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Full text of "Trees of the northern United States: their study, description and determination, for the use of schools and private students"

LWRARY 

FACULTY OF FORESTRY 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 




TREES 



NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

THEIR STUDY, DESCRIPTION AND 
DETERMINATION 



USE OF SCHOOLS AND PRIVATE STUDENTS 



BY 

AUSTIN C. APGAE 

PROFESSOR OF BOTANY IN THE NEW JEKSEY STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 



"Trees are God's Architecture."— Anonymous. 

"A Student who lias learned tit observe and describe so simple a 

matter as the form of a leaf has gained a power which will be 

of lifetime value, whatever may be his sphere of professional 

employment"— H'm, North Bice. 



NEW YORK • : • CINCINNATI . : • CHICAGO *\ / ^\ 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY f\ *> S~ \ 



Copyright, 1892, by the 
American Book Company. 



aK 

Rfe.7 






PREFACE. 

THIS book has been prepared with the idea that teachers 
generally would be glad to introduce into their classes 
work dealing with the real objects of nature, provided the 
work chosen were of a character that would admit of its being 
studied at all seasons and in all localities, and that the subject 
were one of general interest, and one that could be taught suc- 
cessfully by those who have had no regular scientific instruction . 

The trees of our forests, lawns, yards, orchards, streets, bor- 
ders, and parks give us just such a department. Though many 
consider a large part of the vegetable kingdom of little impor- 
tance, and unworthy of any serious study, there are few who 
do not admire, and fewer still who do not desire to know, our 
trees, the monarchs of all living things. 

The difficulty in tree study by the aid of the usual botanies 
lies mainly in the fact that in using them the first essential 
parts to be examined are the blossoms and their organs. 
These remain on the trees a very short time, are often entirely 
unnoticed on account of their small size or obscure color, and 
are usually inaccessible even if seen. In this book the leaves, 
the wood, the bark, and, in an elementary way, the fruit are 
the parts to which the attention is directed; these all can be 
found and studied throughout the greater part of the year, and 
are just the parts that must be thoroughly known by all who 
wish to learn to recognize trees. 

Though every teacher is at liberty to use the book as he 
thinks best, the author, who has been a class teacher for over 
twenty years, is of the opinion that but little of Part I. need be 



4 TREFACE 

thoroughly studied aud recited, with the exception of Chapter 
III. on leaves. The object of this chapter is not to have the 
definitions recited (the recitation of definitions in school work 
is often useless or worse than useless), but to teach the pupil to 
use the terms properly and to make them a portion of his 
vocabulary. The figures on pages 38-43 are designed for 
class description, and for the application of botanical words. 
The first time the chapter is studied the figure illustrating the 
term should be pointed out by the pupil ; then, as a review of 
the whole chapter, the student should be required to give a 
full description of each leaf. 

After this work with Chapter III., and the careful reading 
of the whole of Part I., the pupils can begin the description of 
trees, and, as the botanical words are needed, search can be 
made for them under the proper heads or in the Glossary. 

The Keys are for the use of those who know nothing of scien- 
tific botany. The advanced botanist may think them too arti- 
ficial and easy ; but let him remember that this woi-k was 
written for the average teacher who has had no strictly scien- 
tific training. We can hardly expect that the great majority 
of people will ever become scientific in any line, but it is pos- 
sible for nearly every one to become interested in and fully 
acquainted with the trees of his neighborhood. 

The attainment of such botanical knowledge by the plan given 
in this volume will not only accomplish this useful purpose, • »ui 
will do what is worth far more to the student, i. e. } teach him to 
employ his own senses in the investigation of natural objects, 
and to use his own powers of Language in their description. 

With hardly an exception, the illustrations in the work are 
taken from original drawings from nature by the author. A 
\\-w of the Bcales of pine-cones were copied from Loudon's " En- 
cyclopedia of Trees"; some Of the h'etinospora cones were taken 
from the "Gardener's Chronicle"} and three of the illustrations 
in Part 1. are from Professor Gray's works. 



PREFACE 5 

The size of the illustration as compared with the specimen of 
plant is indicated by a fraction near it ; i indicates that the 
drawing is one fourth as long as the original, | that it is nat- 
ural size, etc. The notching of the margin is reduced to the 
same extent ; so a margin which in the engraving looks about 
entire, might in the leaf be quite distinctly serrate. The only 
cases in which the scale is not given are in the cross-sections 
of the leaves among the figures of coniferous plants. These 
are uniformly three times the natui'al size, except the section 
of Araucaria imbricata, which is not increased in scale. 

The author has drawn from every available source of infor- 
mation, and in the description of many of the species no attempt 
whatever has been made to change the excellent wording of 
such authors as Gray, Loudon, etc. 

The ground covered by the book is that of the wild and cul- 
tivated trees found east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of 
the southern boundary of Virginia and Missouri. It contains 
not only the native species, but all those that are successfully 
cultivated in the whole region ; thus including all the species 
of Ontario, Quebec, etc., on the north, and many species, both 
wild and cidtivated, of the Southern States and the Pacific 
coast. In fact, the work will be found to contain so large a 
proportion of the trees of the Southern States as to make it 
very useful in the schools of that section. 

Many shrubby plants are introduced ; some because they oc- 
casionally grow quite tree-like, others because they can readily 
be trimmed into tree-forms, others because they grow very tall, 
and still others because they are trees in the Southern States. 

In nomenclature a conservative course has been adopted. 
The most extensively used text-book on the subject of Botany, 
" Gray's Manual," has recently been rewritten. That work in- 
cludes every species, native and naturalized, of the region 
covered by this book, and the names as given in that edition 
have been used in all cases, 



6 PREFACE 

Scientific names are marked so as to indicate the pronuncia- 
tion. The vowel of the accented syllable is marked by the grave 
accent (') if long, and by the acute (') if short. 

In the preparation of this book the author has received much 
valuable aid. His thanks are especially due to the authorities 
of the Arnold Arboretum, Boston, Massachusetts, and of the 
Missoui'i Botanical Garden, St. Louis, for information in regard 
to the hardiness of species ; to Mr. John H. Redfield, of the 
Botanical Department of the Philadelphia Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences, for books, specimens from which to make illus- 
trations, etc. ; and to Dr. A. C. Stokes, of Trenton, New Jersey, 
for assistance in many ways, but especially for the accurate 
manner in which he has inked the illustrations from the au- 
thor's pencil-drawings. 

The author also wishes to acknowledge the help received 
from many nurserymen in gathering specimens for illustra- 
tion and in giving information of great value. Among these, 
special thanks are due to Mr. Samuel C. Moon, of Morrisville 
Nurseries, who placed his large collection of living specimens 
at the author's disposal, and in many other ways gave him 
much intelligent aid. 



CONTENTS. 



TAGE. 

PART I. Essential Organs, and Terms Needed 

for their Description 9-43 

Chapter I. . . Roots • 9 

Chapter II. . Stems and Branches 11 

Chapter III. . Leaves 17 

Chapter IV. . Flowers and Fruit 24 

Chapter V. . . Winter Study of Trees 29 

Chapter VI. . The Preparation of a Collection . . 35 
Chapter VII. Figures to be used in Botanical De- 
scription 38 

PART II. Plan and Models for Tree Description 44-50 
PART III. Key, Classification and Description 

of the Species 51-201 

Glossary of Botanical Terms, and Index to Part I 203-212 
Index to Part III 213-224 



TBEES. 



PAET I. 

THE ESSENTIAL ORGANS, AND THE TERMS 
NEEDED' FOR THEIR DESCRIPTION. 



Chapter I. 
Boots. 

THOUGH but little study of the roots of trees is prac- 
ticable, some knowledge of their forms, varieties, 
and parts is important. 

The great office of the roots of all plants is the taking 
in of food from the soil. Thick or fleshy roots, such as 
the radish, are stocks of food prepared for the future 
growth of the plant, or for the production of flowers and 
fruit. The thick roots of trees are designed mainly for 
their secure fastening in the soil. The real mouths by 
which the food is taken in are the minute tips of the hair- 
like roots found over the surface of the smaller branches. 
As trees especially need a strong support, they all have 
either a tap-root — one large root extending from the 
lower end of the trunk deep down into the ground; or 
multiple roots — a number of large roots mainly extend- 
ing outward from the base of the trunk. 

Trees with large tap-roots are very hard to transplant, 
and cannot with safety be transferred after they have at- 
tained any real size. The Hickories and Oaks belong to 
this class. 

9 



10 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

Trees having multiple roots are readily transplanted, 
even when large. The Maples and Elms are of this class. 

Roots that grow from the root-end of the embryo of 
the seed are called primary roots; those growing from 
slips or from stems anywhere are secondary roots. 

Some trees grow luxuriantly with only secondary roots ; 
such trees can readily be raised from stems placed in the 
ground. The Willows and Poplars are good examples 
of this group. Other trees need all the strength that 
primary roots can give them ; these have to be raised 
from seed. Peach-trees are specially good examples, 
but practically most trees are best raised from seed. 

A few trees can be easily raised from root-cuttings or 
from suckers which grow up from roots. The Ailanthus, 
or " Tree of Heaven," is best raised in this way. Of this 
tree there are three kinds, two of which have disagree- 
able odors when in bloom, but the other is nearly odor- 
less. By using the roots or the suckers of the third kind, 
only those which would be pleasant to have in a neighbor- 
hood would be obtained. One of the large cities of the 
United States has in its streets thousands of the most 
displeasing of these varieties and but few of the right 
sort, all because the nurseryman who originally supplied 
the city used root-cuttings from the disagreeable kind. 

If such trees were raised from the seed, only about one 
third would be desirable, and their character could be 
determined only when they had reached such a size as to 
produce fruit, when it would be too late to transplant 
them. Fruit-trees, when raised from the seed, have to be 
grafted with the desired variety in order to Becure good 
fruit when they reach the bearing age. 



Chapter II. 
Stems and Branches. 

The stem is the distinguishing characteristic of trees, 
separating them from all other groups of plants. Although 
iu the region covered by this book the trees include all 
the very large plants, size alone does not make a tree. 

A plant with a single trunk of woody structure that 
does not branch for some distance above the ground, is 
called a tree. Woody plants that branch directly above 
the soil, even though they grow to the height of twenty 
feet or more, are called shrubs, or, in popular language, 
bushes. Many plants which have a tendency to grow into 
the form of shrubs may, by pruning, be forced to grow 
tree-like; some that are shrubs in the northern States are 
trees further south. 

All the trees that grow wild, or can be cultivated out of 
doors, in the northern States belong to one class, the stems 
having a separable bark on the outside, a minute stem of 
pith in the center, and, between these, wood in annual 
layers. Such a stem is called exogenous (outside-growing), 
because a new layer forms on the outside of the wood 
each year. 

Another kind of tree-stem is found abundantly in the 
tropics; one, the Palmetto, grows from South Carolina to 
Florida. While in our region there are no trees of this 
character, there are plants having this kind of stem, the 
best illustration being the corn-stalk. In this case there 
is no separable bark, and the woody substance is in threads 
within the pithy material. In the corn-stalk the woody 
threads are not very numerous, and the pith is very abun- 
dant; in most of the tropical trees belonging to this group 
the threads of wood are so numerous as to make the ma- 
il 



12 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 





Fig. l. 



terial very durable and fit for furniture. A stem of this 
kind is called endogenous (inside-growing). Fig. 1 repre- 
sents a longitudinal and a cross section of an exogenous 

stem, and Fig. 2 of 

an endogenous one. 
Since all the stems 

with which we have 

to deal are exogens, a 

particular description 

of that class will here 

be given. Fig. 1 shows 

the appearance of a 

section of an Ash 

stem six years old. 

The central portion, Fig. 2. 

which is about as thick as wrapping-twine, is the pith} 
from this outward toward the bark can be seen the >ix 
annual layers of the wood I; and then comes the bark, con- 
sisting of two portions. First there is an inside layer of 
greenish material, the fresh-growing portion, and lastly 
the outer or dead matter. This outer portion must crack 
open, peel off, or in some way give a chance for the con- 
stant growth of the trunk. The different kinds of trees 
are readily known by the appearance of the bark of the 
trunk, due to the many varieties of surface caused by the 
allowance for growth. None of the characteristics of 
trees afford a better opportunity for careful observation 
and study than the outer bark. 

The Birclxs have bark that peels off in thin horizontal 
layers — the color, thinness, and toughness differing in the 
different species; the Ashes have bark which open- in 
many irregular, netted cracks moderately near each other; 
the bark of the chestnut opens in large longitudinal 
cracks quite distanl from one another. The color of the 
bark and the character of the scales are quite different 
in the White and the Black Oaks. 
In the woody portion radiating lines may be seenj 



STEMS AND BRANCHES 13 

these are the silver (train ; they are called by the botanist 
medullary rays. 

The central portion of the wood of many large stems is 
darker in color than the rest. This darker portion is dead 
wood, and is called heart-wood; the outer portion, called 
sap-wood, is used iii carrying the sap during the growing 
season. The heart- wood of the Walnut-tree is very dark 
brown ; that of the Cherry, light red ; and that of the 
Holly, white and ivory -like. The heart-wood is the valu- 
able part for lumber. 

If examined under a magnifying glass, the annual layers 
will be seen to consist of minute tubes or cells. In most 
trees these tubes are much larger in the portion that grew 
early in the season, while the wood seems almost solid 
near the close of the annual layer; this is especially true 
in the Ashes and the Chestnut ; some trees, however, show 
but little change in the size of the cells, the Beech being 
a good example. In a cross- section, the age of such trees 
as the Chestnut can readily be estimated, while in the 
Beech it is quite difficult to do this. Boxwood, changing 
least in the character of its structure, is the one always 
used for first-grade wood-engravings. 

When wood is cut in the direction of the silver grain, 
or cut " quartering " as it is called by the lumbermen, the 
surface shows this cellular material spread out in strange 
blotches characteristic of the different kinds of wood. 
Fig. 16 shows an Oak where the blotches of medullary 
rays are large. In the Beech the blotches are smaller; 
in the Elm quite small. Lumber cut carefully in this 
way is said to be " quartered," and with most species its 
beauty is thereby much increased. 

Any one who studies the matter carefully can become 
acquainted with all the useful and ornamental woods 
used in a region; the differences in the color of the heart- 
wood, the character of the annual layers, and the size and 
the distribution of the medullary rays, afford enough 
peculiarities to distinguish any one from all others. 



14 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Branching. — The regular place from which a branch 
grows is the axil of a leaf, from what is called an axillary 
bud ; but branches cannot grow in the axils of all leaves. 
A tree with opposite leaves occasionally has opposite 
branches; while a tree with alternate leaves has all its 
branches alternate. 

Most branches continue their growth year after year 
by the development of a bud at the end, called a terminal 

bud. Many trees form this 
bud for the next year's 
growth so early in the 
year that it is seldom or 
never killed by the winter 
weather ; such trees grow 
very regularly and are 
symmetrical in form. Most 
evergreens are good ex- 
amples. Fig. 3 represents 
a good specimen. The age 
of such trees, if not too 
great, can be readily ascer- 
tained by the regularity of 
each year's growth. The 
^Jp- tree represented is sixteen 

Fig. 3. years old. The branches 

that started the fifth year, about the age al which regular 
growth begins, arc shown by their Bears on the trunk. 

The terminal buds of many trees are frequently killed 
by the frosts of winter; such trees continue their growth 
by the development of axillary buds; but as growth from 
an axillary bud instead of a terminal one will make a 
branch crooked, such trees are irregular in their branch' 
ing and outline. Just which axillary buds are mostapl to 
gr< w depends upon the kind of tree, bu1 trees of the same 
v;n iety are Dearly uniform in this respect. Most trees are 
therefore readily recognized by the form of outline and 
the characteristic branching. A good example of a tree 




rffc^ 






-' ;,-*> 



STK.MS AND I'.UANCIIKS 



15 







of very irregular growth is the Catalpa (Indian Bean), 
shown in Kig. 4. The tendency to grow irregularly 

usually increases with age. The Buttouwood, for ex- 
ample, grows quite regu- 
larly until it reaches the 
age of thirty to forty 
years; then its new 
branches grow in pecu- 
liarly irregular ways. 
The twigs of a very old 
and a young Apple-tree 
illustrate this change 
which age produces. 

There are great differ- 
ences in the color and 
surface of the bark of 
the twigs of different 
species of trees; some 
are green (Sassafras), 
some red (Peach, on the sunny side), some purple (Cherry). 
Some are smooth and dotless, some marked with dots 
(Birch), some roughened with corky ridges (Sweet 
Gum), etc. 

The taste and odor of the bark are characteristics 
worthy of notice : the strong, fragrant odor of the Spice- 
bush ; the fetid odor of the Papaw ; the aromatic taste of 
the Sweet Birch ; the bitter taste of the Peach ; the mu- 
cilaginous Slippery Elm; the strong-scented, resinous, 
aromatic Walnut, etc. 

The branches of trees vary greatly in the thickness 
of their tips and in their tendency to grow erect, hori- 
zontal, or drooping. Thus the delicate spray of the 
Birches contrasted with the stout twigs of the Ailanthus, 
or the drooping twigs of the Weeping Willow with the 
erect growth of the Lombardy Poplar, give contrasts of 
the strongest character. In the same way, the direc- 
tions the main branches take in their growth from the 



Fig. 4. 



16 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

trunk form another distinctive feature. Thus the up- 
ward sloping branches of the Elm form a striking con- 
trast to the horizontal or downward sloping branches of 
the Sour Gum, or, better still, to certain varieties of Oaks. 
When the main trunk of a tree extends upward 
through the head to the tip, as in Fig. 3, it is said to be 
excurrent. When it is soon lost in the division, as in 
Fig. 4, it is said to be deliquescent. 



Chapter III. 

Leaves. 

Leaves are the lungs of plants. The food taken in by 
the roots has to pass through the stem to the leaves to be 
acted upon by the air, before it becomes sap and is fit to 
be used for the growth of the plant. No portion of a 
plant is more varied in parts, forms, surface, and dura- 
tion than the leaf. 

No one can become familiar with leaves, and appreciate 
their beauty and variety, who does not study them upon 
the plants themselves. This chapter therefore will be 
devoted mainly to the words needed for leaf description, 
together with their application. 

The Leaf. — In the axil of the whole leaf the bud 
forms for the growth of a new branch. So by noting the 
position of the buds, all the parts included in a single leaf 
can be determined. As a general thing the leaf has but 
one blade, as in the Chestnut, Apple, Elm, etc.; yet the 
Horse-chestnut has 7 blades, the Common Locust often has 
21, and a single leaf of the Honey-locust occasionally has 
as many as 300. Figs. 17-58 (Chapter VII.) are all illus- 
trations of single leaves, except Fig. 43, where there are 
two leaves on a twig. A number of them show the bud 
by which the fact is determined (Figs. 25, 26, 31, 33, 34, 30, 
40, etc.); others show branches which grew from the ax- 
illary buds, many of them fruiting branches (Figs. 37, 42, 
43, 50, and 54), one (Fig. 51) a thorny branch. 

The cone-bearing plants (Figs. 59-67) have only sim- 
ple leaves. Each piece, no matter how small and scale- 
like, may have a branch growing from its axil, and so 
may form a whole leaf. A study of these figures, together 
2 w ■ 



18 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



with the observation of trees, will soon teach the student 
what constitutes a leaf. 



Arrangement. — There are several different ways in 
which leaves are arranged on trees; the most common 
plan is the alternate ; y^^K. i 11 this only one leaf occurs 
at a joint or node on the stem. The next in frequency is 
the opposite, h L h where two leaves opposite each other 
are found at m w the node. A very rare arrangement 
among trees, though common in other plants, is the 
whorled, §^>$ where more than two leaves, regularly ar- 
ranged nW% around the stem, are found at the node. 
When a number of leaves are bundled together, — a plan 
not rare among evergreens, — they are said to be fascicu- 
lated or in fascicles, ^^s*^^ . The term scattered is used 
where alternate leaves are crowded on the stem. This 
plan is also common among evergreens. 

Caution. — In some plants the leaves on the side 
shoots or spurs of a twig are so close together, the inter- 
nodes being so short, that at first sight 
they seem opposite. In such cases, 
the leaf -scars of the preceding years, 
or the arrangement of the branches, 
is a better test 
of the true ar- 
rangement of 
the leaves. The 
twig of Birch 
shown in Fig. 5 has alternate leaves. 
There is one variety of alterna- 
tion, e;ille<l two-ranked, which is 
quite characterisl ie of certain trees ; 
th.it is, the Leaves are bo flattened 
out, ;is to be in one plane on the 
opposite sides of tie- twig (Fig. 6). 
The Elm-trees form good examples 





Pig. «;. 



LEAVES 



IV 



of two-ranked alternate leaves, while the Apple leaves 
are alternate without being two-ranked. Most leaves 
spread from the stem, but some are appressed, as in the 
Arbor-vitas (Fig. 7). In this spe- 
cies the branches are two-ranked. 

Parts of Leaves. — A complete 
h-nf^gg^ consists of three parts : 
the blade, the thin expanded por- 
tion ; the petiole, the leafstalk ; 
and the stipules, a pair of small 
blades at the base of the petiole. 
The petiole is often very short 
and sometimes wanting. The Fig. 7. 

stipules are often absent, and, even when present, they 
frequently fall off as soon as the leaves expand; some- 
times they are conspicuous. Most Willows show the 
stipules on the young luxuriant growths. 





Fig. 8. 



Veining. — The leaves of most 
trees have a distinct framework, 
the central line of which is called 
a midrib ; sometimes the leaf has 
several other lines about as thick 
as the midrib, which are called 
ribs ; the lines next in size, includ- 
ing all that are especially distinct, 
are called veins, the most minute 



ones being called veinlets (Fig. 8). 



Kinds. — Leaves are simple when they have but one 
blade ; ^Ttf^com pound when they have more than one. 
Compound — " leaves are palmate when all the blades come 
from one point, as in the Horse-chestnut; &j^^ and pm- 
nate when they are arranged along the~""~^fpi, sides, as 
in the Hickory. Pinnate leaves are of two kinds : odd- 



20 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




pinnate, ^ dU when there is an odd leaflet at the end, as in 
the Ash, ^§^and abriqrfly pinnate JhJ)Aj when there is 
no end leaflet. (|^V^ 

Many trees have the leaves tirire pinnate; they are either 
twia »dd-pinnate^te$£ or twice abruptly pinnate, The 

separate blades /rj^r of a compound leaf are i$fa$ called 
leaflets. Leaves or leaflets are sessile when 0fi$i they 
have no stems, and petiolate when they have stems. 

When there are several ribs starting together from the 
base of a blade, it is said to be radiate-^ 
r. ined or palmate-veined. When the 
great veins all branch from the 
midrib, the leaf is feather-veined or pinnate-veined. 
If these veins are straight, distincL ajid reg- 
ularly placed, the leaf is said ^Km^mraitjld-" 
n iiud. The Chestnut is i _^Z^^^p>>^ a good example. 
Leaves having veinlets joim^l^N^>^ ing each other 
like a net are said to be netted-vi ined. All the trees with 
broad leaves in the northern United States, with one ex- 
ception, have netted- veined foliage. A leaf having its 
veinlets parallel to one another is said to be parallel- 
veined <>r -nerved. The Ginkgo-tree, the Indian Corn, 
and the Calla Lily have parallel- veined leaves. 
The narrow leaves of the cone-bearing trees 
also parallel-veined. 




" f 

Corn, ^^ 

are ^J^ 



Forms. — Leaves can readily be divided into the three 

following groups with regard to their general outline: 

1. Broadest at tht middle. Orbicular, fiTfo. about as broad 
as long and rounded. Om/, ^£^ab<nit / >£§/ twice as long 
as wide, and regularly "vS^ curved. Elliptical, <Cjj-j ~^ 
more than twice as long as wide, ami evenly curved, 
Oblong,/^->\ two or three times as Long as wide, with the 
sides ' parallel. Linear, j^ elongated oblong, 

more than three times as ^^ long as wide. Aarosc. 
needle-shaped, like the Leaf of the Pine-tree. 



LEAVES 21 

2. Broadest near the base. Deltoid, A* broad and tri- 
angular. Ovate, /fffi evenly curved, < ^y with a broad, 
rounded base. >s/ Heart-shaped or tordate,/o$i similar 
to ovate, but with a notch at the base. ^j§7 Lan- 
ceolate, /^gf shaped like the head of a lance. Awl- 
shaped, JzZ' -d^g^zL. s h a P e d like the shoemaker's curved 
awl. Scale- "^^S 5 ^ shaped, ~* short, rounded, and ap- 
pressed to the stem. The jfQ? Arbor-vitae has both 
awl-shaped and scale- (£? shaped leaves. 

3. Broadest near the apex. Obovate, /7j\ same as ovate, 
but with the stem at the narrow end. Je^ Obcordate,f\X 
a reversed heart-shape. Oblanceolate, ==^^^) a re- 
versed lanceolate. Wedge-shaped or cuneate, 
having a somewhat square end and straight sides like a 
w r edge. 

These words are often united to form compound ones 
when the form of the leaf is somewhat intermediate. The 
term which most nearly suits the general form is placed 
at the end ; thus lance-ovate indicates a leaf between 
lanceolate and ovate, but nearer ovate than lanceolate; 
while ovate-lanceolate indicates one nearer lanceolate. 

Bases. — Oftentimes leaves are of some general form, 
but have a peculiar base, one that would not be expected 
from the statement of shape. An ovate leaf which should 
have a rounded base might have a tapering one ; it wouH 
then be described as ovate with a tapering base.—^^k 
A lanceolate leaf should naturally have a tapering base, 
but might have an abrupt one. ^gB- Many leaves, no 
matter what their general form "~ ^*>=> m ay be, have 
more or less notched bases; such bases are called cor- 
date, J&fc, deeply or slightly, as the case may be; and 
if the v&£s- lobes at base are elongated, auriculatc. 
If the basal lobes project outward, the term halberd- 
shaped A is used. Any form of leaf may fdy^ frfa 
have <^ft a base more or less oblique. 




22 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Points. — The points as well as the bases of leaves 
are often peculiar, and need to be described by appro- 
priate terms. Truncate ^a indicates an end that 
is square ; refuse, /TD\ <^z)~j\ oue w ^h a slight notch ; 
emarginate, one l^/n V^ with a decided notch ; ob- 
cordate, with a still deeper notch ; obtuse, P^>. angular but 
abrupt; acute, - ^^X somewhat sharp- v>>>^eued ; acton i- 
nate, 7=^de- >N^7 cidedly sharp-pointed ; bristle-pointed 
and ts^** awnecl, ^ with a bristle-like tip; spiny- 
pointed, with the JjyzL point sharp and stiff (Holly) ; 
mucronate, <^<y- ir^ with a short, abrupt point. 




Margins. — Entire, 5S^|?x edge without notches ; re- 
P' n>( h/^~2>\ slightly x|||i^ wavy; sinuate, -£z>-^ 
de- ■ >/cidedly wavy ; dentaU/J^^^mth.^- 

tooth-like notches; serrate, "^^^ N^s^with 
notches like those of a saw ; *^§g? erenate, & 
with the teeth rounded; twice ser-***^ ratefir^ 
when there are coarse serrations finely ser- N^r*' rated, 
as on most Birch leaves; serrulate, with minute serra- 
tions; crenulate, with minute crenations. Leaves can be 
fir ice crenate or sinuate-crenate. Bevolute indicates that 
the edges are rolled over. 

When a leaf has a few great teeth, the projecting p;irts 
are called lobes, and the general form of the leaf is what 
it would be with the notches filled in. In the description 
of such leaves, certain terms arc needed in describing the 
plan of the notches, and their depth and form. 

Leaves with palmate veining aeepdlmately lobed. 
or notched; those with pinnate veining arc />in-^ 
wii< l>i tutted y ^S^^/Lj ix notched. While the term 
lobe is a)>|>lied^V^> to all great teeth of a leaf, whether 

rounded or pointed, hum' Or short, still there are four 

terms sometimes used having special signification with 
reference to the depth of the notches. Lobed indicates 
that the notches extend ahout one fourth the distance t( 
the base or midribj cleft, that they extend one half the 




LEAVES 2)5 

way; parted, about three fourths of the way ; and divided, 
that the notehes are nearly deep enough to make a com- 
pound leaf of separate leaflets. 

So leaves may be palmately lobed, cleft, parted or di- 
vided, and pinnately lobed, cleft, parted or divided. The 
term pinnatifid _^^i^l^ * s often applied to piunately 
cleft leaves. The~%\3^^ > terms entire, serrate, cremate, 
acute-pointed, etc., are applied to the lobes as well as to 
the general margins of leaves. 

Surface. — The following terms are needed in describ- 
ing the surface of leaves and fruit. 

Glabrous, smooth; glaucous, covered with a whitish 
bloom which can be rubbed off (Plum) ; rugous, wrin- 
kled ; canescent, so covered with minute hairs as to appear 
silvery; pubescent, covered with fine, soft, plainly seen 
hairs; tomentose, densely covered with matted hairs; 
hairy, having louger hairs; scabrous, covered with stiff, 
scratching points ; spiny, having stiff, sharp spines ; glan- 
dular-hairy, having the hairs ending in glands (usually 
needing a magnifying glass to be seen). 

Texture. — Succulent, fleshy; scarious, dry and chaffy; 
punctate, having translucent glands, so that the leaf ap- 
pears, when held toward the light, as though full of 
holes; membranous, thin, soft, and rather translucent; 
thick, thin, etc. 

Duration. — Evergreen, hanging on the tree from year 
to year. By noticing the color of the different leaves 
and their position on the twigs, all evergreen foliage 
can readily be determined at any time during the year. 
Deciduous, falling off at the end of the season. Fuga- 
cious, falling early, as the stipules of many leaves. 



Chapter IV*. 

Flowers and Fruit. 

The author hopes that those who use this work in 
studying trees will become so much interested in the 
subject of Botany as to desire more information concern- 
ing the growth and reproduction of plants than can here 
be given. In Professor Asa Gray's numerous worts the 
additional information desired may be obtained : " How 
Plants Grow" contains an outline for the use of begin- 
ners; "The Elements of Botany" is a more advanced 
work ; while the " Botanical Text Book," in several vol- 
ames, will enable the student to pursue the subject as far 
as he may wish. In this small book the barest outline of 
the parts of flowers and fruit and of their uses can be 
given. 



Flow^ks. — Parts. The flowers of the Cherry or Apple 
will show the four kinds of organs that belong to a com- 
plete flower. Fig. 9 represents an Apple-blossom. The ca- 
lyx is the outer row <>r Leaves, 
more or less united into one 
piece. The corolla is the row 
of leaves within the calyx; it 
is usually the brightest and 
7tiost conspicuous part of the 
flower. The stamens O are 
the next organs; they are 

usually, as in this case, small 

two-lobed bodies on Blender, 
thread-like Btalks. The en- 
larged parts contain ;i dust- 
like materia] called /»<//"'. 










FLOWERS AND FRUIT 25 

The last of the four kinds of parts is found in the center 
of the flower, and is called the pistil. It is this part which 
forms the fruit and incloses the seed. 

The stamens and the pistil are the essential organs of a 
flower, because they, and they only, are needed in the for- 
mation of seeds. The pollen from the stanieu, acting on 
the pistil, causes the ovules which are in the pistil to grow 
into seeds. 

The calyx and corolla are called enveloping organs, since 
they surround and protect the essential parts. 

The pieces of which the calyx is composed are called 
sepals. The Apple-blossom has five sepals. 

The pieces that compose the corolla are called petals. 

Kinds of Flowers. — When the petals are entirely 
separate from each other, as in the 
Apple-blossom, the flower is said to be 
pohjpetalous; when they grow together 
more or less, as in the Catalpa (Fig. 10), 
monopetalous ; and when the corolla is Fig. 10. 

wanting, as in the flowers of the Oak, apetalous. 

When all sides of a flower are alike, as in the Apple- 
blossom, the flower is regular ; when one side of the 
corolla differs from the other in color, form, or size, as in 
the Common Locust, or Catalpa, the flower is irregular. 

In trees the stamens and pistils are often found in 
separate flowers; in that case the blossoms containing 
stamens are called staminate, and those containing pistils 
pistillate; those that contain both are called perfect. 
Staminate and pistillate flowers are usually found on the 
same tree, as in the Oaks, Birches, Chestnut, etc.; in that 
case the plant is said to be monoecious, and all trees of 
this kind produce fruit. Sometimes, however, the stam- 
inate and pistillate flowers are on separate trees, as in 
the Willows, which are dioecious; and then only a por- 
tion of the trees — those with pistillate flowers — produce 
fruit. 




26 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

Arrangement op Flowers. — Flowers, either solitary 
or clustered, grow in one of two ways; either at the end 
of the branches, being then called terminal, or in the axils 
of the leaves, then called axillary. The stem of a solitary 
flower or the main stem of a cluster is called a peduncle ; 
the stems of the separate blossoms of a cluster are called 
pedicels. When either the flowers or the clusters are 
without stems, they are said to be sessile. 

Clusters with Pedicellate Floivers. 

Raceme, n^^s* flowers on pedicels of about equal 
length, scattered along the entire stem. Locust-tree. 

Corymb, <gg|g like a raceme except that the lower 
flowers have^^ 1 longer steins, makiug the cluster some- 
what flat-topped ; the outer flowers bloom first. Hawthorn . 

( 'yme, 'Wiy in appearance much like a corymb, but it 
differs in /the fact that the central flower blooms first. 
Alternate-leaved Cornel. 

Umbel, ». 6r=% stems of the separate flowers about equal 
in length, ^^ and starting from the same point. Gar- 
den-cherry. 

Panicle, ~J&jAJ? a compound raceme. Catalpa. 

Thyrsus, W^^° a compact panicle. Horse-chestnut. 

Clusters with Sessile or Neai /// Sessile Floivers. 

Catkin, $¥% bracted flowers situated along a slender 
and usual-sly 1 ly drooping stem. This variety of clus- 
terisvery^ I common on trees. The Willows, Kirches, 
Chestnuts, Oaks, Pines, and many others have their flow- 
era in catkins, 

Head, % the flowers in a close, usually rounded 
cluster. / Flowering Dogwood. 

Fruit. — In this book a single fruit will include all the 
part- thai grow together and contain seeds, whether from. 



FLOWERS AND FRUIT 27 

a single blossom or a cluster j there will be no rigorous 
adhereuce to an exact classification ; no attempt made to 
distinguish between fruits formed from a simple pistil 
and those from a compound one ; nor generally between 
those formed from a single and those formed from a clus- 
ter of flowers. The fruit and its general classification, 
determined by the parts easily seen, is all "that will be 
attempted. 

As stated before, it is hoped that this volume will not 
end the student's work in the investigation of natural 
objects, but that the amount of information here given 
will lead to the desire for much more. 

Berry will be the term applied to all fleshy fruits with 
more than one seed buried in the mass. Persimmon, Mul- 
berry, Holly. The pome or Apple-pome differs from the 
berry in the fact that the seeds are situated in cells formed 
of hardened material. Apple, Mountain-ash. The Plum 
or Cherry drupe includes all fleshy fruits with a single 
stony-coated part, even if it contains more than one seed. 
Peach, Viburnum, China-tree. In some cases, when there 
is but one seed in the flesh and that not stony-coated, it 
will be called a drupe-like berry. 

The dry drupe is like the Cherry drupe except that the 
flesh is much harder. The fruit of the Walnut, Hickoiy, 
and Sumac. 

The inner hard-coated parts of 
these and some others will be 
called nuts. If the nut has a par- 
tial scaly covering, as in the Oaks, 
the whole forms an acorn. 
If the coating has spiny 
hairs, as in the Chestnut and 
Beechnut, the whole is a bur. The 
coating in these cases is an in- 
volucre. If the coating or any 
part of the fruit has a regular 
place for splitting open, it is de- 




28 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




Fiir. 12. 



hiscent (Chestnut, Hickory-nut) ; if not, indehiscent (Black 

Walnut). 

Dry fruits with spreading, wing-like appendages, as in 

the Ash (Fig. 11), Maple (Fig. 12), Elm 

(Fig. 13), and Ailanthus, are called so- 

maras or keys. 

Dry fruits, usually elongated, contain- 
ing generally several seeds, are called 
pods. If there is but one cell and the 
seeds are fastened along one side, Pea- 
like pods, or legumes. Locust. The term 
capsule indicates that there is more than 
one cell. Catalpa, Hibiscus. 

All the dry, scaly fruits, usually formed by the ripening 
of some sort of catkin of flowers, will be iucluded under 
the term cone. Pine, Alder, ^k Magnolia. If the appear- 
ance of the fruit is not much 111 different, from that of 
the cluster of flowers, as J in the Hornbeams, Wil- 
lows, and Birches, the term catkin will be retained for the 
fruit also. The scales of a cone 
may lap over each other ; they are 
then said to be imbricated or over- 
lapping, ^^^JPiae) ; or they may 
merely ^Qfijpr touch at their 
edges, when they are valvate 
(Cypress). When cones or 
catkins hang down ward, they 
are pendent. If the scales have 
projecting points, these points arc 
spines it' strong, and prickles it' 
weak. The parts back of the scales 
are bracts} these often project 
beyond the scales, when they are said t<> be exserted. 
Sometimes the exserted bracts are benl backward; 

they are then said to be recurved or refiexed. 




Fig. 13. 




Chapter V. 

Winter Study of Trees. 

M \n\ of the peculiarities of trees can be studied much 
better during the winter and early spring than at any 
Other time of the year. The plan of branching, the posi- 
tion, number, size, form, color, and surface of buds, as 
well as the arrangement of the leaves within the bud and 
the peculiarities of the scales that cover them, are points 
for winter investigation. 

General Plan of Branching. — There are two dis- 
tinct and readily recognized systems of branching. 1. The 
main stem is excurrent (Fig. 3) when the trunk extends as 
an undivided stem throughout the tree to the tip; this 
causes the spire-like or conical trees so common among 
narrow-leaved evergreens. 2. The main stem is deliques- 
cent (Fig. 4) when the trunk divides into many, more* or 
less equal divisions, forming the broad-topped, spreading 
trees. This plan is the usual one among deciduous trees. 
A few species, however, such as the Sweet Gum and the 
Sugar-maple, show the excurrent stem while young, yet 
even these have a deliquescent stem later in life. The 
English Maple and the Apple both have a deliquescent 
stem very early. 

All the narrow-leaved evergreens, and many of the 
broad-leaved trees as well, show what is called definite 
annual growths ; that is, a certain amount of leaf and 
stem, packed up in the winter bud, spreads out and hard- 
ens with woody tissue early in the year, and then, no 
matter how long the season remains warm, no additional 
leaves or stem will grow. The buds for the next year's 

29 



30 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



growth then form and often become quite large before 
autumn. 

There are many examples among the smaller plants, 
but rarely one among the trees, of indefinite annual 
growth; that is, the plant puts forth leaves and forms 
stems throughout the whole growing-season. The com- 
mon Locust, the Honey-locust, and the Sumacs are illus- 
trations. 

Buds. — Buds are either undeveloped branches or un- 
developed flowers. They contain within the scales, which 
usually cover them, closely packed leaves; these leaves 
are folded and wrinkled in a number of different ways 
that will be defined at the end of this chapter. 






Position and Number. — While the axils of 
the leaves and the ends of the stems are the 
ordinary places for the buds, there are many 
peculiarities in regard to their exact position, 
number, etc., that render them very interesting 
for winter study. Sometimes there are several 
to the single leaf. In the Silver Maple there are 
buds on each side of the true axillary one ; these 
are flower- buds, and during the winter they are 
larger than the one which produces the branch. 
The Butternut (Fig. 14) and the Walnut have 
several above each other, the upper one being 
the largest and at quite a distance from the 
true axil. In these cases the uppermost is apt 
to grow, and then the branch is said to be extra- 
axillary. In the Sycamore the bud does not 

Show while the leaf remains on the tree, as it is 

in the hollow of the leafstalk. In the winter 

the bud has a ring-like sear entirely around 

it. instead <»t' the moon-shaped sear below as 

in most tiers. The Common Locus! has several 

buds under the Leafstalk and one above it in 



WINTER STUD? OF TREES 31 

the axil. This axillary bud may grow during the time 
the leaf remains ou the tree, aud afterward the growth 
of the strongest one of the others may give the tree two 
branches almost together. 

Some plants form extra buds especially when they are 
bruised or injured; those which have the greatest ten- 
dency to do so are the Willows, Poplars, and Elms. Such 
buds and growths are called adventitious. By cutting 
off the tops or pollarding such trees, a very great number 
of adventitious branches can be made to grow. In this 
way the Willow-twigs used for baskets are formed. Ad- 
ventitious buds form the clusters of curious thorns on the 
Honey-locust and the tufts of whip-like branches on the 
trunks and large limbs of the Elms. 

In trees the terminal bud and certain axillary ones, 
differing according to the species or variety of tree, are, 
during the winter, much larger than the rest. These are 
the ones which naturally form the new growth, and upon 
their arrangement the character of branching and thus 
the form of the tree depend. Each species has some pe- 
culiarity in this regard, and thus there are differences 
in the branching of all trees. In opposite-leaved plants 
the terminal bud may be small and weak, while the two 
buds at its side may be strong and apt to grow. This 
causes a forking of the branches each year. This plan is 
not rare among shrubs, the Lilac being a good example. 

Bud-Scales. — The coverings of buds are exceedingly 
varied, and are well worthy of study and investigation. 
The large terminal buds of the Horse-chestnut, with their 
numerous scales, gummy on the outside to keep out the 
dampness, and hairy within to protect them from sudden 
changes of temperature, represent one extreme of a long 
line ; while the small, naked, and partly buried buds of 
the Honey-locust or the Sumac represent the other end. 

The scales of many buds are merely extra parts formed 
for their protection, aud fall immediately after the burst- 



32 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



ing of the buds; while other buds have the stipules of 
the leaves as bud-scales ; these remain on the twigs for 
a time in the Tulip-tree, and drop immediately in the 
Magnolia. 

Forms of Buds. — The size of buds varies greatly, as 

before stated, but this difference in size is no more marked 

than the difference in form. There is no better way to rec- 

2 ognize a Beech at 

any time of the 
3 T ear than by its 
very long, slen- 
der, and sharp- 
pointed buds. The 
obovate and al- 
most stalked buds 
of the Alders are 
also very conspic- 
uous and pecu- 
liar. In theBalsam 
Poplar the buds 
are large, sharp- 
pointed, and gum- 
my; in the Ailan- 
thus they cannot 
be seen. 

All the things 
tli.it might be 
learned from a 
Bmall winter twig cannot be shown in an engraving, bu1 
the figures here given illustrate some of the facts easily 
determined from such specimens. The first twig (Ash) 
had opposite Leaves and is :: years old (tin- end of each 
year's growth is marked by dotted lines on all the figures); 
the year before hist it had <> Leaves on the middle portion ; 
last year it had 8 Leaves on the end port ion and 12 <>n the 
side shoots of the middle portion. The buds near the 




Pig. i:.. 



w INTER ntii>y OF TREES 33 

end of the annual growth arc strongest and are most apt 
to grow. The specimen illustrated was probably taken 
from the end of a branch of a rather young and luxuri- 
antly growing tree. Thus the Ash must have quite a 
regular growth and form a regularly outlined tree. 

The second twig (Sweet Gum) shows 7 years' growth 
and is probably a side shoot from more or less within 
the tree-top. It is stunted in its growth by the want of 
light and room. The leaves were alternate. 

The third twig (Sycamore) also had alternate leaves; 
the pointed buds must have been under the leafstalks, as 
the leaf-scars show as rings around the buds. The larger 
branch grew three years ago. From the specimen one 
judges that the Sycamore is quite an irregularly formed 
tree. The twig had 11 leaves last year. 

The fourth twig (Silver Maple) shows that the plant 
had opposite leaves, and supernumerary buds at the sides 
of the true axillary ones; the true axillary buds are 
smaller than those at the sides. It would, in such cases, be 
reasonable to suppose that the supernumerary buds were 
floral ones, and that the plant blooms before the leaves 
expand. The annual growths are quite extended; two 
years and a part of the third make up the entire twig. 
If it was cut during the winter of 1891-92, it must 
have had leaves on the lower part in 1889 and 12 leaves 
on the middle portion in 1890, as well as probably 4 on 
the lower portion on the side shoots. Last year it had 
14 leaves on the end portion, two at least on each side 
shoot below, making 24 in all. 

Folding of Leaves in the Bud, 

There are some peculiarities in the arrangement of 
leaves iu the bud which can be investigated only in the 
early spring. The common plans among trees are — In- 
fixed: blade folded crosswise, thus bringing it upou the 
footstalk. Tulip-tree. Gondu plicate : blade folded along 
3 



34 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

the midrib, bringing the two halves together. Peaeh. 
Plicate : folded several times length wise,like a fan. Birch. 
Convolute: rolled edgewise from one edge to the other. 
Plnm. Involute: both edges rolled in toward the midrib 
on the upper side. Apple. Revolute : both edges rolled 
backward. Willow. Obvolute : folded together, but the 
opposite leaves half inclosing each other. Dogwood 



Chapter VI. 



The Preparation of a Collection. 

Three specimens are needed of each kind of tree: one, 
a branch showing the flowers ; another, showing the fruit 
— one of these, and in many cases both, will show the 
leaves. The third specimen, cut from a large limb or 
trunk, shows the bark and the wood. This should be a 
specimen with a (C 

surface so cut as 
to show the wood A 
in the direction of 
the silver grain, 
radial section ; 
with another sur- 
face cut in the 
direction of the 
annual layers, 
tangential section; 
and with a third 
cut across the 
grain, cross-sec- 
tion. It should 
be a specimen old 
enough to show 
the change of 
color in the heart- 
wood. By taking Fig. 16. 
a limb or trunk 8 inches in diameter, all these points can 
be secured. A specimen cut as shown in the figure will 
illustrate all the desired points. Side E F G shows sap- 
and heart-wood in tangential section ; side A B D C shows 
the same in radial section ; end A B F E, in cross-section \ 

35 




36 TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

and B F G D shows the bark. The central pith is at I ; 
the heart-wood extends from C to J; the sap-wood from 
J to D. The silver grain is well shown at the end, and 
the blotches formed by it on the radial section. 

By having the piece made smooth, and the upper part 
down to the center (H) varnished, the appearance of the 
wood in furniture or inside finish will be illustrated. 

The specimens should be as nearly uniform in size as 
possible. If a limb 8 inches in diameter be taken and a 
length of 6 inches be cut off, the section A B D C should 
pass through the line of pith ; the section E F G should 
be parallel with this at a distance from it of two inches; 
and two inches from the line of pith, the section A E C 
should be made. The whole specimen will then be 6 
inches wide and long, and 2 inches thick. 

The twigs containing leaves, flowers and fruit need to 
be pressed while drying in order that they may be kept 
in good form and made tough enough to be retained as 
specimens. The plants should be placed between a large 
supply of newspapers, or, better still, untarred building- 
felt, while drying. A weight of from 40 to 80 pounds is 
needed to produce the recpaisite pressure. The weight is 
placed upon a board covering the pile of plants and paper. 
On account of the size of many leaves and flower-clusters, 
these pressed specimens of trees should not be shorter than 
from 12 to 15 inches, and even a length of 18 inches is an 
advantage. The pads or newspapers should be about 12 
by 18 inches. A transfer of the plants into dry pads each 
day for a few days will hasten the drying and increase 
the beauty of the specimens. The specimens of twigs can 
be mounted on cardboard by being partly pasted and 
partly secured by narrow strips of gummed cloth placed 
across the heavier portions. The cardboard Bhould be 
uniform in size. One of the regular sizes of Bristol-board 
is 22 by 28 inches; this will cut into four pieces 11 by 14. 
Specimens nol over 15 inches in length can readily be 
mounted on these, and for most collectors this might be 



THE PREPARATION OF A COLLECTION .'17 

a very convenient size. Another regular size is'J2 by 32 
inches, cutting well into pieces 11 by 16. Specimens 15 
to 18 inches long- can be mounted on these. 

