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CjJ^t > 33:^.5' 

Harborli CoHege Ifinrarp 



















TifERE is certainly no family to which the bardic literatare 
of Ireland is more deeply indcuted than that of (yDaly. Ac- 
cording to OTlaherty {Ogygia, part IIL, c. 85,) they are of 
the race of Maine, son of Niallof the Nine Hostages, and are 
of the same stock as the Foxes, the Slagpwlcys, the O'Brecns 
and (yQuins of Teathbha or Teffia in Wcstmcath. la 
O'Dugan's Topographical Poem the O'Dalys arc also set down 
as of Teffia in Westmeath and chiefs of Corca-Adam in that 
territory. Duald Mac Firbis and Peregrine CyClery have 
given the descent of the (yDal/s from Fearghal (son of 
Maclduin of the race of Eoghan, son of Niall of the Nine 
Hostages), who was lord of Cincl-Eoghain in 718; but Mac 
Firbis observes, that he docs not believe that CDaly is 
of this descent, though he transcribes the Genealogy as he found 
it in a modern compilation; and he refers to the family elsewhere 
as of the race of lilnine, son of Niall, and as of Corca- Adam 
in Teffia ; and tliis is undoubtedly the true descent. Duald 
Mac Firbis who seems to have compared various MSS. con- 
taining O^Daly's pedigree, gives the Une (p. 13'^.) from Dalach, 
son of Faehtna, son of Core, son of A dan or Adliamh^ a quo 
Corca-Adaiuj or Corca- Adhaimh, as follows : — 

1. Adan or Adhamh, a quo Corca Adain, or Corca- Adiiaimh. 

2. Core. 

3. Faehtna. 

4. Dalach, a quo O'Dalaigh or O'Daly. 

5. Gilla-coimhdheadh. 

6. Tadhg. 

7. jVluircadhach. 


8. Dalach. 

9. Cachoniiachtna S^ile of Lcckin, nearBunbnisna in TeiBa, 

I Ard-Ollamhin poctiyj who died at Clonard, in 1139. 

10. Tadhg Doichleach. 

11. Aenghus, the common ancestor of all the (yjislfs extant. 

12. Cearbhan 
ancestor of 

S«t to the 
Co. Cork. 

12. Donnchadh Mor 
Ancestor of the 
ODalj't of Finny. 
VAFA end of Dan- 
•andle, 1244. 

13. Aenghne. 

14. l^onnchftdh 

16. Aesghttt R nadb^, iSM. 

12. Muireadh&ch, 12.0ma.Is», 
of MssmUU a. 

luuDMinh, 12. Tadhg. 

12, Connac-ua Casbhalme. 

ILochlalnn d. 

le. Tadhg, d. 1367* 

17. Fearghal, chief i 

poet of Corcomioe* | 

II. 1420. 10. Donn. 

17. Doi| 



18. Donn. 

20. John. 

21. Tadhg. 

22. Diannak^ 

23. Aedh or 
Hoirh 0*Da]y, 
of FinnjTaia. 

12. OuLi 

13. Tadhg. 

14. MadlMu 
IC Anghut. 
17* Cuchonnachi. 

18. Muircheartachy 

19. Donndiadh, and 
six other sons. 


d. 1243. 

14. Tadhg» 
chief poet 
of Conn- 

15. Cnch. 

16. Aen. 
I ghus. 

13. CearbhaU 
Finn, ances- 
tor of 0*Oalj 
of Rreifne. 

U. C^bhan 

13. Conchobhar. 

16. I^ialL 

17. A^aelseach- 

18. bearbhan. 

19. A'edh. 

20. \Viniam. 

of Breifne. 
d. 1490. 
ancestor of 
John O'Dalj, 
of 0, Anglesea. 

* Whose relationship to the 0*Da1js of Breifne stands thus:— 
Donnell O'Dalv of the Breifne sept of this family migrated from 
Ballinamuck, Count j of Longford, about A.D. 1730; and settled at 

From this Genealogical Table it is clear that Cuchonnacht 
(yDaly, sumamed **na SgoiU* (i. c. of tho School)^ who died 
at Clonard in the year 11 39, was the ancestor of all the CDalys 
of Ireland, who followed the Bardic Profession. In the year 
1185, died on his pilgrimage at Clouard, Maelisa O^Daly, 
lord of Corca- Adaim and Corca-Ilaoidhe in Westmeath ; ho 
was '' chief poet of Eire and Alba, and a man illustrious for 
his nobility, poetry, and hospitaUty/' (Four Mattert). 

In the year 1213, we find that Muireadhach or Murray 
(yDaly, the great grandson of this Cuchonnacht na Sgoile, 
was seated at Lios-an-Doill, or Lissadiil, in the territory of 
Carbury, in the north of the present County of Sligo, where 

Ballyhack, County of Wexford, where he got married and had 
issue, viz. — 

Maurice, who remained at Ball vhack, and Donneir(whom we can- 
not further trace), settled at Ilacketstown, Old Parish, County of 
Water ford, ahout 1760. 

Maurice had issue, four sons ; viz. James, John, William, and 

James settled at Knoclcroe, parish of Kilgobnet, Countv of 
Waterford, in the year 1796, and married Mary Veale, by wnorn 
he had issue, three sons and six dauffhters. 

John settled at Durrow, parish of Modeligo, County of Waterford, 
in 1707; and married Mary Keon, by whom he had issue, four 
sons and three daughters. 

William died unmarried. 

Edmund (the father of John O'Daly,) settled at Farnane, parish of 
Modeliffo, County of Waterford, in the year 1708; and io 1799, 
married Bridget Kyley of Kilbryan, same County ; by whom he 
had issue :— 

I. John (of 9> Anglesea-st), born in 1800. II, Bfaurice, bom in 
1B03. III. Mary, born 1806. IV. James, born in 1808. 
V. Bridget, born in 1810, VI. Ellen, bom in 1819. 

John married (1st) in 1827, Ellen Shea of Dungouraey, County of 
Cork, (who died in 1849) by whom he had issue i-^ 
I. Mary, Born in 1828. Died in 1834. 
1 1. Edmund, Born in 1830. Died in 1836. 

III. John, Born (December), 1831. Living. 

IV. Denis, Born in 1833. Died in 1838. 
V. Mary, Bom in 1835. Died in 1838 

VI. Wilriam,Bominl836. Died. 
VII. Edmund, Born in 1837. Living. 
VIII. Ellen, Born in 1839. Living. 
IX. Laurence, Born in 1842. Living. 
X. Kate, Born in 1844. Living. 

Married (2nd) in 1850, Mary Murphy, alias Griffith, by whom he 
has issue:— 

Elizabeth, Born in 1851, Living. 


he resided in the canacity of poet to the chief of that district. 
Tlie Four Masters have preserved the following anecdote of 
him, in which the great power of tlieir favourite chieftain, 
O'Donnell, is conspicuously set forth. 

"A.D , 1213, Fionn O'BroUaghan, steward to (yDonneU 
(Donnell Mor), went to Connacht to collect CDonnell's rent, 
lie first repaired to Carbuiy of DrumclifT, where with his atten- 
dants he visited the house of the poet Muireadhach (yDaly of 
Lios-an-Doill, and being achurle servant of a hero, he began 
to abuse the poet very much (although his lord had given him 
no instructions to do so). The poet becoming enraged at his 
conduct, seized a sharp axe, and dealt him a blow which 
killed him on the spot ; and then to avoid O^Donnell, he 
fled into Clanrickard. "NVhen CyDonnell received intelligence 
of this, he collected all his forces, and pursued him to Doire- 
Ui-Dhomhnaill (Dcrrydonnell) in Clanrickard, — ^a place which 
was named from him, because he encamped there for a ni^ht ; 
and he proceeded to burn and plunder the country, untd at 
last the son of William submitted to Jiim, having previously 
sent Muireadhach to seek for protection in Thomond. 
(yDonnell pursued him, and proceeded to plunder and ravage 
that country also, until Donough Cairbreach O'Brien sent 
Afuireadhacb away to the people of Limerick. (yDonnell 
foUowed him to the gate of Limerick, and pitching his camp 
at Moin-Ui-Dhomhnaill (which was named from him), laid 
siege to the town ; and the inhabitants at (yDonnell's com- 
mand expelled Muireadhach, who found no asylum any where, 
but was sent from hand to hand until he arrived in Dublin. 

*' (y Donnell then returned home, having first traversed and 
completed the visitation of all Connacht. He mustered his 
forces a^ain without much delay in the same year, and marching 
to Dublin compelled the people of Dublin to expel Aluireadhach, 
who fled into Alba (Scotland) ; and here he remained 
until he composed three poems in praise of (yDonneU, implor- 
ing peace and forgiveness. The third of these poems is the 
one begiiming, 'Oh ! Donnell, kind hand of peace, &e.* He 
obtained peace for liis panegyrics, and O'Donnell afterwards 
received him into his friendship and gave him bnds and 
possessions as was pleasing to him.'' 

Thus far the Historians of Tirconnell. We have never seen 
any of the poems addressed by O'Daly to O'Donnell on this 
occasion ; but we have a copy of a poem addressed by him 
when he fled into Clanrickard, to Ilichard De Burgo, the son 

of William Fitz-Adclm^ stating the cause of his fliglit, and 

imploring that great lord's protection. It begins " cftc Ab A3A|b 

A0]6tt A 5-c6]i) ? '* i. e. " what brings a guest to ^ou from 

afar ? In this poem (of which there is a good copy in a paper 

MS. in the Library of the Eoyal Irish Academy), Aluireadhacli 

calls himself O'Daly of Meath (0'C)iilAi5 ^]6e), and states 

that he was wont to frequent the Courts of the English, and 

to drink wine from the hands of kings and knights, of bishops 

and abbots ; that, not wishing to remain to be trampled under 

the feet of the Eace of C!onn, he fled to one, who, with his 

mail-clad warriors, was able to protect him against the fuiy of 

the King of Dcrry and Assaroe, who had threatened him with 

his vengeance, though indeed the cause of his enmity was but 

trilling, for that he (the fugitive) had only killed a plebeian 

of liis people who had the audacity to affront him. 

beAS Afi b-f aU ftir All b-peAii, 
bAcUc bo bo|C boiQ c&j9eA6 1 • 
9)6 bo ibAfibAb All tboJAft, 

^bbl At) S^HtAfi AV-foUAf 

Trifling is our difference with the man, 
A shepherd was affronting me ; 
And i killed that clown ; 
O God ! is this a cause for enmity ? 

He calls upon the puissant Knight, Kichard, the son of 
"William, to respect the order of the poets, who are never treated 
with harshness by chieftains, and to protect the weak against 
the strong. He next bestows some verses of paneg3'ric upon 
him, describes the splendour of his house and its inmates, 
calls him the Cl)ief of the English, the Lord of Leinster, the 
King of Connaclit, the Proprietor of the Forts of Cruachain, of 
Tara, of Mac Coise's "Wall of Stone, and of Mur-mic-an-Duiim 
then called Caislean-Ui-Chonaing, — and suggests that he might 
hereafter invite the poets of the five provinces to his house. 
He then tells Richard the son of "William, that whatever deeds 
of valour anv one may have achieved, he cannot be truly 
renowned without protecting the venerable, or the feeble; and 
that he now has an opportunity of making himself iUustrious 
by protecting CDaly of Meath, a poet whose verges demand 
attention, and who throws himself on his generosity. He 
concludes by reminding him of his duties as king of the famous 

!)rovince of Connacht. See Anmh of the Four Marten, Ed. 
r. CD., A.D. 1213, pp. 179, 181, note« 

In 1232, died Gilla-na-naeve O'Daly, a learned noet who 
had kept a house of hospitality for the poor and rich. Four ^ 
Masters. ^ 

Uuder the year 1214, the Annals of the Four Masters 
record the death of" Donoiigh Mor (yDaly/ the brother of this 
Muireadhach of Lissadill,a poet who never was and never wiUbe 
surpassed; he was interred in the Abbey of Boyle/' In the 
Annals of Qomnacnoise he is called chief of Ireland for poetry. 
According to tradition and some written pedigrees, he was the 
head of the CDalys of Finnyvara in the north of Burrin in 
the County of Clare, where they still point out the site of his 
house or college, and h:s honorary monument. A tree in the 
cemetery of the Abbey of Boyle is still pointed out as marking 
his grave. He is the ancestor of Lord Dunsandle, whose 
more immediate ancestor removed from Finnyvara to Hy-Many 
with Baghnailt Ny Brien the wife of Tadhg Huadh O'Kelly 
of Callow, in the latter part of the fifteenth century. See 
IHbes and Customs oflfy^Many, p. 126. 

In 1245, died Carroll pjuidhe. Yellow] Boy, son of Teige, 
son of Aenghus Fionnabhrach O'Daly. (Four Masters). 

A.D. 1268, died Aenghus CDaly, a man eminent for poetry, 
and a keeper of a house of hospitality. 

A.D. 1274, died Teige, son of Carroll [Buidhe] Boy CDaly, 
chief poet of Hugh OConor, King of Connacht 

A.D. 1311, died Gilla-Iosa CDaly, an Ollamh in poetry. 

A.D. 1323, we find one of the family in Ulster, for in that 
year Loghlin, the son of Owen CDaly, was slain by the 
sons of Hugh [Buidhe] Boy (yNeilL 

A.D. 1337, Lughaidh (Louis) CDaly, Bishop of Clonmac- 
noise died after a well-spent life. 

A.D. 1350, died Aenghus Roe CDaly, the most learned 
of the poets of Ireland. 

A.D. 1367, Teige and Loughh'n, two sons of Aenghus Roc 
CDaJY, died. 

A.D. 1877, Hugh Mae Namara, chief of Clann-Choilen, 
was slain by the son of CDal/s daughter. 

A.D. 1378, Teige the son of Loughlin Mac Namara, was 
slain by the son of (yDal/s daughter. 

' O'Reiify says, that he was called the Ovid of Ireland^ but we have 
not learned by whom, although such indeed he may be regarded ; 
but it must be acknowledged that he has been since excelled by manj 
of his countrymen. His poems are principally of a religious or moral 
character, and possess considerable merits considering the age to 
which they belong, but not so much as to entitle him to the unquali- 
iied praise bestowed upon his powers by the Four Masters. See 
O'Reilly's Descriptive Catalogue of Irish Writers, pp. 88—92, for a 
list of his poems. 

A.D. 1387, died Goffrey Finn (yDaly, chief poet of Ins 

A.D. 1S94, Teige O'llaughian, a learned poet, was slain 
by the sons of Cuchonnacht O^Daly [in a squabble], about 
the OlIamh-shipoftyNeill. 

A.D. U04, Carroll O'Daly, OUamh of Corcomroe, and 
Donnell, the son of Donough CyDalv, who was called Bofy- 
aU'Dana (the Budget of Poetry), dico. 

A.D. I'iOS, (yiiaugluan was slain by the CDalys, at 
lifnchaire Maenmhaighe [near Loughrea in the County of 

A.D. 1415, Sir John Talbot, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 
plundered the lands of several poets, which were considered 
inviolable l)y the Irish. He plundered O^Daly of Meath 
(Dcrmot), and Maurice O^Daly, and in the ensuing summer 
he plundered O'Daly of Corcomroe (FarreU, son of Teige, 
son of Acnghus Roe). 

A.D. 1420, died FarreU ODaly, OUamh of Corcomroe, in 


A.D. 1438, O'Daly of Brcifny, chief poet to O'Reilly, died. 

A.D. 1448, Dermot, son of Owen, son of llahon O'Daly, 
OUarah of all Meatli, a learned poet, died and was interred at 
Durrow-Columbkille, in the King's Countr. 

A.D. 1459, Murtough O'Daly, a learned poet, died. 

A.D. 14G6, Murtough, son of Cuchonnacht O'Daly, died. 

A.D. 1474, O'Daly of Meath (Carbry), died. 

A.D. 1490, O'Daly of Brcifny (John, son of WiUiam, son 
of Hugh), a learned poet, died. 

A.D. 1493, Conor, son of O'Daly of Brcifny, died. • 

A.D. 1496, Owen Oge, son of Owen, son of Hugh O'Daly, 

A.D. 1507, O'Daly Finn (Godfrey, son of Donough), 
and O'Daly of Carbcry (Acnghus, son of Acnghus Caech), 

A.D. 1514, O'Daly of Corcomroe (Teige, son of Donough, 
son of Teige, sou of Carroll), a professor of i)oetry, who b^d 
kept a house of general hospitality, died at Finnyvara, and 
was buried in the Abbey of Corcomroe. 

A.D. 1589, Donnell O'Daly, a gentleman who had the 
command of a party of soldiers in the Queen's service under 
Sir Richard Bingham, was taken and beheaded by the Burkes 
of the County of Mayo, who were then in rebellion. AnnaU 
of the Four Masters, p. 1881.. 


Of the various branches of this poetical family' onlj one 
seems to have risen to rank and political importance in Ireland^ 
namely, the descendants of Douough Mor CrDaly, who removed 
to Hv-Many in the latter part of the fifteenth century. Before 
the devolution the head of this branch, Denis Daly of Gar- 
rownekdly, in the County of Galway, Esq., was second Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas, and a Privy Councillor in the 
reign of King James II. ''He continued to fill this station 
at the Bevolution," says Lodge, " with such impartiality and 
integrity (in those arduous times), as added lustre to his 
judicial character." 

The representative of this gentleman at the latter end of 
the last century, was the Right Honorable Denis Daly, for 
many years member for the Countj of Galway, in the Irish 
Parbament, distinguished for his eloquence and ability ; and 
characterised by Grattan as "one of ihe best and brightest 
characters Ireland ever produced.'' His eldest son James, 
after having also represented that County many years in 
Parliament, was, by the Title of Baron of Dunsandle and 
Clan Conal, County of Galway, raised to the Peerage of 
Ireland, June 6th, 1845. 

Prom the Genealogical Table given at p. 4, it is dear that 
Cuchonnacht na Sgoile CKDaly, who died atC3onard,in 1189, 
was the first man of the CyDalys who was celebrated for his 
learning. From his period forward poetry became a profession 
in the family, and the Corca-Adaim sent forth poetical 
professors to various parts of Ireland. About the middle of 
the twelfth century Baghnall CDaly settled in Desmond, and 
became chief professor of ][K>etry to Mac Carthy, Idn^ of Des- 
mond. From him, no doubt, the CDalys of Muintur-Bhaire, 
in the south-west of the County of Cork, are descended ; but 
their pedigree has not been preserved hj the O'CIeiy's or Mac 
Firbises, and it is to be feared that it is irrecoverably lost. Dr. 
O'Brien, indeed, asserts in his Irish Dictionary f voce dala), 
that the O'Dalys of Munstcr are descended from tne third son 
of Aenghus, king of Cashel, who was baptized by 8t Patrick ; 

'O'Reilly mentions twenty-eight poets of this family, and gives 
the first lines of upwards of one hundred poems written br them ; 
and we have in our own collection almost as many more which es- 
caped his notice ; but they are chiefly religious, beine the compositions ' 
of Donough Mor O'Daly, who died in 1244, and of Aenghus O'Daly 
surnamed ** na Diadkachta'* (the Pious or Divine), who flourishea 
about the year 1570. See O'Reilly's Irish Wriien, p. czxzuu 


but this is one of the very many unaccountable enon with 
which that work abounds. Tlic same error has been interpol- 
I atcd into several modern copies of Keating^s History of Ireland. 

Of the CyDalys of Muintir-Bhaire, of whom was Aenghus 
the Bard SuadA, some notices occur in the Paeaia Hibernia, 
Book ITI., and in the MS. entitled Carbria Noiitia, which 
formed No. 591, of the sale catalogue of the late Lord Kings- 
borough's library/ which are here given, that the reader may 
have before him all the information respecting the sept of the 
CKDalys at present accessible :— 

'' 1602. Fourth [of May], Odalie was convented before 

the Lord President and CounccU, and in regard it was proved 

that hce came from the Bcbclk, with messages and offers to 

Otcen OSulevan to adhere and combine with the Enemy, 

\ wliich the said Oicen did first reveal to Captaine Flower, S^- 

i geant Major of the Anny, and after publikely justified it to 

: Odali/s face; the said OBalif was committed to attend his 

\ tryal at the next sessions. 

"This Odali^i Ancestor had the country of Moyntirbary 
given unto him by the Lord President's Ancestor, many hun- 
dred ycares past, at which time Carew had to his inheritance, 
the moity oi the whole kingdomc of Corke, which was first 
given bjr King Henry the second unto B<]hert Fiiz Stephen i 
the service wUch Odaly and his progenie were to doe, for so 
large a proportion of Lands unto Carew and his successors was 
(according to the custom of that time) to bee their Bimers, or 
Chroniclers of their actions.'* 

This account of Carew is, however, not very accurate; for 

I the family never had possession of this territory until the reign ' 

j of Queen Elizabeth, and then only for a very short time. In 

the reign of Edward III. Thomas dc Carew set up a claim, as 

heir to Fitz-Stephen, to all his ancient estates in Cork ; but 

by an Inquisition taken at Cork, before Sir Anthony Lucey, 

Lord Justice of Ireland, on the 31st. of August, in the fifth 

year of the reign of Edward III., it was found that '' Bobert 

I Fitz-Stcphen died seized of the moiety of the estate granted 

] by Henry II. to him and Milo de Cogan, and that the said 

) Fitz-Stcphen was a Bastard, and died without issue of his 

I body ; that the claim of Tliomas de Carew, asserting that he 

and liis ancestors were heirs to Fitz-Stephen, could not bo 
, ^ Sold by 0. Sharpe, at his literary sale«rooms, Anglesea-st, Dublin, 

Nov. 1642. 


true, because the said Fitz-Stephen was a Bastard, and died 
without issue of hb body/' 

Notwithstanding this Inquisition the claim was again set 
up in 1568, by Sir Peter Carew, whose .brother Sir George, 
was afterwards President of Munstcr ; butSir Peter died in 157 5, 
and his heir Peter junior, was slain by the O'Bymes at Glen- 
malure in 15S0; and the prosecution of the suit ended in 
notliin^. {Pour Masters, A, D. 1580). From this it is very 
clear that the (XDalys of Muintir- Bhaire had little or no 
connection with the Carews either in the reigns of Edward III. 
or of Elizabeth. The Author of Carbria Notitia, evidently seeing 
through the fallacy of this statement in the Pacata Ribemia, 
thus modifies it in his account of the south-west of the County 
of Cork. 

" And soe [crossing Dunmanus Bay] you come to Mynter- 
var^, which lyes between Dunmanus Bay and Bearhaven, in 
which there is nothing worth observation except Coolnalong, 
a pretty scat belonging formerly to Mucklagh, a sept of tho 
Cartys. This country was, according to Irish custome, 
given to CDaly, who was successively Bard to CMahony and 
Carcw ; and to CGlavin, who was his Termoner or receiver." 
Dr. Smith also describes Minterbarry, and calls it '' a most 
barbarous country, lying between Dunmanus Bay and Bantrj 
'R^Y" (History of Cork, Book II, c. 4.^, but says nothing of 
the (y Dalys in connection with it 1 1 

Tlie head of this familv had his residence at Druim-Naoi, 
or Drumnea, in the parish of Kilcrohane, where a portion of 
his house, commonly called " Tlie Old College House," still 
remains, and forms the residence of a farmer, Mr. George 
Nicolas. The walls arc well built, and cemented with lime 
and mortar, and from fragments of ruins still to be seen close 
to what remains, it may be inferred that it was once a house 
of some importance. According to tradition, two sons of a 
king of Spain, who were at school here under the tuition of 
O'Daly, died and were buried in Drumnea. 

Tlie head of this family, Acnghus, son of Acn^hus Caech 
CDaly Cairbreach, died in the year 1507*. The last profes- 
sional poet of this house was Conchobhar Cam CyDalaigh Cair- 

'A branch of this family of the O'Daly », removed to the County of 
Kerry, a member of whom was the celebrated Daniel or Dominick 
O'Daly, who wrote the History of the Geraldines. He was bom In 
the year 1695, and died at Lisbon in the year 1662. 


breach, who wrote an dcgy of forty ranm or quatrains, on the 
dcatb of Dounell CyDonovan, cliicf of Cbinn-Cathatl, vho died 
in 1660, beginning: — 

" CfUSAb bo ti05 All niAitciiAj6 9)o|i99eAC f ** 
** What has overtaken the Momonian Toutha ?* 
He also addressed a poem of thirteen ranns or qnatrainsj 
to his pupil Donough, the son of Donncll (^Donovan, and 
brother of said Donuell, who died in 1660, beginning :-«» 

*' Sorrowful to me ia the lying [sicknessj of Donnchadh.** 

This Donough, who was the foster-son of (yDaly Cairbreach, 
is the ancestor of 'Mr. James (yDonovan of Myross, in the 
County of Cork. 

Conchobliar Cam CDaly also addressed a short poem^ of nine 
quatrains, to Joan, daugliter of Sir Owen Mac Carthy fieagh, 
and wife of CyDouovan (Donuell, son of DonneU, son of Teigc)^ 
beginning :— - 

*• O ! Joan, confirm our treaty. •* * 

The last descendant of (yDaly of Drumnea, who was recog- 
nized in the country as the head of the sept, and who claimed 
the O'Daly tomb at Kilcrohane, was Mr. James Daly of Bantry. 
He removed from Bantry to Cork, where he became a distiller, 
and kept a respectable establishment in John-street. He died 
some tliree or lour years since, leaving a son, Mr. James O^Daly, 
who is still living at Cork. 

That Aenghus O'Daly the Bard Euadh, was of this family, 
but not the chief of it, little doubt can be entertained ; and 
O'Ecilly believes that he was the Angus CDaly of Balliorrone, 
who according to an Inquisition taken at the Old Castle in Cork, 
on the 18th. of September, 1624, died on the 16tlu of Decem- 
ber, 1 617, leaving a son Angus Oge 0*Daly. 

The Ballyorrone mentioned in this Inquisition is now called 
Ballyrunc. ' It oririnally comprised the present Ballyrune^ as 
well as Cora, Lahcrdoty, and BaUyicragh. Laherdoty was for- 
merly called ilid-Ballyrune, and Ballyieragh (Ba|U lAftCAftAC, 
i. e., west town), West-Ballyrune. The site and small portions 

> Copies of these poems are preserved in paper MS. about one 
liundred and sixty years old, which was in the possession of Mr. 
Peter Laval li, later eruquier of the Four Courts, Dublin | and now 
living in Paris. 

u . 

of the walls of Acnghus (yj)a\y\ or the Bard Ruadk*9 house, 
are, still pointed out in that subdivision of Ballyrune called 
Cora. The walls are built of freestone and cemented with lime 
and hair mortar. There is a rock near the Tower at Sheep's 
Hcad^ called Bfto Stet)5U]5 (i e., Angus's Quern), which is 
locally beheved to have received its name from Aenghus na 
n-derCyDulj. Several of the Dalys, or CDalysof Muintir- 
Bhaire, claimed descent from him, namely, Daniel Daly of 
Ahakista, deceased, and several others, but the widow Connell 
alias Maiy Daly, now in the Bantij work-house, is believed to 
be the nearest akin to him now living. Her friends have emi- 

S-atedto America. Several verses attributed to the Bard 
uadh of Ballyrune, and having reference to his coshering pro* 
pensities, in his old age, when he was poor, are still locaUf 
recited, which corroborate (yfieill/s opinion, that he was the 
Angus (yDaly mentioned in the Inquisition above referred to; 
but never, at any period of hb life, was he poet to (yKeeffe, as 
O'Beilly thinks. 

The familv of CyDftly was always considered as forming about 
the one-twelfth part of the population of Muintir-Bhaire, now 
included in the parish of Kucrohane. 

From a census of the popidation taken by the Bey. John 
Kelcher, P. P., in October, 1884, it appears that the total popu- 
btion of the parish was then 441*8 souls, of which the O^Dalys- 
were 345, including 182 males, and 163 females, i. e., about 
one-twelfth of the entire population. 

In December, 1849, a census of the parish was also taken 
by the Bcv. Jeremiah Cummins, B. C. C, from which it appears 
that the population had decreased to 2820 souls, of wliich the 
O'Dalys constituted 217, (125 males, and 92 females), i.e., one- 
thirteenth of the entire population. Both censuses prove that 
the O'Dalys have kept up their old proportion to the population, 
although they are as liable to disappear by starvation and emi- 
gration as the other families of Muintir-Bhaire. 

The O'Dalys (who appear to have forfeited the last remnant 
of their property in Muintir-Bhaire, at the Bevolution), are now 
reduced to the condition of cottiers or struggling farmers, in this 
wild district. The principal proprietors at present are, Bichard 
O'Donovan, Esq., J. P., Fort Lodge, Bantry; Dr. Daniel 
O'Donovan of Skibbereen, J. P. ; Timothy 0*Donovan, Esq., 
J. P., O' Donovan's Cove; and Timothy O'Donovan, Esq., of 

The ancestor of the three first-mentioned proprietors, took 


this large tract of land for 999 yean, from » Mr. Congieve of 
Mount Congreve, in the Coantj of Waterford^ an undertaker; 
to whose descendant they still pav some small head rent Ti- 
mothy 0*Donovan^ Esq., of Ardahill (who descends bom Kedarii 
Mor, the youngest son of O'Donovan, by the daughter of Sr 
Owen Mac-Carthy Beagh), was himsdf the purchaser of Arda- 
hiU, Carravilleen^ Deny-clovane and Faunmore. 


A satire is a poem in which wickedness and folly are censured, 
with a view to check them. Satire is general. A lampoon 
or pasquinade is personal, and always intended, not to reform^ 
but to insult and vex : the former is commendable ; the latter 
scurrilous ',-^ada ei insuUa scurrililas. The term. Pasquinade, 
is said to have been derived from an old cobbler of the city of 
Home, called Fasquin, who had his stall at the comer of the pa* 
lace of Ursina, and who was famous for his sneers and jibes on 
the passers-by. After his death, as the pavement was dug up 
before his shop, there was found in the earth the statue of an 
ancient gladiator, well cut, but mutilated. This was set up in 
the place where it was found, and by common consent named 
Fasquin. Since that time all satires are attributed to that figure, 
and are either put in its mouth, or pasted upon it ; and these 
are addressed hj Fasquin to Marforio, another statue at Home., 

An aeir (satire) among the Irish, was of two kinds, the first 
was a satire or lampoon, merely intended to censure and annoy, 
but the second was of a more virulent nature, for the subject of 
it was not only censured and insulted, but also imprecated and 
cursed. The first satire composed in Ireland is said to have 
been by Crithinbeal the satirist, for Breas, son of Ealathan, king 
of the Tuatha De Dananns, but a Fomorian bv descent, whose 
period OTlaherty fixes to A. M. 2764 ; but of this satire we have 
no portion remaining. The next was composed by Neidhe, son of 
Adhna, for his paternal uncle Caier, or (Jaicher, King of Con- 
nacht, A. M. 3950. This satire called sUni b]cefjb, is refer- 
red to in (Tormac's Glossary, under the word Cratre (shortness of life), 
and from the lines quoted it would appear to be more an ea9gain€ 


or imprecation, than a satire or lampoon. Xing Caier, son of 
Gutliar, having no son of his own, adopted his nephew the poet 
Neidhe, son of Adhna, son of Quthar. The wife of Caicr con- 
ceived a criminal passion for Neidhe, and offered him a ball of 
silver for his aifection. But Neidhe continued to reject her advances 
until she offered him the kingdom of Connacht. " How can that 
come to pass ?'' said Neidhe. " It will not be difficult/' said 
the Queen: ^'jou are anoet; you can rhyme him to death, or 
afflict him with a blcmisn on his cheek ; compose an aeir for 
him, that he may have a blemish, and a man with a blemish 
cannot enjoy the kingdom.'' '* It will be difficult for me to do 
this," said Neidhe, ''for he would not refuse me anything he 
hasinhis possession; hehas not anything in the world that he would 
not give me." " I know," said the Queen," a thing that he would 
not give you, i. e., the seian (knife) that was presented to him 
in the land of Alba; that he would not give you: for he is 
bound by solemn injunction not to give it away." After this 
Neidhe asked Caicr for the knife. " Alas !" said Caier, " I am 
bound by a solemn injunction not to give it away." This was 
violating the ^t]\e |t]5 (the bounty of a king), and Neidhe 
composed a Glam Dlchendiox him, which caused three blotches to 
appear on his cheek 1 

Caier went forth early in the morning to the well; he 
drew his hand across his cheek, and felt the three boils on his 
face, wliich had been caused by the aeir, and saw (in the foun- 
tain) that one was green, the other red, and the third white. 
Caier immediately fled that none might see his blemish, and he 
delayed not until he reached Dun-Cearmna (the old head of 
Kinsale), where he remained in disguise in the palace of Cather, 
son of Edersgel. Neidhe then became king of Connacht, and 
remained in the enjoyment of that dignity for one year. He 
was sorry for the injury inflicted on Caier, and hearing where 
he was, set out for l)un-Cearmna in Caier^s own chariot, and 
attended by Cniei^s/aitiless Queen and his favourite hound I 

Neidhe approached the JDun with great pomp, and all enquired 
who he was P Caier, who at once recognised his countenance, 
cried out, "he sits in my scat." " Tliis is the word of a king," 
said Cather, the son of Edersgel, " and I knew not that you 
were a king till now.'* " Save my life," replied Caier. Caier 
fled through the house and hid behind a rock at the back of the 
Dun. Neidhe went into the palace in his chariot, and the hound 
went on the scent of Caicr and found him under the rock which is 
behind the JDun, where he died of shame on seeing Neidhe. The 


rock ignited at the death of Caicr, and a splinter' of it flew at the 
eye of Ncidhc and broke it in his head, and thus the vengeance of 
heaven fell upon him for his ungenerous conduct towards his 
uncle, who had loved him, and adopted him as Ids son. 

