Skip to main content

Full text of "Tree species evaluation using the new CITES Listing Criteria"

See other formats


Tree Species Evaluation 
using the new CITES Listing Criteria 



compiled by 
Sara Oldfield and Amy MacKinven 



on behalf of 

the CITES Management Authority 

of the Netherlands 



September 1996 



Tree species evaluation using the new CITES listing criteria 

1. Introduction 

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) has been utilised for 
over twenty years as a tool to help conserve wild species which are traded internationally. 
Species which are covered by the provisions of the Convention are included in appendices. 
To qualify for Appendix I, the Convention states that taxa must be "threatened by extinction" 
and that they "are or may be threatened by trade". Species included in Appendix II are those 
which are "not now necessarily threatened with extinction, may become so unless trade in 
specimens of such species is subject to strict regulation in order to avoid utilisation 
incompatible with their survival". 

Procedures to amend the appendices are laid down within the Convention. Resolutions 
providing further guidance on which species to list on the appendices were passed at the first 
Meeting of the Parties to the Convention in 1976 in Berne. The so-called "Berne Criteria" 
provided guidance on the biological and trade status information required for inclusion in a 
proposal to amend the appendices. In 1994, the Parties adopted Resolution Conf. 9.24 which 
contains new criteria for amendment of Appendices I and II. These are summarised in 
Section 2 below. The CITES listing criteria were developed at the same time as the 
development of the new IUCN Red List Categories and are loosely related to them. The 
general aim of the new IUCN system of categorising is "to provide an explicit, objective 
framework for the classification of species according to their extinction risk" (IUCN Species 
Survival Commission, 1994). The IUCN categories indicate the degree to which species are 
threatened by extinction and are thus highly relevant to the CITES listing process. 

As well as detailing the new CITES listing criteria, CITES Resolution Conf. 9.24 also sets 
out in general terms the information requirements for amendment proposals. It points out that 
sufficient information, of sufficient quality and in sufficient detail to judge the proposal 
against the listing criteria should be provided to the extent available. It also acknowledges 
that for some species the amount of scientific information will be limited. 

The CITES appendices include a wide range of plant and animal species including at present 
around twenty tree species which are traded internationally as timber. The. provisions of the 
Convention and subsequent guidance on listing do not generally distinguish between different 
species groups in their application. There has, however, been informal international debate 
about the suitability of the Convention as a tool to help conserve particular species groups. 
Increased interest in the use of CITES for timber species over recent years has contributed 
to this debate. Various amendment proposals have been submitted to CITES for timber 
species and have been considered by the Parties at the Eighth and Ninth Conferences, prior 
to the adoption of Resolution Conf. 9.24. 

This report reviews the application for the first time of the new CITES listing criteria to 
timber species. The work has been carried out as part of the validation of the new CITES 
criteria for plant species coordinated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 



2. The new CITES listing criteria 

The new CITES listing criteria as set out in Resolution Conf. 9.24 include biological criteria 
for inclusion in Appendix I; criteria for the inclusion in Appendix II of species in need of 
trade regulation in order to avoid utilisation incompatible with their survival; and criteria for 
inclusion in Appendix II of species which should be included for "look-alike purposes". The 
main criteria (leaving out those for Appendix II look-alike species) are summarised in the 
Box below. It should be emphasised that each criterion for Appendix I listing is subject to 
further qualifications, at least one of which should be met for the criterion to apply. The 
Appendix I criteria are given in full in Annex 1 to this report. 



Box 1 

Summary of the Biological Criteria for listing in Appendix I: 

A. it has a small wild population (<5000 individuals). 

B. it has a restricted area of distribution (< 10,000km 2 ). 

C. the wild population has been or is inferred to be in decline (50% in 5 years or 2 
generations or for a small population 20% in 10 years or 3 generations). 

D. it is likely to meet one of the above within 5 years if not listed on Appendix I. 

For Appendix I, it is considered that a species is or may be affected by trade if: 

i. it is known to be in trade 

ii. it is probably in trade 

iii. there is potential international demand for it, or 

iv. it would enter trade if not subject to Appendix I controls. 

Summary of the Criteria for listing in Appendix II: 

A. It is known or inferred that unless the species is subject to strict regulation, it will meet 
AT LEAST ONE of the Appendix I criteria in the near future. 

B. It is known or inferred that the harvesting of specimens from the wild for international 
trade has, or may have, a detrimental impact on the species by EITHER: 





i) 
ii) 


exceeding, over an extended period, the level that can be continued in 


OR 


perpetuity. 

reducing it to a population 
other influences. 


level 


at which its survival would be threatened by 























3. Activities undertaken in the tree species evaluation 

3.1. Selection of species 

The timber species selected for evaluation were chosen to illustrate a wide range of 
differing degrees of threat to wild populations and levels of international trade. The 



majority of species are tropical in distribution but some temperate species were also 
considered. In general it is relatively difficult to find examples of temperate timber 
species which are threatened by international trade because the species composition 
of the temperate timber trade is relatively heterogenous and is restricted to a narrower 
range of widespread timber species. This is particularly true of the north temperate 
timber trade which is dominated by a limited range of conifers and hardwoods. 
Several of the species chosen are already listed on CITES and others have been 
subject to amendment proposals in recent years. In total, species were selected for 
evaluation, and summary information profiles for these species are given in Annex 
2. 

3.2 Collection of information 

Information has been collected for the tree species selected on distribution, habitat, 
population status and trends, ecology, threats, uses, conservation status, conservation 
measures, and recent trade data. These headings broadly correspond to the categories 
of information specified for inclusion in CITES amendment proposals in Resolution 
Conf. 9.24. 

Information held at WCMC for the selected species was reviewed and supplemented 
by literature survey and correspondence with experts. The main source of information 
on the conservation status of tree species maintained by WCMC has been the Plants 
Database. This records information on distribution (mainly at national or state level) 
and conservation status for over 100,000 plants, around 15,000 of which are tree 
species. Conservation status is recorded using the old IUCN categories of threat. 
Under the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project, the new IUCN 
categories of threat are being applied to tree species and a range of additional 
information is being collected for tree species of conservation concern. In general, 
the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project has concentrated on 
endemic and restricted range species and so additional enquiries have been made for 
the more widespread timber species selected for the tree species evaluation. 

For the African timber species, draft species profiles were prepared and distributed 
to participants in the Regional Workshop for the Conservation and Sustainable 
Management of Trees project held in Harare, Zimbabwe, 9-11 July. Participants 
reviewed the information, added supplementary comments and applied the new IUCN 
categories of threat. For additional African countries not represented at the workshop, 
notably Benin, Burundi, Central African Republic, Cote d'lvoire, Senegal and Togo, 
requests for information focusing on legislation and levels of exploitation for the 
relevant species were sent to national Forestry Departments. 

Information on the conservation status of conifer species has been compiled by the 
IUCN/SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of the Conservation and Sustainable 
Management of Trees with species evaluated using the new IUCN categories of threat. 
This information was added to the appropriate species profiles and additional 
enquiries were addressed to the Group concerning the presence of the species in 
international trade. 



Information for the selected timber species occurring in Brazil, was collected within 
the country by a consultant contracted by WCMC. 

For the majority of timber species selected for evaluation, current information is 
limited, fragmentary and, in some cases, access is restricted. The difficulties of 
obtaining appropriate information are discussed in Section 5. 

3.3. Application of the criteria 

An evaluation of the selected timber species using the new CITES listing criteria was 
carried out by Sara Oldfield, Marianne Sandison and Amy MacKinven based mainly 
on the information in the species profiles. The procedure adopted was to assess each 
species initially under the new criteria for inclusion on CITES Appendix I, these 
being the more explicit criteria. If the tree species did not meet the criteria for 
Appendix I then the new criteria for Appendix II were applied. As explained in 
Section 2, one of the criteria for Appendix II listing is It is known, inferred or 
projected that unless trade in the species is subject to strict regulation, it will meet at 
least one of the criteria listed in Annex 1 (ie for Appendix I listing) in the near future. 
It was, therefore, considered necessary to test the species first against the more 
stringent criteria for Appendix I. Recording forms developed by Marianne Sandison 
(Sandison, 1995) were used in the evaluation process. 

4. Results of the tree species evaluation 

A summary of the results of the tree species evaluation is presented in Table 1. It is 
emphasised that these are a preliminary evaluation based on limited information for a wide 
range of species. More detailed information and quantitative information would, of course, 
be required to develop CITES amendment proposals. 

In general, it was found to be relatively easy to apply the CITES listing criteria to those 
species which had already been evaluated using the new IUCN categories of threat, if these 
were accepted as given. However, it should be noted that the criteria by which the IUCN 
categories are applied are, in themselves, subject to differing interpretation by individuals. 
This is discussed further under the review of species for Appendix II listing. 



Table 1 Summary of results of the tree species evaluation 



Species 




meets criteria for: 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. n 


Abies nordmanniana subsp. 
equi-troujani 


X 


X 


X 


NOT in International 
trade. 


Afielia africana 


X 


? 


n? 


Not sure which category 
this species fits into. 


Afzelia bipindensis 


X 


• 


n Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- habitat loss, only few 
seed trees. 


Afielia pachyloba 


X 


/ 


IT Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- habitat loss, only few 
seed trees. 


Amburana cearensis 


X 


• 


II Bii 


Bii- isolated populations 
needing cross pollination. 
Based on limited 
information. 


Araucaria angustifolia 


• 




I Bi.iv or D 


Based on the IUCN 
category VU (Bl+2) the 
extent of occupancy is < 
20,000km 2 but > 
5,000km 2 . 


Aspidosperma polyneuron 


X 


/ 


n Bi 


Bi- heavily exploited 
Based on limited 
information. 


Aucoumea klaineana 


X 


•? 


H Bi.ii? 


Bi- heavily exploited. 


Autranella congolensis 


/ 


- 


I Ci 


Based on IUCN category 
(CR Al). 


Baikiaea plurijuga 


X 


X 


X 




Baillonella toxisperma 


X 


/ 


JJ Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- habitat loss, 
extremely slow to reach 
maturity, has restricted 
regeneration. 


Brachylaena huillensis 

syn. Brachylaena hutchisonii 


X 


? 


n? 


Not enough information 
to assign Appendix II 
criteria. 


Cedrela fissilis 


X 


• 


n Bi 


Bi- heavily exploited 
Based on limited 
information. 



Species 


meets criteria for: 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. 11 


Cedrela odorata 


X 


X 


X 




Cephalotaxus oliveri 


X 


• 


n Bii 


Bii- habitat loss, 
dioecious species 
therefore infrequent 
regeneration. 
Unsure if this species is 
in international trade 
(Trade criteria ii?). 


Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 


/ 




I Ci 


Although given an IUCN 
threat category of LR 
near threatened, this 
species has declined > 
50 per cent in the last 
century. 


Chamaecyparis obiusa var. 
formosana 


X 


•? 


D Bi.ii? 


Bi- exploited, general 
deforestation for other 
timber species. 
Unsure if this species is 
in international trade 
(Trade criteria ii?). 


Copaifera salikounda 


X 


• 


II Bi 


Bi- based on Hawthorne's 
(1995a) analysis for 
Ghana and assuming the 
evergreen forests in the 
neighbouring countries 
are similarly exploited. 


Cordia millenii 


X 


X 


X 




Cordia playthyrsa 


X 


X 


X 




Cupressus dupreziana 


• 


- 




NOT in International 
trade. 


Dalbergia cochinchinensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 


Awaiting confirmation of 
threat status 


Dalbergia stevensonni 


X 


• 


H Bi 


Awaiting confirmation of 
threat status 


Diospyros celebica 


? 


7 




No recent threat 
categorisation 


Diospyros crassiflora 


X 


? 


n? 


Not enough information. 


Diospyros philipinensis 


X 


•? 


n? 


Information needed for 
Sulawesi 


Diospyros pilosanthera 


X 


X 






Eribroma oblonga 


X 


X 







Species 


meets criteria for: 


Result 


Notes 


App.I 


App. II 


Fitzroya cupressoides 


• 




I Bi 




Gossweilerodendron 
balsamiferum 


X 


/ 


II Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- specific habitat type 
being lost. 


Guarea cedrata 


X 


• 


II Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- habitat loss, shade 
required for growth. 


Guarea thompsonii 


X 


• 


II Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- habitat loss, slow 
growth. 


Guibourtia ehie 


X 


• 


II Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- habitat loss. 


Hallea ledermannii 


X 


X 


X 




Haplormosia monophylla 


X 


? 


n? 


Not enough information. 


Khaya ivorensis 


X 


• 


II Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- very little 
regeneration after 
disturbance (e.g. 
logging). 


Lophira alata 


X 


/ 


n Bi 


Bi- heavily exploited. 


Lovoa swynnertonii 


X 


/ 


n Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- habitat loss, poor 
regeneration. 


Lovoa trichilioides 


X 


• 


n Bi 


Bi- exploited. 


Mansonia altisima 


X 


/ 


II Bi 


Bi- heavily exploited. 


Microberlinia bisulata 


• 


- 


I Ci 


Based on IUCN category 
(CR Al) & very little 
additional information. 


Microberlinia brazzavillensis 


/ 


- 


I Ci 


Based on IUCN category 
(CR Al) & very little 
additional information. 


Milicia excelsa 


X 


• 


H Bi? 


Bi- heavily exploited but 
considered marginal due 
to widespread 
distribution. 


Milicia regia 


X 


• 


n Bi 


Bi- heavily exploited. 


Millettia laurentii 


X 


• 


n Bi.ii? 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- not enough 
information. 













meets cr 


iteria for: 


Result 






Notes 


Species 
















App. n 












App.I 


Monopetalanthus heitzii 


? 


9 


? 


Not enough information. 


Nauclea diderrichii 


x 


X 


X 




Nesogordonia papaverifera 


X 


• 


II Bi 


Bi- considered marginal 
because although this 
species is heavily 
exploited, it also occurs 
in plantations. 


Pouteria altissima 


X 


X 


X 




Prunus africana 










Pterocarpus angolensis 


X 


X 


X 


This species is of concern 
in Zambia and 
Mozambique but is of no 
concern in South Africa. 


Santalum album 


X 


X 


X 




Swartzia fistuloides 


X 


? 


n? 


Not enough information 
to assign Appendix II 
criteria. 


Testulea gabonensis 


X 


• 


II Bi 


Bi- based on IUCN threat 
category EN (Alc.d). 


Tieghemella africana 


X 


7 


n? 


Not enough information 
to assign Appendix II 
criteria. 


Tieghemella heckelii 


X 


• 


II Bi.ii 


Bi- heavily exploited. 
Bii- habitat loss, 
elephants are required for 
regeneration. 


Triplochiton scleroxylon 


X 


X 


X 




Turraeanthus africanus 


X 


X 


X 





x = Does not meet the criterion. 

/ = Meet the criterion. 

? = Not enough information available to apply the criterion. 

- = Not applicable. 

N.B. All species are in international trade unless mentioned in the Notes section. 



4.1. Review of species for Appendix I listing. 



Criteria for Appendix I listing generally have a quantitative element which is 
elaborated on in the guidelines provided by Annex 5 of CITES Resolution Conf. 
9.24. It is emphasised in these guidelines that the figures given are indicative only 



and that there any many cases where they will not apply. As with much of the rest 
of the guidelines, there is considerable room for interpretation. Nevertheless, 
application of the CITES criteria for Appendix I tended to be a straightforward 
exercise when sufficient information on the species was available and, in such cases, 
there was little doubt when a species fulfilled the criteria. 

Criteria A and B concern small population sizes and ranges respectively. Species 
must also fulfil certain additional, often loosely specified, sub-criteria. Criterion A 
requires that the species has a small wild population. Population size is intended to 
refer to the total number of individuals. Resolution Conf. 9.24 indicates that 
information on population status in amendment proposals, should give an estimate of 
the total population or number of individuals with: i) date and nature of census; ii) 
justification for any inferences made about population size and/or number of 
individuals. In fact there are very few overall population estimates for tree species so 
this criterion is generally not of major relevance. Furthermore, assuming that most 
tree species occur within their area of distribution at densities higher than 0.5 per 
km 2 , a tree species which meets the major part of Criterion A (population < 5000) 
will, in general, also meet Criterion B (area of distribution < 10,000 km 2 ). 

One species for which data are available meets Criterion A: Cupressus dupreziana 
from Algeria has a recorded population of 153. It almost certainly meets one of the 
sub-criteria (very small sub-populations or the majority of individuals in one sub- 
population) but does not appear to meet the trade requirements for CITES listing as 
there is no evidence of international trade, nor does such trade seem likely. 

Criterion B takes into account species with restricted areas of distribution. Adherence 
to the guidelines for Criterion B means that any tree species qualifies for inclusion 
in Appendix I which: has an area of distribution less than 10,000 km 2 ; which meets 
one of a series of sub-criteria (fragmentation of range, vulnerability owing to biology, 
any decline); and is known to be actually or potentially in trade. In general the timber 
species examined do not fulfil these criteria because of their widespread distributions. 
One taxon examined, however, Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana from Taiwan, 
meets the biological criteria although it is not known whether it is in international 
trade. It should also be noted that the guidelines for amending the appendices counsel 
against inclusion of infraspecific taxa whenever possible. Another species, Araucaria 
angustifolia from South America, on the basis of its IUCN category (VU (B1+B2) 
(indicating an "extent of occupancy" of less than 20,000 km 2 or "area of occupancy" 
of less than 2000 km 2 ) may well qualify for CITES Appendix I according to the 
biological criteria and is currently in international trade. 

Criterion C concerns species known or suspected to be undergoing, or to have 
undergone, a decline. It should be noted that the word "decline" is not qualified in 
the criterion itself, nor is any upper limit to the size of the population of the species 
concerned given, so that theoretically extremely abundant and widespread species may 
qualify. The notes to assist in interpreting the criteria indicate that a decrease of 50 
per cent or more in total within five years or two generations, whichever is the 
longer, may be an appropriate guideline. For timber-producing species the greater 
length of time is invariably two generations. 



Information on generation time is not generally available for tree species. In broad 
terms estimated generation time for trees could be proposed as 5-10 years for pioneer, 
fast growing species; 50 years for most tree species and 100 years for slow growing 
species. These generation times have been proposed as working figures in guidelines 
on the application of the IUCN threat categories to tree species (Jenkins, 1996). 

As information on the rate of decline of tree populations is unlikely to be available 
for individual species, in most cases it will be necessary to use inference or 
extrapolation, considering, for example, the species in relation to habitat decline. 
Given the generally long generation times known or presumed for most timber 
species, a large number of tree species are likely to qualify under Criterion C in that 
any species whose range has halved through deforestation in the past 100 years (for 
most trees) or 200 years (for slow-growing species) can be inferred as having its 
population halved and therefore meeting the Criterion as long as it is, or may be, in 
international trade. 

Good data on forest loss over the past 100 or 200 years are scanty. For some areas, 
however, such as the Philippines and south-east Brazil it can be confidently stated that 
more than half the forest cover has been lost in the past century. There may then be 
good grounds for asserting that all tree species confined to these areas, which are in 
trade, merit inclusion in Appendix I, according to the listing criteria. 

Criterion C for CITES Appendix I listing can be related to the Criterion A used in 
the application of the new IUCN categories of threat as they both deal with population 
decline. 

IUCN Criterion A is based on an observed, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction 
of: 

at least 80 per cent decline in 10 years or 3 generations (Critically Endangered) 

at least 50 per cent decline in 10 years or 3 generations (Endangered) 

at least 20 per cent decline in 10 years or 3 generations (Vulnerable) 

If a tree species has been assigned an IUCN threat category of Endangered according 
to Criterion A, this species would not necessarily fall into Criterion C for Appendix 
I listing because the rate of decline is over three generations (ie. 150 years) as 
opposed to two generations (ie. 100 years). However, if a tree species has been 
assigned an IUCN threat category of Critically Endangered according to Criterion A, 
then it can be extrapolated that the species does fit into Criterion C for Appendix I 
listing. Assuming that the population decline is fairly linear then an 80 per cent 
decline over three generations (IUCN Critically Endangered) is equivalent to a 53 per 
cent decline over two generations (CITES Appendix I). 

