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Full text of "The triads of Ireland"

PN 
6425 
.C5 
T7 
1906 



ROYAL 
TODD 

IISH ACADEMY 
LECTU RE SERIES 

VOLUME XIII. 

KUNO MEYER., P.D. 

THE TRIADS OF IRELAND 

DUBLIN 
HODGES, FIGGIS, & C0., 
LONDON: WILLIAMS & NORGATE 
1906 



INDEX 
LOSSARY 

PAGE 
V--XV 
1-8 
36-43 
45-46 
46 
47-54 



/:'r«'ed .V Po 



CONTENTS 

I)REFACE s 
OEEXT AND OERANSLATION • 
CLOSSES AND OTES» 
NDEX LOCOU, 
INDEX OINUM, 
SSARY 

AGE 
V--XV 
l-B5 
36-43 
45-46 
46 
47-54 



PREFACE 

TIE collection of lrish Triads, which is here edited and trans- 
lated for the first rime, has corne down to us in the following 
uine manuscrii)ts, datiug from the fourteenth to the nineteenth 
century :-- 
L, i.e. ghe YeIlow ]ook of Lecan, a vellum of ghe end of ghe 
[ourgeengh cengury, PI)- 414b-418 o, a comi)lege coi)y. 
B, i.e. ghe ]ook of ]allymote, a vellum of ghe end of ghe 
fourteenfla cengury, I)P. 65b-66b (ends imi)er[ecfly). 
M, i.e. the Book of Hfii lIaine, a vellum of the fourgeenth 
cengury, fo. 190al-[o. 191a . Acomplegecoi)ybeginning: 
' Ceand Erenn Ardmacha,' and ending : ' tri hurgairg 
bidh a caitheam diescaidheadh (sic) a chaigheam iarna 
coir a caigheam gan altughudh.' hen follow I)roverbial 
sayings from the 'col]oquy of Cormac and Cairpre,' 
such as: 'Dedhe ara ndligh gach malgh domelar 
ithe 7 aRugud. Anas deach gacha fleidhe a cainalgu- 
ghudh 7 a mochdingbail. Caidhe deach samgha, li 
hausa. Gai gan forrm. Deasgaidh codulga frislige,' &c., 
ending : ' deasgaidh aineolais imreasaiu. Ni d'agallaim 
Cormaic 7 Cairpre coruici sin.' 
LC» i.e. the ]ook of Lecan, a reliure of ghe fifgeenth century. 
• he leaves on which the riads are found re now bound 
up wigh the codex tt. 2. 17 belonging go Trinigy College, 
Ig is a complege copy beginning on p. 188b: 'Cend 
eren Ardmacha,' nd ending on I)- 184b: 'ceigheora 
aii)gitri baisi baig connilbi gell iïnreasin. ' 

 By an oversight I bave referred to this s. sometimes by Lec and sometimes 
1)y H. In some cases both Lec and I will be ïouud [luoted in the variants. Th¢ 
ame ls. is always meant. 



ri I'REFACE 
B, i.e. 28. N. 10, a paper s. writen in lhe year 1575,  
top. 98-101. A complête copy, the gal) between top. 100 
and 106 being ruade up by top. 7a-10b of the vellum 
portion of lhe manuscript. 
Il', i.e.H. 1. 15 pp. 946-957. This is a paper manuscript 
writlen by Tadhg Tiorlhach O Neachlain in 1745. Il is 
a complete copy, wilh copious glosses in Moden Irish, 
lhe more imporlanl of which are prinled below on 
pp. 86-43. Ai the end O Nechtain 
following :--' Tri subhailce diudha : crêidhemh, dothchus 
agus gr£dh. Tri a u-aon : athair, mac, spiomd naomh, 
da raibh gloir, mola[dh] 7 umhlaht tre bith sior tug ré 
don bhochtan bochi so. Aniu an 15 do bhealltuine 1745. 
Tadhg O Nechtuin ma Seain a n-aois ceithre bliadhna 
déag et tri fithchit roscriob ha triihibh §uas." 
These manuscripts have, on the whole, an identicM text, 
though they ail occasionally omit a triad or two; and the order 
of the single trlads varies in ail of them. They have all been 
used in constructing a critical text, the most important variants 
being given in the foot-notes. The order followed is in the 
main that of the Yellow Book of Lecan. 
There are ai least three other manaripts containing copies 
of the Triads. One of them I discovered in the Stowe collection 
after the text had been printed off'. It is a paper qnarto now 
marked 23. N. 27, containing on fo. 1-7b a copy of the Triads, 
followed on fo. 7b-19«, by a glossed copy of the T«cosc« Coc»aic. 
]t was written i 1714 by Domnall (or Daniel) o Duind mac 
Eimuinn. Its readings agrêe clooely with those of 
§ 237, it Moue, of ail manuscripts, gives an intelligible reading 
of a corrupt passege. For ci fochertar i'm-mi,r, cia beïthai* 

i As appears from the following colophon on p. 101 : ' Oraoit uaim ar do lebor 
a hOedh in cédluan iar a-aurtach 5ohaanes. BaiIe Tibhaird af bla malge mo 
mendad scribne bi arrad $e(a)ain bi lIaoilconari. Mese (Dubthach) do scrib lu 
iall soin da derpiris 7 rloe. Anno domini 1575. Guroiuh maith agat. 



PREFACE vil 
bi lech fo glass dodeime a lipral oca mb, it reads : ca focearta 
m-muig., cia bcirthear h tech fo glass no do theine, dogeibth« 
occan tipra#, 'though it be thrown into the oea, though it be 
put into a house under lock, or into tire, it will be found 
at the well.' In  121 for ccrdai it reads cerd; in  139 it 
h 9"otioc and rotoch,t; in  143 for grhss its reing is gris; 
in 153 ig bas aoEeuloit for flet; in 217 tag' a n-disi for 
9-disi; in  218 lomradh (twice) for lobn and ndlighidh for 
i n-iguligud ; in  219 it has the correct reing égric, and for 
dithech.te it reads ditheacht ; in  220 it res.fri aroile forfi'ia 
céilc ; in  223 after ile it adds imchiqna ; in  224 it reads gris 
bvnd .i. glar; in  229 for meni«ht« it has mcarigheht; 
in  235 it has mhamus for nubn ; in  236 Ma 0 H for Maig 
Zi; and for co ndeiyenai  data de it reads co nderna i 
dam fric. 
Another copy, w6tten in 1836 by Peter O'Longan, fomerly 
ht the posoeion of tbe Earls of Crawford, now belongs to the 
ttylands Library, Manchester, where it was round by Professor 
Stroehan, who kindly copied a page or two for me. It is 
e4dently a very eorrupt eopy whieh I have hot thought worth 
the trouble of collating. 
Lstly, there is in the Advocates' Librm T a eopy in a 
vellum manusefipt marked Kilbride IH. It begins on fo. 9b  
as follows :--' Treching breath annso. Ceann Eirind Ardmoeha." 
I hope to collate it belote long, and give me accourir of it 
in the next number of this series. 
In all these manuoeripts the Triads either follow upon, 
or preeede, or are incorporated h the collections of maxims and 
proverbial sayings known as Teeos«« Corma@, Auraicept Morain, 
and Scnbrithra F$thil, the whole fornfing a body of rly Irish 
gnomic literature wlfich deserves editing in its entirety. It is 
clear, however, that the Tlads do hot originally belong to any 
of these texts. They had a parate orin, and fonn a collec- 
tion by themselves. This is also shown by the fact that the 
Book of Leinster, the oldest manuseript eontaining the Tccosca 



viii I'REFACE 
Cormaic (pp. 343a-345b), the Scbrath,'a _Fitlmil (pp. 345b- 
346«), and the l?ri«thra Moraiad (pp. 346«-/,), does hot include 
them. 
It is but a slnall portiou of the large lnllllber of triads 
scattered throughout early I{sh literature that bas been hrought 
together ia our collection under the title of Trecl«*g bretlt 
_Féne, i.e., literally 'a triadic arrangement of the sayings of 
h'ishlnen.' I first drew attention to the existence of h'ish 
triads in a note on h'ish proverbs in my/],lition of the Jt?«ttle 
of Vente?l, p. 85, where a few will be round quoted. A complete 
collection of them wonhl fill a umall vohune, especially if it 
wem to include those still current among the people of h'eland, 
both aniong Gaelic and English speakers. I must content 
myself here with giving a few specimens taken at raiido 
ff'oto my own collections :-- 
Three kinds of martyrdom that are counted as a cross to 
man, i.e. whie martyrdom, green martyrdoln, and red maryr- 
dom.--The Calnbray Homily (Thesatrs lalœeo/dbernics, n., 
p. 6). 
Three enemies of the soul: the wofld, the devil, and au 
iml0ious teacher.--Collnan maccu ]3eognae's A1phabe of Piety 
(Zeitschrij't fiir c«ltische Philolo!fie, m., 10. 452 . 
Three hings whereby tire devil shows himself in man : by 
his face, by his gait, by his speech.--Ib., l 0. 453. 
Three profitable labours in the day: praying, vorking, 
reading.--Regula Choluimb Cille (Zeitsc]r., fiL, p. 29). 
Three laymen of Ireland who became mofls : ]3eccan son 
of Cula, Nochu son of Louan, and Enda of Arann.--Noes on 
the Félire of Oengus (Henry 13radshaw Society, vol. xxix., 
p. 112). 
Three chier artisans of Ireland : Tassach with Patrick 
Conlaed with ]3rigit, and Daig vith Ciaran.--Ib., p. 186. 
Three 10oets of tire wofld : Homer of the Greeks, Vergil of 
the Latins, Ruman of the Gaels.--]3ook of Leinser, p. 854b. 
The three vorst counsels hat bave been acted on in Ireland 
through the advice of saints: the cutting short of Ciaran's 



I'IlEFACE ix 
life, the banishment  Colum Cille, the expulsion of hIochut, 
from athen.Noes n he Félire of OellgUS, 1L 04 al]d 
Tripartite Life, p. 5572 
Three things there re for which the Son of living God is hot 
grateful : haughty plety, llarSll repmof, reviling a person if if 
is hot certain.  
Three things there are for which the King of the sun is 
graful : union ot brethren, npright conversation, oerving af 
the Mtar of God. 
Woe fo the three folk in horrid hell of grea blasts : tolk 
who practise poery, folk Wllo violate their orders, mercenes2 
Three things there ure wllich do hot behove the poor of 
living God : iugratitude for his lire Wllatever i be, glxmbling, 
and flattery2 
The following modenl triads I owe to a commmfication from 
P. W. ,loyce, who heard them in his yvnth among the people 
Limerick : 
Three things fo be dish'usted : a cow's hon, a dog's tootll, 
and a lmrse's hooL 
Three disagreble things a home: a scolding wife, a 
squalling child, and a smoky chimney. 

1 ,Vhere for ' wrong storie»  read ' wrong counsels ' (saasa sdeba). This triad 
as thus versified in the Brasels s. 5100 :-- 
Teora saoba sanasa Leithe Cuind roc[h]aras-[s]a : 
Mochuda cona clamhra[i]d d'ionnarba a lathain roghlain, 
cur Coluim Cille tar sal, timdibhe saeghail Ciarkln. 
- LB., p. 225 marg. inf., »nd Brussels .is. 5100, fo. 86a: 
Fuil tri ni (a t'i Br.) don (danach Br.) buidech mac Dé bi : 
cr;*bud fiallach, coisced (coiccsed Br.) sel'b, écnach dulne mad index'b. 
a ]dinburgh »s. xl, p. 28, and Bruss¢ls »s. 5100, fo. 86a: 
Fuil tréide dianab buidêch ri gréine : 
6enta br'thar, comr'hd (fodail ]d.) cert, ,lt5ir Dé do thimthirecht. 
tLB., p. 236, marg. inL : 
Mairg ha tri lucht a n-ittarn athmat anside : 
6es dogni dg, n, 6es choilles grhd, 6es amsalne. 
 LB., p. 238, marg. inf. : 
Fuil tri li nU dlegair do bocht Dé bi : 
dimmda da bethaid cipé, cesacht ocus aihCe. 



\ P RE FACE 
The three fines sights in tlle world : u field oï ripe wheu, 
u ship in full suil, and he wife oï u Mac Donnell wiih child2 
hl out collection au arrangement of the Triads in certail 
groups, according to their COlltelltS, is discerllible. Thus, the 
fil'St sixty-one--of which, however, the opening thirty-one are 
llO Triads at all--are all topraphical; aud alnong the rest, 
those dealing with legal lnatters stand out clearly (§, 149-172). 
When the collection was lnade we have no means of scer- 
tainillg, except froln internal evidellce, such as tlle age of the 
language, and a few allusions to events, tllc date of which we 
Call approximately fix. 
The langage of the Triads may be described as late Old- 
hish. Their verbal systeln indeed is on the wfiole that of the 
C«,ntinelltal glosses,'- and would forbid us to put theln later than 
the year 900. On the other lland, tlle followiug peculiarities 
in declensit,n, in wllich all the nlanllscripts agree, lnake iç 
ilnpossible for us to put them nmch earlier than the second 
hall of the ninth centu W. 
Tlle genitive Sillflar of i- and u-stelns no longer shows the 
ellding -o, which has been replaced throughout by -«? Now, 
in the Almals of Ulster, which are a sure guide in these 
lnatters and allow us to follow the developlnent of the language 
froln Celltm,y to Celtllry, this genitive in -o is fOllnd for the lasç 
tinle ill A.O. 816 (rYho, Ailello). Thence onward the ending -a 
is always round. 
The place-llallm I,sce«, 'Lusk,' is originally all n-stem 
lnaking its gellitive L«scan. Tllis is the l'egular forlu in the 
Anllals of Ulster till tlle year 880, froln which date Ollward iç 

' This triad cornes from the Glynns of Antrim, the Mac Donnells' district. 
- I may mention partictlarly the relative forms tëite 167, bite 127, ara 75 76, 
224, &c., berta (0. Ir. bette) 109, I10, fiente (15), eoillte (166), tëite 
aragellat (sic leg. 'ith N) 171 ; the eponent nemthigedar 116, &c. ; atd, ' I am • 
(104), and the use of the perfective ad- in conaittg 77, 78. 
: rdtha 56, foglada 92, .flatka 151, 248, 253 ; data 4, 34 ; la 31, 35 44 
(c. Laiune la, AU. 816) ; dtha 50, betha 82, 83, 249. 



l'RE VAriE xi 

is always L,«sca (t.D. 916, 928, &c.). In our text (§46) ail the 
manuscripts read/,,s«. 
In slender/o-stems the dative singular in Old-[rish ends in 
-i. I find this form iu the Annals of Ulster for the last 
time in t.I). 816 (G«rtidit.). Thence onward it is always -i,. 
as in out text (bi Cl"ailgui 43, d'«isci 64). 
The nasd stem léimm makes its nom. plut. lé.immen in Old- 
I4sh. In § :12 we fiud hstead (tab'-)lc,c. So also .foim'imm 
makes its nom. phtral foim'i»me in . 163. 
The word do'us is ueuter in Ohl-h'ish, making its nom. acc. 
plnral eiOer do'ts or doi'sca. In out text (§§ 173, 174) the 
word is masculine, and makes its nom. phu'al do.uis. 
/)r,im» is an i-stem lu ()ld-Irish, but in the later language 
passes into an u-stem. In § 51 we fiud the nom. pl. 5'ommanta. 
The neuter g'«i«l h § 166 males its nom. plur. g'«ida for 
O. If. g,'(d.  
On lhguistic grounds, then, I should say that out collectiou 
was ruade some time dm4ng the secoud hall of the ninth 
centm'y. That it cannot he dated earlier is also appas'eut from 
another consideration. Professor Zimmer bas tatNht us to 
search in eve)" ancient h'ish text for indications of its having 
been composed either befo'e or after the ¥iling period. I find 
no words from the Norse language in the Triads, or, if there are 
any, they have escaped me; but thee are two distinct refer- 
ences to the Vilchg age. In . 232, a ¥ilhg in his hauberl 
(Gall ivc lzii'ig) is mentioned as one of three that are hardest 
to talk to; and, in § 44, Bngor h Co. Don is called mducky 
or unfortunate, o doubt, as the gloss says, because of the 
repeated plunderings and destructiou of its monastery by the 
lgorse during the early par of the nhth century (n.b. 823, 
824). 

i The infinitive bith Ibr O. Ir. b«ith [9I), the dative cinn for O. Ir. ciunn 
(98, 135), the nom. pl. sligt]li for O. Ir. sligid (which I have restored in § 49), the 
confusion between do and di (e. g. 83), and other details are probably due to the 
5iddle- and Modern-Irish transcribers. 



xii I'IEFACE 
In endeavomng to trace the origin of the Triad as a form 
of literary composition among the Irish, one must remember 
that itis but one of several similar emunerative sayings 
colmnon in Irish literatnre. Thus the collection here priuted 
contains three duads (124. 133. 134), seven tetrads (223. 230. 
234. 244. 248. 251. 252), and one heptad (235). A whole Irish 
law-book is composed in the fonn of heptads;  while triads, 
tetrads, &c., occur in every part of the Laws.'- Such schematic 
arrangelnelt8 were of course a great aid to nlelllOry. 
If the Tl'iad stood alone, the idea that it owes its ol'igin 
to the effect of the doctrine of the Trinity upon the Celtic 
imagination lnight reasonably be elltertained. The fact that 
this doctrine has led to nmny peculiar phenomena in Irish 
folklore, literature, and art has frequently been pointed out. 
Nor would [ deny that the sacred character of the nulnber 
three, together with the greater facility of composition, may 
have eontributed to the popularity of the Triad, whieh is 
eertainly the nmst eomlnon anmng the various numerieal 
sayings as well as the only one that bas survived to the 
present day. 
However that lllgy be, I believe that the nmdel upon whieh 
the Irish triMs, ttl'ads, pentads, &e., were formed is to be sought 
in those enmuerative sayings--Zahle'n.sI»'iiche, as the Gernmn 
teehnieal terre is--of Hebl'ew poetry to be round in sevelal 
books of the Old Testament. I aln indebted to my friend 
the Rev. (2arl Griineisen for the following list of sueh sayillgS, 
whieh I quote iii the Vnlgate version. 

1 ee Ateieut Zaws qflrelad, vol, v., pp. 115-373. 
 Thus in the first volume of thc Laws ve find duads on p. 228, 15 ; 294, 27 ; 
trladson p. 50, 9. 27; 230,4; 264, 20; 288, 28; tetrads40,21; 54,7; 64,1; 
240, 24; 256, 4,&c.; 272, 25; 274, 3,&c.; pentads 36, 21; 50, 2; 90, 29; 
102, 6 ; hexads 68, 11 ; "248, 7 : a heptad 134, 9; an ennead 16, 20. 



I'IlEFACE xiii 

1)uA)s 
Eeelus. 2:3: 21, Duo geuera al)tll|dal|t iu peeeatis, et 
tertium addueit iram et perditionem, &e. 
». 26 : 25, In duobus eontristatmn est eor meure, et lu 
tertio iraeundia mihi advenir: 26 vir bellator defleiens 
per inopiam, et vit sensatus eonteluptus, 27 eg qti trans- 
greditur a iustitia ad peeoetum, Deus pamvig 
romphaeam. 
lb. 26:28, Duae speeies difficiles et perieulosae mihi 
apnterunt: dieile extfitur notians 
non iustifieabitur caupo a peeeagis labiorunl. 
TnAS AN TETRAD8. 
t'roverb. 30:15, Tria Sml iuturaMlia, et quartum 
tiuod nunquam dicit : sucit. 16 Iuferuus, et os vulvae, et 
Mrra qtl non satiatur aqua; igs veto mUqllam 
suNeit. 
. 30 : 18, Tria suug diNeilia mihi, et quartmu penitus 
ignoro: 19 viam aquiloe in eoelo, viam colubri super 
petram, viaul navis in luedio mari, et viaul vifi in 
adoleseentia. 
. ô0: 21, Per tria movetur terra, et quartum non 
potesg sustiuere: 2 per servirai eum regnaverit: per 
stultum eum saLm'aLus fuerig eibo, 23 per odiosam 
lnulierem el iii matrimonio fuerit aump, et per 
aneillaln eum fuerit heres domilme suae. 
Ib. 30 : 29, Tria sunt quae ne gradiuutur, et quarum 
quod ineedit feeiter: 30 leo fortissimllS bestiarlml, ad 
nMlius pavebig oeeIrsum, ôl gallus sueeiuetus lumbos, et 
aries, nec est tex qui resist ei. 
Eeelus. 26: 5, A tribus timuig eor memn, et in quarto 
faeies mea metuit : 6 delaturam eivitis, et eolleetionem 
populi, ï ealumuialn lnendaeem, super luonLenl, omnia 
gravia, 8 dolor eordis et lnetus roulier zelotypa. 



xiv I'ItEFACE 

A TETnhD. 
Proverb. 30, 24: Quattuor sunt minima terrae, et ipsa 
s,mt sapientiora sapientibus: 25 fornlicae, populus in- 
firmus qtd praeparat in messe cibmn sibi, 26 lepnscnlus, 
plebs iuvalida qui collocat in petra cubile suum. 