About the same period with l^idhc of Connacht, we find i r^^ ^ 
Athaime of Binn-Edair (now Howth), satirizinff the men of | ^ 
Leinster for having killed his oidy son. " He continued ' ^*^^^ ^ft 
for a full year to satirize the Leinstermen, and bring fatal- 
ities upon them ; so that neither corn, grass, nor foliage grew 
for them that year. — Book of Ball u mote, fol. 77, p. £. cd. b. 
Sec also Statute ofKilkentiy, edited by Hardiman, pp. 66, 66, 

At this time, and for some centuries afterwards, the bards 
were exceedingly insolent, but they were reformed bv the 
laws passed at the svnod of Drom-Ceat, where St. Columb- 
kille attended, in the reign of Aedh Mac Aiiunirech.* 

In 1414, as we are informed by the Four Masters, Niall 
O'Higgin, a famous poet of Westmeath, composed a satire 
for Sir John Stanley, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, which caused 
his death ; and it was remarked that this was the ^econApoet- 
teal miracle performed by the same Niall. 

I A somewhat similar story is told of Clock LabhruU, a remark- 
able rock near Bunmahon, in the County of AVaterford. This rock; 
as tradition records, could once speak good Irish, and was remark« 
able for determining causes, and settling disputes, until at lenirth 
its heart was broken by the equivocation of a wicked woman, and it 
split asunder, exclaimmg, "bjoo aij t]\i}iitfo rt}9 fCAfib," i.e. "the 
truth itself is often bitter.** 

' Notwithstanding the reformation of the Bardic order, caused 
by the wisdom, ability, and exertions of St. Columbkille, we find 
various instances of their insolence and bitterness on record. 
y There is a story in the Leabhar Breac (Speckled Book) of the Mac 
^ Egans, fol. 35, b, which states that a lampoon was composed for 
the Kinel-Fiacha (Magcoghcgans) of Westmeath, by certain satir* 
ists, in which it was asserted that they were not descended Arom 
Fiacha, the son of the great Niall Naoigliiallach, but from a pie* 
beian Fiacha, the son of Aedh, son of Maclebressi. 

*' O Kinel-Fiacha ! behold jour senealofor ! 
Fiacha, son of Aedh, son of MaelebrcflsL** 

It is added that this lampoon enraged the tribe to such a degree, 
that, at a place called Rosscorr they murdered the satirists^ although 
they were under the protection St. O'Suanaigh of Raithin (Rahm 
in the King's County), and that for this saruffhadh, or violation 
of the Saint's protection, the Kinel-Fiacha forfeited two townlanda 
to O'Suanaigh, which formed a part of the possessions of the church 
of Raithin, when the story was written. See the MisceUaM:jf of the 
Irish Archffiological Society, vol. I. pp. 179. 180. 



The fame of the Irish bards in this respect reached even 
England. Reginald Scott (De^coverie of IFitchcraft, Book 
\\l,e.Tiy.p. 35.) states, "the Irishmen will not sticke to 
aflirme that they can rime either man or beast to death/' And 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the bards became so obnox- 
ious to the government by their rhymes to foment rebellion^ 
that severe laws were passed in parliament against them, and 
those who entertained them. It appears from the Public 
Recordsy thai 'm 1563, articles in the following words were, 
among others, assented to by the Earl of Desmond, to be 
observed to the state. 

Item, " for as much as no smale enormyties doo growe within 
those shires [the Counties of Cork, Limerick and Kerry] by 
the coutinuall recourse of certain Idle men of Icwde demeanor, 
called Rkpnors, Bards, and dj^ce players, and Carroghs, who 
under pretence of their travaill doo bring privy iutellvgence 
betwene the malefactors inhabytingc in these severall shires, to 
the grcate distraction of true subjects, that ordres be taken with 
the said Lordes and Gentlemen [his followers] that none of 
those sects nor outherc like evil persons be suiTride to travaill 
within there Rules, as the statuts of Irclande doo appoint, 
and that proclamation be made accordinglic, and that who- 
soever after the proclamation shall maynteine or suffrc any 
snche Idlemen wy thin there several tcrrytories, that he or they 
shall paye suche fines as to the discretion of the said Com- 
missioners or Presidents [of Munster] for the time being shall 
be thoughte goode. Item, for that those Rpnon doo by their 
ditties and Rhymes made to dyvers Lords and Gentlemen in 
Irelande in the commendation and hcighe praise of extorsion, 
rcbellyon, rape, raven, and outhere injustice, encourage those 
Lordes and Gentlemen rather to followe those vices then to leve 
them, and for making of such rhymes rewards are gyven by the 
saidLordcs and Gentlemen, that for abolishinge of soo heynouse 
an abuse ordres be taken with the saide Earle, Lordes, and 
Gentlemen, that none of them from hencefourthe doo mve any 
manner of rewarde for any snche lewde rhymes, and lie that 
shall olTende the ordres to paye for a fine to the Queue's 
Majestic double the value of that he shall so paye, and that 
the Rymer that shall make an^ suche Rhymes or ditties shall 
make fyne according to the discrctiancc of the said Commis- 
sioners, and that proclamation be made accordinglic." — Harriet 
IFare. vol ii. p. 127. 
The poet Spenser recommends the checking of these warlike 


bards who fired the minds of the young with rebellion. His 
words are worthy of a place here, as a corroboration of 
the proverb, that "two of a trade can never agree." 

Iren. "Tlierc is amongst the Irish a certaine kind of people, 
called Bardes, which are to them instccd of Poets, whose pro* 
fcssion is to set foorth the praises or dispraises of men in tncir 
poems or rjmes, the whicli are had in so high regard and 
estimation amongst them, that none dare displease them for 
fearc to runne into reproach thorough their oSence, and to be 
made infamous in the mouthcs of all men. For their verses 
are taken up with a gcnerall applause, and usually sung at all 
feasts and meetings, oy certaine other persons, whose proper 
function that is, who also receive for the same great rewards 
and reputation amongst them/' 

Eudox. "Doe yon blame this in them which I would otherwise 
have thought to have becne worthy of good accompt, and rather 
to have becne maintained and augmented amongst them, then 
to have been disliked ? for I have reade that in all ages poets 
have beene had in speciall reputation, and that (me thinkes) 
not without great cause ; for l)esidcs their sweete inventions, 
and most wittie laves, they have al waves used to set foorth the 
praises of the good and vertuous, and to beat downe and dis- 
grace the bad and vitious. So that many brave young mindes 
have oftentimes thorough hearing the praises and famous eu- 
logies of worthie men sung and reported unto them, beene 
stirred up to aflect the like commendations, and so to strive 
to the like deserts. So they say that the Lacedemonians were 
more excited to desire of honour, with the excellent verses of 
the poet Tirtocus, then with all the exhortations of their cap- 
taines, or authority of their Bulers and Magistrates." 

Iren, " It is most true, that such Poets as in their writings 
do labour to better the manners of men, and thorough the sweete 
baite of their numbers to steale into the young spirits a desire 
of honour and vertue, are worthv to bee had in grcate resp|eet. 
But these Irish Bardcs are for the most part of another mind, 
and so farre from instructing young men in morall discipline, 
that they themselves doe more deserve to be sharpcly disciplined; 
for they scldome use to choose unto themselves, the doings of 
good men for the arguments of their poems, but whomsoever 
they finde to be most licentious of life, most bolde and lawlesse 
in his doings, most dangerous and desperate in aU parts of 
disobedience and rebellious disposition, him they set up and 
glorifie in their rithmes, liira they praise to the people, and to 
yong men make an example to follow." 


Eudox. **1 marvaile what kinde of speeches they can flnde, 
or what face thev can put on^ to praise such bad persons as live 
so lawleslie and Ucentiouslie upon stcalthes and spoyles, as 
most of them doe, or how can they thinke that any good mind 
will applaude, or approve the same.'* 

Irtn. " There is none so bad, Eudoxns, but shall finde some 
to favour his doings; but such licentious partes as these tending 
for the most part to the hurt of the Enghsh, or maintainance of 
of their owne lewde libertie, they themselves being most des- 
irous thcrof, doe most allow. &sides this, evill things being 
decked and attired with gay attire of goodly wordes, may easily 
deceive and carry away tne affection of a young mind, that is 
not well stayed, but desirous by some bolue adventures to make 
proofe of himsclfe ; for being (as they all be brought up idely) 
without awe of parents, without precepts of masters, and 
without feare of offence, not being directed, nor imployed in any 
course of life, which may carry them to vertue, will easily bo 
drawne to follow such as anv shall set before them; for a 
yong minde cannot rest ; if he be not still busied ia some 
goodncssehe will finde himsclfesuchbusinesse as shall soonebusie 
all about him. In which if lie shall finde any to praise him, 
and to give liim cncoumgemcnt, as those Bardes and Ilhythmers 
doc for little reward, or a share of a stolne cow, then waxeth 
he most insolent, and halfe madde with the love of himsclfe, 
and his owne lewd deeds. And as for words to set forth such 
lewdness, it is not hard for them to give a goodely and painted 
shewe thereunto borrowed even from the praises which are 
proi)er to vertue it sclfc. As of a most notorious thiefe and 
wicked outlaw which had lived all his life-time of spoylcs and 
robberies, one of their Bardes in his praise will say. That he 
was none of the idle milke sops that was brought up by the 
fire side, but that most of his daycs he spent in armes and 
valiant enterprises, that he did never eat his meat, before he 
had won it with his sword, that he lay not all night slugging 
in a cabbin under his mantle, but used commonly to keepe 
others waking to defend their lives, and did light his candle* at 
the flames of tlieir houses, to lead him in the darknesse; that 
tlie day was his night, and the night his day ; that he loved 
not to be long wooing of wenches to yeeld to him, but where 
he came he tooke by force the spoyle of other men's love, and 

' Thady Dowlinp, saps of Uory O'Moro (A.D. 1577), that the 
"Irish rimers extol him like him that hurnt Diana's Temple." 
AnnaieSp p. 42. 


left but lamentation to their lovers; that his mosick was not 
the harpc, nor lajes of love, but the crjes of people and 
clashing of armor; and finally, that he died not bevavled of 
many, but made many waile when he died, that dearly Donght 
his death* Doe you not thinke (Eudoxu^ that many of these 
praises might be applycd to men of best deserts ? yet are they 
all ycclded to a most notable tray tor, and amongst some of the 
Irish not smally accounted of. For the song when it was 
first made and to a person of high degree there, was bought 
(as their manner is) for fourty crownes." 

Eudox. ** And well worthy sure. But tell roe (I pray yon) 
have they any art in their compositions ? or bee they any 
thing wittie or well savoured, as poems should be ?" 

Iren. " Yea truely, I have caused divers of them to be trans- 
lated unto me, that 1 might understand tbcm, and surelg tkey 
savoured of sweet wit and good invention, but skilled not of 
the goodly ornaments of poetry ; yet were they sprinkled with 
some pretty flowers of their naturall device, wliich gave good 
grace and comeliness unto them, the which it is great pitty to 
see abused, to the gracing of wickedness and vice, which with 
good usage, would serve to adorhe and bcautifie vertue. This 
evil custome therefore ncedeth reformation/' — View of the 
State of Ireland, Dublin Ed., 1810, p. 119 to 124. 

In 1572, the Earl of Thomond (Conor son of Donough 
O'Brien), enforced the law against the Bards, and hanged 
three distinguished poets, ''for which abominable and treacher- 
ous act the Earl was satirized and denounced.'' See Ainali 
of the Four Masters, A. D. 1572, p. 1657. 

About this period there was a poem addressed to O'Brien, by 
his ex-chief poet ^f acDaire ; in wliich he admonishes the inno* 
vator not to dare lay violent hands on anv of the venerable 
order of the Bards ; tells him that he (^lac Daire) has a deadly 
weapon — a vcnemous satire — ^to cast, which would cause short- 
ness of life, and against which neither the solitudes of valleys, 
the density of woods, nor the strength of castles would protect 
his enemies. lie then adduces examples from Irish nistoiy 
of the destruction caused by the aeirs, or satires of ancient 
poets; as the satire composed by Crithinbheal, or Cairbre 
Alac Edaine, the satirist, for the comely, magnificent, and 
poud king, Breas Mac Ealathaih;^ the one composed by 

* A copy of this satire, the first ever composed in Ireland, is pr«» 
served in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, H. 3, I7# p. 840. 
It begins, ** Coij coU Ap cnib ccit9<^9C«* 


Neidhc, for Caicher, king of Connaclii, which at first, by super- 
natural means, disfigured his face, and finally caused his death ; 
and the one composed by Dalian Forgaill, which wounded and 
withered king Acdh Mac Ainmirech. Tlie Bard then warns 
(yBrien not to force him to fling this ominous weapon at him, 
a weapon which, from its miraculous nature, would extinguish all 
his good deeds, raise a disgraceful blotch on his cheek, — check 
his prosperity, and shorten his life. Tliiswaniing,however, seems 
to have made no impression on the £kirl, for he continued the 
friend of the English cause in Irehind, aud the enemy of the 
Bards and their abettors during his life. 

About this period flourished Teigc Dall CVHiggin, son of 
Cairbre, and brother of Maurice, ijx;hbishop of Tuam. He 
composed a satire^ on six persons of the tribe of (yHara of 
Leyny, in the County of Sugo, who had forcibly taken some 
refreshments in his house. The force of this satire was so much 
felt by the CHaras, that they soon after returned to his 
house, cut out his tongue, and murdered his wife and child. 
See O'Reilly's IrisA irriters, p. clxx. 

Aenghiis O'Daly, the author of the very characteristic poem, 
now for the first time submitted to tlie public, is generally 
known to Irish scholars by the appellation of the Bard RuaM, 
or Bed Bard, and sometimes by that of AenghM na n-aer, i. e. 
Enos, Angus, or iEneas of the satires, — ^to distinguish liim from 
several other O'Dalys of the name Aenghus. lie lived in the 
reigi^ of Elizabeth, and is said to have been specially employed 
by the agents of Lord ]\[ountjoy and Sir George Carew* to 
write thus poem, which is a bitter satire, lampoon, or burlesque, 

' This satire begins "SIuaJ fcinn c^iots bo'io cyj," (!•«• " * group 
of six [men] came to my house).*' 

lie describes the miserable starved appearance of these O'Haras, 
** who were anatomies of death : living dead men," and concludes 
by praying that they ma^ never be kuled in battle, but that they 
may continue in life, which was worse than any death 1 1 

3 After the death of Sir Peter Carew, junior, the claim of the 
Carew family to half the kingdom of Cork, and the barony of 
Idrone, in the County of Carlow, was taken up by Sir Ocorffe Carew, 
President of Muuster, who corroborated his title by all sorts of 
forgeries, and among others by an Irish prophecy, which he got 
composed for the occasion — perhaps by our author 1 ! A copy of 
this prophecy, with a translation and three explanatory notes, is 
preserved in his collection of MSS. now atLambetli Palace (No. 607, 
lol. 149), and runs as follows. We arc not however, told the name 


directed against the chiefs of the principal ancient Irish {ami* 
lies, and such of the descendants of the Anglo-Normans as had 
adopted their customs and formed alliances with them, in order 
that an easy conquest might be made of the country by dint of 
assertion and bare-faced effrontery, which were likdy to stir up 
their angry passions. Tlic boast of the Irish was nospitality, 
and even their enemy Sir Richard Cox acknowledges that they 
were recklessly hospitable. 

Aenghus exccutcu his task, by attempting to prove in detail, 
by force of assertion, that they were not hospitable nor generous ; 
that they were too poor to afford being so ; which was the mode 
of proceeding to excite their anger. lie received, however, that 
kind of reward which he did not anticipate, but which allrecreant 
betrayers of their race, richly deserve : for on appearing at a 
banquet in the sweet Palatine CountyofTipperary, lie was stab- 
bed through the heart by the order or command of (yMeagfa- 
er, chief of Ikerrin, at the rudeness of whose mansion he hud 
made some scurrilous remark. He is said to have composed 
extempore, a remarkable quatrain respecting liis having so 
recklessly lampooned his countrymen. This quatrain the 
reader will find at the end of the poem. 

On undertaking to produce this poem, he made a regular 
circuit of the kingdom, — which was then in a most deplorable 
state of distress, — satirizing the different families in his progress, 
which he did with an unsparing pen, dip])ed in gall, and poison, 
and sometimes in filthier ink; but he was so much afraid 
of some of them tliat he did not venture to defame them. Ue 
does not lampoon Red Hugh O'Donnell, because he was, as he 

of the Saint who made the prophecy, but we suspect it was jSif. 
Aenghus CeiU'Dc^moin t /— . 

" TicfTAT^ bo ^cAftc* [ijo cAiticf] Ai) Cb^ftiiOAiJ, 
5o n)A6 l)ATr|tcAe l]b a i>b&9CAi6e | 
bu6 l)foni6A sloft AUn>ufiATt« 
t)'at r6AO|lc6 coyr i?a 9)fAcUT50.t 1^0 ^niAijUiJe.) 

'< It will proceed of Carew's right. 
You will regret your private actes ; 
When many a foreign voice unjte. 
Will be on banks of BIyathlaght.'* 

*"CcAttc, a man's title, a man's interest, more fitly a man's lawful 
estate, or a man's right." 

t " CAffic, an evidence of any thing, escripts, charters, or deeds of 

X ** Myathlagh, a river in Muynter-Vanr, in Carebry, Myan Leay 
[117IA17UC] the pleasant ryver of the Leay. 


acknowledges, in dread of his vengeance; imd he had not the 
stomach to satirize Mac Cann of CTann Brcasail at the upper 
Bann, because he did not deserve it. Other exceptions are 
also observable, but it is to be suspected that local scribes have 
corrupted some quatrains, and foisted in others for their own 
amusement ; for no original, or very old copy of the poem has 
yet been discovered. 

The poet displays a thorough knowledge of the private and 
general history of the different tribes and chieftains, and of the 
localities of their respective territories, — as well as of the man- 
ners and customs of the period. From the numerous refer- 
ences to bread and butter throughout the poem, it would 
appear that these formed the staple food' of the country at the 

The celebrated Florence Mac Carthy, the son-in-law of the 
Earl of Clancare ; (and, who was elected Mac Carthy More, 
by the arch-rebel Hugh CyNcill, Earl of Tyrone) wrote aletter* ' 
to the English Government when he was confined in the tower 
of Loudon, advising the bribing of the Bards to bring over 
the Irish gentry to the English interest ; and there can be but 
little doubt that it was at his suggestion our author was em- 
ployed to write this poem. 

In this letter, which was written in August, 1602 ; ^ 
and addressed to Cecil, the great Florence,' writes : — 
''The two sorts of people of the greatest ability and 
authority to persuade the Irish gentlemen are the priests and 
rimers :^-hoil\ dislike the English Government more than 
other classes do. The priests may not be trusted to do service 
for the Queen; while of the Kimers only sone may, if em- 
ployed Itf those gentlemen whose followers they are by lineal 

He then goes on to say, that '' he means to employ one of 
special trust and sufficiency." — ^Boasts that ''he was the chief- 
est cause of cutting off the Earlo of Desmond,'' and says that 
he is called " a damned counterfeit Englishman, whose only 
employment was to practise how to destroy his countrymen 
the Irish/' 

It appears from various letters in the State Papers' Office, 
London, that many of the native Irish were employed at this 

* See Four Masters^ O'Higgin vowed that he would not giVe 

bread and butter together to any guest. 

s This Letter is preserved in the State Papers' Office, London. < 
^ This Florence was a man of gigantic stature, and possessed of 

such talentv that it was thought safer to keep him a prisoner. 


Scriod as interpreters, and in low situations as spies and un« 
eriiugs, from which some of tl)cm crept into rank and station. 
Of these, the most notable was. Sir Patrick Crosbie, who was 
the son of Mac-An-Crossan, O^Morc's Bard, or Bliymer, and 
the ancestor of the Glandorc family and of Crosby of Aidferi, 
in Kerry. In a tract in the State Papers' OiGce, dated 
3rd July, IGOO, it is stated thai ''Patrick Crosby, or 
Crossan, toiu a ' mere Iris/iman, bjf hirtk^ and * unsound in 
BODY AND MIND / " that '' his father had been Rhymer or Bard 
to the Cy Mores /* that " he was an underling of the Government 
in Dnllin, and procured patents of pardon for such of the Irish 
as applied to him ;'' that ** he was in the habit of passing pa- 
tents \\\m\\ purposely contained defects ;'* that being a Deputy 
to Sir QcoflVeyPenton,the Survevor-Qeneral, "he surveyed for- 
feited Estates in a corrupt and false manner, at estimateis much 
under their real value; and on one occasion he made out a pre- 
tended title for the Queen to forty parcels of bnd, for part of 
wliich he then obtained a patent for himself/' It is added that 
'' owing to these proceedings divers men in Munster had been 
driven into rebellion!* 

A. D. 1601, December 2. The aged Earl of Ormonde, in 
a letter to Sir Bobcrt Cecil, on the subject of the fraudulent 
and atroc'ous conduct of the subordinate Government Officials 
of the day, observes that Crosby's real surname was Mae-w^ 
Crossane ; and that his ancestor liad been Chief Rkymor to the 
O'Mores and O'Connors. 

In IGOl, May, 2. Sir George Carey rates to Cecil, recom- 
mending Patrick Crosby ; who, he dechircs, was greatly luited 
by the msh '' as a continual worker of means for their o^r- 

He became the chief agent for the removal of the unfortunate 
seven Septs of Leix, into Kerry ; and for these and like serviced 
he obtained large grants of land in Kerry and elsewhere.' 

Another native Irishman, and employed by the Government, 
at this period, was Sir Francis Shane, who was knighted by the 
Lord Deputy, Sir George Carey, in 1602. lie was a member of 
the sept of the Clan- Shane O'EarrcU of Longford. Ho obtained 
considerable grants of land from the Crown, and successfully 
exposed great corruption in the Surveyor's, Eschcator's, and 
Patent Oilices in Dublin. In 1G05 (September 28), Lord 

> Letter of Herbert P. Hore, Esq., of PolUIIorc, County of Wex- 
ford, to the Editor, dated ist Avgust, 1851. 



and Lady Ddviii wrote to the Earl of Salisbury complaining 
of Sir Francis Shane, for disturbing them &om lands in Long- 
fordshire. They mention that he asserted he was one of the 
(y Farrell Clan, and wished to be chief of them ; whereas it was 
well known he was the son of one Nicholas Shane, son to one 
Shane some time Smith of Ardcath, and not of the (yFarrell 
family. From documents in the State Papers' Office, it appears 
that his mother, Margaret Bathe, had been concubine to Sir 
William Brabazon, Treasurer of Ireland, who enriched her so 
much that she found other husbands in Sir Thomas L'Estrange, 
and — Dillon, by whom she was mother of Justice Dillon of 
Connaught. Francis Shane and Sir Thomas L'Estrange were 
knights of the Shire for the County of Galway, in 1585. 

Another successful man of the mere Irish at this period was 
William Doync. He was interpreter of Irish to the State 
before the year 1589. He was of the O^Duinn family of Iregan, 
and was probably ancestor of the now Anglicised and highly 
respectable family of Tiomt. 

Another very successml interpreter of Irish to the State at 
this period was Sir Patrick Fox, who during the various rebellions 
acted as intelligencer. In 1588, he was a derk to the Clerk 
of the Dublin Privy Council, which important and lucrative office 
he afterwards filled himself in 1610. In 1607, he was one of 
the Commissioners for Defective Titles — a much abused office — 
and he obtained large grants of land from king James. His 
son, Nathaniel Fox, is the ancestor of the family of the Fox's 
of Foxhall, in the County of Longford. 

Nothing has been discovered to prove directly that our Bard 
was employed by the Government, out it looks very likely that 
he received a small portion of the secret service money, which 
was at the disposal of Crosbie, Fox, and others. O^Keilly 
gives the following account of Aenghus na-n-Aor : 
J " On the IGth day of December, 1617, died Aengus, or 
; ^neas Boe O^Daly, as appears by an Inquisition taken at the 
old Castle in Cork, on the eighteenth day of September, 1 624. 
By this Inquisition it was found that Angus O^Daly was seized 
in his life time of tlie town and lands of Ballyorroone, containinff 
three carrucates of land, value ten shillings per annum ; aiud 
being so seized, did, on the last day of March, 1611, enfeoff 
Thadeus Mc Carthy, Eichard Waters, John CDaly, and 
Farfasa O'Canty,^ and their heirs for ever, to the use of said 

1 Farfasa O'Canty composed a poem of one hundred and eighty 
verses on the death of Donnell O'Keeffc of the territory of Ealla, in 


Angus C/Daly, during bis natural life, and after bis death to tbo / 
use and benefit of Angus O'Daly, junior, his son and heir, 1 
and the heirs male of bis body lawfuUy begotten ; and that the I 
said feoffees, Thadcus, Bicliard, John and Farfasa, the ^ 
foresaid premises, without the king*s license being firat ob- ; 
taincd, together with Angus O'Daly, senior, did, by flieir deed, ! 
dated tenth of April, 1617, enfeoff Carolus CXDaly, his hein^ 
and assigns, in the western part of the land of Ballyorroona 
aforesaid, with the appurtenances, containing one carrucate of 
land, under this condition, that, when the said An^ O'Daly, \ 
senior, his heirs and assigns, should pay said Carolus O'Daly, 
his heirs or assigns, tlie sum of thirteen pounds, then tna 
said Angus (JDaly, senior, his heirs, or assigns, should be at i 
liberty to re-enter and dosscss said land and premises, aa be- | 
fore the making of said deed. And that afterwards the said | 
Angus O'Daly died on the sixteenth of December, 1617.*' ' 

Ixom his general abuse of the Irish Tribes he exempts the 
Clann Dalaigh, or O'Donnclls; because as he says, he was 
afraid of their vengeance. AVe have not met any of his 
compositions besides the present, except a poem of one hun- 
drcd and sixtv-eight verses, on the death of Donncliadh Fiona 
Mheic Carrthaigh (Donogh Mac Carthy, the fair), which j 
begins thus : — 

** C&fi9}e 16a9 bo le^t 9}bo5A," 

*' 31isforCun« bmth befaUen LeaCh Mhogha." 

There was also a poet who signed himself ^e^ji boftdA 
0'4)Ma]S (i.e., the dark-visaged, or blind, CDaly), and some- 
times n^Ac Cbo|in)A]c U] 4)b^lA]t (i. e., the son of Cormac 
CDaly), of whom CyRcilly in his IrisA IFritcri makes no 
mention whatever ; unless he was son to Cormac CDaly, who 
flourished A. D. 1590. lie was author of a bitter satire of 
thirty-one stanzas, on a celebrated Almanack-maker,^ or rather 

the Gountv of Cork, and on that of the poet Angus 0*Dalf , coin- 
monly called the Red Bard or Angus the Satirist. See 0*Reilly^i^ 
Irish Writers, p. clzxvii. 

1 We have seen a copy of these Astrological Almanacks, puhlis- 
hcd at the Sign of the rot, Stephen's>grecn, Dublin, A.D. 1696. Dr. 
Whale J, the Author, is said to be the son of an Englishmaa who 
came to Ireland in Crom well's train ; and is stated to be instrumen- 
tal in the hanging of a brother to the bard ; which circumstanoe 
provoked this bitter invective. We understand that there ore oriffi- 
nal documents in the hands of a gentleman in town, relative to bis 
father's arrival in Ireland ; and that many of his progeny are still 
living in Dublin. 


Astrol(>ger Doctor Whaley, who lived in Stephen's Oreen^ 
Dublin; whieh is the bitterest — ^most wicked — and diabolicid 
satire^ ever written in the Irish lansnage. 

The poet first describes the hellish practices of the Astro* 
loger, whom he describes as in league with the Devil, who 
since he began to view the moon and the planets, had, 
with his Balor-eye, destroyed their benign influence ; so that 
the com-ficlds, the fruit-trees, and the grass had ceased to 
grow; the birds had forgotten their songs (except the ominous 
birds of night), and the young of animals were destroyed in 
uiero. lie then begins to wither this Antichrist of Ireland with 
imprecations, awful in the highest degree; implores that the 
various diseases which waste the world may attack him, and 
calls down upon his guilty head the curses of God, the angels, 
the saints, and of all good men. Dr. \Mialey, however, does 
not appear to have melted before this aeir of O^Daly, for he 
lived to a great age, and composed more effectual lampoons on 
the Irish, than the Bards (then on the decline) had composed 
on him. His Almanacks throw much light on the histo^ of 
the ferocious times in which he lived. See Annah of the four 
Masiert, Ed. J. CD., A.D. 1414, note 1. 

For the amusement of the Irish reader we give this satire 
in the original Irish. 


CfteAb Ao rPI*<>^c ^^'^ cocc-r<^ At|t 5bAe6Al]5 ? 
jAb b'^ i)-bA0|tA6 'r J^^ ^5 *lT^«A^c ; 
5^5 If |i|ODbAC OA locc — A5 bjtoc ad fefcij, 
U5 AnticirisC bbApbA, Doccu|ti IKhaleg. 

Ca b-fu^l i)A b|tAO|re IfotbtA, 5&A|tA ? 

Ca b-f u|l 0'2l)eA6|tA^ *o^ DA b-6l5r« ? 

'Ma 5-co^nce *cA|b ? d6 a D-sleADDCA^b flfc|be ? 

Ho AD ©Ad-bpmrD bo IeA5A6 30 l6||t jAb ! 

Ca B.|ru]l S^bb, MJeAbb, d6 Dftnibpe ? 

*Nd nA5DA]lc bApi^ATDAll, b^AfAC ? 

H6 CoDcobA]i tiuA6, |t'iS DA b-feisr^ ? 

n^in njA]i bCAjtbAf A ceA)tc-lA0i 3A0)6]l.^e« 

* Dcrmot 0*Mcara, a learned physician who lived at Bnllj- 
rnpget, ia the County of Kilkenny, early in the seventeenth centurjr. 
He wasauthor of a work entitled " Hybcrnic Pathologia Hereditaria 


Do |ttt5 x^ b^|m df Oa c6AbrAi6« 

'S i)AC |tA|b freA]t fiAOi) 0^ b^o bo S^adaiv, 

IX b6Apt^A6 Arb^iD 50 5-c^fi)|:eA6 6i|te ; 

Do $Uc|:a5 ua]6 buAfp 9^ AOi)«|tAb, 

No 5uit cu||i f6 cAio *r c^ijt Ajt 3bAe6lA]6, 

'S 5u|t bA]oeA6 AO ceAoo 5A0 ri}0)U be f V'^W]cl 

CpoAb bob ^iHfOio A5 CA]i)c x)\ A5 )!)Qf |0C rS^AlcA i 

0*|n)Ct5 r^b V b^fipcfS r^moo ; 

*S cA cuftCA 50 beo fAOf £ed d^aIca6, 

Tao| fi^Ait cA rSM^^^^ ^5 Docctt||t JFAalef I 

Ut) b|tU|b CltCAC) C|l(lbAC, btt6A5A&9 

TeA]t-cu ^oncAc, loccACy 6|lpeAe; 

2l)AbflA CeAl5A^, bflAPQAC, CpAOf a6, 
LoAbAft DA lode bo 6pOC AI) DAOli)-t>)A ! 

*5A^rcl5e 6 iF|tioi)D r>*^ SlMor^^ le 56a]i-JoiO, 

PliejC]0lUc, pUfAC, pilfOflAC, p^AfCAc; 

SQAbttA-AllA b^AlpAb SAe6lAib, 
bbfo6 le peojl Uoive > ufrso spfeffe, 
^5 fM^^^ F^^r^lS^* f9eAi)0A)6e| Y 6|lld* 

PAfCf^ip f)A o-olc bo dufpeAS 50 pAobpA^, 
le cle]C-ppfoCA 5ufbAl 5AC UAi)-uflc ; 
^5 lAp|tAi6 Ap AD 5-cttipc iDAp bA ib^iQD leif, 
©AsUir Cbplofc bo 6]bipc Af B^pioo I 

Jr ctt AO bApA PAaraoA o^^ibbeAC, ppAodbA, 
SOap Minotaurus b']ceA6 x)K Sp^ASAfJ; 
)f fo^p f fo c^ bo puQ le SAeblAfb, 

^ Siorc^in« ^0 J'lrcipe V ^«) bp6Ai)CA|r. 

CpoAb fe bo tAol l6 Jupiter^ u5 le F<»iflr#, 
Md le Jttno^ PAp bttccAf bu|c p^ACAjo; 
Le p&aIca, pl^iofc]blSe da fp6Ap6A, 
SObuc cu 50 pollur AD X<Avix Af Pkoebui. 

Qcneralis sivc dc tnorbis Iliercditariis." 12ino. Dub, 1619, which is 
now very scarce. He also wrote a poem on the Earl of Ossorjf 
his chief patron, with interesting notices of the noble famil/ of 
Ormonde, See Harris's ^Var9*$ Writers of Ireland, p. 90. 




Nfl |iA]t A]i Au b-CAUfb 'f ofon D-Ffeibifi ! 
Do cpAod Ai) f A]ft5e 'f 6eA|t5 im rP^^P^f 

Hfop f ^f 50 pc 'r «>o i^irs ^^ F^^^P*^- 

C^ 5Ae cftAOO b'6f f* A Co)tA6 bo f^AOA^y 

Tif'l fCA|t|tAC A lA]fl, 0^ UAO A 5-CAO|lA]$9 

Nf'l IaoJ i)^ Udc A3 it)A|tc J i)-6ifit09f 
'S 19^ c|6||t cp^io ^l T)] b6A|t|:Ai6 ! 

)r buAO 5AC beAO A5 CAOfoe a c^\\e, 
Uc^ *p &aIa A|t Ai> 5-caIa|C 'oa b-A*DA|i5 
*S fioUifi 0A.coflleA5 rsn^AbA 'f A5 6|ij>e, 
'S b'|ti)C|§ uA]oi} |:uA|iii 9A p-^AoU]^ 

Do cufft cu At) booAf* Afft eAlcA|b 04 b'^fpeAOOy 

]f bAl6 AQ 6UAC Y of lAbflAOQ AD CftAOOAC ; 

Ui) loQ-buby AX) froqUc, *o^ 'o cSi||tfeAC, 
l^t) bpu]beo5y ad FCAD65 'o^ 'o 0AOf3Ad. 

ttO f u|re65 'r Ai) rPl^e^S 3^^ Aot) rn)l*>f 

C^ AQ coUto A bufctte *f Ao buo>i) Uaqa ; 

*S DA bA0]i)e, frA|tA0||t ! fDA|i ao s-c^AbDA, 

qoi)r5A|o AQ c-rutlbbAlA]|tbeiCA5AffbAiic OA |t6AlcA9» 

Astrologer d'o iqac iQ)AUAdcAQQ Whaley. 