Of the species assessed, one species would definitely appear to meet Criterion C: 
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana from the U.S.A. has declined in standing volume by 50 



10 



per cent in less than 30 years and is in international trade. Other species assessed 
which appear to meet Criterion C for Appendix I listing are Autranella congolensis, 
Microberlinia bisulcata and Microberlinia brazzavillensis. These have previously been 
evaluated as Critically Endangered on the basis of population decline. It would 
however be desirable to have additional supporting information to back up these 
IUCN threat category applications and this is being sought through the Conservation 
and Sustainable Management of Trees project. 

4.2. Review of species for Appendix II listing 

The criteria for Appendix II were found to be more ambiguous than criteria for 
Appendix I; terms are not precisely defined, making application of these criteria 
considerably more difficult. 

Listing according to Criterion A requires that species will fulfil listing criteria for 
Appendix I in the near future, unless the species is subject to strict regulation. There 
is no definition of 'near future' given in Resolution Conf. 9.24. Criterion A of 
Appendix II is very similar to Criterion D of Appendix I, with Criterion A having a 
presumed time scale of longer than that outlined in Criterion D (ie. five years). None 
of the timber species evaluated were considered to satisfy Criterion A for Appendix 
II listing, although this result would have to be reconsidered if a clear definition of 
'near future' is provided. 

In contrast to criteria for listing in Appendix I, where international trade must merely 
be known or suspected to take place, Criteria B (i and ii) for listing on Appendix II 
require that international trade has a deleterious effect on the species concerned. The 
criteria specify either that trade will exceed over an extended period the level that can 
be continued in perpetuity (Criterion Bi) or will cause or has caused the taxon to 
become threatened for other reasons (Criterion Bii). Guidance is- not given as to 
interpretation of the term "extended period" within Resolution Conf. 9.24. 

In evaluation of the selected timber species, Criterion Bi was understood to mean that 
the level of exploitation from the wild for international trade was greater than that 
deemed to be sustainable and Bii was assumed to mean that the level of exploitation 
from the wild for international trade would reduce the population to a level where 
threats other than exploitation would jeopardise the species. In practice it was found 
to be difficult to make the distinction between Criteria Bi and Bii when evaluating 
tree species. In general, if a forest tree species is being cut down at a level exceeding 
that which can be continued in perpetuity (Criterion Bi), the species may also be more 
likely to suffer from the impacts of general forest loss (Criteria Bii). 

The main difficulty in application of Criteria B(i and ii) during the evaluation exercise 
was in determining whether or not sufficient information was available in order to 
reach a decision. The rationale adopted was to follow the new IUCN categories of 
threat where they had been previously applied to species, even though these 
themselves may have been applied using limited data and mainly rely on inference. 
Where species have been categorised as Endangered using the new IUCN threat 
categories and criteria, these have generally been considered to meet Criterion B for 

ii 



Appendix II listing but in some cases, not enough information was available, this is 
the case for example with Diospyros crassiflora. 

As previously outlined, the IUCN category, Vulnerable (Criterion A) indicates that 
the population of a species has declined by at least 20 percent over three generations. 
Very many tropical tree species could be placed in this category given the rate of 
deforestation over the past century. Eighteen of the African tree species considered 
during the evaluation process, had previously been evaluated as VU (A), on the basis 
of either: decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat; 
or: actual or potential levels of trade. Given these threat categorisations, and the fact 
that for all these species, international trade is known or inferred to have a 
detrimental impact on wild populations, they could be said to meet the CITES listing 
criterion B for Appendix II listing. It was decided however that further considerations 
should be taken into account notably information on regeneration, growth rate, habitat 
specificity, and population density. 

It should be noted that for widespread species, overall assessments of conservation 
status invariably become to some extent subjective and expert opinions tend to vary. 
This can be seen, for example, for Pterocarpus angolensis (species profile on p. ) 
where experts from Southern Africa have considered the species to be Low Risk 
according to the new IUCN categories whereas experts from west and central Africa 
considered that the species should be evaluated as Vulnerable. 

Opinions may also vary with regard to species with smaller ranges. For example, 
logging of Aucoumea klaineana in Gabon (which comprises the great majority of the 
species's range) is considered probably sustainable by one expert. The species would 
therefore not be appropriate for consideration for inclusion in Appendix II. However, 
other experts at the African Regional Workshop on the Conservation and Sustainable 
Management of Trees allocated a category of Endangered on the basis of both actual 
or potential levels of exploitation and a decline in range or habitat quality, leading to 
an observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population reduction of at least 50 per 
cent over three generations. If the latter categorisation is reliable, and given that the 
species is in international trade at high volume then clearly it qualifies for inclusion 
in Appendix II. 



5. Discussion 

It is clear from the evaluation exercise that the new CITES listing criteria can be applied to 
timber species and that many timber species are likely to qualify for listing on the 
Appendices of CITES. Difficulties in application of the criteria relate to ambiguities in the 
wording of Annexes of Resolution Conf. 9.24 which may apply equally to the use of the 
criteria for any species. Ensuring that the criteria are sufficiently flexible for widespread use 
has resulted in a system with scope for considerable divergences in interpretation. 

The limited availability of detailed information for timber species is another problem faced 
in applying the criteria. Again this is not unique to timber species. It is, in fact, likely that 
considerably more information is collected at a national level on the distribution, production 

12 



and trade in timber species, particularly those of international economic importance, than for 
most other groups of plant or animal species. Collection and collation of data on a particular 
timber species throughout its range is not, however, an easy task. 

The present short study has illustrated the difficulties in compiling adequate information for 
the evaluation of timber species particularly on the detailed distribution, production and trade 
for species which are widespread. The main source of trade data for the present evaluation 
has been the international timber trade statistics compiled by ITTO for member states. 
Attempts to supplement this data have been of limited success. 

At a national or state level, timber production and trade data may be collected by both 
governmental and commercial organisations. Lack of coordination of data collection is a 
frequent limitation. Other problems associated with forestry statistics in the Latin American 
region, for example, have recently been highlighted as: 

low reliability, because of a high degree of subjective estimations 
rarely available on time or in forms appropriate for user needs 
insufficient in quantity (Abad Arrambide, 1995) 

Attempts to collect trade information in Brazil for the present study have illustrated various 
difficulties. In Brazil, production and trade data in timber species are collected by both state 
and national government agencies, various of which were contacted during the study. The 
Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism (MICT) collates and publishes import and 
export information. Data on the production of timber was formerly collected by a division 
of the Ministry called CACEX (Carteria de Comercio Exterior) generally grouped as 
products, rather than individual species, except for Araucaria angustifolia. In 1994, CACEX 
was replaced by SECEX (Secretaria de Comercio Exterior) who route information to SERPO 
(Servico Federal de Procesamento de Dados), the government computing agency. Access to 
this information is governed by a special decree (Portaria 334/95 of 17 October 1995; Annex 
6). Information on timber production is also maintained by IBAMA, various state 
environmental agencies and private industry groups (Sindicatos de Madereiros). Information 
is not generally available from the latter groups (Varty and Guadagnin, 1996). During the 
period of the study, government agencies in Brazil were on strike, and so access to trade 
information was further hindered. 

To demonstrate for timber species that trade is detrimental to wild populations and 
unsustainable in the sense required for CITES Appendix II listing, information should ideally 
be available on standing stocks, increment rates (taking into account both growth rates and 
regeneration rates) and volumes exported throughout the range. As a crude measure, if 
annual volume exported overall is greater than annual increment rate then trade can be 
assumed to be unsustainable. In practice these data are very rarely available in good 
quantitative form, and if they are it is almost invariably for a small part of the taxon's range. 
In all cases detailed consideration of the ecology and reproductive strategies of the different 
tree species would be helpful to assess the impact of trade. 

As mentioned in the introduction, Resolution Conf. 9.24 specifies that CITES amendment 
proposals should provide sufficient information on which to judge the proposal against the 
listing criteria. Given the relatively controversial nature of timber listing proposals it would 

13 



appear important to provide thorough documentation to support such proposals. Previous 
CITES amendment proposals for timber species have failed to win support, in part, because 
of weak supporting information. Recently it has been suggested that a scientific protocol is 
required enhancing transparency and compatibility of proposals for (plant) species to be 
listed. Such a protocol should describe crucial parameters of population dynamics and 
geographical distribution which should be assessed as well as methods and (sampling) 
procedures to carry out the actual assessment. Execution of such a protocol would result in 
verifiable scientific judgement of the actual status of the species. (Lammerts van Bueren, in 
litt. 1996) 

Given the nature of tree species in helping to define the ecosystems in which they occur, and 
the scale of the international trade in certain species the following steps may be helpful in 
a process of initial selection of internationally traded timber species for inclusion in the 
CITES appendices prior to preparation of listing proposals. 

i. Determination of the habitat specificity of the species, the extent and rate of 

decline of the habitat. This will give a quantifiable indication of the extent to 
which the species is threatened with extinction according to the new IUCN 
categories of threat. If the timber species meets at least the criteria for listing 
as Vulnerable it may be appropriate for further consideration. 

ii. Collection of inventory, production and trade statistics for at least part of the 
range of the species, over a period of time, to determine the likelihood of the 
trade in the species being sustainable (capable of being maintained at the 
current level in perpetuity). If the trade in the timber species does not appear 
to be sustainable it may be appropriate for further consideration. 

iii. Collection of information on the application of silvicultural techniques and 
extent of plantation development for the species. This will give further indirect 
indication as to likely impact of trade on wild populations. Where the species 
does not respond to silvicultual techniques, or these are not applied, and 
where plantations are not developed for the species, further consideration of 
the need for CITES listing is appropriate. 

In general, where a timber species is in international trade, the trade is contributing to the 
decline in wild populations, and the species is threatened with extinction it can be considered 
to meet the criteria for CITES listing. In reality, other considerations are likely to be of 
major importance in any development of the CITES appendices for timber species, not least 
the perceived value of the Convention in relation to the conservation of timber resources. 



14 



References 

Abad Arrambide, M. (1995) Latin America - case study on national forestry statistics in the 

region. In: Proceedings FAO Group on Forestry Statistics, Rome, 20-24 November 

1995. 
Jenkins, C. (1996) Guidelines for the application of the 1994 IUCN Red List Categories to 

trees. Annex 5 in: Report of the First Regional Workshop for the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project. 
Lammerts van Bueren, E.M. (1996) In litt. to the CITES Secretariat. 
Sandison, M.S. (1995) Application of the CITES-listing criteria to plants. TRAFFIC Bulletin 

15(3): 122-124 
Varty, N. and Guadagnin, D.L. (1996) Information sources on the biology, conservation and 

trade of tree species of Brazil. Unpublished consultancy report prepared for WCMC. 



Acknowledgements 

Many people have provided information that has been summarised in the tree species 
profiles. Particular thanks are due to the participants of the Regional Workshop of the 
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project held in Harare, July 1996. At 
this meeting Dr Nicholas Chenue Songwe, Dr Jonathon Okafor, Dr Ndjele Mianda-Bungi, 
and Dr Dominique N'Sosso reviewed the species profiles for west and central African tree 
species, and Dr Salomao Bandeira, Coert Geldenhuys, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Alfred Maroyi, 
Patrick Phiri, Cathy Rogers, Jonathan Timberlake reviewed the species profiles for southern 
African species. 

Thanks are also due to Dr Domingo Madulid who provided information on the Philippine tree 
species for the review and to Dr Nigel Varty who collected information on the Brazilian tree 
species whilst working in that country. Trade information for species of Gabon has kindly 
been supplied by Tom Hammond of the WWF Gabon Programme. Aljos Farjon, Chairman 
of the SSC Conifer Specialist Group, has coordinated the collection of information on the 
conservation status of conifer species worldwide, and has responded to various requests for 
information on whether conifer species are in trade. 

The process of evaluating the timber species was greatly assisted by the participation of 
Marianne Syrylak Sandison of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Martin Jenkins contributed 
valuable comments on the results of the evaluation process and ideas for the discussion 
section of this report. 



15 



Annex 1 

Biological Criteria for Appendix I 

The following criteria are intended to be read in conjunction with the definitions, notes and guidelines listed in 
Annex 5 of Resolution Conf. 9.24. 

A species is considered to be threatened with extinction if it meets, or is likely to meet at least one of the 
following criteria. 

A. The wild population is small and is characterized by at least one of the following: 

i) an observed, inferred or projected decline in the number of individuals or the area and quality 

of habitat; or 

ii) each sub-population being very small; or 

iii) a majority of individuals, during one or more life-history phases, being concentrated in one 

sub-population; or 

iv) large short-term fluctuations in the number of individuals; or 

v) a high vulnerability due to the species' biology or behaviour (including migration). 

B. The wild population has a restricted area of distribution and is characterized by at least one of the 
following: 

i) fragmentation or occurrence at very few locations; or 

ii) large fluctuations in the area of distribution or the number of sub-populations; or 

iii) a high vulnerability due to the species' biology or behaviour (including migration); or 

iv) an observed, inferred or projected decrease in any one of the following: 

the area of distribution; or 
the number of sub-populations; or 
the number of individuals; or 
the area or quality of habitat; or 
reproductive potential. 

C. A decline in the number of individuals in the wild, which has been either: 

i) observed as ongoing or having occurred in the past (but with a potential to resume); or 

ii) inferred or projected on the basis of any one of the following: 

a decrease in area or quality of habitat; or 

levels or patterns of exploitation; or 

threats from extrinsic factors such as the effects of pathogens, competitors, 

parasites, predators, hybridization, introduced species and the effects of 

toxins and pollutants; or 

decreasing reproductive potential. 

D. The status of the species is such that if the species is not included in appendix I, it is likely to satisfy 
one or more of the above criteria within a period of five years. 

17 



Annex 2 
Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-troujani 

Distribution 

This species is endemic to Kaz-Dagh and Ulu-Dagh in western Turkey. 

Habitat 

This temperate species is found in moist coniferous montane forest and is found in both open and closed forest. 
It is found in seasonal climates between 1000-2000 m (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

Usually found in pure stands, this species is locally abundant but has a scattered distribution (Conifer SSC, 
1996). 

Regeneration 

Seeds of this shade tolerant species are wind dispersed. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Not known. 

Threats 

This species is threatened by habitat degradation, changes in land use, and overgrazing (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

Utilisation 

A. nordmanniana subsp. equi-troujani is a timber species. 

Trade 

Not known. 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Threat Category and Criteria: LR lc (Conifer SSC, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

Conifer SSC, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of the WCMC/SSC 
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March, 1996. 



19 



Afzelia africana 

Afzelia; Doussie 

Distribution 

This widespread species occurs in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cote 
d'lvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda 
and Zaire. 

Habitat 



Vegetation types according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congoiian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congoiian rain forest and similar forest in the transition zones. 
Afzelia africana is absent from the wetter forest types and is a distinguishing feature of the 'fire-zone' 
between Guinea-Congolian rain forest and savanna. 

2. Guineo-Congoiian transition woodland 

3. Guineo-Congoiian secondary grassland and wooded grassland 

4. Sudanian woodland 

5. The Coastal Plain of Basse Casamance 

N.B. In the Guinea-Congolia/Sudania regional transition zone phytochoria. 



In Ghana, this species is found in dry forest, especially in the forest-savanna borders. It tends to be scattered 
in areas with rocky soils (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

A. africana is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). This species is also common in Nigeria and Cameroon 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is under pressure from exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Utilisation 

Timber of Afzelia spp. in general is used for exterior joinery, flooring, heavy construction, furniture, vats and 
tanks. The seeds are used as a thickening agent (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Trade 

A. africana was exported from Ghana as sawnwood in 1994; 2550 m 3 of air dried sawnwood was exported at 
an average price of US$572.00/m 3 and kiln dried sawnwood sold for an average price of US$630. 00/m 3 (ITTO, 
1995a). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Threat Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

A. africana has been given a red star in Ghana meaning it is common but under pressure from exploitation and 

conservation measures are necessary (Hawthorne, 1995a). This species is considered Vulnerable according to 

the 1994 IUCN threat categories (Hawthorne, 1995b). 



20 



Conservation Measures 

Protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. FAO selected this species for conservation action in Cameroon because of 

the heavy utilisation pressures on the species (Palmberg, 1987). 

This species can be vegetatively propagated by budding (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop held 

in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working Document 

4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees -Technical 

Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 
ITTO, 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio sobre 

silvicultura y mejoraniento genetico. CIEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. (NOT SEEN) 



21 



Afzelia bipindensis 

Afzelia; (Red) Doussie 

Distribution 

A. bipindensis is found mostly in the Guineo-Congolian regional centre of endemism, but also extends into the 
Zambezian region (White, 1983). This species occurs in Angola, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, 
Gabon, Nigeria, Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

This is a rainforest species. 

Population Status and Trends 

There are reportedly only a few seed trees distributed in a narrow range (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is heavily exploited throughout its range (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

Timber of Afzelia spp. in general is used for exterior joinery, flooring, heavy construction, furniture, vats and 
tanks. 

Trade 

5000m 3 of A. bipidensis sawnwood was exported from Cameroon in 1994 at an average price of US$1000.00/m 3 
and the Congo exported 33m 3 in 1994 (ITTO, 1995 a). In 1987, Gabon exported 2,595m 3 of Doussie from 
Owendo (IUCN, 1990). Gabon exported 5,302.258 m 3 of Doussie in 1994 and 7,560.274 m 3 in 1995 (DIAF, 
1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Threat Category and Criteria: VU (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

FAO selected this species for conservation action in Cameroon because of the heavy utilisation pressures it faces 
(Palmberg, 1987). Vegetative propagation by budding/grafting could be feasible (African Regional Workshop, 
1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1 996 . Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop held 

in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements des 

Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
ITTO, 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio sobre 

silvicultura y mejoraniento genetico. CIEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. (NOT SEEN) 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO 

vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



22 



Afzelia pachyloba 

Afzelia 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

A. pachyloba is a rainforest species. 

Population Status and Trends 

There are only a few seed trees throughout its range (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is heavily exploited. 

Utilisation 

Timber of Afzelia spp. in general is used for exterior joinery, flooring, heavy construction, furniture, vats and 
tanks. 

Trade 

A. pachyloba is an important commercial species in Cameroon, Nigeria and Congo (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

FAO has selected this species for conservation action in Cameroon because of the heavy utilisation pressures 
on the species (Palmberg, 1987). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop held 

in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio sobre 

silvicultura y mejoraniento genetico. CIEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. (NOT SEEN) 



23 



Amburana cearensis 

Amburana; Cerejeira 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. 

Habitat 

In Argentina A. cearensis occurs in cloud forests in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy (Herran, pers. comm., 
1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

There is concern about the increasing isolation of populations of the species which depends on cross-pollination 
(Herran, pers. comm., 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Exploitation for the international market is one of the threats faced by this species. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for construction, furniture and decorative veneers. 

Trade 

A. cearensis is exported as sawnwood by Peru and Brazil. In 1994, 6000 m 3 at an average price of 
US$430.00/m 3 was exported out of Brazil (ITTO, 1995). 

Wood of this species is imported from Bolivia to Argentina, the point of entry being Salta. From April 1995 
to April 1996 18,240m 3 were imported (Herran, pers. comm., 1996). 

Exports of Amburana cearensis from Brazil 



Year 


Sawnwood 


Veneer 




Tonne 


US$ FOB 


Tonne 


US$ FOB 


1993 


3.205 


1,351 


.874 


1,732 


1994 


3.592 


1,494 


1.457 


2,730 


1995 


3.245 


1,696 


1.066 


2,820 


Source: IBAMA, 199 


5 











Conservation Status 

This species is recorded as Vulnerable (old IUCN threat category) in Argentina and Peru in the WCMC 
Plants Database. It has not yet been evaluated with the new IUCN Red List Categories. 

Conservation Measures 

Brazil has both state and federal legislation protecting trees and forests. The federal law allows for the 
restriction or prohibition of the felling of threatened trees the state laws tend to be more specific and 
restrictive. The Brazilian legislation is fragile and state laws are sometimes reversed to allow deforestation. 
In reality almost any species can be cut if the proper licence is obtained (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). 