Some kinds of Evergreens, the Spruces especially, tend 
to shed their leaves after pressing. Such kinds can in 
most cases be made to form good specimens without 
pressing. Fasten the fresh specimens on pillars of plas- 
ter in boxes or frames 2 to 3 inches deep, so that they touch 
nothing but the column of plaster. Mix calcined plaster 
in water (as plasterers do), and build up a column high 
enough to support the branch. Place the specimen on the 
top of the pillar already formed, and pour over the whole 
some quite thin plaster till a rounded top is formed com- 
pletely fastening the specimen. If the leaves are not 
touched at all, after they are dry, they will hang on for a 
long time, making specimens that will show the tree char- 
acteristics better than pressed specimens possibly could. 



Chapter VTI. 
Fufiires to be used in Botanical Description. 










I 



FIGURES 1,,(,K BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION 39 




Fig. 26. 



Fig. 27. 



Fig. 28. 




Fig. 33. 



Fig. 34. 



40 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




Fijr. 36. 



Fig. 37. 




Kit'. t& 






FIGURES FOB BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION 41 




Pig. 50. 



Fig. 52. 



42 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 







Fig. 51. 










G^ 






61GURES FOB BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION 43 




Fig. G5. 



Fig. oo. 



Wig. 07. 



PART II. 
PLAN AND MODELS FOR TREE DESCRIPTION 

ALL pupils should be required to write some form of 
jf\_ composition ou the trees of the region. As far as 
possible, these compositions should be the result of per- 
sonal investigation. It is not what a pupil can read and 
redescribe in more or less his own words, but how ac- 
curately he can see and, from the information conveyed 
by his own senses, describe in his own way the things 
he has observed, that makes the use of such a book as 
this Important as an educational aid. Some informa- 
tion in regard to trees, in a finished description, must 
be obtained from books, such as hardiness, geographical 
distribution, etc. Pupils generally should be required 
to include only those things which they can give from 
actual observation. 

There are four distinct forms of tree descriptions that 
might be recognized by the teacher and occasionally 
called for as work from the pupil. 1st. A bare skeleton 
description, written by aid of a topical outline, from the 
observation of a singletree and its parts. 2d. A con- 
nected description, conveying as many facts given in the 
outline as can well be brought into good English sen- 
tences. This again is the description of a single tree. 
3d. A connected, readable description of a certain kind 
of tree, made up from the observation of many trees 
of the same species to be found in the neighborhood. 
4th. The third description including information to be 
obtained from outside sources in regard <«» the origin, 
geographical distribution, hardiness, character of wood, 
habits, durability, etc. These lour plans of description 



MODELS FOR TREE DESCRIPTION 45 

are more or less successive methods to be introduced as 
I he work of a class. Pupils should be induced to carry 
on their own investigations as far as possible before 
going to printed sources for information. A good part 
of class work should be devoted to the first three of the 
methods given, but the work might finally include the 
fourth form of composition. The first two methods 
should follow each other with each of the trees studied; 
that is, one week let a mere outline be written, to be 
followed the next week with as clear and connected a 
description as the ability of the pupil will allow, and 
containing as much of the information given in the out- 
line as possible. 

Outline for Tree Description. 

The tree as a whole : size, general form, trunk, branch- 
ing, twigs, character of bark, color of bark on trunk, 
branches, and fine spray. 

Leaves : parts, arrangement, kinds, size, thickness, form, 
edges, veining, color, surface, duration. 

Buds • position, size, form, covering, number, color. 

Sap and juice. 

Flowers : size, shape, color, parts, odor, position, time 
of blooming, duration. 

Fruit : size, kind, form, color when young and when 
ripe, time of ripening, substance, seeds, duration, useful- 
ness. 

Wood (often necessarily omitted) : hardness, weight, 
color, grain, markings, durability. 

Remarks : the peculiarities not brought out by the above 
outline. 

Notes on the Foregoing Outline. 

The height of a tree can be readily determined by the 
following plan. Measure the height you can easily reach 
from the ground in feet and inches. Step to the trunk 



46 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

of the tree you wish to measure and, reaching up to 
this height, piu a piece of white paper oil the tree. Step 
back a distance equal to three or four times the height 
of the tree ; hold a lead-pencil upright between the 
thumb and forefinger at arm's-length. Fix it so that 
the end of the pencil shall be in line with the paper <>n 
the trunk ; move the thumb down the pencil till it is in 
line with the ground at the base of the tree ; move the 
arm and pencil upward till the thumb is in line with 
the paper, and note where the end of the pencil comes on 
the tree. Again move the pencil till the thumb is in line 
with the new position, and so continue the process till the 
top of the tree is reached. The number of the measures 
multiplied by the height you can reach will give quite 
accurately the height of the tree. 

The width of the tree can be determined in the same 
manner, the pencil, however, bring held horizontally. 

In giving the forms of trees, it is well to accompany the 
description with a penciled outline. 

The distance from the ground at which the trunk be- 
gins to branch and the extent of the branching should 
be noted. The direction taken by the brandies, as well 
as the regularity and the irregularity of their position, 
should also be observed and described. 

Although most twigs are cylindrical, still there are 
enough exceptions to make it necessary to examine them 
with reference to their form. 

Onder leaves, it will be well to make drawings, both of 
the outline and of the veining. 

( Irnshed Leaves will give the odor, and the sap can best 
be noticed at the bases of young Leaves. The differences 
in Bap and juice need the following words for their 
description: watery, milky, mucilaginous, aromatic, spicy, 
sweet, gummy, resinous. 

Pupils should not always be expected t<» find «»iit much 
aboul flic flowers of a tree, as they are frequently very 
evanescent, and usually difficult to reach. 



MODELS FoK TREE DESCRIPTION 



47 



The fruil lasts a greater Length of time and, usually 
dropping spontaneously, gives a much better chance Cor 
investigation. 

Specimens of most of the common woods may be ob- 
tained from cabinet-makers and carpenters. In cases 
where these specimens are at hand, description of the 
wood should be required. If the school has such speci- 
mens as are described in Chapter VI., Part I., the wood 
in all its peculiarities can be described. 



Examples of Tree Description. 

Taxodium distichum (Bald Cypress). 

(Atterburifs Meadow.) 

No. 1. 

Tree eighty-four feet tall, thirty feet wide near base 
ovate, conical, pointed ; trunk seven feet in circumfer 
ence near base and ridged lengthwise, 
but only four feet at the height of six 
feet from the ground, where it becomes 
round or nearly so, then gradually taper- 
ing to the top •, branches small, very 
numerous, begin uing six feet from the 
ground, sloping upward from the trunk 
at an angle of nearly forty-five degrees ; 
twigs very slender, numerous, pendu- 
lous, two, three or even more growing to- 
gether from supernumerary buds around 
the old scars , bark brownish, quite 
rough, thick and soft on the trunk, 
smoother on the branches, greenish on 
the young spray. 

Leaves about sessile, without stipules, 
alternate, crowded, two-ranked, thin, linear, entire, par- 
allel-veined, with midrib, dark green, smooth, deciduous 





48 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

Buds show in the axils of only a few of the leaves, and 
are very small ; but there are several supernumerary buds 
around man)- of the clusters of the shoots of the year. 
Sap clear and slightly sticky with resin. 

Flowers looked for, but not seen ; 
must have been small, or have 
bloomed before my examination in 
the spring. 

Fruit one inch in diameter, cone 
globular, brown in the autumn ; 
did not notice it before j fifteen 
six-sided scales, two seeds under 
each, still hanging on, though the 
leaves have dropped ; only to pro- 
duce seeds, I think. 

The wood I do not know about. 

Remarks. Around the base, at some distance from the 

trunk, there are four peculiar knobs, seemingly coming 

from the roots, one being nearly a foot high and nine 

inches through. 

No. 2. 

The Bald Cypress standing near a small ditch in Alter- 
bury's meadow is a very beautiful, tall, conical tree, over 
80 feet high, with an excurrent trunk which is very large 
and ridged near the ground It tapers rapidly upward, so 
that the circumference is only about half as greal a1 the 
height of 6 feet, where the branches begin. The branches 
art very numerous and, considering the size of the trunk, 
very small; thelargesl of them being only aboul 2 inches 
through. They all slop); upward rapidly, bul the lip and 
line spray show a tendency to droop; the fine thread-like 
branchlets, bearing the leaves of the year, are almost all 
pendulous. 

The bark is very rough, thick and soft, as I Pound in 
pinning on the bil of paper to measure the height of the 
tree, when I could easily press the pin in to its head. 



MODELS FOR TREE DESCRIPTION 40 

The leaves are very small and delicate, and as they ex- 
tend out in two ranks from the thread-like twigs, look 
much like line ferns. The small linear leaves and the 
spray drop off together in the autumn, as I can find much 
of last year's foliage on the ground still fastened to the 
twigs. I could not see any flowers, though I looked from 
early in the spring till the middle of the summer; then I 
saw a few of the globular green cones, almost an inch in 
diameter, showing that it had bloomed. Next spring I 
shall begin to look for the blossoms before the leaves 
come out. 

On the ground, about 6 feet from the tree, there are four 
very strange knobs which I did not notice till I stumbled 
over one of them. They seem to grow from the roots, and 
are quite soft and reddish in color. 

No. 3. 

I have found twenty-two Bald Cypresses in Trenton; 
they are all beautiful conical trees, and seem to grow well 
in almost any soil, as I have found some in very wet 
places and some in dry, sandy soil. They look from their 
position as though they had been planted out, and as I 
have found none in the woods around the town, they are 
probably not native in this region. They are from 50 to 
nearly 100 feet tall. I found one 96 feet high. They are 
all of a very symmetrical, conical form, and pointed at the 
top; in no case has the trunk divided into branches, and 
on the old trees the trunk enlarges curiously near the 
ground, the lower portion being very rough with ridges. 
The bark is very thick and rough, and is so soft that a 
pin can readily be pushed through it to the wood. The 
brauches are very numerous and small, and are not regu- 
larly arranged in whorls like most of the narrow-leaved 
trees. These branches all slope upward from the trunk, 
the ends having a tendency to bend downward and make 
delicate drooping spray, with very small, linear, entire 



50 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

leaves only A inch long. Four of the largest trees show 
fruit, and each of these has only about a half-dozen of 
the globular cones. Only a few of the trees — those in the 
wettest places — have the knobs on the ground near the 
base. 

2fo.4. 

The Bald Cypress {Taxodium distichum) is a common 
tree, a native of the Gulf States, growing very abundantly 
in the wettest swamps of that region. The northern 
limit of the tree in its wild state is said to be central 
Delaware and southern Illinois, but it can be successfully 
cultivated in the region around Boston. There are several 
named varieties, one with the leaves but slightly spread- 
ing from the spray, and the whole of the brandies show- 
ing a decided weeping tendency, so that it is called the 
Weeping Cypress. The knobs from the roots, called Cy- 
press-knees, grow very abundantly around all the trees iu 
the southern swamps. These grow to the height of from 
2 to 4 feet, and are very thick, sometimes as much ;is r> 
feet. They are hollow, and are occasionally used for bee- 
hives. 

It is said to be a broad, flat-topped tree, spreading its 
top over other trees. This seems very strange, as none of 
those in Trenton, N. J., show such a tendency, but arc 
quite spire-shaped. The wood is light, soft, straight- 
grained, and is said to be excellent for shingles and for 
other put poses. It generally has a dark reddish or 
brownish hue. It is a large tree, growing to the heighl 
of 140 feet. The trunk is sometimes \1 feel through Dear 
tic- ground. The flowers of (he tree are in small catkins, 
blooming before the leaves expand in the early spring j in 
February, in South Carolina 



PART III. 

KEY, CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 
OF THE SPECIES. 

Method of Using the Key. 

FIRST read all the statements following the stars (*) 
at the beginning of the Key ; decide which one of 
the statements best suits the specimen you have. At the 
end of the chosen one there is a letter in parenthesis ( ). 
Somewhere below, this letter is used two or more times. 
Read carefully all the statements following this letter; 
at the end of the one which most nearly states the facts 
about your specimen, you will again be directed by a let- 
ter to another part of the Key. Continue this process till, 
instead of a letter, there is a number and name. The 
name is that of the genus, and forms the first part of the 
scientific name of the plant. Turn to the descriptive part 
of the book, where this number, in regular order, is found. 
Here descriptions of the species of the genus are given. 
If there are many species, another Key will lead to the 
species. While the illustrations are intended to represent 
characteristic specimens, too much dependence must not 
be placed upon them ; the leaves even of the same plant 
vary considerably, and the different varieties, especially 
of a cultivated plant, vary widely. Read the whole de- 
scription before deciding. 

The fractions beside the figures indicate the scale of the 
drawing as compared with the natural size of the part : 
t indicates natural size ; f , that the drawing is twice the 
length of the object ; J, that the drawing is one fourth the 
length of the object, etc. 



52 TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

In the description of leaves the dimensions given refer 
to the blade. 

KEY TO THE GENERA OF TREES. 

* Leaves narrow linear, needle, scale or awl shaped, usually but 

not always evergreen. (GG. ) page 60. 

* Leaves broad, flat, usually deciduous, occasionally evergreen, 

rarely over 5 times as long as wide. (A.) 
A. Leaves alternate, 1 simple. (B.) 
A. Leaves alternate, compound, (m.) page 57. 
A. Leaves opposite or whorled on the stem, (u.) page 58. 
B. Leaves with a midrib, netted-veined. (C.) 

B. Leaves without a midrib, parallel-veined 109. Salisburia, 

C. With radiating ribs, and including those which have the 
lower ribs longer and more branching than those above 
them. (f. ) page 56. 
C. With distinct and definite feather- veining. (D.) 
D. Margin entire, or so nearly so as to appear entire, sometimes 

slightly angulated but not lobed. (V.) 
D. Once or twice serrate or crenate or wavy-edged, but not lobed. 

(E.) 
D. Distinctly lobed. (S.) (If the notches are over 10 on a side, 
look under E. ) 
E. Sfraiirht-veined. (M.) 

E. Not distinctly and evenly straight-veined. (F.) 
F. Leaves evergreen with either revolute or spiny-tipped mar- 
gins 18. Ilex. 

F. Leaves evergreen, lanceolate-oblong, minutely serrate; flowers 

white, 4 in. in diameter 8. Gordonia. 

F. Leaves deciduous. (G. ) 
G. Fruit with fleshy and often edible pulp. (K.) 
G. Fruit a dry and more or less rounded pod. (H.) 
G. Fruit and flowers in dry catkins: leaves, in most species, :( 
or more times as Long as wide, finely serrate (o entire, with 
free stipules, in many species remaining on the young twigs, 
in others shown by a rounded Bear <m the sides of the stem ; 

wood soft ; (lie Willows 91. 8aliX. 

G. Fruit dry akenes with silky pappus, in small heads; whole 
plant whitened with scurf; leaves broadened and coarsely 
notched near tip; a broad spreading bush, .49. Baccheuis. 

1 Look on i in- elongated branches for the arrangement of the leaves ; they 
i tlosely clustered <ui the short side shoot*. Bee page ih. 



KKV TO THE GENERA OF TREES 53 

H. Flowers conspicuous, 1 in. or more in size, white. (J.) 
H. Flowers quite small. (I.) 

I. Flowers and fruit in large panicles; leaves elongated, peach- 
like in shape, soiu- 50. Oxydendron. 

I. Flowers in terminal, erect racemes; fruit small, three-celled 
pods; leaves oval, 3-7 in. long, pointed, thin, finely serrate ; 

plant hardly a tree 53. Clethra, 

I. Fruit rounded, small, with calyx adhering to the lower part, 

one-seeded, in clusters of 3 -many; leaves 1-3 in. long 

56. Styrax. 

I. Fruit hairy, in long, hanging panicles, tipped with long, 

persistent style, one-seeded 57. Pterostyrax. 

J. Flowers bell-shaped, 1 in. long; leaves widest below the mid- 
dle ; fruit winged pods 58. Halesia. 

J. Flowers spreading, 2 in. broad ; leaves about twice as long as 

wide, widest near the center .7. Stuartia. 

J. Flowers spreading, 3 in. broad ; leaves about 3 times as long as 

wide, widest near tip 8. Gordon ia. 

K. Fruit a plum-like drupe with a single bony stone ; plant 

sometimes thorny 36. Prunus. 

K. Fruit berry-like, ending in a conspicuous spreading calyx ; 

plant generally quite thorny 38. Crataegus. 

K. Fruit berry-like, black when ripe, small, without calyx, with 

usually 3 cartilaginous coated seeds 20. Bhamnus. 

K. Fruit berry-like, red when ripe, with small calyx at base, and 

usually 4-0 hard-coated, grooved nutlets 18. Ilex. 

K. Fruit a small or large apple-like pome, with the seeds in 
horny cells. (L. ) 
L. Fruit about % in. in diameter, sweet, in drooping racemes 

39. Amelanchier. 

L. Fruit either sour or much larger, and not in elongated racemes 

37. Pyrus. 

M. Leaves harsh to the touch; somewhat oblique at base ; quite 

distinctly two-ranked ; large trees 74. Ulmus, 

M. Leaves decidedly oblique at base ; margin wavy ; small tree, 

usually a shrub 40. HamameJis. 

M. Fruit berry-like, ending in a conspicuous spreading calyx; 

plant generally quite thorny 38. Crataegus. 

M. Leaves not regulai'ly oblique at base ; plant not thorny. (N.) 

N. Leaves thin and light, not harsh to the touch; spray light; 

bark smooth, in two species somewhat rough on the trunk. 

(a.) 

N. Leaves thick ; edge wavy, almost lobed ; fruit an aeorn 

88. Quercus. 



54 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

N. Leaves broad for the length, generally doubly serrate or 

wavy and serrate ; shrubs, rarely tall enough for trees. (P.) 
N. Not included in the above. (O.) 
O. Leaves 3 or more times as long as wide, widest near the 
center; fruit a round, prickly bur with 1-3 horny-coated 

nuts 89. Castanea, 

0. Leaves widest near the sharply serrate tip, narrow and en- 
tire near the base; fruit small pods in terminal racemes; 

small tree or shrub 53. Clethra. 

0. Leaves widest near the base, usually small ; bark sealing off 
like the Buttonwood; fruit axillary, solitary, small (i in.) 
roundish, dry drupes. A cultivated species, has rather large 

leaves, widest near the center 75. Planera. 

P. Fruit an open oval woody catkin or cone, remaining on the 

plant through the winter 84. Jin us. 

P. Fruit a rounded stony nut, in green leafy edged bracts ; shrubs 

or small trees 85. Corylus. 

Q,. Usually aromatic; bark dotted on the spray and with hori- 
zontal marks on the trunk, peeling off in thin, often papery 

layers . . 83. Betula. 

Q,. Bark not peeling off in thin layers. (R.) 
R. Leaf-buds long and slender; fruit a small prickly bur with two 

triangular, horny-coated nuts ; large trees 90. Fagus. 

R. Fruit an elongated catkin with large leaf-like bracts; Lark 

close, gray, on a grooved trunk 87. Carpimu, 

R. Fruit a hop-like catkin; bark brownish, finely furrowed 

86. Ostrya. 

S. Plant more or less thorny; shrub or small tree ; fruit rounded 

berries ending in persistent calyx-lobes 38. Crataegus, 

S. Plant not thorny. (T.) 
T. Leaf deeply pinnatifid, usually with the basal lobes completely 

separated ; cultivated 37. Pyrus. 

T. End of leaf as though cut off; sides with one large lobe ; mar- 
gin entire ; large tree 2. Liriod* ndron. 

T. Lower leaves three-lobed, heart-shaped at base, upper merely 
ovate, margin entire; small tree or shrub.... 66. Clerodendron. 
T. Not as above ; leaves usually many-lobed. (XJ.) 
U. Leaves thin; bark of trunk peeling ofT in thin horizontal 

strips '.. .83. Betula. 

U. Leaves thin; leaf-buds long, slender, Bharp-pointed; bark 

smooth, r>"t peeling; cultivated. 90. Fagut. 

U. Leaves thi'-kisli; bark roughish; fruit an oval woody cone, 

remaining on through the year 84. .linns. 

U. Leaves thick; fruit an acorn vS . Qua 



KEY TO THE GENERA OF TREES 55 

V. Leaves evergreen, small, 2-:! in. long, thick, with re volute mar- 
gins. Fruit an acorn 88. Quercus. 

Fran red berries 18. Hex. 

V. Leaves evergreen, oval to lance-oval, usually large; small trees, 

almost shrubs, (d.) page 56. 
V. Leaves deciduous (some are evergreen in Southern States). (W.) 
W. Plant more or less spiny, (c.) 
W. Plant not at all spiny. (X.) 
X. Leaf-blade thin, long pointed, with curved parallel veins or 

ribs 45. Cornus. 

X. Leaf-blade thin, circular or broadly oval in outline, with blunt, 
almost rounded apex; veins not regularly parallel . .27. Bit us. 
X. Leaf quite elongated, 5 or more times as long as wide, (b.) 
X. Leaves with none of the above peculiarities. (Y. ) 
Y. Deciduous bud-scales (stipules), leaving a scar or mark com- 
pletely around the stem at the base of the leaves. 1. Magnolia. 
Y. Leaves -overed one or both sides with silvery scales .... 

71. EJseagn us. 

Y. No such ring around the stem, or silvery scales on the leaves. 
(Z.) 

Z. Leaves distinctly straight-veined, thin 90. Fagus. 

Z. Leaves thick, obtuse ; fruit an acorn 88. Quercus, 

Z. Leaves 6 in. or more long ; crushed leaves with a rank, fetid 

odor 5. Asimina. 

Z. Leaves 3-5 in. long; twigs and leaves very spicy ; shrub rather 

than tree 70. Lindera. 

Z. Leaves about 2 in. long, oval, on twigs which have ridges extend- 
ing down from the sides of the leafstalk ; small tree, almost 

a shrub, with beautiful flowers 43. Lagerstrcemia. 

Z. Leaves not as above, (a.) 
a. Fruit a large ( l 2 -l 1 ^ in.) rounded pulpy berry with a heavy 

calyx at the base 55. Diospyros. 

a. Fruit small (1^ in.), fleshy, drupe-like, with a striate stone; 

limbs branching horizontally, often descending . . .46. Nyssa. 

a. Fruit a black, juicy berry 0^-% in.), with about 3 seeds 

20. Rhamnus. 

a. Fruit an ovoid dry drupe (}% in.) ; leaves sweet-tasting 

.59. Symplocos. 

a. Fruit an apple-like pome (Quince) 37. Pyrus. 

b. "Wood soft ; both kinds of flowers in catkins in spring ; with 

either stipules or stipular sears 91. Salix. 

b. Wood hard ; leaves thick; fruit an acorn 88. Quercus. 

c. Fruit a 2-4-seeded small berry; juice not milky 

20. Bhauni us. 



56 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

c. Fruit large, orange-like in size and color when ripe ; juice 

milky 77. Madura. 

c. Fruit small, black when ripe, cherry-like ; juice milky 

54. Bumelia. 

d. Aromatic ; berries dark blue on red stalks 68. Persea. 

d. Not aromatic ; leaves nearly 1 ft. long ; flowers large and soli- 
tary 1. Magnolia. 

d. Not aromatic; leaves 1-4 in. long; flowers very small; fruit 

small dark-colored berries, with 2-4 seeds 20. Rltamnus. 

d. Not aromatic ; flowers large, in showy clusters, (e. ) 

e. Leaves 5 in. or more long 52. Rhododendron. 

e. Leaves less than 4 in. long 51. Kalmia. 

f. Leaves decidedly aromatic, usually somewhat irregularly lobed, 

margin entire, base tapering 69. Sassafras. 

f. Leaves usually deltoid, sometimes heart-shaped with serrate 
margin and gummy buds, rarely palmately lobed. All have 
either the petiole flattened sidewise, the leaf-blade densely 
silvery-white beneath, or gummy aromatic buds. . . .92. Popuhis. 
f. Leaves broadly heart-shaped; margin entire; small tree with 
abundance of red flowers in early spring; fruit a pea-like pod 

32. Cercis. 

f. Leaves not as above given, (g.) 
g. Leaves broadly heart-shaped, with a serrate margin and a 
petiole about as long as the blade, sometimes longer; base 

of leaf not oblique 4. Idesia. 

g. Leaves broadly heart-shaped, those on the suckers much 
lobed; base not oblique ; margin serrate ; juice milky; bark 
very tough. (1.) 
g. Leaves broadly heart-shaped, with an oblique base; margin 

regularly serrate ; juice not milky 11. TiUa, 

g. Loaves slightly if at all heart-shaped at base, usually some- 
what oblique, with neither milky juice nor lobes, (j.) 
g. Loaves decidedly and quite regularly lobed. (h.) 
h. Leaves with 3-5 large lobes, the margin entire or slightly an- 

gulated 10. sti rciiiui. 

h. Leaves star-shaped, with 5-9 pointed, senate lobes, (i.) 

h. Loaves large, irregularly margined; leaf-stem covering the 

bud ; large tree 80. Platanm. 

h. Plant quite thorny; frail berry-like, ending in b conspicuous 
spreading calyx; small trees or shrubs with apple-like blos- 
soms 38. ( 'r<tl;r<i>is. 

h. Leaves with a tapering base; Bmall tree, almost a Bhrub, 

with large Hollyhock-like (lowers; planl not thorny 

9. Hibiscut 



KEY TO THE GENERA OF TREES f>7 

i. Large tree, with fruit 1 in. in diameter, dry, rough, haugiug 

on a long stem 41. Liquidambar. 

i. Small tree with few branches and the trunk usually quite 

prickly ; fruit berry-like in large clusters 44. Ardlia. 

j. Fruit small berries, with 3 flattened seeds, in clusters in the axils 

of the leaves, which are decidedly 3-ribbed from the base 

21. Hove a hi. 

j. Fruit small drupes, with 1 seed, either solitary or in pairs in 
the axils of the leaves, (k.) 
k. Plant without prickles; leaves decidedly oblique at base . . . 

76. Celtis. 

k. Plant with prickles ; leaves narrow, decidedly 3-ribbed, and 

2-ranked on green twigs 22. Zizyphus. 

1. Fruit not very edible ; leaves rough above, very hairy below, on 

some of the twigs opposite 79. Broussonetia. 

1. Fruit edible ; leaves not very hairy, never opposite. .78. Moras. 

m. Leaves of 3 entire-edged leaflets ; fruit a pea-like pod 

28. Laburnum. 

m. Leaves of 3 quite regularly serrate, transparent-dotted 

leaflets 13. Ptelea. 

m. Leaves once or twice pinnate ; the leaflets entire, (s.) 
m. Leaves once or twice pinnate ; the leaflets with margins more 
or less serrate or notched, (n.) 
n. Leaves irregularly once to twice, in one case three times, pin- 
nate, (r.) 
n. Leaves regularly once pinnate, (o.) 
o. Leaves less than 1 ft. long, on a small, quite prickly plant ; 

fruit very small pods (l£ in. long) 12. Xanthoxylum. 

o. Leaves less than 1 ft. long ; leaflets 3 in. or less long ; fruit 
bright-colored, berry -like pomes in clusters, persistent through 
the autumn ; plant not thorny ; branches not heavy-tipped . 

37. Pyrus. 

o. Leaves usually larger on the small tree or almost a shrub ; 

juice iu most cases milky; branches heavy -tipped . .27. Rhus. 

o. Leaves 1-2 ft. long; leaflets 3 in. or more long; fruit a bony 

nut with green fleshy coat ; large trees, (q.) 
o. Leaves very large, 2 ft. or more long on the rapid-growing 
branches ; branches heavy-tipped ; odor of bruised leaves 
quite strong ; leaflets 15 or more in number ; large trees ; 
juice not milky, (p.) 

p. Leaflets with 1-3 glandular notches at the base 

17. Ailanthus. 

p. Leaflets entire at base, but very slightly senate near the tip 
16. ( 'edrclq. 



58 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

q. Coat of fruit more or less dehiscent into 4 valves; nut 
smoothish; leaflets, except in one species, not over 11 in 

number, usually 5-7 82. Carya. 

q. Coat of fruit not regularly dehiscent ; nut, in the wild species, 
rough-coated ; leaflets, except in a cultivated species, over 11 

in number 81. Juglans. 

r. Leaves quite regularly twice odd-pinnate; leaflets about 1 iu. 
long; juice not milky; fruit rounded berries in large clusters ; 

plant not prickly; branchlets not heavy-tipped 15. Melia. 

r. Leaves once to twice irregularly odd-pinnate ; the leaflets very 
irregularly and coarsely toothed ; a small, round-headed tree 

with bladdery pods 24. Ecelreuteria. 

r. Leaves irregularly about twice odd-pinnate ; the leaflets lanceo- 
late ; quite a low plant with few heavy-tipped branches; plant 

without prickles 27. Rhus. 

r. Leaves 2 (sometimes 3) times odd-pinnate ; tree-stem with 

prickles ; small tree or shrub, with few branches 

... 44. Aralia. 

r. Leaves once to twice abruptly pinnate ; large tree with slender- 
tipped branches, usually very thorny 34. Gleditschia. 

s. Leaves very large (2 ft. or more long), about twice abruptly 
pinnate ; leaflets broad and often 2 in. long; branches blunt : 

no thorns. 33. Gymnoeladus. 

s. Leaves and leaflets much smaller, leaves quite irregularly 
once or twice abruptly pinnate; branches slender-tipped; 

large tree, usually very thorny 34. Gleditschia. 

s. Leaves twice abruptly pinnate; leaflets over 400 in number, 

with midrib near the upper edge 35. Albizzia. 

s. Leaves regularly once pinnate, not over 2 ft. long, (t.) 
t. Leaves abruptly pinnate, not over 5 in. long; leaflets K-]'_>, 

small, mucronate-pointed 29. Caragana. 

t. Leaves odd-pinnate ; shrub or small tree, with few, heavy-tipped 

branches; no spines or prickles 27. Rhus. 

t. Leaves odd-pinnate; leaflets large (3-5 in. long), not usually 

over 11 in number :!<>. Cladrastis, or 8\. Juglans 

t. Leaves odd-pinnate ; leaflets less than :> in. long, frequently 
11 — 12 1 in number; often with spines at the bases of the leaves 

in the place of stipules 12. Xanlhoxylum or 81. Bobinta. 

u. Leaves palmately compound. (CC.) 
u. Leaves pinnately compound. (BB.) 
u. Leaves Bimple, evergreen, sessile, in whorls around the stem. 

which they completely cover (98». drauearia.) 

u. Leaves simple, opposite, evergreen, entire, over 2 in. long 

61. Osmcmthus. 



KEY TO THE GENERA OF TREES 59 

u. Leaves simple, opposite, evergreen, entire, under 1 in. long 

73. Buxus. 

u. Leaves simple, deciduous, (v.) 
v. Branches ending in thorns; small trees, or shrubs. (AA.) 
v. Plants uot thorny, (w.) 
w. Leaves palmately lobed (one variety, rarely cultivated, lacks 
lobes, but is heart-shaped with a serrate margin), the lobes 
over 3 in number, or with notches or serrations ; fruit dry, 

winged . . 25. Acer. 

w. Lower leaves palmately 3-lobed, and heart-shaped at base, 
upper ones ovate, all with entire margin ; fruit with juicy 

pulp covering the 4 seeds 66. Clerodendron. 

w. Leaves palmately lobed ; fruit small, one-seeded, berry-like 
drupes in large clusters, with flattened stones, or large 
rounded clusters of flowers without stamens or pistils; 

shrubs rather than trees 47. Viburnum. 

w. Leaves heart-shaped, entire or slightly angulated ; not lobed. 

(DD.) 
w. Leaves irregularly serrate, somewhat straight-veined ; fruit 

single-winged ; large cultivated tree 60. Fraxinus. 

w. Leaves neither heart-shaped nor lobed : small trees, almost 
shrubs, (x.) 
x. Leaves entire, (z.) 

x. Leaves serrate or dentate, ovate or oval, (y.) 
y. Fruit rounded drupes in large clusters, with single flattened 

stones 47. Viburnum. 

y. Fruit lobed pods, which burst open in the autumn ; branch- 
lets somewhat 4-sided 19. Euonymus. 

z. Leaves small, lanceolate ; flowers and fruit large and beautiful 

42. Punica. 

z. Leaves broad, thin, with curved parallel veins or ribs. 45. Cornus. 
z. Leaves large, broad, oval, without either cui'ved or straight par- 
allel ribs 62. Syringa or 63. Chioncmthus. 

AA. Leaves entire and covered on both sides with silvery, pel- 
tate scales 72. Shepherd ia. 

AA. Leaves ovate, small, minutely serrate 20. Rhamnus. 

BB. Leaves large, 18 in. or more long; leaflets 11 or more, very 

finely serrated or entire 14. Phellodendron. 

BB. Leaves smaller ; leaflets entire or quite evenly toothed, usu- 
ally over 5 in number. 60. Fraxinus. 

BB. Leaflets coarsely and quite irregularly toothed, 3-5 (rarely 7) 

in number 26. Negundo. 

CO. Leaflets slender-lanceolate ; shrub or small tree with aro- 
matic leaves and somewhat 4-sided branches 67. Vitex. 



GO TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

CC. Leaflets broader and serrate ; usually large trees. 23. JEsculus* 
DD. Leaves with radiating ribs. (FF.) 
DD. Leaves with feather-veining. (EE.) 
EE. Leaves 2-6 in. long; flowers small, in large, dense, ter- 
minal clusters 62. Syringa. 

EE. Leaves 1-4 in. long; flowers in pairs 48. Lonicera. 

FF. Leaves large, 6 in. or more long; two almost hidden buds, 
one above the other, in the axils of the leaves on the rapid- 
growing branches; flowers large, purple, blooming in early 

spring; fruit rounded pods 64. Pauloioiui. 

FF. Leaves large, 6 in. or moi'e long; flowers large, white, bloom- 
ing in June ; fruit long pods 65. Catalpa. 

FF. Leaves 2-4 in. long, with red stems 3. CercidtphyUum. 

GG. Leaves scattered singly over the stem, not in bundles or 

clusters. (JJ.) 
GG. Leaves in large or small clusters. (HH.) 
HH. Clusters in whorls of many leaves around the stem like an 

umbrella 100. Sciadopitj/8. 

HH. Leaves clustered in bundles of 2-6 93. Piuus. 

HH. Leaves clustered in bundles of over 8. (II.) 

II. Leaves deciduous, soft 97. Larix. 

II. Leaves evergreen, rigid 98. Cedrus. 

J J. Leaves hardly evergreen ; spray quite slender. (ZZ.) 
JJ. Leaves fully evergreen. (EE.) 
EE. Leaves awl or scale shaped, and mainly appressed to the 

stem. (WW.) 
EE. Leaves linear or needle shaped, and decidedly spreading 
from the stem, though sometimes with a decurrent base. 
(LL.) 
LL. Leaves narrowed to a distinct though short stem. (RR.) 
LL. Leaves sessile ; if narrowed, not so abruptly as to form a 
petiole. (MM.) 
MM. Leaves opposite or whorled on the stem. (PP.) 
MM. Leaves rather spirally arranged around the stem, not just 
opposite. (NN. ) 
NN. Leaves linear to lanceolate, flattened, spreading quite 

squarely from the stem. (00.) 
NN. Leaves not flattened bul 4-sided, curved, gradually enlarging 

from the tips to the liases, whieli are decurrent, and on the 

young i wigs completely cover the stem ; cones rounded ; the 

scales not lapping 105, Cryptomeria. 

OO. Leaves aboul linear in form, of nearly the same width 

throughout, and usually fastened i<> ti ylindricalstembys 

distinct disk-like base j cones erect: scales lapping. 96. Abu e, 



KEY TO THE GENERA OF TREES fil 

00. Leaves about 2 in. long and gradually widening from the 
acute tips to the broad (% in.) bases, which are decurrent 

ou the stem 99. Cunninghamia. 

00. Leaves ?»-l in. long, sharp-pointed, very flat, two-ranked, 
somewhat lanceolate in form ; base narrowed almost to a 

petiole • ■ 102. Sequoia. 

PP. Leaves not decurrent, usually in whorls of three around the 
stem, sometimes opposite, acute-pointed; fruit small { l /% in.), 

rounded, dark-colored berries 106. Juniperus. 

PP. Leaves decurrent on the stem, less than % in. long. (0,0.. ) 

Q.Q.. Fruit small, globular cones ; the scales not lapping 

104. Ckamsecyparis. 

0,0,. Fruit small, elongated cones of few, lapping scales 

.103. Thuya. 

BR. Leaves usually but little flattened, but jointed to a short, 
brown petiole which is attached to a somewhat grooved 

twig ; cones pendent, of lapping scales 94. Picea. 

RR. Leaves decidedly flattened, not jointed, but narrowed to a 
petiole which is usually green or greenish in color. (SS.) 
SS. Leaves rounded or obtuse at the tip, distinctly two-ranked, 
usually less than 1 in. long; cones oval, 1 in. or less long, 

of lapping scales 95. Tsuga. 

SS. Leaves acute at the tip ; fruit (found only on a portion of 
the plants, as the flowers are dioecious) drupe-like, with a 
single nut-like seed. (TT. ) 

TT. Leaves not two-ranked, over 2 in. long 108. Podocarpus. 

TT. Leaves quite regularly two-ranked. (TJTJ.) 
TJU. Leaves marked by two longitudinal lines; bruised or 

burned leaves with a very disagreeable odor ... 

(107*. Torrcya.) 

TJU. Leaves ■with the midrib forming a distinct ridge, odor not 
disagreeable. (VV.) 

VV. Leaves usually less than an inch long 107. Taxus. 

VV. Leaves usually more than an inch long 

(107i\ Cephalotaxus.) 

WW. Spray decidedly two-ranked, fan-like. (YY.) 
WW. Spray branching in an irregular way, not two-ranked. 
(XX.) 

XX. Fruit a purplish berry; bark shreddy 106. Juniperus. 

XX. Fruit a cone of thick, pointed, not lapping scales 

102. Sequoia. 

YY. Cones elongated, of lapping scales 103. Thuya. 

YY. Cones globular, of peltate, valvate scales 

104. Cham secy par is. 



62 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

ZZ. Leaves very broad at base, half clasping the stem and rapidly 
narrowed to an acute tip ; hardly at all spreading from the 
thread-like twigs; flowers pinkish, in spike-like clusters. . . 
6. Tanmrij. 

ZZ. Leaves more elongated, quite even in width, not clasping the 
stem 101. Taxodium. 



CLASS I. ANGIOSPEBJVLffi. 

Plants with a pistil consisting of a closed ovary, which 
contains the ovules and forms the fruit. 



Order I. MAGNOLIACE^. (Magnolia Family.) 

Trees or shrubs, mainly of tropical regions, including, 
in our section, the three following genera: 

Gen-us 1. MAGNOLIA. 

Trees and tall shrubs with alternate, thick, smooth, en- 
tire leaves with deciduous stipules which form the bud- 
scales, and are attached entirely around the stem, leaving 
a ridge, as in Liriodendron. 

Flowers very large (3 to 10 in. in diameter), usually 
while, solitary. 

Fruit a large cone from which the seeds, drupe-like, 
usually red, hang out on long threads during the autumn. 

* Blooming with or before the opening <>f the leaves. (A.) 

A. Flowers entirely white !'. L0. 

A. Flowers dark purple. 11. 

A. Flowers mixed purple and white. A large number of 
hybrids from < Ihina ami Japan. 

* Blooming aft< r the leaves expand. (B.) 

B. Leaves evergreen, more than 8 in. long I. 

B. Leaves evergreen, not 6 in. long U. 

B. I ciduous. (C.) 



0.1] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



63 



C. Leaves decidedly auriculate or cordate at the base. (D.) 
D. Leaves very largo (1 to 3 ft. loug) 5. 

D. Leaves smaller and much clustered at the tips of the 
flowering branches 6. 

C. Leaves not conspicuously cordate at base. (E. ) 

E. Leaves clustered at the tips of the flowering branches 7. 
E. Leaves scattered along the branches. (F.) 

F. Base of leaf abrupt 3, 4 

F. Base of leaf tapering. (G-.) 
G. Leaves quite large, about 1 ft. long; a very erect 

growing tree ... 8. 

G. Leaves smaller, medium thick, glossy above 2. 

medium thin (5 to 10 in. long). . .3. 



1. Magnolia grandifldra, L. ( Large- 
flowered Magnolia. Southern Ever- 
green Magnolia.) Leaves evergreen, 
thick, oval-oblong ; upper surface glossy, 
under surface somewhat rusty. Flowers 
large, 6 to 10 in. wide, white, fragrant. 
In spring. Fruit oval, 3 to 4 in. long, 
ripe in October. Seeds scarlet Splendid 
evergreen tree (50 to 80 ft.) in the South- 
ern States ; half hardy, and reduced to 
a shrub (10 to 20 ft.) when cultivated in 
the Middle States. 



2. Magnolia glauca, L. (Sweet-Bay. 
Swamp-Magnolia.) Leaves quite thick, 

oblong-oval, obtuse, smooth and glossy 
above, white or rusty pubescent beneath ; 
evergreen in the Southern States. Leaf- 
buds silky. Flowers globular, white, and 
very fragrant. June to August. Fruit 
about l 1 ^ in. long, ripe in autumn. Shrub, 
4 to 20 ft. high, in the swamps of the At- 
lantic States from Massachusetts south- 
ward. Slender tree, 15 to 30 ft. high, when 




M. grandifldra. 




M. glauca. 



cultivated in good damp soil. 



3. Magnolia acuminata, L. (Cucumber-tree.) Leaves thin, 
green above, paler beneath, oblong, usually pointed at both ends, 5 
to 10 in. long. Leaf-buds silky. Flowers pale yellowish green, 3 in. 
wide, late in spring Fruit irregular-oblong (2 to 3 in. long), rose- 



64 



TREES OF THE XORTHEKX UNITED STATES 




colored when ripe, with a few hard, 
bony, black seeds, coated with red 
pulp, ripe in autumn. Large (50 to 
90 ft.) noble forest tree, wild in west- 
ern New York and southward. "Wood 
rather soft, yellowish-white, quite du- 
rable, and extensively used for pump 
logs. Occasionally cultivated ; fine 
for avenues. 

4. Magnolia cordata, Michx. (Yel- 
low Cucumber-tree.) Leaves broadly 
ovate or oval, rarely cordate at base, 
smooth above, white-downy beneath, 
M. acuminata. 4 to 6 - m long Flowers lemon-yellow 

slightly streaked with red. June. Fruit nearly 
3 in. long, red when ripe in autumn. A rather 
small, broad-headed tree (20 to 50 ft.), wild in 
the Southern States, but hardy as far north as 
Boston ; not often cultivated. Probably an up- 
land variety of the preceding. 

5. Magnolia macrophylla, Michx. (Great- 
leaved MAGNOLIA.) Leaves very large, some- 
times 3 ft. long, crowded at the summit of the 
branches, obovate-oblong, cordate at the nar- m. cordata. 

rowed base, glaucous-white beneath, 
green above ; twigs whitish pubescent. 
Flowers very large (12 in. broad), 
white with a purple spot near the 
base; fragrant. Fruit cylindrical, 4 
in. long, deep rose-colored when ripe 
in autumn. A medium-sized (30 to 40 
ft.), spreading tree ; wild from Ken- 
tucky south, hardy and cultivated as 
far north as New York City. 

fi. Magnolia Fraseri, Walt. (Ear- 
I.K.WKI) UXBRBLLA-TBKB.) Leaves 
crowded at the ends of the flowering 
branches, obovate or spatulate, au- 

M. macrophylla. rieiilato at ba86, smooth (1 ft. long). 

Leaf-buds smooth. Flowers (6 in. wide) white, slightly scented. 
April to May. Frail '■'• to J in. long, rose-colored, ripe in autumn. 





n.i] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



r;:. 



Medium-sized, rather slender tree (30 to 
50 ft.), with Bofl yellowish-white wood. 

Virginia and southward, Hardy and ex- 
tensively cultivated as far north as New 
York City. 

7. Magnolia umbrella, Lam. (Um- 
BBELliA TREE.) Leaves clustered at the 
ends of the branches, obovate-lanceo- 
late, pointed at both ends, 1 to 2 ft. long ; 
downy beneath when young, but soon be- 
coming smooth. Flowers white, 6 to 8 
in. broad. May. Fruit oblong, 4 to 6 in. 
long,rather rose- 





colored when 

ripe in autumn. 

A small, rather 

straggling tree, 

20 to 40 ft. high ; common in the Southern 

States, and wild as far north as New York 

State : cultivated throughout. 



M. Fraseri. 



M. umbrella. 



8. Magnolia 
hypoleuca, S. & 
Z. (Japan Mag- 
nolia.) Leaves 
large (1 ft. long), 
somewhat pur- 
ple-tinted above, 
white and glaucous beneath. Midrib and 
leafstalk often red. Flowers cream-white, 
fragrant, appearing after the leaves in 
June. Twigs stout 
f7h\ and polished. A 
medium-sized, very 





M. hypoleuca. 



M. conspicua. 



erectly growing tree ; from Japan. 

9. Magnolia conspicua, Salisb. (Yulan or 
Chinese White Magnolia.) Leaves decid- 
uous, obovate, abruptly acuminate, pubescent 
when young. Flowers large (4 in.), cream- 
white, very fragrant, appearing very early 
(May), before any of the leaves. Fruit rarely 
formed, with few (1 to 3, rarely more) seeds 



6G 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



to a cone. Bark dark brown on the young branches ; terminal winter 
buds over l 2 in. long. Small tree (10 to 30 ft.) with spreading habit 
and stout branches; very extensively cultivated for its abundant 
early bloom ; from China. 

10. Magnolia Kdbus. (Thurber's Ja- 
pan Magnolia.) Leaves similar to the pre- 
ceding, but smaller. Flowers also similar, 
but pure white. Fruit abundantly formed, 
with several (2 to 12) seeds to the cone. 
Bark green on the young growth ; terminal 
winter-bnds under J^ in. long. Small tree 
(15 to 40 ft.) with erect habit and slender 
branches. A beautiful tree of recent intro- 
duction from Japan. 

11. Magnolia pur- 
purea, Sims. (Pur- 

m. K6bua. ple Japan Magno- 

lia.) Leaves obovate, pointed at both ends, 
dark green. Flowers erect, of 3 sepals and 6 
obovate, purple petals ; blooming about as the 
leaves expand. A low tree, or usually merely 
a shrub, from Japan ; often cultivated. 

Besides the Magnolias here given, there are 
quite a number of varieties and hybrids in cul- M - purpto-ea. 

tivation, from China and Japan, most of them blooming before the 
leaves expand in spring. 





Genus 2. LIRIOD&NDRON. 

Trees with alternate, deciduous, smooth, stipulate, 4- 
lobed leaves, the stipules large, at- 
tached entirely around the stem, 
and leaving ;i ridge when tiny 
diop off, as iu the genus Magnolia. 
Flowers tulip-shaped, large (:> in.), 
greenish -yellow. .May to June. 
Fruit a pointed cone, '•'> in. long, 
hanging on the I fee t ill aul omn. 




L. tulipifera. 



Liriodendron tulipffera, 1-. (TULIP 
Titi.K.) Leaves large, Bmootb en both 



Q i CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 67 

sides, somewhat 3-lobed, the end one seemingly cut off, leaving it 
shallow notch ; stipules light-colored, large, oblong, attached all 
around the stem, often remaining on through half the season. A 
very large (80 to 150 ft. high), beautiful, rapidly growing tree, with 
soft, straight-grained, greenish wood, of great use for inside work. 
Southern New England and southward. Especially abundant and 
large in the Western States. Also cultivated. 

Genus 3. CERCIDIPHYLLUM. 

Shrubs or trees with opposite, rarely subaltern;)) e, 
simple, deciduous leaves. Fruit short-stemmed, with di- 
vergent pods, 2-4 in number, splitting open on the outer 
edges ; each one-celled, with one row of lapping, pendulous 
seeds with membranous wings. 

Cercidiphyllum Japonicum. (ELa.t- 
sura-tree. ) Leaves broadly heart-shaped, 
palmately veined with 5-7 ribs, and with 
an apparently entire margin, dark green 
above, somewhat glaucous beneath. Un- 
der a magnifying glass the margin will 
be found to have pellucid crenulations. 
Leafstalk dark red and jointed above the 
base, the veins somewhat red-tinted. A c - J ap6nicum. 

beautiful, upright tree with birch-like, dotted, brown bark ; of recent 
introduction from Japan, and probably completely hardy through- 
out the region. 



