliant-brancked 
Mealy Tree: Viome coton- 
nevse, Carnara, Viome com- 
munef Coudre-moinsinne, Mon~ 
denne, Fr. ; Scklingsirattch, 
tPoiUger SchnrebaUf or Schwal- 
kenttrauch, Ger.; Lentaggine, 
ItaL 

2 grandifolia Ait - 520 
V. L. latijblia Lodd. Cat. 

3 foliis variegiltis - 520 

9. (L.) lantanoides - 520 

American Wayfaring Tree — 
V. Lanldna fi grand >/dlia Ait. 
Hort.Kew., ed. 1.; V.grandi- 
JUimm Smith in Rees't Cycl. ; 
V. LiffKdiM canaiiinsis Fers. 
Ench.: Hobble Bush, Amer. 

10. (L.)dahuricum -521 

Lonicen mor^Slica Fall. Fl. 
IUm.. C^rmu iaikrica Laxm> 



ll.(?L0cotmifdlium521 

V. Mullilha Ham, in D. Don 
Prod. FL Hep. 

12. dentaturo L. - 521 

V. denidium lUcidum Ait. 
Hort Kew., V. denidium gla- 
bfUum Mx. Fl. Bor. Amer.: 
Arrow-wood : Viome denUe, 
Fr. 

Varieties V. d. pubiscens, 

V. d. foliis Tarieg^tii, V, 
acuminitum, V. longifblium 
and V. moutinum are in 
Messrs. Loddiges's collec- 
tion ... 5*22 

13. (d.) pubescens- 522 

y.dentittum 3 pubfscens Ait. 
Hort. Kew., v. denldiumsemi' 
iomenidsum Mich. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., \ . tomenibtwan Rafin. 
Med. Rep., V. viUbsum Rafin. 
in Desf. Joum., V. Rafinesqui' 
inum SckuUes Syst, 

14. mtidum Ait. - 522 

§ iiL O'puluB Tourn. 

15. (/pulus L. - - 522 
The Guelder Rose — V./o, 

bdtum Lam. Fl. Fr., O'pulus 

flanduUsus Moench Meth., 
YptUus Rail Syn., Sambdcus 
aquatica Bauh. Pin.: Marsh 
Elder, Rose Elder, Hater Elder: 
Viome-Obier, FObier d* Europe, 
Fr. ; Schufolkfnbeerstrauck, 
yVasserkolder,SckneebaUe,Ger.', 
Maggi, Ital. 

2 st^rilis Dec. Prod, 523 
V. O. xbseum Roem. el S. 
The Snow-ball Tree, or 

Guelder Hose. 
Base de Gutrldres, Petotte 

de Ndge, Boule deNeige, 

Poire moiUy Fr. 
Schneeballe, Ger^ 

3 foliis variegatis - 523 

4 n^na Hort. - 523 

16.(0.) flcerifolium 523 

17. (0.)orientaleP.524. 

C/pulus orientdlis fblio am^ 
ptissimo iridtntdlo Toum. Cor. 

18. (O.) Oxycoccos 524 

V. opuloidet Muhl. Cat., V. 
tritobum Marsh. Arb., V. O'pu- 
his americdna Ait. Hort. Kew. 

2 subintegrifolius^. 524 

3 m611is - - 524 
V. m6Ue Mx. Fl. Bor. Am. 

19. (O.) ediile P. - 524 

V. O'pulus edklis Michx. H. 
Bor. Amer. 

Sect. II. Lonice'b«-«. 

III. DlERVl'LL^ToiI. 525 
LorucersL sp. L. ; WeigiliA 
nunb. Fl. Jap,t fVeigSna, Pers. 
Ench, 

1. canadensis IV, - 525 

LonieersL Dierrilla. Lin. Mat. 
Mcd.,D. TovrneJdrtW Michx. 
Fl. Bor. Amer., D. hitmilis 
Fers. Bnch-, D. thtea Pursh 
Sept, D. tr\fida Ma-nch Meth., 
D. ocodt^itsts Du Ham. Arb. 



XXX 



CONTENTS. 



IV. LoNi'cER.<Desf. 526 

The Honeysuckle.— IiOfiic^a 
n lAxx. and muny authors; 
Caprifdlium and Xf/I6steum 
Juts. Gen., XyUisteum Capri- 
/b/ium, Chamac6ratu»t Teri- 
el^memtm Tourn. Intt.; Ca- 
pr^lium and Lonioer^ Ram. 
el ScktUt. Svst., Lonieen and 
Xvl6steum Torrey Fl. U. S.: 
Ckevr^euille, Fr.; Geitsbiatt, 
Honeigblume, and Lonicere, 
Get. 

§ i. CaprifdHum Dec. 

CaprffbUum Juts. Oen., Lo- 
fiicera Torr. FL Un. St., but 
not of Schult. 

A. Flowers r As^ra/. — Copr/- 
fdlium Tourn. Inst. 

1. Pericl/menum L. 527 

The Woodbine.— P«r/c/,^m6- 
MtuM Ger. Em., Vrrid^menum 
germdnicum Rlv. Mou. Irr., P. 
korttnae Gesn. Ic. Pict, Capri' 
Jdirum Ferid^menmm Rom. 
et Schult.. Capr\/bUmm sylvdU- 
cum Lam. Fl. Fr., Caprifd- 
Hum Rail Syn. : H'oodbiud : 
ChevrtfeuiUe des Boit, Fr. ; 
vildea gemetnes Oei$»b£dUt 
Ger. ; gewoone Kamperfaeiie, 
Dutch i Madre Selva, Ital. and 
Span. 

2 ser^tinum AiL - 527 
Terid^. germdniemn Mill. 

S b^lgicum - - 527 
Vericly. germSnicum Mill. 

4 ^uercifolium Ait. 528 

2. Caprifolium L. - 528 

Fericl^menum per/olidium 
Ger. Emac. : CkevrrfettiUe det 
Jardins, Fr. ; Durchwachaenet 
Ger. i Caprifolio Ital, 

3. (C etrusca) San. 528 
L. etr6$ca Hort. Fl. Auttr., 

Capr(fbiium etrOseum Kcm. eC 
Schult Syst., VericiOmenum 
Gouan Hort., CttpriJoUum itd- 
licum perfolidtum pne^cox 
Tourn. Inst. : the Italian Ho- 
neysudtU : Maruorino, ItaL 

4. implex a AU, - 529 

The Minorca Honeyiuckle^— 
Caprijblium impU*um Ronu. 
et achult Syst.: rittdboKo sem- 
preverdt', Ital. 

2 baleirica Viv. - 529 
Caprifblium baledri.Dum . 
L. balearica Dec 
L. Caprijblium Desf. 

5. fl^va Sbtu - 529 
Caprifblium Jldvum Ell. 

Sketch.. Caprifblium Ftbsetl 
Purth Sept. 

6. (f.) puWscens S, 529 

Caprifblium pubfscmt Goldle 
In Phil. Journ., L. kirtdta Ea- 
ton Man. Bot., L. G6ldA 
Spreng. Syst. 

7. parviflora Lam. 530 

Caprifblium pamiflbrum 
Pursn Sept., LomeerSi dioica 
Lin. Syst. Veg., L. midia 
Murr. NOT. Comm. G0Ct., Co- 
prifblinm bractebtum MIchx. 
Fl. Bor. Amer., C. dioicum 



Reran, et Schult. Syst., CglaH- 
cum Ma»nch : glaucous Honey- 
suckle : Chevrefeuilie dioiouet 
Fr. ; MeergrUnes GeissNait, 
Ger. ; Middelboore Kaagter- 
foelie, Dutch. 




9. hispidula Doug. 531 

Caprijblium hispHdulum Lin. 
Bot. Reg. 

10. grata i4//. - - 531 
Caprijblium grdtum Furah 

Sept., L. virginidna Marsh 
Arb., ? Yerielymenum ameri- 
cdnum Mill. Diet., CaprifoUo 
sempreverde, Ital. 

B. Limb qfCaroUa nearly equal. 
— Vericl$menum Tourn. 

11. sempervirens AU.5!^\ 

Caprifblium sempervirens 
Mlchx. Fl. Bor. Amer., Veri- 
cl6menum semp er v irens Mill. 
EMct., Atatirnus sempervirens 
Kcahl. ex Steud.; Verid^me- 
num virginlaeum Rir. Mon. : 
Madre Selva de Virginia, Ital. 

2 migor AiL, Curt. 532 

S minor Ait., Sima 532 
L. conndta Meerb. 

4 Br6wnu Gordon 532 

12. ciliosa Poir. - 532 

CaprifiUium dlibsum Pursh 
Fl. Amer. Sept.. L. dlidia 
Dletr. Lex. Suppl. 

13. occidentalis ^. 532 

Caprijbl. occidenldle Lindl. 
BoC. Reg., Caprifblium dlib- 
sum Dougl. MSS. 

Other Spedes L. pIloM IF., 

Dec. Prod. {Caprifblium vU- 
Ibsum H. B. et Kunth Nov. 
Gen. Amer.) - - 583 

§ ii. Xyloateum Dec. 

Xyl6steon Jusa. Gen., Loni- 
cent. Rcem. et Sckuli. Syst., 
XplSsteon and Chanueciraaut 
Tourn. Inst., XyiSsteum and 
Islka Adana. Fam., Coboe^Si 
Neck. Elem. .* the Ply Honey- 
auckie : Hackenkirseke, Ger. ; 
Hondsbezien or Hondskaraen, 
Dutch. 

A. Ovariea and Berriea otto- 
(fetker distind. Stems twin- 
tng. Flowers irregular. — 
Nintofta Dec. Prod. 

14. confusa Dec. - 533 
Nint<ida co^fiaa Swt. Hort. 

BrlL, Lonicer^ lapSniea Andr. 
Bot. Rep ; Nlntoo, Sintoo, 
Keempf. Ameen./ Caprijblium 
Japdnieum Loud. Hort. Brit. 
1st ed. 

15. longiflora Dec. 534 

Caprifblium longi/lbrum Sa. 

bine, Nintoda long^bra Swt. 

Hort Brit. ed. 2.. Caprifblium 

japdnieum D. Don Prod. Fl. 

Nep., Caprifblium nepalinae 

I Loud. Hort. Brit 



16. jap6nica Tkunb. 53* 

Ninta^a Jtm6nica Swt. Horu 
Brited.a., L.chin^nsiaHorU 
Kew., L..deaubMa Lod. Bot. 
Cab., L.glabrAta Roxb., Ca- 
prijblimm ckininae Loud. Hort 
Brit., C.Jleaubsum Hort. 

Other Species, -~L. longllblla 
Hort S» 

B. Berriea distinct, or usually 
connate together at the Boat, 
and diverging at the Tip. 
Corolla hardly gibbous at the 
Base, or equal. Ered deci-' 
duama Shruaa. — ChamacAraas 
Dec. 

17. tat&ricaL. - 535 

Xyl6steum eorddtum Moench 
Meth., X. tatdricum Dum. 
Cours. 

2 albiflora Dec - 535 
L. pyrendica WiUd. 

3 rubriflora Dec. 535 
L. grandiflbrum Lodd. 
L. sibiriea Hort. ex Pert. 

Ench. 

4 li^tea Lodd, Cat, 535 

5 latifolia Lodd. Cat.5S5 

18. (t.) nigra L. - 535 

CaprifiUium xbaeum Lam. Fl. 
Fr., CkamtBcirasua nigra De- 
larb. Fl. Aut. : Ciliegta salva- 
tica, Ital. 

2 campaniflora - 536 
Xyl6ateum campanifi.liod. 

19. (t.)cili^taJlfttA. 536 

Xyldalettm cilidtum Pursh 
Sept^ L. taiarica Michx. Fl. 
Amer., but not of I.in. ; L. 
eanadinaia Boeni. et Schult. 

20. pyren^ca L. - 536 

d^rWiUum pyrendicum 
Lam. FL Fr., Xylosteum fy. 
rendicum Tourn. Inst 

21. punfcea Sims - 536 

Symphoricdrpos puniceuaSwt. 

22. Xyl6steuiii L. 537 

Caprjfblium dumdbrutn 
Lam. n. Fr. ; XulSileum dm- 
metbrum Moench Meth. : Gtai*. 
loatio, Ital. 

2 ieucoc&rpum Dee. 537 

3 xanthoc4rpum D. 537 

4 melanocdrpum D. 537 

23. hispida PaU. - 537 

24. flexuosa Thunb. 537 
L. nigra Thunb. Fl. Jap., 

but not of Lin. ; L. bradiOpoda 
Dec. Prod. 



C. Berriea either distind or 
Joined together. Corolla very 
gibhoua at the Base. Erect 

lushy utruba Cwphd$Uh» 

Dec. ^^ 

25. involucrata l^on. 5.38 

Xuldateum involucrdtttm 
Richards in Frank. FirstJourn. 

26. Ledebouri/ Each. 538 

D. Berriea two on each Pe- 
duncle, Joined together in one, 



CONTtNTa. 



XXXI 



kUck it ki-mmbaieate at the 
Jfe*. Erects &at«4y, dea'dm- 
«mt Sintbt. — Itikm Adang. 

S7. alpigena H. - 539 

C^rifbiium aipimmm Lam. 



Gmta. FnacL, bJka tUpigena 
Beick^ I«lka Idada Mceoch, 
JgUttemm alpigfumm Lodd. 
Cil: Ckam t rnt t msus a^genm 
Narb. : dm Woodbine'. 

ikdtmUntie, Ger. ; Cbam^- 

^^f n f t t ltd. 

S Blniiea DecProd.5S9 
L. wNriea Vest in Roem. 
ct ScfanU. SyU. 

88. (a.) microphylla 539 

L.o^igtmmSi«teny L. 
Itea aad L.«eziraiM Hort. 



%9. ob]oi]gifdliaJ9boil539 



ID Edin. VbiL Jborn. 



30. csTulea L. - 540 

1. ffiBdia HQhl. Cat., Xv- 
Utkm tiSdtmm Mich. FL Bor. 
AjDcr . X. Sa/utdt Eataa Man. 
BoL, I. MteCna Dec Prod.. 
LoLHtaPM. F1. Row.. Xy- 



I«B. Diet., X. amadfnte Da 
Ban. Alb., Caprffiinam 
riiam Lan. FL Fr., CJk 
(irwKrcwrftfiM Delarlx FI.Au., 
L. mrrmHea Fall. Fl. Bom., 
I. Pailddk Led. ft Ron. AU. 
A: aUepaaifma, ItaL 

31. orieotalis Lam. 540 
,L.*cMedw» Pall. Fl. Rom.; 
Z-ccrifea Gold. Itln.. CAa« 
»«<rvHU0r«iildi«» LacirifMui 
Toam. Cor. 

32. iberica Bkb. - 540 

Cent. PI. Bar. ex SapplM Lodd. 

V. Stmphorica^rpos 

Ditf. - - 541 

Tli« St. ^cer't Wort.— ^N^m- 

ptmcofMNerk. Elem., ^m- 

p^ria rwi. Ench., Anisdn- 

akuWUkL Rel., Lanictngp. 

1. vulgaris Mic/<j:. - 541 
f «■'(■! 1 1 % iiiiiA jTftcirpotLln. 
if-, 5. ^arvi/Bra Deaf. Cat.. 
hmiiriaamgiomerdtn Pen. 
feq- . SfmpkdrM gUnmtr^a 
ninh Sept. 

2 firiib Tsriegatis 542 
5. gUmerita fj)liis vorse- 
C^ Lodd. Cat. 

t montanus ^um^. 542 

4y*7iA«rra Moia<^iui Spreng. 
?r^. S. floKc^M-ma Don'a 

3. racemosus ]ificfix.S^2 

TW Snovbcrry.— SymsAdna 
neemita Puwh Sept., fi. c'/d*. 
fuaod S.MetmpkgOa Pred 
■ Herb. Honke, ^. /nccocarpa 
aofi. 

^ occidentalis Rick, 542 

^^•berrp, Amer. 



VL Leyceste^r/^ 543 , 

1. foniiosa fVali, - 544 

iroMiraa amn^ta Puerari 
MSS. 

RvbiacecB. 
I. CephalaS'thos 544 

The Botton-wood. — Cepka- 
Imlf, Fr. : JI«ofj^fatMW, Ger. ; 
Ctfaiantot Itel. 

1. occidentalis X. - 544 

Cjoppout^folitu Moench Heth.: 
Smm m p Globe Fhteer, Amer. 

2 bncfa^podus JDae. 545 

Composite^. 
I. SrjEHELi'Nii L. 546 

SteAcinw, French and Ger. 

1. dubia L. - - 546 

S. Tosmarintfdlia Cau., ac- 
cording to Lew. Syn. Gen. 
Comp. 

II. ^A^CCHARIS Br. 546 
Plougknutn^MSpiienard: Bae- 

cJumUt Fr. ; Bacchant^ Ger. 

l.^Hmifolia X. -547 

Groundsel Tree. — ^eneeio 
arbor6$oeru Hon. Kew. 

2. (h.) angustifolia - 547 

III. Pfa L. - . 548 

1. frutescens Z». - 548 

Agh-ato t^grinU penariitna 
fruascaig Pluk. Aim. : Bayard 
Jetutu' Bark Tree, 

IV. Santoli'na T. 548 

The Larender Cotton.— JEon- 
toUne^ Fr. ; HeO^enpfianxe, 
Ger. i 5A«toAfM, It^ 

1. Chamaecyparfssus 549 

Common Lavender Cotton.— 
Petti Cjmres^ Fr. ; Abrotano 
/emmma^\%a^.\ Cppressenkrautt 
Ger. 

Otker Species.^ S. MniarrbiafT., 
S. TlridU fF., and S. roima- 
rlnifbUa L. - - - 549 

v. ilRTEMi^s/i< Cas. 549 
]. i^brotanum L. -> 550 

Soathemwood Abrdtonum 

ma$ Dod. Pempt : Old Man : 
ArmoiMe Aurone^ Aurone des 
Jardhu, la Citronelle, la Garde' 
robe, Fr.; EberrotUe, fVerrnuih^ 
Stabumrtz, Ger. ',Abtvta7io Ital., 
Span., and Port. 

2 hikmile Hort. - 550 

3 tobolskianum If. 550 
A. toboUkidna Lodd. Cat. 

Other SpeeitM qf Artemiaiai. — 
A. arborescent L., J. procira 
FF.,^. SantAnlcaZ,. -SAO 

VL 5ene*cio Les. - 550 
Cb»eriarfa Lcm. Syn. Gen. 



Comp. : Srfftfpcii, Fr. ; Krew*' 
kreutf Ger. 

1. Cineraria Dec. - 551 

Sea Ragwort.- Cmerdria ma- 
ritima Linn. Spec., Jacobar'ik 
niarititma Bonp. : SicHian Rag' 
wort: Cim/nure, Fr. ; Metr* 
stramd$ AMckenjiflanzei Ger.; 
Cemerma, Ital. 

VILMuTi's/^ Cav.551 

].latifdliaD.Z>on 552 

Other Speaei^.^M. tlldfMia, M. 
hiflexa. M. Unearifbltau M. 
mndnata, and M. subspin6sa 
Booh. Boi. Mue. ; M. arach- 
nOdM Mart. - - . U8 

"Encdcea. 

Sect I. ^ui'cEiB. 

§ L "Ericete normdles. 

X EKi^Ck D. Don -555 
The Heath.— Erica ip. Lin. 
and others : Bruyere, Tt. ; 
Heide, Ger. ; Eriea, ItaL 

1. TTfitralix L. - - 555 

E. botul(/6rmis SaL In Lin. 
Soc. Trans.. E. barbdrica Rail 
Srn^ E. phmila Park. Theatr. ; 
E. TttraUs rUra Hort. Eric. 
Woburn. : the eross-leaved 
Heath : Sumpf Heide^ Ger. ; 
Soopa di Fior rouo^ Ital. 

1 riibra Hort. Eric. Wo- 

hum. - - 556 

2 dLmea Ixmi. H. B. 556 

3 &lba Hort. EHc. Wo- 

hum. - - 556 

4 Mackatana - 556 
E. MaekcAkat, Bi4. Fl. 

Hit. 

2. dnerea Z. - - 556 

B. muUUfilit Salbb. In Lin. 
Trans., E. hUmilia Neck. OaU., 
E. tetntWUia^ Ger., B. cinirea 
r^bra Hort Eric. Woburn.: 
Scopa^ Ital. , 

2 atropurpiirea Lodd. 
Bot. Cat* - - 556 

5 ^ba J[,od;rf. Cat. - 556 

4 pallida Lodd. Bot. 

Cab. • . '556 

5 carndscens jL. Co^. 556 

6 pro\ifer&Lod.Cat. 556 

7 stricu Lodd. Cat. 556 

3. australis 2/. - - 556 
E. pittiUdrit Sal. In Lin. 

Trans. 

4. ciliaris X. - - 557 
II. Gypsoca'^llis S. 557 

The Moor Heath. — Enerc 
jrp. of other authors. 

I. vagans Sal. - - 557 

Cornish Moor Heath.— E. «d- 

gant Lin. Mant, E. vdga Sal. 

in Ltn. Trans., E. mtutiftdra 

Huds. Fl. AngL, E. did^ma 

Stokes in Withering's ^t. 



I 



xxxu 



CONTENTS. 



Arrang., E. purpurSseau iMa. 

Diet. 

2 piUida . - .557 
S ruWscens Bree - 557 

4 purpur4^en8 B.^SSS 

5 &lba . - 5S6 

6 tendlla - - 558 

2. multiflora D.Don 558 

Erica multifldra Lin. Sp., B. 
^vnfper{fdlia, d[C^ Garidel Aix ; 
E. muUifidra longipediceUdta 
Wendl. Eric, E. pedunctUdris 
Freftl : Scopa graade rouo^ 
lul. 

3. cdrnea D. Don - 558 

E. cdrnea Lin. Sp., E. her- 
bdeea Lin. Di»„Eaaxdtai8 Sal. 
in Lin Trans. 

4. mediterrunea D.D. 558 

E. mediterrdnea Lin. Mant., 
E. lUgnbris Sal. in Lin. Trans. 

III. Callu^na Sal, 559 
Erica »p. Lin and others. 

1. vulgaris iSno/. - - 559 
Linff, or Heather. —Erica vuU 

fdris Lin. Sp. : laBruy^re, Fr.; 
ieide^ Ger. ; Lyng^ Dan. ; 
Liungf Swed. ; SrcrUoli, Lee- 
ekia, or Scopa, Ital. ; Breto, 
Span.; UrzCt Port.; Wereskt 
Russ. 

1 purpi^rea - 559 

2 spuria - - 559 

3 decumbens - 559 

4 tomentosa - 559 

5 alba - - 559 

6 flore pleno - 559 

7 folils variegatis - 559 

8 aiirea - - 559 

9 coccinea - - 559 

10 spicata - '559 

11 fatro-riibens] - 559 

12 [serotina] - 559 

§ IL Andromidese, 

IV. ANDRO'MBHyl L. 560 
Pallia Buxbauin Cent., 

Andromedti tp, L. 

1. t7olifblia L. - 560 

Moorwort. — Rhododendron 
polifdlium Scop. Carn. : vild 
Hosetnarv, Poly Mottntain^ 
Marsh Cittus, Marsh Holy 
Base : Andromedf, Fr. and Ger. 

1 angustifoUa Bot, 560 

2 ericoides - -560 

3 grandiflora Lod. 560 

4 latifolia Lod, - 561 

5 minima - - 561 

6 revoliita Lod, - 561 

7 8c6tica - - 561 

8 stricta - - 561 

2. rosmarinifAlia P. 561 
A. po//yd/ia Miclix. Fl. Bor. 

Amer. 

Other Speaes of Andr6medK. — 
Andromeda Drummdndrt 
Hook. - • 961 



V. CASsfopJE? Don 561 

Andr6meds^ tp. Lin., Pall. 

1. AypnoKles D. D, 561 

AndrdmedA hjfpnoides Lin. 
Sp. 

2. tetragc^na B. Don 562 

AndrdmrdA Utragbna Lin. 
Sp. 

3. lycopodioides D. 562 

AndrdmedVk lycopodioides 
Pall. Fi. Rofts. 

4. ericoMes D. Don 562 
Andromeda ericbtdes PalL 

Ross. 

Other Species qf Ceuskme. — C. 
fastiguita D.I>oN, C.Reduwsk/ 
G. Don. . - - 56S 

VI. Cassa'ndr^ D. 562 

AndrdmedSL . sp. Lin. and 
others. 

1. calyculata D. D. 563 

AndromedA caiyculdta Lin. 
Sp. 

1 Tentricosa Sims 563 

2 Ifitifolia Lod. - 563 

3 nana Siim - 563 

2. (c.) angustifdlia 563 

AndrOmedA calyculdia fi an. 
guslipUia Alt. Hort. Kew., A. 
angustifbUa Purkh Fl. Amer. 
Sept., A. crispa DesC et LinlL, 

VII. Zeno'bi.4 Don 563 

Andrdmeda sp. MIchaux. 

1 . speciosa D. Don 564 

AndrdmrdSL specibsa MIchx. 
FL Bor. Amer. 

2 nitida - - 564 
A. s. nitida Pursh. 

A. cassine/d/iVi Vent 

3 pulverul^nta - 564 
A, s. pulvfrvtinia Pursh. 
A. pulrrruienta Bartram. 
A. CMiin^tlta fi Vent. 

A. specibsa y glaOcaVfaU. 
A. dealbdta Lindl. 
A. ordta Soland. 

VIII. Lyo'^ia N. 564 

AtidrdfnedA sp. Lin. and Ta- 
rlous authors. 

A. Leaves evergreen. 

1. ferruginea Xutt, 565 

AndrSmedsi ferruginea Walt. 
Fl.. A. ferruiiinea fi fruticdsa 
.Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 

2. rigida Xutf, - 565 

Andrdntedskferrvginea Willd. 
Sp., A. /errugmea arbori teens 
Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., A. ri- 
gida Pursh Fl. Amer. SepL 

3. marginata Don 565 

AndromedK margindta Du 
Ham.; A. coridcca\\\\\d. Spec., 
Alt Hort Kew. ; A. lUcida 
Lam. Encyc; A. tnaridna Jacq. 
Icon. Kar. 

2 rubra Lod, - 566 

B. Leaves deciduous. 

4. mariana D. Don 566 

Andrdmedsk mariana Lin. Sp. 

2 obl6nga Swt. - 566 



5. raceindsa D. D. dbO 

AndrdmedSk racemdsa Lia. 
Sp.. L*H(rit. Stlrp. ; A. pans- 
culdta Walt. Car., Gronov. 
Virg. 

6. arbdrea D. Don, 566 

AndrdmcdK arbdrea Lin. Sp. 

7. paniculata Nutt. 567 

Andrdmed^ panicuiita Lin. 
Sp. 

8. xalicifolia IVaU, 567 

9. (p.) frondosa A^. 567 

Andr&medu. /ronddsa Pursh 
Fl. Amer. Sept. 

10. (p.) multiflora 567 

11. (p.) capresefolia 568 

IX. LeucothozD. 568 

Andr6tne<U sp. of prcTioui 
authors. 

1. axillaris D. Don 568 

Andrdmedsi axillaris Solander 

in Hort Kew., A. CatesbteH 

WaU. Car. 

2 longifolia - - 569 

AndrdmedA longifblia Pur. 

A. Waiteri H'iSd. 

2. spiniildsa G. Don 569 

AndrdmedSi spmuldsa Pursh 
Sept ; '*A, Catesbtt'^ Wait. FT. 
Car. 

3. acuminata G, D. 569 

AndrdmedA acumindta Ait. 
Hort. Kew., A. lidda Jarq. 
Icon. Bar., A. \topulifblia Lam. 
Eucyl.. A. reiiculdta Walt. Fl. 
Car., A. formosusima Bartr., 
A. lairina Michx. Fl. Amer. : 
Pipe-^iem'woodt Amer. 

4. fioribunda D. D. 569 

Andr&medA fioribinda Lyon 
lierbc Sept 

5. spicata G, Don 569 
Andr6medA spicdUa MTata. 

Dend. Brit. 

X. Pi'eris D.Don 570 

Andr&medA sp. Wallich. 

1. ovalifolia D. Don 570 

AndrSmedsi ovalifolia Asiat. 
Res., J. capricida Hamilt MSS. 

XI. Phyllo'doc£ 570 

Andr6medK sp. L., Men- 
zre<ia sp. Swarti, Smith. 

1. /axifolia jSW/. - 571 

Aftffiz/^fia aeriilea Swx. in 
Lin. Trans., AndrSmedK ctr- 
riUea Lin. Sp., A. taxtjbiia 
Pall. Fl. Rost., Erica carUces 
Willd. Sp. 

2. cTTV<trifcrmis D. 571 

Menxiesitk ^mpetrif6rmtM 
Smith in Lin. Trans. 

XII. Brya'nthus 571 

AndrdmedA ip. Lin., Men- 
n>#ia SwartXf Pursh ; Erica 
sp. Thunb. 



CONTENTS. 



XXXIU 



I. Gm^lint B. Don 571 

Jteactia hr^aaika Svarts 
b Lin. TranK, AmdrSmeda. 
tryu£ki Lin. MaDL, Erics 
krjintha Thunb. DbiL, Brp- 

Sib. 



2. Stelleri D. Don 572 

A Ran. ; MfmaejU ampetri- 
J6nm$ Funh FL Anser. Sept., 
tot aot off ocben. 



XIII. Dab<e'cZ4 D. 572 

jpi Lilt, Maaie^tp. Jum. 



I. polifblia Z). ZXm 572 

Sftt^ Erica D^c^da. Lm. 
&^ UemsietiM Da^da, Dee. 
FL GsU^ E jiea Aiftfnuca, ^c. 
BaS HistSSuppU M^nxUna, 
jtottfoUmJva- .\ao. Mus., Vor. 

Aog. : Awl ft'kortt, CanioAham 
IkmA, 5L Dabetet Heath. 

S idre dbo 5»e. BriL 

FL GanL - 572 

XIV. J'bbutus C. 573 

Tlw Stowibcvry Tivc. — Am- 
(ir^fifcwf CliHL, Arfrflilitf «p. 
1JB.GCD.: Jrb9m$ier,Fr.; Samd- 
heen, Gct^ Jtbetro, Ital. 

1. CToedo L. - 573 

r ^ Ar iafc* , or FnzMf«r 

JMrr, Tr.; Eribeereartige 

Ger.; JComo^, Mod. 



1 itbus AiL JL K. 573 

3 ruber Jit JSL £ 573 
SfAknasJiL H. K 573 

4 sehizop^talus 574 

5 iutegnfolius 5!tiiu 574 

6 ericas - - 574 

7 jslicifilim - 574 

2. h/brida AV - 574 
A. aaA*acAw3rfn Link EnnBi. 

S Milleri Mayes - 575 

3. Andrkcbne L. 515 

A. flB^mWaaLam., A»- 

Aji^eW^^kTrtaeatr.. ili»^ 
araeftrf Tbeophfastus : ^ro- 
cMc, Modem Greek. 

2 Kmtiloiia - 575 

A^ aerrmt(f6iia Kob. 

4. procera DougL 576 

5. tomentdsa Pttri^ 576 

L. 



inhd^ffooi.eiJrH. 576 
6.(ieBstfldraJ7.^urf JT. 576 



4^ A'rtetei.— i4. 

Xy. Jrctosta'phvix^s 
Jdans, - 577 



Dod., Toam.; lirhmttu $p. 
Irin. 

1. irva-6rsi Spreng, 577 

Xrbmtug V*va-4ni Lin. Sp., 
A'rftvAM btut/^a Stokes BoC. ; 
ITva-iint buxifdiia Sal. inOnqrs 
Arran.: Searberriet, and Arar- 
iHlortiei«rrftM, Eng.: Barent- 
rambe, or Barenbeere^ Ger. ; 
Beerendaauft Dutch ; ila Basse- 
role, Fr.; f/mi ^Ono, \Xsl.\U9a 
de Oso, Span. ; I7«a dr Orjo, 
P(Mt.; and Uva Urst\ In the 
work* of most old botanists. 

2aiutrkca LodcL 577 

2. alpiDa<^r£^. - 578 

A'rbutus aifOma Lin. Sp. 

OtJker Spea'fs (^ krcUM&pkaf- 
kts^—A. pilingeos H. B. etK. 578 

XVI. Pbrnb'tty J 578 

1. mucronata Gtxud, 578 
iirbuhu mucrondta Lin. fil 

Suppl. 

2 Cummlngit - 579 
i*. Ctimmhtga Lodd, 

2. pilosa G. Don 579 
Arbuhu piidsa Graham. 

Olker Species qfPemSttn-^ P. 
micropbf Ua Goad. {Krbutus 
mi^vpk^Ua Font., A. %er- 
Lam.), P. piimila 
I. (ArMrfM pianUa 
For»t.) - - 879 

XVII. Gaulthe'r/j L. 

1. procCunbens L, - 579 

Partridge Berry, MousUaM 
Tea, Spring Winter-Green of 
Smith's Hist, of Nora Scotia. 

2. ShalUm Pursh - 580 

XVIII. EpiGiB^A L. 580 
MtmicfiUan Mich. Gen.: Maif 

FlowcTt Nora Scotia. 

1. repens L, - 580 

2 rubicimda Swt, 581 

XIX. Phaleroca^rpus 

6\ Don - 581 
YaeeinHun Lin., Goit/UMa 
PttrsA. Ofifcdeeus Nott.,A'r- 
ftsiifwLam. 

1. xerpyllifol. G, Don 581 

Vflcrfi M M m AApiiMttm Lin. 

Sp., GauUhh^A terpglUfolia 

I^irsh Sept., AWbutus JUi- 

firmks Lam. Diet., OtyobccMS 

kisjOdaUus Fers. 

XX. Cle'thra L. 581 
CuellAria Aii/x et Pop. Sgtt. 

1. alnifolia L. - 582 

C. abt^blia var. a denmdata 
Ait. Hort. Kew. 

2. (a.)toment6saL. 582 
C. alnifhUa fi pubHcens Ait. 

Hort. Kew., C mcdata Pers. 
Ench. 

3. (a.) panicul^tai4t/.582 

b 



4. (a.) acuminataJIf. 582 

C. momdna Bartr. Cat. 

5. (a,) sc^bra Pert. 583 

Sect. II. i^Booo^axji. 
XXI. /Zhododb'ndron 

Rose Baj.— AztHea sp. of 
authors, Hkodbra Lin., Cka- 
auerhododfndros Tourn. InsL : 
BMododcTtdron, Fr., Ital., and 
Span. ; Al^taisam, Ger. 

$ i. P(Wtc«m D. Don. 

1. p6nticum X. - 584 
2obtiiftum WaU. 584 
S myrtifolium Lodd.5^^ 

4 Smithii Swt.Brit.584 

5 Lowit Gar(i.MAg.584 

6 azalebldes - - 584 
R. €Budeoides Desil 

R. o. i9 subderlduum JiMfr. 

7 fragrans Chandler 5S5 
Nursery Varieties • - 585 

2. maximum L, - 585 

American Rou Bay. 
2 ilbum HorU - 585 

S hybridum Hook. 5S5 
R. firdgrans Hort. 
R. Ai^Aru/ian Lodd. Cat. 

3. (m.) purpureum 586 

B. m&ximum y pvrpkreum 
Pursh Fl. Am. Sept., R. p6tf 
(tCMN macropb^tlum Lod. Cat. 

4.PurshttG.Don 586 

R. nUuumum /3 dibum Purah 
FL Amer. Sept. 

5. catawbiense Mx. 586 
2 Russelliantim 587 
S tigrinum Hort. - 587 

6. chrys&nthum L, 587 
R. qfficindle Salisb. 

7. caucasicum Pa//. 587 
2 stramineum Hook. 567 

8 pulch^rrimum i/. 587 
4 Noblea^iwm Hort 588 

8. punctatum Andr. 588 

R./em^ti«flim var. manu 
Ten. Ench., R. mimis Mx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer., R. punctdtum 
•ar. minus Wats. Dend. Brit. 

2 m^jus iTer - 588 

9. ferrugineum L. - 588 
2 ilbum Zodd. Cat. 588 

10. (?f.)hir8utumL.588 
2 variegatum - 589 

1 1. aetosum D. Don 589 

Other Species. — R. macroph^l- 
\\3im D.Don - - 569 

$ iL Bodram. 

12. campanulatum 589 

Other Species. ^R. arhdreum 
Smithy R. a. TenCistum D. 
Don .... 590 



XXXIV 



CONTENTS. 



13. anthopogon Don 590 
R. aromdticmn Wall. Cat. 

§ iv. Lep^fAerum D. Don. 

14. Iapp6nicum Wahl,590 

A%dlea lappSniea Lin. Fl. 
Suec., A.J&rru^mea Hort. 

15. dauricuni Xr. - 591 
2 atrovlrens Ktr - 591 

R. lepuldtum Wall. 

$ V. ChaanaciUuM D. Don. 

16. camtsch&ticumP. 591 

17. Chamscistus L. 592 

§ vi. Pentanthira D. Don. 
AzdleaL. 

18. flavum 6. i)on 592 

Axdlea pdntica Lin. Sp., 
AxMea aroorea Lin. Sp. 
Varietiet and Hybridt • G9S 

19.nudifldrum Torr, 592 
AxiUea ntidifldra Un. Sp., 
Azdiea pericfymenoUes Hx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer. : <A« Ameriean l/o- 
nepiueUe^ Mojf Flowers, and 

Amer. 

1. ooccineum D. D. 593 
Ax^a fl. coeeifiAi Sims 

2 riktilans D. Don - 593 
if. M. riUiUms Ait. H. K. 
A.-oeridffmemSkdet riUilans. 

3 c&rneum i>. D. - 593 
il. ». eSrwa Ait. 

il. p. eimea Punb. 

4 41buin D, Don . 593 
A. n. 6lba Alt 

A. p. iS/6a Parsh. 

5 papilionaceum - 593 
il. p. papiliondcea Forth. 

6 partkum D, D. 593 
j|. p. partita Pursh. 

7 poiyandrum i>. . 593 
A.p.polsfandra Punh. 

8 Goventdfiion D. - 593 

9 rubnim LotLB, C. 594 

10 exSmiura D, D. 594 

1 1 thyraifldrum B. R, 594 

1 2 scintlUans B. R. 594 

13 Seymouri BR. 594 
VarieticM and Hybrids ai- 

•igiied to A. nudifldra in 
Lodd. Cat,, 1886 - 094 

20. (n.) Wcolor D. - 594 

Axdlea bieotor Panli Sept, 
Azdlea nudifidra var. bicolor 
Ait Hort. Kew. 

21. (n.) calendul^ceum 

Tmr - . 595 
Axdlea calenduldeea Michx. 
Fl. Bor. Amer., A. nudifidra 
tor. eocdnea Ait Hort. Kew. 

2 Morteru Swt - 595 

3 Bl^lgidum Hook. - 595 
A. c. fiUgida Hort. 

4 16pidum Bot. R, . 595 



22. canteens G,Don 595 

Axhlea canisctm Michx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer., Ph. Sept. 

23. yisc6sum Torr. - 595 

• AxUUa vitcdsa Lin. Sp. 
2 ornatum Swt. - 596 
Varieties and Hpbrids of A. 
viaodM in Lod C. 1836 596 

24. (v.) gla6cum D. 596 
Axdlea glauca Parsh Sept, 

A.mscdsa var. JloribUnda Ait. 
Hort. Kew. 

25. (v.) hispidum r,597 
Azdlea hispida Pursh Sept., 

Axdlea viscdsa var. glaiica Ait. 
Hort. Kuw. 

26. (v.) nitidum T, 597 
Axdlea mtida Pursh FLAmer. 

Sept 

27. speciosum Don 597 
AxMea «pn:A«aWilld.Ennin., 

A. eocdnea Lodd. Bot Cab. 

28. arbor^cens 7". 598 

Axdlea arboriscens Punh Fl. 
Amer. Sept., A. arbdrea Ban. 
Cat. 

§ yii. Rhoddra D. Don. 

29. /?hod6ra G.Don 598 

BAoddra canadintis Lin. Sp. 

XXII. Ka^lh/^ L. 598 

American LamreL 

1. latifblia L. - - 599 

Mountain Laurel, Calico 
Bush, Calico r*o%Der, Amer. 

2. angustifdlia L, - 599 

Sheep Laurel, Amer. 
2 ovaU PWr«A . 599 

3. fflauca Ait. - - 599 

K. jaolifbUa Wang h. Act 
See. Berol. 

2 rosmarinifoliaP. 600 

4. cuneata Michaux 600 

5. hirsuta Walt, - 600 
JP.ctOataBartr. Itin. 

XXIII. MENZiE^s/ii 600 

1. femiginea ^mt^A 601 
M.urceoldris Sal. Par.Lond. 

2. clobularis Salub. 601 

if.SmUkliM*. n. Bor. Amer., 
Axdlea pilbsa Lam. 111. M.pim 
Ibsa Pen. Encb. 

XXIV. AzVleaD. 6)1 

Axdlea procumbent Lin. and 
many authors, Loisetekri^De j. , 
ChanueUdon Link Enum. 

1. proc6mben8 jL. - 601 

C-ham^tidon imximibenalAvlk. 
Enum., Lotseleia-isk proeimbent 
Desf. 



XXV.Lbiopht'llum P. 

Amm^sHu Punh Si>i>t., 
Fiscken Swarix, Ledum buxs' 
fblium Berg. Ait 

I. ^hymifolium Pert. 602 

Udum huxiflMum Bcrgius, 
LidumtlUfmt/btium Lain.I>ict., 
Udum terpyimiium L'H^rlt. 
Stirp., Ammsireine buxifbUes 
Punh Sep. : Sand Mgrtle, New 
Jersey. 



Otker Species qf LeiopkyUum.. — 
L. prostritum (Amm^rsnte 
prostrdta Swt., Loud. Hort. 
Brit; A. L^oni Swt. H.B.) (903 

XXVI. ZrE^DUM L. 602 

1. palustre L, - 603 

L. silesiaeum Clui. Pan.,Ko»- 
marhntm sybf4ttre Cam. Epit 

2 deoiimbens AH. 603 

2. latifoliuni AU. - 603 

h.greenlSndicum Rets.OtM., 
L. palHstre Mx. FL Bor. Amer.: 
Labrador Tea, Amer. 

3. canad^nse Lodd. 603 
Sect. III. Taccinics. 

XXVII. rACCl'iflUM i. 
The Whortleberry. — Vltf« 

Af^'aToum. Inst.: AireUe,Tr.^ 
Heidetbeere, Ger. 

A« Leaves decUuomt. 

a. Pedicels l'Jloufered,u»ua/^ 
solitary, rarely twin, or/atcicu' 

I late. 

1. Jl/yrtillus L, - 604 

7V common Bilberry, or 
Jleoderry. 

2 b^ois &lbu Booth 604 

2. uligindsum L, - 605 

MyrliUusgrdndisBmh. Hiat.: 
'A« grraf Btiberry. 

3. angusti folium ill/. 605 
v. myrtilloldes Mx. ,FL Bor. 

Amer. 

4. ccespitdsum Mx. 605 

b. Flowers in sessile TvtfiM. 

5. galezant Michx. 606 

V. gal\fbrmis Sm. I» Reea*s 
Cyd. 

6. ten^llum Ait. - 606 

V .jMisfuytodnicKin Lam. Diet. 
ran>4r - .606 

7. /igustrinum JkncAf. 606 
c. Flowers disposed in Bacemea. 

8. pallidum Ait. - 606 

9. arboreum Marsh 607 
V. df^^ram Alt. Hort. Kew. 

10. stamfneum - 607 

V. 6/bum Pursh Sept., V, 
etevdtum Banks Herb.: Deer 
Berry, Ainer. 

2ilbuiii H.B.€tK.ecn 



CONTENTS. 



xxxr 



11. dmndonm Ak. > 607 

T. /niMfflmw Mz. FL Bor. 
laser., V. kuiHiam Ait Hort. 
lev. 

2 hnmile Watt. D.B. 60S 

12. eorrmbosuiD L. 606 

J.amm'iuim AiL Hort. K<iw., 
y. i i nmSii^mm Mx. R. Bor' 

. V. dcwitmm Hort, V. 

LMB.Dict 

S viigatimiildL fi. £.608 

3 faaektamJiL H. K. 608 
y.fiirm^imm And. Hot. R. 
V. nrtiimm Wau. Dend. 

Brit, bm not of Ait 

4 angustUoiium - 609 
V. mgistaB Mr. angwuti- 

fibwm WatM. DcDd. Br. 

13. albiA^iifl) Hook, 609 
U. mariaoum ^ato. 609 

^'- — rg/JMrtft 11 l«kL Cat 

ld.graodiadruiii ^. 609 

16. (g.)doqgatu]D fr.609 

17. (g.) ffliDutiflaruni 6 1 

1^ flabnim H^o^ - 610 

19. frondosum L. - 610 
^••w«- M*. n. Bor. 



Svcstttom .ite. 611 

V. jhiaAiui •or. /i Iom- 

oottem Push Fl. Am. 

^^leanbsamAU. - 611 
A«oQiUla Wangb. 



2 rabirais IWvA 61 1 

SlntesecntPWrdl 611 

V- fir»4fir«M And. B. & 

«l.irctoafciphylo8i/.61l 
a{.(?-rf.);»aiiiidlium611 

^. Anmti^lMot Andr. Bot 
f«^V. ■g*T6Mr Lk- Enum., 
Hort, V. pari/. 
Hort. Soc. 



C«.«rFni*.«d.lBa6L 



«> fiimen raetmotc 

23. caracaiooam - 612 

«♦. This id« a L. - 612 

Ji^*K*'**'*Cmi.Bplt: 

J;jWWonfc4«rfF,orJoicr- 

■erry, 

2^rr.)teifbliiini 613 

*• ^•t^icenm Mx. Fl. Bor. 



^■(?^.)wyrtifbliuin613 
^.oitiduiDilfu^. -614 
!^ crasfifolium >!». 614 
a. oratuiD /^in& - 614 
^.caDade9sei2id&. 614 

31. ifyrsinites il£r. 615 
2lMc«ilitusiWiA6l5 
8 obt^sui ParM 615 



I XXVIII. OxYco'ccus 

i The Cranberrj. ~ raecim- 
' mm tp. of Lin. and other*. 

1. pal6stri8 Pen. - 616 

d.vttlgtrit Forth Sept., O. 
emropttuB Nutt. Gen. Amer., 
Yaecinium Oxi/eSecua Lin. Sp, 
ToeemnMi Otyc6ccu$ vmr. m 
oiHilifdlnu Hx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 
yaccimapal6tiri$Ger. Em&c ; 
Or$c6amm Cord. HItt. : Mou- 
herries, Moorberria^ Penber. 
I ries, Martkwortt or JVAorUe- 
I hrrrieB^ Cormbfrriet : ^lir^ i/ir 
cann«&fryr, Fr. j gemeine 
Mootebeere, Ger. 

2. macrodirpus Pur. 6] 6 

VaectjMitm macrocmrjmm 
Ait Hort. Kew., yacaniutn 
MuptOitm VVaagh. Amer., Vac 
dnimm Onc6ocus fi obUmgai- 
Uta Mx. FL Bor. Amer. 

2 follis variegatis 617 
Viicatuikai tnMcroedrjmm 

fid' 9ar. Lodd. Cat. 

3 crtctus Fw9k - 617 
Voeefn/iim ervikrocdr- 

pumMx. Fl. Bor. Am. 

L Sty^rax X. - -618 

The Stonx.—Miboc^ler^T.i 
StoraXf Ger. 

1. officinale L. - 618 

Lagomiiia, Modern Greek ; 
Stura* kaiamitis^ Andenc 
Greek. 

2. (o^ gTandifolium 618 

S. qfftcineUt Walt Fl. Carol., 
ft. grand^flifrum Michx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer. 

3. (o.) Isrigatum A.6]9 

8. udandrum L'Herlt Stlrp. 
Nov., S. gldbntm Car. Diis., 
S. Ut^fe Walt Fl. Carol., S. 
americdnmm Lam. Diet 

4. (o.) pul?eru]entum6 1 9 

S. Ut9ig4tum Bot Ma^ 

Ha/^acese. 
I. Hale's/^ Ellis 620 

The Snowdrop Tree. — Ha- 
Utie, Fr. and Ger 

1. tetr&ptera L, - 620 

The Snowdrop Tree.^-5i/iiier 
Bdl Tree, Amer. 

2. (t.)parvifl6railf.621 

3. diptera L. - - 621 

Sapotaceae. 
I. Arqa^nu R<£m. 622 

Siderdnkm nfindsum L. ; 
rjrgan, Fr. ; Eitenholx^ Ger. 

1. 8ider6xyIon R(emS2% 

SuterStylon $pmbtum Lin. 
Sp., £Undlndr<m A'rgan i2e<x. 
b 8 



Ofo., RAiemiM pentapkpUua 
Jaca. et Boccone, RAifwMM 
tUulus Lin. Sy*t. 

XI. .^ume'lia iSwar/. 623 
A'chras sp. Lin., Pdr. ; Si- 
derAtpion an. Lam. and others ; 
CkrytifpkGkum tp, Aubl. and 
others : Hochtimmm, Ger. 

1. /ycioides Garrtn. 623 
SitkrSxyUm tydoidet Du 

Ham. Arb.. 5. /:<e>r Walt Fl. 
Carol., LydSidet tp. Lin. 
Hort Cliff. '^ 

2. reclinata Vent. - 623 

Sider6rylon recUndium Mich. 
Fl. Bor. Amer. 

3. tenax Wilid. - 624 

B. ehrtnopkgUoidet Pursh Fl. 
Amer. Sept., Siderdtylon ti- 



Lin. &lant., S. tericeum 
Walt Fl. Carol.. 5. chrMto- 
pkyiiSidet Mlchx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer., Ckrytoph^Uum caroti- 
«Aw«Jaoq. Obe., C.gldbrum 
Juts. 

4. lanugindsa Pur<A 624 

Stder6xyion lanuginhtwn 
Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., S. 
tena* Walt Fl. Car. 

5. oblongifolia JV^u//. 624 

^enitcea:. 
I. DiospY^Ros If. - 625 

The Date Plum^E'AntfM 
Comm., Guaiac4na Toum. : 
Plaqmemiuier, Fr. ; JJatieU 
pfiamme, Ger. 

1. XrOtUB L. - . 625 

PteudoldtMt Matth., Guaia- 
dlna patavma Tourn. : Italian 
Ligmtm Vitte, Wood ^f Life, 
Pocktoood, Meutard Menpn- 
wood, Gerard ; Date qf Tre- 
^bitonde: Ptaqueminier, fmu 
Lotier, Fr.; Itaiianitehe Dat- 
ttlpfiaume, Ger. 

2. virgin iana L. - 626 

The jperiimon. — Gualacina 
Catetb. Car. 

3. (v.) pubescens P. 627 

D. virgimdtta var, Michx. 
Arb. For. 

Other Kmdt <^ hardy Dim. 
Pirot - - - .657 

Olehcea, 

Sect I. Olx^n.«. 
I. IriGu'sTRUV Tou. 628 

The Privet— rrweii^, Fr. ; 
Bainweidet Ger. 

1. vulgkre TVfltf. - 628 

L. germAniatm Bauh. Hist. ; 
Prim, or Prim-print : TVoen^', 
Puine bianCf Fr. j gemeine 
Rainweide, Ger. : Liguttro 
Oiivella, Ital. 

2 leucocirpum - 629 

S xanthociirpum - 629 

4 chlorocirpum - 629 



XXXVl 



CONTENTS. 



5 sempervirens - 629 

L. itdlicum Mill. 

Iialutn,0Te9ergreen,Pfi9et. 
6vanegatuin . 629 

7 angustifolium - 629 

2. spicatum HamiU, 630 
L. nepalhue Wall, in Roxb. 

Fl. Ind., L. ianeeoldtum Herb. 
Lamb. 

2 glabrum ZTooA. 630 

3. liicidum AU. - 630 

Tke Wax Tree. 
2 floribundum Donald's 
Cat. - - 630 

Other Specie* of JJgHUrum. — 
L. salicirdlium, L. Jap6iiicuin 
Thunb. (L. tatifdlium Vltm.), 
L. nepalense - - .631 

II. Phillt'rea T, 631 
Fiiaria, Fr. ; Steinlmde^ Ger. 

1. media 2/. - - 632 

P. latifdlia 9ar. i media La- 
wyr. Fl. Pyr., P. \igu»trifi>Ua 
Mill. Diet., P. /0'trw Tenore 
Syll. ; P. laiifblia var. a Ugus- 
trtjoiia Toll. VLYer. 

2 virgata Ait. IT. K. 632 

3 ftuxifolia^. ^.£632 

2. (in.) angu8tif61iai;/.632 

P. obliqna Ten. Syllo P. 
media Tenore Fl. Neap. 

2 lanceolata A. H. K. 632 
S rosmarinifolia Ait. 632 

4 brachiau.^i<. H. K.6^2 

3. (m.) /igU8trifoIiail.632 
P. virg&ta Wllld. Enum., P. 

midia var. a Wllld. Sp., VkO- 
lyrea iii. Clas. Hist. 

4. (m.) pendula Ait. 632 

P. midia y WUld. Sp. 

5. (m.) oleaefdlia ^i^. 633 

P. media I Ait. Hort. Kew., 
P. racemdsa Link Jahrb. 

6. (m.) latifolia L. - 633 

P. latifbUa fi serriUa Poll. Fl. 
Ver., P. lati/lOia fi Ten. Fl. 
Neap., P. fpindsa Ten. Syll., P. 
latifbUa /3 spindsa Seg. Ver. 

7. (m.) laeVis AU. - 633 

p. latifbUa var. a WUld. Sp., 
P. lati/diia MUl. Diet. 

8. (m.) obliqua Ait. 633 

P. latifdlia y yVfUd. Sp.. P. 
/olideea Link Jahrb., VhiUSrea 
iL Clufc. HiiL 

9. (m.) spinosa Jl^. 633 

P. Uicifbtia WUld. Enum., P. 
latifbUa /3 «pcnd«a WiUd. Sp.. P. 
lat^a longifblia Link Jahrb., 
Vktll^rea 1. Clui. Hist. 

III. Chionanthus 634 

The Snow. Flower, or the 
Fringe Tree — Chionantke, Fr. ; 
Schneeblume, Ger. 

I. virgfnica L. - 634 
SnowdropTrtCt Amer. ; Arbre 



de Keige^ Fr. ; Sekneebhtme, 
Ger. 

2 latifdlia Cat. Car. 634 
C «. montdna Pursh Sept. 

3 angustifolia Ait. 634 
C. tri/lda Momch. 

4 maritima Pursh ~ 634 
C.marli/ma Lodd. C. 1836. 

O'lea ainericana L. 635 
TAtf Devil-tpoodt Amer. 

Sect. II. SrRfffOEjK. 

IV. Syri'nga L. - 635 
The Lilac — Z,iZac. Tourn. 
Inst. : LHas^ Fr. ; Ftieder, Ger. ; 
LHaco, Ital. 

I. vulgaris L. - - 636 

Ulac vulgdris Gsrt. : Pnve 
Pri«»^/. or Pipe Tree: Litas 
eommttn, Fr.; gemeiner Flie- 
dcTt Ger. ; Lilla, or LfYoc Iwrco, 
Ital. 

1 caeriilea Clus. nist.636 

2 riolaceari«rt.i?.M636 
The Scotch IMac. 

3 &lba ... 636 

4 alba migor Lod. C. 636 

5 ilba pldna * - 636 
S. plena Lodd. Cat. 

6 riibra Lodd. Cat. 636 

7 riibra mAjor X. C. 636 
I.i2m de Marlff of the 

French gardeners. 



Other Varieties 



636 



2. Josikoea Jacq. - 637 

3. persica L. - - 637 
Lilac minor Mcench, Lilac 

p6rsica Lam.: LUasde Perse, 
FT. ; I.J/OC di Persia, ItaL 

2 &lba Lodd. Cat - 637 

3 laciniata Lodd C. 637 
5. eapitdta Gmel. Itin. 
X^r/M d FeuiUes de PersQ, 

Fr. 

4 Milvifolia Lodd. C. 637 

4. rothomagensis - 637 

S. diibia Pert. Ench. ; Liia- 
ceum rothomaginse Renault Fl. 
de rOrne, S. media Dum. 
Cours., Lilas Varin N. Du 
Ham., S. chinSnsis Willd. Sp., 

5. sibirica Hort.: the Siberian 
Lilac, Hort. 

2 Lilas Royal BonJ.6SS 

3 sanguinea Hort. 638 
Lilcu saugi, Fr. 

Other Species of Syrfnga. — S. 
Embdi Wall Cat, Don% MUL, 
Koyle Illust. - . . esA 

V. FoNTANB s/^ Lab. 638 
1. jphillyreoides Lab. 639 

Sect III. J^aximib'.c. 
VL i^A'xiNUS Tou. 639 

The Ash — Fi^ene, Fr. ; Esche, 
Ger. ; JV-off/no, ItaL 



A. Leaflets broad, smooth, air 
shining on the upper sutfaee. 
Natives qfEwrope. 

1. excelsior L. - 639 

F. apitaUt Lam. III., F. ftM- 
trdta Guss. Fl. Bar., F. O'maw 
Scop. Carn., F. erbsa Pers., F, 
erUpa Bosc: le Frine, Fr. ; 
Aesche, or Esche, Ger. and 
Dutch ; itfsir. Dan. and Swed. ; 
Frassino, Ital. ; Fresno, Span. ; 
Freixo, Port ; .Tiu, Jasen, or 
Jassen, Ruu. ; .£ce. Sax. 

2 p6ndulai4t<. .ff. JT. 640 
Frene Parasol, Fr. 

3 aiirea Willd. En. 640 
F. a|{r<'a Pers. Ench., 

Lodd. Cat. 1886. 

4 hixteA p^duU - 641 

5 crispa - - 641 
F. chspa Bosc. 

F. atruvh-ens Desf. Arb. 
6ja8pidea mUd. 641 

7 purpuhiscens D. 641 
F. pttiTWkrra Hort. 

8 arg^ntea Desf. 641 

9 liitea - - 641 

10 erosa Pers. Ench. 641 

11 horizontalis Z>e9^ 64 1 

12 verrucosa Desf. 641 

13 verruc. pendula 641 

14 nana . . 641 

15 fungdsa LodeL C. 641 

16 verticillita L. C. 641 

1 7 villosa ndva Des, 641 
Other Varieties - - 641 

2. (e.) heteroph/lla 642 

F. simplicifblia Willd. Sn., 
F. monoph^/ia Desf. Arb., F. 
simpUcifoiia Hort., F. exc€lsior 
var. • Lam. Diet., F. eneisior 
fi heterophylla Dec. F. inte£ri. 
ftlia and diverstfblia Hort. 
2 varieg4ta > - 643 

3. (e.) angustifolia^. 643 

F. udicifblia Hort 

B. Leaflets small, smooth^ or 
shining above. Natives c^tke 
South qf Europe, the North <^ 
Africa, or the West qf Asia. 

4. parvifdlia WUld. - 643 

5. (p.) argenteaXfOu.643 

6. (p.) oxycdrpa W. 644 
F. oxjfphma Bieb. Fl. Taur., 

F. O'mtMPaU. Wn. Taur. 

7. p&Uida Bosc - 646 
8. /entiscifdlia Def/: 646 

F. tamarteaTdOa VahTEnum.. 
Don's Mill. ; f.parvifbtid Lam. 
Diet., F. aleppinsis Pluk. 
Phys. 

2 pendula - - 645 

C. Leaves and Leaflets large^ 

ftaucous, and doump benaalh. 
Natives egclusivelu (if North 
America; and m BriUsim 
chi^ to be considered a» or^ 
namental Trees. 

9. americana Wiild. 646 

F. acumtndta Lam., Doii*a 
Mill.. Pursh Sept. ; F. dltcotor 



CONTENTS. 



XXX vii 






&U.: WUte Aak, Often Ask, 

iiatttoMa. - - 6^6 

10. (a.) pubescens W, 6^6 

F. migru Da Km HartA^ F. 
BiBiBrftiiiii MiduL N. Am. Syl. : 

tak. Black Ash, Amer. 
S loa^folU Wind. 647 

F. BrMtyfwMJea Manb. 
Sladlolia WtUd. - 647 
4 sabpub^seeiis Ars.647 

? F. mMSaM Bosc 



1 1, (a.) sambodidlia 647 

F. migrm Moocfa. F. crsjpa 
Hon. : tke Sack A*h : Water 
iMk, Amer. 

S cnspa Lcdd, Cat, 647 

IS. (a.) quadrangulata 

3/x. - - - 648 
F. feer m gdma Gek ex Diim. 
de Cmn-, F. amadraitguldris 
Lodd. Cat. : Blme Jshjimer. 



13. (a.)/iigkndif51ia648 

F. viridia 3£l N. Amer. Sri.. 
F. rimabr Midil. : tke Green 
AMk^ Hidiz. ; Wetlem Black 
JMk^PmA. 

S ■ufaiot^g^rrima 649 
F. i MlM ^aaiM ^ faiiM'- 

rdtaWiUd. 
F. airiiffm'iiBn Wang. Am. 
F. .Vd«K--il'ii«fi^ and F. 
HUL Diet. 



14. (a.) carolimana 649 

F. otfiifar Walt. F1. Car.. 
F. urrmt^^ha Siichx. fll. Arb., 
F. InmnvlUti Borkh. : SJUmtng 



1 5. fa.) epfptera Fo^eoO 

F. nwiarfftnig Gsftn. FmcL, 
F. 



I6l (a.)platjcarpar.650 

F. cav«Ain«M Cateab. Car. : 
JA, Amer. 



_ 1 speaeSm 

— F. (a.) exp&Ma FFitfdL, F. 

fa.) rafxta Amt, F. (a.) paU 

Tarai€sta Acer, F. (a.) ru- 

feictind» Bate, F. (a.) longi- 

fblrn &Me. F. (a.) vlridit 

Jbac Jl (a.) dxiirea Boec, 

T. (a.) iCw A>»c, F. (a.) 

BicUkrdi Bok, F. (a.) orkta 

Jbtcv F. (a.) nigra Bote, F. 

<a.) dUptiea Baec, F. (a.) 

tf«a &wc;F. (a.>rftfaita«c, 

F. i a.) panacea Frai. et Bosc, 

F. B6«enr G. Doo, F^ (a.) po- 

bmooiifUui FMr., F. (a.) 

liiocen ^Vitfr., F. cbiafofia 

Bto., F. SchiedtadM 8cfa. 661 

Vn. r/BNUS Ptfrr. 651 
TW FlovierfQg A«fa.— FrAn- 
«v 9. of tfae old aatbon : ^ 
frne i /fcvrr, Fr.; di^ A/JI- 
Anie £icftr, Ger. ^ Orwo, Ital.; 
6^ Hebrev ; Oremi melia^ 

I. eoropca /Vr/. &b\. 

T!« yaaiB Aah FreLrnnu 

frma Lin. Sp., F. (ymiu and 
r. fernKmOta MBl. DiO^ F. 



fiori^ra Scop. Cara., F. Aofry- 
Ad^ Bfor. Prclud., F. vaii^d- 
iaor Segu. Ver. 

2. (e.) rotundifolia 652 

Fraxhtus roiw»difblia Ait. 
Hort. Kew., F. mamufera Hort. 
Pluk. Aim. 

3. (e.) americana P. 653 

F. ommcdaa Linn. Sp., F. 
(yrwtt$ a me r ie dna Lodd. Cat 

isae. 

4. i]orib6nda G.D, 653 

Fr^xnMtff florib6nda D. Don 
Prod. FL Nep. 

Otfer Speaa <f (yrtnu. — O. 
strftta {Friehnu striata 
Boac, Don's Mill.) . 603 

Jasmindcea, 

I. JASMi>9VMForsk. 654 

The Jasmine. — Monpbrium 
Lam. : Jessamine : Jasmin, 
Fr. and Ger. ; Sekaamm^ Gv^t. ; 
GeisomfiUt Ital.; Jaxmin, Span. 

1. fruti^ns Zi. - 654 

Jos. keteropMUum Mcench, 
Lob. AdT. 

2. humile L. - 655 

ItaUan yeliow Jasmine. 

3. beterophjilum i2. 655 

J. arbdremm Hamllt. MSS. : 
Goq)ee and Javana in Nepal. 

4. revolutum JTct* - 655 
J. chrysinOumMm Roxb. Fl. 

Ind. ; the Nepal yeliow Jas- 



5. (r.)publgeram2}. 656 

J. ?FaiZN:A1inum Lindl, Bot. 
Beg. : Clrmali-stoa, Nepalese. 

6. officinale L. - 656 

2 foliis arg^nteis L 656 

3 foliis aureis L. C 656 

4 fluribus pUnis H, 656 

Kpoa/ndcecB. 
I. Fi'NCA L. - 657 

The Periwinkl& — P^rmca 
Toum. : la Fervenche^ Fr. ; 
Sitm^rUn, Ger. ; Finea, or 
Fior da Morto, Ital. 

1. major !>. - 657 

\inea media Delile, Ver- 
mnca me^or Scop. Cam. 

2 variegata Hort. '657 

2. minor L, - 657 

Tervinca minor Scop. Cam., 
Frrvtnca vulgaris Park. Thea., 
Gi^iMa^u d^/biofdes Dodon. 
PempC. 

2 foliis arg^nteis Z. 658 

3 folus aureis Lod, 658 

4 flora &lbo i^oef. C. 658 

5 flore pleno ixxZ. 658 

6 flore puniceo X. 658 

7 acutifiora Per/. 658 

b 8 



AsclepiadkceBd. 
I. Peri'ploca L. - 658 

Perqitoca^ Fr. ; ScMinge, 
Ger. ; Feripioca, Ital. 

1. grseVaZ. - - 659 

F.-macHlSUa Monich, Schmidt 
Baum.: SOk Tree: Apocino 
serpeggiante, Ital. 

2. aneustifolia Lab. 659 

P. »%sda Vlr., P. Levig4ta 
VahL 

Phtsia'^nthus albens 
Mart. - - - 659 

BigfionisLceas, 
I. BiGNo^NwTou. - 660 

The Trumpet Flower— A^fl 
none, Fr. ; Trompetenbiume, 
Ger. ; Bignonia, Ital. 

I. capreolata Z. - 660 

II. Te'coma Juss. 661 

jffi^pR^ia sp. Lin. and others. 

1 . radicans Jttff . -661 

BigndnlA radicans Lin. Sp., 
Bignonlsi radicans md^ Hort., 
Gels^mium Clfmatis Barrel. 
Icon., BigndnlsL traxiw{fblia 
Catesb. Car. : Jasmin de Vir- 
ginie. Ft. ; Wurxeln Bignonia, 
Ger. ; Essckenbl'ddtge Btgnonia, 
Dutcli ; Gelsomino americano, 
ItaL 

2 major Hort. . 661 

2. grandiflora 5u!/. - 661 

FNgnimSa, grafid^fldra Thunb. 
FL 'AP-« B. ehtninsis Lam. 
Diet., RJeftJtfo Kempt Amoen., 
Incarvilleti grand{flOra Spreng. 
Syst. : Tvng'von-fa, Chinese. 

III. CatA'lfa Juss. 662 

Agndnla sp. of Lin. and 
others : Bignone Cataipa, Fr. ; 
gemeine TrompetenUume, Ger. 

1. jryrmgopfolia Sims 662 
BigniMSn. CatAlpa Lin. Sp., 
Cataipa &t/pionioldes Wali. Ft. 
Car., C.cordtfdlia Nutt. Gen. 
Amer. : Bois Showmen, Cataipa 
de CAmirigue, Fr. ; Trompc' 
tenbaum, Ger. ; Catalpa^boom, 
Dutch. 

Solancicece. 

I. ^OLA^fUM Toum. 663 
The Nightshade. — Melon- 
ghia Toum. Inst., PseUdo- 
Ckpsicttm Moench Meth.. A'yc- 
terium Vent. Jard. Malm., 
AquArtia. Jacq. Amer. : Moretle, 
Fr. ; Nacktscbatien, Ger. ; So- 
lano, Ital. 

1. Dulcamara L. - 664 

S.scandens Neck. Gall. Bel., 
Dulcamdra ftexmbsa Moench 
Meth., S. scdndens sen Dtii- 
camdra Toum. Inst, Amdra 
diUeis Gerard Emac., DUleis 
amUra Tng.,Glyc$picros sen 
Dulcamdra Baun. Hist. : la 



XXXVlll 



CONTENTS. 



MoreUe grimpante^ Regnault 
Bot. Icon. 

1 violikcea H, Eytt. 664 

2 41ba Lift. Fl, Suee, 664 
8 ciirnea Celt. Upt. 664 

4 plena Toum, Inat. 664 

5 variegate MwU. 664 

6 hirsiita />on'« MiU,664 
S. UttoriUe Hort. 

7 rup^stris Schmidt 664 

2. crispum 7?. <$• i9. 664 
IL ZfY^ciUM L. - 665 

The Box Thorn. — Jofmi- 
M^l(/r« Niss. in Act. Gall. : Ma. 
irimonu Vine, Amer. j Lycien, 
Fr. ; RocAsdorHj Ger. ; Lict>, 
lUl. 

1 . europae^um jL. - 665 

L. Mitc(fbltum Mill. Diet., 
Janninoidet aeuiedtum Mich. : 
Spino Mnto. 6>mo uTi C!r»ito, 
Ital. 

yarietiea. — Fruit yellow. 
Fruit roundish • .666 

2. (e.) b&rbarum L. 666 

L. halimifbltum Mill. Diet., 
L. bdrbarum « vulgAre Ait. 
Hort. Kew. : <A« DkA^ </ ^r- 
g»irs Tea Tree. 

3. (e.) chindnse Af, 666 

L. AarAAruiM /S ckinfnte Alt. 
Hort. Kew., L. ^rirfrarum 
Lour. Coch. ?, L. ovdtum N. 
Du Ham. 

4. (e.) TTcmdnum 667 

L. bdrbarum Lara. Diet., L. 
ekindue N. Du Ham. 



5. (e.) ruthenicum 667 

L. tatdricum Pall. Fl. Rou. : 
£j<ct>n i/<r /(I Russfe, Fr. 

:2 c^picum PoZ/. 667 

6. (e.) lanceolatum 668 

L. europat'um /S Dec, Fl. Fr. 

7. {? e.) turbinktum 668 

L. halim(fUium Mill. Diet.?, 
L. bdrbarum /3 Dec. Fl. Fr. 

8. iifriira L. - - 668 
2 rigidum - . 668 

L. rigidum Booth. 
Other Species qf Lucrum, — L. 
OT^tuin, L. spatuUUuoi, and 
L. obovitum • • ggg 

HI. CraboVsk/v4 Schl. 

L Herit. 

I. boerhaavf<^o/;a S. 669 

L^cium boerbaa9la:mHum 



Lin. Suppl., EkretU haUmi- 
Jdba L'Vlerit. Stirp., LJcium 
hetfropk6Uum Murr. Comm. 
Gott. JasTmnoides spindsum 
Du Ham. .-irb. : Lycmm pa- 
mculi, Fr. 

ScrophularidcetB* 

I. Bu'Di)LEy< L. - 670 

I. globdsa Z/. - - 670 

B6ddieaL globtftdra N. Du 
Ham. ; B. capitdta Jacg. Col., 
Icon. Rar. ; PdUjuin, Feuillfie 
It. : BuddUia globuieux, Fr. i 
Kopftragende Sudl^e^ Ger. 

II. Paulo Vnl< Sieb. 

A^ndnia Thunb, Fl. Jap., 



WiUd. ap. PU Pen. %». ; /» 
carvtJJga Spreng. Sust, : JOrra; 
Japanese ; Too, Hak-too, Chin. 

1. imperialis Sieb. - 671 

i^tfnonia tomenlbsa Tbanb. 
Fl Jap., WIllO. SpL PI., Pers. 
Syn. ; IncarviUeA tomentitsa 
Spreng. Svst Veg. : Kirn, 
Japauese, Ksmpf. Amoen. 

Lahiacece. 
Phlomis fruticoaa 672 

Jerusalem Sage. 

/Rosmarinus officinalis 
X. - - - 672 

I/AVa'ndula 5pJca 672 
The comnon Lavender. 

.Sa LViA officinalis X. 673 
I. Ti^PEx Z. - - 673 

The Chaste Tree. — GatiUer, 
Fr. ; KemcAbaum^ Ger. ; f'Aicr. 
ItaL 

1. i4'^nu8 cistus i. 673 

EAriv»«m TA^pAriSf/i to6. 
«o»., A'gnw cdttus Blackw.. 
Viper agrfstis Gerard : Jrbre 
^ffPoivre saupage, Fr.; Pcpe 
dt Monaa\ Ital. 

2 latifolia MiH - 674 

2. {A,) incisa L«»i. 674 

V. Negtindo Bot. Mag. 

3. arborea Rox. . 674 



Subdiv. IL MONOCHLAMY'DEiE; 



C/ienopodiacete. 
I. Chenopo'dium L.675 

The Goosefoot. -> Saltbia $p. 
Lin. : Anterine, Fr. ; Game 
Pun, Ger.; Ckenopodio, Ital. 

1. fruticosum SchradSlS 

Stonecrop Tree SatsiHa 

fruticbsa Lin. Sp. PI.: 7*A* 
ikrubby Gkutwort : Soude en 
Arbre, Fr. ; strauchartiget 
Saizkraut, Ger. ; Sopranivolo 
legnoeo, Ital. 

2. parvifolium i?.4-5.675 

C. /ruttcbtum Bieb. in Fl. 
Taur -Cauc, C. microphuHum 
Bieb in Suppl. to Fl. Taur.- 
Cauc., SaUbla firuticb$a Bieb. 
Casp., Suaeda micropkCita 
Pall, hlust. 

II. /^'TRIPLEX L. - 676 
The Orache — ArrocAe, Fr.; 
Meide, Ger. j Atripiice, lul. j 

1. //alinius //. , 676 I 
The Tree Puralane. - H^/i*. i 



mus tati/btfus eive fruiicbsus 
Bauh. Pin. ; H&limus I. Cius. 
Hi^t. : the broad-leaped Sea 
Purslane Tree : Arroche, Fr. ; 
Uraucharlige Metde, Ger. 

2.jDortulacdides L. 676 

The SeaPurslane.— Hotfrnw* 
»ec6ndux Clus. HUt., H. »«/. 
^arw Ger. Emac., miimus 
seu Portuldea mar'ma Bauh. 
Pin. A.*triplejr maritima. Ha- 
limusetPortuldcomarma dicta 
anguttifblia Rail Syn.: /)»<r 
narrow'leafed Sea Purslane 
Tree. 

III. DiOTis Schreb, 677 
Ceratoides Toum.. A'tyris 
Lin., C<rratosp£nnKm Pers. 

I. Ceratoides W, - 677 

r^^'^JT^ Ceratbules Lin. Sp. 
PU Ceratosp^rmum pappbsum 
Pers., .I'xyW* Jruiicbsajtdri. 
iff f<'*^neis landtis Ginei. 
Sib. Achurdnthes pappbsa 

l?^^\ V?"*^'** ^raseken/nni. 
ArdMa GuldcnsL in Act.Petrop.. 
Ur<»ca /a/iM lanceoldtis farmi. 



Crr/i/oi*.* orientdlis fi^ico.u 
Uaagni fblio Touni. Cor - 
Orientalisches Doppelokr, Ger.' 

Volygondcece. 
I. Tragopy'rum A>6. 

The Goat-Wheat^— Po/tfjir*»_ 
num Lin. Hort. UpT. ***^ 

1. lanceplatum^ieA. 678 

PolSgonumJrut^scens WfHd 

2. iuxifdiium 5*^4. 678 

S,rn^otM.g.;i^.c«^^V^^. 

3. pol/gamum -Sjpr. 679 
Gen!' P^rvtfblium Nutt. 

^'ir^'iff'^irTragop^nim - 
T. maritlma . . g^^ 



CONTENTS. 



XXXIX 



IL ifTRAraA^xis L. 679 

A'trMer Toarn.: ShremcM- 
mUt, Gee, 

1. spinosa L, - 680 

Cm. 

2. uklulata L. - 680 
in. Cuxi'gonuiiL.680 

FaBSAt L^ furvcocems 
PiU. 

1. P^astt UHert. 680 

neneitxm* aokfima PaU. 

PaU. iDTi . PaiLiM camea 
Lis fll. SiippL, P<a<bia Pte- 
tveocemi PaO. fiL iocs. : Com- 
Baektrnkaotf, Ger. 

L Lau'rus i- - 681 

Tke LMxel, a Bag Tree. — 
SiiMfrai mmd leiuJnn C. Cr. 
rm EMoAeek M^flUti.CntiLi 
r, Fr- ; Lorbttr, G«r. 



1. nobUigL. - - 681 

Th« S«c* Bar. — tM&na 
GBBcr.,Tatf.>I>odao..IU|r ; L. 
rti^^ris B^ Pin. : Lamrier 
caammmm^ Dmrier frtmCy Lat^ 
ntr fAf^MmJ-amirrd Sauce, 
Yj.\ S^^te Lorbeer, Ger. ; 

i «ttiilata MiB. - 682 

S«kilolU 5v<. . 682 

*. a. amgmMiifbUa Lod. 

^ariegmta 5ar<. - 682 

L. a^ aor. Lodd. Cat. 

; btilolia MUL - 682 

S eroiMi /xmU. Cof . 682 

7 flore pBoo - 682 

3. can^eosis O/ef . 683 

TW Red Bay. ~L. JBbrMaU 
Lta. 5bl, L. axiOAru Lsm., 
Baril^mh *p. Plum. Geo., P^r- 
«ea BorinmaL Spreng. : the 
irtmi-kmred Carolina Bay: 
Laarier rvmge, Lamrier Bonr- 
^ Lamrier de Caroline, Ft. ; 
Caraiiniaeker Ltfrbeer, rotker 
Larheer. Gcr. 

2 glabra PkriA - 683 

3 fubeBceos PW«A 683 

4 obtitsa iVraA - 683 

3. CateslMffira Mx. 683 
"L. teatiwali* Lin. Spcc^ L. 
<a#npu MUL Dkrt., L. Ett6*- 
mm» ^Mi9dlia Natt. Gen.: 
Psmd Atsb. AflMT. ; Aomaarr 
larfierr, Ger. 

B. />«•«« dMtfwwff. 

i Sauafrat L. - 683 
Ctfnm aii« odoriMa, /oUo 
*"B**» «ar|f mr plena, Saua^ 
frmt dicta, Pluk. Abn. ; &»- 
«^« arhor, ex Plorida, ficul- 
■■>«». BaidL Pin.; SA«mfnu 
V. C G. Kccs Von Eaenbeck, 



rs«r Sas$qfrat, Fr. ; Sas$(^a* 
Lorheer, Ger. ; Sa$»qfrauOt 
ItaL 

5. Betizoin L. - - 685 
The BeojamtnTree.— wl'rAor 

atrfm/diui citreet vcl Umonii 
JoSo, benzotnum /undent, 
Comm. Hort. ; haHrus asti- 
9dU* Wangh. Amer., Laiirus 
Pseddo-Betahin Miekatu Fl. 
Bar. Amer., Eudtmtu BenzMn 
NmU. Gen., BeniMn sp. C. 
G. Nee* Von EMobeck : Spice 
Bask, Spice Wood, or vnld 
Allspice, Amer. ; Laurierfaux 
Bentoin, Fr. ; Benzoin Lorbeer, 
Ger. 

6. (B,) JDiospyTusP. 685 

L. Eudtmui Utospj^mt Nutt. 
Gen., L. diospproidet Mx. FL 
Bor. Amer., r L. meli$xt^fblia 
Walt. Car. 

7. geniculata Mx. 685 

L. Eu6Mmu$ genicuUUa Nutt. 
Gen., L. testivdli* Willd. Sp. 
PI. 

ThymeldcecB. 

I. 1>A'PHNE L, - 686 

Tkymelar'a Toum. Init., 
Gvrtn. : Daphne, ¥t. ; Seidel- 
hast, Ger. ; b^fne, ItaL 

A. Leaves deciduous. 

1. Mezereum L. - 687 
The common Meaereon. — 

Spurge Olive, Spurge Fiax, 
Flowering Spurge, Parkinson ; 
Dvar/ Mjf, Gerard: Lauriole 
femelle, Bois genlil, Metireon, 
Boisjoli, Fr. ; gemeiner Seidet- 
bast, or Kellerbalx, Ger. ; Pe- 
perackUge Daphne, Dutch ; 
Laureoia /em nut, Biondella, 
Cornelia, Ital.j Laureoia heni' 
bra. Span. 

2 flore i\ho - • 687 

3 autumnale - 687 

2. altiica Pall, - 687 

Demhne altaiquCf Laurtole 
de Tartarie, Fr. ; Sibnischer 
Seidelhast, Ger. 

3. ulpina L. - • 688 

The Mpine Chamelea Marsh. 
Plant : Daphn4 des Alpes, Fr. ; 
Alpen Seideibast, Ger. ; OUveUa, 

ItaJ. 

B. Erect. Leaves persistent. 
FUneers later oL 

4. Laureoia L, - 688 

The Spurge Laurel. — Daph- 
uotdes virum vet Laureoia 
Gem. i iMureola Rail Syn., 
Ger. Em. ; ThymeUe'a Lau- 
reoia Scop. Carn. : the ever- 
green Daphne : Lauriole male, 
jLaurMe des Anglais, Fr. ; tm- 
mergrUner Seideibast, Ger. ; 
Cavolo di Lupo, Ital. 

5. p6ntica L. - 688 

Thyme/te^a pdntica, eitrei 
/(Mis, Toum. Itin. : Lauriole 
b 4 



dm Levant, Fr. ; Pontisdur Set- 
delbast, Ger. 

2 rubra Hort. - 689 

3 foliis variegitb L, 689 

6. Thymelae a Vahl. 689 

ThymeLe a /oliis polygal^ 
glabris Bauh. Pin. ; T. alp'ma 
gldbra, floseuUs subluteis ad 
joiiorum ortum sessilibut. Pluk. 
Aim. ; SanamUnda vtridis vet 
gldbra Bauh. Prod. ; Sana- 
mUnda gldbra Bauh. Hist ; 
Passerina ThffmeLe'a Dec. : 
the Wild OUve : la IhymeHe, 
Ft. ; astloser Seideibast, Ger. 

7. Tdrion^raira L - 689 
Thymeke'a Joliis candieanti- 

bus et serid knstar moUibus 
Bauh. Pin. ; Tarton-Raire 
GaUo-orovinci^ Mumpelien' 
sium Lotk. Ic, Sanam^nda ar~ 

Jentdta UUi/bUa Barr. Ic, 
*asserina Tftrton-rairaScArd.: 
the oval4eaved Daphne : Lau- 
rtole blanche. Ft.; Silberbldi- 
triger Seideibast, Ger. 

8. (? 71) pub^scens 689 

Thifmela^a it&lica, Tarton- 
raire GaUo-provincidf similis, 
sed per omma mt^jor, Micheli : 
Behaarter Seideibast, Ger. 

9. (? T,) tomenidga 690 

Passerina villdsa Lin. : Lau- 
riole cotonmeuse Lam. Encyc. 

C. Erect. Leaves persistent. 

FUtwers termtnoL 

10. collina5»itM 690 

The Neapolitan Mexereon — 

D. coUlna m Bot. Reg.: ? D. 
hux^lia Vahl Symb. ; Da- 
phni des CoUmet, Lauriole d 
Feui/les de Santi, Fr. ; Stump/- 
bHittriger Seideibast, Ger. 

2 neapolitana L, ■ 690 
D. neapoiitdna Lod. Bot. 

11. (c.)oledides - 690 

ChamaxlaphnoKies critica 
Alpin. Exo(., ThjfmeleB^a cri. 
tica ole^JoUo utriusoue glabra 
Toum. Cor. ; Daphne uUid- 
y/hlia Lam. Encycl.: Lauriole 
d Feuiiies d'Olivier, Fr ; Oel- 
baumblat triger Seideibast, Ger. 

12. (c.)8ericear</A/691 

Thffmeke'a critica olesB folio 
sublus villosa Toum. Cor., 
Daphne ole^/blia Lain. Encyc. : 
St' idenar tiger Seideibast, Ger. 

13. striata Trat. - 691 

D. Erect. Leaves persistent. 
Flowers in Racemes. 

14. Gnidium L. - 691 

Thpmel4e^a /oliis tini Bauh. 
Pin.: Spurge Flax, Mountain 
Widow Wayle : Daphni Gni- 
dium, Lauriole d Panicule, 
Fr. ; Rispenblattriger Seidei- 
bast, Ger.; Camelea, Ital. 

E. Prostrate. Leaves persist' 
ent. Flowers terminal, ag- 
gregate. 

15. Cneorum L. - 691 
Cm drum Matth. Hist, Clus. 



xl 



CONTENTS. 



HUt. : Tkymtliedes Alpes, Fr.; 
Wohlriechender Seidelbast^ Ger. 

2 foliis varicg4tis 692 

3 flore &lbo - 692 

II. Di'rca L, - 692 

L«ather-wood. — Tkymelte''a 
Gron. Virg. 

1. palustris L. - 692 
Moor-wood: Boss de Cuir^ 
Boi$ de Plombt Fr. ; SumpfLe- 
derkoiZf Ger. 

Santalaceae. 

I. Ny'ss^ L. - 693 

The Tupelo Tree. 

1. bifiora Michx, - 693 

N. aqu&tiea Liu. Sp. PI.; 
N. carolhuAna L., N. integri- 
f^a Att. Hort. Kew., N. pe- 
dUncub't unifldriM Gron. Virg. : 
Mountain Tupelo Mart Mlfi. : 
Gum Tree, Sour Gum Tree, 
Peperidge, Amer. 

2. (b.) villosa Mx. 694 

y. sylff&tica Michx. N. Amer. 
Syl., N. muU(ftdra VVangenh. 
Amer., iV. montdna Hort., N. 
peddnculis tin(fli>ris Gron. Virg.: 
Soar Gum Tree, Black Gum, 
Yellow Gum, Amer. ; Haariger 
Tulpelobaum, Ger. 

3. (b.) c^ndicans M. 694 

The Ogechee Lime Tree.— 
.V. capUdta Walt., Alt., Michx. ; 
N. coccinea Bartram : Sour 
Tupelo Tree, Wild Lime : wet**, 
ticker Tulpelobaum, Ger. 

4. (b.) grandidentata 694 

The Large Tupelo Tree. — 
N, tomenliisa ana N. angutl- 
xans Mich. Fl. Bor. Amer., N. 
denticuldta Ait. Hort. Kew., N. 
angtUbsa Poir., N. unifldra 
Wangenh. Amer. : Wild OUve, 
Amer. ; Virainian Water Tu- 
pelo, Mart. Mill. 

II. OsY Ris L. - 695 

The Poet's Casiia. — Cd»ia 
Caroer., Lob., Alpin., Gesn. 

]. &lbaZr. . . 695 

O. Jliliia tinedribu* ackti* 
Lotfl. It., O. IrutSscen* bac- 
eifera Bauh. Pin., Cd*(a po- 
itica Mon$peU6nsium Cam. 
Epit, CdMia Latinbrum Alp. 
Exot., Cdsia Monspelit dicta 
Oean. Epit. : ueiste Otyri*, 
Ger. 

T^(jeagnhce€B. 
I. jEljEa'gnus Tour, 696 

The Oleaster, or Wild OUve 
Tree. — ChaUf, Fr. ; Wilde Oel- 
baum^ Ger. ; Eleagno, Ital. 

1 . hortensis Bieb, - 696 

B. angu*tifblia L., Willd. Sp. 
PI.; E. Mongdrica Fisch., E. 
inSrmts Mill. Diet., E. argin- 
teua Morach Moth., E orientdli* 
Delislc, ? E. arghUea Wat$. 
Dend. Brit.: Jerusalem Wil- 
low : Olivier de Bohtme, Chalef 
d FeuUU* (troiles, Fr. ; gckmoL 



blattriger Oleaster, Ger. ; AU 
bero dtParadiso, Ital. 

1 angustifolia Bieb. 697 
E. angtutifblia L. 

2 dactyl iformis - 697 

3 orientalis . -. 697 
E. orientdU* L. 

4 spinosa - . 697 
E. *pindsa L. 

2. argentea Ph, . 697 

Missouri Silver Tree, U. S. 
of North America. 

Other Spea'es nf ElttSgnus. — 
E. talicir.Iia ?D.Don, E. 
conftrta Hort. - .097 

II. jyippo^PHAK L, 698 

The Sea Buckthorn, or Sal- 
lowthorn.— AAamnoldrr Tour. : 
Argoussier, Fr. ; HqjgHiom, or 
Sanddorn, Ger. ; Jppc^ae, Ital. ; 
Espino amariUo, Span. 

1. Rhamnoides L. - 698 

Rhamnohdes flor\fera sSlici* 
fbb'o Tourn. Cor., JRManmohle* 
fruchfera Rail Syn. : Argous- 
sier faux Nerprun, Fr. ; Wei- 
denblattriger Sanddorn, Ger.; 
Arve, or Saule ipineuz. In the 
Alps of Switxerland. 

2 angustifolia LodL 698 

3 sibirica - . 699 
H. sOnriea Lodd. Cat. 

2. falicifblia D. Bon 699 
H. co^/fr/a Wall, in M$S. of 

the Catal. of the Linn. Soc. 
Indian Herb., Royle's Illust. 

III. SHEPHE^RDJii ?7iat. 
HippdpAae L. 

1. argentea NutL - 700 

HippSpbae argfntea Pursh 
Sent: Missouri Silver LeeJ, 
and Bifffhlo Berry Tree, Amer. ; 
Ral^it Berry, and Betf Suet 
Tree, Amer. Indians; Graise 
de Btuffle, or Buffalo Fat, French 
traders. 

2. canadensis Nvtt, 700 

HippSpbae canadensis Lin. 
Sp. PI, Wllld. Sp, PI., Pursh 
Sept. 

Aristolockiaceie. 

I. i^RISTOLO'CHIA L.701 

The Blnh^ort—Aristolocke, 
Fr. ; Osterluxey, Ger. 

1. sJpho V Merit, - 701 

K . macropk^Ua Ijam. Encyc. : 
Aristoloche Syphon, Tt. ; gross- 
bGUtrige Oslerluxey, Ger. ; Pipe 
Vine, or Birthwort, Amer. ; S^fo 
and Pipa, Ital. 

2 (s.) tomentosa S. 702 

EujoAoriiaceas. 

I. STiLLi'NGwGard.702 

I. /igustrina Willd. - 702 

II. ^'xus L. - 703 

The Box Tree. — Bmi*, Fr. : 



Buxbaum, Bucktbaum, Ger. ; 
Bossol*, lul. 

1. serapervirens L. 703 

Blln« Rail Syn. : Bui* com- 
mun, 2ois bMi, Fr.; Backs' 
bourn, *er.: Bossolo, Ital. 

1 arior^cens MUL 703 
Bu4 arborescent, Fr. 
HoAstammige Buckg- 

batm, Ger. 
Subtars.—Tg6nte». Hort., 
adea Hort., marginlta 
Hcft. - - - 703 

2 angutifolia MUL 703 
StiAtrrtv— rariegita ^. 703 

3 suff'ruicosa MUL 704 
B. hUmks Dod. Pempt. 
B. s. nd\a N. Du Ham. 
Buis »<%, ififif a .5^. 

dures, Buis d^Artois, 
Buis iHollande, petit 
Buis. F. 
Zwerch Bichsbaum, Ger. 

4 myrtifolu Lam. 704 

2. bale6rica Kj/Zi/. . 704 

B. *. rar. ^ifn/ea N. Du 
Ham. : Minorca %» : Bui* de 
Minorque, Buis dMakon, Fr. ; 
BaleariscAer BucMtaum, Ger. ; 
Bossolo gentile, lU, 

Ariocdrpts, 
I. ilfo'RUs Toun. - 705 

The Mulberry Tr^. — MM- 
Her, Fr.; Jtfau^^, Ger. 5 
Moro, Ital. 

1. nigra Poir. - - 706 

The common Mulhrrr 

Hdritf Dod. Pempt., Mlft^ctvt 
nigro Bauh. Pin, 

2 laciniaU Mill. D. 76 

2. dlba L. - - 7C 
M. Candida Dod. Pempt 

M. jyCctu &tho Bauh. Pin. ; M 
albafructu minori albo insiUso 
Du Ham. Arb. 

2 mu1tica61is Per. 707 

M. tatdrica Desf. 

M. 6«/U/a Ralbis. 

Chinese Black Mulbirrrv. 

Perrottet Mulberru. 

Many-staUccd Mulberru. 

MUrier Perrottet, Mi- 
rier d Tiees nom^ 
breuses, MUrier drs 
Philippines, Fr. 

Morodeue FHippine,\tn\. 

3 Moretti(iiMi Hor. 707 
Dandolo's Mulherrj. 

4 macrophylla L. 707 
M. « la/ifb/ia Hort. 

M. hispanica Hort. 
MUrier d'Espagne, 
Feuilie d'Espagne, Ft. 

5 romana Z,od. C. 707 
M. «. ovaltfblia. 
MArier remain, Fr. 

6 nervosa Zotf. C. 707 
M. nervdsa Bon Jard. 
M. subalba nervbsa Hor. 

7 italica .florZ. - 708 
M. itt'dica Lod. Cat. 1836. 

8 rosea Hort. - - 708 
Small white Mulberry. 
MArierrose, Feuilie rosA 

Fr 



CONTENTS. 



xli 



9 eolambosn L. - 708 
Cofa0iaa,Fr. 

10 membranacea L. 706 
M^ier i FeuOlede Pmr- 

ckfmm,rT. 

1 1 sinensis Bart. - 708 
M. smimsiM Bott, 

H. dkmfmsiM Lod. Cat 
TV dmesr Mmiberrjf. 

IS pumik iVou. ? - 708 
M. «. aA«a Hodt. Brit. 

Odktr Vmrittia - - 708 



3. (a.) tat^rica PoA 709 

4. rubra L. - - 709 

M . vtrgirnkm Pink. Aim., M. 
^eMuyMwcflNoto. Arb. Fruit. 
Sscilxa . . 710 

M. tedira WQkL. Natt. 
M-coMtfnmPbir. 



IL BaocssoNE'T/^Vent. 

Mdfwf Sr&a K^m0^ Lim. ; 
Pap^yrw Bncyc Bot.. Laid. III. 
Gen. 

I. papjrlfefa Vent. - 710 

TiMt Paper Mulberry Md- 

rm$ fofgriffra Lin. Sp. PI. 
2 eacaUata - - 710 
B. emadUta Boa Jard. 
& ttmhtlfifa Hart, Brit. 
^. nwifrMMrii Lodd. Cat. 

Sfriicta41bo - 711 

IILMACLU^iLiNutt.711 

T6*Sfio» Bafinfque in 1837. 
I. aiirantiaca Nutt. 711 

The Onge Orange. — Bowm 
tntiy Ydtew-vood^ N. Amer. 

IV. Fleers Tntm. - 712 

Tbe Rg Tree. ^Pigmier, Ft. ; 
Fe^gemdawm, Ger. ; Fieo, Ital. 

I. C4rica L. - - 712 

F. eocntftiMf Banh. Pin., F. 
k^aub* and F. »gie6airi$ Tonm. 



lust.: Fh 



nigrmbamn, Ger. 



Fr. 



-712 



V. Bo^RT^ W. - 713 

JdiHt Xichx. FL Bor. Am., 



I. /igustrina W. - 713 

J^iia lu;fbirnM Mkbx. Fl. 
Bor.AaL., BigeliMA Mgvatrhha 
Snith in Bees's Cyclop. Add. 

2«(?/L) acuminata - 714 

A^Sa acummita Mx. Fl. 
3ar.Aaer..,BigaMa. acuminata 
Smith in Bees'* Cjdop. Add. 

3. (/.) pomlosa W. - 714 
JdcUa ptmOdta Mx. Fl. Bor. 
Aawr., Aigriieia porulUa 
SsBitfa fai Bces'i Cyclop. Add. 
? B.imdta Lodd. Cat. Ifl9& 

\]bndce(B 
L C^LMus L. . 715 

The Ebn. — Oravr, Fr.; tJIm, 
flr AAftr, Ger. ; OImo. ItaL 



1. campestris Zr. - 715 

ir/anw AlimVi Pliny Nat. 
Hist.; U. fHunor^JoUo ane^uto 
tcoArOt Gar. Emac. : Oknopg- 
ramidalet Fr. 

Varieties. 

A. rrmter 7Vf«f. 

1 ▼ulgaris - -716 
U. camp€9tri9 Hort.Diur. 

2 latifotia /Torf. - 716 

3 41ba Matten - 716 

4 acutifolia MaUers 716 

5 stricta ^orf. Dar. 716 
The red English Elm. 

6 vlrens Hort. Bur. 7 1 6 
n« Kidbrook Elm. 

7 oomubi^Dsis Hori. 716 
U. strieia, Lindl., Led. 
Tke Cornish Elm. 

8 8ami6nsis - 716 
U. samiinsis Lodd. Cat. 
The Jersey Elm. 

9 tortuosa - - 716 
V. tortubsa Lod. Cat. 

r Orme tortUlard, Fr. 
visied Elm. 

B. Omameutal or ewrious. 

10 foliia rariegatis -716 

11 6etul«ef6Ita - 717 
U. teiuLeJdlia Lod. Cat. 

12Timinali8 H. D. - 717 

U. viminilis Lodd. Cat. 
IS parviiolU - 717 

U. parvffbUa Jac. Scboen. 
U. micfoph^UaVm. 
U. pkmila var.Bitransbdi- 

caUnsis) Pall. Ron. 
U. pkmila Vf\M. 8p. PI. 
U. piamla Jbliis parvfs^ 

Ac. 
(7. hinnilis Enum . Stlrp. 

Ruth. 

14 planifolia - 717 
U. planifhUa Hort. 

15 chin^Dsis - 717 
U. chinimis Pers. 
ThidcCAbU GalloiSi 

Orme naim, Fr. 

16 eucull^ Hort. 717 

17 concaTsfoiia H. 71 7 
IS foiiis Adreis Hort. 717 
19 nhiSi Hort. - 717 
OlArr Varieties - - 717 

2. (c.) suberdsa ilf. 718 

U. eamp6stris Woodr. Med. 
Bot. ; U. camptstris and Theo' 
pkrdstL Dm Ham. Arb., U. vtU. 

fatissima,fiUio lato scabra Ger. 
;mac. ; V.montana Cam.Eplt.: 
common Elm Tree^ Hunter's 
ETel.SyL: POrme Liige^rOrme 
fmgewe.Fr.^ 

1 vulgaris - - 718 
U. suberdsa Hort. Dur. 
!ne Dutch cork'barked 

Elm. 

2 foliis variegitis 718 
U. suberdsa variegdta Ht. 

Dur. 
S&lba - - 719 

U. saberbsa 6lba Masters. 
^erkctA Lodd. Cat. 712 
5 The broad-lyd Hert- 

fords. Elm, ffood 71 9 



6 The narrow .Ivd Hert- 
fords.£lm, tVoodliO 

3. (c.)m£ljor Smith 719 

U. hottSndiea Mill. Diet. ; U. 
mqfor hoUdndica, Ac, Pluli. 
.\lm.: U. m^for, ampliore /olio, 
Ac, Du Ham. Arb.; Tilia mas 
Matth. Valgr<^ V'Unus tatijblia 
Micbx. N. Amer. Syl. 

4. effusa WiUd. .719 

U. ciUdta Ehrh. Arb, V.pe- 
duneuidta Lam. Diet., U. oc- 
tdndra Schk. Bot. Handb.; U. 
/bUolatissimOtSfe.y Buxb. Hal.; 
U. kdvis Pal. Ross. : rOrme 
pSdoncuKf Fr. 

5. montana Baith. - 720 

The Scotch or Wych Elm U. 

gUtbra Huds., U. ^ksa Slbth.. 
U. scdbra Mill. Diet., U nUda 
Ehrh., U. c»m/)^s<n'« WUld. Sp. 
PI., U. campistris lat^fbtialloTt 
Par.: IVpchHaxel of old authors. 

Varieties. 

A. T^m&er TVmv. 

1 vulg^ru - - 720 

2 rugosa Masters 720 
U. rt^dM Lodd. Cat 

3 major Masters - 720 

4 minor Masters - 720 

5 cebenn^nsis /Torf. 720 
The Cevetmes Elm. 

6 nigra - - 720 
U. n)4[,ra Lodd. Cat. 

The black Irish Elm. 

7 australis Hort. - 720 

B. Ornamental or curious. 

8 pendula - - 721 
U. p€ndMla Lodd. Cat. 

U .hldbra decHmbensHort. 

Dur. 
U. horixoniiUis Hort. 
U. rdAra Hort. Soc. Card. 

9 fastigiaU Hort. 721 

V.gldbra replieita Hort. 

Dur. 
U. F&rdii Hort. 
V. exoniensis Hort. 
Exeter Elm^ Ford'sElm. 
10 crispa - - 721 

?U. crispa Willd. 
rA« curled-leaved Elm. 

Other Varieties . -721 

6. (m.) glabra Mill. 722 

U. montdna jS Fl. Br., U. 
/blio gldbro Ger. Emac., U. 
camwstris var. 3. With. : the 
/eatkered Ebn. 

Varieties. 

A. Timber Trees. 

1 yulg^ris - 723 

The common smooth-leaved 
jEitm. 

2 v^geta - - 723 
U. montdna vigeta Hort. 

Soc. Gard. 
U. americdna Masters. 
The Huntingdon Elm, the 
Chichester Elm, the Ame- 
rican Elm, andperhaps 
* the Scampston Ebn. 

S var. - - 723 

The Scampston Elm. 



xlii 



CONTENTS. 



4 major • - 723 

U. glAbra mi^^ Hort. 

Dur. 
The Canterbury Seedling. 

5 glandulosa LindL 723 

6 latifolia Lindl. - 723 

7 microphylla Hart, 723 
U. g. parv{fbUa. 

B. Ornamental or curiour. 

8 p^ndula - - 723 
U. campistnspM. Hort. 
The Downttm Elm. 

9 variegata Hori. 723 
10 ramulosa Booth 723 

7. dlba Kit. - - 723 

8. americana L. - 723 

The white Elm, Ain«r. : the 
Canadian Elm, the American 
white Elm. 

1 rubra Ait. H. K. 724 

2 ilba Ait. Hort. K. 724 
? U. moUifdlia B. & S. 

3 p^ndiila PHr«A ^9. 724 

4 incisa ^ort. - 724 

5 foliis variegatu ^T. 724 

9. (a.) fulva Mit^. 724 

The slippery Elm — U. riAra 
Mx. Arbt : OrmegraM, Fr. : red 
Elm, red-wooded Elm, Moote 
Elm. 

10 alata Mx. - - 725 

U. pUmila Walt. Fl. Carol. : 
the Wahoo of the North Ame. 
rican Indians. 

II. Pla'ner^ Gmel. 723 

"Rhdmnus Pall., Guldenst. ; 
Vlmus various authors, as to 
the Pldnera. Richdrdl. 

1. Richardt Mx. - 726 
The Zelkoua Tree. — P. ere- 

ndta Mx. Mem. sur le Zirfkoua, 
P. earpinifbUa WaU. Dend. 
Brit., P. crendta Desf., RAam- 
nuicarpinijdlius Pall. FI.Ross., 
R. ulmSideg Guldens. It., V'l- 
mui crendta Hort. " Par., U. 
parvifUia Wtlld. Baum., U. 
eamnistris Walt. Fl. Car., U. 
wUggama Richard Act. Paris, 
U. nemordb's Alt. Hort. Kew. ; 
(J. fdUis creniUis hdsi tequSii' 
btu, fructu ovoideo nan com- 
preuo, Pofrec Encfc. Meth.: 
le ZelMoum, or Orme de Siberie, 
Fr. ; ROhard't Palnere, Ger. 

2. Gm^Iini Mx. - 726 

P. vJmifblia Mx. Arb. Amer., 
P. aqttdtica Willd. Sp. PI., 
AnSnvmiu aquSHctu arbor, &c 
Walt. Carol. 

III. Ce'ltis Toum. 727 

The Nettle Tree Lbtus of 

Lobel and other authors : Mi* 
cocoulier, Fr. ; ZUngelbaum, 
Get. ; Celto, Ital. 

1. australis L. - - 727 

Uitus arbor Lob. Ic, "Lbtus 
five dUia Cam. Epit. : Lote 
Tree: Micocoulier austral. Mi. 
eocoulier de Provence, Pabre- 
tuulier, Fabrecoulier dee Pro- 



venfoug (N. Du Ham.), Fr.; 
Aretdiawlo, Ital. 

Variety - - - -728 

2. (B.) caucasica W, 728 

3. Tournefortii Lam. 728 

C. orientdlit manor, folii* mi- 
noribut et cratsioribus, fructu 
Jlavo, Toum. Cor. ; C. orten* 
tdlia Mill. Diet., but. according 
to N. Du Ham., not of Lin. : 
Micocoulier du Levant. Mtco- 
cou/ier d'Ortent, Fr. ; Morgen- 
fondiseher ZUngelbaum, Ger. 

4. (T.) sinensis Pers.729 

5. Willdenovtfl;wx S. 729 

C. MinSnais WlLld. Enu. Sup., 
WUld. Baum. 

6. occidentalis L. - 729 
The North American Nettle 

Tree. — C. frdctu obscUro pur- 
purascente Toum. Inst., C. 
obliqua Moench : Nettle Tree, 
Sugar Berry. Amer. ; Bois in- 
eonnu, Illinois ; Micocoulier de 
Virginie, Tt. ' 

2cordata WiM. . 729 

3 scabriiiscula WUld. 729 

C. austrdiis WlUd. Arb. 

C. fo.fi tenuifblia Pers. 

C. atvfra Lodd. Cat. 

C. ortentdlia Hort. 

7. crassifolia Lam. - 730 

The Hackbernr. — C. cordi- 

fbtia L'Herit. Hort. Par.. C. 

corddta Desfont. : Htwberry, or 

Hoop Ash, Amer. ; Micocoulier 

d Feuilles en Corur, Fr. 

8. Isbvig^ta WiUd. - 730 

9. piimila Ph. - - 731 

Other Species qf CUtis.—C. ori- 
entalb L. - . 731 



Jt£glandiU:ea. 

I. Ju^GLANS L. - 732 

The Walnut Tr«e Noyer, 

Fr. ; IValnuss, Ger. ; Noce, ItaL 

1. regia L. - - 732 

"Six J^lant Dod. Pempt. ; 
N^ J^lant. seu regia vtUgd- 
ris, Bauh. Pin. : Nouer com- 
mtm, Fr. ; Noseguier, Provence; 
gemeine IValnuss, Ger. 

2 milxinia - - 733 
N<lr Jkglans Mictu max- 

imo Bauh. Pin. 
Voix de Jauge, Bon Jard. 
Claumut in Kent ; Ban' 

nut in Warwickshire. 

3 tenera - - 733 
VOz J^lmuftrtclu t6nero 

et Jrdftile putamine 
Bauh. Pin. 

Nayer d Coque tcndre, 
Noyer Misange Bon 
Jard. 1. a ; Noyer de 
Mars in Dauphine. 

The thin-shelled, or 7Y/. 
mouse, l^'atnut. 

4 8er6tina Desf. - 733 

Kti« J^lansfHctu ser6- 

tino Bauh. Fin. 
Koyer tardtf, Noyer de la 

Saint Jean, Bon Jard. 

1B36, Noyer de Mai in 

Dauphine. 



5 lacinUta - - 733 
Nlix JfiMfanw f^Kia taei. 

w'dtis Keneaulm. 
Jkglans heterophil Ht. 
J^ilicifblia Lodd. Cat. 
The Fern-leaved H'aitnit 

Tree. 

Other Farieties - . 733 

2. nigra L. - 734 

Theblach fValmU, the Hack 
Hickonf Nut, N. Amer. ; Nvyer 
noir, Fr. ; Noce nera, Ital. 

Varieties ... 738 

3. cinerea L. - • 735 

The Butter-nut. — J. cathdr. 
tica N. Amer. StL, J. oblSnga 
Mill. Diet. : Oil-nut, White HW. 
ftsf^, Amer. ; Noyer eendrS, 
Fr. ; graue IValnuss, Ger. 

II. Ca^rya NuU. - 735 
The Hickory Tree.— Jkglans 
sp. Lin., Wind.. Michx. ; Ric5- 
rius Hqfinesque : Hickory 
Amer. 

1. oliva!f6rmis Nuti. 736 
The Pacane-nut Hickory 

Jkglans rkbra Gaertn. Sem. ; 
J. eylindrica Lam. Encrci., N. 
Du Ham.; J. Ptean MuhJenb. ; 
J. angust^blia Alt. Hort. Kew.; 
J. ottve^f6rmit Mx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer. : Pecan^nut, I/UnoiS' 
luU, Amer. ; Picanier, Pacanwu, 
Noyer Picanier, Fr. 

2. am&ra Nutt. - 737 

Jkglans amdra Mx. Arb.: 
Bitter-nut, fVhite Hickory^ 
Swamp Hickory, Amer. 

3. aquatica Nutl. - 737 
The Water Bitter-nut Hick- 
ory. — J nylons aqu tica Mx. 

4. tomentosa Nutt. 738 
The Mocker«nut Hickory. 

— Jkglans alba Lin. Sp. PI., J. 
d/te Mill. Diet., J. tomentdta 
Mx. Fl. Bor. Amer.: IVhite- 
heart Hickory, commonHickory, 
Amer. ; Noyer dur, Illinois. 
2 mixima NuU. - 739 

5. 61ba Nutt. - 739 

The Shell-bark Hickorr. — 
Jkglans alba Mx. Fl. 'Bor. 
Amer., J. alba ovdta Marsh. 
Arb., J. squambsa Hx. Arb., 
J. compressa Gsertn. Sena. : 
Shag-bark Hickory, Scaly-bark 
Hickory, Kiaky Thomas Nut, 
Amer. j Noyer tendre, IlUnoia. 

6. sulcata Nutt. - 739 

Jkglans lacinibsa Mx. Arb., 
J. mucroniUa Mx. Fl. Bor. 
Amer.. J. sulciUa WiUd. Arb. : 
thick Shea-bark Hickory, 
Svringfieild Nut, Gloueetter 
Nut, Amer. 

7. porclna Nnit. - 740 

Jkglans por^na » obcorddia 

Mx. Arb. ; J. porofus var. witA 

fruit round, and somewhat 

rough, Mx. N. Amer. Sylv. ; J. 

obcorttdta Mlihlenb. : Pig-nut, 

Hog-nut, Broom Hickory. 

2 glabra - - 741 

Jkglans pordna fi fict". 

Jormis Mx. Arb. 
J. gldbra MiiUi. 



CONTENTS. 



xliii 



8. myristiccioniiisiyr. 74 1 

Tbe Notmcs Hickory.— Jil- 
^tet vtgrutioi^firmi$ aichx. 
Sib. 

9. microcarpa Nutt. 742 

other Speda qf C^ryo.— C. 
aafaltua {Jimtmu tmbigma 
Vz.). C. puMKCu Aiwk. C 
rtfifU ( J. rwMto Lodd. Cat.). 



ebflitt 



Hi- 



nL Ptksoca^rt A Kunth 

J^lamt tp, LtaL 

]. caursstca Ktadh 743 



JftWMt Pieroe^rvm Miehx. 
tl. Bor. Amer, Mer. V 
Ptanx. Cwic ; AM* oAfcii 



Ver». 



Bfeta. F1. Tanr. Cauc ; J. frox- 
fa^/Me Umood MS., N. Du 
Ham. ; YraximmUt^iia Hort. 
Par. 

L 54 Lix i. - - 744 

Tte WiDow Harab. He- 

bfcv ; Am, Gr. ; Sahx, Latin ; 
SoaJ^, Fr. ; Weide and Fdber^ 
Gcr. ; SaANOb, Ital. ; Sator, 
Spaa.; ffrtfr. Swed.; WOge, 
FlCB.; 9'iU^, Ani^Sax. ; 
ITfibv, fTtf Ay, Saiiov, Osier, 
EngUih ; Sawigk^ Scotch. 

Gfoup L PuTjntr&B Koch. 

Oder Wfllovtt, with one Stamen 
Jn a Flower. 

1. purpurea Zr. - 746 

S. purvirea Koch. Comm. 

- - 747 

- 747 

The Roae Willow.— S. fmr- 
pikrra var. Koch Comm., ? S* 
Host Sal. Aostr. 



2. helix L. 



S. Lambertioiia Sm. 747 

Tbc BoTton Willow. —S. 
fWTfkrea ^ iwoefa Comm. 

4. Woolgarioiia Bor. 747 

S. wtomamdra Sal. Wob. No. 
4., 8. flMo&Mlrtf MW. HoflVn. 
HmC SaL 

5. Forbyom Smith 748 
The ftae Basket Osier.— 

5. fma lAn. Sot. Trans., not 
ef Hoc (SMtU.) ; S. rUbra fi 
Sodi Cnwnn. 

6. rubra Hudt, - 746 
&.Mmeiris Walker's Estaya. 

Groop iL jieuUfilixB Bor. 

[SfM. Pndndsae Kock,) 

mOowt with dark Bark, co- 
vered with a fine Bloom. 

7. amdfblia Wiild. - 748 

S. rioUeea Andr. Bot. Rep., 
bK not of Wnid.. nor the S. 
td^demWartiWaid.) 

6. (Japhnoidea Viiktrs 749 

t.mrm*cu Hoppe In Stnnn 
D. n, 8. higimiiuM HoAn. 
Gcna., 8. em^ea Hoat Sol. 



9. pomeranica WUld. 749 

S. iapknifide* Villars, vor. 
tPt'M narrover ieaves, amd more 
si^nder calkuu, Koch Comm. 

Group, iii. TWaiciJriB Bor. 
(Syis. ^mygdiUnae Koek.) 

10. undulata ICoch 749 

S. IkMCMiola Smith. 

2 uaduUta JV>r6ef 751 

S lanoeoUu Swt, 751 

4 Tar. having catkins 

androgynous - 751 

1 1. Aippophaefoliar. 751 

12. triandral/. - 751 

S. B m^ dai fn a, pari qf, Koch 
Comm. 

2 ^Uica - - 752 

3 Hoppe^na • - 752 
S. andr6g]fna Hoppe. 

4 i^. triindra unduUta 
Mertena, ined. — Ap- 
proaches to S. amjfjf- 
dalincu 

13. Hoflfmanntana S.752 

S. triandra Hoffl, and ?of 
German botanists in general. 

14. amygd&lina L. 752 
S. •mjfgddUiMt m part, Koch 

Comm. 

15. Vmarstaffn Fiug.752 

S. triandra Villars Delph., 
S. zm§f§daUna var. Koch Com. 

Group iy. Pentdndrm Bor. 

Treet haTing Flowers with 
3—5 stamens. 

16. pentandra L. - 754 

S. pentandra, part <J, Koch 
Comm. : the Sweet WiUma, the 
Ba^-leaved WiUow. 

2 hermaphroditica 754 

17. Meyerwim WUId. 754 

S. euspOata Schults, 9. ttnC' 
ibria Smith, S. pentandra 3 
JUnn., 8. hex&ndra Ehrh., S. 
EhrharAixia. Smith, S. tetrandra 
Willd. 

18. lacida Milhlenb. 754 
S. Forfe^sil Swt. Sort. Brit. 

ed.1630. 

Group. ▼. Fr6ffiieM Borrer. 

Trees with their Twigs brittle 
at the Joints. 

19. babylonica - 757 
The Weeping Willow. — S. 

propindem Sering. Sal. Hel., 
U. orientdiis, ice., Toum. ; S. 
ar&bica, ^c., C. Bauh. : Sauk 
fJettreur, Parawl du grand 
Seigneur, Fr. ; Trauer Weide, 
Thrdnen h^'eide, Ger. 

1 vulgirifl foem. ff. 758 

2 Napoleona Hort. 758 

3 crispa Hort. - 758 
S. annuidris Forb. in 8. W. 
The ringUeaved WiUovf. 



20. decfpiens Hoffni. 758 

The white Welsh, or Tar- 
nished, Willow — S. amerma 
Walk. Essajs on Nat Hist., 
S.JrigHet, part <tj[, Koch Com. 

21. montana Forbe$ 759 

22. fragilis L. - - 759 

The Crack Willow. —S./Va- 
giUe, in part, Koch Comm. 

23. monspeliensis F. 760 

24. Russelltana Sm. 760 
The Duke of Bedford's WU. 

low. — ?S. JragUie Woodv.: 
the Dishiey, or Leieestertkire, 
WHiow J In some counties, the 
Huntingdon Willow: S. pin- 
dula Ser., S. vtridit Fries, S. 
rilhem Sciirank. 

25. Purshtana Bor. 761 

Group vi. A'U>a Borrer. 

Trees of the largest ^ise, with 
the Foliage whitish. 

26. ilbalr. - - 761 

%. alba, part qf, Koch Com.: 
the HutUmgdon, or Swallow- 
tailed, IViilow. 

2 cseriilea - - 761 
S. alba var. Smith. Fl. B. 
S. cariUea Smith Eng.B. 
The upland, or red-tinged. 

Willow, Fontey 
The Leicetler Willow, 

Dary's Agric. Cbem. 
Blue Willow, Smith. 

3 crispa Hort, - 76 1 
4r69eaLocU.Oi^ 761 

27. vitellina L. - 763 

The Golden Osier S. dlba 

Koch Comm. 

Group vii. Nigrtg, 

Extra-EuropeanKlnds allied to 
the Kinds of one or all of the 
the three preceding Groups. 

28. nigra MuhL - 768 
The dark.branched American 

Willow.— S.caro/tn/diMMx. Fl. 
Bor. Amer., 8. pentandra 
Walt. Fl. Car.. S. vulgdris 
Clayt Fl. Vlrg. 

29. Humboldtiana - 764 

30. BonplandtaTui 764 

Group Till. FrinUidet B. 

Shrubs, moatly NatiTes of N. 
America, and used in Basket- 
making. 

31.rigidailfttAA - 764 

32. jorinoides Pursh 764 

33. discolor Miihi. 764 

34. angU8tataPur«A 764 

35. conformis Forbes 764 

Group ix. Griua Borrer. 

Chiefly Shruba, Natives of N. 
America. 

36. Tirfescens Forhet 765 
S. Yiippopha^blia Lodd. 



xliv 



CONTENTS. 



37. reflexa Forbes 765 

38. virffata Forbes 765 

39. Lyon» ? Schl. 765 

40. Houstoniana P. 765 
S. trlsUs Lodd. Cat. 1886. 

M,Mckt2LPursh - 765 

42. grisea Willd, - 765 

43. petiolaris Smith 765 
S. grisea Willd. var. ntb- 

glabrata Koch Comm. 

44. Dennsylv&nica -P.766 

45. Muhlenbergiana 766 

46. trfstis Ait. - 766 

47. cordatail/ttAi;-7i^.766 

Gr. I. KotmarinifbiuB Bor. 

Low Shrubs, with narrow- 
Leases. 

48. rosmarinifolia L. 766 

Sal. tosniarinifblia, partqf^ 
Koch Comm. 

49. anffustif61ia Borr.766 
S. arMisctiia Sm. Fl. Br., S. 

roimarin(/bU'a m Koch Comm. 

50. decdmbensForbesldd 
5\Au8cktSL Pursh - 766 

Group xi. Fu9c<B Borrer. 
Mostly procumbent Shrubs. 

52. fusca Ir. . 767 

S. repem Hook. Fl. Scot. ; S. 
repent Koch, pari qf, Koch 
Comm. 

1 vulgtLris - - 767 
S. /. far. • Hook. Br. Fl. 
S.J6tca Sm. Eng. Bot., 

Forbes iu Sal. Wob. 
S. ripens Koch, /3 Koch 
Comra. 

2 repens - - 767 
S./. var. /S Hook. Br. Fl. 
S. ripetu Lin. Spec PI., 

Forbes in SaL Wob. 

3 prostrata - 767 
S./. var. y Hook. Br. Fl. 
S. prostrtUa Sm. Eng. 

Bot.. Forbes In S.Wob 

4 foe'tida - - 767 
S./. var. i Hook. Br. Fl. 
S. foe'tida Sm. Eng. FL 

5 incubacea - 767 
S. /. 6 Hook. Br. Fl 
S. t'ncubdcea Lin. Sp. Pi. 

Forbes In Sal. Wob. 
6arg6ntea > - 767 
S./ 6 Hook. Br. Fl. 
S. argfntea Sm. Eng. Bot. 
Forbes in Sal. Wob. 

53. Dontana Smith 768 
7%e rmty-bramdud Willow. 

Group xiL Ambigute Bor. 
Shrubs. 

54. ambigua Ehrh, 768 
S. amhigva Koch, part qf, 

Koch Com. 

1 Tulgiris - - 768 
S. a. m, Borrer in Eng. Bot 
Suppl. 



2 m^'or - - 768 
S. a. fi m^for Borrer in 

Eng. Bot. Suppl. 
? S. ambiput filAook. 
S. ver$\fbUa Sering. 
SatUes de la Suisse. 

3 spathulata - 768 
S. a. yspathuldta Borrer 

In Eng. Bot. Suppl. 
S. ambigua y Hook. Br. 

Fl. 
S. JTNzMw/dlaWilld.Sp.PI. 

4 unduUta ... 769 
S. a. ) vnduldta Borr. in 

Eng. Bot 
S. tpathuUta Willd. var. 
undul^ta Mertens. 

55. finmarchica IV. 769 

56. versicolor F. - 769 

57. alatemoides F. 769 

58. protetsfoHa Sch. 769 
Erroneously referred to S. 

ambigua in Hook. Brit. Flor. 
ed. 2. (Borrer MSS.) 

Gr. xiii. Betieulita Bor. 

Leases reticulated and coria- 
ceous. 

59. reticulata L. - 769 

Group xiv. Glauca Bor. 

Small, upriffht, with soft silky 
Leases. 

60. eleeagnoides iScA. 770 

61. glauca/y. - 770 
S. appentUculdta Fl. Dan., 

WUld. Sp. PL 

62. serlcea VUlars 110 
S. glatica Koch Comm. 

63. Lapp^Dum L. 770 

S. arenAria Fl. Dan. 

64. obtusifolia^Ff7W.77J 

65. arenarial/. - 771 

66. obovata Pursh 111 
6f . canescens IVil/d. Ill 

68. Stuart?fl«a Sm. 771 

69. pyren^ica Gou. Ill 

70. WaIdsteinwnflW.771 



Gr. XV. Vimindles Bor. 

Willows and Osiers. — Mostly 
Trees or large Shrubs, with 
long pliant Branches, used 
for Basket-making. 

71. subalpina F, - 771 

72. Candida JViiid. Ill 

73. incana Schr. - 771 

S. rfpdria Willd. Sp. PI., S. 
\avandulajbiia Lapeyr. Ab., S. 
angustifblia Poir. in Du Ham. 
Arb., S. Tosmarinifblia Gouan 
Hort, S. vimin^s VilL Delph. 

74. linearis Forbes 112 
? S. htcdna var. linedris Bor- 
rer in a Letter. 

75. viminalis L. - 772 
The common Osier— S. ton- 

g^bUa Lam. FL Fr. 



76. stipulkris 5^jni/;& 773 
The auricled-leaTod Osier. 

77. SmithwHfl Willd. 772 

78. molMssima JB^r. 772 

79. holoserlcea Hk. 772 

80. MichelianffForb. 772 

81. ferruglnea And. 773 

82. acuminata Sm. 773 
The large-leaved Sallow 

S. lanceotdta Seringe. 

Group xvi. Cinerea Bor. 

Sallows. — Trees and Shrub*, 
with roundish shaggy Leasee, 
and thick Catkins. 

83. pdllida Forbes 773 
44. Willdenovwna 773 

85. Ponteder^na W. 773 

S. pimila tUp'ma nigricans^ 
folio oleagino serrato Ponted. 
Comp. ; S. PoniedirK Bellardi 
App. ad Fl. Fed. 

86. macrostipulkcea 77.3 

87. incanescens ^Sc. 773 

88. pannosa /br^ex 773 

89. mutabilisFor6ff776 

90. cinerea L. - 776 
The grey Sallow.— S. chterea 

var. Koch Coram. 

91. aquatica Smith 776 

92. oleifolia Smith - 776 

93. geminataFori. - 776 

94. crispa Forbes - 776 

95. aurita L. - 776 

96. latifolia Forbes 776 

97. caprea L. - - 776 

The great round-leaved Sal^ 
lowt common Black Sallote, 
Saugh in Yorkshire, Grew 

98. sphacelata Sm. 777 

Gr. xvii. Nigrieantes B. 

Shrubs with long Branches, or 
small Trees. Mostly Sallows. 

99. australis Forbes 778 

100. vaudensis For. 778 

101. ffrisophvlla F. 778 

102. lacustris Forb. 11% 

103. crassifdlia Frb. 778 

104. cotinifolia Sm. 778 
The Quince-leased Sallow. 

— S. spodicea Villars Dauph., 
S. pksflicifbliavar. Koch Comm. ^ 

105. hfrta Smith - 778 ? 
S.picla Schleicher is the fein. 

of S. hirta (Forbes in SaL Wob.) 

106. rivularis Forb. 778 

107. atropurpiirea 778 

108. coriicea Forb. 778 

109. nigricans 5wiiM 778 

S. pkylicifblia fi Lin. Sp Pl. 

110. Andersonidna 779 
The Green MounUin Sallow. 



CONTENTS. 



xlv 



— S. 



111. damascena F. 779 

S. damasctm^fiaa AadenoD'i 
MSS^ S. pt^lieifititt Lin. 

112. Ansoniana F. 779 

113. heiyetica i^of^. 779 

114. finna For6« 779 

115. carpinifolia&4. 779 

116. rotundata Frb, 779 

? &. raUmdOdHa BoaL 



117. dunFor^ 779 

118. Fomer»ziuzSm.779 

S. p/^Ue^i^tia «ar. Koch 



119. rup^trisi>(»in 781 

120. tenutfolia X. 781 

S. mUtaila Wahlenb., par. 
Kocfa Comm.. S. temmffiMa of 
Ea;. Bot. U S. Hcolor Ho^. 
BricFl 

121. propfoqua^or. 781 

WtUow. 



122. petne^a Ander. 781 

123. Ammanntonff 782 

124. atrovireDsFrft. 782 

125. strepida Jord. 782 

126. sdrdida Forbes 782 

127. Schleicfaenana 782 

128. grisoDensis F. 782 

Gr. rriiL Bieoidre» Bor. 

Biahy Shrafac, with licaTes 
gnat ibove nod giancoiu 

129. tenuior Borrer 782 

130. loxiAbn Borrer 782 

131. /aurina 5miM 783 
The ihiQing dsrfc-green Wil- 

lov.— S. Ueotor Sm. Eng. Boc., 
S. mritaemla Wahlenb., 9ar. 
KodiCoQun. 

132. patens Forbes 783 

133. radkraos Smith 783 
S. Tfiffiieifiiia Lin. FL Lapp. 

134. BorrerianaSm.783 
The dark ipr^kt WtOaio. 

135. Davalliana Sm. 783 

136. t^rapla SiMi 783 

137. raiDifuscaFord.783 

138. Forbesiona - 783 

139. Weigeliaaa Bor. 783 

140. nitens Anders. 784 

141. Croweona Smith784 
S. arMwsAi 'Wahlenb., var. 

Kodi CoBBm.; S. lAmSit SchL 
i* cited In Sal. Wob. ai the fern. 
tiS.CTWPfhuL Smiths ?S.Ar- 
ferspfl^HofiC. 

142. bfcolor J?ArA. 764 

S. iemmijoiia Smith Eng. Bot. 
•ilo the figure S. fiorOftnda 
Faih. 



143. phillyreifolia J9. 784 

144. DicksoiitaiiaSm.785 

Gr. xix. Vaoeimty32uB Bor. 

Small and generally procom. 
bent Shrubs. 

145. vacciniifolia W. 785 
S. prwH/UUa, port 4^. Koch 

Conam. 

146. carinata SmtA 785 
147./}runif61iai$mt/A 785 

148. Teoulosa Smth 785 

149. cse'sia TtiZarv 785 
S. mgriOmAa Wllld.Sp. PU 

S.prvMtrdAi Ehrh. Fl. Select. 

Gr. zx. MyrtmUfU B. 

Small Bilberry-like ihruba, not 
natives of Britain. 

150. mvrtilldides L, 786 
TheBilberry-leaTedWiUow 

Z.Uegaas Besser En. Vol. 

151. pediceilaris Ph. 786 

152. planifOlia Fh, 786 

Gr. xuLMyrWiilfu Borrer. 
Small bushy Shrubs. 

153. JkTyrsinites Ir. 787 

S. Vurshutn fi Smith Eng. 
il.;S. zrlutifoUa WlUd. Sp. 
PI., probably S. Macnab\ki\A 
Ma^aUvri^ in Jameton^tBdin. 
Fhi£joum. 

154. &etulifoliaFor6.787 

1 55. prociimbens jFbr.787 

S. WviM Hook. Br. Fl., S. 
retiua Wither. Bot. Arr. ed. 4. 

156. retiksa L. - 787 
S. lerpgUifdlia Jaoq. Aostr. 

157. Kitaibeliana W. 787 

158. TTva-urei Pursh 787 

159. ^erpyliifoliaiSco. 787 
S. retiua Koch, y Koch 

Comm. 

160. cordifoliaFurM 768 

Gr. xxii. Ilerbacea Borr. 

Very low Shrubs, scarcely rising 
an inch above the ground. 

161. herbacea L. - 788 

1 62. polaris Wahlenb. 788 

Gr. xxiiL Hastdta Borr. 

Low Shrubs, with verV broad 
leaves, and exceedingly shag- 
gy ana silky catkins. 

163. hast^ta Ir. - 788 

2 aemiUte - 789 
8. hattdta Wflld. Sp. PI. 

3 Malif51ia - 789 
malifdlia Sm. Eng. Bot. 

4 arbiiscula - 789 
S. arbtseula Wahl. Fl. 
S. arb6scvla fi L. Fl. Su. 
8. arbAtaUa y Lin.Sp.Pl. 



164. lan^ta L, - 789 

Gr. xxiv. d^seeildnem A. 

Kinds of SiUx described in Sat. 
JVob.f and not included in any 
of the preceding Groups. 

165. egyptiaca L. 789 

166. alpina Jor^ej 789 

1 67. berbcnms, Fall. 790 

168. tetrasp^rma R, 790 

169. tilmifolia Forbes 790 

170. viliosa For6<?f 790 

Gr. XXV. Afi«ce2Zdne« B. 

Kinds of SUU introduced, 
and of many of which there 
are Plants at Messrs. Lod- 
diges', but which we have not 
been able to refer to any of 
the preceding Groups - 790 

Appendix. 

Kinds of 5yix described or 
recorded in Botanical Works, 
but not introduced into Bri. 
tain, or not known by these 
names in British Gardens 790 

II. Po'puLUs Toum, 819 

The Poplar.— PffttpOtr. Fr.; 

Pappelt Uer.; Pioppo^ Ital. ; 

PopaeTt Dutch ; Aiamo, Span. 

1. 4Iba L. - - 819 

The Abele Tree.^P. diba la- 
tifblia Lob. Ic; P. m^or Mill. 
Diet.. P. nlwa Willd. Arb., P. 
dtba nhtra Mart. Mill. ; Lmki, 
DIoscorldes: the great tphite 
PoplftTj great Aspen^ Dutch 
Beech :Peuplter blanc, Yprfau, 
Blanc de UoUamde^ Franc Pi- 
eardt Fr.; Aubo^ or Aoubero^ in 
some provinces ; weiue Pap- 
pelf Silber Pappelj weiue Aape^ 
Weitsalber ftostm, Ger.; AbKUl- 
boom. Dutch. 

2h^bridaJ9u6. . 820 

P. a/&aBieb.Lc. 
? P. intermidia Mortens. 
P. a. erassffblia Mertens. 
P. grUea Lodd. Cat 
S acerifolia - . 820 
P. acenjblia Lodd Cat 
P. qverc^blia Hort. 
P. palmata Hort. 
P. arembifgiea, Lod.Cat. 
P. btlifica Lodd. Cat. 

4 dbidicana - - 820 
P. cSndicam Lodd. Cat. 
P. nivea Lodd. Cat. 

P. tomentb§a of the Ha- 
wick Nursery. 

The hoary Poplar of the 
Edinburgh Nurseries. 

5 sgypiiaca Hort. 820 
P. a. pdUida Hort. 
Egyptian vMte Poplar. 

6 pendula . 820 
P. a. var. grSeilis rdmis 

pendint&tu "Hertem. \ 

2.(a.) can^sceDs Sm. 820 

The common white Poplar 

P. a/fto MiU.Dlct.,P.-4/6a/W/»« 
mindribui Rail Syn., P. diba 
Jblio nUnbre Bauh. Hist. : Peu» 
plier grisaille, Fr. 



xlri 



CONTENTS. 



3. tr^mula Ir. - - 821 

The Aspen. — P. ftbyca Rail 
Sjn., P. kibrida Dod. Pempt.. 
P. nigra Trag. HI«t., P. p(n- 
dWa DuRoi: Aspe, UTrmUflg^ 
Fr. ; la Tremola, AtberaUa^ At- 
bereUo, Ital. ; Zitter-Pappel, 
Kspe^ Oer. 

2p6ndula - - 822 
P. phutula Lodd. Cat. 
P. supina Lodd. Cat. 

3 laevigata - - 822 
P. Uevigdia AltHort.Kew. 

4. (t.) tr^pida WUld, 822 

The American Aspen P. 

tremuioides Michx. N. Amer* 
SylT., N. Du Ham. 

5. (t.) grandidentata823 
The N. American largeAspen. 

2 p6ndula Michx. - 823 

6. grss'ca Ait. - - 823 
The Athenian Poplar. 

7. nigra L. • - 824 

The common black Poplar 

P. Stba Tng. Hist.. P. viminea 
Du Ham. Arb.. P. vi»tul6nsU 
Hort., P. pol&niea Hort. : Ai- 

feiros, Greek ; KabakL Modern 
ireek: tAe oU English Poplar^ 
Suflblk; the WtUow Poplar, 
Cambridgeshire ; Water Pop- 
lar i the fem. of P. nigra Is 
odled the Cotton Tree at Bury 
St. Edmunds : PeupUer not'r, 
Peuplier Uard, Otter Blanc,Fr., 
Kkwane Popped Ger. 

2 yiridig LindL - 824 
• P. vlrncfM Lodd. Cat. 

8. (? n.) canadensis 824 

P. knigita Wllld. Sp. PI., 
Pursh, Spreng., but not of 
Hort. Kew.; P.monil^fera Hort 
Par. : CotlOH-teood, Mlchz. : 
PeupUer de Canada, Fr. 

9. (? n.) Aetulifblia - 825 

P. fij^ra Michx. Fl. Bor. 
Am. ; r.hudUnica Mich. Arb., 
N. Amer. Syl. ; P. hndsoniUna 
Bosc & Lodd. : Amtrican black 
Poplar, Amer. : PeupUer de la 
Bate d* Hudson^ Fr. 

10. (?n.)inomKfera 825 

The black Italian Poplar. — 
P. virginiina Lin. Ac, P. 
glandwdta Mcench Meth., P. 
earoliniruis MoenchWeissenst., 
P. nigra itdUea Lodd. C^. 1836. 
P. nigra ameridtna Ibid., P. 
adad6$ca Lindl. inEn^c. of PI., 
? P. marplindiea Bosc : Vir- 
ginian Poplar, SuHu Poplar, 
Canadian or Berry-bearingPop. 
lar. Mill.; PeupUer Suisu, Pen. 
plier tnphilon, PeupUer de 
Firginie, Dumont. 

2 Lindley<2na Booth 826 
ne new waeed-leawedPop' 

tar, Hort. 

3 foUis variegatis - 826 

fl.fastigiktai)«/ - 827 
The Lombardy Poplar.— P. 
dilaidta- Ait. Hort. Kew., P. 
nigra it&lica Du Rot Harbk., 
P. itnUca Mcrnch Weissenst., 
P. itdlica dilatdta Wllld., P. 
pyramidala Hort.. P. pa»n6' 
MiieaJaoq., P. italiea var. cm- I 



roUnfneig Burgsdorf ; Cjfpreu 
Poplar, TurinPoplar, Po Pop- 
lar: PeHplierd'ItaUe, Pevpl&r 
Pfframidid, Fr. ; Lombardische 
Pappel, italianisehe Pappel, 
Ger. i Pioppo Cypresso, Ital. 