24 



References 

Herran, 1996. Personal communication to Sara Oldfield. 

EBAMA, 1996. Brazilian export information for various timber species in fax dated 11th July, 1996 to 

Nigel Varty. 
ITTO, 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
Varty, N. and D.L. Guadagnin, 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of tree 

species in Brazil. Unpublished document prepared from WCMC's Conservation and Sustainable 

Management of Trees Project (15 July, 1996). 



25 



Araucaria angustifolia 

Parana Pine 

Distribution 

Parana pine occurs in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Within Brazil, Araucaria angustifolia grows naturally 
in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. In 
Argentina A. angustifolia is only found in the Territory of Misiones (FAO, 1986). 

Habitat 

Parana pine is found in humid subtropical areas that have no dry season and a mild to hot summer. In the 
northern part of its range it is found at altitudes over 800m but in the south this species can occur at lower 
altitudes if the temperature is cool enough. (FAO, 1986). 

Population Status and Trends 

Araucaria forests virtually disappeared in the space of a few decades under pressure of logging and 
conversion to agriculture: of the area present in 1900, less than half remained by 1950, and less than 20% 
by 1991. The 1991 estimate of total area is 30,000 km (Harcourt and Sayer, 1996). According to the SSC 
Conifer Specialist Group, 1996, the natural range of A. angustifolia now covers less than 20,000 km 2 and its 
distribution is severely fragmented. Over the past 60 years the natural Araucaria forest has been reduced to 
4.3% of its original area in Sao Paulo province, Brazil (FAO, 1986). 

Regeneration 

The seeds of this species have a short period of viability. The seedlings are not shade tolerant. (FAO, 1986) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The understorey of the Parana pine forests contain an abundance of bamboo spp of the genera Merostachys 
and Chusquea as well as tree ferns. Podocarpus lambertii frequently occurs (Harcourt and Sayer, 1996). 

Threats 

A. angustifolia has been heavily exploited for timber for approximately 60 years (FAO, 1986). 

Utilisation 

Principal uses of the timber include framing lumber, interior trim, sash and door stock, furniture and 
veneer. Used in Brazil for plywood and is considered suitable for pulp and paper products. The timber is 
used locally to make musical instruments, boxes and matches. 

The seeds of this species are cooked as food and the wood is also used locally as fuelwood. The resinous 
bark can be made into good fuel and can be fermented to make a beverage (FAO, 1986). 
This species also has ornamental value and is found in gardens and parks. 

Trade 



Production of Araucaria angustifolia, Brazil, 1989-1993 




Year 


Logs (m 3 ) 


Felled Trees 
('000 Trees) 


1989 


1,407,572 


680 


1990 


1,050,715 


542 


1991 


832,664 


415 


1992 


645,662 


326 


1993 


600,064 


282 


Source: FAO, 1996 







26 



A. angustifolia was exported by Brazil as sawnwood at an average price of US$47 1.00/m 3 ; a total volume of 
35,000m 3 left the country in 1994 (ITTO, 1995). From the Porto de Paranagua and Foz do Iguacu, Parana, 
Brazil in 1995, 40,194m 3 was exported at an average price of US$508/m 3 (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). 

Exports of Araucaria angustifolia from Brazil, 1993-1995 



Year 


Sawnwood 


Veneer 




Tonnes 


US$ FOB 


Tonnes 


US$ FOB 


1993 


25.189 


16,339 


1.734 


1,021 


1994 


25.370 


16,614 


2.149 


1,316 


1995 


20.341 


16,126 


.865 


452 


Source: IBAMA, 199 


i 











Conservation Status 

IUCN Threat Category and Criteria: VU (B1&2) (SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

This species is found in various protected areas in Brazil (FAO, 1986). 

The Brazilian Institute for Forestry Development (IBDF) have maintained a few stands of this species (both 
planted and natural) for seed production (FAO, 1986). In Brazil the parana pine is considered to be a slow 
grower and because of this reforestation has greatly decreased (FAO, 1986). 

A licence to cut A. angustifolia in Brazil can only be obtained if the applicant can prove that the logging 
will follow an agreed management plan, that the area to be logged is a plantation or the area was previously 
under cultivation (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). In Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil the state forest code has set the 
minimum cutting dbh at 40 cm. In reality there is very little control and many documents are forgeries 
(Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). 

References 

FAO, 1986. Databook on Endangered Tree and Shrub Provenances. FAO Forestry Paper 77. 

FAO, 1996. Proceedings of the FAO Working Group on Forestry Statistics. 20-24 November, 1995. 

FAO:Rome. pp. 399. 
Harcourt C.S. and Sayer, J. A. (Eds), 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 

Simon & Schuster:Singapore. 
IBAMA, 1996. Brazilian export information for various timber species in fax dated 1 1th July, 1996 to 

Nigel Varty. 
ITTO, 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
SSC Conifer Specialist Group, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project data 

collection form. Unpublished. 
Varty, N. and D.L. Guadagnin, 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of 

species in Brazil. Unpublished document prepared from WCMC's Conservation and Sustainable 

Management of Trees Project (15 July, 1996). 



27 



Aspidosperma polyneuron 
Peroba Rosa 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Paraguay, and Peru. 

Habitat 

Peroba rosa occurs in subtropical moderate humid and subtropical regions and is found in a few forest types 
i.e. low altitude forest, seasonal evergreen mountainous forests and seasonal evergreen forest (FAO, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

The surviving trees of this species are found in small remaining clusters of forest (FAO, 1986). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Threats 

This popular timber species is threatened by intense exploitation over the past few decades, as it is valued 
for its resistance and strength. In addition, A. polyneuron' s habitat has been taken over for pastures and 
agriculture (FAO, 1986). 

Utilisation 

Peroba rosa timber is used in construction, flooring, furniture, wagons, sleepers and veneers 

Trade 

180 m 3 of an Aspidosperma spp. (trade name: Peroba) was exported as sawnwood from Brazil at an average 
price of US$420.00 (ITTO, 1995). 

Conservation Status 

Within the WCMC Plants Database, the status of A. polyneuron is recorded as Endangered in Argentina, 
Indeterminate in Bolivia, Indeterminate in Brazil, Endangered in Colombia, Vulnerable in Paraguay and 
Endangered in Peru, following the old IUCN threat categories. This species has not yet been evaluated 
according to the new IUCN threat categorisation system. 

Conservation Measures 

Brazil has both state and federal legislation protecting trees and forests. The federal law allows for the 
restriction or prohibition of the felling of threatened trees the state laws tend to be more specific and 
restrictive. The Brazilian legislation is fragile and state laws are sometimes reversed to allow deforestation. 
In reality almost any species can be cut if the proper licence is obtained (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). 

References 

FAO, 1986. Databook on Endangered Tree and Shrub Provenances. FAO Forestry Paper 77. 

ITTO, 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
Varty, N. and D.L. Guadagnin, 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of tree 

species in Brazil. Unpublished document prepared from WCMC's Conservation and Sustainable 

Management of Trees Project (15 July, 1996). 



28 



Aucoumea klaineana 

Okoume 

Distribution 

Okoume is restricted to west and central Gabon and a few small areas in Equatorial Guinea, Congo and 
Cameroon. In Cameroon 

Habitat 

It is found between sea level and 700 m in lowland broadleaf forests (White, 1996). 



Vegetation types according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Hygrophilous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest. Aucoumea klaineana is one of the most 

abundant species in this forest type especially in old secondary forest on well-drained sites. 



Population Status and Trends 

In Gabon the species remains widespread and abundant, and is common in secondary forest; the population 
is more or less stable (Wilks in lift., 1992). 

Regeneration 

Oukome trees flower only once in every 7-15 years (Anon, 1994). This light-demanding species is 
gregarious in secondary forests (N'Sosso in lift, 1995). It regenerates naturally where the recuperation 
period between logging cycles is sufficient (Wilks in lift, 1990). However, according to White, in litt. 1996, 
Okoume is not regenerate regenerating. It is a light lover which only regenerates in old farms and unburnt 
savannas. Few tree below 30cm dbh are now seen (White, in litt.). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Repeated logging particularly in the Premiere zone (near coast) restricts regeneration, although it is 
considered by Wilks in litt., 1992, that the logging is probably sustainable in Gabon. In contrast experts at 
the Regional Workshop for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project considered that 
the restricted range of this species and the destruction of its ecosystem puts the future survival of this 
species in danger (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

Okoume is considered an excellent timber for veneer and plywood and also produces good quality sawn 
timber. 

Trade 

This species is Gabon's most important commercial timber and contributes about 90% of annual production. 
At present international market forces regulate Okoume logging in Gabon and state controls are considered 
ineffective (Wilks, in litt., 1990). France is the main importer of Okoume. Italy, Japan and Israel are also 
important importers. This species is traditionally absent from UK markets. (WCMC, 1991). Disappointing 
oil revenues have resulted in the export of Okoume timber to Western Europe and Japan becoming 
increasingly important to the Gabonese economy (Anon, 1994). 

Congo exported 53,188m 3 of Okoume logs and 23 665m 3 of veneer in 1994 (ITTO, 1995). In 1987, Gabon 
exported 603,740m 3 of A. klaineana from Owendo (IUCN, 1990). An unknown volume of logs was 
exported by Gabon for an average price of US$239. 59/m 3 (ITTO, 1995a). In addition Gabon exported 
371m 3 of Okoume as sawnwood for an average price of US$287. 77/m 3 , 2,106m 3 of veneer at an average 
price of US$97. 16/m 3 , and 10,225m 3 of plywood at an average price of US$300. 32/m 3 (ITTO, 1995a). 



29 



Total export of Okoume from Gabon in 1994 was 1,327,957.181 m 3 and in 1995 the total export was 
1,573,702.100 m 3 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996). The gene pool of Okoume 
has been seriously deteriorated by decades of selective harvesting (Anon, 1992). 

Conservation Measures 

A. klaineana is considered a priority species for in situ conservation by FAO (1984). 
More than 29,000 ha have been planted with Okoume in Gabon but reforestation does not compensate for 
felling in natural forests. Introduction of this species west of Kribi in Cameroon has been discontinued 
because of its poor form (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Minimum logging diameter in Gabon is 70 cm in forest reserves, although this restriction is not enforced 
(Wilks, inlitt., 1990). 

A project "Biology of Okoume", has been funded by ITTO and implemented by the government of Gabon, 
through the Ministere des Eaux et Forets. Scientific and technical support is provided by the Tropenbos 
Foundation. The aim of this project is to improve understanding of species specific characteristics of 
Okoume, with the objective of realizing high yielding plantations that at least can keep track of the current 
logging rate. The establishment of such plantations will help reduce the pressure on Gabon's forest area and 
its biological diversity. (Anon, 1994). The first phase of the project ended in December 1995. 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Anon, 1992. News on other Tropenbos activities. Gabon. Tropenbos Newsletter 2. 
Anon, 1994. Biology of Okoume: an ecophysiological reforestation project in Gabon. Tropenbos Newsletter 

6:8-10 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
ITTO, 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. D. N'Sosso contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees White, L. 1996. in litt. to WCMC. 
Wilks, C, 1990. in litt. to Richard Luxmoore. 
Wilks, C, 1992. in litt. to Pete Atkinson. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



30 



Autranella congolensis 

Mukulungu 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon and Nigeria. 

Habitat 

This species is found in dense forest (N'Sosso in litt, 1995). 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is fairly rare (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

This is a recalcitrant species (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 
No information. 

Threats 

A. congolensis is heavily exploited for timber (African Regional Worshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for heavy construction, flooring, furniture and cabinet-making, acid vats, turnery and 
joinery. Locally the seeds are used and traded as rattlers for dancers (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Trade 

Gabon reported export of 51.2 m 3 of Mukulungu in 1995 and reported no export of this species in 1994 
(DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: CR (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

None. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. • 

DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. N'Sosso contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees 

project for the Congo. 



31 



Baikiaea plurijuga 

Zambezi Teak; Zambezi Redwood 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. 



Habitat 




Veeetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Zambezian dry deciduous forest and scrub forest (Zambezian Kalahari woodland) 



This species is confined to lowland tropical forest on the Kalahari sands. Baikiaea plurijuga is the dominant 
component of the Baikiaea forest canopy (White, 1983). Baikiaea forest is the most extensive deciduous 
forest on the Kalahari Sand in the south of the Upper Zambezi basin and B. plurijuga is essentially limited 
to this area (White, 1983). In Zimbabwe, B. plurijuga is found in higher areas of thicket on Kalahari sands 
of the Lupane and Nkayi districts and in higher areas of woodland thicket on colluvium in the Binga district 
(Timberlake et al, 1991). 

Population Status and Trends 

Precise limits of individual populations of the species are not known but B. pluijuga is the dominant species 
in the Zambesi teak forests the area of which has been measured. In the early 1980s, Zambesi teak forests 
were reported to cover an area of 700,000 ha (Mubiti, 1984 in draft CITES proposal, 1986). More recent 
surveys have shown that 800,000 ha exist in forest commissioned land in Zimbabwe (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

In Zambia this forest type formerly covered almost all of the Western Province, the North- Western 
Province and the western area of the Southern Province (CITES draft proposal, 1986). The increased 
logging activities of the last fifty years have led to changes in the ecology of the forest; gaps in the canopy 
allow for thicket species to develop (this is especially a problem in Zambia). It is thought that these changes 
might inhibit the re-establishment of the Zambezi teak forests (CITES draft proposal, 1986). These forests 
are expected to disappear within 50 years and to be irretrievably diminshed much sooner (WCMC, 1991). 
Populations of older individuals (about 500 years old) have now completely disappeared (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

Although the Zambesi teak forests are threatened, the range of B. plurijuga has only been fractionally 
reduced (African Regional Workshop, 1996). Grassland quickly replaces the Zambesi teak forests once they 
have been cleared, making grassland a more common habitat for B. plurijuga (African Regional Workshop, 
1996). Populations in fallow fields and national parks are regenerating well (African Regional Workshop, 
1996). 

There are thought to be intact populations in forests in Botswana and Zambia, where levels of exploitation 
are less well known (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

This species coppices well (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

B. plurijuga is associated with Entandrophragma caudatum, Pterocarpus antunesii and Combretum collinum 
(Huckabay, 1986). 



32 



Threats 

This species is exploited for its timber. The Zambesi teak forest as a habitat type is undeniably threatened, 
however, the Baikiaea thickets that grow on grassland are still fairly widespread and timber from these 
thickets can be utilised (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The timber is mainly used in flooring. Locally the species is used for medicinal purposes and for tanning. 
B. plurijuga is not locally exploited for its wood because it is too hard to cut. 

Trade 

Sales values in Zambia over recent years have been around US$1 million annually, 80% in the domestic 
market and 20% from exports. It is one of the two major commercial timber species of Botswana (WCMC, 
1991). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Threat Category and Criteria: LR lc (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

This species is considered to be a priority for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. In situ conservation stands 
have been established in Zambia. The Forest Reserves in Botswana contain B. plurijuga (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

This species is not suitable for a plantation programme because of its slow growth and fire sensitivity 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Draft CITES Proposal, 1986. Draft proposal to include Baikiaea plurijuga on Appendix II of CITES. 
Huckabay, 1986. cited in the Draft CITES Proposal. (NOT SEEN) 
Piearce, 1986. cited in the Draft CITES Proposal. (NOT SEEN) 
Timberlake, J., Nobanda, N., Mapaure, I, and Mhlanga, L., 1991. Sites of interest for conservation in 

various communal lands of N. & W. Zimbabwe. Vegetation survey of communal lands. Report No. 1 . 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETF AT/UN SO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



33 



Baillonella toxisperma 

Moabi 

Distribution 

Moabi occurs mainly in Cameroon, Gabon and Nigeria, and is also found in Angola, Congo and Equatorial 
Guinea. 

Habitat 

The monotypic genus Baillonella is endemic to the Guineo-Congolian region (White, 1983). 

B. toxisperma is limited to dense primary evergreen rain forests. It requires shade for regeneration to occur 

(Wilks in litt, 1990). 

Population Status and Trends 

If this species continues to be over-exploited it will most likely vanish from large areas of its distribution 
(Schneemann, 1995). In areas of Cameroon that have been logged for several decades (i.e. Central, South, 
South-West and the Littoral provinces) there is a decrease and in some cases disappearance of Moabi 
(Schneemann, 1995). Moabi still remains in East Cameroon where there has been no logging. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Elephants play a part in regeneration and dispersal of Moabi as they eat the fruits and deposit the seeds 
elsewhere (Schneemann, 1995). Wild pigs and porcupines eat the seeds. 

Threats 

Moabi is heavily exploited in West Africa. This species is further threatened by its restricted regeneration 
(Wilks in litt., 1990). It takes between 50 and 70 years before B. toxisperma starts to flower and regular 
fruit production doesn't occur until the tree is 90-100 years old (Schneemann, 1995). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for furniture, cabinet work, decorative flooring, turnery and carving, decorative veneers, 
joinery, and stove fittings. 

The edible oil (huile de karite) that is extracted from the seeds is of great importance to the local people. 
The oil can fetch high prices at the local markets in Cameroon; in the larger cities the oil can be worth as 
much as US$12/litre (Schneemann, 1995). The pulp of the fruit is eaten. The bark is used for medicinal 
purposes and has ethnobotanical uses (e.g. the Baka pygmies use the bark to become invisible for elephant 
hunting) (Schneemann, 1995). 

Trade 

Strong demand for Moabi timber comes from Southern Europe (Schneemann, 1995) 

Moabi is an important commercial timber in Cameroon and is a major species in the export trade. 
Production of B. toxisperma in Cameroon has almost doubled since 1989/1990 (Schneemann, 1995). It is 
also commercially important to Congo (exports in 1988 of 4,517m 3 ) and Gabon where it is the second most 
important wood in terms of export earnings (Wilks in litt, 1990). Gabon exported 55,884m 3 in 1987 (IUCN, 
1990) and 59,891m 3 in 1989. 

According to ITTO (1995a) 25,000 m 3 of B. toxisperma logs were exported from Cameroon in 1994 at an 
average price of US$385/m 3 , and 10,000 m 3 of sawn timber were also exported at an average price of 
US$700.00/m 3 . While Gabon exported Moabi logs at an average price of US$70.40/m 3 and exported 82m 3 
of sawnwood at US$63. 13/m 3 (ITTO, 1995a). In 1994, Gabon exported a total of 32,572.065 m 3 of Moabi 
and 44,390.331 m 3 in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

There is some concern about illegal trade from some of the Moabi producing countries (Draft CITES 
Proposal, 1991). 



34 



Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

The minimum exploitable diameter of Moabi in Cameroon is lm and in both Gabon and Congo the 
minimum exploitable diameter is decreed to be 0.8m. B.toxisperma is found in several protected areas in 
Cameroon (i.e. Foret de Nki, Foret de Boumba Bek and Reserve de Faune du Dja). This species is also 
represented in the Sibang Arboretum, Libreville, Gabon. (Draft CITES Proposal, 1991). Cameroon has 
planted 389 ha of this species (African Regional Workshop, 1996), 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
Draft CITES Proposal, 1991. 
ITTO, 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
Schneemann, J., 1995. Exploitation of Moabi in the Humid Dense Forests of Cameroon. Harmonization 

and improvement of two conflicting ways of exploitation of the same forest resource. BOS 

NiEuWSLETTER 31 vol. 14 (2): 20-32. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris :Unesco. pp.356. 
Wilks, C, 1990. in litt. to Richard Luxmoore. 



35 



Brachylaena huillensis 

Synonym: Brachylaena hutchisonii 
Muhuhu 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Transvaal and Uganda. 



Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Somalia-Masai scrub forest 

Brachylaena huillensis occurs on the steep northern slopes of the Western Usambara mountains between 
700 and 960 m. 

2. Zanzibar-Inhambane undifferentiated forest 
This species is found in the drier forests of this region. 



In Kenya, B. huillensis occurs in the highlands, the coastal belt and in forest remnants (WCMC, 1991). It is 
found in upland semi-deciduous forest and lowland dry forest or thicket (Beentje, 1994). 

