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» 8» 7 








1.58H in 1903. 





Vttto Ifoilt 



Aa riikli ratrvd 

•w> -^ 


» - • » 

Copyright, 1904, 

By the macmillan company. 

Set up and electrotTped. Publiihed July, 1904. 

Norwood Preu 

J. S. Ouhing ^ O. — Berw'tk Gf Smitb Co. 

Norwood^ Mau,^ U,S,A, 


For thirty-eight consecutive years I was a 
visitor at breeding farms and a close observer 
of horses at speed on the trotting tracks of the 
country, and in this way I gained knowledge of 
the subject discussed in this volume. I was an 
unwavering advocate of movements which estab- 
lished system where chaos had reigned, and it 
would be mock modesty for me to pretend that 
my acquaintance with facts is distant The evo- 
lution of the trotter took place during the active 
period of my life. The fortunate owner of a 
good library on the horse counts his books by 
the hundred. Whole volumes have been sur- 
rendered to one family or tribe. It was no easy 
task to condense, from thousands of letters and 
printed pages, the facts which I present I have 
tried to give a bird's-eye view of the situation, 
and have not spun yams. in which a pound of 
fancy paralyzes one little grain of truth. It has 
been my aim to give a compact history of 

vi Preface 

Some who idly turn these pages may think 
that, if I have erred, it is in conciseness of state- 
ment; but people of inquiring minds who refer 
to the book for information, having faith that 
fiction has been subordinated to fact, will thank 
me for an error of this kind. 


New York, 
June. Z9G4. 


I. The Introduction of the Horse and the Gradual 

Increase of Speed i 

II. From 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better. Tracks, 

Vehicles, and Wind-shields . . . .11 

III. The Two-minute Horses of 1903 .... 25 

IV. Primordial Streams of Speed .... 36 
V. The Lady Suffolk Era 40 

VI. Flora Temple, 2.19}, and Dexter, 2.17} • .46 
VII. Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler . . . -Si 
VIII. From the 2. 13 J of Rams to the 2.03} of The Abbot 65 
IX. Cresceus: Reduction of Stallion Record and Double 

Harness Rivalry 78 

X. The Foundation Horses, Imported Messenger and 

Justin Morgan 86 

XI. Three Eneigetic Sons of Justin Morgan, Bulrush, 

Woodbury, and Sherman Morgan ... 96 
XII. The Morrill Tribe and Other Descendants of Justin 

Moigan 105 

XIII. Mambrino Chief and his Descendants • . • 113 

XIV. The PUot FamUy 129 

XV. Messenger and the Tribe of Hambletonian . -135 

XVI. Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian, including George 

Wilkes 152 

XVII. The Family of Electioneer 173 





XVIII. VoluDteer, Aberdeen, Happy Medium, Dictator, 

Harold, and Strathmore 184 

XIX. Cuyler, Egbert, Jay Gould, Edward Everett, and 

Other Members of the Hambletonian Tribe 199 

XX. The Star Family 210 

XXI. The Qay Family 216 

XXII. The Blue Bull, Royal George, and Other Subsidiary 

Families 225 

XXIII. Great Producing Mares: Green Mountain Maid, 

Miss Russell, and Beautiful Bells . . 233 

XXIV. Other Great Producing Mares, including Clara, 

Alma Mater, and Dame Winnie . . 249 

XXV. The Era of High Prices 270 

XXVI. The Dawn of Systematic Breeding: Track Gov- 
ernment 275 

XXVII. The Growth of Discipline : Horse Shows . . 285 

XXVIII. Road-riding Movements 296 

XXIX. Amateur Driving Clubs 301 

XXX. The Pacing Horse 303 

XXXI. The Multiplication of the Pacer . . .316 

XXXII. Breeding and Breeding Establishments . 324 

IlTOEX 335 


Lou Dillon Frontispiece 


£. £. Smathers, driving Major Delmar 14 

C. K. G. Billings, driving the Champion Trotter, Lou Dillon . 14 

Pace-maker with Wind-shield 24 

Wind-shield and Dirt-shield 24 

Major Delmar 30 

Dan Patch 34 

Prince Alert 35 

£. T. Bedford, driving York Boy and Bemay • • • . 35 

Flora Temple 46 

Beautiful Bells 46 

Dexter 48 

Goldsmith Maid 50 

Nancy Hanks 50 

Mauds 68 

Sunol 72 

AJix 76 

The Abbot 76 

Cresceus 78 

Kremlin 78 

Palo Alto 124 

Directum 124 

Rysdyk^s Hambletonian 144 

Mambrino Chief 144 


X Illustrations 

Geoige Wilkes 156 

Electioneer 156 

Miss Russell 232 

Green Mountain Maid *. . . 232 

Axtell 270 

Arion 270 

P. P. Johnston 286 

William Russell AUen 2S6 

W. P. Ijams 286 

J. Malcolm Forbes 290 

John £. Thayer 290 

Lawrence Kip 290 

Robert Bonner 296 

WUliam H. Vanderbilt 296 

Mambrino Patchen 306 

Baron Wilkes 306 

Star Pointer 312 

John R. Gentry 312 

Joe Patchen 320 

Brown Hal 320 

Charles Backman 324 

Benjamin F. Tracy 324 

William C. Whitney 324 

C. J. Hamlin 326 

Leland Stanford 326 







According to Nesbit, horse-races were made a 
feature of public festivities as early as the Patri- 
archs* time. The fever spread from Eastern coun- 
tries to other countries. Horses first drew burdens, 
but after the invention of saddles carried them 
on their backs. In the days of Augustus sport- 
loving Romans rode in different colors, usually 
green, red, white, and sea-color. In the reign of 
Henry II of England races took place at Epsom, 
and the breeding of horses was encouraged by 
Henry VIII. 

The horse, as shown by fossil remains, existed 
in America prior to its discovery by Columbus, 
but the first importation across the Atlantic 
was made in 1493. These horses were taken to 

B 1 

2 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

the West India Islands by Columbus, and from 
there the stock spread to Florida in 1 5 2 7. De Soto 
was attended by cavalry in the expedition in which 
he discovered the Mississippi River. In 1604 
horses were taken from France to Nova Scotia, 
and in 1608 the French introduced horses into 
Canada. In 1609 English ships landed horses at 
Jamestown, and Bancroft informs us that in 1656 
the horse had niultiplied in Virginia and through 
favorable legislation had improved. Speed was 
especially valued. Horses were landed in Massa- 
chusetts in 1629, and in the same year were im- 
ported into New York from Holland. In Virginia 
and the Carolinas particular attention was paid to 
the breeding of horses for the running track, while 
in Pennsylvania, New York, and the New England 
States the horse of general utility was cultivated. 
The easy motion of the Narragansett pacer made 
him desirable for the saddle when road-building 
was in its primitive stage, and the first speed com- 
petitions between horses were on level stretches 
of the country. These saddle contests were far 
from orderly, but were keenly relished by the little 
communities weighed down by monotony and 
craving excitement. All kinds of sharp practices 
were resorted to for the purpose of beating a rival. 

Introduction of the Horse 3 

and there is more fable than actual truth in some 
of the reports handed down to us from those 
days. Time could not be accurately taken on these 
straight stretches of road, and this afforded boast- 
ers plenty of latitude for exaggeration. The time 
reported for flights of speed in straightaway ice 
races and speedway exhibitions is alyrays open 
to question, and is not officially recognized. It 
belongs to the realm of irresponsible talk. 

The early tracks were poorly constructed, and 
seconds slower than those of to-day. The trainer 
had to ride as well as drive in contests, a large per 
cent of the recorded races being open to horses 
under saddle. The observation stands were 
roughly constructed, and the entire surroundings 
were crude. On a half-mile track at Harlem, New 
York, in June, 1806, a horse called Yankee is re- 
puted to have trotted a mile in 2.59. The per- 
formance of Boston Blue, at Jamaica, New York, 
in 18 18, a mile in three minutes, is authentic. In 
1827 Rattler trotted two miles under saddle in 
5.24; in 1828 Screwdriver trotted three miles 
under saddle in 8.02; and in 1829 Topgallant 
trotted three miles in harness in 8.1 1. The dif- 
ference between saddle and harness for three 
miles is nine seconds, but the difference in the 

4 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

capacity of the two horses is not accurately known. 
In 1834 Edwin Forrest, a black gelding, trotted a 
mile under saddle in 2.31^, and in the same year 
a bay mare called Sally Miller trotted a mile in 
harness in 2.37. The Lady Suffolk era began in 
1845, when she trotted in harness in 2.29^. The 
same year Moscow, a bay gelding of unknown 
blood, trotted in 2.3a In 1849 Lady Sutton, by 
Morgan Eagle, trotted in 2.30, and Pelham, a 
bay gelding of untraced breeding, trotted in 2.28. 
In the appended table I give championship 
records, designating those made with wind or dirt 
shield with the letter s, and those made on kite 
tracks with the letter k : — 

One mile, Lou Dillon, chestnut mare, 1903 . • <*SH ' 
Two miles, Robert McGregor, chestnut horse, 190a 4.17 

Three miles, Nightingale, chestnut mare, 1893 • 6.55^ 

Four miles. Senator L., chestnut horse, 1893 . . xo.ia 

Five miles, Zambra, brown gelding, 1902 • . 12.24 
Ten miles, John Stewart, bay gelding, 1867 . 28.02^ 

Thirty miles, General Taylor, gray horse, 1857 • x*47*59 

One hundred miles, Conqueror, bay gelding, 1853 . 8.55.05 

Twenty, fifty, and one hundred mile perform- 
ances are no longer in vogue. They served no 
good purpose, and the Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals interfered. 

Introduction of ibe Horse 5 

The best high- wheel records at one mile 

are: — 


Maud S.» chestnut mare, 1885 • . . . 2.o8f 

Sunoly bay mare, 1891 3.08^ i& 

Palo Alto, bay horse, 1891 2.08 J >& 

Jay-eye-see, black gelding, 1884 .... 3.10 

Mr. Bonner, who owned both Maud S. and 
Sunol, estimated that the high- wheel record of 
Maud S. on the oval track at Cleveland was a 
second better than that of Sunol on the kite 
track at Stockton. The kite was but a passing 
fancy and is no longer in use. The first one 
was built at Independence, Iowa, in 1890, and 
the one long turn gave it an advantage in point 
of speed over the regulation track with its two 
turns, especially when high wheels were in gen- 
eral use. After the introduction of the bicycle 
sulky in 1892, this advantage was not so appar- 
ent; and as the public objected to kite races on 
account of the horses going so far from the 
grand stand, the tracks of this design ceased to 

The important question is how much Lou 
Dillon was assisted by the horse immediately in 
front of her with a dirt-shield. Maud S. trotted 
without artificial aids. Mr. J. Malcolm Forbes 

6 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

estimated the difference between the high-wheel 
record and the bicycle sulky at five seconds. 
Only through careful experiment can we deter- 
mine the difference between shield records and 
other records. 

The best records made under saddle are : — 

One mile, Great Eastern, bay gelding, 1877 . . 3.15 

Two miles, George M. Patchen, bay horse, 1863 . 4.56 

Three miles, Dutchman, bay gelding, 1839 . . 7-32^ 

Four miles, Dutchman, bay gelding, 1836 . . .10.51 

The harness record of Great Eastern is 2.18, 
and, taking his two performances as a guide, we 
fix the saddle as 3 seconds faster than the sulky. 
Horses are not alike, and some will show a 
greater difference than this between saddle and 

Trotting with running mate has also gone out 
of fashion. It was no proof of merit, because 
the runner not only relieved the trotter of weight 
but pulled him forward. The records are : — 

One mile (against time), Ayres P., chestnut gelding, 1893, 2.03^ 
One mile (in a race), Frank, bay gelding, 1883 . . 2.08^ 

The team records for one mile are : — 

The Monk, brown gelding, by Chimes, and Equity, 

black gelding, by Heir at Law, 1903 . . . 2.08 

Introduction of the Horse 7 

Rose Leaf, black mare, by Gold Leaf, and Sally Simmons, 

bay mare, by Simmons (in a race), 1894 . . 2.15^ 

The three-abreast record of one mile was made in 1891 
by Belle Hamlin, Globe, and Justina, all by Hamlin's 
Almont Jr., and it is 2.14 

The four-in-hand record, one mile, was made in 1896 by 
Damania, Bellnut, Maud V., and Nutspra, all by 
Nutwood, and it is 2.30 

The £Eistest record at one mile over a half-mile track is 

that of Cresceus, in 1903 ..... 2.08 

The best undisputed record of Cresceus on a 
mile track is 2.02^, which would fix the difference 
between the two tracks at sf seconds. 

The fastest half-mile record on a mile track is that of 

The records to wagon are : — 


One mile, Lou Dillon, 1903 

2,00 S 

One mile, Major Delmar, 1903 . . • . 

2. 03 J S 

Two miles. Dexter, 1865 . . . . . 

. 4.56i 

Three miles. Prince, 1857 

• 7.S3J 

Five miles, Fillmore, 1863 . . . . , 

. I3«i6 

Ten miles, Julia Aldrich, 1858 

. 29.04J 

Twenty miles. Controller, 1878 . • . . 

. 5857 

The wagons of to-day are but mere feathers as 
compared to those of 1865, and this fact should 
be taken into consideration in estimating the 
difference between performances. 

8 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

The best trot of a pair to wagon on a half-mile track was 
that of York Boy and Bemay at Parkway, in 
in 1902 2.12^ 

The best trot in single harness to wagon on a half-mile 

track was that of Cresceus, in 1901 . . . 2.12 

It is not possible in the space to which I am 
limited to give all meritorious performances, but 
the reader will gain a clear idea of progression 
in breeding and development from the chapters 
which treat of epoch-making horses. 

Nevertheless, at the risk of being charged with 
repetition, I introduce a compilation which will 
enable the reader to see at a glance the progress 
of development. It took years to increase har- 
ness speed from three minutes to two minutes. 

Boston Blue, black gelding 

Bull Calf, bay gelding 

Edwin Forrest, black gelding 

Dutchman, bay gelding 

Lady Suffolk, gray mare 

Pelham (converted pacer), bay gelding 

Highland Maid (converted pacer), bay mare 

Flora Temple, bay mare . 

Flora Temple, bay mare . 

Dexter, brown gelding ^ 

Goldsmith Maid, bay mare 

Goldsmith Maid, bay mare . 

Rams, bay gelding • 

St Julien, bay gelding 

. I8I8 


. 1830 


. 1838 


. 1839 


. 1845 


. 1849 


■e 1853 


• 1856 


. 1859 


. 1867 

2.1 7i 

. 1871 


. 1874 


. 1878 


• X879 


Introduction of the Horse 











1 891 








1 901 




Maud S., chestnut mare 
Maud S., chestnut mare 
Jay-eye-see, black gelding 
Maud S., chestnut mare 
Maud S., chestnut mare 
Sunoly bay mare 
Nancy Hanks, brown mare 
Alix, bay mare . 
The Abbot, bay gelding 
Cresceus, chestnut horse 
Lou Dillon, chestnut mare 

The bicycle sulky came into use in 1892, and 
Nancy Hanks and all subsequent record-breakers 
had the advantage of it. The 1.58^ of Lou 
Dillon was made with a pace-maker and dirt- 
shield in front of her. 

The first record up to the present standard was 
made in 1845 by Lady Suffolk. Now there are 
over thirty thousand trotters and pacers of stand- 
ard speed rank. The steady advancement of 
the light-harness horse was not due to chance. 
It was the result of earnest thought and per- 
sistent effort. The man who was able to show 
a higher rate of speed than his neighbor in a 
brush on a country road felt a thrill of elation, 
and the desire grew in him to breed a still faster 
animal. His neighbor was ambitious to excel, 
to lead instead of follow, and he also turned his 

lo Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

thoughts to breeding and development Year 
after year a greater number of mares were bred, 
and who can tell of the anxious days of anticipa- 
tion? After the safe delivery of the colt hope 
began to expand, and every change of form from 
babyhood to maturity was followed with deepest 
interest. The disappointments outnumbered the 
successes, but they stimulated the breeder to 
try again. He was determined to rise above 
failure. If he sold a promising young horse, he 
did not lose interest in it He kept in touch 
with it through reports in journals which chroni- 
cled events of the track, and each victory brought 
a glow of pleasure to his face. Thousands of 
foals pressed with tiny hoofs the clover blossoms 
of spring and summer, which never trotted or 
paced a mile in 2.30, but the motto was to per- 
severe, and the dream was nursed of finally 
producing championship form. The long road 
from three minutes to two minutes ran through 
shadow as well as sunshine, but the accomplish- 
ment was worth millions of heart-beats, because 
the light-harness horse is recognized the world 
over as one of the greatest triumphs of the 
industrial life of America. 