12. angullita^i/. - 828 
The Carolina Poplar. — P. 

angtUdsa Michx. FI.lTor. Amer., 
P. helerophftla Du Rol Harbk., 
P. maerophuUa Lodd. Cat. 1886, 
P. balsamtfera Mill. Diet. : Mit- 
siseippi Cotton TVef, Amer. 
2 n6va Audih. - - 828 
S Medikstf Booth - 828 

13. heterophylla L. 829 

P. m6gnaJbUi»&mpli$,tic., 
Gron. Virg., Y.cordifblia Burgs- 
dorf, Lod. Cat. 1 836 ; P. argintea 
Michx. N. Amer. Syl. : Cotton 
Tree, Michx. N. Amer. SyU 

14. balsamffera L. - 830 

The Tacamahac Tree. — P. 
Tacamahie MiU. Diet : the 
Tacamahac, Amer. ; le Sou- 
mier, Fr. ; PeupUer Uard, and 
also Tacamahac, in Canada; 
BaUam Papoel, Ger. 

2 viminalis - - 830 
P. vimindUe Lodd. Cat 

P. udicifblia Hort. 

P. longifbUa Fischer, Pall. 

3 latifolia HorL - 8.^ 

4 interm^a Hort. 830 

5 suaveolens - 830 
P. ncov^olnuFischer, Lod. 

6 foliis variegatis - 830 

15. candicans AH, - 831 

The Onurio Poplar. — P. 
macrophplla Lindl. in Bncyc. 
of PI., P. latifbUaMcenchMeQi., 
P. oniarHnMif DesC Hort. Par., 
P. eorddta Lodd. Cat. 1836, P. 
canadhuia Mcench Weissenst., 
but not of Michx., which is P. 
Iserigkta Willd.: Balm qf Gi- 
lead Tree, Boston, N. Amer. ; 
PeupUer Hard, Canada; Peu- 
pUer d FeuiUe$ vemisMiee, Fr. 

3ettddceis. 
I. A\vvB Toum, - 832 

The Alder, ^B^<h/^ specie* 
Lin. : Atine, Ft. ; Brie, Ger.j 
Ontano, Ital. ; Alieo, Spaa 

1. glutinosa Gcertn, 832 

lUttUus A'lnus Lin., B. emar- 
gindta Ehrh. Arb. : A'Atiis Rail 
Syn. : Aune, Fr. ; gemeine Else, 
or Elser, or sehwartx Erie, Oer. ; 
Elsenboimt, Dutch ; Alno, or 
Ontano, Ital. ; AUso, or Alamo 
n^ro. Span. 

2 einarginita WiOd. 832 

3 laciniata Ait - 832 
A. g. incUa Hort. 

4 ^ercifdlia JftOd. 832 

5 oxyacantheefolia - 832 
A. QXffoeanth^^fbUa Lodd. 

6 macrocirpa • 833 
A. maerocarpa Lod. Cat. 

7 foliis variegatis H. 833 

Other VarteUei - 



2. oblongata WUld. - 834 

A*lnu$Jbl. ohUmg, ^., Bauh. ; 
A./bl. 09dU>4anceoL, ic. MilL 
Diet. : langUche Else, Ger. 
2 foliis ellipticis Ait. 854 

A. pkmila Lodd. Cat 

a incana WiUd. - 834 

B. A'lnus 9or. incdma L4n. 

Sp. PL, B. ine^na Lhi. Sappl., 

B. 9iridit Vill. Dauph. : tpergae 

Srle,grame Else, or weieaeEUer, 

Ger. 

2 laciniita Lod. C. 834 

Sglaiica - - 834 
A.^/Mea Mx.N. Amer. S. 

B. tnedna «ar. glaica Ait. 
Black Alder, Amer. 

4 angulata Ait •834 
Other Varieties - -834 

4. serniliLta WUid. - 835 

BftuUt serruldta Ait. Hort. 
Kew., B. rug^sa Ehrh. Beitr., 
? A. americdna Lod. Cat. 1836, 
?A. canadensis Lodd. Cat.l83i6.: 
common Alder ^ Amer.; Uaaei- 
leased Alder. 

5. undulata WiUd, - 835 

hihda crispa Alt Hort. 
Kew., B. A'lnus ear. crispa 
Mx. Fl. Bor. Amer. ; A. crina 
Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept, N. JDn 
Ham. 

6. cordifolia Lodd. - 835 

A. eorddta Tenore Prod., 
Hayne Dend. 

7. viridis Dec. - - 836 

A. ovdta Lodd. Bot. Cab.. A. 
frutiebsa Schmidt, V^Udaovdua 
Schrank Sal., B. k*lno-^tuim 
Ehrh. Beytr., B. virMtr Hort. 

Other Species qf A'lnus. — A. 
barbilta Meyer. (A. obiusi* 
JbUa Royle), A. subcordata 
Meyer, J. jorrullinsls, A. 
acumin&U S. ^ B., A. cm- 
taneifdlia Jlfird. - -837 

II. J?e'tula Toum. 837 
The Birch. — Bouleau. Pr. ; 
Betula, lUl.; Abedul, Span.; 
BetuUa, Port. ; Birke, Ger.; 
Berk, Docch ; Birk, Danish 
and Scotch ; Biork, or Bork, 
Swedish : Beresa, Russian ; 
Brwaa, Polish. 

Leaves smaU. Natives cki^y 
qf Europe. 

1. &lba Zr. - - 838 

B. pubisoens Ehrh. Arb., B^. 
tula Rail Syn., B. tetnhtsis 
Rafin. : Bomleau eommun, Fr. ; 

Iemeine Birke,. Ger. ; Bedolio, 
tal. 

2 pdndula Smith - 838 
B. pfndula Roth Germ. 
B. verrucdsa Ehrh. Arb. 
B phtdulis virguUs Loea . 

3 pub^scens - - 838 
"A.^mbescens Ehrh. Beitr. 

4 pontica - - 838 
B. p6nttea Lod. Cat. 

5 ttrticifolia - - 839 
B. urtie(fbUa ImA. Cat. 

6 dalec&rlicaL. Sup. 8.*)9 

7 maeroc4rpa fTiUd. 839 



CONTENTS. 



xlvii 



8 loliis vmriegitis - 8S9 

Other FarieHa • «a9 

1 (?a.) dsauioi PaU. 840 

B. ncHMm etiumi^miit Wang. 
Brier.: Bomlemt Stbfirie, Fr. 
2parvifdl]a Mmfwe 840 

3. (? a.){ruticd9a PaU. 840 

& MlwflBt Scbraak Sal., B. 
fi^fttarfiiiiif Schrank der Ge- 
•eOs. Kaoirf. Freunde. 

i.(?ii)piimibiZ.. - 840 

B. mtma Kalm Ilin. 



5. nana L, - - 840 

B. mimaSmecdrmm Bromel. 
OiLGoch., B. pat6airi» pkmil^ 
#e. Celt. Act. Suae 

2 strkU Lodd, Cat. 841 

6X?ii.)giai)duldsa^f.841 

tew: NaUwtt^Kartk 
Ax 



7. populifblia ^1^.-841 

t.temminiUL Ehrb. Bdtr., 
B. VbOa Dq Rci Harb. Bainn.: 
mUir iMrc*. aea CH<fldtf Dlfrdb, 



Skdniata - - 841 
B. looteBdXa Lodd. Cttt. 

3 p^dula - - 841 
B.»aidSMiB Lodd. Cat 



8.pepyrM:ea AU^ - 842 

». pMar^craMichx. Fl. Bor. 
Br., B. teacenlcrfa Hort., B. 
LodcL Cat. 1836, B. ea- 
Lodd. Cat., B. lAgra 
of the ftrfc Noncfiea : Cmtot 
Badk, Wme Bircky^jnia.\ Be- 
tmbdmCarla, Ital. 

Sfiifca - - 842 

B. ftaea Boac. 

3 triehodada HorL 84S 

4 pbtjrphyUa Hart. 843 

9. nigrB L. - - 843 

B. Immul^ta Mlcfax. FL Bor. 
iteer., ? B. r»ra Miehx. .4rb.. 
B. amtito Lodd. Cat 1836: 
Med SmJk, Amcr.; Beimla 4a 
Cameo, luL 

ia excelaa /f. JTcto. 843 

R, naea Ifichx. M. Amer. 
Sri. - ? B. mkgra Du Rol Hwb., 
B»aD. : Yettnv Birch, Amer. 

H.leDtaL. - -844 

B. car;pm^|ldlta Ebrfa. BeiCr., 
B. i^cnB Du Hoi Harb.. under 
both &CSC Dane*, and alao tbat 
at B. tfi^ In Lodd. Collection : 
ml. Cherni Birek, Ca- 
\ Birotf Sweet BtTch, Uotnt^ 
Mmhagmma, Amer. ; Bou- 
JfMier.Tr.; Betula delta 
r«yMM, ItaL 

Specie* qfBdmia matpelintrO' 
Oaeed^B. BMpgltra Wall.. 
B. oeamhAu WM^ B. nitida, 
JL cjrlfodroMAcbja - M5 

CaryldceiE, or Cupu- 

UfertB. 
1. Qri Rccs i. - 846 

Tbe €ML^ri0Toiini.,8Mer 



Team.: Berto , Olttc ; Aaaek^ 
or Ac, SaxMD ; JA Aion^t Al- 
JMt, Hebrew ; Dnu, Greek ; 
CkSne. Fr.; Eiehe, Ger.; Bit, 
Dutcb ; <2tirraL0, Ital.; Endmi, 
Span. 

A. I^eaieet dedaaoae. 

A. Nattpea <^ Europe. 

5 L Rdbur. JBritithOakt. 

1. pedunculatafKi//^ 849 
Tbe common Brltiib Oak. — 
Q. RM«rLin.Sp.Fl.,En(. Bot.; 
Q. B. peduacmidtmm Malt. FL 
Rust.; Q./e/mina Roth Ger.; 
Q. raermdM N. Du Ham.; Q. 
^bn /tfnfo pedtfiac. Batib. Pin. ; 
Q. HiiNcruDalecb.HUt.;Qitfr. 
cos Fucbs : Hiat.; Q. naodk's 
Hornet : WkiteOak, Chhie blanc 
Sacondat ; Ckimepfdonculi, ou 
d Grapnes,ChtnefemelU^ Grave- 
Un, Fr.; Slid Eicke,/rUh Eieke, 
Thai Eieke, Lohe Eieke, fVatd 
Eieke, Ger.; EecMo^ Quereia 
gen^ie,ltal,;EnGina robie. Span. 

2 pub^scens Lod. C. 849 

S fastigiata - - 849 
Q. Jaetigikia Lam. 
^.jMramidklie HorL 
CI«M« dee Pyrin^, Fr. 

4p^dula - - 849 
Q.olnAito Lodd. Cat. 
Tke l^eeping (Xtk. 

5 beterophfila - 851 
Q. uOicifiMa Hort. 

Q. ladnidta Lodd. Cat. 
Q. iil^iptlia Hort. 
Q. Femiiit\ Hort. 

6 ^liis variegitia - 85 1 

7 purpikrea - -851 
Q. purpkrea Lodd. Cat. 



OOrr Varieties 



851 



2. aessiliflora i&r/. - 851 

Q. Rafrar WlUd.; Q. R. var. 
stesOe Hart. Fl. Ru»U;Q.$istUia 
Ehrb. Arb. ; Q. platuphuUoe, 
Huu e^/o»M.Dalecb. Hlst.iQia- 
lifrafia mot, dc, Baub. Fin., 
RaU Sjn,i Q. r^d/u Burnet ; 
? Q. owfrdlu Cook, Q. nunmi- 
Sera, tke Maana Oak, Lindl. 
Bot. Reff.; Q. mongdlica Ibid, 
and Gard. Chron.: Ae Red Oak, 
Ckestnat Oak, Bag Oak: Ckine 
male, Secondat, Ckine rtmre or 
roaare, Dwrelin,FT.;StetnEicke, 
ge rneim Eieke, spat Eieke, H in- 
ter Eieke, dUr Eteke, rotk Eieke, 
Berg Eidke, Ger.; Quereia vera 
and Qmera'a eommmne, Ital.; 
KoUe, Span. 

2 puMscens - - 852 
Q. $. uar.fi Smith Eng. Fl. 
Q.ptAiscen* WUld. I^.n. 
Q. R. I^mugindeum Lam. 
Tke Durpuut, Mart. 

3 Tnacroc4rpa - - 852 
Q. RMur macro ci rpum 

Booth. 

4 falkenberg^nsis - 852 
Q.falkenberghuis Booth, 

FVirbes Hort. Tour. 

5 australis - - 852 
Q. austrdlii Link. 

Otker Varietiei - • 85S 

d.pvrenkica WiUd. 853 

4. TaAaln /'w*., Q. n^gra 
TboreChior^ Q. Tdta Boec, 



Q. cloftNiMrra Laaajr., Q. <o- 
aMM<d«a Dec.: CAene moA', Se> 
Gondat ; CkhteUamam, Fr. 

4. JETscuIus L. - 853 

The Italian Oak.~PAdg«# 
^UMtue, mat et fiem. Dalecb. 
Hl«t.GUii«^0e. Fr. 

5. (J?.) apenninaL. 854 

Q. eom^amerdla Pert. : CA^jte 
AjpcriMc*, f r. 

§ ii C4rru. Mouy-eupped, 
or Turkey, OaJu. 

6. Cdrris JL. - - 854 

0- crmi/a c and j8 Lam. 
Diet., Q. Httinkka'ot Jum. in 
Hort. Par., <i. tenrmK/uica, 
dv., Baub. Pin. ; Q. Ctrrie 
P/mii, &e., Lo6. ia. Dad. 
Pempt., Oer. Emae. ; Cirrue 
Dalecb. Hist. : ike Turkey Oak, 
tke Iron, at Wameoot, Oak: 
Ckhu CerriM, Ckine ckevetu^ 
Ckine de Bourgogne, Fr. ; Bur- 
gundiacke Eieke, Cerr-eicke, 
Ger.: Cerro Gkiatuie amare, 
Ital. 

Varietie*. 

* FoU^e deeiduoue. 

a. Leaves pinnat\ftd or 
ttnuated. Cups iff tke 
Acoms mossy. 

1 vulgarb - - 855 
Q. Ctrrit fl'ondbsa MUL 

Diet 
Q. crinita var. i Lam. 
Q. Toumr/drtH fViltd. 
Q. orient4iis latiflUia, tfc., 

Tourn. Cor. 
Q. Cirris OIW. Yoy. 
Q. Ha/teA/or^M Bom:. 

2 p^ndula SeiU^ . 856 

3 laciniata - * - 856 

4 varieg&ta Lod, C 856 

b. Leaves dentate. Cups (/ 

<A0 Acoms kristiy. 

5 austriaca - - 856 
Q. austriaca Willd. 

Q. Cirris Host Sjn., » 

and fi. 
Q. crinita y Cfrris Lla. 
Q. cdfyof ktspido, |rc., Bau. 

6 cana inajur - 857 
Q. cdna fn4/or Lod. Cat. 

7 cana minor - 857 
Q. cdna minor Lod. Cat 

8 K^nal . . 857 
Q. BAgnal Lod Cat. 

** FoUage sub-evergreen. 
Leaves dentate. Acoms 
uriik bristly Cups. 

9 fulhaxn^nsis - 858 
Q. C. denidta Wati. 

Q. C. k^brida var. den- 
tdta Swt. 

10 latifdlia HorL . 859 

11 Lucombedna - 859 
Q. LwoomMtna Svt. 

Q. esoniinsfs Lod. Cat. 

Tke Lucombe Oak, tke 
Evergreen Turkey Vak, 
tke Devonskire Oak, tke 
EaeterOak. 



xlviii 



CONTENTS. 



•*• Foliage evergreen^ or 
very nearly to. Leana 
varying from dentate to 
Minnate. Cups of the 
Acorns brisUy, 

12 L. crispa - 859 
Q. !>. crispa Hort. 
New Luoombe Oak. 

13 L. suberosa - 859 
Q. L. suberdsa Hort. 

14 L. incisa - 859 
Q. L. indsa Hort. 

15 L. dentata - 859 
Q. L. denidta Hort. 

16 heterophylla . 859 
Q. L. keteropkJfUa Hort. 

7. -^eilopslr. - 860 

The Valonla Oak.— Q. orien- 
tiUis,Scc., Tourn. Cor.; JE'gilms 
sive Cirrus mas C. Baumn, 
Secondat; Velknl Toum^Voy.; 
GlSns CSrri Dalech. HUt. : the 
great pricUy-cwpped Oak ; 
Chine Felam, Fr. ; Chine Ve- 
lanide Bmc ; Knovper Eiche, 
Ger. i Vattonea^ ItaJ. 

2 p^ndula Hort, - 860 

S latifolia Hort, . 860 

D. Natives qf North America. 

§ iii. AVhb. White Ameri- 
cat^ Oaks. 

8. alba L. - - 862 

Q. alba virginidna Park. 
Theat. Bot, Q. a. pinnat\flda 
Walt. Carol., Q. paHistris 
Marsh : Chine blanc de PAmi- 
riquct FT. ; weisse Etcher Ger. 

1 pinnatlfida Mx. 862 
Q. Alba Ban. Cat. Stlrp. 
Q. vii^inidna Cate«b. Car. 
Q. a. paltislris Marsh. 

2 rep&ida Michx. 862 

9. (a.) olivsformis 864 

The mossy-cupped Oak, Amer. 

10. macrocarpa W. 864 

The over-cup white Oaky Bur 
Oaky Amer. ; Chine 3 gros 
OianSt Chine frisS, Fr. ; grou- 
fruchtige Eiche, Ger. 

1 1. obtusiloba Mx. 865 
The Poit Oak — Q. tteUdta 

Wind. Sp. PI. : Iron Oak, Box 
white Oak, American Turkey 
Oak, Upland white Oak, Amer. 

12. lyrata Walt. - 865 
Tke Swamp Post Oak, Water 

white Oak, Amer. 

> 
§ iv. PrtniM. Chestnut 

Oaks, 

13. PrJnus L, - 866 

The Chettnut-leaved Oak. 

1 paKistris Mx, - 866 
Q. P.0a/l2ffrAMx. 
Q. Prlnus Lln. Sp. PI. 
Q. castane^rfdlUs, &e., Pk. 
7^ Swamp Chestnut Oak, 

the Chestnut white Oak, 
Amer. ; the white Oak, 
near Philadelphia. 

2 monticola Mx. - 866 
Q. P. montUxIa Mich. fU. 



Q. mm/dna WiUd. Sp. Pi. 
Q. Pfhiitf Smith in Abb. 
The Rock Chestnut Oak. 
S acuminilta Mx, - 867 
Q. P. acumindta Mx. fil. 
Q. Castitnea WUld. Sp. PI. 
The yellow Oak. 

4 piimila Mx. - 867 
Q. P. Chinquapin Mx. 
Q. Chinquapin Pnrsh Ft. 
Q. prinbutes WlUd. Sp. PI. 
The Chinquapin, or Dwarf 

Chestmu Oak. 

5 tomentosa Mx, - 868 
Q. P. discolor Mx. 
Q. bicolor Willd. Sp. PI. 
Q. Micha&xM Nutt. 
The Swamp white Oak. 

§ ▼. Rilbra. Red Ameru 
can Oaks, 

14. rubra L. ^ - 868 

The Champion Oak. — Q. 
F/sculi diviskra, Ac. Pluk. 
Phjt. 

Varieties. Q. riibra latifblla 
and Q. riibra montina are 
mentioned by Alton in the 
Sd ed. of Hort. Kew. 

15. coccfnea WUld, 869 
Q. rVn-a p Alt. 

16. ambfgua Willd. 870 

The Grey Oak.— Q. boredlis 
Michx. N. Amer. Syl. 

17. falc^ta Michx, 870 
The Spanlih Oak. — Q.dff- 

color Alt. Hort. Kew. ed. 1.; Q. 
elongdta WUld. Sp. PI. ; Q. /«. 
rita Lodd. Cat. 1836 : Q. cu~ 
neiUa Wang. 5 Q. trVoia Willd., 
Michx. Quer. : thedowny^aved 
Oak. 

18. tinctoria ITOW. - 871 

The Quercitron. — Q. v/r- 
ginidna, &c., Pluk. Phyt. ; Q. 
discolor W^illd. Arb. : /A« fttocifc 
Oair, Amer. ; Chine des Tein- 
turiers, Fr. 

1 angulosa Michx. 871 
Q. americdna Pluk. Aim. 
Q. velutina Lam. Diet. 
Q. tinctbria Bart. Trar. 
TV Chainplain Oak. 

2 sinuosa AftcAx. - 872 

19. palustris ^i^.- 872 

The Pin Oak. — Q. montdna 
Lodd. Cat. 1886, Q Banisteri 
Lodd. Cat. 1836. 

20. Catesb^E^i Willd. 873 

The Barren Scrub Oak Q. 

rW>ra fi Abb. & Smith Ins., Q. 
E'sculi divisiira, ^., Cat Car. 

$ vi. Niffra, Black 
American Oaks. 



21. nigra L. - - 874 

The Black Jack Oak. — Q. 
maryldndica, ^c. Rail ; Q.fer- 
ruginea Michx. N. Amer. Syl. ; 
Q. aqudtica Lodd. Cat. 1886 : 
Barren Oak, Amer. 

22. aquatica Soland, 875 
Q. foiiis euneffSmtOnu, dc, 

Gron. Vir«.s Q. fdlio non ser- 
rdio, Iv., Cat. Carol ; Q. nigra 



WlUd. Sp. PL, Q. ul^iMsa 
Wangh. Amer. 

2 nana - - ^ - 875 
Q. agudtica Sm. & Abb. 
Q. a. elongdta Ait. H. K. 
Q. dentata Bart. Trav. 
Q. ndna WiUd. Sp. PL 
The Dwarf Jagged Oak. 

S maritima Michx. 875 
Q. hemisph^rica Willd. 

Other Varieties - - sr& 

23. (a.) ilicifblia W. 876 

The Bear Oak. — Q. Btsnis- 
teri Michx., ? Q. aquatica Abb. 
ft Sm. Ins. : Black Scrub Oak, 
Dwarf red Oak, Amer. 

$TiL Vhilhs. WUUno 
Oaks. 

24. Ph^llos L. - 876 

Q. vhginidna, 4^., Pluk. 
Aim. ; Q. Vlex maryldndica 
Rail Hist. PI. 

1 sylv&ticas Michx. 877 

2 latifolius Lodd, C. 877 

3 hikmilis Pursh - 877 

4 serioeus • - 877 
Q. VhiUosSm.StA^. Ins. 
Q. P. pkmilHS Michx. 
Q. humilior saltcis fdlio 

brevidre Cat. Car. 
Q. sericea Willd. Sp. PI. 
Q. pitnuta Mx. N. Am. Syl. 
The Highland Willow Oak. 
The running Oak, 

5 cinereus - - 877 
Q. P. y. Liu. Sp. PI. 
Q. P. ^Cfn^reus Alt. H. K. 
Q. hkmilis Walt. Carol. 
Q.cm^io Willd. Sp. PI. 
The upland Willow Oak. 

6 maritimus Michx. 878 
Q. maritima WUld. Sp. PL 

as. (P.) feurifolia jr. 878 

The Laurel Oak, Swamp Wil- 
low Oak. 

2 h^brida Mx. Qwer. 878 
Q. L2.oMitfatoAltH.K. 

26. imbricata »^iW. 879 

Q. latifblia Hort.: Laurel 
Oak, FUed-cup Oak, Jack Oak, 
Black Jack Oak, Amer. : Chine 
a Lattes, Fr. 

27. heterophylla M, 879 

Bartram*s Oak. 

Other Speaes (tf ThfUos. — Q. 
agrlfdlia Willd. (? Q. coe- 
e^era) . . . . 879 

B. Leaves evergreen. 
A. Natives ofrEurope. 

§ viii, VUx, Holm, or 
Holfy, Oaks. 

28. /lex L. ~ . 880 

The common evergreen OaJc. 
— Vlex arbdrea Bauh. Hist. : 
FYeuse, or CAase vert, Fr. s 
Stein Eiche, Ger. ; Elice, Ital. • 
Encina, Span. 

1 integrifoUaZ<N2. C.880 

2 serratifolia Lod. C.880 



CONTENTS. 



xlix 



S^ifolm Lmid^C. 880 

PkJiodrW* M^tth. Valgr. 
TlaNo. %. Du Ham. Arb. 

4 erfspa Lod, CaL 880 

5 Utifolia Lod. CaL 880 
Q. I. o«tfiv» Hort. 

6 longildUA XodL C. 880 
Q. I. MtfcffUat Sort. 

7 variegata i9br<. - 880 

S9. (/.) ^oiZdto Des. 882 

?Tla puffBT am. HiK.: 
Cktme A Gfairf* dew, Ohnir 
JUbU, Ft. 

30. (/.^.)g™u^tia882 

4£^ Xa^n. Monap. : CMene de 
tirmmmomL Fr. ; ITKImWal. 
thge Eieke, Ger. ; factea dmtee, 
aad Geatfte, Spaa. 

2 Cookt't - - 883 
Q. CSirfiil ifr*. Brit. ltt«d. 

31. coccifera X. - 883 

Tbe Kennes Oak. — ritr coc 
c^fcra Cka. Bpit., I. memiedta 
fera Garid. Aix.. I. 
Ger. Emac: Ckfme 
Ft. ; Xmnes 
Aefe, Ger. ; Qmerce det Xer^ 
«Ma.ttaL 

32. peeodo-coccffera 883 

Siole, Ger. 



« yaacr Kermes, Ft. ; 



33. S&ber Ir. - - 884 

SUcr Cam. Eptit^ S. Prtna* 

Mattk. V«Igr., S. UUffUrum, 

tc^ Da Ham. Art>.: Ohear 

Xjqpe, Fr. ; Xork Eicke, C^er. ; 

ftwra, luL ; JlR9rH09ae, 8p. 

Sbdloliinn- - 884 

iikerlstifdiham, ^r., Bau. 

S angusdfolium - 884 

Sai. amguaH/dlhan Baah. 

4dtntatuin - - 884 

Q. i*M&d(»-Sikter Hort. 

34. Pseudo-^kiber D. 885 

Odv >itr Liegr, Chine de 
GArater, Fr. : Unadue Xork- 
£*eke, Ger.: Q. T6meri Bote, 
from a leaf receivtil by him 
framKev.DotofWflld. 
S Fontan^ttt • - 885 
Q. Aafineitt Guss. 

35. Tarnen Wilid. 886 
a k^brida Host. : Gl^ar de 

TrnmeTj Fr. ; Tkracradbe Eteke, 
Ger. 

3& b^brida nana • 886 

Q.tghrida Lodd. Cat. 1836; 
Q. "« iyAritf betweem Q. p^ 
tfMAtf te Mtf Q. rirjr in Hort. 
Sot. Card." ; Q. ManiUt Hort., 
Q.acjMllo(t. 



a. JTafltoev efJhrtk Ameriea. 
fix. Fir^tfct. LiveOaiM. 

37.Tireosili/. - 886 

Tte Live Oak.— Q. FkiOoe 

^Ua. 8p. PL, Q. sempervirent 

Mtcr. Q. kemiepkte'riea Br. 

». vjitifdlia WiUd. 887 



c. yati9esitf Nepal. 

$ X. Latuttm. WooOy or 
dovny-teaved Oaks, 

39. lanata 5mttt - 888 
Q. UmmgimieaD. Don Prod., 

FL Nen. ; ? Q. B4i:^a Ham. 
MSS., ? Q. oNongdia D. Don, 
L c. ; ? Q. tmedna Royle lUusL 

40. annulata Smith 888 

Q. PbullkU fitfM. MSS., D. 
Dam Prod. Ft. Nep. ; ? Q. iCam. 
ro^i D.J)(m,l.e. i ?Q. gim6ca 
Thunb., ?Q. acam/»ato Hort. 

App. L European ISnds 
of Oaks not yet intro- 
duced. 



889 



Q.fkfginUi Lam. 

Q. mgOamifiiUa WDId. 
Q. 4^IopiAlla Pere. Syn. 

Q. kupdmiea fi Lam. 
Q. Br6s$a Bote . • 8^) 

CAeiK Broete at Xantet; 
CSIAir fwiAi.BonamL 
Q. TiminAlli J?afC - .889 

CftAitf $atii^, ClbdK Of iVr, 
rA^«<tf«lbi, Fr. 
Q. itipera Bote 

C/tcne dprct Fr. 
Chfaie Lexermien, Bote 
Cbtae CastUlan, A«e - 



Other Species Q. loritinlca 

Lam., C{. jw&itna Pers., Q. 
CAljciuA roir., Q. expfnu 
Poir., 0> rotwidlfdUa Lam., 
and C2. bdmlUf Lam. . 880 

App. ii. Oakt of Africa, 
A»a Minor, and Persia, 
only partiaUy introduced. 

Q. obt^cu Poir. Diet. - 890 

a.\o.Uttux\A0U9. Vou. -890 

^.eariinsis Wiltd.: Chene 

a GaUes,FT. ; FdrberBiehe, 

Ger. 

Q. Libini Olrr.. Q. rfsidalKiZltf., 

Q. ib^rica Stev., Q. castanei- 

fblia C. A. Meyer, and Q. 

monir6Uca Fisth., are do 

•cribed in onr Itt edit. - 800 

Q. mannlfeta Limdl.Bot. B. 890 

Q. r^a Lindl. BoL Beg. 891 

Q. BriaUi Lindl. Bot Reg. 891 

App. iii. Himalayan Oaks 
only partiaUy introduced. 

Q. spidUa Smith inRees'sC. 891 
Q. «7tMniMita Box. Hort. 

Beng. 
Q. A'rcttla fliom. MSS. 
Q. obtusifMia 2>. Don, Q. gran- 
dif5Ua D. Don, and Q. velu- 
tlna Lindl., are described in 
our lit ed. - - - 892 
<2. lamellbca Smith - ■ 892 
Q. imbrieata Ham. MSS., 
D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep. 
Q. temecarpifdlte ANtfA. 898 

App. iv. Oaks of Japan, 
CoeJdn^Oiina, ^ China, 
most of which have not 
yet bem introduced, 

Q. gUbra Tkmnb. - - 898 

Q. conc^ntrica Lour., Q. actta 

nm^., Q. lerrita Thnnb., 

c 



<2. gtetica TKim^., <2> coral- 
dkta Thunb., Q. Uent&a 
Thunb,, Q. oborita Bunge, 
and & chintesis Bnnge, are 
detcribed in our 1st ed. - 89S 

App. T. Otdks of Java, Su- 
matra, and the Molucca 
Isles, not yet introduced. 

Q. tundiiea Biume Fl. Jam. 88t 

TheSunda Oak. 
Q. pruinbta Biume Fl. Jav. 894 

The frosty Oak. 

Q. anguttita Blume FL Joe. 894 

Q. pillida Blume Ft. Jaw. - 895 

Q. coft4ta Biume Ft. Jav. 89S 

Q. rotundilta Blume Fl Jaw. 806 

Q. §legans Biume Fl. Jav. 896 

Q. placentiria BlMmeF^.Jav.90S 

Q. glaberrimaiUMawF/. Jav. 896 

Q. plMjckrpABiume Fl. Jav. 896 

Q. dxf^n6\detiHiwneFt.Jav.9S7 

Q. racem5ta Hi»ok. in Comp. 

B. Mofi., Q. grmetllfl6ra 

Bbtme Fl. Jav., Q. icdilU 

Bluvie Fl. Jav., Q. urceo- 

ULris Hook., and Q. Psetxdo- 

moldcca Blume Ft. Jav., arc 

detcribed in our lit cd. - 898 

Q. moMcca Blume Fl. Jav. 808 

U. turblnilta Blume Fl. Jav. 898 

U. lineiU Blume Fl. Jav. - 898 

App. vi. Mexican Oaks 
ady partiaUy introduced, 

Q. zaiapfinsis Humb.iJiBon. 898 

U. g\uacb»CKn»Hwni.i[Bon. 899 

Q. obtuflftta Humb. if Bun. 81i9 

tt. pandurdta Humb.^ Bon. 899 

Q. repAnda HunU>. 4r B^fn. 900 

ti. /k<irina Humb. A Bonpl. 900 

d slderdxyla Humb. i[ Ban. 900 

Q. mexictoa Humb. 9[ Bon. 901 

Q. crisalpes Humb. h Bon. 901 

U. cr£aaipeB angustilbUa //. 901 

Q. lanceoliu Humb. tf Bon. 901 

Q. reticuUu Humh. J^ Bon. 902 

Q. cbrysopbtlta Hunt. & B. 902 

Q. pulchella Humb. & Bon. 902 

Q. spickta Humb. & Bon. 902 

1^. silpuUria Humb. ^ Bon. 902 

Q. crataifblia Humb.^ Bon. 903 

Q. depressa Humb. A Bon. *903 

U. ambigua Humb. 4 Bon. 903 

Q. confertlAUa Hum. A Bon. 904 

Q. trldens Humb. Sf Bon. 904 

^. acutlf51ia WiUd-.H-ffB. 904 

Q. elliptica WUld., Q. mucro- 

nkU JVilkL, Q. tumentbsa 

Willd., Q. circinftu IVilid., 

Q. spl6ndens H'Uld., Q. ru. 

g6aa Wilid,, Q. macrophyila 

Waid., Q. dlTenifblU fVilid., 

Q. cindicana IViiid.. Q. mU 

croph^Ua naid., Q. lob^U 

JVilld., Q. vuigaolie^fblia 

>ViUd, Q. l&tea Wilid., and 

Q. raUdfblia Wilid., are de- 

Bcrfbed in our Itt ed. •904 

Q. lancifblia Ckam.etSchUc.90i 

Q. pedolirla Benih. - - 004 

a. dyaophfUa Benth. Plant. 

Hartveg., Q. A'lamo Ibid., 

Q. barbin^rvii Hrid.. Q.. gla- 

br^scens Ibid., Q. Hartwtg/ 

Ibid., and iome others, have 

been discovered by Hartwreg, 

who has sent home specimena 

of all, and acorns ofiome, to 

the Hort. Soc. - -904 

II. Fk 'gus L. ' -905 
The Beech.— Fiigiw of the 



CONTENTS. 



Ronant according to Bauhin ; 
OJtua of the Greeks ; Castdnea 
Toum. : He/re, Fr. ; Bucket 
Ger. ; Beuke, Dutch ; Bog, 
Darn, i BolCf Swed. : Suk, Russ. 
and Pol. : Paggio, Ital. ; Hayat 
Span. ; Faj/Ot Port. 

A. Cftptde nmricaUt capsttli- 
form. Ovaries mauded. 

Young leaves pb'eaie. 

a. Species in Cultivation in Bri- 

iish Gardens. 

1. sylv&tica L. - .905 
Cast^nea Fdgus Scop. Cam., 
Fdgus Bauh. Pin., F. syMslrU 
Mich. N. Amer., Oxya^ Greek, 
Ft^uSy Lat. : Helre comrnun, 
Fr. ; getneine Buche, Ger. ; 
Eoodbeuke, Dutch. 

2 purpiirea Ait. - 905 
F. s. 2. dtro-rUbens Du R. 
HAr* iwir, Fr. 

3 ciiprea Lodd. Cat. 905 

4 foliis variegalts - 905 

5 heterophylla . 906 
F.s. lacinidta Lodd. Cat. 
F. s. nsplenifblia L. Cat. 
F. s. incisa Hort. 

F. s. salieiJUia Hort. 
H€tre a FeuUles de Saule, 
Fr. 

6 cristata Z<xi(f. Cat.906 
' F. ». erispa Hort 

//Ar<r Cre<f tff C07, Fr. 
7p^ndulaixNf. Cat. 906 

Hitre Parasolt Fr. 
8 americana - 907 

F. sylvfstris STichz. 

While BeecAt Amer. 

2. ferrugfnea .^t/. - 909 

F. americihta lat^blia Du Rol 
Harbk. ; red Beech, Amer. 
2 caroliniana - - 909 

F. caroUnidna Lod. Cat. 
S latifolia - - 909 
F. latifblia of Lee'i Nura. 

b. Species not yet introduced. 

3. obliqua Mirh, - 910 

B. Cupule involueriform ; Seg' 
ments narrow, laeiniaie. Ova- 
ries lateraUy inserted. 

a. Species introduced into 
Brilain. 

4. ietuldides Mirb, 910 

The erergreen Beech. — B^- 
tula antSretica Forst. lu Com. 
Goett., Wllld. &p. PI. 

5. act^rctica Forst, 910 

b. Species not yet introduced HUo 

British Gardens, 

6. Dombeyi Mirb. -911 

The Myrtle- leared Beedi. 

7. d^bia ilftrd. * 911 
III. Cast Vnea T. -911 

The Chestnut ^F4fiM Lin. 
and others: Chitafgnier, Fr. ; 
Kastanie, Ger. ; CoMtagna^lts^.i 
Castano, Span.; Castanheiro. 
Ton.iCastanietne, Swed. aad 
Dan. ; Keschton, Ross. 



1. v^sca Gartn. - 912 
TheSweet, orSpanish.Chest- 

nut — F^f«w Castanea Lin. 
Hort. Cliff., Castdnea saOva 
Mill. Diet., C. vulgaris Lam. 
Enqrc. £ng. Bot. 
Varieties 

A. Bottmtcal Varieties. 

2 asplenifolia Lo4d. 912 
C.heterophpUa Hort. 

C. lacrnidta Hort. 
C. taUeiJbUa Hort 

3 cochleataJLcKf. Cat. 912 

4 glabra I.ocU. Ca^ 912 
C. v.fbliis Ihcidis Hort. 

5 gla(ica iTor/. - 912 
C. glttitca Hort. 

6 variegata £i>rt. - 912 
C. v.fbliis aireis Lodd. 

7 amerieflna - - 912 
C. v6sea Mlchx. 

B. Fruit-bearing Fars. 912 

2. piimila WUld. - 914 

The Chincapln. — F^^tw pit- 
mtla Lin. Sp. PI., Castdnea 
piimila virginiana, t^c, Pluk. 
Aim.: CAataigner Ckincapin, 
Fr. ; ztoerch Kastanie, or Ou- 
tat^e, Ger. 

Species qf Castdnea not yet As- 
troduced into European Gar- 
dens. 

C. Indica Box. Hort Beng. 914 

C. KoxbtSrghri Lindl. - 916 

Qw^rcitf castanic&rpa Rox. 

Hort. Beng., Spreng. Syst. 

C. sphserocirpa ZfiuO. . 915 

Qwrcfu amuUa Rox. MSS. 
a Albuloldes Lindl. • - 915 
Qu^rcMS iribuloides Smith in 
Rees's CycL, D. Don in 
Prod. NepL, WaU. In Litt. ; 
Q.Cattfnma Ham. MSS. ; 
Q./emr Rox. Hort. Beng. 
^. martabinica WaU. PI. As. 915 
C. SHMi^mtfBiumeBjdr. 915 . 
Ttmgurrut, or Tungerreh, of J 
the NaUves. 
C.arg^ntea J5/«iR«A.Ja«. 915 
C.Javinicai»tHntfjF7. Ja0. 915 
9 mont£na • - . 915 
C. moiBldfM Blame Bjdr. 
8 fao6scens -i . . 916 
C. in§rmis LindL in Wait. - 916 
C, chingnsis Spreng. - . 916 

IV. Ca'rpinus 2^.-916 

The Hornbeam. — Came, 
t^arme, Fr. ; Hay^udke, or 
HtUniuche, Ger. ; Carpino, 

1. J?^tulus If. . - 917 
Cdrpimit Matth. Valgr., 

O'strya Bauh. Pin., O'nsui 
Trag.Hist., F4giw Bauh. Hist., 
B^<silMLob.Ic.: Came,Charme\ 
¥T.\gemeine Haynbuche, Ger. ; 
Carpino bianco, Ital. : Horn- 
beam, Yoke Elm, and in some 
places Wych Haul, 

2 'mc^ Lodd, Cat. 917 
C. B. ({uercifdUa Desf. 
C. B. hetenmhjflla Hort. 

3 yaxiegkuLod. Cat 9 1 7 

2. (j9.) americana - 918 

C. virginidna Michx. Arb. 



3. {B,) orientalis L, 918 

Spedes or Varieties qf G4r- 
pinus not yet mlrotktced into 
European Gardens. 

C. B. Carpinizxa Hort. . 919 
C. Timinea Lindl., WalL - 919 
C. faglnea Lindl., WaU. - 919 

V. O'STRYA Wil/d. 919 

1. vulgaris WUld, - 9S0 

CSrpinus (fstrya Hort. Qifll, 
0'«f9yacaf7»di{foMaScop.Carii., 
(fstrya Bauh. Fin., O. itoHea, 
^, Michx.Gen. : Carpino nero^ 

2. (?v.)virgfnicayr. 920 

CSrpinus virginiina Abb. 
Ins., Carpinms O'strya vtrg^i- 
nidna Mlchx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 
C. O'strya Mich. N.Amer, Syl., 
not the fig., which is O. rul- 
girls : Iron Wood, Lever Wood^ 
Amer. ; &)is <tar, Illinois. 

VI. Co'RVLUS L. - 921 

The Hasel. — Coudrier, Fr. ;. 
Haselnuss, Gw.iNocdolo, Ital. 

1. ^vellana L. - 921 

Coudrier Noisetier, Fr. ; Ha- 
setsrauch, Nussbaum, Ger. ; 
AveUano, Noedoto, Ital. ; Anel" 
lano. Span. 

VaHeties. 

A. Botanical Varieties. 

1 sylvdstris Ait - 9t?2 
C Av^Kdna Svensk., 

C. sylvfstris Bauh. Pin. 

2 piimila - - 922 
C. pkmUa Lodd. Cat 

3 heterophylla - 922 
C. heterophpUa Lodd. Cat. 
C. ladnidta Hort. 

C. }irtie(fdUa Hort. 

4 purpiirea - - 922 
C. m(f:pdr(*a Lodd. Cat. 
C. dlro- purpiirea Hort. 

B. Varieties cultivated for 

their Fruit. 

5 tubuldsa - - 922 
C. tubuUsa Wllld. Abblld. 
C.m6*ima Mill. Diet. 

C. sa^va Bauh. 

C. s. rUbra Ait. 

JZerf JiU&rit,Hort.Soc. Cat. 

Longbartnuss, or Ltun- 

bertsnuss, Ger. 
NoiseUer franc ti Frua 

ne. Poll, et Turp. 
. , Dsa ilba - 922 

C. saOva 6lba A\t. 

C. A. dtbahodd. Ctit. 
WUteFObert, Hort. S. Cat. 
Weisse Langbartnust^Ger. 

7 crispa Enc. of PL 923 
FrisxledFia>ert,T.M. 

8 tenuis I,o<ic2. Got. 923 
Thin-shelled, or Cosfont, 

Nut, Pom. Mag.. H.S. 

9 barcelon^nsis - - 923 
C. saUva gr&ndis Bauh. 
C. k.grandis Lodd. Cat. 
The Cob Nut, the Banre- 

lonaNut, the Doumton 
large Nut, Hort. S. C. 

2. Colurna L. - - 92.3 

C. dyxan/lnaHerm. Lugdh., 
AveUdna pereyina hktnii/» 



CONTENTS. 



li 



BmA. Ftn., A . fitmOa ftmm. 
Am Ch». Hist., C. arUrea 
Hart. : le Nitiselier 4e BnoMte. 
Fr.; ii^rzdiiiauiidhrtfinetetm, 
G«r. 

S intermedia - - 923 
C mternae^ia I«odd. Cat. 

3 arborescensFiJi^. 924 

3. rostrata JU. - 925 

The Cuckold Hazel^C^y/- 
•tabis. Ac., Grua. Virg.; C. eor- 
' Hort, 



4. americ^na JficAr. 925 

C. mmeric^ma kkmOis Wang. 
Aner.: Dvmrf CttdaM. Hut, 

Other Specks. — C. fSrox JFaU. 
Fl.jU.&ar. - -925 

Gorryaceae. 

L GA'RRYif Dougl. 926 

1. elliptica DougL - 926 

2. iauriloiia ^or/uT. 926 

Other Smeciet qf G&rrpaL.— G. 
UadliTf, G. macroph^lla, 
G.oidmiga,aBd G. ovAia, arc 
io Bentham't Flan- 
- - W7 



Platcaidcecs. 
L Pla'tanus L. - 927 

TiMFkne Tree. — Plattme, 
Tr-i PimtaituK, G«r.; Platano, 

1. oriaitalis X. • - 928 

VUtaxus orientaiis vera' 
Taii.Thctf r., Du Ham. Arb. : 
Ptalmatie rOrient, Fr.; Ifor- 
falntfwdhrr Ptatamus, Ger.; 
2)BeA, Anbic ; CAmcr, Periian. 

2 ocerifolia y4i7. - 928 
P. 0. A'cerisfblio Toar.C. 
P. ^rrJJdUa Willd. Sp. Fl. 
P. imuhnidw Hort. 
Msple-ieaced Pkme Tree. 

3 hup&zuca - - 927 
P. hsepmuiea Lodd. Cat. 
^. wtaeroph^Ua Cree. 

i cuneata • - 929 
P. 9. mtdmldta Ait. H. K. 
P. €KW^Ia Willd. Sp. PI. 

2. ocddenaiis L. 931 

V.aceMetUaiitMeu pirgmien- 
«Bi Park. Tb«atr., Du Ham. 
Aib.:BWCM-ircwirf, JVater Beech, 
re. Cotton Tree, Amer.; 
de yirghite, Fr. 

I. Liqcida'mbar L. 932 

.liHwfctJi. AVmMiA.: Liquidam- 
Ur, Fr.; Jmiarbimm, Ger. 

1. St^Taciflua X. - 932 

UqwUimbar Srbor Pluk. 
Aka, Mf» HceriafiUo Bail 
Mil: Liftriimmhar re'smeux, 
Ctpalme 4e rAmMmte, Liqui- 
dioHtar Copal, Fr.; FUestender 
liiiftmhwiiii, Ger.; Sk/raee li- 
^w4a,\taL 

2. imberbe Wi/M, • 933 

I. orieatmt MiJLl>Jc.. ? PM- 



CoiMif oThntfdlto Pocock Itiner., ' tail — E. ipofygonoides Pall. 
I.. imb^rhiM Smith In Beet's > Boss. : Ephedre mmewe,£phe. 
Cyc ' (/r^ de Sibcrie, Fr. 



OlAcr Specfer. — L. Altingiw 
Bhrnie Bjdr. (AUtKigU excil- 
ta Noronha in BtSav. Ver- 
hand.. Pert. Srn., Spreng. 
Syt. Lambert't Genut Pimu ; 
Jjigman papudman Bumph. 
Herbar. Ambojm.) - 933 

i/LyricdcecB. 
I. MYRi'ck L. - 934 

The Candleberry Mrrtle— 
Gal^, Fr.; Wachutratick, Ger.; 
Min'ca, Ital. 

1. Gale L. - - 934 
Sweet Gale, Sweet Willow, or 

Dutch WUlow.—Gile Rait Syn., 
EJ^S^nm Card. Hitt., M^r/us 
brabantiea Ger. Emac, BJt6s 
myrtijblia bilgica Bauh. Pin., 
R. SjfMstri* altera Dalech. 
Hitt., R. eiflvtstris Park.Thpat , 
M^riea paUutris Lam. : Gnli, 
Ptmento foyal, Fr., gemeine 
Wachsatrauchy Ger. 

2. ceHfera L, - 935 

The American Candleberry 
Myrtle. — M. cer'tfera angu$tifb- 
Ua Alt. Hort. Kew.; Sf^r^iu 
brabdnttea, Ac, Plak. Aim. : 
Cfrier de la Lotiisiane,FT.\ AU 
bero detla cera. Ital. 

2 latifolia Ait. - - 935 
ML c. media Mlchx. 
M. cttroHntiuis WUld.. 
M. pmntyivanica Lam. 
BI. c. teutperv'tren* Hort. 
lACrttu brabSntiea Cates. 

OFrirr dePemughanicTr. 
Carolinisehcr Wacha- 

atranck, Ger. 

OlA^ Spncifff.— M. ipathuKkta 
JVirA. ifem. Mua. - - 936 

II. C0UPT0'N/i4 Sol.936 
Uemidumbar Lin. Sp., Mort- 
en Lin. Hort.Clifr., Gale Petiv, 
Mua, : C«mptone,Ft.\ Comptonie, 
Ger. 

1. asplenifolia Solan. 936 
Liquidumbar ttaplenifblium 
Lin Sp., L. peregr)num Lin. 
Sytt., Myrrca Linn. Hort Cliff, 
Gile martdaui Petir. Mui.,M^- 
tua brabmUicte tyfinia Pluk. 
Phyt. : the aweet Fern BuaH, 
Amer. 

GnetaceoB. 

1. J?'pnEDRA L. - 937 

l.disthchyalr. - 937 
The Greet thmbby Hortetail, 
or Sea Grape, — E'phedra 9ul- 
gdria Bleb. M&n. Conif., Vot»- 
Momum marinum Ttbem., P. 
lamii/dlium, ^c, Bauh. Pin.; 
H'phedra marttima nuijor Tm. 
Intt.: RaiaindeMer, Ephedre 
maUiiflore, Fr. ; Zwej/akrigcr 
Rota Sehteawt, Ger. 

2. monostuchya L, 938 

The Saull SkiniUigr Horte- 
c % 



TaxdcecB, 
1. Ta^xus L, - - 939 

The Yew 

1. baccata X. - - 939 

Toriif No. 1663., HalL Hist.: 
ff, Fr. ; Ifenbaum, Ihenbautn, 
or Eihenhatan, Ger. ; Taxo, 
Ital. ; 7mo, Span. 

2 fkstigiaia • - 939 
T./oMtigidta Llndl. 

T. hih6rnica Hook., Lodd. 
The Florence Yew. 
The Irish Yew. 

3 proc6tiibens - 940 
T. procimbena Lodd. Cat. 

4 erecta - - 940 

5 sparsifolia Hnrt. 940 

6 foliis varieg. Lod. 940 

7 fructu liiteo - 940 

2. (b.)canad6nsis fr.942 

Trie North American Yew. — 
T. b. mmor Michx. Bor. Amer. 

3. Hnrringtdnia Kn. 942 

? I&xua macrophlfUa Thunb., 
fPodocarvus macrophyllus Sw., 
Lamb. 2d ed., Arb. Brit. Itt ed. 

Other Species qf Taxtts. — T. 
Mackftya Pin. Wob., T. Inu- 
kdja Kuighrt Cat., T. glo. 
bdta SchUcht, . - 943 

II. Torre'y^ Arn. 943 

T&xw ap. Nutt. 

1. foxifolia Arn, - 944 

Taaua montdna Nutt., not of 
WiUd : Stinking Cedar, Florida. 

III. Salisbu^r/j S. 944 

Ginkgo of Ktempfer, Liu- 
naeut, and others. 

1. adiantifolia Sntii/i 945 

The Ginkgo Tree Ginkgo, 

Gi»-an, or It^fo, Kasmpf. Am. ; 
Ginkgo biloba Lin. Mant. : 
Hoyer du Japan, Arbre nux 
quarante E'cna, Fr. ; Albcro 
adianto, Ital. 

Coyiiferte^ or Find" 
cece. 

Tribe I. .^bie'tinjk. 

I. Pl\NUSlr.- - 950 

The Pine. — Le Pin. Fr. ; 
Pichte, Pynbaum, or Kiifer, 
Ger. ; Pvnboom, Dutch ; Piyto, 
Ital. and Span.; Pinu, Anglo* 
Sax. ; Ptnnua, Welsh ; Peigne, 
Erse. 

§ i. Bina. Leaves gettC' 
rally 2 in a aheath, 

A. Kativea qf Europe. 

1. sylvestris L. - 951 

The Scotch Pine, or Scotch 
Fir. — P. r^bra Mill. Diet.. P. 
tytvtatris eommvnia Ait. Hort 
Kew., ? P. Escariaa. Jlistu : 



lii 



CONTENTS. 



Pin $auvage. Pin ^Eeoue, Fr. ; 
gemeine Fiihret gem fine Ftekte, 
ArV/er, Tanne, and 65 other 
naniesy which are given in 
Hayne Abhfid., Ger. ; Pynboom., 
Dutch; Pino tulvati'cot Ital. ; 
Pino tjflpeslre. Span. ; F^re, 
Daa. and Swed. ; Sosna^ rol., 
Boh., and Ruu. 
Varieties. 

a. Timber Treet. 

1 vulgaris - - 952 

2 horizontalis - 952 
P. horizoitti'dis Don of For. 
P. sift. var. numtdna Sang. 
The Speyside Pine^ Grig. 
The red-wooded Scotch 

Pine, Sang. 
? P. Hkbra Mill. Diet 

3 uncinata - - 952 
Mai Forest Wild Pine H.S. 

4 haguendnsis - 953 
Pin de HaguenaUt Fr. 

5 rigensis - - 953 
Pin de Riga, Deif. Hist. 
Pin de Russie, Pin de Md- 

turCt Fr. 

Other Timber Tree Fars. 963 

^ Varieties curious or oma- 
mental, 

(f genev6nsls - - 953 
Pin de Tartare, Fr. 

7 monophflla Hodg.95S 

8 scariosa - - 953 
P. scaridsa Lodd. Cat. 

? P. squamosa Bosc Nour. 

9 intermedia - 953 

10 altaica Ledebour 953 

1 1 tortuosa Don ofF. 954 

2. (s.) numdio //tnt. 955 
The Moantain Pine. — P. 
svlvfstrfs montdna y Ait. Hort. 
Kew. ; P. s. hUmilis y Neal ; P. 
hUmilit, ^c.Toum. Inst., Link 
Abhand. : Pin nain, Freach ; 
KrumholZt Ger. 

2 riibrsfolia - - 955 

3 Fischeri Booth - 955 

4 MUghus - . 955 
P. s. Mtkgho Matt. Cam, 
P. montdna Bauro. Cat. 
P. Milgho Jacq.t Poir. 

5 M. ndna - - 956 
The Knee Pine of the Sty- 

rian Alps. 

Other Varieties - - 9S6 

.3 Larfcio Pair. - 956 

The Corsican Pine P. syl- 

nistris t maritima Ait. Hort. 
Kew., P. maritima ed. 2. : Pi- 
nastro, Pino chiappino^ Ital. 

1 corsicilna - - 957 
Laricio de rile de Corse, 

Delainarre. 

2 subviridisM Du H. 957 

3 caramanica - 957 
P. caramdnica Bote. 

P .earamamfnsis Bon Jard . 
Laricio de Caramanift ou 

del* Asia Mineure, Dela- 

TOarre. 
? V. romdna Lond. H. S. 

Gard. 

4 caUbrica - - 957 
Laricio de Moni Sila en 

Calabre, Delamarre. 



5 austr)aca - - 958 
P. austriaca HSss. 
Laricio d'Autriehe, oude 
la Hongrie^ Delainarre. 

Other Varieties - - 958 

4. (L.) austTiacsLHoss 958 

The black Pine. — P. nigri- 
cans Hort., P. n/^r^aoowHort. : 
sehwartx FShre, Ger. 

5. (L ) Pallastflna L.959 
The Tartarian Pine. — P. 

taHrica Hort ; P. tatdriea in 
the Hammersmith Nursery in 
1797. P. maritima Pall. Ind. 
Taur. : naam in the Tartar 
language. 

Varieties. 

Cones straight and 

short - - 960 

Cones long and 

crooked - 960 

6. (L.) pyren^icalr. 961 
P. hispdnica Cook's Sketches 

In Spain, "Pinaster hisp&nica 
Roxas di San Clenente; P. 
pcnidllus Lap. Hist, des PI. des 
Pyrenees ; P. halepinsis miior 
Ann. d'Hort. de Paris: Pin 
Naxaront Piupinceau, Fr. 

7. Pinaster Ait, - 961 

The Cluster Pine. — P. ^y/- 
vistris y Lin. Syst. Reich., P. 
maritima dttera Du Ham. Arb., 
P. maritima N. Du Ham. ; P. 
sGrtica Thore Prom, sur let 
C6tes de Gascogne, P. McU' 
foni&na Lamb. cd. 2. : Pin de 
Bordeaux, Pin des Landes, Fr. ; 
Pinastro, lul. 

-2 Aberdont^p G.M. 96.'} 
P. P. Escaren\uArb.Brit. 

3 hemoni^nus - 963 
P. Lemonikjui Benth. 9C3 

4 minor ' - - 963 
V. maritima mlM. N.D.H. 
Pin Pinsot, Pin de Mans, 

Pini TYoehet,Fr. 

5 fdliis variegatis - 963 

6 maritimus - 963 
Other Varieties . - 963 

8. Pinea Z. - - 965 

The Stone Pine.— P. saiha, 
P. saava Bauh. Pin. ; P. do. 
mistica Matth. Comm. : Pin 
Pipion, Pin bon. Pin cuUivi, 
Pm Pinter, Fr. ; Geneissbere 
Fichte, Ger. ; Pino daPinocchi, 
Ital. 

2 fragilis N, Du H, 965 

3 erotica Hort, . 965 

9. halepensis Ait, - 967 

P. hierosolymitdna Du Ham. 
Arb. ; P. maritima prima Mat- 
thiolus ; Pin de Jirusaleme, 
Fr. ; Pino d' Aleppo, Ital. 

2 minor - - 967 

3 maritima - - 968 
P. maritima Lamb. Pin. 

4genu^nsis • - 968 
P. genuhuis Cook. 

10. briittia Ten. - 968 
The Calabrian Pine P.ron- 

glomerdta Grsffbr PI. Eulce; 
Kalabrisehe Kiefer, Ger. 



B. KaHwes (^ K* America, 

11. "Banksidna L. 96.1 

The Labrador Pino P. sfft- 

vistris divaricdta Ait. Hort. 
Kew., P. rupistris Ms. N. 
Amer. Syl., P. hudsdnica L«n. 
Encyc. : Scrub Pine, Hudson's 
Bay Pine : Ypres, Canada. 

12. inops Ait, - 970 

The Jersey Pine. — P. vir^- 
nidna Du Rol Harbk. ed Pott. : 
Pin cketif, Fr. 

13. puneens Michx, 971 

The Table Momtiain Pine, 

14. resinosa Ait, - 972 
The red Pine. — P. riira 

Michz. N. Amer. Syl.: Ifdr^ 
iray Pine, Canada; Yetiow 
Pine, Nova Scotia ; le Pin rouge 
dc Canada, Fr. 

15. mitis Michx, - 974 

The yellow Pine P. vari" 

abilis Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. : 
? P. echindta Mill. Diet. : New 
Yorh Pine, Spruce Pine, 
Short-leaved Pine, Yelbno Pine, 
Amer. 

16. contorta Doug, 975 

17. turbinata Bosc 975 



§ IL Tematee, — Leaves 3 in 
a Sheath, 

A. Natives qf N, Awicrica, 

18. raeda L. - 976 

The Loblolly Pine.— P./uto* 
timis Gron. Virg., P. virgi'. 
nidna tenttifbUa tripUcis Pluk. 
Aim. : Witttt' Pine, at Peters- 
burg and Richmond, in Vir- 
ginia. 

2 alopecuroidea Ait. 976 

19. rigid ji Mill, - 977 

The Pitch Pine P. T<r^da 

a. Polr. Diet. : f Three-leaved 
Virpinian Pine, Sap Pine, 
Black Pine : Pin Mrisst, Pin 
rude, Fr. 

20. (t,) Fraseri L. 979 

21. (r.) serdtinaiVfjr.979 

The Pond Pine ? P. TiafV« 

alopecuroidea Ait. Hort. Kew. 
ed. 2. 

P. variabilis Lamb. Pin. • 980 

22. ponderosaDoufT, 98 1 

23. SabinwwflDousr. 982 
The great prickly-concd Pine. 

2+. (S.) Co{ilteriD. 985 

The great hooked Pine — ? P. 
Sabin\kTM. var. Hort. ; ? P. ma- 
croc&rpa Lindl. MSS. 

2 vera - - 985 

25. australis ^fx, 987 
P. paUtstris Willd. Sp. Pi., 
Pursh Sept., I.iamb. Pin. ed. 1 . ; 
P. americdna palOstris, &c.» 
Hort. Angl. Du Ham. Arb.» 
P. serStina Hort. ; in America, 
Long-leaved Pine, Yelloiv Pine, 
Pitdk Pine, and Broom Pine, 
in the southern states; SpsKA- 
em Pine and Bed Pine, in tlM 




CONTENTS. 



lih 



r. In the middle 
; Georgia POck Pime of 
tte Eofliih axxl Wert Indian 



P. 



- 988 
Boocb. 

86. insfgnis Doug. 988 

27. calil'orniana X. 989 

P. momtere^huu GwUfrojr. 
P. adtmra B<MC : Pirn de Mtm- 
lots. Boa JanL ed. 1837. 

28. niiincatajDJ>o«987 



29. toberailata Don 990 

30. nuliata D. JDon 990 



B. 



4^ JCcsnco* 



31. TeocoU S. & D. 991 
naeotraad Oeafeof tbeMexi. 

32. patula S. 4* B. 992 
SfoliisstrietisjSiilA. 993 

33. LUveana 8cb. 993 
P. cembrSdn Zacc Flon: 

Ar Afexwcai Cambra, Ttmxj 
Cjt. 



dw, Penia, Ckima, and Ana- 

Iratia, 

34). canarieosis Sm, 994 

? P. MftiMS BOIC. 

35. longifolia Baxb. 996 

%. GcTardisM W. 998 

Theihoit-lcanred Nepal Pfne. 
" P. Ncdn 6oMJ» : eataUe- 
aeeM ftw of the East Indies ; 
/ CMg^a Etphinstone ; tke 
Xeo*a Pme, Penny Cyc. 

37. smensb Lamb. 999 
P. ?Kesijai RoaU^ P. nr- 
paAmU Fin. WoU, P. Co. 
HorU 



38b timorieiisis - 1000 



§ iu. Qidwe. — Leave$ 5> 
rerel|r 4,* in a Sheath. 



ike SeaUa tUek- 
foed at tke Apex. 



a. Katna^ 

39. Hartwen Ldl. 1000 

40. Deronima Ldl. 1001 
PiaeMeacn, or />. real, of the 



41. Russelluimi L. 1003 

42. MonteziinkrL. 1004 
The roogh-hnncfaed Mexi- 

<aB Piae. — Vmm oeddenidlt* 

Kanth in Hnnb. eC Bonpl. 

Xov. Gen. et Sp. PI., Deppe in 

ScUeclic Ltniuea. 

SLisdl^yt . 1004 

43. macrophyilaL. 1006 
44 PlKtido.&robu8 1008 

Tte Faiae Wemmomtk Piae. 



43. filifblla LbuS. 1008 



46. Idophylla&Ai/. 1011 

Oeote ckinohi Mexica 

47. oodirpa Schd. 1012 
?odcarpoides^<ni/A.1013 

48. apalcensiB LdL 1014 

p. acofokhuie G. Don in 
Sweet Hort. Brit. ed. 8. 

bi NaUwa ttftke West ladieM. 

49. occidentalis S. 1015 

p. fklii* qaimis^ ftc.. Plum. 
Cat., LihriM americdna Tooni. 
Inst.: dcote, Mexican. 

B. Cenn with the Scaia not 
tkieieaed ai tke Apex, 

a. Natifet ^ Europe amd 5/- 
beria, 

50. Cendfra L. - 1016 
p. JJHiit 9«hiA, Ac, Gmel. 

Sib.; P. aatiwa Amm. Ruth.; 
P. jyM«fris, ftc, Bauh. Pin. ; 
P. tyhittriM Ctobro Cam. 
EpiL ; Lafix tempervirens, 
ftc, Breyn. in Act. Nat. Cur. 
Cent. ; rimmtter Aleito, &c., 
Bell. Conifer.; T^x'da Arbor, 
C^mbro Ilaidrum, Dale Hlit. : 
ApkemousU Piae, Jhe4ea»ed 
Ptaxt tke Siberian Stone Pine, 
tke Stpiu Stone Pine: Arolea 
In Savoy; AMea in Switzer- 
land ; Ctmbra in Daophln§ ; 
Ceinbroi^ Bouwe, Tinier, Fr. ; 
Znrbelkitfer, Get. ; Pino Zim* 
bro, Ital. ; Kedtt Rum. 

1 sibirica - - 1016 
P. C^brmXcML Cai. 
Kedr, Fall. 

Cedar of some authors. 
Sibnian Stone Pine, or 
Siberian Cedar. 
Spygnue'^a- - 1016 
P. C. p^miia Pall. Ross. 
Stanex, Russ- 

3 belv^tica Lodd, 1016 
b. Nativeg qf Nortk Awteriea. 

51. 5tr6bu8 L. - 1018 

The WcTmouth Pine P. 

JoUie qakaU, %e., Gron. Virg. ; 
F. eanadhuis quingwtfdlia Dn 
Ham. Arb., P. wrgtnidna Pink. 
Aim., lArix canadtneis Team. 
Inst. : Netp Enxtand Pine, 
wkiU Pine, Pnmpkin Pine, Ap- 
pie Pine, Saplin Pine, Amer. ; 
Pin dm Lord, Pin du Lord 
Weymomik, Fr. 

2 ilba HorU - 1018 

3 brevifolia HarL 1018 

4 compr^ssa Booth 1018 
P. S. nima Lodd. Cat. 
Plaetbeck Weymouik Pine. 

52. (iSitr.) LambertMTza 
Doug. - - 1019 

The g^anUc Pine. 

53. (&) monticola 1021 

TV skort-leaved Weymamtk 
Piae. 

e. Nalkreiqf Nepal and Mexico. 

54. (5.) excelsa W. 1022 

I The Bnotan Pine. — P. Dick- 
I jdnU Mart, s CkiUa, or CkgUa, 
e 3 



HImaUifas ; Kmel, Sinnone and 
Gurfawal; Lenuking, Bhotea; 
Baetula, or King qf tke Firt, 
Uindostan. 

55. AyacahvUe Ehr. 1023 
PiHoae$. It is so called be- 
cause it was believed that the 
Ayacsbuite, the aboriginal name 
of tills species, had originated 
in P. Pillooes (P. LUvedna). 

II. i^'BiEs D. Don 1025 
The Spruce Fir. — PhiM of 
Lin. and others, inaart: Vieea 
Link in Abhand. l^lg. Akad. 
Wissens. Berlin, 1827 ; A'Aies 
of Toum., Hill., and others, ns 
partf Tieea of the ancients: 
St^im Meeay Fr. ; Fickten- 
bawM^ Ger. ; Abete, Ital. ; 
AbieiOt Span. 

§ L Leaves tetragonal, awl- 
shapedi Mattered in in- 

MTQOa. 

A. Natives (f Europe and tke 
Ctuteanu. 

I. exc^lssL Dec, • 1026 

The Norway Spruce Fir.— 
A. co mmkn is Hortv, A. Picea 
Mill. Diet., Pima A^bies Lin. 
So. PL, PfaHu Pfora Du Rol 
Harbk. ed. Pott., P. excOta 
Lam. Fl. Fr. ed. 1., Fief a vuU 
gdrii Link in Abhand. : com- 
num Spruce, Prussian Fir: 
faux SapiH, E'picea, Sapin- 
Pesse, Sermte, Saptn gentii. 
Finesse, Fr. ; L^flr, in the 
Vosges ; gemeitu rotke Tonne, 
gemetne riekie, Oer. ; Pevso, 
Abete di Oermauia, or di Nor- 
vegia, Ital. 

1 commiinu - 1026 
WUte Fir ttf Norway. 

2 nigra ». . 1026 
Bed Fir qfNonsag. 

dcaipiUica- - 1027 
A. CMTiSlica Hort. 

4 p^ndula - - 1027 
A. i iouui^U sIS pt ndaia B. 

5 f;511is yaric^tU 1027 

6 Clanbrasiltana 1027 

7 Clanbr. ttricta 1027 

8 pygmia'a- - 1027 
A. fi^iMS Hort. Soc. Gard. 
A. il^ams Smith of Ayr. 

9 tenuifolia - 1027 
A. iemtifbUa Sm. of Ayr. 

10 gigantda - - 1027 
A. gigamtea Smith of Ayr. 

11 xnonstrdM - 1027 
A. monstrdsa Hort. 

12 mucroniu BoH, 1027 



Otker Varieties 



1097 



2. orieutalis Tovm. 1029 
PbiM orient^'s Un. Sp. PI., 

Lamb. Pin. ed. 3.; Vioea ori^ 
entiUis Link & Steven in Bull. 
Soc. Nat. Mof . 

3. obovata D, Don 1029 
Yioea obovdta Led. Icon. PL 

Fl. Ross. 

B. NaiisesqfNortk America. 

4. UbaJI^^. - 1030 

Pimif klba Ait. Hort. Kew.. 



liv 



CONTENTS. 



P. laxa Ehrh. Beltr., P. cana- 
dhui» Du Roi Harbk., A. cur- 
vifdlia Hort. : smfLle Spruce, 
Amer. ; Epinette blanche. Ca- 
nada ; Sapinette blancke, r r. 
2 nana Dickson - 1030 
Other Varieties - - 1030 

5. nigra Poir. - 1031 
Tinus nifira Ait. H. K., P. 

man'dna Ehr. Beyt., A'bies 
maridna WaDgh. Beyt. : double 
Spruce; noire Epinette, Epi' 
nette d la Biere, Canada. 
Varielies - - - 1031 

6. (n.) rubra Poir. 1032 
The Newfoundland Red Pine. 

— P. americdna ribra Wangb. 
Beyt., ¥inut ritbra Lamb. Pfn., 
Fursh Sept. ; A^bies pectindia 
Lam. 

2 csrulea - - 1032 
A. aerilea Booth. 

C. Natives qf Nepal. 

7. Khutrow - - 1032 
A. Smithikasi Arb. Brit. 1st 

ed., Phiia Khtitro RoyU III,, 
? V'mtLS Smith\ktk% WaU. PL As. 
Bar., JCbies Sm/MUkna Lindl. 
Pen. CffcL, A. Morinda Hori. : 
Rofiaj or Raggoe, in the Parbu- 
tee language. 

VaHeties - - - 1033 

§ ii. Leaves flat, generally 
glaucous beneath^ impef' 
fectly 2-rowed. 
D. Natives qf North America. 

8. Dougl^a Lindl. 1033 
The tndent-bracted Spruce 

Fir. —P. tax(fblia Lamb. Pin.. 
Purih Fl. Amer. Sept. : A. 
calt/Smia Hort. ; Thuu Dou- 
gld$\i Sabine MSS., Lamb.Pin. : 
the Nootka Fir, Smith in Reel's 
Cvcl. 
'2faxifolia - - 1033 

9. Menziesa Doujr. 1034 

The warted-branched Spruce 
Fir. — Ptntw MensuesH Lamb. 
Pin. 

10. canadensis Mx, 1035 

The Hemlock Spruce Fir. — 
P. eanadinsis Lin. Sp. PI., P. 
americdna Du Rot Harbk., 
Smith in Rcca's Cycl. ; A^bies 
americdna Marsh. Arb. Amer. : 
Perusse by the French in Ca- 
nada ; Sapin du Canadat Fr. ; 
SJtierlrng* Fichte, Ger. 

E. Native qf Nepal. 



11. dumosa 



- 1036 



Vlnus dumbsa Lamb. Pin., 
iCbies Brwum\hn;i Lindl. in 
Pen, Cycl., P. decidua Wall. 
MSS,.P. BrunoiAknvi WalLPl. 
As. liar. 

Other Species of Kbics. —A. 
MertentrdiM Bong.. A. sitch- 
ftosis Bong., A. trig^na, A. 
heteroph^lTa, A. arom&tica, 
A. mlcroph^'Ila, A. obliqudu, 
and A. fnlciita, A. hirtglla 
Jlumbff/dt el Kunlh, A. 
Kxuipfferii Thunb., if.Thun. 
b^rgii Thunb., i^.Jtfdi-n/Sieb., 



A. Torino Sleo., A, Arardigi 
Sieb. • - - 1036 

III. Pi'cEA D.Don 1036 
The SlWer Fir. — PHm« Lin. 
in part ; Tinus sect. "Peiice D. 
Don in Lamb. Pin.; A'bies Lk., 
Neet Ton Esenbeck, and Lede- 
bour ; fiibies Du Roi, in part : 
Sapin, Fr. ; Tannen, Ger. 

A. Natives qf Europe, Siberia, 
and the North-west qf Asia. 

1. pectinata - - 1037 

Kbiesof Pliny, Vlntis Vicea 
Litt. Sp. PL, P. A'bies Du Roi 
Harbk., A' 6tWa^ Mill. Diet., 
A. Tixi/blio Tourn. Inst., A. 
vulgdris Poir. Diet., A. pecti' 
nita'Dec Fl. Fr., A.tnxifdUa 
Hort. Par., A. Pi era Lind. in 
Penn. Cyc., A. aedlsa Link 
Abhand. &c : Spanish Fir : Sa- 
pin commmi, Sapin d FeuiUes 
d'^f, Sapin bkmc, Sapin argentf, 
Sapin en Peigne, Sapin de Nor~ 
mandie, Fr. -jVeiss Tonne Edel- 
tanne, Ger.; Abete argentino, 
Ital. 

2 tortuosa Booth 1037 

3 fdliis variegatis 1037 

4 cinerea - - 1037 
PlfMM V\cea cinerea B. C. 

2. (p.) cephalnnica 1039 
A bies eephaUniea Arb. Brit. 

1 ed.. A. iatlfdUa Hort.,A. Lus- 
combeiXiA Hort. : Koukounaria 
and Elatos in Cephalonia; 
Mount Enos Fir, 

3. (p.) Piwapo - 1041 

Kbies Pinsapoj/oiMi'^n* in Bibl. 
Univ. de GenC've : Mount Atlas 
Cedar, Dec. MSS. 

4.(p.)Nordmannianal042 
Piitatf NordmasmMMSk Stev. 

5. (p.) Pichta - - 1043 
Tlnus Pichta Lodd . Cat.1836 ; 

P. sibikrica Hort.; A bies sibiri- 
caLedebour Icon. PI. Fl Ross., 
Lind. in Penny Cyc; A. Pichta 
Fischer : Pichta, Russ. 

B. Natives qfN. America. 

6. bals£imea - - 1044 

The Balm of Gilead, or Ame- 
rican, Silver Fir — Plnus bal- 
sdmea Lin. Sp. PI., P. JCbies 
balsdmea Marsli. Arb. Amer., 
J^bies Thxi fdtio, ^., Hort. 
Angl., A. balsaminea N. Du 
Ham., A. balsam^fera Michx. 
N. .\mer.Syl. : Balsam Fir : le 
Baume de GtKad, le Sapin Bau- 
nUer de Giliad, Fr.; Balsam 
Fichte, Balsam, Tonne, Ger.; 
PifU) balsamifero, Ital. 

2 longfolia Booth 1044 

7. (b.) Fr^seri - 1044 

The doubleBalsamSilverFIr 

V\nus Frdseri Pursh Ft. Amer. 
Sept., Lamb. Pin.; ^bies Frd- 
teri Lind. in Penn. Cyc. 

C. Natives qf California. 

8. gr4ndis - - 1045 

Tinus grSndis Doogl. MSS 
Lamb. Pin.; Kbies grdndis 
Lindl. in Penny Cycl.: the great 
Califomian Fir. 



9. am&bilis - - 1046 
PiniM amdbilis Doug. MSS. 

10. nobilis . - 1047 
ThclarffP-bracted SilverFir. — 

Pmttf nobilis Doug.MSk, Lamb. 
Pin., A. nobilis Lindl.iu Penny 
Cycl. 

11. bracte^ta - 1048 

V'mus bractedta.D. T>onlnlAn. 
Trans., Lamb. Pin.; P. veniisla 
Doug, in Comp. to Bot. Mag. 

D. Nativesqf Mexico. 

12. religiosa - 1049 
Vinns religidsa Humb. et 

Kunth Nov. Gen. et Sp. PI^ 
Schlede et Deppe In Schlecht. 
Linnaea; JCbies religidsa JAadL 
in Penny Cycl. 

13. hirt^lla - - 103O 
Kbies hirUUa Lindl. in Penny 

Cycl., FiMiM hirtilla Humb. et 
Kunth. 

E. Natives qfNepai. 

14. Webbwna - 1051 

Tinus WebbiUnaJValL in LOt., 
Lamb. Pin. ed. 2.; T.spectdbOu 
Lam. Monog.; Kbies fVebbiixia. 
Lindl. in Fenny Cyc, Royle 
Illust.: ChUrow,anAthePonmm., 
or Purple-ooned Fir, in the Hi- 
malayas. 

13. Pindrow - 1052 

TheTooth-leavcdSilverFIr. — 
PmiwPindrow Movie Ill.,Lamb. 
Pin. ; ToxM LamberAkns, WalL 
Cat. i Pindrow, and sometimes 
Morinda, in the Himalayas. 

16. ndphtha Hort. 1053 

IV. La'rix Tourn. 1053 
The Larch. — Vinus Lin. and 
others ; Kbies Ricli. ; MeUxe, 
Fr. ; I^rchenbaum, Ger.; La^ 
rice, Ital. 

1. europasa Dec. 1053 

Ttnus lArix Lin. Sp. PL: 
Kbics Lin. Hort. Cliff. ; lArd 
decidua Mill. Diet. ; "Ldrixjblio 
deciduo. Sfc., Bauh. Hist ; Vdrix 
Bauh. Pin. ; Kbies Larie Lam. 
IlIusL ; Melixe commune, Fr. ; 
Lorche, Lorcher-Fichte, gemei- 
ner Lerchenbaum, Terbentrn- 
baum,EuropaischeCeder, Ufeiss- 
er Lerchenbaum, Ger. 

1 commiinisjLavs. 1054 

2 laxa Laws. - 1054 

3 compucta £cr}t'9. 1054 

4 p^ndula jCatof . 1054 

GodsallA'G.M. - 1054 
rdpcns Laws. - 1054 

5 flore rubro^. T.1054 

6 flore k\ho - - 1054 

7 sibirica - - 1054 
L. sibirica Fisch. 
? L. archangiliea I^n's. 
L. rdssica Lab. in Hort. 

Soc. Gard. 
Tinus Ldrix sibirica Lod. 
The Russian Larch, 

8 dahurica - - 1055 
L. dahUrica Laws. Man. 



CONTENTS. 



9 intenn^dia - 1055 
L. intermUia Lawt. Man. 
¥mms intermedia Lod. Ct. 

Other VarietUt - - 10» 

2. americana Mx, 1056 

PiitM lar^rma Du Roi Harbk. 
ed. Pot., P. microcarpa Willd. 
Baam. ; A^ hie* nueroo d rpaFcir.: 
Hackmataekt Amvr.iTamaraek, 
br the Dutch in New Jersey ; 
RpmeOe rouge in Canada. 

J rubra . - 1056 

L. microcdrpa Laws. 

Thua microcarpa Pursh 

E*tnnette rouge, Canada. 
S pendula - - 1056 

L. pSnduia Laws. 5Ian. 

Ymuspinduia Ait Hort. 

P. intermedia Du Rol Hk. 

P. Lir/jr nigra Marsh. 

A'biei pindmia Poir. Diet. 

Tamaraek, Amer. 

S prolifera - 1056 

L. proUfera Malootm. 

V. Ce'drus Bear. 1057 
The Cedar. — Pimw Lin. m 
part i A^biet Poir. in part^ LA- 
rie Tourn. in pari : Cedre, Fr. ; 
Ceder, Ger. ; Cedro, lul. 

1 . Libani Barr, - 1057 
VinuM Cidrut Lin. Sp. PI.; 

P. Jhlii$ faedcnUttit, &c^ Du 
Roi Harbk. ed. Pott. ; tirie 
Cedrta MiU. Diet. ; Ldrrx ori- 
cntdiis Tourn. Inst.; Cednu 
maf[na Dod. PempL; C. co" 
ni/cra Baub. Pin. ; C. pkeei^eca 
Renealm Sp. ; Cedrus Bell. 
It. ; Abiet Cedrus Poir Diet. 
EncTC. 

2 folia arg^teis 1058 

3 Dana - • 1059 

2. Deodara Roxb. 1059 
The Indian Cedar Vlnut 

D%odira Lamb. Pin., A'biet 
DeodAraLm^. in Penny Cyc. : 
Devadara, or Deodara, Hln- 
dostanee ; the sacred Indian 
Fir. 



Varieties 



1C59 



VL Arauca'biaJ. 1061 

Euiassa Sal.. Colombia Sal., 
DombegK Lamb.f Ctmritnu 
Forst : tbe Southern Fine. 

1. imbricata Pav. 1062 

The Chili Pine A. Dombiyi 

Rich. Mhn. sur let ConiJ., P>- 
nmt Arauedria Mol. Sag. sulla 
Stor. NaL del Chill, Colombia 
emadrifbria Sallsb. in Lin. 
Trans., Bombiyz. chiUnsig 
"Lam. Encyc: Fino de Chili, 
Span. ; Feghuen in the Andes ; 
Str Jo$ephJBank9's Fine. 

Other Species ef Aramdtria, — 
A. brasiliftna Rich., A. ex- 
c&sa Ait.^ and A. Cunning, 
himii Ait., are half-hardy 
species which are figured and 
described in first edition. 

VIT. CUNNINGHA^M7i<. 
Films Lamb., BiUs Satisb. 

1. sinensis Bich, - 1065 

The 6ro«Lleaved Chinese 

Fir — Belis iacultfdlia SaUsU, 



! In Lin. lYans., F2na» laneeo- 
Idta Lamb. Monog., Cunm'ng' 
hdnda, lanceoldta K. Br., Arau- 
edria laneeoldta Hort, 

D^MMARA orientalis 
Lamb. - - 1066 

Tribe II. CaPRE'ssiif.s. 

VIII. TkiUJAi. 1068 

The Arbor Vitse — TMeya, or 

Arbre de rift f «"• ; Lebens- 
baum, Ger. ; T\^a, Ital. 

§ i. TAi^Vs vera. 

1. occidentalis L, 1068 

The American Arbor Vitse. 
— Thi^a TheophrisA Bamh. 
Fin., A'rbor VtUe Clus. Hist. : 
wMte Cedar. Amer., Cidre 
amtrieain, Cedre blanc, Arbre 
de Vie, Fr. ; gemeiner Lebens- 
baum, Ger. ; Aibero de Ftta. 
Ital. 

2 variegata Marsh. 1069 
T. o.fbUit variegatis Lod. 

2. (o.) plicata Bonn 1069 
Nee*s Arbor Vitw. 

3. cK\\^iisv& Lamb. 1070 
Cuprissus thtfoides Pavon 

MSS. 

§ ii. Bidta. 

4. orientklisZr. - 1070 

The Chinese Arbor ViUe. 

2 stricta Hort. - 1070 
T. pyramiddlit Baum. 

3 tatirica - - 1070 
T. tat&ruM Lod. Cat. 

T. WarekDSi Booth Cat. 

§ iii. Cyparina. 

Tender Spedes. — T. cupres- 
soldes L., T. p£nsilis L. 1071 

5. pendula Zram^. 1071 
?T.JUif6rmis Lodd., ?J«. 

niperusfiagdiifbrmis Hort. 

Other Species. — T. filir6rmi8 
Lodd. {?T.p(ndula Lamb.), 
r. dolabrita L. - - 1071 

IX. Ca'llitris V. 1072 

Thi^d, part qf, Lin. ; Fresni- 
Oa MirbetMhn. Mu*. 

1. quadriv41visF(pn. 1072 

Th^a articuiiUa Dcsf. All. 
Arb. et Arbrlss., Cuprissus ar- 
tieuldta Pin. Wob. 

Other Species of CaUtiris — C. 
Fotherglllt (? Cvprissus Fo. 
thcrgUa), C. triquetra (C«. 
prissus triquetra Lodd. Cat. 
1836), C cupressif6rmisf>nf., 
C. macrostachya Hort. 1072 

X. Cupbe'ssus L, 1073 

The Cypress — Cypris, Fr. ; 
Qfpresse, Ger. ; Cipresso, Ital. ; 
Ciproste, Port.; Qypros, Hun- 
gajrian. 

I. sempenrirens Zr. 1073 

The common Cypress. — • C. 
ponanidAlis Hort., ? C. fas- 
dgOta Hort. & Pin. Wob.: 
(hfpris mrramidal, Cppris or- 
duudrst Fr. ; gemeine Cypres- 
c 4 



senbaum, Ger. : the Italian Cy- 
press. 

1 stricU MiU. Z>ieL 1073 
Cyres male, Fr. 

2 horizontalis Afi^. 1073 
C. horixonidUs N. Du H. 
C. expdnsa Hort. Par. 
Cipresso femino, Ital. 

2. %dides L. - 1074 
The White Cedar. — TAit/a 

sphanxAddlis Rich. Mkm. sur 
Conif. : Cypres Jau* Thi^a, Fr. 

2 foliis variegatis 1075 

3 nana Hort. - 1075 

3. lusitanica 7bum.l075 

The Cedar of Goa — Cglaika 
Brot. FI. Lus., C. pfndula 
L'H^rit. Stirp. {«fov.: Cedar ^ 
Bussaeo ; C.pfndula Thunb., 
Lamb. Pin., is supposed to be a 
dilTerent plant. 

4. toniloMa Letmb, 1076 
The Bhotan Cypress. 

5. pendula Thunb. 1076 
Fi-moro, K«mpf. Amcen. 

Other Kinds qf Cuprfssus^ some 
of which have been introduced, 

but qf which little is known 

C. borixontilis Audtbert, C. 
thurifera U. B. et K., C. 
TouroefdrUI Audibert, C. 
baccUSrmis Willd., C. aus- 
trilis Fers., C. «abinbldes 
H. B. et K., a Coult^rji Pin. 
Wob. (?C. thurifera H. B. 
ot K.), C. fastiaiata Hort.Fin. 
Wob.,Gard. Mag. {Juiuperus 
/astigidta Hort.) . . 1077 

XL Taxo DiuM B. 1077 

The deciduous Cypress.— 
Cupr€ssus L., SchubtrtiaMirb,, 
CondylocArptts Salisb. 

1. dlstichum Bich. 1078 
Csmr^snu disticha Lin. Sp. 
PI., Pursh Flor. Amer. Sept , 
C. atnericdna Cat. Carol., C. 
virginidna Comm. Hort., 
Schub6rt\ai disticha Mirb. : bald 
Cypress, Cypress, Amer. ; Cy- 
pres dtauve, Fr. ; Z^eyxeil^e 
Cypresse, Ger. ; Cipresso gag- 
gia, Ital. 

1 patens Ait Hart 1078 

2 nutans AU. - 1078 
T. d phtduia ]>oud. H. B. 

3 excelsum Booth 1078 

4 sin^nse - - 1078 
T. sinhue Noisette. 

5 pendulum - 1078 

T. stnhuepbnduhtmHoTt. 

Other Species qf Taxbdhtm.'^ 
T. semperrlrens Lamb. 1080 

XII. JUNI^PERUSL. 1080 
The Juniper.— SaMxaBauh.; 
Cedntt Tourn. : Genivrier, 
Fr. ; Waehholder, Ger. ; Gine- 
pro, Ital. 

§ L Oxjctdri. — Leaveg 
tprtading in the adult 
Blants. D. Dun. 

A. Natives qf Europe. 

1. communis L. - 1081 

I J. vulgaris, ftc.. Bail Syn. i 



Ivi 



CONTENTS* 



J. minor Fuchs Hist. : Genith- 
rirr comrman. Ft. j gememer 
fVadikolder^ G«r. ; Qmejtro 
merOt Ital. 

1 vulgsLris Park. T. I08I 
J. v.fruHeota Bauh.Pin. 
J. c. ericu's Furih Flor. 

Amer. Sept. 

2 su^ica AH. Hort. 1081 
? J. e.fastigiita Des Mou. 

lin'i Cat. d« Pl&ates de 

la Dordogne. 
J. stricta Hort. 
J. tuScica Mill. Diet. 
J. vulgdrit arbor Bauh. 
TAe Tree Juniper. 

.) nkaa Wittd. Sp. 1081 

J. comm&nu fi FI. Br. 

J. c. saxatiiis Pall. Rots. 

J. alp'ma Rail Syn. 

J. aipina minor Ger. 

r. minor i»oni<)iia, ^c, 
Bauh. Pin. 

J. nana Smith Engl. Flor. 

J. Mt'birica Hort. 

J. d'ditrica Hort. & Booth. 

J. c. montdna Alt. Hort. 
Kew. 
4obl6nga - - 1082 

J. obUhtga Hort. 

5 p^ndula - - 1082 

6 canadensis - 1082 
J. eoTuuKtuis Lodd« Cat. 

7 depr^ssa Pursh 1082 
OiAer VarietU* - - 1082 

2. Oxycedrus L. - 1083 
The brown-berried Juniper. 

— J. mi^or Cam. Epit. ( J. m. 
monspetiinnum Lob. Ic. : J. 
phcenicea^ S[C.^ J. Bauh. Hist. ; 
J. mHjor^ ^c, C. Bauh. ; Ce- 
dnu phoaniee^ Matth. Valgr.i 
Oxficedrus Clua. Hiit.; O. 
phoentcea Dod. Pempt. : ike 
Prickly Cedar : le Cade, Fr. ; 
Spanische IVaeAkoUeri Ger. ; 
Cedro Fenieio, Ital. 

2 taurica J7orf. - 106S 

3. macrocirpa S. 1083 

? J. Oxpcednu var. ; J. mdJoTt 
baeed eairtUed, Toum. Init. 

B. Native qf Aaia. 

4*. drup^cea Lab, 1084 

The large-firuited Juniper. — 
J. m{^ior BelloD Oba. 



C. Native qfN. America. 

5. virginiana L, - 1084 

The Red Cedar. — J. m^/or 
americdna Rail HUt. ; J. 
mdtnma, Ac.t Sloan ; Ginepro 
di Virginia. 

2 hikmilis Zodi. C. 1084 

3 caroliniana - 1084 
J. carotrnidna Du Roi 

MiU. Diet. 

Other Varietiea - -1084 

Other Speciet of Jmupena.-~ 
J. bermudiiLna Z. ana J. ne- 
palfensia Hort. {CuprSssus ne- 
paihuis Hort.) areaescrlbed in 
our first edition. 

§ ii. Sabinte, — Leaves of 
the advU Plant imbri- 
cated, D. Don. 

A. Nali»e$ qf Europe. 

6. SMnBL - - 1085 

The common Savin. — Sabine, 
Fr. ; stinkender Waekhotder, 
Ger. ; Planta daunata and 
Cipresso de* ^fj^hi, Ital. 

1 cupres^folia ./^t^^. JC 
J. hisitdniea Mill. Diet. 
Sabhta Dod. Pempt. 

La Sabine mAif, Ft. 

2 /amariscifdlia Ait, 
J. Sabina Mill. Diet. 
LaSabbte/emeile. 

3 fdliifl vanegitia Mart. 

4 prostrita * 1086 
JT. prostrcUa Mx.; 

J. ripens Nutt. 

J. kudsdnica Lodd. Cat. 

5 alplna - - 1086 
J. alphta Lodd. Cat. 

7. phoenicea If. - 1087 

Cidrtu pkeenieea media Lob. 
Icon., Oxocednu Ipda Dod. 
Pempt.: Oenivrier de Pkhu'cie, 
Fr. ; didlinadtiger WackAoider, 
Ger. i Cedro Udo, Ital. 

8. (p.) If cia i. - 1087 

J. p. Ucia N. Du Ham. : 
Cipre$$en Wachkoider, Ger. 

9. thurlfera X. - 1088 
Spanish Juniper. — J. kitpA' 



niea Mill. Diet, s CedruskUpi* 
nica, ^., Toum. Inst. 

B. Natives qf Asia. 

10. excelsa Wi/ld, lOdS 

J. Sabhta vop, PalL ltoM« t 
Himalaffa Cedar-wood. 

11. squamata jDoh. 108§ 

The creeping CedUr.-^ J« 
t^nanidta Wall. 

12. rec6rva Ham, 1080 

13. chin^nsis L. - )08d 

? J. c. ARfKAIl ilr6. 2?K/. itf . 1 . 

14. uviferaZ). Don 1069 

Otker Species <tf Juniperus, qf 
recent Tntroduetion, bta af 
tokick little is knotim. — J. 
tetragdna H. R et K., J. 
fliccida SdUede, ./. dealbAte 
ZTon., J.flagellir4rmis Aorl V. 
gossaintbAnea Hort.^ J. Bed* 
fordidflAHort., J. Hudaont'aittt 
PiaWob., J. barbadfosis L^ 
J. hemitphoTrlca Presl . 1069 

"Empetrdcece. 

I.jB'MPETllUMi. - 1091 
The Crowbeny. 

1. nigrum. L. - 1091 

The Crakel)erry. — "Rrfea coc- 
djfera procftmbens Ger. Emac., 
£. Cdris fiiio uniiecima Ckis. 
Hist. 

2 8c6ticum^odb.^ 1091 

2. ri^brum Ir. - 1091 
Cranberrp qf Staten Island. 

3. Conradii Torrey 1092 

ILCoRE^MA2).Z)on 1098 
H'mpetrum, in part, L 

1. alba 2>. Don - 1098 

E*mpetrum dlbum Lin. Sp.; 
E.lustt^nicum,^e.,ToaT. Inst.; 
Erica er6ctit, ^c, Bauh. Pin. : 
tke vfkite-berried Heatk, Por^ 
tugal Orakeberrp. 

III. Cerati\>la - 1092 
1. ericoldes - - 1093 



Class II. END(yGEN^. 



Smildcece. 



I. SuihAx L. - 1093 

Smikut Fr. and Ger.: SmUace, 
Ital. 

§ i. Stems prickly and an- 
gular. 

1. &spera L. - - 1094 

Rough Bindweed. — Rogo 
acerbone, Ital. 

2 auricuUta ^t<. - 1094 
S mauritanica - 1094 | 
S. mauritanica Foir. i 



2.exc^Isai;. - - 1094 

S. orientdHs, fc, Toum. Cor., 
Bux. Cent. ; S. dtpera Alp. 
^gTpt. ed. 8. 

3. rubens IVaU. - 1094 

4. SarsapariUa L. - 1095 
8. peruviana SarsaparfIIaG«r. 

Emae.\ 8. glaUca Mx.'Walc, Fl. 
Car. : tke glaucous-leaved Smi- 
la*: Salsa parigb'a, Ital. 

5. hast^ta Willd, - 1095 
8.Bdna-nos Mz. Fl. Amer. 

5. dspera var. Lam. Encyc. 

6. Wdtsom' Swt. - 1095 
S. longifdlia Wats. Den. Brit, 



S. h. S lanoeoldia Arb. Brit, 
cd. I. 

7. Walterif Pursh 1095 

S. Ckina Walt. FL Car. 

8. macuUta Roxb, 1096 

§ ii. Stems pricklp, round. 

9. China!,. - - 1096 

Ckhut rddix Bauh. Pin.; 
Smilae &spera minorPlum. Ic. ; 
Saiikira vuigo Quaguara, &c., 
K»mpf. Amom. Ex. : Cena 
gentiia, Ital. 

10. rotundifolia L, 1096 



CONTENTS. 



Ivii 



Il.iburifdliaX. - 1006 

itinera, 4c.. num. Ic. ; S. 
inB,4c., CateabL Car. 

\t temnoides L. - 1096 

S. BrgimuB mignt, ^c. Cat. 
Cir. 

IloducaZ. - 1097 
H.glaaca&» - 1097 



JSL Steau 

b. ^ona-nox Zr. 1097 

Tbe dStfcd-ksved Smilax. 

- 8. Stpera fndim c€eidaUdla 

BMk Fia, S. waritgdia Wah. 

16. latifoiia R, Br. 1097 

17. qoadnaguli^ 1097 

{ir. Saaiaunrmed, rotmd. 
l&knceolataL. - 1098 

a. m mtp m d m, ^c^ CmL Car. 

19.Tii]gimai}a Jfi//. 1096 

20. pubera If i^. . 1098 
S.fimita'WaU. Car. 

JBWiy SMilar «JI/dl ow n(4tfr 
motmlniKetd, or (^^skick ve 
kne^Mtetm tie Ftaats,— S. 
otitiFwrsk Fi. Amer. Sept., 
S. Oba Pmik, S. pandurita 
Am*, S. Blgn W., 8. catal6- 
aka /oo-^ S. b6rridji Da^/:. 
S. ViO^adar Ham. (S.iHa. 
er«^^ Bosb.). 5. alplna 
T: ... . 1098 

L£ir'scusX. - 1099 

TliaBofecfaer't Broom.— i^. 



iPW»t r r. ; 
BMitOt leal* 



Fr. ; Mautedom, Ger. ; 



1. actileatus If. - 1^9 

R. ta^rt^fdlnu acmUditu Tour. 
Iiut. : Box HoUm^ Knee HoUg, 
tnUMvrOe, prldkljf Petttgree : 
Nous FrtUtn, petit Hotut, Bids 
ptquemtf f^ragon epiaeux^ Fra- 
am piputnt, Fr.; Sieehender 
Jiausemfm, Ger. ; Busco, Ital. 

2 rotuDdifoliiis - 1099 
R. 9uLJkLampl&re Dill. 

3 14xus Snuth - 1099 
R. Itutu Lodd. Cat. 

2. hypoph fUum L, 1 100 

Tb« broadf-Ieaved Batcher's 
Broom. — R. latifbiha^ 4^.. 
Toun. but. ; htrnms aiexan- 
drtna Lob. Adv. : Fragon stau 
FIMole, Fr. : breitSlSttriger 
Hanatdomt Gar. ; BtmmifaceiOt 
Ital. 

2 triibliatum - 1100 
R. trifiOiiUua HiU. Diet. 

3. (h.) //ypogl6ssuiD 1 100 

The douUe-leaTed Butcher's 
Broom. — R. amgtut(fdlnu, Sfc, 
Toum. Inst. ; Hvpog/tfrnfm 
Lob. Adr.. Vvnldna Brunf. : 
Fragon k Foiiale, Fr. ; Zvngem 
MatuedoTHf Ger. ; Limgma pa- 
gana, Ital. 

4. racemosus Z/. - 1 101 

The Alexandria Laurel. — R. 
tmguUifdlhUt frUctv tUmmU 
ramuliiy &e., Toum. Inst. : 
F^agtM i GrappeSt Fr. ; T^au- 
ben Matuedom, Ger.; Lauro 
ideot Ital. 

IL Yi/ccaL. . 1101 

The Adam's Needle. 



1. gloriosa L. - 1101 

Y. amadtna Aid. Hort. Par. ; 
Y. indica, ^c.. Barr. Rar. ; Y. 
penubia Ger. Emac. ; Y. ndva 
gloriosa, tc.^ Lob. Adv. : the 
superb Yucca : Yucca nam. 
Yucca d FeuiUes entiereSf Fr. ; 
prachtiger Yucca, Ger. 

2 mu» varieg. Lod, 1 102 

2. (g.)sup^rba - 1103 

Y. gloribsa Andr. Bot. Rep. 

3. aloLf51ia L. - 1 102 

Y. arboriscens^ tic.,- Dill. 
Eltb.: Y. catUiscnu Mx. Fl. 
Bor. Aroer. 

2 p^ndula Co/. ITrM 102 

4. draconis L, - 1103 

The drooplng-Ieaved Adam's 
Needle. — uraconi Srbori, S[c , 
Bauh. Pin. 

5. stricta iSfmf -.1103 

Lpon*s uarrouhleaved Adam's 
NeedU. 

6. recurvifdlia Salts, 1 103 
Y. ree^rva Hort. 

7. filamentdsa - 1103 

The thready Adam's Needle. 
~~ Y. fSlHs JUamentdsts MorU. 
Hist ; Y. wirgiuidna, SfC., Pluk. 
Aim. 

8. (f.) angustifdlia 1104 

9. flaccida i/au;. - 1104 

10. glaucescens //. 1 104 



SUPPLEMENTARY SPECIES AND VARIETIES, 

AND SYNONYMES. 



Bammadacea. 

Cukati'dkjb. 

a^omc&G. M, 1111 

inu'GKNE. 
DBcrop^tala XeJ. 1 1 1 1 

Wintericem. 
lu/ciuM. 

Sa■^ Japan. 
lUcso'Lfil. 

graacfifldra var, Hir- 
wkoBHort, - 1111 

purpurea var, h^brida 
Hort, • - 1111 



Berberaceae. 

B^RBEBIS, 

Tulgaris fol. purpureis 
Hort, - - nil 



Maho'nz^. 

p41lida - - 1111 
B&beris p&lUda Hartw. 

ricilis - - 1111 
grSeOis Hartir. 

trifoliata - - 1111 
B. trifiOidta Hartw. 

lanceolatum - 1112 

B. lanceoldium Benth. 

angustifolia - 1112 

B. angustifdlia Hartw. 

Hartw^ - 1112 

B. HariwegH Beuth, 



AurantihcecR. 

LlM&NIA, 

\jamho\ii WaU, 1112 

VLyperic&cecs. 

JSType'ricum. 
rosmarinifolium 1112 

Kcerhcece. 

ifCER. 

laevigatum Wall, 1112 
c61cnicum Hrtuns, 1112 
c61chicum var, rubrum 
Booth - - 1112 
carap^tre rikbris 1112 
c. heterocirpum 1112 
g\kbrumTor,^G,lU1i 
tripartitum Nutt, 1112 
grandident^tum 1112 



Iviii 



CONTEXTS. 



JEscuIacea. 

(H,) rubicunda 1113 
Capparidhce(B> 

ISO^MERIS. 

arborea A^M^f. - 1113 
VitacecB. 

Karvifolia Royle 1113 
eterophylla 5. ? 1113 

Aquifolictceae, 

/^LEX. 

ifquif. pendulum 1113 
latifolia i^or/. - 1113 

? I. laurffblia Hort. 

K/iamndcea:, 

CiSANO^THUS. 

a. 2 interniMius 1113 

Rnj/Mfivs. 

Wfcklius Jflc^. 1113 
jorunifolius Booth 1113 

Anacardihcece. 

DuVAU'ii. 

longifolia iJor/. 1113 
LeguminbscB. 

SOPHO^ItA. 

[Pjaponica] grandifldra 

Hort. - - 1114 

jap. pub^cens J?. 1 1 14 

Geni'sta. 
thyTsiBdm Booth 1114 

Indigo'fera. 

nepal^nsis H^rt, 1 1 14 

Caraga^na. 

Gerardtan^z Roy 1. 1114 
Tartaric Purxe. 

-^stra'oalus. 

fruticosus Dec. 1 1 14 
\imineu3 Dec, - 1114 

Kosdcete. 
^my'gdalus. 

PalliswLedeb. 1114 

A. ptduncuUta Pallas. 
PRU>iUS. 

Mume Sieb. - 1114 

Ce'rasus. 

L. var. c61chica 1114 
'L.var.Emerem{^)UU 

nsH&Lindl. - 1114 
lanceolata Poir. 1114 

S. ReevesikiUL Hort. 

rotundifoliaXtm/. 1114 

Nvtta'IsLTA. 
cenisiformis Tor, 1115 



lasioc&rpus Rot/l. 1115 
trilobus Dec. - 1 1 15 

Crat-e^gus. 

Ox vac. oxyph^lla 1115 
O. tructucoccineoU 15 
Pyrac.fr.&lb. -^.1115 
rivularis r. (T^ G^. 1115 
coccinea r.yiridis 1 1 15 
c. var./7opulif6lia 1 1 15 
c. var. olig&ndra 1115 
c. var. mollis - 1115 
arborescens Tor. 1115 
aestivalisT". e^G. 1115 

C. opdca Hook. 
berderifoUai Torr. 1115 

Cotonea'ster. 

bacillaris WaU. 1115 
AUELA'NCHIER. 

(v.) oy^lis 2 subcor- 
d^ta - - 1115 

Petromeles ovalis subcordiUa 
Jacquio. 

Py^RUS. 
heterophyila ^. 1115 

VhiladclphacecB, 
Philade'lphus. 
mexicanus Bcnih. 1115 

Grossulacece, 
Rinses. 

tauricum Jacqidn 1116 

Araliacece, 
JTe'dera. 

Helix var. taurica 1116 

ConidcecB, 
Co'rnus. 
grandis Benth. - 1116 
macrophyIla;ra//.1116 

SambucecB. 

riBU'RNUBf. 

Awafuki Sieb. ? 1 1 16 
? y.Japdnictim Hort. 

sinense Zeyh, - 1116 

MuliahaRsLm. 1116 
V. gteUuldtum WaU. 

pygmae^a iZoy/f 1116 
IjOnicereaSf 

LONl'CERvi. 

ciliosa Poir. - 1116 
Eiricctcea*. 

i^RCTOSTA'PHYLOS. 

p(ingens H.et B.\\\^ 
niuisL Benth. - 1116 

Perne'tty><. 
angustir61iaLm£!/.l 1 16 

p. phfUyret^blia Hort. 



dlettcece. 

ZrlGU'STRUH. 

nepalense - 1116 

L. tre«ft«tan WaU. 

SYRtNOA. 

Embdi - - 1117 
S. indica Wall. 

Polt/gon^eae, 
Poly'gonum. 
voldmicum ^^n. 11 17 

A5c/£p/adacece. 

MoRRE^fZ^. 

odorata XrtVii/. - 1117 

Solanhcete, 
Vmuk'sa. 
imbricatai2.rfP.lI17 

ThT/melacece. 
jDa'phne. 

Auckl&nd»Lindl.lll7 

IStla^agndcea?, 
Eljea^gkvs, 
parvifolia Royle 1117 

Spo^ia. 
canescens H.etB.llll 

CSUis caaHscens H. et B. 

Betuldce€e, 

-4'LNUS. 

denticulata Pi* cA. 1117 
-Se'tdla. 

mdllisZwtt//. - 1117 

Coryltceie. 
Que'rcus. 
riexBalldta - 1117 
lan^ta - - 1117 

Q. nepaUfuis. 

Skfnneri Benth. 1117 

? Q. acutifbUa Neoi. 

pyrenaica- - 1118 
pann6nica J^ooM 1118 
rilbra - - 1118 
r. /araxacifdlia j9. 1 1 18 
Pa^gus. 

sylvatica - - 1118 
s. 9 cochlelta^. 1118 

Vlatandcece. 
Pla'tanus. 
[occidentalis] hetero- 
phyila fibr^. 1118 

ConifercB. 

Pl^NUS. 

oocarpoides - 1118 

Taxo^dium. 

distich, nuclferum 1118 
T6mu nuc\fera Hort. 



«• 

nx 



AN ANALYSIS 

OF THE 

COMMONER TREES AND SHRUBS OF BRITAIN, 

WITH 

REFERENCE TO THEIR USES IN PLANTATIONS. 



*»* Vhcre tbe Generic Name* only are given, the reader is left to sel(>ct the Specie* and Varietiet 
far himidf. This he will readily be able to do hj turning to the pages referred to after every 
GcDeric Name, and oonsolting the Popular Descriptions. The insertion of the names of all the 
2i|icdes and Varieties in this Analysis would have swelled it to ten times its present bulk. 



TREES 
Trees caowN cuierLT for useful Purposes. 

Sdxtid vM rtfercnee to ikeir Size. 
Large-sixed timber trees. 

Dead. JCsculus HIppoc&stanum, 124. Cfirpinus J?£tuhis. 016. CHryn. ilba, 736. 

Ckst4nea T^sca, 911. Flgus syWatica, 905. Frixious excdsior. G39. Jtkglans rdgia. 
732. Pkfcnera Richard/, 72ft. iUtanus orientails, P. occcidentaiis, 927. PdpiUus 
idta, P. etn^cens, P. nlAra, P. canadensis, P. monolirera. I\ fastlgi&ta, and A an^ 
gulftta, 819. Quircus peduncuUta, Q. sessUlfldra, Q. Ci'rrls, Q. rtbra, Q. coccfnea, 
and Q. pallistris, 846. Taxbdium dfstichum, 1077. TYIia eurnpseX 63. £/'lmus cam- 
pestria, U. mont&oa vSgeta, and other varieties or species of L'imiis, 715. 

Ev^jrWm exctisa, 1025l Cddrus Libini. 1057. Picea pectinAta, 1036. Plnus sylvftstrii, 
P. Lar^o, P. Pallasfatia, and P. Pinaster, 95a 
)fiddle<<iacd timber trees. 

Dead. ^*cer jilatanSldea, A. erlocArp^i™* ^^ ■^- rtibrum, 79. ^'Intis gluUndsa, A. in- 

cina, and A. cordifMia, 832. £6tulapapyricea,837. Cerasus sylv^strls, and C. vulgirls, 
276. CKstrva vulgaris, 919. JMpuIus balsam<fera,819. P^rus cummtinis, and P. tor- 
mixAUa, 417. Qu6rcas J^seulus, 846. RobfniVs Psend-i<cicia, 233. 

fe.—il'bies Uba, 1025. /lex ilquifblium, 156. Juniperus virginiina, 1060. Pfcca 
baU&roea, 1036. Qu^rcus /Hex, 846. 
Satall-cixed timber trees. 

Decad. — il*cer tatfcricum, A. splditum, A. striatum, A. O'jpalus, A. monspessuUnum, 
and A. camp^stre, 79. CVatse'gus, most of the species, 352. Cyd6nia vulgilris, 450. 
Cf tisus Xab&mmn, and C. alplnus, 213. £u6nnnus europae'us, 149. O'mus europae% 
651. P^rus ^*ria, and P. aucupilria, 417. Salix cilprea, 744. 

£v. _^"bies nigra, 1025. Juniperus rlrginlAna, 1080. Tlxus bacc^ta, 039. 

Seteded as tmitabie to he grown in Mastet — Social Trees, 

J)ecid.'^A^tr,7% Cftisus, 213. XaHx, 1053. Qu^rcus, 846. 

£r.— .^^bies, all the species, 1026. Ctklrus, 1057. Pfcea, 1036. Plnus, 950. t^'lmus, 
and, in short, most trees, 715. 

Seitti^ as suitable /or being grown singlff^ or in scattered Grovps. — Solitary Trees. 

Dead ^scolus, in. Carplnus. 916. Pogus, 905. SiUx, 744. 

£e.— .Cbpr^uus sempcrvlrens, 1073. 

Sr'ettedfor Ike sake of tkeir produce in Timber. * 

Produced in a short time, with a straight trunk. 

Decid^-lAxix communis, 1053. PApulus monilffera, P. fastigi&ta, and P. &lba, 819. 

Silix filba, and 5. RusselliaiM, 744. 
£r.— iTbics excclsa, 1025. Plcea pecthiata, 1036. Plnus sylvcstris, and P. Lar1cio.950. 
ProdiKed in a short time, with a branchy head. 

Beead^-Jtott Fseiuio-PltoJius, 79. .£'kculas Hlppoc&stanunt. 12t. F^mi% sylvlitica, 905. 

Pkixinus excelsior. 639. O'strya vulgirls, 919. PUitxinus occidcntaiis, 927. Pdpulus 

idgra. P. canadfauis, P. gne'ca, and P. anaulita, H19. Qu^rcus C>^rris, 846. 5&llx 

frftgilit, 744. tJ'lmus montina v^geta (the Huntingdon elm ), and U. camp^stris, 715. 

Bo^-Ptaas Plo&ster, P. sylv^trls, JP. Larfdo, and P. Pallasiaiuz, 950. 

SeUsird/br the QuaUty qfthe Timber to be produced. 
Soft woods. 

i>MMr«.if Inos, 831 5«Iix,744. P6pulus, 819. j£'sculus, 124. Liriodendron, 36. 
Qndvroods. 

Dedd.^jCoee.T^. Andntus^Ui. fvtula, 837. Ofcrpinus, 916. Cirya, 735. Castibea, 
911. Ciltis, 727. flgus, 905. Pr^xiuus, 639. Gledftschia, 249. Jhglans, 78SL 
O'strya, 919. PUuiera,725. PUitanus, 927. Qu6rcus, 846. Robfnia, 233. C;'lmus.715. 



ix ANALYSIS OF TH£ COMMONER TREES AND SHRUBS, 

Verj hard, compact, and durable wood«. 

Decid.—CiTMxxt, 276. Cratie^gut, 862. (7^tUuiLabiimuin,3I3. £u<hi7inus, 119. PriUkUS, 

S7U. Ptriu, 417. Roblnia, 233. 
£».— ^xus, 703. CupreMiu, 1073. iUex, 156. Jimfperus, 1060. Phill^rea, 631. 
Thtkja. 1068. 
Uesinout iroods. 

Dccid— JLirix, 1053. 

£v i<*blei, 1025. CMnu, 1057. Plcea, 1036. Aiiu, 950. 

SeUcledfor the character qf the Head. 
For its general bulk. 

Dedd. — A^cm Pteiido-Pl&tanus, and A. obtusitum, 79. ^'icului Hippocistanum, IS4 . 
C&rpinuf iretulus,916. /Igus lyWfitica, 906. JUU-ix europie'a, 1053. >6pului. most of 
tiiu species, S19. Qu6rcu« Cerrls, 846. Sklix, several species, 744. riUia europieS, 
G3. c^'lmus, most of the species, 715. 
£9. — Pinus sylr^stris, P. Larfcio, P.Pinister, and P. FallasfilMa, 950.- 
For its upright habit. 

Dceid, — A'luMM glutin5sa laciniita, 833. P6pu1us fastigi4ta, and P. monilliera, %Vi. 

Qu^rcus Cerris, 846. I/Mmus campcstris stricta. 715. 
£v..j|'bies, 1035. Pfcea, 1036. Plnus,g50. 
For its spreading habit. 

i)fc/tf.— CastineaT£sca,91I. f%gus sjlvAtica, 905. A4xlnus excelsior, 639. Qu£rcua 
peduncuULta, 846. £/'lmus montina, 716. 

Selected with a view to the production qf Shelter. 
For general purposes. 

Deeid,^ A'oer Psetdo-PUitanua. 79. Oiirpinus J9teulus, 916. JSgus svlvitica, 905. 
Lirix europsB'a, 1053. P6pulus filba, 619. P^rut .^I'ria, 417. l/'imus moaUlna, 715. 
Plnus sylvestris, 950. 
For drawing up voung plantations. 

Drcfd— Setula ilba, 837. lArix europn'a, 1053. P^rus aucupiria, 417. P6palu« 
balsamffera, and P. c&ndicans, 819. 

Ev .^I'bles excfclsa, 10S5. Plnus sylv#strls, 950. 

For protection flrom the sea breexe. 

Dea'd.^A^cer Pseiido-PUtanus, 79. //ipp6phae Rhamndldes, 698. Pdpulos ilba« 
P^rus J^ria, 417. Aunbticus nigra, 513. 

Seleetedjbr the production nf Shade, 
For shade in summer only. 

Most deciduous species. 
For shade in summer and winter. 
Most evergreen species. 

Selected a$ adapted for particular Soil. 
For dry poor soils. 

Decid Aildnius glandulbsa, 145. JKtula Alba, 887. C&rpfnns J?£tulus, 916. OSrasua 

vulgaris, and C. sylvfotris, 376. F^gat sylvitica, 90S. Gleditschta triadbathot, M9. 
Aippdphae Khamnoldes, 098. Lirix europse'a, 1053. P^rus il^ria. and P. aucupiU-ia, 
417. Uoblnta.P8eiido Adicih, 283. 

Ev Plnus syiv6stris, P. Pin4ster. and P. austrtaca, 95a 

For mi>ist soils. 

Dedd. —A^cer erlodkrpum, and A. ri^brum, 79. il'lnus glutindsa, 833. P14tanus occl- 

dentklis, 937. P6pulus, 819. .Sllix,744. 
Ev. — i<^bies commtinis, 1025. 
For peaty soils. 

Dedd. — Z^ftula fclba, 837. Pdpulus trfmoU, and P. balsamffera, 819. SUix c^proa, 744. 
£v. -. il'bies communis, 1026. 
For good deep soil. 

Dedd iS'sculus Hippocfcstanum, 124. Cirra &lba, 735. Ckstiinea v^sca. 911. J!^^ana 

rtela, 732. P6pulus, most of the species, 819. Quircua, most species, 846. 5&lix,744. 
mm\u, 715. 

Selected at adapted for particular Situations. 
On elevated surfaces. 

Decid. — P^tula filbo, 837. Ptnis i^^ria, and P. aucap&ria, 417. 5ambticus nigra, 513. 
Ev. — Plnus sylv6stris, and P. Cimbra, 950. 
Sheltered by houses. 

Decid. — i^'cer Psehdo.P14tanus. 79. PlAtanus, 927. P6pulus fastigi^ta, 819. 7TUa 
coropseX 63. l/'lmus camp6stris, 715. 
Exposed to the sea breeze. 

Decid — il'cer Pscddo-Pl&tanus. 79. Hippdphae Rhamnoldes, 696. P6pulus &lba, 81*). 
P^rus .rl'ria, 417- 5ambticus nigra, 513. 

Selected for bang grown for tprcial Purposes. 

For producing an immediate screen, so dense as to interrupt the view. 

Dedd„—^cer PseilUlo-PlAtanus, 79. iE'seulus Hipiiocistanum, 124. Ofcrpinus ^^Ca^ 
lus, 916. Plgus sylvitica, 905. Tllia europs'a, 68. Vlmut camp6stris and U. 
montina, 715. 
£«.— i<*bies exc61sa, 1025. Plnus sylvistrls, P. Laricio, and P. Pin^ter, 950. 
Partially to interrupt the view. 

jDtfdd— iMtula ilba, 837. C^rasiu sylvfatrls, 376. fHixinus excfisior. 639. GledlUchfa 
triacinthos, 249. P6pulus tremula and P. gni ca, 819. Robinia Pseud- ^cftda, 233. 
For producing timber In hedgerows. 

Dedd^—A^ev Pseado-Plitanus, 79. AiUmtus gUndul&sa, 146. Arya Alba, 735. Ca^. 
tknea v6sca, 911. P^rus commQnis, 417. Quercus peduncuUtta. Q. sessiiiflbra, 
Q. Cirris, Q. rQbra, Q. coccinea, and Q. paldstris, 846. U^mus campcstris, 715. 
For forming avenues. 

Dedd^A'cer PseMo-Pl&tanus, 79. .^'sculus Hippocistanum, 124. C&rpinus i7£tulus 
916. Cirya ilba, 735. Cost^nea vesca, 911. Ccrasus sylvdstris. and C. vulgaris, 276. 
Pftgus sylv&tica, 905. J&glans rdgla, 732. Lkrix europs^a, 1058. Pl&tanus orinitilis, 
and P occldentilis, 927. P6pulus, most of the spieclei, 819. P;^rus coramiknis, and 
P. Afklus, 417. Qu6rcus, many of the species, 846 itobiniVi Psebd-iicAcia. 233. t/'imus, 
most of the species, 715. 



WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR USES IN PLANTATIONS. 1X1 

£«.— i^btes exc^sa, 10S5. CMnu Llbinl, 1057. Plcea pectinkta, 1086. Ftnm lyU 
Totrii. P. Larfdo, F, Pallast;tea. F. flntcter, &e, 9S0. TlUus baccito, 939. 
For fimniiiK loftr Iwdges* 

ikcKi — /wrcaiBp£skre,79. JS^tula ftlba, 837. C&rplDiu £aaliu.916L Agus stI- 
viticsi,905L X4r& enropK^ 1053L O'strja Tulgiris. 919. i^6pii)iu fkitigUita, 819. 
niia earow'a, 63. IT'lmiis camp^strls, 715. ^ 

£«. — jt\ua excelu, 10SS. Tlex iquif&Uum, 156. Janlpenu virgiiittiia, 1080. i^ccm 
peedoitt, 1036. Qofircus /lex, 846. 2%x«u bwxAta, 909. 
For befaic periodicallv cot down m coppice-wood, but not In the shade of othor trees. 

XWMfT— Jgtula ilba, 837. Outinea ▼£«», 91 1. . Aixintu ezoiUor, 639. fiofocut 
pedoBcuUsa ^im j seuOilldn, 846. 
Far bdng periodical^ cat down ai oopplcfr>wood, in the ahade of other treei. 

£«. — CErasu JLanroe^rasaa, 976. JMlxum lemperrtrent, 703. i lex JqaifoUam, 196. 
Jonlperaa. 1080. Querciu i'lex, 846. TVtxus bacctou 9S9 

t^iedid i» part for tkeir produce in Frtatt or Seeds. 
Uied in tarioos aiti and manoflKturet. 

Decid. — iS'scalu*. 194. Agus, 905. Querent, 846. 
Uied in household economy. 

DfTsrf. — Cinra, 735. Gut&nea, 91 1 . CSmmii ■yW£strit, and C. TidgiLrii, 976. Jhgbuu, 
738. Jirfopiliu, 416. Jtfbrus, 705. Pnlnui, 270. i^nis. 417. 
As food &>r dnglng.blTda, fcame, or wild animals. 

i>feadL«Ckatse'giH.352. /*:^ni8 aucup&iia, 417. Ties ilquilMium, 156. 

Sekaed impart for tketrprodmee m Bark. 
For the tanner. 

DeeU^Mtais Alba, 837. C^tteeaT£flca,91!. ZArix enropnX 1053. P^rus aucn. 
p4ria, 417. Qneiais pednnculhta, and Q. sessillfl5ra, 846. &'&llx, Tarious species, 744. 
For other arts. 

A. — J lex Jquifbliam, 156. rOfa enroiMeX 68. 

StUdei m pari for ike vaeqf their LeaveM. 
As sal w titntes for sp^ tan in gardens. 

Dfftf .— 42u&cns, 846. astAnea,911. 
As prodneing, bgr decomposition, leaf-mould. 

All treo, espedallj the broad-leaved Unds. 
As vintcr Jbod for cattte. 

i)«*f.— Situla.837. Mbnu, 715. Ptfpulns, 819. PJros,417. Roblnte,ja8. 5iaix,744. 
711ia.63. ramua,716. 

Tbsu GBowif omrLY loa Orhauintal Pcmposss. 

Sekaed wdk rrferemee to Heir Bulk, 

Large.<ised ornamental trees. ^ ^ xw -« zv.^.i... tTi.,..^c. 

Deeid. — il*cer pboandldes. A. eriocirpura, and A. rObrum, 79 ^sculiM Hlppocfis- 
taanm, 194. jiii£nim$ glandulbsa, 145. ^'haus glutinftsa laclniMa. A. In^oa. •nd 
A. cortifWia, 882. uStula populilWia. and S.tlgr^SiJ. fi^ti* auMtr^n^m. 
fagus STlvfctica purpdrea, 906. IWxInus americhna, 639. Liriodtodron Tuliplfera. 
afiTcrstrra rulgAris, 919. PlAtanus orlentAlis, 91^. Qutrcus Cerris falhamtosls, 
and Q. ^LucSnbedJW, 846. Robln/a PseOd-^cAcIa, 233. Taxbdium dlstlchum. 

£*.->Mes,]0S5. Odrus, 1057. Plcea, 1036. Plnus,950. 

3lJddle.tfsed ornamental trees. ,^ »i u^ w _ ma -u'.....xi.'^ 

D^od.-ircer, 79. Wrylus. 921. GledltscbiV., 249. LiquldAmbar 932 MagiAifl 

acmninAta, 21. Wbrus Alba, 705. AV^nrfo. IM. ^'"»."»' ^»- ^•^71' ?2' 
PiTifl, Iffl! P6pulus,819. Ptrus,417. Roblnia. 233. Salisbfcrw, 944. SAfix, 744. 

JBeTlH^rS^B, 1025. Cupr^mis, 1073. Junlperus, 1080. Plcea, 1086. Plnus, 950. 
Qu£rcus, 846. TSxus, 939, &c. 
Snali-siaed ornamental trees. ^ ..-. « %m.j^ mn n^4£i^^ 

Deeid.^Acer,19. ^mfgdalos, 9fil. i<rmenlaca, 267. Biwssonjtto, 710. Ca/itofl. 
662. Ceran;. 276. ^SS^gus, 352. fydtaia. 450. Wsus 213. Dtej^f^. ^' 
JElrfgnus, 696. £u6nymus, 149. Gledltschw, 249. HaJ^sia, 620. «ipp6phae. m 
KsSStferw, 134. LIquidAmbar. 932. Magnblia 21. J^^V^^^*i^\.^^V"' l^' 
PA»M, 128. Pfirsica. K5. Prilnus, 270. ^rus, 417. Qu*rcus, 846. i?hamnus. 170. 
Kobtnto,233. Sillx,744. Virgilin. 197. XantWxylum. 142. 

Ur.-Orastts lusitAntei, 276. Cupr*s«us, 1073. -J'iS^. lfl^/«^."«»/^- ^'^'"•' 
681. Pfcea, 1086. Plnus, 96a Quircus, 846. nxus, 939. Thtja, 1068. 

ykdei irdk nferemce to their Form. 

With opright oblong or globose heads. „ r*«...,. 

!?««.- A^cS obtusAtum, 79. ^sculas Hippocartanum, 124. ^;^n«*' 8^' ..f^.^f "J' 
276. J>Agnt,905. P6pulas,819. P^rusi<*ria,andP.aucupArla,417. (2u6rcus Urris, 

846. Irimns, 715. 

l^ithgre^ghMds.^^^ Crataegus Crts-gAUi, 352. Diosp^ros, 625. itf Sspllus, 414. 

Pirsica. 265. 
"WltSi conical hoMia. 

Dead LArix, 1053. TaxMlum, 1077. ^ , .__ t.,„^^„,. mon 

Ev il'bies, 1025. CMrus, 1057. Cuprfcssus sempervlrcns, 10i3. Junlperus. 1080. 

Pfcea. 1036. Plnus, 950. ThiUa, 1068. 

^'''***SJSt^at«»giMDxyactothastr<cta,352. Pftpulus fastigiata, 819. QuCrcus pedun- 
culAU &atigiAta, 846. 
Ev TlSxus baocAta fiutigiAta, 939. 

itieta'. vfA r<feremce to their Mode qf Growth. 

regliue, iM. CfttaM iaWmum ptodulom, art. ngut •jWiuc* pSudulj, 906. 



Ixii ANALYSIS OF THE COMMONER TREES AND SHRUBS, 

JVixinus exc6Ulor p<>ndula, and F. /entfsdfdlia pfodula, 639. Lirtx europe^a penduU, 

1053. P&Tia rtbra pendula, 128. JPdpului trtmula pfodala, 819. Quercus pedun- 

cuUta, 846. 6'ilix babyldnica, 744. Taxbdium distlchum p^ndaluin, 1077. U'lmuM 

monUna pcndula, 71 A. 
Ev — CAprestus pcndula, 1073. /Uex ^IquiAUtim, T. pfodulum (both rare), IS6. Ju- 

nfperus rectinra, 1080. 
With vertical shoots and branches. 

i)«a'tf.— Cftrplnus Junius, 916. Jllgus sjlritlca, 905. Gymndcladus canadensis, 2SA. 

P^rus A^risiy and F. aucuplria, 417. U'anu* mont^a faitlgifttA, 715 ; and the other 

fiutigiate or tpiry-headcd trees enumerated above. 
With horlsontal shoots and branches. 

Decid — A'lnui glatin&sa laclni&ta, 833. Oratae^gus Crtis-e41II, 353. Diosp^ros Lfttos. 

625. Roblnia I'sehd-ifdlda, R. umbracuUfera, 333. Taxodiiun dfstichum, 1077. £/'U 

mus montana piodula, 715. 
£v.-i4'bles, 1025. Cddrus, 1057. Plcea, 1036. Plnus,950. 

Selected vith reference to their Foliage. 
Duration. 

Deciduous ornamental trees. 

Developed early In spring. 

Dedd.—A'iXT Psetido-Pl&tanus, and A, tatirlcum, 79. Cratc^gns nigra, 
and C. Oxyadintha prap^cox. 362. P6pttlnsbalsamirera, 819. &unb&ca» 
nigra, 513. T^lla europae'a, 63. E7'lmas carap^stris, 715. 
Developed late. 

iifc/tf. — iif/cinfiw glandulbsa, 145. Cir7a,735. CatAlpa, BG^. JY&xinus,. 
639. GledfUchfo, 249. Gymndcladus, VA, Jhglans, 738. P^rus if Via^ 
and P. vestlta, 417. Qu^rcus TaHzin, 846. VirgHia liltea, 197. 
Dropping early. 

Decid. — A^cer Fsehdo-PlftUnus, 79. .f'sculus Hlppocistanum, 1S4. 
/V&xlnus excflsior, 639. Plvia, 128. P^ulus, 819. Robinio, 233. 
niia, 63. 
Dropping late. 

Dead. — i4*cer camp(stre, and A, crMcum, 79. C&rpinus .S^tulus, 916. 
Crattt'ffus CrtSs-galll, 358. fSgus sylv&tica, 908l Liquid&mbar Imb^rbe, 
932. Pl&nera Richirdt, 725. Qufircus, 846. 
Pe.'sistent, often remaining on in a withered state till spring. 

Z)<rciVf. — C4rplnus iKtulus, 916L Agus svlv&tica, 905. Llquid&mbw im- 
berbe, 933. Quercus C6rris, and Q. Taixin^ 846. 
r.vergreen ornamental trees. 

ij'bics, 1025. CMrus, 1057. C^rasus lusltinlca, S76. Cbprteus, 1073. 
7Mex ifqulfbllum, 156. Junfperas, 1080. X4idrusn6bIl{s,6Bl. MunbliVi 
grandifl6ra, 21. Picea, 1036. Plnus, 950. Qu6rcus Plex, 846. 7l£xus» 
939. TliOJa, 1068. 
Subevergreen ornamcntAl trees. 

Cram^giis Crds-ffilU, and C. mexictoa, 353. llagndlta Thompsoni<)ita, SI. 
P^rus coron&ria, 417. Qu6rcus C^rrls Ailham6nsis, Q. C^rris Lucom* 
bcajM, Q. h^brlda nina and Q. Tlirnen; 846. 
Form and character, 
simple leaves. 
Large. 

Dea'd — ./f "cer macroph^Uum, 79. Csstlnea v6sca,91I. Caidlpa $fning€e^ 
(dlia, 662. Magnbl/a macroph^lla, M. trip^tala, and M. acuminata, 21 . 
Pl&tanus, 927. P6pultM heteroph^lla, 819. P^rus vestlta, 417. Qu6rcaa 
sessilifldra. and Q. nlgrA, 846. i7'lmus montana, 715. 
Ev. — Magn6lMi grandifldra, 31. 
SmalL 

Deeid ^^cer cr£tlcnm, 79. Cratse^gus OxyacAntha, 858. futeymos eu- 

rop«^us, 149. Prtinus splnbsa, 370. L"lmus chinensis, 715. 
Linear, or needle-lilne. 

Dccid. — LArix, 1053. Taxbdium. 1077. 

£p. — if'btes, 1085. Cddrus. 1057. Ctapr6s8us, 1073. Junlperus, 1060. 
Picea, 108& Plnus, 95a r(xus,939. rhO^a, 1068. 
Compound leaves. 
Large. 

Dea'd.^Aadntwi, IU». Ctrya. 735. GledlUchAi, 349. Grmn4c1adus» 
255. JClglans,738. Kolrcut^rin, 134. A*£xinus, 689. VirgUUi, 197. 
Small. 

Drrttf. — iPsculusJSl CStiMU,2lZ. O'mus, 651. AVgtfn^, 183. Tkria^ 
12a Pt^lea,143. 
Colour. 

In deciduous trees in early summer. 
Light, or yellowish, green. 

DrctVf.— iTcer PseOdo-PULtanus lut^scens, and i<. platanfildes, 79. Co. 
tdhM»ffrtng<e(bl\tL,G62. Kolreutdria, 134. Maclhra,7Il. Ifeg^mdo^lia 
Populus balsamlfera, 819. 
Ev. — <2u6rcuf pedunculita, and Q. sessilifldra, 846. SAlix, 744. TUia, 63. 
Virglila, 197. 
Dark green. 

l>ccAf.~i<'lnas, 838. OsUnea, 911. aitis,737. fudnymus, 149. Li» 
quidtobar, 932. Pivid, 128. Prhnos, 270. 
Furple. 

J)e«A(.~if^oer Psebdo-Pl&tanusparpuriscens, 79. Figot sylvltiai por* 
phrea, 905. Qu6rcus pedunculata purpur£soens, 846. 
Variegated. 

Deeid. — ^'cer platanAIdes variegUum, and A. Psei^do-Plfitanus variegita, 
66. Castinea v6sca varleg^ta, 912. Pr&xinus heteroph^lla Tarlecita,. 
639. Qu^rcus pedunculitta variegikta and Q. C6rrls varlegita, 846. V^aum 
camp^strls variegita, 715. 




VITE REFERENCE TO THEIR USES IN PLANTATIONS. Ixiu 

la deddnooi trees in sntamn before iSalling off. 
Bcdorpnnle. 

Akw.— iTter riibram,79. Llquldiinbar, 991. KbgnMiia auricottta, SI. 
Qn&eas rthn, Q, n2gn, Q. dnctdria, and Q. nUMiM, 846. 
TeOmr. 

J)ecid.^A*eer platanSMet, and A. saochirinmn, 79. IMtuIailba, 837. 

Aixious ezcdsior, 639. Kdlreut^a, 134. Xirix, 1058. Liriodtodran. 

36. Mmdiua, 71 1. Kegtmdo, ISSl Pdpuloa nigra, and P. canad^ncis, 819. 

/Wea trifolilta. 143. P^nu TesUU, 417. Sallabiirki,844. Virgllui, 197. 

Green, orwitboat changing colour. 

Dntd. — A*lnu»t 832. C£UU , 737. OaUe'gns Crds-g&IU» and C. mexicdna, 
iS± Diosp^ixM, 625. /*^nu coron4ria, 417. 
Brovn, or without bright colour. 

DecNL— jrcerP>e{tdo.iPl&tanus,79. Aiiimhu^ 14S. OKrya, 735. JiHglana, 
1080. P6palui grc'ca, J>. trtouia, and P. baUamlfera, 819 
In erergreena. 

Light green. 

CUros Deodira, 1057. CaprCttos diyoldes, and C Inaitinica, 1073. Junl- 
perua, 1080. MagnMto grandill&ra, 21. Jhi^a, 1068. 
Ilark green. 

A*tAe% exo^lsa nigra, 1025. C6ratat ludtlnica, 276. Ctapr^isut, 1073. 
Aex. 156. Jumpenu, 1080. Latinu n4bUia,681. i*lcea, 1036. Anus, 
950. Qa£rca< Tiex, 846. Tixxu, 999. 
Variegated. 

^'blea excelsa rariegita, 1025. Ctipriuai Ayoldes rarieglta, 1073. Plex 
^quifMium rariegituro. 156. Ptnut Pin£ater Tariegiu, 961. . Qu«rcua 
riex variegita, 846. Tuut bacdkta Tarieglita, 989. 
Fragrant leaves. 

JMvui.-^BHulM,BST. Jhglans, 782. Liauldimbar, 932. Sillx pentindra, 744. 
£v..-irbiet, 1025. Junlpenis, 1080. JLafinis, 681. Plcea, 1036. Plnvt, d-'iO. 
Thiija,1066. 
teUtied leilk rdSermee to tkeir Flower*. 
^^)dIlced In iprfaig. 
Bed or par^e. 

iV^— J*cerriibn]m,79- ifnifgdalai,261. Ciratae* gus Oxyacfintha rftsea, and 
CL 0. punlcea, 392. P^via rObra, 128. P^rdca, 265. 
Ydlov. 

DccmT.— iTcer^latanlJldes. andif.monspessulibiom, 79. C^ftisos Xabiimuni, and 
C. alplntts, 218. ttlix, 744. Zanthteylum, 142. 
Wflite. 

Dedd. — if rmenlaea, 267. CSrasos, 276. Oatie^gus, 852. Uagndl/a consplcoa, 21 
J*t&nu8,27a Ptnu,417. StaplgrUa, 147. 
vsnegated. 

Dead.— i^seolus, 124. Pir/a. 128. Fl^rui Jtfidas, P.coroniria, and P. specU- 
bUia,4I7. Roblnia riscdsa, 233. 



Red or purple. 

Z)«eMl~RoUnfii bispida, 233. 
Tellov or orann. 

DeeU.^ KSIreatdrfa, 1^4. Virglliii latea, 197. 
White or whitlsli. 

/>ec«d.— C^atse'gus cordilta, and C. mexic&na, 352. Halisia tatriptera, 620. 
Liriodaidron,36. Magnbl/a.21. M£spaus,414. RobSn/a Piedd-^cAda, 233. 
Variegatied. 

DteU. — Catulpoy 662. 

tdeaedwUk r^femee to tkeir I^a or Seed. 
Luge and showy. 

J>M9tf.— Jrmenlaca TQlgilria. 267. CVdunla vulglLrb, 450. Maeldra anrantlaca, 71 1. 
Pfaslea Tulgiria, 269. Prttnus domestlca, 270. P^rua commikBla, P. ifilus, and 
P. M. astracinica, 417. 
Soil!, but conspicuous trwa colour and quantity. 

Dttnd. — CillU, 727. C^rasus, 276. Oatae'gua, 852. J9Ipp6pbae, 698. P^rut itfalua 
^mniAlia, P. M. baedtta, P. ^'rla, P. IntennMka, P. tormlnlLlii, P. aurlcul&ta, 
P. aocupiria, and P. aznericilna, 417. Jth&mnns cathfirticos, and R. Cr£ngula, 170. 
£fr. — Plex ilquiAUnm, 156. Junlpems, 1060. X^rus, 681. 
Ksgnlar in form or character. 