Duoa6 A|i bo f uiljb 5A0 U||i-]tof5 I 

TuACC Affl bo cluAfAfb 5AQ t'\XC\0&C I 

CA]Icf9 one V buAQ bfc-c6ille I 

*S Qek^)tA|b rPI^^^S ^ 0-aIc 0^ b-|r&|6 Icac ! 

SpAb^QAf Ab teAi)5A]0 0^ FaJahi UbAtftc bo 66AOAti7, 

Sad r«?fop> s^" rn>1or> s<> r^i* ^o S^^s^^ ; 

SsfllOf DCADOCA 'f CADDCA|l b&|l OjtC, 

T|oluo F|ODD \x rileAO ]i6AtDA Oftc. 

TlAbpAr b|ieAC ^f SAlAit p6ffce ope, 
t)ol5Ac tbuc *f bol5A6 6ad ofic ; 
Cofs fuAfl V Qiorc6|b clftjb ope, 
Scurvy f cpjoc, 'f SAUp da d-ao ope. 


t>0l5AC TbftAOOCAC Ab CeAOQ 5AI) b6AbA1& » 

LobA|t 'f caodcaI a 5-C|ooo ^ c^iU oftc, 
*S 3AC pUiJ b^ b.c^ii)i3 ^<>*0 ^ISlpc. 

^^rs^ipc ^b <SeA|tc-l^fi A5 bAolA|6, 
Pfeirce A3 bul ciijoc 'f ^b S6Afi-$0|9 ; 
'S bo cftoicjooo UA1C eAbco|t|tA b^ pAobA, 
^0 fOOAb 6ttb 3ap ctt A9 f ^AfCA. 

^3 Belzehuh Ab fcpACA6 d c6|le, 
^^3 Cerberus 30 pAbAip a bitfcpe 'f a bfejce ; 
0r3Ap OA r^irce A3 puf-3A6 bo bp6A0-<ia|pp, 
'S'Averroet da o-3Apb-bp6cc bp^AQA. 

tC ri7uo r^ CAC *fA r36AcpAC ope A o-^fi)^eAcr, 

^ ftUpip l)A loCC 'fA CO|l bo 86ADA ; 

?Vo ^Aib be|6fp bed oi^ pAfb r^Ai) ope, 
'S 30 b-ctttqp Ab bAUA]b o dfe|l6. 

^r F<^b^ potibe bf C& A o-3aIap ftA3A, 
So 3-cufp|6 pACA i)A 3-ceApc ope AO cooo eAor3Ac; 
Do PI 9 bo 6on\i ffDAUA]3ee peACA]6e bo rS^AicAO* 
Do leAc bo SeACAfSe A|p peA8 qa b-^lp^AOP* 

^ bfibAfpe cu Ifoo Ab IdAbpAfb feic|3, 

.Sup bo clocA *f bo cpofoo bo 3i)f6iDlb fUAccA ; 

Hf pfop 8mc no A feAodfp bpfrfxe, 

?lc6 bo*o '^CAtp, bo'o *I)ac *r bo SpjopAb Haoipca. 

7X co|bU)p bobAti, lobcA, jp^OA, 

Nf be|8 njfe a o-eAppAfb leAe f ao 3-c^r P » 

Nf A3 pl& cpe|b]iii leAC Ae& tt}^, 

Hicz b^ tboUb 6uic le 3u]6e $^pp6A. 

ZOAllAce D6 ope Va OAOib-^^eAp, 
SOAlUce OA i)-?lpfeAl ope 'fAO Pb^pA: 
ZOAllAce PA SASApe ope ^ oa iD-bpek^Ap, 
SQAlUce PA rp.bA|i}cpeAbAC »f qa 0-3&pU£. 

SQaUacc qa Ia3 ope *r qa Ufbfp, 
^AlUce riol ©AbA '3Uf U6A|iii ope ; 
?VcA fu|l A3ArQ 50 b-|:A|CYOb aq U ub 
•Ha b-eAbAppA|6 DiAprQA|b' fQApcAfJeAce ^pb btt|c, 
1 The Jack Ketch of hii day. 



Aft beAiA6A6 focA]it| fo&n)Af UftAc, 

Le fcfo[i]t5)p)6e iDApe 'f co]l6A|t cQ^|be, 

'S 0)^1 cu]C|]t A bobA^J 50 n).b|iffceA|t bo co^tPA, 

*S 30 b-cuic]6 iDSoe bo co|- *r bo I^iIia 6foc. 

I .. "-■ ' 

80^ buAflceA]t frpAflc ope jeAbA]5 c& pl^f cAfi, 
^~A |tun)A Vulcan a b-pocAYft bo ib^^Ap; 

So b-ce|l5ceA]i ado cu 50 be|[te qa 9-5fi^rA, 
*S o^p pdt|i)6 CnjOSO ope, 0^ A 5£D^cAip ' 

)A|ipA]tD fub Ai[t Dbf A, 5A0 FA|b ]0U5Ai> b^p lm5 boAp 
iD^Afi 0^ 6pbd3, o& beAp50A|c 50b ope, sao buo bo cjoo 
^5 n^^ ^S^r ^ S'^^l^'fl^® 5 ^5^r cuAb lujSe A|p IcAbA 
A]CfopA tt7AO|l|09 fUfbe A Ti}-b6Al bopuff 5AI) coij)Ia6 ; 
j-dACc TVjle o Aeo cA]bp|Ofti, acc CA|bp|oit> pAoUoOy 
ledjAO} ASAf* leopapb; A5Af 5AI) bo bpAC fUA^i) ope 
ACC r5Aojleeo5 f i}A6n)AC bo .50|b|;f6 cu ; bo copp bo 
SeAbAf b^r lef f* AO ii)-bol5AC '^^pAOOOAC I 

Mf beA5 Iforo fo A0O]r ^o 1tti6 leAr, 

2I}ap II* buACA|U bocc ii)e c^ lo)f3ce, cptii6ee ; 

l)e5 Afp fe|5l!) b6|r njo cafpbe, 

A*p ii)e AQ peAp bopcA, tijAC Cbopti^Afc tlf Ob^lA| j.^ 

The last satire, lampoon or burlesque of any note composed 
in the Irish language, was >Yritten in 17 IS, by Uo6a5&9 
O'HacjiaiIIo' (Egan O'Rahillv), a Munster poet, on an in- 
dastrious farmer and tax-gatherer in Kerry, named Tadhg 
Dubh O'Croinin [Teige Duff 0*Cronin], the ancestor, in the 
female line, of the Cronins of the Park, near Killamey. 
In this burlesque, O'Bahilly traces the pedigree of 0*Cronm 
in thirteen generations to the devil ! I This outrageous lam- 
poon was intended by its author to ridicule the illiterate ple- 
beian families planted in Ireland by Cromwell, and such of the 
native Irish as united with them in oppressing the old Irish 
race who were permitted to live on the lands of their ancestors, 
in cabins not worth more than thirty shillings per annum. 

1 In other copies this lino reads :— 

Ha ce|li5i6c i9*Aft||i9 FOAt« boftCA 0*t>AU|^ 

* For a sketch of tho life of Egan 0*Rahillv, see TU Poets and 
Poetry of Munster ^ (second edition) p. 21, Dub. 1850. 


The copy selected for publication was made by a Manster 
scribe named Quiulivan, about A. D. 1770, and is the best 
we remember having ever seen. But the publisher not being 
allogcthcr satisfied with the correctness of its text, applied to 
the Council of the Boyal Irish Academy, for permission to 
compare it with any copies which may be in their library ; and 
that body, with the spirit which animates all true Irislunen and 
lovers of the literature of their countir and race, immediately 
responded to his call, by placing all their MSI3. before him 
for this purpose ; and he feels bound to say that^ in their col- 
lection he found three copies of the poem, in which he found 
several stanzas not in his own, nor in any other copy he ever 
met with. 

Professor ConncUan also gave permission to use a very good 
copy of the poem which he made from one comparea and 
corrected by the famous old schoolmaster and scribe, — ^Peter 
(yConnell of Kilrush, who flourished from about 1780 to 
1824 ; — the original of which, is now in the librarv of Lord 
George Augusta Hill, of Ballyaue House, Countjf of Donegal — 
thus leaving on record for posterity, whatever its fate may be, 
the best copy of (J Daly's satires extant. 

It is necessary, however, to inform the reader that we have 
arranged the different quatrains of the whole satire under 
proper heads — the verses relating to Connacht arc first in con- 
secutive order ; and next come those of Leinster, of the families 
of which province our author said but very Uttle. Next comes 
the portion relating to Ulster, where he seems to have made 
several journeys ; and last of all we have placed the portion 
relating to Munster — his native province — and where ne lost 
his life by the hand of a Tipperary O'Meagher, to whom the 
knife and sword were equally familiar. 


8, Nitoeomen Piare, North Sirond^ 
Dublin, January, 1852. 


9t)u)i;c]n 'pbloSoACA ^a ffDfOi)0» 
?l b-f ttjl blob irioi)i), Asuf bub ; 

Jf I1)d)t A9 CCAt)t)AC Aft A ii)-bf a8, 

21 b-cu5A|b pA 6]At5 bo Juc. 

%^P JiJlbe Asuf Feo|l, 

N] lofAfi^o ACC bori)' A]Ti}6eofo; 

3l6eA8 If c|5]D cuTDAflc leff, 

O OAC F^|b|ft CCACC CA]|l]f. 
9t)Uf1)qft 6olA]f Al) tt||t CA|r, 

Luce A9 ci)OAii)A bufs, b^]t]i-3lA|f ; 
OifteACc 5AD Ajt^o# 3<^!) lfD» 
l^rOAf 5AC cuA]Ue cu|l|t>o ! 

1 Muintir-Fhidhnacha, \,e, the family of Fenagh^ or Fidhnachs 
Muighe-Rcin, in the County of Leitrim, These were Uie 0*Rody*s 
or O'Rodachans, who were Comharbas of St. Caillin in the Church 
of Fidhnach. They are of the same race as the Mac Rannalls. 

« Of relic's (D^ n>|oiw). ^ The O'Rodachains of Fidhnach, had 
several remarkable relics in their possession before Cromweirs 
time, such as bells, sacred standards, and the shrine of St. Caillin, 
who was the founder and patron of their Church. A very remark- 
able Bell called Clog-na-righ, i.e., the Bell of the Kings,'which be- 
longed to this family, is still preserved. See AnnaU of the Four 
Masters, Ed. J.O'D., A.D. 1244, note 17. 

An ancient vellum MS. which also belonged to this family, is 
still preserved near the Church of Fidhnach, and a very ancient 
copy in the British Museum, and a modern copy on parchment in 
the Library of the Royal Irish Academy. See the Miscellany of the 
Irish Archaological Society, vol. I. pp. 115, 117, 118, for some ac- 
count of Tadhg O'Rodachain, or 0*Uody, the head of this family in 
1688, who had a larffe collection of Irish Antiauities and Manuscripts. 

The Coarb and llcrenach families of Ireland looked upon them, 
selves as of the rank of gentlemen, and were often remarkable for 
hospitality. This Thady Roddy of Fidhnach, says of himself in his 
letter to Lhwyd, written in May 1700, "I Thady Roddy that 
writes this have written [the pedigrees of ] all the familyes of the 
Milesian race from this present age to Adam, tho* none of the race 
of Antiquaryes, but a gentleman that has more ancient books of 
Ireland, and that learned, and understands them as well at least, as 
any now in Ireland, or any where, all which paines I take for my 
countrycs sake, for my owne satisfaction, and to preserve so noble 
and singular a monument of honor and antiquity.'* Ibid, pp. 120, 



The family of Fidhnach^ of relics,* 
Such of them as are fair, and black, 
'Tis a dear purcliaso for their food. 
How they grumble after giving it. 

Shrove-tide bread' and flesh, 
I ifould not eat but against my will; 
Yet it is necessary to lay to it. 
As it cannot be avoided.^ 

Muintir Eolais' of the barren soil. 
People of the soft;, green, wild garlic j* 
A horde without com, or cattle, 
^ATio strip each holly tree.* 

For more iufomiation on this subject, the reader is referred to 
Ussher*8 tract on Corbes, Erenachs, and Termon Iand8jj>ubli8hed in 
the second number of Vallance/s Collectanea, Co1gaa*i Triai Tkaum. 
p. 630, 631, and Lanigan*s Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, vol. ii. 
p. 37, and vol. iv. p. 30. 

s Shrove-tide bread, Le., pancakes. 

^ As it cannot he avoided, i.e., because I had nothing else to get. 

s Muintir-Eolais, i.e., the tribe of Eolas, son of Biobhsach, and 
twentj.fourth in descent from Conmhac, ancestor of the Conmhidcne 
of Ma^h-Rein. After the establishment of hereditary surnames, 
the chief family of this sept took the surname of Mag Raghnaill, 
now Magranncll and Reynolds. Their territory comprised the 
entire of all Magh-Rein, or the southern and level portion of the 
present Cuuntv of Leitrim. The late Sauire Reynolds, who was 
murdered at Sheemore, in the County of Leitrim, was the last head 
of this family. His daughter Mary Anne Reynolds, alias Mao 
Namara of Lough.scur House, is the only surviving person of his 
family. Her grandson on becoming of aee will take the name of 
Peyton Reynolds. John Reynolds, Esij, Af.P., is of their race, but 
his pcdiCTce has not yet been traced. 

* Wild garlic, ciyeAib, or cftcAiQ ; is still the living word for wild 
garlic, or gentian, in Ireland ; and in the Highlands of Scotland. 

7 Strip each holly tree. The bark of the holly, and also of the 
elder-tree, was given to children with voracious appetites, 'Ho strait* 
en their g^ts.** This is told of step-mothers in various parts of 
Ireland. The S^T^l^ Cofle&iyAC was wont to tell his father that 
his guts were not yet narrowed enough from the bark, for the quan« 
tity of bread he could lick off the flag given him by his step-mother, 
who used place a thin flag in the centre of the cake which she baked 
for his breakfast. 


Slc& At) dCAC t17A|t l)AC CubA|6, 

'CeAC CI>ACA|l U{ CboocubAfft ; 
CIai)1) A'f boAi) A i>*Ari)5A|i aw, 
T^eAC 5A0 Aft6A]i, 5A9 ai)oIai)9. 

^0 bfA^Al feAfi roAftbcA tDAflC, 

T^^ A 9]u A 5-Cl^ft CI)oi;9ACC ; 

^cc locAffte beA5 d CbftuACAfu Cbu]i>i;, 

St'f focAifte efle 6 L]Ac*b|tu|ti7. 

jr UeAC A^t A|t CU^C Al) C-feAU-lijAllACC,* 

Jwinw) 6uic 50 irolUr- — 
4yf ai)|:a6 a S]o\ S1i)idca6a9 

SlV 1p[teA!)t) A]t A CUIDAf*. 

3t)^'f A|t 5|t^ bo 2t)bu]|te Ti)6f ft, 
4^o ST)lb Aot) cu|b *t)A b-ood||t ; 
4>^ ii)-biA6 A5 bufoe b^ 9-beACA]6, 
6]A]6 SQu||tc A5 9A 2Q^|QeACA]b. 

1 Co/iiaZ O'Conor, Charles 0*Conor of Ballintober Castle, id the 
County of Roscommon. 

8 DrtnA. 2ldlAi99 is the latin ohsoninm^ i.e., what the low Irish 
and the Lowland Scotch call kitchen* i.e.* an^ victuals eaten with 
bread, Hic. Armstrong, says in his Gselic Dictionary, that Ann- 
lann expresses all the more substantial eatables, ah ovo usque ad ma- 
la. In Ireland it means kitchen stuff, or any kind of soup, broth, 
dip, or blind herringt that enables one to swallow bread or potatoes. 
See the Letter of Juliui Vindez. A boy in the South of Ireland was 
heard to say, that he would not ask l>etter AOQU199 with his pota- 
toes than blind herring, that is, salt and water ; and the same youth 
frequently swallowed Jumpers and this luxurious soup, until he had to 
be tied with a rope to prevent him from bursting. 

> The plain of ConnachL This was, and is still, the name of a 
spacious and fertile plain extending from Roscommon to Elphin, and 
from Strokestown to Castlerea« in the County of Roscommon. But 
the bard evidently intends the term to denote all the rich plains of 

* Plunderer ofCruachain, i.e., 0*Conor Don. 

ft Snouty o/£eitrim, i.e., O'Rourke of Leitrim Castle, at this time 
a very stout rebel. This was Brian Oge, who died in 1604. His 
father, Brian na Murtha, was handed and beheaded in London, A.D. 
1501, and his head set up on a spike over London Bridge, as one of 
the ** lAtsa Majestatis capita**' 

• In another copy. 

1r ^u11)c boi|A &cAiv9AH&e, 

Mo C|iu3 boce Alt bttfle ; 

tv |iaca6 so 5)oI ftvnycAi^A, - 

2ir irneAov a|\ a jome. 


The house is not in meet condition^ 
The house of Gathal aConor/ 
Children and wife are in distress there, 
A house without com, or drink.' 

The devil a killer of beeves. 
Is this day in the Phin of Connacht,* 
Except the small plunderer of Gruachain,^ 
And another snoutj of Leitrim.* 

He is a person on whom tlie old curse has fallen,— 

I tell it to you openly, — 

Who would remain in Sil-Anmchadha,* 

And Hell at his command. 

If it be for love of the great Mary, 
They make but one me^u in her honour ; 
If any one that ever departed got to see her. 
The Manians^ shall enjoy her [company]. 

He is an evil demoaiae wight. 
Or a poor mad wretch « 
Who would CO to Sil-Anmchj* 
And bell within his reach. 

^ Sii Anmchadha, i.e., the race of Anmchadh, or Animosus. This 
was the tribe-name of the O'Maddcns, whose territory comprised 
the barony of Longford, in the County of Qalway, and the parish of 
Lusma in the King's County. Sir Frederick Madden of the British 
Museum, and Dr. R. R. Madden, author of 7^e Lives and Times of 
the Untied Irishmen, are of this race. See Tribes and Customs ofHy* 
fnantft for the pedigree of the senior branches of this family. 

7 Manians, i.e., the people of Hy-Many, or as some have called 
them, of high manias ana others *^ the sons of suck.'* These were the 
descendants of Maine Mor« the fourth in descent from Colla Da 
Chrich, son of Eochaidh Doimhlen, son of Cairbre LifFeachair, mo- 
narch of Ireland in the third century. After the establishment of 
surnames, the chief family of this sept took the surname of 0*Ceal- 
laigh (0*Kclly), from Ceallach, the fourteenth in descent from 
Maine Mor. See Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, p. 97* Denis 
Henry Kelly, of Castlekclly, Esq., is the present chief of this fa- 
mily, and next to him in point of seniority is Count 0*Kelly of Mon- 
tauban, in the South of France. Conor O'KelW of Ticooley, Esq., 
who is by descent a Count of the Holy Roman Eanpire, is the repre* 
tentative of the famous family of the O'Kellys, wno were formerly 
seated at Gallagh, now Castle Blakcney, in the County of Qalway. 


Cloc Aft Ur^6 A fD-b^iuoc At) ti)loo-eAllA|^ 

teif- A9 n9|9 n)^ $e|bceA|i 6 ; 

SI be|]i A!) c-AptpADi) bo ffol s-CeAllAjJ, 

" Jr fl)A|C AP C*AI>I;IaVO ^A|t|tA|5 6." 
jA|t|tA|S Cl)0 Aft CO|Uc|b f A)lf^ 

JAftftAfb lof i)5eAf- Aft Loc C6 ; 

)A|tflA]S CO]Ce Aft A1) 5-CA]tftAf5f 

)r I^nn^l^ cofce Aft Aii)ufb fr. 

CIaPP RfOCAfftb CAft ftff AffTftfOIH 

4)ul b'^ b-cfjqb i?l AbAfft ffAb; 

4)eACAfft bUfPD bul b'A b-CAfAPQ^ 

CAOffte Ic b-ucc AbApo f Ab. 

CIad!) RfocAfftb 6 bcfw 50 he]t)i)9 
6 Cbfll Cboftb^^i) 30 6ufftft)i); 

ScfOCAftbAfS tr 6 A 1)-Af Pf Tl), 

RfOCAftbAfs A b-froft-AfPfii). 

> C^oa// milk, h^mv^ aq ibiofhOAlUi^ literally, milk of the small 
cattle. 9)|oi9-cAlUe»^ i.e., the pecudesp goats or sheep, contradistin. 
guished from the mott-CAlUc, i.e., cows. The imbecile chief of the 
0*Kelly's hero referred to, was probablj Hugh Gaech O'Kelly of 

* Loch Ce, now Lough Key, a beautiful lake with several islands, 
in the barony of Boyle, County of Roscommon, near the margin 
of which stands Rockingham, the magnificent residence of Lord 

> The Carrick (i e., the Rock), i.e., Carratg Locha O. This was 
the name of Mac Dermot's chief Castle, which is situated on a small 
island in Louffh Key. From this Lord Lorton formed the name 
Rockingham, for his mansion. See a view of Mac Dermot's Rock, or 
Carrmg'Locha-Ce^ in Doctor O* Conor's suppressed work. Memoir $ 
of the Life and Writings of Charles O^ Conor of Belanagare. 

The allusion here to the absence of ships on Lough Kev looks 
obscure enough. By Loingeas^ however, is meant a fleet or boats, 
not of ships, as the word is now understood. At the present day a 
Connacht gentleman would call bis boats on any of the great lakes, 
such as Lough Corrib, Lough Mask, or Lough Key, his "Jleei.'* The 
bard wishes here to insinuate that there was no cot or ferryboat 
kept at Caladh Locha Ce, by order of Mac Dermot, in order that 
no bard, minstrel, beggar, or any of the luce yAftfiACA 9e|c, might be 
able to g^t across to his ccac it'Aofbe^ !l 

The present head of the family of Mac Dermot of Carrick, Is the 
Prince tf Coolavin, for an account of whose family the reader is 


A red-hot stone in goats* mSk,^ 
With the meal if it be got ; 
Says the. imbecile of the race of Ceallach, 
" It is a good dainty in Spring." 

Seeking for acorns on willow treea^ 
Seeking for ships on Loch Ce;* 
Seeking for a cot at the Carrick/ 
Is like seeking wealth from an oaf. 

The Clann Rickard after mass. 

Will not ask jrou to their houses;^ 

It is difficult for us to go to bark at them. 

They are sheep facing the river. 

The Clann-Rickard from end to end. 
From Kilcorban^ to Barren ;• 
Stickards [misers] is their [true] name, 
Rickards their nickname I 

referred to Memoirs of the Life and Writings of CharU$ 0*Qmor 
of Belanagare, pp. 305, 308. 

* To their houses. lo other copies the reading is :«• 

*' Their own houses thcj shun." 

* Cili'Chorhain, i.e., the Church of St. Corban, now Kilcorban, io 
the parish of Tynagh, barony of Lei trim, and Countj of Galwar. 
It contains the ruins of St Corban's Church. See Ordnance map, mL 

« Burren. t)U||ini»Jt from bofifi c^rcat, and oijo a stone, l.e., rocky 
district, now Burren, a barony forming the northern portion of 
the County of Clare, remarkable for its limestone rocks. It formed 

of Rickard Mor De Burgo, son of William Fitz-Adelm, who died in f 
the year 1205, and who was usually called William the Conqueror, 
bv Irish Writers, as having conquered the provinco of Connacht. 
If our author had known the character given of Fitz-Adelm, by hb 
contempory, Giraldus Cambrensis, he could have referred to it nere . 
with effect against the Burkes of Clanrickard, ** semper in insidiii, \ 
semper in dolo, semper propinans sub melle vencnum, semper latent i 
anguis in herba. Htbernia Expugnata lib. ii. c. xvi. " He died im« i 
penitently, without shrine, or extreme unction, or ffood burial in j 
any church iu the kingdome, but in a waste town.'* Annals o/Cfon^ j 


2t)ucA bubA Cbl^ivvc Seo]i>{i), 
^A]|t]b u|lc Acc b^ftft A 5-cluAf ; 

^A]|t^A1)1) M 1)A Cft^DAC |tltA6, 
6 CAc ^bA]$e 3<<^in^ Ai;UAf • 

4)o b^SAf o|8ce 5A1) biS, 

21 b-cf5 Ai) 5blollA-8u|b, 'f 5A1; b|A8 ; 

Ml bufSCAC irCAft AOI) UA||tC, 

Ml A p]tA|m -fe Acc n)r)\ n^ACA, 
CIai;i;a \i]o^ po |to-^lACA; 
2lc^ flb-fe rAO|f, ii)A|f fOji), 
M]ott AOft r^ixP buft-fP^fcoift. 

21 (iloC At> f CUAtCiO I A Cbu||tC 5AI) CCAOt) ! 

Wft rbcAf Af tiTO citl bo cuft ; 
4yA b-loi)i)rA|5e i)^o]i 6olcA 8ati), 
2li; Cloc 'ijA ni-bj ai? softCA A|t 5011 ! 

1 TAe CZann-Jenntn, ClAtyiy 5co]9fiy, now the familj of Jennings. 
They descend from Seoinfiy, or Little John Burke and Nuala na 
Meadoige, daughter of 0*Madden, the 011:^19 \i\uA, or red sow, here 
referred to. 

< The topt of their ears, i.e., being torn off hy the dogs. This is 
clearly fiflrurative. 

> Magn Ouaire, i.e., Guaire's plain, a level district, in the territory 
of KineTGuaire,near Kinvara, in the County of Galway. See liar* 
diman's Edition of lar.Connacht, p. 332. The date of this battle has 
not yet heen determined. 

* Gilhduff, i.e., the hlack wight, or youtK This was the cogno- 
men of Sir Roger 0*Shaughnessy, who died in the year 1569. He 
was not therefore living when this poem was composed. See Tribes 
&c. of Hy-Fiachrach, p. 37<>* 

ft Gort-irmse'Giuiire, i.e., the garden of Guaire's holm or island, 
so called from Guaire Aidhne, king of Connacht in the seventh cen- 
tury. This is the present Irish name of the town of Gort, in the 
barony of Kiltartan, and County of Galway, formerly the chief resi- 
dence of 0*Shaughnessy. 

' Great chieftains. Our author is here rather severe agaust 
0*Shaughncssy of Gort-innse-guaire, — ** cujus nobilitatem antiquita- 
tera et integritatem, qui non novit, Ilibcrniam non novit,** See /(y- 
Fiachrach p. 373, and who boasted that he was the heir of Gumre 
Aidhne, kin^ of Connacht, who was the personification of hospitality 
and generosity amon^ the Irish noets. Ibid p. 391. 

According to tradition, on calling at the castle of Gort, the Red 
Dard found the Lady of 0*Shauehncssy only, at home, who paid him 
no attention whatever ; but on the arrival of her sons, she mforroed 
them of the Bard's departure, and they set out after him to bring 


Tlie black hogs of Die Clann-Jcnning^^ 
All survive except the tops of their ears;* 
The litter of the red sow nave lived, 
Siuce the battle of Magh-Gunirc' downwards. 

I was a night without drink/ 
In the house of Gilly-duff, and without food ; 
An occasional visitor is never thankful. 
At Gort Innse-Guairc' at any time. 

I satirize but good women. 

The sons of kings or great nobles / 

Ye are therefore free, 

I have not satirized your mother.' 

Cloch an stuaicin I* O Court without a roof! 
To which I had intended to turn mj back ; 
To visit it I should not have gone. 
The stone-fortress in which famine was hatching ! 

him back. lie would not however return with them» and then being 
asked whether he had satirized their mother for her inattention to 
him, he replied in the words of our text, I satirize, &c. 

7 Your mother. She was the Ladv Honora Nv-Brien, as nobly | 
born a woman as the Bard ever had the honour of raising the ccofU 
rcAtibA on her cheek. But in her }'outh she had embraced a religi* 
ous life, and became abbess of the nunnery of Killoan, near the town ' 
of Clare, in the baronv of Islands ; but from this seclusion she ran . 
off with Sir Roger O'Shaughnessy, by whom she had one son and 
one daughter* before they could procure a dispensation for their 
marriage. Thus was she vulnerable to the Bard's lampoon, but he 
was by far too severe. Later chiefs and members of the same family 
have also been rather unfortunate in their choice of wives, and have 
been severely lashed by the Bards, as Colonel William O'Shauf^hnessy, 
who went to France after the Revolution, where he died m 1744, 
and whose M'ife, the daughter of Lord Clare, lived with her own 
butler, William Boy [Buidhe] 0*Kellv, after O'Shanghnessy't de- 
parture, and of whom one of our Bards has written :— 

*' % bcAi) bo FUAifi r&lw 5AC i9f>& bo ro^A oa b.|;cAfi« 
0'5eAchf)ArA|5 Aft AI5, r&rit9AC cisoaiiija aij 31>afttc» 
» iijaIa 5Af> l)^me, ir V^m tOA|% ft'cftifj 6tt|C I 
'4r; c-fftACAft Ao&ittbc A Q-^^fC 9A bfAlUfDe ofic !" 

4I/S., R.I,A,,—Uodges and Smith** Collection, Ab.S7,4, p. 259. 

^ Cloch -an-stuaicin, i-e., the stone, or stone-fortress, of the small 
projection, out-jutting (rcuAic) point, or pinnacle ; now Cloghastoo- 
kcene near Loughrca, in the parish of Kilconickny, barony of 
Dunkellin, and County of Galway. It was the seat of a branch of 
the Burkes of Clanrickard, and extensive ruins of a Castle are still 
to be seen there. Sec Of^. tnap, sheet 105, 



2l|t o-bul bAfi) 30 43itt> SAt)bA|l> 
2t)o ftt|trA]t)!) Ui) Ai) U fn> ; 
JA|f feAi)5A6 'f A!) bfio f J!) bAib, 
9\)o ceA^VAS 6 fo|t> i)^Ofi f^AbAS. 

StJJi'f A5 b]b||tc bcAtboo c^]i)]5» 
20AC CI)Alpttuii)t) cA|i fA|le Ai70f|t; 
N|0|t 6ibj|t ffe OA bcAtbo]!) 30 lfe||t, 

a'f clA1)t) 3l0bu|!) CA|f A feir C-f01]t I 

fi] ]tAib Iua6 a i)-6|tt10t) ^ITS 
'S 1)1 |tA]b YOti)|t^ A i)-^lbA|9 ; 
4>o |t|De 11)6 IcAf Ul 'pbUioo* 
M^ofi b-|:eAr 6 n)ui)A i)-AO|t|rA|i)i) I 

)^llA|fAf A i)-b]i-eA|tc U| )^Ia|1)I), 
'poije 6 i)^|t bujSeAc n)'] 1)1)^11)0; 
tlblAi)i) 'f Ai) 3-C1II bo co]\ice, 

*S A b'4kUVlA1)U ^ 11) A6A||tC6. 

1 DunsandaU (puv SAifbj^^X), i.e.. Sandal's Dirn, or earthen-fort, 
now Dunsandle near Loughrea, in the County of Galway, the exten- 
sive demesne of James Daly, now Lord Dunsandle. At the period 
to which the text refers, it belonged to a branch of the Clanrickard 

< Dun, i.e., an earthen fort ; hut the word is here used in the sense 
of seat or residence. 

* The son of Calphum, i.e., St. Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland. 
*' Patrem habui Calpornium diaconum filium quondam Potiti pres* 
byteri.* Confessio S. Patncii, 

* Clann-Gibhonp our author here unquestionably alludes to the 
Glann-Gibbon, who were seated in lar- Umhalf, to the west of the 
mountain of Groaghpatrick, or the Reek, in the barony of Murresk, 
County of Mayo. According to all the Lives of the Irish Apostle, 
he remained for fort? days and forty nights on this lofty mountain, 
which was then infested by mali^ant demons, who opposed his 
process in preaching the Gospel in this dreary region, but whom 
ne arove thence headlong into the sea. Some of them, however* 
took their flight across the bay of Donegal, and took up their abode 
in the gloomy valley of Glcncolumbkille, where they remained 
undisturbed until finally expelled by the great Thaumaturge St. 
Columbkille. The Gibbons, who dwell around this mountain, have 
been at all times remarkable for their incorrigible tendency to cat- 
tlc-houghing, and other barbarous crimes, which suggested to our 
author, that they were real demons, and according to some of the 
Bards of the West, they are descended from Crom Dubh, the chief of 
the Demons expelled from the Reek, who returned to Laf na 
n'Dcamhon, after the death of St. Patrick, and married Barrdubh, 
the daughter of Balor Bemeann. 


When I arrived at Dansandle,* 
My girth was full that dajr; 
But after getting slender in that dun,^ 
I could never thereafter be filled. . 

If it were to banish demons, [brine ; 

The son of Calphum* came from the east across the 
He did not banish all the demons^ 
As the Clann-Gibbon^ are here still. 

In Eirin he was not noticed. 

Neither was he spoken of in Alba; 

I have promoted (yFlyn's welfare. 

He would remain unkuown had I not satirized him. 

I got in OTlynn's desert, 

A pittance for which my mind was not thankful ; 

An oaten wafer in the church. 

And its covering of horn butter.* 

Patrick Gibbon, commonly called, the Bard of the West, on hear- 
ing this quatrain repeated, objected to its metre, and said that It 
should read as follows :«• 

^ Vr bo 6fbmc f^A 9-beAnK>9 ^ CTlt199t 

n*r ciAii9 5iiiobu|ii A 9.U19AU uf «)baiiio. 

If it were to banish the demons from Eirin, 
The son of Calphrun came over the brine. 
He did not banish them aU from ns, 
As the Clann-Gibbon are in 0'31aUej*k UmhaO. 

But Thibbot of the brandy, a famous satirist of this race, always 
boasted that the Gibbons of Connacht were of the race of William 
Fitz-Adelmy the ancestor of the Burkea. 