Order II. BIXfNE^J. 

A rather small order of mostly tropical trees or shrubs, 
with alternate, simple leaves. 

Genus 4. IDESIA. 

Large trees with terminal and axillary panicles of very 
small flowers and berries. 

Idesia polycarpa, Hook. Leaves large, heart-shaped, serrate, 
palmately veined with 5 ribs ; leafstalk very long, red, with two 





TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



glands near the base ; twigs also glandu- 
lar; berries very small (± inch), with many- 
seeds. A large tree recently introduced 
from Japan, which may prove hardy from 
Pennsylvania south, but is killed by the 
climate of Massachusetts. 



Order III. ANONACE-ffil. 

(Custard-apple Family.) 

I. polycarpa. 

Au order of tropical trees and shrubs except the fol- 
lowing genus: 

Genus 5. ASfMINA. 

Small trees or shrubs with simple, deciduous, alternate, 
entire, pinnately-veined leaves. Flowers large, dull pur- 
plish, solitary in the axils of last year's leaves. Fruit a 
large, oblong, several-seeded, pulpy berry. 

Asimina triloba, Dunal. (Common 
Papaw.) Leaves large (8 to 12 in. long), 
oblong-obovate, acuminate, thin, lapping 
over each other in such a manner as to 
give the plant a peculiar imbricated ap- 
pearance. Flowers 1 in. broad, appear- 
ing before the leaves. Fruit :i in. long, 
W^ in. thick, yellowish, fragrant, about 
8-seeded, ripe in the autumn. Small (10 
to 20 ft. high), beautiful tree with dark- 
brown twigs. All parts have a rank, fetid 
smell. Wild in N( w Fork and southward 
along streams ; cultivated. 

A. triloba. 




Ordeb IV. TAMARISCfNE.SE. 
A small order, consisting mostlyjof shrubs (from the 

Old World) with minute leaves. 



0.1] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



09 



Genus 6. TAMARIX. 

Leaves .simple, very small, alternate, clasping ; old ones 
almost transparent at the apex. Flowers in spike-like pan- 
icles, small, red, or pink, rarely white. 

Tamarix Gallica, L. (French Tama- 
risk.) Leaves very small, acute; spray 
very slender, abundant.. A sub-evergreen 
shrub or small tree, 5 to 20 ft. high; with 
very small pinkish flowers, in spike-like 
clusters, blooming from May to October. A 
very beautiful and strange-looking plant, 
which, rather sheltered by other trees, can 
be successfully grown throughout. 




Order V. TERNSTRCEMlACEiE. 

(Tea or Camellia Family.) 

An order of showy-flowered trees and shrubs of tropical 
and subtropical regions, here represented by the following 
genera : 

Genus 7. STUARTIA. 

Shrubs or low trees with alternate, simple, exstipulate, 
ovale, serrulate leaves, soft downy beneath. Flowers 
large (2 in.), white to cream-color, 
solitary and nearly sessile in the 
axils of the leaves; blooming in 
early summer. Fruit a 5-celled cap- 
I sule with few seeds ; ripe in autumn. 

1. Stuartia pentagyna, L'Her. (Stu- 
artia.) Leaves thick, ovate, acuminate, 
acute at base, obscurely mueronate, ser- 
rate, finely pubescent, 3 to 4 in. long, one 
half as wide. Flowers whitish cream-col- 
ored, one petal much the smallest; sta- 
s. pentdgyna. mens of the same color. Pod 5-angled. 




70 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




Handsome shrub or small tree (10 to 15 ft.), wild south iu the moun- 
tains, and hardy and cultivated as far north as New York City with- 
out protection. In Massachusetts it needs some sheltered position. 

2. Stuartia Virginica, Cav. (Vir- 
ginia Stuartia.) Leaves elliptic-ovate, 
acuminate at both ends, 2 in. long, 1 in. 
wide, thin, serrate, silky pubescent be- 
neath. Flowers white with purple fila- 
ments and blue anthers. Pod globular 
and blunt ; ripe in October. A beautiful 
shrub rather than tree (8 to 12 ft.), wild 
in Virginia and south ; hardy as far 
north as Washington. 

Genus 8. GORDONIA. 

Shrubs or small trees with alter- 
s. virginica. nate, simple, feather- vein ed leaves. 

Flowers large (3 to 4 in. wide), white, showy, solitary in 
the axils of the leaves. Blooming in summer. Fruit a 
dry, dehiscent, conical-pointed, 5-celled capsule with 10 
to 30 seeds, ripe in the autumn. 

1. Gordonia Lasianthus, L. (Loblolly 
Bay. ) Leaves thick, evergreen , lanceolate-ob- 
long, minutely serrate, nearly sessile, smooth 
and shining on both sides. The large, soli- 
tary, sweet-scent- 
ed, axillary flow- 
ers on peduncles | 
half as long as the 

leaves. A large tree (30 to 70 It. high) 
in the south (wild in southern Virginia), 
and cultivated as far north as central 
Pennsylvania, without protection J at St. 

Louis and Boston it, needs protection. 
Wood of a reddish color, light and brittle. 

2. Gordonia pubescens, L'Her. 1 ■ 
thin, deciduous, obovate-oblong, sharply 
serrate, while beneath. Flowers Dearly 
[,-. .\ small tree or shrub of tin- 





O. Lasianthus. 



a. 10] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



71 



south (30 ft. high in Georgia), hardy, and rarely cultivated as far 
north as Philadelphia, or still farther north if slightly sheltered. 



Order VI. MALVACE^. (Mallow Family.) 

A large family, mainly of herbs, found in tropical and 
temperate regions. One cultivated species, almost a tree, 
is included in this work. 



Genus 9. HIBISCUS. 

Herbs or shrubs ; one sometimes tree-like, with simple, 
deciduous, alternate, stipulate, usually lobed leaves. Flow- 
ers large, showy, 5-parted (Hollyhock-shaped), in late sum- 
mer. Fruit a 5-celled, many-seeded 
pod, ripe in autumn. 

Hibiscus Syriacus, L. (Tree Hibiscus.) 
The only woody and sometimes tree-like 
species ; has ovate, wedge-shaped, 3-lobed, 
toothed leaves, and large (3 in.) white, purple, 
red, or variegated flowers. Usually a shrub, 
6 to 15 ft. high, often cultivated throughout ; 
introduced from Syria. h. Syriacus. 




Order VII. STERCULlACE^J. 



Trees or shrubs (a feware herbs), 
with alternate leaves, and the sta- 
mens united iuto a tube. A large 
order of tropical plants. 

Genus 10. STERCULIA. 

Leaves alternate, simple, usually 
lobed ; ovaries more or less divided 
into 5 carpels, each 2- to many- 
lobed ; fruit when ripe forming a 
star of 5 distinct pods. 




S. platanifolia. 



72 



TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Sterculia platanifolia, L. (Chinese Parasol.) Leaves large, 
deciduous, alternate, palmately 3- to 5-lobed, deeply heart-shaped at 
base, the margin entire, the lobes acute; smooth or slightly hairy; 
leafstalk about as long as the blade. Flowers green, in axillary 
panicles ; fruit star-shaped. A small, beautiful tree from China ; 
probably not hardy north of Washington. 



Order VIII. TIUACE-ffi. (Linden Family.) 

An order, mainly of trees, abundant in the tropics; 
here represented by a single genus : 

Genus 11. TILIA. 

Trees with alternate, deciduous, obliquely heart-shaped, 
serrate leaves, about as broad as long. Leaves two-ranked 
on the stem. Flowers small, cream-colored, fragrant, in 
clusters on a peculiar, oblong, leaf -like bract. Fruit small 
(y& in.), globular, woody, in clusters from the same bract. 
Wood white and soft ; inner bark very fibrous and tough. 

* Flowers with petal-like scales among the stamens; American 

species. (A.) 

A. Leaves very large, 6 to 8 in 3. 

A. Leaves medium, 4 to 6 in 1. 

A. Leaves small, 2 to 3 in . . 2. 

* Flowers with no petal-like scales among the stamens 4. 

1. Tilia Americana, L. (Basswood. 
Wiutewood. Linden.) Leaves large, 
J/f\ 4 to G in. long, green and smooth, or very 
nearly so, thiokish. Fruit ovoid, sonie- 
. ; I / - y \ what ribbed, j£ in. Inroad, greenish when 

X/\ ripe in October, on a brael which is usu- 
ally tapering to the /^7V?/~ 
base. Tall tree, 60 £§L\ 
to BO ft. high, wild in 
rich woods and often 
4 ^^A cultivated. 

T. Ainericd.ua. 

L'. Tilia ])ub6scen8, Ait. (Smai.i.-i.kavkh u 

wood.) Leaves Bmaller, 2 to 3 in. long, T.pubaacens. 








CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



73 



thinner and rather pubescent beneath. Fruit globose, £ in. broad, 
on a bract usually quite rounded at base. 

This is usually considered as a variety of the last-named species. 
It is found from New York south and west. 

3. Tilia heterophylla, Vent. (White 
Basswood.) Leaves large, often 8 in. 
Inroad, smooth and bright green above, 
silvery white and downy beneath, with 
darker, purplish veins. A large tree ; 
wild in Pennsylvania, west and south, and 
often cultivated. 

T. heterophylla. 

4. Tilia Europsea, Mill. (European Linden.) 
Leaves twice as long as the petioles, and smooth ex- 
cept a woolly tuft in the axils of the veins beneath. 
Small and large leaved varieties are in cultivation. 
The flowers have no petal-like scales among the 
stamens, while the American species have. An orna- 
mental tree with dense foliage; often cultivated from 
Europe. The twigs are more numerous and more slender than 
those of the American species. Nearly a score of named varieties 
are in cultivation. Var. htciniata has deeply cut and twisted leaves. 





T. Europsea. 



Order IX. RTJTACE-ffi. (Rue Family.) 

Shrubs and trees, rarely herbs, in most cases with 
transparent- dotted, heav} r - scented foliage. A rather 
large order in warm climates. 

Genus 12. XANTHOXYLUM 

Shrubs or trees with mostly odd- 
pinnate, alternate leaves. The stem 
and often the leaflets prickly ; flow- 
ers small, greenish or whitish ; fruit 
dry, thick pods, with 1 to 2 seeds. 

1. Xanthoxylum Americanum, Mill. 
(Northern Prickly-Ash. Toothache- 
Tree.) Leaves and flowers in sessile, 
axillary, umbellate clusters: leaflets 5 to x. Americanum. 




74 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




X. Cl&va Hercules. 



9, ovate-oblong, downy when young. 
Flowers appear before the eaves. Shrub, 
scarcely at all tree-like, with bark, leaves, 
and pods very pungent and aromatic. 
Common north, and sometimes cnlti. 
vated. 

2. Xanthoxylum Clava Hercules, L. 
(Southern Prickly-Ash.) Leaflets ? 
to 17, ovate to ovate-oblong, oblique at 
base, shining above. Flowers appear 
after the leaves. A small tree with very 
sharp prickles. Sandy coast of Virginia 
and southward ; occasionally cultivated 
in the north. 



Genus 13. PTELEA. 



Shrub with compound leaves of three leaflets, greenish- 
white flowers in terminal cymes, 
and 2-seeded fruit with a broad- 
winged margin, somewhat like the 
Elm, only larger. 

Ptelea trifoliata, L. (Hop-Tree. 
Shrubby Trefoil.) Leaflets ovate, 
pointed, downy when young. Flowers 
with a disagreeable odor ; fruit bitter, 
somewhat like hops. A tall shrub, often, 
when cultivated, trimmed into a tree-like 
form. VVihl, in rocky places, in southern 
New York and southward. 

P. trifoliAta. 




Genus 14. PHELLODENDRON. 



Leaves opposite, odd-pinnate. Flowers dioecious; so 
only a portion of the trees bear the small, odoriferous, 
5-seeded, drupe-like fruit. 

Phellodendron Amur6nse. (CHINESE COEE TREE.) Leavi 
posite, odd-pinnate, I '_• t<» 3 ft- long; leaflets 9 to many, lanceolate, 



a. 16] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DKSCIMITION 



sharply serrate, long-acuminate. Flow- 
ers inconspicuous, dioecious, in loose- 
spreading clusters at the ends of the 
branches. The pistillate flowers form 
small, black, pea-shaped fruit, in loose, 
grape-like clusters, thickly covered with 
glands containing a bitter, aromatic oil, 
and remaining on the tree in winter. Me- 
dium-sized tree (20 to 40 ft.), with AMan- 
thus-like leaves which turn bright red in 
autumn, and remain long on the tree. 
Hardy as far north as central Massa- 
chusetts. 




P. Amur^nse. 



Order X. MELlACE-ffi. (Melia Family.) 

Tropical trees, including the Mahogany; represented 
in the south by the following : 

Genus 15. MELIA. 



Trees with alternate, bipinnate leaves. The flowers 
are conspicuous and beautiful, in large panicles, in the 
spring. Fruit in large clusters of berry-like drupes, with 
a 5-celled stone. 



Melia Azedarach, L. (China-Tree. 
Pride of India.) Leaves very large, 
doubly piunate, with many obliquely 
lance-ovate, acuminate, smooth, serrate 
leaflets. Flowers small, lilac-colored, de- 
liciously fragrant, in large axillary clus- 
ters. Fruit globular, as large as cherries, 
yellow when ripe in autumn ; hanging on 
through the winter. A rather small ('20 
to 40 ft. high), rapidly growing, round- 
headed, popular shade-tree in the south, 
and hardy as far north as Virginia. In- 
troduced from Persia. 




M. Azedarach. 



7G 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Genus 16. CEDRELA. 

Leaves large, alternate, deciduous, odd-pinnate. Flow- 
ers with separate petals, fragrant, white, in large clusters. 
Fruit 5-celled dehiscent pods, with 
many pendulous, wiuged seeds. 

Cedrela Sinensis. (Chinese Cedre- 
la.) Leaves large, odd-pinnate, alter- 
nate, appearing much like those of the 
Ailanthns, but with Blight serrations near 
thetipsof the leaflets, and no glands near 
the base. Bruised leaves with a strong 
odor; footstalk and stout-tipped branches 
with glands. Large tree, seemingly hardy 
in New Jersey, but dies to the ground in 
winter in Massachusetts. Recently in- 
troduced from China. 




Order XI. SIMARUBACE^. (Quassia Family.) 



Eastern trees and shrubs, here represented by a single 
tree: 

Genus 17. AILANTHUS. 

Large trees to shrubs, with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves. 

Flowers small, greenish, in large 
terminal panicles. Fruit broadly 
winged, like the Ash, but with the 
seed in the center. 



Ail&nthus glandulosus, Desf. (Tree 
of Heaven.) Leaves very large, 2 to 5 
ft. long on the yonnger growths ; leaflets 
obliquely lanceolate, coarsely toothed at 
the base, with a gland on the lowerside 
at the poinl of each tooth ; point of Leaf 
lets entire. Foung twigs thick, rusty 

brown; trade very small in the axils. 
Only some of the trees have fruit, as 




A y\ mdulosun. 



Q.18] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



i i 



some have only staminate flowers. The staminate flowers are very 
ill-scented. A rapid-growiug tree, witli useful hard wood ; cultivated 
and naturalized ; hardy throughout. See page 10. 



Order XII. ILICINEiE. (Holly Family.) 

A small order of trees aud shrubs, including for our 
purpose only one genus: 



Genus 18. ILEX. 

Trees or shrubs with simple, alternate, thick, mostly 
evergreen leaves. Flowers rather inconspicuous, mostly 
in clusters. Fruit berry-like, small (£ to \ in.), with 4 to 
6 nutlets ; hanging on the plants late in the autumn or 
through the winter. 

* Leaves evergreen. (A.) 

A. Leaves with spiny teeth 1. 

A. No spiny teeth 2. 

* Leaves deciduous 3. 



1. Ilex opaca, Ait. (American Holly.) 
Leaves evergreen, oval, acute, thick, smooth, 
with scattered spiny teeth. Flowers white ; 
May. The bright-red berries, found only on some 
of the trees, remain on through the greater part 
of the winter. Small 
tree, 15 to 40 ft. high, 





I. op&ca. 



with very hard white wood ; wild in south- 
ern New England and southward. A beau- 
tiful broad-leaved, evergreen tree which 
should be more extensively cultivated. 
North of latitude 41° it needs a protected 
situation. 

2. Ilex Dah6on,Walt. (Dahoon Hol- 
ly.) Leaves 2 to 3 in. long, evergreen, 
oblanceolate or oblong, entire or sharply 
serrate toward the apex, with revolute 
margins, not spiny. Young branches and 



78 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



lower surface of the leaves, especially on the midrib, pubescent. 
Small tree, 10 to 30 ft. high ; Virginia and south, with very hard, 
white, close-grained wood. Earely cultivated. 



3. Ilex monticola, Gray. Leaves de- 
ciduous, ovate to lance-oblong, 3 to 5 in. 
long, taper-pointed, thin, smooth, sharply 
serrate. Fruit red, on short stems, with 
the seeds many-ribbed on the back. Usu- 
ally a shrub but sometimes tree-like ; 
damp woods in the Catskills and in the 
Alleghany Mountains. 




I. monticola. 



Order XIII. CELASTE-ACE^E. 

Shrubs with simple leaves and small, regular flowers, 
forming a fruit with ariled seeds. 



Genus 19. EUONYMUS. 



Shrubs somewhat tree-like, with 4-sided branchlets, op- 
posite, serrate leaves, and loose cymes of angular fruit 
which bursts open in the autumn. 



1. Euonymus atropurpureus, Jacq. 
(Burning-bush. Wahoo.) Leaves peti- 
oled, oval-oblong, pointed ; parts of the 
dark-purple flowers commonly in fours; 
pods smooth, deeply lobed, when ripe, cin- 
namon in color and very ornamental. Tall 
shrub, 6 to 20 ft. high ; wild in Wiscon- 
sin to New York, 
and southward ; 
oft en cultivated. 





E. atropurpureus. 



E. Europicus. 



2. Eu6nyrnus Europseus, L. (EURO 
PEAK SPINDLX-TBEE OB l'.ri:\'i\<;-nrsii.) 
Leaves oblong-lanceolate, serrate, Bmooth; 
flowers :in<l frail commonly in threes <>n 
compressed Btems; fruit usually 4-lobed, the 
Lobes acute; flowers greenish-white; Kiay; 
fruit abundant, scarlet, ripe In September. 



G20] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



79 



Generally a shrub, thougb Bometimes tall enough (4 l<> 20 ft.) and 
trimmed so as to appear tree-like; twigs smooth, green <>r reddish- 
green. Extensively cultivated ; from Europe. Euonymotts Japonica 
(Chinese Box) with evergreen leaves 2 in. long is often cultivated. 

Order XIV. RHAMNACE^l. 
(Buckthorn Family.) 

An order mainly of shrubs, but including in the north- 
eastern United States two or three small trees. 



Genus 20. RHAMNTJS. 

Shrubs or small trees with deciduous (rarely evergreen), 
usually alternate (rarely opposite), pinuately veined leaves. 
Flowers small, 4-parted, inconspicuous, in clusters in the 
axils of the leaves. Fruit berry-like, with 2 to 4 seed- 
like nuts. 

* Branches terminating in thorns 1. 

* Plant without thorns. (A.) 

A. Leaves deciduous 2. 

A. Leaves evergreen 3. 

1. BMmnus cathartica, L. (Common 
Buckthorn.) Leaves ovate, minutely ser- 
rate, alternate or many of them oppo- 
site ; branchlets 

terminating m W^?y??~ 

f / ./ iL^/\ thorns. Flowers 

y\ greenish. Fruit 

\f M %^ ^/ globular, % in. in ^y 

diameter, black 

with a green \\ 

juice, and 3 or R - cathartica. 

4 seeds ; ripe in September. A shrub or 

small tree, 10 to 15 ft. high, from Europe ; 

cultivated for hedges, and found wild iu 

2 a few places, where it forms a small tree. 

2. Rh&mnus Caroliniana,Walt. (Car- 
r. Carouni&na. olina Bxtckthorn.) Leaves 3 to 5 in. 





80 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



long, alternate, oblong, wavy and obscurely serrulate, nearly smooth, 
on slender pubescent petioles. Flowers greenish, 5-parted, solitary 
or in umbellate clusters in the axils. Fruit berry-like, globular, 
the size of peas, 3-seeded, black when ripe in September. A thorn- 
less shrub or small tree, 5 to 20 ft. high. New Jersey, south and 

west. Usually a shrub except in the 

Southern States. 

3. Bhamnus Californicus,Esch. (Cal- 
ifornia Buckthorn.) Leaves evergreen, 
oval-oblong to elliptical, 1 to 4 in. long, 
rather obtuse, sometimes acute, generally 
rounded at base, serrulate or eutire. Fruit 
blackish purple, with thin pulp, % in., 2- 
to 3-seeded. A spreading shrub, 5 to 18 ft. 
B. Caiifdmicus. high, without thorns ; from California. 




Genus 21. HOViENIA. 

Leaves alternate, deciduous, simple, oblique at base. 
Fruit an obscurely 3-lobed, 3-celled, 3-seeded pod in 
dichotomous clusters, both axillary and terminal. 

Hovenia dulcis, Thunb. Leaves long- 
petioled, more or les3 ovate to cordate, 
serrate, palmately 3-ribbed, much darker 
on the upper surface ; both sides slightly 
roughened with scattered hairs. Fruit 
sweet, edible, in clusters in the axils of 
the leaves ; seeds lens-shaped, with a ridge 
on the inner side. Flowers white ; in July. 
A large, broad-topped tree, introduced' 
from Japan. Hardy at Washington, but dies to the ground in the 
Arnold Arboretum, Massachusetts. 




Genus 22. ZIZYPHU&. 

Leaves simple, alternate, deciduous, 3-ribbed. Flowers 
axillary, 5-petaled. Fruit fleshy, drape-like, containing 
a 1- to 2-celled nut. 

Zlzyphus vulgaris, Lam. (Ju.ium:.) Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
obtuse, serrate, smooth, ami flossy green OH botn sides, upper Bide 



G.28] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



quite dark; slightly hairy beneath on 
the veins; prickles twin, one recurved, 

Bometimes a New growth of the 

year green, and resembling a once-pin- 
nate compound Leaf and usually drop- 
ping off iu the autumn like one. Leav< - 
10 to 20 on a twig, 2-ranked; flowers 
and drupes nearly sessile in the axils; 
fruit small ('., in.), blood-red when ripe. 
A small tree (10 to 30 ft. high), of recent 
introduction from Syria; hardy at Phila- 
delphia, but needing some protection at 
the Arnold Arboretum, Massachusetts. 




Z. vulgaris. 



Order XV. SAPINDACEiE. (Soapberry Famit.y.) 

A large order represented iu all countries, and so 
varied in its characteristics as to form several sub-orders. 

Genus 23. iESCULUS. 

Deciduous trees or sometimes shrubs, with opposite, 
palmately compound leaves with serrated, straight- veined 
leaflets. Flowers usually conspicuous in dense terminal 
panicles. Fruit large, leathery-coated, often rough, with 
one or few large Chestnut-like but bitter seeds. Fruit 
large in midsummer, hanging on the tree until frost. 



* Fruit prickly. (A.) 

A. Leaflets usually 7; flowers widely spreading 1. 

A. Leaflets 5-7, red-spotted and rough ; flowers rosy red 

JEscirfus rubicunda (1 ). 

A. Leaflets usually 5 ; flowers not much spreading 2. 

* Fruit smooth or nearly so. (B.) 

B. Flowers bright red \ . 3. 

B. Flowers yel!ow T , purplish or pinkish 4. 

B. Flowers white, in long, slender, erect clusters 5. 



1. .aSsculus Hippocastanum. (Common Horse-chestnut.) 
Leaves of 7 obovate, abruptly pointed, serrated leaflets. Flowers 



82 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




.32. Hippocastanum. 



very showy in largo clusters, -with 5 white, 
purple and yellow spotted, broadly spread- 
ing petals. A variety with double flowers 
is in cultivation. May or June. Fruit 
large, covered with prickles. Seeds large, 
chestnut-colored. Tree of large size, with 
brown twigs; cultivated everywhere; 
from Asia. 

JEscnhis rubicunrla (Red-flowering 
Horse-chestnut) is frequent in cultiva- 
tion ; leaflets 5 to 7, red-spotted and rough ; 
flowers rosy red. It is probably a hybrid 
between the common Horse-chestnut and 
one of the Buckeyes. 



2. ^Jsculus glabra, Willd. (Ohio 
Buckeye. ) Leaves with 5 oval-oblong, 
acuminate, serrate, smooth leaflets. 
Flowers not showy, yellowish-white, 
with 4 somewhat irregular, slightly 
spreading petals. June. Fruit small, 
1 in. In diame- 
ter, covered Avith 
prickles, at least 
when young ; ripe 
• in autumn. Small 
to large tree, wild 
in the basin of the 
Ohio River, along 
river-banks. Some- 
2E. glabra. times cultivated. 





JE. rubicundn. 



3. .SJsculus Pavia, L. (Red Buckeye.) Leaves of 5 to 7 oblong- 
lanceolate, finely serrate, generally smooth leaflets, of a shining 

green color, with purple veins and petioles. 
Flowers (corolla and calyx) bright red, with 
included stamens; corolla of 4 petals, n..t 

spreading; calyx tubular. Fruit smooth, ob- 
Long-obovate, 1 in. long. Small true or shrub, 
10 to 20 ft. high, with purple twigs. Virginia 
west ami south, ami occasionally cultivate. 1 

throughout. 

.32. Pavia. 

4. iEsculus flava, Ait. (Sweet Buceets.) Leaves with S to 7 

serrulate, elliptical, acuminate Leaflets, usually smooth, sometimes 




n.24] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DKSCKI ITION' 



83 



minutely pubescenl beneath; the pubes- 
cent petiole flatfish toward the base. 
Flowers yellow, not spreading. Spring. 
Fruit globose, uneven but not prickly, 
2 in. in diameter. Seeds large (1 in.), 1 or 
2 in number, mahogany-colored; ripe in ^^g 
autumn. Often a large tree, sometimes 
only a shrub, 6 to 70 ft. high, in rich woods; 
Virginia to Indiana, and southward. Cul- 
tivated oc- 
casionally 
throughout. 





iE. flava. 



BZ. parviflora. 



Var. piirpnrascens of this species has 
flesb-colored or dull-purple flowers, and 
leaflets quite downy beneath. 

5. 2Esculus parviflbra, Walt. 
(Long-racemeu Buckeye.) Leaflets 
5 to 7, ovate, acuminate, serrate, vel- 
vety with hairs beneath. Flowers 
white, in long, slender, erect clusters ; 
July ; petals 4, spreading ; stamens very 
long. A beautiful, widely spreading 
shrub, 5 to 18 ft. high ; from the South- 
ern States ; often cultivated. Probably 
hardy throughout. 



Genus 24. KCELREUT^RIA. 

A small tree with alternate, once to twice irregularly 
pinnate leaves with many coarsely toothed leaflets. Flow- 
ers conspicuous, yellow, in terminal panicles. In summer. 
Fruit rounded, bladdery, 3-celled, 
few-seeded pods; ripe in autumn. 

Kcelreuteria paniculata, Laxm. Leaf- 
lets- thin and very irregularly toothed. 
Clusters 6 to 12 in. long, of many ir- 
regular flowers, % in. wide ; through 
the summer. Fruit an ovate, bladdery 
capsule, ripening in autumn. A fine, 
small, round-headed tree, 20 to 40 ft. 
high; from China. Probably hardy 
throughout. K. paniculata. 




84 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

Genus 25. ACER. 

Trees, or rarely shrubs, with simple, opposite, and almost 
always palmately lobed leaves, which, in our species, are 
always deciduous. Flowers small and usually dull-colored, 
in clusters. Fruit double-winged and 2-seeded, in some 
species hanging on the tree till the leaves have fallen ; 
in others dropping off early in the spring. The species 
differ much in the spreading of the wings of the fruit. 
Wood light-colored and medium hard ; bark rather 
smoothish, but in large trees with longitudinal cracks. 

* Leaves slightly or not lobed 13. 

* Leaves about 3-lobed (rarely 5-lobed); shrubs or small tics. 
(A.) 

A. Loaves serrate 1,2. 

A. Leaves somewhat sinuate, not at all serrate; juice milky. 10. 

* Leaves 5-, rarely 3-lobed. (B.) 

B. The lobes acute, irregularly but quite fully serrate; juice not 
milky. (C.) 

C. The fruit in corymbs, dropping early; American species. 

(D.) 
D. Leaf-notches somewhat rounded; tree large; limbs 

drooping on old trees :>. 

D. Leaf-notches acute ; tree small 4. 

C. Fruit in hanging racemes, remaining on the tree till au- 
tumn ; leaves thickish • 5. 

B. The lobes acute ; sparingly or not at all serrate. (E.) 

E. Juice not milky G. 

E. Juice milky at the bases of the leaves 8, 9. 

B. The lobes obtuse and sinuate 10. 

* Leaves ■">- to 7-lobed. (F.) 

F. Lobes fully serrate 11. 

F. Lobes sparingly serrate. (G.) 

G. Juice milky 8, 9. 

G. Juice not milky: leaves 8 to 10 iii. broad 7. 

F. Lobes somewhat sinuate, not Berrate; juice milky 10. 

* Leaves with 7 or more lobes 11, 12. 

1. Acer spicatum, Lam (Mountaik Maple.) Leaves with :t 
(rarely 5) coarsely serrated, taper pointed lobes, with slightly cor- 
date base? downy beneath, Flowers greenish-yellow, in erect] 



AJ 



CLASSIFICATION AND DKSCKMITION 



85 




Blender racemes or panicles, blooming in 
June. Wings of the small fruil at aboul 
a right angle. Small tree, (i to 10 ft. high, 

or usually a shrub, with brown twins. 

Native; growing in moist woods ; rarely 

cultivated. 

•J. Acer Pennsylvanicum, L. (Striped 
Maple.) Leaves large, thin, 3-lobed at 
the end, cordate at base, finely and 
sharply doubly serrate. Flowers green- 
ish, in drooping, elongated, loose racemes 
appearing after the leaves in spring. A - s P lcatum - 

Fruit with large diverging wings. A 
small, slender tree, with light green bark 
striped with dark red. Wild throughout 
and cultivated. 



3. Acer dasycarpum, Ehrh. (Silver 
or White Maple.) Leaves large, trun- 
cated at base, 5-lobed, with blunt 
notches, the lobes irregularly serrated 
and notched, silvery white, and, when 
young, downy beneath. Flowers light 




A. Pennsylvanicum. 



yellowish-purple, preceding the leaves, 
in crowded umbels along the branches. 
Wings of fruit large and forming about a 
right angle ; ripe early in June. A rather 
large, rapidly growing, and usually some- 
what weeping tree, with soft white wood. 
Special cut-leaved and weeping varie- 
ties are sold at the nurseries. Wild along 
river-banks, and extensively cultivated in 
the streets of cities. 





A. labium. 



4. Acer rubrum, 
L. (Red Maple.) 
Leaves cordate at 

, -, , „, . , A. dasycarpum. 

base and cleft into 

3 to 5 acute-notched, irregularly toothed lobes, 

whitish beneath, turning a bright crimson in 

early autumn. Flowers usually scarlet, rarely 

yellowish, in close clusters along the branches, 

appearing before the leaves in the spring. 



86 



TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Fruit often reddish, small, with th a wings at about a right angle. 
A rather small, somewhat spreading tree with reddish branches; 
wild in wet places and often cultivated. 



5. Acer Pseudoplatanus, L. (Syca- 
more-maple.) Leaves thickish. cordate, 
downy beneath, with 5 rather crenately 
toothed lobes, on long, often reddish 
petioles. Flowers in long pendulous 
racemes, appearing after the leaves. 
Fruit hanging on the tree till after the 
leaves fall in the autumn, the wings 
forming about a right angle. A rather 
large, spreading tree, 30 to 80 ft. high, 
with reddish-brown twigs. Cultivated ; 
from Europe. Many varieties of this 
species are sold by the nurserymen ; 
among them may be mentioned the Pur- 




A PseudoplStanus. 



ple-leaved, Golden-leaved, Silver-leaved, Tricolored, etc. 



G. Acer saccharinum, Wang. (S T . - 
gar or Rock Maple.) Leaves deeply 
3- to 5-lobed, with rounded notches; 
lobes acute, few-toothed; base heart- 
shaped, smooth above, glaucous be- 
neath. Flowers hanging in umbel-like 
clusters at the time the leaves are ex- 
panding in the spring. Fruit with wings 
not quite forming a right angle. A 
large (50 to 100 ft. high), very symmet- 
rical tree, ovate in form, with whitish- 
brown twigs. Wild throughout, and 
extensively cultivated in the streets of 
cities. 

\'ar. imii inn, Toit. and Gray. (Black Sugar-maple.) Leaves scarcely 
paler beneath, but often minutely downy ; lobes wider, often shorter 
and entire; notch at the base often closed (the under leaf in the 
figure). Found with the-other Sngar-maple, and quite variable. 

7. Acer macrophyllum, Ph. (LaRGK-LEAVED or CALIFORNIA 
Maple.) Leaves very large, 8 to in in. broad ; .">-, sometimes 7-lobed, 
with deep, rounded notches ; lobes themselves somewhat 3-lobed ami 
repand-notched ; pubescent beneath. Flowers yellow, in erect panicles, 
Fragrant, blooming after tin- 1 raves air expanded. Pruit large, with 




A. sacchannum. 






CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



87 




A. macroph^llum. 



the seeded portion hairy; wings at 
about a right angle. Tree very Large 
(100ft. high); wood soft, whitish, beau- 
tifully veined. TwigS brown ; linds 
green. Cultivated; from, the Pacific 
(.•oast, but uot hardy north of 40° N. 
latitude. 

S. Acer platanoides, L. (Norway 

Maple.) Leaves large, smooth, 5-, 

rarely 7-cleft,with cordate base ; lobes 

acute, with few coarse, sharp teeth, 

bright green both sides. The leaves 

resemble those of the Sycamore (Plata- 
nus). Flowers a little later than the 
leaves in spring, in stalked coi-ymbs, less 
drooping than the Sugar-maple (No. 6). 
Fruit with wings diverging in a straight 
line. A medium-sized, broad, rounded 
tree with brown twigs and milky juice, 
best seen at the bases of the young leaves. 
Cultivated throughout. 

9. Acer Lsetum. (Colchicum-leaved 
Maple.) Leaves 5- to 7-lobecl, scarcely 
heart-shaped at base, smooth and -green 
on both sides; juice milky; the lobes 
A. platanoides. usually without any notches or irregu- 

larities, sometimes with about three 
winding sinuations. Flowers in erect 
corymbs. Differs from Acer platanoides 
in having the lobes of the leaves more 
nearly entire, and the fruitmueh smaller 
with wings not so broadly spreading. 




10. Acer campestre, L. (English 
or Cork-bark Maple.) Leaves cor- 
date, with usually 5 
roundish lobes, spar- 
ingly crenate or ra- 
ther undulated ; juice 
milky. Racemes of 
flowers erect, appear- 

A. campestre. ing after the leaves in spring 





A. Lifcetum. 
Wings of the fruit 




88 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

broadly spreading; fruit ripening very late. A low (L"> to 30 ft. nigh), 
round-headed tree, with the twigs and smaller branches covered 
with corky bark. Occasionally cultivated ; from Europe. 
Var. variegatum has white blotched leaves. 

11. Acer palmatum, Thunb. (Palmate-leaved 
Japan Maple.) Leaves small, smooth, palmately 
parted into 5 to 9 quite regularly serrated lobes. 
Flowers in small umbels. A very low tree, almost 
a shrub: cultivated; from Japan; probably hardy 
throughout. There are a great number of Japan 
a. palmatum. 'jfaples, many of them probably varieties of this 
Bpecies, others hybrids. The leaves of some are so divided and dis- 
sected as to form merely a fringe or feather. In color they range 
from pure green to the richest reds. 

12. Acer circinatum, Pursh. (Round-leavkd 
OB Vine Maple.) Leaves orbicular, with 7 to 
rated, acute lobes, a heart-shaped base, 
reddish-green color, and both surfaces smooth. 
Corymbs of purplish flowers, small and hanging 
on long peduncles; appearing after the leaves. 
Wings of the fruit diverging in a straight line. 
A small tree or tall shrub, 10 to 30 ft. high, of 
spreading habit, with smooth bark, and pale brown twigs; cultivated; 
from the Pacific coast of North America. 



13. Acer Tartaricum, L. (Tartarian 
Maple.) Leaves ovate, slightly cordate, 
rarely Lobed, serrated, light-colored, expand- 
ing \<rv early in the spring. Panicle of 
greenish -yellow (lowers erect, blooming 
after the Leaves have expanded. Wings of 
the fruit parallel or sometimes touching. A 

small tree, sometimes shrubby in growth, of 
irregular form, with brown twigs; rarely cul- 
tivated ; from Europe. 




A. circinatum. 




A. Tartaricum. 



26. NEGUNDO. 



Leaves pinnate, of 3 to 5 leaflets. Flowers rather 
inconspicuous. Fruil a two-winged key as in Acer, in 
drooping racemes. 




0.27] CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 89 

Negiindo aceroides, Moench. (Asn- 
i,r. wi.D Maple. Box-elder.) Leaves 
pinnate, <>r :* to ~> (rarely 7) coarsely and 

sparingly toot hod leallets. Flowers stam- 

Lnate and pistillate on separate trees, in 
drooping clusters rather earlier than the 
Leaves. Fruit on only a portion of the 
trees; wings forming less than a right 
angle. A rather small (30 to 60 ft. high), 
rapidly growing tree, with light pea-green 
t wigs; wild from Pennsylvania and south, 
and cultivated throughout. 

Var. Califomicum, Torr. and Gray (the n. aceroides. 

under drawing iii the figure), has leaflets more deeply cut, thicker, 
and quite hairy; it is occasionally cultivated. 

Order XVI. ANACARDlACE^J. 

(Cashew Family.) 

Trees and shrubs, mainly of the tropical regions, here 
represented by only one genus : 

Genus 27. RHtTS. 

Low trees or shrubs with acrid, often poisonous, usu- 
ally milky juice, and dotless, alternate, usually pinnately 
compound leaves. Flowers greenish- white or yellowish, 
in large terminal panicles. Fruit small {/s in.), indehis- 
cent, dry drupes in large clusters, generally remaining 
on through the autumn. 

* Leaves simple, rounded, entire 6, 7. 

* Leaves once-pinnate. (A. ) 

A. Twigs very harry; rachis not winged; leaflets 11 to 31. . . .1. 
A. Twigs downy; rachis wing-margined; leailets entire or 

nearly so 3. 

A. Twigs smooth. (B.) 

B. Rachis of leaf broadly winged; leaflets serrate 5. 

B. Rachis not winged. (C.) 

C. Leaflets 11 to 31, serrate; frail hairy 2. 

C. Leaflets 7 to 13, entire; fruit smooth; poisonous 4. 

* Leaves twice-pinnate ; variety under 2. 



90 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




R. typhina. 



1. Rhus typhina, L. (Stag-horn Su- 
mac.) Leaflets 11 to 31, oblong-lanceo- 
late, pointed, serrate (rarely laciniate), 
pale beneath. Branches and footstalks 
densely hairy. Fruit globular, in large, 
dense, erect panicles, covered with crim- 
son hairs. Shrub or tree, 10 to 30 ft. 
high. It is very common along fences 
and on hillsides. The wood is orange- 
colored and brittle. 



2. Rhus glabra, L. (Smooth Su- 
mac.) Leaflets 11 to 31, lanceolate- 
oblong, pointed, sen-ate, smooth, glau- 
cous white beneath. Branches not 
hairy. Fruit globular, in a rather open, 
spreading cluster, covered densely with 
crimson hairs. A shrubby plant, 2 to 
12 ft. high, found quite abundantly in 
rocky or barren soil throughout. 

Var. lacimata is frequently planted 
for ornament. It has very irregularly 
twice-pinnate leaves drooping grace- 
fully from the branches. 





R. glabra. 

3. Rhus copallina, L. (Dwarf Moun- 
tain SUMAC.) Branches and stalks downy ; 
leafstalk wing-margined between t lie 9 to 
21 oblong-lanceolate, usually entire leaf- 
lets, which are oblique at base and smooth 
and shining above. Wild in rocky hills 
throughout ; often cultivated. North, a 
beautiful shrub; 
south, a tree. 2 
to 25 ft. high. 



4. Rhus ve- 
nenata, DC. 
(POTSON-STJMAO. 
R.laciniata. PoiSON-DOG- 

wood. Poison-elder.) Leaflets 7 to 13, 
obovate oblong, entire, abruptly pointed, 
smooth or oearly so. Pruil Bmall, globu- 
lar, smooth, dun-eolored, in loose axillary 




R. copalnxuk 



G.27] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DUSCfclPTCON 



di 



panicles hanging «>n [ate in winter; the 
stone striate. This is a very poisonous 
species (to the touch), G to 18 ft. high, 
growing in Bwamps. Barely at all tree- 
like 

5. Rhus Osbeckii, DC. (Chinese Su- 
mac.) Leaves very large, pinnate, assum- 
ing iu autumn a rich reddish-fawn or 
orange color; the leafstalk broadly winged 
between the leaflets ; leaflets serrate. A 
small ornamental tree, 10 to 25 ft. high ; 
cultivated ; from China ; quite hardy in 
the Northern States. 




R. venenata. 





6. Rhus Cotinus, L. (Smoke-tree. 
Venetian Sumac.) Leaves smooth, oho- 
vate, entire, on slender petioles. Flowers 
greenish, minute, 
|p in terminal or 
axillary pani- 
cles. Fruit sel- 
dom found. Usu- 
ally most of the 
flowers are abor- 
tive, while their 

, . , , . i R. Cotinus. 

pedicels lengthen, 

branch, and form long feather-like hairs, 
making large cloud-like branches that 
look somewhat like smoke (whence the 

name). A shrub or small tree, 6 to 10 

ft. high, often planted for ornament ; 

from Europe. 

7. Rhus cotinoides, Nutt. (Ameri- 
can Smoke-tree.) Leaves thin, oval, 
obtuse, entire, acute at base, 3 to G in. 
long, smooth or nearly so. Flowers and 
fruit like those of the cultivated species 
(Rhus Cotinus). A tree 20 to 40 ft. high ; 
stem sometimes a foot or more in diame- 
ter in the Southern States ; wild in Ten- 
nessee, west and south. Rare in culti- 
vation. R. cotinoides. 




92 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Order XVII. LEGUMINOS^E. (Pulse Family.) 

A very large order of plants, mainly herbaceous ; found 
in all climates. A few are shrubby, and others are from 
small to large trees. 

Genus 28. LABURNUM. 

Low trees or shrubs with alternate, palmate leaves of 
three leaflets. Flowers conspicuous, pea- blossom-shaped, 
in long hanging racemes, in late spring. Frivit pea-pod- 
shaped, dark brown, and many-seeded ; ripe in autumn. 



Laburnum vulgare. (Laburnum. 
Golden-chain. Bean-trefoil Tree.) 
Leaves petiolate, with 3 ovate-lanceolate 
leaflets, pubescent beneath. Flowers 
bright yellow, nearly 1 in. long, in Long 
(1 ft.), pendulous, simple racemes ; in late 
spring. Puds 2 in. long, linear, many- 
seeded, covered with closely appi 
pubescence ; one edge thick ; ripe in au- 
tumn. A low, very ornamental tree. It) 
to 20 ft. high, often cultivated ; from Swit- 
zerland. Varieties with reddish, purple, 
and white flowers are also in cultivation. 

Var. alpinus has smooth pods. 



Gkm s 29. CARAGANA. 




I., vulg&re. 



Leaves alternate, deciduous, abruptly once-pinnate j 

leaflets raucrouatc; stipules usually spinescent. Flowers 

pea-flower-shaped, mostly yellow. Trees or shrubs of Asia. 



Caragana arborescens, Lain. (Pea-tree. I 
Leaves with 4 to 6 pairs of oval-oblong, 
mueronate-pointed, hairy leaflets; petioles 
unarmed ; stipules spinescent. Flowers yel- 
low, blooming in May. Pods brown, ripe in 
August. A Low, stilt', erect tree, 10 t<> IS H. 

high; in pOOT SOll a Gush. From Siberia; 1'iv- 

quenl in cultivation. 




C. arbor^scena. 



0.81] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



93 



Genus 30. CLADRASTIS. 

Small tree with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves, the base 
of the petiole hollow, and inclosing the leaf-buds of the 
next year. Flowers large, pea- blossom-like in shape, in 
la rue clusters. Fruit pea-pod-like 
in shape and size. Wood light 
yellow, firm and hard. 

Cladrastis tinctoria, Raf. (Yellow- 
wood.) Leaflets 7 to 11, oval to ovate, 
3 to 4 in. long, beautiful light green in 
color. Flowers 1 in. long, white, not so 
fragrant as the common Locust, in hang- 
ing panicles 10 to 20 in. long; blooming 
in .Tune. Pods 2 in. long, ripe in August. 
Wild but rare in Kentucky and south. A 
beautiful tree. 20 to 50 ft. high, with 
very smooth grayish bark; rarely cul- 
tivated. 

Genus 31. ROBINIA. 




tinctdria. 



Trees or shrubs with alternate, odd -pinnate leaves, 
having spines on each side of the stalk in place of stip- 
ules. Leafstalk thickened near the base, and covering 
2 to 3 buds for the growth of a branch for the next year. 
An axillary bud also found that may produce a branch 
the same year as the leaf. Flowers large, pea-blossom- 
shaped, in large clusters. Fruit 
a pea-shaped pod. 

* Branchlets and leafstalks not sticky. 1 . 

* Branchlets and leafstalks sticky . . 2. 

1. Robinia Pseudacacia, L. (Com- 
mon Locust.) Leaflets 9 to 19, small, 
oblong-ovate, entire, thin. Twigs 
purplish-brown, slender, smooth, not 
sticky. Flowers w lute, fragrant, in 
hanging racemes, 3 to 6 in. long. 
June. Pods flat, smooth, purplish- 
it. Pseudacacia. brown, ripe in September. An irregu- 




94 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



larly growing, slender tree, 70 to 80 ft. high, with white or greenish- 
yellow, very durable wood, and on old trees very rough bark with 
long, deep furrows. Native ; Pennsylvania, west and south, and 
exteusively planted and naturalized throughout. A number of va- 
rieties, some of which are thornless, are in cultivation. 

2. Robinia viscosa, Vent. (Clam- 
my Locust.) Leaflets 11 to 25, ovate- 
oblong, sometimes slightly heart- 
shaped at base, tipped with a short 
bristle. Twigs and leafstalks sticky 
to the touch. Flowers in a short, 
rather compact, upright raceme, rose- 
colored and inodorous. A small tree, 
30 to 40 ft. high; native south, and 
has been quite extensively cultivated 
north. 

3. Robinia hispida, L. (Bristly 
Locust. Rose-acacia), with bristly 
leafstalks and branchlets. and large 

Often cultivated. Wild from 




K. viscdsa. 

rose-colored flowers, is only a bush 
Virginia and south. 



Genus 32. CERCIS. 

Small trees or shrubs, with alternate, simple, heart- 
shaped leaves. Flowers in umbel-like clusters along the 
branches, appearing before the leaves, and shaped like 
pea-blossoms. Fruit pea-like pods, remaining on the tree 
throughout the year. "Wood hard, heavy, and beautifully 
blotched or waved with black, green, and yellow, on a 
gray ground. 

1 . Cercis Canadensis, L. (Judas-tree. Bedbud.) 
Leaves acutely pointed, smooth, dark green, glossy. 
Flowers bright red-purple. Pods nearly sessile, 3 to 
4 in. Long, brown when ripe in August. A small 
ornamental tree, 10 to :; ( > t'i. high, with smooth bark 
and hard apple-tree-like wood ; wild from Central New York south- 
ward, ;iiiil often cultivated. 

:J. Cercis siliquastrum (EUROPEAN Judas-tree), from Europe, 
with obtusely pointed, somewhal kidney-shaped leaves, and white to 
purple llow.rs. is sometimes cultivated. It is not bo tall or tree-like 
,-is the American Bpecies. 