Deeid £a6nymus, 149. Uquid^bar, 932. MagndliVi, 21. PUtanui, 927. Qoircua 

(%rrls, and Q. JE'gilops, 846. 



SHRUBS. 

Sbkubs qwovth cbieflt Foa rairuL Purfosbs. 

if'^kd as adapledjbr Coppice-Woodt. ^ ,._, 

i><cM. — C6mos sangutnea, and C. Slba, 501. COryliu ^f TelUna, 921 . Xlgiittrum mlglrek 
638. «UlxcAprea,744. 

Sd(dedmedapledji»r vrodmet m r SkeUtrfor Game, _, ^ 

■OeeML— {?cnlsta,903. JlSk*,468. 5pir«'a, 299. Symphmidlrpoa, 641. nbtimiim,AI6. 
£f. — .Bftxos, 708. Ganlthdr/a. 579. flypMcom, 74. Jbniporua, 1080. Mahtaia, 60 
Aododindron, 988. Uiex, 199. rocclnium, 604. 

UKUietaSaptedM^Mget, ^ , ^ 

OecU.^BirberU,iS. C^ttsns tcopirlos, 218. JFflpp6pba>, 698. XigfUtrom, 628. Paltimu^ 

lCB.^Jtbia,881. Sgriiia, faiS. 
£».->7lttxna,708. /lex, 156. Junlpertis, lOSO. Phnifrea,68L ITlex, 199. 






Ixiv ANALYSIS OF THE COMMONER TREES AND SHRUBS^ 



Sbedbs a sown chiefly ros ormahbntal Pdi 

Selected with reference to their Bulk. 
I.nrge>fffzod »hrubt. 

Dead. — Mccharis, 546. B^rberfs, 4S. Bftrya, 713. Bfiddlaa, 670. Cara^tttOt 287. 
ColOteAt 344. C6rqiu, 501. Cotoneister, 405. i^6nymus, 149. FontanetJa, 638. 
HAltmod^ndron. 242. ASuiunidUt, 499. //ipp6p)Me, 698. Ligdstrum, 628. PaUiknu, 
168. PhiladMphiu, 460. PipUlnthus. 198. i2fa(U. 1H6. Ribet, 4Gi. &mbbciu, 51S. 
Sheph£rdia, 7(jD. Apirtiaiii, 903. Syrfiif <z, 635. flbdrnuni, 516. 
Ev. — if'rbutut, 578. Btxiu, 703. /^lex, 156. Junlpttriu, lOBQ. Xaftnu, 681. 
PhUlfrea, 681. 
Middle-sized tbrubt. 

D^citf.--Ain6rpha,230. BirberiM.ii. Cal6phaca, 948. Calrcinthot, 453. CeandChai, 
180. CephaltaChui, 544. ChimonAotbut, 454. Cldthra, 581. C7f dbnia, 450. DedU/a, 
465. J7imsciu, 63. Leycettdria, 543. Potentflla, 319. ithododindron, 588. BbAa^ 
186. Ribes, 468. iZbu, 321. 5pirc^a, 299. Stapbylda, 147. Sympboricirp<», 541. 



Syringa^ 63.9. 



Ev. — A4icuba^ 511. Aipleiiram, 495. Girrya, 9S6. Junjperas, 1060. Iiah6nui, 50. 

Prlnos, 163. /Rhododendron, 563. ITlex. 199. FlbCiraum 31nui, 516. 
Small thrabf. 

Drcid.— ilmfgdalatnftna, 361. Andnut'mum, 77. Jrtemftla. 549. i<traph4xli, 679. 

ilttula nina, 837. Clstos, 54. Compt&nfVi, 936. CorUria, 146. Corontlla, 247. 

D&F^ne. 686. Dlrca, 692. Fotbergflla, 500. Cenfsta, 209. Hydrangea, 492. 

i/yp|gricum,74. /'tea, 489. Jatmlnum. 654. Afyrlca, 934. Nltrirla, 467. 0n6ni«, 

229. Pabnfo, 18. Potentflla, 319. /Rhododendron, 583. BOes, 468. Spirc'a, 299. 

Facclnium, 601. Fella, 53. Xanthorhlza, 19. 
Ev. — Andr6meda. 560. .BupleClrum, 496. Cassindro, 563. Cotonetttcr mtcroph^la, 

405. D&phne, 686. .Ephedra, 937. KiilmiVi, 598. IMom, 603. Leiophf Hum, 609. 

Leucdthoe, 568. Lydn/a, 564. Mah6nto, 5a Perafittya, 578. /Zhododindron, 5fi3L 

Paccfnium, 604. YScca. 1101. Zenftbia, 568. 
t'nder.shrubt. 

Dedd. — ilrctoitiphylo* alplna, 577. i<rtemfstVi, 549. On6nli,339. Phalerocfirput. Ml. 
Ev, — ilrctost&phylo« UWa tiril, 577. AsAlea proctimbens, 601. Calltina, 559. CoreonA, 

1092. Daboe'ctVs, 572. Epine'a, 580. frlca, 555. Gaulthdrio, 579. Gypsoc&Uii, 

557. I^um, 602. Leiophyllmn, 602. Oxyc6cciu, 615. Pemittya, 578. PhyllA- 

doce, 570. /Macuf , 1099. Santollna, 548. 

Silccted with reference to their Form as Bushes. 
With compact roundish beads. 

Dead. — ilrtemisi'a. 549. Birberis tlAfosli, 42. .Betula nina, 837. Calyeinthus. 45S. 
CephaMinthus, 544. Coronilla, 347. C^tisus, 213. D&phne Iffxemm, 686. Genltta. 
203. HjpMeam, 74. LigHstrnm, 628. Potentllla, 819. /Zhododtodron, 583. /UAcv, 
468. 5p{rs^a,299. Symphorldirpos, 541. Alyriitf a, 635. 
Ev.~~A(icub<h 511. /hiplettrura, 49& .BKixus, 703. iMiphne. 686. HypMcum Kal. 
muinum, 74. Mah&nia, 60. PhiU^rea, 631. /2hodod6ndron, 583. {Tlex, 199. 
flbtimum Tlnus, 604. 
With open, rather irregular, heads. 

Decid. — Am6rplia. 23a Jlkccharis, 546. Bf&ddlea. 670. Coliltea, 244. Cotone&ster, 
405. PhiladSphus. 460. Piptftnthus, 198. /thtis, 186. 
With conical or pointed heads. 

Ev. — Oiprfcsus. 1073. Tlex, 156L JunSperus, 108a ITlez strlcU, 199. 

SeL'ctcd with referemu to their Mode of Growth. 
Bushes with upright shoots and branches. 

Deeid. — Caragi^na^ S37. Cdmus (a) ttrlcta, 501. inbtscus, 62. Jasrolnum f^iiticana, 
654. Kirria. 298. Leycestirio, 543. PhUadelphus, 460. £pirtiam, 202. 5pirae'a, 
299. TILmarlx, 458. Myricilria, 456. 
Ev. — Junlperus c. su6cica, 1081. I7Mex e. strtcta, 19'J. Tlxus b. strlcta, 989. ThiUa 
o. strlcta, 1068. 
Bushes with pendent shoots and branches. 
Climbers. 

By tendrils, or grasping fibrils. 

DrcidL — Ampelopsis, 139. jitr&gene, 16. CI6matis, S. Ahtb radlcans. 

186. 7¥coiiM,66l. Fltls, 136. 
Ev — Blgn5nfo,660. irMera,497. 5mllax, 1093. 
By twining stems. 

/)£ricf. — ilrlstolbchia, 701. Berchtei^ 169. Celfcstms, 154. Lonfoera, 

526. Afenisp^rmum, 89l Pcrfploca, 658. Wistana, 248. 
Ev. ~ Lonicera, 526. 
By elongated slender stems. 

Decid — r Jasmlnum officin&le, 654. Z,^cium etiropc^um, 665. iSJMa, 
numerous sorts, 321. /liibus, 311. SOUnura Dulcamara, 663. 

Ev /I5sa, several sorts, 321. 

Trailers ; the brandies Prostrate, but not generally rooting. 

Decid — j4rctostaphylos alplna, 577. Decumkria bfirbara, 466. BXbes pro. 

striitum, 468. Adbus. 31 1 . 
Ev. — ifrctostiphylos U>a tirti, 577. AiUea procikmbens, 601. Cotoneiitter 
microphf 11a, 405. Gaulthdria. 519. Juniperus5ablnaprostrata,1080. Tinea, 657. 
Creepers ; the branches prostrate and rooting. 
7)fd».~/?h<Ss,I86. /tttbus,811. 
Ev. — Epigs'a ripens, 58a Mahbuia rdpens, 60. Oxyc6ccus, 615. 

Selec'ed trith r^erence to their Foliage. 
Duiatfon. 

Deciduous. 

Dereloped early in spring. 

Decid Cratsc^'gus, 352. £u6nTmus, 149. /fyp6ricum, 74. £ig:dstnim, 6a8» 

Ribes^4l». /{6sa,331. Stoibiicus, 513. £pirse% 299. Syrtnga^iSX\. 
Developed late. 

Deeid — Arlllla, 496. Oilycinthus, 452. Cephaliothus, 644. filMacas.GL 
Palidrus. 168. Ticoma.mi. 



WITH RErEBENCE TO THEIR USES IN PLANTATIONS. Ixv 

Fcnistiiii; remaining on io a vithered tUta. 

i>Ktf.— Crenlsu, SOS. i/ypMcum, 74. Jiinlpenu rectirra, 108a Ondais, 229. 
Po caattlh, aid. 

Bvcigiwu learec 

Awtrft i Md a. 360. J'rtratiu, 573. ilrctmUphrlot, 577. Aicuha, 511. Ass- 
ies. 001. Berherit, 42. iftixtu. 703. Callana, 559. Caiandra. 562. C'e- 
nnu. 276. Cordnui, 1092. Cotone^ter, 405. DaboeVra, 572. Diphne, (P^C 
fmpetrum. 1091. A'phedra, 937. Euiga^a, 580. iTrlca, 555. Girrya, 92ti. 
GaulUi^ria, 579. Gypsocillii, 557. iiypericum, 74. iMex, 156. Juniperus, 
lOhO. KaXmia, 598. /.ddum, 602. Leloph^llum, 602. Leuc6thM, 568. Lr- 
tela, 564. Mah6afa, SO. Pernettja, 578. Phill^ea. 631. Ph7ll6docr, 570. 
PrlDos, 163. /{Munous, I7QL Rhododendron, ."MS. J?bM, 321. iSotmarlnu*, 
672. iTuKus, 1099. 5antoUna, 548. Tlxut. 939. ThOJar 1068. CTlex, 199. 
; acdnium, 604. nbtfmum. 516. Yificca, 1101. Zen6bia, 563. 

BfergTMn, from tbe colour of the shoots. 

tkad Coll^tui, 17& C^tlsus scopAritts, 213. K'phedra, 937. Genltta. 203. 

Jarnilnimi oOcioile, 654. 5pirtium, 202. LTlex, 19. 



ArMoUlM, 182. Bfrbena adiUca, 42. CVstua. 54. Cf tisus birailttu, and C. capi- 
titua. 213. LcToettdrra, 'MS. I.lgd*tnim TulgAre aemperTlrena, 628. Photiiila 
aerTuUu.40aw HtML,Z2l. rdla,53. 
Farmaadckaractar. 
Sfanple 

Large. 

DeoUL — CaIycAntbiai.452. Chim<niinthui, 454. Cl6niiu,50]. Cotone4itor, 
405. £u6nymus latifbliut, 149. ifamamdlU, 499. HibUaa, 62. Hy- 
dringea, 492. I^eyoMtdria. 543. Philadclphus, 460. Photlnia, 403. 
iZbododendroD, 583. Ahas, 186. Rtttet, 468. 5pirae'a, 299. Sj/ringa, 
635. fib^roum, 516. 
Em. — J^euba, 31 1. Cerasuf Lauroc^ratua, and C. lotltAnlca, 276. GArrya, 
926. GaulthdrtVi SAi^fon, 579. Kilmi<i latifdlia, 598. iShododdodron, 583. 
/*lex, 156. Y£eea gloridu, 1101. 
Small or narrow. 

JJedd. — iimfgdalof, 261. ilrctoatipbylot. 577. .itraphixlt, 679. Sir- 
beris, 42. Jfetula nina, 837. Bbrya, 713. Cistna, 54. Comptduia. 936. 
Cbriirla, 146. C^dunia. 450. Diphne, 686. Fontandw'a, 638. Hell. 
iDthemum, 58. //IppdphaC, 698. /'tea, 489. Ligiistnun, 628. NitiAria. 
467. ShepberdM. 700. 
Ev. — J'rbutus, 573. Bh-berit dtilds, 42. Blkxva^ 703. Cotone^ter, 405. 
Diphne, 686. Ifrp^ricum K»lmidnum 74. /.Mum latifbUum, 602. Leu . 
c6lboe, 568. LyoniVi.564. i'hill>^Tea, 631. Prlnos, 163. Ahodod£ndroi., 
583. ifuKut, 1099. f'acclniom, 604. yiiocafilament^Manguatifdlui, 1101. 
Linear, heacb-Uke, or needle-like. 

Dead. — i/yp^ricum •erpylUAUum, 74. Myrlcirla gerroinica, 4JI9. Phalc 
rodb-puf «erpyllildUa, 581. PhyI16doce «mpetrif6rmi«, 570. nmarlx 
gillica,458. 

Ew 'Andrdmcdo, 56a Asalea,eoi. Callftna. 559. Cordma, 1092 Pa 

b(e'csa,572. £'mpetrum, 1091. £r)ca, 555. Gypioc&llia, 557. yuniperui 
1080. Ldoph^llum, 602. iZosmarlnui, 672. 
CompoQsd. 
Large. 

D<ctf..-Am6rpha. 90. AriUia, 496. Cbmtea, 244. Pmbaia, IB. ithlki 

typblna,186. Aoaa,321. 5amb<icua, 513. Stapbylda, 147. 
£v. ~ Bfahdniki, 50. iSdia,321. 
SmalL 

DwHf.— Cal6phaca, 243. CaragHna, 237. CoronlUa, 247. (^tisus, 21? 
Genifta, 203. Halimodfodron, 242. Jatmlnum, 654 Onbola, 229. Pc- 
tentilla,319L Xanthorblu, 19. 
Cfikor. 

b dsddiKMu abruba when first dereloped, or in early aommer. 
U^t, or yellowiah, green. 

Deeid. — Caragdna, fSl. Pftlaua, 213. Dirca, 692: (Tenlsta, 208. Ay- 
pericum, 74. Xantborhlia, 19. 
Glanooos green. 

Decid: — Jrtemlsio, 549. itfocbaria, 546. ITtiplelinim, 498k Ooliitea, 244 
flaeAgnua, 696. Halimodindron, 242. /fippdphae, 606. Myrldirla, 459 
jRiAe«cdreuni,andiZ.triflbnunnlTeum,468. Santollna, 648. Sbepb^rd/a 
70a Tlmarix, 458. 
Ev.-~ Yieca, 1101. Zen&blii palTeral6nta, 663. 
Pnrple. 

Dead. — C6ry lus if velUna porpiirea, 921 . B4rb€riM Tulgftna purpbrea, 42. 
Taricgated. 

Drotf. — AristotiUa. 182. /nbfM;ua,6l Jatmlnum, 654. Irtgtistrum, 62K 
i>bttaddphua, 46a /2bbui,311. 5amb0cus, 513. SoUnnm Dulcamara, 
663. 
Er, — A6euba, 511. J9Axtu, 708. iTMera, 497. Tlex, 166. JKhodcv 
dtodron. 583. JZhftmnus ^latfiraos, 17a rtixus, 939. ^bdmmn Tlnus, 
61& Ftnca, 657. YUcea giorioaa TariegiLta, 1101. 
la flhmte lo autumn before falling off. 
Bed. 

DrciU. — AmpeMpaia, 139. JBfr6«rt«, 42. Comot, 501. £u6nymua, 14!*. 
PhoCinia, 403. i*bnica, 456. iRiodod^ndron, 58a /Oiiki typblna, 18(k 
l^accfnium, 604. Kitia vinlfera fMiti rubetc^ntibui, 186. 
TeOow. 

Dcctf.— Jrlatoldcbia,701. B(rberit,4i. Blgnbnia, 660. Biiddlea,670. 
Caragina^fN. Chimon&nthus, 454. Cftlias, 213. Genlata. 203. Uj- 
pArlcom, 74. ithUi C6tinua, 186. Bibet, 468. Tfcoma, 661. 

d 



IXV. ANALYSIS OF THE COMMONER TREES AND SHRUm. 

Oreen, or without changing coloar. 

Dead JTupletirum, 49A. Hfdringea, 492. Ligi&struin Tulgftre temper* 

Tirens, 62H. /tdbu*, 311. .S]p4rtlum, 202. {Tiex, 199. 
Brown, or without bright colouri. 

Dreid. — Paubnia, 18. PotentiUa, 319. /Ztlbut, 31 1 . SflrtetX 2S>9. 
Fragrant leavet. 

Decfd. — if rteraliia, 549. //yp^ricum, 74. Junlpcrus, lOSO. Afyrlca, 934. 
Ahus .-iroraiiticu, 186. AfZ»r« nigra, 468. /ibsa rublginbi.t. 321 . Aosma- 
rinui. (u'2. Sambiicus, 513. SantoUna, 548. SoUnum, 663. 
Ep. — Juniperus, 1080. Zadrut, 681. 

Selected toith rderenee to their Flowers. 
Produced in early spring. 
Red, blue, or purple. 

Deeid. — Wm<'Kdalut ntna, 261 . CydAnfa Jap6nica, 450. Z)£phne Mrxh-eum, 666. 

iZhodod^miron dattricum, 583. Bibes sangulneum, 468. 
Ev. — G) psoc&Uit, 557 TZhododeudron diiiiricuni atrovlrens, 583. 
Yellow or orange. 

Decid.-^Caragdna„lSft. Chimoninthus, 454. C6rnus ro&a, 501. K6rr/ii jap63icaL, 

298. Ribes ailreum, 668. 

E«. — D&phne Mahbnf'a, 50. U^\e% curopa'a, 199. 
White or whitieh. 

DccM. — Cotoneister, 405. Hagn61ia conspicua, 21. Ribet cdrcum, 4G8. S»ca- 
phylda, 147. 
Variegated. 

DnrrV. — Andr6meda poliR>lIa, 560. Dipbne MexSrevnit 686. Ptetma Mortem, 
18. R'tbes.ifA. 
Produced late in spring, or the beginning of summer. 
Red, blue, or purple. 

J>CfV/. ^ Amdrpha, 230. Cistus, 54. CCtlsus, 2ia Halimod^ndron, 242. H»H- 
<nthemuni,58. On6nl8,22g. ifhodod^'ndron.583. Ribes^A^, A6sa,321. Spirae^a, 

299. Si/ringa, 635. 

J?p. — ^rlca, 555. Kfilm/a, 598. /rhododendron, 683. A5sa, 821. 
Yellow or orange. 

Decfd. — Birberis, 42. Bdddlea, 670. Cal6phaca, 243. Caragdna, 237. Clstua, 
54. C^tisuB, 213. Dfrca, 692. Genista, 303. HHianthemuin, .^8. HypbTicwm^ 
74. Jasmlnum, H.M. Pipt&nlhus, 198. /Rhododendron, 583. Bibes, 4tai. JibiSL, 
321. 5p&rtium, 202. 
Ev. — Hypericum, 74. Mah6nia, 50. Ahodod^ndron, 583. 
White or whitish. 

Dircid — .\ndr6niedfl. 560. Bftry«, 718. r6mu5, .WI . Cn?oneA;ster, 405. Tichtzia, 
465. Jaiimlnum. 6.M. 7<igOstrura, 628. Philadclphus, 4W. PhoMnia. IkI. 
Bibrs,iSS. Adsa, 321. 5ambilcus, 513. 5pira*a, 2(i9. St/nnga, COb. Mbur- 
num. 51 'i. 
Ep. — Cass&ndra, 562. Girrya, 926. Leuc6thoe, 568. LybniVr, 564. /'hill^rca. 
631. 
Variegated. 

Decfd. -_ .4tniph£xi«, 679. Cistus, 54. Colttea, 244. Coronllla. 247. Ont^nia, 229. 

/thododendron, .S83. 
Ev. — Azalea, 601. i>iphne, 686. Erica, 555. Gypsocillis, 557. K&lmiVi, r^tK. 
Produced in autumn. 

R«.d, blue, or purpit*. 

i)fc/W. — Ceanbthus, 180. D&phno Mexireum autumnile, 686. l/ibftcua. 62. 
/26sa, 321. Ev. — Erica, 555. 
Yellow or orange. 

Decfd. — Chimon/inthus, A!A. Hamam&Us. 499. //yp^rlcum, 74. Paliiirus, 16^ 
Rh%A, 321. 5partiuTO, 202. Ev. ~ C/Mex nilna. 
White or whitish. 

Decfd. — //ibfsrus, ('12. 775.4.1, 321. ^*ambilcus canadensis, 513. Solloum Z>uica- 

mUra ftlha. (V«. .S'pine'a. ytO. 
Ev. — ^'ibJitus, 573. Girry/i. 926. nbAmum rinus, 516. Y6oca, IIOI. 
Varlep.ited. 

Drr/</. — Amdrpha, 230. Aristotiilf/?, IR2 //ibiscus, 62. Leycestdrni, 543. A6uu 
321. 

Ev i^'rbutut, 573. Gypsoc^llis, 557. 

Fragrant flowers. 

De<fd — Cftlyc.1nthu<!, 4.^2. fcrasus AfaAd/tfA, 276. Chimonftnlhus, 4iV4. ricmans 
Flaramula.'2. Cfcisus Aahdrnum frilgrans, 218. Dfijihne 3/<aiVrttw, ns6 //y. 
pericum, 74. Jasmlnum, G54. Lonlcera, 526. i>hiladelphus, 460. /?6&a, 321. 
Sainbdcus, 513. Springa, 635. Fitis, 136. 
Ep. — Jasmlnum ofBcindle, 654. /{ftsa lemperTlrena, 321. Rosmarinus, 672. 

Sel.cti'd with reference to their Fruit or Seed. 
Large JU»d showy. 

/>cnf.— Cydbnia,450. /;i6» GrossuUrla, 468. /258a, 821. Etbus, 311. 
Kv. — il'rlnitus. 573. 
Small, but conspicuous from colour and Quantity. 

Dea'd.—Birberis,42. CArnus, 601. Cotone&ster, 405. Cratn^us, 3."i2. Dfiphne, r»Hfi. 
Eu6nymus, 149. Wippdphac. 098. LiK^istrum. 628 Lonirer/i, 62r.. /.vriiim, Oif,' 
3fyrtca, 934. Perlploca, W8. /ZhCis, 186. BibeSjiGR. Sambticug. 513. ►•>hophLTclia' 
700. 5olinum, 663. Symphoric^rpus, 541. Facclnium, 604. nbCrnum, 516. f'ltis! 
136 ^***« 

Ep. -1 Cotone&ster, 405. rrat«*gufl, 352. Oaulth^rro, 679. f/6der;., 497. /Mcx, 166. 
Juntperus. 1080. Mah6nia, 50. Bdscui^ 1099. Tacdnlum, 604. flbtirnum, 516. 

Si i.Milar in form or character. 

Zircirf. — Bdddloa. 670. Caldphaca, 243. Calyc&nthus, 452. Cephalintlius. Mi. (j,}. 
moninthus, 4.M. Coliitca. 244 Eudn^nius, 149. MagnMia, il. JPalitirua, iKgL 
VhyfilAnthus, G.'iO. StHpJjylOa, 147. 
Ep. — Magn51iVT ir-indillbra, 21. 



ANALYSIS OF THE GENERA DESCllIBED, 
ACCORDING TO THEIR LEAVEa 




*-«**j^'. (M 



ixiL JUn-malt or oppotiu. Herniate 



LEAVES SIMPLE 






I Di ladoUlcd - 

«■ corditd. S-neTTed, irltb iphiH Id ths i 



Ixviil 



ANALYSIS OF THE GENERA 



LanceoUte, conduplicaie when young 

Oralis oonrolute when young . . - 

Ovate, conduplicate . . . . 

Roundish, downy when young . * - 

Lanceolate, often nearly en^re - . • 

Oblune, uiually unequal at the baset harsh to the 

touch 
Oblong, unequal at the base, rough above 
Lanceolate or ovale . . - > 

Lobed, with glands In the serratures 
Deeply cut or lobed, fan-nerved 
Entire or serrated. 

Orate, tomentote beneath . . - 

Ovate, the dibk oblate, and the petiole oompreNed - 
Ovate, glabrous, aromatic in odour 
Ovate, sometime* cut . . . - 

Oblong-lanceolate . . . - 

Ovate, rough above . . . - 

Roundish, rough . . . - 

Dentate, notched, or otherwise cut at the edges. 

Ovate, variously lobed - - . 

Denticulate, 3-nerved - _ - 

Lobed, angular, or toothed ... 

Lobed, or deeply cut - - . - 

Ovate or obovate, with soft starry down - 

Palmate and subtrilobate ... 

Palmate, sinuatcd .... 
Entire, serrate or dentate, or otherwise cut at the edges 

Rough on the upper surface 
Evergreen. 
Entire. 

Full of pellucid dots ... 
Serrated. 

Wedge-shaped, pinnatifid 

Lanceolate, glaucous beneath - 
Entire or serrated. 

Shining - - - - 

Deciduous, evergreen, or subevergrecn. 
Entire. 

Large, aromatic when bruised « 

Linear, small, semi-cylindrical 

Oval or ovate - - - 

Serrated. 

(];onduplicate when young 

Lobed or sinuated, sometimes lanceolate 

Besprinkled with resinous dots 
Entire or serrated. 

Ovate or lanceolate . . - 

Ovate or elliptic ... 

AUemate, exitiputate. 
Deciduous. 
Entire. 

Oblong, articulated with the stem 

Peltate or cordate ... 

Cordate, ovate, or lobed 

Ovate, serrated at the apex 

Lanceolate, soon dropping off - 

Deeply cut and divided, apparently compound 

Membranous, heath-like 

Oblong, coriaceous, shining 

Cordate, ovate, or lanceolate 

Fascicled, lanceolate 

Fascicled, coriaceous, glaucescent 

Linear-lanceolate, hoary 

Minute, caducoui, evergreen bark 

Lanceolate, coriaceous, pale green 

Oblong or lanceolate ... 

Lanceolate, beset with scales or stars of halrt 

Linear-lanceolate, scaly and silvery 

Cordate, downy beneath 

Ovate, shining ... 

Linear, in alternate fascicles 

Linear, 2-ranked, flat ... 
S«rrated. 

Ovate, aruminated ... 

Ovate, acute ... 

Oval, mucrooate ... 

Obovate, cuneated, serrated at the tips - 

Oix>vate or oval, glabrous on both surfaces 

Cordate or lobed, and rough 

Lobed variously, sometimes entire, hairy 
Entire or serrated. 

Oblong-lanceolate, or linear 

Ovate, obovate, or oval -lanceolate 

Ovate-acuminate ... 



: ilMT'ODALUS • 
Pl'MICA 




Ml 




K5 


' ilRMBNl ACA • 

Pbu'ncs 




967 




270 


Ka'RjUit 




398 


AMELA'aCBtBR 




411 


3fE'lPILUS 




414 


j U'Luvn . - 




715 


Cb'ltis 




787 


5a'lix . 




744 


Liquida'mbar 




939 


Salisbu'iu^i . 




944 


Cydo^wia 




450 


Po'PCLUB 




819 


^b'tula 




837 


/'a'gus 




905 


Casta*nba 




911 


r Ca'rpinub 

I O'STYRA 




916 




919 


CO'RYLUS 




991 


/TiBi'scua - - 




62 


Zl'XYPHirS 




167 


(^RATf'UUS 




352 


Rl^BES - 




468 


FoTllEKGl'LLil 




500 


f^'cus - 


m 


712 


Pla'tandb 


. 


927 



. A'LV\3% 



. Illi'cium 



CoWA*NM 
STBANVi^a/if 

Pboti'nia 



MAGNo'L/i4 

Chbnopo dium 



CB'rasus 
Qub'rcub 

AfYRfOA 

Ruk*uv\n 
Cbano'thus 



AsfmiSA 
Mbnisps'rmum 

Co'CCl'LUS 

Nemopa'ntbbs 
Spa'btium 
AwTzm'%iA - 
Mbkzik'b/^ 

^lOSPY ROS 
SYRi'jtOA 

Ly'cium 
Cbabo'wbkm - 
Di6tm 

CALLt'oONUM 

Di'rca 

ii\'UA . 

Elxk'ghvb 

i/lPPO'PllAB 
i^RISTOLo'CHlA 

Maclu'b^ 
Xa^bix 

Taxo*di(tm 
Malachodr'mobon 

STOA'RTf^ 

Bkbchb^mij - 

Lo\VKA 

Cle*thba 
Jtfo'Rrs 

BB0USS0NB>Xj| 
i?A'CCMABIB - 

•Sty'bax 

HaLB'U^ 



. 632 



. 90 

. 321 

. 403 

- 408 



621 
675 



276 
846 

9»4 

170 
180 



38 
39 
40 
154 
202 
549 
609 
625 
635 
665 
669 
677 
680 
692 
693 
696 
698 
701 
711 
1053 

1077 
71 
79 
169 
352 
5^1 
705 
710 

546 

618 

6ao 



ACCORDING TO THEIR LEAVES. 



Ixut 



Dentate, noccfaed. or ocherwlM cat at the edges. 

Lanceolate, acute . . - . 

Oval, mucrooate . . . . 

Pfanarifldly dentate, downy, with resliioas particles 



KntiTe. 

Lobed or peltate, coriaoeoui, ihiny 

Lteear. cha%, niiall, whorled - 

Aeerote, whorled, glabrous 

Acerute, trigonal. Imbricate In 4 rowt 

Linear-laaceolate, mocronutate 

Aoenwe, rery small, imbricate • 

Aceroie, on short petioles 

Oral, coriaceous 

Lioear, spreading, heath-like 

Aceroie, elliptic, flat, downy beneath 

Cordate^vate 



Verticillately temate, bods naked 
Oral, caar&L, glabrous, small - 

linesr or ovate, margins revolute, coriaceous, 7 »_«_,,„ 
tomentose beneath » ^^ ""'■ 



i'TBA - 
ZSMO^BM 
COKPTO' ttJA ' 



Hi'DKRA 
fai'CA . 

GvnocA'LLis . 
Cau.u'na 

ANDao'MKOiC • 
CASSrOPX 

Cassa'ndk^ - 

Pl'SRIS 

PRYtLO'DOCX 

DABCB'ciil 

Epigji*a 
Ka'imja 
Leiopuy'llcm 



Narrow or linear, crowded 



J 

1 



[ 



Linear, sheathed, needle-like - 

Linear, Mattered, needle-lilM . 

Linear, 3-rowed, needle-like 

Linear, in alternate fascicles 

Aoerose, imbricate ... 

Linear, tongue-shaped, obtuse - 

linear, needle-shaped, spreading 

Alike green on both surfaces, usually florlferous 
Ensiform, pointed, alike on both surfaces 

Scmted. 

Linear, small, crowded, spreading 
Boundlth-OTai, small .... 

Eotire or serrated. 

Terminating in a tendril, cordate, oblong 
Oblong.lanceolate, coriaceous, shining . 
Lb>ear, solitary, more or less 2-rank(N^ - 

OsQtste, notched, or otherwise cut at the edges. 
Orate-oral, coriaceous, often prickly 
Oblong or ovate, small, odour of turpentine 
Linear, hoarr or silky beneath ... 
Linear, small, rowed, tomentose - 

Pinnatifid, tomentose, white and mealy beneath • 
Sbinulose, coriaceous . ■ . . 

Orate, small, approximate, stiff, shining . 
Orate, subcoroita, dilate, coriaceous, glabrous, or ) 
shining J 

DecUooas evergreen. 

Entire. 

Unear, stem-clasping, small . . - 

Linear, broader at the base, sessile, small 
Oblong, coriaceous, sessile, glaucous 
Obovate or oval, coriaceous, crowded, glabrous 
Terminated bv a sphacelate (withered) apex, or 

yeilow gland 
Ovate or elliptic, smooth, small, with revolute { 



Phlo'mis 

AoSMARrNUM - 

Lava'ndula - 
6'a'lvia 

Pl'NUS - 

^'bies . 

Pi'CBA - 

Cb'drus 

ARAUCA*aiA - 
/I'MPKTRrM - 

Cerati'ola . 
Corb'ma 
^r'scus 
YtyccA 

Bbya'nthvs . 
Pbalbboca'bpus 

HUTl'S/if 

^'RBUTDS 

CUNNlNOHA^MIil 

Tlbx - 

DuVAU'il 
STAHBLI^Nil . 

Santoli'na 
5bnb^cio 
Lbuco'thou . 

PBRNB'TTYil . 

Gaulthb'b/4 " 



7*a'marix 
Myrica'ria - 

Lyo'n/^ 
I Abododb'noron 



I 



margins 

Lanceolate, blnntish . . . - 

Broad, lanceolate, glabrous . . . 

Lanceolate, smooth on both sides 
OTateHX>rdate or hastate 

Spathulate, with a fkosty hue . . - 

Oblon^poittted, sometimes lobed 
Linearnimceolate, small 
Serrated 

Oblong, coriaceous, smooth, downy beneath 
Entire or serrated. 

Oval or lanceolate - . 

Obovate or oblong, full of resinous glands, smooth 
Obovate, coriaceous, shining 
Membranous, often beset with resinous dots 

Reticulated, alike 00 both sides 

Evcfgieiu or subevergreen. 

Dentate, notched, or otherwise cut at the edges. 
Coriaceous, in tufls at the axils 
Obovate, glaucous ... 
ortntiptOate. 
Deddoous. 
Dentate 

At the apex obcuoeate 
^ ^ ,, Ovace, uiequal at the base, rough, dark green 
P> cl duoos. evergreen, or subevergreen. 
Entire. 

Generally woolly beneath 



i 



OXYCO'CCtS . 

A»GA*NIA 
BXJUK'LIA 
FOMTANB^S/il - 

^ola'num 
Traoopy'rdm 
Lad'bcs - 
Osy'bis 

PmVvot 

ESCALLO^MM . 
ilBCTOBTA'PB y LOS 

Facci'nium . 






Pc'bsrm 

PLA'MBBil 



Cotonba'stbb 



66S 

996 



497 
555 
557 
559 
S60 
Kl 
563 
570 
570 
57-2 

«.♦» 
602 

6oa 

673 

672 

672 

673 

950 

1025 

1036 

1057 

1062 

1091 

1093 

1093 

1099 

1101 

571 
581 

Ml 

573 

1061 

156 
193 
546 
548 
550 
568 
578 

579 



- 458 
. 459 
. 495 

. 564 

- 583 

. 615 

. 622 

. 623 

. 638 

. 663 

- 678 
. 681 
. 695 

- 73 

- 163 

- 490 

- 577 

- 604 
. lOA 



42 
53 



397 
725 



405 



Ixx 



ANALYSIS OF THE GENERA 



OppotUe, stipuiaU, 
Deciduous. 

Entire. 

Minute, cRdacous, bark erergreen 
Oval-elliptic . - - - 

Wliorled, oval . - - . 

Digitate, 7^-Iobed - - - 

Serrate. 

Ovate.4CtimiDate . . . . 

Deciduous, evergreen, or subevergreen, 

Entire, connate - - - . - 

Serrate or dentate, petiolate, and shining 

Serrate or entire, petiolate, shining 
Oppoute^ exUipulaU. 
Deciduous. 

Entire. 

Ovate-laiiceolate, S -ribbed 

Lanceolate, glabrous, large . . - 

Ovate or lanceolate, shining . - . 

Cordate, large . . - - 

Lanceolate, reticulately veined 
Cordate, undivided or 3-lobed, large 
Lanceolate or ovate, beset with silvery scales 
Lanceolate, with very short petioles 

Serrate. 

Ovate or cordate, soinctixnes lobed 

Lanceolate, rough, with dots . - - 

Serrated or entire 

Oval-acuminate, scabrous - . . 

Dentate, notched, or otherwise cut at the edges. 

Variously lobed (one Tariety deeply locinaite) 
Dentate or entire. 

Glabrous, entire, or toothed at the apex . 

Entire. , . ^ _., 

Ovate«lanceolate, evergreen, pale green with yellow 
spots . - - - - 

Elliptic, glabrous, small . . . 

Lanceolate, shining . . . . 

Ovate, ciliote, shining . . - • 

Roundish, coriaceous, smooth, shining • 
Serrate- * 

Oblong, with revolute edges, small - « 

Serrate or entire. 

Wavy, leathery, dark green, shining 
Deciduous evergreen, or subevergreen. 
Entire. 

Undivided, sessile, or sub-sessile, dotted - 

Lanceolate, downy . - - . 

Ovate-lanceolate, membranous, glaucous 

Lanceolate, glabrous - - - . 

Linear and scale-like, caducous, bark evergreen • 
Serrate. 

Ovate-lanceolate, sometimes linear, mostly deci- 
duous > - - - - 

Dentate or entire. 

Petioles embracing the stems - 

Opposite or aUemaUt ttipulate. 
Evergreen. 
Entire. 

Rhomb-shaped, bearing a mealy powder 

OpporiU or alternate^ exstipulate. 
Deciduous. 

Entire. , , , 

Lanceolate, sometimes whorled - 
Oblong, small-fascicled 
Deciduous, erergreen, or subevergreen. 
Entire. 

Smooth, oTaUlanceolate - - 
Rigid, pale green on both sides - 
Glabrous, shining, sometimes small 

Linear, more or less 2-rowed - 

Scale-like, closely imbricated, compressed 
Scales situated under the joints of the branches • 
Linear, adpressedly imbricate - 
Scale-shaped, minute, soroetimes linear - 
OppoatU or altemeOe, stipulate or exsttpyiate. 
Subevergreen. 
Entire. 

a-nenred or feather-nerred, hoary or pilose 

LEAVES COMPOUND. 

AUemaU, stipulate. 
Deciduous. 
Entire. 

Bitemate or biplnnate, strong.smelled - 
Pinnate, 3— 5.foliolate - 
Xrtfoliolate, pilose, or pubescent 



Collb'tu 

Symphorica'cpob 

Cbphala'nthub 


• 


17i 
Ml 
544 
673 


Dibrvi'llJ • 


- 


525 


LONI'CBR^ 

AristotbYxj - 

FlUV'tiHVU 


- 


5S6 
183 
516 


COBIA^BIA - 

Chiona'ntbos 
Peri'ploca 
Cata'lpa 
Bu'DDLe 
Paclo'wnj^ - 

SHEPIIE'RD/il - 

Bo'ry^ - 




146 
634 
658 

670 
660 
671 
700 
713 


Hydra'noba - 

IFA ' - 


. 


493 

548 


C iPRILADSaPHUS 

I Dbv^ua 


• 


460 
465 


if'CBB 


. 


79 


1 Dbcuma^ria . 


- 


466 


1 AVCVBA ' - 




511 


Aza'lba 
Philly'rba - 
Fi'nca 
^'xus 


m 
m 

m 


601 
631 
657 
70S 


• IUXGI'HDA 


• 


166 


GA'BRYil - 


» 


996 


CHypb'ricdm - 
'I Jndross'mum 

. BENTHA'MJil - 

. Leygestb'rm 

LlOD'STBUM - 
f PUEDRA 


. 


74 

77 
607 
543 
628 
937 


I fOO'MYUCS • 


- 


149 


Cl'lTOS - 


- 


54 


• il'TRIPLBX 


- 


676 


■ Pd'nica - 
. Nitra'ria 


m 


456 

467 


. Co'rncs - 

rrscL'M - 

. J[>a'phnb - 

C Ta'xds - 

iTORRB'Yil 
■ rHU'JA - 

. Ca'llitris 
. CVprr'ssus 

. JUNI'PERUS - 


- 


501 

508 

686 

939 

943 

1068 

1072 

1073 

1080 


. HBUA'NTHXmrM 


• 


A8 



Pmo^hia 


. 18 


Ptb'lea 


- 143 


AOBNOCA'BPUa 


- 2xr 



ACCORDING TO THEIR LEAVES. 



.XX. 



Impari-friiuate . - ~ . . 

Impari-pfinnace, beiet with glands 
Abruptly ptonate. leaflets mucronate 
Abrufitlr pinnate, leaflets 2 pairs 
lBipaii.piaiiate, leaflets orbicular 
Impan-ptanate, stipules small . . . 

PianAte, petioles permanent . . . 

Abrapclf pinnate, and bipinnate, or simple 
Bipifluate, 4 — 7 pinnae - • 

Serrate. 

Pinnate, 3— 13.roliolaie . . . 

Irapari-pinnate, doubly and treblj serrate, rvrf 
Urge 
Dentate, Odtclied. or otherwise cut at the edges. 

Impari-pinnate, with ovate leaflets 
Dentate or serrate. 

Trifoliolate. stipules connate . . . 

Dcddnous. erergrren, or subevergreen. 
Entirs. 

Trirnliotate, leaflets elliptical-oUong 
Trifoliolate, often pubescent . . . 

Imparl •pinnate, glabrous . . . 

Serrate. 

Imparl-plnnate, stipules attached to the petiole - 
Dentate or lorrate. 

Digitate, pinnate or lobed, rough 
mmuae^ exstipmltu. 
Oeddtious. 
Entire. 

ImpaH-pinnate, with 11—13 leaflets 
Ini pari -pinnate, with 9 — 11 leaflets 
Imparl- pi nuate, leaflets petiolate 
Impari-pinnate, leaflets oval, pointed 
Serrate. 

Trifoltoiace or bipinnate, leaflets ovate - 
Impari-pinnate, 5 — 19 leaflets . - . 

]mi>a:l-pinnate, 5— 15 leaflets . - . 

Impari-pinnate, 17 leaflets, sessile 
Dentate, notched, or otherwise cut at the edges. 
Parnate, pinnate, or bipinnate 
Impari-pinnate, teeth glandulous on the under side 
Evergreea. 

Dentate or serrate. 

Pinnate, coriaceous, dark green * 

Derldnous. evergreen, or subevergreen. 
Entire. 

Impari-pinnate, reddish groen - 
Conjugate, trifoliate, tendriled 
QffMir, Uipmiate. 
Drdduous 
Serrate. 

Pinnate, with compound and partial stlpnlct 
Dentate, notclied, or otherwise cut at the edges. 

Pinnate, the pinnae often bi-glandular at the base 
Dentatf* or serrate. 

Pinuately divided, leaflets irregular 
^ffpa*^, attipulait. 
Deddaottt. 
Serrate. 

Bit(*rnate, leaflets oblong lanceolate 
Impari-pinnate, leaflets nearlj sessile, buds black*! 
( One variety has simple leaves, p. 642.) J 

Imp<in-pinnate, buds ash -coloured 
Impari-pinnate, leaflets 7—9, petioles marginate - 
Dentate, notched, or otherwise cot at the edges. 

Impari-pinnate, 3—5 leaflets ... 
Palmate, leaflets rough ... 

Palmate, leaflets smooth ... 

Dcddnons, evergreen, or subevergreen. 
Entire. 

Pinnate, fax decosuting pair* ... 
^HmuUor oppoate, siipuiaU. 
Subevergreen. 
Entire. 

Pinnately cut. hairy ... 

LEAVES SIMPLE OR COMPOUND. 
^'■mMtr. atiptUate. 
Dccidnotts. 

Serrate or entire. 

Simple, or unequally pinnate ... 
Simple, but sometimes pinnately divided 
DentaU^ or serrate. 

Usually simple, but sometimes pinnately cut 
DrrUoous, evergreen, or subevergreen. 
Entire. 

I.anceo1ate. linear, or trifoliolate 
Tr ifoliolate or pinnate 



Auo'traA 

EvSBNIlA'RI>T/il 
CaRAOA'NA . 

Haumode'ndron 
Cau/phaca - 

CULU'TBA 
ifSTRA'GALUi . 

Glboi'tsch/^ . 
Gymno'claous 


m 
m 


23f 
232 

2ar 

2 

24v 
24C 
246 
249 
265 


Xamtbo'xtldm 


m 


142 


(Ara'ua . 


- 


496 


KfiLRBtrri'Bi^ 


m 


134 


Oho'nm . 


m 


221 


PiPTA'NTHUI - 

Ct'tiiub - 
Coromi'lla . 


m 


196 
218 
247 


J?0*SA . 


m 


821 


HV*BV» - 


- 


811 


SorpBORA 

VlBCl'L/^ 
ROBI'N/^ 

Wistaria - 


m 


195 

197 
233 

248 


Ci'ssi;s 
Ju'glans 
Ca'rya 
Ptaroca^rta 


m 


141 
732 
735 
743 


Ampelo'psis . 

AtLA'NTVS 


m 


139 
145 


MAIIO'K/it 


- 


50 


Pista'cia 
Biono'm^ 


• 


184 
6dU 


Stapbyik'a . 


m 


147 


Sambd'cus 


- 


biif 


XANTHORBrXA 


- 


19 


wiTRA'GBNB 




16 


FtLx'ximn 




639 


O'tLsm 

TrCOMA 




&5I 
661 


Nsavyi>o 

jE'SCl'LCS 

Pa^ti^ 




122 
124 
128 


CLr^matis 


• 


2 


POTENTI'LIA . 


• 


319 



. Pt'rus 

- 5P1RJB^A 



GWl'STA 
■/•SUI^NUM 



186 
417 

299 



203 
654 



EXPLANATION OF SIGNS, &c. 

Under the titles of the orders are given signs, intended to show at a glance the general habit of 
the trees or shrubs described in each order. These signs represent large, small, and mlddle-dzed 
plants, and are as follows ; the first sign in each row Indicating a deciduous tree or shrubs the noct 
an evergreen, and so on alternately : — 



afflffliii 




1. Roand-headed trees ; such as the oak^ 
ash, elm, beech, chestnut, kc De- 
ciduous and evergreen. 



8. ft 3. Spiry-topped or conical trees ; 
such as the spruce fir, silver fir, larch, 
pine, deciduous cypress, ftc. Deciduotn 
and evergreen. 



□□□QQy 
□□□□□□ 




I 





1 



uUUlJuU 



Az. 




4. Fastigiate trees ; such as the Lomhardr 
poplar, evergreen cypress, pyramidal 
oak, ftc. Deciduous and evergreen. 



5 Drooping trees; such aa the reeptoy 
willow, weeping elm, ftc. 



6. Shrubs of the largest sise, and sdio 
middle-sixed shrubs. Deciduous and 
evergreen, but exclusive of tw. lera, 
climbers, trailers, ftc. 



7. Under-shruhs, or shrubs of the smaileet 
sise. Deciduous and evergreen, but ex- 
clusive of twiners, trailers, ftc. 



9, Twining shrubs; sudi as the honey- 
suckle, aristolochia, ftc. Deciduous and 
evergreen. 



9. Climbing shrubs ; such as the clematlsL 
ampelopsis, vine, ftc Deciduous and 
evergreen. 



10. Trailing shrubs, the branches of whiefa 
lie prostrate on the ground, bat do not 
root into it; such as many species of 
wUlow, Cf tisus, ftc. 

11. Creeping shrubs, or such as send up 
shoots from their creeping roots; as 
many spedes of 5plrse^a, ftc. 



The signs put before each individual species and variety are the same as those used in the 
Gardener $ Magaxitu, and in the Horhu Briimmieus, via. 
^ Deciduous tree. n. Evergreen under-shrub. 

Evergreen tree. _{ Deciduous twiner. 

L Evergreen twiner. 
± Deciduous climber. 
|_ Evergreen climber. 



ift Deciduous shrub, 
ft Evi>rKreen shrubi 
jt Deciduous under-shrub. 



Jk Deciduous trailer. 
1L. Evergreen trailer. 
fHH Deciduous creeper. 
Jf„ Evergreen creeper. 



AcCBItTUATIONa AND INDICATIONS. 

All the botanic names throughout the Work are accented, and hare their origin indicated, as in 
the HortuM Britanninu and the Gardener** Magazine. The vowels which are sounded short are 
marked with an acute accent, thus ('). as A'ceras ; and those which are sounded long are marked 
with a grave accent, thus C)» a* A^brus. The origin of each name is indicated thus : if the naina 
has been applied to a plant by the anclenu, the first letter is in Italic, as PInus ; if it is comm» 
morative of some individual, the letters additional to the name are in italic, as Binksia, Laxo- 
berti'^Mii, Douglis/i ; and if an aboriginal name has been adopted, or if the name is of uncertaim 
derivation, the whole word Is in Italic, as, Aildnha^ Caragdna, Ac. Where the name would otherwiae 
be in Italic, as in the case of synonymes, headings to paragraphs, ftc, these distinctions are, ol 
course, reversed, as Vhtus, Bdniuiti, AiUntus. All the other scientific names, generic or specific, are 
composed from the Greek or Latin, except a very few which are taken flrom places : ■• Arauciria, 
from the oouutry of the Araucanians ; Qu6rcus gramikntia, ttcm the estate of Grammont, ftc. 

Thi moaAviD Fiouaas 

Are all to the lame scale of S in. to 1 ft., or one sixth of the natural sise ; with the exoeptfoa of 
details, which, when given, are generally of the natural size, and indicated by a cross, thus, •«•. 



ABRIDGED 

ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM 

BKITANNICUM. 



T>ns and shrubs, in common with all other flowering plants, are arranged 
by botanists in two grand divisions ; viz. the Exogenous, or Dicotyledonous, 
Plants, the stems of which increase from without, and the leaves of which 
kire reticulated veins ; and the Endogenous, or Monocotyledonoiis, Plants, 
the stems of which increase from within, and the leaves of which have parallel 
veins. The fint class includes all the hardy trees and shrubs in Britain, with 
the excepdon of shrubs of the genera Yucca, SmWax, i2uscus, and one or two 
ochers, which belong to the second class. We shall arrange the genera and 
species under the same subdivisions, subclasses, sections, orders, and tr&ea, 
II we have adopted from DeCandoUe in our Horttu BrUanmcui, 



Class L EXaOENiE. 

Stenu increaimgjh>m wiihout ; Leaves with reticulated Veins, 

Subdivision I. DICHLAMY'DEiE. 

Ctip ad Corolla distinct, by which they are distinguished from Subdivision II., 

in which the flowers have only a calyx, 

ItisbconsequeDce of this high developement of the floral envelopes, that 
die greater part of handsome-flowering trees and shrubs are found in Dichla- 
■/deae, it rarely happening tiiat those with a single floral envelope have any 
Mfitnt coionring. 

Subclass L THALAMIFLO'RiE. 

Howers un/h Petals and Stamens inserted in the Receptacle 

This subclass contains all the Polyandrous plants of Linnaeus ; as the sub- 
dm Galydfldras, io which the stamens are seated on the calyx, contains all 
the plaiits of the T^mmiMMi class Icos&ndria. 

Section L 

Crpefla, that », the componeiU Parts of compound Capsules or Fruits , numerous; 

or the Stamens placed opposite the Petals, 

Order I. -BANUNCULAXE-3E. 

Tbe Diagisostie, or Distinctive^ Character, or, as we shall term it, the Ordinal 
ClHracter, of this order, is thus given by Dr. Lindley : — " PofypetaSous, 

B 



ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

with hypogynous ttament [that is, stamens under the pistil] ; anthen bunting 
by longitudinal slits; several distinct simple caTT^^/Za [fruits]; exstipulate 
leavett sheathing at their base ; solid albumen ; and seeds without anllus." 
(^Nat. St/st., p. 6.) — Climbing shrubs scarcely woody, and low sufihiticose 
bushes. Natives of Europe, Asia, and North America. 

Leaves generally alternate; but sometimes opposite, generally exstipulate; 
deciduous, or evergreen ; much divided, especially in Clematis, in which the 
leaves are not articulate with the stem. The petioles often serve as tendrils ; 
and are dilated at the base, forming a sheath half-clasping the stem. Hairs 
if any, simple. Inflorescence smaU in Xanthorhlza, and some species of 
Clematis, and laree in Pseonia. Seeds small and pointed, except in Pieeonia. 
— The species in British gardens are included in two tribes, Clematldee 
and Psdoniace<s, which contain the genera Clematis, iitr&gene, Psboomv 
and Xanthorhlza. 



Tribe I. CLEMATi'DEiE. 

TMbal Character, Climbers, characterised by having the aestivation of the 
calyx valvate or induplicate ; with no petals, or with the petals flat ; the 
anther opening outwards ; the carpels, or seed-vessels, not opening, on^ 
seeded, terminated by a tail, which is the indurated style. Seed pendulous. 
Leaves opposite. Deciduous and evergreen climbers. — The genera are two. 
Clematis and iltr^gene, which are thus contradistinguished : — 

C\.e'mati8 L. Petals none. i^TBA^GENE £. Petals several. 

Genus I. 

. QQEEEH 

C1-E'MATI8 L. The Clematis, or Vjxgin^s Bower, Lm. S^st. Poly- 

&ndria Polygynia. 

IdaU&leaHon, The word Klematls wa«, at well ai Atragene. used by Theopbraitoi, to detignste 
the Clfimatit ViUQba of Linnaeus. Clematis was used by Matthlolus, and aUo by Cluaius, who 
applied it to C. Vitic611a X. and C. cirrh6ta L, 

Svnomymei. Ladies' Dower Qerard\ Clfanatlte, Fr, \ Waldrebc, Qer. ; Clematide, Itat. 

Derivation. The word Clematis, or Klematls, Is derlred fk-om the Greek word Atfnni, a nnall 
branch of a Tine ; and it is applied to this genus, because most of the plants composing it climb 
like a Ttne. The English name of Ladies' Bower was probably adopted fVom its sultaUencss for 
coTerlng bowers ; and, as the first kind of clematis brought to England (C. Vltic^lla) was intro- 
duced in 1569, during the reign of Elisabeth, the name of Virgin's Bower might be intended to 
couTey a compliment to thai sovereign, who, as it is well known, liked to be called the Virgin 
Queen. Walorebe la compounded of imiAf, a wood, and rrte, the branch of a vine. 

Generic Character, Involucre none, or situated under the flower, in the form 
of a calyx. Calyx of from four to eieht coloured sepals. Petals none. Car'- 
pels numerous, aggrq^te, terminated by a long, and mostly feathery, tail. — 
Climbing shrubs, with variously cut opposite leaves. The recent herb of all 
the species is acrid, and, when applied to the skin, it occasions blisters. 
(DonU MUl,) The seed is pendulous, and the carpels are one seeded ; 
each is terminated by a persistent style, and does not open until ruptured 
by the germination of the seed. 

Leaves compound, opposite in decussating pairs, without stipules, deci- 
duous or evergreen ; the petiole possessed of a clasping power for attaching 
the plant to contiguous bushes, or similar objects ; in all the species, more 
or less persistent after they are decayed. Flowers in axillary ramose panicles; 
smidl and white in some, and in others larger and highly coloured. Seed 



I. RANUNCULA^CEf : CLE'MATIS. 3 

a tees ifivested of its enrdope, BB that never burats till after it it 
to the toil. — The species ate included in four lectiona ; ni. 
Vhic^la, Cbar6pas, and .i^neoianiflorB. 
Root strong ; the fibres rather straight, and not ver; much branched ; ex- 
tmded m the soil rather horizontaUy than peruendicularl;. Stem Ugneous, 
not li^d enough to itand erect. BraDches the uune, and slendo'. Well 
slipted for cOTerii^ bowera, or for ornasienting verandas or trellisworlc. The 
greiler number of the spedea ripen their seed* in England, and are eaaily 
fropa^etl by them, or by layers. The seeds retain their vitality for several 
jeara ; they are of slow vegetation, and ought to be sown as soon as gathered, 
in vbich case they vrill generally come up the following spring; though, some- 
dmei, not till the aecond spring. All the spedea require support by props of 
some kind ; and all, with one or two exceptions, grow freely in any soil that 
b iderablj dry, but more especially in one that is calcareoui. From the 
''' of these plants, they are not vera liable to be attacked by insects ; 
' '' ' dugs arc occasionally found eating their young herbage, 

j i. Fl&mmula Dec. 



acridtnof th 

KTOUwlesS, 



QEffl 



Ses6o»ai dorachr. iDTolncre wanting. Tail of the carpels long, bearded 
utd festherv. Cotyledons distinct (that is, slightly separated) in the seed. 
(XWi Jfii^ L p. 3.) Deciduous. 

J I. Cu^MKtw FLjiMNDLAL. The inflammatory-juteeJ Gematis, or 
ttBeet-tcaded Firgia'' Bvwer. 

ttWjlLiUju. Ud. Sp., tm. i Dee. Fnd,, I. f.i. 



r.3.j.«l«arA-l. 

^tecficCiaTiuter and abridged Descrrption. 
lievta pinnate, smooth ; with orbicular, 
oni, obloDg, or linear, entire or three- 
lobed, acntiah leaflets. (Don't MUl.) A 
deciduous climber. South of Europe ; 
in hedges and waste bushy places, not 
Iv from the sea, and in soils more or , 
lea calcareous. Height 10ft. to 16 ft. 
Introduced m 1596. Flowers white, 
•weei-scenied ; July to October. Fruit 
while i ripe in October. Leaves deep 
frcen, often remaining on the plants till 
■oid-vinler, and dying off black. 

yarittia and their Synontfmei. The most 
difflnct is C. F. maritima; the rest are 
of Gttle importance. 



i CF. 3 maiiliina Dec. — Leaflets 

1 C. F. \ nAella Dec. — Leaflets 

oral, uaually emai^nate. Sepals four, reddish o 



4 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 

1 C. F, S aeipil&ia Dec. C. cietpitdsa Scop., C, FUnnnuk Beri^. — 
Leaflets coinute, entire or cut. 

1 C. F.6 paniouidla. C. paniculitn T%u«. — inovera with the peduncles 
simple. 
A vigorous-growing plant, the stems of which rapidly Bttain the length of 
from 15 ft. to ilD ft. in a state a! culture. The leaves are subject to much 
variation, from soil, situation, and climate. The peduncles of the flowers are 
aometiines simple, and sometimes branched. The colour of the sepals ia 
white, slightly pubescent on their exterior margins. The whole plant has a 
dark green hue; and in autumn it is abundantly covered with flowers, the 
odour of which is of a honied sweetness, exceedinriy disagreeable to some 
persons when near, though at a distance it is notunhke the fragrance of the 
common hawthorn. From the rnpiditv of its growth, it will in four or five 
yeati cover a very large space of wall, roof, or bower. Its herbage is con- 
sidered less acrid than that of any other of the European gpeciea, notwith- 
standing its name of FUiujuiula. 

1 2. C. orienta'lis L. The Oriental Clematia. 

OemlHUallim. Lhi. Sp.,TU.; Dn. Prod.,1, j.t.t Don'i UIU., I. f.t. 

^maifma. Flunniura tcudeiu apll roKn gliuco, DiU. EttH. 144. ; C. akn VimcM. Hell,. »«. . 

UiaEuttm. or nKDw-eomrna, Vlr^n'a Bowgr; C itiOa H'UU. I C. oditaltaa Hort-i 
ClfanatlW orimiUfs. Fr. ; Uorgcnliiidiiclifl Waldnt*, Otr. 
Engraaingi. Dill. Eltli.. t. 119, f. lU. ; Uldour^.t. 

Spcc.Char,,^c. Leaves pinnate; 

leaflets smoo th,wed ge-sbaped, 

with three toothed pointed 

lobes. (Bon'iMUl.) Adecidu- 

ous climber. Levant and Cau- 
casus. Height 10 ft to 15 ft. 

Introduced in 1731. Flowers 

greenish yellow sligbtiy tint- ' 

ed with russet, 8 weel-acentedi 

Jul)', August, Fruit white j 

ripe in October. Leaves 

somewhat glaucous, dying ofT 

black or dark-brown. 
Farieliei. C. gla&ca Willd. and 

C. ochrvleiica Hort. are, by 

some, alleged to be varieties 

of C. orientalis ; but we do 

not consider them sufficiently 

distinct for varieties, and have, 

therefore, included these 

names In our synonymes. 

The general magnitude of this 
^ecies resembles that of C, 
Fl&mmuhi, froni which it differs 
in its ulterior branches being 
more persistently ligneous, 
though the main stem in old 
plantH is sel<Iom seen lo thick at 
that of C. FUmmula. IE is also 
distinguished from the latter 
species by throwing un suckers 
freely, which the oiner does 
not. Its leaflets are ftlaucous, 
Sa^ laiKC as compared whh 

those of C. Flfimmula ; and it *■ «"*»"•,««*»•■ 

does not produce flowers so profusely as that species. The flowers an ycl- 



I. AANUNCULA C 



bwUi, and not so Mjongly icented ; and the carpels are diuimilw, thou^ 
tfiU cottonj in appeartnce when the seed ii ripe. 



Spte.(3ar^ir. Leaves pinnate ; leafieta ovate-lauceolste, quite endre. Pedun- 
t\tt few-flowered, longer than the leaves, Oraries lunially four, with almost 
Baked tatb. (Dou't MUL.) A deciduous climber. China, in the island called 
Danes. He^t 10 ft. tol5ll. Introduced in ISfiO. Flowers ?. LtaTespur- 
[riiib green, retained till rendered Uack by fhwt. 
ApItntintheHor- 

tinltuial Sodety's 

Girdcn, grows vigor- 

outlri^unit a wall, 

prooDCLng shoots as 

kng and strong as 

cboM oT C. Flammu- 

b; sad retaining its 

leans till tbey are 

bEackened bi^ frost. 

Il has Dcrer flowered; 

\xst, in it! leaves and 

in giDcnl i^pear- 

Hmble C, orientUia, 
eucpt that the leaves 
■re of s iaik pur- 
pbh green, instetul o( 

bring glaucous. 

i *. C. Vita'lb* L. The White- Vine Clematis, or Traveller'! Joy. 

lad-.l.iLa.: Siallb'iGai. FI..S.p.».i Don't HUL l.p. 4. 
Ill ijlTtarti Die: i C. luiniu hu Jtiigms ffoy ; C tlicn 




sTUwu 



te qdH • pUnu. While Vim li 
{■RiH at the tail! of Ilia evpd' ' 




Vjna. 

tSri«t CI^TiiiKl sorjtri.'i^ 
^M; Cbr., ^. Leave* pinnate ; leaflets ovste4anceolate, acuminated, cordate 



M ET FRUTICETUM BBITANNICUH. 

at the base, parti; cut. Peduuclee foiled, ahortcr than the leaves, (Do»'t 
Mill.) A deciduous climber of vigorous growth, Europe and Britain, in 
hedsei and copaea, alwaya indicating a calcareous soil. Hdiht ISA. to 
30ft.; b rich soil, and id a iheltered situation, 50 fi. to lOOft. Flawera 
white; August, September. Fruit white; ripe from October to February. 
LeaTca long retained, and dj'ing off black or daik brown. 

than those of any other speciea, an- 
gular, climbing to tlie height of 20 
or 30 feet, or upwards, and hanging 
down from rocky cliffs, ruins, or the 
branches of trees; or being supported 
bf, and forming tulis on, ihe upper 
Burface of other shrubg or low trees, 
which they oflen so completely 
cover as to have the appearance of 
bushes at a distance. The footttalke 
of the leaves are twined about what- 
ever object they approach, and after- 
wards become hard and persistent, 

like the tendrils of a vine. The leaflets are either quiteentirejOrunequally cut; 
sometimes very coarsely so. The panicles are BKillar; and terminal, many- 
Sowered and downy. The flowers are of a greenish white colour, with tittle 
show; but they have a sweet almond-like scent. The seeds (/g. 6.^ have 
long, wavy, feathery, and silky tails, forming beautiful tufls, most conspicuous 
in wet weather. The French gardeners use the twigs instead of withs, lor tying 
up their plants ; andmake very neat baskets of them when [>ee]ed, and also bee- 
hives. The twiea are in the best state for making these articles in winter ; and 
thar flexibility is increased by holding them to the Sre before uung them. In 
gardens and plantations the ulant is valuable for the rapidity with which it may 
be made to cover naked walls, unsightly roofs of Eheds, or low buildings anil 
arbours ; and for a variety of similar purposes, 

* L. The Virginian Clematis. 



1. SiapAM^t C. trllimiU Hon. j Uw bnwl-lwnt CmuiI* VIrgtD'i 

udeVlrgliite. A-.i VIrgluUclK WaMnbr. Orr. 

. Den, Brit, ((£e rule pilot),!. 74. ; iBiviiJIt.f, 
Spee.Char.,^c. Flowers panicled, dicecious. Leaves 
temate; leaflets cordate, acute, grossly toothed, 
or lohed. (Don'i Mill.) A deciduous climber, 
Canada to Florida, in hedges and near rivers. 
Height 10 fl. to 15 fL Introduced in IT67. 
Flowers white ; August, September, Fruit white. 
Decaying foliage brown or black. 
Fanett/. 

1 C.v. $ bratieata Dec. C.hracteata Munch. 
— Leafleu ovate-lanceolate, entire. 
The general appearance of this plant is like that 
of C. Vitilbaj but it is less robust in all its 
parts, and less ligneous in its stems and branches ; 
and it is also somewhat more tender. Panic es e. niDimii riiiuuiu. 

trichotomously divided, with small leaves at the divisions. Sepals 4, whitu 
obovate, exceeding the stamens. Flowers often dioecious or polygamous. (7W- 
and Gray.'^ Miller states that it seldom ripens seeds in Bn^endt but, as it ii 
dioedous, it is possible that he possessed only the male plant. 



1. danuncula'cx-e : cle'hatis. 
X 6. C. «ba't« VaU. The gratcful-xniM Clematis. 



1^. Qla-^ 4'c- Ftowoi axil* 

Iffy, paidcledj learei lubbi- 

tmMc, jSknm ; leaflets cor- 
dite, aciuiiinated, serrated, 

SJobed; sepals obtuse. (G. 

Dos.) A deciduoua climber. 

N(n].ODraDui]tains.Heieht 

lOfttoiSft iDtroducedin 

1S3L Flowers white. 

Ooselj reaembling C. tit- 
Dniuia,bat rather more hoaiyi 
■od eqnillj hanjj, though it 
bs ooc ;et Sovered (reel; in 
tbe raien lir. A shoot intro- 
ibced ipio the inside of a stove 
b the Chelsea Botanic Gar- 
den, from a plant on the out- 
nd^ flontfed there in 1833. 
iWeat in niiraeries at C. 

lopalaiiis. t. atawr"^ 

i 7. C. Vio'bsa L. The road-onwnienting Clematis, or lealAay-Jloaeral 
Virgin'i Bower. 

. Lto. Sp„I6S.i Drc.PJOi.l.p.V.; Do 

r ^„ rkpcui Rag; Fitmuull K 

*■ Jdt ; tba Vlr^EiUn CUntov ^ i 

iiilo«^.9. 

Sprr. Our., ^. Peduncles l-flovered. Sepals conntvent, thick, acuminated, 
n4eiedBtthea4>ex. Leave* smooth, [nnnate; leafleta entire, 3-lobed,alier- 
nste^ male, acute, floral ones entire. (Don't MiU.) A deciduous climber. 
PrnntjiTania to Georgia. Height 6 ft. to 12 ft Introduced in 1730. Flowen 
purple without, whitish within i June to August. Fruit white ; ripe in Sep- 
iniiber. Decajiug leaves retained bng, and djiiDg. 

offblK^ k 

Porirfy. C. r. 2 corJdIa. C. cordaU jS&bi Soi.Wag.^ 

t.l8IB^ and our j!g. 9. from that plate; Cl^m.P 

Sbuii Sweef a Uort. Brit. 

Tiit qieciea is striking in the dissimitarit; of its 
lowtn to those of most other species. It is of vigor- 
^ ETovth, and, eaclusite of its flowers, assimilates 
■oC.Vhicilla; but its stems and branches are less 
^Kidedlj hgneou*. The stems are numerous, slender, 
a>d rauidi tbe peduncles of the flower are long, 
<Ukied cowards the tip, rendering the flowers pen- 
<li>loas ; the sepals never t^en, except at their ex- 
'"BK ends, which are bent back, giving the whole 
kvcr a bell shaoe, but with the mouth of the bell 
■vrower tbin the bodj. The sepals are of a neenish purple or reddish 
Bic on the outside, and of a very 'rale green within. The Ktamens scarcely 
aage firmn tbe sepals. The carp«^ are broad and flat -, as they ripen, the 
>d becomes bent ia and plumose, and of a brawniih green colour. It 




ARBORETUM ET FBUTICETUM BRITANNICUH 



frame. Ae its brancbea 
■re not very decidedly 
ligneous or persistent, 
but conMBt mostly of 
annual shoots from a ' 
BuffhiticDse base, and 
are not much branched, 
the plant doei not ex* 
hibit a bushy head. It 
thrives best m bog 
earth, kept somewhat 
moist, in which cir- 
cumstance it differs 
from most of the 
woody apedes of 06- 
mads. It may be 
increased by layers, 
though not BO readilv 
as fi^om seeds, which 
it produces in abund- . 
ance. This species, C. 
c^llndrica, and C. re- 
ticulata, being neither 
very woody, nor very 
luxuriant in growth, 
may all be treated as 
herbaceous plants, to 
be BupfHirted during 
the flowering season 
by temporary props. 
Few border planta, in- 
deed, will be found 



'. cvli'ndriCii Stmt. The cylindrical-^ouwmf Clemali*. 

HI. In Bo>. Hif.. 1. 1 IW. i Dec. PrDd„I. p. r. 1 Don'i ULIl., I. p-l.) Tor.ud 

Inn Lou., but DM of Linn.; C, VUraiAndr. Id Bal.Srji.; C. dlTirtctU Jasf.^ 
•■i> luiii-uuscicd VliglD'i Ba««r: Climultv 1 hHifun FleuTi. Fr. 
Eatmlnti- Bot Ui(.. I. llW.i Bol. Rrp.. l. Tl. i uilaur.^. ja 
^>tc. Char., ^, Peduncles 1-fiowered. Sepals thin, acuminated, reflexed 

at the apex, with wavy margins. Leaves slender, pinnBCe ; leaflets stalked, 

ovate or oblong, middle one sometimes trifid, 

floral ones entire. (Dim'i MiU^ A deciduous 

climber. North Carolina and Florida. Height 

3ft.lo5ft. Introduced in 1802. Flowers large, 

purplish blue, nodding ; June, August. Fruit 

white ; ripe in September. 

DeCandoUe describes this species as related 
to C. Vi6ma, reticulata, and crispa, and dis- 
criminated it from these. C. cylfndrica, he says, 
diflcrs from C. Vi6ma, in the seements of its 
leaves being entire and not trifid ; m the flowers 
being blue, not reddish lilac and pale within, and 
twice the sixe of those of C. Vi6nia ; in the sepals 




. SANUKClJLACEf : CLEMATIS. 



.... uoflhecoiiai»ten,-e 
tt piper, with the margia wnTcd ; the ovaries 
IJ-15. Dot 2^^. C. c^Undrica iliflen from C. 
Rlici^sta ID its leaves being in coDEislence paperr, 
Mt letther; ; acsrcely TOned, not reticulalely 
lODed ; and in other points. C. cylindrica closely 
rcMmbles C. crispa in habit and mode of flowers 
ing ; but diSen from It in its sepals being waved 
D (be maipn, not rolled backvardi, iii its lai^er 
lonrs, and especially in its carpels haviiig long 

bcvded tails, and not naked ones. C, Vioma mt. rrairi^ntnuiMriiMihir. 
tod C. cjluidricB, seen together in a living state, 

Mt lay dissimilar in appearance. C. Vioma has vigorous long branches aod 
reddish Bowers, which are acom-like in figure, except that they have n spread- 
iu iDoutb ; there is also obvious dissimilarity in tne foliage end shoots, C. 
tjmdnca bong almost herbaceous. 

J 9. C. rkticula'ti Wall, The net-vedned-isoord Clematis. 

.; D«6 Prod, 1. p. I-; 

Ini/f' liwk. 1 tha nHIciJ 



Spn. C^., 4c. Peduncles 1 -flowered. Sepal 

cooiuveDL Leaves coriaceous, netted with 

nerves, smooth, pinnate ; leaflets stalked, 3> 

bbed or entire, ovate. (Om'i J^iil.) A de- 

ciduom climber. S. Carolina and Georgia. 

Height 6 ft to & ft Introducedin 1812. Flow- 
en pale purplish red ; June to August. Fruit 

Thite; ripe in September. 

Leaflets sll petiolulate, 1 in. to 1} in. long, /^iS^ 

■nfiriikd or Toriously lobed, the lowest psjr jjIK. 

S-faned, Bometimea rather acute and mucronate. 
Pedundes bnger than the leaves. Flowers 
> luge as in C crispa. Sepals dull purple, 
onteJncetdate, velve^ externally. Tails of the 
opels bi^ (Tor. and Grey.) In C, Vi6rna 
the sepals do not divaricate, except in their 
RcnTTed tips; while in C. reticulata the sepals 
eipiad in the mode of those of C. Viticeila. 
A side view of a flower less expanded resembles 
MTE [be flower of C. cyllndrica, but the cylin- 
drical portion is aborter. The Sowers (sepalsj ii. atnuiiinuciiiMi' 
of the two are differeDt in colour. Hie leaves of C. reticulata arc veiiiLii, 
f k BDfdied in the specific name. The stems ere scarcely ligneous. 
1 10. C. Hbndkkso^// Chandler. Henderson's Clematis. 

Spec, dor., fc. Peduncles 1-flowered, much longer than the petioles of the 
leaves. Sqials long, wrinkled, refleied. Leaves bipinnate, leaflels ovate- 
antaiinate. A deciduous climber. Hybrid. Height Bft. to lOft. Cult. 
1835. Flowers bluish purple ; June to September. Fruit white. 
Tht steal and foliage bear a general resemblance to those of C. Viticeila, 
>Ule the flowers, in magnitude and colour, and the leaflets in shape and 
toniiig, reKemble those of C. inlegrifblia ; but the icpals expand much 
wider, in the manner of those of C. Viticeila. This plaut is apparently a 
bvbtid between C. Viticeila and C. integrif&lia, having the flowers of the latter, 
■d the leaves and stems of the former. It was raised by Mr. Henderson, 



10 AnBOBETUM KT FRUTrCETUM BRITANNICUM. 

nuraerymiui, of Pine-Bpple Place, and finit 
flowered in the nursery of Mr, Chandler, 
by whom it was named. It maj tkirly be 
dencribed as one of the most ornamental 



species of this section, from the largeness 
of its flowers, their long footstalks, which 
make them stand out distinctly from the 
foliage, the great profusion with which they 
are produced, anci the long time the plant 
o produce them. Layers, 



} ii. ViticeUa Dec 



G0LZI 



Se(d. Char. Involucre wanting. Tail cf the pericarp (that is, of the carpel) 
short, beardless. Leaves ternote, or decompound. Stems climbing. (Omfl 
Afiil., i, p. 9.) Deciduous. 

1 II. C.vi.o'RiDk Thun. The tionii, or tkoiBy-JIouiered, CiemBiit. 

KtmUflaaim. Tamb, FL Jap., Ma i Ok. Find.. I. 3. ; Ddd'i Ulll., I. p. 9. 

SftaifrMt. Atrk^tat \ai\ci Saf. ; Aaifeae edclila eiri.i Cl^nuilie k (TindH Finn, IV. I 

jnii.liliiIlilgeWiidn.lie, Gcr. 
Eittrathlfl. ShniBcil. Mag, t. (St.; Aadr. BM. Rep., t. 401. ; uii am fig. it. 

;ipec. Char.,^c. Peduncles l-Howered, longer than the leaves. Leaves ternately 
decompound ; leaflets ovate, acute, quite entire. Sepals oval-lanceolate, 
much pointed. {Don't Mill,) A deciduous climber. Japan. Height 
]Ofi.to 12fL Litroduced in 1776. Flowers white; 'June to September. 
Fruit ?. 

X Cf. t.fioreplino Hort. has the stamens changed into floral leaves, 
which may be denominated petals. It js very handsome, but the 
petals have frequently a tinge of green, which renders it less oma- 
mental than the single species, in which the centre of the flower is 
comparatively inconspicuous, while the se[ials are large, and of a pure 
white. 

J C. / 3 Jiin pieno naiaeeo ; C. f. Sieb6ldij D. Don in SweeVt Brit. 
Fbw.'Gard. 2d ser. p. 396.; C. Sieb61ij[i Paxtoa's Hag. Bot 



r ■ 



I. AANUNCULA^CE^: CLEMATIS. 



11 





14. C.flMdafl. vUvloliK 



p. 147. ; C. bScolor Hart. ; and our fig, 14. ; 

IS in all respects the same as the last, except 

that the petals, or centre of the flower, are 

of a rich violet colour, approaching to purple. 

It was sent from Japan to Europe by Dr. 

Sieboldt; and introduced into England in 

1836. It is a most ornamental plant, and as 

hardy and easily propagated as the other va- 

ri^y or the species. 

The stem is slender' 
and striated ; climbing 
to the height of 15 ft. 
or upwards when it is 
trained to a wall with a faTourable exposure, 
though never becoming very woody. The flowers 
are large and handsome, either in a single or 
double state ; and these, with the neatness of its 
foliage, and the slendemess of its stems and 
branches, give it such an air of elegance, that no 
lover of plants should be without it, who has a 
earden in which it will thrive. North of London 
It requires a wall ; and in Scotland, as well as 
in France and Germany, it is generally kept in 
the green-house. A mode of pruning plants of 
this species, by cutting them down to the ground 
1&. cuutofldiUk ~ annually, though not generally practised, is said 
to produce vigorous shoots and fine flowers. This species never ripens seeds 
ia England, and is therefore only propagated by layers. 

i 12. C. CJERU^EA Undl, The blue, or vwlet-fiowered. Clematis. 

. JAdOL^ in Bot. Reg., t. 1985u 
C. asdrea grandifllMa 8ieb. ; C grandifldrm Hart, 
BoC Reg., t. 19S6.; and oar^. 16. 

Spec. Char^ ^c. Leaves spreading, hairy, temate. 
S^ments ovate-acute, entire. Peduncles 1- 
fiowered. Sepals 6 to 8, oblong, lanceolate, 
acute, membranaceous. Margin distended. 
(Liadl,) A deciduous climber. Japan. Height 
lOft. to 12 ft. Introduced in 1836. Flowers 
bbe; June and July. Fruit?. 

A five-growing and profuse-blooming plant, 
with the habit of C. florida. Flowers large, 
noiet^oloiired, with deep purple stamens. It 
ta§en horn C. fl6rida in the colour, delicacy, 
and transparency of its blossoms, and also m 
its leaves being only once temate, and in the 
Kpals not touching and overlapping each other 
at the edges. Culture and propagation as in 
C.ildrida. 

-I 13. C. Viticb'lla.It. The Vine-Bower Clematis. 

MoMeaiiom. lio. Sp. 762. ; Dec. Prod., I. p.9. ; Don'i Mill., 1. p. 9. 

SSST^viSSlla delioldea Mtenek; the red-flowered Lady** Bower, Gerardi Itallenuche 
yiJurdbe, Ger. 

Flor. Grac., 1 516. ; Bot. Mag., t. 565. ; and our ftg. 17. 




Spec. Char^ ^c. Peduncles l-flowered, longer than the leaves. L^ves 
ternately decompound, lobes or leaflets entire. Sepals obovate, spreading. 
(Don's Mili.) A deciduous climber. South of Europe, m hedges, on 
calcaKoas soiL Height 10 ft. to 15 ft- Introduced in 1669 Flowers blue 



12 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETITM BRITANHICUH. 

or purple ; July to September. Fruit white ; ripe b October. Dccajing 
foUage black or brown. 

1 C.r.i arriika. — Flowers blue. 

1 C. V. 2 parpirea. — Flowers purple. 

1 C. F.S multiplex a. Don. C. pulchilla Pert. — Flowers double, blue. 
Tiiis variety produces more robust, more extended, and fewer shootx, 
than the siiiEle-flowered blue or purple varieties. 

1 C. K. * icniafoUa Dec, C. tenuifolia luaitinica Toam. ; and 

1 C. V.i baccata Dec, C. campanifldra Hort. \ are varieties which we 
have not seeo. 
C. Vitic£lta, and all its varieties, arc 
tolerably robust and viizorous in their 
growth, and decidedly ligneous ; though 
plants, individually, do not endure many 
years. They are, perliaps, the most beau- 
tiful and most estimable of all the kinds 
of clematis, for the purposes of floral de- 
coration. For the mere covering of bowers 
and other objects, they are, however, less£ 
suited than C. Vitalba and C. Fl^mula; as'' 
these grow faster, extend farther, and each 
yields a greater aggregate of herbage, and 
BO covera better : but none of them can 
vie with C. Vitic^Ua and its varieties in 

beautyi more eBpeclallj with the single ,, cum.B. vmrfuk 

purple and the single blue. 

1 14. C.cahpaniflo'ra Sro^ The bell-flowered Clematis. 



S».i s'.'fir. Fl'-GtM., a 
»riH.t.«17.; indoor A.IB, 

Spec. Chdr., ^c. Pedun- 
cles I -flowered, some- 
what longer than the 
leaves. Leaves biter- 
^elj decompound ; 
leelteU entire, or 3- 
lobed. Se[Mls half- 

S reading, dilated at 
e apex, wavy. (Don'i 
Mill.) A deciduous 
sufirutescent climber 
of vigorous erowCh. 
Portiigal, in nedgea. 
Height lift, to 15ft. 
Introd.1810. Flowers f 
white, slightly tinged 
with purple ; July and 
August. Fmit white. 
Defying foli^e dark 



'■-^•c. 



8 panrifiora. C. parviflora Fitch, of GiJtiingen. — Flowers rather 
aroaller than in the species, sepals crisped at the edge*. H. S. 



I. HANUNCULA^CE^ : CLE'maTIS. 



13 



The habit of growth of this plant is that of C. Vitic^Ila, to which it also 
comes nearest. in affinity, but, though less woody, its shoots are much more 
robust; the much smaller and white flowers, and pointed sepals connivent (that 
is, lying dose together) below, will readily distinguish it. It seldom ripens 
vood in Enghuid, but is readily propagated by layers. 

X 15. C. QRi'sPA L. The CMTXed-tepaied Clematis. 

■L Ua. SP..76&. ; Dec Prod., 1. p.ft ; Don's Mill., 1. p. 9. 

_ , DUl. Elth., 1. 1 73. fig. S4. ; Bot. Ma«., 
i9tl i and oar fig. 19. 

Spec, Char,^ ^e. Peduncles 1 -flowered, 
shorter than the leaves. Leaves entire, 
3-lobed, or temate, very acute. Sepals 
coonivent at the base, but reflexed, and 
spreading at the apex. (Don's Mill.) A 
deciduous climber. Virginia to Florida. 
H^t 3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1726. 
Flowers purple ; July to September. Fruit 
brownish ; ripe in October. 

Leaves glabrous, or slightly hairy. Flowers 
one third smaller than in C. Vi6rna, bright 
purple. Tail of the carpels thick and rigid, 
about half an inch long. (Tar, and Gray,) 
The flowers of this species are pretty, but 
perhaps neva* produced in sufficient quan- 
titv to render it highly decorative. The se- 
pals have their tips reflexed, and waved with 
tTBOsvene wrinkles. The stems are weak, and i'- cunutj* eniin. 

do not generally rise higher than 3 or 4 feet. The plants frequently die down 
to the groumi, so that this species requires to be treated more as herbaceous 
than Igneous. It ripens seeds plentifully. 

§ iii. ClieirdpsU Dec. 




L.V 

Fiom ckeir, tlie band, and optu^ rrsemblance ; in allocion to Uie form of the bractea*. 

Sett Cher, Involucre in the form of a calyx, from two joined bracteas situated 
at the top of the peduncle just under the flower. Tails of pericarps 
bearded. Climbing or rambling shrubs, with simple or ternate leaves. The 
old petioles persistent, and the new leaves and the peduncles produced in 
clusters from the axils pf these. (Dec, SysLy 1. 162.) jBvergreen. 

I. 16. C, ciKRHO^SA L, The tendriled-^e/io/ed Clematis. 



Ltn. Spif 766.; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 9. : Don's Hill., 1. p. 9. 
, J ■■,. .^trioene drrhdaa Pen. Syi*. 2. p. 9CL: TraTeller*t Joy of Candia, and Spanish Tnu 

vrikr't Jot, JMwon'« Gerard % Spanish wild Climber, Parkhuoni the evergreen Clematis; 

CKBHtUe & VriUes, Clfimatite toi^oura Terte (BonJard.), Pr.; elnfachbUttrlge (slmple-leaTed) 

Waldrebe, 6«r. 
'iermaHon, The vord cirrbbsa, which meant drrhose, or tendrlled. Is applied to this species 

froa the 'peculiarlj grasping and tendrtl-llke action of Its petioles, which retain their hold even 

after the Irallecs bare &lien. The French word Vrilles signifies tendrils t' and the German word 

ehaftdi alludM to its oomparatiTelj simple leaves. 
See the Yarietice. 



Spec, Ckar.^ 4^c, Peduncle 1-flowered, with an involucre. Leaves simple, or 
variously divided ; evergreen. An evergreen climber. Spain and the 
Balearic Isles. Height in British gardens, in the climate of London, in a 
warm situation, against a wall, 5 ft to 10 ft. Introduced in 1596. Flowers 
greenish or vellowish white ; March and April. Fruit <, Foliage of the 
brood-leaved varieties forming a fine dark green mass. 



ARBORETUM ET PRUTICETUM BRITANNICCM 



1. C. c. 2 petUctUdta Dec ; C. pedicelUta Swcel't 
HorU Brit. p. 2., and Don't MOt. i. p. 9. ; C. 
baleirica Pen,; C. eir- 
rhdsa Sinu B. Mag. 
t. 1070,; and our Jig. 
20.; has the pedicel be- 
tween the involucre and 
the flower considerably ^ 
longer than 
species. 
C. f. '3 anguitiJoUa. C, bale- 
irica Rick. Bot. Mag. 
t.959., Bnd0Lrj%.2l.; 
C. caljcina Ait.; C. 

poljmdrpha Horl. Clfmatite de Mahon, Fr. 

— The leaver of this variety vary exceedingly, Iram those shovn in 

.1^. 23. of the naiural size, taken from a plant in the Horticultural 

Society's Garden, to those shown in Jig. 22., reduced from Smith's 

Flora Graca, Introduced into England by M. Thouin, in 17S3. 

The raricties are all elegant 

evergreen climbing shrubs, rising 

to the height of from 6 i). to 

10 ft., and branchini; freely, so 

an to become, in two or three 

vt»rs, very thick bushy plenis. 






The leaves vary from simple to temate ; and from being entire to being 

deeply cot. The flowers appear at the end of December, or the beginning 
of January, and continue till the middle or end of April. They are pendulous 
and bell-ahaped, the mouth being of the brcaiith of a shilling, or more. Their 
colour is greenish white, with some purple on the iiisidL-, The sepals are 
downy without, and smooth within. In its native country it is said to climb 
up and overwhelm the Irtes ; but in England it is a weak plant, not very 
readily kept. In nurseries it is generally cultivated in pots, and kept in a 
green-house, or in a cold-frame. The princi|ial beauties of this «>ecies coti* 
sist in its bright evergreen verdure, and in the earliness of its flowering in 
Rpring i and thcK properties may be best obtained by training it t^ainat a wall 
with a southern aspect. Layers and cuttings. 



, aanumcula'ce£ : cle/hatis. 
j iv. Anmwi/idra. 







m. The Mouotoin Clematis. 

S3.: Dtc. Plod., t, p. 9.; Rorlr, p. E). 
II Prod. Fl. Nrt^. p.l»l^ fi^'i MiU. 1. p.9. 
* - ■" -.S\7,i Swt.Br.Fl.-G»nL, ll.I.IM.; »ndoiirjVj. 
t Hart. Sdc GmniBi. uul ^. W. Itom A •p«clm(ni of 

^«. (Jot., j-c. PeduDcIes 1-flowered, not bracteaied, lereral together. 
Le*ia ternately parted, the segments orate-obtoiTg, acuminate, roothed, the 
Mtth in the mode of incisions. Sepals cltiptlc-oblong, mucronulate, spread* 
ing. (C Don.) A deciduous climber. Himalavan Mountains at 5000 ft. 
to TDDOft. elevation. Height 10 ft. tn 13 ft., or in sheltered sitUBtiona 
30 ft to ao ft. Introduced in 183]. Flowers white; April in Nepal, 
Mij in England. Fruit white ; ripe iu August. Decaying foliage brown, 
lod dropping jaore ft'eely than in most of the other kinds. 



odnous. Learea numerous, pale green. Flowers 

numerous, about the size 

and form of those of j^ne- 

mone sylv^stris L., borne 

sereral together, each upon 

a separate, upright, slender 
^ peduncle, about 3 in. long. 

Sepals 4, J in. long, pure 

white, laintly stained with t 
, pink outside at the base. ] 

Stj'les clothed with long \ 

white silky hairs ; ftom 

which it may be inferred 
"""" that this species will have 

tt> frniti tenninated with feathery tails, in a state of 
iittuiity. Id the climate of England it proves to be 
tpite hardj, and aeems to flourish as well as on its 
otin mountains. It grows with greut vigour iq a 
jOHDy Eoil, flowers profusely early in the season, and ». cuiii.u>iu»i.aia.- 
ii readily increased by layers. A very desirable species. 

OttfT Speciet of Clemaiu. — There are several other species of Clematis 
<leKTibed m books, some of them as introduced, and others as not yet in 
caltinlion in Britain ; but we have refrained from describing any species of 
•hick we have not seen living plants. In Torrey and Gray's Flora of Norlli 
^merka, C. holoterieea Pursh, C. Vgutlkifolia Nutt., C. l)nunnion<iii Tor. 4f 
Ci^, C. pamijldra Kutt., C. liaiantAa Nutt., C. hneariloba Dec, and C- 
'^ni Tor, 4- Grat/, are descrilied as woody species, none of which, even 
bt DHDe, are yet in British gardens. C. piibetcent, yitijoiia, fucAoiiana, and 
MDc Others, mentioned by Dra. Wallich and Royle, are yet to introduce 
frm itae Uimalajas ; and there are several names in DeCandolle's iVodronu 
of which liviiig plant* are not in our gardens. 



16 



ARBORETUM ET FUUT1CETUM BRrTAKNICUM. 



Genus IL 




HE 



i^TRA'GENE L. The Atragene. Lnu Sytt. Polytodria Polyg/nia. 

Identi/leattom, Lin Gen^ p. 615. ; Don's Hill., 1 . p. 10. 

^fnonymeg. Clematis Lam. and Dec. ; Atragene, Fr. and Ger. 

Derivation. The name of^trigene appears to be taken from two Greek words ; oiAm, pressed, 
and fanos, birth ; alluding, as it is supposed, to the manner in which the branches press «gainst 
or clasp the trees that support them. It was first used by Theophrastus, and was bv him applied 
to C16matU Vit&lba L. / »- / w 

Gen. Char. Involucre none. Sepalt 4, somewhat induplicate in the bud. 
Petals numerous, shorter than the sepals. Cariopsidet (carpels) terminated 
by a bearded tail. Cotyledons approximate in the seed. (DorCs Miil,^ 

Leaves compound, opposite, generally exstipulate, aeciduous; leafleti 
variously cut. Flowers axillary, pedunculate ; purple, blue, or white. 
Climbing shrubs, natives of Europe and North America. 

The atragenes differ from the clematises in producing leaves and one flower 
from the same bud contemporaneously; whereas in most clematises the 
flowers are produced upon wood developed previously to their appearance, 
and during the same season. Hence the winter buds of ^Itr^gene are larger 
than those of Clematis, from their including the flower as well as the leaves 
of the succeeding year. In atragenes the leaves are less divided than in many 
of the species of Clematis, and they are always divided temately. All the 
species of Atrkgene described in this work have petioles, which not only clasp 
objects, like those of CTl^matis, but maintain the hold for more than the 
season, like the vine. All extremely interesting from the beauty of their 
blossoms. The culture is the same as in Clematis, and the propagation 
generally by layers. 

1 1. ArRk'QKSE ALPi^NA L. The Alpine Atragene. 

Jdent^lcation. Lin. Sp., 764. ; Don's Mill., 1. p. 10. 

^fntm^ma. Clfoiatis cserCUea Bauh. i Atriaene austrlaca Scop, and Bot. Mag. i if trigene dema- 

tides Cranit ; CIteiatis alpina MM. Diet. No. 9. ; C. alplna Dec. Prod. 1. p. 10. ; Atragfene des 

Alpes, IV. s Alpen Atragene, Ger. 
Engravings, Bot. Rep., t. IBO. ; Bot. Mag., t. fi30. ; and oury^ 96. 

Spec. Char., S^c. Peduncles 1 -flowered, longer than the leaves. Leaves 
biteniate ; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, serrate. Petals somewhat 
spathulate, blunt. {DorCs MilL) A deciduous climber. South of Europe, 
on mountains, in calcareous soils. Height 8 ft. Introduced in 1792. 
Flowers blue; Mav to July. Fruit white; 
ripe in August. Decaying leaves brownish, 
and in general parting more freely from the 
stems than in Clematis. 

Varieties. DeCandolle mentions its varying with 
white flowers ; and A. siblrica Lm., described 
below as a species with yellowish white flowers, 
appears to us nothing more than a variety of 
A. alpina. 

The stems are numerous, branching, weak, 
forming knots at the joints where the leaves and 
flowers are protruded. One flower, on a longish 
scape, springs from between the leaves. The sepals 
are twice the leruzth of the petals, and are blue 
on both sides. The petals are small, of a duty 
white, and in general 12 in number. Very orna- 
mental. Layers. 




«6. Atragene alpina. 



I. RAUVSCVLXCt,^: ..fTBACEME. 

i 2. A. (a.) sim'ctiCA L. IJie Siberian ACragene. 

•»'■ MilL, I. p-lD. 

I. p. 194.. Pall. Flar. Sea. 1. p. EB. j C 



Sptc. Ciar^ $ic, PeduDcles l-9owere<l, almost equal in length with the 

IcBTCE. Learea biternate ; leaflets oblong>lanceo1ate, acuminated, Bcmted. 

fVtali emarginaie at the apei. (Diiii'i MUl.) A deciduous climber. 

Sibtfii, oa mouDtahu. Helgtit 6 h. to 12 h. Introduced in 1753. Flowers 

white; June and July. Fruit white : ripe in August. 

Decajing leaves brownish. 
Taring. A bine-flowered varietj' of this species is men- 

tio«d in Bol. Mas^ X. 1591., which is probably the 

A, ocbotAisi* of Piulas, or possibly nothing; more than 

A. B^aoa L. 

Then is a considerable similaritj in this to the last, 
b (itiiage and habit of growth ; but it is leu robust and 
lesibruichj; its branches are more ligneous-looking,Bnd 
ihe Kgments of the leaves longer. The calyxes of the 
flower are white, longer, and with the tips rather con- 
tamo, than spreading. The hark and fuliage are of a 
loiter colour, and tEe flowers longer than those oi A. ^ ^^ ^ auia. 

ajpina ; and the latter are perhaps less n 



A 3. A. aubrica'hi Siiiu. The American Atrugene. 

« (Jn», I. p. 10. 



Jfa^^ttsL^ Au. to Bpt. Wm^ «W. i pvB\ HLIU^ 



. ^w^ BoL His., m. ; md vajlt. 3B. 
Spte. dar^ ^. Peduncles 1-Sowered ; leaves whorled, in fours, lemate ; 
leaflets Halked, cordate lanceolate, acuminated, entire or somewhat lobed 
or stnated. Petals acute. (Don'i Mili.) A deciduous cliniher. Ver- 
omt to Carolina, on mountams and rocky places. Height 10 1^ to 15 ft. 
lotroduced in 17^. Flowers purplish blue ; May to July. Ftuit white i 
iTpe ?. Dec&ying leaves dark brown. 
Fairtjp. 

1 A. <!. 2 obBqua Don. MS. — Leaflets bluntly serrated. 
TMs (pedes ia distinguishable from all the other Clema- 
tldea described in this work, by the peculiarity of its leaves 
bai^ di^Mced, not oppositely in alternately decussating 
pairs, bnt in wholes of four. This is an anomalous chu- 
iKteristic, which DeCandoUe has expressed by his specific 
tfnlhet Tcnicilliris. The flowers are very large, and cam- 
pannkte. Sepals oUong-lancei^te, bright purplish blue. 
(Tkr. aitd Gra^.) Layers. 

Olier Speda and Farietiet ofktrdgene. — A. ocholennt PalL we consider ac a 
variety of A. siblrica L. A. cobini&dna Nutt., C. columbiana Tor. ij- Gr^at/, i. 
p. II., has tenate leaves, and pale blue flowers smaller than [hose of J. ameri- 
isnk It it a natiTe of the Rocky Mountains, but has not yet been introduced. 



Tribe II. Pmothia'ce^ Dec. 

'. At once diatdnguishahle from (^ematfdee, by the character of 

ben opening to admit the escape of the pollen on the side ne^tt 

riei. In Clenutidese, the anthers open on the side outward to the 

Ttie feativation is also imbricate, and the carpels from one-seeded 



18 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

to muly-aeeded. Siiffiuticosc dMiduoua shrubs, of low grovth, nadve* of 
tetoperste climates. 

Leavei compound, alternate or opposite, RtipuUCe, deciduoui, but with- 
out poaseuin^ a clasping power. Fleuien very lurgein Pceonia, ver; small 
in AAnthorhua ; and the fullowing are the distinctive charactenBtics of 
the»c geoera : — 



a 



PJEO'SIAl.. The PjEONV. Z^in. fj/f/. Polj'aadriii Di-Pentag^ia. 

Umgiallatt. Ttw Unn FmiU wu ^iplM bf the Onaki tocheia pluiti, which b»s cant 



ridn. In caiiiir>BtnontlDn oT Pacn. thr phjrtlclu irho fint UH^Tt Iddu 

UiLnkt It Tnor# probHhlflCut It lidtrlrvd from Fvonla. a iPDunulDDiu couniry di *bc«ichiia, 

knobbr or ^uty A[n>eiru>e« or the ronu oT thv hettunoui ipcctei. 
Gen. Char. Calyx of 5 leafy, unequal, permanent sepals. Pelali from 5 to 10, 
somewhat orbicular. Slamem numerous. Ditk neshy, girding the ovaries. 
CarpcU follicular, from 2 to 5, large, many-ieedcd, terminaltd with thick 
bilamellate stigmas. Seedt raiher globose, shining. 

Ijeai>ct compound, alternate, biternate or bipinnate. Flowert large, rosy, 

or rosy and white, usually with a strong disagreeable smell. A siiffhiticose 

shrub. Heiglit from 3 ft. to 10 h. Native of China and Japan. 

There is but one liimeous species, F. Moilan ; but there are several 

varieties ; all undershrubs, which never attain a great height, and the wood 

of which always retains a herbaceous character, with a large pith. The roots 

are ramose rather than tubernus. The whole plant is narcotic and poisonous. 

The varieties are all beautiful, and hardy in most parts of Great Britaii 

inly " ' ■ " 



Srn^imu: PBiDra u-bbrei Sim Man. Cob. I ^, lullVuIMbu Bel.Rrp.; 

PiriSnB«nArbn,Fr.^_tHunur(l|Tt^Glchtt«TUH.Gn;.i Horn nuang. ind Ft^Lcui 

Klfyt 
le Chlnew ium« Hon-Ouing ll) 
Mutjo?th«iJ»nlj Md Pt-LMng.KIn, . hundrid on 



though, from vegetating early, they commonly suffer from spring frosts. 

1. P. MotfTAS Sims. The Moutan, or Tree, Pteony. 

lAuItdHi Sol.Rrp'i FlniiM Moutan. UHl 
: tHunuKlit GlchiLaiTuH. Git. i Horn Ouang, ind Ft-Lcui-Ktn. UliKar. 
HiHilan lui bHD (pnlied U1 thli Iperln o( pKoo;. In Chtna, Tor >tH»ii 1400 
~ ' ilmlfT the treeiinil Iheiiib-ibrubby pmDr- The Gemui 
..___.., ...J. TheChliiei«iumeHoii-OuinMlgolO«thehlngor Bow. 
ulji oTthe i^uit 1 Md Fi-L<unir.KlD. i hund^d ouneei of gold. In ellutOD 

Spec. Char., S^e. S^ments of leaves ovat-oblong, glaucous underneath. Car- 
pels 5, villose. (Don't MUl.) A deciduous suShitescent bush. China. 
Height 3n.to6il. Introduced in 1787. Flowers pink i May. Fruit 
brownish green ; ripe in September. 
Decaying leaves brown or black. 
Varietiet. 

A P. M. 1 ^paveracea Andrews. 

Bot. Rep., t. 4fi3. ; Lod. Bot. 

Cab.,547.; Bot.MBg..817S. ; 

and our &, 29. — Petals from 

8 to 13, white, with a purple 

spot at the base of each. 

Capsules altogether enclosed 

in the urceotus, or disk. In- 
troduced in 1805. Professor 

Don remarks {Sw. Br. Fl^ „, ,^,....> ^-i « 



I. AANUNCULA CE£ : XANTHOBHI ZA. 19 

Gar^ 9d ler^ ^^0 ^^^^ ^- ^- fapnverbcea appears to be reall]' 

the Donnal fonn of the Eiiecies, as the l&te Mr. tieorge AndersoD 
lugjrcsted m his paper on Cne subject in the lAnnaan T^muaetiotu, 

■ P. M. ! Domini Andrewi. Bot. Rep., L M 
Boc Reg., 379. ; Bot. Hag., t. 1 154. ; a 
ourj&. 30.— Flowen double. Petals stigh 
tiDged with blush, becoming nearly «h 
at [he e<lge«, marked at the base nith pi 
plish red. Id the centre or the flower t 
some ekm^ted petala, which sometin: 
^)pear to rise froDi amongst the gennei 
CaltiTBtedin 1787. 
Otiter yarittia. Upwards of twelve are descrih 
ID the first edition of this work, and the number ._ 
coBlinually increasing, in consequence of cross fie- "" '■*^*'«*'>'°'*- 
cuDdalion with one another, and with the herttaceous species. They are all 
to; beautirol, and well deurving of cultivation. 

He AeoDia Moubm, in a sheltered situation, will attain the hoght of from 
6ft. 10 lOft. in ten years: and no plant can be a more gorgeous ornament 
of die garden than such a bush, abounding as it does in leaves striking from 
ibor branched character and numerous segments, anil in very majrnilicent 
ftowers of eitrsordioary die ; both leaves and flowers being produced early 
in the nuiug. On its first importation, this plant was ^wn in sandv peat'; 
bot it BBS tinoe been found to thrive best In deep rich loamy soil. An 
open ntna&Hi is preferable, both on account of maturinc the wood and leaves, 
Bod for di^Iaying the flowers to advantage ; but the plant must he sheltered 
Imm the cold spring winds, unless it is intended to cover it, when it is in 
9owa, with a movable glass or canvass case. The protection f^ven to this 
fdsu ii necessar^r, not so much to prevent it &om being injured juring winter 
(br it will bear the winters of Paris without any protection, if the wood haa 
bem propfrtv ripened), as to protect the tender leaves and flowers when they 
£iit apgtar, m April and May, from bung blackened by the frost. Seeds are 
finineiill; produced from w'luch new varieties are rused, and any variety 
any be increaaed by division of the root ; by grafting on the tubers of herbu- 
noos pnonies, any time from the middle of September to the middle of 
Ibreli ; bj budding, a mode sud to be practised by the Chinese ; by layers, 
*kicll is the mon general mode ; by ringing a branch beneath each bud, and 
then pegging down the branch, and covering it with soil ; and by cuttings. 
The details of theae modes of propagation will be found in the first edition 
of [his work. 

Genus 11. 



□ 



Gn. dor. Calyx of 5 deciduous sepals. Pelali 5, of two roundish lobes 
nnaed on a pedicel. Stauuiu 5-10. Ovaiia 5-10. Carpelt S— S-seeded, 
bm Dsuallv solitary fi^ira abortion. {Don'i MiU., i. p.6S.) — There is only 
one species known. 

Zabwj compound, opposite, stipulate, deciduous; pinnately divided, 
toothed, and serrated. Fhweri in racemes, axillary, compound, appearing 
•ith the leaves. 



20 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Ji 1. X. ^piiFo^LiA VHerit, The Parsley-leaved Yellow- Root. 

Tdeni(fleation. L*H6r. Stirp. dot., p. 79. t. 38. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 6Si ; Don^s Mill., 1. p. 65. ; Tor. 

and Gray, 1. p. 40. 
Synonymes. XJaniborhUa opilfblia ; Zanthorise ft FeuUlei de Fersil, Fr. ; Sdlerie-blattrigc Gril»- 

wurz, Ger. 
Derivation. From the Greek words ManthoSt yellow, and rkixa^ a root ; applied frcati the deep 

yellow coloar of the roots. The French name needs no explanation ; and tne German is a literu 

translation of the English one. 
Engravings. Lam. 111., t. 854. ; Bot. Mag., 173G. ; and our^. 31. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Flowers minute, dark purple, often bv abortion polygamous. 
A low, suffrutescent, deciduous shrub. Flowers dark purple; May. 
Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Pennsylvania. Introduced in ] 776. Decaying leaves 
yellowish or brown, dropping in September. 

A small shrub with yellow creeping roots, which 
attain a large size, and throw up numerous suckers ; 
with irregularly pinnate leaves, branched racemes, and 
small purplish flowers (which are usually unisexual 
ft'ora abortion) rising from the scaly buds. The flowers 
appear early in May, and continue a month or upwards 
before they drop off. We have never heard of its 
ripening seeds in Europe ; nevertheless, this may have 
occurred, and been overlooked, from the inconspi- 
cuousness of the shrub, and the smallness of its fruit. 
Suckers, or division of the root. ^' x«,thorMM«p«Mi*. 




Order II. WINTER^^CJS^. 

Ordinal Character. Calyx of 2 — 6 deciduous sepals, and 2 to many petals ; 
the sepals and petals, when more than two, disposed ternately. Carpelt 
whorl^, very rarely solitary from abortion. — Evergreen shrubs, or low 
trees, chieily natives of warm climates. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, evergreen ; full of pellucid dots, and 
coriaceous. Properties aromatic and stimulant. IlHcium is the only genus of 
this order which contains species that will stand out in the open air in 
Britain. 

Genus I. 



A. 

ILLFCIUM L. The Illicium. or Aniseed Tree. Lm. Sytt. Poly4ndria 

Polygynia. 

Identiftealion. Lin. Gon., 611.; Tor. and Gray, 1. p. 42. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 77. ; Don*8 Mill., 
1. p. 78. 

^m&njfmet. Badlane, or AnIs-€toI16. IV. ; Stemanis, Gjr. 

Derivation. The generic name IlUcium is formed from the Latin word iUido^ to allure, on 
account of the agreeable aromaUc smell of all the species. It is called the Aniseed Tree, from Its 
smell bearing a strong resemblance to that of aniseed. Badiane appears to be an aboriginal French 
word ; Anls-£toll§, uid Stemanis, signify literally the starry anise, and may allude to the stany 
disposition of the parts of the flower and of the capsules. 

Gen, Char, Calyx of 3-6 petal-like sepals. Carpels stellately disposed, cap- 
sular, opening on the upper side, l-seeded. (^DorCs Mi/L, i. p. 79.) 

tt 1. Illi'cium florida'num Ellis. The Florida Illicium. 

Identi/kation. Lin. Hant., 899. ; Dec. Prodn 1. p. 77. ; Don's MUL. 1. p. 79. 

Synonvmes. The Florida Aniseed Tree, red-flowered Anise-seed Tree, Mor. Hitt. ; Badlane de la 

Floride, Fr. ; unSchter (spurious} Stemanis, Oer. 
Engraving*, Bot. Hag., 43^. ; Lod. Bot. Cab., t. S09. ; and WixJIg. K. 

Spec, Char,^ ^c. Petals 27 — 30, dark purple, outer ones oblong, inner 
ones lanceolate. (Don's Mill.) An evergreen glabrous shrub. West 



II. WlSTKRJ'CS^l ILLl'CIUM. 



iwamp*. Height 
4ft.to6ft. IntToJuced in 1T66. Floven 
dark redilinb iwrple, with the odour oTuuk ; 
April to June. Fruit none in En^tuid. 
Decaying leive« reddish brown, dropping in 

A compact, manj-Btemmed, biubf, ever* 
prtn, slow-growing ihrub, att^ninj, in the 
MJgtibouiiiood of London, the bdght of 6 or 
8 feet or npwudi, and Bowertng ever; year. 
TLe Icsva are oblongJanceolate, quite entire, 
pointed Bt both extremities, Boiooth, shining, 
ud, in common with the whote plant, have A 
rich reddish hue. The flowers are numerous, 
•oliurr, and terminal ; and bear some general 
roeniblance to those of Calycintbus fluridus. 
Ilie manner in which the plant ia propagated 
B ihe London nuneries is, generally, by form- 
ing noils of it in a cold-pit, and laying do^n 
ilie ■hoot^ which require two yeani to root 
■ufioemly to admit of their being separated 
from the parent plant ; but it is sometime* 
pvpipted bj eutlinss both of the young and 
of ihe old wood. This very handsome ever- 
ptiea )hnib is rafficiently hardy to have re- 
nitnl the winter of 1 837-6, in several utuations 
In die dimate of London. 



Order III. MAGNOL/,^C£^ 

Okd. Chjs. Calyx of 3 deciduous sepala. Corolla of 3 — 12 petals, dio- 
poied in threes. Anihen adnate, elonpted. Carpeli numerous, disposed 
ilong a spiked vim. Leaeet destitute ofpellucid dots, stipulate when young. 
Slipulei convolute, and enclosing the unexpmded leaven. — Evergreen and 
JotJuoub trees and iihrubs, chiefly natives of warm climates. 

LeaceM simple, alternate, stipulate, everp^en or deciduous ; oblong, not 
dotted, more or lesii coriaceous, articuliited distinctly with the item, and, 
■hen expanding, roiled together like those of Ficun. Fhweri Urge, montly 
•bite or yellowish. Sfedi roundish, large, red or brown. — The species 
hardy in Briilsh gardens are included under the genera Magnolia and 
Liriodendron, the differential characters of which are as follows : — 

MibNo'L/.i L. Carpel dehiscent; that is, opening to admit the escape of ihe 

LraioDR'NDROK L. Carpel indehiscent; thut b, not opening to admit the 
escape of the leed. 



Genus I. 



MAGNO'LM L. Thb Magkolia. Lm. St/it. Poljindria Poljgynii 



^UMWi' Mifnalk. P'. and llal. : RIctHrbum Hatl., ind Magnc 
PnAuor of hmlirli^f. uid pre^Ht of Ihv bouukc njdm ai MonlHller. TK* Ceman 



2*2 AKBOUETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Gen, Char. Cafyx of 3 deciduous sepals, that resemble petals. Coroila of 
from 6 — ^9 petals. Stanteru numerous. Pistils numerous. Carpels disposed 
compactly in spikes, opening bv the external angie, 1 — ^2-seeded, permanent. 
Seeds baccate, somewhat corcmte, pendulous, hanging out beyond the car- 
pels by a very long umbilical white thread. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate^ deciduous or evergreen ; entire, large, 
oblong or oval, stipulate. Flowers terminal, solitary, large, odoriferous. 
Seed Targe, roundisn, produced in conical strobiles. Trees and shrubs, 
natives of North America and Asia. 

One of the species is a lofty evergreen tree; but the others are decidu- 
ous, and partly trees and partly shrubs. The seeds are mostly of a scarlet 
colour. The roots are branched, and yet but sparingly supplied with 
fibres. Magnolias may be cultivated in most parts of Bntain, and of the 
middle and southern states of Europe ; but, north of London and Paris, some 
of the species require protection during winter, or to be kept in the green- 
house. A deep sandy soil, and a situation sheltered from the north and east, 
will suit most of the species ; though some, as M. glauca, for example, thrive 
best in a moist peaty soil. Few of the species ripen seeds in England, but 
most of them do so in France. From these seeds, or from such as are im- 
ported, all the American species, except M. grandifldra, are most fret^uently 
raised ; but the species from Asia are increased by layers, as are occasionally 
some of the more rare of the American species. In no case whatever would 
we recommend purchasing any species of magnolia not grown in a pot ; 
because plants so grown may be sent to any distance without injury to the 
roots, which are few and succulent, and easily damaged by exposure to the 
air and light. The hardy species of this genus are included in two sections, 
Magnolioj^rum and Gwillfmia. 

§ i. MaffTiolikstrum. 




Derivation. MagndRB ; and Mfrtcm, from ad hutar, an aMxtA particle, signifying Ukimeu. 

Sect, Char, American species, with one spathe-like bractea enclosing the 
flower-bud ; ovaries approximate ; anthers bursting outwards. (JhnCs 
MUl., i. p. 83.) 

t 1. Magno'l/^ grandiflo^ra If. The large-flowered Magnolia. 

IdnUification. Lin. Sp., 765.; Dec Prod., 1. p. 80.; Don't Mill.. 1. p. 89.; Tor. and Gray, 

l.p.48. 
Sfnonymes. Laurel-leaTed Magnolia, the large-flowered evergreen Magnolia, the Laurel Bav, big 

Laurel, the large Magnolia ; Laurier tuUpier, Fr. in Louisiana ; Magnolia k grandes Fleura, 

Pr.\ groMblumlger Magnolic, or Bieberbaum (Beayer-wood Tree), Ger. 
Engravatgs, Mill. Ic, 2. 1. 172. ; the plate In vol. t. of Arb. Brit. 1st edit. ; and am/lg. 34. 

Spec, Char,y Sfc, Evergreen. Leaves oval-oblong, coriaceous, upper surface 
shining, under surface rusty. Flowers erect, 9 — 12 petals, expanding. (Don's 
Mill.) A large evergreen tree. North Carolina. Height m North 
America 60 ft. to 70 ft. ; in England 20 ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 1737. 
Flowers white, fragrant ; June to September. Strobile brown, with scarlet 
.seeds ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow and orange, dropping in 
June. Young wood green. 

Variehes, 

f M. g» 2 obovbla Ait. — Leaves obovate-oblong. Flowers expanded. 
(Hort, Kew,, ill. p. 329.) Thii seems to be the only variety found 
in a wild state. In British gardens it is a magnificent plant, the 
broad ends of its leaves forming a conspicuous feature, and distin- 
guishing it readily from the original species, the leaves of which are 
pointed ; but it docs not flower freely. 



III. UAGNOLf^'Cfi^: MAQVO^LIJ. 23 

1 M. g. 3 mmeiuu Hort. M. g. lanceolaia AU. ; M. g. stHctK Hort. ; 
H. g. (emi^nea Hort. Tie Exmauli MagRoSa. (BoC, Mug., t. 
195S.; Boc'Cah.. t. 1811.1 the plate in Arb. Brit., 1st edition, vol. v. ; 
and our ^.33.) — The leave* ve oblong-dliptical, generally rusty 



underoeath. Flower* aomewbHt contracted. This u the most 
distinct of all the varieties of the spedei, and, on account of its 
flowering early and freely, the one best deserving of general culture. 
It forms a lull, fasttgiate, elegant bush, or tree, and hna attained 
the height of 30 ft., as a standard, at various places in the South o' 



f M. g. 4 angMti^ia Hort. — Leaves lanceolate, pointed at twth extre- 
■nitiea, wavy. A very distinct variety, introduced from Paris about 
1625, whicD has not yet flowered in England. 
t Mj. 5 pra^cox Andry. — Leaves oval-oblong. Flowers fully expanded. 
This is an earlyvariety, introduced &om Paris about 1830. The 
Sowers are as large as those of any of the viiHeties, and they are 
produced from the end of Msy till the approach of winter, 
OtiieT Vanctiet. In eonsei^uence cf the great demand for this species in 
[be nuraeties, many slight variations have been noticed by cultivators, and 
nuwd as (ti:>tinct. In the garden of the London Horticidtural Society, 
ia 1834, there were plants with the following naiDes : — M. g. vera, M. g. 
lat^iSa, M. B. ffoninuit mr., and M.g. ruhi^dia. In the London nurse- 
ries are — Sf. g. tataadifolia Swt., M. g. elliptica Ait., and various oCheis. 
In the nuraerj' of M. "Roy, at Angers, are 18 varieties, among which ure 
iachided M. g. longi/niia unduidla, Af. g. ezoniam d Jleur dcmi-douNc, M. 
g. caMoBctiii, At. g, Jlariiinda, M. g. faBt variegdlii, &c. At Desio, near 
Honia, there is a viiriety called M. g, magordemU. 

SrUcben t^ Varvtiet. M. g. odovdta deserves the preference for the mag- 
niEcence of its foliage ; and Af, g. exonicntit, because it flowers early and 
&eely; and because, from the fastigiate form of the tree, it is less liable 
10 be injured by ft heavy fell of snow ; it seems also to grow faster than 
snv of the other varieties. Where Che tree is to be trains against a wall. 
I. g- pnr'cax deserves the preference, on account of the largeness of it 



towas, and because th^ appear eiirly, and continue durinjg the whole 
Manner. Af.g.anguilifniiadctemea culture on account of its (oliage, which 



ft "iT fre" 

qiiently niUed from American, French, or Italian seeds ; and, hence, the 
pUtits, though they grow freely, do not flower for SO or 30 years after being 

Slanted out. For this reason, when it is denired to have plants of the 
lagLiolia graadifl^ra which will flower early, those plants which have been 



r some other variety, should be made choice of, because the 



raised bv layers from flowering trees ought to have the prefen 

EKmouth, or some other varietv, sh ' ' ' ■ ■ ■ 

varieties are always raised from layer 

In its native country, M. granJiflora is a tree varying from 60 ft. to 
100 fl., or upwards, in height; but in Europe, except in some situations in 
Spain and Italy, and a few in the South of Engbnd, it is chiefly to be 
conaidered m a wall tree. 



A deep sandy loam, dry at bottom, and enriched with vegetable mould or 
heath toil, teems to suit all the varieties of this species. When these Are 
to be trained against a wall, any aspect may be chosen, except, perhapa, the 
north-east. To display the flowers to the greatest advantage, to a spectator 
walking in a direction nearly parallel to the wall, the ground plan of the 
latter should be curvilinear, by which means a direct or front view of a 
considerable portion would be brought before him. In the London nur- 
series, propagation is generally eftbcted by forming stools either in warm 
situations in the open air, to be protected during winter, or in cold-pits. 
The shoots are laid down in autumn, and require two years to become 
sufficiently rooted for separation ; they are then potted, and kept in pits 
or under glass during winter, and set in the open air, in a shady place, 
during summer, till wanted for final planting. M. grandiflora is al.so occ«- 
■ionally rained from American seeds. In planting, the ball should be care~ 
fully broken by the hand, and the roots spread out in every direcdon, and 
covered with heath mould, or a mixture of leaf mould and sandy loam. The 



111. MAONOLJ^V££ : MAGNo'l./^. "25 

aQ ooglic to be made firm to the fibrous roots. Dot bj treading, but by 
ibuodaot watering, and, if the plant be large, by fixing with water; that in, 
■bile [be earth is being carefully put about the roots by one man, another 
ibodd pour water from a piot lietd G fl. or B ft. above it, so that the wdght 
of the water may wash the loil iuto every crevice fonned by the roots, 
ud MQSolidaie it there. Shading will be advisable for some weeks after 
pluiting. If the Eimouth variety be chosen, layert will produce flower* in a 
jcv or two after being separstetl from ihe parent plant, if kept in pots; but, 
■Ilea they are plan teu out, and grow freely, bo as to make snoots of 8 or 3 
!ect eiay season, tbey will probably not flower for three or four years. 
Whether the tree be against a wall or trellis, or treated as a standard, all the 
pruning it will require, afier it has begun to grow freely, will be, to cut out 
the itiunpi ircyia which the flowers or the strobiles have dropped off, and 
lay dad or decaying wood, and any branches which cross and nib on each 
omer. M^nolias against a wall require very little protection, even when 
jooni; lod this can easily be pven by mulching the ground at the roots, and 
coTOiog their branches with a mat, or with the fronds of the spruce fir. 

t 8. M. eL*i;'cA L. The giaucoax-leaved Magnolia.. 
Uwgbw^a. Ua. Sp., 1. p. TSC i Tw. ud Gnf, I. p. 't. ; Dk. I-nid, 1. p. «0. i Uao'i Ulll,. 

ffif^i H- friHuu SbAU. ; ST&ap Euafras, Baavet-vood. vbtt« Bar, >nia]l HitDollA, 
S™p Mmnlto iilii«i»U« gUonofc AfOn it Cmlm, Fr,; gmwr Biobtrtauni, Grr. 

Emn Mt M . iLUnvnadSflruiipSluwnvciaKCOniltorjtifrDirla^lD tngsr P'^'^'i'^id TevcmbUag 
b qoaUlla tbe Lidnn SiiHjrn ; lad Bamr-wood. limuH Uis root ii calm ai ■ bif at dilntr br 
ibibnini,aDdUwKiiiliiialiaracaiiEbtbrirniu of It. II aim (rowi In Uic iw»iap«. which ilitj 

infcmEE Id lor <i(h« Im, on ■ccamil orUia Hiltniu of Ihs wmd, 
LfoKmrt. laiS. Bnt. Cib., I. !1S. : SlBU B«t. Nag., llGt. ; tht platg of Uili ipnln In Atb. 

Spa. Chat^ ifc. Attnost deciduous. Leaves elliptical, obtuse, under surface 
ritncoui. Flower 9 — 12-petaled, contracted. Petals ovate, concave. {Dob'm 
Mill.) A shrub, or low tree, sometimes sub-evergreen. Maasachuietts to 
HiBouri in swamps. Hdght in America 3 ft. to 10 ft. ; 6 (t. to SO ft in 
Eaghnd. Introduced in I6B8. Flowers white, 8 in. to 3 in. broad, very 
fr^Tiut ; June and September. Strobile brownish. Seeds deep iicarlet i 
ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow, brown, or black. Nalted yoang 




1 M. glaica 8 lenpervirrat Hon. — Sub-evergreen, and with smaller 
leaves than those of the next variety, 

1 M, glauca 3 Thampiorukna Tltomp. M. gla&ca var, a ttia^OT Bot. Mag., 
new edition, p. 36. The plate of this in the Arb. Brit., first edition, 
vol. v.; and our J^. 36. — It was noticed about lB30,inapot of seed* 
lings, by Mr. Thompson, in his tiuraery at Mile^nd ; and by him kept 
diatinct, and propa^ted under the above name. 



AttBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 




Olier Varietiei. M. gla&ca Gordoniaxa and M. glaica SvrchelUhTia are 
nainea found ia ouraery men's CHtalogues, of varieties Haid to Jiave double or 
Bcnii-double Howers. M. g. hiifffitia Purah h supposed to be an abori- 
ginal variety, and Bub-ever^een ; but we think it probably the same varietv 
lui M. g. ThoinpsoniaiiD, which muy have come up wild in America, as well 
as in Mr. Thompson's nursery. M.g. Cartldnii, M. Cardon J. JCm^bt, is a 
variety imparted frani Bel^uin, where it wax found by Mr. Knight of 
the Exotic Nursery, in the nursery of M. Cardon, after whom he has 
named it. 

A low tree, nearly eve^cen in moist soda, with a slender stem, covered 
with a smooth whitish bark. The wood is white and spongy; the young 
shoots of a fine green. The leaves are smooth, of a bluish Rreen on their 
upper surface, und whitish or glaucous and a little hidi^ underneath. The 
flowers are produced in Msy or June, at the extremity of the last year's shoots. 
-They have nix concave white petals, and have an agreeable odour. The 
spike or strobile of fruits is an inch or more in length, conical, an inch in 
oianieter in the widest part, and of a reddish brown colour when ripe. When 
the plant is in a boil supplied vith moisture during the summer, it continues 
to produce flowers till the autumn, and retains part of il^ leaves all the winter : 
in dry situations the leaves drop otf. Seeds are frequently ripened in Eng- 
land ; they are of a bright scarlet, and they hang down by slender white 
threads, as in hU the other American species. The young shoots are from 1 ft. 
to IB in. in length, and the plant, in ordinary circumstances, will attain the 
height of 13 ft. In ten yenrs. Plants are generally raised from seeds imported 
from America, which should be sown in pots of bog earth about the besiit- 
ning of March, and placed in gentle heat under glass. In a year they will be 
fit to transplant into small pots ; and everv year they should be shifted into 
others of a larger size, till wanted for final planting out. M. glauca Thomp- 
Eoniaui, and the other varieties, are propagated by iHyers, which require two 
years to root properly. 



111. hagholia CEJE : yiAosoLU. 27 

I 3. HagnoYt^ tripr'tila L. The three-petaled Hi^m^a. 

8B,S.B.nfi.; Hkhl.. t. p. 90. 

■ ■ .I,.— .^. .^linatrmit^ KBmr. Da*., bte.J'rad-Dtm'i Mia.,Ttr.t Gri^;ILboiiM— 
lil(L| Uw SnilinlU Tna: DmbnlU KwwIurBlkiKiedi lluiuUa Fuuul, ud Arbre 
rsiMl Awdn^tfiailfcr KAenaaio,dnlbBaii|*IIi^^SA'. 

» f F* t i. Till* ipKiB It edlad th« llBbnlU Tnti Mnnllnf U Mklwu, beouH lu 1«>m. 
■Udoalkbord.iDdn.i^K^luM'U bgtta acmdtlK. 11 la. or Ula. Inai, unDtnor 
lls.hiail,ii« glUo dinMd In nn ■> *>>• nlnnln ofTliiirDiu ibooUi ud tticH dtiplmji 
■■hn(ifl|ft.lii4lwur.iadN«)naoruiiBl)mia. TbtlrwftnlMEIkwiailln ihtnuHin- 
Bkie(Vli^Bti,>rafeaMrlkiiatta*nHBbluavbldilbap(daU(irtbt iboati teu-uth* boriu 
i( Iki A. Tb* Fmcli nHBa inwtfr ilfaUy umbrrtla tnt. ud Um GcnBun ooa Iba thnc- 
p<ikdbia*VT ins, or maiDOtU. 

£v«^i(. Mtebi. Arb.ri. t. ». I Lodd. Bol. Cib.,t' tl9. i lbs plus aribli qxcln bi AA. Brit. 

Spec. CSa-„ ^. Dectduouk Leaves lanceolate, spreading, ululc one* sniooth, 
jounctr ones pabdcent underneath. Petals 9 — 18, exterior ones pendent. 
(Doni ifiil^i, p. 83.) A deciduous tree of the middle size. Penniyl- 
lana lo Georgia, in nioiat soil. Height 30 fl. to 40 ft. in America ; 15fl. 
to 30 ft. in E^land. Introduced in 1758. Flowers white, 7 in. to S in. 
in diameter, with an unpleasant odour ; Hay to July. Strobiles rose- 
Eoloared, 4 in, to 5 in. long ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves dark brown 
or bbck. Naked jrauog wood of a fiue mahogany brown. 



\ 



Tliii tree, both in America and Europe, is remarkable for the largeness 
(if its leaves and its flowers. The wood is spon^, brittle, with a lai^e pitb, 
nft, foroui, and of very little use. The bark upon the trunk is grey, 

1 • ..i.i..i ...17^.. i.i green, it exhales a disagreeable 

IS shoots from the root, to replar 
I, whidi are seldom of long duration ; so that a plant that ha* stood 



WMth, and polisfaed -, and, if cut while green, it exhales a disagreeable 
sioor. In Bntain the ti .... 

ihrteqw, whidiareseld _ . , ^ 

A»Vf M forty yean ia one spot hits bad its stems several tunes renewed during 

~ '. The leaves are 18 or 90 inches lone, and 7 or 8 inches broad . 

are7or 8 inches in diameter, with large wtiite flaccid petals; ihej; are 

'' a of the last year's slioots, have a languid luxurious 

but heavy odour. The fruit, which is conical, is 5 or 



» poiod. 
hedowersi 



23 AltBOnETUM ET FEUTICEI UM BRITANNICUM. 

6 inches lung, luid iil>out 8 in. in diameter ; it is of a beautiful rase colour, and 
con:ains usually from 50 to 60 seeds. This sjiccies is very hardy, and can 
withstand the most rigorous winters,' when the summer has been suiEcienily 
hot to ripen the wu^ thoroughly. As it is a short-lived tree, and cnnse- 

Siiently flowers early, there Is not the winie objection to raisicc; plants of it 
■oin seed, as there is to raising plants in that manner of M. grandifldra, 
which is a long-Jived species. The soil should be a deep, rich, sandj loam, bdiI 
the situation sheltered nnd shaded. Exposure to the sun is tujurious ; and, 
trained against a south wall, the plant suflers extremely. A sheltered ({lade 
in a shrubbery or wood, where the tree is sufficiently distant from others not to 
be injured by their roots, is the moat desirable site. In the nurseries it is 
nluiost always propagated by seeds, which should be sown immediately after 
ihev are gathered, as when they are left exposed they became rancid and lose 
their vital qualities ; though, ir enveloped in moist moss or earth, they may be 
preiierved for several months. The plants should be kept in pots until 
required for final transplanting. 

1 4. M. MACRO pky'lla Mx. The long-leaved Magnolia. 



SpecCliar.,^. Deciduous. LeaTeBTerjIurge.oblong-obovateiSoniewhatpandii- 
riform, cordate at the base, under surface whiijsh, glaucous. Petals 6 — 9, 
ovate. {Don'i MUi.) A dedduous tree of the middle ai7e. North Caro- 
Lnii and Georgia, Height 30tt to 40 ft. in America ; 15 ft, to 30 ft. in 
England. Introduced in 1800. Flowers white, with a purple spot near 
the base of each petal; 8 in. to 10 in. in diameter, fragruntj June and 
July. Strobile rose-coloured ; ripe in Oetuber, Decaying leave* yellow, 
brown, t>r black. Naked young wood of a whitish brown. 



III. MAGNOL/^^CJBJ? : MAGNO^L/^. 29 

Tbe general appearance of this tree greatly resembles^ that of Magnolia 
tiipetala. The termiiial arrangemeut of the leaves is the same, and it is 
rcnarkabie that in Amenca the two trees are almost always found together, 
la point of size, it exceeds the M. tripetala, both in its leaves and general 
hapa. ; but it is seldom found higher than 35 ft., which exceeds the height 
of the other by a sixth part only. The body of the tree is covered with 
a ftiDootb and very white bark, by which, in the winter, when stripped ot 
its leaves, it is readily distinguished from M. tripetala. At this season, also, it 
may be distinguished by its buds, which are compressed, and covered with a 
m andalver)' down ; whereas in M. tripetala they are prominent and rounded 
at the end. The leaves, in its native country, are 35 in. long, and 9 or 10 
indies broad ; and in vigorous plants, in England, they sometimes even exceed 
these dimensions. They are borne on petioles short in comparison with the 
size of tbe leaves, and are of an oblong oval shape, pointed at the extremity, 
aod cordiform at the base ; their colour is light green above, and glaucous 
benestb. The fruit is about-4 in. long, nearly cylindrical, and of a vivid rose- 
colour when arrived at maturity. Young plants of this species grow very 
slowly till they are thoroughly established, which will require, in general, 
two years. The yearns shoots may then be from 1 ft. to 3 fl. ; so that in ten 
jem a plant may attain the height of 12 or 15 feet. It may be considered 
a sfaort-lifed tree, and, like all such, it comes into flower when young. It has 
rarely, if ever, been propagated in this country by inarching or layers, and 
▼en sddom from seeds ; and, hence, the plant is very sparmely distributed. 
So3, propagation, &c^ as in M. tripetala. Seeds are ripened m France, and 
joung plants imported from that country, or from North America. 

i 5. M. acumina'ta L. The pointed-leaved Magnolia. 

Unt^hatigm. Ua. Sp., 756.; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 80. ; Don** Mill., 1. p. 83.; Tor. and Grajr, 1. 

p.Q. 
Sfwa^^mes. X. rtgticM, aod M. peniuylTinica, of some ; the blue Magnolia, Eng. ; the Cucumber 

Tnc, U.S.i MagDoUcs- acomin^ MagnoUw 4 FeuiUea polnt£es, Fr. ; lugcffpluer Bieberbaum, 

Ger. 
DmiMtiM. Thh tpeciea b called the Cucumber Tree, In America, from iU fruit reiembUng a 

anil mnaabtr. The ocher names are translations of tbe botanic one; 
Eagrnrngs. Mkia. Arb., 3. p. 8S. t.3. ; Bot Mag., 34S7. ; and the plate in Arb. Brit, lit edlL 

VOL T. ; aod tmrjlg. SSi 

Spec. CAor., ^c. Deciduous. Leaves oval, acuminate, under surface pubescent. 
Flowers &->&^taled. (Don't MUL) A deciduous tree of large size. New 
Tori[ to Georgia. Height in America 60 ft. to 80 ft., with the trunk 
4 ft. to 5 ft. in diameter at the base ; in England 30 ft. to 50 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1736. Flowers yellowish within, glaucous without, slightly fra- 
pant; May to July. Strobile cylindncal, brownish red, Sin. Ions; ripe 
in October. Decaying leaves dark brown or black. Wood of a maihogany 
brown. 



I Jf. a. 2 Candoifx SavL — Leaves ovate oblong, acute. Flowers greenish. 

Figured in Savi's BibL Ital,, p. 224. 
^ ALa. 3 marima Lodd. — Leaves much larger than those of the original 
species. Introduced by Messrs. Loddiges, and cultivated in different 
nurseries. 
Other Varieties, The MapidUa acuminata being frequently raised from 
seed, and the seedlings varying much in the size ot their leaves, and in the 
presence or absence of pubescence, both on the leaves and wood, it would 
be easy to select several varieties apparently as distinct as those above 
mentioned, such as M. striata, latifolia, &c. In the Gold worth Nursery, 
Woking, Surrey, are some which appear remarkably distinct. 

Trunk straight, branches numerous, shoots regularly distributed. The 
leaves are from 6 in. to 7 in. long, and ftom 3 in. to 4< in. broad, upoi. old 
trees, bttt double that size upon young vigorous-growing plants. Michaux 
^esaiba them as oval, entire, and verv acuminate; but, in the seedlings 
T^ned in British nurseries, they are found somethnes ovate, nearly orbiculate. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETIIH BRITANNICUM. 



and conlete acumioate. The flowers are 4 or 5 inches in diameter, bluish, 
and (ometimes white, with a tint of yellow. They have but a feeble odoiir, 
and the petals are never hiUy expanded, ihougn, a« they are large and 
numerouK, they have a fine effect in the iDi£t of the superb foliage. 
Plants raised from seeds do not nsually produce flowers till they are 
eight or ten yeura old, when the tree will probablv be from 15 ft to SO ft. 
in height; but plants raised from kkjeis produce flowers in two or diree 
years. The fruit is about 3 in. loug, and Dearly 1 in. in diameter. It is 
nearly cylindrical, and often a little larger at the summit than at the base : it 
b convex on one side, and concave on the other ; and, when green, it nearl; 
resembles a young cucumber: it becomes rose-coloured when ripe; and, as 
in the case of the other species, the seeds, before they drop, remain sus- 
pended for some time by long white threads. The wood of this tree is of a 
fincgrain, and of an orange colour. A free,deep,an(l rather moist soil answers 
best for this specica ; but, as it h much hardier than any of the others in this 
section, it wilt grow in almost any soil tliiit is moderately free, and not over- 
charged with moisture. It is generally propagated in the London nurseries 
by layers, the plants so produced flowering much sooner than seedlings ; but 
the latter, as they make iiu- more durable plants, should always be preferred 
when this species is used as a stock to grait or inarch others i>n. It is so used 
rv generally, not only for M. auriculata and cordata, but for M. consptctia 
□ SouliuiEeana. The plants are, in some nurseries, grown in the free soil ; 
Dut it is always preferable to rear them in pots ; because, in that case. 
they are not checked by transplanting, and at least a year is guned in their 

T e. M. (a.) cordata Mi. The heart./mtvd Magnolia. 

. HIch. Bor. AicFr.,1. p. US. ; Dae. Prod.. 1. p. N. ; Dnn'i NIU.. I. p. SI.; Tar. 
Tk* hurUnixt Cocuralier Tne, Amtr. ; Micoallm' 1 FcuUlM a Cow, Fr, i bars. 



rervgi 
uid Sc 



n 



. MAGNOU^V^^: MAONOYW. 



