(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Trees and shrubs of Mexico"

TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

The United States National Herbarium, which was founded by the 
Smithsonian Institution, was transferred in the year 1868 to the 
Department of Agriculture and continued to be maintained by that 
department until July 1, 1896, when it was returned to the official 
custody of the Smithsonian Institution. The Department of Agri- 
culture, however, continued to publish the series of botanical reports 
entitled "Contributions from the United States National Herba- 
rium," which it had begun in the year 1890, until on July 1, 1902, 
the National Museum, in pursuanoe of an act of Congress, assumed 
responsibility for the publication. The first seven volumes of the 
series were issued by the Department of Agriculture. 

Alexander Wetmore, 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution. 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



FROM THE 



United States National Herbarium 

Volume 23 



TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO 



By PAUL C. STANDLEY 




WASHINGTON 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1920-1926 



NOTE. 

The 5 parts of volume 23 of the Contributions were issued as follows : 

Part 1, pages 1 to 170, October 11, 1920. 

Part 2, pages 171 to 515, July 14, 1922. 

Part 3, pages 517 to 848, July 18, 1923. 

Part 4, pages 849 to 1312, December 31, 1924. 

Part 5, pages 1313 to 1721, November 15, 1926. 



H@ a *The indexes for parts 1 to 4 should be bound with the complete 
volume, since in the index of part 5 there are reprinted only the 
generic names of the earlier parts. 



PREFACE. 

The present volume consists of an account of the trees and shrubs 
of Mexico, by Mr. Paul C. Standley, Associate Curator of the United 
States National Herbarium. The work is based wholly upon the 
extensive series of Mexican plants in the National Herbarium, a 
large proportion of which have been obtained by special investigators 
sent out by the United States National Museum and the United 
States Department of Agriculture. The flora of Mexico, especially 
the arborescent flora, includes many species of great economic value. 
They furnish many products of commercial importance, such as 
henequen and ixtle fiber, palm oil, lumber, cacao, rubber, drugs, 
alcohol, and many fruits. 

Heretofore no descriptive flora of any portion of tropical conti- 
nental North America has been published, and the identification of 
the species of plants yielding important products has often been 
very difficult. Identification of material has been possible only by 
comparison with extensive series of herbarium specimens, such as 
are to be found only in the larger botanical institutions, or by reference 
to isolated descriptions, many of them available only in the largest 
libraries. The present work brings together all the published species 
of woody Mexican plants and furnishes keys for their identification 
as well as brief descriptive notes. Much information is presented 
also concerning commercial and local uses of the plants. The ver- 
nacular names of the trees and shrubs are given, and since these are 
fairly well standardized by local usage they will be found helpful as 
guides to the identity of fragmentary or otherwise difficult material. 

Several collaborators have aided in the preparation of this volume 
by contributing the accounts of certain groups in which they are 
particularly interested, as follows: Dr. William R. Maxon, Gleichen- 
iaceae and Cyatheaceae; Dr. A. S. Hitchcock, Poaceae; Dr. William 
Trelease, Agave and Quercus; Dr. S. F. Blake, Meliaceae, Polyga- 
laceae, Violaceae, and Asteraceae; Mr. Ellsworth P. Killip, Passi- 
floraceae; Dr. N. L. Britton and Dr. J. N. Rose, Cactaceae; Dr. B. L. 
Robinson, Eupatorium and Ophryosporus; Dr. J. M. Greenman, 
Senecio. 

Frederick V. Coville, 
Curator of the United States National Herbarium. 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 1 

Plan of the work 3 

Collections studied 3 

Species included 4 

Ranges of the species 5 

Type localities 6 

Vernacular names 6 

Economic notes 8 

History of botanical exploration in Mexico 9 

Francisco Hernandez 10 

Expedition of Charles III 13 

Alexander von Humboldt 18 

Systematic treatment 19 

Key to the families 19 

Annotated catalogue 36 

List of additions and corrections 1643 

Index 1683 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



FROM THK 



Unii i:D States National Herbarium 



Volume 23. Part 



TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO 

(GLEICHENIACEAE-BETULACEAE) 



By PAUL C. STANDLEY 



>^ 









WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1920 



BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, 
n 



PREFACE. 



The present paper consists of the first installment of an account of 
the trees and shrubs of Mexico, by Mr. Paul C. Standley, Assistant 
Curator of the United States National Herbarium. The work is 
based wholly upon the extensive series of Mexican plants in the 
National Herbarium, a large proportion of which have been secured 
by special investigators sent out by the United States National 
Museum and the United States Department of Agriculture. The 
flora of Mexico, especially the arborescent flora, includes many 
species of great economic value. They furnish many products of 
commercial importance, such as henequen and ixtle fiber, palm oil, 
lumber, cacao, rubber, drugs, alcohol, and various kinds of fruits. 

Heretofore no descriptive flora of any portion of tropical conti- 
nental North America has been published, and the identification of 
the species of plants yielding important products has often been very 
difficult. Identification of material has been possible only by com- 
parison with extensive series of herbarium specimens, such as are to 
be found only in the larger botanical institutions, or by reference to 
isolated descriptions, many of these available only in the largest 
libraries. The work of which the present paper is the first installment 
brings together all the published species of woody Mexican plants, 
and furnishes keys for their identification, as well as brief descriptive 
notes. Much information is presented also concerning commercial 
and local uses of the plants. The vernacular names of the trees and 
shrubs are given, and since these are fairly well standardized by 
local usage, they will be found helpful as guides to the identity of 
fragmentary or otherwise difficult material. 

The account of the ferns of the families Gleicheniaceae and 
Cyatheaceae has been furnished by Mr. William R. Maxon, Associate 
Curator of the National Herbarium ; that of the Poaceae, or grasses, 
by Prof. A. S. Hitchcock, Systematic Agrostologist of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture ; and that of the Amaryllidaceae, which includes 
the difficult genus Agave, or century plants, by Dr. William Trelease, 
Professor of Botany, University of Illinois. 

Frederick V. Coville, 
Curator of the United States National Herbarium. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 1 

Plan of the work 3 

Collections studied 3 

Species included 4 

Ranges of the species 5 

Type localities 6 

Vernacular names 6 

Economic notes 8 

History of botanical exploration in Mexico 9 

Francisco Hernandez: 10 

Expedition of Charles III- 13 

Alexander von Humboldt 18 

Systematic treatment 19 

Key to the families 19 

Annotated catalogue 36 

Index vii 

v 



TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 



By Paul C. Standley. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The most interesting regions of the earth from a botanical stand- 
point are those which possess a tropical climate. There physical 
conditions are most favorable for the growth of plants, and not only 
is vegetation much more luxuriant than in temperate countries, but 
the number of species, especially of trees and shrubs, is vastly greater. 
West Virginia and Costa Rica, for instance, are temperate and tropi- 
cal areas of approximately equal size ; but only 1,600 species of ferns 
and flowering plants are known from West Virginia, while the flora 
of Costa Rica includes more than three times and probably four 
times that number. Large areas in Mexico are neither tropical nor 
even subtropical, but no region of the globe, probably, possesses a 
richer or more interesting flora. Mexico has an area of 767,000 
square miles, which, although only about one-fifth that of the United 
States, exhibits a greater range of climatic conditions. The extremes 
of elevation much exceed those of the United States, ranging from 
sea level to over 5,200 meters. Almost every conceivable plant forma- 
tion is represented — the wet tropical forests of the southern lowlands, 
the temperate deciduous and coniferous forests of the central plateau 
and of the ranges of the Sierra Madre, the alpine zones of the high 
peaks like Orizaba, Popocatepetl, and Ixtaccihuatl, and the great 
barren or cactus deserts which reach their best development in the 
northern states. 

The botanical features of Mexico have attracted attention from the 
days of the earliest explorers. Many botanists have visited the 
country in the last hundred years, yet the flora is still but imper- 
fectly known. Almost every collector at the present day makes dis- 
coveries of remarkable species previously unknown to science, and 
some plants are still unknown botanically although their supposed 
medicinal properties, or their products, such as fruit, lumber, fiber, 
and gum, are well known locally and are frequently even of com- 

1 



2 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL 1 1 KUBAKI I'M. 

mercial importance. In the immense mountain ranges there are 
hundreds of difficult peaks and almost inaccessible canyons whose ex- 
ploration is extremely tedious: in the south the tropical forests arc 
penetrated with difficulty, and the lofty branches of their trees are 
almost inaccessible to the collector: away from the Sierra Madre arc 
innumerable isolated masses of mountains and hills, still unvisited 
by a botanist, which must yield a host of localized species. Con- 
sider, in addition, the fact that Mexico is still very imperfectly sup- 
plied with transportation facilities and it becomes evident that many 
years must elapse before a comprehensive knowledge of the flora is 
possible. 

It is unfortunate, and at the same time remarkable, that no flora 
of any part of tropical continental North America has ever been pre- 
pared. Indeed, in this respect all of North America has made little 
progress as compared with Europe, some parts of Asia. Australia, 
and Africa, or even South America. The flora of tropical Africa, 
the most recent of all the great regions of the earth to be explored by 
European peoples, has been adequately treated in botanical litera- 
ture: and the flora of Brazil has been described in a monumental 
series of volumes, of which any country might well be proud, but 
whose equal no other country possesses. For no political unit of 
North America has a modern descriptive or even a synoptical flora 
ever been published. 

The only publication approaching a flora of Mexico which has 
ever been completed is the Botany of the Biologia Centrali-Ameri- 
cana, compiled by Hemsley and issued from 1870 to 1888. This, 
though including no descriptive notes (except incidentally) nor any 
means of identifying the species, is a comprehensive work, listing all 
the species of the higher plants known at that time from Mexico 
(excluding Baja California) and Central America. Ranges and 
definite localities arc given for all the species, together with the more 
important synonymy. It is superflous to state that after almost 40 
years this work has lost much of its former usefulness, as a result 
of recent botanical discoveries. Nevertheless the five volumes of the' 
Biologia will always remain an invaluable and classic work upon 
tropical American plants. 

Botanical exploration in Mexico has now progressed to the point 
where a descriptive flora of the region is practicable, and such a com- 
pilation is urgently needed. The work here offered is intended to in- 
clude a complete list of the woody plants known from Mexico, with 
keys for their determination. This arbitrary and artificial division 
of the Mexican flora was chosen for treatment because it contains 
those species which arc the most conspicuous elements of the vegeta- 
tion, as well as those which are of most importance from an economic 
Standpoint. It includes, moreover, the larger portion of the Mexican 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 3 

species. Later, it is to be hoped, someone else may have an oppor- 
tunity to treat at length the herbaceous species or the flora as a whole. 
While it is only too evident that the available collections of Mexican 
plants are inadequate to furnish a complete illustration of the flora 
of the country, the offering of such a -work as can be prepared with 
the material at hand needs no apology, for it is certain that the 
larger part of the woody plants, and especially those of economic 
importance, have already been collected. 

It is not deemed advisable to include in the present publication an 
account of the general features of the flora. These have already been 
dealt with at length by other authors, particularly Hemsley 1 and 
Ramirez. 2 

PLAN OF THE WORK. 
COLLECTIONS STUDIED. 

In this list of Mexican plants it is intended, of course, to account 
for all the trees and shrubs which have been collected in Mexico 
or reported from that country. The account is based wholly upon 
the collections in the United States National Herbarium, although 
the published species not represented there have been included in 
the keys when possible. The National Herbarium contains the 
largest and most complete representation of Mexican plants that 
has been assembled, a large proportion of the material having been 
obtained by special collectors sent into the field by the United States 
Xational Museum and the United States Department of Agriculture. 
In addition, the herbarium contains many collections received from 
other institutions and individuals, the more important of which were 
obtained by the following collectors: F. Altamirano. F. "W. Anthony. 
Brother G. Arsene. J. L. Berlandier. M. Botteri. M. Bourgeau. T. S. 
Brandegee. G. N. Collins. C. Conzatti. O. F. Cook. F. V. Coville. 
C. K. Dodge. C. B. Doyle. H. Galeotti. G. F. Gaumer. E. A. Gold- 
man, J. M. Greenman. C. V. Hartman. A. S. Hitchcock. E. YY\ D. 
Holwav. M. E. Jones. E. Kerber, E. Langlasse, F. M. Liebmann. F. E. 
Lloyd." D. T. MacDougal, F. S. Maltby. E. A. Mearns. C. F. Mills- 
paugh. Charles Mohr, 3 E. W. Nelson, Brother Nicolas, C. R. Oreutt. 

'Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 4: 138-315. 1887. 

2 La vegetaei6n de Mexico, pp. 1-271, with 2 maps. Mexico, 1899. 

3 Charles Mohr (1824-1901 1 was a native of Germany, who came to the United 
States in 1S4S. He visited Mexico in 1857 and was a gue^t of Sartorius at his 
home in Mirador. He made botanical collections in the region of Orizaba. 
Here he was associated with Botteri, and his collection numbers, in some cases 
at least, are the same as Botteri's. His collections are in the United States 
National Herbarium. Dr. Mohr is best known for his " Plant Life of Alabama." 
published as volume 6 of the Contributions from the United States National 
Herbarium. 



4 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Edward Palmer, C. C. Parry, Henry Pittier, C. G. Pringle, C. A. 
Purpus, B. P. Reko, J. N. Rose, J. N. Rovirosa, H. H. Rusby, W. E. 
Safford, H. C. Seaton, J. G. Schaffner, Arthur Schott, C. L. Smith. 
L. C. Smith, C. H. T. Townsend and C. M. Barber, Charles Wright, 
W. G. Wright, L. J. Xantus. 

SPECIES INCLUDED. 

It is manifest that the group here chosen for treatment is an 
artificial one. It is impossible to draw a sharp line between the 
woody and herbaceous plants, although in the vast majority of cases 
such a classification is easily made. Many truly woody plants are 
so small that they are not looked upon commonly as shrubs, and 
many herbaceous plants become so large as to remind one of small 
trees. Plants which are essentially annuals, and which in regions 
where freezing temperatures occur never live more than one season, 
may in tropical regions develop more or less woody stems. More- 
over, in herbarium specimens, which as a rule consist merely of 
terminal portions of branches, it is often impossible to conclude that 
a plant is a shrub except from analogy or from information fur- 
nished by collectors. The writer would have preferred to treat 
only of the trees of Mexico, which are far less numerous than the 
shrubs and would have required less space for their elaboration: 
but the separation in the herbarium of trees and shrubs involves still 
greater difficulties than the separation of woody and herbaceous 
plants. We have so little published information regarding the size 
of Mexican plants, and most collectors show such an aversion to 
furnishing notes concerning their collections, that the classification 
of woody plants as trees and shrubs is evidently quite impracticable 
with our present knowledge. The writer's policy as to the species 
to be included has been a liberal one, and although it is possible that 
some species have been omitted which should have been included, 
it is certain that their number is small. On the other hand, many 
species have probably been included which should have been omitted, 
but this fact will increase rather than detract from the usefulness 
of the work. Some species have been listed as shrubs, rather against 
the judgment of the writer, because of data reported by collectors. 

The statements given here concerning size are the best that can 
be compiled from published notes and from information furnished 
by collectors' labels. The information available is not so complete 
as is desirable and in some cases may be misleading. It has not 
been the intention to publish a descriptive manual, and the brief 
descripl Lve notes given under most of the species are intended merely 
to supplement the keys and to indicate the most striking features of 
each species. Keys are given for the determination of genera and 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. O 

species and one for the determination of families. The last is 
adapted from a key to the families of tropical American plants pub- 
lished recently by Mr. Henry Pittier. 1 It is very difficult, if not im- 
possible, to prepare a key to the families of tropical plants which 
will enable one always to refer a plant to its family, because many 
of the plants are still imperfectly known, and because there are in 
some families many exceptions to the typical plan of organization 
of the group. With complete material of a given plant, however 
it is hoped that the present key will usually be adequate for indicat- 
ing its family position. 

It has been intended to give references to the names of all woody 
plants published or reported from Mexico, disregarding, however, 
certain obviously incorrect names which have not received notice in 
more recent or important works. Casual references are made in 
addition to the more common cultivated exotic species. Published 
names not illustrated by material examined by the writer or not 
identifiable from the descriptions accompanying them have been 
listed as " doubtful species " at the end of their respective genera. 
The plan has been to list as a valid species or as a synonym each 
specific name based upon Mexican material, but it has not been 
deemed necessary to list all the combinations under various genera, 
unless their citation seemed to serve some useful purpose. The writer 
has not attempted to classify all the names of Mociiio and Sesse, 
which occur in their Plantae Novae Hispaniae and Flora Mexicana, 
for these names have justly received little attention from taxonomists. 
and their determination would require an amount of labor quite 
inconsistent with any advantage that would result. Some of these 
names, however, have been referred to in their proper places. A 
very few of Mocifio and Sesse's names are valid, but it is only by 
accident that such is the case. 

RANGES OF THE SPECIES. 

The range in Mexico ascribed to each species is based chiefly upon 
material in the National Herbarium, but reliable published reports 
have been taken into account when they indicated noteworthy ex- 
tensions of range. It is probable that in many cases the species have 
wider ranges than is indicated, but the limits of distribution can 
not be determined definitely until more extensive explorations have 
been carried out. Much more comprehensive collections are needed 
from all parts of Mexico, but especially from the states of Tabasco, 
Michoacan, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas. Those available from 

1 Clave analitica de las familias de plantas fanerogamas de Venezuela y 
partes adyacentes de la America Tropical. Pp. 1-108. Caracas, 1917. 



6 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Tabasco ;uul Chiapas are particularly inadequate, and doubtless 
many of the listed species occur there, even if the ranges as here 
stated do not indicate the fact. If a species occurs in Oaxaca ami 
also in Guatemala, it may safely he assumed that it is found in 
Chiapas, although the writer has not felt at liberty to report its 
occurrence there unless he has actually seen specimens from that 
State. The range outside Mexico is given for those species which 
extend into other countries, and when no such range is indicated it 
is to be assumed that the species is endemic 

TYPE LOCALITIES. 

For the majority of the speries there has been included a statement 
concerning the type or the type locality. The nomenclatorial type 
of a species is the specimen which served as the basis of the origi- 
nal description of the species, and the type locality is the one at 
which the specimen was collected. A knowledge of type localities 
is of great importance in taxonomic work, especially when it becomes 
necessary to divide into two or more species material which has been 
referred previously to a single one. It is of interest also to collectors 
who may visit these places and who may take an interest in recollect- 
ing such plants at their original stations. It is to be expected, gen- 
erally, that the form of a species occurring in the region of the type 
locality is the typical one. In the case of many specie- described 
from Mexico, particularly the earlier ones, the source of the speci- 
mens on which they were based was given merely as " Mexico." with- 
out indication of any precise locality. In such instances the writer 
ha- made no reference to the type locality, which is, of course, prac- 
tically unknown. Neither has it seemed worth while to refer to the 
type locality in the case of species described from "tropical 
America," " "West Indies,*' or other similarly vague regions. 

VERNACULAR NAMES. 

The vernacular names listed have been gathered, from various 
sources. Many have been taken from the label- accompanying her- 
barium specimens. All those found in literature which has come to 
tiie writer's attention have been listed if there was reason to suppose 
them accurate. The most extensive work dealing with Mexican ver- 
nacular plant names is the " Sinonimia vulgar y cienti'tica tie las 
plantas Mexicanas," compiled by Dr. Jose* Ramirez, with the assist- 
ance of Senor Gabriel V. Alcocer, published in the City of Mexico 
in 1902. This is a very extensive list and a valuable one. based 
partly upon the investigations of the authors, and also upon many 
previously published lists. It is unfortunate thai many of the Latin 



/STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 7 

names are obviously erroneous and others doubtful, but the same 
statements are likely to be true of most lists of similar nature. The 
present writer is under particular obligations to Dr. Bias P. Reko, 
who has kindly permitted the use of a very extensive list of the ver- 
nacular names current in Oaxaca, which he has compiled. Valued 
assistance has been rendered likewise by Dr. Alfonso Herrera, Di- 
rector de Estudios Biologicos, of the Mexican Government. 

The names applied to plants vary greatly in different parts of 
Mexico, largely because of the diverse languages which preceded 
Spanish in different parts of the country, and which are still spoken 
in many regions, notwithstanding that Spanish is the language used 
by the great majority of the inhabitants. The Spanish names are 
the most generally used, as a rule. Many of them date back to the 
time of the Conquest, and are the same as naftnes in common use 
for Spanish plants of more or less similar aspect, although often of 
no close relationship. In many instances the Carib names of West 
Indian plants were brought to Mexico by the early explorers and ap- 
plied to the same or similar plants growing in the latter region. In 
the case of plants first discovered in Mexico, and quite unlike any- 
thing previously known to them, the Spaniards aften adopted the 
native Mexican names, especially those of Nahuatl origin. It is in- 
teresting to observe how generally some of the Nahuatl names — often 
greatly modified in spelling and pronunciation, it is true — are now 
used among the Spanish-speaking people of North America, often 
in regions far remote from those where the Nahuatl language was 
ever spoken. Many of them are in common use among the Spanish- 
speaking people of Arizona and New Mexico, and some, like "mes- 
quite," have become recognized English words. 

A large number of Nahuatl plant names are known, and many are 
listed here. Many more have been reported — particularly by Her- 
nandez — whose application is obscure or unknown. The Nahuatl 
language was the one spoken at the time of the Conquest by the 
inhabitants of the Valley of Mexico. The people of this prosperous 
region possessed a great love for flowers as objects of admiration and 
adornment, and were familiar with the properties and uses of many 
plants, consequently their botanical vocabulary was a remarkably 
large one. Less is known of the plant names of other parts of Mexico. 
Many names are known, however, from the Maya, which is the origi- 
nal and more or less current language of the Yucatan Peninsula 
and adjacent regions. Some names are available, also, from the 
Tarascan language of Michoacan ; the Otoml, of north-central Mex- 
ico; and the Mixtec and Zapotec, of Oaxaca and Chiapas. Besides 
the vernacular names employed in Mexico, the writer has listed those 
from Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela, and from those 
islands of the West Indies in which Spanish is spoken, excluding, so 



8 rTBiBUTioirg fbom the national herbarium. 

far as possible, those of local native dialects. The importance of 
recording native names can not be urged too strongly npon collectors. 
These names are often used very uniformly over wide areas and are, 
on the whole, probably better standardized than the English names 
employed in the United States. This is perhaps not remarkable, in 
view of the fact that many of the Spanish names have been in use 
for four centuries, and the native names much longer. 

The vernacular names here cited are followed by parentheses in 
which are listed the states or countries in which they are known or 
reported to be used. If there is no further comment or indication, 
it may be assumed tl j u t the names are correctly applied. In many 
Cfl <• the vernacular nanus nave been reported by a single authority. 
and in some cases the propriety of their application is doubtful; in 
such instances the vernacular name is followed by the name of the 
authority (in italics) to whom the writer is indebted for it. 

ECONOMIC NOTES. 

The economic notes also have been gathered from a wide variety of 
ources. A large amount of information concerning the uses of 
plants has been published in Mexico, and these data have been used 
freely. References have been given to the uses made of the plants in 
other legions, particularly Centra] America and the West Indies. 
Some of the information here presented is taken from the published 
and unpublished notes of Dr. rCdward Palmer, who was engaged for 
many years in the botanical exploration of Mexico and made ex- 
tensive observations on the local uses of plants. The Mexican flora 

coul a ins a very large number of species of economic value, soiue of 
which, like the cacao and Mexican rubber tn-c. are of great com- 
mercial importance. The number of plants which yield edible fruit 
is very large. It would seem, also, that, almost every species is em- 
ployed locally for medicinal purposes, but too much importance 
should not he attached to the data reported regarding such uses, for, 
a 1 1 hough many of the plant- do possess therapeutic pro pert ies, in the. 

far greater majority of cases the properties attributed are chiefly or 

wholly fictitious. 

The Republic of Mexico, the region which is covered by the pre 
eiii work, is not a natural phytogeographic area, its boundaries 

being nowhere coincident with Ihose of any limit of vegetation. It 
would be \ery difficult to draw B natural boundary along the north 

era frontier, and equally so on the south. There is no sharp break 
in the continuity of specific distribution on the south until the 
Isthmus of Panama is reached, and even here the break is not too 
pronounced, for a large number of species of woody plant- are 
known lo ranee from the arid regions of Colombia and Venezuela 



STAXDLEY TREES AXD SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 9 

to the similar arid areas of western Mexico. It would have been 
desirable to extend the scope of the present work to include Central 
America, but such an extension would have doubled, probably, the 
number of species treated. As the work now stands, it will be 
found useful for determination of a large proportion of the species 
native to Central America, as well as of those occurring in the 
United States in the region of the Mexican border. 

To facilitate more thorough taxonomic study of the groups here 
treated, there have been listed, when practicable, references to 
monographic accounts of each family or genus, in which there will 
generally be found complete descriptions of the species. In most 
cases only the most recent monograph has been listed, but in some 
instances earlier systematic accounts have been mentioned if they 
seemed to furnish useful Information or to be more easily acces- 
sible. 

HISTORY OF BOTANICAL EXPLORATION IN MEXICO. 

Botanical history in Mexico may be considered to have begun with 
the landing of the Conquistadores. for the earliest letters of Cortes 
to the King contain references to the curious vegetable products of 
the country. The true history of botanical activity in Mexico be- 
gins at a much earlier date, for the native inhabitants, who had al- 
ready reached a high degree of civilization, may be said to have be- 
gun scientific researches. No other primitive people, probably, ever 
took so great an interest in botanical matters, and at the time of the 
Conquest none of the nations of Europe were much superior to the 
Mexicans in botanical knowledge. In one respect, at least, the lat- 
ter had made greater progress in botanical activity, for they had 
established a botanical garden, on an elaborate scale, something that 
was not attempted in Europe until a still later date. Not only had 
the Aztec people acquired an intimate knowledge of the economic 
qualities of the plants with which they came in contact, a knowledge 
possessed by all primitive peoples, but they had developed an es- 
thetic appreciation of plant- for their beauty alone, a fact which indi- 
cates a rather high state of moral development. Flowers were cul- 
tivated extensively in the Valley of Mexico, and were brought in 
great quantities to the markets, where they were purchased for per- 
sonal adornment and for the decoration of residences and temples. 
This love of flowers has persisted to the present time among the Mexi- 
can people, and cut flowers still occupy much space in the markets 
everywhere in the Republic. 

Beginning with Hernandez, a large number of botanical explorers 
from Europe and from the United States have visited Mexico, and 
many native Mexicans have contributed to. our knowledge of the 



10 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

vegetable productions of the country. It is not the writer's pur- 
pose to enumerate the men who have assembled the collections upon 
which the scientific knowledge of the Mexican flora is based, but 
references to most of them will be found in footnote- scattered 
through the systematic account of the flora. The earlier collectors 
have been discussed by Hemsley, 1 and the most complete information 
upon the subject has been published by Leon. 2 Several of the 
earliest enterprises for the botanical exploration of Mexico are so re- 
markable, and must be referred to so frequently in the text, that it 
seems essential to describe them in some detail. These are discussed 
below. 

FRANCISCO HERNANDEZ. 

His interest in the North American colonies having been awakened, 
perhaps by the reports made by the civil and religious authorities of 
the region, Philip II of Spain gave orders to his physician. Francisco 
Hernandez, to prepare an account of the natural history, antiquities. 
and political conditions of New Spain. 3 In order to give him a rank 
suitable to the importance of the work he was to undertake, Hernan- 
dez was honored with the title of Protomedico of the Indies. He 
sailed from Spain in 1570, accompanied by his son. Although Philip 
II was very liberal in his appropriations for the expenses of the ex- 
pedition, he appears to have underestimated the magnitude of the 
task, and it seems that Hernandez was often embarrassed by his lack 
of financial resources. Hernandez, however, compensated for (hi- by 
his intense application to his work. He visited almost all parts of 
New Spain, observing all matters of natural history and collecting a 
vast amount of information. His enthusiasm led him to risk his 
health and life with experiments made upon his own person to 
determine the medicinal properties of plants discovered in the course 
of his travels. While upon a journey to Michoacan, he narrowly 
escaped death as a result of an experiment with the latex of 
"chupire." His health was finally undermined by his excessive 
labors, the worry caused by his financial embarrassment, ami the hos- 
tility shown by some of those in authority. Five years had been the 
period assigned for the completion of his task, and at the end of that 
time, in 1575, he had 10 folio volumes ready for publication. Two 
years longer, however, he remained in Mexico, continually engaged 

1 Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 4: 117-137. 18S7. 

•Nicolfls Leon, Biblioteca Botftnico-Mexlcana, catalogo bibllogr&flco y 

crftico de autores y escritoa referentes a vegetales de Mexico y sus aplica- 
eiones, desde la Conquista hasta el presente. .Mexico, is:).".. This work con- 
tains a remarkably complete ami very valuable bibliography of Mexican botany. 

It is unfortunate that so many Of the publications listed are inaccessible in 

even the largesl Libraries of the United States. 
•The name formerly applied to Mexico. 



STANDLEY TREES ASTD SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 11 

with the objects of his commission, and refusing to practice his pro- 
fession for lack of leisure from his researches, although he states that 
he thus lost the opportunity of gaining more than 20,000 pesos. 
Taking advantage of his title of Protomedico, he assembled many of 
the Mexican physicians and directed them to test the native drugs 
and to inform him of the results obtained. He himself carried on 
experiments in the hospitals with drug plants whose properties he 
wished to determine. 

In September, 1577, Hernandez returned to Spain. He left in 
Mexico three or four copies of his manuscripts and sketches. Be- 
sides his manuscripts and herbarium, he carried to Spain many 
seeds and living plants to adorn the royal gardens. His execution 
of his Mexican commission must have satisfied the Spanish au- 
thorities, for he was offered a similar mission to Peru and other 
parts of the Indies, which he refused because of a desire to attend 
to the printing of his reports. His expectations in this direction, 
however, .were destined to be sadly disappointed, for instead of 
being sent to the printer the manuscripts were buried in the library 
of the Escorial, although, as a Mexican writer remarks, " with every 
honor" for they " were beautifully bound, in blue leather covered 
and worked with gold, with clasps, corners, and ornaments of silver, 
all very heavy and of excellent workmanship and design." Not- 
withstanding this unfortunate and ironical conclusion of Hernandez's 
expectations, Colmeiro asserts that he had seen " a sample impression 
of the colored plates which were projected for his natural history, 
with an estimate of the cost, to judge^from which the edition would 
have been of uncommon beauty, and perhaps the first of its kind for 
that time." 

Wearied by his disappointments, Hernandez survived only a short 
time, and died January 28, 1578. Neither the exact date of his birth 
nor his birthplace is known, nor the place where his remains rest. 
He left 16 folio volumes, six of text, describing the animals, plants, 
and minerals of Mexico, and 10 of drawings representing these ob- 
jects; also various miscellaneous manuscripts dealing with medi- 
cine, Mexican antiquities, and moral and religious philosophy. He 
had prepared a translation of Pliny's National History, and had 
written at least two philosophical works in verse. Except for a 
few fragments, all these works were destroyed by the fire which 
consumed the Royal Monastery of the Escorial in June 1671. Of 
the manuscripts left in Mexico nothing is known, and it is probable 
that all were lost within a few years after their preparation. 

Soon after Hernandez's death the King moved to remedy the delay 
in the publication of his works by commissioning another of his 
physicians, Dr. Nardo Antonio Recchi, a native of Naples, to take 
126651—20 2 



12 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

charge of them. The latter apparently extracted from the manu- 
scripts the portion which he believed would be most useful to the 
medical profession, for it Is evident that most of the matter ht 
selected was of this sort. Some doubts have been raised regarding 
Recchi's competency to perform the task assigned him: nevertheless 
except for his connection with the matter it is improbable that any 
portion of Hernandez's work would ever have been published. 
Recchi's manuscript, however, met with no better treatment than the 
original one, for it too remained unpublished, and was taken later by 
its compiler to Naples. After Recchi's death it came into the posses- 
sion of his nephew, from whom it was purchased by Prince Federico 
Cesi, a devoted student of natural history. By him it was turned 
over to the Accademia dei Lyncei, whose members undertook the 
arrangement and annotation of the manuscript and finally prepared 
it for publication. Through the Spanish ambassador at Rome funds 
for printing were secured, and the work of Hernandez, thus modified, 
was at last given to the public. There is considerable uncertainity 
regarding the actual date of publication, but the date of completion 
is believed to have been 1651. 1 An abridged edition appeared as 
early as 1628, and extracts had been published by various authors at 
still earlier dates. An edition of the work prepared by Ortega was 
issued at Madrid in 1780. 

Hernandez's work is of great historic interest because of the fact 
that it is the first extensive publication dealing with the botanical 
features of Mexico. It contains a great mass of information regard- 
ing the plants of that country^ some of which, relating to practices 
of the early inhabitants, had been forgotten before other botanists 
visited the region. A large part of the observations relate to medic- 
inal properties of plants, and these are interesting even if not of 
much practical importance. It is unfortunate that the identity of 
many of Hernandez's plants must remain a matter of conjecture, be- 
cause his descriptions are usually drawn in such general terms, and 
the illustrations accompanying them are often equally vague. The 
book, however, will always possess an attraction for those interested 
in herb lore if not for the taxonomist. It must be remembered that 
the work, as we have it, is not that of Hernandez himself, hut only 
a compilation or an extract, and that the original manuscript if it 

' Rerum medlcarum Novae Hispaniae thesaurus, sou plantarum animalium, 
□lineralium mexicanorum, historia ex Francisco Hernandez, novi <>ri>is medic! 
primarli, relationibus in i]>s;i mexcana urbe conscrlptls a Nardo Antonio Reecho 
collecta ac in ordinem digesta: a Joanne Terrentio, Joanne Fabro ft Fabio 
Columns Lynceis aotis el additionibus illustrata. Cul accessere aliquol ex 
Principis Federid <';i<>sii Prontispiciis theatrl naturalis phytosophicae tabulae 
una cuni quani plurimis IconibUS. Pp. 1-!). r >0-M -'•><>. ill. Rome. 1651. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 13 

could have been published as prepared would doubtless have been of 
much greater value. 

In recent years Mr. W. E. Safford, of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, has spent much time in identifying the plants treated by 
Hernandez. He has published numerous papers upon the subject, 
and references to some of these will be found in the body of the 
present paper. 

EXPEDITION OF CHARLES III. 

The most elaborate botanical undertaking in the history of Mexico 
was undoubtedly the famous expedition of Charles III of Spain. 
That ruler decided to institute a survey of the natural resources of 
his extensive dominions beyond the sea, and for the execution of the 
project explorers were chosen from among the most learned scien- 
tists of Spain, parties of whom were sent to several of the Spanish 
possessions. One of these expeditions was dispatched to the Philip- 
pines and another, headed by Ruiz and Pavon, to Peru. Since 
Mexico was one of the two most important of the Spanish possessions, 
the party sent to that country, New Spain, as it was then known, 
was chosen with particular care. 

It was headed by Dr. Martin Sesse y Lacasta, who was to have 
charge of a proposed botanical garden. The other members of the 
commission were D. Juan Diego del Castillo; D. Jose Longinos; 
D. Juan Cerda, a draftsman; and Dr. Vicente Cervantes, who 
was to establish a chair of botany in the City of Mexico. The mem- 
bers were chosen by D. Casimiro Gomez Ortega, the director of the 
botanical garden of Madrid. 

The commission arrived in Mexico in 1788, and on the 1st of 
May at 5 in the evening there was inaugurated with great solemnity 
a department of botany in the University. Sesse delivered an in- 
augural dissertation which was preceded by the installation of the 
men chosen for the various professorships, conducted bj T the rector of 
the University. There were present the royal audience, the doctors, 
all of the religious societies, the regidores, military officials, and 
many members of society. The viceroj^ was unable to be present, 
but he was represented by D. Francisco Xavier Gamboa. 

The University was illuminated at night and after a brilliant 
concert, according to a contemporaneous newspaper account. " there 
were lighted magnificent fireworks, ingeniously executed by that 
pyrotechnic artist, D. Joaquin Gavilan. Three trees, known in this 
kingdom under the name of papayo, closely imitating nature in the 
delineation of their leaves, flowers, and fruits, gave a clear picture 
of the sex of plants, which, being separated in this genus, was 
represented in the following manner: Two female trees, clothed 
with their respective flowers, and fruits of different stages of devel- 



14 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

opment, indicated the method by which the latter take their devel- 
opment from the flowers of the male plant, which, as such, was 
without fruits and occupied the center, sending out sparks of fire, 
which, directed to the female plants, represented perfectly the pol- 
len transported through the air to fertilize the female flowers. 

" At the foot of the male tree were placed various decorations 
alluding to the features of a garden, which illuminated the Plaza 
with brilliant, spectacular, and fascinating lights of different colors 
and changed gradually into others no less entertaining. As the 
three trees disappeared there appeared an inscription in letters of 
fire which said, AMOR URIT PLANTAS, which is what the illus- 
trious Carolus Linnaeus holds in his ingenious dissertation, Spon- 
salia Plantarum." 

At the same hour on the following day the botanical course was 
opened under the direction of Cervantes in the residence of the chief 
engineer of the city, D. Ignacio Castera, who also offered his garden 
as a laboratory. The botanical lectures were attended not only by 
the young students of the University but by numerous professional 
men, one of whom was D. Jose Mariano Mocifio. The city govern- 
ment lent assistance to the new undertaking by setting apart for a 
botanical garden a parcel of land, a portion of which is now occupied 
by the home of the Instituto Medico Nacional. 

Mocifio was a young physician, native of Mexico, who so distin- 
guished himself in his botanical studies that only seven months after 
the establishment of the botanical course he was appointed member 
of the scientific; commission. A fellow student, Maldonado, was 
given a like appointment, that he might engage in the work of dis- 
sections. These two, besides Castillo and Longinos, were directed to 
explore the more remote parts of New Spain, while Sesse reserved 
for himself the exploration of the central regions of Mexico, and 
Cervantes confined his attention to his professorial duties. 

Moqino's explorations extended on the south to the coast of Ta- 
basco, which he visited in December, 1794, continuing his course into 
Guatemala. In company with Castillo he went north to the Tara- 
humare country, into what is now Chihuahua, and later he traveled 
in California, and as far as Nootka Sound, and still later in Jalisco, 
Michoacan. and other regions. Mocifio survived the peril and fatigue 
of his travels, but not so Castillo, who died in the City of Mexico, 
July 26, 1793. 

Besides Cerda, the official artist of the expedition, D. Atanasio 
Echeverria, 1 a native of Mexico, was employed in making drawings 
of botanical and other objects. A pharmacist* D. Jaime Senseve, 
also was appointed to the commission, and likewise D. Jose Antonio 

1 The genus Echeveria, of the family Crassulaceae, was named In his honor. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 15 

Alzate y Ramirez, the latter a distinguished scientist, born in Mexico, 
who published numerous articles dealing with Mexican plants. 

Longinos engaged in the formation of collections of various objects 
and explored many parts of New Spain, his route extending even to 
the Californias. He visited also Guatemala and Yucatan, and died 
in the port of Campeche in 1803. Some of his collections were sent 
to Madrid and part remained in Mexico. 

Mocino was the most enthusiastic and diligent of all the members of 
the commission. He was likewise the most adventurous, and in the 
ascent of the Volcan de Tuxtla, in 1793, he came near losing his life. 
He ended his field work in 1801, and in the Hospital de San Andres he 
conducted experiments with the medicinal plants he had collected. 
He was able to communicate to others some of his enthusiasm for 
natural history, and many people began to take an interest in the 
subject, one of the results of which was the formation of an extensive 
museum. His chief interest, however, was the task, in association 
with Sesse, of arranging and describing his botanical collections, 
with the view of publishing a work entitled Plantae Novae Hispaniae. 
He had already prepared a Flora Mexicana, and specimens from his 
collections had been sent to Lagasca and Cavanilles, who described 
some of them as new species. In addition, living plants and seeds 
were forwarded to the Botanical Garden of Madrid. 

Finally, in 1804, Sesse and Mocino made an end of their explo- 
rations and set sail for Madrid, with a rich herbarium and a series 
of 1,400 colored drawings, as well as their precious manuscripts. 
Cervantes remained in Mexico as director of the botanical garden 
and professor of botany. 

Sesse and Mocino were filled with hope of the immediate publi- 
cation of the results of their labors, but the bitter disappointment 
experienced by Hernandez was to be the share of these two botanists 
also. They were given a cool reception and no facilities whatever for 
printing their reports. Hope of soon meeting with success in his am- 
bitions induced Mocino to accept a meager pension from the Gov- 
ernment, and he lived as a member of Sesse's family until the death 
of the latter in 1809. He manifested a deep interest in all scientific 
matters ; he was appointed director of the cabinet of natural history 
of Madrid, gave courses in zoology, and with the assistance of another 
Mexican, D. Pablo de La Llave, arranged the zoological collections 
of the museum. 

Mocino seems to have been on good terms with the French, who 
invaded Spain about this time, but he became involved in difficulties 
because of his refusal to recognize one Barrois as president of the 
Academy of Medicine, of which he was a member. When the 
French Army withdrew from Madrid, Mocino remained, presuming 
that he had not compromised himself by acting as a teacher of nat- 



16 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

ural history during the occupation, but in this he was mistaken, for 
soon after he was seized, thrown into prison, and placed in chain-. 
and thus he remained until the French Army returned. Thereupon 
he was released and permitted to return to the museum. Again the 
French retreated, and Mocino, who was now far advanced in years 
(the date of his birth is not known), resolved not to risk his fortunes 
again with the Spanish authorities, and took his departure, bearing 
with him in a cart his manuscripts and drawings. By night he 
slept in the cart, and by day he walked beside it, until it was taken 
from him by a French officer. He managed, however, to save his 
possessions and to escape from Spain, and as it was evidently un- 
safe for him to return to Madrid he took refuge at Montpellier. He 
was nearly blind and was reduced to beggary, from which he was 
rescued by certain French scientists. 

In Montpellier he became acquainted with De Candolle and Dunal. 
who joined with him in assigning names to the new species of plants 
he had discovered. To De Candolle he turned over his manuscripts 
and drawings, and that famous Swiss botanist seems to have been 
the first of those who had seen them to have formed an adequate 
idea of their value. Mocino often visited De Candolle's lecture 
room, and one day the latter had occasion to deliver a eulogy of 
the Mexican botanist, unaware that the subject of his praise was 
present. When the latter's presence was pointed out to him, De 
Candolle embraced Mocino effusively and pressed him to take the 
chair and elucidate the subject that had suggested his name. Over- 
come by the occasion, Mocino burst into tears and was unable to 
speak a word. 

After passing a few years at Montpellier, the adoption of the 
constitution in Spain gave Mocino hope that he might be permitted 
to return to Madrid. He besought such permission of the govern- 
ment, and it was finally granted. In April, 1817, consequently, he 
asked of De Candolle, who was now in Geneva, the return of his 
papers. The request was evidently made in urgent terms, but De 
Candolle was determined to keep copies of the drawings and descrip- 
tions, and hastened to have these made. De Candolle says that 
"About 120 persons came voluntarily to offer me their time and 
blushes; most of them were ladies of society; but there were also 
professional artists and a multitude of persons who were strangers 
to me. The young people united in the common task. The whole 
city was busy for 10 days, and the diligence of all those who knew 
how to use a brush or pencil was really affecting. * * * As a 
result of this diligence the collection of Mocino was almost wholly 
copied in the time fixed." " De Candolle never recounted this affec- 
tionate demonstration of his fellow citizens," says Dunal. "bui his 
qyes filled with tender tears." The number of drawings thus copied 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 17 

was 1,100, and from them 271 new species were published in the 
Prodromus. Tracings of the sketches were distributed to many of 
the herbaria of Europe. 

Mocino returned to Spain, where he received a warm welcome 
from the Minister of Marine, D. Juan Sabat, who gave him lodging 
in his home and assisted him in other ways. Mocino later started 
upon a voyage, but had proceeded only as far as Barcelona when 
he was overcome by illness, and he died in that city in 1819. Thus 
he failed to realize any of his hopes for the publication of the results 
of his long years of exploration and study, nor were the fruits of 
his labors destined to reach the public until still many more years 
had passed. 

His drawings passed into the possession of the physician who 
attended him in his final illness, and it is not known what finally be- 
came of them. His manuscripts and other papers, including a 
* w Flora de Guatemala," are in the Botanical Garden of Madrid, where 
the herbarium of the expedition is said to have been deposited in 1820. 
Some of the specimens reached the Lambert Herbarium, and it is 
believed that Mexican specimens at Kew and at the British Museum, 
labeled as having been collected by Pavon, are from the Sesse and 
Mocino collections. Presumably they were distributed by Pavon, 
and his name was affixed to the labels through some error. Pavon 
is not known to have visited Mexico. 

The Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural learned that the 
manuscript of the Flora Mexicana existed at Madrid, and as early 
as 1870 made an attempt to secure a copy of it, but it was 15 years 
before the attempt was successful. It was desired also to secure the 
illustrations for publication, but this was found impracticable. The 
Flora Mexicana was finally published in the City of Mexico in 1888 
by the Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural, and a second edition, 
with numerous corrections, was printed by the Instituto Medico 
Naoional in 1894. The Plantae Novae Hispaniae was printed by the 
former society in 1886, and was reprinted by the Secretaria de 
Foment© for the Chicago Exposition of 1893. 

It was thus more than a hundred years after the organization of 
the expedition that the results of its investigations were finally made 
public. Perhaps no other botanical project has ever had so inter- 
esting a history, and none, it may safely be said, has ever been at- 
tended with so many dramatic incidents. If the}^ had been pub- 
lished when first written, the two floras would have become historic. 
They were better prepared than most of the botanical works of their 
day, although their authors had a very broad conception of specific 
limits and referred many of the Mexican plants to species of the Old 
World tropics with which they were not even congeneric. When the 
works were actually printed they had long been obsolete, and most 



18 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

of the plants dealt with had been described years before by other 
authors, sometimes under the same names but usually not. Aside 
from the sentimental interest that was gratified by the publication 
of the manuscripts, it is a matter of regret that botanical nomen- 
clature was further taxed with so many useless synonyms. Indeed, 
but little attention has ever been paid by botanists to the numerous 
new names recorded in these two works. 

ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT. 

Alexander, Baron von Humboldt, one of the most illustrious men 
of his period, was born in Berlin in 1769. He was granted permis- 
sion by the court of Spain to explore the Spanish possessions in 
America, and in 1799, in company with Aimee Bonpland, he sailed 
from Coruna. He landed at Cumana, Venezuela, and starting from 
that point he explored New Andalusia (Venezuela) and Spanish 
Guiana. Thence he went to Cuba, and later to other parts of South 
America. In March, 1803, he landed at Acapulco, and followed the 
usual route of that day to the capital, where he made the acquaintance 
of Cervantes, Cal, Alzate, and many other scientists. He explored 
thoroughly the Valley of Mexico, and made collections also in 
Hidalgo, Queretaro, Guanajuato, Puebla, Jalisco, Michoacan, Gue- 
rrero, and other regions. Altogether, ten months were spent in Mex- 
ico, and in 1804 Humboldt and Bonpland returned to Paris, where 
the former remained for many years. He died in Berlin in 1850. 

The rich material obtained by the expedition was sufficient to 
occupy the many years which Humboldt devoted to scientific study. 
The botanical collections were gathered chiefly by Bonpland. but 
the senior member of the expedition made extensive observations 
upon vegetation which served as the basis for classic work- upon 
phytogeography. The Mexican collections included about 950 spe- 
cies, a large proportion of which were described as new. Along with 
the material from other regions they were turned over to Kunth, who 
published seven volumes describing them. 1 Humboldt and Bon- 
pland also published jointly two large volumes dealing with some of 
the most interesting of their discoveries. 2 So far as modern botanical 

•Nova genera el species plantarum quas in peregrinatione ad plagam aequinoc- 
tiaiem orbis novi collegerunt, descripserunt, partim adumbraverunt Amat. Bon- 
pland el Alex, de Humboldt. Ex schedls autographis AmatJ Bonpland In 
ordinem dlgessil Oarolus Biegesmund Kunth. A.ccedun1 Alexandri de Hum- 
boldl notation es ad geographiam plantarum spectantes. Vols. 1-7. pi. 1-700. 
Paris, 1815 1825. 

*Plantae aequinoctiales, per regnum MexicI in provlncils Garacarum el Novae 
Andalusiae, in Peruvianorum, Quitenaium, Novae Granatae Aiidibus, ad Orenoci, 
l'luvii nigrl, fluminis Amazonum rlpas nascentes. in ordinem dlgessil Amatus 
Bonpland. \HK 1, 2. i>I. l-ltf. Paris, 1808-1809. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 19 

work is concerned, the Nova Genera et Species is the first important 
work treating of Mexican plants. The collections obtained in South 
America were much more extensive than those from Mexico, and for 
Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru the work is of even greater 
importance than for Mexico. Humboldt and Bonpland were the 
first to make known to science many of the most common and charac- 
teristic Mexican plants. 

Besides these and other systematic works, Humboldt published 
accounts of his voyages, which are replete with original observations 
upon matters of natural history. He was the father of the science 
of plant geography, and published several classic works upon the 
subject, the best known of which is his Essai sur la Geographie des 
Plantes. 1 

Bonpland was born in 1773 in the French city of Rochelle. Some 
time after his return to Europe, in 1816, he decided to establish him- 
self in America, and went to Buenos Aires, where he gave courses 
in natural history. He traveled in the more remote parts of Argen- 
tina, Paraguay, and Bolivia, and finally settled in Paraguay where 
he established a factory for the preparation of mate. This act seems 
to have aroused the jealousy of the dictator Francia, and in 1821 
a band of his agents attacked the finca, killed some of the employees, 
and wounded Bonpland himself. The latter was put in chains 
and kept nine years in captivity, but later was released and devoted 
his attention to agricultural pursuits. He died in 1858. 

SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT. 

KEY TO THE FAMILIES. 

Subkingxiom Pteridophyta. 

Plants without flowers or seeds, but producing spores. Ferns. 

Rhizomes creeping, very slender, producing mostly ascending or reclining 
vinelike leaves of indeterminate growth ; sporangia relatively few, sub- 
globose to pyriform, dehiscing vertically ; sori flattened. 

GLEICHENIACEAE. 

Rhizomes erect or ascending, mostly arborescent, bearing a terminal crown 
of large leaves ; sporangia numerous, ovoid, dehiscing horizontally ; sori 
essentially globose CYATHEACEAE. 

'Friederich Alexander von Humboldt et Aiine Bonpland. Essai sur la 
geographie des plantes ; accompagne d'un tableau physique des regions 
equinoxiales, fonde sur des mesures ex§cutees depuis le dixieme degre de 
latitude boreale jusqu'au dixi&me degre de latitude australe pendant les annees 
1799-1803. Pp. 1-155. Paris, 1805. 

Also, Friederich Alexander von Humboldt. De distributione geographica 
plantarum secundum coeli temperiem et iltitudinem montium, prolegomena. 
Pp. 1-249. pi. Paris, 1817. 



20 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Subkingdom Spermatophyta. 

Plants with flowers which produce seeds. Flowering plants. 

KEY TO THE CLASSES. 

Grilles and seeds home on the face of a bract or scale: stigmas wanting. 

1. GYMNOSPERMAE. 
Ovules and seeds borne in a closed cavity : stigmas present 

2. ANGIOSPERMAE. 

CLASS 1. GYMXOSPERMAE. 

Leaves pinnate, broad: cotyledons united CYCADACEAE. 

Leaves entire or denticulate, narrow, usually needle-like or scalelike; coty- 
ledons distinct. 

Stems jointed. Leaves reduced to whorled scales GNETACEAE. 

Stems not jointed. 
Ovulate flowers solitary : fruit baccate, small. Leaves short, linear. 

TAXACEAE. 
Ovulate flowers few or numerous : fruit a dry or fleshy cone, often lame. 

PINACEAE. 
CLASS 2. AXGIOSPERMAE. 

KEY TO THE SUBCLASSES. 

Cotyledon 1: stems endogenous; leaves parallel-veined. 

1. MONOCOTYLEDONEAE. 
Cotyledons normally 2 ; stems exogenous ; leaves not parallel-veined. 

2. DICOTYLEDONEAE 

Subclass 1. Monocotyledones. 

Ovary inferior. Leaves mostly basal, often spine-toothed. 

AMARYLLIDACEAE. 
Ovary superior. 

Perianth rudimentary, of scales, green or greenish, never corolla-like. 

Grasses POACEAE. 

Perianth of 2 distinct series, the inner series usually corolla-like. 
Ovules solitary in each cell of the ovary. Palms: leaves usually compound 

or deeply lobed PHOENICACEAE. 

Ovules 2 to many in each cell. 

Inflorescence a fleshy spadix surrounded by a spathe ; leaves succulent. 

Plants usually epiphytic and scandent ARACEAE. 

Inflorescence not a spadix. 

Styles present: stems not scandent, unarmed: leaves linear or dagser- 

shaped LTLIACEAE. 

Styles none; stems scandent, armed with spines; leaves broad. 

SMILACACEAE. 
Subclass 2. Dicotyledones. 

KEY TO THE SERIES. 

Perianth segments wanting or all similar (especially in texture and color), 
rarely somewhat unequal. 5 or fewer 1. APETAXAE. 



STAXDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 21 

Perianth segments in 2 series, calyx and corolla, rarely similar but then more 
than 5. 
Petals distinct, rarely coherent above but distinct below. 

2. POLYPETALAE. 
Petals united below (at least at the base) or throughout. 

3. GAMOPETALAE. 

Series 1. APETALAE. 

Ovary superior, almost superior, or naked. 

Perfect and pistillate flowers without a perianth. 
Ovary with 2 or more cells. 
Ovary 2-celled, with 1 ovule in each cell : styles 2. Leaves alternate, 

simple; flowers in catkins BETUIACEAE. 

Ovary 3 or 4-celled. 

Ovary 3-celled ; styles 3. or 1 but with 3 or 6 stigmas : fruit a 3-celled 

capsule EUPHORBIACEAE. 

Ovary 4-celled : styles 2 or 4. or a 2-lobed sessile stigma : fruit 4-celled. 

indehiscent. Leaves fleshy, terete BATIDACEAE. 

Ovary 1-celled. 

Leaves reduced to whorled scales. Fruit conelike__CASUARINACEAE. 
Leaves not reduced to whorled scales. 
Ovule 1 in each cell. 

Leaves opposite, stipulate : stamen 1 : ovule pendulous. 

CHLOPvANTHACEAE. 
Leaves alternate, or opposite and estipulate : stamens 2 To 16; ovule 
erect. 
Fruit a drupe, covered with pale wax: seeds without endosperm: 

leaves estipulate. dentate MYRICACEAE. 

Fruit a small berry ; seeds with endosperm : leaves stipulate. 

entire. Flowers in long slender dense spikes PIPEBACEAE. 

Ovules more than 1 in each cell. Seeds with a tuft of hairs ; leaves 

stipulate SALICACEAE. 

Perfect and pistillate flows with a perianth. 
A. Ovary 1. 1-celled. 
B. Ovule 1. 

Leaves stipulate. 

Leaves deeply lobed. alternate ROSACEAE. 

Leaves simple. 

Styles 3. distinct or connate at the base. Stipules often sheath - 

like POLYGONACEAE. 

Style 1 and undivided, or bipartite, or of 1 or 2 sessile stigmas. 
Flowers perfect, racemose. Leaves alternate. 

PHYTOLACCACEAE. 
Flowers unisexual. 

Stamens more numerous thau the perianth segments : stami- 

nate flowers with a perianth EUPHORBIACEAE. 

Stamens as many as the perianth segments or fewer : stami- 
nate flowers sometimes without a perianth. Leaves alter- 
nate. 
Flowers solitary or clustered: .iuice not milky_ULMACEAE. 
Flowers spicate. racemose, or capitate : juice milky. 

MORACEAE. 



22 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves estipulate. 

Perianth imbricate in bud. Leaves entire or dentate, simple. 

Perianth segments 6, rarely fewer, the stamens then more nu- 
merous than the segments but not twice as many. 
Anthers dehiscent by recurved valves ; style 1 ; seeds without 

endosperm. Leaves alternate, aromatic LAURACEAE. 

Anthers dehiscent by longitudinal slits ; styles 2>)v 3 ; seeds with 

endosperm. Leaves usually alternate POLYGONACEAE. 

Perianth segments 2 to 5 ; stamens as many as the segments or 
fewer. Leaves alternate or opposite. 
Flowers with thin chaffy bracts; filaments united, at least at 

the base AMARANTHACEAE. 

Flowers with herbaceous bracts; filaments distinct. Leaves 

often succulent CHENOPODIACEAE. 

Perianth valvate or open in bud. Style 1 or none; stigma 1. 

Stamens inserted on the perianth. Leaves deeply lobed, alternate. 

PROTEACEAE. 
Stamens free from the perianth. 

Filaments wholly connate ; anthers dehiscent extrorsely. Leaves 

alternate, entire MYRISTICACEAE. 

Filaments free or connate only at the base; anthers dehiscent 
introrsely or laterally. 
Stamens 3 or 4, equal in number to the perianth segments 
and opposite them. Leaves alternate ; plants often with 

stinging hairs URTICACEAE. 

Stamens more numerous or fewer than the perianth segments, 
rarely of the same number, but the plants then with 
opposite leaves, and the stamens 5 or alternate with the 
perianth lobes. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire. 

ALLIONIACEAE. 
BB. Ovules 2 or more in each cell. 
Ovules 2 in each cell. 

Flowers dioecious; styles 3, or the stigma sessile. 

EUPHORBIACEAE. 
Flowers perfect or polygamous; style 1. 

Stamens 3 or 4 ; style terminal; leaves estipulate, alternate. 

PROTEACEAE. 
Stamens S or more, rarely fewer, but the style then basal; leaves 
usually stipulate, alternate. 
Style basal, or if terminal the stamens numerous; leaves simple. 

ROSACEAE. 
Style terminal; stamens 8 or 10; leaves pinnate. 

MIMOSACEAE. 
Ovules 3 or more in each cell. Leaves alternate. 
Ovules attached to the ventral suture of the ovary. 
Stamens 4, without aiaments; leaves simple, estipulate. 

PROTEACEAE. 
Stamens 5 or more, with filaments; leaves compound, stipulate. 

MIMOSACEAE. 
Ovules attached to several parietal placentae or to a basal or central 

placenta. 

Stamen 1. Leaves entire, estipulate; flowers spicate. 

LACISTEMACEAE. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 23 

Stamens numerous. 

Ovary borne on a long gynophore; seeds without endosperm. 

CAPPARIDACEAE. 
Ovary sessile or nearly so ; seeds with endosperm. 

FLACOURTIACEAE. 
AA. Ovary 1, several-celled, or the carpels several and distinct. 
Ovaries several, distinct. 

Stamens with connate filaments, hypogynous. Leaves alternate, 

stipulate STERCULIACEAE, 

Stamens with distinct filaments, or the filaments wanting, the stamens 
in the latter case perigynous. 
Perianth segments distinct ; leaves opposite, compound ; plants 

soandent RANUNCULACEAE. 

Perianth segments of the perfect and pistillate flowers more or less 
united, those of the staminate flowers sometimes distinct but the 
plants then with alternate leaves; plants erect. 

Ovules 2; leaves stipulate, pinnate SIMAROUBACEAE. 

Ovule 1 ; leaves estipulate, simple MONIMIACEAE. 

Ovary 1. 
Ovule 1 in each cell. 

Flowers perfect EHAMNACEAE. 

Flowers polygamous or dioecious. 

Leaves compound, estipulate; stamens 8 SAPINDACEAE. 

Leaves simple, stipulate ; stamens 4 or 5, or 10 to 20. 

Stamens 4 or 5 RHAMNACEAE. 

Stamens 10 to 20 BUXACEAE. 

Ovules 2 or more in each cell. 
Ovules 2 in each cell. 
Leaves stipulate. 

Style 1, undivided ; ovary 5-lobate. Leaves alternate. 

STERCULIACEAE. 

Styles several ; ovary usually 3-lobate EUPHORBIACEAE. 

■Leaves estipulate. 

Flowers perfect ; seeds without endosperm ACERACEAE. 

Flowers unisexual ; seeds with endosperm BUXACEAE. 

Ovules 3 or more in each cell. 

Stamens 15 or fewer TILIACEAE. 

Stamens very numerous ELAEOCARPACEAE. 

Ovary inferior, almost inferior, or half inferior. 
Ovary 1-celled, or sometimes incompletely several-celled. 
Ovule 1. 

Stamens as many as the perianth segments and alternate with them; 
perianth corolla-like. Flowers in involucrate heads. 

ASTERACEAE. 
Stamens as many as the perianth segments and opposite them, or fewer 
or more numerous ; perianth calyx-like or wanting. 
Leaves stipulate. 

Leaves opposite " CHLORANTHACEAE. 

Leaves alternate MORACEAE. 

Leaves estipulate. 
Leaves pinnate. Plants trees or shrubs; flowers in catkins. 

JUGLANDACEAE. 
Leaves simple, sometimes reduced to scales. 
Plants trees; fruit winged HERNANDIACEAE. 



24 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Plants small shrubs, often parasitic; fruit not winged. 

Leaves opposite or verticil late, sometimes reduced to scales; 
plants parasitic LORANTHACEAE. 

Leaves mostly alternate: plants not parasitic. 

CHENOPODIACEAE. 
Ovules 2 or more. 

Ovules 2 to 4. Leaves alternate, simple COMBRETACEAE. 

Ovules 6 or more. 

Plants erect trees; fruit an acorn; Mowers in catkins FAGACEAE. 

Plants scandent shrubs; fruit not an acorn; flowers not in catkins. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. 
Ovary completely several-celled. 

Ovule 1 in each cell ; leaves simple, stipulate. 

Ovary cells and styles or stigmas 3 or 4. Leaves opposite or alternate. 

entire or dentate RHAMNACEAE. 

Ovary cells and styles or stigmas 2. Leaves entire, opposite. 

RUBIACEAE. 
Ovules 2 or more in each cell ; leaves simple, estipulate. 

Plants scandent ; perianth 3-lobed or 1 or 2-lipped ; leaves alternate. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. 
Plants erect ; perianth 4 to 8-lobed or parted ; leaves opposite or alternate. 

MYRTACEAE. 

Series 2. POLYPETALAE. 

A. Ovary wholly or half inferior. 
B. Perfect stamens 10 or fewer. 
Ovule 1 in each cell of the ovary. 

Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them. 

Ovary 1-celled ; plants parasitic. Leaves opposite or verticillate. entire. 

LORANTHACEAE. 
Ovary 2 to 4-celled ; plants not parasitic. Leaves opposite or alternate, 

entire or dentate RHAMNACEAE. 

Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, or fewer or 
more numerous. 
Style 1. simple or cleft only at the apex, or the stigma 1 and sessile. 
Fruit an achene. Flowers in dense globose beads; leaves alternate. 

usually lobate PLATAN ACEAE. 

Fruit not an achene. Leaves alternate or opposite. 

Petals contorted in bud. Leaves simple, entire or dentate. 

ONAGRACEAE. 
Petals valvate in bud. 

Leaves entire; flowers not in umbels CORNACEAE. 

Leaves lobed or compound; flowers in umbels__ARALIACEAE. 
Styles 2 or more, tree or connected only at the base, or the stigmas 2 
or more and sessile. Leaves alternate. 
Ovary half Interior; fruit capsular; flowers in globose heads 

Leaves palmately lobed HAMAMELID ACEAE. 

Ovary wholly inferior; fruit baccate; flowers in umbels. 

ARALIACEAE. 
Ovules 2 or more in each cell of the ovary. 
Styles li or more, united only at the base. 

Leaves alternate FLACOURTIACEAE. 

Leaves opposite HYDRANGEACEAE. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 25 

Style 1, simple or cleft only at the apex, or stigma 1 and sessile. 
Petals valvate in bud. 

Stamens 8 to 10, twice as many as the petals; calyx lobes valvate 

in bud ; leaves alternate' or opposite COMBRETACEAE. 

Stamens 2 to 6, as many as the petals or fewer ; calyx lobes open or 

imbricate in bud; leaves alternate OLACACEAE. 

Petals imbricate or contorted in bud. 

Ovary 1-celled, the ovules suspended from the apex of the cell. 

COMBRETACEAE. 
Ovary 1-celled, with basal, central, or parietal ovules, or several- 
celled. 
Ovary 4 or 5-celled. 

Perfect stamens 10; leaves opposite MYRTACEAE. 

Perfect stamens 5; leaves alternate__PTEROSTEMONACEAE. 
Ovary 1-celled, or incompletely several-celled. 

Anthers dehiscent by terminal pores ; leaves usually with longi- 
tudinal ribs, opposite MELASTOMATACEAE. 

Anthers dehiscent by longitudinal slits; leaves without longitu- 
dinal ribs. 
Seeds with endosperm ; petals imbricate or open in bud ; 

fruit baccate; leaves alternate GROSSULARIACEAE. 

Seeds without endosperm; petals contorted; fruit capsular: 

leaves alternate or opposite ONAGRACEAE. 

BB. Perfect stamens more than 10. 

Style 1, simple or cleft only at the apex, or stigma 1 and sessile. 

Leaves stipulate. Leaves opposite, entire RHIZOPHORACEAE. 

Leaves estipulate. 
Plants very succulent and spiny, the leaves usually absent. 

CACTACEAE. 
Plants neither succulent nor spiny ; leaves well developed. 

Stamens usually twice as many as the petals : leaves usually with 

longitudinal ribs MELASTOMATACEAE. 

Stamens more than twice as many as the petals ; leaves without lon- 
gitudinal ribs. 
Sepals 2 to 4. or more and imbricate: leaves usually punctate. 

MYRTACEAE. 

Sepals 5 to S, valvate; leaves not punctate PUNICACEAE. 

Styles 2 or more, free or united only at the base, or the stigmas 2 or more 
and sessile. 
Leaves estipulate, opposite. 

Flowers borne upon the leaves ; petals valvate in bud. 

ESCALLONIACEAE. 
Flowers not borne upon the leaves; petals valvate or imbricate. 

HYDRANGEACEAE. 
Leaves stipulate, alternate. Petals imbricate in bud. 

Ovary 1-celled ; petals usually 6 to 8 FLACOURTIACEAE. 

Ovary several-celled ; petals 5 MALACEAE. 

AA. Ovary superior or nearly so. 

C. Ovary 1, 1-celled or incompletely several-celled. 

Sepals 2, distinct or rarely connate and forming a cap. Leaves estipulate. 

Leaves entire; plants with colorless juice PORTULACACEAE. 

Leaves dentate or lobate; plants with colored juice__PAPAVERACEAE. 



26 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Sepals 3 or more. 
D. Perfect stamens 1 to 10. 

E. Style 1, simple, with 1 stigma or with several connected stigmas, or 
stigma 1 and sessile. 
F. Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell. 
Leaves stipulate, alternate. 

Style basal ROSACEAE. 

Style terminal or nearly so. 

Flowers papilionaceous (like that of the bean or pea), the 

upper petal outside FABACEAE. 

Flower not papilionaceous, the upper petal •innermost. 

CAESALPINIACEAE. 
Leaves estipulate. 
Leaves simple. 
Flowers regular. 

Sepals and petals 3 ; anthers dehiscent by valves. Leaves 

alternate, aromatic LAURACEAE. 

Sepals and petals 4 to 6; anthers dehiscent by longitudinal 
slits. 
Petals valvate in bud ; endosperm copious- OL AC ACEAE. 
Petals imbricate in bud ; endosperm scant or none. 
Ovule 1 ; leaves usually compound. 

ANACARDIACEAE. 

Ovules 2; leaves simple ICACINACEAE. 

Flowers distinctly irregular. 

Fruit covered with barbed spines. Leaves entire. 

KRAMERIACEAE. 
Fruit without barbed spines. 

Stamens 4 to 8, hypogynous ; anthers dehiscent by pores. 

Leaves entire; flowers racemose POLYGALACEAE. 

Stamens 9 or 10, usually perigynous; anthers dehiscent by 

longitudinal slits FABACEAE. 

Leaves compound. 

Ovule 1 ANACARDIACEAE. 

Ovules 2. 

Ovules ascending ; stamens 10, perigynous, 5 of them often 

sterile CONNARACEAE. 

Ovules descending ; stamens 3 to 8, hypogynous, all perfect. 
Stamens 3 to 5 ; seeds with endosperm ; leaves with trans- 
parent glands R-UTACEAE. 

Stamens 8 ; seeds without endosperm ; leaves without 

transparent glands BURSERACEAE. 

FF. Ovules more than 2 in each cell. 

Ovules attached to a basal or free central placenta. Leaves alter- 
nate. 
Stamens alternate with the petals. Leaves simple. 

OLACACEAE. 
Stamens opposite the petals. 
Petals valvate in hud ; plants climbing, with tendrils. 

VITACEAE. 
Petals imbricate; plants erect. 

Sepals and petals 1 or ."> : leaves simple; fruit 1 -seeded. 

MYRSINACEAE. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 27 

Sepals 9 ; petals 6 ; leaves compound ; fruit 3-seeded. 

BERBERTDACEAE. 
Ovules attached to a sutural placenta or to 2 or more parietal 
placentae. 
Ovules attached to the ventral suture of the ovary. Leaves 
usually compound, alternate; fruit a legume. 

Corolla regular or nearly so CAESALPINIACEAE. 

Corolla very irregular, papilionaceous FABACEAE. 

Ovules attached to 2 or more parietal placentae. 
Calyx segments united. Leaves entire, small. 

FRANKENIACEAE. 
Calyx segments distinct. 

Petals 4. Ovary stipitate CAPPARIDACEAE. 

Petals 5. 

Leaves pinnate MORINGACEAE. 

Leaves simple „ VIOLACEAE. 

EE. Styles 2 or more, free or partially united, with separate stigmas, 
or stigmas 2 or more and sessile. 
Ovule 1. 

Sepals and petals each 3. Leaves entire, stipulate, the stipules 

sheathing POLYGONACEAE. 

Sepals and petals each 4 to 6. 

Stamens opposite the petals and of the same number ; style 

5-parted. Leaves simple PLUMBAGINACEAE. 

Stamens alternate with the petals, or more numerous ; styles 
usually 3. Leaves usually compound-ANACARDIACEAE. 
Ovules 2 or more. Leaves alternate. 

Plants with tendrils; ovary stipate PASSIFLORACEAE. 

Plants without tendrils ; ovary sessile. 

Leaves not scalelike TURNERACEAE. 

Leaves scalelike TAMARICACEAE. 

DD. Perfect stamens more than 10 
Ovule 1. 

Leaves opposite CLUSIACEAE. 

Leaves alternate AMYGDALACEAE. 

Ovules 2 or more. 

Ovules basal, apical, central, or sutural. 

Petals and stamens hypogynous; sepals imbricate in bud. Leaves 

simple, alternate DILLENIACEAE. 

Petals and stamens perigynous, rarely almost hypogynous but the 
sepals then valvate. 

Leaves estipulate, entire LYTHRACEAE. 

Leaves usually stipulate, dentate to pinnate. 

Ovules 2; leaves simple ROSACEAE. 

Ovules usually more than 2 ; leaves pinnate. 

CAESALPINIACEAE. 
Ovules on several parietal placentae. 

Filaments wholly connate. Leaves alternate, estipulate, trans- 
parent-dotted ; fruit berry-like CANELLACEAE. 

Filaments free or connate only at the base. 
Leaves, at least the lowest, opposite, simple. Fruit a capsule ; 
low shrubs. 

Plants not gland-dotted CISTACEAE. 

Plants gland-dotted HYPERICACEAE. 

126651—20 3 



28 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves alternate. 

Style usually wanting; endosperm scant <>r none. Petals 4; 
..vary stipitate CAPPARXDACEAE. 

Style evident: en. In sperm copious. Leaves simple. 

Petals similar to the sepals, perigynous; stamens perigynous. 

FLACOURTIACEAE. 

Petals unlike the sepals, hypogynous; stamens hypogynous. 

ovary 1-celled : fruit spiny; seeds glabrous, arillate; 

flowers pinkish white BIXACEAE. 

Ovary incompletely 3 to 5-celled, smooth ; seeds woolly ; 

flowers yellow COCHLOSPERMACEAE. 

CC. Ovary i. completely or almost completely several-celled, or the ..varies 
several and distinct. 
D. Ovaries several, distinct or connate only at the base, with wholly dis- 
tinct styles and stigmas. 
Petals and stamens perigynous. 
Leaves stipulate, alternate. 

Seeds not arillate ROSACEAE. 

Seeds arillate. Leaves entire CROSSOSOMATACEAE. 

Leaves estipulate. 

Leaves compound, not fleshy ; ovules 2 CONNARACEAE. 

Leaves simple, fleshy ; ovules numerous CRASSULACEAE. 

Petals and stamens hypogynous. Leaves estipulate. 
Stamens twice as many as the sepals or fewer. 
Ovule 1 in each carpel. Leaves simple. 

Leaves opposite or verticillate ; flowers perfect <>r polygamous ; 
petals 5; carpels 5 to 10; plants not scandent. 

CORIARIACEAE. 
Leaves alternate: flowers dioecious; petals 6 or rarely 3: plants 

scandent MENISPERMACEAE. 

Ovules 2 or more in each carpel. 

Petals 6. twice as many as the sepals. Leaves entire. 

ANNONACEAE. 
Petals as many as the sepals. 3 or more, usually ."). 

Plants leafless or nearly so KOEBERLINIACEAE. 

Plants with well-developed leaves. Leaves compound. 

Stamens and staminodia together 3 to S : ovules descending; 

leaves with translucent glands RUTACEAE. 

Stamens and staminodia together 10; ovules ascending; leaves 

without glands CONNARACEAE. 

Stamens more than twice as many as the petals. 

Perianth usually composed of 4 or more sepals and an equal or lesser 
number of petals. Seeds arillate: leaves entire, alternate. 

DILLENIACEAE. 
Perianth composed of 3 sepals and 6 or more (rarely 3) petals. 
Leaves entire. 

Sepals valvate in bud; leaves estipulate ANNONACEAE. 

S.pals imbricate in bud: leaves usually stipulate. 

MAGNOLIACEAE. 
DD. Ovaries several, with connate styles or stigmas, or ovary 1. 
E. Ovule 1 in each cell. 
Stamens distinctly perigynous. 

Stamens 10 or more. Leaves alternate, stipulate ROSACEAE. 



STAXDLEY TREES AXD SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 29 

Stamens 4 or 5. Leaves simple, entire or dentate. 

Calyx valvate in bud; stamens opposite the petals and often ad- 
nate to them EHAMNACEAE. 

Calyx imbricate ; stamens alternate or opposite, but very rarely 

adnate to the petals CELASTRACEAE. 

Stamens hypogynous. 
Flowers unisexual. 

Ovary 4 to 6-parted ; leaves usually pinnate, alternate, estipulate. 

SIMAROUBACEAE. 
Ovary entire or slightly lobed : leaves simple or digitate. 
Ovules pendulous or descending: ovary usually 3-celled. 
Cells of the ovary 3 : fruit usually a capsule. 

EUPHORBIACEAE. 
Cells of the ovary 4 or more : fruit a drupe. 

AQTJIEOLIACEAE. 
Ovules ascending : ovary usually 4 or 5-celled. Fruit drupaceous. 

CLUSIACEAE. 
Flowers perfect or polygamous. 
Flowers polygamous. 

Leaves opposite or verticillate. entire. St;: men- numerous. 

CLUSIACEAE. 
Leaves alternate, usually compound. 

Stamens inserted within a disk ; ovules ascending or horizon- 
tal : radicle inferior SAPINDACEAE. 

Stamens inserted outside a disk : ovules pendulous or horizon- 
tal : radicle superior. Leaves pinnate. 
Ovary entire or slightly lobed ; styles several and distinct, or 

stigma 1 and sessile ANACARDIACEAE. 

Ovary deeply divided: styles connate. .SIMAROUBACEAE. 
Flowers perfect. 

Stamens more than 10. Leaves stipulate, simple. 

Sepals valvate or open in bud, more or less united; anthers 

1-celled MALVACEAE. 

Sepals imbricate, free or nearly so : anthers 2-celled. Flowers 

yellow OCHNACEAE. 

Stamens 10 or fewer. 

Leaves simple and entire, toothed, or lobed. 

Stamens 8 : ovary 2-celled. Leaves entire : flowers racemose. 

POLYGALACEAE. 
Stamens 2 to 6, or 10: ovary 3 to 6-celled. 

Ovary 5 or 6-celled. Leaves alternate, stipulate : petals 

imbricate, yellow OCHHSTACEAE. 

Ovary 2 to 4-celled. Leaves entire : plants often scandent. 

MALPIGHIACEAE. 
Leaves compound. 

Filaments united. Leaves pinnate : ovary entire. 

MELIACEAE. 
Filaments free. 

Leaves gland-dotted : filaments without scales : ovary 

entire RUTACEAE. 

Leaves not gland-dotted: filaments usually with a basal 
scale; ovary usually divided STMABOUBACEAE. 



30 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

EE. Ovules 2 or more in each cell. 
F. Stamens hypogynous ; disk none, but separate glands or a gynophore 
sometimes present. 
Leaves opposite or verticillate, entire. 

Flowers unisexual, regular CLUSIACEAE. 

Flowers perfect, irregular VOCHYSIACEAE. 

Leaves alternate. 
Leaves stipulate. 
Calyx segments imbricate in bud. 

St? mens more than 10. Petals 4; ovary borne on a long 

gynophore ; stigma sessile CAPPARIDACEAE. 

Stamens 10. Leaves entire ERYTHROXYLACEAE. 

Calyx segments valvate or open in bud. 

Petals valvate in bud. Stamens 4 or 5, free ; ovary sessile, 2 

or rarely 3 or 4-celled ; vines with tendrils VITACEAE. 

Petals imbricate or convolute. 

Ovary stipitate; petals (4) imbricate— CAPPARIDACEAE. 

Ovary sessile or nearly so ; petals usually convolute in bud. 

Anthers 1-celled, dehiscent by a pore or a longitudinal slit. 

Filaments adnate ; petals 5 ; seeds sometimes covered 

with long hairs. 

Leaves simple; flowers usually calyculate; filaments 

united to the apex or nearly so MALVACEAE. 

Leaves digitate or simple; flowers not calyculate; fila- 
ments united only at the base or in the lower half. 

BOMBACACEAE. 
Anthers 2-celled, dehiscent by 2 pores or longitudinal slits. 
Filaments more or less united ; staminodia present. 

STERCULIACEAE. 
Filaments free, or slightly united at the base, but stami- 
nodia then absent TILIACEAE. 

Leaves estipulate. 

Stamens more than twice as many as the petals. 

Ovary long-stipitate ; ovules numerous CAPPARIDACEAE. 

Ovary sessile; ovules 3 or few. 

Style distinct; petals free or nearly so THEACEAE. 

Style none; petals united at the apex. 

MARCGRAVIACEAE. 
Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals. 
Leaves compound. 

Filaments free; leaves gland-dotted RUTACEAE. 

Filaments united; leaves not gland-dotted. 

Leaflets 3, entire OXALLDACEAE 

Leaflets 5 or more MELIACEAE. 

Leaves simple. 

Ovary 1-celled. Leaves entire ERYTHROXYLACEAE. 

Ovary 2 to 7-celled. 

Calyx lobes valvate in bud STERCULIACEAE. 

Calyx lobes imbricate in bud. 

Stamens 5 MARCGRAVIACEAE. 

Stamens 10 to 14 CLETHRACEAE 

FF. Stamens hypogynous, but inserted at the base or on the surface of 
a disk, or perigynous. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 31 

G. Leaves stipulate. 

Stamens twice as many as the petals or more. 
Styles 2 to 5. 

Styles 2; stamens 8 to 12; leaves compound, usually opposite. 

CTTNONIACEAE. 
Styles 5 ; stamens usually numerous ; leaves simple or com- 
pound, alternate ROSACEAE. 

Style 1, simple or bilobulate. 

Leaves compound ; stamens 8 to 10 ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. 

Leaves simple; stamens usually numerous. 

Stamens inserted on a disk ; ovules numerous ; leaves oppo- 
site or alternate ELAEOCARPACEAE. 

Stamens inserted on the calyx tube; ovules 2 in each cell; 

leaves opposite, entire RHIZOPHORACEAE, 

Stamens as many as the petals or fewer. 

Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them. Vines with 

tendrils ; leaves alternate VITACEAE. 

Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, or 
fewer. 
Leaves compound. Flowers perfect. 

Ovary 2 to 4-lobate ; seeds without endosperm. 

SAPINDACEAE. 
Ovary 3-celled ; seeds with endosperm_STAPHYLEACEAE. 
Leaves simple. 

Style 1, simple ; ovules erect or ascending ; flowers usually 

perfect CELASTRACEAE. 

Style 1 and divided, or styles 3 ; ovules pendulous or in- 
verted ; flowers unisexual EUPHORBIACEAE. 

G. Leaves estipulate. 
Leaves simple; disk present or absent. 

Leaves alternate. .Stamens 2 to 10, twice as many as the petals 
or fewer. 
Stamens 5, opposite the petals, only 2 of them fertile. Ovary 

2-celled, each cell with 2 ovules SABIACEAE. 

Stamens 3 to 10, alternate with the petals, or less or more 
numerous. 

Leaves with translucent glands RTJTACEAE. 

Leaves without glands CELASTRACEAE. 

Leaves opposite or whorled. 

Stamens 3, less numerous than the petals. Leaves entire. 

HIPPOCRATEACEAE. 
Stamens as many as the petals or more numerous. 
Ovules 2 in each cell. 

Ovary 2-celled; leaves without translucent glands. Fruit 

a double samara _ACERACEAE. 

Ovary 3 to 5-celled ; leaves with translucent glands. 

RUTACEAE. 
Ovules more than 2 in each cell. 

Styles or stigmas 5 to 10 ; leaves entire CLUSIACEAE. 

Style 1, simple. 
Calyx lobes imbricate or open in bud ; leaves with lon- 
gitudinal ribs MELASTOMATACEAE. 

• Calyx lobes valvate ; leaves not ribbed _LYTHRACEAE. 



32 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves compound ; disk always present. 

Stamens inserted within the disk. Flowers usually polygamous. 

Petals usually 5; plants often scandent SAPINDACEAE. 

Petals 4; plants erect. Leaves digitate AESCULACEAE. 

Stamens inserted outside the disk. 

Fertile stamens 2 ; petals 5, 1 or 2 of them much reduced. 

SABIACEAE. 
Fertile stamens as many as the petals, rarely fewer, but the 
4 or 5 petals then subequal. 
Stamens as many as the petals and opposite them ; flowers 

dioecious. Leaves alternate SIMAROUBACEAE. 

Stamens as many as the petals and alternate with them, or 
more or less numerous ; flowers usually perfect or 
polygamous. 

Filaments united MELIACEAE. 

Filaments free. 

Leaves with translucent glands RUTACEAE. 

Leaves without glands BURSERACEAE. 

Series 3. GAMOPETALAE. 

Ovary inferior or semi-inferior. 
Stamens numerous. 
Ovary 1-celled ; plants succulent, usually armed with spines ; leaves usually 
absent CACTACEAE. 

Ovary several-celled ; plants not succulent, unarmed ; leaves well developed. 

SYMPLOCACEAE. 
Stamens 10 or fewer. 

Stamens twice as many as the corolla lobes. Fruit fleshy ; anthers opening 

by terminal pores; leaves alternate, simple VACCINIACEAE. 

Stamens as many as the corolla lobes or fewer. 

Stamens as many as the corolla lobes and opposite them. Corolla lobes 
valvate in bud. 
Plants parasitic; stigma entire; leaves opposite or verticillate, entire. 

LORANTHACEAE. 
Plants not parasitic; stigma bilobate; leaves alternate, estipulate. 

OLACACEAE. 
Stamens as many as the corolla lobes and alternate with them, or less 
numerous. 
Ovary 1-ovulate. 

Anthers coherent ; flowers in an involucrate head. Fruit an achene. 

ASTERACEAE. 
Anthers not coherent; flowers not in an involucrate head. Leaves 
opposite. 
Stipides present, free from the petiole. Leaves always entire. 

RUBIACEAE. 
Stipules none, or if present united with the petiole. 

CAPRIFOLIACEAE. 
Ovary containing 2 or more ovules. 

Perfect stamens fewer than the corolla lobes. Leaves simple. 

GESNERIACEAE. 
Perfect stamens as many as the corolla lobes. 

Ovaries 2, distinct. Leaves simple, entire APOCYNACEAE. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 33 

Ovary 1, entire. 

Leaves alternate, often lobed or compound ARALIACEAE. 

Leaves opposite or verticillate. 

Leaves estipulate CAPRIFOLIACEAE. 

Leaves stipulate, entire RUBIACEAE. 

Ovary superior or nearly superior. 
A. Perfect stamens as many as the corolla lobes and opposite them, or more 
numerous. 
Ovary 1-celled. 

Ovule 1. Leaves simple. 

Styles 3, or style 1 but with 3 stigmas ; flowers dioecious. Plants 

scandent MENISPERMACEAE. 

Style 1, with 5 stigmas; flowers perfect PLUMBAGINACEAE. 

Ovules 2 or more. 

Fruit a legume; leaves compound, alternate MIMOSACEAE. 

Fruit a drupe or capsule ; leaves simple. 

Plants armed with spines FOUQUIERIACEAE. 

Plants unarmed. 

Staminodia none in the staminate flowers ; seeds small, black or 

dark brown MYRSINACEAE. 

Staminodia always present ; seeds large, yellow or orange. 

THEOPHRASTACEAE. 
Ovary perfectly, or sometimes imperfectly, 2 or more-celled. 
Leaves stipulate (stipules sometimes minute or deciduous). 

Flowers unisexual. Ovary 3-celled EUPHORBIACEAE. 

Flowers perfect. Leaves alternate. 

Anthers 2-celled ; staminodia present STERCULIACEAE. 

Anthers 1-celled ; staminodia absent. 

Leaves simple; flowers calyculate; filaments united almost 

throughout MALVACEAE. 

Leaves digitate or simple ; flowers not calyculate ; filaments united 

only at the base or in the lower half BOMBACACEAE. 

Leaves estipulate. 

Flowers unisexual, rarely polygamous. Styles several, free or par- 
tially united. 

Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell. Leaves entire DIOSPYRACEAE. 

Ovules more than 2 in each cell. 

Stamens 10 ; ovules parietal ; juice milky ; leaves compound or 

lobed CARICACEAE. 

Stamens more than 10 ; ovules axial ; juice not milky ; leaves 

simple THEACEAK 

Flowers perfect. 

Calyx segments free or united only at the base. Leaves simple. 
Stamens more than twice as many as the corolla lobes, 9 or more. 

THEACEAE. 
Stamens as many or twice as many as the corolla lobes, 8 or fewer. , 

Flowers irregular. Leaves entire POLYGALACEAE 

Flowers irregular. 

Stamens as many as the corolla lobes; juice milky. 

SAPOTACEAE. 

Stamens more numerous than the corolla lobes ; juice not 

milky ERICACEAE. 



34 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Calyx segments united to the middle or higher. 

Leaves with translucent glands; ovary deeply lobate, the cells 
2-ovulate RUTACEAE. 

Leaves without translucent glands ; ovary entire or scarcely lobate. 
Leaves pinnate MELIACEAE. 

Leaves simple. 

Ovary 3-celled ; anthers longitudinally dehiscent. Flowers 
white, showy ; pubescence of branched hairs. 

STYRACACEAE. 
Ovary with 4 or more cells ; anthers dehiscent by apical pores. 

ERICACEAE. 
AA. Perfect stamens as many as the corolla lobes and alternate with them, 
or less numerous. 
B. Perfect stamens 3 or more, as many as the corolla lobes ; corolla usually 
regular. 
C. Ovary simple and of 1 or 2 cells, or the ovaries 2 and distinct. 
D. Ovules 2 to 4 in the whole ovary. 
Leaves opposite or verticillate. 

Style stigmatose only below the apex; corolla lobes contorted in 
bud. Ovary 2-celled or the ovaries 2 and distinct; leaves 

entire; juice usually milky APOCYNACEAE. 

Style stigmatose at the apex or between the lobes; corolla lobes 
imbricate or valvate. 

Leaves stipulate; style simple LOGANIACEAE. 

Leaves estipulate; style with 1 or 2 stigmas_VERBENACEAE. 
Leaves alternate. 

Corolla valvate or plicate in bud. 
Ovules erect; stigmas usually 2. Fruit a capsule. 

CONVOLVULACEAE. 
Ovules pendent ; stigma 1. 
Leaves compound; fruit a legume; plants often armed with 

spines MIMOSACEAE. 

Leaves simple ; fruit not a legume ; plants unarmed. 

ICACINACEAE. 
Corolla imbricate in bud. 

Style stigmatose only below the apex ; stigma 1. Leaves entire ; 

juice usually milky APOCYNACEAE. 

Style stigmatose at the apex ; stigmas 2. Leaves simple. 

Ovary 1-celled HYDROPHYLLACEAE. 

Ovary 2-celled BORAGINACEAE. 

DD. Ovules more than 4 in the whole ovary. 

Fruit a legume; leaves compound. Plants often armed with spines. 

MIMOSACEAE. 
Fruit not a legume ; leaves simple. 

Ovaries usually 2 and distinct; juice milky. Plants often 
scandent; leaves entire. 

Styles separate almost to the apex ASCLEPIADACEAE. 

Styles separate only at the base, or completely united. 

APOCYNACEAE. 
Ovary 1, entire or slightly lobate; juice not milky. Leaves simple. 

Leaves all opposite LOGANIACEAE. 

Leaves alternate, or only the lowest opposite. 
Style bifid HYDROPHYLLACEAE. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 35 

Style undivided. 

Ovary 1-celled GESNERIACEAE. 

Ovary 2-celled. 

Corolla valvate or plicate in bud; fruit often baccate; 

plants often armed with spines SOLANACEAE. 

Corolla imbricate in bud ; fruit a capsule with longitudinal 
dehiscence ; plants unarmed. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE. 
CC. Ovary simple and of 3 or more cells, or the ovaries 3 or more and 
distinct. 
Ovules 1 or 2 in each cell. 
Leaves opposite or verticillate. 

Cells of the ovary 3 ; stigmas 3 ; fruit a capsule. 

POLEMONIACEAE. 
Cells of the ovary 4 or 5 ; stigmas 1, 2, 4, or 5 ; fruit indehiscent 
or divided into nutlets. Leaves simple. 

Ovary entire. Stigmas 3, rarely 5 VERBENACEAE. 

Ovary 4-parted. 

Stamens 4 ; stigmas 2 or rarely 1 ; corolla bilabiate. 

MENTHACEAE. 

Stamens 5 ; stigma 1 ; corolla regular BORAGINACEAE. 

Leaves alternate. 
Anthers basifixed, opening laterally or apically. Leaves entire. 

DIOSPYRACEAE. 
Anthers dorsiflxed, or basifixed and opening internally. 

Corolla united only at the base 1 AQUIFOLIACEAE. 

Corolla with a conspicuous tube. 

Flowers mostly in 1-sided cymes ; fruit not a capsule. 

BORAGINACEAE. 
Flowers not in 1-sided cymes ; fruit a capsule. 

CONVOLVULACEAE. 
Ovules 3 or more in each cell. 
Corolla valvate or plicate in bud ; stamens inserted on the corolla; 
calyx more or less united ; plants often armed with spines. 

SOLANACEAE. 
Corolla imbricate or contorted ; stamens often free from the corolla ; 
calyx segments often distinct or nearly so ; plants unarmed. 
Anthers dehiscent by longitudinal slits ; ovary 3-celled. 

POLEMONIACEAE. 
Anthers dehiscent by terminal pores ; ovary with 2 or 4 or more 

cells ERICACEAE. 

BB. Perfect stamens 2 to 4. fewer than the corolla lobes, or if of the same 
number the stamens and lobes each 2 ; corolla nearly always irregular. 
Ovules 1 or 2, rarely 3 or 4, in each cell. 
Ovules 1 in each cell. 

Ovary entire or obscurely 4-lobate VERBENACEAE. 

Ovary 4-parted or deeply 4-lobate MENTHACEAE. 

Ovules 2 to 4 in each cell. 

Ovary 4 or 5-celled; leaves with translucent glands RUTACEAE. 

Ovary 2-celled ; leaves without translucent glands. 

Stamens 2, regularly alternate with the cells of the ovary. Flowers 

regular; leaves opposite OLEACEAE. 

Stamens 4, or if 2 not alternate with the cells of the ovary. 
Ovules 2 and collateral ; fruit indehiscent or septicidal. 

VERBENACEAE 



36 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Ovules 4, or 2 and superimposed ; fruit loculicidal. 
Seeds with endosperm, sessile or nearly so ; stigma 1. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE. 
Seeds without endosperm, on conspicuous thick funicles ; stig- 
mas usually 2 ACANTHACEAE. 

Ovules more than 4 in each cell. 
Ovary 1-celled ; placentae central. 

Seeds large; stamens 4; leaves compound. Plants often scandent. 

BIGNONIACEAE. 

Seeds small; fertile stamens 2; leaves simple GESNERIACEAE. 

Ovary 2-celled; placentae axillary. 

Leaves compound BIGNONIACEAE. 

Leaves simple. 

Corolla indupli'cate-valvate or plicate-imbricate SOLANACEAE. 

Corolla plicate (but not imbricate) in bud. 

Seeds inserted on large thick funicles ACANTHACEAE. 

Seeds sessile or nearly so SCROPHULARIACEAE. 

ANNOTATED CATALOGUE. 

1. GLEICHENIACEAE. Vine-fern Family. 

$ 

(Contributed by Mr. William It. Maxon.) 
References : Sturm, Gleicheniaceae, in Mart. Fl. Bras. I 2 : 217-238. pi. 11. 
1859 ; Underwood, A preliminary review of the North American Gleicheniaceae, 
Bull. Torrey Club 34: 243-262. /. 1, 2. 1907; Maxon, Gleicheniaceae, N. Amer. 
Fl. 16: 53-63. 1909. 

Xerophilous ferns, mostly with branched creeping rhizomes; fronds usually 
ascending or reclining, numerous, somewhat vinelike, of indefinite growth, 
entangled, often forming dense impenetrable low thickets ; primary axis naked ; 
primary branches 1 to many pairs, opposite, determinate or (in most species) 
once to several times dichotomous. the included bud dormant or producing 
secondary and tertiary axes like the primary one; ultimate branches (pinnae) 
usually in pairs, bipinnate, pinnate, or deeply pinnatifid, the segments mostly 
elongate in our species (minute and rounded in the Old AVorld Gleichenia) ; 
veins free, forked; sorsi dorsal or (in Gleichenia) terminal upon the veinlets, 
nonindusiate; sporangia sessile, short, 2 to many, opening by a vertical fissure. 

1. DICRANOPTERIS Bernh. Neues Journ. Bot. 
Schrad. I 2 : 38. 1806. 
Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. 
In tropical America many of the species grow rankly in the greatest profusion, 
often occupying wide areas of open or thinly shaded mountain slopes to the 
exclusion of other vegetation. A mass of the wiry interlacing fronds, with a 
blanket thrown over it, makes an excellent bed for the collector. 

Primary branches bipinnate, the rachis not forked 1. D. bancroftii. 

Primary branches once or several times forked. 

Internodes of primary branches normally naked; veins 2 to 5-forked ; sori 
multisporangiate; rhizomes with spreading articulate hairs. 
Accessory pinnae (a pair) borne at all but the ultimate nodes. 

2. D. flexuosa. 

Accessory pinnae wanting -3. D. pectinata. 

Internodes of primary branches at least partially pectinate; veins once 
forked; sori 3 to 5-sporangiate ; rhizomes with ciliate scales. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 37 

Segments closely tomentose beneath, rarely glabrate with age 4. D. bifida. 

Segments not tomentose beneath. 

Pinnae 2.5 to 3.2 cm. broad ; segments narrowly oblong ; veins 12 to 15 
pairs, flbrillose with rusty scales ; leaf tissues glabrous. 

5. D. underwoodiana. 
Piannae 3 to 5.5 cm. broad: segments linear; veins 20 to 28 pairs, these 
and the leaf tissues sparsely pilose with whitish stellate hairs. 

6. D. palmata. 

1. Dicranopteris bancroftii (Hook.) Underw. Bull. Torrey Club 34:252. 1907. 
Gleichenia bancroftii Hook. Sp. Fil. 1 : 5. 1844. 

Mertensia bancroftii Kunze, Linnaea 18: 307. 1844. 

Gleichenia brunei Christ, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 13. 1905. 

Dicranopteris brunei Underw. Bull. Torrey Club 34: 253. 1907. 

Mountains of Veracruz and Chiapas, southward to the Andes of South 
America; also in the Lesser Antilles and Jamaica (the type locality), mainly 
at 1,000 to 1,800 meters elevation. 

Primary pinnae 1 to 3 pairs, oblong, 1 to 1.5 meters long, 30 to 50 cm. broad, 
bipinnate; pinnules very numerous; segments narrowly linear, 1.5 to 2.2 cm. 
long, herbaceous, glabrous or nearly so, glaucous beneath ; sori 3 to 5-sporan- 
giate. 

2. Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrad.) Underw. Bull. Torrey Club 34: 254. 1907. 
Mertensia flexuosa Schrad. Gott. Anz. Ges. Wiss. 1824: 863. 1824. 
Mertensia rigida Kunze, Linnaea 9: 16. 1834. 

Gleichenia flexuosa Mett. Ann. Lugd. Bat. 1: 50. 1863. 

Gleichenia rigida Bomm. & Christ, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 35 1 : 174. 1896. Not 
G. rigida J. Smith, 1841. 

Mountains of Veracruz, at about 1,300 meters altitude. Guatemala to Brazil ; 
widely distributed in the West Indies, mainly at low elevations; near Mobile. 
Alabama ; type from Brazil. 

Leaf axis 2 to'4 mm. in diameter ; primary branches several pairs, repeatedly 
dichotomous, never developing a secondary axis, the internodes unequal, naked ; 
pinnae glabrous ; segments glaucous beneath, linear, tetuse, narrowly connected 
at the dilatate base, revolute. 

3. Dicranopteris pectinata (Willd.) Underw. Bull. Torrey Club 34: 260. 1907. 
Mertensia pectinata Willd. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl. II. 25: 168. 1804. 
Gleichenia nitida Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 70. 1825. 

Mertensia elata Desv. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 6: 201. 1827. 

Mertensia nitida Presl, Tent. Pter. 51. 1836. 

Mountains of Veracruz. General throughout tropical America, the type from 
near Caracas, Venezuela. 

Leaf axis 3 to 6 mm. in diameter ; primary branches several pairs, stipulate, 
repeatedly and unequally dichotomous. a false flexuous secondary axis formed 
by the alternate production of the unequal secondary branches, the included 
bud of each dichotomy always abortive ; segments oblong to linear-oblong, 
pruinose beneath, glabrous, or the costa and veins sparsely rusty-paleaceous. 

A variable species. 

4. Dicranopteris bifida (Willd.) Maxon, N. Amer. Fl. 16: 60. 1909. 
Mertensia bifida Willd. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl. II. 25: 168. 1804. 
Gleichenia bifida Spreng. Syst. Veg. 4: 27. 1827. 

Mertens'ia fulva Desv. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 6: 201. 1827. 

Dicranopteris fulva Underw. Bull. Torrey Club 34: 255. 1907. 

Mountains of Veracruz. Common and generally distributed throughout the 



38 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

West Indies and Central America, southward into South America ; type from 
Caracas, Venezuela. 

Leaf axis stout, light greenish brown; primary branches 2 or several pairs, 
these once or twice dichotomous (rarely developing a secondary axis), the 
internodes at least partially naked; segments mostly linear, dilatate (the 
sinuses obtuse), entire, revolute. 

5. Dicranopteris underwoodiana Maxon, N. Amer. Fl. 16: 59. 1909. 
Temperate region of Chiapas, the type locality. Also in the high mountains 

of Quiche, Guatemala. 

Leaf axis reddish brown, 2 to 3 mm. in diameter ; primary branches usually 
2 pairs, twice dichotomous (not developing a secondary axis), the primary 
internode nearly naked, the secondary ones fully pectinate; pinnae linear, 18 
to 30 cm. long, the rachises closely invested with short rusty scales. 

6. Dicranopteris palmata (Schaffn.) Underw. Bull-. Torrey Club 34: 259. 1907. 
Mertensia palmata Schaffn.; Fee, Mem. Foug. 9: 40 (32). 1S57, name only. 
Gleichenia palmata Moore, Ind. Fil. 380. 1862, name only. 

Mountains of Veracruz, the type from Orizaba. Also in Guatemala (Alta 
Verapaz), eastern Cuba, and the Blue Mountains of Jamaica, at altitudes of 
900 to 1,650 meters. 

Leaf axis olivaceous, opaque; primary branches 2 or 3 pairs, divergent, 
usually 2 to 4 times dichotomous (rarely developing a secondary axis), the 
first and second internodes usually naked ; pinnae 20 to 25 cm. long. 

2. CYATHEACEAE. Tree-fern Family. 
(Contributed by Mr. William R. Maxon.) 

References : Cyatheaceae, Diels in Engl. & Prantl. Pflanzenfam. 1 * : 113- 
139. 1899; Maxon, The tree ferns of North America, Ann. Rep. Smiths. Inst. 
1911: 463-491. pi. 1-15. 1912. 

Mainly treelike plants of moist tropical regions, the rhiKome stout and 
woody, decumbent, oblique, or usually erect, and 1 to 15 meters high or more, 
naked, with smoothish, usually tesselate leaf scars, or rough and partially 
sheathed by the imperfectly deciduous stipe bases of the fronds of previous 
years; fronds borne in a terminal scaly crown, several or many, ascending to 
recurved, the blades 1 to 4-pinnate, up to 4 meters long, usually broad ; sori 
indusiate or nonindusiate, nearly globose, borne dorsally upon the veins on the 
under surface of the blade or at the margin, the receptacle elongate, of various 
form and vestiture; sporangia numerous, crowed radially in several ranks, 
opening horizontally, the annulus oblique, with or without a stomium of thin- 
walled cells; spores triplanate. 

The Cyatheaceae, or tree-fern family — the latter name given because, in 
contradistinction to all other families of ferns, the species are nearly all 
arborescent in habit of growth — are practically confined to tropical and sub- 
tropical regions and attain their best development, both as to luxuriant growth 
and as to number of species and individuals, in mountainous regions which 
have a nearly uniform, moist climate. Except in a very few cases they ap- 
parently can not endure extremes of either drought or cold. Thus in Mexico, 
as in Central America, they are practically confined to the Atlantic slopes and 
to the higher mountain regions that are constantly swept by the moisture- 
laden trade winds from the Gulf of Mexico. This territory embraces Vera- 
cruz and Tabasco and most of Oaxaca and Chiapas. From the arid interior 
plateau regions they are altogether lacking. Comparatively little material hav- 
ing been collected in extreme southeastern Mexico in recent years, our knowl- 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 39 

edge, both of the species actually occurring there and of their geographic 
distribution, is very incomplete. Tree ferns are, as a rule, of restricted 
range, yet many of the Mexican species are known from Alta Verapaz, Guate- 
mala, and of the remainder most, at least, may be expected to occur there. 
With a very few exceptions, the Mexican species are exclusively continental, 
and only a few extend as far south as Panama. 

Aside from the attention attracted by their beauty and stately habit of 
growth, tree ferns are decidedly interesting because of their marked diversity 
in structural characters and, unfortunately, their difficult classification. Lo- 
cally, at least, they serve varied economic uses also, the most important being 
the use of the trunks as building timbers. These are composed largely of a 
branched network of hard fibrovascular elements, resistant to decay and the 
attacks of termites alike, permitting the use of the trunks over and over again 
in the supporting framework of native houses. Occasionally they are made to 
serve as telegraph poles. Small pieces of the fibrovascular elements are em- 
ployed in inlay work. In Costa Rica the succulent unrolling young fronds or 
" crosiers " of a Cyathea called " rabo de mico " are eaten as a salad. The 
scales of a related species (probably Cyathea mexicana), known in Veracruz 
as " ocopetate " or " cola de mono," are applied topically as a hemostatic. A 
like use of the matted capillary scales or " pulu " of Hawaiian species of 
Cibotium is, of course, well known. Several species of Hemitelia and Alsophila 
are known as " tatahueso " in Oaxaca, according to Reko. 

Sori borne upon the back of the veins, commonly near the costule or at least 

not marginal; indusium (if present) not formed in part of the modified 

leaf margin. 

Sori distinctly indusiate, the indusium attached at the base of the receptacle. 

Indusia either (1) cup-shaped or saucer-shaped, never wholly inclosing the 

sporangia, persistent, or (2) globose, at first wholly containing the 

sporangia, rupturing at maturity, the divisions persistent to fugacious. 

1. CYATHEA. 
Indusia inferior, more or less semicircular in outline, often lobed and scale- 
like or sometimes cleft or lacerate, never inclosing all the sporangia. 

2. HEMITELIA. 
Sori usually nonindusiate, a very minute basal scale present in a few species. 

3. ALSOPHILA. 

Sori terminal upon the veins at or near the margin ; indusium bilobate or 

bivalvate, the outer portion a more or less modified, concave lobule of the 

leaf margin. 

Outer lip of the indusium formed of slightly modified leaf tissue, unlike the 

rigid brownish inner one 4. DICKSONIA. 

Outer lip of the indusium formed of highly differentiated cartilaginous 
tissue, similar to the inner one 5. CIBOTIUM. 

1. CYATHEA J. E. Smith, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino 5: 416. 1793. 
Caudex erect in most species, arboreous, bearing numerous adventitious 
roots in the basal part, in mature individuals usually smoothish above, with 
close-set to distant scars ; fronds borne in a terminal crown, oblique, spreading, 
or rarely drooping, the stout stipes strongly aculeate to muricate, tuberculate, 
or nearly smooth, paleaceous toward the base ; blades 2 or 3-pinnate, usually 
1 to 3 meters long, lanceolate to oblong or ovate, the rachises variously 
pubescent, furfuraceous, or minutely paleaceous, glabrescent with age ; pinnules 
subentire to pinnate, sessile to long-petiolate, deciduous or not; veins free, 
usually branched; sori dorsal, apart from the margin; indusium either (1) 
inferior and saucer-shaped, never wholly inclosing the sporangia, persistent, 



40 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

with even margins, or (2) globose, at first wholly inclosing the sporangia. 

bursting irregularly at maturity, the divisions persistent or often disappearing. 
Indusia saucer-shaped, never inclosing the sporangia, with low even margins. 

1. C. arborea. 
Indusia at first globose and inclosing the sporangia, at length rupturing, the 
divisions persistent to fugacious. 
Pinnules (secondary pinnae) distinctly petiolate, the lower ones with stalks 

4 to 9 mm. long; leaf tissue coriaceous 2. C. tuerckheimii 

Pinnules mostly sessile or nearly so, membranous or herbaceous. 

Rachises of the pinnae densely clothed with spreading or retrorse, linear, 
spinulose scales, sharply muricate from their persistent bases ; pinnules 

cut to the costa nearly throughout 3. C. princeps. 

Rachises of the pinnae bearing a few deciduous scales, smooth or nearly so ; 
pinnae very deeply pinnatifid, but the segments distinctly though nar- 
rowly joined. 
Costae of the pinnules glabrous beneath ; leaf tissue bright green beneath ; 

sori large, apart from the costule 4. C. jurgensenii. 

Costae pilose or minutely squamulose beneath ; leaf tissue much paler 
beneath than above ; sori small, borne near or against the costule. 
Pinnae long-petiolate (4 cm. or more) ; pinnules about 20 pairs; seg- 
ments obtuse; veins 6 to 8 pairs, glabrous 5. C. trejoi. 

Pinnae subsessile or short-petiolate ; pinnules 30 to 40 pairs ; segments 
acute or acuminate; veins 8 to 12 pairs, usually minutely glandu 
lar-pubescent 6. C. mexicana 

1. Cyathea arborea (L.) J. E. Smith, Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino 5: 417. 1793. 
Polypodium arboreum L. Sp. PI. 1092. 1753. 

Displienia arborea Presl, Tent. Pter. 56. 1836. 

Hemitelia arborea Fee, Mem. Foug. 5: 350. 1852. 

Lowlands of eastern Mexico ; rare. Generally distributed and common in 
the West Indies, the type from Martinique; variously reported from Central 
America and northern South America, probably in error. 

Caudex erect, 4 to 12 meters high, usually with close-set, oval to broadly 
subhexagonal scars in 8 to 10 ranks, the apex clothed with large, lance- 
attenuate, dirty white scales ; fronds 2.5 to 4 meters long ; stipes stout, pale, 
low-tuberculate ; blades 2 to 3 meters long, ovate, tripinnate, the rachises pale, 
glabrate; pinnae oblong, 40 to 80 cm. long, petiolate, or the shorter basal ones 
ovate and long-petiolate; pinnules numerous, mostly sessile, spreading, oblong- 
lanceolate, long-attenuate; segments linear-oblong, dilatate, sharply serrate, 
often revolute, the costule invariably with 1 or 2 white bullate scales at the 
base beneath ; veins 1 to 3-forked. 

This is one of the few species of Cyatheaceae which grow naturally in op. mi 
sunny situations. It occurs often in colonies. 

2. Cyathea tuerckheimii Maxon, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 4. 1909. 

Region of Orizaba, Veracruz, at an altitude of about 1,300 meters. Also 
near Coban, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala (the type locality), at 1,350 to 2,000 
meters elevation. 

Caudex erect, 3 te 4 meters high ; fronds ample, at least 130 cm. broad, 
bipinnate-pinnatifld, the stout primary rachis deciduously furfuraceous, 
minutely spiny; pinnae oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, up to 65 cm. long, the 
rachis strongly muricate; pinnules 28 to 30 pairs, contiguous, short-petiolate, 
oblong-lanceolate, attenuate, up to 13 cm. long, plnnately cut nearly to the 
minutely and deciduously scaly costa: segments about 22 pairs. 10 to 12 mm. 
long, oblong, falcate, subacute, coriaceous, the crenate-serrate margins revo- 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 41 

lute ; sori large, 6 to 9 pairs, seated at the fork of the once-branched veins, the 
irregular divisions of the membranous indusium subpersistent. 

3. Cyathea princeps (Linden) E. Mayer, Gartenflora 17: 10. 1868. 
Cibotium princeps Linden; E. Mayer, Gartenflora 17: 10. 1868, as synonym. 
Cyathea bourgaei Fourn. Mex. PI. Crypt. 135. 1872. 

Cyathea munchii Christ, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 7: 413. 1907. 

Veracruz and Chiapas, the type from the Volcano Tuxetla, Veracruz. Also 
in the mountains of Alta Verapaz, Guatemala ; ascribed also to Costa Rica, but 
probably erroneously. 

Caudex erect, stout, said to reach a height of nearly 20 meters ; fronds at 
least 4 meters long; stipes 1 to 1.5 meters long, together with the yellowish 
primary and secondary rachises densely clothed with narrow, yellowish, spinu- 
lose, spreading or retrorse scales ; blades broadly ovate, 2 to 2.5 meters long, 
tripinnate ; pinnae oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, up to 1 meter long and 35 cm. 
broad, long-stalked ; pinnules very numerous, approximate, linear-oblong, up to 
18 cm. long, narrowly long-acuminate, the costa minutely and deciduously 
scaly beneath ; segments 25 to 32 pairs, linear-oblong, dilatate, falcate, suben- 
tire, acutish, pruinose beneath, the costa with a few minute, simple or cleft 
scales ; sori large, 6 to 9 pairs, the coriaceous indusium splitting into 2 to 4 per- 
sistent saccate lobes. 

4. Cyathea jurgensenii Fourn. Mex. PI. Crypt. 135. 1872. 
Mountains of Oaxaca and Veracruz, the type from Oaxaca ; rare. 

Caudex presumably erect ami several meters high ; fronds ample, the blades 
bipinnate-pinnatifid, 1 meter broad or more, the primary rachis pale, minutely 
spinose ; pinnae oblong, abruptly acuminate, mostly petiolate, up to 65 cm. long, 
the rachis smooth or nearly so. glabrate beneath ; pinnules about 25 pairs, 
articulate, petiolate, deltoid-lanceolate, long-acuminate, 10 to 12 cm. long, very 
deeply pinnatifid, the costa nearly or quite glabrous beneath; segments 18 to 
20 pairs, close, oblong, falcate, acute, obscurely crenate-serrate, bright green 
and nearly or quite glabrous on both surfaces; sori 4 to 8 pairs, apart from 
the costule, only the flat lobate basal portion of the pale yellowish membranous 
indusium persistent. 

5. Cyathea trejoi Christ, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 733. 1905. 

Known only -f roni San Pablo, Chiapas, altitude 1,500 meters, the type locality. 

Caudex erect, long and slender, very spiny; fronds rather small, the primary 
rachis stout, smooth, stramineous or reddish, shining; pinnae articulate, easily 
deciduous, narrowly ovate, acuminate, 30 cm. long or more, long-petiolate ; 
pinnules about 20 pairs, approximate, readily separable, lanceolate, 5 to 6 cm. 
long, cut nearly to the scantily pilose costa ; segments about 15 pairs, oblong, 
subfalcate, obtuse, slightly dilatate, crowded, light green beneath, lightly 
crenate ; sori 2 or 3 pairs, very small, basal, close to the costule, the delicate 
indusium grayish. 

6. Cyathea mexicana Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 616. 1830. 
Cyathea hexagona Fee & Scbaffn. ; Fee, Mem. Foug. 8: 111. 1857. 
Cyathea articulata Fee, Mem. Foug. 8: 111. 1857. 

Cyathea glauca Fourn. Mex. PI. Crypt. 135. 1872. Not C. gtauca Bory, 1804. 

AlsophUa mucronata Christ, Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 35: 178. 1896. 

Cyathea arida Christ. Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 6: 180. 1906. 

Veracruz to Chiapas, the type from Jalapa. Also in Guatemala (Alta 
Verapaz ) , Costa Rica, and western Panama, at 120 to 1,300 meters. 

Caudex 3 to 10 meters high, unarmed ; fronds 2 to 3 meters long, the stipe 
clothed at the base with brown acicular scales about 1 cm. long and armed 
with a few sharp conical shining black spines ; blade 1.5 to 2.5 meters long, 



42 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

oblong, bipinnate-pinnatifid ; primary rachis stout, usually castaneous, decidu- 
ously puberulo-furfuraceous ; pinnae oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, up to 85 cm. 
long, short-petiolate, deciduous; pinnules articulate, readily separable, 30 to 
40 pairs, often distant, oblong-lanceolate, up to 10 cm. long (usually smaller), 
sessile or short-stalked, the costa beneath bearing a few antrorse hairs and 
deciduously squamulose toward the base; segments narrowly oblong, oblique, 
subfalcate, obscurely serrulate, connected by a wing 1 to 1.5 mm. broad on 
each side of the costa ; sori 4 to 7 pairs, close to the costule, the divisions of 
the pale membranous indusium mostly fugacious. 
A variable species. 

2. HEMITELIA R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 158. 1810. 
References : Maxon, The North American species of Hemitelia, subgenus 
Cnemidaria, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 25-49. pi. 18-26. 1912; Maxon, The 
North American species of Hemitelia, section Euhemitelia, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 17: 414-420. pi. 17-^22. 1914. 

Similar in general to Cyathea, but having the indusium inferior, more or 
less hemispherical, and varying from lobed to lacerate; or, in the American 
subgenus Cnemidaria, the plants mostly with short ascending trunks, coarse, 
succulent, pinnate or rarely bipinnate fronds, free-veined or not, the indusium 
hemispheric, concave, often lobed. 

Blades fully bipinnate, the pinnules sessile and very deeply pinnatifid ; indusium 
deeply lacerate, the divisions with long filamentous apices. 

1. H. costaricensis. 
Blades pinnate, the pinnae lightly crenate to pinnatifid ; indusia entire or 
merely lobed. 
Veins all free ; pinnae pinnatifid at least two-thirds the distance to the costa, 

the segments oblong, acuminate, aristate 2. H. apiculata. 

Veins (basal) united by a transverse veinlet, a single row of costal areoles 
thus formed ; lobes or crenations low or short, not acuminate. 

Pinnae lightly crenate-serrate, decurrent 3. H. decurrens. 

Pinnae deeply crenate to crenately lobed, not decurrent. 

Larger crenations 5 to 7 mm. broad, acute distally ; pinnae 2.5 to 3 cm. 

broad 4. H. mexicana. 

Larger crenations 9 to 12 mm. broad, rounded ; pinnae 3.5 to 4.2 mm. 
broad 5. H. lucida. 

1. Hemitelia costaricensis (Klotzsch) Mett. ; Kuhn, Linnaea 36: 159. 1869. 
Cyathea costaricensis Klotzsch; Kuhn, Linnaea 36: 159. 1869, as synonym. 
Mountains of Veracruz and Chiapas. Also in western Guatemala and in 

Costa Rica (the type locality), ascending to 1.000 meters. 

Caudex erect, 1 to 2 meters high, or more ; pinnae narrowly oblong, acuminate, 
mostly 50 to 70 cm. long ; pinnules 23 to 27 pairs, mostly sessile, linear-oblong, 
long-acuminate or attenuate ; segments 20 to 23 pairs, narrowly oblong, subfal- 
cate, acute, connected by a narrow costal wing. 

2. Hemitelia apiculata Hook, in Hook. & Baker, Syn. Fil. 29. 1868. 
Mountains of Oaxaca, the type locality. 

Blades 35 to 50 cm. broad; pinnae narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 18 to 30 cm. 
long, 2.5 to 4.5 cm. broad below the narrowly long-acuminate apex, pinnatifid 
at least two-thirds the distance to the costa, the sinuses linear and very 
acute. 

3. Hemitelia decurrens Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 1: 285. 1849. 
Hemistegia decurrens Fourn. Mex. PI. Crypt. 135. 1872. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 43 

Mountain forests near Lobani, District of Chinantla, Oaxaca, at 900 to 1,050 
meters ; known only from the type collection. 

Caudex about 30 cm. high; blades ovate-lanceolate, about 75 cm. long; 
pinnae narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 12 to 15 cm. long, 2.5 to 3 cm. broad, the 
upper ones adnate and confluent, those below semiadnate, constricted, narrowly 
long-decurrent. 

4. Hemitelia mexicana Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 1: 287. 1849. 
Hemistegia mexicana Fourn. Mex. PI. Crypt. 135. 1872, 

Oaxaca, in mountain forests near Cacola, District of Chinantla, at 750 to 900 
meters altitude ; known only from the original collection. 

Caudex about 30 cm. high ; blades broadly lanceolate, 1.5 to 1.8 meters long ; 
pinnae linear, about 30 cm. long; main veins 50 pairs, spreading, 4 to 7 mm. 
apart. 

5. Hemitelia lucida (Fee) Maxon, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 39. 1912. 
Hemistegia lucida Fee, Gen. Fil. 351. 1852. 

District of Chinantla, Oaxaca, at 2,000 meters altitude; known only from 
the type collection. 

Blades ovate-oblong, 2 meters long or less ; pinnae numerous, linear-lanceolate, 
up to 45 cm. long ; main crenations or lobes 28 to 34 pairs. 

3. ALSOPHILA R. Br. Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 158. 1810. 

Similar to Cyathea, but having the indusia wholly lacking or, in a few species, 
represented by a very minute, concealed, vestigial, basal scale ; receptacles often 
copiously long-paraphysate. 

Two subgenera, Lophosoria and Amphidesmium, are unique in their silky 
capillary scales, which are similar to those of Cibotium and Dicksonia. They 
differ notably from typical Alsophila in other morphological characters also 
and possibly should be regarded as distinct genera. Amphidesmium is not 
known to occur in Mexico, though it occupies a wide range southward. Lopho- 
soria is represented by the variable and widely distributed A. quadripinnata, 
the first-mentioned species below. 

Blades waxy-pruinose beneath, the rachises, costae, and veins lanate with lax, 
tortuous, pale rusty, septate hairs ; sori with low hemispheric receptacles ; 
caudex and stipe bases densely clothed with silky capillary scales 1 cell 

broad 1. A. quadripinnata. 

Blades not waxy-pruinose beneath, the rachises and costae paleaceous or fur- 
furaceous, with or without spreading hairs; sori with capitate or spheric 
receptacles; caudex and stipe bases bearing flat scales many cells broad. 
Primary and secondary rachises blackish ; blades fully tripinnate, the seg- 
ments stalked 2. A. salvinii. 

Primary and secondary rachises stramineous to yellowish or light brown ; 
blades simply bipinnate or bipinnate-pinnatifid. 

Blades bipinnate only, the pinnules sinuate to crenate 3. 'A. marginalis. 

Blades bipinnate-pinnatifid, the segments connected by a narrow wing. 
Segments rounded-obtuse, shallowly and broadly crenate. 

4. A. schiedeana. 
Segments acute or acutish, sharply incised to pinnatifid. 
Costae of pinnules thinly squamulose, nearly devoid of long spreading 
septate hairs beneath ; primary rachis with pungent, spreading or 
retrorse, scattered spines throughout, the secondary rachises simi- 
larly armed 5. A. microdonta. 

126651—20 4 



44 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Costae with numerous spreading hairs beneath, these extending to the 

costules and often to the veins; primary raehis unarmed, or plainly 

aculeate only toward the base, the secondary rachises merely 

muricate. 

Pinnae and pinnules petiolate ; costae and costules devoid of bullate 

scales 6. A. myosuroides. 

Pinnae and pinnules sessile; costules bearing small, subpersistent, 
white or yellowish, bullate scales beneath. 
Segments pinnatifid; primary and secondary rachises with occa- 
sional large flat persistent white scales 7. A. mexicana. 

Segments deeply incised to deeply crenate-serrate ; rachises devoid 
of large whitish scales. 
Bullate scales deciduous, few, confined to the base of the cos- 
tules ; segments sparsely hirsute above along the costules 

and veins 8. A. scabriuscula. 

Bullate scales persistent, numerous ; segments glabrous above. 

9. A. bicrenata. 

1. Alsophila quadripinnata (Gmel.) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. 47. 1905. 
Polypodium quadripinnatum, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 2 2 : 1314. 1791. 
Polypodium pruinatum Swartz. Journ. Bot. Schrad. 1800 2 : 29. 1801. 
Alsophila pruinata Kaulf. ; Kunze, Linnaea 9: 99. 1834. 
Lophosoria pruinata Presl, Abh. Bohni. Ges. V. 5 : 345. 1848. 
Trichosorus glaucescens Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 1: 283. 1849. 
Trichosorus densus Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 1 : 284. 1849. 
Trichosorus frigidus Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 1 : 284. 1849. 
fAlsophila schaffneriana Fee, Mem. Foug. 8: 109. 1857. 

Mountains of Veracruz, Puebla, Oaxaca, and Chiapas, ascending to 3,000 
meters. Central America to Chile and Argentina ; Greater Antilles, the type 
from Jamaica. 

Rhizomes stout, up to 3 meters high (usually less than 1 meter), often mul- 
ticipital, densely lanate with lax, tortuous, pale rusty, capillary scales; fronds 
2 to 4.5 meters long, long-stalked, the blades subtriangular, tripinnate-pinnatifid. 

2. Alsophila salvinii Hook, in Hook. & Baker, Syn. Fil. 36. 1866. 
Alsophila munchii Christ, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5: 734. 1905. 

Region of San Pablo, Chiapas, at 2,200 meters altitude. Also in the moun- 
tains of Alta Verapaz. Guatemala, at 1,400 to 1,600 meters elevation, the type 
from Chilasco. 

Trunk 1 to 1.5 meters high ; blades very ample, at least 1.5 meters broad, the 
primary and secondary rachises blackish, polished, woody, nearly or quite 
smooth ; pinnae 60 to 80 cm. long, 20 to 30 cm. broad ; pinnules 22 to 25 pairs, 
close, spreading ; segments 1 to 2 cm. long, 3 to 4 mm. broad, obtusely pinnatifid 
or crenately lobed; costae and costules deciduously paleaceous beneath, the 
scales minute, many of them substellate, with blackish spinous processes. 

3. Alsophila marginalis Klotzsch, Linnaea 18: 542. 1844. 
Hemitclia marginalia Jennian, Ferns Brit. W. Ind. Guian. 43. 1898. 

Sierra San Nolasco, Oaxaca. Also in British Guiana, I lie type locality. Very 
rare. 

Stipe sparsely short-aculeate, paleaceous above; blades 1.5 to 1.8 meters long, 
deciduously paleaceous; pinnae alternate, elongate-oblong, 20 to 38 cm. long, 
gibbose-articulate ; pinnules sessile or short-petiolate, spreading, hastate- 
lanceolate, or ligulate from a cordate base, 2 to 8 cm. long, 8 to 15 mm. broad, 
sinuate to deeply crenate; sori in a continuous line 1 to 1.5 mm. from the 
margin. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 45 

4. Alsophila schiedeana Presl ; Kunze, Linnaea 13 : 149. 1839. 

Mountains of Veracruz and Chiapas, the type from Veracruz. Also in 
eastern Guatemala, apparently common, at 275 to 1,000 meters altitude. 

Arborescent ; stipe dull brown, angulate, freely armed with stout straight 
spines up to 5 mm. long ; blades ample, the rachis pale brown, aculeolate ; 
pinnae spreading, linear-oblong to oblong, acuminate, up to 70 cm. long and 
25 cm. broad, the secondary rachis deciduously squamulose-puberulous beneath ; 
pinnules linear-oblong, acute or acuminate, spreading, with minute hairs and 
brown bullate scales beneath, the latter extending to the costules; veins simple 
or once forked, glabrous; sori nearly medial. " Malque " (Chiapas). 

5. Alsophila microdonta Desv. Mem. Soc. Linn. Paris 6: 319. 1827. 
Polypodium microdonton Desv. Ges. Naturf. Freund. Berlin Mag. 5 : 319. 1811. 
Polypodium aouleatum Raddi, Opusc. Sci. Bologna 3: 288. 1819. Not P. 

aculeatum L. 1753. 

Alsophila armata Mart. Icon. PI. Crypt. 72. pi. 28, 48. 1834. Not A. armata 
Presl, 1836. 

Veracruz and Tabasco. Guatemala to Brazil, mainly at low elevations 
near the coast ; known in the West Indies only from the Isle of Pines ; type 
doubtfully South American. 

Caudex 1 to 5 meters high ; fronds arcuate-spreading, 2 to 2.5 meters long, 
the long brown stipes freely armed with very short, narrowly conical spines up 
to 1 cm. long, similar but smaller ones occurring sparsely on the primary and 
secondary rachises throughout ; pinnae narrowly oblong, abruptly acuminate, 
30 to 60 cm. long, 10 to 25 cm. broad ; pinnules spreading, linear-oblong, attenu- 
ate; segments linear, falcate, obliquely incised except at the dilatate _base, 
membranous, the costule bearing a few long septate hairs beneath and, with 
the veins, also thinly and laxly puberulous with minute tortuous hairs ; sori 
numerous, nearly medial, often confluent. 

6. Alsophila myosuroides Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 1: 236. 1849. 
Veracruz to Chiapas, at low elevations, the type from the region of Chi- 

nantla. British Honduras, eastern Guatemala, and Honduras, at 180 meters 
altitude or less ; abundant in the province of Pinar del Rio, Cuba, and the Isle 
of Pines, herbarium material having been widely distributed under the manu- 
script name Alsophila tcrightii Underw. 

Caudex 3 to 5 meters high ; fronds ample, the stout brown stipes thickly 
aculeolate and clothed with copious stiff, acicular, bright brown scales at the 
base, muricate above ; pinnae petiolate, narrowly oblong, long-acuminate, 40 
to 65 cm. long, 15 to 22 cm. broad ; pinnules stalked, linear-attenuate or oblong- 
linear and abruptly long-caudate, the costae sparsely hirsute beneath ; segments 
linear, falcate, acutish, serrate, herbaceous, dull green; costules sparsely 
hirsute beneath ; sori very numerous, usually confluent. 

7. Alsophila mexicana Mart. Icon. PI. Crypt. 70. pi. 45. 1834. 
Alsophila godmani Hook, in Hook. & Baker, Syn. Fil. 36. 1866. 

Mountains of Oaxaca and Chiapas, the type from San Pablo de Teoxomulco, 
Oaxaca. Also in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, at 900 to 1,550 meters altitude. 

Caudex arborescent, presumably several meters high ; blades ample ; primary 
rachis stout, apparently unarmed, subpersistently furfuraceous, bearing scat- 
tered large whitish scales, and hirsute with long inflated tawny septate hairs, 
their bases persistent, the rachis thus invariably scabrous in age; pinnae nar- 
rowly oblong, acuminate, 50 to 60 cm. long, 16 to 22 cm. broad, the rachis similar 
to the primary one ; pinnules close or subimbricate, sessile, linear-oblong, rather 
abruptly long-acuminate; segments herbaceous, pinnatifid, sparsely hirsute 
along the costules and veins on both surfaces. 



46 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

8. Alsophila scabriuscula Maxon, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 32: 125. 1919. 
Region of Cordoba, Veracruz. Also in Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, the type 

from Cubilquitz, altitude 350 meters. 

Oaudex arborescent, presumably stout and several meters high ; fronds very 
ample, the stout stipe bearing numerous slender conical spines about 4 mm. 
long; blades ample, the primary rachis sparsely aculeate toward the base, hir- 
sute, scabrous from the persistent bases of the pale spreading septate hairs; 
pinnae narrowly oblong, acuminate, 50 to 75 cm. long, 18 to 30 cm. broad, 
the secondary rachis hirsute, scabrous with age ; pinnules approximate, spread- 
ing, sessile, oblong-linear, long-acuminate; segments herbaceous, deeply incised, 
the lobes usually bidentate; costules and veins sparsely hirsute beneath and 
with a thin covering of minute, closely appressed, septate hairs. 

9. Alsophila bicrenata (Liebm.) Fourn. Mex. PI. Crypt. 134. 1872. 
Cyathea bicrenata Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 1: 289. 1849. 
Mountains of Veracruz, Puebla, Oaxaca, and Chiapas, at 1,200 to 2,100 

meters elevation, the type from Puebla. 

Caudex 5 to 10 meters high, up to 15 cm. thick ; stipe short, yellowish brown, 
short-aculeate ; blades 2 to 4 meters long, elongate-lanceolate, the primary rachis 
sparingly hirsute with gland-tipped, laxly unciform, septate hairs, scabrous 
from their persistent inflated bases ; pinnae oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 45 to 
60 cm. long, 14 to 20 cm. broad ; pinnules 25 to 30 pairs, linear, attenuate. 10 to 
15 mm. broad, sessile ; segments narrowly oblong, subfalcate, herbaceous, 
deeply crenate-serrate, the teeth bidentate. 

4. DICKSONIA L'Her. Sert. Angl. 30. 1788. 

Reference: Maxon, The North American tree ferns of the genus Dicksonia, 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 153-156. 1913. 

Caudex erect, 1 to 10 meters high or more, stout, often with a thick growth 
of adventitious roots toward the base, greatly thickened above by the long- 
persistent stipe bases of old fronds; fronds numerous, rigidly ascending in a 
terminal crown, the short stout stipes and the summit of the caudex with a 
copious covering of bright brown to ferruginous silky capillary scales, these 
straight or matted, several cm. long, one cell broad ; lamina ovate to 
oblanceolate, 2 to 3-pinnate ; pinnae mostly equilateral, the pinnules elongate ; 
segments coriaceous or rigidly herbaceous, dimorphous or (in our species) 
uniform ; veins simple or several times forked ; sori terminal ; indusium bival- 
vate, the outer lip consisting of a deeply concave, rounded, greenish, scarcely 
modified lobule of the* leaf margin, the inner lip dark or yellowish brown, 
deeply concave, usually coriaceous and equaling the outer lip. 
1. Dicksonia ghiesbreghtii Maxon, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 155. 1913. 

Temperate mountain region of Chiapas, the type collected by Ghiesbreght. 

Caudex 4 to 5 meters high; blades essentially tripinnate; primary pinnae 
linear-oblong, acuminate, 60 to 70 cm. long, about 20 cm. broad, the rachis 
slightly rough from the abrasion of the articulate, turgid, dirty yellow, capillary 
scales ; pinnules numerous, contiguous, alternate, sessile, linear-oblong, long- 
acuminate, the costa with a few capillary scales beneath ; segments 20 pairs 
or more, linear-oblong, straight or subfalcate, 10 to 15 mm. long, the sterile ones 
serrate to obliquely incised, the fertile ones pinnatifid two-thirds the distance 
to the elevated costule ; veins 7 or 8 pairs, those of the fertile segments usually 
once forked ; sori mostly 4 or 5 pairs, 1 mm. broad. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 47 

5. CIBOTIUM Kaulf. Berlin, Jahrb. Pharm. 21 : 53. 1820. 
Reference : Maxon, The American species of Cibotium, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 16: 54-58. pi. 30-32. 1912. 

Caudex stout, 1 to 8 meters high, sometimes from its covering of adventitious 
roots and old stipe bases attaining a diameter of nearly one meter ; fronds 
erect-arching, the stout stipes and upper caudex clothed with capillary scales 
as in Dicksonia ; blades ample, of an ovate-deltoid type, bipinnate to tripinnate- 
pinnatifid, the rachises smooth or nearly so, glabrescent ; pinnae mostly inequi- 
lateral, the distal pinnules much longer than the proximal ones ; pinnules simi- 
larly inequilateral, deltoid-oblong to linear, asymmetrical ; under surfaces 
pruinose to ceraceo-papillate, glabrous, hairy, or rarely subfurfuraceous ; veins 
oblique, the fertile ones usually simple; sori terminal, essentially marginal; 
indusium deeply bivalvate, the outer lip consisting of a. highly differentiated 
saccate portion of the leaf margin, the inner of an orbicular to linguiform carti- 
laginous operculum affixed at its base, somewhat reflexed at maturity. 
Larger pinnae 40 to 50 cm. long; sori mostly distant, usually extending out- 
ward in the plane of the segment, the inner lip of the indusium as large as 

the outer one; leaf tissue chartaceous-membranous 1. C. schiedei. 

Larger pinnae 60 to 80 cm. long; sori contiguous, erect, or the narrower and 
slightly longer inner lip strongly reflexed at maturity and overlying the 
costule; leaf tissue rigidly herbaceous 2. C. regale. 

1. Cibotium schiedei Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 616. 1830. 
Dicksonia schiedei Baker in Hook. & Baker, Syn. Fil. 50. 1868. 

Humid mountain forests of Oaxaca and Veracruz, at 600 to 1,200 meters 
altitude, the type from Hacienda de la Laguna, Veracruz. 

Caudex 1 meter high or less or (according to Galeotti) attaining a height of 
4.5 meters; fronds 1.2 to l.S meters long, the blade at least SO cm. broad, 
pinnae ascending, deltoid-oblong to deltoid-lanceolate, abruptly acuminate ; 
pinnules 28 to 30 pairs, pinnatifid nearly to the costa, the larger distal ones 
11 to 16 cm. long ; segments 25 to 30 pairs, conspicuously pruinose and ceraceo- 
papillate beneath. 

2. Cibotium regale Yerseh. & Lem. 111. Hort. 15: under pi. 548. 1868. 
Dicksonia rcgalis Baker in Hook. & Baker, Syn. Fil. ed. 2. 461. 1874. 
Mountains of Chiapas, whence it was introduced into cultivation by Ghies- 

breght. 

Caudex erect, up to 10 meters high, 40 to 50 cm. in diameter, fronds 10 to 12, 
widely recurved-spreading, up to 4 meters long; blades about 3 meters long, 
up to 1.5 meters broad ; pinnae mostly spreading, deltoid-lanceolate acuminate ; 
pinnules about 35 pairs, pinnatifid nearly to the costa; segments 30 to 35 pairs, 
conspicuously ceraceo-pruinose beneath. 

3. CYCADACEAE. Cycad Family. 

Reference : A. De Candolle in DC. Prodr. 16* : 522-547. 1864. 

Palmlike plants, the leaves pinnate, basal or clustered at the end of a trunk ; 
flowers dioecious, in large thick cones; seeds nutlike. 

Many of the species are important as food plants because of their edible 
fruits or of the starch obtained from the stems. They are often grown for 
ornament. 

Cone scales imbricate in alternate series. Trunk covered by the persistent 
petioles , 1. DIOON. 



48 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Cone scales in vertical series. 

Cone scales with 2 transverse appendages at the apex ; caudex covered with 

persistent petioles 2. CERATOZAMIA. 

Cone scales naked ; caudex naked 3. ZAMIA. 

1. DIOON Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1843: Misc. 59. 1843. 

Pinnae entire 1. D. edule. 

Pinnae spinulose-denticulate. 

Pinnae with numerous teeth on both margins ; trunk 2 to 15 meters high. 

2. D. spinulosum. 

Pinnae entire on the lower margin, with few teeth on the upper margin ; trunk 

short 3. D. purpusii. 

1. Dioon edule Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1843: Misc. 59. 1843. 
Zamiu maeleni Miquel, Linnaea 18: 97. 1844. 

Platyznmia rigida Zucc. Abh. Wiss. Akad. Miinchen 4: 23. 1845. 

Dioon imbrication Miquel, Wiss. Tijdschr. 1: 36. 1848. 

Dioon angustifolium Miquel, Wiss. Tijdschr. 1: 37. 1848. 

Dioon aculeatum Lem. 111. Hort. Lem. 2: Misc. 91. 1855. 

Dioon edule latipinna Dyer in Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 191. 1883. 

Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, and Veracruz; described from 
cultivated plants. 