C. Canadensis. 



Q :u 



CLASSIFICATION AM) DESCRIPTION 



95 



(iKNis 33. GYMNOCLADUS. 

Tall trees with alternate, very large (2 to 4 ft. long), un- 
equally twice-pinnate leaves. Flowers white, conspicu- 
ous, in racemes at the ends of the branches. Fruit a large 
pea-like pod. Some trees are without fruit through the 
abortion of the pistils. 



Gymnocladus Canadensis, Lam. 
(Kentucky Coffee-tree.) Leaves 2 to 
3 ft. long, often with the lower pinnae 
simple and the upper pinnate. Leaflets 
ovate, of a dull bluish-green color. Shoots 
eaue-like, blunt and stubby, quite erect. 
Bark exceedingly rough. Pod large, 6 to 
10 in. long, 2 in. broad, with seeds over £ 
iu. across. A large (50 to 80 ft. high) tree 
with compact, tough, reddish wood. Wild 
from western New York southwestward, 
and occasionally cultivated as an orna- 
mental tree. 




G. Canadensis. 



Genus 34. GLEDITSCHIA. 

Usually thorny trees with alternate, once to twice ab- 
ruptly pinnate leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, greenish, 
in small spikes. Summer. Fruit a small or large pea- 
like pod, with one to many seeds; ripe in autumn, but 
often hanging on the trees through the winter. 

1. Gleditschia triacanthos,L. (Honey- 
locust.) Leaflets lanceolate-oblong, some- 
what serrate. Pods linear, 1 to 1£ ft- long, 
often twisted, filled with sweet pidp be- 
tween the seeds. A large, handsome, clean 
tree, with usually many stout, much- 
branched thorns, especially abundant on 
bruised portions of the trunk and large 
branches ; thorns compressed at base. 
G. triacanthos. Wild from Pennsylvania southward and 

westward, and extensively cultivated throughout. 

A variety without thorns is frequently met with (var. inermis), also 
one with drooping foliage (var. Bujotii pendula). 




96 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




G. aquatica. 



2. Gleditschia aquatica, Ma rsli. (Wa- 
ter-locust.) Leaflets ovate or oblong. 
Pods oval, 1 to 4 in. long, 1- to few-seeded, 
without pulp. A small tree with few slen- 
der, usually simple thorns; in swamps 
in southern Illinois and south. Occa- 
sionally planted for ornament. This spe- 
cies is quite similar to the preceding one, 
but the leaves are somewhat smaller, the 
thorns, though occasionally branching, 
do not branch 
so extensively, 
and the pod is 
very short and 
rounded. 



3. Gleditschia sinensis, Lam. (Chinese 
Honey-locust.) A tree with stouter and 
more conical thorns, broader and more oval 
leaflets. A medium-sized or small tree, 
often cultivated. This species, like the 
others, has a thornless variety. 




Genus 35. ALBIZZIA. 



Trees or shrubs with abruptly pinnate leaves. 
a broad-linear straight pod. 



Fruit 



Albizzia julibrissin, Boivin. (Silk- 
tree.) Leaves twice abruptly pinnate, 
of many (over 400) leaflets; leaflets 
semi-oblong, curved, entire, acute, 
with the midrib near the upper edge. 
Flowers in globose heads forming pan- 
icles. I-Yuit plain pods on short stems. 
A very beautiful small tree, introduced 
from Japan ; probably not hardy north 
of Washington. The figure show- only 
one of the lowest and shortest side 

divisions (pinna) of the leaf. The 

pinnae increase in length and number of leaflets to the end of the 
leaf. 




A. julibrissin. 



G.M] CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTIOK !>7 

Order XVIII. ROSACEJE. (Rose Family.) 

A large and very useful order of trees, shrubs, and 
herbs of temperate regions. 

Genus 36. PRUNUS. 

Trees or shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, 
usually serrate, stipulate leaves, without lobes. The 
stems produce gum when injured. Foliage and nuts 
have flavor of peach-leaves. Flowers conspicuous, usually 
white, or light pink, often in clusters, peaehd>loss<mi- 
shaped ; in early spring. Fruit in size from pea to peach, 
a rounded drupe with one stony-coated seed. 

* Drupe large, soft velvety on the surface ; stone rough (Peach, 
Apricot ) 1 . 

* Drupe medium, covered with a bloom; stone smooth, flattened 

(Plums). (A.) 

A. Usually thorny ; wild, rarely cultivated. (B.) 

B. Leaves acuminate 2, 3. 

B. Leaves not acuminate 4, 5. 

A. Not thorny ; cultivated G. 

'Drupe medium to small, smooth, without bloom (Cherries). (C.) 
C. Drupes clustered in umbels, ^o-l in. in diameter. (D.) 
D. Small cultivated tree ; drupe globose, rather large, very 

sour 9. 

D. Large cultivated tree ; drupe lai'ge, somewhat pitted at the 
stem 8. 

D. Eather small, native tree; drupe small, flesh thin 7. 

C. Drupes clustered in racemes, V%-V% in. in diameter. (E.) 

E. Tall shrubs rather than trees ; racemes short 11. 

E. Trees; racemes quite elongated. (F.) 

F. Stone of fruit somewhat roughened. .12. 
F. Stone smooth 10. 

1. Prunus Pe>sica, L. (Common Peach.) 
Leaves lanceolate, serrate. Flowers rose-col- 
ored, nearly sessile, very early in bloom. Fruit 
clothed with velvety down, large ; stone rough- 
wrinkled. A small tree, 15 to 30 ft. high, culti- 
vated in numberless varieties for its fruit. Var. , 
Iseris (Nectarine) has smooth-skinned fruit. p p^rsica. 

7 




98 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




2. Primus Americana, Marsh. (Wild 
Yellow or Red Plum.) Leaves ovate ox 
somewhat obovate, conspicuously pointed, 

coarsely or doubly serrate, very veiny, 
smooth -when mature. Fruit with little or 
no bloom, % to 1 in. in diameter, yellow, 
orange, or red ; skin tough and bitter. Stone 
with two sharp edges. A small, thorny tree, 
8 to 20 ft. high, common in woodlands and 
on river-banks. Many improved varieties, 
some thomless, are in cultivation. 
Wood reddish color. 



P. Americana. 




P. Alleghaniensis. 




3. Prunus Alleghaniensis, Porter. (Alle- 
ghany Plum.) Leaves lanceolate to oblong- 
ovate, often long-acuminate, finely and sharply 
serrate, softly pubescent when young, smooth Ij 
when old; fruit globose-ovoid, under '._, in., 
very dark purple, with a bloom; stone turgid, 
a shallow groove on one side and a broad, flat ridge on the other. 
A low, straggling bush, occasionally a tree, 3 to 15 ft. high. 
Mountains of Pennsylvania. 

4. Prunus Chicasa, Michx. (CHICA8AW 
Plum.) Leaves long, narrow, almost lanceo- 
late, acute, finely serrate, thin. Flowers on 
short stalks. Fruit globular, '._> to -^ in. in di- 
ameter, thin-skinned, without bloom, yellowish- 
red, pleasant to taste Stone globular, without 
sharp edges. A thorny shrub or small tree, 6 to 
15 ft. high ; wild in New Jersey, west and south, and often cultivated, 

5. Prunus spinosa, L. (Sloe. BLACKTHORN. 

Bullace Plum.) Leaves obovate-oblont,' to 

lance-oblong, sharply serrate, soon smooth ; 

leafstalk smooth; trail small, globular, black. 
with a bloom ; the stone 
rounded, acute at one 
edge ; flesh greenish, 
astringent. A low tree 
with thorny branches; it is becoming natu- 
ralized along roadsides ami waste places; 
from Europe. Var. inatititia (Bullace Plum) 

' is less thorny, and ha^ the hat-talk and 

P domgatica lower side of the leave- pubescent. 



p. Ohlcasa. 





a. 36] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



99 



6. Primus domestica, \j. (COMMON GABDBN Plum.) Leaves 1 
to :i in. Long, oval or ovate-lanceolate, acute to obtuse. Flowers 
white, nearly solitary. Drupe globular, obovoid to ovoid, of many 
colors (black, white, etc.), covered with a rich glaucous bloom. A 
small tree, 10 to 20 ft. high, in cultivation everywhere for its fruit. 
( her a hundred varieties are named in the catalogues. 



7. Prunus Pennsylv&nica,L.f. (Wild 
Red Cherry.) Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
pointed, finely and sharply serrate, shin- 
ing green, smooth on both sides. Flow- 
ers many in an umbel on long stems. Fruit 
round, light red, quite small, V± in. in di- 
ameter, sour. A small tree, 20 to 30 ft. 
high, in rocky woods ; common north and 
extending southward aloug the Allegha- 
nies to North Carolina. 




P. Pennsylv&nica. 




8. Prunus aviuni, L. (Bird-cherry or 
English Cherry.) Leaves oval-lanceolate, 
sharp-pointed, coarsely or doubly serrate. 
Flowers in sessile umbels, opening when the 
leaves appear. Fruit of various colors, some- 
what heart-shaped. This is the Cherry tree, 
30 to 50 ft. high, of which there are many 
named varieties usually cultivated for the 
fruit. 

9. Prunus Cerasus, L. (Garden Red 
Cherry. Morello Cherry.) Leaves obo- 

vate and lance-ovate, serrate, on slender spreading branches. Flow- 
ers rather large. Fruit globular, bright 
red to dark purple, very sour ; in sessile 
umbels. A small, round-headed tree, 10 
to 30 ft. high, often cultivated. The pre- 
ceding species and this one are the 
parents of most of the Cherry trees in 
cultivation. 

10. Prunus serotina, Ehrh. (Wild 
Black Cherry.) Leaves oblong or lance- 
oblong, thicMsh, smooth, usually taper- 
pointed, serrate, with incurved, short, thick 
teeth. Flowers in long racemes. June. 




100 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




serotina. 



Fruit as large as peas, purple-black, bitter; 
ripe in autumn. A fine tree, 15 to 60 ft. 
high, -with reddish-brown branches. Wood 
reddish and valuable for cabinet-work. Com- 
mon in woodlands and along fences. 

11. Prunus Virginiana, L. (Choke- 
cherry.) Leaves thin, oval-oblong or obo- 
vate, abruptly pointed, very sharply, often 
doubly serrate, with slender teeth. Ka- 



cemes of flowers and fruit short and close. 
Fruit dark crimson, stone smooth. Flowers 
in May ; fruit ripe in August ; not edible 
till fully ripe. A tall shrub, sometimes a 
tree, with gray- 
ish bark. Kiver- 
banks, common 
especially north- 
ward. 





Virginiana. 



P. Padus. 



12. Prunus Padus, L. (Small Bird- 
cherry.) Like Prunus Virginiana, ex- 
cepting that the racemes are longer and 
drooping, and the stone is roughened. 
Occasionally planted for ornament. 



Genus 37. PYRUS. 

Trees and shrubs, with alternate, stipulate, simple, or 
pinnately compound leaves. Flowers conspicuous, white 
to pink, apple -blossom -shaped (5 petals); in spring. 
Fruit a fleshy pome, with the cells formed by papery or 
cartilaginous membranes within juicy flesh. 

* Leaves deeply pinnatifid or fully pinnate (Mountain Ashes) . . ( A. ) 
A. Leaf deeply pinnatifid, sometimes fully divided at the base .6. 
A. Leaf once-pinnate throughout. (B.) 

B. Leaf-buds pointed, smooth and somewhat glutinous 7. 

B. Leaf-buds more ot Less hairy 8, 9. 

* Leaves simple and nol pinnatifid. (C.) 

C. Leaves entire; Emit solitary (Quinces) 5. 

C. Leaves serrate ; fruit clustered. (D.) 
D. Fruit large, sunken al both ends (Apples) 1. 



ci.:t7| 



CLASSIFICATION AM' DESCRIPTION 



101 



D. Fruit small ( '._, - 1 in.), sour, much sunken at the stem end 
and but little ;it the other (Crab-apples). (E.) 

E. Leaves very narrow ; fruit \£ in 2. 

E. Leaves broad ; fruit 1 in 3. 

D. Fruit usually obovate, not sunken at the stem end (Pears). 4. 



1. Pyrus Malus, L. (Common Apple- 
trke.) Leaves simple, ovate, evenly ere- 
mite or serrate, smooth on the upper 
surface and woolly on the lower. Flowers 
large (1 in.), white, tinged with pink, in 
small corymbs. May. Fruit large, sunken 
at both ends, especially at base ; ripe from 
August to October, according to variety. A 
flat-topped tree, 20 
to 40 ft. high, culti- 
vated in hundreds 
of named varie- 
ties ; from Europe. 



2. Pyrus angustifolia, Ait. (Narrow- 
leaved Crab-apple.) Leaves simple, lance- 
olate or oblong, often acute at base, mostly 
serrate, smooth. Flowers large {% in.), rose- 
colored, fragrant, in small, simple, umbel- 
like clusters. Fruit very sour, small [}/ 2 in.). 
Twigs lead-colored and speckled. A small 
tree, 12 to 20 ft. high. Pennsylvania and 
southward. 





P. angustifdlia. 



3. Pyrus coronaria, L. (American or 
Garland Crab-apple.) Leaves simple, 
ovate, often rather heart-shaped, cut-ser- 
rate, often 3-lobed, soon smooth. Flowers 
large ( 3 ^ in.), few, in a cluster, rose-colored, 
very fragrant. Fruit very sour and astrin- 
gent, flattened, broad, 1 in. or more in di- 
ameter, yellowish green. Small ti-ee, 10 to 
25 ft. high; New-York, west and south, also 
frecpiently cultivated. 




P. coronaria. 



4. Pyrus communis, L. (Common Pear-tree.) Leaves simple, 
ovate, serrate, smooth on both sides, at least when mature. Flowers 
large (over 1 in.), white, with purple anthers. April and May. 





f . cydonia. 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

Fruit large, usually obovate and mainly 
sunken at the large end ; ripe July to Octo- 
ber, according to the variety. A pyram- 
idal-shaped tree, 30 to 70 ft. high, with 
smooth bark and often somewhat thorny 
branches. Of several hundred named va- 
rieties, native to Europe. Cultivated for its 
fruit. Wood slightly tinged with red; strong, 
and of fine grain. 

P. communis. 

5. Pyrus cyd6nia, L. (Quince. Common 
Quince-tree.) Leaves ovate, obtuse at base, 
entire, hairy beneath. Flowers solitary, large, 
1 in., white or pale rose-color. Fruit large, 
hard, orange-yellow, of peculiar sour flavor : 
seeds mucilaginous ; ripens in October. A low 
tree, 10 to 20 ft. high, with a crooked stem and 
rambling branches ; from Europe. Several varieties in cultivation. 

6. Pyrus pinnatifida, Ehrh. (Oak- 
leaved Mountain-ash.) Leaves pinnately 
cleft and often fully pinnate at base, hairy 
beneath. Pome globose, J 4 in., scarlet, 
ripe in autumn. A cultivated tree, 20 to 
30 ft. high ; from Europe. 

7. Pyrus Americana, DC. (American 
Mountain-ash.) Leaflets 13 to 15, lance- 

X^ 3" ^^ olate, bright green, nearly smooth, taper- 

P. pinnatifida. pointed, sharply serrate with pointed teeth. 

Leaf-buds pointed, glabrous and some- 
what glutinous. Flowers white, % in., 
in large, flat, compound cymes. In June. 
Fruit berry-like pomes, the size of small 
peas, bright scarlet when ripe in Sep- 
bember, and hanging on the tree till win- 
ter. A tall shrub or tree, 15 to 30 ft. 
high, in swamps and mountain woods; 
more abundant northward. Often culti- 
vated for the Bhowy clusters of berries in 

aut limn. P. Americana. 





8. Pyrus sambucifolia, Cham, ft Bchleoht. (Elder -Li 
Mountain -ask. ) Leaflets oblong, oval or lance-ovate, obtnw 






CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



C03 



(sometimes abruptly Bharp-pointed), usually 

doubly senate with rather spreading teeth, 

generally pale beneath. Leaf-buds some- 
what hairy. Flowers and berries larger, but 
in smaller clusters, than the preceding spe- 
cies. The berries globose when ripe, ^ in. 
broad, bright red. This species, much like 
Pyrus Americana, is found wild in northern 
New England and westward. 




P. sambucifdlia. 




P. aucuparia. 



9. Pyrus aucuparia, Gaertn. (Euro- 
pean Mountain-ash, or Rowan-tree.) 
Much like Pyrus Americana, but the leaf- 
lets are paler and more obtuse, with their 
lower surface downy. Leaf-buds blunter 
and densely covered with hairs. Flowers 
larger, Jg in. or more in diameter. Fruit 
also much larger, sometimes nearly V 2 in. 
in diameter. Beautiful tree, 20 to 30 ft. 
high, often cultivated. 



Genus 38. CRATAEGUS. 

Thorny shrubs or small trees with simple, alternate, 
serrate, doubly serrate or lobecl leaves. Flowers cherry- 
like blossoms, usually white in color and growing in 
corymbs, generally on the ends of side shoots ; in spring. 
Fruit a berry or drupe with 1 to 5 bony stones, tipped 
with the 5 persistent calyx-teeth ; ripe in autumn. 

* Calyx, stipules, bracts, etc., often glandular. (A.) 
A. Flowers and fruit often over 6 in a cluster. (B. ) 

B. Leaves usually abrupt at base 1. 

B. Leaves usually attenuate at base 2. 

A. Flowers and fruit few, 1 to 6 in a cluster 10. 

* Calyx, etc., without glands (No. 4 has glandular teeth to the 

calyx); flowers many in a cluster. (C.) 
0. Leaves more or less tapering at base. (D.) 

D. Leaves generally lobed ; cultivated, rarely escaped 3. 

D. Leaves rarely lobed ; native. (E.) 

E. Leaves small, shining, crenate at the end 5. 

E. Leaves villous or pubescent, at least when young . . .9. 
E. Leaves smooth or only downy at the axils, acutely ser- 
rate. South 7. 



104 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



C. Leaves usually abrupt at base, sometimes cordate. (F.) 
F. Leaves downy when young. (G. ) 

G. Leaves usually lobed 4. 

G. Leaves rarely lobed ; veins very prominent 8. 

F. Leaves quite smooth 6. 




C. coccinea. 



1. Crataegus coccinea, L. (Scarlet- 
fruited Thorn.) Leaves bright green, 
smooth, thin, roundish-ovate, sharply cut- 
toothed or lobed, on slender petioles. 
Branches reddish, villous -pubescent ; 
spines stout, chestnut-brown. Flowers 
large, % to % in., many in a corymb, on 
glandular peduncles. May to June. Fruit 
scarlet, round or pear-shaped, 1 . 2 in. ; ripe 
in September, with from 1 to 5 cells and 
seeds. Tall shrub or low tree, 10 to 25 ft. high, in hedges and woods ; 
common from Canada to Florida. 

Var. mollis has the shoots densely pubescent ; leaves large, slen- 
der-petioled, cuneate, cordate or truncate at base, usually with acute 
narrow lobes, often rough above, and more or less densely pubescent 
beneath. Flowers large, 1 in.; fruit light scarlet with a light bloom, 
1 in. broad. 

2. Crataegus Crus-galli, L. (Cockspur 

Thorn. ) Leaves smooth, thick, shining above, 

wedge-obovate, finely serrate above the mid- 
dle, with a short 
petiole. There are 
broad and narrow- ,. 
leaved varieties. \\ » 

Flowers lar^r and \>> 
num. tuns. in lateral c. Crus-gaiii. 

eorymbfl. May to .Tunc Fruit globular, 
' ;! in. broad, dull red; ripe in September 
and October. A small tree with a flat] 
busby head, horizontal branches, and long, 
sharp I horns. Wild and common through- 
out, and often planted. 



3. Crataegus oxyacantha. (ENGLISH 
Hawthorn.) Leaves obovate, smootb, 
wedge-shaped at base, out -lobed and 





C. uxy i 



G. 38J 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



105 




toothed above. No glands. Flowers niediura-sizod, ^ in., single or 
double, white, rose, or pink-rod, numerous in corymbs. In spring. 
Fruit coral-red, [ 3 in. ; ripe in autumn. A small tree or shrub, fine for 
lawn ; from Europe ; also escaped in some places. 

4. Crataegus apiifolia, Miehx. (Pabsley- 
lkaved Thorn.) Leaves small, ovate, with a 
broad truncate or heart-shaped base, pinnatifid 
into 5 to 7 crowded, irregularly toothed lobes; 
white and soft-downy when young, smoothish 
when grown ; petioles slender. Flowers me- 
dium-sized, Jo in., many in a corymb, white. C apitf&iia. 
May to June. Fruit small, x 3 in., coral-red, ripe in autumn. A hand- 
some, low (10 to 20 ft. high), spreading tree, with flexible branches 
and white-downy twigs. Virginia and south, in moist woods. 



5. Crataegus spathulata, Michx. (Spatu- 
late-leaved Thorn.) Leaves almost ever- 
green, thick, shining, spatulate, crenate to- 
ward the apex and nearly sessile, those on the 
young downy branches somewhat cut or lobed. 
Flowers small, % in., in large clusters. May. 
Fruit small, J^ in., bright red ; ripe in Octo- 
ber. A small tree, 12 to 25 ft. high ; Virginia 
and south. 




C. spathulata. 





6. Crataegus cordata, Ait. (Washing- 
ton Thorn.) Leaves broadly triangular- 
ovate, somewhat heart-shaped, thin, deep 
shining green, smooth, often 3- to 5-lobed 
and serrate, on slender petioles. Flowers 
small, | in., 
many in termi- 
nal corymbs, 

white. "May, C. cordata. 

June. Fruit scarlet, about the size of 
peas ; ripe in September. A compact, 
close-headed, small tree, 15 to 25 ft. high, 
with many slender thorns. Virginia, 
Kentucky, and southward. Sometimes 
planted in the North for hedges. 

7. Crataegus viridis, L. (Tail Haw- 

ttimkx.) Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong, 



106 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



or lanceolate, or oblong-obovate, mostly acute at both ends, on 
slender petioles ; acutely serrate, often somewhat lobed and often 
downy in the axils. Flowers numerous, in large clusters. Fruit 
bright red, or orange, ovoid, small, $£ in. broad. A small tree, 20 to 
30 ft. high, with few large thorns or without thorns. Southern Illi- 
nois and Missouri, along the Mississippi and in the Southern States. 




C. tomentosa. 



8. Crataegus tomentosa, L. (Black 
or Pear Hawthorn.) Leaves downy- 
pubescent on the lower side (at least 
when young), thiekish, rather large, oval 
or ovate-oblong, sharply toothed and 
often cut-lobed below, abruptly nar- 
rowed into a margined petiole, the upper 
surface impressed along the main veins 
or ribs. Branches gray. Flowers ill- 
scented, many in a corymb. Fruit '., in. 
long, obovate to globose, dull red. Shrub 
or tree, 10 to 30 ft. high, wild in western 
New York, west and south. 



9. Crataegus punctata. (Dotted-fruited 
Hawthorn.) Leaves rather small, mostly 
wedge-obovate, attenuate and entire below, 
unequally toothed above, rarely lobed, villous- 
pubescent, becoming smooth but dull, the 
vc i n s prominent beneath and impressed above. 
Fruit globose, large, 1 in. broad, red to bright 
yellow; peduncles not glandular. Shrub to 
tree, 10 to 20 ft. high, with horizontal branches; Canada to Georgia. 




C. punctata. 




• ■■-fit wlirii your 



10. Crataegus flava, Ait. (Yellow or 
Summer Haw.) Leaves small, wedge-obo- 
rate, unequally toothed and cul above the 
middle; on short petioles; the teeth, stipules 
and petioles glandular. Flowers mostly sol- 
itary, white, large (% in). May. Fruit usu- 
ally pear-shaped, quite Large ( :! i in. long), 
yellow or greenish-yellow, sometimes tinged 
or spotted with red, pleasant-flavored. Ripe 
in ;i wt ii in n. A low spreading tree, L5to 20 ft 
high. Virginia, south and wist, in Bandy soil, 

\':ir. jHlhisirns is downy- or vi I lolls | ill 1 ii'S 

and bag thicker leaves and larger and redder Fruit 



G.40] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



101 



Genus 39. AMELANCHIER. 



Small trees or shrubs with simple, deciduous, alternate, 
sharply serrate leaves; cherry-blossom-like, white flow- 
ers, in racemes at the end of the branches, before the 
leaves are fully expanded. Fruit a small apple-like pome ; 

seeds 10 or less, in separate cartilaginous-coated cells. 



Amelanchier Canadensis, Torr. & Gray. 
(Shad-bush. Service-berry.) A very vari- 
able species with many named varieties. The 
leaves, 1 to 3^ in. long, vary from narrow- 
oblong to roundish or cordate ; bracts and 
stipules silky-ciliate. Flowers large, in droop- 
ing racemes, in early spring, with petals from 
2 to 5 times as long as wide. Fruit globular, 
% in. broad, purplish, sweet, edible ; ripe in 




A. Canadensis. 



June, 
high. 



It varies from a low shrub to a middle-sized tree, 5 to 30 ft. 



Order XIX. HAMAMELIDE^l. 
(Witch-hazel Family.) 



A small family of trees and shrubs represented in most 
countries. 

Genus 40. HAMAMELIS. 

Tall shrubs, rarely tree-like, with alternate, straight- 
veined, 2-ranked, oval, wavy-margined leaves. Flowers 
conspicuous, yellow, 4-parted; blooming in the autumn 
while the leaves are dropping, and continuing in bloom 
through part of the winter. Fruit rounded capsules 
which do not ripen till the next summer. 

Hamamelis Virginiana, L. (Witch-hazel.) 
The only species ; 10 to 30 ft. high ; rarely grows 
with a single trunk, but usually forms a slender, 
crooked-branched shrub. Flowers sessile, in small 
clusters of 3 to 4, in an involucre in the axils of the 
H. Virginiana. leaves. 




108 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Genus 41. LIQUIDAMBAB. 

Trees with alternate, simple, palmately cleft leaves. 
Flowers inconspicuous; in spring. Fruit a large (1 in.), 
globular, long-stalked, dry, open, 
rough catkin, hanging on the tree 
through the winter. 

Liquidambar Styraciflua, L. (Sweet 
Gttm. Bilsted.) Leaves rounded, deep- 
ly 5- to 7- cleft, star-shaped, dark green, 
smooth and shining, glandular-serrate. 
Twigs often covered with corky ridges. 
A large, beautiful tree, 30 to 70 ft. high, 
with deeply furrowed bark. Connecticut, 
•west and south; abundant south of 40° 
N. Lat. Well worthy of more extensive 
cultivation than it has yet received. 




Order XX. LYTHRACEiE. 

(Loosestrife Family.) 

A small order of shrubs, herbs, or trees; mainly tropical. 

Genus 42. PUNIC A. 

Leaves simple, usually opposite, deciduous; flowers 
scarlet, with 5 petals and numerous stamens; fruit a many- 
seeded berry. 

Punica granatum, L. ( Pomegranate- 
tree.) Leaves opposite, lanceolate, 
smooth, entire ; flowers large, both calyx 
and corolla scarlet and very ornamental ; 
the fruit as large as an orange, fine-fla- 
vored. A tree-shaped plant, growing 1<> 
the height of 20 ft. in the Southern Slates. 
[f given some protection, ii can be grown 
t north as Washington, It has been 
cultivated from the earliesl times, and is 
probably a Dative of western Asia. p. gnu 




G.44] CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 

Genus 43. LAGERSTRCEMIA. 



IU«J 



Flowers with 6 long-clawed petals inserted on the 
broadly spreading calyx; fruit 3- 
fco 6-eelled pods with many winged 
seeds. 



Lagerstrcemia Indica, L. (Crape- 
myktle.) Leaves roundish-ovate, thick, 
smooth, short-petiolato ; branches winged ; 
dowers in terminal clusters with large, de- 
licately crisped, long-stemmed petals of 
pink, purple, and other colors. A beau- 
tiful small tree, or usually a shrub, from 
India ; often cultivated in the North in 
conservatories ; hardy as far north as 
Washington. 




Li. t ndica. 



Order XXI. ARAL.lACE.ffi. (Ginseng Family.) 

A small order of herbs, shrubs, and trees, here repre- 
sented by the following genus : 

Genus 44. ARALIA. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with pinnately or palmately 
compound leaves ; here including Acanthopauax with 
palmately cleft leaves. Flowers 
whitish or greenish, in umbels, 
often forming large panicles. 
Fruit small, berry-like, several- 
celled, several-seeded. 



* Leaves 2 to 3 times odd-pinnate 

(Aralia proper) 1, 2. 

* Leaves simple, palmately cleft 

(Acanthopauax) 3. 

1. Aralia spinosa, L. (Angelica- 
tree. Hercules'-Club.) Leaves large, 
crowded at the summit of the stem, 




A. spindsa. 



10 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




A. Chin6nsis. 



twice or sometimes thrice odd-pinnate, 
usually prickly, with stalked, ovate, 
acuminate, deeply serrate leaflets, glau- 
cous beneath. Large panicles of small 
whitish flowers in umbels, with invo- 
lucres of few leaves. Berry small. '., 
in., 5-ribbed, crowned with the remains 
of the calyx. A tree-like plant, 8 to 20 
ft. high, or in the Gulf States 40 ft. 
high, with the stem covered with nu- 
merous prickles. Usually dies to the 
ground after floweriug. Wild in damp 
woods, Pennsylvania and south, and 
cultivated in the North. 



2. Aralia Chin6nsis. Leaves more or 
less fully twice-pinnate ; leaflets ovate- 
oblong, oblique at base, acumimite, 
sharply serrate, hairy. Flowers ami 
fruit in large, branching, hairy panicles; 
thorns few, straight. A small tree, 10 to 
15 ft. high; occasionally cultivated; from 
China. 

3. Aralia (Acanthopanax) Maxi- 
mowiczii. Leaves long-petioled, simple, 
thick, palmately cleft, with 7 seiTate 
lobes ; old leaves smooth, the young with 
woolly bases. Panicles of flowers and 
fruit terminal; the berries striated. Tree- 
trunk usually quite prickly. This species is said tn grow 50 ft. high 
in Japan. It has been recently introduced, and proves perfectly 
hardy in Massachusetts. 




A. Maximowfczii. 



Order XXII. CORNACE^. (Dogwood Family.; 

A small order of shrubs and trees (rarely herbs) of tem- 
perate regions. 

Genus 45. CORNUS. 

Small trees or shrubs (one species an herb) with sim- 
ple, entire, curved-veined, and (except in one species) op- 



G i. 



('I,\SSII'|(\'II()\ AND DKSCIMITlnX 



111 



posite leaves. The curved parallel ril>s of the leaves in 

all the species arc quite peculiar and readily recognized. 
Flowers small, of 4 petals, in some species rendered very 
conspicuous by large bracts. Fruit small, usually bright- 
colored drupes in clusters; ripe from August to October. 
There are but 3 species that grow at all tree-like. 

* Leaves opposite. (A.) 

A. Fruit in close head-like clusters, red when ripe 1. 

A. Fruit in open clusters. (B.) 

B. Branches bright red ; fruit white 2. 

B. Branches brownish ; fruit bright red 3. 

* Leaves altei'nate ; fruit blue 4. 



1. Cornus fiorida, L. (Flowering 
Dogwood.) Leaves ovate, pointed, acut- 
ish at base. Flowers in a head sur- 
rounded by 4 white bracts, making the 
whole cluster look like a single large 
flower 3 in. broad. Abundant in May 
and June. Fruit a small, bright red 
drupe with a single 2-seeded nut. Eipe 
in August. A large shrub or low tree 
15 to 40 ft. high, with broad, roundish 
head. Common on high ground through- 
out, and one of the finest small trees in 




C. fl6rida. 



cultivation. A variety with the bracts quite red is also cultivated. 



2. C6rnus alba, L. (Siberian Red- 
stemmed Cornel.) Leaves broadly ovate, 
acute, densely pubescent beneath ; drupes 
white ; branches recurved, bright red, ren- 
dering the plant a conspicuous object in 
the winter. A shrub rather than a tree, 
cultivated from Siberia; hardy throughout. 

3. Cornus mascula, Dur. (Cornelian 
Cherry.) Leaves opposite, oval-acumi- 
nate, rather pubescent on both surfaces. 
Flowers small, yellow, in umbels from a 

4-leaved involucre, blooming before the leaves are out in spring. 
Fruit oval, % in. long, cornelian-colored, ripe in autumn, rather 
sweet, used in confectionery. A large shrub or low tree, 8 to 15 




112 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




ft. high, with hard, tough, flexible wood, 
sometimes cultivated for its early flow- 
ers aud late, beautiful fruit. 

4. Cornus alternifolia, L. f. (Al- 
ternate-leaved Cornel.) Leaves al- 
ternate, clustered at the ends of the 
branches, 



ovate or 
c. mascuia. oval -acu- 

minate, tapering at base, whitish with 
minute pubescence beneath. ( 'vines 
of flowers and fruit broad and open. 
Fruit deep blue on reddish stalks. 
Shrub, though occasionally tree-like, 8 
to 25 ft. high ; on hillsides throughout ; 
rarely cultivated. 



Genus 46. NYSSA. 




C. alternifolia. 



Trees with deciduous, alternate, exstipulate, usually en- 
tire leaves, mostly acute at both ends. Flowers somewhat 
dioecious, i. e. staminate and pistillate flowers on separate 
trees. The staminate flowers are quite conspicuous be- 
cause so densely clustered. April and May. Fruit on 
but a portion of the trees, consisting of one or two small 
(4 to £ in.), drupes in the axils of the leaves. Stone 
roughened with grooves. Ripe in autumn. 

* Fruit usually clustered 1,2. 

* Fruit solitary :;. 



1. Nyssa sylvatica, Marsh. (Pi'.ppkr- 
idge. Black or Sour Gum.) Leaves 

oval to obovate, pointed, rutin' (some- 
times angulate-toothed beyond the mid- 
dle), rather thick, shining above when 
old, 2 to 5 in. long. The leaves we 
crowded near tie- ends of the branches 
and flattened so as to appear 2-ranked, 
lik«- tin- Beech; turning bright crimson 
in the autumn. Fruil ovoid, bluish-black, 
about '._, in. long, Bour. Medium-sized 




N. sylvatica. 



a. 47] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



L13 



tree with mainly an excurrent trunk and horizontal branches. Wood 
firm, close-grained and hard to split. Rich Boil, latitude of Albany 
and southward. Difficult to transplant, so it is rarely cultivated. 

2. Nyssa biflora, Walt. (SOUB Gum.) Leaves 1 to 3 in. long, 
smaller than in N. sylvatica; fertile flowers and fruit 1 to 3, in the 
axils; stone decidedly flattened and more strongly furrowed. New 
Jersey to Tennessee and southward. Too nearly like the last to need 
a drawing. All the species of Nyssa may 
have the margin of the leaves somewhat 
angulated, as shown in the next. 

3. N^ssa uniflora, Wang. (Large 
Tupelo.) Leaves much larger, 4 to 12 in. 
long, sometimes slightly cordate at base, 
entire or angularly toothed, downy be- 
neath. Fruit solitary, oblong, blue, 1 in. 
or more in length. Wood soft, that of 
the roots light and spongy and used for 
corks. In water or wet swamps ; Vir- 
ginia, Kentucky, and southward. 




Order XXIII. CAPRIFOL.IACEJE. 

(Honeysuckle Family.) 

Shrubs (rarely herb or tree-like plants) of temperate 
regions. 

Genus 47. VIBURNUM. 

Shrubs or small trees with opposite, simple, petioled 
leaves. Flowers light-colored, small but in large, con- 
spicuous, flat-topped clusters at the ends of the branches; 
blooming in early summer. Fruit small, 1-seeded drupes 
with flattened stones; ripe in autumn. 

* Leaves distinctly palmately lobed 1. 

* Leaves pinnately veined and not lobed. (A.) 

A. Coarsely dentated 2. 

A. Finely serrated. (B.) 

B. Leaves long-acuminated 3. 

B. Obtuse or slightly pointed 4. 

8 



114 



TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



1. Viburnum Opulus, L. (Craxberry-tree.) Leaves palmately 
veined and strongly 3-lobed, broadly wedge-shaped or truncate at 
base, the spreading lobes mostly toothed 
on the sides and entire in the notches ; 
petiole with 2 glands at the apex. Fruit 
in peduncled clusters, light red and quite 
sour (whence the name "Cranberry -tree"). 
A nearly smooth, small tree or shrub, 4 to 
12 ft. high; wild along streams, and culti- 
vated under the name of Snowball-tree or 
Guelder Rose. In this variety the flowers 
have all become sterile and enlarged. Vi- 
burnum acerifolium (Arrow-wood) has 
also lobed leaves, and is much more com- 
mon. This species never forms a tree, and 
v. 6puius. has dark-colored berries. 



2. Viburnum dentatum, L. (Arrow- 
wood.) Leaves, pale green, broadly ovate, 
somewhat heart-shaped at base, coarsely and 
sharply dentated, strongly veined aud of- 
ten with hairy tufts in the axils ; petioles 
rather long and slender. Fruit V± in. long, 
in peduncled clusters, blue or purple ; a cross- 
section of the stone between kidney- and 
horseshoe-shaped. 






V. dentatum. 



V. Lentigo. 



A shrub or small tree, 5 to 15 ft. high, 
with ash-colored bark ; in wet places. 

3. Viburnum Lentago, L. (Sweet 
Viburnum or Sheep-berry.) Leaves 
broad, ovate, long-pointed, 2 to 3 in. long, 
closely and sharply serrated ; petioles 
long and with narrow, curled margins", 

entire plant smooth. Fruit in sessile 

clusters of :; to 5 rays, oval, large, }._, in. 

long, blue-black, edible, sweet ; ripe in 

autumn. A small tree, 10 to 30 ft. high ; 

found wild throughout, in woods and 

along streams. 

4. Viburnum prunifdlium, L. (Blaoe 
Haw.) Leaves oval, obtuse or Blightly v. pmnifoiium, 

pointed, 1 to 2 in. long, finely and sluirply Berrated. Blooming early, 




a. 49] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



115 



May to June. Fruit oval, largo (Jg in. long), in sessile clusters of 3 
to 5 rays, black or blue-black, sweet. A tall shrub or small tree, 6 to 
12 ft. high ; in dry soil or along streams; New York, south and west. 



Genus 48. LONICERA. 

Leaves entire, opposite; corolla 5-lobed; berry several- 
seeded. 



Lonicera Tartarica. (Tartarian Honey- 
suckle.) Leaves deciduous, oval, heart-shaped; 
flowers in pairs, showy, pink to rose-red ; in spring ; 
berries formed of the two ovaries, bright red ; ripe 
in summer. A shrub, often planted and occasion- 
ally trimmed to a tree-like form, and growing to 
the height of nearly 20 ft. 




L. Tartarica. 



Order XXIV. COMPOSITE. 

This, the largest order of flowering plants, is made up 
almost exclusively of herbaceous plants, but contains one 
shrub or low tree which is hardy from Boston southward 
near the Atlantic coast. 



Genus 49. BACCHARIS. 

Leaves simple, deciduous; heads of flowers small, many- 
flowered; receptacle naked; pappus of hairs. 



Baccharis halimifolia, L. (Ground- 
sel-Tree.) Leaves obovate, wedge- 
shaped, crenately notched at end, light 
grayish in color, with whitish powder; 
branches angled; flowers white with a 
tint of purple, blooming in the autumn. 
A broad, loose-headed, light-colored 
bush rather than a tree, 8 to 15 ft. high; 
wild on sea-beaches, Massachusetts and 
south, and occasionally cultivated. The 
plant is dioecious ; the fertile specimens 
are rendered quite conspicuous in autumn 
by their very long, white pappus. 




B. halimifolia. 



116 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Order XXV. EBJCACE-ffi. (Heath Family.) 



A large order, mainly of shrubs, though a few species 
are herbs, aud fewer still are tall enough to be considered 

trees. 

Genus 50. OXYDENDRUM. 

Trees with deciduous, alternate, oblong-lanceolate, 
pointed, serrate, sour-tasting leaves. Flowers small, in 
large panicles at the ends of the branches. In summer. 
Fruit small, dry capsules, with 5 cells and many seeds. 

Oxydendrum arboreum, DC. (Sor- 
rel-tree. Sourwood.) Leaves in size 
aud shape much like those of Peach trees. 
Flowers small, urn-shaped. Small-sized 
tree, 15 to 50 ft. high; wild in rich woods, 
Pennsylvania and southward, mainly in 
the mountains. Rare in cultivation, but 
very beautiful, especially in autumn, when its leaves are brilliantly 
colored, and the panicles of fruit still remain on the trees. It is 
perfectly hardy both at the Arnold Arboretum, Boston, and the Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. 




O. arboreum. 



Genus 51. KALMIA. 

Evergreen shrubs with alternate, entire, thick, smooth 
Leaves. Flowers large, beautiful, cup-shaped, in showy 
clusters. Fruit a small, 5-celled, many-seeded capsule. 

Kalmia latifolia, L. (Mountain- 
laubel. Calico-bush.) The only Bpe- 

Cies Which groWB at all tree-like has 
ovate-la neeolate or elliptical, smooth, 
petiole.) leaves, tapering at both ends 

and green on both sides Flowers in 

terminal corymbs, clammy-pubescent, 

white to pink. dune. Pod depressed, 

glandular. Shrub or small tree, I to 25 ft. 

high, with reddish t wij^s; wild in rocky hills and damp soils through 

out; occasionally planted. Wood verj hard and close-grained 




G 58] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



117 



Genus 52. RHODODENDRON. 

Shrubs or low tires with usually alternate, entire leaves 
and showy flowers in umbel-like clusters from large, scaly- 
bracted, terminal buds. Fruit a dry 5-eelled pod with 
many seeds. 



Rhododendron maximum, L. (Great 
Laurel.) Leaves thick, 4 to 10 in. long, 
elliptical-oblong or lance-oblong, acute, 
narrowed toward the base, very smooth, 
with somewhat revolute margins. Flowers 
large (1 in.), with an irregular bell-shaped 
corolla and sticky stems, in large clusters, 
white or slightly pinkish with yellowish 
dots. July. Evergreen shrub or tree, 6 to 20 
ft. high, throughout the region, especially 
in damp swamps in the Alleghany Moun- 
tains ; occasionally cultivated. 




R. maximum. 



Genus 53. CLETHRA. 

Shrubs or trees with alternate, simple, deciduous, ex- 
stipulate, serrate leaves. Flowers (July and August) con- 
spicuous, white, in elongated terminal racemes which are 
covered with a whitish powder. Fruit 3-celled pods with 
many seeds, covered by the calyx. 

* Leaves thin, large, 3 to 7 in. long, pale beneath 1. 

* Leaves thickish, smaller, green both sides 2. 



1. Clethra acuminata, Michx. (Acu- 
minate-leaved Clethra. Sweet Pep- 
per-bush.) Leaves 3 to 7 in. long, oval 
to oblong, pointed, thin, abruptly acute 
at base, finely serrate, on slender petioles, 
smooth above and glaucous below. Ra- 
cemes drooping, of sweet-scented flowers, 
with the bracts longer than the flowers. 
Filaments and pod hairy. A small tree 
or shrub, 10 to 20 ft. high, in the Alle- 
ghanies, Virginia, and south. Not often 
in cultivation, but well worthy of it. 




C. acuminata. 



118 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



2. Clethra alnifolia, L. (Common Sweet Pepper-bush.) Leaves 
wedge-obovate, sharply serrate near the apex, entire near the base, 
st raight -veined, smooth, green on both sides. Racemes 
erect, often compound, with bracts shorter than the 
tlowers and with smooth filaments. This is a shrub 
lather thau a tree; abundant in wet places east of the 
Alleghanies. Occasionally cultivated for its sweet- 
C. alnifolia. scented flowers. 




Order XXVI. SAPOTACE^ffi. 

(Sapodilla Family.) 

A small order, mainly of tropical plants, here including 
one genus found only in the southern part of our range. 



Genus 54. BUMELIA. 

Leaves simple, alternate, entire, sub-evergreen, exstipu- 
late; branches often spiny. Flowers small, whitish, usu- 
ally crowded in fascicles. Fruit a black cherry-like drupe 
with a 2- to 3-celled nut. Shrubs and trees of the South- 
ern States. Two species (although hardly trees) are 
found far enough north to be included in this work. 



* Leaves rusty-woolly beneath 1. 

* Leaves smooth or slightly silky be- 

neath 2. 



1. Bumelia lanuginosa, Pers. (Wooi.lv- 
leaved Buckthorn.) Leaves oblong-obo- 
vate, obtuse, entire, smooth above and 
rusty-woolly beneath, but n<>i silky; spiny, 
with downy branchlets. Clusters 6- to 12 
flowered, pubescenl ; Bowers greenish-yel- 
low. Pruil globular and quite large ('.. 
black, edible. A Bmall tree, 10 to 10 ft. 
high, of the woods of southern Illinois and 
southward. With slighl protection it can 
be cultivated in Massachusetts. 




n luiiutrin6sa. 



G.65J 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



II!) 



2. Bumelia lycioldes, Pcrs. (South kkn 
Buckthorn.) Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, oval- 
lanceolate, usually bluntish with a tapering 
base and entire margin, deciduous, a lit- 
tle silky beneath when young. Clusters 
densely many-flowered (20 to 30) ; flowers 
small (£ in.), smooth, greenish-white. May, 
June. A spiny shrub or tree, 10 to 25 ft. 
high, in moist ground, Virginia, west and 
south. About as hardy as the preceding 
species. 




B. lycioides. 



Order XXVII. EBENACE-ffi. (Ebony Family.) 
A small order of mostly tropical trees and shrubs. 



Genus 55. DIOSPYBOS. 

Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, entire, feather- 
veined leaves. Flowers small, inconspicuous, mostly di- 
oecious. Fruit a globose berry with the 5-lobed thick 
calyx at the base, and with 8 to 12, occasionally 1 to 5, 
rather large seeds ; ripe after frost. 



Diospyros Virginiana, L. (Common 
Persimmon. ) Leaves 4 to 6 in. long, ovate- 
oblong, acuminate, rather thick, smooth, 
dark, shining above, a little pale beneath. 
Bark dark-colored and deeply furrowed in 
a netted manner with rather small meshes. 
Flowers yellowish, rather small, somewhat 
dioecious ; the staminate ones urn-shaped 
with mouth nearly closed; the pistillate 
ones more open. June. Fruit large, 1 in. ; 
very astringent when young, yellow and 
pleasant-tasting after frost. A handsome, 
ornamental tree, 20 to 60 ft. high, with 
very hard, dark-colored wood and bright 
foliage. Southern New England to Iilincie 




Virgini&na. 



120 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




and south ; also cultivated. Diospyros 
Lotus (Date-plum), with leaves very 
dark green above, much paler and 
downy beneath, and truit much smaller 
(-3 in.), and Diospyros Kaki (Japan 
Persimmon), with large, leathery, shin- 
ing leaves and very large fruit (2 in.), 
are successfully cultivated from Wash- 
ington, D. C, southward. The under 
leaf represents D. Lotus, the upper one 
a small specimen of D. Kaki. 



D. L6tus and D. Kaki, 



Order XXVIII. STYRACACE^. 

(Storax Family.) 

A small order of shrubs and trees, mostly of warm 
countries. 

Genus 56. STYRAX. 

Shrubs or small trees with commonly deciduous leaves, 
and axillary, or racemed, white, showy flowers on droop- 
ing stems. Pubescence scurfy or stellate ; fruit a glo- 
bular dry drupe, its base covered with the persistent 
calyx, forming 1 a 1- to 3-seeded nut. 

1. Styrax Americana, Lam. (AMERICAN 

Storax.) Shrub or small tree (4 to 10 ft.), 

with oblong, alternate leaves acute at both 

ends, 1 to 3 inches long, smooth or very 

marly so; fruit }.\ in. long, in racemes 

of 3-4. Wild along streams, Virginia 
and south ; occa- 
sionally cultivat- 
ed} ami probably 

hardy through- 
out. 

S. A in, 1 |.m nil. 

2. Styrax Japdnica, Sicli. (Jai'an Std- 
kax.) Leaves alternate, membranaceous, 
ovate to ovate-lanceolate, Berrate or ore- 
Date. ' • •<» 3 in. long, si ih of with sin nl 





0.68 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



121 



stellate hairs; flowers and fruit in long racemes. A beautiful low 
tree, 6 to 12 ft. high ; from Japan. Hardy as far north as Philadel- 
phia, but needing a little protection in Massachusetts and Missouri. 