6 In the Church. This was the Church of Eas Dachonna, on the 
river Boyle, near the town of Boyle, in the County of Roscommon. 
It is now called Eas^Ui-Fhlainn (anglice Assylin), from the familj 
of O'Flyn, who were hereditary Combarbas of St Dachonna Mae 
Eire. See Annals of the Four Masters, Ed. J.O'D., A.D. 1209, 
p. 1C2, note >•> and A.D., 1222, p. 203, note ", where some stranga 
errors of Ware and Cofgan respecting this Church are corrected. 
The word F0150 in the second line of this quatrain, is explained by 
O'Reilly, " A voluntary contribution given to such of the decent 
poor as ore ashamed to beg. It also signifies the four first of the 
corporal works of mercy.* 

c Ilom-hutter, or butter from a horn. The Bard here seems to 

suggest that OTlyn*s butter was so scant, as that it was preserred 

in a horn ; or perhaps that it was gathered for him by beggars, 

\; who usually had a largo cow-horn for carrying therein the small 

^ bits of butter they obtained hero and there as alms. See SlUnijj^Ail 

At) bbAC.\T.^, MS. Ling. Hib, in our collection. 


C|ii ci)0|tbi^n> A!) <i|ii n fi^i** 

]f n)A|]i5 A ftACAS A b|A6 F^ t)A b|to|i;i); . 
'S njAjt eAC fCAl;5^|l) a[i n)fe|f bo Scjb|i)V. 

Bita|C|te ^Af3i)e ir TUA|c F^ ii)0|tfi)ODC, 
jr «)A|c f^ 3AC o1 i)Ac 5-CAic rjAb; 
*D^ feAudiji ^ltr^l^> Ai)i)bpA!)i)» 
jf Tf)A]c |:^ CAfi;u|6e b'AblA]Qi) fAb. 

Bft^ic|tc Ai? CUfft If ]Ab A be||t|t9, 
Cfi&Ab fA 5-ce|l|:|tji) a IoccaP 
2ti; b^CAIV C]OC|1AC, clAi;Q-tt>6]t> 
2I3 ^ '^-'>1 3^0ih3l6|t i;a 50|tcA I 

Cult) laije^ir). 

S65 ir FCAItft b'A b-fUAftAf |r6f, 
^ ^iS^l^j n)6]bc A tt)]ot)6r ; 
3AbA|t cftiiAS A bciS Ui Pb|toio, 
'S 5A1) Iua8 Aft 8]5 ijA 6c^§o]6. 

> Kilcorhan, see note ^9 p. 39. tupra, 

s Alaighin, i.e.9 the Abbey of Moyne» near Killala, in the barony of 
Tirawley, County of Mayo. The magnificent ruins of this Abbey 
are still extant in excellent preservation. It was built for Francis- 
cans of the strict observance, by Mac William Eightcr De Bureo, 
A.D. 1460, and suppressed in the 37th of Elizabeth. See Archdafi's 
Monati. Jiib. 

* The friar $ of Clare, near the town of Oalway, where the magni- 
ficent ruins of a Franciscan monastery are still to be seen. See 
Archdairs Monasticon Hibemicum, pp. 277, 278. 

* Large families. This does not mean that the friars had numerous 
families or children of their own, though the original text might 
well bear that interpretation ; but that their numerous poor relations 
looked to them for support, as at the present day. 

A O* Byrne's Country comprised the entire of the barony of New- 
castle, with that portion or the barony of Arklow, lyino^ north of 
Inhhear DaoiUt in the County of Wicklow. The last chief of the 
senior branch of this family mentioned in the lri$h Annals, was Teige 


Kilcorban^ this church to the west I 
Alas ! for him who would get its food ia his bellj : 
Bread that is thinner than the fins of a fish^ 
And like a pismire's steed, on a dish I got it 

Tlie friars of Maighin* are liberal of wormwood. 
They are liberal of every tiling which thej do not use ; 
Two dccrcnid very feeble seniors. 
Who are liberal of the crumbs of their wafers. 

The friars of Clare,'—- it is they I mention, — 
AVhy should I conceal their faults P 
Tlie greedy group with large families,^ 
AVho have the penurious grumbling of famine. 



Tlie daintiest dish I got as yet, 

Among the Leinstermcn, the more their disgrace ; 

A lean goat in the ho&se of (ySyme,* 

And no mention of drink after it II 

Oge O'Byrne of Newragh (ao tubftAc), who died in 1578, leaving 
eight sons ; but from this period forward this senior branch of tiie 
O' Byrnes was eclipsed by the superior power, fame and importance^ 
of that of Fiach Q*Jljxne, the head of the Gaval.Ranall 0*Bymes of 
Baliinacor Castle^ which is probably the house here referred to by 
our Bard. A reference to Spenser will shew that this powerful leader 
of the O'Byrnes, was attacked by more efficient satirists than Aenghns. 
Eudoxui, ** Surely I can commend him» that bein^ of himselfe of ao 
mcane condition, hath through his own hardiness lifted himself up to 
the height that he dare now front princes, and make tearmes with 
Teat potentates ; the which as it is to hiur honourable, so it ia to them 
lisgracefully to be bearded of such a basevarlet of lategrowneoutof 
the dunghill/* &c« This Fiach defeated Lord Grey at Glenmalure, 
in 1580, but in 1507f the tough old rebel was run to earth like a 
hunted fox, and killed in a cave at Farraneren, by Captain Thomas 
Lee, commander of Rathdrum fort, who induced Fiach'a wife to 
betray him and his sons. He was succeeded by his son Feilira. 


CUAC U| F|A5^|1) OA tttt^s b-cA|r, 

OiiteAcc 3AI) A|t^i), 5A0 in>, 
LoTOAf 5AC cttA]Ue ca]ll|i)9« 

SI5 fub du5A|b Ai) Ca16a6 I 
'Na buippe boACAC, n)^ocA]ibAC ; 
4)A|t leAc ]f 5Ati7i7AC 5aIa|)i» 
2tl) CAlbAC (rCoi>CAbAi)t. 

2Q^f1) f )l A|f lof A]b b|tot)i)*^||tb, 
21 b-qj Ai? Cb^lbAis cul-fittA|6; 
SseAlpAftt^AC le c^AbA]b f eAftbA I 
*S 50 n7-bA]i)f eA6 f ub ii)A]|tb Af ua|J ! 

43eAlbt)A C]tttA|6, C|feAC-lot9j CQ^tb^j 
2l]cn7e Job-Ion), $eA|f^9A6; 
^\ b-fASA^oo 4)eAlbi)A 50 C}tu]i)f^ 
^Do cu|itf 11)1) lem' 6eA|ti)A a S|Of)tt|i)i) ! 

> r** Cantred of Iregan (Tuatk Vt Riagain)^^ i.e., the Country, 
Tuath, or District, of the Ui Biagain ; now variously called Doobj 
Regan, Oregan, Ireean, 0*Dunne*8 Country, or the baronj of Tin«. 
hinch. It is situated at the foot of Sliabh Bladhma, in the north-west 
of the Queen's County. The O^Dunnes had the tribe-name of Ui- 
Riagain, from Riagan the great-grandfather of Donn, from whom 
they took their hereditary surname in the tenth century. Colonel 
Francis Dunne of Brittas, M.P., is the present head of this family. 

* Offeehie incursions. This is to reverse the character of tbif 
sept as given by O'Heerin, in his Topographical Poems, in which 
he speaks as follows :— 

an U|b RYA5tk]Q 9A noA5 b^ti'OfV^-* 

CU|I?5 QA 5-CttAO)rCAC 5-CA£-Ofl6A. 

Over the Ui-Rlagain of the heavy Incursions, 
A swift tribe who rout in the battle | 
Is O' Dunne, chief of the demolition. 
Hero of the golden battle speaia. 

3 Wild Oarlic. See note ^ p. d5 ntprob 

4 Tite holly tree. See note '', p. 85 tupMU 

& Calhhach O'Conckahhair, i.e., Calvaeh, or Charles O'Conor of 
Offaly, King's County. Brian O'Conor Faly (the son of Cathair, 


The cantred of Iregan^ of the feeble incarsions^* 
The people of the soft, green^ wild garlic;' 
A horde without bread, without butter, 
"Who strip each hollj tree.* 

Here comes to you the Galbhach, 
A useless, haughty, sapling ; 
You would think him a sicklj stripper. 
The same Calbhach (yConchobhair.* 

A handful of seed in a deep trough. 
In the house of the red-headed (Mbhach : 
Such tearing of discordant [liarp] strings I 
AVhich wouUl raise the dead from the grave. 

The Dealbhna* hard, meagre-faced, bonj. 

Are a sharp-mouthed, grombling people ; 

If I found the Dcalbhna collected all together 

I would drive them with my hand into the Shannon. 

son of Cono, son of Calbhach), lost Offaly by his attainder in the 
reign of Philip and Mary ; but many of the fnmilj remained in the 
territory, and so late as IC269 Lysagh 0'Conor» Esq.» of this territory, 
was a gentleman of wealth and high rank, whose Will, which is « 
very curious document, is preserved in the Prerogative Court, 
Dublin. See Hy-Fiachracht p. 127> note '• He was probably the 
son of the Calbhach here referred to. The last chief of this familv 
was the late Maurice 0*Conor of Mountpleasant, in the King^ 
County, who became the heir of Lord Sunaerlin, and whose sisters 
are still in the possession of Baronstown house, in the County of 

< The Dealbhna^ i.e., the Delvins. There were seven septs of this 
name seated in diflerentparts of Ireland, hut the sept here referred 
to, were the Dealbhna-Eathra, seated along the Shannon, in the pre- 
sent baron V of Garry castle. King's County. The Dealbhna are of the 
race of Dal g-Cais, and derived their patronymic from their ancestor 
Lughaidh Dealbh-aodh, the third son of Cas. See 0*Flaherty*t 
Ogyeia, part iii. c, 82. After the establishment of surnames, tne 
Dealbhna-Eathra took the hereditary name of Mac Cochlain, now 
Coghlan. For some account of the last head of this family, see 
Brewer's Beauties of^ Ireland, Mr. John Coffhian, P. L. G., who 
lives near Castlebar in the Countv of Mayo, is the head of one of 
the most respectable branches of this family. His ancestor removed 
to the County of Mayo, with O'More, about 1740. 


2l|t ceAlU]b 5ACA b-AbApQ. 

2Qu]UC|fi SI^nAiMinfe jAlDO-ClUo, 
4)flCAlD 3AD iOCC, 5AIJ k1?*1V»>^ J 
Cu|bcAccA pcthAfty 5A1) )t9, 

TllUlbCACCA ]0CCA1|t ||rft^Q1>!l 

Cujt) UIU6. 

4)o b6A]tt:A]t)i) 'r3Ai) bill b'A cofj, 
4)V|i|iA|6 Aiii3|b, i;oeAllo|t; 
3o b-c] At) FAHi3e Aft pAb BbAt)bA, 
C^]ftbo bo 2t)bAC 9t)bAC5ATb9A ! 

2I1) CCAC b]0lA 1)AC b|ol bAlbi 

*S At; CCAC ]oti}CA|]i^ 5AI) ]0n7CAft ; 

&|1)-1)CAcb 1)A C6|b A b-CA|tbAy 

4)0 fClhCCAcb ^b<55 ^bACgAlblJA. 

Feara Ceall, i.e., the men of the Churches. These were the 
0*Molloy*8 of Kinel Fiachach, whose territory comprised the bar- 
onies of Fircally Ball}'co\vn» and Ball^boj, in the King's County. 
They took their hereditary surname of O'Maoilmhuaidh, from 
Maolmhuaidh, chief of Feara-CealU who was slain by O'Carraidh 
in the year 1019. See Annals o/Kilronan; also Leabhar^nO'g'Ccari 
p. 179. ft. 

9 Flaying, r^^^m^^f whether this may mean scolding. Some have 
understood tliis totally different, as follows :«- 

The Feara-Ccall churning newinilk {tfox x i^^r* !•«•• ncwmilk,] 
It is a cause of Rcandal and dUmce, 
The Fcara Ceall flar their cattle^ 
On the banks of eacli river. 

Daniel Molloy, Esa., of ClonWIa, near Birrjn the King's County, is 
localfy believed, to l>e the head of this family. 
• thafamiltf of Granard^ i.e., the Sheridans, who were Ilerenachs, 



The Feani-CciiU^ celebrating casioms 1 
It is a cause of scandal and disgrace ; 
The Feara-Ceall are usually flaying,* 
On the banks of each river. 

The family of Granard/ of the narrow church, 
A people without clemency, without truth ; 
A thirsty tribe, without butter. 
Dregs of the bottom of hell ! 


I would rather than visit his house, 

To ask for silver, or cattle ; 

Travel to the sea along Banbha [Ireland], ' 

To give respite to Mac lilahon.^ 

The house of payment which |)aid not me, * 
And the house that sustains without a burthen ; 
If apy one choose to have luck, 
Ue will shun the old house of Mac Mahon. 

or hereditary wardens of the Church of Oranard, in the Coontr of 
Longford, and Comharbas of St. Guasacbt, who was bishop of the 

Jtlace in St. Patrick's time. His festival is celebrated on the twenty- 
ourth of January. 

* Mac Mahon (^ac VJszfiAmA), i.e., Mahon of Oirghialla or Oriel, 
which at this period comprised the entire of the County of Monaghan. 
Aenehus 0*Da1y was not the only person employed to satirize this 
family in the reign of Elizabeth. Campion who wrote in 1567* 
says, that Mac Mahon signifies the Bear*s son; and Spenser who wrote 
in 1590, says, that the Mac Mahons of the north were descended 
from the Fitz-Ursulas or De- Veres, who fled from England during 
the Barons* wars against Richard ii. To which Sir Charles Coote 
adds, in his Statistical Account of the County of Aionagjtam, that their 
ancestor had murdered St. Thomas A Becket ! For their true descent, 
viz. from Mathghamhain, Lord of Farney, who was slain at Clones, 
A.D. 1022, see Shirley's Account of the Vomiuion of Fame^f p. 140. 


S|tA|beo5 CluAQA c]Oftn)A c|ob]tA|b, 

BeA5 A h']or)^b Aft cul lefce, 
'S bo 66A}tA6 cu|l 't)A b*c|ce |. 

43|tu|n) f oeAdcA ao bA|le ho^ 
3a!) AiftciDDeAC,— 5A!) eAfboj, — 
3a!) acc b^ c^ifiQeAC 'f Aij 5-C|lly 
2l|t f ft^lb |ii7leA6A|i)j In^^ 

43o fluf5FeA6 Ai> cufl b'Aoo-5|te|t9 aA|iiv 

5^1) At)-f0CAl|i, ^3A1) At;6ttA]Q, 

SftCAbAi) A^f irn Aft A n)U]th 
^ 5-C]ll U| 4)buo^|i) 4X>Ti)i)oii- 

Cu5A]b ! (^usAfb ! b]ol i>a c|tuA|Je ! 
436aoa]6 Af) uA|]t*n f6|l i)A iDAftb; 
O'RaJaUaiS At) feAod|]t rnAfSce* 
'S A cIaoo 8eAft6|I, b)t(i|6ce, bAlb. 

Sfol SATbftAS^ii) PA fi)-buA|lceA6 beAj, 
Sl'f f Ab u|le A|f beA5^i) b)6 ; 
43|teAm leV b]w ceol i)a cuflel 
SeAti^Afi A fi)-bcol 5 AC bu|t}e 6^ob. 

> Cluaim Tiobraid, i.e., the lawn or meaJow of the spring ; now 
Clontobred or Clontibret^ in the barony of Creinorne, and Countj of 
Monaghan. This was one of the Uerenach churches of Mac Mahon'a 
Country. The patron 8aint of the Church was Cruimhthear Ar^ 
whose festival was kept on the thirteenth of June. 

* Behind a/lag (Afi ciil Icice). It was customary with the peasantry 
to use a flag-stone for a griddle, which they fixed behind the fire to 
bake their cake-bread upon. To this custom Aenghus here alludes. 

s Druim Sneachta, i.e.> the ridge or long hill of the snow, now 
Drumsneaght or Drumsnat, in the same County. This was one of 
the poorest Churches of Mac Mahon*s Country. Hyerj rich Church 
had an Archinneach. The patron of the Church was the celebrated 
St. Molua* whose festival is celebrated on the fourth of Aug^t. 
The MS. called Cinm Droma Sneachta (the Book of Drumsnat)« 
quoted by Keating and some older Irish writers, is supposed to have 
belonged to this Church. 

« 0*Dunan*s Church of Donagh, O'Dunan was Herenach of the 
Church of Donagh in the barony of Truogh^ County of Monaghan* 
It is in the territory of the Mac Kennas, who were Urries to the Mao 
Mahons. St. Patrick is the patron. See AnnaU ofthM Fcwr Masters, 
Ed. J. O'D., A. D. 1507. 

• (yReiUy. He was Edmond O'Reilly of Kilnacrott, who died at 
arery advanced age in the year 1601. See Annals of tks Font 


The cake of dry Cluain-tiobraidi^ 

III any one's body is of little strength | 

Small is its place behind a flag,' i 

And a fly would carry it under its wing. 

Dniim-Sucachta/ the soft town. 
Without a herenach, — without a bishop, — 
Having but two priests in the churchy 
On a broad, low, street. 

A fl? would swallow in one morsel. 
Without difficulty,^withoat trouble,— 
Tlie thin cake with its butter on its back. 
Which I got at (yOunan's Church of Donagh.^ 

Here comes! Here comes! Miser/s personification I 
Celebrate now the festival of the dead I 
CRcilly,* the decrepid senior. 
And his puny, stunted, stammering sons I 

The race of Samhradhan* of small Boolies' [dairies]. 
And they all with little food ; 
A horde to wliom the music of the fly is sweet ; 
A shamrock* is in the mouth of every one of them. 

Masters, Ed. J. 0*D., A.D. 158% p. 1806, note • ; and A. D. 1001, 
p. 2*244. 

Mjles John 0*llei11y, £sq.» of the Heath House, Queen's County, 
18 now the representative of this old Bdniond, and one would think 
that it was of him our author yf tA here speaking, X^^^X^'tAtiSk Yiocfi6|5 
A p9to?t.* Another descendant from him, by the father's and mother's 
side, is Mp'Ics William 0*lleilly of Knock Abbey, County of Louth* 
who also inherits his mcagrencss and smallness of stature, as does 
another hard-featured specimen of his race, Dowell O'Reilly, Esq., 
Attorney-Ocneral in Jamaica. Of his race also is Count 0*lleilly 
of the Island of Cuba, and John Temple Reilly, son of the late 
collector of the port of Oalwav, who was the head of the O'Reillys 
of Scarva, in the County of Down. 

c The race of Samhradhan, i.e., the Meg-Samhradhain or Ma- 
gaurans of the territory of Teallach-Eathach, now Tullj'haw, in the 
County of Cavan. Before 1585, this territory pud tribute to Sir 
John O'Reilly, but, at a more remote period, ilagauran had been 
tributary to O'Rourke, and was con^iidered as belonging to West 
Drcifne and the province of Connacht. 

7 Jiuolies, See Spenser's View of the State of Irehtnd, Dubrn 
Edition, p. 82. 

• A Shamrock. See the quotation from Campion infr^, p. 52. 

• ''A beautiful Bunt of Myles O'Reilly by Kirk, ralUr AanI, but not ■• 
hard altogeilicr as Mylet hiiiiMflf !'* The VomeU 


Cjiob 6 in^]S bo toe S]\e^v^9 
B|b 5^1) AO|t)-S|ieiiD 'fAt) cfAibitA]*; 
to ccAcc bA]f)i)e i;a ih5AbA]i, 
^o 5^)1*> F^S^l^ ^?* fcAiu|iA|b. 

CaOC AI) IDjeAl) CAOC A1) Tb^CA||f, 


CaOC At) CAPaU b]Of f ^'ij C-f ItACAlft, 
teAC-CAOC Al) C& — CAOC Al) CAC 

B]ioc Ajt 5Ai|ibc A'r A]i slAire, 
?lp A|f ii)6ib A'f Ajt ii)io-ibA]fe; 
5lloii)AC A|i S^ltte A 6^ ful — 

SlOUOAC Aft b|l6|0e A9 BAttUQ 1 

PocA beA5 A i)-5A|t b'A slajo, 

2t))A9 bo li7|A1)Alb A!) BbA|fU|9 ; 

DoififO buijCA Afi bcA5^i> b^6, 
21 9-A]36]t; (^u||tce ap CblwAiijli)- 


2t)A|t IcAOAfb flol NeAfboA]i)t), 
'Cjio n)Aiiib-l]00 WS ^^ Iacaio; 

t.CA1)A]b 2t)^l>A]5 ^^ C-A]t^|>, 
T^]tC poll-bAll^|9 OA f|tACfiAC« 

1 7\> Mtf north of Loch Stieann, i.e., of Loch Sheelan, a spactous lake 
on the borders of the Counties of Mcath, Longford, and Cavan. The 
people here referred to are the Mac Tighearnains, now Mac Kernans 
or Kernans, of the territory of Teallach Dunchadha, now Tullyhunco 
in the County of Cavan. Dcfore 1585, this barony also paid tribute 
to 8ir John O'Reilly, but at an earlier period it had belonged to 
O'Rourke, and was considered a part of Connacht* 

2 Lhtredution vn shamrorkt. Campion who wrote in 1567^ 
says of the mcere Irish : '* Shamrotes [i.e., shamroges], Water- 
creases, Uootos, and other hearbes they feed upon : Oatemale and 
Butter they cramme together. They Drinke Whey, Milke and Beefe 
broth. Flesh they devour without bread ; corne such as they have 
they kceoe for their horses. In haste and hunger they squese out 
the blooa of raw flesh and aske no more drcs5ing thereto, the rest 
boyleth in the*:r stomackes with Aquavitse which they swill in after 
such a surfeite, by quarts and pottles. Their kyne they let blood 
which growne to a jelly they bake and overspread with Butter, and 
so eate it in lumues.** Historic of Ireland^ Dub. Ed. p. 25. 

' The Barufif i.e., Conor Miiguiri* of Enniskillcn, wno was called 


To the north side of Loch Sileann/ 
They are without anj bit [of food] in summer | 
But when the milk of the goats comes on. 
They commit a depredation on shamrocks.* 

Blind is the daughter — ^blind the mother. 
Blind the father — blind the son ; 
Blind the horse whicli is under the straddle. 
Half-blind the hound — ^blind the cat. 

A badger in roughness and in grcyness. 
An ape in size and ugliness; 
A lobster for the sharpness of both his eyes, 
A fox for his stench is the Baron I ' 

To have a smalt pot near his knee. 

Is one of tlie haoits of the Baron ; 

The doors are closed on little food. 

In the depths of the Court of Cluainin.^ 

♦ * « * • * 

As the Nemon-sccd* is pursued, 
By the ducks through tiie stagnant pool. 
So the Managhs* pursue the bread, 
Through the pin-hole of the sti addle. 

«nA5U|6|!t 3aU&a, i.e., the "English Ma^ire," and also " the Daroii,** 
by the lris>h» before he had actuallv received this title from the state. 

^ Cluainin. i.e., a small lawn, holm or meadow. This was the 
name of a strong stone house belonging to the " English Maguire" 
(Conor, son of Uonor, son of Conor Mor« son of Thomas Oge)» 
and situated near Lisnaskea in Fermanagh. 

* I'he Nemon-seed, i.e., duck-meat, which grows on the surface 
of stagnant waters without a root. This quatrain has its words too 
much transposed. It could be arranged thus :— 

tU lACA]q An lo|i5 fH Ho AionMMV t 

leAf)A|b 9)aijai^ rlfocc AftMO* 

Ct\6 poU CAfl^ACAItl t)o bAU^tV* 

As through every stagnsnt pool 

The ducks pursue the duck-meat, 

So the Fermanagh men foHow the track of bread. 

Through the hole of an auger or gimlet. 

6 Managhs, i.e.» the inhabitants of Fermanagh, who were all 
tributary to Maguire. 


T;^*D SoftCA |t|Ari) Aft 50|t 'fAD 5-C|ll; 
STtA|bco5 CAi>A tDAft Ia|i)i) 61^5^ 
'S ii7A|t 115 lo|o Aft ibft|r ^ S«|6fl«>. 

NfOft 6|0i) bArt) f]ol f cAi)-2l6A|ii| ; 
ClAt;t> 4)&Ia]5 bA b]ot) bAtby 
2t5up f ]ol feAo-2t6A|rt7 b'AOftAS. 

T^u^A bo cuft 6p A 5-C|Ooi>> 
N^ b^|n> Aft ^CA|tA|b 6|ft|ot>i>; 

4)uaI fD]01)-CfftOCA bo CflfAll 50 l1|U||t, 
SI |XUA|5 f]tm lx>cbA pCAbA|U 

<Dob' Olc 1170 CUflAf fTA'tJ Mo6lAf59 

50 c]5 Ul <DI;ocA|tcA|5 pa b-Jovr^ ; 

51 b-fruA|iAf bo bfiAC^o looce. 

I Derryhrmk. (Oo|fio-bitor^A0.) This is the present Dame of a 
celebrated Church near Enniskillen in the Count} of Fermanagh, of 
which the family of MacOillachoisgle (now Cosgrove), were Heren* 
achs or hereditary wardens. See AnnaU of the Four Masters, under, 
the name of Aireach Brosga, at the years 1384, 1482, 1484, 14879 
1 500, and 1514. In the AnnaU of UUter, which were compiled in 
Fermanagh, it is called by both names^ from which it might be in- 
ferred that the words Doire and Aireach, are synonymous, meaning 
roboretum, a place of oaks. 

< Ctann Dalai f^h, i.e., the race of Dalach son of Muircheartach. 
This was the tribe-name of the O'Donnells of Tirconnell, at this 
time the most powerful family in Ireland. The Dalach from whom 
they derived their tribe-name was chief of Tirconnell, and was slain 
in the year 808. The Dalach from whom the 0*Dal^s Tthe poets) 
descend, was of Corca Adhaimh or Race of Adam, m Westmeath, 
and descended from Maine the brother of Conall Gulban, ancestor 
of the O'Donnells. See the Introduction. The poet may have in* 
tended an equivocation here ; for his own family, the poetical 
0*Daly8y were the Corca or Siol Adhaimh, i.e.. Race of Adam ! 

* Small streams, i.e., as small streams flow into the sea, so small 
chieftains flock to thy standard and acknowledge thy superiority. 

4 Hero of Loch Feahhuil, i.e., of Lough Fovlo near Derry. This 
hero was the celebrated Ilugh lloe or lied Hugh O'Donnell, who 
was treacherously taken prisoner by^ the Lord Deputy Perrot, in 
the year 1587, when he was tn the sixteenth year of his age. He 
escaped from the Cattle of Dublin in 1590, and was re-taken the 
same year and confined in Dublin Castle again, whence he escaped 
a second time in 1592, in which year he was inaugrurated O'Donnell. 
He fled to Spain after the defeat at Kinsale in 1002,^ and died the 
same year. *'He was a lion in strength, a Ciesar in command.** 
See his character blazoned in the Annals vfthe Four Aiasiers, A. D. 
1602, p. 2297. 

At Doire-Drosgaiilh/ which God has not blessed 

Starvation is ever hatching in the Church; 

A thin cake like the fins of a fi^h, I 

And like the egg of a blackbird I got on a disL | 

Should I satirize the Clann Dalaigb^' * 

The race of Adam would not be a shelter to me; 
The Clann Dalaigh would be a shelter to me, 
AVere I to satirize the race of old Adam. 

To place you over their heads, 

is no disgrace to the men of Eirin; 

Small streams' naturally flow to the sea, ! 

O fair hero of Loch Feabhail,^ I 

Sad was my visit at Christmas, 

To the house of (yDoghcrty* of the Island ; 

♦ « * » # ♦ 

AYas the porridge I got there. 


The race of this Hugh are extinct, if he left an/. The Count j 

De Lucena of Spain, late Captain General of Cuba, Count 0*Donnell ^ 

of Austria, and Manus O'Donnell of Castlebar, Esq., descend from i 

Con Oge, the brother of Niall Garbh O'Donnell, Baron of Lifford. I 

A 0*Dogherty of the Island, i.e., 0*Doghertj of the island of Inch I 

in the barony of Inishowen, County of Donef^al. This was either 
Sir John O'Doghcrty (son of John, son of Feilim), chief of Inis« 
howen, or his son. Sir Cahir, who was knighted by Lord MountjoT 
for his bravery in iightinff against the Earl of Tyrone and his 
followers ; but who rebelled himself in 1G08, after the flight of the 
Earls, and lost his life in a hopeless struggle. Aenirhus was afraid 
of the Clann Dalaigh, but not, it appears, of the kindred race of the 
Clann Fi amain or O'Doghertys. 

The Island here referred to, is Inch, in Lou^^h Swillr* on which 
O'Doghcrty had a strong Castle. The cause of Sir Cahir O'Dogherty's 
rebellion is thus briefly explained by Sir Henry Docwra, in his JVorro- 
tion ofSeroices, published by the Celtic Society, in their jl/ucvltoiy:— 

" Presentlie after him (Roorv O'Donnell) came O'Doghertie iusoe 
with a lettre from my Lord [Alountjoy] to mee, to pray me to de* 
liver him the possession of the He of Inch againe ! which hee him- 
selfe had past away before, first by lease for xxi. yeares, and after- 

wardes in fee simple for ever, both under the greate seale ! ! I ' 

tould him this warrant was too weak to doe what it imported, and 

shewed him reasons for it Hcreuppon hee tooke it more to 

hearte, sent agents to deale for him in England, they prevayled not 
till my Lord was deade, and then with impatience led away with 
lewd councell besides, and conceiving himselfe to be wronoed in 
many other thinges, hee was first brooke out into open RebeUion { 
but that fell out a good while after," pp. 278» 979. 


6 6u|i;e \\At 50 leAQAb ; 

M| b-fuAft bo locc Afi 0||teAcc-2t|bi)e, 
2lcc 3Ai> Aoo ijc^c AW ^ [tiA|i|:AbAO|f ; 
Nf ]iACA|b co]&ce 5AI) CAob cotA, 
3o cAob |tfei8 *i)A itojA A ft|p ! ! 

jrifCAU/r If AubfTAOD; 

4>2i ti)-bA |Ot)Aoi) cuiDA 65|b, 
4)^1% O'bdfc bA cftu|ii}e A1) AblAi;i>. 

t 77l« Cohans, i.e., the O'Kanes of Oireacht-Ui-Chathain, situate 
between the Foyle and the Dann in the County of Londonderry. 
55n^cjii)AT5 CfttcAi), 18 here a great calumny ; and the next qua- 
train was evidently interpolated by Aen^hus himself, or some other 
bard, to take the sting out of it. The O'Kanes were called Oireacht- 
Aihhne, from Aibhne (son of Diarmaid, son of Cumhaighe na* 
Coille), who flourished A.D. 1432, and was the progenitor of nearly 
all the subsequent chiefs of this family* The chief at this period 
was Donnell Ballagh, son of Rory, son of Manus, son of Donough 
the Hospitable, son of John, son of Aibhne or Evenue, a quo Oire- 
acht- Aibhne, .a tribe-name by which the chief families of the O'Kanes 
were at this period designated. He was inaugurated in the year 
1598. Fynes Moryson tells a story of the cliief of this family, 
from which it is clear, that the Bard Ruadh was not the only satirist 
who attacked him. A Bohemian Baron called at the court at 
Dublin Castle, and said, among other things, that he had visited the 
Castle of O'Cane, in the North of Ireland, where be was admit- 
ted to see that chieftain's daughters, two of whom were very nymphs 
in beautv, and who were sitting round a fire stark naked. They bid 
him sit down on the gpround and form one of the company, which he 
refused to do. Soon after, O'Cane their father, returned from 
hunting, and addressing the stranger in the Latin language, desired 
him to take off his clothes and rest. The only covering the chief 
had on was a large cloak, which he took off on entering the castle, 
and then he too being stark naked, sat down at the fire along with 
his daughters. It is curious to remark with what intense determi- 
nation the English Government at this period turned all their force 
of cannon, muskets, treachery and satire, to overthrow ^ the wilde 
Irishrie" and'< to eztirpe the Qeraldines." 

Sir Richard Keaneor Cappoquin in the County of Waterford, is of 
this Northern race ; his grandfather who was an Ulsterman, was an 
Attorney in Waterford. Sir Robert Kane of Dublin, the celebrated 
chemist, is also of this race. His great-grandfather who was a nati%'e 
of the Vale of the Roe, removed thence to IVIeath, and his family 
ultimately became chemists, and manufacturers of Soda and Oil of 
Vitriol, in the City of Dublin. There are various families of the 
name in the original territory, but none higher than the rank of 


To satirize them is not difficult for me^ 
From the hoarv-hcadcd man to the chiid^ 
The O'Cahans' of the ignoblo deeds,—* 
Eiria's idlers — ^I will satirize. 

I found no fault with Oireacht-Aibhne, 

But that they had none to entertain ; 

Thcv will never move without chosing their side. 

And the easy side will be their choice again.' 

Tlie thin bread of Disert/ 

Is slim indeed and paltry; 

Were it and the wafer of the same shape. 

Indeed the wafer^ would be heavier ! 

farmers^^cxcept those in holy orders. The Rev. Manus, or Manas- 
scs 0*Kanc, r.P. of Omagh, irho is a native of Oircacht-Ui-Chath- 
ain^ is the finest specimen of the race living, except Dr. Cane of 
Kilkenny ; and William Kane, who headed the Irish at the battle of 
Carrickshouk, slaughtered the police, and fled to America. 

s Their choice again. I.e., they never join any party until they see 
iiv'hich is likely to oe the victors, and whenever they happen to be 
mistaken, they hesitate not to return to the easy and successful 
side ! ! Lord Mountjoy, in reply to Sir Henry Docwra, who plead- 
ed in favour of O'Kane^in 1602, observed of the latter (Miscellany of 
the Celtic Society^ p. 277) : ** Hee is but a drunken ffellowe, saith hee^ 
and soe base, that I doe not thinke but in the sccrcete of his heart, 
it will better content him to be so than otherwise ; besides hee is 
able neither to doe good or hurte &c., &c.. But, howsoever. By Qod, 
sayeth hee, 0*Cane must and shall be under my Lord Tyrone. 