S/iee. Ciar^ fc. DedduouB. Leaves broadly o*ate, subcordate; acute, 
under surfiKe tameatose, ujiper surface iiuooth. Petals 6 — 9, oblong. 
(iton'j AfiU.) A deciduoiu tree of the middle size, Carolina to Georgia, 
OD mountauu. H^t SOft. to 40 fL and 50 ft. in America, aiid SO ft. to 
soft in En^laiKl. fntroduccd in 1600. Flowers yeUow slichtly streaked 
«idi red, with a disweeable odour, sddom expanding full; ; June and 
Jul}'. Strobile like that of H. acuniiiata, but amallert ripe ia October. 
Decaying leares dail brown or black. Naked young wood noaiy brown. 



"Dsh tree, in lU nadre country, has a tnink 12 or 15 inches in diameter, 
MtiAt, and corered with a rough and deeply furrowed bark. Its leaves 
are &mn tin. to 6 in. in length, and from 3 in. to A in. wide, smooth and 
entirE. The flowers are from ^in. to iia. m diameter.uid are succeeded by 
Atnt about 3 in. long, and nearly 1 in. in thickness, of a similar form to those 
«f the preceding apeciea. The soil, dcuation, propagation, &c., may be con- 
■idered [be same at for H. acuminita ; but, as hL (a.) cordita seema, in its 
B^n country, to inhabit higher and drier localities than M. acuminita, it 
mj probably be placed in atilTmore exposed atuations than that tpenes in 

X 7. H. adbicui.aVa Lam. The auricled-fnnvJ Magnolia. 

Mc u fiM^m. WIDd.Sp..l.n. llU.j Dm. Trod. I. p.m.; Dnn'l Mill., Lp-N. 

'I lil ri N. Frtav/Will.. Tor. a Gnr I M. uricuUrU SaUii. : Indlmn Phf^, ud lonf-UxTrd 

Cni^^KTnt.JmlT.; ilMfaoa*r*arira>t,Fr.-,frlitiTlmncuni)mcbl:ibmoa, Orr. 
&wr*%i- B<it.llic..lme.( [brpludnArti. Brit., lit edtt tdLt.i iniau jig- **■ 

SpK. Ckat., 4v. Deciduous. Leaves smooth, under sur&ce somewhat 
glsDcons, spstbulately obovate, cordate at the base, with blunt approximate 
■urides. Sepals 3, spreadii^. Petals 9, oblong, attenuate at the base. 
(Doa'i JUiil.) A smooth deciduous tree of the middle size. Carolina to 
Florida, and on the Alleghany Mountains. Height SO ft. to 40 ft. in America, 
iDd80ft.to30ft. in Engiand. Introduced in 1766. riowers white ; April 
ud Hay. Stroblleoval oblong, rose-coloured; ripe in October. Decaymg 
leares of a rich yellowish brown. Naked young wood smooth, and of a 
piuptisb mahogany colour, with small white dots. 

M. a. 2 pt/ramdata. M. pyramjdata Barlr.; M. Friaeri pynunid^ta 
A'liA., Tor. ^ Gray. The plate ia Arb. Brit. 1st edit. rol. v.; and 



ARBoaETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUH 




our fig. 41. — Leaves shorter tban (hose of the 9pede«, and theiilaii. 
altogether weaker. It is found in the western partB of Carolina and 
Georgia, but only m two or three lacalilics. Propagated by in- 
arching on M. auriculAta, but it requires two years to adhere, and 
seldom makes a vigorous plant. 
This tree has a straight trunk 12 or 15 inches in diameter, often without 
branches for half its hei;;ht ; the branches siiread widely, and ramify but 
sparingly 1 and this circumstance. Michaux observes, gives the tree a very 
peculiar air, so that it may readily be known at a distance, even in winter. 



The leave* are of a light green colour, of a fine texture, 6 or IS inches long, 
and from 4 in. to 6 in. broad : onyount; and vigorous trees tbey_ are often one 
third, or even one half, larger. The flowers are 3 or 4 inches in diameter, of 
a milky white, and of an agreeable odour, and are Mtiiated at the extremity of 
the yOiing shoots. The tniit ia oval, 3 or 4iiiche9 long, and, kite thai of 



oftbeotl 



III. HAGHOL/^r£^: MAOVO\IA. ^ 

tripetsla, of a beautiful rose colour when ripe ; it drffen from t1io«e 
othn specie! by a little inferiority of aiie, and b j a smal! Bppendafe 
■kich leiminate! the carpels. Each carpel contains one or two seeds. The 
■Odd b toft, spongy, ferj tight, and un^t for use. The bark is grey, and 
linji EiDooth, eren on the oldest trees. When the epiderniis is removed, 
the eellulv tniegument, hy contact with the air, instantly changes from while 
to jdtow. In England, annual shoots of yo\ing plants are from I ft. to S ft. or 
•nrein length ; and the height which the tree usually attiiinH in 10 years is 
froB 10 tt. to 15 ft. The Moi for this apecies ought to be free and deep ; 
lod tbe MtoatioD low, sheltered, and moist, rather than dry. As seeds are 
Dot Tery esolj procured, the common mode of propagation is by layers, or 
by inardiiog on M. acuminita. Two years aro required before the plants 
can be sepvated from tbe parent stock. 

§ ii. Gmillitma Bott. in Dec. Syst. 



'sjya 



DTof MidfH. {Drm-iMIB.. 

Stcl. Oar. Asiatic apedes, generally with two opposite spaihe-like bractcaa 
cnckuing the flower'hud. Anthers bursting inwards. Uvaries somewhat 
distant. (jDvn'i IHUI.) Trees or shrubs ; natives of Asia. 



Sprc.GaT^ ifc. Deciduous. Leaves ohovate, abruptly acuminated ; younger 
ooes pubcsicent, enpanding after the flowers. Flowers erect, 6 — 9-petaled. 
^yles ensrt. (Don'i MUl) A deciduous tree of the middle size. China. 
Hd^t in Chins 40 ft to 50 fl. ; in England SO H. to 30 ft. Introduced in 
17B9. Flowers white, froerant; Februnry and April. Strobiles brownish j 
ripe m September. Decaying leaves dark brown or black. Naked young 
vixxt ash^coloured or greyish brown- 
rteieiia,or Hybridt. 

1 M.C. 2 Soaiangnan. M. Soulangeana An. 
Uort. Soc. Par.; Magnolier de Soulatige, 
FV. (M. Soulaogeana Swt. Brit. Fl.- 
Oard., t. 260. i and our &. *3.) ~ The I 
leaves, wood, and general habit of this ' 
tree bear a close resemblance to those of 
H. consplcua. The flowers resemble in 
form those of M. purpurea var. grAcilis 
or of M. purpurea, and the petula arc 
slightly tinged with purple. It waa raided 
at Fromont, near Paris, from the seeds 
of a plant of H. conapfcua, which stood 
near one of M. purpurea, in front of the 

chateau of M. Koulange-Bodin ; ilie "" "■«^"'™'^'"''~'"*~~- 

flowers of the former of which had been accidentally fecundated by 

tbe pollen of the latter. 

Olier Farieliei, if liybridi. M. conspfcua has ripened seeds in various 

pbccs : and, as it fertiEises readily with M. purpi^rea and M. gracilis, mnny' 

m vanetie* may be expected when the attention of cultivators is more 



X' 



ARBORETUM F.T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 

lially directed to the subject. M. c. S. iprMia and M. c. S. AUxax^ 
in Brilinh gardens, Init they are not worth keeiHi^ distinct rruin 



Tliis is a rery showy tree, distinguiahable from all the other mHignoliait 
of both aectiana, by ica flowers expanding before any of the leaves. The 
tree aaaumeH a regular conical shape, with a grey bark and nunieroua 
hninchcs and twiua. which generally have a Tertical, mther than a horitontat, 
direction. The young ehoots are from I ft. to 18 in. in length, and the tree, 
in ten years, will attain tlie height of from 10 ft. to 15 ft., flowering the second 
or third year after grafting. It ii nearly as hardy as the AmErican species ; 
flowering freely every year, as a standard, in the neighbourhood of London, 
when the wood has been properly ripened during the preceding summer. A 
rich sandy loam seems to suit this species best; but it will (irow in any de^ 
free soil, properly drained, and moderately enriched. The situation, when it 
is to be trcHteil an a standard, ought tobesufficleDtly open to admit of ripening 
the wood in uutumn, and yet not so warm as to urge forward the floHcr-bu<ls 
prematurely in spring, as they are very lialde to be injured by frost; front 
whch, however, tliey may be protected by a very slight covering (during nights 
and frottty days) of gauze or bunting, stretched over the tree horiiontHlly, 
and supported by posts. Against a wall, ihe tree shows itself in its greateit 
beauty ( and there it can easily be protected, by a projecting coping, from the 
severest weather ever experienced In the neighbourhood of London. In 
wnrm situations, sloping to the south or south-east, the tree has a fine eflect 
planted in Front of a bank of evergreensj and, indeeil, wherever it is planted, 
evergreens should be placed near it, and, if possible, so as to fomi a fuok- 
ground, on account of^ 'he flowers expanding! beFore the tree ia furnished with 
any leaves. The species and all the varieties are propi^te<l by layers, or 
by inarching on M. purpiirea or on M. acuminata. When inarched on M. 
purpurea, the tree is comparatively dwarfed, by which it is rendered very con- 
venient for use as a shrub, or fur growing in pots, and forcing ; but, when it is 
intended to form a tree, it should either be inarched on M. acuminiita, or raised 



from layers or seeds. It generally requires two years before the plants c 

be sepa rated from the parent stock. Some plants of this Bpecies nave been 

raised from seed ripened in Europe ; and we have no doubt that, when this 



magnificent tree becomes better known and more generally in demand, i_ 
wilt be raised in this way extensively in France and Italy, and supplied to 
the British nurseries from these countries. 



III. MAQKOUJ^CEX: MAGMOY.M. 35 

• 9. H. purpd'rba Sinu. Tlie putple-Jlauiered HBgnotia. 

1, . t ^m ii . H. aba>lu Tin, ^ Dn'i VfO. 1. p. H. i V. OMeolor Ftnt. ; V. itoadixt Lam. i 
Ot ohoiitt-ltHBl MagnaUMj UisDDllKiUKaJiirt An. Jiird.,Miiil lUcDoUaMcolori !]■>., iy.l 

^n:. Cjtor., cj?. Deciduous. Leaves obovBle^ acute, reticulatelj' vrined ; almoEt 
■mooth. Flowers erect, of 3 sepals and 6 obovate petals ; stvles very short. 
(Dm'i Mitl.} A deciduous sbrub, with la^ dark greea foliage. Japan. 
Ue^ht 3 ft. to 5 fL Introduced in ITW. Flowers purple ouiaide, white 
•ilbiD ; March to Maj. Strobile brownish ; ripe in September. Decaying 
leaves blade Naked young wood greenish brown. 
TaiirSa. 

» M.p.t griciSt. H. Solnu Dec. and Q. Don ; M. tomentdna T^tin. in 
Lot. TVatu. Ksmpf, Icon., t. 48. ; Par. Lon., t. 87. — The two mun 
points of di^reuce between it and M, purpurea are. the paler green, 
and somewhat narrower shape, of the leaves ; and the loneer and 
iDOre slender form of the flower, the points of the petals of which 
are slightly turned back ; while the flower of M. purpurea is more 
cnp-sbapeJ, and the petals at the points are rather turned InwardB. 
The petals of M. gracilis are on the exterior entirely of a dark purple, 
whereas tlioxe of M. purpurea melt off" into white al their upper 
eitremities. A number of plants of this variety, which stood in the 
Hammenmith Nursery as border shrubs, and flowered freely every 
year, were killed down to the ground in the winter of 1837-8. 
Olirr Ftaie^rt. In DeCandoile's Prodromat, and in Don's Miller, three 
varieties are described : M. p. dauuiaia Lam., distinguished by (he flower- 
ing tvascbes bdng without leaves ; M. p. ducoior Vent, which is said to be 
rather more tender than the species ; and jV. p. \ilifidra Lam., the petals of 
ubicb are white on both sides. These varieties were originally described 
b; tCcmpfer; but, as far as we know, none oi them are in British gardens. 
Scvtral plantH of this species having been raised from tteed ripened in this 
lountiT, the plants may exhibit slight shade!) of dilfcrence, as has been the 
case with certain seedlings raised in the Brentford Nursery ; but, as far as 
we have observed, none of these are worth keeping distinct. The only 
•viety which we consider truly distinct is M. p.gradlii, cousldered as a 
species by Salisbury and other botanists, but 
wbich, we are convinced, is nothing more tban 
> race, or a variety. At Desio, a variety has 
been raised which grows only 1^ f^. high, and 
which S^or Cassoretti, the garden director 
there, calla if. odovdta pumiia. 
A deciduous shrub, altaining, in the gardens 
about London, the height of Irom 4 li. (o 8 ft in 
■a many years, and seldom growing much higher 
at a biuh. The stems are numerous, but not 
tnoch branched ; the leaves are large, of a very 
<lirk green ; and the jilant produces a profusion 
of Bowen. which do not expand fiilly till a day 
sr two before they drop off*; and which, unless 
the weather is wsmi, do not expiuid at al], but 
nber on the plant, and dlsflgurv it. The 
fewere are large, more or lesx purple ^according 
to the Ksaon, but never wholly dark purplej 
vithoot, and always white within. The bark, 

■ben bruised, has an aromatic odour. A very *^ nataitm ,orimt. 

■nanientsl species, which no garden ought to be without. This species is 
•merally crauidered as retjuiring a mixture of heath soil, or sandy peut, with 
■oan , but in many ^rdens about London it succeeds perfectly both in sand 
D 8 



86 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRfTANNICUM. 

and clay ; the latter soil being rendered free by sand, leaf mould, or manure, 
and drainage. The situation, when the plant is treated as a bush* ought to be 
open, in order that the wood may be ripened; and the plant should be 
detached, in order that it may be covered with foliage and blossoms on every 
side. North of London, in most situations, it requires a wall, and few plants 
are more deserving of one. Against a wall, it will reach the height of 15 ft. 
or 20 ft. In the London nurseries, it is generally propagated by layers ; but 
it will also strike by cuttings, both of the ripened and the herbaceous wood. 
The stools are generally formed in pits ; or, if in the open ground, they 
are covered with mats during winter. Seeds have been ripened both in Eng- 
land and France ; and from these plants have been raised in some few nur- 
series. The plants, whether raised from lavers, cuttings, or seed, should 
always be kept in pots till wanted for final planting. This species often 
serves <m a stock for grafting the other kinds on, which belong to this section. 

Genus II. 




LIRIODE'NDRON L. Thb Tulip Tree. 

Gen. Char, Carpels 1 — 2-seeded, disposed in spikes, indehiscent, deciduous, 
drawn out into a wing at the apex. Calyx of 3 deciduous sepals. Corolla 
of 6 petals, conniving into a bell-shaped flower. (Dan's Mill.^ i. p. 86.) 
— There is only one species ; a deaduous tree of the first rank, native 
of North America. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; 3-lobed, the terminal lobe 
emarginately truncate, the lateral ones with two sinuses. Stipules flat. 
Flowers terminal, solitary, greenish yellow, orange within. — The only spe- 
cies in British gardens is tlie Liriodendron Tulipifera. 

t 1. Liriode'ndron TulipiVera L. Tlie Tulip-bearing Liriodendron, or 

Tulip Tree. 

Identifleation. Lin. Sn., 755. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 82. ; Don** Mill., I. p. 86. 

Synonymet. The Poplar, White Wood, Canoe Wood, the Tulip Tree, Anur. ; Virginian Poplar, 

Tuifp-bearlngLily Tree, Saddle Tree, Eng. ; Tulipler de Virglnie, Fr. i Virglniicher Tulipe«r- 

baum, Ger. 
DerivaUon. Tbif tree i« called LirIod§ndron, from ieirion, a lily, and dendron, a tree; firom the 



flower* retemblingjhoie of a lilf, though more correcUf those of a tulip, as the speciflcjiamn Im. 
the colour of its timber : Canoe Wood, ftom the use to which it is applied by the native Indiana 



J, tnougn more correcUf those or a tuiip, as tne speci 
its general resemblance to trees of that genus ; whlt4 



pliea. It is called Pcplar, from its general resemblance to trees of that genus ; White Wood, fVora 



MIC «,»•»»• VI •»> viiiiu<.i . ^niivi^ .. uvni, iivii. •.•!« w>«^ .v ..III*... •« » ..|.|#.K«> vj ».•« u»i..>«i luuavti* . 

Tulip Tree, (nm its tuIln-Hkc flowers ; and Saddle Tree, from the form of Ita leaves. The French 
and German names are literal translations of the words Virginian tulip tree. 
Enfiravtngs. Bot. Mag., 275. ; Duh., torn. 3. t. 18. ; the plate In Arb. Brit., 1st edit. voL ▼. ; and 
our^. 46. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Leaves smooth, truncate at the top ; 4-lobed, resembling a 
saddle in sha{)e. Flowers large, solitary, terminal ; variegated with green, 
yellow, and orange colour ; fumitthed with two deciduous bracteaa under 
flowers. (Don's Mill.) A smooth deciduous tree of large size. Canada 
to Florida. Height 70 ft. to 140 fb., and trunk 8 ft. to 9 ft. in diameter, 
in America ; 50 ft. to 90 ft. in England. Introduced in 1688. Flowers 
greenish yellow without, orange within ; June and July. Strobile brown ; 
ripe in October. Decaying leaves rich yellow and brown. Naked young 
wood smooth, and of a mahogany brown. 

Variety. 

It L. T.2 obtusiloba Michx., integrifdiia Hort., Yellow Wood, or Yellow 
Poplar, has the leaves with blunter lobes than the species, but is in 
no other respect different from it. 
Other Varieties, L. T. acutifolia Michx. has never, we believe, been intro- 
duced. L. T. Jldva Hort. hai^ yellow flowers. As the tulip tree is almost 
always raised from seeds, it is probable that the flowers of seedlings will 



iiLUAasouA'cEjE: liriode'ni 

nrj in thor *hadea of colour, and any detiralilc var 
anted bj propeptiiig the plant poueuing it by layers 




e com]>oseil of scales closely imbricaled, 
whicb, in the spriag, are dialended by the growth ofthe minute bundle of leaves 
that tbey eocloBe, till they finally fdl off. Tbe flowers, which are larve, bnl- 
lont, and on detached trcea very DLunerou-i, tire variegated with different 
cokun, imong which yellow predominates ; they bare an agreeable odour, and, 
■urroaiided by the luxuriant foliage, they produce a line effect. The fruit is 
aHuposedofB great number of thin narrow scales, attached lo a conunon axis, 
sad formii^ a conical spike 8 or 3 inches in length. Each fruit contains 60 or 
lOtarpda; of which never more than a third, and, in some seasons, not more 
than seven or eight in the whole number, are matured. It is also observed, 
that, during ten yean after it bt^ns to yield fniit, almost all the seeds are un- 
productive ; and that, on large trees, the seeds from the highest branches nre 
tbe besL The heart, or perfect, wood of the tulip tree is yellow, approaching 
to B lonon colour ; and its sap, or alburnum, is white. The annual shoots of 
}oane plants, in tbe neighbourhood of London, are fromlBm. to Sft.in 
length ; and the tree will, in favourable circumstances, attain the height of 
from lA fL to 80 ft in ten years ; seldom, however, Sewering till it is upwards 
or twenty ydrs old. The height, in England, frequently exceeds 70 ft, ; and 
it has ripened seeds here, occasionally, from which young plants have been 
laised. It ripens its fruit very generally in France ; thougn it is observed, in 
the A'oiiBtau Du Hamcl, that these seeds do not vegetate so freely as those 
which are imparted from America. Deep, loamy, good soil best suits the 
tulip tree ; and tbe situation most favourable ie one which, while it is sheltered 
from high winds, b, at the same time, sufficiently exposed to the light and air 
to admit of the maturation of its leaves on eve:^ siiie, and the perfect ripening 
of its wood, without which it can neither resist the severe frosts of winter, 
DOT Ibnn blossom buds. The species is seldom, if ever, propagated otherwise 
than by »eeds, which come up be«t in heath soil, very fine mould, or sandy 
kmo, in a shady situation, kept rather moist ; but the varieties are multiplied 
by layers or inarching. When the seeds are sown in autumn, they genernily 
oKiie up the following spring ; but, sown in spring or the beeinning of summer, 
tliey generally remain a year in the ground. The tulip tree, like the magnolias, 
faaviQE roots furnished with but few fibres, doea not transplant readily ; and, 
thereiore, tbe plants ought either to be kept in pots, or, if in the free ground, 
irsonilatited in the nursery every year; or, if neither uf these modes be prac- 
ticable, removed to their Snal situation, when not more than two, or at most 
three, years old. The tree is. Eke the magnolias, not very patient of the knife, 
other in a young or in an old state; and, from the bitter qualities of the 
n .3 



38 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

leaven, it does not seem to be much attacked by insects. As tuHp trees raised 
fi^om seed seldom flower before they are twenty or thirty years old, it is much 
to be wished, that nurserymen would propagate them by grafting or inarching 
from flowering trees, in consequence of which the plants would probably 
flower the second or third year. 



Order IV. ANONA^CEJE. 

Ord. Char. The distinctive characteristics of this order from that of Magno- 
Mhce€B are : Anthers with an enlarged four-cornered connectivum, which is 
sometimes nectariferous ; albumen pierced by the substance of the seed-coat ; 
leaves without stipules, conduphcate in the bud; properties aromatic 
— Trees or shrubs mostly natives of warm climates 

Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous ; distinctly articulated with 
the stem, entire ; leaves and branches pubescent when young, the leaves 
commonly minutely punctate, with pellucid dots. Flowers axillary. — The 
hardy species, in British gardens, are included in the genus Asimina Adans., 
formerly Anona L., and are natives of North America. 

Genus I. 



□ 



1 



i 



ASrMINA Adans. The Asimina. Lin, Sjfst. Polyandria Polyg^nia. 

Ident^floation. Adant. Fam., 2. p. 365. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 87. ; Don** Mill., I. p. 91. 

Symmyma, Ann^na L. ; Orchidodirpum Mx. ; Porcdlue sp. Pen, t UvArla Tor. ^ Graff ; Custard 
Apple ; Aslrolnier, and Anone, Fr.\ FlaKhenbaum, Ger. 

Derivatiom. AAmina i« Latinised from a word of Canadian origin, the meaning of which ic not 
known. Orchidocftrpum was. It ii probable. Intended to express a lilieness between the figure of 
the firult, and that of some species of O'rchla. Porc^'a is a name given by Ruis, In honour of 
Antonio Parcel, a Spanish promoter of botanj. Andna Is a South American word that signifies a 
mess, or dish of food, to be eaten with a spoon. Uviirla Is ft-om tiea, a gr&pe, to which, howcTer, 
the trait has little resemblance. The German name, Flaschenbaum, foMk tne, U given fk^om 
the shape of the fVult. 

Gen. Char. Cal^x 3-parted. Petals 6, spreading, ovate-oblong, inner ones 
smallest. Anthers numerous, nearly sessile. Ovaries many, but for the 
most part onlv 3, ovate or oblong. Carpels the same number as the ovaries, 
baccate, sessile. Seeds many, disposed in a single or double row. (Don^M 
Mill.) — Low trees or shrubs, deciduous, with white or purplish flowers, 
and fruit about the size of small plums. Rather tender, and difficult of 
culture. Only one species is truly hardy in the climate of London. 

» I. A, tri'loba Dun. The three-lohed'Calyxed Asimina. 

Iden^fieaHon, Dun. Monog. ; Dec. Prod., I. p.87. ; Don*s Mill., 1. p. 91. 

Sifnonymes. AnnOna triloba £»., and Mm. In Arh. ; PorodlfVi triloba Peri.\ Orcihldodinram ntetl- 
num M». Bar. Am. \ UTirla triloba Tor. ^ Gray ; the Papaw, Amer. \ Aslmlnier de Vlrgiiile, 
and Annone i trols Lobes, FT. ; drejlapplger (three-lobed) Flaschenbaum, Ger. 

Engranngi. Mill. loon., 1. 1. 36. ; Tor. and Grajr, 1. p. 45. ; Mx. Arb., 3. t. 9. ; and oor>l|g.47. 

Spec. Char.^ Spc. Leaves oblong-cuneated, acuminated, and, as well as the 
branches, smoothish. Flowers on short peduncles ; outer petals roundish- 
ovate, four times longer than the calyx. (Don*s Mill.) A low deciduous 
tree. Middle, southern, and western states of North America. Height 
15 ft. to 20 ft. in North America; 7ft. to 10 ft. in England. Introduced 
in 1736. Flowers dark purple and yellow. Fruit yellowish, esculent ; 
ripe in August in America, rarely seen in England. Decaying leaves rich 
yellowish brown. Naked young wood dark brown. 

A small tree, densely clothed with long leaves, lying over one another iu 
such a manner as to give a peculiarly imbricated appearance to the entire 
plant. The flowers are campanulate and drooping, and appear before the 



IT. AKONACEJB. V. ! 

Ibto ; the outer petal* ar« purple, and vary in colour in dtfftrent plants ; i 
HOC boag yerj dark, and ia othen ligbt, inclining to yellov. All parts < 
Ac tree haye a rank, if not a fetid, amell i 
•od the Trait ix retithed bv few persons ex- 
cept the Heroes, who call it papaw. The 
fm i^wni in Atnerica in the bt^inniog of 
Augost, and i* about 3 in. long and It in. ' 
liiick, onl, irre^lar, and swelling into in- • 
eqnlities. In Briti-th prdens, the pUnt ix 
tlwin railed from American seeds ; and, to 
tbrive, it requires to be planted in sandy peat 
or deep nnd, and ktpt moist. In England 
it maj be connidered as a curious, tJow^grow- 
iog, deddoouE thriib, or low tree, well de- 
■ening s place in gsrden«, but which ought 
slwiji to be isokted, add at some distance 
IniiB ra(Hd-gro»ing plants- Relatively to 

grostfa. it may beplnced nearlXrcapaJCiittTis, ,,. iniii.iimiiiii 

Mme d the daphnea, or lllicium. 

01^ Speda of Asimins. — A. parviftora and A. gravdifliira are Nort 
AmerioD ihrab«, aeldom growing higher m their native habitats than 1 fi. t 
I ft, and rather too tender for the climate of London. 



Order V. MENISPERMACE.*:. 

OlD. Cbam. fJoiom unisexueJ. SepaU and petnii siniilar. Slamtru mona- 
<k^il>oiis, or rarely free. Ovariei somewha connected at the base ; with 
me or manj ttj/fet ; many-celled. Frail, in most, baccate or drupaceous, 
ooe-seedHl or many-seeded, oblique or lunulate, compressed, with the imU 
of ihe same form. Embryo curved or peripheric. Albumen none, or very 
faring and fleshy. (Don'i MMt.) — Climbing or twining flexible shrubs, 
•■rives ofKonh Araericaand Asia. 

Lemtt simple, alternate, eixtipulale, deciduous ; stalked, uhubIIv cordate 
or pdcate, palmately vdoed, and always with the middle nerve terminating 
in an awn OT poinL I'louieTi in axillary racemes in most species, small. 
— The jpedes in British gardens are included in the genera Menisp^rmum 
sad Oitculus, which are tnus contradistinguished : — 

S'diisfe'biivm L. Sepals and petals quaternary. Male flowers with \i— 
iO stamens. 

Ca'ccui.(]s Bauk. Sepals and petals ternary. Male flowers with 6 Hlamcna. 



m 



Cn. Qtttr. Sepah and pclaii disposed in a quaternary order, in two or three 
•eties. Male fitmert with 16 to 20 Htamens ; female fiuwert with 8 to 4 
"anea. Dntpe baccate, roundiah-kidney-shaped, !-sceded. — Climbing 
■Ivub* nuiTea of North America and Dauria. 



40 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Leavet simple, alternate, peltate or cordate," entire, smooth. Pedunciei 
axillary, or supra-axillary. Male and female peduncles rather dissimilar. 
Flowers small, greenish white. — The species are all of the easiest culture in 
common soil, and are propagated by dividing the- root, or by cuttings. 



^ 1. M. canade'nsb. The Canadian Moonseed. 



IdentiftaUkm. 



Lin. Sp. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 103. ; Dod*s Mill., 1. p. 119. ; Tor. and Grav, 1. p. 48. 
SffnonifmeM. M. canadense var. • Lamarck \ M. angulitum Moenek ; M£nlsperme du Canada, 

Jard. ; Canadlscher MondMuroe, Ger. 
Engravingt. Schkuhr. H., 3. t. 337. ; Lam. Diet., t. 824. ; and oaxjig. 48. 

Spec, Char.y ^c. Leaves peltate, srooothish, somewhat cordate, roundish- 
angular ; angles bluntish, terminal one abruptly awned, mucronate. Ra- 
cemes solitary, compound. Petals 8. (Don*s Mili,) A 
deciduous, suffhiticose, long, slender twiner. Canamt to 
Carolina. Height 8 ft. to 12ft. Introduced in 1713. 
r^-^^'^*w^ 'W^ Flowers small, greenish yellow ; June and July. Berry 
( '^v ^^^a ^L. /^ black; ripe in Septemoer. Decaying leaves greenish 

brown. 





49. Mcniflptrmnm 

«mU&dnun. 



Varieties. 

A M, c, 2 lobaium Dec. M. 
virglnicum L, (Dill. 
Elth.,t. 178.fig.219.) 
^ — Thisvanety is dis- 

tinguished by the angles of the leaves being 
acutish, and the flowers of a greenish white. 
S M. c, 3 ^rmlddnum, M. imil&cinum Dec, 
(Jac. Icon., t. 269.; and our Jig, 49.) — 
Leaves smoother, and racemes more simple 
than in the species. 

Roots thick and woody, with numerous very slender shoots, which, though 
somewhat ligneous, never attain any considerable diameter, and are not of 
many years' duration. The stem twines in a direction contrary to the sitn^s 
apparent motion, and is smooth and even, 
having more the appearance of a herbaceous 
plant, than of a shrub. 

^ 2. Mbnispe'rhum dau^ricum Dec. 
The Daurian Moonseed. 

Jdentifieaikm. Dec. Prod., 1 . p. lOS.; Don's Mill., 1 . p. 112. 
SifnoHifnua. Trllophiu AmpelUigria Fisoh. ; M. canad^nse 

rar. $ Lam. 
Engravfngs. Deleu. Icon., 1. 1. 100. ; and our flg. 50. 

Spec. Char., S^c. Leaves peltate, smooth, cor- 
date, angular; angles acute, terminal one 
acuminated hardly mucronate. Racemes in 
pairs, capitulate. (Don*s Mill.) A twining, 
deciduous, suffruticose shrub. Dauria, on 
rocky hills, near the river Chilca. Height 
5 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1818. Flowers 
yellowish ; June and July. Berries black ; 
ripe in September. 

Resembles the preceding species, and probably only a variety of it. 

Genus II. 




50. Mntltpinnum dikiieum. 



s 



J C(yCCULUS Bauh. The Cocculus. Lin. Syst. Dice'cia Hex&ndria. 

ideniifieatiom. Baoh. Pin., Sll. ; Dec. Prod., I. p. 96. { Don'i Mill., 1. p. 104. 



T. MENISPERUa'cE^. VI. berbebJ'ce£. 

&.] 

Gt*. dor. Sepalt aod pela}i dupofied in a ternary order, in 8, very rarely in 
3, series. Maie jtouieTt with 6 free stamens opposite the petals ; female ones 
with 3 or 6 caipels, Drupet baccate, 1 to 6, usually obliquely reniform, 
HHDewhat OattcDed, 1-seeded. Caiyledmu distaut. (Don't Miit.) 

Leatet limple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous ; cordate or ovate, entire 
or tobed. Fhwen iiiibII. — The only hardy species b C. carollnus, a native 
of Carolina, of the saiue culture as Meniqiermum, 

Dec. The Carolina Cocculiis. 



.* I. CO'CCULDS CiBOLl' 


us Dm 


Wr^rHTin. Da-Pnid., 1. p.se.;'Diin' 


Mni..i, 




W«dl. 


Spn.Oar^ 4^, Leaves cordate o 


ovate. 



cadre, obtuse, aod somewhat 3-lobed ; 
under stiriace velvety pubescent. Male 
ncemes flortrax>us from the bate, female 
(HMs 3-Bawered. (Don't MUt.) A twin- 
ing deciduous, a uffiuticoee shrub. North 
Csrotioa aod Georgia. Height 6 ft. to 
10ft. Introduced in 1.759. Flowem 
unal^ greenish ; Juue and July. Fruit 
red ; ripe in September. Decaying 
leares ydlovrish or brownish. 
leaves extremely variable in form, 2in, 
to 4 in. loDg, often quite entire, but 
usnlly with several sinuated, obtuse lobes. 
Aape red, ai large aa a saudl pea. 



Order VI. BERBERA'CEM. 

Ord. Char. SepaU usually 8, in two whorls, deciduous, and furnished with 
petal-like scales on the outside. The petali are equal in number with the 
sepals, and the tlamtM equal in number with the petals, and opposite to 
them. Hie atUAert " open by refleied valves ; that is to say, the face of 
each cdl of the anther peels off except at the point, where it adheres as if 
n were hinged there )' astructure so remarkable, Dr. Lindley observes, as to 
he "found m no European plants exeqjt Berberacea and the laurel tribe." 
(Pemg Cyc., vol. iv. p. 858.) — Bushy shrubs, which throw up numerous 
soEken j natives of the temperate cUmates of Europe, Ada, and North 
America. 

Leaver simple or compound, alternate, generally enstipulate, deciduous 
or persistent J »hoots generallv fiimished with prickles; the sap, and the 
cotour of the leaves and hart, more or less yellow. Flowrri generally 
.^llow. — The genera contabiing species hardy in British gardens are two 
Berberii and Hahoniii, which are thus contradistiDguished : ' 

B^itBEura L. Petals with 2 glands on the inside of each. Stamens tooth- 
WM- Leaves undivided. 

Kino^nu Nutt. Petals without glands. Stamens furnished with a tooth on 
each side. Leaves pmnate. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANMICUM. 



WD 



SE'RBERIS L. The BsBnsBRy. Lm. SytL Hexindria Monog^nin. 

.. Lfn. G«i.. M1.1 D«. Prod.. l.p,IW 1 Don'i M1U„ I. p. IK. 

Plpnriilac Buih ) B'pliia itiwtw, fr. ; BHbtHUa. Gtr. 

BeriiTffU tha AnMc word lutd Cor thli Bbnt Iqr Anrrbrx* ud oUirr wrilan « 

but »niv pvTHd* dBriva t]» mma frtn Ihfl Omi word terArri. itfnliyinf ■ AhdL^ fmn 
MS i«T« of lb* GObiiiHjn >pedH bi*lBf « hollow »iirtic«- Boduit U3rt that cha won] AA^nYj Ij 
dcTlied from Uw Phnnldu word iarar, vMcli •IgntftH italBiDi Uka a ibrll. froni Aelr ibliiliii 

planl bi Aiicciui. Du Himal H)ntlut Wrkra li darlitd Iroman Imllui wordil«Bl1fliii mother 
of prarl. Plppcridie biuh, or i>l|)n«e tree. Ganrd u]n, ti Dr. Tumar'I mum (hr tbg piini. and 
U li MlU fl*m to liln CmnibridjiHbln. K'plito vLnetla tlgntflv the add, or wrral. IborA, frook 

6'ni. CAar. Sepaii 6, guarded on die outside by 3 scales. Prtali 6. with 2 
glands on the inaide of earh. SUtmetu loothleM. Serria 2 — 3-B«eded. 
Seedi 2, rarely 3, laterally inserted at the base of the berries, erect, oblonz, 
wiih a crustuceous coat and fleahy albmneii. Colyledora leafy, elliptkaX 
Jfivficfr long, capttellateat the tip. (Don'i MUi.) B.beteropbjukjiut. baa 
toothed stamens. 

ifCatwi simple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduoua or evergreen; toothed 
or serrated, coriaceous, with numerous small leaves nroduced at the nxils 
of the larger ones, often abortive in the form of prickles. Flouxri yellow. 
Fhdl red, io some kinds black, purple or white in others. — Shrubs native* 
of Europe, North America, and Asia ; cbaracierised in a general view bjr 
bting crowded with suckers, and having axillary tults of leaves and spines. 
The species are all readily propagated by seeds which most of them ripen 

in England ; aod also by side suckers and root suckers, which almost all of 

them throw up in abundance. 

A. Leavei thin, deeidiiout. Ftomert lolUaiy. 

M I. B. sibi'kica PaU. The Siberian Berberry. 

Md.. l.|i.i<IS.i DoD'i Mill., I. p. JIM Fea.Cjt:^ 

■ta, ft-. 
Jig. Bt. tftat Hirna, ud 

^>ec. Char., ifC. Spines 
3 — 7-parted. Leaves 
lonceolate-obovate, ci- 
liatelv aernited. Pe- 
duncles 1 -flowered, 
shorter than theleaves. 




Siberia, on hills and 
the lower mountains. 
Height Sft. 
Introduced 
Flowers yellow; May 
and June. Berry red ; 
ripe in September. 



lower mouniBins. ^i^^ 
ght 2ft. to 3ft. F^ 
oduced in 1790. VJ| 
irers yellow; May ^l* 




ihm, natlhf decidumu. Flotneri m Racema. 
tuloa'ris L. The common Berberry, 

i Dk. Prod.. I. p. IW. i Don'. Mill.. 1. p. IIS. 
Sfiw*r^iv*- ^. ■HDtnm l^rU ; B. microcirpa of ■oae i PlppvH^ Troa, Dr. iWi 

Tliirtle, FT. ^HTiHliia " 

btroWw. Bno. Hot, 



•KSc.Sf.: 



In fruit, 1 1 



la, lad tf Bfruilotlhil 



VI. BERBER^' CEjS : Bt^RBERIS. 43 

^ee. Oar^ ^c. Spines 3-parted. Leaves EOinewbat 
oborate, cilUtel} aerrsted. Riicuaies muny-ftowered, 
jieoddous. Petals enlire. (Don't MiU.) A spread- 
ing, maoj-slemmcd, deciduous shrub. Europe, and 
Bntain in hedgea and coiwes, and naturnlised in many 

Cof Asia and America. Height 6fl. to lOfi. 
ers fellow ; Ma; and June. Berries red ; ripe 
in September, Decaying leaves reddish yellow. 
Naked wood vellowish white. 

ft B. e. S liOea. — Fruit yellow, sometimes atone- 

• B, p. 3 ofta^-FruJt white. ' 

• B. f . 4 liolaxa. — Fruit violaceous 

a B. e. 5 pvrparea. B. innominata Knlm. — Fruit 
purple; leaves narrow, hnrdlv ciliated. 

■ B. p. 6 Mgra. — Fruit black ; feaves oblon<:. ci- 

liately serrated, serroturea few. The fruit of 
thix plant is aaid by Toumefbrt, who found 
it on tbe bank* of the Euphrutea. to be of 
delidoua flavour. 

■ 6. r. 7 duidi. — Fruit red, aomewhat less acid 

tbiii tliat of thccomtnoa berberry. Leaves of „ hmmit^jiuu. 
a bright shining green. Native of Austria, 

where it was Grst coaaidered to be a distinct species, till the fruit 
of plants raised from its teed was found to be us acid as that of 
the common berberry. It is now, however, propagated by laj ers ; 
the leaves and fruit are considerably larger than thoiie of the species, 
and the fruit is found perfectly sweet and agreeable to eat. In 
ibort, this variety is to the common berberry, what the apple ia to 

■ S. t>. 8 atpenaa, Tlie teedUti Berherry. — Fruit destitute of seeds. 

HiUer, aod also Du Hamel, both say that suckers taken from this 
variety commonly produce fruit with seeds; that, as ihe tree grows 
oldo-, the seeds become fewer, and that it is the age of the [ilant 
that at last can«es the fruit to be seedless ; in that case this plant 
must be considered more a variation than a variety. B. v. aeperma 
is Bwd by Du Hamel to produce the best fruit for preserving; and 
it is from it that the delicious Confituret (TE'pine vineltc, for which 
Rouen is so celebrated, are made. (AWc. Dak., iv. p. Vi.) 

• B. v. 9 Lm/iijotia Booth. — Leaves longer than tbose of the species. 

• B. V. \li glauca. B. glafica Booth. — Leaves glaucous. Mr. Gordon 

considers this plant as related to B. sibirica ; but, as it has not yet 
flowered in the Horticultural Society's Garden this point cannot be 
determined. (See Gatd. Mag., vol. xvi. p. 8.) 
a fi. t>. 11 laitU, — Shoots without spinet. Leaves glaucous, rather 

ft B. V. IS provincial Schrad. — Young shoots brown. Leave* and fruit 
as ia the common berberry. 
All these varieties are in the London Horticultural Society's Garden. 
(Mer Vanctiei. In the Horticultural Sodety's Garden a number of 
■U^ed species of berberries have been raised from seed, which have all 
proved varietiea of B. vulgaris, and most of theni so slight, as to be scarcely 
■orth keeping diatiact. (See Gard. Mag., vol. xvi. p. 2.) 
He cooiiDoo berberry will live for two ot three centuries, without increasing 
oDcb b size. The wood is hard and brittle, of a yellow colour, and but 
'inlt used except for dyeing. The rate of growth, when the plant ia young, 
i> npid ; bimI, in consequence, in live or six years it will attain the bd^t of 



44 ARBORETUM £T TBUTICETUM BRITAMWICUM. 

7 or 8 feet i but it grows slowly afterwards, unless the suckers are removeJ 
from it as they are produced. It is seldom seen above 10 k. high ; but there 
are exaifiples of trees of it 30 ft. high, probably of 30 years' ftrowtb. The 
inner burk, both of the steins and roots, affords a yellow dye. The leaTcs are 
agreeably acid, end, according to Gerard, were used in his time " to seasoD 
meat with, and bslead of a salad, like sorrel." The berries are so acid, that 
birds seldom touch them. They are not eaten raw, but are excellent when 
preserved with sugar in syrup, or candied. They are also made into jelly and 
rob, both of which are not only delicious to the taste, but extremely whole- 
some ; and they are pickled in vinegar, when green, as a substitute for capers. 
The plant is cultivated iu gardens as a fruit tree or fruit shrub ; aod the 
variety, or rather variation, in which the seeds are said to be wanting, and 
that iu which the fruit is sweet, ere recommended in preference. The plant 
makes an excellent hedge ; but there exists a pr^udice against it among agri- 
culturists, from ita supposed influence in producing blight, or mildew, on the 
com adjoining it. This opinion is of unknown antiquity; but it is now ge- 
nerally considered to be an erroneous prejudice. 

■ 3. B. (v.) bmarginaVa IVUid. The emtagfaaxe-pelaltd Berberry. 

Untlj/lcaHim. Wllld, Enimi^ 1. p. 39B. i D«. PrDd,, I. p. IDS. i Don'! MIU, I. p. US. 

lines 3-parted. Leaves lanceolate-obovale, cillately serrated. 
Racemes scarcely pendulous, ^ihorter 
than the leaves ; petals einarginate. 
(Don't Mill.) A 
deciduous shrub. 
Siberia. Height 
5 ft. to 7 ft, Intro-'l 
duced in 
Flowers yello' , 
May and June, t'i 
Benies red; i' 
in September. ] 
caying leaves y 
low. Nak< ' 
wood whi 
low. 

Closely resembling ^. vulgilriB, of 
which it is, doubtless, only a variety ; but it is one half smaller in all its parts, 
and has the petals emargiiiate, and the leaves decidedly glaucous. 

ji 4. B. (v.) crb'tica L. The Cretan Berberry. 

liltMOIcalltft, Lin. 3p.^7t.l 





Spfc.ChaT.,lfe. Spines 
3 — 5-parted. Leaves 
oval-oblong, entire, ' 
or somewhat serrat-^ 
ed. Racemes 3 — B- 
flowrd., rather short- 
er than the leaves. 



Tl. BERBERA^CE^ : BEfRBERIS. 45 

(Dm'i JMU.) a dedJuoua ahrub, crowded with shooti. CreU^ Candia, 
and, perhwis, Japan. HeiEht 3fl. to ift. Introduced in 1759. Plowirs 
jidlow : May and June. Berries ovate, black ; ripe in September. De- 
caying leates whitish jellow. Naked youiig wood aW> whitish. 
Tlie leaves ve produciMl without any obvious order ; tlicy are small, and in 
their diape the; resemble those oF Che narrow- leaved variety of the (-ommon 
box. The berricK are ovate, bUck, 2-seeded, more astringent than acid; 
•tigna oo a very abort style. 

• 5. B. (t.) Cbata'oina Dec. The Crati^u»-like Berberry. 



Spre. (^ar^ ^c. ^ines simple. 
Leaves oblong, reticulated, 
hardly Eerrateid. Racemes 

nuny-doweted, crowded, 

^ir^tdine, scarcelj longer 

tiun the Teavea. (Don't Mill.) 

A dedduous glaucous-leaved 

ihmb. Asia Minor. H«ght 

♦ ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 

ISS3L Fbwers yellow ; May j 

and June. Bemes red ; ripe 

in September. 

Disdngntsbed from all the 
othCT species, by the leaves being 
In^ flacdd, eatirely Glaucous, 

Mwliitish.Yoai^ shoots brown. «■ t/-tiTUr,ti-*Bx.iMiif. 

A pknt bearing this name in the Horticultural Society's Garden is 5 ft. 
bign, with the tetrea much longer than those of B. vulg^is ; serrated, as in 
tot ^ledes, and decidedly gluicous. In other respects we can see no 



• 6. B. ibb'rici Slev. The Iberian Berberry. 

, Don't Mm,l.|l.llis«'>J'l~fl T-n f^" ' " «i 

tpiUTi. Snil«jUfi?>. Ib«rt<sit< 
/ ■ yM gj. ami. Brit, t. M., u B. 

Spn. Okar^ rjc. S 
oblong, quite ennre. nAcemes many'irowereo -, petals enure. 
(Ihiii Afiil.) A deciduous shrub. Iberia. Height 3 ft. to ' 
oft. lulroduced in 1790. Flowers yellow; May and June. 
Berries dark purple; ripe in September. Decaying leaven ;cl- 
lowl-Ji red- Naked young wood reddish jelloi 
ReaiHy disrioguished from the common berberry by its smaller T 
md sEDoother l^vcs, itaredshootB,and its almost upright racemes ; ^g^.^,,,^ 
and from B. sinensis by the leaves being comparatively entire. 

* 7. 3. CAKADE'iista Afia. The Canadian Berberry. 

H^iiM. S. ViU^/t« Mr. n. Bor. AmiT, I. p. JM.; B. lulglrll ra. cuad^nili Hur^n'i 

Mtfimtiti. 'tliriMAIiWliL,t.a.(>Ddourj1(.61.iftcrtliuiD[bi>r. 

Spec Clur.,^c. Brtucbes verrucose, dotted, with.ahort triple spines ; leaves 
ipttolBte, oUoiw, remotely serrate, with somewhat bristly teeth ; racemei 
ntixorymbose, few-flowered ; petals onar^nate ( berries sub^lobose, or 
onL (Tor, and Grm/,) A deculuousshrub. Canada to Georgia, Height 
th. to 3ft., in England aft. Introduced in 17SE). Flowers yellow; 



40 ARBORETUM ET FKOT[CETUM BRITANNICUM. 

May and June. Berries red ; ripe in September. De- 

caiing leaven yellowish green and reddish. Naked young 

wood whitish yellow. 

Leaves much smaller and narrower than in B. vuIgiiriK, 
attenuate at tiie base, but nearly sessile; the margins serru- 
late, with 6-S distant, ullcn inconspicuous, mucronate teeth. 
Kiiccine S-S-ftowcred, nodding ; flowers smaller than in B. 
vulgaris ( fruit smaller and much shorter. Stem and roots 
yellow ; the famier rarely exceeding 3 h. in height Found 
in the Alleghany Mountains, Virginia and Carolina, Tenesaee, 
and Geonna. (Tor. and Gray.} Introduced into England in 
1759, but probably loitt, as we have seen no plant answering «i. ■, 
this description in British gardens. 

* 8. B. sine'nsis Diif. The Chinese Berberry. 

Uemtifccliai- Deit. Caul. Hon. P.. LM.i 
Dec. Prod., l.p.lu*.: Don'i MILL, 1. p. IIA. 

Snmmhitt. OurAi. Hi. »l"l S. ftom a ipe- 

dn«n In the Hon. Sot. Garden. 
Sprc. Char., 4c. Spines S-parted. 

Leaves oblong, obtuse, entire, or 

the lower ones a little toothed. 

Racemes many-flowered, nodding. 

(Dm'i Mia.) A deciduous shrub . 

with slender shoots. China. ^ 

Height 3ft. to 5ft. Introduced 

in 1800. Flowers yellow ; May 

and June. Berries oval, dark red ; 

ripe in September. Leaves 

smooth, sharply serrated. Decay- 
ing leaves of aSnevellowish red. 

Naked young woo<I reddish yel- 

The plant at the Horticultural 
Society's Garden, and at Messrs. 
Iioddiges's, has smooth leaves, red 
■hoots, end closely resembles BMerii 



Tl. BERBEnACE^ : SSfBBEfilS. 47 

C Leava leaAery, ei>trgrven, or ttA-nergreen. Flmoen toBlary, or n CVui/n-*. 
• 9. B. du'lcii D. Don. The sweO-fruiled Berberrj, 



^. Oiar., 4v. Spines long, ilender, simple, or 3- 
puted. Letiet oborate obtuse, with or without a 
bristlj point, quite entire, glaucoiu on the under side. 
Flovi:rs solitary, on slender stalks, twice as long as 
tlie leaven. (Lmdl-, Pen. Cyc.,) An evergreen shnib, 
wiih shining leares. Stnits of Magellan to Valdiria. 
He^t gft. to5lt. Introduced in 1B30. Flowers 
jeliow ; Btarcb to June. Berries round, black, about 
dK siie of a black currsiit ; ripe in August. Decay- 
ing leaves bright jellow ; dropping in May and June. 
An dt^uit erergreen bush, which, in tome places, has 

atCuiKd the height or 5 ft. The flowera are large, of 



e down in a Terj gracefiil ntanner. In its native country, the fruit 

' '" " T» we use gooseberries, for making pics and tii 

is most excellent. It is quite hardy and evergrci 

k Lam. Hie Box-leared Berberry. 

UiajfiMlk m. Lai.ltL,t.«(.*t.l.;DDIi'llnU.,l.p.llT. 
fVinV- Ln. lU. I.Ha.flg.l.ilDd0Qrj^.6». 

^m. Char^ ^c. Spines 3-parted. Leaves orate, or ovate- 

lanceolste, smooth, quite entire. Pedicels longer than 

the leaves, dtbcr solitary, 1-dowered, or in threes, 

risi^ &om a short peduncle. (JDon'i Miil.) A small 

IvBted nib-eTergrcen ahrub. Native of^the Struts 

of Median. Height 8 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced ?. 

Flowers ydlow. December to Harcb. Berries blu- 

iib purple, 4-seeded. 

Gsid to be nearly allied to 3. d(i1cis. A very valuable 
aldidon to oar hanly evergreens ; [hough, at present, ret 




■ IOl B-BUXtWO"!. 



M 11. B.t 



A Mart. 



in British gardcDS. 
The rsy-apined Berberry, 



^.Ckar.,^e. Spines palmate, 3 — 5 

divisions. Leaves ovate elliptic, r' ' " 

roriacFauB, toothed, mucronate. 

dnocles 4 — 5, sub-uml>ellBte, shorter i 

ihsa the leaves. An evergreen shrub, i 

with niimerotia spreading branches, and ji 

lo«g white spines, generally in threes, j 

but tomctunea more numerous. Straits ^ 

of H^etlan. Height 3 ft. to 1 ft. In- 
troduced ? 1930. Flowers deep yellow, 

a little larger than those of B. vul- 

|aria; May and June. Fruit?. 

A very desiruble species, nearly allied 
to B. heterophylla. Our engniving is of 
3 ^tecimen talien from a verv handsome 

plaart in the rich collection of evergreens **• ■**•* iciiiuciak.. 

a Etvaston Castle. Dr. Hooker mentions s variety with smaller leaves tlias 
tlcspeciea, but it does not appear to be iniruduceil. Quite hardy. 



48 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM, 




jtt 12. B, HETRROPHY^LLA Jut. The vaTious-leaved Berberry. 

IdaUifictOian, Ju$s. In Poir. Diet., 8. p. 629. \ Dec. Prod., 1. p. 106. ; Don*! 

Mill.. I. p. 117.; Lfndl., Pen. Cyc, 4. p. 261. 
Svnonymes. B. fUcifMia Foni. ; B. triscupidkU Stmitk. 
£ngravingt. Hook. Exot. FL, 1 . 1. 14. ; and owflg. 67. 

Spec, Char,, S^c. Spines 3-parted. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
glabrous, some of theih entire, others furnished with 3 
pungent teeth. Pedicels solitary, 1-flowered, hardly longer 
than the leaves. Filaments toothed. (Don*t Afdl,) An 
evergreen shnib. Straits of Magellan^ Heii;ht 3 ft. to 
4 ft. Introduced in 1823. Flowers orange yellow ; May 
and June. Berries red ; ripe in September. Decaying 
leaves greenish yellow ; June and July. 

Much branched, and the older branches covered with dnrk 
wrinkled bark. The leaves clustered, and of two kinds ; the 
old ones terminated with a sharp spinose point, and having 
a lateral spinule on each side above the middle, and the ^rB.h«tcn>|ii)yiii_ 
younger ones being pale green, unarmed, and having their 
margins entire and softish. The old leaves are also quite rigid, dark green, 
and shining. 

ji 13. B. fMpETRiFoYiA Lom, The Empetrum- leaved Berberr3\ 

Jdentifleation, Lam. 111., t. VA. ; Dae. Prod. J . p. 107.; Don's Mill., 1. p. 1 17. ; Pen. Cyc., 4. p. Sfil . 
Engravingi. Lam. 111., t.863. fig.4.; Sw.Brlt.Fl.-Gar., 2. i. t. 350.; and oar>^.68. ^ 

Spec, Char., Spc. Spines 3-parted. Leaves linear, quite entire, 
with revolute margins. Pedicels 1 — 2, 1-flowered. (Dun*s 
MUL) An elegant, decumbent, evergreen bush. Cordilleras 
of Chili in subalpine woods. Height 1 ft. to 2 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1830. Flowers yellow ; December to March. Ber- 
ries ? yellow ; ripe in July. Wood reddish brown. 

Branches slender, twiggy, angular, covered with a chestnut- 
coloured bark. Leaves fasciculate, linear, mucronate, revolute, 
and entire at the margins, glaucous ; about half an inch long, 
and nearly a line in breadth. Flowers large, spreading. A 
very curious and pretty plant, in general aspect much more like 
a heath than a berberry. It is perfectly nardy, and deserves * *• "»i'««rtftiifc 
a place in every collection. It is readily increased by layers, in heath soil. 

D. Leaves leathery , evergreen or tub^evergreen. Flowers 

in Racenies. 

A 14. B, DEALBA^TA LitidL The whitened-Z^mp^a 

Berberry. 

Idemtifleatiom. Hot. Res., 1. 1750. ; Pen. Cjrc, 4. p. 261. 

SMMmymtf. B. glatica Hort. 

Sngraniugs. Bot Reg., t 17S0. ; and oar Jig. 69. 

Spec, Char,, Sfc, Spines scarcely any. Leaves roundish, 
coarsely toothed, rather glaucous, white ben&ith. Ra- 
cemes very short and compact, pendulous. (^Pen, Cyc.) 
An upright evergreen bush, with white or glaucous 
leaves. Mexico. Height 3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced 
in 1830. Flowers yellow, sweet-scented ; December 
to March. Berries yellowish purple ; ripe in August. 

A tall, slender, evergreen bush, with deep brown 
branches, and scarcely any spines. The leaves are some- 
times wedge-shaped and 3-toothed, but more frequently 
nearly round, with two or three spiny teeth on every side. 
A curious and beautiful species, well deserving of cul- 
tivation. It is quite hardy, and readily increased by 
layers, which root the same season that they are made. 





i:-ata. 



Tl. BERBESA'CEJF. : B^RBERIS. 49 

15. B. uia'tic* Hoj*. The Asiatic Berberry. 

a. In D«. Sjit., a.p, 13.1 D«. Proa., l.p. in.j Oaa't Mill., 1, p. 116 1 P(o. 

^JmmT "riie Ljri™ at DhiKorida. Alyfa hi Idh. lyou.. itU, p.U; A UnOarU Lk4. | 

»> lUWii BartierTT. P.-n- Ok. 
bF-mH. DelCH. KmLuT, Lt l.i BXlcurA.rO. 

Spn. CSor^ ijc. Spines trifid, or simple. Leavta oval, cuncated or ellin- 

tiial, mucronate, sniouCh, luider surface glaucous, entire or spinulosely 

IMdieii R^anes short, 

■nuj-floveretl, coiymbose, 

rfioter than the leaves. 

I^dicels ehingated, one- 

iowtred. Bmies oval. 

(Dafi Mill.) A vigorous- 
ly groviiig sub-evergreen 

Arub, crowded with nume- 

nw) luiuriaoljiuckere. Ne- 

pil. on mountauu. Height 

6ft to 8ft. Introduced in 

X^O. Flowtw yellow J 

lliy and June. Berries f 

pun>^>*<thsfiiiebh>omi 1 

ripe io July. Decavina \ _ 

lam yellow Md red. 11 -WK — ^ WJ 

lenet aomewbat resem- ■ '*' 'II rll*U>l _ ^-^ 

Umgtboaeofil.heterophyila, 
tnt Dot Raucous. The plant 
ii euily (HstinciiLsbed from 
■ku ipeciei by the ■vtry short 
tteaaea of hs flowers, by th^ being -produced much earlier, and by the 
■uotfuKsi of it* ahoota. On July SO. 1637, a 6ne plant of B. iBiatica, 
in the ptmada at Syon, wm covered with fruit, while one of B. arisdtai, 
UnSng dose beside it, waa covered with its beautiful rich yellow blossoma, 
oany of which were not fiillj expanded. The fruit is oblong, ]>inkLsh or 
pupliA. wrinkled, and covered with a fine thick bloom like thiit of the 
(Ml nisirn. Hie plants in 5 or 6 years attain the height of 6 or 8 feet. 

• IB, *. abista'ta Dee, The bristled-tooii-iniiifJ Berberry. 



^. Char^ 4^. Lower sfunea 3-parted, simple; 

leivca obovate-acute, tapering much to tlie 

fcasa endii^ in a mucro (prickly point) at the 

■pet,meinbrai]Ous, smooth on both sides, ser- 
rated, with 4 or 5 bristly teeth. SacenKs , 

nodda^ many-flowered, longer than the j 

Invcs. Berries oblong. {Dm'i MUl.} A 

T*orou«,growing sub^evergreen shrub, crowd- 

H with suckers which soraetunes grow 8 (t, 

to 9fc. long in a season. Nepal, on mountains 

aiOOft, to 8000 ft. of elevation. Height 6 fi. 

to 10 ft. Introduced m 1B20. Fbwere yel- 
low ; June and July. Berries purplish, with 

1 fine bloom ; ripe in September. Decaying 

Icavea^ellDw andscarlet. Naked young wood „_ .,^_.,.. ^t,. 

yeSowi^ brown. 

Very distinct from anv of the preceding specie* or varieties, growing with 
"■ ' »ig»ur, ana capable of being formed into a very haodsome unall 




50 arbori;tum et fruticetum britannicum. 

tree. The root and wood are of a dark yellow colour, and form the yellow 
wood of Persian authors ; they are used as a dye, and, being bitter and a 
little astringent, they, as well as the bark, are employed in medicine. (Roylc's 
Hitut,, p. 63.) In Nepal, the fruit of this species is dried, like grapes for 
formin<; raisins, in the sun. A most desirable plant, calculated to produce a 
splendid effect, both when in flower and when in fruit, upon an open lawn. 
As a rapid grower, it ought not to be planted near slow-growing shrubs oi 
trees. 

Other Species of B^rberis. — B. Coridria Royle, a species having the same 
general appearance as B. aristata, has been raised in the Horticultural 
Society's Garden, and there are plants 3 ft. hi^h, but they have not yet flow- 
ered. Plants have been raised in the Horticultural Society's Oaixien, and 
in some nurseries, from seeds received from Mexico and Nepal ; but, though 
these have new names, it is not certain that they will all prove new species, 
and therefore we consider it better not to record them till they have flow- 
ered. In Hook, Bot. Mit. vol. iii., B. chiiensis Gill., B. vuidfolia Lam., B. 
corymbota Hook, et Am., B. glomerdta Hook, et Am., and B. GrevUkknA. GUl^ 
are described, or mentioned, as having been , found in South America, and 
Dr. Hooker has specimens of them in his herbarium. Numerous varieties 
of Berberit vulgaris are raised in the London gardens, under continental names, 
as if they were species, but very few of tnem are worth keeping distinct. 
See in Gard, Mag, for 1640, p. 1., Mr. Gordon's Report on those raised 
in the Horticultural Society's Garden in 1639. 

Genus II. 



cana 



MAHO^N/^ Nutt. Tvn'iAAVkoniK.or AsB Bbmberry. lAn-S^st. Hex4ndria 

Monog^nia. 

I4fnt0eatf(m. Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. 307. ; Dec Prod., 1. p. 108. ; Don's Mill., p. 117. 
Smmn^mei. BA-beris of authors ; Oaosttenon B4tf. ; Ash Berberry Pen. Cyd. 
Dcfiwaiion. Named by Nuttall in honour of Bernard M*Makon, a seedsman at Philadelphia, th« 
author of the American Gardener's Calendar t and an ardent lover of botanical science. 

Gen. Char, Sepal* 6, guarded on the outside by three scales. Petals 6, with* 
out glands on the inside. Stamens furnished with a tooth on each side at 
top of the filament. Berries 3— 9-seeded. {DoiCs Mill,) 

Leaves compound, pinnate, alternate, exstipulate, evergreen ; the leaflets 
coriaceous, with the margins toothed or serrated. Floioers yellow. FruU 
mostly black. — Natives of the north-west coast of America, and also of 
Nepal, and perhaps Japan. 

Though some botanists think that the characters ascribed to this genus, and 
those ascribed to Berberis, as exhibited in p. 41., are not sufficient to keep 
them separate as genera ; yet the habits of the species of one, as to the mode 
of growth, foliage, and inflorescence, are so distinct from those of tlie other, 
as to induce us to adopt the genus Mah6nia. The species in British gardens 
are all of comparatively slow growth, and admit but of slow multiplication by 
layers, which require to remain on two years, and scarcely at all by cuttings. 
Some of them, however, seed freely, and are readily propagated in this way. 
The seeds of all the species of Mahonia, and also of those of Berberis^ if 
sown immediately after they are ripe, and protected through the winter from 
frost, will come up the following spring. 

« 1. M. FASCicuLA^Ris Dec, The crowded-racewi^rf Mahonia, or Ash Berberry, 



Identification. Dec. Prod., 1. p. lOB. } Don's Mill., 1. p 118. 
SynonipneM. Birheris pinotta Lag.t Bot. Reg., BoL Mag., « 
Cj/e. In the same work it is stated that Mabbnia dlTersifbUa Is the same as this spedes ; thoush 



U is figured and described by Sweet, as a species from Monte Video : see Swt. Br. Ft.i-Gur^ ad 
series, t. 56. 
S$^a9ingt. Bot. Reg., t. 702. ; Bot. Mag., t. 2396. ; and our^. 7S. 



VI, OLRBF.nA'CEJ'. : MAHO'n/^. 



jjuf r, VliOT., c5-f . LeavM 
of 3— e pairs with ui 
odd one, the lowest 
jeir near (he bme of 
ifie petiole. Leaflets 
ante-bnceolue, ib- 
ibcr diEtBnL one- 



iMTed, spny-toothed, 

vith 4 or 5 teeth on 

tach ride. Racemes 

nearij erect, much 

cnnrilal. Fitinienta 

bidentite.(ft)B'i jtfi/. ) 

An upright evergreen 

■hrub. California and 

ttdico, on mouoiains. 

Height dh. lo Bit 

lotroduceil in )819. 

Floven jellov ; liar. - 

10 Uaj. Berries pur- 
ple; n|ie b Septembo'. 

DenjiDg leaVea rich 

yellow; drop in June. 

VaTh«i.ds<Hne."P«. .t. ««>».-. ft-kj*,u. 

b^a the most showy of all the family." (JTooi.) It is readily distinguished, 
tvto at ■ distance, hoot the other mahonias, by the glaucous green and 
rebdued tone of colour of its leaves ; those of oil the others being of n 
i*Aa grem, and more or less shining. The plant is rather too lender to 
be tretted as a detached bush, unless some slight protection be given lo it 
dnriiig veiy serere frosts ; but it wilt grow freely against a wall with scarcely 
aoy FToteclion. Layers and seeds. 
■ 1 H. ilaL-iFo^LiuH Nidi. The Holly-leaTed Mahonia, or Aik nerbtrrg. 

I'r^L^f. Kott. Ona. Kmxl., 1. p. 319, \ Dk. Prod.. 1. p. \<Ji.\ Dnn'i UllL. I. p. ItS. 

^m^mi. Btrirrti ^qnltSUum H.. fm. Cgr., mi TBr. t Graf. 

' •T^' V - Pnnh. Ti. Amrr. Scpl, l.t. 4. ; Bot. Haf., t. ItU.i ind our/(. IS. 

Sprr, Oar., 4v. Leaves of 4 pairs 

oT leideta with an odd one, the 

lower pair duttant from the base 

of the petiole ; leaflets ovate, ap- 

imiiaute, cord&te at the ba»e, 

ooMterred, apiny-toothed, with 

9or6teetb on each sid& Bo- 

Mam erect, and much crowded. 

Rlamcnts bidentate. (D.'i Mill.) 

A Aiiuog ererereen shrub. Mew 

AUoD to NooUui Sound. Height 

J ft. to Til. in its native country, 

pnbaUy 10 ft. in England. In- 

trodnced in 1883. Rowers yel- 
low; April and Hay. Berries 

paipie; ripe in September. 
ftritHa. One variety, H. A. tnii- 

ton* Dec, is oieutioneii by De 

CaidaDe; and another, found at :^ ii,hixu ttsum^ 

the jnnrtion of the Portage river 

»ilh the ColuDibiB, by G. Don. Torrey and Grav consider Muhonta 

repou and H. pinnkta Mercaet as only varieties of this species ; an inud- 

VBtence excuaable in those who have not seen the plants in a living itnte. 



52 ARBORETUM ET FHUTICETUM BKITANNICUM. 

One of the hanJsomeBt of evergreen ahrubi, attaiaing the height of 6 ft. 
in 6 jean, quite hardy, producing a profusion of bunches of yellow flowcn 
during April and May. In its native country it grows in rich vegetable 
soil, among rockn, or In woods, where it foTiaa a thick and rich undergrowth. 
According to Dr. Lindley, it ia " perhaps the handsomest hardy evergreen 
we yet poaiesa. lu foliage is of a nch, deep, shining green, beconung 
jjurple in the winter ; it bears fruit in sume abundance, which consists of 
elusten of roundish hlack berries, having their surface covered with a rich 
tiolet bloom. It most resembles M. tascicul&ris, from which its lai^ shining 
leaves at once distinguish it." (I'mny Cyc, iv, p. SGS.) Layers and seeds. 

a. 3. M. NERTo'sA NaU. The neneA-Uaetd Hahonia, or A^ Berberrg, 



Kiv-mtnf- Pur«l> H. AmM., I. 
. I. S. ; BM. Htg.. t. Ul£. ; lUd our 

S/iee. Char., 4'c. Leaves of 

5 — 6 pairs, with an odd 

one, the lower pair distant 

from the petiole ; leaflets 

ovate, acuminated, aind re- 
motely spiny-tooth ed,some- 

what 3 — 5-nerved, with IS 

or 14 teeth on each side. 

Racemes elongated. Fila- 
ments bidentate. (Don't 

Mill.) An evergreen un- 

dershrub. North-weiit of 

N. America, on the river 

Columbia, in shady pine i 

woods. Height S tt to 3 ft. 

Introd. in 1822. Flowers "■ "•*^' 

yellow; October to Ihfarch. Berries roundish, glau 

blue ; ripe in July. 

According to Torrey and Gray, the s 
rises from the ground, and, indeed, is n 
arelft.to8ft. in lenph. Racemes spi- 
cate, often fi in. to Bin. long. Flowere 
lareer than in M. ^quilBlium. The pe- 
tioles of the leaves. Dr. Lindley says, 
" are jointed at every pair of leaflets, 
in the manner of a bamboo stem." 
The plant is hardy, and will thrive in 
a shady border of peat soil. One of 
the handsomest of undershnibs. 
a 4. M. reVkns a. Don. The 

crecplng-roof«(f Mahonia. or Ath 

Berberry. 

Idnitltlcal4ai. D. Dim, b Land. Hart. Brit., 

p. -Xl. ; B. .jqumuum ru. rkpmi 'Kr. i 

Qroi/., I . p. BA 1 ^ ^ 1 .. 

XHfr—'H'-^^-^^-.'-iy'n.iKaoaifit.n. ^ 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaflets 2 — 3 pairs, with an odd one, roundish ovate, optujue. 




▼II. CRUCIA^C££ : te'lla. 53 

8piny<toothed. Racemes diffuse. Root creeping. Filaments bidentate. 
{Don's MUL) An evergreen undershrub. West coast of N. America, on 
the Rocky Mountains. Height 1 ft. to 2 ft Introduced in 1822. Flowers 
yeilow; April and May. Berries purpUsh black; ripe in September. 

Variety, 

ft Jf. r. 2 repenpfasdcularit, — Habit of M. fascicul^ris, with larger and 
more robust foliage, resembling that of M. repens. A sport, or a 
hybrid, produced accidentally in the Sawbridgeworth Nursery. 

Hie shoots consist chiefly of short unbranched suckers, with the leaves some- 
what glauoons on both sumces.* The racemes of flowers are terminal, nume- 
rous, bscided, diffuse, rising from scalv buds. The plant, in British gardens, is 
perfectly hardy, and produces a provision of rich yellow flowers in April 
snd May. Layers or suckers; but it does not root readily. Seeds are 
wmedmes produced. 

Other Species of MahdmsL are no doubt in British gardens ; but as they 
ha? e been only raised lately from Kepal or Mexican seeds, nothing can be 
recorded of them with that degree of certainty and detail which is suit- 
able for this work. JfoAoma lemafoSa, a Mexican species with pinnate 
leaves, and entire quite smooth leaflets, on very long slender footstalks, has 
been raised in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and may probably be as 
hardy as M. fescicularis ; but this is uncertain. M, nepaUruisy M, Bcanthi' 
foSoy M, XragactttUAindtMf and M. canffjiv^^ia^ are said to be very desirable 
■pedes. 



Section II. 

Carpdia soSiary, or connate ; Placenta parietal (that Part of the Capsvle whi^ 
ike Seeds are attached to adhering to the Sides or Wails ^ the Ovary or Ger^ 
men), attached to the Waits or Cells of the Ovary. 

OrdeuVII. CRUCIA^CEJE. 

Ord, Chab. The order Cruciacese is readily recognised by the cruciform 
arrangement of the petals^ which are always four, in conjunction with tetra- 
djoamous stamens, and the fruit a silique or silicle. — Though there are 
several species which, technicallv considered, are ligneous plants, such as 
^yasum ■y-«i>f'n<», iberis sempervirens, Cheir&nthus Che\ri, and some others; 
yeC, in a popular point of view, the only shrub included in the order is the 
Fella Psei^do-Cjtisus. 

Genus I. 



□ 



f ET-LA L. Thb Vblla. Lm. SysL Tetradynimia Silicul6sa. 

rVifiiiiflii, Tli0 vonl FUla b Lattnlied from the word veJior, the Cdtic name of the cress. 
Gen, Char. Stamens the 4 longer in 2 pairs, the 2 of each pair grown together. 
^yle ovate, flat, tongue^haped, at the tip of the silicle. SUicle ovate, com- 
pressed, its valves concave. Partition elliptic. Cotyledons folded, the embryo 
root ifisposed in the sinus of the fold. {Dec, Syst.) 

Leaves simple, idtemate, exstipulate, sub-evergreen ; toothed or serrated, 
dancous. Flowers in axillary spikes, yellow, seldom succeeded by seed pods 
■ the climate of London. — Shrub low, suffruticose, native of Spain. 

E 3 



54 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



tt. 1. Tb^lla Pseu^do-Cy^tisus L. False-Cytisus, or #Arud&^, Cress- Rocket. 

Idmtifkation, Lin. Sp. 895. ; Dec. Prod.. 1. p.328. : Don'i Mill., 1. p. 254. 

Synonume*. FiftlU IntegrifbUa Sal. ; Faux-cvtlw, Pr. ; •traucbartige (thrubbj) VaUe, (?er. 

Engravings. Car. Ic, 1. 43. ; and our^ij;. 7d. 

Spec. Char,, Sfc. Petals yellow, with long dark 
purple claws. Larger stamens perfectly con- 
nate by pairs, (^DotCt Mill,) A low sub- 
evergreen shrub. Spain, on calcareous hills. 
Height 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introd. in 1 759. Flowers 
yellow ; April and May. Silique greenish 
yellow ; ripe in July. Decaying leaves yellow. 

Branches arched, spreading, somewhat decum- 
bent. Leaves glaucous green. Somewhat ten- 
der, but requires no protection in the climate of 
London, when planted on dry soil. It is a 
short-lived plant, like all the sufTruticose Cru- 
ciferee, but it may readily be renewed by cuttings 
or seeds. 




76. r«la FlMhdo-CyUH» 



Order VIII. CISTA^GE.E. 

Ord, Char. Sepals 5, two of them being exterior. PetaU 5, very fugitive. 
Stamens numerous. Fruit capsular, 3---5-valved, 5 — 10-celled, with pari- 
etal placentae. jGmiryo inverted. Properties balsamic. (Lmdl,) 

Leaves simple, opposite or alternate (the lowest leaves always oppo- 
site), stipulate or exstipulate, deciduous or sub-evergreen; generally pubes- 
cent, pubescence simple or stellate. Flowers large, showy, white, red, 
or purple. — Shrubs low, suffrutescent, many subherbaceous ; natives of 
Europe and Africa. 

The dstices have no medical properties ; but the resinous balsamic sub- 
stance called ladanum or labdanum is produced from C. cr^ticus, C. lada- 
niferus, C. /aurifdlius, and one or two other species. Their use in gardens is 
for ornamenting rock work, or for keeping in pits during the winter, and planting 
out in flower-borders in spring ; as, from the tenderness of the finer species, 
they are unfit for a permanent place in a shrubbery or arboretum. Most 
of even' the laiger-growing kinds require some protection during winter : 
but they will au grow freely in any soil that is dry ; and they are readily 
propagated by seeds, which, in fine seasons, they produce in abundance, or 
by cuttings ; the plants, in both cases, flowering the second year. Though 
easily propagated, the Clst^ceae do not readily bear transplanting, baring 
very few fibres, and these rambling to a great distance from the main root. 
Plants for sale ought, therefore, to be always kept in pots; and, in the 
winter season, they should be protected by some slight covering during 
severe weather. The hardy ligneous species are included in two genera ; which 
are thus contradistinguished by DeCandoUe and 6. Don : — 

Ci'sTUS L, Capsule 10 — 5-celled. 

Hblia^nthbmum Tourti. Capsule 1 -celled, 3-valved. 

Genus I. 



□UnCLJD 



CI'STUS L. The Cistus, or Rock Rose. Lm. Syst. Polyandria 

Monogynia. 
Deriwtdnm. From the Graek word Mtf, a box or capsule, or the Anglo-Saxon, craf, a hallow 



VIII. cista'ce*: Cl'S' 



1) Out, Ft.; CIHkHoh.GA'.i ClMoiM. 

(ict. Char. Cafyr of 5 Kpals. Scpali diaposed-in a double Bering ; 9. outer 
met unequal, sometiiDeB wnnting. Petalt 5, euual, Bomewhat cuneuted, 
c)duu}us. Stament numerous, usually esserted Irotn the glandular disk. 
Sljlc filiform. Sbgma capitate. Capiule corered by the calyx, 5- or 
10.TBlTed, with a Beminiferous partition in the middle of each valve, 
therefore 5- or 10.celled, Seedt ovate, angular. Embryo filironn, spiral. 
Ltatei simple, opponte. eutipulate, lub-evei^reen, entire or toothed ; 
titt petioles embr^icing the stem. Flowcrt axillary, or many flowered 
pcduiides ; lain, beautiful, resembling a rose, red or white. — Shrubs or 
schahiubi, native* of the South of Europe and North of Africa. Only 
tno or three species .or subopecies, and tnedr varietieB, are hardy io the 
cEmate of LoDdon. 

■■ 1. Ci'sTDs purpu'bbus Lam. The purple^/fouwrerf Cistus, or Rock Rote. 

Uritflimi m. L>i.Dla..*.p.14.iDK.Prod., l.p.K4.: Don't Mill.. I. D.aa. 

famyn, JV. : pvBurrotbe Cislen Rne. Grr. 
iKn in Hi. BolB^., [.WS.; SVLCIU,!. 17.; indDurj^.TT. 

^xr. Otar^ t/c. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or 

■cute, and more or less rugose ; reliculateljr veined, / 

vith nodulated margins. Petioles short, hairy, con- ^ 

aected at the base, and Bheatbing the stem. Flowers 

teTDiinal, from 1 to 6, on short peduncles. Bracteas 

sesnle, leaf-like, pub^cent, broad aiid concave at theft 

base, wboe they are connected, and terminating in ^ 

■cute points. Pedicelssbon,aiid with ihecalyxhairy. < 

Calyx of 3 sepals. Petals 5 or 6, obovate or wedge- j 

th^ied i very much imbricate, more or less crum- 
pled. Stamens oumerout, filaments amooth. Style 

tery short; and stigma large, estate, 5-lubed,papil- 

knc. (Sat, Cul.) A sub-evergreen low bush. Levant. 

Height 3 It to 4 ft. Introduced in 1659. Flnwcn 

bugc, bright reddish purple, with a yellow spot at the 

base. June and July. Capsule brown j ripe m Sept. Decaying leaves I>rown. 

Branches Dunieroua, erect, and clothed with a brownish pubescence. 
The Bowers are very large and handsome, of a bright reddish purple, wilh 
ajellow spot at the base, above which is a large dark purple velvet miirk, 
wnDuoded with red, and slightly branched. The petals are imbrii-ate, and 
nuch crumpled. It flowers abundantly in June and July j grows very &st, is 
taalj [vopagated by cuttings, and is Tery ornamenlal. 

K 2. C. inca'mi^s L, The hoarj Cistus, or Rock Rok. 

ttrttg^a^. Ud. Sp., Vn.; SmIUi'l Fl. Gisc., 4B*.; 
\ C. i:]m>iim Dte.\ CWe 



■omewbat 3-nerved, sessile, somewhiit connate at the base, 
npfier ones narrower. Peduncles 1 — Si-flowered. (Don'i 
MilL) A hoary evergreen ahmb. Spain and France. Height 
2ft. to 3ft. Introduced in IbUl. Viewers reddiah purple, 
with the petioleE enutrgmate. June and July. Ciipside 
btown ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves brown. 
<^iile hardy in dry soil. 




56 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




79. C. cortiarictMit. 



tt. 3, C. coRBARiE^NSis PoutT. The Corbieres Cistus, or Rock Rnse, 

Itttttt^lcation. Dec. Prod., 1. p. VA. ; Don't Mill., 1. p. 290. 

Synonymei. C. ralylaeRkUus $ Dee. Prod. Fl. Fr., 4. p. 813. ; C. popuUfZyliiu 

mloor,in Bomenurserief ; C. hf bridus Pourr.t not of Vahl. 
Engravtnga. Swt. Cist., t. 8. ; and onrftg. 79. 

Spec, Char. 4*c. Leaves stalked, somewhat cordate, ovate, 
acuminated, with fringed margins, wrinkled on both surfaces, 
and very glutinous. Peduncles long, I — 3-flowered. (Don*s 
Mill') A sub-evergreen shrub. South of France, on the 
mountains of Corbieres ; and also in Spain. Height 2 fl. to 
3 ft. Introduced in 1656. Flowers white ; May and June. 
Capsule brown ; ripe in August. 

A handsome plant, and, according to Sweet, one of the 
hardiest species of the genus, thriving well in common garden 
soil, and in any situation where it is not too moist. It conti- 
nues in bloom for about two months ; and everv day during 
that period the plant is covered with a profusion of hand- 
some white flowers, the margins of which are tinged with rose colour. 
The rose coloured buds are also very pretty before the flowers expand. 

m 4. C POPULiFOLius L. The Poplar-leaved Cistus, or Rock Rose. 

Identificaaon. Lin. Sp. 736. : Don't Hill., 1. p. 800. 

^fnoHf/me*. Cistus nopulifbiius Crsv. l2on.\ Clste i Feidlles de Peuplier, 

Fr. \ Pappel-bUUtrlge Cisten Rose. Grr. 
Ettgravt'ngi. Swt. Cist. 23. ; and our>^. 80. 

Spec. Char., S^c. Leaves stalked, cordate, acuminate, 
wrinkled, smooth. Flowers cymose. Peduncles bracteate. 
Bracteas oblong. Sepals acuminate, clammy. {JDorCs Mill.) 
A sub-evergreen shrub of vigorous growth. France and 
Spain. Height 5 ft. to 7 ft. Introduced in 1656. Flowers 
white, with distinct petals ; May to July. Capsule brown ; 
ripe in September. 

Leaves dark green, cordate, clammy, with undulate margins. 
One of the most robust species of the genus, and also one of 
the hardiest. A plant 7 ft. high, in the grounds at Syon; 
stood through the winter of 1837-8 uninjured, without the 
slightest protection. so. amm popDuaam. 

• 5. C. LAURiPo^Lius L. The Laurcl-leavcd Cistus, or Rock Rote, 

IderUifieaHon. Lin. Sp. 786. ; Clus. Hist. 1. p.7B. f. 1. ; Don's Mill., I. p. 800. 
Svnonymes. Ciste A I- entiles de Laurier, Fr. ; Lorbeer-bliittrige Cisten Hose, Ger. 
Engravingt. Clus. Hist., 1. p. 76. f. 1. ; Swt. Cist, t. 62. ; and oxaflg. 81. 

Spec. C/iar., Sfc. Leaves stalked, ovate- 
lanceolate, 3-nerved, upper surface gla- 
brous, under surface tomentose. Foot- 
stalks dilated, and connate at the base. 
Capsules 5-ce11ed. (^DotCs MiU.) A 
sub-evergreen bush. South of France, 
and Spain. Height 4 ft. to 5 ft. In- 
troduced in 1 77 1 . Flowers large, white, 
with light red bracteas ; July and Aug. 
Capsule brown ; ripe in October. 

A very robust species, with large 
green laurel-like leaves. It produces an 
abundance of flowers, which, with their 
light red bracteas, are very ornamental 
before they expand, resembling, at a distance, the bursting buds of roses. It 
requires no protection ; and may be raised from seeds, which it ripens in 
abundance; and also by cuttings, which, however, do not strike so freely as in 
some of the other species. 





81. CXMiu laorf FMhis. 



VIII. cistaceje: cibtus. 

The LBdanum-besring Gun Cistui, M 

UlL. Ij-MQ. 

iHonm Clittn RglBi Qtr- i t*H*n#.^ 

Spec. O^e^ ic. Leaves almont sessile, connate «t the | 
bsM, biKar-lanceolue, 3-nerved, upper surftce gla- 
broui, under luHsce tomentose. Cmpsule lO-celled. 
Pettis imbricate. (Ikm't Mill.} A Bub-evergreeo 
■hnib. Spsin and Portugal, on hills. Uedght 4 ft. to 
it Intraduced ia 16S9. Flowers Urge, white, 1 in. 
to 2 In. broad : June and Julj. Capsule brown ; ripe 



finrtK). O. L 1 aOiJ^nu Dec. Prod. i. p. 866., Siit. 

ritt. L M. i X«don, i., C/u. Hid. i. p. 78. ic. ; and 

C J: e maculatia Dec. Prod. 1. c. (Swt. Ciit. ; and 

our Jig. 63.) ; C.V Z plenlloliuB AH. Hort. Ken. iiL 

p. 305. ; are TariedcB of this species. '*■ *■ "**■"■ "•™'*'* 

Tbc leaTcs are lanceolate, and nearly Ksile, of a deep green ; the flower* 
taiuiuxing the branches, solitary, white, and larae. The variety C. Indantfenis 
mcnlstus, which our fig. 62. repreaents, is a pbnt of very great beauty, and 
DO coJIectioD should be without it. 

m 7. C. (t.) ct'privs Zom. The Gum Cislus, or Cyprus Rodt Bote. 
t MJ11.. 1. p. Ma 

.; CWui UBwphfUiu LAi*£hm, t.p.Tt.fiC.HUd- 
^Mr. Cte., Ifc. Leave* nalked, oblong-lanceolate, 
Df^MT sur&ce glabrous, under sur&ce clothed with 
boary lomentuni. Peduncles generally many- 
Sovered. Petals Hpotted. Capsules 5-ceiled. (Don't 
Mli.) A splendid sub-evergreen shrub. Tilaod of 
^prua. Height 5ft. to 6 rt. Introduced in 1»00. 
Flowers white, 3 in. to 3 in. across, imbricated, each 
petal bavinc a dark rich brownish crimsoa «|>ol at 
the base; June and July. Capsule brown; ripe in 



One of the handsomest Kpecles of the genus, and so 
dindj resembling C. ladanirerus, as, in our opinion, to 
brnndlb^niore than a variety of that species. Young 
cnnii^s, Sweet observes, planted under hand-glasses "' '*™"*^°'' 

in autumn, will strike root; but the best way is to raise them from layers 
orfron seed. There was, in 1634, a plant of this species at Minard, in Ar- 
jQlUhirc. T ft. 9 in. high, with a head 12 Tt. in diameter, which is clothed with 
■overt every year. 

OHitr Speriet of Cithu are described in Sweet's GslinriE, as nearly equally 
Wdjwith the above; but the eiperience of the winter of 1837-8 has induced 
>» to omit th«n. Those who intend to treat them as garden plants, and can 
librd theoi a Hitle protection during wintec, will find 36 species, besides 
tirietiei, described in the first edition of this work, and several of them 
itand. Those who iiitend only to have a collection of showy species, witb- 
M nrach regard to their names, will have recourse to the mode recommended 
s the concluding paragraph on ihe Heli&nthemum. (p. 61.) The following 
ipedes or subspecies were found tolerablr hardy in the Canterbury Nursery : 
C. btteropfa jllua, C. cr^ticua, C. cr{spus,'C. Cupanianw, C. hirsiitus, C. I&xus, 
C. tillAMis, C. oblongil^lius, C. undutatus, C. talvislblius, C. longifoliua, C. 
rnWpaiua. 



5A ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Genus II. 



□□□ 



^a_ 



HELIA^NTHEMUM. The Helianthemum, or Sun Ross. Lin. Syst. 

Poly&ndm Monogynia. 

JdeniiJIeaHom, Tourn. lost., 248. 1. 128. | Dec Prod^ 1. p. 966. ; Dcm*i Mill., 1. p. 801. 

Synon^me$. Clcti sptclei of Lin. ; UelUntheme Sonnen Gurtel, Ger. ; Eliantemo, Itoi. 

Dtrivathn, From hHiot, the tun, and anthemon^ a flower ; beouue the flowen opoa with the rldii^ 
of the lun in the morning, and the petals fall off with the setting of the sun in the erening. The 
flowen of HeU£nthemum, at well at of Clttut, only latt for a few hourt when the tun shines ; and 
if the weather Is dull, and the sun does not make Us appearance, the flowers do not open, but 
remain unexpanded. Should thlt continue for teveral days together, the/ will decay In the bud. 

Gen, Char, Calyx of 3 — 5 sepals ^.the two outer usually smaller than the 
inner ones, rarely larger. PetaU 5, usually regularly denticulated at the 
top. Stigma capitate. Style sometimes almost wanting, sometimes straight, 
sometimes obliaue, and sometimes bent at the base. Ovary triquetrous. 
Capsule 3-yalvea. Seeds angular, smooth. 

Leaves simple, opposite or alternate, stipulate or exstipulate, sub-ever- 
green ; 3-nerved or feather-nerved. Flowers axillary or terminaL Pedioeis 
usually furnished with bracteas at the base. — Shrubs or subshruba, low, 
prostrate, resembling herbaceous plants ; natives of Europe ; and of the 
easiest culture in any common soil. 

t. 1. H. vuLGA^RE Gisrt, The common Helianthemum, or Sun Rose. 

IderUiflcatidn. Gcrt Frurt^ 1. p. 871. t. 76. ; Don't Mill., I. p. 811. 

&monyme. CIstus Hellinthemum Lfn. Sp. 1. p. 744., Sm. Engl. Bot. 1331., Cmrt. Ft. Lomd. 6. t. 96. 

Engraxingi Eng. Bot., 1. 1321. ; and our/g. 84. 

Spec. Char.f 4'c> Stem suffruticose, procumbent, branched, branches elongated. 
Leaves scarcely revolute at the margins ; under surface cinereously hoary ; 
upper surface ^een, pilose, somewhat ciliated. Lower leaves 
somewhat orbicular, middle ones ovate-elliptical, upper ones 
oblong. Stipules oblong-linear, ciliated, lon^r than the foot- 
stalks of the leaves. Racemes loose. Pedicels and calyxes 
pilose. (Don*/ Mill.) A procumbent Pub-evergreen under- 
shrub. Europe and Britain, in dry and hilly pastures. Height 
6 in. to I ft. Flowers yellow ; May to September. 

Varieties. There is a very handsome double-flowered variety, 
with pale yellow flowers ; and another, called Lee*s new double 
yellow, with dark yellow flowers ; both of which are in general 
cultivation in the nurseries. De GandoUe also notices two 
forms of the species : one with tomentose pubescent branches, •*• "• '•>«**»• 
and stipules scarcely longer than the footstalks of the leaves ; and another 
with branches glabrous at the base, but pubescent upwards, and the stipules 
twice or thrice the length of the petioles of the leaves. 

The stamens, if touched during sunshine, spread slowly, and lie down upon 
the petals. (Snath.) ** A very variable species," even in a wild state ; and, 
iu gardens, many beautiful varieties, single and double, have been originated 
from it by cross fecundation with C!ontinental helianthemums, and perhaps with 
cistuses. 

1, 2. H. (v.) suRREJA^UM Mill. The Sur- 
rey Helianthemum, or Sun Rose, 

liemttfieatiom. Bfill. Diet, No. 13. ; Swt Cist., t. SS. ; 

Don'sMUI., 1. p.3Il. 
Synonyme. CYstos surr^^us Lin, Sp. 743., SnuWs Eng. 

Bot. 
Engraohtgt Dill. Elth., 177. t. 145. f. 174. ; Swt. CUt., 

t. as. ; Eng. Bot., t 2207. ; and our fig. 85. 




k 4B. , i^n^ oou, u MMMi. i ana our jtg. ow. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Stem suffruticose, procum- 
bent. Leaves ovate oblong, rather pilose. 



Racemes many-flowered, terminal. Pe- S5. MeiMmhMimm mmuanum 




VIII. (Tista'ce-e; helia'nthemum. 59 

Ub oarrDW, laoceolaK, Jaggetl. (Dun't MiU.) A procumbent, Bub-ever- 
)!reni,auflhitii;(ne,undaiiarut>. Briuio, in Surre;, near Croy Jon. Height 
fi in. to I ft. Flowm yellow, with the p«ab distinct, kod the caiyxes piloK; 
Ju]}- to October. 



fcinfiir CUm iRpTnmiliu Uk. Sp. ita. 
iipmmgi. &wU CM, t. GO. i ud laiM- »■ 

^cc.(3ttr^^. Stem luffruticoie. Branche* sscend- 
cut, glabrMis at the baee, and piloae at the apex. 
Leans oblong-eliiptical, with reToluteniBrginsj under 
surface hoBry-tomentose ; iippeT surface intenaely 
gnen, shiniag, it Erst ruber ptlase, aA^^wanls almost 
UDOoth. Stipules and bractcss green, ciliated. Ca- 
Wua etUKaceot, with ioconapicuoua down, and with 
UK DOTCi qiannglf pilose. {^Don't Mill.') A trailing, <*• "■ "tpi"'''"""' 
■I x T ergrm i, auBruticoae uodershrub. Alps of Slyria and Austria, and in 
Britaio, ui Somersetithire. Hcight6in.to I ft. Introduced in 1731; dis- 
coTcrcdin En^and iu 1826. Flowers Urge, yellow, with the petals distinct; 
May to September. 

t. 4. H. (t.) 

t W Hi M ^ D«-n. Fr.,4. p.«1.;Dan-iHU1.. 1. p. 311. 
%j m^m t . Cbnu RTWidillAnu &tw. Cant- ed. S. No. 64B. L. 35. 
i^mimtt. SWI.C1U.. t.fiS.; SCCP.CUI1..H1.J.I.U.1 uidDUjA.R7. 

Spn.da.,^. Stem suffiuti cose, ascending. Branchea hairy. 
Cpper leaies flattish, oblong, rather pilose; upper surface 
(Ken, under surCice somecinies pale cinereous. Stipules 
eiWed, rather lotiger than the footstalke of the leaven. 
fkucrs large. Calyxes rather hairy. {Don't Mill.) A neut, 
Bnle,hoBhy, sub-evergreen.BuflhiticoBe undershrub, bearing a 
doK resenbluDce to H. vulgire, but larger in all its parts. 
IVeoec!. Height 6 in. to 1 It. Introduced in 1800. 
Pcwen large, pale yellow ; June to August. "" "-p*""""""- 

i. H, (v.) tiu'ricvm Ihch. .The Taurian Helionthemum, or San Sine. 



.Ct«,HJ6.ittdour/g.8S. 

^xx. Char., S/c. Stem suffhi^ose, much branched, pro- 
cumbent. Branches procumbent, beset with lung hairs. 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, with rather reiolute margins, 
pilose on both turfkces, green above, and paler beneath. 
Siipulea lanceolate-linear, ciliated, longer than the petiole. 
Flowers large. Calyi shining, rather hairy. Petals imbri- 
cate. {Don'i Mill.) A procumbent, sub-evergreen, suflruti- ' 
cose undershrub. Tauria. Height 6 in. 
to 1 ft. Introduced in 16S0. Flowers 
large, pnle yellow ; May to October. 

*■ ' " Resembles H. grandiflorum i but differs 

from it in the branches spreading flat on jhe ground, and 

mending to a great distance. 



UM ET PHUTiCETUM BKlTANNlCUM. 

Sfcr. Char., ^c. Stem autlTuticose, branched. Branche* apreading, hiMij 
tomcntoae. Leave* stalked, oblong linear, with the marpot Bcarcely rero- 
lute; under surface tomenCose, upper aur^e glaucescent, but at length 
becoming nmooth. Stipules awl-ebaped, longer than the footatslks of tbe 
leaves. Caljxea covered with very short hain, striated, cinercously glaucous, 
bluntish. (Zkm'i Mili.) A procumbent, sub-evergreen, suffhiticose, uudo^ 
Hhrul). Germany and Italy, on dry hills and places exposed to the sua. 
Hd^tSin. to I ft. Introduced in 1731. Flowers white, with the petals 
diadDct, and marked with yellow at their base ; May to August. 

>. 7. H. (v.) MACRt'NTHUM Swt. The large-flowered Hellandieinuin, or Am 



1., 1.101.; udourA.M. 

^Kc. CAar., ^e. Stem sufihiticose. Branches procum- 
bent, rather tomentose. Leaves flat, ovate oblong 
Bcutish; smooth above, and densely tomentose beneath; 
pale cinereous. Stipules rather pilose ; about equal to, 
or longer than, the petioles. Calyx Etri- 
eted, pilose. Petals distinct. {Don't 
MiU.) A procumbent, sub-evergreen, 
suffruticose undershrub. Or^nated in 
gardens. Hdght 6 in. to I ft Cultivated 
in 1BS8. Flowers larger than in any 
other species ; cream-coloured white, 
witi ' ■ - ■ ■ 

low i May to August. 

t~ H^.m. Smii/^fc* (Swt. Cist., t.iOt.j and ourig.fll,) "„. H._._iad*.. 
is a beHUtifuI plant, not only on account of^iLH fine 
double Aowerij, but of its habit of growth. It ou^t to be in eTery 



I. 8. H. (t.) cane'scens Salt. The 



Spec. Char., ^c. Stem suffruticose, branched, diffuse. Branches ascending, 
rather tomentose, canescent. Leaves flat, or hardly revolute at the tuargins ; 
under surface tomentoselj hoary, upper surSice greenish glaucous. Lower 
leaves ovate oblong, obtuse j upper ones lanceolate, acute. Stipules linear, 
ciliated, somewhat longer than the footstalks. Calyxes smoothikh, but with 
the nerves pubeacenL Petals imbricated. (Don't MiU.) A procumbent, 
sub-evergreen, sufthiticose underahrub. Originated in gardens. Hdght 
6 in. to 1 foot. Cultivated in I8S6. Flowers reddish crimson; May to 
* August. 

A splendid plant, with reddish ( 

the petals inihricatel, and having a small orange spot 

at the base of each. Sweet considers it as having the 

darkest-coloured, if not the handsomest, flowers of ^ 

the genus, Tbe flowers are also, he says, very large y 

for the size of the plant. It is nearly related to H 

riiodinthum, but is readily distinguished from it by it 

canescent leaves, and stronger habit of growth. 

t, 9. H. (v.) htssopifo'li 




, cista'cex: helia'ntuemuh. bl 



SpK. Otar., 4«. Slem sudfhiticose, aaceodii^. BranchcE hairy-tt 
Lower loies oral ; upper one« oblong4ani;eol>te, green on both luHkcea, 
Im, hairy. Cal;rxe« bury. Petals imbricate. {Don't Mill.) A sub- 
nemrcD tuflhiticose imdenihrub, witb the biancncB ascending. Origi- 
otM in gardetu. Hei^t 1 ft. to IJ ft. Cultivated in 18:JT. Fbwera 
Tuuble fWim ■BlTroD to red ; Hay to August. Capsule brown ; ripe in 
ScptenbeT. Varying conaiilersbly by culture. 
rarMa, 

». ff. h. I cronJftn* (Swt, Ci«., t, 93.) h«s 

flowers saflroD-coloured, with more or less 

of a ferrugineous tint, and may represent 

the tpeciea. 

1. If. b. S cimn»m (Swt. G.A.. t. 38.J baa 

flower* of ft redditb copperK^olour. 
L ff. h. 3 mtillipkr (Swt. Cist., t. 78. ; and our 
Jlg.93,) has double flowcn, of a reddish 



All the three fbnnt of this variety are splendid 
pboti; tbey are hardy, of Iniuriant growth, Boner- 
mg freely, and of the easiest culture, either iu pots 
or 00 baaks of li^t sandy soil, covered with ffints 
or stoDca. The floweni of the copper-coloured va- 

ricli, ud slso the lesTes, arc larger than those of the two other kinds. Hie 
double-flowered variety appears to be of a more upright habit of growth, 
ud not quite so robun as the others. 

M 10. H. ■CABRo'mii Pen, The rough Heliandieauin, or Sun Rote, 



Itm^mt, am Kibnmi 4il. Bart. Krm. I. p. n&. 
^ T M i i ^l l. Swt.CI>t.,t.Sl.; IDdQurj^.M. 

Sftc CSor., 4^. Erectish. Branches pilosely to- 

■loitose, scabrou*, carketeenc Leaves sessile, 

tspoing to the base, oblong-ovate, acutish, 

raighiiA, 3-Derved, witb waved retolute margins ; 

[^iper snr&ce green, under surface clothed with 

gnj tonentum. PeduncleH terminal, 1 — S-Sow- 

crrd, shorter than the leaves. Cdys 3-8epaled, 

hsiry. Petals distmct. {Don'i Mill.) A sub-ever- 

eieoi erect undersbrub. Portugal. Height 2 ft. 

loSft. Introduced in 1775. Flowers rich yellow ; 

JoDc to August. Capsule brown ; ripe in Sept. 

DiScn from most other species of Heli&nthemum, 
is growing erect. It forms a very handsome littlebush, 
bat it teqiurea a sheltered situation, and a dry soil. ** K.«»irt«^ 

Mna/ other Kindt of HeEtntihmirmt described in Sweet's Gidnea are, perhaps, 
uhsrdyas thoise we have selected; but it would be of little use giving them here, 
Ac greater part having been lost during the winter of 1S37-8. In the first 
edition of this Arborc/im 99 ipedes are described, besides varieties. Sup- 
pDoi^ a cultivator about to form a coUection of Cisiaces, we should attach 
■ocfa less importance to hi* bdng able to procure all the sorts of Clstua and 
HdJiDtbemiun described in Sweet's Cittaeic, than to hi* obtaining all the sort* 
ndy procurable, whatever names they might pass under, and cross-fecunda- 
nng tban so as to produce new forms. There con be no doubt whatever that 
it sorts of both the genera Cfstu* and Heliinthemuni might, by crois-fe. 
ondaiion, be increased ad bifiTdtum; and, considering their very ^reat beauty 
■ bonkr and roi^work shrubs, we think tbey merit the attention of culn- 
xKms at least is miicli as many florist'* flowers. 



6*2 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Section III. 

Ovaruim solitary ; Placenta central. (JTke Column in the Frmt to which the Seeds 
are attached central, and not adhering to the Sde at m Section II.) 

Order IX. MALVA^CEiE. 

Ord. Char. Calyx with a valvate aestivation, mostly with an involucre. Sla-- 
vunit with the filaments monadelphous, and the anthers I -celled. PubeS' 
cence starry. (Lindl.) — Trees or shrubs, deciduous, natives of warm climates. 
Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; more or less divided. 
Hairs stellate, axillary. Flowers on peduncles, large, showy. — The only 
genus containing hardy species is Hibiscus. The genus Lav&tera contains 
some species which have an arborescent appearance, but which are in fact 
only suifrutescent biennials or triennials. 

Genus 1. 



a 



Ger. 
itiiflowentothoie 



^IBFSCUS L. The Hibiscus. Lin. Syst. Monad^lphia Polv&ndria. 

Idemificaliom. Lin. Gen.. 846. ; Dee. Prod , I . p. 446. ; Don's Mill., I. p. 476. 

^fnongmes. Ketmie, Pr.j Eibiich, Ger. ; Ibisco, Jtal. 

Deritntion. The word hibitkoi is one of the names given by the Greeks to the mallow. The HMacoM 
of PJiny appears to be an umbelliferoiu plant ; while that of Virgil is a pUnt with pliant branchea, 
which was made into baskets. The wonl ^bfscus is supposed by some to be derlyed from ibis, « 
stork, which Is said to feed on some of the species. Ketmie (iPlr.) is derived ttoax Kttmiat the name 
given to the genus by Toumefort. Eibisch is the German aboriginal word for the mallow. 

Gen. Char. Calyx encompassed by a many-leaved, rarely by a few-leaved, in- 
volucel, or one with its leaves connate. Petals not auricled. Stigmat 5. 
Carpels joined into a 5-celled 5-valved capsule, with a dissepiment in the 
middle of each valve on the inside. Cells many-seeded, rarely I-seeded. 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; variously lobed and 
toothed, generally ovate-wedge-shaped. Flowers pedunculate, large, showy. 
— The only hardy ligneous species is H. syriacus. 

^ I. H. sYRi^ACUS L. The Syrian Hibiscus, or AUhcea Frviex. 

IdentificaUom. Lin. Sp., 978. : Dec, Prod.. 1 . p. 448. ; Don*j Mill., 1. 478. 
&ufumyme$. Ketmie aes Jaralns, iV. ; Syrischer Bil ' 
DerinatUm. It is called Althaia from the resemblanoi 

of the iflthtt'a rdsea. 
Engraving*. Gav. Diss., 8. t. 09. f. 1. ; Bot Mag., t. 88. ; and our flg. 95. 

Spec. Char., ire. Stem unarmed, arboreous. Leaves 
ovate, wedge-shaped, 3-lobed, toothed. Pedicels hardly 
longer than the leaves. Involucel 6 — 7-leaved. (Don's 
Mill.) A deciduous shrub. Syria and Camiola. Height 
6 (t. Introduced in 1596. Flowers large, single or 
double, white, red, purple, or variegated ; August and 
September. Capsule greenish brown ; ripe in October. 
Defying leaves yellowish green. Naked wood white 

One of our most ornamental hardy shrubs, of which •*• *«««»*nWn». 
there are the following varieties : — 

A H. s. 2 Jtilns variegdtis. — Leaves variegated. 

«24 H. *. 3 Jidre variesdto. — Flowers variegated. 

* H. s. 4f Jlore pwrpureo. — Flowers purple. 

dh H. «. 5 Jlore pnrpureo pleno. — ^Flowers double, purple. 

ii H. «. Q Jlore rubro. — Flowers red. 

ft H. *. 7 Jidre 6lbo, — Flowers white. 

A H. s. 6 Jidre dlbo pleno. — Flowers double, white. 




IX. MAL,YA^CEM. X. TILIA^CE^. 63 

Branches numerous, upright, white^barked ; their general character being 
rather fastigiate than spreading. Leayes variously lobed ; flowers axillary, 
large, and bell-shaped. Conspicuously ornamental ; and the more valuable, 
because it produces its flowers at a time of the year when few shrubs are 
b bloom. It forms beautiful garden hedges ; more especially i^hen the 
diiereot sorts are planted in a harmonious order of succession, according to 
tbdr colours ; and when the plants are not clipped, but carefully pruned with 
the knife. In the colder parts of Britain, ana in the north of Germany, few 
omamental shrubs better deserve bein^ planted against a wall. It will grow 
m almost any soil not too wet ; but, like all the il/alviceae, seems to prefer 
one which is sandy, deep, and rich, rather than poor. An open airy situation, 
where it will ripen its wood, is essential. The single-flowered varieties are 
propagated by seed, which come up true to their respective colours ; and the 
double-flowered varieties are propagated by layers, by grafting on the common 
wrts, and sometimes by cuttings of the ripened wood, planted in sand in 
autumn, and covered with a hand-glass during tlie winter. 



Oeder X. nUA^CE^. 



Omd. Chab, Sepali 4 or 5, with a valvate aestivation, mostly without an invo« 
lucre. Petalt 4 or 5, or rarely not any. Stamens hypogynous, generally 
nnioerous, with filaments separate, and anthers 2-celfe<L Mostly glands 
between the petals and ovarium. Ovary and frwi single, of 4—10 carpels 
grown t<wether ; cells in the fruit, at least m some, not so many as the 
caipeU. (Lmdley.') — Trees and shrubs chiefly from warm climates. 

Zarv* simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; cordate, ^ibio^f panicled, 
yellowish, fragrant, with an oblong bractea united to the common stalk. 
Cofmk downy. — The only genus which is perfectly hardy is T^lia ; native 
of Europe and North America. 

Genus L 




n^IA L. The Linns Tree. Xm. Syst, Polyandria Monog/nia. 

Uai^eathm, Un. Gen., 660. ; Dec Prod., 1. p. 512. : Don'i HUK, 1. p. US. 

^iPwfiHu. Ltate Tree, Gerard \ Lind, Angto-Sa*. ; Tfllenl, Fr. \ Bast-holtx, Oer, ; Linde, Ger. 
midDmleki TifUa, Jtal. ; TUo, Sjpam. ; L^ Bm$. 

Derittligm, In CofDdon and Wiie*! Retired Gardhier the name of Tllia is derived from the Greek 
vord ptOan, a feather, from the featherf appearance of the braeteas ; but othert derire it from the 
Greek, vofd tam\ U^t bodic* floating in the air like wool or feathers. TUleial ii from taiUer. either 
^cooae the tree bears pruning weU. or the wood may be easily carred. Bast-holts is Uterally 
iMk wood. In atlttiion to the use of the barlL, in forming mats. 

(f«a. Char, Cahx 5-parted. Petals 5. Stamens numerous, free, or some- 
what polyadelphous. Ovary globose, villous, 1-styled, 5-celled ; ceUs 2- 
ovoled. Niti coriaceous, l-celled, 1 — Speeded, from abortion. (Don's 
MiU., L p. 540.) — Timber trees, with a tough fibrous bark, large deciduous 
leaves, mellifluous flowers, and a remarkable bractea attached to the pe- 
duncle of each of the cymes of flowers. Natives of Europe and North 



Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; cordate. — The species are 
three, according to some ; and more than twice that number, according to 
others. Our opinion is, that they may be all mcluded under two, T, europse^ 
sod 7*. americana. 

IE 1. 71 sDROPf^A L, The European, or common^ Lime Tree. 

MmtfcaUom. Utn. Sp. 733. j Don's Mill., 1. p. AM. ; Smith's Epg. Fl., 3. p. 16. 

Fjanaeiis. T. iatermidia Dee. Prod. 1 . 613. ; or 7. Tulgiris Ha^ne Dettd. ; 7. eiirop«e^ boreili* ^ 



ARBOREIUH ET FRUTICETUH BRirANNICUM. 




^pec, Ciar^ J^e. Petali without scales. Leaves cordate, Hcuminated, mer- 
ratetl, smooth, except a tuft of bur at the origin of the vona beneath, twice 
the length of the petioles. Cymes many •flowered. Fruit corbceous, 
downy. (Don'i Mill.) A large deciduous tree. Europe, and Britun in 
some aborigiDBl woods. Height 60 ft. to 90 ft. Flo*ers yellowish white ; 
August and Scntember. Fruit yellow ; ripe in October. Decaying Icbtcs 
yellow, or yellowish brown. Naked voung wood reddish, or yellowish 

Varietiei. The extensive distribution and long cultivation of this tree in 
Burope have given rise to the following vanetiea, or races, described bj 
moat botanists as species; — 

A. Varietia differing m retptct to PoBage. 

I T. f . 1 pannfSlia. T. microph/Ua Vent., tVUId., Dee., and G. Don ; T. 
e. var. 7 £. 1 T. uhoif&Iia Scop. ; T. lylvistris lietf. ; T. parvifolia 
Bhrh., Hayru Demi. ; T. cordita MUl. ; TiUeul k petites Feuilles 
Fr. J kldnblattrige Linde. or Winteriinde, Ger. (Willd. Holurt, 
t. 106.; Engl. Bot., t. ITOA.; and our j^.07.) 
— Leaves cordate, roundish, acuminated, siiarply 
serrated ; smooth above, glaoeoua and bearded 
beneath on the axils of the veins, as well as 
in hwry blotches. Fruit rather globose, hardly ^ 
ribbed, very thin and brittle. Native of Eurt^, d 
in sub-mountainous woods -, in England, frequent ' 
in Essex and Sussex. This variety is distinguish- ^ 
able, at liist sight, iVom all the others, by the 
smallness of its leaves, which are only about Sin, 
broad, and sometimes scarcely longer than their 
(lender footstalks. The flowers are also much "■ '■■'"t**"-- 
smaller than in any of the other varieties ; they expand later ; nai 
they ore very fragrant, having a scent like those of tne honeysuckle 
There was, m 1834, a subvariet:^ of this in the garden of the Ilort 
8oc., nnder the name of T. parvifolia glalJcs. 

T T. #. 8 gnm^dka. T. platyph^lla Scop.; T. cordifolia Bea. ; T 
europi^a Detfi ; T'^grandifolia £irh. and Snulh ; broad-leaved 
downy Ume Tree ; lllleul i grandes Feuilles, or TiUeul Oe Hot- 



TlhlKCEM: TI'LIA. 



lande, JV. (Vent. Diss., p. 6. t. I.f. S. ; the piste in Arb. Brit., tit 
edit, vol. T. i and our _fig. 98.) — LeavcB cordate, roundish, 
Bcuminfttfd, sharplj serrsted, downy beneath i origin of thdr veins 
woolly. Branchea hairy. Cymes 3-flowered. Fruit woodj'. downy, 
turbinate, with 5 prominent angles. This tree i.s readily distinguished 
from 7*. e. poni^lia by its much larger and rougher leaves, and, also, 
t^ ill rougher bark and hispid branches. 
T, e. a mltmidia. T. intenn&lift Hayne ; T. plaiyphyila minor 
Harl. (The plate uf thia variety in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v. -. 
ubA our fig. 09.) — Leftve* iotennediate between T. e. grandifilia 



Mf 




■nd T. e. pamfdlta. This varietv is the i 

T. e. grandif&lla in the South of Europe ; and T. e. parriiblia in the 
North of Europe, and especially in Sweden. 
J I.e. ^ lachaata. T. platypb/lta iaciniikta Horl. ; T. URplenirolia 
nova Hort. (Ilie plate in Arb. Brit., 1st edition, vol. v. ; and our 
J^. lOD.) — Leaves deeply and irr^ularly cut and twisted, scarcelj 
two oo the tree bdng alike. Apparently a subvariety of T. e. par* 
nCUft. Hdgbt eo or 30 feet. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




B. VarieHet diffenng tn tie Colour of Ac young SAooU. 
Bach of the Tariedea included in Division A ntttj have mbrarieties dit 
ferine in the colour of the young wood; but we shall only notice those 
in general cultivslion. 

t T. e. i rhbra. T. coiinthlaca Boie ; T. coiillina Hort. Kern. ; T. 
europie'B >? nlbra Sittorp ; 7*. europte'ii y Smmt'iFlor, Bni.blX.; 
T. i;rBndif61ia ;3 Sm&'t Eng. Flora, 3. 19. ~ Young shoots of a 
Imgfat red i apparently a vanety of T. e. intermUia. 
T T. e. 6 pamifSSa airea. (The plate in Aril. Brit, 1st. edit. toI. t. ; 
and our jl^. 101.)— Young ahoota of a rich yellow. Hugbt 15 ft. 
to 20 ft. 





OOitr FarieHet. There ii a variety with variegated team, but it is auch a 



X, TILIA'CEJE: TfLlA. 67 

ragged ilI4ookiiig plant that we deem it altogether unworthy of culture. 
Ho6t, m hia Flora Atutriaca, has the following names, which he considers as 
medes : T. vitifolia ; corylifblia ; grandifolia Sm» ; corallina, syn. europse^a 
Hook, Istmd, ; mut&bilis ; l^te bracteata ; prae'^cox ; pyramidalis ; inter- 
media ; tenui^lia ; obliqua ; europs^ Sm, ; parvifolia Sm. ; arg^ntea, syn. 
ilba WaltUL et Kit. lam, t. 3. (FL Aus., vol. u. p. 59—63.) 

The wood of the lime tree is of a pale yellow or white, close-grained, soft, 
Eght, and smooth, and not attacked by insects. It weighs, per cubic foot, 
vben green, 55 lb. ; half-dry, 45 lb. ; and dry, 37 lb. ; and it loses a third 
part of its weieht, and a fourth part of its bulk, by drying. (Baudrill,) It is 
used by pianoforte^makers for sounding-boards, and l^ cabinet-makers for a 
variety ot purposes. It is carved into toys, and turned into domestic utensils 
of various kinds, and into small boxes for the apothecaries. The most elegant 
Dse to which it is applied is for ornamental carving, for which it is superior to 
erery other wood. This wood is s^d to make excellent charcoal for gun- 
powder ; even l)etter than alder, and nearly as good as hazel. Baskets and 
cradles were formerly made from the twigs ; and shoemakers and glovers are 
ssad to prefer planks of lime tree for cutting the finer kinds of leather upon. 
The leaves of tiie lime tree, in common with those of the elm and the poplar, 
vere used, both in a dried and in a green state, for feeding cattle, by the Ro- 
mans ; and they are still collected for the same purpose in Sweden, Norw'ay, 
Camiola, and Switzerland. One of the most important uses of the lime tree, 
ID the North of £nrope, is that of supplying material for ropes and bast 
mats ; the latter of which enter extensively into European commerce. The 
Russian peasants weave the bark of the young shoots for the upper parts of 
thdr shoes, the outer bark serves for tlie soles ; and they also make of it, 
tied together with strips of the inner bark, baskets and boxes for domestic 
porposes. The outer bark of old trees supplies them, like that of the birch, 
vito tiles for covering their cottages. Ropes are still made from the bark of 
the tree in Cornwall, and in some parts of Devonshire. The fishermen of 
Sweden make nets for catching fish of the fibres of the inner bark, separated, 
bj Biaceration, so as to form a kind of flax ; and the shepherds of Carniola 
veave a coarse cloth of it, which serves them for :heir ordinary clothing. The 
■p of the lime tree, drawn off in spring, and evaporated, affords a considerable 
quantity of sugar. The honey produced by the flowers is considered superior 
to ail other kinds for its delicacy. London and Wise recommended the lime 
tree, as preferable to the elm, for sheltering gardens or orchards ; because the 
t>oC8 do not, like those ot the elm, spread out and impoverish all around them. 
A deep and rather light soil is recommended ; but the largest trees are ge- 
nerally found in a good loamy soil. In dry situations, the lime never attains 
t large sixe, and it loses its leaves earlier than any other tree. Being a tree 
of the piams, rather than of the mountains, it does not appear suitable for ex- 
posed sor&ces : but it requures a pure air rather than otherwise ; for, though. 
It is foond in towns on the Continent, and sparingly so in Britain, the smoke 
of mineral coal seems more injurious to it than it is to the platanus, the elm 
or some other trees. It is seldonf propagated otherwise than by layers, which 
•re made in the nurseries in autumn and winter ; and which become rooted, 
10 as to admit of being taken off, in a year. The tree in Britain appears sel- 
dom to ripen its seeds. 

1 2. 7*. (bur.) a'lba Waldtt. 4r KU, The yrhite-l^aved European Lime Tree, 



Wsltet. and Kit. FI. Hung. ; Dod's Hfll. 1. p. A63. 
r. uneridboa Dn Rot ; T. arctetea De^f., Dee, Cat. Hort. Morup.t and Dee. Prod. 1. 
Pi. 5&.; T. rocnwttAlla Faa<. and N. Du Ham. ; T. tooientbia Meench. 
b^mmn. Waldst-andKit. PI. Hung., l.t. 2. ; Wats. Dend., t 71.; Uie plate in Arb. Brit., Itt 
«it,T«LT.s aadoar>^. 102. 

SpK, Ckar^ 4v« Petals each with a scale at the base inside. Leaves cordate, 
mnewhat acuminated, and rather unequal at the base, serrated, clothed with 
white down beneath, but smooth above, 4 tunes longer than the petiolea. 
Fmit ovate, writh 5 obscure ribs. {DofCt AiUi,) Fruit evidently ribbed. 

p 2 



ARBORBTUH KT FBUTICETITM BBITANMICUM. 



(Steven.) Hoit !•]'• that he has alwmv> found the calyx S-aepaled, and the 
corolla )2-petHled. A large tree, tiungary. Height 30 ft. to 50 ft. In- 
troduced in 1767. Flower* yellowiib wtile, Tery fragrant ; June to August. 
Fruit yellow i ri|)e in October. 

Our own opinion is, that this \* nothing more than a very diatinet race of 
the common lime ; notwithstanding; the circumstance of iti having scales id ita 
petHli, which no one of the other varieties uf T. europx^ is sa:d to ponseaa. 
Even allowing this strurture to be permanent in the Hungarinn lime, the tree 
bears such a general resemblance to T. ciiropsHi in all its main features, tbst 
it seems to us impossible to doubt the identity of their orlfcin. We are 
strengthened in this opinion by the circumstance of its being found only in 
isolated stations in the Hungarian furests. We have, however, placed this 
lime by itself, rather than among the other varieties ; because, from the white- 
ness of its foliage, it is fiu* more obviously distinct than T. e. grandifolia or 
T. e. parvilblia. The tree is at once distin^ishable from all the other species 
and varieties by this white appearance, even at a considerable distance, and 
by the strikingly snowy hue of its leaves when they are ruffled by the wind. 
Its wood and shoots resemble those of the common lime ; but it does Dot 
attain the same height as that tree. 

•t 3- T. AMERici'NA L. The American Ume Tree. 
tmiffeellam. I-hi. gp..n3.; Hart.K(>.i WIIM. Sp«.| Tor.andGnT. 

Ahijiiwi. T-.Klibrirnf.i r. cvolLnUni K'«i|ina. I T antiiaiii iiictaux: T. lUtin Dtr.. 
»fl^«-lt>BH)r,a«ID<>ii-(U'U.tltii-llnD«h.Wnd.<>rb1uk, Uir«Tr».>iKlBu<Winl..«rKr. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Petals each with a scale at the base, inside. Leaves pro- 
foundly cordate, abruptly acuminate, sharply serrated, somewhat coriaceous, 
smooth. Petals truncate and crenate at the apex, equal in length to the 
style. Fruit ovate, somewhat ribbed. (Don'i Mill.) A large tree. Canada, 
Virginia, and Georgia. Height TO h. to 80 f^ in America ; in EnglBnd,60 ft. 
to TO h. Introduced in 17^8. Flowers yellowish white ; July and August. 
Pnut the size of a large pea, yellow ; ripe in October. Decaying Imtcs 
jellowiih brown. Naked young wood daA brown. 



x. Tilia'ckm: TfUA. 69 

faitia. Umbc wbicfa we •hall give m mich an described io the Fbn of 
Torrej and Grajp aa species ; but with the Ibllowing remark, which we think 
ibllf justifies us in not considering them mare specifically distinct than the 
different allied ipecies of the Euro[iean lime. " There is great uncertainty 
Topcctine the sjtionymes. Indeed, nearly all the character* which have 
bttn cfnpToyed for distinguishing ihem are either inconstant, or are common 
to Ilteoi alL A cuerut examination of the Sowera in the living plants may 
■flnrd more certain marks of discrimination.* 

T T. B, 2 hetenph^Ua. T. heterophyila Vent., PurA, Bee. Prod., Tar. 
^ Gray. — A tree of 30 fi. lo 50 ft. high, found on the banks of the 
Ohio and Hississippi, and introduced in 1811. Leaves glabrous and 
dctf> green above, very white and velvety lomentose beneath ; the 
veins dark-coloured, and nearly glabrous, with coarse mucrooate scr- 
nturef. Petals obtuse, crenuiate. Slaminodia spatulnte, entire. 
Style hairy at the base. {Tor. and Gray, i. p. 240,} Leaven 4 in. 
lo Sin. in diameter, very oblique, and more or less cordate, with a 
riiort abrupt acumination ; somewhat shining above : the veins on 
the under nirfiice very conspicuous, in contrast with the white pu- 
bescence. Cjtae few-flowered, loos& Stjle longer than the petals. 

(m.) 

t T. a. 3 aOa. T. alba MiiAx., Tor, ^ Gray ; T. laxiflora Purth. (The 
Dlateofthia tree in Art*. Brit., lit ed., vol. v.; and our^. 103.J— A 




la^e tree b Pennsylvania and Maryland. Height 30 ft. to 50 (L ' 
Introduced in 1S30. Ploweni yellowish white, very pale ; June. 
Leaves 3 in. to 4 in. in diameter, with a short abrupt acumination, 
cordate, somewhat unequal at the base ; the under surface rather 
thinly pubescent, very pale, but scarcely white. Staminodia fscalcs) 
two thu-ds the tengtil of the petals. Filaments blightly pentadel- 
phous. (Tar. and Gray, i. p. S40.) We have only seen this tree in 
the R S., where, 10 years planted, it was about 10 ft. high in 1837. 
t T. a. ipubiieeni. T. pubescens .iif., Vent., Tor. ^ Gray. (The plate 
of thi» treein Arb. Bnt,, Isted., vol. v.; and our j^. 104.) — A lai^ 
tree found in Carolina and Florida, along the sea coast. Height 
SO ft. to 70 ft. Introduced in 1726. Flowers pale yellow ; June. 
Leaves 3 la. to 4 ia. in diameter ; the under surface, when young, 
rather p^er than the upper, but at length nearly the same cobur; 
» broad and ifaort. (Tor. and Gray, i. p. 240.) 



AKBUKKTUM ET I'RUTICEIUM 1 



/ 




On a ^neral view of the trees, the inot>t obvious exteniai difierential ch>- 
rBcterJBtics of the European anil Ainericsn limes appear to ua to be, that 
the former have rei<ulany cotdate, and the latter obliquely cordate, learet. 
The other American limes we consider to be nothing more than vnrietiea of 
this GpecieH. La^erR. Tbeiie trees only thrive in warm sheltered siluauons. 
Tlie American lime is readilj' distin^ished from the European limes bf the 
lergeness of its leaves, wbicb are 3 in. to 4 in. wide, heart-shaped, acutdy 



pointed, covBely and mucronately serrated, deep green and glabrous on &at 
upper sides, and pale green beneath. Some oi them have a tendency to be 
slightly pubescent ; but they are generally smooth and shining. In winter, 
this S))ecie$ is readily recognised by the robust appearance of »ie trunk and 
branchifS, and by the dark-brown colour of tlie bu'k on the young ahoott. 
Tills circumstance alone ia a very marked distinction ; and has, no doubt, pro- 
cured for the species the name ^ the black lime tree. 



XI. TERNSTROM/^ Vi:^ : MALACHODE^NDUON. 



71 



Otker American Limes. — T. p, Uptoph^Ua Vent, is mentioned by Torrey and 
Gib/ as havuig the leaves very thin and papyraceous. There were in 1834 
oCberTBrieties in the H. S. O., but the plants had not attained sufficient size to 
eoable us to state any thing with certainty respecting them. All the species 
and Tsriedes of American limes are delicate in this country ; they are readily 
iDJured by spring frosts, but, where they thrive, are readily distinguished from 
other limes by their very large cordate leaves, and rough bark, even on the 
^oiiiig wood. Some of the oldest and largest American limes in England are 
a G^toQ Park, Surrey, near the lake ; and at Croome, near Upton upon 
Serern. There is an old tree, also, at Purser's Cross, Fuiham ; and a r»- 
fflBrkaUy handaoine young tree at White Knights. 



Order XI. TERNSTROMI^Ci-^ 

Osjk Chajl Cafyx with an imlnicate aestivation. Skment with filaments 
moQsdelphotts or polyadelphous, and anthers S-celled to 4-celled. — Trees 
and shrubs of warm climates. 

Ltave* ample, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous or evergreen; mostly 
coriaceons, now and then with pellucid dots. Flowers axillary, large, 
showy. — The hardy genera in British gardens are Malachod^ndron, Stu- 
&itia, and Gorddnta ; which are thus contradistinguished : — 

Malacbodb^ndron Cao, Calyx unibracteate. Styles free. Carpels capsular, 

5^ connected. 
SroA^BTii Cav. Sepab connected, bibracteate. Style 1. Capsule 5-celled, 

5-valFed. Seeds wingless. 
GoEDo'N/if EUis. S^ils disdnct. Style 1. Capsule 6-celled, 6-valved. 

Seeds winged. 

Genus I. 



±1 



\M. 



HALACHODE'NDRON Cav. Thb Malachodrndbon. 

Monad^phia Poly&ndria. 



Cat. DIsi., S. p. 60S. ; Dec Prod.« 1. p. US. ; Don's MDL, 1. p. 67S. 
Wmaifma. Stoirt/a L'Hfait. ; Stew4rtui L. 

utrkitia^ Frooi maUkM^ aoft, and dendron^ a tree ; in alliulon, perhaps, to the quality of the 
timber ; or, possibly, from the flowers resembling those of Uie mallow, the Greek name for which 

ill • 



GtfL, Ckar. Calyx 5-cleft, furnished with two bracteas at the base. Petals 
5, with a crenulate limb. Ovary 5-furrowed. Styles 5, unconnected. Stigmas 
capitate. Carpels 5, capsular, connected, 1-seeded. Seeds unknown. 
(iW< Mill,) — A deciduous shrub or low tree ; native of North America. 
Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous. Flowers axiUary, so- 
litary, large, snowy. 

^ ft I. Malachode^ndron ova^tum Cav, The ovvX^-ieaved Malachodendron. 



Cav., 1. c ; Undl. Bot Reg. ; Don's Mill., 1. p. STS. 
%gMM . Stttfirt/a pentagfnia VEtrU, ; Stewtrttfa Malaehodtodron Um, ; Stewtrtls k dnq 

l y a w '^ j. ' Smith's ExoC. Bot, 1. 101.; N. Du Ham. toI. tL t 44.; Bot. Reg., t. IIM. { ttdoar 
^ 106k of a pimt in flower, and>%. 107. of a shoot flrom a stool. 

^ec, O^^ ^e. Leaves ovate, acuminated. Flowers axillary, solitary, almost 
■esnle. Petals waved, cut, of a pale cream-colour. (Don't MiU,) A de- 
dduous tree ; in Bngland, a large snrnb. North Carolina to Geonda. Height 

F 4 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 

7 ft. to 18 ft. Introduced in 1795. Flowers 
arge, white ; Julf and August. C^miles 
brownish ; ripe in September. Decaj'ing 
leaves purphsh brown. Naked ;oung 
wood dark brown. 

The Boil in which it is generally grown i 
is a mixture of loam and peat, in which ( 
the latter prevails ; but, in the Mile End 
Nursery, ic shoots rizorously, and flowers 
freely, in deep sandy foBin. The situation 
should be sheltered ; and shaded rather 
than otherwise. The usual mode of pro- 

ia by layers; and the stools are '•>- "- 
luring winter, by mats. 

Genus II. 



sa 



BTUA'RT/^ Ca*. Tbb Stuibtia. Lm. Syit. Monadflphia PenC&ndrk. 

. C-Uia-.S-p'S^i D«'I'r<iit..].|i.na.; Don'il 



Dfrnnlimt- Nimed In honour of Jalm Sluarl, Muijuiw of BuU, Ibi pUron ot Sir Jobs BIO, ud 

Gen. Char. Calyx permanent, 5-eleft, rarely S-parted, fiimishcd with two linc> 
teas at the base. Pelatt 5. Ooaru rounuish, Slvle I, (ilirorm, crowned 
by a capitate 5-lobed stigma. Capnde woody, 5-cellecl, fl-valved ; cells 1 — 2- 
seeded. Seedi wingless, ovate, even. (Don'i MiU.) 

heaeei simple, alternate, exstipulate, ileuiduous; ovate, acute. Flowert 

__■!!__ .-i:.__. I • J J i._..i. -.1 ._._ __^_.g|jf JJorth 

A Cao. The Virginian Stuartia. 

1.. 1. p. »7». 

.!>.. 9S1.1 atutrtto MriLtoJIa Bet. Hip, i Stasiitli 
nlid) Sluutle.Gcr. 
■* - ■" -' -mfy.im. otttaunlaaawm, moi Jli. 



^>ec. Ouv., ifc. Fbwers large, white, with purple filaments and blue anther^ 
usually in pairs. Leaves ovate, acute. Petals entire. (Don't ARIL} A 
deciduous shrub ^rginia to Carolina, in iwamps. Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. 



XI. TEENSTKOH/jf (.'£^: OORDoW^. 73 

iDtmduced in 1743. Flower* large, white ; Jul; to September. Capaulei 

bttncniih ; ripe in Octobo'. Decaying Icstcs rcddLih brown. Naked young 

Tood dvk brown. 

Tbe general appeaimnce of tlie plant is the same as that of the preceding 
Kous; but it forms a smaller buah, end the foliage lias a redder hue. The 
nmeni are of the same size, white, with crisped pietalfi, purple filaments, and 
blue aothers. This plant is not so extensively cultivated as the other, from 
its being more tender, and of somewhat slower growth ; but its beauty, and 
tbe circiiat!>Tance of its flowering from July lo September, when but few trees 
or shrubs are in blossom, render it desirable for ever)' collection. It thrive! 
best in ■ peat toil, kept moist ; but it will also grow in deep moiat tuid. 



lii 



Gemus III. 



OOKDCFKIA ESSm. Th« Gohikimu. ZJk. Syri. Monadelphi* 
Polyindria. 

J*M » «t fa ». E»l«.lllPMLTl«M., (7r>XiD«-Pr«d. iL^ftM.iDm'lMlll., l.tLWl 

Crt-Clar. Ca/ji of 5 rounded coriaceous aepals. Pe(o/» 3, somewhat adnate 
10 the ureeolus of ihe stamens. S/yfe crowned by a peltate 5-lobed stigma. 
Capala Swelled, 5-valved ; lella 2 — 4-seeded. Scedi ending in a leafy 
wing filed lo the central column, filiform. (Ddb'i MUL) 

Lema simple, alternate, exslipukte, sub -evergreen or deciduous ; serrated 
or ne«rlj entire. Floweri aiillary (or terminal), solitary, large. — Trees 
or ibnilis, nib-evergreen or deciduous ; natives of North America. 

• ■ I. OoRDO^nu Lasi&'ntrus L. The wooUy-flowered Qordonia, or 

Loblolly Bay. 
Ul^^aNm. Ub. Hut., aO. : Dee. Prod., 1. p. MS. 1 Dcm-l HOI.. I. p. HI. i Tor. ud Qaj. 

^i^^mn. ^FP^iieuD LaiHothiu I*i. Sm. 1101.. OiUti- Card. 1. t. «., FKA. Amattk. t.«M. i 

<lin*ii*iiP*ulllet»liilirei,«Dililct.diil»norl<le, Ft, J lingiUtllfi GotdonK Otr. 
&(rMta|f. CaT.DUi..S.t. ITl.; Bo(. Mv.tEM.i uidDur.^.110. 

Sftc. Ckar^ ^e. Pedicda aiillarj-, usually shorter than the leavei. LeAves 
oUm^ coriaceous, imooih, serrated. Calyx silky, Cfqjsulea conoid, bcu- 
ntnated. {Dm'i MiiL) A flut*vergreen trees in 
England a shrub, deciduous in dry soils, but retain- , 
■i^ its leaves in warm moist situations. Virginia to 
FloridB, in swamps. Heirfit 50 ft. to 80 fl. in Ame- 
rica; 8fl. to 10ft. in England. Introduced in 1739. 
Flowers white, 4 in. across, scented; July and August. 
CaiMuie oval, brownish ; ripe in September. 
Trank ittaight This most beautifully flowering plant 

nil deserves to have a euituble soil prepared for it, 

•nd to be treated with more care after it is planted than 

^ sf^ieBn to have hitherto received in England. The 

nil ought to be peat, or leaf-mould and sand ; and it 

dwuld be so circumstanced as always to be kept moisL Layers or American 

nds. 

• a. G. PUBB'aCBHa L'Her. The pubescent Oordonia. 

ft' Ifi^ilt. L'Hs. Stini.,p.lB6.i D«.PH>d.,l.p.CK.; DWi IDU., L p. sn. I Tsr.udOmr. 
1 '^ LttMitt ViUi Sdl. Ft. LemL L K i Frukllnte uiunelu Man*. : tb* Fimk- 

&f~%>. ' W Flor. !«■<., L M. ; iOdu, t. M. ; ud BSt A^ 111. 



74 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Spec. Char,, S^c, Flowers almost sessile. Leaves obovate- 
lanceolate, pubescent beneath, somewhat serrated, 
membranaceous. Petals and sepals rather silky on the 
outside. {DofCi Miil,) A deciduous tree in America, 
in Britain a shrub. Oeorj;ia and Florida. Height in 
America 30 ft. to 50 ft. ; in England 4 ft. to 6 ft. In- 
troduced in 1774. Flowers large, white, ftagrant, 3 in. 
across, with yellow filaments ; May to August. Capsule 
globose, brownish ; ripe in October. 

Somewhat hardier than the preceding species, but 
requiring the same general treatment. 




Order XII. fiTPERICA'CEiE. 

Ord. Char. Sepals 4 or 5, unequal, with an imbricate aestiration. Stamens, in 
nearly all, numerous, and in 3 or more parcels. Fruit, a capsule or berry of 
many valves and many cells ; the edges of the valves curved inwards. &fedt 
attached to a placenta in the axis, or on the inner edge of the dissepiments. 
Leaves simple, opposite, exstipulate, deciduous or evergreen ; entire, co- 
piouslv dotted with immersed, pellucid, resinous glands. Flowers terminal 
or axillary, generally yellow. Sap yellow, resinous. — Shrubs, natives of 
Europe, North America, and Asia. The genera in British gardens are two, 
which are thus contradistinguished : — 

Hvpe'ricum L. Capsule membranous. Stamens polyadelphous. 
i^NDRos^^MUM Ckois, Capsule baccate. Stamens monadelphous. 

Genus I. 



□□ 



mrPE'RICUM L. The St. John's Wort. Lin. Syst. Polyad^lph. Poly4nd. 

Ident0eali<m. Lin. Gen., 392. ; Juu., 855. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 64S. ; Don's IflU., l.p. 601. 

AvnoMyifiM. Fuga Damonum ; Mille PertuU, Fr. ; Johannitkraat, Ofr. ; Iperioo, itai. 