Genus 57. PTEROSTYRAX. 

Similar to Styrax, but with the fruit iu panicles, 5- 
winged, conical, and crowned with 
the persistent base of the style. 

Pterostyrax corymbosum, Sieb. 
Leaves deciduous, 2 to 5 in. long, feather- 
veined, petioled, ovate, rarely cordate 
at base, sharply serrate, with stellate 
hairs. Shrub or small tree, 10 to 12 ft. 
high, cultivated from Japan ; with ashy- 
gray bark, aud white flowers turning 
yellowish or purplish with age ; blooming 
in May, fruit ripe in August. Not per- 
fectly hardy in Massachusetts. 




P. corymbbsum. 



Genus 58. HALESIA. 



Small trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, deciduous, 
serrate leaves. Flowers large, 1 in. long, conspicuous, 
white, hanging, bell-shaped, monopetalous,4-lobed; bloom- 
ing in spring. Fruit with a single, rough, elongated, bony 
nut surrounded by a 2- to 4- winged coat ; ripe in autumn. 

Wood light-colored, very hard aud fine-grained. 



1. Halesia diptera, L. (Two-winged Sil- 
verbell Tree.) Leaves large (4 to 5 in. 
long), ovate, acute, serrate, softly pubescent. 
Fruit with 2 conspicuous, broad wings, some- 
times with 2 intermediate narrow ridges. A 
small tree or a large shrub, 
wild in the south, and cul- 
tivated as far north as 
New York City. 




H. diptera. 



2. Halesia tetraptera, L. (Four-wixhei> 
HiLVERBELL Tree.) Leaves smaller (2 to 4 in.), 
oblong-ovate, finely serrate. Fruit smaller, with 




H. tetx-aptera. 



122 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



4 nearly equal wings. A small, beautiful tree, 10 to 30 ft. high, more 
hardy than Halesia diptera, and therefore cultivated occasionally 
throughout. Wild in Virginia and south. 




S. tinctbria. 



Genus 59. SYMPLOCOS. 

Shrubs or small trees, with leaves 
furnishing a yellow dye. 

Sy^mplocos tinctoria, L'Her. (Horse- 
sugar. Sweetleaf.) Leaves simple, alter 
nate, thick, 3 to 5 in. long, elongate-oblong 
acuminate, neai*ly entire, almost persistent 
pale beneath , with minute pubescence, sweet 
tasting. Flowers 6 to 14, in close-bracted 
axillary clusters, 5-parted, sweet-scented 
yellow ; in early spring. Fruit a dry drupe 
ovoid, j£ in. long. A shrub or small tree 
10 to 20 ft. high. Delaware and south. 



Order XXIX. OLEACE-ffi. (Olive Family.) 



An order of trees and shrubs, mainly of temperate re- 
gions. 

Genus 60. FRAXINUS. 

Trees with petioled, opposite, odd-pinnate leaves (one 
cultivated variety has simple leaves). Flowers often in- 
conspicuous, in large panicles before the leaves in spring. 
Fruit single-winged at one end (samara or key-fruit), in 
large clusters; ripe in autumn. Some trees, owing to the 
flowers being staminate, produce no fruit. Wood light- 
colored, tough, very distinctly marked by the annua] 
layers. The leaves appear late in the spring, and fall 
early in the autumn. 

* Flowers with white corolla; a cultivated small tree 8. 

* Flowers with no corolla. ^A.) 

A. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets petiolate; calyx small, persistenl on 
the fruit. iB.) 

B. Fruit bi 'i. f i in. w ide. South 

B. Win^s much narrow sr. (C.) 



G.60] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DKS< Wl ITION 



\2'.i 



C. Branchlets round and pubeseenl 2. 

C. Branchlets round and smooth. (D.) 
D. Leaflets nearly entire 1. 

D. Leaflets serrate near tip, entire below 3. 

C. Branchlets, on vigorous growths, square 4. 

A. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets sessile ; no ealyx. (E.) 

E. Native; wing of fruit rounded at tip 6. 

E. Cultivated from Europe; wing notched at tip 7. 

A. Leaves simple ; variety under 7. 

1. Fraxinus Americana, L. 
(White Ash.) Leaflets 7 to 9 (usu- 
ally 7), stalked, ovate or lance-ob- 
long, pointed, shining above, pale 
and either smooth or pubescent be- 
neath, somewhat toothed or entire. 
Flowers almost always dioecious 
(May), thus the fruit is found on 
but a portion of the trees. The fruit 
(August to September) terete and 
marginless below, abruptly dilated 
into the wing, which is 2 to 3 times 
as long as the terete portion ; entire 
fruit about \% in. long. A common 
large forest-tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, 
with gray, furrowed bark, smooth, grayish-green branchlets, and 
rusty-colored buds. Extensively cultivated. 




F. Americana. 



2. Fraxinus pubescens, Lam. (Red 
Ash.) Like the White Ash, but to be dis- 
tinguished from it by the down on the 
young, green or olive-green twigs, and on 
the footstalks and lower surface of the 
leaves. Fruit acute, 2-edged at base, grad- 
ually dilated into the wings as in Frax- 
inus viridis. A smaller and more slender 
tree than the White Ash ; growing in about 
the same localities, but rare west of the 
Alleghanies; heart-wood darker-colored. 

3. Fraxinus viridis, Michx. f. (Green 
F. pub^cens. Ash.) Smooth throughout; leaflets 5 to 

9, bright green on both sides, ovate or oblong-lanceolate, often wedge- 
shaped at base and serrate above. Fruit acute and 2-edged or mar- 




124 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




gined at base and gradually spreading 
into an oblanceolate or linear-spatulate 
wing as in the Red Ash. Small to mid- 
dle-sized trees (like the Red Ash), found 
throughout, but common westward. 

4. Fraxinus quadrangulata, Miehx. 
(Blue Ash.) Leaflets 7 to 9. short- 



stalked, ob- 
long - ovate 
or lanceo- 
late, point- 
ed, sharply 
serrate, green on both sides. Fruit nar- 
rowly oblong, blunt, of the same width 
at botli ends, or slightly narrowed at 
the base. A large tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, 
with smooth square twigs on the vig- 
orous growths. Wisconsin to Ohio and 
Kentucky. 





F. quadrangulata. 

5. Fraxinus platycarpa, Miehx. (Wa- 
ter-ash.) Leaflets 5 to 7, 3 to 5 in. long, 
ovate or oblong, acute at both ends, short- 
stalked, slightly serrate. Branchlets te- 
rete, smooth to pubescent. Fruit broadly 
winged, \ in. wide, often 3- winged, ta- 
periug to the base. A medium-sized tree 
in deep river-swamps, Virginia and south. 



6. Fr&xinus 
sambucifdlia, 
F. platycarpa. Lam. (BLACK 

Ash.) Leaflets 7 to 11, sessile, oblong- 
lanceolate, tapering to a point, sen-ate, 
obtuse or rounded at base, green and 
itih on both sides ; when young, with 
rusty hair- along the midrib. Fruit 
without calyx at base and with wing all 
around the Beed-bearing part, blunt at 

both ends. A -lender tree, 40 tO 70 It. 

high, with dark-blue or black buds. 

7. Fraxinus excelsior, L. (EUBOPKAM 
Ash.) Leaflets 11 to IS (in some oulti- 




aambucildliu. 



G.61] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



125 





vated vaiiet ies reduced to 1 to:")), almost 
sessile, lanceolate-oblong, acuminate, 
serrate, wedge-shaped at base. Flowers 

naked, somewhat dioecious, and so tlie 
fruit does not 
form on all the 
trees. Keys 
linear-oblong, 
obtuse, ob- 
liquely notch- 
ed at apex. 
This species 
in its very nu- 
Var. monophylla. merous vari- F - excelsior, 

eties is common iu cultivation. One of the most interesting is 
the Weeping Ash (var. pendula). The most remarkable is the one 
with simple, from pinnatifid to entire . 

leaves (var. monophylla). 

8. Fraxinus ornus. (Flowering 
Ash.) Leaflets 7 to 9, lanceolate or ellip- 
tical, attenuated, serrated, entire at the 
stalked bases, villous or downy beneath. 
Flowers fringe-like, white, in large ter- 
minal drooping clusters, of 4 or 2 petals. 
May to June. Fruit small, lance-linear, 
obtuse, attenuate at each end. A small 
tree, 15 to 30 ft. high, planted in parks. 
Not hardy north of New York City with- 
out some protection. 



Genus 61. OSMANTHUS. 

Shrub or small tree with opposite, 
thick, evergreen, nearly entire leaves. 
Flowers small, white, in panicles or 
corymbs in late spring. Fruit a spher- 
ical drupe, ^ iu. long, with a 2-seeded 
stone ; hanging on during the winter. 

Osmanthus Americanus, L. (Devil- 
wood.) Leaves thick, evergreen, obloug lanceo- 
late, entire, acute, narrowed to a petiole,4 too in. 





O. Americanus. 



12G 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



long. Flowers dioecious, very small. May. Fruit globular, about 
^ in. in diameter, violet-purplish ; ripe in autumn, and remaining 
on the tree through the winter. A small tree, 15 to 20 ft. high, from 
southern Virginia southward, in moist woods. 

Genus 62. SYRINGA. 

Leaves simple, entire, opposite ; flowers ornamental, in 
large, dense clusters. The Lilacs are all beautiful, but 
form mere shrubs, except the following : 



Syringa Japonica. (Japan Lilac. 
Giant Tree Lilac.) Leaves deciduous, 
opposite, oval to cordate, thick, dark 
green, glossy ; flowers white, 4-parted, 
odorless, in very large, dense, erect, ter- 
minal clusters, blooming in summer ; 
fruit dry 2-celled pods with 2 to 4 
seeds. A magnificent small tree, 20 to 
30 ft. high ; from Japan ; probably hardy 
throughout. 




S. Jap6nica. 



Genus 63. CHIONANTHUS. 

Low trees or shrubs with simple, deciduous, opposite, 
entire, thick, smooth, petioled leaves. Flowers 4-parted, 
with long, slender, delicate white lobes, drooping in clus- 
ters from the lower side of the branches and forming a 
fringe ; in early summer. Fruit a purple drupe. 



Chionanthus Virginica, L. (Frin<;k- 
tree). Leaves smooth, thickish, large 
(3 to 6 in. long), oval or obovate, entire. 
The leaves are occasionally somewhat 
alternate and thin ; they resemble those 
of the Magnolia. Drupe ovoid, :, .j in. long, 
covered with a bloom. A beautiful small 
tree or shrub, 8 to 30 ft. high, wild along 
streams, southern Pennsylvania a ml south- 
ward, and generally cultivated north for 
its delicate binge-like flowers. Bardy. 

A variety (var. anguaUfolta) with long, 
narrow leaves ia occasionally cultivated. 




O. Virginica. 



0.64] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DKKCRH'TION 



127 



Ordeb XXX. SCROPHULARlACE^EJ. 

(Fig wort Family.) 

A large order of plants, almost entirely herbaceous; 
found in all climates; it includes one cultivated tree in 
this region. 

Genus 64. PAULO WNIA. 

Tree with opposite (sometimes in whorls of three), large, 
deciduous, palmately veined, heart-shaped leaves. Leaf- 
stem often hollow ; minute cup-shaped glands, separated 
from one another, situated on many portions of the leaf, 
but quite abundant on the upper side at the branching of 
the veins. Flowers large, in immense panicles; in spring, 
before the leaves expand. Fruit a dry, ovate, pointed 
capsule, 1*4 in. long, with innumerable flat- winged seeds ; 
hanging on the tree throughout the winter. 



Paulo wnia imperialis. (Imperial 
Paulownia.) Leaves 7 to 14 in. long, 
sometimes somewhat lobed, usually very 
hairy beneath ; 2 buds, almost hidden 
under the bark, above each other in the 
axil. Flowers purple, nearly 2 in. long, 
with a peculiar, thick, leather-like calyx. 
A broad flat-headed tree, of rapid growth 
when young. Cultivated ; from Japan ; 
and hardy throughout, but the flower-buds 
are winter-killed quite frequently north of 
New York City. 




P. imperi&lis. 



Order XXXI. BIGNONlACEiE. 

(Bignonia Family.) 

An order of woody plants abundant in South America; 
here including one genus of trees : 



128 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Gents 65. CATALPA. 

Trees or shrubs with large, simple, opposite (or wh Dried 
in threes), heart-shaped, pointed leaves. Flowers irreg- 
ular, showy, in large panicles ; blooming in June. Fruit 
long pods with many, winged seeds, hanging on till 
spring. Branches coarse and stiff. Wood light and 
close-grained. 

* Flowers bright-spotted ; wings of seeds narrowed 1. 

" Flowers nearly pure white ; wings of seeds broad 2. 

1. Catalpa bignonioides, 
Walt, (Indian Bean. South- 
ern Catalpa.) The large 
heart-shaped leaf lias con- 
nected scaly glands in the 
axils of the large veins on 
the lower side; usually entiro 
though sometimes undulat- 
ed, generally opposite though 
sometimes in whorls of threes, 
very downy beneath when 
young, 6 to 12 in. long. Flow- 
ers much spotted with yellow 
and purple, and with the 

lower lobe entire. Pod thin, 10 in. or 

more in length. A medium-sized, wide- 
spreading tree, 20 to 40 ft. high, of rapid 

growth, with soft, light wood and thin 

bark; wild in the Southern States, and 

extensively cultivated as far north as 

Albany. V^i j^^^^--^ f } 

2. Catalpa speciosa, Warder. (Ix- 
Di \nBkan. Western Catalpa.) Leaves 
large (.") to 12 in. long), heart-shaped, 
long-pointed. Flowers 2 in. long, nearly 
white, faintly spotted, tii. lower lobes 
somewhat notched. Pod thick. A. large, 
tall free, 40 to 60 ft. high, with thick 

hark ; wild in low, rich woodlands, 

southern Indiana, south and west. *. upecioea. 




C. bignonioides. 




0. 87] 



CLASSIFICATION AXI) DESCRIPTION 



]-2\) 



CatalpaKeempferi and Catalpa Bun- 
gei are dwarf forms from Japan, the 
latter growing to the height of from I 
to 8 ft., and the former rarely reaching 
the height of 18 ft. The leaf of C. 
Ksempferi is figured. It is more apt to 
have its margin angulated, though all 
the species occasionally have angulated 
leaves. 



C. Ktempferi. 

Order XXXII VERBENACE^. 




Herbs, shrubs, rarely small trees, with opposite leaves, 
irregular flowers aud dry 2- to 4-celled fruits. 

Genus 66. CLERODENDRON. 

Shrubby trees or climbing shrubs with opposite or 
whorled, usually entire leaves ; flowers with an almost 
regular, 5-parted corolla surrounded by a bell-shaped 
calyx ; fruit drupe-like, with 4 seeds. 



Clerodendron trichotomum, Thunb. 
(Fate-tree.) Leaves opposite, long-peti- 
oled, cordate, thin, entire, glandular-dotted 
above, very veiny ; lower leaves largest and 
three-lobed, the upper ovate, long-pointed, 
all 3-ribbed. Flowers in large, terminal clus- 
ters; fruit with juicy pulp covering the 4 
seeds. A small tree from Japan ; hardy at 
Washington and south. The figure repre- 
sents one of the upper leaves. 




C. trichotomum. 



Genus 67. VITEX. 

Shrubs or low trees with opposite, usually palmate 
leaves, panicled clusters of flowers and drupe-like fruit 



130 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




V. Agnus-c&stus. 



Vitex Agnus-castus, L. (Chaste- 
tree.) Leaves long-petioled, pal- 
mate, with 5 to 7 lanceolate, acute, 
nearly entire leaflets, whitened be- 
neath; with an aromatic though un- 
pleasant odor. Branches obtusely 
4-sided, hairy; flowers pale lilac, 
in interrupted panicles, agreeably 
sweet-scented in late summer. Shrub 
or small tree, 5 to 10 ft. high, culti- 
vated from southern Europe ; hardy 
at Washington and south. If culti- 
vated further north, it needs protec- 
tion, at least when young. 



Order XXXIII. LAURACE-ffi. (Laurel Family.) 

Au order of aromatic trees and shrubs, chiefly tropical. 



Genus 68. PERSEA. 

Aromatic, evergreen trees with alternate, entire, feather- 
veined leaves. Flowers small, in small close panicles. Fruit 
small (}4 in.) 1-seeded drupes. 

Persea Carolinensis, Nees. (Red 
Bay.) Leaves 2 to 5 in. long, oblong, 
entire, covered with a fine down when 
young, soon smooth above. Flowers 
silky, in small rounded clusters on shorl 
stems. May. Fruit an ovate, pointed, 
1-seeded, deep-blue drupe, % in. long, 
on a red stalk ; ripe in autumn. Usually 
a small tree, 15 to 70 ft. high, Wild in 

swamps, Delaware, Virginia, and smith. v 
Wood reddish, beautiful, hard, strong, SJ 

durable. P. Carolln6nsie. 

flRxrs 69. SASSAFRAS. 

Aromatic trees or shrubs with alternate, Bimple, de- 
ciduous, often lobed leaves. Juice of bark and leaves 




G.71] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



131 



mucilaginous. Flowers yellowish-green, in clusters; 
blooming in early spring. Fruit a small bluish drupe 
on a thick reddish stem. Ripe in 
September. Twigs greenish-yellow. 

Sassafras officinale, Nees. (Sassa- 
fras.) Leaves very variable in form, 
ovate, entire, or some of them 2- to 3- 
lobed, soon smooth. Flowering as the 
leaves are putting forth. Tree 15 to 100 
ft. high, common in rich woods. The aro- 
matic fragrance is strongest in the bark 
of the roots. Wood reddish, rather hard 
and durable. 




S. officinale. 



Genus 70. LINDERA. 



Shrubs with deciduous, alternate, aromatic leaves and 
small, yellow flowers in close clus- 
ters along the branches. Fruit a 
drupe on a not-thickened stalk. 

Lindera Benzoin, Blume. (Spice-bush. 
Benjamin-bush.) Leaves alternate, ob- 
long-ovate, entire, pale beneath, very- 
spicy in odor and taste ; twigs green ; leaf- 
buds scaly; drupes red, ripe in autumn. 
Flowers 4 to 5 together in sessile umbels ; 
in early spring, before the leaves expand. 
Common in damp woods throughout. 

Li. Benzoin, 




Order XXXIV. EL-ffiAGNACE-ffi. 

(Oleaster Family.) 

A small order of shrubs or small trees, with the leaves 
covered with silvery scurf. 

Genus 71. EL^JAGNUS. 

Leaves alternate, entire; flowers axillary, stemmed; 
fruit drupe-like with an 8-grooved stone. 



132 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




E. longipes. 



Eleeagnus longipes. (Silver -leaved 
El.eagnus.) Leaves almost evergreen, 
rather thick, ovate-oblong, rather blunt, 
entire, smooth ami dark green above, but 
silver}' below. Flowers inconspicuous. 
Fruit about ?o in. long, bright red, with 
silvery scales, very abundant and beautiful; 
ripe in July ; juicy and edible, with a pun- 



gent flas'or. Shrub from Japan ; hardy throughout. 



Genus 72. SHEPHERDIA. 

Small trees or shrubs with opposite, deciduous, entire, 
silvery-scaled leaves. Flowers very small, dioecious. Fruit 
small, berry-like, translucent, 1-seeded. 



Shepherdia argentea, Nutfc. (Buf- 
falo-berry. Rabbit-berry.) Leaves 
opposite, oblong-ovate, tapering at base, 
silvery on both sides, with small peltate 
scales. Branches often ending in sharp 
thorns. Fruit, scarlet berries the size of 
currants, forming continuous clusters on 
every branch and twig, but found only 
on the pistillate plants. They are juicy, 
somewhat sour, pleasant-tasting, and make 
excellent jelly ; ripe in September. A 
small handsome tree, 5 to 20 ft. high, 
wild in the Rocky Mountains, and sometimes cultivated east. 
thorny-tipped branches make it a good hedge-plant. Hardy. 




S. argentea. 



Its 



Order XXXV. EUPHORBlACE-ffi. 

(S purge Family.) 

A large order of mainly herbaceous and shrubby plants 

of warm countries, with usually milky juice. 

Genus 73. Btixus. 

Shrubs or tiers witli opposite, evergreen, entire leaves 
and small flower-,. The fruit 3-celled, 6-seeded i»«'<ls. 



G.741 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



133 



Buxus semp6rvirens, L. (BOXWOOD.) 
Leaves ovate, smooth, dark green; leaf- 
stems hairy at edge. This plant is a native 
of Europe, and in its tree form furnishes 
the white wood used for wood-engraving. 

Var. subfruticosa (dwarf boxwood) grows 
only a foot or two high, and is exten- 
sively used for edgings in gardens. 
The tree form is more rare in cultivation, 
and is of slow growth, but forms a round- 
topped tree. 




B. semp6rvirens. 



Order XXXVI. URTICACE^. (Nettle Family.) 
A large order of herbs, shrubs and trees, mainly tropical. 

Genus 74. tJLMUS. 

Tall umbrella-shaped trees with watery juice and alter- 
nate, 2-ranked, simple, deciduous, obliquely ovate to 
obliquely heart-shaped, strongly straight- veined, serrate 
leaves, harsh to the touch, often rough. Flowers insig- 
nificant, appearing before tfie leaves. Fruit a flattened, 
round-winged samara; ripe in the spring and dropping 
early from the trees. Bark rough with longitudinal ridges. 

* Leaves very rough on the upper side. (A. ) 

A. Leaves 4 to 8 in. long; buds rusty-downy; inner bark very 

mucilaginous 1. 

A. Leaves smaller ; buds not downy; cultivated. (B.) 

B. Wide-spreading tree; twigs drooping; fruit slightly 

notched 2. 

B. Tree rather pyramidal; twigs not usually di'ooping; fruit 
deeply notched 3. 

* Leaves not very rough on the upper side. (C.) 

C. Buds and branchlets pubescent; twigs often with corky 

ridges 4. 

C. Buds and branchlets free from hairs, or very nearly so. (D.) 

D. Twigs with corky wings 5. 

D. Twigs often with corky ridges; cultivated 2, 3. 

D. Branchlets never corky 6. 



134 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




IT. ftilva. 



1. "(Tlmus fulva, Michx. (Slippery or 
Red Elm.) Leaves large, 4 to 8 in., very- 
rough above, ovate-oblong, taper-point- 
ed, doubly serrate, soft-downy beneath ;• 
branchlets downy ; inner bark very mu- 
cilaginous; leaves sweet-scented in dry- 
ing ; buds in spring soft and downy with 
rusty hairs. Fruit with a shallow notch 
in the wing not nearly reaching the 
rounded nut. A medium-sized tree, 45 to 60 
ft. high, with tough and very diirable red- 
dish wood ; wild in rich soils throughout. 

2. tJlmus montana, Bauh. (Scotch 
or Witch Elm.) Leaves broad, obovate, 
abruptly pointed and doubly serrated. 

Fruit rounded, with a slightly notched 
wing, naked. Branches drooping at 
their extremity, their bark smooth 
and even. A medium-sized tree, 50 
to GO ft. high, with spreading or often 
drooping branches ; extensively culti- 
vated under a dozen different names, 
among the most peculiar being the 
White-margined (var. alba marginata), 
the Crisped-leaved (var. crispa), %,nd 
the Weeping (var. pendula) Elms. 

3. tJlmus camp6stris, L. (Eng- 
lish or Field Elm.) Leaves much 
smaller and of a darker color than the 
American Elm, obovate-oblon-,'. ab- u. montana. 

ruptly sharp-pointed, doubly serrated, rough. 
Fruit smooth, with the wing deeply notched. 

A tiill and beautiful cultivated tree, with the 

branches growing out from flic trunk more 
abruptly than those of the American Elm, 
and thus forming a more pyramidal tree. A 
score of named varieties are in cultivation in 
this country, some with very corky hark, 

others with ourled leaves, and still others with weeping branches. 

4. tJlmus racemosa, Thomas. (CORK ok Rook Elm.) Leaves 
2 to 4 in. long, obovate oblong, abruptly pointed, often doubly ser* 





U. camp6atrl8. 



G.75] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



135 




TJ. racemosa. 



rated, with very straight veins ; twigs and 
bud-scales downy-ciliate ; branches often 
with corky ridges. Fruit large ('._, in. or 
more long), with a deep notch ; hairy. A 
large tree with fine-grained, heavy and 
very tough wood. Southwest Vermont, 
west and south, southwestward to Mis- 
souri, on river-banks. 

5. tJlmus alata, Michx. (Wahoo or 

Winged Elm.) Leaves small, 1 to 2 in. 

long, ovate-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 

acute, thickish, downy beneath and nearly 

smooth above, sharply serrate. Bud- 
scales and branchlets nearly smooth. 
Notch in the wing of the fruit deep. 
Si A small tree, 30 to 40 ft. high, the 

branches having corky wings. Wild, 
Virginia, west and south ; rarely cul- 
tivated. 



6. tThnus Americana, 

L. (American or White 
Elm.) Leaves 2 to 4 in. 
long, obovate-oblong or 
oval, abruptly sharp- 
pointed, sharply and often doubly 
serrated, soft -pubescent beneath when 
young, soon quite smooth; buds and 
branchlets smooth. Fruit % i Q - l° n g» its 
sharp points incurved and closing the 
"deep notch; hairy only on the edges. 
A large ornamental tree, usually with 
spreading branches and drooping branch- 
lets, forming a very wide-spreading top. 




TT. alata. 




IT. Americana. 



Wild throughout in rich, moist soil ; common in cultivation. 



Genus 75. PLAneKA. 



Trees or tall shrubs with alternate, simple, pointed, 
2-ranked, feather- veined, toothed leaves. Flowers incon- 
spicuous, with the leaves in spring. Fruit a small, nut- 



136 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



like, scaly, globular drupe, ripe iu autumn. Bark scaling 
off like that of the Sycamore. 



1. Pl&nera aquatica, Grnel. (American 
Planer-tree.) Leaves ovate-oblong, small, 1 
to IJq m - long) on shoi't sterns, sharp-pointed, 
serrate with equal teeth, smooth, green above 
and gray below, not oblique at base. Flowers 
minute, in small heads, appearing before the 
leaves. Fruit a scaly, roughened nut, ^ "'•' 
raised on a stalk in the calyx ; ripe in Sep- 
tember. A small tree, 20 to 50 ft. high ; wet 
banks, Kentucky and southward ; hardy as far 
north as Philadelphia. 




P. aqudtica. 



2. Pl&nera acuminata. ( Kiaka Elm 
or Japan Planer-tree.) Leaves large, 
glossy, smooth, deeply notched, on red 
stems ; young shoots also red. This is a 
larger, more hardy, and finer tree than the 
American Planer-tree, and should be more 
extensively cultivated. 

The Caucasian Plauer-tree (Planera par- 
vifolia), with very small leaves, is also oc- 
casionally cultivated. 

Genus 76. CELTIS. 




acuminata. 



Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, 2-ranked, ob- 
lique, serrate leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, greenish, 
axillary. Fruit berry-like, sweet, edible drupes, aboul 
the si/<- of a currant, with one seed; color dark; ripe in 
autumn. 

Leaves usually sharply serrate 1- 

* Leaves almost entire 2. 



1. Celtis occidentals, L. (SUGARBERBY. 
II iokbebry.) Leaves ovate, obliquely sub- 
cordate to truncate at base, loiig-aemniiiate, 

Berrate (at least near the apex), rough above 
and hairy beneath. Fruil a single-seeded, 
^ in., globular drupe, solitary on a peduncle, 




C. occiil 



1 in. h>ie', iii tlic axils of tin- leaves; purple when ripe in autumn. 



G.78J 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



137 



Shrub (var. putnila) to large tree, 6 to 50 ft. high ; throughout ; 
rare north, abundant south. Sometimes cultivated. The branches 
are numerous, slender, horizontal, giving the tree a wide-spreading, 
dense top. 



2. Celtis Mississippiensis, Bosc. Leaves 
almost entire, with a very long, tapering point, 
a rounded and mostly oblique base, thin and 
smooth. Fruit smaller than that of the pre- 
ceding species. A small tree with rough, 
warty bark. Illinois and southward. 




C. Mississippiensis. 



Genus 77. MACLURA. 

Trees or shrubs with milky juice and simple, alternate, 
entire, deciduous leaves, generally having a sharp spine 
by the side of the bud in the axils. Flowers inconspicu- 
ous ; in summer. Fruit large, glob- 
ular, orange-like in appearance. 



Madura aurantiaca, Nutt. (Osage 
Orange. Bow- wood.) Leaves rather 
thick, ovate to ovate-oblong, almost en- 
tire, smooth and shining above, strong- 
veined and paler beneath, 4 in. long by 2 
in. wide ; spines simple, about 1 in. long. 
Fruit as large as an orange, golden-yellow 
when ripe. A medium-sized tree, 20 to 
50 ft. high ; native west of the Missis- 
sippi. Extensively cultivated for hedges, 
and also for ornament, throughout. 




M. aurantiaca. 



Genus 78. MORUS. 

Trees with milky juice and alternate, deciduous, ex- 
stipulate, broad, heart-shaped, usually rough leaves. 
Flowers inconspicuous; in spring. Fruit blackberry- 
like in shape and size; in summer. 



* Leaves rough ; fruit dark-colored 1. 

* Leaves smooth and shining ; fruit white to black 2. 



138 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




M. rubra. 



1. Morus rubra, L. (Red Mulbekry.) Leaves 
broad, heart-shaped, 4 to 6 in. long, serrate, 
rough above and downy beneath, pointed; on 
the young shoots irregularly lobed. Fruit dark 
red, almost purple when ripe, cylindrical; not 
found on all the trees, as the flowers are some- 
what dioecious ; ripe in July. Wood yellow, heavy 
and durable. Usually a small tree, 15 to 60 ft. 
high; wild throughout, also cultivated. 



2. Morus alba, L. (White Mulberry.) 
Leaves obliquely heart-ovate, pointed, ser- 
rate, smooth and shining ; lobed on the 
younger growths ; 2 to 7 in. long. Fruit 
whitish, oval to oblong; ripe in July. A 
small tree from China, planted for feeding 
silkworms, but now naturalized throughout. 

Var. mulHcaulis lias large leaves, and is 
considered better for silkworm food than m. alba. 

the usual form. It is not very hardy, as it is frequently winter- 
killed in the latitude of New York City. 

Var. Doumingii (Downing's everbearing Mulberry) has large leaves 
and very large, dark red or black fruit, of excellent flavor, which 
does not ripen all at once as most Mulberries do. 




Genus 79. BROUSSONETIA. 



Trees with milky juice and alternate, deciduous, stipu- 
late, broad, very hairy leaves. Flowers dioecious. Fruit 
(only on a portion of the plants) similar to the common 
Mulberry. 

Broussonetia papyrifera, L. (Papbs- 
mulberry.) Leaves ovate to heart-shaped, 
variously Lobed, deeply so on the young 
suckers, serrate, very rough above and 
quite soft-downy beneath ; leaves on the 
'<jl/ ^^^^^^ old trees almost without lobes; barktough 

■ ' 4 and fibrous. Flowers in catkins, greenish ; 

b. papyrifera. i,, spring. Fruit club-shaped, dark Bcarlet, 

sweet and insipid; ripe in August. Small cultivated tree, hi tu :;."> ft. 
high, hardy north to New fork; remarkable for the greal variety 
in the forms of ite leaves on the young trees. 




G.80] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



lay 



Order XXXVII. PLATANACE^J. 

(Plane-tree Family.) 

A very small order, containing but one genus : 



Genus 80. PLATANUS. 

Trees with alternate, simple, large, palmately lobed 
leaves. The base of the petiole is hollowed to cover the 
bud. Flowers inconspicuous; in early spring. Fruit a 
large, dry ball, hanging on a long peduncle, and remain- 
ing on the tree through the winter. Large tree with 
white bark separating into thin, brittle plates. 

1. Pl&tanus occidentalis, L. (Ameri- 
can Sycamore. Buttonwood.) Leaves 
large (6 to 10 in. broad), roundish heart- 
shaped, angularly sinuate-lobed, the 
short lobes sharp-pointed, scurfy-downy 
till old. Fruit globular, solitary, 1 in. 
in diameter, hanging on long, 4-in. pe- 
duncles ; remaining on the tree through 
the winter. A large, well-known tree, 
80 to 100 ft. high ; found on river-banks 
throughout ; also cultivated. Wood 
brownish, coarse-grained ; it cannot be 
split, and is very difficult to smooth. The p - occidentals. 

marking of the grain on the quar- 
tered lumber is very beautiful. 

2. Pl&tanus orientalis, L. (Ori- 
ental Plane.) Leaves more deeply 
cut, smaller, and sooner smooth than 
those of the American Sycamore. 
Fruit frequently clustered on the pe- 
duncles. This tree is similar to the 
American Sycamore, and in many 
p. orient ways better for cultivation. 





140 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

Order XXXVIII. JTJGLANDACEiE. 
(Walnut Family.) 

A small order of useful nut- and timber-trees. 

Genus 81. JUGLANS. 

Trees with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves, of 5 to 17 
leaflets, with 2 to 4 axillary buds, the uppermost the 
largest. Flowers inconspicuous, the sterile ones in catkins. 
May. Fruit a large, bony, edible nut surrounded by a 
husk that has no regular dehiscence. The nut, as in the 
genus Carya, has a bony partition between the halves of 
the kernel. 



• Leaflets 13 to 17, strongly serrate; husk of the fruit not sepa- 

rating from the very rough, bony nut ; native. (A.) 
A. Upper axillary bud cylindrical, whitish with hairs; nut 

elongated 1 . 

A. Upper axillary bud ovate, pointed; nut globular 2. 

* Leaflets 5 to 9; husk of the fruit separating when dry from the 

smoothish, thin-shelled nut; cultivated 3. 




J. cinorea. 



1. Juglans cinerea. L. (Butter- 
nut. White Walnut.) Leaflets 11 
to 17, lanceolate rounded al base, 
serrate with shallow teeth ; downy, 
especially beneath; leafstalk sticky 
or gummy. Buds oblong, white-to- 
mentose. Fruit oblong, clammy, 
pointed. , A thick-shelled nut, deeply 
sculptured and rough with ragged 
ridges; ripe in September. A widely 
spreading, flal topped tree, 30 to To 
ft. high, with gray bark and much 
lighter-colored wood than thai of the 
Juglans in. 



C4.82] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DKSCIUITION 



141 



2. Juglans nigra, L. (Black Wal- 
nut.) Leaflets 13 to 21,1) eolate-ovate, 

taper-pointed, somewhat heart-shaped 
and oblique at base, smooth above and 
very slightly downy beneath. Fruit 
globular, roughly dotted; the thick- 
shelled nut very rough ; ripe in Octo- 
ber. A large handsome tree, 50 to 120 ft. 
high, with brown bark; more common 
west than east of the Alleghanies ; 
often planted. Wood dark purplish- 
brown. 



k /fvfu 



3. Juglans regia, L. 
Nut. English Walnut.) 





J. rdgia. 



(Madeira 

Leaflets 5 J,nigra - 

to 9, oval, smooth, obscurely serrate. 
Fruit oval, with a thin-shelled oval 
nut not nearly so rough as that of 
Juglans cinerea, or of Juglans nigra. 
When ripe the husk becomes very 
brittle and breaks open to let out 
the nut. Tree intermediate in size, 
40 to 60 ft. high, hardy as far north as 
Boston in the East, but needs protec- 
tion at St. Louis. It should be more 
extensively cultivated. Introduced 
from Persia. 



Genus 82. CARTA. 



Hard-wooded trees with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves 
having straight-veined leaflets. The leaflets are opposite 
each other, and the terminal pair and end leaflet are 
usually much the largest. The sterile flowers are in hang- 
ing catkins, the fertile ones minute, forming a large, 
rounded, green-coated, dry drupe, with a roughened nut 
having a bony partition. The drupes hang on till frost, 
when they open more or less and usually allow the nut 
to drop out. Wood hard and tough. 



U2 



TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



*Bark shaggy and scaly; kernel very good. (A.) 
A. Leaflets usually 5 (5 to 7) , I. 

A. Leaflets 7 to 9 2. 

* Bark rough, deeply furrowed but not shaggy ; kernel edible. (B. ) 

B. Leaflets 7 to 9, usually 7 3. 

B. Leaflets 5 to 7, usually 5 4. 

* Bark smooth ; kernel bitter. (C.) 

C. Leaflets 5 to 7, usually 7, smooth 5. 

C. Leaflets 7 to 11, serrate -with deep teeth 6. 

* Bark smooth ; nut thin-shelled ; kernel sweet ; leaflets 13 to 15 . .7. 



1. Carya Alba, Nutt. (Shellbarkor 
Shagbark Hickory.) Leaflets 5, the 
lower pair much smaller, all oblong-lan- 
ceolate, taper-pointed, finely serrate- 
downy beneath when young. Fruit glob- 
ular, depressed at the top, splitting read- 
ily into 4 wholly separate valves. Nut 
white, sweet, compressed, 4-angled. 
Husk quite thin for the Hickories. Tree 
70 to 90 ft. high, with very shaggy bark, 
even on quite small trees. Wild through- 
out, and cultivated. 




2. Carya sulcata, Nutt. (Big 
Shelbbark. Kingnut.) Leaflets 
7 to 9, obovate-acuminate, sharply 
serrate, the odd one attenuate at base 
and nearly sessile ; downy beneath 
(more so than Carya alba). Fruit 
large, oval, 4- ribbed above the mid- 
dle, with 4 intervening depressions. 
Husk very thick, entirely separating 
into 4 valves. Nut largo, l'.j to 2 
in. long, <iull-whitish, thick-shelled, 
usually strongly pointed at both 
ends. Kernel sweet and good. Tree 
60 to 90 ft. high, with a shaggy bark 
of loose, narrow strips on large 
Quid' common west <>f the 
Alleghanies. 




C. sulcata. 



::. Carya tomentosa, Nutt. (MOOKERNTTT. WHITE-HEART HlCK- 
ort.) Leaflets 7 to 9 (mostly 7), lanoe-obovate pointed, obscurely 



9.82] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



143 



serrate or almost entire, the Lower Burfaee 

as well as the twigs and the calkins to- 
uieutose when young. Fruit globular or 
ovoid, usually with a very hard, thick husk 
slightly united at base. Nut somewhat 
hexagonal, with a very thick shell and 
well-flavored kernel. A tall, slender tree, 60 
to 100 ft. high, with a rough deeplj furrow- 
ed, but not 
shaggy bark. 
Common on 
dry hillsides 
throughout. 





C. tomentbsa. 



C. microc&rpa. 



4. Carya 
microcarpa, 

Nutt. (Small Mockernut.) Leaflets 
about 5 (5 to 7), oblong-lanceolate, 
long-pointed, finely serrate, smooth, 
glandular beneath ; buds small, ovate. 
Fruit small, subglobose, with a thin 
husk; nut not sharply angled, with a 
thin shell ; edible. A large tree, 70 to 



90 ft. high; New-York, Pennsylvania, and westward. 



5. Carya porcina, Nutt. (Pignut. 
Broom-hickory.) Leaflets 5 to 7 (usu- 
ally 7), oblong-ovate, acuminate, ser- 
rate, smooth. Fruit pear-shaped to 
oval, somewhat rough, splitting regu- 
larly only about half-way. Nut large 
(iy 2 to 2 
in. long), 
brownish, 
somewhat 
obcordate, 





C. porcina. 



with a thick, hard shell, and poor, 
bitter kernel. Tall tree, 70 to 80 ft. 
high, with dark-colored heart-wood, 
and rather smooth bark. Common on 
ridges. 

6. Caxya amara, Nutt. (Bitternut. 
Swamp-hickory.) Leaflets 7 to 11, Ian- 



144 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



ceolate to oblong lanceolate, serrate with deep teeth. Fruit round- 
ish-ovate, regularly separable only half-way, but friable at maturity. 
Nut small, white, subglobose, with a very thin shell and an ex- 
tremely bitter kernel. Large tree with 
orange-yellow winter buds, and firm, not 
scaly, bark. Wild throughout, and some- 
times cultivated. 

7. Carya olivseformis, Nutt. (Pecan- 
nut.) Leaflets 13 to 15, ovate-lanceolate, 
serrate ; lateral ones nearly sessile and 
decidedly curved. Fruit oblong, widest 
above the middle, with 4 distinct valves. 
Nut oblong, 1 [ 4 in., nearer smooth than 
the other edible Hickory-nuts, the shell 
thin, but rather too hard to be broken 
by the fingers. The kernel is full, Bweet, 
and good. A tall tree, 80 to 90 ft. high. 

Indiana and south; also cultivated, but not very successfully, as 

far north as New York City. 




C. olivaef6rmis. 



Order XXXIX. CUPULIFER^E. (Oak Family.) 

This order contains more species of trees and shrubs in 
temperate regions than any other, except the Conifewe. 
The genus Quercus (Oak) alone contains about L'o species 
of trees in the region covered by this work. 

Genus 83. BETULA. 



Trees or shrubs with simple, alternate, mostly straight- 
veined, thin, usually serrate Leaves. Flowers in catkins, 
opening in early spring, in most cases before the Leaves. 
Fruit a Leafy-scaled catkin or cone, hanging on til! 
autumn. Twigs usually slender, the bark peeling off 
in thin, tough layers, and having peculiar horizontal 
marks. Many Bpecies have aromatic Leaves and twigs. 



G.83] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



145 



* Trunks with chalky white bark. (A.) 
A. Native. (B.) 

B. Small tree with leafstalks about % as long as the blades. 1. 

B. Large tree; leafstalks about V 3 as long as the blades 2. 

A. Cultivated ; from Europe ; many varieties '&. 

* Bark not chalky white, usually dark. (C.) 
C. Leaves and bark very aromatic. (D.) 

D. Bark of trunk yellowish and splitting into filmy layers. .5. 

D. Bark not splitting into filmy layers 4. 

C. Leaves not very aromatic ; bark brownish and loose and 
shaggy on the main trunk; growing in or near the water. .G. 

1. Betula populifolia, Ait. ( Ameri- 
can White or Gray Birch.) Leaves tri- 
angular, very taper-pointed, and usually 
truncate or nearly so at the broad base, 
irregularly twice-serrate ; both sides 
smooth and shining, when young glutin- 
ous with resinous glauds ; leafstalks half 
as long as the blades and slender, so as 
to make the leaves tremulous, like those 
of the Aspen. Fruit brown, cylindrical, 
more or less pendulous on slender pe- 
duncles. A small (15 to 30 ft. high), 
slender tree with an ascending rather 
than an erect trunk. Bark chalky or 
grayish white, with triangular dusky 
spaces below the branches; recent shoots brown, closely covered 
with round dots. 




B. populif&lia. 



2. B6tula papy rife ra, Marsh. (Paper or Canoe Birch.) Leaves 
2 to 4 in. long, ovate, taper-pointed, heart-shaped, abrupt or some- 
times wedge-shaped at the base, sharply and doubly serrate, smooth 
and green above, roughly reticulated, glan- 
dular-dotted and slightly hairy beneath ; 
footstalk not over \^ the length of the blade. 
Fruit long-stalked and drooping. A large 
tree, 60 to 75 ft. high, with white bark 
splitting freely into very thin, tough layers. 
A variety, 5 to 10 ft. high (var. minor), oc- 
curs only in the White Mountains. Young 
shoots reddish or purplish olive-green deep- 
ening to a dark copper bronze. New Eng 

land and westward, also cultivated. 
a. papyrifera. 




140 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




3. Betula alba, L. (European "White Birch.) 
Leaves ovate, acute, somewhat deltoid, unequally 
serrate, often deeply cut, nearly smooth ; in var. 
pubescens covered with white hairs. Fruit brown, 
cylindric, drooping. A tree, 30 to 60 ft. high, 
with a chalky-white bark ; from Europe, exten- 
sively cultivated in this country, under many 
B. alba, names, which indicate the character of growth or 

foliage; among them may be mentioned pendida (weeping), laciniata 
(cut-leaved), fastigiata (pyramidal), atropurpurea (purple-leaved), 
and pubescens (hairy-leaved). 

4. Betula lenta, L. (Sweet, Black or 
Cherry Birch.) Leaves and bark very 
sweet, aromatic. Leaves ovate or ovate- 
oblong, with more or less heart-shaped base, 
very acute apex, and doubly and finely ser- 
rate margin, bright shining green above, 
smooth beneath, except the veins, which are 
hairy. Fruit 1 to li^ in. long, cylindric, 
with spreading lobes to the scales. A rather 
large tree, 50 to 70 ft. high, with bark of 
trunk and twigs in appearance much like 
that of the garden Cherry, and not splitting B - 16nta - 

into as thin layers as most of the Birches. Wood rose-colored, fine- 
grained. Moist woods, rather common throughout ; also cultivated. 




5. Betula lutea, Michx. f. (Yellow 
or Gray Birch.) A species so like the 
preceding (Betula lenta) as to be best 
described by stating the differences. 
Leaves ami bark are much less aro- 
matic. Leaves 3 to 5 in. long, not so 
often nor so plainly heart-shaped at 
base, usually narrowed ; less brighl 
green above, and more downy beneath ; 
more coarsely serrate. Fruit not so 
lon<,', and more ovate, with much larger 
and thinner scales, the lobes hardly 
spreading. A large tree, 50 to 90 ft. 

B. lutea. high, with yellowish <>r Bilvery-gray 

bark peeling <>h" into very thin, filmy Layers from the trunk. Wood 
whiter, and nol so useful. Bieh,mois1 woodlands, especially north- 
ward ; also <-nlt ivated. 




G.84] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



147 



6. Betula nigra, L. (RlVER <>r Red 

Birch.) Leaves 2'., to 3 ' ._. in. long, 
rhombic-ovate, acute at both ends, dis- 
tinctly doubly seriate, bright green 
above; glaucous beneath when young; 
on petioles oidy ,1 their length. Twigs 
brown to einnamon-color, and downy 
when young. A medium-sized tree, 
30 to 50 ft. high, usually growing on 
the edges of streams, the old trunks 
having a very shaggy, loose, torn, red- 
dish-brown bark. Wild in Massachu- 
setts, south and west; often cultivated. 



Genus 84. ALNUS. 




B. nigra. 



Shrubs or small trees with deciduous, alternate, simple, 
straight-veined leaves with large stipules that remain 
most of the season. Flowers in catkins. Fruit a small, 
scaly, open, woody cone, remaining on the plant through- 
out the year. 

* Native species; growing in wet places. (A.) 

A. Leaves rounded at base; whitened beneath; found north of 

41° N. Lat 1. 

A. Leaves acute or tapering at base ; southward. (B.) 

B. Flowering in the spring 2. 

B. Flowering in the autumn 3. 

* Cultivated species; from Europe; will grow in dry places . .4, 5. 




1. Alnus incana, Willd . (Speckled 
or Hoary Alder.) Leaves 3 to 5 in. 
long, broadly oval or ovate, rounded at 
base, sharply serrate, often coarsely 
toothed, whitened and mostly downy 
beneath; stipules lanceolate and soon 
falling. Fruit orbicular or nearly so. 
A shrub or small tree, 8 to 20 ft. high, 
with the bark of the trunk a polished 
reddish green ; common along water- 
courses north of 41° N. Lat.; sometimes 
cultivated. 



148 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




A. serrulate. 



2. Alnus serrulata, Willd. (Smooth 
Alder.) Leaves 2 to 4 1 ., in. long, thiek- 
ish, obovate, acute at base, sharply and 
finely serrate, green both sides, smooth or 
often downy beneath; stipules yellowish 
green, oval, and falling after 2 or 3 leaves 
have expanded above them. Fruit ovate. 
Rather a shrub than a tree, 6 to 12 ft. high, 
common along streams south of 41° N. Lat. 
In the Southern 
States it some- 
times forms a 
tree 30 ft. high. 