 -IEXAI) AND HEPTAD. 
l'roverb. 6. 16 Sex sunt quae odit Donnus, et 
septimum detestatur anima eius : 17 oculos sublimes, lin- 
gmm mendacem, nmnus effnndentes innoxitm sanguinem, 
18 cor machinans cogdtationes pessimas, pedes veloces ad 
currendmn in malmn, 19 profefenten nendacia testen 
fallacem, et eum qui seminat intra fratres discordias. 

AN ENNEAD. 
Ecclus. 25, 9: Novem insuspicabilia cordis magnificavi, 
et decimun dicam in linglm hominibus, &c. 
The question ases whether tbese biblical sayings were 
¢he direct source from wbich the h'ish imitations are derived, 
or whether tbe Irisb became acquainted with the numerical 
Proverb through tbe medium of Greek and Latin literature. 
As tbe Irish clerics ever since the days of St. Patick were 
diligent students of tbe ]3ible, tbere wotdd be nothing strange 
in tbe foner assmnption. But tbere exists at least one 
early document wbicb renders tbe latter equally possible. 
Under tbe title oï JProvc'bia G'eco«m we possess a col]ection 
of sayings translated by some h'ish scholar in Ireland from the 
Greek into Latin befo tbe seventh century2 Among them we 
find tbree triads, - two pentads,  three beptads# and two octads. » 

 This is the opinion of S. Hellmann, their latest editor. See his edtdius 
&ottus, p. 135, in Traube's Qtellen t»tt 5terstchu»ge z«r lateiisc]e hilologie 
des Mittetalte, vol. L : Mfinch, 1906. 
aA. 39,41. B. 5. 3A. 52. 'A. 54. B. 3,7. sB. 1,2. 



HIEFACE xv 
As examples I select the following two tfiads :-- 
Tres bacheriosi (?) sunt : terribilis bellator arlnatus 
promptusque ad proelium, leo de spelunca quand,» 
praedam devorat, aper refus de silva quando fiu'ore 
aliquem irruit. 
Tres sunt imperfecti qui numquam ad perectionem 
vitoe disciplinoe ewenire ossunt; tunc enim a itiis 
recedunt, quando mala ïacere non pcssunt. Antiquus 
nau qui multis annis seductis Olllllibll8 enere et Velldel 
porat; senex auriga qui in curribus et in equis Dco 
4eIic varia cura arque conversatione medittr atque 
utitur; vetula ancilla quae donlinoe suae subdole in 
omnibus rebus quae cottidiano ministerio perficimltur 
maie retribuit. 
Trits ooeur sporadically in the literature of most offset 
nations, and have occasit)nally been collected. 
awai'e that th kind of composition has ever attahied the sanm 
popularity elsewhere as in Wales and helaud, where the manu- 
ftnre of triads seems at rimes almost  bave bome a sport. 
The wittiest triads a undoubtedly those h which the 
third im contains an anticlhnax. Two perfect examples of 
ts kind were comosed by Heine when he tells the foreigner 
siting Germany that he need but knov three words of the 
langm : B'ot, K«ss, hre ; and il his ofn quomd witticism : 
c" Frazose liclt die Freiheit trie seine '9"«tlet, «t«'r Egl5ad«. 
wie sciltc '«e t,, ¢1,'," cttts«]tc 

K. M. 



THE TRIADS OF IREI,AND 



(,2) 

TRECHENG ]RETH FEiN1 INSO SIS I 

1. Cenn Hénn Aràmacha. 
2. Ordan Hérenn Clfiain Maie N6is. 
3. Ana Hérenn C16ain Iralrd. 
4. Cride Hérenn Cell Data. 
5. Sruithe 6rcnn ]endchor. 
;. C5emna érenn Lusca. 
7. inius érenn Ccnannus. 
,% D fiil Hérenn Tamlachta 7 Findglais. 
9. Tech commairce Hérenn Tech Cairnig for slid Assail. 
10. Idna érenn Inis Cathaig. 
11. Reclés Hérenn Glenn D5 Loeha. 
12. Féinechas Hérenn Cldain H6ama. 
13. Tech Foichle Hérenn Fernoe. 
14. Lit5nachtHérenn LessM6r. 
15. Scnchas l:[6rcnn Imblech Ibair. 
16. Bérla Féine Hérenn Corcach. 
17. Légeud Hérenn Ross Aihthre. 
lS. Téite H6renn Tir Dr Glas. 
19. Anmchairde Hérenn Cldain Ferta Brénainn. 
20. Escaine tIérenn Lothra. 
21. Brethemnas Hérenn Sline. 
22. Ddire chrbaid tI6rcnn Fobur Féichin. 
23. ibne Hérenn Ard mBreccfiin. 
24. I)idite Hérenn Ross Commfiin. 
25. F,ilte Hérenn R,ith mBoth n5 Druimm Lethan. 
26. De,etc Hérenn Dfin Dg Lethglas. 

1 oto. BMHNLee 8 dA s6il L Finnglaisi N Findglais Lec 9 oto. L 
17 Ailaicrc 13 Elichre M 18 téde N teide P,M 19 ancairde BLec 
Bren,'dnde N 20 hescoenma L 22 dire BM Féichin oto. BM 



(:) 

THE TRIAD, OF [IELAD 

1. The ]ead of Ireland--Armagh. 
2. The Dignity of Ircland--Clonmacnois. 
3. The Wealth of Ireland--Clonard. 
4. The ]eart of Ireland--Kildaïe. 
5. The Seniority of Ireland--]angor. 
6. The (omfort  of Ireland---Lusk. 
7. The Sport of Ireland---Kclls. 
8. The Two Eycs of Irclaml Tallaght and Finglas. 
9. The Sanctuary of Ireland--the [ousc of Caiech upon thc 
Road of Ami." 
10. The Purity of Ircland--Scattery Island. 
1 l. The Abbey-church of Ireland--GlcnoEulough. 
12. The Jurisprudence of Ireland---Cloyne. 
13. The ]ouse of Wages 3 of Ireland--Ferns. 
l.t. The Singing the Litany of Ircland--Lismore. 
15. The Lofe of Ireland--Em]y. 
16. The Legal Speech of Ireland Cork. 
17. The Learning of Ireland---Roscarbery. 
18. The Wantonness of Ireland Terryglas. 
19. The Spiritual Guidance of Ireland--CIonfert. 
20. The Curse of Ireland Lorrha. 
21. The Judgment of Ireland--Slane. 
22. The Severity of Piety of Ireland--Forc. 
23. The Delight of Ireland--Ardbrackan. 
24. The Simplcity  of Ireland Roscommon. 
25. Thc Welcome of Ireland--Raphoe or Drltmlane. 
26. Thc Charity of Ireland--Downpatrick. 

Fabair Feithin N 4 dinldus ]M diuitecht L 6 deseare L deelrc ] deirc i[ 
 Or, perhaps, 'good cheer.' 3 Or 'hire.' 
: A road running from Tara westward into Westmeath.  Or ' upigtness." 
B2 



4 'I'I{E(HESG BRETH FÉNI INS() 
27. Trichtach Hércnn Dairchaill. 
28. Fossugud Hénn Mag mBflc. 
29. Martra ]Iérenn Tulcn. 
30. Ab4imm H5renn Col[ R6aid. 
31. Genas 5rcnn Lann Elu. 
32. Tri tairlemc Érenn: Daire Calgaig 7 Tech Munna 7 Cell 
Maigncnn. 
33. Tri aithcchpuh't Hércnn: C16ain Iraird, Glenn DK Locha, 
Lugbad. 
34. Tri clochraid H6renn: Ard acha, Clfiain Mc 6is, CeH 
Dara. 
35. Tri hacnaig H6rcnn: enh Tnfltcn, cnach Crfiachan, 
enach Colmdn Ela. 
36. Tri d(tine H&'enn: D6n Sobaihc, Dfin Cera, Cathair 
Chonrdi. 
37. Tri slO H6renn : SI/ab Cfia, Sliab Mis, Sllab Cfial. 
38. Tri haird HSrcnn: Crfihfin Aigli, Ae ChriSt, Be 
mBoirchi. 
39. Tri locha Ifénn : Loch nEchach, Loch Ri, Loch nEi. 
40. Tri srotha Hrenn : Sina, BSand, Banda. 
41. Tr machairc Hérenn : Mag Midi, Mag Line, Mag Lift. 
42. Tri dorcha Hérenn : uam Chnogba, tiare Sl5ngoe, derec Ferna. 
43. Tri dlthruib Hércnn : Fid MSr bi Cdailgni, Fid Déioeen bi 
Tuirt, Fid Moithrc bi Connachtaib. 
44. TH dotcMd Hércnn : abainc Bendchuir,  ablae Lae 
Ela, rige Mugdom Maigen. 
27 oto. BM teehtach E Durcaill N Daraehill L 28 Mag Mfie L 
29 oto. L 0 aulbeimnecb L Ruadh N Ruadain L 82 oto. 
8 aithich Lec heathachbuirg M Lugmag NBM 84 clothrge BM 
clothrai N clochraid L clochraidi Lec 85 haenalgi L Colman MSS 
6 duin h'BM 87 sleibte BM 88 hard N cich Cmdann L n LN 
9 Rib BM Rig N 41 maige BM  doirchi L uaim 
Chruachan NL uaim Condba B uaim Cnod M Sini BM Se N 
Slaine 7 uaim Chruach n6 dearc Fearna add. H 43 direba BM 
Fid Dexin  44 dotchaid LHLec *5. ar imad arga air L aaine Signe 
n5 çolmain Ela BM Lad Ela BM 

J ' Ruadat's Chur«h,' L.  On the {)ld [e«d of Kin.-ale. 
• c.e. the Knockmenldown mountains.  T]lc Wicklow rUountains. 



THE TRIAI}S OF IRELAND 5 
27. The . . . of Ireland--Dairchaill. 
28. The Stability of Ireland Morille. 
29. The lIartyrdom of IrelandDulanc. 
30. The Reproach of Ireland--Cell RuMd (Ruad's Church). 1 
31. The Chastity of Ireland--Lynally. 
32. The threc places oï Ireland to alight at: Dcrry, Taghmon, 
Kilmainham. 
33. The three rent-paying places of Ireland: Clonard, Glenda- 
lough, Louth. 
34. The three stone-buihlings of Ireland : Armagh, Clonmacnois, 
l(ildare. 
35. The three faits of Ircland: the fair of Teltown, thc fair of 
Croghan, the fair of Colman Elo. 
36. The three forts of Ircland : Dunseverick, Dun Cerama, - Cathir 
Conree. 
37. The three monntains of Irelund: Slieve Gua, a Slieve lIis, 
Slievê Cualaun. « 
38. The three heights of Ireland : Croagh Patrick, Ae Chualann,  
B.nn Boirche. « 
39. The three lakes of Ireland : Lough Neagh, Lough ]Zee, Lough 
Erne. 
40. The three rivers of Irelanà: the Shannon, the Boyne, the 
Bann. 
41. The three plains of Ireland : the plain of ][cath, Moylinny, 
loy-Liffey2 
42. The thrêe dark places of Ireland: the cave of Knowth, the 
cave of Slaney, the cave of Ferns. 
43. The three desert places of Ireland : Fid liSr (Grcat Wood) 
in Coolney, Fid Déicsen (Spy-wooà) in Tuirtri,  the Wood 
of Moher in Connaught. 
44. The threc unlucky pLaces of h'eland: the abbotship of 
Bangor, the abbotship of Lynally, the kingship of Mug- 
don 3Ialgen2 
 ' The Liver (" Pp»' L.) of IJulu,' cther the Great ugrloal or Lugnaquill. 
 i.e. 81ieve Donard. 7 i.e. the plain of Kildare. 
s The Htil TuirtIi were settled in the four baronies of Upper and Lower 
Aetrim, and Upper and Lower Toome in county Antrim. 
 blow Crenmrne barony, eounty Mona,-ban. 



6 TRECHENG BRETH FÉNI INSO 
45. Tri huilc ]renn : Crecraigi, Glasraigi, Bcnntralgi. 
46. Tri cemnai ]térema: abbdaine Lusca, rfge tri Cflalann, 
sccnabbSite Arda Macha. 
-t7. Tri tl'5ga Hérenn : Tr£ig Ruis Airgit, Tr£ig Ruis Téiti, TrSig 
Baili. 
48. Tri htha ]térenn : /th Cllath, Ath Ldain, Ath Caille. 
49. Tri sligid Hdrcnn : slige D,41a, slige Asail, sligc Midldachra. 
50. Tri belaigc HSrenn : Belach Conglais, Bclach Luinmig, Bclach 
Duiblinne .i. Atha Cliath. 
51. Tri drommanna ]térenn : Druimm Fingin, Druimm nDrobeoil, 
Druimm Lcithe. 
52. Tri maigc ItSrcnn : Mag mBrcg, Mag Crachan, Mac Liphi. 
53. Tri cldana ]tSrcnn: CldMn Maic Sis, Clein Eois, Cldain 
Il'air& 
54. Tr tcllaigc ]érenn: tcllach Temrach, tellach Caisil, tcllach 
Crfiachan. 
55. Tri hessa ]tSrcna : Ess Raid, Ess Danainnc, Ess Maige. 
56. Tri fothirbi ]:[ércnn : Tir RStha Laidcni,4in, Sliab Comm,4in, 
Sllab Manch4in. 
57. Tri tiprata Hérenn: Tipra ha nDési, Tipra ]tfim'bcoil, Tipra 
lar,4in Garaid. 
58. Tri haimreide Hérena : Breifne, Bairenn, BSTe'. 
59. Tri hinbcra HSrenn: Inber ha mB,4rc, Inber Féile, [nber 
Tdaigc. 
60. Tri hairderca Hérenn: Léimm Conculaind, D6n C,4in, Srub 
Brain. 
45 Grccraigi IlBbl 6 r/ge fer Cna!ann NL echnap L scgnab- i 
nArdmachai N 47 trachtai L 49 sligthi 1M88 50 belaig L 
Conglaisi N Lninme N .i. _tha Clfath oto. N 52 oto. HBN 
5t Tcmair Crdachu Calscl IlBN 56 oto. IIBM fothairbe b! 
57 tinbrai b! tipra Culrp b! nDési IIBM tipra UarainnGaraid llBN 
t. U;tran nGarad N Breifene N liI, n Braithdeasan ]rigdi Il Bïaichleasan 
Brigdc Bhl 58 hdturcid L Boirind M " Bcmldtraigi H 60 hirrdraiei tl 
oirrdlrc N 
| 
 A trihe setlled in the barony of Coolavin, eOnnty Sligo, and lu the adjacent 
part of connty Roseonmaon. 
z Either Baatry in connty Cork, or Bantry in connty Werd'ord. 
 " Of the men of Cualu,' 
 A territory in the barony of Upper Ormond, connty Tipperary. 
» Now Dunda|k. ' Perhaps .th Caille t{aide on the Shannn. 



THE TRIAD8 OF IRELAND 7 
45. The three evil ones of Ircland : the Crecraige, 1 the Glasraigc, 
the Benntraige. * 
46. The thrce comfortable places of Ircland: the abbotship of 
Lusk, tae kingship of the thrce Cualu, 8 the vice-abbotship 
of Armagh. 
47. e tee stmnds of Irchnd : the strand of Ross Airgit, * the 
strand of Ross Teiti, the snd of Baffe2 
48. Thc three fords of Ireland : Ath Cliath (Hurdle-ford), Aflflonc 
(the Ford of Luan), Ath CaiHc (Wood-ford).  
49. The three highmads of Ircland: Sligc Dala,  Sligc Asail, 
Slige Luachra. s 
50. Thc three mountain-passes of Ireld: Baltinglass, the Pass 
of Limefick, the Pass of Dub. 
51. The tee ridges of Ireland : Dru Fingin, Druim nDrobeoil, 
Drm Leithe2 
52. The ree plains of Ircland : Moy Bray, Moy Croghan, Moy 
Liffey. 
53. e three meadows of Ireland : Clonmacnois, Clones, Clonard. 
54. The t households of Ireland : the household of Ta, the 
household of Cashel the household of Croghan. 
55. The t'ee waterfalls of Irend: Assaroe, Eas Dae, ¢' 
Eas Maige. 
56. The t»ce fields (?) of Ireland : the hnd of Rathlan Scve 
Comman, Seve Mancha. 
57. Thc three wcHs of Ireland : the We of the Dcsi, the Wcli 
of Uarbel, l thc Well of Uaran Garaid. 
58. Thc flrec uneven places of Ireland: Breffny, thc Bun'en, 
59. Thc tee estuacs of Ireland : Inver ha mBam, ï Invcr Feilc, a 
ver Tuaigc2 * 
60. The three con»icuous places of Ireland : Cuchulinn's Lcap,  
Dumlulun , Sruvc Brain? s 
 ïhe geat uoE-western road lom Tara to Ossory. 
s A road rt«nng nohw flm Tara. s In Breffny. 
o On the Shnon oppoeite Duss, co. Clare. 
1[ Probably near Eeseen Uarb&il iu Leinstor (Mountseskenn ?). 
2 *b ca mBd is in Bantry Bay.  Tho estuary of the Feale. 
 ' The axe-haped ostuy,' i.e. the mouth of tho Ba. t i.e. op Head. 
x« In the west of Ker (i n-larthat" Hére, YBL. 12331). 



8 TRE(HEI(; BRETH FÉNI INSO 
ôl. Tri gnatha Hérenn: Traig Li, L6achair Dedad, Slfab 
Filait. 
62. Tri hamrai la TAin 136 C6ailnge : .i. in euilmen dara héisi i 
n];]rinn ; in nmrb dJa haisnéis don blu .i. Fergus mae 
R6ig dia hinnisin do lginnlne éieius i n-aimsir Corbmaie 
maic F,4elAin ; ini dia n-aisnéther, eoimge bliadna d6. 
ôS. ïri meinisri fer Fénê : 5. eieh, 'fiad, glfin. 
64. Tri doteaid duine: deog here d'uisei, fu i eormthig, suide 
cumang for aehad. 
ôb. 2h'f dotcaid hrebha : gor[ salaeh, iarmur eléithe, têch drith- 
lennach. 
ôô. Ïrl hairgara eealse : eailleeh fri eloee, athlfiech i n-apdaine, 
banna for alt6iï. 
67. Tri fili eo n-larduibi : fer tochmaire, fer gaite, fer aisnéise. 
68. Tri brSin ata ferr f,4ili: br6n re6i oc ihe messa, br6n 
guirt apaig, br6n feda fo mess. 
69. T5 f,411i aa messu br6n: fili tir iar ndinpair, filti tir 
far luga eittfig, filti tir iar fingail. 
70. Tri fiada co n-aniad : gréss i n-6cntig ïri muintir, uisce rothé 
dar cosa blad goirt cen dig. 
71. Tri dotcaid maic athaig: clcmnas ïri h6cthigern, gab,4il for 
tascor rig, commaid ft5 meirlechu. 
72. Tri dotcaid threbairi: tarcud do drochnm,4i, fognam do 
drochlaith, c6emch16d fri droclaerann. 
78. Tri b6ada trebai5 : tarcud do degnm,4i, fognam do deglaith, 
c6emeh16d fri dagerann. 
61 gnath 1I gniith Il Lii 1I 62 oto. HBMLce coimde 
64 dotehaid L dodcaid BM luige dige BM lulge re dig Ici 65 dotchaid L 
dodcald B iaaor B 66 hairgairt L hairgair H hurgoirt/3 ina habdaine B 
balnne IIM boefiforahaltoir B 67 fcchmaire lIlctBMLec alsneidsl 1I 68 is 
fer H ita ferr L at ferr 1I broln biB ac aipgludud BM ig messrugud] 
69 nteasum B iar ndlubairt N iarmbrei¢hdiubarta BM iarmbreithadibioEaH 
failte tir luga eithig B tir cm. BM failte tir iar marbad a brthar aie] eOsnom 
a eraind fris BM 70 fiad L anbfiad I tri fiaidaiclal ad mesa Ici greasa 
BM for eosaib HM dar cosaib IIB biad goirt doib B 71 dotchaid L 
dodca d B hoigthigearna I[N tarscur BM tascor (n tarcor) I tairrseach (!) L 
72 dodchaidh B targad B[ drochlaith M drochlaech H elaechlud H 
caemclodh 1 drochirind B 73 trebtha I trgad B deadlaech H 
claechmod H deigferand IIM degthigern(!) B 



THE TRIADS ()F IRELANI) 9 
61. ïhe three familiar ldaces  «)f lreland: T'alce» Logher the 
Fews. 
62. Three wonders concerning the Tin B5 Cdailnge: that the 
cMlmen camc fo Ireland in ifs stead ; the ded relating if 
fo the living, riz. Fcrgus mac RSig reciting it to linnfne 
the poet in the rime of Cormac mac FelAin ; one year's 
protection fo him fo whom it is recited. 
63. The three halidoms oï the men oï Ireland: breast cheek 
knee. - 
64. Three unïortunate things ïor a man : a scant drink of water, 
thirst in an e-house a narrow seat t, pon a field. 
65. Three unfortunatc things oï husband.y : a dirty ficld, leavings 
of the hm'dle a bouse full oï sparks.  
66. Three forbiddcn things oï a church: a nun as bellringer, a 
veteran in thc abbotship, a drop upon the altar. 
67. Three rejoicings ïollowed by sorrow : a wooers, a thief's, a 
talc-bezef's. 
68. Three sorrows that e better than joy: the heaviness of a 
herd ïeeding on toast, the heaviness oï a ripe field, z the 
heaviness of a wood under mast. 
69. Three rejoicings that arc worse than sorrow: the joy oï a 
m«tn who bas deïrauded another, thc joy oï a man who 
bas perjured himsclï, the joy oï a man who bas committed 
parricide, a 
70. The three worst welcomes: a handicraf¢ in the same bouse 
with the inmates, scalding water upon the ïeet, salt food 
without a drink. 
71. ïhree unfmoEunate things ïor the son oï a peasant: marrying 
into the Lamily of a frankIin, attachiag himself to the 
retinue oï a king, consorting with thieves. 
72. Thrce unfortunate things ïor a householder : proposing fo a 
bad woman, serving a bad chier, exchanging ïor bad 
land. 
73. Three excellent things for a householder : proposing to a good 
woman serving a good chier, exchanging ïor good land. 