DtrwUiotu. The name of HypMcnm is as old as the time of Diosooridet ; oat Its origin and mean- 
ing are uncertain. Some denVe it from the Greek words Auywr, under, and eikon, an Image ; and 
suppose it to signify that the upper part of the flower represents a figure. Others state that kt^po" 
signifies through, and that the name alludes to the pellucid dots in the leaves, which form small 
lenses, through which, when held up to the light. Images might be seen. The French name of the 
plant. Mllle rertuls, a thousand pores, is erldently derived from the same source. The English 
name, St. J(rfm*s wort, and the German one, Johanniskraut, are taken ftrom the country people 
formerly, both in England and Germany, being in the habit of gathering this plant on St. John's 
day, to use it to protect themselves from evil spirits. This plant, with some otiiers, was emnlorcd 
to make what was called John's fire, which was supposed to be a security, for those who kindled It, 
against witchcraft aud all attacks of demons. For this reason, also, the J7yp4ricam received the 
name of Fuga Dasmonum. 

Gen. Char. Capsules membranous. Stamens numerous, free or joined at 
the bases into 3 or 5 bundles. Petals 5. Sepals 5, more or less connected 
at the base, unequal, rarely equal. Sti/les 3 to 5, rarely connate in one, 
permanent. Capxu/ff 1- or many-celled, man^-seeded, 3— -5-valTed. Integu- 
ment of seed double. Embryo with the radicle situated at the umbilicus, 
and with semicylindrical cotyledons. (DorCs Mill.) 

Leaves simple, opposite, exstipulate, sub-evergreen or deciduous; ovate- 
oblong or lanceolate, sessile or subsessile, usually full of pellucid dots on 
their disks, and some dark ones on their edges, lodging an essential oil. 
Flowers terminal, racemose, yeUow. — Low sub-evergreen shrubs ; natives 
of Europe, North America, and Asia ; of easy culture in common soil ; 
and propagated by division, suckers, cuttings, or seeds. 



xii. htpsmca'czx: irvPi'aicuM. 
j L Atcyrmi Chois. Prod. Hyp. 



□□□ 



DtrmHtm. Fnm ^ nut, wdltwH^ hvd; OM k la Bf, plutl nft 

Sttt Char. Sepals connected Bt the bue, and unequaL Stamens i 
Sljlea 3 to 5. Flowen terminal, laree, Tew, nib-carfmbose. {DotCi JUUl., 
i.^60l.) 

A. Styta comraonfy 3. 
• ■ I. H. ■u'TCii Ait. The tall St. John's Wort. 

" " • 9'^ '^ *"- "Oft Kmt.. (d. ». ™i.». p. 104. 1 Don'i MDL, 1. 
^ «;. 1 Tuf. id Gr^. I.Ji. IM. 

Spee. Our., 4«. Younger ctems reddiah. Leaves ovate- 
«bbni^ acuiev dilated at the base, somewhat emar- 
giiml^intb the margins somewhat revolute. FloKer? 
corfinboiie. Peduncles bibiaceeate. Sepals ovate- 
MiBg. (DcTt'i Miil.) Asub-eyergreea shrub. North 
Anwrica. H^t 3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1768. 
Flowos jellow ; July and August. Capsule r«ddish 
brown; ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellowish. i>t- Itti'^'Mam. 
Ma.i.H. HLRcf NUM L. The Goat-scented St. John's Wort. 

V rK^ttU ta. Ud. Sp.. lira., Don-iUitl. I.p 603 

tMfm. TiigiiDB Oh. 1 .^ndroiKliiuni &tldiun Bmk., Fork, ud 

ttptit-gi. ScfakDhr Hudli. a. t SW. f. a. I W«». Deod. Bill t. s ■ 

V*. Char., ire. Branches winged. Leaves somewhat 
emarpaate at the base, dilated, sessile, acute at the 
»pei, □TaCe-hnceolate, with ^andular margins. Pe- 
dnndea bibracteate. Stamens eiceeding the corolla in 
length. Seeds 8, appendiculated, (Don't MiU.) A de- 
aduouaorsub-evergreenundershnib. Sea coast of Spain. 
He^t 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1640. Flowers yellow ; 
Julj to September. Capsule reddish brown; ripe in Oc- 
tober. The leaves of this species, when bruised, have a very disagreeable 
smell, resembliog that of a goat, whence its name, 

' B- H. A. 8 obluiifolium Dec— Leaves blunter 

than the species. Found on the mouDtains of 

Corsica, on humid rodca. 
.■ ■. H. A. 3 Dinuu Dec. is a smaller plant than the 

others, figured in Dend. BrU. t. 87. 




* ^ H. Kaimia'. 



Slyiei eommonly 5. 
UM L. Kahn's St. John's Wort. 
a. p. 431. i Don't Ulll., ].p.Ga3. ; Tor. w 
■I Mm. , VlrgJnlii St. JoliD'i Won. 



Spec. Char., 4^. Branches tetragonal. Leaves linear- 
lanceolate. Flowers 3 to T, in a tennin^d cotymb. 8a- 
paia lanceolate, bluntish. (On^i Mill.) A sub-ever- 
peen nndenbrub. Canada to Virginia. Height It ft, 
n America ; 2 ft. to 3 ft. in England. Introduced in 
1759. Flower* yellow ; June and July. Capsule red- 
<Mi brown ; ripe io October. 



76 



ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




A neat compact bush, one of the most ornameDtal of the hardy species of 
the eenus. The general hue of the entire plant is yellow, and the calyxes 
and tne capsule, before they ore ripe, particularly &o. Flowers very numerous, 
in upright raceme-like corymbs. 

J* «. 4. JT. Ur/'LUM Ham. The Urala St John's Wort 

Identification. D. Don Prod. Nep., p. 218. ; Don*t Mill., I. p. SOS. 
Derivation, From its name, VreUa tuta^ in the Newar language. 
Engraving*. BoC. Mag., t. 2S76. ; and wxrfig. 115. 

^cc, ChaT,y 4*0. Branches compressed, 2-edged. 
Leaves elliptical, roucronulate, smooth, shining. 
Flowers terminal, somewhat corymbose. Sepak 
oval, very blunt. Petals orbicular. Styles shorter 
than the stamens. {Don^t MM,) A neat sub-ever- 
green undershrub. Nepal, on the tops of mountains. 
Height 2 ft. Introduced in 1823. Flowers yel- 
low ; July to September. Capsule reddish brown ; 
ripe in October. 

In mild situations, and on a dry soil, it may safely be left through the winter 
without any protection ; but this should not be the case where the situation 
is cold, and tne soil tenacious or humid. 

A» 5. H, CALTCi^UM L, The ib^^^calyxed St. John's Wort. 

Uauaication. Lin. Mant, 106. ; 'WiUd., 3. p. 1442.; Hook. Scot., 221.; Dec. Prod., 1. p.A46^i 
Smith's Eng. FL, 3. p. 823. ; and Don's Hill., 1. p. 603. 

Sifnonifmet. ifndroesB mum constantlnopolltlLnum fibre m4xImo, Wheder*iJommeift^M.\ the Itff** 
flowered St. John's Wort; the large-flowering Tutsan : the terrestrial Sun ; Aaron's B«ard ; MiUt 
Pertuis k grandes Fleuni, Fr. ; grossblumiger Johanniskraut, Ger. ; Asciro Ital. • 

Derivation. This species was called ifndrosseVium by the old writers on botany, on account of the 
tinge of red in dilFercnt places on the stems, and the redness of the anthers, which were supposed 
to give it the appearance of being spotted with blood. It was called Constantinopolitan from Its 
having been found near that city, in 1676, by Sir George Wheeler, Bart. The large sixe of its 
flowers is remarkable, and has given rise to most of its other names. The name of the Terrestrial 
Sun isvenr appropriate to the large golden flowers, with their long ray-like stamens, lying glittering 
on a bed or dark green shining leaves, which spread over the surface of the ground. The 
number and length of the stamens are, doubtless, also the origin of the name of Aaron's Beard. 

Engravings. Eng. Hot, v. 29. t3017. ; Bot. Hag., t. 14G. ; and our/!^. 116. 

Spec. Char., 8fc. Stem tetragonal, dwarf. Leaves ovate, coriaceous, broad, full 
of pellucid dots. Flowers laree, terminal, solitary. Sepals large, obovate, 
spreading; capsule nodding. {Don*t Mill,) A beautiful little ever^een 
undershrub, with dark green shining leaves. Levant, Olympus, Bntain, 
on the western coast of Scotland, and in Ireland near 
Cork, in woods. Height 1 ft. to 1| ft. Flowers of a 
bright golden yellow, with innumerable reddish tre- 
mulous anthers ; June to September. Capsule reddish 
brown ; ripe in October. 



Valuable for covering banks, rockwork, or the surface 
of the ground in old shrubberies or picturesque woods, 
especially for the latter purpose, as it thrives perfectly well 
under the drip and shade ot trees. The root creeps, and a 
small plant wUl soon extend itself in every direction, espe- 
cially if the soil be light, so as to cover a great many 
square yards in a very short space of time. It is an excellent shelter for 
game. It* may be reaidily increased to any extent by division. 

$ ii. Perforiria Chois. 




□ 



UenHfiealiom, Choto. Prod. Hyp., p. 4«. ; Dee. Prod., I. pi M6. } Don^ MllL, I. p. SOt. 
DerwoMiom. From perfaratuB^ perforated: because the learet are Aill of pellttcid dota, wlridi ii««s 
then the appearance of being QerfiBratwL 



XII. ffYFERICA CE4: : -*NDROS.eMUM. 



^ _. jT undenhrubs. Flowera 

_ _ _ 1 panicled corymbs. Leave* rarely linear. (Dm'* 

Mil.) Uoderihiubs, from 1 ft. to 3 ft. in height. 
A. Sepab entire. 
M w. 6. B. PRoLi'picuM L. The prolific St. John'i Wort. 

^^mma. B. MMtam Jacq., Hart. SdOmhr. (. p. IT. i H. Ki1ni*(iHM I 
EbtiHV- WUl Dad. Brit, t. H. i Jacq. Hart. Bch&b.. c MB. ; md - 

Spec.Char.,^ Stem round. Branches angular. LeaTCq 

linem'-IuiccDlate, vilh revolute edge*, full of pellucid 

dots. Corjuibs few-flowered. Sepals ovate-Ian ceolate, 

Uimena veiy numerous. Styles usually connected to> 

Rther. {poa't Mil/) A sub-cTervreen shrub. New 

Jtney to Florida, in •vramps. Height 1 ft. to 4 ft. In- 

tnniuced in 1758. Flowers yellow ; June to August. 

Capsule reddish brown; ripe in October. ii>. t.tnuatm. 

Frequent in gardens, and forming a dense leafy bush, covered with flowers 
|nat part of the summer, and with seed-puds in the autumn. Readily 
diitia^ished from H. KalmuRum, by the leaves, bracts, and sepals being 
much EDOother and shining. 

B. SepaU toothed, luuaUj/ tmlA the Tedh glanduiar. 
s 7. if. AiPETBiFo'uuii WM. The EmpetrumJeaved St. John's Wort. 

UnUfttlilm. WDJd. ap«.,t.p.lWl; Don'lHllL.l.p.SIO. ('h 

Upmimt,- I>aild.BrU.,I.l<l. lUdouIJV-lia. J^&l f^AfR^ 

Spet. Oiar., ^c. Stems Buflhiticosc, round, with subulate 

bnnchlets. Leaves linear, ternary, with revolute 

mannas. Calyx small, obtuse. Petals without glands. 

{Doa'i MilL) A neat little evergreen shrub. South * 

of Europe:, near the Mediterranean ; and in Greece. -, 

Height 1 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 1820. Flowers i 

yellow ; May to August. 

One of the neatest species of the genua, but lomc- 
wiiat tender. 

OiktT ^>eaet of 'B.mincvm. — The only truly hardy shrubby species of 
ifjpericoin are, H. elatuin, H. hircinum, it. calyclnum, H. KalmunHXi, and 
B. prolfficum. The other hardy species are of such low growth, that they 
Biy be considered, for all practical purposes, as herbaceous plants. H. 
•epakne Hoyle appeared to be hardy in the Hon. Soc. Garden, but it was 
dettroyed by the winter of 1837-ti. H. adpriuum Bartr., H. rainuirnii/SAun 
l^oL, H. f/iB£idei Lam., H. faieiadatum Lam., and some other shrubby or 
tuiocent species, ore described by Torrey and Gray, hut we are not aware of 
•JiOT hating been yet introduced. 




□ 



iKDROSfMUM Cllou. Tbs AmaosMvcif, or Tvtuk. L 

Polyadtipbia Polyfndria. 
"i<>i Mm. CbotLPnd. Bip.,37. i Dk. Pnxl.. I.p. HS., Doa'iUIU, l.p.ni. 
»-^- « . BnMeim. U i iaJHAi*. P- ■ ■- — ■- "-- ■ ■--■ "- 



78 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNiCUM. 




119. ilndr^MB^mum officii) JU*. 



Dmivaiion. From amir, androt, a man, and haima, blood ; the capsolea, when cnuhed betweea dw 
flngen, giving out a blood-ooloured Juice. Tutsan is a corruption of Umte same, all beal ; and 
it was applied to the plant formerly flrom its supposed vulnerary pr(q|>erties. 

Gen, Char, (7aj»iirAri)accate; usually 1-celIed. Co/^jr 5 -parted, with unequal 
lobes. Petalt 5. Sti/les 3. Stamens numerous, disposed in 3 sets. (2>or'« 
MilL) 

Leaves simple, opposite, exstipulate, sub-evergreen. Flowers terminal. 
The whole plant closely resembling a ZTyp^ricum. — Suffruticose. Indi- 
genous in Britain. 

.SI «. 1. ^. OFFICINALE AUioni, The officinal Androssmum, or common TuJsan. 

Identification. All. Fed., No. 1440 ; Dec Prod., 1. p. 543.: Don's 
Mill, 1. p. 601. 

SynonynuM. Clfmenon !tal5rum T/Obel; /fyp^ricum ilndrosie^iDum 
Lin., JViUd., Smith, and Hooker', Parle Leaves (because it is fre- 
quently found wild in parks) ; Androsdme officinale, Fr. ; breit- 
blattrlget (broad-leaved) Johannisluraut, Ger.; CictUana Ital. 

Engravingt. Blackw., t. 94. ; Eng. Bot.» 1 1285. ; and our J^. 1 19. in 
nower, and fyg. 120. showing the fruit 

Spec. Char,^ ^c. Leaves ovate, and somewhat heart- 
shaped, sessile, widely spresiding. A sub-evergreen, 
suffruticose shrub, forming a dense bush, with many 
stems. Europe ; and in England in moist shady woods. Height 2 ft. to 
3 ft. Flowers yellow, 1 in. across ; July to September. Ciipsule brownish 
purple, and lastly, almost black ; ripe in 
October. 

The fruit is an ovate capsule, assuming 
the appearance of a berry : it is at first 
yellowish green, then red or brownish 
purple; and, lastly, almost black when 
ripe. The juice of the capsules, and also 
that of the leaves, is claret-coloured. The 
latter, when bruised, have an aromatic 
scent, and were formerly applied to fresh 
wounds ; and hence the French name of 
la ioiUe same. In gardening, the plant is 
valuable as growing under the drip of 
trees, and thriving and flowering freely 
in almost any soil or situation. It is 
readily propagated by division of the 
root. 




ItO. At\A 



it/ 
ihniim olHcinU*. 



Order XIII. ^CERA^CEiE. 

Om>, Char, Flowers either unisexual or bisexual. Calyx and corolla equal 
in the number of their parts, with an imbricated aestivation ; the coFolla 
sometimes absent. Petals without appendages. Stamens inserted upon a 
disk, which arises from below the pistil lum, not agreeing in number with 
the divisions of the calyx and corolla. PtstUlum 2-lobed, each lobe having 
a wing at its back. Slt/ie 1. Stignuu 2, Fruit formed of two samaras, or 
keys, each containing 1 cell and 1 erect seed. Embryo curved, with leafy 
shriveled cotyledons, and no albumen. (Lindl.) — Deciduous trees or shrubs, 
natives of the temperate climates of Europe, North America, and Asia. 

Leaoes simple, opposite, exstipulate, deciduous, rarely evergreen ; variously 
lobed, rarely pinnate. — The species in British gardens are included in die 
genera A'etr and Negdndo^ which are thus contradistinguished: — 

iTcER L. Flowers polygamous. Leaves lobed. 
Nmoi/ndo Moench. Flowers dioecious. Leaves pinnate. 



XIII. ^cera^cea: A\:EfL 



79 



Genus L 




Jl 



pi MS. 



JtCER If. Ths Maple. Lm, Stfti, Polygimia Monce^da. 

Lin. Gen., No. 1116. ; Momch Ueth., 331 ; Dee. Prod., 1. p. 008. ; Don's MllL. 1. 



Efatde, Fr. \ Ahom, Ger. ; Aeero, ItaL ; and Arce, SpanUh, 

From ooer,hard or sharp, derfred from oc, Celtic, a point. The name is supposed to be 

applied to this genus because the wood of some spedes ia extremely liard, and was formerly much 

anqght sfter for the pnrpoce of making pikes and lanoei. 

Gn. Char. Seaca hermaphrodite, or monoeciously polygamous. Ftotuers 
with a calyx and corolla. Cafyx divided into 5 parts, or some number be- 
tween 4 and 9. PetdU the same in number. Stamens 8, or some number 
between 5 and 12. Anthers 24obed. Carpels 2, very rarely 3, each a 
samara; that is, a fruit which is called in Britain, vernacularly, a key. — 
Decidooos trees, natives of Europe, North America, and Asia. 

Lemet simple, opposite, exstipulate, deciduous, rarely evergreen; va- 
rioQsly lobed, toothed. Flowers axillary, corymbose. Fndt a samara. 
Becsying leaves ridi yellow in some, and red or brown in others. 

Several of the species produce useful timber; and sugar is one of the con- 
stituent parts of the sap of all of them. They all prefer a situation shel- 
tered rather than exposed ; a free, deep, loamy soil, rich rather than sterile, 
and ndther very wet, nor very dry. They are propagated by seeds and layers, 
or by graftiDg. The maturity of the seed may be proved by opening the key, 
lod observing if the cotyledons are green, succulent, and fresh ; if the green 
colour of the cotyledons is wanting, the seeds are good for nothing. The 
seeds of all the species may either be sown in autumn, after they are gathered, 
or in spring : and the latter method is preferable where moles abound, as they 
are veiy food of the seeds. Sown in spring, they come up in five or six weeks 
afterwards; with the exception of those of the A. campestre, which never 
come up till the second or third year. The seeds should not be covered with 
iDore tosn a quarter to half an inch of soil. The surface of the eround in 
wfaich they are sown may be advantageously shaded with leaves, fronds of 
ferns, heath, or straw. 

A. heanes nmple, or onfy sRghtfy or occasional^ loM. 
I * 1. i4. oblo'ngum Wall. The oblong-Z^at^^d Maple. 

. Wall, in Litt^ Dec Prod., 1. p. 898. ; Don's Mill., 1. p. 648. 

J. lanrifdUam D. Jkm. Prod. FL Nep. p. 849. ; A. Buximpdia Hamllt. 
I*. OurJ%v. 121, 1S8., reduced to our usual scale ; and the flgiires of the leares, of the 
rin; aa i^en in the plate, pi, 96. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, acuminated, quite en- 
tire, coriaceous, smooth, rounded 
at the base. Racemes compound ; 
wings of fhut parallel, smooth, se- 
parated. (Don^s Mill.) A low, 
deciduous tree; in Britain, a 
rather tender shrub. Nepal. 
Height 20 ft Introduced in 1824. 
Flowers greenish yellow ; February. 
Keys?; ripe?. 

This species ia rather tender, and somewhat difficult to keep in the open 
9Mnd, unleaB when planted asainst a wall. Thouffh the leaves are generally 
cMire^ yet tfaej are sometimes lobed, or show a tendency to becpme so. 





80 ARBORETUM ET PRDTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 

t 2, A. tata'ricuii L. The Tartarian Maple. 
lamtt/laltim. Lin. Sp., 14% ; Dn. Prod, l.p. MS. ; HB]>tuI>«id..p.I09.j Dou'iIDIl., I. p. Ms. 
Ittmityvia. E'nbla <ta TirUiic, ». : TuuriKbe Ahom. Qir. : Zuu-nxidoo. at Lociut Tna. 

Smtrntngt- Pill. Fl. Rn.. t.3.i Tnlt. Aivfa., 1. No.].; Watt. Dand. Brtt.. L ICO. \ the ^usot 
UlnpRM In Arb. Brit.. 1u«II1^tii1.«. i ouijff.lM.; ud Uw B(iira of Uh Jmto, or tfasnUu- 
iil ilH. In tiM plate IbnDlDg p. X. 
Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves cordate, undivided, serrated, with obsolete lobes. 
Racemes compound, cron-ded, erect ; wiagi of fruit parallel, young oues 
puberuloits. (Dun't Mil/.) A low deciduous tree, native of Tartary. 
Unght 20 ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 1759. Flowers pale greenish yellow, 
sometimes slightly tinged with red j May and June. Kevs browa ; ripe in 
AugusL Decaying leaves reddish yellow, or brown. Naked young wood 

When raised from seed, the plant will come into flower in 5 or 6 years ; 
and, in good soil, it will attain the height of 15 ft. in 10 yean. According to 





tome, it will thrive in a rooister soil than most others. In ornamental plAntft- 
tions, it is valuable on account of the earl^ expansion of its leaves, which 
appear before those of almost erery other kind of A'cet. 

B. Leavti S-labed, or trifid: rareh, bJobed. 
1 S. A. bpioaVuii Lam. The spiked^uwrnf Maple. 

a. Dice..!, p. HI. I DtK.Frad., I. p.U3.,Don'iHIU., l.p.MS.] Tb. aadOnir. 



. Tnt. Areh., Ho, IB. ; tbn plate of tlili iixxln In Aril Brit., 111. edit., toL v. 
"id tbe flfun at tha learn, of tbfl natural litt. In tbo plate forming p. OT. 



Jig. IM. i 

Spec. Char., i$'c. Leaves cordate, 3- or slightly 5-lobed, acuminated, pubescent 
bencnth, unequally and coarsely serrat^. Racemes compound, erecc 
Petals linear. Fruit Emooth, with the wings rather diverging, (Hon'g 
Mill.) A deciduous shrub, or small tree. Canada to Georgia. Height 
6 ft. to 10 ft. in America ; IS ft. to !0 fL iu England. Introduced in 1 7.50. 
Flowers small, greenish, raceme many-fiowered ; Hay and June. K.ey« 
often reddish ; ripe in August Decaying leaves yellowish red. Naked you^v 
wood brown. 



XIII. .VCERACF.X: <fCEIl. 




Very omninental in autumn, from iu dnall keya, whirli arc fixed upon 
linider wndulous spikes, and have their membranous win^s beauiirully tinged 
■ith red when ripe. Michaux itates that this gpecica, grafted upon the ayca- 
Dore, is, like ihe ^cer itriktum, aupnented Co twice its natural dimensions i 
a bet »liich we haie never liaii an c^portjnity of seeing leriRed. 

T 4-, i*. stria'tok L. The stripcd-W*ci/ Mnple. 



J*w<t-<iH. Um.Dkt..I. 



i. uj 'TV. t'ci 



AllBORETUM ET FRUTICETOM BRITAHMICUM. 
B, HmH W»d. uripfd Maple Doc n 



Spec. Char^ 3tc. Leaves cortlate, 3-lobed, ncuminated, finely and acutelv 
nerratcU. Racemes pendulous, simple. Petals oval. Fruit smooth, witn 
the wings rather diverging. {I)on'$ MUi.) A deciduous tree, with gnra 
bark, scriped with while. Cannda to Georgia. Height Btt. to t Oft. in 
America; lOft. to SO f). in England. Introduced in 1'/^. Floven 
yellowish green, on long peduncles ; May. Keys brown, and remarkable 
for a cavity on one side of the capsules ; ripe in August. Decaying lean* 
yellowish green. Naked young wood green, striped with uhite and black. 
The buds and leaves, when beginning to unfold, are rose-coloured ; and 

the leaves, when fully expanded, are of a thick texture, and finely serrated. 

From the great beauty of its bark, this tree deserves a place in every collection. 

It is propagated by seeds, which are received from America; or by grafting on 

A. Pseitao-PUtanus. 

C. Ltavet 5-lobed. 




Sp,,. CW. *, l„,e, dig,t,n,l, s-lobed, with reundi.h rtcma. Lobn 
M) Ad,„d„„a,m»„n.rg„i„. Norlh.,,., „„t of iSor." A„S™ 
B?d^5.' "«'■''"«'»""?•"— •!> '■<■". »'^"lj»i.8.»dS?J,° 



xm. ^ceraVe*:: ^'cer, 83 

lemi imrtj I ft. broad. Carpels sometimes 3. Sap aa abundant as m 
■Tipecies, except in A. sacchluinum ; the wood soft, whitish, but beiiu[ifull}r 
looed. {Tor, mtd Grot/.) Thia species is quite hardy in the climate of Lon- 
don, ud promises to form a most raiuable addition to our oma mental, und, 
ponibljt, lo our timber, trees. The tree in the Hort. Soc. Garden ii between 
Wit lod 50 ft. high, after having been thirteen years planted; and it hai 
lowered, and ripened some seeds. 

I 8. J. i>LATjlNdl'DES L. The Plate nus-like, or Norway, Maple. 

Urttfi n l t m . Ua. So- IffiS. ; Drc Prod.. 1. P.M9. : DoD't Mill.. I. IhSM. 

%n|wi. E-rtU« pUH, or E-nbla da Nortttt, Fr. -. iplu Abon. or iplUblittTlici Abom. 
St. \ Aon rlnia, lui. 

Cvmp. Duh. Arh., I. L ia f. 1. i Uc lAMrt of thli Ipccln la Arb. Ultt, lU «dtL. lol.r. i our 
h-^9.; tLAff, le.otUMlaTH. otltaeulanlilie, foinlnglL VH, 109. 

^>n. Oar., 4*^. Leave* cordate, smooth, 5-lobed. Lobea acuminated, with a 
le* coarse saitc teeth. Corjmbs stalked, erectlth, and, as well ea the fniit, 
■tnotll. Fruit with divaricated wings {Don't Mill.) A deciduous tree, 
■bore the middle size. Norway to Switzerland, but not in Britain. Height 
30lt. to 60ft. Introduced in 1683. Flowers rich yellow; April and 
Hij, Keys brown; ripe in September and October. Opening foliage and 
kwn,in spring, of a bright yellow; when decaying, also, of a fine yellow. 
Kaked young wood Emooth, brown. 

T A. p. S Lobila. A. 

beln' Tenore ; A. p 

Doides Dmi'i JUUi 

p. 648. (Our^. 1 

and Jig. 150. of 

lares, of the na 

siie, in the plate for 

p.l06.)— The1ea*G 

Tcry slightly heart-ibi 

irregularly toothed, 

lobcd, with the I 

more or leas abn 

pointed. The bari 

the young wood Etr 

■omewbat in the ma 

of that of A. Etri^l 

by which circumst 

the plant, in a yi 

lUte, is readily di 

guished from A. p 

Doides. A large 

nstiTe of the kii^o 

Naples, and found 

mmui tains. One of 

Exost beeutiiiil acei 

cohlTation ; but 

Bttle known, tbougii u. ,„. - -]■ imrliilirt ff 

vu introduced al>out 

1683. There is a tree of it at Croome, tbove 20ft. high, which haa 

ripened seeds. 
1 Ap. 3 vaiegdlum Kon. .^4.;). ilbo Tari^alum Hayne. — Leaves va- 
riegated with white. 
J A. p. 4 aim variegdlun Hort.— Leave! variegated with yellow. 
" A p. 5 lachadlum Dec. A. p. c Ispum Laulh ; Eogle'a Claw, or 

Hawk's Foot Maple. (The plate of this variety in Arb. Brit., 1st 

«lit.,voLv.; mir^.128.; and ^. I a I . of the leaves, of the natural 

M^ in the plate forming p. 107.) — Leaves deeply and variously cut. 
Q S 



8^ ARBORETUM ET FRUTICtTUM BRITANNICUH. 





It ifl frequently produced from seed, bang found by nunerymHi 

omong seedlings of the Epecies. 
The tree, in general appeRrance, at a distance, b like the common sycamore; 
but, on a nearer anproacn, the leaves are found ofa smoother and finer texture. 
The roots extend considerably, both downwards and laterally. The bark is 
ftreen on the young :<hootB, but it aflenvards becomes ofa reddiah bronn, dotted 
with white points: that of the trunk is brown.and rather cracked. The buds 
are large and red in autumn, becoming of a still dariier red in the course of the 
winter : those on the points of the shoots are always the largest. The leavei 




are thin, green on both sides, end shining. When the petiole is broken, an acri^ 
milky sap issues from it, which coagulates with the ur. The ItMies are aliout 
fi in. bng, and nearly the same in width. The petioles are longer than tb^ 



XIII. ^CEBAC££: ^CEK. 85 

laitL AboQtthe end of October, the learea become either of a clear, or a yel- 
Iqwiib, reJ, and then drop off. The flowers appear just before the leaves, near 
Iht md of April : they form a short raceme, aomewhat corvmbose. The fhittB, 
or kep, hive thdr wings jellow. It ia not till the tree has attained the age 
i/nearlf 40 years that it produces fertile seeds, though it will flower many 
;an before that period. The rate of growth of this species, when once es- 
tablisbed, ii from 18 in. to 3 ft. long every year, till it attainj the hdsht of 80 
<«30feeti which, in favourable situations, it does in ten }ean. The wood 
toffit, when dr^, 43 lb. i ox. per cubic foot ; is easily worked, takei a hne 
polish, and absorbs and retains all kinds of colours. It may be used for alt 
ihewious [Hiiposes of the wood of ihe common sycamore. Sugar is msde 
torn thesapiu Norway, Sweden, and Lithuania. Seeds are ripened in England 
in ibimdaDce. 

1 T. A. SACCH&'RimiM L. file Sugar Maple. 

UxitMiK Lb. Sp., USA i Dec FmL, I. p. DM. ; Dwi'I WU., I. p. NO. i Tor. ud Gnf . I. 

l|>~ti«. Bock Ifwla, Rud Kiple, Blnl'(4jt Mipla, Amtr. ; A«n> dd Canua, Ual. 
Ivsnaii. MEbi.rl.Art>, £ L 13. i ifas pUu af Uiii ipecla In Atb. BtiI..I>I«UI.,to1.t, ; aw 

A, re. Ckar., if-c. Leaves cordate. Smooth, glaucous beneath, palmaiely 
Globed ; lobes acuminated, serrately toothed. Corymbs drooping, on shoit 
peduncles. Pedivel a pilose. Fruit smooth, with the wings diverging. (Don'i 
Mill.) A deciduous tree. Canada to Georgia. Height in America SO ft. 
10 eoli.; in England SOU. to 40<t. Introduced in 1735. Flowers 
tiLsU, yellowish, and suspended on long, slender, drooping peduncles i 
April and Hay. Keys brown ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves rich 
yellow. Naked yoin^ wood smooth, whitish brown. 




i A. (. 2. Higrum. A, s. ^ nigrum 7W. i Gray ; A. nigrum Mickc ; 
the black Sugar Tree, or Rock Maple, Michii. Arb. ?. t. 16 — 
Liaves psie green beneath, the veins of the lower surface and petioles 
minutely villous, pubescent ; wings of the fruit a little more diverg- 
ing. (Tor. and Gray, i, p. 848.) Michaui, who considered this 
variety a species, says the leaven rcBembie tliosc of the species in 
ererv respect, except that they are of a darker green, and of a thicker 
texture, and somewhat more bluntly lobed. The tree is indiscri- 
minately nitied will) the common sugar maple, through extensive 
ranges of country in New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut ; 
but is readily distinguished from it by the smaller size which it at- 
tdns, and the (iarlier colour of its leaves. The soil in which it 
flourishes best is a rich, strong, sandy loam ; and there it usually 
grows to the height of 40 or 50 feet. 
'losdy resembling A. platanoldes in foliage, except in being somewhat 



8G ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

glaucous beneath, and in the fruit being much more divergent. Bark of the 
trunk white. Leaves 3 in. to o in. in length, generally wider than long. The 
bud-^ have a fine ruddy tint, especially in spring before they expand. The tree 
in England is rather tender, and never attains a large size; but in America the 
timber is valuable, and the sap produces sugar. American seeds. 

*it S. A. Pseu^do--Pla''tanus L. The Mock Plane Tree, the Sj/canwre, or 

Great Maple, 

Ident^fleaHon, Lin. Sp., 1469. ; Don's Mtll., 1. p. 648. 

SjfnonyimeM. Plane Tree, Scotch ; E'rable Sycamore, E'rablo blanc de Montagne, faaue FlaUne. 

grand E'rable, Fr. ; Bhrenbaura, welfser Ahorn, gemeine A horn, Ger. ; Acero Fico, luU. 
Efifravingt. Dub. Arb., 1. t. 36. ; Schmidt Arb.. 1. p. 34. ; the place of this species in Arb. Brit, 

Ist edit., Tol.T. ; our Jig. 132. ; and^. 158. of the leaves, of the natural size. In the plate form. 

ingp.llO, 111. 

^ec. Char.t S^c, Leaves cordate, smooth, with 5 acuminated, unequally 
toothed lobes. Racemes pendulous, rather compound ; with the rachis, as 
well as the filaments of stamens, hairy. Fruit smooth, with the wingii 
rather diverging. {DorCt Mill ) A deciduous tree of the first rank. 
Europe and Britain, in wooded mountainous situations. Height 30 ft. 
to 80 ft. Flowers greenish yellow, mostly hermaphrodite ; May and June. 
Keys reddish brown ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves brown, with dark 
blotches. Naked young wood reddish brown. Buds 
large, green, or tinged with red. 

Varieties, 

X A, P. 2 opuUfoUa. A. opulifolium Hort. ; A. 

trilobatum ilort, ; A, barbatum Hort, (Our 

fig, 132.) — Leaves and fruit smaller than 

in the species, as shown in fig, 155. of the 

leaves, in the plate forming p. 114. We have 

no doubt of this being the A, opulifolium 

of Thuillier and Villars, L*£''rable duret, and 

L'E'rable ayart, Fr.^ which is said by these 

authors to resemble A, Pseilido-Platanus, but g 

to be much smaller. It is a native of the I 

Alps and Pyrenees. Introduced in 1812. i\ 

Height 15ft. to 20 ft. 
Y A. P.3/ongt/a&z.i4.1ongifblium^ooM. — Leaves 

more deeply cut, and the petioles much "*• >•• p- «i"»«fi>u»«- 

longer than in the species. Altogether a tree of very remarkable 

aspect. 
I A. P. 4 fidvo variegdta. — A, P. lut^scens Hort, ; the Corstorphine 

Plane. — Leaves variegated with yellow. The original tree stands 

near an old pigeon-house in the grounds of Sir Thomas Dick 

Lauder, Bart., in the parish of Corstorphine, near Edinburgh. Seeds 

of this variety, sown, have produced plants with the character of the 

parent to a certain extent. 
t K.P.5 diSo variegdta Havne.— Of all the variegated varieties of il^cer, 

it must be acknowledged that this is the most ornamental ; especially 

in spring, when the leaves first expand. 
f A, P, 6 purpurea Hort. — Leaves of a fine purple underneath. This 

variety was found in a bed of seedlings, in Saunders's Nursery, 

Jersey, about 1828, and is now to be met with in all the principal 

nurseries. The tree has a very singular effect when the leaves arc 

slightly ruffled by the wind, alternately appearing clothed in purple 

and in pale green. In spring, when .the leaves first expand, thtr 

purple bloom is less obvious than when they become matured, at 

which time it is very distinct. 

Other Varieties. In the garden of the Hort. Soc. there is a variety called 
Hodgkifu^s Seedling, with yellow-blotched leaves ; and another, called Letke^s 




xtii. .^ceka'ce^: ^CER. 87 

Seedbg. In Hsyne's Dmdnkguche Flora there ere, abo, the following vo- 
rictin: A. P. tlen6plera,A. P. matroplera, and A. i*. nacnijD'cTa, which (liHer 
in the proportiona of ttie wings of the keys, and do not appear worth farther 
Dotin. In all seed beds and yoiine plantations Bome of the plania will be 
Ibund with the petioles and the buds red, and others with the petioles and 
the buds greeniiih jeilow : such trees, when of considerable sae, are very 
diitinct in tbdr general aspect, when in bud, and when they have newly 
cmne into leaf; but aOer midKummer, when the leaves are nilly matured, 
and begin to get nisly, the trees are scarcely distinguishable. DiHerent 
plants also differ much in the time of their coming into leaf, and of drop- 
ping thor leaves ; and some of the more remarkable of these it might be 
worth while to propegste by e: " '" 



> 



The growth of the common sycamore is very rapid compared with that of 
most oUcT species of ^'cer, particularly when it is in a deep, free, rich soil, 
•nd in a mild climate. It arrives iit its full growth in 60 or 60 years ; but it 
rMjuirra to be 80 or 100 years old before its wood arrives at perfection. In 
mnhy soil, or in drj sand, and even on chalk, the tree nei'er attains any size. 
It produces fertile seeds at the age of 20 years, but flowers neveral j-eara 
Honer ; sometimes even perfecting its seeds sooner also. The longevity of 
the tree is lh>m 140 to 800 years, though it ha-s been known of a much greater 
ife. The wood weighs per cubic foot, newly cut, 64 lb. i half-dry, 56 lb. i 
d^, 48 lb. It loses, in drying, about a twelfth part of its bulk. When the 
tree ii young, it is white ; but, as the tree gets older, the wood becomes a little 
yeOow, and often brown, especially towards the. heart. It is compact and 
firm, without being very hard ; of a fine grain, sometimes veined, susceptible 
of a high polish, and easily worked, either on the bench, or in the turning- 
litlM. It does not warp, and is not likely to be attacked bjr worms. It is 
nted in jtMiiery and turnery, and cabinet-making ; by musical instrument 
Miers ; for dder-pressea ; and, sometimes, for gun-Blocks. Formerly, when 
vouden dishes and spoons were more used than they are at present, it was 
BQch ra demand, especially in Scotland, by the manufacturers of these articles. 
Ai nndenrood, the sycamore shoots freely from the stool, to the age of 80 or 
100 years. As a timber tree, it is most advantageously cut down at the age 
of 80 years, or from that age to lOO. Aa an ornamental tree, it produces the 
htsl e^ct, either singly, of in groups of two or three, placed sufficiently near 
to form ■ whole, but uot so as to touch each other ; and in rows or avenues. 
The larieties with TBriegated leaves are very ornamental in (he beginning ol 
a 4 



88 ABBOKETUM F.T FRUTICETL'M BRITANMCUM. 

Etunmer i but their leaves are almost alwavs more or leu imperfect, etpcciatlj 
oil the edges, and Tall olFmuch sooner in trie autumn tban those of the iipecies. 
The leaves of the purj>le variety are not liable to the same objeetion as those 
of the vHriegated sorts. Seeds ; and the varielies by grafting on the«pecic». 

t 9. A. obtisaVum KU. The obtme-lobed. leaped Maple. 

IdnUifiaaiait. KU. In Wllld. spec.. 4. D »<». 1 Drc Fiod..!. P.IM.; Doo'i Hill.. I. p.eO. 
Sgnanyfuri. A. nupoUUnum Temiri; A. hfbiiilum In the Loud. Hon, Soc. Gmri. In iOt ; Uw 

Eni^imitii:' 'I'rtHI. Arch.. 1. No. M.-i thB pluflof Ihll Ipcctn In Arb. Brit., lit adlE-, vol.T. ; 
<aiifiit-l^. \ AaiJIg- IM. ot theleitei. of the lulural >)io, (uriiUqg p. II?. 113^ 

Spec. Char., i^c. Leaves cordate, roundish, 5-lobeU i lobes bliintisli ("or 
|K>inted), repnttdl/ toothed, velvety beneath. Corymbs pendulous. Pe- 
dicels hairy. Fruit rather hairy, with the uings somevhat diverging. {Don'i 
Mill.) A deciduous tree of the first rank, of as rauid growth as A. Pseiido- 
ylatanus. Hungary, Croatia, and many parts of Italy, on hills and mountains. 
Height 40 II. to CU ft. Introduced io 182g. Flowen greenish yellow, few in 
a panicle i Hay and June. Keys brown ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves 
dark brown. Naked young wood smooth and brown. Buds pruniinenc. 



-^,- 




rarietie,.— ln [he Neapolitan ( .,_ ,„ ^,„„„„ „„„,„„„„ „„, 

ftrent m its habit and asjieet from what it is in Hungary; and hence, the A, 
neapolilanum of Tenore may be considered a variety. The following also 
appear to belong to this species : — 

1 A. 0. 2 coridcrum. A. corJaceum Baic. (Don'a 
Mill., 1. p. 6i9.; and our^. 13t.)_LeaveB co- 
rinceous, the same length as breadth, S-d-lobed, 
denticulated, smooth. Corymbs loose. Winjp of 
.fruit erectly divergent. Native of?. (Dm'i 
Miller.) There are small plants of this vf cer 
in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges, which ap' 
pear to us to belong to this species, though it is 
with considerable doubt that we have placed it 
here. Possibly it may belong to A. filatanoides, ' 
as we once thought, or to A. O'nalus. 
1 A. o.S ibericum. A. ib^ricuni Bieb. Fl. Taur. 
p. 24-7. — Leaves shining, glaucous I.enealh, 
bluntly tbree-tobcd ; lob^ riiminhed with one 
or two teeth ; lateral ones marked with the 
middle nerve to the insertion of the petiole. 
Petioles a little shorter than the leaves. Tree '*'" ^- •■•"'•"•"•■ 
80 ft. in height. A native of Georgia, (^Don't MUI., i. p. 649.) As we 
have oiiljV iieen plants a few inches high, we may be misuken in 
conaidenng A. ibericum as a variety of A. obtusatum. 



XIII. JCE-RACEMi yfCER. S'J 

A. 0. 4. loiattim, A. lobatuoi Fiii^., lias the kaves T-lobed, accord- 
ing 10 Dira's Miller, but the j^ouiif plants benrmg this name in the 
llort. Soc. Garden, which was rusfid from seeds received from Dr. 
Fischer of Petenburg, appears obviously to belong to A. obtus&tum. 

D. Lcanti 5-, rarrly l-iobed. 

Ail. The Opal, or Italian, Haple. 




iOr mppellAlloD or <J'paJai bM been ^ven lo chli ipedee, proboblj from the 

Tmit, ftc.» vdLA. el 13. ; the plnteoF thl> ipwlet In Atb. BHt-. lit edit,, 
. \ MDd /f . 1^-, Di the Je«T<«» of the nitunl tlie. Iq the pLile forming 

5pn. Osr., i^r. Leaves more or less heart-shaped, roundish, 5-lobed, smooth 
beneath ; the lobes generally obtuse, and coarsely serrated. Flowei^ in 
drooping coriiDbs. Keys smooth. (Pen. Cyc.) A low deciduous tree. 
Conica. He'igbtSft.to I2fl. Introd. 1753. Flowers whitish; May to 
June. Keys small, brown ; ripe Sept. Decaying leaven vellowish brown. 
-^ In^ochy tulted tree, covered with smooth leaves, snmeuhut coriaceous. 

roundish, indented, vith five blunt lobes, deep green on the upper surface, and 




xNhewhat glaucous underneath, with long red pettoIeN. Its flowers arc whjlii-h, 
in itiort racvmea ; and the small fruits, or keys, which succeed them, are 
>lnioM round- It is luund in forests and on mountains in Corsica; in Spain, 
pa ihe Sierra Nevada ; and in Italy, where, from the dens^ness of its shade. 
It ti soDteliniea planted by road aides, and In gardens neaf houses. The red 
c^nr of the petioles of the leaves, of the fruits, and even the red tinge of 
the leaves themselves, more especially in autumn, give it rather a morbid 
■ppearance. It pushes later in the spring than most of the other species. 



■u l*ilr (bnnh;! p. I IS. 



Spec. Ciar., 4-c. Leaves orbicular, rather cordate at the bnse, T-lobed, smooth 
on both surfaces ; lobes acutely toolbed ; nerves and veins hnirv at their 
or^in. (Ihn'i MiH.) A deciduous tree of the miildli: size. N.'W. coast 
rf North America, between lat. 43° and 19°, Height SO ft. to 40 ft. In- 
trod. 1826. Flowers with the i^epaU purple, and the pctal^j white ; April and 
May. Keys purplish brown, with thin straight wings, which are so diva- 
ricate as to fonn right angles with ibe peduncle ; the lower margin scarcely 



90 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




136. A^tmi diclaAtam. 



thickened. {Tor. and Gray). Decaying leaves of a fine reddish yellow. 
Naked young wood reddish brown. 

Branches slender, pendulous, and crooked ; 
often taking root, in the manner of those of 
many species of ^icus. Bark smooth ; green 
when young, white when fully grown. Leaf 
the length of the finger, upon rather a short 
footstalk, membranaceous, heart-shaped, with 
7 — 9 lobes, and 7 — ^9 nerves ; smooth above, 
except hairs in the axils of the nerves ; downy 
beneath, and in the axils of the nerves woolly: 
lobes ovate, acute, and acutely serrated ; the 
sinuses acute : the nerves radiate firom the tip ^.^ 
of the petiole, and one extends to the tip of ^^ 
each lobe. Flowers of a middling size, in ^S] 
nodding eoryrobs, that are on long peduncles. 
( Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer.) This is a very marked 
and beautiful species; distinguishable, at sight, by the regular form of its 
leaves, and their pale reddish green colour. Though this fine tree has been 
in the country since 1826, it seems to have been comparatively neglected, for 
there is no good specimen that we know of in the neighbourhood of London. 
At High Clere, a thriving tree has ripened seeds for some years past ; so that 
there can be no doubt of its hardiness. 

A \2. A. PALMA^UM Tkunb. The palmate-^awrf Maple. 

Idmtifieation. Thunb. Fl. Jap., p. 161. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 595i ; Don't Mill., 1 . p. 650. 
Engravings. Tratt Arch., 1. No. 17. ; and Jig. 158. of the leaves, of the natural tlze, iu the olatc 
forming p. 117. "^ 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaves smooth, palmately divided into 5 — 7 lobes down 
beyond the middle ; lobes acuminated, oblong, serrated. Umbels 5—7- 
flowered. {DorCi Mill.) A low deciduous tree; in England a rather deli- 
cate shrub. Japan. Height in Japan, 80 ft. Introd. in 1820. Flowers 
greenish yellow and purple; May. Keys?. Decaying leaves reddish yellow. 
This species requires the protection of a wall ; having been, like A. oblongum, 

killed to the ground in the open air, in the Hort. Soc. Garden, in the winter 

of 1837-«. 

S la A. ERioCA^RPUM Michx. The hauy-fruited, or white. Maple. 

Idmtiflcation. Mlchx. Fl. Amer. Bor., 2. p. 213. ; Don's Mill., I. p. 650. 

Symmsfma. J. da^ycirpum JfrV/d Spec. 4 p.SSS., 7br. * Gra», L p.JWa; J. tomcntfteoni 
Hort. Par. ; A. gladcum Marsh. ; A. rirginttnum Duh. ; A. rabrum Wmutenh. : whitT mfu!!?^ 
leaved, or wft. Maple. Umted States ; Sir Charle. Wager'. Maple j E'rabl?TF^u c^tinn^ 
or F/rable Wane, FT. \ rauber Ahorn, Oer. j Acero cotonoso, or Accro bianco. Ital. m*™*. 

Engravings. Deaf. Ann. Mub., 7. t. 2S. ; the plate of thii ipeciet In Arb. Brit., let edit, rot r - 
oMtAg. 137. ; and Jig. 159. of the leavei, of the natural ske, in the plate forming p. 1 18. '"- '^^ • 

Spec. Char., S^c. Leaves truncate at the base, smooth and glaucous beneath 
palmately 5-lobed, with blunt recesses, and unequally and deeply toothed 
lobes. Flowers conglomerate, on short pedicels, apetalous, peiitandrous 
Ovaries downy. (DorCs MUl.) A middle-sized tree. North America, from 
lat. 43° to Georgia. Height in America 10 ft. to 40 ft. ; in England 30 ft 
to 50 ft. Introduced in 1725. Flowers small, pale yellowish purple ' 
March and April. Keys brown ; ripe in July- ' 

Varieties. There are several names in nurserymen's catalogues, such as A 
coccfneum, A. macrocarpum, A. floridum, A. Pavw which are only verv 
slight varieties of A. erioc4rpum. The last-named variety, introduced bv 
Messrs. Booth, has received the absurd name of Pavia. from the udd^ 
surface of the leaves being slightly wrinkled, somewhat in the manner of 
those of the horsechestnut As the species seeds freely, endless varieties 
may be obtained from seed beds. 



Xlll. ifCKKACE£: ^'CEB. 

IKadofukbed from A. 
nbmm by the leaves 
being oiore decidedly 5- 
lDboJ,the labes deeply cut, 
ud the whole leaf more 
Wnailose. A lery deair- 
ihk ipedet, from the ra- 
pitlitj of its growtb, the 
;nrdij| difergent direction 
of iti branch^, the beauty 
of ita IraTca, and the pro- 
ludon of its early Bowers. 
In mild tnsoiis, these flow- 
a» btpn to bunt from 
dieir budi in the firat week 
in Jinuuy ; and they ore 
^len fully expanded hy the end of February or beginning of March. It 
nquim ■ deep free aoil, and more moisture than most of the other species. 
It lipeDs its seedE, both in America and Biitain, by midsumnieT, or ettrller i 
ud, if these are immediately sown, they come up, and produce plants which 
ireS or lOinches high by the succeeding autumn. 

I 14. A. BD^Htnf L. The t^-Jtomermg, or icarlfl. Maple. 
Kw^knx. Lhi. Spie., 1(96. 1 D(c Prod.. Lp-SMki IXn'i MID, l.p.CSD, ; Tor. ludCnr. 

Sf ri h^ L Hkta. Arb..' 3. 1.14.1 SctamiAt Arli.. 1, tSi th« plati of Ihn ITH Is Arb. Bril,, In 
•^•ul'-l oaifig.iM.; indJlt. IM. bI Ibe 1wi«, af Ihi iiUDtil (iH, In lb* plUe rcmilng 





onequally toothed, nalmately 5-labed, with acute n 

glomerate, ^.petaled, peotandrous. Ovaries smooth. (Zkm'i Mill) 



V-2 ArtBORETUM ET FRUTICETOM BRITANNICUM, 

Urge tree with nuinrroua divergent slender branclies. Canada to Florida. 
Height in America 30 ft, to 80 ft. ; in England 30 ft. to 60 ft. Introduced 
in ItldG. Flowers sniall. dark red, appeHring a fortnight before the leaves; 
March and April. Keys brovn ; ripe in September. 

X A. r. 3 inlcriiieilium Lodd. seems intermediate between this species 



In England distinguished at sight from A. enocarpum by the leaves hein^ 
much less cut, and less white beneath, and by the tree being generally less vi- 
Coroua, The red-flowered maple, whether we regard the boiuty of its flowers 
and opening leavcH in early spring, its red fruits in the beginning of summer, 
or its red fol'age in autumn, deserves to be considered one of the most orns- 
metital of hardy trees. Contrary to the general character of the maples, 
this species is said to thrive best in moist soil, which must, however, at the 
same lime, be rich ; and, for the tree to attain a large aize, the situation oueht 
to be sheltered. In Britain it is chiefly propagated by layers ; but, on the 
Continent, almost always by seeds, which ripen before midsummer, even 
sooner than those oY A. erioc&rpum, and, if sown immediately, come up the 
same season. The seeds, even when mixed with soil, do not keep well ; and, 
in general, but a small proportion of those sent home from America vegetate 
in Europe 

X \5. A. uonspbssula'nuh L. The Mnntpelier Maple. 

Iiintiifleation- LLd. Spec. 1497- ; Dec Prod., L p- 99S. ( Dan's Mill., 1. p^fiid. 



•*„i.a:;r>;„ 









itprc. Char., /^c. Leaves cordate, S-lobed ; lobes almost entire, and equal. 
Corymbs few-flowered, pendulous. Fruit smooth, with the wings hardly 
diverging. A low tree. South of Europe. Height 15 ft- to 44 ft. Intro- 
duced hi 1739 Flowers pale yellow; May. Keys brown; Au^st, 




I, which has much shorter 
It also rpsemblea A. rampestre, whicli. 



XIII. jfCEKACEJE: ACER. 93 

hnveTcr, ha ifae leaves 5-iobed, whQe in A, moiiEpesiiitftnuin tfaey are only 
Uabtd. See the figures of leaves in p. 120. and 121. The leavea, in mild 
•atoas, remain on through the greater part of the winter. Seeds ; which it 
Hpou JD great ^Hindance. 

I 16. J. cabpe'strb L. The common, or Field, Maple. 
UrViblliL Llii.5|>«..ll9I.;HiniiD«id.,p.lIl.,DK. Prod.. 1. p.CMli Dan'iMlll.. 1. p.6M. 
' miim a . E-ralitachiunpitiT, Fr.i kWner ASoru. Ftkd Ahoin, tltr.; G.|]ii«l,or Ploppo. /Iirf. 
fapK^. Bail. Bdc i.SM,: Wljld. Abbild.. L HI, ^ onr^.MI-iuid ^. 161. of the lw«. 

^icr. CW.. 4'^- Leaves cordate, with 5 toothed lobes. BacemL-s erett. 
Wings of frail much divaricated. (Don'* MUl.) A low tree or shrub. 
BricaJD. Height 15 ft. to 30 fl., Bomelimea 40 ft. and upwards. Flowers 
fdlowiiih green ; Hav and June. Keys l»t>wn ; ripe in September. Decay- 
ing leaTM yellow. NaJced young wood pale brown. 




I A. e. S foJiii varirgaiu, — Next to the vari^ated-leaved variety of ^l. 

Pseudo-ZUtanus, this seemx the haiidsomest of all the vcriegated- 

leaved maples ; the leaves preserving, with their variegation, the 

appearance of health, and the blotches and stripes of while, or 

vhiiish vellow, being distinctly marked. 
t A. e. 3 i^carj>ata Dec. Prod. i. p. 598. A. campfstre Wal/r. in 

Lia. TraL Arch, i No. 7 ; A. mbWe Opa. — Fruit clothed with vel- 
vety pubescence. 
» A. c. 4 eoOinvm Wallr. in LUl- Dec. Prod. i. p. 594. A. affine and 

jf. loacrocarpuni Opit. — Fruit smooth. Lobes of leaves obtuse. 

Flower smtJler. Native of France, 
T A, ft 5 autlnacum Tratt. Arch. i. No. 6. (The plate of this tree in 

ATb.Brit.,lst.e»Ut,, vol.v.) — Fruit smooth. Lobes 

of leaves somewhat acuminated. Flowers larger 

than those of the species. Native of Austria, 

Podolia, and Tauria, (Don't Mill.) This variety 

is latter in all its parts than the original species, 

and is of much freer growth ; the mmn stem rises 

erect and straight, and sends out its branches 

r^^ularly on every side, so as to form a sort of 

cone, almost like a fir. A subvarietj of tliis sort, 

with variegated leaves, is propagaled in the Boll- 

wyller Nursery. 
Otier VaiieSa, A. c. iatieatum, leaves very smooth 
ud dunjng; A. c. nanum, habit dwarf; and, perhapti, 
■onie otben, are in the collection of Messrs. Loddi^^ 
A. laijiaim, leaves larger and less divided than in the 
ipeciei;and h,kt(rcaniaa (^.141.) with the leaves vari- 
ously cut, arc also in some collections. '"' ■*■ ' '«''*"'""■ 
OlfliriDg from A. monspessulknum in having the flowers produced upon 



94 AUUORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

the young shoots ; as well m in the racemes of flowera being erect. The wooA 
weighs 61 lb. 9 oz. a cubic foot in a green atace, and 51 lb. ISoz. when per- 
fectly dry. It makes excellent fuel, and tlie very best charcoal It ia 
compact, of a fine grain, Bometimes beautifully veined, and takes a 
Iligh poliab. It WHS celebrated umong the ancient Romans for tableit. The 
wood of the Toota ia frequently knotted ; and, when tbat is the caae, it is 
used for the manufeclure of snuffboxes, pipes, and other fanciful production*. 
A dry soil suits this species best, and an open situation. Seeds ; which often 
remain eighteen montha in the ground before they vegetate, though a few 
come up the first spring. The varieties are propagatei by layers. 




^lec. Char,, Sic. Leaves permanent, cuneated at the base, acutely 3-lobed at 
the top. Lobes entire, or toothleted ; lateral ones shortest. Coryuilis few. 
flowered, erect. Fruit smooch, with the wings hardly diverging. {Don't 
Mill.) A diminutive, slow-growing, sub-cvergrecn tree. Candia, and other 
islands in the Grecian Arcliipelago. Height 10ft. to 30fi. Introd. IT52. 
Flowers greenish yellow ; May and June. Keys brown j ripe in September. 
There is a general resemblance be- 
tween il.cr£ticuni,.i4.monapessu]anuni, 

and A. camp^stre ; but the first is 

readily known from both, by ita being 

evergreen, or sub-evergreen, and by ita 

leaves having shorter footatalks, and 

being less dee[ily lobed. In a voung 

state, the leaves are often entire or 

nearly so. It is oflener seen sa a shrub 

than as a tree ; and it seems to thrive 

better in the shade than any other 

Acer, Seeds, layers, or grafting oi ' 

campestre. 

Other Speda oflCceT.—A. barbatum 
Michx., given in our first edition, has 
been omitted, because the plant in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden haa always appeared 

to us nothing more than A. p\B.ia,- m ^.waunm, 

notdes, and because Torrey and Gray 

consider it a doubtful bpecies.and probably de<icribed by Michaux from " speci- 
mens of A. sacch4rinum ; the only species, bo far as we know, which has the 
sepals bearded inside." {Tor. and Gray, i. p. 249.) A. opulif61ium given in our 
first edition as a species, we have now satisfied ourselves, from having been able 
to examine larger plants, is nothing more than a vaiiety of A. VaeiiAo-FAaaia 
diminished in all its parts. There are several names of species of ^^^cer in the 
works of Eurojtean botanists, the plants of which would require to i>e pro- 
cured and studied in a living state ; such as A. granalenie Bois., a native of 
Spain ; A. parvi/oliam Tauach; also some natives of the Himalayas; and the 
following in North America as given by Torrey and Gray ; A. glabrum Torr,, 
a shrub of the Rocky Mountains; A. trtpartitum Nutt, MSS., a shrub of the 
Kocky Mountain* allied to A. gl&brum; A. grandidmldtum Nutt. MSS., k 
■hrub or low tree from the Rocky Mountains, supposed to be the same as A. 
barbatum Douglat, mentioned in Hooker's Flor. Bor, Avier.,!. p. 118. The 
names of several other species, not yet introduced, will be found in the Erst 
edition of this work 



Xlir. ^CEIU'CE^: ^'CER. 



A'ctr ohi6ngum. The oblnng-Zmtw/ Mapl«. 
Leases of the natural size. 



ABBORETUM ET FIIUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



A."cer flatanoide*. The Ptalanufr 
Leaves uid (hut of 



XIII. ^CEEACEJei ^CEB. 

likA or NoTtoag, Afagde. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRiTANMICUM. 

A'mt (pltuaaoitia) LMfil L'Obel's Maple. 



UII. ^CERA'cEf : jI'cER. 

A^etr iplalOMoit^ lacmiatum. 
The cat-ieaved Platan ui-I ike, or EaaU't daw. Manio- 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Km. .fCERACBf: A CIlB. 



Urge-leaved Maple. Plate I. 
fruh. of the utural uie. 



AKBOKETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANMCUH. 



A^eer mturoph^tlum' The 
Smaller leaveB, alao of the natural nie. 



/ 



, ^CERa'CEX : A CER. 



l»^-leaved Maple. Plate II. 
K» Atrw how much tbe; farj on thi 



ARBOKETUM ET FKUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



r plataTioidet. The Plattnu- 
Leavuandlrwtaf 



XIII. jceka'cem: j^cek. 106 

lite> or Nonoay, Ma[de. 



106 ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUU BRITANKICUM. 

A^eer (platawUUt) Lobifii. L'Obel'a Maple. 



A^ow plaiOMmdet lacirtidtum. 
The cut-Zsowrf Platanus-like, or Ewle't claw. Manl^- 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETCM BRITANMICUM. 



The leares ud fruil 



XIII. ACEKA'cEM J^iU 



ARBORETUM ET PRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

A'cer Pteudo-Vldtamu. The 



XIII. ^CEttA CEX : jf CER. 1 1 1 

rilw Plane, or Ssrnamore, Maple. 



ARBORETUM ET PRUTICITUH 1 



XIII. ACEKA'CEja: ^"CER. 

[hUJamd, or Ne^Mlitan, iMairfe. 



ARBORETUM ET PRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

A^cer pKudo-Pliitaittu opuiifolia. 
The Oput us- leaved False Plane, or St/camort. 



.XIII. ^CERACB^S: -^'CER. | |£ 

A'«r (ypaht. The Opal, or ItaOm, Maple. 



116 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



A^cir circindtum. The round-leaved Maple. 
Leaves of .▲ the natural su 




XIII. ^CEnA^CEf: ^Ver. 
A''eer palmattini. The painmtC'Uaoed Maple. 



118 AHBORETUM KT FRUTICETUM BBITANNICVM. 

A'(W eriocdrpum. The woolly froited Maple. 



XIII. JCEHACEM: ACt.TL 1|9 

A^eer riAmm. The red-^fioutertd Maple. 









Il 



XUI. ACEKA'CEMi ^Yek. ' 131 

A'oer (TAfuwn. The Cretan, or variota-Uaved, Maple. 



ARBOHETUU ET t'KUTICETUU BKITANNICL^M. 



~J 



m 



Gm. Char. Sexct diiEcioui. Fhwcrt without a corolla. Caii/x vitb 4 — S 
unegiial teeth. Male Jlouieri upon thread-shaped pedicels, aod disposed 
in fascicles ; anlheri 4 — 5, linear, seaiile. Female fiowrri disposed in 
recemeB. {Dec. Prod.) — Deciduous trees, natirea of North Amenca. 

Leaeei compound, opposite, eistipulate, deciduous; impari-piniwte. — 
There is only one species in British gardens. 

t 1. N. mixiNiro'LiUM 2fuit The Ash-leaved N^undo. 

IAS. i D«. Prod., l.p.«M.; biHi°i 

!r I/rphtdo L., VftL 
id« Smuk uid TWr. 



»«fiL| tlia Aib-laitd Hw1«, thi 

Black Aili i E'ntd* k Fcdila da 

- -hm, rr.; B-nlila t Cifultm. Jia. 

• i BtOiaiVaaitgtt Aboni, Otr. i 



inglj' J 

lener T 



Spec. Char., i^c. Leaves of from 
3 to 5 leaflets, the opposite 
ones coarsely and sparingly 
toothed, the odd one olVenci 
3-lobed than simple. (Dec, 
Prod.) A deciduous tree, of ^ 
the middle size. CiuiBda to V 
Carolina. Height 15 ft. to 
30ft. i in EngUnd 30 ft. to A 
40 ft. Introduced in 10S8. •* 
Flowers yellowish green, ap- 
pearing with the leave;; 

April. Keys brown ; ripe in '"' ''••"•*-''"»'"i'«'™^ 

August, beeaying leaves of a rich yellow. Naked young wood' smooth, 
and of a fine pea green. Tlie tree in the Hort, Soc. Garden is a male ; but 
there h a female plant in the collection of W. Borrer, Esq., Ucnfjcli). 
Fariclki. 

1 N. f. 2 MipuD. G. Don. (The plate in Arb. Brit., Istedit^ vol.v.; and 
ourj%. 165.)— Leaves variously cut and curled. The plant of this 
variety in the arboretum of the Hort, Snc is a male : the idSo- 
r^ence conMsts of pendulous panicles of flowers, that are green, 
with some redness from the colour of the anthers i and each ■■ 
placed upon a slender peduncle of about 1 in. long. 
S N. f. 3 viotHceum Booth. — Young shoots covered with a violet bloom. 
This appearance is not uncommon in the young shoots of diflerent 
kpecies of J^ccr as well as in Ne^iouio, 



A CCJE. XIV. ^ECULA CEJE. 





A npid-growing tree ; very ornBinental, froni its compound leave*, and the 
Sue pes-greea oT its youoc shoots; arriving at maturity in 15 — SO yean. 
AmtricaD aeedii, which ought to be sown as soon as posNble, or layers, in any 



OtlKT . 

ticKribaL 



f^>edei of Negundo. — K calirdmicum Tor. <$- Gray, found by Douglas, 
•ed to be B new species; but neither rruiL. nor full-grovu leevea, are 



Order XIV. ^SCULA'CE^. 



Oaa. Cbab. Calyz campanulate, 5-lobed. Ooary roundish, trigonal. Seedt 
\»if.e and globose; albumen wanting. Etnbiyo curved, inverted; with 
desby, thick, gibbous cotyledons, not produced aljisve ground in germination. 
Pliimuie larce, S-teaved. — Deciduous trees, natives of North America and 

Lraca compound, opposite, eistipulate, deciduous; leaflets 5 — 7, ser- 
rated. Flouxn terminal, in racemes, somewhat panicled. — All the linown 
plants of this order cros;>4ecundate freely, and by most botanists they are 
included in one genus; but so numerous are the garden varieties, that we 
have thought it more convenient to follow those authors who separate the 
•pedes into two genera. These are .^sculua and Pavio, whieh are thus 
oatradiatii^uished : — 

.f scuLus L. Capsule echinated. 
Va'vu Boerh. Capsule smooth. 



124 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Genus I. 




iE^SCULUS L. The Horsechestnut. Lan, Sytt, Heptiadria Monogynia. 

JdaUification* Lin. God., No. 468. ; Dec. Prod., I. p.697. : Don's MUL, 1. p. 863. 

^unonyma. Hippoc&ftanum Toum. ; Marronier d'lnde, Ft. \ RottkastaniaL Qer. 

Derivation, The word .^tculus, derired fi-om aea^ nourithment, ii qyplled by Etlnj to a •pedes 
of oak, which had an eatable acorn. The word Hippoci«tanum, fnm kippog. a hone, ana em*- 
tameoy a chestnut, is said by some to have been giren to this tree ironically, the nuts, though they 
hare the appearance of sweet chestnuts, being only fit for horses ; and by others, because it is said 
the nuts are used in Turkey, for curing horses of pulmonary diseases. 

Gen, Char, Calyx campanulate. Petals 4— 5, expanded, with an ovate border. 
Stament with the filaments recurved inwardly. Capsules echinated. Leaflets 
sessile, or almost sessile. {DotCs 3ft//.) — Deciduous trees, natives of Asia 
and North America. 

Leaves palmately divided, with stalked leaflets, generally rough. Capsule 
rough. Buds generally covered with resin. — Two species and several 
varieties are in British gardens. 

The common horsechestnut is invariably propagated by the nuts, which are 
sown when newly gathered, or in the following spring ; and in either case they 
will come up the succeeding summer. All the other sorts, as being varieties 
of the species, are propagated by budding or grafting. Soil deep sandy loam. 
Only the first three sorts described below can be considered as true horse- 
chestnuts ; the remainder, to which some other names might be added, we 
consider as hybrids between i&^sculus and some kind of Pavia, most pro- 
bably P. flava. 

t 1. jE, HiPPOCA^STANUM L, The common Horsechestnut. 

Identifieaikm. Lin. Sp., 488. ; Dec. Prod., 1. p. 697. ; and Don's Mill., 1. p. 659. 

Sifnomyma. Hippocfatannm Tulgkre Towm. ; Marronier d'lnde, Fr. ; gemeine Rosskastanle, Ger.\ 

Marrone d'lndia, ItoL 
EngrtaringM. Woodr. Med. Bot., 1 128. ; the plate of this species in the Arb. Brit.. 1st edit., 

Tol. T. ; and our>^. 166. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Leaflets 7, obovately cuneated, acute, and toothed. A large 
deciduous tree. Asia and North America. Height 50 ft. to 60 ft:. In- 
troduced in 1629. Flowers white, tinged with red ; May. Fruit brown ; 
ripe in October. Decaying leaves dark brown. Nidged young wood 
brown. Buds long, lai^e, greenish brown, covered with resin. 

Varieties, 

*i JE. H, 2 flore plena. — Recorded in nurserymen's catalogues, but not 

common. 
¥ IE, H.3 a^eo^oariegdtum, — The leaves are blotched with yellow, but 
they have a ragged and unhealthy appearance, and are by no means 
ornamental. 
t M, H, ^ argSnteO'vaneghtum, — Leaves blotched with white. 
¥ JE, H, 5 mctsum Booth. ^. asplenifolia Hort. — Leaflets cut into 

shreds. 
Other Varieties. In Booth's Catalogue are the names ^. H. crispum, 
nigrum, prse'cox, striatum, tortnosum, &c., but none of these, nor any other 
variety which we have seen, is worth culture. 

A tree of the largest size, with an erect trunk, and a pyramidal head. The 
leaves are lai^e, of a deep green colour, and sinsularly interesting and beau- 
tiful when they are first developed. When enfolded in the bud, they are 
covered with pubescence, which falls off* as the leaves expand. The growth, 
both of the tree and of the leaves, is very rapid ; both shoots and leaves 
being sometimes perfected in three weeks from the time of foliation. The 
wood weighs, when newly cut, 60 lb. 4 oz. per cubic foot ; and, when dry, 
35 lb. 7 oz. ; losing, by drying, a sixteenth part of its bulk. It is soft, and 



XIV. JtSCULA\;EA: jfi'SCULUS. 



1^ 



unfit for me where great ttrength, and duralnlit; in the open air, are required ; 
Dnerthdess, ifaEre are manj purpoEea for which it is uiplicable whea sawn 
op into boards ; such w for flooring, linings to oarts, packing-cases, &c. The 
■tut] nuj be und when burned as a kind of ley, or substitute for soap. The 
lit), if wanted for seed, should be gathered up as soon as they drop, and 
rilher sown or mixed with earth ; because, if they are left exposed to the air, 
ll>ef will lose their germinating properties in a month. Some nunerymen 
(Suae the nuts to germinate before sowing them, in order to have an opportu- 
nil; of pinching oS* the extremity of the radicle t by which means the plants 
tin prevented nrom forming a taproot ; or, at least, if a taproot be formed, it 
■I of 1 much w^er description than it otherwise would be, and the number 
of lateral fibres is increased ; all which is (avoursble for transplanting. When 
die tree is intended to attain the largest sixe, in the shortest time, the nut 
Di^bt to be sown where the tree is finally to remwn ; because the use of the 
Woot is mainly to descend deep into the soil, to procure a supply of water, 
■nicb, in dry soils and seasons, can never be obtained in sufficient quantities 
bj the lateral roots, which extend themselves near the surface in search of 
mxiriibiiienl and air. 
T 3. ^. (H.) ohiob'nsis Midix. The Ohio ^sculus, or Honeckeilnut. 

UimtffaBam. Hht. Arti.. S. p.Mt. ; Dix. Prod.. 1. p. S9I. : Don'l Hill.. 1. p. ««. 
tftifma. .£. DhlD^niU Limll.; t X. pNlMU WOld.-, ^ccliliilu MM.; iS. fHtin Tor. • 
CiWt TkriM ohlo^iuil WICAi. 1 Tttis (Lkbn Spool i Ohln Bucttie, fcUd BacksTS. Amrr. 

•H( la Sr^mrSac. Girdnii. ud with Dr.' Llndlsy'i deKrl[itlciii of It In Bol. Brg, Ibr ISM, 
t tnt u ifi. Hldn. Aib.. 1. 1. K'l Boi. Rif., iSM. LSI. : ud our A 
Spec. Clua-^ j-e. Stamens nearly twice the length of 

tbe (yellowish white) corolla; peCaU 4^ spreading, a 

little unequal, the claw scarcely the length of the 

CHDpanulBte calyx ; thyrsus racemose, loosely flow- 
Ted ; leaJIets b, oval or oblong, acuminate, fine and 

unequally 5eTTate,glabrous, {Tor. amlGray,i. p. 221.) 

A deciduous tree of tbe middle sixe. Pennsylvania 

and Virginia. Hright in America 10ft. to 30ft.; in the 

cGmate of London apparently the same as the com- 
mon hontechestnut Introduced in ? 1820, Flowers 

white,ydlow, and red; May and June. Fruit brown; 

ripe in October. Bark rough, fetid. Branches of 

toe thyrsus of flowers short, 4 — O-flowered ; the 

Bowers mostly unilateral, small (not half the size of 

those of the tximmon horsechentnut). Fruit prickly, 

resembling that of the ciilttvatcd borsecbestnut. 

but scarcely half the size. (ror.onJGray,!. p.fi5l.) 




ET FRUTICKll.M URITANNICOM. 

According to Michaux. ihc American horsechesinul is commonly a hush or 
lotr tree, rrnm lOftto IS ft. in heigiit; but it is sometimes 30 or 35 feet hi^'h, 
trunk 12 or 15 inches in iliameter. He found ii only on the banks of the Ohio ; 
but Torrev and Gray give as iti habitats the vestem parts of PennsjlTania, 
Virpnia, Ohio, Kentucky. The tree in the Hort, Soc. Garden is of equally 
vigorous growth with the common hors^hestnut i the leaves are larger, and 
oiB bright fireen : on the supposition that this is the j£. ohio&aaiaot MicAje. and 
T^r.ij-Grov, we have no doubt in our own mind that tt is only avariety of the 
common horsechestnut. Dr. Lindley, however, is of a different opiniou, coo- 
sidcring it us a distinct species. (See Boi, Reg., IS38, t. 51.) 
1 3. ^. (H.) Rui 



D« I/orL. ud Lmil. Bol. Ha. ; .£. rftiu Hen, : X. axetaet Bart. ; M, 
...,, .-!. rudlcOniJuin Sckt^m; IE. WUibm^u Sjach; MiTTooier niblraDd. ft.j 

Dendr.. I. 111., u .8. ctniH; vHt plUe of tbU I'pKlH'la Arb. Blit.. Iitsiut., rol. >. ; aiid ant 
fits. I«. 

Spec. Char., rj-c. Petals 4, with the claws shorter than the calyi. The 
flowers are scarlet, and very ornamental ; the leaves of a deeper green than 
those of any other sort, and they have a red spot at the base of the petioles 
of the leaflets on the under side, l^e flowen come out of a dark red, and 
die off" Htill darker. Fruit prickly. A deciduous tree, below the middle 
size. ? Hybrid from North America, Height SO ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated 
in 1820. 'Flowers red ; May and June. Fruit brown ; ripe in f>ctober. 
It is doubtful whether this tree is a native of North America, or orij^natei) 

in British gardens. It passes under different names in diSbrent a 



as will be seen by our list of sjmonymes, and TB»y be considered as differing 
little, if at all, from j£. cfcmea LhuU. It is distinguished from Pavta r^bm 
by its larger Hid rougher leave* ; and from M. Hippoc^stannm by the leaves 



Ai«. ASCULACE^: ^SCULUS. 127 

broig fuller and more UDeren on the Eurftce, uwl of a deeper green. The 
tree it also smaUer, and of tnach less vigorous growth tbHi ibe comnion 
bcntdieniiut. b m, without doubt, tw most onumeata] sort of the 

t JB. (ff.) 8 r. rdtea. ..E'sculue rdsea Wori. — This yariety differs from 
^. (H.) mtncunds, in having the leaflets without a red spot at the 
base of the pedoies. The flowers come out of a pnle red, and die 
off about the same shade as the flowers of j£. fH.) rubiciinda ere 
when thej first appear. 
(Mer Vanetia, There are several names in gardens, and in nursery- 
men's catalogues, which appear to belong to ^. (rl.) rutncljnda, but how 
fir the}' are worth keeping distinct, we are very doubtful. Whilie^i nitu 
fmWri, of which there is an imported tree in the Fulhaui Nursery, is said 
to have flowers of a <larber scHrlet than any of the above-named varieties ; 
md, if io. it may be recorded as M. (H.) r. SWhiil^M. M.(H.) ameri- 
ma of the same nursery belongs also to JE. ruincGnda. 

I i. M, flLA'BBjt Wmd. The smooth-Jeartd .£>culus, or HoriecheitmU. 
lta^0aHiii. wind. Zimn.. p. MS. -. Dm. Pnd.. 1. p.BST. i Doo'i Hill., I. p.CII. 
btrinp. Bafqc AbtiUd., t.M. ; ml our j^. 1G», HO. 

^Drc. C%ar., 4«. Claws of thepetabof about the length of the calyx. Leaf- 
letji of a pale green, very smooth. Flowers of a greenish yellow. A de- 
ciduous low tree. North America. H»ght 80 ft. Co 30 ft. Introduced in 
)8ie. Flowers yeUow ; June. Fruit brown; ripe in October. 
This sort is very distinct j 

but it is evidently not the ^a- 

mluB ^abra of Torre^ and 

Gray, but probably a vanety of 

the j£'sculus flava of thesr 




>, with rough fruit. The 
whole plant is comparatively 
^hbroQs, and even the fruit 
partakes of that quality. The 
Ireeis of less vigorous grovrth 

ihao jE. rulMciinda ; and the ,„ •w_,_j,t«. 

■hoots take s more upright di- 
nflion. It appears to lose its leaves sooner than most of the other sorts. 

I 5. j£. (o.) TA'ixiDi IfiUd. The peie-_fioiiieTed Maculm, or Horiechetlml. 
Id. EuDn.. p.WA.! WtrmDni-,f**-t Dm. Piod., 1. jlBST.; Don'i NllL, 1. 



&«nc^i. lWuAbblld..l.lt.| ind oorjlf. 171. 

Spec. Char., 4c. Petals with the claws shorter than the calyx. Stamens 

twice as long as the corolla. A deciduous low tree. Originated in gardens. 

Heijtbt soft, to 30ft. Cultivated in 1812. Flowers pale yellow; May 

aod June. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. 

This sort so closely resemble'* M. glabra, a-i to leave no doubt in our mind 
of its being a variety of that species. It is of somewhat more robust growth, 
sad the leaves are, perhap«, not quite so smooth. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETl'M BRITANNICVM. 



le worth notice, except those already recorded. 



isa 



u\ 



PA'VIA Boerh. ThB PaVIA, BrCKSYE, or SuOOTH-FItUJTUD HORSECBSST- 
SVT Tree. Lin. Si/it, Heptindria Monogynia. 

Drrnofmi. In bODOUr or FiUr Pia, l Dulcb bounlll.' ODCs uinfeoor nf boliiir il Lcrdn. 
Buctaja hu rafemin lo Ilio EoniplcuooiDcu of ths hlLum of At tti, vtm uk™ duc nl tb> 

Gal. Char. Caluz tubular. Petalt 4, erect, muTow. Slemeru gtreight. Cap- 
mlei unanneJ. (Don't MUl.^ — Middle-sized deciduoiis trees or ■hnitn, 
natives of North America; distinguishable from the horiiechestnuts by the 
■moothneai of their fruit, and the comparative smallness of their flowen, 
which have their petals erect and narrower. 

Leavei palmate, with 5 — 7 leaflets, amooth. Flowen small, with erect 

and narrow petaU. Sudi blunt, not covered with resin, — There are three 

spedes, and several varieties or hybrids, in British gardens. 

DistiDguisbed from the conunon horsechestnuta, by being BroHller and 

smoother id all their parts. There are probably only three aboriginal spcdes : 

but there are several beautiful garden varieties, or hybrids. Culture the same 

as for the common horaecheslnut. 

X 1. P. rv'bra Lam- The Ted-^fioviered Pavia, 
jAoUBB. Lun. Illuil.; Dk. Prod.. ].p.»R.; Don'iHIII., l.p.6M. 

iapvTtndK Horl. : ucill Buckerc. Amrr. ; B^onter Pule, or'hrtc 1 Flnin TDunf'fv! '; 
...jiRcHtkuUDk.Gn-.i Hurena dl Paw. /uJ. 
Emrmbifi. Lub. Illuil., LZ73., Uaine AbMld., ttl. i Wiu. Dnd., 1.110. : Kniuc t. fiS. ; Dm 
pliugrUldregla Vb. Brll.. lUnik.ToLT, i ud our^. IIS 

Spec. Char., ^c. Corolla of 4 petals, that are longer than the staincna. 
Leaflets 5, elliptic-oblong, tapered to both ends, and smooth, an in the 
petiole; axils of the nerves hairy nn the under surface of the leaf. fOee. 
Prod.) A slender-crowing tree. Virginia and Carolina, on mountains. 
Height lOfl. to iOfu Introduced in 1711. Flowers brownish scarlet : 
May and June. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves brown. 
Naked young wood reddith brown. 



XIT. .2SCULA CE.e : PA Vljt. 



» />, r. 9 orgiibi O. Don. 
(B.Rej.,t.9Bl;(Mr 
^. 172.)_A band- 
■ome iOMll tree, with 
daric browniib red 
flowen,diArii)g1ittle 
from thoM of P.' 
rubra. loEiwIucediD 

7ieso. 



Dend. Brit. I. ISO. 
jE. p. ternta Hnrl. 
— Leaflets Bcuteljr 
■errated i in other r^ 
ipecti it dtflen little 
from the Bpecies. 
• P. r. 4 iiiniCf. P.hil- 
mihi G. Am; aod 
.£'iculut bilmilis 

ImU. (Bot. Reg.,t. „t ?»ri.>tiB«,»fc 

lOIS; and our Jte. 

173.)— A diminuUTe, wesk, rtraggling fonn of the •pedes, probably 
obtuoed from lome sport, and wUch, on its own root, ii only a re- 




cumbent buih, fitnn S ft. to 3 ft. in ho^t ; but which, when grafted 



130 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

on the common horsechestnut, fonni t 
low tree of which there is a plate in the Arb. Brit., IeI ei 
In addition to these >arietiea, there ere the three forms which are enu- 
merated below. 

In its native country this s|iecieB varies in magnitude Troni a low ramblii^ 
■hnib to a tree ol' SO ft. or more in height. In England P. rubra u io culti- 
vation in various forms : as a tree, in which charact^ it has, at Sjon (see 
our plate in tlie Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v.), attained the height of 86 R. ; ai 
a pendulous tree of 12 or H feet in height (see our plate iu the Arb. Brit., 



1st edit., vol. v., under the name of P. r. t^ndula) ; and as a trullng shrub, 
under the nanie of P. h^ntilis, in the London Hort. Soc. Garden, and in the 
arboretum of Mesxn. Loddiges. 

I 2. P. flaVa Dee. The jellow^itoum-erf Pavia, 

Summtima, f ■nilui Uim AiL, Uaipit, uid Tor. » Ornf : X, IDui VohfA ; Yltta Ittua fair. : 
I)i> turn Bsckeje. b1| BuckCTe. Amrr. ; Ui* ^llow Pirti ; IlH t>I1dw troTHdrnDiiit. 

Enrrarmti. Wau. Dcnd. Brit., [■ IGI. ; tha |ilU« In Alt. BtiL, 1>l hUI.. toL t. ; mi oor 
A. 171 

Spee. Char., ^c. Petioles pubescent, flattiah towards the tip. Leaflets 5— 7> 
pubescent beneath, and ^ve upon the nerves. {Dtc. Pri>d,) A deciduous 
tree of the middle size, Virginia and Oeorgia, in fertile vallefs. Height 
30 ft. to 80 1^. in America ; 30 ft. to 40 ft. in England. Introduced in 1764. 
Flowers yellow ; April and May. Fruit brown ; ripe in October, Detmy- 
ing leaves yellow, tinged with brown. Naked voung wood yellowish brown. 
A more vigoroui and rigid-growing tree than P. rubra, with the branches 



ofiight; whereai in P. Hlbra they are apreading, slender, and pendiHoiu. 
una paler than in P. rikbra. To thrive, it. like all the other ^acul^ete, 
Rquire* a deqi rich soil. Propagated by budding, because the colour of the 
flowen ii found to vary much in plant* rwsed from seed. 

r 3, p. (p.) (cbgi-b'cta G. Don. The neglected Pavia. 

rt. BriC.p. 149.1 D<)n'lMlU.,l.p.CU., SwL Holt. Drll.,p.n. 
|H(U Umdi. In Bet. Kit. 
t, IMS. j ml vaifit. \n. 






132 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Spec, Char,^ S^e, Leaflets 5, lanceolate, serrulated, tapering to the tiase, flat, 
rath^ plicate, smooth beneath, but pilose in the axis of the veins. Calyx 
campanulate, obtusely 5-toothc»i, about the length of the pedioeL Stamens 
rather longer than the corolla. Superior petal veined. {DoiCs Jiiff.) A 
deciduous tree. North America. Height 20 ft. to 30 ft. Introduced m 
1823. Flowers yellow and red ; May and June, a week earlier than P. 
fl^va. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. Leaves with rufous down on the 
veins on the upper side. Flowers pale yellow, veined with red, disposed in 
thyrsoid racemes. Capsules unarmed, but the ovary tomentose. 

A tree resembling P^via fl&va but smaller. The plant in the H5rt. Soc 
Garden was purchased from M. Catros of Bordeaux, under the name of M. 
ohio^nsis. In the Bat Reg. it is said to be most nearly related to JE» (Pkm) 
fliva, but to differ from it in the flowers appearing a week or 10 days earlier, 
and in the leaflets being more glabrous, with rufous down on the veins on the 
upper side, and with hairs in the axils of the veins on the under sur&ce. 

S 4. P. M ACROCA^RPA Hort, The long-fruited Pavia. 

Svmm^me. ^icnlui FiTui macroeftrpa Latd, Cai^ 1880. 
Engravingi. The plate in Arb. BrlL, roL t. ; and oar^. 177. 

Spec. Guvr., ^c. Leaves glabrous on both sides. Leaflets ovate^anceolate. 
A deciduous tree under the middle size. A garden hybrid between 




177. Pkvfa 



^'sculus and Pavia ?riibra. Height 20 ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated id 1820. 
Flowers pale red and yellow, nearly as large as the common horsechestnut ; 
May and June. Fruit brown ; ripe m October. 



■vebiXCiglali 
g and toooe; 



xiT, JBsctTLA'tXM: riH^iA. 138 

e,glabn>u«OD the i^peraurface, and shining. Thebnnchca 
■ooe; and the whole tree haa an open rrBcefiil appear- 
from that coupactneu of form and rigidit; of branche* 

■hidi bekng to moat of the tree species and varieties both of JS'aculua 

ndPani. 

■ b. P. Di'scoLOR Swl. He liio-oa\QaiKA-Jlowered Pavia. 

Pin-, f dbcDior jw. 4 Orar- 

Spa. Cha-^ ic. Leaflets 5, acuminate at both ends, tomentOM beneath, un- 
eqnallj serrulated. Raceme thjrsotd, many-flowered. Corolla of four con- 
ninDg petals, with their claws the length of the catvi. Stamens 7, shorter 
thsD the eoroUa. (Don'i Mill.) A deciduous tree-like shrub. Vii^inia and 
Oeoipi, in fertile valleys and on mounloias. Height 3 ft. Co 10 ft. Id- 
ttoduced in 1612. Flowers Tarieeated with white, yellow, and piicplet 
Maraud June. Fruit brown ; ripe m October. Decaying iemet jreUowitb 
brown. Naked young wood of a browniah stoae.4:olour. 
The whole plant, including the joung 

•Dod, a corered with pubescence. 

The Sowtra are lai^ showy, continu- 
ing a loog lime expanding, and nume- 

Riui i&wigh they are but ^Mringly 

BKCeeded by &mt. When the plant 

ia railed from seed, it is remartaUo 

fcr ill thick, Beeby, carrot-like roots, 

^uch, in freE soil, penetrate perpendi- . 

nUy to the d^th of 8 or 10 feet f 

li^ore ifaey branch. Unless when 

gtafled on ^. EJippoc4ataamnT it ia 

■eUoo seen above 4 or 5 feet in 

lieigbt; but it is a vety free flowerer, 

loci, considered as b ahrub, is in Hay, 

■ba it is m flower, one of the moat 

mamental that the British Rrboretum ,- -.,. .. , 

*ris. .w.r«.— - 

• 6. P. hickosta'chta Loii, The kn^^mcemed Pavia. 
tmf^-J^ ""'^j?.'?^ iJ^ p™j, 1. p. W.I Ddo-. mi., I, B. ««. 

!J2"»^^' "'*■ "WH-'W ^r*. «■, t. 61. 1 HiroUiJrio. dlMlw fcnoti Pirt^i 
,;?* .' P". rnltr luiB, Fr. ; lingiduin GmkMUnla, e»r, 
•V-ttf^ LdIl Hh-h, Abul. l 11% 1 ll^ AtobUd., t. «. , ud ow Ilk- 1)» 
^- tier, 4-(r. Stamens much longer 

tlm the corolla. Raceme* v^y long. 

Root stolcDJIerous, Flo wen white, 

(Ax. Prod.) A deciduous ahnA, 

vidi DumeTDus radicled shoots. South 

Cvolina ud Georgia. Height in Ame- 

'ica !fl. to 4ft.i in the climate of 

London tOit to 15ft. Introduced in 

1880. Flowers white, with long pro- 
jecting stamens, which give the spike ■ 

iae fiioged appearance ,- July and 

AupM. Fruit brown ; ripe in October. 

^ ihoots are slender, ^reading, and 
"woag at the j<nuts where they happen 
» wt on the soil, with ascendent extre- 

**». TTie tree comes into flower about a '"■ '*'** ■ "■— ■ " 

«th or aU wedu huer than the other ^scuttcew, and continues flowering. 



134 ARBORETUM £P FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

in the case of large plants on moist soil, for three months or longer, forming 
one of the greatest fioral ornaments of the shrubbery, at a season when rery 
few trees or shrubs are in flower. The fruit, which is small, seldom ripens 
in England : but in America it is said to 'be eaten, boiled or roasted ; and 
M. Poiteau, accordingly, has included this species of Pkvia in his list of fruit 
trees. Layers ; or seeds, when they can be procured, and which ought to be 
sown as soon as possible after they are ripe. 

Other Kinds of Potria. — Pdma. caiifomica {M, calif6mica iVi(<^.) has been 
described by Torrey and Gray, but is not yet introduced. P. Lyorm is in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden, but has not yet flowered there. We have omitted in this 
edition P. hfbrida, described by DeCandolIe as a truly intermediate plant be- 
tween P. rubra and P. fl^va, with yellow, white, and purple flowers ; because 
the only plant which we have seen bearing this name, that in the Hort. Soc. 
Gkirden, has the flowers yellow, and appears merely a very slight variety of 
P. flava. In nurserymen's catalogues there are several names which we 
have not noticed ; for the truth is, that the diflTerent kinds of J^sculus and 
Pkvta cross-fecundate so freely, and seedlings vary so much, that there is 
no limit to the number of varieties that might be produced. The great error 
(because it creates so much confusion in the nomenclature) consists in giving 
these varieties to the world as species. 

It is almost unnecessary to observe, that all the most valuable varieties, 
of both .^sculus and Pavta, are best perpetuated by budding or grzifting, and 
that collectors ought always to see that the plants they purchase have been 
worked. Pavta rubra as a tree, P. dfscolor either as a shrub or grafted standard 
high, and P. macrostachya as a shrub, ought to be in every collection, whether 
small or large. Pavia nQmilis, when grafted standard high ou the common 
horsechestnut, forms an ornament at once singular and bcautiiul. As the 
horsechestnut is to be found in most plantations, those who are curious in the 
species and varieties might graft them on the upper branches of old trees ; or 
young trees might be headed down, and one kind grafted on each. 



Order XV. SAPINDA^CEiE. 

Ojid. Chas, Flowert polygamous. — Males with the calyx more or less deeply 
4— 5-parted. Petals 4—5, or occasionally absent, alternate with the 
sepals. Disk fleshy. Stamens 8 — 10, inserted into the disk. — Hernmpk ro ^ 
dite flowers with the calyx, petals, disk, and stamens as in the males. 

Ovary S-celled. Cotyledons incumbent. Plumule S-leaved. (Lindl,) A 

tree, a native of China. 

Leaves compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous. Flowers terminal, 
in racemose panicles, small, white or ^rellow. — There is only one hardy 
species belonging to this order in British gardens, namely, Rolreuteria 
paniculata Laxm, 

Genus I. 




KOLREUTE'R/il Laxm. The Kolreuteria. Lin. Syst. Oct&ndria 

Monogynia. 

JdentHUaHon. Laxm. Acad. Fetr.,16. p. 661.; L*H<rit. Scrt, 18. 1. 19.: Willd. Spec PL. sao . 

Dec: Prod., 1. p. 616. ; Don's MIIL, I. p. 673. t •«». 4 

Bmtmifmei. Sapindus ip. Lin.JU. : Colreuteria, ItaL 
DerhmHom. In honour of Jokn TkeopMms KSlreuttr, once profetior of oatural Ustoir at GavI* 

nihe, and celebrated for hit retcarcbcf on the pollen of planto. ^^^^nm^ 



XV. .CSCULA^CEA. XVI. flTA'cEiS. Id5 

(Tn. cJor., rfc. CWyr of S leptli. Pffo/f 4, each with S iCBles M the bue. 
Ctf—le 3-celled, inflated. Seedt ovaie-irlobaBe, ihe seed-coat peretratlng 
bto the Bced, and occupying in the place of an axi* the centre of the em- 
brjo, which ii ipirall; convoluted. (Dec. Prod.) 

Leavrt impari-pinnate, of many pairs of leaflets, that are ovate uid 
coutdj toothed. Fiatpert yellow, in panicles. — A deciduous tree. 

f 1. K. Puiictn.i'Ti Laxm. The panicledjfowmiv Kolreuterio. 

Un^mlim LxuB. Aod. FKr., IS. p. UI. ^ Dk. Prod., I. p. Gl«. i Don't HIU, l.,p. SR. 

» ■! I 1 ( 1. S^il^duichiBiaiil lA. JS. Sl^p.ltl.; K. ptullliviMrf L'Hfrtl. S«t. i tmnmiltT 

bfrviap. M. Ilu H*iB.. 1. t. M. i Bol. itC(.,'L Ma i ud Uw plUc of Ihs tn> In ATb. Drll.. 

^. do-., fc. LesTea impari-pinnate, with ovate leaflets, coanely loathed. 
Floven polygamous, A deciduous tree of the middle size. North of 
ChiDB Height soft, to 40ft. in the climate of London. Introduced in 
1T63. Flowers yellow, in terminal, racemose, spreading panicles ; July 
■nd August, fruit a bladdery capsule, whitish hrown ; ripe iu October. 
Decaying leaves deep yellow. Naked young wood bruwn. 
It is Tcry hardy ; the hermaphrodite plants aot unfrequently ripening seeds 

■ the oei^itwiutKiod of LoiuIod. It has not only a very fine appearance 



/ 




■km in flower, but also in autumn, when the tree is covered with it* luge 
tiUdery rapaule*, and the leaves change to b deep yellow, which they do 
Man tbey bJI offl It is of the easiest culture in any common soil, and is 
n>dily propagated either by seeds or cuttings of the root or branches. In the 
~' ' » it is generally prupagated by seed. 



Order XVI. TITA'CE.^. 



O'o. CajK. Calyx small. PetaJt 4 or 5. Samoa equal id number to the 
petsb ; filaments distinct, or slightly cohering at the base. Anlhen verta- 
■le. Ovarium S-cdlcd. Fhdt a pulpy berry. Scedt 4 oc 5, fewer by 



13fl ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANHICUH. 

■bortion i embryo erect ; albumen bard. — Climbing shrubc, with tnmid 
■Ppcrable Joints. 

Leavei simple or compoiuid, opposite or sltemate, Rtipulate, deciduont ; 
the lower ones opposite, the upper alternate. Flowert axillary, racacose, 
sometimes by abortion changing to tendrils, whicb are generally oppodte to 
the leaves ; small, green. — Shrubs, trailing and climbing, deciduous, and 
including the grape vine, which may be considered as the type of the 
order. The genera which conCun hardy species are three, wbicb are that 
contradiitiDguiihed : — 

Ci'tis. Style wanung. Petals 3. 

Ahpelo'psis. Style 1. Petals 5. 

Ci'ssus. Style 1. Pctab 4. 

Genus L 

(TTIS L. Thb Obapb Vinb. Ua. Syl. Pent^dria Monogynia. 

UntHkallim. Un. Ga., 384. : D«. Prod., 1. p. OS. : Dim'i UllU I . p. 893. 
Sunoiyma. GIml, CelUc ; Vld. Spmn. : Vlgne, Fr. ; Vile, IlaL ; Wola, Ow, 

Gm. Char. Flowen hermaphrodite, dicedouE or triceciout. Co^ commonly 
6-taothed. PelaU 5, cohering at the top, separating at the base, and de- 
ciduous. Stameiu 5. {Dec. frod.) — Climbing tendnled shrubs, deciduous ; 
natives of Asia and North America. 

. Leavet simple, alternate, siipulate, lobed or serrated. Flowen in thyr- 
soid racemes, small, and of a greenish yellow- — There are several species in 
British gardens, the principal of which is the grape vine. 

11. r, tinl'fbra i. The wine-bearing Vine. 

Id, 9fB!., na : Dk. Frod.. I. p. RS, : Don'i U<ll., 1. p. CB& 
M. rt-. i«n«liier WrtDKock, Qtr. i Vlte di Vino, BaL 

— ■ .- — 1. Atb. Ft, 1. 1. 16. 1 Jicq, It. I. p. 01. ; ud ourji- 181 

Spec. Char.,S^c. Leayes 

lobed, toothed, si- 

nuated, or serrated, 

naked or downy. 

{Dec. Prod.) A de- 

ciduous tendnled 

climber. Syria. Stem 

20 ft. to 50 ft. Cul- 
tivated in 16M, or 

probably from the 

lime of the Romans. 

Flowers greenish 

yellow, scented ; 

JuneandJuly. Fruit . 

green, red, or black ; i 

ripe in Uclober. 

Etecaying leaves yel- '"■ nattutat. 

low or red. Naked young wood yellowish brown, 
Varietie: The grape vine has been in cultivation from the remotett period of 

history, in the warmest parts of the temperate zones of the Old World. 

The varieties have been described at length by Du Hamel in France, Don 

Roxai de Clementi in Snain. and Sicklcr in Gennany. The varieties of the 

vine as a fruit shrub, and all that reUtes to thdr propagation and culture, 

will be found treated of m our EneycU^xtdia of Gardeimig ; and we shall 



XTI. FITA^CEM: n*TIS. 197 

kcte onlf notice those which we think deaening of cuhiTation, m orn^ 
Qwotu Bud tia^^flut-flowcred chmben. 
i V.ti. assail iwwu. Miller'i G«pe, or WUert black auiter Gr^w. 
— LcBTet aknoet entire, small, woolly, and whititb. Fruit round, 
udbII, in compact bunches, black. Tbit nriety ii lelected ob acconnt 
of the whiteneaa of its leaves, 
i V. 0. 3 fiSiM nOacintilmt. The Claret* 
Qnpe ; Tenlurier, Ft-. (If. Du Ham., var, J 
7S., not Clairette Du Ham., nr. 12.) — 
The leaves are larger than thoae of the 
preceding Tarietj, and more lobed and 
notched : in the autumn, before they die 
o^ thej change to a deep claret colour, in 
wbich state the; ore highly ornamental. 
IV. t. i apa^ laemdta L. The Panley- 
leared Oispe Vine ; Ciotat, Fr. j Vite 
dEgitto. Ilal. Qlg. lea.)— The leaves 
are beantifiilly laciniated, midd]&«tzed, end ut na..ta«-.rt«B». 
the fhnt blai^. A very handsome climbing 
shrub which has been in cultivatioQ for it« fruit once 1046. 
1 8. F. LABBi^'aCA L. The wild Vine, or Fox Grape. 
ita^Ja*™. Lin. Spsc. »s. 1 Dec. Prod..!, p. SM., Doo'i MUl., 1. p,7ll.i Tor.uidGr^,h 
*^io. r. Dnrbu Walt. ; fllilSH- Weill, Orr. j AbroiUm, llal. 
*f™™p. Pliun. Icon, t la. tg. 1. 1 Jan). Sclltrn., t. OS, , ind oar fig. IBS. 

SpK.aar.,^c. Sexes dicecious or potjgamouB. Leaves 

tiean-shaped, rather ^-lobed, ecutel; tootbed beneath, 

and the peduncles toraentoae and rather maty. {Dn. 

Prod.) Canada to Georgia. Climbing stem 10 ft. to 

30 ft. Introduced hi 1656. Flowers greenish yellow ; 

June aod July. Fruit red or Uack ; ripe in OctotMr. 

decaying leaves brown or black. 

^me6ei. Several varietie*, with red, white, or hUck J 

^it, are known in the gardens of North America,! 

from'wluch wine is made ; such as the babeUa, Schuyl- 1 

kill or Alexander's, the Catawba, and Bland's Grape, 

which have doubtless been produced from seeds d 

this species. (7W. and GrtOf.) 

Leaves i in. to 6 in. or more in diameter, often distinctly 3-lobed, short, 

micpoBate, and densely tomentitse beneath. Berries 6—7 lines in diameter, 

[fodoae, uauaUy very dark puiple when ripe, but sometimea ambet^colourcd or 

praiish white, of a strong muaky flavour, and filled with a tou^ pulp, (/*«(.) 

J Si V. sstiva'lis Jficftr. The Summer Vine, or Gn^ fine, 
M"# ilKuii Hldii. Fl. Bor. Abim., S. p.tM.j Det Prod,!, p.eu.; Don't MUL. 1. p.Ill.j 
^■ ■ iw n . r. ilnlfen liiHtlclna llank. ; V. InterDidli UtM. i ud F. r-'"*" FaML 
*^iiiii.p. Jk. Hut. Scb«,, t.U9.; aadoDT^. IM. 

^■ec. Oar., fy:. Sexes dicscious or polygamous. 
Lfiivea broadly heart-shaped, with from 3 to A 
lobes } the under sur&ce of the joung ones ! 
invested irith a cottony down; of the adult 
ooes,Bnooth. Bacemes fertile, oblong. Bertie 
small. {Der. Prod.) A tendriled clirabCT. C«i- 
nettiait to Florida. Stem 20 ft. to 30 ft. In- iM.rw.iHii.uk. 

tiodaced in 1656. Flowers greenish yellow ; June. Fruit dark bluet ripe 
in October. 
Leaves im. to 7 in. wide, often deeply lobed, with the sinuses rounded; 




138 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETtJH BRITANNICUM. 

the lower iurface, particularly in the young state, clothed with a reddish 
cobweb-like pubescence; when old, somewhat glabrous. Berries 3 — 4 lines 
in diameter, deep blue, of a pleasant flavour; ripe in October. (TV. and 
Gray.) Periiaps only a variety of the preceding species. V. ^niacoliies 
ituhi. is also probably a synonyme or a TarJety olthat species. 

1 4. K CORDIF 
. Mick 

la JocfL jclom. t.4n. ; F. ni1pliui.n. Spa. p. SB)., WaU. Flar. Cur. Ml.) 

Ichon . L*MT. I ind oar Jig. 1S&. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Seies ditecious or poly- s 

ganiouB. Leaves heart- Hhsped, acuoiinale, j 

tooUied in the mode of incisions, umooth i 

on both surfaces. Racemes loQsely many- l 

flowered. Berries small, greenish, ripened 

late. (Drc. Prod.) A teadriled climber. 

Canada to Florida, in thickets along rivers. 

Stem 10 ft. to 80ft. Introduced in 1606. 

Flowers greaush yellow ; June. Fruit lu. , miirBii 

greenish ; ripe in November. 

Leaves thin, 3 in. to 6 in. in diameter, often slightly 3-lobed, and nrel^ 
sinuated. Berries nearly black when mature, about a auarter of an inch in di- 
ameter, ripening late in autumn ; acid, but tolerably welt flavoured after having 
been toudied by frost. (Tor. and Gray.) 

I 5, y. niPA^ii Michs. The river-side, or tweel-tcented. Vine. 

B9I.; Dec Feed., I. p.tBL; Don'ilflll., I. p. Til. 
., ijid Laid. Cat, i Vljne d* "— " ' 



Emfranngt. 



B«>. Hag., t. U3S.I DbhLBj 




Spec. Char., S^c. Leaves heart-shaped, shallowly 3- 

cleft, toothed in the mode of mcisions and un- 
equally. Footstalk, and the margin of the nenres, 

pubescenL Racemes loose. Fruit small. (Dec. 

Prod.) A tendriled climber. Canada to Virginia. 

fitemSOft. to30ft. Introduced in 1606. Flowers 

greenish yellow, with the fragrance of mignonette; 

3une and July. Fruit darit purple, or ember ; ripe 

in October. 

Leaves 4 in. to 6 in. in diemeter, thm ; teeth very 
coarse, acuminate. Berry 3 — 4 lines ia diameter, 
dark purple, or amber colour, when ripe. {Tor, and 
Gra^.) 

1 6. F. vulpi"na L. The Foi Grape, or Buliei Grtqie. 

UaumcalUm. WUId. 3p.. 1. DSL , Walt. Cv.,p. SU. ; Tor. ind Gnr, 1. p. W. 

Stwcmfma. r. nUmitlAlii lAStz., Pmnk, Dn, D«'( WIK, luKI drk Brit III edit ; UucMlD* 

Spec. Char., S^c. Branches minutely vemicose. Leaves cordate, shining on 

both sur&ces, somewhat 3-lobed, coarsely toothed, the teeth not acuminate. 

Racemes composed of numerous capitate umbels. Berries laive. (71m-. 

and Gray.) A tendriled climber. Virginia to Florida. Stem SO ft. to 30 ft. 

Introduced in IB06. Flowers greenish yellow ; June and July. Fruit deep 

blue J ripe in October. 

The stem of this species has a smooth bark, and climbs to the nimmit of 
some of the highest trees. Leaves 2 — 3 in. in diameter ; the lower sarfiice 
iDC»« ihinbg than the upper ; sinus deep, but rather acute. Fruit 7 — 8 linei 



XVt. nr^'cEf : AHPELO'PSIS. 



In diuneter, corered with a coria- 
ceous int^imeot, the flower not uo> 
pleuBDt. This, according to Torrej 
and Gray, appeara to be the origmal 
r. f ulpioB of LlDIWUS. 

OrArr Spetiet ef Vitii. — The 
Aioericu ipecita nave been consi- 
derably reduced in number by 
Heun. Torrey and Gray ; but It 
•ppears to ui, that the reduction 
might haTe been carried still farther. 
Some niecies are described w no- 
tiies of the Himalayng, and 130 
nrietiai are noticed by Hafineaque 
m hit Monoeraph of Amenaui Vtb^ 
(sec Card. Mag., vol. viii. p. 2i8. ) ; 
hut thej are not yet known in (his 
country. Indeed, from the appear- 
locetn the above-described species 
ia the Hort. Soc. Itarden, we are 
much inclined to think they are 
OBJy rarieties of the same specie*. 
Tbey certainly do not differ more 
from each other than the known 
nrietie* of the common cultivated 



00 



AHPELO'PSIS Mvhx. 



Im. Ifyil. PenUndria 



[Mr.. I. n 1S9. ; D«. Prod., I. p, OH. i Don' 



Gn. dor, Calyr almoU entire. Pelalt 5, falling off separately. Shgtiia 
capitate. Ovmy not immersed in a dl<k, including 2-— 1 ovule*. (£)ec. 

Lemxi compound, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous ; palmate, pinnate, 
or Inpbnate. Floweri small. — Tendriled climherB, nadvea of North Ame- 
lia. The wecies in British gardens are two, of the easiest culture in any 
common soil ; and one of them, A. Aederacea, is among the mott ornament^ 
of hardy climbert. 

J I. A. JRDIBA^BA JUkhx. The Ivy-like Ampelopsis, or SloeJeaeed In/. 

Wr Ij lL ii fli i i . Mlctn. F1. But. Amer.. I. )i. ISO. ; Dm. Plod.. 1. p. SSS. s Dod'i Milt, I. P. «M 
ll 1 1 !■ I. H%ien vltI>4<wrftU> Un- Sk BS. I y\a% quliqurniili Lam. III. No. KA. ; Cluai 
Jafcrlm Fk. ft. imn. Snt. 1. n. 170. ; ClHui quinqucRiUi Hart Par. ; ItOt htitilcfm WiUd. 
^ffr. p. llSt.^ Ampdfiptu qtdii^UDnUa Hook. FL Bor. Arner. \. LI4., and Tor- |- Qra^ \ 
■ni»«Vtaim.ty.; Juoi(<;niRftoi,(jrwtldtrWelB,GB-.; VjM d«l Cmnidl, Jiai 
t^trartmtt. ConujL CvJUd., L lOD. ; ind mxifig. IBB. 

^M. Char., Sfc. Leaves digitate, of from 3 to & leafleM, that are italked 
obloDg, toothed with mucronated teeth. RacemeH 'ttichotomouslj coiyiD- 
\nae. (Dec. Prod.) A tendriled climber. Canada to Oeo^a. Stem 30 ft. 
W SOft^ or more. Introduced in 16B9 Flowera yellowish green; June 



140 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUU. 

and JuIt. Berry black or dark blue; ripe 
in October. Decaying leavea deep purple 
or red, ot yellowish r^. 



hirsAta Dona; Cfssut t 

P hirtitta Purth. — Leares pubescent 

on both aides, leaflet* oTate. The 

I 

crimsoD as the ipeciei. 
Stem Bleaching itaelf to trees end walls by 
expansions of the extremities of the tendrils. 
Panicle many'flowered. Petals at first some- 
what cohering, at length spreading. Berry 
about as large as a small pea, the peduncle 
and pedicels bright crimson ; and the foliage 
in autumn, before it dies off, of a deep crimson. 
The most vigorous-growing and senerally 
ornamental climber in Europe. It thriTCS in 
almost every voil and situation from Warsaw 
CO Naples, and in town, as well as in the ,t,, ^ fiiMt.totiM 

1 2. A. BiPiNNATA Mida. The bipinnate-^ivd Ampelopsis. 



Utt^eaUou, MIcbx. F1. Bnr. kmti.. 1. p. ISO. ; Dk. Prnd., 1. p. OS. 
- - ntli uMruJFilU. Sixt. 1. f. lltO. i rail WplnniU T 

Eittriu^ti. Yak. 



Syrnntfrna. Htli uMru WilU. Sfrc 1. p. US 



Spec. Char., Sfc. Leaves bipinnate, smooth ; leaflets cut in a lobed manner. 

Racemes pedunculate, almost doubly bifid. Berries globose and cream* 

coloured. (Dec. Prod.) A. tendriled climber. Virginia to Georgia, ^tem 

10 ft. to SO ft. Introduced in 1700. Flowers greenish white ; June to 

August. Berry black ; 

ripe in October. Decay- 

ii^ leave* purplish red, 

sometimes ydlowish red. 

Stem upright, or som«- ■ 
what twining, glabrous. 
Panicle short, spreadii^, 
and without tendrils. Beny 
globose, depreased, as large ^ 
as B small pea, blackish 
when ripe, ilightly hairy, 
(TV. and Gnn/.) A very 
handsome climbei, of easy 
culture, and much admired 
for the beaut}^ of its folif«e. 
Compared with A. Aede- 

racea, it is of slow growth, >••■ JmnWpji hrr ^tw 

tbe shoots in the climate of London being seldom more than IB in. or 8 ft. in 

Other Specia of Ampeldpnt. — A. meua, Citis incisa A^utt., is described in 
Torrey and Gra/s Flora ; but we are not aware of it| baring been introduced. 
j4. cordita JUic&t. (the Ctssus Ampeldpsis of Persoon, and ritis indivJsa of 
Willdenow) is described b the first edition of this work ; but, as we consider it 
a very doubtfiil species, we have omitted it in this abridgement. A. caprcottia 
O. Hon, Fitia <xpnoliu D. Don, aod A. bdtrya Dec., are also omitted, as oot 
having been yeC introduced. 



ZVI. nTACES. XTII. XANTHOXTLA CEA. 



Q 



CI'SSUS L. Th« Cimus. Ltn. %(. Trtrindria Monog^aia. 

HnMkKJHL Ln. G«>.. No. I«r. i DetPrvlntp'SST. I Don'i ICUt.,l-p«W. 

Crt. CUr. C<i^ •ImoM entire, i'rfai *, falling off »^«rBlely. Ocary 
4-cdled. BCTiy I— 4-8eeded. (Dec. Prod.) 

Leasa compound, alternate, eiad' 
pnlate, deciduoui ; trifbiiate. Fioatn 
txlitzy, Hnall, greeniah. Fnat a beer;. 
— fliminng ihrubs, anlv one of which 
k hard; in Brittsh gardou. 



A dedduouB climber. Levant. Stem 
S&tolOft. Introd. in 1818. Flow> 
en jeUowith green ; Jane and July. 
Beriy.T. 

We have only teen the plant bearing 
ihii name in the collection of MbMra. 
LoddttM. from which our figure ii taken, 
ind which, bi it does not agree vtry well 
trrth [he ipecific character, ia perhuM 
not the true _plaiit. At all events, the 
plant figured u handsome, and as vigo- 
roui ud bardjr a« Ampeldpns tnpinnala. 



Ordbh XVII. XANTHOXYLA'CE^ 

Omd. Chab. FJoiMn uniaexual, r^ular. Calyx in 3 — 5 divi^iona. Peteb 
the same number, kinger than the calyx ; KstiTation generally twisted, 
Stament equal in number to the petals ; in the female flowers wanting or 
imperfect, Onay with as many carpels as there are petals. Fndl either 
bmied or membranous. — Trees or oirulM, chiefly nadTcs of warm climates, 
(LmdL) 

Leaea cranpound, alternate or oppoute, without stipulet ; abruptl* or 
uneqaally [annate; with pelludd oats. Finoert axilttiy or terminal; 
my, green, or pink. — The q)edes in British garden* are comprised In 
three genera, which ore thus contradistinguiahed : — 

X»mo'ZTi.DM L. Flowers biaaual. Carpels 1^^, S-valved. Leaves 
abruptly and impaivpinnate, 

Pri^UA L. Flowers trisexuaL Fruit compressed, 8 — S-eelled; cells winged. 
Leave* of 3 leaflet*, rarely of 5 leaflets. 

AiL/MTUt Desf. Flowers polygamous. Carpels 3— S, membnnoui. Lesvef 
abruptly or impwi-pinnate. 



AKBORETUM ET PRCTICETUM BRITANNl 



aa 



XANTHCXYLUM L.. and H. B. cl Kih. The Xanthoitlum. or 
TooTUACUK TsKE. Lin. Sjftt. Diae'da Tri-Fentanilria. 



Gen. Char. Calyx short, 3 — ^parted. Feli^ equal in number to the lobes 
ofthe ciilyit, but longer, very rarely wanting, — Mdefiovxri, Staiaaa equal 
in number with the petala. — Female ftowert. Slaiiient sometimes wanting, 
or very abort. Ooarin S — 1, sometimes equal in number to the petals. 
CapiuUt 1_6. 1— 2-»eeded, Seeds globose, dark, shining. (Don't MiU.) 
Leavei compouad, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; pinnately 3 — ]3-folio- 
Ute, FlouxTi aiillwy, small, greenish or whitish. Infloreicence various. — 
Deciduous low trees or shrubs, natives of North America, with prickles on 
the branches, petioles, and midrib of the leaflets. The species in British 
gardens are or easy culture in any common soil, and are easily propagated 
by seeds, layers, or cuttings of the roots, 

I * 1. X. niAXi'NBUH WUld. The Aab-Uaced Xanthoiylum, or eonnw* 



I 



XVII. XANTSOXTLA^CEA : PTE''LEA. 



.| tbepUUoribliiiwdata) Ai«.Brli., lit(dii.,iiil.T. itnil 

^>ee. Char., fc. Leavespinnate, of 4to5pmra of leaflets, tad an odd one; the 
leaflets oTate, obscurely sawed, equel at the baae ; the petiole round, tind do- 
ToidoTprickleii; prickles in the Bituation of stipules. Flowers in axi 11 aij 
umbelB, without petals, (Dec. Prod., i. p. 720, 787.) A low deciduous 
treeor&hmb. Canada to Vininia. Height 10 ft. to 15 ft. lotrod. 1740. 
Flowers yellowish, with red anthers ; April and May. Seeds large, black ; ripe 
in September. Decaying leaves yellowish green. leaked young wood aah- 
coknired and greenish. 

I • X. f. 2 Tirgbactim, the X. firgtaicum of Lodd. Cat., of which there is 
a plantin the garden of the London Horticultural Society, and several 
in the arboretum of Mesitrs. Loddiges, appears to us only a variety 
of X.yraxiheum; probably the same as X. (/.) tric&rpum. 

la!.X.(r.)TBici'RPVM AficAx. The three^niited Xantbozylum, or 7\>oM- 

ache TVee. 
Urtifc^bm. Hkhi. Ft. Bar. Abut.. 1. p. ML 1 Dae. Prod.. I. b. nA , nm-. inn.. i.>>.ii«. 
.'(■■yi'i Z. cwnUnKnam Lam., Tar. t Qrat, I. p. !1C ; Fi 

ti«r_4^(. LwD.IU.,l.t.tM.;udDIRA.l»l 

^c. Char., ^c. Leaves pinoate ; the leaflets 3 

to 5 pturs, and an odd one, all on short stalks, 

oblong oval, acuminate, finely sawed, oblique U 

the base. Petioles and branches prickly. Pb- 

nickes terminal. Petals 5. (Dec. Prod.) A low 

tree or shrub. North Carolina to Florida. 

H(%ht LO ft. to 15 ft. Introd. 1800. Flowers 

greoiish ; June. Seeds large, black ; ripe Oct. 

Leaves and bark veir aromatic and pungent. 
Prickles very sharp. The bark of lhi« antf the ' 
preceding spedes is imported from New York, 
snd sold in Covent Garden Market as a cure for 
the rheumatisai. Probably a variety of the pre- 

_.- . ' '' ' nt. XnnMiilnBi tfUnao. 

eeatag speaes. 

Olier Speda cf XanlMzybtm. — X. mite IFiUd., treated as a species by 
tome authors, is made a synonytae of X./raxineum by Torrey and Oray, and 
it probably bears the same relation to that spedes that Oleditschin in^rmis 
does to O. triacanthos. Our opinion is, that there is only one spedes of the 
gnui in Britiab gardens. 



r 



Genus II. 



li 



yj 



iTE'LEA L. The Ptilsa, or Sububst Trefoil. Lin. Sptl. Moote'cia 
Tetrs-Pentandria. 

Umgbmaim. Lto. G«..Ni>.1H.j Dm. PKid.,*.n. K; D<n'iHI1l.,].i>. NS. 
Sfmm^'. Armete AdBiL: Ornada Suurlt.n'. I ladntjInnK.dn-. 
iWr>afijj<. Figm pftfra. the Graak uma of tba aim, ■doptad b^ LIiubiu. 
Gn. Ckar. Cafyx short, 4 — 5 parted. Petalt 4 — 5, longer than the calyx. 
—Mate Jlaieert. Stameai 4--5, longer thiu the petjs. — I^emale fioviert. 



144 ARBORETOH ET FRUTICETUH BRITAIIIIICUH. 

Stammt 4 — 5, very short. Style short. Frsil compressed, UMlefaiscent, 
Bamara-like, turgid, 2 — 3-cel1ed. Seedt oblong. {Don't JUiil.) 

Ltaeet compound, alternate, Htipulate, deciduous ; pinaate, 3- rardj 5- 
fbliotate, with pellucid dou, the lateral teafleta inequilateral. Ftoaert 
whitish, cymoie : cymes cot^mbed or panicled. — Deciduous shrubs or low 
trees, nUives of North America and Asia. There is only one species in 
British gardens, which is of the easiest culture, and is propsgated by seeds 
and cuttings, put in in aultunn, and covered with a hand glass. 
Z • 1. P. TKiFOLU^A L. The three-ini/fftotf Ptelea, or ^niiy Trtfiil. 
Utmtfflaillm. Un. Sp., 113, i WUld. Sp. PL, 1. sro. i Die Prod., 1. p. 81. ; Don't MUI, 1. p. SML j 
ni Si Sunlrlc t trail FrmlttM. Pr. ; drcfbliiaciga Lsdertlluine, OfT. 



ud our.lb. '93. 



r%)ec. C^ar., ^e. Leaf of three leaflets that are ovate acute, the middle one 
much tapered towards its base. Flowen in coirnibs, usually teirandrous. 

tDec. Fivd.) A low tree or shrub. Lake Erie to Florida and Texas, 
leight eft. to 10ft. Introd. 1704. Flowers whitish; June and July; 
Capsules greenish ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves of a remarkably clear 
rich yellow. Naked young wood dark purplish brown. 

X * P. f. 3 paaaph^Oa Hunchh. has 5 leaflets, H. S. 
f ■ P. J. 3 pubetcau Purah has the leaflets pubescent. 
When this plant is pruned up with a un^le stem, it forms a handsome low 
tree with a hemisphencal head i but in Bntiib gardens it is more frequently 




Ibund as a large sbrub, with numerous stems proceeding from the rootstodc. 
The shoots and leaves pubescent when young. Ovary of the staminate 
Bowers abortiTe. Odour of the flowers disagreeable. Capsules with flattened 
wings, somewhat resembling those of the elm. 

Olier Speriei of VliUa. - 
a shrub not more than a foot high, but it has not yet b< 



XVtI. ZANTHOXYLA'CE^. XVIII. CORIA'cEf. 

Genus III. 



AILA'NTUS Ikid. Tbb Ailanto. Lnt. Syil. PolygHinia MoncE'cia. 

UMjJatitm. Dot Act. Aeid.Pu.,l7M. p. Mil Dr. Prod.. *. Ik M.i Don'i Mill.. I. p. Mn. - 

Gn-Ciar. MaJeJhaien. C'o/jj 5 cieft. Felalt 5, lonper than the calyx. 
Slanimi 10, the 5 opposite the petal:* shortest. DUi central. — Htrmaphro- 
£ie, ot JemaU, fiowen. Colyx, pelali, and ditli as in the male, hut with 
fewer atamenB. Ovariei 3— i, distinct. Samariz 3—5, ohlong j 1-celled, 
I-seeded. (Zhin'i MiU.) 

LMcncompound.attemate.exatipulBte, deciduous; impari-pinnale. Flovyeri 
tenninal, small, greeniah. — One specieB, a deciduous tree from China. 
I I. A. ctANOULo'sA Detf. The glandulous-Zeannf Ailaulo. 

Ua^Hlalim. Vnl. Act. AwL Par ITM. p. K3. ; Dec Prod.. I n. ». i Don-a Mill . T n wn 
iftaajrm a . A.prtxtrtSaL Prod. p. 171. i ffhdi hTpteloi 
i.SatiBiaEUa; AjluIlM |liii<lidi-ui. Ft.; dcililBerGr 
tmtrtnati. Wiu. bmd. BrtL, L IDS, i Ita fUU of Ibe uci u nrm nr^i., >k niii., lai. v. ; UM 

Sprr. nar.,4-c. Leaves impari-pinnate ; the leaflets coarsely toothed at the 
hue ; the teeth glandulous on tne under aide. (Dec I'rodA A large tree. 
North of China. Height 50ft.to60ft. Introd. 1751. Flowers whitish 
fireen, exhaling a disagreeable odour; August, Capsules like the kevs of 
the asfa, but smaller ; ripe in October. Decaying leavca hrownish, hut droiv 
ping with the first frost, without any great cnant^e of colour. The leaflets 
oftni smarating from ihe petiole of the leaf, and leaviiig it for some weel» 
attuhed to the tree. Kaked young wood 
nuty brown, without huds. 
The leaves on rigorous younfc trees are 

tonetimea 6 ft. in length. The fruit, which 

has been ripened at White Knichts, resembles 

the keys of^the ash, but is smallir. The tree 

growiwith great rapidity for the first 10 or 

It jeani, producing shoots froni 3 ft, to 6 ft, 

in length at fint, and attaining the height or 

15 or id feet in 5 or 6 yt.'an, in favourable 

uluationt. Afterwards iu growth is much 

(lower. It grows in any soil, though one that 

i> li^t and somewhat humid, and a sheltered 

lituatioo, auit it best. ]n France, it is Mid to 

thrive on chalkj soils, and attain a large size 

where scarcely any other tree will grow. It 

■• readily pcop^ated by cuttings of the roots. m. jUMufiuMtH. 



Section .!.V, 
FnU gynciaae ! that it, ttuertal into aJUihy Seaptacte, uM which the & 



Order XVITI. CORIA'CE^,. 
njio. CBdB. Flouert either hermaphrodite, moniscious, or diteuious. tJaii/x 
campanulate, 5-parted. Pefali (. Stamau 10. Carpel* 5.^Lo« shniht, 
natives of tempente and warm climates. 



CM ET FHUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Leavei simple, oppositt or alternate, e»stipulate, deuiduous; rai 
Budt acaXy. Flowcri in teruiiniil and BxiUury racemes. Fruil in i 
pouoDOUi, in others ediWe. — There is only one hardy (jcnns, t'oriiria ; 
ipecics of wtuch are low shrubs, natives of Euro[>c nnil Asia 



□ 



CT)RtA'R[A jV/H. The Coruria. Lin. Syit. DiceVw Cwindria. 

UrMtficatiiM. NIll. In Altfir. LJ1I. 1. IJ. i Dec Prod., 1. J, JM. ; Dod'> Mill. I. p. »rt. 

Gea. Char. Floweri cither hermaphrodite^ mo ntE clous, or dit£ciou>. 
Califj! d-parted. Pelali 5, sepaloid, smaller than the lobts of the calyx. 
Slamnu 10, hypogynoua, 5 between the lobes of the calyx and the angles of 
the ovarium, 5 betveen the petals and the fiirrowa of tlie ovarium. Anlhirt 
bursting by longitudinal slits. Style none. Stigmai 5, long, awl-sbsped. 
Carjuli 5, surrounding a Seshy axis; vhen ripe, close together, but separate, 
not opening. I -seeded, surrounded with glandular lobes. (LhuU,) 

Leavei simple, opposite, cxstipulate, deciduous; 3-ribbed. Brandia 
square, opposite. — Loir sulTrulicose shrubs, of easy culture id common 
soil, and propagated by division of the root. 

.■ 1. C. irvRTiFa'i.iA L. The Myrtle-leaved Coriaria. 

. MaUHIciUiim. Lin. Sp.. 1161. i l>«. Prod. 1, p. JM.j Don'.Mm.. l.p.Bl«. 
afmunma. FuilBt in CorroTniri, or Bedoul S FnuUls it M/rte, Ft. ; MrrtBibmtilJW Ob. 

Spec. Chiir., Sfc. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, 
three-nerved, on short footstalks, glabrous. 

Flowers in rather upright 

racemes. [Dec, Prod.) A ■ 

lov, deciduous, suflHiticose 

■hrub, consisting of nume- 
rous suckers. South of 

Europe, and the North of 

Africa. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. 

Introduced 1629. Flowers 

greenish: Haj to August. iu. cvuni •onuMu. 

Carpels in the form of a 

berry, black ; ripe in October. Leaves drop off of a 

brownish green. 

Found in hedges and waste places, throwing up nume- 
rous suckers. An ornamental undershrub, chwAy re- 
markable for its myrtle-like leaves, and the handsome 
frond-like form of its branches. Suckers in any com* 

I OlherSpeda o/Coriaria.^ C. nepalemU Wall. PI. As. 

Rar. t. S89., and our Jig. 196,, from a specimen gathered 

IK. c. nwunta. '" '''* Hort. Soc Oardeus, a native of Nepal, at heights 

of from 5000 ft. to TOGO ti., appears to be quite hardy. 

and of robust growth. C. larrnenidia Forst., from New Zealaad, is probably 

hardy also, but has not yet been introduced. 



XIX. STAPHYLEA'CE^ : STAPHYLE A. 



147 



Subclass II. CALYCIFLO^RiE. 

Peiai* separate, huerted in the Calyx. 

Order XIX. STAPHYLEA CE^E. 

Ord, Char. Sepals 5, connected at the base, coloured, with an imbricated 
sstivation. Petals 5, alternate. Stamens 5. Disk large. Ovary 2 — 3-celled. 
Fnat membranous or fleshy. — Shrubs, natives chiefly of warm climates. 
(Undl.) 

Leaves compound, opposite, stipulate, deciduous. Flowers terminal. 
Fnat a bladdery capsule. — The only hardy ligneous plants belonging to this 
order are contained in the genus Staphylea. 

Genus 1. 



i^H 



STAPHYLE^ A L, The Staphylea, or Bladder-sut Tree, Lin.Syst' 

Pentandia Di-Trigynia. 

Uait^fitatiom. T in. Gen., No. 374. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 2. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 2. 

Sfmigma. Staphylod^droo Ttmm. \ Staphilier, faux PUtachier, Pr. ; Pimpernuii, Qer. ; SU- 

1U«, /loi. 
IknwtUum, Abridged from Staphjiod&idron, its name before the dars of Llunsus, derited from 

UaakmB, a banch or cluster, and dendron, a tree ; the flowers and fruits being disposed in clusters, 

aad tlie plant being ligneous. 

Geo. Char. Calyx of 5 coloured sepals, connected at the base, in sestiva^ 
tion imbricate. Petals 5, in aestivation imbricate. Stamens 5, perig}-nous, 
alternate with the petals, and opposite the sepals. A large urceolate disk, 
or nectary, within the corolla. Ovarium 2- or 3-celled, superior. Fruit 
membraneous. Seeds with a bony testa, and a large truncate hilum. (Lindl.) 
Leaves compound, opposite, stipulate, deciduous ; pinnate, with both com- 
mon and partial stipules. Flowers in terminal stalked racemes. — Two 
hardy species, low trees or shrubs ; natives of Europe and North America, 
of easy culture in any common soil, and propagated by seeds, which ought 
to be sown as soon as they are ripe, or by cuttings. 

* 5 1. 8. TRiFO^LiA L, The three-leaved Staphylea, or Bladder-nut Tree. 

J^niifkatbm, Lin. Sp., 3fl6. ; Dec. Prod., 8. p. S. ; Don's Mill., 1 p. 2. ; Tor. and Gray, 1. p. 2B6w 
Sgnoijfmgu Staphilier k FeuiUes temies, Fr. ; Virglnische Pimprmuss, Ger. 
eagranagt. Schmidt Baum., t. 81. ; ouTftg. 197. in flower, and^. 1&8. in fruit. 

Spec. Char., 8fc. The leaf of 3 leaflets, which are ovate, acuminate, regularly 
sawed, and, when young, pubescent ; the style smooth ; the capsule bladdery. 
{Pec, Prod,) A deciduous shrub or low tree. Canada to South Carolina, 

and west to Arkansas, in moist places. Height 6 ft. 

to ISiV^ Introduced in 1640. Flowers whitish; May 

and June. Nuts globose, in a bladdery capsule, white ; 

ripe in October. Decaying leaves 

greenish yellow. 





198. S. trlibUa. 



Branches slender, smooth, and 

dotted. Petioles pubescent above. 

Partial stipules mostly none. 

Petals obovate-spatulate, ciliate at 

the base. Stamens rather exserted ; 

filaments hairy below ; anthers 
eardate; the lobes somewhat united at the tip. Capsule 2 in. long; the caipels 
(lamedmes 4) distinct at the summit, tipped with the persistent styles, and 
oponng by the inner suture; seeds smooth and polished, all but one often 
sbomve. {Torrey and Gray.) When not trained to a single stem, this shrub 
tfannrs out abundance of shoots resembling suckers from the collar ; but, if 

L 2 



148 AUBORETUM FT FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

these be removed as they are produced, it will fomJ a very handsome lov tree. 
Seeds, suckera, layers, or cuttings, in any common soil, kept moist. The 
largest plsnls of this ajiecies, in the naghbourhood of London, are at Syon. 
• 5 B. S. PiNNA^TA L. The pinnatedJmwrrf Staphylea, or BkddeT-md Tret. 

ZarroB^'. ' Eni. Bot., I. IKO. | H>r<» AbbUd., t. 'm. l ^d our A- l». 

^lec. Oar., ^c. Leaves pinnate, of 5—7 oWong, perTcclIy glabrous, serrate 
leaflets! the flowers in racemes; the caps ules membranous and bladdery. 
(Dec. Prod.) Shrub or lo* tree. South of Europe, and ? England m 
hedges. Height 6 ft. to 12 ft. Flowers whitish; May and June. Nuts 
globose white, in a bladdery capsule ; ripe in October. Decaying leaves 
yellowish green. Naked young wood greenish, with green budi, 
A. smooth branching shrub, throwing up 

many side suckers, in gardens often from 

6ft. to 12f^. high, and eihibiting a much 

nwre luxuriant growth than the preceding 

species. The nuts, in some paru of Europe, 

are stnirg for beads by the Roman Catholics. 

The kernels taste like those of the pistacia, 

and are eaten in Germany by children. The 

flowers contain a great deal of honey, and ^ 

are very attractive to bees. In the London 

nurseries, the plan» is genersUy cultivated by C^ 

tide suckers, by cuttings put in during the £ Fv 

month oF September, or by seeds, which \n ffl Jl m,.^ 

are ripened in abundance. The seeds ought WP' HUIH 

to be sown as soon an they are ripej be- ^^ ^^,^ ^__ ^^^ 

cause, as they contain an oil, they very soon 

become rancid. They will come up the following June, with two large, lance- 

ihaped, senuDal leaves ; though sometimes they do not come up for two year*. 



Orber XX. CT;:LASTRA'CE.<E. 



ORD.CaAR. SepaUi — 6: sstivation imbricate. Petalt \ — 6. SlameiaA — 6, 
alternate with the petals, opposite the sepsis, indistinctly perigynoua. 
Ocory superior, free, girded with a fleshy disk, with 2 — i cells. OiWft erect, 
rarely pendulous. Fndi capsular, baccate, drupaceous, or samarideous. 
Seed; tn most, attended with an aril. (Ladl.) 

Leavet umple, alternate or opposite, generally stipulate, deciduous, or 

evergreen. Flouvn whitish or greenish, in axillary cymes. — Shrubs or 

tow trees, generally deciduous; natives of both hemispheres. 

The species are chiefly remarkable for the form and colours of their fruits ; 

their flowera being neither large nor showy, nor their properties valuable in 

medicine, or general economy. All the spedes ere readily increased by layera, 

by cuttings struck in sand, or by seeds in any common soil. The genera 

containing hardy species are £u6nymus, CeUstrus, and Nemopiothes, which 

are thus contradistinguished : — 

£uo'ntiiiis Tourn. Sexes mostly hermaphrodite. Fruit a dehiscent capsule, 

of 3 — 5 cells. Seed with an aril. Leaves mostly oppoute. 
Ala'strus L. Sexes mostly hermaphrodite. Fruit a dehiscent capsule 

of 8 — 3-cells. Seed with an aril. Leaves alternate. 
NEHOPA'NTaBS Rofin. Sexes polygamous or ditccious. Fruit sa inJehiscent 



XX. C£LASTK\ cub: BVO'ttYMVB. 



\i\W\J 

EUO'NYMUS TVam. The Et)oiir>cs, or Sfisdlz Tgxa. Lm. Sya. 
Teira-Hex-indria Monog^nia. 

Ln».i Ltal. G«^IT]._i Due. Prod.. 1. 

id ftgnlflv or nod npote. Tlia 
•nod for miUng iplndlci. Bonnet 

fe iniule«f tbs wood fof tkewen « Jirdldf 
ft Ittmllj iplndlB Enc 

Gen. Oiar. Caiyx 4 — 5-labed, flat, covered by the peltate diik at the base. 
Pefo/i 4 — 6, Epreading, inserted in the disk. Slamtm 4 — 6, iDserted above 
tile disk in rather promiaeDt giands. Captvie 3 — ft-celled, S — 5-BDgled. 
Setit 1 — 4 in each celi, and wrapped in pulp or aril. {BaCt MHi.) 

Lraeet tiniple, opposite, serrate. Stipuiet mostly none. FeduncUt sxil- 
liry, I — msjij-flowered. Infloretcmce cyniose. — Deciduous sbrubs or low 
trees ; sometimes trailing, or climbing by rootlets. 

1* I.E. EUBOPx'us L. The European Euonymus, or Sp'mdle Tree. 

H n ti f a^Hm, LlD- Sp.. aK. \ I>« Prod., a. p. 4. i DoD'l Mil]., t, p. S. 

Imiifma. E. iiil(trli Mm. Did. ; Piick-tlmber Oerord; Lotus Btrrr. Dogvood. □■tl«td«t 
Tna; Funtai d'Banipe, A'.; Baautit rrtlla conunun, Ft.; («ineln« Sgilndeibuun. Cn-.j Be. 



ta «hHd» toolhiiidu aod ikewe 
l*cw tlie vwd o( IXnai ub| 





^vr. CW.,^c. Branchei smooth. Leaves lanceolate-ovete, very finely sBwed. 
Flowa« about 3 upon one peduncle ; the petals oblong, rather acute. Lobes 
of the capsule obtuae. (Dec. Prod.') A deciduous ahrub, or tow tree. 
Ejoope and Britain, in hedges and copse woods. Height 6ft to IStl. 
Flowen greenish white ; Hay. Fruit scarlet, produced )■ greu abundanee, 
L 3 



150 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



and very showy ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves reddish. Naked young 
wood green or reddish green. 