3. Alnus maritima, Muhl. (Seaside 
Alder.) Smooth ; leaves oblong-ovate to 
obovate, with a tapering base, sharply ser- 
rulate ; petiole slender; color bright green, 
somewhat rusty beneath. Flowering in 
the autumn. Fruiting catkin large, % to 
1 in. long, % in. thick, usually solitary, 
ovoid to oblong. A small tree, 15 to 25 ft. 




A. maritima. 



high. Southern Delaware and eastern 
Maryland, near the coast. 

4. Alnus glutinosa, L. (European 
Alder.) Leaves roundish, wedge- 
shaped, wavy-serrated, usually abrupt 
at tip, glutinous; sharply and deeply 
incised in some varieties. Fruit oval, 
% in. long. A medium-sized tree, 25 
to 60 ft. high, of rapid growth, often 
cultivated under several names; the 
most important beim,' vara, laciniata 
(cut-leaved), quercifolia (oak-leaved), 
and rubrinervis (red-leaved). 

A. glutinosa, N ' 

5. Alnus cordifolia, Ten. (Heakt-li:avi:i> 
Alder.) Leaves heart-shaped, dark green 

and shin in 1 /. Flowers gree nisi i -brown, bloom- 
ing in March and April, before the leaves 
iid. A large and very handsome Alder, 
15 to 20 it. high, growing in much dryer soil 
than the American Bpecies. Cultivated from 
southern Europe. Bardy after il gets a good 

Start, bul Often winter-killed when young. a. coidifolla. 





G.85] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



140 



Genus 85. CORYLUS. 

Low trees and large shrubs with simple, alternate, de- 
oiduous, doubly serrate, straight-veined leaves. Flowers 
insignificant, in catkins in early spring. Fruit an ovoid- 
oblong bony nut, inclosed in a thickish involucre of two 
leaves with a lacerated frilled border; ripe in autumn. 

* Leafy bracts of fruit forming a bottle-shaped involucre 2. 

* Leafy bracts not bottle-shaped. (A.) 

A. Involucre much longer than the nut 1. 

A. Involucre but little longer than t lie nut 3. 



1. Corylus Americana, Walt. (Wild 
Hazelnut.) Leaves roundish heart- 
shaped, pointed, doubly serrate ; stipules 
broad at base, acute, and sometimes cut- 
toothed; twigs and shoots often hairy. 
Involucre of the fruit open to the glo- 
bose nut, the two leaf-like bracts very 
much cut-toothed at the margin and 
thick and leathery at the base. Merely 
a shrub, 5 to 6 ft. high; quite common 
throughout. 




C. Americana. 




C. rostrata. 



2. Corylus rostrata, Ait. (Beaked Hazel- 
nut.) Leaves but little or not at all heart- 
shaped ; stipules linear-lanceolate. The in- 
volucre, extending beyond the nut in a bract 
like a bottle, is covered with stiff, short hairs. 
Shrub, 4 to 5 ft. high. Wild in the same re- 
gion as Corylus Americana, but not so abun- 
dant. 



3. Corylus Avellana, L. (European Ha- 
zel. Filbert.) Leaves roundish-cordate, 
pointed, doubly serrate, nearly sessile, witli 
ovate-oblong, obtuse stipules; shoots bristly. 
Involucre of the fruit not much larger than 
1 lie large nut (1 in.), and deeply cleft. A small 
tree or shrub, G to 12 ft. high, from Europe ; 
several varieties in cultivation. 




C. Avellana. 



150 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN* UNITED STATES 



Genus 86. OSTRYA. 

Slender trees with very hard wood, brownish, furrowed 
bark, and deciduous, alternate, simple, exstipulate, straight- 
veined leaves. Flowers incon- 
spicuous, in catkins. Fruit hop- 
like in appearance, at the ends of 
side shoots of the season, hang- 
ing on through the autumn. 




1. Ostrya Virginica, Willd. (Iron- 
wood. American Hop -hornbeam.) 
Leaves oblong -ovate, taper -pointed, 
very sharply doubly serrate, downy be- 
neath, with 11 to 15 straight veins on 
each side of the midrib ; buds acute. 
The hop-like fruit 2 to 3 times as long 
o. Virgimca. as w jj e . f u u grown and pendulous, 1 to 

3 in . long, in August, when it adds 

greatly to the beauty of the tree. A 

small, rather slender tree, 30 to 50 ft. 

high, with the bark on old trees some- 
what furrowed; wood white and very 

hard and heavy ; common in rich woods. 

and occasionally cultivated. 

2. Ostrya vulgaris, Willd. (Euro- 
pean Hop-hornbeam.) This species 
from Europe is much like the American 
one, but has longer, more slender, more 
pendulous fruit-clusters. Occasionally 
cultivated. 




O. vulgaris. 



Genus 87. CARPINUS. 



Trees or tall shrubs with alternate, simple, straight- 
veined leaves, and smooth and close gray bark. Blowers 
in drooping catkins, the sterile flowers in dense cylindrie 
ones, and tie- fertile flowers in a Loose terminal one form- 
ing an elongated, leafy-bracted cluster with many, sev- 
eral-grooved, small nuts, banging on the tree till late in 
the autumn. 



<;. 88] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



151 



1. CarplnusCaroliniana,Walt. (AMER- 
ICAN HORNBEAM. BlueorWaterBkki ii. ) 
Leaves ovate-oblong, pointed, sharply 
doubly serrate, soon nearly smooth. Fruit 
with the scales obliquely halberd-shaped 
and cut-toothed, % in. long, nuts % in. 
long. A tree or tall shrub, 10 to 2.1 ft. 
high, with a peculiarly ridged trunk; the 
close, smooth gray bark and the leaves 
are much like those of the Beech. The 
wood is very hard and whitish. Common 
along streams ; 
sometimes cul- 
tivated. 





C. Carolini&na. 



C. B^tulus. 



2. Carpinus B6tulus, L. (European 
Hornbeam.) This cultivated species is 
quite similar to the American, but can be 
distinguished by the scales of the fruit, 
which are wholly halberd-shaped, having 
the basal lobes nearly equal in size, as 
shown in the cut ; while the American spe- 
cies has scales only half halberd-shaped. 



Genus 88. QUERCUS. 

Large trees to shrubs, with simple, alternate, deciduous 
or evergreen, entire to deeply lobed leaves. The leaves 
are rather thick and woody, and remain on the tree either 
all winter or at least until nearly all other deciduous 
leaves have fallen. Flowers insignificant ; the staminate 
ones in catkins; blooming in spring. Fruit an acorn, 
which in the White, Chestnut, and Live Oaks matures the 
same year the blossoms appear ; while in the Red, Black, 
and Willow Oaks the acorns mature the second year. 
They remain on the tree until late in autumn. The Oaks, 
because of their large tap-roots, can be transplanted only 
when small. Most of the species are in cultivation. The 
species are very closely related, and a number of them quite 
readily hybridize ; this is especially true of those of a 
particular group, as the White Oaks, Black Oaks, etc. 



152 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

There is no attempt in the Key to characterize the hy- 
brids, of which some are quite extensively distributed. 
Querents heterophylla, Michx. (Bartram's Oak), supposed to 
be a hybrid between Quercus PheUos and Quercas rubra, 
is found quite frequently from Staten Island southward 
to North Carolina. 

* Cultivated Oaks from the Old World; bark rough ; leaves more or 

less sinuated or lobed. (A. ) 
A. Acorn cup not bristly 20. 

A. Acorn cup more or less bristly 21. 

* Wild species, occasionally cultivated. (B.) 

B. Leaves entire or almost entire, or merely 3- (rarely 5-) lobed 
at the enlarged summit. (C.) 

C. Ends about equal, petioles very short. (D.) 
D. Leaves small (2 to 4 in. long), evergreen, bark smooth, 

black (Live-oaks) 10. 

D. Leaves not evergreen in the North, somewhat awned 
when young, bark very smooth, black and never cracked 
(Willow-oaks). (E.) 

E. Down on the under side quite persistent 18. 

E. Under side soon smooth 19. 

C. Widened near the tip, somewhat obovate and the end usu- 
ally 3-lobed ; bark quite black, smooth or furrowed, but 
never scaly (Black-oaks). (F.) 

F. Leaves acute at base 16. 

F. Leaves abrupt or cordate at base 17. 

B. Leaves distinctly straight-veined, sinuate rather than lobed, 
the teeth generally rounded and never awned; bark white, 
rough and scaling (Chestnut-oaks). (G.) 

G. Lobes rounded 5, 6, 7. 

G. Lobes rather acute 8, 9. 

B. Leaves coarsely lobed. the lobes usually rounded, never 
awned; bark white or whitish-brown, cracking and sealing 
off in thin laminae (White Oaks). (H.) 

H. Leaves crowded at the ends of the branchlete 4. 

H. Leaves not crowded 1. -. '■'•■ 

B. Leaves more or less lobed, the lobes and teeth acute and 
bristle-pointed; petiole slender; base rather abrupt; bark 

dark-COlored, smooth or furrowed, bul never scaly Bed 
Oaks). (I.) 

I. Leaves smooth both sides, al leasl when mature. .11, 12, 18. 
I. Leaves soft-downy beneath 14,15. 



C4. 88] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



153 



1. Q,uercus adba, L. (Amkuican White 
Oak.) Leaves short- stemmed, acute at 
base, with 3 to 9 oblong, obtuse, usually 
entire, oblique lobes, very persistent, 
many remaining on the tree through the 
winter; pubescent when young, soon 
smooth, bright green above. Acorns in 
the axils of the leaves of the year, ovoid- 
oblong, 1 in., in a shallow, rough cup, 
often sweet and edible. A large tree, 
60 to 80 ft. high, with stem often 6 ft. 
in diameter ; wood light-colored, hard, 
tough and very useful. Common throughout 




Q. ilba. 



2. Quercus stellata, Wang. 
(Post-oak. Rough or Box 
White Oak.) Leaves 4 to 6 
in. long, sinuately cut into 5 
to 7 roundish, divergent lobes, 
the upper ones much larger and 
often 1- to 3-notched, grayish- 
or yellowish-downy beneath, 
and pale and rough above. 
Acorn ovoid, about x i, in. long, 

one third to one half inclosed in a deep, saucer-shaped cup ; in the 

axils of the leaves of the year. A medium-sized tree, 40 to 50 ft. 

high, with very hard, durable wood, resembling that of the White 

Oak. Massachusetts, south and west. 




Q. stellata. 



3. Quercus macrocarpa, Michx. 
(Bur-oak. Mossy-cup.) Leaves 
obovate or oblong, lyrately pin- 
natifid or deeply sinuate-lobed or 
nearly parted, the lobes sparingly 
and obtusely toothed or entire. 
Acorn broadly ovoid, 1 in. or more 
long, one half to almost entirely 
inclosed in a thick and woody cup 
with usually a mossy fringed bor- 
der formed of the upper awned 
scales ; cup very variable in size, % 
to '_' in. across. A handsome, mid- 
dle-sized tree, 40 to 60 ft. high. 
Western New England to Wisconsin, and southwest w.-m 




154 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



4. Q,uercus lyrata, Walt. (Swamp Post- 
oak.) Leaves crowded at the ends of the 
branchlets, very variable, obovate-oblong, 
more or less deeply 7- to 9-lobed, white-to- 
nientose beneath when young, becoming 
smoothish ; the lobes triangular to oblong, 
acute or obtuse, entire or sparingly toothed. 
Acorn about % in. long, nearly covered by 
Q. lyrata. ^he round, ovate, thin, rugged, scaly cup. 

A large tree with pale flaky bark. River-swamps in southern In- 
diana to Wisconsin, and southward. 




5. Quercus bicolor, Willd. (Swamp 
White Oak. ) Leaves obovate or oblong- 
obovate, wedge-shaped at base, coarsely 
sinuate-crenate, and often rather pin- 
natifid than toothed, whitish, soft -downy 
beneath. Main primary veins 6 to 8 pairs. 
Acorns, nearly 1 in., oblong-ovoid, set in 
a shallow cup often mossy fringed at the 
margin, on a peduncle about as long as 
the acorn, much longer than the petioles 
of the leaves ; in the axils of the leaves 
of the year. A large tree, 60 to 80 ft. 
high, stem 5 to 8 ft. in diameter. Most 




Q. bicolor. 




Q. Michanxii. 



common in the Northern and Western 
States, in swamps, but found in moist 
soil in the mountains of the South. 

6. Quercus Michauxii, Nutt. (Bas- 
ket-oak or Cow-oak. ) Leaves 5 to 6 
in. long, oval to obovate, acute, obtuse, 
or even cordate at base, regularly but 
usually not deeply sinuate, rather rigid, 
usually very tomentose beneath. Acorn 
large, \\^ in. long, sweet and edible; 
cup shallow and roughened with coarse, 
acute scales; no fringe. A large and 
valuable Oak with gray and flaky bark. 



7. duercus Prinus, L. ( < 'hkstntt-oak. ) Leaves obovate or 
oblong, coarsely undulately toothed, with l<» to 16 pairs of straight, 
prominenl ri 1 »-> beneath; Burface minutely downy beneath, and 
smooth above. Aaorn ovoid, l in. long, covered nearly half-way 



d.HS) 



CLASSIFICATION AND INSCRIPTION 



155 



wit h a thick, mostly t uberculnled »'ii|> ; ill 

the axils of the leavea of the year ; kernel 

sweetish ami edible. A middle-sized or 
small tree, with reddish, coarse-grained 
wood. Found throughout, but common 
only southward. 

8. Que reus Muhlenbergii, Engelm. 
(Yellow Chestnut-oak.) Leaves usu- 
ally thin, 5 to 7 in. long, \ x / 2 to 2 in. 
broad, oblong-lanceolate, rather sharply 
notched, mostly obtuse or roundish at 
base, sometimes broadly ovate or obo- 
vate, and two thirds as wide as long. 





Q.. Muhlenbergii. 



Q,. Prinus, 

The leaves are usually more like those of 
the Chestnut than any other Oak ; the 
primary veins very straight, impressed 
above, prominent beneath. Acorn % to 
% in. long, inclosed in a thin, hemi- 
spherical cup with small, appressed 
scales. A middle-sized tree with flaky, 
pale, thin, ash-colored bark, and tough, 
very durable, yellowish or brownish 
wood. Western New England, westward 
and south. 




9. Q,u6rcus prinoid.es, Willd. (Dwarf Chestnut- 
oak.) Much like the last, but generally grows only 
2 to 4 ft. high in the Eastern States. The leaves are 
more wavy-toothed, on shorter stems. It seems to be 
only a variety of Quercus Muhlenbergii, especially in 

the West, where it grows much taller and 

runs into that species. 

10. Q,u6rcus virens, Ait. (Live-oak.) 
Leaves thick, evergreen, 2 to 4 in. long, 
oblong, obtuse, and somewhat wrinkled ; 
smooth and shining above, hairy beneath, 
the margin revolute, usually quite entire, 
rarely spiny-toothed. Acorns pedunculate, 
1 to 3 in a cluster, oblong-ovate, with top- 
shaped nut. A mere shrub to a large tree, 
with yellowish wood of excellent grain and 
Q. virens. durability. Virginia and south. 




156 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




Q. rubra. 



11. Quercus rubra, L. (Red Oak.) 
Leaves rather thin, smooth, oblong, 

moderately pinnatifid, sometimes deep- 
ly so, into 8 to 12 entire or sharply 
toothed lobes, turning dark red after 
frost. Acorn oblong-ovoid, 1 in. or less 
long, set in a shallow cup of fine scales, 
with a narrow raised border, ?^ to 1 in. 
in diameter; sessile or nearly so. A 
large tree, 60 to 90 ft. high, with red- 



dish, very coarse-grained wood. Common throughout. 



12. Quercus coccinea,Wang. (Scar- 
let Oak.) Leaves, in the ordinary form 
on large trees, bright green, shining 
above, turning red in autumn, oval or 
oblong, deeply pinnatifid, the 6 to 8 
lobes divergent and sparingly cut- 
toothed, notches rounded. Acorn J^ to 
3 4 in. long, roundish, depressed, one half 
or a little more inclosed in a top-shaped, 
coarsely scaled cup ; in the axils of the 
leaf-scars of the preceding year. A 
large handsome tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, 
with grayish bark not deeply furrowed, 




Q. coccinea. 




Var. tinct6ria. 



interior reddish; coarse-grained reddish 
wood. Moist or dry soil. Common. 

Var. tinetoria. (Quercitron. Yellow- 
barked or Black Oak.) Leaves, espe- 
cially on young trees, often less deeply 
pinnatifid, Bometimes hardy Binuate. 
Foliage much like that of Quercus rubra. 
Acorn nearly round, '._, to '-., in. long, 
set in a rather deep, conspicuously scah 
<iip. Hark of trunk thicker, rougher, 
darker-colored and with the inner color 
orange. Rich and 
poor soil. Abundant 
east, but rare west. 



13. Quercus palustris, l)u Boi. (SWAMP, 
Spanish, oi; l'i\ Oak.) Leaves oblong, deeply 
pinnatifid, with divergent, sharply toothed, 
bristle-tipped lobes and rounded notches, 




U pain atria. 






CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



L57 



and with both sides bright green. Acorn globular, hardly '._> in 
long, «'U]i shallow and sanoer-shaped, almost sessile, in the axils of 
last year's loaf-scars. A handsome, medium-sized tree; wood red- 
dish, coarse-grained. In low ground. Common throughout. 



14. Q,uercus falcata, Michx. (Span- 
ish Oak.) Leaves obtuse or roundish 
at base, 3- to 5-lobed above, the lobes 
prolonged, mostly narrow, and the end 
ones more or less scythe-shaped, bristle- 
tipped, entire or sparingly cut-toothed, 
soft-downy beneath. Foliage very vari- 
able. Acorn V$ to \i, in. long, globose, 
half inclosed in the hemispherical cup ; 
nearly sessile. A tree, 30 to 70 ft. high, 
large and abundant in the South ; bark 
thick and excellent for tanning; wood coarse-grained, dark brown 
or reddish. New Jersey, south and west. 




Q. falcata. 




Q. iUcifolia. 



15. Quercus ilicifolia, Wang. (Bear or 
Black Scrub-oak.) Leaves obovate, wedge- 
shaped at base, angularly about 5-lobed (3 
to 7), white-downy beneath, 2 to 4 in. long, 
thickish, with short, triangular bristle-tipped 
lobes. Acorn ovoid, globular, % in. long. 
A dwarfed, straggling bush, 3 to 10 ft. high. 
Sandy barrens and rocky hills. New Eng- 
land to Ohio, and south. 



16. Q,uercus aqu&tica, Walt. (Water- 
oak.) Leaves thick, subevergreen, obo- 
vate-wedge-ahaped, smooth, tapering at 
the base, sometimes obscurely 3-lobed at 
the tip ; on the seedlings and the young 
rapid-growing shoots often incised or sin- 
uate-pinnatifid, and then bristle-pointed. 
Acorn small, globxilar-ovoid, downy, in a 
saucer-shaped cup, very bitter; in the axils 
of leaf-scars of the previous year. A very 
variable tree, 30 to 40 ft. high, with 
smooth bark. Wet ground. Maryland, 
west and south. 




Q. aquatica. 



158 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




Q. nigra. 



17. Quercus nigra, L. (Black Oak or 
Barren Oak.) Leaves large, 5 to 10 in. 
long, thick, wedge-shaped, broadly dilated 
above, and truncate or slightly 3-lobed at 
the end, bristle-awned, smooth above, rusty- 
downy beneath. Acorn oblong-ovate, Vn to 
% in. long, in the axils of the leaves of the 
preceding year, one third or one half in- 
closed in the top-shaped, coarse-scaled cup. 
A small tree, 10 to 25 ft. high, with rough, 
very dark-colored bark. New York, south 
and west, in dry, sandy barrens. 



18. Q,uercus imbricaria, Michx. (Lau- 
rel- or Shingle-oak. ) Leaves lanceolate- 
oblong, entire, tipped with an abrupt, 
sharp point, pale-downy beneath. Acorn 
globular, % in. long, cup with broad, whit- 
ish, close-pressed scales, covering about 
one third of the nut. A stout tree, 30 to 
50 ft. high, found in barrens and open 
woodlands. Wood extensively used in 
the West for shingles. New Jersey to Wisconsin, and southward. 




ft. imbricaria. 




Q. Ph<§llos. 



19. Quercus Phellos, L. (Willow-oak.) 
Leaves 2 to 4 in. long, thick, linear-lanceo- 
late, narrowed at both ends, entire or very 
nearly so, soon smooth, light green, bristle- 
tipped, willow -like, scurfy when young. 
Acorns about sessile, globular, small (J$ in.), 
in a shallow sau- 
cer shaped cup ; 

on the old wood. Tree 30 to 50 ft. high, 

with sTnootli. thick bark, and reddish, 

coarse-grained wood, of little value. 

Borders of swamps, New Jersey, south 

and west; also cultivated. 



20. Q,uercus Robur, L. (ENGLISH 
oak.) Leavea or Bhori footstalks, ob- 
long, Bmooth, dilated upward, ainnately 
Iniicd, hardly pinnatifid. Acorns in the 
axils of the leaves of the year, ovate-ob- 
long, over I in., abort one third inclosed 
in the hemispherical cap; sessile in yta, 




Q. Robur. 



G.89] CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION L59 

sessittflora ; clustered and Long-peduncled in var. pedunculata. Trees 
50 to 100 ft. high, extensively cultivated ; from Europe; the nursery 
catalogues name as many as a score or more varieties. 

Oue var., fastigiata (Pyramidal Oak), is a peculiar upright 1 ree like 
the Lombardy Poplar ; var. pendula (Weeping Oak) has long, slender, 
drooping branches. 




Q. Cerris. 

21. Q,uercus C6rris, L. (Turkey Oak.) Leaves on very short 
stalks, oblong, deeply and unequally pinnatifid, hairy beneath ; lobes 
lanceolate, acute, somewhat angular. Acorns in the axils of the 
leaves of the year, ovate, with a hemispherical, bristly or mossy cup. 
Several varieties of this species, from Europe, are cultivated in this 
country. They form tall, round-headed, symmetrical trees. 



Genus 89. CASTANEA. 

Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, straight- veined, 
elongated, pointed leaves. Sterile flowers in long, droop- 
ing, conspicuous catkins, blooming in June or July ; the 
fertile ones rather inconspicuous, but forming prickly- 
coated burs which hang on till the frost, when they split 
open and let out the brown, horny-coated nuts. Wood 
light, coarse-grained. 

* Large tree with burs having 1 to 3 nuts 1. 

* Small tree with burs having 1 rounded nut 2. 



1G0 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



1. Castanea sativa, Mill. (Chest- 
nut.) Leaves oblong-lanceolate, pointed, 
coarsely serrate, with usually awned teeth ; 
smooth on both sides, 6 to 9 in. long, 1\, to 
2^4 in. wide. Burs large, very prickly, in- 
closing 1 to 3 large, ovoid, brown nuts, ripe 
after frost, which opens the bur into 4 
valves. A common large tree, with light, 
coarse-grained wood, and bark having 
coarse longitudinal ridges on the old trees. 
Many varieties of this species are in cul- 
tivation, varying in the size and swett- 
C sativa. ness of the nuts, the size of the trees, and 

the size and the margins of the leaves, some of which are almost 

entire. The wild species is var. Americana, 




2. Castanea pumila, Mill. (Chinquapin.) 
Leaves lance-oblong, strongly straight- 
veined, coarsely serrate, usually with 
awned tips; whitish-downy beneath, 3 to 5 
in. long, 1 '4 to 2 in. wide. Bur small, prickly, 
with a single small, rounded, sweet, ohest- 
nut-coloi'ed nut. A handsome small tree, 
or in the wild state usually a shrub, 6 to 
40 ft. high. Central New Jersey, southern 
Ohio and southward, and cultivated successfully as far north as 
New York City. 




pumila. 



Genus 90. FAGUS. 

Trees with alternate, strongly straight- veined, almost 
entire to deeply pinnatifid leaves. Flowers inconspicuous, 
appearing with the leaves. Fruit a prickly bur, inclosing 
'2 triangular, sharp-ridged nuts, the bur hanging on the 
trees during the greater part of the winter. Leaf-1 mil- 
very elongated, slender, sharp-pointed. 



The straight veins all ending in the teeth ; native .". .1. 

Margin varying from entire t<> deeply pinnatifid, the straighl 
reins occasionally ending in the notches 2. 



0.91] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



101 



1. Fagus ferruginea, Ait. (AMER- 
ICAN Beech.) Leaves tliin, oblong- 
ovate, taper-pointed, distinctly and 
often coarsely toothed ; petioles and 
midrib eiliate with soft silky hairs 
wheu young, soon almost naked. The 
very straight veins run into the teeth. 
Prickles of the fruit mostly recurved 
or spreading. Large tree, GO to 100 ft. 
high, with grayish-white, very smooth 
bark, and firm, light-colored, close- 
grained wood. Wild throughout, and 
frequently cultivated. 




F. ferruginea. 



2. Fagus sylvatica, L. (Euro- 
pean Beech.) Leaves often similar to 
those of the American Beech, but usu- 
ally shorter and broader; the border, 
often nearly entire, is wavy in some 
varieties, and in others deeply pin- 
natifid. The bark in most varieties is 
darker than in the American. This 
Beech, with its numerous varieties, is 
the one usually cultivated. Among the 
most useful varieties are atropurpurea 
(Purple Beech), with the darkest foli- 
age of any deciduous tree, and almost 
entire-margined leaves ; laciniata (Cut- 
leaved Beech), with very deeply cut leaves : and argentea variegata 
(Silver Variegated Beech), having in the spring quite distinctly va- 
riegated leaves. 




F. sylv&tica. 



Order XL. SALICACE^. (Willow Family.) 



A small order of soft-wooded trees and shrubs, abun- 
dantly distributed in the northern temperate and frigid 
zones. 

Genus 91. SALIX. 

Soft- wooded trees or shrubs growing; in damp places, 
with alternate, usually quite elongated, pointed, deciduous 



162 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

leaves, without lobes. Stipules often large, leaf-like, and 
more or less persistent through the summer ; sometimes 
scale-like and dropping early. The stipules are always 
free from the leafstalk and attached to the twig at small 
spots just below the leafstalk. Even if the stipules have 
dropped off, the small scars remain. Flowers stamiuate 
and pistillate on separate trees (dioecious), in elongated 
catkins in early spring. Fruit consists of catkins of small 
pods with numerous seeds having silky down at one end. 
The seeds usually drop early. Among the Willows there 
are so many hybrids and peculiar varieties as to render 
their study difficult, and their classification, in some cases, 
impossible. The following Key will probably enable the 
student to determine most specimens. No attempt has 
been made to include all the cultivated forms. 

* Spray decidedly weeping 5. 

* Spray not decidedly weeping. (A.) 

A. Rather small Willows, 10 to 30 ft. high, with broad leaves, 
usually not over twice as long as wide ; cultivated. (B.) 
B. Leaves glossy dark green on the Tipper side, taper-pointed. 7. 
B. Leaves with white cottony hairs beneath 10. 

B. Leaves rough-veiny beneath 13. 

A. Rather large Willows, 12 to 80 ft. high, with the bark of the 

trunk very rough ; leaves more elongated. (C. ) 

C. Petioles of the leaves not glandular; tree 10 to 40 ft. high. 
(D.) 

D. Leaves green on both sides when mature 1. 

D. Leaves glaucous beneath 2. 

C. Petioles of the leaves usually glandular ; tree 50 to 80 it. 

high. (E.) 

E. Young leaves green above and glaucous beneath S. 

E. Young leaves ashy gray or silvery white on both sides. 4. 

A. Small trees or almost shrubs, under 18 ft. high ; bark of 
truuk rather smooth. (F. | 
F. Leaves ovate rather than lanceolate, sometimes truncate 
or even cordate at base. (G.) 
G. Leaves quite broad, shining on both sides. (H.) 

H. Left ves brighl green; twigs polished green G. 

H. Leaves very dark green, Btrongly fragranl when 
bruised 7. 



a. 91] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



163 



G. Leaves pale-downy beneath, often cordate at base. . . .8. 
F. Leaves usually wider near the acute or acuminate tip, 
glaucous beneath. (I.) 
I. Blanches very twiggy; leaves often opposite; twigs 

olive-color or reddish 9. 

I. Branches not very twiggy; leaves all alternate . . .11,12. 
F. Leaves very long and slender, almost linear 14. 

1. Salix nigra, Marsh. (Black Wil- 
low.) Leaves narrowly lanceolate, ta- 
pering at the ends, serrate, smooth except 
on the petiole and midrib, green on both 
sides; stipules small (large in var. fal- 
cata), dentate, dropping early. Branches 
very brittle at base. A small tree, 15 to 
35 ft. high, with rough black bark. Com- 
mon along streams, southward, but rare 
in the northern range of States. 

2. Salix amygdaloides, Anderson. 
(Western Black Willow.) Leaves 2 

to 4 in. long, lan- 
ceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate, at- s - nierra - 
tenuate-cuspidate, pale or glaucous beneath, 
with long slender petioles; stipules minute 
and soon falling. A small tree, 10 to 40 ft. 
high, from central New York westward. It 
is the common Black Willow of the streams 
s. amygdaloides. of 0hio to Missouri. 



3. Salix fr&gilis, L. (Brittle Willow. 
Crack-willow.) Leaves lauceolate, taper- 
pointed, smooth, glaucous beneath (slightly 
silky when young), serrate throughout; 
stipules half heart-shaped, usually large. 
Branches smooth and polished, very brittle 
at base. A tall (50 to 80 ft. high) handsome 
Willow, with a bushy head and salmon- 
colored wood ; cultivated from Europe for 
basket-work, and extensively naturalized. 
Many varieties, hybrids between this spe- 
cies and the next, are very common. Among 
them may be mentioned the following: 






S. fr£gilis. 



164 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



Var. decipiens, with dark-brown buds; var. IiusscUiana, with more 
slender, brighter, and more sharply serrate leaves, the annual shoots 
silky-downy toward autumn ; var. viridis, with tough, pendulous 
branchlets, and firmer, bright green leaves. 

4. Salix alba, L. (White Willow.) 
Leaves lanceolate or elliptical-lanceolate, 
pointed, serrate, covered more or less with 
white silky hairs, especially beneath ; var. 
aerulea has nearly smooth leaves, at ma- 
turity of a bluish tint ; stipules small and 
quite early deciduous. Catkins of flowers 
long and loose, on a peduncle ; stamens 
usually 2; stigmas nearly sessile, thick, 
and recurved. May, June. A quite large 
tree, 50 to 80 ft. high, with thick, rough 
bark, usually having yellow twigs (var. 
viteUina); introduced from Europe and now 
quite common throughout. Branches very brittle at base. 

5. Salix Babylonica, Tourn. (Weep- 
in<; Willow.) Leaves linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate, finely serrate, smooth, glau- 
cous beneath ; stipules small, roundish, 
oblique, acuminate ; branches pendulous. 

A large, gracefully drooping tree, so 
extensively cultivated for ornament as to 
seem native ; from Europe. 

Var. annularis (Ring-leaved Willow. 
Curled Willow) has the leaves coiled 
round into rings and spirals. 



8. Babyl6nlca. 






G. Salix lucida, Miihl. (SHINING OR 
American Bay Willow.) Leaves thiek- 
ish, ovate-lanceolate, with a rounded 
base, a very long acuminate point, and B 
glandular petiole; when mature, smooth 
and shining on both sides. Twigs rather 
stout, polished, and dark green. Bark of 
trunk smooth. Fruiting catkins quite 
persistent. A beautiful small tree or 
shrub, <i to 1 ■"» ft. lii'_ r li, of bushy form. 

New Jersey, north ami westward. 



G.911 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



165 



7. Salix pentandra, L. (LAUREL- 

LEAVED OR BAY WlLLOW.) Leaves 

ovate, taper-pointed, erenate, glandu- 
lar, smooth, glossy, bright deep green 
on both sides, strongly fragrant when 
bruised. Catkins large, fragrant, gol- 
den-yellow, with 4 to 12 (commonly 
;">) stamens to^each flower. June, af- 
ter the leaves are expanded. A small 
handsome tree, 15 to 20 ft. high, from 
Europe, which should be more ex- 
tensively cultivated in damp soils, as 
its form, flowers, and foliage are all 
beautiful. 




S. pentandra. 



8. Salix cordata, Miihl. (Heart-leaved Willow.) Leaves lan- 
ceolate or ovate-lanceolate, heart-shaped, truncate or sometimes 
acute at base, taper-pointed, sharply serrate, smooth above, pale- 
downy beneath ; stipules often large, kidney-shaped, and toothed, 




S. cordata. 



Var. rufescens. 



sometimes small and entire. Catkins appearing with or before the 
leaves along the sides of the stem; stamens 2; scales dark or black, 
hairy, persistent. Shrub or small tree, 8 to 20 ft. high, very common 
in low and wet places. Many named varieties are found. 

Var. rigida has large, thick, coarse-toothed 
leaves; vars. myricoides and angustata have 
narrower, finely serrate leaves, almost or fully 
acute at base. 

9. Salix purpurea, L. (Purple Willow.) 

Leaves lauceolate, pointed, partly opposite, 

s. purpurea, minutely serrate, smooth. Twigs olive-color 




1G6 



TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




S. c&prea. 



or reddish. Catkins cylindric, with leafy bracts at base, and ap- 
parently 1 stamen to each flower (the filaments are united). A 
shrub or small tree, 3 to 12 ft. high ; from Europe. In low ground ; 
often cultivated for the twigs, which are used in basket-making. 

10. Salix caprea, L. (Goat-Willow.) 
Leaves large, roundish, ovate, pointed, ser- 
rate, wavy, deep green above, pale and 
downy with soft, white-cottony hairs be- 
neath; stipules somewhat crescent-shaped. 
Catkins large, oval, numerous, almost ses- 
sile, blooming much before the leaves appear, 
and of a showy yellow color. A moderate- 
sized tree, 15 to 30 ft. high, with spreading, 
brown or purplish branches. Frequent in cultivation; from Europe; 
growing well in dry places. The Goat-willow is the one generally used 
for the stock of the artificial umbrella-formed "Kilmarnock Willow." 
The growth of shoots from these stocks is rendering the Goat-wil- 
low quite common. 

11. Salix rostrata, Richards. (Beaked 
Willow.) Leaves oblong to obovate-lan- 
ceolate, acute, usually obscurely toothed, 
sometimes crenate or serrate, downy 
above, prominently veined, soft-hairy 
and somewhat glaucous beneath. Twigs 
downy. Catkins appearing with the 
leaves. Fruit-capsules tapering to a long 
slender beak, pedicels long and slender. S- rostr ^ ta - 

A small, tree-shaped shrub, 4 to 15 ft. high, common in both moist 
and dry ground. New England, west and north. 



12. Salix discolor, Muhl. (Glaucous 
or Bog Willow.) Leaves lanceolate or 
ovate-lanceolate, acute, remotely sen-ate 
at the base, finely serrate along the middle, 
and almost entire near the tip; smooth 

ami bright green above, soon smooth ami 

somewhat glaucous beneath ; stipules, on 
the vigorous shouts, equaling the petiole, 
more frequently small ami inconspicuous. 
Catkins sessile, l in. long, appearing before 

the leaves in the spring; seales dark red 

or brown, becoming black, covered with 

lossy hairs. Pruil in catkins, 'J ' ._. in. 





0.92] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



1G? 




long, the capsules very hairy, with short 
but distinct style. A very variable spe- 
cies lmnon in low meadows and on river- 
banks; usually a shrub, but occasionally 
15 ft. high. 

13. Salix cinerea, L. (Okay ob Ash- 
colored Willow.) Leaves obovate-lan- 
ceolate, entire to serrate ; glaucous-downy 
and reticulated with veins beneath; sti- 
pules half heart-shaped, serrate. Flow- 
ers yellow; ovary silky, on a stalk half as 
long as the bracts. A shrub to middle- 
sized tree, 10 to 30 ft, high, with an 
erect trunk ; occasionally cultivated ; from 
Europe. 



14. Salix longifolia, Miihl. (Long- 
leaved Willow.) Leaves linear-lanceo- 
late, very long, tapering at each end, 
nearly sessile, remotely notched with pro- 
jecting teeth, clothed with gray hairs when 
young; stipules small, lanceolate, toothed. 
Branches brittle at base. A shrub or 
small tree, 2 to 20 ft. high, common, es- 
pecially westward, along river-banks. 




S. longifolia. 



Genus 92. POPTJLUS. 

Trees with alternate, deciduous, broad-based leaves. 
Flowers in long and drooping catkins, appearing before 
the leaves are expanded in the spring. Fruit small, dry 
pods in catkins, having seeds, coated with cottony down, 
which early in the season escape and float in the wind. 
On this account the trees are called Cottonwoods in the 
West. Trees with light-colored, rather soft wood. 

* Leaves always white-hairy underneath ; more or less deeply 

lobed ; buds not gummy L 

* Leaves smooth beneath, at least when old. (A.) 
A. Leafstalk decidedly flattened laterally. (B.) 

B. Buds not covered with sticky gum. (C.) 



168 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



C. Leaves roundish heart-shaped ; bark on trunk greenish- 
white 2. 

C. Leaves large, ovate, with large, irregular, sinuate 
teeth 3. 

B. Buds covered with aromatic, glutinous resin. (D.) 

D. Tree tall, spire-shaped 5. 

D. Not very spire-shaped ; young twigs sharply angled or 

winged, leaves 6 to 10 in. long, broadly deltoid, serrate 

with incurved teeth 6. 

D. Not spire-shaped ; young twigs not angular 7. 

A. Leafstalk not decidedly flattened; leaf-margin crenate. (E.) 
E. Buds not glutinous ; leaves white-woolly beneath when 

young 4. 

E. Buds very glutinous ; leaves large, shining green on both 
sides 8. 



1. Populus alba, L. (White Poplar ok 
Abele Tree.) Leaves roundish, slightly 
heart-shaped, wavy toothed or lobed, soon 
green above, very white-cottony beneath 
even when old ; buds without the sticky 
coating common in the genus. Branches 
very white with down when young. Root 
creeping and producing numerous suckers. 
A large tree, 50 to 80 ft. high, of rapid growth, 
often cultivated ; from Europe. Leaves and 
branches very variable, forming several 
named varieties in the catalogues of the nurseries. 





2. P6pulus tremuloides,Michx. (Quak- 
ING-A8P. American Aspen.) Leaves round- 
ish heart-shaped, with a short sharp point, 
and small, quite regular teeth ; downy when 
young, but soon smooth on both sides; 
margins downy. Leafstalk long, slender, 
compressed, causing the leaves to tremble continually in the slight- 
est breeze. Leaf with 2 glands at the base on the upper surface ; buds 
varnished. A medium-sized tree, :',n to 60 ft. high; bark greenish- 
white outside, yellow within, quite brittle. Common both in forests 
and in cultivation. 



P. tremuloldes. 



3. Populus grandidentata, Uichx. (Large rooTHED Aspen.) 
I.en ves large, 3 to 5 in. long, roundish-ovate, with large, irregular, sinq- 






CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



1G9 



ate teeth; and when young densely cov- 
ered with white, silky wool, but soon lie- 
coming smooth on both sides ; leaf, when 
young, reddish-yellow ; petiole com- 
pressed. A large tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, 
with rather smoothish gray bark. Woods; 
common northward, rare southward, ex- 
cept in the Alleghanies. Wood soft and 
extensively used for paper-making. 




P. grandidentata. 




4. Populus heterophils, L. (Downy- 
leaved Poplar.) Leaves heart-shaped 
or roundish-ovate with small, obtuse, in- 
curved teeth ; white-woolly when young, 
but soon becoming smooth on both sides 
except on the veins beneath. Leafstalk 
slightly compressed. Shoots round, to- 
mentose. Buds not glutinous. A large 
tree, 70 to 80 ft. high, not very common; 
found from western New England to Illinois, and southward. 



P. heterophylla. 



5. Populus dilatata, L. (Lombardy 
I' .plar.) Leaves deltoid, wider than 
long, crenulated all round, both sides 
smooth from the first; leafstalk com- 
pressed ; buds glutinous. A tall tree, 80 
to 120 ft. high ; spire-like, of rapid growth, 
with all the branches erect; the trunk 
twisted and deeply furrowed. Frequently 
planted a century ago, but now quite rare 
in the eastern United States. From Eu- 
rope. It is thought to be a variety of 
Populus nigra (No. 7). 





P. monihfera. 



6. Populus monilifera, Ait. (Cot- 
tonwood. Carolina Poplar. Neck- 
lace-poplar.) Leaves large, broadly 
heart-shaped or deltoid, serrate with car- 
tilaginous, incurved, slightly hairy teeth. 
The rapid-growing young twigs very an- 
gular and bearing very large (6 to 9 in. 
long) leaves. A very large (80 to 100 ft. 
high) tree, common in the Mississippi val- 
ley, but found in western New England 
and often planted. 



170 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




P. nigra. 



7. Populus nigra, L. (Black Poplar.) Leaves 
rather large, deltoid, pointed, serrate with glan- 
dular teeth, smooth on both sides even when young. 
Leafstalk somewhat compressed. Buds very 
sticky. A very variable, large (50 to 80 ft. high), 
rapidly growing tree with spreading branches. 
Occasionally planted. 
From Europe. 



8. Populus balsamifera, L. (Balsam- 
poplar. Tacamahac. Balm ofGilead.) 
Leaves very large, ovate, gradually acu- 
minate, sometimes heart-shaped, finely 
serrate, smooth, bright green above, 
whitened beneath; leafstalk nearly round; 
leaves in spring rich yellow. Branches 
ridged below the leaves ; buds large and 
covered with very fragrant resin. A me- 
dium-sized tree, 40 to 70 ft. high, py- 
ramidal in form. Wild in the North and 
often cultivated. 

Var. candicans, or Balm of Gilead, has 
larger and more or less heart-shaped 
leaves (the larger figure in the cut). 




P. balsamifera. 



CLASS II. GYMNOSPflRMiE. 

Plants in which the pistil is represented by an open 
scale instead of a body with a closed ovary, as in Class I. 



Order XLI. CONIFERS. (Pine Family.) 



Ajs Par as the Dumber of Bpecies is concerned, this is 
the largest order <>f ivcc* and shrubs <»t' temperate and 
cold-temperate regions. The order is of the greatest im- 
portance, both on account <»r the valuable timber il fur 
nishes and for its resinous secretions, turpentine and resin. 



G.93] CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 171 

Genus 93. PINUS. (The Pines.) 

Leaves needle-shaped, 1 to 15 in. long', almost cylindric, 
2, 3, or 5 together in clusters, with a sheath, more or 
less persistent, at the base. Flowers monoecious, both 
staminate and pistillate in catkins, usually insignificant 
and unuoticeable. In spring. Fruit a cone, persistent 
and formed of more or less woody, overlapping scales. 



Leaves usually 5 together in bundles. (A. ) 
A. Leaves 6 in. or more long, glaucous green and very pendu- 
lous 1. 

A. Leaves under 4 in. long. (B. ) 

B. Cones over 10 in. long, on stalks 3 in. long, pendulous when 

ripe 2. 

B. Cones 4 to 10 in. long. (C.) 

C. Scales of cones thin, unarmed 3, 4. 

C. Scales of coues thick and woody, obtuse, 1 in. broad 

5. 

B. Cones under 4 in. long; scales slightly hooked but point- 
less G. 

Leaves usually iu threes, rarely in twos; scales of cones with 

spines or prickles. (D.) 
D. Scales of cones with short, rigid, straight spines ; leaves 6 to 

10 in. long 7. 

D. Scales with sharp, bent prickles. (E.) 

E. Leaves over 5 in. long, sometimes 15 in. long 8, 9. 

E. Leaves 3 to 5 in. long, rigid and flattened, from short 

sheaths 10. 

Leaves usually in twos; cones rarely over 3 in. long. (P.) 
F. Leaves over 3 in. long. (G.) 

G. Cone-scales with dull spines 11. 

G. With small or minute, persistent prickles 12, 13, 14. 

G. With no prickles, or small ones, early deciduous . . .15, 1G. 
F. Leaves 3 in. or less long. (H.) 
H. Cone-scales with straight or slightly curved, rigid spines 

17. 

H. Cone-scales with stout, recurved spines 18, 19. 

H. Cone-scales with small prickles which are early deciduous 

20. 

H. Cone-scales without spiues or prickles 21, 22. 



172 



TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




1. Pinus excelsa, Wallich. (Bhotan 
Pine.) Leaves in fives, from short, fu- 
gacious, overlapping, membranaceous 
sheaths, 6 to 7 in. long, very slender, of a 
glaucous-green color, and very pendu- 
lous. Cones 6 to 9 in. long, and 2 in. 
in diameter, drooping and clustered, 
with broad, thick, wedge-shaped scales. 
A large beautiful tree from southern 
Asia, much subject to blight when 
planted in this country. Owing to its 
peculiar drooping branches it has been 
called the Weeping Fir. 



P. excelsa. 



2. Pinus Lambertiana, Douglas. 
(Lambert's or Sugar Pine.) Leaves 
in fives, 3 to 4 in. long, from short, de- 
ciduous sheaths. Cones 12 to 18 in. 
long and 3 to 4 in. in diameter, gradu- 
ally tapering to a point, on stalks 3 in. 
long, brown and pendulous when ripe, 
without resin ; seeds large, oval, nearly 
1 in. long, edible. A very large tree 
(100 to 300 ft. high in California and 
northward), and seemingly hardy and 
well worth cultivation in the East. 
Wood white and soft like that of the 
White Pine. 




P. Lambertiana. 




P. Str6bus. 



3. Pinus Strobus, L. (White Pine. 
Weymouth Pine.) Leaves in lives, :» 
to 4 in. long, from a loose, deciduous 
sheath; slender, soft, and whitish on 
the under side. Cones 4 to 6 in. 
Long, eylindric, usually curved, with 
Bmooth, thin, unarmed scales. Tall (100 
to 150 ft. high), very useful tree, of 
white, sot'l wood nearly tree from resin 

and more extensively used for lumber 

than any other American tree. lias 

been common throughout, hut is get- 
ting scarce on account of its consump- 
tion lor lumber. 



r;.n:(j 



CLASSIFICATION AMD DESCRIPTION 



173 



4. Pinus monticola, Doug]. (Moun- 
tain-pine.) Leaves in fives, 3 to 4 
hi. long, from short, overlapping, very 
deciduous sheaths; smooth, glaucous 
green. Cones 7 in. long and \\ in. 
in diameter, cylindrie, smooth, ob- 
tuse, short-peiluncled, resinous, with 
loosely overlapping, pointless scales. A 
large tree, 60 to 80 ft. high, resembling 
the White Pine, and often considered 
a variety of it, but the foliage is denser ; 
Pacific coast. 




P. monticola. 




Pine, 
color. 



but 



5. Pinus flexilis, James. (Western 
White Pine.) Leaves 2 to 3 in. long, 
rigid, entire, acute, densely crowded, 
sharp-pointed, of a rich dark green 
color, 5 together in lanceolate, decid- 
uous sheaths. Cones 4 to 6 in. long 
and half as wide, subcylindric, tapering 
to the end, semipendulous, clustered. 
Scales thick, woody, obtuse, loose, 
1J^ in. broad, yellowish brown. Seeds 
rather large, with rigid margins instead 
of wings. A handsome hardy tree from 
the Pacific Highlands, occasionally cul- 
tivated. It resembles the eastern White 
is more compact and of a darker 



6. Pinus Cembra, L. (Cembra Pine. 
Swiss Stone-pine.) Leaves 3 to 4 in. long, 
from a medium-sized deciduous sheath ; tri- 
angular, rigid, slender, straight, crowded, 
dark green with a glaucous surface ; 5 to- 
gether. Cones 2 l A in. by 2 in., ovate, erect, 
with obtuse, slightly hooked, but pointless 
scales. Seeds as large as peas and destitute 
of wings. A slow-growing, cultivated tree, 
40 to 80 ft. high. Forms a regular cone; 
branches to the ground; Europe; hardy 
throughout. 




174 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



7. Pinus Tgeda, L. (Loblolly or 
Old-field Pine.) Leaves in twos and 
threes, 6 to 10 in. long, with elongated, 
close sheaths ; slender and of a light 
green color. Cones in pairs or soli- 
tary, lateral, 3 to 4 in. long, oblong, 
conical; the scales having short, rigid, 
straight spines. A large tree, 50 to 
130 ft. high, wild from Delaware, south 
and west, in swamps and old fields. 