I O1", perhal , ' places oï commOu resort.'  ' Oï a ripenlng field,' ]M. 
a, Of a man who bas slain 



10 TRECHENG BRETtt FÉNI INSO SS 
74. Tri h6enaig eserte: célide bi tig gobann, célide bi tlg Kir, 
dul do chennuch cen irche. 
75. Trf c6il ara ferr folongat in rabith : c6il srithide bi folldeirb, 
c6il foichne for tuinn, c6il snKithe dar dorn dagnmK. 
76. Trl duirn ara dech for bith : dorn degfiir, dorn degmnK, dorn 
deggobann. 
77. TfAde con:dttig ffrinne : raess, toraus, cubus. 
78. Tde conaittig brethcranas: gis, féige, fiss. 
79. Tri tfiarascbala étraid : osnad, cluiche, céilidc. 
80. TfCe ara carthar escara : raain, cruth, innraccus. 
81. TfCe ara miscnigther cara : fogal, dognas, dlmainche. 
82. Tri buirb in betha: 5c contibi sert, slan contibi galarach, 
gacth contibi bfieth. 
83. Tri buidir in betha : robud do throich, airchisecht fri faigdech, 
cosc ran biithe do drdis. 
S4. Tri cin docelat éitchi : sobés la anricht, ane la dSer, ecna la 
dodelb. 
85. Tri héitich docelat tain : b6 binnech con as, ech an aralfiath, 
sodelb cen tothucht. 
86. Tri 6ible adannat seirc : gnfiis, alaig, erlabra. 
87. Tri haithne co toraail: aithne nana, aithne eich, aithne 
salainn. 
88. Tri bfiada téiti : bon chiera, ech raaith, cri lfiath. 
89. Trl ségainni Hérenn : ïthrann, adbann a cruit, berrad aigthc. 
7 loenaigi nasearta B nelseirti H haonaige neserte N esertai Lec airrdhe N 
75 foloingead imbith B is ferr isi mbith N sreibe LL srlthide B srithide 
foildeirb N 76 ibr domaa BM dorn sali dora gabonn dora daim N 
deqlaim BM 77 tri conaitig B 78 a tri conaitig B 79 osnaid N 
miad LBM 80 a tri BM treidi H gn,s alaig erlabra HM airdearcu 
81 treidi II a tri M tri L fogail H dimahaecht HM 82 contib BM 
contibe bl gallrach BM gallrai bl boeth contlb goeth BM 83 urchuidme 
ria foidhech 1 oereùdmed fri foigeaeh B mn;i druithi B 84 doceilead 
eitig B handracht B dodealb B dodeilb N 85 doceiled BM 
bcinncch IN 86 haibne adannd searc B adauta serce 
87 haithneada Lcc tomailt B alaina L 88 tite N buadnasa tétnai 
HBMLee 89 segalnd M tri comartha segairm N segraind B Hérenn 
o»1. ][B ïatraind B fadbann N ïa4hbond MB aigthe oto. BM a crtSt oto. MN 
t Or, perhaps, ' faits, foregatherings.'  Or « vagrant.' a Or "dalliauee." 
 ' distinction,' B. 
' Or ' eneroaching.' 



TIIE TRIADS OF IRELANI) Il 
74. Three holidays x of a laudless man  : visiting in the bouse of a 
blacksmith, visiting in the bouse of a caqenter, buying 
without bonds. 
75. Thrcc slcnder things that best support the world : the slender 
stream of milk îrom the cow's dug into the pail, the 
slender bladc oî grecn corn upon the ground, the slender 
thread over thc hand of a skilled woman. 
76. Thrce hands that are bcst in the world : thc hmd oî a good 
carpcnter, the hand of a skillcd woman» thc hand of a 
good smith. 
77. Thme things which justice demands: judgmcnt, mcasurc» 
conscience. 
7. ïhme things which judgment demands : wlsdom» pcnetration» 
knowledge. 
79. Thrce characteristics of concupiscencc: sighing, playfulness,  
visiting. 
50. Tin'ce tlfings for which an cnemy is lovcd: wealth, beauty» 
worth. 4 
81. Three things for which a fend is hated : trespassing,  kecping 
aloof,  fecklessness. 
82. Ttnee rude ones of the world: a youngster mocking an old 
man» a healthy person mocking an invalid a wise man 
mocking a fooh 
83. Tin'ce deaf ones of the world: warning to a doomed man, 
mocking  a beggar, keeping a loose woman from luit. 
84. Three fuir things that hidc ugliness: good manners in the 
ill-fuvoured, skill in a serf» wisdom in the misshapen. 
85. ïhree ugly things that hide fairness: a sweet-lowing cow 
without mi]k» a fine horse without speed» a fine pcrson 
without substance. 
(i. Three sparks that kindle love : a face, dcmeanour, speech. 
87. Thrcc dcposits with sufruet : dcl)usiting a woman, a horse, sait. 
88. Tha.ee gluries  a gathering : a beautiful wiïe, a god horse» 
a swift huund. 
89. Threc accoml)lishments of Ircland: a witty stave, a tnue un 
the harl), " shaving a face. 
Literally ' unfandliarlty.' . iitying," L.  Literally, "out f a haïp.' 



12 

TRECHENG BRETH FENI INSO SIS 

90. Tri cv,uartha cldanaigi : bfiaidriud scél, cluiche tenn, abucht 
co n-imdergad. 
91. Tri gena ata messu brSn : gen snechta oc legad, gen do 
frit iar mbith ir aili Ié, gen chon oilmnich. 
g.'/[32. Tri bals ara ferr bethaid: bas iach, bas muicce méithe, 
ïoglada. 
93. Tri hdathaid ara ïerr sochaidi: dathad dagbriathar, fiathad 
b5 bi fcSr, t'mthad carat im chuirm. 
94. Tri brSnaig choilmthige : fer dognl fleid, fer dia ndéntar, fer 
ibes menip saithech. 
95. Tri cuitbidi in domain : ïer lonn, fer étaid, fer dlbech. 
96. Tri cuil tt'mithe: flaith brécach, bithem gdach, sacart 
colach. 
97. Tri fuiric thige dcgdui : cuirm, fothrucud, tene mSr. 
98. Trl fuiric thige drochduni: debuid af do chinn, athchosan 
frit, a chd dot gabil. 
99. Tri grctha fige deglaich: grith fodla, grith suide grith 
coméirge. 
100. Trf dorchoe nU dlegat mna do imthecht : dorcha clach, dorcha 
aidche, dorcha feda. 
101. Tri sailge boccachta : imgellad, immarbag, imreson. 
102. Tri airisena boccachta : slrchéilide, strdécsain, shiarfaige. 

90 tri comartha cluanaide N clu œenaigh Ii cluoenaige B teinn L 
tind BM abocht HLec abhacht M co n-lmnead n6 imdergad HLec co 
n-uaithiss L co n-aïti8 1 91 ad meassam HMB mesom L drochmna LN 
frit oto. L iar fes le fer n-aiH H iar mbelth tri araile BIbi foleimnighe 1  
foilmag dot letrad H folelmnigh (foilmnig B) agud rochtain dort Jthe MB 
92 ad HBII beatha H iich L bs iaich bs muici meithi b4s fodhladhu L 
fogladi N £odalada B bs bithbenaig B luiïenalch Lec 93 uath ad  
ad 1 i8/ deagbriathar U degïJalth liB O fleid oto. B fer 
nostah'bir  fer teid dia tairtlud minab saitheaeh I 9fi cuJdmidi  
96 flaltheamh BI sacart tuisledach N 8agart diultach B diultadhach 1 
97 fuirlc .i. fleadh n6 féasta B daghduine 1 98 chmusan NBI 
a cu d(xl ledrad N do congabail lI drochscel ]at immah L 99 tri 
grlth L tri gartha lI £ogla L sulgidhe BIbi 100 nach 
dleguid N narfacad do mnai imteact B d'imtecht M 101 soilge 
BM imgellad bag L imarbaid imreasain BM imarbaigh imresain  imreason 
n5 imraichnl L 102 hoersenna BM hairisin Iç sirfiarfaighe 1 slrfiar- 
faigid N 



THE TltlA1)S OF IItELAtN]) 13 
90. Thrce ungcnth.ruanly things: intcrrupting stories a mis- 
chierons gaine, jesting so as fo raise a blush. 
91. Threc imiles that are worse than sorrow: thc smile of the 
snow as it melts, thc smile of your wife  on yon aïter 
another man bas been with ber,  the grin of a houud 
rcady to lcap af you2 
92. Three deaths that arc better than lire : the death of a sa[mon, 
thc death of a fat pig, thc dcath of a robber.  
93. Thrce fewnesses that are better ¢han plenty: a fewness of 
fine words, a fewncss of cows in grass, a fewncss of 
frivnds around aie. 5 
94. Thrce sorrowful ones of an alehouse : thc man who gives the 
fcast, thc man to whom it is giron, thc man who drinks 
witlout being satiated.  
95. The laughing-stocks of the world : an angry man, a jealous 
man, a niggaxl. 
96. Three ruins of a tribe : a lying chier, a falsc jndge, a lnstïul  
priest. 
97. Thé*ce prcparations o[ a good mans bouse: ale a bath., a 
large tire. 
98. Three 1)reparations of a bl man's house: strife before you, 
COml)laining to you, his hound taking hold of you. s 
99. Three 8hout8 of a good warlSors bouse : the 8hout of distribu- 
tion, the shout of sitting down the shout of rising Ul). 
100. Three darkues8es into which women should hot go : the dark- 
nes8 of mi8t, the darkness of night, the darkne8sof a wood. 
101. Three prop8 of obst_in_acy: pledging one8elf, contending» 
wrangling. 
102. Three charactcristic8 of ob8tinacy: long visit8, 8taring 
constant questioning. 

 ' Oï a bad woman,' LN. - ' After sleeling vitla anothet man,' 
a, To tear you to pieces,' H- ' Coming up to devour you,' MB. 
a, Of a criminal,' B.  ' good aie,' ]B. 
 ' Who goes to it unsatiated,' 11. i.e. who drlnks on an empty tomach. 
 ' Stumbling, offending,' lsI- ' Fond of refusing,' B. 
s, Tearing you,' l sI. ' A bad story to speed you on your way," L. 
 Literally, ' bucki._-hness.' 



14 TRECHENG BRETH FÉNI INSO SIS 
103. Tri comarha meraigi : slicht a chlre ina olt, slicht a iacal 
ina chuit, slicht a luirge ina diaid. 
104. Tri mAidme clfianaigi: af5 af do scAth, rosa]trus fort, rot- 
fliuchus coin étach. 
105. Trlhi fochcrdat marhdili : oss foceird a congna, fid foceird a 
duille, cethra focerdat a mhréninda. 
106. Tri scenb I[érenn: Tulach ha nEpscop, Ached Déo, Duma 
mBdirig. 
107. Tri hingnad ]érenn : lige inn ahaic, llge nEothuili, allabair 
i foccus. 
108. Tri danrthige ]érenn: danrthech ]3irra, danrthcch Clfiana 
Eh]nech, danrthech Lclthglinde. 
109. Tri hingcna herta miscais do mithocod : lahra, lesca, anidna. 
110. Tq hingena berta seirc do chAintocud : t(m, éscuss, idnoe. 
111. TH tfla at.oE feT labra : t6a f forcital, t(m fil haitiud, t6a 
fri proeept. 
l l2. Trl labra ara fcrr tfia: och5n rlg do chath, sreth immais, 
molad iar 16ag. 
Il3. Tri hailgesa étflalaing .i. éirg cen co deehais, tuc cenitbé, 
déna ceni de,ma. 
114. Tff hamaite hit[e] i n(h'ochtlfig 6iged .i. sentrichem sen- 
chaillige, roschaullach ingine mSile, sù'ite gillai. 
ll5. Tri hairlg ha ndfialche: sant, crSes, éh'ad. 

103 comarthadha M meralgthe N 'ha cend BM 'va cuit BM inandiaig B 
ha diaidh M 104 cluainige BM ato BbI atu L rodsaltar M rosaltrur 
ort L rosfliuchus coin edach N rofliuchus coin ediuch BM comh edach L 
105 oto. BMHLec 106 oto. BMItLec achad N 107 oto. BMttLec 
hinganta N allubulr a fogus N 108 oto. BMtILec 109 do mitocuid 51 
do togud BbI lesce N anldna N nemidna BbI .i. esinrucas add. II 
ll0 beres L berta seircce de ca]n[ogud BM sercN calntoeaid N tri hadbair 
serci Lec tSa esces idna N esca BMLec III labrai N sproicept B 
sproicepht M fri aithfnd 51 112 uchan N ocom BM hairfidiud n0 
ris BM luadh B 113 haisgeadha edualaing B erg gen co/is H tue gen 
gud beirg (?) gen go gaemais dena gen go heda B tuea gen cobeN gen gudbeM 
gen [go] dernals N gen go fera HM 114 hamaide drochoighe IM 
sentliche caillige BM sentrichim N rosc cailleach ingine siridhe gillal BM 
siride Iç sirilhe L 
 Or ' cudgel.' 
 Literally, ' stinking hair.' 
 A bill near Kildaro. Sec Thcsaurus PMoeo-hiberuicus ii.. p. 



THE TRIADS OF IRELAID 15 
I03. Three signs ef a fo l) : the track of his eemb in his hair, the 
traek of his teeth in his food, the track of his stick  
behind him. 
104. Thrce ungentlcmanly boasts: I ana on yonr traek I have 
traml)lcd on yen, I have wet yon with my dress. 
I05. Three live ones that put away dead things : a deer shedding 
its horn, a wood shcdding ils leaves, cattle shedding their 
coat.  
I06. Three l)laces of Ircland to make yen start : Tnlach ha n-Escol), 3 
Aehad Dee « Duma mBnirig. 
107. Three wonders of Ireland : the grave of the dwarf, » thc grave 
of Trawohelly « an echo near2 
I08. Three aratories of Ireland : the oratory of Birr, thc eratory 
of Clonenagh the oratory of Leighlin. 
109. Thrce maidens that blng hatred upon misfortnne: talking, 
laziness, insincërity. 
Il0. Three maidens that bring love to geod fortnne: silence, 
diligence, sincerity. 
I ll. Three silanees that are botter than spcech: silence ditring 
instruction, silence during music, silence duSng preaching. 
112. Three spceches that are botter than silence : incitinga king to 
battle, spreading knowledge (), praise after reward. 9 
113. Three ml)ossible demands - go! though yon cannot go, bring 
what yon have hot got, do what you cannot do. 
114. Three idiets that are in a bad guest-house : thc chronc cengh 
of an old hag, a brainless tartar of a rl, a hobgoblin of a 
gillie. 
115. The three chier sins: avarice, gluttony, lust. 
z Somewhero in the west (i n-iarthar Erenn, Fél., p. clvii}. 
 At Tara. Sue Todd's Irish zYennis, p. 200. 
 See Todd's Irish zYennius, p. 199, and Zeitchrift ïiir Celt. Phil. v., p. 23. 
7 lothing is known to me about this wonder. 
s 8reth immais, whieh I bave tentatively translated by ' spreading knowledge,' 
is used as a technlcal terre in poetry ïor couectlng all the words of a verse-line by 
alllteration, as e.g. slatt, sae¢, soee, sbnend, salaud. Sec Ir. Texte iii., p. 0. 
9 Cf. LL. 44a : Carpre asks Cormac what are the sweetest things he bas heard, 
and Cormac answers : ' A shout of triumph after vietory, praise after reward, the 
invitation of a t'air woman to ber pillow.' 



16 TRECHEING ]3REïH FÉNI IiïSO SIS 
116. Tréde neimthigcdar crossAn : tige 6ilc, l'ige théighe, tige bronn. 
117. TfCe nelmthigcdar cfrmaire : eoimrith fri coin hi[cJ cosnum 
ehnma, adarc reit.hi do dfrgud dia nn,4il cen tenid, 
dichetal for ocht.rùg co rathochra a mbi iha f('htur for 
a daehtar do chofigna 7 cnAmùb 7 adarcnib. 
118. Tréde nemthigedar ser: dldthud cen fomus, cen fescred, 
lfiadrlnna, béimm fo chommus. 
119. Tréde neimthiged liaig: digallr, dfaimue, comchissi cen 
ainchiss. 
120. TfCe neimthigedar gobainn : bir Neit.hin, fulacht ha Morrfgna 
iuncSin in I)agda. 
121. TfCe neimtlligedar cerdai : fige ronn, cœer comraic, plett fer 
f,hur. 
122. TfCe neimthigedar eruitire: golltraige, gentraige sdan[ralge. 
123. Tréde neimthigedar filid : immas forosna., teinm loeda, dichetal 
di chcnnaib. 
124. I)fi mgairm mfthoeaid : commidem do chétguine, do ben la 
fer n-aile. 
125. Teora airi[-sena iarnduba: comar, cocless, elemnas. 
126. Tri bainne cémuintire: bainne fola, bainne dér, bainne 
aillse. 
127. Trf coiri bftc in cach dfiini : coire éïma, coire goriath, coire 
Aiged. 
117 oto. BIf]]Lec dirge 1N otrach 1N corotoc]ara 
huachtar 1N congnalm 1N 118 oto. ]hIHLec tri ara neimiter 
dluthugud N feiscre N ludh lualthreand N 119 vin. ]IIItLec 
ara neimiter liagh 1N coimcisin gin ainces 1N 120 »rn. BIIHLec 
ara neimiter gobaind 1N bii ndechin N 121 
flet N 122-123 oto. BMtILec 124 atte d ni igairm (!) do 
neoch .i. maldem a ctgulne 7 a bean do beith fri fer n-al]] BII raitocaid N 
a cedgona 1N a ben la fer n-aile N 125 tri hairnadmand BIiN iardubha 
coicless LIi coicle Ii 126 banda 1N]Ii 127 core 13 duini L 
duine ] goiriat N aitin N notead ] notheadh 
l For adescription and pictm'es OE these appliances, see X']L., p. 419a, and 
]gerton, 1782, fo- 46a. 
z 0'Curry, ]kianners and Customs, ii., p. 253, thought that a caer con»'aic was 
' a ball oï convergent film or lines,' perhaps such a bead or ball of mosalc glass as 
is depicted in Joyce's 8ocal tIistory of4ncient Irelad, vol. ii., p. 32, fig. 171. 
ç cder comraic of cight different colours is menti,,ned in I,IL 10Sb 20. 



THE TRIADS OF IRELAND 17 
! ! 6. Three things that constitutc abuffoon : blowing out his check, 
blowing out his .atchcl, blowing out his belly. 
! I ï. Thrce things that constitute a comb-maker : racing a hound 
in contending for a bone; strMghtening a ram's horn 
by his breath, with,ut tire ; chanting upon a dungbill so 
that all antlers and bones and horns that are bclow corne 
to the top. 
! 18. Thrce things that constitute a cm]enter: joining together 
without ca]culafing (.9), without wnrping (.9) ; agility with 
thc eompass ; a well-mcasured stroke. 
[19. Three thins that constitute a physici,n: a complote cure, 
leaving no blcmish bchind, a painlcss examination. 
120. Three things that constitutc a blacksmith : Icthin's spit thc 
cooking-hearth of thc IoTigan, the Dagda's anvil) 
121. Thrce things that constitutc an artificcr: weaving chalns, a 
mosaic bail, - an edg'e upon a blade. 
122. Three things that constitute a braquer: a tune fo mako you 
cry, a tune to make you laugh, a tune to put you fo 
slep? 
123. Three things that constitute a poet: 'knowledge that 
illumines,' ' th.m laeda, u improvisation. 
! 24. Two ominous cries of itl-l«ck : boastlng oï your first slaughter, 
1"' ."'5 a and t,ïf v.om:, wife bcing. « with ,'mothcr man.. 
Three t'e -tok¢nilg trouble: holding a plough-land 
in common, performing fcats together, alllanec in 
marriage. 
126. Three drops of a wedded woman : a drop of blood, a tear-drop, 
a drop of swcat. 
that are in every(fort: the ca|dron of rnn- 
127. 
Thrce 
chlrons 
nlng (.9), thc caldron .aoriath,  the ca]dron of gmsts. 