Varietiet. 

1C tt £. e. 2 latifoHut Lodd. Cat. has rather broader leaves than the species. 
S A E. e. 3 /o/iuf variegdtu Lodd. Cat. has variegated leaves, but never 

looks healthy. 
t jt^,e, Affructu dlbo Lodd. Cat. has white capsules. 
M E. f. 5 namu Lodd. Cat. is a dwarf-growing plant. 
Nos. 2. and 4. of these varieties are, in our opmion, alone worth culti- 
vating. 

Hoots numerous and whitish, forming a dense mass of network, and not 
extending to a great distance from the stem. The branches are numerous 
and opposite ; and the wood hard and fine-grained. The leaves and bark 
are acrid, poisonous, and fetid when bruised. The capsules are of a fine 
rose colour, except in the white-capsuled variety, and the seeds are each 
invested with an aril of a fine orange colour. In a state of cultivation the 
tree attains the height of 30 ft. or upwards, and, though almost entirely neg- 
lected in pleasure-grounds, it forms a singularly handsome object in autumn, 
when covered with its ripe fruit. Seeds ; in any common soil not over moisL 

i m 2. E. YKRRUCO^sus Scop, The vftirtGd-barked Euonymus, or Spindle 

Tree. 

IdefU0caUon. Scop. Cam., ed. 3. No. 968. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 4. ; Don's MUl., 2. p. 4. 
Synonymei. E. earopce^ua leprbiui Lin. \ Fusnin galeux, ou 

verruqucux, Fr. \ warziser Spiodelbaum, Ger. 
Engravings. Nout. Du liam., 3. t. 8. ; Schmidt Arb., t. 73. ; 

andoury^. 201. 

Spec. Char,, Sfc, Branches warted with prominent 

lenticular glands. Leaves ovate, shghtly ser* 

rate. Flowers three on a peduncle. Petals 

ovate. Capsule bluntly 4-comered. {Dec, 
' Prod.) A deciduous shrub or low tree. Austria, 

Hungary, and Carniola. Height 6 ft. to 1 2 ft. 

Introduced in 1763. Flowers purplish brown ; 

May and June. Fruit reddish purple ; ripe 

in September. Decaying leaves reddish green. 

Naked young wood green, with brown and 

white spots. 

A shrub of somewhat fastigiate habit of ^owth, 
with rough warty branches. This species is culti- 
vated in collections chiefly for the singularity of its 
appearance, being among spindle trees what the 
warted ash is amohg ash trees. It ripens seeds, 
and is readily increased by cuttings. 

t A S. E, LATiFO^Lius C. Bauh. The broad-leaved Euonymus, or Spindle 

Tree. 

Identification. C. Bauh. Pin., 428. ; Dec. Prod.. 2. p. 4. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 4^ 

Synonymes. E. europa^iu rar. 2. Lin. ; Fuiain I largei Feuilles, Fr. ; breithlattriger Sptadelbautn, 

GfT. 

Engravings. Jacq. F1. Austr., t. 289. \ Bot. Mag., 2384. ; the plate or the species in Arb. Brit., let 
edit., vol. ▼.; and oMXJig. 202. 

Spec, Char,, Sfc, Branches smooth. Leaves broad-ovate, tooth leted. Pe- 
duncles trichotomous, many-flowered. Petals oval, obtuse. Lobes of capsule 
acutely aiigled, wing-formed. {DorC$ Mill,) A deciduous shrub or low tree. 
South of France to Tauria, in groves. Height 10 ft. to 20 ft. Introduced 
in 1730. Flowers white, becoming purplish; June and July. Fruit deep 
red, and very show? ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves purplish red. 
Naked young wood reddish green, with long point^ greed buds, tinged 
with red. 
In Britibh gardens, this forms much the handsomest species of the genus. 




101. Stttfnyanu 



xz. celastra'cex : £uo'nyhus. 




from its broad shining leave*, Eind iu large red pendulous thiits. vith orange- 
coloured Eeeds, which, vhen the CBpnilea open, are suspended from ihecells 
■ooiGWhat in the manner that the seeds of the magnolias hanf> from their 
(trobiles. Even the wood of this species, during winter, is mucli handsomer 
dun that of an; other, the branches being regularly divaricate, with a clean 
buA, of a reddish green, and irith long pointed dark brown buds ; by which 
aloDe ibia species nft; be distinguished front all the others. Unfortunately . 
for this apeciea, it is generally treated as a shrub, and crowded among other 
^rubi or trees ; so that it k never allowed a chance of attaining eiuer its 
fiill me or its proper shape. 



Mi. E. I 



9 Bieb, The dwarf Enonymus, or Spindie TVec. 
Taur, Suppl.,p. 160: Dec. Prod..!. p.i.i I>od'i HUI,, 1. p. 4, 



fvw!*. Oaifig. i 

^)cc. CAar^4'^. Branches smooth, somewhat herinceous. Leaves lanceolate, 

entire, nearly opposite. Flowers 4-cleft, from 1 to 3 on a peduncle. (Dec. 

Prod.) A tiailing undershrub, with the aspect of the widow wuil (C^iedrum 

tricoccutn). Northern Cau- 

casus. Height 1 ft. Intro- 

doced in IS30. Flowers 

greenish white ; July and Au- ,^ 

guit. Fruit ? ; ripe ?. Shoots " 

slender, recumbent, and with 

the leaves of a deep green. "°- "*"""•■•»» 

A very neat little plant, apparently quite hardy, and well adapted for rock- 

I • 5. £. ji 



&WC. Ciar., 4^c. Bruiichts smooth. Leaves stalked, lanceolate, serrated. 



152 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 

Flowers many unon a peduncle ; the peduncle 

compressed. Petals orbiculate. CapBulcs 

angiilately furrowed, Bmooth. {Dec. Prod.) 

A shrub or low tree. Canada to Florida. 

Hwght 4ft. to 12ft. Introduced in 1756. 

Fluvers dark purple; June and July. Capsule 

crimson. Seeds nhice, with a red aril ) ripe 

ID October. Decaying leaves purpliiih red. 

Naked young wood purplish green 

Branches slightly 4-eided. Leaves 2 in. to 5 in. 
long. Parts of the flower usually in fours; petals 
roundish obovate. Capsules smooth, deeply 
lobed. This and the other American species of 
£u6nyinu8 are rarely found in a thriving stale in 
Britain ; as it appears to us, Irom not being 
planted in moist shady situations, and in peat or 
sandy soil. 

• ■ 6. £. AMBRiCA^HUS L. The American Euonjmus, or SjMidle Tne. 
JdmlfficiUiaii. Lin. Sp.,We.i D«. PmUl. p.t.i Don't HUl., Ip.S.: Tor. nxlCnr.l. p.na 
Ejnmvmn, E. Hmpttrlreu Mori*.; S. ■lUndluUui Hmoli Uh BumlnK Biuh, BtnvlicrTr 

Enirmtmft. Koui. Du Hun, 3. !.».; Schmtdl A[b. I.TS.; out j^. wa.. npronidni Itae pluttn 
DOiWE udjlf-IOS-, rcpr««otbig U 1b tMd, with the iwtj cipaule. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches smooth. Leaves almost sesule, elliptic-lancealate. 
sawed. Flowers 1 to 3 on a peduncle. Petals sub-orbiculate. Capsule 
echinately warty. {Dec. Prod.) A sub-evergreen recumbent shrub. Canada 
to Florida, among rocks, and in moist woodlands. Hdght ii ft. to 6 ft. In- 
troduced in IG86. Flowers greenish yellow, tin^ with purple; Hay and 
June. Capsule deep crimson. Seeds white, with a scvlet anl ; lipe in 
October. Decaying leaves and naked shoots green. 




• ■ E. n. 2 angviH/oliui. Var. Tor. ^ Gray. (Our 
fig. 207.) — Leaves narrowly elliptical or oblong, 
Bbghtly falcate, the margin minutely serrated. Pos- 
siluy the E. angustifolius of Pursh, which Totrey and 
Uray had only seen in a hci1>ariuni. 

■ ^ n. E. a. 3 larmeniattu NutL Var. y Tor. 4" Gray. — 
Shoots trailing and oflen rooting ; leaves ovate-lati- 
ceolate. 

» M ■. E. a. 4 oboviUu$ Nutt. Var. i Tbr. * Grey; E. 
obovatus Dec. Frod. i. p. 4., Dm'i Mill. 8. p. 5. 
(Ourj^.SOS.) — Trailing and rooting; leaves obovate, 
(ir oval-obovate, obtuse or slightly acuminate, acute a 




XX. C£LASTBaVE£: fUC/NYUUS. 153 

Erect. Leavn oval or elliptical lanceolate, the uppennoat often dightly fal- 
Mte, mostly acuminate, acute or obtiise (rarely subrardate) at the baie. ( Tor. 
mad Gray, Tar. a.) Bnmcbes sleuJer. greeD. Leaves 1 in. to E in. long, cori- 
aceous, nearly evergreen in the southern slates. Seeds smaller than in E. 
atropurpur^us. The scarlet fruits, according to Pursh, resemble, at a dis- 
tance, those of^^'rhutus £7^edo. Tbej form ■ great ornament, he says, to 
this Hlmost evergreen shrub, and have given me, in America, to its common 
name, the bumtog bush. Of easy culture in moist soil, and a shady situation. 
Cuttings or seeds. 

1 m 7. E. Uamiltoh i/'KUs Wall. Hamilton's Euonyirus, or Spmdie Tret. 



Enfraraig' Ouiflg^ »'. Froni a il^oitiui pUol Ld tlie Uort. Soc Gudoi. 
Spec. Char., ^c. Branches smooth, 

terete. Leaves lanceolate, finely 

serrated. Peduncles dichotomous, 

SJlowered. Flowers tetrandrous. 

Petals 4, lanceolate cordate. Ovary 

4-lobed, 4-celled, each cell con- 

twning S ovules. (Don't MiU.) A 

low tree or shrub. Nepal. Height 

10 ft. to soft. Introduced iu 18SS. 

Flowers yellowish green; June 

and July. Fruit ? purple ; Kpe in 

? October. Decaying leave* and 

naked young wood green. 

A free-growing species with an 
erect stem ; the young rhoats green ; 
the leaves large ; bark of tlie older 
shoots white. Left to itself, as a 
standard, it forms a dense fastigiete * 
bosh, with numerous suckers; but, 
trained to a single stem, it would 
doubtless form a handsome small 
tree^ A plant against the wall, in 
the Horticultural Society's Garden, 
flowera freely every year ; but has 

not yet ripened fruit. The plant in ^"- gMp^gm ii -nw a ni — . 

the open garden was killed to the ground by the winter of 1S37-6, but apranf; 
up again with vigour. In the Liverpool Botanic Oarden it 
was not injured. 

Other Spedet of Ea6nymui, — E,japdn«ia Thunb. four 
_fig. 210.x aodE.japimaa /dim vanegalit, E. garcinacfiliMa 
StaA., and some other specie", are in London gardens ; but 
they can only be considered as half-hardy. In the Canter- 
bury Nursery, E. j, l&llis varieg^tis has been found hardier 
than the species. In the Horticultural Society's Qarden, 
£. japiJnicus, trained against a wall, was hut little injured 
by the winter of 1B3T-8. The following species, sbortfy de- 
scribed in our first editian, Mr.Don considers as Ukely to 
prove " tnily hardy ;" some of them arc introduced, and are 
in green-houses : E. grdssus Wall., E. miciinthus D. Don, 
E. lilcidus D. Don. E. echinktus Walt., E. tingens WaU., 
E. glaber Roxb., E. fimbriinis Wall., E. fndicus Heyne, E. 
v&gSAS Wall., S. lubtrifldnis Bbme, E. Thunbergidaw 
no. «-»»'->~ Blume, E. pendulua Watt., and E. fripdus WaU. 



154 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Genus II. 



/ 



285. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 6. ; Don's IffilU 2. p. 6. ; Tor. and Grmj, 1. p. 257. 
S^nonjfmet, Bourreau dei Arbres, Fr. ; Baummorder, Grr. ; Bitteriweet, Waxwork, Am 



imer. 



(TELA'STRUS L. The Celastr us, or i^r^FF TiiiBX. Lin.Sifst. PenUindria 

Monogynia. 

Jdent(flcaiion. Lia. Gen., 270. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. &. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 6. 
Sunonynus. Euonjrmdldet iicenck ; C^lastre, Fr. ; Celaster, Ger. 

Derivation. From kiias, the latter season : the fruit remaining on the tree all the winter. The 
kelaUros of the Greeks is supposed to be the J?u6nymas. 

Gen, Char, Calyx small, 5-lobed. Petals 5, unguiculate. Ovary small, im- 
roersed in a lO-striped disk. Stigmas 2-^. Capsule 2 — 3 valved. Seed 1, 
in a large fleshy anl. (Dons Mill.) 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; stipules minute.— -One 
hardy species ; a climbing shrub, a native of North America. 

1 1. C SCA'^NDBNS L. The c\imbing'4temmed Celastrus, or Staff TVee, 

IdetUification. Lin. Sp. 

Svnonffmes. Bourreau 

Engravings. Nout. Du Ham., 1. t. 9A. } and our^. 211. 

Spec. Char,, Sfc. Thornless, climbing, smooth. Leaves oval, acuminate 
serrate. Flowers dioecious. {Dec. Prod.) A deciduous twining shrub. 
Canada to Virginia. Height 5 ft. to 20 ft. Introduced in 1736. Flowers 
small, pale yellowish green ; June. Capsules orange ; ripe in September. 
Seed reddish brown, coated with a bright orange aril, changing at last to 
scarlet. 

The stems are woody and flexible, and twist 
themselves round trees and shrubs, or round each 
other, to the height of 12 or 15 feet, or upwards, 
girding trees so closely as, in a few years, to de- 
stroy them ; whence the French and German names, 
which signify " tree strangler." The leaves are about 
3 in. long, and nearly 2 in. broad, serrated, of a lively 
green above, but paler on the under side. The plant 
prefers a strong loamy soil, rather moist than dry; and 
IS readily propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings. ^n. cMatm 

Other Species of Celastrus, — C. buUdtus^ described from a figure of Plukenet, 
is, according to Torrey and Gray, a doubtful plant. C. nepaiensu and C. pyra- 
canthifolius are in Messrs. Loddiges's collection, but rather tender. 

Genus III. 




NEMOPA'NTHES Rafin, Thb Nrmopanthbs. Lm, Syst, Polygdmia 

Dicecia. 

Ideniificalion. Rafin. Joam. Phji., 1819, p. 96. ; Dec. Prod., S. p. 17. ; Don's Mill, 1 p. 13i 

Summffme. IlldSldes Dum. Cours. 1. toI. 4. p. 27. 

Dermatim, From monos, a grove, and amikost a flower ; it being generally found in groves. 



Gen, Char, Calyx small, scarcely conspicuous. Petals 5, distinct, oblong, 
linear, deciduous. Stamens 5, alternating with the petals. Ovary hemi* 
spherical, covered with clammy juice. Style wanting. Stigmas 3— -4, ses- 
sile ; ui the male flowers hardly manifest. Berry globose, 3 — l^celled. 
(Don's Mill,) 

Leaves simple, alternate, ovate, exstipulate, deciduous ; quite entire. — One 
hardy species. 



XX. CELASTRA CEJE- XXl- AQVIFOUJl^CEM,. 
■ 1. y. CINKUBNSI 



chx. F1. B^. Jtmer. 1 1. 43^ n 



Spec, Oiar,, ^, Leaves ovate, quite entire, or serrateil At 

the apex, smooth Pedicels luuaUy aolitnry, 1-flowered, 

very Iraig. Flowers white. Berries large, beautiliil 

crimton, very omBmental. (^Don'i MUIJ) Adecicluoua 

iJmib. Canada to Carolina, on mountains. Height 

3ft.to5ft. Introduced in 180S. Flower* small, white ;^ 

April and May. Berry large, beautiful crimson ; ripe in 

October. Very ornamental. 

Ptanti of this species in the Uort. Soc. Garden, and at 
Messrs. Loddiges'a. under the name of /Yinos lucidus, 
tbrm neat bstigiate shrubs, rather of slow growth, A ^..^i^. 

few years ago there were some very handsome plants of 
this species at White KnightB. Sucliers or layers in loamy soil ; or cuttings 
of the young wood in sand under a glass. 

Oder Spedet of Celatirdcea. — Maytemis diileniit Dec. 
(our /!g. £13.), a handsome evergreen branchy shrub, 
with twiggy branchlels. The flowers are in a:iillary clus- 
ters, wiui the corolla of a velloitish green colour, not 
showy. It is 3 native of Ctiile. and stood eight or ten 
winters against a south wall in the Uort. Soc. Garden, 
and was Sought to be tolerably hardy, but was killed to 
the ground in the winter of IS3T-8, and did not spring up 
3 Bgnin. It also stood several winters in the open garden, as 
, ; a stajidard, and promised to be a valuable addition to our 
■u iui'~H Ebiunii. hardy evergreen shrubs, which it may possibly yet prove. 



Order XXI. ^QUIFOLIA'CEiE. 

uJI^b, t^ta^jitiuhllicac, In put, Dte, Proi. t. p. II. i iUdiH, lq put. ZjML 

'i«™*. uN.'s.f. i;s., DoH-i urn. 1 P- 1*. 

OsD. Char. Caiyx and airotla with an imbricate testivation. Sepait 4 — 6. 
Canlla hypogynous, with 4 — 6 lobes, and as many stamens innerted into it 
alternately to its lobes. Ovari/ 2 — excelled i a pendulous ovule in each 
cell. Pmil fleshy, iridehiscent, with 2—6 stones, each containing a pendu- 
lous seed, which has large fleshy albumen. (Lmdl.) — Low pees or shrubs, 
chieAy erergreen. Natives of Europe and North America, 

Leavtt simple, alternate or opposite, esstipulaie, evergreen or deciduous ; 
coriaceous. Fhuiert small, axillary, solitary or faacicled, — The genera 
containing hardy species are three, and are thus contradiBtinguished : — 

Mtgi'ndj Jacq. Sexes hermaphrodite. Stamens 4. Fruit 1-celled, l-seeded. 
Shrubs with square branchlets ; leaves opposite, sub coriaceous, and flowers 
upon trifidly or trichotomoiisly branched peduncles. 

T\.a L. Sexes hermaphrodite, diceeious, or polygamous. Slaracns 4 — 5. 
Fruit iocludin" 4 or 5 nuts. Evergreen shrubs with, mostly, coriaceous 
leaves. Flowers many on a peduncle. 

Pbi'nos L. Sexes mostly ditecious or poly|ainoue. Stamens 6. Fruit in- 
cludir^ 6 nuts. Shrubs with leaves deciduous or persistent, and flowers 
1 u| on a peduncle. 



156 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITAMNICUM. 



Genus I. 



□ 



MYGI'NDi^ Jacq. The Myoinda. Lin, SyH. Tetrindria Monog/uu. 

JientifleaHon. Jacq. Amer., p. M. ; Dec. Prod., S. p. 19L ; Don's HUU >> P- !'• 

Svnonifmei. Tlex Pursh ; Ore^pblU Nvtt. In 7br. amd Qrav- 

Derivation. So named* bj Jaoquin In honour of Francis mm Mi^imd, a Qerman botaniit. 

Gen. Char, Calyx small, 4-cleft. Corolla deeply 4-cleft, aubiotate. Stamens 4, 
alternating with the segments of the corolla, and shorter than them, and 
inserted in its throat. Ovary roundish. Stigmas 4. Drupe ovate, 1 -celled. 
{Don's MUL) 

Leaves simple, mostly opposite, exstipulate, evergreen ; entire or remotely 
serrulated. Flowers axillary, subsolitary, minute. — One species is hardy. 

ji 1. M. AfYRTiPoYiA NtUL The Myrtle-leaved Myginda. 

Idmt^kMuM. NuU. Gen., 1. p. 109. , Don't MiU.. S. p. li^ ; Dec Prod., 2. 

p. 13. 
Svfonymei. Tlex Mfnhxltea Pursk ; Ore6phlIa fftyrUil>llA KtcM 
JSngratingg. Hook FL Bor. Atner., t. 41. ; and oar>^. SL 

Spec, Char,f S^c, Leaves oblong, blunt, serrated, smooth, 
with re volute edges. Peduncles very short usually soli- 
tary, l-flowered. Style short, club-shaped 4-lobed at the 
apex. (Don's MiU,) A low evergreen shnib. N. W. 
coast of North America, and the Rocky Mountains. 
Height 2 ft. to 4fl. In tr educed in 1818. Flowers small, 
white ; May to August. Drupe dark purple ; ripe in Oct. 

Plants of this species are in the arboretum of Messrs. 
Loddiges ; where it is increased by cuttings, and grows in 
common soil. 

Genus II. 




fl4. M. Mjnmila. 





J^LEX L. The Hollt. lAn. Syst Tetr&ndria Tetragynia. 

JdentifleaUoH. Lla. Oen., No. 172. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 13. ; Don't Mill.. 2. p. 16L 

Bynomfmes. WquKbUum Toum. InsL t 171., &«r<. FrucL 2. t 92: ; Hoax, Fr. ; Stechpatan^ or 

HfHue, Ger^ lUoe, /fa/. 
Derivation. Theopbrattot, and other Greek authort, named the holly Agria ; that i«» wild, or of 
the fleldi ; and the Romans formed firom thlt the word Agrifolium ; and called It. alto. Aqoi. 
folium, from ocmTimm, tharp, and foUum^ a leaf. C Bauhin and Looreiro flnt named It riex, on 
acoount of the resemblance of its leares to those of the Querent JTlex, the true Ilex of Virgil. 
LInnaut adopted the name of JTlex for the genua, and presenred the name of ifquifdilum for the 
most anciently known ipedet. The name of HoUjr it, probablv, a comiptioa of the word hoty, 
at Turner in hit Herbal callt it Holy, and Holy Tree ; probably frxsm its beinc uted to oomm*- 
morateUhe holy time of Christmas, not only in houses, but in churches. The German name 
Christdom, the Danish name Christom, uid the Swedish name Christtom, teem to Justify this 
eoi^ecture. 

Gioii. Char, Calyx 4 — 5-toothed, permanent. Corolla 4— 5-cleft, subrotate. 
Stamens 4 — 5, alternating with the segments of the corolla. Ovary sessile. 
SUgmas 4. Berry containing 4—5 1 -seeded nuts. {Don's MUL) 

L«atv# simple, alternate, exstipulate, mostly eveigreen; ovate, oval, or 
ovate-lanceolate, coriaceous, serrated, toothed, or quite entire. Fhtoers 
axillary, agsrcgace, small, generally white. jFVio^ a drupe, mostly red. — Low 
trees and snrubs, chiefly evergreen, natives of Europe, North America, and 
the Himalayas, generally of slow growth, and of long duration. Loamy 
soil, rather dry tnan moist. 



XXr. -<QUIFOLIACE«: ILEX. 



A. £«awi tpmt/Jootkta, 
i 1. 1. Aumvo'^ivm L. The prickly-leared, or «HinnOTi,_ Holly. 

I^HttM. Un. SptIII. i Fl. Dtn., (OS. ; D»t Prod.,*, p. II. ; ajn'l Mifi., i >. "^jj^^ ^ 

¥■«. ft-, i 8t«hp.«n». SUUiUub. fluUe. ChrlKdo™. M.iudorj Jftlta*uj2^" t 
^nUKl l»rdk*U, D«c* ; Srlkjalmr, DaMi* i J.rlKk. Cbriillnrn Sirerfu* , WK^Mlnld. 
Onrokof, P.dub. «■«. ! ApifoLio, Jb.i ; Arabo, Sm. : A'^'lnho, Port. „i , . .^ 

A.t»«^L ainHllED(. B«.L496.-. Ih. pUl«D(tlHi.p«t«inArb. B(ll,lit«dU., iol.T.,»ad 

Sprc. Oar., *f. Leaves oblong, Bhining, wafv, ■piny-toothed. Peduncles 
MiillKT FlowerB nearly umbellate. A handaome, eonicsl, evergreen 
tree. Eurc^e and Britain. Height gOft. to 30ft. in a wild state; and 



twice that height, or upwards, in a state of cultivation. Flowers white; 
Hay. Pruit reil ; riiie in September, and remaining on the tree all the 
winter. The lower leaves are very spinous ; while the upper ones, espe- 
cially on old trees, are entire. Decaying leaves yellow, dropping in June 
or July. 
Towtn. In general the variegalioD of plants, more especially of treea and 
•hrubs, i« accompanied by a ragged, or otherwise unhealthy, appearance in 
the leaves j but the holly is one of the very few esceptiona to this rule. 
Tbe tarieeationa of the holly are chiefly confined to [he modification of 
white and yellow in the leaves: but there are some sorts in which the 
vination results from the stale of the leaves with reference to prickles, to 
nugnitude, and to fonn ; and others consist of difTerences in the colour 
of the fniit, which is red, yellow, or white, and black. These varieties are, 
fbr the moat part, without names, and those in the following groups ap- 
pear to ua to be all that are trulv distinct ; but the shades of difl^ence under 
each name in these groups are almost iniwinienible. 



8 AltBOitETUSI ET FKLTICETUM BRiTANNICUM. 

ii. y^ielic-, d^tigmltd frvm lAe Form. Magnitude. Thickn<r», SuHi-ce 

or Margin of the Leaf. 
t I. A. 2 helerophjillum Hort. — Leaves TarioiiBly shapEd. 
t I. A. 3 rtij^iu/i/o/iimi Hon. — Leaves narrow. 

t I. A. 4./Bii/3/inniHi>rt.— Leavesbroad. Shoots dark purple. There 
IB a fine specimen at Elvajitoii Caatle, where it is called the Water 
Holly, 
t 1. A. 5 ailaclerhue Hort. The High Clere Hollv. — Leaves broad 

thin, and Am. 
1 LA. 6 margi.1^™ Hort. (&. 216.) — Leaves without prickles, 
conaceous, nearly as broad as loni;, and with a thickened maipn. 



t L A. 7 Uari/dUum Hort. (&. 217.) — Leaves small, oval-lanceolate 
without prickles, about the size and shape of those of LaCinia 
n6bilis. 
t L A, 8 •.ilidttm Hort. (Jig. 818.) — Leaves oval-acuminate, small; 
the prickles along (he margins like hairs. 

A. 9 ei/idlam ndniu Hort. — Leaves thinner and smaller than in the 
precetling variety. 
A. 10 rreiireiim Hort. (jJg. 219.) — Leaves recurved. 




I L A. II icm^a/iun Hort. f/g. 2S0.) — Leaves »■ 

t I. A. 12 crfjpuni Hon. — Leaves curled. 

t 1. A, 13 /CTOT Hort. Hedgehog Holly; Houx-herisson, />, (Jig.iai.) 

— The disk of the leaf fias its edges rolled back ; and a somewhat 




XXI. ^QUIFOLIA'CC^: /'LEX. 

cylindrical figure U hence piv- 

en to IE ; and, as the Eurfnce ^ 

dxjunds in prominenceB and 

prickles, it has a curious ap- 

pearancc, not unaptly com- 
pared to that of a hedgehog. 
t 1. A. li cnun/o/iuni Hon. i,flg. 

292.) — Leaves thick and 

fleshy. 
r I. A. 15 miicmt Sweet. — 

Leaves spineless, thin. 
All these varieties may be seen 
in Messrs. Loddiges's collection, 
and it is no small proof ot their 
value for town gardens, that they 
thrive in the smoky atmosphere of 
nt. i.^nm. that magnificent establiiihment. 

b. Vanetiet deiignaled from the Colovn of tie Leaf. 

Under the general name of van^ated hollies, twenty or thirty varieties, 
tome of them with, and some of them without, popular names, are obtainable 
in the principal London nurseries. Having examined and compared the 
diflbrent sbailea of variegation in the plants in the very complete collection 
of Mesm. Loddiges, we think they may be all included in the following 
groups; — 

t i. A. 16 dlbo-margaidtum Hort. — Leaves with white edges. Of this 
variety the subrarieties in I,oddiges's arboretum are marked 5, lb, 
IB, and 24, which hare all long and narrow leaves, with edgings of 
white or pale yellow along their margins ; and 4, 6, 7, IS, 17, 3E, 23, 
and 86, which have larger leaves, and a greater breiulth of margin 
variegated ; the white or pale yellow forming in some cases one 
third, or even one half, of the surface of the teul 

1 1. A, 17 aureo-margindlum Hort. — Leaves with jellow edges. The 
following subvarieties are in Messrs. Loddigeb'n arboretum, Nos. 19 . 
and 20 with dark yellow mar^ns; and Nos. 1. 2, 8, 9, 10. 13, and 
89, with mar^nsof dark and light yellow. Another subdividon of 
thix group consiita of plants with broad leaves, in what may be 
called a transitioD state from green to vari^ated, viz., with ereenish 
yellow or very pale green blotches or margins. When such plants 
become old, they are generally very distinctly variegated with yellow. 
Examples in the Hackney arboretum are Nos. 3, 20, and 21. 

t I. A. 18 albo-jActum Hort. — Leaves spotted with while. Tills variety 
hai a considerable portion of the centre of the disk of the leaf white. 
and of a somewhat transparent appearance; the edges of the disk 
of the leaf being green. 

1 I.A. \9 aurea-fActuBi Hort. — Leaves spotted with yellow. The fol- 
lowing subvarieties are in Messrs. Loddiges's arboretum. Nos. 1 1, 
H, 16, 26, 87, and 30. 

t I. A. saferox arehileum Hort. — Hie hedgehog holly with leaves 
blotched with wTiice. 

* L A. i\ Jerox-aitremtt Hort- — The bedgfjiog holly with leaves blotched 

with ydlow. 

c. Varieikt dcagnated yrom the Colour of the Fndt. 
I L A. 88 ^ilriuiilfao Hort. — Fruit yellow. 

* L A. 23 frictu 6ibo Hort. — Fruit white. 

* L A. 24 fruclu mgro Hort, — Fruit black. 

The holly mtkes the most impenelrable and the most durable of all vege- 



lf)t> ARBORETUM ET FEUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. ^ 

table fences ; and it has this great advantage over deciduous4eaved trees and 
shrubs, that it is seldom liable to be attacked by insects ; and, if shorn, the 
outer surface becomes impenetrable even to birds, who cannot build their nests 
in it. The wood is almost as white as ivory, except in the centre of very 
old trv»*ks, where it is somewhat brown. It is very hard, with a fine grain, 
8U8cef4ble of a high degree of polish, and is readily stained with black, green, 
blue, or red. It weighs, when dry, at the rate of 4*7 lb. 7 oz. per cubic foot. 
The veins of the wood, and its annual layers, are so small as scarcely to be 
perceptible. It is applied to a ^eat many purposes, in joinery, cabinet-making, 
and turnery; in engineering, m mathematical-instrument-making; and it is 
even used for wood-engraving. The bark afibrds birdlime, which is prepared 
by boiling and evaporation. Theliolly attains the largest size in a* rich sandy 
loam ; but it will grow, and even thrive, on almost any soil, provided it is not 
overcharged with moisture. As its ^eeds, like those of the hawthorn, do not 
come up the first year, to save ground and the expense of weeding, the ber- 
ries are commonly buried in the soil, or kept mixed up in a heap of earth for 
one year ; after which, if sown in autumn, they will come up the following 
June. The varieties are propagated by budding and grafting. These ope- 
rations are performed at the usual times, and in the usual manner ; but it has 
been observed by Tschoudi, that cleft-grafling does not succeed nearly so 
well with the holly as whip-grafting or budding. In England, the stocks 
budded or grafted on are generally of four or five years* growth ; and the 
grafting is effected in March, and the budding in July. The variegated kinds 
are also propagated by cuttings, which are made in autumn, of the ripened 
summer shoots. They are planted in sandy soil, in a shady border, and covered 
with hand-glasses ; and they generally put forth roots the following 8|)ring. 
Holly hedges should never be clipped, because, when the leaves are cut 
throujzh the middle, they are rendered unsightly ; and the shoots should 
therefore be cut with a knife close to a leaf. The proper season for cutting 
would appear to be just after the leaves have attamed maturity ; because 
at that season, in the holly, as in the box, the wound is comparatively soon 
obliterated by the healing over produced by the still abundant sap. 

t 2. L (A.) balea^'rica Desf, The Minorca Holly. 

Idetdifioation. Deaf. Arb., 9. p. 26S. ; Don's Mill., S. p. 17. 
Synotwmet. I. ilqulfblium rar. ) Lam. Diet. 3. p. US.^ /. made- 

rfinili Wittd. Enum. Suppl. 8. according to Link. 
Mn^raoing, Our Jig. 223. 

Spec. Char., <J>c. Leaves ovate, acute, flat, shining, 
entire or spiny-toothed* Umbels axillary, few- 
flowered, short. (Don*t Mill.) An evergreen low 
tree. Minorca and Madeira. Height 10 fl. to 20 fit. 
in England ; in Madeira 60 fl. to 80 (t. Introduced 
in 1744. Flowers white ; May and June. Drupe 
scarlet ; ripe in December. Decaying leaves yellow, 
dropping in June and July. 

A very distinct variety of the common holly, readily 
distinguished at sight, by its yellowish green leaves, 
which are sharply acuminated, but very slightly waved 
at the edges, and with few prickles. It is propagated by <tt- '• i^-) 
budding or grafting on the common holly. 

1! 3. /. OPA^CA Ait. The opaqaeJeaved, or American^ Holly. 

Identifieation. Ait. Hort. Kew, 1. p. 177. ; Dec. Prod., S. p. 14. ; Don't Mill., 9. p. 17. 
Synon^fme*. ifgrlfblium TUlgkre Oai/t, Flor. Virgin. \ /"lex ilqui(bllum Ortmow. and Walt. Ft. 

Car. 241. ; dunkelblattrlM Stechpalme, Qer. : Agrlfollo a Foglle dJ Querela, ItaL 
Engraoingt. The plate of the spedet in Arb. Brit., Ut edit, toI. t. ; and our^. 224 

Spec. C/tar., ^c. Leaves ovate, flat, coriaceous, acute, toothed in a scalloped 
manner, sniny, and glabrous, but not glossy. Flowers scattered, at the 
base of only those branches that are a year old. Teeth of the calyx acute. 
Sexes dioecious. (Dec. Prod.) A beautiful evergreen low tree. Canada 




XXI. j*QtiiFOLiA'cEJB : j'lex. 16| 

to^Kna. Height in England 10ft. toEOft.; in Carolina 60 ft. to 80ft. 
Inm»duooduil744. Flower* white ; May and June. Drupe scarlet j ripe 
m December, remaimng on the trees all the winter. 

I 1. 0. 2 Itulflin, I. laxifldra Lam., I. opio w. A^Mtf ., has the flowers 
on IoomIj branched peUunclei, and the drupe yellow. Introduced 
in I8t I. Several other vaiietieE ere mentioned bv Rafine^que. 




In America, this upecies is applied to all the ust's which 
the ramnjon holly is in Europe. It forms hedges ; is an 
ornamental tree or shrub in gardens; is emjiloyed for 
"■king birdlime; and the wood is used in turnery and 
rabinetnialing. Propagation as in the common holly. 

ria tMeeliiniea (_fy. 225.), of which there is a small 
plant in the Hort. Soc Garden, pramisi:s to be a very 
"ndsoroe species, and tolerably hardy, as it stood the 
winter of 1837-8 against a wall. 



B. Leavet toothed, larattd, or crmalt, but 



m 4. /. Ffddo Ait. The Perado Holly. 
UnttiflcaliBm. Alt Hort. Knr., l.p. tSB. ; Ilan'iUai.,1.p. IT. 
Sffw^iiiu, /. TudfTTiuli Lam, Did. S. p. 1U. 
Emtratiitgi. N. Du Hun., i. L ».; BaL C^., LMg.,i mniDarJIt.nt 

Sj-ec. Char., cjc. Leaves ovate, with an entire acumen, 
or having very few teeth, shining. UmbeU short, ax- 
illary, few^Aowered. (Dm'i MUl.) An evergreen 
shrub. Madnra. Height in England 511. to lOft. 
Introduced in 1760. llowera white or reddish ; May 
and June. Drupe large, red ; ripe in October. 
Commonly treated aa a green-house plant, but quite 
^&^dr ^'"^y '" ^' Hort Soc. Garden; where, and bImo in se- 
.^^arV vera! other places, it stood the winter of IB37-8, without 
1. tv™«. any protection, uninjured. 

/. CjIssi'xh Ait. The CassineSie, or hroad-leaved Dafurnn, Holly. 

, fcfTwu.'. 1*^17"'^ '^"'■' '•''■™'°"- '^"'" S-P.H-lP™'' FI.A111. S^.l.p.llT.j 
»—*■■ » - A'raaMam atDlln^iiH (Mai. Or. I.t.jl.i/. areMnUu Uitt. Din. tto. ».; I 
nKwUB l.At iatm. I. n lU, i lb« Cuiau (rf Ilia Anwilcu IsdliiBi BaHm. 



162 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




Spec. Char,, S^c, Leaves ovate-lanceolate, sharply 
serrated, flat ; the midribs, petioles, and branch-' 
lets glabrous. The flowers upon lateral corym- 
bosely branched peduncles. {Dec. Prod.) An 
evergreen shrub. Lower Carolina to Florida, 
in shady swamps. Height 6 ft. to 10 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1700. Flowers white ; August. Drupe 
red ; ripe in December. 

The fruit is rather smaller than that of the com- 
pon hollv ; it continues on the trees the most part 
of the wmter, untouched by birds ; and, being of a 
bright red, and large in proportion to the leaves, 
which are about the size of those of the common 
arbutus, the plant makes a fine appearance, both in 
its native country and in England. Commonly pro- 
pagated by seeds ; but it will also strike by cuttings, or it may be grafted on 
the common holly. 

m 6. /. ANGUSTiFO^LiA WUkl. The narrow-leaved Holly. 

Identification. Willd. Enum., 1. p. 172. ; Dec. Frod., 8. p. 14.; 

Don's Mill., 3. p. 17. 
SyitonifmtM, I.mjrtxfbM^ Wait, CaroiL S41., N. DtiA., and Lodd. 

Cat, ; /. rosmarinifblta Lam. Jil, 1. p. 356. 
Engravings, N. Du Ham., 1. 1. 4. ; and our fig. 22S. 

Spec, Char., S^c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, sawed at 
the tip, rather revolute in the margin ; the mid- 
rib, petiole, and branchlets glabrous. Flowers in 
stalked lateral cymes. {Dec. Prod.) An evergreen 
shrub. Height 6 ft. to 10 ft. Virginia to Geor- 
gia, in swamps. Introduced in 1806. Flowers 
white ; June. Drupe globular and red ; ripe in 
December. 

A very handsome species, but not very common. 
There are plants of it at Messrs. Loddiges, and in 
the H. S. Garden, under the name of /. myrtifblia. 

1 7. /. VOMITO^RIA Ait. The emetic Holly, or South Sea Tea. 

tdewtifieation. Alt. Hort. Kew.. 1. p. 278. ; Dec. Prod., 2 p. 14. ; Don*! Mill., 2. p. 17. 
Synonymes. I. CasMhie vdrft IValt, Carol, 341. « /. fifftistrfna Jacq. CoU. 4. p. 105., Tctm. Rar. 

t.310., IVmdt. Hort. t. 81.: Casshu Perdgua Mill. Icon. t. 83. f . 2. ; /. Cauina Michx. Fl. 1. 

p. '229. ; /. reli|d[bsa Bart. A Virg. 69. ; /. florld&na Lam. lU. No. 1731. ; Houx apalacbine. Ft. - 

true Cassene, Casiena, Florida ; the Yapon, Virginia ; the 

etergreen Casaena, or Casiloberrv Bush, Eng. 
Engravings. Jacq. Icon. Rar., t. 3l0. ; Wendl. Hort.. t. 31. ; 

Hill. Icon., t. 83. f. 2. ; BXidonr fig. 229. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves oblong or elliptic, 
obtuse at both ends, crenately serrated, and, 
with the branchlets, glabrous. Flowers in 
subsessile lateral umbels. (Dec. Prod.) An 
evergreen low tree. Carolina to Florida, along 
the sea coast. Height 10 ft. to 12 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1700. Flower white ; June and July. 
Drupe red, like that of the common holly ; 
ripe in December. 

Not very common in British collections ; but 
there arc plants of it in Loddiges*8 arboretum, 
and in the garden of the Hort. Soc 

C. Leaves quite entire, or nearly to. 
1 « 8. /. Dahoo'n Wall. The Dahoon Holly. 

Identification. Wait Fl. Carol., 941. ; Dee. Frod., 9. p. 14. i Don'l Mill., 9. p, iv. 
Sfnoninw. I. Casskte WiUd. Hort. B«rol. 1. 1. 31 . 





XXI. ^quifolia''ce£ : pri'nos. 163 

BaZHrtiH. Wnid. HaR.Btnl.,tt1^iiid«lfea nnw tt l.C—^me; «ar J((. DO. bum ■ plul 
kLa«£i«'tl>it»i«nin,udj4.3Sl.rrijin[h(Bgrt. BanUn. 

SpK. Char., Ifc. Leaves lanceoUtely elliptical, nearlj entire, almost reroluta 
in the maipn ; the midrib, petiole, and branchleta villous. Flowen dis- 
poned in corj'QiboBe panicles, that are upon lateral aod terminal peduncles. 
(Dee. Prod.') A beautiftil evergreen shrub <x low tree. Carolina to Flo- 
rida, m swamps. Height S ft. to 10 ri. btroducedin 1726. Flowers white; 
Blaj and June. Drupe red ; ripe in December. 
Hie leaves of this apeciea are verf numerous, 

ud resemble those of Z.Burus BoiMnin. The 

pint ia rare m British gardens, and seldoca ripens 




^ . in peen- 

, ant m 1836 io the open air, in the Mile End Nursery, which was 20 ft. high, 
with a bead 30 ft. in diameter ; and which had stood there many years, with- 
out the slightest protection. 

Olier Speda oflHex are described by authors as natives of North America 
and Sepal, loine of which are introdticed, and may probably be found hardy, 
But we can state nothing with certainty respectine them. In this genus, as 
in OKMt others containing numerous ipericfl which are not in general cultiva- 
tion, there is a great deal of uncertainty. 7. Caairie, I, voraitoria and I. 
O>^o6» are probably tbe caine species. 



Genus III. 



., Gol.Hd.WI.; Dec. Prod., l.p.l«.: Dod'i Mill.. S. p. 90. 

Vw^ina. AgJMi Mam. Fam. I. p l«S.i Apiliiidiii. Pr. ; WinurbHn. Ctr. 

Gtm, Char. Flowen 6.«left, hexandrous ; usually dttcciouB, or polygamous 
fixMD abortion. Fnat with 6 nuts. In other respects the character is the 
nme as that of riex. {Dm'i MUi.) 

heavet simple, axillary, exstipulate, deciduous or evei^een ; oval or 
boceolale, entire or serrated ; djing off of a greenbh yellow. Flowert 
on axillary pedicels, usually single, Bmall, mo>tly white. — Shrubs, ever- 
fteea and deciduous ; natives of North America. 
In habit of growth the spedes are all more or leas faetigiate, and send up 

laaaooM aucKers from the collari but, if these were removed, the plants 



164 



ARBORBTUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



would form neat miniature trees. Propagated by suckers, or by cuttings of 
the young wood in sand under a glass, or by seeds. Common soil, kept moist. 
There is a close general resemblance among all the deciduous species, which 
leads us to doubt whether they are any thing more than varieties. 

§ i. Prinoides Dec. 



L 



.IL 

Stct. Char, Flowers usually 4-— 5- sometimes 6-cIeft. {Dec, Prod., ii. p. 16.^ 
Leaves deciduous. 

A 1. P. DECi'Duus Dec. The deciduous Winter Berry. 

Jdeni(fleaiiot^ Dec. Prod., S. p. 16. ; Don'i MilU 2- ?• 20. 

Stmonymes. /Mex srtndldea Ait, Hori. Kew. S. p. 278. ; Piex. decidua 

Walt. PL Carol S41. 
Engraving, Our Jig. 933. from a plant in the Hort. Soe. Garden. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Leaves deciduous, elliptic-lanceolate, 
tapered to the petiole, shallowlv serrated; the midrib 
villous beneath. Peduncles axillary ; those of the male 
flowers several together; of the female ones, singly. 
Berries red. (Dec. Prod,) A deciduous shrub. Vir- 
ginia to Georgia, on rocky shady banks of rivers. Height 
3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1736. Flowers white ; June 
and July. Berries large, crimsoa ; ripe in December. 

Plants of thia species are in Loddiges's nursery, under 
the name of Plex ^rinoides. „,. Mirndtddi 

* 2. P. ambi'guus Michx. The ambiguous Winter Beny. 

Identification, Mlchx. Fl. Bor. Amer., S. p. 286. i Dec. Prod, 8. p. 17.; 

Don's Hill., 2 p. 30. 
^pumjfme. CasAne caroliniina Walt. FL Carol, p. 943. 
engravings, Wats. Dend. Brit^ t. 29. ; and owrjig. 833. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Leaves deciduous, oval, acuminate at both 
ends ; both adult ones and youn^ ones glabrous in every 
part. Peduncles of the male flowers crowded together in 
the lower parts of the branch lets; of the female ones, 
singly. {Dec, Prod,) A deciduous shrub. New Jersey 
to Caroling, in wet sandy woods. Height 4 ft. to 5 ft. 
Introduced in 1812. Flowers white; June to August. 
Berries red ; ripe in November. 

The leaves are subimbricate, serrated, acute at the apex, and 
the berries small, round, smooth, and red. There is a hand- 
some plant of this species in the arboretum of Messrs. Lod- 
diges, which, in 1835, was 5 ft. high. It is of easy culture in any 
free soil ; and is propagated by seeds, cuttings, or layers. 





§ iu Ageria Dec. 



bigavh 



Sect, Char, Flowers usually 6-cleft. Leaves deciduous. (Dec, Prod 
XI. p. 17.) 

• 3. P, VEBTiciLLA^TUs L, The whoried MTmter Berry. 

Hent^eation, Lin. Spec., 471. : Dec. Prod., 8. n. 17. ; Don's MilU S. p. Sa 

Synonyma, P. f adifUlus Willd. Enmn. p. 894. ; P. Gronftrir SOchz. Fl. Bor. Amw. 8. p. 236 > 
r.etmartm Mmtchi P.prunifMlus Z^dd. Cat. ^^■- * 




XXI. jfQUirOLI&^CES : PRf HOS. 



FlU.Dnid. BiU^t.lO.; Doll. Atti.,l.t.n.l mr. 
^,-^ A-IH. bomttiaUon. Sac. Gardin. 

Oiar., 4*c. Leaves deciduoiu, ots), i 
note, «emtcd, pubescent beneath. Male 
Sowera in axillarf umbel-ahaped liwcicleB ; 
tbe feiDale ones amrecBte, ttie flower* of . 
both sexes &part^ (Dec. Pnd.) A de- . 
ciduous ehnib. Canada to Virginia, in wtt I 
woods. Height 6 ft. to 8 ft. Introduced 
in 1736. Flowers white ; June to August. 
Berries red or crimson, turning purple ; ripe 
in November. 

There are two handsome plants of this 
spedes in Loddiges's arboretum, 7 ft. high, one , 
of which is under the name of P. r'niniioliui. 
■ 4. F. lxviga'tus Purih. The smooth.^inw^ Winter Berry. 
Mi^MMUn. Fonli n. Sept. Anw., I. p. n). t Dk. Prod., S. p. IT. i : 
Dool UOL, 1. p. n. I 

r ji ' j- WaU. Dnd. Brit., 1. 38. ; indsor JV.ns. 
^pre. Ciar., ^c. Leaves dedduoua, lanceolate, serrated, ' 
the teeth directed forwards, acuminate ; gkhrous on 
both lurfaces, except on the nerves beneath, wheru 
they are slightly pubescent ; upper surface glossr. 
Fowers O-clcft ; the male ones scattered ; the female 
ones axillary, solitary, almost sessile. (Oec, Fred.) A 
dedduous ahmb. Kew York to Virginia, on the Alle- 
^lany Mountains. Height 6ft. to 8ft. Introducedin 
1812. Flowers white; July. Berries large, dark red ; 
'o November, 

The plant of this species in Lod* 
diget's arboretum was 4 ft. high in 
1835. Besdilj distinguislied by its 
■onievdint more succulent leaves and 
shooia, the latter, when young, tinged 
with liuk purple. 

A 5. F. lancbola'tus Punh. The lanceolate-^nnW 
Winter Berry, 

I. r.V.;Dte.Fr(A„i.v.ir.i 

Urn Hon. Soe. GaideD. 
Spec. Cha., Sfc. Leaves deciduous, lanceolate, remotely 
and very slightly serrulate, smooth on both luHaees. 
Blale flowers aggregate, triandrous ; female ones mostly 
in pairs, peduncled, and 6-cleft. {Dec. Prod.) A deci- 
duous ihrub. Carolina to Georgia, in low grounds. 
Hdght 6ft. to 8 ft. Introduced in 1811. Flowers 
white ; June and July. Berries small, scarlet ; ripe in 
November. 

The plant in Loddiges's arboretum is 8 ft. high. 
$ iii. fViniirlia Moench. 




\M 



Snt. Char. Flowera, ft* the isoet part, 6i^eft. Leaves permanenl. (i)ec. 
Pnd., n. p. 17.) 



166 



ARDORETUx\l ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



ngra9ing. Our Jig. 238. from nature. The figure uuder this naaae in Wats. Dend., t. 37^ it thac 
of P. 




136. PMnotKlkbar. 



m 6. p. GLA^ER £. The glabrous Winter Berry. 

Ident^loHtiom. Lin. Spec., 471. ; Dec. Prod., S. p. 17. ; Don's Hill., a. p. 90. 
Synonyme. Ink berry, Amer. 
Engravmg. Our^. 23f 
of P. corliceus Pursh, 

Spec, Char,^ ifc^ Evergreen. Leaves lanceolate, 
with wedge-shaped iKises, coriaceous, glabrous, 
glossv, somewhat toothed at the tip. Flowers 
mostly three on an azillarv peduncle that is usu- 
ally solitary. Fruit black. {Bee, Prod,) An 
evergreen shrub. Canada to Florida, in shady 
woods. Height 3 ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 1750. 
Flowers white ; July and August. Berries black ; 
ripe in November. 

A low but very handsome evergreen shrub, which, 
in its native country, makes a fine show, when 
covered with its black berries. In Loddiges^s arbo- 
retum it has attained the height of 4 ft., with a regu- 
lar ovate shape, densely clothed with shining foliage. 

• 7. P. coRiA^CEUs Pwrth, The coriaceou8-/?atv«f Winter Berry. 

IdaUifleation. Pursh Fl. SepU Amer., 1. p. 221. ; Dec. Prod., 2l p. 17. ; Don's MilU 2. p. 21. 
^monyme. P, gibber Wats. 

Engravmer. WaIs. Dead. Brit., t. 27., and Bot. j Cab., 4S0., under the naoie 
of P. glAber ; and oiujig. 289. 

Spec. Char,, 4*c. Evergreen. Leaf lanceolate, with a wedge- 
shaped base, coriaceous, glabrous, glossy, entire. Flowers 
in short, sessile, axillary corymbs, many in a corymb. 
(Dec. Prod.) A handsome, talC evergreen shrub. Georgia, 
in sandy woods near the banks of rivers. Height 8 ft. to 
10ft. Introduced in 1820. Flowers white; June and 
July. Berry black ; ripe in November. 

Varieties. This species varies, with leaves brooder, obovate- 
lanceolate, and acuminate ; and narrower, lanceolate, and 
acute. (Dec. Prod.) The broad-leaved variety appears to 
be that figured in Lod. Bot, Cab., t. 450. 

The general aspect of* this plant is that of Plex DahoSn. It is a handsome 
shrub, well deserving a place m collections. 

fl 

Other Species of Prtnos. — P. d&bius 6. Don. and P. atomdrius Nutt. have 
been introduced, and, probably, some others; but we have only noticed 
those of which we have seen living plants, and which we consider to be 
tolerably distinct, though there are probably only three species of Prinoa ; 
two of which are deciduous, and the other evergreen. 




Order XXIL iiHAMNA^CEiE. 

Ord. Char* Calyx 4*-^5-cleft ; aestivation valvate. Corolla of 4—5 petals ; 
in some absent. Petals cucullate, or convolute, inserted into the orifice of 
the calyx. Stamens 4—5, opposite the petals, perigynous. Ovary supe- 
rior, or half-superior, 2-, 3-, or 4-celled, surrounded by a fiesh v disk. Ovulet 
one in a cell, erect, as are the seeds. Frttit fleshy and indehiscent, or dry 
and separating into 3 divisions. — Trees or shrubs, often spiny, and generally 
dedduous. (Undl.) 

Leaves simple, alternate, very seldom opposite, with minute stipules^ 



XXII. JIHAMNA'CEiE: ZI^ZYPHUS. 167 

decidoous or erergreen. FUnoen axillary or tenninal* — Chiefly natives of 
Europe or North America. 

They are ornamental in British gardens and shrubberies, chiefly from the tb- 
riety of their foliage, and from their berries ; but some of them, as Ceandthus, 
from their flowers. They are all of easy culture ; and they are propagated by 
seeds, cuttings, or layers. The hardy genera in British gardens are six ; which 
are characterised as follows : — 

ZfzTPBus Toum. Petals 5. Styles 2 — 3. Fnut an ovoid mucilaginous dnipe. 

Nuts 1 — 3-celled. Seed compressed. A deciduous low tree or shrub. 
Paliu^rus Toum. Petals 5. Styles 3. Fruit dry, indehiscent, girded with 

a broad membranaceous wing, 3-celled. Seed ovate. Spiny shrubs. 
Bkrche^/^ Necker. ^etals 5. Style 1. Stigmas 2. Fruit an oblong dry 

drupe ; the nut 2-ceIIed. A twining deciduous shmb from Carolina. 
i^HA^mius Lam, Petals in some absent. Style 2 — 4>-cleft. Fruit nearly 

dry, or berried, 2 — 4-celled. Seed oblong. Shrubs or small trees, deciduous 

or evergreen ; chiefly natives of Europe, but some of N. America and Asia. 
CollrWu Comm. Corolla none. Style endine in 3 teeth. Fruit a 3-ceUed 

capsule. Spiny shrubs ; natives of Peru or Chile. 
Cbano^hds Xr. Petals 5. Styles 2 — 3, united. Fruit a dry henry, 3rcelled, 

rarely 2 — 4^ce]led. Seed ovate. Shrubs, evergreen or deciduous, from 

North America. 

Genus I. 



m 



1^ 



ZrZYPHUS Thttm. The Jujube. Lm. Stftt. Pent&ndria Di-Trig/nia. 

Hnrtjftwrtw. Toum. Init., t. 4Qa : Gaert. Fmct., 1. p. 4S } Lam. m., fc. 185. i Dec. Prod., S. 

p. IM, ; BroD^. Mini. Rhan., p. 47. 
ft— y i CT . Jmobler, Fr. ; Judendorn, Gtr,i Gingglolo, Ital, 
Dtri&atum, From tudowtf, the Arabic name of the lotus. 

Gen. Char. Calyx spreading, d-cleH;. Petals 5, obovate, unguiculate, convolute. 
Stamens 5, exseited. Anthers ovate, 2>celled. IHth flat, pentagonal, ex- 
panded, adhering to the tube of the calyx. Ovary 2 — 3-celled, immersed 
in the disk. Styles 2 — 3. FruU fleshy, contdning a 1 — 2-celled nut. 
(Don's MIL, 2. p. 23.) 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; 3-nerved. Flowers axil- 
laiy. — Only one hardy species. A low tree or shrub from Syria. 

2 1. Z. vuLGA^Ris Lam, The common, or cultivated^ Jujube. 

irimf0lMfJb». Lam. ID.. IBS. f. 1. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 19. ; Don's Mill., % p. S8. 

4Mnwi. Abimnus Zfsyphus Lrm. Spec, 882., Pall. FL Ro$t. 2. t. 80. : Z. saUva lyetf. Art. 8. 

p. 173., N. Du Ham, 1. 16., but not of Gaert. ; 2. JiifvAd Bfill. Dkt. No. 1., but not of Lam. ; 

JitfiiMer cultiW, Fr. ; Bnistbeeren, Ger.x Giuggiolo, Ital. 

Lam. lU., 1S5. £ 1. ; N. Da Bam., S. 1. 16. ; and oita Jig. 240. 



Spec. Ckar,, ^c Branchlets glabrous. Leaves ovate, retuse, denticulate, 
glabrona ; or, beneath, pubescent along the nerves. Prickles not any, or 
twin, one of them recurved. Drupe ovate-oblong. (Dec. Prod.) A deci- 
duous tree. The South of Europe and Syria. Heieht in the South of 
Europe 20 ft. to 30 ft. ; and in England 5 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1640. 
Flowers greenish yellow; August and September. Fruit blood-red or 
saffioD ; rarely seen in England. 

Stem thick, cylindrical, somewhat twisted. The bark is brown, and rather 
dapped. The branches are numerous, pliant, armed with prickles, zigzag in 
their direction ; the prickles at the joints being two of unequal size, of which 
one is almost strught, and the other shorter and quite straight. The leaves 
sre alternate and oval-oblong, somewhat hard and coriaceous. The flowers 
are small, axillary, of a p^e ydlow colour, with short peduncles. The friut 

M 4 



168 ARBOnETUM ET MIUTICETUM BRITAN«ICUM. 



il oral-obtoDK, resemblinE that of the olive i at 
fint green, afterwards jellow, and endrel}' red 
when ripe. The Juice of the fruit ii ua«I for 
makiog the jujube lozengea. The plant is 
tolerably hardy ; having itood the winter Pi' 
1637-6 in the Hon. Soc. Garden. It is easily 
increased by cuttings of the roots, whether of 
young or old tret^s; or by suckers, which it 
throws up in the greatest abundante. Seeds 
of it may alto be procured from Italy. 

OlAer^eario/Zimphui. — Z. tttieatii Lam. 
Km been cultivated in the Hort. Soc. Garden 
but it is only half-hardy ; and the same may 
be said of Z. roina ChriiA, Z. ^cruosa, and 
Z. iaciTva, which are marked in some cata- 
logues M baidy. 

Genus II. 



PALIlTBUSIi. Thg Paliubus, or CsJt/sr'< TfiOiW. La.Sya. Pentindrk 

Trig^nia. 
UnMlathim. Toora. but., ■.««.; D. Don Fred. FI.Htp,p. 1R9.| t)«!.Fnid..l.p. IL < Doa-i 

Uin..&p.33.i Bmun. Htm. Ithuii.,|].4fi. 
%iiii>Hmir(. Pilliin. PortaHjbDpeau, Fr.i Judendorn, Oct.; Pdluro, Ilal. 
Srriralton. From palB. (a noTe, and otmm, uiine I In ■llution to lu dlunUc i(iuUt>« i m ban 

F4Uurui, tbe una oT i unn In Afrlizi, doit uIIhI HimU. 
Gen, Char, Calyx spreading, &.cleft. Pelali 5, obovate, convolute. Slameiu 

A, protruding, Jnf^i ovate, S- celled. i>ui flat, pentagonal. Omrv 3-cdled. 

StyUi 3. Fnat dry, indchiscent, expanding into a membrane rouiid the disk, 

containing a 3-ceIlcd nuL (^Dor/i Mill.') 

Lravei simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; nerved with spines in the 

axils. Flou/eri axillary, greenish yellow. 

Two species are hardy, and very ornamental from their shining leaves, and 
abundance of rich greenish yellow flowers, which are succeeded by fruit of 
rather a aingulw form. Propagated by seeds, which they produce in BngUud, 
in abundance. 

T • 1, P. acvlka'tl's Lam. The prickly Paliurus, or ChruCi Thara. 

Sriwnfma. P.i>((muZ>iu>>. Ceiiiit. e.n. 166.^ ^.auilrttli (Jzrl. Fniel. I. t.<s. F.s. ; Cnlairli 
D. Dot Prod. Ft. 1^171. 1S9.1 Ahtmcui j'allllrui I.Ai. Spec. Ml.; Zlij^ul />allilrai WiOd. 
Spn. I. p. IIM,, Siiiu Bol. Mag. u IKO. : Cbrtil'i Thorn, ot lUm ot Libit. Gttari : B'plnr de 
Clirlil. Ar^QD. Forts-cbipuu. I\. ; gFfldeeller JudniilDm. Oer. ; Clunolo tiliulm. lui. ; XUa, 

Snrrinimfi. Imh. Ill-, t. 310. i >. Du Hun., 3. 1. IT. ; Bol. Uu., 1. 1893. i tha pUti^ of this 
•IHcleiru<li''i*JoungiLailiiDolditue. In Atti. Brtl.,IKgdll.,Tol.T.; iiidour A. Ml. 

^)ec. Char,, ^c, Branchlets pubescent. Leaves ovate, serrulated, quite 
smooth, Srfierved, with two spbes at the base, oae straight, the other re- 
curved. Flowers in axillaiy crowded umbellulea ; few in an umbellule. 
Wing of capsule crenated. {Don't Jifiil.) A branching deciduous shrub, or 
low tree. South of Europe, and North and West of Asia. Height 15ft. to 
30 ft. Introduced in 1696. Flowers greenish yellow; June and July, 
Fruit yellow; ripe in September. 
The fruit is buckler-shaped, flat and thin, but coriaceous. From the sii>- 

gular appearance of this fruit, which bas the footstalk attached to the middle, 

which u raised ike the crown of a hat; and the flattened disk, which ro- 



XXU. RHAMVtCEJE: BERCHfW^. 



•o^ilei its brim ; the French have ^ven this ti 

On both shores of the Mediterranean, it growt 

the common hawthorn, on rocky sterile places. In many parts of Italy the 

bedgcs are formed of thu plant, ea they are of the hawthorn in Britain ; it is 

also the commoa hedge plant in Asia. Aoy common soil ; aeede, or cuttings 

of the root 

• 8. P. (i.) viroaVdb D. Don. The twiggy Chrisfs Thorn, 



Spec. Out., Sic. Branches smooth. Leaves obliquely cor- 
(ktc. or eDiptinJ, 3-nerved, shining ; wing of fruit entire. 
{G. Brm.) A dedduoua. shrub. Nepaf, on mount^na. 
Height JOft. to 15 ft. Introduced id 1619. Flowers 
greenish yellow, in Bxillary corymbs; July and August. 
Fruit yellow ; ripe in September. 
Hie only tree which we have seen of this species is in 
■he Chdaea Botanic Garden, where in general aspect it +' 
bean a close resemblance to P. aculeitua, of which it i' ~-~ 
•Gty only a variety. 

Gemos III. 




ra 



BERCHE'M/^ Neck. Tbb Bbrobsmu. lAn. Syit. Pent&ndria 
Honog^nia. 

U n t taimt t m . VtA. ElaB.,9. p. IB.; Dec Frod.S. p u.i Braii(n. Ufan. RhHii..tg. i Don'( 

hmnjunf' CXndiAlb BKu. F. On. I. p. 191., ud SDMI. Sfl. S. p. «S1. 
Ai fcittM - Fras BertAewit ^nbMj tb« luma of lonifl boUntit 

Cn. C10-. Cafyx with a hemispherical tube, and 5 erect s^ments. PetaU 
i, eoanAut/e. Stometu included within the petab. Anthert ovate, KiCelled. 



170 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANMICUH. 

DM aDDular, rather Bat. Ovary half-immerted in the disk, 8-celled. %J« 
abort, bilid ttt the apex. Fhat dry, indehiscent, S-celled. (Don'i MiU.) 

Leacet simple, alternBte, exstipulate, deciduous ; nerved. Floaxrt terminal, 
dkecious by defect ; BmaJl, greenish yellow. — A twining deciduous shrub ; 
B native of Carolina ; of easy culture in any common soil, and prop^ated 
by seeds, or cuEtinga of the root. 

J 1. B. voLU^BiLis Dec. The twining Berchemia. 

Smomtmrt. Rhimntu Toiiiwli'i LM. jU. Sitpti. V».. Joti- lam. Bar. t. »S. i Tlmhoi nllmaia 
IFiUil. JHC. 1 . p. 1 101. i C£l>Apll>TiJllbllli SoinK. £»!'. s. p.aai.j auppLc Jick. rit(M/ii>. 

XiwrnMc- ■'««l- 1™!- B"- •- MS- i our ft- ""■ I" H»"". "^ Jk- ^*- m t™". f"" """■ 

j^iec. Ciior., j'c. Branches glabrous, rather twining. Leaves oval, mucronate, 
somewhat waved. Flowers dicedoua. Drupes oblong. {Dec. Prod.) A 
deciduous twining ahrub. Carolina and Virginia, in deep awamps. Height, 
in America, SO ft. to 50 ft j in British gardens, H ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 
1714. Flowers greenish yellow; June and July. Fruit violet-coloured; 
ripe iu October. 
According to Pursh, ibis species, in Virginia, ascends the highest trees, and 

it known by the name of Supple Jack. The stems twine round que another. 



or any object which they may be near. In British gardens, they are aeldom 
seen above 8 or 10 feet high; probably from Uttle attention being paid to 
place the plant in a deep sandy or peaty soil, and to supply it with abuodaoce 
of moisture iu the growing season. In fine wasoDi it ripen* fruit 



!ii] [&]□□□ 



XHA'MNUS Lam. The Bdcetiiobn. Lm. Si/il. Peut&ndria Hodo- 

gjnia. 
I. LHii.DM.,4.p. Ml.; Lam. IU..t, ll&i Oiirt. Fruct., Lp. lOt.; Ofc. Prad., l.p. a.; 

* " 39. ; Bninn. Htm. Rhvn.. p, M. 

1ID, Fr. i Wtgdotu. Gh. 1 Runno, lUI.; Ihi Bun, or H*R'l,T)uinH, Otrmr^t 



Gen. Char. Calyx urceolate, 4 — S^cleft. Stametu bearing ovate Swelled ao- 
then. Diti thin, covering the tube of the calyx. Chart/ free, 3 — 4-celled. 
Stula 3 — 4, connected or ftee. Frtal baccate, containing 3 — 4 indehiacent 
nuti. (Don't MiU.) 

Lttttet simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous, sub-cvergreea, or ever- 



zzii. rhausacsm: jniAHMUs. 



171 



green ; feather-nerved ; the tttpulGs nerer converted into prickles. Floieert 

axSiarj, aggregMe, often unisexual. FtvI not eatable, generally black, 

rarely red or yellow. 

Deciduous or erer^een abnibs, with the lips of their branches often be* 
comiDg spines. One or two species have the habit of low trees, and soine of 
them are sub-procumbent or procumbent ; all of them, except the latter, beinj; 



in all the species are ineonspicuoua ; but R. .ilaiernus uid its varieties are 
most VBluablc eve^een shrubs, and several of the other species ore orna- 
mental, both from their foliage and their fruit ; the latter of which is also 
ii3eful in dyeing. All the species are easily propagated by seeds or hijers, and 
most of them by cuttii^s ; and they will all grow in anv soil that is dry. They 
aU vary much in magnitude by culture, in common with most plants which, in 
B wild state, grow in arid soils. 

j i. MarcoreUa Neck. 



Sect. Char. FlowerH usunlly diixcious, and 5-cleft. Fruit a herry, with 3 
seeds, or. Iron) abortion, 2 seeds. Seeds deeply fiirro wed, with the raphe 
in the bottom of the liirrow. Leaves usually permanent; coriaceous, and 
^abrous. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. £3.) 



A. Alats'snus Toum. Fhi 
'« I. R. ^late'rni^s L. The Alatemus. 

da. Bptc., Hl.i Dec. Fred.. 1. p-O.; 



■, 5-clefl, Evergreen Simbi. 



s rotundifblioi of l>u- 



^ i^ n n i. AiMtSmas Phmtna Mia. Did. Ho. I.: All.ttnn,IUI. 
AtiW«m. Ftoih oJ/rmu.a gntrtc naniF iilapt«l from DIh- 

3S«irJV-Mi' °"' tin., p. t. I 

^pec. Char., Ifc. Leaves ovate-elliptical, or lance- 
olate, coriaceous, quite smooth, serrated. Flowers 
diceuous, tSsposed in short racemes. {DorCi MUl.) 
An evergreen shrub. South of Europe and 
North of Africa. Height 10 ft. to 20 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1629. Flowersgreen, without any corolla; 
April to June. Berry bhick ; ripe in October. 

■ R. A. 2 balearica Hort. Par. The flhfimi 

— Leaves roundish. We take this as the first variety,: 

the species to be what is called R. 

J. latifolia, which is the commonest 

variety in British nuraeriei. 

» R. A. 3 Aupdniai Hint. Par. (Our Jig. 

246.) — Leaves ovate, a tittle toothed. 

■ R. A. 4 angtaHfiSa. R. Clitsii Willd. 

(Mill. Icon., t, 16. Bg. !. ; and our 

Jig. 947.]) Leaves long and narrow. — 

This variety is so dialinct, that it is by 

many authors considered as a species. 

It is of temarhably rapid erowth. 

There are two subvarieliea of it, the 

gold-striped, and the silver-striped ; 

both of remarkably free growth. 

• R. A. 5./S£uBaciJaJii.— Leaves blotched with yelh 

^ ■ R, A. ifiim aireU. — Leaves edged with yellow. 





172 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



' ii R. A. 7 folm argenteis, — This variety, nvhich is very conspicuous from 
the large proportion of the leaves which is white, is more tender than 
some of the others. It generally does best against a wall, and is well 
worth a place there, on account of its splendid appearance, especially 
in winter. 

In Bridsh gardens, this shrub is particularly valuable for the rapidity of its 
growth in almost any soil and situation, more especially the narrow-leaved 
variety. It is less injured by the smoke of coal than most other evergreens. 
The species, and all the varieties, are readily pro- 
pagated by cuttings, which are taken off in autumn, 
and planted in sandv soil, in a shady border, and 
covered with a hand-glass. As the roots are not 
very productive of fibres, when large plants are 
chosen, they should be such as have been reared in 
pots, in order that they may receive no check from 
removal. 

Am 2, R. HY^BRiDUS L'Herii, The hybrid Alaternus. 

Identtfleation, L'Hgrit Sert., t. fi. ; Dec. Prod., S. p. 29. ; Don*i 

Mill., a. p. 33. 
SffnoHffme* R. burgundlaciu Hort, Par, ; JZ. ■emperTlreni Hor- 

iulan, 
Sngravhigs. L'Herlt. Sert., t. 5. ; and oar Jig. M8. 

t^c. Char,, ^c. Leaves oblong, acuminated, ser- 
rated, smooth, shining, hardly permanent, rather 
coriaceous. Flowers androgynous. {DorCs Mill,) 
A garden hybrid, a sub-evergreen shrub, raised 
from R, alpinus, fecundated by R, illat^rnus, and 
forming a very distinct and desirable kind, which, 
in British gardens, grows to the height of 10 or 
12 feet. The flowers are green, and appear in May 

or June. us, Khkmvm bfbM 

B. Rha'mnus Dec. FJowert 4-<?fc/?, in Fascides, 
a. Bremchleti terminating in a Thorn, 
t m 3. R, CATHA^RTicus L. The purging Buckthorn. 

Idtniifleation. Lin. Spec, 280. i Dec. Prod., 2. p. 24. Don's 

Mill.. 2. p. 30. 
^monifme. The White Thorn of the modem Greeks. 
Engravingt, Bng. Bot, t. 1G29. ; N. Du Ham., 2. t. 10. ; the 

plate ortbls spedea in Arb. Bnt., lit edit., toI. t. ; and our 

Jlg,U9. 

Spec, Char,y ^c. Erect. Leaves ovate, toothed. 
Flowers in fascicles, polygamo-dicecious. Berries 
^-seeded, rather globose. {DotCt Mill,) A deci- 
duous shrub or low tree. Europe and Britain, 
in woods and thickets, on calcareous loamy soil. 
Height 10 ft. to 12ffc.: in cultivation, 12 fb. to 
15 fL Flowers yellowish green, with veiy narrow 
petals ; May. Berry black ; ripe in September, 
becayinff leaves yellowish green. Naked young 
wood whitish. 

The flowers are, for the most part, hermaphro- 
dite, and in a wild state abundant and clustered ; 
but in a state of cultivation they are fewer, and 
nearly solitary. The juice of the unripe berries 
is of the colour of safiron, and it is used for staining 
maps or paper : they are sold under the name of 
French benies. The juice of the ripe berries, mixed with alum, forms the sap 





149. Jlli4inniHcaA4itieit». 



XXII hhamnaVeje: jkhamnus. 



173 



green of painters ; but, if the berries be gathered late in the autumn, the juice 
tt purple. Phiiits of this species attain the height of 9 ft. in 10 years. 

m 4. R. TiNCTo^Rius WaldsL The Dyer's Buckthorn. 

JMMMttM. Wddrt. et Kit. PI. Bar. Hoag.. 3. p. 8». ; Dec Prod., 9. p. M. t Don'i MIU., I. 

p. 31. o,^ 

fci M iytf . M. canllocrtnniu WiUd. Ber^ 
Siignnfmg9. Hajrna AmOiI., t. 97. and am Jig, VSO^ 




too. JthAaanns tlBctMtM. 



Spec, Ckar^ 4^. Erect. Leaves oyate, crenate-ser- 
r&ted. Petioles villous. Flowers crowded, dioecious. 
Berries obcordate,a-^4-8eedecL (Don't MtU,) A de- 
ciduous shrub. Hungary, in hedges. Height 8 ft. 
Introduced in 18S0. Flowers greenish yellow ; May 
and June. Berries yellow ; ripe in September. 

A plant of this species, in the garden of the London 
Horticultural Society, was, in 1834, 3 ft. high, after 
being 7 years planted. 

Ji 5. R, iNFBCTO^Bius L. The staining Buckthorn, or Avignon Berry. 

UemtiJkatkM, Lin. Mant., 49. ; Dee. Prod.. 9. p. 94. ; Don't Mill.. 9. pi SI. 
Sgmmgwtn. Rtikmaa* Lfdma Seop. Com. ed. 9. n. 9G0. : dwarf, or yellow-berried, Bncktbom ; 
Ncrpnm dea Teinturiers, Oraine d'ATlgnoo, Nerprun tetgnant, A-. ; farbendar Wegdom, Ger. 
Mmgnttrngg. Ard. Mem., 78. 1. 14. ; N. Da Ham., toI.t. t. ?& ; and oar;%. 951. 

Spec, Char,^ S^c. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, serrulated, smoothish. Flowers 
dicecious, bearing petals in both sexes. (Don't Mill.) A deciduous, sub- 
procumbent shrub. South of Europe, in rocky places : common about 
Avignon and the Vaucluse. Height 2 ft. Intro- 
duced in ld83. Flowers greenish yellow ; June and 
July. Berry 3-celled, blade ; ripe m September. 

The root fixes itself so firmly in the fissures of the 
rocks, that the plant can scarcely be pulled up. The 
stem divides immediately into branches, that are very 
much subdivided, and form a very close head, the 
shoots having numerous spines, both terminating and /^fs 
lateral The berries are used for dyeing leather yel- ^^'^ 
low ; and the Turkey leather, or yellow morocco, is 
generally supposed to be coloured by them. ***• «h4innti. lafcciirt* 

ji 6. R. SAXA^TiLis L. The Stone Buckthorn. 

UeuliflealHm. Lin. Sp., 1671. ; Dec. Prod. , 9l p. 94. ; Don't Mill., 9. p. Sl. 

R. longifoUus Mm. Diet. ; Stein Wegdom, Gtr. \ I^rdo Itallano, /toi. 
Jacq. Auatr., t. 43. ; Hayoe Abbild., t. 96. ; Schmidt, 3. t. 187. } and our Jig. 9B9. 




Spec. Char., Sfc. Procumbent, or erectish. 
Leaves ovate-lanceolate, serrulated, smooth- 
ish. Flowers dicecious, female ones destitute 
of petals. (Don't Mill.^ A procumbent de- ij 
dduous shrub. Soutn of Europe, among V 
rocks, in Austria, Switzerland, Italy, and 
Greece. Height 1 ft. Introduced in 1752. 
Flowers greenish yellow; June and July. 
Berries bkck, containing three whitish seeds, 
each enclosed in a dry whitish membrane, 
which separates, when ripe, into two parts 
with elastic force ; ripe in September. 




951. 



«L 7. R. Bvxivo\ivs Poir. The Box-leaved Buckthorn. 

, Polr. DicL, 4. p. 40^ Dec Prod., 9. p 94. ; Don's Mill., Sl p. 81. 
?JL texUbUoi Brot. PL Lm$. 1. p. 301. ; Ltdsua AnxifbUum Bamk. 
ravingt. Da Ram., 3. t 3. No. 19. ; and oar Jig. 9&3. 

Spec, Char., ^. Diiluse. Leaves ovate, quite entire^ mucronate^ smooth. 



ET FRUTICETUM 

coriaceous, green on both Bur- 
bcei. (2Wj AftU.) A sub- 
evergreeu shrub. Spun, lial;, 
and the Levant, on hills. 
Height 8 ft. to 4 ft Introd. 
in 1880. Flowers greenish 

Jellow i June and Julj. Berry 
black; ripe?. 
A very neat shrub, of which 
there is a good specimen in the 
Chelsea Botauic Oarden, which 
is quite hardy. 

B. 8. S. LTCioi^Bs Lm, The 

Ljcium-like Buckthorn. 
Iilnliflcolilm, Un, Spec, 1T9. ; Dee. 

Spec. Char., 4-c- Erect. Leaves linear, quite entu*. 
obtuse, arnooth. Flowers hermaphrodite. (Don't 
MiU.) A deciduous shrub. Spain, on the lime- 
Ktune bills of Valencia. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. In- 
troduced in 17^8. Flowers greemEfa yeLow ; Hay 
and June. Fruit?. 

ja 9. R. Ebvthbo'!itlon Pfdl. The red-wooded 
Buckthom- 

UtMfflaiUim. Pill. FL Bou, 9. 1 D«c. Prod.. S. p. ^ i Dod'i tu. ■. ijotiiUi. 

Spec. Char., Sic Erect. Leaves linear, lanceolate, quite entire or aetrnted, 
smooth. Flowers hermaphrodite. Berries oblong. (Don't Mill.) A d^ 
ciduous shrub. Mongolia vnd Sibetia, near rivers. Height 6 ft. Intro 
duced in less. Flowers greenish yellow ; July and August. Berries Mack 
ripe in September. 

Varietg. 

* "R. E.2 angtutUtmum Dec. Prod. 
8. p. 85, R. /vcioidea PaU. FL 
Roti. t. 63., and our ^g. 856., 
has the leaves narrow, smaller, 
and very finely serrulated. Na- 
tive of Caucasus. 
Delights in a n 
in cohi and humid ptao 
serves, it is never met with. The 
wood, on account of its hardness and 
red colour, is used by the Mongols 
for making their images; and the ber- 
ries, when macerated in water, afibrd 
_ _ _ _ them a deep yellow colour. The 

Ml. «. Brnhrfiii.. plants ;„ j^ ^^|[j gj^g^ j^ ^ prickly "* *•"■" 

bush ; but, when cultivated, the spines no longer appear. 

b. Bnmdtlett not lenmated by Spmet. 
« 10. A iUHn'Bicos Pall. The Dahorian Buckthorn. 



XXII. SHAMNACBiC: rua'hnuh. 175 

^wr. Cknr,, 4^. ErccL Lcstcs oblong- 
orate, leir^ed, smooth, ftmy, Flowen 

ilicecioiu, female ones with bifid atigniBi. 

(Daiit Mil.) A deciduous ehrub. D*- 

buna, near ine river Ai;guiiiui. Height 5 ft. 

Introd. in 1817. Flowert greenish yellow; 

IAbj and June. Berry black ; ripe Sept 

The genera) wwarance of the plant ia 
tbat of R. cathinicui, but it ii without 
thoros. The wood ii red, and is called sandal 
wood bj the Rusaiaiu. 
M» U.S. akifo'liub VHerit. The Alder 

leaved Buckthorn. 
l^wMcmUim. L'Hfi<t.Sat.,t. t-i Dk. FroiI.,l.p, u.; 

ddd-i hoi., 1. p. n. 

Jhli mtimf. BMfB»AtMM.,t.ei.: iBioarJIg.ast. ui. uiBSKWium. 

Spec. Outr^ ^c. Erect. Leaves obovate or ovate, BeirulaCed, obliquely line- 
ated with lateral nerres, acuminated or obtuse, smoothioh beneath, except 
the nerves. Flowers bennnplirodite or <Ui£cious. Pedicels l-flowered, a^ 
grceate. Calyxes acute. Fruit turbinate. (Don't Milt.) 
A dieciduout ahrub. Hudson's Bay to Pennsylvania, in 
iphagnouE swamps. Height 
S.ft. to i ft in America ; 6 ft, 
to S ft. in England. Introd. 
io I77S. F&wen ereenish 
yellow ; June and July. 
Berry black, fleshy, 3-seeded \ 
ripe in September. 
Varvty. 

«. « R. o 



« R. o. 2 fianga^idei 

Dec. A. fnmguloides K 

JI&Ax.(N.DuHani.3. 

Leaves oval, iterrated, 
pubescent on the nerves beneath. Canada t6 Virg nia. latrod. 1810. 
« 18. R. iLPi'NtJs Lin. The Alpine Buckthorn. 

,_*«. Ud. 9{w:.,lia.i Doa-iHlU.. l.p,n. 

Si^rarimgi. N. Du Uua,S.I. 13. ; BM. C>b., t. 1DT7.; Scbmldt. 1. 1. 1IT.: ttwplMlaot Uu (n* >B 
Xrt> BrU.. lmatt,Ti>LT.|»BiloM 



Spec, diar^ tfc. Erect, twi*;ful. Leaves oval lanceolate, creiia f 'ae JWted, 
■nwoth, fineated with many paralld nwei. Flowera dioecious. fhimle«Ka 



176 ARBORETUM ET FRDTICETUM BRITANSICUM. 

irith 4^Ieft at\gmae.(Hen'tiial.) 
A deciduous ihrub. Alps of 
Switzerland, Dauphin^, and 
CarniolB. Height 5ft, to 10ft. 
Introd. 1752. Flowers greenish! 
May and June. Berries black ; 
ripe in Septemticr. 

m R.a. 2 grandifolha{J!g.26S,) 

has much larger leaves 

than the species. It forms, 

when well grown, a very 

striking and handsome 

object, from the large size 

of its leaves and buds. 
This is a very distinct species, 
and remarkable for its tw-isted 
leaves. There are strong plants of 
both the species and the variety in 
the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, 
and of the variety in the sarden of 
the Hort. Soc., which, in 10 years, 
have attained the height of 8 ft., 
with numerous suberect branches, 
clothed with a purplish barb. 

-• 13. «. pulIlL 




'iltgt. 8cop. CKni..l.t. S. i Schmidt Arb..S.t. LU.^ mndoarJtg^K^ 

Spec. Char., S[c. Plant procumbent, much branched. 
Leaves ovate, serrated, smooth. Flowers hermaphro- 
dite. (ZJon'f Mill.) A deciduous procumbent shrub. 
Moun'. Baldo in the Alps, and Carniola, in the fia- 
suresofroclu. Height 2 ft. Introd. 1752. Theflowers 
greenish yellow within and red without, the stamens 
white ; June and July. Berries black ; ripe in Sept. 
The plant bearing this name in the London gardins we 

have never seen in such a thriving slate as to enable us to 

decide whether or not it is truly distinct. 

J ii. Fr&wpila Toui 

Ism., t.3S3.; D«. rrod., I. 



lOfMeaUim. Tonrn. 
pTx.; non'iHIIl-.ll. 

Stet, Char. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely 
di(Ecious,5-c1eft, sometimes 4H:left. Seeds 
smooth, compressed, with the hilum white 
and exserted, and with the raphe lateral, 
on the surfece of the inner testa. Embryo 
flat. Leaves membranous, caducous, 
quite entire, lined with approximate pa- 
rallel nervea. (Doi^i AGU.) 

1m H S. cABOLiniA'Kus Wait. The Ca. 
rolina Buckthorn. 

MniitlniHiK WilL Or. p. 101. ; Dec YraS.i. p. n. I 



XXII. AHAHMA^CEf: AHa'HNUS. 177 

Spie.Ciar., ^. Erect. Leares oral-obJong, almoit entire, Emooth. Umbela 
itditd. Flovera hennapbrodite. Berries globose. (Don't Mill.) A 
(leckluoiu shrub or tree. North Carolina to Florida, on the bsnki of 
tinra. Heuht 6 ft. to 6 ft., aometimes a tree 30 ft. to 40 ft. Introduced 
in 1819. Flowers greenufa ; May and June. Berries black j ripe in 
September. 
In America this apecies, though usually a shrub in North Carolina, is in 

Genrgit a considerable tree. Leares 3 in. to 6 in. long, and 1 in. to 2 in. wide ; 

Mowtimes acuminute, irregularly serrated ; sometimes tbe margin is wared. 

Fruit as Ui^ a« a uniaU poi, mostly 3-»eeded. (TV. and Gray.) 

* t IS. JI. FRi'NorLA L. The breaking Buckthorn, or Berry-bcarmg Alder. 



t.lM; (Ed.FI, Du.. t. tTB.; tlia pliu of ths ipeclf* Id AtIi. Brtt. lit 
((. 9U. 

Spec. Char., j-cr. Leaves otsI. quite entire, lineated with 10 or 12 lateral 
Denes, and, as well aa tbe culyx, smooth. Flowers hermaphrodite. {Dor'' 
Mitt.) A deciduous abrub, or low tree. Europe and part of Siberia, in 
roods and thickets ^ not uni'oaimon in England, but rare in Scotland. 
Hdght 3 ft. to 6 ft., wild 1 8 ft. to 10 ft. in British gardens. Flowers whitish, 
with puq^le anthers ; May. Berries dark purple ; ripe in September. De- 
caying loiTea reddish green. Naked young wood dark 

* 1 R. F. 3 atlguilijolia Hort. has oarrower leaves. 

Tbe plant of thia species in the Horticultural 

Society's Garden ia very distinct ; and, in 1835, 

was 6 ft. high, after being 10 years planted. 
Branches numerous, alternate, leafy, round, smooth, 
and blackish. From a quurter to half an ounce of tbe 
inner bark, boiled in small beer, is a sharp purge. The 
bark dtes yellow, and, with a preparation of iron, black. 
The flowers are particularly gratefiil to bees. The 
ibarcoal prepared from the wood is preferred by the 
msken of gunpowder to any other. ^ ii.m„i^' 

• * 16. fl. LATiKo'Lius i'Hm*. The broad-leaved Buckthorn. 

Um^kthnm. L'HtrilS»rt,S.t.8.;Dec.Prod..i.p.M.i Don't Mill, 

EirsrM. fHjrii. Sf-n., \ i. S, j Denil. nrit.. t i L. j Wliul. Ab. 
Hid., t. loa ; Ihe ptiu of Ihit im Id AtU. BrII., IK nlil- lot. T. ; iDd 

Spec. dor., 4'c. Leaves elliptical, acuminate, quite 

enttre.lineated with 1 2 or 15 lateral nerves; younger 

leavei and calvxea villoua. Flowers herm aphrodite. 

(Don'. Miil.j A deciduous shrub, with tlie habit 

of a low tree. Aiores, on the mountains of St, 

Michael. Height 10 ft. to 15 ft. Introduced in 1778. 

Flowers greenish ; July. Berries Uaek or red, both » 

colours spearing on the sanie plant at once ; ripe in * 

September. 

The leaves are larger than those of any other species. , 'I 

except R. alplnus grandilolius ; and the whole plant if " /f^ ^ I 
is remarkable for its robust appearance, and tbe con- I V^ ''-> 

^wuous opposte nerves which proceed from the middle '' 

rf the leaves. It deserves a place in vrery collection. »e. auunn Mmw. 



ET FROTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Olhet Speciei of lUdmnui. — There are various kinds described by ant1ior»i. 
Beveral or which are said to have been introduced, hut they are either lott or 
lynoDjmous with kinds already described. Amonff those which remain lo be 
introduced are some which promise to he useful additions lo this genus ; sucb 

* R. fwrmci/o/iiu Bert. (Moris. Stirp. Sard. fig. 2.) — An erect shrub, with 
lanceolate, minutely crenuted leaves, pubescent on the under hide, and on long 
petioles. Calyx free. Sardinia. Height 10 ft. to ISO. March and April. 

MYLamt/gdaimut Desf. All. 1. p. 198. — A native of the North of Africa,^ in 
the fissures of rocks, where it grows to the height of 3 ft., and produces berries 
used for dyeing yellow, like chose of R. saxatiha. 

« R. pruni/oAui Smith Prod, Fl. Graec I. p. 157. — A native of Crete, on 
thehiehest raounlidns.and probablyonlyavariety of one of the preceding lorts. 

* it, 5l6(Aoryiilnu8 Schait. Syit. 6. p.2B6. ; R. pubisceiis 5i6(A. Fl. Gnec. 
t- S39. — A native of Mount PamassuB, and nearly allied to R. alpinus and H. 
Fringula. 

* R. PuriAi&nus Dec. Prod. 2. p. 25. R. aInifoUus of Pursh, but not or 

L'Heritier. (Hook. Flor. 

Bor. Ain.l.p. 1-23. UM., 
1 and our fig. 267.)— A 

shrub growing to the 
\ h«ght of 6 ft., native of 
3\ Korth America, on the 
^ banksof the Koorkoosky. 
■ ■ R. o/eijoliut Hook. 
► Fl. Bor. Am. I. p.l83. t. 

44., Tor. & Gray, 1. p. 

900., and //(. 268. from 

Hooker, is an evergreen 

, shrub, with coriaceous 

^ ^ leaves, unarmed shoots, 

. and the flowers small, in 

^ axillarycrowdcdpanicles. 

west coast of California, 
where it forms a handsome shrub from 6ft. to IS ft, high. 

A R. taubelldiiii Cnv. Icon. 6. p. 2. t. 504. — A shrub, growing 6 ft. high in 
Mexico ; was raised in IB39 in the Hort. Soc. Garden, from seeds sent home 
by M. Hartwq; ; hut itis probably only half-hardy. 

R. /aurifolius ifuU., S, croceus A'u»., R. lanceolalus Punk, R. parvirolius 
TV. ii Gray, R. femigfneus A'utt., R. califdrnicus Etch-, and S. te^c^nsis 
7\ir. i Gray, are described in Tor. and Gray's Flora of Xorlh America ,- Ji. 
pubOscens Fl. Griec, and several others, are described in Don's Miller, itnd 
in the first edition of thii work. 

Genus V. 



□ 



COLLE'TW Com. The Collbtia. Lm. Syit. Pentindria Mooogfnia. 

fymmptitr. Ahimnui in p4rt. 

Dcrnaliim. Named bf ComviarKi], In lioiiDiir af CoUrl, bli ftieoil lod coDntrrmu, wbo wmta 



Gen. char. Caf^'catnpanutate, membraneous, coloured. Prtn^wantiug, or very 
minute, linear. Slaiueai with ovate 2-celled, or reniform 1-ceIled, anthers. 
Ditk short, cup-shaped, adnate to the bottom of the calyx. Otmry free, 
fr«eikd. Styk simple, dongated. Sligjaa 3-lobed. Frtiii guarded at ths 



XXII. JZHAMNACE^: COLLET/^. 



179 



base by the permanent tube of the calyx, tricoccous, dehiscent. (Don^t 

Leaves^ when present, simple, opposite, stipulate, deciduous ; very minute, 
and quite entire. Flowers axillary, fascicled, or racemose ; and, when the 
leaves are absent, rising from beneath the base of the spines. — Much- 
branched shrubs, with divaricating, decussately opposite branches, and spiny 
bnuichlets. 

jt 1. C. HO^RRiDA Lmdl. The bristly Colletia. 

iaentificatifm. Lindi. in Bot. Reg.? Ad. Brong. 

SMonymf. C. ftrox GilL rt Hook, in Bot. Mxa. 1 . 154. t. 44. $. 

Engraviagi. Bot. B«g., 1. 1776. ; and our fig. 269. 

Spec, Char,, i^c. Spines rigid, simple, or much branched. Peduncles mostly 
in pairs. Calyx ovate-oblong. Stamens sessile. (Lindl,) A spiny shrub, 
evergreen, from the colour of its branches and branchlets. Chili and 
Mendoza, on mountains. Height 3 ft. to 4fl. Introduced in 1823. 
Flowers greenish white, stained with dull purple ; May to July. Berry 
whitish, about the size of a small pea ; ripe in Se{)t. 

The young branches are furnished with " bright 
green sawed scales " as leaves ; they are placed o|)|)o- 
site, and at the base of each is a small stipule. The 
leaves and stipules speedily fall off, *' leaving the 
branches to act as leaves, by the aid of their soft par- 
ench^-ma, with which they are clothed in the form of 
bark." Hence, plants of any size appear one mass of 
naked spiny green branches in winter ; and, in summer, 
haviBg leaves and flowers all over the points of the 
branchlets. It is a most desirable addition to our 
evei^een shrubs; and, as it escaped the winter of 
1 837-8, it may be safely recommended as hardy, for cli- 
mates not much colder than that of London. It grows 
in common garden soil, in a dry situation, fully exposed 
to the sun. It has not yet been propagated otherwise 
than by Chilian seeds, which are frequently received 
under the name of Ketanilla. We have no doubt, 
however, that it might be increased by layers, or by 
cuttings in sand under a glass. sss. coii*i« hdrrid.. 

Other Species ofCoUki\2i, — There are plants in the London gardens, under 
the name of C. spin6sa and C. ulicina, which we consider merely as varieties 
of C. horrida ; though the former has white flowers, and the latter broader 
leaves than those which we have described. They are considered more ten- 
der than C. hdrrida ; but this may possibly be owing to the plants having been 




^.^ 





S70. CollMs 



C^phcon. 



CoUMta tpinnM. 



younger. C. V/phedra Vent. Choix, 1. 16. (the i^hamnus E phedra Domh., and 
the RetanUla J^phedra Brong,) is said to have survived the criterion wiuter 
at Liverpool, in^. 270., a represents C. tdicina; 6, C. £'phedra {RetO' 
nUIa i^'phedra Brong.) ; and c, C. spinosa. 

2 



N 



180 



ARBOUETUM £T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Genus VI. 






I 



A 



CE ANO'THUS L. The Cranothus, or Red Root, Lin. Syst. 

Peot&ndria Monogynia. 

Identification. Brongn. M^ra. Rham., p. 62. ; Hook. FI. Bor. Amer.> 1. p. 124.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 81. ; 

DoQ's Mill., 2 p. 37. 
^wmsfmts. HhkmnuM ipecles Z,., Juss.^ Lam. ; C^anothe. Pr. ; Sjikebbaum, Ger. 
Derivation. From keanothus^ a name employed bjr Theophnutui to designate a spinr plant, derived 

from it^, tocleare : the modRm gcnui has, tiowerer, nothing to do with the plant or Theophrastua. 

The English name. Red Root, is given to the plant in America, ttoax the red colour of clie roots* 

which are of a large siie in proportion to the branches. 

Gen, Char, Calyx with a subhemispherical tube, and 5 connivent segments. 
Petals 5, unguiculate, cucullate, deilexed. Stamens with ovate 2-celled an- 
thers. Disk spongy, annular. Ovary spherical, girded by the disk, 3-celled. 
Styles 3, diverging, terminated by small papilliform stigmas. Fruit tricoc- 
coiis, girded by the circumcised tube of the calyx. {DorCs MUl,) 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, persistent or deciduous ; ovate or ellipti- 
cal, serrated or entire. Flowers terminal or axillary, in elongated racemes. 
— Shrubs, natives of North America, very ornamental in British gardens, 
and easily propai^ted by cuttings of the young wood, planted in sand, and 
covered with a hand-glass. Most of the species proKduce seeds fireely in 
British gardens, and they all grow in any common garden soil. 

1. C, AMERiCA^NUs L, The American Ceanothus, or Red Root; or Kcw 

Jersey Tea, 

Identification. Ltn. Spec., 381. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 31. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 37. ; Tor. and Gray, 

1. p. 264. 
Engravinfis. Bot. Mag., t. 1497. ; and our Ji^, 271. 

Spec, Char., S^c, Leaves ovate, acuminate, serrated, pubescent beneath. 
Thyrse elongated, axillary, with a pubescent rachis. (Don*s Mill,) A de- 
ciduous suffrutescent low shrub. Canada to Florida, in woods and copses. 
Height If^. to 3 ft ; in British gardens, 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1713. 
Flowers white ; June to August. Fruit black ; ripe in September. 

Varieties, Torrey and Gray describe three varieties, 

C, a. 2 Pitcheri, C. a. 3 her- 
baceus (C, perennis Pursh, C. 
ovatus Desf.), and C, a. 4 
intermedins {C. intermedins 
Pursh, Jig, 271.) ; but we 
scarcely think they are worth 
keeping apart in collections. 

Stems shrubby, or suffiruticose. 

Leaves 2 in. to 3 in. long. 

The leaves and stems of the 

plant are pubescent ; and the 

flowers, being produced in great 

numbers together, are very orna- 
mental. They are succeeded by bluntly triangular cap- 
sules ; and, about London, in fine seasons, the seeds 
ripen. Any soil that is tolerably dry. Seeds or cuttings. 
The leaves of this plant, dried, were used by the Americans as a substitute 
for Chinese tea, during the war of independence. 

A ft 2. C. AZU^REUS Desf, The azuve-Jlowered Ceanothus, or Red Root, 

Identification. Dcsf. Cat., 1815, p. 232 ; D-hi Prod., 2. p. 31. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 37. 

Synonymet. C. csriUeus Lag. Gen. et Spec. lflir>, p. 11 . ; C. bicolor WiUd. in Sckutt. Syst. 7. p. 6ft. 

Engravings, Bot. Reg., t. 291. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 110. ; and our Jig. 273. 




C a. imermidiiu. 




XXII. bhamna'ce*: ceano'thus. 181 

Spec. Ciar., 4*. Leaves orate-oblong, obtuae, acutely serrated, siYKWth above, 
hosrj and downy beneuth. Thyrse eloiuiated, axilkrv, with a downy rachis. 
Pedicels smooth. (Don'* Mitf.) A sub-evergreen shrub. Mexico. Heijiht 
eft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1818. Flowers bright blue; May to Sc'p- 
tember. Fruit black, enclosing 3 seeds i ripe in Octuher. 

• • C. a, B intermidiui, C. intermcduis Hort., haB the i 
hibic or C. Bzureus, with pnle tloners, lilie those 
of C. unericanuR, varying with different nhades of 
blue. It was raised by Mr. Masiera of Canter- 
bury, from seeds of C. ozureus fecundated by C. 



A Tery handsome shrub, profusely covered with brilliant 
celestial blue flowers in large panicles. In Mexico its bark 
it otiuidered as a febrifuge. It is the most robust-^rowinK 
species of the genu^t, attaining, in 3 or 4 years from itxa, 
the height of 5 or 6 feel, or more, against a wall. It was 
>1 first treated as a green-house plant, but lately it has been 
laund lo be nearly as hardy as the North American species. 
In the winter of IB37-8 these plants were greatly injured, 
but none of them killed. North of London the plnnt is 
less rigorous. 

a • 3. C, (a.) TnTRsiFLo'HUs Eick. The Thyrse-flowered Ceanothus. 

Umtfcaliim. Eicb.ln Mrm. AchI. SI. P«an1nr( [ INS) i Hoak. Fl. Bor. Am., I. p. I». i Don-I 
g Z p. J7, ; Tor. ud Gnj. I. p. Kt 

^vrVn«. 6urj«(. .l^f.,' 

Spec. Char,, Ifc. Leaves oval, 3-rerved, serrulated, (tnooth. Stem mnny- 
an^ed i panicle tliyrsoid in the axillary branches, (ih-n'i Mill.) A sn'b- 
eve^reen shrub, or small tree. Monierey, Upper Calilbm a, and north- 
wetl coast of North America. Height in America 3fl. to £0(1. Intro- 
duced in ? 1830. Flowers bright blue; May to November. Fruit black; 
ripe about a month after flowering. 

In its native country, in favourable siiiiations, this species becomes a small 
tree, with a stem lometiiaes as thick as a man's arm, and strongly angular 
bnnches. In British gardens it forms a free-flowering highly omamentnl 
ihrub, with much of the habit of C. aiilrens; from which tt chiefly differs 
in having the flowers in a close, instead of in an elongated, thyrse. Not- 
withstaiMling this difference, we consider it as only a variety of that specie.->. 
* « *. C vELUTc'jifs Doug. The velvely-iraiicd t^eanotlms. 



Sjiec. Char,, if-c. Branches somewhat pendulous. 
Leaves ort>ieular, elliptical or elliptical ovate, obtuse, 
■ubcordate:, glandularly crenale, serrulate, coria- 
ceous, glabrous, and shining (aa if varnished) above, 
vdve^, canescent, and strongly 3-ribhed beneath. 
Ptmicles axillary, elongated, on rather long pe- 
duncle*. (Tor. and Grag.) A shrub, probably 
std»-evergreen. North-west coast of North America, 
on subalnine bills. Height 3 ft. to 6 It. Not intro- 
duced. Flowers white. Fruit dry, 8 — 3-seeded, 
This is apparently a very desirable species ; and, as , 
It is so abundant as to cover the whole declivities of ^ _ 
hills, forming thickets very difficult to penetrnte, ue " 
han no doubt that it will soon be introduced. Muiim 

BniKhes nearly glahroui. The leaves abound with an aromatic resin. 



182 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



M 5. C. COLLIN us Dotig, The Hill-side Ceanothus. 

Identification. Doug. In MSS. ; Fl. Cab., t. 13. 4 

Engravings. Fl. Cab., t. 13. ; and ourjig. 27&. ^ 

Spec. Char,, S^c. Branches decumbent, round, and 
smoothish. Leaves ovate or elliptic, somewhat 
clammy, glandular,serrated, upper surface shining, 
under surface covered with adpressed hairs, 3- 
nerved. Stipules awl-shaped. Panicles axillary. 
(Knowlcs and Weitcott.) A hardy, evergreen, low, 
aecumbent shrub. North America. Height I ft. 
Introduced in 1827. Flowers white, produced 
in great abundance; June and July. Fruit 
brown; ripe in September. 

Layers, which root readilv, or seeds. 

Other Species of Ceanothus, — C. ovatus and C. 
intermedins, we have seen, on the authority of 
Torrey and Gray, are only varieties of Camericanus; 
and we have no doubt that this will be the case 
with C. ovMis, C, sanguineus, C, oreganus, and 
other species described by authors. In short, there 
appears to us no assignable limits to the sports and 
hybrids that may be produced in this genus. 




175 



Order XXIIL HOMALINA^CEiE. 

Obd, Char, Catyx funnel-shaped, its tube usually adnate to the over}'-, its 
limb with 5 — 15 lobes. Petals inserted into the calyx, as many as its lobes, 
alternate with them, snialler than they, and deemed by some an inner whorl 
of lobes of the calyx. Glands present in front of the segments of the calyx. 
Stamens arising from the base of the petaln, either singly, or in threes or 
sixes. Anthers 2-celled, opening longitudinally. Ovary ] -celled, with nu- 
merous ovules. Styles 3--5, simple. Fruit berried or capsular. Seeds 
small. (LindL) — Trees or shrubs ; natives of South America. 

Leaves simple, alternate, with deciduous stipules, sub-evergreen ; toothed 
or entire. Flowers axillary, in spikes, racemes, or panicles. — The species in 
British gardens belong to the genera- Aristotel/a and Azara (the latter rather 
tender), which are thus contradistinguished : — 

Aristote^lm L'H^rit. Corolla of 5 petals. Stamens 15—18, polyadel- 
phous. Fruit a globose, free, 3-celled berry. Cells 1 — 2-seeded. 

AzA^RA R. et P. Corolla none. Stamens numerous. Fruit a globose l- 
celled, 5-seeded berry. 

Genus L 



y 



ARISTOTE^L/il UHerit. The Aristotelia. Li». Sysi. Polyadelphia 

Poly4ndria. 

Identification. L'H^rit. Stirp., p. 31. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 56. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. fiS. 

Derivation. Named In commemoration or Aristotle, the celebrated philosopner and nataralUt. 

Gen, Char, Calyx campanulate, profoundly 5-cleft. Petals 5, inserted in the 



xxiii, homalinaVf.£: aristote'l/^. 183 

base of the cal^x, and alternating with its iobea. Slaimmi 15 — 18, (fene- 
ra]lv3or4in each bundle, placed in front of the lobes of the calvx. Antheri 
opoung by two pores at the apex. Ormy free. Slylet 'i, somewhat 
coanircted at the base. Berry globose, 3-celled. Secdt anf-ular. (Don't 

mi.) 

Ijtavet simple, opposite, stipulate, sul>-«Tergreen ; stalked end shining. 
Fharri in axillary raceme*. 

ft • ¥ f I. A. AUcwi L'Herit. The Macqui Arislotelia. 

Uiml^ttlim. VHttit.aatp..m.Xt.j Dtt PK>ll.,*.p.U.| Don'! Hil]„ 1. p. M. 

^•cm/ma. A.mlMBia\baB.rlf. R. ^cr. jwf . p L^ , A. M4fK/lnDM Vrod.. t. p. M. 

tvrawrmgt. L'Htrlt. 5lln>.. t. 1A. i WUt. Utnd. Brit., L 44. { N.Dia Hun., tU, i (he bitted 
lEiiimia Arta. BrIL, l>t«Ut.,iol. >.; udourj^. nc. 

Spec. Char., ifc. Calyx deeply 5-rleft. Styles 3, somewhat connected at the 
base. A sub-evergreen shnih, or low tree. Chili, Height in British gar- 
dens T — 18 ft. Introduced in IT33. Flowers sinall, green, purplJEh, and 
yellow ; May and June. Berry veiy dark purple ; ripe in September. 

fanety. 

■ ■ .4. M. ZfoUu variegaHt. — The veriegDted-leaved Macqui Aristotelia. 



In Chili this plant forms an erei^een shrub, with diffuse branches, growing 
to the height of 6 h. The flowers are not very showy j but they are succeeded 
bi beniea about the siie of a pea, Tery dark purple, and at length becoming 
Mck, which are acid and ea^le. In British gardeni, it forms a sub-ever- 



184 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRTTANKICUM. 



green slirub or low tree, of very vigorous growth ; so rauch so, in a young 
state, that, from the shoots not being matured, they are frequently killed down 
to the ground, and the foliage more or less injured. Notwithstanding this, the 
aristotelia frequently flowers, and even ripens fruit ; and, in all probability, 
if the tree were planted in dry and rather poor soil, so as to grow slowly, and 
not make more wood every year than it could ripen properly, it would attain 
a large size, and form a very handsome hardy ever- 
green shrub or tree. The plant grows vigorously in 
any common garden soil, producing shoots 3 ft., 4 ft., 
or 5 ft. in length when young ; and it is readily pro- 
pagated by cuttings or by layers. 

Other Species of Arittotelisi, — One has been raised 
in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, from South American 
seeds, which Mr. Dillwyn found to stand the winter 
of 1837-8 better than A. Mdcqui. 

• Azdm dentdta R. & P., Don's Mill. i. p. 257. 
(Bot. Reg. 1. 1788., and our^g. 277.) is an evergreen 
shrub or low tree, growing to the height of 12 ft. in 
Chili. It. stood 8 yea^fs m the Hort. Soc. Garden, 
against a wall, and, though killed by the winter of 
1837-8, it may vet ultimately prove tolerably hiardy. 
A. integrifdUa, if a different species, may possibly be found hardy also. 




Order XXIV. ANACARDIA^CE^. 

Jdentifleation, Litidley, In Intrnd. to N. S. 

^ynonyme*. Tlerebinth&ceaB, tribe 1. Anacardids A. J7r., and tribe 3. SumaeJAnem Dee. Prod 
2.66. 

JRD. Char, Flowert generally unisexual. Co/^j* usually 5-parted. PeiaU 
equal in number to the divisions of the calyx, cohering at the base when the 
disk is absent. Stametu same number, or twice that number. Disk, when 
present, annual. Ovarium usually solitary. Sfy/es 1 — 3, sometimes wanting. 
Fruit indehiscent. (LiruU.) — Low deciduous or evergreen trees, natives o. 
Asia and Africa. 

Leaves simple or compound, alternate, exstipulate, deciduous or evergreen ; 
without pellucid dots. Flowers terminal or axillary, in [lanicles, with bracts. 
— The hardy species belong to the genera Pistacia, /2hus, and Duvaua^ 
which are thus contradistinguished : — 

Pista'cia L. Flowers dioecious, apetalous, amentaceous. Stigmas 3. Drupe 

dry, containing a 1-celled, l-seeded nut. 
i^Hu's L. Flowers polygamous. Styles or stigmas 3.' Drupe nearly dry, 

containing a l-celled, I — S-seeded nut. 
DuvAu'^ Kth. Flowers monoecious or dicecious. Styles 3 — *, short. Drupe 

containing a coriaceous f-seeded nut. 



contammg a coriaceous 



Gem US I. 



PISTA^CIA L, The Pistachia Tree. lAn. Syst, Dice'cia Pentindria. 

Identification. Lin. Gen., 1108. ; Dec. Prod., 8. p. 64. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 61. and 6S. 
^rnonyffte. Tereblnthus Ju$t. 

Derivation. From the Qnek word Pigtakia^ derired firom PHttaUon^ the name of a dty ; or fW»m 
the AraMc word Fouttaq, the Arabian name of Pistida vdra. 

Gen, Char. Flowers dioecious, and without petals ; dispobed in amentaceous 



XXIV. AHACARDIa'cEX : PtSTACIA. 185 

nceinca, each Bcele with one flower. CalyxS — 5-cIeft. Slamem 5,'mserted'mto 
a cal^ciDe disk, or into the calyi ; with 4-cciniere(i, almoit Bpssile, antheni, 
OnTy t — 3-celled. Stigmat 3, and thiekish. Fniil ■ dry ovule drupe; nut 
bony, and usually 1-celled, with a single seed affixed to the bottom. Coly- 
ledont thick, fleshy, oily, and bent beck upon the radicle. — Small treen, 
natiTcs of the South of Europe and Asia. 

Leaert compound, tnipari-|iinnate, deciduous or erergreen \ dying off of 
a besutHul reddish purple ; young shoota tinged with purple. 

. vb'ra L. The true Pistachia Tree. 

H. I D«. Prod., 1. p. M. ; Drm'i W1I.. a. p. 69. 

"—■ KtK, \ PlM^hicT, rr. \ PlitutEntvuIO. Crr. | PliUcdilg. 

Dn fUm.^ 4. t- 17- i and ourjlf. TJB, 

Sprt;. Cfutr., ^c. Lesvea deciduous, impari-pinnate, of 3 — 5 Ifaflcia, rarely of 
1 : the leaflets ovate, a little tapered at the base, inriistinclty mucronnte at 
the tip. (Dee. Prod.) A deciduous tree. Syria. Height SO ft. Introduced 
in IT70. Flowers small, brownish green ; April and May. Fruit reddish, 
an inch long, ovate; ripe in Syria in September, rarely seen'in England. 
fahetiet. The followiag are considered liy 
soiDe authors as species : — 

* P. e. 8 Irifi/ia Lin. Si)ec. 1454., Bocc. 
MuB. ii. t. 93., has leaves usually of 
3 leaflets. 
I P. 0. 3 narbonhiBM Bocc. Mua. t. ii. 693, 
P. reticulata WUId., has pinnate 
leave)!, the leaflets having prominent 
veins. H. S. 
Cultivated in the South of France, and in / 
Iialr, for ita fruit; the nut of which is some- T 
times eaten raw, but more frequenlly in a dried ^ 
Kate, tike almonds. In British gardens, the tree V 
ii not much planted, from its being generally 1 
supposed to require a wall ; but, in favourable 
ntuations, it will grow as a standurd or a bush '* - 

in any common garden koil, and may be propa- 
gated either by nuts procured from abroad, or by cuttings. 

I 2. P. Tbrbbi'nthus Lin. The Turpentine Pistachio, or Venetian or Chkm 

Turpentine Tree. 
Unil^lcatiim. Urn. Spse.. IU9. ; Dec. Fin)., I. p. St. i Doti'i Mill,, 1. p. es. 
Jr»V<»"^ r. •■Iciil^ nnm. Im^ m, ; P. lin Kill DW. No. 4. ; PUt«hiiT T*r6NnIht. Fr. : 

TdpatlD FtMMJe.Orr. ; Tncblnto, Iitl. 
Emtram la gr- WggdT Mvd. BoL. 419. E. lU. i wad cntjtg, 979. 

^*e, CItar., Sfc. Leaves deciduous, impari-pinnate, of about 7 leaflets, that 
are ovate-lenceolate, rounded at the base, and at the ti 
nate. (Dec. Prod.) A deciduous tree. South of . 
£urDpe and North of Africa. Height 30 ft. ' 
troducedin 1656. Flowers dull yellow and crime 
Juoe and July, Fruit dark blue, hardly bigger than ■ 

I P. T. 8 tpharor&rpa Dec. — Fruit larger 
rounder than that of the species. 
The general appearance of the tree is that of P. 
vera, but the leaves are larger, and the fruit only a third 
of the aiie ; the leaflets are, also, lanceolate, instead of 
boi^ Bubovale. The red hue of the branches, e^pe- 
ciaUy when young, is very beautiful ; and the leaves are 




186 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUMT. 



also more or less tinged with red. The fruit is round, not succulent, and 
somewhat furrowed ; at first green, and afterwards reddish ; but black, or of a 
very dark blue, when ripe. The leaves and flowers emit a very resinous odour, 
which spreads to a considerable distance, more especially at sunset, when 
the dew is falling, after a very warm day. The substance called Venice 
or Chian turpentine is the resin which exudes from this tree. In British 
gardens, the tree is not very common, though it is generally considered as the 
hardiest of the genus; and, with P. vbxi, may be planted in warm sheltered 
situations in the open border. 

1 3. P. iKNTi'scus L. The Mastich Tree. 

Jdentiflcatiom. Lin. Spec., MSS. ; Dec. Prod., S. p. 65. ; Don'n ftliU., 3. p. 66. 

^tnonyme. Corao capra, If/z/. 

Engravingt. Woodr. Med. Bot., 1. 162. ; and oar Jig S80. 

Spec, Char,, ^c. Evergreen. Leaves abruptly pinnate ; leaflets 8, lanceolate ; 
petiole winged. (Dec. Prod,) An evergreen tree. Southern Europe, 
riorthern Africa, and the Levant. Height 20 ft. Introduced in IGG^. 
Flowers green ; April and May. Fruit brownish ; ripe in October. 

Farietiet, 

i P. L. 2 an^tuHJolia Dec, P. massili^nsis MUL Dict.^ P. angustifolia 

massiliensis Toum,, has leaflets almost linear, and the tree seldom 

exceeds 10 fl. in height. 
t P. L. 3 diia N. Du Ham. iv. p. 72. ; P. 

chia Desf, Cat, Hort, Par, — A native of 

Scio, where it produces the mastich. 

The species bears a eeneral resemblance to the 
two preceding ones, m summer, when they are 
clothed with foliage ; but it differs from them in 
being evergreen, and in having the leaves much 
smaller. The leaves have sometimes 5 leaflets on 
each side ; and the petioles are so much winged 
as to appear like pinnae. The tree in the South 
of Europe, and the North of Africa, is cultivated 
in gardens, as well as found in a wild state ; but 
in British gardens it is not so hardy as P, Te- 
rebinthus, and north of London should always 
be planted against a wall. sso. ptitAeu /^ndtea*. 

Other Species of Pittdcia, — P. atldnOca Desf., a deciduous tree from Mount 
Atlas, is said to have been introduced in 1*790, but it requires the protection 
of a frame or green-house. 

Genus H. 








RRU'S L. The Rhus, or Sumach, Lin, Sygt, Pent4ndria Trigynia and 

Diee^cia Pent&ndria. 

IdaU^cah'on. Lin. Gen., 369. : Lam. 111., t. 207.; Kunth Gen. Tereb.,p. A. ; Dec Prod., 2. p. 66. z 
Don'* Mill., 8. p. 61. and p. 69. 

SuHonjfmes. Sumach, Fr. and Oer. ; Ru, ItaL 

DerivaU'on. From rhoost or rhou$t Greek, or from rhrndd^ or rwf, Celtic, red ; In allusion to the 
colour of the fhiit and leaves of some of the species in autumn. Others derire i^hus ttonx the 
Greek verb rhed^ I run, from the habit of the roots runnmg and spreading under ground to a 
considerable distance from the tree. Sumach Is derived from Simaq, the Arabic name of the 
plant 

Gen, Char, Sexes hermaphrodite, dioecious, or polygamous. Caii/x small, 
5-parted, persistent. Petals ovate, and inserted into a calycine disk, or 
into the calyx. Stamens 5, inserted into a calycine disk. Ovart/ single^ 



I Don't Mill., i. p. 69 
D. 36H.. W<F7icA knl, 



XXIV. akacardia'cex: ahu's. 187 

mbglobular, of 1 cell, Sli/kj 3, short, or wanting. Stigmai 3. Frml an 
aJmost dry drupe of 1 cell^ with a bony nul, which includes a single seed ; 
and, in some instances, 2—3 seeds. (Dec. Prod.) — Deciduous shrubs. Na- 
tives of Europe, Asia, and North and South America. 

Leavei simple or unequally pioaate, alternate, stipulate, deciduous. 
Fiomeri in terminal racemes, or panicles. — The leaves vary much, both in 
form and magnitude ; and they generally die off, in autumn, of a dark red, 
or a bright scarlet, or yellow, when they are very ornamental. Most of the 
apeciea are poisonous, some highly so ; and they all may be used in unniny, 
and dyeing yellow or black. They are all easily propagated by cuttings of 
the root, and some of them by cuttings of the branches. 
Some of the hardy species are rambling climbers, and others tree-tike 
bushes . * 

5 i. C6Hnvs Tourn. 
Seel. Char. Leaves unditided. Flowers hermaphrodite. 

• 1. K. Co'tinus L. The Cotinus Rhus, or Venetian Suniac/i. 

lilfmtitkalAm. U-a. SpK., W3. ; Due. Frod .%p.S!.; Don't Mill., i 

P^mqiHA, /y. ; P«iLJdtcn Sunurh. Ger.i Sntuw, JiaL 
Dertr^Km. The leiro Cdtlnui ll drrlrrd ftuni colmas, a OMmt uoder which Pliny ipeika o 

fnwm^mt. JmOj. AiuI..LillO,; uid our jit'JII\. 

Spec. Char., ij-c. Leaves obovate. [Dec. Prod.) A de- 
ciduous rambling shrub. Spain to Caucasus ; and, accord- 
ing to Torrey and Gray, probably of North America. 
Uei^t 4 ft. to 6 ft wild ; 6 ft. to B ft:, in a state of cul- 
ture. Introduced in 16a6. Flowers pale purplish, or 
flesh colour I June and July. Fruit white; ripe in Hep- 
tember. Decaying leaves of a fine reddish yellow. Naked 
joung wood smooth brown. 

The flowers are disposed in loose panicles, and are her- 
maphrodile. The drupe is half-heart-shaped, smooth, and 
veiny ; and its nut is triangular. Many of the flowers are 
abortive; and their pedicels, after flowering, lengthen, and 
become hairy. A highly ornamental shrub, more especially 
when covered with its large loose panicles of elongated hairy ' 
pedicels. It is easily known from all the other species by 
Its simple, obovate, smooth, stifl; lucid green leaves, rounded 
at the points, and supported by long footstalks, which remain 
on till they are killed by frost, so that the plant is almost a 
Eid>.evergreen. A dry loam suits it best; and it is props- 
gated by pegging down the branches flat to the ground, and 
strewing earth over them, through which young shoots rise up, which rt 
the base, and may be removed in autumn. 

$ it. Sumach Dec. 

Sect, Char. Leaves impari-pinnate; leaflets m 
of the first 6 species of this section. Fli 
cUceciotu, or benn^hrodite. 



j«MiH'i»a- S- rtrilnUzia BamJL Pin. p. SIT. I Vlnrialu Sumach. 

Si^natmgt. N. Du H., i.t. <!.; Witl. DaDd. Brit., I. 11, uid L IS, ; udour JIf. H3., the milE. 

i^xv. Char., ^c. Leaf of 8 — 10 uairs of leaflets, and the odd one, that are 
laneeolat^ acuminate, serrated, nairy beneath. Petiole and branches hairj. 



1S9 AnBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

(Dfr. Prod. ) A shrub, with the habit of a low deciduous tre& CanadR 
to Carolina, in rocky dry situations. Height SO ft. Introduced in 1629. 
Flowers, female dark purplet male greenish yellow and purple ; Julv 
and August. Fruit hairy, purplet ripe in October. Decaying leaves dark 
puqjie or red, sometimes mixed with yellow. KakeU young wood dark 
brown, hairy. DeCandolle has characterised two forms of this species as 
follows: — 

1CR.l.\ arborheeTu. — A tree between 10 ft. and 25 ft. high ; leaf slightly 

downy beneath. 
« B. /. 2^/««Ti*,— Shrubby, between 2ft. and 10ft. high; and its 

leaf downy and whitish beneath, 
t R. f. 3 nri^ora, R. viridiAdra Pair. — Flowers green. Possibly 
* nothing more than the male plant. 

R\tia typhina, in British gardens, is either a large shrub, or a low tree with 

a woody stem and a head composed of many irregular branches, generally 

crooked and deformed. The young shoots are covered with a soft velvet-like 

down, resembling that of a young stag's horn, both in colour and texttuv ; 

whence, and probably also 

from the crookedness of the 

branches, the cominun name. 

The cellular tissue of the wood 

is of an orange colour, with a 

strong aromatic odour, and a 

copious resinous juice. The 

leaves are 2 ft. to 3 ft. long, and 

they are very conspicuous in 

autumn, before th^ drop off*, 

when they chan-ie to n purplish 

oryellowish red. "Hie flowers 

are produced in close spikes at <j 

the ends of the branches ; they ' 

are often polygHmous or di- 

(Bcious by ubortinn, and the "'■ »>ii' ■ii>w>>^ 

female ones are followed by seeds enclosed in woolly, simple, succulent covers. 

As the plant is of open irregular urowth, and not of long duration, it should 

never be placed where it is intenileil to act an a screen. Like all objects the 

chief beauty of which consists in their singularity, it produces the most striking 

effect when standing alune on a lawn. 

■ 1 3. fl. (f T.) n 

UcnCiflcati<m. Lin, Shc, 380,1 Die. Prud., 1. p, H!.; Don'i Mill.. 1 p. TO : 

Spec. Char., rj-c. Leaf jilabrous, of 8 — 10 pairs of leaflets, 
and an odd one; leaflets lanceolate-olilong, serrate, 
whitish beneath. Branches glabrous. (Dfc. Prod.) 
A deciduous shrub or low tree. Canada to Geor;^a. 
Height 5 fL to 16 ft. Introduced in I T2G. Flowers, 
male greenish yellow, female greenish red. Frnit red ; 
ripe in October. DeCandolle has distinguished three 
tiuius of this species ; namely : — 

* B. g. 1 hemayhrodka, R. glabra WUId. Spec. 

i. p. 14V8., nm. EUh. t. 243. — Flowers her- 
mafihrodile. greenish, 
a B. ^. S dioka Lam. lU. t. 207. f. I. — Flowers { 
dicecious. greenish. 

* B. g. ? 3 coccfncfl. R. caroliniAnum JHU/. Diet. ; 

R. elegans Ait,, Lodd.Cat., DetuLBrU-U 16. 
— Flowers diteeiouB, red. This variety ia dis- 



XXIV. anacabdia'cex : shv'b. 189 

tiDguithed bv a more upright habit of growth, and smoother brntiches 

and leaves, than ff. glikbra. The leave* are glaucoua underneath i 

and the fruit i> of a rich veliety crimson. 

The general appearance of the species is similar to that of R. lyphina ; 

but the Wves and the entire plant are smaller, the branches more spreading 

and smooth, and the leaflets wider, less lerTated, and of a deeper green. 

■ 4. £ tenbna'ta Ihe. The poisonoua Rhus, PoUtm Wood, or Swamp SumacA, 

:. Prod., 1. p. ES. t Don'i Mill.. 1 p. II. i Tor. u 
mU LHi. Sptc. 3M.. Sig. Mrd. Bol. i. p. M. 1. 



^Kc. Char., j-c. Leaf rather glabrous than pubescent, of 6^6 pairs of leaflets, 
and the odd one, which are otaCe-janceolate, acuminate, entire, and beneath 
reticulatelj veined. (Dec. Protf.^ A deciduous shrub. Canada to Georgia, 
and west to Louisiana, in swamps. Height 15ft. to SOIt. Introd. 1713. 
Flowers green; Jul}'. Berrv smooth, greenish white; ripe in? October. 
Decaying leaves intense red, or purple. 
Hak«Hl yo»ag wood purplish green. 
The leaves are divided like those of R. 

tvphlna and R. glabra ; but they are quite 

diOereut from tho% of both kinds, in being I 

smooth, shining, and having the leaflets very 

entire, narrow, and pointed, and the veins of 

a purplish red colour. The whole shrub is 

in a bleb degree poisonous ; and the poison i» 

communicated by touching or smelling any 

part of it. In British gardens it is not very 

comiQOD i but it well deserves cuilure, on 

actxjunt of the beauty of its smooth shining 

foliage at all seasons, and of its almost un- 
paralleled splendour in the autumn, from the 

time that the leaves begin to change colour, 

till they ultimately drop off, of an intense . _ 

purple or scarlet, with tlie first frost. ■**■ ■''••™~'* 

m i 5. R. CbRii'HiA Lin. The hide-tanning Rhus, or the Elm^eawd Suvtavk. 



Spec. Char.. *c. Leaf villose, of 5—7 

e'rs of l^ets, and the odd one ; 
flets elliptical, and toothed with 
large and blunt teeth. The petiole 
smooth at the tip, a little margined. 
(Dec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub or 
low tree. Portugul to Tauria, on 
rocks in exposed situations. Height 
15ft. to soft. Introduced in Wi9 
Flowers whitish 
green, in large 
loose panicles ; 
July and August. 
Fruit red ; ripe 
in October, rare 
-, in England. De- 

■>. abuoom. cayin^lcuves pur- 

plish red. 
TIm general babit oi this plant reaembles that of S- typhli 




190 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

much smaller in all its parts. The leaflets are about 3 in. long, and j in. wide, 
or a pale green, serrated, and in general appearance resembling the leaves of 
the common elm. Culture as in R. typhina. 

■ 6. Jl. copalli'n 

I^ttafflaOMit. Lto. Spuc.Sm. ; D«.Prinl.,5.p.fiS.i Doo'l M111..»P- T5-i Tor. lull Gr.j.l.p.ilT. 

Spec. CAar., S(c. Leaf glabrous above, a little piloise beneath, of 5-:-T pairs 
of leaflets, and the odd onei leaflets lanceolate and entire. Petiole winged 
and jointed. Root stolon iferous. Flowers yellow ureen. Sexes dkecioiis. 
(Uec. Prod.) A deciduous shrub. Canada to FloniU. Height 3 ft. to 8 ft. 
Introduced in 1688. Flowers yellowish green; July and August Berries 
red ; ripe in September, Decaying leaves purplish red, 

Fanetiei, Three forms are given by Torrey and Gray ! — a. Leaflets entire, 
usually acuminate, which may be consiJereil as the species : ^. Imflets 
coarsely and unequally serrate: and y, leaflets (about 21) small, oblong, 
acute at the base; obtuse and slightly miicronate at the apex; petiole nar 
rowly winged. Jacquin has 

a S. c, 2 leucdnlha Jac. Hort. 
Schon., t.348.— Root not 
stoloniferous. Panicles more 
contracted than in the 
species. 
The leaves and general habit of 

the plant are those of R. typhina, 

but it seldojn grows to the height of 

more than 4 or 5 feet in British 

gardens. The branches are smooth, 

and the leaflets entire with acute - 

points; they are light green on both 

sides, and in autumn change to a fine 

purple. The petiole, as in R. Can- 
aria, is somewnat winged towards its 

tip, which, with other circumstances, 

induces us to ihink that tliey may both 

Ire varieties of the same species. The 

leaves are used as tobacco by tlie ijj. «[,6„,p,iii,» 

InJians of the Missouri and the Ml-sisjippi. 

■» 1 7.R. Toiicode'ndhon L. The Poison-Tree Rhus, or Sumad. 

Spec. Char., j-e. Stem erect, decumbent, or climbing by radicles. Leaves 3- 
foliolate, souiewhat pubescent ; leaflets (membranaceous) broadly oval oi 
rhomboid, acuminate, entire or toothed, the lateral ones inequilateral. Pa- 
nicles racemed, axillary, subsessile. Drupe subglobose, smooth. ( Tinrey mtd 
Gratf.) A low rambling or climbing shrub. Canada to GeorL:ia, in shady 
damp places. Stems 10 ft. to SO ft. as a climber ; or 3 H. to 5 ft. high as ■ 
bush. Iniroducedin IMO. Flowersgreenish,mostlyditEciou3; Juneand July. 
Berry pale chestnut; ripe in September. Decaying leaves purplish red. 

TarieHei, The following forms are given by Torrey and Gray : — 

.*R. T. I qafrd/ofium Tor. & Gray. R. T. ;Efuercif61ium JfioLr. — Not 
climbing ; leaves entire, or variously end insularly slnuatedly 
toothed, or lobed. The R. Toxicodendron of the London gardens, 
readily distinguished from the two following varieties, by its deeply 
sinuated, or almost pinnatifid, leaflets. It growl to the height ot 



XXIV. ANACARDIA^CEf : AMU'S. 191 

3 ft. to 4 ft. with lereral upright items, foiming a small buth, truDi 
the base of whIchproceeU manj prosimle runners. 
SR.T.2 radiant Tor. & Gray. R. T. a vulgare Michx. , fl. T. )3 ra. 
dicana Tor. (Bot. Mag. t. 1806. and N. Du Ham. 2. t. 48., and our 
j%». 868. and 289.) — Climbing; leaTea more commonly entire, or 
Dearly n>. Tbe Rhus radicans 
of tbe London gardens, readily 
known from the preceding vaiietj 
hy iti trailing or climbiDg atm, 
and b; ita entire leaflets. 



,1 1 R. T. 3 micTtKArpon Tor. & Gray R. Toxicodendron y microcarpon 
Mkhx. — leaves oval -oblong ; fruit &iDBlier, 

These varieties, whicit have been hitherto, for the most part, treated as 
beloi^ng to two species, R. rsdicans and B. Toxicodi-odron, are com- 
mon in many parts of North America; sometimes covering the surface of 
the ground to a great extent, iind at other times c1im1>ing lo the top of the 
highest trees, and penetraling the bark with their fibrous roots. The terri- 
ble eflects of their poison are frequent, and well authenticated. 

$ ill. Lobadium Dec. 

Std. Char. Leaf of 3 leaflets, and palmately disposed on the tip of the com- 
mon petiole, cut in a serrate manner; the teeth large. Flowers in a dense 
catkin. Sexes polygamous. There are two-Iobcd glands under the ovary, 
alternate with the stamens. Styles 3, short, distinct. Drupe rather com- 
pressed, villose. Nut smooth. Aromatic shrubs. {Drc. Prod., ii. p. 12.) 

J* 8. S. AROMiTiCA Ait, The 



f yrjii^j. Torp. ia An. da Mul,, S. p. Ui. t. SO, i ud «r 

Spec. Char., ^e. Leaves pubescent when young 
(at length coriaceous, ami often glabrous) ; leaf- 
lets sessile, rhomboid-ovate, uneqtially and in- 
dsJTcIy toothed, the terminal one narrowed at 
the base. {Tor. and Gray.) A small aromatic 
shrub. Penasjlvania to Carolina and Georgia. 
He«ht I ft. to 4 ft. Introd. in 1772. Flowers 
smdl, yellow ; April and May, Fruit small, 
It^t red J ripe in September. 
Drupe* tbe *iie of a nnall pea, light red, more 



192 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

or less hispid, slightly compressed, agreeably acid. This species varies greatly 
iD the degree of pubescence of the leaves. R, suaveolens Ait, oi.tf differs io 
havbg the leaves almost glabrous. U. S. 

Other Species of "Rh&s. — Several names are in the London catalogues, which 
are synonymes of kinds which have been lost, or are not distinctly known by 
us. jR. pumila Michx, R, diversiloba Tor, <$- Gray (R, lob^ta Hook,), R. 
trilobata Nutt,^ R, /aurina Nutt,^ are described in Torrey and Grab's Floras, 
but thev have not yet been introduced ; or, if they have, they exist only as 
small plants. Some plants of Ah us have been raised in the Hort. Soc. Gar- 
den, from seeds sent from the snowy mountains of Nepal, which will doubtless 
prove hardy. 

Genus III. 




DUVAU^il Kth. The Duvaua. Lin, Sytt. Polygamia Monoe cia. 

Jdentification. Kth. Gen. Tereb., p. 8. : Dec. Prod., 2. p. 74. ; Don*B MilU 2. p. 76. 

^nonymes. 5ch)nuB sp. Andr. ; ^m^rli sp. Cav. 

Derivation. Called Davada, after M. Duvau^ a French botinlit, known as the editor of the 

origiaal edition of Richard's AmUffsedtt Fruit; and for tome observations on Verdmea,** (LMXqr, 

in Bot. Reg., t. 1568.) 

Gen, Char, Calyx persistent, with 4 — 5 segments. Corolla of 4—^5 concave 
petals. Sexes monoeciously polygamous. Stamens 8 — 10, inserted under a 
pitcher-shaped calycine disk, which has as many sinuses and as many teeth 
as there are stamens : these are opposite the sinuses, half of them opposite 
the petals, and half alternate with them. Anthers in the fruit-bearing flowers 
barren. Ovary conical. Styles 3 — 4>. Stigmas capitate. Fruit a globose 
drupe, with a leathery nut. — Chilian trees and shrubs, becoming spiny as 
they advance in growth. (Dec, Prod.) 

Leaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, evergreen ; generally oblonff or 
ovate, toothed, small. Flowers in axillary racemes, greenish yellow. — There 
are four species in cultivation, which are all very handsome evergreen bushes, 
with bright shining foliage. 

The foliage emits, when bruised, a strong but not unpleasant odour, of 
the nature of turpentine. The leaves of D. ovata, and, doubtless, those of 
every sfiecies of Duvaua, when thrown upon water, move about in a manner 
which may be com|3ared to a fleet of ships employed in manceuvring, or to 
persons engaged in dancing. Seeds have been produced plentifully in the 
Hort. Soc. Garden by D. dep^ndens, trained to a south wall : and seeds of 
D. latifblia are often imported from Chili. Cuttings of the ripe wood root 
in sand, under a bell-glass, in a gentle heat. D. depcndens was but little 
injured at Kew, in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, and in the Hort. Soc. Garden, 
by the winter of 1837-8 ; and D. ovata was not injured at all, and maybe 
considered as an evergreen shrub, as hardy in the climate of London as Aris- 
totelia Mdcqtd, 

si I. D. depf/ndens Dec. The drooping-^a»c^(/ Duvaua. 

Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 74. ; Don's Mill , 2. p. 76. 

Synonymes. yf m^ris pol^'gaina Cav. Icon. 3. p. 20. t. 239. ; 5chlnus dep6ndens Ort. Deead. 8. p, 108.; 

Duvada depcndens • Hook. Bot. Migc. 2. p. 176. 
Engravings. Cay. Ic, t. 239. ; Bot Reg., L 1&73. ; and our Jig. 291. 

Spec, Char,, <J-c. Leaves mostly, especially U()on the flower-bearing branches, 
obovate, and very obtuse, Dr even emurginate, with scarcely any denticu- 
lations. Racemes scarcely exceeding the leaves in length. Stamens mostly 
10. Flowers smaller than those of D. ovata. (LindL) An evergreen cree ; 
in British gardens a wall shrub. Chili« Height in England 10 ft. to 12ft. 



XXIV, anacardia'cck : duvau'^, 

Introduced in I TOO. Flowers yellowish white ; 

Jane and July. Dcrries black i ripe n Sept. 

Tbere is an old plant in the Botanic Garden 
It Kcw, and a tree in the Chelsea ISotaiiic Oai^ 
dm, vhich is IS ft. high, with a trunk T in. in 
ciicumrerence. The plant in the Hurt. Soc. 
(niden passed seven winter? against a wall with 
luuthem exposure, till the winter of lb3T-8, 
wben it was Rilled down to the ground ; but it 
bu spiung up again Tigorously. 

■ 1 2, D. ov* T* Lindl. The ovateJmcei/ Duvai 

UnUifiailiiia. Llndl In B«. 