8. Pinus ponderosa, Dougl. (West- 
ern Yellow or Heavy-wooded Pine.) 

p. Tdeda. Leaves in threes, 5 to 10 in. long, from 

short sheaths ; broad, coarse, twisted, 
flexible, of a deep green color ; branch- 
lets thick, reddish brown. Cones 3 to 
4 in. long, ovate, reflexed, clustered on 
short stems. Scales long, flattened, 
with small, sharp, recurved prickles. 
A large Pacific coast species, 100 to 
300ft. high, with rather coarse-grained, 
hard and heavy, whitish wood, and 
thick, deeply furrowed bark; begin- 
ning to be cultivated east. 




9. Pinus palustris, Mill. (Long- 
leaved or Southern Yellow Pine.) 

Leaves 




P. ponderosa. 




3 together in bundles, 10 to 15 in. 
long, from a long, lacerated, light- 
colored sheath, of abright green color, 
and crowded in dense clusters at the 
ends of the branches. Cones 6 to 10 in. 
long, usually cylindric, of a beautiful 
brown color, with thick scales, armed 
witli very small, slightly recurved 
prickles. A rather tall pine, 75 ft. 
high, wild in the Southern States, and 
cultivated as far north as New Jersey, 
in sheltered sit nations. 
P. palustris. 

10. Pinus rigida, Mill. (PlTOH-PINX.) Leaves in threes, 3 to fi 

In. long, from short sheatlis; rigid and flattened. Cones ovate, 1 in. 



0.98] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DKSCIMITION 





to nearly 4 in. long, sometimes in clus- 
ters : scales with a short, recurved 
prickle. A medium-sized tree, 40 to 
70 ft. high, with hard, coarse-grained, 
very resinous wood ; found east of 
the Allegha- 
nies through- 
out ; more 
abundant in 
swamps. 



P. rlgida. 

11. Pinus Austriaca, Hoss. (Aus- 
trian or Black Pine.) Leaves long, 3 
to 5 in., rigid, slender, incurved, sharply 
mueronate, of a dark green color; from 
short sheatbs; 2 together. Cones 2}£ 
to 3 in. long, regularly conical, slightly 
P. Austriaca. recurved, of a light brown color; scales 

smooth, shining, with a dull spine in 

the center. A large cultivated tree, 

60 to 80 ft. high, hardy throughout. 

Europe. 

12. Pinus Laricio, Poir. (Corsi- 
can Pine.) Leaves 4 to 6 in. long, 
slender, very wavy, dark green ; 2 
together in a sheath. Cones 2 to 3 
in. long, conical, somewhat curved, 
often in pairs. Scales 
with very small 
prickles. Seeds rath- 
er large with broad 
wings. A tall, open, p - *-arf«°- 

pyramidal, rapid-growing tree, 60 to 100 
ft. high, with the branches in regular 
whorls, spreading and very resinous. 
Often cultivated. Europe. 

13. Pinus Massoniana, Sieb. (Mas- 
son's Pine.) Leaves in twos, 4 to 6 in. 
long, rather stiff, concave on one side 
and convex on the other, twisted but 
p. Biassoniana. not curved, sharp-pointed, of a fresh, 





lie 



TREKS OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




P. mltis. 



bright green color. Cones 1 to 1 ' e in. long, 
conical, incurved, solitary but numerous, 
with closely overlapping scales terminat- 
ing in slender prickles. An upright, com- 
pact tree, 40 to 50 ft. high, from Japan; 
sometimes cultivated. Hardy at Boston. 

14. Pinus mitis, Michx. (Common Yel- 
low Pine.) Leaves sometimes in threes, 
usually in twos, from long sheaths ; slender, 
3 to 5 in. long, dark green, rather soft. 
Cones ovate to oblong-conical, hardly 12 in. 
long; the scales with minute weak prickles. 
A large tree with an erect trunk, 50 to 100 
ft. high. Staten Island, south and west. 



The western form has more rigid leaves, 
and more spiny cones. 

15. Plnus densiflora, Siebold. (Ja- 
pan Pine.) Leaves about 4 in. long, 
from short, fringed, scale-like sheaths ; 
rigid, convex above, concave beneath 
and somewhat serrulate on the mar- 
gin, very smooth, sharp-pointed and 
crowded, shining green and somewhat 
glaucous ; falling when one to two years 
old; 2 in a sheath. Cones abundant; 
W» in. long, short -peduncled, conical, 
obtuse, terminal, somewhat pendent; 
scales linear-oblong, woody, with a 




P. densiflora. 




P. remnOHu 



small prickle which soon falls off. A 
beautiful small tree, !!0 to 40 ft. high; 
from Japan ; hardy throughout. 

lfi. Plnus resinosa, Ait. (Red Pine.) 
Leaves 5 to <> in. long, in twos, from 
long sin 'a tli> : rigid, straight, dark green. 
< 'ones •_■ in. long, ovate-conical, smooth, 

their scales without point s, slightly 
thickened, usually growing In clusters. 

A tall tree. (ii» tosu it. high, with rather 

mi th, reddish hark and hard liglit- 

oolored wood; branchlets also having 
smooth reddish bark. Pennsylvania, 
noit h and « est. 



G. 931 



CLASSIFICATION AM) l>KS<KHTI()N 



177 



17. Pinus inops, Ait. (Jersey or ScRi b 

Pine.) Leaves short, l'o to 3 in. Long, 
rigid; usually 2, rarely 3, in a short 
sheath. Cones solitary, 2 to 3 in. long, 
ovate-oblong, curved, on a short stalk. 
Scales tipped with a straight, rigid spine. 
A small tree, 15 to 30 ft. high, growing 
wild in sections where the soil is poor and 
sandy; haviugstraggling flexible branches 
with rough, dark 
bark ; New Jer- 
sey, south and 
west. Rarely cul- 
tivated. 





P. inopa. 



P. pungens 



18. Pinus pungens, Michx. f. (Table- 
Mountain Pine.) Leaves in twos, some- 
times in threes, stout, short, 1J^ to 2% in. 
long, crowded, bluish ; the sheath short 
(very short on old foliage). Cones 3 in. or 
more long, hanging on for a long time ; the 
scales armed with a stout, hooked spine, 
V± in. long. A rather small tree, 20 to 60 



ft. high. New Jersey and southwestward, 
along the mountains. 

19. Pinus sylv6stris, L. (Scotch Pine, 
wrongly called Scotch Fir.) Leaves in twos, 
lj£ to IV^ in. long, from short, lacerated 
sheaths, twisted, rigid, of a grayish or a 
glaucous-green color. Cones 2 to 3 in. long, 
ovate-conical, of 





P. cont6rta. 



a grayish-brown 

color, ripening 

the second year, 

the scales having 

4-sided, recurved 

points. A large V P. syivgstris. 

and very valuable tree of central Europe. 

Many varieties are in cultivation in this 

country. It forms the Red and Yellow Deal 

so extensively used for lumber in Europe. 

20. Pinus contorta, Dougl. (Twisted- 
branched Pine.) Leaves 2 in. long, nu- 



178 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



merous, rigid, sharply mucronate, from a short, dark, overlapping 
sheath; 2 to a sheath. Cones from 2 to 2 1 .. in. long, ovate, smooth, 
clustered. Scales furnished with a point which is soon shed. A 
small cultivated tree, 30 to 40 ft. high, from the Pacific coast of the 
United States. As it has an irregular shape, and crooked branches, 
it is not often planted. 



21. Pinus Banksiana, Lambert. 
(Gray or Northern Scrub Pine.) 
Leaves in twos, short, 1 in. long, ob- 
lique, divergent from a close sheath. 
Cones lateral, conical, oblong, usually 
curved, IH to 2 in. long, the scales 
thickened at the end and without 
points. A straggling shrub, sometimes 
a low tree, found wild in the extreme 
Northern States. 




P. Banksiana. 



22. Pinus e'dulis, Engelm. (Pinon or 
Nut-pine.) Leaves mostly in pairs, rarely 
in threes, 1 to \% in. long, from short 
sheaths, light-colored, rigid, curved or 
straightish, spreading; cones sessile, glo- 
bose or nearly so, 2 in. long ; tips of scales 
thick, conical-truncate, no awns or prickles ; 
seeds large, nut-like, wingless, edible. A 
low, round-topped tree, branching from 
near the base, 10 to 25 ft. high; from the 
Rocky Mountains. A fine small pine; cul- 
tivated in the East. 




p. 6duii8. 




P. monoph^Ua, 



It needs SOme 

protection at Boston. The figure shows 
the seed. Pinus monophy'lla, Ton. 
and Frein., from the mountain regions 
farther west, has its leaves in ones 
and twos; when in ones, round and 

very rigid; when in pairs, H.it on the 
inner side ; leaves on the young shoots 
bluish, glaucous green, or Bilvery. This 
is probably only a variety of P.edulis, 

The seeds of both are so large and nu- 
tritious that they are exteusivelj used 

for food 1>\ the Indians. 



G.94J 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



179 



Genus 94. PICE A. (Thk Spruces.) 

Leaves evergreen, scattered (pointing in every direc- 
tion), needle-shaped, keeled above and below, thus mak- 
ing them somewhat 4-sided. Fertile catkins and cones 
terminal; cones maturing the first year, pendulous; 
scales thin, without prickles, persistent, the cone coming 
off the tree whole. 

* Leaves very short, usually V$ to % in. long, obtuse 7, 8. 

"Leaves usually 1 . 2 in. or more long, acute. (A.) 
A. Cones over 3 in. long ; cultivated. (B.) 

B. Leaves dark green ; large tree, common 3. 

B. Leaves bright or pale green ... 4, 5, 6. 

A. Cones 2 in. or less long ; large native trees 1, 2. 

1. Picea nigra, Link. (Black or 
Double Spruce.) Leaves about % in. 
loug, erect, stiff, somewhat 4-sided, very 
dark green or whitish-gray ; branchlets 
pubescent. Cones persistent, 1 to 1V^ 
in. long, ovate or ovate-oblong, changing 
from dark purple to dull reddish-brown ; 
scales very thin, roundish, with toothed 
or uneven edges. A conical - shaped 
tree, 40 to 80 ft. high ; wild in the North 
and along the Alleghanies; often culti- 
vated. Bark dark brown ; branches <$> 
horizontal; wood light reddish. P. nigra. 

Var. rubra has larger, darker leaves, 
and larger, brighter-colored cones. 

2. Picea alba, Link. (White or 
Single Spruce.) Leaves V 2 to \ in. 
long, rather slender, needle-shaped, 
sharp-pointed, incurved, pale- or 
glaucous-green; branchlets smooth. 
Cones deciduous, 2 in. long, oblong- 
cylindrical, with entire, thin-edged 
scales. Tree 25 to 100 ft. high, 
of beautiful, compact, symmetrical 
growth when young, and such light- 
colored foliage as to make it a fine 





180 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



species for cultivation. Wild is the North, and cultivated through- 
out. There are varieties with bluish-green (var. carulea) and with 
golden (var. aurca) foliage in cultivation. 




3. Picea excelsa, Link. (Norway Spruce.) Leaves % to 1 in. 
long, rigid, curved, dark green. Cones 5 to 7 in. long, and pendent 
at maturity, with the scales slightly incurved. A large tree, 70 to 
1:20 ft. high, of vigorous growth, with numerous, stout, drooping 
branches; abundant in cultivation. A score of named varieties are 
sold at the nurseries, some quite dwarf, others so very irregular in 
shape as to be grotesque. 




p, pollta. 



4. Picea polita, Carr. (Ti- 
ger's- tail Spruce.) Leaves 
.'.. to ?4 in. long, strong, ri- 
gid, sharp-pointed, somewhat 
curved, glabrous, bright 
green, on stout branches with 
prominent hmls. Leaves per- 
sistent for 7 years ; not '_'- 
ranked. Cones 4 to 5 in. 
long, Bpindle-shaped ellipti- 
cal, rounded at the ends. 
Tree of slow growth, with 
horizontal, ycllowisli-liarkrd 

branches. As it is a tree 
of recent in! roduction | L866 I 



from Japan, their are no large specimens. Hardj al Boston^ 



0.94] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 





P. pungens. 



5. Plcea pungens, Eng. (SlLVBB 
Spexjoe.) Leaves '._. to l In. long, 
broad, rigid, stout, sharply acute, usu- 
ally curved, pale green above, silvery- 
glaueous beneath, on smooth and shin- 
ing branchlets. Cones very abundant, 
3 to 5 in. long, eylindric, with elon- 
gated, undulated, retuse scales. A 
strictly conical tree with spreading 
branches and thick, smooth, graybai-k. 
Sometimes cultivated; from the Rocky 

Moun- 
tains. 
Hardy. 

6. PiceaMorinda,Link. (Himala- 
yan Spruce.) Leaves 1 to 2 in. long, 
very sharply acute, pale green color, 
spreading, 4-sided, straight, rigid, 
slightly glaucous beneath; branches 
horizontal ; branchlets remotely ver- 
ticillate, numerous, drooping, with 
light-colored bark. Cones 6 to 7 
in. long, ovate -oblong ; scales light 
brown, oblong, entire, smooth, loosely 
imbricated. A tall 
tree, cultivated 
from eastern Asia 
and not hardy 
north of Washington except in sheltered positions. 

7. Picea Alcoquina, Lindl. 
( Alcock's Spruce. ) Leaves V± 
to % in. long, crowded, some- 
what 4-sided, flattish, recurv- 
ed, obtusely rounded at tip, 
deep green above, whitish or 
yellowish below. Cones 2 to 
3 in. long, 1 in. in diameter, 
reddish fawn-color, with very 
persistent scales; scales P- Alcoquina. 
wedge-shaped at base, rounded at tip. A large 
tree from Japan; fully hardy as far north as Mass. 

8. Picea orientalis, L. (Eastern or Ori- 
P. orientalis. ENTAL Spruce.) Leaves very short, V, in. long, 



P. Morinda. 





182 TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 

4-sided, rigid, stout, rather obtuse, dark shining green, entirely sur- 
rounding the branches. Cones 2% to 3 in. long, cylindrical, with 
soft, thin, loose, rounded scales, uneven on the edges. A beautiful, 
conical, slow-growing, compact tree, reaching the height of 75 ft.; 
often cultivated ; from the Black Sea. Hardy. 



Genus 95. TSUGA. (Hemlocks.) 

Leaves evergreen, scattered, flat, narrowed to a green 
petiole, appearing 2-ranked by the direction they take, 
whitened beneath. Fertile catkins and cones on the end 
of last year's branchlets. Cones 
pendulous, maturing the first year ; 
scales thin, persistent. 



1. Tsuga Canadensis, Carr. (Common- 
Hemlock.) Leaves short-petioled, linear, 
7 o in. long, obtuse, dark green above and 
white beneath; the young leaves in the 
spring a very light green. Cones oval, 
\4 2 to % in. long, pendent, of few (20 to 
40) scales. A large, very beautiful tree, 
50 to 80 ft. high, abundant in rocky woods. 
and cultivated throughout ; spray light 
and delicate. 




T. Canadensis. 



2. Tsuga Caroliniana, Engelm. (Moun- 
tain-hemlock. ) This is similar to the last ; 
its leaves are larger, glossier, more crowd- 
ed; its cones 
are larger, and 
have wider and 
more spreading 
scales; the tree 
is smaller. rare- 
ly growing 40 
it. high. Wild, 
but scarce, in 
the higher Al- 





g$> 



T. Siebdldii. 



T. Caroliniana. 

Leghanies, south; beginning to be cultivat- 
ed north, and probably hardy throughout. 

:i Tsuga Siebdldii. (Japan IIim 

LOOK.) Leaves I . to ', ill. Inn:/, lineal', 



G.06] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCKII'TK >N 



JH3 



obtuse to notched at the tip, smooth, thick, dark green above, 
with two white lines below. Cones scarcely 1 in. long, elliptical, 
solitary, terminal, obtuse, quite persistent; scales pale brown. A 
beautiful small tree, 20 to 30 ft. high, with an erect trunk, dark- 
brown bark, and numerous, pale, slender branchlets. Introduced 
from Japan, and probably hardy throughout. 

Genus 96. ABIES. (The Firs.) 

Leaves evergreen, flat, scattered, generally whitened 
beneath, appearing somewhat 2-ranked by the directions 
they take. Fertile catkins and cones erect on the upper 
side of the spreading branches. Cones ripening the first 
year; their scales thin and smooth, and the bracts gener- 
ally exserted; scales and bracts breaking off at maturity 
and falling away, leaving the axis on the tree. A great 
number of species and varieties have been planted in this 
country, but few if any besides those here given do at all 
well in our dry and hot climate. 



* Cones 6 to 8 in. long; leaves blunt at tip. (A.) 

A. Leaves over an inch long 10, 11. 

A. Leaves an inch or less long 12. 

* Cones 3Jg to 6 in. long. (B.) 

B. Leaves 2 in. or more long, 2-ranked 9. 

B. Leaves 1 in. or less long. (C.) 

C. Leaves acute at tip 7, 8. 

C. Leaves blunt or notched at tip. (D.) 

D. Two-ranked 4. 

D. Not 2-ranked 3. 

* Cones 1 to 3Jg in. long. (E.) 
E. Leaves an inch or more long. .5, 6. 
E. Leaves less than an inch long . 1, 2. 

1. Abies balsamea, Mill. (Common 
Balsam-fir.) Leaves narrow, linear, V 2 
to % in. long, and much crowded, silvery 
beneath ; those on the horizontal branches 
spreading into 2 ranks. Bark yielding 
Canada balsam from blisters. Cones 
erect, on spreading branches, 2 to 4 in. 
long and 1 in. thick, cylindric, violet-col- 




184 



TREES OP THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




A. Fr&seri. 

bracts half exserted and reflexed. 
rare, small tree, 30 to 40 ft. high, grow- 
ing wild in the mountains, from Vir- 
ginia south. A hardy tree and hand- 
some when young. 

3. Abies Nordmanniana, Link. 
(Nordmann's Silver Fir.) Leaves 
very numerous, crowded, broad, lin- 
ear, blunt or erose-dentate at the 
ends, somewhat curved, of unequal 
length, 1 in. or less long, deep green 
above and whitened beneath. Cones 
large, 5 in. long, ovate, erect, with very 
< >lit i is<; scales; bracts exserted and re- 



ored, with mucronate-pointed bracts 
extending beyond the scales and not 
reflexed. Wild in cold, wet grounds ; 
20 to 45 ft. high, with numerous hori- 
zontal branches. Has been cultivated 
quite extensively, although there are 
better Firs for ornamental purposes. 

2. Abies Fraseri, Lindl. (Fraser's 
or Southern Balsam-fir.) Leaves % 
to \ in. long, somewhat 2-ranked, lin- 
ear, flattened, obtuse, emarginate, 
whitish beneath, the lower ones curved 
and the upper ones erect. Cones ob- 
long, 1 to 2 in. long, with sharp-pointed 
A 





A. In inn 



A. Nordmanniana. 

curved. A beautiful Jarge 
tree, 50 to 80 ft. high, occa- 
sionally cultivated; with nu- 
merous horizontal branches 
and smooth bark. 

4. Abies firma, S. and 
Z. (Japan Silver Fib.) 
Leaves '■*.[ to 1 in. long, very 
closely 2-ranked, slightly 
twisted, linear, somewhal 
notched at the end, smooth 
ami dark above, somewhal 

silvery below. < 'ones !( to 
4'^ in. Ion;,', 1 to l)£ iii. 



(J.!)UJ 



CLASSIFICATION AND DKSCKII'TION 



lsr> 




in diameter, straight, cylindric, with 
broad, downy, leathery, crenulated 
scales ; bracts exserted, with acute, 
slightly recurved points. A beautiful 
tall tree with somewhat the habit of 
the common Silver Fir ; recently intro- 
duced from Japan, and hardy as far 
north as central New York. 

5. Abies grandis, Lindl. (Great 

Silver Fir.) Leaves 1 to Uo in. long, 

mostly curved, deep green above and 

silvery below, not 2-ranked. Cones 3 

in. long and about 2 in. broad, obtuse, A. grandis. 

solitary, chestnut-brown in color. A 
very large (200 to 300 ft. high), hand- 
some tree from the Pacific coast. Hardy 
at Washington; needs protection north. 

6. Abies Pichta, Fisch. (Siberian 
Silver Fir.) Leaves 1 in. long, linear, 
flat,, obtuse, incurved at the apex, 
mostly scattered, very dark green 
above, paler beneath. Cones 3 in. 
long, ovate, cylindric, obtuse, with 
rounded, entire scales and hidden 
bracts. A small to medium-sized cul- 
tivated tree, 25 to 50 ft. high, with hori- 
a. pichta. zontal, somewhat pendulous branches 

and dense compact growth. It is 

peculiar in its very dark foliage ; 

very hardy. 



7. Abies Cephal6nica,Loud. (Ce- 
phalonian Silver Fir.) Leaves 
% in. long, very stiff, sharp-pointed, 
spreadingbroadly f rom the branches 
in all directions, dark green above 
and white beneath ; petioles very 
short, dilated lengthwise at the 
point of attachment of the branches. 
< lones very erect, 4 to 6 in. long, 1 1 3 
in. in diameter; projecting scales 
unequally toothed and reflexed at 
the point. A beautiful, cultivated 




C£> 




A. Cephalonica. 



186 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




A. Pins&po. 



tree, 30 to 60 ft. high, with bright brown bark 
and resinous buds. 



8. Abies Pinsapo, Bois. (Pinsapo Fir.) 
Leaves less than 1 in. long (usually l / 2 in.), 
rigid, straight, scattered regularly around the 
branches, and pointing in all directions; disk- 
like bases large ; branches in whorls, and 
branchlets very numerous. Cones 4 to 5 in. 
long, oval, sessile ; scales rounded, broad, en- 
tire ; bracts short. A very handsome tree 
from Spain, and reported hardy at the Arnold 
Arboretum. 



9. Abies concolor, Lindl. (White 
Fir.) Leaves 2 to 3 in. long, mostly 
obtuse, but on young trees often long- 
pointed, 2-ranked, not crowded on the 
stem, pale green or silvery. Cones 
oblong-cylindric, 3 to 5 in. long, ljg in. 
in diameter; scales twice as broad as 
long; bracts short, not projecting. A 
large tree, 75 to 150 ft. high ; bark 
rough, grayish. Native in the Rocky 
Mountains; hardy at the Arnold Ar- 
boretum, Massachusetts, but needs 
some protection at St. Louis. 




<S2 

A. c6ncolor. 




A. Cilicica. 



10. Abies Cilicica, Carr. (Cilioian 
Silver Fir.) Leaves fiat, linear, 1 to 
1% in. long and ^ in. broad, some- 
what 2-ranked but rather irregularly 
scattered around the young shoots; 
shining dark green above and whitish 
beneath. Cones 7 to 8 in. long, dearly 
2 in. in diameter, evlindric, obtuse, 
erect, with thin and entire scales, and 
-lmrt and hidden bracts. A very coni- 
cal tree, 50 It. high, with branches in 
whorls, and numerous, small, slender 
branchlets. Bark lighl gray; recently 
cultivated from A 



i).!>7] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



ib7 



11. Abies n6bilis, Lindl. (Noble 
Silver Fir.) Leaves l to 2 in. long, 
linear, niuch curved, the base extend- 
ing a short distance upward along the 
branch, then spreading squarely from it, 
crowded, compressed, deep green above, 
glaucous below ; base of the leaf much 
less disk-like than in most of the Firs ; 
branches horizontal, spreading, numer- 
ous. Cones G to 7 in. long and nearly 
12 in. in diameter, cylindrio, sessile, with 
large, entire, incurved scales ; bracts 
large, exserted, reflexed, spatulate, with 
terminal, awl-shaped points. A very 
large, beautiful tree, from the Pacific 




Qo 



A. nobilis. 

coast, where it grows 200 ft. high. Hardy in Pennsylvania, but needs 
some protection in Massachusetts. 



12. Abies pectinata, DC. (European 
or Common Silver Fir.) Leaves % to 1 
in. long, linear, obtuse, occasionally with 
an incurved point, polished green above, 
two white lines below, rigid, straight; 
branches horizontal and in whorls. Cones 
6 to 8 in. long, cylindric, brown when l-ipe ; 
scales broad, thin, rounded ; bracts long, 
exserted, with an acute reflexed tip. In- 
troduced from Europe. Good specimens 
can be found as far north as Massachu- 
setts, though our climate is not fitted to 
give them either long life or perfect form. 




Genus 97. LARIX. (The Larches.) 

Leaves deciduous, all foliaceous, the primary ones scat- 
tered, but most of .them in bundles of numerous leaves 
from lateral globular buds. Cones usually small (in one cul- 
tivated species 3 in. long), ovoid, erect, with smooth scales. 

* Cones less than 1 in. long, of not more than 25 scales 1. 

* Cones 1 to 2 in. long, of from 40 to 60 scales 2, 3. 

* Cones 2 to 3 in. long, with thick, woody, somewhat divergent 

deciduous scales. (Pseudolarix^ .4. 



188 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN' UNITED STATES 




I/. Americana. 

2. Larix Europeea, DC. (Eu- 
ropean Larch.) Leaves 1 in. 
long, linear, obtuse, flat, soft, nu- 
merous, and bright green in color. 
Cones sometimes more than 1 in. 
long, with oval, erect, very per- 
si>ti-nt scales. A beautiful tree 
with horizontal branches and 
drooping branehlets ; abundant in 
cultivation. 

Var. pendfUa has long, pendent 
branches, and forms a very fine 
weeping tree. 



1. Larix Americana, Michx. 
(American Larch. Tamarack 
or Hackmatack.) Leaves less 
than 1 in. long, thread-like, lin- 
ear, slender, light bluish-green. 
Cones % to 3 4 in. long, ovoid, of 
a reddish color. A tree of large 
size, 50 to 100 ft. high, growing 
wild in all the northern portion 
of our region, and frequent in 
cultivation, although not quite so 
fine a tree as Larix Europtea. 





L. Leptoli-psis. 



\x\ 



L. Europtea. 

3. Larix Leptolepsis, Gor- 
don. (Japan Larch.) Leaves 
1 to ljg in- long, slender, pale 
green. Cones p.. in. long, 
and half as wide, of about 60 
scales, reflexed at the margin, 

pale brown in color ; bracts 

lanceolate, acute, entire, thin, 
one half the length of the scales; 
Beeda obovate, compressed, with 
long, obtuse, thin wings. A small 
tree from northern Japan, ^ here 
it grows 4(i ft . high. It is a 
handsome, erect-growing tree, 
with slender, smooth, ash-col- 
ored branches, and rather li^id, 
spreading branehlets. 



U.98J 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



189 



4. Larix Ksernpferi, Lamb. (Gold- 
en Larch.) Leaves from 1 to 2 1 .. in. 
long, flat, linear, sword-shaped, some- 
what soft, pale pea -green in the 
spring, golden-yellow in the autumn. 
Cones 2 to 3 in. long, with flatfish, di- 
vergent scales which are very decid- 
uous. A beautiful large tree, over 100 
ft. high, from China, which proves 
hardy as far north as central New 
York. It is often placed in a new 
genus (Pseudolarix) because of the 
deciduous scales to the cones. 




li. Ksempferi. 



Genus 98. CEDRTJS. (The Lebanon Cedars.) 

Leaves linear, simple, evergreen, in large, alternate 
clusters. Cones large, erect, solitary, with closely ap- 
pressed scales ; seeds adhering to the base of their lacer- 
ated, membranous wings. Large, spreading -branched 
trees from southern Asia and northern Africa. Occasion- 
ally successfully grown from New York City southward. 

* Leaves 1 in. or less long 1, 2. 

* Leaves over 1 in. long, light glaucous-green 3. 




C. Lib&ni. 



1. Cedrus Libani, Barr. (Cedar 
of Lebanon.) Leaves ^ to 1 in. 
long, acuminate, needle-form, rigid, 
few in a fascicle, deep green in color. 
Cones 3 to 5 in. long, oval, obtuse, 
very persistent, grayish-brown in 
color; scales thin, truncate, slightly 
denticulate ; seeds quite large and 
irregular in form. A cultivated tree 
with wade-spreading, whorled, hori- 
zontal branches covered with rough 
bark. Somewhat tender when young 
in the Middle States, but forming a 
grand tree in proper positions. 



190 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




2. Cedrus Atlantica, Manetti. (Mt. 
Atlas, Silver, or African Cedar.) 
Leaves } 2 to % in. long, mostly 
eylindric, straight, rigid, mucronatc, 
crowded, and of a beautiful glaucous- 
green color. Cones 2}. 2 to 3 in. long, 
ovate, glossy. This beautiful tree lias 
been considered a silvery variety of 
Cedrus Libani. They are about alike 
in hardiness and in general form. 
Cedrus Atlantica has more slender 
branches, denser and more silvery 
foliage. From Africa. 



C. Atlantica, 



3. Cedrus Deodara, Lindl. (Deo- 
dar or Indian Cedar.) Leaves 1 to 
2 in. in length, 3- or usually 4-sided, 
rigid, acute, very numerous (about 20 
in a fascicle), bright green, covered 
with a glaucous bloom. Cones 4 to 5 
in. long, ovate, obtuse, very resinous, 
rich purple when young, and brown 
when old; the scales separating from 
the axis at maturity. Seeds wedge- 
shaped, with large, bright brown 
wings. A beautiful pyramidal tree, 
with graceful drooping branches and 





C. Deodara. 

light silvery foliage. No! hardy 
north of Philadelphia ; from India. 



A. imbricata. 



Genus 98a. ARAUCARIA. 

Araucaria imbricata, Pavon. 
(Chile Pine.) Leaves 1 to 2 in. 
Long, ovate-lanceolate, sessile, ri- 
gid, acute, very persistent, closely 
overlapping, completely covering 
the thick stems, in whorls of 6 
to*8, deep glossy green; branches 
horizontal, in whorls of <i to 8, 
with ascending tips, covered with 
resinous, corky bark. Flowers dicB- 
cious ; cones (on only a portion of 



G. 100] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



191 



the trees) large, roundish, aboal 7 in. in diameter, erect, solitary ; 

seeds wedge-shaped, 1 to 2 in. long. A large, peculiar, beautiful, 
conical tree, with much the appearance of a cactus ; not fitted to our 
climate, although a few specimens may be found growing quite well 
near the coast south of Philadelphia. Fi'om the mouutains of Chile. 

Genus 99. CUNNINGHAMIA. 

A genus of but one species. The cone-scales are very 
small, but the bracts are large, thick, and serrate. 

Cunninghamia Sinensis, R. Br. 
(Cunninghamia.) Leaves 1 % to 2}<> 
in. long, flat, rigid, numerous, alter- 
nate, somewhat serrulate ; the leaf 
gradually increases in width from 
the acute tip to the base, which is 
decurrent on the stem and about 
% in. wide. Cones 1 to l 1 ^ in. long, 
nearly globular, erect, very persis- 
tent, mostly clustered, sessile ; the 
scale is a mere transverse ridge, but 
the bract is large and prominent, like 
a triangular-hastate, dilated leaf. A 
very handsome tree, from China, 
which does not succeed very well in this region except in protected 
situations. 

Genus 100. SCIADOPITYS. 

Cones elliptical or cylindrical, large, obtuse. Leaves 
evergreen, somewhat flattened, arranged in distant whorls 
around the steins, and spreading in all directions. 

Sciadopitys verticillata, S. and Z. 
(Umbrella-pine.) Leaves 2 to 4 in. 
long, £ in. wide, linear, obtuse, smooth, 
persistent, sessile, entire, in whorls of 30 
to 40 at the nodes and extremity of the 
branches. Cones 3 by \% in. Scales 
wedge-shaped, corrugated, overlapping, 
coriaceous, persistent ; bracts adherent, 
s. verticillata. broad, and smooth. A beautiful, tall, 

conical, slow-growing tree, with the branches whorled. Recently in- 
troduced ; hardy in the New England States. 




C. Sinensis. 




192 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




Genus 101. TAXODIUM. 

Leaves deciduous, spreading, iu 2 ranks. Flowers mo- 
noecious on the same branch, the stamiuate ones in 
spikes, and the pistillate ones in pairs below. Cones 
globular j the scales peltate, angular, thick, firmly closed 
till ripe, with 2 angular seeds under each. 

Taxodium distichum, Richard. 
(Southern or Bald Cypress.) Leaves 
deciduous, flat, linear, '.> to 3 4 in. long, in 
2 rows ou the slender branchlets, forming 
feather-like spray of a light green color. 
This whole spray usually falls off in the 
autumn as though a single leaf. Cones 
round, closed, hard, 1 in. in diameter. A 
fine, tall (100 to 125 ft. high), slender, 
spire-shaped tree with a large, spread- 
ing, rigid trunk, 6 to 9 ft. thick, and 
t. distichum. peculiar conical excrescences (called 

knees) growing up from the roots. 

Wild from Maryland south, and 

cultivated and hardy in the Middle 

and many of the Northern States. 
Var. pendukm, with horizontal 

branches and drooping branchlets, 

has the leaves but slightly spread- 
ing from the stems, especially 

when young. Very beautiful; hardy 

as far north as Massachusetts. 

Var. pendulum. 



Genus 102. SEQUOIA. 

Flowers monoecious, terminal, 
solitary, catkins nearly globular. 
Seeds winged, 3 to 5 under each 

scale. 

1. Sequ6ia gigantea, Torr. (Bioor 
Great Tree of California.) Leaves 
on the young shoots spreading, needle- 
shaped, sharp-pointed, scattered spi- 
rally around the branchlets; finally 





S. Rigdiitea. 



Q. 103] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DKSCKII'TION 



193 



Bcale shaped, overlapping, mostly appressed, with generally an acute 
apex, light green in color. Cones oval, 2 to 3 in. long, "l ;il>out 25 
scales. The largest tree known, 300 ft. high, with a trunk Dearly 
30 ft. through, found in California and occasionally planted east, 
though with no great success, as it is 
almost certain to die after a few years. 



2. Sequoia sempervirens, Endl. 
(Kedwood.) Leaves from % to I in. 
long, linear, smooth, 2-ranked, flat, 
acute, dark shining green, glaucous be- 
neath; branches numerous, horizontal, 
spreading. Cones 1 m. long, roundish, 
solitary, terminal ; scales numerous, 
thick, rough, furnished with an obtuse 
point. A magnificent tree from Cali- 
fornia, where it grows 200 to 300 ft. 
high. In the East it can be kept alive 
but a few years even at Washington. 




S. sempervirens. 



Genus 103. THtJYA. (Arbor-vit^:.) 

Small, evergreen trees with flat, 2-ranked, fan-like spray 
and closely overlapping, small, appressed leaves of two 
shapes on different branchlets, one awl-shaped and acute, 
the other scale-like, usually blunt and close to the branch. 
Fertile catkins of few, overlapping scales fixed by the 
base; at maturity, dry and spreading. There are scores 
of named varieties of Arbor-vitae sold by the nurserymen 
under 3 different generic names, Thuya, Biota, and Thu- 
yopsis. There are but slight differences in these groups, 
and they will in this work be placed together under 
Thuya. Some that in-"popular language might well be 
called Arbor-vitae (the Retinosporas) will, because of the 
character of the fruit, be included in the next genus. 



* Scales of the cones pointless, thin, straight. (Thuya) 1, 2. 

* Scales reflexed and wedge-shaped. (Thuyopsis) 3. 

* Scales thick, with horn-like tips. (Biota) 4. 

13 



194 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




T. cccidentalis. 



1. Thuya occidentalis, L. (American 
ARBOR-viTiE. White Cedar.) Leaves 
in 4 rows on the 2-edged branchlets, hav- 
ing a strong aromatic odor when braised. 
Cones oblong, y 3 in. long, with few (6 to 
10) pointless scales. A small tree, 20 to 
50 ft. high, or in cultivation 1 to 50 ft. 
high, with pale, shreddy bark, and light, 
soft, but very durable wood. Wild north, 
and extensively cultivated throughout 
under more than a score of named vari- 
eties. Their names — alba, aurea, glauca, 



conica, globosa, pyramidali*, pendula, etc. — 
will give some idea of the variations in 
color, form, etc. 

2. Thuya gigantea, Nutt. (Giant Ar- 
bor-vit^:.) Leaves scale-shaped, some- 
what 4-sided, closely overlapping, sharp- 
pointed, slightly tuberculate on the back ; 
cones more or less clustered and nearly j£ 
in. long. A very large and graceful tree, 
200 ft. high, with reddish, soft wood; from 
the Pacific coast; introduced but not very 
successfully grown in the Atlantic States. 




T. gigant&a. 




T. dolabrnta. 



3. Thuya dolabrata, L. (Hatchet- 
leaved Arbor -vit^e.) Leaves large, 
sometimes }£ in. long, very blunt, in 4 
rows on the flattened spray. Cones quite 
small, ovate, sessile, with jagged edges; 
scales reflexed and wedge-form. A shim 11 
conical tree with horizontal branches and 
drooping branchlets ; which, because of 
its large leaves (for an Arbor-vita) and 
flexible branchlets, is quite unique ami 
interesting. In shaded and moist places 

it, lias done quite well as far DOrth as 
New York. 



4. Thuya orientalis, L. (EASTERN OB CHINESE AHBOB-VITJB.) 
Leaves small, in 4 opposite rows, appressed, acute, <>n tin- oumer- 
oiis 2 edged branchlets. Cones large, roundish, with thick leathery 



O. 104] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



195 



Boales having recurving, born-like tips. 
< )f this species 1 here are as many vari- 
eties sold as of number one, aud uearly 
the same varietal names are used; but 
it is not so good a species for general 
cultivation in this country. 

Var. flagelliformis, Jacq. (Weeping 
Arbor- vitas), has very slender, elon- 
gated, weeping branches, curving 
gracefully to the ground. It is a beau- 
tiful variety, often cultivated (a siugle 
stem is shown in the figure). 




T. orient&lis. 



Genus 104. CHATrfLffiCYPARIS. (The Cypresses.) 

Strong-scented, evergreen trees with very small, scale* 
like or somewhat awl-shaped, closely appressed (except 
in some cultivated varieties), overlapping leaves and 2- 
ranked branchlets, almost as in Thuya. Cones globular, 
with peltate, valvate scales, firmly closed till ripe; the 
scales thick and pointed at the center. 

* Native trees ; leaves ligbt glaucous-green 1. 

* Cultivated trees from Western America; leaves dark green. (A.) 

A. No tubercle on the backs of the leaves 2. 

A. Usually a tubercle on the back 3. 

* Cultivated small trees and shrubs from Japan (called Ketinos- 

pora) 4- 

1. Chamaec^paris sphseroidea, Spach. (White Cedar.) Leaves 
very small, triangular, awl-shaped, regularly 
and closely appressed in 4 rows, of a light 
glaucous-green color, often with a small 
gland on the back. Cones very small, % iu. 
in diameter, of about 6 scales, clustered. 
Tree 30 to 90 ft. high, wild in low grounds 
throughout ; abundant in Middle States. 
With reddish-white wood and slender, spread- 

1 fcJ-g-S ing and drooping sprays^ bark fibrous, shred- 

c. sphseroidea. dy ; sometimes cultivated. 

2. Chamaecyparis Nutksensis, Lambert. (Nootka Sound Cy- 
press. ) Leaves only }q iu. long, sharp-pointed, and closely ap- 




196 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 



pressed, of a very dark, rich green color; 
very slightly glaucous, without tubercles 
on the back. Cones small, globular, soli- 
tary, with a fine, whitish bloom ; scales 4, 
rough and terminating in a sharp straight 
point. Tree 100 ft. high in Alaska, and 
would make a fine cultivated tree for 
this region if it could stand our hot, dry 
summers. 

3. Chameecyparis Lawsoniana, Park. 
(Lawson's Cypress. ) Leaves small, deep 
C Nutkaensis. green, with a whitish margin when young, 

forming with the twigs feathery-like, flat spray of a bluish-green 
color; leaves usually with a gland on the back. Cones scarcely j£ 
in. in diameter, of 8 to 10 scales. A mag- 
nificent tree in California, and where it 
is hardy (in rather moist soil, New-York 
and south) it forms one of our best cul- 
tivated evergreens. The leading shoot 
when young is pendulous. 





C. liawsoniana. 



4. Chamsecyparis (Retinospora) ob- 

tusa, Endl. (Japanese Arbor-vit.e.) 

Leaves scale-formed, obtuse, closely ap- 

pressed and very persistent. Cones of 

8 or 10 hard, light brown, wedge-shaped 

scales. Beautiful small trees or generally 

shrubs (in this country), of a score of 

named varieties of many colors and forms of plant and foliage. 
There are probably a number of species of Japanese and Chinese 
Chama'cyparis (Retinospora), but till 
their size, hardiness, and origin have 
been more fully determined, it would 
be impossible to make an entirely 
satisfactory list for such a work 
as this. Figures are given of the 
common, so-called, species cultivat- 
ed in this country; under each of 

these, sevcr.'il varieties are sold by 
the nurserymen. The three twigs 
of Retinospora squarrosa were all 
taken from a Bingle branch ; this 
shows how impossible it is to deter- 




G. 104J 



CLASSIFICATION AND I>ES< 'KJI'TION 



197 



mine the varieties or species; the twig at tlm left represents tlio 
true sguarroaa ; the others, tlie partial return to the original. Most 
of the forms shown in the figures have purple, golden, silvery, and 
other colored varieties. 




Retinospora fllifera. 





Retinospora pisifera. 



Retinospora squarrosa. 





Retinospora Lycopoides. 



Retinospora plumosa- 



198 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




Genus 105. CRYPTOMERIA. 

A genus of evergreens containing only the following 
species : 

Cryptomeria Japonica, Don. (Ja- 
pan Cedar.) Leaves about l .> in. long, 
not flattened, but about equally 4-sided, 
curved and tapering quite gradually 
from the tip to the large, sessile base ; 
branches spreading, mostly horizontal, 
with numerous branchlets. Cones '.. 
to % in. in diameter, globular, termi- 
nal, sessile, very persistent, with nu- 
merous, loose, not overlapping scales. 
A beautiful tree from Japan, 50 to 100 
ft. high. Not very successfully grown 
c. Ja P 6nica. m our e u ma t e . North of Washington, 

D. C, it needs a sheltered position, and should have a deep, but not 

very rich soil. 

Genus 106. JUNIPERUS. 

Leaves evergreen, awl-shaped or scale-like, rigid, often 
of two shapes on the same plant. Spray not 2-ranked. 
Flowers usually dioecious. Fertile catkins rounded, of 3 to 
6 fleshy, coalescent scales, forming in fruit a bluish-black 
berry with a whitish bloom, but found on only a portion 
of the plants. 

* Leaves rather long, !£ in., in whorls of threes 1. 

* Leaves smaller ; on the old branches mostly opposite 2. 



1 . Juniperus communis, L. (Com- 
mon Juniper.) Leaves rather long, 
'., in., linear, awl-shaped, in whorls 
of threes, prickly-pointed, upper sur- 
face glaucous-white, under surface 
bright green. Fruit globular, }| in. 
or more in diameter, dark purple 
when ripe, covered with light-colored 
bloom. A shrub or small tree ^ ii'i 
spreading or pendulous branches; 
common in dry, Bterile soils. There 




J. communis. 



(). 1(17] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



19<J 




J. Virginiana. 



are a groat many varieties of this species in cultivation, but few of 
them grow tall enough to bo considered trees. 

Var. Hibernica (Irish Juniper) grows erect like a column. Var. 
Al)>i)i(i is a low creeping plant. Var. hemi&pherica is almost like a 
half-sphere lying on the ground. 

2. Juniperus Virginiana, L. (Red Cedar.) 
I leaves very small and numerous, scale-like on 
the older branches, but awl-shaped and some- 
what spreading on the young shoots ; dark 
green. Fruit small, £ in., abundant on the 
pistillate plants, dark purple and covered with 
fine, glaucous bloom. Trees from 20 to 80 ft. 
high (sometimes only shrubs), with mostly 
horizontal branches, thin, scaling bark, dense 
habit of growth, and dark foliage. Wood 
light, fine-grained, durable; the heart-wood of a handsome dark red 
color. Wild throughout ; several varieties are found in cultivation. 
Many other species from China, Japan, California, etc., are occasion- 
ally cultivated, but few are large enough to be called trees, and 
those that are large enough are not of sufficient importance to need 
specific notice. 

Genus 107. TAXUS. 

Leaves evergreen, flat, linear, mucronate, rigid, scat- 
tered, appearing more or less 2-ranked. Fertile flowers 
and the fruit solitary ; the fruit, a nut-like seed in a cup- 
shaped, fleshy portion formed from a disk ; red. 



Taxus baccata, L. (Common Eu- 
ropean Yew.) Leaves evergreen, 2- 
ranked, crowded, linear, flat, curved, 
acute. Fruit a nut-like seed within a 
cup }/ 3 in. in diameter ; red when ripe 
in the autumn. As this species is 
somewhat dioecious, a portion of the 
plants will be without fruit. A widely 
spreading shrub rather than a tree, 
extensively cultivated under nearly a 
score of named, varieties. We have 
a closely related wild species, Taxus 
Canadensis (The Ground-hemlock), 
which is merely a low straggling bush. 




T. baccata. 



200 



TREES OF THE NORTHERN UNITED STATES 




T. taxifolia. 



Genus 107a. TORREYA. 

The Torreyas are much like 
the Yews, but their leaves have 
two longitudinal lines, and a re- 
markably disagreeable odor when 
burned or bruised. Torreya 
taxifolia, Am., from Florida, and 
Torreya Californica, Torr., from 
California, have been often plant- 
ed. They form small trees, but 
probably cannot be grown suc- 
cessfully in the region. The fig- 
ure shows a twig of T. taxifolia. 



Genus 107b. CEPHALOTAXUS. 



Cephalotaxus Fortunii, Hook., 
docs not form a tree in this section, 
but a wide-spreading bush growing 
sometimes to the height of 10 ft., and 
spreading over a spot 15 ft. wide. 
Leaves flat, with the midrib forming 
a distinct ridge on both sides, linear, 
sometimes over 2 in. long, glossy green 
on the upper side slightly whitened 
beneath. Fruit very large, 1 in. or 
more long, elliptical, with a single, 
thin-shelled nut-like seed covered with 
purplish, pulpy, thin flesh. Branches 
spreading, drooping, long, slender: 
buds small, covered with many sharp- 
pointed, overlapping Bcales; twigs 
green, somewhat grooved. From 
Japan ; about hardy in New Jersey. 




(Jkms 108. PODOCARPUS. 



Leaves one-nerved, opposite, alternate, or scattered, 
linear- or oblong. Flowers axillary and mostly dioecious; 
fruit drupe-like, with a bony-coated s1 >. 



G. 100] 



CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION 



201 




Podoc&rpus Jap6nica, Sieb. 
(Japan Podocarpus.) Leaves 
alternate, crowded, flat, linear- 
lanoeolate, elongated, quite 
sharp-pointed, narrowed to a 
short though distinct petiole, and 
continued down the stem by two 
ridges ; leaves not 2-ranked, 
large, 4 to 8 in. long and '., in. 
wide when growing in perfec- 
tion; in specimens grown iu this 
region, 2 to 5 in. long and }| in. p - Ja P oaica - 

wide; midrib forms a ridge on both sides; upper side dark glossy 
greeu ; lower side with two broad whitish lines. A beautiful, erect- 
growing, small tree ; from Japan ; about hardy in central New Jer- 
sey; needs some protection in Massachusetts. 

Genus 109. SALISBURIA. 

Leaves broad, simple, alternate, stipulate, deciduous, 
deeply cut or lobed at the apex, alike on both surfaces, 
with long petioles. Flowers dioecious; staminate ones 
in catkins, pistillate ones either 
solitary or in clusters of a few 
each. Fruit a nut with, a drupa- 
ceous covering. 



Salisburia adiantifolia, Sm. (Gink- 
go Tree.) Leaves parallel-veined, fan- 
shaped, with irregular lobes at the end, 
thick, leathery, with no midrib. Fruit 
globular or ovate, 1 in. long, on long, 
slender stems. A very peculiar and 
beautiful large tree, 50 to 100 ft. high ; 
from Japan. Hardy throughout, and 
should be more extensively cultivated 
than it is. 