 Cri H. 8. 18, p. 87 : lréide nemtighther cruit ; goltraiges, gentraiges suan- 
traiges. 
 Tlle nomes of various kinds of incantalions. 8ee Crmac's Glossary and 
Aneient Laws, s.r. 
» Quite obscure to me. There is a heavily glossed pOem in H. 3. 1,, beginning 
çoi»eeJoriath. In H. 2. 15, p. Il7 t', af-ter the oelophOn to D6il Lsithne (Goid.,  
p. 79), there al some further glosses, among which I find : goitiath .i. gardbamh 
in gach i, th, eml«t .i. uasal-iompfi no iar-iompa. But ërma seems the genitlve of 



18 TRECHENG BItETH FÉNI INS(} ss 
128. Trf commoEha lthraig bcndachtan : doee, sMm, senad. 
129. 'tri eomartha LoEthraig mallaehhm : tromm, tradna, nenNd. 
10. 'reo muimmeeha fUi(le : cill, eoim, adaig. 
131. Ï«.ora ramm slnin fri eiutocad: rumlua» toiethiu» tM- 
chaire. 
132. ïeora ranna shlinie dotcaid : tls, es firbirc. 
183. D[ derbiair : t.l 7 trdai. 
184. D«[ derbrthair: tocad 7 brugMde. 
135. Tri fuidb dotcadaig: rAthaiges, etargaire, fiadnaise. Dotoing 
dia fiadnaisl, ccaid dis r£thaiges, doberar béimm n-etm- 
guire iua chinll. 
136. Trl thracha g'Sa: b6ss, d5ig, toimtiu. 
1;37. Tri brthair uamain : sta[ sit [ eoiste [ 
138. Trf mairb fortgcllat for bfn : mcd, aied forrach. 
139. Tr brothç.h;iln rflm : roflficc rosiacht, rotochtaig. 
140. Trf dubthrebtha: tnga co ffiatchai imme co fogaire, tfmd 
co n-aurgorad. 
141. Tri hiarnduba: fer tochmairc, fcr guite mele, fer hic 
aisn6is. 
142. Tri maic bercs drus do lonnus : tuiltëth, fidchell, dulsae. 
143. Tri maic beres féile do ainmnit : gvdss, Ytss rucca. 
144. Tri maic beres neSit do deinmnait : c4th, dochell grith. 
145. Trf hdar ffchte : tipra, rouir, nœe oerma. 
146. Tri ffiammann mSaiglhe: fdam b6 mblecht, fdam cerdc, 
fdam arathair. 

128 lathrach bennachtan H bendacht L senad NBMH ocsenad I, 
129 mallachtan IM »eaad l neanntoch M tradnai IM tradna It 
180 tri rauirae BBI tri buime gaitl Il coill ]M 181 sloindti 
caintocaid xN tolcte N 132 dotcaid N tlass ois oirbire N 
lgg siair L tlas 7 tl'OUS ' truaJghe BMH 134 brathair M toice 7 
bladaige N togud 13 tacad H 155 fo]db dothcadaigh M toindid a 
fiadnnisi Bhl iccaid a rathnigecht beiridh builleadha etargaire ina cind 13M. 
136 t, dmdi L 137 bnoEitri xN omain IM ist sta 7 coisde 13M sta sit 
coist N 138 ïorgellait I for fiu IM meid armeid BM forach IN 
139 bïothcain mtha N taithi L rodicc rosiacht roto»cai N 140 doidb- 
trebtai tugai co ïodaib imed co forrngaire N tuighe go ïoldibh M co foitlb Lec 
tlriudh M 141 ïear fochmaire Lec fer aisneisi N 142 lundus N 
tulfeith xN dullaine L 143 alnmned N grds rus l'Il(lad  14 deinmnet N 
gith cdth doieell N 145 huara N 146 fuamandl moaigti N moigthi L 
htainl ho mbllcht N 



THE TRIAI)S OF IRELAND 19 
1-98. Thrce tokens of a blcssed site : a bcll, psalm-singing, a 
synod (of cld(.rs). 
129. Three tok(.ns of a cursed site : eldcr a corncrake netlcs.  
130. Thrêe nurscs of thcft : a wood, a cloak, ni.':ht. 
131. Three qualities"- that bcspeak good fortune : self-importance 
. . .  self-w/ll. 
!32. Three qualifies s that bcspcak misïortune: weariness» (pre- 
mature) old age, reproachfulness. 
133. Two sisters : wearinêss and wrctchcdnêss. 
134. Two brothers : prosperity and husband T. 
135. Thrêe unlucky... : guaranteeing, mediating, wi(ness- 
i»g. The witncss bas fo swêar £ his eidcnce, 
the guarantor has to pay for his security, the mediator 
gcts a blow on his hcad.  
136. Thrce falsc sisters : ' pcrhaps,  ' may be,' ' I darc say.' 
137. Three timid brothers : ' hush ! ' ' stop !' ' li.ten ! ' 
138. TluCe dead things that give evidcnce on llve things: a pah" of 
scales, a bushel, a measuring-rod. 
139. Three pottages of guaranteeing ......  
140. Three black husbandrics: thatching with stolen things,  
putting up a fente wltlt a proclamation of trespass kiln- 
drying with scorching. 
141. Three after-sorrows : a wooer's, a thief's, a tale-bearer's. 
142. Three sons whom folly bears fo anger: frowning» . . . , 
mockery (?). 
143. Thrce sons whom generosity bears to patience : _ . . , blush- 
ing, shame. 
144. Three sons whom chnrlishness bears to impatience: trcmb- 
ling, nig¢-ardliness, vociferation. 
145. Three cold things that seethe: a well, thc sca, new ale. 
146. Thrce sounds of increase : the lwing of a cow in milk the 
din of a smithy the swish of a plough. 
 See my edition or e'din Adamdi p. 13, note 3, and p. 38. 
 Literally, ' parts.' z Literally, ' heaviness, weight.' 
 The usual meanings oïfodb,  accoutrement, equipment» arms,' do hot seem fo 
suit bore. » Literally, ' the blow of mediation is dealt on his head.' 
 Obscure and probably oOrrupt. Cf.  219.  ' with sods,' IIL» perpmïtm. 
s ,del«ell, the wvll-lnown ame, gives no sense here. 
C2 



20 TREC:HE:NG BRETH FÉNI IN,O SI'S 
147. Tr hana nntçcnn : tipoE i sl6ib, tene a lic, ana la c calad. 
148. Tr ai(hgnc n domuin : bru mn5, u(h bS, ness gobunn. 
149. Tr difi)urta forsn5 hda dflse: tinnscra tonS, imthomailt 
l[namna, iarraid nmiec. 
150. Tri cuir tinlaiter do r6ir brifheman: cor nmA 7 nicc 7 bothaich. 
151. Tri nat:t[[ t.fialaing sainchnir : nac beo-athar, bcn aurnadma, 
d6er at.lm. 
152. Tri maie nad rannat orbai : mac muini 7 aurlai 7 ingine fo 
thrilis. 
153. Tri ai nad eph.t rail[ : fii dochuind, 7 doehrai(e, 7 anfis. 
154. Tr fuile ha dlegat frecor : fuil catha, 7 eSit, 7 ct.argai. 
155. Tr fuchaclta nad increnat slabrai: a gabil ar écin, a slcith 
tri mescai, a turtngud do rfg. 
156. Tri n dlcgat turbaidi : athchor mc, aicdi cherdai, gallaigechL 
157. Tri aithne hA dlegat tsec: aithne n-écuind, 7 ardneimid 7 
aihne fuirmeda. 
15a. Tri mairh direnaitcr bcoaib: aball, co, fidnemcd. 
15t. Tri[ar] n ditoing n fortongar : n, angar, amlar. 
160. Tri nK dlcgat athchommus : mac 7 a athair, ln 7 a colle, d6er 
7 a t.hiea. 
11. Tr nKt fuigletar eia beith " a ng'es : fer adgair 7 adgairther 
7 foerenar fri breith. 
lg2. Tri fors n fuit aititin 'ha r6: hs, anfls, anfaitches. 
147 lucISS, anailafearealaidN 148itgine aithgeinitL eorathgenB 
coratgen M bru birit BM meas ([) BMLec 14 hiad  imtomailt N 
i;trr«tid menie () L 10 tinntaigter N 11 nad N lg erlai N 
lfi8 dochainn N doemite N 14 nad N etargaire N 1 f6icheehta  
slaibri N IB nad dlegait tm'baid N aige coeda  17 haitne nad dlegait 
taisc N eeoind N frmidai L 18 dorenatar beo N 1 dotoing ha 
fortoinger L amlobar N lB0 na dlegait N lçl nat fuigletar cia beit  
adgair 7 adga (sic)  aagairter 7 rocrenar N 1Bg anfuieheàes L anbtces " 
 tr, ' of contracts on thelr own behalf.' 
 çf. the exprsion meirdr«eh muine, « a bush-strumpet,' Lawa v. 17, 4. 
 f*«ehae$t, or fuieheeht, ImuMly mes ' euckoldry,' a meaning which does hot 
...... to suit h ....  "'- 
 i.e. a deposit ruade by an imbecile. 6 Plato, Republic : " But sly you 
would never give back to a m flend a sword which he KΠlent you ?" 
a But in the Heptads (Laws v. IG 8) aitkf*« fuirmida, there rendereà by  a 
deposited charge,' is enumemted as one of those fo be restoxd even if theoe are no 
bonds to that effect. 



THE TRIAD OF IRELAND 21 
147. Thrcc wealths in barren lflaccs : a wcll in a mountain i tire out 
of a stonc, wealth in thc possession of a hand man. 
14. Threc rcuovators or the world : thc womb of woman, a cow's 
uddcr, n smith's monhling-block. 
149. Ihrec conccalmonts upon w]dch forïeiture docs lmt ch»c: a 
wifc's dowry, thc fov o-a nmrricd couple, a boy's f-stcr- 
fce. ' 
150. Three coutracts th, t are rcvcrscd by the dccision of a judgc : 
the contmcts of a womat|, of a son, of a cott:tr. 
151. ïhrce that we incapable of special contracts t : a son whosc 
fatlwr is alivc, a bctrothvd woman, thc serf of a chicf. 
102. Thrce sous that do hot sharc inhcritancc : a son bcgottcn in a 
brake,  thc son of a slave, the son of a girl still we:ring 
tresscs. 
15. Thrce causes that do hot die with neglect: tho causes of 
an imbecilc, and of oppression, and of ignor.mcc. 
154. Thrcc bloodshcds that nced no bc impugncd : thc bloodshed 
of battle, of jcalousy, of mediating. 
155. Three coh:tbitations 3 that do no pay a marriage-portion: 
taking ber by force, outraging hcr withont hcr knowlcdgc 
t/vJ through drunkenness, her bcing violatcd by a king. d«/îr 
156. Ttlree)that are hot entitlcd to exemption : restoring a son, thc . ) 
tools of an artificcr hostageship. 
157. Three deposits tha need no be reurned : he deposlts of an q 
imbecile,  and of a high dignltary, and a fixed deposit? 
158. Three dead ones that are paid for with living things: an 
apple-re% a hazlc-bush, a sacred grove.  
159. Three that neiher swcar nor are sworn: a woman, a son 
who does hot support his fathcr, a dumb pcmon. 
I 0. Threc that arc not enitIcd to renunciation of authority : a son 
and his father, a wifc md ber husband, a soif and his lord. 
161. Three who do hot adjudicate though flmy arc possessed of 
wisdom : a man who sucs, a man who is bcing sued, aman 
who is bfibcd to give j«dgmcnt. 
162. Threc on whom acknowl((lgmcnt does hOt f:dl in its rime: 
death, ignorante, care]es.ness. 
Tht.r. t ],«»thmg in th¢. |.ux s 1o cxpl du tlt. '. 



22 TRECHENG BRETH FENI INst} SIS 
168. Trf foilm'imme n dlegnd dfre: homan, robud, toxal. 
164. Trfduilgine eonrannat gnfaid: duilgine coiri, duilgne muilinn, 
duilgine tige. 
16.5. Trf n6ill don,6 dlegar frithn6ill: n6ill mn fa'i hfiaitni, n6ill 
tir mairb, n6ill dlthir. 
166. Tri gr,6da eoillte t6ath ina ng6i: g6i rfg, g6i enchada, 
brethemall. 
167. ïrf s6ir dognfat d6eru dfb féin : tigelma renas a déiss, rfgan 
téitc co haithcch, mac flled léces a cheird. 
168. Tri ruip conberat dulnechlnaid: cri raig, reithc lonn, ech 
daintech. 
169. Trl ruip ara tfagat cinta : cri ïoilm[nJech, sleg caille, slis6n 
chomncibi. 
170. Tri inmscrcnat: saill, imm, iarn, fechemnas toise leimmid 
eiesi. 
171. Trl Colnartha agclla i tig britheman : ecna, aisnéis, intlecht. 
172. Trl dlegat aurïocrai : aél coirc fidba cen eim, oral cen dimosc. 
17. Trl doruis -5a : tacra ïergach ïotha n-utmall n-eolais, aisnéis 
ceu chuimni. 
174. Tr doruis a n-Mchnither flr : ïrccra n-ainmnetach, ai fossad, 
s6ud fxi fiadnu. 
175. Tri bfiada airechta : brithem cen f6asnad, etirchcrt cen écnach, 
coma con diupair$. 
176. Trl tonna cen gissi: tacra calad, bth cen eolas, airecht 
labar. 
177. Tri b6ada insci : ïosta gis gairde. 
178. Trl cumtaig gziisse : immed n-eolais lln fssach, dagaigni do 
airbirt. 
163 foimrime 
çonrenad gnia IN 165 naill nad dlegad fritnill luige mna IN hàde IN luige 
ditire IN 166-220 
deissi L teid IN treiges a cerd IN 168 araid IN reithid IN daindtech 
170 imus crenait saill IN sali L iaax)nn IN feitemnus toisc leine ira eiccsi IN 
171 comardcL L aragellat a tig brethemaa IN taig L aisnesen imliuehtach L 
172 dlegait urfggroe IN fidbaigh oaa tseim oral gan dimosc IN dinsem L 
17 fothad utmall IN eolus aisena ocau coimni IN 17 an aithniter fiorinne IN 
freaccra n-ainmnedach IN ainmeta L ai fosaid sodad IN 175 fuasna L 
176 tomm gaisi bi donnadgaissi L tonna gan gaoise H. 1. 
17 buadad innsce IN goi 



O¢¢4 THE TRIADS OF IltELAND 23 
163. Three usucaptions that arc hot entit[ed to a fiue : fear, warning 
apotagh. 
164. Three wages that labourers share : the wages of a caldron,  
the wages of a mill, the vages of a bouse. 
165. Three oaths that tYnrent": the oath of a 
woman in birth-pangs, lhe oath of a dead man, the oath 
of a landless man. 
166. Three ranks that in tribes their falsehood : the falsehood 
of a king, of a historian, of a judge. 
167. Three free ones that makc slaves of themselves : a lord who 
sells his land, a quecn who goes to a boor, a poct's son 
who abandons his (father's) craft. 
168. Threc brutes whose trcspasses count as human crimes: n 
chained hound, a ferocious ram, a bting horse. 
169. Thrce brutish things that atone for crimes : a leshcd hound, 
a spike in a wood,  lath .--..  
170. Three things that .... salt-meat, butter, iron .....  
171. Three signs that . . .  in a judge's hoose : wisdom, informa- 
tion, intellect. 
172. Three things that should be proclaimcd: thc flesh-fork of a 
caldron, a bill-hook without a rivet, a sledge-hammer 
without . . .  
173. Three doors of falsehood : ,an angry pleading, a shiiting rounds- 
tion of knowledge, giving informtion without memory. 
174. Thrce doors through which truth is recognised: a patient 
answer, a firm plcading, appeMing to witnesses. 
175. Three glories of a gathering : a judge without pertmbation, 
a decision without reviling, terres (agreed upon) without 
fraud. 
176. Three waves without wisdom: hard pleading, ]udgmcnt 
without knowledge, a talkative gathcring. 
177. Three glories of speech: steadiness, wisdom, brevity. 
178. Three ornaments of wisdom: abundance of knowledge, a 
number of precedents, to employ a good counsel. 
 i.«. of making a caldron, OEc. 
2 Literally ' a counter-oath, a second oath.' 
 eomneibi is a r« l«7dteo  me. 
4 Obscure and probubly corrupt. 



24 

179. Tri misccna indsci : figne, dldithc, dtdbairc. 
180. Trf fostai dagbanais : fosta thcngad 7 gcnsa 7 airnb,'m[ai. 
1,SI. ïri f5indi[ drochb:mais : ï6indi[ scél 7 ataid 7 airbvrn/ais. 
182. Tri bSada étaig : nmissc, clithcha, suflmine. 
laS. Tr m; dlcgat othns: fçr asldi ttaffh 7 fini 7 fili. 
14. Tri tharsuhm archuillct othras: cchruuir, mil, saillti. 
185. Tri ma,-i n5 dlcgat diri: bon lasrua cuma cipé las ï,4i, bon 
gatach, bon aupthach. 
lSti. Tr dofortat cach flaith : gSu» ïorsnaldn b finga|. 
187. Tri t5arascbait cach ngcnmnaide : fosta ïéilc, sobnSde. 
1,8. Tri ara n-aichnidcr cach ïcrgach : r, crith imbSnad. 
189. Tri thfiarascbait cach n-ainmnctach : s,mtha, tda, imdcrrad. 
190. Tri thfiarascbait cach n-5allach : mSrthu» ruaissc, miinc. 
191. Tri forndct cach n-umal : bochtatu, dinnime, humallSil. 
192. Tr airdi g[issc : alnmn% faiscsiu, f,4thaige. 
193. Tri ah'di drfiisse : b5g, imresain, condailbe. 
194. Tr6de immifoilngc g4is do bSeth : ccna, fosta, socholscc. 
195. Tréde immifoilngc b,4is do geth : ïdasnad, ft.rg, mcsca. 
196. TfAde faillsiges cach ndageras : d,u, gaisccd, er6sinc. 
197. Tredc ïaillsigedar cach ndrocheras: serba miscais, midhr:has. 
198. Trl fogldaiset fScnlcdchu: ingrcim» dolnd, dommatu. 

179 miscne indsce N raighni L 180 fosta 1 fostadh tengad 
airbe«tais N 151 oto. N 182 bnadhad N cliche 
183 nad dbyait dire fer doslalg flailh 7 file î fine 1N" feili L 184 lharsmm 
tarsuind aircaillti oth,ais N 185 nat dlegait N cia las f(a)oi lg optach 
186 dofortad gach fl«tha N 187 ttmmscbd/a genmnaid lbstad N 188 tri 
aichnider L aranaithnentur N hir L 189 tuarascbalai gach naimnnedaigh 
smtad N tuai L 190 tuaruscbahd cach ndubalcai mortha N 191 forindcd 
bochtai N 192 hairdhe h" fairsl fathaidhi N 193 oto. N 19 itnfuilnge 
195 imfailnge baoth N 196 cach degferus N cresenai N 197 faillsighus 
c;ch dtchfcl'us ' 198 fainnelca N doIai 1 

In Mod. h'. righueas labkartha nmans ' an impediment in speech.' See 
Dinneen's Dictionary, s.v. 
Literally, ' stories.' 
I bdieve echmuir t be the mtme o[ a plant: but I cannot find the reference. 
Or rather ' murder of relations.' 
Cf. d'hn eena dogni rig do bocht, dogni gheth do bteth, &c., LL. ;4635. 
Such as art, poetry, &c. 



TIIE TRIAIS oF IREAND 25 
179. Thrcc hateful things in specch: stiffncss, l obscm'ity, a bad 
delivcry. 
180. Three steadinesses of good womanhood: kccping a steady 
tonguc, a stcady chastity, and a steady housewifcl3". 
lB1. Three strayings of bad womanhood : letting hcr tongue, 2 and 
• . . and ber housewifery go astray. 
182. Thrce exccllences of drcss: elegance, comïort, lastingness. 
183. Three that are not entitled to sick-maintenance : a man who 
absconds from his chier, flm his family, from a poct. 
184. Three sauces that spoil a sick-bed : . . ., honey salt food. 
185. Three women that are not cntitlcd to a fine: a woman who 
does hOt carc with whom shc slccps» a thicvish wommJ, 
186. Three things that ruin evcry cirier : falsehood, overrcaching, 
panicide. 4 
187. Thrce things that chacterise cvery chaste person : 
steadines, modesty, sobriety. 
188. Three thlngs by which every angry person is known: an 
outburst of passion, trembling, growing pale. 
lgg. Threc things that charactcrise evm T patient person: repose, 
silence, blushing. 
190. Thrce things that characterise eve T haughty pcrson: 
pompousness, elegauce, (diplay of) wealth. 
191. The things that tell eve T humble person: povvrty, 
homcliness, servility. 
192. Thrcc signs of wisdom: patience, eloseness, the gift oï prophcey. 
19ô. Three signs of folly: contention, wmngling, attachmcnt (to 
everybody). 
194. Thrce things that m,-tkc a foo[ wise: learning, steadiness, 
docility2 
195. Thrce flings that make a wise man foolish: quarrvlling, 
angcr, drunkcnncss. 
196. Three things that show cvery good man: a special gift, 
valour, piety. 
197. Thrce things that show a bad man: bittcess, hatred, 
eowardicc. 
198. Thrcc tlling tht 
l,,»vcrty. 