For years after the trotting record had been 
carried down to 2.10 by Jay-eye-see, August i, 
1884, there were discussions as to the ultimate 
speed of the trotter. Pages were written to 
prove that the two-minute horse was an impossi- 
bility. The early arguments were based upon 
the assumption that there would be no improve- 
ment in tracks and vehicles. Five years after 
Maud S. had trotted to a record of 2.o8f at 
Cleveland the kite track came into use, and 
on it Sunol beat the record by half a second. 
It was September 28, 1891, that Sunol trotted 
to a record of 2.08J. Seven years after the 
2.o8f of* Maud S. at Cleveland the ball-bearing 
bicycle sulky was introduced, and it enabled 
Nancy Hanks in September of that year to 
trot to a record of 2.04. Nancy Hanks tried 
to equal 2.0&J to high-wheel sulky and failed, 


1 2 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

as did Alix, who in 1894 trotted to a record 
of 2.03I. These are impressive facts to every 
thoughtful man of experience. The advantage 
of the 28-inch wheel with pneumatic tire is that it 
reduces friction, especially around the turns, and 
enables the horse not only more fully to extend 
himself, but to carry the speed over a longer dis- 
tance. Year after year the regulation track has 
improved, particular attention being given to 
angles, grades, and elasticity of road-bed ; and the 
sulky and wagon builder has turned out vehicles 
of lighter and better design. A special aim has 
been to overcome as far as possible atmospheric 
resistance. In 1900 The Abbot reduced the 
world's record to 2.03 J, and in 1901 Cresceus car- 
ried it down to 2.02 J^. Here it stood until 1903, 
when another striking innovation was introduced. 
Vehicles and tracks had continued to improve, 
and a shield was brought into use. 

After Lou Dillon had trotted at Readville, 
Massachusetts, in two minutes, Mr. Albert C. 
Hall addressed a letter to me at Colorado 
:!5prings, where I was engaged upon this work, 
in which he said: — 

" I was pleased to hear from the lips of 
Mr. Billings how well the mare finished the 

From 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better 13 

mile, going the last quarter in 29 seconds, and 
the last eighth in 14 seconds. He told me 
that she went without check, with 4^-ounce 
shoes forward and 2f-ounce shoes behind, and 
with very few boots. Now that the trotting 
horse has reached the two-minute mark and 
within one second of the pacing record, what 
does Mr. Busbey think will be the limit of speed 
for a mile ? " 

The shield innovation looked so dangerous 
to me that under date of September 22, 1903, 
I addressed a formal letter to William Russell 
Allen, President of the American Trotting 
Register Association: — 

" Previous to the conference between the 
National Trotting Association, the American 
Trotting Association, and the American Trot- 
ting Register Association, which led to the pres- 
ent rules governing performance against time, 
the validity of many so-called time records was 
questioned. There were heated controversies 
in the public prints over trials against the watch, 
and but little faith was reposed in some of the 
stated eflForts. As the official head of the Ameri- 
can Trotting Register Association, and as a 
member of the Board of Appeals of the National 

14 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Trotting Association, you were in a position to 
bring about a much-needed change; but if my 
recollection is good, no suggestion was made 
by you that a horse in going against the watch 
should be more favored than a horse competing 
against a hostile field. The desire was to 
remove a prejudice against time records, and 
to place them on an absolute equality with race 
records. In actual races no artificial aids are 
allowed, and the logical presumption is that this 
is true of performances against time. In a race 
where every heat must be contested by every 
horse in the race, and every horse must be driven 
to the finish, there is no room for a foreign factor 
like an automobile or a wind-breaking runner, 
and I should like to be informed what position 
the Register Association is likely to take on this 
question. Each year your Association rejects 
records for one cause or another, and if you 
could favor me with your views on the reported 
wind-shield time performances of Dan Patch, 
Prince Alert, Cresceus, Major Delmar, and Lou 
Dillon, I would esteem it a favor. It was by 
slow stages that sneering allusions to * tin-cup 
records' were silenced, and I take it that it is 
not conducive to the best interests of breeding 


LOU DILLON, 1.58% / 

From 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better 15 

and the Register Association to encourage de- 
parture from the rigid rules which have placed 
all records on a footing of equality." 

September 27 President Allen wrote in reply: — 
" There is no rule against using a pace-maker 
in trials against time. Rule 58, Section i, allows 
any other horse to 'accompany' the performer. 
You will note the rule says may 'accompany.' 
As the rule allows a horse, it is presumable that 
it was not intended to allow an automobile to 
•accompany/ or it would have been so worded. 
Does the word 'accompany' mean that the 
any other horse may precede the performer? 
A horse alone, immediately preceding a per- 
former, would act as a wind-shield to a certain 
degree. A horse with a man in a cart would act 
in the same way in a greater degree. No horse 
not actually a participant in a race is allowed to 
precede any horse in a race, but a participant in 
a race may precede other horses, and other horses 
may use him as a shield or wind-break at pleas- 
ure. So that we have or can have in races, 
pace-makers and wind breaks or shields. I can- 
not tell you in answer to your question what 
position the Register Association is likely to 
take. It is a matter for careful consideration, 

1 6 The Trolling and Ibe Pacing Horse 

and I have no doubt it will come before the Asso- 
ciation for determination before the next Year 
Book is published." 
October i, 1903, 1 replied to President Allen : — 
" It is true that Rule 58 makes it proper for a 
horse to accompany a contestant against time, 
but when it declares that this horse shall not in 
any way be attached to said contestant, the im- 
plied understanding is that no agent shall be 
used to overcome natural elements. Atmos- 
pheric pressure is one of these elements, and the 
idea of sending a wind-breaker in advance of a 
competitor was never contemplated by the 

"In some parts of a race a horse may trail 
another, and thus be materially aided by the 
shield; but should his driver persist in these 
tactics from start to the head of the home-stretch, 
the judges would fail in the performance of their 
duty if they did not admonish him. If one horse 
is permitted to trail, why not another, until we 
have an absurdly long line of trailers? At the 
head of the home-stretch each horse shall select 
his position and swerve neither to the right nor 
the left. Here, at least, there is no place for a 
wind-breaker. What is called * helping' is strictly 

From 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better 17 

forbidden in a race. Unless every heat is con- 
tested by every horse in the race and every horse 
is driven to a finish, the race degenerates into a 
farce. The chronic trailer, according to my way 
of thinking, invites suspension or expulsion. I 
regard it a mistake to make time records easier 
of accomplishment than race records. Time is 
the basis of the standard, and care should be 
taken not to revive the old prejudice against 
horses that obtain records in competition against 
the watch. If the two-minute horse is allowed 
favors in a contest against time, why not the 2.31 
or 2.32 horse? And then we may look for shoals 
of the newcomers, until the speed standard is 
debased. I am not opposed to progress ; I have 
never proclaimed the impossibility of the two- 
minute horse ; I should rejoice to see the trotter 
equal the runner, — but we cannot make rules 
for one performer which do not apply to all 
performers at the same gait. This fact must be 
clear to every intelligent mind, and I have asked 
a few questions of you because you occupy official 
position and have established a reputation for 
clearness of thought and terseness of statement." 
I received an invitation by telegraph to come 
to the October meeting at Lexington and discuss 

1 8 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

the question with official heads of governing asso- 
ciations, and took the train from Colorado for 
Kentucky. At Lexington I met President John- 
ston of the National Trotting Association, Presi- 
dent Allen of the American Trotting Register 
Association, and Secretary W. H. Knight of the 
American Trotting Association, and views were 
exchanged. I was in the judges' stand with Presi- 
dents Johnston and Allen, when it was directed 
that all trials with shields should be so entered 
in the official record book of the meeting. The 
object of this was to bring the question squarely 
before the governing associations. The letter 
which the late J. Malcolm Forbes wrote me 
on the shield question is given elsewhere. I 
agree with him that a distinction should be made 
between wind-shields and dirt-shields. 

Under date of December ii, 1903, the sons of 
Robert Bonner addressed a letter to William H. 
Knight, Secretary of the American Trotting Reg- 
ister Association, protesting against the accept- 
ance of the 2.05 of Lou Dillon at Cleveland, 
September 12, 1903. The reasons given were 
that the announcement was made that Lou Dillon 
would trot to high-wheel sulky to beat the 2.c>8f 
of Maud S. ; that the performance was invalidated 

From 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better 19 

by the use of a wind-shield, and by resort to ball- 
bearing axles. 

When Mr. R. E. Bonner sent the protest to me 
for an opinion, I, in substance, replied that I did 
not believe that Mr. Billings was a party to the 
concealing of the use of ball-bearing axles on the 
sulky of Lou Dillon ; that unreflecting employees 
of that gentleman should be held responsible for 
this action ; that the major point at issue was not 
ball-bearing axles, but the use of a dirt-shield and 
a pace-maker in front. The judges of racing can- 
not discriminate between high-wheel and low- 
wheel sulkies. Each manufacturer has his own 
ideas, and competition is open to all builders. If 
one high wheel is lighter and less friction-produc- 
ing than another, you cannot impose a handicap 
on the man who is shrewd enough to take advan- 
tage of it. There is a marked difference between 
the speed-contributing power of an old-fashioned 
high-wheel sulky and the up-to-date bicycle sulky ; 
but if a man has a horse properly entered in a 
race and is not so fortunate as to own a ball- 
bearing bicycle, you cannot refuse him the privi- 
lege of starting to high wheel, unless you take the 
ground that the handicap is self-imposed for a 
fraudulent purpose. Under registration rules 

20 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

high-wheel and low-wheel records are treated 

January 5, 1904, a joint committee, composed 
of three representatives each from the National 
Trotting Association, the American Trotting 
Association, and the American Trotting Register 
Association, met in New York and one of the 
things discussed was shield performances. The 
validity of irregular performances against the 
watch was formally disputed by the American 
Trotting Association, and this brought the ques- 
tion before the official board, the three presidents 
of the governing associations. On January 7 
there was a public hearing before the board, com- 
posed of Presidents P. P. Johnston, W. P. Ijams, 
and William Russell Allen, and the fact was 
established that the official announcement at 
Cleveland was that Lou Dillon would start to 
beat 2.o8f to high-wheel sulky. The report 
telegraphed over the country that the mare started 
under the precise conditions that governed the 
record-breaking performance of Maud S. lacked 
the important element of truth. The fact was 
also established through the testimony of Charles 
Tanner, an employee of Mr. Billings, that the 
sulky drawn by Lou Dillon was fitted with ball- 

From 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better 21 

bearing hubs. After a patient hearing the board 
handed down this decision : — 

" We find that the performance of Lou Dillon 
at Cleveland on September 12, 1903, to high- 
wheel, ball-bearing sulky, with a pace-maker with 
dirt-shield in front, was not a record, because the 
mare had previously performed in faster time, 
which performance was her record and precluded 
a slower performance being a record. 

" We also find the performance of Maud S. at 
Cleveland in 1885 was to high-wheel, plain-axle 
sulky, according to rule ; that the time, 2.o8f , was 
not only her best time, but the best time ever 
made up to that date, and was a record. 

"No record can be made with a wind-shield 
other than an ordinary dirt-shield and pace-maker 
in front. A performance with pace-maker in 
front with dirt-shield shall be recorded with a 
distinguishing mark referring to a note stating 
the fact." 

This decision gives Maud S. the place of honor 
during the period that the high-wheel sulky was 
in general use ; her 2.o8f is the best high-wheel 
record over regulation track; but no sharp line 
of distinction, for handicap and registration pur- 
poses, is drawn between sulkies. 

22 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Seven days after the decision Mr. W. R. Allen, 
President of the American Trotting Register 
Association, favored me with his views : " There 
is no such classification in the Year Book as 
record to high wheels. No horse holds such 
an official record. No distinction was made 
when the bike wheels came in, in 1892, and there 
is no reason why there should be now. A horse 
having a record of 2.02 J to harness cannot get 
a record of 2.05 to harness. Maud S. has no 
official record to high wheel. No horse has. 
But Maud S. held the record to harness for a long 
time, and it is well known that the performance 
was to high wheels. Palo Alto also performed 
to high wheels equally as fast. Sunol performed 
to high wheels faster. That Lou Dillon can 
pull the same sulky that Maud S. did in better 
than 2.o8|^ on the Cleveland track, no one doubts. 
Maud S.'s performance was a great one and was 
conceded to be the best for the period, but many 
horses have since performed greater feats than 
she did at the trotting gait." 

In a letter to me concerning the same matter 
Mr. R. E. Bonner says: "The decision, when 
I consider the limited position in which the com- 
mittee were placed, because they felt that the 

From 2.10 to Two Minutes and Better 23 

custom, rule, or precedent that a horse having a 
^ter record could not start to obtain a lower 
record, is satisfactory to me. The inference, 
however, that in the future no horse having a 
faster record than 2.o8f could start against Maud 
S.'s performance and obtain a record is not pleas- 
ing or satisfactory. K the owner of any horse 
should wish to make a thoroughly honorable and 
upright comparative test and succeed, both my 
brother Frederic and myself would gladly ac- 
knowledge Maud S.'s performance surpassed with- 
out regard to the fact as to whether or no such 
a performance was a technical record." 

From a letter written to the New York Sun, 
by Hugh E. McLaughlin, giving the mathe- 
matical side of the question, I take the follow- 
ing: "The two-minute horse on a dead calm 
day, facing a thirty-mile wind created by himself, 
meets an opposing force of ^ of 5 pounds per 
square foot, or 2^ pounds ; and the section of the 
cylindrical surfaces in this case being 12 square 
feet we find by multiplying 12 by 2^ a pressure 
of 30 pounds against the unshielded trotter. 

" Behind the shield the horse benefits most 
when close up, but benefits some if within any 
reasonable distance. The partial vacuum and 

24 Tbe Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

suction, so called, behind the pace-maker cer- 
tainly withdraw a large part of the 30 pounds' 
pressure that would otherwise oppose the horse. 
The dirt-shield pace-maker shields the horse 
behind in the same way that the Reliance in 
the windward position effectually blanketed the 
Shamrock^ though the two were more than 
20 lengths apart ; and yet some horsemen claim 
that only when the pace-follower is less than one 
length behind is he assisted to any extent." 

The truth or falsity of these conclusions can 
easily be demonstrated in 1904 by Lou Dillon, 
Major Delmar, Dan Patch, and other horses who 
performed with shields in 1903. 





Sensational performances were numerous dur- 
ing the summer of 1903. The trotter crossed the 
two-minute line, but in a way not commended by 
thousands of thoughtful observers. 

In 1 88 1 the bay mare Sweetness, record 2.21 J, 
by Volunteer by Hambletonian out of Lady Mer- 
ritt by Edward Everett by Hambletonian, was 
one of the five mares bred to Santa Claus, son of 
Strathmore by Hambletonian, and the outcome 
was Sidney, who paced to a record of 2.i9f. Octo- 
ber 29, 1889, I was at the Valensin Stock Farm, 
Pleasanton, California, and from a note-book used 
on that occasion I copy : — 

"Sidney, bay horse, eight years old; straight 
hip ; plenty of substance and length. Left fore- 
leg was hurt when he was a colt. Trotted a 
quarter as a yearling in 37 seconds and then went 
to pacing. Very quiet in disposition. Good head 
and neck. Stands 15.2^; breeds large and is a 
good feeder " 


26 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

I also saw the same day a mare whose descrip- 
tion was hastily jotted down: "Venus, chestnut 
mare, bloodlike head and neck ; in foal by Sidney ; 
hurt in race and left fore leg club-footed; has 
length and stands 15 hands; got by Captain 
Webster, son of Williamson's Belmont; dam by 
Kentucky Hunter. Venus is the dam of Adonis. 
One of her foals, called John Goldsmith, is in the 
Sandwich Islands and has trotted in the thirties." 

The Kentucky Hunter cross is conjectural. 
Adonis paced to a three-year-old record of 2. 14 J, 
and as a five-year-old took a record of 2.1 ij^. 
The trotters out of Venus are Cupid, 2.18, and 
Lea, 2. 1 8 J. Sidney Dillon, the son of Sidney 
and Venus, was not well handled in the training 
stable and failed to obtain a record, although he 
was pure-gaited as a trotter. He was owned by 
the Pierce Brothers of the Santa Rosa Farm, 
California, and one of the results of his first 
modest season in the stud was Dolly Dillon, who 
trotted to a record of 2.o*j\. The second season, 
a mare called Lou Milton by Milton Medium, 
son of Happy Medium, was bred to him, and the 
fruit was a dark chestnut filly born in the spring 
of 1898, who grew into a powerfully muscled 
clean-cut mare of 15.1^ hands, and who won 

The Two-minute Horses of i^j 27 

renown in 1903 under the name of Lou Dillon. 
Milton Medium trotted to a record of 2.25^, and 
he carried through his sire and his dam a double 
infusion of the blood of Rysdyk's Hambletonian, 
In 1902 as a four-year-old Lou Dillon was taken 
to Pleasanton, where, April 20, she trotted a 
mile in 2.24. In the fore part of May she was 
shipped to Cleveland, and July i her trainer, 
Millard F. Sanders, drove her a mile in 2.12. 
Her owner, Henry Pierce, gave instructions to 
reserve her for the big events of 1903. Sanders 
carried her through the circuit with the rest of 
the horses and tried her on other tracks of the 
country. At Baltimore she trotted a trial in 
2.08J, and at Memphis she trotted a half-mile in 
1. 01 J. During the winter Mr. Pierce died, and 
she was sold at public auction at Cleveland in 
May, 1903, to settle the estate. Mr. C. K. G. Bil- 
lings, a gentleman who has constantly labored to 
lift trotting into a pure atmosphere, paid $12,500 
for her. Princess, the dam of Happy Medium, 
was at one time owned by the father of Mr. Bil- 
lings, and sentiment therefore had something to 
do with the purchase. Although heavily entered 
in stakes, Lou Dillon, who was without a record, 
was withdrawn from these and was reserved for 

28 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

struggles against the steady beat of the watch. 
She was the star of 1903, trotting in 2.02^ at 
Cleveland, July 1 1 ; in 2.00 at Readville, August 
24; and in 1.58^ at Memphis, October 24. It 
is a pity that the rules governing performances 
against time were not more strictly observed, 
for then a bitter controversy would have been 
avoided, and the 1.58^ would not have been 
entered in the Year Book with a note of ex- 
planation. A pace-maker in front with a dirt- 
shield is something not looked upon with favor 
by those who make and execute the laws of 
the trotting track. It was a mere coincidence 
that Sidney and Venus, who were responsible for 
Sidney Dillon, sire of Lou Dillon, were at one 
time enrolled among cripples. The infirmities 
were not so deeply seated as to be transmitted. 
Fly, the dam of Lou Milton, the dam of Lou 
Dillon, is down in the books as a mare of un- 
traced blood. Her appearance, however, was 
that of a thoroughbred, and it is stated that Lou 
Milton was a fleet runner under the saddle. The 
nervous disposition of Lou Dillon, coupled with 
her astonishing bursts of speed, suggests a race- 
horse strain. She trotted to high-wheel sulky 
at Cleveland in 2.05, but the performance is not 

The Two-minute Horses of 1^3 29 

officially recognized. At Qeveland, September i, 
she trotted to wagon in 2.04 J; and at Lexing- 
ton, October 10, she reduced the wagon record 
to 2.01 f. 

Previous to her start that afternoon Mr. E. E. 
Smathers drove his horse, Major Delmar, to a 
record of 2.03^ ; and the friends of Mr. Billings 
were apprehensive that he would fail to equal 
this mark. There was suppressed excitement 
when Mr. Billings took the word and was at the 
quarter pole in 31 seconds, and the half-mile post 
in i.oi. The question now was to sustain the 
flight of speed. There were cheers from the 
grand-stand when the watches split on the nose 
of the chestnut mare at the three-quarter pole in 
1.30I, because it pointed to triumph. Mr. Bil- 
hngs held the great mare together down the 
home-stretch, and when the official announcement 
was made that the time of the mile was 2.0 if, the 
driver and horse were the recipients of a great 
ovation. I was sitting with the president of the 
National Trotting Association and the president 
of the American Trotting Register Association; 
and when we three joined the throng around Mr. 
Billings and offered our sincere congratulations, 
there was a glow of pleasure on his face that told 

30 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

of the inward joy of the moment Lou Dillon 
went from Lexington to Memphis, where she 
reduced the harness record, October 24, to 1.58^, 
and the wagon record, October 28, to 2.00. She 
is a phenomenal trotter, and her future cannot be 
foretold. The unknown quantity in her comes 
from the dam of Venus, dam of Sidney Dillon, 
and Fly, dam of Lou Milton. It is fitting that 
the champion trotter of the world should carry so 
much of the blood of Hambletonian, the great 
progenitor of trotters, who lived and died within 
the shadow of Sugar Loaf Mountain. 

Major Delmar 

The second trotter to cross the two-minute line 
in 1903 was Major Delmar, and his record of 
1.59J is relegated by official decision to the 
special class headed by Lou Dillon. His fastest 
efforts are questioned because of the use of a 
pace-maker in front with dirt-shield. Major 
Delmar is a bay gelding, bred at Suburban Stock 
Farm, Glens Falls, New York, by William E. 
Spier; foaled in 1897, and as a three-year-old he 
trotted to a record of 2.15. He was not raced as 
a four-year-old, but having changed owners was 
prominent as a five-year-old, trotting to a record 

1 = 

o s 



The Two-minute Horses of /^^ 31 

of 2.05^. In 1903, as a six-year-old, he was the 
determined rival of Lou Dillon, especially after 
Mr. E. E. Smathers had paid $40,000 for him. 
The blood lines of Major Delmar are of approved 
merit, and the critic who objects to missing links 
in a pedigree has no fault to find with him. His 
sire, Del Mar, trotted to a record of 2.i6|, and 
was descended in the male line from Electioneer 
and in the female line from t;he great producing 
mare, Sontag Dixie by Toronto Sontag, son of To- 
ronto Chief and Sontag, 2.31, by Harris's Hamble- 
tonian. Expectation, the dam of Major Delmar, 
was got by Autograph, 2.16^ (son of Alcan- 
tara and Flaxy by Kentucky Clay), out of Miss 
Copeland, who obtained a pacing record of 2.25^, 
and who produced the celebrated trotter. Cope- 
land, 2.09J. Miss Copeland was by Almont Star, 
2.28f (son of Almont 33 and Blanch Star by 
American Star 37), dam Copeland Maid by 
Prophet Jr. by Prophet, a descendant of Justin 
Morgan. Alcantara was the son of George 
Wilkes and Alma Mater by Mambrino Patchen, 
and Flaxy was out of Young Flaxy by Telegraph, 
a descendant of Justin Morgan. Kentucky Clay, 
sire of the dam of Autograph, was by Strader's 
Cassius M. Clay Jr., out of the Rodes mare, dam 

32 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

of Lady Thorn and Mambrino Patchen. Expec- 
tation has no record, but as a three-year-old she 
trotted a trial in 2.28. Major Delmar carries the 
blood of the foundation families, Justin Morgan ; 
Messenger, through Hambletonian and his two 
great prepotent sons, Electioneer and George 
Wilkes ; Clay, through its best source. Green 
Mountain Maid ; Mambrino Chief through Mam- 
brino Patchen and Almont ; and American Star: 
and all who believe in close adherence to demon- 
strated trotting lines in breeding point to his 
achievements with satisfaction. It is to be re- 
gretted that he was not given an opportunity 
at Memphis, where he made his shield record 
of i.59f, to see what he could do to establish a 
record without the aid of a pace-maker in front. 
I do not believe that he has reached the limit of 


his speed. 


The third trotter who was reported to have 
crossed the two-minute line in 1903 is Cresceus, 
a chestnut horse of powerful build, foaled in 1894 
and sired by Robert McGregor, 2.17^, son of 
Major Edsall, 2.29, by Alexander's Abdallah, the 
prepotent son of Rysdyk's Hambletonian; dam 
Mabel by Mambrino Howard by Mambrino 



The Two-minute Horses of 190^ 33 

Chief; second dam Contention by AlHe West, 
2.25, by Aim on t, son of Alexander's Abdallah 
and Sally Anderson by Mambrino Chief. Fanny, 
dam of Allie West, was also by Mambrino Chief. 
Nancy Whitman, dam of Robert McGregor, was 
by Seely's American Star, and Mabel is the dam 
of the famous campaign trotter. Nightingale, 2.10^. 
Cresceus carries foundation blood, but not so 
profusely as Major Delmar, and it was on Friday, 
July 26, 1 90 1, at Cleveland, that he dethroned 
The Abbot by trotting to a record of 2.02f . The 
stallion was accompanied by a running horse 
during the first half of his journey and by two 
runners during the last half. There was no pace- 
maker in front. At Columbus, August 2, 1901, 
Cresceus reduced his record to 2.02J, and he 
failed to beat this performance in 1902. Octo- 
ber 19, 1903, the startling report was telegraphed 
from Wichita, Kansas, that Cresceus had trotted 
in i.59f. The accuracy of the timing was ques- 
tioned, and under date of January 14, 1904, the 
president of the American Trotting Register 
Association wrote me: "The Cresceus perform- 
ance at Wichita is held up in the court of the 
American Trotting Association and will not be 
decided until May next, consequently the record 

48 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

passed from his control, and in 1864 was pur- 
chased by Aristides Welch of Philadelphia, who 
put her to breeding. She produced, in 1868, the 
bay filly Kitty Temple by Rysdyk (son of 
Rysdyk's Hambletonian and Lady Duke by 
Lexington). The foal of 1869 was Prince Im- 
perial, a bay colt, by William Welch, son of Rys- 
dyk's Hambletonian and a daughter of imported 
Trustee. He was sold to Robert Bonner, for 
whom he trotted a mile in 2.2 3^, and he is a sire 
of speed. The third, and last, foal of Flora Tem- 
ple was a bay filly (1871), The Queen's Daughter, 
by imported Leamington (son of Faugh-a- 
Ballagh), tracing to the Waxy and Blacklock 
strains, and the sire of such race-horses and sires 
as Enquirer, Iroquois (the only American-bred 
horse that ever won the English Derby) and 
Longfellow, who was the sensational conqueror 
of Harry Bassett. The Queen's Daughter is a 
dam of speed. Flora Temple died December 21, 
1877, without doing much to perpetuate her line. 
The last time I was at Erdenheim, when the 
place was owned by N. W. Kittson, I stood with 
uncovered head by the stone slab which marks 
her grave and that of Leamington. 



Fbra Temple and Dexter 49 

Dexter y 2.1 7J 

The record of Flora Temple stood for eight 
years. May 4, 1864, Dexter, brown gelding, 
foaled 1858, by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, dam 
Clara by Seely's American Star, made his first 
appearance in public, at Fashion Course, where he 
beat Stonewall Jackson and two others, best time 
2.33. He trotted a series of races in 1865 and 
showed his heels to such horses as George Wilkes, 
General Butler, and George M. Patchen Jr., and 
in 1866 he was on a hippodroming tour with 
George M. Patchen Jr. In 1867 he defeated 
Goldsmith Maid, Lady Thorn, and others. At 
Buffalo, August 14, he started to beat 2.19I, and 
won in 2.17^. Budd Doble was the trainer and 
driver of the paragon, and he has since said to 
me that were the tracks and sulkies as good as 
they are to-day. Dexter would not be far behind 
championship honors. Immediately after the 
record-breaking performance at Buffalo, Robert 
Bonner entered the judges' stand and the an- 
nouncement was made that he had purchased the 
son of Hambletonian and Clara. After the pur- 
chase Mr. Bonner telegraphed to a friend in New 
York : " I saw Niagara Falls this morning for the 

50 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

first time, and I came down here this afternoon 
to see that other great wonder, Dexter, when he 
trotted in the unprecedented time of 2. 17 J. You 
know I like to own all the best things, and inas- 
much as I could not buy the Falls, I thought I 
would do the next best thing and buy Dexter. 
He will go into my stable on the loth of next 

General U. S. Grant, prior to his inauguration 
as President of the United States, rode out with 
Mr. Bonner behind Dexter, and soon after this 
the crayon by Ehninger, "Taking the Reins," 
attracted the attention of the nation. General 
Grant expressed a desire during the ride to own 
Dexter. Mr. Bonner favored me with a ride 
behind the trotting king a few days after General 
Grant had " taken the reins," and I was surprised 
at his control over the high-spirited gelding. 
Circumstances, with positive merit, made Dexter 
one of the most famous horses that the world has 
produced. His name was indeed a household 
word. Dexter died April 2 1, 1888, at the age of 30. 





When Goldsmith Maid, driven by Budd Doble, 
trotted at Milwaukee, September 6, 1871, to a 
record of 2.17, there was quite a stir, and I had 
the track measured by a competent civil engineer 
before accepting the performance as authentic. 
In 1872 she trotted in 2.i6f, and at Mystic Park, 
Boston, September 2, 1874, she trotted to her best 
record of 2.14. As she was born in May, 1857, 
she was 17 years old at the time. She was a 
mare of wiry frame and nothing was done with 
her until she was eight years old. This is one 
reason why she remained vigorous up to a point 
where decay sets in with many other horses. She 
travelled on the cars 130,000 miles during her 
career, won $325,000, and died September 23, 
1885, aged 28. The most exciting race in which 
she was engaged was at Cleveland, July 27, 1876. 
I was the guest of William Edwards, president of 
the Cleveland Driving Park, and among his other 
guests at the time were Charles W. Woolley, 


52 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

president of the National Trotting Association, 
and Colonel H. S. Russell, of Boston, the owner 
of Smuggler. The night before the free-for-all 
trot, Colonel Russell was nervous and we chaffed 
him good-naturedly. There was another nervous 
gentleman in the land, judging from the telegrams 
to President Edwards, and that was Henry N. 
Smith in his Wall Street office, who wanted to be 
assured that Goldsmith Maid would be given a 
clear field. I wrote an account of the race imme- 
diately after the decision had been rendered, and 
as the story has been republished in newspapers, 
magazines, and books, it is probably worthy of 
a place in this volume. 

" When the bell rang for the open-to-all horses 
to appear, a buzz of expectation was heard on all 
sides. It was known that Lula would not re- 
spond to the call, she having made an exhibition 
the previous day, and besides she was not in the 
bloom of condition; but Lucille Golddust was 
there to battle for the Babylon stable, and she 
was a mare of tried speed and bottom. The 
knowledge that Lula would not start steadied the 
quaking nerves of Doble, and he ceased to plead 
for a special purse and permission to withdraw. 
He thought that Goldsmith Maid would have a 

Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler 53 

comparatively easy time in capturing first money, 
and his confidence made the old mare the 
favorite over the field. Smuggler was deemed 
an uncertain horse, and there was no eagerness to 
invest in pools on him. But the stallion was 
cheered almost as warmly as the Maid, when he 


jogged slowly past the stand. Lucille Golddust, 
Judge FuUerton, and Bodine were also received 
with applause. The great drivers of the country 
were behind the great horses of the country. 
Budd Doble pulled the lines over Goldsmith 
Maid ; Charley Green steadied Lucille Golddust ; 
Peter Johnson controlled Bodine; Charley 
Marvin watched over the fortunes of Smuggler; 
and Dan Mace was up behind Judge Fullerton, 
having come from New York for the express 
purpose of driving him in the race. Twice the 
horses came for the word, and twice they failed 
to get it. They were then ordered to score with 
Lucille Golddust, and succeeded in getting off. 
The Maid had the best of the start, and, quickly 
taking the pole from Judge Fullerton, gayly carried 
herself in the lead. It was where she was accus- 
tomed to be, and so she trotted in the best of spirits. 
Fullerton did not act well, and he brought up 
the rear rank the entire length of the course. 

54 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Along the back-stretch, Smuggler began to close 
a gap, terrific as the pace was. After passing 
the half-mile he drew dangerously near the Maid, 
but it was noticed that he faltered a little. The 
cause was not then understood, but it was made 
plain when the patrol judge galloped up to the 
stand with a shoe in his hand which had been 
cast from the near fore foot. Around the turn 
the stallion pressed after the mare, and down the 
stretch he drove her at the top of her speed, 
the thousands giving vent to their enthusiasm 
by cheering and clapping hands. Smuggler 
had his nose at the Maid's tail when she went 
under the wire in 2.15^. Bodine was a good 
third, his time being about 2.17, and Lucille 
Golddust was fourth, FuUerton just inside the 
flag. Smuggler's performance was an extraor- 
dinary one. He trotted for something like three- 
eighths of a mile with his equilibrium destroyed 
by the sudden withdrawal from an extreme lever 
point of a shoe weighing 25 ounces. Only once 
before had he cast a shoe in rapid work without 
breaking, and that was in his exercise at Belmont 
Park. Keen judges are forced to admit that the 
stallion would have won the first heat in 2.15 
had no accident befallen him. Prior to this 

Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler 55 

season, Smuggler carried a 32-ounce shoe on 
each of his fore feet, but now he seems to be 
steady under the reduced weight The scoring 
in the second heat was a little more troublesome 
than that in the first heat Smuggler left his 
feet several times, and it looked as if he was 
going to disappoint his owner and trainer. On 
the fourth attempt the horses got away, the Maid 
in the lead. The stallion made one of his char- 
acteristic bad breaks around the turn, and all 
hope of his winning the heat was lost. Bodine 
and FuUerton also were unsteady. Lucille Gold- 
dust did good work, and she was second to the 
Maid when the latter went over the score in 
2. 1 7 J. Smuggler finished fifth, Marvin only 
trying to save his distance. Goldsmith Maid 
was distressed, but her friends were confident 
that her speed and steadiness would carry her 
safely through. It was almost dollars to cents 
that she would win. The word was given to 
a good send-ofif in the third heat The Maid 
had the pole, which advantage she did not sur- 
render, although she went into the air around 
the turn. She was quickly caught, and Doble 
drove her carefully along the back-stretch, fol- 
lowed by FuUerton, who seemed to be content 

56 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

with the position of body-guard to her queen- 
ship. After passing the half-mile, Marvin urged 
Smuggler into a quicker pace, and the stallion 
was observed to pass Lucille Golddust, then 
FuUerton, and to swing into the home-stretch 
hard on the Maid's wheel. Doble used all his 
art to keep his mare going, but Marvin sat 
behind a locomotive and could not be shaken 
off. The stallion got on even terms with the 
Maid, and then drew ahead of her in the midst 
of the most tumultuous applause, beating her 
under the wire three-quarters of a length. The 
scene which followed is indescribable. An 
electrical wave swept over the vast assembly, 
and men swung their hats and shouted them- 
selves hoarse, while the ladies snapped fans and 
parasols, and burst their kid gloves, in the en- 
deavor to get rid of the storm of emotion. The 
police vainly tried to keep the quarter-stretch 
clear. The multitude poured through the gates, 
and Smuggler returned to the stand through a 
narrow lane of humanity which closed as he 
advanced. Doble was ashy pale, and the great 
mare which had scored so many victories stood 
with trembling flanks and head down. Her 
attitude seemed to say, ' I have done my best, 

Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler 57 

but am forced to resign the crown.' The judges 
hung out the time 2. 16 J, and got no further in 
the announcement than that Smuggler had won 
the heat. The shouts of the thousands of 
frenzied people drowned all else. 

" During the intermission the stallion was the 
object of the closest scrutiny. So great was the 
press that it was difficult to obtain breathing 
room. He appeared fresh, and ate eagerly of a 
small bunch of hay which was presented to him 
by his trainer after he had cooled out. It was 
manifest that the fast work had not destroyed 
his appetite. The betting now changed. It 
was seen that the Maid was tired and her eager 
backers of an hour ago were anxious to hedge. In 
the second score of the fourth heat, the judges ob- 
served that Smuggler was on his stride, although 
behind, and so gave the word. In his anxiety to 
secure the pole Doble forced Goldsmith Maid into 
a run, and as Lucille Golddust quickly followed 
her, the stallion found his progress barred unless 
he pulled out and around them. Marvin decided 
to trail, and he kept in close pursuit of the two 
mares even after he had rounded into the home- 
stretch. Green would not give way with Lucille, 
and Doble pulled the Maid back just far enough 

58 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

to keep Marvin from slipping through with the 
stallion. The pocket was complete, and thought 
to be secure. A smile of triumph lighted Doble s 
face, iand the crowd settled sullenly down to the 
belief that the race was over. Marvin was de- 
nounced as a fool for placing himself at a dis- 
advantage, and imagination pictured just beyond 
the wire the crown of Goldsmith Maid with 
new laurel woven into it. But lookl By the 
ghosts of the departed I Marvin has deter- 
mined upon a bold experiment. He falls back 
and to the right, with the intention of getting 
out and around the pocket. Too late, too late ! 
is the hoarse whisper. Why, man, you have 
but 150 yards in which to straighten your 
horse and head the Maid, whose burst of speed 
has been held in reserve for just such an oc- 
casion as thisl Her gait is 2.14, and you, — 
well, you are simply mad ! The uncounted thou- 
sands held their breath. The stallion does not 
leave his feet although pulled to a 45-angle 
to the right, and the moment that his head is 
clear and the path open, he dashes forward with 
the speed of the stag-hound. It is more like fly- 
ing than trotting. Doble hurries his mare into 
a break, but he cannot stop the dark shadow 

Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler 59 

which flits by him. Smuggler goes over the 
score a winner of the heat by a neck, and the 
roar which comes from the grand stand and 
the quarter-stretch is deafening. As Marvin 
comes back with Smuggler to weigh, the ovation 
is even greater than that which he received in the 
preceding heat Nothing like the burst of speed 
he had shown had ever before been seen on the 
track, and it may be that it will never be seen 
again. Marvin had two reasons for going into 
the pocket. In the first place he thought that 
Green would pull out when the pinch came and 
let him through, and in the second place he 
erroneously supposed that Doble would push the 
Maid down the stretch and leave him room to 
get out that way. It was bad judgment to get 
into the pocket, since, had the Maid won the heat, 
the race would have been over ; but it must be 
admitted that Marvin acted not without a show 
of reason. In riding at the gait he was riding, 
a man does not have any extra time to mature 
his plans. The heat was literally won from the 
fire. It was only the weight of a hair that turned 
the scales from defeat to victory. Doble was 
more deeply moved by the unexpected result of 
the heat than by anything else which happened 

6o Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

in the race. His smile of triumph was turned 
in one brief instant to an expression of despair. 
The time of the heat was 2.19^. Smuggler again 
cooled out well, nibbling eagerly at his bunch of 
hay, while the crowd massed around him. The 
Maid was more tired than ever, while Lucille 
Golddust showed no signs of distress. When 
the horses responded to the bell for the fifth heat 
it was evident that a combination had been 
formed against Smuggler. All worked against 
him. Lucille Golddust and Bodine worried him 
by repeated scorings, and when they excited him 
into a break and he grabbed the unfortunate shoe 
from the near fore foot, the hope began to rise 
that the star of the stallion had set. The shoe 
was put on, the delay giving the Maid time to 
get her second wind, when the scoring again 
commenced. Smuggler was repeatedly forced to 
break, and for the third time in the race he 
grabbed off the near fore shoe. Misfortunes 
seemed to be gathering thickly around him, and 
the partisans of the Maid wore the old jaunty 
air of confidence. Before replacing the shoe, 
Colonel Russell had it shortened at the heel. It 
was a new shoe, and one adopted by Marvin 
against the judgment of Russell. The shell of 

Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler 6i 

the foot was badly splintered by the triple acci- 
dent, but the stallion was not rendered lame. As 
much as an hour was wasted by the scoring 
and the shoeing of Smuggler, which brought all 
the horses to the post looking fresh. Smuggler 
had the worst of it, as he was the only one which 
had not enjoyed an unbroken rest Finally the 
word was given for the fifth heat. Fullerton 
went to the front like a flash of light, trotting 
without skip to the quarter-pole in 33 seconds. 
Smuggler overhauled him near the half-mile, and 
from there home was never headed. The Maid 
worked up to second position down the home- 
stretch, the stallion winning the heat in 2.1 7J 
and the hardest-fought race ever seen in the 
world. The evening shadows had now thick- 
ened, and as the great crowd had shouted itself 
weak and hoarse it passed slowly through the 
gate and drove in a subdued manner home. 

" It was a race which will live long in memory, 
one to which thousands will date as the beginning 
of an epoch in their lives. Think of it. A first 
heat in 2.15^ and a fifth heat in 2. 17 J, with the 
stallion record reduced to 2.16^ in the third heat! 
A week ago no one would have believed it. Now 
we keep asking ourselves in a dazed sort of way 

62 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

if what we saw with our eyes can really be true. 
Smuggler first saw the light within the limits of 
the Buckeye State. He journeyed West obscure 
and looked upon as a menial. To-day his fame 
is as wide as the world, and he wears the laurel 
which once wreathed the neck of Goldsmith Maid. 
Wonder not that the people of Ohio should swell 
with pride when they point to him and his 
history. His triumph was in the face of obstacles 
which were truly formidable. 

"*How did you enjoy yourself?* queried the 
president from the judges' stand after the tumult 
had subsided. The lady, one of Cleveland's 
fairest daughters, well expressed the general feel- 
ing in her answer from the grand stand : • I am so 
glad and yet so sorry.' Glad that she had hailed 
the new king and sorry that she had seen the old 
queen lay down her crown." 

Smuggler, 2.1 5 J 

Colonel Russell first heard of Smuggler through 
a letter that I sent him, and when he purchased 
the stallion he came to the office of the Turf^ 
Field, and Farm. Captain W. S. Tough had 
brought the brown son of Blanco (son of Iron's 
Cadmus) from Leavenworth, Kansas, to Prospect 

Goldsmith Maid and Smuggler 63 

Park, Long Island, in search of a purchaser, and 
it was there that the transfer to Colonel Russell 
was made. Smuggler was foaled in 1866, bred 
by John M. Morgan, near Columbus, Ohio, and 
taken, when a colt, to Olathe, Kansas, where he 
showed great bursts of speed in the hands of 
Charles Marvin. He was a pacer, out of a pacing 
mare by Herod's Tuckahoe; but as pacers were 
not as much in demand then as now, he was 
heavily weighted forward and thus converted into 
a trotter. Iron's Cadmus was the sire of the first 
great pacer, Pocahontas. At Buffalo, August 5, 
1874, Smuggler started in the purse of $10,000 
for free-for-all stallions, and although beaten 
after winning two heats, made an enviable repu- 
tation. After this he defeated such horses as 
Mambrino Gift, Thomas Jefiferson, and Great 
Eastern and carried, August 31, 1876, the stallion 
record down to 2. 1 5 J, where it remained for eight 
years. The last time I saw Smuggler in public 
was at the big fair held at Minneapolis in the 
autumn of 1878, when he was led in front of the 
grand stand, preceded by a huge placard, describ- 
ing him as the champion trotting stallion of the 
world. W. H. Wilson of Cynthina had charge 
of him. In the stud Smuggler was not a pro- 

64 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

nounced success. The fastest of his ten trotters 
is Nomad, 2.19. His sons are poor transmitters 
of speed, but one of his daughters is the dam of 
Miss Whitney, 2.07^. The trouble with Smug- 
gler was that two gaits constantly fought for the 
mastery in him and that in conformation he was 
more of a pacer than a trotter. He is an illustra- 
tion of a type that sometimes reaches, through 
performance, championship form without the 
power to protect its line from extinction. 




Rarus succeeded Goldsmith Maid to the crown. 
He was a bay gelding, foaled in 1867; bred by 
R. B. Conklin, of Greenport, Long Island ; by 
Conklin's Abdallah, a horse of unknown blood, 
dam Nancy Awful by Telegraph, son of Smith 
Burr's Napoleon ; second dam Lady Hunter by 
Vermont Black Hawk. He trotted in 242^ to 
saddle as a four-year-old, and in 1874 was fairly 
launched on his turf career. In 1875 ^^ ^^^t such 
horses as Molly Morris, Belle Brasfield, Adelaide, 
and Kansas Chief, and in 1876 beat Smuggler, 
Judge Fullerton, Great Eastern, and other good 
horses. In 1878 Hopeful was his fastest rival. 
At Buffalo, August 3, 1878, he started against 
time, and he was at the half-mile pole in Losf 
and finished the mile in 2. 13 J. From an account 
that I wrote at the time I take the following: 
" The horse and driver received a perfect ovation 
when they returned to weigh, and it was with 

F 65 

66 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

difficulty that Splan could make his way through 
the crowd and then into the judges' stand When 
he reached the steps, he cleared them three at a 
bound, and after handshaking, was led to the rail 
and presented with a handsome basket of flowers 
by President Bush. No words were spoken. 
It would have been useless to have attempted 
speech-making in the presence of the crowd that 
filled the quarter-stretch, and which made the 
ground shake with its shouts. While Splan was 
blushing and bowing his acknowledgments to the 
applauding thousands, Rarus was being unhar- 
nessed, and he looked on with dazed eye, quiver- 
ing nostril, and trembling flank. He had made a 
new mark in the annals of the turf, had wiped out 
the record of Goldsmith Maid, which had headed 
the list for so many years ; and modesty well be- 
came him in the hour of his brilliant success. It 
was a proud day for Buffalo Park, and those who 
were present will never forget the uproar caused 
by the beating of 2.14." In the latter part of the 
summer of 1879 Mr. Robert Bonner, who had 
long looked for a record-breaker to head his 
stable, purchased Rarus for $36,000. The geld- 
ing made a record of 2.15, 2.i3f, 2.1 3J for three 
consecutive heats at Hartford, and trotted a mile 

From Rams to The Abbot 67 

on Mr. Bonner's three-quarter track in 2.11^; 

nevertheless he was a very dear horse. His new 

owner derived but little satisfaction from him. 

Rams was a sporadic representative of a dead 


St. Julien^ 2.\\\ 

Only a few months after the transfer of Rams 
to the Bonner stable, St. Julien took the crown 
away from him. He was a bay gelding, foaled 
in 1869, by Volunteer, dam Flora by Harry 
Clay 45, and was purchased in the spring of 
1875 by James Gal way of New York, who started 
him in the big circuit, and his achievements 
were astonishing for a green horse. In his fourth 
race, at Springfield, Massachusetts, August 27, 
1875, he trotted to a record of 2.22J. Early in 
the winter following he was sold to R. S. Morrow 
and Orrin A. Hickok, and was taken to Cali- 
fornia, where his speed was patiently developed. 
He did not begin to show his form until in 
September, 1879. Ex-President Grant was re- 
turning from his triumphant tour of the world, 
and stopped in San Francisco. October 25, 
1879, St. Julien was started for his entertainment 
at Oakland Park, to beat the record of Rarus, 
and the time made was 2.i2f. General Grant 

From Rams to The Abbot 69 

Maud S., 2.o8f 

At Chicago, September 18, 1880, Maud S, 
regained her laurels. She trotted to a record 
of 2. 1 of, and with the single exception of one 
day remained the trotting queen until 1891. All 
things considered, I doubt if we have seen her 
equal. The first time my attention was par- 
ticularly called to her was at Chester Park, a 
half-mile track at Cincinnati, in the autumn of 
1878. Myron P. Bush had a party in his private 
car bound for Lexington, and a stop was made 
at Cincinnati. Maud S., then four years old, was 
driven a mile over the half-mile track in 2.26^, 
and the way in which it was done excited remark. 
Joseph Harker, a close friend of William H. 
Vanderbilt, asked for a price on the mare, and 
the understanding was that he was to pay ;^20,ooo 
for her should she trot a mile in 2.20. She was 
shipped to Lexington and waited in vain for a 
good day to make the effort. After everybody 
in the special car had gone home except myself, 
the weather cleared up and Maud S. trotted a 
mile in 2.17^. This was a sensational perform- 
ance, and Mr. Vanderbilt, who had taken the 
Harker option, finally paid $21,000 for the chest- 

70 Tbe Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

nut daughter of Harold and Miss RusselL She 
was a source of proud gratification to her new 
owner, who drove her on the road In 1880 
she returned to her old trainer, W. W. Bair, 
and trotted at Chicago in a race with Trinket 
to a record of 2.13^, which record she reduced at 
Rochester to 2.1 if, and at Chicago to 2.10J. In 
1884 her supremacy was threatened by Jay-eye- 
see, who trotted at Providence to a record of, 
Maud S. started the very next day at Cleveland 
and lowered her record to 2.09I. Mr. Vander- 
bilt, whose health was not good, and who did 
not wish to be badgered, ofifered her through 
William TurnbuU to Mr. Bonner, and the sale 
was made at $40,000. Other parties stood ready 
to pay $100,000 for her for hippodroming pur- 
poses, but Mr. Vanderbilt would not listen to 
them. I was with Mr. Bonner when Maud S. 
was delivered to him at his stable in West 56th 
Street, and drafted the conditions under which 
she started at Hartford for a cup and failed. She 
was then shipped to Lexington and started under 
the same conditions, November 11, 1884, ^tnd re- 
duced her record to 2.09J. I went to Lexington 
with Mr. Bonner to witness the effort, and never 
saw a man more pleased. It was his first record, 

From Rams to The Abbot 71 

and he scarcely slept that night No admis- 
sion was charged to the track and there was 
no purse or wagen The only thing involved 
was the Woodburn Farm cup, and it simply com- 
memorated the achievement. The church people 
were out in force to honor the stand taken by 
a leading churchman, and the occasion was one 
long to be remembered. 

Maud S. was wintered at Chester Park, Cin- 
cinnati, and July 30, 1885, she made her last 
start in public at Cleveland and trotted to a 
record of 2.o8f. This is still the best mile to 
high-wheel sulky over an oval track, without 
artificial aid. No pools were sold on the event, 
but there were private offers that the mare would 
fail. I was in the timer's stand and looked at 
the official watches as the hands marched around 
the dials. Three of the watches were 2.o8|, and 
when President Edwards leaned over the judges' 
stand and said, *' Ladies and gentlemen, I am 
pleased to inform you that on a track which the 
directors do not consider fast, Maud S. has 
trotted and made a record of 2.o8f," there was 
tremendous applause. Previous to selling the 
great chestnut Mr. Vanderbilt drove Maud S. 
and Aldine to top road wagon at Fleetwood 

72 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Park in 2.15^. It was a remarkable perform- 
ance, and highly gratifying to the railroad 
magnate* Mr. Bonner drove her a mile to 
high-wheel wagon in 2.13J over his slow three- 
quarter track. Maud S. was a chestnut mare of 
1 5-3. foaled March 28th, 1874, and by Harold 
out of Miss Russell. She outlived her last 
owner, and it is a pity that she could not have 
reproduced her kind. She was bred repeatedly, 
but did not prove with foal. She died while 
on a visit to Shultshurst, the home of Axworthy. 

Sunol, 2.08^ 

Sunol, bay mare, foaled April 14, 1886 — bred 
by Leland Stanford, Palo Alto, California; by 
Electioneer, dam Waxana by General Benton; 
second dam Waxy, thoroughbred daughter of 
Lexington ; third dam Peter Swigert mare (dam 
of Annette, dam of Ansel, 2.20) by Gray Eagle — 
was the successor of Maud S. She trotted while 
owned by Robert Bonner to a high-wheel record 
of 2.08 J at Stockton, October 20, 1891. She was 
driven by Charles Marvin, and wonderful as the 
performance was, it was not equal to that of 
Maud S., because it was^on a kite track. Al- 
though Sunol was a highly nervous mare, of the 

From Rams to The Abbot 73 

greyhound build, Mr. Bonner was able to drive 
her in Central Park and on the road. On Thurs- 
day evening, December 21, 1893, ^ dinner was 
given to Mr. Bonner at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, 
New York, and a silver statuette of Sunol was 
presented to her owner. Prominent among 
breeders who joined in the testimonial were 
C. J. Hamlin, J. Malcolm Forbes, General Ben- 
jamin F. Tracy, A. B. Darling, William Russell 
Allen, Hon. J. C. Sibley, and John H. Shults. 
Hon. George M. Steams of Massachusetts was 
not present, but he wrote : " I had hoped in vain 
that circumstances might enable me to be present 
at the dinner and still more important event of 
the bestowal of a testimonial to Mr. Robert Bon- 
ner. No man more deserves the tribute than he. 
He was one of the earliest and most consistent to 
associate horsemanship with honesty. He has 
de nonstrated conspicuously that a man may be 
a gentleman, a Christian, and a horseman. His 
deeds deserve commemoration, for he was a 
pioneer in that domain." After the death of Mr. 
Bonner, Sunol was sold by his estate and pur- 
chased by John H. Shults. She is, at the time I 
write, a brood mare at Shultshurst, Westchester 
County, New York. 

74 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

Nancy Hanks ^ 2.04 

When the 28-inch ball-bearing wheel, pneu- 
matic tire, of the bicycle was applied to the sulky 
in July, 1892, a revolution in harness speed was 
inaugurated. It reduces friction and is seconds 
faster than the high-wheel sulky. As there was 
a violent tumble in prices soon after the bicycle 
sulky had come into use, the pessimist charged 
that its influence was cheapening and that it had 
degraded the speed standard. It, however, was a 
valuable improvement, in the interest of progress, 
and it is idle to talk of returning to old methods. 
Nancy Hanks followed Sunol on the summit. 
She is a brown mare, foaled in 1886, by Happy 
Medium, dam Nancy Lee by Dictator; second 
dam Sophie by Edwin Forrest; and she was 
bred by Hart Boswell of Lexington, Kentucky. 
August 28, 1890, she trotted to a four-year-old 
record of 2.14^, and soon thereafter was sold to 
J. Malcolm Forbes of Boston. Driven by Budd 
Doble, she trotted at Chicago, August 17, 1892, 
to a record of 2.07^, at Independence, Iowa, 
August 31, to a record of 2.05^, and at Terre 
Haute, September 28, 1892, to a record of 2.04. 
The morning that she made her best record I was 

From Rams to Tbe Abbot 75 

a visitor at Forbes Farm, and Mr. Forbes took 
the affair very quietly. He was not one of the 
kind to bubble over with enthusiasm. Forbes 
Farm was at Blue Hill near Readville, Massa- 
chusetts, and after her retirement from the track 
Nancy Hanks enjoyed herself in grazing in the 
pasture, and in obeying the laws of maternity. 
Her foals have been by Arion, Bingen, imported 
Meddler (thoroughbred), and Peter the Great, 
She has produced a high rate of speed. 

Alix, 2.03f 

Alix, bay mare, foaled June 7, 1888, — bred by 
Samuel Hayes, Muscatine, Iowa; by Patronage, 
dam Atlanta by Attorney, — proved one of the 
gamest of mares that ever advanced to the 
throne. She trotted in 2.30 as a two-year-old 
and in 2.i6f as a three-year-old. Her best time 
in a race as a four-year-old was 2.12^, and as a 
five-year-old she won great races and reduced 
her record to 2.07^. In 1894, driven by Andy 
McDowell, her downward sweep was steady. At 
Terre Haute, August 17, she won a race in 2.06, 
2.06J, 2.05 J; and September 12, she trotted in 
2.04. At Galesburg, Illinois, September 19, she 
chipped off a fraction, and was placed at the head 

^6 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

of the list with a record of 2.03^. She was sold 
by her owner, Morris J. Jones, to F. C. Sayles, of 
Rhode Island, and died at Mariposa Stock Farm 
after producing to Handspring, son of Prodigal 
and Annie Wilton. Alix was full of speed-sus- 
taining blood. Her sire, Patronage, traced 
through Pancoast to thoroughbred Woodford, 
and through Beatrice to the four-mile race-horse, 
Wagner. Her dam, Atlanta, traced through 
Attorney to a daughter of Robert Bruce, and 
through Flirt, her dam, to imported Envoy and 
imported Glencoe. Atlanta, the dam of Alix, 
outlived her most distinguished daughter. 

The Abbot, 2.03J 

The Abbot was a product of Village Farm, 
East Aurora, New York, and when he rose to 
championship honors, the ambition of one of our 
greatest breeders, C. J. Hamlin, was gratified. 
The Abbot was a bay gelding, 15.1^ hands high; 
foaled June 20, 1893; ^y Chimes (son of Elec- 
tioneer and Beautiful Bells), dam Nettie King 
(who trotted to a four-year-old record of 2.20J) 
by Mambrino King, second dam Nettie Murphy 
by Hamlin Patchen, and third dam by a son of 
Kentucky Whip. When the celebrated trainer. 

From Rams to The Abbot 77 

E. F. Geers, began to work him, the fall he was 
three years old, he was a trifle discouraged. The 
gelding was rough-gaited and inclined to amble. 
A square-toed shoe on the left front foot and the 
right hind foot helped to untangle him, and he 
made a severe campaign in 1897 and went into 
winter quarters with a four-year-old record of 2.1 1^. 
As a five-year-old he again was severely cam- 
paigned and acquired a race record of 2.08. In 
1899 he defeated all the best horses before the 
public, including Cresceus and Bingen, and re- 
duced his record to 2.06^. In 1900 his fight was 
against the immortal scythe-bearer. Time, and 
fraction by fraction he rose to the top — 2.05!^, 
2.04f, 2.04, 2.03J. The latter performance was 
at Terre Haute, Indiana, September 25, 1900. 
The Abbot was sold at public auction for $26,500, 
and purchased by John J. Scannell ; but he had 
reached his limit and was a disappointment to his 
new owner. He died early in 1904. 




Cresceus next appeared upon the scene. He 
is a powerful chestnut, foaled 1894; bred by 
George H. Ketcham, Toledo, Ohio; by Robert 
McGregor, 2.1 7^; dam Mabel (dam of Night- 
ingale) by Mambrino Howard by Mambrino 
Chief; second dam Contention by Allie West 
(2.25 at four years old), son of Almont; third dam 
by Victor by Downing's Bay Messenger; and 
fourth dam by Crusader, thoroughbred son of Sir 
Archy. Robert McGregor was a chestnut horse, 
foaled 1871, by Major Edsall, son of Alexander's 
Abdallah; dam Nancy Whitman by Seely's 
American Star ; and he was one of our greatest 
trotters. So resolute were his finishes that he 
was called the Monarch of the Home-stretch. 
As a three-year-old Cresceus trotted to a record 
of 2.11J; as a four-year-old to a record of 2.09 J; 
as a five-year-old to a record of 2.07 J; as a six- 
year-old to a record of 2.04, and as a seven-year- 



The Cluinplon TnXtliiE SUUlon. 3.02>4 Ii 

2.07%. the ChimpLon TnKlIng Stillion 

Cresceus : Reduction of Stallion Record 79 

old to a record of 2.02J. The latter performance 
was at Columbus, Ohio, August i, 1901, and it 
made him not only the champion trotting stallion 
but the champion trotter of the world. Through 
sire and dam Cresceus traces directly to the two 
great foundation sires, Hambletonian and Mam- 
brino Chief, and he is the vigorous representative 
of a most vigorous line. 

TAe Reduction of the Stallion Record 

Mambrino Gift was the first stallion to trot to 
a record of 2.20, and that vras at Rochester in 
1874. Then came Smuggler, 2.1 5 J, in 1876; 
then Phallas by Dictator, 2.13!, ^^ J^^y» 1884; 
then Maxey Cobb by Happy Medium, 2. 13 J, Sep- 
tember 30, 1884; and then Axtell by William L., 
dam Lou by Mambrino Boy, who as a three-year- 
old, October 11, 1889, at Terre Haute, cut the 
record to 2.12. He was the sensation of the hour 
and since then has proved his merit in the stud. 
Nelson carried the stallion record down to 2.10, 
September 17, 1891 ; and September 19, 189 1, on 
the kite track at Independence, Iowa, Allerton 
trotted to a record of 2.09J. The kite track, by 
the way, enjoyed but a brief period of popularity. 
It quietly faded from the face of the earth. 

8o The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

AUerton, like Axtell, is the representative of a 
live trotting inheritance. He is by Jay Bird (son 
of George Wilkes and Lady Frank by Mambrino 
Star by Mambrino Chief), dam Gussie Wilkes by 
Mambrino Boy (son of Mambrino Patchen and 
Roving Nelly by C. M. Clay Jr^ she out of a 
daughter of Berthune) ; second dam Nora Wilkes 
by George Wilkes; and third dam by imported 
Consternation. Here we have a combination of 
the blood of Hambletonian and Mambrino Chief, 
through prepotent sons, with Clay and thorough- 
bred blood; and Allerton made his record to 
high-wheel sulky and is the sire of 1 18 in the 2.30 

Palo Alto, bay horse, foaled in 1882, by Elec- 
tioneer out of Dame Winnie, the thoroughbred 
daughter of Planet, trotted November 17, 1881, 
at Stockton, to a high-wheel record of 2.o8f ; then 
came Kremlin by Lord Russell, dam Eventide by 
Woodford Mambrino, who trotted at Nashville, 
November 12, 1892, in 2.07^. October 18, 1893, 
at Nashville, Directum by Dictator carried the 
record down to 2. 05 J. All of these represent live 
lines in breeding. 

Cresceus : Reduction of Stallion Record 8 1 

Twchyear-old Champions 

The first champion two-year-old trotter was 
Doble, a black horse, by Ericsson, out of Belle by 
Davy Crockett, He trotted in 24of at Lexing- 
ton, October 19, 1872, and it was considered a 
phenomenal performance. I recall how impor- 
tant I felt when I was invited to drive Doble 
around the Price track. Soso by George Wilkes, 
dam Little Ida by Edwin Forrest, trotted at 
Lexington, October 12, 1877, ^^ a record of 2.31, 
and she was heralded as another world's wonder. 
Three years later, the news was flashed from Cali- 
fornia that Mr. John W. Mackay's brown filly. 
Sweetheart by Sultan, dam Minnehaha, had 
trotted September 25, 1880, at Sacramento to the 
two-year-old record, 2.26J, and the general im- 
pulse was to take off hats to her. November 20, 
1880, the bay gelding Fred Crocker by Election- 
eer, dam Melinche by St. Clair, trotted to a record 
of 2.2 5 J, and her breeder. Governor Leland Stan- 
ford, was congratulated as if he was at the flood- 
tide of his career. Wildflower, bay filly, by 
Electioneer, dam Mayflower by St. Clair, trotted 
at San Francisco, October 22, 1882, to a record 
of 2.21, and again was her breeder. Governor 

82 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Stanford, enthusiastically congratulated. We 
then heard remarkable stories about the vitality 
of St. Clair, whose origin was shrouded in dark- 
ness. October 27, 1888, Sunol by Electioneer 
reduced the two-year-old record to 2.18, and she 
was followed by another representative of Palo 
Alto Farm, Arion by Electioneer, dam Manette 
by Nutwood. In 1881, October 5, Charles Mar- 
vin drove him to a record of 2.15I; October 21, 
to a record of 2.14^; and November 10, at 
Stockton, to a record of 2.10J. This was to high- 
wheel sulky, and Arion still heads the two-year- 
old list. His owner, Mr. J. Malcolm Forbes,* in 
a letter to me, dated October 11, 1903, concerning 
wind-shields and other matters, expressed views 
that I endorse: " I have yours of October i, and 
in case you have not seen a picture of the wind- 
shield used at Empire City in front of Prince 
Alert and Major Delmar, I send you one. It 
would be so unjust to all other records to allow 
the use of such contrivance that I feel pretty sure 
that the 1.57 and the two minutes made with its 
shelter will not be allowed. I have drawn a 
dotted line across the lower piece of canvas that 
will show what was used on the sulky of Lou 

^ Mr. Forbes died early in 1904. 

Cresceus : Reduction of Stallion Record 83 

Dillon's pace-maker when she made her two- 
minute record I think such a shield from dust 
and dirt might be allowed, but a careful restric- 
tion as to the size of any shield should be drawn 
up for further trials. The mile made by Lou 
Dillon in a high-wheel sulky in 2.05 and her mile 
in 2.00 in a bicycle sulky seem to establish the 
diflFerence between the two rigs as five seconds. 
If this is a true measure, then Arion's two-year- 
old record of 2.iof would be equal to 2.05^, if he 
could have had a bicycle sulky in his trial in the 
year 1891. You will say that he had an oppor- 
tunity later in the new rig when a mature horse. I 
feel that his speed was diminished by letting him 
be trained the year he was three years old, before 
he had got thoroughly acclimated to the Eastern 
air and food. I have since that time in many 
cases found that a horse was far from being him- 
self the first year after coming from California." 

There are eighteen volumes of the Year Book, 
and the last one before me contains 1181 closely 
printed pages. The parent volume of Chester's 
Trotting and Pacing Record contains 1000 pages 
packed with meat. This statement will explain 
to every intelligent reader the utter impossibility 
of giving even a summary of the achievements 

84 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

of the trotting track. I have attempted to illus- 
trate progress in breeding and development by a 
brief record of epoch-making races. These are 
the guide-posts in historical review, and I have 
not wandered far from them. 

Double Harness Rivalry 

The double harness to road wagon rivalry 
aroused widespread interest and helped the 
breeder. It is difficult to find two horses that 
you can rely upon to adhere to gait in moments 
of excitement, because so few are alike in tem- 
perament and action; and when you do obtain 
possession of such a pair, the goddess of Good 
Fortune certainly smiles upon you. In 1883 Mr. 
William Rockefeller put Cleora and Indepen- 
dence together and they were driven to a record 
of 2.16^. In 1884 Mr. Frank Work reduced the 
record to 2.16J with Edward and Dick Swiveller, 
and the same season Mr. Isador Cohnfield gained 
a record of 2.15^ with Maxey Cobb and Neta 
Medium. Mr. W. J. Gordon's best effort with 
Clingstone and Guy in 1885 was 2.17. In 1890 
Mr. C. J. Hamlin went to the head of the list 
with Belle Hamlin and Justina, who trotted to a 
record of 2.13. In 1892 Belle Hamlin and 

Cresceus : Reduction of Stallion Record 85 

Honest George carried this record down to 2. 12 J, 
which was a fixture until 1902, when it was tied, 
October 25, at Parkway Driving Club, Brooklyn, 
by Mr. E. T. Bedford's pair, York Boy and 
Bemay. Mr. C. K. G. Billings, at Cleveland, 
September 12, 1903, drove The Monk and Equity 
to a record of 2.09! ! ^^^ ^* Memphis, October 28, 
he drove the same pair to a record of 2.08. The 
Hamlin record was beaten, but by two horses 
bred and raised by him at Village Farm. 

One of the greatest miles ever trotted in double 
harness was at Fleetwood Park, June 14, 1883, 
by Maud S. and Aldine to top road wagon, driven 
by William H. Vanderbilt, in 2.15^. The track 
was slower than the tracks of to-day and the 
wagon had high wheels. Although authentic, 
the 2.15^ is not a technical record. 

I was at Cleveland July 31, 1891, when C. J. 
Hamlin hooked three abreast of his own breed- 
ing. Belle Hamlin, Globe, and Justina, and Geers 
drove them to a record of 2.14. It was a won- 
derful performance and is not likely ever to be 
duplicated. Mr. Hamlin had studied the efforts 
of truck horses, three abreast, in the streets of 
Buffalo, and this induced him to see what could 
be done with three trotters abreast. 




The two stallions, Messenger and Justin Mor- 
gan, to which we remotely trace so many trotters 
of the present day, had lived far beyond their 
prime before the dream of a mile in three min- 
utes was realized. Messenger died in 1808, aged 
28 years, and Justin Morgan in 182 1, aged 32 
years. It was in 1818 that an iron-gray gelding 
of 16 hands established a record of three minutes 
at Jamaica, Long Island. The match for $1000 
grew out of a discussion at a jockey club dinner 
that a horse could not be produced to trot a mile 
in three minutes or less, and Boston Blue was 
named at the post and won cleverly. He was a 
horse of unknown blood, and the renown he gained 
by the performance caused him to be shipped to 
England. In the early days of the United States 
the saddle horse was more used than the light- 
harness horse, on account of the poor condition 
of the roads. The trotting gait in harness was 


The Foundation Horses 87 

not cultivated to any extent until after bridle 
paths had been succeeded by passable roads. 
Messenger was a running horse and was brought 
to this country for the purpose of improving the 
running horse, but in temperament and action he 
was plastic ; and his colts developed an inclina- 
tion to trot. Road-building did the rest. Few 
horses recorded in the stud book are regarded 
with a higher degree of interest or have been the 
subject of more animated discussion. If we turn 
to the great table of 2.30 trotters and 2.25 pacers 
under their sires, which is now the accepted 
speed standard, we shall find neither Messenger 
nor Justin Morgan, because neither contributed 
a son or daughter to this list and neither chal- 
lenged attention as a track performer. Each, 
sowing seed in different soil, laid the foundation 
of a trotting structure and added incalculably to 
the comfort, the pleasure, and the wealth of the 
New World. I recall the time when the family of 
Hambletonian, a descendant of Messenger, was 
growing rapidly and so overshadowing all other 
families that sneers were levelled at the Justin 
Morgan tribe, but that day is past and the 
impartial historian must recognize the potency of 
both lines. Fable has made free with Justin 

88 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Morgan, because in early days breeding records 
were not as carefully kept as now. I shall not 
attempt to carry the reader through thousands of 
pages of conflicting statements, but will accept 
the conclusions of Joseph Battell, of Middlebury, 
Vermont, because he has devoted much time and 
money to investigation, and has, as I believe, 
sifted sands of truth from banks of falsehood. 

Justin Morgan 

Justin Morgan was bred by the man whose 
name he bears, and was foaled in 1789 at West 
Springfield, Massachusetts. Mr. Morgan kept a 
small tavern for Connecticut River boatmen at 
the time, but soon after the colt was weaned 
moved to Randolph, Orange County, Vermont, 
taking the equine bud of promise with him. The 
dam had been sold previous to this change of 
residence. The sire of the colt was True Briton, 
otherwise called Beautiful Bay, and owned by 
Selah Norton of Hartford, Connecticut; and 
there are romantic stories in print of how the 
stallion was captured from Colonel James De 
Lancy, an officer in the British army, in the 
War of the Revolution. Colonel De Lancy was 
proud of his saddle horse, an animal of pure 

Tbe Foundation Horses 89 

breeding; and the story runs that a lieutenant, 
in the army of Washington, sneaked into De 
Lancy's headquarters at White Plains, New 
York, mounted the stallion, and rode off with 
him. The pedigree of True Briton, as traced 
by Mr, Battell, is by Lloyd's Traveller, son of 
Morton's imported Traveller and imported Jennie 
Cameron ; dam Betty Leeds, daughter of Babra- 
ham by Godolphin Arabian, and out of a mare 
by Bolton Starling, she out of a mare by Godol- 
phin Arabian. The dam of Justin Morgan is 
given as by Diamond by Church's Wildair by 
imported Wildair by Cade by Godolphin Ara- 
bian. This tracing carries us to the desert, 
where the Arabs created breeds which have sur- 
vived the vicissitudes of time. It is an axiom 
that purity of blood will breed on with a higher 
degree of certainty than any other, therefore 
Oriental strains are always valued in a pedigree. 
The lines of Justin Morgan, as tabulated by Mr. 
Battell, will be accepted by some critics with 
mental reservation; but the forcible manner in 
which the stallion stamped himself upon his de- 
scendants makes preposterous the suggestion that 
he was a plebeian of plebeians. While owned 
by Mr. Morgan the stallion was called Figure, 

92 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

forward ; in short, was perfectly trained to all the 
paces and evolutions of a parade horse; and 
when ridden at military reviews (as was fre- 
quently the case) his bold, imposing style and 
spirited, nervous action attracted universal atten- 
tion and admiration. He was perfectly gentle 
and kind to handle, and loved to be groomed 
and caressed; but he disliked to have children 
about him, and had an inveterate hatred for 
dogs, if loose, always chasing them out of sight 
the instant he saw them. When taken out with 
a halter or bridle he was in constant motion and 
very pla)rful. He was a fleet runner at short 

The speed of horses was tested at the run in 
those days, even in Vermont, and the usual dis- 
tance was 80 rods. Justin Morgan was quite 
successful in these races, but it was in harness 
that he showed at his best. He was full of 
spirit and a nimble traveller. Pulling bees were 
common, and he was as successful in them as in 
running races. Robert Evans, one of his owners, 
was a poor man with a large family, and he used 
his stallion in hauling logs and clearing land. 
This severe work did not affect his legs or 
vitality, because we are told that a short time 

Tbe Foundation Horses 93 

previous to his death his constitution was un- 
broken and his limbs were free from swelling. 
The stud career of Justin Morgan is thus 
summarized: 1793, kept by Justin Morgan, at 
Randolph and Royalton ; 1 794, by Justin Morgan, 
at Randolph and Royalton; 1795, by Justin 
Morgan, at Weston and Hinesburg; 1796, by 
Jonathan Shepard, at Montpelier, and perhaps 
earlier in the season by William Rice at Wood- 
stock; 1797, passed to James Hawkins, of Mont- 
pelier, and it is not known where kept until 
purchased, probably 1801, by Robert Evans, of 
Randolph, who sold him, probably 1804, to John 
Goss, Randolph; 1805 ^^^ 1806, kept by David 
Goss, at St. Johnsbury; 1807, by John Goss, a 
short time at Claremont, and the balance of the 
season at Randolph; 1808, 1809, and 18 10, by 
David Goss at St Johnsbury; 181 1, by Samuel 
Stone in Randolph, Tunbridge, and Royalton; 
1812 and 1813, uncertain; 1814, 1815, 1817, 
kept by Joel Goss and Joseph Rogers at Clare- 
mont; 18 16, by William Langmaid at Danville; 
18 18 and 18 1 9, by Samuel Stone at Randolph; 
afterwards, until his death in 182 1, he was owned 
by Levi Bean of Chelsea. The immediate cause 
of his death was a kick in the flank from one 

94 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

of the horses with which he was running in an 
open yard. He was without shelter, and inflam- 
mation, which set in, hurried him to the close of 
his career. A horse of coarse and weak fibre 
would not have triumphed over the difficulties 
and the hardships that he was compelled to face. 
Walter T. Chester, author of the Complete 
Trotting and Pacing Record, who was long 
associated with me, but who is now the record- 
ing secretary of the Vermont Horse Breeders' 
Association, addressed a letter to me, when he 
learned that I was to write a history of the trot- 
ting and pacing horse, in which he said : ** It 
may interest you to know that nearly 5000 
stallions and many mares have been registered 
in the second volume of the Morgan Register. 
The basis is blood alone, upon which you know 
I often argued in the columns of the Turf, Fields 
and Farm. Are not the Morgans the only dis- 
tinct breed of trotters now extant? Eligibility 
for registration is based upon the blood of Justin 
Morgan, and upon that alone. With a certain 
percentage of the foundation blood an animal 
is admitted; without it he stays out." I have 
always conceded the wonderful prepotency of 
Justin Morgan. The racial characteristics of 

Tbe Foundation Horses 95 

his family are nearly as fixed as those of the 
Jews; his blood resembles that of the Arab in 
the way it has established type, but I cannot 
bring my mind to the thought that the Morgan 
is the* only distinct breed of trotters. The 
Hambletonian family far surpasses it 



The three great sons of Justin Morgan were 
Bulrush Morgan, Woodbury Morgan, and Sher- 
man Morgan. Each, until lo years old, did the 
ordinary team work of the farm and was hardened 
by fatigue and exposure. Sherman Morgan was 
a chestnut, a shade under 14 hands, and weighed 
925 pounds. He was foaled about 1808, and was 
bred by James Sherman of Lyndon, Vermont. 
His dam was a chestnut mare of good size, high 
spirits, and quality, and tradition says that she was 
of Spanish origin, otherwise was descended from 
a barb. Sherman Morgan was tested at pulling 
heavy loads, the same as his sire, and usually was 
victorious. He also was driven hard on the roads 
of a mountainous country. He was well patron- 
ized in the stud, and died January 9, 1835, at 
Lancaster, New Hampshire. His get were early 
noted for speed, and his descendants figure prom- 
inently in the trotting pedigrees of to-day. Red 


Three Energetic Sons of Justin Morgan 97 

Jacket, sire of Minna, dam of Kentucky Wilkes, 
2.21^, the famous stallion owned in the Marsh- 
land stud by Benjamin F. Tracy, was by Billy 
Root, a son of Sherman Morgan. The grand 
dam of Red Wilkes, one of the greatest of pro- 
ducing sires, was also by Red Jacket. The 
Sherman Morgan blood was carried forward by 
his son. Black Hawk (Vermont or Hills), a black 
horse foaled in 1833, the property of Ezekiel 
Twombley, of Greenland, New Hampshire. He 
stood 15 hands and weighed 1000 pounds. His 
dam was a black mare, a fast trotter, and one 
version is that she was a half-bred English mare. 
Black Hawk was a square trotter, and it is claimed 
that he never made a break on the road. He 
died the property of David Hill of Bridport, 
Vermont, in November, 1856. He trotted in 
several long-distance races and covered single 
miles in 2.42. He was a prolific sire, but only 
four of his sons and daughters obtained standard 
records. These were Ethan Allen, 2.25^; Lancet, 
2.27^; Belle of Saratoga, 2.29; and Young America, 
2.23. The latter was a pacer. It was as a foun- 
dation sire that Black Hawk 5 is entitled to dis- 
tinguished consideration. Fourteen of his sons 
are speed producers. The star of the cluster was 


98 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Ethan Allen. He was bred by J. W. Holcomb 
of Ticonderoga, New York, and was foaled 

June 1 8, 1849. H^s d^™ ^^ ^ g^y niare, 
famous as a roadster, but of unknown ancestry. 
He was a bay of 15 hands and weighed 1000 
pounds. He was a long-bodied horse, of rare 
symmetry and carriage, and his trotting action 
was regarded as almost perfect. He had remark- 
able speed for his day and was the idol of the 
race-going public. Among the horses vanquished 
by him during his turf career were Rose of Wash- 
ington, Columbus, Stockbridge Chief, George M. 
Patchen, Tacony, Princess, Draco, and Hector. 
After Dexter had beaten everything in sight, he 
was foolishly matched for a $2^00 aside against 
Ethan Allen and running mate. The race took 
place at Fashion Course, Long Island, on June 21, 
1867, and Dan Mace drove the pair while Budd 
Doble sat behind Dexter. The runner not only 
relieved Ethan Allen of the weight handicap but 
dragged him forward, and Dexter was beaten 
in 2.15, 2.16, 2.19. The white-faced gelding was 
privately timed the first heat in 2.17. Ethan 
Allen had a number of owners, among them 
J. E. Maynard, Z. E. Simmons, W. P. Balch, and 
H. S. Russell. Colonel Russell sold him in the 

Three Energetic Sons of Justin Morgan 99 

autumn of 1870 to Amasa Sprague of Providence, 
who sent him to Lawrence, Kansas, where he 
died September 10, 1876. His skeleton is in the 
Museum of Natural History at Lawrence. One 
of the mares bred to Ethan Allen was the famous 
chestnut, Pocahontas by Iron's Cadmus, who paced 
to a wagon record of 2.1 7 J at Union Course, 
Long Island, June 21, 1855. The fruit was the 
handsome bay mare Pocahontas, foaled in 1859, 
who trotted to a record of 2.26f at Boston, 
July 26, 1866. This mare then passed to Robert 
Bonner, for a consideration of {^40,000, and she 
was long a shining light of that world-famous 
stable. She was a great road mare, and I never 
rode behind a trotter as fast as I did behind her 
to wagon on the road with Mr. David Bonner 
driving. I once told the story of that ride in 
Harper^ s Magazine and will not repeat it here. 
Pocahontas trotted a mile for Mr. Bonner in 
2.i7f, and died without issue. This was always 
regretted by Mr. Bonner and the admirers of the 
shapely and true-going bay mare. Among the six 
standard trotters from the loins of Ethan Allen 
were Billy Barr, 2.23!, and Hotspur, 2.24. Twenty- 
two of his sons are producing sires, and fourteen 
of his daughters are producing dams. 

loo Tbe Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

The most prepotent of his sons was Daniel 
Lambert, a chestnut horse foaled in 1858; bred 
by William H. Cook, of Ticonderoga, New York, 
and dam Fanny Cook, a handsome and highly 
organized chestnut mare by Abdallah (son of Mam- 
brino), sire of Rysdyk's Hambletonian ; second 
dam by Stockholm's American Star by Duroc by 
imported Diomed. Daniel Lambert was a shade 
under 15.2, and he had elasticity of gait as well as 
good form and carriage. When four months old 
he passed to John Porter, and later was owned in 
succession by R. S. Denny, Benjamin Bates, and 
David Snow. As a three-year-old Dan Mace 
drove Daniel Lambert a mile in 2.42, but other- 
wise the speed of this stallion was not developed. 
He died June 29, 1889. The fastest of the 38 
trotters sired by him was Comee, 2.19J, winner 
of 26 races. The two best producing sons 
of the 35 sires by Daniel Lambert were Ben 
Franklin out of Black Kate by Addison, son 
of Vermont Black Hawk, and Aristos, whose 
blood, like Ben Franklin's, is breeding on. Sixty- 
two of the daughters of Daniel Lambert are dams 
of speed. Fanny Cook also produced, in i860, to 
Ethan Allen, the bay horse Woodard's Ethan 
Allen, whose register number is 473, and among 

Three Energetic Sons of Justin Morgan loi 

whose seven trotters is Tuna, 2. 12 J. His sons 
and daughters were producers, and he died in 
Kentucky in 1888. He stood 15.1 and was once 
a member of the Fairlawn stud of General 
W. T. Withers. The fact is striking that the 
best of the get of . Ethan Allen was out of a mare 
once owned by the owner of Rysdyk's Hamble- 
tonian, and was by the sire of the great progeni- 
tor whose grave is at Chester. 

Holobird's Ethan Allen, whose register number 
is 474, was a bay horse of 15.3, foaled 1858, by 
Ethan Allen, dam a bay mare of 16 hands by the 
C. F. Chedel Horse by Morgan Tally Ho. He. 
combined size with finish and speed and died in 
1889. He contributed four trotters and two 
pacers to the list, and his daughters produced fast 
pacers and trotters. Dariel, 2.00J, was descended 
from him. 

Honest Allen, a chestnut horse of 14.3 by 
Ethan Allen out of a mare represented as by the 
Brooks Horse (son of Sherman Morgan), she out 
of a daughter of Cock of the Rock, was foaled in 
1855. He passed to William L. Simmons, who 
in 1873 placed him in the stud at Lexington, 
Kentucky, where he died in 1883. July 4, 1871, 
at Boston, Honest Allen trotted in 2.28 to pole. 

I02 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

He sired four trotters, and one of his five produc- 
ing sons is Denning Allen, a bay of 15.2, foaled 
in 1874, and dam Reina by Ward's Flying Cloud. 
He was taken to Little Rock, Arkansas, where he 
left 100 colts, one of which is Lord Clinton, 
2.o8f, the fastest trotter of the Ethan Allen 
tribe. I saw this gelding in his maiden race 
at the Alabama State Fair, held at Birming- 
ham, and he trotted with such apparent ease that 
I predicted a glowing future for him. I was sur- 
prised to see a horse come from what was called 
a brush patch and beat 2.20 without an effort 
Lord Clinton was a game race-horse, and in 1892 
he beat such tried horses as Lobasco, Little Albert, 
Azote, Magnolia, Cheyenne, and Grattan. He 
was also a competitor in the stubborn contest for 
the Columbian Exposition Stake, at Chicago, in 
September, 1893. This race was finally won by 
Alix, and Lord Clinton was separately timed in it 
in 2.08. 

General Knox was a black horse, foaled in June, 
1855 ; ^r^d by David Heustis of Bridport, Ver- 
mont, and got by Vermont Hero (son of Sherman 
Black Hawk, 142) ; dam a large mare by Searcher, 
son of Barney Henry, the son of Signal and a 
daughter of Bishop's Hambletonian ; second dam 

Three Energetic Sons of Justin Morgan 103 

by Sir Charles by Duroc by imported Diomed 
The dam of Vermont Hero was by Liberty by 
Bishop's Hambletonian by imported Messenger. 
General Knox stood 15.2, weighed 1050 pounds, 
and in 1859 passed to T. L. Lang of Vassalboro, 
Maine, who sold him in 1872 to Henry N. Smith, 
who placed him in the stud at Fashion Stud 
Farm, New Jersey. He won six races, took a 
record of 2.31, and died July 29, 1887. The first 
16 years of his life were spent in comparative 
obscurity. Many of the mares which visited him 
were of unknown pedigree or inheritance, and yet 
through them he transmitted the light harness 
gait It was once said of him that he was to 
Maine what Hambletonian 10 was to Orange 
County. At Fashion Stud Farm he was given an 
excellent opportunity, and one of the nuptials was 
with Lady Thorn. The fruit was General Wash- 
ington (sire of 15 trotters, one of them Poem, 
2.11^), who, bred to Goldsmith Maid, produced 
Stranger, a sire of resolute trotters. Stranger 
passed from the Parkville Farm of John H. 
Shults to Europe. Among the 15 trotters 
left by General Knox were Lady Maud, 2.18J; 
Beulah, 2.19I; Camors, 2.19^ ; and Independence, 
2.2 1 J. The latter was driven on the road for 

I04 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

several years by William Rockefeller. Thirty- 
two of the sons of General Knox are speed-pro- 
ducing sires, one of which is Charles CafiFrey, 
with 25 in the list, including Robbie P., 2.iof. 
Twenty-nine of the daughters of General Knox 
are speed-producing dams. The last time I 
visited Fashion Stud Farm, and that was before 
its glory had departed, I was shown a grass- 
grown mound under the magnolia, marked by a 
cross, and I removed my hat because it was the 
grave of General Knox. 

Jubilee Lambert, a bay of 15.3, foaled in 1863, 
by Daniel Lambert, dam the Harvey Mare, was 
taken to Abdallah Park, Cynthiana, Kentucky, 
in September, 1879. One of his get was Jubilee 
de Jamette, whose dam was a celebrated show 
mare, Lady de Jarnette, by Indian Chief, by 
Blood's Black Hawk, who made quite an im- 
pression upon the trotting stock of Kentucky. 

The prepotent blood of Justin Morgan is 
felt in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin, and other 
Western states, and in Kentucky, Tennessee, and 
the South, as well as in New England. 




The Jennison Horse, who as a three-year-old 
sired Old Morrill, foaled in 1841, was a bright 
bay with star, nearly 16 hands, and weighed 
1200 pounds. He was bred by A. Jennison, 
Walden, Vermont, and his sire was Young Bul- 
rush, son of Bulrush Morgan. The dam was a 
strong black mare of 16 hands and a pacer. 
Jennison was a poor man, and all that he re- 
ceived for the service that produced Morrill was 
a pound of tea. James Heath of Baldwin owned 
an iron-gray mare of about 15 hands, who pos- 
sessed great nerve power and energy. She was 
by the Farrington Horse, and broke one of her 
hind legs above the hock, which gave her a de- 
cided limp, but she got over the ground well. 
She was twelve years old when bred to the Jen- 
nison Horse. Morrill was a black of 15.3, and 
was sold as a weanling to Urban Perkins, who 


io8 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

speed producers. Fearnaught was not equal to 
his splendid opportunities. He died in 1873. 

Royal Fearnaught, chestnut horse of 15.3, 
foaled in 1873, dam Lady Smathers by Draco 
by Young Morrill, spent the greater part of his 
life in Michigan, and is the sire of St. Elmo, 
2.16:^, and nineteen other trotters and five pacers. 
Two of his sons and ten of his daughters are 
speed producers. 

The Morrill tribe, like some of the Indian 
tribes, is passing with the years from a valley 
of activity and trumpet-blowing to obliteration. 

Morgan Eagle was a bay horse with black 
points, 15.2, foaled about 1824, and by Wood- 
bury Morgan, dam untraced. He sired the 
brown mare Lady Sutton, who was celebrated 
on the turf from 1847 to ^^49, and who trotted 
to a record of 2.30 at Centreville, Long Island, 
August 3, 1849. In her old age Lady Sutton 
grazed in a Long Island pasture with her once 
determined opponent, Lady Moscow, and the 
two were close friends. Lady Moscow died in 
the afternoon of September 9, 1865, and Hiram 
Woodruff writes: "As we stood there on the 
green hillside looking at the mare that lay dead 

Descendants of Justin Morgan 109 

before us, it was really touching to see poor old 
Sutton wandering around her dead companion 
as if unable to make out what had befallen 
her. Two other mares were near at hand, but 
Sutton did not seem to notice them at all, her 
gaze being fixed on her whose sinews were 
relaxed and whose hoofs were at last still." 
Morgan Eagle was also the sire of Henderson's 
Morgan Eagle, who stood 16 hands and was 
foaled in 1839. From his loins came Magna 
Charta, a bay horse of 1 5 hands, foaled May 1 5, 
1855. He spent the greater part of his life in 
Michigan, trotting to a record of 2.31, and died 
in December, 1886. He sired five trotters, the 
fastest of which was Hannah D., 2.22^, and among 
his forty-two producing daughters was the dam 
of Belle P., 2. 1 5 J. 

Gifford Morgan, foaled June 13, 1824, was a 
dark chestnut and got by Woodbury Morgan. 
He was a favorite parade horse and left, accord- 
ing to Linsley, some excellent stock. Green 
Mountain Morgan, a big little horse, a brown 
of iicx> pounds, and by Gifford Morgan out of 
an untraced mare, was foaled about 1832. He 
passed through different hands to Silas Hale of 
South Royalston, Massachusetts, and died in Ver- 

I lo The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

mont in 1863, In 1853 he was awarded premi- 
ums at the Kentucky, Ohio, and Michigan fairs ; 
and one of his sons, Morgan Eagle, bred to a 
daughter of Blythe's Whip by Blackburn's Whip, 
produced Kentucky Queen, dam of Kentucky 
Prince, sire of Guy, 2.09I. 

L, L. Dorsey of Louisville, Kentucky, made 
the Golddust tribe famous. He was a restless, 
ambitious man and always had a chip on his 
shoulder. At one time he flooded me with 
communications as to what the sons and daugh- 
ters of Golddust could do. Barnard's Morgan, 
a bay horse of 15.1^, was foaled in 1843; and he 
was by Gifford's Morgan out of a brown mare 
of nearly 16 hands, strong-going and an excel- 
lent roadster. In 1857 he was shown, with 26 
of his get, at St. Louis and attracted much atten- 
tion. A light bay mare of 1 5 hands and marked 
excellence was bred to him, and the result was 
Vermont Morgan, a bay of 15 hands, foaled in 
September, 1846. He was taken to Illinois in 
1849, and remained there until 1864, when he 
was sold to L. L. Dorsey of Kentucky, who sold 
him in i860 to go to Alabama. He could trot 
in three minutes. In 1864 Andrew Hoke sent 
to him a fine-looking mare by Zilcadi (a chestnut 

Descendants of Justin Morgan m 

Arabian presented to United States Consul Rhind 
by the Sultan); second dam by imported Bare- 
foot, a chestnut by Tramp out of Rosamond by 
Buzzard, and tracing through several sources to 
the desert. The result of the union was Gold- 
dust, who was foaled in 1855, and who developed 
into a horse of beauty and potency. When a 
weanling, L. L. Dorsey purchased Golddust for 
;f 100, and the golden chestnut remained at Eden 
Stock Farm until he died, in 187 1. It was my 
privilege to see him often, and to admire him 
every time I saw him. In 1861, when contend- 
ing armies used Kentucky for a checker-board, 
Mr. Dorsey made a match with W. Garnett to 
trot Golddust, mile heats, three in five, against 
Iron Duke for $10,000. The race was over 
Woodlawn Course, now a memory, and Iron 
Duke won the first heat in 2.48J and Golddust 
the second, third, and fourth heats in 2.47^, 2.43, 
247^^* The record of Golddust, 2.43, was made 
in this race. The trotters from the loins of 
Golddust are Lucille Golddust, 2.16J; Fleety 
Golddust, 2.20; Indicator, 2.23^; and Rolla Gold- 
dust, 2.25. Lucille Golddust was one of the 
greatest campaigners of the grand circuit, and in 
her retirement she produced Sprague Golddust, 

1 1 2 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

2.15 J; Lucille's Baby, 2.2o|; Wilkes Golddust, 
2.2 3^^; and Narka, 2.2 7 J. Among the 18 produc- 
ing sons of Golddust is Zilcadi Golddust, whose 
dam, Rosalind, was a daughter of Sally Russell, 
dam of Miss Russell, dam of Maud S. Zilcadi 
Golddust is the sire of seven trotters, and one of 
his daughters is the dam of the celebrated cam- 
paign mare Rosaline Wilkes, 2,14^. Roma, who 
is in the great brood-mare list, was a daughter 
of Golddust Reality, a daughter of Roma, is 
also in the great brood-mare list as the dam of 
Comanche, 2.19^ ; Tuscarora, 2.22^; and Prin- 
cess Clara, 2.26^ as a yearling in a race. Gold- 
dust, who according to Mr. Battell traces through 
Justin Morgan, as well as the Hoke Mare, to the 
pure blood of Arabia, established a family noted 
for good looks as well as for speed and endur- 



One of the greatest foundation sires was Mam- 
brino Chief, foaled in 1844, and bred by Richard 
Eldridge of Dutchess County, New York. He 
was from the loins of Mambrino Paymaster, and 
his dam was a large and somewhat angular mare 
of untraced blood. Mambrino Paymaster was by 
Mambrino, thoroughbred son of imported Mes- 
senger, out of a highly formed and courageous 
daughter of Paymaster, an imported stallion, and 
he was possessed of more than ordinary action 
for that day. Mambrino Chief was a natural 
trotter, and he passed from Richard Eldridge to 
Warren Williams, who in the spring of 1851 sold 
him to James M. Cockroft and G. T. Williams 
of New York. In October, 1884, while on a 
visit to Mr. Edwin Thome of Thorndale, I was 
permitted to read the correspondence which led 
to the transfer of Mambrino Chief from the state 
of New York to the state of Kentucky, where he 
founded a family second in importance to that of 
1 113 

114 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Hambletonian. Mr. Thome, who from boyhood 
had been a close student of form and breeding, 
described Mambrino Chief as a horse with a large 
head, full of character ; a good neck, with excel- 
lent shoulders ; legs strong and fluted, but with 
a large foot subject to quarter crack. In 1853 
James B. Clay, a son of Henry Clay, of Ashland, 
was in New York, and he consulted Mr. Thome 
with regard to the purchase of a trotting stallion 
to take to Kentucky. As Mambrino Chief had 
size with substance and was showing well at the 
trot, he was warmly recommended ; and in 1854 
he was established in a new home in the Blue- 
grass district of Kentucky. His coming excited 
a feeling of jealousy in certain quarters, and he 
was matched against Pilot Jr., at two-mile heats, 
for $1000 a side. The race did not take place, 
because Mambrino Chief showed so much speed 
in his training as to frighten the owner of Pilot 
Jr. into paying forfeit. General John B. Castle- 
man of Louisville frequently saw Mambrino 
Chief at Ashland, and in a paper read before the 
American Saddle Horse Breeders' Association, in 
1903, he said of him: "There had rarely been 
then or since so coarse a stallion in any stud 
in Kentucky. He was approximately 16 hands 

Mambrino Chief and bis Descendants 1 1 5 

high, dark bay, coarse-headed, coarse-eared, plain- 
bodied, coarse-legged, and coarse-hoofed. No 
fine colt was ever sired by Mambrino Chief. He 
produced speed but not finish." James B. Clay, 
a son of the former owner of Mambrino Chief, 
took issue with General Castleman : " I remember 
this horse well ; saw him almost every day while 
he was at Ashland ; he was a dark brown, nearly 
black; indeed, some would call him black. He 
was 16 hands high, no white about him ; some tan 
on the nose and in the flank ; that is why he was 
called a brown instead of a black horse. He had 
a very bony head, but not what would be called 
an ugly head. His neck was long and beau- 
tiful, his shoulders very sloping and beautiful; 
large flat legs, good hocks that were not straight, 
neither could they be called sickle. His feet 
were large and flat and not good. He was a 
large horse, but I never thought him a coarse 
one.*' As Mr. Clay's recollection of the horse 
agrees with the description furnished me by Mr. 
Thome in 1884, I cannot do otherwise than con- 
clude that General Castleman's memory is faulty. 
When mated with mares of finish and carrying 
thoroughbred blood, the so-called coarseness of 
Mambrino Chief was not transmitted. The an- 

ii6 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

gular qualities of the son of Mambrino Paymas- 
ter, derived from his untraced dam, disappeared 
under the double infusion of Oriental strains. In 
1855, one year after Mambrino Chief had left the 
picturesque hills of Dutchess County for the his- 
toric groves of Ashland, which gave inspiration 
to Henry Clay, Levi S. Rodes of Fayette County, 
Kentucky, bred to him a mare of quality by Gano, 
a thoroughbred son of the four-mile race-horse 
American Eclipse, and the fruit was a bay filly, 
foaled in the spring of 1856, purchased by George 
Dunlap of Lexington, and for a short time driven 
on the road by him. When three years old this 
filly became the property of Dr. L. Herr, who 
trained and started her in public under the name 
of Maid of Ashland. Subsequently she was sold 
to C. P. Relf of Pennsylvania, and under the 
name of Lady Thorn made a reputation which 
will endure until the obliteration of trotting annals. 
She was the rival of Dexter on the turf, trotted 
to a record of 2.18J at Providence, Rhode Island, 
October 8, 1869, and met with an accident when 
being led into a car at Rochester, New York, 
August 4, 1870, which forced her into retirement 
Her owner, Henry N. Smith, then made her a 
brood mare at the Fashion Stud Farm, Trenton, 

Mambrmo Chief and bis Descendants 1 1 7 

New Jersey, where she produced twice to General 
Knox — February 22, 1874, the bay colt General 
Washington, and in 1875 the bay filly Thometta, 
She died June 23, 1877, and was buried just in- 
side the mile track on the farm. After her retire- 
ment Dan Mace, who trained her for Mr. Smith, 
told weird stories of fast trials, but the sceptics 
laughed at them. Lady Thorn was a highly 
strung mare, undoubtedly faster than her record, 
and it is a pity that her track career was cut short 
by an accident. Her son, General Washington, 
was not trained for races and was moderately suc- 
cessful as a stallion. Thornetta was also reserved 
for breeding ranks and is in the Year Book as a 
producer of speed. Lady Thorn, who trotted 106 
heats inside of 2.30, drew national attention to 
Mambrino Chief, and the reputation of the stallion 
steadily grew with wider opportunity. Only six 
of his sons and daughters acquired records of 
2.30 and better, but his descendants are as 
thick as autumn leaves in the valley of standard 
speed. Mambrino, the grandsire of Mambrino 
Chief, was by imported Messenger out of a 
daughter of imported Sour Crout ; and American 
Eclipse, the sire of Gano, the sire of the dam of 
Lady Thorn, was by Duroc by imported Diomed, 

ii8 Tbe Trotting and ibe Pacing Horse 

whose ancestral roots ran directly to the desert 
from which came Darley Arabian, Godolphin 
Arabian, and Leeds' Arabian. Miller's Damsel, 
the dam of American Eclipse, was by imported 
Messenger, and I recall the time when trotting- 
horse br^ders, who were classed as " Messenger 
crazy," were advised to go to the descendants of 
the distinguished four-mile racer for an infusion 
of this charmed blood. Sir Archy, the sire of 
Betsey Richards, dam of Gano, was by imported 
Diomed, and the blood of these two distinguished 
race-horse progenitors undoubtedly nicked well 
with that of Messenger. 