It is found in the Usambara steppe and coastal lowland of Tanzania and Uganda (WCMC, 1991). This 
species is dominant in evergreen bush, is common in dry coastal forests and can be found in lowland dry 
forests and semi-deciduous dry upland forests (1500m-2000m) (FAO, 1986). 

Population Status and Trends 

The distribution of this species is patchy (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 
B. huillensis is locally common in Kenya (Beentje, 1994). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Threats 

The species is subject to heavy exploitation in Tanzania. In Kenya, much of the habitat of this species has 
been lost and the remaining trees are subject to increasingly heavy felling (WCMC, 1991). It is also 
suffering from habitat loss due to settlement and cultivation (FAO, 1986) 

Utilisation 

This species has been used for sleepers, flooring blocks, furniture, carving and turnery. Its main use 
internationally is now for wood carvings. It is commonly used in Tanzania for building posts. In Kenya, this 
species is only used in the carving industry and not for sawn wood (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

Perfumed oil can be distilled from the wood (FAO, 1986). 

Trade 

Conservation Status 

This species is considered Rare in Uganda (Katende, 1995). 

Conservation Measures 

It is considered a priority for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. 

B. huillensis is found in the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Reserve and the Shimba Hills Forest Reserve of Kenya. 
However in both of these areas this species is being collected. In the Arabuko-Sokoko Forest Reserve 
licences are issued for collection of dead wood but most of the trees removed are either newly dead 
(possibly ring-barked trees) or illegally cut trees (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). It is also collected in the 
Lamu district and transported to Mombasa for the carving industry (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

36 



There are 69 ha of this species in plantations in Kenya (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

References 

Beentje, H.J., 1994. Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas. National Museums of Kenya: Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 

722. 
FAO, 1986. Some medicinal forest plants of Africa and Latin America. FAO Paper 67. pp. 252. 
Katende, A.B., 1995. Annotations to the WCMC list of Trees of Uganda. 
Marshall, N.T. and Jenkins, M, 1994. Hard Times for Hardwood: Indigenous Timber and the Timber 

Trade in Kenya. Traffic International:Cambridge, U.K. pp. 53. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



37 



Cedrela fissilis 

South American Cedar 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru 

and Venezuela. 

Habitat 

This species is found in tropical moist areas, specifically in lowland rain forest up to 800 m above sea level. 
It survives best on well-drained fertile soil and is very light demanding (FAO, 1986). 

Population Status and Trends 

The distribution is presently very scattered and sparse across its range. In lowland Amazonia the species is 
now quite rare. Since it suffering from genetic erosion, in some areas only poorly formed trees persist 
(FAO, 1986). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

The species is suffering from severe genetic erosion, mainly because of over-exploitation of the best stands 
by logging contractors (FAO, 1986). 

Utilisation 

This timber species is used locally for furniture and cabinet making, and general carpentry. 

Trade 

In 1995, 11 064m 3 of C. fissilis was exported from the ports of Porto de Paranagua and Foz do Iguacu, 
Parana, Brazil at an average price of US$298/m 3 (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). 



Exports of Cedrela spp. from Brazil 










Year 


Sawnwood 


Veneer 




Tonnes 


US$ FOB 


Tonnes 


US$ FOB 


1993 


37.197 


21,609 


1.098 


807 


1994 


32.598 


22,165 


833 


616 


1995 


22.125 


16,510 


416 


655 



Source: IBAMA, 1996 

Conservation Status 

This species is recorded as Indeterminate in Argentina and Panama, within the WCMC Plants Database. It 
has not yet been evaluated using the new IUCN categories of threat. 

Conservation Measures 

Brazil has both state and federal legislation protecting trees and forests. The federal law allows for the 
restriction or prohibition of the felling of threatened trees the state laws tend to be more specific and 
restrictive. The Brazilian legislation is fragile and state laws are sometimes reversed to allow deforestation. 
In reality almost any species can be cut if the proper licence is obtained (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). 



38 



References 

FAO, 1986. Databook on Endangered Tree and Shrub Provenances. FAO Forestry Paper 77. 

IBAMA, 1996. Brazilian export information for various timber species in fax dated 11th July, 1996 to 

Nigel Varty. 
Varty, N. and D.L. Guadagnin, 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of tree 

species in Brazil. Unpublished document prepared from WCMC's Conservation and Sustainable 

Management of Trees Project (15 July, 1996). 



39 



Cedrela odorata 

Central American Cedar; Spanish Cedar 

Distribution 

This widespread species occurs in Antigua & Barbuda, Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, 
Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French 
Guiana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, St.Kitts, 
Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, St. Lucia, Surinam, Venezuela. 

Habitat 

C. odorata used to be a dominant species in both moist and dry lowland deciduous forest (upto 1200m). 
This species can live in wet and semi-arid regions, but is most common in areas with richer well-drained 
soil (FAO, 1986). In Guyana, this species occurs in Mora forest, seasonal forest and mixed forest on poorly 
drained soil (Polak, 1992). 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is now rare in Amazonia. Large well-formed trees are only surviving in remote areas (FAO, 
1986). C. odorata is rare and widespread within Guyana (Polak, 1992). 

Regeneration 

This light-demanding pioneer species regenerates well in disturbed areas (such as abandoned pastures and 
agricultural land) and in secondary forest. Seeds are wind dispersed (Polak, 1992). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is suffering somewhat from genetic erosion; the good quality trees have been selectively over- 
exploited (FAO, 1986). In addition, habitat loss is occurring due to the clearing of lowland forest (FAO, 
1986). Plantations often fail from infestations of the shoot borer Hypsipyla. 

Utilisation 

Spanish cedar is used mainly for joinery, cabinet making and is the preferred material for making cigar 
boxes (FAO, 1986). 

It is sometimes used as a shade tree for coffee plantations (FAO, 1986). 

Trade 

In 1994 Brazil exported 97,000 m 3 of Cedrela spp. for an average price of US$260.00/m 3 

Honduras exported C. odorata logs, sawnwood, plywood and veneer; Peru and Colombia both exported 

sawnwood in 1994 (ITTO, 1995). 



Exports of Cedrela spp. from Brazil 








Year 


Sawnwood 


Veneer 




Tonnes 


US$ FOB 


Tonnes 


US$ FOB 


1993 


37.197 


21,609 


1.098 


807 


1994 


32.598 


22,165 


833 


616 


1995 


22.125 


16,510 


416 


655 


Source: IBAMA, 199 


6 









40 



Conservation Status 

In the WCMC Plants Database, this species is recorded as Not Threatened at a global level. It is recorded 
as nationally threatened in various countries including Colombia and the Dominican Republic. It has not yet 
been evaluated suing the new IUCN categoreis of threat. 

Conservation Measures 

In and ex situ growth trials have been set up by the Oxford Forestry Institute (FAO, 1986). 

Brazil has both state and federal legislation protecting trees and forests. The federal law allows for the 
restriction or prohibition of the felling of threatened trees the state laws tend to be more specific and 
restrictive. The Brazilian legislation is fragile and state laws are sometimes reversed to allow deforestation. 
In reality almost any species can be cut if the proper licence is obtained (Varty & Guadagnin, 1996). 

References 

FAO, 1986. Databook on Endangered Tree and Shrub Provenances. FAO Forestry Paper 77. 

IB AM A, 1996. Brazilian export information for various timber species in fax dated 11th July, 1996 to 

Nigel Varty. 
ITTO, 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
Polak, A.M., 1992. Major timber trees of Guyana. Afield guide. The Tropenbos Foundation: Wageningen, 

The Netherlands, pp. 272. 
Varty, N. and D.L. Guadagnin, 1996. Information sources on the biology, conservation and trade of tree 

species in Brazil. Unpublished document prepared from WCMC's Conservation and Sustainable 

Management of Trees Project (15 July, 1996). 



41 



Cephalotaxus oliveri 

Olive Plum Yew 

Distribution 

This species is found in Guixhou, Hubei, Sichuan, Yannan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangxi, 
Vietnam and eastern India. 

i 

Habitat 

This species is found in low altitude (30O-15O0m) subtropical closed forests. It is mainly found in evergreen 
broad-leaved forests or in evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests in valleys and by streams. 

Population Status and Trends 

Populations of C. oliveri have been rapidly decreasing. This species is scattered in forests throughout its 
range (China Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

Regeneration 

This is a shade tolerant species which has moderately slow growth. Seeds germinate after ripening for one 
year in the broad-leaf litter; once the seeds have germinated the seedlings require shade. (China Plant Red 
Data Book, 1992) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is threatened by over-exploitation and habitat loss (China Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

The dioecious nature of C. oliveri means that this species is further threatened by infrequent regeneration 
(China Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

Utilisation 

Used for timber. C. oliveri contains the alkaloids cephalotaxine and harringtonine which can be extracted 
from the leaves, shoots and seeds which have medicinal value for treating leukaemia and lymphoma (China 
Plant Red Data Book, 1992), however, no widespread exploitation has yet taken place (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

Trade 

It is not known whether international trade in products from this species currently take place. 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

This species is found in several nature reserves (Emei Mountain in Sichuan, Shuanghuang Mountains and 
Zhangjiajie in Hunan (China Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

Note: C. oliveri is a relict species which is markedly different to other members of the same genus (China 
Plant Red Data Book, 1992). 

References 

Conifer SSC, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as pan of the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March, 1996. 
Li-Kuo, F. and Jian-Ming, J., 1992. China Plant Red Data Book - Rare and endangered plants. Vol. 1. 

Science Press:Beijing. pp. 741. 



42 



Chamaecyparis lawsoniana 

Synonym: Cupressus lawsoniana 
Port Orford Cedar 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Oregon and California, U.S.A.; covering an area of 18,000 km 2 (Draft CITES 
Proposal, 1994). 

Habitat 

Port Orford Cedar is restricted to areas that have year-round water seepage and a shallow water table. It can 
be found along riverbanks, bogs and coastal sand dunes. Port Orford Cedar can grow from sea-level to high 
altitudes and does not require any specific soil type. (Draft CITES Proposal, 1994) 

In northern California this species occurs in the coastal redwood forest stands and is also present in mixed 
evergreen forest, montane forest and subalpine forests (Klamath Mountains only). This species is a minor 
component of the Pseudotsuga-Sclerophyll (mixed evergreen) vegetation type of the Siskiyou Mountains, the 
Tsuga heterophylla zone of coastal Oregon and Picea sitchensis zone of SW Oregon. (Draft CITES 
Proposal, 1994) 

Population Status and Trends 

The current range of C. lawsoniana is limited to approx. 64 km wide along the Pacific Coast extending 
from SW Oregon to northern California; there are a few smaller isolated stands inland in the valleys of the 
Trinity and Sacramento rivers. By 1990 the volume of Port Orford Cedar had been reduced to 1.1 million 
m 3 from 2.2 million m 3 in 1963 (Draft CITES Proposal, 1994). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

C. lawsoniana is a crucial species in the aquatic/riparian ecosystems within its range; it is important for 
strambank and floodplain stability, shade, water temperature, and decay-resistant wood (Draft CITES 
Proposal, 1994). Loss of this species directly affects fish (i.e. Coho, Chum, Chinook Salmon) and 
amphibians. 

Threats 

The natural stands of Port Orford Cedar are being heavily logged to meet the export demand (Draft CITES 
Proposal, 1994). C. lawsoniana is also threatened by a fast spreading, untreatable fungal disease 
(Phytophthora lateralis & cinnamomi) (Conifer SSC, 1996). The transport of diseased wood on logging 
tracks is causing this disease to spread into healthy populations (Draft CITES Proposal, 1994). It is thought 
that the disease can also be dispersed by vehicles driving from infected areas into non-infected areas (Draft 
CITES Proposal, 1994). 

Utilisation 

Used for timber. It is also planted as an ornamental. 

Trade 

This species has a minor domestic market. Most of the timber is exported as unprocessed logs to Japan and 
other Asian countries. Between 1980 and 1988, 307,000 m 3 were exported making US$ 195 million, making 
Port Orford Cedar one of the more valuable species being traded (Draft CITES Proposal, 1994). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Threat Category and Criteria: VU (Ald.e) (Farjon, 1996). 

Conservation Measures 

This species occurs in several National Parks and National Forests (Siskyou, Six Rivers, Klamath, Trinity). 
It also occurs in isolated groves in Sinslaw and Shasta National Forests. C. lawsoniana is found in Spotted 
Owl forest and most likely well protected (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

43 



This species is widely cultivated and is grown in plantations (Conifer SSC, 1996); however, P. lateralis 
threatens to destroy most of the commercial stands of this species (Draft CITES Proposal, 1994). 

References 

Conifer SSC, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March, 1996. 
Draft CITES Proposal, 1994. Proposal to include Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in Appendix II of CITES. 
Farjon, A., 1996. A letter from Aljos Farjon re: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana to Dr. J. Belsky dated 20 

August, 1996. 



44 



Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana 

Distribution 

This taxon is endemic to Taiwan. 

Habitat 

This temperate species is found in moist coniferous montane forests with a seasonal climate. It is found at 
altitudes between 1800-2500m. 

Population Status and Trends 

C. obtusa var. formosana has been declining since 1960, although it is still abundant in its range (Conifer 
SSC, 1996). 

Regeneration 

Seeds of the species are wind dispersed. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

This shade tolerant species is associated with Chamaecyparis formosensis and other conifers. 

Threats 

C. obtusa var. formosana is threatened by over-exploitation, habitat loss and changes in land 
use/management (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

Utilisation 

It is a timber species. 

Trade 

Currently no evidence of international trade in this species is known. 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Threat Category and Criteria: VU (Alc.d) (Conifer SSC, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

There is an important population of C. obtusa var. formosana in Yuanyang Lake reserve. 

References 

Conifer SSC, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of the WCMC/SSC 
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March, 1996. 



45 



Copaifera salikounda 

Etimoe; Bubinga 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cote d'lvoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. 

Habitat 

This species is most abundant in evergreen forests, although most large trees are found in wet, flat, 
disturbed areas. It is not limited to the above habitat types; it does, however, prefer moist to wet habitats 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

C. salikouna is common in Ghana although there is a low density of larger trees. There appears to be a lot 
of regeneration, especially around mother trees. It is a shade tolerant tree (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The seeds of this species are probably dispersed by birds, although many fall to the ground beneath the 
parent tree (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

In Ghana this species is threatened by over-exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Utilisation 

Trade 

This species is available from specialist timber traders in the UK. It is also recorded in trade with German 
and the USA. 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is common in Ghana but under 
pressure from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. This species is considered Vulnerable 
under the new (1994) IUCN threat categories (Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute:Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 



46 



Cordia millenii 

Omo 

Distribution 

Widespread in tropical Africa, this species occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Cote 
d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

C. millenii grows in closed forests and old secondary formations. 

Larger trees of this species (considering C. millenii and C. platythyrsa together) prefer undisturbed, well- 
drained areas while the smaller trees are more commonly found in disturbed forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 



Vegetation types according to White (1983) 

1. Transitional rain forest of the Lake Victoria regional mosaic 

The Kakamega forest in Kenya has several Guineo-Congolian lowland rain forest species including Cordia 

millenii. 



Population Status and Trends 

In Ghana, this species is common (Hawthorne, 1995a). It is only known from a few locations in Kenya and 
in these areas the populations are declining due to habitat loss (FAO, 1986). 

Regeneration 

This is a light-demanding species, as regeneration and large trees are doubled in density in forest where 
there has been disturbance (ie. logged or burnt) when compared to undisturbed forest (Hawthorne, 1995a) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

In Uganda the fruits are probably dispersed by frugivorous primates (Plumptree el al, 1994 in Hawthorne, 
1995a). 

Threats 

This species is threatened by habitat loss (FAO, 1986) 

Utilisation 

The wood is thought to be impenetrable to termites and is, therefore, used for furniture, joinery, roof 
shingles, canoes, household utensils and other decorative work. It is used for making musical instruments in 
Uganda (FAO, 1986). It is also used as firewood. Locally this species is used as a shade tree. A decoction 
of leaves are used to treat roundworm, ground up seeds mixed with palm oil are taken against ringworm, 
and the dried leaves are smoked in Nigeria for asthma, coughs and colds. 

Trade 

No information. 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: LR (lc) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

According to Hawthorne (1995a) this species is not of particular conservation concern in Ghana and has 

been awarded a green star in his star categorization system. 

Conservation Measures 

This species is considered a priority species for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. 

47 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute:Oxford. 

pp.345. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. D. N'Sosso contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



48 



Cordia platythyrsa 

Mukumari 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Ghana, Cote D'lvoire, Liberia and Sierra Leone. 

Habitat 

It is found in closed forests and in old secondary formations and is a common pioneer species. 
Larger trees of these species (considering C. millenii and C. platythyrsa together) prefer undisturbed, well- 
drained areas while the smaller trees are more commonly found in disturbed forest. 

Population Status and Trends 

Regeneration 

C. platythyrsa is a light demanding species, as regeneration and large trees are doubled in density in forest 
where there has been disturbance (ie. logged or burnt) when compared to undisturbed forest The species is 
regenerating well in Ghana, especially along new logging roads (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

C. platythyrsa can reach a height of 23m or dbh of 23cm after four years of growth in open areas 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). In Sierra Leone, the mean annual increments vary between 3.3 and 6.3 cm for the first 
18 years (Saville & Fox, 1967 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The fruits (fleshy drupes) of this species are probably dispersed by animals, including elephants 

(Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species suffers from some exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995a&b). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for furniture, joinery, and other decorative work. 

Trade 

No information. 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Under Hawthorne's (1995) star categorization system, C. platythyrsa scores a pink star which indicates that 
it is common and moderately exploited in Ghana. Hawthorne (1995b) considers this species Least Concern 
(or systematically Vulnerable) under the new (1994) IUCN threat categories. 

Conservation Measures 

This species is planted in a limited scale by the Forest Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) (African 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute:Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 

49 



Cupressus dupreziana 

Saharan Cypress 

Distribution 

This species is restricted to the Tassili N'Ajjer Massif in Algeria. 

Habitat 

Cupressus dupreziana is found in dry sparsely vegetated areas between 1700 and 1900m. 

Population Status and Trends 

There are 153 individuals remaining within an area of 200km 2 . There is no longer regeneration in the wild 
probably due to a water shortage as a result only the larger trees can reach the water table. The trees are 
producing viable seeds that can withstand climatic extremes (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

This species is associated with Rhus tripartitum, Pituranthos chloranthos, Olea laperrini, Lavendula 
pubescens, Myrtus rivellii, Nerium oleander and Tamarix articulata. 

Threats 

Grazing has been reported to destroy any regeneration of this species (Lucas and Synge, 1978) 

Utilisation 

Previously a major source of timber for local use, C. dupreziana also used to be cut for firewood, but is 
now too rare to support any form of utilisation. It has been suggested that this species could be valuable for 
planting in arid areas (Lucas and Synge, 1978). 

Trade 

No current trade. 

Conservation Status 

Conservation Measures 

The majority of this species is contained in the popular tourist site, the Tassili N'Agger National Park 
valley, which has been designated a World Heritage Site. The trees are guarded against cutting in this area 
(Conifer SSC, 1996). This species is cultivated on a small scale. It can be cultivated quite easily in Algiers 
and in Britain (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

References 

Conifer SSC, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March, 1996. 
Lucas, G.L. and Synge, H. 1979). The IUCN Plant Red Data Book. IUCN, Switzerland. 



SO 



Dalbergia cochinchinensis 

Payung; Thailand Rosewood 

Distribution 

This species is found in Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Viet Nam. 

Habitat 

It occurs in dry and moist evergreen forests mostly at 400-500 m. This species prefers deep, sandy, clay 
soil and calcareous soil, but it is not demanding as to the soil condition. 

Population Status and Trends 

In Vietnam, D. cochinchinensis is found south of Quang Nam-Da Nang, mainly in Gia Lai and Kon Turn; it 
in other provinces it is sparsely distributed in a few localities (Chinh et al, 1996). 