^ifc. Char., ^c. Leavts 
ovate, toolhetl, in moat 

obtuse. Kacemes a little lunger than the leaves. 
Stamens mostly B. (Uiull.) An evergreen tree ; in 
British Rardcns a Ehrub. Chili, on mountains. Height 
in the climate of London 6 fl. to 10 ft. against a wall. 
Introduced in 1625. Flowers yellowish white ; June 
and July. Berries black ; ripe in Sejitember. 
Pn^ably a variety of the preceding species. It was 
wholly uninjured by the winter of 1837-8, in the Hor- 
ticultural Society's Garden. 
LATiFOLiA GUI. The broad-leaved Duvaua. 





« 1 3. D. LATIFO' 

iam. CllLl«MSS.iLllldl. 1nB«, Bfl.,(. 13*0. 

I. D.dzpdidiuvkut. fM. VIw.i HulDKbu, C*itf. 

:i. BN.fi^..(.[»tU.;aHli>iirA.»3. 

Leaves oblong, acute, coarsely 



Spec. Char., ^c. 

toothed, so waved as to seem m some measure 

plicate. Racemes dense, the length of the leaves. 

Slamens S. (Lindl.) An evergreen tree ; in 

Britiih gardens a shrub. Chili, on mountains. 

Height 6ft. to IS (I. against a wall. Introduced 

in 1896. Flowers greenish white; June and July. 

Berries black ; ripe in October. 

" Whatever," observes Dr. Lindley, " may be 
thou^t" of the distinctness, as species, " of O. 
ovaia and D. dependens, there can be no doubt 
tku D. latifolia is a totally distinct species ; for 
not only are the leaves, in their outline, surface, 
tod colour, and the whole plant in its habit, very 
[hKrent, but we find it maintain all its peculiarities 
nochanged when raised from seeds." "•■ ii""i«i"ift"t 

UiktT Specia of DtiTa<i9.—D. denldta Dec., Schinus dentata Sol. Rep., was 
introduced in 1795, and is doubtless as hardy as any of the above kinds ; since 
)ll of them are safest when planted against a wall. Duvaua tinuAla Lindl, 
appears equally hardy with D. dependena in the Hort. Soc. (iarden. It diSera 
fbin the others in producing the flowers before the leaves, and in being deci- 
dwjus. All the species well deserve culture as evergreen bushes, in Rhrubberien 
■bere the soil is dry and sandy, the situation sheltered, and the surface sloping 
to the south. A coocurrence of circumstances of this kind is not unfi^quenl 
Id country residences, both in England and Scotland ; and two examples which 
occur to us at the moment we are writing are. Bury Hill in Surrey, and Blair 
DnipunoDd in Stirlingshire. 



194 AltBORETUM ET FHUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Order XXV. LEGUMINA'CE^. 

Obd, Char, Calyx with 5 divisions, either partitions, teeth, or dcfts, the odd 
one anterior to the axis of inflorescence. FruU a legume. Seed with the 
radicle next the hilum. (Lindl,) — Trees and shrubs natives of every climate. 
Leaves alternate, stipulate, generally compound ; deciduous, or sometimes 
evergreen ; petiole tumid at the base. Stipules 2 at the base of the petiole, 
and 2 at the base of each leaflet. Pedicels usually articulated, with 2 bract- 
lets under the flower. 

The name of Le^uminaceae is applied to this extensive and truly natural 
order, on account of the seeds of all the species beine produced in leguminous 
pods, bearing more or less resemblance to those of the common pea or bean ; 
and quite different from the siliquose pods of cruciferous plants. 

The ligneous species are trees and shrubs, for the most part deciduous ; and 
they are disposed through almost every part of the world. The order contains 
some of our finest ornamental shrubs and low trees, such as Robinia, Cy'tisus, 
Wistaria, Genista, CTlex, Am6rpha, Halimod^ndron, ^Icacia, Oleditschia, 
Cercis, and various others. It also contains some considerable trees, which 
belong to the genera Robinia, Gleditschio, Sophora, &c. The senera con- 
taining hardy ligneous plants are in number twenty-three, which, after De 
Candolle and G. Don, we place in characterised sections, and ascribe to them 
short characters, that are more or less contradistinctive. 

Sect. I. Sopho'rrs, 

Sect. Char. Corolla, in most, papilionaceous. Stamens 10, with the fila- 
ments distinct. L^ume not jointed. Cotyledons flat, leafy. Embrjo 
with the radicle beside the edges of the cotyledons. Leaves simply pm- 
natc, or simple. 

SnpHO^RA R. Br. Legume necklace-shaped, including many seeds. Leaf with 

more than three leaflets. 
ViKGi^LM Lam. Legume compressed, including many seeds. Leaf with 

more than three leaflets. 
PiPTA^NTHUS Swt. Legume compressed, including 6 seeds. Leaf with its 

leaflets 3. 

Sect. n. Lo\ejr. 

Sect. Char, Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens 10, the filaments of ail con- 
nate, or those of 9 connate, and that of one distinct. Legume not jointed. 
Embryo with the radicle beside the edges of the cotyledons. The coty- 
ledons flattish ; in germination, converted into leaves furnished with 
stomata. Leaves simply pinnate, or simple. 

U^LEX L. Calvx 2-parted, 5-toothed. Legume oval-oblong, tur^d, scarcely 
longer than the calyx, containing but few seeds, though the ovules are 
many. Habit spiny. 

.^PA^RTiUM Dec. Standard roundish. Keel acuminate. Branches ruab-like. 
Leaf simple. 

Gem'sta Lam. Standard oblong-oval. Keel oblong, not wholly including 
the stamens and pistils. Leaves with 3 leaflets, or, in some, simple. 

Cr^Tisus Dec. Standard ovate. Keel very obtuse, including the stameDs 
and pistil. Leaves, in all, with three leaflets. 

Adknoca'^rpus Dec, Stamens with the filaments connate. Legume bearing 
stalked glands all over it. 

Ono^nis L. Calyx with 5 linear segments. Standard striate. Legume con- 
taining few seeds ; in most, turgid. 

Amo'rpha L, Corolla consisting of the standard only. 

Eysbnha'rdtia H, 4* B. Corolla with the standard, and 2 keel petals distinct. 

RoBi'siA Dec. Legume flat ; that edge to which the teeds are attached 
margined. Leaf impari-pinnate. 



XXV. LEGUMINA^CEiE : SOPHO^RA. 195 

C ARAGATS A Lam. Legume rather cylindrical. Leaf abruptly pinnate. 

Hjilivode'ndron Fisch. Legume stipitate, inflatecl, bladdery. Leaf 
abruptly pinnate. 

Calo'phaca Fudu Stamens with the filaments of 9 connate, that of one 
distinct. Legume sessile, with concave valves bearing hairs, some soft, 
some rigid and glanded. 

Cbi^uH^A R, Br, Legume stipitate, much inflated, glabrous. 

ifeTRA'GALUS Dec, Legume with its lower suture so bent in towards the op- 
posite one as to cause the legume to seem, more or less, l^elled. 

Sect. IIL /fEDYSA^RBA. 

Sect, Char, Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens usually with the filaments 
connate in one of three modes; the 10 connate; 9 connate and one 
distinct ; or connate by fives : in a few cases all are distinct. Legume 
dividing transversely into I -seeded joints, called loments. Embryo with 
the radicle beside the edges of the cotyledons, which are flattish,'and, in 
germination, are converted into leaves furnished with stomata. Leaves 
simply pinnate, or simple. 

CoRONi^LLA Neck, Calyx campanulate, usually shorter than the claws of the 
petals. Carina acute. Stamens diadelphous. Seeds ovate, or cylindrical. 

Sect. IV. Phaseo^ejb. 

Sect. Char, Corolla papilionaceous. Stamens usually with 9 filaments 
connate, and one distinct. Legume not jointed, including many seeds, 
that are separated firom one another with a cellular, transverse, membrane- 
ous partition, that is in some cases not complete. Embryo with the 
radicle beside the ed^ of the cotyledons, which are thick, and, in ger- 
mination, dther remain under ground, or are changed into thick leaves 
that scarcely have stomata. Leaves simply pinnate, or simple. 

WisTA^i^ Nutt. Leaf impari-pinnate. 

Sect. V. Cassib^jb. 

Sect, Char, Corolla, in most of the species, of equal petals; in some sub- 
papilionaceous. Stamens with the filaments distinct. Leaves doubly 
or triply pinnate ; in some simple. 

Glsdi^tschi^ L. Sexes dioeciously polygamous. Corolla of 3 — 5 equal 

petals. Legume in most long and narrow. Seeds compressed. Leaves 

c»ropoundly divided. Bearing prickles in most. 
Gtmko'cladus Lam, Sexes, by defect, dioecious. Corolla of 5 equal petals. 

Legume compressed and broad. Seeds scarcely compressed. Leaves 

ccxnpoundly divided. 
Cb'^rcis L, Sexes hermaphrodite. Corolla sub-papilionaceous, of 5 unequal 

petals the nde ones, or wings, longer than the others. Leaves siciple. 



Sect I. SOPHO^REJE. 




SOPHCtRA R. Br. Thb Sopbora. Lin, Syat, Dec&ndria Monogynia 

UtnMeaaom, R. Brown in Hort. Kev., ed. 2. ; Dee. Prod., 3. p. 96. ; Don*« Min.. % d. ino 
!^amtm!rSopli^mwpet.Lm. Gtn. No. SOS. ^ '''^- 

DtHmUam, Altered fktmi aopkero, the Arabic name of a papilioDaeeouc flowering tree. 

O 2 



I9fi ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BBITANNICUM. 

Gen. Char. Cidyx 5-toothed, campanulate at the base, or somenhat attenu- 
ated. Petalt of the keel usually concrete at the apex. Legatar somewhat 
monilifonn, wingless, many-seeded. (Don'i MiU.) 

Leavet impan-pin Date, with 11 — 13 leadeta, generally eiatipulate. Flowcn 

. yellow, white, or blue, in simple racemes, or panicles. — The only hardy 
species are deciduous trees, nativea of Japan or China. 

I 1. 5. japo'nica L. The Japan Sophora. 

W<«((1m«oh. LLnJOnt., ja. 1 Dn. Prod.,Sp. 98,L Don'i MLIL, S-p, 109. 

SnrrQpima. Hed. In N. Du Hacnr, S.L21.1 Der. Lfiguin., t- 4. f. ]-; Ulfi pImU oT thil nKJet La 

Spec. Oiar., /fc. Leaves pinnate, with II — 13 leaflets, which are oblong- 
ovate, acute, and smooth ; panicle loose, terminal ; pods smooth. A de- 
ciduous tree of the middle size. Japan. Height 40 ft. to 50 fl. Intro- 
duced in 1763. ' Flowers cream-coloured; August and September. Pods 
rarely produced in England. Decaying leaves yellow ana green. Naked 
young wood dark green, like that or.7u:inunum officinille. 
Vaneliei. 

X S. J. 2 variegdtn Hort. has the leaves variegated, but is not worth 

cultivating as an ornamental plant. 
t S. j. 3 pendida Hort., and the plate of this tree in our 1st edit. 
ToL v., has pendulous shoots, and is a very remaricable variety. 
Grafteid near the ground, the shoots run along the surface, like those 
of a trailing plant, to a very great distance from the main stem ; in 
t!Ood soil, a shoot extending itself 6 or H feet in one season. 
Grafted at the height of 10 or 20 feet or upwards, the shoots hang 
down, and form one of the most ornamental of pendulous trees, 
both in summer and winter. 



A round-headed tree, readily distinguished in winter by the fine, smooth, 
dark green bark of its young wood and imatler branches ; and, in summer, by 
the dark blue green of its foliage. In deep free soil, it grows with great rs- 
pidity, seedlings attaining the lieipht of 10 or 12 feet in 4 or 5 years ; and 
in 20 or 30 years, in the ndghbourhood of London, 30 or 40 feet. There are 
large specimens in England, which flower freely; but they have never yet 
ripenecf seeds : indeed, the tree ripens seeds ui France only in the very 
wannest seasons. The wood is very hard and compact, as much so, it is said, 
as that of the box. The bark exhales a strong odour, which, it is stated in 
the Nouveau Da Hamel, produces irolic and purging on those who prune the 



Vxr. legumina\:e£: viRGi'Li^f. 197 

tree, or otherwise work with the wood in a green state. Little eppeara to 
be koown of the uses of the tree in Cbioa and Japan : but it is sud that the 
fruit a employed to dye a fine yellow ; and the Sowers for dyeing a yellow of 
BO Huperior a hue, that it is exclusively rexenred for dyeing stulTii to be worn 
by the members of the imperial rBmily. None of the artioreouij L^uminicete 
ire eijual to this tree in beauty of foliage and bark. Its flowers, when they 
ire produced, are lUo iu large terminal compound ipikes, and Tery con- 
•picuous, though much smaJler than those of uie Robtnia viscosa. One re- 
markable propertj in the foliage of the aophora is, that the very hottest and 
diieat seasons do not turn it pale, or cause it to drop off, as heat does that of 
most of the other pinnated-ietiTed L^umink;es. The pendulous variety is 
well deserving of culture as an object of ■inguiarity and beauty; and, wh^re 
it is desired to cover a surface with intense green foliage during summer, lor 
exBDiple, a dry hillock, a plant of this variety, nluced on the ccutre, will ac- 
complish the purpose eflectually. The tree will thrive in any free soil ; but, 
ia cold climates, it ought to be placed in one rather poor and dry tiial it may 
be compelled to make shorter shoots; which, of course, being le!K succulent, 
are more easily ripened. It is generally propagated by seeds imported from 
France : but, where it is desired to have trees tliat will soon come into (lower, 
seedling plants should be grafted with scions from a flowering tree. It will 
grow by cuttings, more etpecially of the roots, and also by layers. 

■ 8. S. hbptapht'lla L. The T-leaf- 
leted Sophora. 

Urmhjkm/iat- Un. Spec, '»3.i Dte. Pnd., 1 
E^fTwrntfi, Bmnph. Ad., 4. p. H. L 19. ; iDd dot 

:^r. Char., ij-c. Leaflets 7, glabrous. 

{Uim'i Mill.y A deciduous shrub. 

China. Hci^t 6 II. Introduced in 

IH30. Flowers yellow; October. 

There are plants of S. heptaph^lla in 
the Hort. Soc Garden, which have 
flowered and appear to be quite hardy, 
but as tbef do not exactly agree %vith 
Rumphius's figure, especially in the 
number of leaflets, we wish our engrav- 
ing to be considered as of doubtful 
ouibentici^. The living plants alluded 
to are sufficiently distinct, and deserve 
B place in collections. ,^ j,rti..i»piBii.,n. 



H 



VlROl-LU L. Th8 ViROTi.1*. Im. .%(. DecSndria Monogjnia. 

UnlifcaUpm. LBii.nLt.J46.! Pen. Eneh., 1. p. «».; B. BrownlaHort. Kew.,»d.».ioLI,p.4.j 

rut p™i.,».p.9e.i DDii'imii.,«.p. 111. ' ' *~ ' 

SirfKtibs. KwudbjrLuiurdilBboDourDr thepoet rirr'.'baHOniriKintillcliliDtotiolBlie 

Gen. Char. Cidt/x 5-cte(^ Petah 5, about equal in length. FetiUum with 
the edces not reflexed. Stigma beardless. Legume compressed, oblong, 
E-Taived, inany-seeiled. (Don'i MiU.) 

Lroiwf compound, impari. pinnate, deciduous ; with 9 — 1 1 leaflets. Floweri 
yellow, in racemei. — There is only one hardy species, adeciduoiu low tree, 
o 3 



I90 ARBORETUM ET FBUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 

T 1. V. LU^BA. AfuAx. Tlie ye]loii-iModeiI Virgilia, or Velloa Wood. 
Utnnfieatlan. Hldii. FIL Arb. Aii>er..a.p.M6. 1. S.i Dec. Pnd., t. p. M. ; Dod-iMiII.,1. p. 111. 
tEUlr*»iiArlBrii..r««ll" ToL.T.;.idourJVS9B. ' " ""■'■''■ " ' 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves pinnate; leaflets 9 — 11; alternate, of ate, pointed, 

nnooih. A dedcluDUd tree. North America. On the Diouniaios of Cuni- 

berland, and the Misaisaippi. Hi;ight in Auieriua -10 ft.; 10 ft. to 90 ft. in 

England. Introduced in 1819. Flowers yellowish white, in penduloiu 

racemes ; June to Aui;ust. Foda never produced in England. Decaying 

leaves rich yellow. Naked young wood yellowish brown. 

The leaves, on young trees, are from 1 ft, to IJ ft. in length, and on oldtreea 

not above halt' that size. The flowers form white pendulous racemes, a little 

larger than those of the Rohlnia 'Bseiidt-Acirm, but not ao odoriferous. The 

seeds are like those of the robinia, and, in America, ripen about the middle 



of August. In Britain, the tree has flowered in the Chelsea Botanic Gar- 
den, and at Ilylands in Essex, but has not yet produced pods. An open wj 
situation is desirable, in order that the tree may ripen its wood; and, to &- 
cilitatc the same. purpose where the climate is cold, the soil ought to be dry 
rather than rich. In the London nurseries, it is propagated chiefly by Ame- 
rican seeds, but it vrill doubtless grow by cuttings of the roots. 

Gknus 111. 



a 



PIPTATJTHUS Swt. The Pipta.ithus. Un. Syil. Dedtadria 
Monogynla. 



XXT. LEGtlMlNA'cEf: I/YeX. 199 

Gen. fSar. Co^ bllabiBte ; lower lip trifid, upper lip S-lobed; at^inctita 
soon blUng off. PetaU deciduous. Vexiltum large, obcordate, ntli'^cent. 
tfiap cuneated. Aer/ cucullace. accumbent. Staiiient \0 i treu, deciiluouA. 
Stigma minute. Legume broad-ISiear, compressed, fl-seeded, stipitate. 
{DoH't MUt.) 

Leaoet compound, trifoliate, stipulate, sub-evcip'ecn ; leaflets elliptical- 
oblong, acute, broad. Flomeri Urge, jellow, — One species only in Britiali 
gardens. 

a ■ I. P. nevale'nsis Suit. The Nepal Piptsnlhus. 
UrmtHUallmt. Swt. Fl..Ginln iSi. : Dec. Pmd. 1 Doa'i Hlll..3.p. m 

Spmifmri. Tlirmi«p>l> J:U>urnir>lli D. DimFrad. H. Ktp. t-OS-, 4iug}rli IndJcl WaU. ItSS.; 
BnptliU Dcpilf Dill ^oot. Eiat. Fl. 1. iH. 

Spec. Char., if r. Leaves infuliolate ; leaflets elliptical- oblong, acute, broad. 
Stipules 8, large. A sub-evergreen shrub. Nepal. Hcij^ht STt. to lOfl. 
Introduced in 1821. flowers ricii yellow i May aiid June. Pod green. 
turning to brown J ripe in UL'tobcr. Decaying leaves yellow and green. Naked 
young wood dark green. 

Tbe young leaves are silky i and the flowers are of a bright yellow, and are 
mucb kirger than those of the common labiunum, to which they, and also the 
leaves and the shoots, bear a general 
resembtunce. In British gardens it 
may he considered as rather tender, i 
and not of many years' duration; U 
nevertheless, in fine seasons, it ripens \ 
abundance of seeds. It may be pro- 
pagated by cuttings of the roots, and " 
of the shoots, as well as by seeds or 
7 layers. In most of the counties north 
or Loudon, the sofetit situulion for it 
will be against a wall ; and it well de- 
serves a place there, on account of "*■ ''■"*^™"''™-'* 
It deep green foliage, and taipe bright jellow flowers. At\%)-t\ 
a Wail., Mr. Gordon considers as differing a little from the species. 




traJ 

ler, f 
=ns^ 



Sect. II. Z.o'te«. 



□ 



CTLEX L. Thb Fukzb. IAh. Sytt. Monaddphia Dedbidria. 

.itn. DI.,I.ei.; Dee.Prod., !.p.lM.; Dun-iUill..!. p.lM. 
ii^ Celtic, ■ point i InrefcnDce tatbeprlckljbruchei. 
Gen. Char. Calyx bibracteate, bipartite, one of the lips 3-tuothed, the other 
bidentste. Slanteru all connected. Legume oval-oblong, turgid, nuuiy- 
OTuUte, but few-seeded, hardly longer than the calyx. 

Leaoet simple, linear, caducous, often changing into spines. Flowcri 
•olitary, yellow. 

Branchy spinous shrubs, evergreen from the colour of the bark, with yellow 
flowef*, natives of Europe, which will grow in any tolerably good soil that is 
ilry ; and are readily propagated by seeds, or by cuttings planted in sand. 



■ FRUIICliTWM 1 



m 1. C7-LBX E 



F^rcirs™ 



dpa'* L. The European, 



- common, Fime, or IV/ini, 



Geail «pl»i 



.,, , , _. ..iddintri Pi 

Prickly Brooms; Ajcaic ' - ■ 

Engravings- tlngr Bot, t. 

Sjicc. Char., 4:c. Leaves lanceolale. linear, Branchlets villous. 
ovute, luose. Calyx pubescent. An erect coiii[>act bush, evergreen, from 
the coluur of the bark. Middle and tjouth of Europe, on graTelly soils ; 
imd in Britain on hills. Height 2rt.tu jtl. ; in ifieUePed woods, lOft. 
Flowers rich yellow ; February to Hay, and in mild winters September 
to May. Pod brown ; ripe in August. 
Varielia. 

m V. e. 2JIore plena has double Bowers, and is a splendid plant when 

profusely covered with blossoms, well adapted for small ^rdens,and 

easily increased by cuttings. 

U. prorweialii and \f, ilricia are probably only varieties of U. eu< 

mpn'a, but, as they m:iy iHiasibly beloiiii to U. nuna, we have kept them 

distinct, and treated tbu:ii as botanical species 01 

The common furze, in Caernarvonshire, grows 

lo the height of IJUOft. above the sea, in open, 

airy, warm situations ; but in damp shaded valleys, 

not hi^lier than 600 ft. 

In the North of Enf 

land,accordingto Winch, 

it forms fine fox covers 

at 800 or UOO feet ; and 

grows, in warm sheltered 

situations, at £000 (t. 

k At Inverness, it is found 

to the height oflldOtt. 

About Tongue, in the 

north -west of Suiher- 







.laturalised, it scarcely i 



bruised, and given lo cattle and horses in a green 
nutritive as fodder; and for this purpose the variety 
ferabic, on account of the absence of prickles. The i 
is chiefly desirable in situations where the hawthorn 
thrive; because the furze is not a plant of long dun 
young trees, it is sometimes sown where acorns, beei h 1 
to be sown, or young trees are to be planted. The 
state is chiefly as fuel for bakers' ovens, for brick, tile, 
lighting hres. In Scotland, it is sometimes used 



iduced, but is now 

IS 350 h. of elevation. Thq young branches, 
' ' found highly 



■ furie for hedges 
)r the holly will not 
ion. As a shelter ro 

BfitB, or chestnuts are 
ie of furze in a dead 
nd lime kilns, and fur 
ilns for drying oats. 
In England, a common use of it is to weave into the sides of hovels for 
sheltering cattle, to prevent them Irom rubbing against them. In gardens, 
the points of the shoots are chopped into pieces of about I in. in length, and 
dropped into the drills in which peas are sown, before the seeds are covered ; 
and, the earth being drawn over them and trod down, they are found ell't.'ctu- 
alJy to rcaint the attacks of mice and small birds. In Fmnce, the chopped 
brunches are mixed with cow-dung, and the mixture aJVerwards lormi^d into 
bricks, which are dried in the sun, and used as fuel. The seeds, if they could 
be procured in sufficient quantity, would, if eround into Hower, form u nutri- 
tive food both for tattle and swine : they retiun their vital pniperty for several 
years. In Britany, large heaps are formed of alternate layers of turf and 
dricdfnrze branches; and, the whole being set lire to, the ashes are preserved 
as manure. In many porta of both France and England, the ashes of dry 
furze branches are used as a lye for washing linen. A pound of seeds, which, 
in London, coals from fid. lo li., will sow an acre broad-cast, or a dnll of k 



XXV. LEOUMtNACE^: t/ LEX. 201 

mile in length u a hedge. The double-dowered and the liistigiiite varietiea are 
propagated by cutting! : the latter, when wanted for Bgricultural purpoies, 
nnj be bedded in, like box, in a Bandy soil rather moist, in the beginiuog of 
Septemberj and by the folloning spring they will be fit to transplant. 

a'na Font. The dwarf Furze. 

e. i Eiw. BoL, 1. 741. 1 I>«. Prod, 1. p. IM I Dm't Mill. 

U, ; f/, ePTOpvNjt fi Lin. Spec. IMS. 
. Eni-Bu^l. 141.1 wuIourjV>9°l-*i><l*03- ^ 

Sper. Char., cjr. Branches nnd leaves smooth, the latter linear. Calyx gla- 
brous, with spreading narrow teeth. According to Smith, the essential 
character coDsists in the more distinct and tpreading calyx teeth, and the 
more niinnie, rounded, close-pressed, and oflcn hardly discernible, brac- 
teaa. An evergreen, compact, low, spiny shrub. Britain and the western 

Cof France, on poor gravelly soils. Height 2 — 3 (I. Flowers ricii yel- 
August to December. P<kIs brown ; ripe in December. 
A %ery distioct sort, though, 
from the Tery different and more 
luxuriant habit which the plant 
hu when cultifaied in gardens 
on rich soils, we have no tloiibt of 
its being only a variety of U. eu- 
npar'a. In its native habitats, it 
is easily dbtinguished from- that 
ipecies by its low growth, seldom 
eiceeding 9fl. in height; by its 
being much smaller in oil its parts; 
by its decumbent habit ; and by its 
Bowering from the end of August ' 
till the beginning of December, "'' "-"'""* 

and seldom at any other season. Very ne:it low hedges und edging* may be 
funned of it. 

■ 3. If. (b.) pbotinci*'i.is Loit. The Provence Furie. 
Unbtoaliim. Loll. Not.. 109.1 DKprod.. t.p. IM.; Dod'i HiU..3. p. I4S.I 

«<Wi Im HliiHui., M. 
lf m. ^m, . tri« ■uilrUli OrmliU. 
tagrmtgl. Loll. Not., t- 6. r. & ! Uld OUTj^, 30^ 

Sptc. Char., 4''^- Calyx rather pubescent, with lanceolate distant 
teeth. An erect, evergreen, compact shrub; intermediale, in 
all its parta and in its habit, between U, europc^a and U. 
nana. Provence, Andegavany, and Mauritania. Height 3 ft. 
to4ft. Introduced in 1820. Flowers rich yellow ; August « 

W December. Pod brown ; ripe in December. X''! 

Whatever doubts there may be as to U. nana being a distinct / J 
ipedes, there can be none as to this sort being only a variety, t » 
K\ an evergreen ahrub, flowering freely ; il well deserves a place ft^ 

Ul collections. >■»- ". prmtacUia 

• 4. U. (b.) STmi'cTA Mackny. The upright-jrcioo^, or Inth, Furze. 

Mnfifatifli. Huklr'i LIU ot Irlih PUnU I Hook. Brit. Pl.,p. JIT. 
Inoifua. U. biUtnka Doo'j MUl. 1. p. ]<e. i U. luUjUu Ban. 
ifrmimf. Oar Jf ■'^V- ■ 

Spee. Char., !ic. Habit erect, narrow, and compact. Spines few or none ; 
and what there are, weak, branched, laafy, and pubescent. An erect, com- 
pact, evergreen shrub. Ireland. Height <i It. to 10 ft. Introduced in 
Vi\b. Flowers yellow, rarely produced ; August to December. Pod 
broMn 1 ripe in December. 
Kscovcred in the Marquess of Londonderry's Park, in the county of 




^02 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



Down, in 1815, or before. It is very upright in its growth, and attains the 
height, in good soils, of from 6 ft. to 10 ft. in as many years. Its branches 
are so soft and succulent that sheep and cattle eat them without injuring their 
mouths, and are very fond of them. It forms excellent garden hedges, and, 
in rather moist climates, is a most excellent forage plant, as has been already 
stated under U, europae^. It only rarely flowers, and has very seldom pro- 
duced seeds ; but it is easily propagated by cuttings. 

Other Species of V^lex, — U. gienistoidet Brot., U, mitis Hort,, Stauracan- 
thus aphyllus Lmk, is a leafless shrub, with the habit of ITlex.; a native of 
Portugal in sandy pine woods ; and differing from UHex nkaa chiefly in the 
spines branching into two small ones at the sides. It was introduced in 1823 ; 
and grows to the height of 1 fl. to 2 ft. It is rather tender in the climate of 
London, but sometimes stands the winter among rock work. 

Genus V. 



JPAHTIUM Dec. The Spartium, or Spanish Broom, Lm. Stfst, 

Monad^lphia Dec&ndria. 

MentifU^tttiSn. Lin. Sp., 995. ; Dec. Prod.. 8. p. 145. ; Don*! Mill., S. p. 148. 
SuiumymeM. SpartiinUiui Link Emun, 8. p. SSS. ; GenlBta sp. Imih. and Mcendk } Spartio, ItmL 
Derivation* From sparton, cordage ; in allualon to the use of the plant In early ages generallj, and 
in Spain, eren to the present day, for making ropes. 

Gen. Char., ^c. Calyx membranous, spathaceous, clefl above, 5-toothed at 
the apex, somewhat labiate. Corolla with a roundish complicated vexillum, 
and an acuminated keel. Petalt a little agglutinated, but partable. 5/a- 
mens monadelphous. Legume compressed, many-seeded, glandless. (^Dan^s 
Mill.) 

fjeaves simple, alternate, exstipulate, caducous ; lanceolate. Flowers in 
terminal racemes, large, distant, and yellow. — A shrub, a native of Spain 
and Portugal. 

» I. S. Ju^NCEUif L. The Rush-/t^tf Spartium, or Spanish Broom. 

Identification. Lin. Sp., 995. ; Dec. Prod., 9. p. 146. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 148. 

Synonymes. Genista ^dncea Lam. and Du nam. ; 6. odorftta Moench \ Spartiinthus ^fincens 

Mcenck ; Genftt d'Espagne, Fr. ; Binicnartige Pfriemen, Ger. ; Oinestra dl Spagna, Ital . 
Engravingt. N. Du Ham., 2. t. 32. ; Bot. Mag., t. 85. ; and our Jtg. 806. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Branches upright, round, of a deep green colour, smooth, 
and with but few leaves, which are lanceolate, and soon drop off. An up- 
right shrub, evergreen from the colour of its numerous shoots. Spain, 
Portugal, and the South of France, in gravelly soils. Height 5 ft. to 8 fl. ; 
in British gardens 8 h. to 12 ft. In- 
troduced in 154-8. Flowers dark yel- . ^^ ^ 
low, large; July to September. Pods ^^' ^ ' '^^ 
brown ; ripe in October. Naked 
young wood smooth and dark green. 

Varieties. 
A S. j. 2 odoratitnmum (S. odora- 

tissimum D. Don Brit. Fl. 

Gard. 2. st. 390. ; S. acutif 6- 

lium Lindl. Bot. Reg. ; and our 

fig. 304.) has the flowers sweet- 
scented, and the leaves more 

acute than those of the species. 

Raised from Turkish seeds. 
A S. j. Sfiore pleno has double flowers. 




304. 9p4ni«inJ4i 



XXV. leoumi»a'c£a; geni'sta. 

In lul; and the South of Fnnce a very good cloth 
ia iDaiiu&:tiired from the &bres of this plant. Both in 
Spain Md France, the shoots are used for forming 
bukeli, and for tying up vines and other fniit trees. 
The bees are said to be very fond of the flowers ; and 
■tic Kcds arc eaten with great aviJily by poultry, par- 
oidges, && Medicinally, the flowers and leaves, in 
infiuiaa, act as nn emetic, or, in a larger quantity, as an 
^)erient. In Britain, the plant \» solely r^arded as an 
omamental shrub. Seeds are produced in abundance, 
■cd ihey will come up in any soil that is tolerably dry. 
Id (he nuraery, they ought to be transplanted every year, 
ti ttwy are apt to formlong taproots and very few fibres. 

Gbkus VI. 



Qi2UQU 



GENl'STA Lam. Tbb Gbnisti. £ra. Sytt. Mooadflpfaia Dedindria. 
UmHlrtiiim. Luo.I>ic«n9-F'6JE.i I1l.t-EI9. i Ds. Fred., 3. p. 141. ; Doo'i HIU- 1. p. 14S. 
4w«w- Gmtt*, « Sfkalmn, iptc Lfa. i OcnK. FT. ; ciula. Otr. ; GllH•t^^ llal. 

Gen, Ciar. Calyx Inlabiale, upper lip bipartite, lower one tridentate, or 5- 
lobed, the three lower lobes nmrly Joined to the apex. VexiUum oblong-oval. 
Carna oblong, straight, not always containing the stamens and pistils. Sla- 
nfu monadelphoiis. Legume compressed, many-seeded, {lion't Mill.) 

Lemet simple or compound, alternate, rarely nppoute, stipulate, decidu- 
ous or sub-evNgreen ; lanceolate, linear, or trifoliolate. Flotaen terminal or 
aiitWy, yellow. 

The hardy species are deciduous or sub-evergreen shrubs, generally with 
tnfoUidate leaves and yellow flowers ; there is a great sameness of character 
among them, and, though many are quite distinct, yet it is hiehly probable that 
ibe ereater □umbo' now recorded as species are only varieties. They are 
chiefly natives of Europe ; but a few are found in the North of Africa. As 
they grow rapidly, and flower freely, especially on soils not wet at bottom, 

"' desirable p" ' " 

tfion. A number of the _,. 

. ^Jftisu. 

heeo separated bj Iduuarck, whose arrangement, as modified by DeCaadolle, 
~>e bave adopted in the following enumeration. 

§ 1 . UnanHed. Letmet all, or fir tile kkjk part, trifoUolaie. 

I 1. G, partiflo'ra Dec. The small- 
flowered Qenisca. 

tec. Prod,, t,p.1U.i DoD'iUai., 
J^^itinm partlSbram Vatt. Bort. Ceti. 
1. VMO-Hoft cai(,t,«7.:ud«uva>>c, 
Spec.C^ar.,^e. Leaf trifoliolate, the petiole 
very abort; and the leaflets usuallydeci- 
dooDS, very narrow, glabrous. Flowers 
in lengthened terminal racemes. Le- 
gomes compressed, 1 — 3-«eeded, rather 
pubescent, being covered with minute ^-^_^ 



tbey are desirable plants for newly formed abrubbenes, but in general they 
are not of long duration. A number of the species were formerly included 
mider the genus 5pertiuin and some under Cytisus, from which they have 



closely pressed down, slightly spread- 

. (Dec. Prod.) A deciduoua shrub. A* 



Levant, near the Oulf of Mundania. 




204 



ARBORETUM £T FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




Height 6 ft to 7 ft. Introduced in 1817. Flowers yellow ; 
May to August. Legume ?. H. 8. 

ii * 2. G. CA'^NDiCANs L, The whitish Genista. 

Jdfntifieaiion. Lin. ArocBn. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 145.; Don's Iflll., S. p. 149. ; 

Webb Iter HUpan., 50. 
Smon^mes. CftJsus c&ndicuiB Lin. Sp. ; C. pabitceoM Mttnch. 
Engravings. Dend. Brit^ t. 80. ; and oar Jig, 307. 

Spec, Char., S^c, Leaf trifoliolate, petiolate ; leaflets obovate, 
pubescent, with appressed down. Branches angled. 
Flowers in terminal heads, few in a head. Legume hairy. 
{Dec, Prod.) A hoary sub-evergreen shrub, of short du- 
ration. Mogador, Italy, and the Levant. Height 4 ft. to 
6 ft. Introduced in 1735. Flowers large, yellow, scents 
less; April to July. Legume?. 

The great advantage of this species is, that it grows 
rapidly, and flowers freely. 

A 3. G, PATTENS Dec. The spreading Genista. 

Identification. Dec. Prod., S. p. 145.; DoD*t MIH., 2. p. 149.; Webb 

Iter HiBpan., p. 60. 
Synonyme. Spartlum pitens Ca». loon, 2. p. 68., excltuWe of the 

synoDTme. 
Engravings. Cat. loon., S. p. .*%. t. 176.; and oar Jig. 308. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches striated, twi^y, glabrous. 

Leaves stalked, trifoliolate. Leaflets obovate, pu- 
bescent beneath. Flowers in fours, pedicellate, 
■ nearly terminal. Legume glabrous, 3 — ^-seeded. 

{DorCt Mill.) A spreading shrub. Spain. On 

mountains near Albayda, and found by P. B. 

Webb on Monte Santo in Catalonia. Introduced 

in ?1830. Height 4 ft. to 8 ft. Flowers yellow ; 

April to July. 

It differs from Cytisus patens, in the upper lip of 
the calyx being acutely bipartite ; lower lip of three 
bristles, not with the lips nearly equal and entire. 

Jc 4. G. TRi^QUETRA Ait. The triangiiIar-#/tfmfiif i Genista. 

IdentiJIcatioH. Alt. Hort. Kew., 3. p. 14. ; Dec Prod., 2. p. 146. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 149. 

Synonfpne. O. triqiietra Lam. f 

Ennravings. Bot. Mag., t. 814. ; Dend. Brit., t. 79. ; and our Jig. 309. 

Spec. Char., 8fc. Branches 3-sided, decumbent, the younger ones villoae. 
Leaves trifoliolate, simple about the extremities of the branches; leaflets 
ovate-lanceolate, villose. Flowers in short terminal ra^ 
cemes. {Dec. Prod.) A trailing shrub, evergreen from the 
colour of its shoots. Spain, Italy, and France. Height 
6 in. Introduced in 17-^. Flowers yellow; April to 
July. Legume ?. 

No shrub is more ornamental on rockwork ; and, when 
trained to a stake and allowed to form a head, or grafted 
standard high on a laburnum, it forms a singular object, 
and, when in flower, a most magnificent one. It is also an 
admirable plant for training against a wall, particularly in 309. g. tiiqa* 
dry situations, where it is exposed to the sun. 

jt 5. G. UMBELLA^TA PotT. The uinbelIate;^oii;<?rerf Genista. 

Identification. Voir. Suppl., 2. p. 715. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 146. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 149. ; Webb Iter 

Hlspan., p. 51. 
Synonymes. Spirtlum uinbeH&tain Detf. Atl. 2. p. 133., VHiHt. Siirp. 183. ; Bollna, te Amdmhuaa, 
Engravifig. Our Jig. . in p*. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaf trifoliolate, its petiole short, its leaflets linear-lanceolate. 





XXV. LEGUMINACE*: CENl'STA. 



205 



acd rather silky. Flowers in temunal heads. Calyx haiiy, in a silky man- 
ner. Corolla and legume silky. Branches gUbrooE. (Dec, Pmd.) Alow 
■hrub. Barbary, on arid hills ; and Spain, m Andalusia, od hills. Hedght 
I ft. to £ ft. Introduced in I7T9. Flowers yellow ; April Eo June. 

J.G.U.2 capUata Dec. ^rtium capilitum Cat. Annal. leoi, p. 63. — 
Braaches and leaves covered with silky villi. Hative of Mogador. 

§ S. SpaioK. Leave! ail, or lome of them, Iri/bliolate. 
j^ a. G. lusita'nic* L. The Portugal Genista. 
Uml^liMim. Lin. Bp.. N9., ncluilia of the iriioiiniici of Cloi. ud I. B4Db. i Lbe. Met., 
E^rnnvi. Andr. Boc. Itep., LAt.; ud aar,A[. 310. 
SfK. Char., ^c. Branches spiny, round, becoming striate. 
Leaves trifoliolate,opposite,u|)oa short petioles ; iheleaSets 
linear, folded, somewhat silky. Flowers few, terminaL 
Calyi very btury. (Dec. Prod.) A very spiny shrub, erer- 

Seto from the colour of its young shoots. Portugal 
dght4n. Introduced in 1771. Flowers yellow , Hwcb 
to May. Legume ?. 

Renwrkable for having opposite leaves and branches a cha 
ncter not common among Leguminicese. gio, g ,, 

* 7. G. (l.) radiVta Scop. The nyed-branched Gemata 





!jm. CSor., ^c. Branches angled, grouped, glabrous. I 
Leaf trifoliolate, almost sessue, opposite, the leaSeti 
■ranevhat tilky. Flowen io terminal heads, 2 — 1 m ft 
head. Corolla and l^ume silky. The old brsnchei 
show a tendency to become spiny. The legumes are 
oval, short, compressed, pointed with the style, and 
include two seeds. (Dec. Frod.) A low shrub, of short 
duratioa, evergreen from the colour of its young shoots. | 
Italy, Camiola, and the Valtais. Height 2 ft. to 4ft. ; 
Introduced in 1758. Flowers rellow; June and Julr 
Legume?. 

M Q. (;.) r. 2 umieliaia, G. umbellata Potr.. S^rtiuii 
nmbellatum Detf., appears, from a pluit that ^ 
was in the Hort. Soc. Garden in 1837, to belong ^ 
to this spedes. 
Differing from G. lodtinics piincipally in beinewilhout 
^linei, and having its leaves somewhat longer. Both G, 
ndiita and G. luail&nica have a very singular appearance * '■ "■ •'■''*''"*■ 

when without their leaves ; and, in that point of view, tiiey may 
be considered aa almost as interesting in winter as they are in 



jt S. G. fiFBEDRoi'DES Dec. The Ephedra-like Geoista. 

Ufitigicattt*. D«e. Ltiom. Utn., 6. ; Dec Frod., 1. p. 147. i Dod'i Hill., 1. 

p. lu. 
Emgraphaf^- Dec UfonLWia^i. t-M.; H«md'» BcTtanie Guileo, t- 408- j ud 

our A. SU- 
BMIT. Char., ^c. Leaves some trifoliolate, some simple, few sea- 
rile ; leaflets linear, almost glabrous. Branches rigid, round, 
becoming striated and spiny. Flowers in spikes, alternate, 
yellow. Calyx somewhat pubescent. (Dec. Prod.) A shrub. 





206 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




8UL «. 



evergreen from the colour of its young slender shoots. Sardinia. Height 
2 ft. ; in British gardens 4 ft. Introduced in 1832. Flowers small, yellow ; 
June to September. Legume?. 

The whole plant is glabrous, and resembles in appear- 
ance fphedra distachya. Cuttings strike readily. 

Jt 9. G, TRiACA'^NTHos BroU The three-spined (Genista. 

IdentifleatUm. Brot. Fhyt., 130. t. 54. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 147. ; Don*i Mill., 2. 

p. IfiO. 
^unoftipne. G. rostrdta Poir, Suppl. 2. p. 719. 
Engravings. Brot. Phyt., t. 54. ; and aar fig. 313. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves sessile, trifoUolate and simple, gla^ 
brous. Leakets linear-lanceolate. Branchlets spiny, oranch- 
ed. Flowers in terminal racemes, few in a raceme. C^x, 
corolla, and legume glabrous ; legume 1-seeded. The 
spines are simple, trifid, or branched. (Dec. Prod.) A 
deciduous undershrub. Portugal, on mountains and in 
woods. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 182L Flowers 
yellow ; May to July. Legume ?. 

Variefy. 

mQ. t, 2 interrUpta Dec, S)pdrtium interr6ptum Cav. 
Annal., 1801, voL iv. p. 58., has linear l^ets, and 
branches usually simple, and shorter than those of the species. It 
is found wild about Tangier. 

m\0» G. Ho^RRiDA Dec. The horrid Genista. 

Identification. Dec. F1. Fr., 4. p. 600. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 146. ; Don't 

Mill., 2. p. 149. ; Webb. Iter Hiipan., 51. 
Synonymes. Sp&rtluin h6rriduni VaU Svmh.\. p. 51., excluiive ot 

the tynonyme : G. erinilcea Gilib. Sot. Prat. 2. p. 239. 
Engravingt. Oilib. Bot. Prat., 2. p. 239. icon. ; and oar fig. 314. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches grouped, angled, spiny, 
opposite. Leaves trifoliolate, opposite ; the leaflets 
linear, folded, somewhat silky. Flowers few, 
almost terminal. Calyx pubescent. (Dec. Prod.) 
A native of the Pyrenees. Height 4 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1821. Flowers yellow; May and June. 
Legume ?. 

6 3. Spinose. Leavemll simple, 
j^W. G. STLYB'^sTRis Scop. The wood Genista. 

Identification. Scop. Cam., No. 875. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 14S. ; Don*i Mill., 2. p. 151. 
Svnonyme. G. hlspAnica Jacq. Icon. Rar. t. 557. 
EngravingM. Jacq. Icon. Rar., t. 557. ; and our y^. 315. 

Spec. Char., S^c. Leaves simple, linear-awl- 
shaped, glabrous above, villose in a closely 
pressed manner beneath. Spines axillary, 
branched, slender. Flowers glabrous, 
dis{>osed in a terminal spiked raceme. 
Teeth of the calyx almost spiny. The 
keel longer than the standard and wings. 
tpcc. Prod.) A deciduous undershrub. 
Camiola and Croatia, on hills. Height 
1ft. to 2 ft. Introduced in 1818. Flowers 
yellow ; June and July. Legume ?. 

.ai 12. G^. iSSco'rpius Dec. The Scorpion Genista. 

**gSSI?* **^*"" Sc6rpiai Un. Sp. 995. ; O. iplnifldra Lam. Diet. 2. p. 621. ; Scorpum Turf 
Engravingt. Dend Brtl., t. 78. ; and oor ^p. 316. 




S14 OcDfttabtffilda. 




XXV. LEGUMINA^CE^ : GENl'STA. 



207 




316. G. SedrfivM. 




Spec, Char^ 4rc. Spiny; spines branched, spreading, 
striated, glabrous. Leaves simple, very few, oblong, 
somewhat silky. Flowers glabrous, upon short pe- 
dicels, in groups disposed somewhat racemosely ; the 
keel as long as the standard. Legume containing 
2 — i 9eeds. (Dec, Prod.) An upright, deciduous, 
spiny shrub. South of Europe and Barbery, in 
arid places. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 1570. 
Flowers yellow ; April and May. Legume ?. 

A spiny slinib, almost leafless when the shoots are full 
grown. This species is commonly thought to be the 5c6rpius of Theophrastus. 

jtt 13. G. hispa'nica L. The Spanish Genista. 

Jdntdlaaim. Lin. Sp., 999l : Dec Prod., 1. p. 148. j Don'* Mill., 2. pi 151 . ; W«bb Iter Hispan.. 68 

Sjnomgme. Spanish Fune, Hort. 

£figraini^t. Car. Icon., 3. t. SI 1. ; Lem. IlL, t. 619. f. 3. ; and cmr Jtg. 317. j^ ^ 

Spec. Ckar., 4-c. Spiny, except in the flower-bearing 
branches ; spines branched, rigid. Leaves simple, lanceo- 
late, villose. Flowers in a terminal subcapitate raceme. 
Keel villose, the length of the glabrous standard. L^ 
gome oval, including 2 — 4< seeds ; when ripe, rather gla* 
brous. (Dee, Prod.) A diminutive undershrub, evergreen 
from the colour of its shoots. Spain and the South of 
France. Height ^ f^. to I it. Introduced in 1759. Flowers 
yellow ; June and July. Legume ?. 

ji 14. G. a'nglica L. The English Genista, or Petty JVhm, 

Mdemt^kaUon. Lin. Sp., 999. : Dec. Prod., 2. p. 149. ; Don*f Mill., 3. p. 151. 

Sfnoig me . G. minor Lam. PI. Ft. S. p. 6I& 

^■jr«vn^- Eng. BoC, 1. 132. ; Lobel Icon., 2. p. 98. f. 2. ; and tvaxfig. 818L 

Spec. Char., (j-c. Spiny, except in the flower- 
bearing branches ; spines simple ; the whole 
plant glabrous. Leaves simple, ovate-lanceo- 
late. Flowers in terminal racemes, few in a 
raceme; the keel longer than the standard and 
wings. Legume ovately cylindrical, including 
many seeds. (Dec. PrwL) A prostrate de- 
ciduous shrub, with woody stems. Native of 
the Middle and North of*^ Europe ; and fre^ 
quent in Britmn, on moist, bog^', heathy com- 
mons. Hdght 1 ft. Flowers yellow ; Auy and 
June. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 

Cultivated in collections, where it forms a 
^iny bush about 2 f^ in height. 

.a 15. (r. OERMA^NICA L, The German Genista. 

AMgfiMfnm. Lin. Sp., 995. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 149. ; Don*i Mill., 2. p. ISI. 

afmamymeM. Se6rpAa» spindtui Mamch Meth. 134. ; V6glera spinbia Fl. WelL 2. p. 809. ; Bulinuu 

eoia di Boico. ItaL 
lagravimn, Fochs Hilt., 220. icon. ; Hayne AbbOd., t 122. ; and 

oar j8r-'l9. 




SIS. Ocnkta insUca. 



Spec. Char., S^c. Spiny, except in the flower-bearing 
tranches ; spines simple or branched. Leaves 
ample, lanceolate, slightly hairy. Flowers somewhat 
yillose, in terminal racemes. Keel longer than the 
standard and wings. Legume ovate, slightly hairy, 
Tncluding t — 4 seMS. (Dec. Prod.) A spiny >shrub. 
Europe, in woods and on heaths. Height 2 f^. to 3 ft. 
introduced in 1773. Flowers yellow ; June to 
August. Legume brown ; ripe in September. 




ARBORETUM ET PRUTICErUM B RITA KM CUM. 

Q. g. 2. Wrniii Dec. is alnioat without apinee. 

$ 4. Unarmed. Lemxi all limple, 
■ 16. G. Pu'KGiNa L. The purging Genista. 

abm. L.ln.ap^9M.i Bull. Herb., Ilfi. I DscProd., l.p-IW.i 

MptoMfnu. Spinlum poTgvii £A«. SgtL 4T^ 
fivrain^. but. Cab., IIIT.) tnioaijlg. iW. 

^>ec. Char., S/c. Uprif>ht, much branched. Branches round, 
striate. Leaves simple, very few, lanceolate, almost sessile, 
somewhat silky. Flowera axillary, solitary, scarcely pe- 
diceled. Petals equal, glabrous. The young Ittume 
adpressedly pubcBcent. {Dec. Prod.) An upright shrub, 
evergreen from the colour of its shoots. France, on hills. 
Introd. 1768. Height 3 ft. to 6 ft. Flowers yellow ; June 
^nd July. Legume brown ; ripe in September. iw^ sniapivH 

-t 17. G. sERi'cBA Wiitf. The silky Genista. 

UaUfflaitim. Wuir. In Jacq. Coll.,l.p. ISr.i D«. Prod., I. p. Its, I Don'! MIU., 1. p. 1S|, 
Engrwriitgi. Jing. Icon. Rar-, S. t- US. j uadoarjig. B3I. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Decumbent, with upright 
round branches. Leaves simple, linear- 
lanceolate, silky beneath. Flowers ter- 
minal, 3 or 4 together, in a sort of ra- , 
cente. Petals silky, nearly equal. Lobes ' 
of the calyx oblong-acuminate ; the floral 
leaves equalling the calyx in length. 
(Dec.Prod.) Adecumbent shrub. Height 
6 in. Austria and Croatia, in subatpme 

places near the shore. Introduced in "'' ''™'""'"*- 

1812. Flowers yellow; May and June. Legume brown ; ripe August. 

ja 18. G. APHv'iXA Dec. The leafless tienista. 

um api^Jlun l'ipl ra.'aaj,^. s£'.: O. TlrtkU 



spec. Char., ^c. Branched, upright. Leaves simple, 
very few, linear, very short. Flowers disposed dis- 
tantly, in len^hened terminal racemes. Legumes 
compressed, mcluding 2 seeds ; when young, tomcn- 
tose i when adult, glabrous. fWee. Prod.) Height 
3fl.to4ft.in British gardens. Found in Sibena,in de- 
serts, about the Volga. In- 
trod. 1800. Flowers violace- 
ous ; June and July. Legume lii. e_iiu •Ftafia 
brown ; ripe in September. 

M 19. G. monospb'bma Lam. The onc^eeded Oeiutta. 

Idmiglem/im. Lun. Dirt., i. p. eia.i Due. Frfal., 3. p. IH-i DCKI'I 

SjiTBiiciim. .Tpirtlum monoipinii™ J.rft Sp. »93., CMri. BcL Mf- 

Engratlmti- floL Mii,, l.SSli andourjji.sas. 

Spcc.Char.,4c. Branched, uprighL Leaves simple, very 

few, linear-oblong, adpressedly pubescent. Flowers in 

lateral racemes, few in a raceme. Petals silky, almost 

I equal. Legumes ovate, inflated, membranaceous, 

lu eut.an»«,in,,v glabfous, iucludiug 1— 8 sccds. (Dec. Prod) An 

'"*' erect shrab, with numerous slender, twiggy, flexile 



XXV. leoumina'c££: ceni'sta. aOO 

biBDcbes. On the Mediterranean ihores, where, in many places, it Mrva 
to retain and cousolidaie the drifting sand. Height 8 ft. to 4 IL Introduced 
in 1670. Flowers white ; June and July. Legume browo ; ripe in September. 
The leaves and young branches are, in these countries, eaten by sheep and 

foata ; and the twigs are used for tying Tines to stakeg, or tying up ftggots ; 

tai they are also twisted into ropes. 

M 20. G. spHSBoci'itPA Lata. The round-fruited Oeniata. 

UmOk^ian. Lun. DM.. 1. p. filS. l DfT. Prod, !. p. IH. i 

Doo'i Wll.. I p. ini. 1 Wibb lUT HUpia,, M. 
Snatfmtr. SvkrtiarB Ipbcfwirpcpn Lk iiattj- ATI. 
i^railaf- CIIU.HIM.I.p. icn.f.!.; udourj^.SH. 



». A 

! Simple, v>^ 



a raceme. Petals glabrous, equal. 
L^unies Ofate, in some measure neahy, contain- ^ 
ing 1 — S seeds. Flowers small, and pale yellow. Zl^ 
(Dtc. Prod.) A twiggy shrub. Native- of the 
South of Europe andNorth of Africa. Height 0> 
3ft.lo4ft. Introd. 1731. Flowers yellow; June ^ s-^niH-r 
and July. Legume brown ; ripe in September. 

.■ SI. G. ctbhe'nsis Dec. The Mount Etna Genista. 



bwnnri. Spina im wthataie Xii. Si. Sic. Mmu. i, JIafit. ^nci*. I. p. n.,Stmi Bsl. 

Ml. ; J^*rlluni Irllpimum Smtlk In /Uri'i CfcL .ol. 11 Nu. 6. 
Ifamti. Bo<.M»g.,t.«7*.i md ourjif.jli. 

Spec, char., ^c. Upright, very much branched. Leaves 
dinple, few, linear, silky. Flowers in terminal racemes. 
Pfuls almost glabrous, nearly equal in length. Legumes 
obliquely ovale, compressed, containing i—S seeds : when 
voung, pubescent. (Dec. Prod.) An erect twiggy shrub. 
iiative of the wooded re^gion of Mount Etna, 3000 ft. 
— 6000 ft. elevation ; growing with .i4'cer monspesauiknum. 
(Pml, in CoHip. Bit. Mag., vol. i. p. 01.) Height a ft. 
to 4ft. Introduced in 1816. Flowers yellow ; June and ^ 
July. L^ume brown ; ripe in September. *"■ smu»«uui« 

Reiembles the preceding spedes, except that the flowers are twice the si: 
J 28. G. anxa'ntica Tea. The Aniantic Genista. 

Na^CWrbiL Tm. FlNgi Prod., p.<l.iD«.Prod.,». p. IMii Don'iSDUS. p. IM. 

t^S^ "h. Hup, i. /vn.V » i awL fi..<i«.. m •«. t sob. j »ihi our*'- »«■ »iid » 



Spec. Oar., 4r, The whole plant is perfectly gla- 
broos. Btems spreading. Branches angled. 
Leaves rimple, ovate^liptical, rather coriaceous, 
veiny. Fh»'*<^ in racemes. CotoUb thrice as nt a^wa ■ 




2IU ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUAI BRITANNICUM. 

lon^ BE the calyx ; and about 8 lines long. L^me conUming 8 — 10 ecciIi, 
(JJfciVod.) Adifiiiaeshrub. Naples. HelgRt 3 il. to 4 ft lotroduced in 
1818. Flowers yellow ; Juneand July. Legume browo ) ripe in September. 
Vaneti). 

^ 0.0.3 icarioia. G. scano&a Via. (Frag. R lul. 1. t.S.; and our 
jfig.32S,) — An upright shrub, closdv resembling the speciei. Intro- 
duced in 1&21, luid flowering in the Hort. t>oc. Garden in June 
ami July. It deserves a place m collections. 

23. G. TiNCTORiA L. The Pyer** Broom, or Green Weed. 

Htfilfiaalim. Un. Sp., 9M. ; D«. Prod.. 1. p. IS). ; Doi'i HJI1,3. p. ISi. 



^xc. Char-, Ifc Boot creeping. Stems almost upright. BranchES round, 
striated, upright. Leaves simple, lunceolate, rather glabrous. Flowers gla- 
brous, in spited racemes. L^ume glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) A cre^ing- 
rooted low shrub. Common in Europe, in grassy Gelds, and in woods and 
copses, particularly in dry gravelly or sandy soils. Height 1 ft to 3 ii. 
Flowere yellow ; July. L^ume brown j ripe in September. 

a 0. <• S Jlore pthio. — There are plants in the Epsom Nursery and 

the Hort. Soc. Oarden. 
mO. I. 3 ialifoHa Dec. — Leaves broad- 
lanceolate. A native of Auvergiie, r~ 
the Mont d'Or. 
Q, t. 4 hiriula Dec. — Leaves somewhat J 
villose. Branches upright, 
sunny meadows. 
j> G. (■ 6 pralhuit Poll. — Leaves oblong- 
lanceolatf^ rather hairy. Branches as- 
cending. Inhabits the mountainous parts 
of Upper Italy. 
It is very common in pastures, in many places, 
both in England and Scotland; but, when cows 
feed on it, it is said hy Ray to give a bitter taste 
to their milk. All parts of this plant, and espe- 
cially the bratiches and leaves, have long been usad by dyers for produnng 
yellow, espetiallv for dyeing wool that is afterwards to be dyed green with 
woad (/satis tinctdria I,.). The plant is not 
now in cultivauon for this purpose; but, in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, it is still collected in 
quantities from sandy wastes and c 
and sold to the dyers. 



Unfjicoim. LId. Hut, 07 




•u. S. Dh Ham. 

c. Bort. VInd., I. I9D. J ud our flg. SK. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Stems orect ; and the whole 
plant more slender and taller tban G, 
dncioria, of which it is evidently only a 
variety. An erect shrub. Siberia. Height 
Oft. Introduced in 1785. Flowers yellow ; 
June to August. Legume brown ; ripe in 
Sq)teiDber. 



XXV. LECUMINA'cEf: CENl'sTA. 
M 86. <T. (t.) OTi^A Waldtl. The oyate-leavcd Uenista. 







; Trn. i Dc. tiiA 




Spec. Char^ IfC. Steins numerouB, huirj', 
erectuh, towewlut herbaceous, Btriaced, 
terete. Leaves ovate, or ovate-oblong, x 
■nd are, as well as the l^umes, hairy. '^'1 
Racemes Ehon. Corolla smooth. {Don'i 
MU.) A abnib. Sclavonia and Ilun- 
nry ; and on the hills of Italy, from 
KedDWOt to Naples. Height 2 ft. to 4 ft. 
Introduced in 1R19. Flowers yellovri 
June to August. Legume brown ; npe 
ia Sepienber. 

M 26. G. TEiANGULA'Bis IViUd. The triBngular.jteinnte<f Genuta. 

UKUffaUm. WUld. Bp..S.p.g39.i Dk. Prod., t.p. ISl.j Dsn'i Mill. 9. p. ]». 
Ifnfmr. O. [rlqnrtn IVaidil.a Kit. HMmf.i. p. I£S, I. ]U..biiliHi{ot AllOD. 
Stnaii, Waldit. el Kit. Hiid|., 1. 1. IM. ; ud otu ^. Ul. 

^xe, Ciar., ^c. Branches smooth, 3- 
angled, and, as well as the stems, ascend- 
ing. Leaves lanceolate, and mucronate. 
Flowers axillary L^ume compressed, 
aod mucronate. (Dec. Prod.) A shrub. 
Hungary, on calcareous rocks. Height j 
I ft. Introd. in ISI5. Flowers yellow ; 
Hsj and June. Legume brown; ripe 

Qoidf resembling G. trfquetra, of which, notwithstanding its simple leaves, 
it may possibly be only a variety ; the change not being greater than what 

okt% place in Frixinus excelsior simplicifblia. 

J 27. G. sioiTTi'Lia L. The arrow-jmn/ni Genista. 
Iin4fc«<n. Lin. Sp..9ga.i Dr. Prail..].p. |.ii.; Dod'i Mill, 1. n. lu. 

n ^m irn gf. Jaeq. FL Antt., t. WS-j Hajdc Abbilil., 1. 117. ; aod our /f. 333. 

JJw. dor,, ^e. Stems prostrate. Branches herbaceous, ascending, 2-edged, 

nendiraaous, socuenrhat articulated. Leaves ovate-kuceolate. Flowers 

£sposed in an orate, terminal, leafless 

■pike. OjroUa smooth ; but the keel is 

umiabed with a villous line on the beck. 

(Omit Mm.) A prostrate shrub. Con- 
tinental Europe, in mountain pastures. 

Hdghtein. Introduced in 1750. Flowers 

yellow ; May and June. Legume brown ; 

ripe in August. 

A Q.I. 9 minor Dec. — A small shrub, ' 
having the branches clothed with 
adptMsed pubescence at the apei, 
as well as the leaven. 
For practical purposes, this may be con. 
■dered as a herbaceous plant. It b a yery distinct, ornamental, and hatdv 
iort ; growing and flowering freely. 




ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BBITANNICUM. 



_ „ „ • ■!«<- lo"- •*"-• i-*"-; 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches [ 
cumbent from the neck, trique- ' 

Leaves laneColate, und 
Bmooth, a little ciliated. Pe- 
iluncles axillary, erect, and dis- 
pOBeil in interrupted fascicles- 
Corollas and l^umes glubroui, 
(Dec. Prod.) A procumbent 
shrub. Italy and Stjria, in ex- 
posed places. Height 6 in. In- 
troduced in 1815. Flowers 

yellow; May and June. Le- ui. emiiu dMUnbn. 

gume browQ ; ripe in August. 

Ji 89. G. pbostba'ta Lam. The prostrate Oeniits. 

Ijin.Dtrt.,5 ~ "" 







:. Char., ^c. Stems diffuse, prostrate. Branches anguUr, striated, rmlher 



^^^^ 



n 1775. Flowers yeUoWi 



hairy. Leaves ovate-oblong, somewhat 

hairy beneath, Flowers axjllary, on ,^^ oinnutmufki. 

long erect pedicels. Corolla glabrous. 

Legumes hairy, 3— i-seeded. {Dec. Prod.) A proatrate shrub. Burgundy 

and the Alps of Jura. Height 1 ft. Introduced in 1""" "' 

Hay and June. l.egume brovm; ripe in August. 

.1 30. G. pbocu'hbens Waldit. el KU. The procumbent G 
Unftfaufin. WahUI. M Ki[. In WUId. C 
Ettfratint: Bot, B«g.. t. lIM.und our A 

Spec. Char., ijc. Branches prociimbenc, 
round, striated, rather dowry. Leaves 
lanceolate, acute, and, as well as the 
calyses, downy beneath. Flowers pe- 
dicellate, axillary, in threes. Corolla 
glabrous. {Dec. Prod.) A procumbent 
i^rub. Uun^y and Moravia. Height 

1 ft. Introduced in 1916. Flowers "" " 

yellow ; June to August. Legume brown ; ripe in September. 
Most likely only a variety of the preceding apecies. 

.1 31. G. pild'sa Lm. The hairy Genista. 

D. Sp, 999. ; SnlUi'i Bni. Fl., I. p. 169,1 llajDI AbhUiLder dcut. Holi., p. 161.. 

193. ( Don't Mill., ft. p. JU. 

^1 lam. Fl. FT. ; GcDlllSldtl lubnrtultu Vmol »(U. 

Fl.Alutr,t.«M,i Haynt AtMld., LIW,; uid miT ;b. IM. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Steins procumbent, striated, branched, hiberculated. Leavea 
obovate-lancealate, obtuse, folded, and having beneath a dose-pressed sUkj 




XXV. legumina'ce«: cy'tisur. 213 

(town. Flowers axillary, on ihort pediceli. 

Ctlfx and pedicels silkjr. Legumes pu- 
bescent, and 3 — 4-seeded. (Dec. Prod.) 

A procuoibent uhrub. South of France, 

NwitzerUnd, Oenminy. &c. ; nnd firitain, 

OD dry elerated down* or heaiha, in 

Suffolk, Cornwall, and North Wales. 

Het^t I ft. Flowers yellow ; May and 

Jane. Legume brown; ripe in Sept. 

The specific name, pil6sa, is certainly not 
terrsf^ropriate, for ihereare other species, ^^^ 

luoi u G. candicans, much more haiiy. 

Olier Specie! of Genula. — Q.ipinota, in the Ilort. Soc Garden, is a young 
plant with trifoliolaCe leaves, and the side shoots terminating in spines. There 
•re Tirious otha names in collections, and a greet many in books ; l)uC the 
whole genus is in such a state of conruaion, that nothing can be determined 
with certainty respecting the species, till tbey are all collected together and 
cultivated in the same ^rdeu and examined. 

Genus VII. 

EHEana 

CY'TISUS Dec. Ths Cttcsus. Lrn. Syil. Monadelphia Decandria. 



HoriligC^cIl 






G™ C*ar. Co/hj bilabiate- Upper Lip usually entire ; lower one somewhat 
tiidcntate. Vexillum ovate, large. Carina very obtuse, includini; the Kta- 
■nensand pistils, ^foinnu monadelphous. Legumf comuresseil, many -seeded, 
glandless. (DohU AfiU.) 

Leavei trifoliolate, alternate, stipulate. Flaaieri o( nearly all the species 
yellow. — Dedduoul or sub-evererecn shrubs of short duration, or low trees ; 
natives chiefly oT the Middle and South of Europe. 

All the species have triroliolale leaves, and the flowers are for the most part 
yellow. The shrubs have the habit of Genista or of 5pirtium, to both which 
genera they are nearly allied. They are all ornamental, some of them eminently 
to ; and those which have th«r flowers in terminal racemes are decidedly more 
elegant than those which have them in close terminal, or in axillary heads. 
The wood of the laburnum is valuable in turnery and cabinet-work. All the 
•pedes produce seeds in abundance, by which they are almost exclusively 
pti^agaled. The spedes recorded in books are numerous ; but, if they were 
all brought together, and cultivated io the same garden, we question much if 
a tjdie uf them would be found spedfically distinct. 

j 1. ABmnwida Dec. 

U tU> iKtloB [roBi Uic Incii Of itaa ipctiM befiig wblu. 
S€ct. Char. Calyx campanulate. Pod I — l>4eeded, not dilated at the upper 
niture. Flowers white. Leaves very few. Branches unarmed. (Dec. 
Prcd., B. p. 153.) 

• 1. C. a'lbus LinJi. The white Cytisus, or Portugal Bnmm. 
Eiiiiiii..t. p. Ml. : Dec. Prod., 3. p. lU.; Don'i MI1I.,S. p. 1M. 
\iUbmIjim. Da. l.f.^a.; Saknfuta Ulnan Utif. Fl. Aa.i.p.\M.i Srknlam 
laH.Knf.t.f.W.: Sfi.t^om Mtfiraim, tianSl JUrM. p.llb. : CnillUliml. 
1. 1, p. TG. ) Snnloin i Fl«ir> bluchci, Fr. ; vtlHa PMentoi, Otr. 



214 ARUORETU.M ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Sp€C. Char., ^c. 

nnd trifoliolaie, sessile. Leaflet: 

Flowers in fascicles, disposed in long racemes. L^ume 

S-aeeded, very villous. {Don's Mi/I.) An upright shrub; 

evergreen, from the colour of its numerous straight parallel 

joung shoots. Portugal and the Levant. Hdpnt 5 ft. 

to 1 (L Introduced in IT5S. Flowers white; May and 

June. Legume brown ; ripe in August. ' 

A very handsome shrub, more especially when covered 

with its white flowers in May, and when surrounded by 

hundreds of bees, busily occupied in extracting the honey. ^ 

In giiod soil, it is of very rapid growth, attaining the height 

of 5 or 6 feet in 3 or 4 years ; and, in 6 or 8 years, growing 

as high as 15 or even 90 fee i, if in a ahellered situation. 

Placed by itself on a lawn, it forms a singularly omamenial 

plant, even when not in flower, bv the varied disposition 

and tufling of its twiji^y thread-like branches. When ir 

flower, it is one of the finest ornaments of the garden 

Trained to a single stem, its effect is increased ; and, grafted ' 

on the l^umum, a common practice about Paris, it forms 

a very remarkable combination of beauty and singularity. ' 

Plants are easily raised from seeds, 

» C. fl. 8 incamaliu has flesh-coloured flowers, or flowers very sligfatl; 
tinged with reddish purple. This variety was introduced in 1818; 
and reproduces itself ftom seeds, but it Taiies much ui the quantitj 
of colour in the flowers. 

$ ii. LoMmum Dec 

Dtrira^laii. A iuhk ipplM trr Flbij lo HnnB ipeciM of CfMnu. 

Seel. Char. Calyx campanulate. Pod many-seeded, not dilated at the upper su- 
ture. Flowers yellow. Branches leafy and tmartned. (D^c. Frod., iLp. 153.) 

t 2. C. Lsbu'rhum L. The common Laburnum. 



XXV. L£GUMINa'c££: CY'tISUS. 



I. ssa 



tTtttWi. Jni. Aim., t. MG. : Bot. Klf.. t. 171 ; N. Du Hmm, S. t. <4. i Uw jitU of Ihll U» 

^c. Cior., 4-c. Branches terete, whitish. Leaves petiolaCe ; leaflets ovate-Un- 
ccolate, pubescent beneath. Racemes pendulous, simple. Pedicels and ca- 
Ijies clothed with closely pressed pubescence. Legume linear, many-seeded, 
clothed with closely pressed pubescence. A low deciduous tree. Native of 
Enrope, on the lower mountain 8 of the South of Oermani , and of Switierland. 
Hei^t 20 fL or upwards. Introduced in 1596. Flowers yellow; Hajr and 
June Leguntedarkbrown; ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow. Naked 
young w(K)d green. 
rmieliei. 

T C L. 2 prndulam Hort. has slender pendulous branches. 
1 C. L. 3 querdJSSum Hort., C. L. S inclsum, has siciuated leaflets, not 
unlike the leaves of the common oak. (See Che pbte of this variety 
iD Arb. Bril., 1st «dit., *ol. v.; and ourj^. Ml.) 



* C. L. * /AS» variegalu bas varie^ted leaves ; but it is a plant of no 
beauty, and rarely seen in collections. 

1 C. L. itjragntn* Hort. — Flowers fr^rant. Wherever a number of 
laburnums are found in flower together, whether of this or the other 
species, the scent of the blossoms will be found to differ very con- 
nderablj, and occasionally one may be found which may be termed 
b^raot ; hence the origin of this variety. 
1 3. C. (L.) ALPi^NVS Mill- The Alpine, or ScoUh, Laburnum. 



AReORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANMICUM. 

; CjIIh da Alpn. I'Auboan. Fr. -, Uam K 



Spec, Char^ ^i, Brancliei glabrous and terete. Leaves petiolale; leaflet* 
ovate-tanceolate, rounded at the biise. Racemes pendulous. Pedicels and 
calyxes pubenilouB. Legumes glabrous, few-seeded, Diarginate. (Don't 
Miil,) A dediluoiu low tree. Found in Corinthia, in tlie Aljis of Juni, 
on Mount Cenis, and on the Apennines. According lo Bonie, it is also 
found wild in Scotland ; but, though it is much cultivated in some parts of 
Fifeshire and ForfaTHhire, it is far from being indigenous thcTfc Hei^t 
SO ft. to 30 ft., sometimes much higher in a state of cultivation. It «a* 
introduced into Britidn about the same time as the othdr species, vii. 1596 ; 
and was, probably, for a longtime confounded with it: for which reason w« 
shall treat of the two specici, or races, together. Flowers yellow ; May 
and June. Legume brown ; ripe in October. 
FarielLi. 

I C. (L.) a, 2 pndidai has pendulous branches, and, in the foliage and 
legumes, seems btercnediate between C. LabLimum and C. (Z..) al- 
pinua. This is very obvious in a fine sp'Mumen of this variety in the 
arboretum of the Messrs. Loddigcs, as shown in the plate in Arb. 
Brit., 1st edit., vol. v. The pendulous variety of C. Jjabumum b 
a much less robust plant. 
T C. ( L.) a. 3 ptirpuriiccu Horl., C. L. purpureum Nort,, C. Adami 
Poir., C. L. coccineum Batim. Cat., the purple Laburnum, the scarlet 
Laburnum, is not a hybrid between C, Labhruma and C. purpiireus, 
as was at first supposed, but a sport from a bud ol C'^tisus pur< 
pureus iiuerted in C. slpinus,in 1825, by D. Adam, a nurseryman at 
Vilry, near Paris. The flowers are of a reddish purple, slightly 
tinged with bu^ and are produced in pendent Epikes, 8 in. or more 
long. A few years after this sport was originated, it was found that 
it had a strong tendeacy to return to the original kinds ; and that 
from one bud or graft, branches were produced of the true Cytisus 
purpiireus, of the true Xaburoum (either the A Ipine or the common. 



XXV. leouminaYe^: CTf^xisus. - 217 

according to which of these may have heen chosen as the stock) with 
yellow flowers, and of the purple laburnum. This was soon observed 
both in France and England. (See Gard, Mag., vol. xii. p. 225., 
vol. XV. p. 122.; and Arb, Brit., Ist edit., p. 590.) It is a very vi- 
gorous, and somewhat erect and fastigiate, growing variety, having 
produced shoots from 6 ft. to 9 ft. long in one season ; but, though it 
has been highly spoken of by some cultivators, in point of beauty, it 
cannot be recommended. 
2 C. (L.) a. 4 Jragrant Hort. — Blossoms fragrant. There are plants 
in the Hackney Arboretum. 

^Gller recognised C. Laburnum and C. alplnus as species; but Linnaeus 
did not. Whether they are species or varieties, they are cert^unly very dis- 
tinct ; as much so, perhaps, as the Qu^rcus i26bur pedunculatum, and Q. R* 
sessiliflonim, and like these two oaks they come tnie from seed. Both sorts, 
being highly ornamental, have been extensively propagated and cultivated in 
British gardens and plantations. There are trees at Syon of C. alpinus above 
40 ft. higbj and some at Alnwick Castle with trunks 3 ft. in diameter. The 
beart-wood of the laburnum is of a dark colour ; and, thoueh of rather a 
coarsegrain, it is very hard and durable : it will take a polish, and may be 
node to resemble ebony. A cubic foot weighs 52 lb. 1 1 oz. in a dried state. 
The colour and grain m the heart-wood vary much, according to the soil, and 
tbe age of the tree. It is darkest in the C. Xab6rnum, when grown on poor 
calcareous soil ; and lightest in the C. (Xr.) alpinus, when grown in deep rich 
soil : in which last case its colour is a sort of greenish black. It is in much 
demand among turners and cabinet-makers. The ordinary use of the wood in 
tbe North of Scotland, is to form alternate staves with the wood of the holly, 
or the spindle tree, in making small noggins, or bickers ; but it is also used 
^T the bowls of punch-ladles ; for flutes, and other musical instruments. 
Hares and rabbits being remarkably fond of the bark of the laburnum, it has 
been suggested to sow labumum seeds, in order to produce an undergrowth in 
plantations liable to be infested with these animals ; for, though the plants are 
eaten to the ground every winter, yet they will spring up again the next season, 
and thus yield a r^ular supply of winter's food for these kinds of game. As 
an ornamental tree, the laburnum has few rivals. The shape of the head is 
irregular and picturesque ; its foliage is of a smooth, shining, and beautiful 
^reen ; and, wnat is a great recommendation to every ornamental plant, it is 
not Uable to be preyed on by insects. Though the laburnum will grow in a 
very indifferent soil, it requires a deep fertile sandy loam to attain a large size. 
In regard to situation, as the tree puts out few horizontal roots, and has rather 
a spreading head, when it grows rapidly it is apt to be blown aside by high 
vinds ; but, for the same reason, it is less injurious to plants growing near it, 
tban some other ornamental trees. For producing timber, it should be placed 
in masses in a sheltered situation, or in a plantation among other trees, so as 
to be drawn up with a clear straight stem ; and when so circumstanced, in 
good soil, C, (L.) alpinus will grow to the height of from 35 ft. to 45 ft. Both 
C. Xabumum and C, {L.^ alpinus are invariably raised from seed, and the 
pendulous and other varieties are propagated by grafting or budding on either 
of the common sorts. The seeds are lit to gather in October ; and they may 
be kept in the ]x>d, in a dry airy loft, till the March following, when they 
should be sown in beds of light soil, at about an inch apart every way, and 
covered about half an inch or three quarters of an inch thick. Half the plants 
which come up will be fit for transplanting into nursery lines in the November 
ibUowing. 

• 4. C. Welden// Vis. Welden's Cytisus. 

Un^fieatioH. Vieiani PI. Dalm. Ex. Bot. Zeit., Jan. 1830., p. 52. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. lU. ; Hort. 

FL Auitr., 2. p. 339. ; Bot. Reg., 1838, Month. Reg., Ko. 122. 
Bagrmna^. Our Jlg» 343. from a drawing kindly lent us bj tbe late Baron Jacquin. 

Sipec, Ckar^ Sfc, Erect. Leaves temate, petiolate ; leaflets elliptic, entire, cu- 



ZIO ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUH. 

nested at the baae, andobcuae at the apex, smooth. Racemes terminal, st.ilktd, 

Eyramtdal, Htraight; pedicels 
oary and villous. Culyxea 
campanulate, 3-lobed; lobes 
tomentosely eiliated.Corolla 
glabrons, but the carina is 
clothed with silky villi. Le- 
gume glabrous, mucronate 
by the st>le. (Don'.MU.) 
An erect woody shrub, re- 
sembling a labunium. Dal- 
mstia, in woods on moun- 
tains. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft.; 
6 ft. to 8 ft. in gardens. In- 
troduced in 1937, Flowers 



The rBcemea are erect, and 
do not droop even when in 
fruit. The seeds are still more 
poisonous than those of the 
common laburnum, and the 
scent of the flowers causes 

headach. The milk of the **"■ «»""W'"'«- 

goats which feed upon the flowers. Baron Welden observes, produces the same 
effect, only more severely, upon those who drink it. 

■ 5. C. ni'gricans L. The black Cytisui. 
Uivtlficaliim. UD.Sp.,IMl.; DH.Fr<i4.,«.p. lU.i Don't MIU.. 
EnpB^infi. Jicq. Anitr., I. Kt. \ BoL Ret', i- V». ; aiid our 

Spec. Char,, ifc. Branches round, twiggy. Leaves 

stalked, and clothed with closely pressed down 

beneath, as well as the branches, calyxes, and 

pods! leaflets elliptic. Racemes elongated, fer- 

minal, erect. Calyxes without bracteas. {Dec. 

Prod.) A handsome deciduous shrub. Piedcnont, 

Vallau, and Bohemia. On hills and along way- 
sides. Height 3 ft. to 6 ft. Introduced in 1730. 

Flowers yellow i June and July. L^u me black j 

ripe in October. The whole plant turns black t 

.when drying ; whence the specinc name. 

It ripens seed m abundance ; and it may also be 
propagated by grafting on C. 2,dbfiTiium, thus form- 
iDg a handsome standard. e»>i-""*ri— » 

a 6. C. sessil.ipo'liiis L. The sessile-leaved Cytdsus. 

JimlMraam. Lin. Sp., lUl. i Dtc. Prod., 1 p. IAS. t Don'i Hill., I. p. lu. 
gnttvrmgl. I.ui>. IlC, I. G^S. r. 1 1 BoL M>(.. t. 160. ; ml our J^i, S46. and MS. 

Spec. 0iar^ 4^. The whole plant quite smooth. Branches round. Floral 
leaves almost sessile, and leaflets ovate. Racemes terminal, short, and erect -,. 
each calyx having a 3-ieaved bractea under it. fiJrc. Prod.) A shnib, witb 
upright branches, and smooth shining leaves. Native of France and Pied- 
mont. Hoght 4 ft. to 7 ft. Introduced in 1569. Flowers yellow; M«y 
and Jun& Legume black ; ripe in October. 
Id very general cultivatian in British gardens, generally a» a bush, but oome- 



XXV, lequhiha'ce^ : nr'Tisus. 

times graced standard high on the 
laburnum ; when it fonns a very 
formal, sjniinetrical, round-headed, 
, Bmall tree, which, liowever, is 
highly beautiful when in flower. 
We have given two figures of 
this species, both drawn to the 
same scale, to show how much it 
vsries in the ma^itude and general 
appearance of its foliage, accord- 
ing to soil and aituatiun. Plants 
^fted standard high 
in the London - 



s L'Heril. The three-flowered Cytisus. 



Irtiakiitim, L'Hfrit. Sllrp,, IM.; Dei 
rvmfme. C- tIIIJHiu Pour. Ad. Timl. 9, 



Jjw; Ciar^ ^c. The whole plant hairy. Branches 
rouiid. Leaves petiolate 1 leaflets ovate-elliptic. Flow- 
en axillary, pedicellate, 



X the tops of the brauches. (Dec Prod.) A 
ttraggiiae huiry shrub, closelv resembling C. capitatui 
and C. hirsiitus. South of France, Italy, Sicily, and 
Mauritania. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1640, 



Fretfuent in gardens, sometimes grafted standard high ; 
but neither as a atam^rd nor as a dwarf b it of great duratioti. It should 
be planted in an airy situation. 




The spreading Cytisus. 



A 8. C. ri 

LLd. SyM. V6l. iH 

Sm. FlLut^t. p. 40.; Suouimniu 
Wf»Ay. Our A. MS. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Branches striated and pubescent. Leaves 
trifoiiolate, petiolate ; the upper ones sunple, and obovate, 
u are the leaflets ; covered with closely pressed down. 
Flowers Bxillary, usually in pairs, pedicellate, nodding. 
Podsvery hairy. (Dec. Prod.) A spreading shrub. Native 
of Portugal. He^ht 4 ft. to 6 ft. Introduced in IT52. 
Flowers yellow ; June and July. Legume dark brown, or 
Uack ; ripe in October. 
A very handsome shrub, especially when crafted standard 

high, not so cocnnion in collections as it ought to be. ••*■ ciiimm,uam. 

Linit, Hie common Broom. 

IH. 1 Don-i MUL, 1. p. lU. 
£■(. Bel. 1339. ; Gniliu icoplrli Imh. 
r<I*. 1*4. ; GmtllBiIili. OniMcoinDUIl, 

,IIM.iDdoi>rA.Mt. 
re. Branches angled, f;lBbroua. Leaves petioled, trifoiiolate ; 
le uppermoBt umple; these and the leaflets oblong. Flowers axillary, pe- 
uiceled, solitary. If^mes pilose at the margins. (Dec. Prod.) A shrub, 
ercigTGen fixim the colour <^ ita numerous young shoots. Native c^ dry 
sandy or gravelly soils, throughout Europe. Height 3 ft. to 12 ft, i 




220 ARBORETUM ET FBUTICETUM BRITANHICUM. 



to the soil nnd situation. Flowera large, jellow ; May and June. Legume 
black ; ripe in September. Naked young wood green. 

FarirtiVf. 

* C. B. S ilbui HorL has the flowers white, or of a very pale yellow. 

* C. e. SJtore plena Hart, has flowers slightly double. 

The roots are straight, and penetrate perpendicularly to a great depth. The 
leaves are trifoliolate or simple ; the branches numerous, long, straight, angular, 
dark green, smooth, and tough. The floweni are of a deep goldeo yellow, 
sometimes tinged with orange, and occasionallv of a "' ' 

colour : they are succeeded by pods above an incn Jong, 
black when ripe, and each containing 15 or 16 seeds. 
The flowers are larger than those of any other species 
of the genus ; and, were the plant not so common in 
a wild state, it would, doubtless, be considered the 
most ornamental. The whole plant is exceedingly tough, 
and bitter to the taste, and has a strong disagreeable 
smell. Though it is at present comparatively neglected, 
yet in former times it was one of very great importance 
ID rural anddomestic economy. The branches are eaten 
by sheep and cattle ( and, on poor gravelly soils, fonned, 
"before the general improvement of grass lands which 
has taken place within the last century, the principal 
herbage. One of the principal modem uses of the broom, 
both in Britun and on the Continent, ia to form 
brooms, or besoms; for which purpose, as the specific 
Dame would imply, it appears to have been used from 
time immemorial. The young shoots were formerly 
used as a Bubslitute for hops in brewing beer; and the 
flower-buda,just before they become jeliow, were pickled 
in the manner of capers. The tops and leaves are di 
In the North of Scotland, a decoction of the recent 




. _.. ! is used by shep- 

, instead of tobacco water. The broom 
ig to M. Hartig, retaiD thdr 
germinatins quality for a very long time ; some that he kept 25 years, in a 
room whicb was occupied, having come up as readily as new seed. 



herds, for dressing the backs of sheep, n 

produces abundance of seeds, which, according t 



DrrlraHtii. Frsra tajfi . < 



j iii. Califc6t07ne Link. 

•Ifi. ud Uml, (cutting; In nreriiKv (d tti* alrx. thsopixTnutaf 
I uff. Id HKta ■ mumH' in la glr* Uie nmulolci Um ippevum of bclni 

Seel, Char. Calyx campanuUte, somewhat bilabiate, at len^ becoming trun- 
cate. Pod thickened on the upper auture. Shrubs with spiny branches 
and yellow flowers, (fiec. Prod.) 

A 10. C. iPiNo'sus Lam. The spiny Cytiaua. 
Uentt/UaHeiir VtBi. Diet., l.p. MT.i Dk. Prod., l.p. IM; D< 
&ip^lnp. iTBuh. HIK., 1. p. £ p. US., Ino. 1 Lok Icon., S. t. 99. ) ud oaifig. 
Spec. Char., ^e. Branches angled, spiny. Leaves trifoliolate ; , 
leaflets obovate-oblong. L^umes perfectly smooth. {Dec, 
Prod.) An upright spiny shrub. Upon hills and rough places ' 
from Perpignan to Genoa, in Cordca, and in the Algerine ° 
country. Hdght 8 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1596. Flowers ' 
yellow i June and July. Legume black ; ripe in October. 
Here are plants in the Hort, Soc. Garden. 



f. lU. i Webb ItB 



XXV. leoomina'ce^: cy tisus. 
■• 11, C. tridbactboi^aVus Webb. The chree-brocted Cyti»a» 



£>cnMi(i. OH* HifpuLri.S-udaurj^. Wl.' 
^lec. dor., ^c. Decumbent, Branches tetta^nal, 
diisricaEe, rigid, obtuse. LeaTet trifolioUte, 
Tenicillsiely sub-oppoaite ; leafleta ovate-elliptic, 
iJighil)' obtuse at the apex, retose, with ash- 
coloured silkj down, petiolulate. Comoion petiole 
none, or coherii^ with the branch. Flowers axil- 
lai^, clustered, peduncuUte, Calvi bilabiate, 
hary; upper lip cut to the middle in narrow 
acute segments ; lower lip longer, narrow, 3- 
toothed; middle tooth longest, supported at the 
base by three ovate closely pressed bracts, 
(Wrii, OUaHitp.) A decumbent shrub, ever- 
grten from the colour o( its bark. Spun near Medina Sidonia, 
nits of tnonutains. Hdght 1 Tt, to 3 ft. Introduced in 1838. 
jellow; May. Legume?. 

• 18. C. hAHi'oKRVi 2}fc. The wool-bearing Cytisus. 




^m. Char., ^e. Branches furrowed, spiny. Leaves tri- 
ftiliolate ; leaflets obovate-elliptical. Legumes very hairy 
in a woolly manner, {Dec, Prod.) A spiny shrub, 
ronnd wild on hills and in rough places in Corbiea, 
Crete, the Archipelago, Mauritania, Gibraltar, and Por- 
tugal Height 2 ft, to 10 ft. Introduced in Iggl, 
Flowers yellow ; June and July, L^ume dark brown, 
or black ; ripe in October. 

• C. /. B rfgidui Dec, — Spines very strong. 
Not conuQon in collections, and in all probability it is 
natbing more than a rariety of the preceding species, ^^ ^ uu ^j- 

f iv, Tuioc^stti Dec. 

DrImMk. FB»i«i»w,«liili«,«od^tfnBi lo«far»ii»[oaietiil>uliirik»(Mor ihicElji. 
Sfrt. Olor. Caljs tubular, with the apex tonthed-lipped. Thomless shrubs. 
{Dec. Prod., a. p. 155.) 

A, Fioveri tuAile or wAtfiiA. 
J 13. C. I.euca'hthus tValdtl. ct Kit. The white-aowered 

HnOfiaMtii. Wildtt. M KlL, 3. p. Ml. ; D«. FnxL, 3. p. IBH ; Bon'i MID.. 

tmgrn^igt Bat Hig..!. 14M.1 andmrjIg.US. 

Sptc. Char.,3^c. Stem erect. Branches round, and, as well 
as the leavea, cbthed with closely pressed pubescence. Leaf* 
lets elliptic and arute. Flowers at the points of the branches; 
head* of Rowers bracteated by two leaves. {Dec. Prod.) A 
downy shrub, Croatia, in woods. Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. 
Introduced in 1806. Flowers yellowish white ; June and 
July. X-egume black ; ripe in Uctober. *>*• on-^nhK 




22'2 ARROntTUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

Very omatnental, tind well deserving a place among other «pecies of the 
genua. It forma a banilsonie ohjcct grafted standard high. 

B. Ftoiceri pvijtU. 

-1 14. C. puRpuBEUS Scop. The purple:/!oi(N!rn/ CytitUB. 

lintigicallai. Snrp. Cun.. Ko. 901 (.43.1 Drc. Prad..r p. 1(.V; I>on'iMJII.,l.p, IK. 
Etttrnriiitt. Jacq. Aiul. Apwnd.. L IS.: Lodd. But, C*b., t 8K. i But. Uu., I. UI6l i ml nir 

Spec. Char., lie Stems procumlient, twiggy. Leaves, calyxes, and legumea 
glabrous. Leaflets oblong. Flowers axillary, solitary, on short pedicels. 
(Don't MiU.) A procumbent shruh. Native o( Carniola in exposed pluxa. 
Hnght 1 ft. Introduced in 1792. Flowers purple; 
May to August. Legume black ; ripe in October. 
Varietin. 

Jt Cp. 2 Jlire alba Hort. has the flower* of a pure 

white. 
J C. p. ZJI'are roico. — Flowers rose-colotxred. Plants 
in the Horticultural Society's Garden. 

or all the different species of Cf- 

tisus, when grafted on ibe laburnum 

I standard high, this forms the most 

I graceful tree ; and a plant of it covered 

with its purple flowers, placed on a 

lawn, or in a border near a standard of 

. Genista trtquetra, covered with its 

golden yellow flowers, will produce a 

very striking effect. The Eingular hybrid 

itt. c^Bpbm '"" "?■"■* formed between this plant and the liiburnum hai 

been already described, p. 2IG. 

C. Flotoerl yelluui. 

m 15. C. ELOKOA^us Waldtl. tl Kit. The 

elongated Oytisus. 
Unuffical/m. Waldit. « Kll. Hung.. S. p. 900. t. 1S3.| Dtc 
frvminvl. WlilcUt. M Kll. Hung., L IB3, ; and our JS(. aAO. 

Spec. Char., ifc. Stems erect. Brunches elon- 
gated and round ; young ones bairy. LeaHeta 
obovate, clothed 'beneath with closely pressed 
hairs. Flowers lateral, usually in fours, on short 
pedicels. Calyxes hair^. [Dec. Prod.) An erect 
pubescent shrub. Native of Hungary, in woods. 
Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in I8U4. Flowers 
yellow ; May and June. Legume dark brown, 
or black ; ripe in September. 
In H. S. Garden, and at Messrs, Loddiges's. 

M 16. C. mdltiflo'rus Lmdl. The many- 

flowered Cylisus. 

Hni(tl>™Mn>. Undi. Dot, ltc(.,E. Il9].i Don-i IdUI., I.p.iw. 

g nulIUlinii 'SoT^Toi. 1. p. lU. 
XMrw«V(. LindUBot. Bug,!, liai.i udoar A-39T. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Stems erect. Branches elon- 
gated, terete, younger ones villous. Leaflets 
oblong, tapering to the base, villous beneath, 
and of the same colour on both surfaces, ''"■ m"™*"!""' 
Plowen iifiially tecaary. Pedicels about equal in length to the pctiolta 



XXV, LEOITHINA^CE^: CY'TISUS, 223 

Veiitlumenumnate, undulated. (Don'i Mili.) Adownyahrub. Native of 
Europe. Hdght 8 ft. to3ft. Introduced in IBOO. Flowers jellow ; May 
md Juoe. L^me black ; ripe in September, 
It iftptara to us to be only a variety of the preceding specie*. 




.■ 17. C. PAix:i"TUs Waldit. et Kit. The mkl&Jit/r-poiiled Cytisus. 



UaaifaHiim. Lis. Sp., IMl j Db. Pnd-.S, p. IU. -. Don'i Hill., 1. p. IK. 

r u.., . ■" - J., P»U. llln..nlG.L,l.lOll.tlj J«q. AuiIr.tSl.illrf 



M KlL HuDf .,1. L 338, i ud DUI |l(. iM. 

4^>ft:. Char., ij-c. Stems declin ate Branches round and twiggy; the young 
ones, Bfl veil as the leaves, do tbed with closely preaned hairy down. Petioles 
hniT- Flowers u^iually in threes, lateral, and on short peduncles. Gilyxes 
clotbed with closely pressed hairs. (Dec. Fred.) A downy shrub. Native 
of Croatia, the South of RuKsio, and Oallicia. Hoght 3 ft, to 4 ft, Introd. 
1816, Flowers yellow t June to August. Legume black; ripe in October. 

fanrtiei. C, trifldrus Liid., C. ruthenicuB Lod., C decQmbens Lod., ere 
apparently all varieties of this species. 

ji 16, C. AUSTurACUs L. The Austrian Cydsut. 

— . Lh 

ttrtwnM. tea 
A. »»- tbovf. 

^xc. Char., ^c. Steins upright. Branches round and twiggy, and, as well as 
the le*ves, clothed with closely piessed strigoae pubescence. Leaflets lan- 
ceolate, attenuated at both ends. Flowers terminal, somewhat umbellate. 
Calyxes and legumes rather hairy. (Zfec. Prod.) An upright downy shrub. 
Pound in woods and rough places in Austria, Upper Italy, the Ukraine, 
■od Siberia. Height 2 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1741. Flowers yellow ; 
July to September. Lc^me black ; ripe in November. 
Tonety. 

ft C. a. 3 nom Lod. hat the leaves much smaller than 
the species, and seems to be an erect, and very dia> 
tinct variety. 
-t 19, C. suPi^us Jacq. The supine Cytisus. 

. J<Di.FLAiulr.].t.lCl.iI>tcProd.,lp.lK.iI>aD'iHUl,l 



Zr^^f. Cla. HliC, p. X.. Na. ;., kon,; J*cq. F1. AuiR., 1. I. M.) ud 

•or A- MO- 

^icr. Ckar^ ^c. Stems branched and decumbent. Brsnchei 
round, and, when young, rather hairy ; adult ones smooth. 
Leadeta obovate, hairy beneath. Flowers 2 — t, usually 
tominal and pedunculate. Calyxes and pods sli^tly hairy. 




224 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 

(Oec. Prod.) A decumbent hairy shrub. Native of Belgium, Austria 
Pannonia, Siberia, Turkey, and Dauphine, botli on ciposeJ hills, and \i 
sheltered bushy places. Height 1 ft. Introduced in 17M. Flowers pali 
yellow, with the standard reddish ; May to August. Legume dark brown 
OT black ; rip« in November. 

M 20. C. hirsu'tus L. The hiury Cylisus. 




-n«r<>ni»iu Loiul. In N. Du Uun., 9. p. 1ST. 

^xc. Giar.,i[c. Stems decumbent Branches round and twiggy; when young 
hairy, but smooth when old. Leaflets omCe, hairy beneath! Flowers latem 
on very short pedicda, aggregate. Calyxes and pods bairy. (JJec, Prod.) A 
decumbent hoary shrub. Found in rugged places Trom tienoa to Hungary 
Height t ft. Introduced in 1739. Flowers yellow ; >Iune to August. Le- 
gume black : tipe in October. Closely resembling the C. capiiatus, ant 
C. triflArus of Loddigeii's arboretum. 

M 21. C. CAPiTA^tig Jaoj. The headed:^'''''^ Cytisus. 

MnuifltaliiM. Juq, F1. Aiutr..t.33.i DK.Prad.1 |l IK.; Don't Mill.. 1. p. ]% 
Srmms/ma. C. hlniltui Lam. Diet t. p. 9M. ; C. luplpiu Lin. Sp. lOtO. 
engratinil. Lodd. Bet Cili_t.49T.i uulour^. 361. 

Sprc. Char,, .J-c. Stems and branches erect, the latter hispid. ^W j 
Leaflets orate-elliptic, hairy. Flowers numerous, and li " 
forming heads at the points of the branches ; but some- ? . 
times lateral in the autumn. Calyxes and pods covered ^' ' 
with short hairs. (Der. Prod.) An uprij-bt hoary shrub. 
Found wild on the edges of woods in Burgundy, Italv, 
and Austria. Height 2 ft. to 4 ttl Introduced in 1774^ 
Flowers yellow ; June and July. L^ume dark brown, «,. c „,uh» 
or black ; ripe in October. 

Varicliet or Synonyma. Cj'tisus austrlacus Lod., C. canteens FucA. ofG"<l. 
C. ural^naiB Lod., C. calyctnus Led., C. parrifDIius Lod.. C. hir.ulu< 
Lod., C. supinus Lod., appear to be ell varieties of C. capititus, or ii 
some cases, perhaps, identical with that species. 

.B 22. C. ciliaVus WahletA. The dliated.pHfi/<Nf Cytisui. 

linilifiaaUn. Wihlnb. F1. Cirp,3]». ; Dn. Prod,,!, p. IKj Dod'i MUL.S. p, 1H. 

Entmini. Qaiff ■ '"A- . 

Spec. Char., ^c. Stems upright. Branches smimth when old, but when jtmof 
hispid. Leaflets obovat«, clothed beneath with closely pressed hairs. Flower 
approximate in threes, at length lateral. Pods glidirous and ciliated. {Dee 
Prod.) A hispid shrub. Native of the Carpathian Mountains. Heieh 
2ft:. to 4 It. Introduced in 1817. Flowers yellow; June and July. Le 
gume black ; ripe in October. 

M 2S. C. polt'tbichiis Bieb. The many-haired Cytisus, 

: Dk. Prod.. 9. p.l6G.; Dod'iH]]1.,S. p. IM. 

Spec, CAoT., ^e. Stems declinate. Branches hispid. Leaflets obovate-ellip 
tic. Flowers lateral, usually in pairs, pedicellate. Calyxes and pods hairj 
(Dec. Prod.) A recumbent shrub. Found in pine forests, on high moun 
tains, in Tauria. Height S ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1818. Flowers yellow 
June and July. L^me black ; ripe in October. DeCandolle obserra ( 
it, that it has the hainnessof C. capititus, the disposition of the flowcn < 
C. hirsaius, and the habit of C. supinus. 



XXV. leoumina'ce^: cy'tisus. 



} V. \jotoides Dec. 



Spec. Char., ^c. Tube of the calyx abort, obconlcul ; the upper lip 2-parte<l. 
the lower 3-tootheil. Corolla hardlj' longer than the cslyx. At any-stemmed 
decumbent shrubs, deciiluous, with few flowers, generally cnpitate and ter- 
minal, and all yellow. (Dec. Prod.) 

JE 2i. C. irob'nteus L. The «ilvery Cytisus. 

Ilrmiiiknatm. IJd. Sp., lOU. ; tliic Prod., i. p. 1H. ; Doo'i MUL, 1. p. \». 
SftB^mi, Unuu^uiu Jtrol. A. Lw. I p. 119. 
f-t'^'V- L«tiLln»..>.p.tLr.l.; uiloiirjtt.Mt. 

Spec, char., !fc. Stems decumbent. Leaves, cntyxea, corol 
and pods clothed with a closely pressed silky down. Leaves 
petiolate, trifoliolate ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate. Flowers i 
3— 4, produced at the points of the shoots. (Dec. Prod.) 
A decumbent shrub. Native of Comiola, the South of '\ 
France, and Mauritania. Height I 1^. Introduced in 1T39. 
Flowen yellow; August. Legume black; ripe in October. 
A alky siUo^ -looking shrub, from the prevalence of closely 

prened lilky down over all its part*; noticed in the apecific charaeter, and 



wbence it derives it 



. C. cALTCi'Ntjg Mtb. The jorjr-calyxed Cyti 
>. n T*iir., t. p. IM. t Dk Prod., 1 p. in. ; 1 



5s;.' 



Spec. CAor., ^. Stemi aicending. Leaves, catysea, and 
pods somewhat hairy from spreading down. Leaves 
trifoliolate and petiolate. Leaflels roundish, obovale. 
Flowers terminaJ, from S to 8 together. (Dec. Prod.) 
A prostrate ahrub, with trailing branches, (he ends of 
which grow upriBht. Found in stony places on Mount 
Caucasus. Hd^t 1 ft. Introduced in 1820. Flowers 
yellow ; August Legume black ; ripe in October. 

.* 86. C. ka'nus WiUd. The dwarf Cytisu 




Spte. Ckar., ^c. Stems cylindrical. Leaves trifo- 
liolate, obovate, clothed with strigose pubescence 
beneath, and smooth above. Raceme tenninal, 
■ecund, usually 4-flowered. Calyx deeply 3- 
parteil ; hairs on the stemt and peduncles ad- 
pressed, (DoaU Mm.) A proctunbent ehrub. 
Native of the Levant. Ilelgfat 1 ft. Inirod. In 
18I6. Flowers yeUow ; June and July. Le- 
gume black i ripe in October. 
This ii a beautifiil little shrub for rockwork 
and if planted in dry sandy soil, covered 
broad ^t stones to retain the moisture during 
the hot weather of July, it will continue flowering 
daring the whole of that month, and produce 
(tnn&nce of seeds) which nay be sent to any 
ifctwice m the pod*. 






%^:x. 



ARBORETUM ET I'RUTICETUM BRITANNICIM. 

} vi. Chroninihus Dec. 



&cf. ChaT. Calyx with the upper lip bifid, and ihe lower one trifid ; lobei 
acute, of the sunie length aa the tube. Petals penuanenC. L^uiue oval, 
much comprcBst-d, a-secded. (Dee. Prod., ii. p. 157.) 

M 27. C. orienta'lis Zaiu. The Oriental C] tisua. 

N. DuHim.. » o. IK.; J)nii'iUm..l.p, l». 
. Pluk. PhTl., I.'si. r 1.1 uhI our Jt(. 9«i. 

^lec. Char., S^c. Stemi erect, hairy. Leaves almost sesii 
trifuliolate, buir^ ; leaflets linear, acute. Flowers large and ■ 
yellow, subterminal, on short pedicels, und few. The flowers 
and pods are bath glabrous. Calyx hiiiry, more 5.cleft than | 
bilabiate. {Dec. Prod., ii. p. 137.} An erect hairy shrub 
Native of the Levant. Height 8 ft. to 3 ft. Litroduced ii 
IB18. Flowers yellow, large and pergi stent ; June and July. ' 
Legume black ; ripe in October. wa. r. ^tmm. 

Other Speaa ofCyluui. — This genus, in British gardens, ia in such a state^f 
confusion, that nothing can be done in it satiEfactorily till all the kinds are 
collected together, and cultivated for two or three years till Ibey show their 
Sowers and fruit. Perhaps two thirds of the alleged species in the London 
gardens are only varieties. In the mean time, all that a cultirHtor can do is lo 

Erocure as many kinds as he can; and in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges 
e will find the greater Duml)er of those above described, though some of them 
have been killed by the winter of 1937-8. Among the species probably hardy, 
by &r the handsomest in point of foliage is the C. irdiicat Ouss. (Bot. Reg. 
(. 190^., and ourj^. 366.) 
It is a tall, very hoary 
shrub. A native ut' Stroin- 



^ pubescent, yellow, cam- 

[lanulate, end the young 
egumes glabrous. It has 
k the appearance, Dr. Lind- 
ley observes, of being a" 
intermediate species bi 
tween C. Labljrnum and 
Ctriflorus. (See Arb. Br., 
t Isted., p. £551.) C. ra- 
• cemtaui Maraock (Flor. 
US. ctv—ma^rm. jigg^ ,,g] jj ^ [a . ^j g^^ , gg^ J ^ ^ hand- 

■ome shrub, of moderately robust habit; a native of the Peak of Teneri&e. 
Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1835. The flowers are terminal, in a 
apike about 6 in. In length, and of a bright yellow. There were plants in the 
Epsom Nursery in 1838. Many other species of C^tisua are described by 
authors, for which we refer to Don's MitJgr, Webb's Her Hitpatuauc, Bois- 
Aef» EUnehiu Planiarum, Duby and DeCandoUe's Botaniam Galticum, and 
the first edition of this Arboretum. Many genera of ligneous plants require to 
be cultivated together, in the same garden, in order to settle their nomen- 
clature: but while some of these, as Quercus, i^nus, &c., would consume the 
greater part of a lifetime in procuring them from the different quarters of the 
world, and wailing till they came into flower, the genera Gentsts, Cytisus, 
and Adeuocirpus are almost ekclusively European, and might be collected in 
tbc course of one year ; while, in three years after the seed* were sown, the 
plants would in most cases come into flower. It is surprising, therefore, that 
tome amateur of leisure doea not undertake their arrangement. 




XXV. LEGUMIN'ACEf: ADENOCA RPUS. 



i^ 



ADENOCA'RPUS l)rc. The Adbhocarci;!!. Im. Sytt. Moniidelphie 
Derindria. 

tlnl^kMlton. Dfi. Fl. Fr. Supp.. MS. ; l.Jg. Hfn... 6. j Prod,. J. p. IM, i Don'! Mill,, ). p, 1ST. 
fudlclku fluiM. 

Gtn. Char. Calyx obconicul, usually beset with glanda, bilabiate ; upper lip bl- 
paitiie, lower one longer and trifid. Carina obtuse, enclosing the stamens and 
pistils. Stameiu monadelphous- Legame oblong, compreEsed. [Doti'i Mil/.) 
Leaeei compound, triioliolate. alternate, stipulate, deciduous. Flowcn 
felkiw in all the species. — Shrubs, strag^iling, of short duration, eomewfaat 
crergreen from the colour of tbeir young shoots; natives cliiefly of Europe. 
Branche* divergent: leaveB uifoliolate, wiih petiolar stipules, and folded 

jeiflets, and usual^ grouped ; flowers ujion bracteolale pedicels, and disposed 

n terminal racemes. Culture as in Cyusas, from which 

gcDut moit of the species have becu sc[iBrated. 

.■ 1. A. hispa'nici-s Dec. The S|Hiniah Adenoi'iirinis. 

SuppL. M3, j 1>|. tAim, S. i FrsJ., t. 



t T 'M l M. Cftuu4"hliptolnu Lam. Diet. 2. p. MS. ; CmMffwlm 

^c. Oar,, 4v. Calyx glandulose and Tillose ; lower 
Up with three equal segments, that are barelylonger 
lOsD the upper lip. Branch leu hairy. Flowers 

Euped. Standard rather glabrous. (IJec. Pmd.) A 
7 shrub. Spain and Portugal, in shadv and moitt 
Hkces. Hei^t 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in J8I6. 
Flowers jellow ; June and July. L^ume dark brown, 
orblad^i r^ in October. "s- ^.w-pi-i™- 

■ 2. A. Boi.-.sie'b/ Webb. Boisater's Adenicarpua. 
. "WMb'i Utr Htip.. p, U. 1 OUa Hlipwi.. p. 1. 
A.dnArtlouu BMm, Noi-mrtAUri Pimaar, p. 9, : RiUTlcja, spait. 
. OtteHbiwik*.[.4.i*Ddoui;4,MSL 
^pec. Ciar., ^c. Arborescent. Bark scaly. Branches purplith, asb-coloured, 
clolhed with soft hairy pubescence, and with numerous leaves. Petioles 
elongate, terete. Leaves with od- 
pressed pubescence. Leaflets linear, 
with rcTolute margins, somewhat ob- 
tuse. Calyx villous, the lower lip 
umewhat longer than the upper, 
Vexillum pubescent at the apex and 
Dnddle. L^umes elongate, obtuse, 
whitisti, with purple glands. Seed 
greenish black. {Webb, Olia Hapan.) ^ 
A larg>: deciduous shrub. Spain, in 
■arm valleys of the mountains of 
GruiaJa, 4d00 (t. to £000 ft. above 
Die sea. Height 15 ft. to SO ft. In- 
troduced ?. Flowers reddish yellow, 
fragrant; Juae and July. Legume 

whitish, covered with numerous pur- .^^^ «j-,„tor» bhi^m.. 

pie glandt ; ripe in August. 



2-28 



ARBOIIETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 




370. 



tattcnnMIat. 



A most beautiful species when in flower ; but, when out of flower, of a gloomy 
ashy hue. The trunk is disBgured by the old ragged bark, whence the 
vernacular name. It is truly astonishing, Mr. Webb observes, that this splendid 
European plant, of almost arboreous stature, with spikes of flowers sometimes 
a foot in length, should so long have escaped detection. It closely resembles 
A. hisp4nicus, but, according to Mr. Webb, it is " very entirely distinct." Plants 
are, or soon will be, in the Milford Nursery. 

A 3. A. iNTERMB^Dius Dec. The intermediate Adenocarpus. 

Jrieniificatian. Dec. Prod.. 2. p. 15S. ; Don't Mill., 3. p. l.'SS. 
Synonynu. CfX\%n% complidttus Brot. Fl. Lta. 2. p 92. 
Engravings. Clus. Hist, 1. p. 94. f. 1. ; mnd our ^g. 370. 

Spec. Char,, Sfc. Calyx pubescent ; pubescence glandu- 
lated ; the middle of the three segments of the lower 
lip of the calyx longer than the side ones, and than the 
upper lip. Branch lets rather villose. Flowers rather 
distant. Standard rather glabrous. (Dec. Prod.) A 
pubescent shrub. Native of sunny gravelly places in 
Portugal and Old Castile, and Mount Scuder, in Sicily, 
and of Mongiana, in the kingdom of Naples. Height 
4 a. Year of introduction unknown. Flowers yellow ; 
May to July. Legume black ; ripe in September. 

A very handsome species, and one that is much admired 
for its fine terminal spikes of flowers, which, in favour- 
able seasons, and in a dry soil, ripen abundance of seeds. 

ft 4. A. PARViFo^Lius Dec. The small-leaved Adenocarpus. 

Identification. Dec. L^. Mem. 6., and Prod. 9l p. 158. ; Don's Mill., S. p. 15& 
Synonymes. Cftiiut panrifdlius N. Du Ham. 5. p. 147., iMm. Did. 2. p 248., 
exclusive of tlie synonymes ; C^tisus divaridltus VHiriL Stirp. 184. ; C^tisus 
complicktus Dec FL Fr. No. 8821.; 5p4rtium compllc&tum Lou. FL GaiL 441 
Engravings. N. Du Ham., 5. t 47. t 1. ; and our Jig. 371. 

Spec. Char,, S^c. Calyx somewhat pubescent, with glandulous 
pubescence ; the central segment of the lower lip longer 
than the side segments, and much exceeding the upper lip 
in length. Branches glabrous. Flowers distant Standard 
pubescent. (Dec, Prod.) An erect shrub, whitish from the 
down on its branches. Native of sunny heaths in the West 
of France. Height 2 ft. to 10 ft. Introduced in 1800. Flow- 
ers yellow ; May to July. Legume black ; ripe in October. 37,. 

jt 5. A. telonk'nsis Dec. The Toulon Adenocarpus. 

IdentifteaHon. Dec. FL Fr. Suppl. .M., I^g. Utm. 6., Prod. Z p. 158. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. \f^ 
Synonymes. C^tisus telondntis lAtis. Ft. Gall. 446., and in S. Du Ham. b. p. l&O. ; SfUbrtluni 

pllcitum Gouan Hort. Monsp. 396l, exclusive of the sjrnouyme. 
Engraptngs. N. Du Ham., 5. t 47. £ 2. ; and our Jig. 372. 

Spec. Char,, S^c. Calyx not glandulose, pubescent ; 
the segments on the lower lip nearly equal, ex- 
ceeding a little the upper lip in length. Branches 
almost glabrous. Flowers distant. Standard 
pubescent. (^Dec. Prod.) An erect shrub. Na- 
tive of sterile places ancl heaths in the Pyrenees, 
in Cevennes, in Provence, and in Rome. Height 
2 ft. to 4 ft. Introduced in 1800. Flowers yel- 
low ; June and Julv. Legume dark brown, or 
black ; ripe in October. 

It well deserves a place in British gardens; 
where, when judiciously treated, it will, owing to 
the moisture of our climatp, attain double the 
height that it does in the South of France. 




A.pwvtfUii^ 




iii 



XXV. legumina'ce^: OnoVis. 



□□ 



UNU'NIS L. Trb RESTHiRitow. Im. Sytl. Monad^lphia Dec&ndm. 

UrtVaaiam. LlD. ata.,Va. fO. : Lun. III..L<IG.i Dec Pnd.l.p, IM. ; Don'i BUI1..S. p. lU. 
Sn^pKi. Jnlnli utd Wtuix Vme) KM. tBT. udJ.% i AcrMs-bnur. or loiiuUiiMi Bu(iaBe. 

RfffhArrow \t t CfiliiTptian oT arrtit. thAt li. irDP^ Aurrav ; trom the long and dHpLy HSlol TDOtI 
i^IH'IdC a Krloui ImpHllmirDt to cb« plough i't hirrow. 

Cot. CAor, Co^f campanulate, 5-cle(l, wllh linear Eegments. Vellum large, 
itmted. S/anieni monailelphoiis, tlie tenth one BometimeB aloiost free. 
Lfgume tuuallv turgid, sesailtt, lew-aeeded. (Don't Mill.) 

Lfovet triroljulate, stipulate, alternate, deciduous. /Vouierj yellow, pur- 
plish and red, or rarely while. — Shrubs, very low, luSruticoae ; natives of 
Europe. Two species are hardy. 

Tbe peduncle is, in many instances, furnished with an awn. which ia the 
petiole of an abortive floral leaf. Tiie two specimens here described are well 
Biiaiited for rockwork or flower-borders, on account of their lively flowers, 
which are red, or reddish purple; colours not frequently met with in the lig- 
neous Legiiminacea, by far the greater part of which have yellow flowers. 
Thev are readily propagated by seeds or by division, and 
will groiF in any soil that is tolerably dry. 

' I. 0. FRUTico'sA L. The shrubby Restharrow. 



spec. Char., ^c. Leaves trifoliolate. Leaflets sessile, 
lanceolate, serried. Stipules connate into one, sheath- 
ing, and 4-awoed ; and, in the uppermost part* of the 
flanC, occupying the places of leaves which are absent. 
edicela 3-flowered, disposed in a raceme. (Dec. Prod.) 
A low Khnib. Alps of Dauphin^, &c. Height 1 ti. to 
* ft. Introduced in 1680. Flowers purplish red ; 
Hiy and June. Legume brown; ripe in September. 
Faritlg. 

M O. f. 2 microphi/lla Dec., O. fmticAsa Aao. — 
Leaflets small, obovate, and serrated. Native of 
the mountains of Aragou. 371.0.01 

ja 2. 0. KoruNDiPo'LiA L. The round-leaved Reelharrow. 



P^ gro MO tft. Joeq. Fl AuiLr, AppeDd., t 



Spec, Oua-., ^c. Leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets ovate, 
and tootbed. Peduncles 3-flowered, and with- 
out bracteas. (Dec. Prod.) Alownhrub. Native 
of the Pyrenees, and the Alps. Height I ft. to 
ih. Introduced in 1570. Flowers purplish red; 
May to Sept. Legume brown ; ripe in October. 

Otier Ktndi of On&mt. — O. tri&raciedia Dec, a 
ralTDticoiie plant with pink flowers, supposed to 
I* a native of Carinthia, differs little from O. ro- 
indil&Iia. Sereial other . species are hardy, but 
•ot infficiently ligneous for our purpose. 
a 3 




•2-M AnaoRETUM kt fruticetum britannicum. 

Gem us X. 



AMO'RPHA L. Thb Auori-iia, or BmsT4RD Ismao. Lm. Syit. Mona- 
tlclpllia Decandlin. 

/ifralAlcrlHoo. Lin. (!«!.. ISA ; lAm, 111,, I Ml. I Dk Prod., t p IM. ^ Don'i Nlll.. I. p. IM. 
.Imanr™"- BoanTidU Sici. fin*. Nn. IMt. ; Fiui Jnill(ii, ». ^ I'lifnrin. (icr. ; Aniorh. luL 
AtualiM, From d. piliDII'e, utiwurpM.lona\ Jnrclereii« ID the itglOinlllf orUFUiTDll*,rn)a 

6'fn. Oiar, Calj/x Mouthed, obconicall}' carapanulate. Veaiium ovate, cod- 
CHVc. Wingt and Keel wanting. Sli/le filiform, straight, glabrous. Slamau 
enserted, monadelphous at the very base. Legume compressed, 1-cclted, 
i— 2-seeded. (Doti'i Mill.) 

Leavei compound, impari-pmnate, alternate, stipulate, deciduoii.1 ; stipules 
dctidiioiis. Flouvrt of a blue Tiolet colour, in (.[litute racemes. 
Shrubs, laT)te, deciduous ; natives of North America. Leaves having many 
purs of leaflets that have transparent dots in their diaks, and usually minute 
stipules at their base. The flovers are disposed in racemes, iiKualty grouped 
at the tips of the branches. The apecics are highly ornamental on account 
of their leaves, and more especially of their long apikes of flowers ; which, 
though, when taken separately, they are small, and imperfect in regard to 
form, are yet rich from their number, and their colours of purple or violet, 
spangled with a golden yellow. The plants are not of long duration ; and are 
liable to be broken by wind; fur which reason they onglit always to be 
planted in a sheltered Bituniion. Thev produce abundance of suckers, from 
which, and from cuttings of the root, they are verj' readily propagated. 

■ 1, A. FBUTico'sA Lin, The shrubby Amorpha, or Baitard Itidign. 



*^S7K* OtoTB, /ta? ■ ""■' " ° *"■ -.S'"OCh»rtlg»tUiionn,Grr.,lnd«!o 
Eignnritift. Schkiihr HvicRi., t. \91. : Bot. R«fl., tn. ; ud mir «•. ».i. 
Spec. Char., SfC. Rather arborescent, comcwhat 
villose or glabrous, l^eaflels elliplic-oblong. 
the lowest distant from the base of the 
petiole. Calyn somewhat villose : * of ita 
teeth obtuse, 1 acuminate. The stanilard 
glandless. Legume few-seeded. ( Dec. Pnid. ) 
An erect glabrous shrub. Carolina and 
Florida, on the banks of rivers. Height 
Oft. to 12ft. Flowers very dark bluish purple; 
June and July. Legume brown ; ripe Oct. 
Naked young wood greyish brown. 
Varkliet. 

m A.f. i anguilifolia Pursh has the leaf 

lets linear-elliptic, 
a ,(._/; 3 cmor^rwVa Pureh has the leaflets ■*• • t, '"•^ 

notched, and the calyx hoary. "«iii*» «>««. 

s A. /. i Lewiiii Laid. Cal,, 1830, appears to have r.ithcr larger flowers 

and leaves than the species. 
* A. /. 5 carii/ea Lodd. Cat., 1830, has the flowers of somewhat a paler 
blue. Perhaps only a variation of A, croceo-lanita. 

* 2. A. (f.) gla^bra Dei/. The glabrous Amorpha, or Bailard tmiigo. 
IdrmlOhaUim. DnT, Cal.HDrt. Pur., M. : I)k. Frail, t.n. KS.i Don'i Mill.. 9. p. a*. 
Emgrawmf. Onr Jlf. IK. bltti > •ptebilHi In Dr. LIdiIIi7'i harUrluir. 

Spec. Cher., ire. Bather arborescent, glabrous. Leaflets elliptic-oblong, the 



XXV. lrguminacea:: amu'rpha. 231 

lowest dtBtant from the twae of the petiole. Caljx elabrous, four of iu 
teeth obtuse, one acuminate. StBodard glanded on the outside. Le^ms 
containing fev seeds. (Dec. Prod.) A glabrous shrub. North America. 
HeightSft. to 6fc Introduced in IBIO. Flowers bluish purple; Jul; 
and August. Legume brown ; ripe in October. 



-- 3. A. (F.) na'na Xull. The dwarf Amorpha, or Bailard Ittdi/;o. 

■ UruMt^Hon KuU. In Fru. CU.,1913., Koi. C«. Amer., 5. p »H D« PrOi.a p. SM. i Don'i 

triil-.ip.tM. 

Ipmtm L . h. lElcrapbfll* Furik Fl. Amrr. Srvl. i. p. teS. 
&r«""*' Bot M»g., llll.i Mnduurj^ai^ 

Spec. Char., ^r. Slinibby, dwarr, mther glabrous. Leaflets elliptical, mucitK 
Dulate. Calyx glabrous, all its teeth setaceouily acuminate. L^ume 1- 
seeded. (Dfc. Ptod.) A low glabrous ahrub. Natiye of herbage-coiered 
hills near the Missouri. Height 1 ft. <o ^ft. Introduced ISIl. Flowers 
purple, fragrant ; July and August. Legume brown ; ripe in October. 

■ 4. A. (r.) fsaNsrans Siaeel. The fragrant Amorpha, or Sattard Indigo. 



t/m^mr, A. nlni jinuin ifm. jWnj. t. tUi,, but'not of olhCM. 
Mmtramimst. Svt. ft.-Gmrd., c MI.; Sot. Utf., I. ILIl. ; Ulil our Jl(, ITS. 

Spee. Char., Sfc. Shrubby, pubescent. Leaves with 6 — B pairs of elliptic- 
oblong miicronate leaflets, obtuse at both endn, young ones pubescent. 
Calyx pubescent, pedicellate; superior teeth obtuse, lower one acute. 
8tv'le hairy. (ZtoiCi Mill.') A pubescent ahrub. North America. Height 
TfLto 8fl. Introduced in 1800. Flowers dark purple j June and July. 
Legume brown ; ripe in September. 

• 5. A. (f.) cbo'cko-lana'ta WaU. The 
f^aflron-colou red- woolly Amorpha, or tatant/ 
Baitmd Indigo. 
HnufHatffcis, WiU. Dnid.Br1t.i Don'iMm., 1. p.a4, 
Iwrnfi^t. W*u, Dead. UriL.t. LU.; ud oar y^.STS, 

Spec. Oar., ^c. Plant clothed with tawny pu- 
bescence. Racemes branched. Leaves with 
6 — 8 pairs of ohlong-elUptic, mucronulate, 
downy leaflets ; the 3 upper teeth of calyx 
orate, acute, the S lower ones very short, 
and rounded. (DotCi Mill.) A pubescent 
shrub. North AmericsL. Height 3R. to 5 ft. 

Introd. 1680. Flowers purple or purplish sn. a. «] ••*«> IbIh. 

blue ; July and August. L^me dark brown, or brown ; ripe in October. 

a 4 



AltbOUETUM ET FRUriCETUM BRITANNICUM. 

.) cane'sckss AW/. The canescent Amorpha, or Batlard InSgo. 

Nutl. In F™. CM„ wis. inri C^n. AmM,. t. p. 9».i 
mcr. Srpi,, t. p. (ST. ; Dec Prod.. 1. p. ■OfS.; Don'i 



Spec. C/iar., ij-e. SufFhlticoK, dwarT, all over whitclj- 
tomentose. Leaflets ovatoellipiic, mucronate, the 
lowest near the l>aBe of the petiole. Calyx lomen- 
tose; its teeth ovate, acute, equal. Ovary 2- 
ovoled. Lepuine l-aeeded. {Dec, Prod.) A low 
tomentose shrub i Louisiana, on the banks of the 
Missouri and the Missiastppi. Hrigbt 3 ft. Introd, 
i»\i. Flowers dark blue; July and August. Le- 
gume brown ; ripe in October. 



iMm 



.. Liii. Sj/Ml. Diadelphia 



SftKiigmt. DlMnlit Sprmg, Sfit. Anp. MS. 

Drri'Mim. Namid In honour of Ckaria Williaix Enintkaril, U.D., » proTtwor !n Iht Uni»«tllJ 
of Kfinigiberi. In Pruulfc 

Gen. Char. Cali/i obconically campanulate, S-toothed ; upper teeth rather 
remote, loi»er one longest. Pelatt 5. disposed in a papilionaceous manner. 
FtxUlum oblong, and tiie two keel petals distinct. Slameru diadelphoua. 
(D'.n't MilL) 

Leaiiei compound, impah-pinnate, nhemate, stipulate, deciduous; beset 
with glands. Floweri in terminal racemes, white. — An unarmed shrub or 
low tree ; native of Mexico. 

• 1. E. AHomPHoi'DES H.el B. The Amorpha-like Eyienhardtia. 

arnlijkatiim. H, B. n Runth i Dtc. Prod., md Don'i Hill. ; Bat. Reg. Cbran., Iiog. No. ^ 
Syuatgiiu. IJilli*rB/a ■morphClile" Sfril^. 
E„gran*fi. H. B. M Kunlh, fi. 1. IM. ; Mid our Jlf. Ml. 

S;iec. Char,, ^r. An unBfmed low tree or shrub, with 

iitipari pinnate leaves, composed of many pairs 

of slipplale leaflels, and these are, as well as the 

calyxes, beset with dnnds. Bacemes terminal, 

cylindrical, flowers white. (Don't Milt,, ii. p. 234.) 

A deciduous ahrub or low tree. Mexico, on , 

mountains. Height 6 ft. to lOfti in British gar. i 

dens 4ri. to 6 ft. Introduced in 1S3T. Flowers i 

white. Legume?. \ 

This plant was raised in the Hort. Soc. Gurden, * 
and ha.'i proved quite hardy. The lenvca are dis- 
tinctly marked with glandular dotting i a very un- 
usual case among Icfiuminous plants. The twigs 
are short, and so closely set upon the branches 
as to form a dense mass of foliage. Each la termi- 
nated by an erect compact spike, from 2 in, to -r — 
3 in. U.'n!!, of white or pale yellow flowcra, "^ E™«hu«i- ™.»j-i„ 
which, a1lhou(!h not krger than those of a apiraa, nevertheless, from their 
abuiidiuico, must produce a beautiful upjiearsnce. (Bot, Reg. 



xxv. leoumina^ceie : robi^sia. 233 

Genus XII. 




WBrSTA Lia Tbb Robinia, or Locust Tree, Lin. Sytt. Diadelphia 

Dedindria. 

UaUi/leatiom. Dec. M£in. T4g.. 6. ; Prod., 2. p. XI. ; Don's Mill., 9. p. ^7. 

Bnoifmts. PteudxAda Ttmm. Jnsi. t 417., Uctnch iietk. 145. ; RobiDier, Fr.% Bobinie, Ger. 

Dnhatioit, Named In honour of Jean Robm, a French botanist, once berbalUt to Henry IV. o( 
France, author of Histoire des Plantts, 13mo, Paris, \6'M ; printed with the second edition of 
Lonioer's HiMtory qf Plants. HU son Vespasian was sub-demonstrator at the Jardin des Plantes 
in Puis, and was the first person who cultivated the Robfnia Pseud-^ckcia In Europe. 

Gn, Char. Caltfx 5-toothed, lanceolate, 2 upper ones shorter and approxi- 
mate. Corolla papilionaceous. VexUlnm large. Keel obtuse. Stamens dia- 
delphous, deciduous. Ovaries 16-*20-ovulate. Style bearded in front. 
ugunte compressed, almost sessile, many-seeded, with the valves thin and 
fiat, margined at the seminiferous suture. (^Don^s Mi/L) 

Leaves compound, unequally pinnate, alternate, deciduous ; leaflets 
generally ovate or obovate, petiolate. Flouters white or rose-coloured, in 
axillary usually nodding racemes. — Trees, deciduous, natives of North Ame- 
rica, where one of the species is highly valued for its timber. 

The species are prized, partly for their use, but chiefly for their beauty. 
They are readily propagated by seeds, large truncheons of the stem and 
branches, cuttings of the roots, or by grafting ; and they will grow in any soil 
that is not too wet. Their roots are creeping, and their branches very brittle : 
they grow rapidly, but are generally not of long duration. Their rapid growth 
is a property that they have in common with all trees and plants the principal 
roots ot which extend themselves close under the surface ; because tnere the 
soil is always richest : but the same cause that produces this rapidity at first 
occasions the tree to grow slowly afterwards, unless the roots are allowed 
ample space on every side ; since, as they never penetrate deep, they soon 
exbaost all the soil within their reach. They are, therefore, nighly objec- 
tionable among ornamental shrubs, or in flower borders. For this reason, 
also, such trees are objectionable as hedgerow trees, or as scattered groups in 
arable lands ; their roots provins a serious impediment to the plough, and the 
suckers thrown up by them choking the com crops. Roots, on the other 
hand, which |>enetrate perpendicularly as well as horizontally, belong to more 
slowly, but more steadily, crowing trees, which always attain a larger size in 
proportion to the extent of ground they occupy. 

X 1. R. PsEU^D-ilcA^ciA Ltn. The common Robinia, or False Acacia. 

Utal^fieatiom. Lin. Sjp,, 1043. ; Pec. Prod., 2. p. 261. ; Don's Mill.. 2. p. 237. 

hfa oni f me t. JBsehfnameae FseadmAciA Roxb. ; Pseudacida odorita Mceneh Metk. 145.; Locust 
Tree, Amtr. » the Bastard Acacia ; Kobinier laux Acada, Acada blanc, Carouge des AmMcalns, 
Ft, ; getaeine Acade, Schotendom, Ger. 

DniMhom, This tree, when first introduced, was supposed to be a species of the Egyptian acacia, 
( Jcida Tira), from Its pricklj branches and pinnated learei, which resembled those of that tree. 
It was named the locust tree by the missionaries, who fanded that It was the tree that supported 
St. John in the wilderness. It is not, howerer, a nadve of any other part of the world than North 
America. The name Carouge is the French word for carob bean, the locust tree of Spain ; which, 
bdag also a natire of Syria, is, probably, the true locust of the New Testament. The German 
name of Schotendom Is composed of sckote^ a pod, or legume, and dom^ a thorn. 

Ingrmmgs. Lam. 111., t. €66. ; N. Du Ham., 2. t. 16. ; the plate of this si)ccies in Arb. Brit., 
1st edit, vol. T. ; and our fyf. 382: 

Spec, Char^ S^c. Prickles stipular. Branches twiggy. Racemes of flowers 
loose and pendulous ; and smooth, as are the legumes. Leaflets ovate. 
The flowers are white and sweet-scented ; the roots creeping, and their 
fibres sometimes bearine tubercles. {Dec Prod.) A deciduous tree» above 
the middle size. North America. Canada to Carolina. Height 70 ft. to 
soft. Introduced in 1640. Flowers white ; May and June. Legume 
compressed, dark purplish brown ; ripe in September. Decaying leaves 
yellow, Naked young wood purplish brown. 



23* ARBORETUM ET FttUTICETlIM BRITANNICUM. 

Varietiet. The plant Tailing much in its difierent native localitiea, and alsc 
having been long cultivated from seeds in Europe, the varieties are nume- 
rous. Some of chose included in Che following list appear in our Horlai 
Britannicui, and in Don's MlUer, as species ; while some hybrids, such as R. 
hybrids and R. interm&lia, might also have been considered as varieties, 
but we have preferred keeping thetn apart. 

1 R. F. ijl&re liteo Dumont 6. p. 140. has the flowers jellow. 

I R.P.3 inermi, Dec. Prod. ii. p. 861., Dec. Cat. Hort. Monsp. 136.— 
Prickles wantinc, or nearly obsolete. Leaflets flat. Plant of free 
growth, in which respect it differs from R. P. umbraculffen. 

1 .R. P. 4 criipa Dec. Prod. ii. p.S61. — Prickles wanting. Leafletsall, 
or for the most part, unduhitely curled. 

1 R.P. 5 umhraculifera Bee Prod. ii. p. SGI., Cat. Hort. Monsp. 157. 
R. ineriniH Dum. Caan. ti. p. 140. — Prickles wanting. Branchea 
much crowded, and smooth. Head orbicular. Leaflets ovate. Thb 
variety is said to have been raised from the seed of B. Pseild-jfciicia ; 
and, according to Dumont de Courset, to have yellow flowers. It 
has been common in British gardens since 18^0, but has not yet 
flowered in this country. 

T B.P.a torluiia Dec. Prod. ii. p. 26 1 .; and the plate in Arb. Brit., 1st 
edit., vol. V. — Branches much crowded, and twisted. Racemes simi- 
lar to those of R. Pseud-.i4cacia, but smaller and fewer-flowi-red. 

T R.P.I sophora;/o^ Lodd. Cat. 1830 has the leaves laige, and some- 
what like those of Sophora japdnico. 

3 R. P.S amorphafolia Lk. has leaves somewhat like those of Amdrpba 
fniticosa. 

1 R. P 9 tlrMa Lk. has the general tendency of the shoots upright ; 
but still the plant is not so fastigiale as the Lombardy poplar. 

5 R. P. 10 procera Lodd. Cat. 1830. — A tall vigorous-growing variety, 

t R.P.W pindaia On. Dec. p. 26. — The shoots are somewhat droop- 
ing, but not very decidedly so. 

? R. P. Ii motalroia Lodd. Cat. 1830.— The leaves arelai^.and twisted. 

X R. P. 13 maervph^Oa Lodd. Cat. 1B30 has the leaves' long, and the 
leaflets broad. 

1 B. P. 14 microph^lla Lodd. Cat. 1830, R. anguscifolia Mori., has the 
leaves small, and the leaflets narrow. 

t R. P. 15 tpeclaiilit Dum. has large leaves and is without prickles : it 

E reduces straight vigorou<i shoots, which are angubr when young, 
t was raised from seed by M. Descemet, at St. Denis, and was 
formerly known in the French nurseries by the name of Acaciu 
agu^ante (enticing). 
% R. P. 16 latUiliqaa, the broad^dded locust, is mentioned m Prinre's 

Calalogae for 18^9. 
Most of these varieties are tolerably distinct in the foliage when the ptantn 
arc young. Those best worth cultivatiiur, for the shape of the tree, are R. 
P. umbraculffera, the parasol acacia; R. P. p^ndula; R. P. scrtcto, the 
upright. growing sort i and R. P. spectibilis. With regard to the yellow- 
flowered variety, it ma^ be worth continuing by grafting or suckers ; but, to 
makequitesureofhavinK white flowers, the trees producing them ought to be 
propagated by grafting also ; as plants raised from seed, though lor ue most 
part tney have white flowers, yet occasionally produce yellowish ones. 
The wood, which is commonly of a greenish yellow colour, marked with 
brown veins, is hard, compact, and susceptible of a bright polish : it has a good 
di'al of strength, and is very durable ; but it has not much elasticity, and ia 
somewhat liable to crack. A cubic foot of locust wood, newly cut, weighs 
63 lb. 3 oz. ; half-dry, 56 lb. 4 ol. ; and, when quite dry, only 48 lb. 4 ok. Ita 
value for fuel, when compared with that of the beech, ia as 12 to IJS. F<» 
duration Harlig places it immediately aficr the oak, before the larch and the 



XXV. l.EGt;MINA'CE;F,: KOBl'N/^ 



^ 



Scotch pine. According to Burlow, the strength of acacia timber, ai compared 
•ilh fine Engllah oak, ia as 1867 to 167ii ; the strength of nsh being an :j0£6 ( 
beech, ld56; elm. 11)13; Kiga fir, IIOB; Norway spar (spnice fir), ]4T4i 
Dad teak, 24«S. The tree has one property almost peculiar to it.that orfonning 
hean-wood at a very early age, rix. in Its third year; whereas the sap-wood of the 
oak, the ctieitnut, the beech, the elm, and most other trees, does nut bc^n to 
chan^ into heart, or perfect, wood, till after 10 or 15 vcars' growth. Tlie trees of 
this qjecies, and of several of its varieties, in the garden of the Horticultural So- 
ciety, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddigea, have attained the height of 3011- 
and upwards, in 10 years Iroiii [he time they were planted. There is, pcrhnps, no 
American tree respecting which so much has been said and done, in Europe, as 
the locust. It va.1 one of the first trees that we received from America, and 
ithas been more eitenaively propagated than any other, both in France and Eng- 
land- It has been alternately extolled itnd neglected in both countries ; and even 
■t the present tine, though the beauty of its foliage and flowers la ^crally ac- 
knowledged, and thou^ it ha.i, at diHerent periods, been enthusisHticully praised 
by different writers, for the valuable properties of iia wood, it cannot ^e con- 
luiered as holding a high rank as a timber tree, or as being worth planting with 
■ riew to profit. We |jasa over many cuiious and historical facts respecting the 
kicuat tree, for which we refer to toe lat edit, of this work, and come to the 
yew 1823, when an extraordinary sensation was excited in Britain respectiiig 
this tree by Cobbett. This writer, while in America, from 1817 to 1819, "ira« 
tociTinced that nothing in the timber way could be so great a benefit as the 
general cultivation of this tree." On his return to England he commenced 
nurseryman, and the name of locust, as applied to Ihia tree, being, before 
Cobbett's time, almost forgotten it) England, man^ persons, in consequence, 
thought it was a new tree. Hence, while quantities of plants of Kobinia 
Pseud-zlc^in stood unasked for in the nurseries, the locust, which every one 
believed could only be had genuine from Mr. Cobbett, could not be grown by 
hifii in sufficient quantities to supply the demand. Alier creating a prodigious 
' m for a few years, the locust mania entirely subsided, and tne tree ia 
it waa before Cobbett's lime, planted only, or chiefly, lor ornament. 