** In the mcane time, my Lord Hugh (the Earle of Tyrone's eldest 
Sonne) and I went home together, and when wee came to the Derrey 
I sent for 0*Ganc, and tould him what my Lord's [Mountjoy's] plea- 
sure was touching him : Ilee beganne prescntlie to bee moved, and 
both by spcach and gesture, declared as earnestlie as possible to be 
highlie ofTended at it, argued the matter with mee upon many pointesr 

protested his fidelitie that he was now undone shewed many 

reasons for it, and asked if we vcould claim him hereafter, if hee fol- 
lowed my Lord of Tyrone's Councell thouch it were against the 
kinge, seeing he was in this manner forced to be under him. In 
the end seeing no remedie, he shaked handes with my Lord Hugh | 
bad the devill take all Englishmen, and as man^ as put their trust 
in them, and soe in the shewe of a good reconciled friendship they 
went away together." 

^ Disert. There are many Churches of this name in Ireland | but 
the one here referred to is unquestionably t)ircA|ic U| tttAc^iU i.e. 
O'Tuohill's Desert, now Desert-toghill, in Oireacht-Ui-Chathain, in 
the barony of Coleraine, and County of Londonderry. The last 
lierenach of this Church was Rory Mor OTuohill. 

4 Wafr, The word AbU^ty in the text denotes the wafer after 



9fy} AO|6eACC A 5-C|ll H^a^a, 
4!>eA|tcA]i) tyot)A bfio|6-bl|A69A ; 

BAijiseAi) c||iifi| \i] ^h]om^}th 

<yC|i6]l]Se beA5 va 5-qAb s-CAf, 
'pcAit ijAC be^jiijA ]iiAii| A leAf ; 
StsAjS AO bttjpe All A b|t^$A|br 

215 CA|l|tAll)5 A CAHU5 Ajt ^]^J) Af. 

Bo|c S%6i6be I Bofc ^(Sbe I 
Bo^c beA5 cA A i)Aice ai) c-flfelbe ; 
Bo|c A b-cdti)A]fceA|i AX) cA]6 co^ficej 
B01C 17A softcA^ Bo|C ^6]6be I 

SI cu]l beAX ub A|t ba|> 17A SAjble* 
^A ii)-bVol bu]c b^At)Aih vuAbAc; 


^u A nj-D eui DU]c^ oeAi7ATi7 fu 
Bb^AfifrA too cu|b A|t^|9 A f 
Co^f DA 1^101)6 leAC 30 fUAp 

2Qu]9C|ft 6A$fiA^ — baA]lce beASA^ 
y]t)^ lAb i)^|» cofAio clfo; 
jf 6 If ceol bO|b ceol i)a cu^le, 
^ropAll A n)-beol 5A6 btt|oe 8|a. 

consecration as used b^ the priest at mass. It is thus defined bj 
Dr. O'Drien, in his Irish Dictionary, ** Anuhxvix, a wafer ; abhUnm 
choisreicthe, the [consecrated] Host* or Eucharist*" However, we are 
not to infer that the poet speaks of it here irreverently, or after its 
consecration, but before it, when it is no more than any other bread ; 
and he could not perhaps introduce a more fitting comparison with 
the thin cahe oflhsert, 

> Kilrca, C]\\ R1A5A, an ancient Church near the little town to 
which it ffave name, in the north of the barony of Loughinsholin, 
County of Londonderry. The familv of O'Diomain, now Diamond, 
who were hereditary Herenachs of tnis Church, are still very nume- 
rous in this neighbourhood, 

s Aeams ** DoAfUAio x bAtt^iya .tciytt t^A. b^fiAi f^he nuts of the oak].** 
Cormae^M Ohssary, 

* 0*Criliy. tie was Herenach of the Church of Tamhlacht«T7i- 
Chroiligh, now Tamlaghtocrilly, situated a short distance to the 
south of Kilrea in the same barony. This family is also very 
numerous in this neighbourhood. They think that O'Cnu^^Uof&t 
O'Crowley, is the true form of the name, and that 0*Crilly is a 
corruption ; but if this be true, the name was corrupted at an 
early period, as it is found written 0*01161111$ in old Irish MSS. 


M^ fare at KQiaa* 

AVas the wretched acoma* of a bad jear ; 

Like the leaves of the blackthorn on the ground^ 

Is the drj-cake of C/Diomaou 

The littte (yCriUy* of the curly locks, 
Is a wight who never acted to have good luck; 
The face of this fellow is on hia neck. 
Carrying off his pot with diiBculty. 

Bovevagh ! Bovevagh !^ 
A little hut that is beside the mountain; 
A hut in which the oaten chaff is measiured. 
Hut of hunger is the hut of Mevagh^ 

O little fly which yonder rest on the rafter^s end. 
If you but knew how to make plunders ; 
You might bear off my supper of bread and butter. 
Along the Finn* with facility. 

The families of 0*Hara,< of small Booleys, 

A tribe that never earned fame ; 

Their music is the humming of the flv. 

And the grumbling^ of penury in each man's mouth. 

^ Boith J^fheidhhhe, now Bovevagh, an old church near Dungiyent 
in the haronv of Keenaght^^ and County of Londonderry* These 
lines are still repeated at this church, and rememhered by the local 
shanachies as the composition of the Bard Buadh from Munster. 
The name JSoith 3Iheidfthke, signifies Meave's, or Mabbina's hut^ on 
which the Bard raises such playful rhymes. St. Aidan, the neph< 

' St. Patrick, was abbot of it. See Co1gan*s Trias Thaum', pw 41 

of St. Patrick, was abbot of it. See Colgan's Trias Thaum., p. 495. 
The 0*Quiglys were the Herenachs of this Church. 

5 Along the Finn, I.e., His bread and butter at Bovevagh were so 
light that the fij might carry it off even to the river Finn, in Tir- 
connell, without being wearied of its burden. 

^ 0*IIara, Pie was O'Hara of Crebilly, in Dal Biada, in the 
County of Antrim. This family is a branch of the O'Haras of 
Leyny, in the County of Sligo, and descends from Hugh, the bro- 
ther of Conor Gott O'Hara, Lord of Leyny, who died in the year 
1231. This branch removed to Dal Riada with the Red Earl of 
Ulster, who died in 1320. This family is now extinct in the mile 

7 Grumblti^gm This music was not as sweet as even the humming 
of the beetle. •• if reann rui6o 'oa buq |i)a rufbe *i)a aic,* and •• qAfi 
ctt5Jki6 TfA 6ai9i| rib,*' vere the usual exclamations of this kind of 


Cu|tAS A C|lO|6e Aft AP 5-CeACA]ipA^ JOItCAC, 
NAC^bCAJipA c|S cjiOfD-f^Uice A]t fl|Ab. 

C]t)ei T^AjAjicAij DA f im 

'PuiJeAll CAr5A|ije aV ^I^S » 

TFlft 11)6 JIA, fi)AOCA, ibeACA, 

Caoca, caii)A^ 6ojf-b|ieACA. 

2l|ib UIa6 ^Ai)f), 50|tCACy 

Z\fi 5A1J AoiboeAf, 3A0 Ai|:|icApij ; 

^AC Al) C^SAbAO|nJ A1) CttOCA||te S^I^, 

'pcAft CArSAiftc bA|fti)eAC le b-A|ftci99* 

Nl FAbA 50 b-C|t|AllA|lD CAJI C|t^f^ 

<Do'i) ^|C lo^A b-FAtcA|t rioo; 
<D'Fiof PA i)-53 1JAC& jiAibe |t|Af9, 
3<^T) ")|Aij b'^Aijie DA |i6b ]t^oS. 

1 On a mountain, so as Dot to bo so accessible to the Bards, 
Jesters, Minstrels, Carooghs, Qeocao^hs, and other Strollers, as it 
is now, being built on the side of the bighWar. 

< Cinei Fnaghartaigh^ i.e.. Race or Faghartach. This was the 
tribe-name of the Mac Artans of the barony of Kinelarty, on the 
west side of Loch Cuan, in the County of Down. Thej derived their 
tribe-name from Faghartach, son of Mongan, son of Saran of the 
race of Rossa, king of Ulster, From Artan the grandson of this 
Faghartach, they took their hereditary surname of Mac Artain, in 
the tenth century. Sec Leabhar'na-g-Ceari, p. 206, «. 

* Ard Uladh, now the Ardes, two baronies in the east of the 
County of Down, and lying principally between Loch Cuan and the 
sea. This was the ancient country of 5lac Qillamuire, now Qitmore : 
but for some centuries previously to Acnghus's time it had belonged 
to the Savages, a family of Anglo-Norman descent. Ware has the 
following strange passages about these two rival families in his An* 
nah of Ireland, at the years U07, 1408. 

A. D. 1407, ''A certain false fellow, an Irishman, named [Hugh] 
Mac Adam Mac Oil more, that had caused forty churches to be de- 
stroyed ; who was never baptized, and therefore was called Corbi, 
took Patrick Savage nrisoner, and received for his ransom two 
thousand marks, and atter wards slew him together with his brother 

A. D. 1408, '<This year Hugh Mac Gilmore was slain at Car- 
rickfer^s, within the church of the Fryars minors, which church 
he had before destroyed, and broke down the Glass windows, to have 


A long wide house on the middle of the highwftj. 
And not enough for a pismire there of food ; 
Heart-ache to the hanmry kerne. 
That did not build a criD-house of rods on a mountain.* 

The Cinel-Fhaghartaigh* are the men I 
Bemnanta of curses and lies, 
Large^ soft, dastardly men. 
Blind, crooked, shin-burnt. 

Ard-Uladh' destitute, starving, 
A district without delight^ — ^without mass,— 
Where the son of Savage, the English hangman,^ 
Slaughters barnacles with a mallet I 

It will not be long ere I cross the strand. 
To the place where wine is got; 
To visit the youths who never were. 
Without a desire to watch the kinjps roads.* 

the iron bars, through which his Enemies, the Savaffes, entred upon . 
him." « .*- 

* The English hangman. This was intended to have its effect 
among people of Milesian Irisli feeling. Coz, in his address to the 
reader, after remarking that the old Irish wished to murder all the 
Anglo-Irish, writes : — <« However, the secret of this desiffn was not 
divulged, until 0*Ncalc, in his Triumphs to Munster blaVd it out ; 
for being told that Darrett of Castlemorc, though an Englishman, 
was a good Catholic, and had been there four hundred jears, he re- 
plied that he * hated the Clown as if he had come but jesterday.' Since 
that we have many more instances of it ; and that this antipathv, 
has extended itself even to English cattle and improvements. It 
was another 0*Ncale who said, it did not become him to writhe hit 
mouth to chatter English ; and that executed a solder because he had 
English bisket in his pocket." 

^ The hing*9 high road, i. e., to rob the passengers if they were 

fentlenien or merchants. These were evidently the Magennises of 
)undrum, in the Countv of Down. Dandrum was tamons for 
wine.^ Here Shane 0*Nea\e had at one time two hundred tun of 
wine in his cellar, "whereof and of usouebaugh he would drink to that 
excess that to cool himself he would oe put into a pit, and the earth 
cast round him to his chin, and so he remained, as it were, buried 
alive till his body was in better temper." It would be very difficult 
to get Aenghus O'Dalv to satirize such conduct as this, which to 
him would seem all right. 


B'olc A cuUjc A|t A he]t A179 ; 
CeACftAfb rp|be6i5e Ajje aji c6]9]6, 
Sl'f |:||t 0||tceA|i ujle tft. C|te|i9 ! 

BeA5^i) bAiQQe a tiTdfio^i) ii)A0i6ceAC, 
BeA5^0 bUcA^te a 3-cuac^p caiv; 
BeAS^p A|i^]p le co|f bAlU, 
2l'f i;eAb A3 ai) bubAi^-AllAiS aw* 

2Qac Caqpa ai) 4)ut)&it; boiTn>> 
Na f AiijAil bu|i>e le <D<>it)OAU; 
2li> c-AbAll V A ^^^ ^'^ ^n^cf» 

'S 1)1 CUJflfeAC c«ic b'A 6pttArAC« 

Bc]ft n>o beAWAcc CAft Bai^qa^ 

2t)Aft A b-pujl 2Qac Cai)1)a^ ccaw 9A 5-cliA|t ; 

4)cACA]]t 6u|oi)e 5AI) A f ao]ia8^ 

peAfl 1)^|l bAOjtAb |tOti7A]1)0 TI|AI9. 

I O'lLmlon, o*b-2l9lttAii)* He was chief of the eastern portion of 
Oirghialla* called Crioch-na-n-Airthear,i.&, regioOrientaltumgtktuuaM 
which is still retained in the baronies of Orior^ in the east of the 
County of Armagh. 0*Hanlon was hereditary royal standard-bearer 
of Ireland, to north of the Boync, an office claimed by and ced^ to the 
late Col. Ollanlon, when king George the Fourth visited Ireland, 
in 1821. The head of this family in our author's time was Sir Eochy 
O'Hanlon of Tandragcc, who, though knighted, was considered so 
Irish, that the poet Spenser, in speaking ofsome great houses of the 
English in Ireland, wno had so degenerated from their ancient digni- 
ties, *' and are now growne as Irish, as O -hanlon's breech [cotQ 5Ae6Ui 
le copi U] fti|liiATi)], as the proverb there is." View of the State of Ire^ 
Jandp Dublin Edition, p. 1 10. And in the reira of James 11., the familv 
was headed by Brian O'Hanlon, traditionally called '< the Colonel, 
who was the son of Olaisne, son of Patrick Bane, son of Edmond 
Laidir, son of Eochy, who was attainted by Act of Parliament as *' Og^ 
hie Oge O'Hanlon, £squire, eldest son of Sir Oghie O'Hanlon^ knight, 
late of Tonregye, in the County of Armagh.'^ There are many re^ 
spectable gentlemen of the name sUll in Ireland, but their pedigreee 
have not been traced. 

s Mullaghp i. e. the summit or hill-top. This was the name of 
O'Hanlon's house at Iklullagh, near Forkhill, in the County of 
Armagh. He had another house at Mullaghglass, in the parish of 
Killevy, in the same barony. 


Cllanlou^ at iho hoase of Mullagh,* 
Whose suit of clothes was wretched when there. 
Had a quarter of a red-breast on a fire. 
And the men of Orior^ all to devour it I 

A little milk in a leak/ nogffin, 

A little buttermilk in a cr<^ed cup ;-— 

A little bread close to the wall. 

And the spider having his nest therein. 

Mac Cann^ of the dun mansion I* 
Compare no one to Donnell ; 
The apple tree* and its blossom betrajr him/ 
And m are not tired of his accumulation. 

Bear my blessing across the Bann,* 
Where dwells Mac Conn, head of the hosts. 
It is hard for us not to free him, 
A man who was never condemned before ua. 

* Men of Orior^ i. e., the inhabitants of Crioch-na-n*Airther, rf- 
gionii Onentaliumg or the baronies of Orior, in the east of the Gountj 
of Armagh. 

4 Mac Conn, V)ac CA911A9 a family of the race of Rochadh, son of 
Colla Da Chrioch, chief of ClannBreasail (Clanbrazil). which is 
shown on an old map of Ulster of the same age with this poemt as 
on the south side of Lough NenjB^hy where the upper Bann enters 
that lake. It was coextensive with the baronj or Oneilland-East* 
The late Major Mac Cann of the Countv of Louth, was the head 
of this famiW. There are various wealtnj and highly respectable 

gentlemen of the name in various parts of Leinster and Ukter, 
ut their pedigrees have not been preserved. 
^ Dun mansion, t)tti|A9 t>tt|9i9» Mac Cann's residence was situated 
close to Lough Neagh, in the baronj of Oneilland-East, on the 
east side of the upper Bann, where that river enters the Lough. 

* The apple tree, Aif AhAlU fem.» signifies the apple tree, Aoe-AttAH, 
moAC, the apple or fruit of the apple tree. 

7 Betray nim, i.e., the want of fertility in the apple tree in Ms 
territory shows that he is not worthy of being a chieftain. See Bai' 
tie o/Magh Rath, pp. 100, 101. 

* The Bann, Donnell Mac Cann, chief of his sept in our author^ 
time, lived on the east side of the upper Bann, near where that riv^ 
enters Lough Neagh. This quatrain is not satirical, and was evi- 
dently interpolated to take the sting out of the preceding quatrain. 


Cttit) 1)4 Wnm^t) t>o't) %oj|i. 

'So cftfoc RdifccAC 0^ |t5b p-^Uih 
K^iois fi)6 (ro6|bo Ap njeAjibAl) ; 
Jr frc||t|tbe tijft 1JAC 9*1^1*9 in>; 
m iHofAioO ft 1)1 b-FAjAiTO. 

4)uo Bao| i)a f cao-^1<>9 f eAjib, 
^lA|b AfQAb^io 6|fieAi)Q; 
'N4i'i> 4)110 Baoi no, bo BftA|i s^aU, 
^uft c6Ab AO|boe ifitcAoo ! 

4&iicA|6 1^CAocttA|6e A'f ti^AjiA ; 
C|i6|o-n)lU bo5A 3A0 bUf, 
Cu|bfteAOO pAbA A5Uf AosU^f. 

BIaStoaoo F^^^T^^r i^^P beACAy 

^ ^uf5|iA|6e ri)di|t ^b|c 4)iATtii)AbA ; 

3u|t f<51l*5 ")o cli bo'o CAjtc 

3o ]toccA]o 50 Ba]Io ao CoIa]J. 

1 lioch^s Country, a beautiful territory in the north of the Countj 
of Cork, now comprised in the barony of Fermoj. Before the En- 

Slish invasion this delightful district belonged to the 0*Dugans, the 
esccndants of the Druid Mogliruith, but earlj in the thirteenth 
centunr thej were dispossessed by the Roches and Condons. See 
O'Flaherty's Ogygia, part ui,, c. 69. 

s DuH Bad, now Dunboj in Bantry. This was a place of gpreat 
strength at the period to which this poem refers, ana the principal 
stronghold of O'Sullivan Bearc ; but there is no vestige of it re. 
maining at the present day.^ Soon after it sustained a siege that made 
it a hellindeedl It was besieged and stormed by Sir Qeorge Carew, 
Lord President of Munster, with the most unrelentinor perseverance, 
and defended bv Richard Magcoghcgan and the waraers, consisting 
of one hundred and forty-three lighting men, with a stubborn bra- 
very scarcely paralleled in modern history. At length when the 
castle was nearly shattered to pieces, Mageoghegan. mortally 
wounded, retired into a vault, determined to blow up with powder 
what remained of the castle ; and when ho perceived the besic^pers 
entering the vault, ** he reused himself from the ground, snatching 
a lighted candle and staggering therewith to a barrel of powder 
(which for that purpose was unheaded) offering to cast it into tiie 
same, but Captain Power caueht and held him in his arms until he 
was, by our men, instantly killed*" See Pacata Ilibernia, book m. 
e. VI, VII. and viii. As the poetic mind is said to be prophetie^ 
also, this siege may have been the hell fore-shadowed by the prophe- 
tic soul of Acnghus na-n-Aer ! ! The connection between poetry 

I 65 


To Roche's country^ of the fine roads 
I camc^ (great for that was my mistake) ; 
It is well for me that I eat not butter, 
For, if I did, I could not get it 

Dun-Baoi* of the bitter old wines, 
AVIiich is praised by the fools of Eirin, 
Than that Dun-Baoi, I will lay a wascr, 
That hell is a hundred-times more delightful I 

Tlirec reasons why I shunned 
The district of Bantry and Bearra,^ 
[T/iey use] brown, soft, lumps,^ without taste. 
Long division,^ and milk-and-water. 

Flattery « I got for food. 
In great Musgraidhe^ of Mac Biarmada; 
So that my chest dried up from thirst 
Until I reached BaiIe-an*Cholaig«* 

and Drophccjr has been proved to the satisfaction of all Mesmerists, 
in a book published at Lcipsic, in 1835, by A. Steinbeck, entitled, 
** Every poet a^ profhet ; a treatise on the Essential connection be- 
tween the poetic spirit and the property of Magnetic lucid vision." 

' Bantry and Bearra, These are two baronies forming the south- 
west portion of the County of Cork. They were at this time divided 
between the celebrated Donnell 0*SuHivan Deare, and his uncle. Sir 
Owen O'Sullivan. See the Miscellany of the Celtic Society, p. 403. 

4 Brown soft lumps. Certainly not rotten lumpers, or potatoes of 
any kind, but lumps of brown bread, or dumplings. 

* Long division, CvL]br^Ai}tf fAbA, i-e., the quantity of food brought to 
table was divided into small rations, there beine too many person! 
to be served in proportion to the quantity of food to bo distriouted. 

^ Flattery, i.e., blarney, cA* bland talk. This is the earliest notice 
of the bU6n)Al)ij, or blarney of Munster, we have yet read. 

t Musgraidhe, now Muskerry, a barony in the County of Cork. 
The chief of this territory was sometimes called Mac Diarmada, as 
being descended from Diarmaid Afor Mac Carthy, surnamod, of Mus- 
kerry, who died in 1368. The chief of the family had his principal 
residence at Blarney near the City of Cork ; though the manor of 
Blarney is separated from the rest of Muskerrv, it being surrounded 
by the barony of Barretts and the Liberties of Cork. 

^ Baile-an-cholaig, now Ballincollig, a castle built on a rock about 
four miles west from the City, of Cork. It was at this period the 
residence of William Barrett, who submitted to Queen Elizabeth in 
the year 1600, having been concerned in Desmond's rebellion. 



2l|ci)e 6ai9 n)Aji h\b t}A |r||i, 

'Na fu|6e r A p-b|toi9 le cU6, 
3ap biA6, 3AP bj^ 5A0 leAbAS. 

CIapi> SttbUoib copbufl fte c^^ 
SAii)AYftl|5c pl^ir* fo^l* 1)^ r**^!?^* 
21 p-5lcAt)t)CA]b FitAo^c coblA|b bo p)ti9 

C^irs 6aii) a b-ci5 ^1^ 4Doi)i?cbA6, 
Ro b*6 1170 CAftA nyo cjnop |t|Ofi| ^^ifS # 

Ba f ATi)A]lc A 6AO|t)e 'f A b-fr6AfXA, 

8QA]t bA Sto|i;e At> Cb^^r^A AO Cb^irsi 

Cci)tc U] CbAO]rb 5 Cbl^p^# 
^^ S^oi^ V] ^loo A9 b|t6|beAC ; 

3l^ AC^ A CCAQO 't)A Cft]01>AC, 

M| 5Ai;i) ti))olA Ai>o 3AC CAt>3 b'A ^AbAcI 

21 tT|beo3 beA3 ub aji ai> 3-CTtAO|b, 
BeA3&!) bi6 5|8 b'^o^i)A09 bu^c, 
4>A ii)-be]ceA o|6cc a b-qj U] CbAO|fb# 
43o cu|c|reA6 bo cl) A)t bo Cftu|C I 

1 Dun4airhh, i.e.» fort of the bull. This is the place now called 
Dromtarriff, in 0*Keei!e's country, in the barony of Duhallow. It 
was the chief seat of O'Kecife, in the 17th century. See Smith's 
Hittory of Cork, boolcL^ c. i.» note 23. 

> C/ann~Amhlaoibk, Le,, the Mac AulifTesof Aes Ealla, whose chief 
residence was Castle Mac Auliffe, near Newmarket, in the north-west 
of the barony of Duhallow, in the Counter of Cork. Mac Auliffe's 
country comprised all the wild, roountamous, and heathy district 
lying oetween Newmarket, and the boundary of the Counties of 
fiimerick and Kerry, where the rivers Feale and Black water have 
their sources. The last chief of this family is traditionallv remem- 
bered as a poetical prophet. He foretold the grantiiig of Emanci* 
nation to the Irish Catholics, and the awful decrease of their number 
by famine soon after ; and also the extinction of his own descendants. 
The head of this family who had been born to a handsome estate 
was weigh-master in the market-house at Kenmare in 1840. 

* 3fac Donough, This was the name of one of the powerful 
chieftains of the Mac Carthv family who was seated at Kanturk, in 
the barony Duhallow, of whi' h barony he was chief lord* He was 
so wealthy and powerful in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, that he 
erected at Kanturk a fortress so strong and extensive, that the Lords 
of the Council in England transmitted an order to Ireland to have 
the work stopped. See a description of this great fortress in Smith's 
History of Cork, book ii.» c. vi. There is a good view of it given in 
Mens. Laine's Pedigree of the Count Mae Carthy, p. 67* 


I know well how the men aie 
At the truly dry [thirsty] Dun-tairbh,> 
Sitting \inth their backs to a ditch^ 
Without food, without drink, without bed. 

Tlie Clanu-Amhlaoibh' are like all the rest, 

Aoving curs of the unpleasant trot, 

In heathy glens they ever sleep:' 

* ♦ « « * # 

At Easter I was in the house of Mac Bonough,* 
He was my friend my girdle he tightened ; 
His people and feast were such 
As if Easter were Good Friday 1 

The frieze rag of O'Keeffe of Clarach,* 

Is no shelter against the wind ; . 

Although his head is hoary. 

The lice' are numerous in every fold of his raiment. 

O little robin* yonder on the bush. 
Though little food would serve your turn. 
If you were for a night in (yKecfie's house,' 
Your breast would fall to your back I 

« O^Keeffe of CUurach. lie does not appear to be the chief of the 
CKeeflfes. Clarach, or Claragh (Deg and Mor), is the name of a 
townland near Millstreet in the parish of Drishane^ and barony of Da* 
hallow. Ordnance map, sheets 38, 39. See Reiigues of Irish Jacobite 
Poetry t p. 35 ; and Hardiman's Irish Minstrelsy, \o\ n., pp. 140, 141. 

A The lice. The Endish writers of this period make hard com- 
plaint of the lousiness of the Irish. Fynes Moryson says, that *'yoa 
could not get a bed in any inn, even in the town of Cork, without 
being swarmed with lice." Spenser, in treating of the Irish mantle^ 
speaks of the Irish women thus : — '* And as for all other good wo* 
men which love to doe but little worke, how handsome it [the mantle] 
is to lye in and sleep, or to louse themselfes in the sunshine, they that 
have becne but a while in Ireland can well witness." — View of the 
State of Ireland, Dublin Edition, p. 89. Campion remarks, that in • 
his own time (1567), the Irish were getting more cleanly in their ha- 
bits than they had been formerly. ** They have now**' ne says «' left 
off their saffron, and leame to wash their shirts four or ilve tines im 
the year. Proud they are of long crisped elibbs, and doe nourish 
the same with all their cunning : to crop the front thereof, they take 
it for a notable piece of villainy." History of Ireland, Dublin Ed. 
p. 25. 

* O little robin. This is rather severe on the part of Aenghns, 
when he comes to deal with one who had probably been his old lord 
and master, but they had a falling out. 

7 OKeeff^s house. This was the head 0*Kcefre, who at this time 


te ceA]XA|o 1176 6c]c bu]8eACy 

<Dob' fe f 10 fi)'Aoi6eACC 'f Ai) 5-CeApA|3J- 

?l|i^i) Ajuf u||^e Uc&]9# 
2t)o cu|b A b-c]3 U) CbeAllAC&|i); 
1r bcACA||t C]to|6e o'd 5-cu|b f|o r^^0» 
S 5tt|t b^ C|5e ai) c-uifje •pii'o c-A|tlii> I 

BAi)i;c]tACC c|t|ce CboAllAC^^i) A\i\6, 
SeAi>-ri)t)^ 5AI) Idt) b'^ b-c^cA6 le 5tt6|i) ; 
If r^iitsce reAi>|AbAC a b^b, 
00 h']te b|6 A'f CA|i A fejr* 

O PftUCAf 50 20u]5.6aIIa AI) C|t^CA« 

4)o b6A]t A Ce^fC fDA|l A cA f); 

)r bftC&58A Ap Cl|t A1) C^ft Aft f^ACAjP, 

^cc t)] c^ft b|6 ijli ^AbA^j \. 

was Art Ogc (son of Art, son of Donnell), who was inaugurated in 
the year 1583. He had ca.stlcs at Dromagh on the Black water, at 
Du-Aragil, Dromtarrtff and Dromsicane, in the baronv of Duhallow. 
In the reign of James ii.» Donncll O'Keeifc the head of the family 
(son of Manus, son of this Art Oge)» was slain at Aughrim, and his 
son Donnell Gee, then in his sixteenth year, went to France at the 
head of his fatlier's company of foot 

I Ceapach, now Kii>paghy or Caj[)paghy in the parish of Castlemag- 
nor» close to the Blackwater. This was one of Mac Car thy's houses. 
See Smith's Cork, b. ii.« c. vi 

s 0"Callaghan» house. The principal house of O'Catlaghan was 
Drumnecn Castle, on the Blackwater. The territory of Pobble 
O'Callaghtin, comprised the parishes of Kilshannick and Clonmeen, 
in the baronv of Duhallow, ana County of Cork. See Harris's Edition 
of War^s Anthuities, p. 72, and Smith's History of Cork, book 
zi., c. VI. In tne reign of King James i., O'Callaghan pulled down 
his old castle at Drumnccn, and erected a very stately nouse on its 
site ; but this mansion was ruined during the wars of the Revolution. 
Dr. Smith describes the ruins thus :— '' The castle bawn is large, 
and well enclosed with an hi^h stone wall, flanked with round tow* 
ers ; and the whole, though in ruins, from the opposite side of the 
river, by its loftv situation has still an august appearance.** The 
head of this family was transplanted by Cromwell to the County of 

Clare, where they became extinct early in the nineteenth century. 


ly 1 


Bread without being drowned in butter. 
And much chaff in its body; 
In order to make me thankful, 
Tliis was mj fare at Ceapach.^ 

Bread and water from a pool. 

Was my supper at (yCaDaghan's house;* 

It is difficult to have heart after such a supper. 

The water was twice thicker than the bread! 

The women of (yCallaghan's country. 

Arc old women without store, — basking in the sun ; 

Withered and slender-bodied they be. 

Till eating food — and after it. 

Trom Prughus^ to the famed Magh Ealla,^ 
I will describe it as it is ; 
Tlie country is beautiful to be looked at. 
But it is not a country of food or raiment.* 

but soxno of the junior branches still remain in Clare. In 1750, 
Cornelius O'Callaghan, Esq., bad a ^ood bouse at Clonmeen, near 
the parish church. He was the bead of a junior branch of this &- 
mily, not disturbed by Cromwell. 

Lord Lismore is the present bead of the O'Callafhans^ and John 
Cornelius O'Callaghan (son of John, son of Thomas), author of the 
Green Book^ descends from a member of thb family who settled in 
Dublin early in the last century. 

3 Prughus, now Prohus, or Pruhust, a small townland situated 
in the parish of Kilbolane, between Charleville and Tullvlcase, in the 
barony of Orrerv and Kilmore, and County of Cork. It was at this 
time the scat or one of the Qeraldines. Ordnance map, sheet 6. 
At present it is the seat of Captain W. Evans. There is another 
place of the same name in the parish of Dromtarriff, barony of Da- 
hallow. Ordnance map, sheet 30, 39. 

4 MaghEalla, i.e., tne Plain of the Ealla, now the town of Mal- 
low in the County of Coric From this name it is clear that the 
name Ealla was anciently applied to that part of the river Blackwa- 
tcr lying between Kanturk, where the modern river Allow (Ealla) 
ends, and the town of Magh Ealla^ or Mallow. 

^ Food or raiment ^ i. e., the country is fertile and beautiful, but 
the inhabitants are so idle, and ignorant of agriculture and roanufac* 
tures, that they do not know how to avail themselves of the natural 
resources of the land to produce food and raiment. 


o Tbios-cb^irs z<^^^P>^r^i 

jf ]otD6A CA|lleAC cof-6ii]6e a 5-ce]|tc, 
81)1 fub 0|ibftA]be A5 ]i^e]lc* 

'S A1) b-C|tU3 6ot)A A b-C^|tlA A f C]^ 

?l vefb CA|C A 5-Cu|Hcil; 

N| b-|raA|tAf A b-AQolAVi) b'jnj^ 

2lblAi)o le b-|") ^^ P-lofAjij^. 

• fi] ^u|l fCAit; i)Ac b-c6|b a|i s-cul^ 

2lcc fOAjts CbiMOfc le clo|i)i) 3blob(ii); 

'^ 2I3 )!^f A i)-olc 5a6 aoi> In. 

I* 0'4)oi)i)cbA6A 3bleA00A l^irse, 

f 4>o b6A)i A ceifc Tt|A)t c^ f6 ; 

I Bir^AC u|lc c|3 be ho p}^, 

12lft 3nc Ia A)i feAS A ]t6« 
1 Orrery, OphnAfio^ a barony in the north of the County of Cork. 
See Smith's Cork^ book n., c. ti. 

* Grazing, The reader must here bear in mind that the period 

at which this satire w«'u written^ the land was stricken with famine, 

/ for the corn had been intentionally destroyed by the English soldiers. 

j Spenser writes : — '* Out of every comer of the woodcs and glynnet 

I they came creeping upon their hands for their legges could not bear 

them.. ..they did eate tlie dead carrions, happy where they could finde 

them ; and if they found a plot of watercrcsses or shamrockes there 

they flocked as to a feast for the time." — Spenser's Jlewofike State 

of Ireland, — See note 10, pp. 79> 80, infr^ Also Fynes Moryson:— 

' <<No spectacle was more frequent in the ditches of towns and especially 

in wasted countries, than to see multitudes of these poor people with 

their mouths all coloured green bv eating nettles, docks, and all things 

they could rend up above ground.** Book in., c. i. 

< Otil-iseai, i.e., the low comer, or Bng\e, now Coolishil, in the 
parish of Garrigparson, barony of Clanwilliam, and County of Lime* 
rick. Ordnance map, sheet 14. 