Regeneration 

This species is shade tolerant as a sapling and becomes light demanding. D. cochinchinensis has quite a 
slow growth rate. It regenerates well by coppicing (Chinh et al, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Deforestation and exploitation are threats to this species. 

Utilisation 

D. cochinchinensis is considered a 'first class prime timber', as it is hard, durable, easy to work and 
resistant to insects. The distinctive heartwood makes beautiful patterns when cut and the wood is used to 
make furniture, carvings, musical instruments and sewing machines (Chinh et al, 1996). 

Trade 

No specific information on trade in this species is available. 

Conservation Status 

This species is considered Vulnerable in Vietnam (Chinh et al, 1996). 

D. cochinchinensis has not yet been evaluated using the new IUCN threat categories. However, the 
deforestation rates over the range of this species indicates that this species is likely to be Endangered (EN 
Ale) under the new IUCN categories. Confirmation of this categorisation by local experts is awaited. 

Conservation Measures 

A current IPGRI project is looking at the distribution of genetic resources of this species in its range 
countries. 

References 

Chinh, N.N, Chung, C.T., Can, V.V., Dung, N.X., Dung, N.K., Dao, N.K., Hop, T., Oanh, T.T., 

Quynh, N.B., Thin, N.N., 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Forest Inventory and Planning Institute. 
Agricultural Publishing House: Hanoi, pp.788. 



51 



Dalbergia stevensonii 

Honduras Rosewood 

Distribution 

This species is endemic to Belize. It is restricted to the southern part of the country between latitudes 16- 
17° N. 

Habitat 

This species has been reported to occur in fairly large patches along rivers but also on inter-riverain and 
drier areas; mostly between Sarstoon and Monkey Rivers (Chudnoff, 1984). 

Population Status and Trends 

No specific information is available. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

No specific information is available. 

Utilisation 

This wood is used for speciality items including musical instruments, knife handles and veneers for fine 
furniture (Burton, in lift., 1991). 

Trade 

The quantity available on the commercial market is very limited because of restricted growth areas (Flynn, 
1994). 

Conservation Status 

No information is available on the conservation status of this species in the WCMC Plants Database. D. 
stevensonii has not yet been evaluated using the new IUCN categories of threat. However, considering that 
the recorded total area of forest cover in Belize was 16,864 km 2 in 1993 (Harcourt & Sayer, 1996), it is 
probable that this species will fall into at least the Vulnerable category (under criterion B, due to the 
restricted distribution). Confirmation of this categorisation by local experts is awaited. 

Conservation Measures 

No specific information. 

References 

Chudnoff, M., 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook No. 607. 
Flynn, J.H., 1994. A guide to useful woods of the world. King Philip Publishing Co: Portland, Maine, US 
Harcourt C.S. and Sayer, J. A. (Eds), 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. 
Simon & Schuster:Singapore. 



52 



Diospyros celebica 

Maccassar Ebony; Black Ebony 

Distribution 

This species is endemic to Sulawesi. 

Habitat 

This species is found in rain and monsoon forests; however, D. celebica can grow in both humid conditions 
and in seasonal climates. It can survive on a variety of soils (e.g. latosols, calcareous, and podzolic soils) 
(PROSEA, 1995). It occurs in undulating areas upto 600m above sea level (Sidiyasa, in lift., 1994). 

Population Status and Trends 

Once a widespread species in Sulawesi, it is now comparatively rare, especially in the south (PROSEA, 
1995). When present in a forest it tends to be scattered irregularly (PROSEA, 1995). 

Regeneration 

Flowering and fruiting occurs at the age of 5-7 years in D. celebica (PROSEA, 1995). The seeds remain 
viable for only a short time. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Seeds are dispersed by bats, birds and monkeys (PROSEA, 1995). It is often found with Homalium 
celebicum (PROSEA, 1995). 

Threats 

D. celebica is threatened by heavy exploitation since it is an important source of streaked ebony (PROSEA, 
1995). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for turnery, piano keys, carving, brush backs, inlaying, parts of stringed instruments and 
marquetry. 

Trade 

This species has been exported from Sulawesi since the 18th century. Export of this wood peaked in 1973 at 
26,000 m 3 , since then export has significantly decreased because few trees remain (PROSEA, 1995). 

Japan is the primary market for this species, but it is also exported to Europe and the U.S.. 

Illegal logging and trade has been reported (Draft CITES Proposal, 1994). 

Conservation Status 

This species has an old IUCN global threat status of Rare in the WCMC Plants Database. The new IUCN 
threat categories have not yet been applied to this species. 

Conservation Measures 

In Sulawesi, D. celebica is protected and there is a quota system in place (CITES Proposal, 1994). The 
Indonesian Government has already started a planting programme of D. celebica; it has not, however, been 
planted on a large commercial scale (Sidiyasa, in litt., 1994). 



53 



References 

CITES Proposal, 1994. Proposal to include Diospyros celebica in Appendix II of CITES. 

Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. and W.C. Wong (Eds.), 1995. Plant Resources of South-East 

Asia (PROSEA) No. 5(2) Timber Trees.Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 

655 pp. 
Sidiyasa, K., 1994. Letter to Sara Oldfield re: Diospyros celebica, Intsia bijuga, Intsia palembanica. Dated 

28th April, 1994. 



54 



Diospyros crassiflora 

African Ebony 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Gabon, Nigeria, and Zaire. 

Habitat 

D. crassiflora is a lowland rainforest species. 

Population Status and Trends 

Virtually all big trees of the species have been marketed except in remote areas and the species is 
considered to be threatened in several countries such as Cameroon and Congo (WCMC, 1991a). Few large 
trees of the species remain in Nigeria (WCMC, 1991b). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

According to White (pers. comm., 1990 in WCMC, 1991b), this species is at risk as a commercial source 
of Ebony. 

Utilisation 

A speciality wood used for small parts of musical instruments, carvings and items of turnery. 

Trade 

Until recently, European demand for this species was limited as it is not considered a fashionable timber 
(WCMC, 1991), but this situation may now be changing. Zaire is the main exporter of this species. It is 
also of commercial importance in Congo, Cameroon, and Gabon. In the 1960s around 70 tonnes of wood 
were exported annually from Cameroon (WCMC, 1991). In 1994, Gabon exported 35 cu m (ITTO, 1995b). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

Special permission is required for utilization in Cameroon. 
Regeneration measures are required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
ITTO, 1995b. Results of the 1995 forecasting and statistical enquiry for the Annual Review. ITTC(XIX)/4 
WCMC, 1991a. Pre-project study on the conservation status of tropical timbers in trade. Volume 1 . ITTO 

Report PPR 23/91 (M) 
WCMC, 1991b. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



55 



Diospyros philippinensis 

synonyms: Diospyros cunalon 

Diospyros cumingii 

Diospyros flavicans 
Philippine Ebony; Kamagong 

Distribution 

This species is endemic to the Philippines and Northern Sulawesi. 

Habitat 

Philippine ebony grows in primary forest at altitudes up to 200 m (PROSEA, 1995). 

Population Status and Trends 

Very little lowland forest remains in the Philippines. Records of D. philippinensis are often from forest 
fragments or from habitats smaller than 50 km 2 (Madulid, in lift., 1996) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

According to Madulid (1996) this species is rarely exploited for timber. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for turnery, piano keys, carving, brush backs, inlaying, parts of stringed instruments and 
marquetry. 

Trade 

D. philippinensis from the Philippines is not legally traded in the international market, therefore no official 
records exist (Madulid, 1996). Illegal trade in D. philippinensis is widespread, even though there has been a 
ban on log exports since 1989 (Blockus et al, 1992 in CITES Proposal). In 1991, a shipment of illegally cut 
Diospyros sp. (Kamagong) worth US$ 90,171 was seized in a Philippines port before it was illegally 
exported to Malaysia (Callister, 1992 in Madulid, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

The global threat status of D. philippinensis is unknown according to the WCMC Plants Database. The 
Philippines has had one of the highest deforestation rates for tropical rain forests (Collins, Sayer, and 
Whitmore 1991), making this species probably Endangered due to decline in habitat of more than 50 % in 
three generations, although more information is needed for Northern Sulawesi. 

Conservation Measures 

Philippine ebony is protected in the Philippines (PROSEA, 1995) and felling restrictions are in force. 

D. philippinensis is found in many of the Philippine protected areas (i.e. Mount Arayat National Park, 
Mounts Palay Palay Mataas NA Gulod National Park, Initai National Park) (Dep't of Environment and 
Natural Resources, 1992 in CITES Proposal). 
There are no known plantations of D. philippinensis in the Philippines (Madulid, in litt., 1996) 



56 



References 

CITES Proposal, 1992. Proposal to include Diospyros philippinensis in Appendix II of CITES. 

Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. and W.C. Wong (Eds.), 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 

(PROSEA) No. 5(2) Timber Trees-Minor commercial timbers. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 655 

pp. 
Madulid, D. A., 1996. Letter to Amy MacKinven dated 11th July 1996 re: Diospyros pilosanthera and D. 

philippinensis. 
Collins, N.M., Sayer, J.A. and Whitmore, T.C. (Eds), 1991. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: 

Asia and the Pacific. Simon & Schuster: Singapore. 



57 



Diospyros pilosanthera 

synonym: Diopspyros hiernii 

Distribution 

This widespread species is found in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Viet Nam, Peninsular Malaysia, 
Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Moluccas) and the Philippines. 

Habitat 

D. pilosanthera occurs in primary lowland and medium altitude forest (upto 900m) and is frequently found 
in peat swamp forest, swampy areas, and in river valley forests. This species can also be found in forests 
on rocky slopes, in old-growth secondary forests and in open forests near the coast (Madulid in litt., 1996) 

Population Status and Trends 

Records of D. pilosanthera are often from forest fragments or from habitats smaller than 50 km 2 (Madulid, 
in litt., 1996) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 
No information. 

Threats 

According to Madulid (1996) this species is rarely exploited for timber. 

The forests containing D. pilosanthera have been degraded by legal and illegal logging and loss of habitat 

due to land conversion (i.e. agricultural land, grassland). 

Utilisation 

The wood is used for fancy woodwork, furniture, cabinet making and tool handles. 

Trade 

D. pilosanthera from the Philippines is not legally traded in the international market, therefore no official 
records exist. 

In 1991, a shipment of illegally cut Diospyros sp. (Kamagong) worth US$ 90,171 was seized in the port 
before it was illegally exported to Malaysia (Callister, 1992 in Madulid, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

The global threat status of D. pilosanthera is unknown according to the WCMC Plants Database. 
The new IUCN threat categories have not yet been applied to this species. 

Conservation Measures 

D, pilosanthera occurs in the protected forests of Palawan and Mt. Makiling, Philippines (Madulid, in litt., 
1996); the rest of the range in the Philippines (i.e. any public land) are under the jurisdiction of the Dep't 
of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). There are no known plantations of D. pilosanthera in the 
Philippines (Madulid, 1996). 

References 

Madulid, D. A., 1996. Letter to Amy MacKinven dated 11th July 1996 re: Diospyros pilosanthera and D. 
philippinensis. 



58 



Eribroma oblonga 

synonym: Sterculia oblonga 
Yellow Sterculia; Eyong 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia and 
Nigeria. 

Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition zones 



It is a lowland rainforest species of transition forests between humid evergreen and semi-deciduous forest 
and it also occurs in secondary forests. 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). It is also common in Nigeria and Cameroon 
(African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

The seedlings are shade tolerant, but the larger trees are definite light demanders (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The seeds are probably dispersed by birds (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

E. oblonga is exploited for its timber. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for decorative veneers, furniture and construction work. 

Trade 

Cote d'lvoire exported 246m 3 of E. oblonga plywood for an average price of US$3974. 36/m 3 in 1994 
(ITTO, 1995a). In 1987, Gabon exported 16m 3 from Owendo (IUCN, 1990). Gabon exported 987.165 m 3 
of Eyong in 1994 and 1,893.308 m 3 in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

According to Hawthorne (1995a), this species is of no particular conservation concern and was awarded a 

green star for Ghana. 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration work is necessary (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 

59 



Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



60 



Fitzroya cupressoides 

Alerce 

Distribution 

This species is found in Chile and in the provinces of Chubut, Neuquen and Rio Negro and the adjacent 
areas of Argentina. 

Habitat 

F. cupressoides is a lowland, closed forest species. It occurs in scattered stands from sea level to 1200m 
(Golte, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

F. cupressoides has been logged since the middle of the seventeenth century (Golte, 1996) and has been 
removed completely from parts of its range. It is estimated that by the early 1900's that 50,000 ha, 
approximately one third of the original Fitzroya stands had been cleared by the local people and that to date 
this species has been reduced to an estimated 15% (approx. 20,000 ha) of the original range (Golte, 1996). 
Clear-cutting and human-set fires have resulted in the replacement of Fitzroya forests in the Andes (Conifer 
SSC, 1996). There is poor regeneration (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

F. cupressoides is an extremely slow growing species; it can take up to 200 years to reach maturity (Conifer 
SSC, 1996) and it can live as long as 3000 years (Golte, 1996). Regeneration of F. cupressoides is 
correlated with longevity and regeneration is stimulated by large scale natural disturbance such as a 
landslide or the deposition of volcanic ash. Unfortunately, regeneration does not take place after clear 
cutting (Golte, 1996). 

Threats 

This species is threatened by extensive logging; it is also threatened by loss of habitat due to expansion of 
human populations and human-set fires (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The exceptionally durable wood of this species is used mainly for house construction and roof shingles 
(Golte, 1996). 

Trade 

Illegal felling is occurring at alarming rates in Chile and they are illegally exporting this species by 
circumventing CITES restrictions (Conifer SSC, 1996). It is difficult to control the illegal exploitation of F. 
cupressoides in the more remote forests of the Andes and the coastal ranges (Golte, 1996). 

In 1990, Chile exported 41876m 3 of Fitzroya cupressoides the majority to East Germany and the United 
Kingdom. In 1991, 3164m 3 of the timber was exported together with 2667727 timber pieces. An additional 
772422 items of timber were reported to be imported by Japan in the same year. In 1992, Chile reported 
exporting 3148m 3 of Fitzroya cupressoides. Except for the trade reported by Japan in 1991, and relatively 
small imports reported by the United States, 85m 3 (1991) and 168m 3 (1992), the majority of the exports of 
Fitzroya cupressoides recorded by Chile were not reported by the corresponding importers. Exports to 
CITES parties are recorded as pre-convention, that is from stocks acquired before 1 July 1975 (Oldfield and 
Collins, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Ale) (Conifer SSC, 1996). 



61 



Conservation Measures 

This species is included in Appendix I of CITES but Chile entered a reservation in 1987 against this listing 
thus legally treating it as if included in Appendix II. 

Chile declared Fitzroya cupressoides a National Monument in 1976 and both Chile and Argentina have 
prohibited logging of this species (Conifer SSC, 1996). 

In 1991, a total of 2,309 ha of F. cupressoides were are protected in Chile as the 'Monumento Natural 
Alerce Costero' and it is also found in Chile's Alerce Andino National Park. In Argentina, Fitzroya stands 
are found in the Los Alerces National Park (Golte, 1996). 

References 

Conifer SSC, 1996. Discussions held by the SSC Conifer Specialist Group as part of the WCMC/SSC 

Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. March, 1996. 
Golte, W., 1996. Exploitation and conservation of Fitzroya cupressoides in southern Chile. In: Temperate 

Trees Under Threat. Ed. D. Hunt. International Dendrology Society:Great Britain. 
Oldfleld, S.F. and Collins, L. (1996) Review and Improvement of National Reporting for trade in Plants 

listed in the Appendices of CITES 1990-1994 Phase II. Unpublished report prepared on behalf of 

the CITES Secretariat. WCMC 



62 



Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum 

Agba 

Distribution 

The genus Gossweilerodendron is endemic to the Guineo-Congolian region (White, 1983). 

G. balsamiferum occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

This shade-tolerant species usually grows in mature little-disturbed forest (evergreen or semi-deciduous) and 
occurs at elevations below 500m. This species flourishes on ferruginous soils derived from secondary 
sediments. 

Population Status and Trends 

It is absent or rare from part of its range within the main Nigeria\Zaire forest block (WCMC, 1991). 

In the Congo, in the forest zone between Louesse and Niari of Makabana, stands of G. balsamiferum are 
found with 5 or 6 exploitable trees per hectare (N'Sosso in litt, 1995). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is declining because of heavy exploitation, habitat loss and a lack of a plantation programme 
(FAO, 1986). 

Utilisation 

The main uses of G. balsamiferum is in plywood manufacturing and for furniture, flooring, household 
fittings and light construction. 

Trade 

In 1994, 22m 3 of this species was exported as sawnwood from Congo (ITTO, 1995a). From the port of 
Owendo in Gabon, 6,002 m 3 were exported in 1987 (IUCN, 1990). Gabon exported 18,660.055 m 3 in 1994 
and 27,307.858 m 3 in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

FAO (1986) recommended that the genetic material of this species should be protected so that a future 
planting programme could be set up. A planting programme should be initiated (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
FAO, 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances . FAO Forestry Paper 

77:Rome. pp. 524. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 

63 



N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. D. N'Sosso contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris :Unesco. pp.356. 



64 



Guarea cedrata 

Guarea; light bosse 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, 
Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

G. cedrata trees are most common in moist semi-deciduous forest and in the dryer undisturbed areas of 
moist evergreen forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

2. Guineo-Congolian short forest and shrub forest 

3. Upland Parinari excelsa forest in West Africa 



Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Seedlings and saplings are often found in shady areas and tend to thrive in undisturbed areas rather than in 
disturbed areas; trees of all sizes are much more abundant in areas that have not been burnt (Hawthorne, 
1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The fruits are eaten and the seeds are most likely dispersed by birds and animals (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species is moderately exploited (Hawthorne, 1995a&b). 

Utilisation 

Timber from this species is used for furniture, joinery, panelling, boat building, decorate veneers, turnery 
and flooring. 

Trade 

Ghana exported 2,450 m 3 of G. cedrata logs for an average price of US$ 221.00/m 3 in 1994 (ITTO, 
1995a), 3,710 m 3 of air dried sawnwood for US$ 424.00 and kiln dried sawnwood for US$ 563.00/m 3 
(ITTO, 1995a). 

Gabon exported 1,669 m 3 from Owendo in 1987 (IUCN, 1990). The following amounts of Bosse (both G. 
cedrata and G. thompsonii) were exported from Gabon: 3,179.028 m 3 in 1994 and 3,572.884 in 1995 
(DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Under Hawthorne's (1995a) star categorization system, G. cedrata scores a pink star which indicates that it 
is common and moderately exploited. Under the new IUCN threat categories (1994) this species is 
considered Vulnerable (Hawthorne, 1995b) 



65 



Conservation Measures 

This species is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. Regeneration work required. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



66 



Guarea thompsonii 

Dark Guarea 

Distribution 

This species is found in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

This shade tolerant species is found moist and evergreen forest hillsides. 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congoiian rain forest 



Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

The seedlings are less commonly found in the shade when compared to G. cedrata, and some light exposure 

seems necessary for seedlings until a size of 15cm dbh is reached (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

It takes almost 200 years to reach a 9 foot dbh, and is therefore relatively slow growing (Keay, 1961 in 
Hawthorne, 1995a) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information 

Threats 

No specific information. 

Utilisation 

Timber from this species is used for furniture, joinery, panelling, boat building, decorate veneers, turnery 
and flooring. 

Trade 

G. thompsonii is not as commercially important as G. cedrata, although it is moderately exploited 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). The following amounts of Bosse (both G. cedrata and G. thompsonii) were exported 
from Gabon: 3,179.028 m 3 in 1994 and 3,572.884 in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d,) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Under Hawthorne's (1995a) star categorization system, G. thompsonii scores a pink star which indicates that 
it is common and moderately exploited in Ghana. Under the new IUCN threat categories (1994) this species 
is considered Vulnerable (Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 



67 



Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: 

Oxford, pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



68 



Guibourtia ehie 
Ovangkol;Amazone;Hyedua 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria. 