I 2. R. TTsco'sA Yettt. The clammy-dariri/ Robiaia. 

1t TloTV C«l«.j C- 4. \ I>cc. Prod-, a. p. 303. ; Don't Hl^t.. 1. p. 33S 

faKffJ^KW. R. ifludnirtk Bat. idaf. bfiO. i R. vonUn* Bartram i the Koie-lloverLDg LociuL 

^Crti. B^, IB cdiL, ToL I. 1 uid our *g. Mi 

Spec. Char., Ifc. Branches and legumes glandular and clammy. Racemes 
crowded, erect. Bracteas concave, deciduous, each ending in a long bristle. 



ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITTAHICUH. 



The 3 lower teeth of the calyx acuminated. Roots creeping. (Dec. Prod.) 
A claiiimv-barked tree. South Carolma and Georgia, near riven. Height 
30 fl. to'Mfi. Introduced in 1797. Flowers scentless, pale pink oiited 
with white, varying to pule purple or violet colour according to the soil ; 
Jtine to August. Legume brown i ripe in October. Kaked young wood 
purplish und clammy. 
The bark, particularly that of the young shoots, which is of a dull red, is 

covered with a clainniy aubxiance, which, when touched, sticks to the fingera. 

In every other reaped, both ID natural chaiacters and artificial culture, thij 

tree strongly resembles the common R. Pseiid-iJdicia. 

S^noinmts. H, hf brlda Judib, i It. lunblguh Pair. Smppt. 4. p. GflO. \ ud. pFTbapt, R. e^lniu 
E<M'<"'-H-" OiaM. '.iDp. . 

^KC. Char., frc Spines very short. Branches, petioles, peduncles, and calyxes 
fiirniahed with a lew glands, rarely clammy. Leaflets ovate. Racemes loose 
and pendulous. Bracteas concave, caducous, ending each in a lona bristle. 
{Dtni'i Mill.) A deciduous tree, rather under the middle size. Hybrid? 
between R. Pseiid-^c&cia and R. viscosa. Originated in ? 1730. Flowen 
sweet-scented, pale rose..coloured ; June to August. Poda brown, thickly 
beset with short prickles; ri[ie in October. 

T • 4. R. Hi'spiDA Liii. The hispid Robinia, or 

Soie Acaria. 
linUUeimm. LId, Uui.. 101. i D«. Prod., 1. p. Ml. ; Don't 

HlQ., 9. p. SW. 
Svmhijiiiui. K, rtuaJ'.Sii Hon. 1. 1. 1S.( R.DDHUiuBanr. 

Vau. t. p. IW. : JBtdiTnlmtnt hbbdi J)h». 
Enitrailiiti- VIU- le-.l. S14.1 Bot- Mig., 911.; ud our^.^M. 
Spec.OiaT.,S^. Spines wanting, Leafleia obovaie. 

Branches and legumes hispid. Racemes loose i 

the 3 lower teeth of the iralyx acuminated. (Dec. 

Prod.) A shrub, or low tree. Carolina, in pine 

woods. Height 611. to eoft. Introduced in 

1758. Flowers large, dark rose-coloured ; June 

to October. Legume brown ; ripe in October 

and November. Naked young wood purplish itowM.btoia». 

brown, thiekly beset with prickles, "** """"^ "*<**■ 



! 



XXV. LEGUMINA^CEiE: CARAGA^NA. 287 

Vaneties, 

M R,h. 2 nana Dec. is a plant hardly a foot high, found in pine woods 
in Carolina. 

A J?. A. 3 rosea Pursh has the leaflets for the most part alternate, and 
the branches smoothish. In its native habitats, on the hieh mountains 
of Virginia and Carolina, it grows, according to Pursn, to a con- 
siderable shrub , whereas the species is a low straggling plant. 

* i?. A. 4 macroph^Ua Dec, R. grandiflora Hort,^ figured in Arb. Brit., 
Ist edit., Tol. v., has the leaflets large, and ovate-roundish ; and the 
branches and peduncles glabrous, and without prickles. 

The speciesy and the different varieties, are shrubs or low trees, with tor- 
tuous and very brittle branches, and leaves and flowers nearly twice the size 
of those of Roblnia Pseud-^cacia. They form singularly ornamental shrubs 
for gardens ; but, as standards or bushes, they can be only planted with safety 
in the most sheltered situations. When grafted standard high, and trained to 
a wire parasol-like frame, supported on a rod or post 6 or 8 feet high, few 
plants are equal to R. h. macroph/Ila in point of brilliant display. 

Genus XIII. 



^ 




CARAG^NA Lam. The Caragana, or Siberian Pea Tree. 

Lin, SiftL Diadelphia Dec^ndria. 

Um^fieoHtm, Lsm. Diet.. 1. p. 611. } Dec. Frod.» X pc 268. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. MS. 

Smmemgme. Roblnto sp. L. 

DaritmHom. Caragam is Uie name of C. arborCsoens among the Mongol Tartars. 

Gau Char, Cafyx short, tubulous, 5-toothed. Corolla obtuse, straight ; the 
wings and vexillum about equal in length. Stamens diadelphous. Style 
glabrous. Stigma terminal, truncate. Legume sessile^ young ones com- 
pressed, at length somewhat cylindrical and many-seeded, mucronate by the 
style. Seeds somewhat globose. (Don*s Mill,) 

I^eaoes compound, abruptly pinnate, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; 
stipules usually spinescent. Flowers mostly yellow. 

Trees or shrubs, natives of Siberia and of the East. Leaves with the leaflets 
mncrofiate, and the petioles either with a bristly or a spiny point ; their flowers 
axillary, each on a distinct pedicel, usually several together, pale yellow, 
except in C. jubata, in which they are white tinged with red ; their stipules 
usually become spines. They are all ornamental or curious, and of the easiest 
culture in any common soil ; propagated by cuttings of the roots or by seeds. 
The dwarf and pendulous-growing species, when grafted standard high on C, 
arborescena, form very singular trees. 

X 1. C ARBOR E^sCENS Lam. The arborescent Caragana, or Siberian 

Pea Tree. 



Lam. Diet, 1. p. 615. ; Dec Prod., 9. p. 268. ; Don*8 Mill., 9. p. 24S. 
Bobln&x Caragana Lin. Sp. 1044., N. Du Ham. 2. 1. 19., Pall. Fl. Rou. I.t49.; 
Mwa^uw slMrica lUiyx fausse Acacle de Sib^rie, RoUnle de SlMrie, Arbre aux Pois des Rosses, 
Fr. ; Sfbirixche Erbsenbaum, Get. ; Gorochoik, Ruu. 
JS ^f i amin ft. N. Da Ham., 2l t 19. ; PalL FL Ross., L 1 49., middle figure ; the plate pf thll spedes 
m Art*. Brit., 1st edit., vol. t. ; and onrjig. 385. 

Spec. Char., Ijrc. Leaves with 4^—6 pairs of oval-oblong villous leaflets. 
Petiole unarmed. Stipules spinescent. Pedicels in fascicles. {Don*s 
Miil.) A low tree. Siberia, in woods, and upon the banks of riyers. 
Hei^t 15ft. to 20ft. Introduced in 1752. Flowers yellow; April and 
May. T«egume brown ; ripe in August. 



238 AHUOKETUM ET FBt'TlCE BRITANNlCrM- 

1 C. a. 2 inirma Hort. has the branches 

without g|)infs. Plants in the Hiirti- 

cultural Society's Garden. 
Pallas inforins us that upon the bduks of rivers 
it Erons tu the height of 18 ft. or moie ; but in 
arid piucen it is only a small ehriib ; in the tntter 
atote forming, as we ihink, the varieties C. (a.) 
AUagdna, and C. (a.) microphyila. C. urborciicena 
forms an erect stiff tree, with numerous iipriybt- 
gi'owing branches. The flowers are axillary, one 
on a pedicel; thepoda are nblung. taper, and each 
contains 3 or 4 seeds. The wood is hard, com- 
pact, and very tough ; yellow on the outside; and 
within, waved and striped with red, and uith 
reddish brown. 

* a. C. (a.) Alt^ga'na Poir. The Altagai 
Caragana, or Siberian Pea Tree. 

■ Poti, Sun., 





Spec. Char,, ij-c. Leaves having 6 or 8 pairs o 
glabrous, obovate-roundish, rctuse leaflets. Ptf 
tiole unarmed. Stipules spinescent. Pedicel 
solitary. Legumes rather compressed. (Don' 
Mill ) A low shrub. Siiwria, in arid plaini 
Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. Introd. 1789. Flower 
yellow; April to July. Legume brown; ripe i; 
September. 
Usually propagated by grafting on C. arborfscens. 



nnUttoKAia. DM.ProiL,l.p.W&iUwi'tHi11.,3.p.MI. 

afmamtma. Roblnfa nlcrophflli Pall. Ft. Ran. i. i-i.. 
t l,a.i Caraf'-^* AHvi"" ■•"■ fi"'. Sappl. i. f. S9. 

EntratimMi. ?aU. Fl, HolL.t 31. t 1. 9. uwler the uou, 
af SoblDHi mlcrapbfUi ; ud nur^. Mr. 

^c. Char., Sic. Leaves with 6 — 7 pairs of 
hoary retuse leaflets. Petioles and stipules d 
rather spinescent at the apei. Hoot creep- 
ing. (Don'i MiU.) A low shrub. Siberia, 
in the Desert of Baraba, and in other arid ' 
places. Height S ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 
1819. Flowers yellow ; April to June. Le- 
gume brown; ripe in August. *"■ "^l*'"*"*""^ 

j« *. C. (a.) Rkdo'wsk/ Dec Redowski'a Caragana, or Iberia* Pea Tree 



Eugrmri^. Dec LegunL. t. U. 1 4S , In Che leedLbig ttau. 

^Mc, Char., ^c. Leaves with two pairs of ovate, acute, smooth leaflet 
Stipules spinose. Flowers yellow. (Don't MIL) A low shnrii. Siberi 
Hei^t 4ft. to 5 ft. Introduced in 18S0. Plowerv yellow; April and Ma 
Legume brown; ripe in August. 



XXV. leoumina'cea: caraga'na. 



239 



fanetif. 

^ C (A.) R, 2 pns'cox Fisch. only differs from C. Redowskt in coming 
into flower earlier. The specimen in the Hort. Soc. Garden was in 
full leaf, and in flower, on April 30. 1836, when C. frutescens and 
C. arburescens had not a single leaf expanded. 

In general appearance and habit of growth, it resembles C\ Alfagdna, ot 
which it is probably only a variety. H. S. 

•» 5, C, (a.) ARBNA^RiA Dottn and Sims, The 
Sand Caragana. 

lientifiaUum. Donn Hort. Cant.; Sims Bot. Mag.,t. 188G. 
Earonngt. Stma BoL Mag.,t. 1S86. ; and our ^. 388. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Leaves with, usually, 4 or 
more pairs of obcordate leaflets. Pedicels 
usually twin, and shorter than the flowt-rs. 
Stipules .subulate. Flowers yellow. (DmCs 
MtU,) A low shrub. Siberia. Height 1 ft. to 
2ft. Introd. 1602. Flo^^ers yellow; April 
and May. Legume dark brown ; ripe in August. 

Probably only another variety of C arbor^scens. 
Iftnd, but is generally propagated by grafting. 

A 6. C, FRUTE^scENS Dec, The shrubby Caragana. 

^e^iffkaHon, Dec. Prod., i. p.' 968. ; Don't Mill. 8. p. 84S. 

«9*9*intn. RoUni'a fnxt«iceiu Lim. Spec. I0i4., Pail. Fi. Sou, t. 43. ; C. diglt&U Lam. Dia. 

I.p.626. r 
fiV<M^g«. 8wt. Fl.-G«rd., L SS7. ; PalL Fl. Rom., t. 42., ai Robin/a frutitcent ; and oar Jig, : 





3M C. (a.) 



It ripens seeds in Eng- 





889. C tmtUemm, 



Spec, Char,, ^c. Leayes having 2 pairs of leaflets, which 
approxioiate near the top of the petiole : they are obo- 
vate-cttoeated. Stipules membranous. Petiole furnished 
with a short spine at the apex. Pedicels solitary, twice 
the length of^ the calyx. Flowers yellow, resupinate. 
Leaves with a yellow hue. (Don*t MUL) A low shrub. 
Native of Russia, on the banks of the Wolga and other 
rivers. Height in open situations 5 (I. ; in woods and 
gardens 9f^. to 10 fl. Introduced in 1752. Flowers 
yellow ; May. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 

^•ir6cf. DeCandoUe mentions two forms : — 

* C. / 1 laHfd&a, which has gla- 
brous broadly obovate leaflets, 
and is frequent in gardens; 
there being a subvariety, with 
2-flowered peduncles; and 

A C. /. 2 angtuH/oiia, which has glabrous oblong cuneated 
leaflets, and is found near Odessa. 

A handsome shrub, sometimes grafted standard high on 
C arbor^ens. 

jt 7. C. (f.) mo^llis Best, The soft Caragana. 

Identification. Beu. Enum. PI. Volh.M). 29.; Don*t MUL, 2. p. 243. 
Sirnonpmeg. Roblnia mdUii Sieb. Fl. Tour- Sirppl. 477- ; Robfn^n tomen* 

tbaa Fuck. HorU Gorenk. 1818 ; Caragana trut^acena rar. mdllia Dec 

Prod. 2. p. 268. 
Engramng. Our Jig. 390. from a tpecimen In Dr. Lindley'i herbarium. 

S^ec. Char., ifc. Leaves with 2 pairs of oblong, cuneated, 
approximate leaflets, near the tip of the petiole, clothed 
with sofl hair. Petiole ending in a short spine. Pe- 
dicels solitary. Flowers yellow. {Dec, Prod,) A low 
ahnib. Native of Tauria and Podolia. Heieht 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced in 
1818. Flowers yellow ; April and May. Legume brown ; npe in August. 



ctr.} 



1 



240 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 

* 8. C. pvghx'a Dec. The pygmy Caragana. 
Unification. Dec. Pnid.,l.ii.Wa.: DoDlMm.,1 p. Ml 

Sf^nnynu. lloblllu_|i;*iu'm Lin. Sp. 10««., PalL PL Rou. 1. [. 19. . ^wh. HU*. t. 3\ 
/•WnWiWf. Pdl. FT R<m.. ]. t U. : Ania. Ruth.,!. 1S.,U RdMhu prgma'ii uid oar A- ML 

^rc. char., t^c. LeHTes with 2 pidn of linear, glabrous, approximate leaflet! 



ir the lip of the petiole, which is yen hhort. Stipules and petioles ipi- 
cent. Pedicel.t solitary, and nearly the length of the c ' 
equal at the base. Leaflets acute, crowded, usually ir 



le calyx. Calyx nearlj 
y in the axils of trifid 
spines. Flowers yellow. (Dec. Prod.) A low shrub. Native of the Altaic 
Mountains. Hei^t 2 ft. to 6 h. Introduced in 
1751. Flowers yellow ; April and May. Le- 
gume brown ; ripe id Aupist. 

j> Cp. iarenaria Fisch.has linenr-cunente lenf- 

leta, and pedicels of the flowers generally 

longer than the calyx. \ 

This species has large triGd spines, slender leaves, 
and small flowers. The leaflets are remnrkahle lor 
heing in fours, disposed in the form of a stur, in the 
axils of the spines. The young shoots are of a fine 
yellow, very tough, and fit for being used as wiihs. 
When grafted as a standard on C. arbor^scens, it fornis a small tre 
aingular i^ipearance. Increased by suckers or by grafting. 

ji 9. C. spiNo'sA Dec. The spiny Caragana. 

ilft1ltjlfc«<fcli.^PW. Prod..! Ij. M9;l LlDffl^Bot^n»g.,10tUi n<in'»MlM„lii.M». 







1. uid ■■ I RoblDia nrtiMilulnii 



Id ourA, 3»1. 



Enpatiit^. PlILFl. Ron.. I. L *t. I But. Beg..t 

spec. Char .,^c. Leaves with 2 — 4 pairs 

neate-llnear glabroua leafl::ts. Stipules small, 

spinose. Adult petioles permanent, strong, 

and spinose, twice the length of the leaflets. 

Flowers solitary, almost sessile, and of a 

bright yellow, L^ume rather compressed. 
(Don't Mill.) A 
spiny shrub. Si- 
beria, in gravelly 
arid situations; ' . 
and also said to be { J 
plentiful in Chi- ^ 
na, about Pekin, 
■* here branches 
of it are stuck in ■*"■ ' 

clay upon the tops of the walls, in order that its 
spines may prevent persons from gcttiog over 
them. {Pal/. Fl. Ron.) Height 3 ft. to 4 ft. In- 
troduced In 1755, Flowers yellow i April and 
May. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 







^.A'n. £l.I' 



XXV. legumina'ce^ : caraga^na. 



241 



Sptc. Char., ij-c. Leavea with E — 4' pairs of ohlong-Ianfeolaie ^ilkj leaflelt, 
ending in a little spine. Stipulea spinescent. Adult petioles pennanent, 
strong, and spinose, twice the length or the leaflets. Pedicels solitary, short. 
Lqni me hoary- villous. fDon't AliU.'} A low spinj shrub. Native ot' Si- 
beria, among granite rocks. Height 6 in. to I ft Introduced in 1816. 
Flowers yellow, drooping ; April and Hay. Legume brown ; ripe in August. 
When grafted standard hi^, it forms a very singular object. 



.■ H. C. iUBA'T* Poir. The crested Caraj^a. 

Potr. Suppl,. 3. p. Nl ; Dec, Prod.. ^ p.HS.: Don'i MPL, 1 p. M4 
•Viaia mbia Fail, in Aa. Pri, \a. I. &., dUT^ lis. 1. »S.,|,utfJ. Bo 



I ouiA. » 



^irr. Char., ifc. Leaves with 4 or 5 pairs of oblong-laneeolate lanuginously 
ciliated leaflets. Stipules setaceous. Petioles somewhat spinose ; adult 
ones (iefleied, filiform, |)ennanent. Pedicels sol ilary, very short. Leiiunie 
glabrous. Flowers few and while, suffused with red, {Don't Mill.) A low 
shrub; native of Siberia near Lake Baikal. u- u^ 

Height I ft. to 1 ft. 6 in. Introduced in 1796. ^■■■■- 

Flowers white, tinged with red ; April and ,' aTHMLyipN i 

May. Legume brown ; ripe in August. -' Jft ^f «¥■'*- 

This species has a curious ^ha^j^ apjicarancp, \ 

occasioned by the footstalks of the leaves being 

briiily or thorny, and remaining on long after 

the leaflets have dropped off. Increased by ■"•■ '-j-™' 

jralting on Caragdna arborescens, and aa a standard forming a very singular 

looting object. 

.- 12. C. 



Snmfmt. RoUniii irlDdlOin Silt, ft, Tmr. 1. p. 16B. 
Empm^. Our JIf. 9W. 

Sjiec. Char., <$-£. Leaves with 2 pain of oblong-cuneated ap- 
proiJDlate leaflets, near the tip of the petiole, which is 
very short. Stipules and petioles ^inose. Pedicels soli- 
tary, almoHt the length of the calyx, which is gibbous at the 
bate. Legume terete, acute, brown, glabrous. Flowers 
1 in. long, yellow. {Dm'i MiU.) A low shrub ; native 
of Georgia, near Teflis. Height gfl. to 4fl. Introduced 
in 1823. Flowers yellow, 1 in. long ; June and July. 
L^me brown i ripe m September. U. S. 

.■ 13. C. duMLA'au Lam. The Chamlagu, or C/aaeie Caragan 
Unlitcaiim. Lm. DIcL. J. p.GlS.-, Dae. Pnd .1, 

p.W.; D«l'lMlU.,S.p,»lt. 

trmomfmr. KiMais Clmil^u i.'Htrtt. Stirp, N. 

CafTHa^. L'Ktrll. SUrp.. I. TT. i N. Da Hm. 
.tlli..ll.tl.i iiidourJV.l» 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves with S pairs of 
distant, ovat, or obovale, glabrous 
leaflets. Stipules spreading, and, as 
well as the petioles, spino!>e. Pedicels 
solitary. Flowers pendulous, large, 
and yelIow,Bt lenpth becoming reddislu 
Koot smelling like liquorice, (Doit'i 
MiU.) A difliise smooth shrub. Native 
uf China. Height 2 ft. to 4 ft In- 
troduced in 1773. Flowers yellow, at 
length becoming reddish, large ; May 
and June. Legiuue brown ; ripe August. 





AltRORETUH ET FRUTICETIJM BRITANNICUM. 

Thi« ipedea has a 
branches are alternau , . ^ , 

has a lingulnr appearance, more especially when Jiut goin^ out of floner. 
is generafl}' propagated by separating the ofTseta, or hy seeds, or it may be 
^ratteii on C. arborescens. (Jrafted on this speciea, especially when the »tock 
IB 10 or 13 feet high, it forma a singularly piclnresquc pendulous tree ; beau- 
tiful not only when it is in leaf or in flower, but from the graceful lines formed 
by its branches, even in the midst of winter, when they are completely BlrippeJ 
of their leaves. 

Genus XIV. 



i^l 



HALIMODE'NDUON Fitch. Tbb Haumodbndbon, . 
Lin. Syil. Diad^lphia DecAndrio. 

•e. Ugum, UCiii', 6. 



Gen, Char. Cidyz urceolately campanulate, with 5 short teeth. Keel obtuse, 
straishtish. Wingi very acute, and auricled. Stament diadelplious, about 
equal in lenzth. Style filiform, gbbrous. Sligma terminal. Legume stipi- 
tate, inflated, bladdery, hard, ovate, and few-seeded, depressed at the semi- 
niferous suture. Seedi oval. (Don'i Miil.) 

Leavei compound, alternate, stipulate, dedduous ; abruptly pinnate, with 
8 pairs of leaflets: petioles and stipules spinose. Flou^eri bluish pink, or 
purplish, in 2 — 3-(1owered peduncles. — Shrubs, deciduous; natifes of Europe 



Propagated by seeds, by cuttings of the to 
abumum, or on the Caragana arborescens. 



>r by grading on the 




tVSi';i 






Pall. Ft. Ron 



Leaves hoary. Peduncles S-flowered. 
A shrub, known from the colour of its 
branches. Native of Siberia in saline 
steppes near the river Irtis, Height 
'Ifl. to 61^ Introduced in 1779. 
Flowera bluish pink, fraprant ; May 
to July. Legume inflated, brown ; 
ripe in September. 

arietiei. DeCandolle mentions two 
forms of this species : — 

A H. a. I vulgare Dee. Prod. — 

Leaves hoary or silvery. 

Standard the same length as 

the keel. 

m H. a. 2 brnchi/wma Dec. Prod. 

Mag., 1016.; and our jig. 398.) — Leaves 

or silvery. Standard shorter than the 

and keel. Style short. 




XXV. leguminaVe*: calo'phaca. 243 

• fl'. a. 3 Swcfrrii, H. Sieversii Fisch., is a dwarf variety, very hardy, 
oamed by some as a speciea. H. S. 
Ad irre^ilar. much-bran died, ri^d shnih. with s strigoite grey bark, and 
Irares clothed with a whitish siiky down. The flowers are nunieroiis, restm- 
bliug those of i.athyrus tuberosum, both in colour and size; ami they htnell 
iweet. According to Palinii, it is much frequented by insects, especially of the 
anw Meloe J,., many species of which are peculiar to Siljena. It flowers 
freely from May to July, and, in moiat seasons, later ; and, when grafted 
sCaadard high on the common laburnum, it forms one of the most graceful 
drooping trees that can adorn a lawn. 



. Oar fit, . Id p. 

Spec. Oiar., ^c. Leaves greenish. The standard of the same length as the 
keel. Pedicels 3-flowered, {Dais jIW.) A shrub, like the precSjing one, 
of which it ia, without doub^ only a variety. 



IaJ 



CALOTHACA Fadt. Tkb Calophaca. Lin. Sytl. Diad^lphia Dec4ndria. 

Hnil^ln&m, Fbrh. iHd. : Dr. Prod,, t 

OtnroKni, Fmm kakn. bMiiUftil. and^iita 

(rn. Char, Calt/i 5-clefl, the lobes acuminated. Keel obtuse. Slameiu dia- 
delphous. Stgle villous and straight at the base, but glabrous incurved at 
the apex. Stigma terminal. Lfgume sessile, oblong, soniewhat cylindrical, 
Duicronate, I-celled. Valvei concave, beset with sott hairs, as veil as with 
Miir glandular bristles, mixed. (Don't Mill.) 

Leave! compound, alternate, stipulate, <lcciduous ; im pari- pinnate: stipules 
laaceolale. Flower) yellow. — A shrub, native of Siberia. 

jt 1. C. woLOA'RiCA Fueh. The Wolga Calophaca. 

UwQieBlM. Filch. Id LItl.; Dm. Prod.. 1. p. via.; Dod'i 
Maf.,!.p,!H. 

•iliPaa. h. ^^\.C*1.: Cftlliu'wVlrtrl™ fiV 
fi Srppl. 117., ,V. Du Ham. I. [. tS. i Caluto viil|^. i 
nn Lam- i Adenwirput arolg^llt Smrfytg. Hj/tt, i. p. m. 
ImtrmKfi. Tan. tl. HOH,*. t.17.; N. Du lUm.. S. t. 48.; 

^1^. Char., Sic. Leaflets 6 or 7 pairs, orbicular, 

veliely beneath, as well as ihecalyxes. (Don't 

Mill.) A deciJuousshrub. Siberia, in desei't ' 

places near the rivers Don and Wolga, in a 

ravelly or sandy soil. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. 

Introduced in 1780. Flowers yellow; June. 

L^ume reddish ; ripe in August. 

Beins somewhat difficult to propagate except 
iiy teedK, which, however, in Rne seasons, it 
proihieeii in abundance, it is not so common as 
* ought to be in British gardens. Grafted 
Sudard high on the common lahumum, it forms 



ET FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUH. 



pilar, picturesque, and beauEiAil, whether when covered 
h its fine reddish pods. 



Q 



COLIPTEA R. Br. Thb Colutea, or Bladder Simu. ZM. Sytt. 

Diadelphia Decindria. 

littuiflcuiam. B. Dr. In Hon. K»., td. l.toL «. p. IM.; Dec PrDd..& V-VO.; Don't MUl.t 

Svnimymn. Blgueiuudkr, Ft. i Srani Cd[u. lot. ; Blumbuiin. nir. 

Dtri'iiim. From kolomi, w impuUM. TheihruM m i*\A ladle If the bnnctaH an Isp^ gfl 

JCdIWiii li ilu the una o( ■ pluU nmrlaniid bj Ttiinplirutui. 
Gen. Char, Calyx d-toothed. Vexillum flat, bicallose, Jaroer than the keel 

which ii obtuse. Stammi diadelphoua. Stiema lateral, liooked under tht 

top of the style. Style bearded longitudinally behind. Jjcgusie itipitate, 

ovatR, boat-formed, inflated, scarious. (Don'i AliU.) 

Leavei compound, alternate, stipulute, deciduoua ; impari-pinnate : Mipulei 

amall. Flowtrt usually yellov , axillary, the mcemes shorter than the leaves, 

and succeeded by blaJdery legumes. — Shrubs, deciduous ; natives of the 

Middle ar.d South of Europe, the North of Afiica, and Nepal. 

All tbe kinds that have hitherto been introduced into Europe are probablj 
only varieties of one iipecies. They are readily increased by seeds or cutting; 
of the roots on any common soil. 

■ I, C. arborb'sckns Lin. The arborescent Colutea, or Bladder Senna. 
MtnHflcaUim. Llii. Sp. IMS, ; D«. intr., Ko. I. : Dec Prod., 1. p. STO. 1 DoD'i MIIL, 1. p. M&. 
SMfliyrK. C. hlnjlta HiM FL Germ. t. f. SUft. 

Stfrarli^i. K DuHun., I.t.«.; Sdimtdl Atb.,t tlT.i Bot. Muf., l.BI.; udimrAr. Kft 
:^c. Char., ^c. Leaflets elliptical, retiise. Pe- _ . 

dundes bearing about 6 yellow flowers. Callosities 

of the standard short. Legumes closed, (^liec. 

Prod.) A rapid-growing shrub. Middle and South 

of Europe, Italy, and on Mount Vesuvius is found 

even on ihe ascent to the crater, where there are 

scarcely any other plants. Height l2fl.tol4fl. 

Introduced in 1570. Flowers yellow; June to 

August. Legume bladdeT'like, reddish ; ripe in 

September. 

The bladders, when pressed, explode with a crack- 
ling nolle. On the Continent, the leaves have been 
recommended as a substitute for senna, and they are 
also said to aSord a grateful food for cattle. The 
seeds, in doses of a drachm or two, are said to excite 
vomiting. In British gardens, the plant is chiefly 
valuable as a bulky fust-growing shrub, of the eonest 
culture, and fit for almost any situation. 
« 2. C. (*.) cbub'sta AU. The bloody^wemf Colutea, or Oriental Bladde- 

Htolifltalkm, Ait Hon. Kew,,a.jp. M.; Drc. A>lr.,No.J.i Don't Mill. I. p W5. 

StiK^trnti. C.orlenUlli Ijm. Dlci.\.\:Va.. III. «M. f. 3.. >'. Qh Han. I . t. U. ; r. luntBc 

PalL : C. ipvn SctmiiU Art. 1. 119. [ C hatnilli Srop. 
flWraWiwi. Liini. 111., 834. f. 3., N. Du Hun., 1. I. t>. ; Scheldt A rb., L lift.; Krauir, I. 105. 

md our Jig. Ml. 

Spec, Ciar,, 4^. Leaflets obovate, emarginate, glaucous. Peduncles bearin, 
4 — 5 flowers. Callosities of the standard obtuse, very small. Legume 
tuning at the tip. Corolla, in colour, between red and saffron -colourei: 
with a yellow spot at the bate of the standard. {Dec. Prad.) A glaucou 




XXV. leguhina^cea:: colotea. 



245 



shrub. Ardiipetago, Qeorgia, and the 
LevgDC. Height 4 ft. to B ft. Introd. 
1731. Flowers reddish copper-coloured; 
June and Juljr. L^uine redilieh ; ripe 

Heseiiiblea C. arbor^cens, but of smaller 
diinen9ions,Hnd with leaflets more glHUcoiu, 



Spec. Char., g/c. Leaf- 
lets obcordMte.glau- 
ccscent. Peduncles 
usually 6-flowered. 
Ltgumes closed at 
the apex. Flowers 
orange-coloured. — 
(IJdi.'» Mill.) 6 

A shrub ratherlarger than C. (a.) cni^nta, and differing 
from it chiefly In haviiif orange-coloured flowers. Per- 
lispa, * hybrid between the two preceding aorts. ,0,, c.<>.)p>mi>. 

• 4 C. (a.) hile'ppica Lam. The Aleppo Colutea, or Bladder Senna- 

IdtnlificatlOK. Lun. Dirt., I. p. »3. ( III.. L CM. f. 1 i Doc. 

Arti. «. ijai'c inrta Mm'.Dia. No.l'l. IdTi c'prijcCm- 
toDI L-mrii. Slrrp. Hat. i. Ha, 
Ei^m^i. Scbmlilt ArlL, L ia). I ud our Jig. to. 

Spec. Char,, 4rc. Leaflets roundishly elliptical, 
very obtuse, mucronace. Peduncles bearing 
3 yellow flowers. Cullosities of the standarit 
lengthened, ascending. Legumes closed. Smaller 
than C. arboreseens, (Dec. Prod.) A low 
shrub. Fields about Alqipo. Height 3 fi. to 
6ft. Introduced in 1732, Flowers yellow; 
May to October, Legume reddish ; ripe Uct. 
Closely resembling C. arboreseens, of which it 

af^eara to be a variety, but rather more tender 

in Britbh gardens. 





» 5. C. Kkpale'nsis Haei. The Nepal Colutea, or Bladder Senna. 

MWUoftcH. Hank. B«. Ki(..KII.; Doo'I Mm, 1, p. H^ 
x.<fn*W*. llaok.B«.Mii,L3fiI3.;*DilouFj(f. 4H. 



Q4G ARBORETUM ET FKUTICETUM BRITANN'ICUM. 

Sprc. Char., $c. Leaflets roundish-elliptic, retuse. Racemes drooping, few- 
fluwered. Calloxities or HtanJard pupillirorm. Leg:imes rather coriaceous, 
pubescent. {Don's Miil.) A bmnchy shrub. Nepal. Height 3 ft. to 
IGft. Flowers yellow i August and September. Legume reddish; ripe in 
October. 
The leaflets are saiall, and, being more imperfectly developed than in any of 

the other kinds, give it a singular appearance. 

Genus XVII. 



□ 



iiSTRA'GALUS Dec. Thb Milk Vetch. Lin. Sgit. Diad^Iphia 
Decindria. 

liinHficaliim. Dfc .^Itng., No. t.\ Froil.,1. p. 191.; Don'l Hl[l., 3. p. Ua. 

&JiKngnu, AtirigtVit (p. ot Lin. ind oUitri : AKtigilr. Pr. : Tri^nl. Gtr, : Aitrn^o. JUL 

Gen, Char. Calyx Moothed. Keel obtuse. Slametii diadelphous. Legumi 
biloculiir or hair-bilocular, from the upper suture being bent in so much. 
(UonV MiU.) 

Leavel compound, altcrnnte, stipulate, deciduous ; pinnate : petioles per- 
manent. Flowera in the only hurdy ligneouR speciirs purplisn or white. 
— Shrubs, low ; natives of the South of Europe and Asia. 

M. 1. A. ntAGACA'NTHA L. 

I/hnlfflraaon. Lin. Sp. ID7I. ; Woadi. Mol. Bol., 916, t. M. i Wall. Dcnd. Brit, 84. 

iwapiiat. Pall. Altr.. t 4.r.'l,3 :'l>uli. Arl>,,& t'lOO.VwWT. Med. Hot.. nS. L !K i WlU. 
iScnd. BrII.. L 84. ; ud our fig. *rtt,. 

Spec. Char., ^r. Peduncles usually 4-flowered, 

about equal in length to the leaves. Calyxes 

cylindrical, with 5 short bhmt teeth. Leaves 

with 9 — II pairs of elliptic hoary leaflets. 

(Don-, MiU.) A low pricliiy glaucous shrub, 

with sub-persistent leaves, ond persistent pe- 
tioles. Marseilles and Narboniip, in sandy 
f laces, as veil as Corsica and Muuritania. 
(eight 6 in. to 1 ft. Introduced in 1640. 

Flowers purplish or white : May to July. 

Legumes tomentose, brown ; Ti\te in ^ep- 

leniber. Oeneral aspect whitish. 

The flowers are disposed on axillary pc- ju.4_i 

duncles, so short as to prevtnt them from wTi»j«c»«iik 

being at all conspicuous above the leaves. After the leaflets drop off, the 
petioles become indurated, so us to j^lve the plant the appearance of being 
densely covered with spinea. Propagated bv seeds, which it sometimes 
ripens in England, or by cuttiiins. it requires a dry soil, and a sunny 
situation ; and is well adapted for rock-work. 

Oiker tig'ieatu Spenes of Atlragalui. — A. allaicju Lodd. Cab.; \. ariilaitu 
L'Herit. Stirp. 170, with yellow flowers, which is figured in Bot. Cab 
t. 1376., and our^. 406. ; A. ireri/iUiu, with a puqilish flower, ligurcU ii 
Bot. Cab. t. 1388., and our fig. 407. ; and A. numilienm Lam., which ii 
probably a variety of A. TVagacantha with white flowera instead of ptupUsl 



MUMiNA*CE«: coroni'lla. 



0Det,are in British collection! ; but, tbough technically ligneous, are luunllt 
maud as rock berboceous plants. 



Sect. III. If^EDVSA'REA. 

Genus XVIIL 



Q 






CORONI'LLA Nedc. The Cobonilla. Im. Syil. Uiadelphia Dccindria. 
n N»*-EI«ni;.No.M19.iI.™. Ul,t.eM.i Dm.Fij4..1. |i.3>». 

I ; Id rerravnn to lb* (U^aiHion of tll« Bow«ri Id civwni, or 

Gn. Char. Calyx campanulale, short, 5-toothed, the two superior teeth ap- 
proiimate, and joineit lo-^ecber hij^her up than the rest. Clavii of petals 
usually longer than the calyx. Carina acute. AiBifnj diadclphous. Legume 
nearly terete, slender, at length separating into oblong l-seeded joints. SeciU 
orate or cylindrical {Don't Mill.) 

Lrarff compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; impari-pinnate. FIoukti 
in axillary peduncles, btaring at their tops umbels of pedicellate flowers, 
usualh- yellow. — Shrubs, deciduous or sub-evergreen ; natives of the South 
of Europe or Asia. 
They are all highly omamenial, and most of them produce seeds in England, 

bj which, or by cuttings, they are easily propagated in common soil. 
■ 1. C. E'uERVS L. The Scorpion • Senna Coronilla. 

Uetl^lbatiott. Lin. Sp., IHfi. t Dh 
hM., 1. p. 309,: D™^ hlU., ». p. 7}*. 

%MViwi. E'DiFiui iD^Jar U-U- Icon. 

tneilUmlam.Fl'Fr. ' ' ' ' , 
H«D,7tUl-;uW0DrjS(-«i8- 
Spec. Char., SfC. Shrubby, gla- 
broua. Its leaves are attend- 
ed by minute stipules, and 
have S — 7 obovate lenflets. 
Its flowers are yelloir, dis- 
poned 3 upon a peiluncte. The 
daws of the petals are thrice 
as long as the cdyx. The 
legume is rather cylindrical 
than compressed, and its 




248 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICIJH. 

joints separate slowiy nnd unobviously, but they do separate. (Dec. Prod.) 
A bushy glabrous nhrub. Middle and Southern Europe, in thickets and 
hedjies. Height 4 h. to 10 ft. Introduced in 159G. Flowers yellow ( April 
to June. Legume brown ; ripe in September, 

Before the flowers are expanded, the corolla is partly red CKtenially, nio«tlT 
.10 towards the tips of the petals ; and the mingling of the yellow Sowers, with 
flower-buds more or less red. and the elegant foliage, produce a line effect. It 
flourishes most in a sunny sheltered situation, and a dry soil. It bears clipping, 
and would form a beautiful garden hedge. 

■ J" a. C. Ju'ncea L. The rushy-irancAerf Coronilla. 



Idrnlifitalvm. Lin. Sp,, IW?. ; Doc. Prod., S. n. il». j Don'i Mill., S. p. » 
Enfravmti. Dot. Reg., t. 820. ; BoL Cab., t. lU. ; aiaat Jig. Wi. 

Spec. Char., Sfc. Shrubby, gbbroiis. Branches nish-Iike, round, bearing but 
few leaves ; the latter are atlended by minute stipules, and 
have 3 — 7 leaflets, that are linear oblon';, obtuse, and rather 
fleshy ; the lowest leattcts being rather distant from the base 
of the petiole. The flowers are yellow, 5 — 7 in an -umbel. / 
The claws of the petals are scarcely longer than the calyx. \ 
The l^ume is ratlier compressed, and its joints aepanile 
obviously. (ZJcc. Prod.} An erect glaucous shrub. South 
ofFrance. Height2fi. to 3ft. Introducedin 1756. Flowers 
bright yellow J June and July. Legume brown; ripe in 
September. u*. cjtm. 

It deserves a place in collections, on account of the singularity of its rush- 
like slender branches, which, like those of £pltrtium _;unceum, are partly desti- 
tute of lenTes. 




Sect. IV. Phaseo"le«. 
Genus XIX. 



W[STA'R/.4 Nutt. The Wistaria. Lin. Sail. Diadelphia Dedtndna. 

IdttuificaUm. NnR, Gen. An».,l. p. 119.i D«. Prod.. 1 n. I8». i Don't Mill..!, p. MS. 

jnmyiim. GI}c[im ip. L.. Thxnintliui ElUal, KraliDhia Riflo. 

UfTivaHan. Ninvd In Ihmiout or Catpar tfMar^ 1iit« rrore»or of Anuon; In tb« rnlvfillr of 
PenniylTvnIa. {Dtnt'E Miil., 11. p. 34H.1 NuIUIL flnl clurUTterli^ mnil nAmfd (hli fenu. frDin tti< 
AmFTicAn apHlci. which he dcivomlnitnl W. ipecl^ia; but which DeCAOdolle hu dijuiBcd low. 
frut^Knu, In DeCuidolle'i i>n>ilreiiiu, and lanie cnher wotke, WliUriii It emneouilr iprlltil 

Gen. Char. Calyx campanulate, somewhat bilabiate, upper lip with two short 
teeth, lower one with 3 subulate teeth. Corolla papilionaceous. Fexillum 
bicatlose. Wingi conforming to the keel, which is a-edged. Slamem diadel- 
phous. Nectariferous tube [;irding the stipe of the ovary. Legunie standing 
on a short stipe, coriaceous, 2-valved, 1-celled, rather torulose at the seeds. 
(Don'i Mill.) 

Leavts compound, opposite, exstipulatc, deciduous ; impari-pinnalc. 
Flower! bluish purple, in terminal and axillary racemes. — Shrubs, deciduous, 
twining; natives of North America and China ; of vigoroui growth, forming^ 
when in flower, some of the most splendid ornaments of British gardens. 
The species are quite hardy, will grow in any soil, and are generally pro- 
pagated by layers of the young shoots, which will root at every joint if Uid 
down dunng summer as they grow. They may also be propagated by cuttings 
of the roots ; or by seeds. 



^XV. LEGUM1KA^CE£.: OLEDI'TSCH/^. 



«™(tliW*H.J>«. Prpd. t p. WKi Don'" _MUI.,S.B^8. V^,tJ-^v 



i 1. W. frutr'bcbns i)(v. The ihmbbjr Wist 

, . .. I>«.PrDd..tp,B90.iDon'iMUI 

rruUtcau P». Fl. Am. Sept. ^ p. 471.; Aationaot 

Btm-Jma. 3. p. lis. i TbTrUnttaiii frutnmu Ellial 
Jttrw. tad. Scl. Fiilai; Phunloldci Horl, Angl. 
a. ; the KidDFrbeu Tree. 
Eifrm^t BoL ll«i.,t Sira.; mndourj«».4IO. 

^m. Char., l^c. Wings of the corolla each 

vith two auricles. Oveu^' glabrous. FloW' 

en odorous. {Dec. Prod.) An elegant 

deciduous clioiber. VLrgtnia, Carol ins, 

md the Illinois, in boggj' places. Stem 

20ft. to 30 ft. [nlrcni, 1724, Flowers 

bluish purple, sweet -scented, the standard 

baring a greenish yellov spot nt the basej 

Julf to September. Legume brown ; ripe 

inUctt^r. 

It is readily propa^ted bj cuttings of the 
root uid by layers, and forms a very ornHmental climber, especially when 
trsined against a w^l. 

[s Dec. The Chinese Wiitam. 

.^ a ■Ipfanli Bol. Rtt. L an. \ Wlittt^i Cm- 

■Spec. Char., ffc. Wings of the corolla each with 
one luricle. Ovary nlloee. Flowers large. 
{Dec. Prod.) A vigorous-growing deciduous 
twiner. China. Stem 50 ft. to 120 ft. In- 
troduced in 1816. Flowers pale bluish purple; 
Hsf and June, and sometimes producing a se- 
cond crop of flowers in August. Legume ?. 
The flowers are larger than those of W. fru- 

liscm ; tbey are disposed in longer and looser 

raconei, and are somewhat paler in colour. On 

enabli*hed plants they are produced in great 

dmodsnce ; but tbey have not yet been succeedcl 

by It^umes in England. This plant may truly be 

coosidered the most magnificent of all our hardy 

deciduous climbers. It will grow wherever the 

common laburnum will flourish; but.as its flowers j„ wuan.oii»fc* 

m somewhat more tender than those of that 

tree, they are more liable to be injured by frosts in very late springs. A plant 

in the HorL Soc. Garden, against a waU, extends its branches above lOO ft. 

on each aide of the main stem ; one at Coughton Hall covers 905 luperGcial 

teet of walling. 

SecL V. Ca88IE*£. 

Genus XX. 



p. Flat. ; Firter, rr. ; CMSaeUe. Qtr. ; GMItil^ ItaL 



ARBORETUM ET FKUTICETUM BEITANNICUM. 



ui uiuDit Skcubeck ; jiuthoi 
in (I7e< ). WHTmiD; Mtutr in 



n (I7u;, s^am 



Gen, CAar. FIoukti unisexual from abortion, or bermaphrodite. Calyx of 
S^i— 5 equal aepils, which are connected together at the base into a cn- 
pule. PetaU equal in Dumber to the sepals, rising from the tube of the 
calyi. Stamem equal in number to the sepals. SlyU s\ioix. Sligma.pa' 
bescent above. Legume canCinuou», rurnished with more or less pulp. Seedi 
compressed. (Don't Mill.) 

Leave! compound, abruptly pinnate, and bipionate, on the same tree ; iir, 
rarely, by the coalition of the leaflets, almost simple, altemaie, stipulate, 
aecidiioua. Ftowerg greenish, in spikes. — Trees, deciduous, or the 1st, Sd, 
and 3d nulks ; natives of North America or China. Branchlets supra- 
axillary, and oflen converted into branched spines. Decaying leaves yellow. 
Naked young wood purplish or brownish green. 

The species are of easy culture in good free soil ; and, in firttain, generally 
propagated by imported eeeda, or grafting. The species appear to be in a 
slate of great contusion in British gardens; and, judging from the trees in the 
Hort. 8oc. Garden, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, we shoulJ 
cotyecture that there are, probably, not more than two species, the American 
and the Chinese. The Chinese species is distinguished by its trunk being 
more ^iny ihaD its branehei. 

•t 1. G. tri*ca'nthos Lin. The three-thorned Gleditachia, or Honeg Loctal. 

aatliflciasn. Ub. Sp., 190». i dm. Prod., t. p. 479. I Don'i Mill,. 1. p. 418. 

^^Tr^'cicU irlu«nch» Hort. ; jXii unerlcAu Ftuk. i FttiBr d'AioMquci 'ft. i Tin uk. 

EKgraria^. btchi. ftL Alb., 'i p. I«. t. Ilt.i Wui. Dcnd. Brll., 1. 198.1 tJic pkira of thii ipHin 

Sjiec. C/iar., tpc. Spines simple or trifid ; stout, at the very base compressed, 
in (he upper part cylindrical, but tapered. Leaflets linear-oblong. Legumes 
flattish, rather crooked, many-seeded, and more then ten times as long as 
brood. (Dec. Prod.) A large tree. Carolina and Virginia. Height 30 ft. 
to 80 k. Introduced in 1700. Flowers greenish ; June and July. Legume 
brown i ripe in October. Decaying leaves yellow. Naked young wood 
purplish brown. 

t O.t. 2 tnjrmii Dec, O. he Vis /fori. (Dec.Leg.M£m.,2. t.82. 6g. 109.; 

Catesb. Carol., 1. 1. 43.; Pluk. Aim., t. 123. fig. 3. ; and the plates of 

this variety in Arb. Brit., tsi edit., vol. v.), has the stem and branches 

not spiny, or but very sparingly so. 

t G. t. Z brac/ijicarpa, Q. brachycirpa Parit, G. triac&nthos var. ,3 

ASchx. — LeaAi'ts oblong obtuse. Spines thick, short, not rarely 3 

together. Legumes oblong, short. 

The trunk and branches, when the tree is young, are covered with laisc 

prickles, which, though they are not ligneous, become hard, and remain on lor 

several years, and offcrr a formidable defence. These prickles are not only 

produced by the young wood, but occasionally protrude themselves from the 

trunk, even when the tree is of considerable bulk and age. In general, the 

trunk presents a twisted appearance, uiid the branches proceed from it rather 

horizontally than in an upright direction. The pinnated foliage is particulurly 

elegant, and of sn agreeable light shining green : it appears late in sprinu, the 

trees in the neighbourhood ol' London sometimes not beuig fully clothed till 

the middle or end of June; and it begins to turn yellow, and drop oiT, early 

in autumn. The flowers are inconspicuous t the male flowers being in the 

form of catkin-like racemes of nearly the same colour as the Iciives. Some 

trees in the grounds at Syoa have ripened seeds, the pods containing which, 

being 1 ft. to 2 ft. in length, and remaining on the trees after the leaves are oB', 

have a singular appearance. These crooked pendulous pods are of a reddiith 



XXV. leoumima'cx^: gledi'tschu. 



brown colour j , 

■ubstance, which, for about a month nfLer the maturity of the 
very sweet, but after a few weeks becomes eitremel; sour. The rate of 
growth of thia tree, for the hnt 15 or 20 jieBrB, ia generally about ihe Bvtrnge 
of a foot a year ; but in favourable situations it will grow at double that rate. 
In the garden of the Hurt. Soc, and in the arboretum of the Messrs, Lod> 
diges, plants lOyears planted were, in 1835, from SO ft. to S5fi. in height. 
The wood of this tree, when dry, weighs at the rate of 5E lb. the cubic foot : 
it u Tcry hard, and eplita with great facility, resembling in this and other rc- 
ipects the wood of the robinia ; but its grain is coarser, and its pores more 
open. In Britain, this, and all the kinds of the )renus, can only be considered 
as omamentul treeii; but in that cliaracler they hold (he first r.mk ; their de- 
licate acacia-like foliaiie, and the singularly varied, ^racefid, and picturesque 
forms assumed by (he tree, more especially when youn;; or middle-aged, to- 
cher with the singular feature aSbrded by its spines, will always recommend 
It in omamenia! plantations. It requires a deep, rich, free soil, and a situation 
not eiposed to high winds ; and it requires the South of England or France 
to ripen the seeds. The species is alwajs propagated by seeds imported from 
America, or from France or Italy. The plants are best transplanted to where 
they are finally to remain when quite young ) as they make but few fibrous 
roots, and these take, tor the most part, a descending direction. The variety 
ti. (. incrmis can only be insured by grafting on the species. In general, how- 
ever, abundance of plants without spines may be sefected from beds of seed- 
lings of G. triadintbos. 

I 2. G. (t.) monospe'ri 

f*|Uil»W«.^ Wih. C»i.. 

of Ui4 unirii iIev. 
Spec. Char., ^c. Spines slender, not rarely trilid, few. Leaflets ovale-oblong, 

■cute. Lq;umes flattish. roundish, l-seeded. (Dec. Frod.) A tree of the 

lar^rest size. Native of Carolina, Florida, and the Illinois, in moist woods. 

Height 60 ft. to 60 ft. Introduced in 1783. Flowers greenish ; June and 

July. L^ume not seen in I'.ngland. 

Ckwely resembles the honey locust, from which, in England, where neither 
«f them ripens seeds, it is almost impossible to distinguish it. The bark. 



252 ARBOBETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANMICUH. 

though smooth when the tree is 
young, yet cracks and scalesoffwhen 
ihe tree (jrows old, as in G. triaeun- 
thos. The leaves, Mictiaux says, 
differ from those of O. triac^nthos, in 
being a little smaller in all their pro- 
portions. -The branchea are armed 
vith thoma, which are also less nu- 
merous, and somewhat smaller than | 
those or G. tnac&nthos. The tree is ( 
treated in all respects like O. tri»> « ' 
canthos ; of which it has, till lately, 

been considered only a variety. It , 

is raised in the nurseries from im- f 

ported seed ; but whether the plants 

really turn out perfectly distinct, __^ j^, 

with respect to the form o( their fruit, '"'"'' ,.,.-. j 

is uncertain j from their not having yet, as far as we know, fruited in England. 

i 3, G. sine'nsis Lam. The Chinese Gleditschia. 

UmlifitaUom. Lani.I»ct.,l.p.4U.i Dec. Fral.,9- 

p.«9.i Di>D'>MII],.lp.<K. 
Srmv^- C- li«rrt(U WUU. «>. 4 P- lOM- i f'- 

Emtntlnti. Dn!.L«(iin,Mtm.,l.(. l.iIbepliM 

Tf tbli •pecin In Arb. Bril., In tdlt.. nil. •. 
Spec. Char., ^c Spines stout, conical i 
those on the branches simple or 
branched ; those on the stem grouped 
and branched. The leaflets ovnte- 
elliplical, obtuse. Legumes compressed, 
long. The epinea in this species are 
axillary, not distant from (he axil. (Dec. 
Prnd.) A middle-sized tree. China. 
Height 30 ft. to 50 ft. Introduced in 
1774. Plowers greenish ; June and 
July. L^ume not seen in England. 
Varietie: 

T G. *. 8 mirmt N. Du Ham., O. 
jap6nicB Lodd. Cat., O. javlinica 
Lam. (see the plate of this tree 
in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v.; 

and our j^. iH.), differs from , 

O. sinensis in being without 
spines, of much less vigorous 
growth, and in having the foliage 
ofamuchdeepergreen. Itsecmi 

a very desirable variety forsniall ,n, ••■■.y ■■ , 

gardens. 
t G.I. Z major Hort., 6. horrida m^or Lodd. Cat., seems scarcely to 

differ from the species. 

t G. 1. 4 itina Hort., G. h. niina in Hort. Soc. Gard. (see the plute of 

this tree in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v. j and our /ig 415.), is b 

tree of somewhat lower growth than the species, hut scarcely, as it 

appears to ui, worth keeping distinct. 

T G. I. 5 purpurea Hort., G. h. purpurea Lodd. Col. (see the plate in 

Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. v. i and our^. 4ie.), is a small tree of 

compact upright growth, very suitable for gardens of limited extent. 

Olber Farietiet of G. minn$. — In Loddiges's arboretum there i* a plant 



XXV. leoumina'ce£ : oledi'tschj^. 




muted G. cUaiiuu 
(Pntu), which WHS im- 
ported Tram China bjr 
the Hon. Soc It is, at 
present, « low biuh, 
and may.perhapx.proTe 
•omethiDg distmct. 
There were tiao, in 
I835,iii thellort. Soc. 
Garden, some plants 
without names, appa- 
rentljbelon^ng to tnis 
veoes; but, as we have 
alreaiiy observed, the 
eenui is in great con- 
niiion, and nothing 
perfectly satisfactory 
CUB be Mated respect- 
ing it. 

The spines, which are 
»erj strong and branchy, 
>re more abundant on 
ihe trunk Chan on the 
branches, and are fre- 
quently found in bundle*. 



S54 ARBOBETUH ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



« elliptic obtiiie, notched on the 
edgen, smooth, snininci and much larger than those of anj otJier Bpedes. 
(,Deif. Arb., ii. p. 2+8.) The pods are tVK\y above 6 in, long. The tree 
HtanJs thn cold better than the lionejr locust, and has ripened iti fruit in Paris, 
in the Jardin des PJantes, and in the nursery of M. Cels. (^Dici. de$ JEaux rt 
df$ Forefi, vol. ii. p. 150.) 

t 4. G. (s.) uacraca'ntha Deif. The longiipined Gleditschia. 

limlptiitim. Drif. Arb., I p. MS. i Dod'i Mill.. 9. p. 4M. 
i^iM»r««. C. Kroi Baair. i F*.ier 1 snufi EI^tim, Pr. 

Sjitc. Char,, i^c. Prickles strong, branchy, numerous. Leaflets lanceolate, 
someirhHt rigid, notched, dentated. Podh elongated. {Dnf. Arb.) A 
middle-aizcd tree, with a pricklv trunk. China?. Height 40 IL to 50 ft. 
Flowers greenish ; June and July 

The prickles are axillary and large. The leaves are twice iringed; the 
leaflets large, coriaceous, dark green, and shining on the upper surface. The 
young shoots are covered with extremely short hairs, and are of a pumliih 
brown colour. On the whole, it bears a close resemblance to G. sinensis, of 
which it is, probably, only a variety. It is very hardy; and Desfontaincs saji 
that it fruits freely in France. The fruit ripens in the autumu ; and the pods 
■re long, pendulous, swelled, and rather cylindrical. They are tilled with a 
sharp acrid pulp, somewhat resembling that of tamarinds, but the emanations 
from which, when inhaled, occasion sneezing, 

1 5. O. (s.) fb'rox Deif. "Hie ferociotis-jirici/nf aiedilschia. 
UttUiflcaiim. Doif. Arb..t.p.MT.i Don'tMIII.-S. p. 43S. 
^ptonymn, G. orlntlUa Bate: Ffrler hf rUi^, iV. 

Spec, Char,, ic Prickles lai^e, robust, much compressed, irifid. Leaflets 

lanceolate, notched. {Drif. Arh.) 

A tniddle-siied branching deciduous tree, the trunk of which is thickly beset 
with strong branchy prickles, and which is supposed to grow from 30 ft. to 
50 It. in height : but of which the native country, and year of introduction 
into Britain, are unknown. Judging from the plants in the Hort. Soc. Gardea, 
and those in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddigcs, we should say it was only 
a variety of ti. sinensis j though Desfuntaines states the foliage and habit of 
growth to be somewhat different. It has not yet flowered in Burope. 
t 6. G. ca'spica Dei/. The Caspian Gleditschia. 

IilmOltiillan, Dof. Arb., Z. p. Sn. i Uod'i UIIL, 1. p. 438. 
^mfme. G. cuultia Ak. 
e-vra«at Out A. (17. 

Spec. Char., <5-t. Prickles slender, trifid, compressed. 
LeofletB elliptic- lanceolate, obtuse. (Dnf. Arb.) A 
middle-slzeit tree Persia, and found bUo near the Cas- 
pian Sea. Heightaoft. lo+Oft. Introduced in lb2U. 
Nothing is known of its flowers and fruit j but it 

strongly resembles G. sinensis (of which it is, probably, 

only a variety) in its leaves, general appearance, anil 

habit. 

i G.c.% lubariietni Hort., Fevitr verJatre, ?>■., is mentioned in the 
Biitt Jardimer for 1838, as a variety of this species. 

Other SarU ofGfedUtc/ia. — Every modification of the species of this jrenii^ 
is so interestmg, both in point of the elegance of its foliaee, and the singularitv 
ofits pnekles, that new varieties have been eagerly sougli t after by culrivators": 
and the genus seems particularly favourable to this desire, from 'the icniltm-v 
of seedling planU to sport. Hence there are sevemi names in collections, lif 



XXV, LEGUMINA^CEil GYMNO'CLADUS. 255 



I 



which it is difficult to ^ay any thing satisfactory in the present young and im- 
mature state of the plants. In the Hort. Soc. Garden, there were in 1837 
G. micracanihaj G, Boqui, and G, prtp^cox ; and in Messrs. Loddiges's arbo- 
retum were plants niarketl G. aqudtica, which are evidently the same as G. 
raonosperma, G. orientdlu, evidently G. ferox, G. chmensis (already mentioned) ; 
and some )oung plants without nsimes. 



Genus XXI. 




GYMNCXCLADUS Lam. Thk Gymnocladus. Lm. Sytt. Dicecia 

Dedindria. 

IdttUifieaiion. Lam. Diet., 1. p. 738. ; 111., t. 833. ; Dec Prod., S. p. 479. 

Demotion. From gmmuM, naked, and Uado$y a branch ; Oom the naked appearance of the branchea 
daring winter, when they leem, unlesa perhaps at the polnti o( the iboots, totally devoid of buds. 

Gfli. Char, Fiowers dicecious from abortion. Cedyx tubular, 5-cleft. Petalt 
0, equal, oblong, exserted from the tube. Stamens 10, enclosed. Legume 
oblong, thick, filled with pulp inside. (DorCt Mill.) 

Leaves compound, alternate, stipulate, deciduous; bipinnate. Flowers 
in terminal racemes, white. — A tree, deciduous, with upnght branches and 
inconspicuous buds ; native of North America. 

^ 1. G. CANADE^NSis Lam. The Canada Gymnocladus, or Kentucky 

Coffee Tree. 

Uemtifleatkm. Lam. Diet., 1. p. 733., and lU., t. B33.; Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 3. p. 241. ; Dec. 

Prod.. 2. p. 480. ; Don's Mill, 9. p. 4!29. 
Sjfmmjfuus. Ouflandlna diofca Lm, Sp. 546.: Hyperanthdra diolca VaM Sjfmb. 1. p.31., DmA. 

Ar6, 1. 1 103. ; Nicker Tree, Scamp Tree, United SttUet \ Bonduc, Chiquier, Pr. \ Chicot, Ca. 

Modian \ Canadischer Schusserbatmi, Ger. 
Ewgru9iMgi, Reirh. Mag., t. 40. ; Duh. Arb., t. 103. ; oar platet of thlt tree in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., 

ml. T. ; and our Jg. 418. 

Spec, Char., ^c. Branches blunt at the tip, bipinnate leaves, flowers in ra- 
cemes, and whitish petals. The leaf has 4—7 pinnae ; the lower of which 
consist each of but a single leaflet, the rest each of 6 — 8 pairs of leaflets. 
(Dec Prod-) A singular tree. Canada. Height 30ft. to 60 ft. Introduced 
in 1748. Flowers white; May to July. Decaying leaves yellow. Naked 
young wood of a mealy white, without any appearance of buds. 

The branches have almost always an upright direction ; and the appearance 
of the head, in the winter season, is remarkable, from being fastigiate, and from 
the points of the branches being few, and thick and blunt, as compared with 
those of almost every other tree. They are also wholly without the ap- 
pearance of buds ; and this latter circumstance, connected with the former, 
gives the tree, during winter, the appearance of being dead ; and hence thu 
Canadian name of chicot, or stump tree. The leaves, on young thriving trees, 
are 3 ft. long, and 20 in. wide ; but, on trees nearly full grown, they are not 
half that size. The leaflets are of a dull bluish green, and the branches of 
the petioles are somewhat of a violet colour. It is very hardy, and flowers 
freely in the neighbourhood of London, but does not produce pods. The 
wood is hard, compact, strong, tough, and of a fine rose colour. In America, 
it is used both in cabinet-making and carpentry, and, like the wood of the 
robinia, it has the remarkable property of rapidly converting its sap-wood into 
heart-wood ; so that a trunk 6 in. in diameter has not more than six lines of 
sap-wood, and may, consequently, be almost entirely employed for useful pur- 
poses. The seeds were, at one time, roasted and ground as a substitute for 
coffee in Kentucky and Tennessee; but their use in this way has been long 
once discontinued. The pods, preserved like those of the tamarind (to which 



AKBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BRITANNICUM. 



this genua it nearly tllied), are said to be wholesome, uui slightly aperieni. 
Id Britain, the only use of the tree is for ornamental purposes j aoil, con- 
sidered as an object of curiosity and beauty, no collection ought to be without 
it. A rich, deep, free Boil ij estentiul to the thriving of this tree; and such* 
soil is never met vith naturally in exposed situations. The tree is geoerally 
propagBled by imported seeds ; but it will grow freely from cuttings of the 
roots, care being taken in plunting to keep that end upwards which is na- 
turally «o. 

Genus XXII. 



H 



CE'RCIS L. The Jddxs Tree. Lm. Syil. Deeindriu Mooog^nia. 

MnUiflmUim. Lin. Gen.. No. SIB.; DK.Prod., a. p.SIB.: Dou'l Mill- I p. <«8. 

fjnuiiynvi. ^Ilqubtnmi Ttam. Inil. 1. 411., Mmot iTMt. i Oiiulei, Fr. ; Judaibuun. Orr. : 

Beraaaim. Fram tirkii, a ibutt^tcock. tLt Hunt (I'm bf Ttirci|ihr4inil to Ihil lm. 

Gen. Char. Calyx urceolaie at the base and gibbous, bluntly 6-toothecI st the 
apex. Petalt 5, unguiculate, all diHlinct, disposed in a papilionaceous ninnner ; 
the wings or side petals the largest. Slameni 10, free, unequal. Or>ar>f on 
a short stipe. Legame oblong, slender, compressed, l-ccllcd, many-steded 
somewhat winged on the seminiferous suture. Secdt olravate. (Don'i 
MOL) 



XXV. leouhina'ce^ : ce'rcis- 



Dunf-nerred, rising after the floirers have derayeil. Flouirrs in l-flowereit 
pedicels, rising from tbe trunk and branches in fiiscicleB. — Trees, deciduous, 
of the third rank ; natives of Europe, or North America. Becnj ir>g leavsa 
yellowish purple. Prt^ragated by seeds or grafting. 

T I. C. StLiQVjL'sTRVU L. The eommon Judas Tree 

MdM^IMM. IJn. Ep., SSt. : Tier. Prnl.. !. p. Hi. ; Dan'i Mill., 1. p. tta. 

tt mmpta. JUIqutunini tKliicuUIiuii Mmct Mrfl. -, Ijit* Txtt: GdDter Gammum Ann d* 

laiit. Ft. I Arbnl d'Anw, Sfwn. ; jDdubauin. Grr. 
Empmimi. H. Du Hmm., l T. : Bat. Kig., I. IIM. : llM pUlM ot Ulll IfmlH IB Arb. Brit.. lU 

alL.ToL V. ; Ubd OUTJif. 419. 

i^. Ciar., rjc, Leaxes very obtuse, and wholly glabrous. {Dec. Prod.) A 
low tree. South of Europe, in Greece, in Asiatic Turkey, and niore es- 
pecially in Judea. Height 20 ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 1590. Flowers 
purplish pink; May. L^ume brown; ripe in September. Naked young 
aood purplish, with small white spots. 
VanrtKi. 

• C. S. 2 pnniifioram Dec. — A shrub ; Its branches spolted with white, 
its flowers smaller by hnlf than those of the species. A native of 
Bokhara. 
I C. S. 3/orro/4irfo.— Flowers whitish. H. S. 

f C. S. 4 Toica. — A seedling, raised from foreign seeds, which has 
flowered in the Botanic Garden at Kew; has numerous flowers, 
which are brighter, and a shade darker, than those of the species; 
and they also appear about a fortnight later; but it is, perhaps, 
hardly worth noticing as t variety. 



Tlie common Judas tree, in the South of Europe, fornis a handsome low 
tree, with a flat spreading head, in the form of n parasol ; and it is a aingiilm-iv 



2i>8 ARBORETUM ET ERUTICETUH BRITAMNICUM. 

beautiful olgect in spring, etnecielly when it U covered with iis numeioua bi 
purplish ]nnL flowers, which ...... . . 

' ' the yoiins wood, b 
runk. lae leaves 
flowers are succeeded by flat, thin, brown pods, nearly 6 in. in length, w 
remain on the tree all the year, and give it a very singular appearance in the 
winter aea^on. The rate of growth is about 16 in. a year, fiir the first 10 jean. 
The wood ii very hard, and agreeably veined, or raiher blotched or waved, 
with black, green, and yellow spots, on a grey ground. It takes a beautifiil 
polish, and weicha nearly 48 lb. to the cubic foot. The flowt'r.s, which have 
an agreeable acid taste, are mixed with salada, or fried with batter, as (Htters ; 
and the flower-buds are pickled in vinegar. In British gardens, the tree growl 
about the same height, and flowErs about the same dme, as the laburnum, the 
Ouelder rose, and the hawthorn, and enters into beautiful combination with 
these and other treen. The foliage is hardly less beautiful and remarkable than 
the flowers ; the leaves being of a pale bluish green on the upper surface i and 
of a seB'Kreen underneath, aiid of a cordate reniform shape, apparently con- 
sisting ol two leaflets joined together; which circumstance, combined with 
others, brings the genus in close alliance with that of BauhSntiT. Like most of 
the Legumin^eK, this tree prefers a deep, free, sandy soil, rich rather than 
poor; and it will only thrive, and become a handsome tree, in sheltered situa- 
tions. In the northern parts of the island, it requires to be planted against a 
wall ; and few ornamental treea better deserve such a situation. The species 
is propagated by seeds, and the varieties by gralUng. The seeds are sown on 
heat early in spring, and come up the same season i and the plants will produce 
dowers in three or four years. 







XXVI. AOSA^CE^. 259 

spec. Char., S^. Leaves acuminate, villose beneath at the axils of the veins. 
As compared with C, j^iliquastram, its flowers are of a paler rose colour, 
the l^me is on a longer pedicel, and tipped with a longer style. A low 
tree. Canada to Virginia. {Dec, Prod,) Height 10 ft. to 80ft. lutrod. 1730. 
Flowers red ; May and June. ; Legume brown ; ripe in August. 

Variel^, 

t C. c. pubescent Ph. — Leaves pubescent on the under surface. (Dec") 

This tree bears a general resemblance to the preceding species ; but it is 
more slender and smaller in all its parts ; and it seldom rises higher than 20 
feet It is at once distinguished from C <^iliqu&8trum by its leaves being 
heart-shaped and pointed ; they are also much thinner, more veined, and of a 
lighter green ; and the flowers are generally produced in smaller numbers 
than in the other species. The flowers are used by the French Canadians in 
nlads and pickles, and the young branches to dye wool of a nankeen colour. 
The wood resembles that of the other species. Propagated by imported 
seeds, and considered more tender than C. jS^iliqu&strum. 



Order XXVL iZOSA^CEiE. 

The term iZosacese has been applied to this order, because all the species 
belonging to it agree more or less with the genus Rosa, in essential charac- 
ters. It includes many genera belonging to the Linnaean class Icosdndria. 

Ord, Char. Flowers regular. Calyx, in most cases, with 5 lobes, the odd one 
posterior to the axis of inflorescence. Petals and stamens arising from the 
calyx. Stamens, for the most part, numerous. Ovaries many, several, or 
solitary ; each of one cell that includes, in most cases, 1 ovule ; in some, 
I to many ovules. Stifle lateral or terminal. 
* Leaves simple, or pinnately divided, alternate, in nearly all stipulate. 
Flowers showy, with numerous stamens. Frttit, in many of the genera, edible. 
— Trees and shrubs, mostly deciduous; natives of Europe, Asia, and America. 

The ligneous species which constitute this order include the finest flower- 
ing shrub in the world, the rose; and the trees which produce the most 
useful and agreeable fruits of temperate climates, viz. the apple, the pear, the 
phioi, the cherry, the apricot, the peach, and the nectarine. The plants are, 
for. the most part, deciduous low trees or shrubs, all producing flowers more 
or less showy ; and the greater number fruits which are edible. They are 
chiefly natives of Europe and Asia ; but several of them are also found in 
North America, and some in South America, and the North of Africa. The 
fruit-bearing species, and the rose, have followed man from the earliest period 
of ctvilisatioD, and are, perhaps, better known to mankind in general than any 
other ligneous plants. The medical properties of several of the species are 
remarkable, Irom the circumstance of their yielding the prussic acid ; while 
others produce a gum nearly allied to the gum Arabic, which indicates a 
degree of affinity between this order and Leguminacem. The bark of some 
species, as of Cerasus virginiana, is used, in North America, as a febrifuge ; 
and that of others, as the capoUin cherry (Cerasus Capollm), for tannmg, 
ia Mexico. The leaves of Oatsegus Oxyacantha, Prunus spindsa, Cerasus 
sylvestris, and jRdsa rubigin68a, have been used as a substitute fojr tea, or for 
adulterating tea. The leaves and bark of the spiraeas are said to be at once 
tttringent and emetic. There are two characteristics of this order, with 
reference to its cultivation, which are of great importance to the gardener : 
the first is, the liability of almost all the species to sport, and produce 
nnedes difiering, in many cases, more from one another, than they diifer 
from other species ; and the second is, that they are remarkably subject to 

8 2 



260 ARBORETU.M ET FHOTICETDM BRITANNICUM. 

the attacks of insects and diseasea. Tliey almost all require a free loamy wil, 
not overcharged with moi.sture, and ricli rather than poor ; and, while all the 
species are increa^^eil by seeds, which. Tor the most part, are produced freely in 
Britain, or by cuttings of the roots, almost all the varieties are best increased 
by grafting or budding; and not, as in some other orders, with equal ease by 
cuttings of the shoots, or by layers. 

With reference to tandscape^^rdening, all the rosaceous trees have three 
properties which deserve to be kept constantly in view by the improver of 
grounds : 1st, they never attain a targe size ; tid, they attain their natural size 
and shape in a very few jtars, in good soil not requiring more than from 
10 to 20 years; and 3d, they sooner take the cbaraeter of old trees than the 
trees of any other natural order of ligneous plants. A few eiiceptions may be 
taken from different orders, such as the common field maple, the common 
laburnum, &c. ; but wc know of no natural order, in which, like the Aosacex, 
all the trees are low or middle-sized, and all take the character of age while 
comparatively young. Hence their value in laying out small places, where 
the object is to make a new place appear old, or a small place appear large, 
and at the same time to combine character of form with beautiful blossoms 
in spring, and showy (Cratas'gus, Cotoneister, and AitKlanchitrr) or usefiil 
(PyruB and Prunu?) fruit in autumn. 

The genera are included by DeCandoUe and G. Don in 6ve tribes ; and the 
following are their names and dbtinctions : — 

Sect. I. ^uvgda'lsx Juu. ■ 

Seel. Char. Fruit a drupe ; the nut 2-ovuled, 1 — 8-seeded. Style terminal. 
Calyx deciduous. Leaves feather-nerved, undivided, serrate, with the 
lower serratures or the petioles ghmded. Stipules not attached to the 
petiole. Kernel coutwning more or less of hydrocj'anic acid : chiefly 

AuY'aDM.vs Tourn. Covering of nut not fleshy; out even, or perforated 
Young leaves folded flatwise. Flowers almost sessile, solitai^ or twin, 
protruded before the leaves. 

Pa'Ksicn Thurn. Covering of nut very fleshy; nut wrinkled. The charac- 
ter! of the other parts described under ^Imygdalus are the same in Persica. 

Arubsi'aca Tourn. Covering of nut fleshy ; nut furrowed at both edges, in 
the other parts even. Young leaves with tlieir edges rolled inwards. 
Flowers almost sessile, solitary or a few together, protruded before the 

Pnu'NUS Tourn. Covering of nut fleshy ; nut indistinctly furttiwed at the 
e<lges, in the other parts even. Young leaves with the edges rolled inwards. 
Flowers upon pedicels, in groups resembling umbels, and produced befort 
or alter the leaves. 
Ce'rasus Jail. Nut subglobose, even, its covering fleshy. Young leave: 
folded flatvrise. Flowers upon pedicels, either in groups resembling umbels 
and produced before the leaves, or in racemes terminal to the shoots, pro 
truded along with them. 

Sect. II. Spiasx^M Dec. 
Seel. Char. Fruit of 3, or fewer, capsular carpels, which are distinct fron 
the calyx (which is persistent in J^pirz'a, and, perhaps, in the otbe 
genera), and, in most cases, from each other: each contains 1 — 6 seed: 
Style terminal. Low deciduous shrubs. 
Pu'rsui^ Dec. Stamens about iiO. Carpels I — 2. ovateoblong. 
Kb'ilrm Dec- Stamens about 20. Carpels 5 — S, distinct. 
Sv\t,^ K L. Stamens 10 — oO. Carpels 1 to several, distinct ; stipitate ; ear. 
includes 2 — (i seeds, affixed to the inner suture. 

Sect in. PoTENTi'[,i.ES Jua. (Synon. Dry^des r«i/.) 

Seel. Char. Fruit an aggregation of carpi!l<ii their int^^ments dry ■ 



XXVI. ROSA^CEM : ^my'gdalus. 



261 



succulent ; the carpels distinct from one another, and from the calyx, 
which is persistent, and surrounds them, and, in many, is subtended 
bv as many bracteas as it has lobes ; the bracteas alternate with the 
lobes. Style proceeding fi'om a little below the tip of the carpel. Leaves, 
in most cases, pinnaiely divided. Stipules attached to the petiole. Shrubs 
bearing fruit, or ornamental. 

^ Rt^BVs L. Integuments of carpels juicy. 
Potemti'lla Ncstl. Integuments of carpels dry. 

Sect IV. i2o^sE£ Dec, 

Sect. Char. Fruit a hip ; that is, with the tube of the calyx fleshy, of a 
pitcher shape, contracted at the mouth ; and including an aggregation of 
carpels attached to its inner face. Style proceeding from the inner side 
ot the carpel. Shrubs eminently ornamental. 

fio^A Tmim. Leaf impari-pinnate. Stipules attached to the petiole. Prickles 

simple. 
LoViii Lindl. Leaf simple. Stipules none. Prickles usually compound. 

Sect. V. Po^AiEf Lindl. 

Sect, Char. Fruit a pome ; that is, with the tube of the calyx become very 
fleshy, and including, and connate with, the carpels. Carpels normally 5, 
with gristly or bony walls, including 1 — 2 seeds; in Cydonia, several. 
Habit spiny or not ; leaves, in most cases, undivided, in some pinnate. 
Stipules not connate with the petiole. Ornamental low trees, or large 
shrubs, ¥dth showy flowers, in some genera spiny, and in others bearing 
some of our best hardy kitchen and dessert fruits. 

Crats^gvs Undl. Carpels 1 — ^5 prismatic nuts with bony shells, each in- 
cluding 1 seed. Leaves angled or toothed; in most cases deciduous. 
Flowers in terminal corymbs. Spiny shrubs or low trees. 

PHoti^MA Lmdl. Carpels 2. Petals reflexed. Evei^reen. Flowers in ter- 
minal panicles. Leaves simple, leathery, serrated or entire. In P. integri- 
folia the ovaries are 3, and each includes 2 ovules. 

Cotonea'ster Medik. Carpels 2 — 3 ; ovules 2 in each cell. Leaves simple, 
entire, woolly beneath. Flowers in lateral spreading corymbs. 

Amel/vchieb Medik. Ovaries 5, each divided by a partition ; ovules I in 
each cell. Ripe pome including 3 — 5 carpels. Petals lanceolate. Small 
trees. Leaves simple, serrate, deciduous. Flowers in racemes. 

i&^spiLUs Lmdl. (Jarpels 2 — 5 compressed nuts with bony shells, each in- 
cluding I seed. Leaves lanceolate, serrulate, deciduous. Flowers large, 
subsesfiile, subsolitary. 

i^r^RUS Uaidl, Carpds 5, or 2 — 5. Seeds 2 in each carpel. Leaves simple 
or pinnate, deciduous. Flowers in spreading terminal cymes or corymbs. 

CvDo NIA Totem. Carpels 5, each including many seeds. 



Sect I. ^MYGDAYfiifi JUSS. 

Genus L 



m 



[A 



LifeJ 



JMY'GDALUS Toum. The Almond Tree Lm, Sytt. Icosandria 

Monog^ia. 

Toorn. Imt., t. 402. ; Dec. Prod., ?* p. 330. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 48S. 

8 3 



ARBORETUU ET FRUTICETUH BRITA.NK1CUM. 



Gcii. Char. Drupe clothed with velvety pubeacence, having a dry rind, whicl 
seimrotes irregularly, containing a pitted or smooth putamen or nut. (Iku'. 
Mil!,) 

Leavei simple, conduplicate when youn;, alternate, BtipulaEc, deciduoui 
Flowert nearly seRsile, urjally pink or rose coloured, rising either ringlv o 
by pairs from theairaly buiis, earlier than the leaves. — Shruha or trees or thi 
nii<ldle she, deciduous. Natites of the North of Africa, aad tile Diountaini 
of Asia ; also of Kusaia, and tlie Levant. 

The fruit-bearing soecies are cultivated in the NTiddle and South of Europi 
and the Levant, and are propa^ted chiefly by grafting ; and the olfaera b] 
grafting, layers, suckers, or cuttings of the root. The aliDond was Ineludec 
by Linnceus in the same genus with the peach and nectarine, of both of which 
it is, doubtless, the parent, as trees have been found with almonds in i 
state of transition to peactien, and with both peaches and nectaj ' 
same branch. 

« I. A. NA^A L. The dwarf, or thrubbi). Almond. 
Jiemificatiim. Mn. Mint, 89*. j D«. Pnid..».ii.MO. i Don'i Mm., I n. «1 

manSXccr- i F»i:hlr»dfl]*ChlDS,'/Ui. 
Entrannfi. BOL UM'.v 161.1 N. DiiIlMIn..4.t.>ai ud Durjlfl. IM, Ml. 

spec. Char., fie. Leaves oblong-linear, tap«ed at the base, serrated, glalirous, 
Flowers solitary, rose-coloured. Calyx cylindrically bell-shnped. Fniit oftbt 
same shape sa that of A. commilnu, but much smaller. {Dec. Prod.) A 
deciduous low shrub. Calmuc Tartary, very frequent on the hanks of th< 
Volga, and about Odessa. Heieht S ft to 3 ft. Introduced in 1683. 
Flowers rose coloured ; March and April. 

J, A. R. 8 gem-pea Dec. A. ge^rgica De$f. Arb. 8. p. SSI., and Lodd 
Cat. — It differs from the species in having the lobes of the calyi 
lanceolate, and as long as its tube ; and the styles onlv tomentosc ai 
the base, being Hcarcely so there, and not protruded. A native o 
Georgia, which has been cultivated b the Geneva Botanic Garden. 

^ A. II. 3 campeilrii Ser, A, camp^stris Better Enum. p. 46. No. I4S5. 
Horl. Ft. Aial. 2. p. 2., and Lodd. Cat. j A. Bessertona Schatt in Cat 
HoH. Vindab. 1816, and Lodd. C'n/. — Leaves 
broader. Lobes of the calyx as long as the tube. 
Petals narrower, longer, and white. Styles to- 
mentose at the base. The form of the nut, ac- 
cording to Besser. is various. Supposed to he a 
native of the South of Podolia. (Dec. Prod.) This ■* 
variety is in the Hort. Soc. Garden, where it 
was raised from seeds recrived from Dr. Fischer 
of Petersburg. 

« A. n. 4- oUrica Lodd. Cat., and Lodd. fiot. Cab. 
I5»9., and oar fi^. 421., is extant in some British 
botanical collections, where it is an upright shrub, 
about 6 ft. high, with wand-like shoots, clothed 
with fine, long, witltvv-like, glossy, serrate leaves ; .- 
on account of which, and its upright bslHt of 'k 
growth, the latter being different from that of all 
the other species and varieties of almond, it is va- 
luable in every collection where variety of cha- 
racter is desired. U. S. 
All the different forms of the dwarf abnond are low shrubs, sddonieiceediri 
! or 3 feet in height. The leavea bear a general resemblance to those of k 




XXTI. BOSA^CE^: ^My'gDALUS. 

of the speneB of willow, but ve of k 
darker and more shining S^"' "'^ '^"^^ 
in the original apecies. The stems are 
not of long duration; but the plant * 
throws up Hbun dance of traTcllini; suck' 
ere, by which it is continued nUurally, 
■nd also propagated. It is commoa 
tbrousb alt the plains of Russia, from ^ 
55° N. lat. to tlie south of the empire. ' 
In British gardens it is raluable on 
I account of its earlj flowering, thegrace- 
fulness of the slender twigs, on which 
ita flowers are produced before thi: 
leaves appear, and of it:t eaHy culture in 
IB. 4. iiii any dry soil. Its fruit resembles that of 

j4. communis, but is much smiiller, and 
nrel; seen in England. The plant, which is usually called the dwarf double 
bloiiHiDied almond in British gardens, is C^rasui japonica flAre pl^no, or, as it 
itft^quently named in the niir«erie«, ^mj'gdalus pumila. 




iu£^tp!u 



k. PalL The bowy diraif Almond. 

1^ GiMtuii^ ud ^ri. BrII. lit ei 



... , Gi«t,t, *n.i BoLRct'. 1»». 

Spa. Clar^ ^. Leaves obovate serrated, clothed with 
whhe tomentum beneath. Flowers solitary. Drupe 
compressed, pubescent. (D<m't Mill.) A low decidu- 
00* shrub. Caucasus and the Levant, between Smyrna I 
sod Bursa. Hright !j ft. to 3ft. Introduced in 1815. | 
Flowers red; March and April. 
BeadHy known from A. ndna by its leaves being covered 

■ith boarineas beneath. Increased by budding on the 

t 3. A. coMMu'Nis L. The common Ahnond Tree. 

UrwHfnliim. Lin. Sb, CTT. ; D«. Prod., r p. UO. i Dcm'i Mill.. 1. n. m 

C^IrnriVt. H. Do aim., t.l. n.i ud Iha plUa a J [bll Im la Art). Brit., lit kU(., toL t.; vid 

Sjm. Char., jr. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, serrulate. Flowers solitary. 
Calyx of a bell.BbBpe. Fruit compressed, and rather egg shaped. {Dec. 
Prod.) A middle-sized deciduous tree. Mauritania, and m the mountain- 
ous parta of Asia. Height SO ft. to 30 ft. Introduced in 1536. flowen 
white or roi>«-coloured j March and April. Drupe brownish ; ripe in Oo 
tober. In fine seaaons the fruit ripens on standards as far north as Derby, 
*nd on walls at Edinburgh. 

t A. ir. 1 amirtt Dec. The bUier Almond. Amandicr amer, fr. ; gemeine 
Manddbaum, Gcr. — Flowers large. Petals pale pink, with a tinge 
of rose colour at the base. Styles nearly as long as the stamens, 
and tomentose in the lower part. Seeds bitter. There are two 
forms of the bitter almond; one with a hardshell, and the otlier 
with a brittle one. The tree is cultivated in ihe South of France, 
in Austria, in Italy, in Greece, &c.. tor its fruit, which is preferred 
for some purposes in medicine and in domestic economy to that of 
the sweet almond, particuUrly for giving a flavour ; and for stocks 
for grafting the other varieties on, and the peach, apricot, and even 
the plum. Bitter almonds are ^nerallj' mixed with sweet ones, in 
very suiall pro|>ortions, for making blancmange, &c. 



ARBORETUM El' FRUTICETUM BRITAKNICUH. 



¥ A.C.2 diJrit Dec, Lam. III. t. 430. The twctt Almond. Ama.ndiet 
A pelits Fruits, Amande douce. Ft. \ giisse Mandcl b 

erej'-greeD. Flowers protrudeil earlier tlian the leavi i 

[onger tliau the stamens. Fruit ovale-com[ireiwed, ai I 

hard. Kernel sweel-flavourcd. CiiltiviUed in (he sa e 

preceding sort, and generally propagated by graftinir standard high on 
the bitter almond, or any sirong-groiring seedling almonds, in order 
to make sure of the fruit being liireet. 

t A. c. :i ^''te jiUtin Bauiii, Cat. has double flowers. 

t A.e. ^ fi-tiu varU-galii Baum. Cat. has variegated leaves. 

T A-cSfrdgUit Ser.; Dec. Prod. 2. p. 531. /I. frigilis i/rW. 1. p.500. [ 
Amandier des Daniea, If. Dii Ham. 4. p. 1 13., yoiielle Jard. Fndt. 
p. T. ; Coque molle, Amendicr a Coque tcndre, Fr. [ Abellan, Pro- 
veniT. — Flowers protruded at the same time as the leaves, and of a 
pale rose colour. Petals broader, and deeply emarginate. Leave* 
shorter! the petioles thick. Fruit acuminate; shell soft; kernel 
sweet-flavoured. Cultivated for its fruit. 

t A. c. G mairoeiii-pa Ser., Dec. Prod. 2. p. 531. Amandier a pros 
Fruits, A'. Ua//nTH. 4. p. 112., A'niiellejani. Fndt.p.l.; Amandier 
i^ultane. AinLindier des Dames, Amandier Hstache, Fr. — Leaves 
broader, acuminate, scarcely grey. Peduncles short, turgid. Flowcn 
of a very pale rose colour, large, protruded before the leaves. Petals 
broadly obcordate, naved. Fruit large, nmbilicatc at the base, tu:u- 
niioate at the tip ; shell hard. There are two suhvarieties, one with 
the fruit rather smaller, called. commonly, in France, Amandier Sul- 
tane ; and another, wiih the fruit titill smaller, called there Aninndier 
Pistache; the kernels of both of which are considered remarknbly 
delicate, and are preferred for the table. The flowers of this variety 
are.nlwejs produced earlier than those of any other ; and the kernels 
of the fruit are always sweet. In British gardens, the A. c. ilnicro- 
cirpa has much the large^it flowers of any of the varietie*. It is a 



xxn. JtosA^GE^ : pe'rsica. 



265 



vigorous targe tree, of rapid growth, somewhat more fiutigiate than 
the species. 
^ A. c. 7 ^eracoides Ser., Dec. Prod. 2. p. 531 Amandier-Pecher, K. 
Du Ham. 4. p. 1 14., Nouette Jard, Fruit, p 7. — Leaves similar to 
those of the peach tree. Fruit ovate, obtuse ; its husk slightly suc- 
culent ; the shell of a yellowish dark colour, and the kernel sweet- 
Havoured. Du Hamel has stated that its fruits vary upon the sahie 
branch, from ovate, obtuse, with the husk rather fleshy, to ovate, 
compressed, acuminate, and the husk dry. Cultivated in France and 
Italy for its fruit, but rarely found in British gardens. 
Other Varieties. The almond, considered as a fruit tree, has given rise to 
some other varieties, which will be found treated of at length in French works 
on gardening, in the Xouveau Du Hamel, and the Kouveau Court cT Agriculture. 

There are several varieties of the almond in cultivation on the Continent 
for their fruit; and two or three in this country, partly for the same purpose, 
but chiefly for their flowers. The common almond, in a wild state, is found 
sometimes with the kernels bitter, and at other times with them sweet ; in 
the same manner as the Quercus hisp&nica, which, in Spain, though it gene- 
rally bears sweet and edible acorns, yet sometimes produces only such as are 
bitter. For this reason, in the case of the almond, instead of giving one form 
as the species, we have followed DeCandolle, and described' both the bitter 
and the sweet almond separately, either of which may be considered as the 
species, and classed them with the varieties. 

m 4. A. ORIENT A^Lis Aii» The Eastern Almond Tree. 

JdentificatHm. Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 1. I. p. 162., ed. 2. 3. p. 195. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 530. ; Dod*i 

MllL, 2. p. 482. 
^(f»>njfme. A. argentea Lam. Diet. 1. p. 103., K. Du Ham. 3. p. 115. 
tngrat/uigs. Lodd, Bot. Cat, 1. 1 137. ; and our Jig. 4'X. 

Spec. Char.^ ^c. Imperfectly evergreen. Branches 
and leaves clothed with a silvery tomentum ; 
petiole of the leaf short, the disk lanceolate 
and entire. Flowers rose-coloured, and rather 
longer than those of A. nana. Calyx cylin 
drioilly bell-shaped. Fruit tipped with a point. 
{Bee, Prod.) A tall shrub or low tree. Le- 
vant. Height 8 ft. to 10 ft.; and, according 
to Bosc, 15 ft. to 20 ft. Introduced in 1756. 
Flowers rose-coloured ; March and April. 

Very striking, from the hoary, or rather silvery, 
appearance of its leaves ; and it makes a hand- 
some plant when budded standard high on the 
common almond or the plum. It flowers much less freely than the common 
almond ; notwithstanding which, it well deserves a place in collections, on 
account of its fine silvery foliage. 

Genus II. 




4S6. A. orientklb. 



PEHSICA Toura, The Peach Tree. Lin. Syst, Icosandria Monogynia 

Uauificaium. Tourn. Inst. t. 400. ; Mill. Diet. ; Dec Fl. Fr., 487. \ Don's Mill., 2. p. 483. 
Sfiumifmet. ^m^gdaliu sp. of Lin. and Juu. ; Trichocfcrpiu Heck. Elem. No. 718. ; Pteher, Fr. 

Pfirscfaenbaum, Ger. ; Pcsco, Ital. - , , „ ^ .. , 

Deraat^m. So named from the peach coming originally from Pertfa. 

Gen. Char. Drupe fleshy, with a glabrous or velvety apicarp, and having the 
putamen wrinkled from irregular furrows. (Don's Mill.) 

Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; conduplicate when young. 



S66 ARBORETUU ET FRUTICETtlH BRITANNICUM. 

Flouieri almoat sessile, Military, or twin, riaing from the Ka.\y buds earlier 

than the leaves. — Tree, deciduous, ben^b the middle size, aod not ol lung 

duration. Persia. 

Ttie peach and the nectarine are by some botanists made distinct Kpecieii 
but there can be no doubt of their being only varieties ol' one kind, which 
kind ill itaeir nothing more then an improved or fleshy almond ; the almond 
being to the peach and nectarine what the crab is to the apple, and the slue to 
the plum. 

I 1. P. tui^a'hh ATtlL The common Peach Tree. 

-■ m. Mill. Din, No. 1.; Dk "— ■ - — "—.—•• • _ .— 

. Jmt^iUlui Flnia Lilt. Si 




Spec. Char., ire. 
Persia, Heig 

Flowers rose-coloured ; March end April. Fruit red and yellow ; ripe in 
September. 
rarieliet. 

J P. «. 1, the freeilune common Peach, Peche, JV., has the Besh of the 
fruit parting from the shell of the nut (the stone). 

Y P. V. S, lie cUngitone coninum Peach. Pavie, Fr., has the tiesh of the 

fruit Bdiierioe Co the shell oFtlie nut. 
% P. 0. SjlorepQao Hort,— Flowers double. 
ft P. r. 4 i/ba Lindl.—Flowers white. A 

berdyoraomentaUhnib, with the habit 

of an almond. Its fruit haa little 

Y P. c. 5 J&lat variegatii Hort. — Leaves f 

Tnricpited. !^\ 
■ P. p. () compreita Hort., the flat Peach j 
of China(Hort. Trans, iv. t. 19,; and A 
our^. 428.), is chieflyremarkablefor 'i 
the form of its fniit, and fur being j 
nearly evergreen in its leaves. In the 
Hort. 8oc. Garden, aeainst a wall, it 
keeps growing throuijhouc the winter, 
when the weather is not too severe. tn. p, -— 



XXVI. mosa^clm: ^kmeni'aca. 267 

t 2. P. (y.) LJsVis 2>fc. The BOiooth'^kmned Peach, cr Nectarine Tree, 

lientgicathn. Dec. Fl. Fr., 4. p. 4S7. ; Don't Miller. S. p. 493. 

Sjfwmsma. Jm^gdalos i*grtica I.am. D<ef. ; A, Pinica NecUriaa iltf. Horf. Kew. \ Ptehe Umu, 

finiKDoo, Fr. ; Fesco noce, //a/. 
Emgrimngg, NoU. Jard. Fruit, t. 90. f. S. 3. t. 21. f. 3, 4. 

Spec, Char., S^c. Fruit smooth. A deciduous tree. Persia. Height 15 ft. 
to 20 fl. Cultivated in 1562. or probably long before. Flowers rose- 
coloured ; March and April. Fruit red and yellow; ripe in September. 

Varietiet, 

S P. (o) /. 1» thefreettone Nectarine (with the fruit parting from the nut). 

Peche lisse, Fr, — The Elruge is the best variety, 
i P. (v.) /. 2, the c&ngstone Nectarine (with the flesh adhering to the nut). 

Brugnon, Fr, — The Orange is the best variety. 

The different varieties of peach and nectarine, when treated as standard 
trees in the open garden, assume the ^neral form and character of the 
almond ; but, as they are more delicate, m consequence of being &rther re- 
moved from their aboriginal state, they are of slower growth, form trees of less 
aze« and are of shorter duration. The nectarine, as a standard in the open 
frardeo, forms a smaller and more delicate tree than the peach ; and the double- 
flowered peach is of less vigorous growth than most of the single-flowered 
varieties, but very ornamental. 

Genus III. 




iffiMENPACA Toum, Thb Apricot. Lin, Syst, Icosandria Mooog^nia. 

Unt^leaikm. Toum. Ixut., t. 899. ( Jou. Oen^ 841. \ D«c. FL Fr., 4. p. 485., Prod. 8. p. 881. { 

Don't Mm., 8. p. 495. 
Sgmmgwta. Prtxau ip. of Lin. and others ; Abriooticr, Fr. % Aprikoaenbaum, Ger, ; Albioocoo, 

ItaL 
DtrHniiem, The genus Is named Jrmeidaca, flrom tbe aprlooC being originally (hnn ilnnai/a. The 

popular English' name was origlnallT prKCocla, from the Arabic, berkockef whence the Tuscan 

meodie, or alblcocco; and the English, abrioot, or aprloock, erentuallf corrupted into apricot. 

Some persons derire Uie name from pracox, from this fruit ripening sooner than most others. 

Gen. Char, Drupe ovate gjobose, fleshy, covered with a velvety skin, con- 
taining a nut or stone, which is acute at one end, and blunt at the other, 
with a furrow on both sides ; the rest smooth, not wrinkled. (Don*s Mill,) 
Leaves simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous ; when young, convolute. 
Fhwers almost sessile, solitary, or few together, rising before the leaves from 
scaly buds. — Trees, low, deciduous, or shrubs; natives of Europe and Asia. 

The common apricot is a fruit tree in ^neral cultivation throughout the 
temperate regions of the globe, distinguished at first sight from the almond, 
peach, and nectarine, by its heart*shaped, smooth, shimnff leaves, and white 
flowers. There are several wild varieties, bearing flowers ofdifferent shades of 
pink, chiefly cultivated as omamentaL The great beauty of both the wild and 
the cultivated sorts of apricot is, that they come into bloom in Britain before 
almost every other tree; the Siberian apricot flowering a fortnight, or more, 
before the common sloe or almond. 

2 1. i4. vuLGA^Ris Lam, The common Apricot Tree. 

Uemi^UiMtm. Lam. Diet., 1. p.2. ; Dec. Prod., 8. p. 632. ; Don's Hill., 2. p. 499k 

^rmaiyme. Frftnus ilrnienlaca Lin. Sp. 679. ; Albicooco americano, Ital. 

Ei^nntagi. N. Du Ham., 1. 1.49. ; the plate in Arb. Brit., 1st edit., vol. t. ; and our Jig. 431. 

^per. Char.y 4rc. Flowers sessile. Leaves heart-shaped or ovate. (Dec, 
Prod.) A middle-sized tree. Armenia, Caucasus, tiie Himalayas, China, 
&c. Height 20ft. to 30 ft. Cultivated in 1548. Flowers pinkish white; 
February and March. Drupe orange and red ; ripe in August and Sept. 
Decaying leaves reddish yellow. Naked young wood smooth, purplish. 



ARBOHETUM £T FRUTICETUH BRITANNICUM. 



i A, V. \ ovali/olia Ser. Abrkot Angoumois, A. prfcoce, A. blanc, fV 
(N.DuHBm.,5.t.50.f.6.; , 
and oiic_fig. 429.) — Leaves 
uval; fruit small. 
1 A. t>. S cordifitia Ser. (N. Du i 
Han., 5. p. 167. t. 49 ; B 
Hnd uur^. 430.)— Leaves ^ 
heart-sha^, broad. Fruit 

"i A, n. 3 Joliii variegalit Hurt. 
— Leaves mriegBted. Flow- 
ers double. The Breda va- 
riety in generally that which 
bas vancgated leaves in Briiigh gardens. 
1 A. ti. 4jfdre pltno Hort. — Grossier says that the 
Chinese hatre a great many varieties of double- blossomed apricots, 
which they plant on little uiouDts. 
Very feir trees att^n ihc appearance of maturily so soon as the npricot a 
ilandard 10 or 12 years phintcJ, in good loamy r ch soil udl grow ' 
luinhtof BOft., with a' " "' " '- ••----- - -■'->-- 



a head 2b (I. in diameter, prese itint all the ai pearance 




e of iO or 30 years' growtli, or of a tree arrived at maturity. The best 
for producing thiit, as a standard, is the Breda apricot. It is also a 
jidsoDie-growing plant, and its bloMom buds, before they are expanded, 
I moat boiutiful ard briUiant scarlet. 
J 8. A. dasvca'rpa Frrt. The rough-fruited Apricot Tree. 

rn. P»ri, Sjn, S-p.S&j Dgc. Pnd. 3. |l Idl. i DoD't MIIL, 1. |i «T. 

1. ^. UropuipOm Laii, Ui N. Du BaM,i.B. 171. j ^ilDiu dintiru Ekrlt. Anirr. G. 

F.JmirnltcMtlgrtllitf. Col. nl. r p, «», ; the Muk ApHnX. 

[(. N.nuHim, M. M. r. 1, 1 LpdJ. B«. Cmb.,!. IWI.; uhI our ;Vi. Ul, UK 

Spec. Char., ^e. Leaves ovate, ocumbate, doubly serrate. Petioles glandcd. 
Flowers upon thread-shaped pedicels. In the Sowers of a plant in tbe 
Geneva Botanic Garden, the calyx was purple, and 6-lobed; the [>etali 
were 6 ; and tbe stamens 24. {Dec. Prod.) A tree with a twisted trunk, 
resembling the common apricot, but smaller. Levant?. Height iO ft. to 
15 ft. Introduced in 1800. Flowers white; April. Dru|« purple or 
black t ripe in August and September. 



XXVI BOSA'ct* : 



It A.d.2 perticijdiia Lou. A. persicifolia Don't Mil/., ii. p. ian. Abriroc 
Doir i Feuilles de Pecher, Ft. (N. Du Ham,, 5. p. 172. 1. 52. f. I. ; 
uid our^. 434.) — Leaves ovate and short, or lanceolate, with small 
lohei. Flesh of the fruit red, variegated with pale yellow.- Id the 
ft'oureau Da Home/, it is stated to be a very slight variety, which 
can only be conUDued by budding. 
The rough-fruited apricot merits eultivBtion for it» flowers, which are gene- 
rally white, but which, in this country, from the earliness of their appearances 
»re not often succeeded by fruit, unless the tree is planted again at awall, nhere 
It csn be protected by netting from the spring frosts. 




270 ARBORETUM ET FHUTICETUM BBITANNICUM 

Spec. Char., S/c. Leaves ovate acumtDute, of the form of thoiie of tlie beech. 
The petioles long and f^landless. Fruit smuU. A native of mountabioui 
districts in tiie moat remote parts of Siberia. Persoon hot siateil that it 
Taries with leaves linear-lunceolHte. (Dec. Prod.) A low tree, having the 

Bneral appearance of the common apricot, but smaller in all its parts. 
ahuria, on mountains, growing upon the face of perpendicular rocks ex- 
posed to the sun. Height 6 (V. to tj ft. i in England 8 ft. to 20 h. Intro- 
duced in 1788. Flovers rose-coloured ; May. Drupe?. 
This tree, on the mountains of Dahurin, does not attain a greater height 
than that of a man; but it haa a iruiih ihe thicknens of the wrist, a rough and 
black boric, and hiird wood. It Howera about the same time na the Ahodo- 
dindron dailricitm ; growing on the south sides of the mountains, while the 
latter grows on the north sides. When both these plants are in ttover, 
Pallas observes, the north sides of the mouniaiiis appear of a puqde colour, 
and the south of a rose colour. (Fi. Ron., i. p. 13.) In British gardens, the 
Siberian apricot forms s tree of neaily the same height as the common apricot, 
of which it appears to us to be the wild form. 

I 4. A. (v.) bbioanti'aca Pert. The Brian90D Apricot Tree. 
Urt^ificaOm. Van. Srn,. 1. p. ae. i Dec. Prod., 9. n. £31. \ Dofi'i Mill.. X p. 498. 
a^Kimfmi. Prilniii brW>U*u fiU. Daupk. I. p.Ui., Ov. FL Ft. No.STN, LaU. la \. Da 

Smpathigi. N. Du Uun., L L Sfl. j uidDurJIf. 4S6. 

Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves nearly heart-shaped, toothed 

with numerous sharp subimbricate teeth. Flowers 

in group.s, almost sessile, scarcely prolruded before 

the leaves. (Dec. Prod.') A low tree. Dbu- 

phin£, in only one localitv, and in another in 

Piedmont, where an oil, called huile de marmotte, 

has for a long time been expressed from the ' 

seeds. Height in British gardens 14 ft. to 15fi. 

in 10 or Ig years; in its native habitats, ft. to 

8 ft. Introduced in 1619. Flowers while or pink; 

March and April. Drupe ?. 

Seringe suggested that this kind may be the same 
as A. sibirica, and we think it not unlikely to be only 
another variety of the common apricot in its wild 
state, with toothed leaves. ^^ .(.i.-iwimua. 



iijaaaa 



PBITKUS Toam. The Plom. Lm. Syil. Icoslindnn Monog^a. 

jkaMHL Toum. loit.. t. SBS. i Due. Piod , i. p. MS. ) Don'l Mill., ). 408. 
Stmr^^mrt. Prun6pho« Kre*. Eltm. Ho. TIB, [ PlIiBm Ip. o( Lin. and olhsri ; Pnino, lUL 
Dcrtratiini. SlUd to be a word <rf Ailitic orijlii i Ihe wild piml, iccordiag lo Galen, belnf oltod 

Gen. Char. Drupe ovate or oblong, fleshy, quite glabrous, covered with a 

glaucous bloom ; containing a compressed nut or putamen, which is acute at 

both ends, and « little furrowed on the margin, the rest smooth. (Don'i JUi/L) 

Leave! simple, alternate, stipulate, dedduous ; convolute when youttg. 

FlowcTt usually disposed in umbellate icicles, sulitary on the pedicels, rising 

Snerally before the leaves. — Trees or shrubs ; natives of Europe, Asia, ami 
orth A- -' 



XXVI. nOSA^CEMl /^RM£NI'aCA. 271 

Manj of the species are spiny in a wild state ; most of them bear edible 
fruits; and all of them have showy blossoms. In British gardens, they are 
chiefly propagated by grafting, but some of them by layers ; and they will grow 
20 any soil that is tolerably free, and not overcharged with moisture, but a cal- 
careous soil is found best. The epidermis of the bark of the plum, as well as 
that of the cherry, and perhaps that of some of the other genera of i^mygdaieae, 
ii readily divisible transversely, and may frequently be .^^een divided in this 
manner into rings on the tree. 

^ I. P. spiNO^SA L. The spiny Plum Tree, or common Sloe Thorn, 

Uentifieathm. Lhi. Sp., 3. 681. ; Dec Prod., S. p. 832. ; Don*t Mill., 2. p. 498. , 

4nMr*K>. P. •ylvHtria Fnrk. Hist. p. 404., Ray Syn. p. 462. : Blackthorn; PruDler ipineux, 
Praoellier, E^pine Boire, or Mdro-du-BoU, Fr. ; Schlewlom, or Scblen Pdaum, Ger. \ Prugno, or 
Pniiwllo, Ital. 

EngrmimgM. V«bl FI. Dan., t. 926. : the plate In Arb. Brit., lit edit., vol. t. ; and our J!g. 437. 

I>eri9fiti(m The name of M^re-du-BoU it applted to the floe thorn In France, In the neigh iMiurhood 
df Mootargls, becaoie It has been remarked there, that, when it wai established on the margins of 
voods, its underground shoots, and the suckers which sprang up trmn them, had a constant ten- 
dency to extend the wood over the adjoining fields. 

i^vr. Char,, ^c. Branches spiny. Leaves obovate, elliptical, or ovate ; downy 
beneath, doubly and sharply toothed. Flowers produced before the leaves 
or with them, white, and solitary. Calyx campanulate ; with lobes blunt, 
and longer than the tube. Fruit globose ; the flesh austere. (Dec, Prod,) 
A low tree or shrub. Europe vroin Upsal to Naples, and the West of 
Asia and North of Africa. Height 10 fl. to 15 f^. Flowers white; March 
and ApriL Drupe black ; ripe in October. 

Varieties, 

J P. 1. I vulgaris Ser. P, spindsaXou. (N. Du Ham., 5. p. 185. t. S*. 
f. 1.)^— Ledves obovate-elliptica]. Fruit dark purple. This may be 
considered as the normal form of the species. 

2 P. s, 2Joliu veriegaHs Ser. — Found wild ; but a plant of no beauty. 

I P. #. 3 miorocdrpa Wallr. (Exs. Cent. l.No. 45.) — Leaves elliptic, 
narrow, bluntisb. Fruit smaller than that of the species. 

If P. /. 4e macrocdrpa WtHir, (Exs. Cent. 1. No. 45.) — Leaves obovate, 
bluntish. Fruit large, dark purple. This has been found wild in 
Germany; but Seringe doubts whether it be not identical with P. 
domestica Juliana, or with P. insitltia. 

* P. *. 5 ovdta Ser. (Blackw. Herb., t. 494.) — Leaves ovate, roundish. 

t P. #. 6Jlore pleno. — This is a very beautiful variety, said to be in cul- 
tivatiouy and highly prized, in China and Japan ; and also found wild 
some years ago at Tarascon. The flowers are white, and are pro- 
duced in such abundance as to entirely cover the branches. 

The sloe, or blackthorn, is much more firequently seen as a large spiny shrub, 
tiian as a irtei but, when the suckers are removed from it, and all the strength 
of the plant is allowed to go into one stem, it forms a small scrubby tree of the 
Jnost characteristic kind. The stems of the sloe differ from those of the haw- 
thorn, in growing to the height of 3 or 4 feet before they branch off. The 
bark is black, whence the name of blackthorn ; and the leaves are dark green. 
Tbe roots are creeping, and, in every soil and situation, throw up numerous 
Backers ; so much so, that a single plant, in a favourable soil, would cover an 
acre of ground in a very few years. In hedges, in Britam, it is seldom seen 
above 20 ft, in height ; but in woods and in parks, as single trees, we have seen 
it above 30 ft. high : for example, in Eastwell Park, in Kent. The wood is 
hard, and in colour resembles that of the peach, thoueh without its beauty : it 
takes a fine polish ; but it is so apt to crack, that little use can be made of it, 
except for nandles for tools, teeth for hay-rakes, swingles for flails, and 
w^ing-sttcks. The wood weighs, when dry, nearW 521b. per cubic foot. 
The branches, from being less spreading than those of*^ the common hawthorn, 
make better dead hedges than those of that species ; and. for the same reason, 
they are particularly well adapted for forming guards to the stems of trees 



VM ET FRUTICETUM BBITANNICUM 




planted in grasi fields or in parks, to protect them from raltle. 
general use for ihie purpose in France. They are also used as a 
stones and tiles in draining ; and, formed into fnggots, they arc sn 
bakers' ovens, and for burning lime or chalk in kihis, &c. Th 
cannot be recum mended Tor hedges, on account of the ramblin 
roots, and the numerous suckers they throw up; and because ii 
naked below, from the tendency of the shoals to grow upri^l 
branches. These upright shoots make excellent walking-stick 
cordingly, throughout Europe, are more frequently taken from 
from any other. Lcbtcs of the sloe, dried, are considered to 
substitute for Chinese tea which has yet been tried in Europe ; : 
been extensively used for the adulterHtion of that article. Thi 
ripe fruit is s^d to enter largely into the manufacture of the chi 
port wine ; and, when properly fermented, it makes a wine stronj 
new port. In planting groups and masses in parks, by the add): 
plants of the sloe, a degree of intricacy may he given sooner 
fectively, than by the use of the common thorn; but, at the same 
produces a degree of wildness from its numerous suckers, am 
control which they indicate, which is not displayed by any of 1 
Cratte'gus, which do not throw up suckers, tor producing wil 
tricacy, therefore, in park scenery, the sloe is of great value, ai 
much heightened by the addition of the common furze or the 
sloe prefers a strong calcareous loam. It may be propagated fret 
or by seeds': the latter should be gathered in October, when th' 
ripe, miied with sand, and turned over two or three tim^ in the 
winter ; and, bemg sown in February, they will come up in the i 



V 2. P. II 



SHfraraigt. Eng. Bat., I.Stl. I Hiynt 



The engrailed Plum Tree, or Bull, 

Prcxl.,S.p.i».; Don". Mtll., J. p. 4SS. 
tor TV™™. I P. IjMUrii milor S.i» -. Proi 






Spec. Char., Sfc. Branches beioming spiny. Flowers in pairs. 
or lanceolate ; villose beneath, not Hat. Fruit roumlisL (D 
low tree. England, Oeniiany, and the South of France, and 
Height 10ft. to 20ft. Flowers white; March and April, 
ripe in October. 

X P. t. \fiucfu mgro Hon. The black-li-Liited, or commoi 
1! P. i. 2jraclii lilco^io Hort.— Fruit jel hi wish- white. 



XXVI. sosa'ce^ : Pkv nus. 



273 



f P. I. Sjrydu rubro Hort. — Fruit red. 

t P. i. ^ fibre pieno Descemet in Mem, de la Rtistie Meridionale, 1. 
p. 63. — Flowers double. 

The fruit, which is globular, and usually black, is sometimes yellowish or 
>uy, with a red tint, and sometimes red ; it is also bo much less austere than 
the sloe, as to make excellent pies and puddings, and a very good preserve. 








488* Artenu tnldda. 



The fruit of this plum in Provence is called prune sibarelle, because it is im« 
possible to whistle after having eaten it, from its sourness. The wood, the 
blanches, the fruit, and the entire plant are used, throughout France, for the 
nrae purposes as that of the sloe. 

It 3. P. DOMB^fiTiCA L, The domestic cultivated PFum Tree. 



Uq. Sp., 680. : Dec. Prod., 2. p.533. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 499. 
P. latlra Pueks and Ray ; Prunler doniestiqae, Pr. ; ge- 
mdne Pflaume, Ger, ; Sutino domettico, luU, 
EngnKings. Wood. Med. Bot., 1 85. ; E. BoC., 1. 1788. ; and our^. 439. 

Spec. Char., S^c, Branches spineless. Flowers mostly 
solitary. Leaves lanceolate-ovate, concave on the sur- 
^e, not flat. (Dec, Prod,) A low tree. South of 
Europe, on hills; in England, found sometimes in 
hedges, but never truly wild. Height 15ft. to 20 ft. 
Flowers white ; April and May. Drupe various ; ripe 
August to October. 

Varied. 

*t P, d, %fiofre pleno Hort. — Flowers large, double. 
5 P. i/. 3 foGis variegdtis Hort. — Leaves variegated. 
t P. i/. 4 wrmetuoides Ser. — Leaves and fruit like 
tho6c^ of ilrmenlaca brigantiaca. 

The cultivated plum resembles the common sloe, but is 
larger in all its parts, and without thorns. There are 
onmerouB varieties and subvarieties; but, as they belong <»•'•»*»»• *«*ti«- 
BKme to pomology than to arboriculture, we have here only noticed those 
that hove aooie pretensions to distinctness in an ornamental point of view 




374 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUH BltlTANNICUH. 

Hie l^iicot-like plum seema inCemiediace between the wild plum aai lb 
wild apricot. The varieties cultivated for their fruit have, in general, inud 
larger leaves, an4 stronger young shoots, than the other sorts; ihey flowe 
later, their blossoms are larger, and their fruit, pBrticularly tuch sorts u lb 
magnuni bonum aud the diamond plum, several times as large ; the latter betn, 
upwards of 8) in. long. These fruit-beuHng varieties are in univavii cniti 
vation in temperate climates ; and for every thing of interest rcUtini; la thee 
as such, we refer tu our Encydopadia of Gardening, edi 
use of the fruit in domestic economy, in Britain, for 
OTuking tarts and puddings, is well known. In France, 
cipall^ dried, as lui urticle of commerce, and ihey are I 
of bngnoles, prunes, and French plums. The difleret 
plums in France will be found detailed at length in the 
and in our Suburian HorHadtiaut, 

1 4. P. (d.) hvboba'lana L. The MyrobaUn, 

UtmUftaOM. Lin. Sp.. CM). ; Dh. Prod., a. p. U3, i Dob'i Ul[t.. 3. p 

Vuxqw- P.1ijiaM,taDuHam.i F.mntMtat LoH. ; P.cttm 

VtrgtuUD'CbHrjr 1 Eulr Surlst Finn i I^iiiilar mrrgbaUn, w C« 



Spec. Cliar., Sfc. Sepab narrow. Fruit globose, deprei 
bilicus depressed ; nut with a sniall point. (Dee. 
Europe, or,accordine to some. North America. Heigl 
tivated in gardens for an unknown period. Flowe 
April. Fruit cordate, red, rarely produced m Englani 
Variety. 

1 P. (if.) ni. S /<j& ottritgaiit N. Du Ham. has va 
Though we consider this nothing more than a variety 
yet it is so distinct, both in the habit of the tree and t 
that we think it more convenient to keep it apart. Its 
u early as those of the sloe; and, the plant being u 
species, it seldom produces fnut in England, except i 
protected. It forms a good stock for varieties intended 
India the Iruit is sold to dye black. 



xxvi. jiosa'cex: peu'nus. 



Balb. The white Plum Tree, 
r WUld. enun. Sinipl.,I>.M.: Dm, I>rc 
1. 1. IIU. ; and ouijV'- Ml. «t2 
Spec. Char., Sjc. Branches pubescent. 
Flowers 8 or 3 together, upon short 
pubescent peduncleB, CbIji bell- 
shaped. Leaves broatlly ovate, 
vhitish beneath. Btipules of the A 
length of the petiole, very narroiv, ) 
and cut in a toothed manner. {Dec. ^ 
Prod.) A low shnib. ?Tauria. 
Height 6 ft. to 3 ft. Introd. in 18S5. ml r- 
Flowen white i April. 

It is not known of what country it is a native, 
hardy, eaidly cultivated, and so laden with white hi 
'■"■""'■ spring as to appear a mass of snow, whence the m 
M 6. P. Cocoxi'lla Tenore. The Coconiitla Plum 1 






. Ourj^. 



Ml. (nii]i'u;£(. 



.,1119, p.M.i D«. 






Spn. Char., ^c. Flowera npon short peduncles, 

Leaves obovate, crenulate, glabrous on both . , 

(be crenaturcs glonded. Fruit ovate-oblong, with a small 
point, yellow, ? bitter or ? add. {Dec. Prod") A low ahrub 
""'-'--- a hedges. Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Introduced 



Odibria, ii 

in isat. Flowera white; April. Drupe yellow , ..,,^„, 

The bark is febrifugal, and, in Calabria, is considered to 
' * qieciGc for the cure of the pestilential fevers common 
ttUE country. 

• T. P. kaki'tima yrangenAdm. The sea-aide-inhabiling Plun 

S^mo^mf. ?/. ■cumlnit 
Eap-miliifi. Our Jlf. 44 
tji« Luabcrtim hvrbir' 




.•a.! 




Spec. Char., ^c. Leaves lanceolate- 



ET FROTICETUM llRlTAb 

(Dec. Frod.) A middle-Bized shrub. North Aroericn, 
sea coast, from New Jersey to Carolina. Height 6 ft 
in 1B18. FloirerR white; A^ril and Mav. Fruit, of 
egg, dark purple, and, according to Pnrsh, veiy good t 
There are plants in British gardena, but they have i 
.K 6. P. pubb'scens Pod-. The pubeacent-^onw 

tiintifltiaiatt. Foir. Suppl.. 4.p. AM., notof Puiih; D«. Prod.,l.p.l 
EngraciKi. OutjIg.aoS* lap, 1106. 

Spec. Char., S[c. Leaves with short pubescent petioles 
slightly pubescent, ovate, thickish, rounded, or ahofl 
equally toothed. Flowers mostly solitary and nearly 
(pec. Prod.) A ahrub. Native country unknown. 
Height 2 ft. to 3 ft. Flowers white ; May. 

Ji 9. P. Dtv«RiCA^TA Led. The divnricated-irant 

litnUgtallaa, Ltifb. Ind, HoR. Doni. Suppl. ISM, p S. i Fl.,All., 
TlT.; Doc. Prod., 5. p. SM. i Don'l Mill.:! p. m. , 

£ivra>nvl. Led. Flor. AIL, I. IS, i ud our^-"^- i 

^c. Char., ifc. Branches apineless. I<eaves with ^ 
glandless petioles, and disks oblong-elliptical, tA- K 
pered to both ends, concave above, serrate, gla- ? 
brous, with the miilrib bearded beneath. Flowers 
solitary, very numerous. Caivx rellexed. Fruit 
elliptiral, yellow. (Dec. Prod.) A middle-siied 
shrub. Caucasus. Height 8 ft. to 10 ft. Intro- 
duced in 1820. Flowers white ; April. 

Olher Spedet of Prunut Juss. — In consequence of 
genus Priinus bring removed to C^asus; and also be< 
semblance of one species to another io both genera, tli 
conftigioD, which cannot be cleared up till the plants i 
state. Prilnus effusawas raised in 1838, in the Hort. Soi 
presented by Baron Jacquin. 

Genus V. 

CE'RASUS Jutt. The Cbekkt. Lm. Sytt. Icosi 

WrXiflcattm. JuM. Om..Mai Dnr. Fl. Fr.t.f.m.; Prad-.J. p.Mi 

Gen. Char. Drupe globose, or uinbilicate at the base, II 
destitute of bloom, containing a smooth, rather globi 
(Don-, MUl.) 

Leavet simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous, or eft 
condtiplicate. Flowen white. Pedieelt I-llowcred, risir 
fascicled umbels, from scaly buda; but sometimes rising 
the leaves, in racemes, from the tops of the branches. — Ti 
all deciduous, with smooth serrated leaves, and white l]< 
with light-coloured bsrk. Natives uf Europe, Asia, ar 
Some of them are cultivated for their fruit, and the c 
In British nurseries, the deciduous species are generally 
ing or budding on the Cerasus sylv^stris, and the evei| 



XXVI. RosA^CEm: ce'rasus. 277 

by cutdogs or seeds ; they will grow iu any common soil that is tolerably dry. 
"Aiere is much confusion in all the species, more particularly as regards 
those which are natiyes of North America ; and which, as Sir W. J. Hooker 
judiciously observes, can only be ** removed by carefully studying the plants 
in a fiving state, both during the season of the blossom and that of the ^uit." 
{Plor, Bar. Amer^ i. p. 167.) 

$ i. Ceras6phora Dec. The Cheiry-hearing Kinds, 

Sect. Char, Flowers produced from buds upon shoots not of the same year ; 
and, in many instances, disposed umbellately. Leaves deciduous. 

A. Species cultivated Jbr their Fruit, 

The Cherries cultivated in Gardens, according to Linnaeus, and almost all 
botanists to the time of DeCandoUe, have been referred to P^unus kvium L, 
and Prunus Cigrasus L. ; the former being the merisier of the French, and 
correspondii^with the small wild black bitter cherry of the English (the C. 
i^lv^stns of Kay) ; and the latter the cerisier of the French, and correspond- 
ing with the common red sour cherry of the English (the C. vulgaris or Mil- 
ler). To these two species DeCandolle has added two others : Cerasus 
Jofeno, which he considers as including the guigniers ; and Cerasus duricina, 
under which he includes the bigarreaus, or hard cherries. Under each of 
these four species, Seringe,- in DeCandolle*s ProdromuSy has arranged a num- 
ber of varieties, with definitions to each group : but, as neither the species 
nor the groups appear to us distinct, we have adopted the arrangement of the 
author of the article on Cerasus in the Nouveau DuHamel, as much more 
ample and satisfactory ; and have referred all the cultivated varieties to the 
same species as Liniueus ; substituting for Prunus avium L,, Cerasus sylvestris, 
the synon. of Ray ; and for Pnknus Cerasus L., Cerasus vulgaris, already used 
to designate the same species in MiU. Diet., and by Loiseleur in the Nouveau Du 
UameL The arrangement of the varieties, and general culture of the cherry in 
the kitchen-garden and orchard, will be found at length in our Encyclopcedia of 
Gardening; and, in a more condensed form, in our Suburban Horticulturist. 

f 1. C. STLVE^STais Bauh. and Bay. The wild black-fruited Cherry Tree. 

Um^haUim. Baah. Hiit., 1 . 1. 2. p. 990. ; Rar Hist. 1636. ; Fen. Syn.. 2. p. 35. 

Sfm H sf au* and Garden Nanus. C. trlum Mctnch, N. Du Ham. 6. p. 10., Don^s Hitl. 9. p. &05* : 
C nlgn MOL Diet. No. 2., not of Alt. ; Pniniu kvium Lin. Sp. 680. ; P. tLTiuin var. « and /3 
WiBd. Baum. ed. 2. p. SOS. i i*rdnaa Mum var. $ and y Bng. nor. 2. p. Wb. ;_ P. nigricans and 
r. 7. p. 126, 127. ; Gean, Bigarreau, Coi 




6er. i Qregtolo, Ital. 

•DirfeaiMMa. ThU cbernr Ij called Corooe, or Coroon, In some parts of England, from corona, a 
crov, in rrference to its blackness. Merry Tree and Merries are evidently corruptions of the 
■ord M^rMer ; and Mirisier is said to be derired from the words asnirey bitter, and cerise, a 
ctery. Bigarrean is derived from bigarrie party^oloured, because the cherries known by this 
mse are generally of two colours, yellow and red; and Heaumier is Arom the French word 
hiamme, a brlmet, from the shape of the ftuit. 

UgrmtingM. Du Ham. Tr. Arb., 1. p. 156. ; Arb. BrlL, 1st edit., toI. tI. ; and Kxm fig. 447. 

^pec. ChoT^ ^c. Branches vigorous and divaricate ; the buds from which the 
fivits are produced oblotig-acute. Flowers in umbel-like groups, sessile, 
not numerous. Leaves oval-lanceolate, pointed, serrated, somewhat pen- 
dent, slightly pubescent on the under side, and furnished with two glands at 
the base. (^JDec. Prod., y, JDu Hamel.) A middle-sized tree. Europe, in 
woods and hedges. Height, in dry fertile soils, 40 ft. to 50 ft. or upwards. 
Rowers white ; April and May. Drupe red or black ; ripe in July. De- 
caying leaves of a fine red, or rich yellow and red. 

Gaieties. 

h Merisiers or Merries , with black or yellow firuit. 
2. Gtdgtaers or Geans (C. Juliana Dec), with red or black fruit, early or 
late, and including the tobacco-leaved guignier, or gean, of four to the 
pound (the C. decumana of Delauny). 

T 3 



78 ARBORETUM ET FRUTICETUM BalTANNlCUM. 

3. Heatmaert, the Hehnel-ihaped Ckcrriei (C. Juliiilo vw. ieauHuiau Dk.) 

somewhat resembling the bigarreau, but with leu Grm fleih. 
Varulu of tkU race toed for oraamertlal purpoiei, 
t C. f. durddna 2 Jlare plena Hort., tiie double Sowered wild blul 
Cherry; M^riaieri Fleurg doubles, or Merisier Renunculier, Fr. 
is a very beautiful variety, known, in the garden of the Hort. Sot. 
as the double French white. 
4. Bigamauiieri, the Bigarreaui,or hard-JlFikedClieTnei (C. AaTicmaDrr.) 
u'iih white, fle»h-coloured, and black fruit, generallj' heart- shxpetl. 




The colour of the fniit of the wild ^ecies is a ver; deep dark itil, 
black i the flesh is of the same colour, small in quantity, austere and biti 
before it comes to maturity, and insipid when the Fruit i* perfectly ripe. T 
nut is oval or ovate, like the fruit, Grmly adhering to the flesh, and very 1m 
in proportion to the a\te of the fruit. The juice is mostly coloured ; and i 
skin does not separate from the flesh. 

t 8. C. tvl«a'kis AGU. The common Chen; Tree. 

Unuiptaliam. Hill. DlO.. Ho. I. : K. Du Hud., ». f. IS. 

^nmnwi anil Cordis ATanci. Ctniui ItIuid MaiK* : i^tmui Oiuii Un-^.^n.-, C.I 
tbttit Fm. Srn.1. O.M., C. csprowdKi l>«. Prod. 1. p.6K„ Uon'i Illll7l. p.l07.; 
•atxkttiBiP.tiMxKlir.Brar.T.f. yvi. vAita.; P.Cirtiai tv.^ Snt- mr.t.r.tm.; Cbn 
Kcntllta or Flvmiib Chenr, Vorella, Mjij Dukv ; CvfIm de UoDCmarvDcr. CflriBB de Pi 
Cvrlia b FnUTI roi]di, Cerliler du Nord, C«rliler, ind OrlotUcr Id ioid* nrf>TlDa«, Pr. ■- S4 
KIncbc. Get.: Haniu n Cillcslo. Hal 

DeranUiim. Caprimiiiui li utd to bt dsrlitd from copnu, tlia faulbaJt unwbetii. pmlatitj b 
thli chBiry paueulTig lo much more Biiour IbMD C. ijl»*itrii, Moinllo li tithtr trma mi 

Spec. CAar^ ^c. Tree small, branches spreading. Flowers in uibtesaile i 
bels, not numerous. Leaves oval-lanceolate, toothed, glabrous. A deci 
oua tree, Europe and Britain, in gardens and plantations. Height 30 (t 
to Si. Flowers white ; May. Drupe red ; ripe in July. Decaying lei 
red and yellow. 

Varietia. — There are numerous cultivated varieties, which are dashed 
Loiseleur in the Nouvce* Du Hamtl in three (groups, including in the 



XXVI. aosa'ce^e: ce'kasvs. 



3f Ibcw tbe four fiillowing varieties, which ve paniculanee on account of 
^Mir bring purely onuunenul : — 
I C. s. S jS^r imiplaio Hort. — Flowera Bemidouble. 
1 C. f . 3 JIAre piino HorL — All the nameni of this Tsriet; are changed 
kto petals ; and the pistilium into small green lemes, which occupy 
(he centre of the £ower. The flower is smaller and less beautinA 
than that of the double mfrisier ; but, as the tree does not grow so 
high, and as it can be grown w a shrub, it is suitable for planting in 
■ituatioTis where the other cannot be introduced. It is commonly 
grafted on the Prinus Mahdleb. 
T C. D. 4 paticifidra Hort. — The flowers are double, and rose-coloured. 
Tiua mietj wag known to Bauhin and to Touniefbrt, but is at pre- 
sent rare in gardens. 
^ C. e- 5 J3Mt eariegitu Hort. has vari^ated leaves. 

The fntt^ettiing wmetiet are arranged in the Nomeau Du Hamel, 
under the following heads : — 

1. Flesh whitidi, and more or Ices add; including the Montmorencj' 

2. Flesh whitish, and only very slightly acid ; including tbe English 
duke cherries. 

3. Fleah red, including the griottieri, or morellos. 

T%e Miovmg telectioH has been made by Mr. Thompeon, with a 
view of exemplifying the different forms which the Tarieties of the 
cultirated cherries assume, as standard trees : — 

Tie Sigimetttt is a tree of vigorous growth, with large pale green leaves, 
and stout divergent bmnchea. 

Buttner't TelloteiB a vigorous-growing tree, like the preceding, but with 
golden- coloured fruit. 

Tie Xentah Cherry is a round-headed tree, with slender shoots, some- 
what pendulous. 

Tie Mat/ Duke is a middle-sized or low tree with an erect fastigiate 
head. 

TTie MereUo b a low tree, with a spreading head. s<»newhat pendulous ; 
most prolific in flowers and iniit ; the utter ripening very late, and, 
T 4 



260 ARBOREIUH ET FltUTlCETUM BRITANl 

from not being so greedilj' eaten by the birds 
hanging oa the trees a long time. 
IXOithein is a dwarf weeping tree, a Brest bearer. 
t C f . 6 Mariscba, PntouB Maratcia Jscq., ii the v 

of which the liqueur called Maraschino U made, 
been raided in the Hort. Soc. Garden in 1837. 

The flowers are Bmaller than those of C. svlv^stris, 
melting, full of awaten' sap, more or [ess lliLvoured, and 
sibly acid. The akin of the fruit is commonlj' red, but, ii 
rieties in cultivation^assing into all the ahiides between 1 
purple or black. The skin cf all the varieties of C. vu1| 
from the flesh, and the flesh parts readily from the ston 
varieties of C. svlv^scris, the skin is moi'e or less adhering 
flebh to the stone. (N. DuHam., v. p. 18.) This spec 
less magnitude than that of C. svlv^stris : it is never U 
state in Europe, and the aboriginal form is unknown. 

RetiuttJct referring to both SpecKi.—,lL\\t cherry trees in 
in woods or gardens, may, in point of general appearance, 
forms : large trees with stout branches, and shoots procei 
stem horizontally, or slightly inclining upwards, and whei 
tb^ leaves, bearing a distant reseniblance to ^gantic c«nd 
geans, and many of tbe heart cherries ; fastigiate trees of 
aa thedukeE ; end small trees with weak wood, and bran 
drooping, such as the Kentish or Flemish cherries, end 
leaves vary so much in the cultivated varieties, that it is ii 
tcrise the sons by them ; but. in general, those of the lai^ 
und the lightest in colour, and those of the slender-branche 
and the darkest in colour ; (he flowers are also largest on ' 
distinction of two species, or races, is of very Utile use 
cherries as fruit-bearing plants ; but, as the wild sort, i 
distinct, when found in its naiive habitats, from the chen 
dens, it seems worth while to keep them apart, with a v 
end ornamental plantm);. For this reason, also, we havi 
perflorens, C. Pseiido-Cerasus, C. serrulata, and C. C 
chough we arc convinced that thev are nothing more 
consequence of its rapid growth, tlie red-fruited varieC; 
ferred where the object is timber, or where slocks at 
fruit trees of large siie. As a coppice-wood tree, the stc 
mpidly ; and, as a timber tree, it will attain its full dze, in 
in 50 years. Its mte of growth, in the first 10 years, will 
circumstances, 18 in. a year. There are various trees in 
of London upwards of 60 tt. high; one on the Cotswold 
of the Earl of Harrowby, is 85 ft. high. The wood of 
sylvestris) is firm, strong, close-grained, and of a reddish 
when green, 6 1 lb. 13 oz. per cubic foot ; and when dry, 
loses m the process of drying about a 16th part of its 1 
■oft and easily worked, and it takes a line polish. It is n 
cabinetmakers, turners, end musical instrument makers. 



France, where mahogany is much less common than ii 
of the ch^ry is a favourile with almost every body, 
children. The distillers of liqueurs make great use of 
spirit known as kirschewasser is distilled from them after 
both a wine and a vinegar are made by bruising the fruit i 
allowing the mass to undergo the vinous fermentation. Th< 
b a celebrated liqueur, which is made from a large black gee 
the best kirschewasser is made j and the marasthino from 
found in DalmaCia. The preparation of these will be fount 



B. Speeitt or Varietiet cMoated at ornamental or aaioitt. 
]j 3. C. (t.) SBMPBBixo'iiEns Dec. The e»er-flowering Cherry Tree. 

n.Ff..4.p.«l.,«idPro*.,i.i,.lin.: Don-iMII1..I n.l*. 
■niEwBemii Ekrk. Briir. 
I AUulnM CbcITj 1 drUi 






DuiulDl, CiriM de SI. Hutln, Cfrbt 



/ 



^w. Char., ie. Bnnchn drooping. Leave* o»8te, Berrated. Flowers pro- 
truded late in the teaion, axillary, tolitary. Calyx lerrated. Fniils globoo, 
and red. It« naliTe country Dot known. (Dec. Fnd.) A low pendulous 
t«e. Height 10 ft. to 20 ft. A garden produo 
tion. Cultivated in ? 1700. Flowers white i May. 
Drupe led : July and August. 
An ornamental tree, usually grafted standard high 

on (he common wild cherry, or gean ; growing 

rapidly for 8 or 10 years, and forming a rouod 

head, 8 or 10 feet high,and 10 or 12 feet in diameter, 

with the extremities of the branchea drooping to 

the ground ; and flowering and truitbg aloiost the 

whole summer. It forms a truly desirablestnall single 

tree for a lawn. 

T 4. C. ibrrulaV* G.Don. The serrulated- frmwd 
Cherry Tree. 

Irwrmrma. >riUini «n^'lEi« iip'rfl, Uorl. iviu. J. p. ' M9. j 
«iiaa«CM»HChcrr); Vuni-To, C*|w^ 



282 ARBORETUM £T TRUTICETUM 1 

^Dfc. Char., ^e. Leaves obovate, acuniinBted, • 
glabroui. Petioles glandular. Flowers in fasc 
erect tree, or rather tree-like shnib, China. H 
ia British