Plants with a trunk 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves 1 to 1.5 meters long, woolly 
when young, 'with about 200 pinnae, these linear-lanceolate, sharp-pointed; 
•staminate cones cylindric, 20 to 30 cm. long; pistillate cones ovoid, 20 to 30 cm. 
long. "Chamal" (Nuevo Leon. Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi); "sotol" (Ta- 
maulipas) ; "palma de la virgen " (Sinaloa; in market) ; " palma de macetas " 
(Durango; cultivated). 

The large chestnut-like seeds contain much starch, and are roasted or boiled 
and eaten. They are a favorite food of bears, peccaries, and domestic swine. 
A decoction of the seeds is said to be used for neuralgia. The staminate 
inflorescences are claimed to be poisonous to cattle, causing emaciation and 
partial paralysis. The plant is often seen in cultivation. 

2. Dioon spinulosum Dyer: Eichl. Gart. Zeit. 1883: 411. 1883. 
Reported from Veracruz and Yucatan. 

Said to attain a height of 15 meters, although often much lower: leaves 
numerous, spreading, 1 to 2 meters long, with very numerous pinnae. 

3. Dioon purpusii 1 Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 260. 1909. 

In shaded canyons, Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Tomellin Canyon, Oaxaca. 

Trunk short; leaves numerous, a meter long or larger, stiff, ascending: 
pinnae 5 to 9 cm. long; staminate cones 15 to 20 cm. long; fertile cones about 
45 cm. long and 20 cm. thick. "Chamal" (Oaxaca). 

A plant with similar leaves, probably of the same species, has been collected 
In Tepic. Another similar plant, with glaucous leaves, is in cultivation in 
Sonora. 

'Named for C. A. Purpus, who has made extensive collections in Mexico in 
recent years, especially in Baja California, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz, Puebla, 
and Chiapas. His collections have included many plants previously unknown, 
most of which have been described by Brandegee. Sets of his collections are 
in the U. S. National Herbarium. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 49 

2. CERATOZAMIA Brongn. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 5: 7. 1846. 
The plants of this genus are very imperfectly known and are rarely collected. 
Some of them are seen occasionally in cultivation. 

Petioles unarmed; pinnae about 1.3 cm. wide 1. C. kusteriana. 

Petioles aculeate ; pinnae 1.8 to 7.5 cm. wide. 

Pinnae few (about 5 pairs), semiobovate 2. C. miqueliana. 

Pinnae numerous (15 to 20 pairs), narrowly lanceolate. 

Pinnae 10 to 12.5 cm. long, 1.8 to 3.5 cm. wide 3. C. latifolia. 

Pinnae 30 to 32 cm. long, about 2.5 cm. wide 4. C. mexicana. 

1. Ceratozamia kusteriana Kegel, Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 1857: 187. 1857. 
Introduced into cultivation from Mexico, the locality not stated. 

Trunk short ; leaves about 1.5 meters long, toruentose at first, with about 
40 pinnae ; staminate cones about 8 cm. long, short-pedunculate. 

2. Ceratozamia miqueliana Wendl. Ind. Palm. 68. 1854. 
Mexico, the locality not stated. 

Leaves about a meter long, glaucous when young ; pinnae 20 to 22.5 cm. long, 
about 7 cm. wide. 

3. Ceratozamia latifolia Miquel. Wiss. Tijdschr. 1: 206. 1848. 
Described from Mirador, Veracruz. 

4. Ceratozamia mexicana Brongn. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 5: 7. 1846. 
'iZamia galeottii Vriese, Tijdschr. Nat. Gesch. 1845: 23. 1845. 
Ceratozamia Jonfflfolia Miquel, Wiss. Tijdschr. 1: 40. 1848. 
Ceratozamia intermedia Miquel, Wiss. Tijdschr. 1: 40. 1848. 
Ceratozamia rolmsta Miquel, Wiss. Tijdschr. 1: 42. 1848. 
Veracruz. 

Trunk short, ovoid ; leaves about a meter long ; /staminate cones about 10 
cm. long and 4 cm. thick. " Palma " (Ramirez). 

3. ZAMIA L, Sp. PI. 165. 1753. 
Several other species besides those listed here have been reported from 
Mexico, but their status is altogether doubtful. The species of the genus are 
known very imperfectly. The Indians of Florida used the starch extracted 
from the stems of the species of that region as a food known as coontie. 

Pinnae oblanceolate or obovate-oblong 1. Z. furfuracea. 

Pinnae linear to lanceolate. 

Nerves of the pinnae few (7 to 10) 2. Z. spartea. 

Nerves of the pinnae numerous (18 to 30 or more). 

Pinnae few (about 16), usually entire 3. Z. cycadifolia. 

Pinnae numerous (28 to 50 or more), more or less serrulate. 

Pinnae obtuse or truncate at the apex 4. Z. leiboldii. 

Pinnae acute or attenuate. 

Pinnae about 0.8 cm. wide 5. Z. lawsoniana. 

Pinnae 1.5 to 3 cm. wide 6. Z. loddigesii. 

1. Zamia furfuracea L. f . ; Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 477. 1789. 
Veracruz ; introduced into cultivation in England as early as 1691. 

Trunk 30 to 60 cm. long or obsolete ; pinnae 20 to 26 ; pistillate cones 5 to 10 
cm. long, yellow. 

2. Zamia spartea A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 539. 1864. 
Type from Acayucan, Veracruz. Guatemala. 

Leaves about 30 cm. long, the petioles aculeolate; pinnae about 40, 25 to 30 
cm. long, 4 to 5 mm. wide. 



50 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Reported (A. DC, loc. cit.) to be used as a remedy for snake bites. 

3. Zamia cycadif olia Dyer in Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3 : 195. 1883. 
Described from Mexico, probably from Veracruz. 

Leaves bright green ; pinnae linear, 12.5 to 20 cm. long, 6 to 12 mm. wide. 

4. Zamia leiboldii Miquel, Linnaea 19: 427. 1845. 
Described from Colipa, Veracruz. 

Trunk very short; petioles 20 to 30 cm. long, the pinnae 28 to 44, 15 to 28 
cm. long, 10 to 12 mm. wide ; pistillate cone 5.5 cm. long. 

5. Zamia lawsoniana Dyer in Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 195. 1883. 
Oaxaca. 

Pinnae 50 or more, 22 cm. long or shorter, 8 mm. wide; staminate cone 6.5 
cm. long, 2.5 cm. thick. 

6. Zamia loddigesii Miquel, Tijdsch. Nat. Gesch. 10: 73. 1843. 
Zamia mexlcana Miquel, Prodr. Cycad. 13. 1861. 
Southern Mexico, the locality not indicated. Guatemala. 
Pinnae about 19 cm. long. 

4. TAXACEAE. Yew Family. 

1. TAXUS L. Sp. PI. 1040. 1753. 
1. Taxus globosa Schlecht. Linnaea 12: 496. 1838. 

Forests of Veracruz, Hidalgo, Mexico, and Oaxaca ; type from Real del 
Monte, Hidalgo. 

Tree, 6 meters high or probably larger; leaves linear, cuspidate, 2 to 3,5 cm. 
long ; seed nutlike, seated in a fleshy red cup-shaped disk. 

The other North American species of yew have hard strong elastic close- 
grained reddish wood, with a specific gravity of about 0.64. The leaves 
and seeds of the various species contain a poisonous alkaloid, taxine; the bark 
is rich in tannin. 

5. PINACEAE. Pine Family. 

Trees or shrubs ; leaves usually evergreen, alternate, opposite, verticillate, op 
fasciculate; flowers monoecious or dioceious; fruit a dry or somewhat fleshy 
cone, composed of few or numerous scales. 

Leaves fasciculate (rarely solitary), with a sheath at the base 1. PINTJS. 

Leaves solitary, without a sheath. 
Leaves linear, 1 cm. long or larger. 
Cones globose, with few thick scales; leaves deciduous— 4. TAX ODIUM. 
Cones elongate, with numerous thin scales; leaves persistent. 

Cones pendulous, the scales persistent 2. PSEUDOTSUGA. 

Cones erect, the scales deciduous 3. ABIES. 

Leaves scalelike, mostly 3 mm. long or shorter. 

Fruit baccate, indehiscent 5. JUNIPERUS. 

Fruit a dry cone, dehiscent. 

Leaves opposite ; cone scales peltate 6. CUPRESSUS. 

Leaves in whorls of 4 ; cone scales oblong, not peltate. 

7. LIBOCEDRUS. 
1. PINUS L. Sp. PL 1000. 1753. 

Reference: G. R. Shaw, The pines of Mexico, pp. 1-29. pi. 1-22. 1909. 
The pines are perhaps the most important genus of North American trees. 
They are certainly the most important group of lumber trees, the wood, varying 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXIGO. 51 

in quality in different species, being used for almost every purpose for which 
wood is commonly employed. In the mountains of Mexico large quantities of 
pine lumber are sawed and much is exported. 

The resinous juice is of great economic importance, being the source of 
turpentine, resin, tar, and other products. When the juice, which is obtained 
by tapping the trees, is distilled, oil or spirits of turpentine is produced. This 
has many well-known uses in the arts and in medicine. The residue left from 
the distillation is the resin of commerce. By crude distillation of the wood, 
pine tar is obtained, with a residue of charcoal. Tar subjected to distillation 
yields oil of tar and a thick residue known as naval pitch. 

Pine wood is used extensively in Mexico for fuel. Bundles of splinters of 
pitch pine to be used in starting fires are seen commonly in the markets. Some 
of the North American Indians in times of famine have used the sapwood and 
inner bark for food, and they have also employed strips of the inner bark for 
making baskets. Some tribes still use resin to waterproof baskets and jars 
of wickerwork. 

Pine leaves are sometimes mixed in adobe bricks in place of straw. The 
leaves are very tough, and the longer ones occasionally serve as a substitute 
for twine. The branches are employed in some localities for thatching. A 
volatile oil obtained from the leaves is used in medicine, and pine tar also is 
employed medicinally. The cones are used in place of combs by some of the 
Indian tribes. 

The pines are often planted for ornamental purposes, and some of the 
Mexican species have been cultivated in Europe, although few of them thrive 
there. Pinus halepensis Mill, and P. pinea L., European species, are said to be 
cultivated in Mexican parks. 

In Mexico pines are most generally known under the names " pino " (Spanish) 
and " ocote," the latter a corruption of the Nahuatl " ocotl." Besides the ver- 
nacular names listed under the various species, the following names are applied 
to Mexican pines, although it is uncertain to which species they belong : " Pino 
barbon " (Durango) ; "pino triste " (Durango) ; "pino de azucar " (Durango; 
"perhaps P. ayacahuite") ; "pino prieto " (Durango, Sinaloa) ; " guiri-biche " 
(Oaxaca, Zapotec, Reko). 

In 1857 there was published in the City of Mexico a " Catalogue de Graines 
de Coniferes Mexicains " by B. Roezl & Cia. In this 82 new species of Mexican 
pines were described, nearly all from the Valley of Mexico. The most compe- 
tent students of the genus have concluded that all these new names are prop- 
erly referable to earlier published species. It does not seem necessary to list 
the numerous names in synonymy here, but those who wish to refer to them 
will find them tabulated in Shaw's monograph referred to above. 

Leaves 1 or 2 in a fascicle. 

Leaves solitary 1. P. monophylla. 

Leaves 2 in a fascicle. 

Leaf sheaths deciduous ; leaves 2 to 4 cm. long 2. P. edulis. 

Leaf sheaths persistent ; leaves 3 to 8 cm. long 26. P. contorta. 

Leaves 3 or more in a fascicle. 
Leaves 4 to 5 cm. long or shorter. 

Leaves 3 in a fascicle 3. P. cembroides. 

Leaves 4 in a fascicle 4. P. quadrifolia. 

Leaves 6 cm. long or longer. 
Leaves 15 to 40 cm. long. 

Sheaths of the leaves deciduous. 

Leaves in fascicles of 5 ; cones 20 to 45 cm. long 7. P. ayacahuite. 

Leaves in fascicles 3; cones 5 to 7 cm. long 13. P. lumholtzii. 



52 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Sheaths of the leaves persistent. 
Cones usually deciduous, dull or sublustrous. 
Cones 4 to 5 cm. long. 

Leaves bright green 14. P. teocote. 

Leaves glaucous 15. P. lawsoni. 

Cones mostly 8 to 30 cm. long. 
Leaves in fascicles of 3 or 4 ; cones 6 to 12 cm. long. 

Sheaths deciduous 12. P. chihuahuana. 

Sheaths persistent. 
Cones deciduous, dull. 

Cones 7 cm. long or shorter 14. P. teocote. 

Cones 6 to 12 cm. long 18. P. hartwegii. 

Cones persistent, sublustrous. 

Leaves 8 to 13 cm. long; cones 4 to 8 cm. long; resin ducts 
uniting hypoderm and endoderm of the leaves. 

23. P. oocarpa. 
Leaves 7 to 10 cm. long ; cones 6 to 12 cm. long ; resin ducts 

medial 24. P. greggii. 

Leaves in fascicles of 5. 
Cones 4 to 12 cm. long. 

Sheaths deciduous 11. P. leiophylla. 

Sheaths persistent. 
Leaves 18 to 28 cm. long. Cones persistent, lustrous. 

23. P. oocarpa. 
Leaves 7 to 18 cm. long. 

Cones deciduous, dull 18. P. hartwegii. 

Cones persistent, lustrous 20. P. arizonica. 

^ Cones 10 to 45 cm. long. 

Leaves 10 to 20 cm. long 7. P. ayacahuite. 

Leaves less than 10 cm. long. 

Leaves entire. Seed wings rudimentary 8. P. flexilis. 

Leaves serrulate. 

Prickles of the cone scales weak and deciduous. 

Bark of young trees smooth 16. P. pseudostrobus. 

Bark of young trees rough 17. P. montezumae. 

Prickles of the cone scales stout and persistent. 

19. P. ponderosa. 
Cones persistent, very lustrous. 

Resin ducts of the leaves uniting the hypoderm and endoderm. 

23. P. oocarpa. 
Resin ducts of the leaves internal or medial. 
Resin ducts of the leaves internal. 

Cone scales without upcurved spines 21. P. pringlei. 

Cone scales with strongly upcurved spines 22. P. coulteri. 

Resin ducts medial 25. P. patula. 

Leaves up to 15 cm. long, usually shorter. 
Seeds not winged. Leaves in fascicles of 3. 

Sheaths of the leaves deciduous; leaves entire 5. P. pinceana. 

Sheaths persistent; leaves serrulate 6. P. nelsoni. 

Seeds winged. 

Seed wing well developed ; cones 25 to 45 cm. long. 

9. P. lambertiana. 
Seed wing rudimentary; cones 10 to 25 cm. long 10. P. refiexa. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 53 

1. Pinus monophylla Torr. in Frem. Rep. Exped. Rocky Mount. 319. pi. J t . 1845. 
Pinus cembro-ides monophylla Voss, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 16: 95. 1907. 
Mountains of Northern Baja California. Southern California (type locality) 

to Utah. 

Tree, usually 7 meters high or less, but sometimes attaining a height of 15 
meters and a trunk diameter of 30 cm. ; trunk short, often branched near the 
base, the bark deeply and irregularly fissured, dark reddish brown; leaves 
about 4 cm. long, pale green ; cones 4 to 6.5 cm. long, light reddish brown, 
shining, the scales few, thick ; seeds about 1.5 cm. long ; wood soft, brittle, 
weak, close-grained, yellow to light brown, its specific gravity about 0.56. 
" Pin6n " (California, Arizona). 

The wood is used for fuel and for charcoal for smelters. The seeds are 
edible, either raw or roasted, and they are sometimes ground into meal. 

2. Pinus edulis Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. North. Mex. 88. 1848. 

Pinus cembroides edulis Voss, Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 16: 95. 1907. 

Dry mountain sides, Baja California, at an altitude of about 1,800 meters; 
perhaps also in northern Chihuahua. Western Texas to Arizona and Wyoming ; 
type from New Mexico. 

"Sometimes reaching a height of 12 meters and a trunk diameter of 75 cm., 
but usually smaller; trunk short, often divided to the base, the bark brown, 
irregular fissured ; leaves 1.8 to 4 cm. long, green ; cones about 4 cm. long, the 
few scales very thick ; seeds brown, about 1.2 cm. long ; wood soft, weak, brittle, 
close-grained, pale brown, the specific gravity about 0.64. " Pinon " (New 
Mexico, Arizona, etc.). 

In the United States the wood is used for fencing, fuel, and charcoal, and is 
sometimes sawed into boards, although it is only rarely suitable for lumber. 
Pinyon seeds are an important article of food in New Mexico and Arizona, 
largely taking the place filled by peanuts in other parts of the United States. 
They were a staple food, also, of the Indians. In New Mexico they are some- 
times gathered in such large quantities as to be used for horse feed. The nuts 
are sometimes exported to other regions, and have been used in making confec- 
tionery. 

3. Pinus cembroides Zucc. Abh. Akad. Wiss. Muenchen 1 : 392. 1832. 
Pinus llaveana Schiede, Linnaea 12: 48S. 1838. 

Pinus osteosperma Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. North. Mex. 89. 1848. 

Low mountains, Chihuahua to Baja California, southward to Hidalgo. 
Southern Arizona and New Mexico. 

Bushy tree, usually about 6 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 30 cm., 
but sometimes much larger ; bark reddish brown, irregularly fissured ; leaves 
2.5 to 5 cm. long, dark green ; cones 3 to 5 cm. in diameter, reddish brown ; seeds 
8 to 10 mm. long; wood soft, close-grained, yellow, its specific gravity about 
0.65. Known generally as " pifi6n " or " pino pinon," the seeds as " pinones." 

The seeds are eaten in all regions where the nut pine grows, and are highly 
esteemed. They are very palatable raw, but are improved by roasting, after 
which they possess a flavor unexcelled, perhaps, by that of any kind of nut. 
The seeds are placed in the- mouth and the thin shells are cracked with the 
teeth and ejected without being touched by the fingers, an operation in which 
one may become very proficient by a little practice. The nuts are often 
added to candies. 

4. Pinus quadrifolia Parry; Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 402. 1868. 

Pinus parryana Engelm. Araer. Journ. Sci. II. 34: 332. 1862. Not P. parryana 
Gord. 1858. 



54 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Mountains of Baja California, at low elevations. Southern California ; type 
from mountains east of San Diego. 

Tree, sometimes 12 meters high, with a trunk 45 cm. in diameter, the lower 
branches often touching the ground ; bark dark reddish brown, shallowly 
fissured ; leaves 3.5 to 4.5 cm. long, pale green ; cones 4 to 6 cm. long, brown 
and shining; seeds about 1.5 cm. long; wood soft, close-grained, yellow or pale 
brown, its specific gravity about 0.57. " Piiion " (California). 

The seeds are eaten like those of the other nut pines. 

5. Pinus pinceana Gord. ; Gord. & Glend. Pinet. 204. 1858. 
Pinus latisquama Engelm. Gard. Chron II. 18: 712. 1882. 

Coahuila to Hidalgo ; type said to have come from Cuernavaca, but if so it 
was probably taken from a cultivated tree. 

Low tree with short trunk, the branchlets long, slender, pendent ; leaves 12 to 
16 cm. long, grayish green ; cones 6 to 9 cm. long, pendent, early deciduous. 

In the original description the tree is said to reach a height of 18 meters, 
but it is usually much lower. 

6. Pinus nelsoni 1 Shaw, Gard. Chron. III. 36: 122. f. J,9. 1904. 

Nuevo Leon, on lower slopes of the mountains ; type from Miquihuana. 

Low tree, 8 to 10 meters high, with long slender branches, these clothing the 
trunk to the ground ; leaves 6 to 9 cm. long, grayish green. 

Shaw reports that the nuts are eaten greedily by macaws, and are sometimes 
found in the markets for human food. 

7. Pinus ayacahuite K. Ehrenb. Linnaea 12: 492. 1838. 

Pinus strobiformis Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. North. Mex. 102. 1848. 

Pinus veitchii Roezl, Cat. Conif. Mex. 32. 1857. 

Pinus bonapartea Roezl, Gard. Chron. 1858: 358. 1858. 

Pinus loudoniana Gord. ; Gord. & Glend. Pinet. 230. 1858. 

Chihuahua to Mexico, Guerrero, and Chiapas; type from Omitlan, Hidalgo. 
Guatemala. \ 

Large tree; leaves 10 to 20 cm. long; cones 20 to 45 cm. long, pendent, pale 
yellowish or reddish brown, usually dull ; seeds with a large wing, or this rarely 
almost obsolete. "Acanita " (Coahuila) ; " acalocahuite " (Veracruz, Ramirez) ; 
"ayacahuite" (Valley of Mexico, Oaxaca, etc.); " ocote bianco" (Oax- 
aca) ; "ayacahuite Colorado" (Hidalgo. Mexico, Ramirez); " sacalacahuite " 
(various localities, Ramirez) ; " pino real" (Oaxaca, Reko) ; " pino acahuiter" 
or "pino cahuite " (Durango, Patoni). 

8. Pinus flexilis James in Long, Exped. 2: 34. 1823. 

Mountains of Coahuila. Northward along the Rocky Mountains to Alberta; 
type from the Rocky Mountains. 

Tree, sometimes 15 meters high, with a trunk 1.5 meters thick, the crown 
conic or in age rounded ; bark dark brown or nearly black, deeply fissured into 
broad ridges and scaly plates; leaves about 5 cm. long (rarely 9 cm.) ; cones 
7.5 to 25 cm. long, light brown, with thin scales; seeds 8 to 12 mm. long, 
winged ; wood soft, close-grained, pale yellow or reddish, its specific gravity 
about 0.43. 

The wood of the limber pine is used to some extent in the United States for 
construction purposes. The seeds are edible. 

'Named for E. W. Nelson (1855-), Chief of the Bureau of Biological Sur- 
vey, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Mr. Nelson has traveled very exten- 
sively in Mexico, while engaged in investigations of the biological features of 
the country. He has obtained a very large series of botanical specimens, 
which are in the U. S. National Herbarium. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 55 

9. Pinus lambertiana Dougl. Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 15: 500. 1827. 

San Pedro Martir Mountains of Baja California, at elevations of 2,250 meters 
or more. Northward to Oregon ; type from the Umpqua River. 

The largest of North American pines (probably of all pines), in the northern 
part of its range sometimes attaining a height of 70 meters and a trunk diameter 
of 4 meters, trees of still larger dimensions having been reported ; bark brown or 
red-brown, fissured into long plates, on young trees smooth ; cones pendulous ; 
seeds broadly winged ; wood light brown, soft, its specific gravity about 0.37. 

In the United States (where the tree is known as sugar pine) the wood is 
used for shingles, barrels, general construction, etc. 

10. Pinus reflexa Engelm. Bot. Gaz. 7: 4. 1882. 

Pinus flexilis reflexa Engelm. ; Rothr. in Wheeler, Rep. U. S. Surv. 100th 
Merid. 6: 258. 1878. 

Mountains of northern Chihuahua. Arizona (type from Santa Rita Moun- 
tains) and New Mexico. 

Tree, sometimes 30 meters high and with a trunk diameter of 60 cm., the 
branches slender and somewhat drooping ; bark brown or reddish brown, deeply 
fissured ; leaves light green ; wood hard, strong, reddish white, its specific 
gravity about 0.49. 

11. Pinus leiophylla Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 354. 1831. 
Zacatecas to Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Michoadln. 

Tree, 15 to 27 meters high ; bark thin, at first, red, soon becoming very coarse 
and rough ; leaves 10 to 14 cm. long, grayish green ; cones maturing the third 
year, 7 cm. long or shorter, persistent. The names " ocote bianco " and " ocote 
chino " are said to be applied to this species. 

12. Pinus chihuahuana Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. North. Mex. 103. 1848. 
Chihuahua to Zacatecas and Tepic ; type from mountains of Chihuahua. 

Southern Arizona and New Mexico. 

Tree, sometimes 20 meters high, with a trunk 90 cm. in diameter; bark 
thick, dark reddish or nearly black, deeply fissured into broad flat ridges ; 
leaves 6 to 10 cm. long, pale green ; cones 4 to 6 cm. long, ripening the third 
year, brown and shining; wood soft and brittle but durable, close-grained, 
orange, its specific gravity about 0.54. 

13. Pinus lumholtzii 1 Robins. & Fern. Proc. Amer. Acad. 30: 122. 1894. 

In the mountains, Chihuahua to Zacatecas and Tepic ; type from Coloradas, 
Chihuahua. 

Tree with broad rounded crown and slender, somewhat pendent branches; 
bark at first thin, separating into deciduous scales, in age coarse and thick ; 
leaves 20 to 30 cm. long, bright green, pendent ; cones pendent, dull pale brown. 
" Pino triste." 

A decoction of the leaves is employed by the Indians for stomach troubles. 
The wood is used for musical instruments, and for other purposes. 

14. Pinus teocote Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 76. 1830. 
Pinus teocote macrocarpa Shaw, Pines Mex. 17. 1909. 
Nuevo Leon to Tepic and Chiapas ; type from Mount Orizaba. 

Tree, 20 to 35 meters high ; bark at first thin, red, deciduous, in age thick 
and rough; leaves 10 to 20 cm. long; cones spreading or reflexed, brown or 

1 Named for Carl Lumholtz (1851-), a native of Norway, who has con- 
ducted extensive investigations of the ethnological features of Mexico, especially 
in the northern ranges of the Sierra Madre. Upon some of his expeditions 
botanical collections were obtained. 



56 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

sublustrous. The following names are said to be applied to the tree in various 
localities: " Jaloeote," " xalCeotl " (Nahuatl), " ocote," " ocotl." " pino real." 

The tree produces turpentine ("ocotzol," " trementina de pino," " trementina 
de ocote") which is used in medicine as a balsamic stimulant, and for other 
purposes for which turpentine is generally employed. The tar ("brea") 
remaining after the distillation of turpentine is used for making torches, in 
soap. etc. 

15. Pinus lawsoni Roezl ; Gord. & Glend. Pinet. App. 64. 1862. 
Pinus alhtmirani Shaw; Sarg. Trees' & Shrubs 1: 209. 1905. 
Michoacan and Morelos to Oaxaca, growing at subtropical levels. 

Tree, 20 to 25 meters high, the branchlets with a white bloom ; leaves 24 cm. 
long or shorter, glaucous; cones usually 5 to 6 cm. long, reflexed, deciduous, 
dull yellowish brown. "Ocote" (Oaxaca). 

16. Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 63. 1839. 
Pinus apulcensis Lindl. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 63. 1839. 

Pinus tenuifolia Benth. PI. Hartw. 92. 1842. 

Pinus orizabae Gord. Journ. Hort. Soc. Lond. 1: 237. 1846. 

Durango and Sinaloa to Veracruz and Chiapas, chiefly at subtropical levels; 
type from Orizaba. Guatemala and Nicaragua. 

Large tree, the trunk sometimes nearly 2 meters in diameter; bark smooth 
at first, becoming very rough in old age, the branches slender, verticillate ; 
leaves 15 to 30 cm. long, pendent ; cones 7 to 14 cm. long, early deciduous. 
"Pino real" (Durango, Patoni). 

17. Pinus montezumae Lambert, Descr. Pinus ed. 3. 1: 39. 1839. 
Pinus devoniana Lindl. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 62. 1839. 

Pinus russelliana Lindl. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 63. 1839. 

Pinus macrophylla Lindl. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 63. 1839. 

Pinus fili folia Lindl. Bot. Reg. 26: Misc. 61. 1840. 

Pinus grenrillcae Gord. Journ. Hort. Soc. Lond. 2: 77. 1847. 

Pinus gordoniana Hartw. Journ. Hort. Soc. Lond. 2: 79. 1847. 

Pinus wincesteriana Gord. Journ. Hort. Soc. Lond. 2: 158. 1847. 

Pinus lindleyaua Gord.; Gord. &, Glend. Pinet. 229. 1858. 

In the mountains, Durango and Zacatecas to Chiapas. Guatemala. 

Tree, 15 to 20 or even 30 meters high; leaves 10 to 45 cm. long; cones sul>- 
cylindric, 6 to 25 cm. long, deciduous, brown or nearly black, dull. Reko 
states that the following names are applied in Oaxaca : " Ocote bianco," " pino 
de Montezuma," " yutnusatnu " (Mixtec). The following names are said to 
be applied in various regions ; " Ocote," " ocotl," " pino real," " pino bianco," 
" ocote hembro," " ocote macho." 

18. Pinus hartwegii 1 Lindl. Bot. Reg. 25: Misc. 62. 1839. 
Pinus rudis Endl. Syn. Conif. 151. 1847. 

Pinus ehrcnhcrt/ii Endl. Syn. Conif. 151. 1847. 

'Karl Theodor Hartweg (1812-1S71) was born at Karlsruhe, Germany. In 
1836 he was sent by the Horticultural Society of Loudon to Mexico to colled 
living plants and seeds for introduction into England. He reached Veracruz 
in December, 1836, and made collections about Santa Fe and Zacuapan. Later 
he visited Guanajuato, Aguascalientes, Jalisco, Hidalgo, and San Luis PotOSl 
In 1S38 he spent two months at Morel ia. and in 1839 he botanized in Oaxaca. 
Later he visited California, Guatemala, and the Andes of South America. 
His collections, which included many new species, were described by Bentham 
in a work entitled "Plantae Hartwegianae " (1839—42). 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 57 

Durango to Nuevo Leon and Chiapas, growing on the mountains up to timber 
line; type from mountains of Campanario, at 2,700 meters. 

Tree, 13 to 45 meters high; leaves 7 to 15 cm, long, glaucous; young cones 
blue or sooty black, the mature ones 6 to 12 cm. long, brown or nearly black, 
dull or lustrous. " Ocote " (Chiapas). 

19. Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ; P. Laws. Agr. Man. 354. 1836. 
Pinus macrophylla Engelm. in Wisliz. Mem. North. Mex. 103. 1848. 
Pinus jeffreyi Murray, Bot. Exped. Oreg. 2. pi. 1. 1853. 

Pinus engelmanni Carr. Rev. Hort. 227. 1854. 

In the mountains at middle elevations, Chihuahua to Durango and Baja 
California. Widely distributed in the western United States and Canada ; 
type from Washington. 

Large tree, sometimes 70 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 2.4 meters, 
but usually smaller, the trunk tall and naked, the bark pale reddish brown, 
broken into large plates ; leaves 7.5 to 40 cm. long, yellowish green ; cones 6 to 
19 cm. long, early deciduous, reddish brown, lustrous; wood hard and strong 
but brittle, close-grained, pale and reddish brown or yellow, very resinous, its 
specific gravity 0.48 to 0.52. "Pino real" (Durango); " pinabete " (New 
Mexico). 

The western yellow pine is an important source of lumber in northern Mexico 
and the southern Rocky Mountains. The wood is used for railroad ties, fenc- 
ing, and all kinds of construction purposes. 

20. Pinus arizonica Engelm. ; Rothr. in AVheeler, Rep. U. S. Surv. 100th 
Merid. 6: 260. 1878. 

Mountains of Chihuahua and Nuevo Leon. Southern Arizona (type from the 
Santa Rita Mountains) and New Mexico. 

Tree, sometimes 30 meters high, with a trunk 1.2 meters in diameter ; branches 
stout, spreading ; bark reddish brown, broken into large irregular plates ; leaves 
dark green ; wood soft, weak, rather brittle, close-grained, light red or yellowish, 
very resinous, its specific gravity about 0.50. 

An important source of lumber in the mountains of northern Mexico. 
81. Pinus pringlei Shaw; Sarg. Trees & Shrubs 1: 211. 1905. 

Michoacan, Guerrero, and Morelos, at subtropical levels ; type from Uruapan, 
Michoacan. 

Large tree with long sinuous branches ; leaves 15 to 25 cm. long, bright 
green ; cones 5 to 10 cm. long, pendent or spreading, ocher-yellow, lustrous. 
22. Pinus coulteri 1 Lambert; Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 17: 440. 1837. 

On mountain tops, Baja California. California ; type from Santa Lucia 
Mountains. 

Tree, sometimes 21 meters high, with a trunk 1.2 meters in diameter; bark 
dark brown or nearly black, deeply fissured; leaves 15 to 35 cm. long, dark 
bluish green ; cones 25 to 35 cm. long, 10 to 13 cm. thick, pendent, light yellowish 
brown ; wood soft, weak, brittle, coarse-grained, light red, resinous, its specific 
gravity about 0.41. 

'Thomas Coulter (1793-1843) came to Mexico in 1825 as physician for a 
mining company in Hidalgo. He remained there for a number of years and 
made collections of plants. From 1831 to 1833 he explored Alta California 
(now chiefly included in the State of California) and later Sonora, being the 
first collector who forwarded to Europe collections from the latter region. 
His collections were sent to Trinity College, Dublin, from which institution 
they were distributed to various herbaria. A few of his plants are in the 
U. S. National Herbarium. 



58 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

23. Pinus oocarpa Schiede, Linnaea 12: 491. 1838. 

Sinaloa to Zacatecas and Chiapas; type collected between Ario and Volcan 
de Jorullo, Michoacan. Guatemala. 

Tree. 12 to 15 meters high, with round compact head and stout branches; 
leaves 18 to 28 cm. long, bright green ; cones 4 to 8 or sometimes 10 cm. long, 
persistent, pendent or spreading, ocher-yellow, often tinged with gray or green. 
"Ocote" (Oaxaca) ; "pino real" (Tepic) ; said to be known also as " ocote 
macho." 

T'inus oocarpa microphylla Shaw 1 is a form from Sinaloa and Tepee with 
leaves only 8 to 13 cm. long. 

24. Pinus greggii 2 Engelm. ; Pari, in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 396. 1868. 
Mountains of Coahuila ; type collected near Saltillo. 

Tree, 10 to 15 meters high, with smooth gray bark when young ; leaves bright 
green, erect ; cones reflexed, ocher-yellow, lustrous. 
25 Pinus patula Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 354. 1831. 

Quere'taro to Veracruz and Puebla ; type collected between Lerma and Toluca, 
Mexico. 

Tree, 12 to 25 meters high, with long slender branches, the upper part of 
the trunk red ; leaves 15 to 30 cm. long, slender, drooping ; cones 6 to 9 cm. 
long, reflexed, persistent, dark brown. 

26. Pinus contorta Dougl. ; Loud. Arb. Frut. 4: 2292. 1830. 

San Pedro Martir Mountains of Baja California, at an altitude of about 2,400 
meters. Northward to Alaska. 

In the Mexican locality 22 to 30 meters high or larger, with straight trunk 
and narrow tapering crown ; bark very thin, smooth, orange-brown ; leaves 
3 to 8 cm. long, stiff, yellowish green; cones 5 to 6 cm. long, ocher-brown, 
lustrous ; wood soft, weak, close-grained, light yellow or whitish, with little 
resin, its specific gravity about 0.41. 

2. PSEUDOTSUGA Carr. Trait. Conif. ed. 2. 256. 1867. 

References: Britton, N. Amer. Trees 69-73. f. 55, 56. 1908; Sudworth, For. 
Trees Pacif. Slope 99-106. f. 36, 37. 1908. 

Trees with linear leaves 2 to 3 cm. long; cones ovoid-oblong, drooping, the 
bracts lobed, exserted beyond the rounded cone scales. 

Cones 5 to 10 cm. long; bracts of the cones much exserted 1. P. mucronata. 

Cones 10 to 17 cm. long ; bracts only slightly exserted 2. P. macrocarpa. 

1. Pseudotsuga mucronata (Raf.) Sudw. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 3: 266. 1S95. 

Abies mucronata Raf. Atl. Journ. 120. 1832. 

Abies douglasii Lindl. Penny Cycl. 1: 32. 1833. 

Pseudotsuga douglasii Carr. Trait. Conif. ed. 2. 256. 1867. 

Mountains, at high altitudes, Chihuahua and Sonora to Hidalgo. Northward 
to southern Canada ; type from the mouth of the Columbia River. 

1 Pines Mex. 27. 1909. 

2 Little is known concerning Josiah Gregg, who was a trader under the 
patronage of Thomas G. Rockhill, a Philadelphia merchant. He published in 
1844 " The Commerce of the Prairies," in which he tells of his travels in the 
West, and of his residence of nearly nine years in northern Mexico. He made 
botanical collections in Mexico, and his specimens are chiefly in the herbarium 
of the Missouri Botanical Garden. He is believed to have died in California 
in 1850. The genus Greggia, of the family Brassicaceae, was named in his 
honor by Gray. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 59 

Tree, in Oregon and Washington sometimes reaching a height of 90 meters, 
with a trunk diameter of 4.5 meters, but usually smaller ; bark thick, deeply 
fissured ; cones purplish at first, yellowish brown when mature ; wood hard, 
light red and coarse-grained or yellowish brown and fine-grained, the specific 
gravity about 0.51. " Hallarin " (Coahuila); " abeto," " pino de corcho " 
(Hidalgo); "pinabete," " cahuite," or " acahuite " (Durango) ; "pino real" 
(New Mexico). 

This tree (known in the United States as Douglas fir) is of the greatest 
commercial importance in the United States, especially on the Pacific coast, as 
well as in those portions of Mexico where it is abundant. It furnishes the 
largest saw timber of any of the North American trees, if not of any trees in 
the world. The wood is used for all kinds of construction purposes, especially 
those which require large timbers, such as shipbuilding. It is used also for 
railroad ties. Large quantities of the lumber are exported from the United 
States. The bark is sometimes employed for tanning leather. The smaller 
roots are very uniform in diameter for a length of 2 to 3 meters and have been 
a favorite material of the California Indians for the manufacture of baskets. 
It is said that in the same State a decoction of the green leaves has been used 
by both Indians and white people as a beverage in place of coffee ; and a decoc- 
tion of the spring buds has been employed as a remedy for venereal diseases. 
2. Pseudotsuga macrocarpa (Torr.) Mayr, Wald. Nordam. 278. 1890. 

Abies dovglasii macrocarpa Torr. in Ives, Rep. Colo. Riv. 28. 1861. 

San Pedro Martir Mountains, Baja California, at altitudes of 1,500 to 2,100 
meters. Southern California, the type from San Diego County. 

Similar to preceding species except for the larger cones ; tree, sometimes 
30 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 1.2 meters; wood hard, strong, close- 
grained, brown, durable, the specific gravity about 0.45. 

3. ABIES Hill, Brit. Herb. 509. 1756. 

Large conical ti'ees with linear sessile leaves 2 to 6 cm. long ; flowers monoe- 
cious; cones cylindric or ovoid, the thin scales falling away from the axis at 
maturity. 

Leaves green and sulcate on the upper surface, slender 1. A. religiosa. 

Leaves glaucous and carinate on the upper surface, stout 2. A. concolor. 

1. Abies religiosa (H. B. K.) Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 77. 1S30. 

Pinus religiosa H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 5. 1817. 

Abies hirtella Lindl. Penny Cycl. 1: 31. 1833. 

In the mountains, up to 3,600 meters, San Luis Potosi to Jalisco and south- 
ward ; type collected between Mazatlan and Chilpancingo, Guerrero. Guate- 
mala. 

Large tree, sometimes 45 meters high (on Orizaba said to be as much as 
60 meters high and 6 meters in circumference), occurring mostly at altitudes of 
1,200 to 3,450 meters ; branchlets hirtellous or glabrate ; leaves mostly 2 to 
3 cm. long; cones 6 to 15 cm. long. "Abeto" (Valley of Mexico, Oaxaca) ; 
" acxoyatl " (Valley of Mexico. Nahuatl > ; " bansii " (Otomf) ; " jalocote " 
(Valley of Mexico); " oyamel " or "oynmetl" (Valley of Mexico, Durango, 
Oaxaca, Nahuatl) ; "huallame" (Coahuila); "pinabete" (Durango and else- 
where); "guayame" (Nuevo Leon, Gonzdlez) ; "cipreso" (Guatemala); 
known also in various localities as " pino," " pino oyamel," or " xalocotl " 
(Nahuatl). 

This fir tree furnishes considerable lumber which is used for various con- 
struction purposes, as well as for making paper. The trees are tapped in winter 
126651—20 5 



60 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

for the oleoresin which they yield abundantly. This, known as " aeeite de 
palo " or " aeeite de abeto," is used in medicine for its balsamic properties, 
and as an ingredient of paints. The specific name " religiosa " was applied 
to the tree because of the fact that its branches are often used as decorations 
in churches. 
2. Abies concolor Lindl. Journ. Hort. Soc. Lond. 5: 210. 1850. 

San Pedro Martir Mountains of Baja California, at altitudes of 2,250 meters 
or more. New Mexico (type locality) to California and Oregon. 

Large tree, sometimes attaining a height of 75 meters and a trunk diameter 
of 2 meters, but usually smaller; bark very thick, reddish brown or light gray, 
deeply furrowed ; leaves 3 to 6 cm. long ; cones 7 to 15 cm. long, green or 
purplish ; wood very soft, of medium strength, coarse-grained, inodorous, its 
specific gravity about 0.36. 

The balsam fir is valuable for lumber when it occurs in sufficient abundance. 

4. TAXODIUM L. Rich. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. 16: 298. 1810. 

Only 2 other species are known, natives of the southeastern United States. 
1. Taxodium mucronatum Ten. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 19: 355. 1853. 

Taxodium montezumae Decaisne, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 1: 71. 1854. 

Taxodium mexicanum Carr. Trait. Conif. 147. 1855. 

Sinaloa to Coahuila and southward, chiefly in wet soil ; often planted as a 
shade tree. Guatemala. 

Large tree, 20 to 30 meters high ; trunk straight, enlarged near the base, 
covered with brownish red, rather smooth but shredded bark ; roots of trees 
growing in water often sending up conical projections or " knees ; " leaves 
(and many of the young branches) deciduous, 6 to 12 mm. long; staminate 
flowers in long slender spikes; cones subglobose, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. in diameter. 
The Nahuatl name is " ahuehuetl," in modern Mexican " ahuehuete " ; the 
Tarascan name is " pentamu " or "pentam6n;" " cipres " (Tamaulipas) ; 
" cipreso " (Chiapas); " sabino" (Durango, San Luis PotosI, Oaxaca, and 
in other states); "cipres de Montezuma" (Oaxaca, Valley of Mexico); 
" tnuyucu " or " yucu-ndatura " (Oaxaca, Mixtec, Reko) ; " yaga-chichicino " 
or " yaga-guichi xina " (Oaxaca, Zapotec, Reko). 

This bald cypress is one of the best-known trees of Mexico, being noted 
especially for its size. The largest individual reported is the famous tree at 
Santa Maria del Tule, Oaxaca, near the city of Oaxaca, which has a height 
of 38.6 meters and a trunk circumference of 51.8 meters ; 1 the greatest diameter 
of its trunk is 12 meters, and the spread of its branches about 42 meters. 
The Cypress of Montezuma, in the gardens of Chapultepec, has a height of 
51 meters and a trunk circumference of 15 meters. It was a noted tree four 
centuries ago, and has been estimated to be about 700 years old. Other trees 
have been estimated to have attained a much greater age. A third famous 
tree is the "Arbol de la Noche Triste," in the village of Popatela, near the 
City of Mexico, which is noted for its association with Cortes. 

The wood is soft and rather weak, light or dark brown or yellowish, and 
is often obtained in very large planks. It is susceptible of a good polish and 
is used in Mexico for fine furniture, as well as for general construction. The 
tree furnishes an acrid resin which was used in pre-Conquest times for the 
cure of wounds, ulcers, cutaneous diseases, toothache, gout, etc., and which is 
still used extensively in popular practice. The bark is employed as an emmena- 

1 M. O. Reyes. El gigante de la flora Mexicana 6 sea el sabino de Santa 
Maria del Tule del Estado de Oaxaca. Naturaleza 6: 110-114. pi, 6. 1884. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 61 

gogue and diuretic, and the leaves are applied as a resolutive and as a cure 
for itch. Chips of the wood are placed in an excavation in the ground, covered 
with earth, and fired, and as a result there is obtained a kind of pitch which 
is used commonly as a cure for bronchitis and other chest affections. 1 

5. JUNIPERUS L. Sp. PI. 1038. 1753. 
Trees or shrubs with small scalelike leaves, these opposite or verticillate ; 
fruit a small globose cone, often berry-like. 

Cedar wood is of much economic importance, being useful for many purposes, 
one of the most common of which is the manufacture of lead pencils. The 
bark is rich in tannin and is used for tanning leather. The volatile oil 
obtained from the fruit of some species is aromatic, stimulant, and diuretic. 
Spirits distilled with the berries of common juniper (J. communis L., of North 
America, Europe, and Asia) constitutes the gin of commerce. The leaves, or 
their decoction, of J. sobina L. (of Europe) and J. virginiana L. (of the United 
States) have been used as a teniafuge and abortifacient, although their use is 
dangerous. The trees are very commonly planted for ornamental purposes. 

Reko gives the Mixtec name (in Oaxaca) as " yutnu-itne." 
Leaves of the branchlets ternate, obtuse. Fruit 1.2 to 1.8 cm. in diameter, 

1 or 2-seeded 1. J. californica. 

Leaves of the branchlets opposite. 
Bark checkered. Leaves obtuse; fruit dry, usually 4-seeded. 

2. J. pachyphloea. 
Bark shredded. 

Fruit brownish, dry, fibrous, with 4 or more seeds ; leaves very acute. 

3. J. flaccida. 
Fruit blue, fleshy, resinous, with 1 or sometimes 2 seeds ; leaves obtuse. 

4. J. mexicana. 

1. Juniperus californica Carr. Rev. Hort. 1854: 352. 1854. 
Juniperus cerrosianus Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. 2: 37. 1863. 

Baja California, at altitudes of 150 to 1,000 meters. California (type 
locality). 

Usually a shrub but sometimes a tree 12 meters high, with a trunk diameter 
of 60 cm. ; bark thin, peeling off in long gray shreds, the inner bark reddish 
brown ; fruit reddish brown, maturing the second year ; wood soft, close- 
grained, light reddish brown, its specific gravity about 0.63. " Cedro " (Baja 
California ) . 

The wood is very durable and is used for fencing and for fuel. The Indians 
employed the fruit, either fresh or dried, ground and made into cakes, for food. 

2. Juniperus pachyphloea Torr. U. S. Rep. Expl. Miss. Pacif. 4: 142. 1857. 
Low dry hillsides, Chihuahua and Sonora to Zacatecas and Puebla. Arizona 

to western Texas ; type from New Mexico. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 18 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 1.8 meters ; 
trunk usually short, covered with thick, reddish brown bark, this divided into 
coarse 4-sided plates; fruit about 1.2 cm. in diameter, with dry sweet flesh; 
wood soft, weak, brittle, close-grained, light red, with a specific gravity of 
about 0.58. " Tascate " (Chihuahua, Durango). 

The bark is very different from that of any other species. The fruit is often 
used as food. Palmer reports that in Chihuahua the plant (presumably the 
leaves) is used as a remedy for rheumatism and neuralgia. Because of its 

J Tomas Noriega. El Ahuehuete. Naturaleza 4: 35-^0. 1877. 



62 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

rough checkered bark, this species is known in the United States as alligator 
juniper. 

3. Juniperus flaccida Schlecht. Linnaea-12: 495. 1838. 

Chihuahua and Sonora, southward ; type from Atotonilco El Chico. Guate- 
mala ; western Texas. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 12 meters high, with slender, spreading or drooping 
branches ; fruit subglobose, reddish brown, 1.2 to 1.6 cm. in diameter, with dry 
flesh. " Cedro Colorado " (Veracruz); " cedro " (Durango). 

4. Juniperus mexicana Spreng. Syst. Veg. 3: 909. 1826. 

Cupressus sabinoides H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 3. 1817. Not Juniperus 
sabinoides Griseb. 1844. 

Juniperus tetragona Schlecht. Linnaea 12: 495. 1838. 

Juniperus deppeana Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 835. 1840. 

Nearly throughout Mexico, except along the northern part of the Pacific 
coast. Guatemala ; western Texas. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 30 meters high, with a trunk diameter of a meter 
or more; in Mexico sometimes ascending to an altitude of 4,500 meters, and 
then a low shrub; trunk short or tall, the thin bark separating into fibrous, 
reddish brown scales ; twigs 4-sided ; fruit 6 to 8 mm. in diameter, dark blue, 
glaucous, with thin sweet resinous flesh ; wood hard, weak, close-grained, 
brown, its specific gravity about 0.59. " Sabino " (Chihuahua, Hidalgo, Mex- 
ico, etc.); "enebro" (Oaxaca, Reko) ; " tascate " or " taxate " (Durango, 
Chihuahua). 

The wood is used for general construction, fence posts, telegraph poles, rail- 
road ties, etc., and for fuel. Palmer states that the ashes of the bark are used 
in the preparation of corn for tortillas. 

Some of the specimens placed here may be referable to J. monospermy 
(Engelm.) Sarg., but in the herbarium material examined it is impossible to 
distinguish more than a single species. 

6. CUPRESSUS L. Sp. PI. 1002. 1753. 
Tree or shrubs, closely resembling the species of Juniperus, but with larger 
cones, these opening when ripe and shedding the seeds ; leaves opposite, small 
and scalelike. 

The species of cypress are often cultivated for ornament. C. sempervirens 
L., of the Old World, is said to be cultivated in Mexico. 
Seeds not winged, 2 or 3 to each scale ; leaves not appressed. Cones about 2.5 

cm. in diameter 1. C. thurifera. 

Seeds narrowly winged, 5 to 8 to each scale ; leaves appressed. 

Cones 2.5 to 3.5 cm. in diameter 2. C. guadalupensis. 

Cones 1.2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter. 

Branchlets stout, stiff; leaves glaucous 3. C. arizonica. 

Branchlets slender; leaves green 4. C. benthamii. 

1. Cupressus thurifera H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 3. 1817. 

Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Tasco and Tehuilotepec, at 1,750 meters. 

Shrub or large tree. "Cedro" (Veracruz) ; "cedro de la sierra" (Durango, 
Veracruz, etc.); " cipres " (Veracruz); "cedro amarillo," " gretado amarillo " 
(Oaxaca, Reko) ; "tlatzcan" (Herrera). 

2. Cupressus guadalupensis S. Wats. Proc. Ainer. Acad. 14: 300. 1879. 
Guadalupe Island, I'aja California. 

Widely spreading tree, averaging about 12 meters in height, but sometimes 
larger and with a trunk 7.5 meters in circumference; bark brown, curling into 
thin plates; wood whitish. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 63 

One tree measured by Palmer had a trunk 2 meters in circumference, with 236 
annual rings. 

3. Cupressus arizonica Greene, Bull. Torrey Club 9: 64. 1882. 

Coahuila to San Luis Potosi, Zacatecas, and Baja California. Arizona (type 
locality) and New Mexico. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 21 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 1.2 meters ; 
old bark thin, dark red or brown, separating into long shreds ; cones reddish 
brown, glaucous ; wood soft, close-grained, grayish, streaked with yellow, its 
specific gravity about 0.48. "Cedro," " cedro de la sierra," " pinabete " (Du- 
rango). 

The wood is used for fuel and for general construction purposes. 

4. Cupressus benthamii * Endl. Syn. Conif. 59. 1847. 

? Cupressus coulteri J. Forbes, Pinet. Woburn. 190. 1839. 

Cupressus lindleyi Klotzsch ; Endl. Syn. Conif. 59. 1847. 

Cupressus ehreribergii Kunze, Linnaea 20: 16. 1847. 

Cupressus karwinskiana Regel, Gartenflora 1857: 346. 1857. 

Cupressus knightiana Perry ; Gord. & Glend. Pinet. 61. 1858. 

Tepic to Veracruz and southward ; ascending to 3,000 meters ; type from 
Banco. Guatemala to Costa Rica. 

Tree, often 18 to 30 meters high. " Cedro bianco " ( Oaxaca, etc. ) ; " cipres " 
(Veracruz); "cedro" (Jalisco); " cipres de Mexico" (Veracruz, etc.); " gre- 
tado gal&n " (Oaxaca, Reko) ; " tlascal," " tlascale " (Veracruz Michoacan, 
Mexico, etc.) ; " tlazzc&n " (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Veracruz) ; " teatlale " (various 
localities, Ramirez). 

The wood is undoubtedly of importance for lumber, although no details con 
cerning it are available. The bark is said to be used in medicine as an 
astringent. 

7. LIBOCEDRUS Endl. Syn. Conif. 42. 1847. 
1. Libocedrus decurrens Torr. in Frem. Rep. Exped. Rocky Mount. 7. pi. 3. 
1854. 

Mountains of Baja California, at altitudes of 2,100 to 2,400 meters. Califor- 
nia and Oregon ; type from the Sacramento River. 

Tree, sometimes 45 meters high, with irregularly furrowed, reddish brown 
bark ; leaves in whorls of 4, scalelike, decurrent ; cones oblong, 1.8 to 2.5 cm. 
long, reddish brown; wood soft, weak, close-grained, light reddish brown, the 
specific gravity about 0.40. 

Known in the United States as incense cedar, a name applied because of the 
fact that all parts of the tree contain a volatile oil with a characteristic 
incense-like odor. The wood is very durable and is used for general construc- 
tion, laths, shingles, interior finish, etc. The bark is rich in tannin. 

6. GNETACEAE. Joint-fir Family. 

1. EPHEDRA L. Sp. PI. 1040. 1753. 
Shrubs, erect or rarely subscandent or trailing over other shrubs ; stems 
slender, jointed ; leaves reduced to opposite or verticillate scales ; flowers 
dioecious, the staminate in short aments, the fertile inflorescence conelike; 
fruit nutlike, angled, sometimes fleshy. 

1 Named in honor of George Bentham (1800-1884), one of the most noted of 
British botanists. He was the author of many important botanical works, one 
of which was a report upon the Mexican collections obtained by Hartweg. 



64 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

In their general appearance these leafless plants are very unlike any others 
found in North America. The stems have an astringent taste and contain 
tannin, but they are much eaten by stock. A decoction of the stems is used 
widely as a cure for venereal and renal diseases. E. distachya L., of the 
Mediterranean Region, contains an alkaloid, ephedrine, which produces paralysis 
of the heart. 
Leaf scales ternate. 

Leaf scales 8 to 10 mm. long, the apex aristate 1. E. trifurca. 

Leaf scales 5 mm. long or shorter, acute 2. E. californica. 

Leaf scales opposite. 

Stems very scabrous 3. E. aspera. 

Stems smooth. 

Fruit not fleshy ; stems yellowish green, stiff, erect — 4. E. antisyphilitica. 
Fruit fleshy ; stems glaucous or glaucescent. 

Stems erect, with short stiff branches ; fruit sessile or nearly so. 

5. E. compacta. 
Stems reclining, slender, flexuous; fruit conspicuously pedunculate. 

6. E. pedunculata. 

1. Ephedra trifurca Torr. in Emory, Mil. Reconn. 152. 1848. 

Dry mesas and hillsides, Chihuahua, Sonora. and Baja California. Western 
Texas to Utah ; type from New Meixco. 

About a meter high, with numerous erect branches. " Popotillo " (Chi- 
huahua, Texas, New Mexico) ; " tepopote " (Chihuahua, Texas). 

2. Ephedra californica S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 300. 1879. 

Dry plains and low mountain slopes, Baja California. Southern California ; 
type from San Diego County. 
Erect shrub. 

3. Ephedra aspera Engelm. ; S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 18: 157. 1883. 

Dry plains and hillsides, Chihuahua to Zacatecas and Baja California ; type 
from mountains near Saltillo, Coahuila. 

Erect shrub, 0.3 to 1 meter high. " Pitamoreal " (Coahuila); "tepopote," 
"canatilla," "popotillo" (Durango) ; " itamo real" (Coahuila) ; " hintimoreal " 
(Coahuila, Palmer). 

Used for the same purposes as the other species. Palmer states, also, that 
the plant is sometimes sold in the markets as a remedy for pneumonia. 

4. Ephedra antisyphilitica Meyer, Monogr. Ephedra 101. 1846. 

In dry soil at low altitudes, Coahuila (type locality) ; doubtless also in Chi- 
huahua. Western Texas to Colorado. 

Shrub, a meter high or lower. "Canatilla" (Chihuahua. Texas, New Mex- 
ico) ; "tepopote" (Chihuahua, Texas) ; "popotillo" (New Mexico). 

5. Ephedra compacta Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 261. 1909. 

Dry plains and hillsides, Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Tehuacan, Puebla. 
Shrub, 30 to 50 cm. high, very densely branched, pale green ; fruit red and 
fleshy. 

6. Ephedra pedunculata Engelm. ; S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 18: 157. 1883. 
Dry plains and hillsides. Chihuahua to San Luis PotosI and Zacatecas. 

Western Texas, the type from Uvalde. 

Slender shrub with long reclining stems ; fruit fleshy, red or salmon-colored. 
" Cafiatilla," "tepopote," "popotillo" (Durango) ; itamo real" (Zacatecas. San 
Luis Potosi) ; " retama real" (Durango, Palmer) ; " sanguinaria " (the steins, 
San Luis Potosi, Safford). 

Besides its other uses, Palmer states that in Zacatecas the plant is esteemed 
as a remedy for pleurisy and pneumonia. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 65 

7. POACEAE. Grass Family. 
(Contributed by Prof. A. S. Hitchcock.) 
Reference: Hitchcock, Mexican grasses in the U. S. National Herbarium, 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 181-389. 1913. 

Herbs or rarely shrubs or trees; leaves usually long and narrow, but in the 
woody species usually lanceolate or elliptic, often petiolate; -flowers small, 
greenish, or purplish, arranged in small spikelets, the spikelets in narrow or 
open panicles ; fruit a caryopsis or grain. 

Most of the woody grasses belong to the tribe Bamboseae, usually known in 
English-speaking countries as bamboos. In tropical America there are few 
.grasses, aside from bamboos, that have woody stems, and nearly all of these 
belong to the genus Lasiacis of the tribe Paniceae. 

It is impracticable to draw a sharp distinction between woody and herba- 
ceous grasses. In the following account only those species have been included 
which possess culms that persist from year to year. Some excluded species 
have woody crowns or have the base of the culms woody ; others, such as the 
sugar cane and reed (Phragmites communis Trim), have large firm culms that 
appear woody during the season of growth, but do not persist. 
Leaves many times longer than broad; panicle a large terminal plume; spikelets 
2 to several-flowered, more or less silky. 
Spikelets unisexual, the pistillate long-silky, the staminate glabrous; plants 

dioecious 1. GYNERIUM. 

Spikelets perfect, the lemmas silky 2. ARUNDO. 

Leaves lanceolate or elliptic, usually not more than 20 cm. long ; panicles narrow 
or open but scarcely a large plume ; spikelets 1 to several-flowered. 
Spikelets unisexual ; pistillate spikelets borne on the upper branches and on 
the ends of the lower branches of a loose terminal panicle, the smaller 
staminate spikelets pedicellate along the lower branches; leaves asym- 
metrically lanceolate-oblong, the larger 20 cm. long and 5 cm. wide. 

3. OLYRA. 
Spikelets perfect (often with sterile florets above or below) ; leaves usually 
less than 5 cm. wide. 
Spikelets globose or ovoid, obtuse, with one perfect terminal floret and a 

sterile floret below; blades sessile 4. LASIACIS. 

Spikelets 1 to several-flowered, the florets acute or acuminate ; blades 
usually contracted into a short petiole and jointed with the sheath. 
(Bamboos.) 

Stamens 6. Spikelets several-flowered 5. BAMBOS. 

Stamens 3. 

Spikelets 1-flowered 6. CHUSQUEA. 

Spikelets 2 to many-flowered. 
Glumes 1 or 2 ; sterile lemmas none ; spikelets loose, many-flowered, 

elongate, paniculate or racemose 7. ARUNDINARIA. 

Glumes 2 ; sterile lemmas 1 or 2 ; spikelets in racemes or 1-sided 
spikes, these arranged in tufts at the culm nodes. 

8. ARTHROSTYLIDIUM. 

1. GYNERIUM Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 112. pi, 115. 1809. 
1. Gynerium sagittatum (Aubl.) Beauv. Ess. Agrost. 138. pi. 24. f. 6. 1812. 

Saccharum sagittatum Aubl. PI. Guian. 1: 50. 1775. 

Gynerium saccharoides Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 112. pi. 115. 1809. 

River banks and low ground, forming dense colonies, Veracruz and Oaxaca. 
West Indies to South America, the type from French Guiana. 



66 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Stout reed, often 10 meters tall, with culms clothed below with old sheaths 
(the blades having fallen), sharply serrulate blades, commonly 2 meters long 
and 4 to 6 cm. wide (forming a great fan-shaped summit to the sterile culms), 
and pale, plumy, densely flowered panicles 1 meter long or more, the main axis 
erect, the branches drooping. " Caiia brava " (Tabasco, Rovirosa) ; "cana de 
casa " (Guatemala); "cana boba," " suza " (Colombia); "cana de Castilla " 
(El Salvador, Cuba). 

2. ARUNDO L. Sp. PI. 81. 1753. 
1. Arundo donax L. Sp. PI. 81. 1753. 

Along rivers and ditches throughout Mexico. Warmer parts of the Old 
World ; cultivated in America for ornament and occurring from Texas to 
California and southward to South America as an escape. 

A tall reed with strong, sparingly branching culms, elongate scabrous-mar- 
gined flat blades, and densely flowered, slightly drooping panicles 30 to 60 cm. 
long, the spikelets about 1 cm. long. " Carrizo " (Durango, etc.); "cana 
hueca," "Canaveral" (Ramirez); " carricillo (Tamaulipas) ; " giiin " (Cuba). 

Tender stems eaten by animals; canes used for fishing rods, arrows, and 
flutes. 

3. OLYRA L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1261. 1759. 
1. Olyra latifolia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1261. 1759. 

Copses and shady banks, San Luis Potosi to Michoac&n and southward. 
Mexico and West Indies to South America, the type from Jamaica. 

Glabrous perennial, bamboo-like in aspect, commonly 5 meters tall, the 
strong hollow culms sometimes 1 cm. thick, erect and unsupported, the summit 
only arching (or weaker culms leaning among brush), the lower half to two- 
thirds simple and naked, the short sheaths bladeless or nearly so, the elongate 
internodes blotched with dull purple, branching from the upper nodes, the 
branches commonly fascicled, divaricate, often 1 meter long, sometimes again 
branching; blades convolute in the bud, spreading, flat, firm, asymmetrically 
lanceolate-oblong, abruptly acuminate, commonly 20 cm. long and 5 cm. wide, 
those of the ultimate branches smaller, the lowermost on both primary culm 
and branches rudimentary ; panicles 10 to 15 cm. long, about two-thirds as wide, 
those of the secondary branches reduced, the branches stiffly ascending or 
spreading, each bearing a single large long-acuminate pistillate spikelet at the 
thickened summit and several small slender-pediceled staminate spikelets along 
the rachis. "TibisI" (Cuba). 

4. LASIACIS (Griseb.) Hitchc. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 15: 16. 1910. 

The clambering species are known in Cuba as " tibisl." 
Main stem prostrate, the fertile shoots prostrate, ascending, or erect. 

Blades lanceolate, mostly less than 5 cm. long; fertile shoots strongly dorsi- 
ventral, mostly prostrate 1. L. rugelii. 

Blades linear-lanceolate, about 10 to 12 cm. long; fertile shoots ascending or 

erect from a decumbent base, not dorsiventral 2. L. grisebachii. 

Main stem clambering, or much branched and forming a tangled mass. 

Ligule noticeable, brownish, about 2 mm. long. Blades scabrous on both 
surfaces, elongate, more than 10 times as long as wide; plants not form- 
ing a strong central clambering cane 3. L. oaxacensis. 

Ligule inconspicuous, hidden within the mouth of the sheath, rarely as much 
as 1 mm. long. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 67 

Culms not high-climbing, decumbent and rooting at base, forming a tangled 
mass, with no strong central cane ; spikelets clustered toward the ends 

of the branches 4. L. rhizophora. 

Culms high-climbing, forming a strong central cane ; spikelets not clustered 
toward the ends of the branches. 
Blades glabrous on both surfaces, often more or less scabrous (see L. 
ruscifolia, rarely with glabrous ovate-lanceolate blades). 
Panicle few-flowered, 5 to 10 cm. long ; branches strongly zigzag, the 
branchlets strongly divaricate or reflexed ; blades narrowly lanceo- 
late, firm, mostly less than 1 cm. wide (sometimes wider on vigor- 
ous shoots) 5. L. divaricata. 

Panicle many-flowered, usually 15 to 25 cm. long or more on the 
primary branches ; branches straight or arcuate, not zigzag ; 
blades mostly over 1.5 cm. wide. 

Spikelets globose, about 3 mm. long 6. L. globosa. 

Spikelets lanceolate-ellipsoidal, 3.5 to 5 mm. long 7. L. sloanei. 

Blades pubescent on one or both surfaces (sometimes glabrous in L. 
ruscifolia ) . 
Blades narrowly lanceolate, averaging 8 to 10 times as long as wide; 
panicle large and open ; spikelets 4 to 5 mm. long. 

8. L. sorghoidea. 

Blades ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, sometimes lanceolate, often more or 

less cordate-clasping; panicle often compact or at least the 

branches commonly compactly flowered ; spikelets 3 to 4 mm. long. 

9. L. ruscifolia. 

1. Lasiacis rugelii (Griseb.) Hitchc. Bot. Gaz. 51: 302. 1911. 
Panicum rugelii Griseb. Cat. PI. Cub. 233. 1866. 

Rich woods, San Luis Potosi and Yucatan. Cuba (the type locality). 

Prostrate, the main canes slender ; branches commonly fascicled, very leafy, 
the pubescent sheaths overlapping, the small, lanceolate, firm, puberulent, 
somewhat cinereous blades oblique at base ; panicles short-exserted, few- 
flowered. 

2. Lasiacis grisebachii 1 (Nash) Hitchc. Bot. Gaz. 51: 302. 1911. 
Panicum, grisebachii Nash, Bull. Torrey Club 35: 301. 1908. 

Rich woods and shady banks, carpeting the floor of dark thickets, Veracruz. 
Honduras; Cuba (type locality). 

Stems more slender, freely producing rootlets, the long narrow blades not 
crowded; panicle branches ascending. 

3. Lasiacis oaxacensis (Steud.) Hitchc. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 24: 145. 

1911. 

Panicum oaxacense Steud. Syn. PL Glum. 1: 73. 1854. 

Edges of woods, Veracruz, Michoacan, and Oaxaca (type locality). Guate- 
mala and Jamaica to South America. 

Slender, straggling, decumbent and geniculate at base, with numerous aerial 
rootlets, the long branches ascending and arcuate, with narrow scabrous blades 
commonly 20 cm. long, and large open few-flowered panicles, the spikelets borne 
at the ends of the branchlets. 

1 Heinrich Rudolph August Grisebach (1814-1879), a native of Hanover, pub- 
lished in 1864 a " Flora of the British West Indies," one of the most important 
works upon the plants of tropical North America. He is known, too, for his 
" Vegetation der Erde," published in 1872, a classic work upon plant geography, 
and for numerous other botanical publications. 



68 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

4. Lasiacis rhizophora (Ponrn.) Hitchc. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 24: 145. 

1911. 

Panicum rhizophorum Fourn. Mex. PI. 2: 31. 1886. 

Copses and edges of woods, Veracruz, the type from Orizaba. Guatemala 
to Costa Rica. 

Culms branching and straggling, not forming a strong central cane, decum- 
bent at base and rooting at the lower nodes, the fertile culms ascending, 30 to 
100 cm. long; blades 7 to 14 cm. long, 1.5 to 3 cm. wide; panicles 8 to 15 cm. 
long. 

5. Lasiacis divaricata (L.) Hitchc. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 15: 16. 1910. 
Panicum Mvaricatum L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 871. 1759. 

Copses and edges of woods, chiefly at low altitudes and especially in the 
vicinity of the seacoast, Baja California to Veracruz and southward. South- 
ern Florida and the West Indies to South America, the type from Jamaica. 

Shrubby, with strong central canes, clambering to a height of 3 or 4 meters, 
the main branches often fascicled, the vigorous secondary foliage shoots mostly 
strongly divaricate or zigzag, usually glabrous throughout except on the margin 
of the sheaths; blades commonly less than 1 cm. wide, only on vigorous shoots 
as much as 1.5 cm. wide; panicles usually less than 10 cm. long, the branches 
deflexed at maturity. " Pito de bejuco " (Cuba). 

6. Lasiacis globosa Hitchc. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 251. 1913. 
Copses near the sea, Guerrero ; type from Acapulco. Panama. 

Blades smooth, elliptic-lanceolate ; panicle loosely flowered, 8 to 12 cm. long, 
the spikelets globose, 3 mm. long. 

7. Lasiacis sloanei (Griseb.) Hitchc. Bot. Gaz. 57: 302. 1911. 
Panicum sloanei Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 551. 1864. 

Climbing among bushes and small trees, San Luis PotosI and Veracruz. 
West Indies and Mexico, south to Colombia, the type from Jamaica. 

Climbing to the height of 3 to 4 meters, forming a strong central cane; 
branches solitary or 2 or 3 together, elongate ; blades parchment-like in texture 
at maturity, commonly 12 to 15 cm. long and 2 to 3 cm. wide, narrowed into 
a very short pubescent petiole; panicles commonly as much as 20 cm. long, 
nearly as wide, the branches rather rigid. 

The spikelets are larger in this species than in any other of the genus in the 
region. 

8. Lasiacis sorghoidea (Desv.) Hitchc. & Chase, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 

338. 1917. 

Panicum lanatum Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 24. 1788. Not P. lanatum 
Rottb. 1776. 

Panicum sorghoideum Desv. ; Hamilt. Prodr. PI. Ind. Occ. 10. 1825. 

Ravines, wood borders, and hedges, San Luis Potosi and Jalisco, southward. 
West Indies and Mexico to Argentina, the type from Hispaniola. 

Erect or clambering to a height of 5 to 7 meters, with a strong central cane 
as much as 1 cm. thick, the main branches 1 meter long or more, arcuate, 
bearing slender branchlets toward the pendent ends; sheaths and both surfaces 
of the blades velvety, or the sheaths glabrescent, the blades of the main branches 
commonly 20 cm. long and 2.5 cm. wide, those of the branchlets much smaller, 
often less velvety ; panicles usually about 10 to 20 cm. long, at maturity as 
wide or wider, the spikelets more or less clustered on the long distant branches. 

9. Lasiacis ruscifolia (H. B. K.) Hitchc. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 24: 145. 

1911. 
Panicum rusdfoUum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 101. 1816. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 69 

Panicum compactum Swartz, Adnot. Bot. 14. 1829. Not P. compactum Kit. 
1814. 

Panicum liebmannianum Fourn. Mex. PI. 2: 33. 1886. 

Climbing over bushes, Sonora to Veracruz and southward ; type from the 
Volcan Jorullo. Mexico and the West Indies to Venezuela. 

More robust than any other species, freely branching, with numerous leafy 
dorsiventral shoots with broad blades, these velvety or glabrous beneath, 
glabrous or scabrous above, the sheaths glabrous or nearly so, the scarcely ex- 
serted, oblong or club-shaped panicles usually compactly flowered. 

5. BAMBOS Retz. Obs. Bot. 5: 24. 1789. 
Robust arboreous grasses with culms several centimeters in diameter and 
rising to the height of 10 to 20 meters. 

Branches spiny 1. B. aculeata. 

Branches unarmed ■ 2. B. vulgaris. 

1. Bambos aculeata (Rupr.) Hitchc. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 17: 387. 1913. 
Guadua aculeata Rupr.; Fourn. Mex. PI. 2: 130. 1886. 

Veracruz, the type from Colipa. 

2. Bambos vulgaris Schrad. ; Wendl. Coll. PI. 2: 26. pi. 47. 1810. 
Commonly cultivated in tropical America ; native of the Old World. 
Arborescent, freely branching; flowering branches fascicled, elongate, leafless, 

the sessile spikelets radiate in clusters. " Caiia brava " (Cuba). 
The common bamboo of cultivation. 

6. CHUSQUEA Kunth, Syn. PI. Aequin. 1: 254. 1822. 

Branchlets pubescent; base of sheath tumid 1. C. nelsoni. 

Branchlets glabrous; base of sheath not tumid 2. C. bilimeki. 

1. Chusquea nelsoni Scribn. & Smith, U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. Agrost. Bull. 4: 16. 

1897. 
Only known from the type, which was collected between Chilapa and Tuxtla, 
Guerrero. 

2. Chusquea bilimeki * Fourn. Mex. PL 2: 132. 1886. 

Only known from the type locality, in the Valley of Mexico. 
Described as having a culm a centimeter in diameter. 

7. ARUNDINARIA Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1 : 73. 1803. 

Blades 2 mm. wide; lemmas 1 to 1.5 mm. wide '. 1. A. acuminata. 

Blades 5 to 8 mm. wide; lemmas 2 mm. wide 2. A. longifolia. 

1. Arundinaria acuminata Munro, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 26: 25. 1868. 
Veracruz, the type locality. 

Panicles diffuse, the spikelets narrow, acuminate, the lemmas awned. 

2. Arundinaria longifolia Fourn. Mex. PL 2: 131. 1886. 

Durango, Tepic, San Luis Potosl, Veracruz, and Oaxaca ; type from Jicalte- 
pec, Veracruz. 

Panicles less diffuse than in the preceding, the spikelets wider ; blades long 
and narrow, 15 to 20 cm. long, 5 to 8 mm. wide ; culms as much as 4 cm. thick. 

1 Named for Bilimek, who was chief gardener of the Emperor Maximilian. 
He made a small collection of plants, some of which are in the U. S. National 
Herbarium. 



70 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

8. ARTHROSTYLIDIUM Rupr. Mena. Acad. St. Petersb. VI. Sci. Nat. 3 1 : 117. 

1839. 
1. Arthrostylidium racemiflorum Steud. Syn. PI. Glum. 1: 336. 1854. 

Veracruz; the type from Mexico, but the definite locality unknown. Costa 
Rica. 

Several other species of bamboos have been described from Mexico, but their 
validity and identity are uncertain. 

8. PHOENICACEAE. Palm Family. 

Reference: Oersted, Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1858: 1-54. 1859. 

The palms are one of the most interesting and important groups of Mexican 
plants. Although the number of species represented is not nearly as large as in 
Central America, or farther southward in South America, those which are 
found in Mexico are of great economic importance. The plants attract 
attention because of their curious and beautiful forms, and they are favorite 
ornamental plants in Mexican parks and gardens. Besides the native species, 
some exotic ones are cultivated. The species are widely distributed in Mexico 
and often form extensive forests. 

The trunks are used for making the walls and roofs of houses, and the leaves 
are the usual material employed for thatch. The juice of the stems usually 
contains sugar, and may be fermented to obtain intoxicating drinks. The 
tough leaves are made into hats, mats, raincoats, and other articles, and their 
fiber furnishes cordage. The fruits of many of the species are edible, and the 
seeds contain large quantities of oil. 

The writer is under special obligations to Mr. O. F. Cook for assistance in the 
preparation of the account of this family. 

Leaves flabellate. 

Calyx and corolla united and forming a 6-dentate cup ; ovary of a single 

1-ovulate carpel. Petioles unarmed 1. THRINAX. 

Calyx and corolla distinct ; ovary of 3 distinct or more or less united carpels. 

Style or stigma basilar in fruit. Petioles unarmed 2. INODES. 

Style or stigma terminal in fruit. 

Trunk armed with long spines— 4. ACANTHORRIZA. 

Trunk unarmed. 

Petioles smooth. Fruit globose, about 12 mm. in diameter. 

5. CRYOSOPHILA. 
Petioles with dentate or denticulate margins. 
Branches of the inflorescence, at least the primary ones, subtended 
by spathes. 

Leaf sheaths split at base 3. WASHINGTONIA. 

Leaf sheaths not split at base 6. ERYTHEA. 

Branches of the inflorescence not subtended by spathes. 

7. BRAHEA. 
Leaves pinnate or pinnatifid, or sometimes simple and bifid at the apex. 

Ovary of 3 distinct carpels, only one normally developed 8. PHOENIX. 

Ovary of united carpels. 

Fruit baccate, without a bony endocarp. 

Flowers sunk in the fleshy rachis of the inflorescence. 

Style lateral, beside the one fertile cell of the ovary 9. GEONOMA 

Style rising from between the 3 fertile cells of the ovary. 

10. CALYPTROGYNE. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 71 

Flowers not sunk in the rachis of the inflorescence. 

Spathes 2 11. REINHARDTIA. 

Spathes 3 or more 12. CHAMAEDOREA. 

Fruit nutlike, with a bony endocarp. 
Trunk and leaf bases unarmed. 

Stamens 6; fruit 1-seeded 13. COCOS. 

Stamens 10 to 24; fruit 2 to 6-seeded 14. ATTALEA. 

Trunk or leaf bases armed with spines, these sometimes black and needle- 
like. 
Petals of the pistillate flowers connate only at the base. 

15. ACROCOMIA. 
Petals of the pistillate flowers united. 

Staminate flowers immersed in the rachis of the inflorescence ; fruit 

spiny 16. ASTROCARYUM. 

Staminate flowers not immersed in the rachis ; fruit not spiny. 
Trunk erect; seeds with large subapical foramina. 

17. BACTRIS. 
Trunk trailing or scandent ; seeds with small peripheral foramina. 

18. DESMONCTJS. 

1. THRINAX L. f. ; Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 57. 1788. 
1. Thrinax wendlandiana Becc. Webbia 2: 265. 1907. 

Yucatan. Cuba (type locality) ; Honduras. 

Leaves flabellate, about a meter long, green above, slightly paler beneath ; 
spadix paniculate-branched ; fruit globose, 5 mm. or more in diameter. Known 
in Cuba as " miraguano de lana," " guano de lana," or " guano de costa." 

2. INODES Cook, Bull. Torrey Club 28: 529. 1901. 
Reference: Beccari, Webbia 2: 10-86. 1907 (as Sabal). 
Plants with tall trunks ; leaves flabelliform, the margins of the segments 
with numerous long threads; fruit small, globose, usually black. 
Seeds small, 5 to 8 mm. broad. Branches of the inflorescence slender. 

Fruit globose, not at all asymmetric 1. I. mexicana. 

Fruit more or less asymmetric at the base 2. I. japa. 

Seeds large, 10 to 13 mm. broad. 
Branches of the- pistillate inflorescence strongly thickened, fusiform. Em- 
bryo lateral 3. I. uresana. 

Branches of the pistillate inflorescence slender. 

Embryo lateral --^ 4. I. rosei. 

Embryo subdorsal . 5. I. texana. 

1. Inodes mexicana (Mart.) Standi. 

Sabal mexicana Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 246. pi. S, f. 1-7, pi. V, f. J,. 
1836-50. 

Tepic to Zacatecas and Oaxaca (type locality), and perhaps farther east 
ward. Guatemala. 

Trunk 10 to 20 meters high, when young clothed with the persistent petioles, 
but in age naked ; leaf blades somewhat recurved ; inflorescence short and 
dense, recurved ; fruit depressed-globose, about 8 mm. in diameter. " Palma 
real" (Oaxaca); "palma redonda " (Michoac&n, Guerrero). 

2. Inodes japa (Wright) Standi. 

Sabal japa Wright; Sauv. Anal. Acad. Ci. Habana 7: 562. 1870. 
Yucatan. Cuba (type locality). 



72 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Trunk tall, sometimes 24 meters high ; leaves large, the blades about 1.2 to 
1.3 meters long; inflorescence 30 to 70 cm. long, composed of several short 
panicles; fruit globose, 8 to 10 mm. in diameter. " Huano," " xaan " (Yuca- 
tan). Known in Cuba as " palma de guano," " cana," " japa," or " miraguano." 

3. Inodes uresana (Trel.) Cook, Bull. Torrey Club 28: 534. 1901. 
Sabal uresana Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 12: 79. pi. 35-37. 1901. 
Vicinity of Ures, Sonora. 

Trunk 5 to 10 meters high, about 30 cm. in diameter, naked ; leaves very 
glaucous, on long unarmed petioles, the blades about 1 meter long; fruit 
depressed-globose, 15 to 20 mm. in diameter, green or dirty brown and some- 
what lustrous. 

4. Inodes rosei * Cook, Bull. Torrey Club 28: 534. 1901. 
Sabal rosei Becc. Webbia 2: 83. 1907. 

In the coastal plain, Tepic and southern Sinaloa; type from Acaponeta, 
Tepic. 

Six to 12 or even 18 meters high, the trunk slender, naked, 15 to 20 cm. 
thick ; leaves numerous, the blades pale green, 80 cm. wide or larger ; inflores- 
cence 60 cm. long or longer ; fruit globose, about 1.8 cm. in diameter, blackish 
or dark blue. 

5. Inodes texana Cook, Bull. Torrey Club 28: 534. 1901. 
Sabal texana Becc. Webbia 2: 78. 1907. 
Tamaulipas. Southwestern Texas (type locality). 

Trunk tall, naked ; spadices about 75 cm. long, copiously branched ; flowers 
white, with a honey-like odor ; fruit globose, 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter. " Palma 
real," "palma de micheros " (Tamaulipas). 

The leaves are used for thatching and for chair seats. The flowers are much 
frequented by bees. The fruits, known as " micheros," are said to be edible. 

3. WASHINGTONIA Wendl. Bot. Zeit. 37: 68. 1879. 

References: Parish, Bot. Gaz. 44: -408-^34. f. 1-12. 1907; Goldman, Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 316. 1916; Parish, Bot. Gaz. 46: 144-147. f. 1-5. 1908; 
Parish, Bot. Gaz. 48: 462^163. 1909. 

Plants usually with tall trunks ; leaves flabelliform, deeply divided, the mar- 
gins of the leaves usually separating into drooping fibers; fruit drupaceous. 

Petiole obtuse at the junction with the blade 1. W. sonorae. 

Petiole acuminately prolonged into the blade. 

Leaf blades nearly or quite without filaments 2. W. gracilis. 

Leaf blades copiously filiferous 3. W. filifera. 

1. Washingtonia sonorae S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24: 79. 18S9. 

Dry plains and canyons, Sonora and southern Baja California ; type- from 
canyons near Guaymas, Sonora. 

Trunk reaching a height of 7.5 meters or more; leaves about a meter broad, 
somewhat glaucous, copiously filiferous; petioles armed with stout curved 
spines ; inflorescence 1.5 to 1.8 meters long ; fruit about 6 mm. in diameter, said 
to be used for food. In Baja California three distinct forms, known as 
" palma blanca," " palma colorada," and " palma negra," are recognized by the 
natives. 

'Named for Dr. J. N. Rose (1862-), Associate Curator of the U. S. 
National Herbarium. Dr. Rose has collected extensively in nearly all parts of 
Mexico, and has obtained a very large series of specimens, which are in the 
National Herbarium. He has published many papers dealing with Mexican 
plants. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 73 

2. Washingtonia gracilis Parish, Bot. Gaz. 44: 420. f. 8-10. 1907. 
Described from trees cultivated in southern California ; believed to be a 

native of Baja California. 

Trunk slender, at least 20 meters high ; blades 80 to 100 cm. broad ; petioles 
armed throughout with short curved yellow spines; fruit. 6 to 7 mm. in di- 
ameter. 

3. Washingtonia filifera (Linden) Wendl. Bot. Zeit. 37: 68. 1879. 
Pritchardia filifera Linden, 111. Hort. Lem. 24. 1877. 

Neowashingtonia filam*entosa Sudw. U. S. Dept. Agr. Div. For. Bull. 14: 105. 
1S97. 

Neowashingtonia filifera Sudw. For. Trees Pac. Slope 199. 1908. 

Dry plains, Baja California. Southern California. 

Trunk up to 27 meters high, often a meter in diameter; leaves a meter 
broad or larger; inflorescence 2.5 to 3 meters long; fruit about 8 mm. long, 
black, with thin sweet flesh. In the typical form the petioles are unarmed 
near the blade; in W. filifera robusta (Wendl.) Parish 1 they are armed 
throughout; in W. filifera microsperma Becc. 2 they are armed only near the 
base. 

This species is one of the commonest palms cultivated in hothouses. It is 
grown in parks in Sonora, where it is known as " palma de Castilla." The 
desert Indians of southern California utilized the leaves for building huts and 
strands from the leaves for tying and in basketry. The fruit was eaten freeh 
or dried, the seeds were ground into meal, and the terminal bud or " cabbage " 
was roasted and eaten. 

4. ACANTHORRHIZA Wendl. in Kerchove, Palmiers 230. 1878. 

Reference: Beccari, Webbia 2: 230-243. 1907. 
1. Acanthorriza mocinni (H. B. K.) Benth. & Hook.; Hemsl. Biol. Centr. 
Amer. Bot. 3: 411. 1885. 

Chamaerops mocinni H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 300. 1815. 

Trithrinax aculeata Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 320. 1836-50. 

Acanthorrhiza aculeata Wendl. in Kerchove, Palmiers 230. 1878. 

Sinaloa to Oaxaca and Campeche ; type from Acapulco, Guerrero. Guate- 
mala. 

Trunk of medium height, tapering upward, covered above with long spines ; 
leaves flabelliform, green, slightly paler beneath, the petioles smooth ; inflores- 
cence short, recurved ; fruit whitish, about 1.2 cm. in diameter. " Palma de 
escoba " (Campeche); " zoyamiche," " zoyaviche " (Oaxaca); " soyamiche " 
(Michoacan, Guerrero). 

5. CRYOSOPHILA Blume, Rumphia 2: 53. 1836. 
1. Cryosophila nana (H. B. K.) Blume, Rumphia 2: 53. 1836. 

Corypha nana H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 299. 1815. 

Copernicia nana Liebm. ; Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 411. 1885. 

Known only from the type locality, summit of Cuesta de los Pozuelos, between 
Acapulco and Mazatl&n, Guerrero. 

Trunk 2 to 4 meters high, slender, unarmed ; leaves flabellate, green above, 
whitish beneath ; flowers densely spicate ; fruit globose, about 12 mm. in diam- 
eter, green. " Palmillo." 

x Bot. Gaz. 44: 420. 1907. Washingtonia robusta Wendl. Gart. Zeit. 2: 198. 
1883. 

'Parish, Bot. Gaz. 44: 420. 1907. 



74 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

6. ERYTHEA S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 211. 1880. 
Reference: Beccari, Webbia 2: 118-140. 1907. 

Plants with tall trunks; leaves flabelliform, deeply divided, the divisions 
lacerate at the apex ; flowers perfect ; fruit baccate. 

Fruit obpyriform, distinctly attenuate to the base; petioles unarmed. 

1. E. elegans. 
Fruit globose, rounded at the base ; petioles usually armed with spinelike teeth. 

Leaves glaucous 2. E. armata. 

Leaves green. 

Fruit 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter; trunk sometimes 30 meters high. 

3. E. brandegeei. 
Fruit 2.5 to 3 cm. in diameter ; trunk usually 6 to 9 meters high. 

Petioles armed with short hooked spines 4. E. aculeata. 

Petioles unarmed or nearly so 5. E. edulis. 

1. Erythea elegans Franceschi ; Becc. Webbia 2: 13S. 1907. 
Sonora, in the region about Hermosillo. 

Leaves glaucescent ; fruit 18 to 20 mm. long, 15 to 17 mm. thick. 

2. Erythea armata S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 212. 1880. 
Brahea armata S. Wats. Proc. Ainer. Acad. 11: 146. 1876. 
Glaucothea armata Cook, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 5: 237. 1915. 
Along canyons and arroyos, northern Baja California ; type from Tantillas 

Mountains. 

Trunk sometimes 12 meters high and a meter in diameter, but usually about 
6 meters high ; leaves very numerous, the blades glaucous, the petioles armed 
with curved teeth ; inflorescence slender, exceeding the leaves, the flowers dull 
purplish. " Palma blanca " (Sonora). 

This species is cultivated in southern California and in Sonora. It has been 
made the type of a new genus, Glaucothea, by Cook. While this genus is appar- 
ently well founded, it seems impracticable to recognize it in the present work, 
since the position of some of the other species, especially E. elegans, is doubtful. 

3. Erythea brandegeei 1 Purpus, Gartenflora 1903: 12. f. 1, 2. 1903. 
Mountains of the Cape Region of Baja California. 

Trunk 30 meters high or higher, about 60 cm. in diameter or less, smooth; 
leaves 10 to 12, the blades subtomentose, sparsely tiliferous, green above, pale 
beneath, about 1 meter long; petioles glabrous, 1 to 1.5 meters long, spine- 
toothed ; inflorescence tomentose ; fruit 10 to 15 mm. in diameter. " Palmilla," 
" palma negra," " palma de Tlaco." 

The tender buds are eaten. 

4. Erythea aculeata T. S. Brandeg. Zoe 5 : 196. 1905. 
Sinaloa ; type from Cofradia. 

Trunk 6 to 7 meters high; leaf blades 40 to 60 cm. long, with about 40 
segments, slightly filiferous; petioles slender, 50 cm. long or longer, the mar- 
gins armed with short teeth ; fruit globose, 2.5 cm. in diameter. 



'Named for T. S. Brandegee (1843-) who has made large collections of 
Mexican plants, chiefly in Baja California, but also in Sinaloa. He has pub- 
lished several papers upon the plants of Baja California, which are our most 
important sources of information upon the botanical features of that region. 
He has published, also, papers dealing with plants from other parts of Mexico, 
especially the recent collections obtained by C. A. Purpus. The Brandegee 
Herbarium is at the University of California, but large numbers of the plants of 
Mr. Brandegee's collections are in the U. S. National Herbarium. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 75 

5. Erythea edulis (Wendl.) S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 212. 1880. 

Brahea edulis Wendl. ; S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 1 1 : 146. 1876. 

Known only from Guadalupe Island, Baja California. Cultivated in south- 
ern California. 

Trunk sometimes 9 meters high and 37 cm. in diameter, covered with thick 
corky cracked bark ; petioles stout, unarmed ; leaf blades about a meter long, 
with 70 to 80 folds, tomentose at first ; inflorescence 1.2 meters long, tomen- 
tose ; fruit about 2.5 cm. in diameter, with thick pulp. 

The fruit clusters are said to weigh 40 to 50 pounds. The pulp of the fruit 
is sweet and edible. The buds also are eaten. 

7. BRAHEA Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 243. 1836-50. 
Reference: Beccari, Webbia 2: 92-107. 1907. 

Plants with tall unarmed trunks ; leaves flabelliform, cleft into numerous 
segments ; fruit of 1 to 3 1-seeded carpels. 

Flowers glomerate-ternate 1. B. pimo. 

Flowers solitary. 
Branches of the inflorescence terete, stout, densely tomentose-velutinous, 

the flowers partly immersed ; leaves filiferous 2. B. calcarea. 

Branches of the inflorescence filiform, puberulent, the flowers sessile; leaves 
not filiferous 3. B. dulcis. 

1. Brahea pimo Becc. Webbia 2: 103. 1907. 

Type from Monte de la Ventana, Michoacan or Guerrero. 
Trunk 3 to 4 meters high ; spadices about 40 cm. long, thrice branched. 
" Pimo." 

2. Brahea calcarea Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 319. 1836-50. 
Described from mountains near Jalcomulco, Veracruz, altitude about 600 

meters. 

Trunk about 6 meters high, naked ; petioles smooth ; inflorescence about 25 
cm. long, the branches flexuous, pendulous. 

3. Brahea dulcis (H. B. K.) Mart. Nat. Hist. Palm. 3: 244. pi. 137, 162. 1836-50. 
Corypha dulcis H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 300. 1815. 

Nuevo Le6n to Sinaloa and Oaxaca ; type from " La Moxonera et Alto de 
las Caxas." 

Trunk 2.5 to 6 meters high, or sometimes nearly obsolete, 15 to 20 cm. 
thick, unarmed ; leaves green or pale green, sparsely filiferous, the margins of 
the petioles coarsely spine-toothed ; inflorescence U5 to 2.5 meters long, pendu- 
lous, the branchlets very thick, tomentose ; fruit globose, yellow, succulent ; seed 
white, ovate, very hard. " Palmito " (Durango, Nuevo Le6n) ; " cocaiste " 
(Michoacan, Guerrero) ; " palma apache" (Hidalgo, Puebla, Urbina) ; " palma 
dulce" (Puebla, Guerrero, Ramirez); "palma de sombrero," "palma soyal " 
(Guerrero, Hidalgo); " soyale " (various localities, Ramirez); " zoyate," 
"soyate" (Hidalgo, Jalisco, Oaxaca)-; "palma de abanico " (Oaxaca) ; "yaga- 
xina " (Oaxaca, Zapotec, Reko) ; " yucu-teyeye," " yutnu-nun " (Oaxaca, Mixtec, 
Reko). 

Wood very hard and heavy, used for frames of houses. Leaves used for 
thatching. The fruit (known in Durango as " michire " or "miche") is sweet 
and edible. 

126651—20 6 



76 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

8. PHOENIX L. Sp. PL 11 88. 1753. 
1. Phoenix dactylifera L. Sp. PL 1188. 1753. 

Widely cultivated in Mexico and in some places, as in Baja California, grow- 
ing without cultivation, perhaps on the sites of abandoned ranches. Native of 
the Old World. 

Trunk often 15 meters high or taller ; leaves large, pinnate ; fruit borne in 
large panicles. Commonly known as " datil ; " the name " zoyacapulin " is 
said to be applied also. 

One of the best-known palms, grown for its fruit in most tropical regions. 
The date palm was introduced into Mexico at an early period and is now 
cultivated in many localities, chiefly in the more arid regions. Dates were 
exported from Baja California in the early part of the nineteenth century, but 
the amount now produced in Mexico is not very large. They could doubtless 
be grown on a large scale in Sonora and Sinaloa, for the trees thrive in that 
part of Mexico. 

9. GEONOMA Willd. Mem. Acad. Sci. Berlin 1804: 37. 1S07. 

Trunk very short, covered by the sheaths of the petioles 1. G. mexicana. 

Trunk 4 to 8 meters high, naked 2. G. magnifica. 

1. Geonoma mexicana Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 316. 1836-50. 
Oaxaca, at about 900 meters; material from Veracruz perhaps belongs 

here. 

Trunk very short ; leaves interrupted-pinnatifid, bifid at the apex, the 
pinnae subopposite, broadly lanceolate, long-acuminate; spadix pubescent, with 
cernuous branches; fruit oblique-ellipsoid. 

2. Geonoma magnifica Lind. & Wendl. Linnaea 28: 335. 1856. 

Described from material collected between San Carlos and Macuspana, Ta- 
basco. 

Trunk 4 to 8 meters high and 5 to 6 cm. thick, annulate; leaves pinnatisect. 
the blade 2.5 meters long, 70 to 80 cm. wide, with 7 or 8 pairs of pinnae, 
these broadly lanceolate, long-acuminate. " Pujai." 

Hemsley reports * a third species from Oaxaca as Geonoma galeottiana 
Wendl., but this name is unpublished. 

10. CALYPTROGYNE Wendl. Bot. Zeit. 17: 72. 1859. 
1. Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana 2 (Lind. & Wendl.) Wendl. Bot. Zeit. 17: 72. 
1859. 
Geonoma ghiesbreghtiana Lind. & Wendl. Linnaea 28: 343. 1856. 
Chiapas. 

'Biol. Centr. Anier. Bot. 3: 408. 1885. 

2 August Ghieshreght was born in Brusssels in 1S10. In 1S36 he and Linden 
were appointed by Leopold I to explore Brazil. In 1837. together with Linden 
and Fu'nck, he started for Mexico and reached Veracruz in January, 1838. 
He accompanied Galeotti in his ascent of Orizaba, and also collected else- 
where. He went to Europe in 1839. but returned to Mexico in the same year, 
and with Linden visited Tabasco. In March, 1840, he accompanied his collec- 
tions to Europe, but returned soon after, and botanized in various states, as- 
cending the volcanoes of Colima, Jorullo, and Zempoaltepec. He took up his 
residence in Tabasco, and explored that State as well as Chiapas. In 1857 he 
again accompanied his collections to Europe, to return once more, however, 
and establish himself in the city of Chiapas. His collections are found in 
many of the herbaria of Europe and America. 



y 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 77 

Trunk short or almost none; rachis of the leaf 80 to 85 cm. long, with 6 
pairs of pinnae, these 50 to 65 cm. long; inflorescence 1.2 to 1.5 meters long. 
" Guanito talis." 

Leaves used for covering huts. 

11. REINHARDTIA Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 311. 1836-50. 
1. Reinhardtia elegans Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 311. 1836-50. 

Oaxaca ; type collected between Chuapan and Tiutalcingo. 

Trunk slender, 6 meters high ; leaves 1.5 to 1.8 meters long, horizontal, the 
pinnae 30 to 45 cm. long, 1.2 cm. wide; inflorescence erect, a meter long, 
branched ; fruit oval, about 1.5 cm. long. 

12. CHAMAEDOREA Willd. Sp. PI. 4 2 : 638. 1806. 
Plants unarmed, erect or procumbent, with stout or very slender stems ; 
leaves pinnatisect, or simple and bifid at the apex; fruit small, of 1 to 3 
carpels, dry or fleshy. 

The Mexican species of this genus, as of most others o£ the family, are very 
imperfectly known. Some of them were described from cultivated plants, and 
all are poorly represented in herbaria. The following key, consequently, is 
very imperfect. 

The unopened flower spathes of various species are often cooked and eaten. 
The following vernacular names are reported for some of the species : " Tepe- 
jilote" or " tepexilotl (Nahuatl; Oaxaca, Morelos, Guerrero); "bom 
cabalsah " (Oaxaca, Veracruz, Ramirez) ; " guaya de bajo," " guaya de cerro," 
" guayita " (Tabasco). 

Interior perianth of the staminate flowers usually not stipitate ; anthers 
obliquely incumbent. 

Caudex repent, short, dichotomous ; pinnae linear 1. C. martiana. 

Caudex erect, elongate, simple ; pinnae lanceolate. 

Pinnae few, about 8 on each side 2. C. alternans. 

Pinnae numerous, 18 or more on each side. 

Segments of the inner perianth acutish ; branches of the staminate inflor- 
escence few 3. C. tepejilote. 

Segments of the inner perianth very obtuse; branches of the staminate 

inflorescence numerous 4. C. wendlandiana. 

Interior perianth of the staminate flowers connate at the base with the fila- 
ments and rudimentary ovary to form a short stipe; anthers erect. 
Perianth segments of both staminate and pistillate flowers valvate. 
Interior perianth of the pistillate flowers of 3 distinct segments. 
Leaves simple, bilobate or irregularly pinnatifid ; pistillate spadix simple. 

5. C. ernesti-augusti. 

Leaves pinnate; pistillate spadix branched 6. C. sartorii. 

Interior perianth of both staminate and pistillate flowers gamophyllous, 
tridentate. 

Leaves simple, bifid 7. C. stolonifera. 

Leaves pinnate. 

Caudex very short or obsolete 8. C. humilis. 

Caudex 2 to 3.5 meters high. 

Pinnae 1 to .1.5 cm. wide, about 15 cm. long 9. C. elegans. 

Pinnse about 2.5 cm. wide and. 30 em. long 10. C. liebmanni. 

Perianth segments of the staminate flowers valvate, those of the pistillate 
flowers imbricate. 
Fruit 3-celled. Pistillate spadices simple. 



78 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Caudex procumbent ; leaves about 40 cm. long 11. C. pygmaea. 

Caudex erect ; leaves more than 40 cm. long. 
Pinnae 12.5 to 17 cm. long, 6 to 8 mm. wide. 

12. C. cataractarum. 

Pinnae 30 cm. long, 2.5 to 3.3 cm. wide 13. C. oreophila. 

Fruit 1-celled. 

Leaves simple, bifid ; spadices simple 14. C. tenella. 

Leaves pinnate; spadices usually branched. 
Caudex very long, flexuous, subcandent. 

Pinnae partly hooked at the apex, some of them opposite. 

15. C. elatior. 

Pinnae not hooked at the apex, all alternate 16. C. affinis. 

Caudex erect. 

Pinnae few (5 to 12 on each side), trapezoid or oblong. 

Staminate flowers oblong; segments of the inner perianth 

free at the apex 17. C. lunata 

Staminate flowers subglobose; segments of the inner peri- 
» anth adnate at the apex. 

Pinnae about 5 on each side 18. C. lindeniana. 

Pinnae 10 to 12 on each side 19. C. schiedeana. 

Pinnae numerous, elongate-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate. 
Pinnae approximate in clusters along the rachis. 

20. C. klotzschiana. 
Pinnae evenly distributed along the rachis. 

Leaf blades short, 45 to 60 cm. long 21. C. radicalis. 

Leaf blades large, 1 to 2 meters long. 

Pinnae 45 to 50 cm. long, about 2.5 cm. wide; caudex 

very short 22. C. montana. 

Pinnae about 30 cm. long, 2 to 3.5 cm. wide ; caudex 
elongate. 

Pinnae 3 to 3.7 wide 23. C. karwinskiana. 

Pinnae 0.8 to 2 cm. wide. 

Pinnae about 2 cm. wide 24. C. pochutlensis. 

Pinnae about 1 cm. wide 25. C. graminifolia. 

1. Chamaedorea martiana Wendl. Allg. Gartenz. 21: 137. 1853. 
Native of Mexico, the locality not known. 

Caudex short, repent, dichotomous ; leaves long-petiolate, pinnate, the pinnae 
numerous, small, linear; spadices short-pedunculate, simply branched. 

2. Chamaedorea alternans Wendl. Gartenflora 29: 104. 1880. 
Chiapas. 

Caudex up to 3 meters high, 3 cm. thick, the nodes 4 to 8 cm. apart ; leaves 
4 or 5, 1.75 meters long, the petiole 35 cm. long, the blades pinnate, the pinnae 
about 8 on each side, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, the middle ones 40 to 50 
cm. long, 11 to 14 cm. wide; pistillate spadix 40 to 50 cm. long, with 9 to 13 
branches. 

3. Chamaedorea tepejilote Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 308. 1836-50. 
Described from " Matlaluca, S. Maria, Orizaba." 

Caudex 1.2 to 1.8 meters high, thick, closely annulate ; leaf blades 1.2 meters 
long, the pinnae 32 to 37 cm. long, 3.5 cm. wide, numerous, alternate, narrowly 
lanceolate, subfalcate, acute; spadices simply branched, borne among the 
younger leaves; fruit oblong-ovoid, 16 mm. long, 6 mm. thick, black. "Tepe- 
jilote." 
. The unopened spat lies are cooked and eaten like asparagus. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 79 

4. Chaniaedorea wendlandiana (Oerst.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 

407. 18S5. 
Stephanostachys wendlandiana Oerst. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 

1858:28. 1859. 
Oaxaca. 

Leaves 1.2 meters long, the petiole 30 cm. long, the pinnae 18 to 20 on each 
side, narrowly lanceolate, slightly falcate, long-acnminate, the middle ones 50 
cm. long, 3.7 cm. wide or more ; staminate spadix 45 cm. long, the peduncle 30 cm. 
long, the spathes 7, chartaceous, greenish, the branches numerous, 15 cm. long; 
pistillate spadix 25 cm. long, the few branches erect or ascending, 7.5 cm. long. 

5. Chamaedorea ernesti-augusti Wendl. Allg. Gartenz. 20: 73. 1852. 
Eleutheropetalum ernesti-augusti Oerst. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 

1858: 7. 1859. 

Tabasco (type locality). Guatemala and Honduras. 

Caudex elongate, erect, remotely annulate; Leaves simple, ovate-oblong, 
bifid or irregularly pinnatifid, coarsely serrate ; pistillate spadix simple, strict, 
equaling or longer than the leaves, the rachis thick and fleshy. 

6. Chamaedorea sartorii * Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 308. 1836-50. 
Veracruz ; type from Barranca de San Francisco, near Mirador, altitude 600 

to 750 meters. 

Caudex 2.5 to 4.2 meters high, annulate, covered above by the petiole bases; 
leaf blades 90 to 105 cm. long, the pinnae 30 cm. long, 4 to 5 cm. wide, alter- 
nate, elongate-lanceolate, acuminate, falcate ; spathes soon deciduous ; spadices 
borne between and below the fronds, simply branched, the branches of the 
staminate inflorescence very long and pendulous ; fruit oval, black, 12 mm. 
long, 8 mm. thick. 

7. Chamaedorea stolonifera Wendl.; Hook. f. in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 118: pi. 

7265. 1892. 

Described from southern Mexico, the locality not known. 

Caudices very slender, a meter high, very stoloniferous, forming dense tufts, 
closely annulate ; leaves terminal, 25 cm. long, short-petiolate, the blades cleft 
to below the middle into 2 oblong acute segments ; spadices borne below the 
leaves, the staminate with 5 or 6 spreading flexuous branches, these 7.5 to 12.5 
cm. long. 

8. Chamaedorea humilis (Liebm.) Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 308. 1836-50. 
Collinia humilis Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1846: 8. 1846. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Colipa, Veracruz. 

Dwarf, the caudex very short or obsolete, covered by the petiole sheaths ; 
leaves about 45 cm. long, the pinnae 15 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, linear-lanceolate; 
spadices 20 to 30 cm. long, borne between and below the leaves simply 
branched ; fruit globose, black. 

9. Chamaedorea elegans Mart. Linnaea 5: 204. 1830. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Barranca de Tioselo. 

Caudex erect, 1.8 meters high, with numerous nodes; pinnae narrowly lan- 
ceolate, acuminate, straight; spadix paniculate-branched; fruit globose. 

*Carl Sartorius, a native of Darmstadt, Germany, was obliged by political 
conditions to leave his native country in 1826, and in 1830 he took refuge in 
Mexico. He purchased land at Mirador, at the base of Mount Orizaba, and en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits. He made large collections of plants which are 
deposited in various herbaria of Europe and the United States. His death 
occurred in 1872. 



80 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

10. Chamaedorea liebmanni 1 Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 308. 1836-50. 
Type from Chinantla, Oaxaca. 

Caudex 3 to 3.5 meters high, erect, annulate; leaf blades 1 to 1.2 meters 
long, the petioles 22 cm. long, the pinnae elongate-lanceolate, 30 cm. long, 2.5 
cm. wide, acuminate; spadices 45 cm. long, twice-branched; fruit globose, 
minute, black. 

11. Chamaedorea pygmaea Wendl. Allg. Gartenz. 20: 217. 1852. 
Chiapas. 

Caudex very short, procumbent ; leaves short-petiolate, 40 to 42.5 cm. long, 
the pinnae 9 to 12 on each side, elongate-lanceolate; pistillate spadices 25 to 
30 cm. long. 

12. Chamaedorea cataractarum (Liebm.) Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 309. 
1836-50. 

Stachyphorbe cataractarum Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid.'Selsk. Forh. 1846: 8. 

1846. 
Oaxaca ; type from Chinantla. 
• Thirty to 60 cm. high, the caudex very short, included in the sheaths; 
terminal leaves erect, the pinnae linear-lanceolate, acute, straight, alternate, 
12.5 to 17 cm. long, 6 to 8 mm. wide ; spadices basal, shorter than the leaves ; 
fruit oval, black, the size of a pea. 

13. Chamaedorea oreophila Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 309. 1836-50. 
Type from mountains of Tepitonga, Oaxaca. 

Caudex 7.5 to 10 cm. long, densely annulate ; leaves erect-patent; 75 cm. long, 
the pinnae 30 cm. long, 2.5 to 3.3 cm. wide, alternate, elongate-lanceolate, acute, 
straight ; spadix 8 cm. long, erect, borne among the leaves ; fruit olive-like, 
orange. 

14. Chamaedorea tenella Wendl. Gartenflora 29: 102. 1880. 
Nunnezharia tenella Hook. f. in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 107: pi. 6584- 1881. 
Described from cultivated plants of Mexican origin. . 

Plants very small, flowering when 17 to 23 cm. high but sometimes 1 meter 
high, the caudex slender, rooting from the lower nodes; leaves short-petiolate, 
10 to 20 cm. long, 6 to 10 cm. wide, obovate-oblong, bifid for a third their 
length, the lobes acute; spadices about as long as the whole plant, slender, 
drooping, simple; fruit globose, 8 mm. in diameter, dark green or bluish black. 

Hooker (loc. cit.) remarks that this is perhaps the smallest palm known. 

15. Chamaedorea elatior Mart. Linnaea 5: 205. 1830. 
Chamaedorea scandens Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3 : 308. 1S36-50. 
San Luis Potosi, Veracruz, and Oaxaca ; type from Barranca de Tioselo. 
Stem sometimes 3.5 meters high, 2.5 cm. thick, flexuous and subscandent, 

covered with petiole sheaths; basal leaves 2, persistent, flabellate-bifid, the 

1 Frederick Michael Liebmann (1813-1856), a Dane, was sent by the Danish 
Government to Mexico in 1840, in company with a gardener, Rathsack, to make 
scientific collections, especially of living plants and seeds for the botanical 
garden of Copenhagen. He landed at Veracruz in February, and with Kar- 
winsky he explored that State, making his headquarters at Mirador. Later 
he visited Puebla and Oaxaca, and in 1843 he returned to Copenhagen with his 
collections, which consisted of 40,000 botanical specimens. He was appointed 
professior of botany at Copenhagen in 1845 and director of the botanical gar- 
den in 1849. He published numerous papers based upon his collections, and 
after his death Oersted also published descriptions of some of the new species 
discovered. His plants were distributed to many of the herbaria of Europe 
and the United States. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. . 8] 

cauline ones remote, 1.8 to 2.5 meters long, the pinnae numerous, 45 cm. long, 
2.5 cm. wide, alternate, elongate-lanceolate, long-acuminate ; spadices lateral, 
subappressed, pedunculate, simply branched ; fruit globose, black. 

16. Chamaedorea afflnis Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 308. 1S36-50. 
Oaxaca ; type from Chinantla. 

Pinnae all alternate, the uppermost confluent; spathes 4, persistent. 

17. Chamaedorea lunata Liebm.; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 307. 183G-50. 
Type from Jicaltepec, Veracruz. Guatemala. 

Caudex erect, 1.8 to 3.5 meters high, annulate, covered above with the leaf 
sheaths ; leaves 75 to 100 cm. long, the pinnae 30 cm. long and 7.5 cm. wide oi 
smaller, alternate, remote, broadly lanceolate, falcate, acuminate; spadices 
simply branched, borne below the leaves, the branches very long, flexuous ; 
fruit elongate, curved, attenuate at each end, 12 to 14 mm. long. 

18. Chamaedorea lindeniana Wendl. Allg. Gartenz. 21: 139. 1853. 

Native of Mexico, the locality not known ; specimens from Veracruz are 
perhaps referable here. 

Pinnae 5 on each side, oblong-trapezoid, the middle ones 25 to 28 cm. long, 10 
to 11.5 cm. wide, the lowest ones approximate, reflexed-patent, the upper con- 
fluent ; peduncle of the pistillate inflorescence 35 to 38 cm. long, the rachis 
7.5 to 10 cm. long, the branches slender, subflexuous. 

19. Chamaedorea schiedeana * Mart. Linnaea 5: 204. 1830. 
Veracruz ; type from Jalapa. Guatemala. 

Caudex about 1.8 meters high ; petioles half as long as the blades, the 
pinnae broadly lanceolate, falcate-cuspidate ; spadices simply branched ; fruit 
globose, bluish black. 

20. Chamaedorea klotzschiana Wendl. Ind. Palm. 63. 1854. 
Native of Mexico, the locality not known. 

Pinnae 15 to 18 on each side, elongate-lanceolate, acuminate, the middle 
ones 30 cm. long, 3.7 cm. wide. 

21. Chamaedorea radicalis Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 308. 1836-50. 
Type from the Sierra Madre, lat. 21° to 22° (Tepic or Jalisco). 

Plant small, the caudex short, stoloniferous, covered with the petiole 
sheaths ; petioles shorter than the pinnae, the blades 45 to 60 cm. long, the 
pinnae thickish, linear-acuminate; spathes 6; spadices subbasal, erect, few- 
branched ; fruit globose, black, the size of a pea. 

22. Chamaedorea montana Liebm.; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 308. 1836-50. 
Type from Trapiche de la Concepci6n, Oaxaca. 

Caudex 30 cm. high or less, erect, closely annulate ; petioles 45 to 60 cm. long, 
the blades 1.5 to 2 meters long, the pinnae 45 to 50 cm. long, 2.5 cm. wide or 

Christian Julius Wilhelm Schiede (1798-1836), a German, studied natural 
science, especially botany, at Berlin and Gottingen, and, as a means of assist- 
ance in his proposed botanical explorations, medicine. Accompanied by an- 
other botanist, Deppe, he reached Mexico in 1828. The two spent about a year 
in exploring the State of Veracruz, and obtained large collections of plants 
and other objects. Schiede then took up the practice of medicine, which gave 
him means to explore other regions of Mexico. His collections were studied 
chiefly by Schlechtendal and Chamisso, who published numerous papers deal- 
ing with them in Linnaea. Schiede himself published descriptions of some of 
the new plants he discovered, as well as letters dealing with the general 
aspects of Mexican vegetation. He died in the City of Mexico in 1836. His 
plants were widely distributed, the most complete series being at Berlin ; a 
few are in the U. S. National Herbarium. 



82 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

more, numerous, alternate or subopposite, rigid, narrowly lanceolate, acute, 
cuspidate ; spadices simply branched, erect, borne among the leaves, the 
branches flexuous; fruit globose, small, thin-fleshed, black. 

23. Chamaedorea karwinskiana Wendl. Allg. Gartenz. 21: 179. 1853. 
Native of Mexico, the locality not known. 

Caudex 50 cm. high or more, stoloniferous ; leaves pinnate, the pinnae 27 to 
33 on each side, linear-lanceolate, 30 cm. long, 3 to 3.7 cm. wide; staminate 
spadix 35 to 50 cm. long, the branches pendulous, the pistillate spadix 40 to 
50 cm. long, branched ; fruit oblong, black. 

24. Chamaedorea pochutlensis Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 308. 1836-50. 
Type from Pochutla, Oaxaca. 

Caudex 3 to 3.5 meters high, slender, closely annulate ; fronds 1 to 1.2 meters 
long, the pinnae 20 to 28 cm. long, scarcely 2.5 cm. wide, elongate-lanceolate, 
straight, acute, spadices 45 cm. long, erect between the leaves, simply branched, 
the branches very long, slender, pendulous. 

25. Chamaedorea graminifolia Wendl. Ind. Palm. 62. 1854. 
Specimens from Yucatan are referred here with doubt. Guatemala. 
Pinnae 36 to 42 on each side, linear, about 25 to 30 cm. long and 1 cm. wide, 

straight ; staminate spadix 30 cm. long or more, the branches very long, flexuous, 
pendulous. " Xiat " (Yucatan). 

13. COCOS L. Sp. PI. 1188. 1753. 

References : Cook, The origin and distribution of the cocoa palm, Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 7: 257-293. 1901 ; Cook, History of the coconut palm in Amer- 
ica, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 14: 271-342. 1910; Beccari, The origin and dispersal 
of Cocos nucifera, Philippine Journ. Sci. Bot. 12: 27-43. 1911. 
1. Cocos nucifera L. Sp. PI. 1188. 1753. 

Common along both coasts of Mexico, often cultivated. Widely distributed 
in tropical regions. 

Trunk slender, sometimes 30 meters high with a diameter of 60 to 70 cm., 
usually enlarged at the base, normally erect but often bent over by wind ; leaves 
pinnate, 3 to 6 meters long; flowers white, borne in large panicles. Known 
commonly in Mexico as " coco," " cocotero," " palma de coco," and " coco de 
agua ; " also as " coco de castillo." 

The best known and most important of all palms, of frequent occurrence 
along the coasts of Mexico, growing normally in the immediate vicinity of salt 
water. The trunks are used for building dwellings and for rafts and the leaves 
for thatching. The meat of the nut is a favorite article of food and large 
amounts are used for making " dulces " or sweetmeats. The milk of the fresh 
fruits is a refreshing drink and is said to have diuretic properties. The fruit 
has the reputation, in Cuba and Yucatan, of expelling intestinal parasites. 

On the west coast of Mexico, particularly in Colima, an intoxicating drink 
called " tuba " is made from the sap obtained from the trunk or from the 
inflorescences. This is sometimes flavored with pineapple, lemon, onion, 
chile, or cinnamon, when it is known as " tuba compostura." The " tuba " is 
distilled to obtain alcohol, and also furnishes vinegar. 

The shells of the nuts are made into cups and other articles. Oil is ex- 
pressed from the meat, and small quantities of it have been exported from 
Mexico. 

In other regions of the world the different parts of the coco palm are em- 
ployed for an infinite variety of purposes which it seems unnecessary to eun- 
merate here. 1 

1 See Safford, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 : 233-243. 1905. 



STANDLEY TKEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 83 

14. ATTALEA H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 309. 1815. 
1. Attalea cohune Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 300. pi. 167. 1836-50. 

Jalisco to Oaxaca and Yucat&n, chiefly in the littoral regions. Central 
America ; type from Honduras. 

Trunk often 50 to 60 meters high, when short usually covered with per- 
sistent leaf bases; leaves very large, sometimes 7.5 meters long (said to be 
even 18 meters long and 2.5 meters wide), gracefully recurved, pinnate, with 
very numerous segments ; inflorescence 1.5 to 2 meters long ; fruit resembling 
a small coconut, about 7 cm. long, mamillate at the apex, subtended by the 
accrescent perianth; seeds large, very oily. " Corozo " (Yucatan, Oaxaca, 
Guatemala, Costa Rica ) ; " palma de coquito de aceite," " coquino," " coco 
de aceite," "coquito" (Colima) ; "palma real." "corozo gallinazo " (Pan- 
ama); "cohune" (Honduras, Guatemala); " monaco," " manaca " (Guate- 
mala) ; "coco de Guadalajara" (Chihuahua, in market). 

The; tallest and most showy of Mexican palms and one of the most im- 
portant ones economically. The trunks are used for building purposes and the 
leaves for thatching. From the trunk a liquor similar to that of the coco palm 
is obtained. The flowers have a heavy, unpleasant odor, and attract bees and 
wasps. The young bud or " cabbage " is cooked and eaten, and in Costa Rica, 
at least, the young leaves are used for making hats. The fruits, however, are 
the most important part of the plant. They are much eaten by cattle, and the 
seeds are used for human food, especially for the preparation of sweetmeats. 
The seeds contain about 50 per cent of oil, which is extracted by pressure, and 
is used chiefly for making soap, but also for candles, machine oil, etc. One 
soap factory at Guaymas is said to have used 100,000 pounds of the oil a 
year. 

Two species of Cocos described from Mexico by Liebmann probably belong to 
this genus. They" may be synonyms of Attalea cohune, or they may represent 
distinct species, for there is reason to believe that more than one species of 
Attalea occurs in Mexico. Cocos rcgia Liebm. (Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 323. 
1836-50) was based upon material from the mountains of eastern Mexico. C. 
guacuyule Liebm. (Mart. loc. cit.) was collected near Guatulco, at an altitude 
of 360 meters. The latter name has been much used in Mexican literature for 
the plant here listed as Attalea cohune. The following vernacular names have 
been reported : " Coyol," " coyole," " guacoyul," " huiscoyul," " quacoyul." 

15. ACROCOMIA Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 66. 1823 (?). 
1. Acrocomia mexicana Karw. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 285. pi. 138. 
1836-50. 

Sinaloa and southward along the Pacific coast ; Yucatan ; type from Teoxo- 
mulco. Guatemala. 

Trunk of medium height, very spiny ; leaves pinnate, with numerous thin 
narrow segments, these pale and more or less hispid beneath ; rachis and petiole 
of the leaf armed with very numerous long compressed blackish lustrous 
spines; fruit globose, about 4 cm. in diameter: "Coyol" (Guerrero); " co- 
coy ol " (Yucatan); " cocoyul " (Sinaloa, Guerrero); "guacoyul" (Oaxaca; 
from the Nahuatl, " cuau-coyotli " ) ; "coquito baboso " (Oaxaca). 

The fruit is edible and is often found in the markets. It is said that an in- 
toxicating liquor is made from it. 

16. ASTROCARYUM Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 265. 1818. 
1. Astrocaryum mexicanum Liebm.; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 323. 1836-50. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca (type locality). 



84 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Trunk 1.2 to 1.8 meters high, densely covered with black spines ; petiole and 
rachis densely spiny, the blades pinnate, the pinnae broadly linear ; spathes 
densely spiny ; inflorescence spicate ; fruit fusiform, beaked, densely spiny. 
" Chocon " (Veracruz). 

17. BACTRIS Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 271. 1763. 
Plants usually low, the stems unarmed or often covered with long spines; 
leaves pinnatisect, the petioles usually spiny ; flowers monoecious ; fruit 1-celled, 
1-seeded, the pericarp fleshy. 

Petiole and rachis of the leaf unarmed 1. B. acuminata. 

Petiole and rachis armed with long spines. 

Fruit globose, unarmed 2. B. baculifera. 

Fruit obovoid, ovoid, or turbinate. 

Fruit densely prickly 3. B. cohune. 

Fruit unarmed i 4. B. mexicana. 

1. Bactris acuminata Liebm. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 321. 1836-50. 
Described from Chinantla. Oaxaca. 

Petiole and rachis unarmed, the pinnae elongate-lanceolate or the upper ones 
elongate-obovate, linear-acuminate, black-aculeate beneath. 

2. Bactris baculifera Karw. ; Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 322. 1S36-50. 
Type from Jicaltepec. Veracruz. 

Cespitose ; trunk 2.5 to 2.7 meters high, the internodes about 20 cm. long, 
armed with numerous compressed spines 7 to 13 cm. long ; petiole and rachis 
spiny ; fruit globose, unarmed. 

Wood very hard ; said to be used for canes, etc. 

3. Bactris cohune S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 21 : 467. 1886. 

Material from Tabasco probably belongs to this species. Originally described 
from Guatemala. 

Trunk 1.8 to 4.5 meters high, straight, slender, densely spiny, covered with 
the persistent sheaths of old leaves ; leaves pale beneath, the petiole and rachis 
very spiny, the pinnae linear, often a meter long, aculeolate on the margin ; 
spathes tomentose and spiny ; fruit obovoid, nearly 5 cm. long, prickly. 
" Cocoyol de jauacte" (Tabasco). 

Fruit edible. 

4. Bactris mexicana Mart. Palm. Orbign. 65. 1847. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca; type from Jicaltepec, Veracruz. 

Trunk of medium height, very spiny ; petiole and rachis armed with numer- 
ous long slender black spines, the pinnae lance-linear, aculeate-ciliate, paler 
beneath ; spathe very prickly ; fruit shaped like an acorn, about 2.5 cm. long, 
surrounded at the base by the cuplike perianth. " Palma de garroche " 
(Oaxaca) ; the " quauhcoyolli " of Hernandez, according to Martius. 

18. DESMONCUS Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 84. 1S24(?). 
1. Desmoncus chinantlensis Mart. Hist. Nat. Palm. 3: 321. 1836-50. 

Forests of Chinantla, Oaxaca. 

Trunk stout, flexuous, subscandent, very densely setose-aculeate ; leaves re- 
mote, the petioles sheathing, spiny, the blades pinnate, with elliptic pinnae; 
peduncles densely retrose-spiny ; fruit obovoid-globose. 

Plants of this genus are said to be known in Tabasco as " ball! " and 
" matambilla," but perhaps these names apply rather to species of Bactris. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 85 

9. ARACEAE. Arum Family. 

References : Engler in DC. Monogr. Phan. 2. 1879 ; Engler, Pflanzenreich IV. 
23. 1905-1913. 

Plants glabrous ; leaves alternate, distichous, or spirally arranged, entire or 
lobate; flowers small, perfect or monoecious, crowded on a simple spadix, this 
usually surrounded by a spathe, the whole inflorescence resembling a single 
flower; fruit baccate. 

A large family, with numerous species in Mexico. Most of the plants, how- 
ever, are wholly herbaceous, and often acaulescent. The species taken up here 
scarcely deserve to rank as shrubs, but they have long, coarse, epiphytic, 
scandent stems, which give them the general appearance, at least, of shrubs. 
The leaves in this family usually contain crystals of calcium oxalate, which 
penetrate the tongue when a piece is chewed, causing pain and swelling. 
Flowers all fertile, or a few at the base of the spike unisexual ; leaves often 

perforated or pinnatifid 1. MONSTERA. 

Flowers monoecious, the upper ones staminate, the lower pistillate; leaves not 
perforated. 

Ovaries distinct, 2 to 10-celled ; seeds with endosperm__2. PHILODENDRON. 

Ovaries coherent, 1 or 2-celled ; seeds without endosperm__3. SYNGONIUM. 

1. MONSTERA Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 470. 1763. 
Scandent branched shrubs, the branches rooting ; leaves distichous, entire or 
pinnatifid, often with large perforations ; flowers perfect. 

Leaf blades regularly pinnatifid 1. M. deliciosa. 

Leaf blades never regularly pinnatifid, with large openings. 

Openings biseriate or triseriate along the costa 2. M. punctulata. 

Openings irregularly scattered or uniseriate. 

Spadix oblong, about half as long as the spathe 3. M. pertusa jacquinii. 

Spadix broadly ovoid, only slightly shorter than the spathe. 

4. M. karwinskyi. 

1. Monstera deliciosa Liebm. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1849: 19. 1849. 
Monstera lennae C. Koch, Bot. Zeit. 1852: 277. 1852. 

Forests of Oaxaca (type locality) and Veracruz. Guatemala. 

Stems terete, 6 meters long and 6 cm. thick or larger, sending out long roots 
from the nodes ; leaf blades 40 to 60 cm. broad, with numerous narrow lobes ; 
spadix 17 to 20 cm. long ; berries pale yellow, spotted with violet. " Pinanona " 
( Oaxaca ) . 

The fruiting spadices are edible. 

2. Monstera punctulata Schott; Engl, in DC. Monogr. Phan. 2: 259. 1879. 
Anadendron punctulatum Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 393. 1860. 

Reported from Mexico, the locality not stated. Type locality uncertain but 
probably somewhere in Central America. 

Leaf blades ovate, 60 to 70 cm. long, with numerous perforations. 

3. Monstera pertusa jacquinii (Schott) Engl, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3': 113. 

1878. 

Monstera jacquinii Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 1854: 66. 1854. 

Forests of Veracruz. West Indies, Central America, and northern South 
America. 

Stems high-climbing, 1 to 3 cm. thick ; leaf blades ovate, 30 to 40 cm. long, 
with few large perforations. 



86 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

4. Monstera karwinskyi Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 9: 99. 1859. 

Monstera egregia Schott; Engl, in DC. Monogr. Phan. 2: 2G0. 1879. 

Forests of Veracruz ; type collected between Colipa and Papantla. 

Stems high-climbing, 2 to 3 cm. thick ; leaf blades obliquely oblong, 40 to 50 
cm. long. 

2. PHILODENDRON Schott ; Schott & Endl. Melet. Bot. 1 : 19. 1832. 
Plants scandent, the leafy stems rooting at the nodes; leaves entire or 
lobate, thick, with persistent sheaths ; flowers monoecious. 
Leaves acute at the base, entire. 

Leaf sheath arising slightly below the blade, long-produced 1. P. seguine. 

Leaf sheath arising far below the blade 2. P. inaequilaterum. 

Leaves either sagittate or cordate or lobate. 
Leaves parted or lobed. 
Leaves 3-parted. 

Ovules several in each celL 9. P. anisotomum. 

Ovules solitary 10. P. fenzlii. 

Leaves incised or pinnatifid. 

Leaves ovate in outline 11. P. radiatum. 

Leaves rounded 12. P. polytomum. 

Leaves neither parted nor lobed. 
Ovules solitary. 

Petiole terete 7. P. subovatum. 

Petiole flattened above 8. P. advena. 

Ovules 2 to 5 in each cell. 

Leaves thin, usually pellucid-striolate 6. P. mexicanum. 

Leaves subcoriaceous, not pellucid-striolate. 

Petioles terete_ 5. P. sanguineum. 

Petioles flattened or sulcate on the anterior side. 

Petioles flattened on the anterior side 3. P. sagittifolium. 

Petioles sulcate on the anterior side 4. P. daemonum. 

1. Philodendron seguine Schott, Bonplandia 1859: 164. 1859. 
Forests of Oaxaca. t 

Branches 6 to 8 mm. thick ; leaf blades narrowly oblong, 15 to 20 cm. long, 
4 to 4.5 cm. wide. 

2. Philodendron inaequilaterum Liebm. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 

1850: 16. 1850. 
Pital, Veracruz, the type locality. 
Leaf blades oblong-ovate, 20 to 32 cm. long, 10 to 13 cm. wide. 

3. Philodendron sagittifolium Liebm. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1850: 

17. 1850. 
Philodendron tanyphyllum Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 273. 1860. 
Veracruz to Morelos. 

Stems high-climbing, 2.5 to 3 cm. thick; leaf blades sagittate, 30 to 50 cm. 
long; spathe green outside, purplish within; berries dull yellow. 

4. Philodendron daemonum Liebm. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1850: 

17. 1850. 
Veracruz, the type from Colipa. 
Leaf blades cordate-hastate, 28 to 35 cm. long. 

5. Philodendron sanguineum Regel, Gartenflora 1869: 197. pi. 621. 1869. 
Forests of Veracruz, the type from the Valley of Ctfrdoba. 

Leaf blades elongate-sagittate, 20 to 30 cm. long ; spathes green, 13 to 15 cm. 
long. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 87 

6. Philodendron mexicanum Engl, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3 2 : 143. 1878. 
Valley of Cordoba, Veracruz. 

Leaf blades elongate-hastate, 30 to 36 cm. long. 

7. Philodendron subovatum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 1855: 289. 1855. 
Southern Mexico, the locality not indicated. 

Stems scandent ; leaf blades cordate-ovate, 25 to 35 cm. long, 24 to 30 cm. 
wide. 

8. Philodendron advena Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 1855: 289. 1855. 
Southern Mexico, the locality not indicated. 

Stems scandent; leaf blades broadly cordate-ovate, 35 cm. long, 20 to 26 cm. 
wide ; spathes green outside, purple within ; berries stramineous. 

9. Philodendron anisotomum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 1858: 179. 185S. 
Philodendron affine Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 37. 1878. 

Morelos to Chiapas. Guatemala. 

Stems repent or scandent, rooting at the nodes ; leaf blades 3-parted. 

10. Philodendron fenzlii Engl, in Mart. Fl. Bras. 3 ': 144. 1878. 
Morelos and probably elsewhere in Mexico. 

Caudex scandent, 1 to 1.2 cm. thick ; leaves 3-parted. 

11. Philodendron radiatum Schott, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 3: 378. 1853. 
Forests of Veracruz and Oaxaca. Guatemala. 

Stems stout, scandent; leaf blades deeply pinnatifid; spathes green or pur- 
plish outside, pale purple within. 

12. Philodendron polytomum Schott, Bonplandia 7: 164. 1859. 
Forests of Veracruz ; type from Colipa. 

Leaf blades deeply pinnatifid, 60 to 70 cm. long, 60 to 65 cm. wide. 

3. SYNGONIUM Schott, Wien. Zeitschr. 3: 780. 1829. 
Scandent shrubs, the stems rooting at the nodes ; leaves petiolate, the primary 
ones sagittate, the adult ones 3 to 9-lobate, the petiole elongate, with an 
accrescent persistent sheath ; flowers monoecious, the peduncles short, solitary 
or fasciculate, the spadix much shorter than the spathe. 
Tube of the spathe narrowly cylindric ; lateral nerves of the leaves ascending 

at an angle of about 60° 1. S. auritum. 

Tube of the spathe oblong-ovoid ; lateral nerves ascending at an angle of 30 
to 45° 2. S. podophyllum. 

1. Syngonium auritum (L.) Schott; Schott; & Endl. Melet. Bot. 1: 19. 1832. 
Arum auritum L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 1371. 1763. 

Syngonium neglectum Schott, Bonplandia 1859: 163. 1859. 
Veracruz to Morelos. Jamaica. 

2. Syngonium podophyllum Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 68. 1856. 
Veracruz. El Salvador. 

10. LILIACEAE. Lily Family. 1 

The Mexican species treated here are trees or shrubs, sometimes acaulescent 
but often with thick, simple or branched trunks; the leaves are either linear or 
dagger-shaped, usually stiff and rigid, sometimes with spiny margins; the 
flowers are either small or large and showy. 

J The writer is under obligations to Dr. William Trelease for generous assist- 
ance in the preparation of the account of this family. 



88 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Ovules numerous in each cell ; flowers large, perfect. 

Flowers scarcely 1.5 cm. wide, greenish ; anthers oblong 1. HESPERALOE. 

Flowers 5 to 10 cm. wide, white or yellow ; anthers short-sagittate. 

Style filiform; stigma papillate 2. HESPEROYUCCA. 

Style stout ; stigma not papillate. 
Perianth gamophyllous, tubular below, the stamens inserted in the throat. 

3. SAMUELA. 
Perianth polyphyllous or nearly so, campanulate, the stamens inserted at 

the base 4. YUCCA. 

Ovules 2 or 3 in each cell ; flowers small, unisexual. 
Ovary 3-celled ; fruit exalate. 

Fruit deeply 3-lobate, often inflated 5. NOLINA. 

Fruit not lobed or inflated 6. CALIBANUS. 

Ovary 1-celled ; fruit 3-winged. 

Perianth segments entire ; leaves somewhat ribbed, the margins not prickly. 

7. BEAUCARNEA. 

Perianth segments denticulate ; leaves not ribbed, the margins usually 

prickly 8. DASYLIRION. 

1. HESPERALOE Engelm. ; S. Wats, in King, Geol. Expl. 40th Par. 5: 497. 1871. 

Reference: Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 29-38. pi. 1-4. 1902. 

Plants acaulescent or nearly so; leaves linear, with filiferous margins; 
inflorescence paniculate, with few branches. 

Flowers green, tinged with purple 1. H. funifera. 

Flowers rosy red or salmon-colored 2. H. parvifiora. 

1. Hesperaloe funifera (Koch) Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 14: 36. 1902. 
Yucca, funifera Koch, Belg. Hort. 12: 132. 1862. 

Hesperaloe davyi Baker, Kew Bull. 1898: 226. 1898. 

Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and San Luis Potosi ; described from cultivated plants. 

Leaves sometimes nearly 2 meters long and 4 cm. wide ; inflorescence 2 to 2.5 
meters high, the flowers campanulate, about 2.5 cm. long; capsule 2.5 to 5 cm. 
long, with large flat black seeds. " Samandoque." 

The plant is said to be planted in Nuevo Leon for the fiber obtained from 
the leaves. The fiber is long and of excellent quality. It is exported as 
" ixtli " or " Tampico fiber." 

2. Hesperaloe parvifiora (Torr.) Coulter, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 2: 436. 1894. 
Yucca parvifiora Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 221. 1859. 

Aloe yuccaefolia A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 7: 390. 1867. 

Hesperaloe yuccaefolia Engelm.; S. Wats, in King, Geol. Expl. 40th Par. 5: 
497. 1871. 

Southwestern Texas, the type collected between the mouth of the Pecos and 
the Nueces. There is little doubt that the species occurs also on the Mexican 
side of the Rio Grande, in Coahuila. 

Leaves 1 to 1.25 meters long, about 2.5 cm. wide ; inflorescence 1 to 1.25 
meters high ; flowers about 3.5 cm. long ; capsule 2.5 cm. long or larger. 

2. HESPEROYUCCA (Engelm.) Baker, Kew Bull. 1892: 8. 1892. 

Reference: Trelease, Itep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 38-41. pi. h, 5. 1902. 
1. Hesperoyucca whipplei (Torr.) Baker, Kew Bull. 1892: 8. 1892. 

Yucca whipplei Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 222. 1859. 

Mountain slopes, Baja California. California ; type from Pasqual. 

Plants acaulescent or nearly so; leaves linear, stiff, 0.3 to 1 meter long, 1.5 
cm. wide, sharp-pointed, glaucous; inflorescence 2 to 5 meters high, dense, the 
flowers white, pendent, fragrant; capsule about 5 cm. long. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 89 

The leaves are said to give a fine, strong fiber. The flowers were eaten 
formerly by the California Indians, and Palmer states that the seeds, also, 
were ground and eaten, either raw or in the form of porridge. 

3. SAMUEL A Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 116. 1902. 
Trees with thick, simple or branched trunks ; leaves dagger-shaped, sharp- 
pointed, coarsely filiferous ; flowers white, in large dense panicles. 

Perianth tube conic, less than 1 cm. long 1. S. faxoniana. 

Perianth tube cylindric, 1.2 to 1.5 cm. long 2. S. carnerosana. 

1. Samuela faxoniana Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 117. 1902. 

Western Texas (type from Sierra Blanca), and doubtless extending into 
Chihuahua. 

Trunk 1.5 to 5 meters high, 30 to 60 cm. thick, simple or with a few branches 
at the top ; leaves 1 to 1.25 meters long, 5 to 7.5 cm. wide ; fruit baccate, 2.5 to 
7.5 cm. long. 

2. Samuela carnerosana Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 118. 1902. 

Dry plains and mountain sides, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosf, and 
Zacatecas ; type from Carneros Pass. 

Trunk 1.5 to 6 meters high, simple or rarely branched, 70 cm. or less in 
diameter; fruit 5 to 7.5 cm. long, 4 cm. thick. " Palma samandoca " (Coahuila, 
Zacatecas). 

The large trunks are used for fences. or for the walls of houses, and some- 
times they are split open so that the soft interior may be eaten by stock. The 
large flower panicles are eaten greedily by cattle and are sometimes gathered 
for this purpose. The immature inflorescences are used also for human food, 
boiled or roasted. The leaves yield a fiber (known in Zacatecas as "palma 
ixtle " fiber) useful for cordage. The pulpy, sweet but somewhat bitter fruits 
are eaten by people as well as by wild and domestic animals. 

4. YUCCA L. Sp. PI. 319. 1753. 

References: Trelease, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 27-133. pi. 1-99. 1902; op. 
cit. 18: 225-230. pi. 12-17. 1907. 

The plants of this genus are distributed nearly throughout Mexico, but are 
most abundant in the more arid regions east of the western Sierra Mad re, 
where they are often the dominant feature of the landscape. Yuccas are of im- 
portance from an economic standpoint, although much less so than the genus 
Agave. 

The most important product is the fiber obtained from the leaves, which, 
however, is usually coarse and shorter than is desirable in commercial fiber. 
It is extracted usually in a crude fashion, and is an article of export. It may 
be that in time its extraction will be of considerable importance commercially. 
During the war-shortage of raw materials this fiber has acquired considerable 
value in the southwestern United States, especially that of Yucca elata. The 
fiber is much used locally for cordage, and it has been woven into mats and 
cloth by the Indians of Mexico and the United States. It is said that the cloth 
("ayate") bearing the famous likeness of Our Lady of Guadalupe is made 
of Yucca fiber, but this may be incorrect. 

The trunks of the arborescent species are often used for stockades and for 
walls of houses, and the leaves are used for thatching. Paper can be made from 
the fiber of the trunks and leaves. 

The plants possess the saponifying properties of the genus Agave. The roots 
(under the name "amole") are used widely for washing clothing, the hair, 
etc., and they have been used in the United States in the manufacture of fine 



90 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL. HERBARIUM. 

toilet soap. An extract of the roots has been employed to produce foam in 
beverages. 

The plants are of some importance as forage, chiefly in times of severe 
drought, when cattle often eat the stiff leaves. The flower panicles are much 
eaten by cattle. The flowers, either in bud or just after they have opened, have 
long been an article of human food in Mexico and they are frequently found in 
the markets at the present time. They are eaten raw as a salad, or are cooked 
in various ways, and are sometimes made into a conserve. They are slightly 
bitter and are reputed to have tonic properties. 

The fruits of those species with baccate fruit, usually known as " datiles," 
are eaten by birds and mammals and by man. They contain much sugar but are 
more or less bitter. They are eaten either raw or cooked, and some of the 
Indians, of the United States at least, dried them for use in winter. The fruits 
are also fermented and sometimes distilled to produce an alcoholic beverage. 

Various statements are made concerning the seeds. Palmer reports that the 
Indians used them for food. Others state that they are purgative, while Cer- 
vantes says that they are useful for the treatment of dysentery. 

Many of the species of Yucca are used as ornamental plants, especially in 
arid regions. They are admirably suited for this purpose because of their 
showy flowers and striking palmlike appearance. 
Fruit dehiscent, erect. 

Leaves filiferous along the white margins. Plants with a tall trunk. 

1. Y. elata. 
Leaves minutely denticulate on the margins, not filiferous. 
Capsule beaked, the valves rounded on the back. 

Leaves about 60 cm. long; trunk about 3 meters tall 4. Y. rostrata. 

Leaves 20 to rarely 35 cm. long; trunk 1 meter high or less. 

5. Y. thompsoniana. 
Capsule mucronate, the valves flat on the back. 

Plants with a tall trunk 2. Y. rigida. 

Plants acaulescent - 3. Y. rupicola. 

Fruit indehiscent, baccate, pendent. 

Fruit without a core, the pulp purple ; ovary stalked. Leaves sharply den- 
ticulate but not filiferous 6. Y. aloifolia. 

Fruit with a papery core, the pulp greenish or whitish ; ovary sessile. 

Leaves not filiferous 7. Y. elephantipes. 

Leaves filiferous. 

Margins of the leaves denticulate at first. Leaves thick and firm, often 

rough 8. Y. treculeana. 

Margins of the leaves not denticulate. 

Leaves thin, flexible, smooth, the filaments slender. 

Leaves 2 to 4 cm. wide; trunk nearly simple 9. Y. schottii. 

Leaves 7.5 cm. wide; trunk much branched 10. Y. jaliscensis. 

Leaves thick, rigid, the filaments usually coarse. 

Leaves usually less than 2.5 cm. wide, smooth ; trunk usually less 

than 2 meters high 11. Y. treleasei. 

Leaves 2.5 cm. wide or wider, often rough ; trunk usually more than 
2 meters high. 
Leaves usually 2 to 4 cm. wide, smooth. 

Plants acaulescent 12. Y. endlichiana. 

Plants with an elongate trunk. 
Panicles narrow, pendent 13. Y. australis. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 91 

Panicles broad, not pendent. 

Leaves 15 to 23 cm. long 14. Y. valida. 

Leaves 30 to 60 cm. "long. 

Panicles glabrous or the pedicels puberulent. 

15. Y. decipiens. 

Panicles tomentose 16. Y. periculosa. 

Leaves 4 to 5 cm. wide, rough. 

Style elongate 17. Y. macrocarpa. 

Style very short 18. Y. mohavensis. 

1. Yucca elata Engelm. Bot. Gaz. 7: 17. 1882. 

Yucca angustifolia radiosa Engelm. in King, Geol. Expl. 40th Par. 5: 496. 1871. 

Yucca radiosa Trel. Rep, Mo. Bot. Gard. 3: 163. 1892. 

Dry plains, Chihuahua. Western Texas to Arizona. 

Trunk simple or branched, sometimes 7 meters high ;* leaves very numerous, 
usually 3 to 10 mm. wide, long and very slender, with white margins ; inflores- 
cence glabrous; flowers white, campanulate. " Palmilla " (New Mexico). 

2. Yucca rigida (Engelm.) Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 65. 1902. 
Yucca rupicola rigida Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 49. 1873. 
Chihuahua, Durango, and Zacatecas ; perhaps also in Coahuila ; type from 

between Mapimi and Guajuquilla. 

Trunk simple or branched, sometimes 5 meters high; leaves thin, flat, 
glaucous, 30 to 60 cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. wide, rather stiff, sharp-pointed, with 
yellow margins ; inflorescence glabrous ; capsule about 5 cm. long. " Palma 
San Jose (Zacatecas); "palmita" (Durango); "palmilla." 

A form with smooth, entire-margined leaves is var. inermis Trel. (Rep. Mo. 
Bot. Gard. 22: 102. 1911). 

3. Yucca rupicola Scheele, Linnaea 23: 143. 1850. 
Western Texas and doubtless in adjacent Mexico. 

Plants acaulescent; leaves 30 to 50 cm. long, 2.5 to 3 cm. wide, glaucous, 
with brown or yellowish margins ; inflorescence glabrous ; flowers white or 
greenish. 

A form with smooth-edged leaves is var. edentata Trel. (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
22: 102. 1911).- 

4. Yucca rostrata Engelm.; Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 68. 1902. 
Chihuahua and Coahuila ; type from Monclova, Coahuila. 

Trunk simple or branched 3 meters high or less, 15 to 20 cm. in diameter, 
the wood very soft and spongy ; leaves about 1 cm. wide, somewhat glaucous, 
striate, rather stiff, very pungent, with yellow margins ; inflorescence glabrous, 
0.5 to 1 meter long, the flowers large, pendent, white, rarely tinged with purple ; 
capsule about 5 cm. long. " Soyate " (Coahuila) ; "palmita." 

5. Yucca thompsoniana Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 101. pi. 10-' f -107. 1911. 
Coahuila ; type from Bufatello. Western Texas. 

Flowering while stemless, but in age with a trunk a meter high ; leaves 35 
cm. long and 1 cm. wide or smaller, nearly flat, rigid, bluish or somewhat gla-u- 
cous. pungent, usually roughened on the back ; flowers about 4 cm. long ; fruit 4 
cm. long. 

6. Yucca aloifolia L. Sp. PI. 319. 1753. 

Yucca serrulata Haw. Suppl. PI. Succ. 32. 1819. 

Veracruz, Morelos, and Yucat&n; sometimes cultivated for ornament. West 
Indies ; Gulf coast of the United States. 
126651—20 7 



92 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Trunk slender, branched or nearly simple, short ; leaves distributed along the 
stem, flat, rigid, brown-pointed ; flowers creamy white, tinged with green or 
purple near the base; fruit baccate, nearly black, with purplish black pulp. 
Ramirez gives the common names as " iczotli " and " izote." 

A form with clustered trunks sometimes 7 meters high, and with tomentose 
inflorescence, is var. yucatana (Engelm.) Trel. (Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 93. 
1902; F. yucatana Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 37. 1873). It is known 
only from Yucatftn. 

7. Yucca elephantipes Regel, Gartenflora 8: 35. 1859. 
Yucca guatemalensis Baker, Ref. Bot. 5: pi. 813. 1872. 

Veracruz, Morelos, etc., the type apparently from Veracruz. Extensively 
cultivated in Guatemala. 

Often 8 to 10 meters high, compactly branched above, the trunk from a 
swollen base, the bark rough ; leaves 50 to 100 cm. long, 5 to 7 cm. wide, green, 
lustrous, not at all pungent, with very slightly scabrid margin ; flowers white or 
creamy white. " Palmita," " datiles " (fruits), " palma " (Veracruz); " itabo " 
(Costa Rica) ; "izote" (Veracruz, Guatemala, Honduras). 

Extensively cultivated, especially in Central America, as a hedge plant. 
The flowers are prized as an article of food, and are often found in the markets. 
They are usually fried with eggs. 

8. Yucca treculeana Carr. Rev. Hort. 1858: 580. 1858. 
Yucca aspera Regel, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1858: 24. 1858. 
Coahuila and Durango to Tamaulipas. Texas. 

Trunk usually less than 5 meters high, simple or sparsely branched; leaves 
0.9 to 1.25 meters long, 2.5 to 5 cm. wide, bluish green, thick, rough, concave, 
pungent, brown-margined ; flowers white, sometimes tinged with purple. 
"Palma pita" or "palma de datiles (Tamaulipas); "palma loca " (Nuevo 
Leon and elsewhere). 

The leaves yield a coarse fiber which is used extensively. Palmer reports 
that the seeds are reputed purgative. The broader-leaved, larger-flowered 
form is var. canaliculata Trel. ( Y. canaliculata Hook, in Curtis's Bot. Mag. III. 
16: pi. 5201. 1860). 

9. Yucca schottii 1 Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 46. 1873. 

Dry plains and hillsides, northern Chihuahua and Sonora. Southern Arizona 
and Sonora ; type from Santa Cruz River, Arizona. 

Trunk 2 meters high or rarely larger, simple or nearly so ; leaves 2 to 4 cm. 
wide, bluish green, smooth, thin, concave, pungent, very finely filiferous; 
inflorescence usually tomentose; fruit sometimes 10 cm. long. 

10. Yucca jaliscensis Trel., sp. nov. 

Yucca schottii jaliscensis Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 13: 99. 1902. 
Jalisco; type from Zapotlan. 

\Arthur Carl Victor Schott (1814-1875), a native of Germany, came to the 
United States in 1850. He was appointed a member of the scientific corps of 
the commission to establish the boundary between the United States and 
Mexico, and in the course of his work made large botanical collections. In 
1864 he was commissioned by the governor of Yucatan to make a geological 
survey of that State, and here, also, he secured botanical collections. The 
most complete representation of his Yucatan plants is in the herbarium of the 
Field Museum of Natural History, but many of his specimens are in the U. S. 
National Herbarium. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 93 

About 8 meters high, freely branched ; leaves about 75 em. long and 7.5 cm. 
wide, thin, blue-green. " Isote." 
The fiber extracted from the leaves is fine and of good quality. 

11. Yucca treleasei Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 56: 15. 1918. 

Yucca brevifolia Schott ; Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 221. 1859, as synonym. 
Not Y. brevifolia Engelm. 1871. 

Region of Nogales, Arizona (the type locality), and doubtless in adjacent 
Sonora. 

Trunk 2.5 meters high or less, or often wanting; leaves about 75 cm. long, 
usually 2 to 3 cm. wide, green, smooth, thick and stiff, falcate, the margins 
freely filiferous. 

12. Yucca endlichiana Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot, Gard. 18: 229. 1907. 
Coahuila ; type from Marte. 

Acaulescent ; leaves about 50 cm. long and 1.5 cm. wide, erect, fleshy, V-shaped, 
smooth, pungent, bluish green, finely filiferous ; flowers creamy white or pur- 
plish, about 1.5 cm. long; fruit pendent, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, with thin flesh. 
" Pitilla." 

The leaves furnish fiber of excellent quality ; it is considered superior to 
that of " lechuguilla." 

13. Yucca australis (Engelm.) Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 3: 162. 1892. 
Yucca baccata australis Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 44. 1873. 
Coahuila (type locality) to Tamaulipas and Quergtaro, perhaps extending to 

the Distrito Federal ; often forming forests. 

Large, much branched tree, sometimes 10 meters high or more ; leaves about 
30 cm. long and 2.5 cm. wide, or sometimes larger, green, stiff, coarsely filifer- 
ous; inflorescence pendent, glabrous; flowers creamy white. " Palma " (San 
Luis Potosi and elsewhere) ; "palma corriente " (Queretaro) ; "izote" (Valley 
of Mexico, perhaps only cultivated there). Known also in various localities 
as " palma de San Pedro " and " palma samandoca " or " palma samondoca." 

The hollowed trunks are used sometimes for beehives. The leaves give a 
fiber useful for cordage, and the fiber is sometimes dipped in pitch to make 
torches for use in mines. The young stems and leaves have been distilled to 
obtain alcohol. The spongy interior of the trunk is cut into long strips, beaten 
flat, washed in running water, and made into mats which are used as pads 
( " sudaderos " ) for pack animals. The fiber forms a part of the exported 
" ixtle " or " Tampico fiber." 

14. Yucca valida T. S. Brandeg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2: 208, pi. 11. 1889. 
Southern Baja California. 

Usually 4.5 to 6 meters high, branched, the trunks 20 to 60 cm. or more in 
diameter ; leaves distributed along the stem, 15 to 23 cm. long, 1 to 2 cm. wide, 
thin, smooth, with whitish threads; panicle somewhat pubescent, not pendent; 
flowers creamy white. 

15. Yucca decipiens Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 18: 228. 1907. 
Durango to San Luis Potosi ; type from Gutierrez, Zacatecas. 
Arborescent, 8 to 10 meters high, much branched above, the trunk sometimes 

2 meters thick, covered with very rough bark; leaves 30 to 60 cm. long, 1 to 4 
cm. wide, heavily pointed, finely or coarsely filiferous ; panicles about 1.5 
meters long, not pendent, glabrous or puberulent ; flowers creamy white, 3 to 4 
cm. long; fruit pendent, 6 to 8 cm. long. " Palma " (Durango) ; " palma china " 
(Zacatecas, etc.). 

16. Yucca periculosa Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870: 1088. 1870. 
Yucca circinata Baker, Gard. Chron. 1870: 1088. 1870. 



94 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Puebla and probably in Oaxaca and Veracruz ; described from cultivated 
plants, from Tehuaean, Puebla. 

Sometimes 6 meters high, with few branches, slender, with rather smooth 
bark ; leaves 35 to 50 cm. long, 2 to 3.5 cm. wide, short-pointed, finely and 
abundantly filiferous, with brown threads ; panicle about a meter long, tomen- 
tose, the flowers creamy white. 

17. Yucca macrocarpa (Torr.) Coville, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 4: 202. 1893. . 
Yucca baccata macrocarpa Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 221. 1859. 

Dry plains and hillsides, Chihuahua. Western Texas to southern Arizona ; 
type from plains near the Limpio, Texas. 

Usually 3 to 5 meters high, but often lower, simple, or with few short 
branches; leaves 50 to 100 cm. long, 4 to 5 cm. wide, usually rough, pungent, 
yellowish green, coarsely filiferous ; panicle glabrous or somewhat pubescent, 
the flowers creamy white, 4 cm. long ; fruit 7.5 to 10 cm. long. " Palma criolla " 
(Chihuahua, Texas) ; "palma" (New Mexico). 

The leaves are used extensively by the Indians of southern New Mexico for 
making baskets. 

18. Yucca mohavensis Sarg. Gard. & For. 9: 104. 1896.. 
? Yucca schidigera Roezl, Belg. Hort. 1880: 51. 1880. 

Dry plains, Baja California. California to Arizona ; type from the Mohave 
Desert. 

Sometimes 4.5 meters high but usually lower, simple or with few short 
branches, the trunk 20 cm. or less in diameter ; leaves 45 to 80 cm. long, about 
4 cm. wide, smooth ; panicles 30 to 45 cm. long, the flowers 2.5 to 4 cm. long, 
white, often tinged with purple; fruit 7.5 to 10 cm. long, yellowish, becoming 
purplish or black ; w©od porous, light brown, the specific gravity about 0.27. 

5. NOLINA Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1 : 208. 1803. 
Reference: Trelease, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 412-426. 1911. 
Plants acaulescent or with well-developed trunks ; leaves linear, often rough 
on the margins ; flowers very small, whitish, paniculate ; fruit papery, contain- 
ing 3 globose seeds. 

It is said that the trunks are sometimes roasted and the interior portion 
eaten. The leaves are very tough and useful for thatching, brooms, baskets, 
coarse hats, mats, etc. Their fiber is used locally for cordage and enters some- 
what into the cordage materials of the United States. 

In Durango (and probably elsewhere) the various species are known as 
" zacate cortador," " zacate de armaz6n," " zacate de aparejo," and " palmilla." 
In the United States the name " bear-grass " is applied. 

Leaves 15 to 40 mm. wide, usually not brushlike at the tip; bracts usually 
papery, often showy. Plants treelike. 
Pedicels scarcely half as long as the fruit ; leaves rather thick. 

13. N. bigelovii. 
Pedicels nearly or quite as long as the fruit ; leaves rather thin. 

Leaves 3 to 4 cm. wide 14. N. nelsoni. 

Leaves 1.5 to 3 cm. wide. 

Primary divisions of the inflorescence about 50 cm. long; leaves glauces- 

cent 15. N. beldingi. 

Primary division of the inflorescence 25 to 30 cm. long ; leaves green. 

Leaves spreading or erect 16. N. parviflora. 

Leaves drooping 17. N. longifolia. 



STANDLEY TKEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 95 

Leaves 2 to 12 mm. wide, frequently brushlike at the tip ; bracts not very showy. 
Leaves thin and grasslike, usually 3 to 5 mm. wide, rather flat, usually not 
brushlike at the tip. 
Pedicels slender, equaling or exceeding the fruit ; bracts not imbricate. 

Inflorescence 30 cm. long, the branches short 1. N. pumila. 

Inflorescence 25 to 30 cm. long, the branches stout, stiff 2. N. juncea. 

Pedicels stout, about half as long as the fruit ; bracts imbricate. 

Leaves 2 to 3 mm. wide; inflorescence 15 cm. long 3. N. humilis. 

Leaves 5 mm. wide; inflorescence 25 to 30 cm. long 4. N. watsoni. 

Leaves thick, 2 to 12 mm. wide, concave, keeled on one or both surfaces, often 
brushlike at the tip. 
Fruit somewhat inflated, the seed not protruding. 
Leaves 4 to 5 mm. wide ; lower branches of the panicle much longer than 

the bracts 12. N. rigida. 

Leaves 6 to 12 mm. wide; lower branches of the panicle about as long 
as the bracts. 

Fruit shorter than the pedicels, 6 to 7 mm. wide 10. N. durangensis. 

Fruit about as long as the pedicels, 7 to 10 mm. wide. 

Divisions of the inflorescence 15 to 45 cm. long; leaves 6 to 12 mm. 

wide 9. N. microcarpa. 

Divisions of the inflorescence 10 to 15 cm. long; leaves 12 mm. wide. 

11.. N. elegans. 
Fruit not inflated, the seed early protruding. 

Inflorescence essentially smooth ; pedicels slender 8. N. palmeri. 

Inflorescence roughened in lines ; pedicels stout in fruit. 

Lower panicle divisions as long as the bracts 6. N. erumpens. 

Lower panicle divisions shorter than the bracts. 
Branchlets of the lower panicle divisions short, stiff, spreading. 

7. N. cespitifera. 
Branchlets of the lower panicle divisions weak, finally ascending. 

5. N. aflinis. 

1. Nolina pumila Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 92. 1906. 

Known only from the type locality, in the Sierra Madre near Santa Teresa, 
Tepic. 

Plants acaulescent ; leaves 20 to 30 cm. long, 2 to 4 mm. wide, with serrulate 
margins ; inflorescence about 30 cm. long. 

2. Nolina juncea (Zucc.) Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 56: 16. 1918. 
Dasylirion junceum Zucc. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Muenchen 19: 19. 1845. 
Dasylirion harticeg'ianum Zucc. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Muenchen 19: 21. 1845, 

nomen nudum. 
Nolina hartwegiana Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 371. 1884. 
Known only from Zacatecas, the type locality. 
Leaves 3 to 4 mm. wide ; inflorescence 25 to 50 cm. long. 

3. Nolina humilis S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 248. 1879. 

Known only from the original collection, from the region of San Luis Potosi. 
Acaulescent ; leaves 60 cm. long, 2 to 3 mm. wide, with very rough margins ; 
inflorescence 15 cm. long. 

4. Nolina watsoni (Baker) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 372. 1884. 
Beaucarnea watsoni Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18: 236. 1880. 

San Luis Potosi. 

Leaves 5 mm. wide, with very rough margins ; inflorescence 25 to 30 cm. long. 

5. Nolina aflinis Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 417. 1911. 
Nolina caudata Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 417. 1911. 



96 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Chihuahua and Sonora, on mesas and stony hills ; type from near the city of 
Chihuahua. Southern Arizona. 

Leaves 3 to 4 mm. wide, sometimes with smooth margins. " Palmilla " 
(Chihuahua). 

Leaves used in Chihuahua for making hats. The young leaves are eaten by 
goats. 

6. Nolina erumpens (Torr.) S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 248. 1879. 
Dasylirion erumpens Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 216. 1859. 
Chihuahua. Western Texas (type locality). 

Leaves usually 6 to 10 mm. wide, with rough or rarely smooth edges. 

7. Nolina cespitifera Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 419. 1911. 
Coahuila ; type from Buena Vista. 

Leaves 6 to 10 mm. wide, rough-edged. 

8. Nolina palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 248. 1879. 
In canyons, Baja California ; type from Tantillas Mountains. 
Acaulescent ; leaves 8 to 10 mm. wide, rough-edged. 

The roots ("amole") are said to be used as a substitute for soap. 
Nolina palmeri brandegeei Trel. (Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 420. 1911) is a 
form with the trunk up to 5 meters high. 

9. Nolina microcarpa S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 247. 1879. 

Dry plains and hillsides, Chihuahua and Sonora. Arizona (type from Rock 
Canyon) and" New Mexico. 

Leaves 6 to 12 mm. wide, rough-edged. 

10. Nolina durangensis Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 421. 1911. 
Chihuahua and Durango ; type from the city of Durango. 

About 2 meters high ; leaves 7 to 11 or even 20 mm. wide, rough-margined. 
"Soyate" (Durango). 

11. Nolina elegans Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 91. 1906. 
Known only from the Sierra Marlre of Zacatecas. 

Leaves 50 to 60 cm. long, 12 mm. wide, rough-margined. 

12. Nolina rigida (Brongn.) Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 422. 1906. 
Anatis rigida Brongn. Ann. 'Sci. Nat. II. 14: 320. 1840. 

Known only from a drawing of Sesse and Mocino, 1 believed to represent a 
Mexican plant. 

Leaves about 10 cm. long, 4 to 5 mm. wide. 

13. Nolina bigelovii (Torr.) S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 247. 1879. 
Dasylirion bigeJovii Torr. U. S. Rep. Expl. Miss. Pacif. 4: 151. 1857. 

Dry mesas and hillsides, Sonora and Baja California. California and Ari- 
zona ; type from Bill Williams Fork, Arizona. 

Trunk 1 to 2 meters high; leaves 1.5 to 2.5 cm. wide, the margin shredding 
into brown fibers. 

14. Nolina nelsoni Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 92. 1906. 

Known only from the type locality, mountains near Miquihuana, Tamaulipas. 
Trunk 1 to 3 meters high ; leaves 50 to 70 cm. long, 3 to 4 cm. wide, rough- 
margined ; inflorescence 2 to 3.5 meters high. 

15. Nolina beldingi T. S. Brandeg. Zoe 1: 305. 1890. 

Baja California; type from mountains of the Cape Region. 
Trunk 3 to 7.5 meters high, branched ; leaves 1.5 to 2 cm. wide. 
VoUna beldingi dcscrticola Trel. (Proc. Amer. Phil Soc. 50: 424. 1911) is a 
nearly acaulescent form. 

1 Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: pi. 17. 1911. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 97 

16. Nolina parviflora (H. B. K.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 372. 1884. 
Cordyline parviflora H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 268. 1815. 

Roulinia humboldtiana Brongn. Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 14: 320. 1840. 
Nolina altamiranoa Rose, Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus. 29: 438. 1905. 
Veracruz, Puebla, and Mexico ; type from between Hauhtitlan and Tane- 
pantla. 

Trunk 2 to 4 meters high ; leaves 1.5 to 2.5 cm. wide. 

17. Nolina longifolia. (Schult.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 372. 1884. 
Yucca longifolia Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 1715. 1830. 

Roulinia karwinskiana Brongn. Ann. Sci Nat. II. 14: 320. 1840. 
Oaxaca and Puebla ; type from San Jose del Oro. 

Trunk 2 to 3 meters high, swollen at the base, sparsely branched at the top ; 
leaves very long, recurved t>ver the trunk, 2 to 3 cm. wide. 

6. CALIBANTJS Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 90. 1906. 
1. Calibanus hookerii (Lem.) Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 426. 1911. 

Dasylirion hookerii Lem. 111. Hort. Lem. 6: Misc. 24. 1859. 

Dasylirion caespitosum Scheidw. Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 4: 2S6. 
1861. 

Calibanus caespitosus Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 90. 1906. 

Hidalgo and San Luis Potosi ; type from Real del Monte, Hidalgo. 

A very curious and remarkable plant, the trunk subglobose, 30 to 100 cm. in 
diameter, resembling a puffball, attached to the soil by small roots, the interior 
loosely spongy, the exterior covered with dark corky bark like that of some 
oaks ; leaves 30 to 90 cm. long, 2 to 2.5 mm. wide, appearing in clusters here and 
there over the trunk, pale green, serrulate; flowers dioecious, purplish, very 
small, arranged in panicles 10 to 20 cm. long and 10 cm. broad. 

7. BEAUCARNEA Lem. 111. Hort. Lem. 8: Misc. 57. 1861. 
Refebence: Trelease, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 427-431. 1911; Rose, Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 87-89. pi. 23. 1906. 

Treelike plants, the trunks sometimes 10 meters high, more or less swollen at 
the base; leaves long, linear; flowers small, whitish, panicled. 

The leaves are used for the same purposes as those of Dasylirion and 
Nolina. 

Leaves with papillose grooves and rough margins, firm, more or less concave, 
keeled, pale or glaucous ; fruit short-pedicellate. 

Leaves 8 to 15 mm. wide; seeds 4 to 5 mm. long 5. B. stricta. 

Leaves 4 to 7 mm. wide; seeds 3 mm. long 6. B. gracilis. 

Leaves with smooth grooves and nearly smooth margins, thin, nearly flat, 
green ; fruit long-pedicellate. 

Leaves 1.5 to 2 meters long 1. B. recurvata. 

Leaves 1 meter long or shorter. 

Fruit 18 to 20 mm. long 4. B. goldmanii. 

Fruit 10 to 15 mm. long. 

Perianth segments scarcely 2 mm. long 2. B. inermis. 

Perianth segments 3 mm. long 3. B. pliabilis. 

1. Beaucarnea recurvata Lem. 111. Hort. Lem. 8: Misc. 61. 1861. 
Beaucarnea tuberculoma Roezl, Belg. Hort. 33: 138. 1883. 
Nolina recurvata Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 372. 1884. 
Dasylirion recurvatum Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 56: 17. 1918. 
Veracruz. 
Trunk openly branched ; leaves 1.5 to 2 meters long. 1.5 to 2 cm. wide. 



98 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. ' 

2. Beaucarnea inermis (S. Wats.) Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 88. 1906. 
Dasylirion inerme S. Wats. Proe. Anier. Acad. 26: 157. 1891. 

San Luis Potosi and Veracruz ; type from Las Palmas, San Luis Potosi. 

Tree, openly branched, sometimes 13 meters high, with a trunk 1.5 meters in 
diameter, this covered with hard scaly black bark; leaves 1.2 to 1.5 cm. wide. 
"Soyate" or " zoyate " (San Luis Potosi) ; " palma culona " (San Luis Potosi, 
Ramirez). 

The soft spongy wood is used for corks. 

3. Beaucarnea pliabilis (Baker) Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 89. 1906. 
Dasylirion pliabile Baker, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18: 240. 1880. 
Yucatan ; type from Sisal. 

Leaves 1.5 cm. wide. 

4. Beaucarnea goldmanii 1 Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 261. 1909. 
Known only from the type locality, San "Vicente, Chiapas. 

Tall slender tree with swollen base, the trunk covered with thick, deeply 
furrowed bark ; leaves 80 to 90 cm. long, 1 to 1.5 cm. wide, erect or reflexed ; 
panicles 30 to 50 cm. long. 

5. Beaucarnea stricta Lem. 111. Hort. Lem. 8: Misc. 61. 1861. 
Beaucarnea ylauca Roezl, Belg. Hort. 33: 138. 1883. 
Beaucarnea purpusi Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 89. 1906. 
Dasylirion strictum Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 56: 17. 1918. 
Puebla and Oaxaca ; described from cultivated plants. 

Tree, 6 to 8 meters high, the trunk moderately swollen at the base, covered 
with the old leaves ; leaves about 60 cm. long, 8 to 15 mm. wide, with yellowish 
margins. " Izote " (Oaxaca). 

6. Beaucarnea gracilis Lem. 111. Hort. Lem. 8: Misc. 61. 1861. 
Beaucarnea oedipus Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: S8. pi. 23. 1906. 
Dasylirion gracile Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 56: 17. 1918. 
Puebla; described from cultivated plants. 

Tree, 6 to 12 meters high, with stout branches, the trunk enormously swollen 
at the base and 2 to 7 meters in circumference ; leaves 25 to 50 cm. long, 4 to 7 
mm. wide, glaucous. 

8. DASYLIRION Zucc. Allg. Gartenz. 6: 258. 183S. 

Reference: Trelease, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 431^441. 1911. 

Acaulescent or arborescent plants ; leaves linear, usually with very spiny mar- 
gins, the bases much broadened ; flowers small, whitish, paniculate. 

The plants grow mostly on dry, rocky mesas or hillsides and are often very 
abundant and conspicuous. The trunks are used frequently for building houses 
and for fuel. When one of the plants, covered with the dead leaves, is set on 
fire it will burn for some time, and the burned stumps are a familiar sight in 
regions where the plants occur. The leaf bases remaining on such burned 
plants, when removed from the trunk, make very satisfactory beds upon camp- 
ing expeditions, for they are elastic and not uncomfortably bard. The trunks 
are often split open to permit cattle to eat the spongy interior, for this, as well 
as the leaf bases, contains much sugar and has been found to be an excellent 

1 Named for E. A. Goldman (1873-), of the Bureau of Biological Survey. 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, who has engaged in biological exploration of 
nearly all parts of Mexico. He has obtained a large collection of botanical 
material, which is deposited in the U. S. National Herbarium. Mr. Goldman 
has published a valuable paper dealing with the plants of Baja California 
(Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 309-371. pi. 101,-188. 1916). 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 99 

food for cattle, especially in time of drought. In New Mexico and western 
Texas the plants have been used on a large scale for this purpose, often 
after having been transported by railroad. The plants were formerly much used 
for food, by the natives of the arid regions, and are still so used to some extent. 
The leaves are trimmed off and the remaining head is roasted or boiled and 
the sweet pith and leaf bases then eaten. The heads are often baked for about 
24 hours in pits dug in the ground. The roasted trunks are also allowed to 
ferment and then distilled to obtain* a highly esteemed intoxicating drink known 
as " sotol," which is a colorless liquor of penetrating odor and peculiar taste. 
Alcohol has been extracted from sotol plants upon a commercial scale. 

The leaves are much used for thatching, baskets, rough hats, mats, etc., and 
their fiber for rough cordage. The fiber seems to be suitable for the manufac- 
ture of paper. 
Most of the species are known generally under the name " sotol." 

Leaves 4-sided, unarmed 16. D. longissimum. 

Leaves 2-edged, flattened or concave, with prickly margins. 
Fruit large (8 to 9 mm. wide), the style longer than the wings. 

15. D. berlandieri. 
Fruit small or, if large, the style not exceeding the wings. 
Fruit 3 to 5 mm. wide. 
Fruit with a very shallow notch at the apex, broadly elliptic, the style 
equaling or slighly exceeding the wings. Prickles of the leaves 
antrorse. 
Leaves 10 to 15 mm. wide. Inflorescence much branched. 

6. D. texanum. 
Leaves 5 to 10 mm. wide. 

Leaves about 1 meter long 7. D. simplex. 

Leaves 40 to 50 cm. long 8. D. longistylum. 

Fruit with a rather deep notch, narrowly elliptic to obovate. the style 
not surpassing the wings. Leaves usually 15 to 20 cm. wide. 

Prickles of the leaves mostly retrorse 5. D. leiophyllum. 

Prickles of the leaves mostly antrorse. 

Leaves 25 mm. wide or more 3. D. palmeri. 

Leaves 10 to 20 mm. wide. 

Leaves about 0.5 meters long, dull ; style nearly equaling the wings. 

4. D. parryanum. 
Leaves about 1 meter long ; style half as long as the wings. 

Leaves dull, glaucous 1. D. cedrosanum. 

Leaves lustrous, not glaucous 2. D. lucidum. 

Fruit 6 to 8 mm. wide, the style not exceeding the wings. Prickles all or 
mostly antrorse. 

Leaves not with brushy tips, glaucous 9. D. glaucophyllum, 

Leaves with more or less brushy tips. 

Leaves 1 cm. wide or narrower 10. D. acrotriche. 

Leaves mostly 1.5 cm. wide or wider, rarely only 1.2 cm. wide. 

Wings of the fruit truncate at the apex, with a very narrow notch ; 

leaves rough . 13. D. serratifolium. 

Wings of the fruit rounded or obtuse at the apex, with a broad notch ; 
leaves smooth or nearly so. 

Leaves about 1.2 cm. wide 11. D. graminifolium. 

Leaves 1.5 to 2 cm. wide. 

Style scarcely half as long as the wings 12. B. durangense. 

Style about as long as the wings 14. D. wheeleri. 



100 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL. HERBARIUM. 

1. Dasylirion cedrosanum Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 431. 1911. 
Coahuila and Zacatecas ; type from Cedros, Zacatecas. 

Trunk 1 to 1.5 meters high; leaves 2 cm. wide, glaucous ; inflorescence 5 
meters high. 

2. Dasylirion lucidum Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 90. 1906. 
Puebla ; type from Tehuacan. 

Trunk 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves 1 to 1.7 cm. wide, smooth and lustrous ; 
inflorescence 2 to 3 meters high. 

3. Dasylirion palmeri Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 432. 1911. 
Known only from the type locality, San Lorenzo Canyon, Coahuila. 

Plants 2.5 to 3 meters high ; leaves about 1 meter long, green or slightly 
glaucous, smooth, dull. " Sotol." 

The leaves, deprived of the spines, are used for making brooms. 

4. Dasylirion parryanum * Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 432. 1911. 
San Luis Potosi, the type from the vicinity of San Luis Potosi. 
Leaves dull, minutely roughened. 

5. Dasylirion leiophyllum Engelm. ; Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 433. 

1911. 
Chihuahua. New Mexico and western Texas; type from Presidio, Texas. 
Stem short; leaves about 1 meter long, green or glaucescent, smooth, rather 
lustrous. 

6. Dasylirion texanum Scheele, Linnaea 23: 140. 1850. 

Dasylirion texanum aberrans Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 434. 1911. 
Coahuila and Nuevo Leon. Texas; type from New Braunfels. 
Trunk very short or subterranean ; leaves 1 meter long or shorter, green, lus- 
trous ; inflorescence 3 to 5 meters high. " Sotol " (Texas). 

7. Dasylirion simplex Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 434. 1911. 
Durango ; type from Tepehuanes. 

Plants 1.5 meters high ; leaves about a meter long, green, smooth, lustrous. 
" Sotol." 

The leaves are employed for making baskets, and for the " sopladores " used 
to fan charcoal fires. 

8. Dasylirion longistylum Macbride, Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 56: 16. 1918. 
Known only from the type locality, Minas de San Rafael, San Luis Potosi. 
Leaves 5 to 7 mm. wide, glaucous-green, smooth, the margin with large remote 

teeth ; fruit 5 mm. wide. 

9. Dasylirion gdaucophyllum Hook, in Curtis's Bot. Mag. II. 14: pi. 50J/1. 

1858. 

Dasylirion glaucum Carr. Rev. Hort. 44: 435. 1872. 

Known in Mexico only from the type locality, Real del Monte, Hidalgo; also 
in cultivation in Europe. 

Trunk short ; leaves 1 meter long or.longer, about 1.2 cm. wide, dull ; inflores- 
cence 4 to 6 meters high. 

10. Dasylirion acrotriche (Schiede) Zucc. Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Miinchen 
16: 226. 1840. 

Earned for C. C. Parry (1823-1890), at one time botanist of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, who made extensive collections of plants in the 
United States, especially in the Rocky Mountains. In 1878, in company with 
Edward Palmer, he collected a large series of Mexican plants, chiefly in the 
State of San Luis Potosi. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 101 

Yucca acrotricha Schiede, Linnaea 4: 230. 1829. 

Roulinia gracilis Brongn. Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 14: 320. 1840. 

San Luis Potosi, Veracruz, Hidalgo, and Queretaro ; type from Mount Orizaba. 

Trunk 1 meter .high or more ; leaves less than 1 meter long, 6 to 10 or rarely 
15 mm. wide, green or glaucescent ; inflorescence 3 to 5 meters high or larger. 
" Cucharilla " (San Luis Potosi, Urbina). 

11. Dasylirion graminifolium Zucc. Allg. Gartenz. 6: 259. 1833. 
San Luis Potosi ; described from cultivated plants. 

Leaves about 1 meter long, green, smooth, lustrous. 

12. Dasylirion durangense Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 438. 1911. 
Known only from Durango, the type locality. 

Leaves 1 meter long or shorter, glaucescent. 

13. Dasylirion serratifolium (Schult.) Zucc. Allg. Gartenz. 6: 258. 1838. 
Yucca serrati folia Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 1716. 1830. 

Dasylirion laxiflorum Baker, Journ. Bot. Brit. & For. 10: 299. 1872. 
Oaxaca ; described from cultivated plants. 

Plants subacaulescent ; leaves 1 meter long or shorter, 1.5 to 3.5 cm. wide, 
whitish. 

14. Dasylirion wheeleri S. Wats. ; Rothr. in Wheeler, Rep. U. S. Surv. 100th 
Merid. 6: 378. 1878. 

Dasylirion wheeleri -wislizeni Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 50: 439. 1911. 
Chihuahua. Western Texas to Arizona (type from Ash Creek). 
Trunk 1 meter high or less ; leaves 1 meter long or shorter, glaucous or 
green, nearly smooth ; inflorescence 3 to 5 meters high. 

15. Dasylirion berlandieri 1 S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 249. 1879. 
Known only from the type locality, La Silla, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. 
The leaves of this species have not been collected. 

16. Dasylirion longissimum Lem. 111. Hort. Lem. 3: Misc. .91. 1856. 
Dasylirion quadrangulatum S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 14: 250. 1879. 
Dasylirion juncifolium Rehnelt, Gartenwelt 11: 77. 1906. 
Tamaulipas to Hidalgo ; described from cultivated plants. 

Trunk 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves sometimes 2 meters long, 3 to 8 mm. wide, 
green, dull; inflorescence 2 to 6 meters high. " Junquillo " (Queretaro, 
Hidalgo). 

11. SMILACACEAE. Smilax Family. 
1. SMILAX L. Sp. PI. 1028. 1753. 

Reference: A. De Candolle in DC. Monogr. Phan. 1: 1-213. 1878. 

Scandent shrubs; rhizomes often tuberiferous ; stems often armed with 
spines ; leaves alternate, usually persistent, palmately nerved, the petiole often 
tendribbearing ; flowers small, dioecious, umbellate, the umbels axillary ; fruit a 
small globose berry. 

The species of catbrier, greenbrier, or horsebrier, because of their spiny stems, 
often form almost impenetrable thickets. 

1 In honor of Jean Luis Berlandier, a Belgian, who made extensive collections 
between 1827 and 1830 in northeastern Mexico, especially in Tamaulipas, San 
Luis Potosi, Nuevo Le6n, and Coahuila. The larger portion of his botanical 
collections was obtained in Texas. He died at Matamoros in 1851. His plants 
were widely distributed, and some of them are in the U. S. National Herbarium. 



102 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves and branches copiously pilose ; flowers usually toinentose. 
Peduncles longer than the petioles. 

Leaves copiously pilose, oval to ovate, deeply cordate at the base, obtuse or 

rounded and apiculate at the apex 1. S. mollis. 

Leaves glabrate, deltoid, subcordate at the base, long-acuminate at the apex. 

2. S. purpusii. 
Peduncles equaling or usually shorter than the petioles. 
Sheaths about one-fifth as long as the petioles or shorter. 

3. S. tomentosa. 

Sheaths one-fourth to half as long as the petioles 4. S. subpubescens. 

Leaves and branches glabrous or nearly so ; flowers glabrous. 

Staminate flowers small, 1.5 to 2 or rarely 3 mm. long; anthers equaling or 

longer than the filaments 5. S. mexicana. 

Staminate flowers large, 2.5 to 8 mm. long; anthers usually shorter than the* 
filaments. 

Peduncles at anthesis shorter than the petioles 6. S. domingensis. 

Peduncles at anthesis longer than or equaling the petioles. 

Leaves glaucous beneath 7. S. glauca. 

Leaves green beneath. 

Peduncles about 5.5 cm. long, 5 to 6 times as long as the petiole. Fruit 

red 8. S. erythrocarpa. 

Peduncles rarely over 2 cm. long. 

Pedicels half as long as the flowers 9. S. densifiora. 

Pedicels equaling or much longer than the flowers. 

Leaves denticulate 10. S. moranen-sis. 

Leaves entire. 

Fruit red 11. S. medica. 

Fruit black. 

Younger branches with numerous stout spines; leaf blades 
more or less triangular, nearly or quite as broad as long. 

12. S. bona-nox. 
Younger branches unarmed or with few slender spines; leaf 

blades not triangular, usually twice as broad as long. 

13. S. cordifolia. 

1. Smilax mollis Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 785. 1806. 

Smilax pringlei Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 34: 567. 1899. 

Morelos to Veracruz, Tabasco, and Chiapas; type from Jalapa, Veracruz. 
West Indies, Central America, and northern South America. 

Leaves lanceolate to broadly cordate-oval. 8 to 15 cm. long, acute or abruptly 
short-pointed, 5 or 7-nerved ; umbels long-pedunculate. " Bejuco de chiquihuite " 
(Tabasco); ' zarzaparrilla " (Veracruz, Ramirez). 

2. Smilax purpusii T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6 : 117. 1915. 
Known only from the type locality, Cerro del Boquer6n, Chiapas. 

Leaves coriaceous, 5 to 10 cm. long, reticulate-veined, usually 7-nerved ; 
umbels often racemose. 

3. Smilax tomentosa H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 272. 1815. 

Oaxaca. Central America and northern South America ; type from Santa Fe, 
Colombia. 

Leaves broadly ovate-cordate to lanceolate, sometimes as much as 25 cm. long 
and 20 cm. wide, acute or acuminate; umbels densely many-flowered. 

4. Smilax subpubescens A. DC. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 1 : 69. 1878. 
Tamaulipas and Veracruz; type from Orizaba, Veracruz. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 103 

Scandent over shrubs and trees in woods ; leaves ovate or ovate-oval, 7 to 13 
cm. long, cordate at the base, short-pointed, lustrous. " Zarz6n " (Tamaulipas). 

Specimens referred by De Candolle to S. candelariae A. DC. 1 belong here 
perhaps. 

5. Smilax mexicana Griseb. ; Kunth, Enum. PI. 5: 167. 1850. 
tSmilax obtusa Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 175. 1844. 

Smilax costaricae Vatke, Linnaea 40: 223. 1876. 

Smilax gaumerii Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 1: 357. 1898. 

Sinaloa to Guerrero, Yucatan, and Tamaulipas. Central America. 

Scandent shrub with angulate branches ; leaves lanceolate to broadly ovate- 
oval, 5 to 17 cm. long, lustrous ; umbels on long or short peduncles ; fruit black. 
"Bejuco de chiquihuite " (Tabasco) ; " bejuco diente-de-perro," " zarza " (Gue- 
rrero) ; " xcoche " (Yucatan, Maya) ; " zarzon " (Costa Rica). 

The species has been reported from Mexico as £. cumanensis Willd. The 
leaves are very variable in shape, as in most species of the genus. 

6. Smilax doming'ensis Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 783. 1806. 
Smilax schlechtendalii Kunth, Enum. PI. 5: 224. 1850. 

Smilax domingensis m'icroscola Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 35: 323. 1900. 

Veracruz, Puebla, Tabasco, and Chiapas. West Indies ; type from Santo 
Domingo. 

Leaves lanceolate or ovate, 7 to 15 cm. long, thick, lustrous, acute to long- 
acuminate. "Alcacatza " (Puebla); "chiquihuite" (Tabasco); "bejuco de 
membrillo," " dunguey," " dunguez bianco" (Porto Rico). 

7. Smilax glauca Walt. Fl. Carol. 245. 1788. 

? Smilax jalapensis Schlecht. Linnaea 18: 451. 1844. 

Smilax discolor Schlecht. Linnaea 18: 454. 1844. 

Veracruz. Eastern United States; type from the Carolinas. 

Stems terete, armed with stout scattered prickles ; leaves broadly ovate, 6 to 
10 cm. long, acute or rounded at the apex, usually truncate at the base; fruit 
bluish black. 

8. Smilax erythrocarpa Kunth, Enum. PI. 5: 234. 1850. 
Described from Mexico ; reported from the Valley of Mexico. 

Branches terete, armed with short straight prickles or unarmed ; leaves ovate- 
oblong, 8 to 10 cm. long, acutish at the apex, rounded or subcordate at the base. 

9. Smilax densiflora A. DC. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 1: 88. 1878. 
Described from Toluca, Mexico ; reported also from " San Miguel." 

Stems terete, unarmed ; leaves ovate, 3 to 5 cm. long, 5 or 7-nerved, acuminate 
at the apex, obtuse or subcordate at the base. 

10. Smilax moranensis Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 9 2 : 389. 1842. 
Veracruz and Hidalgo, and probably elsewhere; type from Moran, Hidalgo. 
Stems terete, aculeate; leaves lanceolate or ovate, 5 to 9 cm. long, 5 or 

7-nerved, acuminate ; fruit 6 to 7 mm. in diameter. 
According to De Candolle, this is the *' mecapatli " of Hernandez. 

11. Smilax medica Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 47. 1831. 

Veracruz and San Luis Potosi; type from Papantla, Veracruz; reported 
from Tamaulipas. 

Stems angulate, unarmed or sparsely prickly ; rhizome slender, striate, covered 
with whitish or purplish bark ; leaves ovate or oblong, 10 to 20 cm. long, often 
lobate, 7 or 9-nerved, entire, sometimes prickly beneath ; fruit 8 to 10 mm. in 
diameter. " Zarzaparrilla," " nanahuapatle." " quauhmecapatli," " quaumeca- 

1 In DC. Monogr. Phan. 1 : 70. 1878. 



104 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

palli," "zarza," " zarzaparrilla de Tulancingo," " zarzaparrilla de la sierra." 
" mecapatli " (Ramirez). 

The species of Smilax which furnish the sarsaparilla of commerce are very 
imperfectly known, but this species is believed to be one of the chief sources of 
the drug. The Nueva Farmacopea Mexicana states that this is the only species 
of Eastern Mexico whose rhizomes are employed medicinally, and Smilax 
medica is one of the official sources of sarsaparilla according to the U. S. Phar- 
macopoea. Not much dependence can be placed upon either of these state- 
ments, however, because the species are poorly known, and the rhizomes 
have not been associated with botanical specimens of the plants which produce 
them. 

The rhizomes are dug at any time of the year and dried in the sun. They 
contain a crystalline principle, parillin, upon which their virtues depend. This 
has sudorific and stimulant properties. Sarsaparilla was introduced into Spain 
about 1540, and was widely used as a remedy for venereal diseases. It is still 
employed for the same purpose, and for rheumatism, scrofulous diseases, and 
some cutaneous affections. It is widely employed also for flavoring beverages. 
Large amounts of sarsaparilla have been and still are exported from Mexico. 
It is said that the rhizome) of a fern, known as " zarzaparilla de Tierra 
Caliente," is sometimes xised as an adulterant. 

12. Smilax bona-nox L. Sp. PI. 1030. 1753. 
Veracruz. Eastern United States; West Indies. 

Stems angulate, prickly or unarmed ; leaves lanceolate to broadly deltoid- 
ovate, 3 to 10 cm. long, sometimes lobate, 5 to 9-nerved, acute, often denticulate. 
"Mecapatli, zarzaparrilla" (Ramirez). 

13. Smilax cordifolia Hurab. & Bonpl. ; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 778. 1806. 
? Smilax acutifolia Schlecht. Linnaea 18: 449. 1844. 

1 Smilax invenusta Kunth, Enum. PI. 5: 234. 1850. 

Smilax schiedeana Kunth, Enum. PI. 5: 236. 1850. 

Veracruz and Tabasco to Oaxaca and Colima ; type from Jalapa, Veracruz. 

Stems subterete or angulate, unarmed or sparsely prickly ; leaves ovate or 
rounded-ovate, 6 to 12 cm. long, acute or acuminate, 5 to 9-nerved, usually more 
or less cordate at the base. " Cocolmecan," " cozolmecatl," "olcacatzin " (Vera- 
cruz, Ramirez) ; " pacas " (Tarascan, Herrera) ; " cocolmeca," "rafz de china" 
(Ramirez) ; " mooga " (Otomf, Ramirez). 

This species has been reported from Mexico as S. pseudochina L. It is said to 
be used in medicine like S. medica. 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 

Smilax aristolochiaefolia Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Smilax ho. 7. 1768. 
Smilax milleri Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 2: 599. 1841. Described from Veracruz. 

Smilax botteri A. DC. in DC. Monogr. Phan. 1: 89. 1878. Described from 
Veracruz. Perhaps the same as S. cordifolia. 

Smilax cognata Kunth, Enum. PI. 5: 175. 1850. Described from Mexico, but 
probably rather a native of Brazil. 

Smilax glaucocarpos Schlecht. Linnaea 18: 450. 1844. Described from Ha- 
cienda del Carmen and Mineral del Monte. Related, according to De Candolle. 
to S. mexicana or £. moranemis. 

Smilax havanensis Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 33. 1760. Native of the West 
Indies ; reported from Mexico by De Candolle, perhaps erroneously. 

Smilax multiflora Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 9*: 390. 1842. Described 
from Chinantla, Oaxaca. 

Smilax spinosa Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Smilax no. 8. 1768. Described froip 
Veracruz. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 105 

12. AMARYLLIDACEAE. Amaryllis Family. 1 
(Contributed by Dr. William Trelease.) 

Plants usually herbs, often from bulbs as in the Liliaceae, from which they 
differ chiefly in their inferior ovary ; in the warmer parts of America repre- 
sented by the following monocarpic genera, some species of which produce a 
trunk, while the flower clusters of all are borne on more or less woody stalks 
that are sometimes tall and much branched. 
Perianth segments distinct ; filaments swollen at base ; style base dilated and 

3-angled ; seed not lifted from the soil in germination 1. FURCRAEA. 

Perianth more or less tubular at base ; filaments and style not swollen ; seed 

raised on the cotyledon in germination 2. AGAVE. 

1. FURCRAEA Vent. Bull. Soc. Philom. 1: 65. 1793. 

References: J. G. Baker, Handbook of the Amaryllideae 198-203. 1888; 
Trelease, Observations on Furcraea, Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg II. Suppl. 3: 
905-916. pi. 85-48. 1910; Drummond, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 18: 25-75. pi. 1-4. 1907. 

The name is often written Fourcroya (Spreng. 1817) or Furcroea (Haw. 
1819). 

The leaves contain an excellent fiber resembling Sisal hemp, and variously 
called " pita " or " cabulla." but this is little exploited except for the Mauritius 
hemp, derived from the Brazilian F. gigantea. 

Leaves denticulate but never toothed, finely striate-ridged. Leaves over 1 meter 
long ; panicle very large. Serrueatae. 

Trunk tall (15 meters). Leaves concave and rather stiff 1. F. longaeva. 

Trunk moderate (1 to 2 meters tall). 

Leaves rather concave, long (2 meters), often recurved 2. F. roezlii. 

Leaves rather flat, short and stiff, very glaucous. 

Leaves short, 50 to 60 cm. long ; flowers 4 cm. long 3. F. bedinghausi. 

Leaves twice as long ; flowers 5 to 6 cm. long 4. F. quicheensis. 

Leaves neither denticulate nor striate, often horny-toothed. Eufurcraea. 
Leaves 5 to 8 cm. wide. 
Leaves narrow (5 to 6 cm. wide), straight between the short teeth. 

5. F. cahum. 
Leaves moderate (7 to 8 cm. wide), the margin concave between the teeth. 

6. F. melanodonta. 
Leaves broad (10 to 20 cm.). 
Leaves with numerous marginal red-brown teeth. 
Plants with a trunk sometimes 2 meters tall; leaves mostly entire above 

the middle 7. F. selloa. 

Plants mostly acaulescent ; leaves usually toothed throughout. 
Teeth rather short (3 mm. long) and close together (10 to 30 mm. 

apart) ; bulbils round-ovoid 8. F. guatemalensis. 

Teeth longer (5 to 7 mm. long) and more separated (30 to 60 mm. 

apart) ; bulbils elongate 9. F. cabuya. 

Leaves unarmed, otherwise as in no 9 9a. F. cabuya integra. 

1 Fifteen Mexican species of Agave, not considered in this account, are char- 
acterized by Mr. Alwin Berger in " Die Agaven," published in 1915 but through 
the exigencies of the war not received until after the present account was in 
page proof. — Wm. Trelease. 



106 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

1. Furcraea longaeva Zucc. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 16 2 : 665. 1833. 
Oaxaca ; type from Mount Tanga. Also in adjacent Guatemala. 

A tall unbranched monocarpic tree, finally surmounted by a gigantic panicle 5 
meters long or more. " Yahuindayasi " (Oaxaca, Mixtec, Reko). 

2. Furcraea roezlii Baker, Amaryll. 203. 1888. 
Fourcroya roezlii Andre, Rev. Hort. 59: 353. 1887. 
Furcraea longa Smith, Teysmannia. 7: 131. 1897. 

Pachuca, Hidalgo ; described from plants cultivated in Europe ; type locality 
sometimes said to be near Juquila, Oaxaca, but this report probably refers to 
the preceding species. 

A short-trunked plant, finally with panicle of equal length, the leaves 
characteristically sweeping the ground. 

Much cultivated in warm regions under the garden names of Agave argy- 
rophylla, A. toneliana, Beschorneria floribunda, Lilia regia, Lilium regiiun, 
Roezlia bulbifera, R. regina, Yucca argyraea, Y. argyroyliylla, Y. bulbifera, Y. 
parmentieri and Y. toneliana. 

3. Furcraea bedinghausi Koch, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 6: 234. 

1863. 

Distrito Federal ; described from plants cultivated in Europe, the type locality 
unrecorded. 

A short-trunked smaller plant with shorter, stiffer, and flatter leaves. 

Sometimes cultivated as Beschorneria multiflora. Specimens have been dis- 
tributed as Yucca pringlei Greenm. 

4. Furcraea quicheensis Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 148. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type collected near Quichg. 

In size and habit intermediate between F. longaeva and F. bedinghausi. 
" Cheech." 

5. Furcraea cahum Trel. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg II. Suppl. 3: 908. pi. 39. 

1910. 
Yucatan; type collected near Sisal. 

Subacaulescent, with narrow green flat leaves, these straight-margined be- 
tween the finally blackish teeth. " Cajum " or " cajum-ci " ; also " catana " ( ?) . 

6. Furcraea melanodonta Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 150. 1915. 
Eastern Guatemala ; type from Cruz. 

Somewhat caulescent, with gray or bluish concave leaves, the margins hol- 
lowed between the black-chestnut teeth. " Maguey." 

7. Furcraea selloa Koch, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 3: 22. 1860. 
Furcraea samalana Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23 : 149. 1915. 
Western Guatemala ; type from the Sarnala VaHey. 

Somewhat caulescent, with green broad long-channeled leaves, these usually 
toothed only below the middle, the margins hollowed between the red-brown 
teeth ; bulbils elongate. " Maguey." 

8. Furcraea guatemalensis Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 149. 1915. 
Eastern Guatemala ; type collected about Guatemala City. 

Nearly acaulescent, the broad and long-channeled leaves grayish beneath and 
toothed throughout, the margin somewhat hollowed between the red -brown or 
chestnut teeth ; bulbils ovoid. " Maguey." 

9. Furcraea cabuya Trel. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg II. Suppl. 3: 906. 1910. 
Furcraea tuberosa Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 216. 1854. Not F. tuberosa Ait. 

1811. 



STANDLET TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 107 

Costa Rica (type from San Ramon) and Panama. 

Nearly acaulescent, the leaves transiently somewhat glaucous, broad, long 
and openly concave, straight-margined between the rather long and distant 
yellowish teeth, these with brown or chestnut tips. " Cabuya," " cabuya con 
espina," or " Central American sisal." 

9a. Furcraea cabuya integra Trel. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg II. Suppl. 3: 
907. 1910. 

Furcraea gigantea Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 216. 1854. 

Costa Rica (type from San Ramon) and Panama; also (?) in Honduras and 
El Salvador. 

Differs from the type only in having its leaves unarmed or with merely 
minute rudiments of teeth. " Cabuya Olancho," transmuted into " cabuya 
blanca." 

2. AGAVE L. Sp. PI. 323. 1753. 

References: J. G. Baker. Handbook of the Amaryllideae 163-198. 1888; 
Mulford, A study of the agaves of the United States, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 7: 
48-100. pi. 26-63. 1896; Trelease, Agave macroaeantha and related euagaves, 
Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 18: 231-256. pi. 18-Slf. 1907; Trelease, The Mexican fiber 
agaves known as zapupe, Trans. Acad. St. Louis 18: 29-37. pi. 1-6. 1909 ; Tre- 
lease, The agaves of Lower California, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 37-65. pi. 18-72. 
1912 ; Trelease, Revision of the agaves of the group Applanatae, Rep. Mo. Bot. 
Gard. 22: 85-97. pi. 78^99. 1912; Trelease & Ludwig, El Zapupe, pp. 1-29. ill. 
1909 ; Trelease, Agave, in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 1 : 230-239. 1914. 

The leaves contain an excellent fiber. That of A. americana, which is much 
planted and has escaped around the Mediterranean, is used in the dainty pita 
lacework of the Azores, etc. Much of the fiber of the lechuguilla type of plants 
is used for coarse sacking or enters into the complex of ixtle or Tampico fiber 
or Matamoros fiber. Agave cantala is grown extensively in tropical Asia for 
its fiber. Of recent years the zapupes have been exploited as equally worthy 
with the henequen or Sisal hemp, which forms the chief basis of Yucatecan 
commerce and is being extensively planted through tropical regions. The 
national drink of the Mexican Indians is fermented from the exuded sap of 
the large fleshy-leaved or maguey species when they are ready to bloom, and 
great plantations are maintained for this purpose on the table-land ; and a 
great deal of distilled liquor, called mezcal, like the smaller-leaved species used 
for the purpose, is distilled from a fermented mash made from the roasted 
stems of many species, especially those of the group Tequilanae, which are 
grown in large numbers for this purpose, particularly about Tequila in the 
State of Jalisco. The glucoside saponin occurs in many species and is very 
abundant in the rootstocks of a few agaves and particularly in those of the 
related herbaceous genus Manfreda, and these are used for washing under the 
name " amole." The fiber of the leaves was used in preconquest days for mak- 
ing a kind of paper, upon which manuscripts were written. 

The species of Agave are known in the United States as century plants. This 
name was given because of a belief that the plants flowered only when they had 
attained an age of a hundred years. This belief is, of course, incorrect. It is 
probably due to the fact that in cultivation the plants rarely bloom. In Europe 
the plants are often known as American aloes, because of a slight resemblance 
to Old World plants of the genus Aloe, of the family Liliaceae. 

126651—20 S 



108 CONTRIBUTIONS FEOM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

I. EUAGAVE. Flowers in a panicle. 

A. Leaves without a horny border, the spine at most deeurrent for little more 
than its length. 
B. Leaves hard-fibrous, swordlike or dagger-like or e ] se under 10 cm. wide. 
O. Marginal teeth numerous and strong. 

Teeth close together (5 to 10 mm. apart) and very slender. 

Leaves green 1. A. panamana. 

Leaves gray-green, purple-green, or very glaucous. 

Leaves gray-green or purple-green 2. A. rubescens. 

Leaves very glaucous ._ 3. A. stringens. 

Teeth more separated or heavier. 

D. Spine elongate, biconvex 4. A. angustifolia. 

DD. Spine elongate, half-round or very openly grooved. 

Leaves rough-granular 5. A. bergeri. 

Leaves smooth. 

Teeth slender 6. A. lespinassei. 

Teeth heavy. 

Teeth scarcely raised 7. A. endlichiana. 

Teeth on fleshy bases 36. A. sicaefolia. 

DDD. Spine needle-shaped, round-grooved. 

Teeth heavy or raised 8. A. aboriginum. 

Teeth slender 9. A. deweyana. 

DDDD. Spine short and thick or subulately tapered, biconvex or shallow- 
grooved at base. 

E. Spine subulately slender. 

Spine chestnut. Teeth small 10. A. zapupe. 

Spine red-brown or graying. 

Spine red-brown ; teeth small 20. A. donnell-smithii. 

Spine graying; teeth larger 11. A. subtilis. 

EE. Spine similar but larger and stouter. 
Teeth separated (30 mm. apart or more). 

Teeth heavy-based 12. A. longisepala. 

Teeth very slender 13. A. pedrosana. 

Teeth closer (scarcely 20 mm. apart), slender. 

Leaves green 14. A. gutierreziana. 

Leaves gray or white. 

Leaves gray 15. A. elongata. 

Leaves white 16. A. collina. 

EEE. Spine not subulate, or else short. 

Spine graying. Teeth large 17. A. palmaris. 

Spine red-brown. 

Teeth large 18. A. rhodacantha. 

Teeth rather small. 

Teeth close (10 mm. apart): 19. A. pes-mulae. 

Teeth distant 20. A. donnell-smithii. 

DDDDD. Spine conical, often round-grooved at base. 

F. Leaves green. 
Plants arborescent. 

Teeth heavy 21. A. karwinskii. 

Teeth very slender-cusped 22. A. decipiens. 

Plants short-stemmed or acaulescent. 

Teeth few or slender 23. A. sisalana. 

Teeth numeroiis, tapered 24. A. candelabrum. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 109 

FF. Leaves gray or lightly blue-glaucous. 
Leaves numerous. 

Leaves somewhat rough — 25. A. kirchneriana. 

Leaves smooth. 

Plant subacaulescent. 
Teeth gradually tapered. 
Teeth short. 

Leaves lax 26. A. pacifica. 

Leaves more rigidly ascending. 

Teeth distant (2 to 3 cm. apart) 27. A. cantala. 

Teeth closer (1 to 1.5 cm. apart) __28. A. tequilana. 
Teeth long .and strong. 

Teeth sharply flexed 29. A. pseudotequilana. 

Teeth gently curved 30. A. sullivani. 

Teeth abruptly slender-cusped 31. A. ixtli. 

Plant distinctly caulescent 32. A. fourcroydes. 

Leaves few. 

Spine grooved only at base 33. A. datylio. 

Spine grooved to middle 34. A. vexans. 

FFF. Leaves very white-glaucous. 

Leaves very long and concave 35. A. nivea. 

Leaves shorter, rather dagger-like. 
Leaves not falcate. 

Teeth gradually pointed 16. A. collina. 

Teeth deltoid at base 37. A. macroacantha. 

Leaves falcate 38. A. yaquiana. 

CC. Marginal teeth few or minute. 

Leaves oblong, green, transiently glaucous 23. A. sisalana. 

Leaves oblanceolate, pale 39. A. desmetiana. 

BB. Leaves hard-fibrous, oblanceolate-oblong. 

Teeth small and slender. Spine needle-shaped 40. A. thomasae. 

Teeth conspicuous and strong. 

Leaves relatively long (nearly 1 meter). 
Spine needle-shaped. 

Spine involute 41. A. deamiana. 

Spine round-grooved _• 45. A. kellermaniana. 

Spine conical, flat-grooved 42. A. hurteri. 

Leaves short (scarcely 0.5 meter long). 

G. Spine conical, flat-grooved or shallow-grooved. 

Spine brown, much twisted 43. A. tortispina. 

Spine gray, straight 44. A. pachycentra. 

GG. Spine round-grooved. 
Teeth close together (10 to 15 mm. apart) chestnut. 

Teeth slender-cusped 45. A. kellermaniana. 

Teeth heavily triangular 46. A. samalana. 

Teeth more separated, red-brown 47. A. lagunae. 

GGG. Spine involute at base. 

Teeth easily detachable : 48. A. minarum. 

Teeth firmly attached. 

Teeth small 49. A. seemanniana. 

Teeth large, brown. 

Spine needle-shaped ; teeth almost hooked 50. A. tenuispina. 

Spine conical; teeth nearly straight 51. A. opacidens. 



110 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

BBB. Leaves rather fibrous, oblong, over 1 mm. long. 

Leaves rather thin and straight-margined 52. A. lurida. 

Leaves fleshier. 

Margin nearly straight 53. A. rasconensis. 

Margin concave between the teeth 54. A. vera-cruz. 

BBBB. Leaves fleshy, obovate, deeply repand, short. 
Spine flexuous ; leaves scarcely 25 cm. long. 

Spine and teeth dull rusty brown 55. A. verchaffeltii. 

Spine and teeth gray, gray-brown, or red-chestnut. 

Spine and teeth gray-brown or gray 56. A. megalacantha. 

Spine and teeth red-chestnut 57. A. guadalajarana. 

Spine straight; leaves twice as long 58. A. potatorum. 

BBBBB. Leaves rather fleshy and long, oblanceolate, repand; teeth very 
unequal. 
Spine and teeth red-brown. 

Leaves green 59. A. mescal. 

Leaves grayish 60. A. fenzliana. 

Spine and teeth copper-colored 61. A. cupreata. 

BBBBBB. Leaves fleshy, large, the teeth mostly subequal. 

Leaves green-and-gray-banded, rough 111. A. marmorata. 

Leaves not markedly zoned. 

Spine conical, somewhat recurved. 
Leaves not sharply reflexed. 

Leaves abruptly acute, plicate 112. A. abrupta. 

Leaves not plicate. 

Spine gradually tapered 113. A. wercklei. 

Spine rapidly very acute 114. A. expansa. 

Leaves reflexed toward the end 115. A. americana. 

Spine needle-shaped. 

Leaves reflexed 116. A. picta. 

Leaves not sharply reflexed. 

Leaves rough 117. A. asperrima. 

Leaves smooth. 

Spine nearly straight 118. A. palmeri. 

Spine flexuous 119. A. flexispina. 

AA. Leaves with the teeth usually joined by a firmly attached horny border. 
Spine sinuous, rather slender. 

Filaments inserted in middle of tube 62. A. shawii. 

Filaments inserted above the middle 63. A. orcuttiana. 

Spine straight. 

Teeth gradually tapered 64. A. sebastiana. 

Teeth abrupt from a broad base. 

Leaves abruptly acuminate 65. A. pachyacantka. 

Leaves gradually acute 66. A. goldmaniana. 

A.AA. Leaves mostly with long-decurrent spine, but scarcely horny-margined 
between the teeth. 
H. Leaves oblong, long (over 1 meter). 

Leaves green or suhglaucous ; perianth segments long (3 cm.) 

12. A. longisepala. 

Leaves white-glaucous; segments much shorter 67. A. applanata. 

HH. Leaves ovate or obovate, scarcely half as long. 
Leaves rather thin ; spine slender. 

Leaves acute, dull gray 68. A. scabra. 

Leaves acuminate, glaucous 70. A. parrasana. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. Ill 

Leaves thick and fleshier; spine rather stout. 

Spine flat-grooved 71. A. chihuahuana. 

Spine round-grooved, sharp-edged. 

Leaves elongate; capsule about 4 cm. long 72. A. parryi. 

Leaves broad ; capsule 5.5 to 7.5 cm. long. 

Leaves acute 69. A. huachucensis. 

Leaves acuminate 73. A. patonii. 

HHH. Leaves triangular or lance-oblong, ascending. 
Leaves elongate .(fully 1 meter long). 

Perianth segments twice as long as tube 74. A. aurea. 

Perianth segments shorter than tube 75. A. promontorii. 

Leaves scarcely half as long. 

Teeth close together (5 to 10 mm. apart), small. 

Teeth friable, almost cuspless 76. A. dentiens. 

Teeth firm, with short sharp cusps 77. A. disjuncta. 

Teeth moz*e separated, sometimes very large. 
Spine nearly straight. 
Spine strong and rather stout. 
Leaf margin repand. 

Ovary flask-shaped 78. A. deserti. 

Ovary fusiform 79. A. consociata. 

Leaf margin nearly straight 80. A. pringlei. 

Spine very slender. 

Leaves roughened 81. A. cerulata. 

Leaves smooth. 

Perianth- segments 15 mm. long 82. A. carminis. 

Perianth segments 20 mm. long 83. A. sobria. 

Spine somewhat tortuous. Leaves roughened 84. A. affinis. 

HHHH. Leaves broadly lanceolate or oblanceolate. 

Teeth small, close together (10 mm.) 85. A. brandegeei. 

Teeth larger and more separated. 
Teeth gradually tapered. 

Teeth comparatively short and straight 86. A. margaritae. 

Teeth long and often hooked 87. A. connochaetodon. 

Teeth abruptly contracted from the base. 

Spine undulate; margin repand 88. A. roseana. 

Spine and margin straight 89. A. avellanidens. 

HHHHH. Leaves oblong or ovate-oblong ; spine straight. 

Teeth long, and firm 90. A. subsimplex. 

Teeth short, detachable 91. A. nelsoni. 

AAAA. Leaves horny-margined for the upper third or more, fleshy, large. 
Leaves broad (3 times, or rarely 4 or 5 times, as long as wide). 

Margin with few and rudimentary teeth or none 92. A. weberi. 

Margin with numerous strong teeth. 

Teeth confluent on much of the margin 93. A. latissima. 

Teeth joined by a horny margin only toward the end. 

Leaves undulate, very crenate, green 94. A. ferox. 

Leaves not very crenate if green. 

Leaves deeply gutter-shaped 96. A. compluviata. 

Leaves not gutter-like. 

Leaves scarcely twice as long as broad 95. A. mitraeformis. 



112 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves three or four times as long as broad. 

Leaves gray or glaucous, scarcely 1.5 meters long. 

Teeth close (1.5 to 2 cm. apart) ; margin incised_97. A. felina. 
Teeth more separated or margin not incised. 
Leaves gray-and-green -banded, often rough. 

Teeth on fleshy hummocks 98. A. subzonata. 

Teeth without such hummocks 99. A. zonata. 

Leaves not conspicuously zoned. 

Spine needle-shaped 100. A. gracilispina. 

Spine stout-conical. 

Leaves acuminate 101. A. melliflua. 

Leaves acute. 

Teeth on fleshy hummocks 102. A. quiotifera. 

Teeth without such hummocks 103. A. crassispina. 

Leaves green or slightly gray, plicate, 2 meters long. 

104. A. tecta. 
Leaves elongate (10 times as long as wide or longer). 
Leaves smooth. 

Leaves green (or relatively broad if gray), extremely large. 

105. A. atrovirens. 
Leaves gray. 

Leaves very long (over 2 meters) and narrow. Teeth small. 

106. A. mapisaga. 
Leaves moderate. 

Leaves scarcely repand (Pacific) 107. A. schlechtendalii. 

Leaves more repand (central) 108. A. bourgaei. 

Leaves white and very large 109. A. mirabilis. 

Leaves rough. Plants very glaucous except the green scape. 

110. A. franzosini. 

II. LITTABA. Flowers in a spike or spikelike cluster. 

A. Leaves not striate-ridged. 

B. Leaves neither filiferous nor with a detachable margin. 
C. Leaves elongate, at most minutely denticulate. 
Leaves rather fleshy, tapered from the base. 
Leaves with slender spine; flowers withering. 
Margin denticulate. 

Pedicels distinct 123. A. yuccaefolia. 

Pedicels on a peduncle 1*24. A. eduardi. 

Margin smooth 125. A. houghii. 

Leaves without spine; flowers drying rotate 122. A. bracteosa. 

Leaves rather stiff, oblong. 

Leaves light green, narrow (scarcely 1 cm. wide) 

120. A. dasylirioides. 

Leaves gray, broader (2 cm. wide) 121. A. intrepida. 

CC. Leaves relatively broad, at most minutely denticulate. 
Leaves without spine. 

Leaves without spine or denticles. 

Plants with elongate trunk 126. A. attenuata. 

Plants nearly or quite acaulescent 127. A. ellemeetiana. 

Leaves without spine but denticulate 128. A. pruinosa. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 113 

Leaves with pungent short spine. 

Leaves not denticulate 129. A. vilmoriniana. 

Leaves minutely denticulate 130. A. pedunculifera. 

OCC. Leaves with evident spine and teeth. 
Spine and teeth soft and weak or small. 

Leaves glaucous or green. Teeth more or less irregularly connate. 

131. A. celsii. 

Leaves gray-green. Teeth mostly distinct 132. A. micracantha. 

Leaves green, with pale median stripe 133. A. pendula. 

Spine and teeth firm and relatively large. 

Teeth close together; leaves green 134. A. polyacantha. 

Teeth more separated (10 mm. apart) ; leaves commonly glaucous. 

Flowers yellowish white, moderate 135. A. xalapensis. 

Flowers deep yellow, large (75 mm. long) 136. A. macrantha. 

BB. Leaves with soft dry border, spine, and teeth 137. A. pumila. 

BBB. Leaves with detachable horny border and with pungent spine. 
D. Leaves falcately ascending, thin, not repand. 

Leaves green or bluish 138. A. lecheguilla. 

Leaves gray-green, somewhat glaucous 139. A. funkiana. 

DD. Leaves spreading, rather narrow and thin, repand. 

140. A. lophantha. 
DDD. Leaves spreading, rather broad and usually thick. 

Leaves relatively thin, without pale ventral stripe 141. A. horrida. 

Leaves thicker. 

Leaves usually with pale ventral stripe 142. A. roezliana. 

Leaves without pale ventral stripe. 

Leaves fleshy, incurved 143. A. ghiesbreghtii. 

Leaves fibrous, straight 144. A. obscura. 

DDDD. Leaves often falcate, ascending, thick and stiff. 
Spine short (25 mm. long). 

Teeth long (5 to 15 mm.) if widely separated 145. A. triangularis. 

Teeth scarcely 5 mm. long, distant 146. A. potrerana. 

Spine long (over 50 mm. long). Spike very dense 147. A. kerchovei. 

DDDDD. Leaves spreading, oblong, thin, or else fleshy rather than hard. 
Horny margin of the leaf continuous. 
Teeth not on green hummocks. 

Leaves gray-green or blue-green, rather few — 148. A. inopinabilis. 
Leaves light green or glaucous. 

Leaves light green, scarcely glaucous. 

Spike very compact 149. A. convallis. 

Spike rather loose 150. A. expatriata. 

Leaves glaucous. 

Leaves flaccidly recurved 151. A. dissimulans. 

Leaves not recurved 152. A. angustiarum. 

Teeth saddling fleshy hummocks. 

Leaves rough. Teeth very broad 153. A. xylonacantha. 

Leaves smooth. 

Teeth mammaeform 154. A. washingtonensis. 

Teeth triangular 155. A. splendens. 

Horny margin interrupted in the middle 156. A. vittata. 

DDDDDD. Leaves straight, 3-edged. very hard__157. A. victoriae-reginae. 
BBBB. Leaves with (characteristically) detachable marginal threads, and 
with pungent spine. 



114 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves small (scarcely 1 cm. wide and 10 cm. long), denticulate at base. 
Spine flat. 

Marginal threads coarse 158. A. parviflora. 

Marginal threads fine 159. A. toumeyana. 

Spine and leaf tip involute 160. A. hartmani. 

Leaves elongate, or broader in dwarf forms. 
Leaves not recurving. 

E. Leaves narrow (scarcely 1 cm. wide). 

Leaves denticulate at base 161. A. mulfordiana. 

Leaves not denticulate 162. A. schottii. 

EE. Leaves moderately broad (1 to 2 cm.), not denticulate. 

Threads coarse, shaving-like 163. A. schidigera. 

Threads fine, coiling 164. A. angustissima. 

EEE. Leaves relatively broad (2.5-4 cm.), denticulate on suckers. 

165. A. filifera. 

Leaves recurving, very long and narrow 166. A. geminifiora. 

AA. Leaves striate-ridged, linear, without coarse teeth or marginal threads or 
horny margin. 
Leaves long and narrow (0.5 cm. wide, 60 to 90 cm. long) ; spine very slender. 

167. A. striata. 
Leaves shorter and broader (1 cm. wide, 25 to 50 cm. long) ; spine stouter. 

Leaves densely clustered, rhombic in section 168. A. echinoides. 

Leaves fewer or laxer, often 3-sided. 

Leaves nearly smooth on the margin 169. A. stricta. 

Leaves scabrid on the margin 170. A. falcata. 

1. Agave panamana Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves thin, 5 cm. wide and 65 cm. long, with a blackish needle-shaped spine 
scarcely 2 mm. wide and 10 mm. long, and small upcurved teeth 15 mm. apart 
and 1 to 2 mm. long ; inflorescence 1 to 3 meters tall ; flowers 00 mm. long, with 
segments equaling the tube, the filaments inserted about the upper third ; freely 
bulbiferous. 

Panama (type, in the herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden, from 
Urava Island, Howe, in 1909). 

Known as " vara de San JoseV' 

2. Agave rubescens Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 8, 306. 1834. 
Agave flaccida Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 306. 1834. 
Agave punctata Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 8, 306. 1834. 
Agave (hensispina Cels, Cat. 1865. 

? Agave erubescens Ellemeet, Belg. Hort. 1871: 119. 1871. 

Puebla and Oaxaca ; type cultivated in Europe from an unspecified locality. 

Nearly acaulescent; leaves gray, tinged with purple, 5 cm. wide, 75 cm. long, 
with a brown spine 4 mm. wide and 25 mm. long, and very slender, upcurved, 
orange or brown teeth 10 to 20 mm. apart and 3 to 4 mm. long, the translucent 
margin straight between them. 

3. Agave stringens Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves concave, thin and recurving, very glaucous, 1 to 2 cm. wide and 60 
cm. long or more, with a dark brown conical spine about 2 mm. wide and S mm. 
long, and very sharp and slender, red or brown, curved teeth scarcely 5 mm. 
apart and 1 to 2 mm. long, the intervening cartilaginous margin nearly straight. 

Jalisco; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from Rio 
Blanco barranca, Trelease, in 1904. 

4. Agave angustifolia Haw. Syn. PI. Succ. 72. 1812. 

Agave xorightii Drummond, Rep. Mo. Rot. Gard. 18: 27. 1907. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 115 

Yucatan or Honduras ?; what appears to be this, also, from Campeche (v. 
Christman\, in the Berlin herbarium; type cultivated in Europe from the 
island of St. Helena, where, as everywhere in warm countries, it is planted. 

Subcaulescent ; leaves gray-green, 8 cm. wide, 40 to 65 cm. long, with red- 
brown ungrooved spine 4 mm. wide and 25 to 40 mm. long, and dark, variously 
bent, very slender teeth 20 to 25 mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long. 

5. Agave bergeri Trel. ; Berger, Agaven 250. 1915. 

Leaves gray-green, granular-roughened, about 8 cm. wide and 100 cm. long, 
with red-chestnut or graying, half-round, rough spine 5 to 6 mm. wide and 20 to 
25 mm. long, and red or black, hooked, very slender teeth 15 to 25 mm. apart 
and 5 mm. long ; inflorescence 5 meters tall ; flowers 60 mm. long, green- 
yellow, with segments twice as long as the tube; capsules 30 mm. broad and 
60 mm. long, somewhat stipitate and beaked ; seeds 8 mm. wide and 12 mm. 
long; bulbiferous. 

Region ? ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, culti- 
vated in Europe as A. rigida, Berger, in 1908. 

6. Agave lespinassei Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 18: 33. 1909. 
Veracruz ; type from Tuxpan. 

Acaulescent ; leaves yellow-green, 6 to 7 cm. wide, 150 cm. long, with red- 
brown spine 5 to 6 mm. wide and 30 to 35 mm. long, and very slender, mostly 
upcurved, red-brown teeth 15 to 20 mm. apart and 1 to 2 mm. long, the inter- 
vening cartilaginous margin somewhat hollowed. " Zapupe de Tepezintla," 
" zapupe de Vincent." 

7. Agave endlichiana Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 18: 34. 1909. 
Veracruz ; type from Huatusco. 

Acaulescent ; leaves green, transiently glaucous, 5 to 9 cm. wide, 80 to 125 cm. 
long, with a garnet or chestnut spine 4 to 5 mm. wide and 15 to 30 mm. long, 
and heavy, upcurved, garnet or chestnut teeth 10 to 30 mm. apart and 3 mm. 
long, the intervening translucent margin nearly straight. " Ixtle," " ixtle 
manso." 

8. Agave aboriginum Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 18: 34. 1909. 
Veracruz ; type from Tuxpan. 

Acaulescent ; leaves yellow-green, somewhat gray, 5 to 11 cm. wide, 70 to 
150 cm. long, with brown, somewhat decurrent spine 4 mm. wide and 35 to 
50 mm. long, and heavy upcurved teeth 20 to 35 mm. apart and 5 to 8 mm. 
long sometimes with intercalated smaller ones, the intervening margin nearly 
straight. " Zapupe silvestre," " zapupe cimarron," " zapupe de Sierra Chontla " ; 
" wild zapupe." 

9. Agave deweyana 1 Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 18: 35. 1909. 
Tamaulipas and Veracruz ; type from Victoria, Tamaulipas. 
Acaulescent; leaves yellow-green, somewhat transiently glaucous, 5 to 10 cm. 

wide, 150 cm. long, with brown or purplish spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 15 to 
40 mm. long, and slender upcurved teeth 15 to 45 mm. apart and 2 to 3 mm. 
long. " Zapupe de Tantoyuca," " zapupe de Huatusco," " zapupe verde " ; 
" green zapupe." 

10. Agave zapupe Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 18: 32. 1909. 
Veracruz ; type from Tuxpan. 

Acaulescent ; leaves dark green but glaucous, 8 to 10 cm. wide, 150 to 200 
cm. long, with red-brown or blackening spine 4 mm. wide and 15 to 25 mm. 

1 Named for L. H. Dewey (1865-), of the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, well known for his work upon the fiber plants of Mexico and other regions. 



116 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

lung, and slender upcurved teeth 15 to 30 mm. apart and 2 to 3 mm. long. 
" Zapupe azul," " zapupe de Estopier," " zapupe de San Bernardo " ; " blue 
zapupe." 

11. Agave subtilis Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves ascending, glaucous, 10 to 15 cm. wide, 150 cm. long, with an acuminate 
gray spine 5 nun. wide and 25 mm. long, this flattened to the middle, and with 
rather slender-cusped, mostly upcurved teeth 20 to 50 mm. apart and 4 to 5 
mm. long. 

Jalisco; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Tequila, Griffiths H, in 1909. 

" Chato " ; a good mezcal species. 

12. Agave longisepala Tod. Hort. Panorm. 2: 34. 1891. 

Jalisco (?) ; type cultivated in Europe; cultivated for mezcal at Tequila as 
" mezcal grande." 

Leaves spreading, gray-green, 15 to 20 cm. wide, 200 cm. long, with a large 
conical or acuminate, flat-based, chestnut spine often 10 mm. wide and 25 mm. 
long, and with deltoid teeth 30 to 50 mm. apart and 5 to 10 mm. long, the 
prevailingly upcurved cusps often suppressed ; flowers 70 mm. long, with short 
tube, the segments 30 mm. long. 

13. Agave pedrosana Trel., sp. nov. 

• Leaves green, lightly glaucous, 10 to 15 cm. wide, 100 to 150 cm. long, with 
flexuous heavy flat-based chestnut spine about 10 mm. wide and 30 mm. long, 
and with slender upcurved teeth 30 to 60 mm. apart and 2 to 4 mm. long. 

Jalisco; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, collected 
at San Pedro, near Guadalajara, Trelease, in 1903. 

14. Agave gutierreziana Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves green, about 15 cm. wide and 200 cm. long, with a rather small 
subulate ungrooved graying spine scarcely 5 mm. wide and 20 mm. long, and 
with slender, sharply upcurved teeth 10 to 25 mm. apart and 5 to 6 mm. long. 

Chiapas ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Tuxtla Gutierrez, Gutierrez, in 1908. 

" Magueyon." 

15. Agave elongata J^ieobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 20: 501. 1864. 
Agave spectabilis Tod. Hort. Panorm. 2: 4. 1879. 

Region ? ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves spreading, gray-glaucous, 10 to 13 cm. wide, 200 cm. long, with 
rather attenuate, chestnut or graying, flat-based spine 5 to 6 mm. wide and 20 
to 30 mm. long, and slender, mostly upcurved teeth 10 to 15 mm. apart and 5 
mm. long. 

16. Agave collina Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 32: 296. 1897. 
Morelos; type collected above Cuernavaca. 

Acaulescent ; leaves glaucous, somewhat green-banded across the back, 5 to 8 
cm. wide, 75 cm. long, with red-brown or purplish brown spine 3 to 5 mm. wide 
and 20 to 30 mm. long, and rather heavy, upcurved, blackish teeth 10 to 25 mm. 
apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, the yellowish margin nearly straight between them. 

17. Agave palmaris Trel.. sp. nov. 

Leaves ascending, gray, more or less glaucous, 10 to 15 cm. wide. 150 cm. 
lung, with recurved, red or graying spine 4 mm. wide and 15 mm. long, and 
mostly upcurved, slender teeth 20 to 30 mm. apart and 5 mm. long. 

Jalisco ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from Mazete- 
pec, Dewey 657. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 117 

"Mano larga," " chino bermejo." A good mezcal species; apparently culti- 
vated for fiber in Sinaloa. A form with open spoon-shaped blunt spine fully 
10 mm. wide (var. monstrosa) is cultivated as " zapalote." 

18. Agave rhodacantha Trel., sp. now 

Leaves green, lightly glaucous, 15 to 20 cm. wide, 250 cm. long or more, with 
black-chestnut flat-based spine 5 mm. wide and 20 mm. long, and large heavy up- 
curved teeth 20 to 60 or 70 mm. apart and 10 mm. long, from large lenticular 
bases. 

Sinaloa ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Mocorito, Limdstrom, in 1909. 

" Espinoza." 

19. Agave pes-mulae Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves ascending, blue-green, glaucous, 6 to 8 cm. wide, 100 to 150 cm. long, 
with red-brown spine about 3 mm. wide and 15 mm. long, and sharply upcurved 
slender triangular teeth about 10 mm. apart and 3 mm. long. 

Jalisco; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Tequila, Griffiths B, in 1909. 

" Pato de mula," " pie de inula." A good mezcal species. 

20. Agave donnell-smithii x Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 144. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Escuintla. 

Acaulescent ; leaves light green, glaucous beneath. 8 cm. wide, 75 to 100 cm. 
long or more, with garnet or chestnut spine 4 mm. wide and 12 to 15 mm. long, 
and rather slender upcurved teeth 15 to 25 mm. apart and 2 to 3 mm. long. 
'21. Agave karwinskii Zucc. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 16 2 : 677. 1833. 

? Agave laxa Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 8. 1834. 

? Agave viridissima Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 137. 1877. 

Agave corderoyi Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 398. 1877. 

Agave bakeri Ross, Boll. Soc. Sci. Nat. ed. Econom. Palermo. 1894 3 . 

Puebla and Oaxaca ; type cultivated in Europe, presumably from Tehuacan. 

Trunk becoming 4 meters tall ; leaves green or very transiently glaucous, 
concave, 2 to 4 cm. wide, 35 to 70 cm. long, with dark brown spine 3 to 6 mm. 
wide and 25 to 50 mm. long, and strong, upcurved, nearly black teeth 25 to 45 
mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, the margin nearly straight between them. 
" Candelillo." 
22. Agave decipiens Baker, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1892: 183. 1892. 

Agave laxifolia Baker in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 122: pi. 7477. 1896. 

Southern Florida, around the coast (type cultivated in Europe without 
recorded locality) ; presumably native in Yucatan. 

Trunk 2 to 3 meters tall ; leaves green, outcurved, rather fleshy and concave, 
4 to 10 cm. wide, 70 to 125 cm. long, with dark chestnut spine 3 to 5 mm. wide 
and 10 to 25 mm. long, and very slender flexous teeth 10 .to 25 mm. apart and 
2 mm. long, these on fleshy prominences of the margin. 

Cultivated (from a plant of Baja California) as A. spiralis. "False sisal." 

1 Named for Capt. John Donnell Smith (1829-), of Baltimore, Maryland, 
well known for his extensive publications upon the botany of Central America. 
Capt. Smith has made collections in Central America, and has directed botanical 
explorations in many parts of that region. His large herbarium, which con- 
tains a wide representation of Mexican plants, and his library, have been pre- 
sented to the Smithsonian Institution, and are incorporated in the U. S. 
National Herbarium. 



118 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

23. Agave sisalana Perrine, U. S. Sen. 25th Congr. Sess. 2. Doc. 300. pi. 1, 2, k- 
1838. 

Agave rigida sualana Baker, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1889: 254. 1889. 

Yucatan ; type cultivated in Florida from introduced plants. 

Acaulescent ; leaves at length bright glossy green, at first lightly glaucous, 
nearly flat, 10 cm. wide, 150 cm. long, with a chestnut spine 4 to 5 mm. wide 
and 20 to 25 mm. long, the straight margin typically unarmed or with a few 
very rudimentary teeth. " Yaxci," " yax-qui," " green agave," " Sisal hemp," 
or " Bahama hemp." 

The species most extensively planted, as a source of fiber, outside of Yucatan. 
Called " maguey tuxtleco " in Chiapas. 

Sometimes occurring in a form as prickly as the preceding species (f. armata 
Trel. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. 11: 49. 1913) ; and exceptionally with a trunk about 
1 meter tall. 

24. Agave candelabrum Tod. Hort. Panorm. 1: 66. 1876. 
Agave rumphii and Agave- laxa Hort. 

Region ? ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves uniformly spreading, green, 7 cm. wide, 100 to 150 cm. long, with 
conical brown spine 3 mm. wide and 15 to 20 mm. long, and sharply upcurved 
teeth 10 to 25 or 30 mm. apart and 4 mm. long, the intervening margin straight. 

Perhaps a green extreme of A. cantala. 

25. Agave kirchneriana Berger, Agaven 252. 1915. 

Acaulescent ; leaves dull gray-green, slightly roughened, 7 cm. wide, 125 cm. 
long, with polished chestnut spine 5 mm. wide and 20 mm. long, and slender- 
upcurved blackish teeth 15 to 20 mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long ; flowers green, 
50 to 55 mm. long, the openly conical tube half as long as the segments. 

Guerrero ; type from Xochipila or Zumpango. 

" Maguey delgado " ; yielding superior fiber and mezcal. 

26. Agave pacifica Trel., sp. nov. 

Acaulescent ; leaves yellow-green, very lightly glaucous and zoned, 3.5 to 5 
cm. wide, 50 to 75 cm. long, the purplish red-brown spine 15 to 25 mm. long, 
often abruptly contracted and slender above the decurrent base, the teeth usually 
upcurved-triangular, 15 to 25 mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, the intervening 
cartilaginous margin straight ; flowers greenish yellow, 50 mm. long, the openly 
conical tube half as long as the segments; capsules shortly stipitate and 
beaked, 25 mm. broad and 45 mm. long. 

Sonora, Sinaloa, and Tepic; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden, from Creston Island, Mazatl&n, Sinaloa, Trelease, in 1904. 

27. Agave cantala Roxb. Hort. Beng. 25. 1814. 
Agave vivipara of authors, not L. 

Agave flaccida Haw. Syn. PL Succ. 72. 1812. 

Furcraea cantala Haw. Suppl. PL Succ. 42. 1819. 

Furcraea madagascariensis Haw. Suppl. PL Succ. 42. 1819. 

Agave madagascariensis Spreng. Syst. Veg. 2: 79. 1825. 

Agave cantula Roxb. PL Ind. 2: 167. 1832. 

Region ? ; type cultivated in India. 

Acaulescent; leaves glaucous, slightly green-lined longitudinally, falcate or 
straight, ascending, 6 to 10 cm. wide, 150 cm. long, with slender-pointed conical 
brown spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 15 to 20 mm. long, and red-chestnut, upcurved, 
gradually very sharp-pointed teeth 20 to 30 mm. apart and 5 to 6 mm. long. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 119 

A close ally of the "zapupe" and especially the "Tequila mezcal" species; 
cultivated for its fiber in the Philippines as " maguey " or " Manila aloe," and 
in India where it is the source of " Bombay hemp " or " Bombay aloe fiber." 

Apparently one of the west-Mexican allies of A. tequilana, perhaps early 
taken for its fiber to the Philippines and thence to India, from the Acapulco 
region. 

28. Agave tequilana Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist Nat. 8: 220. 1902. 
Jalisco ; type from about Tequila. 

Shortly caulescent ; leaves rather light bluish green and persistently glau- 
cous, thin and nearly flat, 8 to 10 cm. wide, 125 cm. long or more, with red- 
brown or purple-brown spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 15 to 20 mm. long, and trian- 
gular upcurved reddish teeth 10 to 15 mm. apart and 3 to 4 mm. long, the 
intervening whitish margin slightly hollowed. " Mezcal azul " or " chino azul." 

The common source of the distilled liquor, " mezcal de Tequila." A number 
of related forms are found in cultivation with this typical " azul." These, 
probably all specifically separable as with the " zapupe " complex, to which 
they are related, are known as " mano larga," " bermejo," " chato," " chino 
bermejo," " zapalote," " pie de mula " or " pato de mula," and " seguin " or 
" ziguin." 

29. Agave pseudotequilana Trel., sp. nov. 

Shortly caulescent ; leaves yellow-green, glaucous, rather thick, openly con- 
cave, 15 cm. wide, 175 to 200 cm. long, with dark red-brown, conical or acu- 
minately tapered spine 4 to 7 mm. wide and 10 to 15 or 20 mm. long, and 
sharply upcurved or flexed, triangular teeth on broad bases, 15 to 20 or 35 mm. 
apart and 5 to 10 mm. long, the intervening margin nearly straight ; inflorescence 
ample, panicled ; flowers unknown ; capsules broadly oblong, 25 mm. broad and 
45 mm. long, accompanied by bulbils. 

Jalisco ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Tuxpan. 

" Mezcal bianco " or " mezcal cucharo." 

30. Agave sullivani Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves green, about 10 cm. wide and 100 cm. long, with a chestnut, very 
short-conical spine, this abruptly pointed, or less commonly conical, and round- 
grooved at baser 5 mm. wide and 10 to 15 mm. long, the teeth triangular, up- 
curved, 20 mm. apart and 4 to 6 mm. long. 

Region ? ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, cultivated 
for mezcal at La Paz, Baja California, Sullivan, in 1910. 

31. Agave ixtli Karw. in Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 8, 304. 1834. 
Yucatan ; type cultivated in Europe, from Yucatan. 

Acaulescent ; leaves grayish, somewhat concave, scarcely 50 cm. long, with 
spine and prickles much as in A. fourcroydes. 

" Ixtle " ; apparently including the plants known as " bab-ci," " chelem " 
(which is A. silvestris D'Utra, Bol. Agr. S. Paulo, 1909: 169. 1909, and A. pro- 
lifera Schott, in sched.), " chucum-ci," " citam-ci " (which is A. minima D'Utra, 
loc. cit.), "pita-ci," " xix-ci," and " xtuc-ci." The specific name is variously 
and often erroneously spelled. 

32. Agave fourcroydes Lem. 111. Hort. 11: Misc. 65. 1864. 

Agave rigida elongata Baker, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1892: 33. 1892. 

Yucatan ; type cultivated in Europe from an unrecorded locality. 

Trunk becoming 2 meters tall; leaves gray, rather flat, 8 to 10 cm. wide, 
150 to 250 cm. long, with black-brown spine 4 to 6 mm. wide and 20 to 30 mm. 
long, and moderately slender, somewhat upcurved, blackish teeth 10 to 20 mm. 



120 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

apart and 1 to 4 mm. long, the margin nearly straight between their somewhat 
raised bases. " Sacqui," " sac-ci," " gray agave," or " henequen." 
The source of the larger part of the " Sisal hemp " exported from Yucatan. 

33. Agave datylio Weber, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 8: 223. 1902. 
Baja California ; type from La Paz. 

Acaulescent ; leaves yellow-green or gray-green, 3 to 4 cm. wide, 30 to 75 cm. 
long, with purplish or blackish spine 4 to 6 mm. wide and 20 to 30 mm. long, 
and glossy, chestnut, heavily triangular or slender-cusped teeth 20 to 30 or 50 
mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, the intervening margin nearly straight. 

34. Agave vexans Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 62. 1911. 
Baja California ; type from Mulege. 

Acaulescent ; leaves gray-green, 2 cm. wide, 20 to 45 cm. long, with gray- 
brown spine 3 to 5 mm. wide and 25 to 35 mm. long, and triangular or slender- 
cusped, detachable teeth 15 to 20 mm. apart and 3 to 4 mm. long. 

35. Agave nivea Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 143. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from El Rahcho. 

Acaulescent ; leaves very glaucous, very concave, 15 cm. wide, 200 cm. long, 
with black-chestnut spine 3 mm. wide and 15 to 20 mm. long, and triangular 
slender-cusped teeth 30 to 50 mm. apart and 3 mm. long, their bases often 
fleshy, the intervening margin nearly straight. 

36. Agave sicaefolia Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 141. 1915. 
Guatemala; type from El Rancho. 

Acaulescent ; leaves gray, flat or concave, 7 to 8 cm. wide, 60 to 75 cm. long, 
with purplish chestnut spine 4 mm. wide and 30 to 40 mm. long, and mostly 
upcurved, slender teeth 15 to 35 mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, the interven- 
ing margin sometimes with smaller straight teeth. 

37. Agave macroacantha Zucc. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 16 2 : 676. 1833. 
Agave pugioniformis Zucc. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 16 2 : 676. 1833. 
Agave flavescens Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 8, 305. 1S34. 

Agave flavescens macroacantha Jacobi, Hamb. Gait. Zeit. 1864: 500. 1864. 

Agave bessereriana Van Houtte, Cat. 1868: 32. 1868. 

Agave subfalcata Jacobi, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 1869: 179. 1S69. 

Agave linearis Jacobi, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 1869: 179. 1869. 

Agave concinna Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 137. 1877. 

Agave sudburyensis Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 137. 1877. 

Agave paucifolia Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 9: 266. 1878. 

Agave oligophylla Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 10: 492. 1878. 

? Agave loiesenburgensis Wittm. Gart. Zeit. 4: 13. 1885. 

Agave baxteri Baker, Amaryll. 178. 1888. 

? Agave integrifolia Baker, Amaryll. 185. 1888. 

Puebla ; type cultivated in Europe, probably from Tehuacan. 

Acaulescent; leaves glaucous, 2 to 4 (or 7) cm. wide, 20 to 55 cm. long, with 
dark brown or blackish spine 4 to 6 mm. wide and 15 to 25 ram. long or more, 
and heavy-based, rather upcurved teeth 15 to 20 mm. apart and 2 to 3 mm. long. 
" Espadilla." 

38. Agave yaquiana Trel., sp. nov. 

Acaulescent ; leaves falcately erect, glaucous and green-zoned, 5 cm. wide, 75 
cm. long, with brown decurrent spine 4 mm. wide and 25 mm. long, and rather 
heavy, mostly upcurved, triangular teeth 15 to 20 or even 50 mm. apart and 36 
mm. long, the intervening cartilaginous margin very slightly hollowed. 

Sonora ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from rocky 
hillsides between Hermosillo and Ures, Trelease 391. 

" Mezcal." 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 121 

39. Agave desmettiana Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 217. 1866. 
? Agave pallida Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 112. 1866. 

? Agave regeliana Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 214. 1866. 

? Agave ananassoides de Jonge & Jacobi. Abb. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1868: 
147. 1868. 

Agave miradorensis Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1868: 156. 1868. 

Veracruz ; type cultivated in Europe, presumably from El Mirador, Huatusco, 
though said to be from Brazil. 

Leaves glaucous, nearly straight, 3 to 7 or 10 cm. wide, 75 to 100 cm. long, 
with slender spine 4 to 5 mm. wide and 20 to 25 mm. long, entire above but with 
minute, nearly colorless teeth some 5 mm. apart toward the base. 

40. Agave thomasae Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 138. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type cultivated at Quezaltenango. 

Leaves green, glaucous, 15 cm. wide, 60 cm. long, with chestnut needle- 
shaped spine 2 mm. wide and 25 mm. long, and minute, nearly straight teeth 5 
to 10 mm. apart and 1 to 2 mm. long, the margin straight between them. 

41. Agave deamiana ' Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 139. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Fiscal. 

Leaves grayish, 10 cm. wide and 100 cm. long, with purplish brown, needle- 
shaped spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 40 mm. long, and slender teeth 10 to 20 mm. 
apart and 2 to 4 mm. long, the margin straight between them. 

42. Agave hurteri Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 136. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Zunil. 

Leaves somewhat glaucous, 10 cm. wide, 75 to 100 cm. long, with straight 
chestnut spine 8 mm. wide and 40 mm. long, and more or less hooked, relatively 
slender teeth 10 to 20 mm. apart and 5 to 10 mm. long, the intervening margin 
straight. 

43. Agave tortispina Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 135. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Cruz. 

Leaves yellow-green, white-glaucous, 10 cm. wide, 25 to 30 cm. long, with red 
or smoky brown, very flexuous spine 4 mm. wide and 30 mm. long, and heavy, 
nearly straight teeth 15 to 25 mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long on prominent 
fleshy hummocks. 

44. Agave pachycentra Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 135. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Cruz. 

Leaves green, blue-glaucous, 15 to 20 cm. wide. 35 to 60 cm. long, with large 
gray spine 8 mm. wide and 50 to 60 mm. long, and heavy recurved teeth 25 to 50 
mm. apart and 5 to 10 mm. long, these on prominent fleshy hummocks. 

45. Agave kellermaniana 2 Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 142. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Fiscal. 

Leaves very glaucous, 8 to 10 cm. wide and 100 cm. long or larger, with 
purple-chestnut spine 4 to 5 mm. wide and 30 to 35 mm. long, and upcurved 
slender teeth 10 to 25 mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, these sometimes on fleshy 
prominences. 

1 Named for Charles C. Deam, of Bluffton, Indiana, well known for his in- 
vestigations of the flora of Indiana. Mr. Deam has also obtained an extensive 
collection of plants in Guatemala. 

"Named for W. A. Kellerman (1850-1908), of Ohio, known especially for his 
investigations of parasitic fungi. He made large collections of plants in Guate- 
mala. 



122 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

46. Agave samalana Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 142. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Esperanza. 

Leaves glaucous, 15 cm. wide, 00 cm. long, with reddish or chestnut needle- 
shaped spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 35 to 55 mm. long, and rather straight trian- 
gular teeth 5 to 20 mm. apart and 1 to 3 or 5 mm. long, the nearly straight in- 
tervening margin denticulate. 

47. Agave lagunae Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23 : 143. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Amatitlan. 

Leaves very glaucous, 8 to 10 cm. wide, 40 cm. long, with garnet spine 3 to 5 
mm. wide and 20 to 30 mm. long, and variously curved teeth 20 to 40 mm. 
apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, these on rather prominent fleshy hummocks between 
which the margin is straight. 

48. Agave minarum Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 139. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type collected near El Rancho. 

Leaves yellow-green, 6 cm. wide, 60 cm. long, with brown spine 5 mm. wide 
and 45 mm. long, and detachable teeth 5 to 10 mm. apart, the intervening mar- 
gin straight. 

49. Agave seemanniana * Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1868: 154. 
1868. 

Nicaragua (type from Segovia) and Guatemala. 

Leaves glaucous, 8 cm. wide, 35 cm. long, with purplish brown spine 2 to 4 
mm. wide and 20 to 30 mm. long, and triangular teeth 10 to 20 mm. apart and 

2 to 3 mm. long, the margin hollowed between them. 

50. Agave tenuispina Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 140. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Cruz. . 

Leaves glaucous, 20 cm. wide, 70 cm. long, with dull brown needle-like spine 

3 mm. wide and 60 to 70 mm. long, and rather heavy curved teeth 20 to 40 
mm. apart and 5 to 10 mm. long, the margin hollowed between them. 

51. Agave opacidens Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 140. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type from Cruz. 

Leaves glaucous, 8 to 10 cm. wide, 75 cm. long, with dull brown spine 6 mm. 
wide and 50 to 60 mm. long, and heavy, nearly straight teeth 20 to 50 mm. 
apart and 5 to 8 mm. long, these on rather fleshy prominences. 

52. Agave lurida Ait. Hort. Kew. 1: 472. 1789. 

Veracruz ; type cultivated in Europe ; scarcely known except in cultivation. 

Leaves glaucous, rather thin and curved, with a slender spine 3 to 4 mm. 
wide and 25 to 30 mm. long, and small teeth about 10 mm. apart and 3 mm. 
long, these usually not on fleshy bases. 

53. Agave rasconensis Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves rather thin and more or less outcurved, about 10 cm. wide and 75 cm. 
long, gradually acute, glaucous, with needle-shaped, somewhat round-grooved, 
glossy red-brown spine about 4 mm. wide and 30 mm. long, and broadly tri- 
angular teeth 20 to 50 mm. apart and 6 mm. long, these on somewhat raised 
prominences between which the margin is nearly straight; inflorescence about 
8 meters tall, paniculate; flowers 90 to 95 mm. long, short-pediceled, somewhat 
stipitate, the tube 12 to 15 mm. deep, scarcely half as long as the segments, 

1 Berthold Seemann (1825-1871) was a native of Hanover, who from 1847 
to 1851 was naturalist of H. M. S. Herald. In Mexico he collected in the states 
of Sinaloa and Durango, and probably elsewhere. He collected also in Panama, 
and published an extended account of his botanical discoveries. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 123 

the filaments inserted in its throat ; capsules 25 mm. broad and 50 mm. long, 
stipitate but scarcely beaked ; seeds 7 mm. wide and 10 mm. long. 

San Luis Potosi; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 
from Rascon, Trelease 75. 

54. Agave vera-cruz Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Agave no. 7. 1768. 
Agave mexicana and Agave theometel of authors. 

Veracruz (?); type cultivated in Europe, nominally from that region; also 
established in Peru. Extensively planted about the Mediterranean, and culti- 
vated as " blue aloe " in Mauritius, Amoy, and India. 

Leaves glaucous, rather fleshy and straight, 15 to 17 cm. wide, 150 cm. long, 
with short stout gray spine 5 to 6 mm. wide and 20 to 25 mm. long, and deltoid 
teeth on low fleshy prominences. 

55. Agave verschaffeltii Lem. in Verschaffelt, Cat. 1S66-7, f.; 111. Hort. 15: 
pi. 564. 1868. 

Puebla ; type cultivated in Europe, pretty clearly from about Tehuacan. 

Leaves glaucous, 7 cm. wide, 15 to 17 cm. long, obovate-oblong, acuminate, 
with twisted light brown spine and long rust-brown teeth on very high fleshy 
prominences. " Papalometl." 

A beautiful polymorphic small species, at one time popular in European 
gardens under distinctive varietal names, of which over 30 have been listed — 
one of the introducers advertising as many varieties as there are plants. 
Among the names preoccupied by these as specific are A. albida, A. amoena, 
A. auricantha, A. bedinghausii, A. bonneti, A. cochleuta, A. crenata, A. croucheri, 
A. cucullata, A. elegans, A. imbricata, A. leopoldi, A. prolifera, A. pulverulenta, 
A. quadreta, A. rotundifolia, A. saundersii, A. serrata, A. scrrulata, A. simsii, 
A. streptacantha, and A. tefiuacanensis. 

56. Agave megalacantha Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 55. 18S0. 
Valley of Mexico ; type from the lava fields. 

Leaves gray, short-obovate, acuminate, 10 cm. wide, 15 to 20 cm. long, with 
brown or gray spine 5 mm. wide and 40 mm. long, and rather stout, mostly 
upcurved teeth about 20 mm. apart and 5 mm. long, these from very high fleshy 
prominences. 

57. Agave guadalajarana Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves dull and pale but scarcely glaucous, cuneate-obovate, rather obtuse, 
8 cm. wide and 12 cm. long, with red-chestnut curved spine 3 mm. wide and 
25 mm. long, and triangular teeth, the upper ones 7 mm. long and from high 
fleshy prominences; inflorescence panicled, with short, more or less connate 
pedicels ; flowers 60 mm. long, the perianth segments equaling or shorter than 
the tube ; capsules stipitate and beaked, 15 to 20 mm. wide, 35 mm. long. 

Jalisco; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Guadalajara, Pringle 4473. x 

58. Agave potatorum Zucc. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 16 2 : 675. 1833. 
Puebla; type cultivated in Europe (from about Tehuacan ?). 

Leaves oblanceolate, acute, 8 to 10 cm. wide, 30 to 40 cm. long, with straight, 
dull brown spine, and rather small teeth on low fleshy prominences, gray in 
the typical form, and green in that which has been called A. scolymiis Karw. 
(in Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 307. 1834). 

59. Agave mescal Koch, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 8: 94. 1865. 
Agave hookeri Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 168. 1866. 

Michoacan (type locality about Tejulpico on the Balsas River ?), Sinaloa, 
and Sonora. 

126651—20 9 



124 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves dark green, oblong-obovate, acute, 15 to 25 cm. wide, 100 to 150 cm. 
long, rather thin, with slender brown spine and rather long teeth from the 
tops of fleshy prominences between which other teeth occur on the hollowed 
margin. " Mezcal," " lechuguilla." 

60. Agave fenzliana Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 170. 1866. 

Agave inaeqiiidens Koch, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 3: 28. 1860. 

Michoac&n (?) ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves dull light green, 15 to 20 cm. wide and 150 cm. long or more, with 
long brown spine and unequal, rather small teeth more or less raised on 
prominences. 

61. Agave cupreata Trel. & Berger; Berger, Agaven 197. 1915. 

Leaves gray, oblanceolate, acute, 20 cm. wide, 75 cm. long, with copper-colored, 
somewhat twisted spine 5 mm. wide and 45 mm. long, and large, variously 
curved, unequal, similarly colored, flat teeth 30 to 60 mm. apart and 10 to 15 
mm. long, these clasping the tops of large fleshy prominences ; panicle 10 meters 
tall ; flowers yellow, 55 to 60 mm. long, the tube about 10 mm. long. 

Michoac&n and Guerrero ; type from the Sierra Madre. 

" Maguey de mezcal." 

62. Agave shawii Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 314. 1875. 
Northwestern Baja California, near the coast. Southern California ; type 

from Point Loma. 

Trunk 1 meter tall ; leaves green, glossy, acuminate, 6 to 12 cm. wide, 25 to 
50 cm. long, with flexuous needle-shaped red spine 3 to 6 mm. wide and 20 to 
40 mm. long, and large, garnet, variously curved teeth 10 to 25 mm. apart and 
10 to 15 mm. long, connected by a horny band ; filaments inserted about the 
middle of the perianth tube. 

63. Agave orcuttiana 1 Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 47. 1912. 
Northwestern Baja California, near the coast ; type from San Quintfn. 
Trunk reaching a height of 3 meters ; leaves green, with gray spine 4 mm. 

wide and 20 to 25 mm. long, and large curved gray teeth with- horny connection; 
filaments inserted above the middle of .the tube. 

64. Agave sebastiana Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: 214. 18S5. 

Western coast region and islands of middle Baja California ; type from 
Cedros Island. 

Leaves glaucous, rather acute, 6 to 10 cm. wide, 15 to 30 cm. long, with 
red-brown or gray spine 5 to 6 cm. wide and 20 to 50 mm. long, and nearly 
straight teeth 15 mm. apart and 3 to 5 or even 10 to 15 mm. long, with horny 
connection ; filaments inserted above the middle of the tube. 

65. Agave pachyacantha Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 48. 1912. 
Northwestern coast region of Baja California ; type from Todos Santos Bay. 
Leaves rather gray, acuminate, 10 to 12 cm. wide, 25 to 40 or 75 cm. long, 

with straight heavy chestnut spine 6 to 9 mm. wide and 25 to 40 mm. long, and 
mostly recurved, heavy teeth 15 mm. apart and 10 mm. long (or sometimes 
almost suppressed), with connecting horny line; filaments inserted toward the 
top of the tube. 

1 Named for C. R. Orcutt (1864-), for many years a resident of California, 
who has collected plants in various parts of Mexico, but especially in Baja 
California. Many specimens of his collection are in the U. S. National Her- 
barium. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 125 

66. Agave goldmaniana Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 49. 1911. 
Eastern Baja California ; type from Yubai. 

Trunk short ; leaves grayish, 10 cm. wide, 50 cm. long, with nearly straight 
blackish spine 7 mm. wide and 40 mm. long, and teeth 15 to 30 mm. apart and 
up to 10 mm. long, these very nearly triangular, often connected by a horny 
band, the intervening margin nearly straight. 

67. Agave applanata Koch, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 1862: 83. 1862. 
Veracruz ; on the lava fields about Limon ; type cultivated in Europe, without 

recorded locality. 

Leaves glaucous, 10 to 15 cm. wide, 100 to 150 cm. long, with purplish or 
gray, somewhat flexuous, long-decurrent spine 6 to 7 mm. wide and 35 to 45 
mm. long, and more or less recurved, triangular teeth 25 to 50 mm. apart and 
5 to 8 mm. long, the upper ones connected by a horny line. 

68. Agave scabra Salm-Dyck, Bonplandia 7: 86. 1859. 
Agave ivislizeni Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 320. 1875. 
Agave noah Nickels, Cat. 26: 20. 

Coahuila ; type from San Sebastian, Sierra de Noa. 

Leaves dull gray, smooth, acute, 10 to 15 cm. wide, 20 to 25 cm. long, with 
somewhat curved and decurrent, chestnut or gray spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 
15 to 20 mm. long, and more or less curved, narrowly triangular teeth 15 to 
20 mm. apart and 3 to 8 mm. long, the margin between them slightly hollowed. 

69. Agave huachucensis Baker, Amaryll. 172. 1888. 

Southern Arizona (type locality, Huachuca Mountains), and perhaps adjacent 
Mexico. 

Leaves in a globose cluster, dull gray, essentially smooth, acute, 10 to 15 cm. 
wide, 16 to 30 cm. long, with more or less flexuous and decurrent, red-chestnut 
or gray spine 5 to 6 mm. wide and 25 mm. long, and usually recurved, narrowly 
triangular teeth 15 mm. apart and 4 to 7 mm. long, the margin between these 
usually concave. 

70. Agave parrasana Berger, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 4: 250. 1906. 
Coahuila ; type from Sierra de Parras. 

Leaves green, lightly glaucous, obovate, long-acuminate, 6 to 8 cm. wide, 
10 cm. long or more, with slender-tipped spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 50 mm. 
long, and more or less recurved triangular teeth about 10 mm. apart and 5 mm. 
long, on fleshy prominences. 

71. Agave chihuahuana Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 90. 1911. 
Chihuahua ; type locality near Chihuahua. 

Leaves grayish, somewhat acuminate, 10 to 15 cm. wide, 15 to 25 cm. long, 
with purplish chestnut spine 4 to 7 mm. wide and 25 to 35 mm. long, and 
triangular teeth 15 to 25 mm. apart and 6 mm. long, the margin between them 
nearly straight ; filaments inserted far above the middle of the tube. 

72. Agave parryi Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 311. 1875. 
Mountains of northern Chihuahua. Southern Arizona and New Mexico; 

type from Santa Rita, New Mexico. 

Leaves gray, acute or somewhat acuminate, 6 to 10 cm. wide, 25 to 30 cm. 
long (exceptionally 15 cm. wide and 40 cm. long), the spines nearly straight, 
from chestnut becoming gray, 5 to 6 mm. broad and 20 to 25 mm. long, the 
teeth straightish or gently recurved, 15 to 20 mm. apart, 3 to 5 mm. long; 
filaments inserted nearly in the throat of the perianth tube. 

73. Agave patonii Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 92. 1911. 
Durango ; type locality, Chinacates. 

Leaves grayish, more or less acuminate, 20 cm. wide, 30 cm. long, with nearly 
straight purplish spine 6 mm. wide and 30 to 35 mm. long, and relatively 



126 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

slender recurved teeth 20 to 25 mm. apart and to 7 mm. long, the intervening 
margin nearly straight; filaments inserted in the throat of the perianth tube. 

74. Agave aurea T. S. Brandeg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2: 207. 1889. 
Eastern Baja California; type locality, Purisima. 

Leaves gray-green, acuminate, 10 to 15 cm. wide, 75 to 100 cm. long, with 
conical or acuminate chestnut spine 3 to 5 mm. wide and 20 to 30 mm. long, 
and very unequal, triangular, often upcurved teeth 10 to 20 mm. apart and 
4 to 8 mm. long, from fleshy prominences. 

75. Agave promontorii Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 50. 1911. 
Cape region of Baja California ; type locality, Sierra de la Laguna. 
Leaves rather glaucous ; spine more acuminate and curved. 

76. Agave dentiens Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 51. 1911. 
Islands off the Sonora coast; type from San Esteban Island. 

Leaves glaucous gray-green, 3 to 5 cm. wide, 30 to 50 cm. long, with ash- 
colored or brown-tipped spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 20 to 30 mm. long, and 
minute whitish friable teeth 5 to 10 mm. apart and scarcely 1 mm. long, the 
margin nearly straight. 

77. Agave disjuncta Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 51. 1911. 
Islands of Baja California ; type locality, San Benito Island. 
Differs from the preceding in its firmer browner teeth. 

78. Agave deserti Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 310, 370. 1875. 
Colorado Desert of southern California (type locality east of San Felipe), 

and possibly adjacent Baja California. 

Leaves gray, slightly granular, 5 cm. wide, 15 to 30 cm. long, with brown or 
fading, needle-shaped spine 3 mm. wide and 30 mm. long, and rather friable 
teeth 5 to 10 mm. apart and 3 to 4 mm. lung, from rather prominent fleshy 
hummocks ; ovary flask-shaped, 15 to 20 mm. long, equaling the perianth. 

79. Agave consociata Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 53. 1911. 

Southern California and adjacent Baja California ; type locality, San Felipe, 
California. 

Leaves gray, 6 cm. wide, 20 to 30 cm. long, with brown spine 3 to 4 mm. 
wide and 25 to 30 mm. long, and triangular teeth 10 to 30 mm. apart and 
4 to 8 mm. long, the intervening margin somewhat hollowed ; ovary fusiform, 
25 to 30 mm. long, exceeding the perianth. 

80. Agave pringlei Engelm.; Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 54. 1911. 
Baja California ; type from the central plateau. 

Leaves gray, 5 cm. wide, 15 to 40 cm. long, with drab or brown-tipped spine 
3 to 5 mm. wide and 25 to 35 mm. long, and easily detachable triangular teeth 
15 to 25 mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, the intervening margin nearly straight. 

81. Agave cerulata Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 55. 1911. 
Central Baja California ; type locality, Calmalli. 

Leaves gray or glaucous, somewhat rough, 2 to 4 cm. wide, 30 cm. long, with 
gray-brown spine 2 to 4 mm. wide and 30 mm. long, and friable teeth 10 to 15 
or 25 mm. apart and 3 mm. long, from fleshy marginal hummocks. 

82. Agave carminis Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 55. 1911. 
Islands of eastern Baja California ; type locality, Carmen Island. 

Leaves grayish, smooth, 5 cm. wide, 30 to 40 cm. long, with needle-shaped, 
light, brown spine 2 mm. wide and 35 mm. long, and firm, variously curved, 
narrowly triangular teeth 20 to 30 mm. apart and 5 nun. long, from low fleshy 
prominences between which the margin is nearly straight. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 127 

83. Agave sobria T. S. Brandeg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2: 207. 1899. 
East-central Baja California ; type locality, mesas about Comondu. 

Leaves glaucous, about 60 cm. long, with chestnut or glaucous, narrowly 
triangular, variously curved teeth 20 to 30 mm. apart and 8 to 10 mm. long, 
the intervening margin more or less hollowed. 

84. Agave affinis Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 56. 1911. 
Eastern Baja California ; type locality, Concepcion Bay. 

Leaves glaucous gray-green, rough, 5 cm. wide, 50 cm. long, with somewhat 
wavy, light brown or faded, nearly straight, narrowly triangular teeth 10 to 
20 or 40 mm. apart and 5 to 7 mm. long, from low prominences between which 
the margin is somewhat concave. 

85. Agave brandegeei Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 57. 1911. 
Cape region of Baja California ; type from the mountains. 

Leaves grayish yellow-green, 10 cm. wide, 60 cm. long, with stout, conical 
or acuminate, recurved, red-brown spine 4 mm. wide and 20 mm. long, and 
gently upcurved, broadly triangular teeth 10 mm. apart and 2 mm. long, the 
intervening margin straight. 

86. Agave margaritae T. S. Brandeg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2: 206. 1889. 
Islands of southwestern Baja California ; type locality, Magdalena Island. 
Leaves green or transiently glaucous, acuminate, 6 to 10 cm. wide, 12 to 20 

cm. long, with somewhat undulate, needle-shaped, chestnut or fading spine 3 
mm. wide and 25 mm. long, and narrowly triangular, curved teeth 10 mm. 
apart and 6 to 8 mm. long, on low fleshy prominences. 

87. Agave connochaetodon Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 58. 1911. 
Southwestern Baja California ; type locality, Santa Maria Bay. 

Leaves somewhat glaucous light green, 6 cm. wide, 25 cm. long, with red or 
drab, fiexuous, needle-shaped spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 40 to 50 mm. long, 
and triangular, often much hooked teeth 15 to 20 mm. apart and 10 to 15 mm. 
long, the intervening margin hollowed. 

Perhaps a form of the preceding with larger and peculiarly curved marginal 
teeth. 

88. Agave roseana Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 59. 1911. 
Southeastern Baja California ; type locality, Espiritu Santo. 

Leaves glaucous gray-green, 15 cm. wide, 50 cm. long, with glaucous, pur- 
plish brown or fading, tortuous, needle-shaped spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 50 
to 70 mm. long, and large, flat, broadly triangular, often much and diversely 
curved teeth 30 mm. apart and 10 to 25 mm. long, on large fleshy prominences. 

89. Agave avellanidens Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 60. 1911. 
East-central Baja California ; type locality, Paraiso. 

Leaves long-acuminate, 11 cm. wide and 60 cm. long or # more, with conical 
wavy drab spine 5 mm. wide and 50 mm. long, and similarly colored, variously 
curved, very broadly triangular teeth 25 to 50 mm. apart (sometimes with an 
intermediate smaller one) and 10 mm. long, the intervening margin slightly 
hollowed. 

90. Agave subsimplex Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 60. 1911. 
Islands of Sonora ; type locality, Seal Island, near Tiburon. 

Leaves very glaucous, 5 cm. wide, 15 cm. long, with nearly straight, light 
gray, needle-shaped spine 3 mm. wide and 20 mm. long, and purplish black or 
red or fading, narrow triangular, variously curved teeth 10 to 20 mm. apart 
and 5 to 10 mm. long, on fleshy prominences between which the margin is 
nearly straight. 



128 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

91. Agave nelsoni Trel. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 22: 61. 1911. 
North-central Baja California ; type locality, San Fernando. 

Leaves glaucous, 7 cm. wide, 18 to 35 cm. long, with blackish or fading spine 
5 mm. wide and 30 cm. long, and fragile, brown or whitish, broadly triangular 
teeth 10 to 20 mm. apart and 5 mm. long, the intervening margin nearly 
straight. 

92. Agave weberi Cels ; Poisson, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 7: 231. 1901. 

. Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Durango, and San Luis Potosi; type cultivated in 
Europe, from Moctezuma, San Luis Potosi. 

Leaves nearly straight, 15 cm. wide, 120 to 200 cm. long, green, somewhat 
glaucous, with straight brown spine 5 mm. wide and 40 to 50 mm. long, the 
margin typically without teeth but sometimes bearing a very few small rudi- 
mentary teeth ; capsules 30 mm. broad and 55 mm. long, stipitate but scarcely 
beaked ; bulbiferous. 

" Maguey liso " ; yielding aguamiel and containing a usable fiber. 

93. Agave latissima Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 20: 499, 551. 1864. 
Agave gracilis Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1870: 150. 1870. 
Agave macroculmis Tod. Hort. Panorm. 2: 51. 1891. 

Michoac&n ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves bright green or slightly glaucous, 20 to 30 cm. wide, 100 to 150 cm. 
long, with a stout conical spine as much as 25 mm. long, or a very heavy com- 
pressed spine base 20 mm. wide and 10 to 20 mm. long bearing a somewhat 
refracted tip 3 mm. wide and 5 mm. long, and short triangular teeth 20 to 30 
mm. apart and 1 to 2 mm. long, or these commonly closer together or almost 
or quite confluent and from half-round graying horny bases. 

Yielding " aguamiel " and fiber. Sometimes grown in gardens as A. coccinea. 

94. Agave ferox Koch, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 3: 23. 1860. 
Valley of Mexico ; type cultivated in Europe under a name suggesting con- 
fusion with the next. 

Leaves acuminate, rather abruptly outcurved above the middle, undulate 
and very deeply crenate, green, 30 cm. wide, 120 cm. long, with long, sometimes 
flexed, gray spine 8 to 10 mm. wide and 60 mm. long, and rather recurved 
teeth 15 mm. long and 30 to 60 mm. apart on very high fleshy prominences. 

95. Agave mitraeformis Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1868: 145. 1868. 
Agave coarctata Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1868: 147. 1868. 
Puebla and adjacent Veracruz ; type cultivated in Europe ; the name taken 

for the common " maguey cimarron " of the vicinity of Tehuacan. 

Leaves long-acuminate, concave, slightly gray-and-green-zoned, 30 cm. wide, 
75 cm. long, with long, relatively slender spine and large triangular teeth 
between which the margin is concave. 

Cultivated sometimes as A. bonnettiana and A. selloum. 

96. Agave compluviata Trel. in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 1: 234. 1914. 
Durango; type locality, Pueblito. 

Leaves gray, zoned with green, acute, deeply gutter-shaped, with upcurved 
sides, the back somewhat ridged, 40 cm. wide and 120 cm. long or more, with 
rather long conical gray spine and triangular, more or less recurved, rather 
large teeth between which the margin is somewhat hollowed. " Maguey verde." 

Cultivated for aguamiel and a sort of pulque. 

97. Agave felina Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves dull, glaucous, 20 cm. wide, 150 cm. long, with slightly flexuous spine 
7 mm. wide and 45 mm. long, and clawlike teeth 15 to 20 mm. apart and 5 to 
10 mm. long, the intervening margin repand or often incised. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 129 

Durango; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Pueblito, Trclease. 
" Maguey chino." 

98. Agave subzonata Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves gray, somewhat zoned with green, smooth or slightly rough, acute, 
30 cm. wide, 120 cm. long, with stout gray spine 5 to 10 mm. wide and 30 mm. 
long, and rather heavy curved triangular teeth 40 to 50 mm. apart on very 
high fleshy prominences ; panicle 5 meters tall, sparingly branched at top ; 
filaments inserted about the middle of the rather long perianth tube ; capsules 
stipitate and beaked, 2 cm. broad, 4.5 cm. long ; seeds 5 mm. wide, 6 to 7 mm. 
long. 

Nuevo Leon; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, col- 
lected at Monterrey, Trelease; common in hedges., 

99. Agave zonata Trel. in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 1: 234. 1914. 
Nuevo Leon ; type locality, Monterrey ; common in hedges. 

Leaves broadly and distinctly green-and-gray-banded, rough, acuminate, 25 
cm. wide and 100 cm. long or more, with long, rather slender spine and rather 
distant triangular teeth between which the margin is very concave ; capsules 
stipitate but scarcely beaked, 2.5 cm. broad, 4 to 4.5 cm. long ; seeds about 5 mm. 
wide and 8 mm. long. " Maguey verde." " 

100. Agave gracilispina Engelm. ; Leichtlin, Cat. 1882 ; Trel. in Bailey, Stand. 
Cycl. Hort. 1: 234. 1914. 

Agave salmiana gracilispina Rol.-Goss. Rev. Hort. 68: 11. 1S96. 
San Luis Potosl ; type locality, San Luis Potosi. 

Aspect of the next, but the spine very long and needle-like. " Maguey bianco.'' 
Planted for pulque. The leaf fiber of this and some of the following, as well 
as of the marginate species, is known as " ixtle." 

101. Agave nielliflua Trel. in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 1: 234. 1914. 
Nuevo Leon ; type locality, Monterrey. 

Leaves light gray, slightly roughened, lfmg-acuminate, 30 cm. wide, 120 to 
200 cm. long, with long, relatively slender, gray spine 4 to 6 mm. wide and 
35 to 45 mm. long, and heavy-based, abruptly rather triangular-cusped teeth 
20 to 50 mm. apart and 10 mm. long, on fleshy prominences ; panicle 5 to 6 
meters tall, 'rather narrow, sometimes bulbiferous; capsules stipitate and some- 
what beaked, 2.5 cm. wide and 5 cm. long. 

" Maguey serrano," " maguey manso," " maguey chino " ; cultivated for agua- 
rniel and the so-called pulque fermented from it there. 

102. Agave quiotifera Trel.; Ochoterena, Mem. Soc. Alzate 33: 102. 1913. 
Durango; type locality, Pueblito. 

Leaves light gray, acute, moderately concave, about 30 cm. wide and 120 cm. 
long or more, with conical gray spine 8 mm. wide and 150 mm. long, and tri- 
angularly recurved teeth 25 to 40 mm. apart and about 4 mm. long, on low 
fleshy or horny bases between which the margin is nearly straight ; inflorescence 
6 meters tall ; flowers 70 to 80 mm. long, yellow, the tube and segments equal. 

" Maguey ceniso '•' ; cultivated in hedges ; sometimes used for aguamiel, or 
the flower stalk allowed to develop and cut for " quiote," which is sold on the 
streets and chewed like sugar cane. 

103. Agave crassispina Trel. in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 1: 234. 1914. 
San Luis Potosi and Durango; type locality, about San Luis Potosi. 
Aspect of the preceding, but the leaves 25 cm. wide and 100 cm. long, only 

slightly gray, the spine very stout, 15 to 18 mm. wide, 50 to 80 mm. long, and 



130 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

the large teeth 25 to 50 or 70 mm. apart and 10 to 15 mm. long, from abruptly 
dilated bases, sometimes on very prominent fleshy hummocks. " Maguey 
Cimarron." 

Agave crassispina culta Trel., var. nov., differs from the type in its smaller 
spine and marginal teeth. San Luis Potosl; type locality, San Luis Potosi. 
" Maguey manso " ; planted for pulque. 

104. Agave tecta Trel. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 23: 145. 1915. 
Guatemala ; type cultivated in hedges at Quezaltenango. 

Leaves gray-green, very thick and broad, spreading, plicate above the middle, 
50 cm. wide, 200 cm. long, with purple-chestnut or gray spine 5 to 7 mm. wide 
and 45 to 65 mm. long, and recurved triangular teeth 40 to 70 mm. apart and 
8 mm. long; scape densely covered by broad appressed imbricate bracts. 
" Maguey." 

105. Agave atrovirens Karw. in Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 7. 302. 1S34. 
Oaxaca and Puebla ; type locality, Mount Tanga, near Cajonos, Oaxaca. 
Leaves dark green, very thick, ascending at the end. contracted at base, 

30 to 40 cm. wide, 200 to 250 or even 400 cm. long, with elongate conical gray 
spine, and triangular teeth about 10 mm. long from low widened bases between 
which the margin is nearly straight. " Maguey verde grande." 

Very extensively planted on the plains of Apam, in many forms, and the 
principal source of the pulque industry of Mexico, amounting to something like 
five million pesos annually. The most prized of the many forms planted are 
" maguey manso " and " maguey manso fino." Some mezcal called " mezcal de 
pulque " is distilled from pulque. 

No fewer than 32 forms from about Apam are enumerated and their spines 
and marginal teeth pictured by P. and I. Blasquez in a " Tratado del Maguey," 
published at Puebla ; and half as many more are listed for the District of 
Cholula. These lists contain the following Latin names — hardly employed 
according to botanical usage: Agave acerva, A. aspera, A. blanda, A. cereus, 
A. cervus, A. cholulensis, A. cinerca, A. citrulaeea, A. crispa, A. echidne, A. 
elegans, A. flava, A. foliosa, A. funis, A. glauca, A. insulsa, A. lutea, A. littea 
mayor, A. maculata, A. maximilianea, A. miniata, A. nigra, A. pallida. A. 
praestam, A. procera, A. profusa, A. rubra, A. silvestris, A. smaragdina, A. 
spinaceum, A. spinosa, A. spinosissima, A. superua, A. torosa. A. vgriegata, A. 
vesca, A. violacea, and A. viridis. Aztec names, based on the word met! and 
not maguey, are given frequently to the forms recognized by planters. 

Quite as disconcerting as to differentiate these, is any effort to recognize a 
number of the nominal species of this group based on young plants cultivated 
in European gardens a generation ago. A gray-leafed form closely allied to 
the green atrovirens but with leaves less narrowed at base is var. salmdana 
(A. salmiana Otto in Salm-Dyck, Bonplandia 7: 88. 1859), the scape of which 
is densely covered by long, somewhat spreading bracts, and of which the mosr 
glaucous extreme is A. salmiana glauca Becker (Monatsschr. Kaktoenk. 8: 
150). An exceptionally broad-leafed form is var. cochlearis (A. cochlearis 
Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1871: 151. L871), known in Sicilian 
gardens as .1. whitakeri. 

106. Agave mapisaga Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves green, slightly glaucous, narrow, rather straight hut outcurving in 
age, 15 cm. wide, 175 to 250 cm. long, with rather short and recurved, ehestnut 
or gray spine 4 to 8 nun. wide and 30 to 35 mm. long, and small but broad- 
based teeth 15 to 30 mm. apart and 1 to 2 mm. long, the intervening margin 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 131 

nearly straight; inflorescence 8 meters tall or more; flowers green-yellow, 70 
mm. long, the perianth segments equaling the tube. 

Distrito Federal ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 
from Tacubaya, Trelease. 

" Maguey mapisaga " ; planted for pulque. 

107. Agave schlechtendalii Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 20: 555. 1864. 
Region ? ; type cultivated in Europe from seed said to have come from 

Sonora. 

Known only from young plants rather closely comparable with those of 
atrovirens, but the gray leaves thinner and more outcurving. 

108. Agave bourgaei * Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves gray, as much as 10 to 15 cm. wide and 150 cm. long, with conical 
gray spine 3 mm. wide and 30 mm. long, and triangular teeth some 10 mm. 
apart, the intervening margin more or less hollowed ; panicle 3 meters tall or 
more; flowers 70 to 75 mm. long, the perianth segments nearly twice as long 
as the tube, the filaments inserted above the upper third of the tube. 

Valley of Mexico ; type, in the herbarium of the Museum of Natural History, 
Paris, collected on the lava fields, Bourgeau 1020 ; also Bourgeau 1390 and 
Pringle 6677. 

109. Agave mirabilis Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves smooth, bright dark green when abraded, but densely white-pruinose, 
40 cm. wide, 200 to 250 cm. long, often reflexed above the middle, with long 
gray spine 6 mm. wide and 80 mm. long, and triangular, more or less recurved 
teeth mostly 30 to 60 mm. apart and 10 to 15 mm. long, these abruptly dilated 
at base; inflorescence 8 to 10 meters tall, the thick (25 cm.) scape with very 
narrow reflexed bracts ; flowers 70 to 80 mm. long, the tube and segments 
equal; capsules 25 mm. broad, 40 mm. long, not stipitate but shortly apiculate; 
seeds 6 to 7 mm. wide, 8 to 10 mm. long. 

Paebla ? ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from Las 
Vigas, Trelease. 

" Maguey bianco " ; planted in hedges. 

110. Agave franzosini Baker, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1892: 3. 1892. 
Locality ? ; type cultivated on the Riviera. 

Leaves very rough, glaucous, often recurving, 20 to 30 cm. wide, 200 to 300 
cm. long, with stout decurrent conical smoky-gray grooved spine 10 mm. wide 
and 55 mm. long, and abruptly broadly triangular teeth 30 to 70 mm. apart 
and 5 to 10 mm. long, these often from fleshy prominences; scape green. 

111. Agave marmorata Roezl, Belg. Hort. 33: 238. 1883. 
Agave todaroi Baker, Amaryll. 195. 1888. 

Puebla ; type locality unquestionably the Cerro Colorado near Tehuacan. 

Leaves very rough, gray, green-zoned, 25 to 40 cm. wide, 100 to 150 cm. long, 
with short, stout, curved, dull red spine 5 to 15 mm. wide and 20 mm. long, 
and large, rough, rusty brown teeth 15 to 40 mm. apart and 5 to 10 mm. long, 
sometimes in pairs, from fleshy prominences. " Maguey curandero." or 
" pitsomel." 



1 E. Bourgeau was a member of the French Scientific Commission of 1865-66. 
He had had previously wide experience as' a botanical collector in the Old 
World, and his Mexican collection was an extensive one. It was gathered 
chiefly in the Valley of Mexico and in Veracruz. A large number of his 
specimens are in the U. S. National Herbarium. He died at Paris in 1877. 



132 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

112. Agave abrupta Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves straight or somewhat upcurved, 15 to 30 cm. wide, 150 to 175 cm. long, 
very ghiucous, very concave and deeply plicate toward the abrupt end, with 
heavy, conical, somewhat recurved spine 8 mm. wide and 25 mm. long, and 
small, variously curved, triangular teeth 15 to 30 or 40 mm. apart and only 
about 2 mm. long, but from conspicuous fleshy or horny prominences; inflores- 
cence 7 to 8 meters tall. 

Jalisco ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from La 
Barca, Trelease, in 1901 ; cultivated in hedges. 

113. Agave wercklei Weber, sp. nov. 

Acaulescent; leaves glaucous, bluish or white, abruptly upcurved above the 
base, 15 cm. wide, 125 to 200 cm. long, with somewhat recurved, grooved, conical, 
brown or gray spine 4 to 6 mm. wide and 25 to 35 mm. long, and triangular 
straight brown teeth 15 to 25 mm. apart and 3 mm. long, these sometimes on 
fleshy prominences or with the intervening margin hollowed ; inflorescence 8 
meters tall ; flowers chrome-yellow, pumpkin-scented, 60 mm. long, the perianth 
segments twice as long as the tube; capsules 15 mm. broad and 45 mm. long; 
seeds 4 mm. wide and 6 mm. long ; bulbiferous. 

Costa Rica ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, culti- 
vated at San Jose, Alfaro & Tonduz 17553. 

Sometimes cultivated under the name of A. costaricensis. 

114. Agave expansa Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. -Vaterl. Cult. 1868: 151. 1868. 
Region 1 ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves gray, oblong, uniformly spreading, straight, acute, concave, about 
20 cm. wide and 200 cm. long, with brown or gray, straight or slightly recurved, 
grooved spine 8 to 10 mm. wide and 25 to 30 mm. long, this acutely pointed 
from the very base, and with heavily triangular teeth 30 to 60 mm. apart and 
5 to 8 mm. long, these with dilated bases, often from fleshy hummocks. 

Extensively planted in southern Arizona (Tucson) and California (Los 
Angeles) as A. americana, from which its unreflexed leaves and more acutely 
pointed, somewhat prismatic spine distinguish it. 

115. Agave americana L. Sp. PI. 323. 1753. 

Native ? ; type cultivated in Europe, probably originally from a Mexican 
hedge-row ; established freely about the Mediterranean. 

Leaves gray, acute, outcurved or reflexed at end, 15 to 20 cm. wide, 200 to 
250 cm. long, with brown, somewhat curved, conical spine 5 mm. wide and 
25 mm. long, and triangular, more or less recurved teeth 15 to 50 mm. apart 
and about 5 mm. long, on fleshy' prominences. 

It is this plant, cultivated in the Azores, etc., from which the " pita " used 
in the drawn work of those islands is procured. Early records of the economic 
uses of "Agave americana " and "A. mexicana" commonly refer to other species, 
such as A. fourcroydes and A. atrovirens. 

116. Agave picta Salm-Dyck, Bonplandia 7: 88. 1859. 
Native ? ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Equally large and very similar, the darker and clearer green leaves 17 to 
18 cm. wide, 225 cm. long, with a marginal band of yellow (as in one form, 
var. marginata, of the preceding), the spine straight and needle-shaped. 
" Maguey pinto," " maguey listado." 

Much planted. On the Mediterranean coast seedlings are said to be invari- 
ably green (var. viridis Trel. in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 1: 235. 1914; A. 
ingens Berger, Hort. Mortolensis. 12, 360. 1912), and no doubt correspond to 
the normal type of foliage. 



< 

STANDLEY TKEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 133 

117. Agave asperrima Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 20: 561. 1864. 

Texas, on the lower Rio Grande ; and adjacent Coahuila, Zacatecas, and 
Durango ; type cultivated in Europe, supposedly from Texas. 

Leaves dull glaucous green, rough, 15 to 20 cm. wide, 120 cm. long, with 
decurrent brown spine 3 to 4 or 6 mm. wide and 30 to 55 mm. long, and vari- 
ously curved triangular teeth 20 to 30 mm. apart and 7 to 10 mm. long, these 
saddling and sometimes confluent over high fleshy hummocks. 

Seeds were distributed to gardens by Engelmann as A. longispina. 

118. Agave palmeri * Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 319. 1875. 

New Mexico, Arizona, and adjacent Sonora; type locality, mountains of 
southern Arizona. 

Leaves blue-green, smooth, varying much in shape and attenuation, ascend- 
ing or outcurved or spreading, about 8 to 10 cm. wide and 45 to 70 cm. long, 
with nearly straight, needle-shaped, somewhat decurrent, garnet or purplish, 
finally fading spine 2 to 4 mm. wide and 20 to 40 mm. long, and variously 
straight or curved, very unequal, triangular teeth commonly 10 to 20 mm. 
apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, the intervening margin straight or much hollowed. 

119. Agave flexispina Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves green or bluish, smooth, regularly spreading, deeply concave, 6 cm. 
wide and 12 cm. long (or much more ?), with flexuous spine 5 mm. wide and 
30 mm. long, this very openly flat-grooved, with acute margin at base, the 
slender unequal teeth scarcely 10 mm. apart and often nearly 10 mm. long, the 
margin between them sharply incised ; flowers nearly sessile, agreeing with 
those of the last preceding species. 

Durango; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Tepehuanes, Palmer 330, in 1906. 

120. Agave dasylirioides Jacobi & Bouche, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 21: 344. 1S65. 
Guatemala ?; type cultivated in Europe; Berlin Herbarium material referring 

the collection to the igneous mountains near Quezal tenango, "Warscewicz, or 
southern Mexico. 

Leaves outcurved and then ascending, thin and flat, light green, 10 to 15 mm. 
wide, 25 to 30 cm. long, unarmed except for the small flattened brown spine ; 
spike 1.5 to 2 meters tall, recurving. 

121. Agave intrepida Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 34: 567. 1899. 
Morelos ; type locality, El Parque, above Cuernavaca. 

Leaves gray, spreading, 2 cm. wide, 50 cm. long, with somewhat flexuoxis 
needle-like brown spine 1 to 2 mm. wide and 10 mm. long, the margin almost 
microscopically denticulate ; spike 1 to 1.5 meters tall, commonly recurving. 

122. Agave bracteosa S. Wats. Gard. Chron. n. ser. 18: 776. 1882. 
Nuevo Leon ; type locality, near Monterrey. 

Leaves gray, rather soft, openly ascending with recurved tips, 4 cm. wide, 45 
cm. long, without spine, the margin minutely denticulate; inflorescence 1 to 2 
meters tall, the scape densely covered with outcurved narrow bracts ; flowers 30 

1 The species is named in honor of Edward Palmer (1831-1911), an English- 
man by birth, who was for most of his life a resident of the United States. 
He spent many years in Mexico in botanical exploration, and his collections 
are surpassed in extent, probably, by those of no other collector. His work in 
Mexico began about 1870 and was continued until 1910. He collected chiefly 
in the northern states, but some of his plants were obtained as far south as 
Guerrero and Veracruz. His earlier collections were the basis of special 
reports by Gray and Watson, and many new species have been based upon his 
specimens. 



134 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

mm. long, the marcescent perianth segments about equaling the tube. "Amole de 
Castilla." 

123. Agave yuccaefolia DC. in Red. Liliac. 0. pi. 328, 329. 1812. 

Region ?; type cultivated in Europe; said to be from Real del Monte, 
Hidalgo. 

Trunk short ; leaves glaucous, rather soft, recurved. 2.5 cm. wide. 60 cm. 
long, long-tapering, with minute slender spine, the margin minutely denticulate; 
inflorescence 3 meters tall ; flowers 35 mm. long, the perianth segments almost 
distinct. 

124. Agave eduardi Trel., sp. nov. 

Habit ?; leaves glaucous, 6 cm. wide, 100 cm. long, long-attenuate, with slen- 
der brown spine about 1 mm. wide and 10 mm. long, and entire margin; scape 
covered by long narrow bracts; pedicels connate into a peduncle some !."> mm. 
long; flowers yellow, 40 mm. long; ovary flask-shaped, 20 mm. long, the tube 
narrow, about one-third as long as the segments, the filaments inserted in its 
throat; capsules scarcely glaucous, 8 mm. broad, 20 mm. long. 

Durango ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
San Ram6n, Palmer 135, in 1906. 

125. Agave houghii Hort. 

A similar, if separable, plant, of the barranca of the Rfo Blanco, near 
Guadalajara, Jalisco, with stronger spine and smooth margin. 

126. Agave attenuata Salm-Dyck. Hort. Dyck. 7, 303. 1834. 

Agave glaucescens Hook, in Curtis's Bot. Mag. III. 18: pi. 53SS. 1862. 

Hidalgo; type cultivated in Europe (from about Real del Monte ?). 

Trunk 1 to 1.5 meters tall, sometimes prostrate ; leaves 15 to 20 cm. wide. 60 
to 100 cm. long, glaucous, without either spine or prickles ; spike 1.5 to 3 meters 
tall, often recurving, sometimes very bulbiferous in age. 

127. Agave ellemeetiana Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 21: 457. 1864. 
Veracruz ?; type cultivated in Europe (from about Jalapa ?). 

Nearly acaulescent; leaves 15 cm. wide and 60 cm. long or more, glaucous, 
without either spine or prickles ; spike 1.5 to 3 meters tall, straight. 

128. Agave pruinosa Lem. in Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 21: 449. 1864. 
Agave dcbaryana Jacobi, Abb. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1869: 164. 1869. 
Agave kellockii Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1869: 165. 1869. 
Michoacan ? ; cultivated in Europe ; the Volcan Jorullo is given as the source 

of A. debaryana. 

Nearly acaulescent ; very similar to the preceding, but the leaves with close- 
set minute denticles. 

129. Agave vilmoriniana Berger, Repert. Nov. Sp. Fedde 12: 503. 1913. 
Jalisco ?; cultivated in Europe, introduced by Diguet. 

Leaves green or bluish or glaucous, softly fleshy, narrowly linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate, with slender, subulate, shortly decurrent spine 3 to 4 mm. long, the 
margin without teeth. 

130. Agave pedunculifera Trel., sp. nov. 

Habit ?; leaves 12 to 15 cm. wide, 65 cm. long, thin, glaucous, oblanceolate, 
acuminate, with dull red-brown needle-shaped spine 2 nun. wide and 15 nun. 
long, the margin with minute denticles about 2 mm. apart; Inflorescence small, 
the pedicels aggregated on short slender forking peduncles 15 to 20 nun. long; 
capsules fusiform, 5 to 8 mm. broad, 20 mm. long; seeds dull, very small, 2 mm. 
wide, 2.5 mm. long. 

Sinaloa; type, in the U. S. National Herbarium, from Colomas, Rose 1713. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHEUBS OF MEXICO. 135 

131. Agave celsii Hook, in Curtis's Bot. Mag. III. 12: pi. J/93-b. 1856. 
? Agave brauniana Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 216. 1866. 

? Agave thompsoniana Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 262. 1866. 

? Agave smithiana Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 263. 1866. 

? Agave humboldtiana Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 264. 1866. 

San Luis Potosi ; type cultivated in Europe from an unrecorded locality. 

Leaves glaucous, 10 cm. wide, 30 to .45 cm. long, with slender weak spine 
scarcely 1 mm. wide and 5 to 10 mm. long, and very irregular, close-set or con- 
fluent, green teeth 5 to 10 mm. apart and 2 to 3 mm. long, a little horny at the 
tip only. 

The four synonyms, based on specimens cultivated from about San Luis 
Potosi, seem to refer to forms of this species with greener foliage; and .4. 
rupicola Regel, A. lamproclxlora Jacobi, and A. perlucida Jacobi differ little. 

132. Agave micracantha Salm-Dyck, Bonplandia 7: 93. 1859. 

Hidalgo or Veracruz?; type cultivated in Europe from an unrecorded locality. 

Leaves gray-green, 8 to 12 cm. wide, 40 to 60 cm. long, with slender weak 
spine and small close-set dark teeth, these sometimes almost suppressed. 

Nominal but closely related species cultivated in gardens from unrecorded 
localities and evidently of this alliance, are A. albicans Jacobi, A. chloracantha 
Salm-Dyck. ,4. bernhardii Jacobi. A. bouchei Jacobi, A. haseloffli Jacobi, ? A. 
martiana Koch, A. mitts Salm, A. mtiihnanni Jacobi, A. oblongata Jacobi; and 
A. wallisii Jacobi, said to be from Colombia. 

133. Agave pendula Schnitts. Zeitschr. Gartenb. Ver. Darmstadt 6: 7. 1857. 
Agave aloina Koch, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 3: 37. 1860. 

Agave sartorii Koch, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 3: 37. 1860. 

Agave noackii Jacobi. Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 261. 1866. 

Agave rnbrocincta Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1868: 153. 1868. 

Agave caespitosa Tod. Hort. Panorm. 1: 32. 1876. 

Veracruz ; type cultivated in Europe, but collected at El Mirador, Huatusco. 

More or less caulescent, the trunk sometimes 60 cm. tall ; leaves deep green 
with paler median stripe above, about 8 cm. wide and 100 cm. long, with 
scarcly pungent end and minute brown teeth 5 mm. apart and 1 mm. long; 
inflorescence nodding. 

134. Agave polyacantha Haw. Rev. PI. Succ. 35. 1821. 

Agave densiflora Hook, in Curtis's Bot. Mag. III. 13: pi. 5006. 1857. 

? Agave chiapensis Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 213. 1865. 

Agave ottonis Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 320: 1865. 

Agave salmdyckii Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 490. 1877. 

Veracruz (type cultivated in Europe, from an unspecified source, about 1800) 
and Chiapas ?. 

Leaves green though transiently glaucous, 5 to 15 cm. wide, 25 to 60 or 100 
cm. long, with dark firm spine 2 to 3 mm. wide and 15 mm. long, and rather 
small close-set brown teeth 3 to 5 or 10 mm. apart and 2 to 3 mm. long; spike 
sometimes budding at tip and base. 

Species evidently of this group, but of unrecorded habitat, are A. botterii 
Baker, .4. decaisneana Jacobi, A. engelmanni Trel., A. galeottei Baker, A. 
guedeneyri Houll., and A. uarelliana Baker. 

Other less closely placed garden aloid species, supposedly from Mexico, are 
A. ehrenbergii Jacobi, A. goeppertiana Jacobi, A. horizontalis Jacobi, A. kewen- 
sis Jacobi, A. Mndletfi Jacobi. A. melanacmitha Lem., A. regia Baker, A. rudis 
Lem., and A. rupicola Regel. 



136 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

135. Agave xalapensis Roezl in Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 21: 61. 1864. 
Agave uncinata Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 21: 104. 1864. 

Veracruz above Cruz Verde, Las Vigas; type cultivated in Europe, from 
unrecorded locality. 

Leaves green or glaucous, 5 to 12 cm. wide, 25 to 75 cm. long, with dark firm 
brown spine 3 to 5 mm. wide and 5 to 30 mm. long, and red or blackish strong 
flat teeth 5 to 7 mm. apart and 5 mm. long ; spike often budding at tip. 

136. Agave macrantha Tod. Hort. Panorm. 2: 11. 1879. 
Region ?; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves spatulate-obovate, uncurved, glaucous, as much as 12 cm. wide and 
30 to 50 cm. long, with chestnut spine 8 mm. wide and 20 to 30 mm. long, and 
firm brown teeth 6 to 15 mm. apart and 2 to 3 mm. long; flowers large for 
the group, about 80 •mm. long, the yellow or bronzed perianth segments nearly 
15 mm. wide and twice as long as the tube. 

137. Agave pumila Baker, Amaryll. 172. 1888. 
Region ?; type cultivated in Europe. 

Very small (scarcely 5 cm. in diameter), with few round fleshy concave 
leaves, these dark-lined on the back and with soft whitish spine, and teeth 
somewhat connected by a similar margin. 

The smallest of all agaves. Sometimes cultivated under the name A. simoni 
or A. simoni s. 

138. Agave lecheguilla Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 213. 1859. 
Agave poselgeri Salm-Dyck, Bonplandia 7: 92. 1859. 

Agave multilineata Baker, Amaryll. 168. 1888. 

? Agave nissoni Baker, Gard. Chron. 1874: 529. 1874. 

Texas and Chihuahua to Tamaulipas and Zacatecas, in a variety of forms; 
type locality, western Texas. 

Leaves falcately ascending, green or bluish, the upper face often with a paler 
stripe and the back with narrow green lines, 2 to 3 cm. wide, 40 to 60 cm. long, 
with brown or graying spine 4 mm. wide and 30 to 50 mm. long, and mostly 
gently recurved triangular teeth 20 to 40 mm. apart and 3 to 7 mm. long, joined 
by a nearly straight detachable horny border scarcely 1 mm. wide. With 
flowers in short compact glomerules it is f. glomeruliflora Engelm. (A. 
glomeruliflora Berger, Hort. Mortol. 12. 1911). 

" Lechuguilla " ; much used for cordage, brushes, bagging, etc., and exported 
as " ixtle." 

139. Agave funkiana Koch & Bouch§, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 3: 
47. 1860. 

Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas; type cultivated in Europe, without recorded 
locality. 

Leaves scarcely falcate, ascending, light green or gray-green, slightly glau- 
cous, with pale ventral stripe and dark-lined back, 3 to 5 cm. wide, 50 to 75 
cm. long, with brown-tipped gray spine 3 mm. wide and 15 to 25 mm. long, 
and mostly gently recurved triangular teeth 20 to 50 mm. apart and 5 mm. long, 
joined by a nearly straight or slightly concave detachable border about 1 mm. 
wide. 

" Ixtle do .Taumave " ; of better quality than the last preceding species. 

140. Agave lophantha Schiede, Linnaea 4: 581. 1829. 

Agave lietcracantha Zucc. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 16 2 : 675. 1833. 
Veracruz; type locality, Malpais de Naulingo. 

Leaves uniformly spreading, apple-green or dark blae-green, sometimes with 
pale ventral stripe and dark dorsal lines, 3 to 5 cm. wide, 30 to 60 cm. long, 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 137 

with gray-brown spine 3 mm. wide and 20 mm. long, and conspicuously unequal 
and variously curved, narrowly triangular teeth 20 to 30 mm. apart and 3 to 
7 mm. long. 

When the median stripe is most pronounced it is var. univittata (A. univittata 
Haw. Phil. Mag. 10: 415. 1S31) ; but the marking is not confined to this species. 

141. Agave horrida Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 20: 546. 1864. 

Morelos, abundant above Cuernavaca on the lava fields ; type cultivated in 
Europe without indication of locality. 

Leaves uniformly spreading, rather thin, green, without ventral stripe or dor- 
sal lines, 6 to 7 cm. wide, 30 cm. long, with red-brown graying spine 3 mm. wide 
and 20 to 40 mm. long, and large fiat hooked teeth 15 to 30 mm. apart and 5 to 
15 mm. long, the connecting undulate horny border 2 to 3 mm. wide. 

142. Agave roezliana Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 7: 528. 1877. 

Agave horrida laevior Jacobi, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 1869: 178. 
1869. 

Puebla ; type cultivated in Europe, but now known to have come from Te- 
huacan. 

Leaves uniformly spreading, thick, green, sometimes with paler ventral stripe 
but not dark-lined on the back, 5 to 10 cm. wide, 30 to 40 cm. long, with 
brown or fading spine 3 mm. wide and 20 to 25 mm. long, and heavily triangular 
teeth 10 to 15 mm. apart and 6 to 20 mm. long, the nearly straight horny inter- 
vening margin 1 to 3 mm. wide. 

Plants with very short and broad leaves and exceptionally large teeth consti- 
tute var. nana (A. horrida nana Laurentius, Cat. 1869: 12. 1869; A. gilbeyi 
horrida Baker, Gard. Chron. 1873: 1305. 1873) ; and a form with elongate, nar- 
rowly oblong leaves and often reduced teeth is var. peacockii {A. peacockii 
Croucher, Gard. Chron. 1873: 1400. 1873). 

143. Agave ghiesbrechtii Kocb, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 5: 83. 1862. 
Region ? ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves upcurving, concave, fleshy, grayish green or bluish green, without dis- 
tinct ventral stripe or dorsal lines, 5 to 7 cm. wide. 18 to 20 cm. long, with 
spine scarcely 15 mm. long, and gray, triangular, nearly straight teeth scarcely 
10 mm. apart and 5 mm. long, the connecting horny border under 2 mm. wide. 

The form with- shorter, more heavily bordered leaves is A. rohanii Jacobi 
(Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 20: 545. 1864) ; and that with elongate, narrowly bordered 
leaves is A. leguayiana J. Verschaffelt (Pr. Cour. 1868: 2. 1868). 

144. Agave obscura Schiede, Linnaea 18: 413. 1844. 

Agave grandidentata Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 114. 1866. 

Agave horrida micracantha Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 7: 621. 1877. 

Veracruz ; common on the lava beds about Limon ; type locality, lava fields 
of La Joya. 4 

Densely subglobose ; leaves uniformly spreading, gray, 10 cm. wide, 30 cm. 
long, with gray spine 3 to S mm. wide and 25 to 30 mm. long, and triangular, 
straight or variously curved teeth 5 to 10 mm. apart and 3 to 5 mm. long, the 
intervening margin 1 to 2 mm. wide. " Lechuguilla." 

145. Agave triangularis Jacobi, Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 1869: 178. 
1S69. 

Puebla ; type cultivated in Europe from near Tehuacan. 

Leaves ascending, thick and very rigid, dull gray-green, without ventral stripe 
or .dorsal lines, about 5 cm. wide and 25 cm. long, with gray spine 3 mm. wide 
and 20 to 25 mm. long, and large, gently curved teeth 15 to 25 mm. apart and 5 
to 15 mm. long, the nearly straight intervening margin 1 to 2 mm. wide. 

With numerous but small teeth it is var. rigidissima (A. rigidissima Jacobi, 
Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 1869: 179. 1869) ; and with few and 



138 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

minute or no teeth it is var. subintegra (A. kerchovei iiiermis Baker, Gard 
Chron. n. ser. 7: 527. 1877). 

146. Agave potrerana Trel., sp. now 

Leaves falcately ascending, triangular, rigid, transiently glaucous, without 
ventral stripe or dorsal lines, 5 to 6 cm. wide, 30 cm. long, with gray spine 
3 mm. wide and 25 mm. long, and narrowly triangular, rather straight teeth 
commonly 10 to 15 mm. apart and 3 to 4 mm. long, the nearly straight connect- 
ing horny margin about 1 mm. wide; flowers about 50 mm. long, the perianth 
segments and tube about equal; capsules oblong-pyriform, 10 to 12 mm. broad, 
30 to 35 mm. long; seeds 3 mm. wide, 4 mm. long. 

Chihuahua ; type, in herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Potrero Peak, Pringle 302. 

147. Agave kerchovei Lem. 111. Hort. 11: 04. 1864. 
Puebla ? ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves uniformly spreading or ascending, triangular, rigid, gray-green, 7 to 
10 cm. wide, 40 to 50 cm. long, with gray spine about 5 mm. wide and 50 to 
70 mm. long, and triangular teeth 30 to 50 or even 100 mm. apart and 10 to 
20 mm. long, each sometimes with an adjoining denticle, the straight connect- 
ing margin 2 to 3 mm. wide ; spike extremely compact. 

148. Agave inopinabilis Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves falcately spreading or ascending, oblong or gradually narrowed from 
base to point, gray-green or bluish-green, somewhat glaucous when young, 4 to 
6 cm. wide, 100 cm. long, with dull brown or fading spine 5 mm. wide and 
50 mm. long, and large, flat, brown, hazel-colored, or dead-gray, triangular, 
often doubled teeth commonly 50 to 100 mm. apart and 10 to 30 mm. long, 
the connecting margin 2 to 4 mm. wide; capsules oblong, 8 to 12 mm. wide. 
12 to 30 mm. long ; inflorescence rather lax ; flowers claret-colored, 35 mm. 
long, the perianth segments almost distinct ; seeds 2 mm. wide, 4 mm. long. 

Puebla ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from Te- 
huacsin, Trelease, in 1903. 

149. Agave convallis Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves uniformly spreading, light green, G cm. wide, 50 cm. long, with gray 
spine 4 mm. wide and 25 mm. long, and heavily triangular, brown-tipped, some- 
what recurved teeth 50 to 60 mm. apart and 6 to 10 mm. long, the nearly 
straight intervening border about 1 or 2 mm. wide but lenticularly widened 
beneath each tooth ; inflorescence 3 to 4 meters tall ; flowers creamy or bronzed, 
35 to 40 mm. long, with very short tube. 

( Jaxaca ; type, in herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from El 
Parian, TrcJcaxc 4, in 1905. 

150. Agave expatriata Rose, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 11: 82. 1900. 
Region ? ; type cultivated at Washington. 

Leaves uniformly spreading, light green, 6 to 9 cm. wide, 75 cm. long, with 
slender spine 15 to 25 mm. long, and triangular, unequal, variously curved 
teeth 10 to 20 mm. apart and 5 to 10 mm. long, the intervening straight border 
about 1 mm. wide. 

151. Agave dissimulans Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves widely and flaccidly spreading or recurved, glaucous, more or less 
tinged with red, 7 cm. wide, 80 to 100 cm. long, with gray spine about 5 mm. 
wide and 50 mm. long, and heavily triangular, somewhat curved teeth 15 to 30 
mm. apart and 6 to 15 mm. long, the intervening straight border 1 or 2 mm. 
wide; inflorescence 2 to 3 meters tall; flowers whitish, glaucous, 30 mm. long, 
with very short tube; capsules 12 mm. broad, 20 to 25 mm. long. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 139 

Oaxaca ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
Mexia, Trelease. 

152. Agave angustiarum Trel., sp. nov. 

Leaves openly spreading, rather thin, glaucous, 5 to 13 cm. wide, 80 to 100 cm. 
long, with very slender spine 25 to 35 mm. long, and rather slender and curved 
teeth 15 to 40 mm. apart and 2 to 6 mm. long, the nearly straight intervening 
border scarcely over 1 mm. wide ; inflorescence 1.5 to 4 meters tall ; flowers 
glaucous greenish white, 35 to 40 mm. long, with very short tube ; capsules 12 to 
15 mm. broad, 25 mm. long ; seeds 2 to 3 mm. wide, 3 to 5 mm. long. 

Guerrero ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, from 
the canyon between Naranjo and Los Amates, Trelease. 

153. Agave xylonacantha Salm-Dyck, Bonplandia 7: 92. 1859. 
Agave amurensis Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 20: 548.->1864. 
Agave kochii Jacobi, Hamb. Gart. Zeit. 22: 117. 1866. 

Hidalgo and San Luis Potosi ; type cultivated in Europe, said to be from San 
Luis Potosi, but later records include Ixmiquilpan and Real del Monte. 

Leaves loosely spreading, rather thin, undulate or contorted, dull, mostly 
grayish green, rough, the back with darker lines, 5 to 12 cm. wide, 30 to 60 cm. 
long, with flexuous gray spine about 5 mm. wide and 40 to 50 mm. long, and 
large, triangular or confluently broad and very irregular teeth 15 to 40 mm. 
apart, these 10 to 15 mm. long, and nearly as broad over green prominences 
between which the nearly straight connecting horny margin is 1 to 2 mm. wide. 

154. Agave washingtonensis Baker & Rose, Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 9: 121. 1898. 
Region ? ; type cultivated at Washington. 

Leaves spreading, dark green, smooth, 7 to 10 cm. wide, 75 cm. long, with 
very short slender spine and small mammaeform teeth scarcely 10 mm. apart 
and 2 mm. long, these concave at base and connected by a very narrow horny 
border. 

155. Agave splendens Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1870: 147. 1870. 
Region ? ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves uniformly spreading, often with axillary branches, dark blue-green, 
glaucous when young, smooth, somewhat pale-banded above and dark-lined be- 
neath, 4 to 5 cm. wide, 35 to 60 cm. long or more, with slender, more or less 
flexuous, gray spine 30 mm. long, and unequal, often doubled, variously curved, 
triangular teeth 20 to 40 mm. apart and 6 to 12 mm. long, these concave at base 
and connected by a moderately heavy border. 

156. Agave vittata Regel, Gartenflora 7: 313. 1858. 
Agave haynaldi Tod. Hort. Panorm. 1: 88. 1876. 
Agave toweliana Baker, Gard. Chron. 1881: 362. 1881. 

Nuevo Leon; type cultivated in Europe, probably from the mountains about 
Monterrey. 

Leaves spreading along a distinct short trunk, dark green, often with pale 
ventral stripe, 6 to 7 cm. wide, 70 cm. long, with slender brown-tipped spine 20 
mm. long, and variously curved triangular teeth 25 to 50 mm. apart and 4 to 7 
mm. long, these on more or less oblique fleshy prominences, the very narrow con- 
necting horny border frequently absent from the middle of the leaf. 

157. Agave victoriae-reginae Moore, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 4: 484. 1875. 
Agave consideranti Carr. Rev. Hort. 1875: 429. 1875. 

Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, and Durango; type locality near Monterrey, Nuevo 
Leon. 

Leaves very many, very hard and crowded in a round cluster, dark green, 
4 to 6 cm. wide, 15 to 20 cm. long, acutely 3-sided, with 1 or 3 black' apical 

126651—20 10 



140 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

spines 5 to 10 mm. Ions, these decurrent into marginal and usually dorsal 
detachable horny borders. 

" Noa " ; the short but strong liber used for bundles. 

With fewer leaves, and consequently forming a less compact plant, it is f. 
nickelsi (A. nickelsi Rol. Goss. Rev. Hort. 1895: 579. 1895). " Pintillo." 

158. Agave parviflora Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 214. 1859. 
Sonora ; type locality, Sierra del Pajarito. Also in adjacent Arizona. 
Small and globose ; leaves ascending, numerous, green, dotted with gray, 

scarcely 1 cm. wide and 4 to 6 cm. long, denticulate at the base, elsewhere 
bearing a few coarse outcurved marginal threads, the straight flattened spine 
1 mm. wide and 5 mm. long. 

159. Agave tourney ana Trel., sp. nov. 

Rather larger, laxer, amd fewer-leaved than the preceding; leaves 1 cm. 
wide, 5 to 10 cm. long, with flat brown spine scarcely 1 mm. wide and 5 mm. 
long, the margin minutely hyaline-denticulate below the middle, at length 
bearing numerous long slender white marginal threads; flowers 15 mm. long, 
with short tube; capsules 7 mm. broad, 12 mm. long; seeds 2 mm. wide, 3 mm. 
long. 

Southern Arizona ; type, in herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 
from Pinal Mountains, Tourney in 1892 ; also in adjacent Sonora ? 

160. Agave hartmani * S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26: 156. 1891. 

Eastern Sonora (type cultivated at Cambridge, Massachusetts) and adjacent 
Chihuahua. 

Resembling A. parviflora ; leaves falcate, with concave-based spine and finer 
marginal threads. 

161. Agave mulfordiana Trel., sp. nov. 

Agave schottn serruJata Mulford. Rep. Mo. Bot. Gard. 7: 73. 1S96. 

Dimensions and aspect of the following and with similar marginal threads, 
but the base denticulate. 

Southern Arizona ; type, in the herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 
from Rincon Mountains, Tourney in 1894 ; also adjacent Sonora ? 

162. Agave schottii Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 305. 1875. 
Agave gem'iniflora sonorae Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 214. 1859. 
Arizona (type locality, Sierra del Pajarito) and adjacent Sonora. 

Leaves falcately ascending, rather few. green, scarcely 1 cm. wide and 15 
to 30 cm. long, untoothed, with brown or golden spine 1 mm. wide and 5 mm. 
long, and a few very thin outcurving marginal threads. 

"Amole " ; the crown used as a substitute for soap. 

Without marginal threads it is var. atricha. the type cultivated at St. Louis, 
without record. 

163. Agave schidigera Lem. 111. Hort. 9: pi. 330. 1860. 

Agave fllifera adomata Scheidw. Wochenschr. Ver. Beford. Gartenb. 4: 287. 
1861. 

I. it Idea roezlii Fonville, Rev. Hort. 1862: 39. 1862. 

Agave vestita S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 25: 163. 1890. 

Michoacan (type cultivated, from about the Volean Jorullo), Zacatecas, Mex- 
ico, and Jalisco (the type of A. vestita, with more prismatic threads, from about 
Guadalajara). 

i.C. V. Hartman and F. E. Lloyd made an extensive collection of plants in 
Chihuahua and Sonora from 1890 to 1893. while accompanying Carl Lumholtz 
in his archaeological explorations. The collection was reported upon by Robin- 
son and Fernald (Proc. Amer. Acad. 30: 114-123. 1894). A set of the plants 
is in the U. S. National Herbarium. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 141 

Leaves green or purplish, uniformly spreading, 1.5 to 2 cm. wide, mostly 30 
cm. long, not toothed, with rather numerous coarse and shaving-like marginal 
threads sometimes 2 mm. wide, the spine 5 to 10 mm. long or almost suppressed. 

164. Agave angustissima Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 306. 1875. 
Tepic (the type from " Ocotillo. direction of Tepic") and Sinaloa. 

Leaves green or almost red, numerous, uniformly spreading or falcate, 1 to 
1.5 cm. wide, 30 to 60 cm. long, not toothed, with numerous long, slender, 
mostly loosely coiled marginal threads and flattened spine 5 mm. long. 
" Palmilla." 

With leaves scarcely 30 cm. long it is var. ortgiesiana (A. schidigera ort- 
giesiana Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 7: 303. 1S77; A. ortgiesiana Roezl, Belg. 
Hort. 1880: 52. 1880; A. maritima Hort.) ; common on the seaside rocks about 
Manzanillo, Colima. 

165. Agave filifera Salm-Dyck, Hort. Dyck. 309. 1834. 

Hidalgo and San Luis Potosi ; type cultivated in Europe without locality. 

Leaves clear green to dark green or purplish, rather numerous, uniformly 
spreading or somewhat upcurved, 2.5 to 4 cm. wide, 20 to 25 cm. long, not 
toothed, with numerous slender, recurved or coiled marginal threads, the openly 
grooved spine 15 to 20 mm. long. "Amole," " lechuguilla mansa." 

With leaves twice as long, without increase in width, those of suckers com- 
monly denticulate, it is var. ftlamentosa Baker (Gard. Chron. n. ser. 7: 303. 
1877; A. filamentosa Salm-Dyck, Bonplandia 7: 94. 1859). A very compact 
form somewhat resembling A. par vi flora, with leaves scarcely 10 cm. long, is var. 
compacta J. Verschaffelt (Cat. 9: 41. 1865-6; A. perplexans Trel. in Bailey, 
Stand. Cycl. Hort. 1: 238. 1914). 

166. Agave geminiflora Gawl. Journ. Sci. 2: 88. 1817. 
Bonapartea juncea Haw. Syn. PI. Succ. 6S. 1812. 

Yucca ooscii Desf. Tabl. Ecol. Bot. Mus. ed. 2. 28, 274. 1815, name only. 

Littaea geminiflora Tagliabue, Bibl. Ital. 1 : 100. 1816. 

Bonapartea flagelliformis Henckel, Flora 3: 45. 1820. 

Dracaena filamentosa Scanagatta in Schult. Syst. Veg. 729. 1829. 

Dracaena boscii Steud. Norn. Bot. ed. 2. 1: 528. 1840. 

Agave geminiflora filamentosa Hook, in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 82: under pi. J/950. 
1856. 

Region ? ; type cultivated in Europe ; sometimes, but doubtless erroneously, 
thought to be South American. 

Leaves of various shades of green, very numerous, gracefully spreading, 
recurved in age, 5 mm. wide, 60 to 90 cm. long, biconvex, entire, with flattened 
spine scarcely 5 mm. long and long, usually very slender marginal threads. 

When the margin bears no threads it is var. atricha Trel. (in Bailey, Stand. 
Cycl. Hort. 1: 238. 1914; A. geminiflora Hook, in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 82: under 
pi. J/950 ; Lindl. Bot. Reg. pi. 1145; A. knightiana Drummond in Curtis's Bot. 
Mag. IV. 5: under pi. 8271. 1909). t 

167. Agave striata Zucc. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 16 2 : 678. 1833. 
Hidalgo ; type cultivated in Europe from Real del TNlonte. 

Leaves numerous, uniformly spreading, grayish, rhombically biconvex, 4 to 
6 mm. wide, 60 to 90 cm. long, somewhat scabrid on the margin, the surface 
with close round ribs separated by narrow whitened grooves, the needle-shaped 
spine 1 to 2 mm. wide and 15 to 20 mm. long ; ovary stout, protruding into the 
perianth. 

With fewer more laxly spreading or recurving leaves it is var. recurva 
Baker (Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 556. 1877; A. reciirva Zucc. Abh. Akad. Wiss. 
Muenchen 4: 22. 1845). " Estoquillo," " espadin." 



142 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Agave paucifolia Tod. (Hort. Bot. Panorm. 1: 77. pi. J9. 1877) differs scarcely 
more than in its fewer leaves, these as wide as in the next species. 

168. Agave echinoides Jacobi, Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. 1868: 163. 1868. 
Agave striata echinoides Baker. Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 556. 1877. 

Ilegion ? ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Leaves numerous, straight or slightly falcate, gray-green, rhombically bicon- 
vex, 1 cm. wide, 25 to 30 cm. long, slightly scabrid on the margin, the surface 
with close narrow ribs, the triangular spine 3 mm. wide and 25. mm. long; 
ovary slender, not protruding into the tube. 

169. Agave stricta Salm-Dyck, Bonplandia 7: 94. 1859. 
Agave hystrix Cels, Cat. 1861: 19. 1861. 

Agave striata stricta Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 556. 1877. 

Puebla, common about Tehuacan ; type cultivated in Europe. 

Often densely cespitose; leaves numerous, falcately upcurved, often in a 
globose cluster, gray-green or purplish to nearly white, triquetrously biconvex, 
6 to 10 mm. wide, 25 to 35 cm. long, at most slightly scabrid, the surface with 
distinctly separated ribs, the red-brown or fading spine 3 to 4 mm. wide and 25 
mm. long ; ovary slender, scarcely protruding into the tube. 

The purplish form,. is known in gardens as f. purpurea; the rosy form, as f. 
rosea; and the most glaucous form as var. glauca (or Agave or Littaea deal- 
bata), of which there is a dwarf er form, f. nana. 

170. Agave falcata Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 304, 370. 1875. 
Agave calif ornica Baker, Gard. Chron. n. ser. 8: 556. 1877. 

Coahuila (type locality, Buenavista), Durango, Zacntecas, and Nuevo Leon. 

Leaves rather numerous spreading, often falcate, gray or purplish, evanes- 
cently glaucous, from biconvex or half-round becoming 3-sided. 7 to 15 mm. wide, 
15 or commonly 30 to 50 cm. long, finely striate-ridged, the margin minutely 
denticulate, the triquetrously needle-shaped spine 2 to 3 mm. wide, 15 or 35 to 
40 mm. long. 

" Guapilla," " palmita," " espadfn," " soyate," " sotolito " ; furnishing " ixtle " 
or " Tampico fiber." 

13. DI0SC0REACEAE. Yam Family. 

1. DIOSCOBEA L. Sp. PI. 1032. 1753. 
Reference: Uline, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 22: 421-431. 1896. 
Scandent plants, usually with large fleshy roots ; leaves mostly broad and 
cordate, palmatoly 3 to many-nerved and reticulate-veined, entire or lobed ; 
flowers small, usually dioecious, racemose or spicate; fruit a 3-valved capsule. 

It is difficult to determine which, if any, of the species should be included 
in the present treatment. Some of them certainly have large, more or less 
persistent stems, but this character is rarely shown in herbarium specimens. 
The writer has included most of the larger plants, although probably most of 
them should have been omitted. There have been excluded a number of species 
which are evidently wholly herbaceous. 

Stems winged 1. D. alata. 

Stems not winged. 
Leaves conspicuously lobed. 

Uppermost leaves conspicuously lobate 2. D. lobata. 

Uppermost leaves entire : 5. D. convolvulacea. 

Leaves entire. 

Staminate flowers solitary along the rachis of the raceme. 
Staminate flowers 3 mm. long or larger. 



N 

STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 143 

Stamens 6 ; flowers green. 

Stamens all antheriferous 3. D. pallens. 

Stamens partly (3) reduced to staminodia 4. D. densiflora. 

Stamens 3; flowers purplish 5. D. convolvulacea. 

Staminate flowers about 2 mm. long. Stamens 3. 
Leaves large, mostly 12 to 18 cm. wide, the basal sinus often closed. 

6. D. grandifolia. 
Leaves mostly 6 cm. wide or narrower, the basal sinus open. 

7. D. capillaris. 
Staminate flowers fasciculate or spicate in the racemes. 
Staminate flowers pubescent. Stamens 6. 

Flowers greenish white 8. D. laxiflora. 

Flowers purplish 9. D. dugesii. 

Staminate flowers glabrous. 
Flowers in short dense spikes, these arranged in racemes. 

10. D. spiculiflora. 
Flowers fasiculate or in short loose racemes. 

Stamens 3. Flowers 2 to 3 mm. long, greenish white. 

Staminate flowers 3 mm. long 11. D. platycolpota. 

Staminate flowers scarcely more than 2 mm. long__12. D. pringlei. 
Stamens 6. 

Stamens subequal 13. D. macrostachya. 

Stamens unequal. 
Flowers purplish, the racemes mostly solitary. 

14. D. composita. 
Flowers green, the racemes in loose panicles__15. D. floribunda. 

1. Dioscorea alata L. Sp. PI. 1033. 1753. 

Cultivated in Mexico and in some places, as in Oaxaca, apparently natural- 
ized. Native probably of Asia, but widely cultivated. 

Leaves mostly orbicular-cordate, taper-pointed, glabrous, sometimes very 
large ; flowers greenish. Known in Mexico as " igname," " iname," or " name ; " 
"nangate" (Oaxaca). 

The large roots of the yam are valuable for human food. 

2. Dioscorea lobata Uline, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 22: 427. 1896. 
Dioscorea lobata morclosana Uline, Proc. Amer. Acad. 35: 323. 1900. 
Morelos, Mexico, and Veracruz ; type collected near the City of Mexico. 
Leaves puberulent, shallowly or deeply lobed. 

3. Dioscorea pallens Schlecht. Linnaea 17: 610. 1843. 
Veracruz, the type from Jalapa. 

Plants glabrous ; capsule 1.2 to 1.4 cm. long. 

4. Dioscorea densiflora Henisl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 356. 1884. 
Veracruz to Chiapas; type from Valley of Cordoba. Guatemala and Hon- 
duras. 

Glabrous except upon the racemes ; flowers in very long slender spikes. 

5. Dioscorea convolvulacea Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 49. 1831. 
Dioscorea galeottiana Kunth, Enum. PI. 5: 409. 1850. 

Dioscorea convolvulacea viridis Uline, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 22: 427. 1896. 
Mexico to Michoacan and Oaxaca. 

Leaves usually puberulent ; flowers long-pedicellate, purplish ; capsules 1.5 to 
2.5 cm. long. 

D. convolvulacea viridis is a form with 3-lobed leaves. 

6. Dioscorea grandifolia Schlecht. Linnaea 17: 602. 1843. 
Jalisco to Morelos and Puebla ; type from Acatlan, Puebla. 



144 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

7. Dioscorea capillaris Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 354. 1884. 
Dioscorca hirsute Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 9 2 : 391. 1842. Not D. 

hirsuta Blume, 1827-28. 
Guerrero to Veracruz, Tabasco, and Oaxaca ; type from Mirador, Veracruz. 
Central America. 

Glabrous or pubescent ; leaves often very large. 

8. Dioscorea laxiflora Scblecht. Linnaea 17: 606. 1843. 
Dioscorea remotifiora Kunth, Enum. PI. 5: 409. 1850. 
Dioscorea sparsiflora Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 360. 18S4. 

Sinaloa to San Luis Potosi and Oaxaca; type from Atotonilco el Grande, 
Hidalgo. 

Glabrous or pubescent; leaves often very large; capsules about 2 cm. long. 
" Bejuco de visnaga," " falsa cocolmeca " (Oaxaca). 

Roots often very large, covered with irregular plates. 

9. Dioscorea dugesii 1 Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 29: 330. 1894. 
Dioscorea violacea Uline, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 22 : 423. 1S96. 
Guanajuato (type locality) to Oaxaca. 

Plants puberulent. 

10. Dioscorea spiculifiora Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 361. pi. 92. 1884. 
Yucatan (type locality). Guatemala. 

Plants glabrous. 

11. Dioscorea platycolpota Uline; Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 36: 471. 1901. 
Known only from the type locality, near Iguala, Guerrero. 

Plants glabrous ; leaves orbicular-cordate. 

12. Dioscorea pringlei Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 29: 323. 1894. 
Jalisco, the type from Guadalajara. 

Plants glabrous. 

13. Dioscorea macrostachya Bentb. PI. Hartw. 73. 1841. 
Dioscorea macrophylla Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 9 2 : 392. 1842. 
Dioscorea leiboldiana Kunth, Enum. PI. 5: 355. 1850. 

? Testudinaria cocolmeca Procopp, Bot. Centralbl. 49: 201. 1892. 

Veracruz and probably elsewhere; type from Panistlahuaca and Tepinistla- 
huaca. Central America. 

Plants glabrous ; capsules 2 to 3 cm. long. 

Testudinaria cocolmeca is referred here with doubt by Uline ; it may be 
referable rather to D. remotifiora, or perhaps it is a distinct species The 
plant so named is very imperfectly known. 

14. Dioscorea composita Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 354. 1884. 
Veracruz, Oaxaca, and Chiapas ; type from Orizaba, Veracruz. Central 

America. 

Glabrous or nearly so ; capsules about 3 cm. long. 

15. Dioscorea floribunda Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brnx. 9*: 391. 1842. 
Veracruz, Oaxaca, and Tabasco; type from Jalapa, Veracruz. Central 

America. 

1 Alfredo Duges, a native of France, came to Mexico in 1S53. For many years 
he held the chair of natural history in the college of the State of Guanajuato. 
He was a diligent student of the plants and animals of Mexico, and published 
many papers upon natural history. He obtained extensive collections of plants, 
many of which are in the Gray Herbarium, and a few in the U. S. National 
Herbarium. He died in 1910. The genus Dugesia, of the family Asteraceae, 
was named in his honor by Gray. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 145 

Glabrous ; leaves thick and firm, with prominent venation. " Corrimiento " 
(Tabasco). 

14. CASUARINACEAE. Beefwood Family. 

1. CASUARINA L. Amoen. Acad. 4: 143. 1759. 

1. Casuarina equisetifolia L. Amoen. Acad. 4: 143. 1759. 

Commonly cultivated in Mexico and often growing without cultivation. 
Native of tropical Asia and Australia ; naturalized also in southern Florida. 

Large pinelike tree, sometimes 20 meters high, with a trunk 1 meter in 
diameter, with slender verticillate spreading branches ; bark gray ; young 
branchlets drooping, pale, resembling the stems of Equisetum, the leaves 
reduced to whorled scales ; staminate flowers in slender terminal spikes ; fruit 
conelike, 1 to 2 cm. in diameter ; wood very hard, strong, close-grained, flesh- 
colored or in age brown, its specific gravity about 0.93. "Pino" (Yucatan, 
Cuba); " cipres " (Yucatan); " pino de Australia" (Cuba); "sauce" (Nica- 
ragua). Known in English-speaking regions as beefwood. 

A common and handsome tree in parks in Mexico. In regions where the 
tree is native the bark is used for tanning and dyeing, yielding a reddish or 
blue-black dye. The bark is used in medicine for its tonic and astringent 
properties. 

15-. PIPERACEAE. Pepper Family. 

The genus Peperomia is the only other Mexican representative of the family. 
Its species are mostly low herbs. Some of them may be shrubs, but there is no 
satisfactory evidence that they are. 

1. PIPER L. Sp. PI. 28. 1753. 

Reference: C. De Candolle in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 240-388. 1S69. 

Shrubs or small trees; leaves alternate, entire, stipulate; flowers perfect or 
unisexual, small, greenish, sessile in very dense terete spikes, or sometimes 
racemose ; fruit a small berry. 

The species are widely distributed in the moist and tropical regions of 
Mexico, but they are more abundant farther south. They are separated by 
rather small differences, and, as so limited, most of them are of very limited 
distribution. In some localities the plants are used medicinally, for various 
purposes. The plants are more or less aromatic. The leaves are used for 
seasoning, and the fruit of some species is edible. Piper nigrum L., of the 
East Indies, furnishes the black pepper of commerce, which is widely used as a 
condiment. It is cultivated in the East Indies, Asia, Philippines, West Indies, 
and elsewhere. P. cubeba L., also of the East Indies, furnishes the cubeb 
berries of commerce, which are used in medicine for various catarrhal affec- 
tions. Piper betle L. is the betel pepper, whose leaves are chewed by the natives 
of the Pacific Islands. 1 In South America some of the species have a wide repu- 
tation for the cure of snake bites. 

The species of Piper are most commonly known in Mexico by the name of 
" cordoncillo." 
Spikes of flowers congested at the ends of axillary branchlets. 

Subgenus 1. Heckeria. 

1 See Safford, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 9 : 353-354. 1905. 



146 COXTKIBU^IONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Spikes solitary, opposite the leaves. 

Flowers pedicellate Subgenus 2. Ottonia. 

Flowers sessile. 
Stamens 2 or 3. 

Stamens 2 Subgenus 3. Coccobryon. 

Stamens 3 Subgenus 4. Carpunya. 

Stamens 4 to 6. 

Stamens 4 Subgenus 5. Steffensia. 

Stamens 5 or 6 Subgenus 6. Enckea. 

Subgenus 1. HECKERIA. 

Leaves peltate 1. P. cuernavacanum. 

Leaves not peltate. 

Petioles as long as the blades or longer 2. P. cordillerianum. 

Petioles scarcely more than half as long as the blades 3. P. umbellatuni. 

Subgenus 2. OTTONIA. 

Leaves pubescent beneath on the nerves 4. P. muelleri. 

Leaves glabrous. 

Leaves 7-nerved, about 6.5 cm. wide 5. P. yucatanense. 

Leaves 5-nerved, 2.5 to 4 cm. wide. 

Stamens 4 6. P. neesianum. 

Stamens 5 or 6 7. P. disjunctum. 

Subgenus 3. COCCOBRYON. 

Leaves acuminate, the lower ones cordate at the base, 7 or 9-nerved. 

8. P. diandrum. 
Leaves long-acuminate, the lower ones rounded at the base, 5 or 7-nerved. 

9. P. papantlense. 

Subgenus 4. CARPUNYA. 

Anthers articulate 10. P. karwinskianum. 

Anthers not articulate. 

Leaves subcoriaceous 11. P. caladiifoliuin. 

Leaves membranaceous. 

Leaves puberulent beneath along the nerves 12. P. sanctum. 

Leaves glabrous. 

Peduncles as long as the petioles 13. P. commutatum. 

Peduncles much shorter than the petioles 14. P. zacuapanum. 

Subgenus 5. STEFFENSIA. 

Stigmas 2 15. P. bourgeaui. 

Stigma 3. 

Stylo present 16. P. teapense. 

Style none. 
Fruit trigonous or obovoid. 
Bracts cucullate with inflexed apex or obovate. 

Leaves pinnate-nerved 17. P. lapathifolium. 

Leaves palmate-nerved 18. P. schlechtendalii. 



STANDLEY TEEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 147 

Bracts peltate or truncate-peltate at the apex. 
Leaves palraate-nervetl. 

Leaves glabrous, equal at the base. 

Leaves 2.5 to 3 cm. wide 19. P. lepturum. 

Leaves 14 to 21 cm. wide 20. P. megalophylluxn. 

Leaves pubescent, very unequal at the base, about 9 cm. wide. 

21. P. auritum. 
Leaves pinnate-nerved. 

Leaves glabrous, 11 to 12 cm. long, 5.5 cm. wide__22. P. oblongum. 
Leaves pubescent. 

Leaves conspicuously bullate 25. P. palmeri. 

Leaves not bullate. 

Leaf blades 16 to 25 cm. long, 6 to 12 cm. wide. 

23. P. dilatatum. 
Leaf blades about 11 cm. long and 5 cm. wide. 

24. P. pseudoasperifolium. 
Fruit tetragonous. 
Bracts cucullate, the apex inflexed. 
Leaves pinnate-nerved. 

Leaf blades broadly elliptic, 21 to 23 cm. long, 11 cm. wide. 

26. P. rohrii. 
Leaf blades oblong, about 16.5 cm. long and 7 cm. wide. 

27. P. cordovanum. 
Leaves palmate-nerved. 

Leaves puberulent beneath along the nerves, 20 to 24 cm. long, 14 to 

19 cm. wide, ovate-rounded 28. P. potomorphe. 

Leaves glabrous, 5.5 to 7.5 cm. long, 2.5 cm. wide, lanceolate to ovate. 

29. P. variifolium. 
Bracts peltate, truncate-peltate, or truncate at the apex. 

Leaves palmate-nerved, acutish at the base 30. P. berlandieri. 

Leaves pinnate-nerved. 

Central nerve emitting lateral nerves along its whole length. 
Leaves pubescent beneath, ovate or ovate-oblong. 

31. P. tuberculatum. 
Leaves glabrous, lance-ovate or lance-oblong. 

32. P. geniculatum. 
Central nerve emitting lateral nerves for only part its length. 
Leaves glabrous. 

Petioles about 30 mm. long 33. P. melanostictum. 

Petioles 8 to 10 mm. long 34. P. oaxacanum. 

Leaves pubescent, at least beneath. 
Petioles mostly 10 to 15 mm. long. 
Leaf blades rounded or cordate at the base. 

Leaves glabrous on the upper surface_35. P. macrophyllum. 
Leaves pilosulous and scabrous on the upper surface. 

36. P. aduncum. 
Leaf blades acute or acutish at the base. 
Leaves glabrous on the upper surface. 

37. P. chamissonis. 
Leaves scabrous on the upper surface. 

Peduncles hirtellous ; leaves 4 to 7 cm. wide. 

38. P. jalapense. 
Peduncles glabrous ;" leaves about 8 cm. wide. 

39. P. fischerianum. 



148 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Petioles short, usually 4 to 6 mm. long. 
Leaf blades acute at the base. 

Leaves 7 to 8 cm. wide, not bullate, thin. 
Fruit hirsute ; leaves acute-acuminate. 

40. P. descourtilsianum. 
Fruit glabrous ; leaves subobtuse-acuminate. 
■ 41. P. colipanum. 

Leaves about 4 cm. wide, somewhat bullate, rigid. 

42. P. misantlense. 
Leaf blades cordate to obtuse at the base. 

Leaves glabrous and smooth on the upper surface. 

Leaf blades obtuse at the base 43. P. citrifolium. 

Leaf blades cordate or semicordate at the base. 
Leaves about 14 cm. long and 6.5 cm. wide. 

44. P. decipiens. 
Leaves about 23 cm. long and 14 cm. wide. 

45. P. liebmannii. 
Leaves scabrous on the upper surface. 
Leaves conspicuously bullate, the pubescence of the lower 
surface appressed. 
Leaf blades elliptic-lanceolate, 6 to 11 cm. wide. 

46. P. hispidum. 
Leaf blades oblong-lanceolate, about 4.5 cm. wide. 

47. P. mexicanum. 
Leaves not bullate, the pubescence not appressed. 
Leaf blades tomentose beneath, about 4 cm. wide. 

48. P. leucophyllum. 
Leaf blades hirtellous beneath, 5.5 to 6 cm. wide. 

49. P. angustifolium. 

Subgenus 6. ENCKEA. 

Ultimate nerves of the leaves conspicuously transverse-parallel. 
Leaves hirtellous beneath, linear-acuminate at the apex. 

50. P. melastomoides. 
Leaves glabrous beneath, acuminate or short-acuminate at the apex. 

Leaves rigid, the upper ones obtuse or acutish at the base ; petioles about 

1.5 cm. long 57. P. smilacifolium. 

Leaves membranaceous, cordate at the base ; petioles 2 to 4 cm. long. 

52. P. marginatum. 
Ultimate nerves not conspicuously transverse-parallel. 
Leaves pubescent on both surfaces. 

Petioles 15 to 30 mm. long ; leaves deeply cordate at the base. 

53. P. decrescens. 
Petioles 2 to 6 mm. long; leaves rounded or shallowly cordate at the base. 

54. P. kunthii. 
Leaves glabrous on the upper surface, glabrous or pubescent beneath. 

Leaf blades broadly rounded-ovate, glabrous 55. P. jaliscanum. 

Leaf blades ovate or narrower. 

Leaves 6 to 10 cm. long, 2.5 to 4 cm. wide. 
Petioles 5 mm. long; leaves puberulent beneath along the nerves. 

56. P. lindenii. 
Petioles 8 mm. long; leaves glabrous 57. P. unguiculatum. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 149 

Leaves 11 to 12 cm. long, 4.5 to 6 cm. wide. 
Leaves puberulent beneath, 7-nervecl, rounded or cordate at the base. 

58. P. medium. 
Leaves glabrous, 5-nerved, acute at the base 59. P. uhdei. 

1. Piper cuernavacanum ' C. DC. Linnaea 37: 363. 1873. 
Known only from the type locality, Cuernavaca, Morelos. 

Branehlets velutinous-puberulent ; leaves long-petiolate, the blades ovate- 
rounded, peltate, 18 cm. long, 21 cm. wide, acute at the apex, deeply cordate at 
the apex. 

2. Piper cordillerianum C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 332. 1869. 
Cordillera of Veracruz, at 1,050 meters. Guatemala. 

Leaves long-petiolate, the blades reniform-orbicular, 21 cm. long, 30 cm. wide, 
short-acuminate at the apex, deeply cordate at the base. 

3. Piper umbellatum L. Sp. PI. 30. 1753. 
Heckeria umbellata Kunth, Linnaea 13: 569. 1839. 

Veracruz to Colima and southward. Central America, West Indies, and 
South America ; type from Santo Domingo. 

Shrub, 1 to 2.5 meters high ; leaves long-petiolate, the blades round-reniform, 
17 to 18 cm. long, 22 to 23 cm. wide, attenuate-acute at the apex, deeply cordate 
at the base. " Mano de zopilote " (Tabasco) ; " santilla de culebra " (Oaxaca, 
Reko) ; " baquina," or " basquina " (Porto Rico). 

4. Piper muelleri 2 C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 243. 1869. 
Veracruz ; type from Orizaba. Honduras. 

Branches glabrous, or when young densely hirtellous ; leaves short-petiolate. 
the blades ovate-acuminate, 12.5 cm. long, 4.5 cm. wide, 7-nerved, rounded at 
the base. 

5. Piper yucatanense C. DC. Linnaea 37: 334. 1873. 
Forests of Yucatan. 

Branehlets glabrous ; leaves nearly sessile, the petioles about 3 mm. long, 
the blades ovate-acuminate, 12 cm. long, 6.5 cm. wide, rounded at the base, 
7-nerved. 

6. Piper neesianum C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 256. 1869. 
Veracruz. Nicaragua. 

Branehlets glabrous ; petioles 5 to 10 mm. long ; leaf blades lanceolate or 
elliptic-lanceolate, 6 to 8.5 cm. long, 2 to 4 cm. wide, acuminate, acute at the 
base. 

7. Piper disjunctum C. DC. Linnaea 37: 334. 1873. 

Oaxaca and Veracruz; type collected between Huatusco and Jalapa, Veracruz. 
Branehlets glabrous ; petioles 6 mm. long ; leaf blades ovate-lanceolate, 8 to 
10 cm. long, 2.5 to 3 cm. wide, long-acuminate, acute or obtuse at the base. 

8. Piper diandrum C. DC. Linnaea 37: 364. 1873. 

Veracruz to Michoacan ; type from Pital, Veracruz. Guatemala. 

Shrub, 3 to 3.5 meters high ; branehlets glabrous ; petioles 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long ; 
leaf blades ovate, 11 to 15 cm. long, 5.2 to 11 cm. wide, rounded, truncate, or 
cordate at the base. 

1 Misspelled " Cnernavacanum " in the original description. 

2 Frederick Mueller was an Alsatian, who was sent to Mexico in 1853 by 
Schlumberger of Mulhouse. He collected chiefly between Veracruz and Ori- 
zaba. He disappeared suddenly and was never heard of afterwards, and it is 
presumed that he was murdered. 



150 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL. HERBARIUM. 

v 

9. Piper papantlense C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 338. 1869. 
Veracruz ; type from Papantla. Central America. 

Branchlets glabrous; petioles 1.2 cm. long; leaf blades ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, 10.5 cm. long, 5 cm. wide. 

10. Piper karwinskianum Kunth ; C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 327. 1869. 
Schilleria kanoinskiana Kunth, Linnaea 13: 700. 1839. 

Known only from the type locality, near the City of Mexico. 
Branchlets short-villous ; petioles about 1 cm. long; leaf blades obliquely 
elliptic, acuminate, rounded at the base, soft-puberulent on both surfaces. 

11. Piper caladiifolium (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 330. 1869. 
Artanthe caladiifolia Miquel, Syst. Piper. 387. 1844. 

Mexico, the locality not known. Central America. 

Branchlets glabrous ; leaves long-petiolate, the blades ovate-cordate, short- 
acuminate, 13 to 21 cm. long, 10 to 14 cm. wide. 

12. Piper sanctum (Miquel) Schlecht. ; C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 330. 1S69. 
Artanthe sancta Miquel, Syst. Piper. 389. 1844. 

Veracruz and probably elsewhere ; type from Atlacomulco. 

Leaf blades rounded-cordate, about 21 cm. long and 18 cm. wide, short- 
acuminate, puberulent. The following names are reported for this species, 
although some probably belong to other species, and doubtless most of them 
are applied to various species indiscriminately: "Santa Maria" (Tabasco); 
" acuyo," " hoja de ajan " (Veracruz); " hierba santa" (Veracruz, Oaxaca) ; 
" santilla de comer" (Oaxaca, Reko) ; " tlamapaquelite," " tianepaquelite," 
" tlanepaquilitl " (Veracruz, Oaxaca; Nahuatl) ; "hoja santa;" "hoja de 
anis." 

The leaves have been used by the early and present inhabitants of Mexico as 
a condiment. In popular medicine the plant is used as a stimulant and as a 
local anesthetic, and for toothache, stomach affections, and venereal diseases. 

13. Piper commutatum Steud. (Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 2: 340. 1841, nomen nudum). 
Piper plantagineum Lam. err. det. Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 6 : 353. 1831. 
Piper plantagineum Cham. & Schlecht.; C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 330. 1869. 

Not P. plantagineum Lam. 1791. 
Described from Mexico, the locality not known. 

Branchlets glabrous; petioles 2 cm. long; leaf blades ovate, 9 cm. long, 5 cm. 
wide, acuminate, rounded or subcordate' at the base, glabrous. 

14. Piper zacuapanum C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 330. 1869. 

Piper tiliaefolium Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 352. 1831. Not P. tiliae- 
folium Desv. 1825. 
Veracruz ; type from Zacuapan. 

Branchlets glabrous ; petioles about 6 cm. long ; leaf blades ovate, 14 cm. long, 
12 cm. wide, acuminate, cordate at the base. 

15. Piper bourgeaui C. DC. Linnaea 37: 358. 1873. 
Known only from the type locality, Cuernavaca, Morelos. 

Branchlets densely canescent-villous ; petioles 1.2 cm. long; leaf blades 
oblong-lanceolate, 21 cm. long, 8 cm. wide, acuminate, subcordate at the base, 
soft-pubescent on both surfaces. 

16. Piper teapense C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 260. 1869. 
Known only from the type locality, Teapa, Tabasco. 

Branchlets pubescent; petioles 5 mm. long; leaf blades ovate-oblong, 13 cm. 
long, 5.8 cm. wide, acuminate, cordate at the base, glabrous on the upper sur- 
face, pubescent beneath. 

17. Piper lapathifolium (Kunth) Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 2: 341. 1841. 
Schilleria lapathifolia Kunth, Linnaea 13: 714. 1839. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 151 

Veracruz ; type from Jalapa. Central America and northern South America. 

Shrub, 3.5 to 4.5 meters high; branchlets glabrous; petioles 4 cm. long; leaf 
blades oblong-ovate, about 24 cm. long and 11 cm. wide, short-acuminate, cor- 
date at the base, glabrous above, hirtellous beneath along the nerves. 

18. Piper schlechtendalii » Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 2: 343. 1841. 
Enckea schlechtendalii Miquel, Syst. Piper. 362. 1844. 

Piper schlechtendahlianum C DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 324. 1869. 

Known only from the type locality, Misantla, Veracruz. 

Branchlets glabrous ; petioles 6 mm. long ; leaf blades elliptic-lanceolate or 
lanceolate, 6 to 10 cm. long, 2.5 to 3.5 cm. wide, long-acuminate, obtuse or acute 
at the base, glabrous. 

19. Piper lepturum Kunth ; C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 320. 1869. 
Schilleria leptura Kunth, Linnaea 13: 679. 1839. 

Oaxaca. Brazil ; type from Rio Janeiro. 

Branchlets glabrous ; petioles 1 cm. long ; leaf blades lanceolate or oblong- 
lanceolate, 11 to 14 cm. long, 2.5 to 3 cm. wide, acuminate, cordate to acutish at 
the base, glabrous. 

20. Piper megalophyllum. C. DC. Linnaea 37: 357. 1873. 
Pital and Mirador, Veracruz, the type localities. 

Branchlets glabrous ; petioles 6 to 9 cm. long ; leaf blades rounded-ovate, 16 to 
25 cm. long, 14 to 21 cm. wide, acuminate, cordate at the base, glabrous. 

21. Piper auritum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 54. 1815. 

San Luis Potosi to Oaxaca and Yucatan ; type from somewhere in Mexico. 
Central America ; Colombia. 

Shrub 1 to 4.5 meters high; branchlets glabrous; petioles 1.5 cm. long; leaf 
blades ovate-oblong, about 16 cm. long and 9 cm. wide, attenuate to the apex, 
cordate at the base. " Momo " (Tabasco); " xmacolan " (Yucatan, Maya); 
"acoyo" (Veracruz); " hoja de la estrella " (Costa Rica); "Santa Maria," 
" cordoncillo " (Nicaragua) ; " anisillo," " monca blanca " (Costa Rica) ; "hoja 
de jute," " juniapra" (Guatemala, Pittier). 

In Veracruz the leaves are .used for seasoning tamales. In Costa Rica the 
fresh leaves are applied to relieve headache. 

22. Piper oblongum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 52. 1815. 

Reported (by C. De Candolle) from Veracruz. Central America and north- 
ern South America ; type from Venezuela. 

Branchlets glabrous; leaves short-petiolate, the blades elliptic, acuminate, 
acutish at the base; spikes about 8 cm. long. 

23. Piper dilatatum L. Rich. Act. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris 1': 105. 1792. 
Veracruz. Central America, West Indies, and South America. 

Shrub 2 to 3 meters high ; branchlets nearly glabrous ; petioles 5 to 15 mm. 
long ; leaf blades ovate-elliptic or obovate-elliptic, acuminate. 

24. Piper pseudoasperifolium C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 318. 1869. 
Known only from Oaxaca, the type locality. 

Branchlets hirsute; petioles 1 cm. long; leaf blades lance-elliptic, 11 cm. 
long, 5 cm. wide, acuminate, obtuse at the base. 

25. Piper palmeri C. DC; Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1: 354. 1895. 
Piper palmeri manzanilloanum C. DC; Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1: 354. 

1895. 
Colima ; type from the city of Colima. 

1 Named for Diedrich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal (1794-1866), pro- 
fessor of botany at Halle. He published several important papers describing 
early collections of Mexican plants. 



152 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Shrub 1.8 meters high ; branchlets retrorse-pubescent ; petioles 1 cm. long or 
shorter ; leaf blades ovate-lanceolate, about 15 cm. long and 5.5 cm. wide, 
acuminate, unequal at the base. " Matico " (Colima) ; "hachogue" (Colima, 
Rose). 

The plant is said to be used for washing clothes. A decoction is employed 
as a remedy for colic in man and horses, and for cutaneous diseases. 

26. Piper rohrii C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 296. 1869. 

Oaxaca. Central America and South America ; type from French Guiana. 
Branchlets glabrous; petioles 2.5 cm. long; leaf blades short-acuminate, sub- 
attenuate at the base, glabrous. 

27. Piper cordovanum C. DC. Linnaea 37: 352. 1873. 

Known only from the type locality, Valley of Cordoba, Veracruz. 
Branchlets glabrous; petioles 3.5 cm. long; leaf blades acuminate, unequal 
and obtuse at the base, glabrous. 

28. Piper potomorphe (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 308. 1869. 
Artanthe potomorphe Miquel, Syst. Piper. 403. 1844. 

Known only from the type locality, Cordillera of Veracruz. 
Petioles 7 to 8 cm. long; leaf blades short-acuminate, deeply cordate at the 
base. 

29. Piper variifolium (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 308. 1869. 
Enckea variifolia Miquel, Syst. Piper. 355. 1844. 

Veracruz. 

Branchlets glabrous; petioles 6 to 8 mm. long; leaf blades acute or acuminate, 
rounded at the base. 

30. Piper berlandieri C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 295. 1869. 

Tamaulipas to Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type collected between Tampico and 
Real del Monte. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 6 meters high ; petioles about 1.5 cm. long ; leaf 
blades obovate-oblong, about 9.5 cm. long and 4.5 cm. wide, short-acuminate, 
acutish at the base, glabrous. 

31. Piper tuberculatum Jacq. Icon. PI. Rar. 2: 2. pi. 210. 1786. 

Veracruz to Tepic, Oaxaca, and Tabasco. Central America, West Indies, 
and South America. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 6 meters high ; branchlets puberulent ; leaf blades 
obliquely ovate or ovate-oblong, 7 to 14 cm. long, 4 to 6 cm. wide, subacuminate, 
very unequal at the base. " Cordoncillo " (Tabasco, Chiapas). 

32. Piper geniculatum Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 15. 1788. 

Veracruz to Tabasco and Chiapas. Central America, "West Indies, and South 
America ; type from Jamaica. 

Shrub or small tree, up to 6 meters high; leaves short-petiolate, the blades 
lance-ovate or lance-oblong, sometimes 25 cm. long and 12 cm. wide, acuminate, 
very unequal at the base. "Cordoncillo" (Tabasco). 

33. Piper melanostictum (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 274. 1S69. 
Artanthe melanosticta Miquel, Syst. Piper. 404. 1844. 

Known only from Tabasco, the type locality. 

Branchlets glabrous; leaf blades ovate-oblong, 19 cm. long, 7.5 cm. wide, 
subobtuse, unequal at the base. 

34. Piper oaxacanum C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 274. 1869. ' 
Known only from the type locality, Oaxaca. 

Branchlets glabrous; leaf blades oblong-elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 16.5 cm. 
long, 6.5 em. wide, acuminate, unequal and acute at the base. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 153 

35. Piper macrophyllum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 46. 1815. 

Veracruz. Central America, West Indies, and South America ; type from 
Venezuela. 

Shrub, about 3 meters high ; branch-lets glabrous ; leaf blades elliptic-oblong, 
17 to 24 cm. long, 8 to 12 cm. wide, acuminate ; spikes 4 to 5 cm. long. 

36. Piper aduncum L. Sp. PI. 29. 1753. 

San Luis Potosi to Tepic and Chiapas. Central America, West Indies, and 
South America ; type from Jamaica. 

Shrub, 2 to 4.5. meters high; branchlets hirsute or glabrate; leaf blades 
obloug-elliptic, 17 to 20 cm. long, 7 to 8 cm. wide, acuminate. " Cordoncillo " 
(Hidalgo, Veracruz); "cordoncillo bianco" (Hidalgo, Veracruz. Nicaragua); 
"platanillo" (Cuba) ; " higuillo," " higuillo oloroso" (Porto Rico). 

The plant is said to have astringent, stimulant, and diuretic properties. In 
Brazil it is used to treat ulcers. 

37. Piper chamissonis (Miquel) Steud. (Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 2: 340. 1841, nomen 
nudum) ; C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 283. 1869. 

Artanthe chamissonis Miquel, Syst. Piper. 457. 1844. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Hacienda de la Laguna, Veracruz. 
Petioles 1 cm. long; leaf blades oblong, 15 cm. long, 7 cm. wide, short-acumi- 
nate. 

38. Piper jalapense (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 277. 1869. 
Artanthe jalapensis Miquel, Syst. Piper. 444. 1844. 

Veracruz to Oaxaca ; type from Jalapa, Veracruz. Guatemala. 

Shrub, up to 4.5 meters high ; branchlets densely hirtellous ; petioles 1 to 1.5 
cm. long; leaf blades ovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, 13 to 19 cm. long, acumi- 
nate ; spikes 10 cm. long. 

39. Piper fischerianum C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 277. 1869. 
Mexico, the locality not known. 

Branchlets glabrous; petioles 1 cm. long; leaf blades lance-elliptic, 19.5 cm. 
long, acuminate, appressed-hirtellous beneath along the nerves. 

40. Piper descourtilsianum * C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 277. 1869. 
Veracruz ; type from Mirador. 

Branchlets glabrous; leaf blades oblong-elliptic, 15.5 cm. long, long-acumi- 
nate, glabrous above, puberulent beneath along the nerves. 

41. Piper colipanum C. DC. Linnaea 37: 348. 1873. 
Veracruz ; type from Colipa. 

Branchlets glabrous ; leaf blades oblong-elliptic, 19 cm. long, glabrous above, 
puberulent beneath. 

42. Piper misantlense C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 286. 1869. 
Known only from the type locality, Misantla, Veracruz. 

Branchlets glabrous; leaf blades oblong, 14 cm. long, acuminate, glabrous 
above, puberulent beneath. 

43. Piper citrifolium Lam. Tabl. Encycl. 1: 80. 1791. 

Veracruz and probably Yucatan. Central America, West Indies, and north- 
ern South America. 

Branchlets hirtellous ; leaf blades elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 12 to 
21 cm. long, 5 to 7.5 cm. wide, long-acuminate ; spikes 4 to 5 cm. long. 



'Named for Michael Etienne Descourtilz, a French physician, who spent 
many years in the West Indies, North America, etc. He published a " Flore 
medicale des Antilles," in 8 volumes, illustrated by 600 colored plates. 



154 CONTEEBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

44. Piper decipiens (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 273. 1869. 
Artanthe decipiens Miquel, Syst. Piper. 462. 1844. 

Known only from the type locality, Cordillera of Veracruz. 
Branchlets pubescent; leaf blades ovate-oblong, 14 cm. long, acuminate, 
puberulent or hirtellous beneath. 

45. Piper liebmannii C. DC. Linnaea 37: 344. 1873. 
Veracruz ; type from Mirador. 

Branchlets glabrous ; leaf blades oblong-elliptic, acute, hirtellous or hirsute 
beneath ; spikes 7.5 cm. long. 

46. Piper hispidum Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 15. 1788. 
Piper hirsutum Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. 1 : 60. 1707. 

Veracruz to Tepic and Oaxaca. Central America. West Indies, and South 
America ; type from Jamaica. 

Shrub, 2 to 5 meters high ; branchlets hirsute ; leaf blades 12 to 19 cm. long ; 
spikes 10 to 11 cm. long. " Higuillo," " higuillo oloroso " (Porto Rico^. 

47. Piper mexicanum (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 276. 1869. 
Artanthe mexicana Miquel, Syst. Piper. 458. 1844. 

Tepic to Oaxaca ; type from Cordillera of Oaxaca. Guatemala. 
Branchlets hirtellous; leaf blades oblong-lanceolate, 14 cm. long, acuminate, 
unequal at the base. 

48. Piper leucophyllum (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 278. 1869. 
Artanthe leucophylla Miquel, Syst. Piper. 460. 1844. 

Jalisco to Morelos, Puebla, and Guerrero. 

Shrub, 1 to 4 meters high ; branchlets tomentose ; leaf blades oblong-lanceolate, 
about 14 cm. long, subacuminate. " Cordoncillo " (Guerrero). 

A decoction of the plant is used in Guerrero for fevers and as a wash to kill 
parasites upon the human scalp. 

49. Piper angustif olium Ruiz & Pav. Fl. Peruv. Chil. 1 : 38. pi. 57. 1798. 
Veracruz to Tepic. Central America, West Indies, and South America ; 

type from Peru. 

Branchlets densely villous ; leaf blades elliptic-lanceolate, 16 cm. long or 
shorter, acuminate. The following names are said to apply to the plant, 
although they are probably not confined to this species : "Achiotlin," " solda- 
dillo " (Veracruz); " achotlm " (Colima) ; "cordoncillo" (Jalisco, Veracruz, 
Oaxaca, Hidalgo, Nicaragua); "matico" (Oaxaca, Nicaragua); " rabo de 
zorra," " santilla months" (Oaxaca); " platanillo," " platanillo de inonte " 
(Cuba). 

The leaves, known in commerce as " matico," are an article of export from 
some parts of tropical America. They are used in medicine to stop the flow of 
blood and for venereal diseases. It is probable that many different species 
furnish the " matico " of commerce. In Mexico this plant is used as an 
astringent and a balsamic stimulant. 

50. Piper melastomoides Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 74. 1830. 
Veracruz; type from Jalapa. 

Shrub, 3 to 4.5 meters high ; branchlets villous ; petioles 1 cm. long ; leaf 
blades oblong-ovate or lance-elliptic, about 17 cm. long and 7.5 cm. wide, rounded 
or acute at the base; spikes 3 cm. long. 

51. Piper smilacifolium H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1: 56. 1815. 
Veracruz. Central America and Venezuela (type locality). 

Shrub. 3 to 4.5 meters high: branchlets glabrous; petioles 1.5 cm. long: leaf 
blades ovate, 14 to 19 cm. long, 11 to 16 cm. wide, cordate to acutish at the 
base ; spikes 11 cm. long. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 155 

52. Piper marginatum Jacq. Icon. PI. Rar. 2: 2. pi. 215. 1786. 

Michoacan and Guerrero. Central America, West Indies, and South America. 

Shrub, up to 5 meters high ; branchlets glabrous ; leaf blades ovate-rounded, 
12 to 16 cm. long and wide, acuminate at the apex. " Anisillo " (Santo Do- 
mingo, Nicaragua) ; " higuillo Oloroso" (Porto Rico). 

53. Piper decrescens (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 251. 1869. 
Enckea decrescens Miquel, Lond. Journ. Bot. 4 ; 440. 1845. 
Hacienda de los Naranjos. Central America. 

Branchlets glabrous; leaf blades ovate or broadly ovate, 8 cm. long, 5 cm. 
wide, short-acuminate ; spikes 8 cm. long. 

54. Piper kunthii (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 250. 1869. 
Enckea kunthii Miquel, Syst. Piper. 363. 1844. 

Veracruz to Oaxaca and Chiapas ; type from Cordillera of Oaxaca. 
Branchlets pubescent ; leaf blades elliptic-lanceolate, 5 to 7.5 cm. long, 1.5 to 
4 cm. wide, long-acuminate. 

55. Piper jaliscanum S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26: 145. 1891. 
Jalisco, Sinaloa, and Tepic; type from Guadalajara, Jalisco. 

Shrub, 2.5 to 4.5 meters high, glabrous ; petioles 6 to 14 mm. long ; leaf 
blades 3.5 to 7.5 cm. long, acute or short-acuminate ; spikes 6 cm. long. 

56. Piper lindenii (Miquel) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16*: 248. 1869. 
Enckea lindenii Miquel, Syst. Piper. 368. 1844. 

Known only from the type locality, Teapa, Tabasco. 

Branchlets puberulent ; leaf blades elliptic-lanceolate, 7 to 10 cm. long, 2 to 4 
cm. wide, acuminate. 

57. Piper unguiculatum Ruiz & Pav. Fl. Peruv. Chil. 1: 34. 1798. 
Piper terminate H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 57. 1815. 

Veracruz and probably elsewhere. Central America, West Indies, and South 
America ; type from Peru. 

Shrub, 2 to 5 meters high ; branchlets glabrous ; leaf blades oblong-ovate, 6 to 
9 cm. long, 2.5 to 4 cm. wide, attenuate-acuminate. 

58. Piper medium Jacq. Icon. PI. Rar. 1: 2. pi. 8. 1781. 
Piper ceanothifolium H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 1 : 26. 1815. 

Veracruz to Yucatan and Oaxaca. Central America, West Indies, and South 
America. 

Shrub, 1 to 4.5 meters high ; branchlets puberulent ; leaf blades elliptic or 
ovate-elliptic, acuminate; spikes about 6 cm. long. " Cordoncillo " (Vera- 
cruz); " yaxtehc-che " (Yucatan, Maya); " alcotan '* (Costa Rica); "higuillo 
de limon " (Porto Rico). 

In Costa Rica the plant is reputed to be a cure for snake bites. 

59. Piper uhdei 1 C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 248. 1869. 
Mexico, the locality not known. 

Branchlets glabrous ; petioles 7 mm. long ; leaf blades elliptic-lanceolate or 
lanceolate, acuminate. 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 

Peper acutiusctjxtjm C. DC. Ann. Cons. Jard. Geneve 2: 259. 1898. Type from 
Valley of Cordoba, Veracruz. 

1 Named for C. A. Uhde, who was Prussian consul at Matamoros about 1845. 
He made large collections of fruits, seeds, and living orchids, as well as of 
herbarium specimens, which were sent to the Botanical Garden at Berlin. 
126651—20 11 



156 . CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Piper begoniaefolium Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey Voy. 310. 1839-40. De- 
scribed from somewhere in Mexico. 

Piper bredemeyeri Jacq. Eclog. PI. Rar. 1: 125. pi. 84. 1811-16. Reported 
from Jalisco. 

Piper cardiophyixtjm C. DC. in DC. Prorlr. 16 1 : 374. 18G9. Piper populifolvum 
Opiz in Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 160. 1830. Described from some unknown locality 
in Mexico. 

Piper chinantlense Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 1843. Type from 
Chinantla, Oaxaca. 

Piper kerberi C. DC. Ann. Cons. Jard. Geneve 2: 258. 1898. Type from C6r- 
doba, Veracruz. 

Piper ledebourii C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 281. 1869. Native of Brazil; 
reported from Mexico by De Candolle. 

Piper miradorense C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 380. 1869. Piper patulum Mart. 
& Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 128. 1843. Type from Mirador, Veracruz. 

Piper multinervium Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 130. 1843. Type 
from Jalapa and Mirador, Veracruz. 

Piper nervosum C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 374. 1869. Piper patens Hook. & 
Arn. Bot. Beechey Voy. 310. 1839-40. Described from somewhere in Mexico. 

Piper nitidultjm Opiz in Presl, Rel. Haerik. 1: 154. 1830. Type from some- 
where in Mexico. 

Piper orizabanum C. DC. Ann. Cons. Jard. Geneve 2: 258. 1898. Type from 
the region of Orizaba. 

Piper platyphyixtjm (Benth.) C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 375. 1869. Enckea 
platyphylia Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 167. 1844. Type from Manzanillo, Colima. 

Piper reticulosum Opiz in Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1 : 155. 1830. Type said to be 
from Mexico. 

Piper triquetrum Opiz in Presl, Rel. Haenk. 1: 160. 1830. Described from 
somewhere in Mexico. 

Piper trichophyixum C. DC. Ann. Cons. Jard. Geneve 2: 261. 1S98. Type 
from Mexico. 

16. LACISTEMACEAE. 

1. LACISTEMA Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 12. 1788. 
1. Eacistema myricoides Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 12. 1788. 

Veracruz. Central America, West Indies, and tropical America ; type from 
Jamaica. 

Shrub or small tree ; leaves elliptic-oblong, 10 to 15 cm. long, entire, glabrous ; 
flowers in axillary spikes, apetalous; fruit baccate, ovoid, about S mm. long. 

17. CHLORANTHACEAE. 

1. HEDYOSMUM Swartz, Prodr. Fl. Ind. Occ. 847. 17SS. 
1. Hedyosmum artocarpus Solms in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 485. 1869. 

Veracruz, Morelos, and Oaxaca ; type from Jalapa. Veracruz. 

Shrub, 3 to 4.5 meters high, aromatic and resinous; leaves mostly 12 to 20 
cm. long, ovate or oblong-ovate, serrate ; flowers dioecious, the staminate 
spicate, the pistillate capitate; pistillate inflorescence at maturity fleshy, com- 
posed of numerous 3-angled drupes, 2 to 3 cm. in diameter. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 157 

18. SAIICACEAE. Willow Family. 

Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate, stipulate, entire, dentate, or lobate, de- 
ciduous ; flowers dioecious, in catkins ; fruit a small capsule, the seeds bearing 
long white hairs. 

The following genera are the only ones of the family : 
Stamens numerous ; bracts incised ; disk cup-shaped ; winter buds with several 

scales 1. POPULUS. 

Stamens usually less than 5 ; bracts entire ; disk represented by one or two 
small glands ; winter buds with a single scale 2. SALIX. 

1. POPULUS L. Sp. PI. 1034. 1753. 

The species of Populus are generally distinguished from those of Sallv by 
their broad leaves, but one Mexican representative, P. angustifolia, has leaves 
as narrow as those of some willows. 

The native species are widely used in Mexico as shade trees, for which 
purpose they are very satisfactory, since they start readily from cuttings or 
from large branches placed in the ground, and grow rapidly. They are not 
very long-lived and the trees are frequently killed by mistletoe (Phoraden- 
dron). The pistillate trees are not desirable as shade trees, for in the spring 
when the fruit is ripe the seeds fly everywhere through the air, filling people's 
eyes and nostrils and becoming a general nuisance. This trouble may be 
avoided by planting only cuttings taken from staminate trees. 

Besides the native species, the white poplar, P. alba L., of the Old World, 
and its various forms ("alamo bianco") is cultivated in central and southern 
Mexico. It is distinguished by having the lower surface of the leaves covered 
with a dense white tomentum. P. nigra L.. the black poplar, another Old 
World species, is said to be cultivated in Mexico. 1 

The most common name for the species of the genus is " alamo." 
Petioles rounded, not flattened laterally ; leaves with very minute teeth. 

Leaf blades ovate, dark green above, very pale beneath, rounded at the base. 

1. P. trichocarpa. 
Leaf blades lanceolate, pale green on both sides, obtuse or acute at the base. 

2. P. angustifolia. 
Petioles laterally compressed ; leaves usually with large teeth. 
Leaf blades not deltoid in outline, orbicular, oval, oblong, or broadly ovate, 
pale beneath. 
Petioles densely tomentose ; leaf blades tomentose beneath when young, the 

teeth large 3. P. monticola. 

Petioles and leaves glabrous; leaf blades with small teeth. 

4. P. tremuloides. 
Leaf blades more or less deltoid, not pale beneath. 
Pedicels as long as the capsules or longer. 
Leaf blades mostly broader than long, the tip short, entire ; capsules 10 

to 13 mm. long 5. P. wislizeni. 

Leaf blades much longer than broad, the tip very long, crenate-serrulate ; 
capsules 7 to 8 mm. long " 6. P. dimorpha. 

Apparently this name has been applied by some Mexican writers to the 
native P. mexicana. 



158 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Pedicels much shorter than the capsules. 

Capsules 5 mm. long or shorter 7. P. arizonica. 

Capsules 6 to 10 mm. long. 
Leaf blades usually broadly cuneate or rounded at the base, long- 
pointed, glabrous or nearly so 8. P. mexicana. 

Leaf blades mostly truncate or subcordate at the base, short-pointed. 

Petioles and leaves glabrous or nearly so 9. P. fremontii. 

Petioles and lower surface of the leaves densely short-pilose or 
tomentose 10. P. macdougalii. 

1. Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray; Hook. Icon. PL 9: pi.. 818. 1852. 

San Pedro Martir Mountains of Baja California at an altitude of about 1,350 
meters. Northward to Alaska ; type from Santa Clara River, California. 

Tree, sometimes 60 meters high, but iu Baja California much smaller, with 
a narrow crown; bark light gray, deeply fissured in age; wood soft, weak, 
brown, its specific gravity about 0.3S. 

In the United States the wood is used for barrel staves, tubs, bowls, etc. 
Among the Indians it was a favorite tree for making canoes, and the roots 
were used in basketry. The sterile Mexican specimens seen by the writer have 
very small leaves. This species is known in the United States as black cotton- 
wood. 

2. Populus angustifolia James in Long, Exped. 1: 497. 1S23. 

Along streams, mountains of northern Chihuahua. Northward to Canada ; 
type from the Rocky Mountains. 

In Chihuahua said to be a tree 4.5 to 7.5 meters high, but farther north often 
much larger, sometimes attaining a height of 20 meters and a trunk diameter 
of 40 to 50 cm. ; bark rough or fissured ; leaves 5 to 12 cm. long ; catkins 2 to 
6 cm. long ; wood weak, soft, light brown, its specific gravity about 0.39. 

3. Populus monticola T. S. Brandeg. Zoe 1 : 274. 1890. 

Sierra de la Laguna of Baja California at altitudes of 660 to 1,550 meters. 

Tree, 15 to 22 meters high, the trunk 60 to 90 cm. in diameter, the bark 
often smooth and white; branchlets at first densely tomentose; leaf blades 
coarsely dentate; wood light reddish. " Huirigo." 

The wood is used locally for making furniture and other objects. It has 
been stated by Bailey J that this is a form of the Old World P. alba which has 
become naturalized in Baja California, but the writer is convinced from study 
of specimens that this is not the case. 

4. Populus tremuloides Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 2: 243. 1803. 

Mountains of Chihuahua, Sonora, San Luis Potosl, and Durango. Widely 
distributed in the United States and in Canada (type locality). 

Usually a small slender graceful tree, but sometimes 12 meters high or even 
up to 18 meters, the trunk sometimes 60 cm. in diameter; bark thin, smooth, 
pale green or grayish ; wood soft, weak, light brown, its specific gravity about 
0.40. "Alamillo " (Durango, Patoni). 

Large amounts of aspen wood are used in the United States for paper pulp. 
The tree is one of the first to spring up in lumbered or burned-over regions, and 
it often covers large areas. The Mexican specimens seen are all sterile. 
Probably they should be referred to P. aurea Tidestrom, 2 but the status of that 
species is still uncertain. 

'Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2756. 1916. 'Amer. Mid. Nat. 2: 35. 1911. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 159 

5. Populus wislizeni 1 (S. Wats.) Sarg. Man. Trees N. Amer. 165. 1905. 
Populus frcmontii wislizeni S. Wats. Arner. Journ. Sci. III. 15: 3. 1878. 
Along streams at low altitudes, northern Chihuahua and Sonora. Western 

Texas to Colorado. 

Often 15 meters high, with a very thick trunk and large crown ; bark pale 
gray, fissured ; leaves 5 to 10 cm. long ; wood soft, brownish, its specific gravity 
about 0.46. Commonly known as "alamo"; " giierigo " (Chihuahua). 

In the Rio Grande Valley the wood is much used for firewood, fence posts, 
and rafters of houses. It is not very good for fuel, since it burns almost like 
paper. The fallen leaves are eaten fry cattle. This Cottonwood is the most 
common shade tree of New Mexico. It was reported from Mexico by Hemsley 
as Populus balsamifera L., a species of more eastern and northern distribution. 

6. Populus dimorpha T. S. Brandeg. Zoe 5: 197. 1905. 

Along arroyos and streams at low altitudes, Sonora and Sinaloa ; type from 
Culiac&n. 

A large tree, often planted in parks; remarkable for the dimorphism of its 
leavas, those on the older branches ovate-deltoid, very long-acuminate, those 
on young shoots linear-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate. 

7. Populus arizonica Sarg. Bot. Gaz. 57: 210. 1919. 
Populus arizonica jonesii Sarg. Bot. Gaz. 57: 211. 1919. 

Baja California to Chihuahua, Tamaulipas, and Puebla, chiefly in river bot- 
toms ; Chiapas (?). Southern California to New Mexico; type from Arizona. 

Large tree, sometimes 25 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 1.5 meters; 
crown rounded, with spreading branches ; bark light gray, ridged, or on young 
trees smooth. Generally known as "alamo," but also as " chopo " (Chihuahua, 
San Luis Potosi) and " olmo " (Tamaulipas). 

The wood is used for fuel, carts and cart wheels, fence posts, water troughs, 
etc. P. arizonica' jonesii (type from Valley of Palms, Baja California), to 
which most of the Mexican material belongs, is a form with longer pubescence 
than the type. 

8. Populus mexicana Wesm. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 328. 1864. 

Type collected between Tampico, Tamaulipas, and Real del Monte, Hidalgo. 

Leaves broadly ovate, 4.5 to 7 cm. long, long-petiolate, abruptly long-acumi- 
nate at the apex. 

The writer has seen no material agreeing satisfactorily with the type collec- 
tion. 

9. Populus fremontii S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 10: 350. 1875. 

Baja California; Sonora (?). California and Nevada; type from Deer Creek, 
California. 

Large tree, sometimes 35 meters high, with a trunk 2 meters in diameter, the 
branches spreading and drooping; bark light gray and smooth on young trees, 
brown and ridged in old trees ; wood soft, light brown, weak, its specific gravity 
about 0.48. "Alamo" (Baja California). 

a The species was named for Adolf Wislizenus (1810-1889), who came to the 
United States from Germany in 1835. He was one of the first of United States 
botanists to visit Mexico, having gone, by way of the Santa Fe trail, to Chi- 
huahua in 1846. He obtained in that State a large collection of plants, which 
were reported upon by Dr. George Engelmann in a book published by Wislizenus 
detailing his travels. 



160 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

10. Populus macdougalii ' Rose, Smiths. Misc. Coll. 61 12 : 1. 1913. 

Northern Sonora and Baja California ; type from the delta region of the 
Colorado River. 

Large tree; differing from P. fremontii only in the more copious pubescence, 
and probably not specifically distinct. 

2. SALIX L. Sp. PI. 1015. 1753. 
Reference: C. Schneider, Bot. Gaz. 65: 1-41. 1918. 

The various species of willows are found in nearly all parts of Mexico, 
usually growing at the edge of water. They are often planted as shade trees. 
Salix babylonica L. ("sauz llor6n," the weeping willow), an Old World species, 
with very long, slender, drooping branches, is sometimes cultivated also. 

The wood is used chiefly for firewood, but also for construction to a limited 
extent. In the United States it is burned for charcoal, which is of excellent 
quality, being used in medicine and as black crayon by artists. The bark is 
sometimes used for tanning, and the leaves as forage for stock. The flexible 
tough branches are employed for making baskets, and they were so used by 
many tribes of North American Indians. They are used also in Mexico as 
well as elsewhere in the manufacture of wicker furniture. The bark and leaves 
contain tannin and salicin. The latter principle is a useful febrifuge, and was 
widely used before quinine came into general use. A willow decoction is still 
employed for treating fevers in Mexico in domestic practice, and other medicinal 
properties are attributed to the plants. 

Tbe usual names for species of Salix are " sauz " and " sauce." The follow- 
ing ones are said to be applied to species which have not been determined by 
the writer: "Ahuejote " (Jalisco, Valley of Mexico); " huejocote," " huexotl " 
(Nahuatl) ; " tepehuexote " (Valley of Mexico); " yaga-gueza " (Zapotec) ; 
" yutnu-nuu " (Oaxaca, Mixtec, ReJeo). 
Stamens 3 or more. 
Leaves glaucous or glaucescent beneath. 

Branchlets yellow or yellowish, glabrous 4. S. wrightii. 

Branchlets reddish or purplish or tomentulose. 
Branchlets densely tomentose ; leaves densely villous-tomentulose beneath 
when young; petioles 8 mm. long or less; staminate aments 0.S 

to 3 cm. long 5. S. jaliscana. 

Branchlets glabrous or sparsely pilose ; leaves glabrous beneath or nearly 
so; petioles mostly over 10 mm. long; staminate aments 4 to G cm. 

long 6. S. bonplandiana. 

Leaves green beneath. 

Branchlets yellowish or yellowish cinereous ; ovary often pilose. 

3. S. gooddingii. 
Branchlets reddish or purplish ; ovary glabrous. 

Capsule ovoid to elliptic, scarcely attenuate or short-attenuate at the 
apex; leaf blades linear or linear-lanceolate; stipules eglandular. 

1. S. humboldtiana. 
Capsule ovoid-lanceolate, attenuate at the apex; leaf blades linear-lan- 
ceolate to broadly lanceolate; stipules glandular on the inner surface. 

2. S. nigra. 

1 Named in honor of Dr. D. T. MaeDougal (1865-), director of the de- 
partment of botanical research of the Carnegie Institution, distinguished for 
his contributions to the knowledge of plant physiology. Dr. MaeDougal has 
made limited collections of plants in Mexico, some of which are in the U. S. 
National Herbarium. 



STANDLEY TKEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 161 

Stamens 2. 
Leaves small or very small, linear or lanceolate, with stomata equally dis- 
tributed on both surfaces. 
Aments short, the staminate ones 5 to 13 mm. long, the pistillate ones in 
fruit 1.2 to 2 cm. long; anthers globose or short-elliptic, about as broad 

as long 7. S. taxifolia. 

Aments longer, or the anthers elliptic and much longer than broad. 
Ovary glabrous or sparsely pilose; staminate flowers with 2 glands. 

8. S. exigua. 
Ovary densely sericeous-villous ; staminate flowers with a single gland. 

9. S. thurberi. 
Leaves large or broad, without stomata on the upper surface; leaves rarely 
small, the ovary then long-stipitate. 
Aments appearing in the axils of full-grown leaves, 2 cm. long or shorter. 
Ovary glabrous or sparsely pilose. 

Branchlets glabrous; leaves glabrous 11. S. mexicana. 

Branchlets tomentose; leaves more or less tomentulose beneath. 

Leaf buds rostrate, glabrous or sparsely pilose at the apex ; pedicels 

not longer than the bracts 10. S. hartwegii. 

Leaf buds merely acute, villous-tomentulose ; pedicels longer than the 

bracts 12. S. schaffnerii. 

Aments appearing before or with the leaves. 

Aments scarcely 1 cm. long; leaves usually 2 cm. long or less. 

17. S. cana. 
Aments more than 2.5 cm. long; leaves mostly much more than 2.5 cm. 
long. 
Ovary glabrous; stigmas short; filaments glabrous. 
Leaf blades lanceolate, oblanceolate, or narrowly elliptic; staminate 
aments about 12 mm. thick ; bracts obovate, very obtuse or trun- 
cate 13. S. lasiolepis. 

Leaf blades elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate ; staminate aments 15 to 20 

mm. thick; bracts oblong, acute 14. S. rowleei. 

Ovary villous; stigmas lanceolate; filaments pilose at the base. 
Bracts narrowly lanceolate, acute or short-acuminate. 

15. S. oxylepis. 
Bracts oblong, obtuse or subtruncate, rarely acutish. 

16. S. paradoxa. 

1. Salix humboldtiana Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 657. 1805. 

? Salix oxtjphylla H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 19. 1817. 

Salix stipulacea Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 1 : 343. 1843. 

Salix humboldtiana stipulacea C. Schneid. Bot. Gaz. 65: 7. 1918. 

Veracruz to Colima. Chiapas, and Tabasco. Central America and South 
America ; type from Peru. 

Large or small tree, sometimes 10 meters high, with a trunk 15 to 30 cm. in 
diameter. "Sauce," " sauz," " sauz bianco" (Tabasco). 

The Mexican specimens, as well as those from Central America, belong to 
£. humboldtiana stipulacea. This differs only slightly from the typical form, 
which ranges from Colombia to Argentina. A form which is possibly a hybrid 
between this and S. bonplandiana is reported from Oaxaca. 

2. Salix nigra Marsh. Arb. Amer. 139. 1875. 

Salix nigra lindheimerii C. Schneid. Bot. Gaz. 65: 9. 1918. 
Coahuila to Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, and Tepic. Widely distributed in eastern 
North America. 



162 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Tree, sometimes 20 or even 40 meters high, with a trunk diameter of a meter, 
but usually smaller; branches slender, spreading or somewhat drooping; bark 
rough, blackish, coming off in narrow strips; leaves 6 to 15 cm. long; wood 
light reddish brown, soft, weak, its specific gravity about 0.44. " Sauz " 
(Tamaulipas). 

The bark is sometimes used in domestic medicine for its reputed tonic, febri- 
fuge, anaphrodisiac, carminative, and stimulant properties. Palmer states 
that in Tamaulipas a decoction of the bark is used as a lotion for erysipelas. 
All the Mexican material is referred by Schneider to &. nigra Undheimerii, 
which occurs also in western Texas. 

3. Salix gooddingii Ball, Bot. Gaz. 40: 376. 1905. 

Chihuahua to Baja California and Sinaloa. California to New Mexico ; type 
from Clark County, Nevada. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 12 meters high ; bark rough, dark ; leaves narrowly 
lanceolate, 5 to 12 cm. long; capsules glabrous. " Sauz " (Chihuahua). 

Palmer reports that a decoction is used in Chihuahua for fevers. A form 
which may represent a hybrid between this and S. bonplandiana is reported 
from Baja California by Schneider. 

4. Salix wrightii 1 Anderss. Ofv. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Forh. 15: 115. 1858. 
Northern Chihuahua. Western Texas and New Mexico. Type from Texas 

or Chihuahua. 

Shrub or small tree. 

5. Salix jaliscana Jones, Contr. West. Bot. 12: 77. 1908. 
Jalisco, the type from Ferreria; Miehoacan (?). 

Shrub or small tree ; leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate. 

6. Salix bonplandiana H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 20. pi. 101, 102. 1817. 
Salix pallida H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 20. 1817. 

Nearly throughout Mexico ; type from Hidalgo. Guatemala ; southern New 
Mexico and Arizona. 

Small or large tree, sometimes 12 meters high or more, with a trunk 40 cm. 
in diameter, the branches slender, somewhat drooping; bark brown, thick, 
irregularly fissured ; leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 12 cm. long or 
shorter, 1 to 2 cm. wide. "Sauz" (Jalisco, Baja California); "sauce" 
(Vrbina). 

7. Salix taxifolia H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 18. 1817. 
Salix microphylla Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 354. 1831. 

Nearly throughout Mexico ; type from Queretaro. Western Texas to Ari- 
zona ; Guatemala; Porto Rico (?). 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 18 meters high, with a trunk 50 cm. In diameter; 
leaves linear or lanceolate, 3 cm. long or shorter, silvery-silky; capsules pubes- 
cent. "Taray," " taray de rlo " (Durango, Patcrni) ; " tarais " (Chihuahua). 

8. Salix exigua Nutt. N. Amer. Sylv. 1 : 75. 1842. 

Chihuahua to Baja California. Northward to Canada ; type from Oregon. 
Shrub, 2 to 4 meters high, or sometimes a tree 7 meters high. 



1 Named for Charles Wright (1811-1885), one of the most famous of American 
botanical collectors. From 1847 to 1851 he made very large collections in 
western Texas, southern New Mexico and Arizona, and Chihuahua and Sonora. 
These were studied by Gray, and many species of northeastern Mexico were 
first described from Wright's collections. Later Wright obtained an extensive 
series of plants in Cuba, and also in Nicaragua and other regions. Sets of his 
plants are In the U. S. National Herbarium. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 163 

9. Salix thurberi * Rowlee, Bull. Torrey Club 27: 252. 1900. 

Salix longifolia angustissima Anderss. Ofv. Svensk. Vet. Akad. FQrh. 15: 116. 

1858. 
Coahuila and Nuevo Le6n ; Durango (?). Western Texas (type locality) and 
southern New Mexico. 
Medium-sized tree. 

10. Salix hartwegii Benth. PI. Hartw. 52. 1840. 

Mexico and Michoacan ; type from Aganguio, Michoacan. 

Leaves elongate-lanceolate or narrowly elliptic-lanceolate, 3.5 to 9.5 cm. long. 

11. Salix mexicana Seemen, Bot. Jallrb. Engler 21: Beibl. 52: 9. 1895. 
Hidalgo, Mexico, and Puebla ; type from Zacualtipan, Hidalgo. 
Shrub, 3 to 4.5 meters high. 

12. Salix schaffnerii C. Schneid. Bot. Gaz. 65: 30. 1918. 
San Luis Potosi and Veracruz ; type from San Luis Potosi. 
Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, 6 to 9 cm. long. 

13. Salix lasiolepis Benth. PI. Hartw. 335. 1857. 

Chihuahua and Coahuila to Baja California. California, the type from Mon- 
terey. 

Tree or shrub. 3.5 to 9 or sometimes 16 meters high ; bark brown, rather thin, 
fissured; leaves 6 to 10 cm. long; wood soft, weak', light brown, its specific 
gravity about 0.56. "Ahuejote " (Baja California). 

14. Salix rowleei C. Schneid. Bot. Gaz. 65: 31. 1918. 
Salix rowleei cana C. Schneid. Bot. Gaz. 65: 34. 1918. 
Mexico (State) ; type from Eslava. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 6 meters high, the branchlets villosulous, the 
branches blackish ; leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, about 7.5 cm. long. 

15. Salix oxylepis C. Schneid. Bot. Gaz. 65: 34. 1918. 

Salix lati folia Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 1 : 344. 1843. Not. S. latifolia 

Forbes, 1828. 
Puebla and Veracruz ; type from Mount Orizaba. 
Leaves ovate-elliptic or obovate-oblong, 3.5 to 4.5 cm. long. 

16. Salix paradoxa H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 20. 1817. 
? Salix pringlei Rowlee, Bot. Gaz. 27: 136. 1899. 

Salix paradoxa ajuscana C. Schneid. Bot. Gaz. 65: 37. 1918. 
Hidalgo to Oaxaca ; type from Moran, Hidalgo. 

Shrub or small tree, up to 6.5 meters high; leaves oblong-elliptic, elliptic- 
lanceolate, or elliptic, 5 to 13 cm. long. 

17. Salix cana Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Bruz. 10 1 : 344. 1843. 
Mount Orizaba, the type locality, and perhaps elsewhere. 
Leaves narrowly oblanceolate. 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 
Salix endlichii Seemen, Repert. Sp. Nov. Fedde 5 : 19. 1908. Described from 
the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua. Closely related, according to Schneider, to 
S. cana. 

George Thurber (1821-1890), a native of Rhode Island, was appointed in 
1850 botanist to the United States commission to establish the boundary be- 
tween the United States and Mexico. He spent five years in making botanical 
collections, from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean, and discovered many 
interesting plants, which were described by Gray. He is well known also for 
his publications upon horticultural subjects. 



164 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

19. MYRICACEAE. Bayberry Family. 

1. MYRICA L. Sp. PI. 1024. 1753. 
Reference : Chevalier, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 32 : 85-340. 1001. 
Shrubs or small trees; leaves alternate, estipulate, covered with small 
glands; flowers very small, dioecious, in axillary spikes; fruit small, globose, 
covered with whitish wax. 

Chevalier reports a specimen of M. hartivegi S. Wats., collected by Pav6n, 
from Mexico. It is probable that the collection is incorrectly labeled, for that 
species is confined to California and Oregon, and its known area of distribution 
is far removed from the Mexican border. Several species of bayberry occur in 
the United States. 
Leaf blades narrowly oblanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, 5 to 9 cm. long, acute 

to attenuate 1. M. mexicana. 

Leaf blades obovate, 1.5 to 4 cm. long, rounded to acutish at the apex. 

2. M. pringlei. 
1. Myrica mexicana Willd. Enum. PI. 2: 1011. 1809. 
Myrica xalapensis H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 10. 1817. 
Myrica lindeniana C. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 a : 150. 1864. 
Jalisco to Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan, and Chiapas. Guatemala. 
Shrub or small tree, 2 to 6 meters high ; leaves entire or with a few coarse 
teeth. "Arbol de la cera " (Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Veracruz, etc.); " huancanalfi " 
(Veracruz, Oaxaca, etc.) ; " chac olol " (Chiapas, Seler). 

Myrica lindeniana is considered a distinct species by Chevalier. It is said to 
differ in having the leaves dentate above the middle, those of M. mexicana being 
entire or dentate only at the apex. The writer has seen no specimens that are 
certainly referable to M. lindeniana, but in view of the fact that the leaves of 
M. mexicana are sometimes coarsely dentate, it does not seem probable that the 
former is a valid species. 

This is a well-known plant in Mexico because of the wax that is obtained 
from the fruit. The shrub often occurs in great abundance, forming extensive 
thickets, and the fruit can be gathered in quantity. It is boiled in water, 
whereupon the wax rises to the surface and is skimmed off. The crude wax is 
greenish, or often very dark from impurities, but it may be bleached or purified 
until it is nearly white. It is not uncommon in the markets of Mexico City. It is 
used for candles, which burn slowly, with very little smoke, emitting a pleasant 
balsamic odor. It is used also as a substitute for or adulterant of beeswax, 
and has been tested for making phonograph records. Small quantities have been 
exported. The aromatic leaves also contain wax, but only in small quantities. 

The wax is a popular remedy, taken internally, for jaundice and diarrhoea. 
A decoction of the root bark is said to be acrid, astringent, and in large doses 
emetic. 
2. Myrica pringlei Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 41: 236. 1905. 

Myrica parvifolia confusa Chevalier, Mem. Soc. Sci. Nat. Cherbourg 32: 285. 

1901. 
Hidalgo, Puebla, and Oaxaca; type from "Honey Station," Puebla. in pine 
forest, altitude 1,740 meters. 

Shrub 0.3 to 1 meter high, similar to the preceding species. " Chilpanxo- 
huilt" (Puebla, Herrera). 
This species also produces wax. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 165 

20. JUGLANDACEAE. Walnut Family. 

Large shrubs or usually trees, commonly strong-scented ; leaves alternate, 
pinnate; flowers monoecious, small, greenish, arranged in long drooping catkins: 
fruit a very hard nut, inclosed in a thick dry husk ; seeds deeply lobed, usually 
edible. 
Husk of the fruit indehiscent ; fruit very rough ; staminate catkins solitary, 

sessile or nearly so , 1. JUGLANS. 

Husk of the fruit splitting into valves ; fruit smooth or nearly so ; staminate 
catkins in 3's, long-pedunculate 2. HICORIA. 

1. JUGLANS L. Sp. PI. 997. 1753. 
The wood of the larger species of Juglans is highly valued because of its 
bardness, toughness, and durability. That of J. nigra L., the black walnut of 
the United States, is much used for furniture and gunstocks. The bark and 
fruit are sometimes used for tanning and dyeing. The seeds are edible and are 
often used in sweetmeats. Juglans regia L. ("nogal," " nuez grande," " nuez 
de Castilla "), the English walnut, native of Europe, is cultivated in Mexico. 
Nuts large, 3 to 4 cm. broad. 

Leaflets sparsely pilose beneath or glabrate, glabrate on the upper surface. 

1. J. pyriformis. 
Leaflets densely velvety-pilose beneath, stellate-pubescent on the upper sur- 
face 2. J. mollis. 

Nuts small, 1 to 2.5 cm. broad. 
Nuts 1 to 1.5 cm. broad ; leaflets narrow, minutely and obscurely serrulate, 

strongly falcate; shrub or small tree 3. J. rupestris. 

Nuts 2 to 2.5 cm. broad ; leaflets broad, conspicuously serrate, scarcely fal- 
cate; large tree 4. J. major. 

1. Juglans pyriformis Liebm. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1850: 79. 1850. 
Veracruz and Hidalgo to Jalisco ; type from Veracruz. 

Doubtless a large tree ; leaflets 9 to 15, acute to attenuate. " Nogal." 
The material at hand is not very satisfactory and it may be that more than 
one species is involved. A specimen from Durango {Palmer 104) has a con- 
spicuously pyriform nut, but the leaflets are almost completely glabrous 
beneath. Possibly it represents an undescribed species, but it is referred here 
for the present. Of this collection Palmer gives the following note : " ' Nogal ' ; 
15 to IS meters high, the trunk 0.6 to 1.2 meters in diameter, the crown wide- 
spreading; the leaves are thrown in water to stupefy fish." 

2. Juglans mollis Engelm. ; Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 163. 18S3. 
Juglans mexicana S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26: 152. 1891. 

Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi; type from mountains east of San Luis 
Potosf. 

Small or medium-sized tree, or sometimes 15 to 18 meters high, with a trunk 
diameter of a meter ; bark thick, blackish, deeply furrowed ; leaflets usually 9 
to 15. acutish to attenuate ; catkins 7 to 12.5 cm. long ; nut reddish brown, with 
rounded ridges. "Nogal," "nuez meca " (San Luis Potosi). 

The tree is said to be valued highly for its wood, which is sawed and is used 
for bowls, tubs, and other articles. The husks of the fruit are used to procure 
a coffee-colored dye. The leaves are heated and applied locally for rheumatism. 
It may be that J. mexicana is a distinct species, but no definite characters are 
observable in the material at hand. 



166 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

3. Juglans rupestris Engelru. in Sitgreaves, Rep. Zuiii & Colo. 171. pi. 15. 1S54. 
Coahuila and probably in Chihuahua. Western Texas and southern New 

Mexico (type locality). 

Shrub, usually less than 5 meters high, growing in clumps and branched 
almost to the base, or said to be sometimes a tree 9 meters high; bark smooth 
and yellowish on young stems, in age thick, furrowed, and broken into plates; 
leaflets 13 to 23; catkins 5 to 10 cm. long; nuts dark brown; wood hard, weak, 
close-grained, dark brown, its specific gravity about 0.70. " Nogal." 

4. Juglans major (Torr.) Heller, Muhlenbergia 1: 50. 1900. 

Juglans rupestris major Torr. in Sitgreaves, Rep. Zufii & Colo. 171. pi. 16. 
1854. 

Chihuahua and Durango. Arizona (type locality) and New Mexico. 

Tree, sometimes 15 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 1.5 meters, the 
trunk short, the branches spreading, the bark dark gray, rough; leaflets 9 to 
19, 6 to 12 cm. long; wood hard, rather weak, coarse-grained, dark brown, its 
specific gravity about 0.67. "Nogal silvestre " (Chihuahua). 

A decoction of the leaves is said to be taken as, a tonic. 

2. HICORIA Raf. Med. Repos. N. Y. II. 5: 352. 1808. 
About a dozen other species of the genus (the hickory trees) occur in the 
United States. Their wood is very tough and is much used for articles in 
which strength and elasticity is needed, such as ax handles, wagon wheels, 
etc. The seeds of most species have an agreeable flavor and large quantities 
are eaten. 

Leaflets 5; bud scales imbricate 1. H. mexicana. 

Leaflets 7 to 15 ; bud scales valvate. 

Leaflets 7 or 9, not falcate; shell of the nut thick__2. H. myristicaeformis. 

Leaflets usually 11 to 15, conspicuously falcate, shell of the nut thin. 

3. H. pecan. 

1. Hicoria mexicana (Engelm.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Club 15: 2S3. 18SS. 
Carya mexicana Engelm.; Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot.^ 3: 162. 1883. 
San Luis Potosi and Queretaro ; type from mountains near Alvarez, San 

Luis Potosi, at an altitude of 2,400 meters. 

Tree, 15 to 18 meters high ; leaflets obovate, sessile, about 15 cm. long, acumi- 
nate, with a pleasant odor; fruit with a thick husk, the nut somewhat angled. 
"Nogalillo" (San Luis Potosi). 

The leaves are used for wrapping tamales. The wood is used locally. 

2. Hicoria myristicaeformis (Michx. f.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Club 15: 284. 

1888. 

Juglans myristicaeformis Michx. f. Hist. Arb. Amer. Sept. 211. 1810. 

Carya myristicaeformis Nutt. Gen. PI. 2: 222. 1818. 

Nuevo Leon. Southeastern United States; type from Charleston, South 
Carolina. 

Large tree, sometimes 35 meters high, with a trunk diameter of a meter ; 
bark dark reddish brown, shallowly fissured into close scales; leaflets 5 to 12 
cm. long, acute or acuminate ; fruit with a thin husk, the nut rounded, smooth, 
brown ; wood hard, tough, strong, close-grained, light brown, its specific gravity 
about 0.80. 

3. Hicoria pecan (Marsh.) Britton, Bull. Torrey Club 15: 282. 188S. 
Juglans pecan Marsh. Arb. Am6r. 69. 1785. 

Carya olivaeformis Nutt. Gen. PI. 2: 221. 1818. 

Nuevo Le6n, San Luis Potosi, and Hidalgo ; reported from Oaxaca and prob- 
ably in some other states. Eastern United States. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 167 

Large tree, sometimes reaching a height of 50 meters and a trunk diameter 
of 2 meters; bark light reddish brown, furrowed into narrow ridges; leaflets 
ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 15 cm. long; fruit with a thin husk, the nut 
rounded, reddish brown, thin-shelled ; wood hard, rather brittle and weak, 
close-grained, light reddish brown, its specific gravity about 0.72. The follow- 
ing names are reported from various parts of Mexico : " Nuez encarcelada," 
" nuez chiquita," " nogal morado," " pacanero," " nogal de nuez chica," " nuez 
lisa." 

The bark is said to have been-used in Mexico in the treatment of intermittent 
fevers and for dyspepsia. The pecan is grown extensively in the southern 
United States, and the nuts are an important article of commerce. The kernels 
have a very agreeable flavor and are eaten alone or in candies and other sweet- 
meats. Most of the cultivated forms have much larger nuts, with thinner 
shells, than the wild trees. 

21 BETULACEAE. Birch Family. 

Shrubs or trees; leaves alternate, deciduous, dentate, the stipules usually 
deciduous; flowers small, dioecious, in catkins. 
Pistillate catkins conelike in fruit, the scales woody ; staminate flowers 2 or 3 

to each bract ; perianth none in the pistillate flowers 1. ALNUS. 

Pistillate catkins not conelike, the scales thin ; staminate flowers solitary above 
the bract ; perianth present in the pistillate flowers. 

Fruit inclosed in a bladder-like closed sac 2. OSTRYA. 

Fruit merely subtended by a flat leaflike 3-lobed bract 3. CARPINUS. 

1. ALNUS Hill, Herb. Brit. 510. 1756. 

References: Fernald, Proc. Amer. Acad. 40: 24-28. 1904; Bartlett, Proc. 
Amer. Acad. 44: 609-612. 1909. 

Numerous species of Alnus occur in the United States. The Mexican alders 
have often been determined as A. acuminata H. B. K., and there are many ref- 
erences in literature to the name, but that species, described from the Andes of 
Peru, does not occur in Mexico. 

The bark of the alders is astringent and rich in tannin. It is used in Mexico 
for tanning skins, giving them a red color, and it is employed also for dyeing 
skins, blankets, etc., furnishing various colors according to the substances 
combined with it. The Nueva Farmacopea Mexicana states that the leaves are 
used as poultices for wounds, an infusion of the bark as a lotion in cutaneous 
diseases, a decoction of the bark internally for scrofula and venereal diseases, 
and a decoction of the fruit as an astringent lotion for inflammation of the 
throat. 

The following vernacular names are reported, but it is impossible to deter- 
mine the species to which they are applied: "Aile" or "ayle" (Jalisco, Mo- 
relos, Oaxaca ; from the Nahuatl, "ailitl"); " abedul " (Veracruz, Oaxaca) ; 
" olmo del pais" (Veracruz, Hidalgo, Ramirez); " palo de aguila " (Oaxaca, 
Reko) ; " yaga-bizie " (Oaxaca, Zapotec, Reko) ; "palo de lama" (Guatemala, 
Pittier). The Spanish name " aliso" is used in New Mexico and in some parts 
of Mexico. 

Leaves densely covered beneath with yellow wax glands 1. A. jorullensis. 

Leaves without glands beneath or the glands remote and inconspicuous. 
Mature strobiles 7 to 14 mm. long. Veins very coarse and prominent on the 
lower surface of the leaves 2. A. firmifolia. 



168 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Mature strobiles 20 mm. long or longer. 
Petioles pubescent. 
Leaf blades broadly rounded at the base, broadly elliptic-ovate. 

3. A. pringlei. 
Leaf blades acute or acutish at the base, ovate or oblong-ovate. 

4. A. oblongifolia. 
Petioles glabrous. 

Leaves conspicuously pilose beneath, at least on the nerves. 

5. A. arguta. 
Leaves glabrous beneath or nearly so 6. A. glabrata. 

1. Alnus jorullensis H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 27. 1817. 

Along streams, Jalisco to Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Volcan de 
Jorullo, MichoacSn. Guatemala. 

Shrub or tree, 3 to 6 meters high or larger, with smooth, reddish brown 
branches ; leaves oblong or obovate, 7 to 13 cm. long ; strobiles 1 to 2 cm. long. 

2. Alnus firmifolia Fernald, Proc. Amer. Acad. 43: 61. 1907. 

State of Mexico; type from Cima Station, at an altitude of 3,000 meters. 
Tree, 6 to 12 meters high. 

3. Alnus pringlei Fernald, Proc. Amer. Acad. 43: 62. 1907. 

Type from Uruapam, Miehoacan ; perhaps also in Durango and Jalisco. 
Small tree. "Aliso " (Durango). 

Certain doubtful forms are intermediate between this and A. oblongifolia, 
but the type collection appears distinct from the latter species. 

4. Alnus oblongifolia Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 204. 1859. 

Sonora ; perhaps also in Durango and Tepic. Southern New Mexico (type 
locality) to southern California. 

Small or medium-sized tree, sometimes 10 meters high, with a trunk 25 cm. 
in diameter, the branches reddish brown; bark thin, light brown; leaves 5 
to 10 cm. long; catkins 9 cm. long or shorter; strobiles 1 to 1.5 cm. long. 

5. Alnus arguta (Schlecht.) Spach, Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 15: 205. 1841. 
Betula arguta Schlecht. Linnaea 7: 139. 1832. 

Alnus arguta cuprea Bartlett, Proc. Amer. Acad. 44: 610. 1909. 

Alnus arguta subsericca Bartlett, Proc. Amer. Acad. 44: 610. 1909. 

Tamaulipas to Veracruz (type locality), Oaxaca, and Chiapas; apparently 
also in Chihuahua. 

Tree, 6 to 7.5 meters high, the branches brown ; leaves ovate or obovate, 4 to 
10 cm. long; strobiles 2 to 3 cm. long. 

The Chihuahua specimens were referred doubtfully to A. glabrata by Bart- 
lett. but seem essentially the same as A. arguta. This species has been referred 
to A. acuminata H. B. K., .4. ferruginea H. B. K., and A. joruUensis castaneae- 
fiili'i (Mirb.) Hegel, none of which is known to occur in Mexico. 

6. Alnus glabrata Fernald, Proc. Amer. Acad. 40: 26. 1904. 

Alnus glabrata durangensis Bartlett, Proc. Amer. Acad. 44: 611. 1909. 

Hidalgo to Oaxaca; Durango; type from Monte San Nicolas, Guanajuato. 

Large or medium-sized tree; leaves oblong-lanceolate or elliptic, coarsely 
dentate, acuminate. "Aliso" (Durango). 

A. glabrata clu rangcnsis Bartlett is a form in which the lower surface of the 
leaves is glaucescent; it may lie specifically distinct. Specimens of A. glabrata 
have been reported from Mexico as I. rhomlrifolia Nutt. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 169 

2. OSTRYA Scop. Fl. Cam. 414. 1760. 
1. Ostrya guatemalensis (Winkl.) Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 292. 1905. 

Ostrya italica virginiana guatemalcnsis Winkl. in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 61 : 
22. 1904. 

Ostrya mexlcana Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 292. 1905. 

Veracruz to Tabasco and Chiapas. Guatemala (type locality) to Costa 
Rica. 

Tree, 12 to 15 meters high or smaller, with thin, light brown bark ; leaves 
ovate, doubly serrate; staminate flowers in slender catkins; fruits surrounded 
by bladder-like bracts, arranged in strobiles like those of common hops 
(Humulus lupulus L. ). Commonly known as " guapaque." 

This is very closely related to 0. virginiana (Mill.) Koch, but seems fairly 
distinct. In the Guatemalan form the pubescence is slightly more copious 
than in the plants of Veracruz, but there appears to be no essential difference 
between the two. 

The wood of the ironwood is very strong, tough, and durable. It is used for 
railroad ties and other purposes. The bark is used for dyeing and tanning. 

3. CARPINUS L. Sp. PI. 998. 1753. 
1. Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Fl. Carol. 236. 1788. 

Carpinus caroliniana tropicalis Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 15: 28. 1890. 

Veracruz to Jalisco and Chiapas. Guatemala; eastern United States and 
Canada, the type from Carolina. 

Tree, sometimes 12 meters high, the trunk up to 60 cm. in diameter, usually 
compressed or fluted, the bark thin, smooth, grayish ; leaves oblong-ovate, acu- 
minate ; staminate catkins 2 to 3 cm. long ; wood hard, light brown, very difficult 
to work, its specific gravity about 0.73. " Lechillo," " palo silo," " palo ba- 
rranco " (Michoacan, Altamirano) . 

Carpinus caroliniana tropicalis is a form with more copious pubescence than 
the type. Both forms of the American hornbeam occur in Mexico. 



INDEX. 



[Synonyms in italics. J 



Page. 

Abedul 167 

Abeto 59 

Abies 58, 50-00 

Acahuite 59 

Acalocahuite 54 

Acanita 54 

Acanthorrbiza 73 

Aceite de abeto 60 

de palo 60 

Achiotlln 154 

Achotlin 154 

Acoyo 151 

Acroeomia S3 

Acuyo 150 

Acxoyatl 59 

Agave 107-142 



aboriginuni _. 

abrupta 

acerva 

affinis 

albicans 

albida 

aloina 

americana 

amoena 

amurensis 

ananassoides. 
angustiarum_ 
angustifolia _ 
angustissima_ 

applanata 

argyrophylla- 

aspera 

asperrima 

atrovirens 

attenuata 

aurea 

auricantha __ 
avonallidens _ 

bakeri 

baxtcri 

bedinghausii .. 

bergeri 

bernhardii 

bessereriana _ 

blanda 

bonncti 

bonnettiana _ 

bottcrii 

bouchei 

bourgaei 

bracteosa 

brandegeel 



115 

132 

130 

127 

135 

123 

135 

132 

123 

139 

121 

139 

114 

141 

125 

106 

130 

133 

130 

134 

126 

123 

127 

117 

120 

123 

115 

135 

120 

130 

123 

128 

135 

135 

131 I 

133 

127 I 



126651—20- 



-12 



Page. 

Agave brauniana 135 

caespitosa 135 

calif omica 142 

candelabrum 118 

cantala 107, 118 

cantula 118 

carminis 126 

celsii 135 

cercus 130 

cerulata 126 

cercus 130 

chiapensis 135 

chihuabuana 125 

chloracantha 135 

cholulensis 130 

cinerea =__ 130 

citmlacea 130 

coarctata 128 

cocoinca 128 

cochlcaris 130 

cochlea la 123 

collina 116 

compluviata 128 

concinna 120 

connocbaetodon 127 

oonsideranU 139 

consociata 126 

convallis 138 

corderoyi 117 

costaricensis 132 

crassispina ^ 129 

crenata 123 

crispa 130 

croticheri 123 

aicullata 123 

cupreata , 124 

dasylirioides 133 

datylio 120 

dealbata 142 

deamiana 121 

debaryana 134 

decaisneana 135 

decipiens 117 

denslflora 135 

densispina 114 

dentiens 126 

deserti 126 

desmettiana 121 

deweyana 115 

disjuncta 126 

dissimulans 138 

donnell-smithii 117 

echidne 130 

rn 



VIII 



INDEX. 



Pago. 

Agave echinoides . 142 

oduardi 134: 

ehrenbergii 135 

elegans 123,130 

ellemeetiana 134 

elongata 116 

endlichiana 115 

engelmanni 135 

erubescens 114 

expansa 132 

expatriata 138 

falcata 142 

felina 129 

fenzliana 124 

ferox 128 

filamentosa 141 

filifora 141 

adornata 140 

flaccida 114, 118 

flava 130 

flavesccns 120 

flexispina 133 

foliosa 130 

foureroydes 119 

franzosini 131 

funis 130 

funkiana 136 

galcottci 135 

geminiflora 141 

sonorae 140 

ghiesbrechtii 137 

gilbcyi horrid a 137 

yluuca 130 

glaacescens 134 

glomeruli ; flora 130 

goeppertiana 135 

goldinaniana 125 

gracilis 128 

gracilispina 129 

grandidoitata 137 

gray 120 

green 118 

guadalajarana 123 

gucdeneyri 135 

gutierreziana 116 

hartmani ,__ 140 

haselofp, 135 

haynaldi 139 

heteracantha 130 

hookeri 123 

horizon talis 135 

horrida 137 

houghii 134 

huachucensis 125 

humboldtiana 135 

hurteri 121 

hystrix 142 

imbricata __ 123 

inaiquidens 124 

in gens 132 

Inopinabilis 13S 

insulsa 130 

IntegrifoUa 120 

Intreplda 133 

ixtli 119 

karwinskll 117 



Page. 

ave kellermaniana -- 121 

kellockii 134 

kerchovei 138 

kewensis 135 

kirchneriana IIS 

knightiana 141 

kochii 139 

Jagunae 122 

tamprochlora 135 

latissima 12S 

laxa 117, 118 

laxifolia 117 

lecheguilla 136 

leguayiana 137 

hopoldi 123 

lespinassei 115 

lindleyi 135 

linearis 120 

longisepala 116 

longispina 133 

lophantha 130 

lurida 122 

lutea 130 

macrantha 136 

macroacantha 120 

macroculmis 128 

maculata 130 

madagascariensis IIS 

mapisaga 130 

margaritae 127 

maritima 141 

marmorata 131 

martiana 135 

maximilianca 130 

megalacanlha 123 

melanacantlia 135 

melliflua 129 

mescal 123 

mcxicana 123, 132 

micracantha 135 

niinarum 122 

miniata 130 

minima 119 

mirabilis 131 

miradorensis 121 

mitis 135 

mitraeformis 12S 

muilmanni 135 

mulfordiana 140 

mi/ltilincata 136 

nelsoni 128 

nickelsi 140 

nigra 130 

nissoni 136 

nivea 120 

noackii 135 

noah 125 

oblongata 135 

obscura 137 

oligophylla 120 

opacidens 122 

orcuttiana 124 

ortgicsiana 141 

ottonis 135 

pacbyacantha 124 

pachycentra 121 



INDEX. 



IX 



Page. 

Agave pacifica H° 

pallida 121, 130 

palmaris H6 

palmeri 133 

panamana 114 

parrasana 125 

parryi 1-^ 

parviflora HO 

patonii 125 

paucifolia 120, 142 

peacockvi 13 1 

pedrosana 116 

pedunculifera 134 

pendula 135 

perlucida 135 

perplexans 141 

pes-mulae H7 

picta 132 

polyacantha 135 

poselgeri 136 

potatorum 123 

potrerana 138 

praestans 130 

pringlei 126 

procera 130 

profusa 130 

prolifera 1 l'-». 123 

promontorii 126 

pruinosa 134 

pseudotequilana 119 

pugioniformis 120 

pulverulenta 123 

pumila 136 

punctata 114 

quadreta 123 

quiotifera 129 

rasconensis l 122 

recurva 141 

regeliana 121 

regia ___^ 135 

rhodacantha 117 

rigida elongata 119 

sisalwna 118 

rigidissima 138 

roezliana 137 

rohanii 137 

roseana 127 

rotundifolia 123 

rubescens 114 

rubi'a 130 

rubrocincta 135 

rudis 135 

rumphii 118 

rupicola 135 

salmdyckii 135 

salmiana 130 

graciUspina 129 

samalana 122 

nartorU 135 

saundersii 123 

scabra 125 

schidigera 140 

ortgieslana 141 

schlechtendalii 131 

sehottii 140 



Page. 

Agave scolymus 123 

sebastiana 124 

seemanniana 122 

selloum 128 

serrata 123 

serrulaia 123 

shawii 124 

sicaefolia 120 

silvestris 119, 130 

simoni ' 136 

s-imonis 136 

sim^n 1 - ,s 

sisalana H8 

smaragdina 130 

smithiana 135 

sobria ■■ 127 

spectaMlis H6 

8pinaceum 130 

spinosa 130 

spinosissima 130 

spiralis H7 

splendens 139 

streptacanthw 123 

striata 141 

echinoides 142 

stricta 142 

stricta 142 

stringens H4 

subfalcata 120 

subsimplex 127 

subtilis H6 

subzonata 129 

sudburyensis 120 

sullivani H9 

superba 130 

tecta 130 

tefiuacanensis 123 

tenuispina 122 

tequilana H9 

theometl 123 

thomasae 121 

thompsoniana 135 

todaroi 131 

toneliana 106, 139 

torosa 130 

tortispina 121 

toumeyana 140 

triangularis 137 

uncinata 136 

univittata 137 

variegata 130 

vera-cruz 123 

verschaffeltii 123 

vesca 130 

vestita 140 

vexans 120 

victoriae-reginae 139 

vilmoriniana 134 

violacea 130 

viridis 130 

viridissima H7 

vittata 139 

vivipara H8 

wallisii 135 

warelliana 135 

washingtonensis 139 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Agave weberi 128 

wercklei 132 

whitakrri 130 

wiesenburgcnsi8 120 

icislizeni 125 

icrightii 114 

xalapensis 136 

xylonacantha 139 

yaquiana 120 

yuccaeforia 134 

zapupc 115 

zonata 129 

Aguamiel 128, 129 

Ahuehuete 60 

Ahuehuetl 60 

Ahuejote 160, 163 

Aile 107 

Alamillo 158 

Alamo 157, 159 

bianco 157 

Alcacatza 103 

Alcohol 93, 99 

Alcotfln 155 

Alder 107 

Aliso 107, 168 

Alligator juniper 62 

Alnus 107-168 

Aloe 88, 107 

American 107 

blue 123 

Manila 119 

Alsophila /,/, 43-40 

Alzate, J. A 15. 18 

Amaryllidaceae 105-142 

Amaryllis family 105-142 

American aloe 107 

Amole 89, 96, 107, 140 

Amphidesmium (subgenus of Also- 
phila) 43 

Anadendron 85 

Anatis 96 

Anisillo 151, 155 

Araceae 85-87 

Arbol de la cera 164 

de la Nocho Triste 60 

Artanthe caladU folia 150 

chamisson is 153 

decipiens 154 

falapensis 153 

Icucophylla 154 

melanosticta 152 

mcxicana 154 

potomorphe 152 

sancta 150 

Arthrostylidium 70 

Arum family 85-87 

Arundlnarla 69 

Arundo 66 

Aspen 158 

Astrocaryum 83 

Attalea 83 

Ayacahuite 54 

Colorado 54 

Ayle 1C.7 

Bab-ci 119 

Bactris 84 



Page. 

Bahama hemp 118 

Bald cypress 60 

Ballf 84 

Balsam fir bo 

Bamboo 65 

Bambos 69 

Bamboseae 65 

Bansfl 59 

Baquifia 149 

BasqulBa 149 

Bayberry 164 

family 164 

Bear-grass 94 

Beaucarnea 95, 97-98 

Beef wood 145 

family '_ 145 

Bejuco de chiquihuite 102, 103 

de membrillo 103 

de visnaga 144 

diente-de-perro 103 

Bentham, George 63 

Berlandier, J. L 101 

Bermejo 119 

Beschorneria 106 

Betel pepper 145 

Betula 168 

Betulaceae 167-169 

Bilimek 69 

Birch family 167-169 

Black cottonwood 158 

pepper 145 

poplar 157 

walnut 165 

Blue aloe 123 

zapupe 116 

Bom cabalsah 77 

Bombay aloe fiber 119 

hemp 119 

Bonapartca 141 

Bonpland, Aim6e 18 

Botanical exploration of Mexico 9 

Bourgeau, E 131 

Brahea Ik, 75 

Brandegee, T. S 74 

Brea 56 

Cabulla 105 

Cabuya i 107 

blanca 107 

con espina 107 

Olancho 107 

Cahuite 59 

Cajum 106 

Cajum-ci 106 

Calibanus 97 

Calyptrogyne 76 

Cana 72 

("ana boba 66 

brava 66, 69 

de casa 66 

de Castilla 66 

hueca 66 

Cafiatllla 04 

Canaveral 66 

Candelillo 117 

Cane, sugar 65 

Carpinus 169 



INDEX. 



XI 



Page. 

Carpunya (subgenus of Piper) 146 

Carricillo 66 

Carrizo 66 

Carya 166 

Castera, Ignacio 14 

Castillo, Juan Diego de 13 

Casuarina 145 

Casuarinaceae 145 

Catana 106 

Catbrier 101 

Cedar 61 

incense 63 

Cedro 61, 62, 63 

amarillo 62 

bianco 63 

Colorado 62 

de la sierra 62, 63 

Central American sisal 107 

Century plant 107 

Ceratozamia 49 

Cerda, Juan 13 

Cervantes, Vicente 13, 18 

Cesi, Federico 12 

Chac olol 164 

Chamaedorea 77-82 

affinis 81 

alternans 78 

cataractarum 80 

elatior 80 

elegans 79 

ernesti-augusti 79 

graminifolia 82 

humilis : 79 

karwinskiana 82 

klotzschiana 81 

liebmanni 80 

lindeniana 81 

lunata 81 

martiana 78 

montana 81 

oreophila ^ 80 

pochutlensis 82 

pygmaea 80 

radicalis 81 

sartorii 79 

scandens 80 

schiedeana 81 

stolonifera i 79 

tenella _ 80 

tepejilote ._ 78 

wendlandiana _ 79 

Chamacrops 73 

Chamal . 48 

Charles III of Spain, expedition oi' 13 

Chato 116, 119 

Cheech 106 

Cbelem 119 

Chilpanxohuilt ._ 164 

Chino azul ._ 119 

bermejo 117, 119 

Chiquihuite 103 

Chloranthaceac 150 

Chocon _ 84 

Chopo I59 

Chucum-ci 119 

Chusquea 69 

126651—20 13 



Page. 

Cibotium 39, U, 47 

CiprSs, 60, 62, 63, 145 

de Mexico 63 

de Mootezuma 60 

Cipreso 59, 60 

Citam-ci 119 

Cnemidaria (subgenus of Hemitelia)_ 42 

Cocaiste 75 

Coccobryon (subgenus of Piper) 146 

Coco 82 

de aceite S3 

de agua 82 

de castillo 82 

de Guadalajara 83 

Cocolmeca 104 

falsa 144 

Cocolmecan 104 

Coconut 82 

Cocos 82, 83 

Cocotero 82 

Cocoyol 83 

de jauacte 84 

Cocoyul 83 

Cohune 83 

Cola de mono 39 

Collinia 79 

Cook, O. F. 70 

Coontie 49 

Copernicia 73 

Coquino 83 

Coquito 83 

baboso 83 

Cordoncillo 145, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155 

bianco 153 

Cordyline 97 

Corozo 83 

gallinazo 83 

Corrimiento 145 

Corypha 73, 75 

Cottonwood 159 

black 158 

Coulter, Thomas 57 

Coyol 83 

Coyole 83 

Cozolmecatl 104 

Cryosophila 73 

Cuau-coyotli 83 

Cubeb berries 145 

Cucharilla 101 

Cupressus 62-63 

Cyathea 39-42, 46 

Cyatheaceae 38-47 

Cycadaceae 47-fO 

Cycad family 47-50 

Cypress 62 

bald 60 

of Montezuma 60 

Dasylirion 98-101 

acrotriche 100 

berlandieri 101 

bigelovii 96 

caespitosum 97 

cedrosanum i__ 100 

durangense 101 

erumpcns 96 

glaucophyllum 100 



XJI 



INDEX. 



Page. 

1 >asylirion glaucum 100 

gracile 98 

graminifolium 101 

h artioeffia nutn » _ _ 95 

hookerii 97 

inerme 98 

jitnccum 95 

ju nci folium 101 

lawiflorutn 101 

leiophyllum 100 

longissimum 101 

longistylum 100 

lucidum 100 

palmcrL 100 

parryanum 100 

pliaMle 98 

quadranijulatum 101 

recurvatum 97 

serratifolium lOi 

simplex 100 

striatum 9S 

texanum 100 

wheeleri 101 

Date palm . 7(5 

Datil 76 

Datiles 90, 9- 

Deam, C. C 121 

De Candolle 10 

Descourtilz, M. E 153 

Desmoncus 84 

Dewey, L. H 115 

Dicksonia 46, lft 

Dicranopteris 36-3S 

Dioon 48 

Dioscorea 142-145 

Dioscoreaceae 142-145 

Disphenia 40 

Douglas fir 59 

Dracaena 141 

Duges, Alfredo 144 

Dugesia 144 

Dulces 82 

Dunal 16 

Dunguey 103 

Dunguez bianco 103 

Eeheverria, Atanasio 14 

Eleutheropetalum 79 

Enckea (subgenus of Piper) 148 

decrescens 155 

hit nihil 155 

lindenii 155 

platyphylla 150 

schlrchtcndalii 151 

variifolia 152 

Enebro 62 

English walnut 165 

Ephedra 63-64 

Ephedrine 64 

Brythea 74-75 

BBpadilla 120 

Espadfn 141, 142 

EJspinoza 117 

EBtoquillo 141 

Falsa coeoliiieca 144 

False sisal 117 



Page. 

Fiber, Bombay aloe 119 

ixtle 93, 107, 129 

Matamoros 107 

paima ixtle 89 

Tampico 88, 93, H>7. 142 

yucca 89 

Fir 59- 

balsam 60 

Douglas 59 

Fourcroya 105, 106 

Funck 76 

Furcraea 105 107, W 

Fureroea 105 

Galeotti 76 

Gamboa, F. X 13 

Gavilan, Joaquin 13 

Geonoma 76 

Gbiesbreght. August 76 

Gin 61 

Glaucothea 74 

Gleichenia 37, 38 

Gleicheniaceae 36-38 

Gnetaceae 63-04 

Goldman, E. A 98 

Grass family 65-70 

Gray agave 120 

Green agave 118 

zapupe 115 

Greenbrier 101 

Gregg, Josiah 58 

Greggia 5S 

Gretado amarillo 62 

galan i 63 

Grisebach, H. R. A 67 

Guacoyul 83 

Guanito talis 77 

Guano de costa 71 

de lana 71 

Guapaque 169 

Guapilla 142 

Guaya de bajo 77 

de cerro 77 

Guayame 59 

Guayita 77 

Giierigo 159 

Giiln 66 

Guiri-biche 51 

Gynefrium 65 

Hachogue 152 

Hallarln 58 

Hartman, ('. V 140 

Hartweg, K. T 56 

Heckeria (subgenus of Piper) 146 

umbellata > 149 

Iledyosmum 150 

Hemtetegia 42, 43 

Hemitelia :«. 12 43, ;; 

Hemp, Bahama 118 

Bombay 119 

Mauritius 105 

Sisal 107. ii-. \.o 

Hemsley, phytogeography oi Mexi 3 

Benequto 107, 120 

Hernandez, Francisco 10 

Herrera, Alfonso 7 

Hesperaloe 88 



INDEX. 



XIII 



Page. 

Hesperoyucca 88 

Hickory 166 

Hicoria 166-167 

Hierba santa 150 

Higuillo 153, 154 

de limon 155 

Oloroso 153, 154, 155 

Hintimoreal 64 

Hitchcock, A. S 65 

Hoja de ajau 150 

de anfs 150 

de jute 151 

de la estr^lla 151 

santa 150 

Hop hornbeam 16'.) 

Hornbeam, hop 169 

Horsebrier 101 

Huallamo : 50 

Huancanala 164 

Huano 72 

Huejocote 160 

Kuexotl 160 

Huirigo 158 

Huiscoyul 83 

Humboldt, Alexander von 18 

Iczotli 92 

Igname 143 

Ifiame 143 

Incense cedar 63 

Inodes 71-72 

Ironwood- — 169 

Isote 93 

Itabo 92 

Ttamo real 64 

Txtle 115, 119, 120, 136, 142 

de Jaumave ISP- 
fiber 93, 107 

manso 115 

I-rtli 88 

lzote 92, 93, 98 

Jalocote -____ 56, 59 

Japa 72 

Joint-fir family 63-64 

Juglandaceao 165-167 

Juglans 165-166 

Juniapra 151 

Juniper, alligator 62 

common 61 

Juniperus 61-62 

Junquillo 101 

Karwinsky 80 

Kellerman, W. A 121 

Kunth, C. S 18 

Lacistema 156 

Lacistemaceae 156 

Lagasca 15 

La Llave, Pablo de 15 

Lasiacis 66-69 

Lechillo 169 

Lechuguilla 36, 124, 137 

Leon, Nicolas 10 

Libocedrus 63 

Liebmann, F. M 80 

Lilia 106 

Liliaceae 87-101 

Lilium 106 



Page. 
Lily family 87, 101 

Limber pine 54 

Iiinden '. 76 

Littaea (subgenus of Agave) 112 

dealbuta 142 

geminiflora 141 

roemlU 140 

Lloyd, F. E 140 

Longinos, Jose 13 

Lophosoria (subgenus of Alsophila)_ 43 

Lophosoria 44 

Lumholtz, Carl 55, 140 

MacDougal, D. T 160 

Maguey 106, 107, 119, 130 

bianco 129, 131 

ceniso 129 

ehino 129 

Cimarron 128, 130 

curandero __ 131 

de mezcal 124 

delgado 118 

liso 128 

listado 132 

manso 129, 130 

manso fino 130 

mapisaga 131 

pinto 132 

serrano 129 

tuxtleco 118 

verde 128, 129 

verde grande 130 

Magueyon 1 116 

Maldonado 14 

Malque 45 

Manaca 83 

Manfreda 107 

Manila aloe ' 119 

Mano de zopilote 149 

larga 117, 119 

Matambilla 84 

Matamoros fiber 107 

Matico 152, 154 

Mauritius hemp 10.1 

Maxon. W. R 36, 38 

Maya language 7 

Mecapatli 103, 104 

Mertensia 37, 38 

Metl " 130 

Mezcal— _ 107, 116, 117, 118, 120, 124, 130 

azul 119 

bianco 119 

cucharo 119 

do pulque 130 

de Tequila 119 

grande 116 

Miche 75 

Micheros 72 

Michire 75 

Miraguano 72 

de lana 71 

Mixtec language 7 

Mocino, J. M 14 

Mohr, Charles 3 

Momo 151 

Monaco 83 

bianco 151 



XIV 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Monstera 85-86 

M6oga 104 

Mueller, Frederick 149 

Myrica 164 

Myricaceae 164 

Nahuat] language 7 

Name 143 

Nanahuapatlc 103 

Nangate 14:> 

Naval pitch 51 

Nelson, E. W 54 

Neowashingtonia 73 

Noa 140 

Nogal 165. 166 

de nuez chica 167 

morado 167 

silvestre 166 

Nogalillo 166 

Nolina 94-97 

Nuez chiquita 167 

de Castilla 105 

encarcelada 167 

grande 165 

lisa 167 

meca 165 

Nunnczharia 80 

Nut pine 53, 54 

Ocopetate 39 

Ocote 51, 56, 57, 58 

bianco 54, 55, 56 

chino 55 

hembro ' 56 

macho 56, 58 

Ocotl 51, 50 

Ocotzol 56 

Oil of tar 51 

Olcaeatzin * 104 

Olmo 159 

del pais 167 

Olyra 66 

Orcutt, C. R » 124 

Ortega, C. G 13 

Ostrya , 169 

OtomJ language 7 

Ottonia (subgenus of Piper) 146 

Oyamel 59 

Oyametl 59 

Pacanero 167 

Pacas 104 

Palm, coconut 82 

date 76 

family 70-84 

Palma 49, 92, 93, 94 

apache 75 

blanca 72, 74 

china 93 

Colorado 72 

corriente 93 

criolla 94 

culona 93 

de abanlco 75 

de Castilla 73 

de coco 82 

de coquito de aceite 83 

de datiles 92 

de escoba 73 



Page. 

Palma de garroche 84 

de guano 72 

de la virgen 48 

de macetas 48 

de micheros 72 

de San Pedro 93 

de Bombrerj 75 

de Tlaco 74 

dulce 7f> 

ixtle 89 

loca 92 

negra 72, 74 

pita 92 

real 71, 72, 83 

redonda 71 

samandoca S9, 93 

San Jose 91 

soyal 75 

Palmer, Edward 8,100,133 

Palmilla 74, 91. 94. 96, 141 

Palmillo 73 

Palmita 91, 92, 142 

Palmito 75 

Palo barranco 169 

de flguila 16'i 

de lama 167 

silo 169 

Paniceae 65 

Panicum 67. 68, 69 

Papalometl 123 

Papayo 13 

Parillin 104 

Parry, C. C 100 

Pato de mula 117,119 

Pavon 13, 17 

Pecan 16" 

Pentam6n 60 

Pentamu 60 

Peperomia 145 

Pepper, betel 145 

black 145 

family 145-156 

Philodendron 86-87 

Phoenicaceae 70-S4 

Phoenix 76 

Phoradendron 157 

Phragmites 65 

Pi6 de mula 117, 119 

Pimo 75 

Pinabete 57. 59, 63 

Pinaceae 50-63 

Pinanona 85 

Pine • 50 

family 50-63 

limber 54 

nut 53, 54 

sugar 55 

tar 51 

yellow •" 

Pino 51, 59, l 15 

acahuite 54 

barb6n 51 

bianco 5(> 

cahuite 54 

de Australia 145 

de azucar 51 



INDEX. 



XV 



Page. 

Pino de corcho 59 

de Montezuma 56 

oyamel 59 

piu6n 53 

prieto 51 

real 54, 56, 57, 58, 59 

triste 51, 55 

Pifion 53, 54 

Piiiones 53 

Pintillo 140 

Pinus 50-58, 59 

altamirani 56 

apulccnsis 56 

arizonica 57 

ayacahuite 54 

bonapartea 54 

cembroides 53 

cembroides edulis 53 

monophylla 53 

chihuahuana 55 

contorta 58 

coulteri _ 57 

devoniana 56 

edulis 53 

ehrcnbergii 56 

engelmanni 57 

filifolia 56 

flexilis 54 

reflexa 55 

gordoniana 56 

greggii 58 

grenvilleae 56 

halepensis 51 

hartwegii 56 

jeffreyi 57 

lambertiana 55 

latisquama 54 

lawsoni 56 

leiophylla 55 

lindleyana 56 

llaveana . 53 

loudoniana 54 

lumholtzii 55 

macrophylla 56, 57 

monophylla 53 

montezumae 56 

nelsoni 54 

oocarpa 5S 

orizabae 56 

osteosperma 53 

parry ana 53 

patula 58 

pinceana 54 

pinea 51 

ponderosa 57 

pringlei 57 

pseudostrobus 56 

quadrifolia 53 

reflexa 55 

rudis 56 

russelliana 56 

strobiformis 54 

tenuifolia 56 

teocote 55 

macrocarpa, 55 



Page. 

Pinus veitchii 54 

wincestcriana 56 

Pinyon 53 

Piper 145-156 

acutiuseulum 155 

aduncum 153 

angustifolium 154 

auritum 151 

begoniaefolium 156 

berlandieri 152 

betle 145 

bourgeaui 150 

bredemeyeri 156 

caladiifolium 150 

eardiophyllum 156 

ceanothifolwm 155 

chamissonis 153 

ehinantlense 156 

citrifolium 153 

colipanum 153 

commutatum 150 

cordillerianum 14!) 

cordovanum 152 

cubeba 145 

cuernavacanum 149 

decipiens 154 

decrescens 155 

descourtilsianum 153 

diandrum 149 

dilatatum 151 

disjunctum 149 

fischerianum 153 

geniculatum 152 

Jiirsutum 154 

hispidum 154 

jalapense 153 

jaliscanum 155 

karwinskianum 150 

kerberi 156 

kunthii 155 

lapathifolium 150 

ledebourii 156 

lepturuin 151 

leucophyllum 154 

liebmannii 154 

lindenii 155 

macrophyllum 153 

marginatum 155 

medium 155 

megalophyllum 151 

melanostictuni 152 

melastomoides 154 

mexicanum 154 

miradorense 156 

misantlense 153 

muclleri 149 

multinervium 156 

neesianum 149 

■ nervosum 156 

nigrum 145 

nitidulum 156 

oaxacanum 152 

oblongum 151 

orizabanum 156 

pnlmrri 151 



XVI 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Piper papantlense 150 

patens 156 

putulum 156 

plantagineum, 150 

platypbyllum 150 

populifolium 156 

potomorphe 152 

pseudoasperifolium 151 

reticulosum 156 

rohrii 152 

sanctum 150 

schlechtendahlianum 151 

schlechtendalii 151 

smilacifolium 154 

stipulaceum 156 

teapense 150 

terminate 155 

tiliaefolium 150 

triehophyllum 156 

triquetrum 156 

tuberculatum 152 

uhdei 155 

umbellatum 149 

unguiculatum 155 

variifolium 152 

yucatanense 149 

zacuapanum 150 

Piperaceae 145—156 

Pita 105, 107, 132 

Pita-ci 119 

Pitamoreal 64 

Pitch 51, 61 

pine 51 

Pito de bejuco 68 

Pitsomel 131 

Pittier. key to families of tropical 

American plants 5 

Platanillo 153, 154 

de monte 154 

Platyzomia 48 

Poaceae 65-70 

Polypodium 40, 44, 45 

Poplar, black 157 

white 157 

Popotillo 64 

Populus 157-160 

Pi-it hardia 73 

Pseudotsuga 58-59 

Pujai 76 

Pulque 128, 129, 130, 131 

Pulu 39 

Purpus, C. A 48 

Quaqoyul 83 

Quauhcoyolll 84 

Quauhmccapatli 103 

Quaumecapatli 103 

Quiote 129 

Rabo de mico 39 

de zorra 154 

Ralz de China 104 

Ramirez, phytogcography of Mexico.' 3 

Recchi, N. A r 11 

Seed 65 

Reinhardtia 77 

Reko, B. P 7 

Resin 51 



Page. 

Retama real 64 

Roezlia 106 

Rose, J. N 72 

Roulinia 07. 101 

Ruiz 13 

Sabal 71, 72 

Babat, Juan 17 

Sabino 60. 62 

Sacalacahuite 54 

8accharwn 65 

Sac-d 120 

Sacqui 120 

Safford, W. E 13 

Salicaeeae 157-163 

Salicin 160 

Salix 160-163 

babyloniea 160 

bonplandiana 162 

cana 163 

endlichii 163 

exigua 162 

gooddingii 162 

hartwegii 163 

humboldtiana 161 

jaliscana 162 

lasiolepis 163 

latifolia 163 

longifolia. angusti-sshna 163 

mexicana 163 

mierophyUa 162 

nigra 161 

oxylepis 163 

oxyphyUa 161 

pallida 162 

paradoxa 163 

pringlei 163 

rowleei 163 

schaffnerii 163 

stipulacca 161 

taxifolia 162 

thurberi 163 

wrightii 162 

Samandoque S8 

Samuela S9 

Sanguinaria 64 

Santa Marfa 150, 151 

Santilla de comer 150 

de culebra 149 

months 154 

Saponin 107 

Barsaparilla 104 

Sartorius, Carl 79 

Sauce 145, 160, 161, 162 

Sauz 160, 161, 10'j 

bianco 161 

lloron 160 

Schiede, C. J. W 81 

Bohilleria karwfnskiana 150 

lapatTiifoUa 150 

leptura 151 

Schlechtendal, D. F. L 151 

Schott, A. C. V 92 

Seemann, Berthold 122 

Seguln 119 

Senseve, Jaime 14 

Scsse, Martin 13 



INDEX. 



XVII 



I'a^t. 
Sisal, Central American 107 

false 117 

hemp 107, 118, 120 

Smilacaceae 101-104 

Smilax 101-104 

family 101-104 

Smith, J. I) 117 

Soldadillo 154 

Sopladores 100 

Sotol 48, 99, 100 

Sotolito 142 

Soyale 75 

Soyamiche 73 

Scyate 75, 91, 96. 98, 142 

Starchy phorbe 80 

Steffensia (subgenus of Piper) 146 

Stephanostachys 79 

Sudaderos 93 

Sugar cane _T 05 

pine 55 

Suza 66 

Syngonium 87 

Tampico fiber 88. 93, 107, 142 

Tannin 160 

Tar 51, 56 

Tarais 162 

Tarascan language 7 

Taray 162 

de rto 162 

Tascate 61, 62 

Tatahueso 391 

Taxaceae 50 

Taxate 62 

Taxine 50 

Taxodium 60 

Taxus 50 

Teatlale 63 

Tepehuexote 160 

Tepejilote 77, 78 

Tepexilotl 77 

Tepopote 64 

Tequila "___ 119 

Testudinariu 144 

Thrinax 71 

Thurber, George 163 

Tibisf 66 

Tlamapaquelite 150 

Tlanepaquelite 150 

Tlanepaquilitl 150 

Tlascal 63 

Tlascale 63 

Tlatzcan 62 

Tlazzcftn 63 

Tnuyucu 60 

Tree-fern family 38-47 

Trelease, William 87-105 

Trementina de ocote 56 

de pino _! 56 

Trichosorus 44 

Tritlirinax 73 

Tuba 82 

compostura 82 

Turpentine 51, 56 

Type locality, definition of 6 

Uhde, C. A 155 



Page. 

Vara de San Jose 114 

Vine-fern family 36 

Walnut, black .. 165 

English 165 

family 165-167 

Washingtonia 72-73 

Weeping willow 160 

White poplar 157 

Wild zapupe 115 

Willow family 157-163 

weeping 160 

Wislizenus, Adolf 159 

Wright, Charles 162 

Xaan 72 

Xalocotl 56, 59 

Xcoche 103 

Xiat 82 

Xix-ci 119 

Xmacolan 151 

Xtuc-ci 119 

Yaga-bizie _ 167 

Yaga-chichicino 60 

Yaga-gueza 160 

Yaga-guichi xifia 60 

Yaga-xifia 75 

Yahuindayasi 106 

Yam 143 

family 142-145 

Yaxci 118 

Yax-qui 118 

Yaxtehc-che 155 

Yellow pine 57 

Yew 50 

family 50 

Yucca 89-94 

acrotricha 101 

aloifolia 91 

angustifolia radiosa 91 

argyruea 106 

argyrophylla 106 

aspera 92 

australis 93 

baccata australis 93 

macroearpa 94 

bosoii 141 

bulbifera 106 

brevifolia 93 

canaliculata 92 

circinata 93 

decipiens 93 

elata 91 

elephantipes 92 

endlichiana 93 

funifcra 88 

guatemahitsis 92 

jaliscensis 92 

longifo lia 97 

macroearpa 94 

mohavensis 94 

parmentU ri 106 

parviflora 88 

periculosa 93 

pringlei 100 

radiosa 91 

rigida 91 



XVIII 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Succa rostrata 91 

rupicola 91 

rigidu^ 91 

schidigcra 94 

. schottii 92 

scrratifolia 101 

8 erru lata 91 

thumpsuniana 91 

toneliana 106 

treculeana 92 

treleasei 93 

valida 93 

whipplri 88 

yucatana 92 

Yuco-teyeye 75 

Yucu-ndatura 60 

Yutnu-itne 61 

Yutnu-iiun 75 

Yutnu-nuu 160 

Yutnusatnu 56 

Zacate cortador 94 

de aparejo 94 

de armazSn 94 

Zaniia 1,8, 49-50 

Zapalote 117, 119 

Zapotec language 7 



rage, 

Zapupe 107 

azul lit; 

blue 116 

cimarron 115 

de Estopier 116 

de Huatusco 115 

de San Bernardo 116 

de Sierra Chontla 115 

de Tantoyuca 115 

de Tepezintla 115 

de Vincent 115 

green 115 

silvestre 115 

verde 115 

wild 115 

Zarza 103, 104 

Zarzaparrilla 102, 103, 104 

de la sierra 104 

de Tierra Caliente 104 

de Tulancingo 104 

Zarzon 103 

Ziguin 119 

Zoyacapulln ! 76 

Zoyamiche 73 

Zoyate 75, 98 

Zoyaviche 73 



o 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



CONTRIBUTIONS 



FROM THE 



United States National Herbarium 

Volume 23, Part 2 



TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO 

(FAGACEAE-FABACEAE) 



By PAUL C. STANDLEY 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1922 



BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
II 



PEEFACE. 



The present part of volume 23 of the Contributions is a second 
nstallment of the Trees and Shrubs of Mexico, by Mr. Paul C. 
Standiey, assistant curator of the United States National Herbarium. 
Ms portion of the work extends from the oak family to the bean 
amily, both inclusive. Some of the largest and most important 
;roups of Mexican plants are included in the families here treated, 
idiich contain many species of economic value. The account of the 
aks has been prepared by Dr. William Trelease, of the University 
f Illinois. 

FREDERICK V. CoVILLE, 

Curator of the United States National Herbarium. 

in 



TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 1 



By Paul C. Standley. 



22. FAGACEAE. Beech Family. 

The only representatives of this group native in Mexico are the oaks, which 
belong to the largest genus of the family. The Old World chestnut ("castano," 
the tree; " castana," the nut), Castanea satira Mill., is said to be cultivated 
occasionally in Mexico, Oaxaca, and other states. 

1. QTJERCTJS L. Sp. PI. 994. 1753. 
(Contributed by Dr. William Trelease.) 

Reference : A. De Candolle in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 2-109. 1864. 

Trees or shrubs ; leaves alternate, deciduous or persistent, entire, toothed, 
or lobed, the teeth and lobes often bristle-tipped; flowers monoecious, the 
staminate ones in slender catkins ; stamens 6 to 12 ; pistillate flowers solitary 
or in small clusters; ovules 6, but only one maturing; fruit an acorn, sub- 
tended by an enlarged cup (involucre). 

The genus Quercus is very abundantly represented in Mexico ; indeed, no 
other country has so large a number of species. In this region the oaks are 
found chiefly in the mountains. In northern Mexico the species grow at 
comparatively low altitudes, in the arid mountains, but they occur also at 
high altitudes in the larger ranges, such as the Sierra Madre. In southern 
Mexico oaks are almost confined to the high mountains, but a few species 
occur near sea level. 

From an economic standpoint oaks are very important. The wood is of 
the highest quality, being very strong and durable, although these characters 
vary in different species. It is used for an infinite variety of purposes, 
especially where strength is desirable. It is highly valued for furniture and 
for the interior finish of buildings, for ship building, wagons, railroad ties, 
and many other purposes. As fuel, also, it is unsurpassed. No other group 
of hardwood trees furnishes wood which is so widely used, in Mexico as well 
as elsewhere. The bark, too, is important economically, being one of the 
most widely used tanbarks. Several species of southern Europe have very 
thick, corky bark, which furnishes the cork of commerce. 

The leaves of oak trees are often punctured by insects, and as a result galls 
("manzanitas de encina") are formed. These are frequently of the most 
beautiful and bizarre forms, and often brilliantly colored. They sometimes 
contain as much as 60 or 70 per cent of tannic acid, and consequently they are 
excellent for use in tanning leather. They are widely employed also for 
making ink. 

Oaks are almost unsurpassed as shade trees in temperate regions. Because 
of their tough wood they are seldom broken by wind. Their broad tops give 
them a handsome appearance, and they are very long-lived. 

The acorns (" bellotas "), too, are of considerable economic importance, 
although less so now than formerly. 2 In early times they were an important 

1 The first installment of the Trees and Shrubs of Mexico, comprising the fami- 
lies Gleicheniaceae to Betulaceae, was published as Part 1 of Volume 23, Con- 
tributions from the U. S. National Herbarium, pp. 1-170. October 11, 1920. 

3 See V. Havard, Bull. Torrey Club 22: 118-119. 1895. 

171 



172 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

food of the American Indians, especially those of California and certain parts 
of Mexico, and they are still employed to some extent. Acorns contain starch, 
fixed oil, citric acid, sugar, and astringent and bitter principles. Sometimes 
they are sweet enough to be eaten raw without preparation, but usually it is 
necessary to rid them of the bitter principle. This is done by shelling and 
skinning the seeds, then pounding them into meal. The meal is washed re- 
peatedly in water and then boiled as a mush or baked as cake or bread. 
White oaks (subgenus Leucobalanus) have the sweetest and most palatable 
acorns and have been the most generally used. All the live oaks (such as 
Qucrcus viryiniana, Q. yunyens, and Q. oblongifolia) are said to have edible 
acorns, but the black oaks (subgenus Erythrobalanus) were not extensively 
employed. The Indians of the southeastern United States obtained from the 
acorns of Q. virgin iana a sweet oil much used in cooking. In more recent times 
acorns have often been roasted and employed as a substitute for coffee, or 
as an adulterant of it. 

Oaks are of little importance in medicine. In Mexico the staminate catkins 
are reputed anodine and antispasmodic, being used as remedies for vertigo and 
epilepsy. The bark and acorns are sometimes used as astringents. 

One of the most interesting products of these trees is the lac. widely known 
in Mexico, which is produced by certain scale insects, or Coccidae. This, pre- 
sumably, is produced on various species of oaks, and also upon trees and shrubs 
of other families. The following account, by Urbina, 1 of its production upon 
Qucrcus reticulata, may be quoted here : 

"It seems worth while to mention here the manna which forms on Quercus 
acuminata H. B., an oak which grows at Medina, on the boundary between 
the States of Michoacan and Mexico, which was studied by Sr. D. Melchor 
Ocampo, who gave the tree the name of Qucrcus mcllifera, its vernacular name 
being enema dc miel. According to Dr. Oliva (Lecc. Farm. 2: 84), in May it 
produces an abundance of a globular rough substance, which ttirns black and 
resembles manna. Sr. Dr. D. Manuel M. Yillnda brought back from an ex- 
cursion which he made to Medina a branch of this tree, black as if the bark 
were covered with rubber, due to a fungus which had formed in such quantity 
that it gave rise to a thick layer, in whose midst appeared very fine threads, 
long and transparent, like caramel, and which, in my opinion, are produced by a 
Coccus or aphis which feeds on this sugary substance. The excess is emitted 
in threads whose peculiar form is due to the abdominal tubes of the aphis. 
The explanation of this seems to me to be the following : In the month of 
May there is an abundant secretion of glucose produced by the bark of the 
oak, which is taken advantage of not only by the aphis which make these 
caramel-like threads, but also by the fungus which attacks the bark. 

■• Under the circumstances, I believe it desirable that a study be made of 
this product, which, in the opinion of Sr. Oliva, may be a manna, a presump- 
tion apparently justified by the existence of two organisms; the fungus and 
the Coccus, which develop simultaneously, using the same food — the glucose. 
And as this principle is the dominant one in manna, I believe with Sr. Oliva 
that this oak under favorable conditions produces this substance, which should 
be analyzed carefully, after visiting the place where the oak grows, and study- 
ing the manner of its formation, in order to comfirin or correct this view." 

The vernacular names applied to the species of oaks can he given in only a 
few instances. Many names are found in literature, but the species have 
been so confused that no confidence can be placed in the determinations. The 
usual Spanish names are " encina " (live oak) and " roble " (deciduous oak), 

' Naturaleza 7: 105-106. 1900. 



STAXDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 173 

with various modifying adjectives. The following names also are reported 
for species not identified: "Alcorn oque " (Oaxaca, Michoacan; this is properly 
the name for the Spanish cork oak): " cucharitas," " peinecillo " (Oaxaca, 
Reko) ; " eneina memelita " ; " charrasquillo " (Durange, Patoni; shrnbby 
species) ; " encinilla " (Durango. Patoni: shrub. 40 cm. high or less). 

The usual Nahuatl word for oak is written " ahuatl." " ahoatl," and " aoatl " ; 
the following variants are reported: "Ahoaquahuitl.** " ahuaquahuitl," or " aua- 
quauitl " (oak-tree); " ahuatetz," " auatetz." " ahuatetzmolli."' " auatetzmulli " 
(live oak); " ahuacoztic " (yellow-oak); " ahuatzin pitzahuac " (narrow-leaf 
oak); "texmole" (Michoacan); " ahuatezon " (Morelos, Mexico); "ahuato- 
niatl " (acorn, literally "oak-tomato"; sometimes corrupted as " aguatomate ") 
Geographic names relating to oak trees are : Ahuatepec. " oak-hill " ; Ahuachi- 
chilpa, "in the red oaks"; Ahuatlan, "near the oaks." 

Reko gives the following Zapotec names used in Oaxaca : " Tacra-yoo." 
" yaga-reche." " yaga-xoo," " yaga-cino," " yaga-zache." Belmar lists the 
following Mixe names: " Kook " (acorn); " sho " ; " shokiup " ; " shotionit " 
(acorn). Otomf names, according to Buelna. are " mettza " and " lidezfi " 
(acorn). Gonzalez gives the Zoque name as " camay-cuy." A name reported 
by Ramirez from Michoacan, probably Tarascan. is " tarecuen." 

I. Fruit (not known in nos. 6, 7, 11. 15. 21, 26, 2S. 34. 39) maturing the first 
season ; shell of acorn not woolly within, the abortive ovules at or near 
its base : stigmas short and broad, nearly sessile : leaves not aristate, 
but sometimes with tip and teeth pungently mucronate. Lettcobalants. 
A. Leaves, or many of them, serrate, never very small. 

B. Acorn (so far as known) large or very large (20 to 70 mm. in diameter). 
Leaves large. 

Acorn depressed-globose 1. Q. insignis. 

Acorn short-conical 2. Q. strombocarpa. 

Acorn elongate. Teeth of leaf mostly larger. 

Acorn very large (40 mm. broad and 60 mm. long). Scales short. 

in rings 3. Q. cyclobalanoides. 

Acorn distinctly smaller (30 mm. broad and 50 mm. long). 

4. Q. excelsa. 

Acorn ovoid 5. Q. galeottii. 

Acorn unknown. Leaves rather blunt-toothed. 

Leaves distinctly short-petioled 6. Q. pinalensis. 

Leaves nearly sessile 7. Q. chinantlensis. 

Leaves moderate (scarcely 3 cm. wide and 10 cm. long), sharply serrate. 

8. Q. leiophylla, 
BB. Acorn unknown. Leaves polymorphous on the same twig. 

41. Q. diversifolia. 
BBB. Acorn moderate (scarcely 15 mm. in diameter). Leaves moderate, 
nearly all toothed. 

Leaves finely venulose-reticulate on both faces 9. Q. lancifolia. 

Leaves heavily reticulate beneath, rugulose above. 10. Q. glabrescens. 
AA. Leaves, or many of them, crenate or shallowly round-lobed, never very 
small. Fruit never very large. 
Leaves blue-green, glabrous, somewhat glaucous, coriaceous, not rugose. 

Leaves elliptic or oblong, low-crenate 11. Q. glaucoides. 

Leaves obovate, more deeply crenate 12. Q. glaucophylla. 

Leaves green, or else rugose or not coriaceous. 
C. Leaves glabrate or somewhat thinly puberulent. 

D. Leaves oblanceolate-ovate. Fruit unkown 15. Q. nudinervis. 



174 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

DD. Leaves elliptic-obovate or obovate. 

Leaves subacute, scarcely rugose 14. Q. idonea. 

Leaves very obtuse. 

Leaves somewhat rugose and puberulent 38. Q. arizonica. 

Leaves not rugose, glabrate. 

Leaves finely low-venulose beneath 15. Q. nudinervis. 

Leaves heavily veiny beneath 16. Q. standleyi. 

DDD. Leaves elliptic-oblong, characteristically crenate only above. 

Fruit subsessile ; acorn exserted" 19. Q. sororia. 

Fruit stout-peduncled ; acorn nearly included 20. Q. germana. 

DDDD. Leaves oblanceolate. Cup scales thickened. 

13. Q. tuberculata. 
Acorn oblong, rather slender (10 to 15 mm. in diameter, 15 to 25 mm. 
long. ) 

Leaves slender-petioled, round-based 17. Q. polymorphs. 

Leaves short-petioled, subcuneate at base 18. Q. juergensenii. 

Acorn round-ovoid, thicker 19. Q. sororia. 

CC. Leaves transiently silvery beneath, elliptic-oblong or obovate. 

52. Q. breviloba. 
CCC. Leaves pale- ton ientulose beneath, broadly oblanceolate. 

21. Q. glaucescens. 
CCCO. Leaves dingy-puberulent or tomentulose beneath. Peduncle mod- 
erate or rather long. 
Leaves not extremely large, distinctly or slenderly petioled. 

Leaves scarcely more than undulate 30. Q. peduncularis. 

Leaves crenate throughout, not very rugose. 

Leaves elliptic-oblanceolate 22. Q. martensiana. 

Leaves subpandurate, becoming glabrate 23. Q. liebmannii. 

Leaves crenate only toward the apex, rugose, pandurate. 

24. Q. pandurata. 
Leaves large (20 cm. long or more), very short-petioled or very thick- 
petioled, rugose. 
Leaves round-obovate, very obtuse. Peduncle thick. 

25. Q. macrophylla. 

Leaves more elliptic-obovate and pointed 26. Q. resinosa. 

Leaves oblanceolate-elliptic. Peduncle relatively slender. 
Leaves not pandurate. 

Leaves rather acuminate, crisped 27. Q. circinata. 

Leaves blunt or subacute 28. Q. magnoliaefolia. 

Leaves snbpandurately narrowed 29. Q. lutea. 

CCCCC. Leaves tomentose beneath, rugose. Peduncle long. 
Leaves often very large (15 cm. wide and 25 cm. long), obovate. 

37. Q. decipiens. 
Leaves never extremely large. 
Leaves elliptic-oblong. 

Leaves rather large (5 cm. wide and 10 cm. long) ; peduncle 

moderate 30. Q. peduncularis. 

Leaves smaller (scarcely 3 cm. wide and 8 cm. long) ; peduncle 

filiform 33. Q. laeta. 

Leaves obovate to broadly elliptic. 

Scales of the rather large (20 to 25 mm. broad) cup lax. 

31. Q. hartwegi. 
Scales of the smaller cup mostly approssod. 
Leaves broadly pandurate-obovate 32. Q. laxa. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 175 

Leaves elongate- obovate, subglabrescent 34. Q. bonplandiana. 

Leaves round-obovate or subelliptie. 

Leaves eremite 35. Q. rugosa. 

Leaves repandly mueronate, whitened beneath. 

36. Q. reticulata. 
AAA. Leaves, or most of them, entire ; fruit nearly sessile. 

E. Leaves tomentose beneath and rugose above, or else blue-green or very 
small. 

Leaves relatively large (fully 2 em. wide and 4 cm. long), very rugose 
and revolute. 

Leaves obovate-elliptic, subcordate__, 39. Q. greggii. 

Leaves broadly elliptic, round-based 40. Q. aculcingensis. 

Leaves usually very small (scarcely 2 cm. wide and 3 cm. long). 
Leaves rugulose and revolute, ratber blunt. 

Leaves deciduous 42. Q. microphylla. 

Leaves evergreen or nearly so 43. Q. repanda. 

Leaves not rugose, commonly acute 44. Q. intricata. 

EE. Leaves glabrate (scurfy-puberulent in Q. grisea), deciduous. 
Leaves neither rugose nor coarsely veiny. 
Leaves elliptic or oblong, very obtuse, blue-green. 

Leaves relatively narrow (1.5 cm. wide, 4 cm. long). Acorn striate. 

45. Q. engelmanni. 
Leaves characteristically broader (3 cm. wide, 4.5 cm. long). 

46. Q. oblongifolia. 

Leaves very broadly elliptic, more or less puberulent 47. Q. grisea. 

Leaves lanceolate, acute, very small 49. Q. pringlei. 

Leaves not rugose, veiny beneath. Acorn short 19. Q. sororia. 

Leaves rugose, undulate, veiny beneath. Acorn elongate. 

17. Q. polymorpha. 
EEE. Leaves canescent beneath, evergreen. 
Leaves broadly elliptic, relatively large and usually obtuse. 

53. Q. oleoides. 
Leaves lance-oblong, or elliptic-oblong and pungently acute. 

Cup turbinate or rounded ; acorn oblong-fusiform 54. Q. fusiforrais. 

Cup umbonare ; acorn conical 55. Q. brandegei. 

AAAA. Leaves, or many of them, pungently dentate or low-serrate. 
Leaves canescent beneath. 

Cup turbinate or rounded ; acorn subfusiform 54. Q. fusiformis. 

Cup umbonate: acorn conical • .55. Q. brandegei. 

Leaves not canescent. 

Leaves moderate, elliptic-obovate. 
Peduncle elongate ; leaves rugose. 

Margin of leaves with crenate toothing _35. Q. rugosa 

Margin of leaves with repand toothing 36. Q. reticulata. 

Margin variously entire to crenate-dentate 41. Q. diversifolia. 

Peduncle short; leaves only slightly rugose, puberulent. 

38. Q. arizonica. 
Leaves commonly very small ; peduncle never very long. 
Leaves ovate, the minute teeth near the apex, glabrous. 50. Q. toumeyi. 

Leaves polymorphous in outline and margin 51. Q. dumosa. 

Leaves elliptic-ovate, toothed throughout, pubescent. 

Teeth of leaves very short (1 mm.) ; pubescence rather woolly. 

44. Q. intricata. 
Teeth long (3 to 4 mm.) ; pubescence rather velvety. 48. Q. pungens. 



176 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

II. Fruit maturing the second season ; shell of acorn woolly within, the 

abortive ovules lateral ; stigmas short and rounded, nearly sessile ; leaves 
entire to pungently but not aristately toothed. Pbotobalanus. 

Leaves for a time tomentose, rather large ; a tree 56. Q. tomentella. 

Leaves glabrate, rather small; a shrub 57. Q. palmeri. 

III. Fruit (not known in nos. 66, 70, 72, 75, 89. 92, 94, 95, 102, 103, 109, 112) 
often maturing the second season ; shell of acorn woolly within, the abortive 
ovules characteristically apical ; stigmas spatulate, on elongate styles ; 
leaves entire or toothed or often incised, the tip and teeth often aristate. 
Erythrobalanus. 

A. Leaves small, coriaceous, not rugose, usually rather pungently few-toothed. 
Leaves elliptic-ovate, more or less scurfy. 

Toothing of leaves repand 58. Q. emoryi. 

Toothing of leaves serrate / 60. Q. eduardi. 

Leaves lanceolate. 

Leaves* tomentulose beneath 59. Q. durifolia. 

Leaves glabrous, or in the first subtomentose. 

Leaves veiny, rather elongate 61. Q. devia. 

Leaves not veiny 91. Q. depressa. 

Leaves broadly oblong or obovate-oblong 93. Q. sideroxyla. 

AA. Leaves usually moderately large, scarcely coriaceous, all, or most of 
them, entire. 
B. Lenves firmly tomentulose beneath, rugose, lanceolate. 62. Q. hypoleuca. 
BB. Leaves firmly woolly beneath, rugose, broad. 
Leaves obovate. 

Leaves not aristate. Tomentum rather straight 68. Q. fulva. 

Leaves aristate from the veins 70. Q. chicamolensis. 

Leaves ovate to oblong, not aristate from the veins 71. Q. dysophylla. 

BBB. Leaves somewhat loosely fleecy beneath, rather large. 

Leaves rugose 66. Q. fioccosa. 

Leaves not rugose 92. Q. orizabae. 

BBBB. Leaves detachably woolly beneath, granular when denuded, rugose, 
narrow. 

Cup rounded, not inrolled at margin 96. Q. mexicana. 

Cup turbinate, inrolled at margin 97. Q. crassipes. 

BBBBB. Leaves sparsely stellate-hairy beneath, moderate. 

80. Q. oajacana. 
BBBBBB. Leaves sparsely scurfy, rather small. 
Leaves rugose, subcordate. 

Leaves elliptic-ovate 99. Q. castanea. 

Leaves oblong 100. Q. rugulosa. 

Leaves coasely bullate rather than rugose 80. Q. oajacana. 

BBBBBBB. Leaves glabrate, but sometimes with axillary tufts of hairs 
beneath. 

Loaves very rugose, large, acute, cordate 75. Q. rysophylla. 

Leaves neither very rugose nor very large. 

Leaves characteristically very blunt and rather broad. 
Acorn thick-walled ; leaves slightly rugose. 

Leaves granular and glabrous beneath 76. Q. nectandraefolia. 

Leaves not granular, somewhat persistently floccose. 

77. Q lingvaefolia. 
Acorn thin-walled ; leaves not rugose. 
Leaves broadly elliptic or oblong. 






STANDLEY— TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 177 

Leaves not aristate from the veins, round-based. Cup turbinate. 

Twigs glabrescent 78. Q. perseaefolia. 

Twigs toruentose 79. Q. pubinervis. 

Leaves sometimes aristate, cordate 73. Q. aristata. 

Leaves narrowly oblong 81. Q. totutlensis. 

Leaves characteristically acute. 

C. Leaves narrowly lanceolate (five times as long as broad). 

82. Q. salicifolia. 
CC. Leaves broadly lanceolate (scarcely four times as long as 
broad). 
Leaves rather large (fully 6 cm. wide and 10 cm. long). 

74. Q. uruapanensis. 
Leaves moderately small. 

Cup turbinately saucer-shaped 83. Q. ghiesbreghtii. 

Cup half-round, deeper. 

Cup rather large (15 mm. broad) 84. Q. tlapuxahuensis. 

Cup smaller (scarcely 12 mm. broad). 

Petiole relatively long (10 mm.) 85. Q. lanceolata. 

Petiole short (5 mm.) 90. Q. ocoteaefolia. 

CCC. Leaves ovate-elliptic. 

Leaves somewhat revolute 77. Q. linguaefolia. 

Leaves not revolute 92. Q. orizabaa. 

CCCC. Leaves lanceolate-oblanceolate 86. Q. laurina. 

AAA. Leaves rather large, undulate or pungently dentate, rugose, tomentose. 

67. Q. crassifolia. 
AAAA. Leaves, or many of them, serrate, scarcely coriaceous. 
D. Leaves very rugose, or else densely tomentulose beneath. 
E. Leaves tomentulose beneath. 
Leaves very rugose. 

Leaves large, obovate, toothed above 63. Q. scytophylla. 

Leaves rather small (scarcely 4 cm. wide and 6 cm. long), subcorJate. 

Leaves obovate 64. Q. omissa. 

Leaves oblong 65. Q. pulchella. 

Leaves only slightly rugose, large. 

Leaves oblong-oblanceolate 111. Q. calophylla. 

Leaves obovate 112. Q. candicans. 

EE. Leaves sparingly fleecy beneath, rather large. Teeth few. 

66. Q. fioccosa. 
EEE. Leaves tomentose beneath. 
Leaves rather large. 

Leaves obovate-elliptic, the teeth few, toward the end— 68. Q. fulva. 
Leaves ovate-elliptic, the teeth usually numerous and coarse. 

69. Q. stipularis. 
Leaves small (scarcely 3 cm. wide and G cm. long). 

Leaves rather ovate 71. Q. dysophylla. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong 72. Q. splendens. 

DD. Leaves only slightly rugose, scurfy or fleecy beneath. 
Leaves oblanceolate-eiliptic, the teeth toward the end, scurfy. 

Petiole moderate (often 10 mm. long) 94. Q. chrysophylla. 

Petiole short (5 mm.). Leaves often lanceolate and entire. 

95. Q. tridens. 
Leaves lanceolate or oblong. 

Teeth toward the apex of the blade 98. Q. lanigera. 

Teeth along the side of the blade 99. Q. castanea. 



178 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

DDD. Leaves not rugose. 

Leaves furfuraceous beneath. Teeth small 107. Q. furfuracea. 

Leaves glabrate, but sometimes with axillary tufts beneath. 

Leaves thick and small, scarcely venulose 91. Q. depressa. 

Leaves thin, or else veiny. 

Leaves moderate in size (scarcely 4 cm. wide and 12 cm. long). 
F. Leaves lanceolate or lance-oblong; teeth small. 
Leaves rather broad, or rounded at base. 

Leaves evergreen, subcoriaceous 61. Q. devia. 

Leaves deciduous. 

Leaves not very veiny 106. Q. sartorii. 

Leaves very venulose 108. Q. grahami. 

Leaves narrower (four times as long as broad), and subacute 
at base. 
Leaves neither revolute nor very prominently veiny. 

89. Q. affinis. 
Leaves somewhat revolute and more venulose. 

102. Q. cortesii. 

FF. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, venulose 108. Q. grahami. 

FFF. Leaves oblanceolate. with coarse teeth. 

Twigs and petioles glabrous 87. Q. major. 

Twigs and petioles pubescent 88. Q. barbinervis. 

FFFF. Leaves oblong, rather pungently tooted. 93. Q. sideroxyla. 
Leaves large, with rather coarse teeth. 
Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate. 
Leaves elongate (four times as long as broad), much crisped. 

103. Q. huitamalcana. 
Leaves broader (three times as long as broad), scarcely crisped. 
Acorn moderately small. 

Acorn depressed, nearly included 101. Q. grandis. 

Acorn ovoid, scarcely half included. 

Leaves evergreen 109. Q. acutifolia. 

Leaves deciduous 110. Q. xalapensis. 

Acorn very large (40 mm. long) 104. Q. chiapasensis. 

Leaves ovate. Acorn very large 105. Q. skinneri. 

1. Quercus insignis Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. P.rux. 10 2 : 210. 1843. 
Veracruz; type locality, on the flanks of Mount Orizaba. 

Large deciduous tree with stout villous twigs; buds glabrous. 5 to 7 mm. 
in diameter, 10 to 15 mm. long; leaves large (4 to 7 cm. wide, 9 to 16 cm. long), 
rugose, somewhat hairy beneath, oblanceolate-obovate, obtuse or submucronate, 
short-petioled, usually short-serrate above; acorn depressed, blunt, 50 to 70 
mm. in diameter, half-included, the saucer-shaped cup with thick squarrose 
scales. " Encina," " aoatl," " ahoaquahuitl " (Ramirez). 

2. Quercus strombocarpa Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 176. 

1854. 

Veracruz ; type locality, San Bartolomg. 

Resembling the preceding; leaves large (6 to 9 cm. wide. 14 to 17 cm. long), 
elliptic-obovate ; acorn conical, pointed, 50 mm. in diameter, the lower third 
included in the very turbinate cup. " Encina," " aoatl," " ahoaquahuitl " 
(Ramirez.) 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 179 

3. Quercus cylobalanoides Trel. Proc. Anier. Phil. Soc. 54: 11. 1915. 
Chiapas ; type locality, Finca Irlamla. 

Large deciduous tree with stout glabrous twigs; leaves large (6 to 9 cm. 
wide, 15 to 25 cm. long), glabrous, oblauceolate, acute, short-petioled, coarsely 
and acutely inucronate-serrate ; acorn elongate-ovoid, 40 to 50 mm. in diameter, 
50 to 60 mm. long, one-third included, the turbinately goblet-shaped cup with 
abortive scales connate in rings. 

4. Quercus excelsa Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 174. 1854. 
Veracruz ; type locality, Matlaluga. 

Twigs rather slender, glabrous ; buds glabrous, small ; leaves deciduous, 
large (5 to 11 cm. wide; 15 to 25 cm. long), glabrous, oblanceolate, acute or 
subacuminate, subsessile or short-petioled, mostly cuneate, subentire or typically 
coarsely but acutely serrate to below the middle; acorn ovoid or elongate- 
ovoid, characteristically 25 to 30 mm. in diameter, 40 to 50 mm. long, the very 
shallow saucer-shaped cup closely covered by rather small and blunt scales. 

5. Quercus galeottii * Mart. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 :220. 1843. 
Veracruz ; type locality, Santiago de Huatusco. 

Rather large (subevergreen?) tree with stout glabrescent twigs and small 
glabrous buds; leaves large (5 to 7 cm. wide, 12 to 17 cm. long), glabrous, 
oblanceolate, acute, subcuneately short-petioled, acutely low crenate-serrate ; 
acorn broadly ovoid, 25 to 40 mm. in diameter, 30 to 40 mm. long, one-third 
included, the more or less flaring, rounded cup with subappressed pointed 
scales. 

6. Quercus pinalensis Trel. 

Quercus cuncifolia Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: ISO. 1854. 
Not Q. cuneifolia Raf. 1838. 

Type from Cerro de Pinal. 

Twigs rather slender, glabrous; leaves (deciduous?) large (6 to 10 cm. wide, 
15 to 25 cm. long), glabrous, broadly oblanceolate, acute, more or less cuneate, 
short-petioled, coarsely and bluntly serrate-lobed ; fruit unknown. 

7. Quercus chinantlensis Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 179. 

1S54. 

Veracruz ; type locality, Lacoba. 

Twigs rather slender, glabrous; leaves (deciduous?) large (5 to 6 cm. wide, 
14 cm. long), glabrous, oblanceolate, long-acute or subacuminate, subsessile, 
cuneate and entire below, very coarsely and rather bluntly repand-serratg 
above ; fruit unknown. 

1 Henri Galeotti was bom in France in 1814. He sailed from Hamburg for 
Mexico in 1835, reaching Veracruz in December. He spent six months at 
Jalapa, collecting living plants, especially orchids. He passed on to Vigas and 
Perote, and finally Puebla and Mexico. He botanized at various times in the 
state of Mexico, part of the time in company with Ehrenberg. In 1835 he 
spent two or three months in Hidalgo. At the end of that year he visited 
Queretaro and later Jalisco and Tepic, and in 1837 Guanajuato. He ascended 
Popocatepetl in June, 1837; in July he visited Michoacan, and in December 
Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi. In April, 1838, he returned to Veracruz 
and made his headquarters at the German colony at Mirador. In August of that 
year, in company with Funck, Linden, and Ghiesbreght, he ascended the Pico 
de Orizaba, remaining with his companions for 11 days in a cavern on the 
mountain. In 1839 he visited Puebla and Oaxaca. In 1840 he returned to 
Europe, where he become director of the Botanical Garden of Brussels. He 
died in 1858. Descriptions of some of the new species discovered were pub- 
lished by himself and Martens in the Bulletin de l'Academie Royale de Belgique. 



180 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

8. Quercus leiophylla A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 71. 1864. 
Veracruz ; type locality, San Bartolome. 

Deciduous tree with rather slender glabrous twigs and small rounded glabrous 
buds; leaves rather small (2 to 3 cm. wide, 7 to 12 cm. long), glabrous, lance- 
olate or oblanceolate, acute at both ends, short-petioled, subentire to typically 
coarsely serrate above the middle; acorn ovoid, 20 mm. in diameter, 30 mm. 
long, one-third included, the half-round cup with acute appressed scales. 

9. Quercus lancifolia Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5: 78. 1830. 
Veracruz ; type locality, Jalapa. 

Deciduous tree with slender glabrous twigs and small glabrous buds ; leaves 
rather small (2 to 3 cm. wide, 8 to 12 cm. long), glabrous, venulose, flat, slightly 
paler beneath, lanceolate, acute at both ends, subentire or coarsely, serrate 
above; acorn elongate-ovoid, scarcely 15 mm. in diameter and 25 mm. long, the 
saucer-shaped cup with blunt appressed scales. 

10. Quercus glabrescens Benth. PI. Hartw. 56, 348. 1840. 
Hidalgo and Veracruz ; type from Real del Monte, Hidalgo. 

Deciduous tree with slender, stellate-villous or glabrate twigs and small 
glabrous buds; leaves rather small (3 cm. wide, 6 to 10 cm. long), rugulose 
and glabrate above, often stellate-pubescent beneath, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, 
acute, mostly rounded at base, short-petioled, coarsely serrate above with 
revolute notches; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 15 mm. long, less than one- 
third included, the shallow cup with acute, rather lax scales. 

An entire-leaved form is f. integrifolia Liebm. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 35. 1864. 

11. Quercus glaucoides Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 209. 1843. 
Quercus cordata Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 211. 1843. 
Oaxaca ; type locality, in the Mixteca Alta. 

Medium-sized deciduous tree with slender, glabrescent, and often lightly 
glaucous twigs, and small, at first hairy buds ; leaves moderate (4 cm. wide, 
8 cm. long), blue-green, glabrescent, slightly glaucous beneath, subelliptic, 
obtuse, cordate, short-petioled, rather crenately repand above ; acorn unknown, 
the small half-round cup with acute appressed scales. 

12. Quercus g-laucophylla Seemen, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 29: 95. 1900. 
Oaxaca ; type locality, San Felipe. 

Differing from the preceding in its obovate crenate leaves ; acorn ovoid, half- 
included, 10 mm. in diameter and 15 mm. long. 

13. Quercus tuberculata Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 181. 
1854. 

Sinaloa (?) ; type locality somewhere in the western Sierra Madre. 

Deciduous glabrous tree with rather slender twigs and small buds ; leaves 
moderate (3 to 5 cm. wide, 8 to 10 cm. long), elliptic-oblanceolate, rather ob- 
tuse at both ends or the base very acute, short-petioled, crenate and often 
crisped ; acorn round-ovoid, 12 mm. in diameter, 15 mm. long, scarcely one- 
third included, the suburceolate cup with keeled or tuberculate, acute, ap- 
pressed scales. 

14. Quercus idonea Goldman, Coutr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 321. 1916. 
Baja California ; type locality, Sierra de la Laguna. 

Small deciduous tree with rather slender twigs and small buds ; leaves mod- 
erate or rather large (4 to 6 cm. wide, 10 to 12 cm. long), puberulent or gla- 
brate, elliptic to ovate or oblong, rather acute at both ends or the base sub- 
truncate, short-petioled, crisped, somewhat coarsely subcrenate, especially above ; 
acorn oblong-ovoid, 10 to 15 mm. in diameter, 20 to 25 mm. long, the deeply 
saucer-shaped cup with acute subappressed scales. " Encina roble." 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 181 

15. Quercus nudinervis Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 182. 
1854. 

Type locality, in the Cerro de Pinal. 

Twigs moderate, glabrous; leaves large (5 to 9 cm. wide, 13 to 17 cm. long), 
glabrescent, obovate or oblanceolate, obtuse or bluntly acuminate, rather 
decurrent on the short moderate petiole, low-crenate ; fruit unknown. 

16. Quercus standleyi Trel., sp. nov. 

Sonora; type in the U. S. National Herbarium, no. 635607, collected in the 
Sierra de Alamos, in 1910, by Rose, Standley, and Russell (no. 127S9). 

Deciduous glabrous tree with rather slender orange-brown twigs and small 
round buds with tomentulose-ciliate scales; leaves rather large (6 to 12 cm. 
wide, 15 to 24 cm. long), elliptic-obovate, obtuse at both ends, short-petioled, 
coarsely crenate, paler beneath, with white veins and margin ; fruit unknown. 

17. Quercus polymorpha Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5:78. 1830. 
Quercus petiolaris Benth. PI. Hartw. 55, 348. 1840. 

Quercus varians Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 214. 1843. 

Veracruz, Nuevo Leon, and San Luis Potosi; type locality, near Jalapa. 
Veracruz. Said to be the chief component of the forest on the Uaxac Canal, 
Guatemala. 

Medium-sized deciduous tree with rather slender glabrous twigs and some- 
what hairy buds 4 mm. in diameter and 6 mm. long; leaves rather large (3 
to 6 cm. wide. 7 to 13 cm. long), lightly glaucous and sometimes rusty-woolly 
beneath, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, obtuse, often subcordate, slender-petioled, 
entire or crenately few-toothed at end ; acorn oblong, about 10 mm. in diameter 
and 20 mm. long, half included, the rounded cup with acute appressed scales. 
" Encina " ( Ramirez ) . 

18. Quercus juergensenii 1 Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 188. 
1854. 

Quercus jurgensii A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 78. 1864. 

Oaxaca; type locality. Chinantla. 

Apparently closely related to the preceding, with short-petioled, cuneate, 
rather large leaves (4 cm. wide, 7 to 10 cm. long), and oblong acorns 15 mm. 
in diameter and 20 to 25 mm. long. 

Not recently recognized. 

19. Quercus sororia Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 175. 1854. 
Oaxaca ; type locality, Chinantla. 

Twigs rather slender, glabrescent ; buds small, glabrous ; leaves deciduous, 
moderate (4 cm. wide, 10 cm. long), slightly glaucous and exceptionally fleecy 
beneath, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, rounded at base or subcordate, short-petioled, 
entire ; acorn round-ovoid, 15 mm. in diameter and 20 mm. long, one-third 
included, the rounded cup with thin, acute, rather loose scales. 

20. Quercus germana Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5: 78. 1830. 

Veracruz and adjacent San Luis Potosi ; type locality, Jalapa, Veracruz. 

Deciduous tree with rather slender glabrous twigs ; leaves oblong, medium- 
sized (4 cm. wide, 10 cm. long), rather obtuse, round-based, glabrous, slightly 
glaucous beneath, short-petioled, crenately few-toothed at end ; acorn subglobose, 
15 mm. in diameter, nearly included, the round cup with rather coarse keeled 
acute appressed scales. 

1 Little is known of Jiirgensen, who collected in Mexico for Galeotti, after 
the latter left that country. His collections were obtained chiefly in the state of 
Oaxaca. 



182 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

21. Quercus gdaucescens Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin 2: 29. 1809. 
Sinaloa ; type locality, Caieguale. 

Large deciduous tree with rather slender glabrous twigs and small glabrous 
buds; leaves large (5 to 8 cm. wide, 12 to 16 cm. long), densely pale-tomentulose 
beneath, broadly oblanceolate, obtuse or bluntly subacuminate, cuneate at base, 
short-petioled, repand or bluntly few-toothed toward the end ; fruit unknown. 
" Encina memelito " (Ramirez). 

22. Quercus martensiana Trel. 

Quercus afflnis Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 222. 1843. Not Q. affinis 
Seheidw. 1837. 

Veracruz ; type locality, Zacuapam. 

Deciduous tree with rather slender glabrescent twigs and small hairy buds ; 
leaves rather large (3 to 5 cm. wide, 12 cm. long), glabrescent above, somewhat 
tomentulose and hairy beneath, elliptic-oblanceolate to ovate, obtuse at both 
ends or mucronate and somewhat cordate, short-petioled, subentire or undulate 
or repandly few-toothed ; acorn subglobose, 10 to 15 mm. in diameter, half 
included, the rounded cup with thin blunt appressed scales. 

23. Quercus liebmannii Oerst. in Liebm. Chenes Amer. Trop. 16. 1869, name 
only. 

Oaxaca ; type locality, Cuesta de San Juan del Estado. 

Twigs rather slender, reddish, glabrescent ; buds small, glabrescent ; leaves 
(deciduous?) large (5 to 7 cm. wide, 13 to 17 cm. long), subpersistently pale- 
tomentose beneath, oblanceolate-obovate, bluntly subacuminate, the narrowed 
base subcordate, short-petioled, crenate-sinuate ; fruit unknown. 

24. Quercus pandurata Humb. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2: 28. 1809. 
Quercus oMusata pandurata A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 *: 27. 1864. 
Michoacan ; type locality, Ario. 

Small (deciduous?) tree with rather slender glabrescent twigs and small, 
transiently fleecy buds; leaves rather large (6 cm. wide, 14 cm. long), finely 
stellate-scurfy beneath, pandurately oblanceolate-oblong, rather acute, rounded 
or subtruncate at base, moderately petioled, crenate or somewhat shallowly and 
bluntly toothed above ; mature fruit unknown, the young cups with acute, some- 
what keeled, appressed scales. 

With very obtuse, more elongate, and entire leaves it is Q. ohtusata Humb. 
& Bonpl. (op. cit. 26. 1809). 

25. Quercus macrophylla Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3:274.1801. 

Quercus magnoliaefolia macrophylla A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 27. 1S64. 

Coahuila to Jalisco, Guerrero, and San Luis Potosi; type locality, between 
Tixtla and Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Rather small deciduous tree with stout, yellow-tomentose but glabrescent 
twigs, and glabrescent buds 6 mm. in diameter and 10 mm. long; leaves very 
large (13 to 30 cm. wide and 25 cm. long or more), subglabrescent above, 
usually persistently tomentulose beneath, round-obovate, very obtuse, rounded 
or slightly auriculate-cordate at base, subsessile, crisped, undulate to coarsely 
crenate-toothed ; acorn elongate-ovoid, 20 mm. in diameter, 35 mm. long, 
scarcely half included, the broad cup with subappressed acute scales. 

26. Quercus resinosa Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Yid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 182. 1854. 
Sonora ? ; type locality somewhere in the western Sierra Madre. 
Deciduous tree with stout tomentose twigs; leaves large (10 to 15 cm. wide, 

20 to 30 cm. long), glabrescent above, gray-puberulent beneath and resinous- 
punctate along the veins, oblanceolate-obovate, obtuse or subacute, slightly 
cordate, crisply repand, on short thick petioles ; fruit unknown. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 183 

27. Quercus circinata Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3:272. 1801. 
Type locality, between Tixtla and Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Small deciduous tree, 8 to 10 meters high, with stout, tomentulose or glabres- 
cent twigs and small canescent buds; leaves large (6 to 10 cm. wide, 15 to 25 
cm. long), glabrate above, velvety beneath, oblanceolate, blunt-acuminate, 
rounded at base, short-petioled, crisped, crenate-toothed ; acorn elongate-ovoid, 
15 mm. in diameter, 20 to 30 mm. long, one-third included, the half-round cup 
with acute appressed scales. " Kncina roble." (Michoacan, Guerrero). 

28. Quercus magnoliaefolia Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3:268.1801. 
Type locality, between Tixtla and Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Like the preceding; differing little except in its more oblanceolate-obovate, 
less acuminate, and less crenate leaves. 

29. Quercus lutea Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3:268. 1801. 
Type locality, between Tixtla and Chilpancingo, Guerrero. 

Like the preceding ; differing little except in its somewhat pandurate leaves. 

30. Quercus peduncularis Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3:270. 1S01. 
Quercus tomentosa Willd. Sp. PI. 4:437.1805. 

Type locality, in the western Sierra Madre, above the Rio Mescala, between 
Acapulco and Mexico City. 

Small (deciduous?) tree, with moderate glabrescent twigs and small hairy 
buds; leaves rather large (5 cm. wide, 12 cm. long), scurfy along the midrib 
above and rather thinly woolly beneath, elongate-elliptic, subacute, somewhat 
cordate, short-petioled, sinuate ; fruit stalked ; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 
15 mm. long, less than half included, the rather shallow cup with acute ap- 
pressed scales. " Encina " (Ramirez). 

31. Quercus hartwegi Benth. PI. Hartw. 432. 1840. 

Quercus obtusata hartwegi A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 27. 1864, in part. 

Quercus pandurata hartivegi Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3:197.1884. 

Type locality, Tuxpan, near Angangueo, Michoacan. 

Deciduous tree with moderate glabrescent twigs and small hairy buds ; leaves 
moderate (4 to 5 cm. wide, 7 to 8 cm. long), characteristically velvety beneath 
and along the midrib above, broadly elliptic or sometimes pandurately obovate, 
obtuse, slightly cordate, short-petioled, repand to coarsely crenate or toothed ; 
fruit often long-stalked ; acorn round-ovoid, 15 mm. in diameter, half included, 
the flaring saucer-shaped cup 20 to 25 mm. in diameter, with acute, rather loose 
scales. 

32. Quercus laxa Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1.854:181.1854. 
Quercus xylina Scheidw. Hort. Belg. 1837:321.1837.- 

Quercus reticulata lava Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 195. 1884. 

Jalisco, Tepic, Colima, and Michoacan ; type locality, somewhere in the west- 
ern Sierra Madre. 

Very like the preceding; fruiting cup smaller (15 mm. broad), with more 
keeled and appressed scales. 

33. Quercus laeta Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 179. 1854. 
Quercus pandurata laeta Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3 : 197. 1884. 
San Luis PotosI, Mexico; and Puebla ; type locality, Grande. 

Twigs rather slender, somewhat scurfy or glabrescent ; buds small, glab- 
rescent ; leaves rather small (2 to 3 cm. wide, 7 to 8 cm. long), short-tomentose 
beneath and on the midrib above, lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, obtuse, rounded 
at base, very short-petioled, entire or crenate ; fruit slender-peduncled ; acorn 
ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 15 mm. long, the thin half-round cup with small 
subacute appressed scales. 

55268—22 2 



184 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

34. Quercus bonplandiana Sweet, Hort. Brit. 370. 182G. 

Quercus ambigua Hunib. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2: 51. 1809. Not Q. ambigua 

Michx. 1901. 
Hidalgo ; type locality, Moran. 

Very like the preceding ; differing in its more narrowly obovate, low-crenate, 
longer-petioled leaves ; f ruit unknown. 

35. Quercus rugosa Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3: 275. 1801. 
Quercus spicata Hurab. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2: 46. 1809. 

Quercus macrophylla rugosa Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 198. 1884. 

Hidalgo ; type locality, in the Cerro de las Navajas, near Moran. 

Twigs rather stout and tomentose ; buds small, subpubescent ; leaves de- 
ciduous, moderate (3 to 5 cm. wide, 8 to 10 cm. long), glabrate above, dingy- 
tomentose and reticulate-veiny beneath, elliptic-obovate, obtuse, cordate, rather 
short-petioled, callously crenate or coarsely and subpungently low-serrate 
above ; fruit long-peduncled ; acorn unknown, the rather small shallow cup 
with acute appressed scales. 

36. Quercus reticulata Humb. & Bonpl. PL Aequin. 2: 40. 1809. 
Chihuahua to Mexico and Oaxaca ; type locality, Santa Rosa to Guana- 
juato. 

Rather large deciduous tree with moderate, somewhat tomentose twigs and 
small glabrescent buds; leaves rather small (3 to 4 cm. wide, 6 to 7 cm. long), 
rugose, stellate or brown-tomentose beneath, the midrib scurfy above, obovate, 
very obtuse, rounded at base or subcordate, short-petioled, repandly callous- 
dentate above ; fruit peduncled ; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 15 to 20 
mm. long, scarcely half included, the rounded cup with acute, appressed or 
loose scales ; wood hard, close-grained, brown, its specific gravity about 0.95. 
"Palo Colorado" (San Luis Potosf, Palmer); " enema de miel " (San Luis 
Potosf, Mexico); " encina " (San Luis Potosi) ; " encina quiebra-hacha " (Hi- 
dalgo Villada) ; " aoatl," " ahoaquahuitl " (Nahuatl, Ramirez); " chaparro," 
"encina prieta " (Oaxaca, Seler) ; " tnu-yaha," "tnu-yaa " (Oaxaca, Mixtec, 
Seler). 

Palmer reports the use of the acorns as a substitute for coffee in San Luis 
PotosL 

37. Quercus decipiens Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 214. 1843. 
Veracruz ; type locality, Mirador. 

Moderately large deciduous tree with rather stout glabrescent twigs and 
medium-sized rusty-hairy buds; leaves unusually large (12 to 16 cm. wide, 
18 to 25 cm. long), glabrate above, more or less puberulent and whitened be- 
neath, obovate, bull ate, short-petioled, very obtuse, repand or low-toothed 
above; fruit very long-peduncled (peduncle up to 25 cm. long) ; acorn oblong, 
12 mm. in diameter, 20 mm. long, scarcely one-third included, the half-round 
cup with acute, rather loose scales. 

38. Quercus arizonica Sarg. Gard. & For. 8: 92. 1895. 

Sonora and Chihuahua. Arizona; type locality, Huachuca Mountains. 

Deciduous shrub or small tree with slender tomentose twigs^ and glossy 
glabrate small buds; leaves small (scarcely 3 cm. wide and 6 cm. long), blue- 
green, somewhat crisped and revolute, glabrate above, more or less stellate 
and reticulate beneath, broadly elliptic or subovate, obtuse or acute, sub- 
cordate, short-petioled, entire or repand or distantly denticulate or serrulate; 
acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 15 to 20 mm. long, nearly half included, the 
rounded cup with thickened acute appressed scales ; wood hard and strong, close- 
grained, dark brown to nearly black, the specific gravity slightly over 1.00. 



STANDLEY TEEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 185 

39. Quercus greggii (A. DC.) Trel. 

Quercus reticulata greggii A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 34. 1864. 

Coahuila ; type locality, San Antonio, near Saltillo. 

Rather small evergreen trees with moderate, tomentose or more or less 
glabrescent twigs and small hairy buds ; leaves rather small (3 to 5 cm. wide. 
4 to 7 cm. long), rugose, revolute, granular or puberulent on the midrib above, 
rusty stellate-fleecy beneath, shortly elliptic-obovate, mucronately very obtuse, 
cordate, short-petioled, entire or slightly repand above ; acorn conic-ovoid, about 
10 mm. in diameter and 20 mm. long, the shallow cup with acute appressed 
scales. 

40. Quercus aculcingensis Trel. 

Quercus reticulata crassifolia Oerst. in Liebm. Chenes Ainer. Trop. 20. 1869. 

Oaxaca ; type locality, Puente Colorado on the Cuesta de Aculcingo. 

Twigs moderate, dingy-woolly ; buds small, glabrate ; leaves deciduous, small 
(2 cm. wide. 4 cm. long), rugose, revolute, densely tomentose beneath, the 
midrib granular above, elliptic, rather obtuse at both ends, short-petioled, entire ; 
fruit unknown. 

41. Quercus diversifolia Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3: 270. 1801. 
Quercus tomentosa diversifolia A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 33. 1864. 
Type locality, between Chalma and Santa Rosa, Veracruz. 

A scarcely placeable shrub, said to be 3 to 5 meters high, with rather small 
leaves (2 cm. wide, 2.5 to 7 cm. long) tomentose beneath, ovate, oblong, or 
elliptic in outline, and subentire to crenate-dentate on the same branch ; fruit 
on a peduncle 5 cm. long. 

42. Quercus microphylla Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3: 264. 1801. 
Guanajuato. Hidalgo, and Mexico ; type from Guanajuato. 

Intricately branched deciduous low shrub with slender tomentose twigs and 
glabrescent ovoid buds 2 mm. in diameter and 4 to 5 mm. long ; leaves small 
(1 to 2 cm. wide. 2 to 4 cm. long), rugose, revolute, and concave, scurfy above, 
woolly beneath, elliptic-oblong, mostly obtuse at both ends, very short-petioled, 
entire or undulate or crenately toothed above ; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 
15 mm. long, one-third or more included, the half-round cup with acute ap- 
pressed scales. " Ehciria capulincillo " (Mexico, Ramirez). 

43. Quercus repanda Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 31. 1809. 

Hidalgo and adjacent San Luis Potosi ; type locality. El .Tacal, between Real 
del Monte and Moran, Hidalgo. 

Intricately branched subevergreen shrub with slender tomentose twigs and 
small glabrescent buds; leaves small (1 to 2 cm. wide, 3 to 4 cm. long), rugose, 
undulately revolute, sparingly scurfy above, woolly beneath, elliptic to ovate or 
obovate, commonly obtuse at both ends, very short-petioled, entire or sparingly 
low-toothed above; acorn round-ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 12 to 15 mm. long, 
nearly half included, the rounded cup with acute appressed scales. " Encina," 
" encina negra." "encina chaparro " (Hidalgo). 

44. Quercus intricata Trel. 

Quercus microphylla crispata A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 36. 1864. Not Q. 
crisp a ta Steven. 1857. 

Coahuila and adjoining Zacatecas ; type locality, Buena Vista, near Saltillo, 
Coahuila. 

Intricately branched deciduous shrub with slender tomentose twigs and small 
glabrescent buds; leaves small (scarcely 1 to 2 cm. wide and 3 to 5 cm. long), 
crisped and revolute, stellate-scurfy above, closely tomentose beneath, subellip- 



186 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

tic, typically acute, subcordate and typically entire, very short-petioled ; acorn 
round, subincluded, scarcely 10 mm. in diameter, the rounded cup with acute 
appressed scales. 

45. Quercus engelmanni ' Greene in Greene & Kellogg, III. West Amer. Oaks 32. 
1889. 

Southeastern California; type locality, between San Diego and Los .Angeles; 
said to reach adjoining Baja California. 

A moderate-sized tree very like the following, except in its broader leaves, 
but of distinct geographic range; wood hard, strong but brittle, close-grained, 
brown, its specific gravity about 0.94. 

The wood is said to check badly in drying and to be useful only for fuel. 

46. Quercus oblongifolia Torr. in Sitgreaves, Rep. Zuni & Col. 173. 1S53. 
Chihuahua and Sonora. Arizona ; type from " western New Mexico." 
Moderate-sized tree with slender, glabrescent, often pruinose twigs and small 

red buds with ciliate scales; leaves (deciduous?) small (usually 1 to 2 cm. 
wide and 3 to 4 cm. long), glabrous, paler beneath, elliptic or oblong, rounded 
at both ends or subcordate, entire or coarsely and crenately few-toothed, the 
usually pruinose petiole short ; acorn elongate-ovoid, 10 to 15 mm. in diameter, 
one-third included, the half-round cup with rather broad and blunt, keeled, ap- 
pressed scales; wood hard and strong but brittle, very dark brown, heavy. 

47. Quercus grisea Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Yid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 171. 1S54. 
Chihuahua, and apparently to Zacatecas. Western Texas, the type locality 

not specified. 

Shrub or small tree with slender tomentose twigs and small round red buds 
with puberulent outer scales; leaves deciduous, small (scarcely 2 cm. wide 
and 4 cm. long), thin, blue-green, minutely puberulent above and dull, though 
glossy when abraded, stellate-scurfy beneath, elliptic or ovate, mucronately 
subacute, often cordate, short-petioled, entire; acorns paired on a short slender 
peduncle, ellipsoid, 8 mm. in diameter, 12 mm. long, scarcely one-third included, 
the half-round cup with rather acute appressed scales. "Encina prieta," " en- 
cina blanca " (Durango, Palmer). 

The wood is useful only for fuel. 

48. Quercus pungens Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Aid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 171. 1854. 
Quercus undulata pungens Engelm. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 3: 392. 1876. 
Chihuahua. New Mexico. 

Shrub or small tree with slender toruentulose twigs; leaves deciduous, small 
(scarcely 2 cm. wide and 3 cm. long), from scurfy glabrescent, crisped, elliptic, 
pungently acute, rounded at base, very short-petioled, with about 4 large 
pungent deltoid teeth on each side; acorn ovoid, scarcely 8 nun. in diameter and 
12 nun. long, half included, the rounded cup with small appressed scales. 

49. Quercus pringlei Seeinen, Bot. Jalirb. Engler 29: 96. 1900. 
Coahuila; type locality, in the Carne'ros Pass below Saltillo. 

Shrub with slender subglahrescent twigs and minute round glabrous buds; 
leaves (deciduous?) very small (scarcely 1 cm. wide and 2.5 cm. long), glab- 
rous, lance-elliptic, suuarista'tely acute, rounded at base, mostly entire, the 

George Engelmann ( 1809-1 SS4), a native of Germany, lived most of his life 
at St. Louis, Missouri, where he was engaged in the practice of medicine. An 
enthusiastic botanist, Engelmann devoted most of his botanical labors to the 
study of the more difficult groups of plants, such as the Cactaceae, Yucca, 
Agave, Quercus, etc. lie described many .Mexican species of these and other 
groups. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 187 

very short petiole somewhat tomentose; acorn round-ovoid, scarcely 10 mm. 
in diameter, fully half included, the rounded cup with somewhat thickened 
and blunt appressed scales, 

50. Quercus toumeyi Sarg. Gard. & For. 8: 92. 1895. 
Sonora. Arizona ; type locality, Bisbee. 

Shrub or small tree with slender tomentulose twigs and small pubescent buds ; 
leaves deciduous, very small (scarcely 1 cm. wide and 2 cm. long), smooth or 
papillate above, sparingly velvety beneath, elliptic, mucronately acute, sub- 
cordate, entire or pungently few-toothed above, with very short hairy petiole; 
acorn oblong, scarcely 8 mm. in diameter and 12 mm. long, less than half 
included, the rounded cup with rather blunt appressed scales; wood hard, close- 
grained, brown. 

51. Quercus dumosa Nutt. N. Ainer. Sylv. 1: 7. 1842. 

California ; type locality, Santa Barbara. Extending into Baja California, 
in several foliage forms, of which one, with very small, ovate-elliptic, pun- 
gently dentate leaves scarcely 15 mm. wide and 25 mm. long, is var. turbinella 
Jepson (Silva Calif. 21S. 1910; Q. tarMnella Greene in Greene & Kellogg, 111. 
West. Amer. Oaks 37. 1889). 

Deciduous shrub with slender, usually glabrescent twigs; leaves small (com- 
monly less than 2 cm. wide and 5 cm. long), polymorphous, more or less per- 
sistently tomentulose beneath, short-petioled ; fruit typically slender-peduncled, 
the moderate-sized or small oblong acorn scarcely half included in the finely 
scaly, half-round cup. 

This species is said to be the one whose acorns were most used as food by 
the Indians of southern California. 

52. Quercus breviloba (Torr.) Sarg. Gard. & For. 8: 93. 1895. 

Quercus obtusifolia brevilola Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 266. 1S59. 

Quercus annulata Buckl. Proc. Acad. Phila. 1860: 445. 1860. Not Q. an- 
nulata Smith, 1819. 

Nuevo Leon. Texas ; type locality in Howard County. 

Large deciduous shrub or small tree with rather slender glabrous buff twigs ; 
leaves rather small (3 to 6 cm. wide, 6 to 12 cm. long), glabrous and glossy 
green above, glabrate but pale or microscopically silvery-tomentulose beneath, 
elliptic-obovate, obtuse, mostly acute at base, short-petioled, usually undulate 
or with a few short round lobes ; acorn ovoid, scarcely 8 mm. in diameter and 
12 mm. long, half included, the rounded cup with acute, rather close scales ; 
wood hard and strong, brittle, brown, close-grained. 

53. Quercus oleoides Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5: 79. 1830. 

Veracruz, Chiapas, and Tabasco ; type locality, Hacienda de la Laguna, near 
Jalapa, Veracruz. British Honduras, Guatemala, Honduras, and Costa Rica. 

Rather large broad-topped evergreen tree with slender gray-tomentulose 
twigs and small reddish glabrate buds; leaves mostly rather small (3 to 6 
cm. wide, 6 to 8 cm. long, but exceptionally twice as large), glabrous and 
green above, minutely pale-tomentulose beneath, revolute, obovate-elliptic, 
rather obtuse, subcuneate, rather short-petioled, typically entire ; fruit mostly 
peduncled ; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 15 to 20 mm. long, about half 
included, the turbinate cup with keeled acute appressed scales in vertical 
rows. " Roblecito " (Guatemala, Honduras). 

A juvenile form with obovate toothed leaves is Q. lutescens Mart. & Gal. Bull. 
Acad. Brux. 10 ': 219. 1843. 

54. Quercus fusiformis Small, Bull. Torrey Club 28:357.1901. 
Quercus virginiana fusiformis Sarg. Bot. Gaz. 65 : 448. 1918. 
Coahuila and Nuevo Le6n. Texas ; type locality, Kerrville. 



188 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Small evergreen tree with slender tornentulose twigs and minute round red 
velvety buds; leaves small (1 cm. wide, 3 to 5 cm. long), minutely canescent 
beneath, narrowly oblong-lanceolate, mucronately acute, rounded at base, 
entire or with 1 or 2 asymmetric teeth, the short petiole tornentulose; fruit 
long-peduncled ; acorn fusiform-oblong, 10 mm. in diameter, 20 to 25 mm. long, 
less than one-third included, the turbinate cup with acute appressed scales in 
somewhat evident vertical rows. 

This and Q. oleoides are probably the species which have been reported from 
Mexico as Q. virginiwna Mill. (Q. virens Ait.). The following are some of the 
vernacular names reported: " Maculi " (Nuevo Leon, Veracruz); " maquili- 
huatl " (Veracruz) ; " texmole " ; " roble " ; " roble serrano " ; " palo duro " ; 
" tezmolli " ; " encina." 

55. Quercus brandegei Goldman, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16:321.1916. 
Baja California; type locality, Rancho El Paraiso, near El Triunfo. 
Moderately large evergreen tree with slender tornentulose twigs and minute 

round brown velvety buds; leaves small (scarcely 2 cm. wide and 3 to 6 cm. 
long), densely hoary beneath, elliptic-oblong, mucronately acute, rounded or 
acute at base, entire or with a few irregular low pungent teeth, the short 
petiole canescent ; fruit rather long-peduncled ; acorn conical, about 8 mm. 
in diameter and 15 mm. long, fully half included, the goblet-shaped cup with 
acute appressed scales. 

56. Quercus tomentella Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 393. 1877. 
Guadalupe Island, Baja California. 

Moderate-sized evergreen tree with rather stout short-pilose twigs and tornen- 
tulose buds as much as 7 mm. in diameter and 12 mm. long; leaves moderate 
(4 to 7 cm. wide, 7 to 12 cm. long), coriaceous, granular on the midrib above, 
the whitened lower surface more or less persistently fleecy, elliptic-ovate, acute 
or subacuminate, subcordate, toothed, with short villous petiole ; acorn ovoid 
or elongate, sometimes 30 mm. in diameter and 35 mm. long, scarcely ever half 
included, the thick half-round cup with its scales embedded in tomentum ; wood 
hard, close-grained, yellowish brown, its specific gravity about 0.72. 

57. Quercus palmeri Engelm. Trans. Acad. St. Louis 3: 393. 3877. 
Quercus dunnii Kellogg, Pacif. Rural Press, June 7, IS79. 

Quercus chrysolepis paltmeH Engelm. in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 97. 1880. 

Northern Baja California. Also in San Diego County, California, the type 
locality. 

Evergreen shrub with slender, minutely scurfy twigs; leaves small (2 cm. 
wide, 3 cm. long), coriaceous, glabrate, rounded, acute, cordate, crisped or 
folded, typically coarsely and pungently dentate ; acorn conic-oblong, 15 mm. in 
diameter, 25 to 30 mm. long, the subturbinate undulate-margined cup very 
fulvous-woolly. 

58. Quercus emoryi ' Torr. in Emory, Notes Mil. Recon. 151. 1848. 
Querents hastata Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 171. 1854. 
Chihuahua and Sonera. Texas to Arizona ; type from Texas. 

Small deciduous tree with slender glabrescent red twigs and glossy brown 
glabrate buds sometimes 3 mm. in diameter and 8 mm. Long; leaves small (1 to 

' William H. Emory (1811-1887), was a member of the commission for estab- 
lishing the boundary between the United States and Mexico. He was the 
author of "Notes of a military reconnoissance from Fort Leavenworlh in Mis- 
souri to San Diego in California" (1848), and of the "Report of the United 
States and Mexican Boundary Commission" (1S57). 






STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 189 

2 em. wide, 3 to 6 cm. long), thick and hard, from minutely scurfy glabrescent, 
elliptic or oblong to ovate, mucronately acute, truncate at base or subcordate, 
short-petioled, characteristically repandly few-toothed ; acorn narrowly ellip- 
soid. S mm. in diameter, 15 to 20 mm. long, one-third included, the rounded cup 
with blunt appressed scales ; wood rather soft, strong but brittle, close-grained, 
dark brown, its specific gravity about 0.93. 
The acorns are said to be of good quality as food. 

59. Quercus durifolia Seemen, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 29: 95. 1900. 
Durango ; type locality, Durango. 

Twigs slender, subglabrescent ; buds glossy light brown, small; leaves (decidu- 
ous?) very small (1 cm. wide, 3 to 4 cm. long), firm, canescent beneath, short- 
lanceolate, mucronately acute, obliquely subtruncate at base, short-petioled, 
mostly with a few short teeth ; acorn round-ovoid, under 10 mm. in diameter, 
fully half included, the rounded cup with blunt appressed scales. 

60. Quercus eduardi Trel. 

Quercus oligodonta Seemen, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 29: 96. 1900. Not Q. oligo- 
donta Saporta, 1879. 

Durango, Jalisco, and Tepic ; type from Durango. 

Small deciduous tree with slender glabrescent twigs and glossy, light brown, 
small buds; leaves small (2 to 4 cm. wide, 3 to 6 cm. long), firm, rather per- 
sistently stellate-scurfy beneath, oblong-elliptic, mucronately subacute, slightly 
cordate, with short glabrescent petiole, entire or with several aristate teeth ; 
acorn ovoid or oblong, scarcely 8 mm. in diameter and 10 mm. long, half in- 
cluded, the turbinate cup with rounded appressed scales. 

" Encina colorada " ; the dark red wood valuable. 

61. Quercus devia Goldman, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 322. 1916. 

Baja California ; type locality, between El Sauz and Chuparosa. 

Moderately large evergreen tree, about 20 meters high, with slender glab- 
rescent twigs and small, acutely ovoid, glabrescent buds ; leaves rather small 
(1 to 3 cm. wide, 5 to 10 cm. long), often somewhat dingy-tomentose beneath, 
broadly lanceolate or oblong, very acute, subcordate, rather short-petioled, 
arista tely toothed ; acorn oblong, 8 mm. in diameter, 15 to 20 mm. long, the 
shallow cup with blunt appressed scales. " Encina negra." 

62. Quercus hypoleuca Engelm. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 3: 384. 1877. 
Chihuahua and Sonora. New Mexico (type locality, Santa Rita) and Arizona. 
Shrub or small to moderately large subevergreen tree with rather slender 

gray-tomentose twigs and small red buds with ciliate scales ; leaves rather small 
(2 to 3 cm. wide, 5 to 10 cm. long), rugose, revolute, blue-green above, densely 
pale-tomentulose beneath, lanceolate, aristately very acute, rounded at base, 
moderately petioled, typically entire ; acorn narrowly conic-oblong, 8 mm. in 
diameter, 10 to 15 mm. long, scarcely one-third included, the turbinate cup with 
blunt, appressed, at first very tomentose scales ; wood hard and strong, close- 
grained, dark brown, the specific gravity about 0.80. 

63. Quercus scytophylla Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 180. 
1854. 

Oaxaca and Michoacan ; type locality, Yalala to Yabochi, Oaxaca. 

Twigs rather slender, glabrescent; buds small, glossy brown, glabrescent; 
leaves (deciduous?) large (7 to 8 cm. wide, 13 to 15 cm. long), rugose, densely 
creamy-tomentulose beneath, typically obovate and acute, obliquely acute or 
rounded at base, moderately petioled, characteristically with several short 
aristate teeth above ; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 15 to 20 mm. long, the 
rounded or saucer-shaped cup with blunt appressed scales. "Encina" (Micho- 
acan). 



190 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

64. Quercus omissa A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 28. 1864. 
Type locality, somewhere in the western Sierra Madre. 

Twigs moderate, somewhat puberulent ; buds elongate, dull brown, hairy at tip, 
scarcely 3 mm. in diameter and 6 mm. long; leaves (deciduous?) rather small 
(3 to 4 cm. wide, 5 to 6 cm. long), rugose, slightly revolute, creamy-tomentulose 
beneath, typically obovate, obtuse, cordate, short-petioled, aristately somewhat 
coarsely stiff-serrate above; acorn subglobose, 8 mm. in diameter, the rather 
deep cup with very blunt appressed scales. 

65. Quercus pulchella Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 44. 1809. 
Type locality, between Guanajuato and Santa Rosa. 

Twigs slender, glabrescent ; buds small, dark brown, glabrate ; leaves decidu- 
ous, small (2 to 3 cm. wide, 4 to 6 cm. long), rugose, yellow-tomentulose beneath, 
oblong-obovate, obtuse, often subtruncately cordate, slender-petioled, aristately 
low-serrate; fruit annual (?), the rounded cup with glabrous blunt appressed 
scales. 

66. Quercus floccosa Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 178. 1854. 
Veracruz?; type from the Pico de Orizaba, at 2,600 to 3,200 meters. 

Twigs moderate, at first rusty-scurfy; leaves (deciduous?) rather large (6 
to 9 cm. wide, 9 to 16 cm. long), rugose, typically fleecy beneath, elliptic-obo- 
vate, aristately subacute, rounded at base, entire or with a few short teeth 
above, the moderate petiole fleecy ; fruit unknown. 

67. Quercus crassifolia Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 49. 1809. 

Quercus spinulosa Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 218. 1843. 

Guerrero to Veracruz and San Luis Potosi; type locality, Chilpancingo, Gue- 
rrero. 

Rather large deciduous tree with somewhat stout, more or less scurfy twigs 
and glossy glabrate buds 3 mm. in diameter and 5 mm. long; leaves large (6 
to 9 cm. wide, 12 to 14 cm. long), rugose, scurfy on the nerve above, tawny- 
fleecy beneath with the denudable surface granular, elliptic, obovate, or 
rounded, variously obtuse or subacuminate, cordate, short-petioled, aristate- 
undulate or stiffly low-toothed ; fruit annual ; acorn ellipsoid, 12 mm. in diam- 
eter, 15 to 20 mm. long, one-third or more included, the deep saucer-shaped 
cup with rounded appressed scales. 

68. Quercus fulva Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 1S3. 1S54. 
Chihuahua. Durango, and Michoac&n; the type from an unrecorded locality 

in the western Sierra Madre. 

Twigs stout, densely tomentose ; buds brownish, tomentose ; leaves 4 to 9 cm. 
wide, 8 to 14 cm. long, densely tomentose beneath, petioled, aristately serrate. 
" Roble " ( Durango ) . 

69. Quercus stipularis Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 47. 1809. 
Type locality, near Actopan (Veracruz?). 

Twigs rather stout, fleecy ; buds brownish, somewhat pubescent, 3 mm. in 
diameter, 5 mm. long; leaves deciduous, moderate (4 to 5 cm. wide, 7 to 10 
cm. long), rugose, puberulent above on the midrib, rusty-fleecy beneath, elliptic- 
ovate to obov:i(e. subacuminate. cordate, moderately petioled, aristately ser- 
rate; fruit annual; acorn ovoid, 12- mm. in diameter, 15 mm. long, scarcely 
one-third included, the rounded cup with blunt, rather loose scales. 

70. Quercus chicamolensis Trel. 

Querous mollis Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 210. 1843. Not Q. mollis 

Raf. 1838. 
Oaxaca ; type locality, in the Mixteca Alta. 






STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 191 

Rather small (deciduous?) tree with moderate, at first densely tomentose 
twigs; leaves rather small (4 cm. wide, 5 to 6 cm. long), rugose, yellow-tomen- 
tose beneath, rather obovate and acute, cordate, short-petioled, entire but 
ciliately aristate above; acorn unknown, the rounded cup with blunt appressed 
scales. 

71. Quercus dysophylla Benth. PI. Hartw. 55. 1840. 

San Luis Potosi, Veracruz, and Hidalgo ; type locality, mountains near 
Huasca, Hidalgo. 

Twigs moderate, subglabrescent ; buds glossy red-brown, canescent, 3 mm. 
in diameter, 5 mm. long; leaves deciduous, rather small (2 to 3 cm. wide. 5 to 
8 cm. long), revolute, subglabrescent above, rusty-tomentose beneath, oblong, 
ovate, or elliptic, subacute, cordate, moderately petioled, entire or less char- 
acteristically coarsely mucronate-toothed ; acorn ovoid or elongate, 10 mm. in 
diameter, 15 to 18 mm. long, the shallow turbinate cup with obtuse appressed 
scales. " Manzanilla " (Hidalgo). 

To be compared with no. 40, Quercus diversifolia, and with the following. 

72. Quercus splendens Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3: 275. 1801. 
Type locality, Tixtla, Guerrero. 

Small open-topped tree with moderate yellow-tomentose twigs; leaves (de- 
ciduous?) rather small (3 to 4 cm. wide, 8 cm. long), puberulent above, yellow- 
tomentose beneath, subelliptic, ranging to ovate or obovate, acute, rounded 
at base or subcordate, subsessile, irregularly and unequally toothed, but not 
aristate ; fruit unknown. 

Not known from recent collections. 

73. Quercus aristata Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey Voy. 444. 1841. 
Tepic and Sinaloa; type locality, between San Bias and Tepic. 

Twigs rather slender, transiently fleecy ; buds glabrate, small ; leaves decid- 
uous, moderate (3 to 4 cm. wide, 7 to 15 cm. long), glabrescent, somewhat 
crisped and narrowly rovolute, elliptic-oblong, aristately obtuse or subacute, 
rounded to cordate at base, moderately petioled, entire or undulate, sometimes 
aristate from the veins ; fruit annual ; acorn round-ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 
the deep rounded cup with blunt appressed scales. 

74. Quercus uruapanensis Trel. 

Quercus nitida Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 210. 1843. Not Q. nitida 
Raf. 1838. 

Michoacan and Oaxaca (?) ; type locality, Uruapan, Michoacan. 

Thick-trunked, moderately large, deciduous tree with rather slender, glab- 
rous, dark red twigs and small, puberulent, glossy, deep brown buds ; leaves 
rather large (4 to 7 cm. wide, 9 to 16 cm. long), glabrous, or with axillary tufts 
beneath, subelliptic, acuminate, acute to truncate at base, moderately petioled, 
entire or exceptionally somewhat aristate-toothed above ; acorn ovoid, 12 mm. 
in diameter, 20 mm. long, one-third included, the rounded cup with blunt ap- 
pressed scales. " Encina colorada." 

Yielding excellent timber. 

75. Quercus rysophylla Weatherby, Proc. Arner. Acad. 45: 423. 1910. 
Nuevo Le6n ; type locality, in the Sierra Madre above Monterrey. 

Rather small tree with stout glabrate twigs and glabrescent, glossy brown, 
acute buds 3 mm. in diameter and 6 mm. long ; leaves supersistent, large (4 to 
7 cm. wide, 14 to 20 cm. long), rugose and veiny, revolute, glabrous, lanceolate, 
aristately long-acute, aurieulate or deeply cordate at base, short-petioled, un- 
dulate ; acorn unknown, the young cup with obtuse appressed golden scales. 



192 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

76. Quercus nectandraefolia Liehm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 
175. 1S54. 

Veracruz ; type locality, Totutla. 

Twigs rather slender, dingy-tomentose ; buds brown, glabrescent, small ; 
leaves (deciduous?) moderate (3 to 5 cm. wide, 9 to 12 cm. long), revolute, 
glabrous, somewhat paler and granular beneath, elliptic, obtuse, acute to sub- 
cordate at base, subsessile, crisped but entire ; fruit annual ; acorn ovoid, 20 
mm. in diameter, 25 mm. long, thick-walled, half included, the rounded cup 
with blunt thickened appressed scales. 

77. Quercus lingvaefolia Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 180. 
1854. 

Oaxaca ; type locality, Cuesta de Lachopa. 

Twigs moderate, glabrescent; leaves (deciduous ?) moderate (3 to 4 cm. wide, 
6 to 11 cm. long), slightly revolute, somewhat floccose or glabrate, elliptic, 
obtuse or acute, cordate, short-petioled, entire; acoru ovoid, 10 mm. in diam- 
eter, 15 mm. long, the saucer-shaped cup with blunt appressed scales. 

78. Quercus perseaefolia Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 188. 
1854. 

Veracruz ; type locality, Hacienda de Jovo. 

Twigs rather slender, glabrescent ; buds small, glabrate ; leaves deciduous, 
moderate (3 to 5 cm. wide, 6 to 12 cm. long), slightly revolute, glabrate. 
oblanceolate-elliptic, obtuse at both ends, very short-petioled, entire ; fruit 
annual ; acorn oblong. 10 mm. in diameter, 15 mm. long, one-third included, the 
turbinate cup with blunt appressed scales. 

79. Quercus pubinervis Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 211. 1843. 
Veracruz ; type locality, about Huatusco. 

Rather large deciduous tree with slender tomentose twigs and small red- 
brown glabrate buds; leaves moderate (4 to 5 cm. wide, 8 to 12 cm. long), 
somewhat revolute, the midrib puberulent above and the lower surface some- 
what persistently fleecy, lance-ovate to elliptic-oblanceolate, rounded at both 
ends, very short-petioled, entire or low-undulate ; fruit annual ; acorn oblong, 
10 mm. in diameter, 15 mm. long, one-third included, the turbinate cup with 
blunt appressed scales. 

80. Quercus oajacana Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 178. 1854. 
Quercus salici folia oajacana Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 207. 1884. 
Oaxaca ; type locality, between Tanetze and Talea. 

Twigs moderate, yellow-scurfy ; buds red-brown, somewhat hairy, small ; 
leaves evergreen, moderate (3 to 4 cm. wide, S to 10 cm. long), with puberulent 
midrib above, loosely stellate beneath, lance-elliptic to subovate, acute, rounded 
at base, short-petioled, entire or somewhat undulate ; fruit annual : acorn 
ovoid, 12 mm. in diameter, 15 mm. long, the shallow cup with blunt appressed 
scales. 

81. Quercus totulensis A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 62. 1864. 
Veracruz ; type locality, Totutla. 

Twigs slender, quickly glabrous; buds glabrous, glossy light brown. 2 mm. in 
diameter, 5 mm. long; leaves deciduous, rather small (2 cm. wide, 6 to 8 cm. 
long), paler and sometimes with axillary tufts beneath, oblong, rounded at 
both ends or a little narrowed below, slender-petioled, entire; acorn rounded, 
fully half included, the rounded cup with rather acute appressed scales. 

82. Quercus salicifolia Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3: 265. 1801. 
Quercus mexicana glabrata Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 332. 1852-7. 
Quercus castanca glabrata A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 *: 72. 1864. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 193 

Guerrero; type locality apparently Acapulco. 

Twigs slender, glabrous; buds small; leaves deciduous, moderate (2 to 4 
cm. wide. 10 to 15 cm. long), glabrous, lanceolate, aristately long-acute, 
typically rounded at base, sbort-petioled, entire; fruit annual (?) ; acorn sub- 
globose, 12 mm. in diameter, half included, the subturbinate cup with appressed 
scales. " Encina saucillo " (Durango). 

83. Quercus ghiesbreghtii Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 212. 1S43. 
Veracruz ; type locality, on Mount Orizaba, at 3,300 meters. 
Moderate-sized evergreen tree with rather slender, at first dingy-tomentose 

twigs and small, glabrate, glossy brown buds; leaves moderate (3 cm. wide, 
8 to 10 cm. long), somewhat pubescent on the veins beneath, lanceolate, long- 
acute, very round-based, moderately petioled, entire ; fruit annual ; acorn short- 
ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 12 mm. long, the turbinately saucer-shaped cup with 
blunt appressed scales. 

84. Quercus tlapuxahuensis A. DO. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 29. 18G4. 

Quercus salicifolia tlapuxahuensis Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 207. 
1884. 

Michoacan; type locality, Tlalpuxahua. 

Twigs moderate, glabrous; buds small, dull brown, loosely hairy above; 
leaves (deciduous?) moderate (3 cm. wide, 7 to 10 cm. long), glabrous or the 
midrib slightly puberulent above and the lower surface with axillary tufts, 
lanceolate, aristately acute, rounded at base, slender-petioled, entire; fruit 
annual ; acorn short-ovoid, 12 cm. in diameter, 15 mm. long, fully half included, 
the rounded cup with obtuse, appressed, somewhat revolutely thickened scales. 

85. Quercus lanceolata Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 34. 1809. 
Hidalgo ; type locality, between Moran and Santa Rosa. 

Rather small (subevergreen?) tree with slender, transiently scurfy twigs and 
small glabrescent brown buds; leaves rather small (3 cm. wide, 7 to 10 cm. 
long), glabrous, or slightly scurfy above or fleecy in the axils beneath, lanceo- 
late, acute at both ends or rounded at base, slender-petioled, entire or occasion- 
ally with a few low aristate teeth ; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 12 mm. 
long, scarcely half included, the rounded cup with glabrous blunt appressed 
scales somewhat thickened toward the base. 

86. Quercus laurina Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 32. 1809. 
Hidalgo ; type locality, Cerro de las Navajas, near Moran. 

Very like the preceding, the deciduous leaves rather more broadly oblanceo- 
late, the fruit apparently annual, and the cupule scales less commonly thick- 
ened. 

87. Quercus major (A. DC.) Trel. 

Quercus nitens major A DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 69. 1864. 

Quercus laurina major Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 205. 1884. 

Veracruz ; type locality, Alpatlahua. 

Twigs rather slender, glabrate ; buds small, acute, glabrescent ; leaves de- 
ciduous, moderate (2 to 4 cm. wide, 6 to 9 cm. long), glabrous, or puberulent 
along the midrib above and with axillary tufts beneath, lanceolate to oblanceo- 
late-obovate, acute at both ends or rounded at base, slender-petioled, character- 
istically serrately incised with aristate teeth ; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 
15 mm. long, half included, the rounded cup with blunt appressed scales. 

88. Quercus barbinervis Benth. PI. Hartw. 56. 1840. 

Quercus laurina oarbinervis Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 3: 205. 1S84. 
Hidalgo ; type locality, Real del Monte. 

Twigs rather slender, sparsely tomentose; buds small, glabrescent; leaves 
deciduous, small (scarcely 3 cm. wide and 5 cm. long) or on shoots larger 



194 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

(as much as 5 cm. wide and 13 cm. long), glabrate, or with fleecy axils 
beneath, slightly revolutej elliptic-obovate, acute, mostly rounded at base, the 
moderate petiole pubescent, coarsely few-toothed above; fruit annual (?); 
acorn ovoid, 10 to 12 mm. in diameter, 15 to 18 mm. long, half included, the 
rounded cup with blunt appressed scales. 

89. Quercus affinis Scheidw. Hort. Belg. 4: 321. 1837. 

Type locality, between Regla and Istula, Hidalgo. 

Twigs slender, at first scurfy ; buds small, glabrous, glossy brown ; leaves 
evergreen, small (2 cm. wide, 7 to 9 cm. long), glossy, glabrous, oblong-lance- 
olate, acute at both ends, moderately petioled, sharply setaceous-serrate with 
short teeth; fruit biennial (?) ; acorn unknown, the immature cup with rather 
acute appressed scales. 

90. Quercus ocoteaefolia Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 176. 
1854. 

Quercus laurina ocoteaefolia Wenzig, Jahrb. Bot. Gait. Berlin 3: 205. 1884. 

Oaxaca and Puebla ; also in Michoacan(?) ; type locality, Talea and Laguna, 
Oaxaca. 

Small deciduous tree with slender glabrescent twigs and small, glossy brown, 
glabrescent buds; leaves moderate (3 cm. wide, 8 to 10 cm. long), glossy, 
glabrous, or with axillary tufts beneath, lanceolate, acute at both ends or 
somewhat rounded at base, shortly sleuder-petioled, entire or less commonly 
with a few teeth ; acorn ovoid, S mm. in diameter, 10 mm. long, half included, 
the rounded cup with blunt appressed scales. 

91. Quercus depressa Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 50. 1809. 
Hidalgo ; type locality, El Jacal, Mor&n. 

Low evergreen shrub with slender stellate-scurfy twigs and small, dull 
brown, glabrate buds; leaves small (1 to 2 cm. wide, 3 to 4 cm. long), rather 
thick, slightly revolute, glabrate or the midrib puberulent above, lance-elliptic, 
acute or acuminate, rounded at base, short-petioled. usually with a few coarse 
teeth ; acorn ovoid, acute, 8 mm. in diameter, 12 mm. long, half included, the 
rounded cup with blunt appressed scales. 

92. Quercus orizabae Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 189. 1854. 
Veracruz (?) ; type locality, Pico de Orizaba, at 2,G00 to 3,300 meters, with 

Q. floccosa. 

Twigs moderate, at first rusty-fleecy ; buds small, red-brown, somewhat hairy ; 
leaves (deciduous?) rather large (3 to 7 cm. wide, 8 to 14 cm. long), glab- 
rescent above, somewhat fleecy beneath, slightly revolute. elliptic-ovate, acute, 
obliquely rounded at base, slender-petioled, entire or artistately about 3-toothed 
at end ; fruit unknown. 

93. Quercus sideroxyla Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 39. 1809. 
Guanajuato; type locality, Santa Rosa. 

Large evergreen tree with slender lanose twigs and small brown glabrescent 
buds; leaves small (2 cm. wide, 4 to 6 cm. long), the lower surface some- 
times hairy-tufted, broadly oblong, subacute, cordate at base, short-petioled, 
sharply and rather incisely toothed; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 12 mm. 
long, half included, the rounded cup with blunt appressed scales. 

94. Quercus chrysophylla Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 42. 1S09. 
Hidalgo; type locality, between Paehuca and Moran. 

Moderate-sized deciduous tree With slender glabrescent twigs and small 
reddish glabrous buds; leaves small (2 cm. wide, 4 to 6 cm. long), from scurfy 
glabrescent, oblanceolate-oblong, with straight margin, subacute, rounded at 
base, moderately petioled, setaceously several-toothed at end; fruit unknown. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 195 

95. Quercus tridens Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 35. pi. 82. 1809. 
Hidalgo ; type locality, Mor&n. 

Very like the preceding, the short-petioled leaves entire or aristately about 
3-toothed at the end ; mature foliage characters, even, unknown for both 
species. 

96. Quercus mexicana Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 35. 1809. 
Quercus castanea mexicana A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 72. 1864. 
Quercus castanea Integra Oerst. Bidr. Kundsk. Egefam. 362. 1871. 
Veracruz and Guanajuato ; type locality, Santa Rosa, Guanajuato. 

Small or moderately large deciduous tree with slender glabrescent twigs and 
small brown glabrescent buds; leaves small or narrow (2 to 5 cm. wide, 10 cm. 
long), rugose, revolute, the midrib puberulent above and the granular lower 
surface detachably tomentose, elliptic-oblong, subacute, rounded at base or 
slightly cordate, short-petioled, entire ; acorn ovoid, 10 mm. in diameter, 12 mm. 
long, half included, the thick-stalked rounded cup with glabrate blunt appressed 
scales, these sometimes thickened at base or with outcurved margin. 

With still narrower leaves (1.5 cm. wide and 7 cm. long) it is Q. crassipes 
angustifolia Humb. & Bonpl. (op. cit. 37. 1809) ; and a form of this with 
crowded leaves is Q. con ferti folia Humb. & Bonpl. (op. cit. 53. 1809). 

97. Quercus crassipes Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 37. 1809. 

Mexico, Guanajuato, and Hidalgo ; type locality, Santa Rosa, Guanajuato. 
Similar to the preceding, but the turbinate cup inrolled at the margin. 

98. Quercus lanigera Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 215. 1S43. 
Oaxaca ; type locality in the Mixteca Alt a. 

Twigs slender, glabrescent ; buds small, brown, glabrescent ; leaves deciduous, 
small (2 to 3 cm. wide, 5 to 6 cm. long), detachably fleecy beneath, elliptic- 
oblong, aristately obtuse or acute, rounded at base, moderately petioled, entire 
or with a few awned teeth above ; fruit annual ; acorn subglobose, scarcely 10 
mm. in diameter, the somewhat turbinate cup with blunt appressed scales. 

99. Quercus castanea Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3: 276. 1801. 
Quercus mucronata Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 436. 1805. 

Hidalgo ; type locality, between Ixmiquilpan and Zimapan and Acambaro. 

Small (deciduous?) tree with rather slender glabrescent twigs and glabrous 
brown buds 2 mm. in diameter and 4 mm. long; leaves rather small (3 to 4 cm. 
wide, 7 to 9 cm. long), rugulose, minutely stellate beneath, lance-oblong, aris- 
tately acute, rounded at base or subcordate, short-petioled, typically aristately 
low-serrate above; fruit annual; acorn round-ovoid, 8 mm. in diameter, 10 mm. 
long, the rounded cup with blunt appressed scales. 

A form with slightly obovate-elliptic, typically entire leaves, from the same 
region, is Q. elliptica Nee (op. cit. 278. 1801). 

100. Quercus rugulosa Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 l : 209. 1843. 
Hidalgo ; type locality, San Pedro y San Pablo, near Real del Monte. 
Moderate-sized deciduous tree with rather slender glabrescent twigs and small, 

brown, at first fleecy buds; leaves rather small (2 to 4 cm. wide, 6 to 9 cm. 
long), minutely revolute, reticulately venulose, somewhat stellate, especially on 
the granular lower surface, elliptic-oblong, mucronately obtuse or subacute, 
rounded at base or somewhat cordate, moderately petioled, entire; acorn short, 
the somewhat turbinate small cup with blunt thin scales. 

101. Quercus grandis Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 183. 1854. 
Oaxaca. Northern Guatemala, the type locality. 

Large deciduous tree with rather slender glabrate twigs and small brown 
glabrescent buds; leaves large (5 to 10 cm. wide, 14 to 23 cm. long), glabrous, 



196 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

somewhat paler beneath, oblaneeolate, acute, commonly narrowed at base, 
slender-petioled, with rather distant aristate teeth; acorn depressed, 20 to 25 
mm. in diameter, two-thirds or more included, the urceolate, slightly umbonate 
cup with thin blunt scales somewhat outcurved at margin. 

102. Quercus cortesii Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 175. 1854. 

Veracruz ; type locality, between Hacienda de Jovo and Huitamalco. 

Twigs slender, glabrous; buds small, straw-colored, glabrescent; leaves (de- 
ciduous?) moderate (3 cm. wide, 12 cm. long), glabrous, or with axillary tufts 
beneath, narrowly lanceolate, acute at both ends, moderately petioled, rather 
distantly aristate-serrate ; fruit unknown. 

103. Quercus huitamalcana Trel. 

Quercus serra Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 174. 1854. Not 
Q. serra Unger, 1S45. 

Veracruz and Puebla ; type locality, between Huitamalco and Teziutlan, alti- 
tude 2,000 meters. 

Twigs rather slender, glabrate ; buds light brown, glabrescent, 2 mm. in 
diameter, 3 to 4 mm. long; leaves (deciduous?) large (4 to 7 cm. wide, 10 to 
20 cm. long), glabrous and glossy, crisped, lanceolate, the base various, moder- 
ately petioled, coarsely deltoid-serrate; fruit unknown. 

104. Quercus chiapasensis Trel. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 54: 9. 1915. 
Chiapas ; type locality, Finca Irlanda. 

Large evergreen tree with moderate glabrescent twigs and hairy buds ; leaves 
large (4 to 8 cm. wide, 12 to 15 cm. long), glabrous, lanceolate, long-acute, the 
base various, the petiole moderate or long, coarsely serrate or incised with aris- 
tate teeth ; acorn broadly ovoid, 30 to 40 mm. in diameter, the large saucer- 
shaped cup with thickened appressed scales. 

Polymorphic in foliage details. 

105. Quercus skinneri Benth. PI. Hartw. 90. 1842. 

Guatemala (type locality, in the mountains about Quezaltenango) ; possibly 
also in Chiapas. 

Large (deciduous?) tree, similar to the preceding, but the equally long 
round-based leaves ovate, with longer slender petiole, and fruit even larger. 

106. Quercus sartorii Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 177. 1854. 
Veracruz ; type locality, Totutla. 

Deciduous tree with rather slender glabrescent twigs and brown glab- 
rescent buds 3 mm. in diameter and 6 mm. long; leaves moderate (3 to 5 cm. 
wide, 9 to 13 cm. long), glabrescent, or with axillary tufts beneath, lance- 
elliptic, acute, typically rounded at base, slender and often long-petioled, entire 
with aristate veins or very low-serrate; fruit annual; acorn round-ovoid, 10 
mm. in diameter, 12 mm. long, the sometimes turbinate cup with obtuse ap- 
pressed scales. 

107. Quercus furfuracea Liebm. Overs. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Forh. 1854: 1S9. 
1854. 

Oaxaca ; type locality, Chinantla. 

Twigs rather slender, scurfy or glabrescent; buds small, light brown, glab- 
rescent; leaves deciduous, moderate (3 to 5 cm. wide, 8 to 12 cm. long), gray- 
stellate and tufted beneath, ovate to Lanceolate, acute, mostly rounded at base, 
moderately petioled, entire or aristately low-crenate-serrate ; acorn round-ovoid. 
8 mm. in diameter, 10 mm. long, the somewhat turbinate deep cup with blunt 
appressed scales. 



STANDLEY TEEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 197 

108. Quercus grahami * Benth. PI. Hartw. 57. 1S40. 
Oaxaca ; type locality not recorded. 

Rather large deciduous tree with slender glabrous twigs and small, light 
brown, glabrescent buds; leaves moderate (2 to 4 cm. wide, 7 to 12 cm. long), 
glabrous, or sparsely scurfy and tufted in the axils beneath, very venulose, 
lanceolate, rather taper-pointed, typically rounded at base, slender-petioled, 
setaceously serrate or incised ; acorn ovoid, 12 mm. in diameter, 15 to 20 mm. 
long, half included, the rounded cup with blunt appressed scales. 

109. Quercus acutifolia Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3: 267. 1801. 

Type locality above the Rio Mescala, on the road from Acapulco to the City 
of Mexico. 

Rather small evergreen tree with rather slender glabrate twigs and brown 
glabrate buds 3 mm. in diameter and 6 mm. long; leaves large (5 to 7 cm. 
wide, 15 to 20 cm. long), glabrous, or the midrib puberulent above and the axils 
tufted beneath, lance-ovate, acute or attenuate, the base mostly rounded, 
rather long-petioled, aristately serrate or almost lobed, with rounded sinuses ; 
fruit unknown. " Aguatle." 

110. Quercus xalapensis Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 24. 1809. 
Veracruz ; type locality, Jalapa. 

Rather large deciduous tree with moderate glabrate twigs and brown gla- 
brate acute buds 2 to 3 mm. in diameter and 5 mm. long; leaves large (4 to 8 
cm. wide, 10 to 15 cm. long), glabrous, or with some axillary tufts beneath, 
broadly or ovately lanceolate, acute, typically acute at base or decurrent on the 
slender petiole, setaceously serrate with the margin little indented ; acorn 
round-ovoid, 18 mm. in diameter, 20 mm. long, half included, the rounded cup 
with blunt, rather loose scales. " Roble de duela," " encina roble " (Vei'acruz, 
Ramirez). 

111. Quercus calophylla Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5: 79. 1830. 
Vei-acruz ; type locality, Jalapa. 

Large (deciduous?) tree with moderate fleecy or glabrate twigs and dull 
brown glabrescent buds as much as 12 mm. long; leaves large (4 to 7 cm. wide, 
11 to 13 cm. long), densely creamy-tomentulose beneath, ovate to obovate or 
elliptic, acute or acuminate, rounded or obliquely truncate at base, moderately 
petioled, somewhat bristly-serrate at the end ; acorn ovoid, 18 mm. in diameter, 
20 to 25 mm. long, one-third included, the half-round cup with blunt, rather 
loose scales. 

With long-acuminate low-denticulate leaves as much as 12 cm. wide and 22 
cm. long it is Q. acuminata Mart. & Gal. (Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 217. 1843). 
With blunt-pointed, rather deeply serrate and acute-based leaves 5 cm. wide 
and 13 cm. long, it is Q intermedia Mart. & Gal. (op. cit. 223. 1843). A form 
with acute, sharply toothed leaves 5 cm. wide and 10 cm. long, or exceptionally 
11 cm. wide and IS cm. long. Q. alamo Benth. (PI. Hartw. 55. 1842), is called 
" alamo " because of its soft poplar-like wood. 

112. Quercus candicans Nee, Anal. Cienc. Nat. 3: 277. 1801. 
Type locality, Tixtla, Guerrero. 

Moderate-sized deciduous tree with moderate, rather persistently tomentose 
twigs and ovoid glabrate buds 3 mm. in diameter and 5 to 7 mm. long; leaves 
typically large (10 to 15 cm. wide, 15 to 25 cm. long), densely creamy-tomentu- 

1 G. J. Graham collected a series of about 400 specimens of plants about the 
City of Mexico, Tlalpuxahua, and Real del Monte. These were reported upon 
by Bentham in his " Plantae Hartwegianae." 



198 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

lose beneath, elliptic-obovate, subacute, variously narrowed or rounded or trun- 
cate at base, moderately petioled, aristately repand to rather deeply lobed ; 
fruit unknown. " Encina de asta." 

Sapwood red, the heart dark, with still darker stripes. 

23. TJLMACEAE. Elm Family. 

Trees or shrubs ; leaves deciduous or persistent, alternate, entire or dentate, 
usually rough ; flowers small, greenish, perfect or unisexual ; fruit 1-seeded. 

Fruit dry- 
Fruit not winged 1. CHAETOPTELEA. 

Fruit winged 2. ULMUS. 

Fruit a drupe. 

Leaves opposite 3. LOZANELLA. 

Leaves alternate. 
Pistillate flowers in lax many-flowered cymes ; plants unarmed. 

4. TREMA. 
Pistillate flowers solitary or few ; plants often armed with spines. 

5. CELTIS. 
1. CHAETOPTELEA Liebm. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1850: 54. 1850. 

1. Chaetoptelea mexicana Liebm. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1850: 76. 
1850. 

llnius mexicana Planch, in DC. Prodr. 17: 156. 1873. 

Veracruz, the type from Mirador; reported from Oaxaca. Costa Rica and 
Panama. 

Large tree, 15 to 40 meters high, with open crown, the branches ascending ; 
bark gray, somewhat scaly; leaves deciduous, oblong-ovate, acuminate, serrate; 
flowers yellow ; wood hard, heavy, strong, very tough, rather fine-grained, light 
or dark brown, sometimes with darker lines. " Olmo " (Oaxaca, Veracruz); 
" papalote," " cenipoalehuatl " (Veracruz); " ira " (Costa Rica); " ceniza," 
" cenizo " ( Panama ) . 

The wood is used in Mexico for lumber. The bark is astringent and is used 
for treating coughs. 

Planchon ' has stated that this plant differs in no way from Ulmus. All the 
species of the latter genus, however, have a broadly winged fruit, while in 
Chaetoptelea there is no vestige of a wing, and this is a probably a sufficient 
basis for the maintenance of Liebmann's genus. 

2. ULMUS L. Sp. PI. 225. 1753. 

Sesse and Mocino reported 2 Vlmns americana from Mexico. The plant so 
named (if the report is based on an actual plant) probably belongs to some 
other genus. 

The members of this genus (the elms) are perhaps the finest shade trees for 
temperate regions, although they are of slow growth. The wood of most species 
is extremely tough. 

1. Ulmus crassifolia Nutt. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. 5: 169. 1837. 

No Mexican specimens seen by the writer, but the species is common along 
the Rio Grande in Texas, and doubtless occurs in Nuevo Le6n and Tamaulipas. 
Texas to Mississippi. 

Tree, sometimes 30 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 1 meter, the 
branches drooping ; bark thick, brown, deeply fissured ; leaves oblong or ovate, 

'In DC. Prodr. 17: 156. 1873. * PI. Hisp. 45. 1887. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 199 

5 cm. long or smaller, short-petiolate, finely serrate ; flowers small, clustered, 
appearing in autumn ; fruit 8 to 10 mm. long, hairy ; wood reddish brown, 
rather weak, its specific gravity about 0.70. 
The wood is used locally for furniture and wheel hubs. 

3. LOZANELLA Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 41: 236. 1905. 

The following is the only species of the genus, which was named in honor 
of Senor Don Filemon L. Lozano, who assisted Pringle in his Mexican col- 
lections. 
1. Lozanella trematoides Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 31: 236. 1905. 

Known only from the type locality, " Honey Station," near Trinidad, Hidalgo. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 6 meters high; leaves slender-petioled, ovate, 5 to 
9 cm. long, acuminate, serrate, 3-nerved, thinly hairy beneath ; flowers dioe- 
cious, small and green, the pistillate in axillary cymes ; perianth 5 or 6-parted ; 
fruit a sessile ovoid greenish drupe. 

4. TREMA Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 562. 1790. 

1. Trema micrantha (L.) Blume, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2: 58. 1853. 

Rhamnus micranthus L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 937. 1759. 

Celtis canescens H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 28. 1817. 

Celtis schiedeana Schlecht. Linnaea 7: 140. 1832. 

Sponia micrantha Decaisne, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Paris 3: 498. 1834. 

Sinaloa to Veracruz and southward. Florida, West Indies, Central America, 
and tropical South America. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 6 meters high or in some parts of its range still 
larger, the trunk occasionally 10 to 15 cm. in diameter; leaves ovate, finely 
serrate, 3-nerved, acute or acuminate, 5 to 12 cm. long, their pubescence vari- 
able in amount; flowers very small, greenish white, cymose ; fruit small (about 
1.5 mm. in diameter), globose, green or reddish; wood light, soft, close-grained, 
light brown. " Ixpepe " (Veracruz); " equipal " (Michoac&n) ; " yaco de 
cuero" (Oaxaca, Reko) ; " juc6," " capulm," "vara blanca " (Costa Rica); 
" capuli " (Guatemala); " masaquila " (Venezuela); " memiso " (Santo Do- 
mingo); " palo de cabra," " guacimilla " (Porto Rico). 

The bark contains very strong fiber. The species of this genus seem to be 
of little economic importance. T. commersonii Blume, of Madagascar, is highly 
esteemed for medicinal purposes by the natives, and stomachic, astringent, 
febrifuge, diuretic, and antisyphilitic properties are attributed to it. 

5. CELTIS L. Sp. PI. 1043. 1753. 

Large or small trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, armed or unarmed; 
leaves deciduous or somewhat persistent, entire or dentate, often unequal at 
base; flowers small, the pistillate usually solitary and long-pedicellate; fruit 
globose, with thin flesh and a large seed. 

The fruit of all the species is sweet and edible, especially in the spineless 
species (hackberries or sugarberries), but the pulp is very scant. The Indians 
of some parts of the United States seem to have been very fond of it. They 
pounded the fruit fine, seeds and all, and ate it with fat or mixed with parched 
corn. 1 

1 See M. R. Gilmore, Uses of plants by the Indians of the Missouri River 
region. Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 33: 45-154. pi. 1-80. 1919. 
55268—22 3 



200 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Plants armed with spines. 
Leaves mostly 3 to 5.5 cm. wide, with numerous small teeth, or sometimes 

entire; fruit short-pilose 1. C. iguanaea. 

Leaves mostly 1 to 2 cm. wide, with few coarse teeth; fruit glabrous or 

nearly so 2. C. pallida. 

Plants unarmed. 

Leaves pinnately nerved, not at all 3-nerved, the lateral nerves very nu- 
merous , 3. C. monoica. 

Leaves conspicuously 3-nerved at the base, the the lateral nerves few, distant. 
Leaves finely pilose beneath, usually dentate near the apex. Leaves usually 

scabrous on the supper surface 4. C. caudata. 

Leaves glabrate or sparsely puberulent beneath, entire. 

Leaves very thick, scabrous on the upper surface and grayish green, the 

venation very prominently reticulate beneath 5. C. reticulata. 

Leaves thin, smooth on the upper surface and deep green, the venation 
not very prominently reticulate beneath 6. C. mississippiensis 

1. Celtis iguanaea (Jacq.) Sarg. Silv. N. Amer. 7: 64. 1895. 
Rhamnus iguanaeus Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 16. 1760. 
Mertensia laevigata H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 31. 1817. 
Momisia chrenbergiana Klotzsch, Linnaea 20: 538. 1847. 
Celtis 'anfractuosa Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 338. 1851. 
Celtis platycaulis Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 39: 7S. 1903. 
Momisia- iguanaea Rose & Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 8. 1912. 
Chihuahua to Baja California and southward. Central America, West Indies, 

and South America ; southern Florida and western Texas. 

Shrub or small tree, 3 to 12 meters high, the trunk often 25 to 30 cm. in 
diameter, the branches armed with stout, usually recurved spines, long and 
spreading or clambering; branchlets often compressed; leaves ovate or oval; 
flowers greenish yellow; fruit 8 to 12 mm. long, yellow, somewhat angled. 
"Granjeno" (Veracruz and elsewhere); " garabato bianco" (Sinaloa) ; "una 
de gato," "zarza" (Cuba); " cagalera comestible'" (Nicaragua); "gallito" 
(Santo Domingo). 

The leaves are very variable in shape and toothing, but their variations seem 
to offer no basis for specific segregation. The leaves of this and the follow- 
ing species are conspicuously domatiate beneath — furnished with cuplike shelters 
(for parasites?) in the axils of the veins. The fruit is edible. The specific 
name is derived from the fact that the fruit is eaten by iguanas, the common 
and characteristic lizards of the tropics. 

2. Celtis pallida Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 203. 1859. 
Momisia pallida Planch, in DC. Prodr. 17: 191. 1873. 

Chihuahua to Baja California and Oaxaca. Arizona to western Texas (type 
locality). 

Densely branched spiny shrub, 1 to 6 meters high, the branches often long 
and recurved; leaves oval to oblong, obtuse or acutish; cymes few-tlowered ; 
fruit 5 to 8 mm. long, yellow, orange, or red. "Granjeno" (Chihuahua, Du- 
rango, Nuevo Leon, Texas; often written " grangeuo ") ; "granjeno huasteco" 
(Tamaulipas) ; " capul " (Durango, Texas); "garabato" (Sinaloa). 

This shrub often forms dense impenetrable thickets of considerable extent. 
The wood is good for fuel and fence posts. The fruit is edible, but somewhat 
astringent. The llowers arc said to furnish a good quality of honey. 

The pubescence of the branchlets is usually oppressed but sometimes spread 
injr. The leaves are variable in outline, usually with a few larere teeth, but 






STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 201 

sometimes entire. The species has been reported from Mexico as Celtis tala 
Gill., a plant of South America. This is presumably the plant described from 
Mexico by Sesse and Mociiio 1 as Rhamnus grangenos, although it is doubtful 
whether that name is not referable rather to Celtis iguanaea. 

3. Celtis monoica Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 139. pi. 77. 18S3. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca ; Maria Madre Island; type from Tant<»yu</;', Vera- 
cruz. 

Leaves oblong-ovate, 6 to 9 cm. long, acuminate, lustrous, shallowly serrate, 
strigose beneath. " Palo de aguila " (Oaxaca). 

Very different in appearance from the other species of the genus, especially 
because of the pinnate-veined leaves. The fruit bears scattered sharp tubercles. 

4. Celtis caudata Planch. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 10 : 294. 1848. 
Celtis Uttoralis Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2:337. 1851. 
Queretaro and Hidalgo to Michoaean and Oaxaca; type from Zimnpan, 

Hidalgo. 

Tree, usually of small size ; leaves ovate, asymmetric, long-acuminate, at 
least part of them usually dentate, rarely all entire. 

This is doubtless the species reported from Cuernavaca by Sesse 1 and 
Mocino 2 as Celtis occidcntalis L. 

5. Celtis reticulata Torr. Ann. Lye. X. Y. 2: 247. 1824. 

Ccahuila to Baja California. Texas to Colorado and Arizona ; type from 
the Rocky Mountains. 

Small or large tree, sometimes 15 meters high, with a trunk 50 to 60 
cm. in diameter, but in arid places frequently only a shrub 3 meters high, the 
crown dense, broad, the branches often very crooked ; bark white or gray, 
smooth on young trees, very rough in age ; leaves often rounded-ovate, obtuse 
or acute, 3 to 7 cm. long ; fruit red or orange, about 8 mm. in diameter ; wood 
with a specific gravity of about 0.72. " Palo bianco " (Durango, Tamaulipas, 
Texas); " palo mulato " (Durango); " acibuche " (Chihuahua); " cumbro " 
(Sinaloa) ; "palo duro " (New Mexico). 

The tree is usually too small and crooked to be of economic importance, but 
the wood is used for posts and for axe and hoe handles, and for other similar 
purposes. The leaves are frequently covered with curious insect galls. 

6. Celtis mississippiensis Bosc, Diet. Agr. 10: 541. 1847. 
Celtis berlandieri Klotzsch, Linnaea 20: 541. 1847. 

Coahuila to Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosf. Northeastward to Illinois and 
Florida. 

Tree, in some parts of its range 39 meters high, with a trunk 1 meter in 
diameter ; bark white and smooth on young trees, gray and rough in age, with 
corky projections ; leaves ovate, 5 to 12 cm. long, acute to long-acuminate ; fruit 
orange or red ; wood yellow, soft, its specific gravity about 0.50. " Palo bianco " 
(Coahuila, Tamaulipas). 

Often planted or left as a shade tree about dwellings; wood used in Mexico 
for carts and other objects, and in the United States, occasionally, for furni- 
ture and flooring ; fruit edible, as in the other species, the pulp sweet but very 
scant. 

The Mexican specimens always have entire leaves. They do not seem spe- 
cifically separable from the eastern form, although the leaves are often broader. 

1 PI. Nov. Hisp. 38. 1887. 2 PI. Nov. Hisp. 174. 1887. 



202 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

24. MORACEAE. Mulberry Family. 

Usually trees, with milky sap; leaves alternate, entire, dentate, or lobate. the 
stipules deciduous ; flowers very small, monoecious or dioecious. 

The only other Mexican genus is Dorstenia, whose species are low herbs. 
Toxylon pomiferum Raf., the Osage orange or bois d'arc (known in Chihuahua 
as "naranjo chino"), native of the southern United States, is sometimes culti- 
vated. It is a very spiny tree or shrub, with globose yellowish fruits sometimes 
15 cm. in diameter. Artocarpus communis Forst, the breadfruit tree of the 
Pacific islands ("arbol del pan "), with large, pinnately lobed leaves and large 
rough fruit, is in cultivation in tropical Mexico. 

Leaves peltate, the blades radiatcly lobed. Flowers in dense spikes. 

9. CECROPIA. 
Leaves not peltate, the blades not radiately lobed. 
Flowers borne on the .inside of a globose receptacle, this fleshy, with a small 

opening at the top 4. FICUS. 

Flowers not borne inside a receptacle. 

Flowers of one or both sexes in aments, spikes, or racemes. 
Pistillate flowers in spikes or aments. 

Pistillate perianth of distinct segments ; fruit very juicy, with a small 

seed, naked 2. MORUS. 

Pistillate perianth tubular; fruit with only thin flesh, with a large 

seed, covered by the accrescent perianth 3. TROPHIS. 

Pistillate flowers in heads. 

Staminate flowers with a 4-parted perianth 1. CHLOROPHORA. 

Staminate flowers without a perianth 8. SAHAGUNIA. 

Flowers of one or both sexes capitate, borne on a flat or rounded recep- 
tacle, or solitary. 
Leaves very densely long-hairy ; flowers borne on a flat receptacle. 

7. CASTILLA. 
Leaves never densely long-hairy ; flowers not borne on a flat receptacle. 
Pistillate flowers sessile and usually solitary in the axils. 

6. PSEUDOLMEDIA. 
Pistillate flowers in heads or on a receptacle. 

Pistillate flowers one on each receptacle 5. BROSIMUM. 

Pistillate flowers more than one to each head or receptacle. 
Inflorescence wholly of heads; leaves entire — 10. COUSSAPOA. 
Inflorescence partly of spikes (staminate) ; leaves usually toothed. 
Staminate flowers wtih a 4-parted perianth. 

1. CHLOROPHORA. 
Staminate flowers without a perianth 8. SAHAGUNIA. 

1. CHLOROPHORA Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 508. 1826. 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so 1. C. tinctoria. 

Leaves densely pubescent on both surfaces 2. C. mollis. 

1. Chlorophora tinctoria (L.) Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 508. 1826. 

Morus tmctona L. Sp. PI. 986. 1753. 

Chiefly on stream banks and seashores, San Luis PotosI to Yucatan and 
Tabasco; reported from Tamaulipas, Oaxaca, Michoac&n, and Guerrero. Cen- 
tral America, West Indies, and tropical South America ; type from Jamaica. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 20 meters high, with a trunk 10 to SO cm. in 
diameter, the bark brownish gray or light brown, with few shallow furrows, 
the branches spreading, often armed with sharp axillary spines; leaves 
deciduous, ovate or oval, caudate-acuminate, bright dark green, entire or ser- 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 203 

rate (both kinds often on the same branches) ; flowers dioecious, the staminate 
in slender dense catkins, the pistillate in globose heads, the receptacle fleshy 
in fruit ; seeds brown ; wood light yellow, becoming darker on exposure, hard, 
heavy, close-grained, strong, tough, taking an excellent polish, its specific grav- 
ity about 0.71 (reported as high as 0.98). "Moral liso," "moral de clavo " 
(Tabasco) ; " palo mora" (Colombia, Isthmus of Tehuantepec) ; "moral ama- 
rillo," " moradilla " (Veracruz); " yaga-huil " (Oaxaca* Zapotec, Reko) ; 
"moral" (Tabasco, Oaxaca, etc., Colombia); "palo moral" (Oaxaca) ; "palo 
amarillo " (Tabasco, etc., El Salvador) ; "mora" (Sinaloa, El Salvador, Guate- 
mala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Santo Domingo, Porto Rico, Nicaragua) ; "palo de 
mora" (Costa Rica, Porto Rico); " dinde " (Colombia); "moral del pais," 
" mora blanca," " mora de loma," " fustete," " mora de piedra " (Cuba) ; " brasil *' 
(Costa Rica) ; "mora macho," "palo amarillo" (Santo Domingo). 

The wood is very durable and is used for furniture, interior finish, wheels, 
etc. Its most important use, however, is as a dye-wood ; it furnishes a yellow, 
brown, or green dye, the coloring properties being due to two principles, morin 
or morindon, and moritannic acid. It is the fustic of commerce,' long an im- 
portant article of export to Europe and the United States from tropical Amer- 
ica. Large quantities have been exported from Mexico, especially from Tabasco. 
It is usually prepared in the form of sticks GO to 120 cm. long and 7.5 to 20 cm. 
in diameter. The bark is used sometimes for tanning. 

Various medicinal properties are reported for this tree, in Central America 
and the West Indies. The bitter bark, with a disagreeable odor, is said to be 
astringent, tonic, and in large doses purgative; it has been used for venereal 
diseases. The ashes of the wood have been used in Jamaica for gout and 
rheumatism. The fruit is astringent and useful in the form of a gargle for 
sore throat and mouth. The root is reputed diuretic. In Nicaragua an in- 
fusion of the flowers is used for colds. When ripe the fruit is sweet and full 
of milky juice, and it is sometimes eaten. 

2. Chlorophora mollis Fernald, Proc. Amer. Acad. 40: 52. 1904. 

Known only from the type locality, Tomellin Canyon, Oaxaca. 

Similar to the preceding species except for the copious pubescence on all 
parts. 

2. MORUS L. Sp. PI. 986. 1753. 

Reference ; Bureau in DC Prodr. 17: 237-249. 1873. 

Trees; leaves thin, deciduous, 3-nerved, dentate or often lobed, especially on 
young branches; flowers green, monoecious, the two kinds of flowers in sepa- 
rate catkins ; fruit a syncarp, composed of numerous small juicy 1-seeded drupes. 

One other species, M. rubra L., the red mulberry, is native in the United 
States. With regard to it, Havard says, 2 " There is some ground for belief that 
our native Red Mulberry was cultivated [by the Indians], the fine quality and 
great quantity of the fruit being mentioned by De Soto and others." Morus 
alba L., native of Asia, the white mulberry ("moral bianco"), with sweet and 
insipid, white or violet fruit is cultivated in Mexico. It has become natural- 
ized in the United States, where it was introduced at an early date as food for 
silkworms. It is said to have been introduced into Mexico for the same pur- 
pose about 1522. Mulberries of other species also have been used for feeding 
silkworms. Mortis nigra L.. the black mulberry ("moral negro"), of Asiatic 
origin, is cultivated in Mexico for its large, juicy, well-flavored, red or black 
fruit. 

1 Rhus cotinus L., of Europe, also is known as fustic. 
"Bull. Torrey Club 22: 104 1895. 



204 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL. HERBARIUM. 

The Spanish name for the mulberry fruit is " mora " ; for the tree, " moral " ; 
the naute ? moresa'f is applied to the white mulberry tree. Asiain gives the 
Huastec name for mulberry tree as " tzitzi." According to Belmar, the Mixe 
names are " hamdek " (fruit) and " hamdek-kiup " (tree). 

Pistillate spikes elongate, lax, many-flowered; leaves thin, scarcely or not 

at all scabrous on the upper surface, glabrate beneath__l. M. celtidifolia. 

Pistillate spikes short, dense, few-flowered ; leaves thick, very scabrous on the 

upper surface, copiously pubescent beneath 2. M. microphylla. 

1. Morus celtidifolia H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 33. 1817. 

Morns mexicana Benth. PI. Hartw. 71. 1840. 

Morus mollis Rusby, Bull. Tqrrey Club 38: 145. 1911. 

Coahuila to Veracruz and Oaxaca ; reported from Yucatan. Guatemala and 
Costa Rica ; Colombia to Peru ; type from Ecuador. 

Tree, 5.5 to 9 meters high; leaves oval-ovate, 5 to 15 cm. long, bright 
green, cuspidate-acuminate; fruit at first red but finally black. The fruit is 
known generally as "mora," the tree as "moral"; " palo moral" (Oaxaca); 
" yaga-biyozaa " (Oaxaca, Zapotec, Reko) ; " brasil " (Costa Rica). 

The species is somewhat variable in leaf form and in size of fruit, but with 
the material available it does not seem necessary to recognize either of the 
segregates. This is perhaps the species to which Sesse and Mocino 1 apply the 
name " Morus tartariea" although it is not certain that they do not refer to 
one of the introduced species. It is probably to this tree that Sahagun 
refers : "In this country [New Spain] there are mulberry trees. They are 
Called amacapiilin [paper cherry]. This tree is smooth and branched. The 
branches are very numerous, and the leaves are crowded and green, a little 
paler beneath. It produces mulberries a little smaller than those of Castile." 
In Ecuador the wood of this species is said to be valued for building purposes. 
2. Morus microphylla Buckl. Proc. Acad. Phila. 1862: 8. 1863. 

Morus microphilyra Greene, Leaflets 2: 120. 1910. 

Chihuahua to Durango. Southern Arizona to western Texas (type locality). 

Small tree, 4.5 to 7.5 meters high, with a trunk 30 cm. in diameter, the crown 
dense and compact, or often a shrub in Mexico ; bark gray, furrowed, covered 
with small scales ; fruit 1 to 1.5 cm. long, red or finally black ; wood hard, close- 
grained, elastic, light brown, its specific gravity about 0.77. " Mora," " moral." 

The wood is used to a small extent in Mexico by carpenters, and was employed 
by the Indians of Texas for bows. The fruit is rather sour and varies in size 
according to the amount of water the tree receives. It is sometimes found in 
markets. 

This species may not be distinct from the preceding one. The leaves are 
very variable and often deeply lobed, especially on young shoots. 

3. TROPHIS L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1289. 1759. 

Reference : Bureau in DC. Prodr. 17: 251-254. 1873. 

Trees, unarmed; leaves deciduous or persistent, entire or dentate; flowers 
dioecious, green, spicate, racemose, or paniculate ; fruit small, subglobose, with 
thin flesh and a large seed. 
Fruit smooth, sessile or short-pedicellate ; leaves usually more than 3 cm. wide. 

1. T. racemosa. 

Fruit tuberculate, long-pedicellate ; leaves 3 cm. wide or less 2. T. mexicana. 

1. Trophis racemosa (L.) Urban, Symb. Antill. 4: 195. 1903. 

Buccphalon rocemosum L. Sp. PI. 1190. 1753. 

Trophis americana L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 2: 1289. 1759. 

1 PI. Nov. Hisp. 160. 1887. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 205 

Tropins r anion Schlecht. Linnaea 6: 357. 1831. 

Tamaulipas to Sinaloa, Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Tabasco. Central America, 
Colombia, and the West Indies. 

Tree, 15 meters high or less, with brown bark, the trunk usually 35 to 40 cm. 
in diameter; leaves short-petiolate, oblong to oval, 8 to 15 cm. long, short- 
acuminate, coriaceous, often very rough, entire or inconspicuusly dentate. 
"Ramon" (Veracruz, Tabasco, Cuba, Santo Domingo; a corruption of this 
name, " ramoon," used also in Jamaica); " confitura " (Oaxaca, Reko) ; 
" huanchal " (Oaxaca); " leche Maria" (Oaxaca); " ramoncillo " (Tabasco); 
" ramon de Castilla " (Veracruz, Villada) ; " cafecillo " (Nicaragua); "ramon 
de caballos " (Cuba). 

The tree is much used in Mexico, as well as elsewhere, as fodder for domestic 
animals, the cut branches being often transported to some distance for the 
purpose. The fruit is said to be edible, although the flesh is certainly very 
scant. The bark contains tannin and has been used in medicine as an 
astringent. 

It may be that more than one species is included in the material referred 
here. The leaves are somewhat variable in shape and texture. The pistillate 
inflorescence is usually simply spicate, but it is sometimes branched. T. gla- 
brata Liebm. 1 , from the description, does not seem to differ essentially. 

2. Trophis mexicana (Liebm.) Bureau in DC. Prodr. 17: 253. 1873. 

Sorocea mexicana Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 335. 1851. 

Trophis chiapensis T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6: 178. 1915. 

Veracruz, Oaxaca, and Chiapas; type from Tlapacoyan, Veracruz. 

Medium-sized tree ; leaves narrowly elliptic-oblong, with a long, narrow, often 
curved tip, conspicuously serrate, smooth, bright green. 

4. FICUS L. Sp. PL 10. 59. 1753. 

Reference : Standley, The Mexican and Central American species of Ficus, 
Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 1-35. 1917; Urbina, Los Amates de Hernandez, 
Naturaleza 7:93-114. 1900; M. Urbina, Los Amates de Hernandez 6 higueras 
Mexicanas, Naturaleza III. 1: 32-53. 1912. 

Large or small trees; leaves entire (in the native Mexican species) ; flowers 
minute, borne on the inner surface of a more or less globose receptacle, this 
succulent in age, with a very small opening at the apex, this closed by small 
scales, the receptacle subtended at the base by a lobed involucre. 

Many if not most of the Mexican figs are of very peculiar growth. They 
are hemiparasites ; that is, they often begin their growth upon other plants, 
usually palms, germinating and developing a stem from which aerial roots 
descend to the ground and take root. 2 In this way the plants in their young 
stages are often vinelike. With age, the aerial roots increase in size and form 
a trunk which gradually envelops completely the host plant. The stems at 
first are flat, broad, and thin, and as they increase in size several will unite, 
assuming irregular and fantastic forms. Ultimately the host plant dies but 
often it persists for a long time, and it is not unusual to see the fronds of a 
palm rising from the crown of a large fig tree. Figs of this habit of growth 
are known generally as " matapalo." Sometimes the plants begin their growth 
upon cliffs, developing their thin trunks against the rocks. 

1 Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 314. 1851. 

2 See Trelease, Illustrations of a " strangling " fig tree. Rept. Mo. Bot. Gard. 
16: 161-165. pi, 89-45. 1905. 



206 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Large fig trees, too, often send down from their branches aerial roots which 
take hold of the soil and finally develop into trunks. In this way trees of the 
banyan type are formed, some of them of enormous size. 

Because of their broad, dense crowns and handsome foliage many of the 
Mexican figs make attractive shade trees. Some exotic species are cultivated 
for the same purpose. F. nitida Thunb., an Asiatic plant with small lustrous 
obovate leaves is seen frequently in parks, being known as " laurel de la India," 
" laurel," and " alamo extranjero." A specimen of F. crassinervia Willd., from 
Puebla, was probably taken from a cultivated tree; the species is a West 
Indian one. F. religiosa L., of the East Indies ("laurel de India," " alamo 
cubano"), with very long-acuminate leaves, also is cultivated. F. elastica 
Roxb., another Old World species, is frequent in parks and gardens, being one 
of the finest shade trees grown in the tropics. It is one of the sources of India 
rubber, and is the well-known rubber plant which is cultivated for ornament in 
the United States and elsewhere. Its leaves are larger than those of most 
Mexican species, and the fruit is of distinct shape, oblong rather than globose, 
as in most figs. The common edible fig, F. carica L. ("higuera," "higo"), is 
extensively cultivated in Mexico for its fruit, which under favorable conditions 
is produced at all times of the year. It differs from all the American species 
in having lobed leaves. It was doubtless brought to Mexico at a very early 
date by the Spaniards. The Jesuits introduced the fig tree into Baja California 
in the eighteenth century, and it is said to have been the only fruit, except 
grapes, which was thoroughly successful there. 

The fruit of all the species is edible, but often the receptacles are so small 
and dry that they are not very palatable. They are a favorite food of many 
kinds of birds and of domestic animals. 

The milky juice of the Mexican species yields a kind of rubber which might 
become of some commercial importance. This is said to have been used locally 
for treating fractured bones and for similar purposes. Some of the South 
American species are said to produce commercial rubber. 

Few medicinal uses are reported for this genus in Mexico. The early in- 
habitants are said to have used the root, to which purgative properties are 
ascribed, in the treatment of fevers and chest affections, and the milky juice for 
ulcers. The juice is often applied to warts, but with what success is not stated. 
The juice of some of the South American species is reported to be extremely 
poisonous. 

The wood of the fig trees is soft and light and of little value. The large 
trunks, however, are often made into canoes. In preconquest days the bark 
was of great importance, for it was one of the sources of the bark paper used 
by the Aztecs for their records and correspondence. Some of this paper is 
still preserved in the ancient manuscripts. It is generally stated that the 
species used for the purpose was F. petiolaris. This is, it is true, the species 
described by Hernandez, but it is probable that other species were used indis- 
criminately. Plants of other families were used likewise for the same purpose, 
and it is now uncertain what one was most commonly employed. 

It was believed that the manufacture of bark paper in Mexico had become 
obsolete, but Professor Starr, of the University of Chicago, found a few years 
ago that the method of preparation was still known to some of the Otoml 
Indians of Hidalgo. He secured specimens of the paper and has published an 
account of its manufacture. 1 He states that the trees used are " xalama " 
(Ficus sp.), "jonote" (Heliocarpus), "moral," and " drag6n." The name 



1 Starr, In Indian Mexico, pp. 245-246, 259, 268. 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 207 

" moral " probably refers to some plant of the family Moraceae, and " drag6n " 
perhaps to a Jatropha. After being stripped from the trees, the bark is 
washed with lye water taken from the corn soaked for tortillas, washed in 
fresh water, thoroughly boiled, and split into thin strips. These the women 
arrange carefully upon a wooden plank and then beat with a stone until a 
sheet of paper results. The side of the sheet next to the board is smooth, 
the other somewhat rough. The paper is dried in the sun. The paper obtained 
from the " moral " is white ; that from "xalama " purplish. It is said that the 
bark of the " ule " (Castilla) also is used. 

Because of the purposes for which the paper is employed, its preparation is 
generally conducted with great secrecy. It is used for decorations in various 
ceremonies, especially those of pagan origin. More commonly, however, it is 
used for " brujerfa " (witchcraft), and for this it is cut into "munecos," 
representing human beings, horses, and other animals, and these are employed 
to work injury to people and domestic animals, being buried in front of a house 
or in a corral. The munecos are employed also for curing disease, applied 
directly to the affected part. 

This ceremonial use of the bark paper is the last remnant of a common 
practice of ancient times. Before the conquest paper banners were employed 
as offerings to the gods at certain feasts, and crowns of paper also were offered, 
and were worn by those who took part in the ceremonies. 

The vernacular names applied to the species of Ficus are very numerous, 
and many of them are listed under the species enumerated below. In Jalisco, 
according to Urbina, they are usually known as " camichin " or " zalate." The 
former name, which is used elsewhere also, is applied to the species having 
smaller fruits than those known by the name " zalate." The word camichin, 
he states, is written more properly coamichin (=coatl. snake+??jic7n'», fish= 
fish-snake=eel). This name was probably given because of the adventitious 
roots, which might be taken to resemble eels. A name widely used in Mexico 
for fig trees is am-ate; this is a modification of the Nahuatl word amatl, " paper," 
applied to the tree. It is interesting to note that the Tarascan word for paper, 
siranda, also is used as a name for the fig tree. The name " macahuite " 
(Nahuatl, ama-cuahuitl=&g-tree) is said to be used in central Mexico. The 
word amatl is preserved in such place names as Amatitlan, "among the fig 
trees " ; Amatepec, " the hill of the figs " ; Amecameca, " place where they wear 
fig shirts." 

Peduncles solitary ; involucre trilobate; stamens 2. (Subgenus Phabmacosyce. ) 
Leaves hirtellous or short-pilose beneath ; receptacles pilose or hirtel- 

lous 1. F. glaucescens. 

Leaves glabrous or merely scabrous beneath ; receptacles glabrate or scabrous. 

Branchlets densely pilose-sericeous 2. F. radulina. 

Branchlets glabrous or puberulent. 

Leaves rounded and apiculate at the apex 5. F. radula. 

Leaves gradually acute or acuminate at the apex. 

Leaf blades about 4 times as long as broad, acute at the base, 

glabrous 3. F. segoviae. 

Leaf blades not more than two and a half times as long as broad, 
usually very obtuse or rounded at the base, commonly scabrous. 

4. F. mexicana. 
Peduncles geminate ; involucre bilobate ; stamen 1. ( Subgenus Urostigma. ) 
Involucre very asymmetric, attached excentrically to the peduncle. 

6. F. tecolutensis. 



208 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Involucre .symmetric, attached centrally to the peduncle. 
Receptacles all or partly sessile. 
Receptacles partly sessile and partly pedunculate on the same plant. 

7. F. cookii. 
Receptacles all sessile. 

Leaves cuspidate at the apex, with a long acute acumen. 

8. F. panamensis. 
Leaves not cuspidate at the apex. 
Involucre small, about 5 mm. in greatest diameter, inconspicuous ; 

receptacles glabrous 9. F. kellermannii. 

Involucre large, conspicuous, inclosing the receptacle for half its 
length or more ; receptacles finely pubescent or in age glabra te. 

10. F. cotinifolia. 
Receptacles all pedunculate. 
Leaves conspicuously pubescent beneath. 

Leaf blades suborbicular, as broad as long, deeply cordate at the base, 

white-barbate beneath along the costa 11. F. petiolaris. 

Leaf blades usually conspicuously longer than broad, the pubescence 
of short hairs scattered over the lower surface. 
Stipules glabrous or nearly so ; receptacles pyriform. Leaves cordate- 
ovate or ovate-deltoid 12. F. palmeri. 

Stipules densely sericeous; receptacles globose. 
Receptacles 13 to 17 mm. in diameter ; leaf blades 6 to 19 cm. long, 

broadest at or near the middle 16. F. lapathifolia. 

Receptacles 10 to 13 mm. in diameter ; leaf blades 4.5 to 12 cm. 
long, usually broadest at or near the base. 
Involucre 10 to 15 mm. in greatest diameter ; receptacles with 
fine appressed pubescence or glabrate ; peduncles 2 to 4 

mm. long 14. F. pringlei. 

Involucre 4 to 6 mm. in diameter; receptacles short-vilkms ; 

peduncles 5 to 7 mm. long 15. F. niicrochlamys. 

Leaves glabrous beneath or nearly so. 
Receptacles 4 to 12 mm. in diameter. 

Ostiole of the receptacle depressed ; leaf blades 1.5 to 4.7 cm. 

wide 17. F. padifolia. 

Ostiole plane or elevated ; leaf blades 5 to 9.5 cm. wide. 

18. F. lentiginosa. 
Receptacles 15 to 25 mm. in diameter. 

Stipules ferruginous-sericeous 19. F. glycicarpa. 

Stipules glabrous or minutely puberulent. 
Leaf blades cuneate-obovate, rounded at the apex. 

20. F. involuta. 

Leaf blades oblong to oval or ovate-oval, broadest at or below the 

middle. 

Le;if blades cordate or subcordate at the base, with 5 to 9 

lateral veins on ench side. 

Petioles 3.5 to 7 cm. Ions:; leaves bright green; receptacles 

pubescent : 21. F. jonesii. 

Petioles 1.5 to 3.5 cm. long: leaves glaucescent beneath; re- 
ceptacles glabrous 13. F. brandegei. 

Leaf blades rounded or emarginate at the base, with usually 
8 to 13 lateral veins on each side. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 209 

Leaf blades emarginate at the base ; receptacles densely puberu- 
lent 22. F. g-oldmanii. 

Leaf blades rounded at the base ; receptacles glabrous or 
nearly so 23. F. yucatanensis. 

1. Ficus glaucescens (Liebm.) Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 300. 1867. 
Pharmaco8ycea ylaucescens Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 332. 1851. 
Pharmacusycea hernandezii Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 332. 1851. 
Ficus hemandezii Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 300. 1867. 

Ficus yuadalajarana S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26: 151. 1891. 

Veracruz to Sinaloa and Oaxaca ; type from Mecapalco, Veracruz. Central 
America. 

Large or small tree ; stipules 1 to 2 cm. long ; leaves oval-oblong or obovate- 
oval, S to 23 cm. long, very obtuse or apiculate at the apex; receptacles 1.5 
to 2.5 cm. in diameter. " Higo loxe grande " (Oaxaca). 

2. Ficus radulina S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26: 151. 1891. 
Chihuahua and Sonora ; type collected near Batopilas, Chihuahua. 

Large tree with whitish or yellowish branches ; stipules 6 to 8 cm. long ; 
leaves oblong to oval-elliptic, 9 to 18 cm. long; receptacles 1.5 to 2 cm. in 
diameter, spotted with light and dark green. " Nacapuli," "higuera " (Sonora) ; 
"salate" (Chihuahua). 

3. Ficus segoviae Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3:300. 1867. 
PliunnacGsyceu anyustifolia Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 3: 333. 1851. 

Not Ficus anyustifolia Roxb. 1814. 
Veracruz to Guerrero and Oaxaca. Guatemala and Nicaragua (type locality). 
Stipules 2 to 5.5 cm. long; leaf blades narrowly elliptic, 10 to 20 cm. long; 
receptacles 1.5 to 3 cm. in diameter. " Macahuite " (Oaxaca). 

4. Ficus mexicana Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 299. 1867. 
Pharmacosycea mexicana Miquel, Versl. Med. Kon. Akad. Amsterdam 13: 

416. 1862. 

San Luis Potosi to Sinaloa, Oaxaca, and Yucatan. 

Large tree, sometimes 20 meters high, with a trunk nearly 2 meters in diame- 
ter, the bark pale brownish or yellowish; stipules 3.5 to 10 cm. long; leaves 
oval or elliptic-oblong, 8 to 20 cm. long ; receptacles about 2 cm. in diameter, 
light green. " Copoy " (San Luis Potosi, Palmer) ; " sabali " (Sinaloa). 

5. Ficus radula Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 1144. 1806. 

Veracruz to Yucatan and Oaxaca. Central America, Colombia, and Vene- 
zuela (type locality). 

Large or small tree, with brownish gray branches; stipules 1 to 1.5 cm. long; 
leaves oblong to oval, 8 to 16 cm. long; receptacles 1.5 to 3 cm. in diameter. 
"Macahuite" (Oaxaca; from the Nahuatl, " ama-cuahuitl "). 

6. Ficus tecolutensis (Liebm.) Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 299. 

1867. 

Urostigma tccolutense Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 324. 1851. 

Veracruz to Yucatan arid Oaxaca; type from Tecolutla, Veracruz. Guatemala. 

Stipules 1 to 1.5 cm. long; leaves oblong, oval, or oval-obovate, 6 to 10 cm. 
long, obtuse or acutish at the apex, obtuse or emarginate at the base, glabrous; 
receptacles 5 to 8 mm. in diameter. " Matapalo " " amate," "matapalo liso," 
"macahuite" (Oaxaca). 

7. Ficus cookii Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 15. 1917. 
Chiapas ; type from San Vicente. Guatemala. 

Large tree ; stipules 1 to 1.5 cm. long ; leaves oval or orbicular-ovate, 6 to 11 
cm. long, rounded at the apex, shallowly cordate at the base; receptacles about 
1 cm. in diameter. 



210 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

A very remarkable species because of tbe presence of both sessile and pedun- 
culate receptacles upon the same tree. 

8. Ficus panamensis Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 15. 1917. 
Tabasco. Central America and Colombia ; type from Panama. 

Stipules 2 cm. long ; leaves oblong or obovate-oblong, 9 to 16 cm. long, glabrous ; 
receptacles 1 cm. in diameter. "Araatillo" (Tabasco). 

9. Ficus kellermannii Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 18. 1917. 
Oaxaca. Guatemala ; type from El Rancho. 

Stipules 1 to 2 cm. long; leaves oval-oblong, obovate-oval, or oval, 5 to 14 cm. 
long, short-hirtellous beneath, emarginate or subeordate at base; receptacles 
8 to 10 mm. in diameter. " Higo loxe chico " (Oaxaca). 

10. Ficus cotinifolia H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 49. 1817. 

Ficus nryxaefolia Kunth & Bouchg, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 18. 1846. 

Urostigma longipes Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 321. 1851. 

Urostigma glaucum Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 322. 1851. 

Ficus sitorotundi folia Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 41 : 237. 1905. 

Chihuahua to Baja California, Oaxa<a, and Yucatan; type collected on t'ie 
Acapulco road near La Venta del Egido. Costa Rica. 

Large or small tree, sometimes 15 meters high, with a trunk a meter in 
diameter, the branches few, large, spreading; stipules 5 to 13 mm. long; leaves 
oblong to orbicular. 5 to 13 cm. long, very variable; receptacles 6 to 11 mm. 
in diameter, whitish, often spotted. " Copo," " coobo," "alamo" (Yucat&n) ; 
" higuer6n " (Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosf) ; " amate prieto " (Morelos). 

The milky juice mixed with the powdered bark is applied to wounds and 
bruises. This may be the " tlilamatl " ("black-fig") described by Hernandez. 

11. Ficus petiolaris H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2:49. 1817. 
Ficus jali-scana S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26: 150. 1891. 

Sonora to Guerrero and Morelos ; reported from Oaxaca ; type collected near 
Mazatl&n, Guerrero. 

Large or small tree with white trunk; leaves 6.5 to 15 cm. wide; receptacles 
1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter. The following names are reported for this species, 
although it is probable that most of them are applied to others also: " Tepe- 
amatl " or "tepeamate" (Guerrero; the former the Nahuatl term, meaning 
" hill-fig ") ; " tescalama," " tescalnmate," or " texcalamate " (Morelos, Durango, 
Guanajuato, etc.; in Nahuatl, tcxcalamatl—" lava-fig," this name, according to 
Robelo, given because the tree sometimes grows on lava rock) ; " palo chila- 
mate" (Oaxaca, Relco ; from the Nahuatl, chil-amatl) ; " higuera " (Durango, 
Sinaloa) ; "palo Marfa," " higuer6n " (Sinaloa, Mexico); " higuerote," " tex- 
calama lechosa " (Sinaloa); "amate" (Oaxaca); " amacostic " (Morelos); 
"amate amarillo " (Morelos, Guerrero). 

This species has frequently been reported 1 from Mexico as /'. nymphacifolia 
L. That is a South American species, which is somewhat similar but neverthe- 
less quite distinct. 

This species is discussed by Hernandez 1 in a chapter entitled." De Amacoztic, 
sou Papyro lutea, seu Tepematl, Syeomoro Snxatili Mexicana." His remarks an- 
as follows: "The Amacoztic, which some call Tc.vcaJumatl, or rock-paper, and 
others Tepcamatl, is a large tree which has the leaves broad, almost round, 
thick and purplish like Ivy. and nearly heart-shaped ; the bark is on one side 
yellow inclining to green, and on the other red: it has the fruits on the same 
trunks, which are smooth like that of a fig Irce; the fruit resembles small 



1 As by Sesse & Mocifio, PI. Nov. Hipp. ISO. 1SS7. 
'Thesaurus 81. 1651. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 211 

figs ; it is purple and full of small red seeds ; the tree is fastened to the rocks, 
and is a wonderful thing. The leaves have no perceptible odor or flavor; their 
temperament is moist and cold. The decoction of the roots allays the thirst 
of those who suffer from fever, alleviates pains of the chest, is purgative and 
vomitive, and it is prepared by boiling three ounces of the roots with three 
pounds of water until the half is consumed ; its milk cures sores of the lips 
and chronic ulcers. The tree grows in mountainous and rough places about 
Chietla, embracing the rocks, as I have said, and as the name itself indicates. 
There is another kind that has the same name and temperament, which, they 
say, serves only for furnishing straight, smooth polos." Hernandez also gives 
two easily recognizable figures of the plant (pp. 82, 409). 

Dr. Fernando Altamirano, quoted by Urbina, 1 describes the gum or rubber 
obtained from tins (and probably also from other) species of Ficus as follows: 
"The commercial Texcalama appears as rounded masses of variable dimensions. 
This substance is elastic and adhesive and very ductile, gray in color, and 
capable of being formed into membranes as delicate as soap bubbles, being in 
this state white and transparent ; exposed to the air it hardens and assumes 
a yellow tint, for which reason it should be kept in vessels full of water. In 
boiling water it softens and becomes more sticky. 

"Its density is greater than that of water; its odor is urine-like, and it has 
scarcely any taste. 

" In its analysis I found 15 per cent of caoutchouc, 55 per cent of a resin 
soluble in alcohol, and 5 per cent of a resin soluble in ether." 

This gum is used by surgeons and others in Mexico for treating broken bones, 
hernia, etc. 

12. Ficus palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24: 77. 1889. 

Ba ja California, on rocky hillsides ; type from San Martin Island. 

Tree, 4.5 to 10 meters high, with white trunk; stipules 1.5 to 2 cm. long; 
leaves 6 to 14 cm. long; receptacles 12 to 15 mm. in diameter. " Salate." 

This is presumably the tree described by Clavigero * as " anaba," in the fol- 
lowing words : "Anabd, is the name of a fruit similar to the fig, and of the tree 
on which it is borne. The latter is large, the bark of its trunk and branches 
whitish like that of the fig tree, and the fruit similar in color and shape to 
the early figs but smaller, less juicy, and without the sweet flavor of our figs. 
Nevertheless the California ns esteem it so highly that when they hear of an 
anabd with ripe fruit they go to hunt for it and gather a supply of the fruit, 
even though it may be four or five leagues distant. The wood of the anabd is 
absolutely useless, and the roots are usually broader than thick, for since the 
tree grows among rocks, it introduces its roots into the clefts, or, in default of 
these, extends them over the rocks themselves. In Mexico, where it is known 
by the name of salate, it fruits better and attains a larger size." 

13. Ficus brandegei Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 22. 1917. 
Known only from the type locality, San Jose del Cabo, Baja California. 
Similar to the last species except for the complete absence of pubescence upon 

the leaves. 

14. Ficus pringlei S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26: 150. 1891. 
Jalisco; type from the barranca near Guadalajara. 



1 Naturaleza 7: 98. 1900. 

* Historia de la California, 1789. This is the first work in which Baja Cali- 
fornia plants were described. Clavigero's information was furnished by a 
brother of the Jesuit order, whose descriptions are remarkably vivid and 
accurate. 



212 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Small or medium-sized tree; stipules 1.5 cm. long; leaves ovate-oval or 
deltoid-ovate, 4.5 to S cm. long, very obtuse or rounded at the apex, subcordnte 
or emarginate at the base. 

15. Ficus microchlamys Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 23. 1917. 
Sinaloa, Tepic, Jalisco, and Veracruz ; type from Guadalajara. 

Large tree; stipules 7 mm. long; leaves oblong to rounded-ovate. 6 to 12 cm. 
long, rounded or obtuse at the apex, subcordate or emarginate at the base. 
" Salate bronco " (Sinaloa). 

16. Ficus lapathifolia (Liebm.) Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 297. 
1S67. 

Urostigma lapat hi folium Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 319. 1S51. 
Tamaulipas to Veracruz, Chiapas, and Guerrero; type from Yecoatla and 
Colipa. Veracruz. Guatemala. 

Stipules 1.5 to 1.8 cm. long ; leaves oval to broadly oblong. 

17. Ficus padifolia H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 47. 1817. 
Ficus complicate, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 48. 1817. 
Urostigma schiedeunum Miquel, Loud. Journ. Bot. 6: 539. 1847. 
Urostigma complicatum Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 325. 1851. 
Urostigma baccatum Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 327. 1851. 
Urostigma turbinatum Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 328. 1851. 
Urostigma sulcipes Miquel, Versl. Med. Kon. Akad. Amsterdam 13: 413. 1862. 
Ficus fasciculata S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24: 78. 18S9. 

Ficus sonorae S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24: 78. 1889. 

Tamaulipas to Sonora, Oaxaca, and Tabasco; type from Acapulco, Guerrero. 
Central America. 

Small or often a very large tree, as much as 30 meters high, with broad, 
dense crown and numerous trunks and aerial roots ; stipules 5 to 15 mm. long ; 
leaves mostly ovate or elliptic. 4 to 12 cm. long, acute or acuminate. " Nacapuli '* 
(Sonora): " camichin " (Colima, Sinaloa, Jalisco); " comuchin " (Miehoacan, 
Guerrero) ; " palo de coco " (Oaxaca. Liebmann) ; " amatillo." " capulfn grande" 
(Tabasco) ; " samatito " (Guerrero, Oaxaca, Morelos) ; " amesquite " (Morelos) ; 
"matapalo" (Oaxaca); " higuito " (Costa Rica); "cozahuique" (Oaxaca. 
Villada) ; " jalamate," " cabra-higo " (Morelos, Urbina). 

One of the handsomest of Mexican trees, often with an immense crown of 
dark green leaves. It has been reported from Mexico as F . ligusirina Kunth & 
Bouch£, a South American species. The fruit is usually tinged or spotted with 
red or purple; it is sweet and much eaten by children and birds, and some- 
times it is sold in the markets. 

Urbina 1 considers that this is the " amazquitl " of Hernandez, who speaks 
of the value of the tree for shade, and states that a decoction of the root bark 
was given to fever patients. The " hoeiamatl " of Hernfindez is perhaps the 
same species ; this was employed as a remedy for various skin diseases and 
for pains and sourness of the stomach. Another wild fig described by Hcnu'iinlcz 
under the name " itzamatl " may also be Ficus padifolia. This, Hernandez 
states, was called " higo de Indias " by the Spaniards. 

18. Ficus lentiginosa Vahl, Enum. PI. 2: 183. 1806. 

Guerrero to Oaxaca and Yucatan. West Indies; type from Montserrat. 

Stipules 1 to 1.5 cm. long; leaves oval or ovate-oval, 7.5 to 16 cm. long, 
obtuse or rounded and often short-pointed at the apex, bright green: receptacles 
8 to 9 mm. in diameter. " Jaguey " (Porto Rico). 

For an illustration of a flowering branch see Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: pi. S5. 

'Naturaleza 7: 99. 1900. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 213 

19. Ficus glycicarpa Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 297. 1S67. 
Urostigma gtyeioarpum Miquel, Versl. Med. Kon. Akad. Amsterdam 13: 409. 

1S62. 

Veracruz ; type from Hacienda de ia Laguna. 

Stipules 1 cm. long; leaves elliptic-oblong or obovate, 7 to 20 cm. long, 
obtuse or rounded and sbort-pointed at the apex ; receptacles 1.5 to 2 cm. in 
diameter. 

20. Ficus involuta (Liebm.) Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 298. 1S67. 
Ficus obtusifolia H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 49. 1817. Not F. obtusifolia 

Roxb. 1S14. 

Urostignia involution Liebm. Dansfc Via. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 323. 1851. 

Urostigma bonplandianum Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 323. 1851. 

Ficus bonplandiana Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3: 29S. 1867. 

Sinaloa to San Luis Potosi, Yucatan, and Oaxaca. Central America ; type 
from Nicaragua. 

Large tree, sometimes with a trunk 1.8 meters in diameter and a crown 19 
meters broad ; st. pules 1.5 to 3 cm. long ; leaves 11 to 21 cm. long ; receptacles 
1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter. "Amate " (Guererro) ; " amate bianco" (San Luis 
Potosl, Morelos) ; " matapalo " (Oaxaca) ; " palo de sal" (Costa Rica). 

The fruit is edible. The milky juice of the branches is applied external iy 
for pain in the stomach. 

21. Ficus jonesii Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 31. 1917. 
Sinaloa and Jalisco ; type from La Palma, Jalisco. 

Large tree; leaves oval-oblong to broadly ovate-oblong; receptacles 2.5 cm. 
in diameter. 

The writer is inclined to believe that the receptacles described for this may 
belong to a different tree froin the one which furnished the leaves, and that 
the latter may be referable to F. lentiginosa. 

22. Ficus goldmanii Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 32. 1917. 
Sonora and Sinaloa to Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Alamos, Sonora. 
Large tree, with a short, very thick trunk supported by buttresses ; leaves 

oblong or elliptic-oblong, 8 to 20 cm. long; receptacles 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter. 
" Chalate " (Durango). 

23. Ficus yucatanensis Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 33. 1917. 
Yucatan ; type from Chichen Itza. 

Stipules 1 to 1.5 cm. long; leaves oval or oval-oblong. 8 to 20 cm. long; 
receptacles 2 cm. in diameter. 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 

Ficus calyculata Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Ficus no. 11. 176S. Described from 
Veracruz. The description does not agree with any species known from Mexico. 

Ficus fuscescens (Liebm. I Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 3:29S. 1867. 
Urostigma fuscescens Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 329. 1851. De- 
scribed from Veracruz ; perhaps not of this genus. 

5. BROSFMUM Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 12. 17S8. 

Leaves oval or oblong-oval, 4.5 to 8.5 cm. wide, acute or acuminate. 

1. B. alicastrum. 
Leaves oblong or lance-oblong, 2 to 3 cm. wide, obtuse or acutish. 

2. B. conzattii. 

1. Brosimum alicastrum Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 12. 178S. 

Tamaulipas to Yucatan, Tabasco, Oaxaca, and Tepic. West Indies and Cen- 
tral America ; type from Jamaica. 



214 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Tree, sometimes 30 meters high, with a trunk a meter in diameter, the crown 
broad and dense ; bark gray ; leaves bright green, glabrous, entire ; flowers uni- 
sexual, in dense globose pedunculate heads; fruit subglobose, yellow or orange, 
containing a single large seed about 12 mm. broad. " Ram6n " (Yucatan, 
Oaxaca) ; "ox" (Yucatan, Tabasco, Maya); "ojite" (Veracruz, Tamaulipas, 
Oaxaca ; from the Nahuatl, " oxitl ") ; " nazareno " (Oaxaca, Reko) ; " oxotzin " 
(Veracruz, Finck) ; " capomo " (Tepic, Jalisco, Veracruz, Oaxaca) ; " apomo " 
(Sinaloa) ; " Juandiego " (Oaxaca, Reko); " ojoche " (Nicaragua); "maseco" 
(Guatemala. Honduras). 

The wood is said to be white, or sometimes grayish or tinged with flesh color, 
compact, hard, and line-grained ; it is used in carpenter work. The tree is 
valued highly for forage, the branches being cut and fed to different kinds of 
stock, and the fallen leaves are eaten greedily by cattle. The tree is often 
planted for this purpose, and in some parts of Mexico it is a very important 
forage plant. The milky juice is reported to yield a kind of rubber, and is used 
as a calmant in asthma. It is reputed also to increase the flow of human milk, 
this probably a relic of the old medical theory of signatures. The seeds are 
said to be fattening for cattle, which are fond of them, and they are used also 
as human food. For the latter purpose they are boiled or roasted, and eaten 
alone or mixed with sugar, honey, or corn meal. They have a flavor resembling 
that of chestnuts and are very nutritious. The seeds are sometimes roasted and 
used as a substitute for coffee. 
2. Brosimum conzattii Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 211. 1919. 

Known only from the type locality, Cafetal San Rafael, Distrito de Pochutla, 
Oaxaca. 

Similar to the preceding, of which it may be only a form, but with much 
smaller, relatively narrower leaves, the embryo with an obtuse, rather than 
acute, radicle. 

6. PSEUDOLMEDIA Trecul, Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 8: 129. 1847. 

1. Pseudolmedia oxyphyllaria Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 20: 294. 1895. 

Veracruz. Guatemala; type from Volcan de Tecuamburro. 

A tree ; leaves elliptic-oblong, 11 to 23 cm. long, acuminate, entire, glabrous ; 
flowers dioecious, the staminate ones in sessile heads, the pistillate solitary, 
sessile, axillary, surrounded by silky bracts. 

Perhap not sufficiently distinct from P. spuria (Swartz) Griseb., of the 
Greater Antilles and Panama. 

7. CASTII/LA ' Cervantes, Gaceta de Literatura de Mexico, Suppl. July 2, 1794. 
References: Pittier, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 247-279. 1910; Cook, The 
culture of the Central American rubber tree, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 
49. 1903; Villada, El firbol del hule, Naturaleza 3: 31G-330. 1876. 

1. Castilla elastica Cervantes, Gac. Lit. Mex. Suppl. 1794. 
Castillo, lactiflua Cook, Science n. ser. 18: 43S. 1903. 
Veracruz to Sinaloa, Chiapas, and Yucatan ; type from Veracruz. 

1 Sometimes written CaMilloa. The genus was named in honor of Juan Diego 
del Castillo (1744-1793), pharmacist and economic explorer, who came to 
Mexico in 1787 as a member of the famous naturalists' expedition sent out by 
Charles III. As a result of the labors occasioned by his work, he fell ill and 
died in the City of Mexico. He left a legacy of . < ?4,000 to be used in publishing 
the Flora Mexicana. A manuscript by his hand, entitled " Plantas descritas 
en el via.ie de Acapulco." is said to be preserved in the Botanical Garden at 
Madrid. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 215 

Tree, attaining a height of 20 meters or more, the trunk grayish, nearly 
smooth ; leaves distichous, deciduous, short-petiolate, oblong or oval-oblong, 
25 to 40 cm. long, cordate at the base, acuminate at the apex, copiously 
pubescent; flowers monoecious, the 2 kinds on separate receptacles, the stam- 
inate receptacles 2 to 2.5 cm. broad, bearing numerous flowers ; fruiting recep- 
tacles 4 cm. or more in diameter, contorted, the fruits becoming fleshy and 
brick-red. "Arbol del hule " ; " tarantaqua " (Michoac£n, Leon); " hule " 
(the rubber ; sometimes written " ule " ; derived from the Nahuatl olli or ollln) ; 
" cuauchile." Robelo gives the Nahuatl names for the tree as " olcaguite," 
" ulcuagiiil," " olcuahuitl," and " ulcuahuitl." 

This is one of the best-known trees of Mexico, being the principal source 
of commercial rubber in Mexico and Central America. The rubber is obtained 
from either wild or cultivated trees. The Costilla grows wild chiefly in the 
states of Chiapas, Tabasco, Yucatfin, and Veracruz, usually at altitudes of 
700 meters or less. It is reported also from Campeche, Oaxaca. Guerrero, 
Michoacan, Colima, Jalisco, Hidalgo, Sinaloa, and Tamaulipas. Cultivation of 
the rubber tree was begun in the State of Chiapas about 50 years ago, but 
only in an experimental way, and it is only in recent years that cultivation has 
been carried on upon an extensive scale. The details of rubber production 
are so numerous that they can not be treated here, but those interested in the 
subject should consult the paper by Cook, listed above. 

Like other plants of the family Moraceae, the rubber tree has milky juice, 
and this is the source of the rubber. The juice is obtained by tapping the trees. 
It coagulates upon exposure to the air, but various substances are sometimes 
added to hasten coagulation. In British Honduras the pounded stems of 
morning-glory (Colony ction) are said to be used for this purpose. The early 
inhabitants of Mexico were well acquainted with the crude rubber, using it 
to make balls for games, for bottles, and for waterproofing coats, hats, shoes, 
and other objects. 

The wood is white and moderately heavy. The bark is beaten out by some 
of the Indians of tropical America, and the fabric thus obtained is used for 
clothing and blankets. In Mexico the bark is said to have been one of the 
sources of paper. 

Hernandez was probably the first to give an account of the Mexican rubber 
tree. He gives a fairly accurate figure, 1 and the following account, in a chapter 
entitled " De Holquahuitl, seu Arbore Chilli ' " : " Holquahuitl is a tree of which 
there are two sorts. The one produces a large, smooth, yellow stem, full of 
soft pith ; whitish flowers ; very large leaves ; and star-shaped disks, pale but 
becoming red, clinging to a stalk and crowded with fruits like Pontic nuts, 
which are covered with a whitish and yellow skin and have a bitter flavor. The 
other sort has leaves like Mains Medicus, but larger; the bark of both trees is 
bitter. The latter grows in Michoacan, where it is called tarantaquam. The 
first is called Mecatlani and yhulapae. The bark is warm in the third order 
and slightly lubricous ; its infused decoction is good for dysentery. When cut 
it yields a gum, called Holli by the Indians, which is at first milky, but soon 
yellow, and finally black, if it is smeared on the bodies of those who gather it. 
It is so resilient that balls fashioned from it bounce like hand-balls, and it is 
useful for many other purposes. For it evokes the urine uncommonly, cleanses 
the womb, and corrects sterility. * * * Added to food it fattens, and com- 
pounded with those creatures which are called Axin, it is said to engender a 
certain agility to the body, and to soften the bones so that men are able to 

* Thesaurus 50. 1651. 

J The word " chilli " is probably a typographical error for " holli " or " hule." 
55268—22 1 



216 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

turn and twist this way and that, and to handle the body like contortionists; 
and it excites venery, it allays colics, applied as a plaster it relieves the 
bowels, appeases thirst, and, burnt, it dissipates ulcers. This is that noble 
gum with which the Indians once were wont to play the game called Bathei, 
wonderful to see, which, by the agency of Cortes, the people of Spain also were 
enabled to witness years ago. The leaves of the tree, dried and bruised, are 
said to destroy lions and other animals." 

According to Sahagun, " hoarseness is cured by rubbing the throat with ulli, 
drinking honey, and sniffing a few drops of honey up the nose. * * * The 
gum is very medicinal and is used for almost all diseases. It is a remedy for 
the eyes, for abscesses, and for suppuration. It is taken with cacao. It is 
useful for the stomach and intestines, internal putrefaction, and constipation." 
The rubber was employed also for holding broken bones in place, and for similar 
purposes. 

Several other species of Castillo, are found in Central America. Some Mexi- 
can specimens have been reported as C. guatemalensis Pittier, 1 but the pres- 
ent writer has no reason for believing that more than one species occurs in 
Mexico. 

8. SAHAGUNIA 2 Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 316. 1851. 
1. Sahagunia mexicana Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 31G. 1851. 

Mirador and Barranca de Santa Maria, Veracruz. 

Tree ; leaves oblong, acuminate, entire or nearly so ; flowers dioecious, the 
staminate spicate, the pistillate capitate. "Arbol del pan" (Veracruz, Vil- 
lada). 

9. CECROPIA L. Amoen. Acad. 5: 410. 1760. 

Reference: Miquel in Mart. Fl. Bras. 4 1 : 139-154. 1853. 

Trees or shrubs, the stems simple or branched, the trunk whitish, hollow; 
leaves long-petiolate, the blades deeply lobed, usually white-tomentose beneath, 
the lobes 7 to 13, entire ; stipules large, inclosing the young inflorescences ; 
flowers dioecious, in very dense cylindric spikes, these clustered at the end of 
a stout peduncle. 

All the species are much alike in general appearance, and they are not easily 
separated upon examination of herbarium material. The specimens available are 

^ontr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 272. 1910. The proper name for this species is 
Castillo- gummifera (Bertol.) Pittier; see Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 34. 1917. 

1 The genus is named in honor of Bernardo de Sahagtin, a Franciscan friar 
of Spanish birth who came to Mexico as a missionary in 1529. Here, as Prescott 
states, " he distinguished himself by his zeal, the purity of his life, and his 
unwearied exertions to spread the great truths of religion among the natives." 
He wrote a " Historia Universal de Nueva Espana," the material for which 
he obtained directly from the native people with whom he was continually 
associated. This work he composed in the Nahuatl language, which he could 
both write and speak with great fluency. It was feared by the other members 
of the order that the publication of the work would keep alive in the natives 
too vivid an impression of the superstitions which it was the duty of the 
Christian church to eradicate, and consequently the permission to print the 
manuscript was refused. It was not until 1830 that Sahagun's history was 
actually printed. Besides the other matters of which it treats, the book con- 
tains much information regarding the plants of Mexico. Sahagfm's work is 
one of the most important of those dealing with Mexican antiquities, and is 
unique in the method of its preparation. The author lived to an advanced age, 
and died in the capital in 1590. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 217 

not numerous or very satisfactory, and it is doubtful how many species occur 
in Mexico. 

The trees grow very rapidly. Their hollow trunks are generally inhabited 
by pugnacious ants. The trunks are often cut in two and used as troughs to 
conduct water. Many of the native inhabitants of tropical America used them 
also for making a kind of trumpet, and the soft spongy wood was employed as 
tinder. In Brazil the wood has been used for making paper. The bark con- 
tains a tough, coarse fiber used for cordage and for mats and for a kind of coarse 
cloth by the Indians of Central and South America. The sap yields rubber, 
but the quantity obtained by tapping is too small to be of commercial impor- 
tance. It is said that the Indians sometimes ate the pith and that cattle eat 
the leaves and fruit. The fruit is eaten also by birds. 

Various medicinal properties are ascribed to the plants. In Mexico the juice 
is used as a caustic for the treatment of ulcers and the removal of warts. In 
South America and the West Indies it is used for dysentery and venereal dis- 
eases, and a decoction of the young leaves for dropsy, liver affections, and 
asthma. The ashes, according to Barbara, were employed as a remedy for 
dropsy. It is said, in addition, that the plant possesses the properties of digi- 
talis, although its toxicity is relatively low. 

According to Cook * Cecropia peltata is known in Porto Rico as " yagrumo 
hembra," because of the fact that it is popularly believed to be the female plant 
of Didytnopanax morototoni, which is known as "yagrumo macho." 

The trees of the genus Cecropia are first described by Oviedo 2 (Lib. VIII, 
Cap. X), under the name " yaruma." He states that the Indians valued them 
highly as a remedy for wounds. 

The following vernacular names are reported for the species : " Guarumbo " 
(Valley of Mexico, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Chiapas) ; " guarumo " (Tabasco, Chiapas, 
Veracruz, Costa Rica ; the word, according to Pittier, is probably of Cuban or 
Haitian origin); " chancarro " (Veracruz, Oaxaca); " coilotopalo," " coilota- 
palo " (Valley of Mexico); " saruma " (Michoacan, Valley of Mexico); 
" guarima " (Tabasco, Chiapas). 

Pistillate spikes sessile 1. C. mexicana. 

Pistillate spikes pedunculate. 

Staminate spikes few, 10 to 15 cm. long 2. C. schiedeana. 

Staminafe spikes numerous (12 to 15), 3 to 6 cm. long 3. C. obtusa. 

1. Cecropia mexicana Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 151. pi. 80. 1883. 
Veracruz to Sinaloa and Oaxaca ; type from Cordoba, Veracruz. Central 

America. 

Sometimes as much as 12 to 15 meters high. "Guarumbo" (Oaxaca); 
" trompeta " (Sinaloa) ; "guarumo" (Costa Rica, El Salvador). 

This is probably the species reported from .Torullo by Sesse and Mocino 3 as 
C. peltata L. It has often been reported from Mexico under that name by other 
writers. One collection from Oaxaca, with leaves glabrate beneath, perhaps 
represents an undescribed species. 

2. Cecropia schiedeana Klotzsch, Linnaea 20: 531. 1847. 
Veracruz; type from Papantla. 

1 Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 110. 1903. 

* Primera parte de la histoiia natural y general de las Indias, yslas y tierra 
firme del mar oceano. Sevilla, 1535. An enlarged and improved edition was 
published in Madrid, 1851-55. 

3 PI. Nov. Hisp. 170. 1887. 



218 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

3. Cecropia obtusa Trecul. Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 8: 79. 1849. 
Veracruz and Yucatan. Cuba ; South America. 
•■ Xcoochlg " (Yucatan, Maya); "yagromo hembra " (Cuba). 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 

Cecbopia comiiutata Schott ; Miquel in Mart. Fl. Bras. 4 1 : 14$. 1843. De- 
scribed from a sterile cultivated plant said to be of Mexican origin. 

Cecbopia pbopinqca Miquel in Mart. Fl. Bras. 4 1 : 149. 1S43. Described from 
sterile cultivated plants. 

10. COUSSAPOA Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: S91. 1775. 
1. Coussapoa rekoi Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 211. 1919. 

Veracruz and Oaxaca : type locality. Cafetal Concordia, Cerro Espino, 
Oaxaca, at an altitude of 600 meters. 

Large tree with spreading crown, the branchlets. stipules, and nerves 
prickly ; leaves ovate-rounded, sometimes half a meter long, entire, short- 
pointed ; flowers in globose pedunculate heads, the head becoming succulent and 
edible at maturity. " Chirimoya," " earnero " (Oaxaca): " ababiibite " (Vera- 
cruz). 

The ripe heads are edible : they are about 2.5 cm. in diameter and resemble 
miniature chirimoyas (Annona cherimola). Mr. Wilson Popenoe has found 
them recently offered for sale in markets of Veracruz. 

25. URTICACEAE. Nettle Family. 
Large or small shrubs or small trees, sometimes covered with stinging hairs. 
Many herbaceous representatives of the family occur in Mexico. Most of the 
species of the Urticaceae have very tough stems, from which coarse, tough 
fiber may be obtained. 
Plants with stinging hairs. 

Stigma penicillate-capitate : perianth lobes fleshy in fruit 1. URERA. 

Stigma filiform ; perianth lobes unchanged in fruit 2. URTTCASTRUM. 

Plants never with stinging hairs. 
Perianth membranaceous in fruit, inclosing the achene. 

Stigma persistent; leaves toothed 3. BOEHMERIA. 

Stigma deciduous; leaves entire 4. POUZOLZIA. 

Perianth none. 

Flowers in long slender spikes 5. MYRIOCARPA. 

Flowers in axillary glomerules 6. PHENAX. 



1. URERA Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 496. 1826. 



Refebexce: Weddell in DC. Prodr. 16* : 88-98. 1869. 

Trees or shrubs, covered with stinging hair* ; leaves alternate, stipulate, 
petioled ; flowers small, green, in axillary panicles, usually dioecious ; fruit a 
small achene, surrounded by the fleshy calyx and resembling a berry. 
Inflorescence not dichotomous ; leaves entire or sinuate. Achene exceeding the 

calyx 1. U. microcarpa. 

Inflorescence dichotomous ur trichotomous ; leaves crenate-dentate or coarsely 
dentate. 

Achene exceeding the calyx: leaves coarsely dentate 2. TT. baccifera. 

Achene not exceeding the calyx ; leaves closely crenate-dentate. 

3. U. caracasana. 









STAXDLEY TREES AND SHEUB5 OF MEXICO. 219 

1. Urera microcarpa Wedd. Arch. Mus. Paris 9: 156. 1856. 
Yucatan and Tabasco. Panama; Jamaica (type locality). 

Shrub or small tree; leaves elliptic-oblong, 7 to 10 cm. long. " Laol " (Yuca- 
tan, Maya). 

2. Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 497. 1826. 
Urtica laccifera L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1398. 1763. 

Oaxaca ; reported from Yucatan, and probably also in Tabasco or Chiapas. 
Central America, West Indies, and South America. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 7 meters high, covered with stout stinging hairs ; 
leaves oval or rounded-cordate. 10 to 30 cm. long or larger; flowers small, in 
cymes, whitish, the branches of the cymes red or purplish ; fruit small, juicy, 
white. " Ortiga de caballo " (Yucatan); " chichicastle " (Oaxaca); " chichi- 
cazte" (Guatemala) ; " ehichieazte nigua " (El Salvador) ; "ortiga" (Panama, 
Porto Rico) : "ortiga brava " (Porto Rico) ; " pringamosa " or - pringamoza " 
(Colombia, Santo Domingo, Venezuela); " guaina " (Colombia); " chichicate," 
" chiehicastre " (Cuba) . 

The fruit is said to be edible. In Yucatan the shrub is planted for hedges. 
The hairs sting the flesh severely and sometimes cause painful sores. The 
branches are said to be used sometimes in Colombia as a rubefacient, and the 
fiber separated from them is employed in Cuba and elsewhere for making rope 
and twine. According to Grosourdy, 1 the root has been used in Porto Rico as 
a popular remedy for gonorrhoea, and the juice of the leaves for chills in in- 
termittent fevers, while diuretic properties are ascribed to the plant. 

3. Urera caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb. Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 154. 185 
Urtica caracasana Jacq. PL Hort. Schonbr. 3: 71. pi. SS6. 1798. 
Urera earaca.snna tomentosa Wedd. in DC. Prodr. 16 3 : 90. 1869. 
Urtica ehkhiccitli Sesse & Moe. PI. Nov. Hisp. 160. 1887. 

Veracruz to Sinaloa, Chiapas, and Tabasco. Central America, West Indies, 
and tropical South America ; type from Caracas, Venezuela. 

Shrub or small tree. 2 to 4 meters high, usually armed with slender stinging 
hairs; leaves very variable in shape, rounded-ovate to rhombic-elliptic, cordate 
to obtuse at base, acute or acuminate at apex, sparsely or densely pubescent ; 
flowers very small, greenish; fruit bright red at maturity. "Ortiga" (Vera- 
cruz. Tabasco) ; " mal hombre " (Veracruz) ; " querntwicr " ( Sinaloa t : " chichi- 
eazlilio" (Oaxaca) : " chichicaxtli." "mala mujer " (Morelos. Sesse d Mocifio) : 
"tachinole" (Durango) ; " chichicaste " (Guatemala); "ortiga colorada " 
(Porto Rico). 

According to Reko, the Xahuatl name is " xio-patii " (xiotl, syphilis: patli. 
remedy, medicine). He states that the plant is still used by the Indians of the 
Sierra de Juarez as a remedy for syphilis. Sesse and Mocifio state that the 
shrub was sometimes planted for hedges. Palmer reports that in Durango it is 
employed to cure the effects of poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendron and related 
species ) . 

2. URTTCASTRUM Fabr. PI. Hort. Helmst. 204. 1759. 
1. Urticastrum mexicanum (Liebm.) Kuntze. Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 635. 1S91. 
Discocarpus mexicanus Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 309. 1851. 
Urera platucarpa Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat III. 18: 202. 1852. 
Laportea mericana Wedd. in DC. Prodr. 16 1 :84. 1879. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca (type locality 1 ). Guatemala. 

1 Rene de Grosourdy, El medico botanico criollo. 1S64. 



220 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Shrub, 1 to 3 meters high, covered with slender stinging hairs, the trunk 
thick, succulent, sparsely branched ; leaves broadly ovate, crenate ; flowers dioe- 
cious ; fruit a small thin orbicular achene. 

3. BOEHMERIA Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 9. 1760. 

Reference: Weddell in DC. Prodr. 16 *: 195-218. 1869. 

Shrubs or more commonly herbs ; leaves opposite or alternate, 3-nerved ; 
flowers green, unisexual, panicled, glomerate, or spicate in the leaf axils; fruit 
a small achene. 

A few herbaceous species occur in Mexico besides those listed below. The 
best-known species of the genus is the ramie plant (" ramie," " seda vegetal "), 
Boehmeria nirea (L.) Gaud., a large herb or small shrub which has been cul- 
tivated in Mexico as well as elsewhere for its fiber. It differs from the native 
Mexican species in having the leaves densely white-tomentose beneath. The 
original home of the plant was probably China, but the species is now widely 
dispersed in tropical regions. 

Flowers in dense axillary glomerules < 1. B. ulmifolia. 

Flowers in long dense spikes. 

Stipules lance-ovate ; leaves copiously pubescent on the upper surface. 

2. B. caudata. 

Stipules lance-linear; leaves glabrate on the upper surface 3. B. palmeri. 

1. Boehmeria ulmifolia Wedd. Arch. Mus. Paris 9: 347. 1856. 
Boehmeria fallax ulmifolia Wedd. in DC. Prodr. 16 *: 198. 1869. 
Veracruz ; type from Jalapa. Guatemala. 

Shrub, 1. 5 to 2.5 meters high ; leaves broadly ovate, crenate. 

2. Boehmeria caudata Swartz, Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ. 34. 1788. 
Boehmeria flagelHformis Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 310. 1851. 
Veracruz to Oaxaca. Central America, West Indies, and tropical South 

America. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 5 meters high ; leaves ovate or lance-elliptic, closely 
crenate. densely pubescent beneath. 

The plant is said to give a very strong liber. This is probably the plant de- 
scribed by Sesse. and Mociiio 1 as Urtica spicata. That name belongs properly to 
an Old World species of Boehmeria. 

3. Boehmeria palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 453. 1887. 
Known only from the type locality, Tequila, Jalisco. 

Shrub, 2.5 meters high; leaves ovate, 7 to 13 cm. long; flower spikes often 
leafy at the apex. 

4. POUZOLZIA Gaud, in Freyc. Voy. Bot. 503. 1826. 

Shrubs; leaves usually alternate, 3-nerved, stipulate; flowers monoecious, 
clustered in the leaf axils, the glomerules unisexual ; fruit a small achene. 

Leaves densely short-pilose beneath, not tomentose 1. P. palmeri. 

Leaves densely white-tomentose beneath. 

Leaves mostly 4 to 7 cm. long, abruptly acuminate 2. P. nivea. 

Leaves mostly 1.5 to 4 cm. long, rounded to acute at the apex__3. P. pringlei. 
1. Pouzolzia palmeri S. AVats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 453. 18S7. 

Rocky slopes of barrancas, Jalisco and Sinaloa to Morelos ; type from 
Guadalajara. 

Shrub, 1 to 1.5 meters high, with slender reddish brown branches ; leaves 
bright green, ovate or oval, acuminate; flowers very small, in dense axillary 
clusters. 



1 Fl. Mex. 235. 1896. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 221 

2. Pouzolzia nivea S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 453. 1887. 

Rocky slopes, Jalisco and Sinaloa to Veracruz ; type from Guadalajara. 

Shrub, 1 to 1.5 meters high; leaves ovate or oval, 3-nerved, very white 
beneath. 

P. lati folia Wedd. 1 was based on specimens said to have come from Mexico. 
Its description suggests P. nivea. 

3. Pouzolzia pringlei Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 33: 476. 1998. 
Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Tomellin Canyon, Oaxaca. 
Shrub similar to the last species but with much smaller leaves. 

5. MYPvIOCARPA Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 168. 1844. 

Reference : Weddell in DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 235 33 -235 3 \ 1869. 

Trees or shrubs ; leaves large, alternate, dentate, pinnately veined and some- 
what 3-nerved ; stipules connate ; flowers green, dioecious, the long stalks axil- 
lary, solitary or clustered ; fruit a small acheue. 

Leaf blades ovate-orbicular, cordate at the base 1. M. cordifolia. 

Leaf blades ovate or broadly ovate, obtuse or rounded or rarely subcordate at 
the base. 

Leaves serrate ; pistillate peduncles slender, glabrate 2. M. longipes. 

Leaves crenate ; pistillate peduncles stout, densely pilose_3. M. brachystachys. 

1. Myriocarpa cordifolia Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 306. 1851. 
Veracruz and Puebla ; type from forests near Colipa, Veracruz. 

Tree, 4 to 5 meters high ; leaves mostly 20 to 25 cm. long and nearly as wide ; 
fruit a small achene. " Mai hombre " ( Puebla ) . 

2. Myriocarpa longipes Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 306. 1851. 
Myriocarpa colipensis Liebm. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. Skrivt. V. 2: 306. 1851. 
Veracruz to Colima and Chiapas. Central America ; type from Costa Rica. 
Shrub, 2.5 to 6 meters high ; flowers in very long slender spikes. " Cholagogue 

Indio " (Oaxaca). 

The plant is sometimes used for hedges. In Oaxaca it is employed as a 
remedy for malaria. 

3. Myriocarpa brachystachys S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26: 152. 1891. 
Jalisco ; type from barranca near Guadalajara. 

Shrub or small tree ; leaves 7 to 17 cm. long, densely pubescent beneath. 
Myriocarpa stipitata ambigua Wedd., a described from Veracruz, is perhaps 
the same as M. longipes. 

6. PHENAX Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 1 : 191. 1854. 

Shi-ubs ; leaves alternate, petiolate. toothed, 3 or 5-nerved ; stipules free ; 
flowers green, monoecious, in dense axillary clusters, the bracts brown, scarious ; 
fruit a compressed achene. 

Leaf blades broadly ovate, thin, coarsely crenate 1. P. hirtus. 

Leaf blades ovate to lance-oblong, thick, finely and closely crenate. 

2. P. niexicanus. 

1. Phenax hirtus (Swartz) Wedd. in DC. Prodr. le'^S 38 . 1869. 

TJrtica hirta Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. 1: 285. 1797. 

Veracruz to Oaxaca. Central America, West Indies, and tropical South 
America. 

Shrub, 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves mostly 5 to 11 cm. long, green, glabrate, 
long-petiolate, coarsely crenate. 

'In DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 234. 1869. 2 In DC. Prodr. 16 1 : 235 s4 . 1S79. 



222 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Specimens reported from Jalapa by Hemsley ' as P. sonneratii Wedd. prob- 
ably belong here. 

2. Phenax mexicanus Wedd. Arch. Mus. Paris 9: 500. 1856. 

Phenax gaudichaudianus Wedd. Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 1:193. 1854. 

Phenax galeottianus Blume, Mus. Bot. Lugd. Bat. 2: 227. 1866. 

Veracruz, Oaxaca, and Chiapas. Central America. 

Shrub, 1 to 2.5 meters high ; leaves bright green, 3-nerved ; flowers small, in 
dense axillary clusters ; fruit a small achene. 

26. PROTEACEAE. Protea Family. 

1. ROUP ALA Aubl. PI. Guian. 1 : 83. 1775. 

1. Roupala borealis Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 78. pi- 76. 1882. 

Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from San Crist6bal, Veracruz. Guatemala. 

Shrub or small tree, nearly glabrous ; leaves dimorphous, part of them pinnate, 
with coarsely serrate leaflets, part of them simple, long-petiolate, ovate or ellip- 
tic, long-acuminate, shallowly serrate ; flowers small, in long slender spikes. 
" Palo de zorrillo " (Oaxaca). 

27. LORANTHACEAE. Mistletoe Family. 

Shrubs, sometimes very small, parasitic upon the branches of trees or shrubs, 
usually green but often red, brown, or yellowish and without chlorophyll ; 
leaves mostly opposite, entire, thick and leathery, frequently reduced to scales, 
estipulate ; flowers large or small, perfect or unisexual ; fruit a 1-seeded berry. 

The pulp of the fruit is extremely viscid, and if it comes in contact with 
any object it can not be separated from it without great difficulty. The fruit 
is eaten by birds and it is largely by their agency that the seeds are trans- 
ported from one host to another. It is said that in Brazil a kind of rubber 
has been extracted from the fruit, and that the leaves are used for tanning. 

When one of the plants of this family is removed from its host there is 
exposed upon the latter a curious structure which often assumes a flower-like 
form. These " wood flowers " or " flores de madera " are well known in some 
parts of tropical America, and various superstitions are associated with them. 
Flowers not calyculate, very small. 
Flowers in one rank on the joints of the inflorescence. Leaves developed. 

1. DENDROPHTHORA. 
Flowers in 2 or more ranks. 

Flowers solitary in the axils of the bracts ; leaves reduced to scales. 

2. RAZOUMOFSKYA. 
Flowers borne above the bracts on the axis of the spike ; leaves often well 

developed 3. PHORADENDRON. 

Flowers calyculate, often large and showy. 

Flowers sunk in the axis of the inflorescence 4. ORYCTANTHUS. 

Flowers not sunk in the axis of the inflorescence, sessile or pedicellate. 

Flowers small, less than 1 cm. long 5. STRUTHANTHUS. 

Flowers large, 2 cm. long or larger. 

Seeds with endosperm 6. PHRYGILANTHUS. 

Seeds without endosperm 7. PSITTACANTHUS. 

'Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3:161. 3883. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 223 

1. DENDROPHTHORA Eichl. in Mart. PI. Bras. 5 2 : 102. 1868. 

1. Dendrophthora pedicellata Van Tiegh. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 43: 182. 1896. 

Type from " Mesa Chica." 

Stems terete ; leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3.5 to 5 cm. long, obtuse or 
rounded at apex, glabrous ; spikes 1 cm. long, 2 or 3-jointed, the flowers pedi- 
cellate. 

2. RAZOUMOFSKYA Hoffm. Hort. Mosq. 1808. 

1. Razoumofskya vaginata (H. B. K.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1:587. 1891. 

Viscum vaginatum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 445. 1817. 

Arceuthobium cryptopodum Engelm. Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 6: 214. 1850. 

Arceuthobium vagina turn Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 105. 1868. 

Sonora to Coahuila, Mexico, and Oaxaca ; type from Cofre de Perote. Western 
United States. On pines ; reported also on Abies religiosa. 

Plants 6 to 20 cm. high, often forming dense tufts, much branched, brownish ; 
leaves reduced to small scales; flowers spicate. " Ingerto " (Durango). 

Hemsley * reports A. campglopodum Engelm. from Orizaba and A. oxyccdri 
Bieb. from Veracruz and Oaxaca. It may be that more than one species is 
represented in the material examined" by the writer, but there are no readily 
apparent characters for their separation. 

3. PHORADENDRON Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 1: 1S5. 1S47. 

Reference : Trelease, The genus Phoradendron, pp. 1-124, pi. 1-245. 1916. 

Branches terete, angulate, or compressed ; leaves opposite, sometimes reduced 
to scales ; flowers usually dioecious, sessile or immersed in the rachis of a 
spike. 

Mistletoe plants are much used in the United States for Christmas decora- 
tions, and on this account are of some commercial importance. The American 
mistletoes are different from the true mistletoe of Europe, Viscum album L., but 
some of them are similar to it in general appearance. The Spanish names 
applied to the European mistletoe are " muerdago," " liga," and " visco," words 
adopted in Spanish America for the native plants of the same family. The 
species of Phoradendron often occur upon trees in such abundance as ultimately 
to kill them. The fruit of some species has been reported as poisonous, but that 
of other species is said to be edible. The species apparently are little used 
in domestic medicine. The Coahuilla Indians of southern California are said 
to use the dried and powdered stems of one species (growing on Juniperus) as 
a remedy for saddle sores on horses. Ramirez gives the names applied to 
various species of doubtful identification as " cabellera," " liga," " visco cuer- 
cino," and " chachahua." 

Stems with scales near the base of the branches ; leaves always developed. 

Scales present on all the joints 1. P. piperoides. 

Scales present only on the basal joints of the branches. 

Leaves pinnately nerved, oval or oblong-oval 2. P. oliverianum. 

Leaves palmately nerved. 

Flowers mostly 2-ranked on each joint. 
Stems quadrangular. 
Fruit not tuberculate ; leaves twice as long as broad_3. P. townsendi. 
Fruit tuberculate ; leaves nearly as broad as long__4. P. yucatanum. 
Stems not quadrangular. 

Spikes filiform ; branchlets compressed 5. P. wawrae. 

Spikes stout; branchlets subterete 6. P. vernicosum. 

'Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 83^. 1882. 



224 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Flowers 4 to 6-ranked. 
Fruit tuberculate. 

Leaves 15 to 30 mm. wide 7. P. amplifolium. 

Leaves 4 to 8 mm. wide 8. P. carneum. 

Fruit not tuberculate. 
Branches sharply quadrangular. 
Sepals closely meeting in fruit. 

Spikes pedunculate 9. P. tamaulipense. 

Spikes sessile 10. P. gaumeri. 

Sepals not meeting in fruit. 

Leaves subsessile 11. P. guazumae. 

Leaves petiolate 12. P. commutatum. 

Branches terete or compressed. 

Leaves small, 10 to 12 mm. long 13. P. brevifolium. 

Leaves large, 3 cm. long or usually much larger. 
Leaves thin, sharply nerved. 

Leaf blades ovate-oval 14. P. pachyarthron. 

Leaf blades ovate-lanceolate to lance-linear. 

Branchlets subterete 15. P. schumanni. 

Branchlets compressed. 

Bracts usually 2 pairs 16. P. purpusi. 

Bracts a single pair 17. P. nervosum. 

Leaves very thick and coriaceous. 

Leaf blades oval-ovate 18. P. reichenbachianum. 

Leaf blades lanceolate to linear. 
Fruit ovoid. 
Branchlets compressed ; nerves coarse. 

19. P. lanceolatum. 
Branchlets not compressed ; nerves slender. 

20. P. falcatum. 

Fruit globose 21. P. forestierae. 

Stems without scales on the branches ; leaves sometimes reduced to scales. 

Branches broadly winged 22. P. calyculatum. 

Branches not winged. 

Pistillate flowers 2 to each joint. Plants parasitic chiefly on Pinaceae. 
Leaves reduced to small scales, not disarticulating. 

Plants puberulent; spikes several-jointed 23. P. californicum. 

Plants glabrous; spikes 1-jointed. 

Scales strongly constricted at the base. On Juniperus. 

24. P. ligatum. 
Scales obscurely or not at all constricted. 
Scales not constricted; plants stout, on Juniperus. 

25. P. juniperinum. 
Scales obscurely constricted ; plants slender, pendent, on Libo- 

cedrus 26. P. libocedri. 

Leaves well developed or sometimes scalelike but disarticulating. 

Leaves scalelike 27. P. minutifolium. 

Leaves well developed. 

Leaves linear or linear-oblong. 

Plants tomentose ; spikes often with 2 or 3 joints. 

28. P. capitellatum. 
Plants papillose or hirtellous; spikes usually with one joint. 

Staminate spikes about 12-flowered 29. P. tequilense. 

Staminate spikes about 6-flowered 30. P. saltillense. 



STANDLEY— TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 225 

Leaves more or less spatulate. 

Leaves spatulate-linear 31. P. bolleanum. 

Leaves oblanceolate-spatulate. 

Spikes usually 2-jointed ; staiuinate spikes mostly 6-flowered. 

32. P. guadalupense. 
Spikes usually 1 -jointed ; staminate spikes 8 to 12-flowered. 
Staminate spikes about 12-flowered ; on Juniperus. 

33. P. densum. 
Staminate spikes about 8-flowered; on Abies and Cupre&ms. 

34. P. pauciflorum. 
Pistillate flowers 6 or more on each joint. 
Brandies compressed at the joints. 

Leaves 10 to 25 mm. wide 35. P. scaberrimum. 

Leaves 5 to 7 mm. wide 36. P. longifolium. 

Branches not compressed. 

Leaves mostly acute or attenuate, large (mostly 7 to 10 cm. long), 

pubescent 37. P. velutinum. 

Leaves rounded or very obtuse at the apex, or if acute very small. 
Leaves small, usually 1 cm. wide or less, if larger very long in pro- 
portion to their breadth. 

Plants persistently tomentose 38. P. lanatum. 

Plants not persistently tomentose, the pubescence sparse or soon 
deciduous. 
Fruit villous or hispid. 

Leaves oval or elliptic 39. P. eduardi. 

Leaves linear-oblanceolate to narrowly oblong. 

Fruit retrorsely hispid. Sepals closed 40. P. galeottii. 

Fruit sparsely villous. 

Sepals closed 41. P. peninsulare. 

Sepals open 42. P. palmeri. 

Fruit glabrous or puberulent. 

Leaves subacute, sessile 43. P. mazatlanum. 

Leaves very obtuse, usually petiolate. 
Plants large, stout. 

Leaves sessile 44. P. globuliferum. 

Leaves petiolate. 

Plants glabrate 45. P. brachystachyum. 

Plants densely pubescent throughout. 

46. P. tlacolulense. 
Plants small (of Baja California). 

Leaves oval or rounded 47. P. aureum. 

Leaves oblong or obovate-oblong 48. P. diguetii. 

Leaves large, most of them 2 cm. wide or larger, never much elongate. 
Fruit pubescent. 

Leaf blades mostly 5 to 8 cm. long 49. P. robinsoni. 

Leaf blades usually less than 4 cm. long. 

Leaves orbicular or nearly so 50. P. coryae. 

Leaves elliptic or obovate 51. P. tomentosum. 

Fruit glabrous. 

Spikes yellow-hispid 52. P. colipense. 

Spikes glabrous, tomentose, or sparsely villous. 
Spikes glabrous or sparsely villous. 

Leaves suborbicular 53. P. macrophyllum. 

Leaves rounded-obovate 54. P. cockerellii. 



226 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Spikes canesceut-tomentose. 

Staminate spikes 4 to G cm. long 55. P. greggii. 

Staminate spikes 2 cm. long or shorter. 
Staminate spikes (in flower) 1.5 to 2 cm. long. 

56. P. engelmanni. 
Staminate spikes 1 cm. long 57.P. thyrsoideum. 

1. Phoradendron piptroides (H. B. K.) Trel. Gen. Phorad. 145. 1916. 
Viscum latifolium, Swartz, PI. Ind. Occ. 1 : 26S. 1707. Not V. latifolium .Lam. 

1789. 

Loranthus pipe*-oides H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 443. 1818. 

Viscum comifolium Presl, Epim. Bot. 254. 1849. 

Viscum cllipticum Presl, Epim. Bot. 254. 1849. 

Viscum laurifolium Presl, Epim. Bot. 255. 1849. 

Veracruz. Central America, West Indies, and South America ; type from 
Popay&n, Colombia. On various dicotyledonous hosts. 

Leaves lanceolate to broadly ovate, 6 to 10 cm. long, acute or acuminate; fruit 
yellow or orange. 

2. Phoradendron oliverianum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 136. pi. 201. 1916. 
Veracruz ; type from Mirador. 

Leaves oval or elliptic, 4.5 to 6 cm. long, obtuse or rounded at the apex; 
spikes 2 to 3.5 cm. long. 

3. Phoradendron townsendi Trel. Gen. Phorad. 112. pi. 162. 1916. 
Known only from Socorro Island. 

Leaves oblanceolate-oblong, 4 to 6 cm. long, very obtuse ; spikes 1 cm. long. 

4. Phoradendron yucatanum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 118. pi. 178. 1916. 
Yucatan. 

Leaves cuneately obovate or suborbiculav, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long, rounded or 
emarginate at the apex ; spikes 5 to 10 mm. long. 

5. Phoradendron wawrae Trel. Gen. Phorad. 94. pi. 12S. 1916. 
Veracruz ; type from Tuxpan. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate, 5 to 10 cm. long, very obtuse ; spikes 1 to 
1.5 cm. long. 

6. Phoradendron vernicosum Greenm. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 250, 1897. 
Yucatan, the type from Izamal ; parasitic on Bumelia bu.cifolia and perhaps 

on other plants. 

Leaves elliptic, obovate, or lanceolate, 2.5 to 4 cm. long, very obtuse ; spikes 
1 to 2 cm. long. 

7. Phoradendron amplifolium Trel. Gen. Phorad. 59. pi. 68. 1916. 
Veracruz, Puebla, and Oaxaca ; type collected between Piaxtla and Aniolac. 

Puebla. 

Leaves oblanceolate-oblong to obovate-elliptie, very obtuse, 8 to 12 cm. long; 
spikes 3 cm. long; fruit reddish, 6 to 7 mm. in diameter. 

8. Phoradendron carneum Urban, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 23: Beibl. 5: 1. 1897. 
Jalisco to Queretaro and Oaxaca ; type from Guadalajara ; on Ipomoca and 

Populus. 

Leaves linear-l.-mceolate, obtuse or acute. 5 to 15 cm. long; spikes 2 to 3 cm. 
long; fruit reddish orange, 4 to 5 mm. in diameter. 

9. Phoradendron tamaulipense Trel. Gen. Phorad. 115. pi. 161. 1916. 
Tamaulipas, Veracruz, and Oaxaca; type from Alvarado. Veracruz; on Sali.r. 

Populus, Mimosa, mid Parmenticra. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 227 

Leaves elliptie-obovate, obtuse, 3.5 to 5 cm. long, subsessile ; spikes 1.5 to 5 cm. 
long; fruit coral-red or deep orange. " Ingerto," ' " seca-palo " (Tamaulipas). 

In Tamaulipas the plant is used with "chile color" (Capsicum) to make an 
ointment applied for the relief of pain. 

10. Phoradendron gaumeri Trel. Gen. Phorad. 114. pi. 167. 1916. 
Known only from the type locality, Izainal, Yucatan. 

Leaves elliptie-obovate, obtuse, 2.5 to 3 cm. long ; spikes 2 to 4 cm. long. 

11. Phoradendron guazumae Trel. Gen. Phorad. 104. pi. 1^8. 1916. 
Sinaloa ; type from Mazatl&n ; on Guazu?na. 

Leaves oblanceolate or obovate. 4 to 5.5 cm. long, very obtuse; spikes 1 to 2 
cm. long. 

12. Phoradendron commutatum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 106. pi. 150, 151. 1916. 
Sinaloa to San Luis Potosi and Tabasco ; type collected between Guadalajara 

and Tepic. Honduras and Nicaragua. 

Leaves obovate, 3.5 to 5 cm. long, obtuse or acute; spikes 1.5 to 3 cm. long; 
fruit red. " Cabellera " (Tabasco). 

13. Phoradendron brevifolium Oliver, Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1864: 
176. 1864. 

Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Tehuacan, Puebla. 

Leaves narrowly elliptic or oblong, 3 mm. wide, very obtuse, sessile; spikes 
5 cm. long or shorter. 

14. Phoradendron pachyarthron Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 122. 1S6S. 
Known only from BaEos, Hidalgo, the type locality. 

Leaves 5 to 9 cm. long, obtuse, petiolate ; spikes 2 cm. long. 

15. Phoradendron schumanni Trel. Gen. Phorad. 62. pi. 71, 72. 1916. 
Chihuahua. Durango, and Guanajuato ; type from Jaral, Guanajuato ; on 

Quercus. 

Leaves oblong-elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, 6 to 8 cm. long, petiolate ; 
spikes 2 to 7 cm. long. 

16. Phoradendron purpusi Trel. Gen. Phorad. 62. pi. 73. 1916. 
Veracruz ; type from Zacuapan ; on Quercus. 

Leaves falcate-lanceolate, acute or obtuse, 8 to 15 cm. long, petiolate ; spikes 

5 cm. long or shorter. 

17. Phoradendron nervosum Oliver, Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1864: 
175. 1864. 

Phoradendron conzattii Trel. Gen. Phorad. 63. pi. 15. 1916. 
Veracruz to Oaxaca ; type from Colipa, Veracruz ; reported on Annona, 
Liquidambar styracifltia, Pyrus, and Quercus. 
Leaves lanceolate, obtuse to attenuate, 9 to 30 cm. long, petiolate; spikes 2 to 

6 cm. long ; fruit reddish. 

18. Phoradendron reichenbachianum (Seem.) Oliver, Nat. For. Kjobenhavn 
Vid. Medd. 1864: 175. 1864. 

Vi-scum reichenbacliianum Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 296. pi. 62. 1856. 
Jalisco to Mexico ; type from the Sierra Madre ; on Quercus. 
Leaves obtuse, 8 to 10 cm. long ; spikes 3 to 5 cm. long. 

19. Phoradendron lanceolatum Engelm. Mem. Amer. Acad. n. ser. 4: 59. 1849. 
Nuevo Leon ; type from Rinconada ; on Quercus. 

Leaves 6 to 8 cm. long, 1 to 1.5 cm. wide, obtuse, subpetiolate ; spikes 3 to 4 cm. 
long. 

^'Ingerto" (often written "injerto") is the Spanish word for "graft," a 
terra not inappropriate for mistletoe. 



228 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

20. Phoradendron falcatum (Schlecht. & Cham.) Trel. Gen. Phorad. 65. '1916. 
Viscum falcatum Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5: 172. 1830. 

Viscum schiedeanum DC. Prodr. 4: 671. 1830. 

San Luis Potosf and Veracruz ; type from Jalapa ; on Quercus. 

Leaves 8 to 15 cm. long. 1.5 cm. wide, obtuse ; spikes 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long. 

21. Phoradendron forestierae Robins. & Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 32: 36. 
1896. 

Phoradendron pringlei Trel. Gen. Phorad. 60. pi. 70. 1916. 

Hidalgo and Puebla ; type collected between Tehuacan and Esperanza Puebla ; 
on Fores tier a and Fraxinus. 

Leaves linear-lanceolate, 5 to 16 cm. long, obtuse or acute; spikes 1 to 4 cm. 
long. 

22. Phoradendron calyculatum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 54. pi. 62, 63. 1916. 
Viscum falcatum Hook. Icon. PI. 4: pi. 368. 1841. Not V. falcatum Schlecht. 

& Cham. 1830. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Jalapa ; on Quercus. 

Leaves narrowly falcate-lanceolate, obtuse, 15 to 25 cm. long ; spikes 3 to 4 
cm. long. 

23. Phoradendron californicum Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 1: 185. 1848. 
Baja California, Sonora, and Sinaloa. California (type locality) to Utah. 

Reported on Acacia, Prosopis, Zizyphus, Parkinsonia. Olneya. Covillca, and 
Microrhamnus. 

Spikes 5 to 10 mm. long; fruit red, 3 mm. in diameter. 

Russell 1 reports that this plant is eaten by the Pima Indians of Arizona. 
The stems bearing the fruit are boiled, and the fruit is then stripped off into 
the mouth and eaten. 

24. Phoradendron lig-atum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 24. pi. 15. 1916. 

Chihuahua and Durango; probably in Baja California. California, Oregon 
(type locality), and Nevada. On Juniperus and Cuyressus. 
Spikes about 2 mm. long. 

25. Phoradendron juniperinum Engelm. Mem. Amer. Acad. n. ser. 4: 58. 1849. 
Chihuahua. Western Texas to Colorado, Utah, and Arizona ; type from 

Santa Fe, New Mexico. On Juniperus. 

Spikes 3 mm. long; fruit yellowish or wine-colored. 

According to Hough, the Hopi Indians of Arizona use the plant as a sub- 
stitute for coffee. 

26. Phoradendron libocedri (Engelm.) Howell, Fl. Northw. Amer. 1: 608. 1902. 
Phoradendron juniperinum libocedri Engelm. ; S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 105. 

1S80. 
Baja California. California (type from Lassens Peak) and Oregon. On 
L i boccdrus decurrcns. 

Spikes 3 mm. long; fruit straw-colored. 

27. Phoradendron minutifolium Urban, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 23: Beibl. 5: 2. 
1897. 

Veracruz ; type from Llanos de Perote ; on Juniperus. 
Leaves acute, 2 to 3 mm. long ; spikes 3 mm. long. 

28. Phoradendron capitellatum Torr. ; Trel. Gen. Phorad. 25. pi. 17. 1916. 
Sonora. Western Texas to Arizona ; type from New Mexico. On Juniperus. 
Leaves 1 to 1.5 cm. long, acute; spikes 5 mm. long; fruit straw-colored. 

29. Phoradendron tequilense Trel. Gen. Phorad. 26. pi. 18. 1916. 

Known only from the type locality, Sierra de Tequila, Jalisco. Reported on 
"Thuya" (Cuprcssus or Juniperus'!). 

1 Frank Russell, The Pima Indians, Ann. Rept. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. 26. 1908. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 229 

Leaves 1 to 1.5 cm. long, acute, sessile ; spikes 4 to 7 mm. long ; fruit straw- 
colored. 

30. Phoradendron saltillense Trel. Gen. Phorad. 27. pi. 16. 1916. 

Known only from the type locality, San Antonio de las Alazanes. near Sal- 
tillo, Coahuila ; on Juniperus. 
Leaves 2 to 3 cm. long, acute, sessile; spikes 5 to 6 mm. long. 

31. Phoradendron bolleanum (Seem.) Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 134. 1868. 
Viscum bolleanum Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 295. pi. 63. 1856. 

Chihuahua and Durango ; type from the Sierra Madre ; on Juniperus; one 
collection reported, perhaps erroneously, as on Arbutus. 

Leaves 1 to 1.5 cm. long, acute, sessile ; spikes 3 mm. long ; fruit straw-colored. 
" Ingerto " (Durango) . 

32. Phoradendron guadalupense Trel. Gen. Phorad. 29. pi. 22, 23. 1916. 
Known only froru Guadalupe Island, Baja California. 

Leaves 1.5 to 3 cm. long, very obtuse, sessile ; spikes about 1 cm. long. 

33. Phoradendron densuni Torr. ; Trel. Gen. Phorad. 27. pi. 20. 1916. 

Sonora. California and Oregon ; type from Mount Shasta. On Juniperus. 

Leaves 1.2 to 2 cm. long very obtuse, sessile ; spikes 3 mm. long ; fruit straw- 
colored. 

34. Phoradendron pauciflorum Torr. U. S. Rep. Expl. Miss. Pacif. 4 4 : 134. 1857. 
Baja California. California (type locality) and Arizona. On Abies and per- 
haps on Cupressus. 

Leaves 2 to 3 cm. long, obtuse, sessile ; spikes 5 mm. long ; fruit straw- 
colored. 

35. Phoradendron scaberrimum Trel. Gerr. Phorad. 52. pi. 59. 1916. 
Sinaloa and Tepic ; type from Santa Teresa, Tepic. 

Leaves narrowly lanceolate, acutish to ernarginate, 10 to 16 cm. long ; spikes 
2.5 cm. long. 

36. Phoradendron longifolium Eichl. (in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 107. 1S68, nomen 
nudum) ; Trel. Gen. Phorad. 53. pi. 60. 1916. 

Known only from the type locality, San Pedro Nolasco, Oaxaca. 
Leaves linear-oblong, acutish, 10 to 14 cm. long ; spikes 2.5 cm. long. 

37. Phoradendron velutinum (DC.) Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 1: 185. 1847. 
Viscum velutinum DC. Prodr. 4: 281. 1830. 

Queretaro to Oaxaca ; type from Toluca, Mexico. Guatemala. On Cornus, 
Crataegus, Quercus, etc. 

Leaves falcate-lanceolate, acute or acuminate, 1 to 2.5 cm. wide ; spikes 1.5 to 
2 cm. long. 

38. Phoradendron lanatum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 45. pi. 46. 1916. 
Queretaro to Oaxaca ; type from Hacienda Ciervo y Cadereyta, Queretaro. 
Leaves narrowly elliptic or obovate, 2 to 3 cm. long, acute or obtuse ; spikes 

1 cm. long. 

39. Phoradendron eduardi Trel. Gen. Phorad. 46. pi. 47. 1916. 
Baja California ; type from Carmen Island. 

Leaves 1.5 to 2 cm. long, sessile, Aery obtuse; spikes 2.5 to 4 cm. long; fruit 
creamy white, 4 mm. in diameter. 

40. Phoradendron galeottii Trel. Gen. Phorad. 46, pi. 46. 1916. 
Veracruz; type from Mirador; on Quercus. 

Leaves 2 to 5 cm. long, obtuse ; spikes 1.5 cm. long or shorter. 



230 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

41. Phoradendron peninsulare Trel. Gen. Phorad. 50. pi. 55. 1916. 
Baja California ; type from Cape San Lucas. 

Leaves 1.5 to 3 cm. long, very obtuse; spikes 1 to 2 cm. long. 
According to Trelease, this may be the pistillate form of P. diguetii. 

42. Phoradendron palmeri Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 40: 28. 1904. 
Known only from the type locality, Alvarez, San Luis Potosi ; on Quercus. 
Leaves 2 to 3.5 cm. long, obtuse ; spikes 0.5 to 2 cm. long. " Ingerto de 

encina." 

43. Phoradendron mazatlanum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 47. pi. Jf8. 1916. 
Known only from the type locality, Mazatlan, Sinaloa. 

Leaves spatulate-oblong, 3.5 to 4.5 cm. long ; spikes 2 cm. long. 

44. Phoradendron globuliferum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 48. pi. 51. 1916. 
Vicinity of Guaymas, Sonora. 

Leaves elliptic-obovate, very obtuse, 2 cm. long ; spikes 0.5 to 2 cm. long. 
Perhaps not distinct from the next species. 

45. Phoradendron brachystachyum (DC.) Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 1: 185. 
1847. 

Viscum brachystachyum DC. Prodr. 4: 280. 1830. 

Sonora to Tamaulipas, Veracruz, and Oaxaca ; type collected between Tampico 
and Real del Monte ; on Arbutus, Quercus, Jacquinia, Guaiacum, etc. 

Leaves oblong-lanceolate to orbicular, very variable, 1.5 to 5 cm. long; spikes 
1 to 1.5 cm. long. 

46. Phoradendron tlacolulense Loes. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2: 536. pi. 20. 1894. 
Oaxaca ; type from Mitla. 

Leaves orbicular or obovate, 1 to 2 cm. long ; spikes 5 mm. long. 

47. Phoradendron aureum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 49. pi. 52. 1916. 
Known only from the type locality, Santa Cruz, Baja California. 
Leaves 1 to 2 cm. long, short-petiolate ; spikes 1 to 1.5 cm. long. 

48. Phoradendron diguetii Van Tiegh. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 1 : 31. 1895. 
Phoradendron brachyphyllum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 49. pi. 53. 1916. 
Phoradendron tumidum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 49. pi. 53. 1916. 
Phoradendron saccatum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 50. pi. 55. 1916. 

Baja California ; on Quercus, Veatchia, Jatropha, etc. 
Leaves 3 cm. long, short-petiolate ; spikes 1.5 cm. long. 

49. Phoradendron robinsoni Urban, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 23: Beibl. 5: 4. 1897. 
Puebla and Guerrero ; type from Tehuacau, Puebla ; on Celtis. 

Leaves oblanceolate or obovate, very obtuse, petiolate; spikes 2 to 8.5 cm. 
long. 

50. Phoradendron coryae Trel. Gen. Phorad. 43. pi. hk- 1916. 
Phoradendron ivilkinsoni Trel. Gen. Phorad. 44. pi. ^5. 1916. 

Chihuahua to Baja California. Western Texas to Arizona ; type from Chiri- 
cahua Mountains, Arizona. On Quercus. 

Leaves 1.5 to 3.5 cm. long, short-petiolate; spikes 1.5 to 2 cm. long; fruit 
white. 

51. Phoradendron tomentosum (DC.) Oliver, Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 
1864: 176. 1864. 

Viscum tomentosum DC. Prodr. 4: 670. 1830. 

Viscum villosum Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 654. 1840. 

Phoradendron villosum Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 1: 185. 1848. 

Phoradendron puberulum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 42. pi. 43. 1916. 

Chihuahua to Baja California and Hidalgo; type from "Real de Catone." 
California and Oregon. On Celtis, Prosopis, Quercus, Platanus, Acacia, Aescu- 
lus, Arctostaphylos. Populus, Rhus, Robinia, Salix, etc. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 231 

Leaves 2 to 3.5 cm. long, very obtuse, short-petiolate ; spikes 1 to 3.5 cm. 
long; fruit white. The following names are reported, but they may apply to 
other species: " Visco cuercino," " liga " (Mexico); " ingerto " (Durango) ; 
" silmo " (Sinaloa). 

52. Phoradendron colipense Trel. Gen. Phorad. 37. pi. 33. 1916. 
Known only from the type locality, Colipa, Veracruz. 

Leaves oblanceolate-elliptic, very obtuse, 5 to 8 cm. long; spikes 3.5 cm. 
long. 

It is doubtful whether this and the following species are sufficiently distinct 
from each other or from P. flavescens (Pursh) Nutt, of the eastern United 
States. 

53. Phoradendron macrophyllum (Engelm.) Cockerell, Amer. Nat. 34: 293. 
1900. 

Phoradendron flavescens macrophytlum Engelm.; Rothr. in Wheeler, Rep. 
U. S. Surv. 100th Merid. 6: 252. 1878. 

Sonora. Arizona, the type from Camp Grant. On Alnus, Celtis, Fraxinus, 
Juglans, Platanus, Populus, Salix, etc. 

Leaves 2.5 to 6 cm. long, short-petiolate; spikes 1.5 to 5 cm. long; fruit 
white, 4 to 5 mm. in diameter. 

54. Phoradendron cockerellii Trel. Gen. Phorad. 38. pi. 36. 1916. 
Chihuahua. New Mexico and western Texas ; type from Silver City, New 

Mexico. On Populus, Salix, and Fraxinus. 

Leaves 3.5 to 5.5 cm. long, petiolate ; spikes 1.5 to 5 cm. long ; fruit white. 
.55. Phoradendron greggii Trel. Gen. Phorad. 36. pi. 22. 1916. 

Coahuila and Nuevo Leon ; type from Rinconada, Nuevo Leon ; on Acacia and 
Prosopis. 

Leaves elliptic or broader, 2.5 to 4.5 cm. long, petiolate ; fruit white. 

56. Phoradendron engelmanni Trel. Gen. Phorad. 35 pi. 29-31. 1916. 
Chihuahua. Western Texas ; type from New Braunfels. On Celtis, Quercus, 

Prosopis, etc. 

Leaves obovate, 3 to 5 cm. long, short-petiolate ; fruit white. 

57. Phoradendron thyrsoideum Trel. Gen. Phorad. 36. pi. 33. 1916. 
Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi; type from Victoria, Tamauiipas ; on Pro- 
sopis juli flora and Acacia farnesiana. 

Leaves obovate-spatulate, 3 to 5 cm. long, short-petiolate; fruit waxy white. 
"Ingerto bianco" (Tamaulipas). 

4. ORYCTANTHUS Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 87. 1868. 

1. Oryctanthus glaberrimus (Oliver) Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 89. 1S6S. 

Loranthus glaberrimus Oliver, Nat. For. Kjdbenhavn Vid. Medd. 1864: 170. 
1864. 

Known only from Guatulco, the type locality. 

Plants glabrous, the branches compressed ; flowers very small, sunk in the 
axis of the spike. 

5. STRUTHANTHUS Mart. Flora 13: 102. 1830. 

Plants green, usually glabrous, parasitic upon dicotyledonous plants, the 
branches terete or compressed ; leaves well developed, opposite ; flowers small, 
spicate, racemose, or corymbose. 
Leaves small, 16 mm. long or shorter. 

Bmnches densely pubescent; flowers cymose-capitate 1. S. microphyllus. 

5. r >268— 22 5 



232 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL. HERBARIUM. 

Branches glabrous ; flowers mostly solitary. 

Branchlets compressed; leaves very obtuse 2. S. inconspicuus. 

Branchlets terete: leaves acutish 3. S. inornus. 

Leaves large, 3 cm. long or often much longer. 
Leaves abruptly acuminate at apex. 

Flowers pedicellate; perianth 4.5 to 6 mm. long 4. S. deppeanus. 

Flowers sessile ; perianth less than 4 mm. long. 

Flower clusters sessile 5. S. densiflorus. 

Flower clusters pedunculate, the peduncles swollen and reflexed in fruit. 

6. S. quercicola. 
Leaves rounded to acute at apex, never abruptly acuminate. 

Leaf blades orbicular to elliptic, glaucescent ; inflorescence loose, elongate, 
interrupted. 
Style contorted ; inflorescence usually shorter than the leaves. 

7. S. venetus. 

Style straight; inflorescence longer than the leaves 8. S. hartwegi. 

Leaf blades oblong, lanceolate, linear, or oblong-obovate. 

Inflorescence pedunculate, usually 3-flowered ; leaves mostly obovate- 

oblong 9. S. diversifolius. 

Inflorescence sessile or nearly so ; leaves mostly lanceolate to linear. 

Leaves mostly 2.5 to 3.5 cm. wide 10. S. grahami. 

Leaves mostly 0.4 to 1.2 cm. wide 11. S. haenkeanus. 

1. Struthanthus microphyllus (H. B. K.) Don, Hist. Dichl. PI. 3: 413. 1S34. 
Loranthus microphyllus H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 439. pi. 300. 1818. 
Jalisco to Morelos ; type from Cuernavaca ; on Qucrcus, Solatium, etc. 
Leaves lanceolate to ovate or almost linear, acute or acutish ; flowers about 

4 mm. long. 

2. Struthanthus inconspicuus (Benth.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 

212. 1919. 
Loranthus inconspicuus Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 102. 1844. 
Sinaloa to Guerrero; type from San Bias, Tepic ; on Randia, etc. 
Leaves oblanceolate or obovate ; branches greenish ; flowers minute. 

3. Struthanthus incrnus (Robins. & Greenm.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 

20: 212. 1919. 
Loranthus inornus Robins. & Greenm. Amer. Journ. Sci. 50: 163. 1895. 
Known only from the type locality, Cuicatlan, Oaxaca. 
Leaves oblanceolate or subulate. 

4. Struthanthus deppeanus (Cham. & Schlecht.) Blume; Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 

1731. 1830. 
Loranthus deppeanus Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5: 172. 1830. 
Loranthus liebtnanni Oliver. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1864: 172. 

1864. v 

Veracruz ; type from Jalapa. 

Leaves ovate-lanceolate, about 7 cm. long, petiolate. 

Loranthus liebmanni was described from Chinantla, Oaxaca, and may be 
different. 

5. Struthanthus densiflorus (Benth.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 

212. 1919. 

Loranthus densiflorus Benth. PI. Hartw. 62. 1840. 

Veracruz to Oaxaca ; type from Hacienda del Carmen. Central America. 
On Citrus, etc. 

Leaves lanceolate or ovate. 6 to 10 cm. long; flowers verticillate along the 
axis of a short spike. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 233 

6. Struthanthus quercicola (Cham. & Schlecht.) Blume; Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 

1731. 1830. 
Loranthus quercicola Cham. & Schlecht Linnaea 5: 173. 1830. 
Loranthus crassipes Oliver, Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Yid. Medd. 1864: 173. 1864. 
San Luis Potosi and Veracruz ; type from Jalapa ; on Quercus, Acacia far- 
nesiana, etc. 
Leaves ovate or oval-ovate, 4 to 7.5 cm. long. 

7. Struthanthus venetus (H. B. K.) Blume; Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 1731. 1830. 
Loranthus venetus H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 434. 1818. 

Sinaloa to Guerrero and Tabasco ; type from Cuernavaca, Morelos. Central 
America. 

Stems elongate, trailing or scandent, brownish ; leaves 3 to 11 cm. long, 
pale; flowers about 6 mm. long; fruit glaucous. " Cabellera " (Tabasco). 

It is probable that this is the plant described by Sesse 1 and Mociiio * as 
Loranthus volubilis. This is based on plants from Cuernavaca, and the Nahuatl 
name is given as " teapizmictianiquauhitl." 

8. Struthanthus hartwegi (Benth.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 212. 

1919. 
Loranthus harticegi Benth. PI. Hartw. 62. 1S40. 

Described from Talea, Oaxaca ; parastic on Annona. Reported from Costa 
Rica. 

Leaves ovate-orbicular, 4 to 6.5 cm. long; flowers 6 mm. long. 

9. Struthanthus diversifolius (Benth.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 

212. 1919. 
Loranthus diversifolius Benth. Pi. Hartw. 63. 1840. 

Described from Mexico, the locality not known ; specimens from Jalisco and 
Colima seem to be closely related, and perhaps belong to this species. 
Flowers about 1 cm. long. 

10. Struthanthus grahami (Benth.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 212. 
1919. 

Loranthus grahami Benth. PI. Hartw. 62. 1S40. 

Morelos ; perhaps also in Sonora and Sinaloa ; reported from Veracruz and 
Oaxaca ; on Quercus, etc. 

Leaves 15 cm. long or smaller, short-petiolate, narrowed to an obtuse apex. 

11. Struthanthus haenkeanus 2 (Presl) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 
212. 1919. 

Spirostylis haenkcana Presl; Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 163. 1829. 
Loranthus spirostylis DC. Prodr. 4: 315. 1830. 

Sonora to Oaxaca; type from Acapulco. On Celtis, Quercus, Nerium, etc. 
Branches long and slender, drooping or sometimes twining: leaves linear to 
lanecolate; fruit red or orange. " Toji " (Sonora). 

'PI. Nov. Hisp. 51. 1SS7. ' 

s Named in honor of Thaddeus Haenke" (1761-1817), a Bohemian. He was 
to have accompanied the Malaspina expedition executed during the reign of 
Charles III. but he reached Cadiz the day after that organization had set sail. 
He took another' ship and sailed for Buenos Aires, proceeding to Chile, where 
he joined Nee, and with him journeyed to Mexico. Haenke's Mexican collec- 
tions were made along the road from Acapulco to the City of Mexico. He died 
in Bolivia. His specimens are chiefly at Prague and Vienna. Presl published 
two volumes under the title " Reliquiae Haenkeanae," based upon his col- 
lections. 



234 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 

Lobamhus intebbuptus H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 3: 440. 1817. Type from 
Ario, Michoacan. 

Lobanthus tehuacanensis Oliver, Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1864: 
171. 1864. Described from Tehuacan. Puebla ; reported from Oaxaca, Tabasco, 
ana Guatemala. Perhaps of the genus Oryctanthus. 

Stkuthanthus selerokum Loes. Bull. Herb. Boiss. 2: 536. 1S94. Type from 
Matlatengo, Hidalgo. 

6. PHRYGILANTHUS Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 45. 1S68. 

Plants glabrous, parasitic on dicotyledonous hosts, the branches terete ; 
flowers large and showy, solitary or cymose. 

Leaf blades linear or terete 1. P. sonorae. 

Leaf blades broadly spatulate-obovate 2. P. palmeri. 

1. Phrygilanthus sonorae (S. Wats.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 212. 

1919. 

Loranthus sonorae S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24: 73. 1889. 

Baja California and Sonora ; parasitic on Elaphrium microphyllum ; type 
from Guaymas. 

Plants glaucous, much branched ; leaves slender, 4 to G mm. long ; flowers 
bright red, 4 cm. long. " Ingerto " (Baja California). 

2. Phrygilanthus palmeri (S. Wats.) Engl, in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 

Nachtr. 1: 134. 1897. 

Loranthus palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 21: 438. 1SS6. 

Chihuahua to Jalisco and Puebla, ou species of Elaphrium ; type from Ha- 
cienda San Miguel, Chihuahua. 

Plants green, with stout reddish brown branches ; leaves 2 to 2.5 cm. long, 
petiolate, rounded at apex ; flowers red, almost 4 cm. long. 

7. PSITTACANTHUS Mart. Flora 13: 106. 1830. 
Parasites, usually upon dicotyledonous plants, with green leaves ; flowers 
large, cymose or corymbose. 

A plant of the family Loranthaceae and probably of this genus, growing on 
the Pico de Orizaba, is said to be known locally as " planta quebradora." The 
species of Psittacanthus (Greek for "parrot-flower") have more showy flowers 
than the Mexican representatives of other genera of the family. 

Perianth velutinous 1. P. mexicanus. 

Perianth glabrous. 

Branches all terete, or nearly so. 

Anthers 5 to 6 mm. long; leaves cordate-clasping, glaucous. 

2. P. auriculatus. 

Anthers about 18 mm. long; leaves obovate-elliptic 3. P. macrantherus. 

Branches usually quadrangular, at least more or less angulaie. 

Flowers 6.5 to 8 cm. long; leaves attenuate 4. P. schiedeanus. 

V lowers 3 to 5 cm. long. 

Buds terete; perianth lobes dilated; leaves ovate or broadly cordate, 

obtuse 5. P. karwinskyanus. 

Buds clavate ; perianth lobes linear; leaves never cordate. 
Leaves usually falcate or very oblique, attenuate to the apex. 

6. P. calyculatus. 
Leaves not falcate, rounded or very obtuse at the apex. 

7. P. americanus. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 235 

1. Psittacanthus mexicanus (Presl) Blurae; Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 1730. 1830. 
Loranthtis mexicanus Presl; Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 129. 1829. 

Described from Mexico, the locality not indicated. 

2. Psittacanthus auriculatus (Oliver) Eichl. in Mart. PI. Bras. 5 2 : 25. 1S68. 
Loranthus auriculatus Oliver, Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1864: 174. 

1864. 
Oaxaca ; type from Pochutla. 

Plants glaucous throughout, glabrous; leaves 3 to 4.5 em. long, rounded ;it 
apex ; flowers about 4 cm. long. 

3. Psittacanthus macrantherus Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 26. 1868. 
Sierra San Pedro Nolasco ; said to be parasitic on pines. 

Leaves 6 to 7.5 cm. long ; flowers 5.5 to 6.5 cm. long. 

4. Psittacanthus schiedeanus (Cham. & Schlecht. ) Blume ; Schult. Syst. Veg. 

7: 1730. 1830. 

Loranthus schiedeanus Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5: 172. 1830. 

Loranthus kcrbcri Fourn. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 30: 185. 1883. 

Veracruz to Michoacan and Oaxaca ; type from Jalapa ; on Salix, etc. Cen- 
tral America. 

Leaves lanceolate or ovate, 6 to 16 cm. long, asymmetric, short-petiolate. 
green ; flowers numerous, corymbose. " Lirio,J' " muerdago," " sileno " (Oaxaca). 

5. Psittacanthus karwinskyanus (Schult.) Eichl. in Mart. Fl. Bras. 5 2 : 26. 

1S68. 
Loranthus karicinskyanus Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 1641. 1830. 
Described from Sultepec, Mexico ; parasitic on Annona reticulata. 
Leaves about 12.5 cm. long, 7.5 to 10 cm. wide; flowers almost 5 cm. long. 

6. Psittacanthus calyculatus (DC.) Don, Hist. Dichl. PI. 3: 415. 1S34. 
Loranthus calyculatus DC. Mem. Lorant. pi. 10. 1830. 

Tamaulipas to Jalisco, Chiapas, and Yucatan ; type from " Cuarcavara " 
(Cuernavaca ?). Central America. Parasitic on Persea, Acacia, Prosopis, 
Quercus, PithecoUohium, Primus persica, Citrus, Olea, Nerium, Salix, etc. 

Plants often a meter high; leaves mostly lanceolate, green; flowers red or 
yellow, showy. " Chac-xciu " (Yucatan, Maya); " ingerto " (Jalisco, Guana- 
juato); " batuu-eha. " (Oaxaca, Seler) ; " visco," " visco cuercino," " quauh- 
zitli," " mal de ojo," "muerdago" (Morelos, Ramirez); " malojo " (Jalisco); 
"ingerto de aguacate " (Tamaulipas); " liga " (Valley of Mexico. Ramirez); 
" quauhtzictli " (Mexico, Morelos, Ramirez); " yecapixtla " (Cervantes). 

A decoction of the leaves and flowers is said to be used for treating wounds, 
and the distilled water as a cosmetic. 

7. Psittacanthus americanus (Jacq.) Mart. Flora 13: 108. 1830. 
Loranthus americanus Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 97. pi. 67. 1763. 

Tepic to Chiapas and Veracruz ; reported from Yucatan. Central America : 
West Indies. 

Leaves 6 to 10 cm. long, green, short-petiolate; flowers corymbose, bright 
red. "Ingerto" (Guerrero, Michoacan); " xken " (Yucatan, Maya. Dond6). 

28. 0PILIACEAE. Opilia Family. 

This family is omitted in the key to families. In that, pistillate specimens 
would run to the family Urticaceae (p. 22), with which the present group would 
scarcely be confused ; and staminate specimens would run to the family Ola- 
caceae (p. 26). The only Mexican genus of the latter family with distinct petals 



236 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL. HERBARIUM. 

is Ximenia, in which they are densely hairy within, while in Agonandra the 
petals are glabrous within. 

1. AGONANDRA Miers (Ann. Nat. Hist. II. 8: 172. 1851, noiuen nudum) ; 
Benth. & Hook. Gen. PL 1: 349. 1862. 

Reference: Standley, The North American species of Agonandra, Journ. 
Washington Acad. Sci. 10: 505-508. 1920. 

Shrubs or small trees, glabrous or nearly so, with slender, often pendulous 
branches ; leaves alternate, entire, petiolate, stipulate ; flowers small, in brac- 
teate axillary racemes, usually dioecious; calyx minute, 4 or 5-lobate; stami- 
nate flowers with 4 or 5 narrow petals, the stamens 4 or 5, exserted, 4 small 
scales present below the stamens ; pistillate flowers apetalous, the disk urceolate, 
surrounding the ovary ; fruit fleshy, drupaceous. 

Only one other species of the genus is known, a native of Brazil and Colombia. 

Leaves acute or acuminate; young branches glabrous 1. A. raceniosa. 

Leaves rounded or obtuse at apex ; young branches puberulent. 

Fruit 8 mm. long 2. A. obtusifolia. 

Fruit 15 mm. long 3. A. conzattii. 

1. Agonandra racemosa (DC.) Standi. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 10: 

506. 1920. 

Schaefferia raceniosa DC. Prodr. 2: 41. 1825. 

Sonora to Guerrero ; originally described from one of Sess6 and Mociiio's 
plates. 

Shrub or small tree, 4 to 5 meters high, glabrous throughout; leaves lanceo- 
late to broadly ovate-elliptic, 3 to 7.5 cm. long, acute to broadly rouuded at base, 
acute or acuminate at apex or sometimes obtuse and abruptly short-pointed ; 
staminate flowers 2.5 mm. long, greenish ; fruit subglobose, about 8 mm. long. 
"Palo del golpe " (Michoacan, Guerrero). 

2. Agonandra obtusifolia Standi. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 10: 507. 1920. 
Tamaulipas and Veracruz ; type from Victoria, Tamaulipas. 

Shrub, 1 to 3 meters high, with spreading branches ; leaves short-petiolate, 
narrowly oblong to ovate, 2 to 5 cm. long, cuneate at base, somewhat succulent ; 
staminate flowers 2.5 mm. long ; fruit yellow, not edible. " Grauadillo." " revi- 
enta cabra " (Tamaulipas). 

3. Agonandra conzattii Standi. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 10: 50S. 1920. 
Oaxaca and Puebla ; type from Portillo de Coyula, Distrito de Cuicatlan, 

Oaxaca. 

Leaves short-petiolate, oblong, lanceolate, or oblong-ovate, 2 to 2.5 cm. long. 
cuneate at base, succulent, the petioles minutely puberulent. " Maromero " 
(Oaxaca). 

29. 0LACACEAE. Olax Family. 

Shrubs or small trees; leaves alternate, estipulate, entire; flowers small, 
perfect, in cymes or racemes; calyx 4 or 5-dentate; corolla 4 to 6-lobed ; stamens 
inserted with the perianth; fruit a drupe. 

Stamens twice as many as the perianth lobes; perianth cleft nearly t<> the base, 
the lobes densely barbate within 1. XIMENIA. 

Stamens as many as the perianth lobes; perianth lobed to the middle or less 
deeply, the lobes sparsely or not at all barbate 2. SCHOEPFIA. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 237 

1. XIMENIA 1 L. Sp. PI. 1193. 1793. 
Shrubs or small trees, sometimes with spinose branehlets ; leaves subcori- 
aceous ; flowers whitish, solitary or in small axillary cymes ; calyx 4 or 5-den- 
tate ; corolla 4 or 5-lobed. 

Leaves and outer surface of the petals densely pubescent 1. X. pubescens. 

Leaves and outer surface of the petals glabrous. 

Petioles 4 to 10 mm. long; leaves mostly 1.5 to 3.5 cm. wide; petals 7 to 10 

mm. long, densely long-barbate within 2. X. americana. 

Petioles 3 mm. long or shorter ; leaves 0.6 to 1.5 cm. wide ; petals 5 to 6 mm. 
long, short barbate 3. X. parviflora. 

1. Ximenia pubescens Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 212. 1919. 

Known only from the type locality, between Mixtepec and Colotepec, Oaxaca. 
Spiny shrub, the leaves small, mostly orbicular. 

2. Ximenia americana L. Sp. PI. 1193. 1753. 

Veracruz to Colima, Chiapas, and Yucatan. Florida, West Indies, Central 
America, South America, and in the tropics of the Old World. 

Spiny shrub or small tree, in some parts of its range 6 meters high ; bark 
smooth, reddish, very astringent ; leaves oblong or elliptic, 3 to 7 cm. long, 
pale beneath, rounded at apex; flowers yellowish white, fragrant; fruit yellow, 
subglobose, 1.5 to 2 cm. in diameter, with peculiar odor and acid flavor ; wood 
hard, tough, close-grained, yellow, its specific gravity about 0.92. " Xkuk-che' " 
(Yucatan, Maya); " pepe nance" (El Salvador); " chocomico " (Nicaragua); 
" limoncillo " (Colombia); " yana," " jia manzanilla," " ciruelo cimarron," 
" ciruelillo " (Cuba); "manzanilla" (Guatemala, Honduras); " albarillo del 
campo " (Argentina). 

The fruit, which resembles a plum in appearance, is edible, either raw or 
cooked. It is stated that oil has been extracted from the seeds in Brazil. The 
fruit is said to have purgative properties, and Grosourdy states that a sirup 
made from it is used in the West Indies for dropsy, rheumatism, etc. The 
plant is seldom large enough to furnish wood of importance, but the wood has 
sometimes been employed as a substitute for sandalwood (Santalum) , which 
it somewhat resembles. In Florida and the British West Indies this species 
is known under various names, such as " hog plum," " tallow-wood," " moun- 
tain plum," " false sandalwood," and " wild olive." 

3. Ximenia parviflora Benth. PL Hartw. 7. 1839. 

San Luis PotosI to Sinaloa and Oaxaca; type from Leon, Guanajuato. 

Spiny shrub, 1 to 2 meters high, with angled branches, the lower ones long 
and slender ; leaves oblong or obovate ; fruit globose, yellow. " Ciruelillo " 
(Guanajuato). 

The fruit is edible. 

1 The genus was named in honor of Francisco Ximenez, a native of Luna in 
the Kingdom of Aragon. In the early years of his life he was a soldier, and in 
1605 he came to New Spain. He became a lay brother of the Convento de 
Santo Domingo de Mexico February 25, 1612. The date of his death is not 
known. In 1815 there was published in the City of Mexico under his author- 
ship a volume entitled " Quatro libros de la naturaleza y virtudes de las plantas, 
y animales que estan receuidos en el uso de medicina en la Nueva Espana, y la 
methodo, y correcci6n, y preparacion, que para administrarlas se requiere con lo 
que el Doctos Francisco Hernandez escriuio en lengua Latina." This was re- 
printed at Morelia in 1888. Ximenez's work is not a mere translation of Her- 
nandez, but contains much original information upon Mexican plants. 



238 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

2. SCHOEPFIA Schreb. Gen. PI. 129. 1789. 

Glabrous shrubs or small trees; leaves coriaceous; flowers in short axillary 
racemes, or solitary or fasciculate in the leaf axils; calyx small, cuplike, ob- 
scurely denticulate; corolla 4 to 6-lobed. 

Leaf blades narrowly oblanceolate or rarely obovate 1. S. calif ornica. 

Leaf blades lanceolate to broadly ovate. 
Perianth about 3 mm. long, the lobes nearly as long as the tube. 

2. S. angulata. 
Perianth 4 to 6 mm. long, the lobes much shorter than the tube. 

Perianth 5-parted 3. S. mexicana. 

Perianth 4-parted. 

Perianth 4 to 5 mm. long, the lobes half as long as the tube or longer; 

leaves mostly 1.8 to 3.5 cm. wide 4. S. schreberi. 

Perianth 6 to 7 mm. long, the lobes one-third as long as the tube or 
shorter; leaves scarcely more than 1 cm. wide 5. S. parvifolia. 

1. Schoepfia calif ornica T. S. Brandeg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2: 139. 1889. 
Southern Baja California ; type from San Gregorio. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 6 meters high, with stiff divaricate branches, the 
older branches whitish ; leaves glaucous, puberulent ; flowers reddish yellow ; 
fruit oval, 6 mm. long. 

2. Schoepfia angulata Planch. ; Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 5. 1878. 
Veracruz ; type from Zacuapan. 

Shrub, nearly glabrous ; leaves lanceolate or ovate, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, bright 
green ; flowers small, yellow. 

3. Schoepfia mexicana A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 14: 622. 1856. 
Known only from the type locality. Tlacolula, Oaxaca. 
Leaves ovate or ovate-elliptic, 2.5 to 3 cm. long, obtuse. 

4. Schoepfia schreberi Gmel. Syst. Veg. 2: 376. 1791. 

San Luis Potosi and Veracruz to Colima and Yucatan. Central America, 
West Indies, and northern South America. 

Shrub or tree, 1.3 to 6.5 meters high ; leaves broadly ovate, obtuse or acute, 
bright green ; flowers yellow or greenish. 

5. Schoepfia parvifolia Planch. ; Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 5. 1878. 
Sinaloa to Oaxaca. 

Glabrous shrub or tree, sometimes 7 meters high, with a trunk 40 cm. in 
diameter, the branches stiff, gray ; leaves ovate or oval, 2 to 3 cm. long, obtuse, 
bright green. "Palo fierro," " tecolotillo " (Sinaloa). 

The wood is said to be heavy and blackish, and to be valued for carpenter 
work. 

30. ABJSTOLOCHIACEAE. Birthwort Family. 

1. ARISTOLOCHIA L. Sp. PI. 960. 1753. 

Reference: Duchartre in DC. Prodr. 15 1 : 432-498. 1864. 

Erect or usually scandent plants; leaves alternate, entire or lobate; inflor- 
escence axillary (sometimes borne at the base of the plant), the peduncles 1- 
flowered and solitary, fasciculate, or racemose, the perianth very variable in 
form ; fruit a capsule. 

It is difficult to determine from herbarium specimens or descriptions which 
species are fruticose and which herbaceous; perhaps other species should be 
included and some of those in the present list excluded. A number of herbaceous 
species occur in Mexico. 

The species are highly valued in tropical America as a remedy for snake bites. 
Whether they have any real value for this purpose is uncertain. The Nahuatl 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 239 

name is " tlacopatl " (trumpet-medicine). In modern usage this has been modi- 
fied to " tacopate," " tacopatle," " tacopaxtle," " tacopaste," etc. 
Calyx limb with 3 long linear lobes. 

Leaves glabrous on the upper surface ; calyx lip about 10 cm. long. 

1. A. tricaudata. 
Leaves pubescent on the upper surface ; lip about 5 cm. long. 

2. A. malacophylla. 
Calyx limb not 3-lobate. 

Leaf blades rounded at the base ; plants erect 3. A. arborea. 

Leaf blades cordate at the base ; plants scandent or trailing. 
Stems and margins of the leaves pilose with long brown hairs. 

4. A. pilosa. 
Stems and margins of the leaves without long brown hairs, often glabrous. 

Leaves sessile, densely soft-pilose beneath 5. A. asclepiadifolia. 

Leaves long-petiolate, puberulent or glabrous beneath. 

Calyx very large, the limb IS to 35 cm. broad. Leaves deltoid-cordate, 

puberulent beneath 6. A. grandiflora. 

Calyx smaller, the limb less than 8 cm. broad, often much less. 
Leaves puberulent beneath. 
Leaf blades deltoid-cordate, deeply cordate at base. 

7. A. pavoniana. 
Leaf blades oval or oblong, shallowy cordate at base. 
Leaf blades ovate, glabrous on the upper surface, subcordate at 

base; flowers solitary 8. A. ovalifolia. 

Leaf blades oblong, puberulent on the upper surface, cordate at 

base; flowers racemose 9. A. maxima. 

Leaves glabrous beneath. 

Leaves acute or acutish, subcordate at base, green beneath ; calyx 

limb 5 to 8 cm. wide 10. A. odoratissima. 

Leaves rounded or very obtuse at apex, deeply cordate at base, 
pale or glaucous beneath ; calyx limb less than 2.5 cm. wide. 
Calyx limb somewhat bilobate, the large lobe acute or acumi- 
nate 11. A. pardina. 

Calyx limb not bilobate, obtuse 12. A. taliscana. 

1. Aristolochia tricaudata Duchartre. 111. Hart. Lem. 12: pi. 523. 1865. 
Chiapas ; the plant has been cultivated in European greenhouses. 
Arborescent, with gray fissured bark ; leaves oblong, 12.5 to 20 cm. long, acute 

or acuminate, pubescent beneath ; flowers axillary, solitary, odorless, the calyx 
limb with 3 long narrow lobes, maroon outside, dark purple-brown within. 

2. Aristolochia malacophylla Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 33: 65. 1920. 
Known only from the type locality, Salto de Zararacua, Uruapam, Michoacan. 
Leaves oval, 12.5 cm. long, cordate at the base. 

3. Aristolochia arborea Linden ; Hook, in Curtis's Bot. Mag. pi. 5295. 1862. 
Chiapas, the type locality. Guatemala. 

Erect shrub, 2 meters high, the trunk with corky bark ; leaves narrowly ob- 
long, about 30 cm. long; flowers clustered near the base of the stem. 

4. Aristolochia pilosa H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 116. pi. 113. 1S17. 
Aristolochia ferruginea T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6: 51. 1914. 
Oaxaca and Chiapas. Central America to Ecuador (the type locality). 
Stems slender, scandent; leaves cordate, obtuse or acutish; calyx limb 4 to 5 

cm. long. " Sombrerito," " hediondilla " (Guatemala). 

5. Aristolochia asclepiadifolia T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6: 178. 

1915. 
Known only from the type locality, Consoquintla, Veracruz. 



240 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Leaves oval, 8 to 18 cm. long, deeply cordate at base, rounded and short- 
pointed at apex. 

6. Aristolochia grandiflora Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occ. 3: 1566. 1806. 

Chiapas and Yucatan ; reported from Veracruz. Central America and the 
West Indies; type from Jamaica. 

High-climbing vine; leaves large, cordate, acute, nearly glabrous; calyx very 
large, the limb sometimes 45 cm. long, with a linear tip a meter long, yellowish 
and purple-spotted inside, the flowers with a disagreeable odor. " Guaco " 
(Veracruz, Ramirez); " flor de pato " (Yucatan) ; " guegiiecho," " chompipe " 
(Nicaragua) ; " moco de giiegiieche " (El Salvador). 

The roots are reputed to be an antidote for the bites of snakes and other 
poisonous animals, and to have sudorific, abortive, anil emmenagogue properties. 
Descourtilz states that the plant is poisonous to pigs, and that it was some- 
times employed in the West Indies to poison human beings. The young shoots 
are reported to be eaten as a vegetable in some localities. 

7. Aristolochia pavoniana Duchartre, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 2: 55. 1854. 
Described from Mexico, the locality not known. 

Leaves about 6 cm. long, acute; flowers axillary, solitary, the calyx limb 1.4 
cm. long. 

8. Aristolochia ovalifolia Duchartre, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 2: 50. 1854. 

• Known only from Oaxaca, the type locality, at an altitude of 660 meters. 
Leaves 15 cm. long, subacuminate ; calyx limb 2.3 cm. long. " Flor de guaco." 

9. Aristolochia maxima L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 1361. 1763. 

Reported from Yucatan. Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela. 

Leaves 9 to 15 cm. long, rounded or obtuse at apex and often short-pointed ; 
flowers large, racemose ; capsule about 9 cm. long. " Guaco del sur " (Yuca- 
tan) ; "guaco" (Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela); " contracapitano " (Ven- 
ezuela) ; " cuajilote " (Costa Rica). 

This, like many of the other species, is considered an antidote for snake 
bites. A closely related plant, possibly the same species, occurs in Tabasco, 
where it is known as " canastilla " and "farolito." It is reported that the 
young fruits are eaten in Costa Rica. 

10. Aristolochia odoratissima L. Sp. PL ed. 2. 1362. 1763. 

Tabasco and perhaps elsewhere. Central America and northern South 
America. 

Leaves deltoid-cordate, acute or acutish, sometimes 3-lobate ; calyx limb 
broad, about 10 cm. long. "Cocoba," " cococoba " (Tabasco). 

11. Aristolochia pardina Duchartre, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 2: 47. 1854. 
Colima and Guerrero ; type from Colima. 

Steins scandent, with corky bark ; flowers greenish yellow, with black mark- 
ings. "Guaco" or " huaco " (Colima); " bejuco amargo " (Guerrero). 

The stems are used as a substitute for cordage, and an infusion of the leaves 
for fevers. 

12. Aristolochia taliscana 1 Hook. & Am. Bot. Beechey Voy. 309. 1839-40. 
Aristolochia galeottii Duchartre, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 2: 44. 1854. 
Sinaloa, Tepic, and Jalisco (type locality). 

1 The specific name is more properly, perhaps, written as " jaliscana," but 
"taliscana" is the original spelling. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 241 

Similar in general appearance to the last species ; a slender vine with stems 
2 to 3 meters long ; capsules about 3 cm. long. " Huaco," " zapatito," " palito," 
" matanene del mar" (Sinaloa). 

In Sinaloa the plant is highly esteemed as a remedy for the bites of snakes 
and other poisonous animals. 

31. POLYGONACEAE. Buckwheat Family. 

Shrubs or trees, sometimes scandent ; leaves alternate or rarely opposite or 
verticillate, entire, stipulate, the stipules often united into a sheath ; flowers 
mostly small, perfect or unisexual ; corolla none ; fruit a lenticular or 3-angled 
achene, usually surrounded by the persistent calyx. 

Several other genera, all of whose species are herbaceous, occur in Mexico. 

Plants with tendrils in the inflorescence, scandent 7. ANTIGONON. 

Plants without tendrils. 

Flowers one or more inside an involucre. 

Leaves alternate ; involucre not accrescent in fruit, not colored ; flowers 

perfect 1. ERIOGONUM. 

Leaves opposite ; involucre accrescent in fruit, red or purplish ; flowers uni- 
sexual 2. HARFORDIA. 

Flowers not involucrate. 
Flowers normally 5-parted. 
Perianth lobes not winged. 

Flowers unisexual 3. MUHLENBECKIA. 

Flowers perfect 4. COCCOLOBA. 

Perianth lobes winged. 
Leaves orbicular ; pedicels not winged ; filaments pubescent. 

5. NEOMILLSPAUGHIA. 
Leaves not orbicular ; pedicels winged ; filaments glabrous. 

6. PODOPTERUS. 
Flowers 6-parted or rarely 3-parted. 

Flowers perfect ; perianth segments broadly ovate__8. GYMNOPODIUM. 
Flowers dioecious ; perianth segments of the fertile flowers long and 
narrow. 

Stamens numerous; fruit acutely trigonous 9. TRIPLARIS. 

Stamens 9 ; fruit 3 to 6-sulcate, the angles obtuse. 

10. RUPRECHTIA. 

1. ERIOGONUM Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer. 1:246. 1803. 

Low shrubs, often tomentose ; flowers surrounded by an involucre, the in- 
volucres spicate, umbellate, capitate, or cymose, the flowers small but often 
rather showy. 

Numerous herbaceous species occur in northern Mexico. Most of the species 
of the genus grow in arid places. 

Leaves not at all tomentose 1. E. orcuttianum. 

Leaves tomentose on one or both surfaces. 
Perianth densely pubescent. 

Perianth narrowed to a stipelike base ; plants low, with depressed stems. 

2. E. undulatum. 
Perianth without a stipelike base; plants tall, much branched — 3. E molle. 



242 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Perianth glabrous or nearly so. 
Involucres in heads or cymes. 

Leaf blades spatulate or rounded-rhombic, densely tomentose on both 

sides, the margins not revolute 4. E. pondii. 

Leaf blades linear, oblong, or oblanceolate, glabrate on the upper sur- 
face, the margins strongly revolute 5. E. fasciculatum. 

Involucres racemose or spicate. 

Involucres 1-flowered 6. K taxifolium. 

Involucres several-flowered. 

Branches erect, slender 7. E. wrightii. 

Branches divaricate, very stout 8. E. nodosum. 

1. Eriogonum orcuttianum S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 371. 1885. 
Baja California ; type from Cantillas Mountains. 

Shrub, about a meter high, with tortuous branches, the bark brownish and 
fissured ; leaves rounded-obovate ; branches of the inflorescence divaricate, the 
flowers whitish. 

2. Eriogonum undulatum Benth. in DC. Prodr. 14: 7. 1856. 
Chihuahua to San Luis Potosi and Hidalgo. 

Low depressed shrub; leaves oval to oblanceolate, white-tomentose beneath, 
long-petiolate ; involucres umbellate or solitary; flowers white, showy. 

This has been reported from Mexico as E. jamesii Benth., a name probably 
synonymous with E. undulatum. 

3. Eriogonum molle Greene, Pittonia 1: 207. 1888. 

Known only from the type locality, Cedros Island, Baja California. 
Erect shrub, 30 to 60 cm. high; leaves oval or ovate, thick, white beneath; 
involucres in a dense long-pedunculate cyme. 

4. Eriogonum pondii Greene, Pittonia 1: 267. 1S89. 
Baja California ; type from Cedros Island. 

Low depressed shrub; leaves about 1 cm. long; flowers white or pink. 

5. Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth. Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 17: 411. 1S37. 
Baja California. California (type locality), Nevada, and Arizona. 

Shrub, 0.6 to 1 meter high; leaves short, often fascicled, white-tomentose 
or glabrate; flowers white. 

The Coahuilla Indians of southern California use a decoction of the leaves 
for pains in the head or stomach, and a decoction of the flowers as an eye 
wash. 

6. Eriogonum taxifolium Greene, Pittonia 1: 267. 18S9. 
Known only from Cedros Island, Baja California. 

Low, slender, much branched shrub; leaves linear; flowers white, the invo- 
lucres in long interrupted spikes. 

7. Eriogonum wrightii Torr. ; Benth. in DC. Prodr. 14: 15. lSr>0. 
Chihuahua and Sonora to San Luis Potosi; Baja California (?). Western 

Texas (type locality) to southern California. 

Cespitose shrub, 30 to 60 cm. high, white-tomentose throughout ; leaves oval 
to oblong ; flowers white. 

8. Eriogonum nodosum Small. Bull. Torrey Club 25: 49. 1S98. 
Northern Baja California. Southern California ; type from Dos Cabezas. 
Densely tomentose shrub, 0.3 to 1 meter high. 

2. HARFORDIA Greene & Parry, Proc. Davenport Acad. 5: 27. 18SS. 
Low, densely branched shrubs, with stiff gray branches; leaves very small, 
fleshy, spatulate; flowers axillary, the sepals in fruit large, reddish, conspicu- 
ously veined. 



STANDLEY TEEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 243 

Plants fruticose only at the base, the branches slender ; leaves linear to spatu- 
late 1. H. macroptera. 

Plants woody almost throughout, the branches very stout ; leaves broadly spatu- 
late 2. H. fruticosa. 

1. Harfordia macroptera (Benth.) Greene & Parry, Proc. Davenport Acad. 5: 

28. 1SSS. 
Pterostegia macroptera Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 44. 1844. 
Pterostegia galioides Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 4: 213. 1SS5. 
Baja California. 

2. Harfordia fruticosa Greene; Parry, Proc. Davenport Acad. 5: 28. 1888. 
Pterostegia fruticosa Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. Sci. 4: 212. 1885. 
Known only from Cedros Island, Baja California. 

Densely branched shrub, 0.6 to 1 meter high. 
Perhaps not specifically different from the preceding. 

3. MUHLENBECKIA Meisn. Gen. PI. 1: 316. 1840. 

Muhlenbeekia platyclada Meisn., a curious plant with long flat ribbon-like 
leafless stems, a native of the Solomon Islands, is sometimes cultivated. Seler 
reports that it grows upon trees in Veracruz, where it is perhaps naturalized. 

1. Muhlenbeckia tamnifolia (H. B. K.) Meisn. Gen. PI. 2: 227. 1840. 

Polygonum tamnifoUum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: ISO. 1817. 

Polygonum quadrangulatum Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 353. 1S43. 

Veracruz to Morelos. Central America to Chile ; type from Colombia. 

Scandent or trailing shrub with brown stems ; leaves oblong or ovate, cordate 
at base, acuminate ; flowers very small, greenish, glomerate-spicate. 

4. COCCOLOBA L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1007. 1759. 

Reference: Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. Eiigler 13: 106-229. 1890. 

Trees or shrubs ; flowers small and inconspicuous, perfect, fascicled within 
small bracts, the fascicles spicate; perianth often very fleshy in fruit. 

Ramirez reports the vernacular name " toto " for a Tabasco species of doubt- 
ful determination. 

Perianth lobes accrescent and inclosing the fruit. Leaf blades obovate or oval, 

glabrous 1. C. floribunda. 

Perianth tube accrescent and inclosing the fruit. 
Leaves more or less pubescent beneath, sometimes pubescent also on the 
upper surface. 
Leaf blades mostly orbicular or nearly so, about as broad as long. 

Leaves minutely puberulent beneath 2. C. uvifera. 

Leaves short-pilose beneath. 

Leaf blades 12 to 50 cm. long, pilose on the upper surface. 

3. C. grandifolia. 
Leaf blades 5 to 8 cm. long, glabrous on the upper surface. 

7. C. goldmanii. 
Leaf blades about twice as long as broad or longer. 
Rachis of the inflorescence glabrous or very minutely puberulent. 

4. C. lapathifolia. 
Rachis of the inflorescence densely short-pilose. 
Leaf blades obtuse-acuminate, 12 to 18 cm. long, 5 to 7 cm. wide. 

5. C. lindeniana. 
Leaf blades rounded at the apex, 6 to 13 cm. long, 2.5 to 7 cm. wide. 

6. C. liebmanni. 



244 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves glabrous, or sometimes sparsely pilose beneath along the costa. 

Leaves peltate 14. C. acapulcensis. 

Leaves not peltate. 

Rachis of the inflorescence pubescent. 
Pedicels as long as the ocreolae. Leaf blades 8 to 22 cm. long, 9 to 

13 cm. wide 8. C. schiedeana. 

Pedicels twice as long as the ocreolae or longer. 

Leaf blades rounded or cordate at base 9. C. cozuinelensis. 

Leaf blades narrowed to the base 10. C. chiapensis. 

Rachis of the inflorescence glabrous. 

Leaf blades narrowed at base; nodes 1-flowered 11. C. orizabae. 

Leaf blades rounded or cordate at base ; nodes 1 to 3-flowered. 
Pedicels 1 to 2 mm. long, much exceeding the ocreolae. 

12. C. humboldti. 
Pedicels 1 mm. long or shorter, about equaling the ocreolae. 

13. C. jurgenseni. 

1. Coccoloba fioribunda (Benth.) Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 13: 217. 1890. 
Campderia floribunda Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 159. pi. 52. 1844. 
Campderia mexicana Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 171. 185G. 

Oaxaca. Central America to Brazil ; type from Honduras. 

Tree ; leaves 5 to 11 cm. long, 3 to 5 cm. wide, rounded or subcordate at base, 

2. Coccoloba uvifera (L.) Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 19. 1760. 
Polygonum uvifera L. Sp. PI. 365. 1753. 

In coastal thickets, Tamanlipas to Yucatan and Sinaloa. Florida, West 
Indies, Central America, and northern South America. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes as much as 15 meters high, with a trunk a meter 
in diameter, but usually much smaller, densely branched ; bark thin, smooth, 
brown ; leaves about 20 cm. wide, very thick, the veins often red ; flowers 
white ; fruit purple, 1 to 2 cm. in diameter, in long dense heavy racemes ; 
wood hard, dark brown, taking a good polish, its specific gravity about 0.96. 
" Uva de la playa " (Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Venezuela); " uva de la mar" 
(Tamaulipas, Yucatan, Oaxaca, Porto Rico); " uvero " (Tamaulipas, Cuba); 
"uva" (Yucatan, Veracruz, Santo Domingo); " manzano " (Sinaloa); "uva 
caleta " (Cuba); " papaturro " (Costa Rica); "uvero de playa" (Panama, 
Costa Rica); " uvilla " (Santo Domingo). 

In Florida and the British West Indies the plant is known as " sea-grape." 
" pigeon-wood," " horsewood," and " hopwood." The wood is highly esteemed 
in tropical America for cabinet work, and is used also for fuel. It is said 
to yield a red dye. The roots are astringent and have been employed as a 
remedy for dysentery. The fruit is edible, with an acidulous, somewhat as- 
tringent flavor, and in the West Indies it has been fermented, with sugar, to 
produce an alcoholic drink. Febrifuge properties are attributed to the bark. 
The shrub is often planted (as in Florida) for ornamental purposes, for the 
large thick leaves are of striking and handsome appearance. It grows readily 
from cuttings. 

The first account of the plant, probably, is that given by Oviedo (Lib. VIII, 
Cap. XIII), who says: "The Christians give the name uvero to the tree the 
Indians call quiabara. This is a fine tree, with good wood, especially for mak- 
ing charcoal for blacksmiths and silversmiths; as they are trees with spread- 
ing tops, and not straight, although the branches are thick and the weed 
strong, they are useless for construction of houses, but may be employed for 
butchers' blocks and shoe lasts. The wood resembles that of madrono, for it 
is red, but it is stronger. The fruit consists of thin racemes of grapes, sepa- 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 245 

rated from each other, rose or purple in color, and good to eat, although the 
stone is very large in proportion to the size of the fruit and the amount of 
flesh ; the largest are the size of a filbert. The leaves are like those illustrated ; 
they are so different from other leaves that I have shown them here. The 
largest of these leaves are a palm broad or larger, and some are smaller 
At the time that wars were going on in Hispaniola and the other islands 
and on Tierra-Firma, as the Christians did not carry with them paper and 
ink, they used these leaves like paper. The leaves are green and thick as those 
of ivy; the veins are red or purple and fine, and with a pin or sharp point one 
can write anything on them, from one end to the other, while they are green 
and freshly cut ; the letters resemble white scratches and stand out so well from 
the face of the leaf that they are easily legible. Thus written upon, the leaves 
were sent by an Indian wherever the Spaniards wished them to go. Although 
the midvein of the leaf is rather large, the other veins are so small that they 
do not interfere with the writing." 

3. Coccoloba grandifolia Jaeq. Enum. PI. Carib. 19. 1760. 
Coccoloba pubesccns L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 523. 1762. 

Reported from Mexico, the locality not stated. West Indies and the Guianas. 
Tree, 12 to 25 meters high, with erect trunk ; leaves orbicular or broadly cor- 
date, 8 to 60 cm. wide, coriaceous. " Moralon " (Porto Rico). 

4. Coccoloba lapathifolia Standi., sp. nov. 

Type from Acapulco, Guerrero (Palmer 206; U. S. Nat. Herb. no. 1,010,048). 

Petioles 5 mm. long, finely puberulent ; leaf blades narrowly oblong or lance- 
oblong, 14.5 to 18.5 cm. long, 5 to 5.5 cm. wide, deeply cordate at base, rounded or 
very obtuse at apex, coriaceous, finely puberulent or glabrate on the upper sur- 
face, the venation inconspicuous*, pilose or short-villous beneath along the costa 
and lateral veins or finally glabrate, the venation prominent, the lateral veins 
about 15 on each side; racemes terminal, 9 to 18 cm. long, slender, glabrous or 
nearly so, rather densely flowered, the pedicels 3 times as long as the ocreolae. 
glabrous ; perianth glabrous ; filaments exserted. 

5. Coccoloba lindeniana 1 (Benth.) Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 13: 1S2. 1890. 
Campderia lindeniana Benth.; Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 3:103. 1880. 
Known only from the type locality, Tea pa. Tabasco. 

Shrub ; leaves oblong or lance-oblong, cordate at base. 

6. Coccoloba liebmanni Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 13:189. 1890. 
Colima to Oaxaca ; type from Pochutla, Oaxaca. 

Leaves oblong-obovate or oblong, coriaceous, cordate at base. 

7. Coccoloba goldmanii Standi., sp. nov. 

Type from the valley of the Rio Fuerte. Sinaloa (Goldman 245; U. S. Nat. 
Herb. no. 335744). 

Branches pubendent at first ; ocreae 4 to 5 mm. long ; petioles 12 to 15 mm. 
long, densely puberulent ; leaf blades orbicular or nearly so, 5 to 8 cm. long, 
rounded at apex, rounded or emarginate at base, thick-coriaceous, green on the 
upper surface, puberulent on the veins, the costa and lateral veins slender, 
prominent, the other venation inconspicuous, slightly paler beneath, short- 
pilose, especially on the veins, the venation very prominent, reticulate; racemes 

1 Named in honor of Jean Jules Linden, who was associated with Ghiesbreght 
in botanical exploration of Mexico. He collected (about 1837-1839) in Yucatan, 
Chiapas, and Tabasco, and perhaps elsewhere. He afterwards became the pro- 
prietor of the famous nurseries at Ghent, once the property of Verschaffelt. 



246 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL. HERBARIUM. 

12 to 25 cm. long, slender, the rachis short-pilose, the pedicels mostly solitary, 
puberulent, stout, twice as long as the ocreolae; fruiting calyx glabrous, 8 mm. 
long; achene ellipsoid, brown, lustrous. 

8. Coccoloba schiedeana Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 13: IS". 1890. 
Coccoloba barbadensis mexicana Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 153. 1856. 
f Coccoloba oaxacensis Gross, Repert. Nov. Sp. Fedde 12:211). 1913. 
Veracruz to Guerrero, Chiapas, and Yucatan ; type from Papantla, Veracruz. 

Guatemala. 

Small or large tree; leaves mostly oval, obtuse to cordate at base; flowers 
white. " Carnero de la costa " (Oaxaca) ; " tepalcahuite " (Veracruz) ; " tainu- 
lero " (Micnoacan, Guerrero) ; "carnero" (Chiapas, Oaxaca) ; " uvero " (Vera- 
cruz) ; "palo de carnero" (Oaxaca). 

The wood is used for cart wheels and other purposes. The fruit is edible. 

The writer has seen no material of C. oaxacensis, and it may be a distinct 
species. 

9. Coccoloba cozumelensis Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 4: 108. 1887. 
Coccoloba yucatana Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 13: 190. 1890. 
Yucatan ; type from Cozumel Island. 

Leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, obtuse or acute, 3 to 10 cm. long. 

10. Coccoloba chiapensis Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 33: 67. 1920. 
Known only from the type locality, Finca Irlanda. Chiapas. 

Large tree ; leaves elliptic, 15 to 20 cm. long, acuminate. 

11. Coccoloba orizabae Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 13: 189. 1S90. 
Known only from Orizaba, the type locality. 

Leaves lauce-ovate, obtuse-acuminate, 4.5 to 10 cm. long; fruit 1 cm. long. 

12. Coccoloba humboldti Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 1G3. 1S56. 
Tamaulipas to Oaxaca and Tabasco. 

Shrub or small tree; leaves oval or ovate, about S cm. long; flowers white. 
" Toco prieto " (Tabasco). 

13. Coccoloba jurgenseni Lindau, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 13: 1SS. 1890. 
Colima to Oaxaca (type locality). 

Leaves oblong or oval, 8 to 20 cm. long. 

14. Coccoloba acapulcensls Standi. Proc. Soc. Washington 33: 66. 1920. 
Known only from the type locality, Acapulco, Guerrero. 

Easily distinguished from the other Mexican species by its peltate suborbi- 
cular leaves, these 5.5 to 8 cm. wide. 

5. NEOMILLSPAUGHIA Blake, Bull. Torrey Club 48: 84. 1921. 
1. Neomillspaughia emarginata (Gross) Blake, Bull. Torrey Club 48: 85. 
1921. 
Podoptqrus emarginatus Gross, Repert. Sp. Nov. Fedde 12: 218. 1913. 
Yucatan ; type from Kabah. 

Glabrous shrub or tree; leaves orbicular, 7 to 10 cm. wide, coriaceous, emar- 
ginate at base and apex; flowers in long racemes; perianth segments 5, the 
outer ones winged, the inner ones small. 

In general appearance the plant resembles some species of Coccoloba. 

6. PODOPTERUS Ilumli. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: 89. 1809. 

Shrubs or small trees; leaves thin, early deciduous; flowers fasciculate or 
racemose, perfect; outer perianth segments with broad scarious wings; 
stamens 5. 

One other species is known, a native of Guatemala. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 247 

Leaf blades broadly obovate or rhombic-obovate, acute to acuminate at base. 

1. P. mexicanus. 
Leaf blades oval-ovate, cordate at base 2. P. cordifolius. 

1. Podopterus mexicanus Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 2: pi. 107. 1809. 
Tamaulipas to Colima, Oaxaca, and Yucatan ; type from Veracruz. Guat- 
emala. 

Shrub or small tree, sometimes 6 meters high, with stout spinose branch- 
lets ; leaves deciduous, glabrous ; flowers in dense fascicles, appearing when 
the plant is leafless, greenish tinged with brown. 

2. Podopterus cordifolius Rose & Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 33:66. 

1920. 
Colima to Oaxaca ; type locality, on the seashore at Manzanillo, Colima. 
Small tree with very straggling, pendent branches. 

7. ANTIGONON Endl. Gen. PI. 310. 1837. 
Plants f ruticose or chiefly herbaceous, scandent ; leaves cordate or deltoid ; 
flowers fasciculate, the fascicles racemose. 

Exterior sepals ovate in anthesis 1. A. guatimalense. 

Exterior sepals cordate in anthesis. 
Leaf blades decurrent on the petiole. 

Sepals reddish, in fruit nearly as broad as long, obtuse or rounded at 
apex, usually apiculate ; plants usually copiously pubescent. 

2. A. cinerascens. 
Sepals yellowish, longer than broad in fruit, acute or acutish ; plants 

nearly glabrous 3. A. flavescens. 

Leaf blades not decurrent 4. A. leptopus. 

1. Antigonon guatimalense Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 1S4. 1856. 
Polygonum grandiflorum Bertol. Nov. Conim. Acad. Bonon. 4: 412. 1810. Not 

P. grandiflorum Willd. 1799. 
Antigonon. grandiflorum Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 44: 613. 1909. 
Guerrero and Oaxaca. Central America and Colombia ; type from Guatemala. 
Leaves broadly cordate; inflorescence copiously pubescent, the flowers rose- 
colored ; sepals in fruit about 3 cm. long. 

2. Antigonon cinerascens Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 1 : 14. 1843. 
Veracruz. Oaxaca, and Chiapas ; type from Jalapa. Central America. 
Leaves broadly ovate-cordate, abruptly short-acuminate ; flowers purplish 

red. " Bejuco de colacion " (El Salvador) ; " bellisima " (Nicaragua). 

3. Antigonon flavescens S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22:446. 1887. 
Jalisco to Oaxaca ; type from Chapala, Jalisco. 

Leaves deltoid .often very large, glabrous, acute or acuminate; flowers green- 
ish white or yellowish. " Coamecate," " coamecatl " (Jalisco, Urbina). 

4. Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Am. Bot. Beeehey Voy. 308. pi. 69. 1839-40. 
Antigonon cordatum Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 l : 14. 1843. 

Chihuahua to Beja California, southward to Oaxaca : often cultivated else- 
where ; type from the west coast. 

Large vine, often climbing to the tops of the highest trees, sometimes running 
over low shrubs ; leaves deltoid or cordate, acuminate ; sepals at first small and 
inconspicuous but becoming large, purplish red, and very showy, the racemes 
(as in the other species) furnished with tendrils. " Flor de San Diego " (Vera- 
cruz, Oaxaca, Yucatan) ; " enredadera de San Diego" (Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca) ; 
" rosa de mayo" (Sinaloa) : "corona de la reina" (Tamaulipas) : "hierba de 
55208—22 6 



248 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Santa Rosa" ( Morel os ) ; "San Miguelito " (Sonora, Sinaloa) ; " fulmina " 
(Guerrero, Morelos) ; "bellfsima" (Oaxaea, Colombia); "corona" (Sinaloa, 
Tamaulipas) ; " flor de San Miguel" (Sonora, Guatemala) ; " eoronilla " (Sina- 
loa) ; "coamecate" (Morelos, Sinaloa); " eoamecatl " (Guanajuato, Texas); 
" cuamecate " (Durango, Jalisco; from the Nahuatl, cu<tu-mecatl=tree+coT(l) ; 
" bejuco de colacion " (El Salvador) ; " coralillo," " coralillo rosado " (Cuba); 
" cadena de amor" (Philippine Islands). 

A very showy and handsome plant, and cultivated for this reason not only in 
Mexico but in many other regions. In general appearance it suggests Bougain- 
villea, and is equally handsome. It is a rapid grower and remains in bloom a 
long time. In Florida it is known as " Confederate vine." The flower clusters 
serve as tendrils for the support of the plant, and shorten themselves by bending 
at the joints in a zigzag form. The roots bear tubers which are usually small, 
although they are said sometimes to weigh as much as 15 pounds. They are 
edible and have a nutlike flavor. For an illustration of this species see Contr. 
U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: pi, 18. 

8. GYMNOPODIUM Rolfe in Hook. Icon. PI. IV. 7: pi. 2699. 1901. 

Shrubs or trees ; leaves alternate, subsessile ; flowers fascicled in racemes, 
slender-pediceled ; inner perianth segments small and inconspicious ; stamens 
9 ; fruit a small 3-angled achene. 

One other species is known, a native of British Honduras. 

Sepals cordate at base 1. G. antigonoides. 

Sepals cuneate or decurrent at base 2. G. ovatifolium. 

1. Gymnopodium antigonoides (Robinson) Blake, Bull. Torrey Club 48:84. 

1921. 
Mil Is pan (/Ida antigonoides Robinson; Millsp. & Loes. Bot. Jahrb. Engler 36: 

Beibl. 80: 14. 1905. 
Yucatan and Chiapas ; type from Progreso, Yucatan. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 12 meters high ; leaves obovate to oval, 2 to 5.5 cm. 
long, rounded at apex, puberulent when young; flowers fasciculate, racemose, 
greenish, the sepals in age 7 mm. long. 

The Chiapas specimens have slightly broader and larger leaves than those 
from Yucatan. 

2. Gymnopodium. ovatifolium. (Robinson) Blake, Bull. Torrey Club 48:84. 

1921. 
Millspaughia ovatifolia Robinson; Millsp. & Loes. Bot. Jahrb. Engler 36: 

Beibl. 80: 14. 1905. 
Known only from the type locality, Progreso, YucatAn. 
Leaves broadly ovate, 5 cm. long, acutish. 

9. TRIPLARIS L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 881. 1759. 
1. Triplaris auriculata Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 174. 1856. 

Chiapas and perhaps elsewhere in .Mexico, the type from some unknown 
locality. 

Shrub or tree, more or less pubescent; leaves large, oval, short-petiolate; 
flowers dioecious, racemose, the pistillate calyx accrescent and in fruit about 5 
cm. long. 

The Mexican material seen appears to be the same as T. macombii Donn. 
Smith, and is perhaps not different from T. suriuamcnsis Cham. T. auriculata 
is probably the plant reported from Chiapas as Triplaris sp. with the vernacular 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 249 

name "palo mulato." A related species, T. tomentosa Wedd., is a small tree 
with hollow stems infested by ants, known in Costa Rica as " hormigo " and 
" tabaco." 

10. RUPRECHTIA C. A. Meyer, Mem. Acad. St. Petersb. VI. 6: 148. 1840. 
Trees or shrubs with rather small leaves ; flowers dioecious, fasciculate in 
short spikes ; pistillate calyx accrescent in fruit. 

Venation of the lower surface of the leaves very prominent and finely reticu- 
late. 

Fruiting sepals 3.5 to 4 cm. long 1. R. macrosepala. 

Fruiting sepals 1.3 to 2.7 cm. long. 
Leaf blades narrowly elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, 0.8 to 2.5 cm. wide, 
nearly glabrous beneath ; fruiting sepals 1.3 to 1.8 cm. long. 

2. R. occidentalis. 
Leaf blades elliptic, 1.8 to 3.5 cm. wide, densely short-pilose beneath ; 

fruiting sepals about 2.5 cm. long 3. R. fusca. 

Venation of the lower surface of the leaves neither prominent nor reticulate. 

Leaves densely short-pilose beneath 4. R. pringlei. 

Leaves glabrous beneath or nearly so. 
Leaves ovate or broadly ovate, widest at or below the middle, acute or 

acuminate 5. R. cumingii. 

Leaves mostly oblanceolate-oblong, widest above the middle, obtuse or 
acutish 6. R. pallida. 

1. Ruprechtia macrosepala Standi., sp. nov. 

Sinaloa ; type from Varal, Municipalidad de Mazatlan (Dehesa 1508; U. S. 
Nat. Herb. no. 1,012,464). 

Branchlets slender, brownish ; ocreae 2.5 to 3 mm. long ; petioles stout, 3 to 5 
mm. long; leaf blades elliptic-ovate, 6.5 to 11.5 cm. long, 3 to 4.5 cm. 
wide, obtuse or rounded at base, acute or acuminate at apex, green and 
glabrous on the upper surface, slightly paler beneath, sparsely strigose along 
the veins, the venation very prominent and finely reticulate ; pistillate racemes 
numerous, laxly flowered, the flowers slender-pedicellate ; calyx 3.5 to 4 cm. 
long, densely appressed-pilose below, glabrate above; inner calyx lobes linear- 
attenuate, 4 to 5 mm. lDng, the outer lobes ligulate-spatulate, reticulate-veined, 
rounded at apex, tinged with red at first ; achene 8 to 9 mm. long, glabrous. 

2. Ruprechtia occidentalis Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 33: 66. 1920. 
Sinaloa ; type from San Bias. 

Shrub, about 3 meters high; leaves 3 to 8 cm. long, 1 to 2.5 cm. wide, acumi- 
nate to acutish. 

3. Ruprechtia fusca Fernald, Proc. Amer. Acad. 33: 86. 1897. 
Puebla and Guerrero ; type from Acapulco. 

Shrub or small tree, 4.5 meters high, the trunk 20 cm. in diameter ; leaves very 
thick, acute, with fulvous pubescence. 

4. Ruprechtia pringlei Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 33: 476. 1898. 
Oaxaca ; type from Tomellin Canyon. • 

Shrub or small tree. 4 to 6 meters high, with gray bark ; leaves oblong-ovate, 
4 to 7 cm. long; fruiting calyx 2 to 2.5 cm. long. 

5. Ruprechtia cumingii Meisn. in DC. Prodr. 14: 179. 1856. 
Veracruz. Central America and Colombia (type locality). 

Large or small tree with rounded crown ; leaves ovate, acuminate, compara- 
tively thin, 4 to 7.5 cm. long, 1.8 to 3.5 cm. wide; fruiting calyx about 2 cm. long. 



250 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

6. Ruprechtia pallida Standi., sp. nov. 

Miehoaoan and Guerrero; type from Cayaco, Michoacan (Nelson 6964; U. S. 
Nat. Herb. no. 399283). 

Branches blackish brown, rugose ; ocreae 1.5 mm. long ; petioles 3 to 5 mm. 
long; leaf blades oblanceolate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, 4.5 to 7 cm. long, 1.5 to 
2 cm. wide, usually cuneate at base, obtuse to subacute at apex, subcoriaceous, 
pale on both surfaces, glabrous above, the venation inconspicuous, glabrous 
beneath except for a few scattered hairs along the costa, the lateral veins about 
9 on each side, prominent, the other venation inconspicuous; pistillate racemes 
(very immature) about 2 cm. long, densely flowered; calyx densely pilose with 
short subappressed hairs. 

32. CHENOPOBIACEAE. Goosefoot Family. 

Reference: Standley, Chenopodiaceae, N. Amer. Fl. 21: 3-93. 1916. 

Shrubs, usually low, often succulent ; leaves opposite or alternate, estipulate, 
sometimes reduced to scales ; flowers small, perfect or unisexual ; fruit a 
utricle, 1-seeded. 

A large number of herbaceous species of various genera are found in Mexico. 

Leaves reduced to scales ; stems jointed ; flowers in fleshy spikes or sunk in the 
joints of the stems. 

Branches alternate 3. ALLENROLFEA. 

Branches opposite 4. ARTHROCNEMUM. 

Leaves well developed ; stems not jointed ; flowers solitary or clustered in the 
axils of the leaves. 
Embryo spirally coiled ; leaves very fleshy, terete or semiterete__5. DONDIA. 
Embryo not coiled ; leaves usually flat. 
Pubescence of inflated hairs or wanting, never of slender hairs. 

1. ATRIPLEX. 
Pubescence of silky hairs 2. EUROTIA. 

1. ATRIPLEX L. Sp. Pi 1032. 1753. 
Shrubs with scurfy whitish pubescence ; leaves alternate or opposite, entire or 
dentate ; flowers unisexual ; fruit inclosed by bracts. • 

Several herbaceous* representatives of the genus are found in Mexico. The 
plants are of considerable value as forage for stock. 
Fruiting bracts with 4 longitudinal wings. 

Bracts 7 to 23 mm. long, the free portion equaling or usually shorter than the 

wings 1. A. canescens. 

Bracts 4 to 10 mm. long, 1 lie free portion much longer than the wings. 

Pedicels of the fertile flowers 2 mm. long or less ; bracts 4 to 6 mm. long. 

2. A. linearis. 

Pedicels 4 to 7 mm. long; bracts 6 to 10 nun. long 3. A. macropoda. 

Fruiting bracts not winged. 

Leaves all or nearly all opposite. Leaves sessile. 2 to 5 nun. long. 

4. A. matamorensis. 
Leaves alternate, or the lowest opposite. 

Leaves dentate 5. A. acanthocarpa. 

Leaves entire.- 

Leaves sagittate, clasping, 2 to 4 mm. long 6. A. julacea. 

Leaves never sagittate, usually much larger. 

Bracts entire, 5 to 12 nun. long 7. A. confertifolia. 

Bracts dentate or crenulale. usually smaller. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 251 

Plants tall shrubs, usually a meter high or more ; leaves neitner obo- 
vate nor orbicular. 
Bracts crenulate ; leaves petiolate, the blades 1.5 to 5 cm. long. 

8. A. lentiformis. 
Bracts laciniate-dentate; leaves sessile, usually less than 1 cm. long. 

9. A. polycarpa. 
Plants low shrubs, rarely GO cm. high or, if larger, the leaves obovate 
or orbicular. 

Bracts 2 to 3 mm. long 10. A. insularis. 

Bracts 4 to 10 mm. long. 

Bracts 4 to 8 mm. long, broader than long 11. A. obovata. 

Bracts 8 to 10 mm. long, longer than broad 12. A. pringdei. 

1. Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. Gen. PI. 1: 197. 1818. 
Calligonum canescens Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 370. 1814. 
Obione tetraptera Benth. Bot. Yoy. Sulph. 48. 1844. 
Obione berlandieri Moq. in DC. Prodr. 13 2 : 114. 1849. 

Baja California to Coahuila, San Luis Potosi, and Zacatecas. Northward in 
the United States to Oregon and South Dakota ; type from South Dakota. 

Densely branched, grayish shrub, usually 1 to 1.5 meters high, often forming 
broad clumps ; leaves mostly linear, obtuse ; flowers dioecious. " Costillas de 
vaca " (Zacatecas); " chamiso " (Baja California, Chihuahua, New Mexico); 
" cenizo " (Chihuahua, Sonora). 

In some parts of its range this plant, like others of the genus, is of some 
importance as a forage plant. The leaves have a salty flavor. The seeds of 
this and other species have been used as food by the Gosiute Indians of Utah. 

2. Atriplex linearis S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24: 72. 1889. 

Dry plains and hillsides, Sonora and Baja California: type from Guaymas. 
Southern Arizona and California. 

Dense shrub, 1 to 2.5 meters high ; leaves linear. 1 to 5 cm. long, whitish. 
"Chamiso" (Baja California). 

3. Atriplex macropoda Rose & Standi. N. Amer. Fl. 21: 72. 1916. 

Known only from the type locality, Pichilinque Island, Baja California. 
Shrub with slender branches; leaves linear. 1 to l.S cm. long. 

4. Atriplex matamorensis A. Nels. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 17: 99. 1904. 
Atriplex oppositifolia S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 9: 118. 1874. Not A. oppo- 
sitifolia Vill. 1779. 

Tamaulipas ; type from the Rio Grande Valley, near Matamoros, South- 
western Texas. 

Small shrub, 20 to 40 cm. high, with slender, very leafy branches ; leaves 
sessile, lance-oblong, 2 to 5 mm. long, entire, obtuse or acutish ; bracts sub- 
orbicular, 3 mm. long, dentate. 

5. Atriplex acanthocarpa (Torr.) S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 9: 117. 1874. 
Obione acanthocarpa Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 183. 1859. 
Chihuahua to Nuevo Leon. Western Texas and southern New Mexico; type 

from plains near the Burro Mountains, New Mexico. 

Shrub. 1 meter high or less ; leaves oblong to broadly obovate, 1.5 to 5 cm. 
long, coarsely dentate ; flowers monoecious ; bracts 7 to 15 mm. long, the mar- 
gins laciniate, the sides with numerous long flattened appendages. 

6. Atriplex julacea S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 370. 1885. 
Baja California ; type from Bahia de Todos Santos. 

Procumbent or erect shrub, the slender branches densely leafy ; leaves scale- 
like; flowers dioecious; bracts 4 to 5 mm. long, with corky appendages on the 
sides. 



252 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

7. Atriplex confertifolia (Torr.) S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 9: 119. 1874. 
Obione confertifolia Torr. in Frem. Rep. Exped. Rocky Mount. 318. 1845. 
Chihuahua. Northward in the United States to Oregon and South Dakota; 

type from Utah. 

Shrub, rarely over 50 cm. high, often forming broad clumps; leaves mostly 
oval, entire, 1 to 2 cm. long; flowers dioecious; bracts oval or suborbicular. 

8. Atriplex lentiformis (Torr.) S. Wats. Proc Amer. Acad. 9: 118. 1874. 
Obione lentiformis Torr. in Sitgreaves, Rep. Zulii & Colo. 169. 1S53. 
Northern Sonora. Southern California to southwestern Utah ; type from 

Arizona. 

Dense shrub, 1 to 4 meters high ; leaves ovate to ovate-deltoid or oblong, ob- 
tuse or rounded at apex ; bracts smooth on the sides. 

The Coahuilla Indians of southern California grind the seeds and boil the 
meal in salted water. The various species of Atriplex were rather important 
food plants among many of the Indians of the arid portions of North America. 
Among the Pimas of Arizona the young shoots, which have a salty flavor, were 
boiled and eaten. The same tribe made use of the seeds (presumably includ- 
ing also the bracts), cooking them in pits over night, then drying and parching 
them and storing for winter use. Seeds so preserved were eaten as pinole — a 
mixture of the ground seeds with water. The Pimas used the powdered root as 
a dressing for sores. 

9. Atriplex polycarpa (Torr.) S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 9: 117. 1S74. 
Obione polycarpa Torr. U. S. Rep. Expl. Miss. Pacif. 4: 130. 1857. 
Atriplex curridens T. S. Brandeg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2: 201. 1889. 
Sonora and Baja California. California to Arizona ; type from the Gila 

River, Arizona. 

Dense shrub, 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves rhombic or deltoid, 2 to 5 cm. long, 
grayish ; flowers dioecious ; bracts with a few subulate appendages on the sides. 

10. Atriplex insularis Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1: 80. 1890. 
Islands off the west coast of Baja California ; type from Raza Island. 

Erect shrub, 1.5 to 2 meters high ; leaves obovate or orbicular, 1 to 1.5 cm. 
long, short-petiolate or sessile, rounded at apex ; bracts coarsely and irregularly 
dentate, short-tuberculate on the sides. 

11. Atriplex obovata Moq. Chenop. 61. 1840. 

Atriplex grcfujii S. Wats. Proe. Amer. Acad. 9: 118. 1874. 

Chihuahua to Zacatecas ; type from San Luis Potosi. Western Texas and 
southern New Mexico. 

Shrub, 15 to 40 cm. high; leaves oblong to oval, 1 to 3 cm. long; flowers 
dioecious ; bracts denticulate, the sides sparsely tuberculate or crested near the 
base, rarely smooth. 

12. Atriplex pringlei Standi. N. Amer. Fl. 21: 68. 1916. 

Known only from the type locality, alkaline plains. Hacienda de Angostura, 
San Luis Potosi. 

Shrub, 20 to 30 cm. high ; leaves obovate, 1.5 to 3 cm. oblong, rounded at apex ; 
bracts not compressed, irregularly dentate, the sides with few or numerous 
appendages. 

2. EUROTIA Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 200. 176$. 
1. Eurotia subspinosa Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 39: 312. 1912. 

Chihuahua and Coahuila. Southern California to Utah; type from Utah. 

Much-branched shrub a meter high or less, copiously pubescent; leaves 
linear, alternate, 1 to 3 cm. long, stellate-pubescent; flowers dioecious, clus- 
tered in the leaf axils; fruit covered with long white or brownish hairs. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 253 

The plant is of some importance for forage. The closely related E. lanata 
(Pursh) Moq., of the western United States, is often known as " winter- fat." 

3. ALLENROLFEA Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 545. 1891. 
1. Allenrolfea occiden talis (S. Wats.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 546. 1891. 

Halostachys occidentalis S. Wats, in King, Geol. Expl. 40th Par. 5: 293. 
1871. 

Spirostachys occidentalis S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 9: 125. 1874. 

In alkaline soil, Sonora and Baja California ; probably also in Chihuahua. 
Northward in the United States to Oregon ; type from Utah. 

Shrub, 1.5 meters high or less, much branched, green, with very succulent, 
fragile, jointed branches; flowers arranged spirally by 3's or 5's in the axils 
of fleshy peltate bracts. " Hierba del burro" (New Mexico). 

Eaten sparingly by stock. Known in New Mexico as " burroweed." 

4. ARTHROCNEMUM Moq. Chenop. 111. 1840. 
1. Arthrocnemum subterminale (Parish) Standi. Journ. Washington Acad. 
Sci. 4: 399. 1914. 

Salicomia siibterminalis Parish, Erythea 6: 87. 1898. 

In alkaline soil, Baja California and Sinaloa. California ; type from River- 
side County. 

Low leafless shrub with succulent jointed branches ; flowers in groups of 3 
on the opposite sides of the joints, the flowering joints forming terminal 
spikes. 

The seeds were ground into meal and eaten -by the Coahuilla Indians of 
southern California. 1 

5. DONDIA Adans. Fam. PI. 2: 261. 1763. 
Low shrubs or herbs, glabrous or pubescent, often glaucous ; leaves short, 
terete or semiterete, very succulent ; flowers small, perfect, axillary. 

The plants perhaps scarcely deserve to be classed as shrubs. They are 
sometimes burned to secure ashes from which lye for soap making is made. 
The Coahuilla Indians of California are said to use the plants for dyeing 
baskets black. The salty-flavored leaves were cooked and eaten by the Pimas 
and other Indians of the arid regions. The following names are said to be 
applied to various species of doubtful identification : " Romerito " ; " romerillo " : 
" jauja " (Durango, Tamaulipas) ; " sosa " (Sonora); " quelite salado " (Chi- 
huahua). 
Stems and leaves glabrous or nearly so. 

Seed 1.5 to 2 mm. broad 1. D. calif ornica. 

Seed 0.8 mm. broad 2. D. fruticosa. 

Stems and leaves densely villous or tomentulose, at least when young. 
Branches of the inflorescence very slender, spreading or divaricate, flexuous, 

elongate ; leaves flattened 3. D. ramosissima. 

Branches of the inflorescence stout, ascending or erect, not flexuous, short ; 
leaves terete. 

Calyx densely pubescent 4. D. brevifolia. 

Calyx nearly or quite glabrous. 

Leaves glaucous, 3 to 7 mm. long, rounded at apex ; seed 1.5 mm. broad. 

5. D. palmeri. 
Leaves green, 7 to 15 mm. long, acute ; seed 1 mm. broad. 

6. D. tampicensis. 

1 See D. P. Barrows, The ethno-botany of the Coahuilla Indians of southern 
California, pp. 1-82. 1900. Doctorate thesis of the University of Chicago. 



254 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

1. Dondia calif ornica (S. Wats.) Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. 3. 1898. 
Suaeda calif ornica S. Wats. Proe. Amer. Acad. 9: 89. 1874. 

Salt marshes, coast of Baja California. California ; type from San Francisco 
Bay. 

Shrub, 20 to SO cm. high ; leaves 1.5 to 3.5 cm. long. 

2. Dondia fruticosa (L.) Druce, List. Brit. PI. 60. 1908. 
Chenopodium fruticosum L. Sp. PI. 221. 1753. 
Suaeda fruticosa Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 70. 1775. 

Coahuila and probably elsewhere. Northward to Alberta ; Bahamas and 
Cuba ; Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

Shrub, 20 to 80 cm. high ; leaves 1 to 1.5 cm. long. 

3. Dondia ramosissima Standi. N. Amer. Fl. 21: 91. 1916. 

Baja California. Southern California and Arizona ; type from Lees Ferry, 
Arizona. 

Shrub, 1 meter high ; leaves 0.5 to 2 cm. long. 

4. Dondia brevifolia Standi. N. Amer. Fl. 21: 92. 1916. 
Baja California. Southern California ; type from Newport. 

5. Dondia palmeri Standi. N. Amer. Fl. 21:91. 1916. 
Coahuila and Zacatecas ; type from Parras, Coahuila. 
Low shrub. " Saladillo " (Zacatecas). 

6. Dondia tampicensis Standi. N. Amer. Fl. 21:91. 1916. 

Known only from the type locality, along the coast near La Barra, Tamauli- 
pas, near Tampico. 

33. AMARANTHACEAE. Amaranth Family. 

Reference: Standley, Amaranthaceae, N. Amer. Fl. 21: 95-169. 1917. 
Shrubs or small trees; leaves opposite or alternate, estipulate, entire; flowers 
small, perfect or unisexual, usually whitish, mostly spicate; fruit very small, 
dry. 

Many herbaceous representatives of the family occur in Mexico. 
Leaves opposite. Fruit 1-seeded. 

Stigma capitate or shallowly bilobate. Plants scandent 5. PFAFFIA. 

Stigma with 2 or 3 subulate or filiform lobes 6. IRESINE. 

Leaves alternate. 

Fruit with 2 or more seeds. Flowers perfect. 

Fruit 1-seeded 1. CELOSIA. 

Sepals glabrous ; anthers 4-celled. 

Seeds with an aril ; stems usually scandent or reclining_2. CHAMISSOA. 

Seeds without an aril ; stems erect 3. LAGREZIA. 

Sepals villous; anthers 2-celled 4. DICRAURUS. 

1. CELOSIA I* Sp. PI. 20. r >. 1753. 

Low shrubs or herbs; leaves alternate, entire or lobed. petiolate; flowers 
perfect, spicate. 

The best-known representative of the genus is the cockscomb. Cclosia arffentea 
L., various forms of which are cultivated for ornament. It is known in 
Mexico as " cresta de gallo," " abanico," " Cinco de Mayo," and " mano de Icon." 
The cultivated plants are the form with fasciated inflorescence, described by 
Linnaeus as Celosia cristata. This is the only species besides those enumerated 
below which occurs in Mexico. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 255 

Sepals 5 to 6 mm. long, prominently nerved. 

Leaf blades hastately lobed ; stigmas 2 1. C. palmeri. 

Leaf blades not lobed ; stigmas 3. 

Seeds 5 to 8: leaf blades ovate to lanceolate, deeurrent nearly to the base 

of the petiole 2. C. virgata. 

Seeds about 20 ; leaf blades deltoid to triangular-lanceolate, short-decurrent. 

3. C. nitida. 
Sepals 3 mm. long or less, obscurely nerved. 
Leaf blades, at least most of them, hastately lobed. puberulent beneath. 

4. C. floribunda. 
Leaf blades entire, glabrous. 

Flowers pedicellate 7. C. chiapensis. 

Flowers sessile. 

Fruit stipitate; sepals dark brown 5. C. moquini. 

Fruit sessile; sepals stramineous 6. C. orcuttii. 

1. Celosia palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 18: 163. 1883. 

Coabuila, Nuevo Le6n, and San Luis Potosi ; type from Monclova, Coahuila. 
Western Texas. 

Low shrub, much branched, glabrous except about the inflorescence; leaves 
lanceolate or lance-triangular, 1.5 to 5 cm. long; spikes 1 to 2 cm. long; seeds 
3 or 4. 

2. Celosia virgata Jacq. Coll. Bot. 2: 279. 1788. 

Veracruz and Yucatan. Cuba and Porto Rico; northern South America. 
Plants suffrutescent, 0.5 to 1 meter high ; leaves ovate or lanceolate ; flower 
spikes 1 to 5 cm. long. 

3. Celosia nitida Yabl. Symb. Bot. 3: 44. 1704. 

San Luis Potosi to Yucatan. West Indies, western Texas, and northern 
South America. 

Plants fruticose below, the slender steins erect or clambering over other 
plants, glabrous; leaves 2 to 7 cm. long. "Abanico " (Colombia). • 

Used in Martinique as a remedy for dysentery. 

4. Celosia floribunda A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5: 167. 1861. 
Southern Baja California ; type from the vicinity of Cape San Lucas. 
Shrub, 4 meters high or less ; leaves 3 to 18 cm. long ; spikes 2 to 15 cm. long. 

5. Celosia moquini Guillem. ; Moq. in DC. Prodr. 13 2 : 239. 1849. 
Soutbern Mexico, the localities not definitely 'known. 

Leaves 15 to 30 cm. long ; flower spikes arranged in large panicles. 

6. Celosia orcuttii Greenm. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 330. 1912. 
Colima, the type from the city of Colima. 

Leaves 6 to 17 cm. long, acute. 

Rather doubtfully distinct from the last species. 

7. Celosia chiapensis T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6: 363. 1917. 
Chiapas ; type from Finca Irlanda. 

Glabrous shrub; leaves slender-petiolate. lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 9 to 
14 cm. long, acuminate. 

2. CHAMISSOA II. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 196. 1817. 
1. Chamissoa altissima (Jacq.) H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 197. 1S17. 

Achyranthcs altissima Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 17. 1762. 

Sinaloa to Tamaulipas, Tabasco and Oaxaca. Central America. West Indies, 
and northern South America ; type from Jamaica. 



256 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Shrub, the stems 2 meters long or more, scandent or reclining, glabrous or 
nearly so ; leaves ovate or lanceolate, 6 to 18 cm. long, acute ; flowers spicate, 
in large panicles. "Pate" (Nicaragua); " guauiquique " (Cuba); " pabellon 
del rey " (Santo Domingo). 

This is probably the plant described by Sesse and Mociiio ' as Celosia aloinicis. 

3. LAGREZIA Moq. in DC. Prodr. 13 2 : 252. 1849. 
1. Lagrezia monosperma (Rose) Standi. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 5: 
393. 1915. 
Celosia monosperma Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1: 352. 1895. 
Colima and Guerrero; type from Manzanillo, Colima. 

Shrub, 2 to 5 meters high, glabrous or nearly so ; leaves ovate to lanceolate, 
5 to 12 cm. long ; flowers perfect, small, in slender paniculate spikes. 

4. DICRAURUS Hook. f. in Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 3: 42. 1SS0. 
Erect shrubs, copiously pubescent ; leaves chiefly alternate, but some of them 
frequently opposite ; flowers unisexual, small, spicate, the spikes paniculate. 
Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acute, 3 to 9 mm. wide ; petioles 1 to 2 mm. 

long i . j 1. D. leptocladus. 

Leaves rounded-ovate or rounded-deltoid, usually rounded at the apex, 13 to 35 
mm. wide ; petioles 5 to 10 mm. long 2. D. alternifolius. 

1. Dicraurus leptocladus Hook. f. in Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 3: 43. 1880. 
Dicraurus diffusus Baill. Hist. PI. 9: 214. 1888. 

Chihuahua to San Luis Potosi. Western Texas (type locality). 
Shrub, 0.2 to 1 meter high, with numerous stems. 

2. Dicraurus alternifolius (S. Wats.) Uline & Bray, Bot. Gaz. 21:355. 1896. 
Iresine alt erm folia S. Wats. Proc. Araer. Acad. 24:72. 1889. 
Shrub, 1 to 3.5 meters high, with grayish or brownish branches. 

5. PFAFFIA Mart. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2:20. 1826. 
1. Pfaffia hookeriana (Hemsl.) Greenm. Field Mus. Bot. 2:330. 1912. 

Heoanthe hookeriana Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 19. 1882. 

Veracruz, the type from Cordoba. Central America. 

Scandent shrub, more or less pubescent ; leaves ovate, acute, short-petiolate ; 
flowers mostly perfect, yellowish white, spicate, the sepals covered with long 
white hairs. 

6. IRESINE P. Br. Civ. Nat. Hist. Jam. 358. 1756. 
Shrubs or small trees, erect or sometimes scandent ; leaves opposite, petiolate ; 
flowers perfect or unisexual, usually spicate, the sepals variously hairy. 

A number of herbaceous species occur in Mexico. A plant described by Sesse. 
and Mociiio 2 as Celosia dioica belong, apparently, to this genus, but its identifi- 
cation is doubtful. 
Flowers perfect or polygamous. 

Branches of the inflorescence glabrous or nearly so. 
Bracts and bractlets rounded or obtuse at the apex. 

Inflorescence naked; bracts stramineous or whitish; pubescence of the 

sepals bright white; leaf blades broadest at the middle__l. I. nigra. 

Inflorescence leafy; bracts fuscous; pubescence of the sepals brownish; 

leaf blades broadest near the base 2. I. pacifica. 

1 IT. Nov. Hisp. 41, 1887. The specific name is written "Alomiris " in Fl. 
Mex. 74. 1894. 

1 PI. Nov. Hisp. 38. 1893. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 257 

Bracts and bractlets acute or acuminate, cuspidate. 

Staminodia minute ; sepals acute or acutish ; bracts sparsely villous. 

3. I. angustifolia. 
Staminodia one-third as long as the filaments ; sepals obtuse or rounded 

at apex ; bracts densely villous 4. I. arenaria. 

Branches of the inflorescence densely canescent or tomentose. 
Leaf blades elliptic to oblaneeolate-oblong, 12 to 20 cm. long, soon glabrate ; 

spikelets sessile; sepals sparsely lanate at base 5. I. tomentella. 

Leaf blades ovate to lanceolate, 8 cm. long or less, permanently pubescent ; 

spikelets mostly pedicellate ; sepals densely lanate 6. I. hartmanii. 

Flowers dioecious. 
Branches of the inflorescence glabrous or nearly so. 

Leaves 25 to 33 cm. long 7. I. herrerae. 

Leaves 2 to 15 cm. long. 
Bracts subcoriaceous, rounded at apex ; lateral veins of the leaves nearly 

obsolete 8. I. palmeri. 

Bracts scarious, mucronulate ; lateral veins of the leaves coarse and promi- 
nent 9. I. interrupta. 

Branches of the inflorescence densely pubescent. 

Stamiuate spikelets glomerate at the ends of branches ; leaf blades about as 

broad as long, mostly suborbicular 10. I. rotundifolia. 

Staminate spikelets paniculate; leaf blades much longer than broad. 
Sepals of the pistillate flowers rigid, green, the tips slightly spreading. 

11. I. pringlei. 
Sepals of the pistillate flowers thin, whitish, the tips erect or incurved. 

Pubescence of branched hairs 12. I. stricta. 

Pubescence of simple hairs. 

Panicles on long naked peduncles, narrow, the branches usually short. 
Leaves soon glabrate ; pubescence of the stems lustrous. 

13. I. nitens. 
Leaves permanently pubescent, at least beneath ; pubescence dull. 

14. I. schaffneri. 
Panicles short-pedunculate or usually sessile, broad, the branches 
commonly elongate. 
Leaves white beneath with a usually dense tomentum. 
Spikes usually sessile, short; leaves thick, subrugose ; branches 

of the panicle stout 15. I. cassiniaeformis. 

Spikes nearly all pedunculate, elongate ; leaves thin ; branches 

of the panicle slender, flexuous 16. I. discolor. 

Leaves not white beneath, the pubescence of yellowish, straight 
or loosely matted hairs. 
Panicles very dense ; bracts and sepals villous only at base ; 
sepals of the staminate flowers 2.5 to 3 mm. long. 

17. I. grandis. 
Panicles loose and open ; bracts and sepals copiously villous ; 
sepals of the staminate flowers 2 mm. long or shorter. 

18. I. calea. 
1. Iresine nigra Uline & Bray, Bot. Gaz. 21: 350. 1896. 

Veracruz and Chiapas. Central America ; type from San Pedro Sula, Hon- 
duras. 

Shrub with slender branches; leaves mostly ovate, 4.5 to 14 cm. long, acute 
to long-acuminate, glabrous. 



258 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

2. Iresine pacifica Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 96. 1916. 
Sinaloa to Colinia ; type from Manzanillo. 

Slender erect shrub, or often herbaceous, nearly glabrous; leaves ovate 
or lanceolate, 4 to 10 cm. long. 

3. Iresine angustifolia Euphrasen, Beskr. St. Barthel. 165. 1795. 

Iresine elatior Rich. ; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 766. 1805. 

Veracruz; Baja California. West Indies; Costa Rica to Brazil and Ecua- 
dor; type from St. Bartholomew Island. West Indies. 

Much-branched shrub, a meter high, or often herbaceous, nearly glabrous; 
leaves mostly lanceolate, 5 to 10 cm. long. 

4. Iresine arenaria Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 93. 1916. 
Sinaloa, on sandy hillsides, the type from Topolobampo. 
Plants erect, frutieose at base, nearly glabrous; leaves mostly lanceolate, 

2.5 to 4.5 cm. long. 

5. Iresine tomentella Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 97. 1916. 
Known only from the type locality, Gomez Farias, Tamaulipas. 
Erect shrub, 1.5 to 2 meters high, with white flowers. " Tepozan." 

6. Iresine hartmanii Uline, Field Mus. Bot. 1 : 422. 1899. 
Sonora and Durango ; type from Granados, Sonora. 
Shrub, 1.5 to 2.5 meters high. 

7. Iresine herrerae Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 53: 55. 1918. 
Known only from the type locality, Rio Concordia, Oaxaca. 
Erect shrub, 3 meters high, glabrous. 

8. Iresine palmeri (S. Wats.) Standi. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 5: 395. 

1915. 
Hebanthe palmeri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 18: 144. 1883. 
Nuevo Le6n to Veracruz ; type from Guajueo, Nuevo Le6n. 
Scandent or decumbent shrub, nearly glabrous; leaves mostly ovate-oblong, 
2 to 6 cm. long. 

9. Iresine interrupta Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 156. 1844. 

Alternanthera richardii Moq. in D. C. Prodr. 13 2 : 353. 1849. 

Hebanthe subnuda Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 20. 1882. 

Sonora to San Luis Potosi, Veracruz, and Puebla ; type from Tepic. Guate- 
mala. 

Scandent or reclining shrub, 4 to 6 meters long, nearly glabrous, with pale 
stems ; leaves broadly ovate or lanceolate, acute or attenuate. " Barba. del 
viejo " (Sinaloa). 

10. Iresine rotundifolia Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 96. 1916. 
Puebla ; type from San Luis Tultitlanapa. 
Leaves 3.5 to 17 mm. long, tomentose beneath. 

11. Iresine pringlei S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 25: 101. 1890. 
On rocky slopes, Jalisco to Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Guadalajara. 
Erect shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high; leaves ovate, 4 to 8 cm. long, acuminate; 

flowers in large panicles. 

12. Iresine stricta Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 97. 1916. 
Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Tehuacan, Puebla. 
Erect shrub, 30 to 80 cm. high ; leaves oval to ovate, 1.3 to 3.5 cm. long. 

13. Iresine nitens Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 95. 1916. 
Known only from the type locality, Tehuacan, Puebla. 
Low erect shrub ; leaves lanceolate, 2 to 6 cm. long, acute. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 259 

14. Iresine schaffneri S. Wats. Proc. Anier. Acad. 21: 437. 1886. 

Dry rocky hillsides, Chihuahua to San Luis Potosi, and Hidalgo ; type from 
San Luis Potosi. 

Erect shrub, 1 meter high or less ; leaves ovate or lanceolate, 2 to 9 cm. long. 
" Tlatlon " ( Queretaro ) . 

15. Iresine cassiniaeformis Schauer, Linnaea 19: 708. 1847. 
Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi. 

Erect shrub, 1 to 1.5 meters high ; leaves mostly ovate, acute or obtuse. 

16. Iresine discolor Greenm. Proe\ Amer. Acad. 33: 477. 1898. 
Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Santa Catarina Canyon, Oaxaca. 

Erect shrub with slender branches; leaves oval, ovate, or oblong, 2 to 7 cm. 
long. 

17. Iresine grandis Standi. N. Amer. Fl. 21: 163. 1917. 

Jalisco to San Luis Potosi. Veracruz. Mexico, and Michoacan ; type from Las 
Canoas, San Luis Potosi. Guatemala. 

Shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high ; leaves ovate, 6 to 13 cm. long. 

18. Iresine calea (Ibafiez) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18:94. 1916. 
Gomphrena latifolia Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10': 349. 1843. 
Achy rant lies calca Ibafiez. Naturaleza 4:79. 1S79. 

Iresine latifolia Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 3: 42. 1889. Not I. latifolia D. Dietr. 
1839. 

Hebanthe ?}bollis Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3:20. 1S82. 

Iresine laxa S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 21: 454. 1886. 

Baja California to Coahuila, Tamaulipas, and Chiapas ; type from Puebla. 
Central America. 

Erect shrub, 1.5 to 6.5 meters high ; leaves ovate, 4 to 10 cm. long. " Tepozan " 
(Tamaulipas) ; " amargosillo " (Michoacan, Guerrero) ; "pie de paolma " (Vah 
ley of Mexico, Ramirez) ; " tlatlancuaya," " hierba del tabardillo," "hierba de la 
calentura " (Puebla) ; " mosquitero " (El Salvador). Robelo gives one of the 
Mexican names as " clacancauayo " derived from the Nahuatl tlatiancna-ye, 
" which has knees," referring to the jointed stems. 

Reputed to have diuretic and diaphoretic properties ; decoction of the plant 
used in Puebla in the treatment of fevers. 

34. ALLIONIACEAE. Four-o'clock Family. 

Reference: Standley, Allioniaceae, N. Amer. Fl. 21:171-254. 1918. 

Shurbs or trees, sometimes scandent ; leaves opposite (in the genera listed 
here), entire; flowers small and usually inconspicuous; corolla none. 

Many herbaceous representatives of the family occur in Mexico. Bougain- 
villea spectabilis Willd., a native of Brazil, is a favorite ornamental plant in 
Mexico. It is a tall spiny climber with alternate leaves, the small flowers being 
borne on large, showy, purplish red bracts. It is known in Mexico by the fol- 
lowing names: "Azalea de guia," " bugambilla," " bugevilla," "bombilla," 
"bugavilea," " hernandiazea," " camelina." Another well-known cultivated 
plant of the family is the four-o'clock, MirabUis jalapa L., known in Mexico as 
" arrebolera," " maravilla," " Don Diego de noche," and " trompetilla." 
Fruit bearing short-stalked glands. 

Plants armed with spines; flowers in cymes 3. PISONIA. 

Plants unarmed ; flowers in umbels. 

Plants erect; stamens 6 to 11 4. PISONIELLA. 

Plants scandent or trailing; stamens 2 to 5 5. COMMICABPUS. 



260 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Fruit without glands. 

Fruit with longitudinal wings; low shrubs 6. SELINOCARPUS. 

Fruit not winged ; trees or large shrubs. 

Stamens included 1. NEEA. 

Stamens exserted 2. TORRUBIA. 

1. NEEA 1 Kuiz & Pav. Fl. Peruv. Chil. Prodr. 52. 1794. 
Leaves sometimes vertieillate ; flowers dioecious; staminate perianth urceo- 
late, 4 or 5-dentate; stamens 5 to 10; fruit ellipsoid. 

Leaves coriaceous, opposite 1. N. choriophylla. 

Leaves membranaceous. 

Leaves mostly 2 to 6 cm. wide; stamens 5 2. N. psychotrioides. 

Leaves less than 2 cm. wide ; stamens 6. 

Leaves partly vertieillate, acuminate at apex 3. N. tenuis. 

Leaves opposite, obtuse or acutish 4. N. sphaerantha. 

1. Neea choriophylla Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 3S4. 1911. 
Yucatan. 

Leaf blades oval to obovate-oval, 4.5 to 7 cm. long, abruptly acuminate; 
perianth 3 mm. long. 

2. Neea psychotrioides Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 16: 199. 1891. 

Tabasco and Oaxaca. Guatemala (type from Escuintla) to Costa Rica. 
Slender shrub, 2 to 3 meters high ; leaves opposite or vertieillate, oblong to 
elliptic, 8 to 15 cm. long, glabrous ; perianth 4 to 8 mm. long. 

3. Neea tenuis Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 384. pi. 74. 1911. 
Known only from the type locality, Orizaba, Veracruz. 

Leaf blades elliptie-obl«ng or lance-elliptic, 4.4 to 5 cm. long; perianth 3 to 
4 mm. long. 

4. Neea sphaerantha Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 384. 1911. 
Known only from the type locality, Izamal, Yucatan. 

Leaves oblong or oval, 1 to 2 cm. wide, glabrous ; perianth 4 to 5 mm. long. 

2. TORRUBIA Veil. Fl. Flum. 139. 1827. 
Shrubs or small trees ; flowers small, dioecious ; fruit small, drupaceous. 

Inflorescence lax, few-flowered; leaf blades oval or oblong-oval 1. T. potosina. 

Inflorescence dense, many-flowered ; leaf blades elliptic 2. T. linearibracteata. 

1. Torrubia potosina Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 99. 1916. 
Known only from the type locality, Rascon, San Luis Potosi. 
Leaves 5 to 10.5 cm. long, acute or acuminate. 

2. Torrubia linearibracteata (Heimerl) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 

100. 1916. 
Pisonia linearibracteata Heimerl, Report. Sp. Nov. Fedde 12: 221. 1913. 
Yucatan ; type from Chichen Itzfl,. 
Leaves 7.5 cm. long and 4.3 cm. wide or smaller. 

3. PISONIA 2 L. Sp. PI. 1026. 1753. 
Flowers small, dioecious, cymose ; fruit 5-sided, puberulent, with stalked 
glands along the angles. 

'The genus was named in honor of Luis N6e, a Frenchman by birth but a 
Spaniard by naturalization, who was an associate of Malaspina on his voyage 
around the world (1789-1794). He collected chiefly in South America, but 
also visited Mexico, landing at Acapulco and journeying to the capital, in com- 
pany with Haenko. His collections are at Madrid. 

2 Named in honor of Willem Piso, a Dutch physician and naturalist, who vis- 
ited Brazil in 1637. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 261 

Mature fruit 7 to 10 mm. thick 1. P. macranthocarpa. 

Mature fruit 3 to 4 mm. thick. 

Staminate flowers yellowish green, in loose open cymes 2.5 to 6 cm. broad. 

2. P. aculeata. 

Staminate flowers dark red, in compact headlike cymes 1 to 2.2 cm. broad. 

Leaf blades acute or acutish, obovate or oblong-obovate, nearly glabrous; 

spines straight 3. P. flavescens. 

Leaf blades rounded or obtuse at apex, orbicular or rounded-obovate, 
densely pubescent; spines usually recurved 4. P. capitata. 

1. Pisonia macranthocarpa Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 20:293. 1895. 
Pisonia aculeata macranthocarpa Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 16: 19S. 1891. 
Chiapas. Central America, Venezuela, and Cuba ; type from Escuintla, 

Guatemala. 

Shrub or small tree with reddish brown branches, armed with few, usually 
straight spines; leaves elliptic to broadly oval; flowers greenish yellow; fruit 
1 to 2 cm. long. 

2. Pisonia aculeata L. Sp. PI. 1026. 1753. 

Tamaulipas to Sinaloa and southward, chiefly along sea beaches. Southern 
Florida, West Indies, Central America, tropical South -America, and southern 
Asia. 

Densely branched shrub, often with a thick trunk, the branches long and 
drooping or subscandent, very spiny; leaves mostly 3 to 10 cm. long, variable 
in shape ; flowers sweet-scented ; fruit 9 to 12 cm. long. " P.eeb " or " hbeeb " 
(Yucatan, Maya) " garabato " (Durango) ; " garabato prieto," " una del diablo " 
(Michoacan, Guerrero) ; "coma de una" (Tamaulipas) ; " una de gato " (Ta- 
basco, Cuba, Santo Domingo, Porto Rico) ; " huele de noche " (Oaxaca, Guate- 
mala) ; " espino y camote " (Oaxaca or Chiapas, Seler) ; " gu-ichi-gu " (Oaxaca, 
Seler) ; " zarza " (Cuba) ; " escambron " (Porto Rico) ; "espino negro" (Nica- 
ragua). 

The branches are said to be used in Jamaica for barrel hoops. A decoction 
of the leaves and bark is used in Yucatan, Jamaica, and elsewhere for rheu- 
matism and venereal diseases. The glands of the fruit are extremely viscid, 
and in herbarium specimens they retain their viscidity indefinitely. The fruits 
adhere easily to the feathers of birds, sometimes in such abundance as to 
prevent their flying. 

3. Pisonia flavescens Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13:389. 1911. • 
Extreme southern Baja California ; type from San Jose del Cabo. 
Branches slender, gray; leaves 4 to 6.5 cm. long; fruit about 1 cm. long. 

4. Pisonia capitata (S. Wats.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 388. 1911. 
Cryptocarpus capitatus S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 24: 71. 1889. 

In sandy soil, Sonora to Tepic; type from Guaymas, Sonora. 

Densely branched shrub or small tree, sometimes 5 meters high, branched to 
the ground or often with a distinct trunk; leaves 2 to 6 cm. long; fruit 7 to 10 
mm. long. " Bainoro prieto." " vainoro prieto," "garabato prieto" (Sinaloa); 
" garambullo " (Sonora, Sinaloa). 

A decoction of the fruit is said to be used for fevers. 

4. PISONIELLA (Heimerl) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 385. 1911. 
1. Pisoniella arborescens (Lag. & Rodr.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
13:385. 1911. 
Boerhaavia arborescens Lag. & Rodr. Anal. Cienc. Nat. 4:257. 1801. 



262 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Pisonia hirtella H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 217. 1818. 

Pisonia mexicana Willtl. ; Link, Enum. PI. 1:354. 1821. 

Boerhaavia octa-ndra S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 26:145. 1891. 

Pisonia arborescens Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 3 2 : 265. 1898. 

Jalisco to Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Salvatierra, Guanajuato. 

Shrub, 2 meters high or less; leaves broadly ovate or ovate-orbicular, 2.5 to 
7 cm. long, obtuse or acute ; flowers perfect, greenish white, 5 to 7 mm. long ; fruit 
dry, about 1 cm. long. " Jazmincillo " (Valley of Mexico, etc.) 

5. COMMICARPUS Standi. Coutr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12:373. 1909. 
Plants fruticose or suffrutescent, more or less scandent ; flowers perfect, 

umbellate or verticillate, small ; fruit dry, cylindric, with very viscid glands. 

Perianth 3 mm. long and broad, glabrous or obscurely puberulent ; glands of the 
fruit irregularly scattered 1. C. scandens. 

Perianth 7 to 8 mm. long, 10 mm. broad, short-villous or hirtellous ; glands of the 
fruit grouped in transverse bands 2. C. brandegei. 

1. Commicarpus scandens (L.) Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 373. 1909. 
Boerhaavia scandens L. Sp. PI. 3. 1753. 

Nearly throughout Mexico, in fencerows and waste ground. Western Texas 
and southern Arizona ; West Indies ; South America ; type from Jamaica. 

Leaves cordate-ovate or ovate-deltoid, 1.5 to 6.5 cm. long, acute ; flowers 
greenish yellow; fruit about 1 cm. long. " Bejuco de purgacion " (Porto Rico) ; 
" sonorita " ( Sinaloa ) . 

A decoction of the roots is said to be used in Porto Rico for venereal diseases. 

2. Commicarpus brandegei Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 12: 374. 1909. 
Boerhaavia elongata T. S. Brandeg. Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 2:199. 1889. Not 

B. elongata Salisb. 1796. 
Southern Baja California ; type from San Pablo. 
Plants 2 meters long or more, with whitish steins; flowers white. 

6. SELINOCARPUS A. Gray, Amer. Journ. Sci. II. 15: 262. 1853. 
Low shrubs, more or less pubescent ; flowers perfect, solitary in the leaf 

axils. 

Several herbaceous species also occur in Mexico. 

Perianth 1 cm. long. Leaves linear or linear-oblong 1. S. angustifolius. 

Perianth 2.5 to 3.5 cm. long. 

Leaves linear, 1 to 4 cm. long, obscurely glandular-puberulent or glabrous. 

2. S. palmeri. 

Leaves narrowly spatulate-oblong, 0.4 to 1.1 cm. long, densely glandular- 

hirtellous 3. S. purpusianus. 

1. Selinocarpus angustifolius Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 170. 1859. 
Coahuila. Western Texas, the type from Presidio del Norte. 

Plants fruticose below, 10 to 40 cm. high; flowers often cleistogamous ; 
fruit 5.5 to 7.5 mm. long, with 5 thin wings. 

2. Selinocarpus palmeri Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 6. 1882. 
Known only from the type locality, San Lorenzo de Laguna, Coahuila. 
Flowers 3.5 cm. long, the stamens long-exserted. 

3. Selinocarpus purpusianus Heimerl, Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 63: 353. 1913. 
Known only from the type locality, Sierra del Rey, Coahuila. 

Shrub, 10 to 20 cm. high; flowers 2.5 to 3 cm. long. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 263 

35. BATIDACEAE. 

1. BATIS L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1380. 1759. 
1. Batis maritima L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1380. 1759. 

On seacoasts, Tamaulipas to Yucatan ; Baja California and Sonora to 
Colima and probably to Chiapas. Widely distributed in tropical America ; 
Hawaii. 

Erect or prostrate shrub, sometimes a meter high ; leaves opposite, fleshy, 
semiterete, 1 to 2.5 cm. long; flowers small, dioecious, in short axillary spikes. 
" Lechuga de mar " (Nicaragua); " barrilla " (Porto Rico). 

The leaves have a salty flavor and have been eaten as a salad. In the 
West Indies ashes of the plant have been used in the manufacture of soap 
and glass. Descourtilz reports that the leaves were used in the treatment of 
ulcers, and that they have aperitive and diuretic properties. 

36. PHYTOLACCACEAE. Pokeweed Family. 

Reference : Walter in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 83. 1909. 

Shrubs or small trees ; leaves alternate, entire ; flowers small, perfect or uni- 
sexual ; corolla usually none. 

A number of herbaceous species of other genera occur in Mexico. It may be 
that some of the Mexican species of Phytolacca become shrubs, but the writer 
has seen no conclusive evidence to this effect. 

Petals 5 ; aril of the seed large. Fruit a capsule, 1 to 5-seeded. 

1. STEGNOSPERMA. 
Petals none; aril small or none. 
Ovary semi-inferior ; leaves cordate. Plants scandent ; fruit dry, 1-seeded. 

2. AGDESTIS. 
Ovary superior ; leaves not cordate. 

Perianth 5-parted. Fruit baccate 3. ACHATOCARPUS. 

Perianth 4-parted. 

Pedicels ebracteolate ; branches spinose 4. PHAULOTHAMNUS. 

Pedicels bracteolate ; branches not spinose. 
Fruit dry ; flowers subsessile, appressed to the rachis. 

5. PETIVERIA. 
Fruit baccate ; flowers pedicellate, not appressed. 

Plants erect; stamens 4 6. RIVINA. 

Plants scandent; stamens 8 to many 7. TRICHOSTIGMA. 

1. STEGNOSPERMA Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 17. 1844. 
1. Stegnosperma halimifolium Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 17. 1844. 

Baja California and Sonora to Oaxaca and Veracruz ; type from Baja Califor- 
nia. Guatemala and Nicaragua ; Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola. 

Glabrous shrub, 1 to 3.5 meters high ; leaves obovate or elliptic ; flowers per- 
fect, racemose, green tinged with red. " Amole " (Baja California); " bledo 
carbonero " ( Cuba ) . 

The powdered root is used in Baja California as a substitute for soap. The 
plant has the reputation of being a cure for hydrophobia. It grows at low ele- 
vations, usually near the seacoast. The flowers are borne at nearly all times 
of the year. 

2. AGDESTIS Moc. & Sesse ; DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 1 : 543. 1818. 
1. Agdestis clematidea Moc. & Sesse ; DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 1 : 543. 1818. 

Nuevo Leon to Veracruz and Oaxaca. Western Texas ; Guatemala ; reported 
from the West Indies and Brazil, but probably cultivated there. 

55268—22 7 



264 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Plants scandent, the stems mostly herbaceous ; root large, turnip-shaped ; 
leaves rounded-cordate ; flowers white, showy, with a slight fetid odor, ar- 
ranged in paniculate racemes. " Hierba del indio " (Tamaulipas) ; " tripas de 
Judas" (Oaxaca, Reko). Walter reports the name " thusch " from Mexico. 

Palmer states the roots weigh as much as six pounds. 

3. ACHATOCARPUS Triana, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 9: 45. 1858. 

Trees or shrubs ; flowers small, dioecious ; perianth 5-lobed ; stamens 10 to 
20; fruit baccate. 

Leaves densely pubescent beneath 1. A. oaxacanus. 

Leaves glabrous. 

Branchlets aculeate 2. A. gracilis. 

Branchlets unarmed 3. A. mexicanus. 

1. Achatocarpus oaxacanus Standi., sp. nov. 

Type collected between Jamiltepec and Rio Verde, Oaxaca (Nelson 2358; 
U. S. Nat. Herb. no. 569298). 

Branches puberulent, armed with slender spines 6 mm. long or less; leaves 
short-petiolate, obovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, 5.5 to 6.5 cm. long, 2.5 to 3.5 
cm. wide, obtuse or rounded at apex, acute to attenuate at base, glabrate above, 
densely pubescent beneath along the costa ; racemes numerous, few-flowered, 
2.5 cm. long, or less, the rachis puberulent, the pedicels 1 to 2 mm. long; 
sepals 2 mm. long, obovate to suborbicular, rounded at apex, minutely puber- 
ulent or glabrate ; fruit 3 mm. in diameter, glabrous. 

2. Achatocarpus gracilis H. Walt, in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 83:137. f. ^1. 

1909. 
Known only from the type locality, Petatlan, Guerrero, altitude 50 meters. 
Glabrous tree with slender brown branches, armed with straight spines; 
leaves obovate-lanceolate, 6 cm. long, obtuse ; flowers small, paniculate. 

3. Achatocarpus mexicanus H. Walt, in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 83: 139. 1909. 

Veracruz and Chiapas ; type collected between Tapana and La Junta, Chiapas. 

Shrub or tree, glabrous, unarmed ; leaves elliptic, 8.5 cm. long ; flowers race- 
mose. 



4. PHAULOTHAMNUS A. Gray. Proc. Amer. Acad. 20: 294. 1885. 
1. Phaulothamnus spinescens A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 20:294. 1885. 

Baja California, Sonora (type locality), and Sinaloa. 

Erect glabrous shrub, 1 to 2.5 meters high, with gray branches ; leaves oblan- 
ceolate, about 1.5 cm. long ; flowers small, in short racemes. 

5. PETIVERIA L. Sp. PI. 342. 1753. 
1. Petiveria alliacea L. Sp. PI. 342. 1753. 

Petiveria octandra I,. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 486. 1762. 

Petiveria hexandria Sess£ & Moc. Fl. Mex. 98. 1S94. 

Baja California to Jalisco, Chiapas, Yucatan, and Veracruz. Widely distrib- 
uted in tropical America ; type from Jamaica. 

Suffrutescent, about a meter high, or often wholly herbaceous, with a strong 
odor of garlic; leaves ovate or elliptic, with minute stipules ; flowers small, pink, 
white, or green, in long slender interrupted spikelike racemes. " Zorrillo " 
(Tabasco, Yucatan, Sinaloa, Nicaragua, Michoacan, Guerrero); " bierba de 
las gallinitas" (Oaxaca, Yucatan) ; " pay-che," " xpay-ch6 " (Yucatan. Maya: 
"skunk-plant"); " anamfi " (Cuba, Torto Rico, Panama, Colombia, Santo 
Domingo); " apazote de zorro " (Guatemala); " hispasina " (Guatemala).; 
" ipacina " ( Nicaragua ) . 









STANDLEY TEEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 265 

Known in Jamaica as " guinea-hen weed." Probably as a result of its strong 
and characteristic odor, the plant has been much used in domestic medicine. It 
is reputed to have diuretic, sudorific, expectorant, antispasmodic, and depura- 
tive properties, and has been used as a vermifuge, emmenagogue, and abortefa- 
cient, and for toothache (the roots inserted in cavities in the teeth), fevers, 
rheumatism, paralysis, venereal diseases, hysteria and other nervous diseases, 
hydrophobia, and scorpion stings. Palmer's notes indicate that in Sinaloa the 
leaves are bound upon the forehead to relieve headache, and that the powdered 
roots are used as a snuff for nasal catarrh. It is stated that when cows eat the 
plant an alliaceous flavor is imparted to their milk. Descourtilz reports that in 
the West Indies the roots were placed among woolen goods to protect them from 
insects. 

6. RIVINA L. Sp. PI. 121. 1753. 
1. Rivina humilis L. Sp. PL 121. 1753. 

Rivina laevis L. Mant. PI. 1:41. 1767. 

Nearly throughout Mexico. Widely distributed in tropical America. 

Suffrutescent, up to 1 meter high, sometimes wholly herbaceous ; leaves petio- 
late, ovate, acute or acuminate, bright green; flowers small, white or greenish, 
racemose ; fruit a small, 1-seeded, red or orange berry. " Coral " (various locali- 
ties) ; " coralito," " coralillo " (Durango) ; " hierba mora," " saca-tinta," " cora- 
lillo," "coralillo carmin" (Nicaragua); " carmm " (Colombia, Porto Rico); 
" ojo de raton," " coralitos " (Cuba); " pimpin." " pinta-pinta " (Colombia); 
" sangre de toro " (Argentina, Uruguay) ; " caimancillo " (Santo Domingo). 

The fruit is full of blood-red juice, which yields a red dye. The leaves are 
said to be used for catarrh and for treating wounds. The fruit is reported 
to be edible. Sometimes known as " rouge-plant." 

R. portulaccoidcs Nutt., with slightly larger flowers, and R. purpvrasccns 
Schrad., with purplish flowers in long stiff racemes, are recognized by Walter 
as distinct species, but they do not appear to differ essentially from the common 
form. 

7. TRICKOSTIGMA A. Rich. PI. Vase. Cub. 1: 627. 1845. 
1. Trichostigma octandrum (L.) H. Walt, in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 83: 
109. 1909. 

Rivina octandra L. Cent. PI. 2: 1756. 

nilamilla octandra Benth. & Hook. Gen. PI. 3: 81. 1880. 

Sinaloa to Tamaulipas, Tabasco, and Chiapas. Widely distributed in trop- 
ical America. 

Scandent shrub, sometimes 5 meters long; leaves elliptic or ovate, acute, 
petiolate ; flowers small, whitish or purplish, racemose ; fruit a small black 1- 
seeded berry. " Bejuco de paloma " (Porto Rico) ; " guacamayo " (Colombia) ; 
" sotacaballo " (Costa Rica); "bejuco canasta," " guaniqui " (Cuba); " pabel- 
I6n del rey" (Santa Domingo). 

The leaves have been used in Colombia for the treatment of wounds, and the 
stems in Jamaica for barrel hoops. 

37. PORTULACACEAE. Portulaca Family. 
Some of the species of Talinum should prehaps be classed as shrubs. 
1. TALINOPSIS A. Gray, PI. Wright. 1: 14. 1852. 
1. Talinopsis frutescens A. Gray, PI. Wright. 1: 15. pi. 3. 1852. 

Chihuahua to San Luis Potosi and Puebla. Western Texas (type locality) 
and southern New Mexico. 



266 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Brittle erect shrub, 60 cm. high or less ; leaves opposite, linear, fleshy ; flowers 
in terminal cymes ; fruit a capsule. 

38. RANUNCUIACEAE. Buttercup Family. 

Many herbaceous representatives of the family occur in Mexico. 

1. CLEMATIS L. Sp. PI. 543. 1753. 
Scandent shrubs; leaves opposite, pinnate; flowers often showy; fruit of 
achenes, each with a long hairy tail. 

Several Asiatic species of Clematis are frequent in cultivation as ornamental 
vines, and some of them are grown in Mexico. Ramirez reports the name 
" sacamecate " as used in Hidalgo for some unidentified native species. 

Flowers solitary ; sepals erect, purplish 1. C. pitcheri. 

Flowers paniculate; sepals spreading, white. 
Flowers polygamo-dioecious, the staminate and pistillate borne upon the 
same plant. 

Leaflets 3, mostly 4.5 to 9 cm. long, long-acuminate 2. C. pubescens. 

Leaflets normally 5 or 7, usually less than 3.5 cm. long, obtuse or acutish. 

3. C. pauciflora. 
Flowers dioecious. 

Leaflets all or partly 3-lobed or parted 4. C. drummondii. 

Leaflets entire or dentate or very shallowly-lobed. 

Leaflets entire, very densely yellow-sericeous 5. C. rufa. 

Leaflets entire or dentate, if entire, never densely sericeous. 
Leaflets entire or with a few narrow acute teeth, glabrous or thinly 

sericeous beneath, usually rounded at base 6. C. dioica. 

Leaflets with few or numerous broad, obtuse or rounded teeth, often 
densely sericeous or pilose beneath, frequently cordate at base. 
Leaflets large, mostly 6 to 10 cm. long, usually densely pilose or 

sericeous beneath 7. C. grossa. 

Leaflets mostly less than 4 cm. long, thinly sericeous or glabrate be- 
neath 8. C. ligusticifolia. 

1. Clematis pitcheri Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 10. 1839. 
Clematis fllifera Benth. PI. Hartw. 285. 1848. 

Clematis fllifera incisa Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1:2. 1879. 

Clematis pitcheri fllifera Robinson in A. Gray, Syn. Fl. 1 *,J 6. 1895. 

Viorna pitcheri Britton in Britt. & Brown, Illustr. Fl. ed. 2. 2: 123. 1913. 

Coahuila to Sinaloa and Hidalgo. Texas to Nebraska and Indiana. 

Shrub with reddish stems, sparsely pubescent: leaflets ovate, with prominent 
veins, acute or acutish ; flowers about 2.5 cm. long, with thick leathery sepals. 
" Barba de viejo " (Sinaloa). 

The specimens are somewhat variable, but apparently they represent a single 
species. This plant is reported by Sesse and Mocino ! as Clematis viorna, a 
species native of the eastern United States. 

2. Clematis pubescens Benth. PI. Hartw. 5. 1839. 
Guanajuato (type locality) to Oaxaca. 

Leaflets 5 to 9 cm. long, long-acuniinate, sparsely dentate or entire: sepals 
about 8 mm. long. 

3. Clematis pauciflora Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 9. 1838. 
Baja California; reported from Sonora. California. 

Plants nearly glabrous; sepals about 2 cm. long; achenes glabrous. 
A specimen from western Chihuahua probably belongs here also. 

1 PI. Nov. Hisp. ed. 2. 85. 1893. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 267 

4. Clematis drummondii Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 9. 1838. 
Clematis nervata Benth. PI. Hartw. 5. 1839. 

Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi to Baja California and Sinaloa. Texas 
(type locality) to Arizona. 

Plants copiously pubescent, scandent over other shrubs; leaflets usually small 
and narrow, rarely over 3 cm. long, attenuate, usually deeply lobed ; sepals 8 
to 14 mm. long, white. " Barba de chivo " (Chihuahua. Coahuila, Zacatecas, 
Tamaulipas, etc.) ; " hierba de los avaros " (San Luis Potosi, Safford). 

Very variable in pubescence and leaf form, but none of the forms seem 
specifically distinct. 

5. Clematis rufa Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 95. 1906. 

Known only from the type locality, between Tenejapa and Yatalon, Chiapas. 

The plant differs from C. grossa only in its entire leaflets, and additional 
material is necessary to determine its claim to specific rank. This and the 
following species are very closely related, and it is probable that they are all 
forms of a single one, C. dioica. 

6. Clematis dioica L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1084. 1759. 

Clematis amcricana Mill. Card. Diet. ed. S. Clematis no. 14. 1768. 

Clematis acapulcensis Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey Voy. 410. 1841. 

Clematis grahami Benth. PI. Hartw. 5. 1839. 

San Luis Potosi to Sinaloa, Chiapas, and Yucatan. West Indies, Central 
America, and South America. 

Very variable in pubescence and shape of the leaflets ; flowers often in large 
showy panicles; fruit conspicuous because of the feathery tails, these 3 to 6 
cm. long. " Cabeza de vieja " (Chiapas) ; "barba de viejo " (Tabasco, Michoa- 
can, Valley of Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua) ; " barbas de chivo" 
(Michoacan, etc.); "barba de chivato " (Nuevo Le6n) ; "barbas de gato " 
(Mexico); " chilillo " (Michoacan); "chilillo de cerro " (Hidalgo); " cabellos 
de angel" (Guatemala, Costa Rica, Cuba, Porto Rico); " crespillo " (Nica- 
ragua ) . 

Known in Jamaica as " virgin's-bower " and "traveler's joy." The stems 
contain a coarse fiber and are used occasionally as a substitute for twine. 
The leaves of this and other species have an acrid flavor ; crushed and ap- 
plied to the skin tbey are rubefacient and finally vesicant, and because of this 
property they are used in domestic medicine. The dried leaves lose their 
acrid properties. An ointment made with the leaves is used for cutaneous 
diseases. An infusion of the flowers and leaves is employed as a cosmetic, 
for removing freckles and other blemishes from the skin. The plant is said to 
be poisonous to cattle, and the root to have purgative properties. ' 

In spite of the variability exhibited, it seems impossible to divide the ample 
material at hand into groups characterized by any constant or important char- 
acter. Specimens referred by Hemsley to C. fiammiilastrum Griseb. belong here, 
as well as material referred to C. earipensis H. B. K. and C. serieea H. B. K. 

Clematis dioica. or a closely related species is figured and described by Her- 
nandez J under the heading. " De Cocoztamatl, seu luteo tamatli. Urinaria 
mirabili." His account, in part, is as follows: 

" Cocoztamatl, which some call Cocoztic, Cocoztin, or Cocoztli, is a climbing 
shrub, having a thick pale root, whence the name. The stems are smooth, slen- 
der, and round ; the leaves sinuous and divided into three points. The flowers 
are white, of moderate size, very like those of Izquixochitl, and from them 
there spring berries, not unlike cherries, but white in color. The root is pale and 

'Thesaurus 118. 1651. 



268 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

inodorous, its taste slimy, of moderate temper or slightly inclined to coldness 
and humidity. It is a wonderful diuretic, expels phlegm, and removes all 
urinary obstructions." 

The name " cocoztamatl " ("yellow tomato," of no application to the plant) 
is doubtless incorrect, and should be rather " cocotemecatl " ("pungent-vine"), 
as is indicated by Hernandez's second account 1 of the plant, which also is ac- 
companied by a figure. The description of the fruit, of course, is erroneous. The 
second account is headed " De Cocotemecatl, seu fune volubili acri," and is as 
follows : 

" Cocotemecatl, which some call Cocotemecaxihuitl, is an herb with leaves like 
those of basil [Ocimum], but much larger, angled, and crenate. The stem is 
purplish and climbing ; the flowers are small, borne on the ends of hairy branch- 
lets, and they change into purplish white pappus ; the roots are fibrous. It grows 
at Yacapichtlan and Quauhquechollan, in hot and rocky places. The leaves, 
which are glutinous, if crushed and taken in the quantity of a handful, cure 
dysentery. The root and stems are hot and dry in the fourth degree ; they are 
a remedy for ringworm and, if taken in a dose of two drachms, calm pains in 
the stomach and colic; they are diuretic, aid parturition, cure those affections 
which arise from cold, and allay pains caused by wind." 

7. Clematis grossa Benth. PI. Hartw. 33. 1840. 

Clematis rhodocarpa Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 95. 1906. 

Tamaulipas to Tepic and Chiapas ; type from San Bartolo. Central America. 

Closely related to C. dioica, but apparently distinct, but perhaps not essen- 
tially different from C. sericca H. B. K., to which specimens have been referred ; 
leaflets usually with numerous large coarse teeth. " Chilillo " ( Mexico, Vera- 
cruz) ; " barba de vejo " (Oaxaca, Guatemala); " barba de chivo " (Oaxaca, 
Veracruz). 

Roots said to be used as a remedy for distemper in horses. 

8. Clematis ligusticif olia Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1 : 9. 1838. 
Northern Chihuahua and Sonora. Western United States ; type from the 

Rocky Mountains. 

Leaflets usually 5 or 7 ; achenes densely sericeous. 

C. ncomexicana Woot. & Standi., 2 described from the San Luis Mountains, on 
the border between Sonora and New Mexico, is probably not essentially different. 

39. BERBEMDACEAE. Barberry Family. 
1. ODOSTEMON Raf. Amer. Month. Mag. 192. 1817. 

Reference: Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 30-133. 1901. 

Shrubs or small trees with yellow wood ; leaves alternate, estipulate, pin- 
nate, the leaflets 3 to many, usually dentate, the teeth often spine-tipped ; 
flowers yellow, perfect, racemose ; fruit a berry, with few seeds. 

The wood is used in Mexico to give a yellow dye. The roots of O. aquifolium 
(Pursh) Rydb. (Iicrberis aquifolinm Pursh), a species native of the western 
United States, but closely related to some of the Mexican ones, are official 
in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. They are bitter and contain the alkaloids ber- 
berine, oxyacanthine, and berbamine. Both the fruit and roots have been 
recommended as possessing alterative, laxative, tonic, and diuretic properties. 
They are employed in syphilitic and scrofulous affections, chronic cutaneous 
diseases, convalescence from fevers, etc. This plant is known in the United 
States as Oregon grape; it is the state flower of Oregon. 

1 Thesaurus 141. 1651. 

* Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 122. 1913. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 269 

Leaflets 3, the terminal one sessile. 

Leaflets green, merely coriaceous, dentate 18. O. eutriphyllus. 

Leaflets pale, rigid-coriaceous, deeply lobed 13. O. trifoliolatus. 

Leaflets usually more than 3, if 3 the terminal leaflet petiolulate. 
Flowers paniculate or in elongate long-pedunculate racemes. 
Leaflets entire. 

Inflorescence paniculate 1. 0. ehrenbergii. 

Inflorescence racemose. 

Leaflets acute 4. 0. tenuifolius. 

Leaflets rounded or very obtuse at the apex. 

Pedicels 3 to 5 mm. long ; leaflets green 2. O. chochoco. 

Pedicels 15 to 20 mm. long; leaflets very pale, especially beneath. 

3. 0. longipes. 
Leaflets dentate. 

Leaflets narrowly lanceolate, mostly 8 to 12 cm. long 5. 0. lanceolatus. 

Leaflets ovate or oval, usually much less than 8 cm. long. 

Lateral leaflets 2 pairs : 6. O. quinquefolius. 

Lateral leaflets 3 to 6 pairs. 
Leaflets acute or acutish. 

Teeth of the leaflets small, appressed ; leaflets subcoriaceous. 

7. O. hartwegii. 
Teeth of the leaflets large, spreading; leaflets coriaceous. 

8. O. ilicinus. 
Leaflets rounded or very obtuse at the apex. 

Flowers racemose 9. O. andrieuxii. 

Flowers paniculate. 

Leaflets subsessile, remote 10. O. pallidus. 

Leaflets evidently petiolulate, the margins overlapping. 

Leaflets 4 to 5 cm. long, 2 to 3 cm. wide 11. 0. zimapanus. 

Leaflets 5 to 11 cm. long, 3 to 9 cm. wide 12. O. paxii. 

Flowers in short, sessile or short-pedunculate racemes. 
Leaflets very rigid, pale on both surfaces, with large stiff teeth. 

14. O. fremontii. 
Leaflets merely coriaceous, deep green on one or both surfaces. 

Leaflets entire or with few appressed teeth 15. O. gracilis. 

Leaflets with numerous spreading teeth. 

Leaflets 1 to 2 cm. long, 0.7 to 1 cm. wide 16. O. angustifolius. 

Leaflets 3 to 8 cm. long, 1 to 4 cm. wide. 

Leaflets ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate 17. O. incertus. 

Leaflets ovate to broadly oval. 

Leaflets usually 5 19. O. trifolius. 

Leaflets 7 to 11 in all or most of the leaves. 
Leaflets much longer than broad, mostly 1 to 1.5 cm. wide, with 

numerous small teeth 20. 0. fascicularis. 

Leaflets little longer than broad, 2.5 to 4 cm. wide, with few large 
teeth 21. O. wilcoxii. 

1. Odostemon ehrenbergii 1 (Kunze) Standi. 
Berberis ehrenbergii Kunze, Linnaea 20:45. 1847. 
Mahonia ehrenbergii Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 106. 1901. 

"Carl August Ehrenberg (1801-1849) spent 10 years (1831-1840) in Mexico in 
Oaxaca, Puebla, Mexico, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi, and other states. He was 
especially interested in Cactaceae, many species of which he introduced into 
cultivation in Europe. His collections consisted of about 2,000 numbers. 



270 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Grown from seeds from southern Mexico, probably from Veracruz ; not known 
in the wild state. 

Leaflets 7 to 15, ovate, obtuse, entire; flowers whitish, in lax racemes. 

2. Odostemon chochoco (Schlecht.) Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 133. 

1918. 
Berberis chochoco Schlecht. Bot. Zeit. 12: 652. 1854. 
Mahonia chochoco Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 103. 1901. 
Nuevo Leon, San Luis PotosI, and Veracruz ; type from Chococala. 
Tree, 6 to 9 meters high ; leaflets oval or oblong, 3.5 to 5.5 cm. long, lustrous, 
with conspicuous venation ; fruit blue. " Chochoco," " palo amarillo." 
Wood used for tanning and dyeing. 

3. Odostemon longipes Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 133. 191S. 
Known only from the type locality, San Ramon, Durango. 

Tree, 7.5 to 9 meters high, with a trunk 60 cm. or less in diameter, and a large 
crown ; leaflets 11 or 13, oblong, 3.5 to 5.5 cm. long ; fruit blue, edible. " Palo 
amarillo." 

4. Odostemon tenuifolius (Lindl.) Standi. 
Berberis tenuifolia Lindl. Bot. Reg. Misc. 24. 1S38. 

Mahonia tenuifolia Loud. ; Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 1 : 197. 1S40. 
Berberis fraxinifolia Hook. Icon. PI. pi. 329, 330. 1841. 
Veracruz ; type from Zacuapan. 

Shrub, 3 meters high ; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, 4.5 to 10 cm. long, bright 
green ; flowers in very long racemes. 

5. Odostemon lanceolatus (Benth.) Standi. 
Berberis lanceolata Benth. PI. Hartw. 34. 1840. 
Mahonia lanceolata Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 92. 1901. 
Hidalgo ; type from Apulco ; perhaps also in Oaxaca. 

Shrub, 1 to 2 meters high ; leaflets 11 to 17, spine-toothed ; fruit blue. 

6. Odostemon quinquefolius Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 133. 1918. 
Puebla ; type from Cerro Matzize, near San Luis Tultitlanapa. 

Large glabrous shrub ; leaflets 5, oblong-ovate or ovate-oval, 3 to 5.3 cm. 
long; racemes 7 to 11 em. long. 

7. Odostemon hartwegii (Benth.) Standi. 
Berberis hartwegii Benth. Pi. Hartw. 34. 1840. 
Mahonia hartwegii Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 109. 1901. 
Known only from the type locality, Contadero, Hidalgo. 
Leaflets 11 to 15, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate ; racemes 30 cm. long. 

8. Odostemon ilicinus (Schlecht.) Standi. 
Mahonia ilicina Schlecht. Linnaea 10: 236. 1835. 
Berberis ilicina Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 1: 23. 1S79. 

Veracruz and Hidalgo; type from plains between Guantololalpa and Tlachi- 
chilco, Veracruz. 

Shrub, 0.5 to 3 meters high ; leaflets 11 to 15. 

9. Odostemon andrieuxii i (Hook. & Arn.) Standi. 

Berberis andrieuxii Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey Voy. 318. 1S41. 
Mahonia andrieuxii Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 103. 1901. 
Known only from the original collection, from somewhere in southern 
Mexico. 

1 G. Andrieux, concerning whom no accurate data are available, collected in 
the states of Oaxaca, Puebla, and Mexico about 1834. His collections were 
distributed to various European herbaria. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 271 

10. Odostemon pallidus (Hartw.) Standi. 

Berberis pallida Hartw. ; Benth. PI. Hartw. 34. 1840. 

Malwnia pallida Fedde. Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31 : 109. 1901. 

Hidalgo to Oaxaca ; type from Cardonal, Hidalgo. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 6 meters high ; leaflets 9 to 13. oval, 3 to 6.5 cm. 
long, rounded or obtuse at the apex, pale beneath ; panicles 15 to 25 cm. long. 
" Palo amarillo." ' 

11. Odostemon zimapanus (Fedde) Standi. 

Mahonia zimapana Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 111. 1901. 

Hidalgo and Mexico ; type from Las Verdosas, near Zimapan, Hidalgo. 

12. Odostemon paxii (Fedde) Standi. 

Mahonia paxii Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 113. 1901. 

Known only from the type locality, between Zimapan and Encarnacion, 
Hidalgo. 

13. Odostemon trifoliolatus (Moric.) Heller. Muhlenbergia 7: 139. 1912. 
Berberis trifoliolata Moric. PI. Amer. Rar. 113. pi. 69. 1841. 

Berberis ilicifolia Scheele, Linnaea 21: 591. 1S48. 

Mahonia trifoliolata Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 96. 1901. 

Chihuahua and Coahuila to San Luis Potosl. Western Texas (type lo- 
cality) and southern New Mexico. 

Shrub, 1 to 4.5 meters high; leaflets mostly 3 to 5 cm. long, very thick and 
rigid, pale, especially beneath, with large spiny lobes or teeth ; fruit red. 
"Agritos " (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Texas); " agrillo " (San Luis Potosf, Staf- 
ford) ; " palo amarillo" (Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Durango). 

In Texas and New Mexico the name " agrito " is corrupted into " agarita " 
or even " algerita." 

The wood is sometimes used for tanuing and for making ink. Like that of 
other species, it yields a yellow dye. The acid fruit is utilized for jelly, 
preserves, and tarts, and wine has been made from it. The roasted seeds are 
said to have been used as a coffee substitute. A decoction of the root is 
reported to he employed in Texas as a remedy for toothache. The flowers are 
said to supply bees with a good quality of honey. 

This is presumably the species to which Berlandier ' gives the name Chryso- 
dendron tinctoria, a new genus which, however, is not technically described. 
He states that the plant is known in Tamaulipas as " palo amarillo," and is 
used by the Indians to dye deerskins and cotton goods. 

14. Odostemon fremontii (Torr.) Rydb. Bull. Torrey Club 33: 141. 1906. 
Berberis fremontii Torr. U. S. & Mex. Bound. Bot. 30. 1859. 
Mahonia fremontii Fedde. Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 98. 1901. 

Sonora and Baja California. New Mexico to southern Utah (type locality) 
and California. 

Shrub, 2 to 4 meters high, often forming dense rounded clumps ; leaflets 
usually 5, about 2 cm. long, very spiny ; fruit reddish, nearly dry. 

A specimen collected by Pringle in Sonora is referred by Fedde to O. 
haematocarpus (Wooton) Heller. 2 This and O. fremontii are not very sharply 
differentiated. It seems better to the present writer to refer all the Mexican 

1 In Diario de viage de la ComisiSn de Lf mites que puso el Gobierno de la Re- 
ptiblica bajo la direccion del Exmo. Sr. general de division D. Manuel de 
Mier y Teran. Mexico, 1850. The name appears on p. 170. 

'Muhlenbergia 7: 129. 1912. Berberis haematocarpa Wooton, Bull. Torrey 
Club 25: 304. 1898; type from New Mexico. 



272 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

material to the latter species. One of the Baja California specimens seems to be 
intermediate between the two species. 

15. Odostemon gracilis (Hartw.) Standi. 

Berberis gracilis Hartw. ; Benth. PI. Hartw. 34. 1840. 
Mahonia subintegrifolia Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 94. 1901. 
Mahonia gracilis Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 95. 1901. 
Nuevo Leon to Oaxaca ; type from Zimapan, Hidalgo. 

Shrub, 1 to 1.5 meters high ; leaflets 5 or 7, ovate, 3 to 5 cm. long, acute ; 
fruit blue. "Palo amarillo " (Mexico). 

16. Odostemon ang-ustifolius (Hartw.) Standi. 
Berberis angustifolia Hartw. ; Benth. PI. Hartw. 34. 1840. 
Mahonia angustifolia Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 91. 1901. 

Known only from the type locality, between Actopan and Pachuca, Hidalgo. 
Shrub, about 4 meters high ; leaflets 5 to 9, oblong-lanceolate ; fruit purple, 
sweet. 

17. Odostemon incertus (Fedde) Standi. 

Mahonia incerta Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 93. 1901. 

Known only from the type locality, between Real del Monte and Atotonilco 
El Chico, Hidalgo. 

18. Odostemon eutriphyllus (Fedde) Standi. 

Ma.honia eutriphylla Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 91. 1901. 

Coahuila to Mexico ; type from La Encarnaci6n. 

Low shrub ; leaflets oval or broader, 2 to 3 cm. long, very spiny. 

A specimen from Ixtaccihuatl was collected on rocks above timber line at an 
altitude of 3,900 meters. It is possible that the material referred here repre- 
sents more than a single species. Palmer's no. 14, from Coahuila, is referred to 
O. schiedeanus by Fedde, but the specimen of this collection in the National 
Herbarium is certainly not that species. Probably two different plants were 
distributed under the same number. 

19. Odostemon trifolius (Cham. & Schlecht.) Standi. 
Berberis trifolia Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5:211. 1830. 
Mahonia trifolia Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 1616. 1830. 
Berberis schiedeana Schlecht. Bot. Zeit. 12: 654. 1854. 
Mahonia schiedeana Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31:90. 1901. 

Hidalgo and Mexico ; type from the plains between Guantotalapa and Tlachi- 
chilco (Veracruz ?). 

Low shrub, sometimes prostrate ; ascending in the Sierra de las Cruces to 
3,600 meters ; leaflets oval, 2 to 3 cm. long, very spiny ; fruit blue. 

20. Odostemon fascicularis (DC.) Abrams, Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 6:360. 1910. 
Berberis pinnata Lag. Elench. Hort. Madr. 6. 1803, nomen nudum. 
Mahonia fascicularis DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 2: 19. 1821. 

Berberis moranensis Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. 7: 17. 1829. 

Mahonia pinnata Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31:86. 1901. 

Mahonia. pinnata cachira Fedde, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 31: 88. 1901. 

Veracruz to Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Oaxaca. Guatemala ; California, the 
type from Monterey. 

Shrub, 1 to 3.5 meters high ; leaflets with small spiny teeth. The following 
names are reported, but probably at least some of them apply to other species : 
"Retamilla," " xoxoco " (Mexico); " palo jarilla " (Valley of Mexico); " ca- 
chisd& " (Hidalgo, Mexico, Guanajuato); " camisda " (Hidalgo, Veracruz): 
" quisquirindin," " quisquiringuin " (Hidalgo, Distrito Federal); "palo ama- 
rillo"; " lena amarilla " ; "palo de tefiir ; " " yagabuxe " (Oaxaca). 



STANDLEY — TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 273 

The fruit is rather sweet and edible ; it and the bark are used in domestic 
medicine. 
21. Odostemon wilcoxii (Kearney) Heller, Muhlenbergia 7: 139. 1912. 

Berberis wilcoxii Kearney, Trans. N. Y. Acad. 14: 29. 1894. 

Northern Sonora. Southern Arizona and New Mexico; type from Port Hua- 
chuca, Arizona. 

Low shrub ; leaflets 3 to 5 cm. long, lustrous ; fruit blue. 

This is referred by Fedde to O. dictyotus (Jepson) Abrams, 1 and may not 
be specifically distant from that California plant. 

40. MENISPERMACEAE. Moonseed Family. 

Shrubs, usually seandent ; leaves alternate, estipulate, petiolate, entire or 
lobate ; flowers small, dioecious, cymose, the cymes racemose or paniculate ; 
petals and sepals usually 6 each ; stamens as many as the petals and opposite 
them. 

Endosperm none; leaves thick-coriaceous, glabrous 1. HYPERBAENA. 

Endosperm present ; leaves never thick-coriaceous. 
Carpel 1 ; bracts of the inflorescence large, leaflike ; stamens connate. Leaves 

usually peltate 2. CISSAMPELOS. 

Carpels usually 3 ; bracts of the inflorescence small ; stamens free. 

Leaves not peltate; sepals and petals subequal 3. CEBATHA. 

Leaves peltate; sepals and petals unequal 4. MENISPERMTJM. 

1. HYPERBAENA Miers, Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 7: 44. 1851. 

Reference: Diels in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 94: 198-203. 1910. 
1. Hyperbaena mexicana Miers, Ann. Sci. Nat. III. 19: 94. 1867. 

Known only from the original collection from somewhere in Mexico. 

Seandent shrub, nearly glabrous ; leaves oblanceolate-oblong, 10 to 12 cm. 
long, acuminate, entire. 

2. CISSAMPELOS L. Sp. PI. 1031. 1753. 

Reference: Diels in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 94: 283-306. 1910. 
1. Cissampelos pareira L. Sp. PI. 1031. 1753. 

Cissampelos caapeba L. Sp. PI. 1032. 1753. 

Cissampelos tomentosa DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 1: 535. 1818. 

Cissampelos acuminata Benth. PI. Hartw. 445. 1840. Not C. acuminata DC. 
1818. 

Cissampelos benthamiana Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. III. 17: 144. 1866. 

Tamaulipas to Sonora, Chiapas, and Yucatan. Distributed almost throughout 
the tropics of the world. 

Seandent shrub, usually densely pubescent, the hairs somewhat stinging; 
leaves orbicular, reniform, or cordate ; bracts of the pistillate inflorescence 
similar to the leaves but smaller; flowers very small, greenish white; fruit 
a red or orange drupe. " Oreja de raton " (Michoacan, Guerrero); " butua " 
(Colima. Guerrero, Veracruz); "pareira brava " (Veracruz, Oaxaca) ; " iztac- 
coanenepilli " (Nneva Farmacopea Mexicana); " bejuco azul," " venadero " 
(Costa Rica); " picamano " (Nicaragua); "bejuco de mono" (Porto Rico); 
"alcotan" (Guatemala, El Salvador); "bejuco de alcotan" (El Salvador); 

a Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 6: 360. 1910. Berberis dictyota Jepson, Bull. Torrey 
Club 18: 319. 1891. 



274 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

" cotiin " (Guatemala); " hierba raton " (Venezuela); " tomatillo de sabana" 
(Cuba). 

The roots are hard, tortuous, brown, and rugose, with a bitter flavor. They 
are said to have diuretic, erumenagogue, febrifuge, and expectorant properties, 
and are used in treating urinary and venereal diseases. The plant also has 
a great reputation throughout tropical America as a remedy for the bites of 
venomous snakes. It has been confused with the " pareira brava " of com- 
merce, which is furnished by a South American plant (Clwndodendron tomen- 
tosum Ruiz & Pavon) of the same family, and is used sometimes as an adul- 
terant of that drug. The leaves are said to be employed as a poultice for 
treating wounds. The name " velvet-leaf " is applied to the plant in Jamaica. 
The leaves have been suspected to be poisonous to cattle. 

3. CEBATHA Forsk. Fl. Aegypt. Arab. 172. 1775. 
Reference; Diels in Engl. Pflanzenreich IV. 94: 227-241. 1910. 
Slender scandent shrubs; leaves thin, entire or shallowly lobate; petals 6; 
stamens 6 to 9 ; fruit a drupe. 
Leaves densely pilose beneath, those of the flowering branches broadly ovate or 

ovate-deltoid 1. C. Carolina. 

Leaves glabrous or glabrate beneath, those of the flowering branches usually 
lance-linear to elliptic-oblong 2. C. diversifolia. 

1. Cebatha Carolina (L.) Britton, Mem. Torrey Club 5: 162. 1891. 
Menispermum carolinum L. Sp. PI. 340. 1753. 

Cocculus carolinus DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 1: 524. 1818. 

Tamaulipas. Eastern United States ; type from Carolina. 

Plants copiously pubescent ; leaves 3.5 to 6.5 cm. wide, obtuse or rounded at 
apex, pale beneath ; flowers cream-colored ; fruit red, edible. " Hierba del ojo " 
(Tamaulipas). 

2. Cebatha diversifolia (DC.) Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 1: 9. 1891. 
Cocculus diversifolius DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 1: 523. 1S18. 
Cocculus oblongifolius DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 1 : 529. 1818. 

Tamaulipas to Sonora and Oaxaca ; described from one of Mocifio and Sesses 
drawings. Western Texas and southern Arizona. 

Climbing over shrubs and fences ; leaves extremely variable, ranging from 
linear to broadly ovate, entire or lobate; fruit dark purple. 

4. MENISPERMUM L. Sp. PI. 340. 1753. 
1. Menispermum canadense L. Sp. PI. 340. 1753. 

Menispermum mexicanum Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 302. 1911. 

Mountains of Nuevo Leon. Eastern and southern United States. 

Slender pubescent vine ; leaves long-petiolate, the blades nearly orbicular, 5 
to 20 cm. wide, angulate or shallowly lobed, sometimes entire, pale beneath ; 
stamens 10 to 20; fruit dark blue, about 1 cm. wide. 

The roots of moonseed have been used in the United States in domestic medi- 
cine as a tonic and for venereal diseases. They contain an alkaloid, menispine, 
and were formerly official as a substitute for sarsaparilla. 

41. MAGN0UACEAE. Magnolia Family. 

Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate, stipulate or estipulate, entire; flowers per- 
fect, often large and showy, solitary or fasciculate; sepals 2 to 6; petals 6 to 
many ; stamens numerous ; fruit of few or numerous carpels. 
Stipules large, deciduous; flowers large, 5 to 10 cm. long; carpels of the fruit 
imbricate in numerous series. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 275 

Carpels bivalvate at maturity; petals comparatively thin 1. MAGNOLIA. 

Carpels indehiscent ; petals thick and leathery 2. TAIAUMA. 

Stipules none ; flowers less than 3 cm. long ; carpels verticillate in a single series. 
Leaves glaucous beneath ; carpels indehiscent ; sepals valvate__3. DRIMYS. 
Leaves green beneath ; carpels dehiscent ; sepals imbricate 4. ILLICIUM. 

1. MAGNOLIA L. Sp. PI. 535. 1753. 

Large trees ; leaves petiolate, persistent or deciduous ; flowers large, white, 
solitary; sepals 3; petals 6 to 12; fruit conelike. 

Most of the species of magnolias have very showy flowers, and many are in 
cultivation. Magnolia grandiflora L., the bull bay of the southeastern United 
States, with handsome evergreen leaves, is said to be cultivated in Mexico and 
to be known as " magnolia " and " Semiramis." 
Leaves persistent, the blades rounded to acute at base, green beneath. 

1. M. schiedeana. 
Leaves deciduous, the blades cordate at base, white beneath 2 M. dealbata. 

1. Magnolia schiedeana Schlecht. Bot. Zeit. 1864: 144. 1864. 
Veracruz to Tepic and Sinaloa. 

Large tree; leaves oval or elliptic, 12 to 17 cm. long, acute, glabrous, with 
very prominent, finely reticulate venation ; flowers creamy white, the petals 
about 6 cm. long. "Corpus" (Tepic, Rose). 

Rose reports that a decoction of the flowers is used in Tepic as a remedy for 
scorpion stings. 

2. Magnolia dealbata Zucc. Abh. Bayer. Akad. 2: 373. pi. 3, l t . 183G. 
Veracruz aud Oaxaca ; type collected in forests near Rincon, at an altitude 

of 600 to 900 meters. 

Tree, 4.5 to 5.5 meters high (according to Zuccarini) ; leaves obovate-oval, 
30 to 50 cm. long or larger, green on the upper surface, white beneath, obtuse 
or acutish at apex ; flowers yellowish white, fragrant, 30 to 40 cm. broad ; seeds 
covered with a fleshy orange aril. "Elosuehil " (Oaxaca; from the Nahuatl, 
elotl, a green ear of corn with husk, and xochitl, flower). 

A relative of M. maeroplujlla Michx., of the southeastern United States, and 
perhaps not distinct from it. Reported from Mexico by Sesse and Mocino 1 as 
M. tripetala, a species confined to the southeastern United States. 

2. TALAUMA Juss. Gen. PI. 281. 1789. 
1. Talauma mexicana (DC.) Don, Hist. Dichl. PI. 1: 851. 1831. 

Magnolia mexicana DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 1: 451. 1818. 

Talauma macrocarpa Zucc. Abh. Bayer. Akad. 2: 369. pi. 1, 2. 1836. 

Mountains of Veracruz, Oaxaca, Mexico, and Morelos. 

A large tree, sometimes 30 meters high, with a trunk 1.2 to 1.5 meters in 
diameter; leaves persistent, oval or elliptic, 12 to 25 cm. long or larger, acute, 
lustrous, reticulate-veined ; flowers large, white, sweet-scented, the petals and 
sepals very thick and leathery, often tinged with purple ; sepals 3; seeds sur- 
rounded by a fleshy red aril, hanging by a white threadlike funicle. " Flor de 
coraz6n " (Oaxaca, Veracruz, Morelos); " hualhua " (Veracruz, Morelos); 
" yoloxochitl " (Nahuatl); " hierba de las mataduras " (Morelos, Mexico, 
Ramirez) ; "laurel tulipan " (Morelos) ; " guielachi " (Oaxaca, Zapotec, Relco). 

This is one of the best-known of Mexican trees. It was highly esteemed by 
the early inhabitants because of the sweet odor of the •blossoms, a single flower 
being sufficient to perfume a whole house. The tree was cultivated in gardens, 
and the flowers were reserved for the exclusive use of the nobility. The plant 

1 Fl. Mex. 145. 1894. 



276 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

was valued also for its reputed medicinal properties, and it still finds use in 
domestic medicine. The bark is employed for fevers, and is said also to have 
an effect upon the heart similar to that of digitalis. A decoction of the flowers 
is administered for epilepsy, paralysis, and various heart affections, and as a 
tonic. The plant, upon analysis, is said to yield a glucoside which dissolves the 
blood corpuscles. 1 

The Nahuatl name, " yoloxochitl," signifies " heart-flower," an allusion to 
the shape of the unopened flower buds. Robelo gives " chipagua " as one of the 
vernacular names — a derivative of the Nahuatl chipahuac, "the beautiful." 
The species has been reported from Mexico 2 as Magnolia glauca, a name synony- 
mous with M. virginiana L., which pertains to the sweet bay of the eastern and 
southern United States. It appears, also, that Talauma mexicana and Mag- 
nolia scJiiedeana have often been confused. The two species are much alike in 
leaf form and in the appearance of their flowers, but the fruits are very dif- 
ferent. 

Talauma macrocarpa is mentioned by Acosta (1590) under the name " yolo- 
suchil." It is illustrated and described by Hernandez 3 under the name " yoloxo- 
chitl." The latter author discusses its medical properties, stating that "it is an 
excellent remedy for sterility," and remarks that the flowers were sometimes 
used to flavor chocolate. 

3. DRIMYS Forst. Char. Gen. 83. 1776. 
1. Drimys winteri Forst. Char. Gen. 84. pi. ^2. 1776. 

Drimys granatensis L. f. Suppl. PI. 269. 1781. 

Drimys. mexicana Moc. & Sesse; DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 1: 444. 1818. 

Veracruz and Oaxaca ; reported from other states ; sometimes cultivated. 
Central America and southward to the Straits of Magellan. 

An evergreen shrub or tree, in some parts of its range 18 meters high, with 
grayish bark ; leaves mostly oblong or oblong-obovate, 7 to 13 cm. long, coria- 
ceous, persistent, green above, glaucous beneath, petiolate ; flowers solitary or 
umbellate, white; sepals 2 or 3; petals 6 or more; fruit purplish black. 
" Chilillo," " chachaca," " palo picante " (various parts of Mexico); " palo de 
chile" (Oaxaca) ; " muelo," " quiebra-muelas " (Costa Rica) ; " canelo " (Chile). 

This plant, which furnishes the Winter's bark of commerce, was first ob- 
tained by Winter, who was captain of one of the ships which accompanied Sir 
Francis Drake's expedition of 1577. The three vessels of the fleet were struck 
by a storm in the southern ocean and Winter's ship was driven to the Straits of 
Magellan, where three w y eeks were spent with the object of improving the 
health of the crew. Drimys was one of the plants which attracted Winter's 
attention, and he used the bark for treating scurvy. Specimens of the bark 
were presented to the famous botanist Clusius, who gave it the name of Cortex 
Winteranus. It became a favorite remedy in Europe, but as it was difficult to 
obtain the drug from South America the bark of Canella alba, a West Indian 
tree, was often substituted for it. Winter's bark is little used at the present 
time except in domestic medicine in the regions where it is native. It is aro- 
matic and pungent and has tonic and antiscorbutic properties. In Brazil it is 
used for dysentery and for gastric disturbances. In Costa Rica the bark is 
chewed for toothache. The powdered bark is sometimes employed in Mexico 
as a condiment. 

1 For accounts of the plant see A. L. Herrera, El yoloxochitl, Estudio 4: 133; 
E. Armendariz, Analysis de las semillas del yoloxochitl, Estudio 4: 248. 

2 Sesse 1 & Moc. PI. Nov. Hisp. 90. 1887. 
'Thesaurus 40. 1651. 






STANDLEY TKEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 277 

It may be that the species as accepted here should be divided into two or 
more, but the general practice of recent writers has been to refer all the Ameri- 
can forms to a single species. 

4. ILLICIUM L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1050. 1759. 
1. Illicium floridanum Ellis, Phil. Trans. London 60: 524. pi. 12. 1770. 

Veracruz and Puebla. Florida to Louisiana. 

Aromatic evergreen shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high ; leaves elliptic or lance-elliptic, 
7 to 14 cm. long, acuminate, petiolate, persistent, gland-dotted beneath ; flowers 
long-pedicellate, with 20 to 30 narrow, dark crimson or purple petals. " Mata- 
caballos" (Veracruz); " ixcapantl " (Puebla). 

The shrub is reputed poisonous to stock. It is known in Florida as " poison 
bay " and " sweet laurel." The Mexican form has been illustrated recently 
(Bol. Dir. Estud. Biol. 1: 661. 1916). 

A related species of China, Illicium verum Hook, f., is the star-anise, whose 
fruit is much used in oriental countries for flavoring food. 

42. ANN0NACEAE. Custard-apple Family. 

Trees or shrubs, often aromatic ; leaves alternate, estipulate, entire ; flowers 
solitary or clustered, usually perfect, commonly with 3 sepals and 6 fleshy or 
leathery petals ; stamens numerous ; fruit of 1 or more carpels, these sessile 
or stipitate, usually fleshy, free or united to form a many-celled fruit. 
Petals, at least the outer ones, imbricate. 

Seeds solitary, attached at the base of the cell : flowers small. 

1. GTJATTERIA. 
Seeds several, attached to the side of the cell ; flowers usually very large. 

2. SAPRANTHUS. 
Petals valvate. 
Outer petals separated, not connivent. 

Carpel of the fruit one 3. TRIDIMERIS. 

Carpels numerous. 

Inner petals clawed 4. CYMBOPETALTJM. 

Inner petals not clawed 5. DESMOPSIS. 

Outer petals connivent. 

Ovules 2 to many in each carpel ; carpels distinct in fruit 6. XYLOPIA. 

Ovules one in each carpel ; carpels concrete in fruit. 

Petals connate into a 3 or 6-lobed tube, the outer ones wing-appendaged. 

7. ROLLINIA. 
Petals not connate, the outer ones not appendaged 8. ANNONA. 

1. GTJATTERIA Ruiz & Pav. Fl. Peruv. Chil. Prodr. 85. 1794. 
Trees or shrubs ; peduncles 1-flowered, axillary, solitary or fasciculate, 
pubescent ; fruit composed of numerous stipitate berries. 

Petals about 6 mm. long , 1. G. bibracteata. 

Petals 1 cm. long or often much larger. 

Leaves cordate at base 2. G. macrantha. 

Leaves rounded to acute at base. 
Leaves short-acuminate at apex. 
Petals 2 to 4.3 cm. long; leaves 5 to 15 cm. long. 

Leaves 2 to 2.5 cm. long 3. G. gaumeri. 

Leaves 3 to 5 cm. wide 7. G. depressa. 

Petals 1 to 1.5 cm. long; leaves mostly 15 to 25 cm. long. 

4. G. diospyroides. 



278 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves long-acuminate at apex. 

Flowers geminate 5. G. galeottiana. 

Flowers solitary 6. G. jurgensenii. 

1. Guatteria bibracteata (Hook.) Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 1. 1878. 
Annona bibracteata Hook. Icon. PI. 4: pi. 828. 1841. 
Veracruz ; type from Consoquintla. 

Tree; leaves oblong-lanceolate, short-petiolate. sparsely pubescent or glabrous; 
flowers green. 

2. Guatteria macrantha Presl, Rel. Haenk. 2: 78. 1835. 
Described from somewbere in Mexico. 

Perbaps not of this genus. 

3. Guatteria gaumeri Greenm. Field Mus. Bot. 2: 251. 1907. 
Vicinity of Izamal, Yucatan. 

Tree, 10 to 15 meters high, with gray bark ; leaves elliptic or elliptic-oval, 
with an aromatic odor when crushed. " Elemuy." 
Used medicinally. 

4. Guatteria diospyroides Baill. Adansonia 8: 269. 1868. 
Oaxaca ; type from Trapiche de la Concepcion. 

Leaves lance-elliptic, 10 to 25 cm. long, short-petioled, glabrous or nearly so; 
flowers green. 

5. Guatteria galeottiana Baill. Adansonia 8: 268. 1868. 
Oaxaca (type locality) and Campeche. 

Leaves lanceolate, 10 to 25 cm. long. 

6. Guatteria jurgensenii Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 1. 1878. 
Oaxaca ; type from Sierra San Pedro Nolasco. 

Leaves lanceolate, 15 to 23 cm. long: flowers (as in the otber species) seri- 
ceous, about 2.5 cm. broad. 

7. Guatteria depressa (Baill.) Safford. 
Annona depressa Baill. Adansonia 8: 267. 186S. 
Veracruz and perhaps elsewhere ; type from Tozamapa. 

Similar to G. gaumeri, but with broader leaves, these very thick and lustrous ; 
carpels of the fruit numerous, ellipsoid, long-stipitate. 

2. SAPRANTHTJS Seem. Journ. Bot. 4 : 369. 1866. 

Shrubs or trees ; flowers very large, solitary, with an extremely disagreeable 
odor of carrion ; fruit of few large sessile carpels. 

Petals mostly 6 to 8 cm. long 1. S. foetidus. 

Petals 4 cm. long or shorter. 
Leaf blades oblong-elliptic, acuminate ; petals about 4 cm. long 

2. S. campechianus. 
Leaf blades oblong-obovate, obtuse or acutish ; petals about 2 cm. long. 

3. S. microcarpus. 

1. Sapranthus foetidus (Rose) Safford. 

Asimina foetida Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 5 : 134. 1S97. 

Sinaloa to Oaxaca ; type from Acapulco. 

Shrub or small tree, 4 to 5 meters high, copiously pubescent ; leaves oval to 
oblong, 7 to 14 cm. long or larger, short-petiolate, acute or obtuse; petals 
greenish yellow at first, maroon or dark purple at maturity, with conspicuous 
veins. "Madre de cacao" (Oaxaca) ; " murcielago " (Guerrero) ; " zopilotillo " 
(Sinaloa). 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 279 

2. Sapranthus campechianus (H. B. K.) Standi. 
Asimia campechiana H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 61. 1S21. 
Asimina insularis Hemsl. in Hook. Icon. PI. 16: pi. 151'/. I8S6. 
Campeche (type locality) and Yucatan. 

Tree, 6 meters high ; leaves elliptic-oblong, 6.5 to 8.5 cm. long, acuminate, 
pubescent. 

Asimina insularis is perhaps distinct but, judging from the description, the 
species are very closely related. 

3. Sapranthus microcarpus (Donn. Smith) Fries, Svensk. Vet. Akad. Handl. 

34 5 : 12. 1900. 
Porcelia microcarpa Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 20:1. 1895. 
Asimina purpusii T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 4: 375. 1913. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca. Guatemala ; type from Ocosito. 

Shrub, 1.8 to 2.7 meters high ; leaves obovate or oval-oblong, mostly 5 to 8 
cm. long, obtuse or acute ; carpels 2.5 to 4.5 cm. long. 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 

Unona violacba Dunal, Monogr. Anon. 105. pi. 25. 1817. This plant, described 
from Mexico, is probably the same as one of the species listed above, perhaps 
S. foetidus. 

3. TRIDIMERIS Baill. Adansonia 9:219. 1869. 
1. Tridimeris hahniana * Baill. Adansonia 9:219. 1869. 

Type from the forests of San Cristobal (Oaxaca?). 

A small tree. 

4. CYMBOPETALUM Benth. Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 5:69. 186L 
1. Cymbopetalum penduliflorum (Dunal) Baill. Adansonia 8:268. 1868. 

Unona penduliflora Dunal, Monogr. Anon. 100. pi. 28. 1817. 

Veracruz and Oaxaca. Guatemala. 

Tree or large shrub with long narrow leaves ; petals purplish within, greenish 
outside. " Guineillo," " guineillo prieto " (Oaxaca) ; " xochinacaztli " (Nahuatl). 

The aromatic petals were used in preconquest days for flavoring chocolate 
and are still so used in some localities. The flowers were used also as a remedy 
for asthma and other diseases. 2 This plant was highly esteemed by the early 
inhabitants of Mexico, having been brought from the south to be grown in the 
gardens of the emperor. It is first mentioned by Sahagun (1509), under the name 
" teunacaztli," " the sacred ear." He states that the flowers were valued for 
their odor and for flavoring chocolate. Hernandez describes and figures * the 
plant in a chapter entitled " De Xochinacaztli, seu flore auriculae." The Nahuatl 
term xocMnacaztli signifies " ear-flower." Hernandez states that the plant is a 
native of the tierra caliente, and that in the tiangues or markets of the Indians 
there is nothing more frequently found or more highly prized than this flower, 
"which is wont to give the greatest charm and taste, together with a very fragrant 

a Ludwig Hahn spent nearly 20 years in Mexico as a teacher of music, and 
made extensive collections of plants and animals, most of which were sent to 
Berlin. He was a member of the French Scientific Commission, and an associate 
of Bourgeau. He died in Mexico in 1873. Some of his plants are in the U. S. 
National Herbarum. 

2 See W. E. Safford, Science, n. ser. 33: 470. 1911; Smiths. Kept. 1910: 428. 
1911; Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 2: 234. 1912. 

'Thesaurus 30. 1651. 

55268—22 S 



280 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

odor and flavor to that celebrated drink cacao, which they call chocolate, and it 
imparts to it certain tonic properties and wholesomeness as well. It is said that 
when drunk in water this flower dispels flatulency, causes phlegm to become 
thin, warms and comforts the stomach which has been chilled or weakened, as 
well as the heart ; and that it is efficacious in asthma, ground to a powder with 
addition of two pods of the red peppers called texochilli, with their seeds re- 
moved and toasted on a conval, which is a kind of griddle on which the natives 
toast and make their bread called by us tortillas, adding to the same three drops 
of balsam and taking it in some suitable liquor." It is of interest to note that 
the dried flowers are still offered for sale in the markets of Guatemala. 

5. DESMOPSIS Safford, Bull. Torrey Club 43: 184. 1916. 
1. Desmopsis galeottiana (Baill.) Safford, Bull. Torrey Club 43: 187. 1916. 

Trigyneia galeottiana Baill. Adansonia 8: 181. 1868. 

Veracruz ; type from Palanque. 

Shrub or small tree with elliptic-lanceolate leaves; flowers green, on long 
slender pedicels ; fruit of 7 to 11 carpels. 

6. XYLOPIA L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1250. 1750. 
1. Xylopia trunciflora Schleeht. & Cham. Linnaea 6:417. 1831. 

Known only from the type locality, near Colipa, Veracruz. 

Small tree; leaves lance-elliptic, 10 cm. long, obtuse, subsessile, pubescent 
beneath ; flowers borne along the trunk ; carpels 5 to 7, globose or ellipsoid, 
1 to 3-seeded. 



7. ROLLINIA St. Hil. Fl. Bras. Merid. 1: 28. 1825. 
1. Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill. Adansonia 8: 268. 1868. 

Annona mucosa Jacq. Obs. Bot. 16. 1764. 

Veracruz. Trinidad and Lesser Antilles ; type locality, Martinique. 

Tree with brownish branches; leaves oblong or elliptic, 7 to 14 cm. long, 
acuminate; flowers solitary, long-pedunculate. "Anona" (Ramirez) ; " an6n," 
" candongo " (Santo Domingo). 






8. ANNONA L. Sp. PI. 536. 1753. 

References : Safford, Classification of the genus Annona, with descriptions 
of new and imperfectly known species, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 1-68. 
pi. 1-jl, f. 1-75. 1914 ; Safford, Annona sericea and its allies, Contr. U. S. Nat. 
Herb. 16: 263-275. pi. 85-99, /. Jfi-hh- 1913; Safford, The genus Annona: The 
derivation of its name and its taxonomic subdivisions, Journ. Washington Acad. 
Sci. 1 : 118. 1911 ; Safford, Annona, in Bailey, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 291-295. 1914. 

Trees or shrubs; leaves deciduous or persistent; flowers usually solitary, 
lateral ; fruit very variable, composed of numerous carpels crowded together 
into a fleshy mass. 

The generic name (sometimes, but incorrectly, written Anona) is a modifi- 
cation of the Haitian name of some of the species, " an6n." Belmar gives the 
Mixe equivalents of "anona" as " ai-dium," " ait-keip " (the tree), and 
" tzaptzaidium." 

Flowers subglobose or brondly pyramidal in bud. 

Petals 3 or, if 6, the inner ones rudimentary or much narrower than the 
outer ones. 
Leaf blades 4 to 9 cm. long, thinly appressed-pilose beneath ; flowers 

short-pedicellate 1. A. globiflora. 

Leaf blades 9 to 14 cm. long, densely soft-pilose beneath ; flowers long- 
pedicellate 2. A. longipes. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 281 

Petals 6, broad, in 2 series. 

Inner petals valvate 3. A. glabra. 

Inner petals imbricate. 

Leaves witb minute pockets beneath in the axils of the lateral nerves. 

4. A. muricata. 

Leaves without pockets in the axils of the nerves 5. A. purpurea. 

Flowers elongate and more or less triquetrous in bud. 
Peduncles with clasping leaflike bracts at base ; testa of seeds thick and hard. 

6. A. diversifolia. 
Peduncles without clasping leaflike bracts at base ; testa thin. 
Outer petals about 8 mm. long. Fruit 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter; leaves 

lanceolate , 7. A. palmeri. 

Outer petals 1.8 to 5 cm. long. 
Leaves rounded or obtuse at apex, oval or rounded, soft-pilose or tomen- 
tose beneath. 

Outer petals 1.8 to 2.5 cm. long 8. A. cheriniola. 

Outer petals 4 to 5 cm. long .9. A. longiflora. 

Leaves acute or acuminate at apex, oblong-lanceolate to elliptic-oval, 
nearly glabrous beneath, at least in age. Flowers 2 to 3 cm. long. 
Fruit composed of numerous rounded, loosely cohering carpels, the 
surface very rough, with a glaucous bloom. Leaves mostly lance- 
olate 10. A. squamosa. 

Fruit smooth or nearly so, the surface often divided into angular areoles 
by impressed lines. 
Leaves mostly lanceolate ; fruit with conspicuous areoles, turning red 

when ripe 11. A. reticulata. 

Leaves elliptic-oval; fruit smooth, yellow 12. A. lutescens. 

1. Annona globiflora Schlecht. Linnaea 10: 235. 1836. 
Annona fruticosa Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2. 134. 1894. 

Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi, and Veracruz ; type from Hacienda de la La- 
guna, near Jalapa. 

Shrub, 0.6 to 2 meters high ; leaves oblong or lance-oblong, 4 to 9 cm. long, 
thin, acute or obtuse, pale beneath ; fruit subglobose, 3 to 4 cm. in diameter, 
muricate, with scant edible pulp. "Anonilla " (Veracruz); " chirimoya " (Ta- 
maulipas, San Luis Potosi) ; " anonita de papagayos" (Veracruz). 

2. Annona longipes Safford, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 269. pi. 89. 1913. 
Known only from the type locality, Lake Catemaco, Veracruz. 

Tree, 10 meters high ; leaves ovate-oval, 9 to 14 cm. long, acute or acuminate ; 
fruit shaped like a strawberry, 2.5 cm. long, covered with gibbous areoles, 
tomentose, with scant pulp. 

3. Annona glabra L. Sp. PI. 537. 1753. 
Annona palnstris L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 757. 1762. 

Veracruz and Guerrero, in wet soil ; reported from Yucatan, Tabasco, and 
Oaxaca. Widely distributed in tropical America ; type from the Bahamas. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 12 meters high, the trunk as much as 50 cm. in 
diameter, often swollen or with buttresses at the base, the bark thin, reddish 
brown ; leaves oval, oblong, or ovate, 6 to 15 cm. long, deep green, acute or 
acuminate; outer petals yellowish, with a deep red spot near the base; fruit 
5 to 12 cm. long, ovoid, smooth, yellowish at maturity, with cream-colored 
pulp; wood brown, soft, weak, its specific gravity about 0.50. " Corcho " 
(Guerrero, Tabasco, Yucatan, Porto Rico); " arbol de corcho" (Veracruz); 
" palo de corcho" (Yucatan); "mag" (Yucatan. Maya); " cayur," " coraz6n 
cimarr6n," " guanabano cimarr6n," "anon" (Porto Rico); " bagfi," "palo 



282 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

bobo" (Cuba) ; " anonillo " (Guatemala, Honduras) ; " guanabano de corcho '* 
(Santo Domingo), 

Tbe tree often grows about salt water, associated with mangroves. Its 
English names are " pond-apple," " alligator-apple," and " monkey-apple." The 
fruit is insipid but is said to be eaten in some localities, while in others it is 
regarded as poisonous. It is said to be eaten by the alligators that frequent 
the banks where it grows, hence the name " alligator-apple." The very light 
wood is used to make bottle corks and floats for fish nets. 

4. Annona muricata L. Sp. PL 536. 1753. 

Widely cultivated in Mexico and elsewhere in tropical America, the native 
region not definitely known. 

Small tree, usually 4 to 5 meters high; leaves ill-scented, lustrous, obovate, 
ovate, or elliptic, persistent; flowers yellow; fruit very large, sometimes 
weighing five pounds, ovoid or heart-shaped, the ill-smelling skin furnished 
with numerous recurved fleshy spines, the pulp white and juicy, with a pleasant 
subacid flavor; wood light-colored, soft, its specific gravity about 0.397. 
"Guanabano" or " guanabana " (Yucatan, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Nicaragua, Porto 
Rico, Colombia, Peru, Philippines, Santo Domingo); " anona amarilla " (Ta- 
basco, Ramirez); " catuche " or " catucbo " (Jalisco, Ramirez); " polvox " 
(Maya, Urbina) ; "zapote de viejas " (Urbina) ; " cabeza de negro" (Oaxaca, 
Jalisco); "huanaba" (Guatemala); " guanaba " (El Salvador). 

The fruit of the soursop is highly esteemed in tropical regions. It is 
eaten fresh, used in preparing beverages, made into jelly, tarts, or preserves, 
and sometimes fermented to obtain an intoxicating drink. Stock also are fond 
of the fruit. It is reputed to have pectoral, antiscorbutic, and febrifuge prop- 
erties. The seeds and green fruit are astringent and are employed as a 
remedy for dysentery. The leaves, too, are used medicinally, also the flowers. 
One of the earliest writers to describe the plant is Oviedo (Lib. VIII, Cap. 
XVII), who used the Haitian name "guanabano." 

5. Annona purpurea Moc. & Sesse ; Dunal, Monogr. Anon. 64. pi. 2. 1817. 
Annona involucrata Baill. Adansonia 8 : 265. 1868. 

Veracruz, Oaxaca, and Yucatan. Central America and Venezuela. 

Small or medium-sized tree, sometimes 7.5 meters high ; leaves oval to ob- 
long, 15 to 38 cm. long, short-petiolate, acuminate, thin ; petals velvety outside, 
deep purple within ; fruit 10 to 20 cm. in diameter, broadly ovoid or subglobose, 
bearing numerous rigid pyramidal protuberances covered with a feltlike tomen- 
tum, the pulp orange-colored, fragrant, fibrous. "Cabeza de negro" (Vera- 
cruz) ; "cabeza de ilama " (Veracruz, Oaxaca) ; " chincua," " ilama de Tehuan- 
tepec" (Oaxaca); " soncoya," " soncolla," or " sencuya " (Central America)"; 
"toreta" (Panama); " manirote " (Venezuela); "matacuy " (Guatemala). 

The fruits are sold in the markets of Veracruz and elsewhere. They vary 
considerably in quality. There is a popular belief that they give rise to chills 
and fevers. 

6. Anona diversif olia Safford, 1 Science n. ser. 33 : 471. 1911. 
Colima and Guerrero ; type from Colima. El Salvador. 

Small tree with brownish gray aromatic bark ; leaves elliptic or oblong, 15 
cm. long or less, rounded at apex ; fruit ovoid-globose, about 15 cm. in diameter, 
covered with low rounded protuberances, the pulp fine-flavored, cream-colored 
or rose-tinted. " Ilama," " hilama," " ilamatzapotl " (Mexico) ; " anona blanca " 
(El Salvador). 

1 See also, Safford, Annona diversif olia, a custard-apple of the Aztecs, Journ. 
Washingtm Acad. Sci. 2: 11S-125. f. I-!,. 1912. 



STANDLEY TKEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 283 

7. Annona palmeri Safford, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 43. pi. 24. 1914. 
Known only from the type locality, Acapulco, Guerrero. 

Shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high ; leaves lanceolate or ovate, 5 to 10 cm. long, acute ; 
flowers small, dull white; fruit subglobose, 2 to 2.5 cm. in diameter, with scant 
pulp. "Anonilla." 

8. Annona cherimola Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 8. Annona no. 5. 1768. 

Widely cultivated in Mexico, and in tropical America generally. Native of 
the Andes of Peru, but naturalized in Mexico at a very early date. 

Tree, 4.5 to 7.5 meters high ; leaves mostly oval or rounded-oval, obtuse, 
pubescent ; petals greenish yellow or rufous outside, pale yellow or whitish 
within ; fruit globose or ovoid, the surface with rounded protuberances or 
marked with U-shaped areoles, sometimes smooth, the pulp white, pleasantly 
acidulous. " Chirimoyo " or " chirimoya " (Jalisco, Oaxaca, etc., Colombia, 
Peru ; the name of Peruvian origin, said to signify " cold-seed " ) ; " pox," 
" tzuli pox" (Yucatan, Maya) ; " quauhtzapotl," " matzapotl " (Nahuatl). 

One of the most highly valued species because of its excellent fruit; much 
cultivated in the tierra caliente, in several forms of variable quality. The fruit 
is sometimes fermented to obtain an alcoholic beverage. Macfadyen states that 
in Jamaica the dried flowers were used to flavor snuff. The seeds are used in 
Mexico as an emetic-cathartic and as an insecticide. In the first case one or 
two seeds are swallowed ; they are first roasted slightly, their shell removed, 
and the embryo crushed in water or milk. For the destruction of parasites 
upon the human body, the seeds are crushed, mixed with lard, and applied as 
an ointment to the parts affected. Cortina, who analyzed the seeds, 1 states that 
they contain sugar, gum, albumen, extractive matter, oil, and resin, the last 
probably being the emetic-cathartic agent. 

9. Annona longifiora S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22: 397. 1887. 
Jalisco ; type from Rio Blanco. 

Shrub, 1 to 3 meters high ; leaves mostly oval or orbicular, copiously pu- 
bescent ; outer petals whitish or cream-colored, with a dark purple spot at base ; 
fruit ovoid-globose, the surface with flat areoles or bearing protuberances. 
" Chirimoya de la barranca," " chirimoya cimarrona." 

The fruit is edible either raw or cooked. A sweetmeat is made by boiling it 
with sugar together with the fruit of the "tejocote" (Crataegus mexicana). 

10. Annona squamosa L. Sp. PI. 537. 1753. 
Annona cinerea Dunal, Monogr. Anon. 72. pi. 8. 1817. 

Widely cultivated in Mexico and elsewhere in tropical America. 

Tree, 4.5 to 6 meters high, with grayish bark; leaves lanceolate or oblong, 
acute; petals greenish yellow or greenish white, usually with a purplish red 
spot at base ; fruit the size of an orange, globose or heart-shaped, composed of 
loosely adherent carpels, these rounded at apex, forming a tuberculate surface, 
greenish yellow, the pulp yellowish white, creamy or custard-like, sweet and 
pleasantly flavored. " Texaltzapotl," "quauhtzapotl" (Nahuatl); "ahate" 
(Jalisco, Veracruz) ; " anona blanca " (Chiapas, Ramirez) ; " saramulla," " sara- 
mullo" (Yucatan); " tzalmuy " (Yucatan, Maya); " an6n " (Colombia, Costa 
Rica. Porto Rico); "chirimoya" (Porto Rico); " ates " (Philippines); 
"anon" (Santo Domingo). 

Fruit of excellent flavor and highly esteemed ; it is produced at nearly all 
times of the year. It is eaten alone or made into sherbets and is not cooked 
like that of some other species. The leaves are sometimes rubbed over floors 
or placed in hens' nests to keep away vermin. The seeds likewise have in- 

1 See Urbina, Naturaleza 7: 222. 1901. 



284 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

secticide properties. The crushed leaves are sometimes applied as poultices 
to ulcers and malignant sores. The root is a drastic purgative. 

The tree is described by Oviedo (Lib. VIII, Cap. XVIII) under the name 
" hanon." Hernandez describes and figures 1 it as "abate de Panucho (Pa- 
nuco)"; he also illustrates it, 2 without description, as "ate vel ahate de Pan- 
nuco." The English names applied to this species are " sugar-apple " and 
" sweetsop." 

11. Annona reticulata L. Sp. PI. 37. 1753. 

Annona longifolia Sesse & Moc. Fl. Mex. ed. 2. 134. 1894. 

Cultivated in Mexico and in places doubtless native. Widely cultivated in 
the tropics. 

Tree, 4.5 to 7.5 meters high ; leaves deciduous, lanceolate or oblong, acute, 
nearly glabrous; petals olive or yellowish, usually stained with purple within 
and with a dark purple spot at base ; fruit 7.5 to 12.5 cm. in diameter, the 
surface divided into angled areoles, usually reddish or reddish brown, the 
pulp sweetish, insipid, tallow-like. " Quauhtzapotl " (Nahuatl) ; " anona " 
(Oaxaca, etc., Nicaragua, Philippines, Guam); "anona colorada " (Chiapas, 
Ramirez); " chirimoya " (Oaxaca, Costa Rica); "op" (Yucatan, Maya); 
•' ilama " (Alcocer) ; " corazon " (Porto Rico); " mam6n " (Cuba); " rinon " 
(Venezuela). 

The wood is light and soft. The bark is said to have astringent and tonic 
properties, and that of young branches to give a useful fiber. The leaves and 
branches are used for tanning and are said to give a blue or black dye. The 
English names are " custard-apple " and " bullock's-heart." 

12. Annona lutescens Safford, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 18: 41. pi. 23. 1914. 
Chiapas. Guatemala ; type from Cahabon, Alta "Verapaz. 

Small tree with spreading branches; fruit similar to that of A. reticulata, 
but yellow. "Anona amarilla " (Guatemala). 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 

Annona excelsa H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 59. 1821. Type from La Venta 
del Exido. Described from sterile branches. 

Annona liebmanniana Baill. Adansonia 8: 266. 1868. Type from Comaltepec. 

43. MYSISTICACEAE. Nutmeg Family. 
1. COMPSONEURA Warb. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 13:94. 1895. 
1. Compsoneura sprucei (A. DC.) Warb. Nov. Act. Acad. Caes. Leop. Carol. 
68:143. 1897. 
Myristica sprucei A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 14: 199. 1856. 
Myristica mexicana Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 67. pi. 73. 1882. 
Tabasco. Honduras and Brazil ; type from Rio Negro, Brazil. 
Glabrous shrub or tree ; leaves alternate, estipulate, oblong or obovate-oblong, 
12 to 25 cm. long, subacuminate, bright green; flowers very small, dioecious, 
paniculate or subracemose. 

Myristica mexicatxa is considered synonymous with Compsoneura sprucei by 
Warburg, the monographer of the group, but it seems probable that further study 
will show that the Mexican plant is a distinct species. The type of M. mexicana 
is from the banks of the Rio Puyapatengo. 

1 Thesaurus 348. 1651. 

2 Thesaurus 454. 1651. 






STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 285 

44. MONIMTACEAE. Monimia Family. 

Reference: Perkins in Engl. Pflanzanreich IV. 101. 1901. 

Shrubs ; leaves opposite, entire or irregularly serrate, estipulate ; flowers small, 
perfect or unisexual, usually cyrnose or racemose ; perianth 4 to 6-lobed ; corolla 
none ; stamens numerous ; fruit of numerous small carpels. 

Anthers dehiscent by longitudinal slits 1. MOLLINEDIA. 

Anthers dehiscent by valves 2. SIPARUNA. 

1. MOLLINEDIA Ruiz & Pav. Fl. Peruv. Chil. Prodr. 83. 1794. 
Leaves entire or dentate ; flowers pedicellate, in axillary cymes ; perianth 4- 
lobed ; fruit of numerous small drupes. 

Sepals subequal. Stamens 30 to 33 1. M. orizabae. 

Sepals unequal, the outer broader than the inner. 

Leaves pilose when young. Stamens 23 or 24 2. M. viridiflora. 

Leaves glabrous. 

Stamens 25 3. M. mexicana. 

Stamens 30 to 40 4. M. nigrescens. 

1. Mollinedia orizabae Perkins, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 27: 674. 1900. 
Known only from the type locality, Orizaba, Veracruz. 

Leaves oblong or obovate-oblong, S to 12 cm. long, short-acuminate, glabrous. 

2. Mollinedia viridiflora Tulasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 3: 43. 1855. 
Oaxaca ; type locality, mountains of Oaxaca. 

Leaves obovate or elliptic-oblong, 8 to 12 cm. long, petiolate, acuminate, glab- 
rate in age. 

3. Mollinedia mexicana Perkins, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 27: 674. 1900. 
Known only from the type locality, Mirador, Veracruz. 

Leaves narrowly oblong or obovate-oblong, 9 to 13.5 cm. long, long-acuminate. 

4. Mollinedia nigrescens Tulasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 3: 41. 1855. 
Known only from the type locality, Tenejapa, Oaxaca. 

Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 12 cm. long, remotely serrate 
above the middle. 

2. SIPARUNA Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: 864. 1775. 
Shrubs, usually with a pleasant odor ; flowers in short axillary cymes, 
usually short-pediceled ; fruit of numerous small drupes. 

Leaves copiously stellate-pilose 1. S. riparia. 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 
Leaf blades entire or sinuate-dentate. 

Leaves coriaceous 2. S. andina. 

Leaves membranaceous 3. S. nicaraguensis. 

Leaf blades conspicuously serrate or dentate. 

Inflorescence dense, short 4. S. colimensis. 

Inflorescence lax, conspicuously pedunculate 5. S. sumichrastii. 

1. Siparuna riparia (Tulasne) A. DC in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 647. 1868. 
Citriosma, riparia Tulasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 3: 36. 1855. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca. Guatemala. 

Tree or shrub ; leaves obovate or oval-obovate, 10 to 17 cm. long, acute or 
acuminate, irregularly dentate; fruit globose, red. " Limoncillo " (Veracruz); 
" cerbatana " ( Guatemala ) . 

2. Siparuna andina (Tulasne) A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 648. 1868. 
Citriosma andina Tulasne, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 3: 36. 1855. 
Mountains of Oaxaca. 



286 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves ternate, obovate-oblong, 12 to 15 cm. long, petiolate, short-acuminate. 

3. Siparuna nicaragnensis Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 69. 1882. 
Guerrero and Oaxaca to Tabasco. Guatemala and Nicaragua (type locality). 
Shrub, 3 to 4 meters high, or sometimes a tree, with a strong odor; leaves 

oval to oblong, 7.5 to 15 cm. long; flowers small, yellowish white; fruit blood- 
red. " Hierba del talaje," " limoncillo," " hierba de la conchuda " (Oaxaca). 

4. Siparuna colimensis Perkins, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 28: 682. 1901. 
Known only from Colima, the type locality. 

Leaves ovate or oblong, 9 to 18 cm. long, short-acuminate; fruit depressed- 
globose, reddish, acidulous. 

5. Siparuna sumichrastii (A. DC.) Perkins, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 28: 682. 1901. 
Siparuna riparia sunvvchrastii A. DC. in DC. Prodr. 16 2 : 648. 1868. 
Veracruz ; type from the city of Veracruz. 

Shrub, 3 meters high ; leaves obovate-oblong or elliptic, 10 to 16 cm. long ; 
fruit 5 mm. in diameter. 

45. LAURACEAE. Laurel Family. 

Reference : Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5. 1869. 

Aromatic evergreen trees or shrubs ; leaves alternate, persistent, glandular- 
punctate, estipulate, entire ; flowers perfect or unisexual, small, green or yellow, 
usually cymose, umbellate, or capitate; perianth limb usually 6-lobed; corolla 
none ; stamens and staminodia normally twice as many as the segments and 
opposite them, arranged in 2 or 4 series ; anthers erect, 2 or 4-celled ; fruit 
baccate or drupaceous, 1-seeded. 

In this family flowers are usually necessary for determination, and fruiting 
specimens are of little value unless accompanied by flowers. 

The common European laurel, Laurus nob-Mis L. ("laurel") is cultivated in 
Mexico as a shade tree. The writer has seen no material of Acrodiclidium 
tvexicanum and A. misantlae recently described from Veracruz by Brandegee. 1 
The genus is not otherwise known from Mexico, and it is probable that both 
these species belong to genera listed below. 

The only Mexican representative of the family not listed here is Cassytha 
fiUformis L., a yellowish leafless twining parasitic plant, in general appearance 
much like dodder (Cuscuta spp.). 

Two well-known Old World trees of the family are Cinnamomum camphora 
(L.) Nees & Eberm., camphor ("alcanfor "), and C. zeylanicum Nees, cinna- 
mon ("canela"). 
Inflorescence racemose, subtended by an involucre of bracts. 

Bracts of the involucre decussate-opposite 1. LITSEA. 

Bracts imbricate 2. UMBELLULARIA. 

Inflorescence usually paniculate, sometimes racemose or capitate, not invo- 
lucrate. 

Sepals very unequal, the outer ones shorter 3. PERSEA. 

Sepals equal or nearly so. 
Anthers 2-celled. 

Stamens all with introrse anthers 4. SASSAFRIDIUM. 

Stamens partly with extrorse anthers. 

Staminodia of the innermost stamens large 5. HUFELANDIA. 

Staminodia of the innermost stamens minute or aborted. 

6. MISANTECA. 
Anthers 4-celled. 

1 Univ. Calif. Bot. 6: 497. 1919. 



STANDLEY TKEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 287 

Staminodia of the inner series of stamens well developed, sagittate. 

Sepals usually deciduous 3. PERSE A. 

Sepals persistent 7. PHOEBE. 

Staminodia of the inner stamens minute or none, stipelike. 

Anther cells in pairs, one pair above the other 8. OCOTEA. 

Anther cells all inserted at nearly the same height— 9. NECTANDRA. 

1. LITSEA Lam. Encycl. 3: 574. 1789. 
Reference: Bartlett, Proc. Amer. Acad. 44:597-602. 1909. 
Shrubs or trees ; leaves comparatively small ; inflorescence short-racemose, 
few-flowered, axillary, in bud surrounded by an involucre of 4 to 6 broad bracts; 
perianth 6 or 4-lobed ; stamens usually 9 or 12, those of the first and second ranks 
eglandular, those of the third and fourth ranks usually with a stipitate gland 
on each side at the base ; anthers introrsely 4-celled. 

The aromatic leaves of all the species are used extensively for flavoring food. 
Leaves copiously pubescent beneath. 

Inflorescences corymbose 1. L. neesiana. 

Inflorescences solitary or fasciculate 2. L. orizabae. 

Leaves glabrous or nearly so. 
Leaf blades rounded or subcordate at base. 
Inflorescences corymbose or paniculate. 

Pedicels much longer than the flowers 3. L. pedicellata. 

Pedicels shorter than the flowers 4. L. pringdei. 

Inflorescences solitary or fasciculate. 

Leaf blades rounded-ovate, obtuse 5. L. parvifolia. 

Leaf blades ovate-lanceolate, acute 6. L. novoleontis. 

Leaf blades acute or obtuse at base. 
Leaves usually glaucous beneath, more than 2 cm. wide ; inflorescences 

corymbose 7. L. glaucescens. 

Leaves not glaucous beneath, 1.5 cm. wide or narrower ; inflorescences soli- 
tary 8. L. schaffneri. 

1. Litsea neesiana (Schauer) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3:76. 1882. 
Tetranthera nees iana Schauer, Linnaea 19:712. 1847. 

? Tetranthera villosa Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 2 : 359. 1843. 

Veracruz to Sinaloa, Oaxaca, and Chiapas. 

Tree or shrub, 2 to 9 meters high ; leaves ovate, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, acute or 
acuminate, green and glabrous above, pale and pubescent beneath. " Laurel " 
(Chiapas) ; "laurel de la sierra" (Sinaloa). 

One collection placed here by the writer was referred by Bartlett to L. guate- 
malensis Mez. The leaves are used in Sinaloa as a remedy for colic pains. 

2. Litsea orizabae (Mart. & Gal.) Mez. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5:479. 

1889. 
Persea orisalae Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 ': 358. 1843. 
Known only from Mount Orizaba, at an altitude of about 4,000 meters. 
Shrub ; leaves ovate, about 7.5 cm. long, acute. 

3. Litsea pedicellata Bartlett, Proc. Amer. Acad. 44: 598. 1909. 

Known only from the type locality, mountains near Saltillo, Coahuila, at an 
altitude of 2,135 meters. 

Shrub, 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves orbicular-ovate, 2 to 3 cm. long, obtuse. 

4. Litsea pringlei Bartlett, Proc. Amer. Acad. 44: 59S. 1909. 

Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosl ; type from limestone ledges of the Sierra 
Madre above Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, altitude 850 meters. 

Shrub, 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves ovate-lanceolate or ovate, 3 to 5 cm. long, 
acute or attenuate. 



288 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

5. Litsea parvifolia (Hemsl.) Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 4S1. 1889. 
Um-bellularia parvifolia Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 77. 1882. 
Coahuila and perhaps elsewhere. 

Shrub ; leaves 1.3 to 4 cm. long, green above, pale beneath. 

6. Litsea novoleontis Bartlett, Proc. Amer. Aead. 44: 601. 1909. 

Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi; type from the Sierra Madre near Mon- 
terrey. 

Shrub, 1 to 5 meters high ; leaves ovate or lance-ovate, 2.5 to 5.5 cm. long ; 
fruit black. "Laurel" (San Luis Potosi). 

Tea made from the leaves is used as a beverage, with the addition of sugar 
and milk. It is used also for asthma and to induce perspiration. 

7. Litsea glaucescens H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 168. 1817. 
Litsea cervantesii H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 168. 1817. 
Tetranthera glaucescens subsolitaria Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 *: 193. 1864. 
Litsea glaucescens subsolitaria Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 76. 1882. 
Tamaulipas to Veracruz, Chiapas, and Tepic; type from Acapulco. Central 

America. 

Tree or shrub, sometimes 6 meters high ; leaves ovate or lanceolate, 5 to 8 
cm. long, acute or attenuate, petiolate, glaucous or green beneath. " Laurel " 
(Oaxaca, Veracruz, Chiapas, Guatemala, etc.); " sufricaya " or " suf ricago " 
(Veracruz, etc.); "ziz-uch " (Chiapas, Seler). 

A tea made from the leaves is used as a beverage, as in the other species, also 
for colic, etc. L. glaucescens subsolitaria is a form with solitary or fasciculate 
(rather than corymbose) inflorescences. 

8. Litsea schaff neri Bartlett, Proc. Amer. Acad. 44 : 601. 1909. 

San Luis Potosi and Guanajuato; type from San Miguelito Mountains, San 
Luis Potosi. 

Shrub 2 to 3 meters high ; leaves narrowly lanceolate, 2 to 5 cm. long, acute. 
"Laurel" (San Luis Potosi). 

2. UMBELLULARIA Nutt. N. Amer. Sylv. 1: 87. 1842. 
1. Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Am.) Nutt. N. Amer. Sylv. 1: 87. 1842. 

Tetranthera californica Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey Voy. 159. 1833. 

Probably in northern Baja California, although no specimens from the Mex- 
ican side of the Boundary have been seen. California. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 30 meters high, with a trunk 1.6 meters in diam- 
eter, the bark scaly, brown ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 14 cm. long, acute ; 
flowers yellow ; fruit yellowish, 2 to 3 cm. long ; wood light brown, strong, hard, 
its specific gravity about 0.65. 

The fruit was eaten by the California Indians, and the leaves are some- 
times used for seasoning food. The wood is used for furniture, boats, etc. 

3. PERSE A Gaertn. f. Fruct. & Sem. 3: 222. 1805. 

Refebences : Blake, A preliminary revision of the North American and 
West Indian avocados, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 10: 9-21. 1920; Popenoe, 
in Bailey. Stand. Cycl. Hort. 436-43S, 2555-2556. 1914-16; G. N. Collins, The 
avocado, a salad fruit from the tropics, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. PI. Ind. Bull. 77. 
1905. 

Usually trees ; flowers in axillary or subterminal, pedunculate panicles ; 
perianth 6-lobed, the 3 outer lobes often smaller than the inner ones ; perfect 
stamens 9, those of the first and second series eglandular, those of the third 
series with a gland on each side at the base; anthers extrorsely 4-celled ; fruit 
small or often very large. 

Species nos. 5 to 9 are referred by some authors to a separate genus, Notha- 
phoebe. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 289 

Perianth lobes equal or subequal ; flowers comparatively large. 

Ovary glabrous; staniinal glands sessile 1. P. cinerascens. 

Ovary pubescent ; staminal glands stipitate. 
Pedicels 8 to 15 mm. long; stipe of staminode 2 to 3 times as long and 
essentially as broad as the elliptic head. Branchlets densely ferrugi- 

nous-tomentose 2. P. schiedeana. 

Pedicels 1 to 6 mm. long; staminode with triangular head much broader 
than the stipe. 
Branchlets fulvous-villous ; leaves floccose-tomentose beneath; filaments 

only one-third longer than the anthers 3. P. floccosa. 

Branchlets glabrous to pilosulous ; leaves glabrous to pilosulous beneath ; 
filaments 2 to 3 times as long as the anthers. 

Leaves not anise-scented ; perianth deciduous 4. P. americana. 

Leaves anise- (or sassafras ) -seen ted ; perianth usually persistent. 

4a. P. americana drymif olia. 
Perianth lobes unequal, the outer ones shorter ; flowers small. 

Leaves glabrous 5. P. longipes. 

Leaves pubescent, at least beneath. 

Leaf blades lanceolate or oblong, about 3 cm. wide. 

Leaves minutely sericeous beneath, not glaucescent 6. P. veraguensis. 

Leaves not sericeous beneath, glaucous or glaucescent __ 7. P. podadenia. 
Leaf blades mostly ovate, obovate, or elliptic, 3 to 10 cm. wide. 
Pubescence of the lower surface of the leaves coarse, loose; inflorescence 

fulvous-villous 8. P. chamissonis. 

Pubescence of the lower surface of the leaves fine, appressed ; inflores- 
cence sericeous 9. P. liebmanni. 

1. Persea cinerascens Blake, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 10: 18. f. 2. 1920. 
Known only from the type locality, Zacuapan, Veracruz. 

Tree; branchlets densely pilose-tomentose ; leaf blades elliptic to oval-oblong 
or obovate, 10 to 20 cm. long, 5 to 8 cm. wide, acute or short-pointed, pilosulous 
beneath ; pedicels 1 mm. long ; perianth 7 to 8.5 mm. long ; fruit subglobose, 
glaucous-blue, about 12 mm. in diameter. 

2. Persea schiedeana Nees, Syst. Laurin. 130. 1836. 

Persea gratissima schiedeana Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 1 : 53. 1864. 

Persea pittieri Mez, Bot. Jahrb. Engler 30: Beibl. 67: 15. 1901. 

Veracruz and probably elsewhere; type from Misantla. Guatemala to 
Panama. 

Tree, 15 to 20 or rarely even 50 meters high; leaf blades obovate to oval- 
obovate or oval, 12.5 to 30 cm. long, 7 to 15 cm. wide, obtuse or rounded 
and short-pointed at apex, beneath glaucous and pilosulous ; perianth 6 to 8 mm. 
long. " Chinini " (Veracruz); " coyo," " coyocte," " kiyo," " kiyau," " chucte," 
"chaucte," " shucte," " kotyo," (Guatemala); " aguacaton " (Panama). 

This species is cultivated in Veracruz and is probably also indigenous there. 
The flowers are pale greenish yellow, turning crimson at the base in age, or 
sometimes light rose. The stamens also turn crimson with age, and the glands 
are bright orange. The flowers of P. americana are said to be pale green, not 
changing color with age. 

The fruit is much like that of the common avocado, and equally variable in 
form and quality. The skin is thick but leathery and pliable ; the flesh brown- 
ish white, of fine oily texture. The flavor is similar to that of the common 
avocado but distinguishable, suggesting that of a ripe coconut. The cotyledons 
when cut are rose-pink ; in P. americana. they are whitish. 



290 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

3. Persea floccosa Mez. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Berlin 5: 148. 18S9. 
Known only from the type locality, Chinantla, Oaxaca. 

Tree ; leaf blades ovate, 11 to 17 em. long, 5 to 7.5 cm. wide, acuminate, 
glaucescent beneath ; perianth 5 mm. long. 

4. Persea americana Mill. Card. Diet. ed. 8. 1768. 
La urns persea L. Sp. PI. 370. 1753. 

Persea gratissima Gaertn. f. Fruct. & Sem. 3: 222. pi. 221. 1807. 

Persea persea Cockerell, Bull. Torrey Club 19: 95. 1892. 

Commonly cultivated in Mexico, and probably native in the southern part. 
Widely cultivated in tropical regions. 

Tree, sometimes 20 meters high, with a trunk 60 cm. in diameter, the bark 
rather thin, light gray, fissured ; leaves oval to elliptic, 10 to 30 cm. long, 3.5 
to 20 cm. wide, acute or obtuse, copiously pubescent when young ; flowers green- 
ish ; perianth 5.5 to 7 mm. long ; fruit oval or pear-shaped, sometimes IS cm. 
long, smooth, with thick oily pulp and a very large seed; wood rather soft, 
fine-grained, reddish brown or light brown, its specific gravity about 0.65. 

The fruit is known in Mexico as " aguacate " or " ahuacate," from the 
Nahuatl " ahuacatl " 1 or " ahuacuahuitl." The following additional names are 
used, some of them referring to horticultural varieties : "Aguacate oloroso " 
(Veracruz, Oaxaca); "on" (Yucatan, Maya); "aguacate xinene," " xinene " 
(Oaxaca, llcko) ; " tonalahuate " (Morelos, Veracruz, Ramirez); " cupanda " 
(Tarascan) ; " aguacatillo " (Michoacan, Jalisco) ; " pahuatl " (the name of a 
large variety, according to Starr 2 ); " pagua " (a large variety, Roielo) ; 
" koidium," " koitum," " kuitm " (Mixe, the fruit, Belmar; the tree is " kuitm- 
keip"); " ttatzan " (Otomi, Buelna) ; " palta " (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru; 
the Quechua name ; Ramirez reports it as in use in Mexico, but this is doubt- 
ful) ; " cura " (Colombia). The best English name is "avocado," a derivative 
of " aguacate " This word has been variously modified, the extremes being 
perhaps " abogado," the Spanish word for " lawyer," and " watercats," employed 
by some English writers. The name " alligator-pear " is sometimes applied, 
but this is an objectionable name. In the various Maya dialects of Central 
America the names employed are " o," " oj," " ju," " un," " um," and " on." 

The avocado is one of the best-known of Mexican trees, having been cultivated 
for many centuries. It has been introduced into most tropical regions of the 
world, and in recent years into southern Florida and California. It is of inter- 
est to note that the Trapp avocado, the form most commonly grown in Florida, 
belongs to a distinct species, of unknown origin, distinguished by having the 
perianth glabrous within. It has been described recently by Blake 3 as Persea 
leiogyna. 

Two principal horticultural forms of Persea americana are recognized, the 
" West Indian type," with smooth fruit and leathery skin, and the " Guatemalan 
type," with rough or warty fruit and brittle skin. There is great variation in the 
size and shape of the fruit. 

In tropical America the trees are grown from seeds, beginning to bear when 
four or five years old and continuing their production sometimes for 50 years or 
more. In modern practice the best forms are propagated by budding. A good- 
sized tree will produce as many as 500 fruits per year. The fruit has a pleasant 
flavor, and is usually eaten as a salad, with the addition of salt, pepper, vinegar, 

1 This is also the Nahuatl term for testicle. It is uncertain which is the 
primitive meaning. 

2 Starr, In Indian Mexico, p. 245. 190S. 

3 Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 10: 19. 1920. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 291 

and other condiments, but sometimes it is prepared with sugar or wine. It is 
eaten by all kinds of domestic animals. 

A large number of therapeutic uses are reported for the plant. The pulp is 
credited with hastening the suppuration of wounds and is reputed to have 
aphrodisiac and emmenagogue properties. The rind is used to expel intestinal 
parasites. The seeds contain a milky juice which turns red on exposure, and 
which produces an indelible stain on linen. Ground and mixed with cheese, 
meal, etc., the seeds are used to poison rats and mice. An ointment of the pul- 
verized seeds is sometimes employed as a rubefacient, and a decoction of them, 
or a piece of a seed placed in the cavity of a tooth, is believed to cure toothache. 
The leaves and bark are employed in domestic medicine because of the pectoral, 
stomachic, emmenagogue, resolutive, and antiper iodic properties ascribed to 
them. The seeds are used also for the manufacture of various trinkets. 

The avocado is noted by all the early writers upon tropical American plants. 
Oviedo (Lib. IX, Cap. XXIII) gives a very full account of the tree and of 
the fruit, which he describes as superior to the pears of Castile. Acosta gives 
a brief account of the fruit, under the name " palta." Sahagun writes the 
name " auacatl," and states that there are also other kinds besides the common 
one: The " tlacaglauacatl." which women nursing dare not eat, because the 
fruit causes diarrhoea in the children nursed ; and the " quilauacatl," or 
" green aguacate," a form with green skin, " and very good to eat." He states 
that the powdered seeds were employed as a remedy for dandruff. Hernandez 
also gives a long account * of the avocado, in a chapter entitled " De Ahuaca 
Quauhitl, seu Arbore Querciformi butiraceo fructu." He describes the leaves 
as fragrant, and consequently doubtless refers to the Mexican type, Persea 
amerieana drymifolia. He states that by pressure oil was obtained from the 
seeds and used to cure eruptions of the skin. 

4a. Persea amerieana drymifolia (Schlecht. & Cham.) Blake, Journ. Wash- 
ington Acad. Sci. 10: 15. 1920. 

Persea drymifolia Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 6: 365. 1831. 

Nuevo Le6n to Sinaloa, Veracruz, and Puebla ; type from Papantla, Vera- 
cruz. Guatemala ; cultivated in Ecuador. 

Leaves usually smaller than in P. amerieana,, elliptic or oval, acute, or ac- 
uminate ; fruit thin-skinned. " Aguacate Oloroso." 

This is the common Mexican avocado, and the vernacular names reported 
above apply also, presumably, to the variety. 

5. Persea longipes (Schlecht.) Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 1 : 55. 1864. 
Lauras longipes Schlecht. Linnaea 7: 390. 1832. 

Veracruz ; type from Hacienda de la Laguna ; perhaps also in Guerrero. 
Tree or shrub ; leaves oblong or lanceolate, 8 to 15 cm. long, attenuate, green 
and lustrous above, paler beneath. 

6. Persea veraguensis Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 193. 1854. 
Oaxaca and Chiapas. Type from Chiriqui, Panama. 

Tree, sometimes 20 meters high ; leaves 8 to 17 cm. long, acuminate, with 
conspicuous venation, the pubescence of the lower surface somewhat lustrous; 
flowers sericeous. 

7. Persea podadenia Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 52: 62. 1917. 
Sonora, Durango, and Jalisco ; type from San Ramon, Durango. 

Shrub or tree; leaves 9 to 16 cm. long, acute or acutish, pale beneath, 
petiolate. "Laurel" (Jalisco) ; "laurel de la sierra" (Sonora). 

Leaves with a flavor similar to that of sassafras; used for seasoning food. 

1 Thesaurus 89. 1651. 



292 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

8. Persea chamissonis Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 168. 1889. 

San Luis Potosi, Veracruz, and Oaxaca ; type from Chiconquiaco, Veracruz. 
Small tree; leaves lance-oblong to obovate-oval, 5.5 to 11 cm. long, obtuse 
or acute, copiously pubescent. 

9. Persea liebmanni Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 166. 1889. 
Sinaloa to Oaxaca; type from Chinantla, Oaxaca. 

Tree; leaves mostly oval or oval-ovate, 10 to 18 cm. long, acute or obtuse, 
very thick ; fruit globose, 1 cm. in diameter. 

4. SASSAFPvIDIUM Meissn. in DC. Prodr. IS 1 : 171. 1864. 
1. Sassafridium macrophyllum Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1: 355. 1895. 

Sinaloa to Veracruz and Tabasco ; type from Manzanillo. 

Tree, sometimes 10 meters high, nearly glabrous ; leaves lance-oblong to ovate 
or oval-oblong, 10 to 20 cm. long, petiolate, acute or acuminate, lustrous ; flowers 
numerous, white, sweet-scented ; perianth 6-lobed, the lobes subequal ; perfect 
stamens 9, those of the first and second series eglandular, those of the third 
series with 2 glands at the base; anthers 4-celled, introrse; fruit about 1 cm. 
long. "Laurel," "laurel bianco" (Tabasco); " aguacatillo " (Michoacan, Gue- 
rrero); " laureltfn " (Sinaloa). 

5. HUFELANDIA Nees, PL Laur. Expos. 11. 1833. 
1. Hufelandia mexicana Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 20. 1889. 

Veracruz and Oaxaca. 

Shrub or tree; leaves elliptic or ovate, acute or acuminate, green, glabrous; 
perianth 6-lobed; perfect stamens 9, those of the first and second series eglandu- 
lar, the anthers 2-celled, introrse, the anthers of the third series extrorse, the 
filaments each with 2 glands at the base. 

Reported from Mexico as ,U. pendtila Meisn. and Beilschmiedia pendula 
Hemsl. 

6. MISANTECA Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 6:367. 1831. 

Trees, nearly glabrous, with large leaves, these short-petiolate, acuminate; 
perianth 6-lobed ; perfect stamens 3, connate into a fleshy column about the pistil, 
the anthers 2-celled ; fruit large, partly inclosed in the cuplike accrescent calyx - 
tube. 

Flowers sessile, capitate 1. M. capitata. 

Flowers pedicellate, paniculate 2. M. jurgensenii. 

1. Misanteca capitata Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 6: 367. 1831. 

Acrodiclidium glabrum T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 6:497. 1919. 

Oaxaca and Veracruz ; type from Misantla and Papantla, Veracruz. Guate- 
mala. 

Large tree ; leaves oval to lance-oblong, 11 to 25 cm. long, thick and leathery ; 
flower heads 1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter, very long-pedunculate ; fruit 2.5 cm. long. 
"Laurel," " palo misanteco " (Veracruz) ; "laurel de la sierra" (Oaxaca). 

The wood is said to be valuable for carpentry and cabinet work. 

2. Misanteca jurgensenii Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5:102. 1S89. 
Oaxaca ; type from Pinatepa. 

Tree; leaves lance-oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, 14 to 20 cm. long, acute at 
the base, lustrous ; fruit ellipsoid, 2.5 cm. long. 

The fruit seated in the large calyx tube resembles an acorn and its cup. 

7. PHOEBE Nees, Syst. Laurin. 98. 1836. 
Trees or shrubs ; leaves usually large, glabrous or pubescent, petiolate ; flow- 
ers paniculate ; perianth 6-lobed ; perfect stamens 9, those of the first and second 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 293 

series eglandular, with introrsely 4-celled anthers, those of the third series each 
with 2 glands at the base, the anthers extrorsely 4-celled. 

Ovary pilose 1. P. pallescens. 

Ovary glabrous. 

Leaves sessile, cordate 2. P. amplexicaulis. 

Leaves petiolate. 
Mature leaves conspicuously soft-pilose or villous beneath, never 3-nerved. 
Filaments pilose. 

Leaves acute at base 3. P. psychotrioides. 

Leaves obtuse or rounded at base 4. P. mollis. 

Filaments of the outer series of stamens glabrous. 
Leaves obtuse or cordate at base. 
Filaments as long as the anthers or slightly shorter. 5. P. betazensis. 
Filaments very short or none. 

Anthers rectangular-quadrate 6. P. helicterifolia. 

Anthers elliptic 7. P. nectandroides. 

Leaves acute at base. 

Leaves lanceolate 8. P. bourgeauviana. 

Leaves elliptic or subovate 9. P. pachypoda. 

Mature leaves glabrous beneath or glabrate or short-tomentellous. never 
soft-pilose. 
Leaves pinninerved or very obscurely triplinerved, glabrous. 
Filaments less than one-third as long as the anthers. 

10. P. subtriplinervia. 
Filaments about as long as the anthers. 
Flowers pubescent ; leaves less than 3 cm. wide. 

11. P. tampicensis. 

Flowers glabrous; leaves 4 to 6 cm. wide 12. P. ehrenbergii. 

Leaves distinctly triplinerved. 

Flowers pilose 13. P. mexicana. 

Flowers glabrous. 

Inflorescence equaling or longer than the leaves 14. P. effusa. 

Inflorescence shorter than the leaves. 

Filaments partly pilose 15. P. salicifolia. 

Filaments glabrous 16. P. barbeyana. 

1. Phoebe pallescens Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 218. 1889. 
Known only from the type locality, Orizaba. 

2. Phoebe amplexicaulis (Cham. & Schlecht. ) Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. 

Berlin 5: 216. 1889. 
Persea amplexicaulis Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 5: 90. 1830. 
Known only from the type locality, Cerro Colorado, Veracruz. 
Leaves cordate-oblong, 11.5 cm. long, 3 cm. wide, coriaceous, glabrous, long- 
acuminate; inflorescence few-flowered. 

3. Phoebe psychotrioides (H. B. K.) Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 

191. 1889. 
Ocotea psychotrioides H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 172. 1817. 
Forests of Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Jalapa, Veracruz. 
Shrub ; leaves elliptic to lance-oblong, 5 to 11 cm. long, acuminate, bright 
green and lustrous on the upper surface. 

4. Phoebe mollis Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 192. 1889. 
Described from Mexico, the locality not known. 

Leaves lanceolate, about 7.5 cm. long, acute, white-tomentose beneath. 



294 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

5. Phoebe betazensis Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 192. 1889. 
Oaxaca ; type from Betaza. Guatemala. 

Shrub, or perhaps sometimes a tree; leaves elliptic, oblong, or obovate, 8 to 
20 cm. long, acuminate, pilose on both surfaces; panicles large, long-peduncu- 
late ; fruit 1.5 to 2 cm. long. 

6. Phoebe helicterifolia (Meissn.) Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 193. 

1889. 

Oreodaphne helicterifoUa Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 *: 123. 1864. 

Described from San Bartolo, Chiapas. Guatemala to Costa Rica. 

Shrub or tree; leaves oblong, lanceolate, or elliptic, 5 to 10 cm. long, copiously 
pubescent, acute or acuminate, short-petiolate. " Quizarra amarilla " (Guate- 
mala, Costa Rica). 

7. Phoebe nectandroides Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 194. 1889. 
Veracruz, Oaxaca, and Chiapas ; type from Orizaba. Central America. 
Tree, about 12 meters high ; leaves obovate or broadly elliptic, 15 to 25 cm. 

long, pilose ; branches of the inflorescence glabrous. 

Previously reported from Mexico as Ocotea umbrosa Mart. 

8. Phoebe bourgeauviana Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 194. 1889. 
Known only from the type locality, Cordoba, Veracruz. 

Leaves lanceolate, about 10 cm. long, soft-pubescent beneath, acuminate; 
fruit about 1 cm. long. 

9. Phoebe pachypoda (Nees) Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 196. 1889. 
Persea pachypoda Nees, Linnaea 21: 490. 1847. 

Oreodaphne benthamiana Nees, Linnaea 21: 521. 1847. 

Phoebe hartwegii Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 l : 30. 1864. 

Persea hartwegii Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Ainer. Bot. 3: 72. 18S2. 

Phoebe benthamiana Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 195. 1889. 

San Luis Potosf, Veracruz, and Guanajuato ; type from El Banco. 

Shrub or tree, 3 to 7 meters high ; leaves 7.5 to 12 cm. long, petiolate, acumi- 
nate, very thick, green above, pale and soft-pilose beneath ; fruit 1 to 1.5 cm 
long. "Aguacate cimarron." 

Fruit said to be edible. 

10. Phoebe subtriplinervia (Meissn.) Standi. 
Oreodaphne subtriplinervia Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 1 : 125. 1864. 
Ocotea, subtriplinervia Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3:74. 1882. 
Phoebe galeottiana Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 200. 1S89. 
Veracruz ; type from Jalapa. 

Shrub or perhaps a tree, glabrous ; leaves lanceolate, 4 to 6 cm. long, 
acuminate, coriaceous; flowers subracemose, white or yellowish, 2 mm. long. 

11. Phoebe tampicensis (Meissn.) Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 200. 
1889. 

Oreodaphne tampicensis Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 *: 136. 1861. 
Ocotea tampicensis Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 74. 1882. 
Ocotea angustata Blake, Contr. Gray Herb. n. ser. 52: 63. 1917. 
Tamaulipas and San Luis Potosi ; type from Tampico. 

Tree, 6 to 10 meters high ; leaves linear-lanceolate, 6 to 11 cm. long, attenuate, 
dark green, lustrous ; fruit 1.5 to 2 cm. long. 

12. Phoebe ehrenbergii Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 201. 1889. 
Type from Temascaltepec, State of Mexico ; perhaps also in Oaxaca. 
Leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 12 to 16.5 cm. long, acute, glabrous. 

13. Phoebe mexicana Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 1 : 31. 1864. 
Persea mexicana Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 72. 1882. 






STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 295 

Veracruz ; type from Jalapa. Reported from Costa Rica. 
Large tree; leaves oblong-lanceolate or oblong, 5 to 12.5 cm. long, acuminate, 
coriaceous, glabrous. " Quecbol aguacate." 

14. Phoebe effusa Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 1 : 33. 1864. 
Persea effusa Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 71. 1882. 
Veracruz. Central America. 

Tree, sometimes 30 meters higb, with a trunk a meter in diameter, the bark 
grayish ; leaves lanceolate to elliptic-oblong, 6 to 14 cm. long, acuminate or 
obtuse ; flowers greenish, ill-scented ; wood light brown, moderately soft, light, 
weak, fine-grained. " Sigua blanca " (Panama). 

15. Phoebe salicifolia Nees, Linnaea 21: 488. 1847. 

Persea saHci folia Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 71. 1864. 
Known only from the type locality, Regla, Hidalgo. 

Tree, 6 meters high ; leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 10 cm. long, 
acuminate. 

16. Phoebe barbeyana Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 209. 1889. 
Known only from the type locality, Orizaba, Veracruz. 

Leaves elliptic, 8 to 11 cm. long, acuminate, glabrate ; fruit about 1 cm. long. 

8. OCOTEA Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: 780. 1775. 
Trees or shrubs with coriaceous leaves; flowers in axillary or subterminal 
panicles ; perianth 6-lobed ; perfect stamens 9, those of the first and second 
series eglandular, the anthers introrsely 4-celled, those of the third series 
minute or sometimes wanting; fruit at first inclosed in the indurate perianth 
tube, later exserted. 

Flowers glabrous 1. O. cernua. 

Flowers pubescent. 

Flowers dioecious u 2. 0. puberula. 

Flowers perfect. 

Anthers of the two outer series sessile, foliose, not contracted at base. 

Leaves mostly 3.5 to 5 cm. wide, obtuse or acutish 3. 0. veraguensis. 

Leaves 7 to 15 cm. wide, acuminate 4. O. perseifolia. 

Anthers of the two outer series borne on filaments, or sessile but contracted 
at the base, not foliose. 

Leaves tomentellous beneath, broadly elliptic 5. O. rubriflora. 

Leaves barbate beneath in the axils of the veins, lanceolate or lance- 
elliptic. 

Staminodia conspicuous, white-pilose 6. O. effusa. 

Staminodia none 7. 0. klotzschiana. 

1. Ocotea cernua (Nees) Mez. Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 377. 1889. 
Oreodaphne cernua Nees, Syst. Laurin. 424. 1836. 

Tabasco and Campeche. Lesser Antilles ; Central America. 
Tree, 6 to 8 meters high, glabrous ; leaves elliptic or oval-elliptic, 8 to 17 cm. 
.ong, acuminate, petiolate. " Laurel de bajo " (Campeche). 

2. Ocotea puberula Nees, Syst. Laurin. 472. 1836. 
Stryclinodaphnc puberula Nees, Linnaea 8: 39. 1833. 
Reported from Veracruz. Widely distributed in South America. 

Leaves elliptic-oblong or lance-oblong, 7.5 to 20 cm. long, acute or acuminate. 

3. Ocotea veraguensis (Meissn.) Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 240. 

1889. 
Sassafridium verngiiense Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 *: 171. 1864. 
Chiapas. Central America ; type from Panama. 
55268—22 9 



296 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Small or medium-sized tree, the bark grayish, smooth or slightly rugose, aro- 
matic, with an odor like cinnamon; leaves oblong-elliptic, 7 to 12 cm. long, 
glabrous ; flowers white, sweet-scented ; fruit 1.5 cm. long ; wood hard, moder- 
ately heavy, very close-grained, durable, taking a good polish. " Canelo," 
" canelillo " (Costa Rica); " sigua canelo" (Panama); " palo Colorado" 
(Nicaragua). 

4. Ocotea perseifolia Mez & Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz. 20: 10. 1895. 
Forests of Tabasco. Guatemala ; type from Yzabal. 

Tree ; leaves ovate, oblong-ovate, or oval-ovate, 15 to 30 cm. long, acuminate ; 
panicles large, many-flowered. "Laurel de chile" (Tabasco). 

5. Ocotea rubriflora Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 279. 1889. 
Known only from the type locality, Teapa, Tabasco. 
Tree ; leaves broadly elliptic, about 23 cm. long, acuminate. 

6. Ocotea effusa (Meissn.) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3: 73. 1882. 
Oreodaphne effusa Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 *: 120. 1864. 
Oaxaca ; type from San Pedro Nolasco. 
Leaves lanceolate, 5 to 10 cm. long, long-acuminate. 

7. Ocotea klotzschiana (Nees) Hemsl. Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. 3:73. 1864. 

Oreodaphne klotzschiana Nees, Linnaea 21:523. 1847. 

Veracruz and perhaps elsewhere. 

Tree or shrub ; leaves lanceolate or oblong, 5 to 8.5 cm. long, narrowly acumi- 
nate, lustrous. 

9. NECT ANDRA Roland ; Rottb. Act. Litt. Univ. Hafn. 1 : 279. 1778. 
Trees or shrubs with coriaceous leaves ; flowers in axillary or terminal, pedun- 
culate cymes ; perianth 6-lobed ; perfect stamens 9, those of the first and second 
series eglandular, the anthers introrsely 4-celled, those of the third series with 
glands at base, the anthers extrorsely 4-celled. 

Nectandra rodiaei Hook., of northern South America, is the greenheart, whose 
wood is valuable, especially because of its great durability in water. The bark 
contains the alkaloids bebeerine, sipirine, and nectrandrine. It is tonic, some- 
what astringent, and febrifuge, somewhat resembling cinchona in properties al- 
though greatly inferior in quality. It has been used in the treatment of inter- 
mittent and remittent fevers. The Indians of British Guiana are said to make a 
kind of bitter bread from the seeds, which contain nearly 50 per cent of starch. 
Anthers of the outer series sessile. Flowers pubescent. 

Ovary densely tomentose 1. N. sinuata. 

Ovary glabrous or nearly so. 

Style equaling or longer than the ovary 2. N. reticulata. 

Style shorter than the ovary. 
Young leaves conspicuously yellowish-tomentellous on the upper surface. 

3. N. pallida. 
Young leaves glabrous or nearly so on the upper surface. 

4. N. glabrescens. 
Anthers of the outer series conspicuously stipitate. 

Filaments of the first and second series of stamens pilose. 

Leaves not reticulate, sericeous when young 5. N. nitida. 

Leaves reticulate, not sericeous 6. N. sanguinea. 

Filaments of the first and second series of stamens glabrous. 

Style decidedly longer than the ovary ; leaves glabrous 7. N. rectinervia. 

Style equaling or longer than the ovary ; leaves more or less pubescent be- 
neath. 

Flowers 6 to 9 mm. broad 8. N. concinna. 

Flowers 4 to 6 mm. broad 9. N. pichurim. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 297 

1. Nectandra sinuata Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5 : 402. 1889. 
Oaxaca. Central America ; type from Guatemala. 

Tree, 12 to 15 meters high ; leaves oblong, obovate, or obovate-oval, 10 to 
25 cm. long, petiolate, obtuse or acute, velvety-pilose; flowers large, white 
within, red outside; fruit about 3 cm. long. "Aguacatillo " (Oaxaca); " qui- 
zarra hedionda " (Costa Rica). 

2. Nectandra reticulata (Ruiz & Pa v.) Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 

404. 1889. 

Laurus reticulata Ruiz & Pav. PL Peruv. Chil. 4: pi. SJ f 8. 1802. 

Ocotea mollis H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 164. 1817. 

Nectandra mollis Nees, Syst. Laurin. 287. 1836. 

Oaxaca and Veracruz. Central America and South America ; type from 
Peru. 

Tree, sometimes 40 meters high ; leaves elliptic-oblong, 15 to 25 cm. long, 
acute or acuminate, puberulent, with conspicuous venation ; flowers white. 

3. Nectandra pallida Nees, Linnaea 21: 510. 1847. 

MichoaciLn ; also reported from Mexico, the locality not indicated but prob- 
ably in Veracruz. British Guiana. 
Leaves lanceolate, about 11 cm. long, acuminate, tomentellous. 

4. Nectandra glabrescens Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 161. 1844. 

Tepic to Guerrero, the type region. Reported from Central America and 
Colombia. 

Tree, 8 to 14 meters high ; leaves lance-oblong to elliptic. 10 to 18 cm. long, 
acuminate, lustrous ; flowers white. 

5. Nectandra nitida Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5:461. 1889. 
Type from western Mexico, the locality not indicated. Panama. 

Tree, 12 to 15 meters high; leaves ovate or elliptic, about 12.5 cm. long, 
acuminate, sericeous when young, glabrate in age ; fruit subglobose, 6 mm. 
long. 

6. Nectandra sanguinea Rottb. Act. Litt. Univ. Hafn. 1: 279. 1778. 
Ocotea salicifoliaH. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 166. 1817. 
Ocotea globosa Cham. & Schlecht. Linnaea 6: 366. 1831. 

Tamaulipas to Tabasco. Central America and northern South America ; type 
from Surinam. 

Shrub or small tree, sometimes 8 meters high, with a trunk nearly a meter 
in diameter ; leaves lanceolate to elliptic, 7 to 15 cm. long, obtuse to attenuate, 
petiolate, lustrous ; flowers white or pinkish ; fruit globose, 1 cm. in diameter, 
black. " Piesito de paloma " (Tabasco); "aguacatillo" (Tamaulipas). 

Specimens from Yucatan, reported by Mez as N. coriacea (Swartz) Griseb., 
probably belong here. N. loesenerii Mez. (Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 5:243. 1905), 
from Veracruz, is closely related, judging from the description. 

7. Nectandra rectinervia Meissn. in DC. Prodr. 15 1 : 158. 1864. 

Veracruz. Central America and northern South America ; type from Cumana, 
Venezuela. 

Tree ; leaves elongate-oblong, 10 to 20 cm. long, long-acuminate ; flowers white 
or lilac. 

8. Nectandra concinna Nees, Syst, Laurin. 322. 1836. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca. Central and South America. 

Tree ; leaves elliptic or oblong, 9 to 16 cm. long, acute or acuminate ; flowers 
white. " Angelino aceiteno " (Venezuela). 



293 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

9. Nectandra pichurim (H. B. K.) Mez, Jahrb Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 5: 
449. 1889. 

Ocotea pichurim H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 2: 266. 1817. 

Reported from Mexico by Mez, the localities not stated. Panama and South 
America. 

Shrub or tree, sometimes 20 ineters high, with white bark ; leaves lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, 10 to 19 cm. long, long-acuminate ; flowers white, fragrant ; 
fruit globose, 6 mm. in diameter. 

47. HERNANDIACEAE. Hemandia Family. 

Trees or shrubs ; leaves alternate, entire or lobed, estipulate, petiolate ; flowers 
inconspicuous, cymose or paniculate, unisexual ; perianth 4 to 10-lobed ; corolla 
none; stamens as many as the perianth lobes, 2-celled ; fruit 1-seeded. 
Leaves entire ; fruit surrounded by a fleshy involucel ; flowers in clusters of 8 

surrounded by an involucre 1. HERNANDIA. 

Leaves usually lobed; fruit nutlike, 2 of the calyx lobes persistent, developing 

into winglike appendages ; flowers not involucrate 2. GYROCARPUS. 

1. HERNANDIA 1 L. Sp. PI. 9S1. 1753. 
1. Hernandia guianensis Aubl. PI. Guian. 2: 848. 1775. 

Veracruz. Costa Rica to the Guianas. 

Tree, about 8 meters high ; leaves ovate to rounded-oval, 10 to 18 cm. long, 
6 to 12 cm. wide, rounded or subcordate at base, rounded and short-pointed at 
apex, glabrous or somewhat puberulent beneath, long-petiolate ; flowers in long- 
stalked cymes, finely tomentulose, white. " Aguacatillo " (Costa Rica). 

A single Mexican specimen has been seen by the writer, collected by Liebmann 
in dense forests near Pital. The specimen is in poor condition, and the specific 
determination consequently very doubtful. 

2. GYROCARPUS Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 282. 1763. 
1. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 282. pi. 178, f. 80. 1763. 

Gyrocarpus jacquini Roxb. PI. Corom. 1: 2. pi. 1. 1795. 

Gyrocarpus jacquini schicdei Schlecht. Linnaea 19 : 399. 1842. 

Veracruz to Yucatan, Oaxaca, and Tepic. Central America, Colombia, and 
Venezuela ; tropical Africa, Asia, and Australia. 

Large or medium-sized tree, sometimes 20 meters high, with thick branches ; 
leaves alternate, long-petiolate, often 30 cm. wide or larger, entire or palmately 
lobed ; flowers small, unisexual, in broad cymes ; calyx lobes accrescent in fruit 
and becoming 10 to 12 cm. long and about 1 cm. wide. " Palo hediondo " ( Oaxaca, 
Guerrero, Morelos) ; " quitlacoctli," " quitlacotli " (Nahuatl) ; " xkis " or 
" ciis " (Yucatan, Maya); " baba " (Oaxaca, Reko) ; " palo del zopilote " 
(Oaxaca); " volador " (Yucatan, Venezuela, Colombia); " talalate," " gallito," 
" caballitos " (Nicaragua) . 

The wood is white and very soft and light, a cubic foot weighing about 23 
pounds. It is said to take paint and varnish well, and in some places is used for 
making toys and light boxes. In India the seeds are strung as necklaces and 
rosaries. 

1 The genus was named for Francisco Hernandez ; see p. 10. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 299 

48. PAPAVEKACEAE. Poppy Family. 

Shrubs or small trees with colored juice ; leaves alternate, entire, dentate, 
or lobate ; flowers perfect ; petals 4 or 6, sometimes none ; stamens numerous ; 
fruit a 1-celled capsule. 

Herbaceous representatives of several other genera occur in Mexico. 

Leaves very spiny; sepals 3. Petals large, yellow 1. ARGEMONE. 

Leaves not spiny ; sepals 2. 

Petals large, yellow; leaves entire, coriaceous 2. DENDROMECON. 

Petals none; leaves lobed or dentate, membranaceous 3. BOCCONIA. 

1. ARGEMONE L. Sp. PL 508. 1753. 

1. Argemone fruticosa Thurb. ; A. Gray, Mem. Amer. Acad. n. ser. 5: 306. 
1855. 

Coahuila ; type from La Pena. 

Shrub, 45 to 75 cm. high ; leaves 2.5 to 4 cm. long, sessile, shallowly lobed, 
very glaucous, the lobes tipped with slender yellow spines ; flowers pale 
yellow, 7 to 8 cm. broad. 

Several other species of the genus are found in Mexico, but they are all 
herbs. They are known by the vernacular names " chicalote " and " cardo 
santo." 

2. DENDROMECON Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. II. 1: 407. 1834. 
1. Dendromecon rigidum Benth. Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond. II. 1: 407. 1834. 

Northern Baja California. California. 

Shrub, 0.5 to 2.5 meters high ; leaves lanceolate or lance-elliptic, 3.5 to 7 cm. 
long, acute, nearly sessile, very thick and conspicuously veined ; flowers soli- 
tary, terminal, 4 to 5 cm. broad ; capsule very slender, linear, about 6 cm. long. 

3. BOCCONIA L. Sp. PI. 505. 1753. 

Shrubs or small trees with yellow or reddish juice, the stems simple or 
sparsely branched; leaves often very large; flowers small, in large panicles; 
capsule small, stipitate, dehiscent to the base; seeds solitary or few. 

In Mexican literature the species are much confused, since all are similar 
in general appearance, and have the same properties. The following references 
to the chemical properties of the plants may be cited : E. Arrnend&rez, Analisis 
de la Bocconia, Estudio 4: 471 ; Mariano Lozano y Castro, Estudio quimico de 
la corteza de Bocconia, Estudio 4:281, 344; Villada, Estudios relativos a la 
Bocconia arborea y los alcaloides de las Papaveraceas, Naturaleza II. 2: 207-212. 

Leaves entire or dentate 1. B. integrifolia. 

Leaves pinnatifid. 

Lobes of the leaves narrow, long-attenuate 2. B. arborea. 

Lobes broad, rounded or acute. 

Lobes acute or acutish, conspicuously dentate 3. B. frutescens. 

Lobes rounded at apex, entire or sinuate-dentate 4. B. latisepala. 

1. Bocconia integrifolia Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 1: 119. pi. So. 1808. 

Bocconia integrifolia mexicana DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 2: 91. 1821. 

Veracruz. Central America to Peru (type locality) ; Jamaica. 

Branched shrub, 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves oblong or oblanceolate, 15 to 
25 cm. long, tomentose beneath or glabrous and glaucous. 



300 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

2. Bocconia arborea S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 25: 141. 1890. 

Durango and Sinaloa to Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Lake Chapala, Ja- 
lisco. Guatemala. 

Tree, 4 to 8 meters high, the trunk sometimes 60 cm. in diameter, covered 
with corky bark; leaves clustered at the ends of the branches, 10 to 45 cm. 
long or larger, with few or numerous narrow lobes, glabrous above, beneath 
pale and tomentose or glabrous. " Chicalote," " chicalote de arbol " (Tepic) ; 
" llora-sangre " (Michoacan, Oaxaca, etc.); " palo amarillo " (Michoacan); 
"arbol de Judas," "palo de Judas" (Durango, Patoni) ; " sauco " (Durango, 
Palmer) ; " enguande," " inguande," " enguemba " (Michoacan. Tarascan, Ra- 
mirez) ; " mano de leon " (Oaxaca); " cocoxihuitl " (Jalisco, Ramirez); 
" tlacoxihuitl" (Jalisco, Michoacan, Ramirez); " guachilli " (Ramirez); 
" ahuacachilli " (Morelos) ; "palo del diablo " (Durango, Sinaloa) ; " palmilla " 
(Sinaloa). 

The bark yields a yellow dye which was used by the early inhabitants of 
Mexico for coloring plumes and other objects. The plant contains several alka- 
loids similar to those obtained from the poppy plant (Papaver somniferum 
L.). These, when injected beneath the skin, cause local anesthesia, and for 
this purpose they have been used by surgeons in the City of Mexico, while 
performing operations. The wood is useless for timber or fuel, but is some- 
times employed in tanning. 

The species is illustrated by Hernandez, 1 and described in a chapter headed 
*' De Enguamba." He states that the plant grows about Uruapam, and that 
an oil extracted from the fruit is employed for dissolving tumors and cleans- 
ing ulcers. On page 158 of the Thesaurus Hernandez figures and describes an- 
other plant under the heading " De Cocoxihuitl. seu herba acri." The figure 
may represent either Bocconia arborea or B. frutescens. Hernandez's de- 
scription is based upon a plant in the gardens of the King of Texcoco, where, 
he says, he " studied the plant for some days." He gives the meaning of the 
Nahuatl name as " hot-herb," but it may be that it should be translated rather 
" yellow-herb," an allusion to the color of the juice. He gives the following 
account of the names and medicinal properties of the plant : " The plant is 
hot and dry in the fourth degree, and possesses a certain astringency. The 
shoots, deprived of the bark, dissipate films and ulcers of the eyes. The 
juice relieves wind on the stomach, cures eruptions (as does the fruit also), 
and alleviates pains of cold origin. The leaves, crushed and applied as a poul- 
tice, heal old wounds and dissolve warts. Some call this tree Quauh chilli, 
because of its acrid and burning flavor, like that of the peppers called Chilli 
by the Mexicans. It grows in temperate or hot regions, as well as in gar- 
dens. Some call it also Totolinyzochtl, or pigeon-flower, and some Tlacoxihuitl, 
[rod-herb]." 

3. Bocconia frutescens L. Sp. PI. 505. 1753. 

Bocconia frutescens cernua Moc. & Sesse; DC. Reg. Veg. Syst. 2: 90. 1821. 

Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosl, and Veracruz. Central America to Peru ; West 
Indies. 

Shrub or tree, 1 to 7.5 meters high, the stems with large white pith, covered 
with smooth pale bark ; leaves 12 to 40 cm. long or larger, petiolate, usually with 
numerous lobes, tomentose or sometimes glaucous beneath ; flowers purplish ; 
fruit usually glaucous. " Gordolobo " (Veracruz); " cuatlataya " (Ramirez); 
" calder6n " (Tamaulipas); "llora-sangre" (Veracruz); " guacamayo," " taba- 
quillo " (Costa Rica) ; "palo amarillo," "palo amargo" (Cuba) ; "palo de pan 

s Thesaurus 97. 1651. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 301 

Cimarron," "pan ciruarron " (Porto Rico) ; " curarador," " trompeto," " sarno," 
" mata-chande," " sarcillejo " (Colombia); " sangre de toro " (Guatemala); 
" sancho amargo " (Argentina, Uruguay) ; " yagrumo macho " (Santo Domingo). 
Probably some of the other names listed for B. arborea are applied also to this 
species. 

The plant contains an alkaloid, protopine. The yellow or orange juice is very 
bitter and acrid and has a disagreeable odor. It is used for treating ulcers, skin 
eruptions, chilblains, bronchitis, and chronic ophthalmia, and to remove warts, 
and is said to have vermifuge and purgative properties. The leaves, too, are 
sometimes heated and applied as a poultice to wounds. In Colombia an infusion 
of the roots is valued as a remedy for jaundice and dropsy. In Jamaica, it is 
stated, the leaves are rubbed on house floors to keep away insects, and in Co- 
lombia the oil extracted from the seeds is used to destroy vermin on the head 
and skin. 

Robelo gives as vernacular names in Mexico " cocojegiiite " (from cococxi- 
hvitl), " clacojegiiite " (from tlacoxiJmitl) , and " guachichile " or " guachichil " 
(from cuau-chilli, "tree-chile"). He states that the plants were used in pre- 
conquest days to adorn the temples. 
4. Bocconia latisepala S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 25 : 141. 1890. 

Nuevo Le6n ; type from Guajuco. 

Plants 1 to 2 meters high, with numerous stems; leaves 14 to 30 cm. long, 
with few broad lobes, pale beneath. " Mala mujer." 

This plant is said to be a herbaceous annual, but it is so closely similar to the 
other species, all of which are fruticose, that it seems best to include it here. 

49. CAPPARIDACEAE. Caper Family. 

Shrubs or trees ; leaves alternate, stipulate or estipulate, simple and entire or 
palmately compound ; flowers mostly perfect, often large and showy ; sepals 4 to 
8, free or connate ; petals 4 or rarely none ; stamens 6 to many ; fruit capsular 
or baccate. 

Many herbaceous representatives of the family occur in Mexico. 
Leaves compound. 

Fruit an inflated capsule; leaves glaucous 1. ISOMERIS. 

Fruit baccate ; leaves green. 

Petals 4; fruit long-stipitate 5. CRATAEVA. 

Petals none; fruit sessile 7. FORCHAMMERIA. 

Leaves simple. Fruit baccate. 

Petals none 7. FORCHAMMERIA. 

Petals present. 

Petals blue ; leaves 1 cm. long or shorter 6. SETCHELLANTHUS. 

Petals never blue ; leaves much more than 1 cm. long. 
Sepals connate. Fruit large, with hard pericarp, sessile. 

2. MORISONIA. 
Sepals distinct or nearly so. 

Stamens numerous; sepals all similar in size 3. CAPPARIS. 

Stamens 9 to 12 ; inner sepals smaller than the outer. 

4. ATAMISQUEA. 

1. ISOMERIS Nutt. ; Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 124. 1838. 
1. Isomeris arborea Nutt; Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 124. 1838. 

Baja California and western Sonora. California, the type from San Diego. 

Shrub, 1 to 2 meters high, or sometimes herbaceous, ill-scented, the wood 
hard and yellow, the young branches glaucous; leaflets 3, oblong, 2 to 3 cm. 



302 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

long, obtuse or aeutish ; flowers racemose, 1.5 cm. long, yellow ; calyx 4-lobed ; 
stamens 6 ; fruit acute or attenuate, 4 to 6 cm. long. 

The Coahuilla Indians of southern California eat the green pods after cook- 
ing them with hot stones in a hole in the ground. 

2. MORISONIA L. Sp. PI. 503. 1753. 
1. Morisonia americana L. Sp. PI. 503. 1753. 

Sinaloa to Oaxaca. Lesser Antilles ; northern South America. 

Shrub or small tree, sometimes 7 meters high, with sparse stellate or lepi- 
date pubescence; leaves long-petiolate, oblong or ovate-oblong, 12 to 25 cm. 
long, obtuse or acute, very thick, lustrous, nearly glabrous ; flowers in lateral 
corymbs, rather large, white ; petals 4 ; fruit baccate, . many-seeded, globose, 
3.5 to 6 cm. in diameter, brownish and rough outside. " Chicozapote " (Oax- 
aca) ; "arbol del diablo " (Colima, Colombia); " chico " (Sinaloa); "cacao 
cimarron," " rabo de mico " (Colombia). 

In the West Indies aperitive and antihysteric properties are attributed to the 
infusion of the flowers, which is used also as a remedy for intestinal parasites ; 
and the pulp of the fruit is said to be used in reducing inflammation. 

3. CAPPARIS L. Sp. PI. 503. 1753. 
Reference : Eichler in Mart. Fl. Bras. 13 *: 267-288. pi. 60-65. 1865. 
Shrubs or trees, glabrous or pubescent, the pubescence often stellate or lep- 
idote ; leaves simple, petiolate, usually thick and leathery ; flowers usually 
large and white ; sepals 4 ; petals 4 ; fruit baccate, variable in form. 

The fruits of some Australian species are eaten by the natives. Capparis 
spinosa L., of the Mediterranean Region, produces the capers (" alcaparras ") 
of commerce. These are the flower buds and young fruits preserved in vinegar 
with some salt. Capers are the basis of an important industry in some parts 
of southern Europe. It is stated that in Provence 1,760,000 pounds are har- 
vested annually. 

Indument none or of simple hairs. 
Sepals rounded. 
Leaf blades obtuse or rounded at base, usually emarginate at apex. Plants 

glabrous; fruit torulose, smooth 1. C. flexuosa. 

Leaf blades subcordate or emarginate at base, rounded or acute at apex. 
Plants glabrous ; leaves mostly 4 to 8.5 cm. wide ; fruit smooth ; stamens 

not longer than the petals 2. C. baducca. 

Plants usually more or less pubescent; leaves 1.5 to 4 cm. wide; fruit 

verrucose ; stamens much longer than the petals 3. C. verrucosa. 

Sepals acute. 

Petioles 3 to 8 mm. long 4. C. oxysepala. 

Petioles 13 to 50 mm. long 5. C. longipes. 

Indument of scales or of branched hairs. 
Sepals valvate in bud. 

Leaves linear. Fruit stipitate 6. C. angustifolia. 

Leaves elliptic or oblong. 

Fruit stipitate 7. C. cynophallophora. 

Fruit sessile 8. C. odoratissima. 

Sepals open in bud. 
Indument of the leaves chiefly or wholly of stellate hairs. 

Leaf blades oblanceolate, densely stellate-pubescent on the upper surface. 

9. C. asperifolia. 
Leaf blades elliptic or lanceolate, soon glabrous on the upper surface. 

10. C. in can a. 



STANDLEY TEEES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 303 

Indument of the leaves chiefly of scales. 

Stipe of the fruit 2.5 cm. long, slender 11. C. indica. 

Stipe 1.5 cm. long or shorter, very stout 12. C. pringlei. 

1. Capparis flexuosa L. Sp. PI. ed. 2. 722. 1762. 
Morisonda flexuosa L. Amoen. Acad. 5 : 398. 1760. 
? Capparis brcvisiliqua DC. Prodr. 1:251. 1824. 

Tamaulipas to Yucatan, Colima, and Sinaloa. Widely distributed in tropical 
America ; type from Jamaica. 

Shrub or tree, 2.5 to 8 meters high, glabrous; leaves oblong to obovate, 3 to 
6.5 cm. long, short-petiolate, rounded or retuse at apex ; flowers white or pale 
rose, fragrant, the stamens white, very long; fruit siliquiform, 7 to 15 cm. long, 
torulose, the seeds imbedded in scarlet pulp. " Xpayumak " or " xbayurnak " 
(Yucatan, Maya) ; "pan y agua," " guayabo de loro " (Venezuela) ; "burro," 
"palo de burro " (Porto Rico) ; " mostaza " (Cuba, Santo Domingo). 

This species has been known generally as C. cynophallophora L. 1 The root has 
a flavor resembling that of horse-radish. In the West Indies an infusion of it 
has been used for dropsy and as an emmenagogue and a decoction of the leaves 
for cutaneous diseases. Sedative and antispasmodic properties are attributed 
to the fruit, and diuretic and emmenagogue properties to the bark. For an illus- 
tration of a fruiting branch see Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: pi. 23. 

2. Capparis baducca L. Sp. PI. 504. 1753. 
Capparis frond osa Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 25. 1760. 

Tamaulipas and Veracruz. Central America, West Indies, and northern South 
America. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 7.5 meters high ; leaves long-petiolate, elliptic or 
ovate, 11 to 30 cm. long, very thick ; flowers greenish white or purplish ; fruit 3 
to 5 cm. long, purple brown. "Tinto," " naranjuelo," " fruta de burro " 
(Colombia) ; "palo de burro," " sapo " (Porto Rico) ; " ajito " (Venezuela). 

The fruit is reputed poisonous. Medical properties similar to those of C. 
flexuosa are attributed to the plant. 

3. Capparis verrucosa Jacq. Stirp. Amer. 159. pi. 99. 1763. 
Capparis palmeri Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1 : 301. 1895. 

Sinaloa to Chiapas. Central America, West Indies, Colombia, and Venezuela. 

Shrub or small tree, 1 to 6 meters high ; leaves nearly sessile, oblong or 
obovate-oblong, 3.5 to 8.5 cm. long; flowers large, white, with long stamens; 
fruit oblong, 2.5 to 6 cm. long, densely tuberculate. " Limoncillo " (Gue- 
rrero); " coquito " (Oaxaca) ; "ajito" (Venezuela); "palo de burro" (Porto 
Rico). 

4. Capparis oxysepala C. Wright ; Radlk. Sitzungsb. Math. Phys. Acad. Wiss. 

Munchen 14: 172. 1884. 

Guerrero and Yucatan. Nicaragua (type locality). 

Plants glabrous or nearly so; leaves short-petiolate, oval-oblong to oval- 
obovate, 7 to 15 cm. long, acutish to rounded at apex, bright green, lustrous; 
flowers large, racemose, long-pedicellate. 

5. Capparis longipes Standi. 

Capparis discolor Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20:182. 1919. Not C. 

discolor Donn. Smith, 1897. 
Known only from the type locality, banks of the Rio Petatlan, Guerrero. 
Tree, 8 to 10 meters high ; flowers white, with the odor of orange blossoms. 
" Naranjillo." 

* See Fawcett and Rendle, Journ. Bot. Brit. & For. 52: 142-144. 1914. 



304 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

6. Capparis angustifolia H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 96. pi. 438. 1821. 
Type from Canada de Zopilote, between Mexico and Acapulco. 

Plants lepidote-pubescent ; leaves short-petiolate, rounded or subcordate at 
base; flowers wbite. 

7. Capparis cynophallophora L. Sp. PI. 504. 1753. 
Capparis jamaicensis Jacq. Enurn. PI. Carib. 23. 1760. 

Yucatan. Southern Florida, West Indies, Central America, and Venezuela; 
type from Jamaica. 

Slender shrub or tree, 1.8 to 15 meters high ; leaves petiolate, elliptic, 5.5 to 
9 cm. long, acute, thick, green and lustrous on the upper surface, scaly beneath ; 
flowers white, changing to purplish, fragrant, the filaments purplish, the an- 
thers yellow ; fruit slender, sometimes 30 cm. long or longer. " Carbonero " 
(Cuba); "burro," " bejuco ingles," " palo de burro prieto " (Porto Rico); 
" olivo " (Santo Domingo). 

Known in the Bahamas as " wild orange." 

8. Capparis odoratissima Jacq. PI. Hort. Schonbr. 1: pi. 110. 1797. 
Oaxaca. Central America to Venezuela (type locality). 

Shrub or small tree ; leaves obovate, petiolate, 5 to 8 cm. long, rounded at the 
apex, green above, covered with brown or yellowish scales beneath ; flowers 
corymbose. " Naranjillo " (Oaxaca). 

9. Capparis asperifolia Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 2: 86. 1836. 
fCapparis cuneiformis Sesse & Moc. PL Nov. Hisp. 87. 1887. 
Capparis langlassei Briq. Ann. Cons. Jard. Geneve 17: 392. 1914. 
Michoacan and Guerrero ; type from Acapulco. 

Tree, 4 to 6 meters high ; leaves short-petiolate, acute, about 9 cm. long, 
densely stellate-pubescent on both surfaces ; flowers white, racemose. 

10. Capparis incana H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 94. 1821. 
Capparis pauciflora Presl, Reliq. Haenk 2: 86. 1836. 
Capparis kari&inskiana Schlecht. Linnaea 10: 237. 1836. 
? Capparis umoellata Sesse & Moc. PI. Nov. Hisp. 87. 1887. 

Tamaulipas to Yucatan, Oaxaca, and Guerrero; type collected between Mes- 
cala and Estola. 

Shrub or tree, the pubescence of grayish or rusty stellate hairs ; leaves pet- 
iolate, 4.5 to 8 cm. long, acuminate or attenuate, thin ; flowers white ; fruit 
globose or oblong, 2.5 cm. long or shorter, densely pubescent. " Vara blanca " 
(Tamaulipas). 

Perhaps not distinct from C. ferruginea L., of the West Indies. 

11. Capparis indica (L.) Fawc. & Rendle, Journ. Bot. Brit. & For. 52: 144. 
1914. 

Breynia indica L. Sp. PI. 503. 1753. 

Capparis breynia L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1071. 1759. 

Capparis amygdalifolia Jacq. Enum. PI. Carib. 24. 1760. 

Capparis amygdalina Lam. Encycl. 1: 608. 1785. 

Sinaloa to Oaxaca. Central America, West Indies, Colombia, and Venezuela. 

Shrub or small tree, 2 to 7.5 meters high ; leaves linear to obovate, 5 to 8 
cm. long, petiolate, acute or obtuse; flowers white; fruit slender, torulose, 6 
to 25 cm. long. " Colorfn " (Michoacan, Guerrero); "mangle de la sierra" 
(Sinaloa); " escremento " (Nicaragua); " auso," " tinto " (Colombia). 

Reputed to have medicinal properties similar to those of C. flexuosa. 

12. Capparis pringlei Briq.. Ann. Cons. Jard. Geneve 17: 300. 1914. 
Oaxaca ; type from Tomellln Canyon. 

Small tree. 






STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 305 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 

Cappakis furfuracea Ruiz & Pav. ; DC. Prodr. 1: 252. 1824. Described from 
Mexico. 

4. ATAMISQUEA Miers, Trav. Chile 2: 529. 1826. 

1. Atamisquea eniarginata Miers, Trav. Chile 2: 529. 1826. 

Dry plains and hillsides, Baja California and Sonora. Argentina. 

Densely branched shrub, 1 to 6 meters high, ill-scented, with brittle branches ; 
leaves linear or oblong-linear, 1 to 3.5 cm. long, short-petiolate, emarginate at 
the apex, green on the upper surface, scaly beneath; flowers small, solitary or 
fasciculate, sweet-scented ; sepals and petals each 4 ; fertile stamens 6 ; fruit 
oval or subglobose, about 8 mm. long. 

5. CRATAEVA L. Sp. PI. 444. 1753. 

Shrubs or trees; leaves deciduous, very long-petiolate, the leaflets 3; flowers 
racemose or corymbose, the stamens long-exserted ; petals 4 ; stamens 8 to 20 ; 
fruit baccate, large, long-stipitate. 

Leaflets glabrous 1. C. tapia. 

Leaflets puberulent beneath 2. C. palmeri. 

1. Crataevia tapia L. Sp. PI. 444. 1753. 

Tamaulipas to Sinaloa and southward nearly throughout the lower parts of 
Mexico. West Indies, Central America, and South America. 

Glabrous tree, usually 6 to 9 meters high, but sometimes as much as 18 
meters ; bark grayish brown ; leaflets ovate, elliptic, or oval, 5.5 to 15 cm. 
long, thin, acute or acuminate, paler beneath ; flowers green or purplish ; fruit 
subglobose, 2.5 to 5.5 cm. in diameter. " Zapotillo amarillo " (Colima) ; " Tres 
Marias" (Yucatan); " xkolocmax " (Yucatan, Maya); " cascar6n " (Ta- 
basco); " palo de guaco " (Panama); " manzana de playa " (Nicaragua); 
" zorrocloco " or " sorrocloco " (Colombia); "toco" (Trinidad, Venezuela). 

The bark has a disagreeable odor ; it is reputed to have tonic, stomachic, anti- 
dysenteric, and febrifuge properties. The roots are very acrid, and their juice 
applied to the skin - produces blisters. The leaves are sometimes used as 
poultices. 

It may be that C. gynandra L. (if that species is distinct from C. tapia) also 
occurs in Mexico, but the specimens seen afford no convincing evidence to that 
effect. 

2. Crataeva palmeri Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1: 301. 1895. 
Sinaloa and Durango to Guerrero ; type from Armeria, Colima. 

Shrub or small tree, with purplish flowers, the stamens long-exserted ; fruit 
3.5 to 5 cm. long. 
Very similar to C. tapia except for the presence of pubescence. 

6. SETCHELLANTHUS T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 3: 378. 1909. 
1. Setchellanthus caeruleus T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 3: 378. 1909. 

Known only from the type locality, Coscomate, Oaxaca. 

Shrub ; leaves ovate to suborbicular, 1 cm. long or shorter, subsessile, obtuse, 
silvery-strigose ; flowers solitary, blue, about 2 cm. long ; stamens shorter than 
the sepals. 

7. FORCHAMMERIA Liebm. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1853: 93. 1854. 
Trees, glabrous or pubescent ; leaves simple or compound, petiolate ; flowers 

small, racemose or paniculate ; stamens numerous. 

Leaves trifoliolate 1. F. trifoliata. 



306 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL, HERBARIUM. 

Leaves simple. 
Leaves glabrous, lanceolate, ovate, or oblanceolate to oblong. 

Leaves obtuse 2. F. pallida. 

Leaves acute or acuminate 5. F. lanceolata. 

Leaves hirtellous, especially beneath, linear. 

Leaf blades emarginate at base; fruiting pedicels 3 to 5 mm. long; fruit 

7 to 12 mm. broad 3. F. watsoni. 

Leaf blades usually attenuate at base; fruiting pedicels 10 to 15 mm. long; 

fruit 12 to 15 mm. broad 4. F. macrocarpa. 

1. Forchammeria trifoliata Radlk. Field Mus. Bot. 1: 399. 1898. 
Yucatan. 

Tree, 6 to 9 meters high; leaves long-petiolate ; leaflets obovate-oblong, 7 to 
13 cm. long, thick, glabrous; flowers in rather large panicles. " Tres Marias." 

2. Forchammeria pallida Liebm. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1853: 94. 

1854. 

Forchammeria apiocarpa Radlk. Meth. Bot. Syst. 54. 1883. 

Colima to Oaxaca ; type collected between Tehuantepec and Mazatlan. 

Tree, 4.5 to 6 meters high, the trunk 12 to 20 cm. in diameter ; leaves narrowly 
oblong or oblanceolate, 6 to 11 cm. long, usually rounded at apex ; flowers green, 
in short or long racemes ; fruit subglobose, 1.5 to 2 cm. long, somewhat glaucous. 

3. Forchammeria watsoni Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 1: 302. 1895. 
Baja California, Sonora, and Sinaloa ; type from Guayamas, Sonora. 

Shrub or tree, 3 to 7.5 meters high, often with a broad spreading crown; 
leaves 6 to 12 cm. long, very thick, with conspicuous venation, the margins 
revolute; flowers racemose; fruit globose-obovoid. "Palo San Juan" (Baja 
California). 

4. Forchammeria macrocarpa Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 183. 1919. 
Known only from the type locality, San Luis Tultitlanapa, Puebla. 
Leaves 9 to 17 cm. long, acute or acutish. 

5. Forchammeria lanceolata Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 183. 1919. 
Known only from the type collection, from somewhere in Mexico. 

Shrub, 3 to 4.5 meters high ; leaves mostly lanceolate, 6 to 8 cm. long, 1.5 to 
3 cm. wide, obtuse at base ; fruit about 12 mm. long. 

50. MORINGACEAE. Horseradish Tree Family. 
1. MORINGA Juss. Gen. PI. 34S. 1789. 
1. Moringa oleifera Lam. Encycl. 1:398. 1783. 

Guilandina moringa L. Sp. PI. 381. 1753. 

Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn. Fruct. & Sem. 2: 314. 1791. 

Moringa moringa Millsp. Field Mus. Bot. 1:490. 1902. 

Common in cultivation in Mexico and often growing without cultivation. 
Native of Africa and the East Indies; widely cultivated and naturalized in tropi- 
cal America. 

Tree, 3 to 6 meters high or larger, with whitish bark, the roots thick, soft; 
leaves alternate, twice or thrice pinnate ; flowers paniculate, sweet-scented, the 
5 petals white or yellowish white, tinged with crimson outside near the base; 
perfect stamens 5 ; fruit a long 3-angled capsule ; seeds winged. " Paraiso 
bianco" (Yucata.ii) ; "paraiso de Espaiia " (Campeche) ; " perlas del Oriente " 
(Guerrero, Oaxaca); " arbol de las perlas," " cbinto borrego " (Oaxaca); 
"acacia" (Tamaulipas) ; "paraiso francos," "palo jeringa " (Cuba); "ma- 
rango " (El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica) ; " angela " (Porto Rico) ; " na- 
rango," " marenque," "paraiso extranjero," " teberinto " (El Salvador). 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 307 

The usual English name is " horseradish tree." The roots have the odor and 
flavor of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana Gaertn. Mey. & Schreb.), for which 
they are sometimes substituted ; a decoction of them is used in Nicaragua for 
dropsy, and their juice is applied as a rubefacient or counter-irritant. The 
wood is said to yield a blue dye. The leaves and young branches are relished by 
stock and are sometimes cut for fodder. In India the young leaves, pods, and 
flowers are cooked and eaten. The leaves are sometimes applied as a poultice 
to sores, and they are said to have purgative properties. The seeds yield the 
" ben " oil of commerce, which is used for lubricating watches and other delicate 
machinery. The oil is odorless and never becomes rancid, consequently it is 
useful in the manufacture of perfumes. It is very acrid and has purgative prop- 
erties, but its use is somewhat dangerous if taken internally. It is sometimes 
applied externally for cutaneous diseases. 

51. CKASSTTLACEAE. Orpine Family. 

Reference: Britton & Rose, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 7-74. 1905. 

The species listed below are scarcely to be regarded as true shrubs, and other 
Mexican species probably have equal claims to a place here. Many herbaceous 
representatives of the family occur in Mexico. 

1. SEDUM L. Sp. PI. 430. 1753. 
Very succulent erect plants; leaves alternate, entire; flowers small, perfect; 
calyx 4 or 5-lobed ; petals 4 or 5 ; stamens 8 or 10 ; fruit of 4 or 5 follicles. 

Leaves terete 1. S. bourgaei. 

Leaves flat, at least on the upper side. 
Petals yellow or purplish red. 

Petals purplish red 2. S. oxypetalum. 

Petals yellow 3. S. dendroideum. 

Petals white. 

Leaves linear 4. S. frutescens. 

Leaves oblong to spatulate. 

Leaves very turgid, narrowly oblong 5. S. lenophylloides. 

Leaves flat, obovate or spatulate. 

Flowers pedicellate 6. S. tortuosum. 

Flowers sessile 7. S. retusum. 

1. Sedum bourgaei Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 11. 1878. 

Mexico to Michoacan ; type from San Nicolas, Valley of Mexico. 
Low shrub, much branched ; leaves 1 to 2 cm. long ; flowers white or pink, 
cymose. 

2. Sedum oxypetalum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 45. 1S23. 
Mountains and lava beds of the State of Mexico. 

Shrub, often a meter high, with very thick stems, the bark exfoliating in 
thin yellowish sheets; leaves spatulate, 1 to 1.5 cm. long, rounded at apex; 
flowers in leafy cymes. 

3. Sedum dendroideum Moc. & Sesse ; DC. Mem. Crass. 37. pi, 9. 1828. 
Hidalgo, Veracruz, Mexico, and Puebla, on cliffs. 

Branched shrub, a meter high or less, often forming dense masses; leaves 
2 to 4 cm. long. " Siempreviva," " texiote," " texiotl " (Mexico). 

The juice is astringent and is used for hardening the gums, and for hemor- 
rhoids, chilblains, dysentery, etc. Applied to the forehead, it is believed to stop 
nosebleed. 

4. Sedum frutescens Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 298. 1911. 
Morelos. 

Low shrub ; leaves 2 to 6 cm. long, acute, bright green. 



308 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

5. Sedum lenophylloides Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 13: 298. 1911. 
Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon ; type from Monterrey. 

Low shrub, about 30 cm. high; leaves 1 to 1.5 cm. long, pale, often purplish. 

6. Sedum tortuosum Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 10. 1878. 
Described from Mexico, the locality not known. 

Low glabrous shrub with thick branches; leaves 2.5 cm. long. 

7. Sedum retusum Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 51. 1880. 
San Luis Potosf. 

Low glabrous shrub ; leaves sessile, 1 to 1.5 cm. long. 

52. HYDRANGEACEAE. Hydrangea Family. 

Reference: Small & Rydberg, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 159-178. 1905. 
Trees or shrubs, rarely scandent ; leaves opposite, estipulate, entire or 
dentate ; flowers perfect, often large and showy ; sepals and petals 4 or 5 each ; 
stamens 8 to many ; fruit a capsule. 
Capsule ovoid, the beaks arising gradually from the body. 

Filaments not appendaged ; sepals and petals each 5 ; stamens 10. 

4. FENDLERELLA. 
Filaments appendaged under the anthers; sepals and petals each 4: sta- 
mens 8 5. FENDLERA. 

Capsule urceolate or obovoid, the beak or beaks rising abruptly from the body. 
Petals valvate, very small ; stamens 8 ; inflorescence involucrate. 

1. HYDRANGEA. 
Petals convolute or imbricate, large; stamens 12 to 60; inflorescence not in- 
volucrate i 2. DEUTZIA. 

Capsule subglobose; petals imbricate. 

Capsule obovoid or obconic; petals convolute 3. PHILADELPHUS. 

1. HYDRANGEA L. Sp. PI. 397. 1753. 
1. Hydrangea oerstedii Briq. Ann. Cons. Jard. Geneve 20: 407. 1919. 

Comidia radio ta Oerst. Nat. For. Kjobenhavn Vid. Medd. 1856: 42. 1856. Not 
Hydrangea radiata Walt. 1788. 

Reported from Veracruz and the Sierra Madre. Costa Rica and Panama. 

Scandent shrub ; leaves oblong or oblong-elliptic, about 12 cm. long and 6 
cm. wide, leathery, petiolate, obtuse, entire or nearly so, almost glabrous; 
flowers small, pink, cymose, the inflorescence covered with large rounded bracts 
before expansion ; petals 2.5 mm. long. 

The identification of the Mexican specimens is doubtful, but they probably 
belong here. They have been reported as Hydrangea peruviana Moric. and as 
Comidia peruviana (L.) Small. 

Hydrangea opuloides Koch. (H. hortensia DC), the common cultivated hy- 
drangea, native of China and Japan, is grown in Mexico under the name " hor- 
tensia." 

2. DEUTZIA Thunb. Nov. Gen. 1: 19. 1781. 

Shrubs, the pubescence of stellate hairs ; leaves deciduous, shallowly dentate, 
petiolate ; flowers small, white, cymose. 

Most of the species of the genus are natives of eastern Asia, and some are 
cultivated for their showy flowers. The Mexican species have been placed in 
a separate genus, Neodeutzia, by Small, but they differ in no important respect 
from the Old World forms. 
Petals 5 to 6 mm. long 1. D. mexicana. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 309 

Petals 3 to 4 mm. long. 
Tomentum of the lower surface of the leaves of similar, very closely 

appressed hairs 2. D. pringlei. 

Tomentum of unequal, loose, and spreading hairs 3. D. occidentalis. 

1. Deutzia mexicana Hemsl. Diag. PI. Mex. 9. 1878. 
Neodeutzia mexicana Small, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 162. 1905. 
Veracruz ; type from Orizaba. 

Shrub, 2 to 5 meters high ; leaves ovate, 2.5 to 5 cm. long, white-pubescent 
beneath. 

2. Deutzia pringlei C. Schneid. Mitt. Deutsch. Dendr. Ges. 1904: 186. 1904. 
Neodeutsia ovalis Small, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 162. 1905. 

Neodeutzia pringlei Small & Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 555. 191S. 
Known only from the type locality, San Jose Pass, San Luis Potosi. 
Shrub, 3 meters high ; leaves oval or oblong, 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long, rounded at 
apex, green on the upper surface, white beneath. 

3. Deutzia occidentalis Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 134. 1918. 
Neodeutsia occidentalis Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 555. 1918. 

Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from Barranca del Oro, Puebla. 
Shrub, sometimes 4.5 meters high; leaves ovate-orbicular or ovate, 2.8 to 4.5 
cm. long. 

3. PHILADELPHIA L. Sp. PL 470. 1753. 
Shrubs ; leaves deciduous or somewhat persistent, entire or shallowly serrate ; 
flowers white, large and showy. 

Patoni gives the local name of one of the Durango species as " mirto." 
Many of the species which are natives of Asia and the United States are culti- 
vated for their showy, often fragrant flowers. The native species, and perhaps 
some of the foreign ones, are grown in Mexican gardens. The usual English 
names for the plants are " syringa " * and " mock orange," the latter name prob- 
ably given because of the sweet odor of the flowers in some species. Phila- 
delphus coronarius L., an Old World species, has been reported from Mexican 
gardens, and may very likely be cultivated there. The name was applied by 
Sesse and Mocino 3 to a native species. 

Petals acute; stamens about 15 1. P. mearnsii. 

Petals rounded or retuse at apex ; stamens 25 to 60. 
Styles and free portion of the ovary glabrous. 
Leaves pilose on the upper surface with spreading hairs. 

Style evident ; bark of older stems yellowish 2. P. pumilus. 

Style nearly obsolete ; bark of older steins dark gray. 

3. P. serpyllifolius. 
Leaves strigose on both surfaces. 

Bark of the previous year's branches not exfoliating. 

4. P. asperifolius. 

Bark of the previous year's branches exfoliating 5. P. madrensis. 

Styles or free part of the ovary or both more or less hairy. 
Inflorescence 1 to 3-flowered ; petals more or less hairy. 

Calyx strigose ; petals without a reddish spot at base 6. P. mexicanus. 

Calyx densely white-sericeous ; petals sometimes with a reddish spot 
at base 7. P. coulteri. 

1 This name is also the Latin generic name of the lilac, \Syringa vulgaris L., of 
the family Oleaceae. 

2 PI. Nov. Hisp. 82. 1S87. 



310 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Inflorescence 5 to 13-flowered ; petals glabrous or pubescent below along 
the costa. 
Branchlets grayish-strigose ; leaves more or less strigose on both sides. 

8. P. karwinskyanus. 
Branchlets and leaves glabrous, or the leaves hairy along the veins. 

9. P. affinis. 

1. Philadelphus mearnsii W. H. Evans; Small & Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 174. 

1905. 

Known only from the type locality, on the boundary between Chihuahua and 
New Mexico. 

Low shrub with exfoliating bark ; leaves oblong, 1 cm. long or shorter, en- 
tire, acutish, strigose ; petals 1 cm. long. 

2. Philadelphus pumilus Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 173. 1905. 
Baja California. California ; type from San Jacinto Mountains. 

Shrub, 1.2 to 1.8 meters high ; leaves oblong or elliptic, 6 to 10 mm. long, 
obtuse, white-sericeous beneath. 

The species has been reported from Baja California as P. serpyllifolius A. 
Gray. 

3. Philadelphus serpyllifolius A. Gray, PI. Wright. 1: 77. 1852. 

Northern Chihuahua and Sonora. Western Texas (type locality) and 
southern New Mexico. 

Shrub, 1 meter high or less, with spreading branches ; leaves oblong or oval, 
1 cm. long or shorter, entire. 

4. Philadelphus asperifolius Koern. ; Regel, Gartenflora 16: 73. 1867. 
Known only from the type locality, Hacienda Santiaguillo. 

Shrub, 2 to 3 meters high ; leaves oval or oval-ovate, 1 to 3 cm. long, obtuse 
or acutish. 

5. Philadelphus madrensis Heinsl. Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1908: 251. 1908. 
Philadelphus palmeri Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 173. 1905. 
Philadelphus purpusii T. S. Brandeg. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 4: 270. 1918. 
In the mountains, Durango to Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi; type from 

the Sierra Madre of Durango. 

Erect shrub with slender gray or brown branches ; leaves lanceolate to oval- 
ovate, 1 to 3 cm. long, acute or obtuse. 

6. Philadelphus mexicanus Schlecht. Linnaea 13: 418. 1839. 

Veracruz to Morelos and Oaxaca ; sometimes cultivated ; type from Jalapa, 
Veracruz. 

Shrub, sometimes scandent to a height of 6 meters ; leaves lanceolate to 
broadly ovate, 3 to 7 cm. long, short-petiolate, acuminate, remotely denticulate; 
flowers showy, fragrant, cream-colored, 3 to 4 cm. broad. " Jazmin," " acui- 
lotl " (Oaxaca); "jazmin del monte," " jeringuilla " (Valley of Mexico, Cer- 
vantes) ; "mosqueta." 

This species has been introduced into cultivation in Europe. It or one of the 
related species is figured and described by Hernandez 1 in a chapter entitled " De 
Acuilotl, seu Volubili Aquatica." His account is as follows : "Acuilotl, or 
water-vine, is so called by the Mexicans not without reason, for it grows in moist 
places, and spreads over the ground or climbs over near-by trees. There are two 
sorts, differing only in color of flowers, name, and size of leaves. The first has 
pure white flowers and slightly smaller leaves, and is called Acuilotl; in the 
second the flowers are pale and the leaves larger, and it is called Cozticacuilotl, 

1 Thesaurus 107. 1651. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 311 

6ecause of the yellow color of the flowers. The stems of both are round, 
purplish, woody, brittle, and slender, with soft pith. In form and odor the 
flowers are not unlike the musk rose, a plant not wholly different from this one. 
The leaves are like those of the bramble, but less toothed, with nerves running 
lengthwise, and with almost the odor of cucumber. The flowering branches are 
employed for their perfume by the Indians, and for the garlands which they use 
so much; and a scented water of pleasant odor is distilled from them. The 
plant grows in temperate or rather cold places. The leaves are bitter and dry 
and hot in almost the third order, wherefore, if taken in wine in the quantity 
of a handful, they relieve colic, and if crushed and applied as a plaster, they ease 
strained members, and dissolve tumors beyond belief." Hernandez also gives an 
illustration, 1 without description, of the " cozticacuilotl xochitl." 

7. Philadelphus coulteri S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 22:472. 1887. 
Nuevo Leon to Hidalgo ; type from Zimapan, Hidalgo. 

Shrub, 1 to 3 meters high ; leaves lanceolate or ovate, 3 to 5 cm. long, acute or 
acuminate, green above, white beneath, denticulate ; flowers very fragrant, white, 
about 4.5 cm. broad, with a red or purple spot at the base of each petal. 

8. Philadelphus karwinskyanus Koehne, Gartenflora 1896: 486. 189G. 
Veracruz and Oaxaca ; type from Totolapa, Oaxaca. 

Tall shrub ; leaves ovate, 2 to 6 cm. long, acute or acuminate, denticulate or 
entire ; petals about 1 cm. long. 

9. Philadelphus affinis Schlecht. Linnaea 13:419. 1839. 
Hidalgo, Veracruz, and Oaxaca ; type from Hacienda del Carmen. 

Shrub, sometimes 4 meters high ; leaves lance-ovate to rounded-ovate, 3.5 to 
7 cm. long, acuminate, green on both sides, remotely denticulate ; flowers large 
and showy. 

4. FENDLERELLA Heller, Bull. Torrey Club 25: 626. 1898. 

Low, densely branched shrubs with exfoliating bark ; leaves small, 3-nerved, 
entire, deciduous ; flowers small, white, in small dense cymes. 

Leaves green beneath, thinly strigose, not at all tomentose _1. F. utahensis. 

Leaves densely white-tomentose beneath. 

Petals copiously pilose outside 2. F. lasiopetala. 

Petals glabrous 3. f. mexicana. 

1. Fendlerella utahensis (S. Wats.) Heller, Bull. Torrey Club 25: 626. 1898. 
Whipplea utahensis S. Wats. Amer. Nat. 7:300. 1873. 

Fendlerella cymosa Greene; Woot. & Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 16:129. 
1913. 

Mountains of Chihuahua and Coahuila. Nevada to New Mexico; type from 
Utah. 

Densely branched shrub, 1 meter high or less ; leaves linear-oblong to elliptic, 
0.5 to 2.5 cm. long, acute or obtuse. 

2. Fendlerella lasiopetala Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 33: 67. 1920. 
Known only from the type locality, San Lorenzo Canyon, southeast of Saltillo, 

Coahuila. 
Leaves elliptic or oval-elliptic, 1.5 cm. long or shorter, acute or acutish. 

3. Fendlerella mexicana T. S. Brandeg. Zoe 5: 246. 1908. 
Known only from the type locality, Cerro de Paxtle, Puebla. 
Leaves elliptic or ovate, about 1 cm. long, with revolute margins. 

1 Thesaurus 374. 1651. 
55268—22 10 



312 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

5. FENDLERA 1 Engelm. & Gray; A. Gray, PI. Wright. 1: 77. 1852. 
Reference : Rehder, Journ. Arn. Arb. 1 : 203-206. 1920. 

Erect shrubs with striate branches ; leaves small, deciduous, entire, 3-nerved, 
sessile or nearly so ; flowers large, white, solitary or clustered. 
Leaves linear, strongly revolute, glabrous or nearly so on the upper surface. 

1. F. linearis. 
Leaves narrowly lanceolate to ovate-oblong. 

Leaves sparsely strigose or nearly glabrous beneath, glabrous above, not revo- 
lute 2. F. rupicola. 

Leaves tomentose and strigose beneath, scabrous above, revolute. 

3. F. wrightii. 

1. Fendlera linearis Rehder, Journ. Arn. Arb. 1:205. 1920. 

Known only from the type locality, in the Sierra Madre near Monterrey, 
Nuevo Leon. 

Leaves 1.5 to 2.5 cm. long, 1 to 1.5 mm. wide, strigose beneath; petals 7 to 8 
mm. long; capsule about 8 mm. long. 

2. Fendlera rupicola A. Gray, PL Wright. 1: 77. 1852. 

Sonora. Western Texas and southern New Mexico ; type from New Braunfels, 
Texas. 

Shrub, 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves oblong or elliptic, 1 to 4 cm. long ; petals 1.5 
to 2 cm. long. 

3. Fendlera wrightii (A. Gray) Heller, Bull. Torrey Club 24: 537. 1897. 
Fendlera rupicola wrightii A. Gray, PI. AV right. 1: 77. 1852. 

Chihuahua. Western Texas to Colorado and Arizona ; type from San Pedro 
River, Texas. 

Shrub, very similar to the preceding species; leaves 1 to 2 cm. long; petals 
usually only 1.2 to 1.5 cm. long. 

53. PTER0STEM0NACEAE. Pterostemon Family. 
1. PTEROSTEMON Schauer, Linnaea 20: 736. 1847. 
Pubescent shrubs ; leaves alternate, petiolate, dentate, the stipules minute 
or obsolete ; flowers perfect, showy, white, cymose ; fruit a capsule. 
Calyx densely pilose with long stiff white hairs ; leaf blades somewhat nar- 
rowed to the obtuse or broadly cuneate base 1. P. mexicanus. 

Calyx puberulent or minutely pilose ; leaf blades rounded or broadly rounded 
at base 2. P. rotundifolius. 

1. Pterostemon mexicanus Schauer, Linnaea 20: 726. 1847. 
Hidalgo ; type from Zimapan. 

Shrub with dark branches ; leaves obovate-orbicular, 2 to 3 cm. long, densely 
pilose beneath ; flowers about 1 cm. long. 

2. Pterostemon rotundifolius Ramirez, Estudio 4: 453. pi. 18. 1893. 

Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from between Jaltepetongo and Guandulain, 
Oaxaca. 

Shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters high ; leaves suborbicular, 2 to 3 cm. long, soon glab- 
ra te beneath. 

1 August Fendler (1813-1883), a native of Prussia, came to the United States 
in 1834. Later he visited Prussia, but soon returned to North America and set- 
tled in St. Louis, where he made the acquaintance of Engelmann. In 1847 he 
followed the Santa Fe Trail to New Mexico, where he made a large collection of 
plants, upon which a report was published by Gray. Later he botanized in 
Panama and Venezuela, where he obtained important collections, and finally 
settled in Trinidad, where he died. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 313 

54. ESCALLONIACEAE. Escallonia Family. 
1. PHYLLONOMA Willd. ; Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. 6: 210. 1820. 
Reference: Rusby, N. Ainer. El. 22: 191. 1905. 
1. Phyllonoma laticuspis (Turcz.) Engl, in Engl. & Prantl, Pflanzenfam. 3 2a : 
87. 1890. 
Dulongia laticuspis Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 31 1 : 454. 1858. 
Durango to Chiapas; type from Oaxaca. 

Shrub or small tree with slender branches, glabrous ; leaves alternate, estip- 
ulate, petiolate, lanceolate, 4 to 8 cm. long, long-acuminate, serrate; flowers 
very small, in small cymes borne upon the upper surface of the leaf; fruit 
small, baccate. " Hierba de la viruela " (Oaxaca). 

The plant has a high reputation as a remedy for smallpox. This species has 
been reported from Mexico as P. ruscifolia. 

55. GROSSULARIACEAE. Gooseberry Family. 

Reference: Coville & Britton, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 193-225. 1908. 

Usually erect shrubs, spiny or unarmed ; leaves alternate, petiolate, decidu- 
ous or persistent, lobed or toothed ; flowers small, racemose, perfect ; sepals 
and petals each 5 ; stamens 5, opposite the sepals ; fruit a globose 1-celled berry, 
several or many-seeded. 

The fruit of all the Mexican species is edible, but it varies greatly in 
quality. 

Plants without spines; pedicels jointed below the ovary 1. RIBES. 

Plants with spines ; pedicels not jointed 2. GROSSULARIA. 

1. RIBES L. Sp. PI. 201. 1753. 
Unarmed (in the Mexican species) shrubs; leaves palmately veined, usually 
lobed, commonly deciduous ; racemes feAv to many-flowered ; pedicel often bear- 
ing a pair of bractlets below the joint ; fruit never spiny. 

The best-known plant of the genus is Ribes rulgare Lam., the garden currant, 
which is cultivated for its sour red fruit. It is a native of Europe. The 
native American currants all have edible fruit which, however, is usually of 
sweetish and insipid flavor. The plants seem to be little used in medicine. 
A decoction of the roots of R. americanum Mill, is said to be employed by the 
Omaha and Winnebago Indians for renal and uterine affections. 

Ovary with sessile glands; leaves not lobed, evergreen 1. R. viburnifolium. 

Ovary without glands or with stipitate glands ; leaves lobed, deciduous. 
Anthers without a cup-shaped apical gland. 

Calyx tube glabrous, yellow, 3 or more times as long as thick. 

Flowers sessile or nearly so 10. R. chihuahuense. 

Flowers pedicellate 11. R. fontinale. 

Calyx tube pubescent, not yellow, or if so less than twice as long as thick. 
Axis of the raceme straight and stiff, 1 cm. long or shorter ; leaves with- 
out glands 12. R. tortuosum. 

Axis of the raceme flexuous, elongate ; leaves usually with glands. 

Leaves with sessile scattered amber-colored waxlike glands on both 

surfaces 13. R. nelsoni. 

Leaves with stipitate glands. 

Ovary glabrous 14. R. brandegei. 

Ovary with gland-tipped hairs. 

Flowers pink or purple, 8 to 10 mm. long ; pedicels 2 to 5 mm. long. 

15. R. malvaceum. 



314 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Flowers usually white or greenish white, 5 to 7 nuu. long ; pedicels 

1 to 2 mm. long 16. R. indecorum. 

Anthers with a conspicuous cup-shaped apical gland. 

Ovary with at least a few gland-tipped hairs, or the calyx more than 1 cm. 
long. 
Leaves with sessile glands on both surfaces but without gland-tipped 

hairs; calyx and petals deep red 2. R. ceriferum. 

Leaves with gland-tipped hairs on both surfaces ; flowers white or green- 
ish white, sometimes partly purplish. 
Sepals longer than the calyx tube, both together less than 7 mm. long. 

3. It. negdectum. 
Sepals shorter than the tube, both together 10 to 13 mm. long. 

4. It. pringlei. 
Ovary glabrous ; calyx less than 1 cm. long. 

Bracts obovate, dentate at the broad apex 5. R. dugesii. 

Bracts mostly linear-oblong to lanceolate, usually acute and entire. 
Lobes of the calyx longer than the tube. 

Leaves glabrous on the upper surface, the margin with gland-tipped 

hairs 6. B. orizaba©. 

Leaves sparsely pubescent on the upper surface, the margin without 

gland-tipped hairs 7. It. affine. 

Lobes of the calyx equaling or shorter than the tube. 

Leaves rounded, truncate, or cordate at base, the sinus shallow and 
open ; glands of the leaves usually sessile ; calyx 5 to 6 mm. 

long 8. It. rugosum. 

Leaves deeply cordate at base, the sinus usually closed, both surfaces, 
as well as the petioles, with stout gland-tipped hairs ; calyx 8 
to 10 mm. long 9. It. ciliatum. 

1. Kibes viburnifolium A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. 17: 202. 1882. 
Baja California ; type from Todos Santos Bay. Southern California. 
Shrub with straggling branches ; leaves mostly oval or rounded-oval, 2 to 7 

cm. long, bright green and lustrous on the upper surface, glabrous or nearly so; 
sepals pink, the petals greenish ; racemes few-flowered, equaling or shorter than 
the leaves; fruit about 6 mm. in diameter. 

2. Kibes ceriferum Coville & Rose, Contr. IT. S. Nat. Herb. 8:298. 1905. 
Chihuahua and Durango ; type from Mount Mohinora, Chihuahua. 

Shrub, 1 to 4.5 meters high ; leaves suborbicular, 2 to 5 cm. wide, 3-lobed, glab- 
rous above or nearly so, puberulent beneath; flowers reddish; racemes 3 to 10- 
flowered, equaling or shorter than the leaves; pedicels 6 to 10 mm. long; fruit 
black, glabrous. " Capulincillo " (Durango). 

3. Kibes neglectum Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8:298. 1905. 
San Luis Potosf ; type from Alvarez. 

Shrub, 1.5 meters high or less ; leaves 2 to 4 cm. wide, 3 or 5-lobed, glandular- 
pubescent ; racemes G to 12-flowered, about as long as the leaves ; pedicels 2 to 
6 mm. long ; fruit black, 8 to 10 mm. in diameter. 

4. Kibes pringlei Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 298. 1905. 

State of Mexico and San Luis Potosi ; type from Sierra de Ajusco. 

Shrub, 1.8 to 3 meters high; leaves 3 to 7 cm. wide, 3 or 5-lobed, glandular- 
pubescent ; flowers about 1.2 cm. long, pinkish ; racemes drooping, S to 12-flow- 
ered, longer than the leaves; pedicels 6 to 8 mm. long; ovary glandular-pubescent. 

5. Kibes dugesii Greenm. Proc. Amer. Acad. 39:78. 1903. 

Known only from the type locality, mountains of Santa Rosa, near Guana- 
juato. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 315 

Leaves ovate-orbicular, 2 to 5 cm. wide, 3 or 5-lobed, sparsely glandular on 
both sides ; sepals purplish, the petals white ; fruit bluish black. 

6. Ribes orizabae Rose, Contr. U. S. # Nat. Herb. 8: 339. 1905. 
Known only from the type locality, Orizaba, Veracruz. 

Leaves broadly ovate or suborbicular, 3 or 5-lobed, glabrous above, glandular- 
pubescent beneath; racemes 8 to 12-flowered ; pedicels 5 to 8 mm. long; ovary 
glabrous. 

7. Ribes affine H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 60. 1823. 

Ribes multiflorum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6:60. 1823. Not R. multiflorum 
Willd. 1813. 

Riles kunthii Berland. Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve 3 2 : 60. 1826. 

Ribes mexicanum Spreng. Syst. Veg. 4: Cur. Post. 100. 1827. 

Ribes altamirani Jancz. Bull. Acad. Cracovie 1906: 10. 1906. 

Hidalgo and Queretaro ; type from Moran, Hidalgo. 

Shrub, 1 to 3 meters high ; leaves 4.5 cm. wide or smaller, broadly ovate 
or orbicular, 3 or 5-lobed, pubescent; racemes pendulous, 6 to 12-flowered, 
shorter than the leaves ; pedicels 5 to 8 mm. long ; fruit bluish black, glabrous, 
8 mm. in diameter. 

8. Ribes rugosum Coville & Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 300. 1905. 
Ribes grande Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 339. 1905. 

Mexico and Puebla ; type from Santa Fe, Valley of Mexico. 

Shrub, 1.5 to 3.5 meters high ; leaves 3 to 5 cm. wide, suborbicular, 3 or 
5-lobed, glabrous above, pubescent beneath ; flowers greenish or pinkish ; 
racemes drooping, 7 to 12-flowered ; pedicels 3 to 6 mm. long ; fruit bluish 
black, glabrous. " Capulincillo," " ciruelillo " (Mexico, Reiche). 

9. Ribes ciliatum Humb. & Bonpl. ; Roem. & Schult. Syst. Veg. 5 : 500. 1819. 
Ribes jorullense H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6 : 61. 1823. 

High mountains, Colima to Oaxaca, and Veracruz. 

Shrub, 3 to 5 meters high ; leaves 3 to 9 cm. wide, suborbicular, 3 or 5-lobed, 
glabrous above, pubescent beneath ; flowers greenish white, fragrant ; racemes 
drooping, about 10-flowered ; fruit glabrous, 8 mm. in diameter. " Capulin- 
cillo" (Valley of Mexico); "ciruelillo" (Mexico, Hidalgo); "saracuacho " 
( Mexico ) . 

Roots reputed to have emetic properties. 

10. Ribes chihuahuense Britton, Torreya 7: 102. 1907. 
Known only from the type locality, near the city of Chihuahua. 

Leaves 2 to 2.5 cm. long, ovate or suborbicular, glabrous, the lobes few-toothed ; 
racemes 3 to 5-flowered, slightly longer than the leaves, the flowers sessile or 
nearly so. 

11. Ribes fontinale Britton; Coville & Britton, N. Amer. Fl. 32: 205. 1908. 
Known only from the type locality, Samalayuca, Chihuahua. 

Leaves 3 cm. wide or smaller, usually 3-lobed, the lobes entire or few-toothed ; 
racemes 4 to 7-flowered, 3 to 4 cm. long. 

12. Ribes tortuosum Benth. Bot. Voy. Sulph. 17. 1844. 

Ribes palmeri Vasey & Rose, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 11: 529. 1889. 

Baja California ; type from San Quentin. 

Shrub, 1.2 meters high or less, with short stiff branches ; leaves 1.5 to 3 cm. 
wide, very shallowly 5-lobed, finely puberulent on both sides; fruit red, 6 to 
8 mm. in diameter, glabrous. 

13. Ribes nelsoni Coville & Rose, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 8: 297. 1905. 
Chihuahua; type from Colonia Garcia. 

Shrub, 1 to 2 meters high ; leaves 6 cm. wide or smaller, with 3 or 5 acute 
lobes, serrate-dentate ; flowers pale yellow ; racemes drooping, 6 to 10-flowered. 



316 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

14. Ribes brandegei Eastw. Proc. Calif. Acad. III. 2: 242. 1902. 
Mountain slopes, Baja California ; type from Sierra de Laguna. 

Erect shrub, 2.5 meters high ; leaves 3 to 5 cm. wide, 3-lobed, sparsely 
glandular-pubescent on both sides ; sepals rose-purple, the petals white ; racemes 
3 to 10-flowered ; fruit glabrous. 

15. Bibes malvaceum Smith in Rees, Cycl. 30: Ribes no. 13. 1815. 
Northern Baja California. California. 

Erect shrub ; leaves shallowly 3 or 5-lobed, 2.5 to 5 cm. wide, tomentose and 
glandular-pubescent beneath ; flowers pink or purple, the racemes longer than 
the leaves ; fruit viscid-pubescent, 1 cm. or less in diameter. 

16. Bibes indecorum Eastw. Proc. Calif. Acad. III. 2: 243. 1902. 
Mountains of Baja California, at an altitude of 840 to 900 meters. Southern 

California, the type collected near San Diego. 

Shrub, 1.8 to 2.5 meters high, the young shoots glandular-pubescent ; leaves 
reniform-orbicular, obtusely 3 or 5-lobed, 2 to 5 cm. wide, stipitate-glandular on 
the upper surface ; ovary with simple and gland-tipped hairs ; fruit about 7 mm. 
in diameter. 

2. GBOSSULABIA Mill. Gard. Diet. ed. 7. 1759. 

Spiny erect shrubs ; leaves deciduous, palmately veined ; racemes few-flowered ; 
bractlets, if present, minute, at the base of the pedicel ; ovary sometimes spiny. 

The cultivated gooseberry is Grossularia reclinata (L. ) Mill., a native of 
northern Europe. The native American species have edible fruit, which is 
extremely sour until maturity, when it becomes sweet. 
Lobes of the calyx twice as long as the tube or longer ; petals red throughout. 

1. G. madrensis. 
Lobes of the calyx less than twice as long as the tube; petals yellow or green- 
ish, sometimes with purple margins. 

Calyx 10 to 12 mm. long 2. G. microphylla. 

Calyx 5 to 6 mm. long 3. G. quercetorum. 

1. Grossularia madrensis Coville & Rose; Coville & Britton, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 

217. 1908. 
Ribes madrense Coville & Rose, Smiths. Misc. Col. 50: 32. 1907. 
Known only from the type locality, Quebrada Honda, Durango. 
Erect shrub with slender spines; leaves 3 cm. wide or less, 3 or 5-lobed, 
glandular-pubescent ; peduncles 1 or 2-flowered ; petals dark red ; fruit glabrous. 

2. Grossularia microphylla (H. B. K.) Coville & Britton, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 219. 

190S. 
Ribes microphyllum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 62. 1823. 
Veracruz to Michoacan ; type from El Guarda. 

Shrub, 1 to 3 meters high ; leaves 2.5 cm. wide or smaller, 3 or 5-lobed, some- 
what pubescent ; flowers reddish yellow ; fruit glabrous, 8 mm. in diameter. 

3. Grossularia quercetorum (Greene) Coville & Britton, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 220. 

1908. 
Ribes quercetorum Greene, Bull. Calif. Acad. 1: 83. 1885. 
Baja California. California ; type from El Paso de Robles. 
Shrub, 1 to 1.5 meters high ; leaves 1 to 2 cm. wide, deeply lobed ; fruit glab- 
rous, 8 mm. in diameter. 

56. CTJNONIACEAE. Cunonia Family. 

1. WEINMANNIA L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1005. 1759. 
Reference : Britton, N. Amer. Fl. 22 : 179-180. 1905. 

Weinmawnia fagaroides H. B. K., of Ecuador, is said to furnish wood of good 
quality. Its bark is rich in tannin and is used for tanning leather. The species 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 317 

of Madagascar are large trees with durable wood. Their bark contains much 

tannin and yields a black dye. 

1. Weinmannia pinnata L. Syst. Nat. ed. 10. 1005. 1759. 

Weinmannia glabra L. f. Suppl. PI. 228. 1781. 

Weinmannia intermedia Schlecht. & Cham. Linnaea 5:555. 1830. 

Mountains of Hidalgo, Veracruz, and Oaxaca. West Indies, Central America, 
and South America ; type from Jamaica. 

Shrub or small tree, copiously pubescent ; leaves opposite, stipulate, pinnate, 
the rachis winged, the leaflets 9 to 25, oval or oblong, 1 to 2 cm. long, crenate ; 
flowers small, in long racemes ; sepals 4 or 5 ; petals 4 or 5 ; stamens 8 or 10 ; 
fruit a small capsule. " Lorito " (Costa Rica); " oreganillo " (Porto Rico); 
1 encinillo " ( Colombia ) . 

The bark is astringent, and a gum often exudes from it. It is said that the 
bark has been used as an adulterant of quinine. 

57. HAMAMELIDACEAE. Witch-hazel Family. 

1. LIQUIDAMBAR L. Sp. PI. 999. 1753. 

Reference : P. Wilson, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 189. 1905. 

The balsam derived from Liquidambar orientalis Mill., of western Asia, is the 
official Styrax of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia ; it is known also as storax. It is 
used in medicine as a stimulating expectorant and very feeble germicide. 
1. Liquidambar styraciflua L. Sp. PI. 999. 1753. 

Liquidambar macropliylla Oerst. Amer. Centr. 16. 1863. 

Liquidambar styraciflua mexicana Oerst. Amer. Centr. 16. 1863. 

Mountains, Veracruz and Puebla to Chiapas. Guatemala ; eastern United 
States ; type fx-om Virginia. 

Large or small tree, sometimes 45 meters high, with a trunk 1.5 meters in 
diameter, the crown broad or narrow ; bark thick, deeply furrowed, grayish, the 
young branches usually with corky wings ; leaves about 15 cm. wide, with 5 
deep acute lobes, bright green ; flowers unisexual, the staminate racemose, the 
pistillate in globose heads, the heads becoming spiny and conelike in fruit; 
perianth none ; fruit a capsule, opening at the apex, containing few winged seeds ; 
wood hard, weak, light brown, its specific gravity about 0.59. " Xochiquahuitl," 
"xochiocotzoquahuitl," " xochioeotzotl " (the gum) (Nahuatl) ; " maripenda " 
(Michoacan, Tarascan) ; " naba " (Chiapas, Morelet) ; " ocotzotl," " ocozotl," 
or " ocozol " (Veracruz); " ocozote " (Oaxaca, Relco) ; "estoraque" (Oaxaca, 
Guatemala) ;" liquidambar " (Oaxaca, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua); 
"yaga-bito," " yaga-bizigui " (Oaxaca, Zapotec). 

The wood of the sweet-gum takes a good polish but warps badly. It is used in 
the United States for furniture, shingles, paving blocks, etc., and in Mexico for 
boxes, chests, and other articles. For interior finish of houses it is very popular, 
for it is of fine appearance when polished. The leaves (which are beautifully 
colored in autumn, before falling) contain tannin. 

The resin or balsam obtained from the tree appears to be little known in the 
United States, but in Mexico and Central America it has been much used from 
the earliest times. It has been employed also in Europe in medicine, under the 
names " liquidambar " and " copalm balsam." The balsam is a transparent 
yellowish liquid with peculiar agreeable balsamic odor and bitter warm acrid 
taste ; upon exposure to the air it hardens. The gum is sometimes chewed in the 
southern United States to sweeten the breath. A sirup prepared from the bark 
has been used as a remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery, especially in children. 

The method of gathering the balsam in Honduras, and the uses made of 
it there, are detailed in the following account by W. V. Wells i 1 "The owners 

1 Explorations and adventures in Honduras, pp. 321-322. 1S57. 



318 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

of cattle estates send their mayordomos into the woods to collect the gum, 
which is found exuding from the pores of the tree, and often collecting, like 
that of the peach, in some knot or bruise along its smooth surface. The gum 
trickles from the incision in transparent tears down the conduits made by 
the natives, until, from a spout inserted in some convenient place, a pint or 
more is collected. By climbing to the lower branches a purer quality is said 
to be obtained. 

"A rim of plantain leaves, bound tightly around the trunk and left for 
several days, is found filled with the precious distillation. I afterwards 
went with Julio, the mayordomo of Lepaguare, about two leagues to one of 
these trees, where he procured from the leafy troughs at least a pint The 
trunk of the liquid amber-tree is clammy to the touch, so that numerous living 
bees, attracted by the sweet, glutinous substance sweating from the pores, are 
found sticking helplessly to the bark. The gum, when bottled, becomes of the 
consistency of sirup. In the caialleria of Don Francisco Zelaya there were 
at least two gallons used for no other purpose than to heal the wounds of 
horses, mules and cattle. * * * I was assured that it never failed to 
effect a speedy cure for flesh-wounds in horses, and that in the mountains, 
when the mahogany-cutters or hunters wounded themselves, they applied at 
once to this tree for remedios. It is sometimes mixed into a stiff gum with 
other substances, and chewed by the Indians as a preservative of the teeth." 

One of the earliest references to the sweet-gum tree is that by Bernal Diaz 
del Castillo 1 who, describing the meals taken by the Mexican emperor, says : 
" After he had dined, they presented to him three little canes highly orna- 
mented, containing liquid amber, mixed with an herb they call tobacco, and 
when he had sufficiently viewed and heard the singers, dancers, and buffoons, 
he took a little of the smoke of one of these canes." The balsam and gum were 
much used for flavoring tobacco and also as incense in houses and temples. 
As for medicinal uses, the tree was employed in catarrhal, stomachic, and other 
affections, and was reputed to have stimulant properties. The following ac- 
count of the tree by Hernandez, 2 accompanied by a figure, is given in a chapter 
entitled " De Xochiocotzo Quahuitl, seu Arbore Liquidambari Indici " : " Xo- 
chiocotzo Quahuitl is a large tree, with leaves almost like those of a maple, 
divided into three points and two notches, toothed, on one side whitish and 
on the other darker. The bark of the trunk is partly yellow and partly 
green. It grows in plains and in hot, or sometimes in temperate places, like 
Hoeyacocotla, Quahuchinac, and Xicotepec. Its nature is hot and dry, and 
its odor pleasant. If the bark of this tree is cut, there flows from it what is 
called Indian Liquidambar by the Spaniards, and by the Mexicans Xochiocotzol, 
in the sweetness of its odor very like Styrax. Its nature is hot in the third 
order, and dry, and added to tobacco it strengthens the head, belly, and heart, 
induces sleep, and alleviates pains in the head that are caused by colds. 
Alone, it dissipates humors, relieves pains, and cures eruptions of the skin. 
From the same tree, either spontaneously or from incisions, there is dis- 
tilled an oil, no whit inferior to the famed liquor, either in sweetness of odor 
or in medicinal virtues, albeit some assert that the oil is distilled from the 
first liquor, put in a suitable place, or expressed, so that the thinner part of 
it may distil ; and they assert that it is hot and moist, not accurately, however. 

1 True history of the conquest of Mexico, translation by Keatinge, p. 140. 1800. 

2 Thesaurus 56. 1651. See also M. G. Lozada, El Liquidambar, Naturaleza 1: 

70. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 319 

It relieves wind in the stomach and dissipates tumors beyond belief, it aids 
digestion, strengthens the belly, heals uterine affections, and others similar to 
those, either alone or mixed with other drugs. There are some who prepare 
a kind of balsam from the twigs steeped in water, but this is meaner and less 
suitable for the aforesaid remedies, and not fit for any except the meaner 
uses." 

58. PLATANACEAE. Plane-tree Family. 
Reference: Gleason, N. Amer. PI. 22: 227-229. 1908. 

1. PL AT ANUS L. Sp. PI. 999. 1753. 
Large trees with thin peeling bark ; pubescence of stellate hairs ; leaves alter- 
nate, long-petiolate, palmately nerved, dentate or lobate, with large stipules ; 
flowers small, green, unisexual, monoecious, in large dense globose heads ; 
sepals 3 or 4 ; petals small, alternate with the sepals ; stamens alternate with 
the petals ; fruit of nutlets, each surrounded by stiff erect hairs. 

The species of this genus are known by the English names of " buttonwood," 
" sycamore," and " plane-tree." They are excellent shade trees and especially 
to -be recommended for street planting. They are little attacked by insects 
and usually have broad crowns, with tough branches not easily broken by the 
wind. The native species are planted as shade trees in Mexico. 
Heads 1 or 2 or rarely 3 on each peduncle, sessile. 

Leaves whitish-tomentose beneath 1. P. mexicana. 

Leaves green and glabrate beneath 2. P. glabrata. 

Heads 3 to 6 on each peduncle. 

Leaves with 5 deep narrow lobes, truncate or often deeply cordate at the 
base. 
Heads slender-stalked ; leaves rather closely grayish-tomentose at first but 

soon glabrate 3. P. wrightii. 

Heads sessile or on very short stalks ; leaves loosely yellow-tomentose. 

4. P. racemosa. 
Leaves not lobed, or with 3 lobes, or rarely with 2 very small additional 
lobes, these often very shallow. 

Heads stalked 5. P. chiapensis. 

Heads sessile. 

Leaves rounded and conspicuously decurrent at base, loosely white- 

tomentose beneath the lobes usually entire 6. P. lindeniana. 

Leaves truncate or subcordate at base, scarcely or not at all decurrent, 
with a very close sparse tomentum beneath, not whitish, the lobes 
coarsely dentate 7. P. oaxacana. 

1. Platanus mexicana Moric. PI. Amer. Rar. 12. 1830. 

Along watercourses, Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, and Veracruz. 

Large tree, 15 to 20 meters high, the trunk 1.5 meters in diameter, with broad 
crown ; leaves long-petiolate, 7 to 20 cm. wide, with 5 or more«acuminate lobes ; 
fruit heads brownish, about 3 cm. in diameter. "Aya" (Veracruz, Schiede) ; 
"alamo" (Tamaulipas, Veracruz) ; "alamo bianco" (San Luis Potosi, Nuevo 
Leon, Tamaulipas). 

Sometimes planted as a shade tree. The wood is used for general car- 
penter work and for dishes and spoons. 

2. Platanus glabrata Fernald, Proc. Amer. Acad. 36: 493. 1901. 

Coahuila, Nuevo Le6n, and San Luis Potosi; type from Monclova, Coahuihi. 
Leaves 5 to 20 cm. wide, usually green on both surfaces, acutely lobed and 
dentate. "Alamo" (San Luis Potosi). 



320 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

3. Platanus wrightii S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 10: 349. 1875. 

Northern Chihuahua and Sonora ; sometimes planted as a shade tree. South- 
ern Arizona (type locality) and New Mexico. 

Tree with broad crown, sometimes 24 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 
1.5 meters, the bark brownish, scaling off in thin sheets; leaves 15 to 20 cm. 
wide, with 3 to 7 long narrow lobes, these entire or sparsely dentate ; wood light 
brown, its specific gravity about 0.47. 

4. Platanus racemosa Nutt. N. Amer. Sylv. 1 : 47. 1842. 
Baja California. California (type locality). 

Large tree, sometimes 38 meters high, with a trunk diameter of 2.7 meters; 
leaves deeply lobed, 15 to 25 cm. wide; wood hard, coarse-grained, light brown, 
weak and not durable, its specific gravity about 0.49. 

5. Platanus chiapensis Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 212. 1919. 
Chiapas ; type from Zincantara. 

Tree, 15 meters high ; leaves with 3 short acute lobes, or merely coarsely and 
remotely dentate, 9 to 23 cm. long, fulvous-tomentose beneath. 

6. Platanus lindeniana Mart. & Gal. Bull. Acad. Brux. 10 l : 342. 1843. 
Veracruz and Puebla to Chiapas ; type from Jalapa. 

Tree, 30 to 40 meters high ; leaves 9 to 20 cm. long or larger, with 3 long nar- 
row lobes. "Alamo" (Veracruz). 

This may be the species reported from Uruapam by Sess£ and Mocino 1 as P. 
orientalis. That name belongs to an Old World species. 

7. Platanus oaxacana Standi. Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20 : 213. 1919. 

Known only from the type locality, San Miguel Alborrados, Oaxaca, altitude 
1,950 meters. 

Leaves 12 to 20 cm. wide. 

59. CR0SS0S0MATACEAE. Crossosoma Family. 
Reference: Small, N. Amer. Fl. 22:231-232. 1908. 

1. CROSSOSOMA Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 1:150. 1848. 
Shrubs or small trees with rough astringent bark; leaves alternate, thick, 
small, entire ; flowers perfect, solitary, white or purplish ; sepals and petals 5 
each ; stamens usually 15 or more ; fruit a cluster of 2 to 5 follicles. 
Petals broadly obovate or orbicular-obovate ; follicles many-seeded. 

1. C. calif ornicum. 
Petals spatulate or oblong; follicles few-seeded. 

Body of the follicle oblong-cylindric, rugose 2. C. bigelovii. I 

Body of the follicle ovoid, reticulate 3. C. parviflorum. 

1. Crossosoma calif ornicum Nutt. Journ. Acad. Phila. II. 1:150. 1848. 
Guadalupe Island, Baja California. Islands off the coast of southern Cali- 
fornia ; type from Santa Catalina Island. 

Shrub or small tree with rough scaly bark ; leaves oblong, obovate, or spatu- 
late, 2.5 to 9 cm. long, sessile or nearly so ; petals white, 1.5 to 1.8 cm. long. 

2. Crossosoma bigelovii 2 S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 122. 1876. 

1 PI. Nov. Hisp. 163. 1887. 

' John Milton Bigelow (1804-1878) was appointed in 1850 surgeon of the Mexi- 
can Boundary Commission, and in 1853 surgeon and botanist of the expedition 
under Lieutenant Whipple, which explored the route for a railroad along the 
thirty-fifth parallel. He made large collections of plants, which were reported 
upon by Torrey and Gray. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 321 

Erect shrub, the branches sometimes spinelike; leaves 0.5 to 1.5 cm. long; 
petals white or purplish, 1 to 1.4 cm. long. 
3. Crossosoma parviflorum Robins. & Fern. Proc. Amer. Acad. 30: 114. 1894. 

Sonora. Arizona, the type from the Grand Canyon. 

Shrub, 1 to 2.5 meters high ; leaves elliptic-oblong, 8 to 13 mm. long, pale 
green ; petals white, 6 mm. long. 

60. ROSACEAE. Rose Family. 

Reference: Rydberg, N. Amer. Fl. 22: 239-533. 1908-1918. 
Shrubs or trees; leaves usually alternate, simple or compound, commonly 
stipulate; flowers usually perfect, often large and showy; sepals normally 5; 
petals as many as the sepals or wanting ; stamens usually numerous ; fruit 
of achenes, follicles, or small drupes. 

Many herbaceous plants of the family are natives of Mexico. 
Leaves compound or deeply lobed and with linear lobes. 
Petals none ; flowers in long spikelike racemes. Leaves pinnate, with 9 to 19 

leaflets; very low shrub 5. ACAENA. 

Petals present ; flowers never in spikelike racemes. 

Leaves 2 or 3 times pinnate, with very numerous minute divisions. Plants 
unarmed ; flowers small, white, corymbose-paniculate. 

9. CHAMAEBATIA. 
Leaves once pinnate or digitate or merely lobed. 

Leaves merely pinnate-lobed ; flowers mostly solitary ; plants unarmed. 

Bractlets present on the calyx ; pistils numerous 7. FALLUGIA. 

Bractlets none; pistils few 8. COWANIA. 

Leaves pinnate or digitate; flowers often racemose, corymbose, or 
paniculate; plants usually armed with spines. 
Fruit of numerous druplets borne on a receptacle; leaves often 
palmate; petals usually white; stipules free from the petiole. 

11. RUBUS. 
Fruit globose or urceolate, with numerous achenes inside ; leaves pin- 
nate ; petals pink or red ; stipules united to the petiole. 

12. ROSA. 
Leaves simple, entire or dentate, or with short, broad lobes. 
Leaves entire. Flowers white. 

Fruit of usually 3 follicles; leaves flat; flowers racemose 1. SPIRAEA. 

Fruit an achene ; leaves clavate or filiform ; flowers paniculate. 

6. ADENOSTOMA. 
Leaves toothed or lobed. 
Leaves digitately lobed ; fruit of numerous fleshy druplets. Flowers 

large, white 11. RUBUS. 

Leaves merely dentate or crenate or pinnately lobed ; fruit dry. 

Petals none; calyx tube long-tubular; fruit a single achene with a long 
plumose tail ; flowers axillary, solitary or fasciculate. 

10. CERCOCARPUS. 
Petals present ; calyx tube never tubular ; fruit of follicles or of more 

than one achene ; flowers terminal, often paniculate. 
Fruit of achenes with long plumose tails ; flowers ochroleucous or 

purple 8. COWANIA. 

Fruit of follicles without long plumose tails ; flowers white. 

Stipules none ; seeds exalate ; leaves deciduous__4. SERICOTHECA. 

Stipules present, deciduous ; seeds winged ; leaves persistent. 



322 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Carpels wholly united into a 5-celled capsule; flowers solitary or 
in small clusters 2. LINDLEYELLA. 

Carpels free above, wholly distinct at maturity ; flowers corymbose. 

3. VAUQUELINIA. 

1. SPIRAEA L. Sp. PI. 489. 1753. 

Many of the species of this genus, especially those of Asiatic origin, are culti- 
vated for ornament, and some are grown in Mexican gardens. 
1. Spiraea hartwegiana Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 246. 1908. 

Spiraea imrvifolia Benth. PI. Hartw. 36. 1840. Not £. parvifolia Raf. 1838. 

Puebla and Oaxaca ; type from " Puenta del Dio." 

Shrub with grayish or reddish brown branches ; leaves spatulate, 7 to 15 mm. 
long, entire, glabrous ; flowers small, white, racemose ; petals 5, 2 mm. long ; fruit 
of 5 follicles. 






2. LINDLEYELLA Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 259. 1908. 
1. Lindleyella mespiloides (H. B. K.) Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 259. 1908. 

Lindleya mespiloides H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 240. 1823. 

Lindleyella schiedeana Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 259. 1908. 

Coahuila to Tamaulipas and Oaxaca ; type from between La Puente de la 
Madre de Dios and Magdalena. 

Shrub, 2 to 3 meters high ; leaves oblanceolate to broadly obovate, 1 to 4 cm. 
long, short-petiolate, glabrous, crenulate; flowers solitary or clustered, white, 
2 to 3 cm. broad ; petals 5 ; stamens 15 to 25. " Barreta " (Zacatecas). 

3. VAUQUELINIA Correa ; Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 1: 140. 1808. 
Shrubs or small trees ; leaves coriaceous, serrate or dentate, the stipules small, 
deciduous ; flowers small, white, corymbose ; petals 5 ; stamens 15 to 25 ; fruit 
a woody capsule. 
Leaves finely toinentose beneath. 

Leaf blades lanceolate or narrowly lanceolate, tapering to the apex, white 

beneath : 1. V. californica. 

Leaf blades narrowly oblong, not tapering to the apex, obtuse, greenish be- 
neath 2. V. australis. 

Leaves glabrous beneath, at least when fully expanded. 

Leaf blades linear or linear-lanceolate, coarsely salient-dentate, acute or 

attenuate at base 3. V. corymbosa. 

Leaf blades lanceolate, oblong, broadly oblong, or ovate, truncate to acutish 
at base. 
Leaf blades 3 to 5 cm. long, 0.6 to 1.1 cm. wide, finely serrulate ; petioles 

3 to 6 mm. long; inflorescence few-flowered 4. V. pauciflora. 

Leaf blades 5.5 to 10.5 cm. long, 1.3 to 3 cm. wide, coarsely serrate; petioles 
6 to 25 mm. long ; inflorescence many-flowered. 
Leaf blades 3 to 5 times as long as broad, obtuse or acutish at base. 

5. V. karwinskyi. 
Leaf blades about twice as long as broad, truncate or very obtuse at base. 

6. V. latifolia. 

1. Vauquelinia californica (Torr. ) Sarg. Gard. & For. 2: 400. 1889. 

Spiraea californica Torr. in Emory, Notes Mil. Reconn. 140. 1848. 

Vauquelinia torreyi S. Wats. Proc. Amer. Acad. 11: 147. 1876. 

Beported from Sonora and Baja California. Arizona ; type from mountains 
near the Gila. 



STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 323 

Shrub or small tree, up to 6 meters high, the trunk sometimes 18 cm. in diam- 
eter, the branches stiff and crooked ; bark thin, reddish brown, scaly ; leaves 4 
to 8 cm. long ; corymbs 5 to 8 cm. wide ; wood hard, close-grained, dark brown, 
its specific gravity about 1.13. 

2. Vauquelinia australis Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 132. 1918. 
Known only from the type locality, Cerro de Paxtle, Puebla. 

Leaves 3.5 to 6 cm. long, serrulate, lustrous on the upper surface; corymbs 
about 4 cm. broad ; petals 3.5 mm. long. 

3. Vauquelinia corymbosa Correa ; Humb. & Bonpl. PI. Aequin. 1 : 140. 1808. 
Vauquelini-a angvsti folia Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 260. 1908. 

Chihuahua and Coahuila to Hidalgo; type from Actopan, Hidalgo. Western 
Texas. 

Tree, up to 10 meters high ; with brown bark ; leaves 5 to 10 cm. long or 
larger, long-petiolate. " Guauyul," " guayule," " palo prieto," " arbol prieto," 
* palo verde " (Durango, Patoni). 

The wood or bark is said to be used for dyeing goat skins yellow. Patoni 
states tbat the name " guayule " belongs properly to this plant rather than to 
Parthenium argentatum, to which it is now generally applied, and that it is 
doubtful how it came to be applied to the latter plant. V. angustifolia differs 
from the typical form in having less salient teeth, but the two forms are con- 
nected by specimens intermediate in character. 

4. Vauquelinia pauciflora Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 132. 1918. 
Known only from the type locality, Guadalupe Canyon, northeastern Sonora. 
Tree ; branches dark gray, leafy at the tips ; leaves lustrous on the upper 

surface. 

Rydberg has applied the name V. torreyi S. Wats, to this species, but that is 
evidently only a new name for Spiraea califormca Torr. It may be that V. 
pauciflora is only a form of V. califomica. 

5. Vauquelinia karwinskyi Maxim. Act. Hort. Petrop. 6: 236. 1879. 
Vauquelinia potosina Painter; Standi. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 31: 131. 

1918. 
San Luis Potosi and probably elsewhere ; type from Santiaguillo. 
Shrub or small tree with dark brown branches ; leaves long-petiolate, lustrous 
•on the upper surface. 

6. Vauquelinia latifolia Rydb., sp. nov. 

Coahuila and Tamaulipas ; type from mountains near Miquihuana, Tamau- 
lipas, altitude 2,100 to 2,700 meters. (Nelson 4481 ; U. S. Nat. Herb. no. 332669) . 

Shrub, 1 to 2.5 meters high ; leaves petiolate, ovate to ovate-oblong, 5 to 6.5 
cm. long, 2.5 to 3 cm. wide, obtuse or acute, rounded at base, coarsely serrate, 
thick-coriaceous, glabrous, lustrous, often glaucescent beneath ; corymbs many- 
flowered, dense, glabrous, 4 to 5 cm. broad, the flowers about 6 mm. long. 

4. SERICOTHECA Raf. Sylva Tell. 152. 1839. 
Small or large shrubs ; leaves estipulate, dentate ; flowers small, white, pani- 
culate, the panicles often large and showy ; petals 5 ; stamens about 20 ; fruit of 
5 small follicles. 

Teeth of the leaves lanceolate or triangular-ovate, ending in a long mucro ; 
stamens shorter than the calyx lobes. 

Leaves glabrous on the upper surface 4. S. fissa. 

Leaves velvety-pubescent on the upper surface 5. S. velutina. 

Teeth of the leaves rounded or rounded-ovate, with a short mucro; stamens 
usually equaling the calyx lobes. 



324 CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM. 

Leaves glandular-atomiferous and slightly hairy on the veins beneath, not at 

all tomentose 3. S. schaffneri. 

Leaves tomentose and villous beneath. 

Leaf blades abruptly contracted at the base, scarcely decurrent. 

1. S. pachydisca. 
Leaf blades cuneate at the base and decurrent on the winged petioles. 

2. S. dumosa. 

1. Sericotheca pachydisca Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 263. 1908. 
Known only from the type locality, Tacubaya, Valley of Mexico. 

Shrub with brown branches ; leaves 2 to 3 cm. long, short-petiolate, with few 
coarse teeth ; panicles 10 to 15 cm. long. 

2. Sericotheca dumosa (Nutt.) Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 263. 1908. 
Spiraea dumosa Nutt. ; Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot. 6: 217. 1847. 
Holodiscus dumosus Heller, Cat. N. Amer. PI. 4. 1S98. 

Chihuahua and Baja California. Northward to Wyoming; type from the 
Platte River. 

Shrub, 1 to 2 meters high, often forming large clumps ; leaves 2 to 5 cm. long, 
obtuse or acute ; panicles 5 to 20 cm. long, very showy. 

The fruit of this and other species is said to have been eaten by the Coahuilla 
Indians of California and the Tewa of New Mexico. 

3. Sericotheca schaffneri Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 264. 1908. 
Northern Mexico; type from San Luis Potosi. Arizona. 

Low shrub ; leaves 1 to 3 cm. long, ovate or rounded-oval, obtuse ; panicles 
5 to 7 cm. long. 

4. Sericotheca fissa (Lindl.) Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 265. 1908. 
Spiraea fissa Lindl. Bot. Reg. 26: Misc. 73. 1840. 

Spiraea argentea Benth. PI. Hartw. 82. 1841. Not S. argentea L. f. 1781 
? Holodiscus loeseneri Dainmer, Repert. Sp. Nov. Fedde 15: 385. 1919. 
Michoacan to Oaxaca and Veracruz. Guatemala to Costa Rica. 
Shrub, 2.5 to 3.5 meters high ; leaves 2 to 5 cm. long, acute ; panicles 5 to 15 

cm. long. 

On the Pico de Orizaba the species ascends to 3.300 meters. 

5. Sericothea velutina Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 265. 1908. 

Southern Mexico ; type from Sierra de San Felipe, Oaxaca. Guatemala. 
Shrub, 1 meter high or more; leaves 1.5 to 3 cm. long; panicles 5 to 10 cm. 
long. 

DOUBTFUL SPECIES. 

Spiraea mexicana Schiede; Regel, Ind. Sem. Hort. Petrop. 1857: 58. 1858. 
Described from cultivated plants of Mexican origin. 

5. ACAENA Mutis ; L. Mant. PI. 145. 1775. 

Low shrubs, or often herbaceous almost throughout ; leaves pinnate, stipu- 
late ; flowers small, spicate or racemose, the calyx covered with barbed prickles ; 
petals none; stamens 3 to 5 ; fruit a solitary achene. 
Upper leaflets 1.5 to 2 cm. long, the lower gradually reduced. 

1. A. agrimonioides. 
Upper leaflets 0.8 to 1.5 cm. long, the lower scarcely reduced- _2. A. elong-ata. 
1. Acaena agrimonioides H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 6: 231. 1823. 

Known only from the type locality, near Tianguillo. 

Stems purplish ; leaflets 9 to 13, sessile, acute, coarsely serrate. 






STANDLEY TREES AND SHRUBS OF MEXICO. 325 

2. Acaena elongata L. Mant. PL 200. 1771. 

Mountains, Veracruz to Mexico and Colima. Southward to Colombia. 

Low shrub with brownish or purplish bark ; leaflets 9 to 19, oval or elliptic, 
serrate, glabrous and lustrous on the upper surface ; stamens purple ; fruit 
covered with barbed spines. 

6. ADENOSTOMA Hook. & Am. Bot. Beechey Voy. 129. 1832. 
Erect shrubs ; leaves often fasciculate, filiform or clavate ; flowers very 
small, white, paniculate ; petals- 5 ; stamens 10 to 15 ; fruit a single achene. 

Leaves clavate, fascicled ; bracts not scarious ; stamens usually 15. 

1. A. fasciculatum. 
Leaves filiform, scattered ; bracts with scarious margins ; stamens usually 10. 

2. A. sparsifolium. 

1. Adenostoma fasciculatum Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beechey Voy. 139. 1832. 
Adenostoma brevifolium Nutt. ; Rydb. N. Amer. Fl. 22: 396. 1913. 

Baja California, abundant in the mountains at 300 to 1,800 meters. Cali- 
fornia ; type from Monterey Bay. 

Shrub, 0.5 to 6 meters high, the branches brown or gray ; leaves 4 to 10 mm. 
long, acute or obtuse, lustrous; petals about 1.5 mm. long. " Chamiso " (Baja 
California). 

2. Adenostoma sparsifolium Torr. in Emory, Notes Mil. Reconn. 140. 1848. 
Baja California, on mountain slopes at 1,000 to 1,750 meters. California ; 

type from Warner Pass. 

Shrub or tree, 1 to 10 meters high, forming dense thickets, the branchlets 
green, the bark of old branches reddish brown, often peeling in thin sheets; 
leaves 5 to 12 mm. long, gland-dotted ; flowers sometimes pinkish. " Palo 
amarillo" (Baja California); " hierba del pasmo," "chamiso" (California). 

Often known in California as " greasewood." A decoction of the plant is used 
locally for chills and fevers and as a tonic. The Coahuilla Indians of Cali- 
fornia employed the wood for arrow points and rabbit sticks ; a decoction of 
the twigs as a purgative and vomitive in the case of pains in the stomach and 
intestines ; the powdered twigs mixed with grease as a salve ; and a decoction 
of the plant as a remedy for sick cattle. 

7. FALLUGIA Endl. Gen. PL 1246. 1840. 
1. Fallugia paradoxa (D. Don) Endl.; Torr. in Emory, Notes Mil. Reconn. 140. 
1848. 

Sieversia paradoxa D. Don, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 14: 576. 1825. 

Oeum cercocarpoides DC. ; Seringe in DC. Prodr. 2: 554. 1825. 

Fallugia mexicana Walp. Repert. Bot. 2: 46. 1843. 

Chihuahua, Durango, and Coahuila. Western Texas to Utah and Arizona. 

Shrub, 1 to 2 meters high, the bark whitish, shredded ; leaves 1 to 2 cm. long, 
divided into 3 to 7 linear revolute lobes ; flowers white, usually solitary, long- 
pedunculate, the 5 petals 1.5 to 2 cm. long ; stamens numerous ; achenes with 
feathery purplish tails 3 t