Habitat 

G. ehie is a forest species, preferring closed rainforests and transitional forests (WCMC, 1991). 
In Ghana, it is successful in the dryer areas of moist semi-deciduous forest (Hawthome,1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana, particularly in the north-west of the country. All sizes of tree do better 
in unburnt rather that burnt forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Seed dispersal is mainly by wind. Seedlings are found clustered around the parent tree and often remain 
gregarious in advanced stages of regeneration (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species suffers from high rates of exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a&b). 

Utilisation 

The wood of this species is a popular substitute for Rosewood. It is used for fine furniture and cabinetwork, 
turnery, decorative veneers and flooring (WCMC, 1991). 

Trade 

This species is increasingly available in the U.S.. It is exported by Gabon; in 1987, 15,450m 3 were 
exported from Owendo (IUCN, 1990), in 1994, a total of 8,607.596 m 3 were exported (DIAF, 1996) and in 
1995, 10,533.197 m 3 were exported (DIAF, 1996). The export of this species in log form is banned by 
Ghana. 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
For Ghana, Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is common but under 
pressure from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. Under the new IUCN threat categories 
(1994) this species is considered Vulnerable (Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration measures are required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 



69 



IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 

Hallea ledermanni 

synonyms: Mitragyna ciliata; Mitragyna ledermannii 
Abura 

Distribution 

Abura occurs in the coastal regions of the following West Africa countries: Angola, Benin, Cameroon, 
Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Zaire. 



Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian swamp forest and riparian forest 

Hallea ledermanni is widespread in this forest type. 



H. ledermannii is gregarious in freshwater swamps. This light-demanding species forms a narrow border 
along rivers and lagoons in high forest areas, grass plains, savanna and in swampy areas of deciduous and 
evergreen rain forests (FAO, 1986b) and occurs in areas that are periodically inundated. In Ghana it is often 
found outside forest reserves along rivers and in village swampland; it tends to have a patchy distribution 
around swamps, although it does not inhabit all swampy areas. It is found in the coastal regions of Nigeria 
(Keay, 1989 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

As noted above, H. ledermannii is widespread within swamp and riparian forest. Although information on 
population status and trends is not directly available this could be inferred from information on the extent 
and decline of its wetland habitats. 

Regeneration 

Regeneration requires fresh water conditions and this species thrives best in humid conditions where rainfall 
is over 1250mm/year and the temperature is between 25 °C and 35 °C. When in its preferred habitat 
regeneration is plentiful and successful and growth is rapid (FAO, 1986b). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

H. ledermanni releases lots of small winged seeds that can produce patches of regeneration on exposed mud 
(annon. 1958 in Hawthorne, 1995a). It can also reproduce vegetatively (FAO, 1986b). Commonly Abura is 
found in pure communities associating with species such as Gilbertiodendron, Randia lane-poolei, 
Symphonia globulifera, and Raphia vinifera (FAO, 1986b). 

Threats 

This species is suffering from over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Utilisation 

This is a general-purpose timber used in furniture production, joinery, domestic flooring, plywood, veneer, 
carving and transmission poles. H. ledermannii has some important medicinal properties, e.g. it is 
poisonous to paramecia and has analgesic properties, and many local medicinal uses (FAO, 1986b) 

Trade 

In 1994, 22,133 m 3 of Abura logs {Hallea ciliata) were exported from the Congo, 9,109 m 3 (@ US$ 
450.57/m 3 ) were exported from Cote d'lvoire and an unknown amount of Abura (Mitragyana ciliata) was 
exported from Gabon at an average price of US$ 27 .27/ 'm 3 (ITTO, 1995a). In the same year, 945 m 3 of 



70 



Abura {Hallea ciliata) sawnwood was exported from Congo and 463 m 3 of veneer Abura (Hallea ciliata) 
was exported from Cote d'lvoire for an average price of US$ 1680.61/m 3 (ITTO, 1995a). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is common but under pressure from 
exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN 
threat category) due to excessive exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

It is considered a priority for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. Ex-situ conservation work should be 
commenced and intensified (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
FAO, 1986b. Some medicinal forest plants of Africa and Latin America. FAO Paper 67. pp. 252. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute:Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland), pp.345. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris :Unesco. pp.356. 



71 



Haplormosia monophylla 

Akoriko 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. 

Habitat 

H. monophylla is found in swamp forest in lowland areas. 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is potentially declining (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Exploited as a timber species (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

This species is used for its timber. 

Trade 

No information. 
Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration work is required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 
held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 



72 



Khaya ivorensis 

Acajou; African Mahogany 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone, 
Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

In Ghana, this species occurs in many habitat types but seems to thrive best in moist and wet undisturbed 
evergreen forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

It is found scattered across almost the whole of Congo and is occasionally quite abundant (N'sosso, in litt. 
1995). African mahogany is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Trees of Khaya ivorensis can have good seed production at the age of 30; it seems that abundant seed 
production only occurs every 3-4 years, although some seed is produced every year. The seeds are wind 
dispersed (Hawthorne, 1995a). The species does not respond well to disturbance (burning or logging), as 
there is very little regeneration in disturbed areas. However, it does require small to medium light gaps for 
subsequent growth (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

4 

Threats 

It is over-exploited for its popular timber (WCMC, 1991). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for panelling, furniture, interior fittings and high quality joinery. 

Trade 

In 1989 Ghana exported 10,463m 3 of lumber of this species. In a questionnaire survey of UK traders carried 
out for the ITTO, source countries for this species were given as Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia and Zaire. 
Gabon also exports this species; in 1987, from Port Owendo 9,667m 3 were exported (IUCN, 1990), in 
1994, 5,303.158 m 3 were exported and in 1995, 7,510.019 m 3 were exported (DIAF, 1996). In 1994, 
Cameroon exported 12,000 cu m and Ghana exported 11,130 cu m (ITTO, 1995b). At the end of the 1980s, 
with the price increases for Brazilian Mahogany and Utile, Khaya has become popular again in the UK 
market (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
For Ghana, Hawthorne (1995a) has classified this a scarlet star species, which means it is common but 
under serious threat from heavy exploitation. Reduced exploitation and full protection are required. Under 
the new IUCN threat categories (1994) this species is considered Vulnerable (Hawthorne, 1995b). 

Conservation Measures 

K. ivorensis is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire and log export has been banned from Ghana and Liberia. It 
has been considered a priority species for in situ conservation by the FAO (1984). 
Pest control for Hypsilla is required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 



73 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 
ITTO, 1995b. Results of the 1995 forecasting and statistical enquiry for the Annual Review. ITTC(XIX)/4 

IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in lift. N'Sosso's contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



74 



Lophira alata 
Ekki; Azobe 

Distribution 

Azobe is found in Cameroon, the Congo Basin, Cote d'lvoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, 
Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Zaire. 

Habitat 

It grows in evergreen and moist deciduous forests, in freshwater swamp forests and close to river banks 
(WCMC, 1991). Although this species has a definite preference for wet evergreen areas, it is assumed to be 
sensitive to non-evergreen forest soils and is unsuccessful on rocky soils. L. alata is a pioneer species and is 
representative of a disturbed forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). It is also sensitive to drought (Swaine & 
Veenendaal, 1994 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Hygrophilous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Lophira alata is one of the most abundant species in this forest type and is indicative of earlier cultivation. 

2. Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 



Population Status and Trends 

Azobe is a common species in Cameroon and regenerates well (WCMC, 1991). It has been suggested that 
Cameroon forests with an abundance of this species were once disturbed by humans (Letouzey, 1960 in 
Hawthorne, 1995a). It is also common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The seeds of this species are wind dispersed. Light gaps are necessary for successful regeneration, as seed 
germination does not occur in shady understorey (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

It is estimated that is takes 220 years for a tree to reach a girth of 2.7m in Nigeria Leone) (Keay, 1961 in 
Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species is threatened by over-exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995a&b) 

Utilisation 

Azobe is used for heavy durable construction work, harbour work, flooring and in railway construction. The 
fruits can be used to make an edible oil. 

Trade 

L. alata logs were exported from Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana in 1994 (ITTO, 1995a). 
Cameroon exported 49 000m 3 at an average price of US$20O.O0/m 3 , Cote d'lvoire exported 8 351m 3 at an 
average price of US$219.43/m 3 , Ghana exported 1 970m 3 at an average price of US$13 1.00/m 3 and Gabon 
exported an unknown volume at an average price of US$1 1 .46/m 3 (ITTO, 1995a). 
Gabon exported a total of 12,416.85 m 3 in 1994 and 8,518.17 m 3 in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star for Ghana, which means it is 
common but under pressure from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. 



75 



Conservation Measures 

This species has been selected by FAO for conservation action because of heavy utilisation pressure 
(Palmberg, 1987). It is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. 

In Cameroon 277 ha have been planted. Regeneration work should be intensified (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio 

sobre silviculture y mejoraniento genetico. CIEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



76 



Lovoa swynnertonii 

Mukonguru 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire and Zimbabwe. 

Habitat 

It grows within wet evergreen forest. In Kenya, this species prefers sandy or loamy soils (FAO, 1986). In 
the Kwale district of Kenya this species is found in lowland forests dominated by Newtonia paucijuga, 
Milicia excelsa and Antiaris toxicaria and in the Meru district of Kenya it occurs in upland forest dominated 
by Newtonia buchanannii and Ocotea usambarensis (FAO, 1986). In Mozambique, this species is only 
known from the Garuso forests and in Zimbabwe is only known from the Chirinda forest where it is found 
on well-drained slopes of river banks (Flora Zambesiaca). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Zanzibar-Inhambane lowland rain forest 

2. Zanzibar-Inhambane undifferentiated forest 



Population Status and Trends 

L. swynnertonii is very sparsely distributed over its range and is only found in a few locations. It is not 
regenerating well (FAO, 1986). This species is at the edge of its range in Zimbabwe and is found in low 
densities in the Chirinda Forest (6km 2 ) where there are over 1000 individuals but no saplings (African 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

Seed is wind dispersed. Natural regeneration is reported to be poor (FAO, 1986). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is suffering from habitat loss. Excessive exploitation of the large seed-producing trees occurs 
and natural regeneration is poor. Plantations tend to be unsuccessful because of infestation by Hypsipyla 
(FAO, 1986). In Uganda the species is suffering from genetic erosion (Styles, in litt, 1991). 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for furniture production and has been used in Kenya for bridge construction. 

Trade 

No information. 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

This species' distribution has been greatly reduced, only a few trees remain in Zimbabwe and Mozambique 
(Styles, in litt, 1991). Bandeira (1996) considers this species to be Data Deficient (DD) under the new 
IUCN (1994) threat categories, due to lack of biological surveys in north Mozambique. L. swynnertonii is 
also rare in Tanzania and Uganda as it is at the fringe of its range (Styles, in litt., 1991). Styles (1991) felt 
that this species deserves endangered status. 



77 



Conservation Measures 

This species is found in a few protected forest reserves such as the Rau Forest, Tanzania, the Chirinda 
Forest, Zimbabwe, and the Meru Forest, Kenya (FAO, 1986). In Mozambique, there are no conservation 
measures being taken (Bandeira, in litt., 1996). Regeneration work is urgently required (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Bandeira, S., 1996. Application of the new IUCN categories to trees of Mozambique for the WCMC 

Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees Project. 
FAO, 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances . FAO Forestry Paper 

77: Rome. pp. 524. 
Flora Zambesiaca 
Styles, B.T., 1991. In Litt. Letter to Sara Oldfield. 






78 



Lovoa trichilioides 

African Walnut; Dibetou 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Cote dTvoire, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra 
Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

African walnut occurs in evergreen and deciduous forests, preferring moist sites and tends to be gregarious 
(WCMC, 1991). It shows a strong preference for acidic, base poor soil (Hawthorne, 1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

2. Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest in the Guinea-Congolian/Zambezia 
regional transition zone. 



Population Status and Trends 

Dibetou is found all over Congo, however it is generally quite rare (N'sosso, in litt. 1995). It is common in 
Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995). 

Regeneration 

Seeds of this species are wind-dispersed. Copious seed production of this species seems to occur every 3-4 
years in Nigeria (Sanders, 1953 in Hawthorne, 1995a). The viability of seeds is shortlived and they are 
heavily predated (Sanders, 1953 in Hawthorne, 1995a). The seedlings are shade tolerant, however, they will 
only develop when there is a light gap in the canopy and seem to require more light once the tree reaches 
larger sizes (Hawthorne, 1995a). Lovoa initially has a slower growth rate than Khaya ivorensis, but the 
growth rate does not slow down as it does in K. ivorensis. It is predicted to take 106 years to reach a girth 
of 9 ft (Keay, 1961 in Hawthorne, 1995). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Exploitation for international trade. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for furniture and cabinetwork, decorative veneers, panelling, joinery and shop fittings. 

Trade 

The timber is exported by Gabon and Zaire. It is one of the two main species exploited in the Congo 
(WCMC, 1991). 

Cameroon exported 15,000 m 3 of Dibetou logs at an average price of US$390.00/m 3 in 1994 (ITTO, 1995). 
Ghana exported sawnwood at an average price of US$467 .00/m 3 for air dried wood and US$567. 00/m 3 for 
kiln dried wood (ITTO, 1995). In 1987, Gabon exported 4,653 m 3 from Owendo (IUCN, 1990). Gabon 
exported only lm 3 of sawnwood at a price of US$108.00/m 3 in 1994 (ITTO, 1995) but according to the 
Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements des Forets a total of 8,427.548 m3 was exported from Gabon in 
1994. In 1995, Gabon exported 8,923.279 m3 of Dibetou (DIAF, 1996). In 1994, Cote d'lvoire exported 
146m 3 of Dibetou as a veneer at an average price of US$2007. 74/m 3 (ITTO, 1995). 



79 



Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is common but 
under pressure from exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. 

Conservation Measures 

It is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire and is subject to Ghanaian and Liberian log export bans. 
6380 ha have been planted in Cameroon (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 
ITTO, 1995. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. N'Sosso's contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 






80 



Mansonia altissima 

Mansonia 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Ghana, and Nigeria. 

Habitat 

M. altissima prefers dry fertile forest soil over wet forest and tend to be drought tolerant (Hawthorne 
1995a). 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition zones. 

Mansonia altissima is frequent in the peripheral semi-evergreen lowland rain forest but is absent from 

wetter types. 



Population Status and Trends 

Mansonia is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

The fruits are wind dispersed; seed germination does not occur in large light gaps (Kyereh, 1994 in 
Hawthorne, 1995a) and seedlings prefer shade for the first two years (Taylor in Hawthorne, 1995a), but 
after that period the species is a definite light demander (Hawthorne, 1995a). Smaller adult trees (< 60cm 
dbh) are more common in disturbed forest (i.e. logged or burnt) (Hawthorne, 1995a). More seedlings are 
found in disturbed areas (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

In Ghana this species is moderately exploited for its timber (Hawthorne, 1995a&b). 

Utilisation 

Trade 

Imports: Austria, Portugal and the USA are listed by the ITTO (1995a) as importing Mansonia logs in 
1994. Portugal, Sweden and the USA imported Mansonia sawnwood in 1994 (ITTO, 1995a). 

Exports: Cote d'lvoire exported 314 m 3 of Mansonia veneer in 1994 for an average price of US$ 
2,706.22/m 3 (ITTO, 1995a). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). For Ghana this species has been awarded a pink star in Hawthorne's (1995a) star 
system, which means that it is common and moderately exploited. 

Conservation Measures 

This species is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. It is considered a priority for in situ conservation by 
FAO, 1984. The export of this species in log form is banned by Ghana. In Cameroon 420 ha have been 
planted (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 



81 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



82 



Microberlinia bisulcata 

Zebrano 

Distribution 

This species is endemic to Cameroon. 

Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 
1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Hygrophilous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Microberlinia bisulcata is gregarious in this region, forming almost pure stands with good regeneration 



Population Status and Trends 

Information is not available but could be inferred from the extent and rate of decline of the coastal 
evergreen rainforests in Cameroon. The species has a very limited distribution within Cameroon (Gartlan, in 
Hff. 1991). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

This is an ectomycorrhizal species and is efficient in phosphorus recycling. Ecophysiological work is 
currently being carried out on this species and related Leguminous species within Korup. 

Threats 

Cutting for the inernational market. 

Utilisation 

A speciality timber with white and black streaks used in turnery. 

Trade 

This timber fetches a high price (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: CR (Ale) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

In-situ conservation provided by Korup National Park and ex-situ conservation presently being undertaken 
by the Forest Research Station, Kumbu, Cameroon should be intensified (African Regional Workshop, 
1996) 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Gartlan, S. 1991. In litt. to WCMC. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



83 



Microberlinia brazzavillensis 

Zebrano; Zebra Wood 

Distribution 

This species is restricted to two coastal areas in Congo and Gabon (Fernan Vaz region). 

Habitat 

It is a forest species. 

Population Status and Trends 

The distribution is sparse in Gabon, with less than one individual per square kilometre (Wilks in litt., 1992). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The seeds of the this species are large and heavy and are, therefore, not dispersed far from the parent tree 
(Wilks in litt., 1990). 

Threats 

M. brazzavillensis is lightly logged (Wilks in litt., 1992). 

Utilisation 

This speciality timber is used for decorative veneers and turnery. It is also used in ski manufacture. 
(WCMC, 1991). 

Trade 

M. brazzavillensis is exported by both Gabon and the Congo (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: CR (Ale) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
Wilks, C, 1990. in litt. to Richard Luxmoore. 
Wilks, C, 1992. in litt. to Pete Atkinson. 



i 



84 



Milicia excelsa 

synonym: Chlorophora excelsa 
Iroko; Tule 

Distribution 

This species is widely distributed across Africa; it occurs in Angola, Benin, Burundi, Burkina Faso, Central 
African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Sao Tome & 
Principe, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, 
Zaire and Zimbabwe. 



Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition zones 
Milicia excelsa is also commonly found in wetter secondary forest types. 
Old secondary forest 

2. Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest in the Guinea-Congolia/Zambezia 
regional transition zone 

3. Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest in the Lake Victoria regional mosaic 

4. Zanzibar-Inhambane lowland rain forest 

5. Zanzibar-Inhambane undifferentiated forest 

6. Zanzibar-Inhambane secondary grassland and wooded grassland 

In this habitat type, M. excelsa from the original forest have been left standing. 

7. Principe 



M. excelsa is found in transitional vegetation between closed forests and savanna. It is often found in 
gallery forest and can be found in deciduous, semi -deciduous or evergreen forest. Occasionally it is found in 
isolated relict forests from sea level to about 1300m. It is fairly abundant in the drier areas of semi- 
deciduous Antiaris-Chlorophora forest (FAO, 1986b). 

Both M. excelsa and M. regia show a preference for dry, flat, light areas (Hawthorne, 1995a). Most 
effective seed germination occurs in half-shade, the seedlings are most commonly found in medium sized 
light gaps and then become light dependant (Hawthorne, 1995a). M. excelsa is considered to be a pioneer 
species which regenerates in disturbed, open areas and in logged forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

In Kenya, this species is found in relict moist forest and wooded grassland (Beentje, 1994) along the coast 
and in the central Meru district and Nyanza province (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). It has been found at an 
altitude of 4500 m on Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania; although, it is usually found between sea level and 
1200 m (FAO, 1986a). In West Africa this species is found in areas where rainfall is between 1 150mm and 
1900mm and the temperature is between 25 °C and 35 °C. 

Population Status and Trends 

Iroko is commonly found growing around villages and old farms as it is left to grow there because of its 

commercial value (FAO, 1986b). 

This species is abundant, especially in Cote d'lvoire, Cameroon, Congo, Gabon and Zaire (N'Sosso in litt, 

1995). It is also commonly found in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a) 

In Mozambique, M. excelsa is very scarce and dispersed (Moreno Saiz, 1996). This is also the case in 

Kenya where this species is now sparsely distributed due to heavy exploitation (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 



85 



Regeneration 

There is very little regeneration of this species in Zimbabwe (African Regional Workshop, 1996). In 
Mozambique, where an area was cleared but large trees of U. excelsa left standing, there seems to be 
regeneration in the open areas (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The fruit of this species contains many small seeds which are dispersed by bats and birds (Osmaston, 1965 
in Hawthorne, 1995a). Duikers and animals eat the newly emergent shoots (FAO, 1986b). 

Threats 

This species is heavily exploited in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a&b) and plantations of this species tend to be 
unsuccessful (FAO, 1986b). In Zimbabwe, M. excelsa is threatened by habitat degradation; it is found only 
in an area which is suffering from alluvial erosion. It is not, however, exploited in Zimbabwe (African 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

The high quality timber is used as a Teak substitute. It is widely used for all kinds of construction work and 
carpentry including domestic flooring, veneer and cabinetwork (WCMC, 1991). The timber is used for 
building ships and barrels. It is used externally because it has great resistance to bad weather (Moreno Saiz, 
1996). Locally, this species has many medicinal uses; the bark is also used as a dye (FAO, 1986b). The 
wood is also exploited by the local people (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Trade 

This species is not distinguished from Milicia regia by commercial logging companies (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Iroko is a major commercial species in international trade. Tanzania and Uganda were in the past major 
sources of the timber and some Iroko is still exported from E. Africa. In Kenya users of this species 
claimed that supplies were variable and unpredictable (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

West African countries are now the main exporters, especially Ghana (traded together with M. regia) and 
Cote dTvoire (WCMC, 1991). The UK imported 22 648m 3 in 1989. Cote dTvoire supplies 60% of the 
Iroko imported to the UK (WCMC, 1991). 

In 1987, 11,988m 3 were exported from Owendo, Gabon (IUCN, 1990). In 1994, Gabon exported 
8,236.664m 3 of Iroko and in 1995 exported 12,823.169m 3 (DIAF, 1996). 

According to the ITTO (1995a) in 1994 Iroko logs were exported by: Cameroon (65 000m 3 at an average 
price of US$245.00/m 3 ), Congo (10 206m 3 ), and Gabon (US$39.75/m 3 ). In addition Cameroon exported 12 
000m 3 of sawnwood at an average price of US$640. 00/m 3 and Ghana exported 47 340m 3 of air dried 
sawnwood (@ US$520. 00/m 3 ) and an unknown volume of kiln dried sawnwood at an average price of 
US$653.00/m 3 (ITTO, 1995). Congo and Togo both export Iroko sawnwood (ITTO, 1995a). It is estimated 
that the formal commercial trade in Kenya uses between 800m 3 and 1100m 3 /year of this species (Marshall & 
Jenkins, 1994). 

There is illegal trade in M. excelsa from Kenya and Uganda and suspected illegal trade from Tanzania 
(Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). Most of M. excelsa used in Kenya is imported (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

This timber species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). It has been awarded a scarlet star in Hawthorne's (1995a) own system, which means 
that it is common but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation in Ghana. This species requires 
protection and exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable (Hawthorne, 1995a). 



86 



Conservation Measures 

M. excelsa is protected by legislation in Cote d'lvoire and Mozambique and is subject to a log export ban in 
Ghana. In Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, no Iroko has been cut since 1987 because it took a dramatic decline 
(Moreno Saiz, 1996). In Nigeria, Oyo State has a 10 year moratorium on exploitation. 

Uganda banned export of unworked timber in 1987, although there is still licensed trade with Kenya and, 
more recently, with Europe. In 1993, Tanzania also banned the export of unworked timber. Kenya has 
imposed a "Presidential Ban on Logging of Indigenous Timber" (1986), however, little is known about this 
ban except that it prohibits logging of indigenous timbers. (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

M. excelsa is found in the Shimba Hills National Reserve, although there are reports that this species is still 
being extracted (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

M. excelsa is found in Reserves and National Parks in Zimbabwe but it is not well protected (African 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Additional Information 

Plantations in Ghana have been unsuccessful because of gall attacks (FAO, 1986b). M. excelsa is often 
found with galled leaves caused by the insect Phytolyma lata, it is thought that these outbreaks limit high 
densities of this species due to increased mortality (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Beentji, H.J., 1994. Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas. National Museums of Kenya: Nairobi, Kenya, pp. 

722. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
FAO, 1986a. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances. Forestry Paper 77:Rome. 

pp. 524. 
FAO, 1986b. Some medicinal forest plants of Africa and Latin America. FAO Paper 67. pp. 252. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute:Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 
I'l'lO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
Marshall, N.T. and Jenkins, M, 1994. Hard Times for Hardwood: Indigenous Timber and the Timber 

Trade in Kenya. Traffic International:Cambridge, U.K. 
Moreno Saiz, J.C., 1996. Maderas explotadas comercialmente en Cabo Delgado (Charpers 3 & 4. IN: 

Libro Blanco de los Recursos naturales de Cabo Delgado (Mozambique). GETiNSA- Ministerio de 

Asoutos Exteriores. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. N'Sosso's contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



87 



Milicia regia 

Synonym: Chlorophora regia 
Iroko 

Distribution 

This widespread species occurs in Benin, Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, 
Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Senegal. Introduced into Nigeria. 



Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. The Coastal Plain of Basse Casamance 

Milicia regia is found in the well-drained drier forest. 



Both M. excelsa and M. regia show a preference for dry, flat, light areas (Hawthorne, 1995a). M. regia is 
found in the same forest types as M. excelsa, with a slight preference for moister forest (Hawthorne, 
1995a). - 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is severely threatened by over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Utilisation 

The high quality timber is used as a Teak substitute. It is widely used for all kinds of construction work and 
carpentry including domestic flooring, veneer and cabinetwork. 

Trade 

This species is not distinguished from Milicia excelsa by commercial logging companies (Hawthorne, 
1995a). 

Iroko is a major commercial species in international trade. Tanzania and Uganda were in the past major 
sources of the timber and some Iroko is still exported from E. Africa (WCMC, 1991). West African 
countries are now the main exporters, especially Ghana (traded together with M. regia) and Cote d'lvoire 
(WCMC, 1991). 

The UK imported 22 648m 3 in 1989. Cote d'lvoire supplies 60% of the Iroko imported to the UK. 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Aid) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). It has been awarded a scarlet star in Hawthorne's (1995a) own system, which means 
that it is common but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation. This species requires protection 
and exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Conservation Measures 

This species is considered a priority for in situ conservation by FAO, 1984. It is legally protected in the 
Gambia and is subject to a log export ban in Ghana. Known to be resistant to Phytolema attack and deserves 
trials in plantation throughout its range (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 



88 



References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry InstituterOxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland). 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



89 



Millettia laurentii 

Wenge 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Zaire. 

Habitat 

It is a species of semi-deciduous, dense forest and it is sometimes found in inundated swampy forests. 

Population Status and Trends 

No information also this could be inferred from forest extent and rate of decline. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 
Threats 

This species is threatened by over-exploitation for timber (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

A decorative species used in furniture production, decorative veneers and speciality items (WCMC, 1991). 

Trade 

Zaire is the main source of Wenge for the European market. It is also exported by Congo and Gabon 
(WCMC, 1991). Gabon exported 589 m 3 of M. laurentii from Owendo in 1987 (IUCN, 1990), a total of 
390.580 m 3 in 1994, and a total of 400.584 m 3 in 1995 (DIAF, 1996) 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

Special permission is required for exploitation of this species in Cameroon. 
Regeneration work is urgently required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



90 



Monopetalanthus heitzii 

Andoung 

Distribution 

Monopetalanthus heitzii is restricted to northern parts of Gabon. 

Habitat 

This species prefers moist soils along rivers and swampy or occasionally inundated areas. 

Population Status and Trends 

No specific information. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

No specific information. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in furniture production, boxes and crates, light construction and plywood manufacture 
(WCMC, 1991). 

Trade 

Gabon exported a total of 18,481.058 m 3 of Andoung in 1994 and a total of 3,542.281 m 3 in 1995 (DIAF, 
1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: DD (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



91 



Nauclea diderrichii 

Opepe; Bilinga 

Distribution 

This species is widely distributed: Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d lvoire, 
Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda and Zaire. 



Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Mixed moist semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 



Population Status and Trends 

In Ghana, this species is found at constant, low densities and is never very abundant (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

This species is light-demanding. It is a pioneer species that requires large light gaps to regenerate. Young 
trees are often found in secondary bushy growth in humid areas (N'Sosso, in lift. 1995). In Nigeria, this 
species was found to regenerate well in large canopy gaps, but in a clear-felling A', diderrichii is out 
competed by Musanga (Lancaster, 1961 in Hawthorne, 1995a). This species is commonly used in 
plantations (specifically taungya) (Neil, 1983 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Elephants and other animals disperse the seeds of this species. Many small seeds are found in the fruit. The 
seeds can remain dormant in the forest soil (Hall & Swaine, 1980 in Hawthorne, 1995a). The seeds are 
stimulated into germination by increased light exposure. The effect on germination of the seed passing 
through an animal's gut has yet to be examined; seedlings, however, are commonly found along elephant 
tracks (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species suffers from heavy exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995a) 

Utilisation 

The timber is used in general construction, flooring, furniture production, dock and marine work, and 
railway crossings (WCMC, 1991). 
Locally it has medicinal uses. 

Trade 

Cote d'lvoire exported 13,723 m 3 of Nauclea spp. logs for an average price of US$ 232.18/m 3 in 1994. 
Ghana exported 4,960 m 3 of N. diderrichii logs for an average price of US$ 135.00/m 3 in 1994. In addition 
Ghana exported 1,430 m 3 of A 7 , diderrichhi air-dried sawnwood for an average price of US$ 337.00/m 3 and 
an unknown amount of kiln-dried sawnwood (ITTO, 1995a). Gabon exported 1,356m 3 from Owendo in 
1987 (IUCN, 1990), a total of 3,570.907 m 3 in 1994, and a total of 3,010.279 m 3 in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

In the first half of 1994, Liberia exported 8 m 3 of Bilinga logs for an average price of US$ 80.00/m 3 and 
from June to December they exported 22 m 3 for an average price of US$ 50.00/m 3 (ITTO, 1995). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU Alc.d (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). It has been awarded a scarlet star for Ghana by Hawthorne (1995a), which means that 
it is common but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation. This species requires protection and 
exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

92 



Conservation Measures 

Opepe is subject to a Liberian export ban. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland), pp.345. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
N'Sosso, D., 1995. in litt. N'Sosso's contributions to the Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees project for the Congo. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



93 



Nesogordonia papaverifera 

Danta; Kotibe 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, 
Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. 

Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition zones 
Nesogordonia papaverifera is frequent in the peripheral semi-evergreen lowland rain forest but is absent 
from wetter forest types. 

2. The Coastal Plain of Ghana 
West African dry coastal forest 

N. papaverifera occurs in the western type of this habitat. 



This species appears to be confined to areas where savannas have in the past replaced forest. 
N. papaverifera prefers base-rich soils. In Ghana, it occurs in moist semi-deciduous forest (Hawthorne, 
1995a). This species can occur at altitudes up to 1000 m but it rarely occurs over 500 m (FAO, 1986). In 
logged areas of Ghana, N. papaverifera seems to fare well as large trees of this species still remain 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

According to FAO (1986) this species is endangered in parts of its range and subject to genetic 
impoverishment in outlying populations in Gabon, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Liberia and Sierra 
Leone. N. papaverifera can be found at high densities e.g. in the Nesogordonia papaverifera/ Khaya 
ivorensis zone of the Celtis spp. ITriplochiton sclerocylon forest type in Cote d'lvoire (FAO, 1986). In 
Ghana, this species is common (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

This species produces small, wind dispersed seeds, that require moderate shade to germinate and seedlings 
are common in fairly large light gaps. In Ghana, regeneration is twice as common in disturbed (logged) 
forest as in similar undisturbed forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

In Ghana this species is moderately exploited (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

There are no plantations cf this species due to its shade demanding nature (FAO, 1986). 

Utilisation 

The high quality timber is used in flooring, boat and vehicle building, for tool handles and for furniture. It 
is locally used for shutters, door/window frames and rafters (FAO, 1986). 

Trade 

Cote d'lvoire exported 9,869 m 3 of N. papaverifera logs in 1994 at an average price of US$333. 23/m 3 and 

251 m 3 of veneer at an average price of US$1 186.33/m 3 (ITTO, 1995a). 

Gabon exported 6,210.734 m 3 of Kotibe in 1994 and 7,366.573 m 3 in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 



94 



Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU Alc,d (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995b). 
For Ghana this species has been awarded a pink star by Hawthorne (1995a), which means that it is common 
and moderately exploited. 

Conservation Measures 

N. papaverifera is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. Ghana has banned export of this species in log form. 

The FAO (1986) claim that this species is fairly secure because of the frequent high density stands, its 
affinity for growing in groups, and its location on hillsides (which are unsuitable for plantation 
establishment). It still requires in-situ conservation of certain populations (FAO, 1986). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
FAO, 1986. Databook on endangered tree and shrub species and provenances . Forestry Paper 77:Rome. 

pp. 524. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland), pp.345. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 



95 



Pouteria altissima 
synonym: Aningeria altissima 
Mukali; Anegre 

Distribution 

This widespread species occurs in Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, 
Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and 
Zaire. 

Habitat 

This species tends to be found in the drier areas of semi -deciduous forests. 



Vegetation types according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition zones. 
P. altissima is frequent in the peripheral semi-evergreen lowland rain forest but is absent from wetter 
forest types. 

2. Zambezian dry evergreen forest 

This is a characteristic species of the semi-evergreen forest of marked Guineo-Congolian affinity; small 
patches are found in the Mbala district in Zambia. 

3. Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest in the Lake Victoria regional mosaic. 

4. Transitional rain forest in the Lake Victoria mosaic. 

P. altissima is at its eastern most limit in the Kakamega forest of Kenya. 



Population Status and Trends 

It is relatively common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

It is thought that development past the seedling stage requires at least small light gaps (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Fruits of this species are eaten and dispersed by birds and perhaps other animals (Hawthorne, 1995a). 
Generally, trees can fruit once they reach a size of 50 cm dbh (Plumptree et al, 1994 in Hawthorne, 
1995a). 

Threats 

P. altissima is threatened by over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). In logged areas of Uganda, 
regeneration of this species is further affected by elephant damage to seedlings and saplings (Struhsaker et 
al, 1996). 

Utilisation 

Timber from the genus Pouteria is used for general carpentry, joinery, veneer and plywood, and furniture 
components. Locally this species has medicinal uses. 

Trade 

Note: P. altissima and Aningera robusta are often confused and it is thought that no distinction is made by 
the timber industry (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

P. altissima has been exported from Ghana as a veneer; in 1994, 12 080m 3 of sliced veneer was exported at 
an average price of US$984. 00/m 3 and jointed veneer fetched an average price of US$1375. 00/m 3 (ITTO, 
1995a). 



96 






Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: LR (cd) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Hawthorne (1995a) has given this species a red star, which means it is common but under pressure from 
exploitation and conservation measures are necessary. Aningeria robusta has been assigned a pink star by 
Hawthorne, indicating it is of slightly less conservation concern, although the wood of this species is also 
heavily exploited for timber. 

Conservation Measures 

No information. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute:Oxford. 

pp.345. 
l'l'l'O, 1995(a). Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
Struhsaker, T.T., Lwanga, J.S., and J.M. Kasenene, 1996. Elephants, selective logging and forest 

regeneration in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. J. Trop. Ecol. 12:45-64. 



97 



Prunus africana 

synonym Pygeum africanum 
Red Stinkwood; African Cherry 

Distribution 

This widespread species is found in Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea - Bioko, Sao 
Tome & Principe, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa (Cape Province, Natal, 
Transvaal), Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaire and Zambia. 

Habitat 



Habitat type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral semi-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition zones 

2. Marsabit District, Kenya in the Somalia-Masai regional centre of endemism 
Afromontane evergreen forest, scrub forest, and related types. 

3. Afromontane Forest 
Afromontane rain forest 

Prunus africana is a characteristic species of the Afromontane rain forest. 
Undifferentiated Afromontane forest 

4. Afromontane Bamboo 

P. africana is frequently found scattered in Arundinaria alpina bamboo. 

5. Transitional rain forest of the Lake Victoria regional mosaic. 

6. Sao Tome 
Mist forest region 

7. The Comoro Islands 



This species occurs at altitudes above 1500m in Kenya (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). In Madagascar this 
species occurs above 1000m. In Zimbabwe P. africana is restricted to montane rainforest (CITES proposal, 
1994) 

Population Status and Trends 

In Cameroon, where P. africana is restricted to the montane forests of the western highlands, the high level 
of trade has greatly depleted this species (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). This species is relatively rare in 
Zimbabwe (CITES proposal, 1994). In South Africa, P. africana colonises open sites and the species is 
regenerating well, with younger trees growing along the roads (African Regional Workshop comm., 1996). 

Regeneration 

This is a fast growing species and the seeds germinate easily, however the seeds are recalcitrant (African 
Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

P. africana trees are an important pan of the montane ecosystem; tree deaths from bark stripping affects the 
integrity of the forest and reduces food resources for rare birds (Cunningham & Mbenkum, 1993 in CITES 
proposal, 1994). 

Threats 

High demand for P. africana has led to over-exploitation of this species for its medicinal properties and to a 
lesser degree its timber (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). Bark removal is most extensive in Cameroon and 
Madagascar (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). In Madagascar, trees are being felled for the bark in protected 
areas (100-200 trees along the western boundary of the National Park of Mantadia) (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 
1996). 



98 



Regeneration from cut young trees appears to be low in Cameroon (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996) 
Tree bark can regenerate if care is taken not to damage the cambium. The forestry procedures for bark 
removal in Cameroon are as follows, the bark is to be stripped from the two opposite quarters of the trunk 
and the tree is then left to regenerate its bark for four years, after this time the remaining quarters are then 
stripped (Parrott & Parrott, 1989). 

This species is not under threat in South Africa, as there is regeneration and limited exploitation in rural 
areas where ring barked trees are dying (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Utilisation 

This species has excellent timber for construction, furniture and household utensils. It is used especially in 
the informal sector, although it is also used commercially (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). The bark of P. 
africana is highly valued for its medicinal properties; it is used as a purgative and as a medicine for benign 
prostatic hyperplasia and prostate gland hypertrophy, diseases that commonly affect older men in Europe 
and N. America (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). Bark extracts were patented about 30 years ago (CITES 
proposal, 1994). 

Trade 

P. africana is exported from Africa to Europe where the active compounds in the bark are used for drug 
production (Walter & Rakotonirina, 1995). Between 1988 and 1993 in Madagascar, the amount of bark 
harvested doubled from 300 tonnes/year to 600 tonnes/year; in 1995, the estimated figure doubled again to 
1200 tonnes (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). Between 1986 and 1991 Cameroon exported an average of 
1923 tonnes/year to France, Zaire exported 300 tonnes/year (of P. africana and P.crassifolia) to Belgium 
and France, Kenya exported 193 tonnes {in 1993?} to France and Uganda exported 96 tonnes {in 1993?} 
(various sources in Walter & Rakotonirina, 1995). 

There have been reports of illegal harvesting in Uganda (Anon, 1993 in CITES proposal, 1994). There is 
evidence of complete stripping of trees or felling in Cameroon and Madagascar (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 
1996). Trade bans in Cameroon have led to massive illegal trade (Cunningham & Mbenkum, 1993 in 
CITES proposal, 1994). P. africana is being removed from the Kakamega Forest Reserve, Kenya (Marshall 
& Jenkins, 1994) 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: Cr (Alc.d) - This category was applied at the Regional Workshop for the 
Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project. It may, however, apply to populations of the 
species in parts of its range rather than to the entire population. 

In many areas, P. africana is severely threatened (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). In Madagascar, trees are 
cut down and completely stripped of bark; this heavy exploitation is causing the species to be severely 
threatened (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). This species has been listed as Endangered to Extinction by the 
department of forestry in Cameroon (CITES proposal, 1994). 

Conservation Measures 

This species is listed on Appendix II of the CITES convention. 

There are 153 ha of this species in plantations in Kenya (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). Seed has been 
collected and substantial planting of P. africana is underway in Cameroon (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). 
There are no conservation measures in practice in Madagascar (Dawson & Rabevohitra, 1996). P. africana 
is no longer harvested in Zimbabwe, it is only used locally in South Africa and it has not entered 
international trade in Malawi (CITES proposal, 1994). 

Intensive regeneration is required (African Regional Workshop comm., 1996). 



99 



Additional Information 

P. africana is an important source of income for the villagers employed by licence holders to collect the 
bark (Walter & Rakotonirina, 1995). 

P. africana is a fast growing species that can be cultivated on steep slopes, however, farmers are reluctant 
to plant unless they can be assured that there is a market (CITES proposal, 1994). 

References 

CITES proposal, 1994. Proposal to include Prunus africana in Appendix II of the CITES convention. 

Dawson, I. and Rabevohitra, R., 1996. Status of Prunus africana resources in Madagascar. Survey 

Report. 
Marshall, N.T. and Jenkins, M., 1994. Hard Times for Hardwood. Indigenous timber and the timber trade 

in Kenya. TRAFFIC International: Cambridge, UK. pp. 53. 
Parrott, J. and Parrort, H., 1989. Report on the conservation of Prunus (Pygaeum) africanum in 

Cameroon. Draft Report. 
Walter, S. and Rakotonirina, J-C. R., 1995. L'exploitation de Prunus africanum a Madagascar. Rapport 

elabore pour le PCDI Zahamena et la Direction des Eaux et Forets. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



100 



Pterocarpus angolensis 

Bloodwood 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, 
Zaire, Zambia and Zimbabwe. 

Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Zambezi an woodland 
Zambezian miombo woodland 

Pterocarpus angolensis is a canopy associate, rather that a dominant canopy species. 
North Zambezian undifferentiated woodland and wooded grassland 
South Zambezian undifferentiated woodland and scrub woodland 
Zambezian 'chipya' woodland and wooded grassland 
Zambezian Kalahari woodland 

2. Zambezian thicket 

When found in this habitat type P. angolensis tends to be rare and quite small. It is thought that large 
mammals and fire allow for the occurrence of the species in the Zambezian thicket as it does not 
regenerate well in the shade. 

3. Grassland and wooded grassland of the Guinea-Congolia/Zambezia regional transition zone. 



In Mozambique, this species is found in all types of woodland and wooded savanna, however its occurrence 
and density is not uniform (Moreno Saiz, 1996). In Zimbabwe, P. angolensis is found on the fringe of pan 
grassland of the Lupane and Nkayi districts and in the woodland thicket on the hills of the Binga district 
(Timberlake et al, 1991). Populations of P. angolensis are denser on Kalahari sand (African Regional 
Workshop, 1996). 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is very widespread although it is never common. In areas where the local people use the trees 
there are fewer older stands. 

In Mozambique, the abundance of this species has decreased dramatically in the last decades; it is rarest in 
the southern province (Moreno Saiz, 1996). 

A large proportion of mature trees have been lost to a fungal disease. Approximately forty percent of the 
trees in Zambia have died from the fungal disease (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

Regeneration 

There is evidence of natural regeneration occuring for this species; however regeneration tends to be 
episodic and is stimulated by high rainfall or fire (African Regional Workshop, 1996). P. angolensis is often 
a secondary coloniser. Reproduction starts when the tree is 15-20 years old. It does not coppice well, if at 
all, and therefore P. angolensis needs to reproduce by seed. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

P. angolensis is exploited for its timber. Larger trees are dying from a fungal disease that blocks up the 

xylem (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

101 



Utilisation 

The wood is used for carpentry and construction, especially in the construction of boats. 
The sap is used as a long-lasting dye. It also has medicinal properties. 

Trade 

There is a huge demand for this species both within Mozambique for furniture making and for export. 
Almost all of the trees cut in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique are sent to South Africa for export to the Far 
East (i.e. Thailand, Hong Kong, etc.). In 1993, 1,690m 3 of P. angolensis were exported from Cabo 
Delgardo and in 1994, the volume exported was 5,497m 3 (Moreno Saiz, 1996). This is currently a key 
species for exploitation in Zimbabwe (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

This species is imported into Kenya from Tanzania (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: LR (lc) (category assigned by the South African group of the Workshop, due 
to observations of sufficient regeneration. VU (Alc.d) was assigned by the West African group.) 

Conservation Measures 

Bloodwood is found in the Derre forest reserve in Mozambique. There are 2 ha planted with this species in 
Kenya (Marshall & Jenkins, 1994). Growth of P. angolensis is slow and variable for at least the first seven 
years, making it less suitable for plantation (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

In Zimbabwe this species is found in Forest Commissioned land where it is rarely exploited. The minimum 
cutting diameter is 25 cm, however this is not enforced (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Marshall, N.T. and Jenkins, M., 1994. Hard Times for Hardwood: Indigenous Timber and the Timber 

Trade in Kenya. Traffic International: Cambridge, UK. pp 53. 
Moreno Saiz, J.C., 1996. Maderas explotadas comercialmente en Cabo Delgado (Charpers 3 & 4. IN: 

Libro Blanco de los Recursos naturales de Cabo Delgado (Mozambique). GETiNSA- Ministerio de 

Asoutos Exteriores. 
Timberlake, J., Nobanda, N., Mapaure, I, and Mhlanga, L., 1991. Sites of interest for conservation in 

various communal lands of N. & W. Zimbabwe. Vegetation survey of communal lands. Report No. 

1. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



102 



Santalum album 
Sandalwood 

Distribution 

This species is widely scattered in China, India, Indonesia (Timor, Sumba and Flores and planted in Java 
and Bali), the Lesser Sunda Islands, the Philippines and Australia. 

Habitat 

It grows on dry, stony but fertile soil (WCMC, 1991). In India, S. album occurs between the elevations of 
0-700m and in rainfall zones of 300-3000mm. It is found mainly in dry deciduous forests (USDA, 1990). 

Population Status and Trends 

In India, Sandalwood is regenerating when in favourable conditions and it's distribution is extending 
(USDA, 1990). 

Northern Australia has only a small patch of S. album in basalt region in the Hughendon-Cloncurry area 
(Statham, 1990). 

Regeneration 

S. album regenerates vegetatively with root suckers and by coppicing when the plant is juvenile (USDA, 
1990). It begins to flower at 3 years of age and starts producing viable seeds at about 5 years. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Sandalwood is a hemi root parasitic tree and requires a host plant (can parasitise over 300 species including 
itself) for nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (USDA, 1990). Birds are necessary for efficient seed 
dispersal (USDA, 1990). 

Threats 

Fire and grazing are threats because they have a detrimental affect on regeneration (USDA, 1990). There is 
much concern regarding over-exploitation due to smuggling for trade. 

Utilisation 

The timber is used for fine furniture, carving and turnery. Oil is extracted from the heartwood and is in 
high demand for incense, perfumery and medicines. 

Trade 

The price of Sandalwood in India increased from RS 20,000 per tonne in 1980 to RS 200,000 per tonne in 
1990. "Smuggling has assumed alarming proportions." The total annual production in India is about 1800 
tonnes (Chadha, 1989 in WCMC, 1991). 

India uses all S. album domestically and export is prohibited (USDA, 1990). Major exporters of top quality 
logs are Hawai'i, Fiji, Indonesia and Western Australia. The main world supplier of sandalwood chips and 
powder for incense is Australia, limited quantities are exported from India (USDA, 1990). Good quality 
logs in India sold domestically went for an average price of US$4,590/tonne in 1987 and US$9,4 10/tonne in 
1990 (USDA, 1990). 

Conservation Status 

This species is considered globally Not Threatened under the old IUCN threat categories according to the 
WCMC Plants Database. It has not yet been evaluated using the new IUCN categories of threat. 

Conservation Measures 

Export of timber from India is totally banned except for handicraft pieces of sandalwood up to 50g weight. 
FAO, 1984 notes that it is a priority species for in situ conservation. 

103 



References 

FAO, 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
USDA, 1990. Proceedings of the symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific. April 9-11, 1990, Honolulu, 

Hawaii. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



104 



Swartzia fistuloides 

Dina; Pau Rosa 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Angola (Cabinda), Congo, Cote dTvoire, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Equatorial 
Guinea, Nigeria and Zaire. 

Habitat 

5. fistuloides is found in dense rainforest. 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is rare in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). This species has been classified as a blue star by 
Hawthorne (1995a), meaning it is widespread internationally but rare in Ghana, and it is Ghana's interests 
to look after this species. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Elephants are seed dispersers (1 % of elephant dung piles in the Bia South game park reserve contained 
seeds (Martin, 1991 in Hawthorne 1995a)). 

Threats 

"This species may be suffering from a shortage of elephants" Hawthorne, 1995a. 

Utilisation 

The decorative timber is used for veneer, turnery, carvings and tool handles. 

Trade 

In 1987, Gabon exported 1,250 m 3 of Pau Rosa from Owendo (IUCN, 1990); in 1994, Gabon exported 
1,387.583 m 3 of Pau Rosa and in 1995 they exported 1,921.841 m 3 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration work is urgently required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute:Oxford. 

pp.345. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 



105 



Testulea gabonensis 
Izombe 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. 

Habitat 

It is found in dense primary forests and transitional formations (WCMC, 1991). 

Population Status and Trends 

It has a scattered distribution. It has a very limited range in Southern Congo near Conkouati (WCMC, 
1991). 

Izombe also has a very limited geographic distribution within Cameroon (Gartlan, in litt. 1991) 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

Exploitation for international trade. 

Utilisation 

Izombe is used for door and window frames, furniture, flooring, turnery and carving (WCMC, 1991). 

Trade 

In 1987, Gabon exported 935 m 3 of Izombe from Owendo (IUCN, 1990). Gabon exported T: gabonensis 
logs for an average price of US$33.50 in 1994 (ITTO, 1995a). In 1994, 5,176.546 m 3 of Izombe were 
exported from Gabon and 4,942.090 m 3 were exported in 1995 (DIAF, 1996). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
The species has been considered to be Endangered in Cameroon (Palmberg, 1987). 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration work is required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
Gartlan, S. 1991. In litt. to WCMC. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
Palmberg, C, 1987. Conservation of genetic resources of woody species. Paper prepared for Simposio 

sobre silvicultura y mejoraniento genetico. CIEF, Buenos Aires, 1987. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 



106 






Tieghemella africana 

Douka; Makore 

Distribution 

This species occurs from Sierra Leone to Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and south to 
Cabinda. 

Habitat 

T. africana is a high rain forest species. 



Vegetation type according to White (19831 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Hygrophilous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Tieghemella africana is found in the western centre of endemism but is replaced by the closely related 

T. heckelii in the east. 



Population Status and Trends 

No direct information although this could be inferred from information on forest extent and rate of decline. 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

In Cameroon it is under pressure because of changes in land use (WCMC, 1991). 

Utilisation 

This species is used for timber. 

Trade 

Gabon exported 15,278 m 3 of T. africana in 1987 from Owendo (IUCN, 1990). In 1994, Gabon exported 
201m 3 of Douka sawnwood at an average price of US$92.71m 3 (ITTO, 1995a). Total Douka export from 
Gabon in 1994 was 20,115.323 m 3 and total export in 1995 was 20,515.665 m 3 (DIAF, 1996). Cote 
d'lvoire exported 196m 3 of T. africana veneer for an average price of US$1801. 07/m 3 (ITTO, 1995a). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

Conservation Measures 

Regeneration work is required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
DIAF, 1996. Timber trade statistics for Gabon sent from the Direction des Inventaires et Amenagements 

des Forets (DIAF) of the Ministere des Eaux et Forets for 1994 and 1995 sent by Tom Hammond. 
ITTO 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 



107 



IUCN, 1990. La Conservation des Ecosystemes Forestiers du Gabon. IUCN, Tropical Forest Programme 

Series, pp. 200. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



108 



Tieghemella heckelii 

Makore 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Cameroon, Cote d'lvoire, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. 

Habitat 

It is a high rainforest species, preferring wet, evergreen forest. 



Vegetation type according to White (1983) 

1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Hygrophilous coastal evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Tieghemella heckelii is found in the eastern centre of endemism but is replaced by the closely related T. 

africana in the west. 



Population Status and Trends 

This species might become extinct in Liberia unless re-planted by the Forest Service (Voorhoeve, 1979 in 
WCMC, 1991). T. heckelii is common in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Both the seedlings and the saplings are shade tolerant and shoot up in height when exposed to light 
(Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

The large seeds and fruit are eaten by small animals and elephants (in 12% of piles of elephant dung, seeds 
were found in the Bia South game park reserve (Martin, 1991 in Hawthorne, 1995a)). Seedlings are rare 
because of predation by rodents who eat the large oily cotyledons. 

Threats 

This species is severely threatened by over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

The reduction of elephant numbers in high forest areas has limited the natural regeneration of Makore 

(WCMC, 1991). 

Utilisation 

Locally the oil from the seed is eaten and the fruit is used to make soap. 

Trade 

Ghana exported 2,090 m 3 of T. heckelii air dried sawnwood for an average price of US$510.O0/m 3 and kiln 
dried sawnwood was sold for US$659.00/m 3 . Ghana also exported 3,240 m 3 of sliced veneer at an average 
price of US$778.O0/m 3 , rotary peeled veneer for US$446.00/m\ and jointed veneer for US$1734. 00/m 3 
(ITTO, 1995a). 

Portugal imported 227 m 3 of T. heckelii logs at an average price of US$215.00/m 3 . 

Italy imported 2,336 m 3 of sawnwood. The USA imported both logs and sawnwood. Portugal and Sweden 

both imported Makore sawnwood. (ITTO, 1995a). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: EN (Alc.d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

109 



This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). For Ghana this species has been awarded a scarlet star by Hawthorne (1995a), which 
means that it is common but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation. This species requires 
protection and exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Conservation Measures 

T. heckelii is protected by law in Cote d'lvoire. The export of Makore in log form is banned by Ghana and 
Liberia. 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland), pp.345. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



110 



Triplochiton scleroxylon 

Obeche; Wawa 

Distribution 

This species occurs in Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'lvoire, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, 
Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Zaire. 

Habitat 



Vegetation type according to White (19831 
1. Guineo-Congolian rain forest 

Drier peripheral serai-evergreen Guineo-Congolian rain forest and similar forest in the transition zones. 
Triplochiton scleroxylon is often gregarious and can regenerates well on abandoned farmland. 
Old secondary forest 



T. scleroxylon occurs mainly in forests transitional between humid evergreen and semi-deciduous forests. It 
prefers base rich, high ph soils and is associated with a two-peak rainfall pattern (Hall & Bada, 1979 in 
Hawthorne, 1995a). The species has extended its range due to deforestation for agricultural purposes 
(White, 1983). 

Population Status and Trends 

It is very common in Ghana, especially outside the wet evergreen forest type (Hawthorne, 1995a). 
Increasingly smaller trees are being logged in Nigeria for match production which is putting pressure on the 
species (WCMC, 1991). Populations of this species only occur in north Congo especially in the Sangha 
region. 

Regeneration 

This species regenerates well in logged forest (Hawthorne, 1995a) and in abandonned farmland. It is fast 
growing and light demanding. Seed production is very irregular for this species; good seed years occur 
every 4-5 years. It is thought that the dry spell between the two rainy peaks is a stimulus for flowering 
(Hall & Bada, 1979 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

No information. 

Threats 

This species is severely threatened by over-exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a) 

Utilisation 

Used locally and internationally as a timber species. 

Trade 

T. scleroxylon accounts for more of the timber volume extracted annually from west African forests that any 
other single species. It is Ghana's major timber species for the export trade; in 1989, it accounted for 
56.6% of the country's log exports and 22.9% of lumber exports. 

In 1994 310 000 m 3 of Obeche were exported in log form from Cameroon at an average price of 
US$220.00/m 3 . Ghana exported Obeche logs and 131,360 m 3 of sawnwood, air dried sold for an average of 
US$274.00/m 3 and kiln dried sold for US$330.00/m 3 . 

Togo exported Triplochiton spp. as sawnwood. As a veneer, Obeche was exported in 1995 from Cameroon, 
and Ghana (sliced veneer: 660 m 3 @ ave. US$1214.00/m 3 ; rotary peeled @ ave. US$357.00/m 3 ; jointed 

111 



veneer @ ave. US$1951.00/m 3 ). Plywood T. scleroxylon was exported from Cameroon (10,000 m 3 @ ave. 
US$695.00/m 3 ) and Ghana in 1994 (ITTO, 1995a). 

In 1994, T. scleroxylon logs were imported into the Netherlands (2,000 m 3 ), Portugal (408m 3 @ ave. 
US$18.00/m 3 ), Switzerland (3,000 m 3 ) and the USA (ITTO, 1995a). Italy imported 46,144 m 3 and 
Switzerland imported 1,900 m 3 of Obeche sawnwood. Portugal, Sweden, and the USA also imported 
Obeche sawnwood. In addition, Portugal and the United States imported Obeche veneer and plywood. 
(ITTO, 1995). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: LR (lc) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 
This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to excessive exploitation 
(Hawthorne, 1995b). It has been awarded a scarlet star in Hawthorne's (1995a) star system for Ghana, 
which means that it is common but it is under profound pressure from heavy exploitation. This species 
requires protection and exploitation has to be limited if it is to be sustainable (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Conservation Measures 

It is protected by law in Cote dTvoire. Export of this species has been banned by Liberia. (WCMC, 1991). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute: Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document 4 (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland), pp.345. 
ITTO, 1995a. Elements for the annual review and assessment of the world tropical timber situation. Draft 

Document. 
WCMC, 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 
White F., 1983. The Vegetation of Africa. A descriptive memoir to accompany the 

Unesco/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. Paris:Unesco. pp.356. 



112 



Turraeanthus africanus 

Avodire 

Distribution 

The genus Turraeanthus is endemic to the Guineo-Congolian regional centre of endemism (White, 1983). 
This species is distributed in Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra 
Leone, Uganda and Zaire. 

Habitat 

T. africanus is found commonly in moist sami-deciduous forest and tends not to occur in the wettest and the 
driest forest (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Population Status and Trends 

This species is common in Ghana and regeneration is sufficient (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Regeneration 

Only the smaller trees produce fruit and this occurs irregularly (Hawthorne, 1995a). There is high viability 
of seeds that germinate in the shade and seedlings are shade tolerant, however, a small light gap is best for 
growth and survival (Alexandre, 1977 in Hawthorne, 1995a). Large trees are usually found in the shade as 
well (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Role of Species in its Ecosystem 

Seeds of this species are dispersed by animals (Alexandre, 1977 in Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Threats 

This species is threatened by moderate exploitation in Ghana (Hawthorne, 1995a). 

Utilisation 

T. africanus is used for furniture, joinery, decorative veneer, cabinetwork and panelling (WCMC, 1991). 

Trade 

The export of Avodire in log form has been banned by Ghana (WCMC, 1991). 

Conservation Status 

IUCN Category and Criteria: VU (Alc,d) (African Regional Workshop, 1996) 

This species is considered Vulnerable (1994 IUCN threat category) due to exploitation (Hawthorne, 1995b). 
It has been awarded a pink star in Hawthorne's (1995a) star system for Ghana, which means that it is 
common and moderately exploited. 

Conservation Measures 

This species is protected by law in Cote dTvoire. It is considered a priority for in situ conservation by 
FAO, 1984. Urgent regeneration work is required (African Regional Workshop, 1996). 

References 

African Regional Workshop, 1996. Conservation and Sustainable Management of Trees project workshop 

held in Harare, Zimbabawe, July, 1996. 
FAO 1984. Report of the Fifth Session of the FAO Panel of Experts on Forest Gene Resources 

Information No 14:32-49. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(a). Ecological profiles of Ghanaian forest trees. Oxford Forestry Institute:Oxford. 

pp.345. 
Hawthorne, W.D., 1995(b). Categories of conservation priority and Ghanaian tree species. Working 

Document^ (prepared for the November 1995 Conservation and Sustainable Management of 

Trees - Technical Workshop in Wagingen, Holland), pp.345. 
WCMC 1991. Provision of Data on Rare and Threatened Tropical Timber Species, pp. 58. 

113