26 

199. 
200. 
201. 
202. 

203. 
2O4. 
205. 

206. 
207. 
208. 
209. 
210. Tri 
211. Trl 
212. Trl 
213. Trl 
214, Tri 
215. Tri 
216. Tri 

217. Trl 

Tri 

TItEC]ENG BRETH FENI INSO SIS 
Tri slabrada bi cumregar clSine : cotach» ragail» rechtge. 
Tri all frisa timargar béscna : mainister, fiait]a» fine. 
Tri caindIe forosnat cach ndorcha : fir, aicned, ecna. 
TfCe neimthigedar rig: fonaidm ruirech, feis Temrach, 
roimse inna ïlaith. 
Tri glais foradat rdine : n£i¢, lfia, dochta. 
Tri heochracha aroslicct imritiu : mescca, taisiu, sert. 
Tr orbai rannaiter fiad chomarbaib: orba drdith 7 orba 
dsachtaig 7 orba sin. 
Tri scithir 5itcd : tol, ilde, féile. 
Tri seithir sentad : cher, genas» itchc. 
Tri sethir sognSise : eldle, soithnges, cuinnmlne. 
Tri seithir dognise : lui_une, cétludche, taiSsmige. 
seithlr sotcaid : sognas, sochell, sfiarcus. 
scithir sochlatad : léire, tïebare, rathmaire. 
scithir dochlatad : laxa» dibc» prapchaillte. 
scithir ferge : écnach, augra, doithnges. 
seithir deirmiten : tromdatu, espatu, utmaille. 
seithir airmiten : torbatu, aiaétramma, fosta. 
bmlloe : ldan, mairt, cét£in. n co fi innib, bid m5 a 
sert 1 firu ind serc a fer leo-som 7 beit a mnh tar éis ha 
fer sin. 
ferloe: 5. dardin, ine, domnach. ]Kn co firu intib 
bcitit ha mn£ sin fo di'ad 7 b«itit a tir dia n-éisi. 
Satharn immorro is laithe coitchenn. Is comllth dSib. 
Lfian scr do dul fri cach les. 
gnlma r£tha: fosta féilc» lobra. Fosta i n-rus» féile, 
arn ebra gSe lo_bra_hlcce .L lécud a lomaoEha i n-indligud 
dar a ïechimain. 

199 racht lq 200 tri frisa lq mineistir N flatha N 
202 tri aranemiter ri N 208 ruini L 204 o.laiee imralte IN 
205 rannait fia comarbaoibh (sic) N 206 aide toil ll 208 feili soingtes 
connamno N soithgnes L 209 cetluithche bi 210 sottch- N sothchaidh L 
sognais L 12 doclata N 213 doingteas N 16 bandla N 
at mna belt tara n-eiseiu N 17 aoine atharn ng domnach I 
innib N beldis N 218 «*m. ratha L lubrai 1 anarus N heibre g6i I 
lubrai ice .i. leacadh lonmha anlndliged dar cenn feiehiman N 



THE TRIADS OF 1RELAND 

27 

199. Three chains by which evil larc4aensity is boud : a covenant, 
a (ncnastic) rule, law. 
200. Three rocks  which lawflfl behavicur is tied : a mcnastery, 1 
a chieftain, the family. 
201. Three candles that ilhmiae every darkness : tath» nature, 
knowledge. 
202. )l'ee things that ccnstitute a king : a ccntmct with (cAher) 
kings, the fcast of Tara, abundance dung his reign. 
203. Tin-ce locks that lcck u 1) secrets : shame silence, clcseness. 
204. Three kcys that unlcck thoughts : chankenuess, trustfulness, 
lcve. 
205. Three inheritances that are dividcd in thc la¢sence of hci: the 
inheritance of a jester, of a nmdman, and cf an old man. 
206. Three ycuthful sisters : desia.e beauty genercsity. 
207. Three aged sistem : ganing, chastity, ugliness. 
208. Tlae well-bd siste : ccnstancy well-spokenness, kindlincss. 
209. Tlree ill-bred siste : fierceness lustfulness, cbduracy. 
210. Three sisters of gocd fortuae : gccd breeding, libcrality mirth. 
211. Three sisters cf gocd rel)ute : diligence, prudence, bouatifulaes. 
212. Three sisters of ill relaute : inertness grudging clcsefistedness. 
213. Three angry sisters : blaslahemy, strife, foulmcuthedness. 
214. Three irrevercnt sisters : inpcrtunity, ïrivolity, fiightiness. 
215. Three revemnt sisters : uscfulaess, au easy bearing firmness. 
296. Three woman-days: hlonday, Tuesday, We4aesday. If wonen 
gc to men cn those days, the men will lcve them 
bctter than they the men and the women will survive 
the men. 
217. Ttue man-days: Thursday, Fday, Sunday. If women go 
tc men cn those days they will nct be lcvcd, and their 
husbands will survive them. Saturday hcwever, is a 
commcn day. It is equally lucky fo them. hlonday is a 
f'eè day to undertake any business. 
21. Threèduties of guarantohip: staying (af home) hcncsty 
 (?); staying in one s sidence, h.esty lst he 
" »» utterCehÙÙCÂ, suffcring () laayment, riz. letting onese'ï  
be strilaped for an illegal action instead cf the debtor. 



28 TRECttE1NG BRETH FEN! I]NSO 
219. Tri brothchgiu ritha: 5ir[i]c n5 Choghu fcchcmat  
dlthcch(e) 
220. TH hdais rStha 7 airi 7 nadma 5. dul fri dSnam ddine rig 7 
daurthalgc 7 ctmlri. Ar is riais do tir fine do habair 
fria ceili. 
221. Tri as anrgnaid do ncoch : sladc a eich ran thigern, co 
sahtig a Ctach, dul ina chocar congairm, a srdSicsiu 
agaid oc caittmm ncich. 
222. TH bassa tSchai : bass eir a assa 7 a ochral, bass eir a 5 7 a 
berrad, bass etir c|mrthair a lind 7 a glfin 
223. Cia mcsam bi trcbod? Maic mn méfie» flvda mcnci clcmna 
ih., immat mcda scéo ïina : notchrint, n thormaiget. 
224. Tri galair ata ferr sL4inti : scola mm4 for mac, griss bronn- 
galair glanas broinn, ;ss timgaire oic dia maith. 
225. Tri fSilti coirmthige: immcd 7 ddthracht 7 elathS. 
226. Trl fognama ara messam dogn[ duine : fognam do drochmnSi 
7 do h-ochthigerna 7 do drochgobainn. 
227. Tri ara ferr i tig : daim, fir béla. 
228. TH ara mcssum i tig : maic, mn, méile. 
229. Tri comartha tirdachta .i. immargal 7 immarb,4g 7 meraichu. 
2:0. Ccnéle amus : salanaig buale 7 buicc brodnai 7 e5in erchoille 
7 seichc corad. 
231. Coue d,4ilcman : m5rmcmnnach meda, bolcsr6nach broc5iti, 
ifa eserni, cfiacmessach, donndabach, bolcra paitte, 
abartach escrai, geir graiu, crauretel cuirn. 

219 brocain N no no thognim L ditechta N dithechdi L 
220 eiteri N nadmadh friN 1 is ainergna N tri saineargnaidh M 
slaige BN rena B1M N sirdeicsln N sirdegsain BIM calthium BM aaitniem a 
coda N 2 corrthair bi 228 cidh is messa do trebad ni hansa N mie B 
imad fianna nodcrinaid 7 nitoirmuigid ]31M imehiana (!) N nitormaigett iN" 
224 eol 1 sceola (!) for fermac BII galar timargur oic do maithdre B 
di maith B do maith M 225 ealathaoi N ealado do neoeh carthar BM 
6 mesa N rochflaith B drochfe»nn N 7 data N 228 measum 
hite a taig mie BM 229 imurcal imurbaid ilnmithne N imabad LBM 
t0 cenela BII buale oto. BII eal'ŒEille M c6radh M 231 cenela BM 
metha YI bolgsonach BM itfa eserne BM cuachroeasach ]3M cuacbroche- 
sach H baite BM halti II abarthach easgmldh ]M gearr gl'andai B grenn 
graindi II crand rcbartach H treiteal cuirnd 11 cuirnn L 



29 
ty),] THE TIIADS OF IRELAlqD 
219. Three pottages of guarantorship : wor-geh] or n dcbtor's . . 
220. Three things har(l to guarnntce and to become a hostage and 
to make a contract for: to go security for constru«.ting 
the fort of a king, an omtolT, and a caldron. For it 
 l for a man of a family to be ven with(?) 
fellow3 
221. Three things that are undlgified for everyone: driving 
one's horse belote one's lord so as to soil his Ores, going 
fo speak to him without bcing summoned, stalng 
face as ho is eating his fol. 
222. Thrce laul handb*adths: a handb*adtb betwecn shoes 
and hose, a hamlbreadth bctween car and hair, a hand- 
breadth betwcen the fringc of the tunic and the knee. 
223. What is wot in a household ? Sons of a bawd, frcquent 
feasts, numerous alances in marrias, abundanee of 
mcad and wine. They waste you and do hot profit. 
224. Thrcc illnesses that are tter than hcalth : the lying-in of 
u womnn with a ma]c cbild, the lever of an abdominnl 
disease that clears thc bowels, a fcvesh passion to 
check el by its good (?). 
225. Thrce weloemes of  Me-bouse : plenty and kindliness and 
226. Th*e services the worst that a man can oelve : serving a bad 
woman, a bad lolxl, aml a bad smith2 
227. Thrcc things that are best  a bouse : oxcn,  men, axes. 
28. Three that arc worst in a bouse : boys, women, lewte. 
229. Three signs of boorishncss: strifc, and contention, and mistaking 
a person for another (?) 
230. Vious kinds of mercenaries : . . 
231. Various kds of dispensers : . . 
 Obscure and probably corrupt. Cp. 
21 caot make out the meang of doberimfri.  ' an ox,' N. 
» ' Or, perhaps, as in  22, ' sons of a lewd woman,' only in that case we have 
no triad. 
 O1", perhaps, ' slight or superficial knowledge.' 
 As I could only offer unsatisfactory guess-work as a translation of these 
passages, I omit them altogether. 



30 TRECHENG BRETH FÉN1 INSO 81'8 
32. Tr ris anse Ms fie aeealhim .i. r imma gabSil 70ll 
lfiirig 7 ntheeh de muin commMrehi. 
33. Tri as m6 menma bl8 .i. 8col6e ir lgfl a lm 7 gilla r 
lécud a ermid dad 7 ingen ar ndénam mm4 di. 
234. Cetharda form4 bi cosc n5 rfagail .i. gilla sacairt 7 cd nmill- 
eSrach 7 mac bantrebthaige 7 gamain gamnMge. 
235. Tri hdais dSib : du1 ar rfg n5 dasal nemid, ar is lethiu eneeh 
r[g aidbriud ; dul fri cath, ar ni tdalaing nech glinni fri 
cath acht rlg lasmblat secht tfiatha foa mSm ; dul f,q cim- 
midecht acht nech lasa mbi rang dScr. Secht n-aurgarta 
dSib : dul af deoraid, ar drdth 7 ar dSsachtach, ar diaraig, 
ar angar ar éconn ar essconn. Imnedach flano cach 
rSth af is écen di dlanapud ira cach ngell dobegr, aill 
riam, ailt iarum. 
236. Tri hamra Glinne DallSin i tir Eogain : force Dromma Leithe, 
is ass rochin 7 is dS-sidc foréimid Hnn nl, co torchair 
imMaig Lii la aitheeh bdi hic ffrad, ut dixit Finn : 
li mad biadsam af cono. ni mad rladsam ar n-echa $ 
tan is aithechin ,4tha. romarb torcc Dromma Letha. 
lqit Leittreach Dallin, cenn duine fair, dénam builc 
gobann olchena .i. ech usci robSi isinà loch i t6eb ha 
cille, is hé dochdaid ar ingin in tgacairt co ndergene in 
mil frie. Data Dili in tres ingnad. Asind loch cétna 
tinic a athair co ndechaid for boin do bdaib in brugad 
rob6i i rail ha cille co ndeirgenai in data de. 
23 annsom (andso H) do agallaim bfs BHM rig bi cumairce N a chom- 
airci tI 2 trede BMtlN scolaigi N seolaidi H iar lecun a erl 
oada tI iar leccad a arad uad N 284 fornach bi BM n BM gamnaidhe M 
285 nemi N it lethai L lethe N aidbriu N tulaing N gl]nde N acht 
aech laisinbiad , fo mamml N cimbidheacht acht nech lasambiad nogh daor 
diles N dasachtaig N imnedach do»o cecb raith N imnl dano L dlanapad N 
dobeir N 236 as as rocin N forfeimdi N lIuig Iii N Nuig tIith H. 1.15 
ma biasam N ma riadsim af n-eaeha N ricsam andechi L Lethoe N Leithi L 
ase docoid N fria N isin N co nderrna an dam fria N 
 Literally, ' who bas doï[ed his (boy's) clothes.' 
 I do hot understand the fo'ce of doïb, ' to them,' elther here or below after 
sect n.«urgart«.    
3 INow Glencar,'ix mi]es to thë'o'l of the town of Sligo. 
 The territory of the Iir Li, west of the river Bann. 
» The oxen of Dil, danghter of Mil or Legmannai,', are mv,,tiolcd ia thc 
Diodscmhas, No. 44 and lll (Rev. Celt. xv.). 



TttE TItIADS OF IRELAND 
232. Three that are most difficult to talk fo: a king about 
booty, a viking in his haubcrk, a boor who is under 
patronage. 
233. Three whose spirits are highest : a young scho]ar aïter haÇing 
rcad his psalms, a youngstcr who bas put on man's attlre, 1 
a maiden who bas been ruade a woman. 
234. Four on whom there is neither restraint nor rule : the seant 
of a priest, a miller's hound, a widow's son, and a 
shpper's calï. " 
235. Three  things : to go securi_ty on.îlï of a king or 
5,. highly privileged poison, for]ïï]g-non«ur is widcr q-7: 
tban any claire ; to go secm4ty for battle, for no one 
 capable of  secm'ity for a battle sa e a king under 
whose yoke arc seven tribes ; fo go secm4ty for captivity, 
cxccpt one who owns,,a serf. 
Scven prohibitions'."'o'go secua'ity for an outlaw, for a 
jestcr and for a madman, for a person s,¢.¢f.d- 
for an unfilial person, for an imbecile, for o-xom- 
 mn-ated. Troubleae m,over is cvcry , for 
 it is necessary for'if to give suddcn notice as rgmxls every 
pledge which he gives, now beïorchand, now afterwards, cSf g» 37 
236. Thrce wonders of Glenn Dallan  in Tirowen: the boat oÏ 
Druim Lelthe. It was born there, and Finn was unable 
to do aught against it, until it ïell in Mag Li  by a peasant 
who was ki]n-drying. Whence Finn said: 
" lot well bave we fed our hounds, 
lot well bave we (h4ven our horses, 
Since a little boor from a kiln 
Has killed the boar of Druim Leithe." 
The Beast of Lettir Dallan. If bas a human head aad 
otherwise the shape of a smith's bellows. The water- 
horse which lived in the lake by the side of the church 
cohabited wit}l the daughter of the p4est aad begot the 
beast upon ber. 
The Ox of Dil » is the thhxl wonder. Its father came 
out of the saine lake» and went upon one of the cows of 
thc landholdcr who lived ncar the church, and bcgot 
the ox upon ber. 



32 TRECHENG BIETI[ FÉNI INSO Sis 
2,27. Tri hamra Connacht : lige nÉothaili 'nu thr4cht. Coronal hé 
frisin tr4cht. Intan atraig in mulr, conmrd hé fria 
DiHa (.i.c.loch) in Dag<lal, cia fochcar ira-rouir, cia 
bertlmlr bi tceh fo glass, dodeline a tiprait oca mbf. 
In dg chorr i n-Inis Cathaig, nocha légat coTa aili 
inna n-insi 7 t6it in banchorr isin fairrgi sfar do duth, 
co t5ct cona hcisfnib essi 7 nocon fagbat curaig eolus cia 
airm in doithi. 
238. Tri luchra ata mesa: luchra tuinde, luchra mn,4 bSithc, 
luchra con fol6imnige. 
239. Cisne trf ana soitcedach? NI handsa sSn. [mmrchor 
erlam cuirm ceu ,4rus, cummairce for sét. 
246. Tri maic beres genas do g4is : gal, gart, gai'e. 
24 l. Tri airrite dSla : drdth, fuirsire, oirce. 
242. Tri ara ferr do laith : flr slth, slSg. 
243. Trl ara meaa do lMth : lén, brath, mlairle. 
244. Ceithre bals breithc: a breith i ngS, a bvith cen dilse, a 
breith cen ailig, a brcith cen ïoni. 
245. Tri adcoillet g,4is : anfls, doas, dlchuimne. 
246. Trl muime ordain : dclb ch5in, cuimne maith, creisine. 
247. Trl muime mcnman : sotla, sulrge, mesce. 
248. Cetheora miscne flatha : .i. fer b,4eth utmall, fer dSer (llm,4in, 
fer g5ach esindraic, fcr labor disceoil ; al" ni tabair lbrai 
acht do chethlar : .i. fer corda fri h,41r 7 molad, fer coimgHi 
cuimnech fri haisnéis 7 scélugud, brethem fri brctha, 
fri senchas. 
249. Ti dorcha in bctha : aithne, rthaiges altrom. 
237 comaird i frisin lan N focerda a rouir no cia bertar N no dO deime 
dogeibter a tlbraid oca mbld N do n5 todeime L corr N chuirr L Ceitlg N 
leigitt N do doich N heisenaib eislb 7 nochan fagbuid N eo|us oto. L hairra in 
doich N 23 oto. L]]BII hachra duine ]] folelmnigh N 239 a tri N 
24:1 druith ]] 242 adda H a 24 adda I ada N 244 disle H  
disliu N 245 a tri N alnbhes H  duas ]] 246 ordan It chaoin H  
247 socla .i. sochhi H  
 Cf. § 197. u Cf. § 91. a i.e., who bas nothing worth hearing to say. 
a See a similar passage in Ancient Laws i., p. 18, and in the tale ca|led, ' The 
Convesiin of Lo«.gaire to the Faiih ' (Rev. Celt. iv., p. I65). 
 i.¢., uncertain what will corne of then. 



THE TRIADS OF IRELAND 33 

237. Three wonders of Connaught: the grave of ]Eotlmile  on its 
strand. If is  hlgh as the sh'and. hen the sea lqses, 
it is as high as the ride. 
The stone of the Dagda. Though it be thrown into the 
sea, though if be put into a bouse under lock .... out of 
the well at which if is. 
The two herons in Scattery island. They let no otber 
herons to them into the island, and the she-heron goes on 
the ocean westwards fo hatch and returus thence with ber 
young cries. And coracles bave hot discovered the place 
of hatching. 
238. Thrce worst smiles : the smile of a wave, the smile of a lewd 
womau, the gl'in of a dog rcady fo leap. - 
2,39. What are the three wealths of fortnate people ? Not hal-t fo 
têll. A ready eonveyance (?), ale without a habitation (?), 
a safeguard upon the road. 
240. Three sons whom chastity bears fo wisdom: valour, generosity, 
laughter (filial picty ?}: 
°41. Three enteïtainers of a gathcring : a jester a juggler, a lap-dog. 
242. Three things that ara best for a chier: justice, peace, an alny. 
243. Three things that are worst for a chier: sloth, treachelT, 
cvil counscl. 
244. The four deaths of judgment : to give if in falsehood, to give 
it without forfeiture, to give it without precedent fo give 
if without knowledge. 
245. Three things that tain wisdom : ignorance, inacem,-te know- 
ledge, forgetfulness. 
246. Three nurses of dignity : a fine figure, a good memory, piety. 
247. Three nurses of high spirits : pridc, wooing, drunkenness. 
248. :Four hatreds of a chier : a silly flighty man, a slavish uscless 
man, a lying dishonourable man, a talkativê man who h 
no story to tell. a :For a chier does hot gl'ant speech save 
fo four : a poet for satire and praise, a chronlcler of good 
memory for narration and story-telling, a judge for ving 
judgmcnts, m historian for ancient lore.  
249. Three dark  things of thê worhl : giving a thing into keeping, 
guaranteeing, fostering. 
D 



c6ir cm. NH - iarna coir M 
solngthes H  somnoigh  
253 airdanail N erdanail N  
255 dana tt fodhomain M 

34 TRECtIEG BRETH FÉ1NI ISO SS 
250. Trl urgarta bhl: a chaithem cen altugud, a chaithem d'éis 
5iged, a chaithem réna thr,4th cSir. 
251. Cetheora aipgitre gSise: ainmne, somnathe, sobraid[e], 
sothnges; ar is g,eth cach ainmnetach 7 si cach somnath, 
ïairsing cach sobraid, sochoisc cach sothengtha. 
252. Cctheora alpgitre b5ise : bSithe, condailbe, imresan, doingthe. 
253. Tcora sffechta flatha: cuirmthech cen aisnéis, buidcn cen 
erdonail dlrim cen chona. 
254. Tri indchoisc ordaln do duine : .i. sodelb sire, sulbaire. 
255. Trl ga'mla don5 fess fudomain: gfiala flatha, gdala ecalse, 
g5ala nemid filed. 
256. Tri féich nach dlcgar faill: féich thffe, duilgine achaid, 
argius aiste. 
250 haurgartho N t hurgaiït tIM hurghairrthe H z d'althli aldead tt 
251 somna sobraicch H z sobés N 
farsigh [leg. farsing] .i. sgaoiltech H  
254 a tri ina coisceadh ordan M suirbire H 
256 nat eple faill M aichid M arguius H 



THE TRIADS OF IRELAND 35 
250. Three prohibitions of food : to eat it without giving thanks, 
to eat it before its proper time to eat it aftcr a guest. 
251. Four elements  of wisdom : patience docility sobrlety, wcll- 
spokenness; for every patient person is wise, and every 
docile person is a sage every sobcr person is gemrous 
every well-spoken person is tractable. 
252. Four elcments  of folly: si]liness, bias, wrangling, foul- 
mouthedness. 
253. Three tabus of a chier : an aie-bouse without story-tclling a 
troop without a herald, a great company without wolf- 
hounds.  
254. Three indications of dignity in a person : a fine fire, a free 
bearing eloquence. 
255. Three coffers whose dcpth is hot known: the coffer of a 
ehicftain, of the Church,  of a privileged poet. 
256. Three debts which must hot be neglected : debts oï land» 
payment of a field, instruction (?) of poetry. 
1 Literally, ' alphabets.' 
ZThi8 triad has been wrongly read (fai8ere instead of fai8mis) and rended 
by O'Grady in lals Catalogue of Ir. tss. in the British lluseum, p. 91. 
z ,, Die Kirche bat elnen guten lagen, ' Goethe, Faust. 
« ' Which do hot die by eglect,' 



( 36 ) 

GLOSSES AND NOTES 
I. Gloss in H. I. 15 : oir gurab innte do bbl suidhc priorahaigh Eirenn. 
2..i. ordaighecht n6 oral uaisle n6 airechas .i. arduaislighecht tre adhluicedh 
ha riogh inte 7 ha noelmh. 
4..i. serc ]Éireun 6 aunsacht ch5ich uirrc tre Muire ua nGaodhal .i.Brig]aid. 
5..i. uaomtlmcht tre naolnaibh, n6 foghluim srrth .i. saoi-raith. 
7..i. feronn buh'd riogh Éienn. 
ll..i, tl cCdch innte n6 t n-iomad talsi inutc. 
13. 5. elrcille ar gr'hdhuibh da nd6igh fa tum'asdul giol]a f,ic[h]]e, n6 
[immstail. 
14..i. liod'in do gn¢tth. 
15..i. ealadhna m6r ann 7 senchaoi ]fesa na sen. 
16..i. a n-iomat brelthemhuln, n6 cfiirt i n6 sgol f5incchuis ann. 
17..i. 6 iomad scol innte. 
18..i. aoibnes n6 con5ch n6 er tir fo sliocht Éireann. 
19..i. ag gnidhe af gach &tine. 
20..i. tre leigen Temhrach. Thls refers to the curse prouounced by Rnadan, 
the fotmder of Lorrha, against King Diarmait and Tara. 
22..i. eairedh inte. t. Felcbin, the ïounder of Fore, was famous for the 
austerity of his devotion, • tic used to set his wretched rib against the hm'd 
cell without raiment,' says Culmmine in his poem on the Saints of hland 
(Zeitschr., I., p. 63). 
24..i. dlamharracht n6 aon af anaeht n6 glolne. 
25..i. luathghaire a mBreifne. 
26..i. gr'5dh Dé. 
28..i. ait comhnuidhe. 
0..i. cil/as mesa do cheallalbh n6 béim aithesach n6 ceall dhar. 
1..i. gennmacht. 
32..i. lélme tare do tugsat. 
..i. bailte bodaich. 
4. tri clothra .i. colmhthineoll cluacha n6 uirdherca. 
36. Dfin 8obairchi and Dfin Cermna are, according to tradition, the oldst stoue 
forts in Ireland, having been built by Sobairche and Cerma, wbo divided 
Ireland between them, about 1500 .c. the former placing his d6n in the extrême 
uorth, the latter in the extreme outh on the Old tIead of ]insale. 
7. 81iab Cua (or, by eclipse after the neuter sllab, G6a), ' the hollow 
mountain,' or ' motmtain of hollows' (c¢a = Lat. cavus), the native naine for the 
Knockmealdown mountains on the borders of Tipperary and WaterÆord. 
42. Dercc Ferma was demolished by the llorse in 90. tIennessy, in a note on 
the entry in the AU., says that it i8 suppoed to be the cave of Dunmore, hot far 
from the city of Kilkenvy, but adds "apparently on insttttleient evidence." 



GLOSSES AND lgOTES 37 
4..i. ionadha dona no nemhchonMg. Here we get the only gloss in L. 
Bangor is said to be unlucky, "because of its having been destroyed so often." 
It was frequently plundered by the Norse durlng the ninth century. As to the 
klngship of l[ugdorn l[aigen (now Cremorne Larony, Co. Monaghan), it certalnly 
was an ill-fated dynasty. Of the slxteen kings of thls tl'ibe who are mentioned in 
the Auuals of Ulster, ten were put to death, of whom one (Suibne) was slain by 
his own brothers, xvhile two brothel's, Gill Ciarhin and lI'helmflald, were slain 
within the saine year (1020), the latter after having becn 15ng for but one day. 
45. Beyond thc faet that the three tribes heremenfionedbelongedtotheaithech- 
t],u«tha or rent-paylng tribes, I know nothingto throw light on the triad. 
51. In L[arl. 5280, p. 75a, marg. inf., Druimm nDïobeoil is said fo derive 
ils namc from a horse called Drobel. (Ech Dedad .i. Drobel a ainm diath Druim 
nDrobeoiL ) 
56. IIere H. bas the absurd etymological gloss futhairbhe .i. fothirbhe .i. tir 
mhaith ha mbeo, n5 ferana malth. 
60. Léim Coageoluiaa i gcondae iu Chlhlr. 
6..i. miodhchoa'eh duine. Suighe eumhang .i. deireoil. 
65. iarmar cléithe .i. alehar ha cléithe d'f'gbhail a bferana, dz-ithleanach .i. 
ferthaitt anuas 5 llnn thrld. 
66. The flrst two items occtar also in the list of proverbial sayiags addmssed by 
the Wizard Doctor to ]Iac Conglinne (Asl. Maic C., p. 7), x)ith the signliieant 
vm4atlon tha.t ' a veteran in the abbotshlp ' bas become ' a veteïan in the blshop's 
chair,' showlng that Ihe ' Vision of hIae Loaglinne  was composed at a tlme when 
the dioese had superseded the old monastie constitution. As to the ' drop upon 
the altar,' though O'Neachtain's gloss explaina it as ' tain ' (bainne .i. fer[th]uinn 
auuas), the Rev. ]Ir. O'Sullivaa bas ïurnished me with a much more llkely 
explaaatlon. He thinks it refm to the spilling of the eonsecmted wine ïrom the 
chalice, whieh is eosldered a nmst unfortunate accident. No oae but a pl'iest is 
allowed to toueh or remove it. 
7L .i. tri donals mhie bodaigh, re 6igthlgerna .i. re duiae uasal, for thascar 
rlgh .i. céituionnadh m6ra do ghlacadh air (!) 5. do thabhalrt uaidhc do striopaeh (!) 
.i. do thoaidhibh a6 af son gatuigechtadh. 
72. targha 5. tineol no cruinaugadh .i. malairt ][eralnn mhalth ar dhroch- 
îeronn. 
74. haonaighe nesaite 5. eisert .i. bochtain lag. gan ardhe .L gan eomhartha 
n5 arm aige le gcennocha ni. 
75. eaol srithide a foilleirb 5. an sreab bainne da cIn'5 .i. oidcch. J. fochan 
an gheumhah-, for tu[un .i. faoi an onnar chroichin..i, ag denamh ¢h'uith- 
nechus. 
76. clora daimh .i. cos ag treabhath. 
77. mes .i. 6 lalmh, tomharas .i. 6 hil. eubhus .i. 5ha eoimhesa .i. 
coimh][iosa. 
79. ea¢h'uidh .L adhaltralgh, eluithe oi. ¢leuighes. céilighe .i. euairt. 
80. maoin .i. tabhartus d'faghall uaide. 



88 GLOSSES AlD IOTES 
s1. dognas .i. acmhghnas, diomaoiache 5. dith maolae 5. do chuid do bhualn 
dhiod. 
83. troich 5. do gerraoghul. Cp. Aisl. 1liait Conglime, p. ïl, 20. 
84. 'Mne la daor .i. saidhbrios ag daor nelmhnidb .i. althioch ab fer gan senchus. 
doidheilhh .i. duine gr,4n[n]amh. 
85. b6 bennach gan cas .i. sreibh n5 balnnc, tothacht 5. gan thhacht faoithe 
.i. tochus. 
86. ibhle .i. splangca lasta grfidha, aladh .i. hésa maith. 
87..i. tri ni curtbar a ttaisge ara ccurtar caithemh, mail .i. taisge. 
88. teidhe (sic) .i. aoaaigh. 
89. Seghane .i. caomha n5 séimhe, fthïann .i. rann ï{dhach. adhhhann tri 
ciuil do einim d,line eile. herradh .i. colus ber[th]a ab do bherrath go des. 
These three accompllshmenis wcre unlted in the person oï Mac DichSeme, the 
barber of King Eochaid wiih horse's ears (Otia Merseiana, nL, p. 47), and in 
Donnb5 (Thé'ce Fragm«nts, p. 34, and Rev. Celt. 24, p. 44). 
90. clulche tenn .i. sfigradh ten[n], ahhacht go n-aitbi .i. s6gradh le masla 
do lhabairt. 
91..i. iar n-eal0 Onu fer ïéin. foilelmnighe .i. chum do gerrtha .i. iar leigioa 
sealga uaithe. 
92. ïoghladha .i. gadaighe. 
93..i. lrl haoaaraln is ïerr ioa iomad. .i. bega do chaiat mhaith..i, ag 61 
flcadha n6 sec[h]na imresain. 
94 hr6na .i. hamghaire. .i. deglaoch nach shiseocha ech. 5. ga nàerna ina 
ainim munath ssalgh[th]e é. 
95..i. faoi ndéntoEr magaià, lonn .i. fergaeh. éataigh .i. eudmhar, dibhach 
.i. dolchleach. 
99. gretha .i. garrtha. .i. gMr ag ïtxlhall a mbidh, grith suiàhe .i. chuman[n] 
bhldh. .i. ag éirghe 5n mbiadh. 
101..i. postaldhe tir boigeehta .i. boiggniomh, imgellad .i. sior-c[h]ur geallta. 
iomarhhaigh .i. com6rtas, imresain .i. consp6idedha. 
108. luirge .i. a hhata n6 a mhn' (lorg .i. ben, ahhall, laoch, leo, arg). 
104. da maoidhemh air ïéin gan nech da chut cuige. 
105. os ïocherd a congan .i. fiadh chuires de a benna. 
106. ceinbh .i. ionadha baoghlacha àochum ee/am ào ehur i neach n6 ionada 
107. allabair .i. mae-alla n6 iollabhar is gnitth a bhfod 6 neach. 
109. labra .i. iomad cainte, aimhiodhnu .i. nemhgloine. 
110. toa .i. bailbhe .L éistecht. eiscis .i. e8cui(lhecht, iodhna .i. glalne. 
112. moladh iar luag .i. cennach tabhairt af moladh. 
11..i. imthecht gion nach bhïédann tri imthecht. .i. i ào thabhairt uaid 
ha mhia agat. .i. gen go hïédann tri a dhénamh. 
114..i. senchaillioch triuàhach easachtach af aonàhaeht ann. .i. umhall eullach 
le buille af choin, af chat, af mhada. .i. gach gr'nna siobhatrtha 'ha ghiollao 



GLOSSES AND NOTES 
116..i. a n-onoruighthernSuaisllghther. .i. pluice ag slneadh a beofl, righe 
a bhronn .i.  bhuilg. 
liT. cirmaire .l.'fer dénta ha gcior, clicherai for otrach .i. adhbhal-cantainn 
le rosg n6 orrtha, go rothochra .i. go docuiredh. 
I IS. dlughughadh .i. cnesughadh, freiscre .i. friscaradh gan sergadh, l(th 
tar luMtbrenn .i. for a tighibh n6 templuibh .i. rennaigheacht de cuiredh sa hmitb. 
bélm fo ehumas .i. buille a coimhmheiseamnuighe féin. 
119. dighalra .i. leighios iomlfm ha ngalar, diainmhe .i. gan ainiomh d' fhgail 
iar gcnedhuibh. .i. coimh][écsin n5 fioradharc. 
120..i. blet dobheir s'sadh as gach ni rachad fair. 
121. caer comraic .i. aed cruinn go ccomhtharrachtain d'iomat dath ann. 
fleath for faobhar .i. faobhar for faobhar. 
122. oruitire .i. clirseoir. 
125. comar .i. docum treabtha n5 coimhghélsine. 
131. truime .i. tromdhacht, toice .i. saidhbhres, talchalre .i. toil chahanach 
ag gach duine de. 
132..i. tri neithe aisnéisi an doconMgh. 
133. tl's [.i.] doni an trosgadh an duine tl'MtÇa]. 
135..i. cnapMn miënamhla nO nemhcongh. 
139. tri brothc[h]hin rSthu .i. tri neithe breithemhnuighther nO caoinbherthar 
ar anti théid a rithiges n5 a n-un-ughas, roitioc .i. iocaidh ha flacha, rosiacht 
.i. élglon de nech de leanamhuln, rothorht .i. 7 mionnughadh 'sa gcdis. 
140. tugha go bhïSidibh .i. fSide os toighe ar tech. imme go bfo:ghnagare 
(sic) .i. fl 7 fiorlongeàre maille ris. .i. go ngoradh gér cloch a nàaigh gortath 
ha h "tha. 
141. tri ïMlte go n-iarnduibhe, fer gaide .i. an tan bhlos da chrochadh. .i. 
doni faisnéls. 
142. tulfeaitb (sic) .i. drflis .i. toil "féithe. dulsaine .i. cMnedh no 
seoireacht. 
143. gris .i. imdhergadh- rus .i. rofflos, ruccaidh .i. ancroidhe. 
145. nuu corma .i. braitlls. 
146. moaighthe .i. mdaighthe sochair de neoch. 
147. teine a lucc (!) .i. [ai tteallach, noe la fer calaigh (!) .i. naomhSg, coite, 
bhd, long, de dhuine le purt. 
148. aithgionta .i. neithe dobheir aithghin tarais no althgini uatha, nos 
gabhann .i. mfla erC 
149..i. neithe ann a ttabhair neaeh iomarcaith naith 7 naeh iadhann dlsle 
orrtha 6 nech dar ben lad. iarraid mic .i. luach oileamhna. 
151. aurnadhma .i. p6sta. 



40 GLOSSES AND NOTES 
1.53..i. tri cfllsl nach b¢tsaighenn d'][aill do dhénamh umpa iad eibiulalt 
.i. bdsaighenn, dochraidhe .i. duine diochalrd[gh. 
155. slabhra .i. imdhergtha .i. pecughadh le tonal nelch gan colbhche do 
dhiol ionnta, nach geennuighther le alrnéls n6 éiric do diol ionnta. .i. 
«oimh5igniughadh do righ. 
156. turbhadh 5. cairde d'iarraigh da ccur ama(.h .i. (OE ttabhairt amach. 
.i. da athar t.r éis altroma. .i. tar 6is anbhaill do dhénamh a thabhairt da 
ealbhaightheolr. .i. braighe do tabhairt as lhmh le comhall siotha. 
157..i. taisce do fhigfithe ag égclallaidh. .i. do flfigfidhe ag duine mSr. 
althne foirmeda .i. do fuigfidhe gan althne do thabhalrt go cinnte i ccumhda«h 
acht go héccinte air. 
158. dorenathar bi .L ncch eirnlghthcr no hlocthar le beo do thabhalrt da 
gcenn, fidnemed .i. coill af a bhfuil neimhenchus n5 aih da gcumhdach la 
huasM. 
159. Tri ha dotoing n¢t fortongar, angar .i. mac ionghax na¢ bhfoghann da 
senoir do véir a dhualgals. 
160. athchumas .i. do ghlacadh orra ha athchomhasan (o do thabhairt dalbh) 
.i. af a celle). 
161..i. nach telghther faol a bhflfigheall .i. a mbreitheamnuls. .i. ela do 
bheithdaois gllc. fer adgalr (.i. cu rlos fios ort) agas adghairther (5. an fer a a 
gcnirther fios) agas fo crenair rla breith (.i. agas cennulghther mar breithemh le 
brb le haghaidh breithe). 
162. aitlde .i. aonta, ainbhfaltches. 
163. Tri fo imrime n'h dleagald (.i. imthechta amhuil ar marculghecht) di 
.i. dire ene(.luise), toxal .L tSccbhail agus ag dénamh athghabda. 
164. duilchlnn. 
165. Tri naoill .i. h5ghe n6 mionna nach c6ir mhionnughadh 'ha n-aghaidh. 
tir maib .i. do bheith le bits go clnnte, ditiie 5- do thréig a thir .i. do char cfimm 
an tfiaoighil de. 
166..i. céimionna mhillcas an tuaith le br51g. 
167. enus a dheis .i. a dhflthaigh n6 a feronn 5. bodach é 7 ni bhhil ced 
senc5s air. 
168. For comlerat It bas en'annat, dainntech .i. gremannach n6 buailtech. 
170. feichemhnas .i. lucht tagartha n6 oificc ha bh][eithemhan, toisc. 
lcimim, eicsl .i. muna foghluma. 
171. m,dgeallad, brelthemhuin .i. flmsglals neach. 
172. urfogradh .i. air af colr mlothaithnemh, ael colre .i. ag t6gbhail feola 
coirl, fiodhbhaigh gan tseinm .i. meileg gan senmnn no thairn[g]e da chengal. 
ord ghabhan[n] gan dlnesc gan taim[g]e annsa bpoll 5. dlon ina els. 
173. fotha utmhall gan eolus .i. bunadhas gan lotus acht h,imhnech, utmhall 
.i. roluath. 



GLOSSES AND NOTES 42 
174. soadh fri fiadnaib .i. iompodh a n-aghaidh ha bhfiadhan do haondaighe. 
175. breithemh gan îuasna .i. techt 'ha aghaldh, eidlrchert gan éaccnach 
.i. breithemhnas gan idhiomradh 'ha dhiaigh, tomba gan dlubhairt .i. gaa 
bhith do bhreith le caomhmha nO gan leatrom aonroinn. 
176. Tri tonna gan gaolse .i. do chuires anfa ar ghaois .i. gliocas. 
177. fostadh .i. foiMinecht, gairde .i. athchumairecht. 
179..i. cfiisi far cSir mioscuis don m'labhra, dlftithe .i. af muin a chérie. 
180. fostadh .i. ha tengan 'ha sost. alrnbertais .L ag dénamh 7 ag ordughadh 
gach neithe mat as dit. 
182. maise .i. bregha, clithighe .i. bhelth clithar. 
183. tri nt dleaghaidh dire .i. truaighe n5 comalrce. .i. ealalghes 5 t]aith. 
agas file .i. 5 eglais (!). 
18t..i. tri hanlain[n] chrosta don othar, each .i. feoil eich. rouir .i. mil 
mholr .i. cointinn af coinntinn. 
186. Instead offorsnaid», H. 1. 15 bas forran .i. firbrlsed. 
187. sobhmidhe .i. brigh maith n5 l,idir. 
188. is .i. fer[g]. 
189. am (sic) .i. anmhuln go socair, tua .L socht n5 éistecht. imdhergadh .i. 
grosadh n5 niire. 
190. mSrt[h]a .i. mSrthachL maise .i. maisech lais féln. maoine .i. a mhes 
gurab maoineach é. 
191. forindet .i. doni faianéis af in umhal, dinmhe .i. dith inmbe. 
192. faicso (sic) .i. meabair malth, fSthaidhe .i. bheith foghluma fhith- 
chialluigh. 
195. fuasndh .i. imreean. 
196. cach ndagîeras .i. gach feidhm n6 gniomh ioml'an5 feramhuil. 
197. serbha .i. goid. 
198..i. docuires chum sinbhail lad fainealca, ingreim .i. do lad n6 da 
gcrechadh, dola .i. da ngremughadh, domata .i. boicht¢cht. 
200. fine .i. iomad fine n5 m6irmhes an fine. 
202. fornuidm rairioch .i. riogha elle congbhail faoi. roimhse .i. roimhes n6 
torad m6r ina ][laith. 
203. tua .i. bailbhe, dochta .i. éistecht (!). 
204. tairisamh .i. coimhniughadh alïaixe neich. 
205..i. i bhIiadhnuise ha gcomharcadh. .i. daoine gan chCii .i. daoine sg 
imthecht le gaoith. 
207. éitche .i. grhinche. 
208. soingthe .i. urlabhradh mhaith, connamlma .i. coma dogmhana n5 
de[g]mianadh. 