8. adiantifolia. 



GLOSSARY OF BOTANICAL TERMS 

AND 

INDEX TO PART I. 

The numbers refer to the pages where tlic illustrations appear or where 
fuller definitions of the words are given. 

Abortive. Defective or barren ; not producing seeds. 

Abrupt base of leaf, 21. 

Abruptly pinnate. Pinnate, without an odd leaflet at the end; even- 
pinnate, 20. 

Acerose. Slender ; needle-shaped, 20. 

Acorn, 27. 

Acuminate. Taper-pointed, 22. 

Acute. Terminating in a well-defined angle, usually less than a 
right angle, 22. 

Adventitious buds, 31. 

Alternate. Not opposite each other ; as the leaves of a stem when 
arranged one after the other along the branch, 18. 

Angulated. Edge with such sudden bends as to form angles. 

Annual layer of wood, 13. 

Anther. The essential part of a stamen of a flower; the part which 
contains the pollen, 24. 

Apetalous. Said of a flower which has no corolla, 25. 

Apex. The point or summit, as the point of a leaf. 

Apple-pome. A fruit like the apple, with seeds in horny cells, 27. 

Appressed. Pressed close to the stem or other part, 19. 

Ariled. Seed with a somewhat membranous appendage, sometimes 
surrounding it, and attached to one end. 

Aromatic. With an agreeable odor. 

Arrangement of flowers, 26; of leaves, 18. 

Astringent. That which contracts or draws together muscular 
fiber; the opposite of laxative. 

Auriculate. Furnished with ear-shaped appendages, 21. 

Awl-shaped. Like a shoemaker's curved awl ; subulate, 21. 

Awned. Furnished with a bristle-shaped appendage, 22. 

Axil. The angle between the leafstalk and the twig, 14. 

Axillary. Situated in the axil; as a bud, branch, or flower-cluster 
when in the axil of a leaf, 14, 26, 30. 

203 



204 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND INDEX TO PART I 

Bark, 12. 

Bases of leaves, 21. 

Berry. Used in this work to include any soft, juicy fruit with sev- 
eral (at least more than one), readily separated seeds buried in the 
mass, 27. 

Bipinnate. Twice-pinnate, 20. 

Bladder;/. Swollen out and filled with air. 

Blade. The thin, spreading portion, as of a leaf, 19. 

Bract. A more or less modified leaf belonging to a flower or fruit ; 
usually a small leaf in the axil of which the separate flower of a 
cluster grows, 28. 

Branch. A shoot or stem of a plant, 11. 

Branching, general plan of, 29. 

Branchlet. A small branch. 

Bristle-pointed. Ending in a stiff, roundish hair, 22. 

Bud. Undeveloped branch or flower, 30 ; forms of, 32 ; bud-scales, 31. 

Bur. Rough-prickly covering of the seeds or fruit, 27. 

Bush. A shrub, 11. 

Calyx. The outer leafy part of a flower, 24. 

Canescent. With a silvery appearance, 23. 

Capsule. A dry, pod-like fruit which has either more than one 
cell, or, if of one cell, not such a pod as that of the pea with the 
seeds fastened on one side on a single line, 28. 

Carpel. That part of a fruit which is formed of a simple pistil, or 
one member of a compound pistil; often shown by a single seed- 
bearing line or part. A fruit has as many carpels as it has seed- 
bearing lines on its outer walls, or as it had stigmas when it was a 
pistil, or as it had leaves at its origin. 

Catkin. A scaly, usually slender and pendent cluster of flowers, 
26, 28. 

i iliate. Fringed with hairs along its edge. 

Cleft. Cul to about the middle, 22. 

('luster. Any grouping of flowers or fruit on a plant, so that more 
than one is found in the axil of a leaf, or at the end of a stem, L'ti. 

Complete, Saving all the parts belonging to an organ; a oompfoft 
leaf has blade, leafstalk, and stipules, H); a complete flower has 
calyx, corolla, stamen, and pistil, 24. 

Compound. Composed of more than one similar pari united into a 
whole; a compound leaf has mon- than one blade, v.). 

Conduplieate. Folded on itself lengthwise) '■•'■>■ 

Cone. A bard, scaly fruit, as thai <>(■■> pine-tree, 28. 

( onical. With a circular base and sloping sides gradually tapering 
to a point ; more slender tban pyramidal. 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND IXDKX TO PART I 205 

Convolute. In a leaf, th >mplete rolling from edge to edge, 'M. 

Cordate. Beart-shaped, the stem and point ;ii opposite ends, 21. 

Coriaceous. Leathery in texture or substance: 

Corolla. The inner, usually the bright-colored, row of floral 
leaves, often grown together, 24. 

Corymb. A Hat-topped or rounded flower-cluster ; in a strict use 
it is applied only to such clusters when the central flower does not 
bloom first. See cyme, L'ti. 

Crenate, Edge notched with rounded teeth, 22. 

Crenulate. Finely crenated, 22. 

Crisped. Having an undulated or curled edge. 

Cross-srrtion of wood, 35. 

Cuneate. Wedge-shaped, 21. 

Cylindric. With an elongated, rounded body of uniform diameter. 

Cyme. A flat-topped flower-cluster, the central flower blooming 
first, 26. 

Deciduous. Falling off; said of leaves when they fall in autumn, 
and of floral leaves when they fall before the fruit forms, 23. 

Decurrent leaf. A leaf which extends down the stem below the 
point of fastening. 

Definite annual growth, 29. 

Dehiscence. The regular splitting open of fruits, anthers, etc. 

Dehiscent. Opening in a regular way, 27, 28. 

Deliquescent, 16, 29. 

Deltoid. Triangular, 21. 

Dentate. Edge notched, with the teeth angular and pointing out- 
ward, 22. 

Denticulate. Minutely dentate. 

Dichotomous. Forking regularly by twos, as the branches of the 
Lilac. 

Dilated. Spreading out ; expanding in all directions. 

Dioecious. With stamens and pistils on different plants, 25. 

JUstichous. Two-ranked; spreading on opposite sides in one plane ; 
as leaves, 18 ; or branches, 19. 

Divergent. Spreadiug apart. 

Divided. Separated almost to the base or midrib, 23. 

Drape. A fleshy fruit with a single bony stone. In this book 
applied to all fruits which, usually juicy, have a single seed, 
even if not bony, or a bony stone, even if the stone has several 
seeds, 27. 

Dry drupe. Used when the material surrounding the stone is but 
slightly fleshy, 27. 

Duration of leaves, 23. 



206 GLOSSARY OP TERMS AND INDEX TO PART I 

Elliptical. Having the form of an elongated oval, 20. 

Emarginate. With a notched tip, 22. 

Endogenous. Inside-growing ; growing throughout the substance 
of the stem, 12. 

Entire. With an even edge; not notched, 22. 

Enveloping organs. In a flower, the calyx and corolla which cover 
the stamens and pistil, 25. 

Essential organs. In a flower, the organs needed to produce seeds; 
the stamens and pistil. 25. 

Evergreen. Retaining the leaves (in a more or less green condition) 
through the winter and till new ones appear. 23. 

Excurrcnt. With the trunk continued to the top of the tree, 16, 29. 

Exogenous. Outside-growing; growing by annual layers near the 
surface, 11. 

Exserted. Projecting beyond an envelope, as the stamens from a 
corolla, or the bracts beyond the scales of a cone, 28. 

Exstipxdate. Without stipules, 19. 

Extra-axillary buds, 30. 

Fasciculated. In clusters or fascicles, 18. 

Feather-reined. With the veins of a leaf all springing from the 
sides of the midrib, 20. 

Fibrous. Composed of fine threads or fibers. 

Filament. The stalk of a stamen, 24 ; any thread-like body. 

Flowering. Having flowers. 

Flowers, 24 ; clusters of, 26 ; kinds of, 25. 

Folding of leaves in the bud, 33. 

Foliaceous. Like a leaf in texture or appearance 

Footstalk. The stem of a leaf (petiole), or the stem of a flower 
(peduncle). 

Forms of leaves, 20. 

Fruit, 2*4, 26. 

Gamopetalous. Same as monopetaloiis, 25. 

Glabrous. Having a smooth surface; free from hairs, bristles, or 
any pubescence, 2:;. 

Glands. Small cellular organs which secrete oily, aromatic, or 
other products. They are sometimes sunk in the leaves, etc, as on 
the Prickly-ash; sometimes on the surface as small projections: 
sometimes on the ends of hairs. The word is also used to indicate 
small swellings, whether there is a secretion or not. 

Glandular. Saving glands. Glandular-hairy. With glandular- 
tipped hairs. 23. 

Glaucous. Covered with s fine white powder thai rubs off, 23. 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND INDEX TO PART I 207 

Globose. Spherical in form. Globular. Nearly globose. 
Glutinous. Covered with a sticky gum. 

Hairy. Having rather long hairs, 23. 

Halberd-shaped, -\. 

Head. A compact, rounded cluster of flowers or fruit, 26. 

Heart-shaped. Ovate, with a notched base; cordate, 21. 

Heart-wood, 13, 35. 

Herbaceous. Without woody substance in the stem ; like an herb ; 
soft and leaf-like. 

Hybrid. An intermediate form of plant between two nearly related 
species; formed by the action of the pollen of one upon the pistil of 
the other. 

Lubricated. Overlapping one another like the shingles on a roof, 
28. 

Incised. Irregularly and deeply cut, as the edge of a leaf. 

Incurved. Gradually curving inward. 

Indefinite annual growth, 30. 

Indehiscent. Not splitting open. 

Inflexed. Bent inward, 33. 

Involucre. A whorl or set of bracts around a flower, a cluster of 
flowers, or fruit, 27. 

Involute. Rolled inward from the edges, 34. 

Irregular. Said of a flower which has its corolla of different sized, 
shaped, or colored pieces, 25. 

Kernel. The substance contained within the shell of a nut or the 
stone of a fruit. 

Key. A fruit furnished with a wing, or leaf-like expansion, 28. 

Kidney-shaped. Broadly heart-shaped, with the apex and basal 
notch somewhat rounded. 

Lacerated. With a margin irregularly notched or apparently torn. 

Laciniate. Out into narrow lobes ; slashed. 

Lance-shaped. Lanceolate. Like a lance-head in shape, 21. 

Leaf, 17 ; arrangement of leaves, 18 ; bases of, 21 ; forms of, 20 ; 
kinds of, 19 ; margins of, 22 ; parts of, 19 ; points of, 22 ; veining, 19. 

Leaflet. A separate blade of a compound leaf, 20. 

Leafstalk. The stem of a leaf; petiole, 19. 

Legume. A pea-like pod, 28. 

Lensforrn. Lenticular. Thickest in the center, with the edges some- 
what sharp ; like a double-convex lens. 

Linear. Long and narrow, with the edges about parallel, 20. 



208 GLOSSARY OP TERMS AND INDEX TO PART I 

Lobe. The separate, projecting parts of an irregularly edged leaf 
if few in number, 22. 
Lobed. Having lobes along the margin, 22. 

Margin of leaves, 22. 

Medullar)/ rays, 13. 

Membranous. Thin and rather soft, and more or less translucent, 23. 

Midrib. The central or main rib of a leaf, 19. 

Monoecious. With both pistillate and staminate flowers on the 
same plant, 25. 

Monopetalous. With the corolla more or less grown together at the 
base ; gamopetalous, 25. 

Mucronate. Tipped with a short abrupt point, 22. 

Multiple roots, 9. 

Nerved. Parallel-veined, as the leaves of some trees, 20. 
Netted-veined. With branching veins, forming a network as in the 
leaves of most of our trees, 20. 
Node. The part of a stem to which a leaf is attached, 18. 
Nut. A hard, unsplitting, usually one-seeded fruit, 27. 
Nutlet. A small nut. 

Obcordate. Heart-shaped, with the stem at the pointed end, 21, 22. 

Oblanceolate. Lanceolate, with the stem at the more pointed end, 21. 

Oblong. Two to four times as long as wide, with the sides some- 
what parallel, 20. 

Oblique. Applied to leaves when the sides are unequal, 21. 

Obovate. A reversed ovate, 21. 

Obovoid. A reversed ovoid; an egg form, with stem at the smaller 
end. 

Obscurely. Not distinctly ; usually needing a magnifying-glass to 
determine. 

Oh I use. Blunt or rounded at tip, 22. 

ObvoUtte, 34. 

Odd-pinnate. Pinnate, with an end leaflet, 20. 

Once-p innate. A compound leaf, with but a single series of leaflets 
along the central stem, 19. 

Opposite. With two leaves on opposite sides of a stem at a node, l s. 

Orbicular. Circular in outline, 20. 

Oval Broadly elliptical. 20. 

Ovary. The part of the pistil of a flower containing the ovules or 
future seeds. 

Ovate. Shaped like a section of an egg, with the broader end near 
the stem, 21. 



GLOSSARY OF TEKMS AMD INDEX TO PART I 209 

on rlapping. < toe piece spreading over another. 

Ovoid. Ovate or oval in a solid form, like an egg. 

Ovules. The parts within the ovary which may form seeds, 25. 

Palmate. A compound leaf, with the leaflets all starting from the 
end of the petiole, 19. 

Palmately lobed, l'l'. 

Palmately veined. With three or more main ribs, or veins of a leaf, 
starting from the base, 20. 

Panicle. An open, much branched cluster of flowers or fruit, 26. 

Pappus. The down, hairs, or teeth on the end of the fruit in Com- 
positii', as the thistle-down. 

Parallel-veined. With the veins of the leaf parallel; nerved, 20. 

Parted. Edge of a blade separated three fourths of the distance 
to the base or midrib, 23. 

Pedicel. The stem of each flower of a cluster, 26. 

Peduncle. The s6em of a solitary flower, or the main stem of a 
cluster, 26. 

Pellucid. Almost or quite transparent. 

Peltate. Applied to a leaf or other part- when the stem or stalk is 
attached within the margin on the side. 

Pendent. Hanging downward, 28. 

Pendulous. Hanging or drooping. 

Perfect. Said of a flower with both stamen and pistil, 25. 

Petal. A leaf of the corolla of a flower, 25. 

Petiole. The stalk or stem of a leaf, 19. 

Petiolate. Said of a leaf which has a stem, 20. 

Pinna}. The first divisions of a bipinnate or tripinnate leaf. 

Pinnate leaf. A compound leaf with the leaflets arranged along the 
sides of the stem, 19. 

Pinnately lobed, 22; Pinnate-veined, 20. 

Pinnatifid. A leaf deeply notched along the sides in a pinnate 
manner, 23. 

Pistil. The central essential organ of a flower, 25. 

Pistillate. A flower with pistil but no stamens, 25. 

Pith, 12. 

Plicate. Folded like a fan, 34. 

Pod. A dry dehiscent fruit like that of the pea, 28. 

Points of leaves, 22. 

Pollarding trees, 31. 

Pollen. The dust or fertilizing material contained in the anther, 24. 

Polypetalous. Having a corolla of separate petals, 25. 

Pome. An apple-like fruit with the seeds in horny cells, 27. 

Preparation of a collection, 35. 

14 « . 



210 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND IXDEX TO PART I 

Pressing pla n ts, 36. 

Prickles. Sharp, spine-like elevations on the bark, leaf or fruit, 28. 

Primary root, 10. 

Pubescent. Hairy or downy, especially with fine soft hairs or 
pubescence, 23. 

Pulp. The soft flesh of such fruits as the apple or cherry. 

Punctate. With translucent glands, 23. 

Pyramidal. With sloping sides like a pyramid, but with a circular 
base ; broad-conical. 

Raceme. A flower-cluster with one-flowered stems arranged along 
the peduncle, 26. 

Partial section of wood, 35. 

Radiating ribs. The ribs of a leaf when several start together at or 
near the base. A leaf having such ribs is said to be radiately or 
palmately veined, 20. 

Rapicr-sliaped. NaiTOW, pointed, and curved like a sword. 

Recurved or reflexed. Bent backward, 28. 

Regular. Said of a flower which has its enveloping organs alike on 
all sides, 25. 

Rcpand. Wavy-margined, 22. 

Refuse. With a slightly notched tip, 22. 

Revolute. Rolled backward, as the edges of many leaves, 22, 34. 

L'ihbcd. With prominent ribs, often somewhat parallel. 

Ribs. The strong veins of a leaf, 19. 

Root, 9. 

Rugous. Having an irregularly ridged surface, 23. 

Samara. A winged fruit ; a key fruit, 28. 
Sap-wood, 13. 

Scabrous. Rough oi harsh to the touch, 23. 
Scale-shaped, 21. 

Scarious. Thin, dry, and membranous, 23. 
Scattered leaves, 18. 
Secondary roots, 10. 
Section of wood, 35. 

Seedling. A young plant raised from a seed. 
Seeds, 25. 

Sepal. A division of a calyx, 25. 

Serrate, liming a notched edge, with the teeth pointing for- 
ward, 22. 
Serration. A tooth of a serrated edge. 
Serrulate. Finely serrate, 22. 

He. Without stem; sessile leaf, 20; sessile flower, 26. 



GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND INDEX TO PART I 211 

Sheath. A tubular envelope. 

shoot. A branch. 

Shnil). A bush-like plant; one branching from near the base, 11. 

Silver grain. Medullary rays, 13,36. 

Simple leaf. One with but a single blade, 19. 

Sinuate. With a margin strongly wavy, 22. 

Sin notion. ( )ne of the waves of a sinuate edge. 

Spatulate. Gradually narrowed downward from a rounded tip. 

spike. An elongated cluster of flowers with the separate blossoms 
about sessile. 

Spine. A sharp, rigid outgrowth from the wood of a stem ; some- 
times applied to sharp points not so deeply seated which should be 
considered as prickles, 28. 

Spinescent or spiny. Having spines, 22, 23. 

Spray. A collection of small shoots or branches of a plant. 

Stamen. One of the pollen-bearing or fertilizing parts of a 
flower, 24. 

Staminate. Said of flowers which have stamens but no pistil, 25. 

Stellate. Branching, star-lik6. 

Stems and branches, 11. 

Stipules. Small blades at the base of a leafstalk, 19. 

Straight-veined. Feather-veined with the veins straight and 
parallel, 20. 

Striate. Marked with fine longitudinal lines or ridges. 

Sub. A prefix applied to many botanical terms, and indicating 
nearly. 

Subulate. Awl-shaped, 21. 

Succulent. Thick and fleshy, 23. 

Suckers. Shoots from a subterranean part of a plant. 

Surface of leaves and fruit, 23. 

Tangential section of wood, 35. 

Tapering. Gradually pointed ; gradually narrowed, 21. 

Tap-root. A simple root with a stout tapering body, 9. 

Terete. Cylindric, but tapering as the twigs of a tree. 

Terminal. Belonging to the extremity of a branch, as a terminal 
bud, 14; or terminal flower-cluster, 26. 

Texture of leaves, 23. 

Thyrsus. A compact, much-branched flower- or fruit-cluster, 26. 

Tomentose. Covered with matted, woolly hairs, 23. 

Toothed. With teeth or short projections. 

Tree. A plant with a woody trunk which does not branch near the 
ground, 11. 

Truncate. With a square end as though cut off, 22. 



212 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND INDEX TO PART I 

Twice-piniUite. Applied to a leaf which is twice divided in a pin- 
nate manner, 20. 

Twice-serrate, 22. Twire-erenate, 22. 

Tiro-ranked. Applied to leaves when they are flattened out in two 
ranks on opposite sides of a stem, 18 ; also applied to spray when it 
branches out in one plane, 19. 

Umbel. A cluster of flowers or fruit having stems of about equal 
length, and starting from the same point, 26. 
Umbellate. Like an umbel. 

Falcate. Touching edge to edge, 28. 

Vi tiling of leaves, 19. 

Veinlets. The most minute framework of a leaf, 19. 

Veins. The smaller lines of the framework of a leaf, 19. 

Wedge-shaped. Shaped like a wedge ; cuneate, 21. 
Whorl. In a circle around the stem, as the leaves of a plant, 18. 
Wings. A blade or leaf-like expansion bordering a part, as a fruit 
or stem, 28. 

Winged. With wing-like membranes. 
Winter stadij of trees, 29. 
Wood, 12. 



INDEX TO PART III. 



Abcle-tree, 168. 
Abies, 183-187. 
Acanthopanax, 110. 
Acer, 84-88. 

Acuminate-leaved Clethra, 117. 
^sculus, 81-83. 
African Cedar, 190. 
Ailanthus, 76. 
Albizzia, 96. 
Alcock's Spruce, 181. 
Alder, 147, 148. 
Alleghany Plum, 98. 
Alnus, 147, 148. 
Alternate-leaved Cornel, 112. 
Amelanchier, 107. 
AnacardiaceaB, 89. 
Angelica-tree, 109. 
Angiosperma?, 62. 
Anonacese, 68. 
Apple, 101. 
Aral) a, 109, 110. 
Araliaceas, 109. 
Araucaria, 190. 
Arbor-vitas, American, 194. 

Chinese, 194. 

Eastern, 194. 

Giant, 194. 

Hatchet-leaved, 194. 

Japanese, 196. 

Weeping, 195. 
Arrow-wood, 114. 
Ash, Black, 124. 

Blue, 124. 

European, 124. 

Flowering, 125. 

Green, 123. 

Eed, 123. 



Ash, Water, 124. 

Weeping, 125. 

White, 123. 
Ash-colored Willow, 167. 
Ash-leaved Maple, 89. 
Asimina, 68. 
Aspen, 168. 
Austrian Pine, 175. 

Baccharis, 115. 
Bald Cypress, 192. 
Balm of Gilead, 170. 
Balsam-fir, 183, 184. 
Balsam-poplar, 170. 
Barren Oak, 158. 
Bartram's Oak, 152. 
Basket-oak, 154. 
Basswood, 72, 73. 
Bay, Red, 130. 
Bay Willow, 164, 165. 
Beaked Hazelnut, 149. 
Beaked Willow, 166. 
Bean-trefoil Tree, 92. 
Bear Scrub Oak, 157. 
Beech, American, 161. 

Blue, 151. 

Cut-leaved, 161. 

European, 161. 

Purple, 161. 

Silver Variegated, 161. 

Water, 151. 
Benjamin-bush, 131. 
Betula, 144-147. 
Bhotan Pine, 172. 
Bignoniacese, 127. 
Bignonia Family, 127. 
Big Shellbark, 142. 



213 



214 



INDEX TO PART HI 



Big Tree of California, 192. 

Bilsted, 108. 

Biota, 193. 

Birch, American White, 145. 

Black, 146. 

Canoe, 145. 

Cherry, 146. 

Cut-leaved, 146. 

European White, 146. 

Gray, 145, 146. 

Hairy-leaved, 146. 

Paper, 145. 

Purple-leaved, 146. 

Pyramidal, 146. 

Rod, 147. 

River, 147. 

Sweet, 146. 

Weeping, 146. 

Yellow, 146. 
Bird-cherry, 99, 100. 
Bitternut, 143. 
Bixineae, 67. 
Black Ash, 124. 

Birch, 146. 

Cherry, 99. 

Gum, 112. 

Haw, 114. 

Hawthorn, 106. 

Oak, 156, 158. 

Pine, 175. 

Poplar, 170. 

Scrub Oak, 157. 

Spruce, 179. 

Sugar-maple, 86. 

Walnut, 141. 

Willow, 163. 
Blackthorn, 98. 
Blue Ash, 124. 

Beech, 151. 
Bog Willow, 166. 
Bow-wood, 137. 
Box Elder, 89. 

White Oak. 153. 
Boxwood, 133. 



Bristly Locust, 94. 
Brittle Willow, 163. 
Broom-hickory, 143. 
Buckeye, 82, 83. 
Buckthorn, California, 80. 

Carolina, 79. 

Common, 79. 

Southern, 119. 

Woolly-leaved, 118. 
Buckthorn Family, 79. 
Buffalo-berry, 132. 
Bullace Plum, 98. 
Bumelia, 118, 119. 
Burning-bush, 78. 
Bur-oak, 153. 
Butternut, 140. 
Buttonwood, 139. 
Buxus, 132, 133. 

Calico-bush, 116. 
California Buckthorn, 80. 

Maple, 86. 
Camellia Family, 69. 
Canoe Birch, 145. 
Caprifoliacese, 113. 
Caragana, 92. 
Carolina Buckthorn, 79. 

Poplar, 169. 
Carpinus, 150, 151. 
Carya, 141-144. 
Cashew Family, 89. 
Castanea, 159, 160. 
Catalpa, 128, 129. 
Caucasian Planer-tree, 136. 
Cedar, African, 190. 

Deodar, 190. 

Indian, 190. 

Japan, 198. 

Lebanon, 189. 

Mt. Atlas, 190. 

Red, 199. 

Silver, 190. 

White, 194, 195. 
Ceclrelaj 76. 



INDEX TO PART III 



215 



Cedrus, 189, 190. 
Celastracea?, 78. 
(Vltis, 136, 137. 
Combra Pine, 173. 
(Vphalonian Silver Fir, 185. 
Cephalotaxus, 200. 
Cercidiphyllum, 67. 
Cercis, 94. 
Chaste-tree, 130. 
Cherry, 99, 100. 
Cherry Birch, 146. 
Cherry, Cornelian, 111. 
Chestnut, 160. 
Chestnut-oak, 154, 155. 
Chickasaw Plum, 98. 
Chile Pine, 190. 
China-tree, 75. 
Chinese Arbor-vita?, 194. 
Cedrela, 76. 
Cork-tree, 74. 
Honey-locust, 96. 
Parasol, 72. 
Sumac, 91. 
White Magnolia, 65. 

Chinquapin, 160. 

Chionanthes, 126. 

Choke-cherry, 100. 

Cilician Silver Fir, 186. 

Cladrastis, 93. 

Clammy Locust, 94. 

Clerodendron, 129. 

Clethra, 117, 118. 

Club, Hercules', 109. 

Cockspur Thorn, 104. 

Coffee-tree, Kentucky, 95. 

Colchicum-leaved Maple, 87. 

Compositse, 115. 

Coniferae, 170. 

Cork-bark Maple, 87. 

Cork Elm, 134. 

Cork-tree, Chinese, 74. 

Cornacese, 110. 

Cornel, 111, 112. 

Cornelian Cherry, 111. 



Comus, 110-112. 
Corsican Pine, 175. 
Corylus, 149. 
Cottonwood, 169. 
Cow-oak, 154. 
Crab-apple, 101. 
Crack-willow, 163. 
Cranberry-tree, 114. 
Crape-myrtle, 109. 
Crataegus, 103-106. 
Crisped-leaved Elm, 134. 
Cryptomeria, 198. 
Cucumber-tree, 63, 64. 
Cunninghamia, 191. 
Cupulifera?, 144. 
Custard-apple Family, 68. 
Cut-leaved Birch, 146. 

Alder, 148. 
Cypress, Bald, 192. 

Lawson's, 196. 

Nootka Sound, 195. 

Southern, 192. 

Dahoon Holly, 77. 
Date-plum, 120. 
Deodar Cedar, 190. 
Devil-wood, 125. 
Diospyros, 119, 120. 
Dogwood, Flowering, 111. 

Poison, 90. 
Dotted-fruited Hawthorn, 106. 
Double Spruce, 179. 
Downy-leaved Poplar, 169. 
Dwarf Chestnut-oak, 155. 
Dwarf Mountain Sumac, 90. 

Ear-leaved Umbrella-tree, 64. 
Eastern Spruce, 181. 
Ebenaceae, 119. 
Ebony Family, 119. 
Ekeagnaceee, 131. 
Elseagnus, 131, 132. 
Elder-leaved Mountain Ash, 102. 
Elder, Poison, 90. 



216 



INDEX TO PART III 



Elm, American, 135. 

Cork, 134. 

Crisped-leaved, 134. 

English, 134. 

Field, 134. 

Kiaka, 136. 

Red, 134. 

Rock, 134. 

Scotch, 134. 

Slippery, 134. 

Wahoo, 135. 

Weeping, 134. 

White, 135. 

White-margined, 134. 

Winged, 135. 

Witch, 134. 
English Elm, 134. 

Cherry, 99. 

Hawthorn, 104. 

Maple, 87. 

Oak, 158. 

Walnut, 141. 
Ericaceae, 116. 
Euonymus, 78. 
Euphorbiacese, 132. 

Fagus, 160, 161. 
Fate-tree, 129. 
Field Elm, 134. 
Figwort Family, 127. 
Filbert, 149. 
Fir, Balsam, 183, 184. 

Cephalonian Silver, 185. 

Cilician Silver, 186. 

Kuropean Silver, 187. 

Fraser's Balsam, 184. 

Great Silver, 185. 

Japan Silver, 184. 

Noble Barer, 187. 

Nbrdmann'e Silver, 1*4. 

1'insapo, 186. 

Scotch, 177. 

Siberian Silver, 185. 

Silver, 184-187. 



Fir, Southern Balsam, 184. 

White, 186. 
Flowering Ash, 125, 

Dogwood, 111. 
Four-winged Silverbell Tree, 

121. 
Fraser's Balsam-fir, 184. 
Fraxinus, 122-125. 
French Tamarisk, 69. 
Fringe-tree, 126. 

Garden Plum, 99. 

Red Cherry, 99. 
Garland Crab-apple, 101. 
Giant Arbor-vitse, 194. 

Tree Lilac, 126. 
Ginkgo-tree, 201. 
Gleditschia, 95, 96. 
Goat-willow, 166. 
Golden-chain, 92. 
Golden Larch, 189. 
Gordonia, 70. 
Gray Birch, 145, 146. 

Pine, 178. 

Willow, 167. 
Great Laurel, 117. 
Great-leaved Magnolia, 64. 
Great Silver Fir, 185. 

Tree of California, 192. 
Green Ash, 123. 
Groundsel-tree, 115. 
Gum, Black, 112. 

Sour, 112, 113. 

Sweet, 108. 
Gymnocladus, 95. 
Gymnosperma?, 170. 

Hackberry, 136. 
Hackmatack, 188. 
Halesia, 121. 
Hamamelidea?, 107. 
Hamamelis, 107. 
Hatchet-leaved Arbor-vita, l!'4. 
Black, 114. 



INDEX TO PART III 



217 



Haw. Summer, 106. 

Yellow, 106. 
Hawthorn, Black, 106. 

Dotted-fruited, 106. 

English, 104. 

Pear, 106. 

Tall, 105. 
Hazel, 149. 
Hazelnut, 149. 
Heart-leaved Alder, 148. 

Willow, 165. 
Heath Family, 116. 
Heavy-wooded Pine, 174. 
Hemlock, Common, 182. 

Ground, 199. 

Japan, 182. 

Mountain, 182. 
Hercules'-Club, 109. 
Hibiscus, 71. 
Hickory, Big Shellbark, 142. 

Broom, 143. 

Shagbark, 142. 

Shellbark, 142. 

Swamp, 143. 

White-heart, 142. 
Himalayan Spruce, 181. 
Hoary Alder, 147. 
Holly, 77. 
Holly Family, 77. 
Honey-locust, 95, 96. 
Honeysuckle Family, 113. 
Hop-hornbeam, 150. 
Hop-tree, 74. 
Hornbeam, 151. 
Horse-chestnut, 81, 82. 
Horse-sugar, 122. 
Hovenia, 80. 

Tdesia, 67. 
Ilex, 77, 78. 
Ilicinese, 77. 

Imperial Paulownia, 127. 
Indian Bean, 128. 
Cedar, 190. 



Irish Juniper, 199. 
Iron-wood, 150. 

Japan Arbor-vitie, 196. 

Cedar, 198. 

Hemlock, 182. 

Larch, 188. 

Lilac, 126. 

Magnolia, 65. 

Maple, 88. 

Persimmon, 120. 

Planer-tree, 136. 

Pine, 176. 

Podocarpus, 201. 

Silver Fir, 184. 

Storax, 120. 
Jersey Pine, 177. 
Judas-tree, 94. 
Juglandaceae, 140. 
Juglans, 140, 141. 
Jujube, 80. 
Juniper, 198, 199. 
Juniperus, 198, 199. 

Kalmia, 116. 
Katsura-tree, 67. 
Kentucky Coffee-tree, 95. 
Kiaka Elm, 136. 
Kilmarnock Willow, 166. 
Kingnut, 142. 
Koelreuteria, 83. 

Laburnum, 92. 
Lagerstrcemia, 109. 
Lambert's Pine, 172. 
Larch, Americar., 188. 

European, 188. 

Golden, 189. 

Japan, 188. 
Large-flowered Magnolia, 63. 
Large-leaved Maple, 86. 
Large-toothed Aspen, 168. 
Large Tupelo, 113. 
Larix, 187-189. 



218 



LN'DEX TO PART III 



Lauracea?, 130. 
Laurel, 116, 117. 
Laurel Family, 130. 
Laurel-leaved Willow, 165. 
Laurel-oak, 158. 
Lawson's Cypress, 196. 
Lebanon Cedar, 189. 
Leguminosee, 92. 
Lilac, 126. 
Linden, 72, 73. 
Linden Family, 72. 
Lindera, 131. 
Liquidarobar, 108. 
Liriodendron, 66. 
Live-oak, 155. 
Loblolly Bay, 70. 

Pine, 174. 
Locust, Bristly, 94. 

Clammy, 94. 

Common, 93. 

Honey, 95, 96. 
Lombardy Poplar, 169. 
Long-leaved Pine, 174. 

Willow, 167. 
Long-racemed Buckeye, 83. 
Lonicera, 115. 
Loosestrife Family, 108. 
Lythracese, 108. 

Maclura, 137. 
Madeira Nut, 141. 
Magnolia, Chinese White, 65. 

Great-leaved, 64. 

Japan, 65. 

Large-flowered, 63. 

Purple Japan, 66. 

Southern Evergreen, 63. 

Swamp, 63. 

Thurber's Japan, 66. 
Magnoliacese, 62. 
Magnolia Family, 62. 
M:i How Family, 71. 
Malvaceae, 71. 
Maple, Ash-leaved, 89. 



Maple, California, 86. 

Colchicum-leaved, 87. 

Cork-bark, 87. 

English, 87. 

Japan, 88. 

Large-leaved, 86. 

Mountain, 84. 

Norway, 87. 

Palmate-leaved, 88. 

Red, 85. 

Rock, 86. 

Round-leaved, 88. 

Silver, 85. 

Striped, 85. 

Sugar, 86. 

Sycamore, 86. 

Tartarian, 88. 

Vine, 88. 

White, 85. 
Masson's Pine, 175. 
Melia, 75. 
MeliacesB, 75. 
Melia Family, 75. 
Mockernut, 142, 143. 
Morella Cherry, 99. 
Moras, 137, 138. 
Mossy-cup Oak, 153. 
Mountain Ash, 102, 103. 

Hemlock, 182. 

Laurel, 116. 

Maple, 84. 

Pine, 173, 177. 

Sumac, 90. 
Mount Atlas Cedar, 190. 
Mulberry, 138. 

Paper, 138. 
Myrtle, Crape, 109. 

Narrow-leaved Crab-apple, 101. 
Necklace-poplar, 169. 
Negundo, 88, 89. 
Noble Silver Fir. 187. 
Nootka Sound Cypress, l!>r>. 
Nordmaun's Silver Fir, 184. 



INDEX TO TART III 



219 



Northern Prickly Asli, 73. 

Scrub Pine, 178. 
Norway Maple, 87. 

Spruce, 180. 
Nut, Bitter, 143. 

Hickory, 142, 143. 

King, 142. 

Mocker, 142, 143. 

Pecan, 144. 

Pig, 143. 
Nut-pine, 178. 
Nyssa, 112, 113. 

Oak, American White, 153. 
Barren, 158. 
Bartram's, 152. 
Basket, 154. 
Bear Scrub, 157. 
Black, 156, 158. 
Black Scrub, 157. 
Box White, 153. 
Bur, 153. 

Chestnut, 154, 155. 
Cow, 154. 
English, 158. 
Laurel, 158. 
Live, 155. 
Mossy-cup, 153. 
Pin, 156. 
Post, 153, 154. 
Pyramidal, 159. 
Quercitron, 156. 
Red, 156. 
Rough, 153. 
Scarlet, 156. 
Scrub, 157. 
Shingle, 158. 
Spanish, 156, 157. 
Swamp, 154, 156. 
Turkey, 159. 
Water, 157. 
Weeping, 159. 
White, 153, 154. 
Willow, 158. 



Oak, Yellow, 155, 156. 
Oak Family, 144. 
Oak-leaved Alder, 148. 

Mountain-ash, 102. 
Ohio Buckeye, 82. 
Old-field Pine, 174. 
Oleacero, 122. 
Oleaster Family, 131. 
Olive Family, 122. 
Orange, Osage, 137. 
Oriental Plane, 139. 

Spruce, 181. 
Osage Orange, 137. 
Osmanthus, 125. 
Ostrya, 150. 
Oxydendron, 116. 

Palmate -leaved Japan Maple, 
Papaw, 68. 
Paper Birch, 145. 

Mulberry, 138. 
Parsley-leaved Thorn, 105. 
Paulownia, 127. 
Peach, 97. 

Pear Hawthorn, 106. 
Pear-tree, 101. 
Pea-tree, 92. 
Pecan-nut, 144. 
Pepperbush, 117, 118. 
Pepperidge, 112. 
Persea, 130. 
Persimmon, 119, 120. 
Phellodendron, 74. 
Picea, 179-181. 
Pignut, 143. 
Pine, Austrian, 175. 

Bhotan, 172. 

Black, 175. 

Cembra, 173. 

Chile, 190. 

Corsiean, 175. 

Cray, 178. 

Heavy-wooded, 174. 

Japan, 176. 



220 



INDEX TO PART III 



Pine, Jersey, 177. 

Lambert's, 172. 

Loblolly, 174. 

Long-leaved, 174. 

Masson's, 175. 

Mountain, 173, 177. 

Nut, 178. 

Old-field, 174. 

Pinon, 178. 

Pitch, 174. 

Ked, 176. 

Scotch, 177. 

Scrub, 177, 178. 

Stone, 173. 

Sugar, 172. 

Swiss Stone, 173. 

Table-Mountain, 177. 

Twisted-branched, 177. 

Umbrella, 191. 

Weymouth, 172. 

White, 172, 173. 

Yellow, 174, 176. 
Pine Family, 170. 
Pin-oak, 156. 
Pinon Pine, 178. 
Pinsapo Fir, 186. 
Pitch-pine, 174. 
Pinus Austriaca, 175. 

Banksiana, 178. 

Cembra, 173. 

contorta, 177. 

densiflora, 176. 

edulis, 178. 

excelsa, 172. 

flexilis, 173. 

inops, 177. 

Lambertiana, 172. 

Laricio, 175. 

Massoniana, 175. 

mitis, 176. 

monophylla, 178. 

inont icola, 173. 

palustris, 174. 

pondcro8a, 174. 



Pinus pungens, 177. 

resinosa, 176. 

rigida, 174. 

strobus, 172. 

sylvestris, 177. 

Teeda, 174. 
Plane, Oriental, 139. 
Planera, 135, 136. 
Planer-tree, 136. 
Plane-tree Family, 139. 
Platanacese, 139. 
Platanus, 139. 
Plum, 98, 99. 
Plum, Date, 120. 
Podocarpus, 200, 201. 
Poison Dogwood, 90. 

Elder, 90. 

Sumac, 90. 
Pomegranate-tree, 108. 
Populus, 167-170. 
Poplar, Balsam, 170. 

Black, 170. 

Carolina, 169. 

Downy-leaved, 169. 

Lombardy, 169. 

Necklace, 169. 

White, 168. 
Post-oak, 153, 154. 
Prickly Ash, 73, 74. 
Pride of India, 75. 
Prunus, 97-100. 
Ptelea, 74. 
Pterostyrax, 121. 
Pulse Family, 92. 
Punica, 108. 

Purple Japan Magnolia, 66. 
Purple-leaved Birch, 146. 
Purple Willow, 165. 
Pyramidal Birch, 146. 

Oak, 159. 
Pyrus, 100-103. 

Quaking-asp, 168. 
Quassia Family, 76. 



INDEX TO PART III 



221 



Quercitron Oak, 156. 
Quercus alba, 163. 

aquatica, 157. 

bicolor, 154. 

Cerris, 159. 

coccinea, 156. 

falcata, 157. 

fastigiata, 159. 

heteropkylla, 152. * 

ilicifolia, 157. 

imbricaria, 158. 

lyrata, 154. 

macrocarpa, 153. 

Michauxii, 154. 

Muhlenbergii, 155. 

nigra, 158. 

palustris, 156. 

pedunculata, 159. 

pendula, 159. 

Phellos, 152, 158. 

prinoides, 155. 

Prinus, 154. 

Robur, 158. 

rubra, 152, 156. 

sessiliflora, 159. 
stellata, 153. 
tinctoria, 156. 
virens, 155. 
Quince-tree, 102. 

Rabbit-berry, 132. 
Red Ash, 123. 

Bay, 130. 

Birch, 147. 

Buckeye, 82. 

Cedar, 199. 

Cherry, 99. 

Elm, 134. 

Horse-chestnut, 82. 

Maple, 85. 

Mulberry, 138. 

Oak, 156. 

Pine, 176. 

Plum, 98. 



Redbud, 94. 
Red-leaved Alder, 148. 

Redwood, 193. 
Retinospora, 193, 196, 197. 
Rliamnacero, 79. 
Rhamnus, 79, 80. 
Rhododendron, 117. 
Rhus, 89-91. 
River Birch, 147. 
Robinia, 93, 94. 
Rock Elm, 134. 

Maple, 86. 
Rosacea?, 97. 
Rose-acacia, 94. 
Rose Family, 97. 
Rough Oak, 153. 
Round-leaved Maple, 88. 
Rowan-tree, 103. 
Rue Family, 73. 
Rutacese, 73. 

Salicacese, 161. 
Salisburia, 201. 
Salix Alba, 164. 

amygdaloides, 163. 

angustata, 165. 

annularis, 164. 

Babylonica, 164. 

caprea, 166. 

cinerea, 167. 

cordata, 165. 

decipiens, 164. 

discolor, 166. 

falcata, 163. 

fragilis, 163. 

longifolia, 167. 

lucida, 164. 

myricoides, 165. 

nigra, 163. 

pentandra, 165. 

purpurea, 165. 

rigida, 165. 

rostrata, 166. 

rufescens, 165. 



222 



INDEX TO PART III 



Salix Russelliana, 164. 
viridis, 164. 
vitellina, 164. 
Sapindaceas, 81. 
Sapodilla Family, 118. 
Sapotacea?, 118. 
Sassafras, 130, 131. 
Scarlet-fruited Thorn, 104. 
Scarlet Oak, 156. 
Sciadopitys, 191. 
Scotch Elm, 134. 
Fir, 177. 
Pine, 177. 
Scrophulariacese, 127. 
Scrub Oak, 157. 
Pine, 177, 178. 
Seaside Alder, 148. 
Sequoia, 192, 193. 
Service-berry, 107. 
Shad-bush, 107. 
Shagbark Hickory, 142. r 
Sheep-berry, 114. 
Shellbark Hickory, 142. 
Shepherdia, 132. 
Shingle Oak, 158. 
Shining Willow, 164. 
Shrubby Trefoil, 74. 
Siberian Cornel, 111. 

Silver Fir, 185. 
Silk-tree, 96. 
Silverbell-tree, 121. 
Silver Cedar, 190. 
Fir, 184-187. 
Maple, 85. 
Spruce, 181. 
Silver-leaved Eheagnus, 132. 
Simarubacese, 76. 
Single Spruce, 179. 
Slippery Elm, 134. 
Sloe, 98. 
Smoke-tree, 91. 
Smooth Alder, 148. 

Sumac, 90. 
Soapberry Family, HI. 



Sorrel-tree, 116. 
Sour Gum, 112, 113. 
Sourwood, 116. 
Southern Cypress, 192 ; 
Spanish Oak, 156, 157. 
Speckled Alder, 147. 
Spice-bush, 131. 
Spindle-tree, 78. 
Spruce, Alcock's, 181. 
Black, 179. 
Double, 179. 
Eastern, 181. 
Himalayan, 181. 
Norway, 180. 
Oriental, 181. 
Silver, 181. 
Single, 179. 
Tiger's-tail, 180. 
White, 179. 
Spurge Family, 132. 
Stag-horn Sumac, 90. 
Sterculia, 71. 
Sterculiacese, 71. 
Stone-pine, 173. 
Storax, 120. 
Storax Family, 120: 
Striped Maple, 85. 
Stuartia, 69, 70. 
Styracacese, 120. 
Styrax, 120. 
Sugarberry, 136. 
Sugar Maple, 86. 

Pine, 172. 
Sumac, 90, 91. 
Summer Haw, 106. 
Swamp Hickory, 143 
Magnolia, 63. 
Oak, 156. 
Post-oak, 154. 
White Oak, 154. 
Sweet Bay, 63. 
Birch, 146. 
Buckeye, 82. 
Gum, 108. 



INDRX TO PART III 



223 



Sweet Pepper-bush, 1 17, I is. 

Viburnum, 114. 
Sweetleaf, 122. 
Swiss Stone-pine, 173. 
Sycamore, American, 139. 
Sycamore-maple, 8G. 
Symplocos, 122. 
Syringa, 126. 

Table-Mountain Pine, 177. 

Tacamahac, 170. 

Tamarack, 188. 

Tamariscineas, 68. 

Tamarisk, 69. 

Tamarix, 69. 

Tartarian Honeysuckle, 115. 

Maple, 88. 
Taxodium, 192. 
Tea Family, 69. 
Ternstroemiacea?, 69. 
Thorn, 104, 105. 
Thurber's Japan Magnolia, 66. 
Thuya, 193, 194. 
Thuyopsis, 193. 
Tiger's-tail Spruce, 180. 
Tilia, 72, 73. 
Tiliacese, 72. 
Toothache-tree, 73. 
Torreya, 200. 
Tree Hibiscus, 71. 
Tree of Heaven, 76. 
Trefoil, 74. 
Tsuga, 182. 
Tulip-tree, 66. 
Tupelo, 113. 
Turkey Oak, 159. 

Ulmus, 133-135. 
Umbrella-pine, 191. 
Umbrella-tree, 65. 
Urticacese, 133. 

Venetian Sumac, 91. 
Verbenacese, 129. 



Viburnum, 1 Hi, 114. 
Vine Maple, 88. 
Vitex, 129, 130. 

Wahoo, 78, 135. 
Walnut, 140, 141. 
Walnut Family, 140. 
Washington Thorn, 105. 
Water Ash, 124. 

Beech, 151. 

Locust, 96. • • 

Oak, 157. 
Weeping Ash, 125. 

Birch, 146. 

Elm, 134. 

Oak, 159. 

Willow, 164. 
White Ash, 123. 

Basswood, 73. 

Birch, 145, 146. 

Cedar, 194, 195. 

Elm, 134, 135. 

Fir, 186. 

Maple, 85. 

Mulberry, 138. 

Oak, 153, 154. 

Poplar, 168. 

Spruce, 179. 

Willow, 164. 
White-heart Hickory, 142. 
Whitewood, 72. 
Willow, American Bay, 164. 

Ash-colored, 167. 

Bay, 164, 165. 

Beaked, 166. 

Black, 163. 

Bog, 166. 

Brittle, 163. 

Crack, 163. 

Glaucous, 166. 

Goat, 166. 

Gray, 167. 

Heart-leaved, 165. 

Kilmarnock, 166. 



224 



INDEX TO PART III 



Willow, Laurel-leaved, 165. 

Long-leaved, 167. 

Purple, 165. 

Shining, 164. 

Weeping, 164. 

White, 164. 
Willow Family, 161. 
Willow-oak, 158. 
Winged Elm, 135. 
Witch-elm, 134. 
Witch-rAzel, 107. 
Witch-hazel Family, 107. 



Xanthoxylum, 73. 

Yellow-barked Oak, 156. 
Yellow Birch, 146. 

Cucumber-tree, 64. 

Haw, 106. 

Plum, 98. 
Yellow-wood, 93. 
Yew, 199. 
Yulan, 65. 

Zizyphus, 80, 



UBRARY 

FACULTY OF FORESTRY 

UNIVFRSITY OF TORT 1 



QK Apgar, Austin Craig 

4-82 Trees of the northern 

A67 United States 

Forestry 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY