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HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




FXOM THB FUND OF 

CHARLES MINOT 

CLASi OF 1828 




Es AKD Castes I-*^^ 
INortb-Westem Provinces and Of 



W. CfloOKi. B.A. 




THS 



TRIBES AND CASTES 



or THB 



NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES AND OUDH. 



BT 

4) y(Ln ni 

W. OROOKE, B.A., 

BBirSAL CiriL ■UTIOB. 



IN FOUR VOLUMES. 



Vol. I. 



CALCUTTA : 
CFFICB OF THE 8UPBRINTENDBMT OF GOVBRKUBNT PfilNTINQ, INDIA. 

1896. 



9iiu dlup<«» Si«. 



YN d fiSo^S.^S,^ 



*^ 



>i >^"^C (t tSi SS.G 







, OALOVTTA t 

•OTllVMtMT Of IWDIA OBSTBAL ni«TI«a OtflOB. 

fi, sAvmrst tTBin, 



PREFACE. 



TITTJOH has been already written about the Tribes and 
Castes of the North- Western Provinces and Oudh. 
The long series of such books b^ins with the famous 
"Supplementary Glossary'* of Sir H. M. Elliot. Then 
comes Mr. Sherring's valuable aocoimt of the peoplet 
principally based on enquiries in Benares. Por Oudh 
we have Sir C. A. Elliott's "Chronicles of TJnfto/* 
Mr. Benetfs "Clans of BA6 Bareli,'* and Mr. Camegy's 
" Notes.'* Besides these there is a large body of litera- 
ture on the subject, such as Mr. Growse's " Mathura,'* 
Mr. Atkmson's Chapters in the " Himftlayan Gazetteer/' 

• 

General Cunningham's " Archaeological Reports," Gene- 
ral Sleeman's " Rambles and BiCcoUections " and " Jour- 
ney in Oudh," Mr. Greeven's researches about sweepers, 
and a great mass of miscellaneous memoirs included in 
the Settlement Reports, District Gazetteers, "Indian 
Antiquary," "Calcutta Review," and other periodical 
literature. The notes in the present book will show how 
much I am indebted to the researches of my prede* 
oessors in the same line of enquiry. 

It is again fortunate that a long series of valuable 
books has been devoted to the races on the boundaries 
of these Provinces; for it must be remembered that 
these frontiers arc purely geographical and not ethnical. 

Vot. I. a 2 



iv 



Thus we hare a large mass of information colleoted by 
Mr. Risley, Mr. O'Donnell and Dr. Buchanan Hamilton 
for Beh&r, by Colonel Dalton for Chota Nftgpur, by 
Mr. Hislop for the Central Indian tribes, by Colonel Tod 
and Sir J. Malcolm for Eftjput&na^ and by Mr. Ibbetson 
and Mr. Maclagan for the Fanjab. Of all these autho** 
rities it will be seen that I have made ample use. 

This book so far diiSers from any previous account 
of the races of these Provinces that it attempts to supply 
some more detailed information regarding their man- 
ners, customs, nmrriage institutions and religion. It is 
perhaps well that this task should be essayed now, how- 
ever imperfect and unsatisfactory the present venture 
may be. There can be little doubt that caste is under- 
going at present a process of transition. The Dravidian 
races who skirt the great Ganges-Jumna valleys are 
becoming rapidly Br&hmanized, and will probably in a few 
years have lost much of what is peculiar to them and 
interesting to the Ethnologist and student of the develop- 
ment of popular religion. Even now our Kols, Kharw&rs 
Cheros and M&njhis are much less primitive people than 
their brethren, whose manners and institutions have 
been analysed by Colonel Dalton, Mr. Eisley and Mr. 
Hislop. The improvement of communications, the faci- 
lity for visits to the sacred shrines of Hinduism, the 
Brfthmanical propaganda preached by those most active 
of all missionaries — the Panda and the Purohit, the Jogi 
and the Sanny&si— will before long obliterate much of 
the primitive ideas which they still retain though in a 
•modified form. A long service spent in Mirzapur, the 



last refuge of the Dravidian races^ has, I trusty enabled 
mo to supply some now facts regarding these interesting 
people. 

For the races of the plains I have based my aocomit 
of them on a series of notes collected throughout the 
Provinces by a niunber of independent enquirers, both 
official and non-official, whose services were made avail* 
able by the District Officers. The work could not have 
been even attempted without much cordial co-operation 
on the part of District Officers and a large body of 
native gentlemen to whose generosity in devoting some 
of their scanty leisure to this investigation it is impos* 
sible for me to do full justice. At the opening of each 
article I have been careful to name the gentlemen to 
whose aid I am indebted. 

There are some special causes which make an enquiry 
of this kind a work of more than usual difficulty. 
There is, first, the reticence of the lower castes which 
must be overcome before they can be induced to yield 
the secrets of their tribal organisation and religious 
life. To the average rustic the advent of a stranger, 
note-book in hand, who interrogates them on such 
subjects, suggests a possibility that he may have some 
ulterior objects in connection with a coming Revenue 
Settlement or Income Tax assessment. It requires no 
ordinary amount of tact and temper to overcome this 
barrier ; and there is besides among the lower castes an 
uneasy suspicion that rites and ritual, which in the eyes 
of the average BrShman are boorish and a survival of a 
degraded savagoiy, arc a matter to bo ashamed of and 



vi 



oonoealed . Mr. Greey en's experienoes in oonneotion with 
the sweepers of the Eastern DistrietSy whose sociology 
he has so carefully explored, are an ample proof of this. 
In connection with this there is another source of diffi- 
culty in the movement which has sprung up among many 
castes towards claiming a higher status than is usually 
accorded to them. The Shftstras and other religious 
literature of the Br&hmans have in recent years been 
ransacked by a number of castes whose so-called Aryan 
origin is more than doubtful to support a claim to kin- 
dred with races whose descent is universally admitted. 
Lastly, as the local patois varies from district to district, 
the manners and customs of the various castes vary from 
one end of the Province to the other. Ilence care has 
been taken to guard as far as possible from general 
statements. A custom or a mode of worship prevailing 
among a caste in Sah&ranpur or Ballia may or may not 
extend as far as Aligarh on one side or Allah&b&d on the 
other. The exact habitat, so to speak, of those usages or 
beliefs can be worked out only by the associated en- 
quiries of a much larger number of investigators. The 
Subject Index which has been prepared may, it is hoped, 
be useful from this point of view. 

I have specially to acknowledge the valuable work 
done by Surgeon- Captain H. E. DrakeBrockman in 
coxmection with Anthropometry, the results of which 

are given in the Introduction, where I have endeavoured 
to sum up in a general way some of the more obvious 
facts in connection with the origin of caste and some 
other sociological problems. 



vii 

No one can undertake with a light heart such an 
enquiry as this conneoted with a population aggregating 
nearly forty-eight millions of souls ; and, at the outset 
had I been fully aware of the diflSoulty of such a survey, 
I should have hesitated to undertake a work which has 
been carried out all through side by side with the mul- 
tifarious duties of a District Ol&cor. I shall be quite 
satisQod if the following pages supply a useful basis for 
further investigation ; and, as the most satisfactory 
recognition of my work, I can only ask all interested in 
the matter to favour me with any corrections and criti- 
cisms wliich may tend to a greater degree of complete- 
ness and accuracy. I have avoided, as far as possible, 
the discussion of topics which are likely only to cause 
pain to sections of the people whose pretensions to a 
higher rank or origin are, to say the least, disputed. 

The illustrations are reproductions of photographs 
taken at Mirzapur by Sergeant Wallace, K. B., of the 
Rurki College. 



INTRODUCTrON. 



CHAPTER I. 
Th£ Pkegin op Gastk. 

nnnERE aro fow questions within tiie whole sphere of 
"*■ Indian sociology which present more didOiculty 
than those connected with the origin of caste. If the 
native of the country has any idea whatever on the sub- 
jecty it is sufficient for him to refer to a maas of texts 
which arCy it is hardly necessary to say, of little or no 
soientiQo value. They merely record the views of 
various priestly schools from whom there is strong 
reason to believe that the system, as we now observe it^ 
originated. It is on linos quite dilferent from these tliat 
any real enquiry into the subject must proceed. It may 
be well here to give at starting the religious form which 
the tradition has assumed. 

2. To begin with the Veda. In the hymns, the most 

ancient portion of it, we find the 

Carte in the Veda. 

famous verse,—" When they divided 
man, how many did they make him ? What was his 
mouth ? What his arms ? What are called liis thighs 
and feet ? The Br&hmana was his mouth, the Eftjanya 
was made his arms, the Yaisya became his thighs, the 
SAdra was bom from his feet.'* ' "Euroi)oan critics,'* 



* Mijf Veda, X.. 00 ; 6, 7. 



says Professor Max M&Uer/ **aro able to show that 
even this verse is of later origin than the great mass of 
the hymns, and that it contains modem words, suoh as 
SMra and E&janya, which are not found, again in tho 
other hymns of the Eig Veda. Yet it belongs to tho 
ancient collection of the Vedic hymns, and if it con- 
tained anything in support of caste, as it is now under- 
stood, the Br&hmans would be right in saying that caste 
formed part of their religion and was sanctioned by thdr 
sacred writings. * ' But he goes on to say : — " If, then, with 
all the documents before us, we ask the question, — Does 
caste, as we find it in Manu and at the present iaj, 
form part of the most ancient religious teaching of the 
Vedas ? Wo can answer with a decided * No.' There is 
no authority whatever in the hymns of the Veda for tho 
complicated system of castes ; no authority for the offen- 
sive privileges claimed by the Br&hmans ; no authority for 
the degraded position of the SOdras. There is no law to 
prohibit the different classes of the people from living 
together, from eating and drinking together ; no law to 
prohibit the marriage of people belonging to different 
castes : no law to brand the offspring of such marriages 
with an indelible stigma/ '* 

. 3. We do read that men are said to be distinguished 
into five sorts or classes, or literally five men or beings 
{Panoha Kaitayah). ^^The commentator explains this 
to mean tho four castes — Brfthman, Eshatriya, Vaisya 



^ Chip* from a German Workshop, II., 312. 

' Ihiti,2l\, Moniar Williami, BrahmanUm and J/induiim, 17 sq* 






and S(idra and the barbarous or Nish&da. But Sftyana » 
of course, expresses the reoeived impressions of his own 
age. We do not meet with the denomination ELshatriya 
or Sddra in any text of the first book, nor with that of 
Yaisya, for vis^ which does occur, is a synonym of man in 
general. Brfthman is met with, but in what sense is 
questionable."^ 

4. We do, of course, in the Veda meet with yarious 
trades and handicrafts which had even in this early age 
become differentiated. Thus in the ninth book of the 
Rig Veda we have the famous passage which has been 
thus translated : — 

" How various are the views which different men inspire I 
How various are the ends whioh men of different craft desire ( 

The leech a patient seeks ; the smith Jooks out for something 

cracked. 
Tlio priest seeks devotees from whom he may his fee extract. 

With feathers, metal and tlie like, and sticks decayed and old. 
The workman manufactures wares to coin the rich man's gold. 

A poet I, my sire a leech, and com my mother grinds : 

On gain intent we each pursue our trades of different kinds/' ' 

5. Tlie present system of castes cannot, in fact, bo 
dated before the time of Manu's ** Institutes " which ** was 
originally a local code, embodying rules and precepts, 
perhaps by different authors, some of whom may have 
lived in the 5th Century B. C, others in the 2nd 
Oentury B. 0., and others even later. It was at 
first current among a particular tribe of Br&lmians, 



* WiImii. Bi^ Veiti, Imirodueium. XLIII., I.. SO. 

' TIm ttsoalniion is from tb« NwHk Briiish B$n0W, L., 621, mI«. 



Xll 



called Mftnavas^ who probably oooupied part of the 
North-Wostem regions between the rivers Sfiraswati 
and Drishadvati^ but afterwards became generally 
adopted."* 

6. As to the effect of these laws it may be well again 
to quote Professor Max MQller.* ** After the victorious 
return of the Br&hmans the old laws of caste were re- 
enacted more vigorously than ever, and the Br&hmans 
became again what they had been before the rise ot Bud- 
dhism, the terrestrial gods of India. A change, however, 
had come over the system of caste. Though the laws of 
Manu still spoke of four castes — of Br&hmans, Kshatriyas, 
Vaisyas and SCldras — ^the social confusion during the long 
reign of Buddhism had loft but one broad distinction : 
on the one hand the pure caste of the Br&hmans : on the 
other the mixed and impure castes of the people. In 
many places the pure castes of the Kshatriyas and 
Vaisyas had become extinct, and those who could not 
prove their Br&hmanic descent wore all classed together 
as SCkdras. At present we should look in vain for pure 
Kshatriyas or Vaisyas in India, and the families which 
still claim these titles would find it difiicult to produce 
their pedigree, nay, there are few who could lay claim 
to the pure blood of the SAdra. Low as the Siidra stood 
in the system of Manu, he stood higher than most of the 
mixed castes, the Vamasankaras. The son of a Sfldra 
by a Sftdra woman is purer than the son of a Siidra by a 



^ Monier Williaius, /oo, eU^, 61 sq, 
' Loe, ei$., 8-16 «f . 



• •• 

xm 



woman of the highest oaste (Manu, X., 30). Manu oalls 
the Ohand&la one of the lowest outoastesy because he is 
the son of a S&dra father and a Br&hmanio mother. He 
evidently considered the mesalliance of a woman more 
degrading than that of a man. Eor the son of a Br&h- 
man father and a Sddra mother may in the seventh 
generation raise his father to the highest caste (Manu^ X., 
64), while the son of a S&dra father and a Br&hihan 
mother belongs for ever to the Ohand&las.** 
7. And the same writer goes on to say : — 
^^ Manu represents, indeed, all the castes of Hindu 
society, and their nimiber is considerable, as the result 
of mixed marriages between the foiu* original castes. 
According to him the four primitive castes by inter- 
marrying in every possible way gave rise to sixteen 
mixed castes^ which by continuing their inter-marriages 
produced the long list of the mixed castes. It is 
extremely doubtful, however, whether Manu meant to say 
that at all times the offspring of a mixed marriage had 
to enter a lower caste. He could not possibly maintain 
that the sons of a Br&hman father and a Yaisya mother 
would always be a physician or Vaidya, this being the 
name given by Manu to the offspring of these two castes. 
At present the offspring of a Sudra father and a Br&h« 
man mother would find no admission in any respectable 
caste. Their marriage would not be considered marriage 
at all. The only rational explanation of Manu's words 
seems to be that originally the Vaidyas or physicians 
sprang from the imion of a Br&hman father and a Yaisya 
mother, though tliis, too, is of course nothing but a 



xiv 



fanciful theoiy. If we look more carefully we shall 
find that most of those mixed oastes are in reality the 
professions, trades and guilds of a half •civilised society. 
They 4id not wait for mixed marriages before tliey came 
into existence. Professions, trades and handicrafts liad 
grown up without any reference to caste in the ethnolo- 
gical or political sense of the word. Some of their names 
were derived from towns and countries where certain 
professions were held in particular estimation. Servants 
who waited on ladies were called Yaidehas, because they 
came from Yideha, the Athens of India, just as the 
French call the "porteur d'eau'* a "Savoyard.** To 
maintain that every member of the caste of the Yaidehas, 
in fact, every lady's maid, had to be bogott'Cn through 
the noarriage of a Vaisya and a Br&hmani, is simply 
absurd. In other cases the names of Manu's castes 
were derived from their occupations. The caste of 
musicians, for instance, were called Yenas from vftia, 
the lyre. Now, it was evidently Manu's object to bring 
these professional corporations in connection with the old 
system of castes, assigning to each, according to its 
higher or lower position, a more or less pure descent 
from the original castes. The Yaidyas, for instance, or 
the physicians, evidently a respectable corporation, were 
represented as the offspring of a Br&hman father and a 
Yaisya mother, while the guild of the fishermen, or 
Nishftdas, were put down as the descendants of a Br&h- 
xnan father an^ a SCkdra mother. Manu could hardly 
mean to say that every son of a Yaisya father and Ksha- 
triya mother was obliged to become a commercial travel- 



ler, or to enter the caste of the Magadhas. How could 
that caste have heen supplied after the extinction in 
many places of the Kshatriya and Yaisya castes ? But 
having to assign to the Magadhas a certain social 
position, Manu recognised them as the descendants of 
the second and third castes, in the same way as the 
Herald's office would settle the number of quarters of 
an earl or a baron." 

8. Before leaving the consideration of caste as found 
in Manu's ** Institutes," it may be noted that we find side 
by side two discrepant views as to the connubium of the 
orders. According to the milder, and apparently the 
older view, caste is determined by descent from the 
father, and a Dvija or twice-born man may take a wife 
from among Brfthmans, Eshatriyas or Yaisyas. With a 
SAdra woman alone he could not intermarry. By the 
other view a man was advised to marry a virgin of his 
own caste as his first wife, and after that he may proceed 
according to the rank of the castes. There is some 
reason to believe that under this rule he might take even 
a SAdra woman as a second wife.' This, it is needless 
to say, represents a very different state of things from 
that which prevails under the modern rigid law of caste 
endogamy. 

0. It was caste in or about the stage of its development 

CMt* .,.b-q,.*ni to exhibited in the "Institutes'* of 

Manu which Megasthonos, first of all 



^Imstitmiei, III.. IS— 15 ; 41: IX..S2.d4; S6— 87 : IH.. 16—10: X^ 
S. 6; 10 — 16: with Dun^ker's oommeoU. HUtory ^ Antiqmiif, 1T.« 
146 «Y. 



XVI 

the barbarians, observed in his embassy to the court of 
Sandrocottus or Ohandragupta (806—298 B. 0.). He 
found seven, not four, castes — the philosophers, husband- 
men, shepherds, artizans, soldiers, inspectors and coun- 
sellors of the king. Tlio philosophers wore the Br&h- 
mans, and the traveller indicates the prescribed stages of 
the Br&hmanical life. He distinguishes the Brachmanes 
from the Sarmanai, the latter of whom are supposed to 
represent the Buddhist Sramanas or monks, while tho 
inspectors were the Buddhist supervisors of morals, after- 
wards referred to in the sixth edict of Asoka. 

10. This hasty survey of the historical development 
of caste sufficiently disposes of the popular theory that 
caste is a permanent institution, transmitted unchanged 
from the dawn of Hindu history and myth. 

11. Another and even graver misconception is to sup- 

Cuu not pecnii«r to P^ *^^*^ ^*® ^ peculiar to Hinduism 
Hindoinm. j^^^ Connected in some peculiarly 

intimate way with the Hindu faith. It is needless to say 
that caste as an institution is not confined to Indian soil. 
The Zendavasta shows that the early Persian community 
was divided into three castes or tribes, of which one lived 
by hunting, a second by grazing flocks, and the third by 
agriculture. *^In this respect also,'' says Herodotus,^ 

* 

'Hhe Lacedaemonians resemble the Egyptians: their 
heralds, musicians and cooks succeed to their fathers' 
professions : so that a musician is son to a musician, a 
oookf of a cook, and a herald, of a herald : nor do others, on 

> Sraio, 60. 



XVll 



acoount of tho oleamess of their voice, apply UiomBolves to 
Uiis profession and oxoludo others ; but they continue to 
practise it aftor their fathers.'' This occupational or 
hereditary guild system of caste, which, as will be seeui 
was the most important factor in the development 
of this institution, prevailed and still prevails, as a 
matter of fact, all the world over. Nor is casto con* 
Gned to votories of the Ilindu faith. On the oon* 
tray it is in its nature much more social than religious. 
It has been one of the most perplexing problems which 
beset the Christian Missionary to reconcile the restric- 
tions of casto wiUi the perfect liberty of Christianity. 
Islftm has boldly solved tho difficulty by recognising 
and adopting casto in its entirety. Not only does the 
converted Rftjput, Gujar or J&t remain a member of his 
original sept or section ; but he preserves most of those 
restrictions on social intorcourse, intormarriage and tho 
like, which make up the peasant's conception of casto. 
As Mr. Ibbetson remarks, — ** Almost the only difference 
which the convert makes is to shave his scalplock and 
the upper edge of his moustache, to repeat the Muham* 
madan creed in a mosque, and to add tho Muham- 
madan to the Ilindu marriage ceremony. As far a 
religion goes he worships Khuda instead of Farameswari 
keeps up his service in honor of Bhawftni, and regularly 
makes the due oblation for the repose of the sainted 
dead." On the other hand» as will be seen everywhere 
in the course of the present survey, the members of 
orthodox Ilindu castes worship the quintotto of tho 
F&nch Plr, or famous local saints like Miy&n or Mlrftn 
SAhib, Sh&h MadAr or Saklii Sarwar. 

Vol. I. k 



• •• 

XVIU 



12. By another popular theory caste is eternal 

immutable. The ordinary Hindu will 

GmU not immatable. 

say that it has always existed, that it 
is based on what he calls the Shftstras, a vague body 
of religious literature of which he knows little more 
than tlie name. We have already shown that the 
vague reference to caste in the Vedas discloses the 
institution at a very different stage from what we see 
it in the ^^Institutes'* of Manu or at the present 
day. Even in an age so comparatively recent as 
that of Manu, the rules of connubium and social life 
were very different from those which prevail at pre- 
sent. This modem Vaishnava, for instance, would shud- 
der at the comparatively liberal permission given in 
these days for the use of meat.^ But in addition to 
this we meet all through the range of Hindu history and 
myth with numerous illustrations of the mutability of 
caste. Thus in the Mah&bh&rata Bhima is married 
by his brother Yudhlshthira to the Asura woman Hidim- 
bi, and the marriage rites are regularly performed: 
while Draupadi, a Kshatriya girl, accepts as her husband 
at the Swayamvara Arjuna who pretends to be a 
Br&hman. Yiswamitra, a Eshatriya by birth, compelled 
Brahma by the force of his austerities to admit him to 
the Br&hmanical order, so that he might be on a level 
with Vasishtha, with whom he had quarrelled.' It is 
even more significant to loam from the Mahftbhftrata* 



' Wilion, Rig V^da. II., 319. 
•III. 8026. 



that all castos become Brftlimans when they have eross- 

ed the Gomati on a visit to the hermitage of Yasishtha, 

and we are told that the country of the five rivers 

is contemptible because there a Baliika or Fanj&bi 

** bom a Br&hman becomes afterwards a Eshatriya, a 

Vaisya or a Sfidra, and eventually a barber." It would 

bo easy to repeat examples of this kind almost indefi- 
nitely,* 

13. As regards the castes of the present day the case 

McKiem dc...iopmeni ^ ^"^^^^ ^^^ead of castcs being a 
ofoMte. clearly-defined entityi an association 

complete in themselves^ a trade guild the doors of which 
are rigidly barred against the admission of strangers, 
thoy are in a constant state of flux and flow. New 
endogamous groups are constantly being created, the 
process of fission is ever in operation, and what is more 
important still the ttovus homo^ like his brethren all the 
world over, is constantly endeavouring to force his way 
into a higher grade and acquire the privileges of the 
"twice-born.*' This process is specially observable 
among the Qonds and other Dra vidian races of the great 
hill country of Central India. Thus the llftj Gonds 
who " in appearance obstinately retain the Turanian 
type, in aspiration are Hindus of the Hindus, wearing 
the sacred cord and carrying ceremonial refinements to 
the highest pitch of parvenu purism. Mr. Ilislop says 

iSm FitAfiM Pnrima^ Booh IV., Cap. I., p. 869: C»p. XIX.. p. 451: 
Mnir, Amoiomi SmntkrU T$xU. I.. S2S #99. ; 227 ; !>^a ; 436 '99. Wilaoii. Rif 
Voi^, L, 42 noU : Rmajii, II., 8U9 : Mm Moller. Ckipifrom a Gorwutm Work- 
ikop, II., 830 #9. Aneiomi Samskrii LUormimrOf 68 '9., Mid compare Uajeitdm 
Uk Miirm, Imdo-Af^ami, II., 206. 

Vut. I. * 3J 



that not content with purifying themselves, theur houses, 
and their food, they must even sprinkle their faggots with 
water before using them for cooking. With all this exte- 
rior coating of the fashionable faith they seem, however, to 
retain an ineradicable taint of the old mountain supersti- 
tions. Some of these outwardly Br&hmanised chiefs 
still try to pacify the gods of their fathers for their 
apparent desertion of them by worshipping them in secret 
once every four or five years and by placing cow's flesh 
to their lips, wrapped in a cloth, so as not to break too 
openly with the reigning Hindu divinities."* And Oap« 
twn Forsyth writes : — " In Gondw&na numerous chiefs 
claim either a pure descent from B&jput houses, or more 
frequently admit their remote origin to have sprung from 
a union between some BAjput adventurer of noble blood 
and one of the daughters of the aborigines. Few of 
them are admitted to be pure SAjputs by the blue blood- 
ed chiefs of Eajasth&n: but all have their bards and 
genealogies/'* 

14. The same process of elevation of the aboriginal 
races has been going on for centuries throughout Northern 
India. To quote Mr. Nesfield* :—" Local traditions in 
Oudh and the North- Western Provinces abound in talcs 
of Br&hmans being manufactured out of low caste men 
by BAjas when they could not find a sufficient number 
of hereditary Br&hmans to attend some sacrifice or 



^Qmiit, Iniroduetiom^ Central Provinces Qatetteer^ OX., eq. 
' Highlande qf Central India, 8. 
^BritfView, 79. 



foast. Eor examplo, the Kirnda Br&hmans of F&rtftb- 
gork aro said to bave boon manufaotured by B&ja MAnik 
Ghand, because bo was not able to oolleot the quorum of 
one hundred and twenty-five thousand Br&hmans to 
whom he had vowed to make a feast : m this way an 
Ahlr, a Kurmi or a Bh&t found himself dubbed a 
Brfthman and invested with the saorod thread, and their 
descendants are Brfthmans to this day.^ A similar tale 
is told of Tirgunait Br&hmans and F&thaks of Amtara :* 
of the P&nd6 Farw&rs in the Hardoi District : of the large 
clan called Sawalakhiyas in the Gorakhpur and Basti 
Districts, who have nevertheless assumed the high* 
sounding titles of DCibS, Upftdhya, Tiw&ri, Misra, Dik- 
shit, FAndS, Awasthi and F&thak. ' Only about a cen- 
tury and-a-halTago a Luniya, or man of the salt-making 
class, which ranks decidedly low, was made a Br&hman 
by BAja lUiagwant BAd of Asothar, and this man 
is the ancestor of the Misra BrAhmans of Aijhi.''^ 

16. In fact there can be little doubt that the 
,, . , Br&hmans, so far from forming a homo- 

iiuuai gtoop. geneous group, have been made up of 

very diverse elements, and this strongly confirms the occu- 
pational theory of their origin, to which reference will be , 
made later on. lliere are grades of so-called BrAhnuum 
which in appearance and function present little analogy 
to Uie pure bred Fandit of Benares or Mathura. Thus 



' Oudk OoM^a&er, I., 306. 
^IhiJ. III., ti9t I., 866. 
* OmwHU^r, NoHk-Wttt^rm ProvimM$^ VI , Sol, 9. 

'iW, Ylll., rtfHlll.,40. 



•M Jt^^al^U 



XXll 



tlio Ojha Brahman is the direct successor of the Drari- 
dian Baiga, and of similar menial origin are probably many 
of those Br&hmans who live by begging, fortune-telling 
and the like, such as the Dakaut, Joshi, Barua orHusai* 
ni, and the Mah&brfthman or funeral priest whose func- 
tions render him an abomination to all orthodox Hindus. 
The Bhulnhftrs and Tagas, if they are really of genuine 
Brfthmanical descent, have in the same way differentiated 
themselves by function, and having abandoned priest- 
ly duties are agriculturists and landowners \}\}TQ and 
simple. This separation of function must have prevailed 
from very early times, because it was specially laid down 
that each caste may adopt the occupation of another in 
case of distress, and thus a Brdhman niay do the work of 
a Kshatriya or Yaisya, but not of a SCkdra.^ 

IG. Still less homogeneous is the mass of septs grouped 
^ ,. ... under the name of Kshatriyas or BAj* 

Oooupational origin •' •» 

of the u&jputa. p^ijg ^^ j^^^^ already seen how the 

Dravidian Gond races have boon in quite recent times 
enrolled as R&jputs. The BAja of Singrauli, in Mirzapur, 
nearly a pure Kharw&r, has within the last generation 
or two come to rank as a Benbansi Chhatri. Oolonel 
Sleeman gives the case of an Oudh Pftsi, who within tho 
memory oi man became a BAjput by giving his daughter 
to a man of the Pu&r sept.* The names of many 
septs again, such as tho Baghel, Aliban, Kalhans, and 
N&gbansi suggest a totemistic origin which would bring 



* BUhler. Saer0d Laws of the Ar^ams, I., 209; 211: II., 13. 
' Joarrney ihrwgh Oudh. I., 213. 



• •• 



XXIU 

them in line with the Ghandrabansi, who are promoted 
Dravidian Chcros and other similar septs of undoubtedly 
aboriginal race. Mr. Oamegy went perhaps too far 
in assuming a similar development of many of the Oudh 
septs; but the traditions of many of these, which will be 
found in the special articles dealing with them, such as 
the B\\k\6 Sult&n, Bison, Ghandel, Gaur, Kdnhpunya 
and Bandhalgoti, afford significant evidence that their 
claims to blue blood must be accepted with caution. 
The same inference arises from the fact, of which evi- 
dence is given elsewhere, of the impossibility of drawing 
the lino between the J&t and R&jput of the Western 
Districts, and the Bhuinh&r and Chhatri of the East : 
in fact many of the septs of the latter claim indiSerent- 
ly to belong to both races, and some, like the Bisout 
have an admitted Kurmi branch. 

17. Among the B&jputs, again, this process of 

assimilation of lower races has been undoubtedly 

encouraged by the prevalence of female infanticide which 

renders it impossible for the poorer members of the race 

to obtain legitimately born brides. This has naturally 

led to cohabitation with women of inferior castes and the 

creation of definite classes of illegitimate Rdjputs, such 

as the Gaurua of the Central and the degraded Ohauh&ns 

of the Upper Ganges-Jumna Du&b. A recent report on 

the outbreak of dacoity in the Agra and Bohilkhand 

Divisions shows that many of the perpetrators of these 

outrages were half-bred Bid j puts, whose mothers were 

drawn from criminal or nomadic tribes like the Nat, 

Boriya, S&nsiya and the like, and the association of Bftj- 



put youtlis with women of tliis clase lias Lrouglit thorn 
into the companionehip of tlioir gypsy male relatives 
and driven them into n, life of crime. 

18. It is needless to say that the records of our 
courts swarm with examples of tho assoeiation of men 
of the Rftjput class with women of the lower races, and 
in this stratum of villago society there is not even a 
pretence of moral continence. The effect of this state 
of tilings is ohviouB and requires no further illustration, 

19. ITie same remarks largely apply to the so-called 
The ocoiiiMitionBi ..ri- modem representatives of tho Vaiaya 

gin (i the V«i«j.,a. , . . -i 

class, tho aggregate of tnbos now 
grouped under tho general name of Banya. Somoof those, 
Buoh as tho AgarwAlas and Oswiils, are in appoaranco 
perhaps amoug the best hred races of Northern India. 
Others are obviously occupational groups recruited from 
the lower races which liavo grouped themselves under 
tho generic title of Banya or Mahajan, Tho Bohra 
asserta Bralimanical origin. Others again in namo and 
function are in all probability connected with various 
classes of artizans— the Kasarw&ni and Kasaundhan with 
the Kasera, llio Lohiya with the Loliilr, and tho same 
inference may perhaps be drawn from tho gravies of 
Dasa and Bisa, "tho tens" and "the twenties," which 
appear among the Agarw&las, and can hardly indicate 
anything but a gra<lation in purity of descent. 

20. As to the congeries of castes known to tho early 

Hindus as Stidras wo find all the vaiy- 

Tho Sildru group. 

ing grades of social respectability 
from industrious artisans and cultivators down to 



vagrants like the S&nsya or Oandhlla and scavengers 
like the Dom or Bbangi. The word Sddra has now no 
determinate meaning ; it is merely used as a convenient 
term of abuse to designate persons who are, or are 
assumed to be, of degraded caste. It is probably a term 
derived from the languages of one of the inferior 
races.^ As has been already remarked, it is a com- 
paratively modem word and appears only once in the 
Hig Yeda* It may have beien a synonym for Dasyu, 
** those of the black skin," who represented the contrast 
between the aborigines and the conquering Aryans. The 
stress Uiat is laid in the old hynms on the breadth of 
their noses would perhaps go to identify them with the 

broad-nosed Dra vidians. But the accounts of their forts 
and cities show that when they came into contact with 

the writers of the Vedic hymns they had already attain- 
ed a considerable degree of culture. 

21. The only safe criterion of the relation of these 
Anihropomeirj Uio raccs to the so-called '* twice-born '' 

only mJo Umw of en* 

quirj. tribes can be gained from the evidence 

of anthropomotry» which must be loft for another 

chapter. 

s«mn«r; of ih^ork. 22. Mcanwliile to sum up the 
•f oriKin of c-u. ^^^^ ^f ^j^^ remarks— 

(a) Tlie Vodas, as wo possess them, give no clear 
indication of any form of caste, except that 
of the occupational or trade guild type. 



* Tlie derivali.n (rum ibc hm i tuck " Ui b« aOlicUd " liaidlj dawrvct 
rontMloraiion. 



xxvi 



{b) The first trace of modem oaste is found in the 
^' Institutes " of Manu : but here the rules of 
food, oonnubium and intercourse between the 
various castes are very different from what 
we find at present. 

(o) Caste so far from being eternal and changeless 
is constantly subject to modification, and this 
has been the case through the whole range 
of nindu myth and history, 

(d) Caste is not an institution peculiar to Indian 

soil ; but in its occupational form at least is 
widely prevalent elsewhere. 

(e) Caste is in its nature rather a matter of sociology 

than of religion. 

{/) The primitive so-called division of the people 
into Br&hmans, Eshatriyas, Yaisyas and 
Siddras does not agree with existing facts, and 
these terms do not now denote definite 
ethnological groups. 

(g) The only trustworthy basis for the ethnologi- 
cal survey of Upper India must be based on 
antluropomotry. 



xxvii 



CHAPTER II, 

Antheopom ktey. 

The following note on the subject of Anthropometry 
by Surgeon Captain Drake-Brockman is printed in original. 
"The following series of anthropometrical measure- 
ments of the cartes of the North- 

Qeneral Bemarks. 

Western Provinces and Oudh was 
taken and recorded by me under the auspices of the 
Local Government of these Provinces, who were kind 
enough to place the services of a competent clerk at 
my disposal to help in the work. In order to obtain as 
large a number as possible of representative castes, long 
distances have been travelled ; only males of the age of 
26 years and upwards have been selected as subjects for 
measurement on account of their mature physical de- 
velopment. 

2. I have endeavoured, for purposes of classification, 
as well as for comparison, to group the different castes 
under three main divisions, viz,, Aryan, Medium and 
Dr a vidian : the Medium group of which contains a largo 
number of castes which form, more or less, an interme- 
diate type, and are not capable of being classified strictly 
imder either of the other two main groups. The last group 
I have again sub-divided into two — (a) an Hinduised 
and (6) an Aboriginal section, to indicate more fully 
their status in the social scale. All the various sub- 
divisions and sections of the several castes have been 
included and shown under the head of the main caste 
to which they belong. 



3. Altogether twenty-two measurementB have been 
taken of each eoparato individual, and although of that 
number only a few are recognized by the most enjlnent 
authorities on the subject as being of any markod vnluo 
in the distinction of race, still I tliink it would bo well 
to generally compare all of tho anthropomctrical measure- 
ments before forming an opinion on the subject. At 
the end of this articlo a table will bo found in which 
are given the avoragoa and indices of each of the several 
measurements separately for each caste, tho total number 
of subjects of all castes taken being 4,906. 

4. A glance at tbo above-mentioned table ivill show 
the results, but I thinlc it -^vill ho as woU to rougiily 
analyze the most important data as far as anthropo- 
metry is concerned, and then judge of tbo result of the 
onciuiry as regards the castes of these Provinces, 

5. With this object in view I purpose to take tlio 
Nas2l and Cephalic indices and tho Facial Angle (that 
of Cuvicv being the one selected as being tlio most reli- 
able on the living subject) ; and I think that the latter, 
which gives us more or less roughly the degree of 
prognathism, taken together with tho J^aaal hiiJex^ 
will give us the best test possible. 

6. To commence then with the Nasal index, one of 

tho best teats for racial distinction, 

Tha NbbhI InJex. 

WO find at tho top of tlio list a 
medium oasto, the Jat, with a nasal index of 55, indi- 
cating a very leptorhino nose, followol by tho Ji}'dh- 
man with a nasal index of 69 : third on tho list, 
strange to say, is tlie Dhdntik, a Dravidian caste, with 



an average index of Gl, the warlike jRdjpnt being 
bracketed with the Oadariya^ LoTiar^ and with an index 
of 64, and the cultivated Kdyasth, many grades below, 
with an index of G7. 

At the bottom of the list we find the Bravidian 
castes of the Eonoa and Afusahar, with an index of 76, 
and the Jgariya with one of 77, all true Dravidians 
with more or loss mesorhine noses. 



Table of Nanal Indice$. 



Oitn. 


Atoimo 
Index. 


Cim. 


ATeraf« 
Index. 


JU . 


• • • 


56 


KAjasth .... 


67 


Brikman 


• • • • 


59 


• • • 




DbAnvk 


• • • • 


61 


Korwa • . . ") 




QAjar 


• • • • 


08 


lliiialiar ... J 


76 


Danja 
Dhobi 


: : : 1 

• 


G3 


Agan^a .... 


77 


B&jpoi 


• . • ^ 








D4ri 










Qadarija 










LtbAr 


• • 9 








HAIi 


. . . I 


(V4 






Tdi 






V 




Kbaltk 










Koeri 










Nat. eic. 


• • • i 








• 


• • 


1 


• 




• 


• • 








• 


• • 









Th« Oephnlio Index. 



7* Next taking the oephalio indioos—on glanoing 

the eye down the column containing 
these data, it will be seen that all the 
castes have cephalic indices, showing the fonnation of 
the head to be didioho^'cephaUo without exception, 
those of the castes Dh&nuk, Arakh, Nat and Eewat 
being slightly SHb-dolioho-cephalio, thus presenting 
a very marked contrast to the head of the Burman, 
which is decidedly brachy-cephalicj showing an index of 
of 83*1. The Burman, however, belongs to the Mongo- 
lian type of race, and nothing further need be said 
about him here. Out of four hundred and fifty adult 
males of the Brdhman caste the average cephalic index 
is found to be 73* 7> a figure practically the same ^as 
that found by Mr. Bisley, the lowest index being that of 
the Bhati and the highest (of course excluding the 
Burman, who is Mongolian) that of the caste Kewat. 

8. Again, if we take one representative caste out of 
each of the main divisions and compare them thus : — 



• 

DiVItlON. 


Caaie. 


Oephmlio 
Index. 


1. ArjAO 

2. Medium ..... 

8. Drmfidian . . . ^ 
(a) Kindaised . . ) 

(h) Al>originMl 


Br&hman .... 
K&yasth .... 

ChainAr .... 

Kol 


737 
733 

78*9 
788 



we cannot but be struck with the similarity of all, the 
heads of each being markedly dolioho-cophalic. 



Table oj Cephalic Indices. 



SB, 



CkBTM. 



Dhit 



Mkli. 



llalwAi 



BAiiriym 



Kuera 



Bin 



Khirwir 



Korwa 



Fsqtr 



Banj* 



ATerage. 



70-8 



71-0 



711 



71-4 



71-7 



71-8 



719 



72-0 



721 



72-2 



CAtTl. 


ATWftflfe. 


K4ehhi . 


• • 


72-2 


Dh4ngar . 


• • 


722 


• • 


• 


• • 


Brihinan . 


• • 


78-7 



RAjpiii . 



78-8 



Dwd 



Arakh 



::;! 



768 



• Th* tUn indioaU inUrTala with fif ar«t nuifing betwMii. 

0. In tko abovo invostigation both tho facial anglos 

of Campor and Ouvier liave been 

The FmiaI Angle. 

invariably taken and rooordod, but as 
the latter is scientifically more accurate» at any rate on 
the living subject, it will suflUco to notice the results 
under the latter measurement alone, as it gives us more 
aoourately the true or sub-nasal prognathism of the 
individuaL 

10. All the measurements of facial angles were 
taken with Brooa*s facial goniometer, by far the best 



instrument for llio purpose. All luiman beings, no 
matter to what race tbey belong, are, of course, prog- 
nathous, the only difference being one of degree, the 
more acute angle sliown indicating naturally the greater 
degree of prognathism. 

11. In looking at the table given at the end of this 
section it will bo seen that the Mdnjhi, a true Dravidian 
(one hundred of whom were Belected for measurement), 
has the liighoat angle, viz., 70, closely followed by the 
Dhdtigar, another casta of the same class, with one of 
69, the aristocratic BrJihman and Riijput ranking sixth 
on the list with the same average angle as the Dravidian 
ChamSr. Tlie vermin-eating Musabar comes at the 
bottom of the list with an average angle of 02. 

12. Finally if we select a representative caste out 
of each of the main divisions thus — 



DiTieioH. 


Casta. 




1. Aryan 


Prahinan 




03 


2. Medium 


Kljftstli 




(iii 


3. DraviJiaii. ■ ■ ■ 1 










Chamar 




65 


(j) Hiiiduii«a ... J 








(6) Aboriginal 


Kol . 




67 



and compare them, wo find that there is practically no 
difEeronco whatever. 



xxxiii 









liable of Facial Angles. 






Oastb. 


Ayeroge 
Indoz. 


Oastb. 


Ayerage 
Index. 


Mftnjhi . • • 


70 


Banjftra . 


• 


06 


Db&Dgar . 


■ 




• 


69 


Barhai 




Arakh 


• 




' 




Brahmaii • • 


1 




Bauriya 


« 






« 


RAjput . 


1 


65 


Agarija , 


> • 








OhamAr • 


J 




Bbuiy&r . 


• 








fiio., oto. 


/ 




Bburtiya . 


> 1 




» 


68 


PAbi 


• • 


t«« 


Ohero 


» i 








m • 


• 


• • # 


KhurwAr . 


1 • 








Musabar • 


• • 


G2 


Panka 


a 




i 










KaUr 


I ( 




J V 










Dani 


i < 














M&li 


• < 




. 


67 








Kol 


• 




. / 











Summary. 



13, To finally sum up, I have, for purposes of easy 

oomparisoiiytaken one hundred subjeots 
from eaeli of the main divisions pro'* 
miscuously, and irrespeetiyely of caste, and at the end 
of this paragraph will be found the averages of eaoh 
measurement separately \mder each division, in order to 
be able to compare finally the highest with the lowest 
caste, the noblest bom Aryan with the humblest bom 
Dr&vir, and I think on looking at the table one cannot 
but be struck with the result and notice the very slight 
material diiforence that exists, a fact which tends to 
prove beyond doubt that the racial origin of all must 

« 

have been similar, and that the foundation upon which 
*the whole caste system in India is based, is that of func- 
tion and not upon any real or appreciable difiEerence of 
blood.'* 

Vol* I. c 



xxxtv 



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xliii 

14. As a supplement to Surgeon Oaptain Brockman's 
note the following tables of measurements carried out 
under the superintendence of Mr. E. J. Elitts, 0. S., are 
republished from the Proceedings of the Anthropologi- 
cal Society of Bombay. It is to be regretted that owing 
to his absence on furlough in England Mr. Kitt^ has 
been unable to summarise the results. 



xliv 



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• • • • • 

I S I I s. S i H H 3 i S I I s g 



xlvi 



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xlvii 

S 3 s s 

fH fH rH fH 

0> <31 b* O 

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CD CD i^ 

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I ' I 

t^HiiOCOM30QCDCOCOOdO»QQQO 

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eocoeocoeococoeoeoeococococo 

eo eo cO eo eoeoeocoeoeoeoeoeo eo 

8 04r-i«OOCOi-iai|Cp'H09Qt^O»0<l 
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8 2 8 3 S S? 8$3S3SSgSS 

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^- ^* 2 ^* ^* ^ •H ^* ,4 ^- ^- J ^ ^- ^ 

§iOO*^*'>QO>OQQCO>0 CpO^O 
gg^QQ^oookooooaoeoooaooooo 



I 






xlyiii 



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oxvii 

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oxix 

15. Tho result thon of antliropomotry as applied 

to casto appears to be that there is 

Anthropometry. t. • , 

no good ground for disputing the faet 
that the present raoes of Northern India are praotically 
one people. The figures prepared by Mr. Eisley have 
been subjeotod to a olose analysis by Mr. 0. J. O'Don- 
nell ia the Bengal Census Report for 1891 ; and no ao- 
oount of the matter would be eomplete without repro- 
ducing his remarks. 

IG. ** It is difficult to trace^ in the introduction to The 
Castes and Tribes of Bengal^ how far Mr. Ilisley recog- 
nises the influence of intermarriage between Aryans and 
Aboriginals^ but he unquestionably denies the functional 
origin of caste^ and seems to define it as 'an institution » 
ovolvod by the Aryans in the attempt to preserve the 
purity of their own stocky and afterwards expanded and 
adapted, by tho influence of a series of Actions^ to fit an 
endless variety of social^ religious and industrial condi- 
tions.' With much originality he has sought to find a 
now guide to the ethnic composition of India in the 
Bcioncc of anthropometry. 

'* * Nowhere else/ he writes, * in the world do we find 
the population of a large continent broken up into an 
infinite number of mutually exclusive aggregates, the 
members of wliioh are forbidden by an inexorable social 
law to marry outside of the group to which they them« 
selveB belong. Whatever may have been tlie origin and 
the earlier developments of the. caste system, this abso- 
lute proliibition of mixed marriages stands forth at the 
present day as its essential and most prominent oharao* 



cxx 

teristio. In a society thus organised — a society sacrifioiiig 
everything to pride of blood and the idea of social purity- 
it seemed that differences of physical type, however pro- 
duced in past timcj might bo expected to manifest a high 
degree of persistence, and that the science which soeks to 
trace and express such differences would find a peculiarly 
favourable field for its operations. In Europe anthro* 
pometry has to confess itself hinderedi if not bafiied, by 
the constant intormixturo of races, which tends to obs- 
cure and confuse the data arrived at by measurement. 
In a country where such intermixture is to a large 
extent eliminated, there were grounds for believing that 
divergent types would reveal themselves more dearly 
and that their characteristics would furnish some oluo to 
their original race aflinities/ 

17. ** With the aid of the Governments of the North- 
Two main typei of Wcstem Frovinccs and of the Fanjab 

Indian head. . » . • 

anthropometric data for * nearly 6,000 
persons, representing 89 of the loading castes and tribes 
in Northern India^ from the Bay of Bengal to the fron- 
tiers of Afgh&nist&n/ wore obtained, but unfortunately 
Mr. Uisley finds that * it would be vain to attempt with- 
in the compass of this essay to analyse and compare the 
large mass of figures which has been collected, or. to de- 
velop at length the inferences which they may be taught 
to suggest/ He has, however^ made a few interesting 
deductions. Tliree well-known typos of feature and 
physique have long boon recognised in tho Indian penin- 
sula, the Aryan or Caucasian chiefly in Upper India, the 
Mongoloid^ which is generally believed to be confined to 



OXXI 

the north-east comer of Bengal, and a Negrito, or, as 
Mr. Eisloy oalls it, a Dravidian typo, in Central and 
Southern India. Excluding the second, which he repre- 
sents to be so local as to make its elimination a matter 
of little importance in discussing the ethnology of Indian 
peoples, Mr. Risley defines the other two as follows : — 

" * The Aryan type, as we find it in India at the pre- 
sent day, is marked by a relatively long (dolichocepha- 
lic) head ; a straight, finely cut (leptorhine) nose ; a 
long, symmetrically narrow face ; a well developed fore- 
head, regular features, and a high facial angle. In the 
Dravidian type the form of the head usually inclines to 
be doUchocephalic, but all other characters present a 
marked contrast to the Aryan. The nose is thick and 
broad, and the formula expressing its proportionate 
dimensions is higher than in any known race except tho 
Negro. The facial angle is comparatively low; the 
lips are thick ; the face wide and fleshy ; the f eatiu'es 
coarse and irregular.' 

** The following passage gives the most important of 
Mr. Biisloy*s deductions : — 

* Between these extreme typos, which may fairly bo 
r^arded as representing two distinct races, we find a 
large number of intermediate groups, each of which 
forms, for matrimonial purposes, a sharply defined circle, 
beyond which none of its members can pass* ' By 
applying to the entire series the nasal index or formula 
of the proportions of tho nose, which Professors^ Flower 
and Topinard agree in regarding as the best test of race 
distinctions, some remarkable results are arrived at. 



The averago nasal proportions of tho Mftld Pah&ria tribe 
are expressed by the figure 94*6, while the pastoral 
6{Ljars of the Pahjab have an index of GCO, the Sikhs 
of 68*8, and the Bengal Brilhnians and E&yasths of 
70'4. In other words, the typical Dravidian, as repre- 
sented by the M&16 Pah&ria, lias a nose as broad in pro- 
portion to its length as the Negro, while this feature in 
the Aryan group can fairly bear comparison with the 
noses of 68 Parisians, measured by Topinard, whidi 
gave an average of 69*4. Even more striking is the 
curiously close correspondence between the gradations 
of racial type indicated by the nasal index and certain 
of the social data ascertained by independent enquiry. 
If we take a series of castes in Bengal, BiMr, or tho 
North-Western Provinces, and arrange tliem in the 
order of the average nasal index, so that the oaste with 
the finest nose shall be at the top, and that with tho 
coarsest at the bottom of the Jist, it will be found that 
this order substantially corresponds with the aocoptod 
order of social precedence. The castoless tribes, Kola, 
Korwas, Mundas, and the like, who liave not yet en- 
tered tho Brahmanical system, occupy tho lowest place 
in both series. Then come tho vermin-eating Musaliais 
and tho leather-dressing Chamftrs. The fisher oastes 
of Bauri, Bind and Kewat are a trifle higher in the 
scale ; the pastoral Gp&la, the cultivating Eurmi, and 
a group of cognato castes from whoso hands a Brfthman 
may take water, follow in duo order, and from them wo 
pass to the trading Khatris, the landliolding Bftbhana, 
and the upper crust of Hindu society. Thus, it is 



oxxiii 



scaroely a paradox to lay down as a law of the oaste 
oi^aiiisation in Eastom India that a man's social status 
varies in inverse ratio to the width of his nose.' 

18. *' The figures on which those statements are based 

are found in the third and fourth 

The NmhI Indei. i. ^, -n* i • • x ±» 

The boci test of race volumcs of Mr. E/islcy s instructive 

distinoiion. 

work ; and if in examining them it 

appears that they do not bear out his conclusions, I 
hope not to fail in recognising the great service he has 
rendered to ethnographic study by introducing really 
BcientiQc methods of enquiry. 

'* The following table is an exact reproduction of the 
averages of the nasal index at the beginning of Volume 
III :— 



BSMOi 

NaiMof i 


iL PROPSK. 


BrnAa. 




:::a«to. 


ATPmgo 
Indet. 

703 


Nania of Caste. 


Ayaraira 
Indai. 


KijMlh .... 


Bribman .... 


73-2 


Diiliman • 
Cluuidil . 
Sadgop 




• 
• 


704 
730 
73-0 


BAbhiin .... 
OolU .... 


74-0 
76-7 


QMn 




• 


742 


Kiirtni .... 


78-5 


Muehi . 

Pod 

KaiUriU. 




1 • 


740 
761 
7G-2 


Kabir • 

Bind .... 


707 
822 


BAjbanti . 


. 


. • 


766 


Maghni) A Dom 


82-2 


MnhaoiiDadan . 
B4gdi 




> • 
• 

1 • 


77-6 
805 
841 


Duadb .... 
Cbain&r .... 


82 4 
82-8 


MAI 


• • • 


847 


Mntaliar .... 


88-6 


Mil Pabiri 


» . 


020 






MM or AmI Pabiria . 


045 







OXXIY 



Nobth-Wbitbbn Pboy^obs and 

OUDH. 


PUNJAB. 




Name of OMte. 


kmngt 
Index. 


Name of Goto. 


( AVMiflB 
1 lBd«B. 


BhutohAr • 


• 


. 780 


GAjar . . . . 


66-9 


Biihnum • 


• 


74*6 


Path4n • . . . 


68^ 


KAjMth . 


• 


74-8 


Sikh . . . . 


68*8 


Kthairija 


• 


777 


Awan • • • • 


08*8 


Kanjar 


• 


780 


Bilooli . . . . 


tsn 


Kbairi . 


• • 


78-1 


MAohlii . . . . 


70O 


Konai • • 


• • 


79-2 


Arora . « • . 


nj 


ThAra 


t • 


79-5 


Khatri « • • . 




78-1 


Banya # 


• 


79-8 


Chuhra • • • • 


76^ 


Barhai 


> • 


80-8 






Qo4la 


t • 


80*9 






Kewai 


• 


81-4 






Bhar 


• 


81-9 


• 




Kol ... 


• 


82*2 






Lohir 


• 


82-4 






Gnrija . • 


• 


82-6 


* 




KAohhi . 


9 


82-9 






T)om . • • 


• 


830 






Lodha . 


• 


83*4 






Eoiri • • 


• 


83-6 






PAii . , . 


• 


86-4 






Cham4r 


• 


86-8 






Miisahar • 


• 


86-1 


■ 





oxxv 

*^ In this table it is a notiooable f aot that tho Eftyasth 
of Bongal Fropor^ an undoubtodly SMra oaste, aooord- 
ing to Br&hmanic theory, has finer features than the 
Br&hman, whilst the Ghand&l outeaste of tho Gangetio 
delta lies midway between the highborn and allied 
oastes of Br&hmans and B&bhans in Bih&r. Mr. Nesfield 
is so satisfied that tho people of Upper India are a raoe 
mixed beyond reoognition, that he does not hesitate to 
declare that a 'stranger walking through the class- 
rooms of the Sanskrit College at Benares would never 
dream of supposing that tho students seated bcforo him 
were distinct in race and blood from the scavengers 
who swept the roads/ It is a singular confirmation of 

this assertion that Mr. Bisley's table shows no appre- 
ciable dilTerence in feature between the Br&hman of the 
North-Wostom Provinces and tho Chulu^ or scavenger 
of the Fanj&b, whilo tho latter has very much the 
advantage in nasal refinement over the ELshatriya or 
BAjput of the North- Western Provinces. 

19. " Tho foregoing figures, however, are only aver- 
ages. When one turns to the indivi- 

N<*gritio profile 

D in th« bigbest dual measurements, tho entire ab- 
sence of any common gradation in 
the nasal indices of the measured castes is still more 
apparent. The following figures are taken from tho 
gonoi*al tables of measurements, the five upi)cr entries 
showing the smallest indices and the five lower tho 
Jftrgost indices reconlod. Tho numboi-s in tho first 



The 

OOtDinOD 



OXXVl 



column undor oooh caste are the serial niunbera of the 
individuals in the original table : — 

Bengal Proper. 



BbAiixan. 


KAtajth. 


m 


Ch^xAb. 


BIODX. 


Serial 
No. 


Indei. 


Serial 
No. 


Index. 


Serial 
No. 


Index. 


Serial 
No. 


Index. 


Serial 
No. 


Indai. 


41 


501 


23 


600 


37 


620 


14 


62^ 


88 


67-8 


30 


580 


. 15 


615 


10 


62*7 


10 


64-1 


86 


67-8 


21 58*8 


29 


62*2 


17 


65*3 


12 


66-6 


41 


68^ 


10 


CO-3 


63 


62*7 


13 


65-9 


24 


66-6 


74 


88-8 


6 


.60-7 


2 


62-9 


33 


66-0 


3 


67*9 


27 


70i> 


73 


80-4 


82 


81*2 


7 


83*3 


23 


81-3 


80 


00*1 


84 


81*2 


97 


82*0 


36 


&1-4 


27 


82-2 


10 


08-8 


85 


812 


70 


829 


3 


84-7 


15 


86-0 


65 


05-4 


94 


88*6 


32 


83*3 


19 


84-7 


11 


87-2 


6 


07-4 


75 


100-0 


9 


88*8 


15 


86-6 


6 


88-0 


8 


lOOO 



<* I have excluded the castoloss tribes, but have includ- 
ed the BAgdi, a so-called castpi though why so termed, 
except that it is found in the plains of India and has 
been largely Ilinduisod, is not apparent. This oon- 
f usion between the two terms must continue so long as 
the functional cliaracter of caste is not admitted. The 
BAgdis, like the Bauris, are a tribe as much as the Kol 
or the Sant&l, and being Dr^virs by race, stand apart in 
the foregoing statement with a generally well-marked 
Dravidian type of face. The other four groups oro 
functional, their occupations being that of priest, writer^ 
C/Owhord and leather dresser ; and though there la a 



oxxvu 

greater coarseness of feature in the two latter, who are 
out^f-door labourers, than in the former, who are gentle- 
born, all four are manifestly of the same race or rather 
of the same amalgam of races. The first five Br&hmans 
and K&yasths have distinctly Caucasian features, but 
the average index of the second five Br&hmans ( 86*3) 
shows a much greater approach to the flatnosedness of 
the Negro than the similar average of Go&las (84*7), or 
Oham&rs (84*9). In fact the two last Br&hmans have a 
more aboriginal type of face than any of the despised 
Icather-drossera. It is probable and natural that there 
should be a greater admixture of non- Aryan blood in 
persons pursuing the humbler occupations, and this is 
the gist of Mr. Nosfield's argument, which seems triimi- 
phxuitly corroborated by the foregoing figures. The race 
theory of castes, on the other hand, is found to have 
praclically no statistical support. Ear from its being a 
law of caste organisation in Eastern India, that a man's 
sociiil status varies in inverse ratio to the width of his 
nose, the utmost tliat can be predicated is tliat the aver- 
age nasal index of a large number of the members of 
any caste indicates, in a very, uncertain manner, the 
amount of aboriginal blood amongst its members, and 
thereby indirectly the grojvtor or less respectabUity of 
the occupation followed. 

20. " It appears from thn nasal statistics that not only 

an occasional Briihman, but a very 

The CcDhalio ItkIox. 

The Mo«aioci>iiaito appreciable section of the caste, may 

be as llat-faccd as a Cliam^. It is 
also made apparent by Mr. Ilisloy's measurements of 



cxxyiii 



the oephalio indox and of the facial anglo that an equally 
largo numbor are as roimd-hoaded as a Mongoloid Lepoha 
of the Darjiling Hills, and as prognathous as any 
N^ritio tribe in Ohutia N&gpur. Tlie following table is 
a reproduction of Mr, Ilisloy's statement of averago 
cephalic indices : — 



OXXIX 






Q 
B 
M 

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141 


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eo 


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CO 


eo 


o» 


ft* 


ft* 


fr« 


iNi 


t* 





^ ^ ^ 



5 

J 



Sr, 



^ a ^ 

kOMOib^oocoib 

• Jr • , • ' * • 

I I e -s s 1 •■§ J 

»• 







P 
H 



n 



•xepni 
eSvjOAy 



5 

a 



n 



•xepni 
eSviOAY 



6 

3 



B 

SB 








o 



n 

o 



01 



'xepux 
oJhuoAy 



eo 

■ 

oo 



s 

o 

o 
o 

i 



9 

B 





'lopai 




O^HUQAy 


fli 




H 




»■ 




O 




« 


• 
9 


Pu 


1 


J 


o 


^ 




o 


•8 


ri 


• 


m 


s 




f. 



eo 



CC; <0 (>• P f-H <M l» 
t>» l<« t>» OO 00 00 00 

r» t* i"* fc* t^ !■* !,>, 



i i 






ex. 

& 



•3 



6 

a 

a 



o U] cS 



CXXXl 

** lu the above table tlie great cephalic similarity 
between the K&yasth and the Ohand&l in Bengal, 
between the Brfthman and the Bind in Bih&r, and between 
the B&bhan and the Bhar in the North- Western Pro- 
vinces, seems to prove beyond question how very similar 
must have been the racial origin of all. In fact the 
medium or mesaticephalio head is the most common in 
the plains of Bengal and Bih&r, being the result of 
interbreeding between the round-headed Mongol and 
the long-headed Drft^vir, the Aryan having little to do 
with the physiognomy of their offspring, except in Upper 
India. 

'* Mr. Risley's comment on these statistics is as fol- 
lows : — 

'All along the Eastern and Northern frontier of 
Bengal we meet with a fringe of compact tribes of the 
short-headed or brachy cephalic type, who are beyond 
question Mongolian. Starting from this area, and travel- 
ling up the plains of India north-westward towards the 
frontier of the Fanjab, we observe a gradual but steady 
increase of the dolichocephalic type of head, which Herr 
Penka claims as one of the cliief characteristics of the 
original Aryans. Bengal itself is mostly mosaticephalic, 
and dolichocephaly only appears in some of the Dra vi- 
dian tribes. In lUhftr dolichocephalic averages are more 
numerous ; in Oudh and the North-Wostom Provinces 
this type is imiversal, and it roaches its maximum in 
the Pan jab. Assuming that Herr Penka has correctly 
determined the original Aryan typo to be dolichocepha- 
lic, and that the theory of cast^ propounded above is the 

Vol.. I. I % 



oxxxii 



true one, these are just the results which might be look- 
ed for. According to the French anthropologists, the 
shape of the head is the most persistent of race oharaotersy 
and the one which offers the greatest resistance to tho 
levelling influence of crossing. 

** * A possible objection may be disposed of here. It 
may be argued that if the Dravidians are dolichocepha- 
lic, the prevalence of this character in North Western 
India may be accounted for by the assumption of an 
intermixture of Dravidian blood. But if this were so 
the proportion and degree of dolichocephaly would 
increase as we approach the Dravidian area, instead of 
diminishing, as is actually the case. Moreover, it is 
impossible to suppose that the races of the North-West, 
if originally brachycephalic, could have acquired fheir 
dolichocephalic form of head from the Dravidians, with- 
out at tho same time acquiring the charaoteristio Dravi- 
dian nose and the distinctive Dravidian colour/ 

21. ** The last paragraph may, I presume, be taken as 
The Nrgritic ooioar denying the admixture of Dravidian 

amongst HiAhmant. ,,,▼* i ii< -»%. 

blood. I have shown that a Dravi- 
dian nose is far from uncommon in the highest 
castes. As regards colour there is a mass of evidence 
hostile to Mr. Eisley's latter argument. Professor Max 
Miiller, in his Chips from a Oermnn IForkshop^ states : — 
* Til ore are at present Br&hmans, particularly in the South 
of India, as black as Fariahs.* Mr. Nosfiold, the most 
careful ^student of castes in Upper India, states :— • The 
great majority of Br&hmans are not of lighter com- 
plexion or of finer and better bred features than any 



oxxxiii 

other caste.' Even Kanaujiya Br&hmans, who are the 
priests of the upper classes in Bengal, are admitted by 
Mr. Risley to be * wanting in the peculiar fineness of 
feature and intellectual cast of countenance which dis* 
tinguishes the higher grades of Brahmans in other parts 
of India.' On the other hand, Mr. Sherring in his 
"Hindu Castes and Tribes ** comments on the high 
caste appearance of the Cham&r caste. Similar testi- 
mony to the good looks of the Ohamftrs in certain parts 
of India comes to us from the Central Provinces, where 
they are said to be lighter in colour than the members 
of other cultivating castes, while some of the men and 
many of the women are remarkably handsome. In 
Eastern Bengal, again. Dr. Wise describes the caste 
as * less swarthy than the average Chand&l, and infinitely 
fairer, with a more delicate and intellectual caste of 
features, than many Srotriya BriLhnians.' The fore- 
going quotation comes from Mr. Risley 's excellent 
article on the Cham4r caste. 

** One of the first great crimes which, as a Magistrate, 
I had to investigate in Bengal, was a murder committed 
by a Jessor OhamAr, who had spent years in the villages 
to the south of Calcutta in the character of a Br&hman. 
He at last seduced a young widow from her home, and 
murdered her for the sake of her jewellery a few miles 
before reaching his house in Jessor. He was tall and 
handsome with a clear olive complexion, and I afterwards 
noticed that some other members of his caste were 
equally fair. Young men of the Dus&dh caste are often 
rather good looking, and many of them have a yellowish- 
brown complexion. 



OXXXIV 

22. ** The facial angle of Cuvier, though somewhat 
The facial angle. A discredited by later anthropologists 

Mngle tjpe, a mixed one, ^ & o 

iiiii?eri»BL q^ account of its failure to define 

minor distinctions of f eature, is still a race test that has 
many advant^tges. It measures, as is known, the angle 
made by the plane of the face with the plane of the 
base of the skull. It is acute in the Negritic peoples, 
and about a right angle in the Caucasian. Mr. Eisley, 
adopting the notation of Retz, gives the following 
figures r— 



r 
O 



3 


■lopiti 


sIgSI-iSsE 


1 

i 

z 




I- 1 1 1 1 1 1 J 1 


1 

& 

i 

z 


■lapui 

B8B10AV 




1 

■3 

1 










liaJililliil 


n 


■aiuo*v 


i S S i i £ S E i S 


1 

1 




1 

- 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1. 


r 

1 

i 


■<Bpai 


sslSSSiSISsI 


i 

J 


.a 

■ • -1 



i 

P4 



•sepuj 



o 



I 



8 

K 

M 

s 

K 

es 
M 
H 

CO 

M 

M 
O 



'xepaj 
oJtajAy 



S^O CO ^O CO 
CO ^ CO o 



CO eO M rH 0» ft« iO 

s s s s s s 

CO CD C^# ^^# ^^r ^^7 



o 



I 



t< 3 td 



;5 W M 



3 






I ^ 



n 



'xopoj 



5 

i 

I 



o 



O 
ft 
H 



*sopai 
•JweAy 



1 
i 



3 



?• 

3 



CO 
CO 






3 

'O 

S 

9 

a 



• • 



«< It thus appears that in Bengal the Brahman is at 
one end of the soale and the oultivatod Kdyasth at the 
other, whilst at the top of the Bih&r list the fisherman, 
priest, farm labourer, landlord and cowherd are in close 
proximity. In the North- Western Provinces the Ksha- 
triya, the Bljput soldier and the Khatri, the Rftjput 
trader, stand at opposite extremes ; rat-catchers, carpen- 
terS| dancing women, cultivators, toddy-drawora and 
priests coming in hotwoon. No evidence could be more 
oonvinoing, if anthropometry has any meaning. The 
Indian races and tribes in the valley of the Ganges from 
the Afghan frontier to the Bay of Bengal are so absolute- 
ly intermingled in blood, that it is impossible to discri- 
mlnate between the skull characteristics of the castes or 
functional guilds which have grown up under later 
Br&hmanical usage.'* 



CXXXIX 



CllAPTEll 111 

The OCCUPATIONA.L foum of Caste. 

Wo have thus mainly on the evidence from ontliro- 

Cft t bMcd on pomotiy endeavoured to establish the 
occui^tio... f.^Q|. tj,.^^^ ^ ^y^ flj^j y^Q existing jk)- 

pulation, the Uieory of the ethnological basis of caste must 
be to a groat extent abandoned. We have then to search 
for some other solution of the question of tlie origin of 
our present castes. This can only be found in community 
of function or occu2)ation. Tlie most able advocate of 
this theory is Mr. J. C. Nesfiold.' To use his words : — 
•* The bond of sympathy or interest which first drew 
together the families or tribal fragments, of which a 
oasto is composed, was nut, as some writers have allegedr 
community of crood or community of kuiship, but com- 
munity of function, function, and function only, as 1 
think, was the foundation upon which the whole caste 
system of India was built up." 

2. And he goes on to say ' : " Such a tlieory as 
the above is not compatible with the modern doctrine 
which divides the population of India into Aryan and 
Aboriginal. It prosup|>oscs an unbroken continuity in 
the national life from one stage of culture to another, 
analogous to what has taken place in every country in 



^ Bri^ vino nf tk€ catU ijfitem of th€ North- WetUtn Prowtmotk amd 
Omdk, Tlie Mime theory wm, however, adrooated before Mr. Neefitld bj 
Mr. IbbeUon in the Panjab C^ntut Rejwri of 1881, (taf^e 173, nq 

' Aw?, rit, .7. 



0x1 

the world whose inhabitants have emerged from the 
savage state. It assumes, therefore, as its necessary 
basis, the unity of the Indian race. While it does not 
deny that a race of * white- complexioncd foreigners,* who 
called themselves by the name of Arya, invaded the 
Indus Valley vid K&bul and Kashmir some four thousand 
years ago, and imposed their language and religion on 
the indigenous races by whom they found themselves 
surrounded, it nevertheless maintains that the blood 
imported by this foreign race became gradually absorbed 
into the indigenous, the less yielding to the greater, so 
that almost all traces of the conquering races eventually 
disappeared, just as the Lombard became absorbed into 
the Italian, the Frank into the Gaul, the Roman (of 
Boumania) into the Slav, the Greek (of Alexandria) into 
the Egyptian, the Norman into the Frenchman, the 
Moor (of Spain) into the Spaniard, and as tlie Norwe- 
gians, Germans, etc., are at the day becoming absorbed 
into Englishmen in North America, or as the Portuguese 
(of India) have already become absorbed into Indians. 
I hold that for the last three thousand years at least no 
real difference of blood between Aryan and Aboriginal 
(except perhaps in a few isolated tracts, such as BAj* 
putfina, where special causes may have occurred to pre- 
vent the complete amalgamation of race) has existed ; 
and the physiological resemblance observable between 
the various classes of the population, from the highest 
to the lowest, is an irrefragable proof that no clearly- 
defined racial distinction has survived, a kind of evid- 
ence which ought to carry much greater weight than 



oxli 

that of language^ on which so many fanoiful theories of 
Ethnology have boon lately founded. Language is no 
test of race ; and the question of caste is not one of race 
at all, but of culture. Nothing has tended to compli- 
cate tbe subject of caste so much as this intrusion of a 
philological theory, which within its own province is one 
of the most interesting discoveries of modem times, into a 
field of enquiry with which it has no connection. The 
* Aryan brother ' is, indeed, a much more mythical being 
than R&ma or Krishna, or any other of the popular 
heroes of Indian tradition whom writers of the Aryan 
8chool have vainly striven to attenuate into Solar myths. 
The amalgamation of the two races (the Aryan and the 
Indian) had been completed in the Panjab (as we may 
gather from the *' Institutes'' of Manu) before the 
nindii» who is the result of this amalgamation, began to 
extend his influence into the Ganges Valley, where by 
slow and sure degrees he disseminated among the indi- 
genous races those social and religious maxims which 
have been spreading wider and wider ever since through- 
out the continent of India, absorbing one after another, 
and to some extent civilising, every indigenous race 
with whom they are brought into contact, raising the 
choice spirits of the various tribes into the rank of Br&h- 
man, Chhatri, and leaving tl\o rest to rise or fall into 
the social scale according to Ihcir capacilic^ and oppor- 
tunities. ** 

3. It is unnecessary to follow ^Ir. Nosfield tbrough 
his detailed analysis of the stiigos through which this 
diiTerontiation of function was dcvoloiKxl. The exam])lo, 



cxlii 

as he attempts to show,^ was given by the Br&hman, 
who developed from the primitive house priest into the 
hierophant with the increasing intricacy of his ritual. 
His example was followed by the Kshatriya, the trader, 
the agriculturist, and the artisan. Many facts will be 
noted in succeeding pages illustrative of this process of 
development. 

4, The remarks on the evidence from anthropometry 
m. r • ^ .u will have shown that there is proof of 

The fair and the *- 

dark races. ^|^^ stratificatiou of the existing races ; 

and we must not overlook the possibility of the basis of 
caste being found to some extent in the antipathy be- 
tween the fairer and the darker race which comes out so 
strongly through the whole range of early Indian mytli. 
This is not directly opposed to the occupational theory of 
the origin of the caste system, because even its most 
ardent advocates admit that it began with an attempt on 
the part of the priestly class to exclude outsiders and 
monopolise the right to perform worship and sacrifice. 

5. Mr. Nesfield has, however, gone further and 
attempted to classify all the existing castes on the basis of 
occupation. He would divide the existing population, 
excluding the religious orders and foreign races resident 
in the Province, into eleven groups. He begins with 
what he calls the •* casteless tribes/* who include the so- 
called Dravidian tribes of the Central Indian plateau, 
and a coUcjction of vagrants and gypsy-like people, 



* Loc. eii, 115. 



cxliii 

8Uoh as Nats, Kanjars, witli menials like tho Dom and tho 
Musahar, Thoso compriso something like lialf a million 
of people. Then we have the '* castes allied to the 
hunting state, '' such as Bauriyas, Baheliyasi Pfisis, and 
the like, to the number of nearly two millions. Then 
we have about the same number of castes ^* allied to the 
fishing state'' — Meos, Binds, Mall&hs, Phimars, and 
80 on. Next come some five and-a-half millions of 
people " allied to the pastoral state, '* such as Ahir?, 
Skist and Gadariyas. These are followed by some six 
millions of agriculturists— the Lodha, the Kurmi, the 
l\^a, Bhutnh&r, and so on. Next come some three 
millions of H&jputs, who are the ** landlord and warrior 
oaste/' In the same way ho deals with artisans. We 
find, to b^in with, those artisans who i)receded the ago 
of metallurgy, who practise trades like the workers in 
oane and reed, thread and leather, distillery, pottery, 
and extraction of salt, and ranging from the BAnsphor 
and Dhark&r, to the Moclii, Teli, Kalwfir, Kumlifir and 
Luniya. These represent nearly nine millions of people. 
Beyond these again are i\u) artisjvns "coeval witli metal- 
lurgy,*' workers in stone, motals and wood, and ending 
with dyers and confectioners, aggregating about a mil- 
lion and-a half. To these follow the gi-oups of traders, 
including more than a million anda-lialf, and tliese are 
suoooeded by nearly two and-a-half millions of the 
••serving castes, " ranging from tlie Bliangi and Dhobi 
to the Bh&t and the Kftyasth. Last of all come nearly 
five millions of Brahmans, who comprise the *' priestly 

CMtOB." 



.•a 



cxliv 

6. As regards this olassifioation, which has an im- 
posing air of simplicity and completeness, it is necessary 
to spoak a word of caution. If it is meant that this 
progrossiro devolopmont of function represents the 
actual, normal CDurso by which, in the ordinary progress 
of culture, the savage becomes civilised, it may be said 
that we are too ignorant of the principles of the develop- 
ment of civilisation to be sure that it was conducted 
on this or similar linos. Further, it may bo well to 
guard against the supposition that this classification of 
castes in any way represents existing facts. It must 
not be forgotten that there are few of the present 
occupational groups which invariably adhere to the 
original trade or handicraft which may have caused 
their association in past times. There may be some 
like the Atishb&z or fire-work makers, the N'alband or 
farriers, and so on, which do really adhere to the business 
from which they take their name. But this is certainly 
not the case with the associations of longer standing. 
The OhamSlr is no more always a worker in leather than 
the Ahtr, a grazier; the Banj&ra, a carrier; or the 
Luniya, a salt-maker. They all at some time or other 
cultivate or do field labour, or tend cattle. 

7. Hence the extreme difficulty of framing a classi- 
fication of existing castes on the basis of traditional 
occupation, and this is very clearly brought out in the 
classification at the last Consus, of wliich an abstract is 
given in the Appendix to this chapter : when we com- 
pare this with their actual occupations as individually 
recorded this fact comes out clearly. The Ahiw&si, 



oxlv 

Baidgu&r, Belw&r, N&ik, and Balib&ri, an aggregate of 
96 fill 4t persons, arc classed as ^* carriers '' — ^a trade which 
18 oarried on by no less than 185,ds31 individuals. There 
are about 6^ millions, which include the agricultural 
tribes ; while Mr. Baillie estimates the actual number of 
persons connected with the land as no less than 34} 
millions. There are 4| millions of Brjdmians recorded 
as priests, but only 412,449 declared this as their 
oooupation. There are about 6} millions of so-called 
pastoral trades, while only 336,996 people recorded 
cattle breeding and tending as their occupation. The 
instances of tliis might be largely added to if necessary- 
What is quite clear is that the existing groups which 
may haye been, and very possibly wore, occupational 
in origin do not now even approximately confine them- 
nelvos to their primitive occupation. 

8. Again, it will be noted how many of those occupa* 
Th« eiTMi of the tional groups liavo adopted Muham- 

V"K>niinafl>n inTasion 

oo cmU. madan names. Tlioro is no name 

for the aggregate of the boating castes, but Mall&h, 
wliich is Arabic. Tlioro wore tailors, of course, from 
the Ix^inning of tilings, but tlioy are now known 
as Darzi, not S£iji: the tumor must bo an old 
handicraftsman, but his name, Khar&di, is Arabic. 
So with the Dafali, drummer ; the Mir^lsi, singer ; the 
Tawftif , prostitute ; the IlangsAz, painter ; the Qal&'igar, 
tinner ; the Rangroz, cotton printer, and so on. In fact, 
in the silence of history, we seem to have only a faint 
idea of the tremendous boulovcrsomont in Indian society, 
caused by the invasions of brutal invaders like MalimAd 

Vot. I. k 



oxlvi 

of Ghazni and Shah&b^ud-din Ghori. They oame like 
a mighty flood oyer the land^ and left the Hindu politi* 
cal and social organism a mass of ruins. To begin 
with, they broke the power of the Mjput completely 
and drove liim from the fertile domains of the Ganges- 
Jumna yalley to the deserts of B&jput&naj or the forests 
of Oudh. It is to this stupendous event that muoh of 
the form of modem Hindu society is due. The down* 
fall of the Kshatriya implied the rehabilitation of the 
Br&hman, and the needs of a new race of conquerors, and 
of a court at no time lacking in splendouri and with the 
house of Timiir rising to imexampled magnificence, gave 
encouragement to the growth of new industries and the 
accompanying reorganization of the caste system undw 
a new environment. 



oxlvii 



Appendix. 

Olasaification of castes by traditional occupation. 



OIam. 


Obali 


» or Tribe. 


Siresgtlu 


Mililarjr And dominaiifc 


Dhulohir • 


• • 


881,031 




JU 


• • 


608386 

• 




HAjput . 


• • 


8,688,843 . 




Tftga 


• 
Total 


. 188,663 




4b688J68 


Cvllbalon 


Barai 




168.481 ^ 




Bhar 




417,746 




Bhaitija 




488 




DAngi 




8,863 




Qhx% 




61,088 




QolapArab < 




9,788 




Jbojba 




86,847 




KAokhi 




703,868 




Kaiuboh 




8,678 




KbAgi 




48,436 




Kir&r 




18,363 




Kisin 




364,466 




Koari 




640,845 




Kuriui 




8.006.808 




Konjra 




86,628 




Lodha 




1,089,886 




MAli 




846.943 



VoL.1. 



k% 



CiiBto or Trite. 



Colti vatoTi —eonl iuutd. 



Meo 

Mar&o 
It&in 
ItAwn 
Ror 



Caltle-breaderit and Qraziers . 



ShMp-1)reeden • 
Forat and Hill Ttibet 



Gadariya 
BaWar 



BhoksB 
Bhuija 



Gond 
KharwiLT 



10,643 
60,332 

Qe4.gi& 

35,151 

4,450 
00,216 





Total 


6,587.021 


Ahar 




24.1.167 


Abtr 




3,017,100 


Dogw 




340 


Gaddi 




61,970 


QhMi 




27.760 


Oitjat 


ToTiL 


344,631 




4,686,008 



o^lix 



CIms. 



Foreii and Hill Tribes— 
eomiinued. 



Priette 



I/6?otC60 • • • • 

Genealogisti • • • 
Wiitdin • • • • 
ABtrologon • • • 
MaBioianB and fi&llad Singers 



Oaste or Tribe. 



Kol 

Korwa 

Mahra 

Majhw&r 

Minjhi 

Masahar 

Soiri 

SontbAl 

ThUni 



Biihman 



MahibrAhmta 



Faqtr 

Bb4i 

K4ya&tbs 

Joebi 

Dafili 

DbArbi 

Dom Mirisi 

Panwariya 



Total 



Total 



Total 



Strength* 

68,666 

8d 

609 

16,268 

6.122 

40,662 

17,822 

1 

26,482 

198,781 



4,725,061 
.19,829 



4,744,890 



628,606 

161,144 

614827 

86,069 

42,076 

1.822 

28,863 

612 



72^72 



Class. 


Caato oc ttibe. 


strength. 


Dwioert tnd Singers . 


BarwB 

Boriya 

Bhasat 

GMdharb 

Harlii^a 

Kstbftk 

Falurija 

BAdha 

Taifftif 






1.631 
lfi,313 

48S 

601 

801 

3.031 

4.711 

4.354 

29,060 






roTiL 


62,9(15 


Aotoraand Mimea 


Bhind 




1,014 


Traders .... 


Buiya 




1,369,0E2 




BhatijB . 




266 




Uofara 




1,131 




DhAsaT BhArgaTB 




12.270 




Kliatti 




46.250 






Total . 


1,438,907 


Pedbn .... 


BisSti 




959 




Rantaiya 




4,005 






ToTtL 


5,054 



cli 



01«M. 


Caste or 


Tribe. 


Strengih. 


Owniert # • • • 


AhiwAsi . 




9,608 


■ 


Baidgnlr • 




420 




BanjAra 




67,097 




Belw&r 




6,194 




Ndik 




2,663 




Rahb&ri . 


Total 


898 




86,674 


OoUsmiths . » • . 


SunAr • 


•% • 


• 
256,629 


Barbers • • . . 


N&i 


• • • 


862,279 


BlaoksmiUui 


Lob4r 


• 

• • • 


692,220 




Na'lband . 


- %. 


429 






• 

T>OTAL 


692,649 


Carpenters and Tamers 


Barlisi 


• • • 


669,617 




KharAdi 

• 


■ • • 


1,204 






Total 


660,821 


Painten • . • • 


RangnAz 




1,486 


Masons • • • . 


RAj 




6,633 


Brass and Copper Smiths 


Jastgar 




13 




Qala'igar • 




89 




Kasera • 




7,273 



dii 



OlftM. 


Oasteox 


Tribe. 




Stsenffth. 


1 

Brass and Copper Smiths— 
continued. 


Bangdhar • 
Thathera • 

Dani 

BharbhAnja 

Halwfti 

Gandhi 
Tamboli 

Jdliba 
Kori • 
Panka 

Chhlpi 


• • 

• • 

Total 

• • 

• • 

• • 

T6TAL 

• • 

• • 

Total 

• 

• • 

• • 

• • 

Total 

• • 

• • 

Total 


• 
• 

• 

• 
• 
• 

• 

• 
• 

• 

• 
• 
• 

» 

• 

• 
• 

• 


186 
81361 




88.981 


Tailor • • • • 
Grain' Parohen 
and Confeotioners • • 

• 


888386 

810316 

96346 




406.468 


Perfamers. Dmg^ists, Sellers 
of Betel Leaf. 


868 
78.948 




74,801 


WeaTorfl • • • • 


880381 ^ 
919,760 
6308 




1306,488 

• 


Cloth Printers and Dyers • 


86J77 
86,148 




70880 



cliii 



01ms. 


Ossteor 


Tribe. 


Sirenfth. 


WMbarmen 


• 


Dbobi 


• • • 


668,745 


Cotton Cleanen . 


• 


Dhana 


. • • 


401^87 






Kadhera 


• • a 

Total 


61,766 




463,743 


Oil Pmiers 


• 


Tell . 




934,060 


Potton • • • 


• 


Eumh&r • 




718,000 


GlMt Mid Loo Workers 


• 


Ch(iribAr '. 

Lakhera 

ManihAr 




88,968 

8,768 

65,630 


■ 




Potgar 




18 








Total 


100.088 


Bom Btnogan • 


• 


Patwa 




80977 


Fhowork Makon 


• 


Atisbbiz . 




684 


Mt and Earth Workers 


• 


Bij&r 
Beld&r 
Dh&ngar 
Gbasiy&ra . 




18,881 

87,899 

519 

198 






Lnniya 


Total 


418,888 


• 


469,659 


CollMtora of Goldnnith*' 

BtfMM. 


NiArija 


• • • 


868 4,661 



CUsa. 


Caato or IVibe. 


BinvgOi. 


InmSmolten . . 


Agarija 




C38 




8anii 


Tom 


267 




1.195 


fiahernian, Boftlmen, Polan. 
^iiin yoarora. Cooks, etc. 


Itorgali 
Bargi 




918 
1,078 




B4ii 




69.708 




Bhatij&n 




. 1 80,658 




liibishti 




. 1 80.147 




Chbin 




38,G10 




Oond 




116,061 




Gorohhft 




963 




Kt.hti 




1.191,560 




Kewri 




315,888 




Lorhft 




2.632 




Mnllih 




369,008 




MuUeri 




6,245 




NftnbJii 




2,177 




sojwari 


TOTit 


286 




2.216,611 


Biee HuekcTS 


norwftr 




2,379 




Kilta 


Total 


4,02» 




6.4.08 



o\r 



OIam. 



DWllm • 
Tod^y Dmren • 



Botfllim . 



IfioM Barnen 
Jmihm Work«it 



Yilbge W»tohiiien 



OMte or Tribe. 



Kalw&r 
Bind 
TarmAli 



Cbik 

KhaUk 

Qimkh 



Sunkar 

CbamAr 

Dabgmr 

DbAlgar 

Mochi 



^ ■.-^, 



Dal4bar 

Dorijra 

Dhliniik 

Dliirbi 

Kbangir 

KolwAr 



Total 



Total 



Total 



• • • ••• 



StMllffill. 



848,700 

76(060 

87 



77.013 



0.430 
180.086 
148.610 



347,871 



1.300 

6,810,487 

1.488 

8.010 

11.603 

i 

6,880,707 



80,674 

8,369 

80.000 

140480 

18.078 

38,020 

07 



clvi 



OUis. 


OMte or Tribe. 


Strengili* 


Village Waiohmen— 
coniinued. 


Pahrija 
PAsi 


• • 

• • 
■ 

TOTAI 


405 




1,621386 


• 

SeaTengen 


Bhangi 


• • 


414M6 




Domar 


• 1 
TOTAI 


16.087 


• 


480,988 


Grindiione Makers and Stone 
Qoarrieri. 


Khnmra 


» • t 


. SJ98 8,780 


Knife Grinderi • 


Saiqalg^ , 


• • 


4.906 


Hat Maken and Cane Split- 
tert. 


B&niphor , 
Baser 


» • « 


17,888 
8S,U7 


• 


Dbark&r 


1 • i 


80,689 




Dom 


1 • 


970,660 




Dorha 


1 • 


68 




Dus&dh 


1 • 1 


8a»918 




Kharot 


» • 


6,641 




Pankbija 


• 


918 




TkrkibAr . 


1 • 

TOIAI 


8,747 




436,961 


Hnnien, Fowlert, etc 


Ahertya 


• 


. io,7(n 




Bahelya < 


> • t 


83.76S 




Bandi 


• • i 


110 



^' 



dvii 



GlMt. 


OMte or Tribe. 


Stfeofftli. 


Hantntt Fowlen eio., ^ 


BftDglU 
Qandbik • 


• 
• 


14168 
IM 


• 


Qidija . • 


■ 


17 




Kanjar 


« 


17.878 




1 


rOTAl 


IMIO 


* 

Hifotnaiiaout, and Diireput^ 


Baddbik 
Barw4r 




• 

186 
2,708 




BAwariya • 




8,729 




BbAota 




• 878 




Dalera 




2J88 




lUbAra 




8,696 




llarjala 




876 




Hijia 




1«186 




Siniija 




4,890 




SiyArmir 




1 






TOTAI 


[. • 16,450 


Tdablert and AeroUU 


Nat 


t « 


68,584 


CmIm foreign to Uie Pro? inoe 


Satgop 


1 


177 




8Ad 


1 


147 






TOTAI 


Is . 384 

i 



olyiii 



Class. 


QMieor 


Tribe. 




Stfwictli. 


Indian Nationalitiei not 
tarned by oastes. 


re- 


Dhotiya 
MandrAji • 


• 
• 


• • 


81 






Marhatta • 


• 


• • 


738 






Pindliri • 


• 


• • 


87 



Sectarian Casiea • 



Kon-Indian Asiatic Races 



Non-Asiatic Races 



Nau-muslim 
S&dh 



Biloch 

Ir&qi 

Magbal 

FkthAn 

Shaikh 

Sayyid 

Turk 



Armenians • 
Europeans • 
Uabshi 



TOTA.L 



Total 



Total 



Total 



8.6S7 



88,444 
WTO 



001814 



18/I7S 

U.677 

7M78 

70%81I3 

1388,666 

84^,811 

4,004 



&888,786 



54 

87,041 
104 



88480 



oliz 



01M8. 


OMte or Tribo. 


Strengtli. 


Snnisiaiii • • • . 


KoiAtUns • . . . 


7fi40 


ChriiUaii CoDTerUi 


NaiiTO ChritiiaoB 


88,406 


CaftM, UDfpeeified 




82^9 


ProfineU ToUl 


Hindu . 


i 


) • • 


40,880.108 




MuBalm&n 


1 1 






6^846,607 , 




Jaina 


K 4 






84,801 




Chrifiiao 


• < 






88,441 




Arja 


( < 






88,068 




Sikh 


» 1 






11,348 




fiaddbiai . 


■ 






1,887 




PAni 


■ 






848 




Jow 


> 1 






• 

CO 




Brahmo 


» 






14 




Deist 


• a. 




8 




UoBpeoiGod 




88 




Qbahd Total 


4ejK)(M)85 



clxi 



CHAPTER IV. 

Tribal Nomenolatube. 

The question of the origm of tribal nomenclature 

is a very interesting one, but too 

Territorial titles. 

wide for detailed analysis at present. 
The broad features of it are plain enough. We have, to 
begin with, the territorial title. Such abound in various 
forms all through the tribal lists, and the preference 
shown for special places, raises many curious considera- 
tions. To attempt a rough classification of this kind of 
title, we have first those of the most general kind, such 
as Desi, "of the land,/* and Fardesi, "from beyond the 
land.'* Then come PArabi, " Eastern,'* Dakkhin&ha, 
"Southern,** Pachhiw&ha, "Western,** and Uttarfiha 
"Northern, ** which are arranged in the order of their 
popularity. We have next names indicating geographi- 
cal areas, such as Madhesiya, " residents of Madhya- 
desa, ** " the middleland, ** roughly speakiog, bounded 
by the Himalayas on the north, the Yindhyas on the 
south and along the Ganges Plain from the Panjftb 
frontiers to Allahab&d. Similar to this is Antarvedi, or 
"those resident in the Lower Ganges- Jimma-Du&b, ** 
from about EtS^wa to the jimction at Allah&b&d ; and 
Banaudhiya, or those of South Oudh, with parts of Azam- 
garh, Jaunpur and Benares. 

2. Next we have names taken from the position of 

Names derived from ^^bcs and claus in relation to the 
w*'"- great rivers— Gangap&ri, "those 

Vol. I. / 



olxii 

beyond the Ganges,*' JumnapA^ri^ "those beyond tho 
Junmai " and, most popular of all, Sarwariyat or Sarju- 
p&ri, " those beyond the Sarju. '* 

3, Then wo have a set of names derived from 

N^me. derived from ^^^^^US oities whioh haVO long SUnk 

famon. eitiee. ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ Kanaujiya, " those 
of Eanauj ; '* Srivast&vya, corrupted into Sibtetav or 
B&tham, from Sr&vasti, in North Oudh^ now represented 
by Sahet-Mahet. Another of these ruined cities is San- 
Idsa, in the Pamikh&bftd District, which gives its name 
to the Saksena K&yasths, and to many other tribal sec- 
tions. If Dhusiya is a corruption of Jhusiya it embodies 
the name of the old town of JhM) on the GangeS) the 
capital of King Harbong, who is famous in folklore as 
the hero of many tales of the "Wise men of Gotham** 
type. Why Jais, now a petty town in the BAA Bareli 
District, gave its name to the numerous Jaisw&r sec* 
tions, no one can tell, except on tho supposition that it 
was a much more important place than it is now. The 
ruins and ancient mounds at AhAr and Baran prove 
their former greatness. The name of the ancient king- 
dom of Magadha survives in that of the Magahiya 
Doms and many other tribal sections. 

4. The famous religious sites throughout the Province 

Namee deriyed from ^^^® naturally left their trace on 
re giooeeiei. ^.j^^ castc nomenclature --such are 

Ajudhya, the land of Braj, Mathura and Brindaban^ 
Gokul and Hardw&r, OhunAr and RajghAt, wliich are all 
represented ; but it is curious how little trace there is of 
PrayAga or Allahftbftd, and Kftshi or Benares, wliile 



olxiii 

places liko Bindlid<)lial, Badarinftth, BithClr and Batosar 
are not found at all. 

6. Among oxisting towns and cities within the Fro- 

Namat derived from vince, Amethi, Azamgarh, Bahrftioh, 

other town.. QhAzipuT, GorakhpuT, Hamlrpur, 

Jalesar, Mainpuri (in connootion with its Ohauh&ns), 
Fart&bgarh, R&jpur, B&mnagar, Bi&mpur, Fatehpur^ 
Sikri (if the theory be correct that the name of the 
Sakarw&r sect is derived from it)^ Jaunpur (in remem- 
brance of its Sharqi Kings), give their name to many 
sections. But the great capitals like Delhi and Agra, 
probably owing to their comparatively recent origin, 
have left little trace, and Lucknow is not found at all; 
while Oawnpur (Eftnhpur) gives its name to an import- 
ant Bi&jput sept, and many sections of loss important 
tribes. 

G. Many of these local names aro taken from places 
Naoift derited fioin outsidc tlic Provinco. From Bengal 

pleeee oateide the pro- 

we have Baksar, Bhojpur, Gaur (if 



the old Bengal capital lias anything to say to the many 
tribes and sections of the name), Ilfijiptir, Patna ; from 
tlio Panjftbi Panj&bi, L4hauri and Multani ; from the 
North, Naipftli} Janakpuri, Kashmiri; from the far 
West, Bhatner, Gujar&t, Indaur, Jaypur, Jodhx)ur, M&r- 
wAr, Osi, and P&li are all found ; from Madras we have 
Karn&tak ; from Persia, Shir&zi. 

7. It is a curious fact tliat so few of the tribes men- 

Namee derWed from ^^^^^ '^ the Mah&bMrata and in 
anoien n . niedicoval lists, such as those of the 

Vishnu Purftna, have loft their trace in the tribal 
you I. / 2 



clxiv 

nomenclature. PancMla, the great kingdom which ox- 
tended north and west of Delhi, and from the Himalaya 
to the Ohambal, has disappeared. The Abhtras/in name 
at least, are represented by the Ahtrs : the Ambashthas 
by one very doubtful legend with the Amothiya BAj- 
puts : the Gahvaraa or Girigavaras with the Gaharwftr 
US jputs : the Haihayas with the Hayobans : the^Kam- 
bojas with the Kambohs: the Kaivartas with the 
Eewats : the Ehasakas or Ehasikas with the Ehasiya Riij- 
puts : the Eulindas possibly with the Eunets : the Mftla- 
vas with the M&lavis': the Malas with the Mais : the 
Nishftdas with the Nikhftd section : the Takkas with the 
Tftnk Bftjputs : the Tomaras with the Toman : the 
Y&davas with the Jftdons. But of the Angas of Bhftgal- 
pur, the Aparak&shis near Benares, the Bahllkas^ the 
Bahikas, the Bahayas, the Bhojas, the Edrus, the 
Mekftlas, the S&kas, Salwas, Surasenas, Yamunas, there 
is perhaps no trace in the existing caste lists. The fact 
seems to be that these were nations or tribes, and. it was 
on the break up of their tribal organization that the 
existing castes arose. As Dr. Eobertson Smith showed, the 
same state of things existed in early Arabian History.^ 
8. Next to these names deriyod from the local* areas 

occupied by tribes, septs, and sections^ 

we have the eponymous titles denved 

from the worthies of the ancient days. Thus Yatsa 

< seems to give his name to the Bachgoti, Baja Vena to 

the Benbans : the Bishi Bh&radwaja constantly appoarsy 



' Kimhip, 239. 



clxv 

while Yasisbtha is absent. B&ja Darga is represented 
in the Durgbansis ; and we meet oonstantly with Garga^ 
Gautama, Far&sara, Eaghu, and Sandila. Later in 
history oome saints and holy men like Kabir, Lftlbog) 
Madftr^ MalAkd&s, and NAnak. Akbar^ Hum&ynn and 
Sh&hjab&n have disappeared, and perhaps the only 
monarohsof the Delhi line who have survived in the 
oaste names are Shdr Sh&h and Salim Sh&h, who give their 
name to two divisions of the Bhathiy&ras. A sub-oaste 
of the Ohhipis take their name from Todar Mali the 
famous minister of Akbar, 

0. Muoh of the oaste nomenolature is taken from 

Namat deriTed *^* ^^ ^® famOUS BAjput Septs who 

riomfiAjput.epu. employed or protected the menial 
peoples. No names recur more often among the sections 
of the inferior castes than Ohauh&n, GaharwAr^ Gahlot^ 
BaigCljar, Mthaur, Eachhw&ha, Jftdon and Tomar, which 
possibly represent the serfs and helots attached to them. 
10. Next comes the great mass of occupational 

titlos,the Bardhiya, ^^ox-mon;" Bedb&f, 

OoovpiUioDal titlot. 

** cane twisters ;** £&zigar, ^^acrobats ;" 
Beldftr, ''spademen;" Bhainsalia, ''buffalo-men;" Bhusiya, 
ohaff men ; " Ohiryam&r, " fowlers ; " Ghobd&r, " mace- 
bearers ; " Dh&lgar, " shield makers ; " Dhank&ta, 
•* grinders of paddy ;" Dh&nuk, " bowmen ;" Dhark&r, 
••rope twisters;" Dholphor, "clod breakers;" Dhon- 
koliya, '• those who work the water lover ;" Dhobi, •' the 
washermen;" Dholi, "drummers;" Gadariya, "shop- 
herds;" Ghosi, "those that shout after the cattle;" 
QuMa^ " cow-kcoiwrs ; " Uardiya, " turmeric growers ;" 



ft 



clxvi 

Jauhari, ^* jewellers ; *' Jonk&ha, '* leeoh men ; ** Jpl^ha^ 
** thread makers;** Eam&ngar, ^'makers of bows;" 
KMlranga, " dyers of hides;*' Eingriya, " violin players;'* 
Eis&n and Eo^i '^ ploughmen ; ** Eilnchhandi ^* makers 
of weavers' brushes ; ** EuppSs&z, " leather vessel mould- 
ers ; •* Lakarhftr, ** the workers in wood ; *' Lohiya, •* the 
dealers in iron ; '' Luniya, ^^ the saltmen^ '* and Labftna, 
<Hhe salt carriers;'' Machhim&ra^ ^Hhe fish«killer; 
Manih&r, "the jeweller;" Pahlw&n^ **tho wrestler; 
Fatthar&ha, ^^ the stone workers ;" F&wariya, " the singer 
on a mat;" Fiy&zi, "the growers of onions ;'* SingiwAla, 
" the cupper," and Sirkiband, " the people who live under 
a thatch." 

11. Then we have names derived from personal 

PeTwnaioroontemp. peculiarities or used in a contcmptuous 
tnoa. title.. ^^^^ rp^e swecper is Mehtar or 

" princci" and Bhangi, " the rascal who intoxicates him- 
self with hemp :" in the same range are Barpagwa "he 
that wears the broad turban ;" E!abi!^tari, " she that flirts 
like the pigeon;" Kalkamaliya, "they that wear black 
blankets;" Kftmchori "the loafer;" Eanphata, "he 
with the torn ears;" Eodokh&nd, "they who eat the 
kodo millet ;" and Maskh&Ui " the eaters of flesh." 
Like these are the titles of Khalifa for a cook or tailor, 
Jamad&r for a sweeper, and so on.^ 



^ Somo o! Mr. Noifield's identifioationi and deiiTatioh of tribal nauits 
must be received with caution e.ff.f the connection of the MuM^ar and II4ri; 
of the Koli and Koiri with the Kol ; the Kalw&r with the Kharw&r or Khairwir ; 
the DUi with the Bh&t. 



clxvii 

12. Incidontally some roferonoe has boon olsewhere 

mado to totomism in conneotion 

Totomiitio iiUos. 

with the origin of exogamy. From the 
details whioh are given in the following pages, and need 
not be repeated here, it will be seen that there are mi- 
doubted surviyals of totonusm among some of the Dravi- 
dian and menial tribes. These take the form of section 
names obviously derived from those of animals, plants, 
trees, and the like, the destruction, eating or even touch- 
ing of which by members of the section whose names 
arc thus derived is prohibited by a rigid tribal sanction. 
Though the cvidoQCo for the existence of totemism 
among at least one part of the population of this part of 
India seems suiliciont, it will be seen that it now-a-days 
lurks only among the most primitive tribes. The fact 
seems to bo Uiat, like so many usagos of the kind, it has 
boon carried away by the flood of Br&hmanism which 
has overflowed the land. There is a constant tendency 
for tribes as they rise in the social scale to adopt the 
Br&limanical gotras^ because it is a respectable fact to 

belong to one of them. Thus all the stricter Hindu 
castes, like Banyas, Khatris, and even K&yasths, recognise 
the gatra. The fiction of common descent from the 
eponymous ancestor naturally disappears, and among 
such iKX)ple the gotra has no higher significance than 
the pedigree worked up lo oixler in the Uorald's Collego, 
which ranks the novua homo through the use of a 
common crest and coat-of-arms with the great houses of 
Gavendisli, Ilussol, or Howard. 



olxviii 

13. We have soen that it is in tho groups or oamps 

The family and the ^* ^^^ Vagrant tribos Uke the Beriya, 
^^^ n&biira and Sftnsiya, that we must 

look to find what is perhaps the most primitive form 
of hmnan assooiatioDi and that the family was almost 
oertainly not the primitive unit^ but the sept. The 
family, in short, arose out of the sept when the stage 
arrived at which paternity and the incidents conneoted 
with it came to be recognised. But of the real tribal 
form of caste in which the association is based on actual 
or assumed community of blood through a common 
ancestor, we find little or no trace, except as Mr. Ibbet- 
son ^ showed to be the case among the Fathfins and 
Biliichcs of tho western frontier, who are foreigners 
in this part of India. But even here the fiction of 
conmion descent is being gradually weakened by the 
wholesale admission of outsiders into the fraternity, who 
do not even pretend to be able to establish a genealogi- 
cal connection with the original founder of tho sept. 
Here, too, the differentiation of industries is leading to a 
distinction, even among the members of the association 
linked together in theory by the bond of blood. In 
theory any Fath&n, Mughal or Sayyid may marry any 
girl of his tribe ; but if he falls in social position or 
adopts any degrading occupation his difficulty in marry- 
ing into a respectable family is as difficult as it would be 
in Germany or even in some grades of English society 
for a parvenu to marry into a family whoso claims to 
rank are undisputed. 



* PanjAb Ethnography, 17«. 



olxiz 

14. To return to the occupational type of castci there 

Di.tincii«n. of the ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ Ibbotsou » has already 
oooopaiionui tjpe. j^ii^ted out, a further distinction. 

There is the true occupational caste like the N&i, 
OhamAr, or Bhangi, and there is the trade-guild association, 
which is mueh more flexible than the former, and is 
generally found in towns, and bears a Muhammadan 
name, like the Darzi, Atishb&z, or N&lband. This form 
is most unstable at the present day, and one of the main 
dif&culties of the classification of caste statistics lies in 
the fact that from one decennial period to another new 
groups are constantly organizing themselves by a process 
of fission from other groups. Thus the B&ghb&n, or 
gardener, is an offshoot of the Eftchhi, the Sangtarftsh or 
8tone*cutter, from the Qonr, or others who engage in 
similar industries, the M ewaf arosh, or fruit-seller, and the 
Sabzifarosli, or seller of herbs, from the Eunjra or green- 
grocer. Ilere, in fact, wo can stand and watch the crea- 
tion of new so-called castes before our eyes. And the 
process is facilitated by the creation of new religious 
groups, which base their association on the common 
belief in the teaching of some saint or reformer. Most of 
these sects are connected with the Yaislmava side of 
Hinduism, and are devoted to the solution of much the 
same religious questions which besot the searcher after 
truth in western lands. All naturally aim at tiie abo« 
lition of the privileges and pretensions of the dominant 
Br&hman Levite, and the establishment of a purer and 
more intellectual* form of public worship. 

' Lot. eii. 178. 



clxxi 



OIIAPITSR V. 
Exogamy. 

1. No enquiry into the social relations of tlie Hindus 
can leave out of account the thorny subject of the 
origin of exogamy. By exogamy is generally understood 
the prohibition which exists against a man marrying 
witliin the group to which he belongs : to follow Mr. D. 
McLennan's definition/ exogamy is prohibition of mar- 
riage between all persons recognized as being of the 
same blood, because of their conmion blood — whether 
they form one community or parts of several conmiuni- 
tics, and accordingly it may prevent marriage between 
persons who (though of the same blood) are of different 

local tri1)eB, while it frequently liappons that it loaves 
persons of the same local tribe (but who are not of the 

same blood) free to marry one another. '* Endogamy/' 

on the other hand, ^^ allows marriage only between 

persons who arc recognised as being of the same blood 

connection or kindred, and if , where it occurs, it con* 

fines marriage to the tribe or community, it is because 

the tribe regards itself as comprising a kindred." 

2. Before discussing the possible origin of exogamy 

Varioui form I. of ^* "^7 ^® ^^^^ ^ CXplaUl SOmC of Hs 

wogoDiy. various forms, of which niunorous 

details, so far as it has boon possible to ascertain them, 
arc given in the subsequent pages. We have, then, first 

' Qnotcd by Kisloy. Tribes and Cash*, L, Utroduetion, XLIII. 



olzxii 

the Br&hmanioal law of exogamy. Persons are forbidden 
according to the Sanskrit law-books, to intermarry, who 
are related as sapindas, tliat is to say, who are within 
five degrees of affinity on the side of the father. The 
person himself is counted as one of those degrees, that is 
to say, two persons are sapindas to each other, if their 
common ancestor being a male is not further removed 
from either of them than six degrees, or four degrees 
where the common ancestor is female/ 
\\ 8. These prohibitions form a list of prohibited 

degrees in addition to the ordinary 
iormula, which prevents a Br&hman 
or a member of those castes which ape the Br&hmani- 
cal organization, from marrying within his golra or exo- 
gamous section. The word gotra means " a cow-pen,** 
and each bears the name of some Bishi or mythical saint, 
from whom each member of the group is supposed to be 
descended. Theoretically all the Br&hmanical gotra$ 
have eight great ancestors only — Visvamitra, Jamadagni, 
Bhdradvaja, Gautama, Atri, Yasishtha, Easyapa, and 
Agastya. // These occupy with the Br&hmans pretty much 
the same position as the twelve sons of Jacob with the 
Jews ; and only ho whose descent from one of these 
mighty Bishis was beyond all doubt could become a 
founder of a gotra} The next point to remark is that, 
as Mr. Ibbetson ' has pointed out, the names of many 



^ ManUt Indiluies, 1II.| 6, and otlior antboritiot quoted lij Mayne, IliMtfm 

Law, 73. 

* For fariboT detaili 8e« Haug^ Aitareya Brdkmanam, II., 479 »q, 

• Fan;db Bthnograpk^, 182. 



clxxiii 

of the founders of these gotraa appear among the ancient 
genealogies of the earliest BAjput dynasties^ the K&jas 
in question being not merely namesakes of , but dis- 
tinctly stated to be the actual f oimders of the gotra ; 
and it would be strange if enquiry were to show that 
the priestly classes, like the menials, owe their tribal 
divisions to the great families to whom their ancestors 
were attached. 

All that we know at present about the evolution of 
the Br&hmanical tribal system tends to confirm this 
theory. At any rate, whatever may be the origin of 
these Br&hmanical gotrM, it must be remembered that 
tilio system extends to all respectable Hindus. As soon 
as a caste rises in the social scale a compliant priest is 
always ready to discover an appropriate gotra for the 
aspirant, just as an English brewer, raised to the peerage, 
has little difficulty in procuring a coat-of-arms and a 
pedigree which links him with the Norman conquest. 
It is obvious in such cases that the idea of common 
descent from the eponymous founder of the ^o^ra 
becomes little more than a pious fiction. But among 
many of the B&jputs who have been promoted at a later 
date, and in particular with more recent converts to 
orthodox Hinduism from the forest tribes, with a comi- 
cal disregard for the theory of gotra exogamy, we find 
the sept enjoying only a single gotra^ and this is very 
often that of Bh&radvaja, which is a sort of refuge for 
the destitute who can find no other place of rest. As 
has already been shown, some of the sectional titles are 
eponymous, like those of the gotras named after the 



olxxir 

famous Biishis ; others like the Dorgbans Bftjputs take 
their name from an historioal personage ; others, again, 
are totemistio, and others purely territorial. 

4. Passing on to the inferior oastes, such as those of 

Bxcpmy •mong tbo the agriculturists, artisins, and meni- 
lower oasies. ^^ generally, we find very consider- 

able differences in their internal structure : some are 
divided into regular endogamous sub-castes, which again 
are provided with oxogamous sections, or, where these are 
absent, practise a special exogamous rule which bars 
intermarriage by reckoning as prohibited degrees seven 
(sometimes more or sometimes less) generations in the 
descending line. But it is obvious that, as in the case of 
Br&hmans, this rule wliich prohibits intermarriage within 
the section, is one-sided in its application, as Mr. Bisley 
remarks : — " In no case may a man marry into his own 
section, but the name of the section goes by the male 
side, and consequently, bo far as the rule of exogamy is 
concerned^ there is nothing to prevent him from marry- 
ing his sister's daughter, his maternal aunt, or even his 
maternal grandmother." Hence came the ordinary 
formula which prevails generally among the inferior 
castes that a man cannot marry in the lino of his pater- 
nal uncle, maternal uncle, paternal aunt, maternal aunt. 
But even this formula is not invariably observed. 
Wliat the low caste villager will say if he is asked 
regarding his prohibited degrees, is that he will not take 
a bride from a family into which one of his male rola* 
tions has married, until all recollection of the relationship 
has disappeared. And as rural memory runs liardly 



olxxv 

more than three gonorations^ any two f amilios may inter* 
marry^ provided they were not conneeted by marriage 
within the last sixty or seventy years. It is only when 
a man beoomes rieh and ambitious^ begins to keep an 
astrologer and Pandit^ and to live as an orthodox Hindu, 
that he thinks muoh about his gotra. To procure one 
and have the proper proliibited degrees regularly worked 
out is only a matter of money. 

6. Having thus endeavoured briefly to explain the 
rules of exogamy which regulate the diiferent classes of 
Hindus,^ we are now in a position to examine the vari- 
ous explanations which have been suggested to account 
for this custom. 

6. The earliest theory was that of Mr. McLennan,* 

McLennan', theory who began by Calling attention to 
ofexoKimy. ^^ ^^^^ ^j^^ there are nimierous 

survivals of marriage by capture, such as the mock 
struggle for the bride and so on^ to which more parti- 
cular reference is made in another place : that these 
symbols show that at one time people wore accustomed 
to procure their wives by force. He wont on to argue 
that among primitive nomadic groups, where the strug- 
gle for existence was intense, the girls would be a source 

* The formula of Muanlm^n exogtmy ii thnt given in tlio Qar4n, Surah. 
IV.i 87 :— *'Yoare forbiddon to marry jour moUtert, jour Uaugliterp, your 

•ttten aad your auiiU both on the father** and on the mother 'n tide; yuur 
hroiher's daoichters and your sifter's daughter! ; your mothers who ha? e gireu 
yoneuek and your foster sisters ; your wives* mothers and your daughters-in-law 
bom of your wiret with whom ye hare oohabited. Ye are aluo pmhibited to 
take to wifs two sisters (except what is already past) nor (o mnrry women wbo 
•re already married. " 

* 8itidie$ in Aneitnt Ilistorjf, 76 #97. 



olxxyi 

of weaknesa to tho oommtinity: sucli ohildren would 
be ill-protected and nourished^ and female infanticide 
would occur. Hence, owing to the scarcity of brideB» 
youths desirous of marrying would be obliged to resort to 
violence and capture women by force from the groups. 
This would in time produce the custom in favour of, or 
the prejudice against, (which in the case of marriage 
would soon have the force of tribal law) marrying 
women within the tribe. Tliis theory has been criticized 
at length by Mr. Herbert Spencer and Dr. Westermarok* 
mainly on the following grounds : — ** The custom cannot 
have originated from the lack of women, because the tribes 
that use it are mostly polygamous. It is, again, not 
proved to prevail among races which practise polyan- 
dry. The evidence of the widespread custom of female 
infanticide among groups in this assumed stage of 
social development is not conclusive. Primitive man 
does not readily abandon the instinct of love of the young 
which he possesses in common with all the lower animals, 
and women, so far from being useless to the savage, are 
most valuable as food providers. Further, there may 
be a scarcity of women in a tribe, and youths unable to 
find partners be forced to seek wives in another group, 
the difficulty remains why marriage with sumving 
tribal women should not only be unfashionable, but 
prohibited by the sevorost^penalties ; in some cases that of 
death. The position of such women would be nothing 



* Principles of Sociology, I.» Oli, tqq, ; Hiitory of Sumam Mt»rnaf0f 
811, tqq. 



olzxvii 

short of intolerabloi beoauso thoy ooiQd not marry unless 
an outsider chose to ravish them/' 

7. Conscious of these and other difficulties which 

Spcnc«-'s theory of surroundcd Mr. McLennan's ex- 
•xogamy. plaiiatiou, Mr. Herbert Spencer sug- 

gested another theory. According to him' exogamy 
is the result of the constant inter-tribal war which 
prevailed in early societies. Women, like all other live* 
stock, would be captured. A captured woman, besides 
her intrinsic value, has an extrinsic value : '* like a native 
wife she serves as a slave ; but, unlikcr a native wife, she 
also serves as a trophy. '* Hence to marry a strange 
woman would be a test of valour, and non-possession of a 
foreign wife a sign of cowardice. The ambition, thus 
stimulated, would lead to the discontinuance of marriage 
witlun the tribe This theory is, as has been shown 
by Mr. Starcke* and Dr. Westermarck,* open to 
much the same objections as that of Mr. McLennan. 
As before, even if it became customary to appropriate 
foreign women by force, we are a long way from the 
absolute prohibition against marrying women of the 
tribe. The desire of the savage for polygamy would 
impel him to marriage with any woman whether of 
the tribe or not. The women of a tribe liabitually 
yictorious in war would be condemned to enforced celi- 
bacy : a usage based on victory in war could not have 
oxtended to the vanquished : the powerful fooling against 

^ Loc. eii, I., 610, #77. 

* Primitive Family, 210, #77. 

* Jliiicry ^ Unman Ifarriaye, 310 #7. 

Voi. I. M 



olxzyiii 

marriage with near relations could not have arisen 
merely from the yain desire to possess a woman as a 
trophy : and lastly, we hare no examples of a tribe 
which did or does marry only captiye womeni or, indeedi 
in which such marriages are preferred. 

8. Sir John Lubbock's^ theory again depends on 

Lubbock', theory of ^ *^«>ry of what he calls oom- 
•xogamy. munal marriage, by which all the 

women of the group wore at the general disposal of all 

the males. This, however, he thinks, would not be the 

case with women seized from a different tribe. This 

theory, so far as it is concerned with communal marriage 

and polyandry, is discussed elsewhere. It is enough 

here to say that the evidence for the existence of either 

among the primitive races of this part of India appears 

entirely insufficient, and it is difficult to understand, 

even if communal marriage prevailed, how women 

captured, as must have been the case, by the general act 

of members of the group, could have been protected 

from that form of outrage which would naturally have 

been their lot. 

9. Mr. Starcke' in hia account of exogamy 

attempts to draw a distinction between 

SUroko's theory. 

the license which would permit inter- 
course between kinsfolk and prohibit marriage between 
them : — " The clan, like the family, is a legal group, 
and the groups were kept together by legal bonds long 



^ Origin of Citfiliiation, ISS, 9g» 
* Primitive Family^ 230, sg. 



before tiiio ties of blood liad any binding power. Tiie 
same ideas wbiok impelled a noian to look for a wife 
outside his family, also impelled him to look for her 
outside the clan/' This depends upon the further 
assumption that early marriage was not simply a sexual 
relation, a fact which he can hardly be considered to 
have fully established, 

10. All these theories, it will be observed, base exo- 
Tjior'i theory of B^^^^Y moTQ OT Icss ou the abhorrenco of 

eiogamy. .^^^^ p^ rTyiQ^,* qU the othcT 

hand, represents it as a moans by which *' a growing 
tribe is enabled to keep itself compact by constant 
unions between its spreading clans/' That exogamy 
may have been a valuable means of advancing political 
influence is true enough, but, as Dr. Westermarck 
objects, it does not account for the cases in which inter- 
tribal cohabitation was repressed by the most stringent 
penalties, even by death.' 

11. Next comes that advocated by Mr. Morgan' 

Morffun'i iYMorj of *^^ othcrs, that it ariscs from the 
esogminy. recognition of the observed evils of 

intermarriage between near relations. This theory has 
been with some slight modificatioDs accepted by Dr. 
Westermarck * and Mr. Risley.* Briefly put, it comes 
to this : No theory of exogamy can be satisfactorily 



^Journal Antkrjpologioal Utiitute, XVUL, 267, iqq. 
• Loe. eit. 817. 
^ Ameient Society, 424. 
« Loe. eii. Chapter XV. 

^Tribes and Castes ^f Bengal, Inirodnction, LXII. 
Vol. I. m% 



olzzx 

■ 

based on any oonsoious recognition by the sarage 
of the evils of interbreeding. Of all the instinctB of 
primitiye man the erotic are the most imperious and the 
least under control. To suppose that a man in this 
stage of culture calmly discusses the question whethtf 
his ofibpring from a woman of his group are likely to be 
weaklings is preposterous. But the adoption of mar- 
riage outside the group would, in the end^ by the process 
of natural selection^ giro the group practising it a 
decided physical advantage. As Mr. Bisley puts it : — 
'* As a result of the survival of the fittest the crossed 
families would tend more and more to replace the pure 
families, and would at the same time tend to become 
more and more oxogamic in habits, simply as the result 
of the cumulative hereditary strengthening of the original 
instinct. It would further appear that the element of 
sexual selection might also be brought into play, as an 
exogamous family or group would have a larger range 
of selection than an ondogamous one, and would thus got 
better women, who again, in the course of the primitive 
struggle for wives, would bo appropriated by the strong- 
est and most warlike man.'' 

12. This theory, which bases exogamy on the un- 
conscious result of natural selection, gradually weeding 
out those groups which persisted in the practice of endo- 
gamy, and replacing them by a healthier and more 
vigorous race, seems on the whole best to account for 
existing facts. It is, however, perhaps premature to 
suppose that in all cases the same end was reached by 
the same course. All through the myths of early India 



olxxxi 

nothing comos out more clearly than the inBtroctive 
hatrod of the Arya or white man for the Dasyu, or the 
man of the black skin. The balance of opinion now 
Booms to be moving in the direction of assuming that the 
80*called Aryan invasion was much more moral than 
physical, that the attempt to discriminate between the 
ethnological strata in the population is practically im- 
possible. The conversion may have been the work, not 
of armies of invaders moving down the valleys of the 
(Ganges and Jumna, but of small bodies of missionaries 
who gradually effected a moral conquest and introduced 
thoir religion and law among a population with whom 
tbey ultimately to a large extent amalgamated. Tliat 
some form of exogamy was an independent discovery 
made by the autochthones prior to their intercourse with 
the Aryans sooms certain ; but it is possible that the 
special form of prohibited degrees which was enforced 
among the higher races may have been to some extent 
the result partly of their isolation in small communities 
among a black-skinned population, and partly, as Dr. 
Tylor suggests, as a moans of enhancing the political im- 
portance and establishing the influence of these groups. 
That this procuring of suitable brides from foreign 
groups was sometimes impossible is proved by the cu- 
rious Buddhistic legend tliat the Sakyas became endoga- 
mous because they could got no wives of their own 
iftnk, and were in consequence known as ** pigs'* and 
" dogs •* by their neighbours.* 



* 8i«ene«T Hardy. Manual of Buddhism. 130, 203, 318. 



olxxxii 

18. There is, however^ another side to the discussion 

Bioframj and ^n the origin of exogamy which must 

Totemism. ^^^ ^^ neglected. In another place I 

hare collected some of the evidence as to the existence 

of totemism in Northern India.^ 

The present surrey has given indication of the exist- 
ence of totemistic sections among at least twenty-four 
trihes, most of whom are of Dravidian origin. 

Now we know that one of the ordinary incidents of 
totemism is that persons of the same totem may not 
marry or hare sexual intercourse with each other/ 
and it is perhaps possible that^ among the Dravidians at 
least, one basis of exogamy may have rested on their tote- 
mistic group organization. The indications of totemism 
are, however, too vague and uncertain, being mainly 
based on the fact that the names of many of their sec- 
tions are- taken from those of animals and plants, to make 

it possible at present to express a definite opinion on 

% 

such an obscure subject. 



* Introduetion to Po/mlar Beligion and Folklore, 278, tgq, 
' Frazer, Totemism, 68^ *gq. 



clxxxiii 



CHAPTER VI. 

FoEMS OF Hindu Marriagb. 

Beferenoe has already been made to the question 

of communal marriage in coioLnection 
with the origin of exogamy. It has 
been observed that the evidence is insufficient to justify 
the belief that among any of the tribes or castes of this 
part of India the women are at the common service of 
all the men of the group. On the authority of a compi- 
lation entitled, ''The People of India/' ^ it has been 
regarded as established that '' the Teehurs of Oudh live 
together almost indlBcriminately in large communities^ 
and even when two people are regarded as married the tie 
is but nominal." This has boon since quoted as one of 
the stock examples of communal marriago in India/ 
Kow of the Tiyars we have fairly complete accounts. 
The Oudh people of that name are a sept of E&jputs in 
the Sult&npur District, who do not appear in the enu- 
meration of the last census. There is another body of 
llyaiB who are a sub- caste of the Mall&h, or boatman class, 
found to the number of 1,8C6 souls in tho Ghfizipur Dis- 
trict. They are numerous in Bch&r and Bengal, and Mr. 
Risley has given a full account of them.^ There is no 
evidence whatever that anything like communal marriago 



" II. Page 85. 

* «. g-t bj Lubbook, Origin of CioiliM^tioHt 80. 

'IW^ and CaaUt of Bengal ^ IL. 328. tqq. 



olxxxiy 

prevails among them. The fact seems to be that by the 
necessities of their occupation the husbands leave tiieir 
wives for long periods at a time and go on voyages as far 
as Calcutta. That a high standard of female morality 
is maintained during their absence it would be rash to 
assert : but this is very different from communal mar- 
riage. A rather better example comes from the Beriyas, 
one of the nomadic and criminal gypsy tribes. The girls 
of the tribe are reserved, in the Oentral Ganges- Junma- 
Duftb, for prostitution, and if any member of the tribe 
marries a girl devoted to this occupation, he has to 
pay a fine to the tribal council. This is what Sir John 
Lubbock would term '^ expiation for marriage,*' the an- 
nexation of the woman by one individual man of the 
group being regarded as improper.^ Dr. Westermarck, 
it may be remarked, disputes the connection of this cus- 
tom with communal marriage.^ 

2. It is true that among many of the Dravidian tribes 

Uiity of f emaie mo- ^^^ *^^ ^* ^^^ ^^^^^ Him&layas, like 
""^'^y- the ThArus, the standard of female 

morality is very low. Intrigues of unmarried girls, or 
oven of married women, are very lightly regarded, pro- 
vided the paramour is a clansman. Numerous instances 
of customs of this kind will be found in the following 
pages. The penalty on the relatives of the offenders is 
usually a fine in the shape of a compulsory feast to the 
tribesmen. On the other hand, the penalty is much more 



^ Origin qf CioilixaUon, 126. 

' JJitiorjf qf Human Marriage, 73. 



clxxxv 

severo if tho woman's lover belongs to a strange tribe. If 
lie belongs to one of the higher tribes, the punishment is 
much less than if he belongs to one of the degraded 
menial races, such as the Dom, Dhark&r, or Bhangi. In 
fl(uch cases the woman is almost invariably permanently 
excommunicated. The tolerance of intertribal immo- 
rality, while significant is, however, far from actually 
legalised community of women. 

8. The custom of the jus prima noolis has been also 

adduced as a proof of the existence of 

Ihtjui primm moctit. 

communal marriage. Of this the 
examples collected in the present survey are slight and 
inconclusive. ^^The Ahlrs and many similar tribes have 
a custom of paying a fee to the village landlord at a mar- 
riage. This is known as mandwdna from mSndo^ the 
hut or pavilion in which tho marriage is performed. V This 
is hardly more than one of the common village nuinorial 
dues, and it is pressing the custom to an illegitimate 
extent to regard it as a commutation for the jui prima 
nocti$. There is reason to beligve tliat in comparatively 
modem times some of the Eftjas of Eiwa, a native state 
bordering on those Provinces, in their annual progresses, 

insisted on a supply of girls from the lower tribes, and 
there are still villages which are said to have been pre- 
sented to the ancestors of women honoured in this way. 
But this is far from sufficient evidence for anything like 
the general prevalence of tho custom, which is regarded 
with abhorrence by the public opinion of tho country 
ode. 



4. The samo feeling prevails as regards polyandry 

which, aooording to Mr, McLennan, 

Polyandry. 

formed one of the regular stages in 
the evolution of marriage. There is certainly no ground 
for believing that at any time polyandry flourished 
as a permanent domestic institution. At the same time 
it seems quite certain that it has prevailed and does 
still prevail in Northern India, but usually among 
isolated communities and imder exceptional circum- 
stances, 

6. To begin with the evidence from history or myth. 
The legend of the five F&ndavas who took Draupadt as 
a joint Wife, has been generally accepted as a proof 
that it existed among the people whom, for the sake of 
convenience, we call the early Aryans. It is true that 
the compilers of the Mah&bh&rata clearly wish to refer 
to it as an exceptional case, and to whittle away its sig* 
nificance by representing it as a result of their miscon- 
ception of their mother's order. But there is reason to 
believe that it was not so exceptional as they endeavour 
to make out. In the discussion which followed, one of the 

princes quoted as a precedent the case of Jatil&, '' that 
most excellent of moral women who dwelt with seven 
saints, and Yarkshi, the daughter of a Muni, who coha- 
bited with ten brothers, all of them Fraohetas, whose 
souls had boon purified by penance.'' We have next 
the case of the Aswins who liad between them one 
woman, Sury&, the daughter of the sim. Even in the 
B&m&yana the giant Yiradha imputes that B&ma and 



olxxxvii 

Lakslunana jointly share tho favours of Slt&.^ Profes- 
sor Lassen's theory that the whole story of Draupadl 
and her five lovers is only the symbolieal indieation of 
an allianee between the king of Fanoh&la and the five 
tribes represented by the five F&ndavas has met with 
little support. 

For the fraternal form of polyandry practised by 
some of the Himalayan races, there is ample evidence. 
According to Mr. Drew, a very careful observer, 'it ori- 
ginated in the smallness of the amount of land which 
oould be tilled and the general inelasticity of the coun- 
try's resources : while the isolation from the rest of the 
world, isolation of manners, language and religions, as 
well as geographical isolation, hindered emigration*' 
According to Dr. Wilson, polyandry in Tibet is not due 
to the scarcity of women, as a number of surplus women 
are provided for in the Lama nunneries.' 

6. As regards tho plains, we know that the preval- 
ence of polyandry was noticed by tho Greeks in the Fan- 
jftb.* Of the Gakkars Farishta* tells us that "it 
was tho custom as soon as a female child was bom to 



* For a ditooMiOQ on tbflte early easM of sappoted polyandry tee Dr. 
J. Mnir, Indian Antiqnary, VI., 2C0 iqq.i E. Thomae, ibid., VI., 275 : Big 
VhUi I., 110, 6 : Wilson, E$$myt, !(., 340: Max M&ller. Bistory of Ancitni 
Santkrii Literature, 41, $qq.\ lV$$tmin$ter Repiew, 18G8, piifO 412 : Lang. 
Cuitom and Myth, II., 156. 

* Jmmmoop 250. 

* Abodi of Snow . 281. ForTiboUn Polyandry generally toe C. Homo, 
Indian Antiquary, V., 164: C. R. Stalpnagel. ibid,, VII., 132, iqq.i Yalt 
Mmroo Polo, II., 83. 38, 40 : Williams. MomoofDokra D^m, 175. 

«Lastoo. Ind. AHerlhum$k, 2i.d Ediiioa, 11.. 454. 
^Briggt, TranMlalion, I., 183. tq. 



olzxxviii 

oarry her to the door of the house and there proolaim 
aloud, holding the child with one hand^ that any person 
who wanted a wife might now take her, otherwise she 
was immediately put to death. By this moans they had 
more men than women, which occasioned the custom 
of several husbands to one wife. When the wife was 
visited by one of her husbands she left a mark at the 
door, which, being observed by any of the other hus- 
bands, ho withdrew till the signal was taken away/' 
Similar customs prevailed among the Khokarsof the 
Panjftb,* and the Fanj&b J&ts.* 

7. In all these cases it would seem that polyandry is 
associated with, and in fact dependent on, female infan« 
ticide. In the course of the present survey, it has boon 
ascertained that the custom prevails among some of the 
pastoral tribes, such as Ahlrs, Giljars and J&ts, chiefly 
in the upper valleys of the Ganges and Jumna. It has 
even been embodied in the current proverb : — Do kkasam 
kijoru^ Chausar ka kheh — " The wife with two lords 
is like a game of backgammon/' - The arrangement 
suits these pastoral people, who graze their herds in the 
river valleys. The brothers take it in turn to attend 
the cattle, and one remains at home in charge of the 
house- wife. 

8. Whether the customs known as niyoga and the 
Nijog* and th* ie»i. levimte aro or are not connected with 

polyandry has boon the subject of 



> Ghul&m B&sit : Dowson't Elliot, Jliitory. VIIL, 202. 
' Kirkpatriok, Indian Antiquary, VII., 80, tq. 



clxxxix 

miioh controversy. Mr. MoLennan ^ asserted that the 
loYirate^ that is the practice of marrying the widow of 
a deceased brother^ was derived from polyandry. The 
niyoga^ or the custom of a widow cohabiting with 
the brother of her deceased husband^ seems to be referred 
to in the Veda.' Manu' allows such imions of a 
widow with a brothor-in-law or other relative of the 
deceased husband to continue only till one or at the 
most two sons have been begotten, and declares that they 
must then cease. In the verses which follow he res- 
tricts such temporary unions to classes below the twice- 
bom, or (in contradbtinction to what proceeds) con« 
demns them altogether. By the law, as stated by Oau« 
tama,^ a woman whose husband is dead, and who 
desires offspring, may bear a son to her brother-in-law. 
*' Let her obtain the permission of her gurus (husband's 
relatives under whose protection she lives), and let her 
have intercourse during the proper season only. On 
failure of a brother-in-law she may obtain offspring by 
cohabiting with a sapinda, or sagotra, or samAn-pra- 
vara, or one who belongs to the same caste. Some 
declare that she shall cohabit with none but her brother- 
in-law. She shall not bear more than two sons. The 
child belongs to him who begot it, except if an agree- 
ment to the contrary have boon made, and the child 
begotten at a living husband's request on liis wife 

s StudUs, 112, iqq. 

* Big r^da, X.. 4a 2 ; and Muir*i reroarkt, Aneient Samkrii TerU, V., 450. 
^ImsiUuUs, IX^ 50, 62 ; with Muir'i oomineot, Jmdium Aniiquarjf, VI, 
S16. 

^Dulilor, Sacred Lawt qf th$ Art/anit Purl I,. 207, fq* 



0X0 

belongs to the husband, but if it was begotten by a 
stranger, it belongs to the latter, or to both the natural 
father and the husband of the mother, but being reared 
by the husband belongs to him/' 

9. The best reoent opinion is in opposition to the 
theory that the leyirate or niyoga is a survival of poly- 
andry. "The levir," says Mr. Mayne, **did not take 
his brother's widow as his wife. He simply did for his 
brother or other near relation, when deooased, what the 
latter might have authorised him, or any other person 
to do during his lifetime. And this, of course, explains 
why the issue so raised belonged to the deceased and 
not to the blotter. If it were a relio of polyandry, the 
issue would belong to the surviving polyandrous hus- 
band, and the wife would pass over to him as his 
wife." ^ 

10. In modem times, in this part of India, praotioally 
all the tribes whioh permit widow marriage allow the 
levirate in the restricted form that it is only the younger 
son of the late husband who is allowed or expected to 
take the widow to wife. Whatever may have been the 
idea connected with this practice in early times, the fic- 
tion that the son was supposed ** to raise up seed unto 
his brother " seems to have altogether disappeared, and 
no survival of this rule of affiliation has been discoYored. 
In fact, according to common custom, the widow is 
regarded as a kind of property which has been pur- 
chased into the family by the payment of the bride- 



^ Hindu Law, 61 ; and see SUroke. Primitive Family, 141, #w * We»Ur* 
uiarck, HUioty of Human Marriage, blO, sqq* 



oxoi 



prioe ; and among some of the Dravidian tribes there is 
a rule of tribal law that if the widow goes to live with 
a stranger to the family, he is bound to repay the bride- 
prioe, and in some cases the costs incurred in her first 
marriage, to her younger brother-in-law or his father. 
It is noticeable that in this form of the levirate 
allianoe with the elder brother of her late husband is 
rigidly prohibited : in fact all through the Hindu caste 
system any intercourse, oven to the extent of speaking 
to^ touching, or appearing unveiled in the presence of, 
her husband's Jelh^ or elder brother^ is strictly guarded 
by a special taboo. There is a Behftr proverb — LatuL 
hhainsur dewar bardbar — *^ a weak elder brother-in-law 
18 like a younger brother-in-law, with whom you may 
take liberties.'' 

11. The statistios of the last Census fiilly illustrate 

p»«.i«io« of widow t^o prevalence of widow marriage. 
m»f'i^»» rpQ ^jgg ^j. Baillie's summary of the 

figures ^ '' of 10,000 of the total Hindu population, 831 
males and 817 females are widowed, 806 males and 747 
females among Muhanmiadans, and no loss than 639 
males and 1,054 females among Jains.* It is clear, there- 
fore, that both males and females, but particularly the 
latter, re-marry more extensively amongst Muham- 
madans than Hindus, and very much more frequently 

* Cemui BepjH, Nortk-WetUrm ProviHees, 1801, 340. 

*ThtPanj4b reiurni show 145 widowi to 1,000 women, S3 per cent, of 
woiDOii over 16 jeaii of Ufge are widows. Thii rum to 35 for Uindas and falle 
to 31 for Blobaromadaot. (Maolagan, CffMM Bfpori, 336). Mr. O'Donnel 
{B^mgal C^niMS Bspori, 186) altributee much of the rflaUfe inoreaee of 
MttkanBiadmiii in thai ProTinoe to their toleration of widow marriage. 



oxoii 



among Hindus than amongst Jains. As regards females 
this is exactly what might liave been expeoted from 
what is known of the social circumstances of the three 
religions. Muhammadans permit re-marriage alike 
amongst males and females, and the excess of female 
widowed is due to the same reasons as the excess in 
England. The higher proportion of widowed of both sexes 
as compared with England is^ of course^ mainly due to 
the higher proportion of marriages. The somewliat 
higher proportion of excess among Muhammadan widows 
oyer Muhammadan widowers, as compared with English 
figures, is probably due to the greater facilities an English 
widow enjoys for re-marriage. Amongst Hindus, as is 
well known, re-marriago is in the higher castes permitted 
only for males. The castes which do not permit widow 
marriage are roughly one-fourth of the whole,' so that 
Hindus as regards female re-marriage occupy a position 
between Muhammadans and Jains^ but nearer the former 
than the latter. The latter are practically, as regards 
such matters, Hindus of high caste, and permit no widow 
re-marriage : hence the high proportion of widows.** 



*Tbe exict figares are :— 
Not pennitting widow marriage . 0,713,087, or 2405 per eeni. 
rermiiting widow mftrriage • • 30,667,081, or 76*96 per cent 

Total Hindus . 40,880,168, or 100 per cent 
Theie figures are, bowever, subject to tbe oorreotioo tbst some eren of the 
lower eastes psrtisUy prohibit widow marriage, and. this if r e p r esented bj the 
Bjibnt section, wbicb appears in many of them. In tbe wbole of tbe BebAr 
ProYinees (Census Beport, 200) tbe Mosabars of tbe nortb-eaetem area, 
witb only 6'6 per cent of widows amongst women between 16 and 40 jmn, aro 
most addicted to widow marriage. Tbe TbHrus of ChamiAran, and tbe Dbobis, 
Lobto and DueMhs of North- West BebUr, follow them ?ery closely in tbie 
respect 



oxoiii 



12. This marriage of widows^ known to the east of 
the Frovinoe as sag&i and to the west as karfto and 
dharewa, is a perfectly l^al form of marriage^ and when 
recognised by the tribal council the children are regarded 
M legitimate and succeed to their father's estate. In 
subsequent pages will be found numerous details of the 
ritual in widow marriages. Among nmny of the lower 
castes the general rule appears to be tliat the widow is 
married to a widower : but this rule is subject to excep- 
tions. The prohibited degrees for the* widow are the 
same as for the virgin bride> with the additional limita- 
tion, as already explained, that she cannot marry her 
older brothor-in-law or her senior cousin. Though the 
marriage is quite legitimate, there is a certain amount of 
secrecy connected with it. It is performed at night 
The bridegroom after eating with the woman's friends 
inyosts her with a new robe and some jewelry, and with- 
draws with her to a private room. Next day he brings 
her home and procures the recognition of the union by 
feasting his clansmen. Tlie rules as regards the custody 
of children by the first marriage are not very clearly 
defined. The usual course seems to be that if she has 
an infant she takes it with her to her now home, whore 
it is practically adopted by its step-father. Children 
who have passed the stage of helplessness fall under tho 
guardianship of their uncles, who manage their estate 
until they attain years of discrotioni or, in the case of 
girls, arrange their marriages. 

13. As regards the ago for marriage tho following 

table taken from the last Census Re- 
Age for marriftge. 

port ' doserves ro-production. 

* Page2ifj. 

Vot. I. ^ • 



Age periods- 


AaiOLHTB HDUBIB OF 


pBOPOaTTOW TO lO.M* 




Hidoi. 


Fomaloa, 


U>la«. 


PODMlM. 


Yoar . 

1 ., 
3 .. 

3 .. 

4 .. . . 


867 

867 

1,883 

3,383 

6,097 


1,114 
1.173 
2.713 

6,504 
10,014 


10 
24 

81 
47 
90 


13 
SI 
43 
73 
140 


4 „ 
e „ 


13,076 
139,773 


20.517 
291.373 


41 
433 


03 
999 


Total „ 


152,849 


811,800 


938 


606 


10 11 ., 
16 19 ,. 
20 21 .. 
25 SO „ 
30 34 ,. 
8S 39 „ 
40 44 .. 
46 40 .. 
60 54 ,. 
65 SO „ 
00 and uMr 


684,962 
1,020,583 
1.4-13.069 
1,654,200 
1.778,861 
1,135,619 
1,393,682 
661,188 
885,634 
203,153 
746,230 


1,221,070 

1,607,733 

1,911,373 

1,866,624 

1.747,470 

088.812 

1,060.977 

434.907 

464.636 

143,643 

345.005 


a.417 
5,014 
0,929 
7.84!) 
6,200 
8,630 
fi.167 
7,970 
7.641 
7,13 1 
0,112 


6.741 
9019 
fl,4M 
9,166 
8,601 

a,oio 

0.438 
6.002 
8,891 
4,SW 

1.088 


Torn 


11,820,608 


11.873,838 


4.863 


6,869 



oxcv 

Thus 1|971 persons are shown as married in tho first 
year of Kfo. What is known f%s the pettnangahiy a or 
•* womb betrothal/* that is tho engagement of unborn 
children should they turn out to be of different sexes, 
is noted in the ease of Eanjars. It is remarkable that 
the returns show tliat the proportion of children married 
below the age of 4 is as high among Muhammadans as 
Hindus. Mr. Baillie believes that the custom prevails 
mainly among Muhammadan sweepers; but this is 
not quite certain. Assuming 9 to be about the age of 
puberty, about 2} per cent, of boys and 6 per cent, of girls 
enter tho state of matrimony below that age. But it 
must be noted that this does not imply premature con- 
flunmiation : these infant marriages are probably nearly 
all in the families of persons of some wealth and social 
importance^ and in such cases cohabitation is practically 
always jyostponed till puberty, whoa the gaunaor bring- 
ing home of the bride takes place. Mr. Baillie goes on to 
remark: — " Between 10 and 14 nearly nine-tentlis of tho 
female population pass into the married state ; but consi- 
derably more than one-half of the males remain immarried. 
Between 16 and 10 there are 15 married females for 
each one unmarried, whilst at the end of the period only 
60 per cent, of the males have been married. By 24 
practically the whole of the female pojiulation liave been 
married, almost the whole of those unmarried at tliis and 
later ages being women whose avocations preclude mar- 
riage, or whose physical or mental health forbids it. Of 
men considerably more than a fourth are unmarried 
up to 24, whilst an appreciable but dimuiishing numbor 

Vol. J. n I 



OXOVl 

remains unmarried through all Buhsequont ago po- 
rlods.'** 

14. The census figures show^ as might have 

Bachelors and old ^^^ expeotod, that " the largest pro- 
"^^^■' portion of males i?ho remain perma- 

nently unmarried is among J&ts» BAjputs, Brfthmans, 
K&yasths, Khatris^ and to a loss extent among Banyas. 
It shows that marriage is latest for men in these castes 
also, while it is earliest for the low-caste cultiyators, 
forest and hill tribes, Jul&has, Eumhftxs, Telis, Dhobis, 
fishing castes, Gham&rs, F&sis and vagrant castes, the 
highest figure of all being for Eumhfirs. The figures 
for women are in certain respects both more pronounced 
and more important than for men. For womcn^ tlio 
largest numbers permanently unmarried among respect- 
able Hindus are amongst B>djputsand Khatris. The 
high proportion among the former may hare to do with 
the claim made by many of the dancing castes to be 



' Of the Far. jAh Mr. Maclagan reinarki (Beporif 25S) that " the pnetiee 
of child marriage among girls prevails mainly in the east of the ProYinee* 
It is primarily a Hindu practice, and is found moat atroiigly dereloped in the 
diitricta where Hinduism is the preyailing religion ; and in the Prorinee 
generally it is much more common among Hindus than among MuaalmAiii. Btt 
the early marriage of girls has now hecome a matter more of onstom than of 
religion, and the Musalm&ns in Hindu dintricts are nearly as mnch addieted 
to it at the Hindus, while among Hindus in MusalmAn distriets it is almoet 
at rare as among the MusalmAns. In fact, the J/ykldwa is Tery little in Togne 
among Hindus anywhere in the extreme south and west of the Prorinee.** 
Tlie Bib&r returns {Cemui Beporit lOOJ show that "the age of KAyaath and 
BrAhman girls before they find husbands to he much liigher tlian that aiaigned 
by popnlar opinion. The PAjput girl mam'ea, like the BAbhan and 
the aboriginal TliArn, a little later than the DnsAdh. Bo do the Nimiya« LohAr, 
Kurmi and KahAr, hot only on an average a month or two later. The DhAnuk 
girl mariies earlier than females in any other large caste in this area, thoogh 
a year later than girls of low caste in North- East BiliAr." 



oxcvii 



B&jputs. Why it should bo ro high among Khatris 
I luxvo boon unablo to understand or imagine.^ I3an- 
j&ras and vagrant Hindu castes show proportionately 
much higher nimibers. Amongst the Muliammadansi 
the higher the caste* the higher the proportion of women 
not married at all. Female infant marriage is most 
extensive amongst cultivating castes, grazing castesi 
forest and hill tribesy Eoris^ Julfthas, Kumhfirs, Telis, 
Dhobisy Chamdrs, F&sis, sweepers, and vagrant castes- 
Of the whole F&sis are easily first, Kumh&rs following a 
close second. Widows are most numerous among Brfih- 
mans, E&jputs, E&yasths, Banyas, Ehatris and Sayyids 
easily, the highest proportion being among EJiatris and 
Brfthmans. The lowest proportion of widows is among 
the forest and hill tribes, and after them amongst sweep - 
orsi FAsis, JullUias and Gham&rs, in all of which castes 
woman is peculiarly a helpmate to man." ' The 
prenubial laxity of Dravidian girls enables the men to 
avoid marriage till they are well advanced in life, and 
desire to found homes for their old age. 

16. Folygamy is permitted both among Ilindus and 

Muliammadans. As Idr. Mayne 

PolygiMny. 

remarks' : — **One text of Manu seem 
to indicate that there was a time when a second marriage 



* Mr. Ibbetaon thowi thai the difiieultj of marrying among the Kbalria 
of iba Panjab ia due to the iirong law of hypergamy or neccHsiiy of marrying 
m girl in a higher grade than her hniband, which prfyails among them at well 
M MDong Br&hmana and hill Rijputi (BeporU 356). This probably eiplainaihe 
laol in Uiaae ProTincea. 

* CM#if# Report, 255. 
•/fiWif />i»r, 77. 



oxcyiii 



M'as only allowed to a man after the death of his former 
wife (V., 168 ; IX., 101, 102). Another set of texts lays 
down special grounds, which justify a hnshand in taking 
a second wife, and except for such causes it appears she 
could not bo superseded without her consent (Manu, IX., 
72—82). Other passages provide for a plurality of 
wives, even of different classes, without any restriction 
(Manu, III., 12 ; VIII., 204 ; IX., 85—87). A peculiar 
sanctity, liowovor, seems to have hcon attributed to tlio 
first marriage • • • It is now quite settled that a 
Hindu is absolutely without restriction as to the number 
of his wives, and may marry again without his wife's 
consent, or any justification except his own wish/' 
There seems no doubt that aMuliammadan may marry 
as many as four wives : but the question is debated by 
the authorities.^ In spite of this polygamy is most infre- 
quent. The last Census shows 11,820,598 married 
males to 11,873,838 married females. Similarly in the 
Panj&b tlioro are 101* 2 wives to 100 husbands. The 
proportion of husbands who have more than one wife is 
probably under 1 per cent. 

16. Something lias already been said on the subject 
. . ^ of marriai;o by capture. It may be 

MurTiagebyoapturo. ^ y i. ^ 

well to consider if there are any facts 
which indicate that the people of Upper India in early 
times procured brides by force. Mr. McLennan, as we 
have seen, in his theory of marriage, starts with tlie stage 
of communal marriage next to i)olyandry, merging in the 

' Hughes, Dictionary of lilam, 402, f 99. 



oxoix 



levirate. This stago attainedi somo tribes branohed o£E 
into ondogomy^ somo to oxogomy. Exogamy was basod 
on infantioide, and led to marriage by oapture.^ We 
hare akeady seen tlio weakness of the evidenoo for tho 
existenoe of a general stage of polyandry or oommmial 
marriage. 

17. In doscribing tho various forms of marriage 
Manu speaks of that known as Mkshasa.: — *^ The seizure 
of a maiden by f orco from her housoi while sho weeps and 
calls for assistance, after her kinsmen and friends have 
been slain in the battle, or wounded, and their houses 



broken open, is the marriage called BAkshasa '\' 

18. The difficulty in examining tho apparent sur- 
yirals of marriage by capture lies in determining which 
are indications of the usual maiden modesty of tho bride, 
hor grief at leaving home and her dread at entering a 
now family, and which are signs of violence on tho part 
of tho bridegroom and his friends. 

19. From the early literature, beyond the reference in 
Manu, to which reference has already been made, the 
iroocs of the custom in myth aro not vory numerous or 
oloar. The myth of XJrvasi probably indicates the exist* 
enco of some ancient rule or taboo which prevented 
ordinary unrestrained intercourse botwoen husband and 
wife, with the inference that possibly from capture 
their relations were strained.' In the Mah&bli&rata the 
followers of Eichika attomptod to burn Draupodi with 

* Primiiiv$ Maf-riagt, 138. linbbook. Origin of CivUisation, 102, iq. 
*Oo (bit tee Langi Custom and 3f$ik, 65, #77. 



CO 

his corpse^ apparently beoatuse from the faot of her cap^ 
ture she was assumed to have boon his wifo. In the 
samo opio Bhtshma doolaros that the Swayamvara is the 
best of all modes of marriago for a Ksliatriyaj except 
ono, that of carrying away the bride by force. Ho 
acquired in this way the beautiful daughters of the BAja 
of K&shi as wives for his brother VichitraVlrya. In 
the Sutras it was provided that at a certain vital stage 
in the marriago ceromony a strong man and the bride- 
groom should forcibly draw the bride and make her sit 
down on a red ox skin.' 

20. There are numerous examples of feigned resist- 
ance to the bridegroom. Thus among the Korwas the 
bridegroom and his party *< halt at a short distance from 
the bride's house, and there await her party. Presently 
emerges a troop of girls all singing, headed by the mother 
of the bride, bearing on her hoad a vessel of water sur- 
mounted by a lighted lamp. When they get near enough 
to the cavaliers they pelt them with balls of boiled rice, 
then coyly retreat, followed, of course, by the young men, 
but the girls make a stand at the door of the bride's house 
and suffer none to enter until they have paid toll in pre- 
sents to the bridesmaid."* In a Gond marriage^' all 
may be agreed) betwoon the parties beforehand, never- 
theless tho bride must be abducted for the fun of the 
thing : but tho bridegroom has only to overcome the 
opposition of tlie young lady's female friends — it is not 

^ Weber, Inditche Studian, .325, quoted by MoLennan, PrimititH Mar* 
riage, 84, tq- 

' DaltoD, Descriptive Elhnologfft 223, tg. 



ooi 



etiquette for the men of her village to take any notice 
of the affair.*^ » 

21. Numerous instances of similar practices have 
been recorded at the present survey. Thus, among the 
Ghasiyas, the bride hides in a comer of the house, and the 
youth goes in and drags her out into the presence of the 
assembled clansmen. It is etiquette that she makes some 
resistance. Much the same custom prevails among the 
Bhuiyas and Bhuiylhrs. The Kanjar bridegroom comes 
armed to the bride's house after the n^ociations have 
been settled, and demands delivery of the girl in threat- 
ening tones. Similarly the bridegroom is armed with 
a bow and arrow. 

22. There are numerous other customs which .seem 
to be based on the same form of symbolism. Thus, the 
members of the bridegroom's party are mounted on horses 
and armed : they, on arriving at the bride's village, do 
not enter her house, but halt outside ; the bridegroom 
on reaching her door makes a feint of cutting at the 
arch {toran) with a sword : there is the invariable fiction, 
no matter how near the houses of the bride and bride- 
groom are, that she must be carried in some sort of 
equipage. This the M&njhis and some other Dravidian 
tribes call "a boat," or jahdz ; possibly a survival of 
the time when the bride was taken away by water. 

23. We have then the etiquette by which the bride 
screams and wails as she is being carried away. When 
she reaches her new home she is lifted across the thresh« 

^ Ibid, 278, and leo Forsjtb, Highlands of Central India, 168 : Rownej, 
WUd Trihei, 37, #7. 



ooii 



old by her husband^ or carried inside in a basket. This 
was an old custom on the Scotch border/ and may be 
as much a surviyal of the respect paid to the threshold 
as a reminiscence of marriage by capture. As she entoiB 
the door is barred by her husband's sister, who will not 
allow her to enter until she is propitiated with a gift. 

21. We have just noticed the fiction by which a 
bride is supposed to be brought from a distance. This 
is a standing rule among the Or&ons and Kurmis of 
Bengaf,* and more tlian one example of it may be 
found in the present survey, as among the N&is and Pan« 
kas. This repugnance to marriage among people resid- 
ing in close communities has been taken by Dr. Wester- 
marck to be one of the causes which have led to exo- 
gamy.* In this connection, the system of gang exo- 
gamy, prevalent among the gypsy Kanjars and S&nsiyas, 
with whom it is a rule that the bride must be selected 
from an encampment different from that of the bride- 
groom, is most significant. It is possible that here we 
are very close to exogamy in its most primitive form.^ 

25. In the same category are the numerous taboos 
of intercourse between a man and his wife and her rela- 
tions. Wo have already noticed the legend of IJrvasl. 
The wife must not mention her husband by name, and 
if he addresses her, it is in the indirect form of mother 



^ Hendorson, Folklore of the Northern Countriee, 38 : Introduetiom to 
Fopular Beligion and Folklore^ 151. 
' D»tton, loc. Hi, 248, 319. 
' Hiitory qf Human Marriage^ 321 , #7. 
* Ibid, 330, iqq. 



cciii 

« 

of his cliildron. Mr. Prazor lias dirooted attontion to 
tlio rulo by which silonco is imposed on womon for somo 
timo af tor marriage as a rolio of the custom of marry- 
ing women of a different tongue. Hence the familygr 
incident of the Silent Bride which rims through the whole 
range of folklore.^ On the same lines is the taboo of 
intcrcoiirse between a man and his mother-in-law^ of 
which Dr. Tylor, though he gives numerous instances, is 
unable to suggest an explanation.* This, also, perhaps 
accounts for the use of the terms "brother-in-law" 
(«a/ci), ** father-in-law " {sasur)^ as abusiro epithets. 7^ 
20. The next form of marriage is the runaway mar- 
riage, which was dignified by the early 

RunawAj marriages. 

Hindu lawgivers with the name of 
Gandharya, " the reciprocal connection of a youth and 
a damsel, with mutual desire, contracted for the purpose 
of amorous embraces, and proceeding from sensual incli- 
nation.**' This prevails largely among the Dravidian 
tribes of the Central Indian plateau. At the periodical 
autumn feast the Ghasiya damsel has only to kick the 
youth, of whom she approves, on the ankle, and this is a 
signal to her relatives that the sooner the connection is 
legalised the better. We have the same custom in 
another form in the well known institution of the Bache- 
lors' Hall among the OrSons and Bhuiyas.* This merges 



1 lUemhnit G8. 

' Benearchet into Early Iliiiory^ 285 : and compnre Lubbock, Origin 
of CioiH*ationy 13: Wake, Serpent Worship, 169: Development ofMatriage, 
330. 

'Mann, Imtitutes, 111., 32. 

^ Dalton, loe, cit, 142. 



COIV 

into tho Mut'ah marriage, which is legalised among 
Muhammadans. 

27. Next oomes marriage by exchange, known oom- 

monly as ada la ba dala^ whore two 

Marriage by oxohango. — 

fathers exchange daughters in mar- 
riage between their sons. Tliis is the simplest form 
of marriage by purchase.^ The present survey has 
disclosed instances of this among Barhais, Bhuiyas, 
BharMrs, Ghasiyas, Kanaujiyas, Moos, Musahars and 
Tarldh&rs. It thus is in a great measure oonfined to 
the lower castes, and Mr. Ibbetson remarks * that in 
the East of the Fanj&b ^* exchange of betrothal is 
thought disgraceful, and, if desired, is effected by a 
triangular exchange, — A betrotliing with 5, B with (7, 
and with A : in the West, on the contrary, among 
all classes, in the Hills and Submontane Districts, 
apparently among all but the highest classes, and among 
the J&ts, almost everywhere, except in the Jumna 
District, the betrothal by exchange is tlie commonost 
form/' 

28. The next stage is what has been called by ethno- 

logists Beena marriage,* in whicli 

Beena anarriage. 

the bridegroom goes to the house 
of the bride and wins her after a period of probation as 
Jacob wins Rachel. In these Provinces the custom 
seems to be confined to the Dravidian tribes of the 



* WesUrmarok, loc, eit, 890. 
' Punjab Cent Hi Report, 356. 
'Lubbock, Origin ofCiviliiaiion,7B, 



cov 

Vindhyan plateau^ Bhuiy&rs, Glioros, Gbasiyas, Oonds, 
Kharw&rs, Majhw&rs, and Faraliiyas. Among thorn it 
bears the name of gharjanwai, whioh means ** the son- 
in-law residing in the house of the bride." 

29. Immediately arising out of this is the more 

common form of bride purchase 

Bride parohasp. 

which prevails among most of the 
inferior tribes. In many cases^ as will be seen by the 
examples which have been collected^ the bride-price is 
fixed by tribal custom, and it marks a progressive stage 
in the evolution of marriage^ where the purchase of the 
bride is veiled under the fiction of a contribution given 
by the relatives of the youth to cover the expenses of 
* the marriage feast, which is, except in the dola or 
inferior form of marriage, provided by the relatives of 
the bride. " Lot no fatlior,'* says Manu,^ «* who knows the 
laW| receive a gratuity, however small, for giving las 
daughter in marriage: since the man who, through 
avarice, takes a gratuity for that purpose, is a seller of 
his offspring. '* 

30. The last stage is when the relatives of the bride 

provide a dowry for the bride, which 

Marriage wiib dowrj. 

is the subject of careful negotiation, 
and is paid over in the prosonco of the tribesmen when 
the wife lives with her husband. 



^JntUlulct, 111., IG. 



oovi 

81. In all thoso forms of marriage the oeremony of 

.Canfarreatio, or the feeding of fhe 

Confarreatio. — -— ' " 

married pair by the relatires on 
both sideSj takes an important place. Wo hare seon 
that it is the main rite in widow marringe. It is regu- 
lated by rigid rules of etiquettoi one of the chief of 
which is that both bride and bridegroom must at first 
refuse the preferred food, and accept it only after much 
pressure and conciliation by gifts. 

32. According to Baudhayana ** there is a dispute 

regarding five practices both in the 

The Matriarohate. 

South and in the North. Those pecu- 
liar to the South are to oat in the company of an unin- 
itiated person, to oat in the company of ono*s wife, to oat 
stale food, to marry the daughter of a maternal imcle or 
paternal aunt. He who follows these in any other country 
than the one where they prevail commits sin.** * There 
is some want of moral x>erspectiye in the classification of 
those prohibitions : but they chiefly concern us in con- 
nection with the matriarchal theory. The prohibi- 
tion of marriage with a cousin on the mother's side has 
been accepted as an indication of the uncertainty of 
male parentage. There can bo no doubt that in North- 
om India there is some special connoction between a 
boy and his maternal unclo,as is shown by many instances 
drawn from the usages of the inferior tribes, such as 
tlie Agariya, MajhwAr and other Dravidian races. Wo 
also find among the Doms and DbarkArs that it is tho 

^ ' ■ »_ 

* Dubleri Sacred Latot of the Aryai, Ptirt I., lotro L. 



oovu 

BiBtor's son who performs the duties of priest at the 
oremation and worship of the samted dead, which follows 
it. He is not| however^ regarded as an heir to the 
dooeased to the exclusion of his sons. Similarly though 
a foster-child has no rights to succeed/ the relation- 
ship is universally recognised as a bar to intermarriaga 
There is thus some evidence for some of the tests of 
female kinship as laid down by Professor Roberfson 
Smith.* 



* Majno, Hindu Law, 117, 

« Kintkip in Arabia, 143, 154^ 155, 150, 105. 



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K^^^tk^r ■tfK'J&KS 



.THE 

TRIBES AND CASTES 

OF THB 

NORTH-WESTERN PROVINCES AND OUDH. 

VOLUMB I. 



A}ihj&gtA.—{8AnB."JbAfdpaia," " a gaask," "a visitor") is 
hardly a special eeot. It is referred generally to mendicants and 
Brlhniaiis who live by begging. It is practically synonymoas 
with Attt {q.P')* Some live a solitary life^ others associate in 
monasteries {malA) under an abbot {maiant), 

Agariya.^ — A Dravidian tribe found in scanty numbera only 
in the hilly parts of Mirzapur south of the Son^ where^ according to 
the last Census^ they number 481 males and 467 females^ in all 
9**58 souls. The Mirzipur Agariyas confined themselves almost 
entirely to mining and smelting iron. They are cei*tainly quite 
a different people from those described by Colonel Daltoil and 
Mr. Risley in Chota Nftgpur/ who claim to be Kshatriya immi- 
grants from the neighbourhood of Agra and live by cultivation. 
The Mirzfipur Agariyas seem to be almost certainly of non- Aryan 
origin. A tribe of the same name and occupation in the Mandia 
District of the Central Provinces is described as a sub-division of 
the GK)nds and among the laziest and most drunken of that race.' 
Colonel Dalton and Mr. Risley again describe a people of the 
same name as a sub-division of the Korwas^ who are undoubtedly 
Dravidians.* It is with these people that the Mirzdpur tribe 
are almost certainly connected. 

2. In appearance the Agariyas approximate very closely to 

allied Dravidian tribes^ such as the Korwas, 

Parahiyas^ etc.^ but they have a particularly 

' ■ ■ ■ ' I 

^ Based on enqniriea in Parganas Dudhi and Agori of MinApur. 

* Bthnology, 822. Trihe» and CoMies of B$ngal, I., b. 

* Cenirid Provinc£$ Qa»€lUer, 278 ttq. 

« Klhnoloyy, 2U1. IWibes and OanlcB, L, ^ 

Vol. I. 



AG ABIT A. 2 

gaunt appoarance and worn exjH'ession of oountenanoe, wbieh 
is undoubtedly the result of the severe oooupation whieh thej 
follow. 

S. Those in Mii*z<pur have seven exogamous septs all of tote- 
_ mistio origin. The MarkAm is also a sepi 

TrioAl organitation. •»-■* m • / t »v mi \ 

of the Manjhis {q,p., paragraph o). The word 
means " a tortoise/^ which the members of this sept ¥rill iieith«r 
kill nor eat. The Ooir&r take their name from a tree so called, 
whieh the members of this sept will not cut. The Paraswtn take 
their name from the paldsa tree {Butea/rondoia), and members 
of this sept will not cut the tree or eat out of platters {danna) made 
of its leaves. The Sanwftn say that they take their name from 
ian or hemp, which they will not sow or use. The Baragwir aie 
named from the bar tree ( Fieuf Indiea), from the leaves of which 
they will not eat, and which they will not cut or olimh.^ Banj* 
hakwftr, the name of the fifth sub-division, is said to be a cormption 
of Bengachwftr from benf, " a frog/' which the members of this 
sept will not kill or eat. The Oidhld, which is also the name of a 
sept of the Bengal OrAons/ will not kill or even throw a stone at 
a vulture {Oidi). The Census returns give the chief sept as Blju- 
theb, which was not recorded by the members of the tribe eiamined 
on the spot. 

4. They have a tribal council {paneidfaf) at which all adult 

males attend. The meetings, in default of any 

Tribal ooanoiL . „ x i. * 1 1 i. xi. 

specially urgent business, assemble when the 
members meet on the occasion of marriages or deaths. The mem- 
bers are summoned by the President of the oouncil {mmito), who 
circulates a root of turmeric among them. The council deab with 
caste matters, such as adultery, fornication, and the like. The orders 
are enforced in the usual way (see Mdnjii, paragraph 9). The 
office of President is permanent and hereditary. If the inoombent 
happens to be a minor he can select another clansman to act for him 
until he becomes competent to fill the post. 

5. The only rule of exogamy is that no one may marry within 

his sept {iari). This obviously admits of very 
Bolet of exogamy, ^j^^ marriage connections, but it is not sup- 
plemented by the usual formula which prohibits marriage in the 

> These are perhaps analogous to the Barar snb-dirision of the UrioM, wbtok 
bare the same totemistio respect for ths bar trse. Dalton, Rlhnolofy, 8M. 
DaltoD, loc. ciL 



3 JLQAJBLltjL. 

1 

family of both the paternal and maternal uncles and paternal and 
maternal aunts. It is^ in faot^ admitted on all sides that a man may 
marry the daughter of his paternal uncle. It is essential that the 
bridegroom must not be engaged in any degrading labour^ such as 
shoe-making or groom's work. There is no restriction as to place of 
origin or family worship^ but he must nominally conform to the 
tribal religion. 

6. The Mirz^pur Agariyas say that some five or six generations 

Tradition o£ origin. '^ ^ emigrated from Rtwa, hearing that 

they could carry on tiieir business in peace in 
British territory. Their first settlement was in the village of 
Khairahi in Pargana Dudhi. Their head-quarters in Rtwa are at the 
village of Bijaura; they do not make any pilgrimages to their ori« 
ginal settlements or draw their priests or tribal officials from 

there. 

7. The bride is purchased and her price by tribal custom is fixed 

at ten rupees. Polygamy is permitted^ and 
an Agariya may have as many wives as he can 
afford to purchase and maintain. The senior wife {Jethi Mehrdru) 
is head of the household ; she joins her husband in the family worship 
and she receives a degree of respect among the clansmen at 
marriages^ ctc.^ which is denied to the junior wives. If there are 
more wives than one they Uve in the same house^ but in separate 
huts. Concubinage with women who are not members of the 
tribe and polyandry are prohibited. The women enjoy a con- 
siderable amount of liberty both before and after marriage. If an 
unmarried girl is detected in an intrigue with a clansman^ her father 
can get her married to her lover on paying a tribal fine of ten rupees 
and providing a feast for the clansmen to the amount of one goat 
and the necessary quantity of rice. If she offends with a stranger she 
is peimanently expelled, 

8. The age for mai*rying girls is between five a^d ten^ and 

the parents are disgraced if they do not 

Morriogo ooromonios. , i . i t i , i rm. 

marry their daughters at an early age. The 
boy's maternal uncle {fndmu) arranges the marriage.^ There are 
no professional marriage brokers. The consent of the parents on both 
sides is essential^ and the parties have no freedom of choice. When 
the preliminaries are arranged^ the boy's father sends to the girPs 

■ For tho position of the maternal nnole among the allied Qond tribea tee 
If dffjhi, para. 14. 

Vol. I. B 2 



AQARIYi* <t 

father ten rupees and two loin cloths {dhii). This is the inTariabk 
rate whatever the means of the parties may be. None of this becomes 
the property of the bride and bridegroom, except one of the loin cloths 
which is given to the bride ; but her father is expected to spend the oash 
received on the marriage feast. No physical defects are a bar to mar- 
riage, and if after marriage the bridegroom discovers any defect in ths 
bride he must take her home. But this very seldom happens 
because the relatives on both sides take care to inspect the bride and 
bridegroom before the preliminaries are arranged. The betrothal 
consists in the approval of the bride by the boy^s maternal nncle and 
his acceptance of a dinner from the father of the girl. After this 
the wedding day is fixed. Their marriages usually take place in 
the light half of the month of Mfigh (January-February). live 
days before the wedding day, th'e maimdngar ceremony is performed 
in the usual way. On the marriage day the bridegroom comes 
with his procession to the house of the bride. They are put up in a 
place {Jantodma) arranged for their reception. On that day it is 
not the custom for the father of the bride to entertain the party. 
Next morning the bridegroom comes with his friends to the bride's 
house, and going into the inner chamber, where she is hidings drags 
her out into the courtyard. This, and the rule of not entertaining 
the friends of the bridegroom before the marriage, are obvious sur- 
vivals of marriage by capture. In the courtyard is fixed up a sort 
of pavilion {mdnro), in the centre of which is planted a branch of 
the s&l tree (Shorea robusta). The sftl is the sacred tree of maiqr of 
the Dravidian races, and its use at marriages seems to imply thai 
tree marriage was the original custom. Bound this the pair walk 
five times, and then the bride's father makes a mark with turmerio 
on the foreheads of both, and warns them to live in unity. After 
this the clansmen are fed, and the bride is sent home with her 
husband. When she arrives at the door of her husband's house his 
sister {nanad) bars the entrance, and will not admit the bride until 
the bridegroom gives her a couple of pice. After this the bride- 
groom's father feeds his clansmen, who return home next day* Before 
they enter their new home there is a sort of eon/arreaiio ceremony 
when the pair have to sit down outside and cat together. Tlie 
essential part of this marriage ceremony, which is known as 
eiarkauwa, because the bride is offered {ehnr^dna) to the bridegroom, 
is the payment of the bride price and the marking of the foreheads 
of the pair by the father of the bride. 



5 AQABI7A. 

9. There is no real divorce : merely expulsion of the faithless 

wife from hearth and home. The only ground 
for expulsion is proof of the wife^s adultery to 
the satisfaction of the clansmen. In faot^ it is understood that 
no proof short of her being caught in the act of adultery will be 
suQicient. If a woman is put away for adultery^ she cannot be 
remarried in the tribe. Concubinage with strange '^omen is for- 
bidden. All the sons of all the wives rank and share equally. If 
a woman has a cliild by a man of another tribe^ he is not received 
into the caste^ cannot be married in the tribe^ and the clansmen 
will not eat with him. 

10. Widow marriage in the Sai;ii form is allowed. When a 

man proposes to marry a widow, he can do so 
with the consent of the head of the family. 
Both parties give a tribal dinner, and the man rubs some oil 
OD the woman^s head and some red lead on the parting of her 
hair^ and brings her home. When he brings her home he has 
to entertain the clansmen. The levirate is permitted, with the 
usual restriction that it is only the younger brother of her late 
husband who is entitled to claim her. It is only on his renouncing 
his right to her that she can marry an outsider. If she have 
children by her first husband, they do not accompany her to her 
new home, but remain with their fathcr^s brother. The widow, on 
re-marriage, has no rights to her first husband^s property. If the 
children are very young, the uncle, who maintains them, gets half 
their property as his remuneration. In the same way if their 
uncle does not care to look after them, and they go to their step- 
father, he receives half their inheritance, and in this case the children 
are considered to be his ovm, 

11. Adoption is permitted to a sonless man or one whose son 

is permanently expelled from caste ; but* there 
is no idea of religious merit in adoption. The 
son adopted must be of the sept {knri) of the adopter, and is in 
most cases a . brothei-^s son. Having once adopted he cannot 
adopt again as long as tho adopted son is alive. A bachelor, 
an ascetic, or a blind man cannot adopt, nor can a married woman 
without the leave of her husband, and under no circumstances has 
the widow this power. A man may give his eldest, but not his 
only son, in adoption to another. There is no condition of age 
in the boy to be adopted. Girls cannot bo adopted, Tho adopt- 



AOABITA. 

ed son is not excluded from nieoeeding to his nstiml hth&t, and 
will do 80 if he baye no other 801U If a natural ton be bomifter 

adoption, both share equally in* the estate. 

These are the mlet ae stated in a meeting of the cMte, bat 
they obviously represent the inflnence of their Hindn neigfabooim. 
It is very donhifnl if the real Agariyas have any idea of adopiioii. 

12. The roles of saccession are very similar to those €i the 

Mflnjhis (;• v.). When a man dies leaving a 
widow or widows, a son or sons, a daoghter 
or daoghters, brothers or other relatives, the sons alone inherit, 
and primogeniture is so far observed that the eldest sta gets one 
animal or article^ an ox, a brass pot, etc., in excess of the others- 
The sons take their shares per eapiia. When a man leaves only a 
sonkss widow, his brothers inherit with the obligation of maint ai n* 
ing the widow for her lifetime or until she marries again* She can 
be expelled ior unchastity. Stepsons inherit only the amount of 
their Other's property which their step-fiither may have received^ 
but he is bound to support and marry them. Many of the ehborate 
rules which the tribe protend to observe are derived from Ilindn 
practice ; uid it is obvious that it is seldom difficult for an Agariya 
to dispose of his simple property* 

13. The relations of ihe husband are regarded as rdations of 

the wife, and vice vend. The sdieme of rda- 
tionship agrees with that of the Kols (f . t .)• 
14. There are no ceremonies during pregnancy. Contrary to 

ordinary Hindu custom the woman lies on a 
bed facing east during delivery. She is attend- 
ed during seclusion by the Cham&in midwife, who cuts the cord and 
buries it outside under the eaves of ihe house. The mother is dosed 
with a decoction of dill {ajwiin), and gets in the evening a mess of 
boiled edwdn, millet and konhranri or balls made of arsif pals^ 
and cucumber {konhra). On the sixth day the clothes of the 
mother and all the household are washed by one of them . They do not 
employ a Dhobi which^ as the birth pollution is much dreaded, marks a 
very low stage of ceremonial purity. On the same day mother and 
child are bathed by the midwife, who gets a loin cloth {dkoit) as 
her fee. The mother then cooks for the family and a few of the nttgh- 
bouring clansmen. On the same day the delivery room (MUf) is 
cleaned and replastered by the sister of the husband (nanai), who 
receives a fee of four annas for her trouble. On the twelfth day the 
clansmen and their wives who live in the neighbourhood are fed. 



/ AGAEI7A. 

15. The hiiBband is allowed to do no work on the day his wife 
Co ad ^ delivered, and has to take the first sip of the 

cleansing draught which is given her after 
delivery. He does not cohabit with his wife for a month after her 
confinement. 

16. There is no regnlar ceremony on arrival at puberty. The 

only rite in the nature of initiation is the ^- 
boring, which is done both for boys and girls 
in the fifth year. Up to this they may eat from the hands of a per- 
son of any castd After this ceremony they must conform to tribal 
usage. 

17. The dead, except young children and those dying of 

small-pox, are cremated ii^the jungle. This 
Death oeremoniet* • j i i j • j* ^ ^ 

IS done very carelessly, and in times of 
epidemic disease the corpses are merely exposed in the jangle to be 
eaten by wild animals. The corpse is laid face upwards on the pyre 
with the feet to the south. The nearest kinsman moves five times 
round the pyre and touches the &ce of the corpse five times with a 
straw torch. As soon as the pyre blazes all go and bathe. Then 
they fill their vessels {loia) with water and return to the house of the 
deceased, where each pours the water he has brought in the court- 
yard. No fire is lit and no cooking done in the house that day. 
The food is cooked at the house of the brother-in-law {baAnoi) 
of the dead man. On the tenth day the clansmen assemble at 
some running water, and then go and eat at the house of the de- 
ceased. The bones which remain after cremation are thrown into 
the nearest running stream. They are not buried, and subsequently, 
when convenient, conveyed to the Ganges, as is the custom with the 
similarly named tribe in Chota N&gpur. ^ 

18. On the day of the Phagua (Holi) they feed a fowl with 

gram and kill it in the name of the sainted 
noes r wore ip. ^^, B^f^ ^ey recognise no deceased ances- 
tor beyond their father and mother, in whose name after the sacri- 
fice they pour a little water on the ground. Only the members 
of the family eat the flesh of the victim. They do not employ Brfth- 
mans at funerals ; they have no Srdddha, and the sister's son has no 
special functions on this occasion. 



* Bielej, Tribea and Cosies, h, 4. 



AQABITA. ' 8 

^ 19. They call themselves Hindus, but worship none of the 

regnlar Hindu deities. In the month of 
^ ^^' Aghan they get the Baiga to worship the 

village gods {dii). The offering consists of five fowls and a goat. 
The Baiga chops off the heads of the victims with his axe and takes 
the heads as his perquisite, while the worshipper and his family 
cobk and cat the rest of tho moat at the shrmo. In tho month 
of Pfis they worship th^ tribal deity— the goddess, of iron--* 
Loh&sur Devi. To her is offered a female goat which has never 
borne a kid and some cakes made of flour and molasses fried 
in butter. These cakes are broken into pieces before dedication. A 
fire offering {iom) is lit and some of tlio scraps of cake are 
thrown into it. The remainder are eaten by the worshippers. 
There is no temple or image of this deity. BrAhmans are never 
employed by them, and they do all their religious business them- 
selves, except the worship of the village gods, which is entrusted 
to the Baiga. Among them the Baiga is always one of the Para- 
hiya {a, v,) caste. The village gods are worshipped at their qieoial 
shrine ; offerings to LohAsur Devi and tho sainted dead arc made 
in the court-yard of the house. It is only in the case of the saori- 
fice to the local gods that the Baiga receives the head of the victim ; 
in other cases the whole of the meat is consumed by the worship* 
pers themselves. No substitutes are used in sacrifice, and they 
do not offer parts of their own bodies, such as locks of hair^ drops of 
blood, etc. 

20. Their festivals are the Phagua or Holi and the Baisiklii called 

after the months in which they ooour. At 
both they sacrifice to deceased ancestors and 
drink liquor. Both these are regular fixed feasts. They have no 
other Hindu holidays, nor at the Phagua do they light the holy fire 
as Hindas do. Before they offer the black goat to Lohftsnr Devi 
they worship it, and before sacriGcing it pour water on its head. 
Ancestors are worshipped to ward off evil from the household. They 
do not sacrifice animals at funerals, nor do they make any funeral 
offerings. 

21. They dread the ghosts of the dead who appear in dreams, 

not because their obsequies have not been 
duly porformcil, but because they have not 

received their customary periodical worship. Tliey arc then appeased 

by the sacrifice of goats and fowls. 



9 AGABITA. 

1^2. All Uie Dravidiau tribes of Mirzapur, the Rliarwftr^ Majh- 

wSlt, Pat&ri^ Panka, Qhasiya^ Bhuiya^ 
Faraluya^ Bhuiyftr, Korwa, Agariya^ etc., 
bavo tboir boJics tattooed. Tbis is done both to married and 
unmarried girls as soon as tbcy attain to pubei'ty. A widow 
cannot get berself tattooed^ unless sbe marries again by the sagdi 
form. If a widow gets tattoo^ it is believed to bring trouble 
on the village. There are twenty-four forms of tattoo^ any of 
which may be used by any woman of any of the castes. In general 
opinion tattooing is a sacred rite by which the body is sanctified. 
They say that the road to the heaven of Parameswar is full of diffi- 
culties^ and at the end is a great gate guai'dcd by tei'rible demons. 
The keepers will let no woman pass who is not tattooed. Accord- 
ingly every woman has to be tattooed^ and in particular it is advis* 
able to have the mark of some god marked on the body. They 
also believe that women who are not tattooed during life are tor- 
tiu'cd by the keepers of the gate of heaven. They bum them in the 
fire and brand them with a hot iron. They also roll them amoiig 
thorns and afflict them in sundry ways. Some are taken to the 
top of the gate and flung down from thence. The only ornament 
which accompanies the soul to the other world is the godna or 
tattoo.^ Besides being a religious obligation the tattoo is used as 
a decoration^ and it hence takes the form of various kinds of jewelry. 
The tattooing is done by the women of the Bftdi or MalAr tribes 
of Nats* The remuneration varies according to the wealth of the 
patient and the character of the ornament. It ranges from half 
an anna to four annas. Women get themselves tattooed on the 
wrists^ aims^ shoulders^ neck^ breast^ thighs, knees and below the 
knees. It is done with lamp-black mixed with the milk of the 
patient. If a woman be unmarried or barren^ the milk of another 
woman of the family is used. If the milk of a woman of another 
caste be used it is considered most injurious to health. While the opera- 
tion is going on^ the patient is kept amused by the recitation of verses 
usually obscene. Tattooing is also used as a remedy for pains in 
various parts of the body. The black substance is made by burning 
the roots of certain jungle plants known as the gaihora and Chaim- 

^ " In Efato two kinds of people were allowed to post unharmed into Hadea : 
tlioflo bclongin^r to a certain tribe call Namtaka (a sort of yam) and those who had 
printed or graven or branded on their bodies certain marks or figures tattooed." 

Somorvillo.— 2fo((!s on the Itlanda oj the New Hehridee, Journal Anthropological 
Ineiituie, XXIII., 10. 



agahita. 10 abhtIoat. 

kora. Opium is also mixed with the black pigpnent to redace the 
pain. A favorite remedy for barrenness is to tattoo the part of the 
stomach below the navel. In the same way a woman whoee 
children are unhealthy and die gets a tattoo mark made on her 
armpit or stomach. 

The chief forms of tattoo used by these jungle tribes are as &U 
lows : — ^The elephant ; this is tlie sign of Qaneea, and women have 
it done on both arms ; the sacred book {pothi), — this is done on the 
shoulders and arms ; Mah&deva, — this represents the name of Siva 
and is done on the breast ; sankia or the conch shell,— this is done on 
the wrist, but is prohibited to women of the Majhwftr and Patiri 
tribes. It is the sign of coverture, and the woman who wears it 
does not become a widow in this world or in the life to come ; painU' 
eki and ehira — these represent bangles or bracelets ; iAyb pakmneki is 
done on the arms, and the ektira below the knee ; Jaia Mahddewa-^ 
this represent the matted locks of Siva and is done on the breast and 
other parts of the body ; the kantuli or necklace— this is made <m 
the neck in the place where the necklace is worn. While this mark 
is being tattooed, the mother of the girl scats her daughter on her 
knee because it is believed that the existence of this mark ensures 
that they both shall meet in the next world ; the person who 
makes this mark receives extra remuneration. Pdn paitar or betel 
leaf, ehdwal or rice mark, and the kkarwarifa are done on the arms 
in the place where the ornaments known as the bdjm or jamk^n 
are worn. Women of the Bhuiya and Parahiya tribes call this 
mark rijkwdr or '' pleaeing.^^ The hhanwara or large bumble bee is 
done on the knees and thighs. The murli'manokar is the representa- 
tion of Krishna as the flute-player. It is done on the wrists 
and arms. The pknlwdri or flower garden is done on the breasts 
and arms. The dharm gagarifn is a mark which is supposed to 
make the wearer holy in the world to come. The rdwana is the 
sign of Rawana, the enemy of Rima Chandra. It is done on the 
breast and hands. Garmr is the sign of the bird Garud% the vehicle 
of Vishnu. It is done on the arms chiefly by women of the MajhwAr, 
PatAri and Panka tribes. Ckandrama is the sign of the moon, and 
is delineated on the breast and arms. Rddka Krithna is the sign of 
Krishna and his consort, done on the breast, wrist, and arms. The 
dkandka or ''work'^ is the mark made below the navel by barren 
women in the hope of obtaining ofEspring. Muraila is the mark of 
the peacock made on the breast. Many of these marks are pro- 



11 AGABITA. 

bably iotemiBtio in origiiii but the real meaning has now been for- 
gotten^ and they are at present little more than charms to resist 
disease and other misfortunes^ and for the purpose of mere orna« 

ment. 

23. The only tree they respect is the s&khu 

Tree woranipt , , ^ m. 

or sftl which is used at these marriages. 

24. There is nothing peculiar about their clothes^ except their 

extreme scantiness. The men wear rings of 

aothee and jewelry. , u • xi. i i_ rni. 

brass or gold m the ear-lobes. The women 
wear ear ornaments made of palm-leaf (tarki), glass bangles {cAM) 
heavy pewter anklets {pairi), and on the arm brass rings {ra^ari), 
with bead necklaces on the throat. 

25. They swear on the head of their son and believe that they die 

if they forswear themselves. They have no 
form of ordeal. 

26. There appears to be no idea that their women, like those 

Witohoraft ^^ ^^^ Bengal Agariyas, ard notorious 

witches.^ They have Ojhas in the tribe, 
who announce, by coanting the grains of rice put before them in a 
state of ecstacy, what particular Bh&t has attacked the patient. 
The usual result is that he decides that some particular godling 
{deoia) is clamouring for an offering. They believe in dreams which 
are interpreted by the oldest man in the family. They are usually 
due to inattention to the wants of the sainted dead. They do 
not profess to believe in the Evil Eye. But this is more than doubt- 
ful. 

27. They eat all kinds of meat, including beef. They will 

not touch a Dom ; they will touch a 

^'^* ChamAr, DharkAr, Ghasiya, or Dhobi, but 

will not eat from their hands. They have a special detestation for 

Doms. 

28. They will not touch a menstrual woman or their younger 

brother's wife, or mother-in-law, or a con- 
Tabooe. nection through the marriage of children 

{Samdhin). They will not name their wives or elders in the family 
or the dead. In the morning they will not speak of death or 
quarrels or unlucky villages or persons of notorious character. 
They will not eat the flesh of monkeys, horses, crocodiles, lizards or 
snakes. 

i Bialey, Tribei and CofiM, I., i. 



AGARIYA. 12 

29. Children eat firsts then the men and women eat together, 

but in separate yessels. They have no oere* 

Sooial asagdt* 

mony at eating. They use liquor and chewing 
tobacco freely ; they do not use the inqqa, but smoke out of pipes 
made of the leaf of the s&l tree. When they cannot get liquor to 
offer to deceased ancestors they mix flowers of the Mahua {Bastis 
lafifolia) in water. They believe that the use of liquor keeps off 
sickness, but consider dmnkenness disreputable. They salute in the 
same form as the Mftnjhis {q, v.). They will eat food cooked in 
butter {pakha) from the hands of Kah&rs, and boiled rice from 
Chhatris. There is no caste which will drink water touched by 
them. 

30. They practically do no • agriculture. Their bumnees is 

smelting and forging iron. The following 

Ooonpation. ^-,1 T a • • % •»% 

account of the manufacture is given by Dr. 
Ball': — ''The fumacee of the Agariyas are generally erected 
under some old tamarind or other shady tree on the outskirts of a 
village^ or under sheds in a hamlet where Agariyas alone dwell, 
and which is situated in convenient proximity to the ore or to 
the jungle of s&l (Shorea robusia), or bijay sftl {PterocarpBi 
martftpium), where the charcoal is prepared. The furnaces are 
built of mud and are about three feet high^ tapering from 
below upwards from a diameter of rather more than two feet at 
base to eighteen inches at top, with an internal diameter of about 
six inches, tlie hearth being somewhat wider. Supposing tlie 
Agariya and his &mily to liave collected the charcoal and ore, 
the latter has to be prepared before being placed in the furnace. 
Tlie magnetic ores are first broken into small fragments by pound- 
ing, and are then reduced to a fine powder between a pair .of mill' 
stones. The hematite ores are not usually subjected to any other 
preliminary treatment besides pounding. A bed of charcoal having 
been placed on the heailh, the furnace is filled with charcoal and 
then fired. The blast is produced by a pair of kettle-drum-like 
bellows, which consist of basins loosely covered with leather in the 
centre of which is a valve. Strings attached to those leather covers 
are connected with a rude form of springs which are simply made 
by planting baml)oos or young trees into the ground in a sloping 

* Jungle life, 6G8.— Fur a muro dutftiltd accoaot ice Watt'a Dictionary 0/ Jfcoiio- 
fH«c Producti, IV., 502., »qq» 



AGABIYA. 13 AGARI*. 

direction. The weight of the operator^ or pair of operators^ is 
alternately thrown from one dnim to the other^ the heels acting at 
each depression os stoppers to the valves. The blast is conveyed to 
the furuace by a pair of lioliow bamboos^ and has to be kept up 
steadily without intermission for from six to eight hours. From 
time to time ore and fuel are sprinkled on the top of the fire^ and as 
fusion proceeds the slag is tapped off by a hole pierced a few ioches 
from the top of the hearth. For ten minutes before the conclusion 
of the process^ the bellows are worked with extra vigour^ and the 
supply of ore and fuel from above is stopped. The clay luting of 
the hearth is then broken down^ and the ball {^iri) consisting of 
semi-molten iron slag and charcoal is taken out and immediately 
hammered^ by which a considerable portion of the included slag 
which is still in a state of fusion is squeezed out. In some cases 
the Agariyas continue the further pi'ocess^ until after various 
reheatings in open furnaces and hammerings^ they produce clean iron 
fit for the market^ or even at times they work it up themselves into 
agricultural tools^ etc. Not unfrequently^ however^ the Agariya's 
work t^eases with the production of the girt which passes into the 
hands of the Lohftrs. Four annas or six-pence is the price paid for 
an ordinary girt, and as but two of these can be made in a very hard 
day's work of fifteen hours' duration^ and a considerable time has 
also to be expended on the preparation of charcoal and ore^ the pro- 
fits are very small. The fact is that although the actual price which 
the iron fetches in the market is high^ the profits made by the native 
merchants (Mah&jan) and the immense disproportion between. the 
time and labour expended and the outturn^ both combine to leave 
the unfoi*tunate Agariya in a miserable state of poverty.'' Some 
further enquiries recently made in Mirzapur prove the hopelessness 
of competition between native and imported iron. The native iron 
is specially valued for tools^ etc.^ but with the diminution of jungle 
its manufacture will probably soon disappear. 

Agariya: Agari. — Tlicre is another set of people known under 
this name who ate found in the Central Ganges-Jumna Dudb 
who liave no connection with the Agariyas of Mirzdpur. They 
claim to be Cliauh&n RAjputs, and say that they emigrated to Bul- 
andshahr about two centuries ago from Sambhal in the Morfld&bftd 
district. Tlicy are, as a rule, settled, but in the hot weather 
they migrate to Rohtak, in the Paiijab, where they settle in rude 



agabwAla. 14 

huts : near villages and pursue their trade of making salt {JtASri 
nimai) and saltpetre. They follow the customs of BAjputs in 
their marriage oeremonies^ except that they levy a bride prioe from 
the relations of the bridegroom. They profess not to permit widow 
marriage, but they recognise the lovirato. A wife may be put 
away for adultery or otiier misconduct with the sanction of the 
tribal council, and then she can re-marry by the iardo form. Some 
of them now live by agriculture. G&jars, they say, will eat and 
smoke with them. 

2. A caste known as Agari are miners and smelters in the 
hills : there they are regarded as a branch of the Doms. 

8. Of the Agaris of the Panjab Mr. Ibbetson writes:— -''The 
Agari is the salt-maker of B&jput&na and the east and south-east 
of the Panjab, and takes his name from the A^ar or shallow pan in 
which he evaporates the saline water of the lakes or wells at which 
he works. The city of Agra derives its name from the same word. 
The Agaris would appear to be a true caste, and in Ghirgion are 
said to claim descent from the R&jputs of Chithor. There is a pro- 
verb,— ^'^ The Ak, the Jawfisa, the Agari and the cartman : when 
the lightning flashes these four give up the ghost : '* becansiB;, I 
suppose, the rain which is likely to follow would dissolve their salt. 
The Agaris are all Hindus and are found in the Sultftnpur tract on 
the common borders of the Delhi, Ghirglon and Bohtak districts, 
where the well water is exceedingly brackish, and where they 
manufacture salt by evaporation. Their social position is fidrly good, 
bdng above that of the Lohftrs, but, of course, below that of 
J&ts." » 

4. Another name for them in these provinces is Gola Thiknr, 
or illegitimate Rftjput. At the last Census they were included in 
the Luniyas. 

Agarwala.'— Usually treated as a sub-caste of the great Banya 
caste, a wealthy trading class in Upjjer India. There are various 
explanations of the name. According to one account they take 
their title from dealing in the aromatic wood of the a^ar (Sans, ofmru) 
the eagle wood tree {Jquilaria agalloeha). There is, however, 
no evidence that the sale of this aiiiole is, or ever was, a speciality 



^ Fanjah Blhnography, 830. 

Baled on noioa by the Dopaty Inipoctor, SohooU, Pilibhii, M. MAhidoTA 
Praftid, Head Matter, ZiU Sohool, Pilibhii. 



16 AGABWlliA. 

of the Agarwftlas. Another story is that there were a thousand 
families of Agnihotri Brfthmans settled in Kashmir^ and that they 
were snpplied with agar wood for their sacrifioes by a special tribe 
of Yaisyas. When Alexander the Great invaded .India he broke 
their sacred fire pits {Jpni iunda), and these Yaisyas were dispersed 
and settled in the neighbourhood of Agra^ whence they derived their 
name. A third legend again refers the name to Agroha^ an ancient 
town in the Hissftr district of the Fanjab^ where a l&kh of families of 
Yaisyas were settled by King Agra Sena. Bound this Bftja Agra 
Sena there is a whole cycle of legend. Ilis ancestor was Dhana P&la^ 
Rfi ja of Prat&pnagar^ which some identify with the present State iu 
B&jput&na, and some place vaguely in the Dakkhin or Southern India. 
He had eight sons — Shiu^ Nala, Anala, Nanda, Kunda, Kumuda, 
Yallabha^ Suka^ and a daughter^ Mukuta. At that time there was a 
B&ja Yis&la^ who had eight daughters — Padmftvati, M&lati/.Eanti, 
Subhadra^ Sra^ Srua^ Basundharaand B&ja. They were married to 
the eight sons of Dhana F&la. Each of these^ except Nala, who 
became an ascetic^ had a kingdom of his own. In the family of Shiu 
there reigned in succession Yishnu R&ja^ Sudarsana^ Dhurandhara^ 
Samadi^ Mohan DAs and Nema Nfttha^ who populated Nep&l and 
called it after his own name. His son Yrinda performed a great 
sacrifice at Brindd.ban^ and named the place after himself. His son 
wad Bija Gurjara^.who occupied GKijar&t. B&ja Harihar succeeded 
him, and he had one hundred sons. One of these, Bangji, became 
B&ja, and the others, for their impiety, were degraded into S&dras. 
To him, in the fifth generation^ succeeded B&ja Agpra Sena. At 
Uiat time, B&ja Kumuda of Ndga Loka, or " Dragon land,^' had a 
very beautiful daughter named Mddhavi, who was wooed by the God 
Indra ; but her father preferred to marry her to B&ja Agra Sena. 
After his marriage he performed notable sacrifices at Benares and 
Ilardw&r, and then went to Eolh&pur where he won the daughter 
of the Bdja Mahidhara in the Bwaj/amvara. Finally he settled iu 
the neighbourhood of Delhi and made Agra and Agroha his capitals. 
His dominions readied from the Him&laya to the Ganges and the 
Jumna, and as far as M&rwAr on the west. He had eighteen 
queens, who bore him fifty-four sons and eighteen daughters. In 
his latter days he determined to perform a great sacrifice with each 
of his queens. Each of these sacrifioes was in charge of a separate 
Ach&rya or ofliciant priest, and the ^i^^rat which sprang from him 
are named after these Achdryas. When he was performing the last 



aoabwIla. 



16 



sacrifice, he was interrupted, and so there are seventeen foil §^rmi 
and one half pdtra. There are considerable differences in the enu- 
meration of these goirat. One list, whidi seems aathoritatiYS^ gives 
them as follows with the Veda^ Sikha and Sutra^ to which they 
conform:— 



Qoira, 



V^da. 



Blkha. 



ovIrSt 



1. GATga 
a. GobhiU • 
8. Qantama 
4. If aiireya 
6. Jaimini • 

6. SaingaU 

7. Yl^ . 

8. Afmna . 
0. KantikA • 

10. KMjapa . 

11. Tondeya • 

12. MAndftTj* 

13. YaaUhihA 
li. MndgalA 

15. DbAnylaU 

16. DheUuia 
Dhaam* 

17. TaiUriya 
17 1 . Nagendra 



Ymjurreda. 



Midlijaiidina. 



KiftTiyaaa. 



»9 



*• 



*• 



} 



*• 



»* 



SAmaveda. 



*• 



»f 



f» 



M 



•» 



Kansthami. 



M 



*• 


M 


** 


SAmareda. 


KMuthuu. 


Ooblula. 


** 


•• 


M 


Tajtureda. 


Hftdhjaadin.. 


JMfh*-^ 


»» 


»* 


M 


SimaToda. 


KaasihamL 


Oobhfla. 


YaJarToda* 


llAdhTaBdina. 


KAiyAyaaa. 


Rigveda. 


Sakila. 


AjvilAiii. 


Yajnrreda. 


Madhyandina. 


KA^yaaa. 


Rigreda. 


Sakila. 


AiwflAia. 


Yajunrada. 


MAdbyandiiia. 


KAiyAyaaa. 



M 
M 

QobbiU. 



The lists given by both Mr. Risley and Mr. Sherring dilEer 
considerably from this. Mr. Risley gives— 

(1) Qarg; (2) Ooil; (3) Oawil; (i) Batsil; (6) Klail; (0) 
Singhal; (7) Mangal; (S) Bhaddal; (9) Tingal; (10) Airan; 
(11) Tairan; (12) Thingal ; (13) Tittal; (14) Mittal; (15) Tnndal; 
(16) Tftyal ; (17) Gobhil ; (174) Goin. 

Mr. Slierring gives tlic Ootrat as follows :— 

(1) Garga; (2) Gobliila; (3) Garw&la; (4) Batsila; (6) 
Kasila; (6) Sinhal; (7) Mangala; (8) Bhadala; (9) aHngakj 
(10) Erana; (11) Tityal; (12) Torana; (13) Tliiiigala; (14) 
Tittila; (15) Nital; (IG) Tundala; (17) Goila and G(Hn»;(I7)) 
Bindal. 



17 aoabwAla« 

AgandLlas again have the divisions Dasa and Bisa, the " tens ^' 
and the '^ twenties '' like the Osw&ls {q. v.). One aocoont of their 
origin is that when the daughters of R&ja Y&suki, the king of the 
makes, married the sons of Bftja Agra Sena, they eaoh brought a 
handmaid with them, and their descendants are the Dasas. The 
B!sa or pure Agarwftlas do not eat, drink or intermarry with the 
Dasas. 

2. Regarding the legend of the connection of the Agarwtlas 

Oouiooiion of the Agar. ^^ ^igas Mr. Risley* writes :— " With the 
wAiM and NAgas. Agarwftlas, as with all castes at the present 
day, the section names go by the male side. 

In other words a son belongs to the same goira as his father^ 
not to the same gaira as his mother, and kinship is no longer 
reckonod through females alone. Traces of an earlier matriarchal 
system may perhaps be discerned in the legend ahready referred to, 
which represented BAja Agar N&th as successfuUy contending with 
Indra for the hand of the daughters of two N&ga BAjas, and obtain- 
ing from Lakshmi the special favor that his children by one of them 
should bear their father's name. The memory of this Nftga princess 
is still held in honor. " Our mother's house is of the race of the 
snake '' {jdt id ndniAdl ndgbanBt hat) say the Agarw&lasof Bdiir ; 
and.for this reason no Agarw&la, whether Hindu or Jain, will kill 
or molest a snake. In Delhi Yaishnava Agarwftlas paint pictures 
of snakes on either side of the outside doors of their houses, and 
make offerings of fruit and flowers b^ore them. Jaina Agarwili|s 
do not practise any form of snake- worship. Read in the light ot 
Badiofcn's researches into archaic forms of kinship, the legend and 
the prdiibition arising from it seem to take us back to the prehis- 
toric time when the Nftga race still maintained a separate national 
existence, and had not been absorbed by the conquering Aryans ; 
when Nftga women were eagerly sought in marriage by Aryan 
dbiefi ; and when the ofEspring of such unions bclongod by Nftga 
cnstom to tlidr moUicr's family. In this view the boon granted by 
Lakshmi to Rftja Agar N&Ui tliat Ids cliildren should be called after 
his name, marks a transition from the system of female kinsliip, 
diaracteristic of Uie N&gas, to tlie new order of mide |>arcntage 
introduced by the Brfthinans, while the Behftr saying about tiio 
Nftnihftl is merely a survival of those niatriarclial ideas according to 



* Tribe* and Casta of /lengol, I., 5 f^. 

Vot.1. 



^OARVAlrAf 18 

which the. imakei tcfteo^ of the race woald neoessarily desoend in tti 
female Hoe. In the last of the six letters entitled " OiesteB— Astik^ 
Eipe CtrleohiscbT— Indisohe Farallele '^ Bachof en has the following 
TeTnarks on the importance of the part played by the NAga race in 
the deyelopment of the Br&hmanical polity, Hie oonneolion of 
!B>r|ihnii%ns YfiHk Nftg^H women is a significant liistorioal fact. 

Whoever a conquering race alice itself with the women of the 
land^ indigencms manners and customs, come to be respected, and 
their maintenance is deemed the function of the female sex* A long 
series of ti'&ditions corroborate it in opnnection with the antoeb- 
thonous Nftga race. The respect paid to N&ga womei\, the infloenoek 
which they exercised, not merely oi^ their own people, bat also in 
no less degree on the rulers of the country, the fame of their bepnt)r» 
the praise of their wisdom — all this finds manifold expression in the 
tales of the Kashmir chronicle, and in many other legends baaed upon 
the fiicts of real life/' 

8. In connection with these speculations it may be note^ that 
Sn^ke^mhip unonff Agarwilas have a apedal form of ^rship in 



the son of Jaratk&ru by the sister of the g^eat serpent Ylsoki and 
saved the life of the serpent Takshaka, when Janmejaya. made 
his great sacrifice of serpents. This worship appears to be peenHar 
to the Agarw&las, and is said to be performed only by Tiwiri Brlli- 
mans. On the fourth day of the light half of Sllwan thqjr bathe in 
the Ganges and make twenty-one marks on the wall of the house 
with red lead and butter ; and an offering i^ presented eonsisting 
of cocoa-nuts^ clothes, five kinds of dry fruits, and twenty-one pairs 
of cakes (pdpar), some yellow sesamum (ianon) flowers and a lamp 
lighted with butter. Some camphor is then burnt, and the nsnal 
drti ceremony performed. 

These tlungs are all provided by tlie Agarw&la who does the 
worship. Astika Muni they believe to have been the preoqytor 
{Onru) of the N&ga^ and Agarwfilas call themselves NIga Upftsaki 
or snake-worshippers. After tliis the women of the family oome 
to the house of the ofliciating Bi*fthman. The drii ceremony is 
again done by burning camphor, and the Brfthman marking their 
foreheads with red (rori) gives them part of the cakes as a portion 
of the sacred offering (pra$dda). Each woman presents two pioe to 
the Br£Lhman in return. Tliis sesamum they sprinkle in their houses 
as a preservative against snake-bite. 



19 agabwIla. 

They are taught a special mantra or spell for this purpose which 
is said to nm :*— ''I say that at whosoever's birth the oeremony of 
Astika is performed the most poisonous snake runs away when he 
calls out Snake I Snake I ** 

This ceremony is performed once a year^ and the day after it 
eaqh person who joins in it gives the officiating Brihman a present 
of uncooked grain. 

4. Agarw&las follow the strict rules of the^ Sh&stras in regulat- 
ing the prohibited degrees. '^ All the sections 
Biogamy. ^^ strictly ezogamous^ but the rule of uni- 

lateral exogamy is supplemented by provisions forbidding marriage 
with certain classes of relations. Thus a man' may not marry a 
woman, (a) belonging to his own poira ; {b) descended from his own 
paternal or maternal grandfather, great-grand&ther or great* 
great-grandfather ; (e) descended from his own paternal or maternal 
aunt ; (d) belonging to the grand maternal family {ndniAdt) of his 
own father or mother. He may marry the younger sister of his 
deceased wife, but not the elder sister, nor may he marry two sisters 
at the same time. As is usual in such cases, the classes of relations 
barred are not mutually exclusive. All the agnatic descendants of a 
man^s three nearest male ascendants are necessarily members of his 
own ffotra, and, therefore, come under class (a) as well as class (b). 
Again, the paternal and maternal aunt and their descendants aro 
included among the descendants of the paternal and maternal grand- 
fathers, while some of the members of the ndnikdl must also come 
under class (A). The potra rule is undoubtedly the oldest, and it 
seems probable that the other prohibited classes may have been 
added from time to time as experience and the growing sense of the 
true nature of kinship demonstrated the incompleteness of the pri- 
mitive rule of exogamy."^ 

6. In these Provinces when the moment of delivery comes, it is 

the etiquette for the husband to go himself 

Birth ootomonioSt . . « . 

and call the Chamftrin midwife. This is 
always so in case of the birth of a son ; but if it is a girl he can 
either go himself or send a servant to fetch her. She comes and 
cuts the cord, which is not, as is the case with many other castes, 
buried in the delivery room. A fire {pa$anghi) is kept burning near 
the mother to keep off evil spirits, and guns are fired to scare the 

^ RiBloy, lo«. dU 6* 
Vol. 1. a 



AGAttWALA. 20 

dreaded demon Jamhua. After the child is born the mother is given 
a dose of aseafsBtida and water^ the IdttemeBS and smell of which 
she is not under the circumstances supposed to be able to fed. The 
Cham&rin remains three days in attendance^ and during that time 
the mother is. fed on* fruits and not allowed to eat gn^ in any 
form. On the third day she is bathed and the Chamftrin dismissed. 
After this she is fed on grain. On the sixth day is'the Chamar 
Chhathiya when the women keep awake all night and have lamps 
burning. All the women take lamp-black from one of these lamps 
and mark their eyes with it to bring good luok^ and a little is also 
put on the eyes of the baby. Within fifteen days of delivery when 
the Pandit fixes an auspicious time the mother is bathed. There is 
no twelfth day (barahi) ceremony. The astrological {rd$) name is 
fixed by the Pandit; the ordinaiy name by the head of the family. 
The mother . is again bathed on the fortieth day, and is then pure 
and can rejoin her family. If the family can afford it, after this 
the Pandit is* sent for and there is a formal naming oeremony {mdm» 
iartna), but this is not absolutely noqossary. 

6. There is no fixed age for marriage. The wealthier members 

of the tribe marry their daughters in infanoy ; 

Marmge oeremonioB. , . ,, .•n ii 

poorer people keep them till they are grown 
up in default of a suitable match being arranged. The marriage 
follows the usual high caste form. When the horosoopee agree 
(rd8 barag) and the friends are satisfied, a Pandit is asked to fix a 
lucky day. No bride price is given or i*eceived. Then the \ioy'% 
father sends to the bnde's house a maund of curds, some sweets and 
two rupees in cash to clench the proposal. The curds are sent in an 
eai*then pot smeared with yellow ; some red cloth is put over the 
mouth and on this the money is placed. This oonstitntes the 
betrothal. When the marriage day approaches the bo]r^s father 
Bends the bride some ornaments made of alloy (pkiil), a silken teasel, 
some henna and pomegranates, some sweetmeats, toys and a sheet 
(fdri). The number of trays of presents should be at least eleven 
and not moi-e than one hundred and twenty-five. The girPs &ther 
keeps for the bride only the shawl, some sweets and flowers, and 
sends back the rest. Next day those flowers are tied in the bride's 
hair. If the marriage takes place in a town slio goes to a temple 
and worships^ and there she meets her futuro mother-in-law for the 
first time. After this follows the anointing of the bride and bride- 



21 AOARWALA. 

groom^ known as Tel-hardi. When the bridegroom reaches the 
house of the bride^ he is seated on a wooden stool^ and the women 
of the family take up the bride in their arms and revolve her in the 
air round the bridegroom. During this the bride siprinkles rice 
{aeiiat) over him. 

• 

This ceremony is known as Barii piirdna. Then comes the 
Sakhran ceremony. Some curds are put in a bag and hung up. 
When all the whey has escaped^ the remainder is mixed with the same 
quantity of milk and sugar, some cardamoms, pepper and perfume; 
this is first offered to the &unily god {hula-deva), the other godUngs 
[deoia), and to a Br&hman, and is then distributed in the form of a 
dinner {jeondr). This is always given on the day the tilak cere- 
mony is performed. The girl is brought into the marriage pavilion 
by a near relation {mdii)^ generally her father'a son-in-law) and 
seated in her feither's lap. He puts her hand in his with some 
wheat dough and a gold ring. Then he does tiie KaHjfdddn or 
solemn giving away of the bride to the bridegroom^ while the priest 
reads the formula of surrender {iankalpa). Then a cloth is hung 
up, and behind it in secret the bridegroom puts five pinches 'of red- 
lead on the parting of the bride's hair, and they march round the 
pavilion five times. The girls of the family tie the clothes of fcho 
pair in a knot. When this is over they are taken to the retiring room 
(ioiabar) where they are escorted by the next-of-kin {mdn) oi the 
bride^ who sprinkles a line of water on the ground as they proceed. 
There the bridegroom's head-dress (ieAra) is removed. It is not the 
custom for the bride to return at once with her husband ; there is a 
separate^aMfki. This gauna must take place on one of the odd 
years first, tliird or fifth after Uie regular marriage. 

7. In a recent ^ case it was held that according to the usage 
, prevailing in Delhi and other towns in the 

North- Western Provinces among the sect of 
Agarwftlas who are Sar&ogis, a sonless widow takes an absolute 
interest in the self -acquired property of her husband, has a right to 
adopt without permission from her husband or consent of his kins- 
men, and may adopt a daughter's son who on the adoption takes the 
place of a son begotten. It was questioned whether on such an 
adoption a widow is entitled to retain possession of the estate either 
as proprietor or as manager of her adopted son. 



^ Shoo Singh Bai verntu Dakho, Ind'^an Law ReporU, A^hihabadf I., 688. 



agabwAla. 22 

8. Between the AgHrwttii, who is perhaps^ in appearmoe^ the 
Agarwala. and Ohi^ best bred of the tribes grouped under liie 
m^B. name of Banya^ and the dark non-Aryan 

Chamftr^ it is difficult to imagine any possible oonneotion, bat it 
is curious that there are legends which indicate this. Thus it is 
said that an Agarwftla once unmttingly married his daughter to 
a Chamftr. When after some time the parents of the bridegroom 
disclosed the fact, the Agarwftla murdered his son-in-law. He 
became a Bhilt and began to trouble the dansmen, so they agreed 
that he should be worshipped at marriages. Henoe, at their ^ 
weddings tliey are said to fill a leather bag with dry fruitSi to tie it 
up in the marriage shed, to light a lamp beneath it, lUdd to worship 
it in the form of a deity called Ohur, which is supposed to save 
women from widowhood. A similar story is told at Partlbgarfa :— - 
" I have heard it allied (and the story is current, I beUefey in 
parts of the Fanjab) that once upon a time a certain BAja had two 
daughters^ .named Chamu and Bamu. Those married and eadi 
gave birth to a son^ who in time grew up to be prodigies of 
strength {pakf^lfodn). An elephant happened to die on the Blja's 
premises, and being unwilling that the carcase should be out up and 
disposed pf piecemeal within the precincts of his abode, he sought for 
a man of sufficient strength to carry it forth whole and bury - it. 
Chamu's son undertook and successfully performed this marveUooi 
feat. The son of Bamu, stirred no doubt by jealousy, professed to 
regard this act ^th horror and broke off all relations with his cousin 
and pronounced him an outcastc. Cham&rs are asserted to be desoond- 
ants of the latter and Banyas of the former, and hence the former 
in some parts, though admitting their moral degradation, haye been 
known to'assert that they are in reality possessed of a higher rank 
in the social scale than the latter.'' ^ The story is worth repeat- 
ing as an instance of some of the common legends regarding the 
original connection of castes. Why the Chamtrs should have 
selected in the Agarw&la Banyas the most unlikely people with whom 
to assert relationship, it is very difficult to say. AgarwUas are alao 
said at marriages to mount the bridegroom secretly on an ass whioh 
is worshipped. If this be true, it is probably intended as a means 
of propitiating Sital& m&i, the dreaded goddess of smalUpox, whoae 
vehicle is the ass. 



^ Settlement Report, 61. 



23 AGAkwALiU 

9. Most of the Agarwftlas are VaishnATafl ; soxne are Jainas 

. or Sarftogis. At the last Ceiimls 266,000 

declared themBclves as Hindub^ and 88,000 as 
Jsinsdi A small minority are Saivas or Sftktas, but in deferenciE) td 
tribal feeling they abstain from sacrificing animab and lising Ineat 
or liqnor. As Mr. Eisley says ^ : — "Owing, perhaps, to thiiS 
uniformity of practice in matters of diet, these differences of reli- 
gious belief do not operate as a bar to intermarriage ; and when a 
marriage takes place between persons of different religioiis, the 
standard Hindu ritual is used. When husband and wife belong to 
different sects^ the wife is formally admitted into her husband's sect 
and must in future haye her own food cooked separately when 
staying at her father's house.'' Their tribal deity is Tiakshmi. 
They yenerate ancestors at the usual* Srftddha. They worship 
snakes at ,the N&gpanchami in addition to the special tribal 
worship described iafiara, 8. Among trees they venerate the pipali 
kadami sami and bab&l. Their priests are generally (}aur Brfth« 
mans. Some of them profess to abstain from wearing certain kinds 
of dress and ornaments, as they say^ under the orders of their family 
Sati. 

10. As regards food, the use .of the onion, garlic, carrot and 

turnip is forbidden. At tlie commencement 
of meals a small portion is thrown into the 
fire, and a little knoWn as Gogtfts is given to the family cow. '' All 
Pachhainiya and most Purabiya Agarwftlas wear the saored thread. 
In Behar they rank immediately below BrAhmans and E&yasths, 
and the former can tbke water tod certain kinds of sweetmeats from 
theit hands. According io their own account they dan take cooked 
food only frotn Brihnians of the Gaur, Tailanga, Ghijar&ti and Sa- 
nAdh sub-castes ; water and stireatmeats they can take from any 
Brfthmans, except tlie degrade classes of Ojha and Mah&br&hman, 
from B&jputs, Baist Banyas, and Khatris (usually reckoned as 
Vaisyas), and from the superior members of the so-called mixed 
castes, from Whose hands Br&hmans will take water. Some Agar- 
w&las, however, affect a still higher standard of ceremonial purity in 
the matter of cooked food, and carry their prejudices to such lengths 
that a mother-in-law will not eat food prepared by her daughter-in- 
law. All kinds of animal food are strictly prohibited, and th^ 



aoaewJLla. 



24{ 



Ooonpation.^ 



members of the caste also abstain fxomjovanda rioe which has been 
parboiled before husking. Jaina AgarwUas will not eat after 
dark for fear of swallowing minute insects. Smoking is governed 
by the rules in force for water and sweetmeats. It is notioed that 
the Farohits of the caste will smoke out of the same imqqa as their 
clients/' ^ 

11. The Agarwftlas are one of the most redpeotable and ontcr- 

s prising of the mercantile tribes in the Pro- 
vince. They are bankers^ money-lenders and 
land-holders'. These rights in land have generally been acquired 
through their mercantile business. It is a joke against them that' 
the finery of the Agarw&la never wears out because it is taken so 
much care of. They are notorious for their dislike to horsemanshipi 
and for the skill of their women in making vermicelli pastry and 
sweetmeats. The greatness of Agroha^ their original settlement, is 
commemorated in the legend told by Dr. Buchanan ' that w4ien 
any firm &iled in the cityi each of the others contributed a brick 
and five rupees which formed a stock sufliciont for the merdiant 
to recommence trade with advantage. 



Distribution of Aganodlai by the Cemus of 1891. 



DiSTBICT. 


flindus. 


Jainas. 

• 


TOTAIta 


Dehra Ddn .... 


• • 


2,109 


234 


2^348 


Sah&ranpnr . 










26,448 


6,988 


82,486 


MuEaflarnagar 










28,287 


9,029 


87J66 


Moerot • 




• 






87,7«2 


16,807 


54099 


Bulandshahr 










26,272 


1,058 


27,82( 


Aligarh 










16,083 


9 


16.002 


Mathara 










27,823 


1,196 


28319 


Agra • 






■ . 


• . • 


22,439 


1,447 


28386 


Farrnkli&b&d 










2.281 


- 122 


2,40t 


Mainpuri ^ 








2,350 


157 


2.507 


Etiwah , 






• • 


2,048 


137 


2,185 



Rialey, loe, eii 



8. 



* EaMtern India, ILi 465. 



26 



agabwIla. 



DiiMbuiion o/AgarwaloM by the CentuM o/ idPi— oonid; 



DiBTBIOT. 



Etah . 

Bftreillj 

Bgnor 

Bnd&on 

Mur&dabAd 



ShlLbjabAnpiir 
PUibhlt . 



Cftwnpnr 

Faiebpnr 

BAnda 

Hamtrpor 

AUababId 

Jbimi 

JAlaan 

Lalitpur 

Benares 

Minipur 

Jannpur 

GbAaipnr 

Ballia 

Gorakbpur 

Basti • 

Axamgarb 

KumAun 

Qarbw&l 

TaHLi . 



Luoknow 



UnAo 



Hindus. 




2,618 
7,401 
12,222 
1,968 
10,008 
1,066 
2,256 
6,004 

648 

860 
1,542 
8,340 
8,482 
1.007 

110 
2,838 
1,920 

263 
1,067 

510 
1,630 

277 
1,040 

260 
1,766 
1,348 
2,831 

140 



60 

4 

770 

3 

266 

83 

11 

70 



•tt 



••• 



•t« 



14 



••• 



••t 



26 



••• 



40 



••• 



••• 



36 

422 

8 



2,687. 
7,405 
18,001 
1,971 
11,223 
1,008 
2,266 
6,074 

548 

860 
1,542 
8,340 
8,406 
1,007 

119 
2,836 
1,920 

268 
1,098 

510 
1,679 

277 
1,049 

260 
1,765 
1,384 
8,258 

157 



agajitwAb, aohobi. 



26 AOHOEPANTHI^ AVOHAB. 



Distribution o/Agarwaiat &jf tk$ ChiuuM tf 1891— Mtiold.' 



BlSTBIdT. 



Hindiu. 



R&6Bareli 

StUpor 

Ilardoi 

Kheri 

IftAzAIA 

Qoudfk 

Bahrldoh 

Salt&npar 

Part&bgarh . 

B&rft Banki 



Grahd Total 



140 
866 
106 
276 
1,083 
808 
803 
805 
895 
600 



869,761 



JaIbm. 



TOTAIw 



184 



»•• 



••• 



••• 



••• 



••t 



80 



••• 



887 



8a516 



16S 



106 



IMi 



801 



1J87 



808J77 



Agastwar-'-'A seot of Rftjputs fdnnd prindpally in Pargana 
HaveU of Benares. Tliojr claim to take their name from the Bishi 
Agasfcya, who appears to have been one of the early Brthman mission- 
aries to the country south of the Vindhya range, which he is said to 
have ordered to prostrate themselves before him. 

Aghori, Aghorpanthi, Anghar,*— (Sanskrit agiora "not ter- 
rific/' a euphemistic title of Siva), the most disreputable class of 
Saiva mendicants. The head-quarters of the sect are at Bimgarli, 
Benares. The founder of it was Kinna Rftm, a B&jpnt by caste, who 
was bom at Bftmgarh, and was a contemporary of Balwant 8inh| 
Rftja of Benares, When he was quite a boy he retired to a garden 
near Benares and meditated on the problems of life and death. Ha 
became possessed of the spirit and his parents shut him up as a mad- 
man. When they tried to wean Iiim from the life of an ascetic and 
marry him, he made his escape and retired to Jagannftth. Some time 
after he was initiated by a Vaishnava Pandit from Oh&zipur. Then 
he went to Ballua Gh&t at Benares and began to practise austerities* 
Some time after one K&lu BAm came from Gim&r Hill, and Kinna 
B&m attended on him for some years. One day he announced hia 
intention of making a second pilgrimage to JagannAth, when KUu 
said, — '' If I bring Jagann&th before your eyes liere will you give up 



* BMed mainly on » note by Pandit BAngharib Chaabe. 



AGHORI. 27 A.OHORPANTHI1 kVaWLk; 

your intention ? '' Kinna Bftm ftgreed^ and then by his Bupernatural 
power Kftlu BAm did as he had promised to do. Thid shook thd 
faith of Kinna lUm and he abandoned the Vaishnava sect and was 
initiated as aSaiva. From that time he became an Aughar or Aghori. 
E&Iu BAm gave him a piece of burning wood which he had brought 
from the SmasAna Gh&t or cremation ground at Benares, and ordered 
him with this to maintain the perpetual fire. After this K&lu BAm 
returned to Gim&r and Kinna Bfim went to the garden where he 
had stayed at the opening of his life and erected a monastery there. 
He performed miracles and attracted a number of disciples out of hia 
own tribe* 

2. Some time after his own GKiru who had initiated him into the 
Vaishnava sect came to see him. Kinna B&m directed him to go to 
Delhi, where a number of S&dhus were then suffering imprisonment 
at tlio hands of the Muliammadan Emperor for their &ith, and to 
procure their release by working miracles. The Ghiru went there 
and shared their fate* Long after when the GKiru did not return 
Kinna BAm went himself to Delhi in order to effect his release. 
Kinna BAm, on his arrival, was arrested and sentenced to work on 
the flour-miDd. He asked the Emperor if he would release him and 
the other S&dhus, if he was abW, by his miraculous power to make 
the mills move of themselves. The Emperor agreed and he worked 
the miracle. The Emperor was so impressed by his power that he 
released the S&dhus and conferred estates on Kinna B&m< The 
S&dhus whom he had released became his disciples, and he returned 
to Benares, where at B&mgarh he established the Aghori sect and 
became the first leader. He lived to a g^ood old age, and was suo- 
cccded by one of the members elected by general vote of the society. 

3. The form of initiation into the sect is as follows :<— 

The candidate for initiation places a cup of 

Form of initiAtion. - , 

Hquor and a cup of bianp on the stone which 
covers the tomb of Kinna BAm. It is said that those who wish to 
become Aughars without losing caste drink only the bhang^ while 
those who desire to be fully initiated drink both the bhang and 
spirits. Some say that when the candidate has perfect faith, the cups 
come to his Hps of themselves. Then a sacrifice is performed in 
which various kinds of fruits are thrown into the fire which has been 
kept alight since it was first lighted by Kinna BAm, and an animal, 
usually a goat, is sacrificed. It is believed that the animal thus 



AGHOBI. 28 AGHOBPAKTnr, AUOHAK. 

saorifiood often comes to life agldn when the fmiotion is OYer. 
After this tlie hair of the candidate is moistened in nrine, by pre- 
ference that of the head of the seot^ and shaved, Snbeeqtienily the 
candidate has to meditate on the precepts and teaching of Kinna 
"BAm, which are recorded in a book known as the Btjaka. Those 
who are illiterate have these read over to them by other Aagfaan. 
The initiation ceremony ends with a feast to all the disQiples preBont^ 
at which spirits and meat are distributed. This is followed by a 
probation term of twelve years^ during which the initiated eats any 
kind of filthy f ood^ the flesh of corpses being included. Their life is 
spent in drinking and smoking intoxicating drugs, and they are 
most abusive to those who will not give them alms. When thqy go 
to beg they carry a bottle cither empty or full of spirits. They 
demand alms in the words Jdy Kinna Bdm H, (Olory to Kinna Blm). 
It is said that after leading this life for twelve years they abandon 
the use of. spirits and only eat filthy food. 

4. A great resort of this class of ascetics is the Asthbhuja hill 
near Bindbftchal in the Mirzapur District. Aooording to Laasenj 
quoted by Mr. Bisley/ the Aghoris of tlie present day are closely 
related to the Eapftlika or Eap&ladh&rin sect of the middle ages who 
wore crowns and necklaces of skulls and offered human saerifioes to 
Ch&munda^ a horrible form of Devi or Fftrvati. In support of this 
view it is observed that in Bhavabhuti's Drama of Mtlati MAdhav% 
written in the eighth century, the Eapalikas oroerer, from whom* 
M&Iati is rescued, as she is about to be sacrificed to Chftmunda^ is 
euphemistically described as an Aghorakantha, from aghora^ ''not 
terrible.^ The Aghoris of the present day represent their filthy 
habits as merely giving practical expression to the abstract doctrine 
of the Faramahansa sect of the Saivitcs that the whole universe is 
full of Brahma, and consequently tliat one thing is as pure as another. 
The mantra or mystic formula by which Aghoris are initiated is 
believed by other ascetics to be very powerful and to be capable of 
restoring to life the human victims offered to Devi and eaten by the 
officiating priest/^ Not long since a member of the sect was 
punished in Budaun for eating human flesh in publia Of the 
Ftojab Mr. MacLagan' writes : — " Tlie only real sub-division of the 
Jogis which are at all commonly recognised are the well-known seots 
of Oghar and Kanphattas. Tlio Kanphattas, as their name denotes, 

^ 7Vi6et and CasUs, 1 , 10. • Panjah Cernui RapoH, IIS. 



AGHORI. 



29 . AGHOBFAKTHI, ATJGHAB. 



pierce their ears and wear in them large rings {mundra) generally 
of wood^ stone or glass; the ears of the novice are pierced by 'the 
Gum, who gets a foe of Bo. 1-4-0. Among themselves the word 
Kanphatta is not used ; but they call themselves Darshani or [ one 
who wears an ear-ring/ The Oghar, on the contrary, do not split 
their ears, but wear a whistle (ndd/ia) of wood, which they blow at 
morning and evening and before meals. Eanphattas are called by 
names ending in N&th, and the names of the Oghar end in Dfts. 
The Eanphattas are the more distinctive sect of the two, and the 
Oghars were apparently cither their predecessors or seceders from 
their body. One account says that the Eanphattas are the jfollowers 
of Qorakhn&th, the pupil of Jalandharan&th, who sometimes appears 
in the legends bA an opponent of Qorakhn&th. Another account 
would go further back and connect the two sects with a uub^vision 
of the philosophy of Fatanjali." The difference between the 
Aughar and Aghori does not seem to be very distinct; the Aghori 
adds to the disgusting license of the Aughar in matters of food 
the occasional eating of human flesh and filth. 

Dittribuiion of AghorpanthiB and Aughars by the CennuB 9f 1B91} 



DlBTBICT. 


i 

p 
< 


li 

|9l 


I 

o 


DiSTBIOT. 

1 


• 

« 




11 

In 

< 


• 

Total. 


Dehrk DAn . 


86 


• •■ 


86 


Benares . • • 


186 


••• 


186 


HaB&ffamogar • 


1,285 


••• 


1,285 


QhAzipar 




9 


100 


109 


Meerat • • 


1,646 


•«• 


1,646 


fiallia 


. . . 


••• 


67 


67 


Balaudshahr 




40 


• .• 


40 


Qorakhpnr < 




••t 


260 


260 


Agra • 




82 


18 


45 


Basil . 




••* 


06 


96 


EUh 




8 


... 


8 


Asamgarh 




7 


... 


7 


BiJDor . « 




821 


••• 


82t 


EamAon 




5 


••• 


5 


lladAoa . 




15 


... 


15 


TarAi . 




54 


• •• 


54 


MondAUd 




52 


••. 


52 


Laoknow 




6 


80 


85 


PiUbhit . 




16 


9 


25 


BAi Bareli 




... 


8 


8 


Cnwnpor 




••• 


8 


8 


UnAo . 




1 


••• 


1 


BAnda 




••• 


6 


6 


Sitapnr • 




12 


... 


12 


Hamirpnr 




14 





23 


FaiiAbAd 




.*• 


18 


13 


AUahabAd 


• 


1 


17 


18 


Qonda • 




45 


.•• 


45 


Jhansi . 


» • 


3 


••• 


2 


SultAnpar 




15 


.*• 


15 






Qband Total 




4,817 


630 


4,947 



' Tlio Census in Bengal shows their nnmbers to be 8,877. The Jogi Aughars of 
the Panjab number only 436. 



AONIHOTRI. 30 

Agnihotri.'— 'A class of Brfthmans who are speoially devoted 
to thci maintenance of the sacred fire. The number of such Brflh* 
mans now*a-days is very limited, as the ceremonies involve heavy 
expenditure and the rules which regulate them are very elaborate 
and diflBcult. They are seldom found amovLg the P^mcha Gmr 
Brfthmans^ who are not devoted to the deep study of the Vedas ; 
they are most numerous among the Pancha DrAvira or Dakahini 
Brfthmans. In one sense^ of course, the offering of part of the food 
to fire at the time of eating is one of the five daily duties of a Brfth- 
man; but the regular fire sacrifice is the special duty of the 
Agnihotri. In order to secure the requisite purity he is bound by 
certain obligations not to travel or remain away from home for any 
lengthened period ; to sell nothing which is produced by. himself or 
his family ;not to give much attention to worldly affiurs ; to speakthe 
truth) to bathe and worship the deities in the afternoon as well as in 
the morning ; to offer pindat to his deceased ancestors on the' I6th 
of every month before he takes food ; not to eat food at night j nofc 
to eat alkaline salt [khdri nimak), honey, meat, and inferior grain, 
such as urad pulse or the hodo millet ; not to sleep on a bed, but on 
the ground ; to keep awake most of the night and study the 
Sh&stras ; to have no connection with, or unholy thoughts regarding, 
any woman except his wife ; or to commit any other act involving 
personal impurity. 

2. In the plains there are three kinds of Agnihotris: first, 
hereditary Agnihotris ; second, ihose who commence maintaining the 
sacred fire from the time they are invested with the Brfthmani- 
cal cord ; and tliird, those who commence to do so later on in life. 
The proper time to begin is the time of investiture. If any one 
commence it at a later age, he has to undergo certain purificatory 
rites, and if subsequently the maintenance of the fire is interrupted, 
the ceremony of purification has to be undergone again. The 
ceremony of purification is of the kind known as Prajapat^a wrmim^ 
which is equal to three times the kriehehhra, which latter lasts for 
four days, and consists in eating the most simple food once in the 
9,\ hours ; to cat once at night on the second day ; not to ask 
for food, but to take what is placed before him ; to eac nothing 
on the foui-th day. This course, carried out for twelve days, oonsti- 

* Dascd on notoa by Pandit RAmghartb Ohaabe and PWidit JAnardan Dal 
Joflhii Dopnty Oollcofeor, Uaroilly. 



31 AQKIHOTUI. 

tutes the Ptdjapatjiia vraia. In de&ult of thiB the worahipper baa 
to give as many oows to Brfthmans as years havQ passed since his 
investiture. In de&olt of this he must tell the gdj/atri mantra ten 
thousand times for every year that has passed since he was invested^ 
Or finally^ if he can do none of these, he may place in the sacrificial 
pit {innda) as many thousand ofEei^ings {dkuH) of sesammn {tihy 
as years have passed^ 

S. Agnihotri Br&hmans keep in^ their houses a separate room^ in 
which is the pit at which the fire sacrifice is performed, and a second 
pit out of which is taken fire to burn the Agnihotri himself or any 
of his family when they die ; besides these, a third pit is maintained 
from which fire is taken when it is required for ordinary household 
work. The first is known as the hatx^niya kunda, the second dagdha, 
lutida, and the third, grdhfa paiya. The pit is one cubit in oubio 
measurement. All three are of the same dimensionB. Around it is 
a platform {vedi)^ twelve finger breadths in width, and made of 
masonry or clay. One-third of it is coloured black, and is known as 
tama, *' darkness ^' or '' passion^' ; one-third, coloured red, is rajaty or 
" impurity," and one-third, white, signifying ttU, or "virtue/' 
Sometimes the pit is made in the form of the leaf of a ptpal tree and has 
the mouth in the sliape of the yoni. In the morning the Agnihotri 
should place in the pit an oblation {dAuH) of ghi : this should be the 
product of the cow ; if this be not procurable, it may be replaced 
with buffalo ghi, or that of the goat, sesamum oil, curds, nulk, or, 
in the last resort, pottage {iapti). On certain occasions an offering 

of rice-milk (kk(r) is allowed. Some also offer incense. 

• 

4. The sacrifice is made in this way: First of all the pit 
should be swept with a bundle of kuia grass, and the ashes and 
refuse thrown into a pure place in the house facing the north-east ; 
next the pit is plastered with cow-dung ; then three lines are drawn 
in the middle with a stalk of Jtusa grass ; from these lines three 
pinches of dust are collected and thrown towards the north-east. 
The pit and altar are then sprinkled with water from a branch of 
iuta grass. Fire js then kindled with the arani^ or sacred drill, and 
lighted with wood of the sandal tree, or paldia, which are also used 
tor replenishing the fire. After this is performed the udiidi irddd^a, 
or commemorative offering to the manes preliminafy to any joyous 
occasion, such as imtiation, marriage, etc., when nine balls (pinda) are 
offered in throes— three to the deceased father, his father, and 



AONIHOTEI. 32 

grand&bther ; three to the maternal grandfather, great-grand&tlier 
and great-great-grandfather ; three to the mother, paternal gnnd- 
mother^ and great-grandmother. Water is then filled into the 
Baorifieial veseel {pranUa), and twenty blades of Jtusa gimse are 
arranged round the altar^ so that the heads of all be being (he east. 
All the sacrificial vessels {pdlra) are arranged north of the pit and 
the altar. First of all the praniia is so placed ; then three blades of 
knta grass ; then another sacrificial vessel called the protikani pdira ; 
then the djya or aJyaslAalipdlra, vrlioh holds ihooSeting ofghi; 
after these the tamdrjana, or brushy the 9mva^ or sacrificial ladle, and 
the pHrna pdtra, another vessel. The vessels are purified with asper- 
sion from a bunch of iusa grass dipped in water, after which the glu 
is poured on the fire out of a bell-metal cup^ and, with. a prajer to 
Praj&patl, the fire is replenished with pieces of wood soaked in gliL 

5. . Certain ceremonies {tamidra) are incumbent on Agnihotris. 
On the fifteenth of every Hindu month they must perform the 
ifdddha for their deceased ancestors : on the last day of every montii 
they must do the irdddha and fire sacrifice {homa) every day during 
the four months of the rainy season. They must do the hma on 
a large scale : they must do the trdddha on the eighth day of both 
the fortnights in Sftwan and Chait : they must do a great fire 
sacrifice in Aghan and feed Brdhmans. Whenever a man begins 
to perform the fire sacrifice he dways starts on the Amivas, or 
fifteenth day of the ^month. There is a special elaborate ritual 
when an offering of rice-milk is made^ in which sacred mortals 
and pestles and sacred winnowing fans are used with qiooiat 
mantras in extracting the rice from the husk. 

6. Of these, Pandit Janardan Datta Joshi writes :— '' They 
The AsnlhotriB of the originally came from Gujarftt, and are 
Hills. worshippers of the S&ma Veda. An 

Agnihotri commences fire worship from tlie date of his marriage. 
The sacred fire of the marriage altar is carried in a copper vessel to 
his fire-pit. Tliis fire is preserved by a continual supply of fuel, and 
when the Agnihotri dies this fire alone must be used for his funeral 
pyre. Ho takes food once a day only and batlies three times. He 
must not eat meat, maidr pulse, the baingan, or egg-plant, or other 
impure articles of food. lie never wears shoes : lie performs the 
fire sacrifice (homa) daily with ghi, rice, etc., and recites the 
mantra of the SSma Veda. The firc-pit which I have seen was 
forty feet long and fifteen broad, and is known as Agni Knnda. 



AONIIIOTKI. 33 AGBAHARI. 

He baa to feed one Brihman daily before he can take his food^ 
and be eats always in Uie afternoon. Generally^ the eldest son 
alone is eligible for tliis office^ but otiier sons may practise it if 
they choose. 

7. '' The method of producing fire by the arant is as follows :— 
The base- is formed of iami wood one cubit long^ one span broad 
and eight finger breadths deep. In the block a small hole is made 
four finger breadths deep^ emblematical of the female principle 
{Mmkti youi). The middle arani is a shaft eighteen inches long 
and four finger breadths in diameter. An iron nail, one finger 
breadth long, is fixed to its end as an axis or pivot. The top 
nraiti, which is a flat piece of wood, is pressed on this nail, and two 
priests continue to press the bottom aratii and maintain them in 
position. The point in the drill where the rope is applied to 
cause it to revolve, is called deva jfoni. Before working the rope 
the gdjfmiri must be repeated, and a hymn from the S&ma Veda in 
honour of the fire god Agni. After repeating this hymn the fire 
produced by the friction is placed in a copper vessel, and powdered 
oowdung is sprinkled over it. When it is well alight it is covered 
with another copper vessel, and drops of water are sprinkled over 
it while Uie yd^alri is recited three times. The sprinkUng is 
done witli kn$a grass. Again a Silma Ycdaliymn in honour of 
Agni is recited. It is Uicn formally consigned to the fire-pit. 
If the Agnihotri chance to let liis fire go out he must get it from 
the pit of another Agnihotri, or produce it by means of the nrmnL " 

Agrahari : Agrehri.— A sub-caste of Bany as found in oon« 
siderable numbers in the Allahibad, Benares, Gorakhpur, Luoknow, 
and FaizAbAd divisions. They claim partly a Yaisya and partly 
a Brthmanical descent, and wear the sacred cord. Their name 
has been connected with the cities of Agra and Agroha. Mr. 
Nesfield derives it from the agara or aloe wood, which is one of 
the many things which they sell. There is no doubt that they are 
closely connected with the Agarwilas, and Mr. Nesfield suggests 
that the two grou|»8 must liavc been " sections of one and the 
same caste which quarrelled on some trifling question connected 
with cooking or eating, and have remained seivamte ever since.'' 
Mr. Sherring remarks that tliey, unlike the Agarwalas, allow 
polygamy, and Mr. Risley' suggests that if this be true it may 



I Triif and CasUt^ !•• H* 
Vot. I. 



AGBAHAEI. 34 AGaBnitl. 

snpply an explanation of the divergenoe of the AgrahariB from 
the Agarwftlas. In Mirzapnr they do allow polygamy, bat with 
this restriotion, that a man cannot marry a seoond wifo in the 
lifetime of the first without her consent. 

2. They have a large number of exogamous g^roupe {9olra)t 

the names of which are known only to a 

Internal organlBation. ^ • l^ * i ji-ni*^ ▼ 

few of their more learned Bhats. In 
Mirzapur they name seveU'^Sonw&n ; Payagw&r or PrayftgwU ; 
Lakhmi; Chauhatt; 6angw&ni; Sethr&d; and Ajudhyftbtii. 
There are also the Purbiya or Purabiya^ ^' those of the East /' 
Pachhiwdha, " those of the West/' and Nariyarha. To these 
Mr. Sherring adds^ from Benares^ Uttar&ha, ''Northern/' 
Tanchara ; Dalamau from the town of Dalmau, in the Kfte BareU 
District; M&huli from the Pargana of M&hul^ in Azamgarh; 
Ajudhyabdsi^ from Ajudhya^ and Chhi&nawfi, from a Pargana of the 
name in Mirzapur. In Mirzapur they regard the town of 
Kantit^ near Bindh&chal^ as their head-quarters. The levirate is 
recognised^ hot is not compulsory on the widow. 

3. Some of them are initiated in tlie Sri Yaishnava soot and 

some are Ndnakpanthis. To the east of the 
Province their clan deities are the Pftncbonpir 
and Mdhahir^ and^ as a rule^ the difference of worship is a bar 
to intermarriage. Their family priests are Sarwariya BrShmans. 
The use of meat and spirits is prohibited ; but a few are not 
abstainers^ and these do not intermarry with the more orthodox 
families. 

4. They are principally dealers in provisions {iJ^iekBri'/aroii) 

and tliey have acquired some discredit as 
compared with their kinsfolk the Agarwllas 
by not isolating their women and allowing them to attend 
the shop. They also specially deal in various sweet-smelling 
woods which are used in religious ceremonies/ such as tf^ora or 
alpe-wood and sandal-wood {ckandana), besides various medicines 
and simples. The richer members of the caste are bankers^ dealers 
in grain^ etc.^ or pawnbrokers. All Banyas^ but not Br&hmans, or 
Kshatriyas, will eat paiii from their liands ; only low castes, like 
Kahdrs or Nais^ will cat kaehchi cooked by them, and tlioy will 
tliemselves eat kaehchi only if cooked by one of their own caste or 
])y their Brahman Guru. 



35 



AHAB. 



DiitfibutioH of the Agrahari Banjfat aeeording to Census, 1891. 



DiBTBlOT. 


Nnmbora. 


DlBTBIOT. 


Nnmbers. 

• 


Dehra Dqq . 




4 


Gorakhpnr « 


• 




6,106 


Meernt 




26 


Basil 






17,266 


Farrakliab&d 




1 


AzatDgarh 






8,664 


Cnwupor 




856 


Lucknow 






808 


Fatebpar 




6,708 


Un&o 






42 


Bdoda 




8,605 


BAeBareli . 






7.430 


All&hibAd • 




6,871 


Faiz&b^ 






0,718 


Benaros 




2,984 


Qonda 






796 


Mirzapur • 




6,354 


Bahi&iob 




-v 


88 


Jaonpur 




0,600 


SultHnpar 






14,944 


GhAzipar • , 




744 


PartAbgarh 






4,507 


Ballia 




11 


Bar&banki 






21 








lOTAl 




1,01,228 



Ahar. — ^A pastoral and cultivating tribe found principally in 
Rohilkhand along the banks of the Bibnganga and west of that 
river. These tracts are familiarly known as Ahar&t. Sir H. M. 
Elliot ^ says that they smoke and drink in common with J&t» and 
GCijars^ but disclaim all connection with Ahirs^ whom they consider 
an inferior stocky and tlie Ahirs repay the compUment. Ahars say 
that they are descended from J&donbansi R&jputs ; but Ahirs say that 
they are the real Jftdonbansi^ being descended in a direct line from 
Krishna^ and that Ahars are descended from the cowherds in 
Krishna's service^ and that the inferiority of Ahars is fully proved 
by their eating fish and milking cows. It seems probable that the 
name and origin of boUi tribes is the same. The Collector of 
Mathura rcix)rts tliat the names Ahir and Ahar appear to be used 
indiscriminately^ and in particular in most cases the Ahir clans of 
Bliatti^ Dcswdr and Nugawat appear to have been recorded as Ahars. 
To the east of the Province Ahar appears to be occasionally used as 



' SuyplemaUal Qlossary, b.t. 



Vol. I. 



D2 



AHAR. 



36 



a synonym for Aheriya, and to designate the olass of bird-catchers 
known as ChirySmSr. 

2. At the last oensus the Ahars were recorded under the main 
sub-castes of BSchar, or Bichhar, Bhirgudi^ Deswftr, Ouftlbans, and 
Jidubans. In the returns they were reoorded under no less than 876 
sub castes, of which the most namorous in Buhindshahr arc the Na- 
gauri and Bajauliya; in Bareillythe Ahmdiya^ Baheriya^ Banjftrai 
Bharthariya^ Bhusangar^ Bhijanriya^ Dirhwftr, Mundiya^ Ora^ Ba* 
jauriya, and Siyarmftr, or " Jackal-killers ; '^ in Budftun the Alaudiya^ 
Baisgari, Bareriya, Bhagrd, ChhakrA, Doman, Gochhar^ Gho8iy% 
Kara, Kathiya, Mahftpachar, Mahar^ Murarkha,, Ora^ Bahmaniyftn, 
Rajaariya, Sakariya, Sonsariya and Warag ; in Morftdibftd tfas 
Alaudiya^ Bagarha, Baksiya, Bhadariya, Bhosiya^ Chaodhari, 
Jangh&rfi, Mahar, Nagarha, Ora^ Rajauriy% Rlwat, Saila and 
Sakoriya; in Pilibhit the Bharthariya and Dhindhor. The analogy 
of many of these with the Ahirs is obvioua, and many of the names 
are taken from Bijput and other sources. 

3. In manners and customs they appear to bo identical with the 
Ahtrs. They have traditions of sovereignty in Kohilkliaml, and 
possibly enjoyed considerable power during the reign of the Tomars 
(700toll50 A. D). » 

Distribntion of ih Jkart aeeording to the Cemui of IS9/. 







8ub-Castbs. 




DlSTKlOT. 


• 


'4 


• 

o 
Q 


• 

a 

o 


1 

•^ 


1 


Total. 


Meerafc • 


!•• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


•■• 


8.6S8 


8,688 


BuUndshahr 




«w 


1,958 


8 


7i 


1,480 


1,766 


6^8 


Et&h 




• • • 


1,414 


••• 


!•• 


898 


lOS 


1,814 


Bareilly . 




5,291 


835 


2,040 


880 


649 


86,068 


41^786 


Bijnaar • ^ 




••« 


• •• 


••• 


■•• 


••• 


8 


8 


BadAaa 




!•• 


• ■ • 


1.514 


97 


7. 


1^,S«6 


1J6,464 


MorAdAbid 




• •1 


60 


2,168 


808 


718 


81,918 


SSjOSl 


Pilibhit . 




2,410 


221 


74 


8,780 


767 


5^417 


18,717 


KamAon . 




••• 


•• 


••1 


••• 


••• 


86 


86 


Tar&i 




8 


••• 


145 


^ 


856 


1,381 


8,478 


Tot A I 


• 


7.718 


8,983 


5,038 


4,770 


4/W7 


8,17.018 


8,44,166 



i/or(iad6d(i BtiiUmtJiA Report, 8. 



37 AHBAK. 

Ahban. — (Probably Sans., aii, "the dragon/' which may have 
been the tribal totem.) A sept of Bftjputs chiefly found in Oudh. 
Their first ancestors in Oudh arc said to have been Oopi and Soin, 
two brothers of the ChAwara race, which ruled in Anhalwira FAtan 
of Oujar&t. Of the Chlwaras or Chauras, Colonel Tod writes ': — 
** This tribe was once renowned in the history of India,, though its 
name is now scarcely known, or only in the chronicles of the bard. 
Of its origin we are in ignorance. It belongs neither to the Solar 
nor to the Lunar race ; and consequently we may presume it to be 
of Scytliic origin. The name is unknown in Ilindustin, and is con- 
fined with many others originating beyond the Indus to the penin- 
sula of Saurdshtra. If foreign to India proper, its establishment 
must have been at a remote period, as we find individuals of it 
intermarrying vrith the SQryavansa ancestry of the present princes 
of Mewlr when this family ^were the Lords of Ballabhi. The 
capital of the Ch&warasI was the insular Deobandar on the coast of 
Saurlshtra; and the celebrated temple of Somnfith, with many others 
on this coast, dedicated to Baln&th, or the Sun, is attributed to this 
tiribe of the Sauras, or worshippers of the Sun; most probably the 
generic name of the tribe as well as of the peninsula. By a natural 
oatastrophe, or, as the Hindu superstitious chroniclers will have it« 
as a punishment for the piracies of the prince of Deo, the element 
whoso privileges he abused rose and overwhelmed his capital. As 
this coast is very low, such an occurrence is not improbable ; though 
ibe abandonment of Deo might have been compelled by the irrup* 
lions of the Arabians, who at this period carried on a trade with 
tlieto iiarts, and the plunder of some of their vesseb may have 
brought this punishment on the Ch&waras. That it was owing to 
some such political catastrophe, we have additional grounds for 
bdief from the Annals of Mewdr, which state that its princes inducted 
the Chflwaras into the seats of the power they abandoned on 
the continent and peninsula of Saurishtra. '^ After describing 
their subsequent history Colonel Tod goes on to say : — ''This ancient 
eonnection Ixtween the SAryavansi chiefs and the Cbdwaras or 
Chauras of Saurlshtra is still maintained after a lapse of more than 
one thousand years, for, though an alliance with the lUna's family 
is the highest honour tliat a Hindu prince can obtain, as being the 
6rBi in rank in Hindustan, yet is the humble Chiwara sought out 



* Annnii, I., 109. 



AHBAN. 38 

even at the foot of fortune's ladder^ whenoe to oany on the blood ol 
Rftma. The present heir-apparent of a line of one hnndred kingi^ 
prince Jovana Sinh^ is the offspring of a Chiwara woman, the 
daughter of a petty chieftain of OAjarftt*" 

2. These two leaders^ Oopi and Sopi, are said to have come into 
Oudh shortly after the commencement of the Christian era. The 
former obtained the Fargana Gopamau, in Hardoi, and a descendant 
of the latter took possession of Fataunja^ near Misiikh, in Fargana 
Ntmkh&r^ of Sttapur District. '^ This is the reputed residenoe ol 
the Dryad Abbhawan^ who is alleged to have given supernatural 
assistance to the Ch&war chief^ her favourite^ who thenceforth took 
the name of Ahban. At any rate Fataunja became a centre of 
secular and religious power. A tribe of Kurmis and a gotta of 
Tiw&ri Br&hmans have called themselves after Fataunja — a fact which 
tends to indicate that^ although now a mere village, it was formerly 
the capital of a state possessing some independence/'^ The 
Ahban race rose afterwards to great prosperity ; ^* how great it is 
impossible to state, for of all Chhatri clans they are the most men* 
dacious, and many plans for the advancement of individuals have 
been foiled by this defect of theirs. The sept labours under a 
superstitious aversion to build houses of brick or line wells with 
them. 

3. Of the Ahbans General Sleeman writes': — ** No member of the 
Ahban tribe ever forfeited his inheritance by changing his creed ; nor 
did any of them, I believe, change his creed except to retain his 
inheritance, liberty, or life, threatened by despotic and unscrupuloos 
rulers. They dine on the same floor, but there is a line marked 
off to separate those of the party who are Ilindus from those who 
are Musalmfins. The Musalmdns have Musalmfln names, and the 
Ilindus have Hindu names, but they still go under the oomnum 
patronymic name of Ahban. The Musulmftns marry into Musalmin 
families, and the Hindus into Hindu families of the highest 
class, Chauh&n, Rithaur, Raikwslr, Janw&r, etc. Their conversion 
took place under Muhammad Farm ' Ali, aliat Eftlapahftr, to whom 
his uncle Bahlol, king of Delhi, left Bahr&ich as a separata inheri- 
tance a short time before his death, which occurred in 1488 A. D. 
This conversion stopped infanticide, as the Musalmftn portion of 
the tribe would not associate with the Hindus who practised it. '' 

* (hidh QaMetteer, IT., 218. 

* Journey through Oudh, Ih, 98. 



39 



AHEBIYA. 



4. In Sitapur thoy generally supply brides to the Tomar and 
occasionally to the Gaur scpts^ while they marry girls of the B^hhal^ 
Janwdr^ and occasionally of the Gaur. In Eheri their daughters 
marry ChauhSns^ KachhwsQias, Bhadaurijras^ R&thaurs^ and Katheri- 
yas, and their sons many girls of the JanwS^r, Punwar, Bais 
Nandw&ni or Bftchhal septs. In Hardoi their gotra is Grarga, and 
they give brides to the Sombansi^ Chauhsln^ Dhikrd and R&thaur 
septs^ and take brides from the Dhikrfi, Janwir^ Eachhwftha^ 
Raikwar and B&chhal. 



Distribution of the Ahban Bdjputi according to the Census of 

1891. 



DiSTBICT. 


Kambort 


DlBTUICT. 


Namben 


Agra . . • • 


1 


Sitapur 


998 


FarrukliAbad 


126 


Hardoi • • • 


2.413 


Shihjahinpur • 


116 


Eheri 


1,331 


Filibhtt 


52 


Bahr&ioh • 


71 


Binda .... 


1 


SalUnpor • • • 


3 


Ballia .... 


10 


Part&bgarh • • • 


2 


Luoknow 


333 
30 


B&rabanki • 

Total 

• 


620 


R&eBareli . 


4912 



Aheriya.'— (Sans, aihetiia, a hunter.) A tribe of hunters, 
fowlers^ and thieves found in the Central Du&b. Their ethnolo- 
gical affinities have not as yet been very accurately ascertoined. 
Sir H. M. Elhot describes them as a branch of the Dh&nuks^ from 
whom they are distinguished by not eating dead carcases, as the 
Dhftnuks do. They are perhaps the same as the Ilairi or Heri of 
the Uills, a colony of whom Bftz Bah&dur settled in the Tarfti as 
guards, where they, and some Mew&tis settled in a similar way, 
became a pest to the country. ' At the same time Mr. Williams 
describes the Heri in Pehia Dun^as aborigines and akin to the 
Bhoksas, with whom in appearance and character the Aheriyas of 



^ Largely based on nofces ooUeoted throngh Mr. J. U. Monkfl, Deputy CoUaotor, 
Aligarh. 

- AlkinBon, Uimalayan OateUeer, II,, 665| 589» and 615* 



AneniYA. 4i) 

Aligarh and Etah seem to have Kttle oonneotion. They are ahnoet 
certainly not the same as the Ahiriya or Dahiriya of the Ooimkhpur 
Division^ who are wandering cattle-dealers and apparently AhSrt. ^ 
In Gorakhpur^ however^ there is a trihe called AheKya, said to be 
descended from Dhftnuks^ whose chief employment is the captare of 
snakes, which they eat. There is again a trilie in the Panjab known 
as Aheri^ who are very probably akin, to the Aheriyas of the North- 
West Provinces. ' They trace their origin to R^jpntina, and 
especially Jodhpur and the prairies of BikHner. ''They ue vagrant 
in their habits, but not infrequently settle down in viltages where 
they find employment. They catch and eat all kinds of wild ani- 
mals, pure and impure, and work in reeds and grass. In addi- 
tion to these occupations they work in the fields, and especially 
move about in gangs at hai-vest time in search of employment as 
reapers, and they cut wood and grass and work as general labour- 
ers on roads and other earthworks. '^ Mr. Fkigan desoribes them 
in Ilissflr as making baskets and winnowing fans and sontching 
wool. He thinks that the Jodhpuriya section, who appear to have 
been the ancestors of the tribe, may po&sibly have been RftjputB, and 
the other Aheris are probably descended from low castes who inter- 
married with them. In default of any distinct anthropometrical 
evidence, the most probable theory seems to be that the Aheriyas of 
these Provinces are connected with the Bhil and their congeners, the 
Baheliya, who are a race of jungle hunters and fowlers. In Aligarh, 
they distinctly admit that in former times, owing to a soaroity of 
women in the tribe, they used to introduce girls of other castes. Thi% 
they say, they have ceased to do in recent years, since the number 
of their fmales lias increased. This may, perhaps, pmnt to the 
prevalence of infanticide in the tribe ; but in any case it is very 
probable that a tribe of tliis character should become a sort ol 
Cave of Adullam for every one who was in debt, and every one that 
was in distress or discontented. 

2. In Aligarh they seem to be known indifFerently by the names 

of Aheriya, Bhil, or Karol. They call them- 

The Aligarh tradition. , / ' ' ^«^. ^ ^^ 

selves the descendants of Ka ja Piryavarti who 
(though the Aheriyas know nothing about him) is probably identical 
with Priyavrata, who was one of the two sons of Brahma and 

1 Bnohanan, Eaitem India, II., 572 ; Qorakhpur QoMeUter, 624. 
s Ibl»etaun, Pat^jah hthnography, Section 576. 



41 ahbriya/ 

Satarfipa. According to the mythology he was dissatiBfied that 
only half the earth was illuminated at one time by the sun's rays ; 
60 he followed the sun Eeven times round the eaith in his own 
flaming car of equal velocity^ like another celestial orb^ resolved 
to turn night into day. He was stopped by Brahma^ and the 
ruts which were formed by his chariot wheels were the seven 
oceans ; thus the seven continents were foimed. The Aheriyas 
say that the son of the solar hero^ whose name they have forgotten^ 
was devoted to hunting^ and for the purpose of sport took up his 
abode on the famous hill of Chitrak&t^ in the Bftnda District. 
Here he became known as Aheriya^ or '* sportsman^ '^ and was 
the ancestor of the present tribe. Thence they emigrated to Ajudhya^ 
and^ after the destruction of that city^ spread all over the country. 
They say that they came to Aligaih fi'om Cawnpur some seven 
hundred years ago. They still keep up this tradition of their origin 
by periodical pilgrimages to ChitrakCit and Ajudhya. 

3. They have a tribal council {panehdij/at), constituted partly by 

election and partly by nomination among 
the members of the tribe. They decide all 
matters affecting the tribe^ but are not empowered to take up social 
questions suo wofu. They liavc a permanent^ hereditary chairman 
[mrpanch). If the son of a deceased cliaiiman happen to 1m a 
minor^ one of the members of the council is appointed to act for 
him dui'ing liis minority. At the same time^ if the new chairman, 
on coming of age^ is found to be incompetent, he may be removed, 
and a new candidate selected by the votes of the council. 

4. They have no exogamous or endogamous sub-divisions, 

Tlio marriage of first cousins is prohibited, 
and a man cannot be married in a family to 
which during memory a bride from his &mily has been married. 
Difference of religious belief is no bar to marriage, provided there 
has been no conversion to another faith, such as that of Christians 
or Muhammadans. Tliey can liave as many as four wives at the 
same time, and may marry two sisters together. An apparent sur- 
vival of marriage by capture is found in the ceremony which follows 
marriage when the newly-married pair are taken to a tank. The 
wife strikes her husband with a thin switch of the acacia (babul). 
She is then brought into the house, where the relations of her 
husband give her presents for letting them see her face {mufth'dikhdi). 
The senior wife rules the household, and those junior to her have to 



' AHEBITA. 42 

do her bidding. They live^ ss % rule^ on good terms, ud it is onl/ 
under very exceptional circumstances that separate houses are pro- 
vided for them. The age for marriage Taries from seven to twenty. 
Any marriage is voidable at the wish of the parties with the 
approval of the tribal council. Tbo match is arranged fay some 
relation of the youth with the help of a Brfthman and barber. When 
the parties are grown up, their wishes are considered, but in the case 
of minors the match is arranged by their friends or gaaxdiaaa. 
There is no regular bride price ; but if the girl's father is very poor 
the friends of the boy assist him to defray the cost of the marriage 
feast. In other cases the girVs &ther is supposed to give something 
as dowry (fakes). As to {lie ownership of this there is no fixed 
rule ; but it is understood that the presents which the bride reoetves 
at the maa^-z/til^^f ceremony, above described, become her private 
' property. Leprosy, impotency, idiocy, or mutilation oocorring after 
marriage are considered reasonable grounds for its annulment ; but if 
any physical defects wero disclosed before the marriage, they are not 
held to be a ground for dissolving the union. Charges of adultery 
are brought before the tribal council, and, if proved, a divoroe is de- 
clared. Divorced women can marry again by the i^^rdo form ; but 
women divorced for adultery, though such a course is possible, are 
seldom remarried in the tribe. Children bom of a father or mother 
who are not members of the tribe aro called lendra, and an not 
admitted to caste privileges. 

5. When a man desires to marry a widow, lie provides f6r her 

a suit of clothes, a set of glass bangles {elttri) 
and a pair of toe-rings {btekiMa). The 
council is assembled and the woman is asked if she accepts her snitor • 
If she agrees, an auspicious day is selected by the advice of a Brikh- 
man, and the new husband dresses her in the clothes and ornament 
and takes her home. After this he gives a feast to the brotherhood* 
In this form of marriage, known as iardo or dJkarefa, there is no 
procession {bdrdi), and no walking round the sacred fire (6isa»ar). 
The levirate is enforced unless the younger brother of her late husband 
is already married, in which case the widow may livo with an outsider. 
If she marries a stranger she loses her right to maintenance from 
the estate of her first husband, and also the guardianship of his 
children, unless they are of tender age. There is no trace of the 
fiction that children of the levir are attributed to his deceased 
brother. 



43 ^ AHEBITA. 

6. When pregnancy is ascertained the caste men are assembled 

and some ^ram and wheat boiled with molas- 
Birili oeremonies. ... 

ses is distributed. Contrary to pi*evailing 
Hindu custom the woman is delivered on a bed with her feet 
turned towards the Ganges. The midwife is usually a 
sweeper i?^oman^ and after delivery her place as nurse is taken by 
a barber woman. When the child is born molasses is distributed 
to friends ; and women sing songs and play on a bitus tray 
{ihdit). On the sixth day {eihaihi) they worship Sati^ and 
tlirow a little cakes and incense into the fire in her honour. On the 
twelfth day the mother is bathed^ and seated in the court-yard inside 
a sacred square {ciauk) made by a Brahman^ with wheat-flour. He 
then names the child^ and purifies the house by sprinkling water all 
about it and reciting texts {mantra). The caste- men arc feasted^ and 
the women sing and dance. This is known as the Daihtaun. But 
if the child happen to be bom in the asterism [nakthatra) of M&l 
the Dashtaun is performed on the nineteenth or twenty-first day. 
Leaves of twenty-one trees or plants^ such as the lime^ mango^ Uraf^ 
jdmuHf pomegranate^ n(m, custard apple^ etc.^ are collected. They 
also bring water from twenty-one wells, and little bits of lime stone 
{taniari) from twenty-one different villages. These things are all 
put into an earthen jar which is filled with water^ and with this the 
mother is bathed. Grain and money are given to Br&hmans, and 
the purification is concluded. If twins are bom, the &ther and 
mother sit together inside the sacred square on the day of the 
Dashtaun, and the Brahman ties an, amulet {rdkli), made of thread, 
round the wrists of both to keep off ill-luck. 

7. On an auspicious day selected by a Pandit the father of the 

boy makes him over to the person adopting 
hma. The adopter then dresses the boy in new 
clothes and gives him sweetmeats. A feast is then given to the 
clansmen. The child to be adopted must be under the age of ten. 

8. The marriage ceremonies begin with the betrothal, which is 

finished by the boy eating some betel sent 

Marriage oeremonies. . i . , i i i» ^ i i « , 

to mm by a barber from the house of the 
bride. It seems to be the custom in many cases to betroth 
children in their infancy. Then comes the lagan,, consisting 
of cash, clothes, a cocoanut and sweets sent by the father of the bride 
with a letter fixing the marriage day ; inside this is placed some dUb 
grass. Tlie BrShman recites verses {jnantra) as he gives these things 



AnwuiYA. 4A 

to the boy seated in a saored square^ while ihe women beat a sinall 
drum and sing songs. This goes on the whole night {ra^aga). Next 
follows- the anointing (ubtana) of the bride and bridegroom. 
During this time the pair are not allowed to leave the house through 
fear of the Evil Eye and the attacks of malignant spirits. On the 
day fixed in the lagan some mango and ckkonkor leavee^ some 
turmeric and two pice are tied on a bamboo, which is fixed in the 
court-yard by some relation on the female side, or by the priest. 
He is given some money, clothes, or grain, which is called neg. Then 
a feast of food, cooked without butter, known as the marlwa^ or 
'^ paviUon,'^ is given to the friends. The bridegroom is dressed in 
a coat {jdma) of yellow-coloured cloth, and wears a liond-<lro88 (uulut) 
made of palm leaves. When they reach the bride^s village^ they are 
received in a hut (Janwdnta), prepared for them. The bridegroom's 
father sends, by a connection {mdn), some sharbat to the bride^ and 
she sends food in return : this is known as barauniya. After this 
the pdr walk seven times round the sacred fire, and a fire sacrifioe 
{Aoma) is offered. Then follows the " giving away '' of the bride 
{kanydddn), and the pair are taken into an inner room^ where they 
eat sweetmeats and rice together ; this is known as iaiiamr, or com* 
farreatio, A shoe is tied up in cloth, and the women try to induce 
the boy to worship it as one of the local godlings. If he falls into 
the trap there is great merriment. The knot which has been tied in 
the clothes of the bride and bridegroom is then untied, his crown is 
taken off, and tlie marriage being over he returns to the Janwdma. 
Among poor people there is no lagan and no betrothaL Some 
money is paid to the bride's father, and the girl is taken to her 
husband's house and married there. No pavilion is erected, and the 
ceremony consists in making the girl and boy walk round the 
sacred fire, which is lighted in the court*yard. Girls that are stok'n 
or seduced are usually married in this way, which is known as doh. 
9. Rich people cremate the dead ; poorer people bury, or oonsig^ 

the corpse to some river. The dead are 

Diipoaal of the dead. ,.-1- 1 •■ 

buried face downwards to bar the return 
of the ghobt ; the feet face the north ; some bury without a shroud. 
After cremation the a^hes are usually taken to the Gunges, 
but some people leave them at the pyre. Fire is provided 
by a sweeper, who gets a small fee and the bamboos of the 
bier as his perquisite. After the cremation is over, some on 
their way home bathe, but this is not essential. After they bathe 



46 AHEBITA. 

they collect a little iuia grass and throw it on the road by which 
the corpse was removed. Then they throw some pebbles in the 
direction of tlie pyre. The popular explanation of this practice is, in 
order that "affection for the dead may come to an end'' 
(moh eihUt jdwS) ; the real object is to bar the return of the 
ghost. On the third or seventh day after the cremation the son 
or person who has lighted the pyre shaves ; then he has some large 
cakes {tiki^a) cooked, and some is placed on a leaf of the dkdt 
tree (buieajrondoia), and laid in a barley field for the support of 
tlie ghost. The clansmen are feasted on the thirteenth day ; thir- 
teen pieces of betel- nut and thiiteen pice are placed, one in each of 
thirteen pots, and this, with some grain, is divided among thirteen 
Bi&hmans. Then a fire-sacrifice is made. There is no regular 
irdddka ; but they worship the souls of the dead collectively in 
the month of Kuir, and throw cakes to the crows, who represent the 
souls of the dead. 

10. The death pollution lasts for thirteen days ; after child- 

birth for ten, and after menstruation for 

Ceremon* po u ion. ^j^j.^^ Jj^yg rpjjg fij.g^ ^^q ^j.^ removed by 

regular purification ; the third by bathing and washing the hair 
of the head. 

11. Devi is their sjiccial object of worship, but Mekh&sur is 

the tribal godling. His name means " Bam 
® '* °"* demon, '' but they can give no account of 

him. His shrine is at Gangtri, in the Atraula Tahsil. He 
is worshipped on the eighth and ninth of Bais&kh, with sweets 
and an occasional goat. An Ahir takes the offering. Zfthir Fir 
is the well known OOga. His day is the ninth of the dark half of 
Bhidon, and his offering cloth, cloves, ghi and cash, which are taken 
by a Muhammadan Kh&dim. Miydn S&hib, the saint of Amroha, 
in the Morddab^ District, is worshipped on Wednesday and 
Saturday with an offering of five pice, cloves, incense, and cakes, 
wliich are taken by the faqirs who are the attendants {mujdwir) at his 
tomb. They also make a goat saciifico known as kandHriy and 
consume the meat themselves. Jakhiya has a square platform at 
Karas, in the Igl^ Tahsil, at the door of a sweeper's hut. His 
day is the sixth of the dark half of MAgh, and his offering is two 
pice and some betel and sweets. Th^e are taken by the sweeper 
officiant. They also sometimes sacrifice a pig, and the sweeper 
nibs a little of the blood on the children's foreheads in order to ward 



AEERITA. 46 

off evil Bpirits. Barai is a oommon village godling. He is re- 
presented by a few stones under a tree ; his o&ring is a ekkalk^ 
or six cowries, some betel and sweets, which are' taken by a 
Brfthman Panda. This godling is the special protector of women 
and children. His days are the seventh of the light half of Chait 
and the seventh of the light half of Kn&r. Mftta, the small-pox 
goddess, and MasAni, the spirit of tlie bnming ground, are represented 
by some stones placed on a platform under a tree. They are wor- 
shipped on the same days as Band by women and children, and a 
Brfthman takes the offerings. Ch&mar also has his abode under a 
tree, and is worshipped on the first Monday of every Hindu month. 
His offering is a wheat cake ; and a ram is offered in serious caeos, 
and consumed by the worshippers. When cattle are sick or lose 
their milk, a little unboiled milk is poured on the shrine. B&rha BIba 
has his shrine at ChSndausi, in the Khair Tahstl. His day is the third 
of the light half of Bais&kh, and he is presented with oloth^ betel 
and sweets, which are taken by a Br&hman. S&h Jamftl, who appears 
to be one of the P&nch Pfr, has a shrine near the city of AKgarh. 
The offerings here are taken by a Muhammadan Khidim. 

12. V&lmiki, the author of the R&m&yana, is a sort of patron 

saint of the tribe. According to the Aheriy^ 
legend Vdlmiki was a great hunter and 
robber. After he had taken many lives he one day met the saint 
NArada Muni in the jungle. As he was aiming his arrow at 
the Rishi, N&rada asked him if he knew what a sin he was oom« 
mitting. At last N&rada convinced him of his wickedness and tried 
to teach him to say tidma I Bdtna I but for a long time he oould 
get no nearer it than Mdra ! Aldra I (Kill i kill I ) FinaUy his 
devotion won him pardon^ and ho became learned enough to compote 
the R&mftyana. Hence he is the saint of the Aheriyas. 

13. Some make a house shrine dedicated to Mekhisur in a room 

set apart for the purpose. Women regularly 
ouaewo ip. married are permitted to join in this 
worship, but unmarried girls and kardo wives are excluded. The 
sacrifices to these tribal godlings are done by some member 
of the family, not by a regular priest. In the case of Miyin 
Sahib and Jakhiya they sometimes release the viotim 
after cutting its ear ; in all other cases the animal is killed, and the 
flesh eaten by the worshippers. Most of their festivals are thoee 
common to all Hindus, which will be often mentioned. There is a 



47 AHEBIYA. 

curious Burvival of human Bacrifice in the obeervance at the festival 
known as the Sakat Chauth^ when they make the image of a 
human being o£ boiled rice, and at night cut it up and eat it. They 
venerate the pipal tree, and have a special worship of the ftonla 
{phj/llanihuB emblica) on the eleventh of the light half of Fh&lgun. 
Women bow down before the tree and offer eight small cakes and 
water at noon. At the Ndgpanchami women draw pictures of 
snakes on the walls of their houses and throw milk over them. Men 
take milk to the jungle and place it near the hole of a snake. Their 
favourite tattoo mark is SitS hi raioi, or a reprec>entation of the 
cooking room of Sita, which is still shown on the Chitra KCita hill. 
Their chief oath is on the Ganges, and this is made more binding 
if the person taking it stands under a pipal tree or holds a leaf of 
it in his hand. 

14. They cannot eat or drink with any other caste ; but they 

will eat kaekehi cooked by Ahtrs, Barhais, 
Jts, and Eah&rs ; they eat pakii, cooked by 
a Nai, but he will not eat paiii cooked by them. 

15. Their industries are what might have been expected from their 

partially nomad life. Like the Musahar of the 

Eastern Districts they make the leaf platters 

which Hindus use at meals (see Bdri). They also collect reeds 

for basket-making, etc., honey and gum from the dAdJt and 

acacia, which they sell in the towns. But the business which 

they chiefly carry on is burglary and highway robbery, and they 

are about the most active and determined criminals in the Province. 

A band of Aheriyas, arrested for committing a highway robbery 

on the Grand Trunk Road, gave the following account of themselves 

to Colonel Williams ^^— "Our children require no teaching. At 

an early age they learn to steal. At eight or nine years of ago 

tliey commence plundering from the fields, and as opportunities 

offer take brass vessels or anything they can pick up. ' So that by 

fifteen or sixteen they are quite expert, and fit to join in our 

expeditions. Gangs consist of from ten to twenty. Sometimes two 

gangs meet on the road and work together. I have known as many 

as forty in one highway robbery. Our leaders {Jafnaddr) are eloot- 

ed for their skill, intelligence, and daring. A good Jamadflr has no 

lack of followers. The Jamadar collects his band, gets an advance from 

Banyas to support his followers during the expedition, which money 

- - 

1 Paperi on Mtna Dacoiii and other Criminal Classet of India ^ I., sqq. 



AHERITA. 48 

is repaid with interest^ and our families are. never allowed to want 
while we are absent. We assemble in the village and start together, 
but disperse into parties of two or three to avoid observation, and 
generally state that we are Knehhis, Lodhas, or even BAjpnts, going 
to Benares on pilgrimage. We do this as our tribe has a bad name. 
We also avoid putting up at sarfiis, and generally encamp 100 or 
200 paces from the high road to watdi travellers, cartSj and vans 
pasbing. We all carry bludgeons, rarely weapons ; one or two in 
the gang may Iiave a sword. Our mode of proceeding in highway 
robberies is to look out for vans, carts, or camels laden with cloth : 
finding such as are likely to afford a booty, the members of the 
gang are warned to follow. The most expert proceed ahead to 
fix a spot for the attack. We have followed camels for three or 
four days before an opportunity offered. We commence bj pelting 
the guards with pieces of limestone (kaniar) or stones. Tliis 
generally causes . them to fly ; but, if not, we a^mble and threaten 
them with our bludgeons. If they still resist, we give up the attaok* 
We, however, rarely fail, and at the first shower of lamJtar the 
guards all fly. If any ot our gang are captured, it is the business of 
our Jamadilr to remain at hand, or depute some intelligent man of the 
band for this speciafduty: no expense is spared to effect their release. 
We And the Police readily accessible. If separated, we reoognise each 
other by the jackal's ciy ; but we have no peculiar terms or slang to 
distinguish each other. Wu take omens. Deer and the $iras crane 
on the right, jackals, asses, and white biixis on the left, while pro- 
ceeding on an expedition, are highly propitious. Un&vourable omens 
cause the ex|)e(lition to be deferred until they become otherwise 
On returning, if jackals, asses, and while birds appear on the left, or 
deer, sdratf or owls on the right, we rejoice exceedingly, and fear no 
evil. Some of our Jamadirs are so bt-ave that they don't care for 
omens. We dispose of our booty through middlemen (aria<fjr«), 
who sell it to the great Mahdjans. Of course they know it is 
plundered property fiom the price they give; and how oonid we 
have silk and fine linen for sale i£ not plundered? Our lamindArt 
know we live by plunder, and take a fourth of the spoil. Sometimes 
they take such clothes as suit them. On returning from a high- 
way robbery we use great expedition, travelling all night. During 
the day tlio plunder is concealed in dry wells ; we dibiMrso and liido 
in the fields. Two or three of the sharpest of the gang go to the 
nearest village for fooil, generally prepared food. We soon become 



49 



AEBBITA. 



aoquainted with all the sharp men on the road. One rogue readily 
finds a companion, and we thus get information of parties travelling 
and suitable booty. Though we pilfer and thieve wherever we can, 
we prefer highway robbery; as it is more profitable; and if the booty 
is cloth; easily disposed of. Always thieves by profession, we did not 
take to highway robbery till the great famine of 1833. Gulba and 
Suktua^ BaheliyaS; first opened the way for uS; and taught us this 
easy mode of living. These two are famed men, and resided near 
Mirzapur; in Pargana Jalesar (now in the Etah District). The 
Baheliyas and Alieriyas of Mirzapur soon took a lehding part; and 
were liighly distinguished. They are noted among us as expert 
thieves and highway robbers.^' Since this was written the Aheriyas 
have begun to use the ndlway in their expeditions; and are known 
to have made incui*sions as far as the Panjab; Central India^ 
Bengal, and Bombay. The Etah branch of the tribe is under the 
provisions of the Criminal Tribes Act. Curiously enough they have 
escaped record at the last Census. 

Dutribuiion of Aheri^ai aeeording to the Centus of 1891. 



DlSTBlCT. 


Number. 


DiSTBIOT. 


Number. 


Muzaflaniagar 




126 


MoryiibAd . 




481 


Moemt • 




1.437 


PilibhU . 




29 


Bulandshahr 




2,005 


Hamlrpar • 




78 


Alignrh 




9,877 


Benares 




668 


Maibnra 




766 


Mirzapur 




6 


Agni . 




4 


Jaunpur • 




129 


Mainpnri • < 




781 


Lnoknow 




2,266 


BiJDor 




229 


Faisib&d . 




4 






TOTAI 




19,768 



Ahir ^ : — An important and widely -distributed caste of herds- 
men and agriculturists, found in large numbers throughout the Pro^ 
tince. According to the Brahmanical tradition^ as given by Mann, 
they are descended by a Brfthman from a woman of the Ambastha^ 

1 Based on enquiries at Minapnr, and notes by Pandit Baldeo Prasida, Depatj 
Colleotor, Cawnpnr, and the Deputy Inspeotor of Sohoole, Agnu 

Vol. L ■ • 



AnlE. 60 

or tribo of phyeicianB. . " In the Brahma Purftna it is said that they 
are descended from a EBliatriya father and a woman of the Yaisym 
caste; but on the question of the descent of the variooB tribes^the aaond 
bookS| as in many other matters^ differ very moch from each other, 
and none are to be implicitly tmsted. This pastoral tribe of the 
Yftdnbansi stock was formerly of much greater oonrideration in 
India than it is at present. In the Rftmftyana and MahftbhArata 
the Abhtras in the west are spoken of ; and in the Porlnik Geo- 
graphy, the country on the western coast of India^ from the TAptito 
Devagarh is called Abhira^ or the region of cowherds. When the 
Eattis arrived in Oujarftt, in the aghth oentnry, they fonnd the 
gi-cater part of the country in the occupation of tlie Ahtrs. The name 
of Asirgarh, which Farishta and Khiz&na Amtra say is derived from 
Asa, Ahtr, shows that the tribe was of some importance in the 
Dakkhin also, and there is no doubt that we have trace of the name 
in the Abiria of Ptolemy, which he places above Patalena AUrs 
were also Bfijas of Nepftl at the beginning of our era, and they are 
perhaps connected with the Pdla, or shepherd dynasty, whioh ruled 
in Bengal from the 0th to the latter part of tlie lltli oentoryi 
and which, if we may place trust in monumental inscriptions, were 
for some time the universal rulers of India/' ^ 

2. On the tribe to the east Mr. Risley writes ' : ^'' The traditions 

of the caste bear a highly imaginative oharao* 
ter, and profess to trace their descent from the 
god Krishna, whoso relations with the milk*maids of Brindthan 
play an important part in Hindu mythology, Krishna himself 
is supposed to have belonged to the tribe of YAdavas, or desoendanta 
of Yadu, a nomadic race, who graze cattle and make butter, and 
are believed to have made an early settlement in the neighbourhood 
of Mathura. In memory of this tradition, one of their sub-oaatea^ 
in the North-Western Provinces, is called Yadu, or Jadnbansi^ totha 
present day. Another story, quoted by Dr. Buchanan, makes out 
the Gu&las to be Vaisyas, who were degraded in consequence of 
having introduced castration among their herds, and members of the 
caste who are disposed to claim this distinguished ancestor may lay 
stress upon the fact that tlie tending of flocks and herds is mention- 
ed by the authorities among the duties of the Yaisya onlor. 
Taken as a whole, the Gudia traditions hardly can be said to do 



> Sir II. M. imiiot, 8uypUfneniary Qlouary, ■. v. 
< Tnb^ and Caites, I, 282. 



61 ahIb. 

more than render it probable that one of their earliest settlements 
was in the neighbourhood of Mathura, and that this part of the 
oomilry was tho eontro of distribution of the casta The large 
functional group known by the name Ou&Ia seems to have been re- 
oruitod not merely by the diffusion along the Oanges valley of the 
semi- Aryan Guftlas of the North- Western Provinces, but also by 
the inclusion in the caste of pastoral tribes who were not Aryans 
at all. These, of course, would form distinct sub-castes, and would 
not be admitted to tl\eju9 eonmubii with the original nucleus of the 
caste. The great differences of make and feature which may be 
observed among Gu&las seem to bear out this view, and to show that 
whatever may have been the original constituents of the caste, it now 
comprises several heterogeneous elements. Thus, even in a district so 
&r from the original home of the caste as Sinhbh&m, we find Colonel 
Dalton remarking that the features of the Mathuribftsi Qti&las are 
high, sharp and delicate, and they arc of a Ught brown complexion. 
Those of the Magadha subH^aste, on the other hand, are undefined 
and coarse. They are dark-complexioned, and have large hands and 
feet. Seeing the latter standing in a group with some Sinhbh&m 
Kols, there is no distinguishing one from the other. There has, 
doubtless, been much intermixture of blood. These remarks illus« 
trato both tho processes to which tlio growtli of tho casto is duo. 
They show how representatives of the original tribe have spread to 
districts very remote from their original centre, and how at the 
same time people of alien race who followed pastoral occupations 
have become attached to the caste, and are recognized by a sort of 
fiction as having belonged to it all along.'' 

8. Another account represents them to be the descendants of 
the Abars, one of the Scythian tribes who in the second or first cen- 
tury before Christ entered India from the north-weiit, or, and 
this is perhaps more probable, they are regarded as an old Indian or 
half -Indian race who were driven south before the Scythian inva- 
non. That they were very early settlers in these Provinces and the 
neighbourhood is certain. The NepAl legend'* states that the Kiritas 
obtained possession of the valley after ex|)ellLng the Ahirs. In the 
Ilindu drama of the Toy-Cart,' the successful usurper who over- 
throws Pilaka, King of Ujjain, is Aryaka, of the cowherd caste ; and 
similarly in the Buddhist chronicles Chandragupta is described as a 

• AUinaoo, Himaia^^n. GobsUmt, II., 3^ 

* WbMl«r, iiit/ory 0/ India. Vol. Ill.,a83.f'M. 

Vol. 1. si 



Anta. 62 

oowhei*d of princely race. In Oudh they appear to have been early, 
probably aboriginal, inhabitants before the RAjput invasion. They 
are also said to be olosely connected with the BharSy and they 
attend at great numbers on the occasion of a fair at Dahnan in the 
Rfte Bareli district held in honor of the Bhar hero Dal, who hat 
been, in connection with that tribe shown to be mythical.^ General 
Cunningham* assumes from the reference to them in Manu that 
they must certainly have been in India before the time of Alexander, 
and tliat as they are very numerous in the eastern districts of 
Mirzapur, Benares, and Shfth&b&d, they cannot possibly, Jike the 
J&ts and O&jars, be identified with the Indo-Scythiani^, whoee 
dominions did not extend beyond the Upper Ganges. It is merely 
a conjecture of Mr. Nesfield that the Kor or Eur sub-caste is deriv- 
ed from the Kols of the Vindh^an plateau.* 

4. At the same time, as might have been expected, some of their 
traditions indicate a tendency to aspire to a higher origin than thoae 
which would associate them with menial tribes such as the Bhari. 
Thus in Bulandshahr^ they claim to be Chauh&n Rijputs. The 
Rohilkhand branch say that they came from Ili^nsi Xlissftr about 
700 years ago. In Gorakhpur the Bargaha sub-oaste provide 
wet-nurses in R&jput families* : others call themsehrea JAta 
and refer their origin to Bhamtpur, while thdy call themselves 
Kshatriyas. There is again a very close connection between the 
Dauwa sub-caste and the Bundola Rdjputs for whom they provide 
wet-nurses.^ In Azamgarh^ thiBy claim to have been onoe 
Kshatriyas who ruleil the country ; in Mainpuri^ they assert that 
they are descendants of R/lna Katira of Mewftr, who had been 
driven from his own country by an invasion of the Muhammadanf 
and look refuge with Digpftia, Rftja of Mahftban, whose daughter, 
Kdnh Kunwar his son subsequently married, and by her became the 
ancestor of the F&tliak sub-caste. They are the highest elan in that 
part of the country, and there is a ridiculous legend in explanation 
of their name, that RAna Katira was attacked by the King of DeDu, 



1 Elliot, Chroniclet of Vndo, 20 j RAe Dar§li BetUemmU Rspari^ 15. 
< ArehcBologieal HeparU, II., 81. 

* Brief View, 106. 

^ Centus Report, 18f)5, Appendiw 21. 

* Bnohanan, Easiem fndta, II., 4H7. 

* GaMelteer^ Sorih^Weilern Provincett I., MO. 
r Sctllcmeni Report, 33. 

^ Qriwao, 3fa</tura.252. 



53 AUtK 

and that out of the twelve gates [phdlak) of his capital only one 
held out to the end. When the enemy had retired^ the B&na^ in 
order to commemorate the Bignal bravery shown by the guard of the 
twelfth gate^ issued a decree that they and their descendants should 
be for ever designated by the title of P&thak or Ph&tak.^ 

5. At the last Census the Ahtrs were recorded in eighteen main 

sub-castes — Benbansi, the offspring of Bi ja 

Internal straotnre. ^, xi j? ^ xl i^y \ 

Vena, the famous sinner of the mythology ; 
Bhirgudi; Dauwa; Dhindhor ; Gaddi; Oamcl ; Ohorcharha, 
*' ridcra on horses ; '' Ghosi, or " Shoutcrs ; '' Gfljar ; Gu&lbans ; 
J&dubans^ '^of the Y^ava race;'^ Kamariha; Khunkhuniya; 
Kur ; Nandabans, " of the race of Nanda/^ the foster-father of 
Krishna ; P&thak ; Bajauriya^ and R&wat. The iilternal classi- 
fication of th^ Ahirs was very carefully worked out by Sir 
II. M. Elliot, who writes : — *' There appear to be thi*ee grand divi- 
sions among them, — ^the Nandbans', the J&dubans and the Giiftlbans, 
which acknowledge no connection except that of being all Ahirs. 
Those of the Central Duftb usually style themselves Nandbans ; 
those to the west of the Jamuna and the Upper Duftb, Jftdubans ; 
and those in the Lower Du&b and Benares, Gufilbans. The latter 
seem to have no sub-divisions or gotrai. The principal gotrat of the 
Nandbans are Samarphalla/ Kishnaut, Bhagta, Bilehniya, Disw&r, 
Nagauwa, Kanaudha, Dfinr, R&wat, Tenguriya, Kur, Kamariya, 
Barausiya, Mujwftr, Dahima,^ Nirban, Kharkhari, Dirhor, 
Sitauliya, Jarwariya, Barothi, Gonda and Phatak — amounting in 
all to eighty-four. In Bighoto, besides many of these there are the 
Molak, Santoriya, Khosiya, Khalliya, Loniw&l, Aphariya or 
Aphiriya, Maila, Mhaila, Khoro, Sesotiya, Gandw&l, Gird, 
Bhamsara, Janjariya, Kankauriya and Niganiya, amounting in all 
to sixty-four. Many of the two last-named clans have been con- 
verted to the Muhammadan faith, and are known as RAngars. The 
two villages whence they derive their name are celebmted in local 
legends for turbulence and contumacy. ' 

Dihli ten painlU ko9 Kanhaur Nigdnn ; Apni loi dp ikden^ 
hdkim ne va den ddna. — " Thirty-five kos from Delhi are Kanhaur 
and Nigana. There the people eat what they sow, and do not give a 
grain to the Government.'' 

6. Amongst these the Khoro rank first ; but their claim to 
superiority is denied by the Aphiriya, who have certainly in modern 
times attained the highest distinction. They all, including the 



ABtR. 64 

Khoro^ intermarry on terms of equality^ avoiding, like all other 
Ahtrs, only the fonr ^o^raM nearest related. A man^ for inetanoe, 
oannot marry into his father's, mother's paternal or maternal gotraM: 
and no intermarriages take place between distant olans. Thna those 
of the Duftb and Bighoto hold little or no personal interooorse, and 
eaoh declares the other an inferior stock/' 

7. In Agra wo find the Guilbans, Nandbans, Eamariba and 
Ohusiya.^ The Nandbans call tEeinselves the ofEspring of Nanda^ 
the foster-father of Krishna, and the Ondlbans say that they are 
descended from the Oopis who danced with the god in the woods of 
Brindffban and Gokul. The Nandbans women wear bangles {ckln) 
of glass {kdncha) and white clothes. Those of the Qnftlbans wear 
bangles of lac and coloured or embroidered dresses. All of than, at 
the time of marriage, except the Ghusiya., wear a nuptial orown 
{maur) made of paper. That of the Ghusiyas is made of the leaYOi 
of the palm (khajur). The Kamariya sub-caste have a oorioos 
custom of hanging up .cakes made of wheat-flour in the marriage 
pavilion while the ceremony is going on. All of them admit widow 
marriage, and these sub-castes are strictly endogamous. . In Oawnpur 
the sub-castes are Nandbans, J&dubans, Kishnaut, Kananjiya^ 
Ohosi, Ou&lbans and Illahfibftsi, or residents of Allahibtd. In the 
east of the Province there is a different set of sub-castes. Thus in 
Mirzapur they are divided into the Churiya GuftI, who are so called 
because their women wear bangles [ehiri) ; Mathiya., who wear 
brass rings (»f(^M») ; Kishnaut ; Maharwa, or Mahalwm; Dharora; 
Bhurtiya; and Barg&hi. The Kishnaut sub-caste allege that it wae 
among them that the infant Krishna was nursed. The Maharwaa 
or Mahalwas tell the following story to account for their name :— 
" Once upon a time there lived an Ahir at Agori, the famoofi forties! 
of the Chandel Rftjputs, on the river Son. He was rich and devoted 
to gambling. The R&ja of Agon also loved the dice. One day they 
were playing, when the Ahir lost all his property, and, finally, staked 
his unborn child. He lost this also. When the Ahtr's wife broa|^ 
forth a girl the RAja claimed her, and the Ahtr was called Maharw% 
because his daughter had to enter the harem {mdhal) of the Rlja.'' 
Another version of the legend connects it with the celebrated Lorik 
cycle. The Ahtr maiden is said to have been saved by the hero, and 
took the name of Maharwa because she was eaved from the harem, 

8. Another legend tells the origin of the Bhurtiyas in this way :— 
'' Once upon a time Sri Krishna blew his flute in the forest and all 



66 ahIr. 

the girls of Brindftban msked to meet him. They were so excited 
at the prospect of meeting him that they did not wait to adjust 
their dross or jewelry. One of them appeared with brass rings 
{mdtki) on one wrist and lac bangles {ehuri) on the other ; so she 
was called by way of a joke Bhurtiya or ' careless/ and the name 
has clung to her descendants ever since.'' In memory of this the 
women of this sub-caste wear both kinds of .ornaments. 

9. Bargfthi is said^ again^ in Persian to mean '* one who attends 
a royal court/' and the name is derived from the fact that the 
women of this sub-caste used to serve as wet-nurses in the families 
of noblemen. Among these the Ghuriya and Maharwa intermarry ; 
all the others are endogamous. 

10. The detailed Census returns enumerate no less than 1^767 
varieties of Ahirs. Of these^ those most largely represented are — in 
Bulandshahr^ the Bhatti^ Nirban and Ahar ; in Aligarh, the Chakiya^ 
Garoriya ; in Mainpuri^ the Girdharpuriya and Tulasi ; in Etah^ 
the Barwa, Bharosiya^ Desw&r^ Dholri^ Kanchhariya, and Siyard ; 
in Baredlly^ the Chaunsathiya or '^ sixty-fours ; " in Morftdibdd, 
the Deswdr ; in Sh&hjahAnpur^ the B&chhar, which is the name of a 
well-known Rftjput sept, Bakaiya, Birhariya, Chanwar, Darswftr, 
Dohar, Khard, Katha, Katheriya, Manhpachchar, Blna, Rohendi 
and Sisariya ; in Cawnpur, the Darsw&r and Sakarw&r, the latter of 
which is the title of a Rfi jput sept; in Fatehpur, the Bagbubansi ; in 
Binda, the Bharauniya ; in Hamirpur, the Bautela ; in Jhftnsi, the 
Gondiya, Mew&r and Bautela ; in Mirzapur, the Kishnaut; m Ballia, 
the Kanaujiya, Kishnaut, Majraut ; in Gorakhpur, the BargHh, 
Kanaujiya, Kishnaut, and Majnftn ; in Basti, the Kanaujiya ; in 
Lucknow, the Baghubansi ; in Undo, the Gel, Gokuliya, and Ghiftl- 
bansij in Sitapur^ the BAjbansi ; in IIardoi,the Kauiiya; in SultAn- 
pur, the Dhuriya ; in Fart&bgarh, the Sohar ; in B&rabanki/ the 
B&chhar, Dharbansi, Muriy&na and B&jbansi. 

11. No account of the Ahirs would be complete without some 

reference to the famous tribal legend of Lo- 

The Lorik legend. i i • u • x i i.u ji- 

nk, which IS most popular among them and is 

sung at all their ceremonies. There are various recensions of it, and 

it is most voluminous and embodies a number of different episodes. 

In what is, perhaps, the most common form of the legend, Siudbar, 

an Ahir of the East country, marries Chandain, and is cursed with 

the loss of all passion by Firvati. His wife forms an attachment 

for a neighbour named Lorik and elopes with him. The husband 

pursues, fails to induce her to return, and fights Lorik, by whom he 



AHtB. 66 

is defeated. The pair then go on and finally meet Mah>patiy% a 
DoflAdh^the chief of the gamblers. He asul Lorik play till the 
latter loses everything^ including his mistress. She nrgee that her 
jewels did not form part of the stake^ and induces them to try 
another throw of the dice. She stands opposite Mahlpatiya and 
distracts his attention by exposing her person to him. Finally 
Lorik wins everything back. The girl then tells Lorik how she had 
1)een insulted by the low-caste man^ who saw her exposed, and Lorik 
with his two-maund sword cuts ofE the gambler's head, when it 
and his body were turned into stone, and are to be seen to tins day. 
Lorik and Chandain then continued their wanderings, and he attaoks 
and defeats the King of Ilardui near Mongir. The Bija is after- 
wards assisted by the King of Kalinga, defeats Lorik, and imprisons 
him in a dungeon, whence he is released by the intercession of the 
goddess Durga, recovers the kingdom and his mistress Chandain, and 

after some years of happiness returns to his native land. 

12. Meanwhile the brother of Lorik, Semru, had been attacked 
and killed by the Kols and all his cattle plundered. Lorik takoe a 
bloody revenge from the enemy. Before he left home with Chan- 
dain, Lorik had been betrothed to an Alitr girl named Satmanain^ 
who by this time had become a handsome woman, who lived in the 
hope that Lorik would some day return and claim her. Lorik was 
anxious to test her fidelity, and when he came near home, concealed 
his identity. When she and the other woman came to sell milk in 
his camp he laid down a loin cloth at the entrance. All the other 
women stepped over it, but such was the delicacy of Satmanain that 
she refused. Lorik was pleased, and, without her knowledge, filled 
her basket with jewels, and covered tliem over with rice. When she 
returned, her sister found the jewels, and taxed her with receiving 
them as the price of her honour. She indignantly denied the accu* 
sation, and the son of Semru, the dead brother of Lorik, set out to 
avenge on him the insult to his aunt. Finally, the matter waa 
cleared up, and Lorik reigned for many years in happiness with his 
wives Chandain and Satmanain. But the god Indra determined to 
destroy his virtue, and he induced Durga to take the form of his mis* 
tress and tempt him. When he gave way to the temptatite and 
touched her she struck him so that his face turned completely roond. 
Overcome by grief and shame he went to Kftsi (Benares), and there 
they were all turned into stone, and sleep the sleep of Inagie at the 
ICanikamika Ghftt.^ 

* Introdnetion to the Popular Religion and Folklore of Nortkem India, 280^ iff. . 



57 ahIe. 

18. Ab has been already said^ the sub-castes are endogamous. 

To the west the gotra system is in full force 
and marnago is barred in tlio four gotrai of 
father^ mother^ grand-father, and grand-mother. To the east few 
of the rural Ahirs seem to know anything about {\mxgotras. They 
will not marry in a &mily to which a sister has been given ',in 
marriage until three generations have passed. In Beh§r, according 
to Mr. Risley, ** the BrAhmanical gotroM are unknown, and marriage 
among the Qxi&las is regulated by a very large number of exogamous 
groups {p^4l) 6i the territorial type. In some places where the 
existing milli have been found incohveniently large, and marriage 
has been rendered unduly difficult, certain millt have broken up. into 
puruiAi or sub-sections. Where this has taken place a man may 
marry within the m4i, but not within the purukA, the smaller and 
more convenient group.'' He goes on to explain at length how 
this rule of exogamy works in practice, and how it is necessary to 
supplement it by the standard formula of exogamy common to many 
of the lower, tribes. Of this elaborate system no trace has been 
found as yet among the western Ahirs, but it is quite possible that 
further local enquiry may supply examples of this, or some analogous 
rule of exogamy prevailing in these Provinces. 

14. The intoiiial aflairs of the caste arc managed by a pan* 
_ .. , . ehdi/at or tribal council. As an instance of 

Tribal ootmoil. .... 

its working, in Mirzapur it is presided over 
by a permanent chairman (chandhari) and, as a iiile^ meets only 
on the occasion of weddings and funeral ceremonies, when current 
business is brought before it. The oases usually heard are con- 
nected with immorality, eating with a prohibited caste, and family 
disputes about iuhoritanco and property. The accused person 
during the hearing of the case is not allowed to sit on the tribal 
mat with his brethren. The president uses the members only 
as assessors, and after enquiry announces the decision. A person 
found guilty of immorality is usually fined eight iiipees, and has 
to supply two feasts for the brethren. Out of the fine the chair- 
man receives one rupee, and the rest is spent in purchasing ves- 
sels and other furniture for use at the meetings. If a man is 
convicted of an intrigue with a woman of the tribe, he is fined only 
one rupee and has to give two dinners to the brotherhood. Any 
one who disobeys the orders of the chairman is beaten with shoes 
in the presence of the council and is excluded from all caste privi- 



AHtB. 68 

leges until he submits.. Instances of the oontempt of the orden of 
the council are seldom heard of. 

15. To the west of the Province polygamy is allowed, but it is 

discouraged. In Mirzapur it is said to be 
prohibited without the express sanotion of the 
council^ which is given only in exceptional cases, sueh as the hope- 
less illness or barrenness of the first wife, and if a man ventures to 
take a second wife without sanction, he is very severely dealt with. 
There seems to be very little doubt that along the banks of the 
Jumna polyandry prevails in the fraternal form. Tha^ it does 
exist among some of these tribes is shown by the common sayings 
Do hhasam ki joru . ckausar ki got ( '' The wife of two husbands is 
no better than a draught in backgammon ''). Among the Ahtrs of 
this part of the country it has doubtless originated in the oostom of 
one member of the family remaining away grazing cattle often for 
a long. time. It is very difficult to obtain information about it, a% 
wherevei; it exists, the custom is strongly reprobated. Theeastsni 
Ahtrs agree in denying its existence, and express the utmoat' honor 
at .the* very idea of such a family arrangement. 

16;.. Marriage, except among the very poorest members of the 
caste^ takes place in infancy. As an example of the arrangements 
the customs in the Mirzapur District may be described. The 
match is generally settled by the brother-in-law of the boy^s father 
or by the brother-in-law of the latter. In all cases the assent of 
the parents on both sides is essential. The father of the boy pays 
as the bride price two rupees in cash^ two garments, and five f#rf 
of treacle and salt. No physical defect^ which was disdoacd at 
the time of the betrotlial^ is sufficient to invalidate the marriage. 
A husband may put away his wife for habitual infidelity ; bat a 
single lapse from virtue^ provided the paramour be a member of 
the caste^ is not seriously regarded. Widow marriage is permit* 
ted as well as the levirate ; but if the widow does not take up with 
the younger brother of her late husband^ she usually marries 
a widower. Children of virgin brides and widows married a second 
time rank equally for purposes of inheritance ; but it has been judi- 
cially decided' that an Ahir^ the offspring of an adultorooa 
connection^ is incapable of inheriting from his father. At widow 
marriage there is no regular ceremonial; the bridegroom merely 

I Daltp vr$uM Gftniwt Indian haw Reporti Alldhdbdd^ VIII., 887. 



. 69 AHIB. 

goes to the woman's guardian with two rupees and a sheet on a 
day fixed by the village Pandit. He pays the bride price and the 
woman is dressed in the sheet. He eats that night with her 
family^ and next morning takes his wife home^ and she is recognized 
as a duly married woman after the brotherhood have been feasted. 
If she marry outside the family of her late husband^ his estate 
devolves on his sons by her first marriage ; if there be no sons^ to 
the brothers of her late husband. If she marry her husband's 
younger brother^ he acts as guardian of his nephews and makes 
over to them tho property of their father when they arrive at 
the age of discretion. There is no fiction of attributing the children 
of the second to the first husband. 

^17. Adoption prevails; and^ as long as there is a sister's son 

available for adoption^ no other relative can 
bo selected. A man may adopts .if his only 
son is disqiialified from succession by being permanently excluded 
from caste^ or if he have lost his faith {d^arm). Adoption^ while a 
son is alive^ is forbidden. A widower may adopt^ but it is for- 
bidden in the case of a woman^ a bachelor^ or a man who is 
blind^ impotent^ or crippled. A widow can adopt only with the 
express permission of her late husband^ and not if her husband have 
adopted a son during his lifetime. A man may adopt his nephew 
at any age ; but in the case of an outsider the child adopted must 
not be more than twelve years of age. The boy adopted must^ in 
any case^ be of the same ffolra as his adoptive father. The adoption 
of a sister's son is prohibited ; as a rule a man adopts the son of his 
brother or daughter. Adoption is performed in the presence of 
and with the advice and approval of^ the assembled brethren. The 
man and his wife take theii* seats in the assembly^ and the wife 
takes the boy into her lap and acknowledges him as her own child. 
A distribution of food or sweetmeats follows and concludes the 
ceremony. There is no custom analogous to Beena marriage recog- 
nised where the bridegroom is taken into the household of his 
father-in-law and serves for his bride. They follow^ as a rule^ the 
Hindu law of succession. 

18. There are no observances during pregnancy. When the 

Domesiio ceremonies. ^^^^ ^^ bom the Chamirin miflwife is called 
Birth. ^j^, ^i^Q Q^^Q j^i^Q umbilical cord and buries 

it on the spot where the binh occurred^ lighting a fire and fixing 
up a piece of iron — a guard against evil spirits. The mother 



AnlR. GO 

getB no food that day^ and next morning she is dosed with 
a mixture of ginger, tnrmerio and treacle. The ChamArin attends 
for rix days, and after bathing the mother and child she is 
dismissed with a present of two-and-a-half iers of grain and two 
annas in cash. Then the barber^s wife attend s, who outs the nails 
of the mother and child and dyes the soles of their feet with lao. 
The purification of the confinement room is done by the sister of 
the &ther of the child, who gets a present for the service. The 
father does not cohabit with his wife for two months after her 
delivery. 

19. The following describes a marriage as carried ont in the 
,, . Mirzapur District. Wlion the match is set- 

Harriofi^ ooromonioc. i i .t # i 

tied the father of the boy pays a visit to the 
girl^s father to make the final preparations. Next follows the 
betrothal («a'aO> which is carried out on a day fixed by the Pandit, 
who gets a fee of two annas. The father of the boy goes to the 
house of the bride with the bride price already described, pays it 
over, eats there, and returns next morning. Next follows the 
'tnatmangar or collection of the sacred earth, wliioh is .done 
exactly as in the case of the Dravidian Bhuiyas, in the article 
on which tribe the ritual is .described. When the earth is brought 
back to the house it is placed under the sacred water vessel {kaltd) 
near the pole of siddh wood fixed up in the centre of the marriage 
shed. This vessel is decorated with lumps of cowdung stuck in a 
Une all round it, and over these grains of barley are sprinkled. 
The mouth is filled with mango leaves, and over them is placed 
an earthen saucer {koia) full of the idnwdn millet or barley. When 
this is completed all the women present are given some parched g^n, 
which they receive in the part of their sheet covering the breast. 

20. Wlien this is over the anointing (telhardi) of the bride and 
bridegroom commences. This goes on every evening till the day 
before the wedding (Bhatwdn). Next morning the boy is bathed by 
the barber, and the water is carefully kept for use in bathing the 
bride. The boy is dressed in a yellow loin cloth and a red turban and 
coat, when his mother takes him in her lap and five unmarried boys 
make him chew some cakes folded up in mango leaves. Then he 
spits on the palm of his mother's hand and she licks it up, when 
tiie father and mother, with their hands covered with a olotli so 
that no one may see them, grind some urad pulse on the family 
curi*y stone («fV)* '^'^^^ ^^ made into lumps and offered to the 



61 AHifii 

sainted dead of the household with the prayer " Come and help us to . 
bring the marriage to a successful issue I '' Then the boy gets into 
the litter^ while his mother waves a pestle over hi6 head to drive o£E 
evil spirits. When the litter is raised the mother is obliged to creep X 
beneath it^ and as she attempts to do so the Eahftrs put it down, and 
will not raise it until they receive a present. This present is called jM7ifJ 
or '' a drink.'' It is customary with them that the procession should 
reach the house of the bride after nightfall, a survival of marriage 
by capture. They then go to the house of the headman of the village 
and present him with five chhatdukB of betel-nut and curd — a possible 
sign of the commutation oE the ju8 prima noeiii, but more 
probably one of the ordinary dues takcQ by the village landlord at 
marriages. They stay some time at his door and dance and sing 
their own tribal song, the Hrha. Then they go to the reception 
place {fanwdma)y which is usually arranged under a tree near the 
village. Then the bride's barber appears and washes the feet of 
the pa]*ty, and a relative of the bride comes and feeds five boys of 
the gotra of the bridegroom with him on curds and treacle. After 
this the boy's father sends to the bride the water in which the bride- 
groom had been washed ; in this she gets the marriage bath. This 
done the bridegroom goes to the house of the bride, and is received 
at the door by the mother of the bride, who waves over his head a 
piece of dough, on which is laid a silver coin and a lighted lamp. 
This is the paraehhan ceremony, and is intended to scare away the, 
evil spirits, which are most to be dreaded at any crisis of life such 
as marriage. Then the barber's wife brings out the bride, who. is 
seated on the thigh of her father. The pair worship Gburi and 
Gancsa, of whom flour images are made. The &ther then gives 
away his daughter in the regular kanj/dddn form, holding a bunch of 
ku»a grass, water, and rioe, in his right hand. Then the bridegroom 
first per orms the emblematical marriage with the siddh tree forming 
the central pole of the marriage shed, and he then marks the parting 
of the bride's hair. The pair next make five circuits round the siddh 
tree, and the ceremony ends with a salute to the officiating 
Brahman. 

21. Next the bridegroom walks with the bride into the retir- 
ing room (kohabar)y9Xi obvious survival of the custom still prevailing 
among some of the Dravidian tribes, where consummation follows 
immediately on the marriage ceremony. The sister-in-law of the 
bride attempts to ol/stmct his pasmgo, and he is obliged to carry in 



ahIb. 62 

the bride by force. The walls of the retiring room are deooratad 
with rude drawings in red^ of elephants and horses. Over these the 
bridegroom is made to pour a little batter. Then the women 
orack jokes with the boy. Pointing to a rice pestle they say '' That 
is your father I Salute him I ** and taking up a lamp they say, ''That 
is your mother I Salute her I *^ On this he breaks the lamp with 
the pestle. Tlien the knot joining the clothes of the pair is opened 
and the boy returns to his own party. 

22. Next morning the bridegroom is brolight with two or 
three other boys to go through the eonfarreaiio or Jtkiekari rite. 
When he is asked to eat in the house of the bride he holds out for 
some time, and will not touch the food untii he gets a present from 
his father-in-law ; then his party are feasted. Next morning th!^ 
boy goes again into the marriage shed^ and his mother-in-law, aa 
before, waves a pestle over his head and gives him a present. This 
done/his father shakes one of the poles of the shed and receives a 
]^resent for so doing, which is known as mdnrohildu On this, the 
relations * on both sides embrace, and the wedding party start for 
home. If the bride bo nubile she accompanies her husband ; if notp 
in the first, third, or fifth year there 'is the ^tftiw g, when she n 
brought to the house of her husband. After the^ptfty return, a 
burnt offering {kom) is made in honour of the village godlings (^ti), 
and the barber's wife takes the marriage jar {kalta) to a neigh- 
bouring stream, where she washes it, and then, filling it with water, 
pours the contents over the head of the mother of the bridegroom, 
and asks her if she feels refreshed, meaning thereby if she is satisfied 
with the marriage of her son. Of course she says that she is 
satisfied, and blesses him and his wife. 

23. The married dead are cremated ; children and those wha 

die of epidemic disease are buried. Theere- 

Death oeremoniee. .. . , . . ^, ,, , 

mation is earned out m the orthodox way. 
After it is over the chief mourner plants by the side of a river, or 
tank, a bunch of the jurat grass, as an abode for the sonl until 
the funeral rited are completed. He cooks for himself, and daily 
places on a dung- hill a leaf platter {daufta) full of food for the ghoet 
of the dead man. On the tenth day he throws into a tank ten balls 
of rice boiled in milk {ikir) in honour of the dead. During this the 
Brfthman repeats texts ; and the relatives, after shaving, come home 
and ofFer a biu*nt offering. Clothes, vessels, a cow, and other 
articles are given to a Mah&Br&hman in the belief that they will 
pass for the use of the dead man in the next world. 



63 ahIb. 

24. Ahtrs are all Hindus^ but are seldom initiated into any of 

the regular sects. To the east of the Pro- 
vince they worship^ by preference^ Mah&deva. 
They also worship the P&nchonpir and Birtiya. The latter, they 
say, was one of their forefathers, who fell in some fight at Delhi. 
He is worshipped in the month of S&wan, or at the Holi festival, 
with a burnt offering, which is made either in the courtyard of the 
house where the churn is kept, or in the cow-house. They also 
pour spirits on the ground in his honour. They worship the 
Pftnchonpir during the Naurdtri or first nine days of Chaitra. 
Birtiya is regarded as the special guardian of cattle. The only one 
of the regular pantheon, to whom they offer regular saorifioes, is the 
Yindhyab&sini Devi, of Vindhy&chal, to whom they occasionally 
sacrifice a goat. In other parts of the Province they seem, as a rule^ 
to worship Devi. They are served by Br&hmans of all the ordinary 
priestly classes. 

25. To the east of the province the worship . of E&sin&th is 

very popular. In most of their villaires 

Worship of Ktiinlth. ^v • , . , , , 

there is a man who is supposed to be 
possessed by this deity, who is generally a young, strong man, 
who lets his hair grow. Once or twice a year K&sin&th ''comes 
on his head, ' • as the phrase is. Then ho begins to move his hands 
and shakes his head, and in this state utters prophecies of the pros- 
pects of the crops and other matters affecting the village. Then 
they all assemble in some open ground, outside the village, and 
arrange for the worehip of the godling. They light several fires in a 
row, and on each a pot of milk is set to boil. Opposite these a pile 
of parched barley {ba^vri) is collected. As soon as the milk begins 
to boil over, theloQan possessed of the spiiit of KAsin&th, rushes up 
and pours the contents of all the pots in succession over his shoul- 
ders. It is sud that he is never scalded. The rite concludes with 
the distribution of the barley among the congregation. 

26. In parts of the Mirzapur District, south of the River Son, you 

may notice, on the side of the road, here and 
^ ° * there, a little platform {chaura), with one, three 

or five rude wooden images, about three feet high, with a sort of 
representation of a human face and head at the top. These fetish 
posts are quite black with a continual application of oil or ghi. 
This is the shrine of Birnath, the Ahir cattle godling. He was an 
Ahir, who, according to some, was killed by a tiger, and he has now 



AHta. 64 

Wome a godling^ and is worshipped hy the Ahtrs of the j 
the protector of cattle. People make occasional vows to him in 
seasons of sickness or distress^ but his special function is to keep 
the cattle safe from beasts of prey. He has no special fieast day, bbt 
is presented with occasional offerings of rice, milk, and cakes. The 
worshipper first bathes; then fresh plasters the platform of the 
godling, and deposits his offering upon it and says '^ Btmftth B2ba 
keep* oar cattle safe, and you will get morel'' This worship is 
always done in the morning, and more particularly when the cattle 
are sent into the jungle in the hot weather, or when cattle disease is 
prevalent. The curious point about the worship is that it is part 
of the faith of the aboriginal tribes, with whom the connection 6t 
the Ahirs cannot be very close. Thus Mr. S. Hislop * writes : — 
" In the south of the Bhand&ra District the traveller frequently 
meets with squared pieces of wood, each with a rude figaie carved 
in front, set up somewhat close to each other. These represent 
Bangar&ma, Bangara Bai, or Devi, who is said to have one sister and 
five brothers, the sister being styled Danteswari ('' slie with the 
teeth ''), a name of K&li, and four out of the five brothers being known 
by the names of Ohantar&ma, Champar&ma, Ndikr&ma and Pot- 
linga. These are all deemed to possess the power of sending disease 
and death upon men, and under these or different names seem to be 
generally feared in the region east of the city of Nftgpur. I find 
the name of Bangara to occur among the Kols of Chaibosa^ where 
he is regarded as the god of fever, and is associated with (Sohemi 
Chondu, Negra and Decliali, who are considered respectively the 
gods of cholera, the itch, indigestion, and death. Bhtm Sen, again^ 
is generally adored under the form of two pieces of wood, standing 
from three to four feet in length above the ground, like those set up 
in connection with Bangardma's worship.'' There can be little 
doubt that from this form of worsliip the cultus of Blmftth has been 
developed. The quintette of the brethren may be a reminiscence of 
the PAndava legend, on which much of the P&nchonpSr cycle is 
possibly liased. 

27. Tlie Ahirs observe the usual Hindu festivals, particularly 

the Holi, which is the occasion for much 

drinking and rude horse play. They have a 

special observance, which takes place a few days after the Diwftii, 



* Paperi 15, i.q. 



t>5 ahIe 

which IB known as the Dftng or ** olub *' Diw&li^ or the Gobardhana ' 
when the representation of images of the cattle of Krishna are 
worshipped, and the herdsmen go round singing, pj&juig, and 
dancing, and collect money from the ownei's of the cattle they 
tend. Connected with this is the Sohrfti, which takes place on the 
fifteenth of E&rttik, when a cow is made to mn or dance. Sometimes 
a young pig is made to squeak near her calf, and the mother, 
followed by the whole herd, pursue it and gore it to death. 
Sometimes, according to Mr. Christian,^ this cruel sport is humanely 
varied by dragging a large gourd or a black blanket, at which the 
cows run to butt. Ilonco the proverb BitrA gdt noArdi ke $ddh^^ 
''An old cow, and longing to take part in the Sohr&i. '' 

28. In Cawnpur they will eat kachehi and pakki with all 

Brfthmans ; pakki, with R&jputs and Banyas, 
oocu^tion.^"*'''" ^""^ ^^^ ^rink and smoke with none but members 

of their own caste. In Mirzapur they drink 
water from the hands of Br&hmans, Kshatriyas, and all Vaisyas, 
except Kalwftrs. They will eat Kachehi cooked by a Brfthman, but 
only if they ai'e well acquainted with him. In Beh&r, according to 
Mr. Risley, they rank with Kurmis and similar castes, from whose 
hands a Br&hman can drink water. Towards Delhi, Sir H. M. 
Elliot states, that they eat, drink, and smoke in common, not only 
with J^ts and Gdjars, but also under a few restrictions with 
Bfijputs. In other places Rajputs would indignantly repudiate all 
connection with Ahirs. In rural belief the Ahir is a boor, faithless, 
greedy, and quarrelsome. Like Oadariyas and O&jars, they are 
naturally dwellers in the jungle — 

Ahir^ Gatiarifn, Oiljar, 

Ye tinon ehdhen djar. 

The other local proverbs are not much more complimentary to 
them — Ahir $e jab gun nikld, jah bdln se phi — " You can as soon 
get good out of an Ahir as butter from sand''; " Blood out of a 
stone.'* Jhir *fekh Gadari^a maildnn — " If the Gadariya gets 
drunk he learns it from the Ahir.'' Ahir ka pel gahir, Brdhman 
ka pet madar — '' The Ahii-'s belly is deep, but the Brahman's 
a bottomless pit." Ahir ka kyajajmdn, anr lap»i ka kg a pakwdn-^ 
' As soon be an Ahir's client as hold gruel a dainty." His 
primary business is the tending of cattle and making of ghi, and 

Vol. I. * Bihar Proverbs, h2. F 



AHiiB. 6G 

selling milk. He is not above the enspioion of adulienting his ghi 
with substances which are an abomination to orthodox Hindus or 
Mnsalmans^ As a cultivator he does not take a high plaoe^ as he 
depends more on his cattle than on his field^ and in some plaees he is 
not free from the suspicion of cattle stealing. 



Distribution of Ahirs according to the Census 

of 1891. 



Vol. 1. ? 2 



abIb. 



68 



IHsiriMi&m of Akif$ mtemriim§ 




09 



AHta 



io ihe Censun of 1801. 



CA8T1I8. 


























• 


i 
















1 

o 


• 

1 


M 




^ 


• 

• 
d 

1 


• 


i 

1 


1 


• 

& 

« 

1 


Total. 


],782 


108 


••• 


••• 


••t 


••t 


••• 


••• 


••• 


871 


2,285 


2,694 


8,241 


••• 


••• 


••« 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


151 


5,997 


246 


807 


!•• 


••• 


•• 


88 


22 


••• 


••• 


.882 


905 


8,180 


12.841 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


468 


••• 


••• 


••• 


1,418 


18,499 


m 


8,689 


!•• 


••• 


••• 


018 


!•• 


••• 


••1 


4,779 


9,898 


827 


8,977 


• *l 


••• 


••• 


5,840 


• •• 


•#• 


4 


18,140 


29,050 


884 


1,567 


1 


••• 


••• 


2,716 


17 


• !• 


••• 


948 


6,171 


979 


627 


59 


••• 


•■• 


29,778 


62 


••• 


42 


1,640 


84,678 


4,480 


407 


4.202 


85 


80 


6,758 


801 


8.775 


168 


8.520 


85,903 


99 


27 


48,892 


14 


1 


5,888 


6.406 


7,984 


84 


8,582 


1,40,909 


941 


4 


58.078 


••• 


••t 


5,571 


••• 


••• 


••• 


1,691 


90,789 


821 


470 


14,572 


• ta 


2,158 


28,484 


160 


••• 


2,197 


8,284 


78,907 


88 


816 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


5,816 


6,171 


289 


5,182 


••• 


■ • t 


*•! 


• 
••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


248 


5,676 


210 


86 


••• 


• •• 


• •• 


102 


••• 


••• 


»•• 


854 


881 


189 


14,298 


5 


• •• 


» #• 


8 


••• 


••• 


••• 


8.580 


18,676 


19,088 


8,688 


1,850 


• t« 


11 


193 


218 


4 


1,089 


20,278 


78,218 


48 


267 


•t* 


• •• 


• •1 


1 


••• 


•It 


8 


728 


1,081 


5,756 


199 


••• 


14 


• •• 


447 


••• 


••* 


88 


20,488 


1,19,888 


85,875 


262 


••• 


24 


• •• 


84 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


7,275 


80,088 


49,022 


1 


58 


IS 


• •• 


11 


•>• 


••• 


• •« 


7,181 


60,658 


1,906 


118 


1,809 


9 


• •• 


4.219 


••• 


••• 


... 


4,807 


29,711 


1,88,418 


11.207 


• •• 


•l 


• •• 


142 


••* 


■ •• 


••• 


1,186 


1,51,440 


852 


881 


1,489 


••• 


408 


17,881 


26 


••• 


... 


10.579 


88,085 


541 


24 


760 


••• 


• • ■ 


5,042 


t •# 


••• 


••• 


2.898 


14,589 


21 


75 


20 


••• 


• •• 


25,275 


••• 


••• 


.•• 


1,408 


27,514 


72,689 


18 


••• 


••• 


• •• . 


••• 


••• 


*•* 


... 


2,808 


85»440 


1,11^821 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


1,418 


1,18,288 



ahIb. 



D18TB10T. 



Jaqnpnr . 
Qhtiipur 
Bftllift . 
Qorakhpnr 
BmU . 
Aiamgrnrh 
Ottbwil 
TaHi . 
liDoknow 
Uiuu> • 
BieBareli 
8itapor 
Hardoi • 
Kberi • 
FaiUbld . 
Gondft • 
Bahrtioh 
Bnltiapar. 
PMrUbgarh 
BlnUnki 



Total 



70 



DiHribtaiom pf Akirt aeeoriU§ 



Sub- 



I 



8 



••• I ••• 



••• ••• 



••• 



9,299 

••• 

1,099 
84 



••• 



189 



I 



••• 



29 



472 



87,959 



478 



18,609 
86,445 
40^758 
66^1 
14,557 
7,857 



••• 



20,974 

19,818 

48,664 

5,429 

••* 

8»421 
8.859 
18,458 
16,686 
6»566 
4^406 



o 



■••• 



••• 



8,040 



M* 



• •• 



• M 



7,488 



17 



7,878 187 
25,696 
8»947 



151 



871 

1,847 

909 



101 
8,780 






Si 

o 



••• 



\ .^ 



864 

9.797 
88,848 

1.346 

16,878 

48,644 

185 

80 



18 

884 

17 



••• 



•M 



• M 



16^480 



8,90,280 



8,051 



50, 



1,888 



6,848 




71 



AntR. 



to the CeHMUM of 1891 — ooiitinued. 



Oastis. 






^mmm^S^^^^ 
















i 

-a 




• 




1 






TOTASn 


1 

1 


1 


M 


1 

q 
p 


1 


1 


• 

i 


1 


• 




1,76.827 


••• 


••t 


• #• 


••• 


201 


... 


... 


••• 


1,081 


1,96,728 


1,31,907 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


... 


.•• 


... 


1 


1,218 


1,69,870 


8S,690 


••• 


••• 

■ 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


... 


•.. 


22,606 


97,058 


2,76,185 


1 


••• 




... 


... 


• •« 


*•• 


*•• 


4^559 


8,46,998 


1,60,148 


1,180 


•«• 


• •t 


*.t 


••• 


■•• 


••• 


••• 


8,898 


ifik»^i 


2,84,522 


••t 


14,296 


• •• 


*•* 


• a. 


*•• 


••• 


... 


12,569 


2,68,675 


85 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


••* 


... 


*•• 


... 


•.. 


2 


tl 


510 


460 


••• 


• •• 


.*• 


••• 


... 


... 


11 


184 


2,079 


11,148 


25,620 


••• 


39 


••t 


8,260 


... 


••• 


.•» 


2,552 


78,802 


28,025 


4,988 


••• 


769 


.*• 


2,729 


... 


••• 


*•. 


10,771 


1,06,511 


46,610 


1.926 


••• 


9i 


t*. 


*•• 


.k. 


••• 


... 


781 


1,29,682 


48,784 


17,909 


6B 


46 


••• 


98 


7 


... 


99 


4,118 


96,898 


25»256 


8,070 


8,302 


••• 


61 


... 


... 


••• 


... 


1,692 


78,887 


65,425 


4,611 


... 


82 


..t 


... 


t • 


..• 


91 


918 


74^9 


1,84,212 


213 


••• 


••• 


.t. 


... 


••• 


••t 


.•• 


882 


1,88,664 


1,88,891 


627 


• •• 


«•• 


••• 


••• 


.•• 


... 


*•'« 


109 


1,47,185 

• 


98,158 


434 


• •• 


19 


... 


.•• 


.•• 


•t* 


... 


866 


1,15,658 


1,18,986 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


... 


*•« 


•.• 


... 


•t. 


2,196 


1,23,569 


88,155 


21 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


... 


.•• 


1,510 


1,12,568 


92,961 


84,985 


• •• 


160 

% 


•• t 


... 


... 


709 


•«■ \ 


9.000 


1,88,694 


28,52,685 


1,67,782 


1,42,458 


1,824 


2.664 


1»40,627 


7,719 


12,472 


8,780 


8,12,050 


8.918,846 



AHiwisi. 72 

Ahiw&si '. — A land-owning, cultivating and labooring tribe 
found in Mathura and Mew&t. The name is derived from JU, 
'* the dragon, " and rdsa, " dwelling. '' Thdr legend connectB them 
with the Rishi Saubhari. In his old age the sago was inspired with 
a desire for offspring, and going to lUja Madhfttri demanded one 
of his fifty daughters. Afraid to refuse, and yet unwilling to 
bestow a daughter upon such a suitor, the king tonporised and 
endeavoured to evade the request. At length it was settled tbat if 
any one of the daughters ehould accept him as a bridegroom the 
King would consent to the marriage. Saubhari was conducted to 
the presence of the girls ; but on his way he assumed a fair and 
handsome form, so that all the girls were captivated and contended 
with each other as to who should become his wife. It ended in his 
marrying them all and taking them home. He caused Visvakarma 
to build for each a separate palace, furnished in the most luzurioiu 
manner, and surrounded with exquisite gardens, where they lived a 

. most happy life, each one of them having lier husband always pre- 
sent with her, and believing that lie was devoted to her and her 
only. By his wives he had one hundred and fifty sons ; bat aa he 
found his hopes and desires for them to daily increase and expand, 
he resolved to devote himself wholly and solely to penanoe and the 
worship of Vishnu. Accordingly, he abandoned his children and 
retired with his wives into the forest.' The Mathura tradition runs 
that Saubhari, when ho retired to the forest, was wrath beoaow 
birds used to drop offal and dirt upon his hermitage ; accordingly 

' he cursed any bird with death who should venture to approach the 
place. Just at that time Garuda was engaged in one of his 
periodical attacks on the snakes, and they at last had to make an 

i agreement with him that they would provide him with a victim 

, daily if he agreed to spare the rest. To this Garuda consented ; hat 
the great dragon, Ahi, or K&liya, rescued the victims, andGarud%in 
his wrath, pursued him. Ahi sought everywhere for protection, 
and at last he was advised to seek refuge with the Rishi Saabhari, 
whose curse would ward off the attack of Ganida. Henoe the 
village of Sunrakh, in the Mathura District, where the hermitage of 
Saubhari Rishi was situated, came to be known as Ahivisa, or " the 
abode of the dragon, *' and from this the Ahiwisis take tlidr name. 



* Prinoipnliy batod on notos by Munehi Alma Rim, Head Maator, High Sohooly 
Mathura. 

< Donton, Clnuieal Dietumary, S. V., Saubhari, 



73 AHiwlsi. 

« 

How far the legend represents some early struggle between Yaish* 
navism and snake worship it is impossible to say. The AhiwSsis, 
then, make themselves ont to be the descendants of Saubhari Bishi, 
and consider Sunrakh to be their headquarters. Sunrakh adjoins 
the E&Ii-mardan ghdt at Brind&ban. The Pandas of the great 
temple of Baladeva are all Ahiw&sis, and to use Mr. Growse's 
words,— ^" It is matter for regret that the revenues of so wealthy 
a shrine should be at the absolute disposal of a community so 
extremely unlikely ever to make a good use of them/' * 

2. Mr. Growse calls the Ahiw&sis ''a Br&hmanical or rather 

pseudo-Br&hmanical tribe/' and notes that 

Snb-diTisioni. ji i 

tney nave as many as seventy- two sub- 
divisions, two of the principal of which are called Dighiya and 
Bajr&wat.' These goirai ai*e exogamous, and a man cannot marry 
in the gotra of his mother or grandmother ; he may marry two 
sisters. The only important gotra mentioned in the Census returns 
is the Bhorak, of Bareilly. 

3. They have local tribal coimcils {pancidgat), with hereditary 

chairmen lebaudhari). which deal with matters 

Tribal ooanoil. • 

affecting the caste, and punish offenders by 
fmc or excommunication. 

4. Widow marriage, the levirate, con- 
Widow marriage, etc. i i j n i m -^ , 

cubinage, and polyandry, are all prohibited. 

5. The marriage customs are of the 

Marriage. tt- j i. 

ordinary Umdu type. 
6. The tribal deities are Bhagwdn and D&fiji The temple of 

D&Ciji is at Baldeo, in the Mathura District. 

Religion. ■»■- ^ % tt mt 

Mr. Growse notes that The temple garden 
was once a well planted grove. It is now a dirty, unsightly 
waste, as the Pandas have gradually cut down all the trees for fire- 
wood without a thought of replacing them. It is also asserted to 
be a common practice for the younger members of the clan, when 
they see any devotees prostrate in devotion before the god, to be 
very forward in assisting them to rise and leading them away, and 
to take the opportunity of despoiUng them of any loose cash or 
valuable ornaments that they can lay their hands upon. It is 
believed that thefts of this kind are frequent ; though the victim 
generally prefers to accept the loss in silence, rather than incur the 

-■^■■1., - — - . . 

1 Maihwra, 11. 
< Ibid, 10, noU, 



AniwJlsi. ^i 

odium of bringing a charge^ that there might not be legal evidence 
to snbfitantiate^ against a professedly religious community. " ^ 
Among the minor gods Gtmgaji is worshipped on the Somwati 
Am&was^ or when the new moon appears on a Monday. Hanumin 
is worshipped every Tuesday and Saturday. They make pilgrim- 
ages to the shrine of Saubliari Rishi^ already mentioned. Their 
priests are Brfihmans of the 6aur, Sanftdhya and Gujarftti tribes. 
Their chief festivals are the DiwMi, Dasahra, and Holi. At the 
Diw&ii the houses are cleaned^ Lakshmi is worshipped^ and illumina- 
tions are made. On the Dasahra arms and horses are ornamented 
and worshipped, and gifts are given to Brfthmans, who present blades 
of barley. At the Salono, rice is cooked and alms given to Brih* 
mans, who. tie amulets round the wrists of their clients. 

7. They swear by the Ghmges, Jumna 

ana Baldeoji. 
8. Mr. Whiteway, in his Mathura Settlement Beport ' thus 

describes the Ahiwflsis :— '^ They are a race 

Ooonpatioxu - . 

well marked l)y several peculiarities. In 
appearance they are easily distinguished, the men by their head- 
dress, and the women by their way of wearing their hair. Their 
favourite occupation is the carrying trade. Trading in- their own 
carts, they carry salt from Rijput&na all over Northern India^ 
bringing back siigar and other commodities in return. The better 
off. trade with their own money, and, in fact, the heads of the 
community are very fairly comfortable, and their villagos are 
remarkable for the number of good masonry houses. At the same 
time these distant journeys keep the male population absent from 
the villages for months at a time, and the tilling of the field ia 
left entirely to the women. It is natural, therefore, that easily as 
an Ahiw&si may be recognised by liis appearance and his village by 
the number of carts, cattle, and masonry houses, so his fields may 
be told by their slovenly and careless cultivation. The Ahiwisis 
complain bitterly of the havoc the net- work of railways, now spxead* 
ing over the country, is playing with their old occupation.'^ 

> Mathura, 272. 
« Page, S3. 



AUIWASI. 



75 



ajudhtabAsi, 



Dittriiuiion of He AAiwdsis aeeording to the Census of 189 L 
Mathnra 8,266 



BaroiUy i 
Bud&un . 
MoMd&bAd 



Bahr&ioh 



Total 



1.070 

105 

11 

51 

9,502 



Ajadhyab&si. — (Residents of Ajudhya) A sub-caste of Banyas 
found chiefly in the Agra and Allahab^ Divisions and Oudh. (See 
the article on Audhifo). 

Dutrihution of the Ajudhfabdsi Banyas according to the Census 

of 1891. 



DiSTBIOT. 


Number. 


DiBTBIOT. 


Number, 


Agim . 




80 


Benares 


1 


FarrnkhAUd 




2.300 


Qorakbpiir 




85 


Mainpuri 




1.583 


Basil 




35 


EtAwah 




1.279 


Luoknow . 




413 


Etah • 




540 


Uuao 




18 


BndAnn • < 




86 


BAd Bareli . 




996 


ShAhjaMnpor 




1.044 


Sltapar • 




1,284 


Pilibblt 




140 


Ilardoi 




178 


Cawnpur 




2,594 


Eberi 




967 


Faiehpnr 




800 


FaizAbAd . 




1,324 


B4iida 




6,914 


Qonda 




882 


Ilamtrpnr . 




1,614 


BahrAioh . , 




1,510 


AllahAhAd . 




67 


SultAiipur 




1,498 


JhAnsi 




16 
102 

1 


BArabaDki . 




2,460 


JAlaun 


TOTAI 




80,198 



akIli, nihanq. 70 

Akali ; Nihang.— A few of theee Sikh devotees are sometinm 
Been at Benares, HardwAr, and Prayig. The heet aoooant of them 
18 that of Mr. MacLagan :^ " The fanatioal order of AUIii or 
Nihangs owes its origin to the express patronage of Gnm Oovind 
Sinh. There are two accounts of the founding of this order. 
According to one, the Guru, seeing his son, Fateh Sinh, playing 
before him with his turban peaked in the fashion now adopted by 
Akftlis, blessed him, and instituted a sect which should follow the 
same custom. According to the other account, the Akili dress was 
started by the Guru as a disguise when he was fleeing from Cham- 
kaur, in Amb&la, to the liouse of some friendly Path&ns, at Machi- 
w&ra, in Samr&la. The name means ' immortal/ Some understand 
the term to apply that the Ak&lis are followers of the 'immortal 
man ' (Ak&l Purukh), that is, of God ; others that they are invin- 
dble in fight. The former is probably the true derivation. It is 
said \}y some that Ajtt Sinh, the youngest son of Oovind, was the 
first convert. The Ak&lis came into prominence very early hy their 
' stout resistance to the invocations introdncod by the Sairflgi Banda^ 
after the death of Guru Govind, but they do not appear to have had 
much influence during the following century until the days of 
Mah&r&ja Ranjit Sinh. During the Mah&r&ja's reign the oelebimted 
Phfila Sinh entered the Panth, and, being a man of great force of 
character, induced a number of Sikhs to join it. They oonstitated at 
once the most unrajy and the bravest portion of the very unruly 
and brave Sikh army. Their head-quarters were at Amritsar, 
where they constitiiied themselves the guardians of the faith, and 
assumed the right to convoke synods. They levied ofieiings by 
force, and were the terror of the Sikh chiefs. Their eood Qualitias 
were, however, well appreciated by the Mahftrflja, and when there 
were specially fierce foes to meet, such as tlie Pathinsiy beyond the 
Indus, the Akalis were always to the front. 

2. The Akali is distinguished very conspicuously by his dark, 
blue, and checked dress, his peaked turban, often surmounted by 
steel quoits, and by the fact of his strutting about like Ali Bablfs 
prince, 'with his thorax and al)domen festooned with curious ootleiy/ 
He is most pai-ticular in retaining the five iaktat (iei, or uncut hair ; 
kachk, or short drawers; the ^ara, or iron bangle; the Hania,Cfr 
steel dagger, and the kangha, or comb), and in preserving every 

* Panjah C«tifu« Report, 166. 



akIli, nihanq. 77 

outward form prescribed by Gum Goviud Sinh. Some of the 
Ak&lis wear a yellow turban underneath the blue one, leaving a 
yellow band across the forehead; the story being that a Delhi 
Ehatri, called Nand Lai (the author of the Zindagi ndma), having a 
desire to see the true Guru in yellow^ was gratified by Govind Sinh 
to this extent. The yellow turban is worn by many Sikhs at the 
Basant Fanchami, and the Aksllis are fond of wearing it at all times. 

There is a couplet by Bhfti Gnrdas, which says : — 

SiAh, iufed, iurkh, tarddi, 
Jo pahne, soi OurbhdL 

* Those khat wear black (the Ak&lis), white (the Nirmalas), red 
(the Udasis), or yellow, are all members of the brotherhood of the 
Sikhs/ The Ak&lis do not, it is true, drink spirits or eat meat as 
other Sikhs do, but they are immoderate in the consumption of 
bhang. Thoy are in other respects such purists that they will avoid 
Hindu rites even in their marriage ceremonies. ^ 

3. The Ak&li is full of memories of the glorious days of the 
Khftlsa ; and he is nothing if he is not a soldier — a soldier of the 
Guru. He dreams of armies, and he thinks in lakhs. If he 
wishes to imply that five Ak&lis are present, he will say that 
' five lakhs are before you ; ' or, if he would explain that he is 
alone, he will say that he is ' with 1,25,000 Kh&lsa. ' You ask 
him how he is, and he replies that * the army is well ; ' you enquire 
where he has come fi'om and he says, ' the troops marched from 
Lahore.' 

4. These sectaries are also known as Nihang, * the reckless, ' 
(others derive the word from nanga * naked, ' or the Sanskrit 
niranga, * having no resources'). They meet together at such 
places as the Ak&lbhunga, at Amritsar ; the Pir SShib, at Attock, 
and the shrines of Govind Sinh, at Fatna and Apchalnagar; but 
their chief home is at Kiratpur, in the Hoshyfirpur District, 
where the sacred place of FhtUa Sinh stands, and at Anandpur at 
the shrine par excellence of the Akd.Iis, the Gurudw&ra Anandpur 
Sahib, which was Guru Govind's own house. The presence of these 
Ak^lis at the annual Holi fair at Anandpur rendeiti disturbances 
likely, and in 1864, a Missionaiy of the Ludhifina Mission was 
killed at this fair by a Sikh fanatic. The influence of these 
sectaries has, however, very considerably diminished since the 
downfall of the Sikh power. They have not for some time ' past 
had any political significance. '' 



AKASHMUKUI, ALAKUOIU. 78 ALAKUNImI, ALAKUIYA. 

Akasbmnkhi.— A Saiva sect so called Leoauae tbey keep 
their face {muHa) turned towards the sky {aid$Aa) until the 
neck muscles become rigid^ and the head remains fixed in that 
position. Some live a lonely^ mendicant life : others asBodate in 
monasteries^ where their natural wants are provided for by the 
piety of the faithful. They allow the hair of their head and fmoe 
to grow, cover their bodies with ashes, and wear olothes dyed 
with ochre (gerti). 

Alakhgir, Alakhnami, Alakbiya.— A Saiva seet said to 
have been founded by a Cham&r, named L&lgir. They are so 
called because when they beg they cry AlaU I Alakk I ** i}kd 
invisible God'^ (Sans. Alahshya). Tlicy wear usually a Uanket 
cloak hanging down to their heels, and a high conical cap. lliey 
come to a man's door and raise their characteristic cry. If their 
request is granted, they will accept alms : otherwise they go away 
at once. They are considered a quiet, harmless, begging okas. 
They are generally classed among Jogis. The rule of their founder 
was that charity was to be practised, the taking of life and nae of 
meat as food forbidden, and asceticism encouraged. The aole 
rewards he held out to his followers in this life were the attainment 
of purity, untroubled contemplation, and serenity. There was no 
future state : heaven and hell (that is, happiness and misery), were 
within. All perishes with the body, which is finally disaolved into 
the elements, and man cannot gain immortality. 

Amethiya. — A sept of R&jputs who take their name from 
Amethi, a Pargana in the Lucknow District. Sir H. M. Elliot 
calls them Chauh&n BAjputs of the Bandhalgoti sept, of whom a 
few have settled in Salempur MajhauU of Gorakhpur. But Mr. W. 
C. Benett^ gives a different account of them. According to him, 
'^ This tribe of Chhatris are a branch of the Chamar Oanr, and are 
said to be the descendants of a pregnant Gaur widow, who, at the 
extirpation of the Chhatris by the Brihmans, found an asylum in a 
Cham&r^B hut. The memory of this humble refuge is kept alive among 
them by the worship of the cobbler's cutting tool (rdnpi). Groat 
numbers of the Cliamar Gaurs now hold villages in the Hardoi Dis- 
trict, and it is probable that the Amethiyas were an otbhoot of tlie 
same immigration. Tiodition first discovers them at Siupnri and 
afterwards at the celobrukHl foi trcBs of Kalinjar. Somewhere about 



1 aani of R(kc BartM 14, sq. 



79 AMBTttlTA. 

the time of the invasion of India hy Tamnrlane^ Rie P&l Sinh left 
Kalinjar and settled at Amethi, in the Lucknow District. His de- 
scendants say that he was sent by the Delhi Emperor to suppress a 
rebellion in Oudh^ and that he defeated and slew Balbhadra Sena Bisen 
with sixteen thousand of his host. The figures are slightly im- 
probable^ and my enquiries have failed to bring to light a Bisen B&ja 
of that name. Bie P&l was wounded in the shoulder by a musket 
shot^ and recompensed by a dress of honour and the title of B&ja of 
Amethi. Three or four generations after this^ three brothers — Din- 
gur Sah^ BAm Sinh^ and Lohang, led the clan from Amethi to 
Jagdispur, and came in contact with the Muhammadans : the engage- 
ment resulted in the defeat of the Shaikhs^ and the occupation of their 
villages by the invaders. There is every reason to believe that this 
occurred towards the end of the fifteenth century^ and was part of 
the general re-assertion of Hindu supremacy in Oudh, consequent 
on tlie fall of the Jaunpur dynasty, a re-aotion whose central event 
was the establishment of the Bais kingdom.'^ The subsequent for- 
tunes of the sept are given in detail by Mr. Benett, and need not be 
repeated here. There are, however, other accounts. The Rfte Bareli ^ 
tradition brings them from Lucknow, and another account is 
that they came from Siupur, near Dw&rika, to Narkanjhil, in Cawn- 
pur, and tlicncc to Oudh. The Cawnpur family still recognise the 
Oudh bi-anch. According to Mr. Camegy they were originally 
Bhars. ' It is still less probable that they are the modem 
representatives of the Ambastha of Manu, descended from a 
Br&hman father of a Yaisya mother, and practising as physicians. 
The sept still preserve their connection with Amethi, their oiiginal 
head-quarters, by their worship of Shaikh Bandagi Miyftn, the local 
saint of that town. 



* Selllefiient Repori, 9. 
' Notei, 20, sq. 



AHBTHITA. 



80 



DiHribution of the Ametkifa lUjputt aeeordiHg to tka CsmtMt 

of 1891. 



DiBTBIOT. 


Hindus. 


Mnbanma- 
dans* 


TOTAU 


Aligarh • 


1 






6 


••f 


6 


Mainpnri . 


< 






9 


■•• 


9 


Et&wah 


> * 






6 


••• 


6 


BndAun • 


> a 






82 


••• 


88 


Filibhtt 


• 




t 


1 


••• 


1 


Cawnpnr 


• 






18 


•t* 


18 


Patehpnr . 


i 


' ■ 




1 


••• 


1 


Allah&b&d . 


t 






4 


••• 


4 


Denaref 


« 






4 


••• 


4 


Gh&zipnr • • 


1 






8 


t*t 


8 


Gorakhpar . 


1 






1,747 


#•• 


1.747 


Basil 


> ( 






1 


••• 


1 


Azamgarh • 


1 ( 






172 


#•• 


198 


Lack now • 


> 






287 


85 


888 


Un&o 


1 






269 


•• • 


809 


BAo Bareli . 


> • 






2,126 


6 


&181 


Sttapur 


1 






107 


••% 


107 


FaiKlUd . 


> 






22 


••• 


88 


Gonda 


« 






3 


ft* 


8 


Bahr&ioh . 


• 






161 


9 


170 


Bult&npur • 


• 






827 


15 


848 


PartAbgarli 


* 






8 


••• 


8 


r&rabanki . 


» 






8,655 


8 


8,668 


Total 


0,308 


74 


9,888 



ANANTPANTIII. 81 APAPANTHI, ABAKH. 

Anantpanthi. — One of the reformed Vaishnava sects found 
in the RAe Bareli and Sitapnr Districts. They number only 170 
(x^rsous. Tliey arc nionotlicists, and^ as tlio name implies^ worship 
Vishnu in the fonn of Ananta^*^ " The InOnite. '' 

Apapanthi. — A Vaishnava sect founded about a century ago 
by Munna DSls, a goldsmith ascetic of Mundwa^ in the Kheri Dis* 
trict^ to whose miraculous powers an escape from droughty which 
threatened the country, was believed to be due, and who has since 
had a not inconsiderable number of followers in the District of his 
birth, and Sitapur and Bahi&iclt It docs not appear tliat the tenets 
taught by Munna Das to any considerable extent differ from those 
of the usual Vaishnava sects. ^ At the last enumeration the Apa- 
panthis numbered 4,267, and the Munna DHais, 2,636. 

Arakh*. — A tribe of cultivators and labourers found in 
Oudh, some of tlie eastei'n districts, and scattered about in smaller 
numbers through some of the western districts. 

2. All the traditions connect them with the Fasis and Farasu- 

r&ma, the sixth Avatdra of Vishnu. One 

Traditions of origin. .1,-0 a 1 ^1 • 

story runs that rarasurama was bathing m 
the sea when a leech bit his foot and caused it to bleed. He divid- 
ed tlie blood into two parts : out of one part he made the first F&si 
and out o£ the second the first Arakh. Another story is that the 
Pdsis were made out of the sweat ipastnn) of FarasurBma. While 
Parasur&ma was away the Pasi shot some animals with his bow, and 
the deity was so enraged that he cursed the F&si, and swore that his 
descendants should keep pigs. This accounts for the degradation of 
the PSsis. Subsequently Farasuvdma sent for some Fd^is to help 
him in one of liis wars ; biit they rv^ €kvrvky and hid in an arhar 
field, and were hence called Arakhs. Another story goes that 
Parasur^a was once meditating in the jungle. From the dirt of 
his body he made a figure, and gave it life by cutting his Uttle 
finger and sprinkling blood upon it. In Lucknow they have an 
extraordinary story that Tilok Chand founded a Bhar dynasty and 
was a wor8]iipi)cr of the sun ( ai ka ), so he called his family Arka* 
bansi. The Arkabans became the Aiakhs, and the R5jbansi the 
R&jpAsi.^ The Arakhs appear at an early date to have obtained 

^ Report, CennuM, North-Wai Provincett 1801, page 237. 

* Baaed almost entirely on noteii by Babu SAnwal DJU, Deputy Collector, liardoi. 

» Settlement Report, XXIV. 

Vol. 1. a 



ARAKn. 82 

considerable power in Oudh^ espeoially in Hardoi. In the early 
history of Fargana Sandila Arakhs oooupy the place which is filled 
in other parts of the district by the Thatheras .^ Two hrothen of 
the tribe^ Salhiya and Malhiya, are said to have foanded the one 
Salhiya Purwa, now Sandila, the chief town of the Fargana; and the 
other, Malih&b&d, in the adjacent Fargana of that name in the Luck- 
now District. The Arakhs held the tract till towards the end of the 
fourteenth centary. Sayyid Makhdfim Ala^nd-dtn, the fighting 
apostle of Nasir-nd-dtn, the '' lamp of Delhi/' nndertook to drive oat 
the infidels, and to carry the faith and arms of Isllm a stage 
further to the south. The promise of a royal revenue-free grant 
made the prospect of success as tempting to the soldier as was the 
expulsion of the infidel to the saint. How long or how fiercely the 
Arakhs resisted we know not. Only the issue of the contest has been 
remembered. To this day the Arakhs of Atraula, on the Riptt, 120 
miles away to the east in Oonda, recall their last domains in Sandtla. 

8. In most places they divide themselves into seven, or what 
_ „ , are supposed to bo seven ezogamous dans. 

Tribal organisation. _,. . ^^ « , . a %• 

Thus, in Cawnpur, they have the Aiakb, 
Khagdr, Khidmatiya, Chobd&r and Adhrij (which is the highest of 
all, claiming descent from a Brdhman), Gu&r and Bftchhar. Thew 
names show that the caste is very much mixed. Khidmatiya means 
an " attendant, '^ and was the title given by Akbar to his palaoe 
guards. Chobd&r means " mace bearer. ^'Guir connects them with 
the Guftla Ahtrs, and B&chhar with the Bachhal B&ipnts. In 
Hardoi they are repoi*ted to have no known sub-divisions. The 
Census returns give their chief clans in Sh&hjah&npur, Ratsajat; 
in Cawnpur, Balahar and S&pa Bhagat, which connects them with 
the Doms; in Basti, Maghariya, and Sarjupftri, or ''residents (tf 
Maghar and the land beyond the river Sarju, '^ fespeotivdy ; the 
Jonkiya, in Lucknow, Undo, Sit&pur, and Hardoi, who seam to 
take their name from catching leeches (foni) ; in Hardoi, the MoUd ; 
in Gonda, the Adhrij or Adhurj, B&g^ and Baiswftr. In Haidoi 
too they are said to have no permanent tribal council \ the dders 
merely attend whenever any case comes up for consideration, 

4. The tendency seems to be towards the establishment of regu- 
lar exogamous sub-divisions, but these are 

Marriage rulec. " . tt s • ji x« 

reported not to be known m Hardoi, and there 

' Oiidh QattUetr, III., 301. 



83 ARAKH. 

the rule of exogamy is that a boy is not married into a family to 
which a girl has been given in marriage. A man can marry the 
sister of his late wife^ but he cannot have two sisters to wife at the 
same time. There is a regular ceremony whereby the newly* 
married bride is introduced into her husband's &mi]y. His 
relatives assemble^ eat food cooked by her^ and then make her a 
present. As a rule they practise monogamy. Polyandry is pro« 
hibited ; concubinage with a woman of the tribe in the Dharauna 
form is recognised. Marriage is both infant and adult. A wife can 
be divorced for infidelity, and after divorce she can live with a man 
by the Dharauna form. A widow can marry by Dharauna : the 
only difference between this and the regular marriage is that there 
is no walking round {bhanwar) the sacred fire. The levirate prevails ; 
but the widow is free to marry an outsider if she pleases. If her 
children by the first marriage are grown up, and she marries a 
person other than the younger brother of her late husband, she leaves 
them with his relations ; if the children are very young she usually 
takes them to the house of her new husband, and there they are 
brought up and supported. When she marries a stranger she loses 
all claim on her husband's estate, which &lls to his children if there 
are any ; if there are no children, to his associated brethren. 

5. At a woman's first pregnancy, in the seventh month, sweets 

{gul-gula) are placed in her lap, and then 

Birth oeremoniefl. j'i'ii-ij.t • tt 

distributed to the caste people. Her parents 
at this time send her a present of sweetmeats and money. 

6. The marriage ceremonies are of the usual type ; rich peope 
^, . use the ordinary eharhauwa ritual: poor 

Marriage oeromonies. , * ^^ 

people take the bride to her husband's house 
and marry her there by the dola form. 

7. These are carried out in the usual way. They get a Brfthman 
^ ., to perform the Srftddha ceremony. As in some 

Death ceremoniee. . i ^ ., i* t^ a, • 

01 the menial tribes, if a Brahman's services 
cannot be secured the sister's son of the deceased can take his place. 

8. The woman is impure for seven days after child-birth, and 

four days after menstruation. The chief 

GeremonuJ impurity. . . j* * 

mourner is impure for nine days, and is then 
purified by bathing and shaving. 

9. They are Hindus, not belonging to any particular seet, 

. visiting no particular shrine, and worshipping 

no special saint. Their goddess is Devi, whom 
Vol. I. a 2 



ABAKH. 



84 



they propitiate with on offering of goats. Their priests are Brlh- 
mans of low social position. Their festivals are the Holi, the Janam- 
ashtami, on the eighth of the dark half of Bhftdon. They fast all 
day and eat at midnight: They observe the Diw&Ii^ or feast of 
lamps^ and the Shiur&tri^ on the thirteenth of the dark half of 
Fh&lgun, when they fast all day and night, and worship the idol of 
Siva. At the Earwa Chauth, in the early part of K&rttik, women 
worship the moon by ponring water on the ground from a pot 
{lafwa), . . 

10. Their demonology and superstitions do not differ materially 
Demonology and super- from the beliefs of the allied tribes. 

stition. 

11. They will eat anything except beef, pork, the flesh of 

monkeys, fowls, crocodiles, snakes, lizards, 
jackals, rats, vermin and the leavings of other 

people. During the fifteen days in the month of KuAr, saoied to 
the worship of the dead, they do not eat meat. 

12. Arakhs say that their original occupation was service. 

They hold no zamtndftri, but cultivate and 
^^^^^^' work as ordinary labourers. In some places 

they bear a somewhat equivocal reputation for petty thieving. 

Diiiribution of the Arakk$ according to the Ceniu» of 1891, 



Sooial roles. 











8DB-OA8TaB. 






DiSTBIOT. 


ObobdAr. 


Mai. 


PAras- 
ramu 


Oihora. 


Total. 


Meerot « . . . 


82 


••• 


••• 


••• 


88 


BuUndshshr 


« 




6 


... 


.•• 


•f* 


6 


Iflatbora • 


« 




170 


••• 


*•• 


••• 


170 


Agra . 


> ( 




... 


••• 


••* 


88 


88 


FiirrokhlUd 


1 




1 


• * . 


164 


188 


897 


Mainpnri . 


1 




80 


... 


••• 


••• 


80 


EUwah 


• 




31 


*•• 


••• 


... 


81 


EUh 


• 




10 


*•• 


... 


••• 


10 


Shibjahftnpnr 


t 






••* 


10 


1.918 


1.888 


Pilibblt 


• 






t « • 


1 


887 


188 


Gawnpnr 


» 






709 


154 


696 


1,648 


Fatebpnr 


• 




" • 


1.867 


.•• 


8.061 


S.988 


BUnda 


• 






25.132 


••* 


688 


86.770 



86 IshiqIn. 

DisirUuiioH of the Arakh* according to the Census tf 1891 — oontd. 



• 








Sdb-oabtbb. 






DI8TBICT. 


Chobdar. 


Mai. 


Paras- 
ramL 


Oihen. 


Total. 


^Hainirpur . . . • 


••t 


2,334 


••• 


140 


2,488 


Allab&bAd . 




• « 


••• 


2,071 


••• 


432 


2,508 


Jh&Qsi 




■ • 


••• 


••t 


••• 


8 


8 


Minapnr . 




• • 


••• 


••• 


••t 


1 


1 


Gorakbpar 




• • 


••• 


••• 


•M 


250 


250 


Basil 


1 


• • 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


8,589 


8,589 


Aaamgarh . 




• • 


• •• 


••• 


#•• 


24 


24 


Tar&i 




t • 


• •• 


••• 


• •• 


12 


12 


Lncknow • 


» 1 


> • 


!•• 


••• 


481 


595 


1,076 


Un&o 


fl 


• 


• •• 

* 


••• 


1,788 


624 


2,857 


Sitapiir 




• 


• at 


••• 


6,181 


1,251 


6,482 


Hardoi 




• 


• •V 


••• 


19,027 


6,599 


25,626 


Kberi 




• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


9 


9 


Gonda 




• 


••• 


#•• 


••a 


1,927 


1,927 


FarUbgarh 




• 


• • • 


••• 


• •• 


1 


1 


1 


'OTAL 


• 


880 


32,203 26,760 


21,231 


80,574 



AflliiqSn. — (Litorally ^^lovors''). A biimoh o£ tlio MadAri 
(g. t;.) MuhamiDadan Faqirs. 

DiniribfUion of the Aihiqdn accordintf to the Cennne of 1891, 



DI8TBICT. 


Number. 


DiBTBIOT. 


Nnmbar. 


Mazaffarnagar 


18 


Cawnpnr . . ' • 


85 


Bulandflbabr . 


59 


AlIabAbAd 






- 2 


Matbara • . . • 


5 


Gb4zipor 






121 


Agra . . . . 


4 


Gorakbpar , 






197 


FarrakbAbid . 


163 


Azamgarb 






111 


Mainpari. • * • 


15 


Bttapar 






6 


Et4wab . . • • 


12 


Hardoi 






854 


EUb • . . . 


36 


Kbori . 






188 


BareiUj .... 


735 


Gonda • 






1 


Bad4an . • • • 


108 


BabrAiob 






19 


llor&d&b&d 


7 
381 






BbAbjabAnpur • • • 




PilibbH .... 


106 


Total 


2,7S2 



ItishbIz. 



86 



A11T. 



AtishbSz.— (i/M^ ''fire/' hdg, bdkktan or hoMan ''to 
play ^\) Also known as Hawaigar or rocket-maker — ^the maker of 
fire- works. Tlie variety of fire-works made is very great: the 
chief are the grenade {andr)^ the rocket (maktShi^ lawai), and the 
squib {eiackhundar), Hie trade is a flactnating one, as fire-works 
are diiefly in demand about die time of Hindu marriages in May, 
June^ and hardly any are used between the Muharram and Chdilam, 
when Muhammadans do not marry. The caste is purely oooupi^ 
tional^ and all ai*e Muhammadans. 

DistribuUo* of He AtisAbdz aocording to tie Ceneue of 1891. 



DlBTBIC*!. 


Namber. 


DlBTBIOT. 


Number. 


Sahirsnpiir • • 


1 


Benares • 


8S 


Mnsaffarosgar • • • 


12 


Jannpur • 


134 


Aligarh • • • • 


9 


Gorakhpur • • • 


4 


FarrukhAb&d • 


8 


Aiamgarb • • 


a 


Etsh .... 


1 


BAeBareli . 


17 


Bareilly • • • • 


1 


8iilt&npnr 


S7 


lior&d&bftd 


43 


ParUbgarh . 


n 


Cawnpnr 


1 






Fatebpur 


28 








Allab&b&d 


111 


TCTAL 




534 



Atit^. — (Sanskrit, -<^///a— *'past, gone by".) A term of 
rather vague significance, but usually regarded as synonymous with 
Sanny&si. Some wlio are known as Sannyftsi Attts are regnlar 
ascetics. The Gharbiri or house-holders have abandoned the oeli« 
bate life and marry. They marry usually at the age of seven or 
eight. Widow marriage is not allowed, but it is understood that 
the widows of the caste very often leave tlio family and form 
irregular connections. Concubinage is allowed. 

2. Attts arc Saiva Hindus, and worship Malidbtr, Mahftdeva and 
Bhairon N&th. Their priests are BrShmans* At Mirzapnr thsj 



' Mainly b«ted on a noto by Pandit Rinngbartb Chaub^. 



87 AUDHITA. 

put some fire into the mouth of the corpse and throw it into the 
Ganges. The death impurity lasts ten days^ as in the case of high 
caste Hindus. They do not feed Mahftp&tras after a death^ but 
Dasn&mis. Many of them are cultivators and some hold patches of 
rent-free land which have been granted to them by land-holders. 
They wear clothes dyed in ochre [fferh), and carry a rosary of 
rndrdhiha beads. BrAhmans, Kshatriyas and Yaisyas will not eat 
either hachehi or pakki from their hands ; Kah&rs and Nftis will do 
so. Br&hmans will^ however^ take water from them. They do not 
use spirits or flesh. Other people salute them by Namo Ndrdgan ; 
and they use the same form of ealutation among themselves. 

Audhiya.^— A tribe found in the Fatehpur District. They are 
known as Audhiya or Audhya, Ajudhyabftsi or Avadhapuri, and 
take their name from the city o£ Ajudhya^ in Oudh. They prefer 
the title of Ajudhyabftsi^ or residents of Ajndhya ; by outsiders they 
are usually called Audhiya^ or *' Oudh men. ** They claim to be 
really Banyas^ and say that they emigrated from Ajudhya; but they 
have no means of fixing the time of their arrival in Fatehpur. One 
tradition is that their movement was connected with the expedition 
of Blma Chandra against Lanka or Ceylon. 

2. They arc divided into two classes — Onch or " high, '' and 

Ntch, or " low.'' The former are those of 
pure blood ; the latter, the descendants of a 
woman of another caste, taken as a concubine. These two classes 
are practically exogamous. Besides tiiese they have no other exo- 
gamous sub-divisions, the only other restriction on marriage being 
that they do not receive brides from a family to which they have 
already given a daughter in marriage, at any rate until all recollec- 
tion oE the relationship has been lost. 

3. A tribal council sits for the transaction of business connected 

with the caste. A chairman {iatfaneh) is 
appointed for each meeting. 

4. The marriage rules agree with those in force among high 

caste Hindus. The number of wives a man 

may have is restricted to two. If a girl is 

detected in immorality before marriage, she is permanently excom* 

> Based on noiet hj HnnshJ Niyli Ahmad, Head MaeUr, High School, 
Fatehpar ; also, see Rejport, Iftjp«c(or-Gf«iisral, Police, N.-W. P., 1868, pp. 42, 46, 111 ; 
idem, 1869, p. 128 ; QoMelteer, N.-W. P., VUl, Part III, page 41 ; noU of Mr. D. T. 
Boborts, Police Co^nmieeion Report, 1890. 



ArDHIYA. 88 

munioated^ and her parents are abo pat out of oaste until they give 
a tribal feast. Some money is paid by the relations of the bride 
to those of the bridegroom ; but there is no fixed price. A married 
woman can be turned out by her husband on proof of adolteiy. 
Only the children of the regularly married wives inherit their 
fathers' estate. 

6. In the fifth month of pregnancy the cer^nony of Panch- 

w&sa is celebrated on a day selected by a 
BrShman. Friends are invited^ and the rehr 
tives of the woman bring her presents of clothes and sweetmeata. 
The woman is seated inside a holy square marked oat on the 
ground with flour by a Brfthman. The barber's wife pares the 
nails of all the women present/ and after colouring the soles of the 
woman's feet with lac-dye {mahdtoar) puts some red lead («MJ«f) 
in the parting {mdng) of her hair. Her mother^ if she be alive, or 
if not^ some senior woman of the &mily, fills her lap with rice and 
sweetmeats. She is then dressed in a new suit of clothes in the 
presence of the women and officiating Br&hman. On the next day the 
clothes arc taken off and put away carefully for use when the nxth 
month [chhakmdia) and seven months' ceremony [taimdtd^ are 
performed. At these ceremonies rice-milk is cooked, and the woman 
is fed with it. The oaste men are feasted, Briihmans fed and jMdd, 
and the whole day is spent in merry-making. Tlie sweeper or 
ChamAr midwife attends the woman for throe days after delivery ; 
then her relatives and the wife of the barber nurse her for a month. 
On the third day after delivery the mother is bathed at a time fixed 
by the advice of a Bitlhman. On the sixth day is the Chkaiki^ when 
the mother, dressed in the clothes she wore at tlie Panehmii^ 
ceremony already described, is seated in a sacred square made of 
flour by the Br&hman, and she, with her husband's younger brotlier 
{'lewar), is fed on choice food placed inside the square, at the four 
corners of which lighted lamps are placed. After this the relatives 
are feasted and the night is spent in merriment. During this 
ceremony some rude marks supposed to represent Chhathi or Shashti, 
the protectress of children, are made on the wall of the room {^ohmf) 
in which the woman was delivered ; and near the figures is plaood 
an earthen vessel full of water, covered with a saucer, on whioli a 
lamp is lighted. The mother and child are taken in there for the 
night and left there alone, these arrangements being supposed to be a 
protection against all kinds of demoniacal influence. The only 



89 AUDHIYA. 

special rule about twins appears to be that it is unlucky to take any- 
thing from their hands. 

6. The ceremony of adoption of a boy who has not been initiated 

by the ear piercing ceremony {kauekhedan)^ 
is as follows :— The pair who are about to 
adopt a son sit on a wooden seat {paita) inside a sacred square 
{chauk) made by a Brfthman on a lucky day selected by him. The 
parents of the boy about to be adopted, or^in their absence, his near- 
est relatives, place him in the lap of the person adopting him. The 
Br&hman then worships an earthen water vessel {kaUa), drums are 
beaten, and alms distributed to the poor. The ceremony ends with 
a tribal feast. 

7. In the betrothal ceremony the &ther or other near relative of 

the girl visits the. bridegroom and secretly 
presents him with some money. After this, 
on a day fixed by a BrShman, the father of the girl sends by a 
Br&hman or barber some sweetmeats, clothes, rice, betel and money, 
and these are laid befoie the boy in the presence of his kinsfolk. 
The barber is then given a present and dismissed. The acceptance 
of these presents ratifies the engagement. 

8. The actual marriage ceremony is of the normal type. It begins 

with the reception (agwdni) of the pai*ty of 
the bridegroom as they approach the house 
of the bride. At the door two women stand, each with a water 
pot (kalai) on her head. Sharbat mixed with bhang, known as 
mirckwdn, is distributed, and the boy being seated on a stool {paiia), 
the '' door worship^' (dudr-pilja), and the worship of Oanesa are 
performed. The boy is seated in a sacred square {chauk) made of 
flour by a Brihman, and near him is placed a water vessel sur- 
mounted by a lighted lamp, while the BrUhman recites sacred verses. 
After this the father or other near relative of the bride makes a 
present of money, cattle, clothes, oiiiaments, etc., to the bride- 
groom. Then follows the bhanwar, or perambulation round the 
sacred fire, which is done in the usual way. Poor people, however, 
do not go through all this elaborate ritual. The &ther of the bride 
and his friends take her to the house of the bridegroom, where he 
goes through the ceremony of pdnwpija or 'Hhe worshipping 
of the feet ^^ of the bridegroom, and this is the binding observ- 
ance. 



AUDHITA. 90 

0. The dead are cremated in the ordinary way. If a person lum 

died of drowning or other acoident, chdle^^ 
poison^ small-pox^ or leprosy, the regular 



death ceremony {iriya karma) is not performed. In sach 
the observance is known as Ndrdyana lala. The corpse is at onoe 
consigned to the Ganges^ and within a year a Mahftbr&hmaii is paid 
to make a representation of the deceased in gram flonr, upon whioh 
the regular rites are performed. One Brihman is fed at the end 
of each month, and six at the close of the sixth month. When the 
anniversary of the death comes round^ twelve Br&hmans are feasted. 
The spirits of ancestors who have died childless are propitiated in 
the same way^ and in some cases the relatives employ a Brihman 
to go to Oaya and perform the regular irdddka. 

10. Their tribal deity is Devi. Once their children began to di^ 

and they prayed to the goddess to save them ; 

she heard their prayer, and sinoe then she 
has been held in honour. If possible they make a pilgrimage to 
her shrine at Calcutta. Their family priests are Kaunanjiya Brih- 
mans, who suffer no degradation by serving tliem. 

11. They will eat with no one but a member of the oaste, and 

object to touch none but a sweeper or Cha* 



Social rules. 



A 



mar. 



12. The Audhiyas are well known as a dangerous criminal tribe. 

They deal largely in counterfeit eoin and 

Oooapation. , 

false jewelry : they never commit Crimea of 
violence. They wander over Northern India as ]BWq!rs, their ]cmr« 
neys commencing generally in June and ending in April ; bat they 
are sometimes two or three years away. It is said that if a mem- 
ber of the caste is imprisoned he is excommunicated.' They bring 
home cash only, and dispose of the plunder to agents at different 
large cities. In the districts where they reside they are perfectly 
well behaved. They are well-to-do, and to all appearanoe respec* 
table in their habits. Their women are well-dressed, with plenty 
of ornaments on their persons. They have no apparent means of 
support. They neither cultivate land nor trade ; and all that appears 
on the surface is that most of the men and boys go oft after the 
rains and return at the end of the cold weather. If asked how they 
support themselves, they reply, by begging. Convictions have 
l>cen obtained agaiiibi them at Jabalpur, Benares, Patna, Mongir, 



AWADH^T. 91 AZAB. 

Calcutta^ Owalior, Sdgar, Murshid&b&d and Nadiya. They are not 
under the Criminal Tribes Act, but speoial Police have been quar- 
tered on them in Fatehpur. Those have recently been removed. 
In 1890 there were ascertained to be 375 Audhiyas resident in 
Cawnpur^ and 159 in Fatehpur. The majority of the adult males 
continue to absent themselves from time to time for the purpose of 
thieving and uttering false coin in distant places. The Audhiyas 
are not shown separately in the last Census returns, in which they 
have probably been included with the Ajudhyabslsi Bauyas. 

Awadhftt* — (Sans. AmdhUta '* discarded, rejected.'^} — ^A Saiva 
sect who practise celibacy and make their living by begging. They 
wear as little clothes as they can, and let their hair {jaia) grow 
long. They crouch over a fiie in cold weather. Their life is one of 
the hardest led by mendicants of this class. 

A 

Azad. — A Persian word signifying " f lee, uncontrolled, ^* con* 
uected with the Sanskrit jdf-a, a class of Muhammadan Faqirs, so 
recorded at the last Census. There are two classes' of Muhamma- 
dan ascetics, the regular or Ba-shara, who follow the rules of Isl&m 
as regards praying, fasting, alms-giving and pilgrimage ; and the 
irregular or Be*shara, who, though nominally Musalmans, do not 
accommodate their lives to the principles of any religious creed. The 
former are known as Ssllik, or " travellers, '' and the latter as Azftd, 
" free, '' or Majzftb, " abstracted. '' Dr. Herklots says that the 
regular Azid class ''shave their beards, moustaches, eye -brows and 
eyelashes ; in shoi-t, the hair in every pai-t of the body, and lead lives 
of celibacy. They have no inclination for reading prayers daily. 
If they get anything to cat, be it good or bad, they partake of it. 
Tlicy have no fixed place of abode ; the generality of them travel and 
subsist on alms. ^' ^ 

^ Qdn4n-i'hldm, 197. 



92 



DittrihulioH of the Atdd Faqirt aeeording to tk» Ceutmt of ISQt. 



DI8TBIOT. 


Number. 


DXITBXOT. 


HuBbtr. 


Agra 




• 


6 


Atamgarb • 




m 


FtmikhAbAd 






27 


Luckaow • 




iu 


MaiDpari • 






62 


UnAo • 4 

• 




118 


Et4wah . 






8 


BAeBareli . 




16 


EUh 






203 


Sttapur • i 




4M 


SliAhjahAnpnr 






201 


Kberi 




49 


Cawnpnr • 






2 


Babr&ieh 




02 


Fatebpur • 






10 


SuUAnpar • 




201 


AUahAb&d . 






223 


PartAbgarb . 




78 


J&laan 






1488 


Birabaoki . 




880 


DAAftfAA 


• 




20 






Qorakhpnr • 






10 


TOfAL 


4480 



93 BACHOOTIv 



B 

Bachgoti. — A sept of B&jpnts. Their story is thus told :— 
" After the defeat of Prithivi Rftj by Shahibuddin Ghori, some Chau- 
h&iiB, under Bary&r Sinh and Kftns BAA, descendants of Cbahir 
Deo^ brother of Prithivi B&j, fled from Sambhalgarh, and 
wandering eastward^ about 1248 A. D., settled at Jamw&wan, in 
the Sult&npur District. Even here^ however, they &lt themselves 
unsafe while they continued to bear the name of their proscribed 
race, so they deemed it prudent to adopt another, to which they 
were equally entitled, and which they might^own with equal pride. 
If they belonged to the stock of their four-handed predecessor, they 
also belonged to the goira oi their creative saint. They accordingly 
adopted the device of concealing their lineal beneath their spiritual 
descent.'' There has been some dispute as to whether they took their 
new name from Vats a, who was the author of one of the hymns 
of the Rig Veda, and who was perhaps the same as the sage Vatsa, 
who, according to Manu,^ '* when attacked, as the son of a servile 
motlier, by the firo wliich pervades the world, burned not a liair by 
reason of his perfect veracity,^' or from the more celebrated Va- 
sistha^ who is the centre of a large cycle of Vedic and post-Vedic 
legend. The first theory is, however, the more probable of the two. 
A second version of this story is that BAna Sangat Deo, great- 
grandson of Chahir Deo, had twenty-one sons. Of these the young- 
est succeeded his father, when he married a bride of the Tomar sept,' 
and of the house of Jila Patau. The other sons sought their 
fortunes in other parts. Baryar Sinh and ESns Rftfi went to 
Mainpuri, and there joined the army of Ala-ud-din Ghori then 
starting from that place on an expedition against the Bhars, and 
thus found their way into Oudh. Both these accounts concur in 
attributing the advent of the Bachgotis into Oudh to Muhammadan 
influence ; but the one declares that they were driven before the in- 
vaders, and the other that they were led by them. It is in fiivour 
of the first that it leaves a space of fifty-five years between Prithivi 
B&ja and Baiy&r Sinh, and thus accords with the common belief 
that the latter was a descendant of a brother of the former ; it also 



v 



1 Jn$liiut9i, VUI, m. 



BACIIQOTI. 94 

affords a possiblo explanation of the aasumption of the name 
Bachgoti. 

2. *0n the other hand there are grounds for casting doabt on 
the tale of Bary&r Sinh's flight from Mosalmftn perseoution. In 
the first plaoe^ there is a suspicious silence about the doinge of 
Baryftr Sinh's ancestors during the fifty-five years intenral. 
Again, the independent legend of the Palw&rs asserts that they 
settled in the Faizab&d District in 1248 A.D., the very year that 
Baryftr Sinh is said to have come to Oudh, and yet there is no pre- 
tence that they rendered themselves particularly obnoziofos to the 
Musalm&ns. Nor were the Palw&rs the only settlers contemporary 
with the Bachgoti ; the twelfth century, if clan traditions be beHeved, 
witnessed numerous Kshatriya emigrations into Oudh, and it is 
impossible to conceive that they ^sought refuge from Mnhammadan 
tyranny, for governors of that creed had been established in the 
Province since very soon after Prithivi Bftja's overthrow. Iieaet of 
all, moreover, was the spot selected by Bary&r Sinh calculated to 
secure that end, for Jamw&wan lay within a mile or two of Kaihoti 
which is said to have been made the head-quarters of a Musolm&n 
officer simultaneously with the reduction of Sultftnpur. On the whole 
it seems more probable that Bary&r Sinh was the friend of tiie 
Musalm&ns rather than their foe. Shortly after his arrival at 
Jamw&wan he chanced one day to be leaving the village aooompa- 
nied by his servant, a Kah&r, when the latter perceived a serpent on 
the ground with a wag-tail {Kkanjarit) perched upon its hood, and, 
unfortunately for Iiimsolf, drew his master^s attention to the &et. 
For the learned in such matters have pronounced this to be an in- 
fallible omen that the beholder will sooner or later wear a crown. 
And Bary&r Sinh, indignant that a menial should be thus exalted, 
killed the Kah&r, and informed his brother, K&ns R&A, who left him 
in disgust, and then Bary&r Sinh entered the service of Rim Deo, 
chief of the Bilkhariya Dikhits of Kot Bilkh&r, near PartAbgarh, 
and marrying his daughter, and killing his son, Dalpat SIh, gained 
his dominions. ^ 

8. According to Sir C. Elliott,' the Bachgotis were, up to the 
time of Tilok Chand, the premier R&jas of Oudh, and had been vest- 
ed with the right of aflirming the title of each new R&ja by affixing 



1 Su/(dnpur BtUl^mtni Report, 187» §qq. 
' ChronieUi of Unao, 69. 



05 



BACHGTOTI. 



the sacred mark {iUai) to bis brow. Tlie two most conspiouous 
chiefs of the tribe are the B&ja of Efirwar and the Dtw&n of Hasan- 
piir Bandhua. " The latter^ notwithstanding his being a Musalm&n^ 
and hence called Ehdn-Zada^ invests all the lUjas of Banaudha 
with the tilai. The Somabansi chief of Araur^ the Bisen of Blm- 
pur^ the Einhpuriya of Tiloi^ and Bandhalgoti of Amethi^ would not 
be considered entitled to the privileges exercised by their ancestors 
without receiving it from his hands/' ^ 

4. In Sultslnpur they are said to take brides from the Bilkha- 
riya^ Tashaiya^ Chandauriya^ Kath Bais, Bhillft Sultan, Baghubansi, 
Oargbansi ; and to give girls to the Tilokchandi Bais, Mainpuri Chau- 
h&ns, SArajbansis of Mahul, Gautams of Nagar, Bisens of Majhauli 
and Bandhalgoti. Their gotra is said to be Vatsa. In Jaunpur 
they take girls from the Baghnbansi, Bais, Chaupat Ehambh, Ni* 
khumb, Dhanmast, GautamT^SalumvAr, Fanw&r, Chandel| Saunak, 
Drigbansi; and give them to the Kalhans, Simet, Gautam, Sfiraj- 
bansi, Kajw&r, Bisen, KSnhpuriya, Gaharw&r, Baghel, and Bais. 
In Azamgarh they take girls from the Chandel, Karmw&r, K&kan, 
Birw&r, R&thaur, and Udmatiya, and give them to the Bais, Kausiki 
and Gautam. 



\ 



DUiribniion of ihe Baehgoti Bdjputs according to He Cemm of 

1891. 



1 

DI8TBIOT. 


Knmber. 


DlBTBIOT. 


Number. 


Sah Aran pur . • 


• 


1 


Lalitpnr . • 


1 


Meerut « 


• 


• 


1 


Benares • • 


141 


Agra . 


• 


• 


1 


Mirzapur • • • 


Oil 


Earcilly 


• 


• 


2 


Jaunpur • • • 


2,069 


Bodlkun . 


• 


• 


76 


Gb&sipur • 


068 


Mor&dAb&d . 


1 


1 • 


6 


Ballia 


7 


FUibbii 


1 1 


t • 


1 


Gorakbpur • 


800 


Cawnpur 


■ 1 

• 


1 • 


3 


fiasti .... 


605 


B4nda 


1 1 


t « 


41 


Asamgarh • • • 


1,048 


Allab&b&d 


• 


• • 


1,893 


Lnoknow . . • 


81 



^ Sir H. M. Elliot, SuppUmtnUry Qloi$ary, «. v. 



BA.cn uiL. 



96 



bAchhal. 



DUiributiou ((fike Bachgoti Jid/puiM aecordimg tv ike Obmsu§ of 1891^^ 

oontd. 



DI8TB10T. 


Namber. 


DllTRfCT. 


Kambtr. 


UnAo .... 


31 


Babriich . • 


90 


\m Bureli . . 


797 


SnlUiipur • • 


lffJ86 


Hardoi 


1 


PaiiAbgarh • 


8,644 


PHisAb&d . 
Gonda 


],949 
129 






Total 


85.992 



Baohhil ; Bachhal.— A fiai)l.^J^jput8 who are by oneaoooant 
said to derive their name from the Hindi bdchknit, " to distribate. '* 
Aeoording to General Cunningham^ they claim desoent from 
Bftja Vena, whose son was Yir&t, the reputed founder of Baribhir 
or Vir&tkhcra, and whom he believes to be the same as Y tra Yarma 
of the inscriptions. By another extraordinary feat of folk ety- 
mology they are said to have been a branch of the Plsis, and to have 
derived their name from taking refuge in a garden (6<f^il). Aoeofd* 
ing to a writer in the Oudh Gtizetteer ' " they are a poesible link 
from the hoariest traditions of Indian antiquity to a middle-age 
period, which has been fairly chronicled, and, lastly, to the complete 
annals of modem times. It is the more desirable to follow oat the 
annals of this clan, first, because it is one of the very few in Oudh 
which docs rightfully claim an antiquity equal to that of English 
noble families which came in with the Conqueror ; and, seoond, 
because its surviving members, though respectable, are too poor to 
purchase false genealogies, and so humble in the social scale as to 
render a fictitious pedigree of no value. Consequently they now 

relate only the real traditions of their ancestors. *^ ''In 902 A.D. 

a local chief, named L&la, governed at Oarh Cajana, or Ilahabis, near 
Dewal. Tliis place is 16 miles south-east of Pilibhtt^ on the 
l^anks of the Katni rivulet. In fact, all the capitals of the Bftchhil 
clan— Bark bar, Nigohi, Garh Gajana, Kftmpi on the Slrda<— are 
within a few miles of each other : two in Shdhjahdnpur, west of the 
G&mti, and two in Kheri, east of the old river. We know nothing 
of Lila or his race, except from the inscription which he caused to 



1 Areheeologieal Survfy, I., 362, S9. 
« II., 289, tq. 



B&GHUIL. 97 bIoQUAL. 

be cut, and the coins which are still to be found. The Bftchhils 
were an entei'prising race in those days ; they were Hindus in &ith*; 
they worshipped Vishnu under the boar avaidra ; they had a coin* 
age, both in silver and gold, many specimens of which have been 
foimd near their old capitals on the Katni. It seems, too^ that their 
dynasty was of sufficient intelligence and energy to construct no 
less than two canals, about a hundred miles in length : one of them 
is still navigable, the other has somewhat silted up/' 

2. General Cunningham says :— '' It is admitted by every one that 
the Katehriyas succeeded the Bdchhils ; but the Eatehriyas them- 
selves state that they did not settle in Katehar till A.D. 1174. 
Up to this date, therefore, the Bd«hhil RSjas may be supposed to 
have possessed the dominant power in Eastern Rohilkhand^ beyond 
the R&mganga ; while Western Rohilkhand was held by the Bhidar^ 
Guila, and other tribes^ from whom the Katehriyas profess to have 
wrested it. Gradually the B&chhils must have retired before the 
Katehriyas, until they had lost all their territory west of the 
Deoha or PiUbhit river. Here they made a successful stand, and 
though frequently afterwards harried by the Muhammadaus, they 
still managed to hold their small territory between the Deoha river 
and the primeval forests of Pilibhit. When hard pressed they 
escaped to the jungle, which still skirts their ancient possessions of 
(}arh Ganjana, and Garh Khei*a. But their resistance was not 
always successful, as their descendants confess that some 300 or 400 
years ago, when their capital, Nigohi, was taken by the King of 
Delhi, the twelve sons of RSja Udarana, or Aorana, were all put to 
death. The twelve cenotaphs of these princes are still shown at 
Nigohi. Shortly after this catastrophe, Chliavi R8na, the grand- 
sou of one of the murdered princes, fled to the Lakhi jungle, where 
he supported himself by plundering. But when orders were given 
to exterminate his band, he presents himself before the King of 
Delhi, and obtained the district of Nigohi as jSgir. The gotrd' 
chdrya of the Bichhil Rljputs declai'es them to be Chandravansis, 
and their liigh social position is attested by their daughters being 
taken in marriage by Chaidislns, Rdthaurs, and Kachhw&has. The 
race is even more widely spread than the Gangetic B&chhils are 
aware of, as Abul Fazl records that the port of Ar&mr&j, in the 
peninsula of Gujarat, is a very strong place, inhabited by the tribe 
of Bachhil. Of the origin of the name nothing is known, but it is 
probably connected with bdekhna ' to select or choose. * The title 
Vol. I. - H 



bAohhxl. 



08 



bJIchhal* 



of Cliliindu^ which Is given in the inscription^ is also nCterl j unknown 
to the people^ and I can only guess that it may be, the name of one 
of the early ancestors of the race. '^ 

8. At the same time the traditions of some members of the sept 
do not bear out their claim to noble lineage. Thus^ in Azamgarhy' 
they a8^ert that they are the descendants of a RAjbhar, In ShSb- 
jah&npur ' they fix their emigration at tlie time of Jayohand, of 
Kan^uj^ and they possibly settled prior to all other Thftkor clans, 
except the E&sib. In Bijuor they claim to be of Sombansi origin, 
and to have replaced the Gfijars. In Mathura., the Siaodiyas of 
impure origin^ who are called Oauma^ are designated BAohhal from 
the Bachhban at Sehi^ where their Gum always resides. They aay 
that they emigrated from Chithor 700 or 800 years ago^ 
but more probably after Alftuddin's famous siege in ISOS A. D.' 

4. In Sitapur the Bichhals give brides to the Gaor and Tomar 
septs, and take girls from the Janw&rs. In Kheti they marry 
tlieir sons to girls of tlio Gaur, Nikumbh| Janwftr, Ahban, Pramir, 
and Eftsib septs : and their daughters marry with the B&thanr, 

Bhadauriya, and Kaohhwflha. 

i 

Dittribution of the Bdekhal Rdfputt aeeordiug to tko Cennu tf 

1891. 



• 

District. 


Hindu*. 




TOTAl.. 


Sah&ranpar • • . • 


... 


10 


10 


MuzalTarnagar • • • . 


13 


. *t 


13 


Meernt 


125 


■•• 


125 


Bulandshahr .... 


1,680 


102 


1.782 


Ali^nrh • • • • • 


402 


••• 


402 


Mnlhnrft • • • • • 


1,701 


215 


1,91G 


AtfFA • . • • • 


197 


1 


198 


Farmkb&bskd .... 


643 


••• 


643 


Mainpori • . • • . 


004 


••. 


004 


Et&wah 


111 


••• 


111 



^ Settlement Report^ App. I., 2 A. 

• 8ctilcment Heitort, 5t). 

* Oruwao, Mathura, 12, 350. 



BACHHIL. 



00 



bIohhal. 



Diitribuiion of the Bdehkal R6jpui$ according to the ContuM qfl891^ 

oontd. 



District. 


Hiodos. 


Mahammadana 


Total. 


Etah 


252 


• • • 


252 


Bareilly 


431 


••• 


431 


Bijnor 


74 


• 
••• 


74 


BudiuQ . . . . . 


2,341 


•.. 


2,841 


Mor4d&b&d . . . . 


185 


••« 


185 


8h4hjah&apttr . . . . 


7,794 


110 


7,013 


Pilibbii 


208 


... 


20i 


Cawnpar 


28 


... 


28 


Faiebpur 


31 


... 


81 


AlkbAbAd 


6 


1 


6 


J41aan • . . . . 


8 


*•■ 


8 


Benares 


1 


••• 


1 


Jannpor 


... 


00 


00 


Tardi 





. * • 


6 


Gorakbpar • • • . 


••• 


70 


70 


LttckDOW ..... 


205 


... 


205 


Unfto 


300 


... 


800 


RAABareli . . . . 


740 


100 


858 


SiUpnr 


2|285 


267 


2»552 

• 


Hardoi 


1^7 


30 


1.817 


Kberi . . . • . 


1,406 


• a. 


1,406 


Faizabid 


• a. 


264 


264 


Gunda 

• 


1 


••* 


1 


Babr&iob ..... 


282 


22 


404 


SuliAnpur 


120 


1 


130 


Fart4bgarb .... 


657 


1 


658 


B&rabanki 


611 


62 


673 


Total 


25.422 


1,364 


26,786 



Vot. 1. 



H 8 



BADHAK. 100 

Badhak; Badhik.— (Sans. FadAaka^m murderer.) — A vagimiit 
criminal tribe of whom the last census shows only a small number 
in Mathum and Filibhit. But there can be little doubt that these 
returns are incoiTecti or the present Badhiks have been classed in 
some other way. They appear to be closely allied to the B&wariyis 
and Baheliyas. According to the earliest account of them by Mr. 
Shakespeare ' they were originally outcastes of Musalm&n as 
well as Hindu tribes^ the majority, however, being R&jpats. 

2. Of the Gorakhpur colony Mr. D. T. Roberts writes in a note 

prepared for the recent Police Commission :— 
'^ 1 he notorious dakaits known as Badhiks 
were suppressed like the Thags by the capture and imprisonment of 
all their leaders. This done, a colony of them was settled on waste 
land belonging to Government in the Gorakhpur District in 1844. 
They evinced for a long time the greatest repugnance to honest work, 
and even now a good portion of the lands held by them are sublet at 
higher rates to other castes. The larger propbrtion of their holdings 
are let at very low rates, but some land is taken up by them at tiie 
current rates of the neighbourhood. The not proiits of the estate 
on which they are located are paid over to the family of the original 
dakait leader. Surveillance, which at one time mny have been very 
strict, has been much relaxed of late years, but there is a constable 
or two posted over them ; a register is kept, and they require permis- 
sion from the Magistrate before they can leave the District. 
Dakaiti has long been given up by them, or rather was never 
resumed at the colony. In 1871 the Deputy Inspector-General of 
Police visited them, and found the colony in a very backward state. 
In consequence of his representations the District authorities began 
to take moi-e interest in them, and they have been fairly well looked 
after since. The number then was 209, and the Deputy Inspector- 
General remarked : — '^ There is little doubt the tribe carries <m 
thieving, but no cases for some time past have been brought home 
to tliem. ^^ Twenty years later, it may be said, that they are not 
even suspected of .thieving. Though not a very advanced or indue- 
trious community, they may now be instanced as a case of success* 
ful repression and reformation. Their number has not increased 
since 1871, and was, in 1800, 203 inall. One of their chief ofEeneee 
in the Gorakhpur colony used to be illicit manufacture of spirits. 



> Asiatic lU»eaicht's,, XIII , 282. 



BADHAK. 101 bAOUbAn. 

8. One of their specialities used to be disguising themselves as 

BrShmans and Bairdgis and associating with 

Methods of crime. ... ^ . j. i i ^ - 

pilgnms returning from the Ganges, for 
whom they used to perform mock religious ceremonies, and then 
stupefy^ with datHra or thorn apple, and rob.^ Their special deity is 
E&li, to whom they ofter goats as the B&wariyas do. They eat game 
and vermin, such as foxes, jackals, and lizards. They believe that the 
use of jackal meat fortifies them against the inclemencies of winter.' 
They were in the habit of making plundering expeditions, and before 
starting, shares in the expeotod booty were allotted, a special share 
being given to the widow and children of any person killed or dying 
during the expedition. A writer in the Asiatic Journal ' states 
that after the sacrifice they used to pray, '^ If it be Thy will, O, QoA. I 
and thine, O K&li I to prosper our undertaking for the sake of the 
blind and the lame, the widow and the orphaui who depend on our 
exertions, vouchsafe, we pray thee, the cry of the female jackal 
on our right. '' One of the most &mous exploits of Badhik dakaits 
was the murder of Mr. Bavenscroft, the Collector of Cawnpur, 
of which Colonel Sleeman gives an account.^ 

4. There can be very little doubt that the tribe is of mixed 
origin, and is on the same grade as the Kanjars, S&nsiyas, and 
similar vagrants. It constitutes, in fact, a sort of Cave of Adullam 
for the reception of vagrants and bad characters of different tribes. 

Vi%lribution of Badhiks according to the Cetuvs of 1891, 



District. 


Number. 


Ifathtim . 
Pilibliit . 


• • • ■ 


• • « • 


79 
4/i\ 


Guiakhpnr . 


• • • • 


Total 


1 




126 



Baghban. — (Persian, a gardener.)— A class of cultivators in the 
Rheri District who grow vegetables. They are practically the same 

1 Reportt Intpeclor-neneral, Police^ N. W, P., 1869, page 121, tqq. 

» People of India, III., 113. 

> 3rd 8. I., 467, tqq : III., 186, »qq, 

* JoHTitey through Oudh, /., 112. 



bAgHBAn, 102 BAGHEL. 

caete as the Edchhi (q. v.) and the MurAo, They claim to have 
tbree endogomous snb-caetes — Kacbhi, Murao, and Sani, the last 
being derived from the Hindi tdnna, to mix up, need in connection 
with their careful preparation o£ the soil. Their manners, customs, 
roUgion, etc., correspond in oveiy way with those of the Kilchhis. 

Baghel. — (Sana. Vydghra, a tiger.) — A acpt of RSjputB. 
Colonel Tod' calls them "the most conspicuous branch of the 
original Solanklii stock. " The traditional history of the sept has 
been written by Maharaja Haghu Itaj Sinh, of Iliwa, the moe^ 
famons modern repreaentative of them, in a book known as the 
Bhakt Mala. From thiB it would appear that their oiiginal Gnrn 
waa tho famoua Kabir DHa. lie oiico went to Gujanlt to make a 
pilgrimage to the Western Ocean. At that time Solankha Deva 
waa the Riija there. lie was a member of the Solankhi clan. As 
he was childless, he prayed to Kabir to grant him olfspring. The 
eaint heard his prayer, and promised him two sons, one of whom 
would have the appearance of a tiger. This was Vy4ghra Deva. 
Tho priests advised t}ic KSja to throw his son into the ocean, as ho 
was unlucky. Ho followed their advice ; but when Kabfr heard 
of this he ordered the Raja to bring him hack. He did so, and 
Kabtr annonnced that tho sept wonld be called after hia name. 
Vy^hra Deva was alao childleaa ; but he, too, wae blessed with a son 
through the intercession of Kabir. Hia name was Jay Sinh, and he, 
with the permission of hie grandfather, Solankha Deva, collected an 
army and commenced a career of conqueet. He marched to the 
banks of the Narbada, and occupied what was known as Gorha Desa, 
and married hia son in the Baia family of Dundhiya Khera. Hia 
snccesBors, Karan Sinh and Keeavi Sinh, carrieil on hia conquests, 
and the laat overcame a Mnsalmiin Nawiib, and occupied Govakhpur. 
Then followed Malar Sinh, Siirang Deva, and JJhimal Deva. His son, 
Bralim Deva, came in contact with the Gahavwilrs. His moat power* 
htl successor was Bir Sinh, who is said to have had a hundred thousand 
horsemen. Whenbeconquered Piayagor AllahSbSd, the people called 
in the Mussalmans. The Emperor marched to Chitrakilt, where the 
Hfija met him. The Emperor asked him why he interfered with his 
people. HeauBwered,— " The Kahatriya ncetls a place to live in. He 
troubles ihisc who trouble him." Tlio Emperor wasp'eased with liis 
bravery, and recognieed his son, Bir Bhi5n, as Uaja, He gave him 

< Anno,\», I., 105, tjg. 



103 BAGHfiL. 

^^ • 

the WcBsing : — " Subdue twelve R&jas and live in Bandhugarh/' Bir 

Sinh extended his conquests towards the south^ and reached the 
Tons. He gained Ratanpur as dowry for his son from the Kach- 
' waha Raja of that place. Ulr Sinh made over his kingdom to his 
sou^ Bir Bhfiln^ and retired to Pray^^ where he died. Thus the king- 
dom of Riwa came into the hands of the present ruling family. 
General Cunningham^ fixes the emigi*ation of the Baghels to the 
upper valleys of the Son and Ton£i between 580 and 683 Sambat 
(523, 626 A.D.), where they succeeded the Chandels, Kalach&ris^ 
Chauhiins, Scngai's, and Gonds. In FarrukhaLbski ^ they trace 
their origin to Madhogarh, and fix their settlement in the time of 
Jaya Chandra, of Kanauj, which is also the story as told by Abul 
FazK Their original head-quarters was at Anogi, in Pargana 
Kanauj, under Ilarhar Deva, and his son, Harbans. Their property 
was acquired during the conflict between the Naw&bs of Farrukha- 
bdd and Oudh, and the Marhattas, and their estates fell into two 
divisions, Tirwa and Thatiya. The latter RRj was confiscated early 
in the century owing to the opposition of Chhatar Sil to the British. 

2. They give their name to Baghel-khand or Riwa. The name 
of their eponymous hero, Vydghra Deva, is probably a comparatively 
recent tradition, and the title is possibly totemistic, as^.according to 
Captain Forsyth,^ they claim descent from a tiger, and protect it 
whenever they can. 

3. Mr. Ricketts ^ gives a bad account of the tribe in Allahd,- 
b3d : — ''The most notorious gang of dacoits, which for generations 
has infested the south of AllahS,bid, is of this clan ; and this claim 
of consanguinity with the Mah&rdja of Riwa has ensured their 
constant protection in his territories; and certainly the savage 
nature of the prototype of their race has pervaded the acts of these 
noted robbers. Each of their feats has shown the extremes of craft, 
treacheiy, and the meanest cowardice. When armed and in numbers 
they have murdered the single and unarmed ; they have beaten 
women and killed children/' 

4. The Baghels, south of the Jumna/usually give brides to the 
Fariliar and Galiarwar septs ; and take wives from the Bais, Gautam, 
and Gaharwilr. 

* Archaslogical R^ortSt XXT., 103, sqq. 
3 Setllemenl Report, page 12. 

> Uighlandt of Central India, page 278. 

* Censiii Report, N,'W, P., 1805, 1., App. B., l^J). 



BAGHBL 



lOdi 



BAIIBLITA. 



Diiiribiiiion of iht Bagkel RdjpuU according to He Cen$ui of 

1891. 



DiBTBlOT. 


Number. 


DlSTBIOT*. 


Number. 


FarrukhlbAd 


2,881 


Lalitpur 


80 


Hainpari 


123 


Denarei 


40 


Et&wah 


187 


Mirsapnr 


603 


Etah . . . . 


26 


Jaanpar 


10 


Oawnpar 


236 


1 
GbAdpnr 


114 


Faiehpnr 


77 


Ballia . 


asi 


BAnda • . .. . 


J,017 


Qorakbpnr • 


1,S50 


Hamtrpur 


24 


Basti . 


Ml 


Allahlb&d . 


1,619 


Aumgarb 


21 


Jalaun • . • . 


24 


PartAbKarb . 

TOTAl 


Ml 




8.708 



Baheliya \— (Sans. Vyddia, '' one who pieioeB or woundB,'' 
^'a hunter.^' Root, ^yddh^ ''to pierce '')• — A class of hunters and 
fowlers. The Purdnik tradition is that the father of the tribe wae 
a barber, and the mother an Aliir of bad character. In Bengal, 
according to Mr. Risley,^ ''they insist on their title to beoonn- 
dcred DusAdhs, and in Bengal, at any rato^ the Balioliya and Dmtdh 
eat and smoke together, and tliongh they do not intermarry, behate 
generally as if they were branches of the same stock. ** This does 
not seem to be the case in these ProvinceSj where they usually eall 
themselves a sub-caste of Pasis. Some Baheliyas in the western 
districts have a tradition that they are of Blitl descent. They 
say that they came from Chitrak&t, in Banda, under their anocstor, 
the famous Yalmiki, and were named Baheliyas by Krishna at- 
Matlmra. The Aheriyas, as will be seen by their acoount of them* 
selves given in the article on that caste^ profess to be identical with 
the Baheliyas. They are probably a relic of some non-Aryan tribe, 
which still adheres in a great measure to tlie primitive occupation of 

^ Prinoipally based on enqiiiriea ma<1e at Mirzapur : a few notei on tba Oodk 
branch of the tribe have been contributed by B4bu Sinwal DAa, Deputy GoUeoior, 
lUrdui. 

^Hindu Tribe* ami Castes, I., 353. 



105 BAHELITA. 

hunting, bird trapping, and collecting jungle produce. The Mirza** 
pur legend of their origin tells that Mm Chandi*a in his wander- 
iugs once came across a stag of golden colour which was, really 
Mariclia, the BSkshasa, the minister of R&vana. R&m Chandra 
pursued the animal, which escaiiod. In liis anger the hero rubbed liis 
hands'together, and out of the dirt {mail) thus produced created a 
man, whom he appointed his chief hunter. From him the tribe of 
Baheliyas are descended. 

2. The Census returns give as the main sub-castes the Pisi, in 

Mirzapurj the Cliandel and Sribftstab, in 

Internal strnotnre. ^^,1 ,^ -r ' i-»^i. « 

Gorakhpur ; the Lagiya and Kukmaiya, of 
Gonda ; the Chhatri and Srib^tab, of Bahi*dich, and the Bhongiya, 
of Fart&bgarh. The Baheliyas of the eastern districts name seven or 
really eight endogamous sub-castes— Baheliya ; Chiryam&r or. 
" bird-killers '' {cAirya = " a bird/' mdrna = '^ to kill'') j Karaul^ whose 
speciality is said to be stalking animals under cover of a tame ox used 
as a decoy. Mr. Sherring^ treats them as a separate caste and 
describes them as possessing five sub-castes : — Furabiya, or Eastern ; 
Haz&ri or Hajari, '' commanders of a thousand men ; '* ^ XJttariya, 
or " Northern ; '' Koireriya, who are connected with the Koeri tribe, 
and Turkiya, or the Muhammadan branch. All these sub-castes are 
endogamous. Next, among the Bahcliya proper, come tlie Eotilia^ 
who ai*e said to derive their name from being attendants at some 
king's palace (tot) : the B&jdhar or falconers (&^ir=:'' a falcon," 
dharHa=i^' to hold") ; the Turkiya, or Muhanmiadan branch, and 
the Siirajbans or ''descendants of the sun," who say they take 
their name from their original settlement, a village called 
Sfirajpur Bahlela. To these are sometimes added the Mask&r or 
providers of meat (JUdnsidra) or, as the word is sometimes pronounc- 
ed, Miskftr, a corruption of Mir Shik&r, " a chief huntsman." .^ All 
the Mirzapur Baheliyas speak of Oudh as their original habitat. 
The Oudh Baheliyas give three sub-castes which ai'e endogamous — 
Baghubansi, Fasiya, and Karaul. 

3. Their tribal coimcil (panehdj/al) is presided over by a heredi- 

tary chaiiman known as Sakhi, '' the person 
who gives testimony." They, as usual. 



1 Uiixdu Tribes and CaaUt, I., 3*^3. 

' There is a tradition at OhanAr that Akbar garrisoned the fort with a body 
of Baheliyas under a Commander known as Haziri. The descendant of the last 
HazAri of ChanAr Is now a rnnner in the Qovemment Tahiti. 



BAHELITA. 106 

decide on cases of adultery, sednction, and breaohefl of oaste ralet 
regarding food, etc. Offences, when proved, are punished by a fine 
ranging from five rupees down to paying for the tobaooo consumed 
by the clansmen at the meeting. Now*a-days the refreshment 
served round at the meetings of the* council is what is called 
mirchwdtt, a mixture of bAanp, chillies, sugar, and water. This 
has been recently substituted for liquor, either through some idea of 
teetotalism, or, as others say, on account of the poverty of the caste. 

4. The sub-castes already named are endogamous, and they 

observe, in the eastern districts, the ordi« 

Marriage rules. c \ t u* u u-lv 

nary formula of exogamy, which prohibits 
marriage in one's own family, or tliat of the maternal uncle or 
fathei'^s sister, as long as relationship is remembered. In Ondh they 
will not give a bride to a family in which, within the memory of 
man, a son has been married. A man cannot have two sisters to 
wife at the same time, but he may marry one sister on the death of 
another.^ Sameness of occupation and the use of, or abstinenoe 
from, wine are carefully regarded in forming marriage connections* 
A man can take a second wife in the lifetime of the first wi^e 
provided the council give permission ; but this is not usually granted 
unless she is barren or incapacitated by some disease from cohabi- 
tation. If an unmarried girl is detected in an intrigue, her parents 
are fined five rupees, and have to feast the clansmen, Qirls are 
usually married at the age of seven or eight. The negotiations are 
conducted by a Br5hman and barber. Once concluded, no physical 
defect is a suflicient cause for the annulment of a marriage. Wives 
can be put away by order of the council for adultery ; but if the 
paramour be a member of the tribe, the offence is usually condoned 
by a money fine. Widows can marry by iagdi, but such marriages 
are ^nerally made with widowers. The only ceremony is eating 
with the relations of the woman and making het put on new 
clothes and jewelry provided by her future partner. On his return 
home with his bride he is obliged to feast his clansmen. 

5. During pregnancy an old woman of the family waves a pice 

or a handful of grain round the head of the 

Birth cercmonioa. .. .• t , x m * a 

patient and vows to present an oitenng to a 
deified ghost called Kftlu Bir, and Nimau Parihir, who is one of 
the quintette of the Panclionpir, and is sup|)08od to liave some 
special connection with the use of spirituous liquors. Tlio woman 
is attended by the Cliamain midwife, who cuts the cord and buries 



107 BAHELIYA. 

it outside the house. At the entrance of the delivery room a fishing 
net, a branch of the thorny bel tr ee (Aeyle marmelos) a nd the family 
pestle are placed to keep off malignant spirits ; and a fire is kept 
lighting there during the period of impurity with the same object. 
They have the usual dread of menstrual impurity common to all 
these races. On the day her child is bom the mother gets no 
food, except a mixture of ginger and coarse sugar mixed up in water. 
From the next day she receives her usual food. Those who have 
lost their children get the baby^s ears bored before it leaves the 
delivery room. On the sixth day is the Chhathi^ when mother and 
eliild are bathed. From this time the place of the midwife is 
taken by the barber's wife^ who attends till the twelfth day^ when the 
barahi ceremony is performed. The house is plastered and the 
earthen vessels replaced. The nails of the mother and all the family 
are out, mollicr and child are bathed^ and the clansmen are feasted 
on wine and cakes {ptlri). When the mother first visits the well 
after her confinement she bows down to it and offers fried gram 
{^hughuri) on the platform^ which she also marks with a little red 
lead, a practice which may be a survival of some form of sacrifice, 
human or animal. If the child is a boy the midwife receives four 
annas and two ^en of grain : for a girl^ two annas and the same 
amount of grain. They so far practise the couvade tliat the hus- 
band does not work on the day his child is bom. The original 
motive has been forgotten^ and the explanation given is that he does 
so to express his joy at his wife's safe delivery. At the age of five 
or seven the child's ears are bored, and this is considered an initia- 
tion into caste : after this the child must observe the caste regula- 
tions rcgai'ding food. 

0. The marriage ceremonies are of the ordinary low-caste type. A 

Brahman is consulted as to whether the union 
IS likely to be propitious {jforna ganna). The 
betrothal is concluded by giving the bride's father a rupee or less to 
clench the bargain. Baheliyas appear invariably to marry their brides 
by tlie dola form, in which the ceremonies are pei*formed at the 
house of the bridegroom. Some eight days before the wedding the 
bride is brought over to the bridegroom's house. Two or tlirce days 
before the wedding day a pavilion [mdnro) is erected, in the centre 
of which a ploughshai'e (harif)^ the stalk of a plantain tree and a 
bamboo are fixed. Under these are placed the family pestle and 
mortar and grindstone for spices. Besides these are placed a water 



x' 



B An BUT A. 108 

jar {kalid) covered with a saucer (parai) filled with barlej and 
decoi-ated with lumps of cowdung and splashes of red lead. Tbe 
same evening the maimangar ceremony is performed in the nsoal 
way. The day before the wedding is the bkatwdn, yrhen. the clam- 
men are feasted. On the wedding day the bridegroom is batiied, 
his nails are parcd^ and he is dressed in a red ooat with a yellow 
loin cloth. lie then parades on horseback through tlio village, and 
on his return sits down with his clansmen. At night he ia called 
into the house, and he and the bride are seated in a square in a 
courtyard, when the bride^s father washes thdr fertwith water 
(pdtiwpdja). The BrShman then recites the verses (manifa)^ and 
the pair worship Gauri and Ganesa. The bride's f atlier, tlion taking 
some husa grass and water, gives his daughter to the bridegroom 
{kanyaddn) . He next applies red lead to the parting of her hair : 
their clothes are knotted together, and they move five timea roond 
the centre pole of the pavilion, while parched maize is thrown over 
them [law a paraehhan). The pair go into the retiring room (kokm* 
6nr), where his brother-in laVs wife (mrkaj) plays jokes on flie 
bridegroom by sitting on his back and refusing to release him until 
she receives a present. A lighted lamp with two wicks is placed 
there, and the bridegroom joins the two wicks together aa au em* 
blem of union with the bride. Next follows a feast to the clansmen, 
who return next day. After the marriage is concluded Kllu Btr 
and Parihfir are worshipped. On the fourth day after the wedding, 
the bride and bridegroom, accompanied by the barber's wife, go to a 
neighbouring tank or stream and then drown the sacred vrater jar 
(kolio) and the marriage festoons (bandanwdr). On their way 
home they worship the old fig ti*ees of the village, which are sup- 
posed to be the abode of evil spirits, with an offering of water and 
washed rice {achchhat). Some offer also sweetmeats and grain. 
The binding part of the maiTiagc ceremony is tlie washing of the 
brideg^oom^s feet by the bride's father, and the rubbing of red 
lead by the bridegroom on the parting of the bride's hair. 

7. When a man is dying he is taken into the open air and 

gold, Ganges water, and leaves of the 



(ocj^mnm $anelum) put into his mouth. If 
these things arc not procurable, curds and coarse sugar are used. 
Four men carry the corpse to the cremation ground, wliere the body 
is washed, shrouded in new cloth, and the liair shaved. It is then 
laid on the pyi'c, with the legs turned towards the south. The 



109 BAHELIYA. 

next-of-kin walks round five times and burns the mouth with a torch 
of straw, and then fires the pyre. On their return home the mourners 
chew the leaves of the bitter Ntm tree, and pass their feet through the 
smoke of burning oil. Next day the Pandit gets the barber to hang 
a water jar from the branch of a pipal tree. That day the clansmen 
are fed. The feast is known as ''the boiled rice of milk'' (dud A ka 
hSdi), The period of mourning is ten days, during which the chief 
mourner keeps apart, and always carries a water vessel (lot a) and a 
knife to protect him from evil spirits. He cooks for himself, and, 
before eating, lays a little food outside the house for the use of the 
dead. He bathes daily and renews the water in the pot {ghant) hung 
up for the dead man. On the tenth day the clansmen assemble at a 
tank, shave, bathe, and thi'ow the rice balls (pindaj in the water. 
The MahsLbrahman receives the clothes and personal effects of the 
dead man, wliich he is supposed to pass on for his use in ihe next 
world. A feast to the clansmen concludes the period of mourning. 
They make the usual offerings to the dead (irdddha) in the first 
fortnight of Ku&r. 

8. Baheliyas are seldom regularly initiated into any Hindu 

sect. Their clan deities, in the Eastern 

Religion. 

Districts, are K&lu Bir and Pariliir, who are 
worshipped at the Kajari festival, in the month of S&wan. To 
K&lu Bir a young pig is offered, and wine poured on the ground. 
Paiih3.r receives a sacrifice of fowls and cakes. In Oudh they 
worsliip Hardeo or Hai*daur LS.la, the cholera godling. His offer- 
ing consists of cakes, fruit, etc. To K&IS Deo a goat is sacrificed, 
and a pig to Miy^n. Men alone join in this worship. Parched 
grain and milk are offered to the household snake at the N&gpan- 
cliami festival. Tlicy resi)cct the Sun and Moon, bow to them, 
but do not give them any special worship. The ordinary low 
village Brftlmians act as their priests at domestic ceremonies. They 
consume the animals they sacrifice, except pigs, from which most 
abstain. They have the usual Hindu festivals — the Phagua, Kajari 
and Dasami. 

9. The women wear nose rings (nathijjfa), ear ornaments {karan" 

Social habite and P^^^)i necklaoes, wristlets [dharkaua), arm 

oQstoDiB. ornaments {hdju)^ and anklets (pairi, kara). 

Like other Hindus they give two names to their children. They 

swear by the Ganges, on their own heads, and on those of their sons. 

They believe in magic and witchcraft, but do not practise these 



SAnULITA. 



110 



Ooonpiition. 



arts themselves. They will not kill a oow^ monkey, or sqairrel ; 
they will not touoh a Bhangi, Dom, Dhobi, or the wi£e of their 
younger brother or nephew. They drink liquor freely, and eat 
the flesh of fowls^ goats, deer, and sheep, but not pork or beef. 
Men eat first, and women after them. They salute by the fonn 
pnilagi or the ordinary taldm ; Br&hmans and R&jputs drink wator 
from their hands ; Banyas eat pakki oooked by them ; Chamirs 
and other menials eat kacheki, 

10. Their oocu pation is hunting and trapping birds. Those who 

live by bird-eatching are often known as 
Miskar, said to be a corruption of mir siMr 
** head huntsman,^' or mdsidr, '' cater of meat.'' They have a most 
ingenious mode of trapping birds with a series of thin bamboos, like 
a fishing rod, 6n which bird-lime {Idsa) is smeared. This they posh 
with great adroitness through the branches andleaves where a bird is 
sitting, and entangle his wings and feathers. They make exoellent 
shik&ris, and are noted for their skill in tracking game. Some 
work in the Mirzapur lao factories, and a few oultivato as non- 
occupancy tenants. Tliey are a fine, active, manly race, bat noto- 
riously untrustworthy. 

« 

Diiiribution cf Bahelij/ai aaeordinp to He Cen»H$ of 1891. 





Hindus. 


madaM. 




DllTRICT. 


Karanl. 


Boghn- 
bauai. 


SAral- 
banal 


Oihon. 


TOTAI*. 


Sah&ranpur 

Muzaflarnagar 

Meenit 

Dulandsbahr 

Hathura 

Agra , 

Farrukh&l&d 

Mainpnri • 

Et&wah 

Et&h • 


354 

1,279 

753 

325 

* • • 


. • • 

• • • 

80 

1.149 

414 

630 

247 




2 

• • • 

20 

88 

199 

131 

655 

403 

332 

47 


229 

42 

12 

12 

••• 

21 

10 

1 

*•• 


220 

60 

811 

665 

2,104 

1,680 

1,288 

204 



Ill 



BAHKLITA. 



Distribution of Baheliytu according to the CentuM of 1891 -eonid. 





H1NDO8. 


Mohom- 
madane. 




DI8TBIOT. 


Karanl. 


Baiffau* 
bansi. 


SAraj- 
bansi. 


Otben. 


Total. 


Bareiliy 


• •• 


••• 




41 


232 


273 


Bijnor 


• 1 • 


.*• 




31 


. *•. 


31 


MorftdHbdul . 


• ■• 


••. 




63 


7 


00 


Sb&hjab&npui 


261 


2.108 




712 


... 


3,071 


Pilibbit 


• • • 


870 




132 


116 


1.118 


Cawnpur 


2,482 


83 


5 


466 


••. 


2.976 


Fatebpar 


1 




132 


102 


••• 


295 


Bilknda 


•• • 




24 


86 


*•* 


110 


Allah&b4d • 


25 


1 


356 


912 


83 


1,326 


J b&nsi 


••• 




4 


40 


•• • 


44 


J&Uun • 


• • • 






86 


••• 


36 


Lalitpur . • 


t«* 






17 


... 


17 


Benares • 


10 






641 


20 


677 


Mirz&pur • • 


•■• 






1,152 


4 


1,160 


Jaunpur 


••• 






822 


... 


822 


QblLzipur • 


11 






80 


... 


91 


Ballia . 


•• • 






1 


.•. 


1 


Qorakhpur . 


2 




223 


1,222 


2 


1.440 


BasU . 


• • • 


56 


422 


••. 


206 


683 


Azamgarh • 


••• 




30 


256 


•.. 


286 


Tar&i • 


••• 




••• 


11 


100 


111 


Lock now 


19 




226 


501 


176 


922 


Uullo . 


... \ 




•%• 


161 


143 


294 


l{lkdi3aro1i . 


• ... 




... 


524 


••. 


624 


Sttapur • 


. • • 




31 


866 


18 


915 


Ilardoi 


.•• 




203 


136 


••• 


339 



BAQBLlrA. 




112 




BAIDiQUlB. 


DUtfibuiioH of Bah9llff<M acoording to tko CUnMus of 1891 — «oneld. 




Hindus. 


m» • 




DiBTRlOT. 


Karaal. 


Raffha- 
banaL 


bantL 


Otbart. 

• 


Miinam- 


Total. 


Kheri • 


••• 


• • • 


••• 


617 


••• 


617 


Faiz&b&d . 


••• 


••• 


928 


408 


••• 


1.8S1 


Gonda • 


4 


••• 


86 


956 


171 


1317 


Bahr^ioh . 


44 


• • • 


615 


1310 


106 


8,075 


Saltan pur . 


*•• 


••• 


671 


582 


••• 


1*153 


Partlbgarb . 


••• 


••• 


1.186 


1,264 


••• 


8,460 


Bllrftbanki . 


^ 


••• 


262 


287 


• •• 


499 


Total . 


5,566 


6,588 


6.298 


15,642 


1,660 


33.764 



Baidguar.— A «mall Muhammadan caste. shown at the kst 
Consns only in Momlfibad (173) and Pilibhit (247). Tlie inform- 
ation obtained about them is not very precise ; but there can be little 
doubt that they are an off -shoot of the Baid Banj&ras. It ia said 
that formerly the Baid followed the occupation of carrying grain on 
pack animals : while the 6u&r used to make hemp matting {Mi), 
and tend cattle. Since their conversion to Isllm they are known 
collectively as Baidgudr^ but the two divisions do not intermarry. 
The Census returns give their sections as Bagli&ri^ Chauhftn, Maliro* 
ra, Nahar, Sadiqi, Shaikh, and Tomar. 

Bairiigi. — (Sans. VairSg^fa, " freedom from passion/') — ^A term 
applied to a sect of Hindu ascetics, which is often used in rather 
a vague sense. On tliis sect Mr. Maclagan writes':-— ''Hie 
worsliip of B4ma and Krishna is said to be of comparatively recent 
date ; and Professor Wilson points out that in the Sankara Vqa- 
ya, published by a pupil of Sankara Achirya, (die religioua leader 
who is supposed to have lived in the ninth or tenth century, no 
mention whatever is made of Rftma or Krishna, or Lakshmana or 
Hanumfln. Tlio popularity of this particular form of worship ia 
supposed to date from the time of the spread of the R&jpnt iK>wor, 
which followod the overthrow of the Buddliist dynasties. The 
various orders who attach themselves to the worship of RAma and 



I Panj^h Centui Report^ 128, tqq. 



113 baiuAgk 

Krishna arc generally known as Baird.gi8. The appearance oE these 
orders dates from the period at which the worship of R&ma and 
Krishna appears to have been in the ascendant, and though primari- 
ly they have their origin in the Dakkhin, their strength is, and has 
been^ mainly in the North- West Provinces, where the worship of 
BAma and Krishna has always been strongest. 

''The history of the Bair&gis commences with Ramdnuja, who 
taught in the south of India, and who is supposed to have Uved in 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries. But it is not till the time of 
R&manand^ that is until the end of the fourteenth century^ tliat 
the sect was in any way powerful or important in Northern India ; 
and, indeed, it is only to the followers of R&manand or his contem- 
poraries that the term Bair&gi is properly applied. The split occa- 
sioned by the secession of R&manand was, like most of the move- 
ments in modern Hinduism, a revulsion of the more liberal Nor- 
thern thinkers against the stricter doctrines of Southern Hindust&n. * 
The sect founded by S&manand was, nominally at least, open to all 
castes, whereas previous to his time Br&hmans and Kshatriyas alone 
were admitted, and many of his followers, who founded important 
schools of doctrine, were men of the humbler classes. The move* 
ment started by Bftmanand was essentially popular, and the books 
published by his adherents were written in the tongue of the people, 
no longer in Sanskrit, but in Hindi — a departure which has 
been very far-reaching in its results, and wUch has led in the 
Panj&b to a new scripture, and a new national religion of a very 
clear and vigorous type.^^ 

2. At the last Census in these Provinces the Bairdgis were 
DirifiioDi of iho Baif classed in tliree great sub-divisions— -M&d- 
*?'** havach&rya, Nim&wat, and KAmanandi. On 

this Mr. Maclagan writes :^'' The Bair&gis have, however, been so 
far outdone by the never sects which have sprung from the original 
stock, that they may be now looked upon as representing ortho- 
dox Hinduism, in contrast to the more independent schools of thought. 
As a rule they veuemte both Krishna and llftma, but there 
are sections of them which pay more reverence to the one, and others 
tliat pay more reverence to the other. There are always supposed to 
have been four sections of BairAgis, but it appears a little uncertain 
what the four sections are. There are at least four enumerations :^ 
''(a) RAmanandi ; Nimanandi ; YishnuswAmi ; MAdhava- 

chArya. 
Vol. I. I 



bairIoi. 114 

"(i) Raminuja; Midhavachtrya ; ViBhnoBwimi ; Nimi- 
kharaksw&mi. 

'^{e) Bftmanandi; Nimftnuja; MIdhavaohSrya ; VallaUia- 
chftrya. 

^'{d) BAmanandi; Biganandi; MIdhavaohftrya ; Yia>hna- 
sw&mi. 
In the Panj&b there are practically two main Beotiona only, 
namely^ the Rftmanandi and Ntmanandi, of whom the former are 
more specially addicted to the worship of Bftma., and the latter to 
that of Krishna. They both hold a great feast on the death of a 
feU9W devotee, and also on the Rtmnanmi, (the day of the ineam* 
ation of B&inchondra, and on the eightli day of Bliftdoni the ineam* 
ation day of Krishna. But the Bimanandis stndy the Bpftmiya- 
na, and look on Ajudhya and R&mnftth as places of plgiimage^ 
while the Nimanandis study the books relating to Krishna^ and 
consider Mathura, Brindftban and DwArikanith to be sacred places. 
The forehead marks of the Rftmanandis are in the form of a trident^ 
of which the two outer prongs are white, and the central one white 
or rod ; while those of tlio Nimanandis are two-forked ovif, and 
entirely in white. The shape of the latter emblem is said to be 
derived from the figures of the Naras^nha Avattn^ and the Mtmac 
nandis are stated to be special worshippers of this incarnation /' 

8. In these Provinces, according to one authority, ^ the foar pri« 
mary orders of the Bair&gis are BamAnuji or Sri YaiBhnav% 
Nim&vat, or Nimb&rak, Yishnusw&mi and MldhavacULrya ; 
each of these orders is called a $amprdda or sect, and all foor warn 
together. Of the Sri Yaishnava Mr. Orowse' writee:— "Ha 
most ancient and respectable of the four reformed Yaishnava oom* 
munities is based on the teaching of Bam&nuja, who flooriahed in 
the eleventli or twelth century A.D. Their seotarial mark is two 
white perpendicular streaks down • the forehead, joined by a oroai 
line at the root of the nose, with a streak of red between. Their 
chief dogma^ called Yasisthadwaita, is the assertion that Yishnu, the 
one Supreme God^ though invisible as cause, is aa efFeot visible in % 
secondary form in material creation. They differ in one marked 
respect from the mass of the people at Brindiban,— in that thoj 
refuse to recognise R&dM as an object of religions adoration. In 



I lUja lAohhmaii Sinh, BulandsKahr If0mo.,l88, 
• Math i4ru, 179, S7. 



116 baibIgi. 

this they are in complete accord with all the older authorities, which 
either totally ignore her existence, or regard her simply as Krish* 
na's mistress, and Rukmini as his wife. Theur formula o^ initiation 
(mauira) is said to be Om lidmdya namal, i.e,, *^ Om I Beverenoe to 
R&ma I ** This sect {sampraddya) is divided into two sects, the 
Tenkalai and the Yadakalai.^ They differ in two points of doctrine, 
which, -however, are considered of much less importance than 
what seems to outsiders a very trivial matter, viz,^ a slight variation 
in the way of making the scctarial mark on the forehead. The 
followers of the Tenkalai extend its middle lino a little down the 
nose itself, while the Vadakalai terminate it exactly at the bridge. 
The doctrinal points of difference are as follows :— The Tenkalai 
maintain that the female energy of the godhead, though divine, is 
still a finite creature that . serves only as a mediator or minister 
(paruihakdra) to introduce the soul into the presence of the Deity ; 
while the Vadakalai regard it as infinite and uncreated, and in itself 
a means (^pdya) by which salvation can be assured. The second 
point of difference is parallel to the controversy between the Calvin- 
ists and Armenians in the Christian Church. The Vadakalai, with 
the latter, insist on the concomitance of the human will in the work 
of salvation, and represent tliat the soul lays hold of God as a young 
monkey which grasps its mother in order to be conveyed to a place 
of safety. The Tenkalai, on the contrary, maintain the irresistibi- 
lity of divine grace and the utter helplessness; of the soul till it is 
seized and carried off by itg mother like a kitten to be conveyed 
to a place of safety. From these two curious but apt illustrations 
the one doctrine is known as markala kuhora nydjfa, the other 
as marjala kuhora nj/dj/^^ the young monkey theory,'' or the 
"kitten theory.'' 

4. Of the Nimb^rak Mr. Growse* writes :*-'' The word means 

* the sun in a nim tree,' a curious designation 
which is explained as follows : — The founder 
of the sect, an ascetic, by name Bhaskarach&rya, had invited a Bair&gi 
to dine with him, but unfortunately delayed to fetch his guest 
until after sunset. Now the holy man was forbidden by the 
rules of his order to eat except in the daytime, and was 



1 These terms are Kanarese and mean " Southerners " and " Northerners/'— 
Opport, Original InhahHantt oj Bharaiavanha^ 613. 
' hoc, eH^ 181, 99. 

Vol. I I 2 



BAIBiai. 



116 



greatly afraid that he would be compelled to praotiia an' nil- 
willing abstinence; but at the solicitation o( his host the Sun 
Ood^ SCiraj N&r&yan^ descended from the N<m tree, under which the 
repast was spread, and continued beaming upon them until the claimi 
of hunger were fully satisfied. Thenceforth the saint was known 
by the name of Ntmbarka or Nimaditya. Their doctrincB, bo &r as 
they are known, are of a very enlightened character. Thus thor 
doctrine of salvation by faith is thought by many scholars to have 
been directly derived from the Gospel ; while another artiole in their 
creed, which is less known but is equally striking in its divergence 
from ordinary Hindu sentiment, is the continuance of conscious 
individual existence in a future world, when the highest reward of 
the good will be not extinction, but in the enjoyment of the visible 
presence of the divinity whom they have served while on earth : a 
state, therefore, absolutely identical with heaven, as our theologists 
define it. The one infinite and invisible Ood, who is the only real 
existence, is, they affirm, the only proper object of man's devout con- 
templation, But as the incomprehensible is utterly beyond the 
reach of human faculties, He is partially manifested for our bdioof 
in the book of Creation, in which natural objects are the letters of 
the universal alphabet, and express the sentiments of the Divine 
Author. A printed page, however, conveys no meaning to any one 
but a scholar, and is liable to be misunderstood even by him ; so, too, 
with the book of the world. And thus it matters little whether 
B§dh& and Krishna were ever real personages, the mysteries of 
divine love which they symbolise remain though the symbols 
disappear/' 

Distribution of the Bairdgis according to tie Cemui of 1891. 



• 

DiSTniOT. 


Madhava 
AoUArya. 


NimAwat. 


R4ma- 
namli. 


(HUra. 


Total. 


Delira Ddn 

Sali&ranpnr . • 

MuzaflTamagiir . 

Mcorut .... 

DDlandshiihr 

Aligarh .... 


... 


* • • 

••* 
156 

1 • 1 

• • 1 


530 
• * • 
511 
1,586 
429 
974 


139 
43 

446 
2,396 
2.279 
3.183 


660 
48 

987 
^138 
2,7«8 
4,157 



'117 baibIqi. 

JHttrihutwn uflkt BairigU oeterMttg U M« Cnunf ^f iSft—oaBti. 





HUhan 
Aflhtj* 


Nimlwkt. 


nMdl. 


OUwn. 


Total. 


Act. .... 


4 




4W 


I,S60 


t,7fi9 


Fftrnktitbtd . 






IS 


(to 


S83 


SOS 


KHitpari . 











£» 


88 


KUmh 








U 


M8 


»0 


KM . ■ 




1 


1 


36 


160 


187 


BmiiIj . 








148 


CIO 


758 


Bljnor 








... 


m 


689 


UadAiii. . 




'... 


a 


ISO 


aoT 


610 


HortdAlAd 




3 




1 


S8B 


US 


8Ubj.baapar . 








f4I 


600 


841 


Pilibbll . 






^ 


67 


895 


404 


OMn.p«r . . 








61 


880 


460 


rM.hp.r . . 








IT 


ISB 


146 


MadA . 




1 




(S 




68 


ll».ln<»r, . 








48 


l«8 


SOS 


llhliftbU . 




1 


1 


S8 


818 


S78 


Jblmti . 




... 


9 


M 


100 


i;*) 


JAUbb . 




S 


S8 


29 


JB3 


tM 


Ulitpar . . 






4 


80 


m 


M7 


Bmmm ■ 




..! 






141 


141 


iii».p.( . . 








ss 


140 


177 


Jm.|»i . . 










804 


S04 


autiput . 








82 


8M 


901 


ItellU . 








... 


887 


«7 


OonhhpiiT 






33 


IBS 


I.IS3 


1,460 


Bh1> 








1 


U86 


I3«7 


Attaiguh . 




... 


... 











.BAIRAai. 



118 



BAI8. 



Dittribution qfik^ BairAgit according to the Cbnnu qfJ89t •tnc i d. 



1 • 

DI8TBICT. 


MAdhaTE 
AobArya. 


NimAwat. 


BAma- 
mandi. 


Otiian. 


TOTAU 


KOID&QII • 


• 


t 


t»t 


• 


•M 


26 


S6 


Garhwia • 




» • 


••• 


#•# 


••• 


106 


166 


Tar&i 




» • 


••# 


#•• 


S4 


24 


48 


Luoknow • 




» • 


•#• 


#•• 


291 


1,439 


1,780 


Un&o 




t • 


••• 


#•• 


17 


••• 


17 


lUd Bareli 




t t 


•#• 


•t< 


27 


6 


83 


Bltapar 




» • 


••• 


••• 


161 


836 


496 


Hardoi . 




• • 


#•• 


•t 


••• 


837 


837 


Kheri 




• • 


•«« 


••• 


848 


896 


744 


Fais&bAd . 




» • 


••• 


##• 


1,474 


648 


%fiVt 


Qonda 




• • 


*•• 


«•• 


877 


64 


941 


Halirl^ioli 




1 t 


t«« 


••• 


10 


201 


120 


Salt&hpor • 




• • 


••• 


• t • 


47 


69 


116 


T 


rOTAL 


• 


13 


261 


0,283 


22^1 


31,078 



^ Bais. — (Sans: Tauiira^ ^' one who oooapieB the soil".)— A veiy 
important and influential sept of Bt jputs, widely distriboted all orer 
the Province. Their legend is thns given by Sir C. Elliott^ :— *'T1io 
Bais assert themselves to be descended from Sftlivfthaiu^ the mytkio 
son of a snake who conquered the great R&ja Vikramaditya^ of 
Ujjain, and fixed his own era in A. D. 55. About 1250 A. D. 
the Ghiutam Raja of Argal refused to pay tribute to the Lodi King 
of Delhi, and defeated the Governor of Oudh, who sent a foroe 
against him . Soon after this defeat, the RAni, without his knowledge 
and without fitting escort, went secretly to bathe, at Baghsar, in the 
Ganges, on the festival of the new moon. Baghsar is oloseto 
Dundiya Khera. Sir II. M. Elliot places tlie locale of this story at 
Allahabad ; but the other is the tradition current in Baiswira, and 
seems more probable, because Baghsar is closer to Arga], and is the 
nearest bathing place she could liavc gone to, uiidj secondly^ Allahftbid 



• ChronicUt of Undo, S6, tq. 



119 BAIS. 

being a much-frequented place of pilgrimage, Bhe would hardly have 
gone there in any case without an escort, particularly as it was the 
head-quarters of the Muhammadan Governor. The Governor of 
Oudh heai*d of her arrival and sent men to capture her. Her escorts 
were dispcrsodi and slie was on the point of being made prisoner, 
when she lifted the covering of her litter and cried, — '' Is there no 
Chhatri who will rescue me from the barbarian, and save my 
honour ? '^ Abhay Chand and Nirbhay Chand, two Bais B&jputs, 
from Mungipatan, heard her, and came to her rescue, beat off her 
assailants, and guarded her litter till she arrived safely at her home 
in Argal, in the Fatelipur District. Nirbhay Chand died of his 
wounds, but Abliay Chand recovered, and the R&ja, in gratitude for 
his gallant rescue, gave him his daughter in marriage, and with her as 
dowry all the lands on the north of the Ghmge8,over which the Gautam 
bore rule. He also conferred on his son-in-law the title of Bfl0| 
which is still the highest dignity among the Bais. Abhay Chand 
fixed his home in Dundiya Khera, and the title and estates descended, 
in an unbroken line, to Tilok Chand, the great eponymous hero of 
the clan, who are called after him Tilok Chandi Bais, in contradis- 
tinction to other branches of the same tribe. He lived about 1,400 
A. D., and extended the Bais dominion over all the surrounding 
country, and it is from his victories tliat the limits of Baisw&ra 
became defmitively fixed. The tract is universally said to include 
twenty-two Parganas, and though there is considerable discrepancy 
in the various lists of these Parganas, which are furnished from 
different quarters, the following list is probably correct :— - 

ViiA Bareli and Un&o Districts:— Dundiya Khera^ Unchhgion, 
Kumhi, BA.r, Kalian jar, Gh&tampur, Serhupur, Makitud, Dalmau, 
Uareli, BihAr, Patlian, Paulian, Satlianpur, Hai'ha^ Purwa, Morftwau, 
Sirwan, Asoha, Gorinda, Parsandan. 

Lucknow District:— Bijnaur." 

Tilok Chand was the premier Bija of Ovidh, and his descendants 
arc never weary of telling stories of his almost divine and unequalled 
power. He once turned the Kalidrs, who carried his palanquin, into 
lUjputs ; and one account of the Bhal6 Sultdn sept in Faiz&b&d is 
that they were Baris, or link-boys, in his service. 

2. In Faiz&bM the Bais say that they came from Baisw&ra 

about five hundred years ago, and expelled the 
Bliars ; but tliis story is disbelieved by Mr. 



Bvrs. ' 120 

Carnegy' on the ground that thoro wore few Bais even in Baiswtra 
in those days. He believes the Faiz&bAd colony to be of local origin. 
They are divided into two great families, the Eastern and the Western, 
who, though they eat together, recognise no relationship, and retain 
the memory of bitter border warfare with each other. The Pargana 
of Mangalsi is ovenTin by different independent Bais colonics, the 
members of which say they came from the West (no one knows from 
where) and expelled the Bhai*s two or three centuries or, according 
to their pedigree tables, sixteen generations ago. There are traditions 
of a Ghiutam (Sombansi) colony founded by Mangalsen, from whom 
the Pargana takes its name, who is said to have been a cadet of the 
groat Fatohpur house of Argal. But the Gautams wore long ago 
pushed across the river Ohdgm. It is noteworthy that Uio 
Muhammadans, who produce title deeds more than three hundred 
years old, declare that Mangalsen was not a Ghiutam bot a Bhar. 
Another curious fact is that both the Muhammadans and the few 
Gautams who are left are shown by Mr. Woodbum to pay the 
feudal tribute {bAeni) to the Bais headmen. How long they have 
(lone so is not very clear, but the conclusion from nil this is, aooord- 
ing to Mr. Carnegy, that the local Bais are the indigenoos Bhars; 
that the Bhars became Bais about or after the Muhanmiadan con* 
quest ; the Gautam footing was by marriage with the Bais, and the 
Muhammadans succeeded to the Bais Bhars. These condasionB of 
Mr. Carnegy must be received with some degree of caution. That 
the Bais of the Faizdbdd District may have some admixture of 
indigenous blood is more than proba]ilo ; but at the same time that 
they have a large basis of RH jput blood may be regarded as quite 
certain. 

3. Of the sept in BAe Barcli we read:— -''The Bus clan difler 

from all other B&jputs somewhat in their ens- 
toms. Neither men nor women, rich or poor, 
will put a hand to cultivation or labour of any sort ; the women wear 
one long cloth, which is fastened round their waists about the middle, 
the lower folds covering the lower portions of the person, and the 
upper parts being thro\vn over the shoulders. They are supposed to 
be more addicted to the crime of infanticide than other Rijpnta, and 
they divide their inheritance according to a system of primogeniture 

1 aeltiemeni Report, 213, 270, iq. 



121 BAIS. 

by which the three elder sons receive larger shares than the younger 



ones/' 



4. The Bais of Bewar, in the Mainpuri District, are immigrants 

from Dundiya Khera, and as far back as 

Baia of Mainpuri. 

1391-92 A.D., in concert with the R&thaurSi 
they created such a distui'bance here that it was found necessary to 
send out large bodies of Imperial troops to quell them. Deoli, their 
chief seat in Barnahal, is mentioned in the T&rikh-i-Mab&rik Shah 
as a very strong place, in the possession of infidels, and as having 
been attacked and destroyed in 1420 A.D. by Sult&n Ehizr EJi&n 
on liis march from Eoil to Et&wah. ^ 

5. The tribal hero of the sept is Ssllivdhana. He appears to have 

been an historical character, and has been 

identified by Oencral Cunningham * with 

Qotamiputra Satakanii of the Kauhari and iTftsik inscriptions. The 

tradition is thus told by a writer in the Oudh Gazetteer' : — '^ A son 

of the great world serpent was bom under the roof of a potter of ' 

MAngi F4tan, which, by one account, is on the Narbada, and, by 

another, is on the Ood&vari, in the Ahmadnagar District, and early 

showed, by his wit and strength, that he was destined to be a king. 

As a judge among his youthful companions, by what would now be 

considered a simple process of cross-examination, he excited the 

wonder of a people unaccustomed to law courts ; and deserved and 

received the same kind of honour that was accorded to Daniel by the 

Jews of the Captivity after his successful investigation of the case 

of Susanna and the Elders. His amusement was to make clay 

figures of elephants, horses, and men-at-arms, and before he had well 

reached tnanliood, ho led his fictile army to do battle with the great 

King Vikramoditya. When the hosts met, the clay of the young 

hero became living brass, and the weapons of his enemies fell harmless 

on the hard material. Yikramaditya fled and took refuge in a large 

temple of Siva, whither he was pursued by S&livfthana. At the mere 

sound of the boy's voice the ponderous gates of the temple rolled back, 

and Yikramaditya acknowledged his conqueror with appropriate 

homage. A reasonable arrangement was made on the spot for the 

])artition of the royal power, and on the elder king's death, S&liv&« 



1 Selllement Report, 90. 

> ArekaBologictd Reporli, V., 20. 

s UL, 221. 



BAIS. 122 

hana beoame undisputed R&ja of India. Later in life he oonqnered 
the Panj&b and died and was buried at Siftlkot/' This tradition of 
serpent origin is perpetuated in the tribal tradition that ''no snake 
has or ever can destroy one of the family. They seem to take no 
precautions against the bite^ except hanging a vessel of water over 
the head of the sufferer^ with a small tube in the bottom, from which 
the water is poured on his head as long as he can boar it. '^ ^ Tlio 
cobra is in fact the tribal totem. 

6. The Farrukh&b&d story is that the emigrants from Dundiya 
Other Settlementa of Khcra were led by two brothers, Hanarij and 

the Bail. Bachrftj, that they were first snbjeot to the 

aboriginal Bhyftrs, but finally turned against them and established 
themselves in Sakatpur and Saurikhy and also in a few villages aoroM 
the Isan Nadi. ' In Budaun there are two sub-divisions, Chandhari 
and R&d, so called from the two sons of their traditional leader, Dallp 
Sinh, of Baiswslra. They dated their immigration in Basti only five 
or six generations before Dr. Buchanan wrote. ' In (Jorakhpor 
some call themselves N&gbansi, and say that they are sprang from 
the nose of the mythical cow, K&mdhenu, which bolonged to the 
Bishi Vasishtha. The Ohizipur branch claim desoent from Bagliel 
RAe, who came from Baisw&ra fifteen generations ago, and ooloniied 
the jungle.* Their emigration into Bohilkhand is not plaoed 
earlier than the time of Akbar. 

7. Numerous castes in the Faiz&b&d and Oonda Districts^ midi 
Sub-diyiaiona of the ^ the Oandhariyas, the Naiporiyas, the 

^'^^^ Barw&rs, and the Chfthus, claim to have been 

originally Bais, while the equal lengths of their pedigrees show that 
they were established in these districts at about the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. There are, besides, numerous families of small 
landowners in the east of Bid Bareli, who call themselves Bharadih 
Bais, and whose want of any tradition of emigration and peeaHar 
religion distinguish them from the pure Bais of the west. Another 
division is that of Bhttariya and Bahariya or '* the outer " and *' the 
inner '' Bais.» '' The Br&hmans of Sult&npur relate that Tilok Chand 
in his old age, like another king of distinguished wisdom, supported 

1 Sleeman, Journey through Oudh, I., 261. 

> 8oitl4fiicnt Report, 12. 

s Eastern India, II.» 880. 460. 

* Oldham, Mevio, 65. 

• Oudh Qaeettcer, UL, 327, 



123 BAI8. 

the prodigious responsibility of an establishment of three hundred 
wives, and became the father of a family countless as the sands of 
the sea. The Princesses of Btwa and Mainpuri, to whom he had 
originally been married, disgusted by an association in which the 
dignity of castes had not been respected, fled from his castle and 
gave rise to a distinction between the Bais from within (Bhitariya) 
. and the Bais from without (Bfthariya) ; those from without being 
the offspring of pure R&jput blood, while those from within were of 
contaminated lineage, and occupied a doubtful position in the castes 
system.'^ But the most, important distinction is between the 
Tilokchandi Bais or the descendants of Tilok Chand, and Eath Bais, 
or *' wooden '* Bais. Of these Colonel MaoAndrew writes ^ :— '^ These 
call themselves Tilokchandi Bais to distinguish them fi'om the Kath 
Bais, who are supposed to be the offspring of the real Bais by 
women of inferior caste. The Tilokchandi Bais yrill neither eat nor 
intermarry with them. An instance of this was exemplified the 
other day when the proposal was made that the Bais should erect 
a bridge over the S4i at "BAA Bareli. The Tilokchandis proposed 
that the Eath Bais should subscribe. The latter at once expressed their 
willingness to do so, provided the Tilokchandis would acknowledge 
them to be Bais by eating with them. Nothing more was heard of 
the proposal tliat tlioy should subscribe. *' The Tilokchandi Bais 
according to Sir H. M. Elliot, ' arc sub-divided into four clans, 
lUo, B4wat, Naihatha, and Sainbansi, all of whom profess to derive 
their rights from the Oautaih B3.ja of Argal. He says that beside 
the Tilokchandi, there are said to be no less than three hundred and 
sixty sub-divisions of the Bais, the descendants of as many wives of 
SAIivfiliana. Among those the most noted are the Tils&ri, Chak 
Bais, NUnwag, Bliauwag, Bach, Farsariya, Fatsariya, Bijhoniya, 
Bhatkariya, Chanamiya, or Ghurgbans, but it may be doubted if 
these are really Bais. 

8. There is nothing peculiar about the religion of the Bais except 
Religion and booIaI ^®^' tribal Worship of the snake, and their re- 
sUndiDg. verence for a clan goddess, Mathotfi, who is 

worshipped at the Mathotcpur fair, in the Sitapur District. She be« 
came a Sati at the death of her consort. Tlic ordinaiy Bais give their 
daughters in marriage, amongst others, to the Sengar, Bhadauriya, 



I RdS Bareli MtUment Report, 8. 
' SupyUmgntary Qloitary, iv% 



3AIS. 



124 



Chauhftn, KachhwAha, Oautam^ Parihftr, Dikhit and Gaharwir 
Rftjpiits^ and receive daaghters in marriage from the Banlphar, 
Janwftr^ Khiohar^ Baghubansi, Raikwftr^ Karohauli, and Gahlot. 
The Tilokohandi Bais ally themselTes only with septs of the bluest 
blood. The Bais in Faizftb&d take brides from the Baohgoti^ Bhftl£ 
Su1t3.n^ Kalhans, and K&nhpuriya septs, and they give thar danghters 
to the Gaharwftr, Bison, Sombansi, Bliadanriya, Chanliin, and 
Kachhwftha septs. In Balliathey take wives from the Ujjaini, Hai- 
hobans, Einwftr, Nikumbh, Sengar, Kausik, BAghubansi, SAraj- 
bansi, Bhrigubansi, Barhauliya, GaharwdXi Gaatam, Kftkan, Don- 
w&r, Jidon, Kachhw&ha, Chanhftn, Bisen, Nftgbansi, Sakarwir, 
Baghol, Sombansi, Udmatiya, Solankhi, Chandel, Pariliir, and 
give brides to the Simet, R&jknmftr, Drigbansi, Mannas, Kaohhwlha^ 
and, in rare cases, to the Ujjaini. Their gotra is Bh&radwtja. 



DutribiiiioH of the Bau Rdjputi aeeording to tke Cemui of 1891. 



• 

DiBTBTOT. 


Hindu. 


MahammadaBi. 


TOVAL. 


Dehra Ddn 




1 


48 


40 


Sabttranpar , • . 




186 


66 


260 


Muzaffarnagar • 




.109 


250 


869 


itfeerut 




578 


••• 


678 


Bulandshahr • • 




178 


197 


876. 


Aligarh .... 




707 


11 


718 


Mathnra 




281 


16 


247 


Agra 




1,022 


4 


1.026 


Farrukbtlb&d 




6.688 


10 


6.698 


Mainpori • 




4,078 


6 


4/)78 


£t<lwab • 




1,828 


9 


1.887 


Etab .... 




2,060 


80 


&130 


Bareilly • • • « 




1.673 


16 


1.688 


Bijnor • • • . 




678 


••• 


678 


Bud&un • . • . 




8,301 


212 


8.513 


Mor&d&b&d 




819 


1 


820 



12D 



BAI8. 



Ditiribuiion ofih4 Bais Rdjputi according to the Centui of 1891 — oonidi 



DI8TB10T. 


Hindus; 


lilnbammadaoB. 


— — » 
Total. 


Blitthjahftiipiir • • • . 


1.111 


173 . 


K284 


Pilibbit 


316 


••# 


316 


Cawnpiir • • • • 


6,323 


16 . 


6.338 . . 


Fatehpnr 


7,495, 


672 


8.167 


B&nda 


15.867 


224 


16,081 


llatnirpur • • • • 


14286 


24 


14.809 


Allali&blUl . . . . 


11.882 


60 


11,942 


Jhttns] • • • • • 


703 


••• 


703 


J Mann • • # • • 


1.138 


21 


1.164 


Lnlitpiir . • • • • 


1.097 


• • • 


1,097 • 


Bennres • • . • • 


11.226 


125 


11,350 


Mirzapur • • • • 


5.844 


• •• 


5.844 


X 

/Jaunpur . • • • 


13.863 


258 


14,121 J^ 


Gliftxipur . . • . 


6.329 


375 


6.704 


Biillia 


0.334 


59 


9.393 


Gornklipnr • # • • 


12.246 


1.708 


13.754 


Ba^ti 


5.873 


9.954 


15.827 


Ar^iiiigarh • . • • 


24,730 


2.091 


26.821 


'JarM 


47 


t • • 


47 


Lncknow • t . . 


8.898 


23 


8.921 


UllHU • . • • • 


10.810 


376 


10,695 


U&4^ I'aroli , . . 


27.022 


1.141 


28.163 


iSiUpur • • • • . 


3.^87 


309 


4,196 


lliirdot • • • t . 


4.408 


90 


d.4$)8 


Kltori • • • • • 


1.073 


603 


1.576 


1' ui'/Al«/i<l * • • • 


18.126 


1.734 


19.8C0 


Gonda • . . • . 


56 


146 


201 


13nlii&iih . • . . 


3.896 

• 


1.239 


5,135 



BA.IS. 



126 



baiswIb. 



Ditirihuticn ofih§ BaU BAjputt aeeording to tk§ C§iumm qf l89i^-ponM. 



DI8TBI0T* 


Hindui. 


UahMMmduMi. 


Total. 


BultAnpor • • • • 


M47 


8.614 


a981 


Parttlbgarh • • • • 


8,339 


560 


ajBM 


D&mbanki • • • • 


12.171 


1.264 


ia,4M 


Total 


274464 


26.671 


801.0IS 



fiaiswar. — ^A tribe found in the lull country of Minapar^ w] 
origin is doiibtful. Their 0¥m account is tliat thoy are Rijpati of 
the famous Bais stock of Dundija Khera,^ and that two brotben 
being condemned to death by the Rdja escaped into Btwa^ where 
the R&ja gave them estates. For the last eight or nine geii6rAiioii» 
they have been migrating into Mirzapur. They admit that they 
are now endogamous, and have no connection witli Baiswira. llieir 
tribal worship is conducted at a temple of Bliawftni, in Baidi, the 
south-eastern division of Btwa abutting on Mirzapur. Itiavoiy 
doubtful if they liave really any B&jput blood. In appearance they. 
are dark, and have much of the characteristic look of the DraYidian 
races by whom tliey are surrounded. 

2. Besides this, their sub-divisions, some of which are totemiitio^ 

point to a non-Aryan origin. The Khandit 
take tlieir name from the sword {Kimm4m), 
which they hold in great re8x>ect. Tlio Baosit respect the bamboo 
(Ifdm), from which they say the ancestor of this sept was produoed. 
These, they say, are the two original septs, out of which the remaining 
five have been derived. The Cliaudliaris are said to be the ofbpring 
of a connection between a Kurmi man and a Baiswftr woman. The 
Bannait say they are so called l)ccau80 they wore residents in tlio 
forest. The remaining three septs — Rautiha, Sohfigpuriha^ and 
Piparaha — are said to take tlieir names from three villages in whieh 
they settled in Bundclkhand, Revati, Sohigpur, and Pipara. The 
Kliandit is the most respectable sept, and the others by the rule of 
hypergamy pay to get wives from them. The septs are ezogamona in 
theory, but apparently the iiile is not certain. When one daughter haa 
been married into a family other daughters are, if possible, married 



Tribal organisation. 



Soo Bait Rdjpul, 



127 RAISWAR, 

into the same tBSDHy, but this is not the case with sons. The tribal 
council (panehdyal) is presided over by a headman {mahio)^ who r is 
of the Khandit sept. The ofEence of adultery is dealt with much less 
severely than that of eating with another caste. The tribal punish* 
mouts are to give seven recitations of parts of the Bh&gavata^ to bathe 
in the Ganges, or to undertake a pilgrimage to Benares, Frayftg, or 
Mathura. Polygamy is allowed, but monogamy is the rule. The 
head wife alone joins in family worship. Concubinage and polyandry 
are prohibited. The marriage age for boys or girls is ten or twelve. 
There is no purchasing of brides, but her relations have to give a 
dowry, and it is considered discreditable not to provide this to a suit- 
able amount. Adultery in husband or wife, and eating or smoking 
with a strange caste, are grounds for divorce. A divorced woman 
cannot re-marry. Widow marriage in the 9ag4i form is allowed. 
The only ceremony is that with a recitation of the Satya Nftrllyana 
the clothes of the pair are knotted together in>^the priesence of the 
clansmen. Widow marriage outside the &mily is allowed only if 
the levir does not claim his sister-in-law under the usual restrictions. 
Adoption and succession are recognized under the usual local rules 
of Hindu law. 

3. The mother after birth is attended for six days by the Cham&in 

midwife, and then for six days by the barber's 
nies, Uirbh and Mar- wife. On the twelfth day the usual ceremony 

of purification is performed. The husband is 
debarred from cohabitation with his wife for six months after birth. 
When the child is able to walk, the ear-boring ceremony is performed, 
and after that the child mus t eat according to caste rules. Marriages 
arc arranged by the &mily priest [j)uroki{) and barber. When the 
proposal is accepted the envoys get a feast (bkiji) in the house of 
the bride. The betrothal is confirmed by the ceremony of marking 
(iika) the forehead of the bridegroom by the father or one of the 
male relatives of the bride. Next day her envoys (iiiakahru) after 
being entertained return home. Five days before the wedding is 
the maimangar, which is performed in the usual way,^ except that 
after worshipping the drum of the Cham&r, which is carried in the 
women's procession, by marking it with red lead, the earth is dug by 
the oldest woman in the family, and carried by her and placed in the 
marriage shed. In the centre of the shed is fixed a branch of the sacred 

I Seo Bhuiyat para. 14. 



BATSWlR. 128 

cotton tree (semal), and near it the holy wa^r vesael (iaha) is plaoecl 
on a mound formed of the saored earth. The nsoal anointing of bride 
and bridegroom^ whioh is started by the Pandit^ follows. A day 
before the wedding is the mantri pija. In a special room some 
lumps of oowdung are fixed on the wall^ and in them some blades of 
the dib grass^ mango Icavesi and a bit of yellow cloth are futenod. 
On these the bridegproom pours a little buttori and then the worship 
of the sword (kkarag) is done. A relative of the bride holds the 
Bword in both his hands^ and the bridegroom's mother marks it with 
a mixture of ground rice and turmeric. Then an earthen pot fall 
of sesamum grain is broken with the handle of the sword, and 
the grain scattered : an emblem, it is saidi of tlic manner in wliksh 
the enemies of the bridegroom who may dare to interfere with his 
maiTiage arc to be scattered abroad. The sword is then placed in 
the middle of the marriage shed, an obvious survival of marriage by 
capture. After this a goat is sacrificed to the sword. In the even- 
ing there is a general feast known as bhatwdn. This consists of 
rice and pulse, and must include cakes made of the ntad pulse {bwa). 
Before the bridegroom starts for tho bride's house ho isbaUiod 
by the barber, and the water thus used is collected in a vessel and 
taken to the bride's house, where it is mixed with that in whioh-the 
bride is bathed. As the bridegroom starts his mother does the nsoal 
wave ceremony {paraehhan) over him. At the bride's village ihsj 
are met by her friends, led by the barber, who brings a yellow cloth, 
which he lays on the roof of the bridegroom's litter. At the bride's 
door the bridegroom sits in a square and worships Ganri and 
Ganesa, which concluded, his future father-in-law marks his fore* 
head with curds and rice. After this, food {kalewa) is sent from 
the bride's house for the bridegroom and the boys with him, and in 
return his father sends five articles of jewellery for the bride, and a 
sheet (idri) for her and her mother. With this is sent the water 
in whioh the bridegroom has been bathed. The bride is bathed in 
this and dressed in the sheet and jewels. The bridegroom then 
comes to the marriage shed, where his father-in-law washes his 
feet, and seats him in the square (ehauk) on his left hand, 
while the bride sits on her father's right hand. Tlie pair tlien 
worship the household gods, of whom images are made in dough, 
and both mark the water jar and the branch of the cotton 
tree with red lead. Their clothes are knotted together, and 



120 BAiswAa. 

they do ike usual five revolutions round the cotton tree, while 
the bridegroom holds a winnowing &n {^^p) into whioh the 
bride's brother pours a little parched rice each time as they go 
round. The bride sprinkles this grain on the ground out of 
tiie £an^ and both retire into the retiring room {ioiabar), ih» 
walls of which are decorated. There his mother-in-law takes off 
the bridegroom's crown {maur) and gives him a present. Next 
day follows the eott/arreaiio ceremony {kkiekari), which is done in 
the usual way. Next day the bridegroom takes home his bride, 
but before he starts his father goes and shakes down one of the 
polos of the marriage slied, for which he gets a present {mdnr0 
kUdi). On the fourth day after they return the ceremony ends 
by the barber's wife taking the sacred jar {kaUa) and the festoons 
(l^andanw(tr) of the marriage shed, and throwing them into a neigh- 
bouring stream. On their return husband and vrife offer a burnt 
faorifioe {Ioim) to the local gods (dik). 

4. The dead are cremated in the standard Hindu form. After 

the cremation all the mourners touch fire with 
the eight parts of their bodies, and sit for 
an hour in silence with the chief mourner. Next . morning the chief 
mourner goes to the pyre, collects the ashes, and throws them into an 
adjoining stream. They set up an earthen vessel on a ptpal tree 
through which water drops for the refreshment of the thirsty spirit. 
While in the state of impurity, the chief mourner is armed with a 
itiek| pointed with iron, to enable him to keep off ghosts. Every day 
he lays out food for the ghost along the road to the cremation grotind. 
On the tenth day he offers lumps of rice and milk, which he throws 
into a tank, and all the mourners shave. On the eleventh day the 
Mahlpitra receives all the personal effects of the dead man, which 
he is supposed to pass on to the deceased in the land of the dead. 
On the twelfth day the chief mourner offers sixteen balls {pinda) to 
anoestors, and returning, feasts the Mahipitra and givers him a 
oow and a loin cloth. On the thirteenth day Brihmans are fed. 
Daring the fortnight {intri^pahka)^ sacred to the manes, in the 
month of Kuir, the ground under the caves of the house is plastered, 
and some water and a tooth brush stick is left out ; and flowers and 
rioe are scattered about for the uee of the dead visitors. On the 
fifteenth day of Kuir Brihmans are feasted. 

5. They principally worship Devi through Brihmans. The 

k)cal crods (dih) thoy worship Uirough the 

Baiga with saontices of pigs and goats. 
Vol. I. a 



baiswAk. 130 bAjgi. 

6. Their superstitionfir axe similar to those of the sarroanding 

castes. l%ey swear by toachinfir their eons' 
heads^ the feet of a Br&hman^ the tail of a 
cow^ or by standing in running water, lliey believe in the EyiI- 
eye^ which is obviated by an Ojha blowing on some dust, and 
sprinkling it over the person attacked, and repeating appropriate 
spells {mantra). 

7. Very few drink liquor : none eat beef or pork. They will not 

touch the wife of a younger brother or the 
wife of an elder brother-in-law. They will 

not eat the flesh of the lizard, alligator, snake, jackal, or rat. The 

women eat separate from the men. 

8. They rank as respectable high caste Hindus. They •» 

either landholders or tenants with oooupanoy 
rights. They dress and wear omamente like 

ordinary B&jputs, and among the low tribes around them their 

claim to that rank is generally accepted. 

Bajgi,^ — A tribe of musicians found in the lower ranges of the 

Hills. Tlioy arc possibly akin to tlio Nats. Tlio name of the trilie 

is derived from Hindi bajdna, *^ to play a musical instrument.'' In 

DchraDfin they consider themselves indigenous to the district. 

2. They have several exogamous gotra», and are not allowed to 

marry in their own goira^ or in the fiunily 
of the maternal uncle, until at least two 
generations have passed since the last connection by marriage. A 
man may have as many wives as ho can support. Widows of the 
tribe may be married in the kardo form. Marriages take plaoe 
when the parties attain the age of puberty. The parents and 
guardians of the boy have to pay a bride price which varies from 
forty to fifty mpees, and the price rises according to the youth 
and beauty of the bride. If a marriage is annulled after oonsom- 
mation, and she marries another man she has to repay the bride 
price, or as much of it as the tribal council award as oompensation 
to the first husband. Children by a kardo marriage rank equally 
for inheritance with tlie offspring of a regular marriage. It has 
been a8sei*ted that the imlo of the lovirate is so far relaxed that ilio 
widow can be claimed by the elder as well as by tlie younger brother 

' Thin aoooQDt is basod on a tot of notos prepared by the Depntij Imptoiar oC 
Bohoobi Dohra Dun. 



131 JikjQl. 

of her late husband; but this assertion is in such direct opposition 
to the practice current among allied tribes that it is probably in- 
correct. 

5. There are no ceremonies during pregnancy. The women ;act 

Birih. ^ midwives to their own people as "well as 

to other castes ; and they have no custom of 
adoption^ initiation^ or betrothal. 

4. The marriage ceremonies are of the most simple type. The 

boy's father pays the bride price^ * and forth- 
with takes the girl home; and the marriage. is 
recognised when a few of the clansmen have been fed. 

6. Persons who die of cholera^ small-pox^ or snake-bite^ ; are 

_ buried, because they are supposed to.be 

Death. , , 

under the direct influence of the deities who 
nile these diseases^ and no purification by fire is necessary. Per- 
sons who die a natural death in other ways are cremated. They 
do not use a regular pyre^ but make a thatch of bamboos^ and under 
it light some wood ; when the fire is well alight they put on it the 
body, covered with a white cloth, and let it burn. Theyhave.no 
special cremation places, but consume the corpse wherever it is 
most convenient, and pay no regard to the ashes, which are left 
on the site of the cremation. 

6. Women remain impure after childbirth for seven days^ and 

the person who sets fire to the pyre for. three 

Impurily. 1 A 1 u i. • 

days. As long as a woman has not given 
birth tiO a child she is considered impure during her menses; but 
once she is a mother her menstruation is disregarded, and she is 
not kept apart or prevented from doing her ordinary house work. 

7. B&jgis consider themselves to be Hindus. They chiefly 

reverence Devi, and her worship is carried 
on by a tribal subscription with which goats, 
rams, and spirits are bought and used in sacrifice. A little 
of the blood and spirits is poured upon the ground, and the rest 
is consumed by the worshippers. They have no priests or 
temples, but each household has a shelf , on which is placed a 
trident (trisUl) with an iron lamp and an earthenware vessel 
containing some beads, which represent the goddess. These 
articles serve as a representation of N4ga R&ja, the serpent 
godling, who is regarded as their tribal deity, N3ga Raja is a 
Vol. I. K 2 



Qijai. 182 balIhar. 

most powerful godling, audi unless he is propitiated, brings miifor* 
tune, disease^ and death. The special offering to N&ga B&ja and 
Devi is a goat, while Nar Sinh Deo is worshipped with the Bscrifioe 
of fowl. Any adult m^nber of the tribe may make these offerings. 
8. They have only two festivals, the Naur&tra and the Bassnt 

Panchami. Some of th^n regard Makar-ld- 

Sankrsnt, or the passage of the snn into the 

sign of Caprioomus, a holiday. On these days they eat meat and 

drink spirits. Of ancestor worship they know little ; bat they ar^ ' 

like similar races, in great dread of the spirits of the departed, 

and do not care to say much about them. Like the Doms of Ddira 

Diin, they keep in their houses, as a sort of household goardiany 

some rude wooden images representing the five Pftndavas— Yndhish* 

thira, Bhtma, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahdeva. Thqr know little of 

omens. 

. 9. Their chief oath is on the cow; in less serious oases thej 

^ , swear on the bamboo. The violation of an 

Oaths. 

oath IS believed to cause the death of the 
eldest son of the perjurer. 

10. They have the usual beliefs characteristic of raoes in the 

same phase of culture regarding dreams, the 
Evil-eye, and demoniacal possession, leading to 
disease and death. 

11. They will not eat beef ; but as to any other kind of food 

they have no scruples. Men and women eat 

apart. They will eAtpaHi and kaelcki from 
any one but a Dom or a Cham&r. No other caste will eat or drink 
from their hands. 

Their occupation is singing and daaoing^ 

and their women, as has been said already, 

act as midwives. 
Balahar, Bnlahar.— ^ A tribe found in parts of the Dnlb 
and Bundelkhand. The name seems to mean ''crier ^^ or ''sam« 
moner^' (Hindi, ds/asa, ''to calP'). In Cawnpur they are also 
known as Domar or Basor, which connect them with Doms and 
Bftnsphors and Toraiha, because part of their business is to blow 
the long trumpet or " cholera horn '' (^sri, turai^ iurii) at wed- 
dings. In Cawnpur they have four exogamous septs ^Snyador, 

_ ^ • ^ 

> Mainly from notes from Pandit Baldeo PraaAd, Deputy Oolloetor, Oawnpar. 



188 balIhab. 

Lanngbasa^ Kudkaha^ and Banha— of £he meaning of which they 
can give no explanation. 

The Census returns record 85 sections. Many of these are 
taken from well-known tribes, such as Baghel, Bais, B&hman Gaur, 
Chamar Oaur, Khatik ; others are of local origin, like Abftdpura^ 
Baksariya^ Indauriya., Purabiya. Curiously enough they do not 
seem to have retained the distinctively totemistic sections of the 
Doms, B&nsphors, and Basors. 

2. Besides the rule that a man cannot marry within his sept 

he cannot marry in a family which is known 
to be descended from the same parents as 

his own, or which can be traced to a common ancestor. He cannot 

marry in the family of his maternal uncle or of his father's sister. 

Ho cannot marry two sisters at the same time, but he can marry the 

younger sister of his deceased wife. 

3. Their traditions show clearly that they are a branch of the 
^^^. . great Dom tribe, and they refer their origin 

to S(ipa Bhagat, who, in Bengal, is regarded 
more as the Guru than the progenitor of the Doms. 

4. Marriage is both in&nt and adult. Sexual license before 

marriage is neither recognised nor tolerated. 

Polyandry is repudiated ; polygamy without 
any condition or limit is allowed. They marry by the ordinary low 
caste form. Widows are married by the form known as Dola or 
Dharauna, The levirate, on the usual conditions, is recognised ; but 
it is not compulsory on the widow to marry the younger brother of her 
late husband. At the Dola marriage the binding part of the cere* 
mony is the feast to the bretlircn. A woman can be turned out of 
the house for infidelity, and this is the only form of divorce. A 
divorced woman can marry again like a widow. 

6. They are not initiated into any sect, but are commonly 

classed as S&ktas. Their tribal godling is 
Jakhaiya, to whom pigs are offered on a 
Monday. On Monday and Friday goats arc sacrificed to Devi. 
There appears to be no worship special to women and children. 

6. Some of them bury and some bum the dead. The corpse 

' is buried with the feet to the south. When 

Death ceremonies. ^. . • -% ,% « .« 

cremation is performed the ashes are thrown 



balJLhar. 181 balIi. 

into some river. They have no particular ceremony to appeue 
the spirits of the dead. Some of them do the ordinary srdMla. 

7. Their ocenpation is to act as village messengen (formiii. 

They blow the long trompet at marriages 
and festivals. Some make bamboo baskets ; 

some are pure village menials, and work in consldiaration of receiving 

a small patch of rent-free land. 

8. They eat meat and drink spirits, lliey practically eat 

anything, even the leavings of other people. 

They will eat kaekehi only with their own 
castes ; they take pakli from sweepers. No other caste will touch 
anything from their hands. 

Diiiribniion of Baldhatt aeeording to the Census of 189 L 

Mathara 609 

Cawnpar 1428 

iramlrpur •.....• 105 

J&laun • • • • . • 817 

Total . 8^59 

■ 

Balai, Balalli^— A tribe of weavers and labourers in the CSentral 
Duftb. They have no ezoganlous or endogamous divisions. They 
marry only in their own caste, but not in the gotra of their mother 
or grandmother. They can marry two sisters. There is no pro- 
hibition of marriage based on social position, occupation, or seotarial 
belief. They say themselves that they are the descendant! of Pan- 
w&r Bdjputs, and tliat their original home is Kota B&ndi and 
Bik&ner. They are settled and not nomadic. They do not admit 
outsiders into the caste. Marriage is both in&nt and adnlt^ and aenal 
license both before and after marriage is not tolerated. Polyandry 
is prohibited, and polygamy to the extent of two vrives is allowed. 

2. The marriage is celebrated in the usual way^ and the binding 

part of it is the seven perambnlatJoni 
(bianwar) round the sacred fire. A Biftlunan 
priest officiates. Marriage under the form known as Dhtiraicka is 
also permitted. This is the form used in vridow marriage. Tlie 
widow can, if she please, live with the younger brother of her late 
husband ; but she can, if she chooses, marry an outsider to the fMnilyi 
and her right of choice is fully recognized. A woman can be expdied 

1 Prepared from notee by Manthi Atma BAm, Head Maator, Hlfh Sokool, 

Mathara. 



balIhi. 135 bIm-mabgi. 

for infidelity, and she has the right of appeal to the tribal conncil* 
Such a divorced woman can marry again by the bkaraieha form. 

3. They are Hindus of theVaishnava sect, and their chief god 

. is Bhagwiln. Tliey worship Hanom&n every 

Tuesday and Saturday, and Devi in the 
months of Chait and Kuir. Z&hir Pir is venerated on the ninth 
of the first half of Bh&don. The offenngs consist ^of flowers, 
sweetmeats, fruits^ etc., and after presentation they are consumed 
l)y the worshippers. They employ Brfthmans as priests who do not 
incur any social discredit by serving them. 

4. The dead are cremated. Poor people leave the ashes at the 

pyre; wealthier people send them' to the 
Oanges. They perform the usual annual 
srdddha in the month of Kuftr. 

Ooonpation ^* Weaving is' their main occupation, but 

some of them work as masons and day- 
labourers. 

6. They eat pork and flesh of cloven-footed animals, except 

the cow. They drink spirits. They will not 

eat the]flesh of monkeys, fish, fowls, crocodiles, 

lizards, snakes, rats or other vermin, or the leavings of other people. 

The lowest well known caste with t^liich the caste will cat pakki ib 

the Nfti. They eat kachchi cooked by K&yasths, QQjars or Ahirs. 

Bam-Margi. — (Sans. Vdma-mdrgi^ ''the left hand path'^).— 
The notorious left hand or S&kti sect, which presents. one of the 
most degraded forms of modem Hinduism. On these Sir Monier 
Williams ^ writes : — '' It can scarcely be doubted that S&ktism ib 
Hinduism arrived at its worst and most corrupt stage of develop- 
ment. To follow out the whole process of evolution would not bo 
easy. Suffice it to say that just as Hinduism resolved itself into 
two great systems^ Saivism and Vaishnavism, so the adherents of 
these two systems respectively separated into two great classes. The 
first are now called " followers of the right hand path '' (Dakiiina* 
mdrgu). These make the Purdnas their real Veda [Nigama)^ 
and are devoted to either Siva or Vishnu in their double nature 
as male and female. But they do not display undue preference for 
the female or left-hand side of the deity ; nor are they addicted to 
Diystic or secret rites. The second class are called "followers 



I BrahmanUtn and B\nd\k\$m, IBS. 



DilC-MARdl, 186 

of the left-hand path'' (Vdma-margU). Theee make the Tantrai 
their peculiar Veda (Agama), tracing back their- dootrinea to the 
Kaula Upanishad^ which is held to be the original authority for their 
opinions^ whence their system is called Kaula as well as S&kta^ and 
they call themselves Eanlikas. 

2. '^And it is these left-hand worshippers who^ I repeat^ devote 
themselves to the exclusive worship of the female side of Siva and 
Vishnu ; that is the goddess Durga or K&li (Amba Devi) rather 
than to Siva j to Rftdha rather than to Krishna ; to S!ta rather than 
to B4ma; but above all to Amba or Devi, the mother goddeas^ some- 
times confounded with Siva's consort^ but rather, in her more 
comprehensive character^ the great power [SaHi) olt Natnre, the 
one mother of the Universe {Jaganmdta^ Jagadamha) the mighty 
mysterious force^ whose function is to direct and control two quite 
distinct operations ; namely, first, the working of the natural appe- 
tites and passions, whether for the support of^ the body by eating 
and drinking, or for the propagation of living organisms through 
sexual cohabitation; secondly, the acquisition of sapemataral 
faculties {Siddhi), whether for man's own individual exaltation or 
for the annihilation of his opponents. " 

The sect devotes itself to what are technically known as the five 

Ms. which are named in the verse,— 

Madyam mdnnam eha minatn eha mmdrd maUhnn mewa eka ; 
£iii pdneh makdrasyur mohihadd hi yuge gvge. 

'^Wine, fish, flesh, enjoyment and cohabitation — theee aio 

the givers of salvation in every age." For each of these there is a 

slang or technical term. Thus wine is tirlha or *^ pilgrimage ; ** 

flesh, tudhi or ** pure ; " fiAi^prnhpa or '' flowers; " mndrB is ekaiuf' 

iki or '' fourth ; " and cohabitation, panckami or " fifth.'^ Their 

principal form of worship is known as Bhairavi ohakra or '' the 

wheel of Bhairava ;" and thoy assert that whoever takes part in it 

becomes for the time a Brihman. A jug of spirits is placed within 

the figure of a triangle or quadrangle, and worshipped with the 

mantra, Brahm thapam limocha iha — *' O wine I thou art free from 

the curse of Brahma." Again the secret form of the ritual oonsista 

in the worship of a naked woman, and similarly, a naked man is 

worshipped by the women. A vessel is filled with water and a large 

dish with meat, and tho leader, the wine cup in his hand, says, Bkmi* 

ravoham Sivoiam, '' I am Bhairava and Siva." He drinks first, and 

all the congregation does the same. A man and woman stand 



BANiPHAn. 137 banIphab. 

« 

naked with swords in their hands, and are worshipped. The pair 
are supposed to represent Devi and Mah&deva. Then follows indis- 
criminate license, and the subsequent ritual takes even more disgust- 
ing forms. To free themselves from the risk of subsequent trans- 
migration, thejr perform a particular charm (prayoga), which consists 
in placing bottles of liquor at separate places in the house and 
drinking till intoxication results. The mantra of initiation is said to be 
Dam Durge namah, or Biam Bhairavdya namak, ''I salute Durga. 
I salute Bhaii*ava. ** In Bengal they also use the mystic formula 
llrin, Srin, Klin, Another oE their mystic formulas is Hram, 
trim, krnm, bagala muhhai piai iwdia, or Hum phat twdha. The 
charm to kill an enemy is to make an image of flour or earth and 
stick razors into the breast, navel and throat, with pegs in the eyes, 
hands and feet. Then they make an image of Bhairava or Durga., 
holding a three-pronged fork (triidl) in the hand, and place it so 
close to the image of the person to whom evil is intended that the 
fork pierces its breast. A fire sacrifice is made with meat and a 
charm recited, which runs — " Kill, kill ; estrange, and make him 
hated of all ; make him subservient to my will ; devour him, con- 
sume him, break him, destroy him ; make my enemies obey me/' At 
one time they wore supposed to make human sacrifices to K&li, and 
the records of our Criminal Courts show that suoh practices have not 
entirely ceased. In this thoy are closely connected with the Agho- 
ris, who cat human flesh. One division of them the Choli-mArgi, make 
the women place their boddices {doli) in a jar, and thus allot them 
by chance to the male worshippers. Of another, the Bijm&rgi, the 
bestiality of the ritual defies description. 

3. There scorns, unhappily, reason to believe Uiat this brutal form 
of so-called worship is spreading in Upper India under the example of 
Bengali immigrants, who have introduced it from its head-quarters 
in Bengal. At the last census, 1,676 persons avowed themselves 
worshipped of the left-hand path. 

Banaphar. — A famous sept of Yadubansi R&jputs confined 
almost entirely to the Bundelkhand country now included in the Alia- 
h&b&d and Benares Divisions. According to their own account they 
derive their name from their ancestor, a certain Bishi who used to 
live on the wild fruits of the jungle {vanapkala). Their original 
settlement is said to have been Orai and Chausa, in the J&laim Dis- 
trict. X'^he story of their emigration to Mahoba is thus told :— -i 
Two men of the tribe once went into the forest to hunt ; their 



4- 



banAphab. 138 

tiames were Jasar and Sorha r. They came upon two ba&lo8 fight- 
ings and afi tfaey watched the combat two Ahtr girls oame np, and 
by main force separated the furions animals. The Thikora were so 
pleased with the bravery and strength of the girls that they took 
them to wife. Their sons wore the famous AJha and Udal^ whose 
adventnres form the subject of the great B undelkhand ^io. > They 
are the heroes of the famous war between the ChandeUi and Chan- 
bins. In the course of this campaign the Chaahin chieftain, Pri- 
thivi Bftja^ conquered the King of Mahoba, Paramarddi Deva^ or 
Parmal^ a^ he is familiarly called by the bard Chand, and the later 
annalists at a battle at Sirswagarh, on the Pahoj, or at Bairagarh 
near Orai.^ The names of the Ahtr girlcf, tlicir mothers, are said to 
have been Devala and Brahma. When the R&ja fonnd that his men 
had contracted a low marriage with Ahtrins they were tamed out 
of caste, and took service with Parmal of Mahoba.* At thai time 
Malioba was beseiged by the hosts of the BAja of Jambndwtpa^ one 
of the seven islands or continents of which the world is made up, 
having Mount Mem for its centre and including Bharata-vanka 
or India. The Banftpliar heroes drove baok the enemy, and were 
rewarded by the gift of an estate known as the Daspnrwa^ or ten 
hamlets. Subsequently two other Banftphar soldiers of fortone, 
BAma Sinh and Dhana Sinh, came to Benares from Chansa and 
took service with Bandftl, the Rftja of Benares. They roee in his 
favour, and by and' by proposed to him to attack and expel the 
Bhar BAja of Eantit, in the Mirzapur District. For this porpoie 
they invited some of their relations and made them take eervioe 
with the Bhar B&ja. According to the stock legend which explains 
the conquest of the Aborigines by the Aryan invaders, they dragged 
the liquor of the Bhars and overcame them while sunk in dranken 
sleep. Thus B&ja Band&l acquired the territories of the Bhars. 
Band&l conferred on the Ban&phar warriors the Plages of Bftjpar 
and Hariharpur. Ddnu Sinh succeeded Bandil, and held Dhana 
Sinh in high favour. One day the Rija was at his devotions and 
a kite dropped a morsel of flesh on him, whereupon Dhana Sinh 
killed it with liis arrow. This so pleased the B&ja that he oonlerred 
more estates upon him. Tliese have been gradually lost until the 



1 For thii oampaisn lee CaDniDgham, Arehaologieal ReporU, 11., 4B&, Qmfitmr, 

N. W. P., I., 160 

t The oonneoiion between the Bantphars and Ahin is one of paay 
which illastrate the mixed origin of many of the BAjpnt wpU, 



banIphab. 



130 



banaewAb. 



sept now hold a very inoonsiderable landed property in the Benares 
Division,' f ( 

2. The^ Ban&pliars hold only a moderately respectable- rank' 
among' Rftjputs. In Jsllaun they will^ it is said^ take brides by ^ 
the dola form from all the poor Bfijputs of the District^ and receive 
the bride price. They marry their sons to the girls of the Bais^ 
Oautam^ Dikhit^ and Bisen septs. In Hamirpur they profess to 
belong to theEasyapa gotra^ and give brides to the Gautam^ Dikhit 
Bais^ and Chandei, while they take wives from the Nandw&ni^ Bfth- 
man Gaur, and Bais. In Bftnda they give brides' to the Dikhit^ 
Gautam^ Ganr; and Kachhw&ha ; and take girls of the Panw&r 
Bais^ Dikliit^ and Sombansi septs. 

Distribution of Ue Bandphar Rdjpuis according to the 

Census of 189 1. 



DI8TBI0T. 


M amber. 


Djbtbiot. 


Number. 


Mathora 


• 


8 


Jftlaan • 


722 


Farrnkh&b&d 


• 


3 


Lalitpnr , 




• 


69 


Mnippnri 


• 


16 


Benares < 




• 


1.447 


Etah . 


• . 


1 


Mirzapar 




• • 


191 


8b&bjaliftapur 


• 


. 86 


Qbftzipar 




1 • 


629 


Piltbbtt 


1 • 


8^ 


Ballia . 




» • 


473 


Cawnpur 


• • 


123 


Azamgarh 




• • 


36 


13&iida 


• • 


610 


Laoknow 




• 


1 

1 

1 


Hamirpur 


• • 


, 828 


0&6 Daroli 




» • 


2 


Aikbiib4<r . 

Jb&nsi . 




S4A 


, 




> • 

• • 


34 


Total 


6,466 



Banarwaii Bandarwar.— A sub-caste of Banyas found princi- 
pally in the Bcnai*es Division. They have thirty-six sections^ which are 
thus given in Mirzapur — Malhan, Sothiy&n; Sanbhariya^ Abakahon^ 
Rupiya^ Katariya, Fatsariya^ Thagwariya^ Manihariya, Narihiy% 
Nakthariya, Khatwatiya., Khelaniya, Burbak^ Manipariya, Jhatwa* 
tiya, Forwar^ Deriya^ Furiya^ Kaly&niya, Dh&ngar^ Sonmukhiya, 
Chaudbariya) SethiyAn^ Bairah, Naiphiriya, Katholiya^ Beriya, 



BANARWAr. 140 BANDHAIiGOTL 

Kakariya^ Badaius Kasanliya., Lohkhariya, Panohlatiya^ Dhenk, 
Baj&j, Motariya^ and lastly those who have no knowledge of their 
goira call themBelves Ak&sh Bh&nwari. These seotiona many 
indiscriminately. They are often initiated into the BAmanandi seet 
of Yaishnavas. To the East they worship, as a sort of fetish 
(apparently from some fancied connection of name)^ the handi 
or chain worn by women on the forehead. To this on the day 
of the Nslgpanchami they offer prayers^ oakes (/hM), usually 
one hundred and eight in number, and garlands of . flowers. 
They worship Mahibir and the P&nchonptr in the usual way. Their 
priests are Tiw&ri Br&hmans who are siud to serve the royal fsmily 
of Rtwa. Thoy make their living as brokers, and by selling brass 
vessels, cloth, money-changing and similar mercantile business. 
Those who live towards the North eat meat, but the others do not. 
Drinking is prohibited. They eat palki cooked by Brfthmans 
Kshatriyas and Vaisyas. They will eat kachehi cooked only by 
members of their own sub-caste. Some Br&hmans, and Kshatriyas 
will eat pakki cooked by them, Kahftrs and N&is will eat iacicAi 
cooked by thom. 

y Bandhalgoti^ Bandhugoti; Bandhilgoti; Banjliilgoti.— 
A sept of Rijputs found principally in Sult&npur, of whose origin 
there are at least three different accounts. First. — Their own tribal 
legend, according to which they are '^ Sftrajbansi by origin and 
belong to the pai*ticular branch of the clan now represented by the 
Rftja of Jaypur. About nine hundred years ago Siida HAA, a scbn of 
that illustrious house, leaving his home in Narwargarh, set out on a 
pilgrimage to the holy city of Ajudhya. His route lay across the 
Amethi Pargana, in the Sult&npur District, where, near the present 
village of R46pur, half overgrown with tangled weeds and briars, a 
shrine of Devi suddenly presented itself to his view. The * Bhan 
then held sway and few vestiges remained anjrwhere of Hindu places 
of worship ; so the pious pilgrim resolved to tarry a while near the 
one accident had brought him to. Having performed his devotions, 
he lay down to rest, and in his slumbers saw a vision of the goddess 

. of the fane, who disclosed to liim the lofty destiny ordained for Um 
and his descendants ; they were to become hereditary lords of the 
territory in which ho was then a temporary sojourner. Prepared to 
further to his utmost the fulfilment of so interesting a prophecy, he 
determined henceforth to abide in his future domains, and relinquish- 
ing his uncompleted pilgrimage, entered into the service of the 



141 BAMDHALGOTI. 

Bhar chieftain. His innate worth soon manifested itself in many 
ways, and secured his elevation to the post of minister. His Bhar 
master now designed, as a crowning mark of &yonr, to bestow upon 
bm his daughter in marriage ; but a Sftrajbans, though he might 
condescend to serve a barbarian, might not sully his lineage by a 
mesalliance, and SMa B&6 contemptuously refused the preferred 
honour. The Bhar chief, in offended pride, at once deprived him of 
his office and he returned to Narwargarh. But his mind was ever 
occupied with thoughts of the promised land ; he collected a picked 
body of followers and marched against Amethi. The Bhars were 
defeated with great slaughter, and the SArajbans occupied their 
territory. SMa Bl£ established a fort on the spot where he had 
seen the prophetic vision, and included therein the ruined shrine in 
grateful commemoration of the divine interposition of his fortunes 
which occurred there. After the lapse of a few generations, the 
line of Sftda R&d threatened to become extinct, for the sixth in de- 
scent remained childless in his old age. In the village of Kurmu, 
however, resided Kanak Muni, one of those saints of irresistible 
piety. To him M&ndh&ta Sinh poured out his tale of woe ; and 
not in vain; for, by the prayers of the saint, a son was bom to him, 
and was at first called Suts&h ; but when he was taken to be 
presented to the saint he was called Bandhu, or " who is bound,^^ 
and his descendants called themselves Bandhugoti, or popularly 
Bandhalgoti.'' ^ 

2. According to Mr. Carnegy,* however, tliey spring from a 
BriLhman, Chuchu F&nrS, and a Dhark&rin or Dom woman, and 
their name is connected with that of the B&nsphor Doms. They 
worship as their tribal fetish the knife {bdfika) with which Doms 
split tlio bamboo, and tliis they now call a poniard, the symbol of 
Narwar. 

8. Thirdly, Sir H. M. Elliot > describes them as a branch of the 
Chauh&ns. 

4. On the general question of their origin Mr. Millet writes* :~- 
" With regard to the theory which makes their Kshatriya status of 
local development, the Bandhalgotis freely admit that one of their 
uumber was enlisted on the side of the Rftja of Hasanpur in^his 



> Svltd/npur SettUmeni Report, 154^ §qq. 
s Noie$, 40. 

* BuppUmenlal Qlo$$ary, fv. 

* hoc. eit, 171* $q. 



BAKDHALGOTI. 142 

dispnte with the Baghels^ and that in return for seryioeB then 
rendered a tract of land was made over to him hj the Bija. Again^ 
while they describe their former home to have been at Narwargarh, 
the town of Hasanpnr wbs, until the time of Hasan Khin^ that is 
just till the synchronism in the annals of the Bandhalg^ti and the 
Baohgoti^ known as Narwal. And further^ whereas the Bandhal- 
goti derive their name from Bandhu^ there is contiguous to Hasan- 
pur a village named Bandhu^ and a slight eminence on tiie border of 
a tank between the two is still pointed out as the residence -of the 
Bahdhalgoti servant of the B&ja. The story of the Dhark&rin 
alliance may seem to find some support in one form of the clan 
appellation; for Banjhilgoti is a very possit)le corruption of Bins- 
chhilgoti {bdtiM, '^ a bamboo/' eihilna, ''to pare'^^ and although the 
exact word hamchhil does not exists a very similar one^ B&nsj^ri 
shows that the bamboo-splitting industry furnishes the basis of a 
easte distinction. The reverse of the picture is not^ however, quite 
blank. . Whatever the source of tlie Bandhalgoti traditions, it ii 
curious that in claiming kinship with the Jaypur family they should 
hit on, as the home of their ancestors, the very plaoe it occupied 
before its removal to Jaypur ; and the strangeness of the coincidence 
is enhanced by the &ct that Sftda B4£'s pilgrimage agrees in date 
with the Eachhwiha migration. ** The question of their origin must 
then remain to some extent doubtful. 

6. In Sult&npnr they are reported to take brides from the 
Bilkhariya, Tasliaiya, Chandauriya, Kath Bais, Bh&ld Sultin, 
^ Rftghuba^; Gargbansi, Bajkum&r, and Bachgoli ; and to give girls 
to the Tilokchandi Bais^ Mainpuri Chauhins, MahQl S&rajbansb, 
Nagar Gautams^ and Bisens of Majhauli ; and that their goira is 
Bandhal. In Gonda^ it is said that their gotra is Vatsya, and thai 
they give girls to the Panwar, Bisen^ Sirnet, Baikw&r, Bhadauriya, 
Bais, Kalhans and ChauhSn ; and take brides from the S&rajbans, 
Bachgoti^ Barwdr^ Gaharwar^ and other high caste B&jputs. 



BANDnALGOTI. 



143 



bakoIli. 



Ditt-ributioH of the Bandhalgoti Bajpuls aeeording to the CeuMUt of 

J89L 



DI8TU10T. . 


Number. 


D18TR10T. 


Nomber. 


Agra . 


• 


• 





Sitapur , 


36 


Fatelipar • 


• 


• 


116 


Kheri . • . . 


11 


Lalitpur 


• 


• 


6 


Faiz&bftd . 


495 


Eenares 


) < 


t • 


27 


GoDda • • . 


407 


Gorakhpur . 


» < 


» • 


48 


8a1t4npar . • 


9,831 


Basil . 


• 


• • 


267 


Partftbgarh . 


8 


Azamgarh 


• 


• • 


4 


Bilrabanki . 


42 


LiDolcDOW 






17 • 






pad Bareli 


• 


• • 


129 


Total 


11,436 



Bandi. — A email tribe living as drummers and bird-eatohers 
in the Himalayan Tar&i. Their chief business is catching birds 
for sale. They also make a living by catching birds and bringing 
them into cities where pious people^ such as Jain Banyas, pay them 
to release a bird as an act of piety or as a charm to take away 
disease from a sick jx^rsou. In their habits and occupation they 
resemble the Bolicliya. 

The Census returns record four sections^ — Gaur, Mathuriya^ 
Odrain and Serain. 

Biiiribution of the B^ndi accord imj to ike Ceniue of 1891. 



District. 



Bareilly 
Mor&dilbl^ 



Total 



Number. 



106 



110 



Bangaliy Bengali.— A resident of Bengal^ Vanga or Bang 
Desa. It is not quite clear whether some of these recorded in the 
census lists are not the familiar Beng&U B&bu who has not been 
entered in his regular caste^ Brahman, Kayasth^ etc. At any rate 
there is a recognised tribe of vagrants known as Beng&li, Nau- 
muslim Bengali or Singiwdla^ the last because they use a kind of 
horn in cupping. 



banoAlt. 



14i 



2. From reports from the DiBtriot Superintendenta of Polios at 
Sah&ranpur^ Meemt, and Aligarh, it appears that these people 
wander all over the Upper Du&b and the Panjab and Native States 
They disclaim any direct connection with Nats^ Kanjars, and simi- 
lar vagrants ; but they are obviously closely related. Among the 
Hindu branch there appear to be at least three exogamoos seotionsj 
Negiw&la, Teli^ and Jogeli. The Census returns show 51 seotions 
of the Hindu and four of the Muhammadan branch, but it is 
impossible to say how many of these belong to the vagrant Beng&lis. 
The Hindu branch call themselves the descendants of one Siwii 
Bam, Biljput, who was a Bengali and elephant driver, and in the 
time of Aurangzeb learnt the ai*t of bleeding and cupping from a 
native physician or Hakim, and taught it to his descendants. The 
Muhammadan branch usually call themselves Lodi Path&ns from 
Bengal. They do not admit outsiders to their caste; marry in the 
usual form, if Muhammadans, through the Q&zi, but as might 
have been expected their religious practices are vague. The Muha- 
madans are said never to be circumcised, and they as well as the 
Hindus worship Devi and Z&hir Pir. 

8. From Meerut it is reported the Hindu branch will eat meat 
of all kinds, the flesh of cloven or uncloven footed animals, fowls, 
all kinds of fish and crocodiles, and the leavings of other people. 
Though this is not quite certain, it would appear that the Muham* 
madan branch generally abstain from pork. 

4. The Bengali is a loafer and vagabond, prone to commit petty 
theft, a beggar, and a rustic surgeon as far as bleeding and oap* 
ping go. In their manner of life they much resemble the Mil and 
Bediya of Bengal, and, if there is anything in the name, they are 
possibly akin to their tribes. 

Ditiribuiion of Beugdlis according to the Centm of J89L 



District. 



Hindas. 



MusalmAiif. 



Total. 



Dehra DAn 
SdblLranpur 
Bulandflhahr 
Alignrh • 



65 
236 



16 

160 

1 



••• 



16 

885 

836 

1 



U6 



bargAli. 



Dittribution of BtngilU aeeordinff to ike Cetiiut <ifl89t — oontd. 



DIBTBIOTB. 


Hindus. 




Total. 


Mttthura • • 




• 




64 


••• 


64 


Agra ; 




• 




40 


t«« 


40 


Farrnkb&b&d 




« 




6 


••• 


6 


Mainpnri • • 




• 




2 


••• 


2 


Bareilly . 




« 




26 


••t 


26 


Bud&an • • 




< 




••• 


26 


26 


Gawnpur • 




> 4 




81 


4 


36 


Fatehpar • 




> 




16 


••• 


16 


B&nda 




• 




4 


••• 


4 


Allah&bAd . 




• 




66 


4 


69 


Jhftnsi 




• 




8 


••• 


8 


Benarea 




• 




219 


••• 


219 


Mirzapiir , 




» 




13 


••• 


12 


Qli&zipar • 




> 




28 


••• 


28 


Qorakhpur . 




> 




41 


••• 


41 


Knmilan 




• 




16 


••• 


16 


Lnoknow • 




1 




61 


80 


91 


RftdBareli . 




» 




76 


17 


92 


FaiE&b&d . 




1 




6 


t«* 


6 


Qoiida 




• 




••• 


16 


le 


fiuHHopDr • 




► 




2 


••• 


2 


PaiUbgarh . 




• 




61 


7 


68 






TOTAI 


Ci • 


1.070 


280 


1,360 



Bangaliy Bengali.— One of ihe great divisionB of Brfthmans 
recorded as sucli at the last census. According to Mr. Bisley^ who 
has given an elaborate account of thenii^ the Bengal BriLhmans 



' Trihu and Oa»ie$, I., 144, §qq. 



Vol. I. 



SANOlLIt 146 

belong to one or other of the Gkmr groaps, and are diyided into Syb 
main Bub-castes^ — R&rhi, Barendra, Vaidik^ Saptaeaii and ICadh* 
yasrani. As already stated^ it is impoesible to say how many of the 
58 sections recorded in the census refer to the Brihman branchy 
and how many to the tribe of vagrants of the same name. 

2. " The K&rhi Brahmans derive their name from the Rftrh, or 

the hishvlyine alluvial tract on the west bank 

The EArhi BrAhmana. «. xi • -di a ., . mi. • i • ± t e 

of the nver Bhagirathi. Their claim to be of 

comparatively pure Aryan descent is to some extent borne oat by the 

results of anthropometric enquiries. The current tradition is that 

early in the eleventh century A. D. Adisura or Adisvaia, King of 

Bengal^ finding the Br&hmans^ then settled in Bengal^ too ignorant 

to perform for him certain Vedic ceremonies^ applied to the Bija of 

Kanao] for priests thoroughly conversant with the saored ritual of 

the Aryans. In answer to this request five Brfthmans of Kanaoj 

were sent to him, Bhatta N&rftyana, of the Sindilya aeotioni or 

foira ; Daksha,, of the Easyapa gotra ; Vedagarbha or Yidagaibh% 

of the Vatsa fotra, or, as others say, from the family of Bhrign; 

Chandra or Chhandara, of tlie Savama gotra ; and Sri Harsa of the 

Bh&radvftja gptra. They brought, with them their wives, their 

sacred fire and their sacrificial implements. It is said that Adimra 

was at first disposed to treat them with scanty respect, but he waa 

soon compelled to acknowledge his mistake, and to beg the Brlh- 

mans to forgive liim. He then made over to them five popakma 

villages, where they lived for a year. Meanwhile the kingwai 

impressed with the superhuman virtue of Bhatta Nirftyana» who 

a son of Kshitisa, King of Kanauj, that he offered him several more 

villages. The Br&hman, however, declined to take these as a gift^ 

but bought them, as the story goes, at a low price. 

8. '' Although the immigrant Br&hmans brought their wif«i 
with them, tradition says that they contracted seoond marriagei 
with the women of Bengal, and that their children by the latter 
were the ancestors of the Barendra Br&hmans. The Barsndrai on 
the other hand, claim to represent the offspring from the original 
Ilindustdni wives, and allege that the B&rhi Brdhmans are them- 
selves sprung from the mesalliance contracted in Bengal. 

4. '' By the middle of the eleventh century, when BallU Sen, 
the second of the Sen Kings of Bengal, instituted his famoni enquiry 
into the personal endowments of the B&rhi BrfthmanS| their numbers 



147 bako1li» 

seem to have increafiod greatly. They are represented as divided into 
fifty-six headships of villages {ffditi), whieh were reserved for them, 
and might not bo encroached on by BrShmans of other orders. 

6. ''It is interesting to trace in Ball&l Sen's enquiry the sur- 
vival or reassertion of the principle that the BrShmanhood of the 
Br&hmans depends not merely on birth but upon personal endow- 
ments. It is a question of virtue, not a question of descent. .Ballsll 
Sen, of course, could not go as &ur as this. The time had long 
passed when a Kshatriya could transform himself into a Brfthman 
by penance and self-denial. But the Sen Monarch sought to 
reaflirm the ancient principle, so far as viras then possible, by testing 
the qualifications of each B&ihi family for the priestly office, and 
classifying them, in the order of their virtue, according to the 
results of this examination. Thus two grades of sacerdotal virtue 
were formed, the Eulin being those who had observed the 
entire nine counsels of perfection, and the Srotiya, who, though 
regular students of the Vedas, had lost status by intermarrying with 
&miUes of inferior birth. The Srotiya were again divided into 
Siddha or ' perfect,^ Sddhya or ' capable of attaining purity,' and 
Kashta or ' difficult.' The last-named group was also called Ari 
or ' enemy,' because a Eulin marrying a daughter of that group 
was disgraced." 

6. As above stated, there is a difference of opinion as to their 

origin. " The sub-caste takes its name from 

The Barendra Br&lunani. .^ . , » , t -n i i • 

the tract of country known as Barendra, lying 
north of the river Fadma and corresponding roughly to the Districts 
of Fabna, R&jshShi, and Bogra. Of these there are three hyperga- 
mous classos—Eulin, Suddha orj^'puro, ' Srotiya and Eashta, or 
bad Srotiya." Of their rules of intermarriage Mr. Risley gives 
full details. 

7. '' Concerning the origin of the Vaidik Br&hmans some differ- 

ences of opinion exist. All agree in honour- 

The Vaidik BrAhmanfl. j. xi. • ju 4. \r Ji' -a, 

mg them for their adherence to Yedic ntes, 
tlicir zeal for Vedic study, thrir social independence, and their rejec- 
tion of polygamy. From the fact Uiat some of the most important 
settlements of the sub-caste are formed in the outlying districts o£ 
Orissa and Sylhet, some authorities are led to describe them as de- 
scendants of the original Br&hmans of Bengal, who refused to accept 
the reforms of Baliai Sen, and took refuge in regions beyond his 
jurisdiction. The theory that they came from Eanauj derives support 
Vol. I. L 2 



banqIli. 



148 



The SaptMati BrAhnuuit. 



from Mr. Sherring's statement that the Kanaujiya Brihrnans of 
Benares recognise the Vaidik as a branch of thar own trib^ who 
settled in . Bengal. There are two main divisionB of Vaidik 
Brahmans; — Faschftiya or ' Western/ claiming to have come from 
Kanauj^ and Dakshinatya or ^ Southern/ tracing their origin to 
the original Bengal stock/' 

8. ^' According to popular tradition^ the Saptasati Brfthmans are 

descended from the seven hundred ignorant 
Br&hmans sent by Adisar to the Court <tf 

Kanauj for the purpose of learning their priestly duties. Othera traoa 
their origin to certain Br&limans who were exiled beyond the 
Brahmaputra river for resisting the innovations of Ball&l Sen. It 
seems to* be certain that they are peculiar to Bengal^ and that they 
cannot claim connection with any of the ten standard Brthmanical 
tribes. They virtually admit their inferiority to the other orders of 
Brd.hmans. Men of education and respectability are reluctant to 
admit that they belong to this sub-caste, all distinctive practices are 
being abandoned, and the entire group seems likely to be absorbed in 
the Srotiya grade of Mrhi Br&hmans/' 

9. The Madhyasreni Brfthmans profess to derive their name from 
The Maiihyaareni the fact of their Original settlement being 

Br&hmanB. j^ ^^ District of Midnapur, lying midway 

(Madhyadesa) between Bengal and Orissa. It is conjectured thai 
they may be a composite group made up of members of the Biifai, 
Utkal, and Saptasati sub-castes, who for some reason broke off from 
their own classes, settled in an outlying district, and in ooorae of 

• 

time formed a new sub-caste. 

10. Further elaborate details of the Bengal Brfthmana will be 
found in Mr. Risley^s excellent account of them. ^ 

Didrihution of Bangdli Brdhmans according to the Cen$ui of 1891. 



DISTBICT 


Number. 


DlBTBlCT. 


Nuabar, 


8ab&raDptir . 


13 


Agra . . • . 


106 


MuzalTamagar 


3 


FarrukblbAd 


11 


Bulandshahr • 


30 


Et&wah 


87 


Alif^arh 


8 


Etah . • • . 


3 


Mathnra 


605 


Moiid&bAd . 


M 



banoAli. 



149 



banjAba. 



Ditiribution of Bangdli Brdhmans according io the Census qf 1891 •— eontd. 



DiSTBIOT. 


Number. 


DiSTBIOT. 


Number. 


Cawnpnr 






'l89 


R&6Bareli . 


16 


Allali&blUl 






1,167 


Sftapar 


12 


Jh&nsi . 






30 


Kheri . • • • 


60 


Laliipur 






22 


Fai£4b&d . 


26 


Benares 






2,362 


Qoiida « • • 


9 


Mirzapur 






3 


Bahr&ieh . 


11 


GhlUipur 






119 
84 


SulUknpur • 

Total 


22 


Ballia . 


6>261 


Qorakhpur 






108 


Males • • • • 


2.872 


Luoknow 






289 


Females t 


2.879 



BaDJara.' — ^A tribe whose primary occupation is^ or rather used 
to be^ to act as grain carriers and suppliers to armies in the field. 
Their name is derived from the Sanskrit tanijya or banijya^tdra, 
"vL merchant/' Sir H. M. Elliot, whose account of the tribe is 
porliaps the most valuable part of his admirable '^ Supplement to tho 
Glossary of Indian terms, '^ the first attempt at a scientific account 
of the tribes of these Provinces, shows that the popular derivation 
from the Persian hiranjdr or ''rice-carriers'' is untenable. He 
argues that the word must be of higher antiquity than (omitting 
fabulous legends) the Indian connection with Persia. '' Thus we 
find mention of a cock-fight in the Banj&ra camp in tho istory of 
Pramati in tho Dasa Kum&ra Charitra written by Dandi, a 
predecessor of K&lid4sa, according to Colebrooke. It is to be 
confessed, however, that Wilson does not assign an earlier origin 
to this composition than the ninth century. Nevertheless, independ* 
cnt of this testimony, Banjftras seem to be clearly indicated, even 
by Arrian {Indica, XI). Wo may, therefore, rest assured that wo 
are uot to look to Persia for the origin of the name." On this 
question Professor Cowell* has remarked :—" Sir H. M. Elliot was 

1 Based on enqoirioe afc Mirsapnr and notee by Fandifc Daldeo PrafAd, 
Deputy Collector, Cawnpnr ; Pandit Dadri KAth, Deputy Cnlleetor, Kheri ; Mr. W. 
H. O'N.Se^rayo, District Snperintondent, Police, Uaeti ; and the Deputy Inspeotora 
of Schools, Bareilly and Di}nnr. 

3 Academy, Uth May, 1870. 



banjAea. 160 

misled when he supposed that the word Banjftra was neoessaiily o( 
higher antiquity than the Indian connection with Persia^ because it 
occurs in the Dasa Kum&ra Charitra^ written by Dandin in the 
eleventh or twelfth century. It is true that Professoir WilBon in hii 
analysis of the story of Pramati speaks of the Banjftra oamp, but 
in the printed text of the original (p. 126) no such word oooais, 
but we have only Mahati nigame naigamdnam. Dandin no donbt 
had Banjftras in his mind ; but he cannot be quoted as an authority 
for the word. '' The theory that the title of the caste may be oon- 
nected with the Hindi ban-jdma in some such sense as ^'bomen or 
cleaners of the jungle " or '^ forest wanderers '^ is untenable. 

2. Before considering the tribe as found in these Provinoes, it 
The BanjAras of the ^^Y ^ well to put together some oE the in- 
^^^ ^°' formation about them obtainable from the 

Dakkhin, where they retain much more of their primitive mannen 
and customs than the small branch which remains in these Provinoei^ 
where they have been much modified by association with other raoes. 
The chief authority for the Dakkhin branch is the report of Mr. 
Cumborlege, District Superintendent of Police at Wan, in the 
Berftrs.^ He explains that the Banjftras of the Dakkhin fall into 
three grand Hindu tribes^ Mathuriya or 'Hhose from Mathora''; 
Lavftna who probably derive their name from being carriers of salt 
(Sans, lavana)^ and Chftran (Sans, ehdrana, ''a wanderer, jnlgrim;'' 
chdra^ '* a spy '') . ^^ The three Hindu tribes all trace their desoent 
from the great Brfthman and Bftjput raoes of Upper India^ and, 
as usual^ ascribe their tribe segregation to some irregular marriage 
of a legendary kind contracted by their first ancestors. In these 
stories Gnru N&nak^ the Sikh Prophet, usually figores as the 
opportune miracle-worker and spiritual adviser. No doubt these 
stories of descent are founded on fact. It is most probable that 
some irregular marriage^ made by adventurous wanderers into dis- 
tant countries^ did first cut off these branches from the parent stod^ 
and plant them apart as distinct communities. From Mr. Camber- 
lege's memoir it may be conjectured, however, that the emigratum 
which settled the Banjdra upon Dakkhin soil took place when these 
grain carriers came down with the Mughal armies early in the 
seventeenth centuiy. ^^ (As a corroboration of this it may be 
noticed that the first mention of Banjftras in Muliammadan history 



1 Quoted in the Berdr QaaetUer, 195, 9qq» 



151 banjIra. 

ia in Sikandar's attack on Bhplpur in 1504 A.D. ^) ''In fiict 
they seem to have derived their whole origin and organisation from 
the long wars o£ the Delhi Emperors in the South, and the restora- 
tion of peace and {>ro8perit7 is breaking them up. Neither their 
trade nor their tribal . system can survive another generation of 
British predominance. ' Wherefore some account of their more 
striking peculiarities has at least the interest that attaches to a 
picture of things which we shall never see again/' 

3. '' Of the Ch&ran tribe the R&thaur family, '^ says Mr. Comber- 

The Oh&raa BanjAras lege/'is the strongest, and holds sway in 
of the Dakkhin. p^^^ £^j. ^^^ ^^^ Dakkhin is parcelled out 

among different Banjira tribes, and no camp {tdnda) trades or grazes 
cattle beyond its own border. The Chirans evidently came to the 
Dakkhin with Asaf J&n, sometimes called Asa Kh&n, the Waztr 
Shfthjah&n; and in the year 1630, or thereaboutSi Bhangi and 
Jhangi N&iks (represented to have been brothers, but certainly 
not such, though perhaps related) had with them 180,000 bullocks, 
and Bhagwftn Dfts, the Burthiya Nftik, only 62,000. They accom- 
panied Asaf Jftn, carrying his provisions during his raid into the 
Dakkhin. It was an object of Asaf J&n to keep these bullocks well 
up with his force, and he was induced to give an order to Bhangi 
and Jhangi Niliks, as they put forward excuses regarding the 
difficulty of obtaining grass and water for their cattle. This order 
was engraved on copper and in gold letters as follows :— - 

Banjan ka pdni, 

Chhappar ka ghds^ 

Din ka tin khdn mu*df ; 

Aur jahdn Aiaf Jdi^ kS ghotS^ 

Wahan Bhangi Jhanji kd bail. 

This is still in the possession of the descendants of Bhangi, who 
are still recognised by the Haidar&b&d Court ; and on the death.of 
the representative of the family his successor receives a dress of ' 
honor (khillat) from His Highness the Niz&m. The meaning of the 
inscription seems to be—*'' If you can find no water elsewhere, you 
may even take it from the pots of my followers ; g^rass you may 
take from the roofs of their huts; and if you commit three 
murders a day I will even pardon this, provided that where I find 
my cavalry I can always find Bhangi Jhangi's bullocks. '^ 

1 Dowioii*! ElMot, v., 100. Brigg'8 F$H9Ua, I., 579. 



bakj1iia« 162 

4. On this Mr. Camberlege writee : — '^ Though not to siidi an 

Witehonft among tha extent as in former years^ wHchenft still 

Dakkhin Btnjins. obtains in Berlr. I can oonfidently say this, 

as I had a case in this district wherein all the featorea eoincidei 
exactly with what I am told is still the practice of Banjftraa whao 
they fancy a woman a sorceress. The woidan was knooked down 
and strangled by three or four men deputed fay the Niik of the 
camp, on her husband refusing to kill her^ to kill and barj her : 
this thqr did, and the husband had afterwards to appear before the 
coundl (panckdjfai), where he was mulcted of all be fo tmouo i, 
amounting in cattle and cash to about B2^000. Even when 
attacked by a bad fever or determined dysmtery, they often put it 
down to foul play by some sorceress, and on such oocaoona the 
sufferer sends for some one who knows some spell (mamira) or is 
supposed to know som^hing of sorcery {Jddu). A betei-qiiid is 
given to the suflerer and some spell is repeated. Should the soibEer 
not recover now, he sends for the Niik, mentions the name of the 
person he suspects, or not, as the case may be, who sends five or six 
men, taken from each &mily in the camp, to any China Bhagat 
to enquire of him who is the sorceress ; and, to plaoe this fiaei 
beyond doubt, as this deputation goes along they bury a bone or 
any other article on the road, and make the Bhagat presently state 
where it was buried, and what the article was. On arriving at 
the Bhagal's residence, he tells each man his name, otass^ foirm^ 
and denomination ; that be knows they have oome to enqnira what 
has caused the illness of tlie person (mentioning Ids name and caste) 
who is suffering. 'Hiis he must do directly after the salima are 
exchanged, and before the others speak again. A relative of the 
sick man now places a rupee before a lighted wick ; the Bhagat 
takes it up, looks steadily at it, and begins to sway about, make 
contortions of the face and body, etc., while the goddess Mariyii 
(Mahi Kali) is supposed to have entered his body. He now puts 
down the rupee, and, being inspired, commenoes to state the data 
and hour on which the sick man got ill, the nafare of tha 
complaint, etc., and in an indignant tone asks them why they 
buried a certain article (mentioning it) on the road. Sometimea 
they acknowledge that he is a true Bhagat now, but genemlly the 
men call for some further proofs of his abilities. A goat in Idd is 
then brought, the Bh^at mentions the sex of, and any distii^giiidi* 
ing marks upon the kid ; the goat is then killed^ and if he has 



163 bakjIba. 

guessed right the deputation becomes clamorous and requires the 
name of the sorceress. But the Bhagat keeps them waiting now 
and goes on to mention the names of other people residing in their 
camp, their children, and sometimes the names of any prized cows 
or bullocks ; he also tells the representative of what family he 
has married into, etc. On this the latter presents his nazar ; this 
was fixed at B25 formerly, but greed dictates the sum now, 
which is often as much as B40. 

5. *' The Bhagat now begins chanting some song, which he com- 
poses as ho goes on, and introduces into it the names of the 
different families in the camp, having a word or two to say about 
each. The better portion get vile abuse, are called a bad lot, and 

^disposed of quickly ; but he bow assumes an ironical appearance, 
begins to extol the virtues of a certain family, becomes facetious, and 
praises the representative of that family who is before him. All 
know that the sorceress is a member of that &mily; and its 
representative puts numberless questions to the Bhag^ relative to 
his family and connections, his worldly goods, and what gods he 
worships; the name of the sorceress ho calls for; inquires who 
taught her sorcery {jddu) ; and how and why it was practised in 
this .particular instance. The business is now closed by a goat 
being killed and oftered up to Biroliya, and then all return to their 
camp. 

6. ** Even now a man may refuse to acknowledge this Bhagat, 
and will, if the sorceress be a wife or daughter to whom he is 
attached, should he have money to take the business on to another 
tribunal. But as he has to pay the expenses of all the men who 
aooompany him, all cannot afford to question a Bhagat's decision. 
Sometimes the man will toll his wife, if he is certain she will obey 
him, to commit suicide; and as she knows full well the punish- 
ment is death, and that she must meet it in some ^form almost at 
once, when thus enjoined she will obey generally. Otherwise the 
husband with a witness or two, taking advantage of the first 
opportunity when slie has ksft the camp, kills and buries her with 
all bor clothing and ornaments. A meeting of the council is held, 
the witnesses declare the business has been completed satisfiictorily, 
and the husband may or may not agree to the judgment of the 
council with regard to his pecuniary liabilities. He has to pay all 
the expenses of the deputation; by the Bhagat is fined BlOO or 
B150 ; and if he has refused to do the deed himself, and others have 



bInjAea. ^ 164 ^ 

had to do it for him, or the nek maa dies, he hts to gm a large 
sum besides to the man's family for their support. This fine 
ori^nally belonged to Bhangi N&ik's representative, BAmu Niik ; 
but it is often kept by the different N&iks themselYes now. BIma 
has still great influenoe ; but he has used his power so cruelly that 
many have seceded from his control, and have Nlika of their own, 
whom they now obey almost implicitly. There are men in this 
district well known to me who have been fined six or eight 
thousand rupees for sniall misdemeanours, and it is hardly to be 
wondered at that this thing could not oontinue for ever/' It is 
satisfactory to note that under the influence of British law these 
cruel proceedings .are now practically unknown; bat those best 
acquainted with the facts are certain that there would be an imme* 
diate recrudescence of it if the pressure of our administration were 
relaxed. 

7» Up to our own day the Banjftras of the Dakkhin praotiaed 

human sacrifice. General Sleeman^ tells a 

Hmnftii Mkorifloo Mnonf 

the BanjATM of the story that the fort and part of the town of 

Sfi^r stands on a wall^ to h.,. bam. 
built by a Banj&ra. He was told that the lake would oontinue 
dry until he consented to sacrifice his daughter and her affianced 
husband. He built them up in a shrine and the waters roee, bat no 
Banj&ra will touch the water. Their women, even to the present 
day, are notorious for necromancy. They are, aooording to Sir 
Alfred Lyall,* "terribly vexed by witchcraft, to which their 
wandering and precarious existence especially exposes them in the 
shape of fever, rheumatism, and dysentery. Solemn enquiries are 
still held in the wild jungles where these people camp oat Hke 
gipsies, and many an unlucky hag has been strangled by the 
sentence of their secret tribunals.'^' 

8. According to Mr. Cumberlege, " the Chftrans are all deists, 

Eeiirion of the Dakkhin '^'''^ *^ ^indu gods they worship as having 
Baojiraa. i)een holy men ; but they only acknowledge 

one God, and look on Guru N&nak as the propagandist of their 
religion; Guru N&nak is supreme; but they worship Bllaji, 
Mariyai (Malul Kili), Tiiija Devi, Siva Bhaiya, Mitthu BhAkiya^ 
and Sati. There are smaller gods worshipped also, but the abofv 



1 RamlUs, I., 12U, Indian AnliqMry, VIII., 219, 9^. 
s Atialic Studies, 89. 



165 BAKjJL&A. 

are the only gods worshipped by the ChftnuiB of Berftr. They have 
heard o£ Siva DSlb, but do not worship him as the men of the 
Telinga country and Central Provinces do. The reason is seen at a 
elance. Ours is the R&thaur country, those parts belong mostly 
to the Burthiya class; in fact the Telinga country is entirely 
theirs, and Siva Dks was a Burthiya, not a Rithaur, I believe* 
The oath most sacred to them is taken in the name of Siva Bhaiya^ 
a holy man who resided at Pohora, in the W&n District, where 
there are still temples, I believe, to Siva Bhaiya and Mariy&i^ and 
where a nephew of Siva Bhaiya, by name S&ka Bhaiya, still 
officiates. There are numbers of Bhagats^ of varied celebrity^ to 
whom they go on any serious difficulty ; otherwise their own 
NsLiks, or the N&ik to whom the former is subordinate, adjudicates.^^ 

9. '' There is a hut set apart in every camp and devoted to 

Ceremonies prior to ^^^^^^ BhAklya, an old froe-bootcr. No one 
orime. may eat, drink, or sleep in this hut ; and it is 

flimply used for devotional purposes. In front of this hut is a flag* 
staff, to which a piece of white cloth is attached. By all criminak 
Mitthu Bh&kiyais worshipped as a clever free-booter; but he is more 
thought of on the other side of the W&rdha than here. - However, 
where the white flag is seen in front of the hut, it is a sign that the 
camp worFhi}>8 Mitthu Bh&kiya, and should, therefore, be watched 
carefully when they are suspected of having committed orime. 
The men who have agreed and arranged the particulars regarding 
the carrying out of their scheme meet at night at this hut, 
where an image of Sati is produced; clarified butter (^ii) 
is put into a saucer, and into this a wick is placed, very broad 
at the bottom and tapering upwards : this wick, standing erects 
is lit, an appeal is made to Sati for an omen, those worshipping 
mentioning in a low tone to the god where they ai-e going and 
what the purpose. The wick is then carefully watched, and should 
it drop at all the omen is propitious. All immediately get up and 
make an obeisance to the flag, and start then and there for the 
business they have agreed on. Tbey are unable to return < to their 
homes before they start, because they must not speak to any one 
till their business has been carried through. And here we have a 
reason why Banjdras are rarely known to speak when engaged in 
a robbery, for, if challenged, these men, who have gone through. the 
ceremony, may not reply. Should they have reached their destina- 
tion, whether a village, hamlet, or unprotected cart, and are challenged| 



ba.njA.ra. 166 

if any one of them roply^ the oliann is broken and all ratnm 
home. They must again take the omens now and worship again 
or give up the attempt altogether. But, I am told, they genenJly 
prefer to make oertain of the man who is venturesome enoogfa to 
challenge them by knocking him down and either killing him or 
injuring him so severely that he cannot interfere, and would not 
wish to meddle with their other arrangements. If one of the 
gang sneezes on the road it is also fatal ; they must return to their 
camp at once.'' For further details regarding the methods of 
criminality of these Dakkhin Banjftras a reference may be made to 
Major E. J. Gunthorpe's " Notes on the Criminal Tribes residing 
in or frequenting the Bombay Presidency, Berftr and the Centxal 
Provinces. '' 

10. The Banj&ras of Central India have a curious form of ox 
Central Indian Bai^i- worship.^ '^ When sickncss ocours they lead the 

ra.. worthipoftheox. ^j^j^ ^^^ to the feet of the bnllook called 

Hat&diya (Sans. Ilatya^ddkya, 'which it is an extra sin to 
slay '), for though they say that they pay reverence to images and 
that their religion is that of tho Sikhs, the object of tiiehr worship it 
the Hatftdiya, a bullock devoted to the god Bftlaji. On his animal 
no burden is ever laid, but he is decorated with streamers of red- 
dyed silk and tinkling bells with many brass chains and rings on 
neck and feet, and strings of kauri shells, and silken tassels hanging 
in all directions ; he moves steadily at the head of the convoy, and 
the * place where he lies down on when he is tired, that they make 
their halting place for tho day ; at his feet tliey make their vows 
when difficulties overtake them, and, in illness, whether of them- 
selves or cattle, they trust to his worship for a cure.'' 

1 1 . The Banj&ras of these Provinces have been classified at the last 

Census under the heads of Chaohftn, Bahrflp. 

BanjarU of the North- ^ , ,^ , _, ^ ,,^., /m 

Western Prorinoee and Guar, Jadou, Pauwar, Kathaur, and Tnnwar. 
^''^^' Of these, all, except the Bahriip and Guir, aie 

well-known BJLjput septs, and^ as we have seen in the case of the 
Dakkhin Banj&ras, the tribal tradition points to a R&jput origin. 
There is also a general tradition that they at one time held oonsider- 
able territories in Oudh and the other submontane districts. Thus 
they are said to liavc been very early settlers in Bardllyi whenoe 

1 Migraiory Tribe$ of Cenlrallndia, by E. Balfoar: Joumol AtMic Secielf 
0/ Bengal, N. 8., Vol. XIII. 



157 banjIba. 

they were expelled by the Jangh&ra BAjputs.^ In Eheri* the 
J Angr£ BAjputs acquired Khairagarh from their allies the Banj&ras. 
In Bahrfiioh' they were finally expelled from the Sijadi Pargana 
by the Chaklad&r Hakim Mehndi about 1821 A.D. In the 
Nflnpftra Pargana of the same district they were finally coerced by 
Raefll Khin, the Afghin, in 1682 A.D.* In the D(in» they 
have a story that they attended to the commissariat of the Pindavas 
after their exile from Hastinapur, and were the founders of the 
town of Deoband^ in the Sah&ranpur District. In the Banjftra Tola 
of the town of Gopamau^ in the Hardoi District, there are some 
Banj&ras who call themselves Sayyid Sal&ri, and say tha£ they are 
descended from the followers of the Saint.' On the other hand, 
those in Madras describe themselves as the descendants of Sugriva;^ 
the monkey chieftain who was the ally of BAma.^ There can be 
no reasonable doubt that they are a very mixed race, oompdbed of 
various elements, as is the case in Central India^ where Sir Alfred 
Lyall speaks of them as ''made up of contingents from various 
other castes and tribes, which may have at different times joined 
the profession. '^^ The Census report gives the most important 
local sub-castes as— in Muzaffamagar the DhankAta;, or ''rice 
pounders, '^ and the Labftna ; in Aligarh, the Nandbatud ; in 
Ei&wali, tlic J&t ; in Pilibhit, the Lab&na ; in the Tarfti, the Bhukiya 
(who take their name from their leader Mitthu Bhukiya), Ou&l, 
Kotwilr, LabAna, and BAjput; in Kheri, the Ou&r, Eora, and Muj* 
bar ; and in Bahr&ich, the Mujhar. 

12. The best account of the Banjftra tribes of these provinces is 
1,.'^^^.^^"?**^°?^'*' that given by Sir H. M. Elliot. He divides 

the North- Western Pro- ® •' 

▼inooB BanjAras. them into five great tribes as foUovra :— - 

(1) The Turiiya, "Turkish'' or Muhammadan, with thirty-six 
sub-tribes or goiroi, viB,, Tomar or Tunwar, Chauhftn, Gahlot, 
Dilwftri, AIwi, Eanothi, Burki, Durki^ Shaikh, Nathamir, Aghwftn, 
Badan, Chakirftha, Bahrftri, Padar, Kantk£, Qhar£, Chandaul, 
Teli, Charkha, Dhangya, Dhankikya, Qaddi, TRtar, Hindiya, BAha^ 
Marauthiya, Ehakhara, Kareya, Bahltm, Bhatti, Bandw&ri, 



1 BeltUment Report, 19. » WUlUmi, Memo., 77, iqq. 

« Belilenienl Report, 10. • BelUemmi Report, 180. 

» SeiiUment Report, 41. ' MuUaly, Notee, 28, 

* Oudh QoMBtteer, lU., 6. • ^^^^^ Studiee, 16ft. 



banjIra. 153 

Bargadda^ AKya; Khilji. '' These assert that they oame originally 
from Mnltftni and left thrir newly Hshosen country of the Dakkhin 
nnder a leader called Rnstam Kh&n^ and first of all took np their 
abode at Badli Tftnda, near Morftdftb&d, from which they have 
gradually spread to BilAspur, Biohho^ and the neighbouring traota. 
They are for the most part occupied as carriers. '' 

(2) '^ I'he Baid Banjftras came from Bhatner nnder a leader 
called Dualha. Of them are eleven goiras — Jhaloiy Tandar^ Hatir, 
Kapfthi, Danderi/ Kachni, Tartn, Dharpfthi, Ktri, and Bahltm. 
Their occupations are more various than those of the Turkiyaa, as 
they are occasionally employed as doctors and weavers. They am- 
found in Pilibhit, Kant, and in the neighbourhood of ihoae places. '' 

(3) ^^The Lab&na Banjftras have also eleven potrat. They 
state that they are descended from Ghmr Br&hmans, and oame in 
Aurangzeb's time from Bintamb&r. They engage almost entirely 
in agricultural pursuits alone. '^ Of these people Mr. lUbetKm* 
writes : — " These men are generally associated with the Banjiras. 
With the exception of MuzatEargarh and Bahftwalpnr^ they are 
almost wholly confined to the hill and submontane districts. Tbtj 
are the carriers and hawkers of the hills^ and are merely the Fkiqibi 
representatives of that class of Banjftras^ already mentioned, wba 
inhabit the submontane tracts east of the Ganges. The "^^Hrf^f 
of Ghijarftt are thus described by Captain Mackenzie : — ^' The T'^^Vfuai 
are also a peculiar people. Their status among Sikhs is much the 
same as that of the Mahtams. They correspond to the Banjiras of 
Hindustftn, carrying on an extensive trade by means of large herds 
of laden bullocks. Latterly they have taken to agricultnre^ bat as 
an additional means of livelihood^ not as a substitute for trade. As 
a section of the community they deserve every encouragement and 
consideration. They are generally finef^ substantially built people^ 
They also possess much spirit. In anarchical times^ when the 
and feuds of petty Governors would drive the Jftts or Q^jars to 
temporary abiding places away from their anoestral village, the 
Lab&nas would stand their ground^ and perhaps improve the oppor- 
tunity by extending their grasp over the best lands of the village^ 
in which their shorter sighted and less provident lords of the manor 
had, in former periods, permitted them to, take up their abode for 
purposes of commerce. Several cases of this kind oame to 

*■ PanjAb^Ethnography, 299. 



169 bakjAba. 

during seMlement, and in most of ihem the strength and^spirit of 
progress were as apparent in the Lab&nas as were the opposite qnar 
lities couspicuous in their Gfijar opponents. Their principal village 
is Tftnda (which means " a large caravan of laden bullocks '') and 
is an instance of what I have above alluded to. Allowed by the 
G&jar proprietors of Motsi, they have got possession of the soil, . 
built a town, and in every point of importance swamped the original 
proprietors. They have been recognised as proprietors, but feudatory 
to their former landlords, the Gfijars of Motay paying them annu- 
ally in recognition thereof a sum equal to one-tenth of the Govern- 
ment demand.^' This tribe of Banj&ras take their name from their 
business of carrying salt (lavana). Sir J. Malcolm^ says that 
the Banjdras and Labftnas are Bftjputs of various tribes, R&thaur, 
Jalaur, Panw&r, etc. " The Labftnas who live in villages sometimeB 
mix witli other cultivators and sometimes have a village exclusively 
to themselves, are S&dras, originally from Gujarftt, a quiet inoffen- 
sive race differing widely from the Banjdras, though engaged in the 
same trade. The Lab&nas are also cultivators, but follow no other 
occupation. The Banjftras preserve both in dresses and usages a 
marked separation and independence. They often engage in great 
speculations on their own account, and are deemed honest in their 
dealings, though very ignorant and barbarous. They trust much 
to the bankers and merchants with whom they are concerned, and 
few keep accounts ; but habit jbas made them very acute, and their 
memory is, from continual exercise, extremely retentive of the 
minutest particulars of their extended transactions.^^ 

(4) Of them Sir H. M. ElUot says :—" The Mukeri Banjftras in 
_ , . the northern parganas of Bareilly assert that 

they denve their name from Mecca (Makka)^ 
which one of their N&iks, who had his camp (Tftnda) in the vicinity, 
assisted Father Abraham in building. Leaving Mecca^ they came 
and resided in Jhajjar, where their illustrious name became cor- 
rupted from Makkai to Mukeri. Their fabulous history is not 
worth recording, but their names also betray a strange compound of 
tribes, MusalbiAn and Hindu— Aghw&n, Mughal, Khokhara, Chau- 
h&n, Simli Chauh&n, Chotya Chauh&n, Fanjtakya Chauhftn, Tanhar, 
Katheriya, Path&n, Tarin Fathan, Ghori, Ghoriwil, Bangaroa, 
Kanthya, Bahlim«'' These are apparently the same people who 

> C«n<ral India, II., 152^ iqq. 



banjIra. 160 

are called Mukris, in Sholapor.^ There another explaiiation of 
the word is current. It is said to be derived from a word Mnk^rma^ 
" to deny/' which does not appear in the Hindustftni diotioomrieB. 
The story goes that a servant of Tipti Sultftn bongfat a quarter of 
com from a Mnkri, and found it^ when he weighed it at home^ ten 
pounds short. He brought the fact to the notice of the Saltln^ 
who sent for the com dealer and demanded for azphmation. The 
Mukri denied the fact and made the full weight in the presence of 
the king^ who had twice weighed the com before and found it ahoit. 
The king was embarrassed, and had nothing to say against the man, 
and gave him the name of the '^ Denier/' A third| and perhaps, 
more probable explanation is, that it is a corruption of Makkeri, and 
means nothing [more than a seller of maize {makia). Something 
more will be said of the Mukris later on. * 

(5) Of whom Sir H. M. Elliot says :—" They are, for the most 

part, Hindus, and lead a more wandering lift 
than the Musalm^ns. They are divided into the 
tribes of lUthaur, Chauhftn or Kuri| Panwftr, Tomar; and Bhurtiya. 
The origin of the first four is sufficiently apparent from their names. 
The fifth is said to be derived from a Oaur Br&hman. Of these tribes 
again there are several ramifications. Of the Bithanr there an 
four — Muehh&ri, B&huki, Murh&wat, and Panot : of the Muoh- 
h&ri there are fif tytwo divisions ; of the B&huki there are twenty- 
seven ; of the Murh&wat there are fifty-six ; and of the Panot there 
are twenty-three. The Cliauh&ns, who have forty-two gotraM^ are 
unanimous in saying that they came from Munpuri. The Panwirs 
have twenty gotras, and state that they came from Delhi. The 
Bhurtiya have fifty-two goira9. They claim Chithor as their origi* 
nal seat. The Bahr&p Banj&ras, like all the other clans, inter* 
marry, but do not allow of any connection between members of the 
same gotra. They receive the daughters of Nats in marriage^ but 
do not allow their own daughters to marry into Nat families; and 
they have some curious customs at their marriages which need not 
bo detailed in this place." 

13. In addition to the five main tribes described by Sir H. M. 

Elliot there is another which is usually elsssed 
NAikBanjAras. ^ ^ offshoot of them, the Niiks. The» 

is a tribe of this name in the Fanjdb, Mr. Ibbetson mys tliat the 



> Bombay Gasaffeer.XX., 203; XIX., 188. 



161 BANJABA. 

'' headmen of botli Thoris and Banj&ras are called N&ik. '^ This, 
as we have already seen^ is the name used for them throughout the 
Dakkhin and Central India. Mr. Maclagan^ says. — '^ In Bohtak they 
are said to be a branch of Hindu Dh&nuks^ who come from Jaypur. 
They were also represented to me as an agricultural tribe of lUjputs. 
Mr. Fagan, who kindly made enquiries for me^ says they may be 
taken to be Aheris^ that they state that they were originally 
BAjputs, and have the same gofras as B&jputs^ and that they gene- 
rally act as village watchmen ; while those returned at Ftrozpur 
were labourers on the Sirhind Canal. '^ They take their name from 
the Sanskrit naj^aka^ ^'a leader. '^ In the Oorakhpur Division, 
where they are principally found, they assert that they are San&dh 
Brslhmans, and fix their original settlement in Pilibhit. Polygamy 
is allowed; polyandry prohibited. They appear to follow the 
customs of orthodox Hindus. If an unmarried girl is detected 
in an intrigue, her parents have to give a tribal feast and a recita- 
tion of the Satyan^rd.yana Katha. A sum of money, known as 
tilai, is paid by the relatives of the bride to those of the bride- 
groom. A man can put away his wife for adultery by leave of the 
tribe or council. Such women cannot remarry in the tribe, and 
widow marriage is forbidden. They have the usual birth, death, 
and marriage ceremonies. Thoy burn their dead and perform the 
Mrdddha, They employ Sai*wariya Br&hmans as their family priests, 
and appear to be in all points orthodox Hindus. They are land- 
lords, cultivators, and dealers in grain and other country produce. 
14. We have already seen that they claim to have originally, come 

from Makka. Another stoi;y told in Mirza- 
pur IS tliat their ancestor was one Makka 
Banj&ra, who helped Father Abraham to build Mecca; and that they 
emigrated into India with the armies of the early Muhammadan 
invaders. Another name which they arrogate to themselves is Ahl-i- 
Quraish, or that of the Arabian tribe, from which Muhammad was 
descended (see Shaikh) . They have two endogamous sub-castes— the 
Purbiya or "Eastern,'' and the Pachhiwaha or " Western." The 
Purbiya Mulgeris have twosections, Banaudhiya and Malwariya, which 
they derive f ix)m two towns named Banaudh and Malwar, in the 
Arrah District of Bengal. From this it may be gathered that their 
last movement was from East to West, and that they have forgotten 



1 Vanj^ CeniUi Report, 811. 
Vol. I. 



• banjIra. 162 

their real origin, which 'was probably from the West ; the Ifalwa- 
riyas being from Mftrw&r^ and the Banaudhiyas from Banandli^ 
which included Sonthem Ondh and the Districts of Jaanpnr, Azam- 
garh and Benares. The Paohhiwfthas are also divided into two 
sections, Kh&n and Shaikh. They do not, now at least, admit 
outsiders into their community. Marriage among them nsoally takes 
place at the age of seven. They follow the Muhammadan religions 
and Social rules, and, of course, allow widow marriage. They hav^ 
however, the Hindu rules of succession to property. They are pro- 
fessedly Muhammadans of the Sunni sect, but they retain many Hindu 
usages. They worship tlie Pftnchonptr in the manner common to all 
the inferior Muliammadan tribes of the Eastern Districts ; bat Uioy 
also make sacrifices to E&li Bhawini at tlie Nanrfttra of Chait. 
Tliey biiry their dead and offer to them sweets (ialioa) and cakes at 
the Shab-i-bar&t. Their occupation is grinding and selling floar and 
other provisions, and dealing in g^n. They follow the Mahaomia- 
dan rules regarding food, and drink spirits. 

15. In Kheri they are known as Banj&ra and Byopiri or ''dealer/' 

other H.naaB«j*». '"'^^ *««»«««> origin to JaypnT and 
of the North-western Jodhpur. They havc three endogamona seo- 

Proyinoes and Ondh. .. xr -&«- i_i.6 • 3 -^r* * »« 

tions — Kora, Muchhan and Miyln. They 
visit periodically a temple of Lalita Devi, at a place called Tilokpnr^ 
somewhere in the Rajputina country. There also, when they oan 
afford it, tliey get the birth hair of their children shaved. In 
Cawnpur they give their endogamous sub-castes as R&thanr, Panwlr- 
Chauhftn, Gaur, and Eachhwaha, which are all the names of well- 
known R&jput septs. Their rule of exogamy is stated to be that 
they cannot marry within a family wliich is known to be ^flsoended 
from the same parents, or which can be traced to a common anoea- 
tor ; nor in the family of the maternal uncle or father's aister ; 
nor two sisters at the some time ; but a man may marry the sittar of 
his deceased wife. When the bride is introduced into the family 
of her husband she has to cook sweetened rice, with which aba feeds 
all the clansmen. A man may marry as many wives aa he oan 
afford to keep. There is no bride price, except in the case of ddeily 
men, who have a difliculty in finding wives. Widow marriage and 
the Icviratc are both alloweil under the usual conditions. 

16, In Khcri at the marriage ceremony they place four pitolion 
{(fhara) one on the lop of the other in seven piles, and in the oen* 
tre two ))osilc8 (muiar), and a water jar (taha). Close to this 



163 BANJAEA. 

the Pandit makes a holy square {eiauk), and performs the fire 
sacrifice {horn). After this the pair^ with their clothes tied^ walk 
seven times round the pestles^ and the father of the bride worships 
the feet of the bridegroom and makes him an offering of two or 
four rupees. Tliis is the respectable form. In the inferior form^ 
known as Dharauna^ the bride is taken to the house of the bride* 
groom^ and the marriage is completed by a feast given to the 
brotherhood. 

17. The funeral ceremonies are of the normal type. The Eheri 
Banjftras ai'e reported not to perform the srdddia or to employ 
Brfihmans at death ; in Cawnpur^ on the contrary^ they carry out 
the orthodox rituaL 

18. In Cawnpur they worship Hardeo or Hardaur L&la, Z&hirpir^ 

the Miy&n of Amroha^ and K&lu Deo, who^is 
said to have a shrine somewhere in the 
Dakkhin. Goats ai'e offered to E&lu Deo and Miy&n by any one but 
women. Sometimes only the ear of the animal is cut and a drop or 
two of blood sprinkled on the altar, and sometimes a cocoanut is 
substituted for a goat. In Eheri they are reported to prefer the wor« 
ship of Bhagwftn and Farameswara, and to be initiated in a temple 
in Uio SahHranpur District. Tlieir religious guides are Br&hmans of 
their own, who teach them only to worship Bhagw&n and not to tell 
lies. They occasionally offer goats to Devi. They swear on the 
Ganges or by standing'^in water or walking through fire. 

19. In Kheri they eat the flesh of wild pigs and goats, but not 
Social customs of Hindu fowls. They drink spirits and use opium^ and 

BanjiVrae. ^^^^ hcmp intoxicants b/ianff and fdnja, freely* 

In Cawnpur they will cat kachchi and pakhi with Br&hmans, and 
will smoke only with their brethren. Some of them are traders, 
and a few are now taking to agriculture, as the profits of the carry- 
ing trade are gradually becoming reduced. 

20. Those in Bareilly and Pilibhit say that they were driven 
Other Mnbammadan there by Ahmad Shfth Durrfini's invasion. 

BoiijAras. rjij^^ ^^^ divided into two endogamous sub- 

castes— Gaurithan and Baidguar. * They follow the orthodox rules 
of the Muhammadan faith, and work as cultivators, carriers of, and 
dealers in, grain. 



I Bat 800 BaidguAt, 
Vol. I. * '^ 



banjIea. 164 

2 1 . In f ornier times the Banj&ras eBpecially in Gk>nJdipur mnd 

the neighbouring districtSy had an evil reputa- 
tion for dakaiti and similar offences. ^ This 
is in a great measure a thing of the past. In recent years thqr 
have come under the notice of the police in connection with the 
kidnapping of girls. There can be little doubt that most^ if not all 
of them, occasionally introduce girls of other castes into tlie tribe. 
Quite recently the police in the Agra District have found reason to 
suspect that some of them in the guise of Commissariat contractors 
carry on an extensive trade in stolen cattle, and are in the haUt of 
appropriating and clianging the brands on the so-called Brfthmani 
bulls which arc released by Hindus on the occasion of a death. 

22. One of the most important trades carried on in the present 

day by the Banj&ras is that of the purdiase 
and sale of cattle used for agricaltnral par- 
poses. Cattle are largely bred along the Jumna in the direofeion of 
Agra and Mathura. These are bought up by Banjiras, who drive 
them in large herds to great distances about the time when the 
agricultural seasons are commencing. They sell them on credit with 
■a promise of payment when the crop is ripe. At such times they 
come round to realise their debts. They seldom or never take bonds 
or resort to the law courts ; but they appear at the hooaes of their 
creditors, and if not promptly paid, practise a form of ooeroion known 
as dharna, by encamping close to the house of the defaulter and oring 
vile language to his womenkind wherever they venture to show them- 
selves. Tliis form of pressure appears to be effective with ovon the 
most callous debtor, and it is understood that they generally soeoeed 
in realising their money. This result b brought about by the popa« 
lar fear felt for the Banj&ra, who is a wild-looking semi-savage who 
can make his presence most disagreeably felt. 

23. With the partial disappearance of the Banjira carrier bofore 
Appearaooe and Our roads and railways a most piotareaqne 

manners. element is being lost in the generally sqnalid 

life of our b&z&rs. No one who sees them in their original 
state can help being struck by their resemblance in figure and 
dress to some of the Western gypsies. To Dr. Ball ' a eamp 
of Labdnas immediately recalled to his memory the Zingari of 



1 Buolianan, Eatlern India, II., S53, 415; Rep<frl Jfuyctor-gjiMwU, Mim, 
Horih-Weetern ProTinooa, 1868, pa^ 34 ; 1871, pa^ 47 (a); 1870, paf* 90 (6), 
* Jungle Life, 510. 



165 banjAea. 

the lower Danube and Wallachia. And be was particularly 
impressed by the peculiar minor key of the music which is so 
characteristic of these people. In these Provinces the women are 
skilled in a peculiar form of woollen embroidery^ and pride them- 
selves on their bright coloured boddices {eioli) and jackets {angi) 
ornamented in this way. Some wear a sort of horn made of wood 
in their bair^ over which the sheet {eidJar) is draped in a very 
peculiar and graceful fashion. The women^ who are much taller 
and more robust than the people among whom they live^ stride 
along the roads in a particularly bold and independent way. But 
their chainicteristic dress is seen to most advantage in their seats 
in the Dakkhin. * Mr. Mullaly* writes of the women as '' comely 
and above the average height of the women of this country. 
They are easily distinguished hf their dress and a profusion of 
jewellery they wear. Their costume is thd gown {Ininga) of khirua 
doth^ red or green^ with a quantity of embroidery. The boddioe^ 
with embroidery on the front and on the shoulders, covers the bosom, 
and is tied by variegated cords at the back, the ends of the cords 
being ornamented with cowries and beads ; a covering cloth of 
khirua cloth, with embroidery, is fastened in at the waist, and hangs 
at the side with a quantity of tassels, and strings of cowries. Tlioir 
jewels are very numerous, and include strings of beads of ten or 
twenty rows with a cowrie as a pendant threaded on horse hair, a 
silver necklace (hdnsli), a sign of marriage. They wear brass or 
horn bracelets, ten or twelve in number, extending to the elbow on 
either arm, with a piece of embroidered silk, one inch wide, tied to 
the right wrist. Anklets of ivory or bone are only worn by the 
married women ; they arc rcmovod on the deat hof the husband. Silk 
embroidery adorned with tassels and cowries is also worn as an anklet 
by all wo'men. Their other jewels are a nose ornament, a silver 
pendaqt from the upper part of the ear, attached to a silver chain 
which hangs to the shoulder, and a profusion of silver, brass, 
and lead rings. Tlicir hair is, in the cate of unmarried women, 
unadorned, brought up and lied in a knot at tlie top of the head ; 
with married women it is fastened in like manner with a cowrie or 
a brass button, and hea\'y pendants are fastened to the temple. 
The latter is an essential sign of marriage, and its absence is a sign 
of widowhood/^ There is no doubt that they have a {wtois of 



1 Ifole$, 31 , ff . 



bakjIra. 



166 



their own ; but it has as yet not been {ally eoQeotecl. Dr. Ball 
says that he was '^ informed by a Russian Prinoe, who travelled in 
India in 1874^ that one of his eompanions^ a Hungarian nobleman, 
found himself able to converse with the Banjftras of Central India in 
consequence of his knowledge of the Zingari language/^ He also 
states that '* the Diwin of Kudibuga told me that the strong-minded 
Banj&ra women are in the habit of inflicting severe chastisement 
on their husbands with their very large sticks {bari Aarf IdUi), a 
custom which also prevails in the Nicobar Islands/^ 



Dutribniion of Banjdra9 according to tie CemuM of 189L 



DiBTBIOT. 


1 


i 


• 


i 


1 


• 


• 

a 


OtlMn. 


• • 

mi 


Total. 


Dobra DOn 

• 


2 


••• 


••• 


••. 


••• 


••• 


... 


986 


088 


1.877 
1^.488 


Sfth&ranpiir . . 


578 


1,865 


••• 


•M 


178 


528 


10 


8,880 


8,484 


MataffAMiagar • 


880 


112 


••• 


58 


769 


687 


107 


1.708 


88 


8,884 


Mderut • • 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


98 


••• 


858 


858 


704 


BnUndsbahr 


856 


••• 


••• 


1 


1 


95 


••• 


87 


88 


568 


Aligarh . 


102 


••• 


123 


2 


50 


1,146 


868 


814 


17 


MH 


Mathara . 


166 


••• 


1 


21 


78 


205 


2 


108 


770 


1.881 


Afcn . • 


140 


• •• 


6 


347 


92 


819 


••• 


i85 


807 


1.888 


Farrakhib&d . 


2(5 


••• 


• • • 


28 


50 


81 


8 


858 


m 


878 


Mainpari . 


••• 


••• 


t •• 


94 


... 


281 


• •a 


811 


81 


W 


EUwah . 


550 


«•• 


1 


352 


204 


588 


••• 


768 


88 


\m 


Etah . 


393 


••1 


2 


43 


166 


590 


21 


617 


50 


1.888 


BareUly . 


••• 


•*• 


67 


• •• 


... 


••• 


••• 


•M 


7.815 


7.888 


Bijnor • 


• a* 


••• 


154 


• t» 


835 


966 


••• 


1,186 


8.808 


5087 


BadAan 


• •• 


••■ 


••• 


• •• 


••* 


•.. 


••• 


•M 


18 


U 


MorAdAl>Ad 


• •• 


■•• 


189 ... 


••• 


••• 


• a. 


878 


8;888 


8.188 


ShAhjah&npnr 


• •■ 


••• 


1 


• •• 


8 


58 


8 


45 


148 


888 


PilibhSt . 


90 


81 


459 


23 


270 


1,848 


••• 


1,664 


ftjoe 


8.888 


Cawnpar . 


25 


• •• 


124 


2 


112 


154 


... 


11 


8 


488 


AUab&baa . 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


... 


••• 


••• 


8 


•m 


8 


Jh&nsi • 


• • • 


• •• 


• • • 


• • 


•.. 


... 


... 


16 


•— 


18 


Gbisipar . 


• •• 


«• t 


• •• 


• •• 


... 


••• 


... 


••• 


2 


1 



167 



bakjAba. 



Dittrihution qfBanjdras according to the Cennu of 1891 — oonid. 



DiBTBIOTS, 


• 

t 



1 


• 


u 

1 


• 


1 


• 

1 


• 

1 


• 


§1 


!• 


Ballia 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


t** 


•M 


10 


• •• 


10 


Qorakhpar • 


6 


••• 


10 


••t 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


68 


86 


115 


Basil 


8 


68 


••• 


to 


••• 


88 


• •• 


1 


48 


159 


Tar&i 


••• 


••• 


86 


••• 


••• 


100 


8 


2,747 


911 


88,887 


Luoknow • • 


••• 


••• 


•t« 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


84 


••* 


84 


Unio 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


142 


142 


B46 BareU 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


2 


42 


44 

1 


Sitapar . 


16 


••• 


2 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


27 


199 


244 


Hardoi . 


••• 


•«• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• ' 


25 


' 85 


Kheri 


40 


108 


918 


••• 


465 


1,278 


••• 


1,422 


407 


i627 


FaisAbAd . 


••• 


••• 


••• 


• •• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


8 


••• 


8 


Gonda • 


••• 


••• 


■•• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


••• 


5 


48 


48 


BahrAioh • 


64 


••• 


56 


••• 


685 


446 


6 


984 


80 


2,271 


FartAbgarh 


88 


•■• 


— 


••• 


••• 


2 


••• 


••• 


••• 


86 


Total 


8,108 


2,178 


2,140 


961 


8,468 


8,984 


518 


18,474 


26,958 


66,828 



B&nBplior.i— (-Bint, " bamboo/' phorM, '' to split ").— A sub- 
caste of Doms who may be considered separately as they have been 
separately enumerated at the last Census. Those in Mirzapur re- 
present themselves to be immigrants from a place called Bisurpor 
or Birsupur in the Native State of Panna, which^ according to somej 
is identical with Birsinhpur^ a place north-west of the town of 
Biwa. In Oorakhpur they call themselves Gharb&ri^ or '' settled '' 
Doms, in contradistinction to the Magahiya^ or vagrant branch of 
the tribe. Their immigration from the west is said in Mirzapur 
to have commenced some four generations ago and still continues. 
Tlioy profess to undertake occasional pilgrimages to their old settle- 
ment to worship a local Mahftdeva. In Oorakhpur they hi^vd a 
stoiy that they are the descendants of one Supach Bhagat, who was 
a votary of R&mchandra. He had two wives, Mftn Devi and Pin 



> Based on enqairies at Kinapar, and notes reoeired thronflrh Mr. W. Hoay, 
C.S., Oorakhpur, and BAbn SAnwal DAs, Depntj Oolleotor, Hardoi. 

Vol. 1. • 



bInsphor. 1G8 

Devi^ the first of whom was the ancestress of the Bftnsphors. They 
freely^ like oUier Doms^ admit outsiders into the caste, and this is 
generally the result of an intrigue with one of their women. The 
applicant for admission has to give a feast of rice^ pulse^ po^l^^ ^^^ 
spirits to the brotherhood^ and when he has drunk with them he is 
admitted to full caste rights. 

2. The sub-caste being a purely occupational offshoot from the 

original Dom tribe, their internal organization 
is rather vague. Thus at the last Census they 
were enumerated under one main sub-caste, the Dh&nuk, who, though 
possibly allied to the Dom race, are generally treated as distinct, and 
the Benbansi of Gonda. In BhDgalpur, according to Mr. Bialey,' 
they have a number of exogamous sections {panffai) ; but other 
B&nsphors on the Nep&l frontier regulate their marriages by local 
sections {dik) ; while others in the town of Bh&galpur have neither 
pangai nor dih. In Mirzapur they enumerate eight exogamous 
eections : Mah&wati, Ghamkel, Qausel, Samudra, Nahar, Kalaiy 
Magariha, and Saraiha; and they reinforce the rule of section 
exogamy by prohibiting marriages with the daughter of the 
maternal uncle, of their father's sister, and of their own sister; also 
they do not intermarry with a family in which one of these relations 
marries until at least one or two generations have passed. Similarly, 
in Hardoi, where they have no sub-castes or sections, they are 
reported to prohibit marriage with first cousins on both the Other's 
and mother's sides. In Gorakhpur they name, like so many castes 
of this social grade, seven ondogamous sub-castes: B&nsphor; 
Mangta, or '^ begging *' Doms ; Dhark&r, which has been treated as 
a separate caste ; N&tak, or dancers ; Tasiha ; Hal&lkhor, '' one to 
whom all food is lawful ; '' aud Kiinchbandhiya, or makers of the 
brushes constructed out of the roots of the kant g^rass used by 
weavers for cleaning the thread.. 

d. The B&nsphors on the whole agree with the customs of the 

Doms and Dhark&rs. of whom an account has 

Tribal Connoil. 

been separately given ; but> as might be expect- 
ed from their living a more settled life than the vagrant Doms, they 
are more completely Ilinduised. Their caste council, under a here- 
ditaiy president {Chaudhari), is a very powoi-ful and influential body, 
the members of which are, however, only a sort of assessors to the 



» Trihct and Ca$tet, I, 60. 



109 bInsfhob. 

president^ who, after consultation with them, gives any orders he 
pleases. If a man is caught in an intrigue with a Dhobin or Domin 
ho is permanently excommunicated, and the same rule applies to a 
woman detected in an amour with a man of either of these castes. 
Intrigues with persons of more respectable castes involve expulsion 
only until the necessary feasts of expiation are given to the brethren. 
In addition to the feast the offender has always, in Mirzapur, to pay 
a cash fine of one*and-a-quarter rupees. Monogamy is the rule, but 
there is no restriction against a man having as many wives as he can 
marry and support. Concubinage with a woman of another caste is 
prohibited, and the caste look on the very idea of polyandry with such 
horror that it is more than doubtful if it could ever have been a 
tribal institution. If an unmarried girl is detected in an intrigue 
with a clansman she is married to him by order of the council, and 
her father has to give a dinner to the brethren. When a married 
woman offends in this way, both her husband and father have to 
give a feast ; but, as among all these tribes, inter-tribal infidelity is 
lightly regarded ; a woman is not condemned except on the actual 
evidence of eye-witnesses. 

4. Mairiage takes place usually in infancy ; and, in Mirzapur, if 

a girl is not married by the time she comes to 

Marnago nilos. 

puberty, her parents are put out of caste. 
Marriages are arranged by the brother-in-law of the boy's father, and 
the bride-price is fixed in Mirzapur by tribal custom at f oui'-and-a- 
quarter rupees, four annas being added as iiwdi for good luck. If a 
wife habitually commit adultery, eat wil^ a low-caste person, or 
give her husband food in an impure dish, she is put away with the 
sanction of the council. A woman is allowed to leave her husband 
only if he be put out of caste. It is said^ in Mirzapur> that a divorced 
wife cannot marry again. This is true, so far as that, of course, she 
cannot go through the regular service which is restricted to virgin 
brides ; but she can live with a man by the sagdi form, and the 
connection, after it has been ratified by a feast, is binding, and her 
children are legitimate. Widows are manied by the sagdi, or 
dharanna form, generally to a widower, and their children are recog- 
nised as heirs. The only ceremony is that the husband gives the 
woman a new suit of clothes, which are put on her inside the house 
at night, in secret, and he then eats with the family of his father-in- 
law. Next day he takes his bride home, and feeds his clansmen, on 
which the union is recognised. The levirate prevails under the usual 



bAnsfhor. 170 

restrictions. Even if a widow be taken oyer by the younger brother, 
her children by the iirst marriage inherit the estate of thrir fathff. 
A man may adopt his brother's^ or daughter^s^ not Iub Btster^B, boo. 
A woman can adopt if there be no one in her hnsband's family to 
support her. 

5. In their birth ceremonies the Bftnsphors agree wiih tho I)har- 

k&rs. The mother, during: her confinement 

Birth ooremonies. ..-.-■• ^, ^ i i m .^ 

IS, m Mirzapur^ attended by a woman of the 
Baser caste. There is no rite performed on the sixth day, and the 
mother is impure till the twelfth day {baraki). They have the usual 
dread of the menstrual and parturition impurity. On the twelfth 
day a hog is sacrificed to the deceased ancestors of the &mily, and 
the brethren eat tho flesh boiled with rice. The woman has to wor« 
ship the well from which water is drawn for the use of the family 
by walking five times round it in the course of the sun and mark- 
ing it with red lead. A man does not cohabit with his wife for two 
months after her confinement. The only approach to a puberty cere- 
mony is the ear-boring; which takes place at the ago of three or five, 
but in some cases is delayed to a later date, and it marks an qiproaeli 
to Hinduism, that they ask the Pandit to fix a lucky time for ite per- 
formance. From that time the child is regarded as a member of 
the tribe and must conform to caste usages regarding food. 

6. In the same way the Pandit draws auspices {fanana gaima) 

of marriages. The betrothal is settled by the 
father of tho boy exchanging with the girl'e 
father a leaf platter full of liquor in which a rupee is placed, and 
the brother-in-law of the bridegroom ties a turban on the head of 
the bride's father. The marriage ceremony resembles that of Dhar- 
k&rs {q. V,). It is preceded by the matmangara ceremony. The 
earth is dug by the bridegroom's mother, who offers a burnt sacrifice 
{homo) to the village deities (dih). In the centre of the marriage 
shed {mdnro) is fixed up a branch of the fig tree {f4tar) and the 
cotton tree {semal). The usual anointing precedes the marriage. 
The bride's nails are solemnly cut {nakchhu) and her feet are ookmred 
with lac dye {maidwar). The usual wave ceremony (parackksn) is 
done with a pestle {mUsar) and a water jar {kaUa). At the bride's 
door her father makes a mark {lika) on the forehead of the bride- 
groom with rice and curds. The bride's father washes the feet of 
the bride and bridegroom in a square in the court-yard. They sit 
facing east, and the bride's father worships the fig tree branch, and 



171 BAKSFHOB. 

thon, in imitation of Hindus, Gauri and Qanesa. Then holding somo 
iusa grass in his hand he formally gives away the bride {kan^d* 
ddna). The clothes of the pair are knotted together^ and they 
^valk five times round the fig and cotton branches, while at each 
revolution the girVs brother sprinkles a little parched rice into a 
sieve which the bridegroom holds. This he scatters on the ground, 
and the ceremony ends by the bridegroom marking the girl's head 
with red lead, which is the binding portion of the ceremony. Then 
they go into the retiring room {koiabar), where jokes are played on 
the bridegroom, and he receives a present from his mother-in-law. 
As is usual with these tribes they have the ceremony of plunging 
the wedding jars {kalsa dubdna) into water a day or two after the 
wedding. 

7. The dead are cremated, except young children or those who die 
^ , of epidemic disease, whose bodies are thrown 

Death ooremonies. . * . 

into a nver or buried. After the cremation 
they chew leaves of the nim tree as a mark of mourning. The death 
pollution lasts ten days, during which the mourner every night lays 
out a platter of food on the road by which the corpse was removed 
for its use. On the tenth day the chief mourner throws five lumps 
(pinda) of rice boiled in milk [khir) into water in the name of the 
dead, and, on returning home, sacrifices a hog in the name of the 
deceased, which is boiled with rice and eaten by the clansmen. 
No Br&hmans are employed at any of these ceremonies. In the 
festival of the dead (piiripaksha) in Eu&r they pour off water on 
the ground every day for fifteen days in honour of deceased ances- 
tors; and on the ninth day they offer cakes [p^lri), sweet rice 
{bakHr), and i)ork, to their ancestors. Those are laid out in the 
court-yard for their use. On the fifteenth day they offer rice, 
pulse, bread, and pork, if obtainable, in the same way. Any senior 
member of the family presents the offering. 

8, Their chief deity, in Mirzapur, is the Vindhy&bftsini Devi, of 

BindhAchal, whom they worship on the ninth 
day of Chait, with hogs, goats, cakes {pUri), 
and pottage {fapsi). They honour the village gods {diA) with a 
sacrifice of a hog or goat ; butter, barley, and treacle are burnt, in a 
fire offering. On the fifth of S&wan they lay milk and parched rice 
near a snake's hole. They respect the pipal tree, and will not cut or 
injure it. In Cbrakhpur they worship Eilika and Samai. The 
former is worship^xxl at marriages, child«birth; etc., with an offering 



bAnsphor, 172 

of a young pig^ one-and-a-qnarter jare of liquor, flowers, and ground 
rice boiled in treacle and milk (piiii). To Samai is offered a yearling 
pig. Maidens and widows married by the Sugdi form are not per- 
mitted to join in this worship, which takes place in a comer of the 
house set apart for the purpose. They do not employ Brfthmana in 
their domestic ceremonies, which ai*e carried out by tome old man 
{s^dna) of the family. In Hardoi their tribal deity is K&Ia Deo, 
whose image is painted on the wall of the house, and worshipped at 
any event, such as marriage, birth, etc., in the family. They also 
sometimes sacrifice a goat or sheep to Devi, and the worshippers con« 
sume the offerings. Their holidays are the Phagua or Holi, at which 
they get dimnk and eat choice food ; the lUlmnaumi, on the ninth 
of Chait, when they worship the Vindhyab^ini Devi ; the. Tij,_jai 
the third of Sawan, when women pray for the long life of their hna- 
bands, and the Kajari, on the third of Bhidon, when women get^ 
di-unk, and all rules of sexual morality are ignored. In Hardoi, on 
the Karwa Chauth feyt, the women fast and worship the moon by 
pouring water out of an earthen pot (karwa)^ whence the name of 
the festival. At the Ouriya feast girls make dolls of rags, which 
are beaten- with sticks by boys on the banks of a tank. The dolls 
ai'e believed to represent snakes, and the feast is in commemoration 
of the destruction of serpents by Oaruda. They worship the dead 
by laying out food in seven leaf platters and letting the children or 
crows eat it. Tliey have a great respect for the village shrin^ and 
never dare to tread on the pieces of earthenware horses, etc., with 
which it is decorated. They also, as is shown in the birth oeremo- 
nies, worshp wells. Tlio sainted dead specially delight in the 
savour of pork, and give trouble if not honoured with this saorifioe. 
9. Women wear in the ears the ornaments known as uiarna and 

karnphUl, bead necklaces {dkarhaufM), and 
bangles (ck4ri) on the arms : anklets (jMiiff), 
brass rings on their fingers. Boys and girls have two names, one for 
ordinary use and one kept secret. They swear on the sun or the 
heads of their children. Those who break an oath become smittm 
with leprosy or lose tlieir property. Disease, generally due to demo- 
niacal possession, is treated by the Ojlia, who also prescribes in casea 
of the Evil-eye. They will not eat beef, nor touch a Dom, 
Dhobi, the wife of a younger brother, the wife of the elder brother- 
in-law, or the wife of tlieir sister's son. They will not mention thdr 
oldest son by his name. To do so is regarded as a sin. They eat 



178 



bInsphob. 



pork, fowls, goats, and other animalB, but not the cow, monkey, alli- 
gator, snake, lizard, jaokal, or rat. Mon eat before women. They 
' ealuto ilicir castoinon in the form JR4m I lidm I 

10. Some work as ordinary day-labonrers, but their bnsinees is 
making fans, baskets, and boxes of bamboo. 
Some work as sweepers and remove nig^t-soil. 
No other caste will touch food or water from their hands. 



OoonpktioD. 



Sutriitition of Bdntpion 


aeeordinff to lie Cemut of 1891. . 


DtSTIIIOT. 


Dbinnk. 


Other*. 


Huham- 


Total. 


Dehn Din . 




166 




166 








B 


H7 


92 


FamikUHbaJ 






04 




04 


Mftiiipurt 






19 


... 


19 


B.reilly 






7 




7 


MorUAbid 








20 


20 


SUbjfth&upur 






M 




66 


Pilibhit 






B68 




853 


Curnpur 






44 




U 


Dandn . 






i 




« 


Ulitpor 




™ 


4,860 




4,360 


Hirupar 






04 


... 


64 


Ghftiipnt 






28 




28 


BttllU . 






U7 




417 


OoTftkbpnt 






466 


1 


467 


Haiti . 






7 




7 


AMlUlgftlll 




... 


07 




67 






i.ioa 


729 




1,831 


Ud4o . 






S6 


... 


89 


HAS StiK'li 




4U2 


7 




429 


SlUpar 




SOS 


853 




1.161 


Kl.cri . 






6 




6 


aoniln . 




206 


827 




088 


Ualirlioh 




1,684 


728 


8 


8,266 


PnrlAbgnrh 




4,407 


818 


1 


4,686 


Toil 




8,128 


6,093 


112 


17,333 



BANYA. 174 

Banya. — (Sanskrit^ banija, vaniJa^-^The great trading olaas 
of Northern India. Pedantically the Banya is known as Baqqil— 
a term applied in Arabia and Persia to gieengrooers. When he 
becomes a large merchant he is known as Mah&jan. Banya ie, in 
faot^ a generic term including a kirge number of endogamoat 
sub-castes^ of whom some account has been given in separate artioles. 
The Banya has rather an inditEorent repatatbn in the oonntiy-eule, 
where ' he is hated and despised for his habits of money-grabbing, 
meanness^ and rapacity. But at the same time he is an indispen- 
sable element in the social life of the people whose trade and 
business he finances. The modem Banya does not seem to have 
changed much since the time of Taveiiiier/^ who writes :-*'' Those 
of this caste are so subtle and nimble in trade that the Jews may he 
their 'prentices. They accustom their children betimes to fly idle* 
ness^ and instead of suffering them to lose their time by playing in 
the streets, as wo generally do, they teach them arithmetio, whidi 
they are so perfect at, that without making use either of pen or ink 
or counters, but only of their memories, they will in a moment 
cast up the most diflicult account that can be imagined. They 
always live with their fathers, who instruct them in trade^ and do 
nothing but what they show them. If any man in the heat of 
passion chafe at them, they will hear him patiently without making 
any reply, and parting coldly from him will not see him again till 
three or four days, when they think their passion may be over. 
They never cat anything tliat has life, nay, they would rather din 
tlian kill tho smallest animal or vermin, bdng in tluit pmnt above 
all things the most zealous observers of the law. They never fight 
nor go to war, neither will they eat or drink at the houss of a 
Rajput. '' 

2. The current proverbs abound with chatE at the Banya:-^ 
Na Banya mit na besva sali — '^ A llanya is as little a friend as a 
prostitute is chaste ''; Banya mdre jan^ iiag mdrS ai^fdn^^^^Hlm 
Banya cheats his friends, and the rogue, strangers,^' and so on. 

8. At the same time some of the Banya sub-divisions, like the 
Agarwala and Oswdl, are perhaps some of the purest raoes in 
Northern India. 

4 In his social liabits the Banya is very precise in the matter 
of food. In religion ho is either a Hindu or Jain, or, as ho calls 
himself, a Saraogi, a word derived from the Sanskrit srdvaia, " a 
disciple of the Buddha. '' 

> Travels, 160, tqq. 



175 



BAKYA. 



Vutrihutiom qf Banyas according to the Census of 189L 



DlBTBIOT. 


Hinda. 


Jaitt. 


Total. 


Dehim DAn 








8,21S 


284 


8,446 


fifth Armnpar 








31,170 


6,076 


87,246 


Slutaffamagar 








31,097 


9,888 


41,886 


Mcntil 








61,043 


16,878 


68,821 


BolandBliabr 








89,670 


IM^ 


40344 


Aligarh • 








46,472 


2,607 


484^9 


Miithurtt . 








89,602 


2,041 


41,648 


Agn 








46.060 


18,371 


68,481 


FarrokbAbAl 








26,137 


1,048 


26,186 


Mainpnri • 








21,462 


6.760 


27,211 


SUwah . 








27,608 


2,117 


29,726 


SUli 








i8,864 


4,938 


28.797 


Itenillj . 








22,101 


4 


12,196 


Dijnor 








18,381 


908 


19,820 


DudAno 








81,307 


* 229 


81,686 


MorAdAbAd 








81,970 


1,002 


82,972 


BhAbjnbAiipur 








23,673 


86 


28,600 


PilibbU . 








7,303 


11 


7J14 


Cawnpur • 








83,089 


416 


84»864 


FaUhpur • 








19,338 


88 


19,421 


BAnda 








22J74 


282 


22^666 


Haintrpnr . 








14,667 


107 


14774 


AIlabAbAd . 








46,131 


668 


46,690 


JbAnai . 








18,666 


2,621 


16,077 


JAUvn • 








14,804 


164 


14.468 


Lalilpor • 








1,893 


9,646 


11,439 



BANTA. 



176 



DUtribuiion qf BanifOi aoeording to ik§ OemiUi pf IWl — eootd. 



D18TBIOT. 



Benares • 
Miraapur • 
JaanpuT . 
Gh&zipur • 
Ballia 
Qorakhpur 
Basil 

Azamgarh . 
KamAun • 
GarhwU • 
Tar&i 

Laoknow • 
Ud&o 

RAA Dareli . 
Sltapar 
Hardoi . 
Kkeri 

FaiiM)4d • 
Oonda • 
Babriicb . 
SultAnpar . 
PartHbgarh 
B&rabanki 



Hindu. 



21.263 
28,764 
28,746 
82,686 
44^248 
100,200 
68,156 
88,880 
4826 
1,920 
2,850 
17JI81 
16.806 
16.612 
16,018 
27,176 
18,478 
84,771 
88.108 
20,268 
23.624 
18,420 
18,844 



Total 



1,270,246 



Jaia. 



188 

281 

6 

27 



40 



••• 



••• 



2 



787 
8 



284 



••• 



10 
161 



••• 



48 



••• 



T6VAI1. 



21^1 
t4bOS6 
28,761 

■ 

89,712 
44249 

lOQbtM 
68.166 

89,180 
4826 

1.9» 
2L888 
18k€a8 
16,812 
16M8 
16J4r 
•7,178 
1S|488 



180 
860 



83,876 



89J0B 
20,811 
28^614 
IMiO 
14804 



1,888|222 



bIbahseki. 



177 



BARAI. 



B&r9JiBBni.—{Bdrak, twelve ; seua, an army). — A eub-caste of 
Banyas found principally in the Western Districts. The last Census 
shows none in Benares ; but Mr. Sherring^ speaks of them as a 
considerable colony of bankers : — '' They state that their original 
home was Agroha. In Benares they are of the Gtarga gotra. '^ 

Distribution of tie Bdrahneni Baufas aeeordinf to the Censui 

of 1891. 



DlSTBIOT. 


Nambor. 


DlSTBIOT, 


Number. 


Sfthlranpar • 
Meerai • 
Balandsbabr . 
Aligarh 
Maihora 
Agra . 
FarmkbAbAd . 
Maiiipuri 
EUb • 




8 

8 

1,701 

12,080 

4,888 

815 

11 

626 

2.820 


Bareillj . . . 

Bijnor . • 

BadAnn 

MorAdAbAd . 

ShabjAbAnpur 

Pilibblt 

TaHd .... 

Total 


8 
12 
5,708 
4611 
88 
18 
12 






82,683 



Barai| Baraiya. — (Sanskrit vritti, '^ oooupationi mainte- 
nance/') — The caste engaged in the cultivation of the pifer betel, 
usually known as pdn (Sanskrit, parna), the leaf par excellence. 
The distinction generally made between the Barai and the Tamboli 
is that the former grows the plants while the latter sells the leaves. 
But this distinction does not seem to be always observed. It would 
seem that the Barai hardly ever sells the leaves, while the Tamboli 
sometimes cultivates the plant. Mr. Sherring denies that the dis- 
tinction prevails in Benares, and says that there the Tamboli sells 
betelnut as well as pdu, and appears to be more of a i^olesale 
dealer tlian the Barai.* The Barais are replaced in the Meerut^ 
Agra, and Bohilkhand Divisions by the Tambolis. 



1 Hindu THb€9, 1., 296. 

* Hindu TrihM and Ca$U9, 1., 880 } and aoe Hoey, Manogrtifh am Tradu and 
Manufaclur€»t 188. 

Vol. I. « 



BAIIAI. 178 

2, Iii the eastern part oE the Provinoo they have m onriooa 

legend to tizplain thdr oriinn : — *' Hien 

Traditions of origiii. ^ *: w-^i. j . 

were two Brahman brothers to devout 
that after bathing they need to throw their loin clotha up to the 
skies, where they dried and came down when thej were wanted. 
One day the brothers were in the forest and were athint. The elder 
brother directed the yonnger to climb a makua tree and see if there 
was any water in the cavities of the tronk. He did so and foond 
water, which in his greediness he drank, and, lying to his elder 
brother, denied that there was any water in the tree. Next day 
they threw their loin cloths np to the sky to nsnal, and when they 
wanted them only tliat of the elder brothier came down. So he 
knew that his brother had lied nnto him. The yonnger brother 
denied the charge. Then Parameswar came down from heaven, and, 
convicting the younger brother of &lsehood, ordered thai the elder 
brother should remain ti Brfthman, while the younger should tend 
the ndp bel or pdn plant, which he formed out of the saored thread 
of the offender, and that the elder brother should serve the yoonger 
brother ab his priest/' Another story is tliat Brahma oroated thorn 
to save Brdhmans from the labour of growing the plant. Tradi- 
tionally the TdmbAlika or seller iof betel is descended from a Sfldia 
woman by a Vaisya man. The caste is probably occupational and 
of mixed origin. In Gorakhpur they say that onoe a Brihman had 
three sons. lie came down with them from fidry land and 
able to support them only by growing betel, for which he 
excommunicated* They explain tlie name of the caste as derived 
from ftarai/^a/the betel <K)n8ervatory, which comes from the Sanskrit 
vriii. The Oorakhpur branch fix on Birbhinpur, in the Asan^garfa 
Distriot^ as their head-quarters. 

d. In the last 'Census returns the Barais were recorded in no 



loss than one hundred and forty-eeven sob- 

Intenutl atracture. -^. . , , * _ 

castes. Of these a large number are 
locals Buch as the Aharwftr of Ahftr, the A judhyabisi of Ajndl)y% the 
Audha of Awadh^ the Bindrabanbftei of Bindraban^ the frhauraaya 
of Chaurftsi, in ^irzapur, the Dakkhin&ha or ''Southern^'' the 
Oorakhpuri, Jaisw&r, Jaunpuri, K&nhpuriya, of OawnpuTi llahoUy% 
Pachhwahan or '' Western '^ ; Sarjupiri or '' residents beyond the 
river Sarju/' Sribistab of Sravasti ; and Uttarftha or "Northern.'' 
Many, again, are connected by origin or function with other tribei^ 
as the Dauya, BanjanySj Baiswir^ Cha|iluin, Donw&r, Oaderiy% 



179 3AEAI. 

OaUot, Gaoriya, GbndaTi Jidubansi, Elatheriya^ Karwira, Eokftsi 
Maharwa, Nftgbansi, N&nakshfthi, Ummar, Fansariya, Fanwariya, 
ll&jbansii Bauteli, SAndili Shuklabans. This will give some idea 
of the diverse elements out of which the caste has been composed. 

4« In Mirzapur they name seven endogamoos sab-castes, Fart&b- 
garhi (from Part&bgarh), Chaurftsi (the Chaurasiya of Benares)^, 
Jaiswftr or Jaisw&ra Nftsarkh&ni (the NAsalk&ni of Benares), 

Timboli, Uttarftha (''Northern"), Fachhiwftha ('' Western '0- 
Mr. Sherring adds Srib&stava (from Srftvasti), Bherih&ra ('' tenders 
of sheep "), Magahiya (from Magadha), Fhoih&ra, and Dhanwariya. 
Of these three^ the Magahiya, Chaurasiya, and Jaiswftr appear in 
Bchftr, where there are two others, Semariya and Sokhwa. In the 
Central Dn&b they are divided into the Chaurasiya, who prepare 
betel, and the Katy&r, who sell it. In Qorakhpur we have the 
Kanaujiya, Chaurasiya^ and Jaiswftr. 

6. Marriage within the endogamous sub-castes is regulated 

by a rule of exogamy, which forbids marriage 
in the family of the paternal and maternal 
uncle and paternal and maternal aunt as long as there is any recol- 
lection of relationship, which is usually after five or six generations. 
But at the same time they usually marry locally in the families of 
those with whom they are accustomed to eat and smoke. In 
Mirzapur the Fartftbgarhi are distinguished from the Chaurftsi, 
inasmuch that the former permit the use of spirits while the latter 
prohibit it. They marry their daughters at the age of eight or nine, 
and their sons at twelve or thirteen. A man cannot take a second 
wife unless he proves to the satisfaction of the tribal council that 
the first wife is barren, disobedient, extravagant, or a thief, and even 
then he has to pay a fine to the council, which is spent in a tribal 
feast. They seldom take more than two wives. They have the 
usual forms of marriage,— (7Aaria«»a for the well-to-do, Dola 
for poor people, and Sapdi for widows. In both the regular forms 
of virgin marriage the binding portions of the ceremony are the 
worshipping of the bridegroom's feet {pair p^' a, pdnw pija) by the 
father of the bride, and marking of the parting of the bride's hair 
with red lead (sindurdan). In Sagdi the only ceremony is dressing 
the bride in a suit of clothes and ornaments provided by the bride- 



1 Sherrinff, Bindu Tribet aiid C<u<«f, I, 880. BaobaaMi Mjn ihat the OhaorApia 
take their name from Tappa CSianrit in Kinapnr, EaaUm India, II, 470. 
Vol. I. w 2 • 



BABAI. 180 

groom^ and the feeding of his relations and clansmen. Intertribal 
infidelity is lightly regarded and is oondoned by a tribal feaat^ bat 
fomioation with an outsider involves excommunioation. They 
have the extraordinary rule that a woman who poisons her hat- 
band is exoommunicated. If a man^ in spite of the admonition 
and punishment administered by the tribal council, refoses to 
supi>ort his wife or loses caste, the council permit the woman to 
leave her husbandi and^ if she so pleases, to marry again by the 
8agdi form. 

6. They are seldom initiated into any special sect. Like all 
_ ,. . Hindus of the same class, when the men 

tteligioD. 

get old they undergo a process of initiation 
and become devotees {J)\agai : Sanskrit, bhakta). The only efEeot 
of this is that they abstain from meat and fish, and attend 
more carefully to their religious dutieSi suoh as attending temples; 
ceremonial bathing, etc. To the east of the Province their speoial 
deities are MahAbir, the Pinchonptr, Bhawftni, Hardiha Devm, or 
Hardauri Sokha Bftba and Nfigbeli. Sokha Bftba is the speoial 
deity of the Nftsarkhftni sub-caste, and^ if neglected, mins their 
j9<f If gardens. They can tell nothing about him. He seems to be 
a deified exerciser or magician, Mohha (Sanskrit : «aitilsia, '^aoate, 
subtle '') being the equivalent of Ojha. NAgbd or Nlgaibel is 
the speoial deity of the pdn plant. Hardiha is the spedal deity 
of the Barais of South Mirzapur. Mah&bir receives an offering of 
sweetened bread (rota), gram, Brfthmanical threads {Jamei), and 
loin cloths. His holy day is Tuesday. The Pinohonpir receive 
rice cooked in milk {fawar), and fried cakes {pnri), which are offered 
on Wednesday. Bhaw&ni is honoured with the sacrifice ot a 
he-goat or ram, and sweets and cakes (Xa/tM-/i«n), Hardiha is 
worshipped in secret inside the house on Monday* On Wednesday 
they fast in honour of the P&nchonptr. Sokha BIbaissaid to hafs 
a temple in Magadha (Behftr). His offering oonsists of sweets 
and cakes {halwa^puri). These deities are worshipped only fay that 
member of the family who is under the influence of the speoial 
divinity — a fact shown by his getting into a state of eostasy and 
uttering oracles. Only those who cultivate pdn worship Nigfad 
by lighting a lamp in the conservatory and making a bomtr 
offering {Aam). Tlie special day for the NSgbd worship is the 
fifth of the first Irnlf of S&wan. The greater gods are wor- 
shipped through Tiw&ri Br&hmans, and the minor daties by 



IBl BABAL 

some specially inspired member of the family.' They cremate their 
dead in the ordinary way^ and some go to Gtiya to perform the irdd^ 
dha ceremony. 

V\ 7. Betel is the term applied to the leaf of ^ piper betel chewed 

with the areca nut. which is hence impro- 

Oooapftiioii* 

perly called betel-nut. The word^ according 
to the authorities is Malayftlam, veMla, i.e., veru + ila s'^ simple 
or mere leaf^ '' and comes to us through the Portuguese betre and 
betle} Areca is the secd^ or^ in common parlance^ the nut^ of the 
palm areea catechu. The word is Malay &lam^ addakia, and comes 
to us through the Portuguese.' There are various methods of 
preparing the compound known as pdn eupdri. ** Gku'cias da Horta 
says distinctly :— ' In chewing betre they mix areca with it and a 
little lime ; some add licio (f .^^ catechu) ; but the rich and grandees 
add some Borneo camphor, and also some lign aloes, musk, and 
ambergris,'^'* Abul Fazl says:— ''They also put some betel-nut 
and kath (catechu) on one leaf and some lime paste on another 
and roll them up : this is called a berah {htra). Some put camphor 
and musk into it, and tie up both leaves with a silk thread .''* 
This is very much the modem practice, except that the two 
leaves are very generally fastened together with a clove. The con- 
servatory in which the pdn is grown is treated with great reverence 
by the grower.* They do not allow women to enter it, and per- 
mit no one to touch the plant or throw the leaves into fire. . Very 
often they are given rent-free holdings by rich landlords to tempt 
them to settle in their neighbourhood. //The women have ^ indif- 
ferent reputation, as they manage shops, and those who are attractive 
secure the most custom. They eat pakki cooked by all Br&hmans, 
Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas, except Kalw&rs. In Gorakhpur, it is said, 
they eat pakki only from the hands of Brfthmans and Kshatriyas. 
They eat kaehehi only if cooked by members of their own caste. 
Ghatiya Br&hnians and B&jputs eat pakki cooked by them. The 
highest caste which will eat kaeheki cooked by them is the N&i. 
They eat mutton and goat's flesh, and some indulge in spirituous 
liquors. 

1 Tale and Barnell, Hobwn Jobion, 67* 
s Ibid, 26. 
Qaoted by Tule, Marco Polo, II., 811. 

* Bloohmann, Ain-i'Aihari, p. 75. 

* For » good aoooant of ihe ■ysUm of oolUTating the plant, ■•# Bnoluuian, 
Boiltm India, II., 864. 



BARAf. 



182 



Dutribution of the Barais according to the Cemui of 189 U 











\ 


Sub-Oabtsi. 






DI8TBICT. 


Ohanrasiya. 


Jaifwir. 


Others. 


Total. 


MAtham • • • • 

* 


• •• 


••« 


827 


327 


Faiehpur 








142 


* 
••• 


32 


174 


B&nda 








879 


••• 


22 


401 


Hamtrpitr , 








1,088 


••• 


142 


1,230 


Allab&bftd . 








6,768 


16 


922 


7,706 


Jl&nsi 








163 


1 

••• 


193 


S66 


Lalitpar 








970 


••• 


298 


1.268 


Bbnares 








2,608 


62 


246 


2,918 


Mnrzapar < 








4,329 


11 


26 


4^366 


Jaonpar 


■ ' < 






6,784 


, 927 


226 


6386 


Oh&zipTir , 








6<680 


82 


04S 


J6(i 


fiallia . , 








5,^12 


426 


461 


6,399 


Gorakhpur 








12.866 


9,884 


6,258 


28,998 


Basti 








••• 


26,869 


1,064 


27,913 


Azamgarh 








••« 


8,760 


1,977 


10,737 


Luoknow 








95 


tt* 


163 


268 


Un&o . 








579 


• • • 


••• 


679 


Sitapnr 








780 


••• 


461 


1.241 


Hardoi 








5,177 


••• 


263 


6,490 


Kberi 








462 


••• 


216 


678 


IVdzlLbAd , 








80 


10.612 . 


122 


10,814 


Gonda 








7 


16.694 


28 


16.624 


Bahr&ioh 








••• 


21 


1,015 


1,066 


SnlUnpur < 








2.800 


1,478 


478 


4,766 


FartAbgarh « 








5,746 


6 


190 


5,918 


BUrabanki . 








• • • 


108 


••• 


103 






FOTAL 




61,856 


75.791 


15,775 


153,421 



183 baranwAl. 

Baranwal^ Baranw&r. — A sub-caste of Banyas who take their 
name from the old town of Baran^ the modem Bulandshahr. They 
are principally found in the Bohilkhand^ Benares^ and Gorakhpur 
Divisions. Curiously enough they have entirely avoided Buland* 
shahr^ their old home. As illustrating the domestic customs of 
Banyas the following account from Mirzapur may be given :^ 

2. When a woman is in the eighth month of pregnancy the Ath- 

m&sa ceremony is performed. Two or three 

Birth onatomB. ■• i • .. .1 

days before it commences the women smg 
songs. On the day of the ceremony the Pandit makes a square in 
the courtyard^ in which the husband and his wife are seated with 
their clothes knotted together. The Pandit makes them worship . 
Oauri and Ganesa^ and sweetmeats are sent to the houses of the 
clansmen. In the evening a feast is given to the clansmen. 
When the child is bom^ what is called the Nandi muii irdddha, 
is performed^ and then the Cham&rin midwife is called in to out 
the navel cord. She attends the mother only on the first day. 
Then follow the usual sixth and twelfth day ceremonies {ehhathi^ 
baraAi), when the mother bathes^ the house is purified^ and she 
returns to her household duties. When the child is one or three 
years old comes the shaving (minran). All the women of the 
family and their friends go to the temple of some goddess an|d 
worship her; then they worship the barber's razor^ and offo^ 
a rupee to it^ which is the perquisite of the barber. Then he 
shaves the boy's head, and the mother receives the hair on a ca)[e 
made of unbaked dough. But more generally this is dope by 
the sister or father's sister of the boy. The boy and his i)aother 
then put on yellow garments and return home. A feast is givei^, 
and some small sums distributed to Br&hn^ns. In Bome families 
the ceremony of ear-bori^ {ianeAkedan) is. done at the same time 
as the m4nra% ; sometimes it is deferred till the boy is five yeani 
old. The boring is done by a Sun&r, and the friends are entertfuned^ 
When the boy is six months old the anna'prdiana ceremony ^i / 
performed. The mother cooks some rice milk {iA(r), and the eldest 
member of the family puts some of it on a rupee and piakes the 
child lick it. The fimction ends with the distribution of betel 
and cardamoms among the guests. 

3. The Baranwftis are b&z&r traders of the ordinary type, and 

deal in irrain and various kinds of merchan- 

Oocupation. ^ ^ 

disc. 



babanwIl. 



184 



BABOAn. 



Diitfibution of the Baranwdl Banyat according io He CensuM of 

1891. 



DiBTBIOT. 

• 


Number. 


DiBTftlOT. 


Mnoibsr* 


Agra • 




26 


GhiUipur . 




1.8S7 


EUh 


i 1 




28 


Qorakbpar 




466 


BndAnn 


1 i 




439 


Baati 




l«88i 


MorAdaUd 




s 


1,825 


Asamgarh . 




5,206 


Cawnpnr . 


1 4 




80 


BA« Bareli 




46 


BAnda 


* i 




1 


FaisAUd . 




ITS 


Benares 


» « 




776 


ParUbgarh 




181 


Mirzapnr • 


1 i 




590 






Jannpar . 






2,140 










Grand Total 


15^14* 



Bargah, Bargaha, Barg&hi.— (Probably connected with Bin, 
q.y.) — A caste of personal servants and makers of leaf j}htteTB{dauna). 
To the east of the province they trace their origin to Kananj^ and 
say that they emigrated with the Gaharwftr lU jpnts. Their women 
act as wet-nnrses to the Oaharw&rs, and their men pass round betel 
at entertainments^ and do other kinds of higher domestic service. 
They claim kinship with the GnsLl Ahtrs. Thns, in Gorakhpnr^ Dr. 
Buchanan^ says : — " The Eftjput chiefs have certain families of the 
AhirSj the women of which serve as wet-nurses to their children 
and the men attend to their persons. These families are called 
Barg&ha ; have received, of course^ great favours^ and several of 
them are very rich ; but others look down npon them as having 
admitted their women to too great familiarity with their chiefs/^ 

2, They marry in their own tribe ; but they have no seotionB^ and 
their rule of exogamy is not to marry in a family with which thej 
have been once connected in marriage as long as any recoDectioii 
of relationship exists. The marriage customs are of the usual 
type. In Mirzapur they practise adult marriage. The oeremonr 
occupies three days — the iil, main, and bdrdt. On the day of the 
iil the grindstone and rice pounder {sil batta) are placed in the 
courtyaid, and a Brihman worships Gauri. The clansmen are fed on 
rice and pulse. On the main day the mdtri pdja and worship of 



1 Eastern India, IT-, 467. 



baroIh. 185 baroaitAk. 

deoemsod anoeston \b performed, and a eeoond feast is given. On the 
third day, the bdrdi, the prooeeeion, goes to the house of the bride. 
The pair are seated in a shed {mdnro) ; the bride's hihex worships the 
feet of the bridegroom and presents him with fruits, etc., the garments 
of the pair are knotted, and they revolve seven times round the shed. 
The bride^s father then marks the forehead of the bridegroom with 
turmeric and rice, and takes him and the bride into the retiring 
room (ioiabar), a relic of the custom of immediately consummating 
the marriage. There the women of the family make the bridegroom 
join the lights of two lighted wicks as a sigli of lasting afitection 
between the pair. The girl is then sent off at once with her hus- 
band. They do not allow widow marriage or the levirate. Their 
death customs are of the usual orthodox type. 

8. The Barg&hs are all Hindus, and appear chiefly to worship 
MtliAbir, the P&nchonptr and the Dih, or the collective body of the 
village godlings. 

4« They live principaUy by domestic service, and are known to be 
courageous and faithful. Many of them take to agriculture. In 
Chota NIgpur, according to Mr. Risley,^ they claim to be Bijputs 
and act as domestic servants to the local Rfljas. 

Vuiribution of the Bargdki according to ike Centm of 189U 





DirrmicT. 




NwnUr. 


HMDirpnr 






S93 


Minaptir 


888 


DmU 


M8 






Total 






818 



t/ Bargaiyan. — A sept of Rljputs who are found principally in 
the Ohisipur district. There they claim to be of tlie Cbauhin 
family, and to be emigrants from Mainpuri« The name is probably 
derived from some place called BaragAon, or " the great vilUge/' 
They have a very absurd folk etymology, and say tliat they are so 
called because their ancestors performed some groat exploit (httrm 
idm kiya). They are now poor and discontented.' 



> Trihf «tU Cajl«f, I., S&. 
< Oldbaa, Mfm: I., 6S. 



baugaitAn. 



186 



BARGAIiA— BAROI. 



Diitfihntion of Bargaiydn Hdjputt according to the Onfus of 

1691. 



DiSTBIOT. 


Number. 


DXRTBIOT. 


Nombtr. 


Benares , . • . 
Ghisipo^ • • . . 
Ballia • ., . . 


2 

2,659 

2S0 

123 


FaiE&bAd .... 
SnltAnpur .... 
ParUbgarh 

Total 


76 
10 

4 


E&dBareli 


8.154 



v Bargala. — Ajept^ of Rajputs found chiefly in tho Bnlandshahr' 
District. Tlicy are a spuriouB branch of the Lunar race and are 
ranked as Ganinia^ because they practise widow mamage. They 
claim descent from two brothers^ Drigp&l and Battipftl^ who are 
said to have been emigrants from Indor, in M&lwa^ and commanded 
the royal force at Delhi in the attack on R&o Pithaura. A nnmber 
were convei-tod to I slim in the time of Aurangzeb. They are 
a turbulent, disorderly sept^ and lost most of their villages in the 
Mutiny. 

2. In the Upper Duib, they ai*e reported to give brides to the 
BhilS Sultan, Jaiswir, and B&chhal^ and to take wives from the 
Jaiswir. 

Distribuiion of the Bar gala Bdjputn according to ike Centnt 

of 1891. 





DiBTBIOT 




Nombor. 


Sah&ranpar . 


• 
• . • 


• • • • 


2 


Muzaffarnagar • 


• • • 


• • . . 


2 


Bulandshahr . 


• • • 


• • . . 


8.250 


Mor&d&b&d 


• • • 


• • • « 

Total 


6 




8.260 



Bargi. — A tribe found only in Mathura, according to the last 
Census, where they numbered 1,076, They are said to live by 
service, cultivation, and hunting. They are probably, if not identical, 
closely connected with the Biri and Bargih. 



lUja Lachhman Sinh, Bulandthahr Afemo,, 165. 



187 BARG^JAB. 

^ Barg&jar. — (Sanskrit, vriddia ; Hindi, bara, "great. '') — An im- 
poi-tant sept of B&jputs olasfied as one of the thirty-six royal raoesr, 
and desoended, like thar opponents, the Kachhw&has, from R&m% 
but through Lava, the seoond son. Sir H. M. Elliot^ writes';—'' Colo* 
nel Tod says that it was in AnCipshahr that the Barg&jars, on their 
expulsion by the Elachhw&has from Bajor, found refuge; and that 
is still the chief town of the BargAjar family. But as this ex- 
pulsion occurred only in the time of the illustrious Siw4i Jay Sinh, 
in the be^nning of the last century, the chief of Bajor must have^ 
chosen for his residence a part of the country already in the occupa- 
tion of his brethren ; for Barg&jars are mentioned, even in Akbar's 
time, as the Zamindftrs of Khurja, Dibti, and FahSsu. Their own 
assertion is that they came from Rajor, the capital of Deoti, in the 
Macheri country, under R&ja Prat&p Sinh, and first resided in Elhe- 
riya, near Fitampur, and that the B&ja, after marrying at Eoil into a 
B&jput family of the Dor tribe, which at that time occupied the 
whole country between Koil and Bulandshahr, obtained favour in 
the sight of the Dors and got authority to establish himself as &ur 
eastward as he chose. Having, in consequence, exterminated the 
Mew&tis and Bhihars, who are represented to have been in previous 
occupation, ho was so successful as to acquire the possession of 
sixtcon hundred villages, eight hundred on the east and eight 
hundred on the west of the Ganges. At the time of his death 
Chaimdera, near Fahftsu (in the Bulandshahr District), was reckoned 
the chief possession of the BargAjars, and one of the descendants 
of Frat&p Sinh, Baja Sftlivfthana, gave his name to a Fargana, which 
comprised the present divisions of Fitampur, Fah&su, and Birauli. 
Rftja Fratftp Sinh left two sons, Jatu and BAnu. Jatu took up his 
abode in Eatehar or Rohilkhand, and R&nu remained as chief of 
Chaundera. 

2. " The antiquity of the Eatehar BargAjars may be surmised 
from a passage in the B&thaur Genealogies : -^ 

' Bharat, the eleventh grandson of Nain F&I, the B&thaur, at 
the age of sixty-one conquered Eanaksir, under the Northern Hills, 
from Budra Sen, of the Bargfljar tribe.^ Nain F&l is supposed to 
have lived in the fifth Century. Though there appears no reason 
for ascribing to his reign so early a date, he must, at any rate, 

have preceded the final Muhammadan conquest of Elanauj. 

- . ■ ■■ . ■ ■ 

^ BuppUfmntary Qlouary, i.v,i Aligarh BtiiUinmU Rnxwi, 22; BAJa L a ohhin an 
Sinh, UuU^ndihahr Af«mo., 155, $qq> 



BAROfyjAR. 188 

3. '' Willie the Katehar Barg&jars and the Anftpehahr fiunily 
have preserved their anoient faith, nearly all the Dnftb tribes which 
preceded the expulsion of their chief from Bajor have tamed 
MuhammadanB ; and the early opponents of the British in Kamona 
and Pindr&wal were Barg&jars of that persuasion. They still, 
however, appear proud of their K&jput lineage ; for they aBBome 
the appellation of Th&kur. Thus we hear the strange combination 
of Thikur Akbar* Ali Khan and Thftkur Mardan' AH Khin.' >? At 
their marriages they paint on their doors the image of a Kah&rin or 
female bearer, under whose instructioi^s they executed a^Hitiniitagem 
by which they exterminated the Mewfttis, who had been engaged 
in a drunken revel during the Holi. Some of the Musalmin &mi- 
lies have of late discontinued this custom. The BargAjars 
to the west of MuzafFamagar were all converted to the Muhamma- 
dan faith in the time of Al&-ud-din Khiiji ; but they still retain 
most of their old Hindu customs. A stricter conformity to the 
Musalm&n tenets was endeavoured to be introduced by some reform* 
ers, and all Hindu observances were sedulously proscribed by them ; 
but when it was found, as they themselves asserti that all their 
children became blind and maimed in consequence of their apostaoyf 
they were induced to revert to their ancestral customs, and still 
adhere to them with so much pei-tinacity, that it is almost doubtful 
which faith prevails most. 

4. " The MuzafFamagar BargAjars state that they came from 
Dobandesar, near Dhain Daw&sa, south of the Alwar country, under 
one Kura Sen, whose ancestor, BsLba Megha, is still invoked when 
they make their offerings at the time of naming their children* 
They intermarry with the converted Pundfr Rftjputs of Sakrauda 
in Sah&ranpur, and the B4o BargAjars, in Farid&bAd, of Balabhgarh^ 
to the south of Delhi. They seem to know but little of their 
brethren who reside in the neighbourhood of AnApshahr. 

5. '' The place whence they migrated may be easily traced, for 
Dawisa or Deosa lies on the Binganga river about thirty miles 
east of Jeypur, and Dhain is about eight miles south of Deosa. 
Deosa is famous as being the first place belonging to the BargAjars, 
which was occupied by the Kachhw&has, after their emigration 
from Narwar, in the middle of the tenth Century. It is not im- 
probable that the Kachhwahas may at this period have compelled 
the BargAjars to emigrate in search of other seats, and they, in turn, 
may have wreaked their vengeance 'on the Kachhw&has of the 



189 



BAEGtjAB. 



Upper Du&b^ and established their Chaurftsi among the brethren of 
their distant foe. Ceitain it is that tradition assigns a large traot 
of country in t)iese parts to the Kachhw&has before the Bafg^jars, 
Jftts, and Path&ns obtained possession. 

6. " The Sikarwftl B&jputs state that they are a branch o| the 
Bargfijarsj but they are separately entered among the thirty-six 
royal races in Colonel Tod's list. It is to be observed^ however, 
that in some of the other lists which he has given neither Barg^- 
jars nor Sikarw&ls are entered.^' 

7. In Mathnra^ the Hindu branch are classed as pure because 
they do not practise widow marriage. The Bohilkhand' branch 
have various traditions of thei)* origin, some claiming Tomar and 
some SQrajbansi descent. They seem to have pushed across the 
Changes f i*om AnApshahr about the same time that the Katehriyas 
occupied Bareilly. 

8. In Bulandshahrthey give brides to theGahlot^ Bhatti, Tomar, 
Chauh&n, Katiyftr, Punw&r, and Fundir; and take wives from the 
Gahlot, Pundir, ChauhAn, Bais, Jangh&ra., and B&chhal. In Ali- 
garh they take brides from the Jangh&ra, (Jahlot, and Chauh&n, 
and give wives to the Chauhftn and (Jahlot. 



DiitribuUon of BdrgHjar RdfpuU according io the Census of 1891. 



DiBTBlCT. 


Hindoa. 


Mahiun- 
madant. 

• 


Total. 


Dehra Diin • • < 
8a1)4ranpur • • 
MazafFarnagar • • 
Meerat • • • < 
Bulaiidsliahr • • i 
Aligarh • • • i 
Matliura • • • « 
Agra . . . - 




••• 

66 

166 

1,448 

12,064 

8,868 

888 

688 


9 

64 
1,092 

••• 
4006 

9 

140 

9 


9 

119 

1,268 

1,443 

* 

16,070 

8,872 

628 

697 



1 B^UUmBni fi^pori, 84» §qq, 

• MoradabadB€iU$fmni SUp^H, 14. 



BABOtJAB. 



190 



BARHAL 



Distribution of Bargtlfar RAfputM ioeewdimg to the Census of 189 l-^a^ikM* 



D18TBIOT. 



Famikh&b&d 

Mainpuii 

Et&wah 

EUh 

Bareilly 

Bijnor 

Bud&an 

Morftd&blUi 

Sh&hjah&npnr 

Pilibbtt 

Cawnpor 

Jhdnsi 

J&laun 

Lalltpur 

Benares 

Jaunpur 

Tar&i 

Luoknow 

FaizAb&d 

Kben 



Total 



Hindus. 



227 

666 

90 

1,689 

888 '- 

4 

2,790 

t6,4i77 

171 

78 

19 

86 

68 

24 

2 

8 

59 

G 



102 



31,341 



Maham- 
madam. 



6 

1 

8 

106 

821 



••• 



863 
160 



••• 



40 



••• 



0** 



••• 



••• 



8 



6.328 



Total. 



288 

667 

93 

1,795 

1,904 

4 

3.163 

•#.683 

118 

19 

<36 

68 

34 

3 

8 

69 

6 

3 

108 



37,600 



Barhai/ Barhi, Badhi.— (Sanskrit, vardhika; root pardh, *«to 
cut.'^) — The carpenter class, also known as Tarkh&a in the Ftojab, 
Mistri (which is probably a corruption of the English '' Mastflr, 
Mr/'), and Lakarkata or ''wood-cutter'' (lakri-kdina). The term 



* Ilasod on onqiiirios mado ut Mirzapur, and notos bj the Dopnty Inspootort of 
Boboold at Buruilly, Boeti, Bijnor. 



191 BA&llAI. 

Ookain is generally applied to a wood carver : it is derived by 
Mr. Nesfield from the Hindi UoneAna, " to sooop out/' but tb 
more possibly oomieoted with gauii, Sanskrit^ gavdiiha, ** a window 
frame. " Traditionally they claim descent from Viswakarma^ son 
of Brahma (who is identified with Twashtri^ the divine vrtisaD), 
through Vikramajit, who is said to have espoused a Kshatriya 
woman. As the sub-divisions show, the caste is probably a fnno- 
tional group recruited from various castes following the common 
occupation of carpentry. 

2« The Barhais have broken up into ftn enormous number of 

endogamous sulMsastes^ of which the last 

Intenud Biruoture. ^ , ^ • i . i j j j 

AJensus returns enumerate eight hundred and 
fifty-nine in the Hindu and seventy-nine in the Muhammadau 
branch. Of these locally the most important are in Sah&ranpur, 
the Bandariya, Dholi, Multftni^ Nagar, and Tarloiya ; in Muzafbr- 
ntigar^ the Dhalw&l or '^ shield-makers, '* and Lota j in Meerttt, the 
Jangh&ray the name of a BAjput sept ; in Bulandshahr, the Bhil ; in 
Aligarh, the Chauhin ; in Mathura, the B&hman 'Or Br&hman sUb- 
caste^ and the Sosaniya ; in Agra^ the Nagac, Jangh&ra, atid Up- 
rautya ; in FkrrukhftbSd, the Faretiya or ''reel-makers ** ; in Main- 
pun, the Umariya ; in Etah, the Agwariya, Barmaniyftn, Bisari, 
Jalcsariya (from the town of Jalcsar), and the Usarbholaj 'in 
Baroilly, the Jalesariya; in Ballia, the Gk)kalbansi ; in Basti^-the 
Dakkhin&ha or '' Southern^" and the S^rwariya, or those who come 
from beyond the Sarju river ; in Gh>nda, the Kair&ti, which is possi- 
bly a corruption of Kharftdi, and the Sondi ; in B&rabanki, HIhe Jais- 
wir. In Mirzapur they name fiVe, — Kokisbansi, Magadhiya, or 
Magahiya (from Magadha), Pnrbiha or Furbiya (Eastern), 
UttarAha (Northern) , and Kh&ti (Sanskiit KiAatri; root, iikad, 
"to cut ")• Of these the Khftti specially work as wheelwrights. 
In Bareilly we have Mathuriya, Dhanman, and Kbati ; in Bijnor, 
Dahman, Mathuriya, Lahori, and KokAs ; in Basti, Kokftsbans, and 
Loh4r Barhai. Another enumeration^ gives Kok&s, Mahur, Tdnk, 
Khati, Uprautiya, B&mhan Barhai or Mathuriya, Ojha Gbur, and 
Cliamar Barhai. Of these the B&mhan and Ojha Gaur claim :a 
BrUhmanical origin^ and the Chamar Barhai are perhaps an ollshoot 
from the Chamirs. In Benares,' again^ we have the Jane&dh^, 



I Sir H. M. Elliot, 8upplemental QloMtaty^ t. «. 
• SUorriug, HimU 2W6ef ana Cof tM, L, 816. 



BABHAI. 102 

(wdarerB of the Br&hmanioal cord, jan&i), who eat no meat, 
the saoi^ed cord^ and regard themselves far saperior to the others': 
they arc said to come from the Duftb. The Khftti are wheel-wrights. 
The Eok&s come from Delhi, and make chairs and tables. Those 
designated Setbanda Rameswar manu&oture puppets and dolls, on 
which they perform in public : they have a oharaoter for begging, 
and ara, therefore, not a reputable branoh of the oosto. In the 
Hills some Barhais ai*e emigrants from the plains ; but most of them 
are of the Orh division of the Doms.^ To the west of the Pro- 
vince, the Ojha or Ujhadon Barhais claim Br&hmanical descent, and 
wear the Bi*^hmanical coi*d. In some of the Western towns thej 
have recently refused to do such degrading work as the repairs of 
conservancy carts, etc. In Mor^sLbid there is a snb-oaste known 
as Ehslti Bishnoi, who make a speciality of making cart-wheels like 
those of the same name to the east of the Province : in Balandshakr 
the Ehd,ti are said to be considered so low that water tonehed by 
them is not drunk by the higher castes.' In the same district are 
also found the Tank, Ukat, and Dibh&n, as well as the J&nghra^ who 
claim kindred with the Janghftra B&jputs. In the Central Duib^ 
again, we liave, besides the Ujhidon Br&hman sub-oaste, three others 
known as Dhimar, M&har, and Eh&ti. These names illustrate the 
composite character of the caste, the Ojha claiming to be Brlh.- 
mans, the Janghra Rajputs, the Dhfmar Eahirs, the Chanuur 
Barhai, Chamd^rs, and so on. Akin again to these are the class of 
turners— Kliarfldi (Arabic, khardit " a lathe'^), Knner, Kundera;, and, 
in the Hills, Chuny&ra. In Mirzapur this sub-caste are oooapied 
in making the stems of the huqqa pipe out of the wood of the 
^ acacia (ihuir). They appear to take their name from Sanskrit 
kundoy a bowl. 

3. To the east of the Province Barhais marry their daughters 

usually at the age of seven, nine^ or eleven : 

Marriago ruloa. _ , 

and boys, at nine, eleven, and thirteen. Tbej 
will not intermarry with a member of their own &mily or that 
of their maternal uncle or father^s sister as long as there is anjr 
recollection of relationship. They have four forms of marriage: 
CharAauwa, which is the respectable form ; Dola, for poor people^ 
Adala Badala, when two families exchange brides, and Smfdi, for 
widows. 



1 AtkinsoD, Himalayan Qateiteet, III., 279. 

3 UAja Laohhrnan Siuh, Bulandthahr Jfemo., 186. 



\ 



108 BARHAI. 

The levirate is permitted bat not enf oroed^ and the widow's right 
of selecting her second partner is recognised* The rules of mondity 
are strict^ and a woman intriguing with a clansman or a stranger is 
liable to excommunication. Those who are guilty of an intrigue 
with a member of the clan can be restored to caste by paying money 
to Brfthmans^ and bathing in a sacred stream : in bad cases a pil- 
grimage to Pray&g (Allahab&d)^ Benares^ or Ajudhya, is necessary. 
When a woman is expelled for an intrigue with a clansman^ and 
conducts herself respectably for some time^ she is re-admitted to 
caste by the council^ and allowed to contract a sagdi marriage* 

4. Barhais who live in cities are usually Saivag^ because they are 

not prohibited from the use of meat and wine. 
The village Barhais seldom become initiated 
into any regular sect. Their clan deities in the Easiem Districts 
are the P&nchonpir^ Mah&btr^ Devi, Dulha Deo> and a deity of 
rather uncertain functions, known as Bilnha Deva, orthe'Mady 
god/' They also worship Yiswakarma, their divine ancestor, and 
he is represented by the wooden 'yard measure {gag, gaj). This has 
a special worship in the month of Sawan. A square is made 
in which it is placed, and to it are offered sandalwood, flowers, 
red 1^ {rort), and sweetmeats (halwa). This worship is supported 
by a general contribution. The worship is done by a Brfthman, 
and the sweets distributed among the worshippers. In the month 
of Eu&r, the other tribal deities ai-e worshipped. Sweetmeats 
[halwa) y sweet bread, gram, and some sugar balls (laddu) are 
offered to Mah&bir on a Tuesday. Bhawftni or Devi receives the 
sacrifice of a goat or ram, garlands of flowers, and coloured cloth 
(ehunari).' Rice nulk (khir)^ and cakes (pdn) are dedicated to 
the F&uchonp!r. Only wives manied in the regular (ehafkanwa) 
form are allowed to share in the worship of the tribal deities. In 
Basti they worship Mah&bir, Purabi Deota or ^'the Eastern 
godling/' and Phftlmati Bhawftni. Purabi Deota gets an offering 
of clothes and rude ornaments on a Saturday : PhAlmati and 
Mah^bir get, respectively, sweets and flowers on Monday and 
Tuesday. Mftlis, Gus&ins, and Brdhmans receive the offerings made 
to Mahdbir and Phiilmati, while the offerings to Purabi Deota are- 
taken home and consumed by the worshippers themselves. Their 
priests are Tiwftri Brfthmans, who hold a low rank in the caste. 
The dead are cremated, and the ashes thrown into the (Ganges or 

one of its tributaries. Water is poured on the ground in honour of* 
Vol. I. (^ 



^- 



BA.BHAI. 194 

the sainted dead daring the first fortnight of KnAr: lompi of 
rioe and milk are offered on the thirteenth day, and uncooked grain 
is given to Br&hmans. Those who die of cholera or small-pox are 
either buried or their bodies thrown into running water. When 
the epidemio is oyer, they, as well as a person dying in a foreign land, 
are burnt in effigy in the regular way. This must be done within 
six months after the death. 

6. Carpentry is one of the ancient Hindu trades, and is men- 

Ooonpation and Booial tioned in the Rigveda.* The village oarpen- 

statiiB. ^ ^ ^^^ q£ ^ recognised village menials 

and ijpceives dues of grain at each harvest from his oonstitaents 
{fajmdn), whose agricultural implements he is bound to keep in order. 
The rate in Oudh is thirty village sen at each crop from each plough. 
This is known as tihdi. He also receives one ter of each kind of grain 
from each cultivator's threshing floor before it is removed. This is 
called anja It. For seven months, Jeth to Aghan — May to November, 
his services are required. For the remaining five months he works 
at his own business, making cots (eAdrpai), carts (jfdri), domestio 
utensils, and house carpentry. For this he receives speeial yrages.' 
In the Eastern Districts it is about twelve «tf ft per plough. In 
Bareilly it is seven-and-a-half to twelve large {palla) ten per 
plough per harvest.' Some city carpenters who set up worksheps 
and employ workmen do a good business in making conveyanees, 
furniture, etc. They eat pakki or food cooked with butter by all 
Brahmans, Ksbatriyas, and Yaisyas, except Ealwftrs. They eat 
kachchi cooked by Bribmans and castemen. All' Hindus drink 
water from their hands. Some Br&bmans will eat pakki cooked by 
them. Inferior Hindus, such as the Cham&r, N&i, or B&ri, will eat 
kaehcki cooked by them. In the villages many hold land aa tenants 
in addition to their hereditary trade. 



» Prof. H. H. Wilaon, Rig Veda, Intro,, DLL 

s Hoey, Monograph on Trade and Manufaeturu, 68. 

* SelUemeni Report, 79. 



1 


CO 2 ;* g- jC 3 ^ 3 S 




"" m" 2 JU" II 


■MoqiO 


3/X)4 
4,641 
2,082 
4,069 
4,824 
13,794 
3,017 
3,679 
263 


■ ■ : 1 i • = ; ■ 


■^nt^B :::•;:!;: 


■'hEo 


351 
3.782 
4,776 
10,957 

240 


'^pnTn'H 


... 

... 
421 

2,866 
2,189 

4,580 


•imnin 


^ ° ^ ^ ^ 1 i ^ ^ . 


■■wa 


^ =».... ^ " § 


■BinH 


180 
198 
8,333 
2.719 
IM 
169 

4 
10 


■BiirmiraH 


: : 2 : : : : : S 11 


■flOD 


■ - 2 : : • ' • i 1 


■iMO 


21 

1.078 
1,638 


■•"•"111 


12.867 

6,934 

446 


■IirqvfqpnfV 


■ = : ■ • i : S 3 ^ 


1 








i r 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



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09 



s 1 '-3 

^ r -a 
CO 04 m 



^ 



BABHIYA. 



200 



BARHOLITA. 



v/ Barhiya.— A email eept of BAjputs. The laet Ccnraa shows 
them only in Hamfrpur and Lalitpur. Sir H. M. Elliot* men- 
tions a eept called Barhiya or Barhaiya in the Sikandarpnr and 
Badftun Parganas of the Azamgarh District^ and Sayyidpur Bhitii 
of Gh&zipur. Dr. Buchanan' Bays that they are not numeroiis in 
Oorakhpur^ north of the Sarju ; " but there are said to be many 
near Eopa in the southern part of the District. They are but a 

low race.'' 

» 

Dittribution of the Bariijfa Bdjputt aeeordiug to tie Cemsut 

of 1891. 



DIBTBIOT. 


NmnlMr. 


Agra 

Hamlrpar . • . • • • ^ • 
Lalitpur • « 


18 

ta 

88 


Total 


63 



tX Barlioliya> Barhanliya. — A Bftjput sept^ who are a bnmdi 
of the Bhrigubansi stock, and the chief proprietors of Barhaol, in 
Benares^ from the principal town of which Pargana they derive 
their name. They are said to have come from Bengarh^ in M&rwAr^ 
and were on their way to Jagann&th, when their chief, Narotham 
Bi£, accepted service with the Seori or Chero B&ja.* The head of 
the sept, in B&mbanki, where they are most numerous, is the B&ja of 
SQrajpur. There they are classed as a branch of the Bais stock. 



Diitrihution of the Barholiya Bdjpnii according to tke Cemtmt 

of 1891. 



DiSTBIOT. 


Nnmber. 


DiBTBIOT. 


Nnnbar. 


J&Wd 
Azamgarh 
Luoknow 
RAd Bareli . 


2 

104 

19 

199 

1 


FaiE&b&d . 
Gonda. • • • 
BahrAioh • • • 
B&rabaoki • • • 
Total 


40 
88 

88 
8.316 


Sitapur 


8,748 



1 Supplementary Qloaary, t, v, 

s Eastern India, II., 463. 

' Elliot, SuppUmental (7toMary, f. «• 



201 BlEt. 

Bari.^'-A tribe of houfsehold servahis to Hindus and makers of 
the leiftf-platters used at Hindu feasts. The name of the caste is 
derived from the Hindi bdlna, or bdrna, which means 'Ho set a 
thing alight/' as one of their chief occupations i s actitig as tbroh- 
bearers. According to Mr. Nesfield^ " they are an off-shoot from 
the semi-savage tribes known as Banm&nush and Musahar. - He 
still associates with them at timee^ and if the demand for plates and 
cups (owing to some temporaiy cause^ such as a local fair or an 
unusual number of marriages) happens to become larger than he 
can at once supply^ ho gets them secretly made by his ruder 
kinsfolk, and retails them at a higher rate, passing them off as his 
own production.'^ That the origin of the caste is functional is very 
probable ; but there is as yet no satisfactory evidence, Such- as that 
based on anthropometry, which would conclusively establish their 
connection with the jungle races ; and if they are ultimately akin to 
the Musahar, the type must have been very considerably changed. 
The Bftri, in fact, looks very much like the ordinary Cham&r of the 
plains, and he has lost in a great measure the distinctive cast of 
features which characterises the Musahar. 

2. In the Eastern Districts the Bftris have a curiously na'ive 

legend to account for their origin. ''Once 

Trodiiiona of origin. ^ ^ 

upon a time,'' so tho legend rpns, " Para- 
meswar was offering rice milk to the spirits of his ancestors. In 
the course of this duty the celebrant has to make a gift known as 
Vikraya ddna, which no one cares to accept. Parameswar offered 
the gift to some Br&hmans, who refused it. Then he made a man 
of clay, and blowing upon the image invested it with life. Para- 
meswar asked the man whom he had created to accept the offering, 
and he agreed on condition that all men should drink with him and 
recognise his claim to caste. Parameswar then told him to bring 
water in a cup, and drank of it in the presence of all the castes. 
Ever since Hindus drink water from the hands of the B&ri, though 
he himself eats the leavings of many castes." They say that this 
first ancestor of theirs was named Sundar on account of his per* 
sonal beauty. According to the Oudh legend, when Bhagwftn had 
created the world he took a survey of it and reflected that he had 
created all manner of men except the menial, who would consume the 



1 Prinoipally based on enqnirios made at Mirzapnr, ' and notoe by Mnnahi 
Chhnit&n Ul, Deputy CoUeotor, UnAo, and Mnnahi Atom B4m, Head Haater, High 
School, Mathnra. 



bIui. 202' 

leavings; which would otherwise be wi^eted. To remove this defect, he 
made a man of sand' and called him Snndar. The caste derivee itir 
name £rom having been' made of sand {bdlu bdru), a folk etTmologj 
which is probably at the bottom of the story. They say that the 
descendants of this Snndar lived at Ajodhya until the leign of Bija 
Dadamtha; afitcr tha^ they dfsx)er6ed all over the country. The 
Pur&nio legend represents them as descended from a barber and a 
tobacconist girl. In Oudh they fix their head-quarters at Tulasipur^ 
in the Kberi District. 

8. The Census returns include no less than five hundred and 

three exogamous sections. Of these the 

MArriago rnloB* . 

most important locally ore the BilUiariya, 
who take their name fi*om Bilkhar in Oudh^ the Hinduiyaandthe 
Kariya in Ballia ; the Kanaujiya, in Oorakhpur : the Desi and 
Sarwariya in Basti ; the Dakkhin&ha and Sarwariya in Bftd Baieli ; 
the Ohoroharha or " riders on horses^ '^ and in Gonda and Bahrlioh 
the Chauhdn. Besides those^ are the Donw&r^ which is also the 
name of a sub-tribe of Bhuinh&rs; the Mathuriya from Mathuia; 
the Fattarilia or makers of leaf -platters {paitar) ; the B&wat, and 
Sundar^ whose name is that of their founder. To the east the role 
of gotra exogamy appears to be reinforced by the condition that 
they do not intermarry with a family with whom previous relation- 
ship by marriage is established and admitted. In Mathura persons 
of the same goira cannot intermarry^ and the gotroi of a man^s 
mother and grandmother are also barred. Marriage with two sisters 
is permitted. Sexual license before marriage is everywhere prohibitad. 
Polyandry is nowhere recognized; and^ while polygamy is allowed, it 
is restricted to cases when the first wife is barren or permanently 
disabled hj disease. The actual marriage ceremony is of the usual 
low caste type. In the eastern districts, prior to the marriage 
they have what is known as the panchmangari or timMngari Tpsr^ 
formed^ as the name implies on the fifth or third day before the 
wedding, when the women bring clay from the village olay jnt and 
/lay it in the nuptial shed {mdro), where it is used for making the 
fireplace on which the food for the wedding feast is cooked./ In 
the respectable form of marriage, called eharhaua, where the bride 
is given away by her father, and the pair revolve round the sacred 
fire; there are in Oudh tliroo stages — Barrachia or BarrakskM, 
" fixing or holding of the bridegroom/' in wliich the father of the 
bride gives the boy a nipee as a sort of earnest money ; the actual 



208 bAb,!.- 

betrbUial known as 'Hhe oup^' {kahra), becauBe the friends.on both 
Bides drink sharbat together. Then follows what is the binding part 
of the function— the rubbing of the paifting of the bride^s hair with 
red lead, and the walking round the saored fire. 

4. From Mathura it is reported that the caste now prohibits' 
widow marriaee. This is not the case els^ 

Widow nuurnage* 

where. In the Benares Division widows 
marry by taffdi, and the levirate is recognised but not enforced ; in 
Oudh, irregular connections of widows are allowed. It is not called 
marriage; she is mordy said to ''take her seat'^ (baitijdna) in 
the house of her paramour. She is not obliged to^form such a 
connection unless she pleases, and the preference is given to the 
younger brother of the late husband ; those widows who set up house 
with an outsider are known as Urhari, a term which seems usually 
io bear a contemptuous meaning. 

5. The dead are cremated, but only those who are well off are 

careful about disposing of theashefiin the 

Disposal of the dead. ^ r — e 

Ganges or Jumna* 

6. The B&ris are Hindus. To the east of the Province they 

are seldom initiated into any recognised sect ; 

if they are initiated they give the preference 
for the Saiva or S&kta. They worship various local deities. Thus, 
in Jaunpur, they worship a form of the female energy known as 
Bibiha Devi, '' Our Lady '' ; in South Mirzapur, Uai'diha Deva or 
Hardaul Lila, the cholera godling; and many of them worship 
MahUbir. Sacrifices of lums and goats are offered to Ilardiha, with 
sweetmeats and a BrUhmanical thread {faneu). To Mah&bir is 
offered a head-dress (mtiratM), a small loin cloth (/ai^^^Q, sweet' 
bread {rof), and sweetmeats. Those only are allowed to worship 
Mah&bir who do not eat the leavings of other people.' Another 
local deity^ Birtiya, receives a sacrifice of a young pig, once a year^ 
in the month of S&wan. The worship of all these clan deities is 
performed annually in the month of S&wan (July — August) and 
EuHr (September— October). Their family priests are Tiw&ri 
Br&hmans, who are, as a rule, not received on equal terms by their 
brethren. In Mathura they worship Devi in the months of Chait 
and Eu&r with an offering of flowers and sweetmeats, the latter 
being consumed by the worshippers after dedication. They follow 
the tenets of the Yaishnava sect. In Unio their clan deities are 
BhitarihM Devi, " the goddess of the inner houso,'^ and Nara Sinh or 



bI&i. 204 

the man-lion incarnation of VishntL These deities are wonbipped 
on the eighth day of the waxing moon in the months of Chait aad 
Knir. The offering to Devi consists of the sacrifice of goats aad 
the burning of incense. Nara Sinha prefers the o&ring of pi^rfh^ 
barley mixed with treacle. This worship is done by the eldest son 
of the family. Their priests are Brfthmans^ irho are reoeived on 
terms of equality by their brethren. 

7. Their primary occnpation is the mating and sale of leaf -caps 

{dauna, paUari, gadaura) osed at Hindu feasts^ 
and in which articles sadi as sweetmeatsj, 
cnrds^ etc.^ are commonly sold in b&zirs. They serve respectable 
Hindos as domestic servants and hand round water. They light 
and carry torches at marriages^ entertainmentS| and on jonmeyty 
and perform many of the fonctions discharged by onr boose 
bearers. Their occnpation as domestic servants seems to be on tba 
decline, and many are taking to cultivation. Their women act 
as maids to high caste Hindu ladies^ and, as they are always about 
the zen&na, they bear a somewhat equivocal reputation. To the 
^ist of the Frovinoe they certainly eat the leavings of Brthmana, 
Banyas, R&jputs and, it is said, now-a-days even of Eiyastha. In 
Mathura they seem to be abandoning the practice of eating the 
leavings of other castes. In Mirzapur all Hindus drink water 
touched by them, and all, except Sarwariya and Kananjiya 
Brahmans, eat food cooked by them in the form of fahki, $.$., 
cooked with butter. Kachchi rati or food cooked in water bj them 
is eaten by Cham^rs and other menial castes. InUnio, it is said 
that they will eat kachchi and p^kki from the hands of a barber^ 
but that no high caste Hindu takes anything but water from their 
hands. In Mathura they will eat kaekcki cooked by a Banya or 
Kftyasth. Their loyalty and fidelity to their master is proveAial, 
and they rank high among the classes of Hindus who devote them- 
selves to domestic service. 



bIbi. 



Itiitributie* oftht Birit aeeordina to »» Ctntui cf 1891. 


DlBTBICT. 


DonwBr. 


rija. 


Pat- 

Uriha. 


BAwat. 


Bandar. 


OlbatB. 


TOT*U 














19 


18 


Uocmt . 








... 




68 


88 


BdkudBhahr . 




... 




43 




01 


104 


Aligarl) . 






... 


61 




239 


290 


Uathure . 








10 


... 


189 


149 


Ag« . . 




2 




123 


a 


B2S 


966 


TBrrukhAbM . 


7 


IS 




119 


186 


706 


871 


Mttinpuri . 


66 


385 


8 


1C9 




809 


981 


Et&irah . 


1 


67 


12 


162 


19 


1,778 


2,014 


Etali 


80 


14 




42 


3 


196 


288 


Bweiltj . . 












460 


460 


BiJuoT . 




... 








43 


48 


BadUnn . 




S 


... 


24 


... 


200 


301 


HorAdlb&d 






... 


... 




224 


324 


SLfthjoMiiFur . 


S 




... 


36 


182 


279 


498 


Filibhlt . 


... 


... 


... 


... 


40 


122 


162 


Oannpnr . 




la 


217 


62 


32 


2.823 


2,626 


Fatobpar . 






-. 




S3 


699 


082 


B&nd« . . 






2 


SS 


1 


C2 


118 


Hamtrimr 








28 




87 


115 


All>b&b&d 






M 


7 


S93 


IflU 


1,4G0 


Jh4D« . 








37 




84 


121 


JUaud . 




... 




186 


a 


678 


, 766 


UUtpnr . 








4 




46 


49 


BeDiraa . 


174 


... 


10 


175 


... 


1.071 


3.880 


Uimpnr . 


... 






... 


16 


1,»6 


1.932 



BlRI. 






2U0 






BABUA. 


Dittribuiiou of the Bdris aoeording to the Cemus of 1891~'W>ntiid. 


DiBTBICT. 


Donw&r. 


Maihii- 
riya. 


Pat- 
tariha. 


EAwat. 


Bandar. 


Otben. 


Totaim 


Jaunpar • 


351 


••t 


390 


673 


68 


578 


2^060 


Gb&zipur . • 


214 


••• 


«*t 


73 


127 


1.577 


1.991 


Ballia 


697 


• t* 


••• 


88 


10 


1,457 


2,108 


Qorakhpnr 


3,280 


4 


21 




205 


4,454 


7,964 


Basti 


379 


••• 


3,612 




... 


1,615 


6.606 


Azamgarb 


418 


••• 


t •• 




59 


2,992 


8,469 


Lnoknow • • 


•tt 


••• • 


t« • 




018 


882 


1.300 


Un&o 


69 


2 


127 




874 


1,581 


245S 


B&d Bareli 


• • • 


•t* 


818 


24 


1,214 


1,901 


8.457 


Slfcapur • 


••• 


•t* 


26 




921 


601 


1.548 


Hardoi • 


••• 


•• • 


••fl 




211 


299 


610 


Eheri 


••• 


•• • 


««t 




821 


211 


lfi» 


Faiz&b&d . 


1.946 


t • • 


138 




*•. 


165 


8,249 


Gonda 


2,574 


• •• 


1,635 




••. 


2,138 


6.847 


Babr&icb • 


338 


t«* 


637 


••• 


465 


2,297 


8.627 


8alt&npiir 


t • • 


• • • 


• • • 


106 


263 


1,879 


2.838 


Fart&bgarh 


• • • 


••• 


tt* 


•*• 


31 


2,182 


8.818 


B&rabanki 


••* 


• t • 


362 

• 


22 


471 


1,219 


8,047 


Total 


10,415 


490 


7,436 


2,335 


7.035 


41,060 


69,700 



Barna^ Barwa.^A tribo of mendicant Br&hman0 who are 
found in Sahdranpnr and the neighbourhood. They bear an indif* 
ferent reputation on account of the vileness of the abnse whioh thej 
ehower on people who refuse to give them alms* 

Barwar.^ — A notorious criminal tribe found in Northern Oudli. 
There is much difference of opinion as to the meaning of the word. 



1 Bosod chiefly on Notes by Mirza rhfdn All Bog, Deputy CollAoior, in 6ttaxg% 
of the tribe, an«l u report (date und author not given) entitled ** Bl/^mtHogy (fie) qf 
iho Darwin of Oonda and ili^ Sanaurhiyas of Nagpur*'* 



207 babwAb« 

According to one theory it means '^ a bearer of bnrdenB '^ (iir- 
wdla) ; according to others it comes from the Hindi Barbara in 
the sense of '' violent. " 

2. The story the Barwirs tell of themselves is as follows:— 

Some centuries ago the ancestor of the tribe. 

Traditional origin. , . , 

a Knrmi by caste^ lived at the village of 
Yahyapor, which is said to be situated in the S&ran District, east 
of the river N&r&yani. One day he was ploughing his field near 
the river when the wife of a rich Mah&jan came down to bathe. 
Sho took off her pearl necklace and stepped into the water. A kite 
swooped down, and, carrying it off, dropped it in the field where the 
Eurmi was ploughing. When he saw the treasure he began to 
think that it was easier to live by thieving than by farming. From 
that time his prosperity increased, and his clan became known as 
Suvarna or golden. They began then to be known as Barw&r or 
men of violence. It happened one day that a Kingariya or Nat 
musician attended the death ceremony of a Barw&r at Yahyapur, 
and was given an empty purse as a present by the relatives of the 
deceased. By chance the Kingariya came to the village where the 
purse with two gold coins had been stoleut The ow^ier recognized 
it ; and enquiries proving that the theft had been committed by 
the Borwdrs, they wore expelled from Yahyapur. After this they 
divided into two sections. One went to Bastii in the North- West- 
em Provinces, and settled at Barauli, which is four miles west of 
Basti. The other gang went to Hardoi, in Oudh, and settled there. 
After their arrival in Hardoi that section were given the name of 
Oanjar, which is said to mean '' hoarders,^^ and by which they are 
still known. In Borauli the Barw&rs lived for some two oenturieS| 
and supported themselves by thieving. At last, one day, they 
robbed the camp of the Bflja of Basti, and he had them expelled 
from his territory. They then came to Oonda and settled at Dha- 
naipur, thirteen miles north of Gonda. They now occupy fifty-four 
villages in the Oonda District. They were again at one time 
forced to change their quarters by the influonoo of a money-lender 
named Sobha Sukl, whose name is still held in abhorrence among 
them. Another legend makes the Barw&rs to be the descendants 
of a woman of low caste named Goli, by a Kurmi &ther. There 
seems nothing improbable in the story that they are a branch of 
the Kurmis, who separated from the parent stock owing to their 
bad character, or for some other reason. That the tribe is very 



BARWlu. 208 

muoh mixed is admitted on all sides. The Barwin, in former <nfmy^ 
were certainly in the habit of recruiting their numbers hy kidnap- 
ping young children of various castes. These became a separate 
class known either as • Ghu)&m^ an Arabic term meaning ''slave/' 
or Tahla^ a Hindi word moaning '^one who walks about in attend- 
ance/^ ^^a follower.^^ In contradistinction to this servile , class 
the pure Bai*w&r calls himself Sw&ng, which in their slang 
means '^ master/^ It would appear that the recruitment of these 
GhuUms has ceased in recent years, and that the pure Barwftrs 
and the GhuUms no longer intermarry. While the custom prevailed 
among the Gonda branch the other divisions of the tribe would 
not intermarry with them. At present it is said that they neither 
give their daughters in marriage nor take girls from the Ohulims^ 
who have become themselves an endogamous section. Below the 
Ghulstms again is another section known as Til&ms or Talftms, who 
are the descendants of children kidnapped by the Ghul&ms. llieBe 
ostracised Ghulims and Til3.ms are the only members who have 
been as yet allowed by the tribe to enlist in the Polioe. OhuUms 
will eat food prepared by BarwUrs, but the latter will not touch a 
dish prepared by the former. Male Ghul&ms and Til&ms both get 
their equal share of plunder from the thieving gangs they join. A 
dowry is given with the Ghul&m bride, but not with the bride-- 
groom. The Tilams possess the same privileges in every way as 
their kidnappers, the Ghul&ms. The Ghul&ms are still believed 
occasionally to seduce girls of other castes, such as Br&hmans, 
Chhatris, Mur3os, Kurmis, Ahtrs and Kali&rs. Tlieso are reoeivod 
and adopted into the community. The more respectable Barwirs 
are also known as Thakuriya in Gonda. 

S. The marriage of two sisters is permitted, provided the 
„ , , elder sister is married before the yoaneer. 

Marnago mies. 

The custom of exchanging girls in marriage 
does not prevail among them. The bride is admitted into the 
family of her husband without any special ceremony ; but it is 
significant that every Barw&r, on maiTying, is obliged to give to 
the landlord four hundred betel leaves or the equivalent vahie in 
money, which looks as if it were a commutation of the jus primm 
noctiSj if it bo not one of the ordinary dues levied by a landlord on 
his tenants. Tlioy may take two wives at one time. The favour- 
ite wife for the time being rules the household. CSoncnbinage 
with women of the tribe is allowed ; polyandry is prohilited^ 



209 baj&wIb, 

Marriage is both adult and infant. Divoroe is permitted in case 
of infidelity on the part of the woman. The husband merely 
assembles the clansmen^ and announces to them the fact of the 
divorce. Divorced wives cannot be re-married ; but they may be 
kept as concubines by other men in the caste. They have a pecu- 
liar rule of inheritance by which the property is divided, half going 
to the children of the regularly married wife or wives, and the other 
half to the children of the concubines, provided they belong to the 
Barw&r caste. The offspring of a woman of a strange tribe have 
no rights of inheritance. When a pure Barwftr mariies or keeps 
a woman of another caste he is exconmiunicated and sinks to the 
rank of a Ohul&m. Illicit intrigues within the caste are also pun- 
ished by expulsion ; but the offending parties can be restored on 
giving a tribal feast. Widow marriage is allowed. The only 
ceremony is that the man puts a set of bangles {phiri) on the 
woman and feeds the cominunity. The levirate is permitted^ not 
enforced, and the widow may, if she pleases, accept an outsider. In 
such cases she loses the right of guardianship over the children of 
the first marriage, and has no rights of succession to the estate of 
her first husband. 

4. The mother is attended by a woman of the Eori caste, who 
^, ., ' acts as midwife. She attends for five days 

Birth 06renio]iiefl. 

and then the barber's wife acts as nurse for 
eight days. On the twelfth day after a birth the father pur- 
chases spirits and treats the brotherhood, and puts silver and gold 
ornaments on the child. This is supposed to bring luck in thieving. 
If a Barw&r &ils to bring home plunder he is taunted by his com- 
rades that his father did not perform the twelfth-day ceremony. If 
a child is thus initiated, he gets his share of the spoil ; but if bom 
after the Dasahra of Jeth he does not share till the next Dasahra 
of Ku&r. Similarly, during the rainy season, each man keeps his 
own plunder and has to share only with those who are incapacitated 
from thieving by blindness, old age, or some physical defect. 
But, as a rule, they seldom thieve in the rains from the Dasahra o£ 
Jeth to the Dasahra of Eu&r ; and after the latter date the partner- 
ship of the whole commtmity is revived, and every soul becomes 
entitled to a share in the spoil, whether he goes on a thieving excur- 
sion or remains at home. Widows and women who live in retire- 
ment get no share ; but if a Barw&r is in prison his share goes to 
his wife, * -^ 

Vol. I. p ' 



babwAb. 210 • 

5. The girl's father with some friends goes to the house of the 

boy, and pajs his f athw a oonple of mpees. 

He entertains his guests and sends to the 
bride^ in return, Bome curds, fish, sweetmeats and a bottle of UqucNr. 
This settles the betrothal. This generally takes plaoe when the 
girl is between three and seven. 

6. The marriage ceremonies begin with the iagan or Sadng of 

the wedding day, which is carried out in the 

Marriage oeremoniei. .. mi ^ i - • 

ordmary way. The actual ceremonies are of 
the usual type. The binding portions of the ritual are the kanft' 
ddn or giving away of the bride, the pairpija or worship of the feet 
of the bridegroom by his future father-in-law, and the biamwttr or 
walking of the pair round the sacred fire. 

7. The young are buried; adults are cremated^ or the corpse is 

thrown into a river. After the eraiiaiioii is 

Funeral oeremoniei. 

over they bathe and then plant a pieoe of Jtmm 
grass in the ground to act as a r^ge for the spirit until the fniMKal 
rites are completed* The man who fired the pyre poors water en 
this for nine days ; on the tenth day he is shaved, on the elevcath 
the MahibrShmans are feasted; on the twelfth day the friends and 
relatives are fed ; on the thirteenth the Br&hnums are fod«. After 
this one Brahman is fed for a year on the day of each month 
when the death occurred. On the anniversary there is a feast, and 
at this the family priest {purohit) receives five articles of wearing ap- 
parel— *a jacket {angariia) ; a loin cloth {dioii) ; a turban (t^^e); 
a sheet {chddar) ; bedding {butar) ; and five cooking utensils— a pot 
{lota)f a tray {thdli)^ a cooking pot {datloi), a tongs {dmsipanakl, a 
spoon (iarcAAul) . Besides these things he gets a oot {eidfpdi) ; wooden 
sandals (AJ^araun) ; a pair of shoes (jdta) ; and a stool (ptrkM)^ 
When the corpse cannot be found the ceremonies are performed on 
an ciBgy made of barley and sdntoan. 

8« Their special deity is Bh&gawati. The housdiold sacrifice is 

held on the third or fifth day of the first half 

Beligion. 

of Bhidon,. when the master sacrifices % fowl 



and bakes thin cakes called lubra. These, with cooked 
given to a Muhammadan beggar as an offering to the Pinch Ftr« 
They make an annual pilgrimage to the tomb of B&la Ftr^ at Bah* 
r&icli, and offer a banner. They also worship Devi-Bhaw&ni ; but in 
their depredations spare only the tomb at Bahraioh and the temple 
at Jagannath. When a goat is sacrificed to Bhigawati, the heed is 



211 BAftWlB. 

given to a gardener {mdli), and the rest of the meat 10 eaten hj the 
worshippers. Sometimes a pumpkin {lauii) is substitated for a 
goat. 

9. They observe all the ordinary Hindu festivals^ and also some 

„ . , which are not so common-^the Bahura on 

the fourth light half of Bh&doni when the 
girls eat curdled milk and encumbers ; on the Barka Itw&r or 
" great Sunday, '' the last Sunday of Bhidon, they fast and drink 
milk at night ; on the Sakat Chauth, or fourth light half of Mftgh, 
they cat sweet potatoes, sesamum, and new raw sugar. No spirits 
or intoxicating drugs of any kind are used at the Barka Itw&r, but 
at the other festivals they are freely eonsumed. 

10. Omens are much regarded on their expeditions. Tuesday, 

Friday^ and Sunday^ ore ' lucky days, and 
sometimes Thursday. The ass is a lucky 
animal, and so are a dead body met on the road, a washerman, a 
woman, or a Pandit. Tuesday is, however, regarded by some as 
an unlucky day, and a jackal, a Ous&in, an oilman, are also unlucky. 
A jackal or a fox crossing the road from right to left is lucky ; the 
reverse is unlucky. When they go out to thieve they prefer to 
wear good clothes and a turban. When children are unhealthy 
they are given opprobrious names as a protection. 

11. When worship is being done to keep ofE evil spirits, children 

are not allowed to be present. Any inter- 
course between the husband's father and the 
wife's relations is tabooed. The husband does not name his wife, 
and vice vend. A father will not call his eldest son by his name, 
nor a disciple his Guru. 

12. They eat the flesh of sheep and goats j they rejeot fowls, 

and will eat fish. Flesh of monkeys, beef, 
pork, crocodiles, snakes, jackals, rats, or other 
vermin, are not eaten. Spirits are freely drunk ; they will eat the 
leavings of no one but a parent. Men and women eat apart. Before 
they eat they say Jay Thdkurji, " Glory to the Lord I " To 
Brihmans they use the salutation Pd lagan, to Banyas, Ealwftrs, 
etc., Bdm / Rdm / ; to Sftdhs Frandm and Namasidr ; to Gusftins 
Ndtnondrdgan ; to Aughars, Dandfpai. Elders bless their juniors 
with Jiyo, " Long may you live.. " Juniors say to their seniora 
JPd lagan. Those who are equal in »nk say Bdm / Bdm /. 
Vol. I. » « 



babwAr. 212 

13. Of those who have heen bronght under the Criminal Tribei 

Act Bome are ouItivatorB and some field- 

Ooonpation. .-r .-• i « i • ^i t x 

labourers. 'Like the Sanaarhiyas, thej do not 
commit dacoity^ theft with burglary^ theft at nightj or cattle-Ufting. 
The Sanaurhiya leaders are known as Nal, and thoee of the BmrwirSy 
Sahna. The leaders of the Barw&rs enjoy no rights or privileges 
from their zamindftrs^ unlike the Sanaurhiyas. The Barwlrs con- 
suit astrologers and go on predatory expeditions after the Dasahra; 
the Sanaurhiyas after the Diw&lL Among the Sanaurhiyas if any 
one renounce the profession of thieving, he is debarred from marry- 
ing in the caste ; but a Barwftr under similar (drcumstaiioes is 
debarred only from a share in the booty. The Sanaurhiyas assooiata 
with the children of any caste, even Cham&rs, but the Barwlis 
jealously exclude outsiders. The Sanaurhiya gangs consist of not 
less than forty or fifty men ; those of the Barwftrs from t we n ty to 
fifty. The Sanaurhiyas teach their children thieving, and punish 
them if they forget their sleight of hand ; but the Barwirs leave 
their children to learn themselves. The Sanaurhiyas have an 
umpire called Nahri, who pottles disputes and divides the phmder. 
This is not the case with the Barw&rs. The Sanaurhiyas adminis- 
ter oaths to each other to prevent misappropriatioii oC stolen 
property ; the Barw&rs do not do thisj but excommunioate the 
offender. The Sanaurhiyas go in for Baminddri and oultivationy of 
which the Barwirs do little. In emergencies the leader is e xpec t ed 
to feed his gang ; but he usually stays at home and looks after the 
families, and whatever property is acquired is left to the Sahna or 
actual commander to be divided. The Sahna is generally a Barwtr, 
but he may be a Br&hman or Rajput, and is often the headman of 
the village. Another official is the Dhebra or Naliha (a term also 
applied to a Barwir who gives up thieving knd is eTW>mmnnifmted)« 
He carries a spade, a knife, or dagger, and some leaf-plattersi on 
which he serves meals to the gang. He receives three rupees pir 
mentem in addition to his share of the spoil. He does not join in 
thieving . Some go out in smaller gang^, and these are usually more 
successful than those who go in large bodies. If a single Barwir 
brings in plunder he keeps it for himself^ and any articles of oktli- 
ing he acquires are his own at whatever season he gets thsm. 
During the rains they engage in drinking and amusemoit and 
do not work, the house and farm work being done by the women. 
A Barwar who secretes property which should go to the geng ii 



218 BAKwla. 

called Eabkatta. If he readily surrenders his spoils he is known 
as Ehiliya. One who holds an influential position in the community 
is called Jiisar, and one who^ from povertyi is obliged to take 
service is called Bih. A person in ordinary circumstances is 
BotikULha. If within a year a Barw&r does not secure property of 
some value he does not return home through shame and mortifica- 
tion. Each man has a bag of net- work secured at both ends with 
a strong cotton string. It is kept tied to the waist and holds 
jewelry and valuables. It is so carefully concealed that it often 
escapes detection. The slang phrase for the mode of tying this 
bag is langri bigdna. The women are usually employed in service 
with the village zamind&rs, and receive very petty remuneration* 
If a Barw&r is dissatisfied or suspects misappropriation on the part 
of his Sahua^ he can leave his gang or can discharge his Dhebra 
from his service^ provided in the month of As&rh he clears up ac- 
counts with both Sahua and Dhebra. 

14. As might have been expected^ when the women are left to 

themselves for a large part of the year adul- 
tery is very prevalent. If a woman be 
detected in a lonely or retired place or in a field or jungle in sexual 
intercourse with a man^ whether it be compulsory or by consent, 
no Barw&r will take offence at it, nor will the woman be excluded 
from the brotherhood, and a child bom in adultery is not con- 
sidered illegitimate, but admitted to all rights and privileges as if 
it were legitimate. But if detected otherwise in the act of adultery, 
both the woman and her paramour are both excommunicated^ and 
are re*admitted only after giving a feast to the community. 

16. When they get booty, they return in November or Decern- 

ber. When thev go to a &ir they always 

Modes of theft . . ^i. • • -^ j , 

sojourn m the vicmity and some dress as 
devotees, Br&hmanS| Mah&jans, soldiers, tradesmen, etc. Some 
mark their foreheads, wear the Br&hmanical thread, wear the dresSj 
beads, etc., of learned Brfthmans, and shave their beards and mous- 
taches. They generally keep a brass vessel with a string tied to 
it| and a stone pot tied up in a cloth. They generally go about 
with their backs naked, and carry some meal or dry gram in a bag 
and a stick in their hands. Thus they stroll about in a simple, 
dejected way intended to excite compassion. When interrogated 
they claim to be Br&hmans or BAjputs, and when arrested^ call 



barwAb, 214 

tbemfielves Eurmis^ B&ris, or Tamolis, and say that they are going 
on a pilgrimage to some famous shrine. They never diynlge their 
real names. When they see valuable goods in a shop they pretend 
to barter or buy. If they observe the shop-keeper to be suspidonSy 
they say BiroA hai hudah rahS dec, — " He is on his guard ; let him 
alone.^' When they conceal some article and say Bnthakr i^i 
dhoiar, pherai kar laS^ — ^'The shop-keeper is suspicious; take off 
the booty/^ then those who are near snatch up the article and 
run away^ while those wao are at the shop pretend to disagree about 
the bargain and leave. If a Barw&r wishes to call his friends to his 
aid he waves his handkercliief^ or puts as many fingers to his cheek 
as he wants Barw^rs to help him. At this signal those in the 
neighbourhood collect, When he wishes his confederate to carry off 
an article he puts his hand on his- neck. In &ot they have a more 
complete language of signs than any other thieving fraternity. 
When a BarwSr sees a man bathing with his clothes on the bank he 
puts his own bundle of rags close to it and changes his articles for it. 
Sometimes another Barwar assists^ and in this case the signal is Teri 
di ddl,'^" Leave your own bundle and take his/' For a single gar- 
ment the signal is Roto,'-^^^ Leave your own cloth and take his.'' 
Whenever they see a crowd and property scattered in different 
places two of them join the crowd, while a third keeps watch. The 
signal is Anchri saidiie chdmi rdg Idi, — " Throw the covering of 
your sheet over the property and make off with it." They tell how 
a soldier once concealed some jewelry under his shield and sat upon 
it. A Barwir with studied inadvertence dropped two gold coins 
near him, and as the soldier stretched out his hand to seize them a 
confederate carried off the jewels. Another plan is to get up a 
mock fight among themselves in a b&z&r, under cover of which thefts 
are committed. The Barwir women also frequent fidrs like 
Ajudhya, Devi P&tan^ etc., and in rich dresses attend shrines and 
rob the worshippers. They also adopt the disguise of Brfthman 
women, and thus gaining admission to the private apartments of 
native ladies, commit depredations. Barw&rs freely use the railway, 
and rob travellers. 

16. Formerly they used always to take the stolen property 

home ; but this has been in a great measure 

Diapoaal of the booty. .. ,. i . .% r i a i_ 

discontmacd, smce the police began to make 
searches and the tribe has come under special supervision. Some is 



215 barwAr. 

left with reoeivers in the chief places frequented hy them. With 
some they come homo after sunset^ and keep it that night at their 
houses^ and next day make it over to the Sahua for distribution. 
First a deduction is made of 8} per cent. — 1} for Mfth&btr or 
Hanum&ni H for B&Iapir, 1} for Deviji. Out of the remainder^ 28 

per cent, is made over to the Barw&r who stole the property^ and the 

• 

balance is equally divided among the whole clan, including the thief 
himself. Out of the 28 pet cent, paid to the thief, the Sahua appro- 
priates half, and also receives his own share as a member of the gang. 
Thus the gains of the thief and Sahua are equal. It is also a rule 
that if a Barw&r returns with gold muhan the Sahua pays him 
B12 for each, and retains them himself. The rate is the same what- 
ever the value of the coin may be, and this B12 is divided. Again, 
for silver bullion the Sahua pays only 10 annas for each rupee. 
Cloth and arms are the property of the thief. As to coral beads, 
one-sixth is given to the thief and Gve-sixthstothe Sahua, who pays 
one anna for each bead ; and this sum is divided among the dan, 
including the thief and the Sahua. For pearls, the Sahua pays 
Bl-4-0 for each lot of 24, and the sum is divided. Then, when the 
spoils are divided, the Sahua produces his aooount and charges 
from B 1-8-0 to Bl-12-0 for each rupee he has advanced to the 
thief's family during his absence. For any balance duo the Sahua 
takes a bond for a year at 100 per cent. All Barwftrs are always 
in debt to the Sahua. The zamind&rs of villages in which Barw&rs 
live realise from them a poll-tax of Bl-8-0 per head, known as 
subkdi, and S per cent on the value of property known as eiaumdi. 
They also get Bl per house known as mtimr^ginmi. Besides this the 
zamind&r gets presents after a successful raid, and on occasion of 
births, marriages, etc., in his family. This tribute is known as iavaila. 
In the same way the zamind&r takes fees for bailing a Barw&r. 

This account has been mainly taken from a report prepared 
shortly after the Mutiny on the methods of the Barw&rs. Their 
criminality has much diminished since they have been brought 
under the Criminal Tribes Act ; but the details are so interesting 
from an ethnographical point of view that they deserve reproduction. 

17. The Barw&rs have an elaborate thieves' Latin of their own. 

ThieToi' pioois o( the ^he following list has been prepared by M. 

^»^*«- Karam Ahmad, Deputy Collector of Oonda, 

with the assistance of the police officers fit present in cJiarge of the 



barwAb. 



216 



tribe. It would be easy to show that many or meet of the wordi 
are oormpted Hindi : — 
Sahua— the leader of a gang. 
Dhebra — the attendant of a 



Kabkatta-^a man who oon- 
cealB part of the property. 

Khiliyai Nalhiya — amanwho 
faithfully gives up all he 
steals. 

jQsara — a rich Barwftr. 

Rih| Sajurha — one who works 
for wages. 

Roti khaha— one in ordinary 
oiroumstances. 

Langri bigdna — to tie a purse 
round the waist. 

Nal budana — ^to fix a lucky 
day for a journey. 

Phanr chhuma — ^to put on 
the Br&hmanical thread. 

Lut ai ao khankhur dte 
hain — clear out ; the police 
are coming. 

BhQnk Si do— disperse. 

LAngri lagdo-^oonceal the 
goods in your belt.. 

Wahi tir m§l dabdva hai— 
let us go where there is 
much to gain. 

AkautI na kurais — don't be- 
tray your companions. 

Murih ka asrSi deo— I am 
eanght ; give up hope for me. 

Mdti lai — ^roU on the ground. 

Chhdwa kuchayo na nehti 
na kinoi nahin tau uthai 
jfio gdi— do not reveal any- 
thing or you will be put to 
death. 



Anchari sahdike chdns rfig 

Ide— ^fchrow your sheet over 

the goods and escape. 
Pohina hai khfili Ui nar-let 

us dig the property from the 

g^round. 
SubSA — tax paid by the Bar- 

wftrs to the zamtndir. 
Chaundi — tax paid on value 

of stolen property. 
MQnr ginni — Chouse-tax paid 

by Barwftrs. 
Kavaila — presents given to 

mtnd&rs at marriages. 
Namut — xnaju 
Bdn — woman. 
Bah u b— Barwir man* 
Bah u ban ^Barwftr woman; 
KIryar— eon. 
Chhdwa — grandson. 
TirySr— boy of another tribe. 
Dhuchar— old man. 
DhQchari — old woman. 
Chhfii — ^Barwftr's daughter. 
K sar — ^Brfthman. 
Tenwfir — B&jput. 
Phalru — Musalmin. 
Chorka — British officer. 
Baijardi— a Mja. 
Sahdjan — a merchant. 
Mu8kdr--a Elyasth. 
SQgha — a goldsmith. 
Savat— a Bh&t. 
Kitiha — a blacksmith. 
Ludukha— a confectioner. 
Kdrikha — a torch-bearer. 
Maskata — a barber. 
Chipta — an oil-man. 



217 



babwAr; 



Matiha— a potter. 
Led u ha — a Eurmi or Lodha. 
Sisuha — a washerman. 
BamSn— a sweeper; tanner; 
shoe-maker. 

Suldaha — a bearer. 
Guvaha — a eowherd. 
Benu — a tailor. 
Putaha— a liquor seller. 
Aluhya — a beggar. 
Saturya — a dancing girl. 
Benari — a prostitute. 
Lumit — a Kurmi or Barw&r. 
Bisnl — ^valuable property. 

Guga— \ 

PachhSdha— r various kinds 
Auhiriya— ( ofBarwto. 

Udh— J 

Ruh — a poor Barw&r. 
SiyShi — a money-changer. 

Kula dhdnsu — officer in 
charge of a police station. 

Nahkiar — a head police officer. 

Churga — a constable. 

Chuktahwa — a peon. 

Bingar — a slave. 

Pan — one acquainted with the 
Barw&r language. 

Bantikhar — a handsome wo- 
man. 

Karchhi — a cowry. 

Beng — ^pice; a Barwftr's fees. 

Chikain — a gold Mti^ar. 

Bikdsu — four annas. 

Telahi-— eight annas. 

Kinara — ten or fifteen rupees. 

Sflt — ^twenty rupees. 

Bhita bhdri— one hundred 
rupees. 



Audh durgani— fifty or five 

hundred rupees. 
BajHr — a thousand rupees. 
Ganda — ^twenty-four rupees. 
Eajari-Hoight. 
Eaira— -a garden. 
Dip — day. 
Nehai — a &dr; collection of 

people. 
Dari— a highway. 
Bep u r — an unfrequented road. 
Butahar — simple^ careless. 
Birah — ^wide awake. 
M u dhar — ^not on guard. 
ThQk — a gang. 
Tikhurki — ^valuable things. 
Ghavar — an army. 
Ghhulu — ^be silent. 
Bel— head. 
BOI— face. 
Chandrukh— eyes. 
Paiu— hand. 
Sunghni— ^ose. 
Gavana — shoe, foot. 
Lutakhar— breast. 
Thfiru — grove, timber. 
Chanduph-— ^ood. 
Sukhar— river. 
Laupju — ^water, fish. 
Kelt— fire. 

Bhabhl— box, well, pt. 
Son ra— chair, stool. 
Tinra^bundle. 
Basuth — ^book. 
Bendcha — ^looking-glass. 
Gudara — shrine, bathingplaoe." 
Sunrhi — beat, elephant. 
Nftt — temple. 
Pheru swfim I— Mosque. 

Belficha— Hindu temple. 



BABVilt 



218 



Songala — Eluropeanbangdow. 
M a r — i wel li n g- house. 
Chivari— thatch, cot. 
Sullu — gate. 
Aijapu — spriest. 
Kalhar" — wheeled tartiago. 
DehSnu — ^brito. 
Chikari— cattle. 
Putai — lamp. 

Kunkhai^-village watchman. 
Chfinsu, Khalna, Milavi— 

LQnl — ^plunder. 

Uthai dalna — to murder. 

Tipaha— murder by poioon. 

Khurkana — kidnapping of 
children. 

KailiySna— «rgoii. 

8umv — affray, riot. 
■ Jhumnl — flogging. 

Chamgaya — impriBonment. 

Oip — term of imprisonment. 

Benbi — cohabitation. 

U rso — comfortable eleep. 

Gudhana— to eat. 

Ganth— to drink. 

Pib — to flit. 

Nus' — to plunder. 

Phona baikali — ^to dig pro- 
perty out of the-groond, 

LutlSna— to oome hastily. 

Bhaunkana — to leave the 
road. 

Debidina — to oonoeal stolen 
property. 

Gainjal ISna — to oall up the 
whole gang. 

Kachhana — to be afraid of. 



Dharfir— ft swovd or othet 

wei^n. 
Khopurl— ft shield. 
UnSva — oom. 
ChurkI— nulk, batter. 
Pitari — ^pepper. 
PhurvAnl-^ftrlio, onion. 
Lang — meal. 

Dutar — intoxioating liquor, 
Bhagdvati — meat. 
Chupra — butter, oil. 
Pharoti— {ookles, TBgetibleB. 
Rasosi — salt. 

Gumi — rioe^ bread, andpalae. 
Lingi — ^parched grun. 
Digna — to smoke and dmr 



Patakhu- 



a gun. 



Lurhi — ftoamel 

PhOnk— buliock, a hnffalo. 

Nikulha, DautSra— a horse. 

Chukarahwa — a mule or am, 

Sunha — a tiger, a wolf. 

Nem i — a sheep, a goat. 

SithSI — Bweetmeats. 

BakalsithSi— ooftrse sweet- 
meats. 

Sethar-^peorls, precdous stones. 

Chuksar — nhrer. 

Rih— «o}^r. 

8ul, Bakhil— beU metal. 

D ha ra r wa I a — iron . 

Phoridata — oom. 

Kharfii dllna— to sell rtolon 
property. 

Nikra— gold and alnt on»> 
ments. 

Phudiha — ^pearl or ootal 



219 



baewAb. 



8unht, Banth* — gold bead 
necklace. 

Tungani — ^noee ring. 

Betal— gold necklace. 

Tevaki— a bangle. 

Gulchimnii Putpata — an ear 
oniament. 

Guna — a wrist ornament. 

Bisendhi— metal plates, etc. 

Chunti — a lota. 

Bugna — a tub. 

Dagana — a huqqa. 

Ghaigha — a large metal vessel. 

Biguli — a metal dish. 

Kadenia— a vessel. 

M u n h lagan i-—grasst 

Bhambhi — a backet. 

Kaili — a lamp stand. 

Banauti— a metal box. 

Chihu — a large metal pot. 

Bijra — cloth. 

Lamaicha-*apparel. 

Phutkan — a turban or Waist- 
band. 



Chappan— « sheet. 
Duna, Agasi — a cap. 
Tilauthi — a waist dotfau 
Sirkii Sulga— a small oloth 

worn over the head.. 
Padangarer — trousers. 
Banri — a woman's head dress. 
Salaicha — a woollen carpet. 
Datta — a handkerchief. 
Murghumana — a petticoat. 
Thaphu, baklas^a quilt. 
Tikhuri— rich clothes. 
Selva-^a small bag. 
Kulahi — a large bag for cash. 
Basith— a bundle of cloth. ^ 
Davaiwala — a carpet. 
Chin— brocade. 
Bambu— tents. 
Sunvi-*a double shawl. 
Betachha — an umbrella. 
Rutika-^old and silver arti- 
cles. 
Lugra — money offered to the 

gods. 



Listrihution of the Barwdrs according to the Census of 1891. 



DiBTBIOT. 


Nnmbor. 


Dmtbiot. 


Nmabar. 


Sab&mnpur 


11 


Allablkbid 


446 


Maihura • . • . 


206 


Jbinsi .... 


146 


Agra .... 


73 


Hardoi .... 


6 


Ikreilly .... 


861 


Faiz^bU 


42 


Mor&d4bkl 


664 


Qonda * • • . • 


2,679 


Sbllbjab^Qpar . . . 


190 


Babriiob. 


76 


Cawnpnr . • • . 


284 










Total • 


6,062 



V 



barwAb; 220 

v^ Barw&r. — A sept of RftjpatB of whom Mr. Carniegy writes* :-^ 
'^Thejr are eaid to be an offshoot of the Bais, and to have oome 
from Dnndiyakhera, aliont three hundred years ago, under two 
leaders, Baryftr Sinh, f romi whom they take their name, and Chiha 
Sinh| whence the Ch&hu elan. These two brothers were imprisoned 
l^ the Emperor Akbar at Delhi. The elder of the two brothers, 
during his incarceration, had a dream by night, in which he saw a 
deity who annoanced himself as Elariya Deota, and promised them 
deliverance and future greatness, and at the same time pointed out 
the spot where his effigy was buried in the earth. Soon after, on 
their release, they sought for and found the effigy and carried it off 
to the village of Chit&wan in Pargana Pachhimr&th, where they set 
it up as the object of their domestic adoration, and where it is still 
worshipped by both branches. Their sacred place is Rftmgh&t at 
Begamganj, which was selected by their chieftain, DiUbd Sinh, in* 
consequence of their being excluded from Ajudhya by the enmity of 
the SArajbansi Th&kurs. Another account makes them an ofbhoot 
of the Bais who came from Mfingipfttan or Pathinpor, soath-west 
of Jaypur, where their B&ja Saliv&hana, had a fort. Thence they 
came to Chit&wan Kariya and expelled the Bhars. There is a 
romantic legend describing how ten heroes of the clan carried off 
Padmani, the lovely queen of Kanauj, and made her over to the 
Emperor of Delhi, who in return gave them rent-free lands fourteen 
toi in circumference. These Barw&rs were notorious for the praotioe 
of infanticide. Two daughters of the chief of the family who were 
permitted to live have married, one the Janw&r ex-Bftja of Gk>nda, 
and the other the Raikw&r Raja of B&mnagar Dhimari, in the Bira- 
banki District ; the Barw&rs generally selected wives from the Pal- 
wtr, Kachhwftha, Eausik, and Bais septs, which is curious, as they 
^olaim Bais origin* These Barw&rs are probably of equivocal abori- 
ginal descent, and the heroic legend given above has probably been 
appropriated from some other clan/' The Barw&rs of Ballia aro 
reported to take brides from the Ujjaini, Haihobans, Narwini, 
Kinwftr, Nikumbh, Sengar, and Khiti, and to give girls to the 
Haihobans, Ujjaini, Narwftni, Nikumbh, Einw&r, Bais Bisen, and 
Raghubansi. Their gotta is Easyapa. 

2. They are elsewhere known under the name of Birwir and 
Berwftr. In Oh&zipur they say they first came from Delhi, and 

> l'ais464a B%iiUfMfi% Bfporl, S80. 19. 



221 



ba&wAb.. 



take their name from Bemagar, their leading village. Thej ve 
said to have oome under the anspioes of the Narauliyas, whom thej 
helpod to expel the Cheros.^ There is a sept of them in the 
Chhapra District. In Azamgarh' they are said to be both 
Chhatris and Bhutnh&rs^ and not to rank high among ather. 
" Each set ignores the origin of^ or any oonneotion with^ the otherst 
The Bhatnhftrs can only say that they came from the westward. 
The Chhatris say they are Tomars, and were led from Bemagar, 
near Delhi^ to Azamgarh, by a chief, Ghurak Deo, who lived between 
1SS6 and 1455 A. D. The Chhatri and Bhutnh&r branches aie of 
the same origin, as at marriages and other feasts they refuse to 
take from their hosts or offer to their guests broken cakes of pulse 
(bara). The origin of the custom is said to have been that at a 
feast to which a number of the Birwftrs had been invited by another 
clan, their treacherous hosts, on the password bara kkandm ehaldo 
{khanda means ''a sword'' as well as ''broken''), slaughtered the 
Birw&rs. Their name is probably connected with this custom. The 
Br&hman ancestor of the sept is said to have oome from Eanauj ; 
but its different branches are not unanimous as to his name or pedi- 
gree, or how they came to Azamgarh." 



Dulribution of Jiarwdr RdjpuU according to Ue Cemm of 

1891. 



DiBTBIOT. 


Namber. 


DltTBIOT. 


Number. 


Aligarh • • • • 

AUablbU. 

JAlaan • • • . 

Benares • • • . 

Jaanpur • • • • 

BaUia . . . . 


5 

SO 
84 
50 
46 
7,608 


Qoimkhpar • • • 
Basil . . 
Asamgarh • 

Goiida . • . • 
SnliAopar • • • 

Total 


800 

1,716 

5,249 

8,409 

54 

28 




18.492 



I ddham, Jf«mo., L» 61, 09. 



BASOB. 222 

Bailor.^ — ^A tribe fotmd only in the Bnndelklumd Division, and 
Qsiially^ regarded as a sulxsaste of Domi^. Some of them are ooea- 
idonal visitors to Mirzapor and other towns, where the men work 
as musioians and basket-makers^ and the women as midwivetf. The 
name of the tribe seems to mean '^ worker in the bamboo/^ and to 
be the same as* B&nsphor {q, p,) . The Basors have a large number 
of exogamons sections, of which locally the most important are : in 
Hamtrpur, the B&hmangot, Dhimeb, Gbtela, Katahriya, Paraonijray 
Sakarw&r, Samangot, Sarmoriya, Sonach, and S&pa or Supaoh 
Bhagat, the Dom hero ; in Jhinsi the Bar&r, Basgarh, Basobiya^ 
and Dh&nnk; in J&lann, the Baghela, Balfthar, Khangrela, and in 
Latitpnr, the Barftr, Morel, and Porabiya. In Mirzapnr they name 
four exogamons sections, — Kulpariya, Eatariya (named from the 
iaUri or carved knife used in splitting the bamboo) ; Neoriya;, which 
is* also a section of Dharkftrs (;.«.)> <^^ takes its name from mewar, 
a yonng, soft bamboo ; and Bamhila, who say^ that they are so called 
because they had once some connection with Br&hmans. In Jh&nsi 
the Basors are also known as Bar&r and Dh&nnk. Barftr is appap 
rently derived from the Sanskrit varafoilii idra, '^ a maker of string/' 
Dh&nnk is from the Sanskrit dkanusiia, *^ a bow/' When a Basor 
abandons his regular occupation of working in bamboo and takes 
service with a land-owner as messenger or drum-beater,, he becomes 
known in Jh&nsi by the name of Bar&r, and the Dh&nuks seem to 
have been an offshoot from the original Basor stock, who took to the 
profession of bow-making. They now, however, work as much in 
bamboo as the regular Basors do ; and all three — Basors, Dhftnuks^ 
and Bar&rs — intermarry and eat and drink together. In Jhinsi they 
have no traditions of their origin, but believe themselves indigenous 
to* that part of the country. They name in Jh&nsi, like so many of 
these menial castes^ seven exogamons sections, Jhitiya, Loleri,Ba8mel9 
Saina, Astiya, Bhardela^ and Gursariya : of the origin, and explani^ 
tion of these names they can give no explanation. A man must 
marry in Jh&nsi in a section different from his own ; he will not give 
his daughter in marriage into a section from which his own wi& has 
come ; but he can take wives for his sons, brothers, and brothers^ 
sons, etc., from that section. The prohibition against intermarriage 
lasts only for three generations. In Mirzapur the stray visitors who 



1 Baaed on enqnirioa mode at Mirsapnr, and m noU by K« Karam Ahmad, 
Depnij Oolleotor, Jhausi. 



223 BASOB. 

occasionally come are said to be goyemed by the same rale of 
exogamy as in the case of the Dhark&rs {q. v.)^ As £ar as religion 
goes the only bar to intermarriage is conversion to another creedj 
such as Islftm or Christianity. A man may have as many wives as 
he can afford to keep^ and some' in Jhftnsi have as many as three or 
four. The first wife^ known as Biy&hta or Jethi^ manages the 
house^ and the others are subordinate to her. Farther than this the 
Basors admit the introduction of a woman of another tribe; but it 
is assorted that she is not allowed^ at any rate at firsts complete caste 
privileges^ and if she comes of a caste lower than the Baser, such as 
the Bhangi, she is never so admitted. If she be of any superior 
caste, she is admitted to full tribal privileges if her husband give a 
feast ( rod) to the clansmen. 

2. Women are allowed full freedom before marriage, and fomioa^ 

tion, if it do not become a publie scandal, and 
particularly if the woman's paramour be a 
fellow caste-man, is lightly regarded. They usually marry their 
girls at puberty at the age of ten or twelve ; if they are orphans; 
they settle the marriage themselves, and in any case a considerable 
freedom of choice seems to be allowed. This choice, curiously 
enough, is always notified through a female relation, sister, mother, 
or aunt of the boy or girl, and she notifies it to the tribal council, 
who, if they agree, permit the marriage to proceed. Widows and 
widowers living by themselves have full freedom of choice. Some 
small sum of money, or some vessels, clothes, etc., are usually given 
by the parents of the bride as dowry, and these become the property 
of Uio husband. There is no regular divorce, but if a pair do not 
agree, or if the husband is dissatisfied with the conduct of his wifei 
they can separate at any time, and re-many or take a partner by 
the iapdi form, within the caste. If the parties agree to separate, the 
case need not necessarily come before the tribal council unless there 
is some dispute about the property, or the woman protesta against 
the charge brought against her and challenges her husband to prove 
it in the presence of the assembled brethren. In such case it appears 
to be the rule that no circumstantial evidence of adultery is accepted ; 
if there are no actual eye-witnesses, the charge will be dismissed. 
Any child bom by any woman or by any form of connection 
recognised by tribal usage is admitted as legitimate, and ranks as an 
heir to any property, which is seldom much, that may be left by his 



BA80B. 224 

father. If a Basor woman have a ohild by a man of a higher oaste, 
snch children will not be allowed to intermarry with a BaBor of 
pure blood| but must find a husband or wife from among famiKeii 
which suffer from thesame bar sinister* . On thecontrary^ if a Basor 
keep a woman of a higher caste than his own, he has seldom any 
difficulty^ particularly if he be a man of standing and substance in 
the tribCi in marrying his children in a family of pure blood. 

8. As a rule all widows of marriageable age find a new partner. 

Such connection is fully recognised, and is 

Widow nutfriAge. * . -«» <• 

known in Mirzapur as iapdi, and in Bundel- 
khand as diarauna or baithdna, ^%aking her sit in thehouse.^^ There 
is no particular ceremony in widow marriage^ except the announce* 
ment of the connection and the giving of a feast to the brethren. 
The levirate is recognised^ but is not compulsory on the widow. In 
a recent case at Jh&nsi the tribe excommunicated a man who formed 
a connection with the widow of his younger brother, and expressed 
extreme horror at such an act. If the children of a widow are very 

' young she generally takes them with her to the house of her new 
husbandi who adopts them as his own, and is held responsible for 
getting them married and starting them in the world. In this ease 
they lose all rights to the property of their own father. But if the 
children are grown up they usually stay with the family of their 
late &ther, and are heirs to his estate. If the widow is old and does 
not form a new connection, she is entitled to a life maintenance in 
the house of her late husband. If a widow forms a connection with 
the younger brother of her late husband, he takes all the property 

^and adopts his nephew or nieces as his own. In Mirzapur there 
is a regular bride-price fixed by tribal custom : this is nine and a 
half rupees in cash, liquor to the value of three rupees, two sheets^ 
three ieti of coarse sugar, and two un of sweetmeats. More or leas 
than this cannot be given witnotii leave of the council. An outsider 
marrying a virgin widow has to pay twenty-two rupees, and it is a 
peculiarity among them that the man, as in other castes, does not 
go to fetch his wife, but her relatives bring her, realise the marriage 
fee, and then make her over to her new partner. 

4. A woman during delivery is attended by a woman of the tribe. 

With the umbilical cord a few pice are 



and at the door of the delivery room a broken 
shoe or the horn of some animal is burnt to ward oft evil from 



226 BASoa. 

mother and ohild ; the foul smelliDg smoke thus produced is sup- 
posed to be particularly offensive to evil spirits. They have the 
usual sixth {cikatki) and twelfth day {baraii) ceremony^ and on 
the latter a young pig is sacrificed in the name of some godling, 
about whom they are most reluctant to give any information or 
even to mention him by name. After her purification the mother 
worships the family well by rubbing red lead on the platform and 
pouring some water and a few grains of rice near it. Children have 
their ears bored and are ceremonially shaved at the age of five or six. 
.5. In Mirzapur the betrpthal is arranged by the husband of 

the father's sister of the boy^ possibly a 
emom . g^^^^^^j ^f ^j^^ matriarchate. The betrothal 

{mantfui) is concluded by sending a skirt {ghaghri) and a sheet 
{ofhfii) with some liquor and treacle for the bride^ aEter which the 
clansmen are feasted on pork and liquor. Some time after is a second 
ceremony in which the two fathers exchange leaf-platters filled with 
water or spirits^ into one of which the boy's father drops a rupee or 
two. In Jhansi the marriage is first arranged by the women, and 
then a day is fixed on which the friends of the bride send a turban 
and a rupee for the bridegroom. This is received in the presence of 
the brethren, who are entertained with tobacco and spirits^ which 
last in the case of poor people is replaced by shai'bat. When the 
present has once been accepted, the engagement is held final, and 
either party repudiating it is suitably dealt with by the tribal ooun* 
cil. Then follows the matmangara ceremony common to all low 
castes in the Eastern Districts. Among the Basors the earth, on 
this occasion, is dug by the brother-iii-law of the boy's father and 
the father of the bride, in which, again, we seem to find a survival 
of the matriarchate. In the centre of the marriage shed is a bamboo, 
and some wooden images of parrots are fixed up, with a jar full of 
water covered with a saucer filled with rice. Then one of the senior 
men of the tribe makes a fire offering {horn) in honour of the deceased 
ancestors, and the clothes of the pair ai*e knotted together, and they 
are made to walk seven times round the sacred fire. In Jh&nsi an 
old man says this prayer : ^* Ye godlings {deota), stand Mritness that 
this pair are joined by the knot. Keep them as closely joined in 
love as the knot which ties, their raiment.^' On the fourth day ii 
the chauihi eAAorna, when the marriage pitchers {Jtalsa) are thrown 
into water by the mother of the bridegroom. The binding prt of 
Vol.. I. Q 



BA80B. 226 

the ceremony is 'the giving away of the bride {ianydddn) by the 
bridegroom. 

6. When they can afford it^ they bom the dead in the nsnal 

way ; poor people simply fling the oorpee into 

Death Of^remonief* • •• • i • • • 

mnmng water ; if no nver be convenient^ it u 
buried. Some sacrifice a hog in the name of the dead man ; some 
do not. After six months the brethren are feasted. Some Idll a pig, 
ont off its legs, and bary the trunk {iMnti, ikMHan) in the court- 
yard^ in the belief that this prevents the ghost of the dead from 
giving annoyance to the survivors. In Mirzapur it ajipears that^ 
as among the Doms, the sister's son of the dead man acts as priest 
at his obsequies ; but this is denied at Jh&nsi. At any rate it is 
quite certain that no Br&hman officiates, and that all the ceremonies 
are performed by some old man of the tribe. The death impurity 
lasts only three days, and is then removed by bathing. 

7. The tribal deities are K&li-Bhawftni and Ganga M&i| or 

Mother Ganges. To the east of the Province 
they offer sacrifices of pigs to Vindhya- 
bftsini Pevi, at BindhAchal. In Jhftnsi they offer to Eili or 
Jagadamba Devi, during the Naur&tra of Chait and Kukt, or in 
other months, on a Monday or Friday, oocoanutsi sweets, spirits, 
betel leaves, and sometimes a goat. In Jh&nsi they also worship 
various deified persons who are called B&ba. Thus there is Gus&in 
B&ba, who has a platform under a ptpal tree near Moth lUistI, in 
the Jhftnsi District. He is said to roam about in his ascetic cos- 
tume in the neighbourhood, and sometimes speaks to people. Nafe 
B&ba has no special shrine ; but his platform is to be seen in many 
villages with a little niche for holding a light, which is occasionally 
lighted in his honour. Many curious tales of this worthy are 
told, one being that after his death he attended the marriage of 
his grand-daughter, and made all the arrangements for the reception 
of the guests. Mahton B&ba is the ghost of some celebrated 
village headman of the olden time, of whom little is known except 
that he is now a guardian of villages, and wards off famine and 
pestilence from men and cattle if he be duly propitiated with some 
sweets and cocoanuts. The Sayyid, or Shahtd Mard, is some 
Muhammadan mai'tyr, whom they greatly reverence, and another 
worthy of the same class, Jiwan Sliih B&ba, is also much respected. 
In no part of this worship are the services of Br&hmans required ; 
but the Joshi or village astrologer is occasionally consulted to 



227 BA80R. 

select lucky days (or weddings and the like. Th^ir holidays are the 
Phagua or Holi^ the Kajari^ the Panchaiyftn^ Naumi^ and Daemi^ 
at all of which they get drunk^ if they can aCFord to do so. They 
are much afraid of the ghosts of those who die a violent death by 
drowning or some other accident. Such ghosts haunt the scene of 
the accident^ and need careful propitiation. They have a very 
vague idea of the other world. They believe in a sort of hell 
into which evil-doers are flung and fall into a pit full of human 
ordure and urine.^ This place they call Narak^ of which Mann 
enumerates twenty-one varieties. Some of them who are becoming 
more enlightened have now begun to perform some rude kind of 
trdddia. Women who are tattooed on the arms^ i^riists, breasti 
and below the knee^ become holy^ and the door-keepers of Bhagw&n 
admit them into his paradise. 

^. The women wear nose-rings {naikjfa, /^Aiff^Mf)/ «ar-ring8 

(bdli), ear ornaments (iaranpi^ll), ^bandee 

Booial onstoms. , . , 

{ehdfi,iara),BXik\eoTrismeniB{j)airiftdniar). 
They swear by the Ganges, K&li*Bhaw&ni, and on their sons' heads. 
They will* eat almost any meat, including beef and pork, and all 
kinds of fish, but not monkeys, vermin, and the like. They will 
not eat othor people's leavings, nor food touched by a Musahar, 
Dom, Cham&r, Dhobi, Hal&lkhor, or Dhark&r. Like all of the 
Dom race, 'they have a hatred for Dhobis, and consider them the 
vilest of all castes. They have the usual taboos. They will not 
touch their younger brother's wife, th^r child's mother-in-law 
{iamdiin), nor will they mention their wives by name. The elder 
brother's wife can eat out of the same dish as her husband's younger 
brother; but no wife or younger brother's wife will eat with 
a husband or his elder brother or father. Their salutation is Edm I 
Bdm ! and the juniors touch the feet of their elders. Women seem, 
on the whole, to be fairly well treated ; but they are soundly beaten 
if they misbehave themselves. Ko one, not even a Dom or Mehtar, 
will drink water from their hands. They will eat food cooked by 
a N&i or any higher caste. 

9. They live by making baskets and other articles manufao* 

tured out of bamboo, and playing on the flute 
^^ {bduiuli), or the tambourine {d^fla), at mar- 

riages. Their women are midwives. 



- - " 



I Ou iliU idou uf hull loo UKuiffdr, 10. 
Vol.1. Q^J 



BA80B. 228 bAwabita. 

■ 

DittrihvUon of He Baiort aecording to ike Ceneue of 1891. 



DiBTBIOT. 


Number. 


DiBTBIOT. 


Number. 


Cawnpur 

B&nda » 


42 

12»264 


Jh&nti • 
JAlaun 

Total 


7,912 
6^1 




26,447 



Bawariya.^ — ^A hunting and oriminal tribe praotic&Ily fonnd 
only in Muzaffamagar and Mirzapur. VariooB explanations have 
been given of the name. Colonel Dalton would connect it with 
the Sanskrit barbara, varvara, which appears to be the Oreek 
barbaroi, and applied to any outcaste who cannot speak Sanskrit. 
Others take it to be another form of the Hindi bdoh, hd&ra 
(Sanskrit/ ref^^Ai^ 'Mnflamed with wind ^'). It is most probaUy 
derived from the Hindi banwar, ''a creeper '^ (Sanskrit bkraimara), 
in the sense of a noose made originally from some fibrous plant 
and used for trapping animals, which is one of the primary occupa- 
tions of the tribe. The S&wariyas in these provinces B&em, to fall 
.into two branches — those resident in the Upper Duftb^ who still 
retain some of their original customs and manners, and those to the 
east^ who assert a more respectable origin^ and have abandoned their 
original predatory life. 

2. The best account of the western branch is that given by 

Mr. J. Wilson *— '< The B&wariyas of Sirsa 
are divided into four sections — (1) the Bidl- 
wati from Bikftner territoryi claiming connection with the Bidlp 
wat B^jputs, giving Chithor as their place of origin ; (2) the 
Deswftli, living in the country about Sirsa ; (3) the Kapriya to the 
west about Delhi ; (4) the Kalkamaliya, or ''black blanket people/^ 
who (especially the women ) wear black blankets, and are found 
chiefly among the Sikhs of the jungle and M&lwa country. These 
four sections do not eat together or intermarry ; but say they all 
came originally from the country about Bikftner, They are most 
numerous in Rajput&na and the districts bordering upon it, but 
extend up the Satlaj to Firozpur and Lahore. The name of the 

1 Based on onquiriea at Mirsapnr and a note by the Depnty Inipeotor of SobooU, 
Bijnor. 

> Sina Settlement Report, 123. 



The Western B4wariyas. 



220 bAwabita. 

tribe 66em8 to be derived Irom the banwar or finare with which they 
catch wild animals^ but many of them despise this their hereditary 
occupation *, and, indeed, it seems now to be practised only by the 
K&lkamaliya or Fanjabi section. The B&wariyas ai*e seemingly 
an aboriginal tribe^ being of a dark complexion and inferior phy* 
siqne^ though resembling the B&gri J&ts. Many of them are fond 
of a wandering life^ living in wretched huts, and feeding upon 
lizards, foxes, and other jungle animals, but they say they will not 
eat fish. In other districts they are known as a criminal tribe^ 
but hero many of them are fairly respectable cultivators, some are 
employed as village watchmen, and many of them aie skilled in 
tracking. They are divided into clans (ffot, tiai) with R&jput 
names, such as ,Chauh&ni Panw&r, Bhiti. The B&wariyas who 
live among the Sikhs (K&lkamaliya) wear the hair long {iet), and 
some of them have become regular Sikhs, and have received the 
pa^ul. The black blanket B&wariyas speak Panjftbi, and the BidA- 
wati Bftgri ; but (hey have besides a dialect peculiar to themselves, 
and not understood by the ordinary peasants. B&wariyas consider 
themselves good Hindus, and say that regular Br&hmans officiate at 
their marriage ceremonies — ^the same Br&hmans as officiate for JAts 
and Banyas. They hold the cow sacred and will not eat beef; they 
burn their dead and send their ashes to the Ganges. They are 
said sometimes to admit men of other tiibes to their fiatemity, and 
an instance is given in which a Banya for love of a BAwariya 
woman became a B&wariya himself. '' 

3. " Whole families of Bftwariyas oome South in the rains for a 
. , .. lizard hunt, and may be seen retuminir with 

Manner of hnnting #111.1. . 

praotiMod by the West- baskets full of their game, which live for days 

without food, and thus supply them with a 
succession of fresh meat. The Uzard has a soft fat body and a broad 
tail with spikes along each side. He lives on grass, cannot bite 
severely, and is sluggish in his movements, so that he is easily 
caught. He digs a hole for himself of no great depth, and the easiest 
way to catch him is to look out for the scarcely perceptible air-hole 
and dig him out ; but there are various ways of saving oneself this 
trouble. One, which I have seen, takes advantage of a habit the 
lizard has in cold weather (when he never comes out of his hole) of 
coming to the mouth for air and warmth. The Chiihra or other 
sportsman puts^off his shoes and steals along the prairie till he sees 
signs of a lizard's hole. This he approaches on tiptoe, raising over 



bAwaiuta, 230 

bis head/with both hands a mallet with a. round,, sharp pomty and 
fixing hi^L eyes intently upon the hole. When close enough, he 
bringBi down his mallet with all his might on the ground just 
behind, the mouth o{. the hole, and is often successful in breaking 
the lizard^B back before he awakens to a sense of his danger. Ano- 
ther plan, which I have not seen, is to tie a wisp of grass to a long 
stick and move it over the hole^ so as to make a rustling noise* 
The lizard within thinks ^^ Oh here's a snake 1 1 may as well give in, '^ 
and comes to the mouth of the hole, putting out his tail first that 
he may not see ^ his executioner. The sportsman smzes his tail 
and snatches him out before he has time to learn his mistake. 

4. ''Again, a body of them, men, women, and children, go out 
into the prairie in search of game. When they have sighted a herd 
of antelope in the distance, they choose a &Yourable piece of ground 
and arrange their banwan, which are a series of many running 
nooses of i-aw hide tied together and &stened loosely to the ground 
by pegs ; from the banwart they rapidly make two lines of bogies 
by sticking bits of straw with black rags tied to them into the 
ground at distances pi a foot or two apart. These linos widen away 
from the snares so as to enclose a. V-shaped piece of ground with 
sides perhaps a mile in length, the unsuspecting herd of antelope 
being enclosed within the V, at the pointed end of which are the 
snares. All this is arranged in a wonderfully short space of time, 
and when it is all ready, the main body of hunters, who have mean- 
while gone round the herd of antelope and formed a line across the 
open mouth of the V, suddenly start up, and by unearthly yells 
drive the herd inwards towards the point. The first impulse of the 
antelopes is to rush directly away from their tormentors, but they 
soon come to the long lines of fluttering bits of rag which forms 
one line of the V. They are thus directed into the place occupied 
by the snares. It i^, interesting as one of the methods by which 
an ignorant tribe with the simplest means pan by their superior 
cunning circumyent the swift antelope on his native prairies. ^^ 

5. '' The B&wariyas have a dialect of their own, which has some- 
Dialeot of the Western times been considered a sort of thieves' slang 

BAwariyaa. j^^p^ ^p ^ facilitate their combination for 

purposes of crime ; but the great mass of the Bftwariyas in this 
district are not at all given to crime, and have no desire to oonocal 
their dialect ; moreover it is spoken most generally by the women 
and children^ while the men^ at all events in their intercourse with 



231 BiWABITA. 

their neighbours^ speak in ordinary Bdgri or Panj&U. It seems pro- 
bable that it is simply the dialect of. the country of their origin, 
kept up by thorn in their wanderings. I had not much time to 
make much enquiry about it, but was given the following as their 
names for the numbers by their leading men — ei, bai, tren, ehdr^ 
pdnei, ehhau, idi, dih, naUy daukh^ vik, (20) and the following 
words — khakhra for iunra (father-in-law), khakhu for idiu 
(mother-in-law) , hdndo for idndo (lizard), manukh (man), ehdro 
(antelope), haru (snake), laukra (fox), nauri (jackal), jamna (right 
hand), dava (left hand). Some of these words may be Bftgri, and 
they are not much to go upon, but the use of h^ for «, and the 
peculiar kh for the Sanskrit palatal sibilant should afford some clue 
to the origin of the dialect ; for this kh sound, like the Arabic kk 
in kkdwind, is not found in any dialect indigenous in this part of 
India. ^^ The numeiuls are obviously of Sanskrit origin, and so 
are most of the words — ckdro, Aarina ; AarUf sarpa ; laukra, lomaia j 
naurif nakula ; jamna is the direction of the river Yamuna, Junma; 
davdy dakilina, 

6. A body of Bauriyas or B&wariyas who were, many years ago^ 

interrogated as to their customs and kindred; 
North-Weatern Provin- gave the following account of themselves^ : 
^^' — "The Mugtns and Baguras who reside in 

M&lwa and on the Chambal river commit daooity, burglary, and 
theft ; they stick at nothing. They go in large parties (kdjlla), 
sometimes as carriers of Gh^nges water, sometimes as Brfihmans, 
with the sacred string round their necks. The H&bQras commit 
theft. The GAjars call us Gidiyas, and the J&ts call us Bauris. 
Oidiya is merely a local name of our tribe | there is no distinct class 
of people of that name* The S&nsiyas are not of our tribe ; they 
are a distinct class ; they are thieves, but seldom ascend to dacoity— - 
(this is certainly incorrect). The Kanjars are all thieves ; they cut 
grass and make thatches, and bivouac in suburbs under huts of long 
grass {nrki), but always thieve. Our caste was originally Rftjput, 
and our ancestors came from M&rw&r. We have seven clans {goi) — 
Punwar, Soharki, Dabas, aliai Ddbi, ChauhAn, Tunwar, Dhandara^ 
alias Dhandal or Koli, and Gordhi, with the ChAmi, making eight 
in all. Two or three centuries ago, when the Emperor of Delhi 



1 Beleetiont from the Recordi of Oov^mmmii^ Norlh-WeBUm PravineUg l.^ S86'; 
Sorih Indian Hote$ and QimHm, I., 66. 



dAwarita. 232 

• 

attacked the fortress of Chithor and besieged it for twelve years for 
the sake of the Princess Padmani, the country became desolate^ and 
we were obliged to emigrate in search of employment^ and disperse. 
Those that came into the Delhi territory were called Baoris ; those 
that went into the Gw&lior territory were called Mngtns and 
BagAras. To the eastward they were called Baddhiks, and in M&lwa 
H&b&ras, We are not people of yesterday ; we are of ancient 
and illustrious descent. When Bftvana took away the wife of 
the god R&ma^ and R&ma wanted to recover her, men of all castes 
went to fight for him in the holy cause. Among the rest was a 
leader of the Bauris called Pardhi. When BAma vanquished his 
enemy and recovered Sita he asked Pardhi what he could do for 
him. ^ Grant/ said Pardhi^ 'that I may attend your Majesty, 
mount g^oard, and hunt in the intervals of leisure, and I shall have 
all that my heart wishes/ The god granted him his request, and 
his occupation has come down to us. If any Prince happens to 
have an enemy that he wishes to have made away with, he sends for 
some of our tribe and says, — ' Go and bring so and so's head.^ We 
go, steal into Ids sleeping apartments, and take ofE the jperson^s head 
without any other person knowing anything about it. If a Prince 
wanted, not the head of his enemy, but the gold tassels of the bed 
on which he lay asleep, we brought them to hini. In consequence 
of our skill in those matters we were held everywhere in high es- 
teem, and we served Princes and had never occasion to labour at 
tillage. This was before the emigration and dispersion of the tribe. 
We, who have come to the Delhi territory and are called Banns, 
took to the trade of thieving. Princes still employed us to take oft 
the heads of their enemies and rob them of their valuables. At 
present the Bauris confine themselves almost exclusively to robbing 
tents ; they do not steal cattle or break into houses, but they will 
rob a cart on the highway occasionally ; any other trade than 
robbery they never take to. They reside in or near villages under 
the protection of landlords, and while out for a long period at 'their 
vocation, they leave their wives and children^ under their care. They 
give them the means of subsistence, and for these advances we are 
often indebted to them three hundred or four hundred rupees by the 
time we return. When we are about to set out on our expedi- 
tions we get a loan of twenty or Uiirty rupees from the landholders 
or merchants of the place, and two days before starting we sacrifice 
a goat and make burnt oiTerings to the goddess Devi, sometimes to 



238 BAWARIYA. 

her of the fiery furnace of Jaw&la^ in the HimSlayai and sometimes 
to our old tutelary god of Chithor. We present sweetmeats and 
vow imwearicd devotions if we are successful. After this we take 
our auspices thus : — We go in the evening into the jungle, and there 
in silence expect the call. If the partridge or jackal call on the left 
we set out without further ceremony ; the hark of a fox even will 
do. If any of them call on the rights we return home and try again 
the day following. As soon as we get a good omen we set out. 
If we take it in the morning it must be before sunrise^ and the fox, 
partridge, or jackal, must cry on the right to be good. If a deer 
cross from the loft to the right it is a good omen. We have a 
couplet on this subject signifying that if the crow and the deer 
cross from the left to the right and the blue jay from left to righti 
even the wealth that has gone from us will come back.'^ 

7. The Census returns give the sections as Badniy&r^ Banw&r, 
Present condition in Bardhia, Barmftr, Chauhin, Dal6, Dhandin, 
the Upper DuAb. pyis, Garali, Gaur, Gfljar, Kori, Madniyi- 
riya, Fahari, Fanw&r^ B&jput^ Solankhi^ Saurangi, and Topiw&l*. 
Those best known in the Upper Duib are^ Turai^ Pachhftda or 
'' Western/' Gola Kori, and Khdgi. These gotrat, as they are called, 
are exogamous^ but the Turai marry only with the FachhAda and 
the Gola with the Kh&gi. This rule of exogamy they reinforce 
with the rather vague formula that mai*riage with relatives by blood 
{ffiidA kS ndUddr) is prohibited. They' can many two sisters in 
succession. They have now settled down and abandoned their 
wandering habit of life. They admit strangers into the caste. The 
only ceremony is that the convert has to eat and diink with his 
new clansmen. Some say that candidates for admission must be 
of high caste themselves ; but they do not appear to be very parti- 
cular^ and these now admissions are treated at the outset with 
some contempt, and are not all at once admitted into full tribal 
privileges. Marriage usually takes place in infancy. The standard 
of momlity is very low, because in MuzafEamagar^ it is extremely 
rare for a B&wariya woman to live with her husband. Almost 

invariably she lives with another man ; but whoever he may be^ the 
official husband is responsible for the children. Divorced wives and 
widows can marry in the clan by the katdo form, and a man can 
have two or three wives at a time. The marriage ceremony is 

I Korlh Indian Notes atui Qu§rie$, I,, 61. 



bAwarita. 234 

oarried out by the brother-in'-law {Miydna) of' the bride, and he 
makes them walk round the marriage shed, and prbmiae to be faith- 
ful to each other. The relative, in fact, does all their religiouB and 
quasi-religious eeremonies. InfideUty, contraotion of a fatal disease, 
and loss of religion and caste warrant either husband or wife giving 
up cohabitation, and if the separation is approved of by the clans- 
men, the woman can re-marry by the tar do form. It is also said 
that a wife can be discarded when she loses her good looks. 

8. They are Hindu by religion and worship KUi-Bhawftni and 

Z&hir- Dtw&n. The women in particular 

Beligicm and onstomt . Tii a . a i i 

(^ the Western B4ira- worship Kali-Bhaw&m. As already stated, 
^^^' they do not employ Br&hmans, but get their 

religious busihess done by the brother-in-law. They usually bum 
the adult dead, and bury those who have not been married. They 
are in constant fear of the ghosts of the dead, and lay out food for 
them in platters made of leaves. They now principally live by 
catching birds of all kinds. Those that are eatable, they sell ; others 
they take to the houses of rich Jain merchants, and make an income 
by releasing them from tlieir cages. They do not prostitute their 
married women or girls. They will eat almost any kind of meat 
except beef, and indulge freely in Uquor. They will eat and drink 
from the hands of any Hindu except Nats and the regular outcaste 

tribes. 

9. In direct contrast to this disreputable branch of the tribe are 

the Eastern B&wariyas of Mirzapur. They 

The Baitern BAwa- '' m 

riTM of the North- West- are very possibly an offshoot of the Bauris 
^rn roYin , ^j -^gg^^j^ Bengal, of whom Mr. Risley 

writes^': — ''They are a cultivating, earth-working, and palanquin- 
bearing race, whose features and complexion stamp them as of non- 
Aryan descent, although evidence is wanting to affiliate them to any 
particular tribe now in existence. Their meagre folk-lore throws no 
light on their origin. According to one story they were degraded 
for attempting to steal food from the banquet of the gods ; another 
professes to trace them back to a mythical ancestor named Bfthak 
Rishi (the bearer of burdens), and tells how, while returning from a 
marriage procession, they sold the palanquin they had been hired to 
carry, got drunk on the proceeds, and assaulted their Guru, who 
cursed them for the sacrilege, and compelled them to rank thence- 

1 Tribe$ ani OatUt of Bengal, I., 78. 



236 bJIwarita* 

forward amon^ the lowest castes of the communityv. Another name 
for this ancestor is Rik Muni, the same as the eponym of the Musa- 
hars and Bhuiyas ; but it would be straining conjecture to infer from 
this any connection between the Bauris and the Bhuiyas. ^' At any- 
rate the Mirzapur BHwariyas admit no connection with such people. 
According to their own account ihey were originally Bais Chhatris, 
and come from Baisw&ra, a tract of country which Sir H. M. Elliot 
deBnes as lying between Cawnpur on the west, the S&i river which, 
running through the Part&bgarh District, joins the Oihnti some 
twenty miles south-east of the town of Jaunpur ; and between the 
Clilm&b rivulet on the south, and Dikht&n, or the land of the 
Dikhit R&jputs, on the noi-th. 

10. They tell their story as follows :— There were two' Chhatri 
brothers named S&r£ and Birfi, who left Baiswftra in search of 
employment, and went to Chayanpur, in the ShAhAbftd District. 
There they took service with a R&ja who had a lovely daughter. 
When her suitor, a neighbouring B&ja, oame to woo her, the two. 
brothers challenged his wrestlers. To show their prowess they 
took a well-burnt tile and crushed it into dust, with which they 
nibbed their bodies as athletes do before they enter the arena. Then 
they tore up a great tamarind tree by the roots, and the rival 
wrestlers ran away in fear. This so pleased their master that ho 
gave them a village called Bilwari or Chin B&wari, from whence 
they take their name. They appear now to be fully recognised as 
Chhatris, and marry in the Chauh&n, Jethi, and Gaharwftr olansi 

11. They have now no landed property, but settle as tenants 
wherever they can find land. They do not admit outsiders into the 
tribe. Their marriage rules are of the type common to the more 
respectable tribes, but their special worship of Dulha Deo at 
marriages suggests a connection with some of the non- Aryan 
races. This is done on the eve. of the marriage. The house 
kitchen is plastered, and the oldest woman of the family draws a 
lota full of water from the. well, but in doing this she must use 
only her right hand. A burnt offering is then made with one-and* 
a-quartor ten of butter, and the water is poui*ed on the floor in 
honour of the godling* Widow marriage is forbidden, and a woman 
caught in adultery must be discarded. They are generally initiated 
into either the Saiva or Sikta sect, and specially worship Dulha 
Deo and one Sinha B&ba, who was a N&nak Shfthi faqtr. To him is 
made a burnt offering of sugar and butter onoe a year ; the butter 



bAwarit4. 236 

mtiBt bo of tho weight of one pioe and the sngar one quarter pioe. 
A goat is also sometimes offered in t^e house oourt-yard. The 
priests of the clan are known as the P&nres of Machhi&wan^ who 
have oome with them from their original settlement. Their death 
ceremonies are such as are performed by the higher castes. They 
al^tain from spirits^ and their women are kept under careful 
control. They eat the flesh of deer and goats^ and all kinds of fish 
except the gineh or Gangetic shark. Brfthmans will eat patH 
from their hands, and they will eat kaeheki cooked by their Brfth- 
man spiritual guides. They smoke only with their clansmen. 
Lower castes, like Kah&rs and N&is, will eat both kaekeki^sA pakki 
from their hands. 

12. The Western BAwariyas of these Provinces are best known 
The oriminai BAwa- ^^ District Officers as a criminal tribe* 
riyae. When they go on their predatory excursions, 

which extend over a large part of Northern India^ they usually 
assume the garb of faqtrs, and the only way of finding them out is 
by a peculiar necklace of small wooden beads, which they all 
wear, and by a kind of gold pin which they wear fixed to their 
front teeth.^ It seems, however, doubtful whether this last test 
is always conclusive. In cases of doubt their mouths should be 
examined, for under their tongues a hollow is formed by constant 
pressure from their younger days, in which they can secure from 
fifteen to twenty silver bits. The women are believed to possess 
secrets for charms and medicines, and sell the roots and herbs which 
they collect in the jungles. Tliey are said to be expert in making 
patchwork quilts, which they sell. Whenever they wander they 
sleep on a bed and not on the ground. One peculiarity about their 
thieving is that, like the Alagiris of Madras,' when they enter a 
house they take with them some dry grain, which they throw about 
in the dark, so as to be able by the rattle to ascertain the position of 
brass vessels and other metal articles. In Central India they are 
said to be greatly wanting in intelligence and timid in their inter- 
course with their fellowmen. They are there divided into five 
tribes ^ the Kathaur or Mew^, Chauhin, Sawandiya, Korbiyftr, 
Kodiy&r ; and each tribe has a scpai*ate hunting ground. They are 
governed by Chiefs called Hauliya, who attain their office by descent. 



• Report, Intpeelor General of PoUee, N.-W. P., 1868, p. 18. 
s MuUaly, Notee on Oriminai Tribee, 10. 



bJIwabita. 



237 



bbldIr. 



''Game is divided into three shares — one for the god of the wilds^ 
one for the god of the river, and the remainder is divided among 
those present at the captare. At the Holi they all assemble at the 
Hauliya's residence, when he oolleots his income, one rupee per head. 
For the first five years after the beard first appears, it and the hair 
are cut once a year; but ever after that they wear both unshorn, and 
their long shaggy locks add to their uncouth appearance. Few 
attain sixty years of age, and ten is the greatest number of children 
they have known one woman to bear. They call themselves a 
branch of the Dh&ngar or shepherd olass.^ '' 

Diitribution of Bdwariyas according to the Censun of 1891. 



DiBTBIOT. 



MuEaffarDagar 
Agra • 
Mirmpur • 
Gbrakhpor • 
Tar&i . 



Ballia . 



Total 



Hinda. 


MuBalmAn. 


1,107 




40 




1,838 




1 




9 




••• 


280 


2,490 


289 



Total. 

1,107 

40 

1,888 

1. 

9 

280 



2,729 



Beldar.* — (One who works with the bel or mattock.) — ^A 
general term for the aggregate of low Hindu tribes who make their 
living by earth -work. But, besides these, there appears to be a real 
endogamous group of this name found chiefly in Bareilly, Gorakh- 
pur, Basti, and Pilibhit. Mr. Risley* describes under the same 
name a wandering Dravidian caste of earth-workers and navvies in 
Bih&r and Western Bengal, many of whom are employed in the 
coal mines of Bftniganj and Barftkar. ''Both men and women 
labour, the former digging the earth and the latter removing it in 
baskets carried on the head. The Beldftrs regard this mode of carry* 
ing earth as distinctive of themselves, and will on no account carry 
earth in baskets slung from the shoulders.^' Whatever may be the 



> Balfour, Journal Aiiatie Sociely, Btngal, Vol. XIII. 

> From a note by PaadH B4m Bakbah Ohaaba of Oorakbpar. 
* Tribe$ and OoiUi, I., 86. i 



BBLdIr. 238 

. case in Bengal^ in thcde provinces at least, the practice of Carrjring 
earth and other burdens on the head and not on the back or should- 
ers is habitual among all the castes who do this kind of labouri. 
2. The Beld&rs of these provinces classified themselves at the 

last Census under three sub-castes — Bftchhal, 

Internal organisation. r^iiA jirij.mix. 

Chauhan, and Kharot. The two former are^ 
of course, well known Bftjput tribes. The Kharot appear to take 
their namd from kiar (Sanskrit, ihaia), ''grass/^ They are de^ 
scribed as a tribe of mat-makers in Basti, and a number have entered 
themselves separately at the last enumeration. Besides thesci among 
the most important local sub-castes, we find the Mahul and Orh of 
Bareilly ; the Desi, Kharfibind, and Sarwariya, or '' dwellers beyond 
the Sarju,^' of Gorakhpur ; and the ELharfibind and Maskhanwa, or 
'' flesh-eaters,^' of Basti: The Census returns give 186 sub-castes of 
the usual type. ^ Some taken from the names of existing well kno¥m 
tribes, such as Bachgoti, B&chhal, Baheliya, Bindwftr, Chaohftn, 
Dikhit, Gaharw&r, Ghtura, Gautam, Ghosi, Kurmi, Luniya, Orh, 
RAjput, Thftkur ; others, local terms of the usual type, like Agarwil^ 
Agrabansi, Ajudhyabdsi, Bhadauriya,, Dehliw&l, Gangai)ftri, (}orakh- 
puri, Kanaujiya, Kashiwdla, Purabiya, Sarwariya, and Uttarlha. 
The Beld&rs have no definite traditions of their origin, save that they 
were once Bijputs who were compelled by some RAja to work as 
navvies, and were in consequence degraded. There can, however, be 
little doubt that they are an occupational offshoot from tlio groat 
Luniya, Orh, or Bind tribe, who are certainly to a large extent of 
non-Aryan origin. 

S. Besides their trade of doing earth-work^ they also make th^ 

living by fishing. They are very fond of 
field rats, which they dig out of the rice fields 
after the harvest is over, and boil down with the grain which they 
have collected in their granaries. They also eat pork, but in spite 
of this it is reported from Gorakhpur that BrAhmans and Kshatriyas 
drink water from their hands. Their widows marry by the sa^it 
form, and a man may discard his wife for adultery; but if she 
marries her paramour, the council compels him to rep^ the original 
cost of her marriage to her first husband. 

4. To the east of the province they worship the PAnchonptr, lo 

whom they offer a turban {patuia) and a 

sheet {paiau) made of coarse country cloth, 

and occasionally a fowl. The slioets before being offered are marked 



239 



BBXJ>la« 



by a streak of red. Another forfn of offering is what is known as 
kdra^ which is made of flour and urad pulse. Some worship Mahft- 
deva once a year in the month of Ph&lgun or at the Sivar&tri. 



Dutribuiion of Belddru according io the Ctnva of 169L 



District. 


BAohhaL 


■ 
Ohaabin. 


Kharot. 


Otbera. 


Masai, 
mios. 


Total. 


Sah&ranpar • 


••• 




••• 


82 


6 


87 


MaufiTarnogar 


••• 




••• 


••• 


29 


29 


Mathura • 


•.. 




••• 


2 


... 


^ 


Et&wah 


... 




... 


222 


••• 


222 


Baroilly 


6.G88 




••• 


748 


•t« 


6,486 


Bnd^un • 


••• 




••• 


17 


t*t 


17 


MorAd4b/id • 


>•• 




t*. 


160 


••• 


160 


8h&bjabAnpur 


62 


860' 


«•• 


869 


••• 


781 


Pilibbit 


627 


149 


••• 


1.679 


•.. 


2,855 


Cawnpor 


... 




*** 


66 


1 


56 


Faiebpor 


1 
••• 




••• 


96* 


••• 


96 


B&nda • 


•. t 




•••• • 


148 


8 


151 


Hamirpur 


1 
... 


: 


t •• 


212 


»•• 


212 


Allab&b&d . 


• •• 


« 


... 


1 


2 


8 


JbAiuii • • 


••• 




••• 


246 


■ 

••• 


246 


J&Uun • 


... 




..• 


586 


••• 


686 


Lalitpur 


•• t 




••• 


248 


1 


248 


GliAzipur • 


.•• 




••t 


2 


••• 


2 


Ballia . 


••• 




* 
••• 


85 


••• 


85 


Qomkbpur • • 


••• 




9.782 


5,468 


8 


16,248 


Baoti . 


•.. 




8,623 


8,162 


••• 


6,785 


Ammgarh • 


••• 




••• 


81 


1 


82 


TarAi . 


979 




••• 


48 


••• 


1,015 


LaokDOw • • 


•.. 




••• 

1 


69 


••• 


68 



SbldIr. 



240 



bblwIr. 



Ditiriluiion of BMAr$ aeoording to ike Census qf iS9i— ooiiold. 



DI6TBIOT 


BAohhal. 


OhanhAn. 


Khorot. 


Othert. 

• 


Musal. 
mAna. 


TOTAXi. 


Un&o • 




••• 


t •• 


79 


5 


84 


B&d Bareli . 




••• 


••• 


122 


2 


12i 


Sttapur 




69 


••• 


116 


••• 


174 


Hardoi • 




••• 


••• 


216 


••• 


816 


Eheri • 




• • • 


••• 


836 


••• 


836 


Faiz&b&d 




t •• 


••• 


110 


••• 


110 


Qoiida • 




• • • 


1 
••• 


170 


••• 


170 


Babr&ieh 




••• 


• •• 


226 


••• 


826 


Snitfknpar 


t * • • • 


• « • 


• •• 


148 


1 


149 


Part&bgiirh 


• ■ • • • 


16 


• •• 


92 


10 


118 


B&rabanki 


• • ••• 


620 


••• 


^19 


••• 


769 


TOTAl 


C 7,850 


1,01X1 


13405 


16.389 


61 


, 87,899 



Belwar, Bilwar. — A tribe in Oudh of whom no BatisEaotory 
account has 1)een recdved. According to Mr. Nesfield, they take 
their name from beta, '^a purse''; but this is very uncertain. .They 
are said to deal in grain and cultivate. 

2. Accoi*ding to the last Census their chief sub-caste is the 
San&dh. In Khcri the cliiof sub-castes ai*e Baghel^ Bhonda, and Gaor. 

Dittrihution of the Belwdr aeeording to the Cenntit of 1891. 



DI8TRIOT. 


Sanadh. 


Othera. 


TOTAL. 


Oehra Dtn .... 


••t 


42 


48 


EUwab . . . • ^. 


7 


86 


48 


Lueknow • • • • • 


••• 


22 


• 

88 


Sltapar .... 


1,266 


798 


8,048 


Hardoi • • • • . 


606 


146 


751 


Kberi 


1,269 


1.412 


8,681 


Babr&iob 


••• 


608 


608 


Total 


8.136 


8,068 


6,194 



241 



BBNAWA. 



Benawa,— ("Without provisions, '' "destitute/')— A class of 
Muhammadan faqirs, the chief of the Beshara or unorthodox orders. 
They are said to be followers of Khw&ja Hasan Basri. Mr. Mao- 
la^n^ says : — " The term is sometimes apparently applied in a 
loose manner to Qftdiri and Cliishti faqfrs, bat is properly applicable 
only to a very inferior set of beggars, men who wear patched 
garments and live apart. They will beg for anything except food, 
and in begging they will use the strongest language, and the stronger 
the language the more pleased are the persons from whom they beg. 
Many of the offensive names borne by villages in the Gujr&nw&la 
District are attributed to mendicants of this order, who have been 
denied an alms. The proper course is to meet a Benawa beggar 
with gibes and put him on his mettle, for he prides himself on his 
powers of repartee, and every Benawa wears a thong of leather, 
which he has to unloose when beaten in reply, and it is a great source 
of shame for him to unloose this thong'' (tasma hhol dena). 

Dulribuiion of ike Benatcat according to the Centui of 1891. 



DI8TRIOT. 


Namber. 


D18TBIOT. 


Number. 


Dehra Dtn • 


• 


8 


Dfknda 


• 





a 


Biilifkranpur • 




2,347 


Lalitpur 


• 




4 


MuzafTiirnagar 




2,620 


Benares 


• 




5 


Meerui . 1 




1,620 


Qk4zipar 


> i 




212 


Balandshahr . 




24 


Qoxakhpnr , 


« 


» 


84. 


Mathnra • 




68 


Basti 


4 




1,184 


k^th • 




81 


Tarld 


• 1 




- 298 


Farnikhfkb4d . 




10 


BAABarali 


• 1 




46 


Mainpuri • 




8 


Sitapar 


* 




la 


Bareilly 




461 


Faiz4bad , 


» i 




62 


Bijnor . 




656 


Bahrl^oh 


> 




10 


Mor^d&b&d • 




765 


Sultiapnr « 


> 




201 


Sb^hjabiknpur 




82 


Partfkbgarb 


• 




6 


Filibhlt 




8 


Bfkrabanki 


• 


^ « V 


82 








ToTi 


L 


10»786 



> Pamidh Q€fityk9 Ripori, 196. 



Vol. I. 



I 



BBNBANS. 242 BKBIYAr 



V 



Benbans.— C'Of the stook of BAja Vena/^— A >maU lept of 
Bftjputfl in Mirzapnr and Btwa« Tlie sq>t is interesting as an 
exaotiple of the developmient in quite reoent times of a new BAjpnt 
sept. There seems to be little doubt that only a couple of genera- 
tions ago they were Kharwftrs^ a purely Dravidian tribe, and 
have developed into Bl^ptits since they obtained the chiefship of 
that part of the country. The present B&ja has now married into 
a respectable Chandel family, and his claim to be a pure bred 
Bftjput will doubtless soon cease to be disputed. 

Beriyai^ Bediya. — A caste of vagrants found in various parts 
of the Province. They are very closely allied if not identical 
mth the SAnsi, Kanjar, HAbAra, BhAntu, etc. In Bengal the 
term is applied to a number of vagrant, gypsy-like groups, of 
whom it is difficult to say whether they can properly be described 
as castes. Of these Bengal Beriyas a very full account has been 
given by BAbu Rajendra LAla Mitra.' According to him, 
they show no tendency to obesity, and are noted for ''a light, 
elastic, wiry make, very uncommon in the people of^ this obuntry • 
Tn agility and liardinoss tliqy stand unrivalled. The men aro 
of a brownish colour like the bulk of Bengalis, but never black. 
The women are of lighter complexion, and generally well formed | 
some of them have considerable claims to beauty, and for a race 
so rude and primitive in their habits as the Bediyas, there is a 
sharpness in the features of their women which we see in no other 
aboriginal race in India. like the gypsies of EuropCi they are 
noted for the symmetry of their limbs ; but their offensive habits, 
dirty clothing, and filthy professions, give them a repulsive 
appearance, which is heightened by the reputation they have of 
kidnapping children and frequenting burial grounds and places 
of cremation. Their eyes and hair i^e always black, but their 
stature varies much in different individuals. They are a mixed 
race, and many outoastes join them. Some of them call themselves 
Mil, and live by snake-catching and sale of herbs. Though 
known as Bediyas, they keep distinct, and do not intermarry or 
mix with the pure Bediyas, who, unlike European gypsies, keep 
themselves distinct. They seldom build houses, and take to 



> BMed on notes by M. GupAl PrasAd, Naib TabiildAr, Phftphnnd, Eiiwab 
DUtriot, and the Dopaty Inspeotor of Schools, FarrnkhAbAd. 

Memoit'it Anthropological Socitly of London, HI., 122, §qq* 



243 BEBIYA. 

agriouliure, but wander about with a few misemble wigwama. 
Like all gypsies^ they dress like the people of the countiy. They 
cook in a pipkin in common. Their women and children eat 
promiscuously^ except when placed among Bengalis^ when the 
women eat separately. They eat whatever they can get^ and 
nothing comes amiss to them^ whether it be a rotten jackal or a 
piece of beef or mutton. 

2. ^' Familiar with the use of bows and arrows^ and great 
adepts in laying snares and traps^ they are seldom without large 
supplies of game and flesh of wild animals of all kinds. A variety 
of birds they keep dried for medical purposes ; mungooses^ squirrels^ 
and flying foxes they eat with avidity as articles of luxury. 
Spirituous liquors and intoxicating drugs are indulged in to a large 
cxtonti and chiefs of clans assume the title of Bhangi or drinkers 
of hemp (bhaPff) as a mark of honour .'' They practise all the 
usual gypsy trades. '^ In lying, thievingi and knavery he is not a 
whit inferior to his brother of Europe, and he t>raotisee everything 
that enables him to pass an easy life without submitting to any 
law of civilized Government or the amenities of social life.'' The 
women deal in charms for exorcising the devil, love phylters, 
palmistry, cupping with buffalo horns, administering moxas and 
drugs for spleen and rheumatism. She has a charm for extracting 
worms from carious teeth by repeating indecent verses. They are 
the only tattooers. At home she makes mats of palm leaveSj while 
her lord alone cooks. Bediyas have no talent for music ; Nats 
and Banj&ras have. Firdausi says this was the reason they were 
exiled to Persia. Bediya women are even more circumspect than 
European gypsies. If she docs not return before the jackal's cry 
is heard in the evening, she is subject to severe punishment. It is 
said that a faux pan among her own kindred is not considered re- 
prehensible. Certain it is that no Bediy&ni has ever been known 
to be at fault with any one not of her own caste. They are fond 
husbands, kind parents, affectionate children, and unswerving friends. 
Attachment to their nationality is extreme, and no Bediya has ever 
been known to denounce his race. Whenever a Bediya is appre- 
hended by a police officer, his clansmen do their best to release him, 
and if condemned to imprisonment or death, they invariably support 
his family. He is a Hindu or Musalm&n according to the popula- 
tion he lives in. Some are Deists, some Kabirpanthis, or Sikhs ; 
some take the disguise [of Jogis, Faqtrs, Darveshes, Santons, etc. 

Vol. I. ' ' b2 



BERITA. 24A 

m 

Hence he is called Panchptri. His dead are osnally buried, and bis 
marriage contract is solemnized over country arrack without the 
intervention of priests, the only essential being the consent of the 
elders. of the clan. Marriage is restricted to his own clan; but 
kidnapped children brought up in camp are not prohibited. He 
is very sparing of ceremony ; in reply to the exhortations of the 
bride's relatives to treat her kindly, he simply declares, — 'This 
woman is my wedded wife, ' marking her head at the same time 
with red lead. The bride replies, — * This man is my husband/ 
Incestuous marriages are believed to be common among than. It 
is said that all Bediyas, whether professing Hinduism or Muhammad* 
anism, worship K&li. Like the gypsies, they never go to court. 
Their chiefs (sardirs) have supreme power, and manage their 
affairs with the help of tribal councils {panehdyai). The punish- 
ments are fine, stripes with a shoe, expulsion from caste, The 
fines are spent in liquor. The chief is generally hereditary, and he 
is invested with authority over his clansmen, wherever they may be 
located. This is possible, as the Bediya^ though a vagrant, is much 
attached to his birthplace, and often returns there/^ 

S. The Beriyas of these Provinces are in a much more degraded 
^T ^®«r^®."y" J?' ^y^ condition than their brethren in Bengal 

North-Western Provin- ^ 

cet and Oudii. At the last Census they recorded themselves 

under three main sub-castes — Chauhdn and Baghubansi, the titles 
of well known R3 jput sub-divisions, and Kftmchor or " loafers. " 
But in the Central Dufib, like so many of the tribes of the same 
social rank, they pretend to have seven sub-castes. By one enu- 
meration these are given as Kh&lkhur, Chhdhari, Bhains, Ghmnar, 
Nfiritor, Rattu, and KachhSr. Another list adds Mahish. Hie 
complete returns show 250 sections of the Hindu, and 12 of the 
Muhammadan bi*anch. These are of the usual type, many taken 
from the names of existing castes, such as Bais, Banya, 
Bangftli, ChauhSn, Chhatri, Gaur, Ghosiya^ Janwftr, Eachhwiha, 
Kanhpuriya, Baghubansi, Riwat, Teli, and Thikur; others of 
local origin like Amrapuriya, Baiswfiri, Bhadauriya,, Deswil, Jais- 
wir, Mainpuriya, MultAnwdri; others again common to them and 
similar vagrant and prostitute tribes, such as Brijbisi, Dhfinuk, 
Gandharb, GidhmSr ("kite-killers'^), Jangali, Euchbandhiya, 
Kapariya, Karn3taki, Nat, Paturiya, IWjnat, and Tawflif. They 
believe themselves indigenous in the Central Du&b, and profeaa 
to have some unexplained connection, like their kinsmen the 



245 BBBITA. 

HibOras, with tlio old mined city of Nohkhcra, in tlio north of 
Pargana Jalesar, in the Etah District. All the camps {got ) which 
froqnent tliat pai*t of 'the country meet there during the rainy 
season^ and hold tribal councils at which marriages and all matters 
affecting the caste are settled. Regular marriages seldom occur 
among them, because nearly all the girls are reserved for prostitu- 
tion, and the men keep concubines drawn from any fairly re- 
speotable caste. So far is this the rule, that in Farrukhfibdd, it it 
alleged that if a man marry a girl of the tribe, he is put out of caste ; 
and in Etilwali, if a man marry a girl who has been prostituted, he 
is obliged to pay a fine to the tribal council. This is a good ex- 
ample of what Sir John Lubbock^ calls " Communal marriage.'^ 
"In many cases,'' he says, "the exclusive possession of a wife 
ooald only be legally acquired by a temporary recognition of the 

• 

pre-existing conmiunal rights.'' While, however, concubinage is a 
trifaid institution, connections with a woman of the menial tribes, 
saeh as Cham&r, Bhangi, Kori, or Dhanuk, are prohibited ; and a 
man offending in this way is expelled from the caste. The only 
ceremony in selecting a concubine is the presenting to her a suit of 
olothes, and eating with her and tlic clansmen. There seems, how- 
9wer, to be an increasing tendency towards the more respectabis 
form ot marr!ag(), and some of thoin not only profoRS to liavo a law 
of exogamy to this extent tliat they will not give their boys to, or 
take a bride fi-om, a family with which within memory they have 
been allied by marriage, but they also pretend to allow the levirate 
under the usual restrictions, and permit widow marriage*. Wlicn 
they do marry in the caste continence is compulsory on tlie wife, 
and her husl>and can put her away for infidelity proved to the 
satisfaction of the tribal council. t 

4. During pregnancy tlie mother generally vows that if she 

gets over In*r confinement in saffty, she will 

DooMtUo oor«tmoDi6«. 111*1 1 •. 1 1 1 

have the head of the child shaved at some 

shrine. She is attended at delivery by the Chaniarin midwife, and 

after that by the women of licr family. All IWiyiu* do tlie chkathi 

or sixth day ceremony after delivery ; s<ime d(» the boraki or 

twelfth day rite as well, and if the child be a boy, iviA tlie tribes- 

men. Adoption is common among them ; usually a sister's son 



^Origin 0/ CinttiiilioM, ViA\ W^ntHrniarck, Hiitory »/ //i4>»»<in Marriage, 
71, ftV- 



BEHIYA. ^ 246 

• * 

is sidopted. Tliercj is no ceremony except the distribution of sweets 
to the kinsmen, and the formal announcement that the adoption has 
taken place. There is no initiation rite for males ; but when a girl 
reaches puberty, and is prostituted for the first time^ the money she 
earns is spent in drinking and in feeding the other unmarried girls 
of the tribe, while Satya NAr&yana is worshipped^ and verses in 
honour of him are recited. In a marriage of a virgin girl of the 
caste, which is very xmusual, they follow the orthodox form ; when 
they get hold of some other woman or of a widow there is no cere- 
mony except feeding the clansmen, and until this is done the bus- 
; band cannot eat the food cooked by her. 

6. The caste is in the intermediate stage between burial and 
cremation. In Farrukh&bftd they touch the left foot of the corpse 
with fire and then bury it. In Et&wah they cremate the dead and 
collect the ashes, which they put into an earthen pot, and then bury 
this in the ground, raising over it a small earthen platform. When 
they can afford it, they offer at this place some cakes in honour of the 
dead, which they subsequently consume themselves. They do not 
employ the Mah&brfthman ; all tlu) death ooromonios are done by 
the sister's son or son-in-law of the deceased. They have no regular 
irdddha ; but once a year, on any convenient date, they offer up cakes 
ii^ the name of their dead ancestors in general^ and invite a few of 
the brethren to a feast. 

6. Their tribal deities are Devi, Kftliji, and Jw&lamukhi. Many 

of them also worship a deity called Sayyid, 
eiigion. which they understand to represent Muham* 

mad, the prophet. Others visit the shrine of Madftr SAhib. They 
seem to depend more on ancestor worship than on any other form 
of belief. They hardly employ Brfthmans at all except for giving 
omens at marriages, and it is, of course, only the very lowest 
Brfthmans who serve them. 

7. The Beriya, as we have seen, supports himself to a large extent 

by prostituting his women. His women 
^''^iiSil"'^ "*^^ loaf about villages and procure information 

about valuable property for their male rela- 
tions. He is a pilferer and petty thief, and will steal crops from 
fields and any uncared-for property which he can find Ijring about* 
He makes almost a speciality of stealing the clothes and brass vossoli 
of men who labour in the fields, and a camp of these people is such a 
pest in a neighbourhood that they would meet with short shrift from 



247 



BBRITA. 



the Tillagen if they were not protected by some landowners^ who in* 
trigoe with their women^ and by goldsmiths and others^ who 
rooeive stolen property from them. They have also been known to 
oommit more serious crime and attack camel carts and wedding 
parties at night. They usually begin the attack on a travelling 
party with a shower of stones, and if this fail to compel them to 
abandon their goods, they assail them with tlieir bludgeons. In 
IWrrukhAbftd the Gunnar sub-caste carry the regular Kanjar spud 
{Uauli,) with which they dig out young jackals and pass then) otE 
as wolf cubs for the sake of the Government reward. They have 
a vague tradition that they were once Rftjputs, and were forced to 
take to their present means of living by the Muhammadans after the 
aiege of Chithor. But their appearance and physique certainly 
indicate that they are a branch of the Indian gypsy race, and closely 
allied to the Sinsiya and his kinsfolk. The women who are 
prostitutes salute with the word $aldm ; those who are married use 
Bdm I Rdm / Wlien they take an oath they turn to tlie river and 
swear by mother Ganges. They are steady believers in the demon- 
iacal theory of disease. When a person falls sick they call in a 
winrd [iydna), who smokes a kuqqa, and with a few incoherent 
words waves a broom over the patient, and thus scares the ghost. 
When a patient is attacked by the Evil-oyc, ilicy put some thorns of 
the babiti [acacia arabiea) in an earthen ^)ot face downwards ; then 
a shoe is waved over it, and they call out — " Evil glance I leave the 
siok man I '' They eat mutton, goat's flesh, and pork ; not beef, fowls, 
fish, vermiui or the leavings of otiier people. But there is reason to 
believe that when in camps by themselves they are much more 
oatliolio in their diet. No respectable caste will eat from their liandsi 
they will eat both kaehehi and pakki from the hands of all but the 
very lowest menials. 



Ditiribntion of the Beriyat according to the Centua of tbPl. 



DltTBICT. 


Chauhin. 


K4m- 
ch(>r. 


1 
Rufrhn- 


* 

• 

Oib«rii. 2* 

94 i 




Total. 


SahifMipur 

llCSItti • • • • 

Belandihalir . 


• • • 


. . • 
. . • 


• • • 

• •• 

• • • 


... 

• • < 


1 


1 

6 
9 


11 
6 
t 

■ -:3r 



BBSITA. 



248 



Bisiribution of the Beripoi aeeordimg to ihe 0$miui (/i^i— oontd. 


DZSTRIOT. 


OhanhAn. 


Elm- 
ohor. 


Baghn- 
banii. 


Othen. 


• 

S ' 

n't 


1 

Total. 


Aligarb . 

• 






••• 


• •* 


••• 


7 


1 


8 


Mathnra 




• 


•t« 


•••. 


••• 


S 


••• 


2 


Agra 






69 


140 


t •• 


926 


96 


14^1 


FarrnlihAbAd . 


N. 




24 


8 


26 


662 


22 


741 


Hainpnri 






••• 


92 


49 


600 


••• 


681 


EUwab . 






26 


•tt 




779 


••• 


806 


Btah . 






1 


89 




166 


•■• 


196 


Bijnor • 






••• 






9 


1 


10 


Mor&d&Ud . 






••» 






10 


••• 


10 


Oawnpar 






67 






1^88 


t*« 


1,090 


Fatahpnr 






90 






681 


••t 


721 


BAnda • 






64 






190 


••• 


244 


Hamfrpar 






63 






868 


••• 


421 


AUaUbid 






7 






1,015 


2 


1.024 


JhfkDsi • 






14 






118 


•t* 


127 


Jlllaoii . 






4 






88 


••• 


42 


Lalitpnr 






1 






147 


4 


152 


Mirzapar 






19 






••• 


••• 


19 


Jannpar 






••t 






108 


••• 


106 


Gh&Eipaf 






t«t 






••• 


4 


4 


Gorakbpnr 




• 


t •• 






19 


••• 


19 


Basti . 






4 






88 


701 


788 


Azamgarli 






••• 






89 


••• 


89 


Laoknow 






»•• 






192 


9 


201 


UnAo . 






171 






90 


12 


278 


BAA Bareli 






794 






676 


1 


1,471 


Uardoi 






••• 






90 


••• 


90 



BBRITA. 




249 






BERWAB. 


DistributioH of the Dei 


Hi^at according io tht Cemvi of i89i— conoid. 


D18TBIOT. 


Obaub&n. 


KAm- 
obor. 


Ragbn- 
banai. 


Otbera. 


• • 

la 

^ 
^3 


Total, 


FaizlLl>&d 


227 


••• 




455 


2 


684 


Gonda • • • • 


••• 


••• 




30 


•.. 


80 


BahrAioh 


48 


••• 




. 105 


7 


160 


8ult&npar 


773 


••• 




709 


2 


1,484 


Part&bgarh . . ' . 


516 


8 




537 


t*. 


1,061 


Bfkrabauki . 


856 


••• 




452 


9 


1,317 


Total 


8,798 


227 


74 


10,321 


898 


• 15.818. 



1/ Berwar, Birwar— A Rajput sept found in the Districtd of Ohft. 

zipur^ Azamgai'h^ and Faizab&d. In Qhdzipur they say that they 
are emigrants from the neighbourhood of Delhi, and take their name 
from Bernagar, their leading village. They are supposed to have 
come under the auspices of the Karauliyas^ whom they assisted to 
cxi)cl the Chorus. ^ In Azivnigarh they ait) said to bo both Bftjpnts^ 
and Bhuinluli's^ and not to rank high among either. Each set ignores 
the origin of, or any connection with, the other. The DhuinhlLrs can 
only say that they came from the westward. They Chhatris say 
they are Tomars^ and were led from Bemagar, near Delhi, to Azam- 
garh, by a chief named Oarak Deo, who lived between 1393 and 1512 
of the Sambat era ( 1 636—1455 AD.). In FaizfthM they call them- 
selves Bais of Dundiyakhera. The Chhatri and Bhuinh&r branches 
are of the same origin, as at marriages and other feasts they refuse 
to take from their hosts or offer to their guests broken cakes of 
pulse (bara). The 'origin of the custom is said to be that at a feast 
where a number of the Berwars had been invited by another clan, 
their treacherous hosts, on the pass-word bara khanda ckalao [khanda 
means ''a sword '^ as well as ''broken^'), slaughtered the Birw&rfl, 
Their name is possibly connected with this custom.' The Br&hmaa 
ancestor of the sept is said to have come from Kanauj; but its different 



> Oldham, Ifemo, 61, t^. 
s B9UUm9ni R§pori, 80. 



BBRWAR. 250 BHADAUIUYA. 

branches are not unanimous as to his name or pedigree;, or bow they 
came to Azamgarh.^ 

/Bhadanriy a* — ^An important sept of BAjputs who take their name 
from the village of Bhad&war^ near Ater^ south of the Jumna. The 
eastern branch have some traditions which point to a Meo origin ;* 
but according to Sir H. M. Elliot * they are a branch of the Chaa- 
hftns; but the Chauh&ns are disposed to deny this relationship, now 
that for motives of convenience the two tribes have begun to inter- 
marry. They are divided into the six clans of Athbhaiya, Kulhiy% 
Mainu, Taseli, Chandraseniya, and B&wat/' He further remarks : 
— '^ The high claims which have been put forward in &vour of the 
family are somewhat unreasonable^ and were indeed entirely needless, 
as its respectability for many years past has been unquestionable. 
Bhat&la, or bread made from the grain of ariar, eiana, and wiin^, is 
notorious for its hardness, and is, therefore, seldom eaten by those 
who can bSoiA to grow or purchase the better grains. It is said to 
have been the cause of the elevation of the Bhadauriyas, and the story, 
absurd as it may appear, is commonly believed in the neighbourhood 
of Bhad&war, and is not denied by the Bhadauriyas tliomsolvos. One 
of the Bhadauriya chiefs, Gt)p&l Sinh, went to pay his respects to 
the King, Muhammad Sh&h. The chief had very large eyes, so much 
so, as. to attract the attention of the King, who asked him how he 
obtained them. The chief, who was a wit, replied that in his district 
nothing but uriar was grown, and that from the constant practice 
of straining at swallovring bhaiula, his eyes had nearly started out of 
hie h^. The King was pleased at his readiness, and bestowed upon 
him other Parganas in which he could grow the finer grains. The 
immediate cause of their aggrandisement is obscure, but it is as 
likely to have been a pair of large eyes as the capture of a fort. It 
is clear that their political importance lasted no longer than for a 
few years at the beginniug of the last century ; that their illustriout 
lineage even now invests them with consideration in the eyes of the 
surrounding Rijas, who allow the Bhadauriya to sit higher than 
themselves ; who receive from him the investiture, or rather impress 
of the lilak, who confess that ho alone can cover with grain the 
linfam at Batesar (the Rftna of Gohag having tried twenty-one 



' SettUment Report, 4, 

s Buohanan, EcuUm India, 11., 463. 

* Supplementary Qlotsary, t. v. 



261 



BHADATJBIYA. 



mannds in vain) j and that, though influential, they are not of that 
high importance which they would arrogate to themselves. It is 
to be feared also that they are much addicted to infanticide ; so that 
when we take all these circumstances into consideration, there seems 
some reason to acknowledge that the indiscriminate bounty of the 
British Oovemment might perhaps have been more worthily be- 
stowed/^ The last Census Returns give some colour to the supposi- 
tion that infanticide prevails among them. There are 16,312 males 
to 12,716 females. 

2. Of the clans above enumerated the Chandraseniya, Eulhiya^ 
Athbhaiya, and Rfiwat marry girls of the ChauhSn, Kachhwftha, 
R&thaur, Chandel, Sirnet, Panw&r, G«utam, Baghubansi^ Oaharwftr, 
Tomar, and Qahlot septs. The Taseli intermarry with R&jputs 
of rank inferior to these. The high class Bhadauriyas give their 
daughters to the Chauh&n, Kachhwfiha, and Bflthaur septs. 



DiitriluiioH of the Bhadauriya Rdjputt aeeordivg to ike Ceneue 

of 1891. 



DiSTBIOT. 


Nnmber. 


DiSTBICT. 


Numbert 


8ab&ranpar 






4 


Pilibbifc . 


• 


267 


Meemt 






64 


Cawnpar • • 


• 


2,688 


Aligarh . 






62 


Fatehpnr • 


• 


938 


Maihura . 






64 


Bfknda . : 


1 
• 


169 


Agra 






4»084 


• 

Hnmlrpar • 


* 
1 • 


116 


Farrukh&bAd < 






1,490 


Allabfkb4d 


i • 


421 


Mainpuri • 






1,936 


Jh&nti . 


» • 


871 


£tAwah , 






6.887 


JlLlaan 


1 • 


696 


Etah 






239 


Lalilpar 


» • 


86 


Dareilly • 






398 


Benares • • 


> • 


868 


Bud^un • 






300 


BalUa 


> • 


288 


MorAdlLb&d 






166 


Gbrakbpur 


• . • 


68 


Sh&bjahAnpnr 




• 


1,130 


Barti 


• 


19 



BHADAURITA. 



262 



BHAOAT. 



Distribution of the Bhadauri^a B^fpMit aerording to the Cen$H* 6/ 

J89t^oonM. 



District. 


M amber. 


District. 


Namb«r. 


Azamgarh .• » 


98 


FaisAUd .... 


60 


Lnelinow • • • • 


162 


Gonda .... 


840 


UnAo .... 


521 


BahrAioh .... 


616 


BAA Bareli 


1,417 


SuHAnpar . . •' . 


910 


Sltapar • • • . 


1,112 


PartAbgarh • 


866 


Hardoi . . • • 


609 


BAriibanki 


29B 


Kheri 


1.266 


Total 






29/)27 



Bhagat. — '.Sanskrit, bhakta, " a worehipper/') —A term usually 
applied to men of any oaste who take a vow of abstinence from 
meat, wine, etc. This they usually do as they advance. in life, and 
wear a necklace of beads as a mark of the .vow. It is also applied 
to a Sakti sect, not Vaishnavas^ as the ordinary Bhagats are, who 
are worshippers of Devi. Some of them eat meat, but abstain from 
wine. To the west of the province they are chiefly devotees of the 
Bajesri Devi of K&ngra, whoso temple was plundered by MahmAd 
of Ghazni and Firoz Tughlaq. At JwAlamukhi, in the same 
District, is another and equally famous temple, where jets of gas 
proceeding from the ground are kept ever burning, and the crowds 
of pilgrims provide a livelihood for a profligate community of 
GhisAtns and Bhojkis. " The days most holy to Devi are the first 
nine days of the moon in the months of Chait and KuAr. Some 
persons will fast in the name of Devi on the eigbth lunar day 
(athta^i) of every month, and perform special ceremonies on that 
day. Sometimes they will light lamps of flour, and when a Brlh- 
man has read the DevipAtha, will prostrate themsel^ee before the 
^amps. Sometimes it is customary to distribute rice and sweetmeats 
on this day to unmarried girls 3 and goldsmiths will often close 
their shops in honour of the day. The greatest Ashtamis of all^ 
however, are those in the months above mentioned ; and of the two 



BHAGAT. 



268 



BHlxife sultIn. 



gnai yearly festivals, the Naurfttra is the greatest, following as it 
does immediately aft.er tlie completion of the annual itdtUka or 
oommemoration of the dead. It is the custom in some parts of the 
oonntry for worshippers of Devi on the first day of this festival to 
sow barley and water it, and keep a lamp bnrning by it, and on the 
eighth day to cut it and light a sacrificial fire (homa), breaking their 
&Bt next day/' > 

2. Tlie name is also applial to a class of dancing girls in the 
Agra Division. 

JiUtribtition of the Bi^gaU aeeording to the Ceniu$ of 1891. 



DlSTBIOT. 


Number. 


DltTRICT. 


Number. 


Sahirsnpur 
Farmkhma . 
Mfthipari • • • • 
EUwah .... 
EUh . . . . 


1 
186 

7 

12 
127 


Bareillj .... 
HndAuii .... 
fi&ndft .... 
Heiiarvt . • . • 

Total 


U 
11 

4 
124 




486 



y Bhald Sultan.— (" Lords of tlie spear :'' Sanskrit, Bkdia, <'a 
kind of arrow or spear. *^) — According to the tribal tradition in Sul- 
tlnpur,' between two and throe hundrcil years ago K5£ Barar, son of 
Amba Rdd, brother of the then Rdja of MorAnnau, commanded a 
troop of cavalry recruited entirely from tlie Bais cian in the Imperial 
•orvicCi and was deputed to exterminate tlie troubli'soine Bliars in the 
Isauli Pargana. Having accomplislied his task he lettirned to Delhi 
and presented himself at the head of his troop U'foio tlie Em|)eror, 
who, struck with their manly bearing, cxolaiined, " Ao^ RkSU 
Buitdn/' '* Come, Bi)cars of the Sultiin/^ Tlk'ntv tlioy adopted the 
name. Another story is tliat it was as link-lioan'rs ( Bdri), and not 
the lance, which tlu^y so dexterously wioKU^l, and tluit they were 
made lUjputs by Tilok Cluind as a reward for (licir diligence. A 
tlurd account c<)nno<'ts them with the Balla, who aro included in tlie 
royal raoes and were lords in Saura^htra. ** But this lays stresa 



1 MaclaitAii, Pvnjab (Viifu« Rupert, 110. 
> 8MUemeni Arperf, 170, fff . 



bh&lA bttltAn. 26 di 

on the first &ctor of the name^ and leaves the other^ an equally per- 
plexing one^ altogether unexplained. That it is a cormption there 
is little doubt. The Bb&16 Sult&ns are either not mentioned by Abul 
Fazl at all, or they are the Bais NaumuBlim of Sfttanpur. In either 
ease the suspicion is raised that they did not take their modem name 
till after the time of Akbar^ and, if so, it * hardly bears the ring of 
Imperial coinage. 'From this time' (1507 A. D.), says B&bar, 
' I order that I should be styled Padshah/ and from him down- 
wards this, and not Sultan, appears to have been the title atFeoted 
by the Mughal Emperors. It is very probable that the BhiM Sul- 
t&ns are the Naumuslim Bais of Sfttanpur, for they now occupy that 
locality^ and Palhan Deo, great grandson of Bftd Barftr, is said to 
have been converted to Islftm in Shtr Shfth's time ; and the only 
thing against this view is that the Gandeo Bais may have held 
territory thus far east, and as they, too, had a Musalmftn branch, 
they would then answer equally well to the description given/' 
2. The Bulandshahr ' branch, according to one story, claim de« 

Bh&ia SalUn of tho ^^^^ ^^^ Sidhrfto Jai Sinh, a Solankhi Bftj- 
North-Woafc Prorlnoos. p^j ^f Pa^patan in Gujai-ftt. After the defeat 

of Prithivi Rftja, Sawai Sinh, the ancestor of the &mily, obtained 
the title of Bhal£ Sult&n, or ''Lord of the lance, " from Shahft- 
buddin Ghori. Another story is that they are descended from 
Sftrang Deo, a nephew of the Eftja of Gujarftt, who took service 
under Prithivi Rftja of Delhi,(with whom he was distantly connected, 
and perished in the war against Eanauj, when his descendant 
was rewarded with lands in Bulandshahr. It was his grandson, 
Hamtr Sinh, who took service with the Bftja of Kai^auj, and obtained 
through him and Shahabuddtn the title of Bhftla Sultftn. The 
seventh. in descent from him, Kirat Sinh, distinguished himself in 
the campaign of GhayHsuddin against the Meos, and. got their 
lands. The seventh in descent from him, Ehin Chand, became a 
Musalmftn to please the Muhammadan Governor under KhizifKUiQi, 
the protegee of TimAr. 

8. In Faizftbftd* the BhftlS Sultftn claim descent froip Bfto 

Mardan Sinh of Bais, of Dundiy^k Eherfti who 

The Ondh branch. jii_^' tti. j 

was a horse-dealer by profession. He chanced 
to visit Chijanpur, in Isauli Pargana, of the Sultftnpur District, 
where there was a fort of the Bftjbhai's, whom he overcame. His 



1 Ctmui Report, 1865, I., Appendix 19 ; B&JA Laohmann Singh, Jftmo., 158. 
s BttUem^ni Report, 80(. 



266 



Bukhk BVLTkv, 



Bon, R&o Barftr, entered the service of the King of Delhi^ and bb 
he was a good horseman and clever spearsman, he obtamed the title 
of Bhftla Sultftn. One of his descendants, Baram Deo, ambitiouB 
of obtaining the title of BAja, became Khftnzftda to the King of 
Delhi, and since then his descendants have been called Khftnzftda. 
In R&S Bareli the tradition mns that they were Ahtrs who were 
raised to the rank of Bftjputs by Tilok Chand. 

4. In Sult&npar they are said to marry girls of the septs of 
the Bhftratipur Chanh&ns, Kath Bais and Kath Bisen, and to give 
girls to the Tilokchandi Bais, Chaohftns of Mainpuri, SCbrajbansis 
of Mahul, (}autams of Nagar, Bisens of Majhauli, Gahlqt, Som<^ 
bansi, Bftjkum&r, Bandhalgoti, and Bachgoti. In Faiz&bAd they 
marry girls of the Gargbansi and Baghubansi septs, and give girls 
to the Sombansi, Bachgoti, and Bais. , 

Distribution of the BhdlS Sulidn Rdjputt according to the Censm 

oj 1891. 



District. 


Hindus. 


Mabam- 
madans. 


Total. 


8ah&ranpur 




17 


27 


44 


Aloornt 






• 




20 


• •• 


20 


Bulandshahr 










6,370 


4,790 


11460 


Agra 










69 


3 


62 


FarrukblLb&d 










9 


6 


15 


Mainpari . 










36 


. • • 


86 


BudlLan 










11 


• • . 


11 


8hlLlijali&npur 










••* 


9 


9 


Filibhlt 










19 


4 


28 


CawDpur ■ . 










11 


75 


86 


Fatehpur 










8 


• 

• •• 


8 


B&uda 










•«• 


1 


1 


Allah&b&d . 










824 


18 


842 


Lalitpur 










2 


2 


i 


Benares 










15 


86 


101 


Jannpar 










25 


8 


88 



bhIl^ sultIn. 



266 



bhInd. 



Dutributum ofih§ Bhdli Suit An Bdjjmi$ aeeording to ike d 

ofl891^cono\d. 



DiBTBICT. 



QblUipur • 
Gorakhpur • 
Baffti 



Azamgarh 

Look now 

Unio 

UA Bareli 

Sltapur 

Kberi 

Faix&b&d 

Gonda 

BahrlLich 

SultlLnpur 

Part&bgarh 

B&mbaDki 



Total 




Bhand, Bhanr.' — (Sanskrit, Bkanda, a jester.)— The class of 
story-tellers, buffoons, and jesters. They are sometimes known by 
the Mohammadan title of Naqq&l, or actor. The Bhftnd is some- 
times employed in the courts of Rdjas and native gentlemen of 
rank, where, at entertainments, ho amuses the company with his 
buffoonery and imitations of European and Native manners, much 
of which is of a very coarse nature. The Bhftnd is quite separate 
from, and of a lower professional rank than, the Bahrfipiya. Thej 
appear now to be practically all Muhammadans, but retain numerous 
Hindu usages. There are two recognised endogamous sub- 



^ Chiefly baaed on enquiries at Mirsapnr and thort notea from Hmitbl Bhaf* 
wati Dayil Sinh, TahatldAr, Chhibramau, FarrukhibAd, and Bibn OhhoU Lil. 
ArchMologioal Sarrey, Luoknow. 



257 bhInd. 

tho Chenr, which seems to mean little (Hindi, ckenra), and the 
Kashmiri. The former trace their origin to the time of TaimAr- 
lang, who, on the death of his son, gave himself over to mourning 
for twelve years. Then one Sayyid Hasan, a courtier of the Em« 
peror, composed a humorous poem in Arabic which gained him the 
title of Bhinr. Sayyid Hasan is regarded as the founder of .the 
caste. Though he was a Sayyid, the present Bhinrs are either 
Shaikhs or Mughals ; and the difference of faith, Sunni and Shiah, 
is a bar to intermarriage. The Kashmiri Bhdnrs are said to be of 
quite recent origin, having been invited from Kashmir by Nasir-ud- 
din Haidar, King of Oudh. The Chenr Bhdnrs fix their head- 
quarters at Karra in Allah&bid, and Lucknow. In FarrukhibAd 
they profess to have twelve-and-a-half sub-divisions, all of which, 
except the half sub-division, intermarry. Many of these are derived 
from tho names of castes from wliioh thoy are, or pretend to be, sprung : 
thus Kaithela (Kdyasth) ; Bamhaniya (Br^man) ; Kamarhas ; 
Ujliarha ; Banthela ; Gujatha (GQjar) ; Nonela (Luniya) ; K^rralia 
(from Karra) ; Pitarhanda. The Census returns give the sub-caste 
of the Hindu Bh&nrs as Baraha, Nakhatiya, and Shahpuri, and of 
tho Muhammadan branch as Bakarha, Bhandela, Burkiya, Desi, 
GHorAni, Hasanpuri, Harkha, Jai'oha, Jaroy&n, Kaithia, K&yasth» 
KfiniwAla, Kashmiri, Kathiya, Katila, Qaww&l, Kha, Kharya, 
Khatri, Kheti, Monkhra, Musalm&ni, Naqq&l, Naumuslim, Path&n, 
Patua, Purabiya, R^wat, Sadiqi, Shaikh, and TAr&kiya. 

2. Girls are married at the age of twelve or fourteen, and un- 
limited polygamy is allowed. Widows re-marry generally in the 
family of their late husband, and if a match then is impossible, they 
marry an outsider, and tho levirate in the usual form prevails. A 
wife can be put away for infidelity » and cannot ^thon marry again in 
the caste. The marriage ceremonies are conducted in tho standard 
Musalmdn form. Bh&nrs are generally Sunnis, except in Lucknow, . 
where they are mostly Shiahs, and respect the Pftnchonpir (of whom 
the most regarded is GhSzi Miyftn) and Sayyid Hasan. To the 
Pinchonpir are offered cakes {malirfa), sharbat, garlands of flowers* 
and perfumes. Sayyid Hasan receives cakes, sweetmeats, flowera^ 
and perfumes, at any time during the year. Food is offered to the 
sainted dead at the Shab-i-barflt festival. The chief offering 
consists of the kalwa sweetmeat, and cakes. The Chenr Bh&nnr play' 
on the small drum {diolat), and Kashmiris on the drum (fahh) and 
fiddle (sdraHffi). A popular proverb describes the Bh&nr to beaa 
Vol. I. » 



bhIkb. 



258 



esseniial at mn enterUinment as a tiger in » £(n«fty->ir«ijf/ 9l>J» 
jakdn Bkdnr na bdihad ; Jangal virdnjakdn iier ms bdtktid. Tbej 
are notoriooflly exacting and abnfflre if offended* A prorerb mnty— 
Rdnr, Bkdnr, 8dnr, higrd bnrd,—'' Tbe tage of a widow, a Bhinr, 
and a ball ia terrible/^ Another clasBes them with the monkey, — 
jaUd Ldkkko bandarijfa vaiid Manva Bkdnr — " ,^TakHif>, tlie 
monkey, is like Manva, the actor ^^-^^enx of one alid half a doien of 
the other.'' Dr. Buchanan quaintly describes them as '' impudent 
fellows iriM make wry faces, sqneak like pigs, bark like dogs, and 
perform many other Indicrons feats. Thqr also danee and sgn, 
mimicking and taming into ridienle tiie daiming boys alid girls, on 
whom they likewise pass many jokes, and are employed on great 



occasions. 



99 \ 



Digiributiim of iks Bkdnds aceordinp to ike Cewsus of 1891. 



DUTBICT. 


Hindus. 


.«W. 


TOTAI.. 


Sablnnpur 








■ • 


••• 


12 


12 


Mosft£Faniagar 








• • 


•*• 


60 


60 


Jfleemi • 








» • 


••• 


27 


27 


rakndshahr 








• • 


••• 


1«7 


167 


Aligarh • 








• • 


••• 


105 


1G6 


Uatbara 








» 


*•• 


20 


20 


Agim . 








» • 


.«• 


180 


180 


FtfTQkb4b4d . 








» • 


8 


101 


100 


MaiapQii 








• 


• a. 


80 


80 


EUh 








• 


• •• 


112 


112 


BareiUj . 








» • 


• •• 


22 


22 


BiJD<r • 








» • 


••• 


22 


22 


Bodiim • 








• 


• •• 


21 


21 


MoKidAUd 








• 


• •• 


n 


76 


8]i4hjsk4npQr . 








• 


• •• 


67 


67 


PiliUitt 








• ••« 

1 


11 


11 



EcLsinn Imiia^ 11^ SIS. 



BHAND. 






( 


250 






S941f9(» 


DUtrihulton if the Bhdnd$ according io iK$ Centw of 1891^GonM» 


DlBTBICT. 


Hindos. 


Mnsalfuans. 


Total. 


Cawiipar 




• 


• • • 


••• 


12 


18 


Fatehpqr 




» ( 


t 




••• 


79 


79 


Hamtrpur 


) • ^ 


• 


1 

• 




••• 


40 


40 


AlUbAbAd 




> < 


» 




•• • 


62 


62 ' 


Jli&nsi • 




1 « 


» 




••• 


8 


8 


JiLUun • 




• 


• 




•M 


9 


9 


Lalitpur . 




• 


■ 




• •• 


9 


9 


Jaunpur 




» 


1 




• •• 


83 


88 


Gli&zipnr < 




» 1 


• 4 




• •• 


84 


B4 


Oorakbpur 




• 


» 1 




••» 


47 


47 


Luck now 




• 


• 




• •• 


48 


48 


UiiAo . 




» t 


» 1 




• •• 


6 


6 


B&dBareli . 




• 


4 




• •• 


21 


21 


BitRpiir • 




•1 


i 




• *t 


294 


294 


llardoi • '• 




* 


1 




t> • 


68 


68 


Klieri . 


• i 


4 


« 




• •• 


208 


208 


Oonda ^ • 




« 


t 




•.•• 


1,826 


1*826 


Balir&ich 




f 


• 




6 


886 


m 


SultlLnpar < 


^ • * 


* 
• 


1 


> • 


••• 


76 


76 


Part&bgarli . 


\ t < 


t 


> • 




••• 


26 


26 


BlLrabnnki 




• 


• 


9 


.• •• 


120 


120 




Total 


14 


4,003 


4.014 


Bbangi.i 

ation of the 


— The Bweepcr tribe of Hindustan. About 
word thero is some difference of opinion. It 


the deriv'- 
, is.iuiualljr 



1 Based to a Urge ezient oa the aocoaot of the tribe in Benarea bj Mr* S« 
Oreeven, C. 8 . , contributed to the second Tolome of VoHh Ifidian JioU9 otid Qumim^ 
and sabseqaently reprinted under the title of "Knights of the Broom, " a«4 a 
note by Mnnshi Fasih-nd-din Ahmad, Deputy OoUeotor, Benaraa % onqsMM at 
Mirtapur and notes by Bibu BadrinAth, Deputy Colleotor, Kbari ; MnaaU ~' 
SahAy, Head Master, Zila School, FarrukhibAd ; Hunshi BAdharamMi^ 
OoJlootor, JbAnsi; Mnnsbi OhhotA Ul, Aroheologioal Sorroy, LortPiPir; 
the Deputy Inspoctori of Schools, BaroUly, BadAun, Pttibhlt» HorAaibAO* 

Vol. I. •^ 



BHAKdI. . 260 

derived from the Sanskrit bianpa, *^ hemp, ^' in allusion to the 
drunken habits of the tribe. Mr. Nesfield woald derive it from the 
same word in the sense of '^ intermption,'' as a Hindu must give 
np whatever he is doing when he is tonehed by a sweeper. The 
Benares sweepers say that the word is a oormption of sarbiauga 
{iurvaManga), in the sense that while part of the Hindu oommun- 
ity they are isolated from it. There are various titles used to desig- 
nate the tribe. Thus they are known in the Western distriots of 
the province and in the Panjftb as Chfihra^ Ch&ray or Chfthara^ 
which is by some derived from th^r business of collecting or sweep- 
ing up scraps {ehUra-jhdrna)^ while Mr. Nesfield, with perhaps less 
probability, connects it with eMAa, '^a rat/' which would make 
them eaters of rats and mice like the Musahars of the Eastern 
districts. They are also known as Mehtar or " prince, '* wUeh is a 
honorific title of various classes, such as Bhatiyftra^ Moohi, Qasli, 
etc., and seems to have been used ironically, as oooks, tailorsj, . or 
barbers are called Khalifa. In connection with this it is important 
to note that the Bediyas of Bengal call their leaders Bhangi or 
hemp-drinkers, as a title of honour.' The name Mehtar was oom- 
monly applied to the servants of the Emperor Humayun.' Another 
title for them is Hal&lkhor, " one who eats what is lawful, one 
whose earnings are legitimate.'' This euphemistic title is said to 
have been introduced by the Emperor Akbar.* They are also 
known as Ehftkrob, or ^'sweepers of dust," and BftharwAla^ ''one 
who is not admitted into the house." Another enphemistio name 
for them in the Punj&b is Musalli, " one who prays." From their 
religion and patron saint they are sometimes known, collectively, as 
LAlbcgi, which is really the name for one of their sub-castes. 

2. The modem Bhangi is apparently the representative of the 

Chand&la of Mann,* who is said to be 
descended by a Sfidra from a Brihmani 
woman. He ordains that they must live without the town, whenoe 
the name Antavftsin or AntevAsin, '' one who dwells near the 
boundaries." Their sole wealth must be dogs and asses; their 
olothes must consist of the cerecloths of the dead; their dishes 
must be broken pots, and their ornaments of rusty iron. No one 



I Bajendra LaU Mitra, Memoin, Anihropologieal Society o/ London, TIL, IWk 

> Bloohnumn, Ain-i-Akbari, h, 417* 

s Ibid., I., 139. 

« ImiituieM, X., 12-29-30. 



261 BHAKOI. 

who regards his duties must hold any inte)rcotir8e with them, and 
they must marry only among themselves^-^a prohibition whieh takes 
us back to the very beginning of the caste system. By* day -they 
may roam about for the purposes of work, be distinguished by the 
badges of the R&ja, and they must carry out the corpse of any 
one who dies without kindred. They should always be employed 
to slay those who by the law are sentenced to be put to death, and 
they may take the clothes of the slain, their beds, and their 
ornaments. Tlie term Chand&l is now*a-days used only in the 
sense of contumely, and the so-called Chand&ls of Bengal invariably 
call themselves NftmasAdra,^ "and with characteristic, jealousy 
the higher divisions of the caste apply the name Chandftl to the 
lower, who in their turn pass it on to the Dom.'^ The word 
Chand&la, which, if it really comes from an Aryan root," may be 
connected with cianda, in the sense of *' evil or mischievou8,^' was 
possibly the designation of some of the meaner non-Aryan'or 
Dravidian races who were at an early time reduced to servitude, 
and compelled to perform the vilest functions of the Aryan com- 
monwealth,' but that the term Bhangi can be applied to any 
definite ethnological unit is more than doubtful. Many of the 
special duties of the Chanddla of Manu, such as the conveyance 
of corpses and the task of acting as public executioners, are now 
vested in the Dom and his kindred, with whom the Bhangi, as we 
now see him, is doubtless closely allied. But the modem names 
seem to imply that the present organisation of the caste may have 
been contemporaneous with the early Muhammadan conquest, and 
there seems reason to believe that the tribe, as we now find it, is 
made up of a number of different elements. This is corroborated 
by the divergent physical appearance of the race. Some Bhangis 
have the dark complexion, stunted figure, and peculiar dark flashing 
eye which is so characteristic of the Dom. Others, again, are of a 
much taller form and fairer complexion* This may be perhaps 
accounted for partly by the fact that their admittanoe as servants 
into the higher class families facilitates iUicit connection with 
superior races, and partly that the tribe habitually recruits itself 
by the admission of outcastes from the superior tribes. It has 



1 Bisley, TribeM and C<uUi, 1., 188. 

s The CbandAla is probably tho Kandaloi of Ptolemy fkhpm Dr. J. Wilson 
would idoDtify with tho Gunds or Gondhalifly ttili a wandering tribe of 
Maharashtra, /mltan Co«l«, I., 67 1 and MelMoir, AnHini BatiikHt TmU, l^ 4^1. 



BttANdt. 262 

also he&ti suggested that the names of some of their sub-castes 
point to the supposition that the caste may be made up of menials 
attached to various R&jput, Jftt, or Musalmftn tribes, the Hftris^ 
With the Haras, the Dhe, with the Dhe Jftts, and the BAwats 
With thd higher tribe of the sam^ name. But of this there is no 
distinct evidence. 

S. The tribal legends do not throw much light on their history. 

Of these a whole cyde centres round L&i 

Tribal legends. ^ . «« , i ^ ^% % a% 

Beg. ^ The common legend, as told by the 
ChatldhaJi or headman of the L&lbegis in Benares, runs as follows :— 
In the city of Hastinapur lived the five Fjindavaa, whose 'mother's 
sister had one hundred and one sons. The Ffindavae quarrelled 
with their cousins, who were all killed. In order to celebrate th^ 
Victoty, the Pftndavas invited their gods to a banquet, but the gods 
refused to come, on the ground that the Fftndavas had killed so 
many of their Br&hman kinsmen^ The penance imposed upon the 
Findavad was that they should bd dissolved in the sno¥ni of the 
Himilayft. ThiE^ agreed to this, but as they were starting one of 
their dows £ed. They did not know how to dispose of the oaroose^ 
ad it 'Was a isin to totich it. So the other four conspired to induce 
their brother, Nakula, to perform the hateful duty. They addressed 
him thns : ^^ Good lad {bdlnU, whence his name B&lntk), remove the 
carcase, and we promise not to excommunicate you. '' He obeyed, 
and hid the carcase under some leaves by the bank of a stream. 
But when he relumed his brothers refused to admit him until ho 
brought some mango wood to perform the fire sacrifice {kom), and 
while he was away in search of it they started on their journey to the 
Him&laya. When Nakula found himself deserted, he returned to 
the place where he had buried the dead cow and wept, when lo I 
by the grace of the Almighty, thd cow was restored to life. 

4. So Nakula lived on the inilk of the cow in the jungle until 
he grew up, and then the cow died. As he was lamenting her loss, 
« voice ca;me from heaven, '' Do not grieve I You, Bftlntk, are de- 
Btihed to be the progenitor of those who make fans {i^p) and sieves 
{ehtalni) horn the hide of the cow. Theise you will sell and teach 
th6 world the art of giinding and sifting flour for bread/' 

5. Thus Nakula or B^lmtk became an ascetic, and taught the 
people the art of making bread ; so he was called S&paoh Bhagat, 

1 For tome of these legenda I am indebted to the 2iid Volame, Pa^jdb Noitt 
and Querui. 



263 BHANGI. 

from the sdp or winnowing faji, which he invented. Here it may 
be incidentally remarked that SApaoh appears to represent the Sans* 
krit Svap&ka or '^ dog-cooker/'' who in early Hindu literature 
is one of the most degraded classes, and is ranked with the Chan- 
^la. 

6. When he had accomplished his mission he retired from the 
world and entered the hole of a snake. When R&ma was on his 
journey to Ceylon in search of Sita, he halted near the place. 
The smoke of his fire disturbed the holy man, who came out in a 
i*agc, and the followers of the hcit> worshipped him in the form of 
BanbhisQr, 'Hho lord of the ant-hilP' {bdnbAi, Sanskrit, Vdlmika, an 
ant-hill). When B&lmik heard of the capture, of Sita he was 
consumed with rage, and began to kill every Br&hman who ^utme 
within his reach. He started for Prayig (Allahftb&d), and halted 
somewhere near Gopiganj, in the Mirzapur District, and thence he 
was called Chand&la. Parmeswar took pity upon him, and, in order 
to save his soul, sent Guru N&nak from heaven, who won his con-r 
fidence by relating to him all the events of his past life. He then 
asked Chand&la, " For whose sake dost thou commit these excesses? '^ 
" For the sake of my wife and children," he answered. Guru ' 
NAnalc then said : — " Go and ask your wife if she is willing to lay 
down her life for youi* sake.'' She refused, and Chand&Ia was so 
disgusted with the world that he turned his thoughts to Parmes- 
war, and settled down at this plaoe as an ascetic, and from him the 
place was called Chand&lgarh, the present Chunftr, Ho was known 
by the Muhammadans as Gada» o)* ^^the mendicant,'' aud the hillock 
on which he lived is known as Gada Pah&r to the present 4ftyi wd 
is one of the places of pilgrimage of the Bhangis. 

7. Bemembering the sins of his life, no on^ would touch jChan- 
dala ; so Guru N&nak brought him to the Triyeni, or sacred junc- 
tion of the Ganges and Jamuna, at Prayig.- There he told him to 
stand in the water and utter the words Rima I Rdma I But all ho 
could say was, iddra / Udta I "Stricken I Stricken I " So NAnak 
went to Chand&la's wife and told her that as long ^s she lived 
her husband had no chance of absolution. She consented to die 
for his sake, and by the mercy of Parmeswar, she and her husband 
wore transported to heaven. She left two sons, K&lu and Jiwan. 

8. In those days R&ja Kesava reigned at Kishi or Benares. 
A relation of his, who bore a bad character, died, and no <ine would 
i'cniovo his oorpso. The servants of the BAja suggested that this 



BHAK6I» ^ 261 

duty might be imposed on the sons of Chand&la. The R&ja sent 

for E&ln, who consented to perform the task. In return for his 

services he was given the monopoly of burning all the bodies on the 

Benares Bumng Gh&t. He married a poor woman, and, in default 

of issue, adopted two sons to follow his profession. In time he 

became v^ry rich, and then he succeeded in making a slave of Bftja 

Hari Chand or Haris Chandra. He was so pious and god-fearing 

that he used daily to pay the expenses of the marriage of a poor 

Br^man's daughter. One day, as he was hunting, a poor Brfthman 

asked him to pay for the marriage of his daughter. He replied :«- 

'^ My treasury is at your service.'' " This will not suffice,'' 

answered the Brfthman, /'without tlio wealUi of E&luaswell." 

So the RAja said : ^'' Sell me to K&lu for all his wealth." Thus the 

Rftja became Kiln's slave, and his Bini wandered over the world. 

After some time R&otftr, son of Hari Chand, died, and the Rini, 

his mother, brought his corpse to the Gh&t, where her husband was 

a slave, to be burned. The RAni could not pay the usual £00^ and 

she at last offered to give half her sheet instead. But, before she 

could perform this last act of piety, Farmoswar was moved to pity, 

and carried off the Rftja, Rftni, and Kftlu, to heaven, where they are 

still. . Their adopted sons became the progenitors of the race of 

the Doms or Chandftlas. The Bhangis are the descendants - of 

Jiwan, the elder brother. 

9. Jiwan, in want of a livelihood, began to wander in the 
jungle. By chance he came across the army of Alexander the 
Great, and was employed by him to remove the filth and night-soil 
of his camp. When the Greek army was at Delhi, one day, Lftl 
Beg, an incarnation of the Almighty, came and begged alms at 
the door of Jiwan. He treated him so hospitably that Lftl B^ 
said-T-"How can I requite your kindness?" "I am childless," 
answered Jiwan, '' bestow on me a son." So Lftl Beg kicked 
Jiwan seven times, and said :—'' For every kick thou shalthave a 
son ; '* and so it was. Alexander, who was also childless, when he 
heard of this miracle, called Jiwan, and giving him a horse ordered him 
to fetch Lftl Beg to his presence. Lftl Beg refused to go, and calling 
for the Qftzi of Delhi, ordered him to Bacrifice the horse of Alex- 
ander, and when he had done so gave him a leg for his trouble. 
Then Lftl Beg disappeared, and when Alexander heard what had 
happened he threatened to han^ Jtwan unless he could produce 
either Jj&l Be? or the horse. LSI Beg appeared, restored the horse 



2G5 BEAKGI. 

to life, and rode it to the palace. He ordered Jiwan to bring the 
three-legged horse before Alexander. When the Emperor saw the 
horse he asked what had become of the fourth leg. ^' It is with 
your Majesty's Q&zi/' answered Jiwan. The Emperor was wroth, 
and ordered them to drown Jiwan in the Jumna. One of his sons 
became a Muhammadan like Alexander, and he was the progenitor 
of the Shaikh or Musalmftn Bhangis. Another disappeared on the 
way (riA) to the river, and his descendants are the B&wat Bhangis. 
A third hid himself in a paddy {dhdn) field, and from him are 
sprung tlu3 Dhilnuks. The fourth hid in a grove of bamboos (bdni)^ 
and from him caine the Bftnsphors. The fifth saved his life by swim- 
ming {helua)^ and his descendants are the Helas, The sixth son 
escaped by holding on to an earthen pot (hdnri), and he was the 
father of the H&ris. Jiwan and his seventh son walked beneath 
the water till they came to Amritsar, and from them come the L&l- 
bcgi Bhangis. 

10. By another equally veritable tale L&l Beg was the son of the 
King of Ghazni. Being old and childless, the King devoted himself 
to the service of the saint Dadagir Jhonpra, who blessed him with 
four sons on condition that he should receive the eldest. But L&l 
Beg, the eldest, .was so lovely that the King tried to pass ofE his 
second son on the saint. But ho refused the exchange, and threat- 
ened that if L&l Beg were not made over to him, he would strike 
him with dumbness. So the King was obliged to keep his word, and 
made over the prince to the saint, giving him kingdoms and palaces. 
When the prince came to the saint, the latter discovered his desire 
to rule. He sent him back and presented him with the wonderful 
cup which gave him all he wished, one of the wonder-working 
vessels like the sack or cap or jar which appears all through the 
range of folk-loie.^ L&l Beg succeeded his father as Eling of 
Ghazni. and, with the aid of the cup, worked such miracles that he 
was deified after his death. 

1 1 . According to another legend, in the beginning was chaos ; the 
Almighty created Bsllmikji, and he was placed on duty to sweep the 
stairs leading to the heavenly throne. One day God, out of com- 
passion, said to B&lmikji : — *^ Thou art getting old ; I will give thee 
something to reward thee. '^ Next day B&lmikji went as usual to 
bweep the stairs, and there, through the mercy of Providence, he 



> ClouBton, Poj)ttUf TaU$ and Fidiom, I., 72. 



BHANGI. 266 

found a bodxU ce {cHoli ). He brought it to his house, and laying it 
aside attended to his other work. By the omnipotence of Ood, from 
this boddice was born a male child. When B&lmikji heard the voice 
of the child he went to the foot of the heavenly staircase and said — 
" Almightly Ood I a son has been bom from the boddioe given to 
thy servant.'^ He was told in reply — *^ This is a Guru given unto 
thee.'' B&lmtkji then said that he had no milk for the child. He was 
directed to go home^ and whatever animal crossed his path to .get it 
to nurse the child. God^ moreover^ said that he had created out of 
Zd illdha ill alldho ('' there is no God but God '') Lftl Beg, and 
his name should be Niiri Sh&h B&la. B&lmikji descended from 
heaven and camo to this earth and saw a female hare (lani) suckling 
her young. He caught and brought her with her young ones, and 
LSI Beg drank her milk, and was nourished and grew up. From 
that time sweepers are forbidden to eat the hare, a prohibition possi- 
bly based on totemism. The Almighty declared Lil Beg to be the 
Guru, and that in every house a temple of two-and-a-half bricks 
would be i*eared to him, and for this reason a temple of two*and*a- 
half bricks is built in front of the house of eveiy pious sweeper. 

12. Another legend tells how the holy prophet [JUasrai Paigk^ 
ambar)^ saint (Mehtar) Ilias, or the Prophet Elias, attended at the 
Court of Almighty God, where many prophets were sitting. Mehtar 
Ilias coughed, and finding no room to spit in^ he spat upwards, and 
his spittle fell upon the prophets. They all felt disgusted and 
complained to Almighty God, who directed that he should serve 
throughout the world as a~ sweeper. Mehtar Ilias begged thai some 
prophet should be created in the world to intercede for him, and it 
was ordered that such a one should be bom. According to the order 
of the God of Mercy he came into the world and took to sweeping, 
and passed many days in the hope of forgiveness. One day, the 
great saint, BarS Fir S&hib, Pir-i-Dastagtr, or Sayyid Abdul Q&dir 
Jilslni, took his coat {ehola) off, and gave it to Mehtar Ilias to wear. 
Mehtai* Ilias put it into an earthen pitcher [matta), and intended to 
wear it at some auspicious time. One day the gpreat saint asked him 
why he did not wear the coat. He answered — " My work is to sweep, 
and it would become dii*ty. I will wear it on some lucky day. '' The 
great saint said — " Wear it to-day, and come to me. '' He agreed, 
and went to open the pitcher, but it was shut so fast that he could 
not open it. He came to the saint and said that the pitcher would 
not open. The saint said — *' Take my name and say to the pitcher 



267 BHAXGI. 

that the Pit SWb calls you/^ Mehtar Ilias went and did as he 
was bidden^ and putting the pitcher on his head brought it to the 
ssdnt. The saint said, Nikaldo^ Ldl Beg, ^' Come out quickly, my 
boy ^' (L^l is " My dear boy," beg means " quickly''). Imme*- 
diately out of the pitcher came a fair man wearing red clothes, and the . 
saint said to JA\ Beg : — " This waA the order of Almighty Ood that 
you should be the prophet of the sweepers and intercede for them at 
the day of judgment/' Mehtar Ilias took him home, and placing him 
under a nim tree filled his pipe for him (a custom of the sweepers to 
the present day towards their religious teachers) and worshipped 
him. Lai Beg became at once invisible, and Mehtar Ilias went to the 
great saint and told him the story. The great saint said that 
Lftl Beg had disappeared because he did not approve of his religion. 
" However, worship him, and he will intercede for you. '' He then 
ordered Mehtar Ilias to do penance^ and said — '^ In the first age the 
ghatiiuit. (vessels worshijiped to represent L&l Beg) will be golden ; 
in the second, they will be of silver ; in the thiid, copper ; in the 
fourth, earthen. '' This is why the sweepers now worship vessels of 
earth, and believe in Tl&\ Beg as their prophet. 

13. Another form of the legend connecting L&l Beg with Benares 
and Chunir is tlms told : — ^In tho beginning B&lmlk went to 
Ohazni Fort and did penanco there. A barren Mughal woman 
came to visit him and ask for a son, and promised that if one were 
given her, she would dedicate him to his service. In shoi^t, by 
the intercession of B&lmik, she gave birth in due time to a son, and 
called him L&l Beg. When he grew up she took him and dedicated 
him to B&lmik, according to her promise. B&lmik afterwards 
took him to Benares. The ninety-six millions of godlings that 
inhabit Benares had turned the Chanddlas out of the home of the 
gods, and placed them at Chand&lgarh or Chunir. When Bftlmik 
was in Benares he saw that in the mornings when the sweepers 
came from Chandalgarh to sweep the city, they used to sound 
drums before entering it, and that the inhabitants, who were really 
godlings, used to hide themselves in their houses to avoid seeing 
them. When they had finished sweeping they again sounded 
drums, and then the people came out of their houses and went on 
with their business. When Bftlmtk saw this, he could not liide 
himself, and asked the people why they avoided seeing sweepers. 
The people answered — '' Because they Aie sweepers it is unlawful 
for us to look i]i>on them.'' Bfllmtk out of pity gave up his life 



BHANGI. 268 

for them. When he died^ blood and matter oozed from lus body, 
80 that no Hindu could touch it. So one of the inhabitants of 
Benares went to Chandftlgaih to call a sweeper^ and saw them 
all there. The sweepers came into Benares and threw the body 
of Bftlmtk into the Ganges. But the Hindus found the body 
lying in the same condition in another house^ and called the 
sweepers again. Again the sweepers threw the body into the 
Gbmges and went home. A third time the body was found in a 
house in Benares, and the people were astonished, and calling the 
sweepers saw all their faces. Afterwards Bftlmik appeared in a dream 
to an inhabitant of Benares, and told him that as long as the people 
refused to see.the sweepers his body would not leave the city. 
Ever since then the people have not hidden themselves from the 
sweepers. The sweepers took the body from the city, for the 
last time, and Bftlmik told them to take it to Chand&lgarh. And 
it is said that whan the body reached Chand&lgarh all the mat huts 
of the sweepers turned into houses of gold ; but this was in the 
age of gold, 

14. Still another PanjAb legend of L&l Beg tolls tliat ho was 
the son of Shaikh Sama, a resident of Multftn, who left that 
place in the train of his spiritual master for Sadhaunk, in the 
Amb&la District, where he devoted himself to the worship of the 
saint Piran Pir, Abdul QMii Jilftni, who lived from 1078 to 1166 
A.D. Shaikh Sama had no child, and someone referred him to 
Bftlmtk, who then resided at Ghazni. Whereupon the Shaikh 
set out for Ghazni, taking his wife with him. As he approached 
the place he came across a girl, named Pundri, feeding swine, and 
when he asked her where B&Imik was, she said that she was his 
daughter. On this the Shaikh offered to watch her swine if she 
would take his wife to her father, to which she agreed. When 
she returned she saw that two young pigs had been bom during her 
absence, and asked the Shaikh Sarna to carry them home for her^ 
which he did. Meanwhile his wife had so won over Bftlmtk by 
her devotion, that he asked her what she wanted, and she answered, 
^' a son.'' So B&lmtk promised her a son, whom she was to oall 
Lftl Beg. After nine months she gave birth to a son, and called 
him Lftl Beg. When Lftl Beg was twelve years old his mother de« 
dicated him to Bd,lmtk, and sent him to the saint on an elephant. 
He served BAlmtk with heart and soul, and the saint was so pleased 
with him that he made him chief of all his disciples. L&l Beg then 



2G9 BHANGI. ./^ 



1 



proceeded to K&bul and ElaBhmtr, accompanied by B&lmik .and all 
his followers. On arrival at K&bul and Kashmir, L&l Beg told his 
followers to go and bog in the cities, but the people would not allow 
it. So they complained to Lai Beg, who told them, after consulting 
B&lmik, to iight the people, and with the help of the saints and all 
the gods Lil Beg gained the victory and took possession of Kftbul, 
and Kashmir. 

15. After establishing his authority L&l Beg placed one of his 
followers, named Sultfini, a native of the place, on the throne, 
and then went to Thanesar, where B&lmtk died. His tomb is still 
worshipped as a shrine. L&l Beg subsequently went with all his 
followers to Delhi and founded the Lai Begi religion, dividing his 
followers into .five sects — L&l Begi, Shaikhri, Dumri, HeU, and 
Bawat. 

10. Another legend shows more decided traces of Hindu influ* 
ence. One day Siva became very drunk, and the procreating prin- 
ciple {madan) escaped from him. Parameswar took it in his hand 
and^assumed the form of a man, put some of it in the ears of 
Anjana, and so Hanumftn was born. He then rubbed some of it on 
a red stone, and Lil Beg sprung forth. Then he rubbed it on a 
sarianda reed {sae ekanm P^oeerum), whence came SarkandnAth. 
Then on some cow-dung ^gc^ar), whence camo Oobaru&th. And lastly 
he washed his hands in a river, where a fish swallowed some of the 
principle, and brought forth Machhandran&th, the preceptor of Guru 
Oorakhn&th. 

17. To close this long account of sweeper hagiology, L&l Beg's 
father was a Mughal, and had no children. He heard that B&lmik, 
who could help him, was living in a jungle not far from him j so 
ho prayed to him and had in due time a son, whom he named L&l 
Beg. About this time the P&ndavas were making a great sacrifice 
ijag) which they could not complete, and a saint {Xlakd^ma) had 
told them that the sacrifice would be useless unless B&lmik came to 
complete it. So one of them mounted a heavenly chariot and found 
Balmik in the jungle covered with leprosy ; but he took him in 
his chariot, and brought him to the sacrifice. Draupadi had pre* 
pared all the food necessary for the sacrifice, and had distributed it 
to all present. Everybody but Bftlmik had a taste of the thirty 
dishes in turn ; but B&lmik collected all his share together and 
gobbled it down in two*and-a-lialf mouthfuls. Now, properly, the 
sound of a shell {fankka) from heaven ought to have been hoard 



/ 



« 

BHANGI. 270 

for every grain of food eaten before the sacrifice was properly oom- 
pleted. Bntnow only two and-a-half sounds were heard, when 
Bftlmik oonsomed his share. The reason for this was that Drau- 
padi was angry because B&lmtk woald not eat. However, as a 
sound had been hoard| the Sacrifice was considered complete. After 
this B&lmtk gave power to L&l Beg over all ISindustftn, and ordered 
all the sweepers and scavengers to worship him for the accomplish* 
ment of thfeir prayers. 

18. Out of this mass of legend, which might be easily increased, 
very little can be gathered as to the actual personality of lAl Beg. 
According to Sir H. M. Elliot, L&l Guru is the name of the BAk« 
shasa Aronakarat ; but it is very doubtful who this personage was. 
Aruna is the title of the dawn, and Lftl or '' red ^' may be a transla- 
tion of this word. Major Temple hazards the speculation that 
L&l Beg may represent L&l Bhikshu, or the '' red mendicant,'^ which 
would bring the origin of the cultus to the era of Buddhism. The 
connection, again, of the worship with B&lmiki, the author of the 
BiLmftyana, who is said to have received the banished Stta into his 
berinitage on the Chitrak&ta hill, in the B&nda District, where he 
educated her twin sons, Kusa and Lava, is at present inexplicable. 
But it serves as an additional example of the extraordinary mixture 
of all the mythologies out of which so much of modem Hinduism 
is made up. 

19. As might have been expected from what has been already said, 

the ethnological classification of the Bhangis 



is not very easily fixed.' The last Census 
classifies them under five main sub-castes : B&lmiki, derived from 
the tribal saint whose legends have been already given ; Dh&nuk, 
which, though allied to the Bhangis, has been treated as a distinct 
tribe; Hela, lAl Begi, and Patharphor, or " stone-breaker.'^ Of th^ 
word Hela more than one explanation has been given, of which 
none can be regarded as certain. We have given already the folk 
etymology, which makes it out to mean a person who saved his life 
by swimming (Atf/na). Others say that hela means a " cry,'' and 
that they were so called because they were town criers, a function 
which the Bbangi usually still discharges in Northern India. Ao« 
cording to another theory, again, it is derived from iiVna, in the 
sense of "to be domesticated'^ ; others again derive it from ktl, "a 
basket load,'' or hel or hil, *' filth, mud." One list from Benares 
divides the caste into nine endogamous sub-castes,— Shaikh, Heli^ 



271 BUAKGI. 

L&l Begi, Oh&zipuri Rftwat, who trace their origin £roin Oh&zipur, 
and take their name from the Sanskrit rdj(hd4Ukj or ''royal messen- 
gers/^ H&nri or Ilftri, who appear to be so called because thejr 
pick up bones (Sanskrit^ hadda) and other rubbishy Bh&nnk^ 
Bansphor^ and Dh6. Of these, according to the Benares aoconnti 
the L&l Begis have their head-quarters at Amritsar and Delhi ; the 
B4wats at Agra, Mainpuri, Meerut, Gh&zipur, and Dhiapur ; the 
Shaikhs at Mirzapur and Delhi, and the Helas at Calcutta. ^ 

20. The detailed Census lists supply no less than thirteen hun- 
dred and fifty-nine sub-castes of Hindu and forty-seven of Muham- 
madan Bhangis. It is impossible with our existing knowledge to 
attempt anything approaching a complete analysis of this mass of 
names. Many, however, fall into two groups : first those connected 
by name at least with some tribe or occupational and , well known 
caste, Such are the B&gri, Bais, Baisw&r, Bilakchamariya, Bar- 
gQjar, Barwir, Bhadauriya, Bisensob, Bundeliya, Chamariya, 
Chandela, Chaubiln, Chhipi, Dhelphor, Gadariya, J&don, J&dubansi, 
Jaisw&r, Jogiya, Kachhw&ha, K&yasthbansi, Kinw&r, Sakarw&r, 
T&nk, ThSkur Bais and Turkiya. Others, again, clearly ti^ke their 
names from their places of origin, such as the Antarbedi, ''those of 
the Du&b,^' Bilkhariya, Banaudh, Baranw&r, Bhojpuri B&wat, 
Ghilzipuri B4wat, Jam&lpuriya, Jamunap&ri, Janakpuri, Jaunpuri, 
K&nhpuriya, Katheriya, Manglauri, M&nikpuri, Mainpuri, Mathu« 
riya, Mditai'anpuri, Mukundpuri, Mult&ni, Ninakpuri, Sayyidpuri, 
Sarwariya, and Ujjainw&l or Ujjainpuriya. 

21. Of the more important local sub-castes, we find in Dehra 
DAn, the Badl&n and N&naksh&hi; in Sahslranpur, the Barlang, 
Chanahiya, Machal, and Tink; in MuzafFarnagar, the Bhilaur, 
DcswsLl, Gahlot, and Soda ; in Bulandshahr, the Bachanw&r, Baisw&r, 
Bhadauriya, Bhagwatiya, Bhokar, Chand&liya, Chauhin, Chauhela, 
Chunar, Dhakauliya, Garauthiya, Jangh&rd, Jasnubali, Nauratan, 
Nirbani, Panw&ri, Phiilpanwfir, B&thi, Bolap&l, Shaikb&wat, Tark- 
hariya, Tui'kiya, Ujjainpuriya, and Ujjainw&l ; in Aligarh, the 
ChutelS, Kala wata, Kharautiy a, Eothiya, Eausikiya, and Mathuriya ; 
in Mathura, the Soda ; in Mainpuri, the Pattharwar ^ in Etah, the 
Churel6, Katheriya, Mathuriya, and Patthargoti; in Bareilly, the 
BargAjar, Dankmardan, Janghird, Katheriya, and Bajauriya ; in 
Bijnor, the Gangwati ; in Mor&d&bftd, the Barohi, Bargfijar, Bhu- 
miyS.n, Desw&li, Mult&ni, and Bajauriya ; in Shflhjah&npur, the 
K atheriya ; in Cawnpur, the Basor and Dotnar ; in Fatehpur, the 



BHilNOI. 272 

Sflpa Bhagat ; in Allah&b&d, the Bilkhaiiya; iu Jhansi^thu Doiuar; 
in Ghftzipur, the BAwat ; in Basti^ the Audhiyftr, Deei, and Dom ; 
in Lucknow^ the B&nsphor ; in UnSlo, the Taraiha ; and in Sult&npur, 
the Dom. 

a. Of the Benares sweepers, Mr. Oreeven writes :— " In Benaren, 
only the L&I Begi, Shaikh Mehtar, and Helai, with a few R&wats, are 
found. All sub-oastes, including L&l Begis, who aoknowledge a 
Musalmftn hero, claim to be Hindus, with the exception of the 
Shaikh Mehtars, who call themselves Muhammadans. These preten- 
sions are, however, equally rejected by Hindus, who exclude them 
from temples, and by Musalm&ns, who exclude them from mosques. 
The distinction between L&l Begis and Shaikh Mehtars is purely 
religioas, and an elaborate legend admitting the common origin has 
been invented to explain why Mazhabis, who are L&l Begis converted 
to N&nakshahi doctrines, do not object to eating with Shaikh Mehtars. 
Only L&l Begis and B&wats eat food left by Europeans, but all eat 
food left either by Hindus or Musalm&ns. The Shaikh Mehtars 
alone, as Musalmftns, circumcise, and reject pig's flesh. Each sub- 
caste eats uncooked food with all the others, but cooked food alone 
(kachchi, pa Hi). Only Helas refuse to touch dogs. Shaikh Mehtars 
and Lftl Begis alone admit proselytes. No sweeper touches the corpse 
of any other caste, nor, within his caste, of any sub-caste, except his 
own. While to the west of Delhi they are willing and regard it 
as their function to sweep streets and bum corpses, in Benares they 
profess, on the authority of a legend, to abandon streets to Cham&rs, 
corpses to Doms. In fact, sweepers by no means endorse the humble 
opinion entertained with respect to them ; for they allude to castes, 
such as Kunbis and Cham&rs, as petty {eh iota) ; while a common 
anecdote is related to the effect that a L&l Begi when asked whether 
Musalmftns could obtain salvation, replied— '^ I never heard of it, but 
perhaps they might slip in behind L&l Beg.'' 

23. Further he goes on to say :—" Each sub-caste of sweepers is 
endogamous, ' but within each sub-caste are certain exog^amous 
stirpes {potra) . Thus the Lftl Begis admit three exogamous stirpes — > 
Kharaha, 'hare'; Patthar&ha, 'stone;' and Chauhftn." These 
sections, it may be noted, are almost certainly totemistic, Thus 
the Kharaha section will not eat the hare ; the Pattharftha will not 
eat oat of stone vessels. We shall notice later on another explana- 
tion of this ; in fact, as in the case of the DhSngars, each of these 
minor castes is constantly working out fresh explanations of their 



278 BHAKGI. 

lotemistio seotions^ and this is probably ihe explanation why it is 
now 80 difficult to trace this form of tribal organisation among the 
castes of Upper India. Mr. Greeven adds that besides these see- 
tkms a speoial section has been created by spiritual ministers {bdbm)^ 
who proudly declare that^ just as kingship is not confined to any 
special classes, so they have abandoned thdr section, but not their 
talHsaste. This special section, though recruited from three ex- 
ogamous sub-divisions, is endogamous. 

24. Another account of these Benares sections may be given. 
These are said to be ChauhAn, who connect themselves with the 
BIjput sept of the same name ; Chuh&n, who are named from eittia, 
'' a rat '' ; Kharaha, " a hare '' ; Patthara, '' a stone '' ; Pathranta^ 
who profess to derive their name from a kind of vegetable known as 
fMiAri^kS-tdg, 

26. Tfais, however, does not exhaust the tribal organisation of 
the sweepers of these provinces. Thus, in Kheri, they are reported 
to be divided into two endogamous groups, with various exogamous 
seotions. In the first group are the Mehtar, Bhangi, Ltl Begi, 
Chaadhari, and Rangrcta. The second group consists of the 
Hathtld, B&wat, Domra, Dhab&£, and Binsphor. Most of these 
names have been already discussed. But in connection with tho 
BiDgrda section Mr. Ibbotson's remarks* may be (luotcd : — '' The 
terms Mazhabi and Rangrcta denote Ch&hras who have become 
Sikhs. The Mazhabis take ihe pahul or formula of initiation, wear 
their hair long, and abstain from tobacoo, and they apparently refuse 
to touch night-soil, though performing all tlie other oflices heredi* 
tary to the Ch&hra caste. Their great Guru is Tegh Bahidur, 
whose mutilated body was brought back from Delia by ChAhras, 
who were then and there admitted to the faith as a reward for their 
devotion. But though good Sikhs as far as rcligiouK observance is 
ooDoemed, the taint of hereditary pollution is uprm them; and 
Sikhs of other castes refuse to associate with them even in religious 
ceremonies. They often intermarry with the 1A\ Begi or Hindu 
Chfihra. They make capital soldiers, and some of our regimenta are 
wholly composed of Mazhabis. Tlie Rangrcta are a class of 
Mftf^ffV apparently found only in Amltala, LudhiAna, and tlie 
neighbourhood, who consider Uiemselves socially 8ui>erior to tlie rest. 
The origin of tlicir suiK*riority, I am iufornicd, lies in llio fact that 



I ^al^)Ah Kthntt^raithyt parAginph &9S. 
Vol I. 



BHAKQI. 274 

they were onoe notorious as highway robbers. But it appears that 
the Rangretas have very ge|^erally abandoned scavengering for 
leather work, and this would at onee acoount for th^ rise in the 
sooial scale. In the hills Rangreta is often used as synonymous 
witli Rangrez to denote the cotton dyer and stamper ; and in Sirsa 
the Sikhs will often call any Chflhra whom they wish to please, 
Rangreta, and a rhyme is current, Rangreta^ Ouru ka beta, or '' the 
Rangreta is the son of the Guru.'' ^ 

26. Again, in Minapur, the Bhangis name seven endogamoussub^ 
castes : Hal&lkhora, who are said to be so called because they support 
themselves by honest labour and do not eat the leavings of others } 
L&l Begi, R&wat, Domar, who are like Doms ; Hinduaiya, wlx> are 
supposed to be so called because they are Hindus and more precise 
in the observances of the fidth than other Hindu sweepers ; Kirtiya^ 
who are said to have been originally Hindus and to have been con- 
verted {iirtiya) to Isl&m. 

27. In Lucknow, again, their end ogamous sub-castes, are given 
as B&nsphor, Hela, R&wat, Hftri, Dh&nuk, LftI Begi, Shaikh or 
Shaikhra, ChAhra^ and Dom. 

28. In Bareilly, the Bhangis are reported to have four ezogar 
mous sections, — Khariya, who are perhaps the same as the Kharaha 
of the Benares list, Dalv^riya, T&nk Mard&n, Singha. 

29. In Mirzapur another name for the Hela sub-caste is said to 
be M&lwar, which the m^bers say is derived from their profession 
of keeping hogs. They may possibly be akin to the Mil of 
Bengal. 

30. Lastly, Sir H. M. Elliot names the Bhangi sections (gaira) 
as Baniw&l, Bilpurw&r, T&nk, GFahlot, Kholi, Oagra^ Sarohi, 
Chand&liya, Sirsawal, and Siriyftr. Some of these are the namea 
of R&jput septs ; others are apparently taken from the place oC their 
origin. It has as yet been found impossible to identify the exact 
part of the country in which these sections prevail. 

81. Beyond the legends already given in connection with LII 

TnKiitian. of origin. ^^S, the Bhangis do not appear to have any 

very distinct traditions of their history. The 
L&l Begis of Benares undertake occasional pilgrimages to Amritsar, 
which they consider to be their home. The Bhangis of Mirzapur 
refer their origin to Jaunpur. They make occasional visits to the 
village of Surhurpur, where they worship at the tomb of a Muham- 
madan Faqtr named Makhdiim Sh&h. On the other hand, the 



275 BHAKQI. 

Hindu Helas make piigrimages to the temple of Kalika 'Miii, in the 
village of Lokhari, in the B&nda District. They attend a special 
fair held in honour of the goddess on the thirtieth day of Chait^ at 
which, as at the shrine of the goddess Vindhyab&sini Devi at 
Bindh&chal, they have the ceremonial shaving of their sons perform- 
ed, and offer pigs, goats, rams, and a libation of spirits. They have 
also a preference for arranging marriages, and taking their barbers 
from this place, which they regard as their original home. The 
Benares L41 Begis all collect at what is called the Panch&yat Akh&ra 
sacred to Qnru N&nak, near the Siv&la Gh&t, in the city, for the 
decision of all social matters. There is^ lastly, the Gada Pah&ri at 
Chun&r, to which reference has been already made, which is a well- 
known resort for the Bhangis of the eastern part of the Province. 

32. The Bhangis have a most elaborately organised tribal 
Tribal oonnoH and oasto council. Thus, the lAl Bcgis of Benares, to 
diaoipiine. follow Mr. Grceven's account again, have a 

semi-military organisation modelled on that of the Britisb Canton- 
ment in which they are employed. Their headman is known as 
Brigadier Jamadftr, whose office, though in theory elective, is in 
practice hereditary, so long as the requirements are fulfilled. These 
are chiefly : on election to provide two dinners for the whole sub-caste, 
sweetmeats^ to the value of fourteen rupees, to be distributed among 
them, and two turbans to each president as below described. 
Within the sub-caste the administrative unit is the ''company'^ 
{bera), of which in Benares there are eight, vis., the Sadar, or thoee 
employed by private residents in Cantonments ; the K&ld Paltan, 
who serve the Bengal Infantry; the L&l Kurti, or " Bed Coats,'^ 
who are employed by the British Infantry ; the Teslian, or those 
employed at the three Railway Stations of Cantonment, B4]gh&t, 
and Mughal Sarai ; the Shahr, or those employed in the City ; the 
R&mnagar, who take their name from the residence of the Mah&r&ja 
of Benares, whom they serve ; the Kothiw&l or '' Bungalow men,^' 
who serve residents in the Civil Lines ; and lastly, the Qenereli, who 
arc the survivors of the sweepers who were employed at head- 
quarters when Benares was commanded by a Gheneral of Division. 
Under the Brigadier each ^' company " has four officers {sarddr) 
as follows : — The Jamadftr or President, the Munsif or Spokesman, 
the Treasurer or Chaudhari, and the N&ib or Summoner. As with 
the Brigadier, these offices, though supposed to be elective, are 
practically hereditary, provided that the candidate can afford to 
Vol. I. ' • t2 



BHAKOI. 276 

present one dinner to the whole sub-oaete, and one turban to each 
of the Presidents. Under these officers every member of the 
company is designated a private soldier {sipdiii) ; and out of these 
a ministerial officer is appointed under the title of the meesenger 
ipiffdda). 

SS. At a meeting of the oounoil a private may, with muoh re- 
spect/interrnpt proceedings to direct attention to anything irregular. 
On the conclusion of the evidence^ the three inferior officers in 
each company confer together until they arrive at a unanimous 
decision, which, through their spokesman, they submit to their 
President. When each President is unanimous with his assistants^ 
he confers with the Presidents of the other oompanies, and when 
all eight Presidents are unanimous they confer with the Brigadier, 
who, if he agrees with them, delivers the final decision. In case of 
disagreement, the disputed question must be argued out, or further 
evidence adduced, until the disagreement is removed. Mr. Greeven 
adds : — '* As there is no record or evidence of judgment, it may wA\ 
be inquired how it is possible, except by accident, ever to obtain a 
unanimous decision amongst thirty-three human beings. In point 
of fact, however, the issues are of so simple a character and, there- 
fore, so fully within the compass of the private soldiers, that public 
opinion is very powerful, and, as in cases of dead-lock, oaths are 
administered to the dissentient offioers, the practical result follows 
that where an officer, in spite of an oath, persists in blocking the 
decision of a dispute by a corrupt, or perverse, or even unpopular 
verdict, he is liable to be dismissed from his offioe, or even expelled 
from the brotherhood. The subordinate officers decide according to 
the verdict of the private soldiers, and a President rarely persists in 
opposition to his subordinate officers, while the Brigadier accepts the 
opinion of the Presidents almost as a formality/^ 

84. When any dispute arises, the aggrieved party, depositing 
a process-fee (ialabdna) of a rupee-and-a-quarter, addresses his 
summoner, who, in company with the Treasurer, and through the 
medium of the spokesman, refers the matter to the President. 
Unless the question is so trivial that it can be settled without caste 
punishments, the President fixes a time and place, of which notice 
is given through the messenger, to the summoners of the other 
seven companies. Within each tompany the messenger, who is 
remunerated with one-and-a-quarter annas out of the process-fbo^ 
carrier roimd the notice to each private soldier. 



277 ' BHANQL 

SB. Only worthy members of the caste are allowed to sit on 
the tribal matting and smoke the tribal pipe {itfqqa)* The pro- 
ceedings begin with the spreading of the matting, and the pipe is 
passed ronnd. The members sit in three linesj and in the following 
order of precedence : — The Brigadier Jamad&r, each batch of four 
officers of the eight companies arranged as follows, — the President 
to the right, next the spokesman, treasurer, and summoner/ and 
behind them all private soldiers. Each party to the dispute, in 
charge of the messenger of his company, is cross-questioned 
individually by the eight spokesmen, who then proceed to examine 
tlie witnesses adduced by the litigants, and any persons acquainted 
with the facts of the case. 

86. The punishments inflicted by the council are of three 
kinds, — fmes {ddnd) ; compulsory dinners {biof, kkdna) ; and out- 
casting {knjdt karna). Non*compliance with an order of fine or 
entertainment is followed by expulsion. Fines are always multiples 
of one-and-a-quarter, which is a lucky number. The formal method 
of outcasting cc^sists in seating the culprit on the ground and 
drawing the tribal mat over his head, from which the turban is 
removed. The messengers of the eight companies inflict a few taps 
with slippers and birch brooms from above. It is alleged that 
unfaithful women were formerly tied naked to trees and flogged 
with birch brooms, but that, owing to the fatal results that occasion- 
ally followed such punishment, as in the case of the five kicks 
among Cham&rs, and a scourging with a clothes line, which used to 
prevail among Dhobis, the caste had now found it expedient to 
abandon such practices. 

37. When an outcast is re-admitted on submission, whether by 
paying a fine or giving a dinner, he is seated apart from ,the 
tribal mat, and does penance {tauba, iobak) by holding his ears 
and confessing his offence. A new iuqqa, which he supplies, is 
carried round by the messenger, and a few whifts are taken by the 
clansmen in the following order.- — The Bather, the Biigadier, the 
eight Presidents, the eight spokesmen, the eight summoners, and 
the private soldiers. The messenger repeats to the culprit the order 
of the council, and informs him that should he again offend his 
punishment will be doubled. With this warning he Itands him the 
kuqqa^ after smoking which the culprit is admitted to the carpet, 
and all is forgotten in a banquet at his expense. 

38. The oflicials and procedure of the councils of the other sub- 



ISHAKOI. 278 

oaetee are very eimilar. Thus in Benares the GhAzipari Riwate 
have a President {Cbattdiari), a meesenger or Chharibardar, who 
annonnces the dates and purposes of the council meetingSi and 
receives two annas for his trouble. The Shaikhs have a Chaudhari 
or President^ a Sardftr or his assistant^ a Qizimd&r, whose functions 
are similar to those of the Chharibard&r. The Helas have two 
oiBcials^ the Chaudhari and the Piy&da or Chharibard&r. In the 
Shaikh council all the oiBcials at the time of their appointment 
have to give a dinner to the members of their council. The Chau- 
dhari and Sardftr are invested with turbans as a sign of office. The 
Q&zimbard&r receives a whip {hra), a mat {tdt), and a jug and bowl 
{loia, katora) when he is invested with office. In the Hela council 
the Chaudhari receives a turban, but is not obliged to give a dinner. 
The rule among the Oh&2dpuri Mwate is the same. 

80. Among the L&l Begis of Benares a man must many within 
' , his own sub-caste, but not in the section Uar) 

to which he belongs. Thus he cannot marry 
in the house of his paternal or maternal grandfather. But ho may 
marry a woman of any other sub-caste or caste, provided she be 
initiated duly into the L&l Begi fraternity. The L&l Begis are noted 
for their larity in enforcing the rules of marriage. Thus they may 
marry even a Dom or Cham&r woman. He cannot marry two 
sisters at the same time without the consent of the first wife, or 
unless she has no hope of issue. But in no case can a man marry the 
elder sister of bis wife, and he cannot marry the sisters of his pkd* 
pi a or husband of his father^s sister, or of the husband of his 
mother's sister. Among the Shaikhs the Muhammadan prohibited 
degrees are enforced, except that a man cannot marry outside his sub- 
caste ; he can marry two sisters at the same time, but during the 
life-time of his wife he cannot marry her elder sister, and he cannot 
marry in the family of his paternal grandfather or of the husband 
of his father's sister. But he may marry the daughter of his 
maternal uncle or of his mother's sister. When a man has married 
into a certain family all his male relations will, as fttr as possible, 
avoid marrying in the same &mily. Among the Gh&zipuri BAwats 
a man must marry in his sub-caste, but not in the family of his 
paternal or maternal grandfather. In fact, all relations whose 
fathers or mothers can be traced back to any common ancestor are 
barred. A man can marry two sisters, but not the elder sister of 
the wife while she is alive. The same rules apply to the Helas. 



27d BHAKGL 

The B&nsphors^ like the Shaikhs^ will not many in the family of 
the paternal grand&ther^ but that of the maternal grandfather in 
not exoluded. The Helas, as a rale^ marry very near rdatives. 
There is no exclusion as regards marriage, and they use'.the proverb, 
— Ddm %S harhjawS^ ekdm %S uakin barhta — that is to say, one who 
is higher in sooial status is not necessarily elevated as regards caste. 
40. The following rules regulate the marriage of outsiders. In 
Benares the Ohizipuri R&wats and Helas can marry any woman 
provided she does not belong to another Bhangi sub-caste, is not 
drawn from the lower castesi such as Doms, Dhobis, DusAdhs, 
Dhark&rs, Khattks, and Cham&rs, and that prior to marriage she 
has been properly initiated into the sub-caste of her future husband. 
When a man marries such a woman he has to give a dinner to his 
brethren, and pay a fine of twenty or thirty rupees, when the 
woman is being initiated. Such a marriage is not treated as the 
rogular marriage {nkddi)y but as the lower .form {iagdi), and in 
spite of her initiation, the wife, but not her children, will always be 
considered as an out-caste (parjdt). The Shaikhs will marry a 
woman of any caste, provided she embrace Isl&m, but her original 
caste must have been respectable, and they will not marry a woman 
who was originally a Kunbi, Ahtr, Koeri, or the like. The husband 
in such a marriage is not obliged to pay any fine to the ooundl, 
but he has to distribute sharbat to them. Such a woman will be 
admitted to full tribal rights. The L&l Begis can marry a womian 
of any caste, provided that she is willing to be initiated as a L&l Begi. 
Even the present Ouru of the Benares Lftl Begis is reported to have 
a very low-caste woman as his wife. Such a marriage is not called 
$hddi but nikdh, but the wife is not treated as an out-caste. 

41. The following is said to be the form of initiation among the 

L&l Begis of Benares. The candidate has to 

Initiation. , . , , , 

prepare between one-and-a-quarter maund 
and five sen of tnalida, or bread made of flour, milk, butter, sugar, 
and other condiments. This food, with sweetmeats to the value of 
scven-and-a-quarter rupees, is placed on a platform {eiauii, ci#* 
mtra), in the presence of the assembled brethren, and the tribal 
genealogy or knnindma is repeated over it. The man who recites 
the genealogy receives a fee of one-and-a-quarter rupees. Some 
fiharbat is also prepared, and the members present dip their finger 
into it. This sharbat is drunk by the candidate, and the food and 
sweetmeats distributed among those present. This ceremony is 



BHAKOI. 280 

known as the chauki. Similarly^ among the Shaikh Mehtan, an 

outsider is admitted on feeding the fraternity and giving alms to 

the poor. At the initiation of Sikh sweepers, the headman reads out 

to the initiate what is known as Ndnak ki bdni, or the songs of 

N&nak, and he is made to drink the eharnamnt, or water in which 

the feet of the headman have been washed, and he eats the prasdd, 

or kalwa, which is prepared on such occasions and offered before the 

holy volume. The present head of the community at Farrukh&bftd 

is known as Vasudeva Mah&r&j, who is a follower of N&nak, and he 

freely mixes with the Bhangis and eats and drinks with them. 

One of these incantations used at initiation by the Pan j&b Bhangit 

runs—* 

Son/ kd ghdt ; sove kd mdt ; 

8onS kd ghord ; $anS kdjord; 

Son/ ki kunji ; son/ kd tdld ; 

Son/ kd kiirdrj Ido kunji; kkolo k*wdr ; 

Dekko ddftd Pir kd didar. 

''Gblden pitcher; golden pot; golden horse; golden dress; 
golden key ; golden lock ; golden door ; put in the key ; open the 
door ; see the figure of the Holy Saint.'' * 

This is known as Sat jug ki knrsi, bxiA similar verses are used 
for the Dwftpar Jug, Treta Jug, and Kali Jug. But the words 
" silver, '' " copper, '' and " earthen '' are used for each age re- 
spectively in place of " golden. " The usual ritual appears to be 
that the candidate brings with him mince pies {ek^ra) to the amount 
of five sen in weight, and the articles for the worship ( piija) of 
L&l Beg, vis., ghi, betel, cloves, large cardamoms, incense, and frank- 
incense. A kuni or genealogy is then recited over him, and finally 
he is patted on the back, and a little of the mince pies, some water, 
and a huqqa vlyq given to him. A quantity of the pies are offered 
to L&l Beg, and the rest distributed among the Lll Begis present. 
A rupeeand-a-quarter is paid to the Ghiru, who is always a Mehtar, 
who performs the ceremony, and as much clothes as the initiate can 
afford.' The ceremony, such as it is, is always done in secret, and 
it is very difficult to induce Bhangis to give anything like a full 
account of it. Among some of the sweeper sub-castes it is oom« 
monly reported that a more disgusting form of initiation prevails. 



^ The most oomplote and anthoritatiTO yersion of th9 Knni of LAl Beg is 
tliaf. giyen by Mr. Qree?en in " KnighU of the Broom," 41, iqq, 

s PanjAb Notei and Queriei, II., t ; KnighU of the Broom, 50, qqq. 



281 BHAKQI. 

part of whioh is that the initiate Btande in a pit, and each member 
of the fraternity drope ordure on his head ; but it is very doubtful 
how far this, is true. 

42. The following account of the ritual in force in Bhangi mar- 

riages is mainly based on Mr Oreeven^s notes. 

are attempts to follow as closely as possible the Musalm&n course 
{s^ddiy of nuptial contract (niidh) and dower {maiar bdndkna). 
Among the Hindu sub-castes a match-maker {^gua), spoken of by L&l 
Begis as the " go-between ^' {biehauliya), is selected by either party. 
A marriage fee^ settled by the match-makers, may be given for a 
bride, but not for a bridegroom, except by way of marriage portion 
(dahej). Whore the bride's father is wealthy, a form of Beena 
marriage prevails, and it is common for him to require or permit 
his 6on-iu law to reside with him (ghar dawddn). 

The period between the conclusion of arrangements by the 
match-makers and the actual wedding is known as the lagan. 
It is inaugurated on the first evening by a dinner of raw sugar 
(gur) given by the parents of both parties jointly at the bride's 
dwelUng to all the clansmen. The next essential is to erect a 
marriage pole (mdeha) consisting of a plough shaft (Aarit) enwreath- 
ed iu //f/i graBs and mango leaves on the first evening in the 
bridegroom's, and on the second in the bride's court-yard. A night 
wake [rafjaga) precedes each of these ceremonies, in whioh the 
women are feasted at the household concerned with pulse and rice, 
and occupy themselves in preparing comfits {gulgula) of raw sugar, 
flour, and oil, which on the following morning are distributed among 
all the clansmen at their houses. When the marriage pole is erected 
in the bridegroom's court-yard, merely an earthen water-pot {gdgiar)^ 
surmounted with a pot with a spout {bad^ana), is deposited beside 
it, and on the same evening all the members of tho tribe, male and 
female, are feasted with rice and sugar and clarified butter. When, 
however, a second marriage pole is erected, after a second night 
wake, in the bride's coui-t-yard, it has a thatched canopy {eAiappar) 
attached to it, and on this occasion, and under this canopy, the 
actual wedding is celebrated on the lucky date {tdil) given by the 
Br&hman astrologer. 

43. Towards evening all the clansmen, both male and female, 
in procession escort the bridegroom, usually on horseback and with 



BHAvai. 282 

musio, to the bride's dwelling. There is no hard-and-Caet nsage 
with respect to the shape and colour of the wedding garmente, 
except that both bride and bridegroom must carry a head-drees 
( maur ) made of flowers and palm leaves. 

44. On arrival the bride's father assigns the procession ''a field '^ 
for sitting {fantcdnsa, hhet dena), and placing an earthen jar 
( kunda ) of boiled rice before the bridegroom^ bestows a present on 
his &ther, nsnally consisting of a turban^ which he has on his head^ 
and a rupee which he places in his hand. Four or five of the bride- 
groom's comrades taste the boiled rice^ and into the remainder the 
bridegroom's father drops some money^ which should not be less 
than five copper coins. 

45. Then comes the dudr 6dr, when two sheets^ one of the 
bride's and the other of the bridegroom's father^ are held up before 
the doorway. From within the bride^ and from without the bride- 
groom, approach each other, separated by the curtain, Thebride's 
mother waves seven times round the head of the bridegroom a 
winnowing fan or tray containing a lamp, some rice, turmeric, 
betel-nut, betel-leaf, and d&b grass. Next she waves again seven 
times round his head a pot of water, a wooden rice*pounder, and a 
pestle. Lastly, she applies a coin bedaubed with rice and turmeric 
in the manner of a caste mark ( tilai ) to the forehead of the youth, 
who receives the coin as his perquisite. The bridegroom's father 
also drops a coin into the water-pot beside the marriage pole. On 
this the boy Ealutes his clansmen and returns to them, while the 
bride retires to array herself inwedding garments, and the sheets 
are lowered. » 

46. When the bride is I'eady, she is seated with the bridegroom 
under the mai'riage canopy. Four pegs of mango wood are driven 
into the ground before them, and a thread fastened around them. 
In the centre a fire is kindled by the father of the bridegroom, who, 
after raising a flare with a libation of ghi, reverses an earthen vessel 
over it, with the object, as is alleged, of conciliating the household 
deities. The bride's father deposits at the feet of the couple the 
tray or fan which in an earlier ceremony the mother was seen 
waving over the head of the bridegroom. All the bride's relatives, 
after taking some of the contents and touching the feet of the 
couple, apply it to their foreheads, and deposit as much money as 
they can afford by way of a present. 

47. Next the gown {Jdma ) of the boy is knotted to the mantle 



283 BHAKGI. 

( chddar ) of the bride by the religious mendicant, who is by caste 
also aHweeper and is known as B&baji. This is the gaik bandkan rite. 
In the absence of the Bftbaji the husband of the sister of the bride- 
groom, known as M&n, does this office. 

48. Then the couple, with their left shoulders in the direction 
of the marriage pole, make seven circuits {bhaunri) round it. 
On the first four circuits the bridegroom, and on the last three the 
bride, is the leader. As each circuit is completed, it is usual, but 
not necessary, for the &ther, or in his absence the bridegroom's 
sister's husband, to hand over a strip of mango wood ( till ) to the 
leader, who, tapping his or her partner on the back with it, flings it 
back by way of record over the marriage canopy. The bridegroom, 
then conducting the bride to the doorway, removes his head-dress, 
and tenders it with a money present to the bride's mother, who, in 
like manner, removing her daughter's head*dress, tenders it with a 
money present to the father of the bridegroom. The bride retiios 
into the house, and the bridegroom rejoins his clansmen who, male 
and female, are feasted with raw sugar and rice with ghi, and then 
retire in a body, with the exception of the bridegroom and his 
father. 

49. On the following morning comes the parting {bida), when 
the four headmen {tarddr) attend to witness the giving and receiving 
of the marriage portion {dahej). The bridegroom's father for this 
service pays over a fee of two rupees, which is, perhaps, the most 
important of all the rites, '.because it signifies that the marriage is 
complete. 

50. Before the bridegroom removes the bride to her new home, 
her mother offers him pulse and rice {iAie/iari)^ which he refuses to 
touch imtil he i*eceives a present. At the moment of departure the 
bridegroom salutes the bride's relatives and receives presents from 
them, while he bestows largess on female menials, such as the wife 
of the barber, washerman, and the village midwife. It is usual to 
remove the bride in a litter carried by Kah&rs or Musahars. At 
the entrance of the bridegroom's house, his sister, or, in her absence, 
her daughter, or else any other female relative, bars the way against 
the new wife, until appeased by a present. 

51. For four days the bride remains with the, women of her 
husband's family. On the fourth day the womenfolk are collected, 
and the couple in their wedding garments are seated facing one 
another on a blanket, with a basket of fruit and flowers between 



VHANOI. 284 

them. To overcome their modesty the women incite them to pelt 
one another with flowers. The bridegroom remoyee his ring from 
hie finger and places it once on the parting of his wife's hair^ there* 
by sealing the moment when the bride [dulkin) becomes a matron 
{fuhigan). The. bridegroom's gown and the bride's mantle are 
knotted together by the women^ who tearing down the marriage 
pole, consign the materials with the marriage head-dress {maur) to 
the nearest water. On their return the newly-married oonpio 
assume their usual dress, and the wedding is ended. 

62. Among the L&l Begis impotenoy, leprosy, or lunacy in the 

husband warrants the wife in claiming a 
separation. Among the 'Shaikhs and Helas 
only impotenoy is a recognised ground. But the woman claiming 
a separation has to pay a fine of fiyo or ten rupees, and g^ye a dinner 
to the council. Among the L&l Begis no marriage can be annulled 
without the sanction of the council, and among the Shaikhs without 
the joint consent of husband and wife. Among the Ohflzipnri 
Biwats no physical defect, howeyer serious, is recognised as yahd 
cause for a separation. Unbuthfulness or loss of caste in the wife 
is a ground for her husband to repudiate her. Among the L&l Begis 
when a man wishes to get rid of his wife he assembles the brethren, 
and in their presence says to her — '' You are as my sister" ; she 
answers — ** You are as my father and brother." When the diyoroe 
is sanctioned, the husband has to pay one-and-a-quarter rupees t6 the 
council and two-and-a-half rupees to the Sard&r. Among Shaikh 
Mehtars the Qdzi is called in, and in his presence fche liusband says 
the word taldq three times. If the wife be found in fault she 
cannot claim dowry. Among the Oh&zipuri B&wats intertribal 
infidelity is not regarded as a ground for diyoroe ; but it will be so 
if her paramour be an outsider. The L&l Begis do not recognise any 
distinction between children the result of illicit connections and 
those of regular marriage, provided they are L&l Begis. The same 
rule applies among the Shaikh Mehtars ; the Ohflzipuri B&wats 
call such children dogla or dunasla, and though they have fall 
tribal rights as regaitls marriage and social intercourse, they receive 
a smaller share of the inheritance than legitimate children. Natur- 
ally illegitimate children find it less easy to marry than those of 
legitimate birth. If a woman of the Oh&zipuri sub-caste intrigues 
with a stranger to the sub-caste she is permanently expelled ; if her 
paramour be a fellow caste-man she can be restored on paymait of 



286 BHANGI. 

the penalty imposed by order of the council. Among the LU Begis 
of Benares it is not necessary that the widow of the elder should 
inaiTy the younger brother ; but among the Shaikhs and Gh&zipuri 
lUwats the widow must marry her younger brother-in-law if he be 
of suitable age and willing to take her. Among the Helas the matter 
is optional. If a Lftl Begi widow marry an outsider she continues to 
maintain her light over the property of her first husband^ provided 
her second marriage was contracted with the consent of the council* 
Among the Shaikhs and Gh&zipuri Rftwats the rule is different, and 
if the widow marry an outsider she loses all right to her first hus- 
band^s estate. 

53. During pregnancy the woman wears a thread round her neck 

and a rupee tied round her head to scare evil ' 

Birth c.««oni«.. ^^^ In Luoknow the p«gnant L41 Begi 

woman counts seven stars as a spell to procure an easy delivery. She 
also has her lap filled with sweetmeats and fresh vegetables as an oilien 
of fertility. This is known as godbkari. In the Western Districts 
the expectant mother worships Sati in the fifth or seventh month of 
her pregnancy. When delivery is tedious, it is a common practice to 
give her some water to drink over which a Faqir has blown. When 
the delivery takes place the Cham&rin is called in, who cuts the cord, 
buries it in the delivery room, and lights a fire over it. The phrase 
used is kherijaldijAti ifli— "the after-birth is being bumt.^^ At 
the head of the bedstead she places some iron article, usually a 
penknife, and hands over to the mother an iron ring, which she 
reclaims on her dismissal, six days after. During that period a fire 
is kept smouldering at the door to repel the demon Jamhua, who 
takes his name apparently from Yama, the god of death. . The 
most fatal disease from which Indian infants suffer is infantile 
lock-jaw, which is the result of the cutting of the umbilical cord with 
a blunt and perhaps foul instrumenji, like the common sickle used 
for this purpose. This disease, as is well known, generally appears 
on the sixth or twelfth day after birth, and this is the reason why 
these days have been, among most of the Indian castes, selected as 
the time for the rites of purification. This demon, like all his kin, 
detests foul smells, so they burn bran, leather, homsi and anything 
else which gives a fetid smoke in the neighbourhood of the mother, 
and all the foul clothes, etc, are carefully taken away by the mid- 
wife and buried in the ground, as, like all the lower tribes, the 
Bhangis have an intense dread of menstrual and parturition blood. 



BHANOI. 286 

Among the L&l Begis the rite of purification is complete on the 
sixth day, and after the mother has been bathed and dressed in 
clean clothesi she is taken outside at night to see the stars, while 
her husband stands close to her with a bludgeon to ward evil sprits 
from her. Then a tray full of food is brought, and all her women 
friends join in eating with the mother. In return^ the friends 
send a coat and cap for* the child. Among the Helas the rite of 
purification ends on the twelfth day. After the Cham&rin is 
dismissed Bhangis do not, as other low castes do, call in the wife 
of the barber to attend the mother. A Br&hman is usually called 
in to select a name for the child, and then the birth hair is shaven. 
Some of the more advanced Bhangis are more careful in performing 
the rites of purification oommon to the superior castes. At the age 
of five or six many of them have their children's ears bored at 
shrines like that of Kftlika Mfti and the Yindhyab&sini Devi of 
Bindh&chal, On this occasion they offer a goat or ram, or cakes, 
and pour some spirits on the ground. Among the Helas of Mir- 
zapur, when the mother first leaves her room, she offers a burnt 
sacrifice {Aom), and makes an offering to Oanga M&i. 

64i, The Bhangis appear to be in the intermediate stage 

between burial and cremation. In Benares, 

Death ritet. 

according to Mr. Greeven, most of them are 
buried. The L&l Begis and Shaikh Mehtars bum nothing ; while 
the others scorch the face or hand and then bury. The funeral 
rites are the same for men and women. The body is bathed, accord- 
ing to sex, by the barber or his wife, but in perhaps most cases 
this is done by one of the relations. The two thumbs and the two 
great toes are fastened together with strips of cloth. It is then 
deposited, attired in a loin cloth, on a new mat, and sprinkled with 
camphor and water, or rose water. The Shaikh Mditars use the 
ordinary Muhammadan cerecloths. The clansmen carry the body to 
the grave-yard on a bedstead, which each takes a turn in raising. 
With Musalmans every member of the procession repeats the creed 
{Kalima), while with Nftnakshahis the'Bftba advances in front reading 
the sacred volume (jranlA), Each sub-caste has its separate grave- 
yard ; but the custodian is always a Musalm&n. The Takyad&r or 
custodian receives four anuas for reading the funeral prayers 
(jandza ki natndz) ; the grave-digger {belddr) six annas for digging 
the grave ; and the C£irpenter four annas for supplying a plank for 
the grave. Two clansmen descend into the grave to receive the 



287 BHANGI. 

corpse as it is lowered. Either method of interment^ lateral 
{baghli)^ or vertical {sanduqehi) , is adopted. The sheet is with- 
drawn for a moment from the face of the corpse to allow it one 
last glimpse of the heavens, while with Musalmftns the &oe is 
turned towards Mecca. The sheet is replaced and the plank 
depositedi on which each clansman flings a handful of dust. A 
sheet is extended over the grave, and a viaticum, consisting of 
bread, sweetmeats, and some water, is laid upon it ; each clansman 
sprinkles a little water and crumbles a little sweetmeats and 
bread on the mound. An earthen vessel is reversed over the grave ; 
but sweepers do not observe the ceremony of withdrawing ten 
paces, nor, of course, is the F&tiha recited, except for Musalm&ns. 
At the moment of leaving the grave-yard it is not unusual for 
each mourner to fling a pebble over his shoulder to bar the ghost. 
The custodian pounces on the sheet as his perquisite, except in the 
case of sweepers who come from the Naw&bi Mulk (Delhi, Bimpur, 
and Lucknow), in which case he retains it, shut up in the pot which 
was reversed over the mound, imtil forty days after the funeral. 

56. The more respectable Hindu sweepers sometimes bum the 
dead, and, if possible, induce some of the meaner class of Br&hmans 
to mutter a few spells while they bum the corpse themselves. 

56. The subsequent ceremonies are more or less elaborate 
according to the means of the family. Thus, among the Shaikh 
Melitars of Benares, according to Mr, Oreeven, in the morning of 
the third day after the funeral, the clansmen, male and female, are 
collected at the house of the deceased, and a vessel is handed round 
containing sweetmeats, rose-water, and betel. In Musalmtn house- 
holds tlie children recite the Kalima, and count grains of the chick 
pea, like the beads of a rosary, to the name of the Almighty. On 
the same evening the clansmen with their women are feasted on 
boiled rice. No ceremonies are observed on the tenth {da$w(n) or 
twentieth {bfiioin) day after death. On the fortieth Ahj {eieilam, 
chdluwdn) the spirit of the departed, which has hitherto haunted 
the death chamber, is expelled in the following way : — The relatives, 
male and female, are feasted till about 11 p.m. An earthen vessel, 
half filled with water, is deposited, with bread, a few sweetmeats, 
and some boiled pulse, under a bedstead. Over this bedstead the 
swcepei-s from the Naw&Vs territory, as defined above, require the 
custodian of the grave to extend the sheet, which he has retained as 
described already. Over this, with Musalm&ns, some low«cl 



BHANGI; 288 

mendicant, nsoally the oastodian of the cemetery, repeats the 
Kalima or creed, while with Nftnakpanthis the B&baji recites from 
the sacred volume (granth). At 4 a.k., as the mendicant ceases, 
the male relations should proceed to the cemetery, fling the earthen 
yessel upon the grave, and depart, leaving the provisions with the 
sheet, in the case of Naw&bi sweepers, to the custodian a9 his 
perquisite. The terror of ghosts usually prevents this rite being 
duly performed, and in most cases they content themselves with 
breaking the vessel at the cross roads, and when it has once been 
broken the ghost is released. 

57. In Benares the Helas and the Shaikhs do the tif'a and bani 
rites, for the propitiation of the dead, like Musalmftns. The L&l Begis 
and Oh&zipuri R&wats offer water for ten days. The vessel {idnri) 
containing water with a hole in the bottom is hung on a ptpal tree. 
They observe the pitrapaksAa or fortnight of the dead. The wor- 
shipper stands in running water and offers some to his deceased 
ancestors. Some offer a kind of pinda or sacred ball of rice. No 
Br&hman takes part in this kind of ardddka. In fact, thou^ 
Bhangis assert the fact, it does not appear certain that Brfthmans 
superintend any of their ceremonies. In the absence of a Brfthman, 
the son, gi-andson, or brother of the deceased officiates. Though it 
is said not to be so among the Benares Bhangis, it seems to be usual 
to give the preference to the son-in-law or sister's son in performing 
the death ceremonies. 

68. The religion of the sweepers is a curious mixture of various 
^ , ' faiths. Some, as we have seen, pi-ofess to be 

Aougioii. 

Hindus, others Musalmftns, and others Sikhs. 
But though these two latter religions avowedly preach the equality 
of all men, they refuse to recogpuse sweepers as brethren in the &ith. 
In Benares the B&wats are said to be as bad Hindus as the Shaikhs 
are indifferent Muhammadans> and the Chaudhari of Helas could 
say only that he professed the Hela religion. But the experience of 
the last Panjftb Census has shown the impossibility of classing 
their beliefs under any one definite creed. Some ninety-five per 
cent of the Ch&hras of the Province did, it is truCi record 
themselves as professing some religion which might be assumed 
to be peculiar to them, such as L&I Begi, B&lmtki, or B&lashihi ; 
but, as Mr. Maclagan observes^—'' While there is no doubt 
that we should be complying with Hindu feeling in excluding 
the Ch&hra from the list of Hindus, should we also exclude the 

1 Punjib Cetmu Reipori, 90. 



289 BHAKGI. 

Cham&r ? And^ if the Cham&r^ why not the Sftnsi ? And should 
the G&grai the Megh, and the Khatik follow ? And^ in &ct, where 
is tbe line to be drawn ? In the absenee of any elear decision on 
this pouxti it will be best to adhere to the present system and in- 
clude all as Hindus/^ At the last Census of these provinces 
2,65^967 persons recorded themselves as votaries of Lftl Beg. To 
the east of the province many are worshippers of the P&nchon Pir. 
To the west Shaikh Saddu and Guru Nftnak are worshipped* We 
have already given some of the legends connected with the tribal 
saint L&l Hog. GAga or Zflhir Fir is again held in high respect 
by the sweepers of the Western Districts, They consider that he 
cures tbe blind, lunatics, and lepers, and has the power of bestowing 
offspring on barren wives. His shrine is a small, round building, 
with a courtyard and flags hung from a neighbouring tree. On the 
shrine is laid a leaf platter containing a chip of the wood of the p(lu 
tree {Careya arborea), a flower of the larU or caper bush, and some 
bdf'ra millet. The tomb is then rubbed with sandalwood, and this 
substance is considered a cure for various diseases. A goat is some- 
times offered at a neighbouring shrine known as Gerakhntth k& qila ; 
and every L&lbegi erects in his house a standard ( nUhdn ) in the 
form of a trident ( triM ) in honor of Zfthir Fir. In the eastern 
parts of these provinces, where distance overcomes the zeal for pil- 
grimage, it is usual for the Bhangis to carry round the sacred symbol 
of the Pir in the month of Bh&don, and raise contributions. 

59. Ghizi Miyftn, again, is a favourite object ' of worship by 
Bhaugis. They have corrupted the standard legend of the 
saint into a mass of extraordinary hagiology. According to one 
version M&mal and her father Sarsa fled from Delhi to Ghazni on 
account of the tyranny of Prithivi Rftja. There Salftr S&hu married 
Mftmal, and Sarsa managed to persuade Sult&n MahmM to attack 
Prithivi Rftja. His tomb at BahrAich is a favourite place of Bhangi 
pilgrimage. The Dafftli priests of the tomb perform all the rites. 
One of them weais the figure of a horse on his waist ; others 
follow him in a wild dance, singing the praises of Shfih Mad&r, 
All this is in commemoration of the marriage of Ghizi Miyftn, which 
is said to have taken place the day before his martyrdom. 

60. Bhangis, again, have an army of local deities, such as in 
Lucknow, Kftle Gora, Baram Gusftin, Narsinha, and Buddhi 
Prasftdi. They believe largely in various evil spirits, the Bbfit, 
the Deo, the Bir, the Bftkshasa, and the ChureL They observe, if 

Vol. I. ^ 



BHAHGI. 200 

• 

HinduSi the festivals of the faith, such as the DiwAli, Ghiad 
Miy&n k& by&h^ the Basant, 'Id, and Mohanam, which are all 
observed by the L&l Begis of Benares ; while the Ohftzipori BAwats 
celebrate the Paohainyfiiii theDiw&lii the Dithwan, the Khichari, 
the Holi, and Ohazi Miyftn k& byfth. The Helas observe the Hoii, 
the Muharram, and the mamage of Ghftzi MiyAn, and the Shaikh 
Mehtars, the last, with the ordinary feasts of Isl&m, The common 
oaths in use are Parameswar qasm and Khuda qoim. The Lftl Begis 
also swear by their patron saint. ^ They plaster a pl^ce with cow- 
dung, place a vessel of water inside it with a copy of the genealogy 
( lurii ), and the person swearing faces the Ka'ba and swears with 
the book in his hand. 

61. Among the Hindu Bhangis of Lucknow, the women can* 

not wear the boddice (angiga), chemisette 
{kurtl), or gold ornaments, and do not bore the 
nose for a ring. Muhammadan Bhangi women do not wear gold 
ornaments or sky-blue {a$mdni) or lac bangles {eh4ri). The use of 
brass ornaments is considered unlucky, but those of alloy are allowed. 
They prefer earthen to metal cooking vessels, and no Bhangi will 
plant the her tree {»i»ypku$ jujuba) or the bamboo before his 
door. The elder brother cannot touch the wife of his younger 
brother, and he can eat with no woman but his own sister. If he 
touch a Dom he must purify himself before doing any other work. 
He will not eat food touched by a Dom or Dhobi, and the husband and 
wife will not mention each other by their names. Of all tribes the 
Dom, though he is admitted to be akin to the Bhangi^ is held in parti- 
cular abhorrence. Their rules of food vary with the religion they 
profess. Thus, Shaikh Mehtars will not eat pork, and some of the 
Hindi; Bhangis will not eat beef. The Helas profess to eat the 
leavings of only high caste Hindus. No Bhangi, it appears, will eat 
monkeys, uncloven footed animals, soaleless fish, crocodiles^ lizards, 
snakes, jackals, rats, or other vermin. The L&l Begis salute in the 
form Bdml Bdm I Tddalldkl and Hardam JlldhI To elders^ they say 
Saldml or Satndmkol Br&hmans they salute with Makdrdjl or Fdla^' 
pan. The Ghizipuri R&wats and Helas salute everybody with 
Jidm I Bdml with the exception of Musalm&ns, to whom they say 
9aldm or bandagi j and pdlagan to Brfthmans. Shaikhs use the word 
saldm only. 

62. The occupations of the Bhangi are manifold. Speaking of the 
^ scavenger tribes of the Pan jib, Mr. Ibbetson 

says : — " Socially they are the lowest of the 



BBANGI. 291 

low, even lower perhaps than the vagrant Sftnsii and the gipsy Nat, 
and, as n rule, they can hardly be said to stand even at the foot of 
the social ladder, though some sections of the tribe have mounted 
the first one or two steps. Their hereditary profession is scavenger- 
ing, sweeping the houses and streets, working up, carrying to the 
fields and distributing manure, and in cities and village houses, where 
the women are strictly secluded, removing night soil. They keep 
those impure animals, pigs, and fowls ; they and the leather- 
workers alone eat the flesh of animals who have died of disease or 
by a natural death. Together with the vagrants and gypsies 
they are the hereditary workers in grass and reeds, from which they 
make winnowing fans and other articles used in agriculture.^^ In 
these Provinces their occupation is to remove filth, to sweep the 
houses and roads, to play on the flute or tambourine {siainai daf) 
at marriages and other social occasions. They also conduct what is 
OBW^Si^Qroihanehauki at marriages, or when solemn vows [mannat) 
are made. Some of them are noted for their musical ability. The 
Hela makes winnowing fans and sieves («tf/9, ehkalni), and some of 
the Shaikhs are collectors and appliers of leeches. The B&nsphor 
makes baskets, mats, etc. The Dh&nuks are fowlers and watchmen. 
They serve in the bands of native princes, and their women are 
midwives. To the west of the Province the Dh^s, a class of 
L&l Begis, act as hangmen and killers of pariah dogs. The Dh&nuks 
and Bftnsphors will not remove night-soil, and the Shaikhs will not 
do this work at public latrines. Their implements are the broom 
{jhirv) and the rib bone of an ox [jpanja), with which they scrape 
up filth. Many of them are the hereditary priests of Sttala, and 
arrange the offerings of pigs released at her shrine j others serve 
Bhfimiya and similar local godlings. As a rule Bhangi women bear 
an indifferent character. 

63. In some places Bhangis are true village menials and receive 
a patch of rent-free land or some allowances at harvest in return for 
their Ecrvices^^'^n our cities, particularly in places like Mirzapur, 
where they are not numerous, they are much given to combination 
among themselves. They resent the settlement of new members of 
the tribe and allot the houses of the residents into certain beats 
{halga, ildqa) each of which is served by a Bhangi and his wife. 
They call the occupants of such houses their " parishioners ^^ (Jajmdn) , 
and fiercely resent the intrusion of any strange Bhangi within the 
beat j in fact most of the cases which come before the council relate 



BHAKGI. 29a 

to disputefl of this kind/f There is aIbo a distinot IookI orguuMtioii 
among them. Thae tn the Distriote about Benaree the Ghlspuri 
R&watB are divided into four great local sections, each of which has 
its own Bnhordinate conncil. These four are the jorisdiotioii of 
the Chaadhari of the city of Benares ; the Oh&zipur Chandhari of 
the Kasw&r mat or datdi, which is the technical term for the 
juriBdiction ; the Kareara Chaadhari of the Kariy&r eiaidi, who 
lives at Karsara near Chunir in the Mirzapor Digtriot ; and fourth- 
ly, the Sanapur Chaudbari of the Cbaa&Us eJiaidi in Azamgarh, 
The last is by far the most influential of the four. It appears thai 
the eialdi never meets as a body except to disonsa some very im- 
portant qoestion affecting the sub-caete as a whole. 

Dittribmtieu of tAe Bkangit aeeording to lie Cfwni* of J89t. 



DiBTnioo'. 


1 


j 


s 


1 

3 


! 

z 


i 


a 


i 


D«hift Ddn . 


50 


... 


-. 


7W 


... 


2,662 


... 


t,m 




9S 




12 


e.os7 


... 


23,800 


6 


».m 




37S 


m 


... 


16,128 




13,098 


... 


axa 


Ueetnt . 


*,m 


... 




80,207 




23.402 


01 


5e,s«) 


BuLuidiluihr . 


... 


... 




S,8S9 


... 


27,930 


.,. 


S0.TS6 


Alig«h . . 






U 


8.828 


766 


20,180 


.„ 


iS,M* 


Mttbnni. . 




u 


67 


1,!3I 


... 


11,053 


81 


13,28(1 


Art. . . 


... 




... 


10,707 


47 


G,031 


663 


M^iao 










6.B40 


53 


1.268 


i 


7,1S5 










8,870 


484 


682 


... 


u/m 


BtiKkb . 






1,069 


*.m 


137 


013 


46 


>,m 


Bt>h , 


S7 




8 


4,013 


4,602 


4,042 


„. 


am 


BusUlj . 




... 


... 


8,925 




^807 


... 


nm 


Bijnor . . 


m 




... 


11,899 


... 


1,286 


... 


I8,1«8 


Badion . 






... 


... 


... 


17,887 


... 


n,ss7 


HoHdlUd . 


B2 


m 


... 


n.ieo 




10,187 


14 


24,m 


ShUlklUiipDT. 


... 


... 


... 


6,1*6 


63 


2,409 


SSS 


?,ilM 


PlUbblt . 




1 


... 


8.S00 


... 


1,170 


B 


tjm 


Cwnpu . 


- 


66 


WS 


S,6S8 


- 


8,856 


<■ 


M7« 



283 BHAHOI. 

DitlriMiuH tff th» Siangii according to tk* Cntut of 7892— «andd. 



DiBTBIOT. 


1 


1 


1 


1 

a 


j 


1 


>i 


i 


IWtBbpai 


... 


132 


US 


83 


3 


8,016 


46 


8,876 


B4nda . . 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


11 


11 


HMuIrpor . 


... 


... 


130 


... 


... 


183 


41 


863 


AILiUliU . 


... 


... 


1.700 


m 




6,859 


M 


B,34g 


JblUMl . . 




... 


80 


i.«* 


78 


B^ 


ISO 


3,568 


JilauD . . 


... 


... 


... 


BSl 




1.826 


531 


3,808 


l«Ltpur. 








123 


... 


45fi 


183 


711 


Bemtroi . 


... 


... 


... 


m 




l.IiW 


SIS 


2,088 


Mir^por . 


... 


... 


IM 


13 


... 


878 


ISO 


1,406 


Jaunpat. . 


.. 


... 




... 


... 


15 


1,751 


1,766 


abuipnr 


... 






... 


... 


1,860 


477 


1,837 


BMi, . . 








... 


... 


1,8*8 


120 


1,*G8 






... 


SOO 


8S 


... 


1,486 


2,036 


8.833 


BMti . . 




... 




... 




I,81E 


1,006 


8,110 


Ainmguh . 


... 






... 


... 


18 


1.77a 


1,78S 


KnnuQQ 


... 


... 






... 


693 


... 


602 


O&rhwll. 


... 


... 




... 




136 


... 


180 


T«rU . . 


375 


.„ 


... 


2.1lfl 


„ 


S80 


., 


t.m 


Looknow 




C75 


B13 


766 




a,B67 


1,431 


«,045 


Uofto . 


... 


T08 


4ST 


8 


... 


800 


80 


1,678 


BUBateU 


... 




<30 


... 


... 


693 


14 


1.W7 


SItapur . 


S 


88 




3,7*7 


... 


1,186 


8DG 


4.383 


Hudoi . 




... 


... 


t.m 


... 


1,037 




e,B2a 


Kbsri . 








8.5J3 


IS 


B67 


ft* 


M81 


Fkii&lHld 


... 


G 


BM 


417 




426 


i,aia 


8,714 


OoDtls . 


... 




665 


m 


... 


IM6 


180 


ifim 


Saliriiah 


... 


I 


... 


aoD 


... 


687 


£86 


3,088 




... 


... 


781 


... 




1,146 


m 


8,«B 


FkrUbguh 


... 


... 


... 


4 




1.66B 


438 


1,990 


BimbMki 


... 


... 


... 


I.Ufi 




36 


BIS 


3,801 


Totit, 


1 0,108 


SS.288 


7,877 


1,63.761 


6,38* 


210,703 


17.8SS 


1^14,633 



bhIntv, 



294 



BhantUi Bliat!l.-*A oriminal tribe found chiefly in Boliil- 
khand ^nd Oudh. They are merely one branch of the SAnsiya 
tribe, known elsewhere as Beriya, Hfibura, or Kanjar. The deriva- 
tion of the word is uncertain. Some connect it with Bh&t, as some 
S&nBiya^ act as bards or genealogists to some Bfijpnts and J&ts : 
others say it comes from bhdnti (Sanskrit, biiuna, '^ broken '')| 
with reference to the miscellaneous elements of which they are 
composed. There is a tribe of the same name in Central India who 
are also known as Dumar or Eolh&ti, who are wandering athletes 
and worship NftrSyan and the bamboo, with which all their feats 
are accomplished. When they bury their dead they place rice and 
oil at the head of the grave, and draw the happiest omens of the 
state of the departed from crows visiting the spot.^ 

2. The Bhfintus of these Provinces follow exactly the customs 
of the kindred tribes of Beriya, H&bfira and S&nsiya. 

Diitribuiion of the Bhdntu$ aeeording to the Census of 189U 



DiBTRIOT. 


Mambor. 


DiflTBIOT, 


Kamber. 


Ag^ « • • • 

Bareilly 

• 

Bnd&un • • • 
Mor&d&b&d . 


8 
17 
08 

2 


Gb&7ipQr 

Kheri • • « 

Sult&npnr . 

Total 

• 


12 

9 

231 


872 



1 Balfour; Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, N. S. XIII. ; Qonthorpe, Notm 
on Oriminal Trihes, 46, $qq. ; Rowney, wild Tribet, 21. 



3 



a. I. 0. p. O.-No. 17 B. to G. N. W. P.— 2-11-D6.— 500. 



This book is a piesefvatioii photocopy. 

U WM produced on HauunenniU Laser Prinl natnnl liiute, 

s 60 # book wet^ add-finee aicfaival peper 

^lAicfa meets die lequiieiiieots of 

ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (penmience of pqwr) 

PieaervatioQ photocopying and binding 

by 

Acme BooidMndtng 

CbariMtown, Masndniwtts 

ED 

1996 



\}l U^4