42 GLOSSES A']) 'OTES 
209. luinne .i. fergaighe, cétludche .i. cédluath ghaire, talrlsmidhe 5. 
iomarcraidh griaidh da chut a geéill .i. talrlsmldhe. 
210. sognas .i. goma maith le a ghnhthugadh, solcheall .i. go goma solche]lach 
n5 luathghairech. 
211. 5. tr 'ça mblonn cld maith, trebaire .i. gliocas, rathmaire .L rath mot 
do techt air n5 bhfhs ïair. 
21o.. dochlatad .i. miochluld, laxa .i. faillidhe, palaillte .L a bheith crualdh 
7 luath .i. bheith caillte anna chuld go luath. 
213. ecnach .i. ithiomradh, doing[hes .i. droichtengadh. 
214. deirmiten .i. athalrmhidln, easpata .i. diomhaolnes. 
216..i. tri laithe as sons do mhnhibh p6sta, mn go fiora .i. mn'a do thabhairt 
chum luSsta. 5. bladh ha mn[t beo 'ha ndiaidh. 
217. fri gach leas .i. gach neithe bhus leas d6. 
218. l»;tha .i. urradha, fostadh .i. comhnuidhe, féile .i. »iire. ]omradh .i. 
ag lomalrt ag diol £achadh. fostodha a n-aïus .i. comhnuidhe a bp-iosfin 
lomradh ice .i. da lomairt féin ag diol fiacha*2h n6 fulang é féin do lomradh do réir 
dlighe .i. leigen lomaha an dlighe dar cenn feichemhan. 
219. eiric no toghniomh feiehemhan (.i. an t-lot do dhénamh da'cenn a 
bhiodhbha) no dithecht. 
220..i. tri neilhe as anfoe (leg. ansa) n5 as doiligh dhaibh. .i. dol a n-urru- 
dhas ddn rlgh do dhénamh, decair sin. coite 5. coite longan. 5. do thabhairt an 
uïrudha re eech/ar doibh sin aroile do dhénamh. 
221. tri as ainerEg]na (.i. neimhealadhanta) do neach. .i. no go sa]a]ghenn a 
eudach do scaxlulbh. 
222. ochradh .i. a]t. berradh .i. mullach a chlnn. 
223. mic .i. iomad mac, mn'a .i. iomad ban. méile .. amadan, cleamtma ile 
imchiana 5. iomad clemhnas a gcéin, notcrionad (.i. dlbrid) agus ni thormaigbld 
(.i. ni mhédaighid a tighes). 
224. seol mn'a ïor mac 5. luighe seola, gris bronn 5. tesfighecht, ga]ar 
îiomargar olc 5. togbhus an t-oic 7 [hgbhus an mhaith 'ha hit féin. 
225..i. gar cSir f:dlte romps, no dobheir an tfiilte a ttigh flead.ha ira duthracht 
7 ealatha .i. ealadha do thaisbeanaEdh]. 
227. daimh, bealai .L tuadha, biail. 
229. tiordhachta .i. tuathamhlacht no bodamhlacht, iomargal .i. ime ro 
mheralghe focal, iomarbhaldh 5. comartus gniomh, meuigecht .i. mie. 
230-231. omitted in ]I. 2. 15. 
232. ri ima gabhail .i. ira geall n6 chreich, althech do mhuln coimelrce .i. 
bodach af a mbeith dh5 ar coimeirce, n6 tenn ar chfll aige. 
233..i. scilaie iar gcrlichnughadh a leighen .i. iar leagha n6 egluisech iar 
ndénamh ornaldhe, ia:" leaccad a araidbechta uadh .i. ira" ccriochnughadh a terre a 
¢6 imsire. 



GLOSSES AND NOTES .t3 
235. tri huais doibh .i. gar dol]ge doibh. .i. a n-urrdhas af righ, af esbog do 
hhrigh a leithe eneac]ann an righ, n6 inté at na cronughadh ann. dul fri cath .i. 
dul a n-urrughas le cur catha, fri cimldh .i. dul a n-urrughas le brughaidh n0 le 
siothcain. .i. secht eithe crosta donté rachadh a n-ua'rughas orra. dol af 
dheoruighe .i. dol a n-ul'rughas, af dlaraigh .i. gan hrus no coimhnaidhe aige. af 
druith .i. dulne gan céill, af dhiaraigh .i. nach feidir hrach air. af angar .i. nac 
iongar, af esccong (!) .i. senoir iar ndul a chéille uaidh, imnedhach dona gacha 
ïth (imniomhach go firinnech gach urrughas diibh sin). .i. fnlang dianbhs no 
dianollmhughadh no nlïogra fa gach gealla dobheir aill ria n-aill iaromh .i. 
mionna a -aghaidh mionn an ][ir oile .i. nach decha sé a n-urrudhas no le 
diola. 
236. ag tioradh .i. ag goradh arbha. 
238. luchra .i. gaire n0 genamh. 
239..i. cia hlat ha lri sonais doghelbh an duine sonadh ? :Ni handsa son .i. ni 
halnbhesach mlsi af sin. iomarchor .i. iomchar, cuirm gan "m .i. deoch 
gan tech aige. .i. m' an tslighe go teghmaisech. 
240. gaire .i. gaire maith. 
241..i. do ni oirfide n0 comhluadar i gcomhd'i], druith .i. amatm, folrsire 
abhlOir n5 ursoire, oircc (sic) .i. mesan nO cf beg. 
243. léan .i. amhgar, brath .i. af comarsan. 
244. a breith a ng5 .i. gfibeith brégach, gan dlsle .i. faol omhan gan "hrach. 
gan ailic .L gan hailche 'ha timchioll .i. osg 7 fasach. 
246. duas .i. droich]ios. 
247. socla (sic) .i. sochlf, suirge .i. le mnibh. 
248..i. ceitheora da ttugann flaith mioscais n5 nemhdbfi], baoth .i. leamh. 
uttmhall .i. roluath, fer labhar disceoi] .i. labhan'ach cainntech gan sceol aige. 
fer coimhghne cuimhnech .i. go caoimhegna 7 cuimhne senchusa. 
251. somna .i. so-omhnach .i. so-eglach (!). sobmicch .i. sobrioghach. 
252. condailbhe .i. bhghach nO leathtaobhach, doingthe .i. doitengulghe. 
253. tri slrrechta flatha .i. sutbainghesa nO neithe bhios toirmlsc af uasal. 
.i. fleadha gan ealadha da ]aisnis. .i. cultechta gan donail piob,xlre 'ha tosach. 



[45] 

INDEX LOCORUII 

B,'drenn the .Burren 58. 
Banna the Bam 40. 
Belach Conglais Jaltinglass 50. 
Belach ])uiblinne 50. 
Belach Luimnig 50. 
Bennchor Bmgor 5, 44. 
Benn mBoirchi 81icve 39onard 38. 
Benntr,'dge Bantry 45. 
Bérre Beare 58. 
Birra irr 108. 
B6and the Joyn 40. 
Braichlesan Brigde 57. 
Breiïne 58. 

Caisel Cashel 54. 
Cathalr Chonrfli 36. 
Oeil Dara Iiïldar¢ 4, 34. 
Cell Maignenn Yïilmai»dam 32. 
Cell RflMd 30. 
Cenaus K«lls 7. 
Clfln Eidnech Clmwmgh 108. 
Clflaln ois Clme 53. 
Cldain Ferta Brénainn CloEert 19. 
Clfla Ir'd Clouard 3, 33, 53. 
Clfla Maic N6is Cloumacnois 2, 34, 53. 
Cldn Oama Cloyne 12. 
Coacht 43, 237. 
Coreach Cork 16. 
Creaige 43. 
Crfiachhn gH Croagh atrick 38. 
Crfiachu Croghan 5, 54. 
Criblée Cob*ey 48, 62. 
• Cfialu 46. 

Dairchaill 27. 
])aire Calgaig/)«rry 32. 
])etc Ferna 42. 
Druimm Fingln 51. In ]Iunster, 
famous for its fertillty. 8ee LL. 
15all. 
])ruimm Lethan 39rumlane 25. 
])ruimm n])robe5il 51. 
])ruimm Leithe 51 236. 
Dublinn 1)ublin 50. 
Duma mBdrig 106. 
Ddn Cin Dunquiu 60. 
])fin Cermna 36. 
])fin ])a Lethglas J)owuFatri¢k 26. 
Ddn 8obairche 1)unset, erick 36. 

Ess Danainne 55. 
Ess llaige 55. 
Ess Rtlaid Assaroe 55. 

Fid Déicsen i Tuirtr143. 
Fid Moithre i Connachtaib 43. 
Fid lISr i Cfiailgni 43. 
Findglais Fglas 8. 
Fobur Féichin Fore 22. 

Glasraige 45. 
Glenn D' Locha Gleadalugh 11, 33. 
Glenn Dal]Mn Glencar 236. 

Imblech Ibair Emly 15. 
Inber Féile 59. 
Inber na mBh'c 59. 
Inber T5aige 59. 
lnis Cathaig 8cattery .lslad 10 237. 

Lann Ela Ly,ally 31, 44. 
Léimm Conculainn Lop ttead 60. 
Leithglend Leighliu 108. 
Less lI6r Zisnre 14. 



46 

IlgDEX NOIIUM 

Lettir DalMin 236. 
Loch nEchach Lough Neagh 39. 
Loch nErni Lough E'ne 39. 
Loch li Lough Ree 9. 
Lothra Lorrha 20. 
L6achair Dedad Lher 61. 
Lugbad Louth 88. 
Luimnech Limeriek 50. 
Lusca Lusk 6, 46. 

/Y/sg Crdachan 52. 
/Y/, mBile Morille 28. 
Mag mBlg 52. 
/Y/sg Li 236. 
/Y/ag Lift 41, 52. 
Mag Line 41. 
Mag Midi 41. 
Mugdom Malgen Cremorne barony 44. 

liith mBoth Raphoe 25. 
lith Laidcnitin Rathlynan 56. 
loss Ailithre Rosearberj 17. 
loss Commftin Roscommon 24. 

Sinann the 8hamon 40. 
Slfdne 81sue 21. 
Sliab Commhin 56. 
$1iah Cda 37. 
$1iah Cfialann 37. 

Slab Flair the ews 61. 
Sliab ManchMn 56. 
Sliab Mis 37. 
Slige Assal/ 9, 49. 
Slige Dais 49. 
Slige Midldachra 49. 
Srub Brain d0. 

Tailtiu Teltown 35. 
Tamlachta Talla9ht 8. 
Tech Calrnig 9. 
Tech Munna Ta#hmon 32. 
Temair Tara ; gen. Temrach 54, 202. 
Tipra Cuirp .57. See Tog. Br. Dt Derga 
 154, YBL. 
Tipra ha nDési 67. 
Tipra Uartln Garaid 57. 
Tipra Uarbe6il 57. 
Tir Dff Glas Terryglas 18. 
Tir Eogaln Tirowen 236. 
TrMg Baill 47. 
Triig Li Trlee 61. 
Tr5ig luis Airgit 47. 
Tf'Mg :Rais Téiti 7. 
Tuirtri 4:L 
Tulach ha nEpseop 106. 
Tflen .Dulane 29. 

Uam Chnogba nowth 42. 
Uam Slhngoe 81auey 42. 

Colmtn Ela 35. 
Corbmac mac F;tel5in 62. 

in Dagda 120,237. 
Dil 236. 

Eothaile 107, 237. 

INDEX NOMINUM 
Fergus mac R6ich 62. 
Finn 236. 
Morr{gan 120. 
Keithln 120. 
Nïnnine Ces62. 



GLOSSARY 

abartach, from abairt, praetiee, feat, a. an-fiad a bad welcome 70. 
escrai 231. an-gar u»oElial, imv/ous 159, 235. 
abucht (abocht, abacht) a joke, fist an-idna f. impnrity 109. 

90. 
adbann a strain of music 89. With 
prothetic f., fadbann, ib. N. 
ad-coillim [ destroy, ruin. 245. 
i a eaune, n. pl. ai 153, 174. 
hibne L deli9htfulness 23. 
ane m. a leader, counsel, dag-a. 
178. 
ailbéimm n. a epvaeh 30. 
iloE ï. beauly 206. 
aill . . aill once., again, wzo . . 
23fi. 
a¢hes boEily pan, aec. cen ainchlss 
119 (ainees ). 
aime t. patiefee 192, 251, dat. ainm- 
ltit 143 (ainmnet 
aimaetachatient 174, 189. 
airbertas (alrnbertas) m. (?) 180, 181. 
airbrt a usbtg, emloying 178. 
air-goraà a seorehing 140. 
airisia a tarratn, talc. cétna airisiu, 
C6ir Anm. 80. n. #. aisena 102, 
12. 
airmeà a eerain dry measure 138. 
Corm. Tf. 68. eirmed, .i. tomus, 4, 3, 
18, 70". dorat do Patmic in n-airmid 
ni, Trip. 186 9. 
aithech-borg m., aithech-ort m. a 
rent-aging town 33. 
aighe n. 0ater f.) a deposi 87, 157, 
249 ; aithne alMnn 87 L. 
alaig behavionr, demeanour 86. 
all n. a rock, n. pl. tri all 200. 
allaba an ee]w 107 ; O'Dav. 144. 
aaa wealth 147, 239. 
e f. agility, defness, skill 8. 
a-ergaMd undignified 221. 
aa-fait¢he m. eamles*ness 162. 

an-richt m. a misshapen per*on 84. 
antrenn rough groud, gen. antreinn 
147. 
apaig rpe 68. 
ar-¢uillim I àestroy, ruin 184; verb- 
noun, gen. aireaillti, lb. 
ard-nemed m. a high dign$tary 157. 
tire¢h (imeh)(1) a te, ferrer, gen. ed 
hraig 168 ; (2) a bond, *nrety, aee. 
pl. cen iirehe 74; oin gealladh, cin 
airge, Laws ix. 78, 4. 
argius instruction (.), a. aiste 256. Cf. 
felmac fri ré ha argaisl, Laws v. 364. 
17. 
aroslicim I o/*n, aroslicet 204. 
rus residenee, habitatiou 218, 239. 
ata wh{eh are 68, 69, 75, 76, &c. 
ataià (?) 181. 
ath-chommus m. renuneialion of con- 
I trol or authority 160. 
athchosan, better athchomsan (later 
achmusan) a complaining 98 ; tossach 
augraiathchosan, LL. 3458. 
augra strife 213. 
authach venefieus 185. 
aurla (1) a long lock of hair, .i. ciab, 
Corm. Tr. 166 ; (2) a per'son wearing 
aurla, a serf (?) ; mac aurlai (erlai) 
152. 

bàithe f. foolishness 252. 
battus m. womauhood, gen. &ag-banais 
180 ; droch-banais 181. 
ban-chorr f. a she-heron 237. 
ban-l a lncky day for women 216. 
belach n. a mounlain-lass, n. pl. 
belaige 50. 



48 

be6-athair m. a livefaher 151. Com- 
pare the following extract ïrom H. 
18, p. 19b: Cest. Cid t "m nis 
nfi torbais" ? Ar atfiit nRdmanna 
nalsce  ha torngt, af nl rochat 
a nn naisce .i. mac beoathm" 
for a athair, céi[e for a flaith, manach 
for a achlndech, hulach for inn 
aile, af ni bont dib ar commc, 
aht at folaith galbthi friu. 
se peraps 136. 
binnoeh melodiou, b6 b. 85. 
birit, ï. a *ow, gen. bil'ioE, 148 
bitheh m. a crimi»al 92 B. 
bo¢¢ m. a buck, he-çoat, n. pl. buicc 
230. 
boccacht f. btc]cilnes, obtbae 101, 
102. 
bolcra (?) 231. Cf. lcRire m. 
hector, O'Gr. Cal. 84, t. 
lc-r6nach havin dintended 
231. 
bothach m. a ]tt-dwel[er ¢ollar 1.50. 
brén-inn stbkbç or rotten hair, c. 
pl. -a 105. 
brodna (?) gen. brodnai 230. 
bronn-galar m. a disease of tic aomen 
224. 
134. 
badnas a triumph, excellence, n. pl. 
88 H. 

eker eovaraie 121 note. 
c/in-thoead re.fait fortune, dat. edin- 
thocud 110. 
calad h.ard 176 ; fer c. 147. 
cdtludche L lutfbess 209. 
cffmaire m. a comb-maker 117. 
cisne .what are  239. 
cthcha f. comfort (of dress) 1S2. 
clochrad (ach ?) a stone buildng 
(ri'oto clhur), n. pl. tri oehmid 
34. 
clfianaige m. a rogue 90, 104. 
co-cls Teformi fe[ [etler 125. 
c6oe ¢omrt, good cheer 6, 46. 
eoim (colmm) a eloak 130. 

GLOSSARY 
eoimgne (com-ecne) synehronistic kow.- 
ledge : fer coimgni 248 = fer cumocm, 
Rev. Celt. vz. 16, 11. 
coite a eahtron 220. c. é, c. goriath, 
c. i 127. 
eom-ar (W. cyf-ar) lwlding louhland 
in common 125. 
com-chiiu an eamialion 119. 
com-th equall laehç 217. 
comneibe (} 169. 
o-rith (fri) a raein together 117. 
o-bl'i$1 bea liabilitie 168. 
condailbe f. altachment» bs 193 
252. 
cona (collective) hor» 105, 117. 
¢on-rannai  hare 164. 
con-tib I moek 82. 
6rad-gein a ehamon bb'th 148 M. 
crann-dretel (?} 23L 
crésine f. iet 196. 
crossn m. a btbon 116. 
cdacr6essach (?) 231. 
cen a 'oltoae lome 62. 
cuinnm[ne f. kiudl[nen 208. 

daintech biling 168; gl. dentatus Sg. 
159u2. 
debuid ï. strife 98. 
déicsiu a eeeing, npyin, gen. délcsen 43. 
deinmne i»q)alenee, dat. deinlnnait 144. 
deirmitiu rreverence, gen. deirmlten 
214. 
dere a hole, eare 42; dal. i nderc a 
oxaille, LU. 7045 ; resiu dorattar 
isin deirc, Lism. ïo. 43"1. 
déss ï. lond, acc. déiss 167 (dés N); 
act. pl. déissi, ib. L. See C'Mn 
Adamn6in, 1 o. 46. 
di-ainme ï. an unblemished late 119. 
dfan-apud a sudden notice 235. 
di-araig a lerson without bonds (Araeh) 
235. 
d[be a 'efusitg, deyiq 212, LL 
11743, 12119, 1882, 188633. 
dibech ref«sia, do«yin9 95 ; .i. diulta- 
dach, C. 1, 2. 
d[-chuimne L lace of memory 245 ; ar 
dermat n5 dichumni, LL. 7430. 