4 Clann Gibbon, now a half-barony in the north of the County of 

Cork ; the country of the Fitz-gibbons, the chief of whom was called 

' the White Knight. This family descends from Gilbert, op Gibbon, 

> ^ the bastard son by the wife of O Coinin, of John of Callan Fitzgerald, 

/ ancestor of the house of Kildare and Desmond. See Smith's History 

of Cor\, book i., c. x., and book n., c. vi., vii., where the fact of 

' Gibbon's illegitimacy is intentionally concealed. The lord of this 

tract in our Bard's time, was John Oge Fitz-John Fitz-gibbon, corn* 

monlT called the White Knight. There was a bn^oo A|Ure, a corro* 
sive drop, or a bftAoiy norif^* i-®-* generation drop, falling on the tomb 
of this family in the abbey of Kilmallock, which wore a hole through 
I the horizontal flag-stone that covered it. It ceased on the death 



My walking through green fields^ 

From Little Easter till Lammas ; 
/There are many yellow-legged hags in rags, 
V Throughout Orrery,* a grazing.* 

How miserable was my state within. 
In a cafs nest at Cuil-iseal;* 
t got not enough of butter, 
V-For a wafer — sliould I eat it with butter. 

There is no anger but abates. 
Except the anger of Christ with the Clann-Gibbon;* 
Small is the wonder that they should be as they are. 
Increasing in evil every day. 

CDonoghue of Gleann-Fleisge I • 

I will give his character as it is ; 

An increase of evil ever comes from him, 

Every day during his life. 

of the last heir. A similar one is said to have <!ontinued to fall on 
the tomb of the O'Fogart^'s, in the abbey of Holy Cross, until the 
last heir of Gastle-Fogartv was hanged at Clonmel, when the pro* 
pert? devolved to the family of Lanigan. 

Mr. Ilardiman quotes this quatrain in a note on Lord Claret 
Chancellor of Ireland. See Irish Minstrelsy, vol. ii., p. 132. 

^ Gleann-FleisgCf i.e., the vale of the river Flesk, m the barony 
of Magunnihy, County of Kerry. The head of this family is still 
extant, and enjoys considerable property ; and there is a junior 
branch of high respectability, now represented bjr Lieut. Col. I>aniel 
O'Donoghue, from whose branch of the family the late Daniel 
O'Conncll, Esq., M. P. was descended in the female line^ as in the 
following table :— 

1. Ocoffrey 0*Donoghue of Glenflesk. 

2. Teige O'Donoghne. 

3. Daniel O'Donoghue. 


4. Du ff O'Donoghue, died 1727, aged 57# bu ried at Bluckrus. 


5. Geoffrey 0*Donoghue. 5. Mary, m. Daniel 

I O'Conn cll of Derrynane. 

6. Patrick O'Donoghue, | | 

I Daniel, 6, Morgan O'Connell 

7. Daniel, Lt. Colonel, living. of Carhan. 

8. Rev. F. T. O'Donoffhue of Daniel O'ConnelU 

Prover, Knutaford, Cheshire. £sq., M.P. 


Jf rt)A|[i5 ^ ri)^?*^ A 8eA|tb|i^cAiiif 
)^^ 0]6|teAcc 3blc^V0A 'pl^irS^ ' 
2l'f njuuA TiAjb d'v i)-beA]i5-bUcA|S, 
Mac [iA|b i)cac ai;i) [i|Aib A|t tijeifse I 

Jb]]t CUACA A5Uf fA5AftC; 

'puAC Ai; i>d|up; bo'i; o]Sce, 
13|Of bo i;a bA0|i)|6 A]5e. 

) t)-t)0Af-2\)iiri)A|i) CA]t 3AC ^|C Cfle, 

'CujUib 6 4)b|A bul Aft i)eAT9 ; 

^|ii n)A]t c|io|r3|b c|oi)i) A 5-c|owca6, 

4t>ul bo COf A|b C]0|tlDA A fceAC I 

' Ml b-|rA3A|b n^AOc-cUi)!) ^uift^r* — 
(2t)A]C|iij b6|b A t)-beA[iOA f |Ab), — 
Raou rpolrA ujl AO|]i iiAiiiH^f 
43ao|vc bodcA uAjfle ]Ab. 

I,u|fi3i)e b|teACA a 3-ce||icib Ifi), 

'S A 3-CA|lleACA A|l l)A|-3 TIJAfl CO|l) TbA0]l ; 

3wn b|i|r A1) 3Ab le b-fe|3eAi) 30|tcA, 

'S A1) 3-CAfl|tA]3 1)AC f6lb||l f*U|tCACC f AO]. 

1 Drunk, To be drunk at this time was deemed honourable. As 
the O'Donoghues never took any beverage stronger than stale but- 
tcrmilky they should not have been so apt to quarrel as those who 
drank wine to intoxication ; and yet one brother killed the other 
with cold-blooded delil>eration t 

s The Lord of the Reeks, i.e , Mac Oillycuddj of the Beeks, near 
the Lakes of ICillarney, a branch of the O'Sulltvan Mor family. Mao 
Gillycuddy is still extant, and highly respectable. 

3 Clann Maurice, i.e., the family of Fitz- Maurice, who gave name 
to the barony of Clanmorris, in the County of Kerry. They de* 
scendcd from the celebrated Raymond Le 6ros, one of the chief 
barons of the English Invasion. The present head of the family is 
the Marquis of Lansdowne, who is not a poor gentleman like his 
ancestor m the time of our author* 

4 Poor gentlemen. This is not very severe, but it is very clear 
from the observations of English writers on the same subject that 
our Bard had received suggestions as to the points he was to touch 
upon. Sir John Davics, in his Discovery, has the following remarks 
on the poor gentry of Ireland, who had multiplied to such numbers 
in consequence of the law of Gavelkind, which he condemns. 

** Besides these poor gentlemen were so affected unto their small 
portions of land, as they rather chose to live at home by theft, extor- 
tion, and coshering, than to seek any better fortunes abroad, which 
increased their septs or surnames into such numbers as there are not 
to be found in any Kingdome of Europe, so many gentlemen of one 


Wo to him who slew hia brother I 
For the inheritance of Gleann-Fleis^ ; 
And that, unless from stale buttermilk. 
No one ever there was drunk I 

The Lord of the Beeks,* 
[Haics] both layman and priest ; 
As the daisy hates the night 
lie hates mankind. 

In Desmond, above all other places. 
They deserve from Qod to go to heaven ; 
On account of their fastinff for their crimes, 
Tliey should go dry-footed in. 

The simple Clann-Mauric^ shall not get> 
(I forgive them what they have done) 
A Tcrse of praise or satire from me; 
Tlicy are poor gentlemen. 

Speckled shins in linen rags. 

And their hags yoked like bald dogs ; 

Until hunger forces them to break their gads, 

lAre] in Carrick,* which cannot be relieved. 

blood, family and sumamey as there are of the O'Neals in Ulster^ 
of the Uourks in Connacht, of the Gcraldines and Butlers in Mon- 
ster and Lcinster. And the like may be said of the inferior bloods 
and families^ whereby it came to pass in times of trodble and dissen- 
sions that they made great parties and factions adhering one to 
another with much constancy ; because they were tied together vis- 
culo sanguinis ; whereas rebels and malefactors which are tied to 
their leaders by no bond cither of duty or bloody do more easily break 
and fall off one from another. And besides, their cohabitation in one 
country or territorv gave them opportunity suddenly to assemble 
and conspire, and rise in multitudes against the Crown. And even 
now in the time ofjpeace, we find this inconvenience, that there can 
hardly be any indifferent trial had between the King and his subjects, 
or between party and party by reason of this general kindred and 
consanguinity." pp. 170, 171, 172. 

» Carrick, i.e., the Rock. This was CAti|VA]5 A9 po}\\, now Oarriga* 
foyle on the Shannon in the barony of Iraghticonnor, County of Kerry^ 
the chief seat, at this period, of John, son of Connor O'Connor Kerry. 
There are various respectable families of this race now in Ireland | and 
in Austria Daniel 0*ConncllO*Connor Kerry is an officer of distine* 
tion who was commandant at Lodi, under Radetski, in 1648. William 
Conner, Esq., the eldest son of General Arthur Condorcet O'Connor, 
and founder of the Irish Tenant League, and Fer^ O'Connor, M. P^ 
are among the most conspicuous of this family m our time. Major 
0*Connor of Kerry, is of the race of Murtough Muimhncach 
O'Connor of Silmurry in the County of Roscommon. 


VfUAbAjS 5A0|c C]i6 FUjoocosAib; 

e|b||i im A5ur A|i^9, 

H|Ofi I>-f6|b||i A i>-eAbAft5A]l« 

«b'f u|i|i)5CAr (518 Aft cfiuAb A9 c^r)l 

9l\% cu|b b|5 A b-c|5 'Cbon^^ir; 
VcasIa a f ul bAii) cfieim f\ nf cu|b, 
^ Sfieiti) 3A1; bftu5A6 All) 6|i^$A]b. 

ClA1)t) Al> ti)|C f |l) 6^At170|9l^ 
4y6|f A f17AftbcA f17A||t|b f|Ab; 

43o 5CAbA]fi A |t)A9 30 Rac CacIa^ 
Ma b-1^1^]^ '^^c 1 ^^^ Aoi)A]$ ]Ab. 

CAei))tA)6o« St^lobA^ c|tuAi6, Soi^JcaIac, 
3<^Ai)i)Ac, c]teAc-loti), bftops bO|cceAllAC ; 
a VM\6i\x) u|le 1)^ tijAje |iu]i)# 
4)6ai) cco]tA A'r CU||t A v-5AbAi;t> ]Ab, 

1 7^ //orf, i.e f Hore of Castlcgregory in the barony of CorcA* 
gutny. County of Kerry. This family is of Saxon origin and their 
ancestor was called Hore from his grcv hairs, — an inheritance which 
he transmitted to his descendants. All the Horcs described in Crom- 
well's Boll of the Men of Ireland^ are represented as ffrey-haired. 
There is another sept of this Saxon family seated at the rowle, now 
Polehore, near Killurin, in the County of Wexford, of which Her- 
bert F. Hore, Esq., a learned antiquary and highly accomplished 
gentleman, is the present head. 

* The house of Thomas, i.e., Thomas Fitzgerald, Knight of OWn, 
descended from John Mor na Sursainne, bastard son of John of Callan 
Fitzgerald, who was slain at Callan bv Finghin Reanna Roin 
Mac Carthy in 1261. The mother of this Jonn na Sursainne, had been 
the wife of 0*Coileain (now Collins) of Claen^hlais, but John of Callan 
slew 0*Coileain, andkepthiswifeasaconcubme. The Knight of Kerry 
descends from Maurice Fitzeerald, who was another bastard son of the 
same John of Callan, by the wife of 0*Kennedy. The aboriginal 
Irish were cruelly treated by those haughty Qerudines of Desmond, 
on whom a curse seems to have fallen for their crimes. The most dis* 
graceful fact on record in Irish History is found in the old Annals of 
Jnisfallen, in connection with the families of Fitzgerald of Desmond 
and O'Connor Kerry. — ^* The most pitiful, the sorest, the most En* 

?, and the most abominable act that ever was perpetrated in 
reland before, was committed this year (1405) in Desmond, viz., 
Dermot, son of Connor O'Connor, who was in captivity and in trans 
in the castle of the Earl of Desmond, i.e., of James, son of Oar* 


Mjr supper iu the house of the Ilore,^ 
The wind carried off through tho windows ; 
Both the bread and tho butter— 
They could not be sepiM^ted. 

I suffered (though hard the case)« 

On a small supper in the house of Thomas,* 

From fear that his e^es should injure me' for my supper. 

My bit, without bcmg chewed, stuck in my throat* 

Tho sons of that son of Edmond,^ 
After being killed they still survive;* 
You will find their track to Hathkeale :* 
Do not seek them except in time of fairs.' 

The Kcnry-men,* hard hissing eriffins, 
IIunCTyi Iean-bodied,-^a begrudging horde; 
All their infants are evil-favourec^ 
Make an enclosure and place them in a pound. 

rett, was .blinded and castrated by Maurice, son of the same James, 
and one of tho O'Connors." 

s Injure me. The Bard got so much afraid of the begrudging 
eye of Thomas^that the bit stuck in his throat. The begrudg^g eye 
was believed to have a certain mesmerising effect on those on whom 
it was fixed, which caused them to stand spell-bound in helpless tor- 
pidity. The evil eye in other conntries is believed to have the same^ 
if not worse effect. In Ovid's description of Envy, however, no effect 
of this kind is mentioned 

** Pallor in ore sedet, macies in corpore toto, 
Nusquam recta acies, livent rubigine dentes | 
Pectora felle virent, lingua est suffusa veneno.** 

4 The sons o/ that son of Edmonds i.e., the sons of Thomas son 
of Edmond Fitzgerald, Knight of Glyn. This quatrain is given differ- 
cntly in other copies, but corruptly ; and the readings are not worthy 
of notice here. Edmond the son of this Thomas, was living in 1603. 

' Still survive, i.e., like the cats who possess seven lives! 

< Rathkeale, Kac CmXa, or more correctly, Rt^c-SAelAf a town on 
the river Daoil or Deel, in the barony of Connello and in the Coun- 
ty^ of Limerick. It was anciently a corporation, and is still a good 
fair and market town. 

t Time of fairs. They are out plundering at all other times. 

^ Kenry-men, These were originally O'Donovans, O'MuU 
crecvys or Creaghs, and O'Cathlains or O'Oallans, but in the time 
of Acnghus O'Dalv, they were Purcolls, whose chief residence was 
the castle of Dallycalhanc (bAfle Uf CbAcU]!))* in this barony. 


Hofri) bA]|xc lAbAft4i|b fl^b, 

2l]t njo 6eA]ti)A|9 b'^ tD-bc|b1f C|iuti>i>j 

4)6)Yt|*e Apofft A]t Sao]6 a9]A]«9 
43ftu|bce b^b a 3-Clo|iw U|U|Atif ; 
fi] h]0Dt) c|All-jAO]ce A5^ i)-bd||inb, 
Nj K6]b|]t A ulr A ihAc-porSAilc 

21q c|tof*5A6 VAC be^]ti)A6 )t|Aib# 
43o iMVOCAf bu|c-fe a 2t)b)c UiU]At9 ; 
4)o 66 A9 AC] ft bu]c hon/ 6co]t}, 
2l5uf bo'o 2lo]i)e bon/ A|ti)beo]i> ! 

21 itjATi) 6 c(>cIa6 t(i A ti)&im 
M]oft b-of 5IA6 c& |te i)eAC ; 
7^eA]t AD cfSo 516 b'6 b-ft# 
CV|t UfseAb 6 ffe|D AfceAd? 

4>o Aop d16 e|le v] bu|6cA6 106, 
91 5-cot;cAC lu|ii)p|te lu] 191)6 J 
2lcc b'^ |tdbA]b bo cof f h*f]oji, 
4>o bAC nfi A[i|r b'^ b-f |t^A6. 

I For fAtf Zeifrourer. Their children are so precocious in pcntirT« 
that they learn to speak hcfore they are baptized, to prevent their 
labourers getting enough to eat. Ilabelais introduces Garagantua 
as speaking before he was bom^ but our satirist is less hyperbolical 
and filthy, and not obscene in any one instance. 

s Eastern doors. On many farmers* houses throughout Ireland 
there are still two doors in the opposite side*walls, in order that one 
of them may be kept open when the wind blows in the opposite direc- 
tion ; but our autnor complains here that it was not the direction 
of the wind that caused the doors to bo closed in the region ho if 
now treatinjr of, but some other reason, which his readers may easily 
imagine. The doors here are not open on the side facing the roads, 
but on the opposite side, and even on that side they are dosed 
against the bards and all other strollers, who seek for dinners and 

^ Clann IFtZ/iaiii,i.e., the descendants of William de Durgo, seated- 
in the baronies of Clanwilliam in the Counties of Limerick and Ti^<. 


Before baptism they speak^ 

Ordering nis [scanty] food for the labourer;* 

On my palm if I had tiiem collected, 

I would Dum them as I would the lice. 

Eastern doors* against western wind. 
Are closed in Clann-William;* 
Their doors have no regard to wind. 
They cannot again be re-opened. 

The fast which was never made before, 
I made for you, 1 Mac William / 
I will make a satire for you with all my heart. 
And for the Friday against my wilL 

Ever since you were erected, O mansiou I * 
You were not opened by any one; 
The man of the nouse, whoever he be^ 
Where was he himself let in? 

Of any thing else I am not thankful. 
In the swampy county of Limerick ; 
Except its roads,* so dii&cult to travel, 
'NVliich prevented me from trying them again. 

4 Mac WtHiam. This was Burke of Costle-Comioll (CAfrleA^Ui 
CljooAios) in tho north-east of the Countj of Limerick. 

A O mansion / a ibuiti I The original name of Cast1e>Conne11 was 
V^vLfi i9ie Aiytsufoo* See Annals of the Four Masters, Ed., J. 0*D., 
A.D., 1213, p. 180. 

<> Except its roads. This is truly satiricaL The Bard felt obliged 
to the roads because thej were so bad as to prevent him from ever 
venturing into the County of Limerick agam. A traveller in the 
second quarter of the nineteenth century, had no complaint to make 
of the Corcassy County of Limerick, except the inhospitable sulky 
character of the people, its lousy beds, and the number of its cur* 
dogs, which annovcd him, following after him from the door of every 
cabin on the roadside, and barking in the most unheard-of manner. 

*' It is reallv astonishing to consider the number of useless, low. 
blooded, uely.looking cur-dogs, which the peasantry have in this 
County. How do they feed them ? Has the famine purged the land 
of these lousy sulky race, and their ferocious cur^ogs ? If so. 
Heaven is gracious" 1—^1 Satirist. 


4)ul 50 Vvi^^'^dti^^t} bAiii bA 6cACA]fi , 
43|9i)6A]t lAe t)] cleACCA^b tt]AT9; 
2109 6uib 'f A r^jAil 50 5Atn^ 
4>]c AO A991a]i)i; bo 6aII ]Ab« 

2l'f ijeAc 'oA beACA t)]oji bftooo bAiij, 
Boi>i) A ceA6Ai|i bo'o copAfi I 

2li) uA)]t ]f l)oi;tbA]fie 4)M 5-Ca]5 
T^ltDceAll c^ScAjtpA AH 'FboiitAif ; 
4)o 66Ai)f AbAO]f CfteA6 ai) CqIA]!!, 
21 n}A}] Aft IcAc A9 tlA5A)9. 

SQ^'f TQ| AO leAC bul bo'l) $0)tCA I 

Bl 5AC C^irs A 5-CeAllAib«; 

4)o ftu5 CeAUA seAll A|t toftcA, 

2I5 itoii)Aii PA 3-ceAU caII 'r^ c-f oeA^CA ! 

1 Tftoiiu>n^(Cu^9)bui9A]<))*i«o.« North Munstor. Before tho Engliflh 
Inyasion Thomond was a very extensive territory; but in tbe Stard 
Ruadh's time it was considered to be coextensive with the present 
Countv of Clare. 

* Oosonxum^ a99Ui99. The English language has no word to 
express what aijqUijii means^Le.^ anything taJcen with bread. How 
the want of it causes blindness has not been vet explained, but dry 
bread without salt is not sufficient to sustain life ; and prisoners 
deprived of obionium have remarked that, the sight was the first sense 
they felt affected. 

* Prom the Ford to theLeap^ o dc 50 Iftjin, i.e., from Ath-na-Borumha, 
now Ballina, on the east side of tne Shannon at Killaloe, to Leim 
Chonchulainn, i.e., Ouchullin's Leap, now corruptly Loop-head, the 
Bouth-west extremity of the County of Clare. Mr. Brennan, in his 
Irish poem describing the Shannon, aslcs,*' if the Irish language were 
lost, what philologist could ever discover that Loop-head was atran* 
slation of Ceann-Leime.** 

4 ClaJUi Choileain, i.e., the race ofCoilean, son of Artshal, eighth 
in descent from Cas, the ancestor of the DaUg-Cais of Thomond* 
This became the tribe-name of the Mac Namaras (fabled by Spenser 
and others to bo descended from the Mortimers of England), whose 
country was ori^nally co-extensive with the Deanery of Ogashin in 
the diocese of Killaloo,but in the Bard Ruadh's time, Clann-Choileaa 
comprised nearly all the region extending from the river Fergus to 
the Shannon. 

* The Dal'g' Cats, I.e., the race of Cas, son of Conall Eachluaith, 
King of Muiister, A.D., 3CG. This great race branched into various 
famflies, the most distinguished of whom, were the O'Briens, Mae 


To go to Thomond^ was difRcult for m^ - 
A day-dinner they arc never wont to take ; 
One supper and that scantily e^ven^ 
And the want of obionium* left them blinds 

I traversed from the Ford to the Leap/ 
Tbomond and Clann-Choileain ;^ 
But a living wight did not bestow on me. 
The fourth of a groat in copper I 

When the Dal-g-Cois* are fullest assembled. 
Around the Lord of the Forghas / 
The plunder of Clare' would be effectedi 
By half the people of the Lagan.* 

If you wish to perish of starvation I 
iBe every Easter at Cealla;* 
Cealla bore away [the palm] for starvation, 
. In digging the church-yards^* in the snow I 

Namaros, MacMabons, ODeas, O'Gradys, and O'Quins; and of 
whom there are still families of high rank in Thomond» and elsewhere* 

Tha Lord of the Forghas^ i.o., O'Brien^ Earl of Thomond, Lord 
of the river Fergus, so caUed here from his castle at Cluain-ramhfhoda 
or Clonrood, being situated on the bank of that river. 

7 Clare, ue,, the town of Clare, from which the County was cal]e4» 
when Thomond was formed into Shire-ffronnd, in 1585. 

* Liagait. This should be Lagan, of which name there were se- 
veral small districts in Ireland. There is much truth in what our 
satirist savs here, as will appear to any one after reading the Slept 
of Ballyally, one small castle near finnis, which was ctefcnded Ey 
one Englishman, in 1641, against the combined Irish forces of the 
O'Briens, who had only one leather cannon, which burst when they 
attempted to fire at the castle I 

9 Cealla, now Kells, near Corofin, in the County of Clare. It 
was at this time the seat of a minor branch of the O'Briens, whose 
pedigree is given in an Irish MS. in the Library of T. 0. D.> H. 1. 

^^ Digging the ckureh-yardi This Is a most Qoul-like lampooning 
which merited the flame of Heaven to descend on Aenghus 0*Da]y. 
The poet Spenser, who came to Ireland in 1580 ,a8 Secretary to the 
Lord Qrey, who received a grant of 3000 acres of land forfeited by the 
rebellion of the Earl of Desmond, two miles west of Doneriule, where 
he wrote his << View of the State of Ireland,** and finished his *< FaSrie 
Quecne,** gives the following horrid description of the wretched con* 
dition to which the pconle of Munster were reduced by famine in the 
Bard Ruadh*s time, m his View of the Slate of Irelemd, carried on 
in the shape of a conversation between Irenictts and Eudoxus (Dublin 
Edition of 1809, pp. 105, 107). 

loti)6A rctiAic niAb4i6 5Ur-1*lSl'>> 

* * * As-ciucbirlo; 

CaiUoac sob-JfeAfi 'fA ciil cUn># 
21 5-CA]rlc^P bub, piAit, 1:oUn^ 

a fi|t A9 CAOQA b|5 b^in, 
joDAft bVpAtb riDO A If^jAfl b^e, 
ao CAi|t5|or bob' A]l Uac bo 66At)Ai9, 
ai)i;rA b-PonSAf 50 i)-50AbcA|i 6. 

a 9-bonAf CbAifle^ii) Cbu|9i^ 
4)4i fi7-be|6|i)p-fO njile bl]A6u]9 ; 
Nl b-K^5AioD A09 b ^ opAilc, 
*S bo 2;eAbAf 99 occAft b K ]AbA6, 

2QiilDC||t CbUi^QO 2QAC$ATb9A, 
jf CApA Tiicjb A s-cu^b AitAft) ; 

SAtbAll A V']m A|t A t17|AfAy 

Na b-e|6 f A b-f^5]b reAt)5^1i)- 

Eudoxus. '* But what then shall bo the conclusion of this warre ? 
for you have prefixed a short time of its continuance*'* 

Irenwus. *' The end will (I assure me) be very short, and much 
sooner then can be in so great a trouble, as It secmeth hoped for, 
although there should none of them fall by the sword, nor be slaino 
by the souldicr, yet thus being kept from manurance, and their cattle 
from running abroad by this hard restraint [i.e., which I propose] 
they would quickly consume themselves and devour onb 
ANOTHER* The proof whereof I saw sufficientlv exampled in these 
late warres of Mounster ; for, notwithstanding that the same was a 
most rich and plentiful countrey, full of corns and cattlb, that yoa 
would have thought they should have been able to stand long, yet 
ere one yeare and ahalfe they were brought to such wretchedness as 
any stony heart wonld have rued the same. Out of every comer of 
the woodes and glynnes they came creeping forth upon their handSf 
for their legg^s could not bcare them ; they looked like anatomies 
of death, thev spake like ghosts crying out of their graves ; they did 
eate the dead carrions, happy where they could finde them, yea and 
one another sooneafter^ insomuch as the very carcasses they spared not 
to scrape out of their graves s and if they found a plot of water- 
cresses or shamrocks there they flocked as to a feast for the time, 
yet not able long to continue therewithal!, that in short space there 
were none almost left, and a most populous and plentiful countrey 
Buddainle^ left voide of man and beaste ; yet sure m all that warre 
there perished not many by the sword, but all by the extremitie of 
famine which they themselves had wrought.'* And vet the Divine Spen* 
ser proposes a renewal of this famine to cut them all off, that he 
migntform a wilderness and enjoy his three thousand acres in peace 1 
It appears fromDen Johnson's letter to Drummond of Hawthomden, 
that Spenser died for lach of bread, in the great city of London. 


Many a swarthy, green, tough crone, 
* * * atCill-ChiMtt;* 

Many a sharp-beaked hag with a mangy poll, 
In a dark, cold, empty castle* 

! man of the small wliite can,* 
In which you seldom get a drink ; 
If you .wish to keep the Lent, 

At the Forghas* you may tarry. 

At the door of Caislean [Innsi] Ui Ghuinn,^ 
If I were for a thousand years; 

1 would not find one to open it, 
But I would find eight to close it. 

The people of the Chinn-Mahon I* 

Thinly runs their bread ; 

Similar is the butter on their dishes. 

To the steeds* on which the pismires ride. 

Our cold-blooded Bard Ruadh too did not escape scatheless, for one 
of theTipperary O'Meaghers stabbed him through the heart at a feast. 
Hurrah for Tipperary, the County Palatine of the Earl of Ormonde 1 
Fyncs Moryson, in his account of the expedition of the Lord De* 
puty Mountjoy into O'Afore's country, in August ]600» when he slew 
Owny Mac llory Colore, and Calvagh Mac Walter, says : — **Our 
Captains, and by their example our common souldiers, did cut down 
with their swords all the llebcll's corn, to the value of jCI 0,000, and 
upwards, the only means by which they were to live. It seemed 
incredible that by so barbarous inhabitants the ground should be so 
well manured, the fields so orderly fenced, the towns so frequently 
inhabited, and the highways and paths so well beaten as the Lord 
Deputy found them. The reason whereof vcan that the Queen's force* 
during these wars, never till then came amongst them** See AnnaU of 
the Four Masters, Ed. J. 0*D., A.D. 1600, p. 2179. 

> Ciil'Chisin, i.e., Cisin's Church, now Kilkishen, in the barony of 
Tulla, County of Clare. It was at this period the seat of Rory, son 
of Mahon Mac Namara. MS. Trinity College, Dublin, E. 2. 14. 

3 O man of the small white can, i.e., a strolling Geocach, who 
carried a can for begging milk : known to antiquaries as a Meadar* 
• Forghas, i.e., the river Fergus, in the County of Clare. 
^ Caislean Chuinn, This is probably intended for CAirleaiiy InvT^ 
UfCbuiijijt the Castle of Inchiquin, in the County of Clare, which was 
at this period the chief scat of the baron of Inchiquin. 

^ Uann-Mahon, i.e., the ^lac Mahons of Corca-Dhaiscin, in the 

south-west of the County of Clare. William Coppinser, Esq., of 

Barry's Court, Cork, is grandson by the mother's side of the last 

chief of this family who resided at Cieana, in Cores- Bhaiscinn Bast. 

« Steeds, Ha lj-e|c. There is clearly some corruption of the text 


Cloc A b-i»|tdCA 'r^V 3-Cott|i-bAile, 
4)up bA AiA^Di; CAob A]t CAob; 
4)o c63bA& curl) fieACC A]t ^|c, 

TAb AP b^ l|A5 AC^ eACOflftA AftAOl). 

'CeAC U| 4)fl^lA|5 bA n)6\i ii)ao|i>, 
Biioi)1)a6 5A1) bAO|r A5 bfioj; biii) ; 
Ba l6|t b'o]i33ii> clof A 6l|Afi, 
Fe ri^vr^ coi)S^|]t PA fsol re^p. 

CfAl) 0'C0A]lbAlll 'f A c6|le, 
4)|Af t)^n 6cA]tTi)A]b i)ctrb-^6|le ; 

<t)|Af f Olltbce, COlWClOOAC, CAf, 

6o||ipce, cfioipo-c-nlcAC, ccAvo-sUf. 

21 TI)CAf5 A CAOjlAC All)' \i]t, 

4>o ciqc n)fe AH) plftirj AfceAC ; 

21 bubA]ttc CjAi) 3U|i D-fca|i|i bo f |>5fic, 

. 2t)& Ctt|C|l1) fA 65 AII)AC I 

4>|tCAn) lc*|i bVoibA^p Ap b[i6, 
3wc i)A cAOftAc 'j-ijA b-AOi)-bd; 
T^IVe puAifi 30|iCA A TD-b|iO|DD, 
CcA]ibAllA]3 i)Ab-fCAr53b-c||tiii). 

21 Ui 2l[)AO|lbe||i3! a OUA]ri) 6|fteAi)i)! 
2li) S^o^r ^|We ^ b'peA|i|i bttA8 ; 
2ln 3-cu||tf:|8 c(i IjotDf a cuti) ti)o qje, 
ScA]t|iAc 63, 3|toi8e, ba]6e, uaic 

here. Qy. 17a butls r^ nfcfo ija reAOS^^IO* i.e., the sacks under which the 
pismires run. 

> Corr-hhaile^ i.e.« Odd town, now Corballv castle> in the parish 
of Clooney^ baronjr of Upper Bunratty^ and County of Clare. See 
the Ordnance map of the County of Ulare, sheet 34. At this pe- 
riod Corbally was the scat of Shane Mac Mahon Mac Namara. 

^ Ona /ordf to prevent people from passings— to make them stand 
and deliver I 

s The house of O^Daly, i.e., the house of Finnyvara, near the 
New Quay, in the barony of Burren, Countv of Clare. See p. 8. 
The ruins of O'Daly's house and garden-walls are here to be seen : 
where tradition says he kept a Collcj^c for finishing the literati of 
Ireland in history and poetry. The monument of Donough Mor 
O'Daly is also still pointed out, not far from the site of the house. 

* Cian O'Carrolh He was one of the O'Carrolls of Ely O'Car- 
roll, in the King's County ; but he was not the chief of liis name. 
This family descended from Cian, son of Oilioll Olum, King of 
I^Iunster, in the third century. 


A stone in the crock at Corr-bhaile,^ 

A fort which was beautiful on every side ; 

It was erected for enforcing law on a ford;* 

There is but the distance of two stones between them. 

The house of (yDalaich* — great its wealth- 
Bestowing without folly at a white house ; 
It were a sufficiently loud organ to hear his pupils, 
Keciting the melodies of the ancient schools. 

Cian (yCarroll^ and his spouse. 
Arc a pair that never forgot inhospitality; 
An aged^ contentious, cross-grained pair. 
Wicked, drivelling, grey-headed. 

Among his sheep as I was running, 

I fell with a noise into his house; 

Cian said that it would be better snort. 

If I should fall twice out [i.e. douoly quick]. 

A people to whom the quern is dear. 
The voice of the [one] sheep and the one cow ; 
; A tribe who felt starvation in the womb. 
The CarroUs of the dry beards. 

(yMulderg !• O, Ollamh of Eirin I 
Of fine wisdom,^-of best sway I 
Will you send with me to my house, 
A young, spirited, yellow foal of thine. 

A Quern, bno, i.e., n hand-mill, which was much in use in Ireland 
in the hegiiining of the present ccnturj. It was also used to a late pe- 
riod in the Highlands of Scotland, though prohibited by the law of 
Scotland as far back as the reign of Alexander iii., in the year 1284, 
when it was enacted *'fSiitit na nton BiM prenume to grinU qatelt, 
maf^loct, or r;e, toftt ianti m^lntfi, except fie te compeUeli tf 
fitorm0, tnn le in laclte of mjflnt0 quWl, ^fioulli grinn tte gumtnJ* 

We know of no law ever having been passed against it in Ireland. 
We often ground wheat with it ourselves. We first used to dry the 
wheat on the bottom of a pot, grind in a hurry, and then eat the 
meal mixed with new milk. This was considered very wholesome 
food for hungry children among the Durnauns, and the inhabitants 
of western Ui-l3eaghaidh, in Ossory, and is called in the Irish lan- 
guage Plt*mf«>- 

^ 0*Mailderg^ We do not know who this Ollamh was who is 
here addressed by our Satirist. There is a poetical family of 
O'Maoilgiric, mentioned in the Annals of the Four Masters at the 
year 1088, but we have not ascertained whether or not there was 
•any distinguished poet of the name in Acnghu8*s time. 


a bobAij! b'pa^sbAif AU fttiJeAll, 
4Do'i> 30|ic bu|6e, Asuf 6 5AI) buAjo ; 
Cu|^|:]6 n>6 leAc-f A cuii> bo c^Je, 
3Ab A|i bui> bo 6\ iifge uA)ti>. 

TejDc n)6ji a b-c|5 Uj ^eACA]m 

Fm ^5"r F^oii 10^?^ fo^^m; 

Co||te njofi DA b-f]oi)-3-CAO|f b-piuccA, 
'pAoi |0i;lA03Ar bd Uj ^eACAffu 

6f|i1SeAf |rcA6n)^i)AC bo ibu|i;c]|t 21)caca||i, Ajuf a 
bubAiftc v^ h'^0]x\:^6 Ay " B^jib Rua6/' 2t)eACA||t 50 bjt^c, 
fAi) cj Dai|t Abtijail f6 6 A D-Aoiv^cACC Aii)^|i>; ASUf le^r 
f ID bo CU5 f^cA6 f ADDCAC bo'D fSlD r3<>l^5^ll* ^*^ ^1 '''^ 
U|fb 6eA3-cApA 8c|f, a iD-b|i^SA|b 2lcD3Uf5 30 jiAjb A5 
b]iuccA8 foU A cuifip A|i AD l^cA||i fjD : 3i6eA6 f ul aji XZ^5 
f6 A bubAiftc :— 

3aC Aft CU3Af b*A]DbflCACA]b ftiAti), 
?l|t iDA|C|b 2t)iiiDAD, tDAfqJD lAb.; 
^o fiu3 os^D^c ^cACA^t l6|c. Void, 
21d o]]teAb b'A)Db|iCACA]b OfitD ! 

1 O Clown ! AbobATS ! Campion writes that the Irish used despitefallr 
to call the English in Ireland "Boddai Sassonai** and "BoddaiGhalti/* 
i.e. English and Saxon churls. History of Ireland, Dublin Ed., p. 20. 
Bodach, now, strange to say, is a term of familiar and affectionate 
salutation in the Counties of Louth, Alonaghan, and Meath ; as Ci^ 
police rxon^AC a bobAij, you are welcome nigkboor. But in Aenghns*s 
time it was a term of reproach. 0*Muldcrg seems to have been a pa- 
triotic poet, as would appear from his reply to Acnghus, for he says 
that instead of sending him home to his own house on a spirited 
young horse, as Aenghus requested, he would send himoffhand-cuifed 
with a gad or withe ! — the meanest kind of manacle. Lord Bacon 
says that Bryan O'Rourkci after he was found guilty of high treasons 
requested to be hanged with a gad, according to his country's fashion. 
« G*Meaghei*» cow. This is a touch of satire which was felt by 
the fcA6ii)Ai)Ac» as directed against the dignity of his master ana 
name-sake. The Irish chiefs generally employed their relatives as 
servants of trust. It is curious to remark here that the County of 
Tipperary finished Aenghus's career. The murderous character of 
the mhabitants of this part of Ireland (who would now murder a Scully 



Clown! ^ you have left leavings. 
Of the yellow field, and it unrcaped ; 

1 will send yon to your hons^ 

With a gadovL your two wrists from me. 


A large fire in the house of O^Meagher, 
Men and meat beside it ; 
A large cauldron of fermented wine-grapes. 
Under which CMeaghcr's cow* calves. 

A servant of trust of Muintir-^Ihcachair stood up, and 
said, that the ''Bed Bard'' should never satirize any 
Meagher, because he did not at once acknowledge him ; and 
with that he made a fierce thrust of the sharp knife which he 
held in his dexterous right hand, in the neck of Aenghus, so 
that he began to throw up his heart's blood on the spot; but 
before he expired he said :-— 

All the hlsejud/^menls that I have ever passed. 
Upon the chiefs of Munster, I forgive;' 
The meagre servant of the grey llleagher has. 
Passed an equivalent judgment upon me. 

OS soon as they would a Maud or a Waller), it mentioned in a very 
old life of St. Patrick, in which the Saint is made to foretell that they 
would remain disobedient to the laws of God and man, and murderous 
of their fellow-creatures to the end of time. Spenser, not knowing 
that St. Patrick had pronounced a curse against the County of Tip- 
perary, and particularly against that portion of it called Ormond, 
attempted to account for the murderous disposition of the people by 
blabbmg out the following incoherent sentences about Counties Pa* 
latine : — 

Iren, ** And since we are entred into speech of such grants of for* 
mer princes to sundry persons of this realme of Ireland, I will 
mention unto you some other of like nature to this and of like in^ 
convenience, by which the former Kings of England passed unto 
them a great part of their prerogatives, which though then it was 
well intended, and perhaps well deserved of them which received 
the same, yet now such a gapp of mischief lyes open thereby, that 
I could wish it were well stopped. Of this sort are the graunts of 
Counties Palatines in Ireland, which though at first were granted 
upon good consideration when they were first conquered, ror that 


those lands lay then as a verj border to the wild Irish, subject to 
continuall invasion, so as it was necdfull to give them great privi- 
ledges for the defence of the inhabitants thereof: jet now tnat it 
is no more a border, nor frontired with enemies, whj should such 
priviledges bee anj longer continued ?** 

Eudoxus^ "I would ffladlj know what you call a County Palatine* 
and whence it is so caued." 

IreiL "It was (I suppose) first named Palatine of a pale, as it were 
a pale and defence to their inward lands, so as it is called the En- 
ghsh Pale> and therefore is a Palsgrave named an Earle Palatine. 
Others think of the Latine palare, that is to forrage or out-run, 
because those marchers and borderers used commonly so to doe, so 
as to have a county palatine, is, in effect, to have a priviledge to 
spoyle the enemies borders adjoining. And surely so it is used at 
this day, as a priviledge place of spoiles and stealthes ; for the 
County of Tipperarv, \niicn is now the only Countie Palatine in Ire- 
land, IS, by abuse of some bad ones, made a receptacle to rob the 
rest of the Counties about it, by meancs of whose priviledges none 
will follow their stealthes, so as it beinff situate in the very lap of all 
the land, is made now a border, which, how inconvenient it is, let 
every man judge. And thoueh that right noble man that is the lord 
of the liberty, do paine himseife all he may, to yeeld equall justice 
unto all, yet can there not but greate abuses lurke in so inward and 
absolute a priviledge, the consideration whereof is to be respected 
carefully for the next succession.** — p. 40. 

Tipperary remained a County Palatine till the reien of Queen 
Anne, and how this fact has stamped on the people the character 
which they now possess let every man judge. But besides this, 
it must be also borne in mind by the historian and statesman, that 
Waller and many others of the llcgicides of Chxirless i. were settled 
in this very County by Cromwell, which added the curse of Crom- 
well to the curse of Slu Patrick, and, to the influence of the cursed 
privileges of the Earl of Ormonde, to perpetuate the murdering 
dispositions of the men of Tipperary. 

Sir Richard Cox inveighs against the murderers of Charles i. 
in the following words, which help our conclusion that their settle- 
ment in Tipperary added the curse of Cromwell to that of St. Pa- 
trick upon ttiat part of Ireland: — 

*' And now how gladly would I draw a Curtain over that Dismal 
and Unhappy Thirtieth of January, wherein the Royal Father of our 
Country suffered Martyrdom ! Oh ! that I could say, they were 
Irishmen that did that abominable act ; or that I could justly lay it 
at the Door of the Papistsf what a blood-thirsty villain I Oh! Ohl]. But 
how much soever they might obliquely or designedly contribute to it, 'tis 
certain it was actually done by others, who ought to say with the Poet, 

^' Pudct hffic oppiobria nobis 
£t dici potuisse, et non potuiMe refelli.*'— Part 2, p. 1(N{. 

3 I forgive. This is a quatrain of repentance, to prevent the vo* 
nom of the satire falling on the chiefs. 

. 87 

[A TERSiFiED PARAPHRASE, OP imitAtion, of Aenohus 0*Dalt*s 8a- 
TIRES, by James Clarence Mangak, airangcd to a^ee with the 
Stanzas as they now stand in the original Irish — with the nuau 
omitted bj J. C. M. pointed out in foot notes, by /• 0*D.] 


What I think of the Coarbs of Fenagh, 
Much as they boast of their shrines, — 
And extensive, rich glebe lands, 
Tlicir books and long list of Divines. 

These Iloddys are niggards and schemers, 

They are venders of stories (odd dreamers), — 

Who talk of St. Kallin's miraculous powers. 

And how he continually showers wealth on their tribe. 

They are worse, in good sooth, than I care to describe. 

Moreover, if you sit at their table, 

YouMl soon think the Barmecide's banquet no fable ! ^ 

I called on them once on Shrove Tuesday, at night. 
But the devil a pancake, flour, oatmeal, orbrancake; 
In parlour or kitchen, saluted my sight. 
I walked off. rd have starved ere rd pray to 
One imp of the gang for a single potatoe ! * 

By my oath,* my friend Charley,* you've covered with shame. 

And a cloud of aishonour, the name of 0*Conor I 

You stint your poor children, — ^you starve jour fair dame ! 

They are all such squalettes as a man shall 

Sec once. Tor Heaven's love give them something substantial I 

* Barmecide's banquet. See the story of the barber's sixth brother 
in the Arabian NtgkU Entertainment^ Halifax Edition of 1851, 
** Come on" said the Barmecide, << let us have something to eat ; then 
he called to his servants, and ordered them to bring in some victuals 
but no servant appeared ; yet he pretended that meat was on the 
table and invited mv brother to sit down and partake of the feast 1** 
p. 261. 

* Single potatoe. There is no mention of potatoes in the original. 
In Shakspeare's time potatoes were a luxury. The poet Mangan, 
who had a horror of potatoes, is not very happy in his trauslation 

3 By my oath, A common adjuration throughout Ireland. J.C.M. 
The quatrain on the Muintir Eolais or the Mag-Rannells, is here 

* Charley, i.e., Cathal O'Conor of Ballintobcr, County of Roscom- 
mon. The quatrain relating to Clar Connacht is here omitted. 


Take Anamcha's clansmen' away from my sight I 
They are vagrants and varlcts, whose jealous ill-star lets 
Them do nothing, say nothing think nothing right — 
And they swear so, Vd count it a sin to. 
Abide with them while I had Hell to jump into I 

Tliere be Irishmen, doubtless, who fast venr hard. 

For the love of God's Mother. If in Hy-Many* no other; 

And worldlier motive move peasant and bard. 

To subsist on extremely thin dinners, 

The/11 have banquets m Heaven as the stingiest of sinners I 

The tribe of CyKelly — ^the screws whom I hate- 
Will give you goats' milk, mixed with meal, on a plate; 
This hotch-potch they'll heat with burnt stones, and how droll 

Among them will tell you 'tis pleasant and wholesome !' 

The Qan-Bickard I brand as a vagabond crew, 

\Vlio are speeding to wreck fast. Ask thein for a breakfast I 

They march to Mass duly on Sundays, 'tis true ; 

But within their house portal. 

To a morsel was ne'er yet admitted a mortal. 

From the plains of Kilcorban^ to Burrin^ and back. 
Not a townland or bally, — ^from hill-peak to valley. 
But knows that their true name is nothing but Stack.* 
They tell them as much, and they'll kick hard, 
Agamst you, and swear that they are the Clan-Bickard, 

■ Anamcha*s chnsmen, i.e., the O'Maddens, of the Connt/ of Gal- 

s Ht/'Many, the country of the O'Kcllys, in the County of Ros- 
common and Galway. 

> Pleasant and wholesome. Called pt^Ajpfo in some parts of Ire« 
land. It is considered very wholesome K>od for puttmg up muscle 
but not flabby fat, 

^ Kilcorban, in the barony of Leitrim, County of Galwaj. 

* Burrin, t)oiti|iji>, i.e., rocky, a barony m the north of th« 
County of Clare, a^oininff Clanrickard. 

Stack Aenghus calls them Stickards or misers. A satirist 
could more effectually wound them here, for they were believed by ths 
the Irish to be the descendants of Rickard 0*Cuairsce, the son of a 
plebeian Irish follower of their supposed ancestor 1 1 Others, how* 
ever, contend that the race of Rickard O'Cutursce were ths Vis* 
counts Mayo : ied cum de hoc nihil cert^ scio, nihil etiam astertivi 


All the Jennings'* feed hogs, and are hogs too, I think. 
Such deaf and blind moi)ers ! Such ditch-water topers ! 
Tliat is when they can have ditch-water to drink i 
They have cumbered the land since the time of 
Magh-Guaire's hot battle, which poets do rhyme of. 

In the house of the black-headed Qilduff « I passed, 
A wliole day without meeting one bit fit for eating, 
Heaven bless them I — they do teach a sinner to fast ! 
I never yet saw or read of in story 
A niggardlier mansion than Qort-in-shy-gory. 

Never fear, though, Dame Nora I * No lady below 
The high rank of a princess, believe me, e'er winces 
'Xeath my poet's knout. Savage sometimes I grow. 
But with none but the tip-top. 
And them I do lash, as a stripling^his whip-top I 

The Burkes of Cloghstookin * are a niMardly crew. 
They are rough Turks in temper, — and turf-sticks in hue; 
Thev make the few guests they admit, rich and poor fastf 
On half nothing a day ; they make also their door fast ! 

The CFlynn,* and his clan, have been always obscure. 
Both in Albion and Eirin, and if I did sneer, in 
My own pleasant way at his doings, I'm sure 
lie should thank me ; for what notoriety 
Would he have gained, but for me, in society ? 

^ Jennings, a very respecUble County of Qalway family— a branch 
of the Burkes. 

« GUduff, i.e., the house of O'Shaughncssy of Gort [Inahy-gory], 
in the County of Gal way. 

« Dame Nora. The Lady Honora Ny-Brien, daughter of the first 
Earl of Thomond. The bard certainly had not the honour of satir- 
izing any Lady of higher birth. 

* Chghstookin. A few words of Mangan*s are here altered. It 
might be more literally rendered as follows:-.. 

At Clough-an-ttoolEin, *naong the Burkei^ 
Dire starvation erer lurktf 
The child, with hunger, ever bawls I . 
Within their drear and roofleu waUt f 

Mac David Burke's castle and mansion, at Glinske, affords a strik- 
ing exemplification of this desolation at the present day. 

* 0*Fl^nn. This was not OTlynn of Ballinlongh, chief of Sil- 
Maelruam, but 0*Flynn, Coarb of St. Dachonna of Assjlin, nsar 



I fouud at his cliurch bread, batter, and dirf. 
And the last very plenty,— but hungry as twenty, 
I asked for a morsel. Twas black as my shirt 
What they gave me (my shirt is my jerkin). 
The butter \ras scooped from a grimy horn-firkin* 

Kilcorban,^ black church ! * As the skin or the fin. 

Of a fish is thy griddle bread, scaly and thin ; 

And thy whole stock of milk a gnat's mouth might absorb an 

Exceeding good half of. Lord help thee Kilcorban 1 

The friars of Moyne* give you wormwood enough. 
But that's rather (I fancy) uneatable stuff; 
Still they'll feed you — that is, if you're handy at filling 
Your inside with cakes big and thick as a shilling. 

I don't understand them ; they never may sigh 
For the flesh-pots of Egypt, but why should not I ? 
Let a priest, if he please, fast himself, like a Bramin, 
But he's really too kind if he kills me with famine. 

Bov1e» in the County of Roscommon. Dun-Sandle, and Clan Qibboa 
of Umhall are here omitted. 

1 Ki/corbant a well-known church in Clanrickard. 

> Church, The IIcrcnach*8 house was generally close to the church. 

' Moyne, The great abbey of Moyne, in the baronj of Tirawlej^ 
County of Mayo. The friars of Clare are here omitted* or rather 
what Aenghus said of the two great abbeys has been jumbled toge- 
ther by the poet Mangan. 



E^cnping from Connacht I came info Loiiister, 
\Vhcrc I met neither Esquire, dame, chieftain, nor vpinstcrf 
To give me a bit, till I came to the house of O'Bvrne,* 
Where 1 got some roast meat, but cannot tell wLether 

'Twas goafs flesh or leather; 
But for drink I plumbed vainly jug, pitcher^ and chum. 
And a tallish tin tankard, with horn-nose. 
What swash tliey do tipple is more than myself knows ! 

The Tregainc* broad lands, which of old had their share. 
Of our conflicts of peril, lie weed-grown and sterile ; 
Of cheese, bread and butter, their farm-steads are bare; 
And, as to a smack of flesh-meat, you 
Might offer them 10£ ere one lib would greet yon* 

O'Conor* brags much of his cattle; their milk 
Nevertheless, is enough to half poison that ilk ; 
They are poor, skinny, hunger-starved stots, the same cattle. 
"When they walk you can hear their dry bones creak and rattle ! 

Tlie sooty-faced swine-herds of Granard* I hate. 
They are shabby and seedy in garb, and though greedy. 
As cormorants over the pot and the plate. 
Yet O Heavens ! only think in their utter 
Abasement they really eat bread without butter ! 

1 O'B'jrne, i.e., of Newrath, or Glenmalure, in the Coimty of 

» Irtgaine^ i.e., the baronv of Tinahioch io the Queen** Cuuntj* 
the country of the O* Dunnes. 

» OT£;/i^/r, i.e., Calvagh OConor Faly. The trans*ator is wide 
of Aen^^hu^'s mcaniiig here. Take the following :— 

A handful of meal in a trough In hit houie ! 
Lord K:tvc them trom hun|(cr, t would kutvc a ;{Ood moute! 
Ihe .Min»trcN the harp-iitringii, do rattle and fl.tter, 
M'ith noikc like the »uw*» Mtighig basA to her liacr. 

Graharff, in the County of Tiongfnrd, 
The quatrains rvlaiiii^' to'thc DealWiaa, ami Fiaia Coall, are entirely 
\vl\ out by Manual. 



IM travel the island of Banba all over. 

From the sea to the centre, — before I would enter ; 

That niggard Mac Mahon' — ^his damnable door ! 

He'll give you the ghost of a dinner. 

That leaves you, by Jing, rather hungrier and thinner ! 

Should you visit that hungriest town in the land. 

Famed for nothing but no bread, which men call Clontobred,* 

You had best, my gay spark, msJce your will beforehand ; 

Far from getting an oaten or wheaten. 

Cake in it to eat, you yourself may be eaten.' 

^Fy curse on Dnimsnaghta,* that beggarly hole, 

"Without meat-stall or fish-shop, — priest, vicar, or bishop ! 

I saw in their temple, and Oh I my sick soul 1 

A profound Irish feding of shame stirs 

Thy depths at tlie thouglit, playing hockey, two gamesters.* 

All the bread at the Donagli* would just give a peep. 
At one breakfast or luncheon, — a loaf and a punclieon. 
For thunderstruck beer, whose contents ran as deep ; 
As might serve at a pinch for a crab- bath, 
AVere what I found m it one day on the Sabbath. 

> Mac Mfihon, i.e., chief of Oriel or County of Monaghan. 
s Chntobrid, a Herenach church in the County of Monaffhan. 

> YoH yourself may be eaten. The translator goes too tar here, foi 
Aengliuit makes no allusion to eating the living. He merely says 
that the cake was so thin, small, and light, that the fly might carry 
it off under her wing. 

^ Drumtnaghtaf now Drumsnat near Monaghan. 

* Gamesters, This is incorrect. Aenghus merely complains that 
the church of Drumsnat had no Herenach, and that there were only 
two c^ifinis or priests (not ccAttbAiS or gamesters), at the church. 
He expected a regular parish establishment ; and every parish of 
any wealth had an Herenach, and three orients at the leMt. 

<> Donagh. a church, in the County of Afonaghan. 


(yiUilly" t])C feeble, the palsied, the old. 
The most wretched of wretches the earth can behold; [wet 
Dines along with his dumb sons, whose glazed eyes and lank 
Chin and checks, make his dinner a sort of death's banquet. 

To the north of Lough Shcelan,* in winter they say. 

The people subsist on a half-meal a day ; 

But when spring comes about, and while summer, too* blesses. 

Their fields, they have tlurce meals of — shamrocks and cresses I 

Can it be this vile Nebuchadnezzarish prog. 

That turns them all blind from the herd to the hog ? 

Cat and dog, man and wife, all arc blind ; — there were none I 

Encountered who wern't, at least, blind of one JSfe I 

The Badger-faced Baron,' who stalks through Qoneen, 
Is the ugliest niggard I think I have seen ; 
He knows not (the hound ! ) what veal, mutton, and beef are. 
But sneaks to and fro with a roost-robbing thief-air* 

In the darkest back room of his house yon may see. 

This sharp-eyed Baron with a pot at his knee ; 

AVhat is in it ? Thick milk ! That's the whole of his supper. 

No bread, not a bite, neither crust nor yet upper I 

The men of Fermanagh, though cerUs no fools. 

Arc a race that search bread crumbs as ducks search the pools : 

Of all sb'bby acts I know nothing forlomer» 

Than their practice of hiding the cake in the comer. 

Derrybruska's^ bald lands the good Ood had not blessed. 
They've been wasted and withered by famine and pest; 
My bread there was thin as the rind of a hen ^g^ 
And my faie was a butter ball, small as a wren egg. 

I O'Reilly. This was the last chief of Breifne, who died verj old 
in 1601. 

' To the north of Lough Sheefan, He alludes to the barony of 
Tull yhunco, at this period the country of the Mac Kernans. 

3 The Maguire of Enniskillen, i.e., the English Maguire. 

4 Derrybruxka, now Derrvbruski a parish church near ISnniskillen, 
in the Countj of Fermanagh. 

The Maiigaurai» arc left out by Mangao. 



Bj inc the Clan-Dalj, shall never be snubbed, 

1 say notliing about thein, for were 1 to flout tlieni. 

The world would not save me from getting well drubbed. 

While with tkem at my beck (or my back) I 

Might drub the world well without fear of one black eye ! 

[To place thee * high aloft above them all. 
To Erin's sons it is no shame at all; 
For as the brooks are to the swelling sea, 
8o Erin's chieftains are compared to thee.] 

Tis a hungry house that of 0'Dogherty» of Inch, 

For a meal you can get in it of meal ^ust a pinch ; 

And when you look round you for dnnk, there's a churnful. 

Of milk, dust, and flics. Oh I his Christmas is mournful I 

I)o you know the O'Cahans ?• Be thankful you don't, 

For you hardly could bear them ; I've sworn not to spare them; 

But merciful still as is mostly my wont, 

I but point my poetical spear in 

llieir dull eyes, and dub them the Dastards of Eirin. 

I stopped with the dwarfish O'Crillv* awhile. 

And was treated in true " lock-the-larder-up" style ; 

May I never eat beef, but I'd now sooner aig my 

Own grave-bed, than lodge a night more with the pigmy I 

* Cian-Dafy, i.e., the O'DonncIU of Tirconnell. 

« Thee, i.e.. Red Hugh O'Doiinell, chief of his name, who died in 
Spain, in 1602. Mangan tofally mistook the meaning of this qua- 
train, and we give it in a different metre from his, i.e., in that of 
Pope's DunciaiL 

« O'Dogherty, i.e.. Sir Cahir O'Dogherty, the last chief of Inishow- 
en in the County of DoneeaL 

* 0*Cakan8, i.e., the O'Kanes of the County of Londonderry. 

* 0'C/i7/y. Hercnachs of Tamlaght O'Crilly, Count? of London- 

< M'!tah hovel, i.e., Doveragh church near Duugiven in the same 


Little Rj whom I see on the rafter's base leftp 
All alone, were you onlj accustomed to theft; 
You might c<arry off to the Finn, without any flutter. 
What I got at Meave's hovel of bread and of butter I 

The tribe of O'lLara* are men of some height. 
But they've never been known to stand stoutly in light ; 
Thcv have no other music but the hum of the flies. 
And hunger stares forth from their dpcp-sunken eyes i 

Tliere is one waste, wide, void, bleak, blank, black, cold, old. 
On the highway : its length is nearly one-third of a mile ; 
AVhose it is I don't know, but you hear the rats gnawing, 
Its timbers inside, while its owner keeps sawing.* 

Big fellows the Kinclarty* arc, with fat eyes, 

Tliey are growlers and grumblers evcii over their tumblers; 

For snapping and snarling, and quarrelling and lies^ 

You might travel a long time to see their 

Bare equals on earth — or perhaps in Hell either 1 

Ard-Uladh,^ vile sink, has been time out of mind. 
But a region of famine ; on its coasts you will find. 
Slaying barnacle snails with a mallet, that savage 
Old hang-dog-faced hangabonc hangman Mac Savadge I 

OUanlon,* the Tattered, I saw in the glen. 
Getting ready a dinner for Orior's^ thin men ; 
He was roasting it brown on two bars of a narrow. 
Old gridiron there : 'twas the leg of a sparrow I 

' 0*Hara of Crebilly, County of Antrim* 

* Keeps sawingp i.e,» O Hara himself. The translator is here rerj 
iride or the meaning. Aenghus's words are much more satiric. 
Why did he build his house on the road side to induce travellers to 
look for hospitality in a house where nothing is to be found but pov* 
ertj ; Why did he not build a hut far in the recesses of the mouD* 
tains, where travellers would not have access to his door ? 

' Kinelariy, i.e.» the Mac Oartans of the Countv of Down. 
4 Ard'Uladh, i.e., the Ardes, in the County or Down, where the 
family of Savage were seated since the English Invasion. 

* 0*Hanlon of Mullagh or Tandraeee, in the County of Armagh. 
^ OriorSp two baronies in the east ofthe County of Armagh, O'Han* 

]on*s country. 


I called at his house next, bat found it was shut ; 
It stands on the MuUagh, a cob-web- waited hut; 
AVithout milk, bread, or cattle, His odd how the braggart. 
Can boast as he does of his grain, kine, and haggart. 

You'll allow that I have'nt much flattered the Clans, 
But there is one that I will praise — the doughty Mac Cans; * 
For if I didn't who would ? I guess, not a man on 
Earth's face — at least no one this side of the Shannon ' 

rrve done now with Ulster ; * I go next to Munster, 
To see how they feast there, — expecting at least there-— 
Some welcome among mj old neighbours, those Blarneys, 
The O'Callaghaus, Carties, the Crawlies, and Uarneys.] 


One day, feeling footsore and faintish, I made. 
By tardy approachesj^ my way to the Koches ; * 
It relieved me, at least, to creep into the shade ; 
I got bread, but my landlady shut her 
Old rat-haunted cupboard at once on the butter I 

Dunboy* of the crab-apple verjuicy wine, 

"Which every fool praises — ^in silver-set phrases,— 

Is just such a doc-hole as badgers might dine 

In for want of a better. No peasant 

In Munster would say he thought Hell more unpleasant. 

1 Mae Can$9 ue., of ClanbrasiU County of Armagh, where the 
Upper Bonn enters Lough Neagh. 

s This side of the Shannon, ^t in the Irish. The Bard Ruadh says 
that if he praised Mac Can the apple tree and its blossom would give 
him the lie, which is very severe. The laudatory quatrain on Mac 
Can is omitted by Man«in. 

* / have done now witn Ulster. This is here interpolated to give 
the reader notice that the Bard has done with Ulster. 

* The Roches, i.e., the Roches of Fermoy in the County of Cork. 

* Dunboy, i.e., 'Sullivan Bearers chief fortress in Bantry Bay. 


Three reasons there were why I lately withdreir 
In a hurry from Bantry : its want of a pantry 
Was one ; and the dirt of its people was two ; 
Good Heavens ! how they daub and bespatter 
Their duds ! I forget the third reason. No matter. 

Mac Derinod of Muskcrry,* you have a way, 

Wliich at least I must term odd. You gave mc^ Mac Dermod, 

One hot summer's noon, half a wine glass of whey I* 

Before I could reach Bidlincollick* 

I swallowed six bushels of dust through your frolic f 

The Clan-Carthy are vain — ^but as deep as a chum. 
They grasp all you have, and give words in return; 
What good deeds you do them are written in water. 
But injure them once and they doom you to slaughter. 

The Mac Auliffes* I loathe, for I never could yek 

Take to humbug and humdrums, slow coaches and dumb drums. 

The/re a lazy, yet saucy, and cock-nosish set; 

They sleep upon beds of mrcen heather. 

And eat all tliat falls in tneir way — ^bmb or leather. 

Last Easter I spent with Mac Donough,* a stiff 
Kind of person, yet siUy — so gloomy and chilly 
His whole house appeared that it dCi seem as if 
Easter Sunday, that holy and high day. 
Had fallen, by some fatal mistake, on Oood Friday. 

* MacDermod of Muskerry, i.e., Mac Carthj of Muslcerrj, who had 
liis chief residence at Blarney. 
' Whey. The poet is not vcrj happj here. It should be,— 

**" You gave me Mae Dennod, 
With a good deal of blarney one wine of gUii of whej I** 

a BalfincvUick, now Dallincollig, at this time the seat of William 

« Mac Auliffes of Castle Mac Auliffe, County of Cork. ThU clan 
inhabited perhaps the wildest and poorest tern tor j In all Ireland* 

^ Mac Dontnigh, i.e., Mac Car thy of Duhallow, at this time apow* 
trful Irish chieftain. 

The ragged (yKeeffc of Claragh ! ' he shivers and shakes. 

The sad ragamuffin I He hasn't got stuff in 

His carcase to battle Tiith agues and aches; 

But I spare him, he's drooping, the luckless 

Poor devil. The cloaklcss are always the pluckless. 

Poor little Red Bobin, the snow hides the ground. 

And a worm, or a grub, is scarce to be found ; 

Still don't visit the CKccffe ;* rather brave the hard weather. 

He'd soon bring your breast and your back-bone together I 

They are talkers at Cappagh ;* — no more,* if inclined. 
You mav swallow, as aiet, the east or west wind ; 
For YOU II get little else ; just imagine or map a 
Blacx briary desert out — that's cursed Cappagh. 

The O'Callaghan tribe turn out lots of old crones t 
Whom I gazed on with pity I No blind-alleved city 
Can shew such a group. With no flesh on their bones; 
They sit all day long in some lawny 
Green sun-shiny spot, and grow shrivelled and tawny. 

Among those I ate bread, which the great O* himself,^ 
Sent me down by his daughter, I drank mud and water 
Too, fetched from a ditch, and which stood on a shelf 
In a little brown earthen-ware pitcher, 
'Tis the beverage alike here of dame, duck, and ditcher. 

1 0*Keeffe of Cf^ogh, near Millstreet, Countj of Cork. He was a 
minor branch of the O'Keeffe faroilj. 

« The O'Keeffe, i.e., the O^KeeiTe of Dromagh, Comity of Cork, 
or chief of the family* at this time a fifth-rate chieftain in Munster. 

* Cappaghf a ? the seat of a pettj family of the Mac Carthyt ? 
it is near Casttemag^or. 

^ The O* himself, i.e., Cornelius O'Callaghan of Drumnee, son 
of Dermodi son of Teigo Roe. He had been prior of Dallybegt 
but was elected chief of his name in 1578. 


All liirougli Orrcr/s > district, a land I was in. 
From Easter to August, while sunbeam and raw gurt 
Pierced into m v marrow, and peeled off my skin ; 
I saw women devoaring wild radish 
And weeds by the way-side — a sight rather sadish. 

But of all pbces Desmond,^ in truth takes the lead 
In fasting. I Pray God it may win its just meed ; 
If a pilgrim gain lieaven for his sandal and scallop. 
Then Desmond, methuiks, should coune in at a gallop I 

> Orrery t a half baronj in the north of the County of Cork, which 
vas desolated hy famine at this period. Manean hat here left oat 
the verses relating to Ooolishcl, as well as those carping at the 
Olangibbon, O'Donoghue of Glenflesk* and Magillvcud<fy of the 
Reeks. Mr. Hardiman has given the following versified translatioo 
of the quatrain relating to Clangibbon, in his Iruh MinsireUy, toL 
it., p. 132. 

*' His Lordship [Lord Clare, Chancellor of Ireland] was descend- 
ed from the old sept of the Clan^Gibbons, and was the best friend to 
the English interest in Ireland that these latter times have prodaced. 
Arainst this clan our Irish bards have been bitterly invective* The 
following stansa is taken from a satirical poem written by Aligns 
0*Oa\j, called »ep5ur 9^9-401% or the 1)aii» RttA«» about the year 

[Here he gives the Irish as in our original text] 

*« The sternest pulse that heaves the hceit to hate, 
Win sink o*erlaboured, or with time abate ; 
But on the Clann- Fits-Gibbon, Christ looks down 
For ever with unmitigated frown I 
Did mercy shine I their hearts* envenomed slime. 
Even in her beam^ would quicken to new crime.* 

The following welMcnown epiflrram is added, to enable the classical 
reader to judge between it and the foregoing production of the Irish 

^* Vipera Cappadocem nocitura momordit, at ilia, 
Gusuto periit sanguine Cappadoda I** 

*' A viper bit a Cappadodan^fain 
Her curdling poison through him to distil. 
But the foikd reptile died—her victim's vein 
Had poison subtiler than her own to kilL** 

< Desmond, i.e., South-Munstcr. The country of Mac Carthy 
M or was generally so called after the suppression of the Earb of 
1>rsmond. The qu.itrains relating to Clanmorris, Carrigafoyle» 
Hore*s house, and Thomas, knight of Glynn, are here omitted by 


The Mao Edmonds* are still to the fore, as I kiiow^ 
Though some people fancv them dead long ago ; 
There is a precious large lot of them near ShanagoldeUj' 
To whose dinners and drink I was little beholden. 

In Clanwilliam' they na3 up the doors to keep out 

Tlie snows and the storm-wind^— 
t rd rather have warm winds 

I Than cold in my bed-chamber nightly, no doubt ; 

! But for this watch-box nailing I never 

Could try such a plan, though they count it right clever. 

' Bread, fish, flesh, or fowl, you are safe to see none. 

In the districts of Thomond,* 

j But lots of our beau monde, 

AMio deluge your inside with wine from the tun, 

Ale, usquebaugh, cider, and sherry ; - 

In fine all potations that make the heart merry. ^ 


! From the Ford to the Leap,^ on a fine summer day, [lands 

I saw green lands and brown lands, Clan-Colen's* broad town- 
In Thomond looked well ; but along my whole way 
Never met with one poor copper penny, 
, I I might just as well travel for smoke to Kilkenny. 


I Mac Edmonds, This should be '* The sons of Mac Edmond/' by 
which the Bard lluadh intended to designate the sons of Thomas* son 
of Edmond Fitzgerald* knight of Gljrnn, in the Count/ of Limerick. 
The portion relating to Kerry is also left out by Mangan. 

s Mangan was certainly dreaming of his relatives here. His father 
was from ScAX)%\x^\A}tm or Shanagolden* in the County of Limerick ; 
and according to the son's report, he was both an indolent and indis- 
creet parent. See a sketch of Mangan's life* written by himself* 
but unpubli;»hed* in the hands of the Rev, C. P. Meehan, of SS. 
Michael and John's, Dublin. 

* ClantcWiatn in the County of Limerick. Four quatrains are here 
omitted by Mangan. 

4 Thomond, i.e.* North-Munster* the country of the 0*BHens. 

< The Ford to the Leap, i.e.* from Killaloe to Loop-head* at this 
time considered the limits of Thomond at the cast and west side. 

fi Clan-Cotens, i.e.* Mac Namara*s country* lying between the Fer- 
gus and the Shannon* hr far the best portion of the County of Clare. 


0, Burrin t 0« Burrin ! what sights hast thou secti I 
'Tls known the Dalcassians* got into fierce passioiWp 
At seasons^ — and then there were " wigs on the green f^ 
And Clare suffered muchj — jet men brag an 
Immense deal to-daj on the banks of the Lagan. 

IVe a horror of Thoroond^ because after noon. 
In its houses Tou never meet noffgin or spoon; 
Twelve o^cIock daily there bounds the stomach's horizon. 
And food after that jou can no where clap ejes onl 

In the house of O'Brien (thaf s Donough)* I spent 
A Christmas that lasted till long after Lent; 
We had bread, butter, bacon, and beef in abundance 
And oft round the board made the bottle, our ^un, ibnoe. 

In Cealla,' that region of hunger and storms, 
l*he sick die of want bv the road sides in swarms ; 
If you fancy a grave where broad meadows lie fallow 
And blighted, you'll find one in dark dreary Cealla. 

The pinch-bowel Clan of lilac Mahon,* the Bed, 
Give you just on your dish the bare shadow of bread ; 
An ant put in harness, I think, would be able 
To drag their best cake and their biggest from table. 

The (yCarrolls of Ely,* love the qucm*s hoarse sound. 
They've got only one cow and one sheep as I found ; 
After starving some while in the house of these skin-flints. 
My hands became hard, black, and meagre, like thin flints. 

I Dalcassianit, i.e., the O'Driens and their cor-relatives. The poet 
here is wide of Aenghus*8 meaning. 

^ Dunotigh. This is not in the Irish oricinal. 

* Cealla, a townland near Corofin^ in the County of Clare, also deso* 
lated hy the famine in 1847. Mangan has here left out the verses 
relating to Kilkishin, the Fergus, andCaislean Chuinn. 
* Mac Mahon, i.e., Mac Mahon of Corca-bhaisein, in the south-west 
of the County of Clare. Mangan has here left out the ouatrain relat* 
ing to Corballv, the seat of one of the Mac Nainaras of Clan-Choilen f 
as well as that relating to O'Dalj's house, and its reciters of 

^ The 0*CarroUs of Elj, were considered as belonging to Munstcr 
at this period. 


Cross Kian (yCarroU dwells there, nitli his rib, 
In a hovel the size of a basket or crib ; 
A withered and weazened old couple — forgetful 
Of God and the Devil, sick, snappish and fretful. 

Knocked down by ^pig I fell into their den. 

Such an upset I hadn't got, Munshr Inatc* when ; 

I looked round quite bewildered, and heard Kian squall out, 

** Tall out again,' friend, or [)erhaps you and I may fall out !'' 

Last CMcagher,* for yourself— last, though certea not least. 
You're a prince, and are partial to mirth and the Feast ; 
Huge cauldrons, vast fires, with fat sheep, calves, and cows and 
Harp-music, distinguish your house mid a thousand. 

[Here the poet was stabbed by (yMeagher*s servant, but 
before he expired he is said to have addressed these lines to 
his murderer: — '\ 

Many are the bitter satires that I acknowledge (alas I) to have 

On the nobles and clans of Munster, but none ever requited 
roe with a blow, 

'Till O'Meagher gave me my death-wound ; — ^I perish down- 

By a chieftain whom I eulogized — this is my lamentation and 
my woe I 

1 Fall out again. This is in the true style of the satirist and the 
best stanza in the whole of this translation. 

^ O* Meagher resided at Drom-saileach in the baronjr of Ikerrin, not 
far from Roscrea. 


Page 13>line 16 from bottom, read '< James Daly, the Cork Dis- 

tiller, was a native of Carrigtoohill, and died in Janoarj* 

IS50, without issue." 

line 3 from bottom, for *« Laherdot?** read «* Laherndota.*' 

— ^— note 1, read " Mr. Peter Lavalli, Peruquier of the Four 

Courts, Dublin," as it appears that he has not removed 

to Paris. 
— ^ 14, line 5 from bottom, cancel «* J. P." from Richard 0*Dono« 

van, Esq. 

line 4 from bottom, for " Skibbereen" read " Ahakista.*' 

15, line 7 at top, for *• Derry-clovane" read " Gleann-oulin.** 

line 30, for '' but of this we have no portion remaining'* 

read ** but this was very short, and, rather an impreca« 

tion than a satire.** A copy of it is preserved in a MS. 

in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, H. 3, XT, 

p. 840, which runs as follows :— . 

" Cei) cole Afi cft|b c«tt9e90ff 
Geo scfic ircftbu f oiyArr^b 4|cl)tt|9oe ; 
Ccfi AbbA Hf^ A itAVd n^bAi, 

t>iro!nco CIO to?* bAiipe fteirro nopreo bttcirr««* 

This satire, which was composed by Cairbre Mac Eathnat 
surnamed Crithinbheal, is the oldest specimen of the Irish language 
we have seen ; and we have here eiven it for the purpose of obtain* 
in^ a translation from some of our Irish literati, for our next 
edition. It has been glossed bj various writers ; and 0*Clery in 
his Glossary, under the word Ce|\i|)i70, gives the following explana* 
tion of the first line :•« 

" Ccnnfoe X fDT^rA be^SA, od clUfft bcA5A, aiq1)A|1 a b£5A|ttc A9 Ti^ 
CAiitb]te V)ac Cacoa. 

" 5Aiy cole Foft ctt]b eettiyfoe, x 5A9 h]dJb 50 Ioac ait-ib6n't9|N 90 a|1 

— «— 56, note I. — It is but fair to remark, that Bforyson writes 
as an enemy to the old Irish race ; and besides, that he had not seen, 
with hii own eyei^ the Northern Irish Chieftain 0*Cane, and his 
daughters, sitting naked. It is moreover, not unfair to question the 
authenticity of the assertion of an unknown Bohemian Baron ; and 
it is but right for the Irish to argue, that it is not likely that the 
proprietor of a large territory (such as O'Cane was), who could 
converse in the Latin language with a Bohemian Baron, would have 
been so lightly, or so barbarously clad as Moryson describes him. 

Let the curious reader contrast it with the description given of 
the dress of a neighbouring chief O'Donnell, about half a century 
earlier, by Sentleger in a letter to the King, recommending that 


parliamentarv robes should be bestowed upon him. He describes 
0*Donncirs dress thus:—*' A coat of crimson velvet with aiglets of 
goldy twenty or thirty pair ; over that a great double cloak of crim- 
son satin, bordered witn black velvet, and in his bonnet a feather set 
full of ugleU of gold." 

It may not be out of place here to remark also, that Moryson 
himself, incidentally, affords us a clue to the skill of the native Irish 
in agriculture, in tne following passage, where he laments the ne« 
cessity of destroying the com of the O* Mores in Leiz, in the year 

'* Dut the best service at that time done was the killing of Owner 
Mac Rory [0*More], a bloody and bold youn? man, who lately had 
taken the Earl of Ormond prisoner, and had made rrefkt stirs in 
Munster. He was the chief of the 0*More's sept in Leix,and by his 
death (17th of August, 1600) they were so discouraged, that ther 
never after held up their heads. Also a bold bloody Rebel Callogh 
Mac Walter [O'More], was at the same time killed; besides, that 
his Lordship's staying in Leix till the 23rd of August, did many 
other ways weaken them — ^for during that time, he fought almost 
every day with them, and as often did beat them. 

*' Our Captains, and by their example (for it was otherwise pain* 
ful), the common soldiers did cut down with their swords all the 
rebels* com, to the value of jC 10,000, and upwards, the only means 
by which they were to live, and to keep their Donnaghts (or faired 
Soldiers). It seemed incredible that by so barbarous inhabitants the 
ground should be so manured, the fields so orderly fenced, the towns 
so frequently inhabited, and the highways and paths so well beaten, 
as the Lord Deputv here found them. The reason whereof was, 
that the Queen s A>rces, during these wars, never till then came 
amongst them.'* 


Adhna . 


Acs Ealla 


Aircach Brosga 
















Aughrim . 



Baliir Bemcann 
















Bann . 24, 50, 

Ban try 12, 13, 



16. a. 

66, a. 

. 14 

54, a. 

69, a. 

36, a. 

59, a. 

14, 15 

60, 60, 11., 61 
62, a., 63, n. 

44. M. 

78, a. 

43, a. 

39, a. 

78. a. 

68, a. 

73, a. 

65, a. 
42, a. 

78, a. 
45. a. 

4, a. 
36, a. 

79, a. 

48, a. 
75, a. 
48, a. 

5, a. 


28. a. 
63, 63, a. 
65, 65, a. 

a., 62. 



Bard Ruadh (his dcatli) 


18, 19 
42, a. 




Barry's Court 





Beggar*! Butter 

BcU of the Kings (see 

Clog na Riogh). 

Binn-Eadair (llowth) 

Blackwatcr 66, a., 68, a., 69. a 
Blarney . 65, a. 

BoYCvagh 58, 59, 59, a. 

8, 3S, a., 43, a., 62, a. 
4, a., 51, a. 

78* a. 

30, a. 

17, a. 

52, 52, a., 53 

47, a. 

6l,a., 65, a. 

81, a. 



65, a. 


49, a. 



35, a. 

48, a. 







Bunratty . 82, a. 

Burkes, 9, 39. a., 40, a., 41, a., 
4<^ a. 77 a. 
Burrcn 38, 39, 39, a.', 8*^ a! 

Burrin . 8 

Butlers . 7.% a. 

Cahans . . 56, a. 

Caicher . , 22 

CaicT . 15, 16 

infldcHty of his Queen 16 

death of . 17 

Cairbre . . 22 

Cairbrc LifTcachair • 37. a. 

Caidcan Ui Chonaing • 7 

Caislean Chuinn . 81, a. 




26, n. 
70, «., 74, II. 

Caladh Locha Ce 

Callow . .8 

Calphuni 42, 42, ».. 43 

Cane (Dr.) . . 57, n. 

Cappagh . 68, a. 

Cappoquin . 50, a. 
Carew II, 12, 22, »., 64, a. 

Cnrcw't Prophccj . 23, a. 

Carey . 22.25 





Carraig Locha Ce 


23, a. 

22, a. 


38, a. 

Carrick 38, 38, a., 39. 72, 73 

CarrickfergQt 60, a. 

Carrickshock . 57, n. 

Carrigafoyle . 73, n. 

Carriffparaon 70, a. 
Carrion, food for the Irish, 70, a., 
80, a. 

CarrivillceD 15 

Carroghs , |8 

Carrownekelly 10 

Cm 47, a., 78. a. 

Cashel . . Jo 

Castlcbar . 47, a.. 55, a. 

Castle Blakcnej 37, a. 

Caatle Connell . 77, n. 

Castle Fogarty . 71, w. 

Castlcgregory 74, j,. 

Castle KcUy . 37. a. 

Castlerea . . 36, «. 

Castle Mac AulifTc . CG, n. 

Castlemagnor 68, a. 

Cather . . I6 

Cavan . 51, a., 52, a. 

Cea^ a . 78, 79, 79. a. 

Ceallach . 37, a, 

Ccann Lcimc . . 78, a. 

Ccapach 68, 68, a , 69 

Cliarlcville . . 69, ». 

CillChisin . 80, 81, 81, a. 

Cill Chorbain . . 39, a. 

Cinel Eoghain • . 3 

Cinel Fliaghartaigh 60, 60, a. 61 
Cisin's Cliurch (sec Cill Chisin). 

Claenghlais . . 74, „. 

Clann Amhlaoibh 66, 66, a., 67 

Brcasail . 24, 63, a. 

Care (Earl of) , 24 

Cathall . . 13 

• Conal . . 10 

Dalaigh 27, 54, 54,a., 55, 55,a. 


Oann Choilcain 8, 78, 78, a., 79 

Fiamain . . 55, a. 

Gibbon, 42, 42, a., 43, 

43, a., flO, 70, 70, a., 71 
Jcnning, . 40, 40, a., 41 

Mahon . 80,81, 81, a. 

^faiirice . 72, 72, a., 73 

Rickard, 6, 38, 39, 39, a., 

41, a., 42, a, 

WlUiam, 70, a., 76, 76, a., 


Clarach . 66, 67, 67, a. 

Clare 8, 39, a., 41, a., 44, a., 

44, 45. 68, a., 69, a., 71, a., 78, 
78, a., 79, 79, a., 81, a., 82, a. 

Clcana . . 81, a 

Cloch Labhniis 17, ji. 

Cloch-an-Stualcin 40, 41, 41, a. 


34, a. 
5, 10 

48. a. 

49, a. 




Clonmacnoise . 







Cluai n-ramhflioda 

Cluaintiobraid . 






Collins (see O'Coileain) 

Conall Galban 





Connaclit, 6, 7, 8, 15. 16, 22, 26, 

33, 36^ 36, a., 37, 38, a., 39, a.. 

40, a., 43, «., 51, a., 52, a., 
73, a. 
Connell . . 14 

Conncllan (Professor) . 33 

Connello . . 75, a. 

Conner (William) . 73, a. 
Coolavln . . . 38, a. 

Coolishal . . 70, a. 

Coolnalong « . 12 

Coppinger . 81, a, 

Cora . 18, 14 

68» H,, 69, a. 

71, a. 

79, a. 

50, a. 

8-2, a. 
52, 53, 53, a. 

79, a. 

50, 50, a., 51 


47, a. 

78, a, 

57, a. 
37, a., 63, a. 

54, a. 

64, a. 


35, a. 





Corca Adalm 


■ Uzioidhc 


3. 5, 10. 54. «, 
81, n. 
74. ». 

&2, 82, »., 83 



Corr-blmile , , ^, 

Corbally (see Corr.bhaile). 

Cork, 5, n., 10, II. 12. 13, 18, 22, 
»., 26, 27, n., 64, «., 65^ n., 66, 
n., C8, n., CO, »., 70, n., 81, h. 
79, n. 







59, N. 

Cresses, a luxury to tlic Irish. 

70, «., 80, II. 
Crioch-na-n-Alrthcar 62, »., 63, a. 
Crithinbhcal . . 15,21 

Croaghpatrick . 42, a. 

Crom Dubh . • 42, a. 

Cromwell 27, a., 32, 34. a., 

68, a., 69, a., 74, a. 

's Curse . 86, a. 

Crosbie . . 25,26 

Crosby of Ardfert . 25 

Cruachain . 7, 36, 37 

Plunderer of . 36, a. 

Cniimhthcar Ar . 50, a. 

CuchuIIin's Leap 78, a. 

CuiUiseal . 70, 70, a.. 71 

Cummins (Bev. J., C.C.) 14 


Dalach . . 3, 

Dalian Forghaill 
Dill g-Cais 47, a., 78, a„ 
Dal liiada . , 

I>aly 10, 14, 

— — > Eathra 
DcBurgo . 6,39, a.. 

I>ccl (see Daoil). 

Delvin . 26, 


perry . . 7, 


Dcrry-clovane . 

Dcrry DunncU (sec Doirc- 

Desmond, 10, 18, 65, «., 

De Veres 

54, a. 
59. a. 
42, a. 
47, a. 
76, a. 

47, a. 
42, a. 
54. a. 
54, a. 

70, a., 
79, a. 
49, n. 


Diana's Temple 20^ ». 

Diamond . 58» a. 

Digging the grares . 79, a. 
Dillon . . 26 

Disert 56, 57.57, «,, 58, a, 

Disert-toghill . . 57, a. 

I>ocwra 55, a.. 57. a. 

Doire . 54, a. 

Doire Drosgaidh . 54,55 

Ui DhomhnaiU . 

Donagh . 50, 50. a.. 51 

Donegal 33, 42, a., 55. a. 

Doneraile . 79. a. 

Doohy .Regan . . 46^ a. 

DowUng . 20. a. 

Down 51, a., CO, a., 61, a. 

Do^ne . 26 

Dnsliane . . 67, a. 

Dromach . . 68, a, 

Drom Coat (Synod oQ • 17 

Druim Naoi 

DuAragil . . C_ „ 

Dublin 6, 13, a., 25, 27. a., 28. 

54, a.. 69. a. 

Duhallow 66, a., 67, a., 68, a., 


68, a. 

66. a , 68. a.. 69, a. 


64^ a. 


50. a. 

50, 50, a.. 51 



Dun Cearmna 










Dy cc*playert 


64, 64. a., 65 


61. a. 

59, a. 

5. a. 

39. a., 41. a. 


8. 10, 42, 42, a.. 4S 

66,66, a. 67 

82. a. 

5, a* 




Ealathan . |5 

Eachluaih. Conall 78. a. 

Eas Dachonna . 43. a. 

Ui Flilainn . 43, a. 

Ealla . 26, a., 09. a. 

E<1ersgcl . . 16 
Elder Tree (its luaJity) 35, a. 





Emancipation foretold 



Eochaidh Doimhlcn 

Eoghan, race of 



£yil cje, its effect 


36, M. 
82, N. 
GO, 11. 
52, x., 54, n. 
35, R. 
C9, N. 
75. n. 








Fcale, river 





Fergus, river 





Finn, river 









Flcsk, river 


60, «. 

5, N. 

49, «. 

45, «. 


66, n. 

48, 48, II.. 49 




78. R., 81, II. 

*hif R., v4, Hm 


17. ». 

34. 34, It., 35 

59, n. 



7, 39. R., 43, n. 

70; R., 74, R. 

70, H. 
72, R. 
11, 12 
49, n. 

71, ». 

Foighe (explained) . 43, r. 
Ford . 78, 78, r., 79 

Forghas, 78, 79, 79. r., 80, 81. 

81, R. 

Forkhill . 62, r. 

Fort Lodge . 14 

Fox . 3.26 

FoxhaU . 26 

Foyle, river . 56, r. 

Galway, 9, 10, 26. 36, r.. 37, h., 
39, R.. 40, R., 41, R., 42, R. 44, 

R.f 51, R. 


Gallagh . . 37, r. 

Garlacli Coileanach . 35, r. 
Garrycastle . 47, m. 

Gcraldines, 12, r., 5Q, r., 69, r., 
73, R., 74, R. 
Generation drop . 70, r. 

Gibbon . 42, »., 43, r. 

his illegitimacy . 70, r. 

Gilbert . 70, r. 

Gilmore • . 60, r. 

Gillydnff 40, 40, r.. 41 

Ghindore . . 25 

Glcncolumbkille 42, r. 

Gleann Fleisge 70, 71, 71, «.» 72, 

Glenmalure 12, 45^ r. 

Goat's Milk . 38, r. 

Gort . 40, R. 

Gort-Innse-Guairo 40, 40, r., 41 
Granard 48» 48, r., 49, 49, r. 

Grattan . 10 

Griffith 5, ». 

Guaire Aidhne . 40, r. 

Gttthar 16 


Heath House 
llcrenachs • 34, 

IlUl, (Lord G. A.^ 
Holly-tree, remarkable 

Suality of 
y Cross 
Hore (U. F.) 



5, R. 


48, R. 


35, R. 

71, R. 

25, R., 74, R. 

74. 7* 

8, 10. 37, n. 

lar Umhall . . 42, r. 
Idle Men . 18 
Idrone . 22, r. 
Ikerrin . 23 
Inbbear Daoile 44, r. 
Inchiquin . 81, r. 
Inishowen . . 55, r. 
Iraghticonnor . 73, r. 
Irish, their character . 67, r. 
fcc*l on Carrion 70, r., 80, r. 

MSS. 13, R., 34, R. 

Trophocy 22, r. 

Rimers 20, r. 

Irogan, . 26. 46. 46, r., 47 

Islands . . 41, r. 






Knock Abbey * - 51, a. 
Knockroe - • 5^ a. 

Jaract II. 



40, 40, K., 41 

John Mor na Sursainne, 74, «. 



Lagan - 78, 79, 79, a. 


50, »., 57, ». 

lAg-na-n-Dcamlian - 42, a. 


60, »., 69, It. 

I^hcmdota • - 13 

Kcane - 

. 56, »•. 

Ijanigan . - 71» a. 


- 59. «. 

Lansdowne - - 72, a. 

Kclchar (Rct. John, P.P.) 14 

LaraUi - - 13, a. 

Kelli . 

79, «. 

Leap - 78* 78, a., 79 

Kelly - 

87» n. 

Lcay - . 23,a, 


. 66, n. 

Lee . - 45,a. 


- 74. 75 

Ldm Cliongculainn - 78, a. 

Kcon . 


Leinster 7. 17, 33, 44, 45* 63, a. 


- 52, «. 

73, a. 

Kerry 12, ii.,:i8. 

25, 32. 66. a., 

Leinstcrmen satirizod • 17 

7l,ii..7i. « 

.,73, II., 74, «. 

Leitrim 34, a., 35, a., 36. a.. 36* 

Killala . 


37, 39, a. 


. 78, M. 

Leiz CKTen septs oQ - ^ 


32. H., 72. II. 
69, a. 

Leyney - 22, 59, a. 
Lifford . . 55,a. 


5. n. 

Limerick 6, 18. 66, a.. 70. a.. 


41. n. 

75, a., 76, 76, a., 77, 77, a. 

KilcorUan 38, 

39. 39. n., 44. 

liot^^loiU . • 5,6 

44. a., 45 

Lismore - - 69, a. 


12. 13. 14 

IJssadiU Csec Lios^n-doUl). 


70. a. 

Lisnaskea - • 53, a. 


- G2,». 

Loch Ce, . • 39, 39 


5. a. 

Caan - - 60, a. 


28, a., 57. a. 

Feabh.iil. 54, 54, a., 55 

Kilkishen (sec Cill Chisin). 

Shcebin - 52, 52, a., 53 


. 70. a. 

Lodi - . . 73,a. 


- 69, a. 

Londonderry 56. a., 57, a., 58, a.. 


- 41, a. 

59. a. 



Longford 4, a., 25. 26, 36, a. 



49. a., 52. a. 


68, a. 

Loop Head - - 78* a. 


39, a., 40. a. 

Lorton - - 38, a. 


- 60. a. 

LoaghCorrib - - 38, a.. 

KinelFiacha . 

17, a., 48. a 

Foyle - - 54, a. 

Guaire - 

. 40, a. 

Key - . 38.a. 



Mask . . t5. 

King's County 9, 36, n., 46. »., 

Neagh - . 63, a. 

47, « 

., 48. a.. 82, a. 

Bca 9. 39, a., 41. a.. 

Kinsale (sec Dun Ccarmna). 

42, a. 


- 40.11. 

Scur - . .35,a. 

Kipph . 

. 68. «. 
- 51.,. 

SwillT . 55, a. 
I^ughinsholin • 58. a. 

Kitclien.stuflT - 

36. ». 

Louth 51. a.. 63. a.. 84, a. 


5. a. 

Lucey - • 11 


74, a., 75. «, 

Lugluiidh Dcalbh-aodh 47. a. 


54. a. 

Lusma - • 36, a. 





Mac Adam - - CO, m, 

Ainmircach . 17. 2*2 

Artan - - 60, n. 

— an-Crossan - 25 

Auliffe - - G6, fi. 

Cann 24. 62, 03, 63, n. 

Cochlain - - 47, ». 

Coise . - 7 

Carthy 10, 13, 15, 24, 26, 27, 

65r., 66n., 68 n., 74, a. 

Daire - -21 

Dcnnot - 38, r., 64, 65 

Diarmada - - 65 n. 

DoDough - 66, 66, n., 67 

■ Ealathan 

— Edaine 

— Egans 

— Firbi» 

— GioUachoisgle 

— Gillycuddy 

— GiUamuire 
- — Kennas 

— Keraans 


17, n. 
3, 10 

54, ft. 

72, H. 

60, R. 

50, R. 

52, R. 

■ ^lahon 48, 49, 49, r., 50, r., 
79, R., 81, R. 

• Namara 8, 35, r., 78, r., 

79, R., 81, R., 82, R. 

• Tighcnians - 52, r. 

• Walter - - 81, r. 
. WUliam 44, r., 76, 77, 77, r. 

17, R. 

37, R. 


. 51, R. 

- 64, R. 

- 61, R. 
• 35, R, 

52, n., 53, R. 

- 71, R. 
68, 69, 69, R. 

40, 40, R, 41 

34, R.,35, R. 

44, 44, R., 45 

3, 37. R., 54, R. 

- 69. R. 
52, 53, 53, R. 
36, 37, 37, R. 

85, N. 
^lauricc (Archbishop of 

Tuam). - - 22 

Mayo 9, 42. »., 44, r., 47, n. 

Mcath 9, 52, r., .V», n , 84, n. 




Madden (Dr. R. R.) 








Magh Ealla 










Meg Samluradhain - 51, r. 
Mevagh - - 58,59 

Mid-Ballynine - 13 

MiUstrcct - - 67, M. 

Modellgo - - 5, n. 

Moin Ui Dhorahnaill - 6 

Monaghan 49, R., 50, r., 84, r. 
^lortimcn - • 78, r. 

Mount Congrcve - 15 

Pleasant - 47, R. 

Ikloun^oy, 22, 55, R., 57, R., 81, r. 
Moghruith (the Druid) 64, r« 
Moyne (Abbey of) - 44, r. 
Moyntirbary - 11 

Munster, 12, 18, 22, r., 33, 61, 
R., 64, R., 64, 65, 65, R., 73, r., 
78, R., 79, R., 82, R. 
Mucklagh • - 12 

Muintir Bhaire 10, 11, 12, 14 

Eolait 34, 35, 35, r. 

-• Fhidhnach - 34, r. 

Mheacliair - 84, 85 

Muircheartach - 54, r. 

Mullagh . 62, 62, r.. 63, 

Mullagliglass - 62, r. 

Mur-mic-an-Duinn • 7 

Murphy - • 5, r, 

Murrcsk • - 42, r. 

Muskcrry - 64, 65, 65, r. 

Myan Lcay - - 23, r. 

Myathlagh, river - 23, r. 

Myrost - - 13 

Myntervary . 12, 23, r. 


Neidhe - 15. 16, 17, 22 

Newcastle - - 44, r. 

Newmarket - - 66, r. 

Ncwragh - - 45, r. 
Niall (of the Nine Hosta- 

gcs) . 3, 17, R. 

Nicolas . . 12 

Nuala-na-Meadoigo - 40, r. 

Ny-Briain, llonora - 41, r. 


O'Brien 3, 6, 10, 21, 22, 78, r. 
79 R. 
O'Brollaghan - - ' i 

(VByrncs, 12, 44, 44, r., 45, 45. «. 
O'Cahant . • 56.57 

I O'Calbina - - 75, r. 

O'Callaghan, 68, 68. r., 69, 69, r. 




O'Canty - - 20, 20, ii. 

0*Carraidh . 48, n. 

O'CarroU - 82, 82, h., 83 

0*CathIain8 . . 75, m. 

O'CcalUiigh (O'Kclly) . 37, ». 
O'Clcrjr . • 3,10 

O'Coileain . . 74, «. 

O'Coinin's wife . 70, h. 

O'Conncll . . 33 

(Daniel M.P,) 7K n. 

O'Connor, 8, 25, 30, 36, n , 37, 

38, n., 46, 46, «., 47, 47. »., 
O'Crilljr . 58, 58, »., 59 

O'Croinin . . 32 

O'Crowlejr - - 58, w. 

ODftly, 3, 4, 4, a.. 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 
10, 10, ft., 11, 12, 13, 14. 22, 
20. 27, 27, »., 28, 33, 34, 85, 
49, n., 54, a., 01, a., 71, »., 
82, 82. a. 
ODca'a - . 79, a. 

O Diomain - 58, 58, a., 59 
O'Doghcrty 54, 55, 55, a., 64, a. 
O'Donnell, 6, 23, 54, a., 55, a. 
O Donovan 13, 14, 15, 75, a. 

O'Donoghue 70, 71, 71, a., 72 a. 
O'Dugan - - 3, 64, a. 

0*I)uinn - - 26 

0*Dunan « 50, 50, a., 51 

O Dunnes • - 46, a. 

Oflaljr . . 46. a., 47, a. 

O'Farrell . -25,26 

0*Fi>nn - 42, 43, 43, a, 

0'Fogarty*8 Tomb - 71. «. 
Ogasliin . - 78, a. 

O'Glavin - . 12 

0*Grad7 - - 79, a. 

O'llara, 22, 22. a., 58, 59, 59, a. 
0*lInnlon, - G2, 62, a., 63 

Ollaughian . . 9 

O'Higgin . 17, 22, 24, a. 

Oircacht Aibhnc, 56, 56, a., 57 

Ui CUathain, 56, a., 

57, a. 
Oirghialla - 49, a., 62, a. 

OilioU Olum - . 82, a. 

O'Kanct - 56, n,, 57, a. 

O'KecfTe, 14, 26, a., 66, 06, «., 
67, 67, a. 
O'Kclly, 8, 37, a., 38, a., 41, a. 
O'Kcnnedjr . - 74, a. 

Old Parish - 5, a. 

0*Maddens - 37, a., 40, a. 
Omagli • - 57, a. 


82, a. 

48, a. 

82, a. 

43, a. 
33,81, a., 84, 84, 

a., 85 

28, a. 

48, a. 

, 25, 47, a., 81, a. 

82, 83, 84, a. 

- 75, a. 
. 73, a. 
. 61, a. 

8»9, 24 

63, a. 

. 59, a. 

- 3, 79, a. 
32, 32, a. 






O'Mcaghcr, 23, 



O'More 20, a. 










OlleiUy, 9, 13, 14, 50, 51, 51, »., 

52, a. 
O'Roddys - - 34, a, 

Orior - G2. 62, a., 63 

Ormonde, 25, 29, a., 81 a., 85, a., 

86, a. 
0*Roarke, 36, a., 51, a., 52, a., 

84, a. 
Orrery 09, a., 70, 70, a., 71 

0*Sluiughnc8sy, 40, a., 41, a. 

Ossory - 29, a., 82, a. 

O'Sullivan, 11, 64, a., 65, a., 72, a. 
O'TuoliiU • . 59, a. 









54, a. 

Plebeian iDeath of a) - 


Pobble O'Callaghan 


68, a. 




hanging of three 



25. «. 

, 74, a. 

Poor gentlemen 

7-2, a. 



64, a. 



74, a. 



, 69, n. 



75, a. 


Queen Elizabeth 



Queen's County 

46, a. 

, 51, a. 

Quern, its use 


82, a. 






Radetaki . .73, ii. 

Raghnailt N7 Bricn . 8 

RaUidrutn . 45, «. 

Kaithin . I7, h. 

Rathkeale . 74, 75, 75, n. 

Raymond le Gros 7'2, n. 

Reeks, 42, «., 72, 72, n., 73 

Relics . 34, 34, n., 35 

Reynolds . . 35, 11. 

Rhymers . . 18 

Rickards . .38,39 

Roches . 64, C4, »., G5 

Rockingham . . 38, ». 

Roddy, Tliady, curious 

letter of . .34, n. 

Roe, Vale of the 56, ». 

Rome . . 15 

Roscommon 30, a., 38, n., 43, n , 
73. n. 
Roscorr . 17, ». 

Rourks 73, ji. 

Samhradhain . 50, 51 

Sandal*8 Dun 42, fi. 

Sjitire, its eyil effects . 28 

a-iTadge CO, 60, n., 61, 61, ». 

Scanra . . 51, n. 

Scully . . 85, n. 

Siol Adhaimh . 54, «. 

Anmcbadha, 36, 36,^«., 37 

Skibb^rcen • . . ** 14 

Sliabh Bladhma . 40, «. 

Sligo . 5, 22, 50, «. 

Sliamrocks, food for t)ie Irish, 

52, »., 70, M., 80, M. 
Shannon, 46, 47, 73, n., 78, n. 



36, ff. 


Talbot . 9 

Tamhlacht-Ui.Chroiligh 58, «. 
Taudragce . . 62, n. 

Tara . 7 

Tcabhtha . 3 

Teallach Dunchadha . 52, ». 

Eathach . 51, a. 

Tcffia (see Teablitha). 
Thibbot of the Brandy 43, «. 

Thoraond, 6, 21, 78, n., 70, 79, n. 
Ticooley . . 37, *. 

Tinaliinch . . .46, n. 

Tirawley . . 44, «. 

Tirconnell . . 6, M, «. 

Tipperary. 23, 33, 76, ».. 81, »., 
84, «., 85, n., 86. it. 

murderous character of 

tlic men of 86, n. 


Tuatlia-dc -Dananns 
I Tullyhunco 

, Tullylcase 

I Truogh 




Sheep's Ucad 






St. AcnghusCcileDe 

23, a. 

~ Aidan 


— Calllin 

34, a 

— Corban 


— Columbkille 17, 17, fi 

, 42, n. 

— Dochonna . 

43, ». 

— Guasacht 

49, a. 

— Molua 

50, R. 

— O'Suanaigh 

17, a. 

62, n. 


81, a. 

51, n. 

52, n. 
(i9, a. 

39, a., 50, M. 
29, 55, a., 57, a. 


Ui Deaghaidh . 82, a. 

— Ria<rain . . 46, a. 

Ulster 8, 33, 48, 49. 59, a., CO, 
a., 63, a., 73, a. 
UmhaU , . 43, a. 

Ursina . . 15 


5, R. 


— Patrick, 10, 42, a., 49, a., 

50, a., 59, R., 85, a., 86, r. 

Stanley . . 17 

Step .mothers . 35, a. 

Waller . 85, a., 86, r. 

Waters . 26 

Watcrford 5, a., 15 a., 17.a., 50, a. 
West Bally rune . 13 

Wcstnicath, 3, 5, 17, 17, a., 47, a., 
54, a. 
Wexford 5, a., 25, a., 74, a. 
Whaley (Dr.) . 27, a. 

Satirized . 28 

White Knight 70, a. 

Wicklow . 44, a. 


3 2044 OSo'tS? 


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