49 

dl-galrae f. sickles6ness 119. 
di-grad n. hatred 217. 
dlmainche f. usetessness 81. 
dimainecht f. uselessuess 81 H. 
dimcsc () 172. 
dfnnime f. meanness, owiness 191; 
err trumma dinnlmi. LL. 3430. 
Cf. n[n]imu, Alex. 996. 
di a one 3ï. 
d-sce6il taleless 248. 
dithechte L #wn-œossessin 219. 
dithir a laudless person, gen. thir 
(dlthi N) 165. 
dithrub m. a d«sert, uninhabited place, 
n. pl. dithruib 43. In the later 
lgtmge it is iuflected le 
(n. p. dithreba 48 
di6ite f. simplieity 24 ; LL. 29488. d. 
cridi, Lism. Lires 4543: Difiide 
ingen Sl6nchfidi, Rawl. B. 12, 
1122. 
diultadach (diultach) fond of refusin 9 
96 MB. 
dldithe L compaetness» obs«urity (} 
speech) 179. 
doas m. iffnorauee 245. 
do-celaim  bide 84, . 
dochell niffçavdliaess 144 ; Dochl  
Di  Do[th]cheas, wL B. 
112t,1. 
dochlatu m. ill 'Tut«, gen. doehlatad 
212. 
do-chond m. an imbecil«, gen. doehuind 
dochraite L oppression 153. ex. 367, 
atchota daidbre d., LL. 
dodeline () 237 (todeime L). 
dochta L eloseness 208. 
do-delb a misshapn erson acc. 
delb (deilb B) 84. 
dofortMm «o" out, spill, spoil, ruin, 
dotortat 186 ; dofortatar .i. dotsat, 
H. 12«12. 
do-gnhs f. ill-breedinç 81 ; gen. dognifioe 
209. 
doingthe L foulm««thedness 252 ; for 
"do-thenhe. 
doingthes m. id. 213. 

dolud tcss, damaçe 198 ; gen. mét 
ndolaid, LL. 172488 ; in cach nith ha 
dfiel dolaid, 15714. 
dommatu r. pot, erty 198, Alex. 847. 
dorensim _rpay afine (dire) 158. 
dotcad m. misfortune, n. pl. dotcald 
44, 64, 65, 71. 
dotcadach moEortunate 185. 
doth a hatchinff, cach d. toirthech, LL. 
293'48 ; g. in doithe 237 ; dat. do 
duth, lb. ; gen. pl. cerce tri ndoth, 
O' Dav. 1875. 
do-tongim swear, nU ditoing 159. 
drithlennach fidl of sparks 65. 
drus f. follg; gen. &'fiise 198. 
due-chin m. hum crime 168. 
dul iu the phrases, dul ar to 9o securit 
on behaoEof 285 ; d fri to 9o security 
for 235. S Glossm T to Laws s. v. 
d. 
dulbaire  lack of elouence, bad liver 
179. 
dulsaine f. mockery 142 ; in cerd mac 
hfii Dulsine, Corm. 37. Cf. ddaige, 
O'Dav. 622. 
dfithraeht f. #oo will, ki»Mliness 225. 

eeh usci a water-lwrse 236. 
eehmuir (?) 184. 
eisne a youn# bird 237. 
e5 m. a salmon ; gen. iach 92 ; n. pl., 
ich, LL. 297"84. 
eohair a key n. pl. eoehmcha 204. 
ehoille (?) 
erdoal L a trumpeter, piper ; edanal 
.i. stuce no piobaire, BB. 65 re.s. 
c. oen erdonail 258. 
Cira n. a co*trse, r unninff  gen. é*a 127. 
ter fem. af tressa ha hér» LL. 
11013. 
erlam ready 289. 
ead n. dress, attire; gen. enid 233. 
eseaine a eurse 20. 
eseon excom»uodeated 285. 
esra a ¢up for drawing *vine 231. 
Cous (é-sciss) m. unweariedness 110 
(esces N). daurnaisee .i. attrttu n6 
greschae n6 escas, H. 8, 18, 80 . 



50 

GLOSSARY 

eserni (.) 231. 
eserte f. landless»ess, .rograncy 74. 
eapatu m. frirolity 214. 
étach (verb-n. of in-tugur, O'Mulc. 462) 
n. a dress; gen. étaig 182. 
étaid ]ealous 95. 
etgreaseparatiç, nterposbç, medi- 
at»[/, 135, 15 LL. 31b15 ; igid 
ugra e. 345«10. 
etir-chert a decinion 17. 

faigdech (foigdech) m. a beff9ar 83, Aisl. 
M. 71, 21. 
faiscsiu close»es»(.) 192 (faiesi N). 
fssach a preeedent 178 ; brithemnacht 
ar roscadaib ] fasalglb, LU. 118 t'. 
fithaige f. the gift of ropheey 192. 
fàth-rann m. a witty natrain 89 ; do 
ffitbrannaib espa ] airchetail, Ot 
Mers. Hx., p. t7,  2. 
fechemnas m. debtorship 170. 
fëige f. sharpness, sagaeitg 78. 
feras m. manhood, man's estate, gon. dag- 
forais 196; dmeh-ferais 197. Cf. 
feras léiginn le«torship AU. 
fer-lb n. a hwky day fm" mon 217. 
fescr (feiscre N.) 118 = feascradh 
' shrirelling, deeayin#.  O'R. Cf.feas- 
gor .i. dea]ugud, Les.Vos.403 : dligid 
each forcradach fésered, LL. 2949. 
fiad a weome, n. pl. fia (fiad L) 70. 
fidchell (?} 142. 
fid-nemed n. a saered gro sanetuary ; 
' lueus,' BB. 46946, O'Mulc. 830,n.pl. 
fldnemeda firdorchra ] crfieb-chaill 
comdlgainn, C. Cath. 
flett sec plett. 
fiiuchaim I ut, rotfliuchus, 104. 
fodb m. aeeoutre»ent, n. pl. fuldb 135. 
fo-crena (verb-n. foehraie) I bribe 
26l. 
foglaid m. a robber, gon. foglada 92. 
fo-gldais I more (trans.) 198. 
foichell f. hire» wages, gen. foice 13. 
foichne a blade of #reen eom 75 ; ith- 
oichne .i. foiehne in etha, O'Dav. 
1080. 
1. foilmnech roed, leashed, er f. 169. 

2. foilmnech (Ib-lémneeh) ready to leop. 
91,238. 
foimrimm a nsin#, usncaption, gon. 
foille fomrlmme, LL. 844¢55; n. 
pl. -e-168, Laws. 
f6indledaeh m. a wa/f 198. 
foll-derb f. a milk-pail» dat. lai foll- 
deirb 73, Laws. 
fdindel m. a straying, n. pi. f6indil 181. 
fomailt {verb-n. of fo-melim) f. usn- 
frnet 87. 
forons (verb-n. of fo-raidiur) m. «alen- 
lation (':) 118; béim co fomus, 
781. bëira co fommus, LL. 7426. 
rolosa, ol sé, fomus forsanl sin, 
LU. 58,24. 
fo-naidm n. a contract 202. 
for-adaim I close upon 203. 
for-ind-edaim I rel«te, forindel:lgl : 
O'Dav. 511. 
forngaire a proclaiming 140. 
forrach a measuring-rod 188; O'Don. 
S.uppl. 
for-snaidm (= for-naldm, with epen- 
thitic s) n. an orerreachin!/(?) 186 : co 
fornadmaim niad nSir, LU. 78,7. 
fortgellaim I give eridenee, bear witnes 
13S. 
for-tongim I swear, fortoinger (forton- 
gar) 158. 
fossad steady, firm 174 (fossaid 
fossugud stobility 28. 
fosta f. staidness steadiness 180, 187, 
194, 215, 218. 
fotha n. fore,dation, f. n-tmall 173. 
Cf. nf e6ir in fotha utmall, Sg. 4 '- 
fothirbe a field (?) 56, Trip. 82, 2 ; 
168, 26. 
freccor (verb-n. of fris-curim) opposi- 
tion, obdeetion 154, MI. 18D8. 
frecra (verb-n. of fris-garim) n. an 
answer 17t. 
frith-ndill a oountsr-oath 165. 
fdaimm n. a din, »oise 146, f. nglan r 
LL. 150b4 ; f. in churalg rsin tracht, 
YBL. 89  ; n. pl. ffiammann 146. 
fdatche f. a s»atching, cm.Ti»g off 
140. 



GLOSSARY 

fuchacht (fulcheeht) f. copalation, ce- 
habit«tien 155. 
fuigliur Tpronomwejudgm«nt, fuigletar 
161. 
fuec (verb-n. of foricim) m. repar,- 
tion, n. pl. fuiric 97, 98. 
fuirmed a stti»g, plcing, gen. althne 
firmeda, 157. 
fuirsire m. aflggler 241. 

gir a e'y, Mwut, n. pl. ghrtha 99 M. 
gis f. wiedom 177, gen. gMsse 178, 
192, 2.51. 
gMsse f. wisàom, acc. een gissi 176. 
gait (verb-noun of gataim) f. a 
meay, earryig oJ/ gen. fer gaite 
meirle 141. 
gamnach f. a tripper, gen. gamnaige 
284. 
gart generosity 240. 
gatach thievish 185. 
geir (?) 231. 
gen f. a stalle 91, n. pl. gena, lb. 
genmnaide chaste 187, genmnaide ben 
aenfir, H. 3, 18, 79 b. 
glass m. a loch', n. pl. glals 203. 
goirt salted, biad g. 70. 
g0riath (?) 127. 
graitme (.) 231. 
grées handieraft 70, ferr g. soos, LL. 
345c51. 
grfss fieat, ferer, ardeur, ferrent 224 
colum ce crSbud, ce ngrls, LL. 
3.548. 
grith a ery, eloat 99, n. pl. gretha, i& 
grdss (?) 143. 
gdala a large vessel, var 255 ; n. pl. 
gala, lb. Cf. iern-g6ala. 

iach (a late nom. formed from the ob- 
lique cases of e6) m. a salmo, gen. 
iaich 92, L. 
iarduibe f. errer-grief 67. Cf. arn- 
duba. 
iarmur remuant, leavigs 6.5. 
iarnduba L after-rioE 125. 141. 

51 

arraid foster-fee 149. 
im-bnad a growDtg pale 188. 
im-gellad a pleàgitg oneself 101. 
immarchor a conveying aboat or across 
239. 
med n. le»ty 178, 225. 
imreson, O. If. imbressan (verb-n. of 
im-fresnaim} f. o wra»glbg 101, 252, 
acc. pro nom. imresain 193. 
raihne a mi*take 101, imraithne 
229 
-thomailt f. food 149. 
im-erenaim pay or buy mutually, imu8- 
erenat 170. 
id-ehoe m. an indi¢atio», n. pl. ind- 
cholsc 254. 
i-erenaim Iay, buy 155. Enelitoe : 
ni écriae, Ériu L, p. 199,  21. 
L wrath. 188, O'Dav. 1108. 
itfa (3) 231. CL itfaide toile, LL. 
344«36. 

labor talkatire 248; bat 1. fri labra, 
bat t6 fl'i tS, LL. 34612. 
1 the dl-tide 23ï. 
laxa f. inertness 212. 
ln sloth 243; tossach lubra lén, LL, 
345'33. 
lethiu broad«r, vider 235. 
lia m.  store, dat. liic 147. 
litnacht f. siging the litany, 14. 
lobra = Iomrad « etri2pia 218; gen. 
lomartha, 
luaithrind a pair of compas*es, gen. 
ldd -e 118; fo chosmailius luaith- 
rinde, Corm. 13, s. v. Coite Brecin. 
luchra a smUe 288. 
ltd = Idth agility, qaick motion 118. 
Wi. nlmtha Idd hl cois n5 il-hlim, 
LU. 165. 

mad u'ell, ni mad biadsam, ni mari 
riadmm 236. 
mil bhmt : imlale-minàed, witless, 
ingen m. Il4. 
méile L lewduess 228 ; ben méile 223. 



52 

GLOSSAItY 

marb-dil dead chattel, Laws. acc. 
marbdili 105. 
med a balance, scales 138. 
meirle f. theft 141. 
mer-aichne a mistake 229. 
meraie m. afool, fop 10. 
-airle evil counsel 43  tossh miarli 
mm'tcha, LL. 34537. 
midcas m. cowardice 197. 
-gai n. au evil vry nom. du. da 
m. 124. 
miscne, scena (n. pl.) hatreds 179, 
248. 
-tocaoE m. misfortuue, iii-lock, gen. 
mithvcaid 124 : dat. mithoc 109. 
mblect (mblicht) iu milk 146. 
m6aig I incroese, s'erb-n. 
m5lgthe 146. 
muiHe6ir m. a millet, gen. mHeSh 
234. 
muie f. a nurse, n. çl. muime 746, 
27, muimmecha 130. 
muin nec£, «,  e phrase do m. 
232 = de mhuin b«ause of, in cou- 
seuewe of, Dinneen. 

nemed, m. a rivile#ed lersou, gen. 
nemid filed 255. 
nem-idna f. imurity 109 
nemthigur I constitute, neimthigar 
116-12 202 : Corm. s. 
rofolu sium in tréide nemigius 
filld, Mcgn. inn 19. 
e6it ehurlishness, ngardliness 144. 
ness (1) .i. anrnise criad a clayfurne, 
H. 3, 18, 73b ; gen. fri derc a nels, 
Ccrm. 33, 2 ; (2) lhe woode mo« or 
bloek in whieh the furnaee of moist, 
sofl elay, wasformed ; b6i erann a 
1Mm .i. neas a aiam ] 
gnither an umlse eriaà, Coin. 32 
v. aescoit ; (3) A. ml erWa baç of 
(mouMing) elay . 1, 15. 
6ill an oath 165 (nMll N) ; n. 1. n6ffi, 

ochn an urgin#, e##in9 on 112. Cf. 
achain, Boroma 122. 
ochtrach (later otrach) f. a dunghill» 
Ml. 129"2; dat. for ochtraig 117 
(otrach N). 
6c-thigern m. afranklin 71. 
6il t. a «heek, gen. elle 116. 
oirce a laav-dog 241. 
çrdan di#nity, gen. ordain o46, 254. 
With Triad 246, eompme the ïollow- 
ing extraet rom 14. 3, 18 p. 9b: 
Seeht rann fichet (xx.it ts) triasa 
(ïriasa ts) toet ïeab ] ordan (ordaia 
ts) do duine: tria gaireui, tria ainm- 
nit, tza ostai, tria th6i, tria forsadi, 
tria fogluim, tri dçmestai, tri étseeht 
f/rindi, tri ehoead fri cl6ine, tri in- 
darba antis, tri thochur[i]ud ris, tri 
trebairei, tri coitseeht fri fonzaidi, 
tri femorc firen, tri filidheeht téch- 
tai, tri ailge anscuichthi, tri airmitin 
en, tri dcnam sinsire, tri ermltin 
flatha, tri ah'midin ecnai, tri honoi[r] 
fithidre, tri timorgain cuibsi nO 
gnfiisi, tri idhnai lmai, tri congain 
cuibsi, tri imrd bfi[i]s, tria ima'd 
 décsi i nDia aa ndfila. 

paitt ï. a leather bottle, p. meda, 
LL. 117a50 ; LU. 54622 ; gen. paitte 
231 ; ha paitte, LL. 11762 ; du. n. 
da phait na, LB. 129 . 
plett (flett) f. an e¢e 121; p let 
nomen nnda dognlat cerda 1t. 3, 18, 
p. 73 : fiét, O'R. 
prap-ehaillte (literally ' sudden haa.d- 
ness ï f. closoEaedness 212. 

rth f. seeurity, surety 235 ; gen. rtha 
139. 
rtthaiges m. guarantorshiv 135, 248. 
rathmaire f. bountifulness 21 I. 
re©lés au abbey-clurh 11. 
reithe m. a ram 117, 168. 

 I owe this exp]anation to Dr. P. W. Joyce. 



GLOSSARY 

53 

tige a Mretchitç, extendi» 9 116. 
rigae (raigne) f. stiffnes» 179: LL. 
212b15 ; rigne labaïtha, 346a10. 
roimse abundanee 202. 
ro a chai 121. 
top m. a brete, n. pl. rp, 168, 169. 
With Triad 168 compare the following 
extract from H. 3, 18, p. 8 b : Rofesar 
rupu tria fSindel caich Laltu dosliat 
fiachui d6ine do cethrai .i. each een 
cbrich cech trthal, cri cen cuibrech 
 ce lomain lalthe, mccai 
muealg ndorcha. 
ros-ehusch m. a stallio 114. 
fo-thé rery hot, scagdin 70 ; Aisl. M. 
rucca f. slame 143. 
fuite m. a ki9, gen. pl. nfireeh 202. 
rss a blusM 143 ; O'Dav. 1336, 
1343, fris .i. grfiaid, ut dicltur: co 
nh romna fris richt. Rfis dono 
imdead ] gach nderg, H. 3, 18, 73 ¢. 

sail a ean, prop, n. pl. sailge 101. 
aaill f. t, baçon 170 ; geu. cia tiget 
ha saille, LB. 260620 : n 1]. saillti 
184. 
sain-ehor m. « pecil contract, gen. 
-chuir 1,51. 
sal/mah dirty, flltky, n. pl. salanaig 
280. 
saltralm _ tramçle, rosaltrus 104. 
s/mtha repose 189. 
sant f. avarice 115. 
scenb a startlin 9 (?) n. pl. scenb 106. 
scéo and 223. 
score a young stdet 233. 
secnabb6ite f. viee-abbotsh 46. 
she a ide, £n 230. 
séian eomplisheg ; an aceoml£sled 
ero, n. pl. ségalnni, 89 (ségaind 
I ségainn N); nl rabha i nEirinn 
ufle budh griabhda n6 bud saine 
ings, Three Fmgm. 34. 
se a rivet 172. 
seol (seoLa) ehild-b«d 224. 
sirecht f. a tabu, .L gels, O'Dav. 182, 
who quotes triad 253. 

sirite m. a wild man, sprite 114. 
sit hush ! 137 ; sit sit! Hib. lIin. 78, 
23. 
sleith f. eohahitin 9 with a wom«n with- 
out her g'»owleqe 155; Aisl. 
O'Dav. 97. 
slissén a chip, lath 169. 
sth fi a tread, gen. snithe 
75. 
so-bés m. 9ood oname 84. 
sobrad sr 261 ; svbralg, LL. 848d8 
sobraig cch er htram, LL. 346«45. 
aobraide f. so'iety 187, 251. 
sochell liber«lity 210 ; LL. 345639. 
soeatu m. 9ood re2ute, gen. svchlatad 
211. 
soehoisc doci 261 ; n. pl. -e, CZ. xxx. 
451, 28. 
socisce f. doeility 194 ; ssach suthi 
s., LL. 453. 
so-delb f.  fiefl9u 85. 
so-ga f. good reediq 210 ; 
svgnMse 208. 
soitges m. wellspoenness 208, 
251. 
soiteedach fortunate 29. 
somnath (sv-mfinad) easily taugt, 
cile 251. Cf. O'Dav. 1481. 
soathe f. doeilit 251. 
s6n that 29. 
sotead m. 9o fortune, gen. sotid 
210. 
sotla f. i 247. 
so-thgtha well-spoen 251. 
sproieept a 2reachi 9 111 B. sproicepht 
M. 
sreb f. ' the stream of mRk drawn from 
a cvw's teats at each tug,' Dinneen; 
gen. sreibe, 75 L. 
sreth immais 112 note. 
srithid f. ' te passage of mil » te 
breest," 0'. : gen. srithide 75. 
sruithe f. seniorty 5. 
sta h«sh? 137 ; Bvdl. Corm. stah% 
Hib. Min. 78, 1. 
sfiarcus m. nirth 210. 
su[rge f. a c«rti 9, wooinç, 47. 
suthaie f. lasti9ess , 182. 



54 GLOSSARY 

taera a çleading, t. ïergach 173 = LL. ] triehem a fit of ccu9hi»tg ; sen-t. 114. 
345«23- I mod. tritheamh. 
tairisiu m. truaf«hess 204. trichtach example, pattern (?) 27. is é 

tairismiœe f. cbduraey 209. 
tair-leimm n. an alighting, a place of 
alig]ttig ; geis di tochim cen tal, 
LL. 20111 ; n. 1. taifleme, 32. 
taisee vestttiou restoratimt 157. Laws, 
hisl. M. 
tal-chaire f. self-wll, obstuacy II. 
tarcud « proposinç 2, 3 ; t. o 
mnfii, AisL M. 3, 26. 
l ; . pl. tarsfinn 184 (tal'Snn L) : 
tonu, Ais]. M. 99, 7. 
taseor a rame, t. rig 71, t. rig n6 
espc, O'Dav. 1501. 
I. téite f. vmtomess 18. 
2. téi «fa»', ath«rDç 88. 
ten (rein, tlnn) o»% Iurti»9, c]che 
t. 90. Cf. mi ]san ]ah 15ter 
nn [ cluiche 6 nSch biad dulne tn 
« çam  Idd oon« s h«rt, Bss. 
51. 259, fo. 5 . 
daeht f. ooha«s 229. 
tls f. wearineas 132, 133. 
gnlm m. (?) 219. 
i:thiu (?) 131. 
toimtiu f. opinion 136. OE. maetoten 
' on of conjecture,' O'Dav. 1596. 
tothu¢ht «ubstaue 85. BB. 191. 
traita a eornerake 129. 
trh a triad. For O.-If. trethenc, 
Wh. 29¢5 (Thes. I. 691). 

dldiu in fer sin ropo triehtach do 
Chorinntib ara techtatls an indmus 
amal ni techtatls, LB. 14632 ; ropo 
trichtach tl"a don eclais dilgedaig fo 
chosmaillus ingen n-6g ni tabrat olc 
ar olc, acht logud, i. 
tromdatu m. imortunity 214. 
tromm m. the elder-tree 129; gen. 
eonnud trulmm, RC. vII., 298, 3. 
trd a àoomed person, dat. robud do 
thvieh 83 = Aisl. M. 71, 20. 
trumma f. weigltDwss, self-importance 
131. 
trusca f. leprosy 133 l. ; elam-trueea 
AU. 950. 
tiléth afrown 142. 
tuisledach stumbli»g, offending 96 . 
turtugud a co»qaelli»g, foreing, violat- 
ig 155: is tar turtugud Dé ] 
Patraic cach gell ] eaeh aitire, CMn 
I)omn. ; LU. 74a19, 123a17 ; turtugud 
breth, LL. 34  ; tmaugad .i. 
timpud, . 3, 18, 539; a turtad 
.i. per uim, O'Dav. 1151; turtad 
.i. eoméiciugud, O'Mule. H. 3, 18, 
74 , 866. 

uais harà, difflcMt 220, 235 ; coruice 
uais n6 angbocht, .i. is é in t-uais ni 
ha raibe aice féln, O'Dav. 112. 



PN 6425 .C5 T7 1906 SMC 
Trechen9 breth Feni. En91ish 
The triads of Zreland 
47055184