The Rodes Mare (daughter of Gano) produced 
in addition to Lady Thorn the great trotting- 
speed progenitor, Mambrino Patchen. This dis- 
tinguished son of Mambrino Chief was bred by 
Dr. L. Herr of Forest Park, Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, and was foaled in 1862. He was such a 
promising yearling that he was purchased by 
John K. Alexander and taken to Illinois. The 
price, ;((i500, was at that time the highest ever 
paid for a yearling in Kentucky. As a two-year- 
old Mambrino Patchen was returned to Dr. Herr, 
who broke him to harness as a three-year-old 
and used him in the stud. When seven years old 

Mambrino Chief and bis Descendants 1 19 

the fame of his sister added largely to his list of 
visitors. The Mambrino Patchen family is the 
most prepotent of the Mambrino Chief tribe. 
. Dr. Herr was a quiet, observing man, but his face 
always flushed with pride when showing Mam- 
brino Patchen to appreciative men. He was a 
horse of 16 hands, of symmetry and lofty carriage, 
and his well-groomed black coat was brilliant in 
the sunshine which fell upon the oaks and 
maples of Kentucky. 

Lady Stout, a chestnut filly, foaled in 1 871, by 
Mambrino Patchen out of Puss Prall by Mark 
Time, was the first three-year-old to trot in 2.29, 
and she was the sensation of the hour. Columns 
were written about the evils of early development, 
but Dr. Herr was not upset by criticism. Lady 
Stout passed into the stable of Robert Bonner 
and was used by him as a brood mare. Car- 
tridge, 2. 1 4 J, was out of her. 

The best of the 25 trotters sired by Mambrino 
Patchen were London, 2.20^; Katie Middleton, 
2.23; and Mambrino Kate, 2.24; but nearly three 
score of his sons obtained recognition as sires of 
speed, and more than five score of his daughters 
are dams of trotters. From one of his sons, 
Mambrino Boy, came the dam of AUerton, 2.09J, 

1 20 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

and the dam of Axtell, 2.12, both sensational 
trotters and the heads of speedy tribes. From 
another son, Mambrino King, came track per- 
formers of the fastest and most resolute t3rpe, such 
as Lord Derby, 2.05 J; Nightingale, 2.08; Dare 
Devil, 2.09; Heir at Law, 2.12; and Mocking 
Bird, 2.i6f. We owe to the daughters of Mam- 
brino King record-breaking trotters like The Ab- 
bot, 2.03J, and The Monk, 2.05^. The symmetry 
of Mambrino Patchen was transmitted to Mam- 
brino King, intensified by Belle Thornton (dam of 
Mambrino King), a daughter of Edwin Forrest 
and Brown Kitty by Birmingham by Stockholder 
by Sir Archy. In his prime Mambrino King 
was pronounced by competent critics the hand- 
somest horse in the world, and when led into the 
show ring he never failed to become the focus 
of admiring eyes. Usually he retired from the 
arena with the blue rosette, the highest award of 
honor. His influence upon the trotting horse of 
America was marked because he demonstrated to 
the world the advantage of combining beauty and 
courage with speed. The form of his maternal 
ancestor, the dam of Goliah and Mambrino Chief, 
was changed by the submerging currents of Mam- 
brino, imported Paymaster, American Eclipse, 

Mambrino Chief and bis Descendants 1 2 1 

and Sir Archy ; and the advocates of nothing but 
cold crosses in a trotting pedigree were silenced 
by the facts. Prominent among daughters of 
Mambrino Patchen are Alma Mater, dam of 
eight with records, including the two speed-pro- 
ducing stallions, Alcantara and Alcyone ; Belle 
Patchen, dam of the renowned sire. Baron Wilkes, 
2.18; Lady Bunker, dam of Guy Wilkes, 2. 15 J, 
whose star at one time was one of the brightest 
in the breeding firmament of California; Mary 
Mambrino, who gave us Beatrice, dam of Patron, 
2.14^, a sire of 2.10 speed ; Patronage, sire of the 
once resolute trotting queen, Alix, 2.03!; ^^^ 
Prodigal, 2.16, a fertile source of speed. Elvira, 
the champion four-year-old trotter, dam of Ponce 
de Leon, 2.13, sire of fast trotters and pacers, was 
another good daughter of Mary Mambrino. 
Betty Brown, dam of Wilkes Boy, 2.24^, a sire of 
high rank, was also by Mambrino Patchen. She 
was bred to her own sire, Mambrino Patchen, and 
produced Kitty Patchen, dam of Patchen Wilkes, 
sire of the rock-ribbed pacer, Joe Patchen, 2.01^, 
sire of Dan Patch, 1.56J. This close doubling of 
the blood of Mambrino Patchen was attended by 
far better results than were anticipated. Mam- 
brino Patchen was sound until he died, May 6, 
1885, at the age of 22, 

122 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

In the spring of 1862 the brown mare. Wood- 
bine by Woodford, thoroughbred son of Kosciusko 
by Sir Archy, was bred to Mambrino Chief just 
previous to the death of the stallion, and the 
fruit was the bay horse, Woodford Mambrino, 
who was used in the stud at Woodburn until 
1877, when he was placed in training and trotted 
a mile in 2.21, In October of that year he was 
sold to L. B. Dubois of Colorado, who sold him 
to R. C. Pate of Missouri, who made a remarkable 
campaign with him the season of 1878. The 
horse was 15 years old and suffered from fistula, 
but he fought his races with the greatest deter- 
mination and was the sensation of the grand 
circuit He acquired a record of 2.2 1^, — and was 
so worn when I saw him at Minneapolis late in 
the autumn that I was not surprised to hear of 
his death in March, 1879. 

His spirit was not conquered until the flesh 
wasted under disease and a cruel taskmaster* 
He left but 86 foals, and yet his rank as a pro- 
genitor of speed is high. Among his producing 
sons are Princeps, Mambrino Dudley, and Pan- 
coast The latter is the grandsire of Alix, 2.03^. 
The greatest of his producing daughters is Even- 
tide, the dam of Kremlin, 2.07^, the champion 

Mambrino Chief and bis Descendants 123 

trotting stallion of 1892 and a successful sire at 
Allen Farm. In 1871 Woodbine produced 
Wedgewood by Belmont, who was out of a 
daughter of Mambrino Chief; and as he trotted 
to a record of 2.19, and is noted as a sire of 
extreme speed, the nick must be regarded as a 
good one. Dame Wood, the dam of the hand- 
some and fast pacer, John R. Gentry, 2.00^, owned 
by Edward H. Harriman, was a daughter of 

Belle Loupe by Brown's Bellfounder, son of 
imported Bellfounder, gave birth in 1857 to a bay 
filly by Mambrino Chief which at maturity 
became, under the name of Belle, one of the 
famous matrons of the stud book. Bred to 
Alexander's Abdallah, son of the renowned pro- 
genitor, Rysdyk's Hambletonian, she foaled in 
1854 a bay colt, Belmont, who was reserved for 
procreative tasks at Woodburn. He trotted the 
half-mile track on the farm in 2.28^, and was 
placed in the stud in 1869. He was a horse of 
15.3 hands, of quality, fine carriage, and pre- 
potency, and he is the head of a numerous and 
powerful tribe. Nutwood, one of his sons, was 
a prolific sire of speed, and King Rene, who was 
by Belmont out of Blandina by Mambrino Chief, 

1 24 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

was a horse of the show-ring type and a pro- 
genitor of trotters. The daughters of Belmont 
also were celebrated for speed-producing quali- 
ties. One of these was Bicara, dam of Pancoast, 
2.2 if. Belmont died at Woodburn, November 
13, 1889, and his stud fee had been advanced 
from $2$ to $500. Sally Anderson was another 
daughter of Mambrino Chief that found a golden 
nick in Alexander's Abdallah. Almont, her dis- 
tinguished son, was thus bred, and he transmitted 
his remarkable action with impressive uniformity. 
At Edge Hill, the breeding farm of Colonel 
Richard West, at Georgetown, Kentucky, I was 
often called upon to admire the frictionless trot 
of Almont as he swept around his paddock, and 
a great future was predicted for him. The op- 
portunity of the stallion was enlarged when he 
was transferred to Fairlawn, the breeding farm 
of General W. T. Withers, and he died leaving 
scores of producing sons and daughters. Fanny 
Witherspoon, 2. 16 J, was his fastest and gamest 
daughter, and Piedmont, 2. 17 J, was his best 
trotting son. Mag Ferguson, the dam of the 
latter, was by Mambrino Chief, and he taught 
the lesson that the blood could be doubled with 
advantage. Clark Chief, sire of Kentucky Prince 

high-wheel »ulky nude him the Ch»nipton Trolling Sullk 

m ths Champion Troiting SBlllon o( IS93. 

Mambrino Chief and bis Descendants 125 

and of the dam of the once champion trotting 
stallion, Phallas, 2. 1 3f , was another prepotent son 
of Mambrino Chief. Kentucky Prince was at 
the head of the famous Stony Ford stud of 
Charles Backman, and the fastest trotter from 
his loins was Guy, 2.09J. Ninety-eight of his 
daughters are dams of speed. 

Dolly, a daughter of Mambrino Chief, is in 
the great brood mare list as the dam of Onward, 
Director, and Thorndale, all famous speed-pro- 
ducing stallions. Beuzetta, 2.o6f, and Onward 
Silver, 2.05 J, are the fastest trotters by Onward ; 
and Directum, 2.05J, is the best of the get of 
Director. Dolly was a very plain mare, and the 
memory of her, as I saw her in the summer of 
1877 standing on the banks of the Elkhorn, with 
Director, then a tiny bit of flesh, by her side, is 
as vivid as if the scene belonged to the canvas 
of yesterday. How a mare of her severe outline 
could become such a fountain of speed is one 
of the problems that frequently confronts the 
student of breeding. The Mambrino that sired 
Abdallah, the sire of Rysdyk's Hambletonian, 
was the sire of Mambrino Paymaster, the sire of 
Mambrino Chief, and when the descendants of 
Hambletonian and Mambrino Chief were joined. 

126 The Trotting and ibe Pacing Horse 

kindred strains were reunited with the vigor- 
imparting influence of the climatic outcross, 
and trotting conformation was advanced and 
improved and trotting action intensified. For 
an illustration, Alix, 2.03^; Fantasy, 2.06; Ralph 
Wilkes, 2.o6f ; Stamboul, 2.07^; Kremlin, 2.07^, 
and Arion, 2.07I, are bred this way. Trinket, 
who was the sensational four-year-old of 1879, 
was a striking example of how the Mambrino 
Chief and Hambletonian strains could be inter- 
woven. Princeps, her sire, was by Woodford 
Mambrino (son of Mambrino Chief), out of 
Primrose by Alexander's Abdallah (son of Ham- 
bletonian), and Ouida, her dam, was by Hamble- 
tonian. The thoughtful observer always draws 
a line between inbreeding for desirable qualities 
and incestuous breeding. 

Jessie Pepper was a brown mare of 16 hands, 
foaled 1 860, and by Mambrino Chief out of Lena 
Pepper by Sidi Hamet, a thoroughbred. She 
was a handsome mare, possessed of speed, and 
the simple statement that she had 18 foals 
speaks well for her vitality. Ten of these foals 
by eight different stallions were producers of 
speed. Annabel by George Wilkes (son of 
Hambletonian) was her best daughter, and the 

Mambrino Chief and bis Descendants 127 

best daughter of Annabel was Estabella by 
Alcantara by George Wilkes. Prince Regent, 
2.16^, a great four-year-old, and Heir at Law, 
2.12 at the trot and 2.05! ^^ ^^^ pace, were 
the result of Estabella's union with Mambrino 
King, son of Mambrino Patchen, son of Mam- 
brino Chief. A glance at the history of this 
mare and her descendants strengthens the con- 
viction that excellence is the outcome of the 
intercrossing of kindred strains of pronounced 

Sprite, who is in the great brood-mare list, was 
a chestnut of 16 hands, foaled in 1872, and by 
Belmont out of Waterwitch by Pilot Jr. She 
is the dam of four with records, three of which 
are by Electioneer, son of Hambletonian, and 
two of these. Egotist and Electrite, are abundant 
speed sires. Emma Arteburn by Mambrino 
Patchen out of Jennie Johnson, thoroughbred 
daughter of Sweet Owen, produced to Nutwood 
the mare Mystic, dam of Fred Kohl, 2.07!, ^^^ 
Mystery, 2.17^. She also produced St. Arnaud, 
sire of Reina, 2.1 2J; Judge Keeler, 2.14; and 
Mercedes, dam* of Harriet Clay, who, bred to 
Alcyone (son of George Wilkes and Alma Mater 
by Mambrino Patchen), gave us Harrietta, 2.09^, 

128 Tbe Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

driven in single and double harness by her owner, 
Mr. H. O. Havemeyer. 

Mambrino Pilot, bay horse, foaled in 1859 and 
by Mambrino Chief out of Juliet by Pilot Jr., she 
out of a daughter erf Webster, thoroughbred son 
of Medoc, trotted- in 1866 to a saddle record of 
2.27^ and sired among others Hannis, 2.17^, and 
Mambrino Gift, whose record of 2.20 was the 
best for stallions at the time it was made. 



One of the foremost of brood-mare sires is 
Pilot Jr., a gray horse of 15.2, foaled in 1844, and 
bred by Lugerean Gray of Jefferson County, 
Kentucky. His sire was a black horse called 
Pilot and his dam was Nancy Pope by Funk's 
Havoc, second dam Nancy Taylor by Alfred. 
In 1848 the gray horse was sold to D. Heinsohn 
of Louisville, Kentucky, and in 1858 he passed 
to R. A. Alexander of Woodburn, who used him 
in the stud with such discretion as to give him 
an enduring reputation. The horse died of apo- 
plexy at Aurora, Illinois, April 14, 1865. There 
has been much controversy over the breeding of 
Pilot and his son, Pilot Jr., and at this late day 
the precise facts cannot be established. Joseph 
Battell, who corresponded freely and travelled 
much in search of information, records Pilot as 
a very dark brown, nearly black, horse of about 
15 hands, foaled in 1853, bred by Louis Dan- 
sereau of Contrecoeur, Province of Quebec, sire 
K 129 

1 30 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

unknown; dam Jeanne d'Arc, bred by Louis 
Dansereau, got by Voyager that was foaled the 
property of Pierre Fisette of Contrecceur, from 
a mare that he traded for with a Yankee about 
181 1 ; second dam a black pacer» described as 
active but not very fleet, that Dansereau traded 
for at Montreal about 18 14 with a Yankee team- 
ster. Pilot was sold when 18 months old and 
taken to Montreal in 1839, from which place he 
was sold for 1^150 to Elias Lee Rockwell, who 
took him to Stafford, Connecticut, in the fall of 
1829, In August, 1830, Rockwell led the horse 
behind a peddler's wagon to Norwich, New York, 
and thence to New Orleans, pacing him in con- 
tests along the route. In June, 183 1, Pilot was 
sold to Major O. Dubois of New Orleans, for 
$1000, and in the early part of 1832 he passed 
to Heinsohn and Poe of Louisville, Kentucky. 
In 1850 the stallion passed to Robert Bell of 
Louisville, who sent him to his farm near Hen- 
derson, Kentucky, where he died about 1853. 
It is certain that Pilot was taken to New Orleans 
by a Yankee peddler who sold him to Major 
Dubois, but there is much conjecture about the 
rest of the story. The suggestion of Mr, Battell 
is that the stallion derived his excellence from a 

The Pilot Family 131 

Vermont mare, presumably a descendant of Justin 
Morgan. C. W. Kennedy, who rode Pilot in his 
speed exhibitions in Kentucky, is on record as 
saying that the stallion generally paced, although 
he trotted finely. Pilot was a horse with quite a 
temper, and in his races was driven with a breech- 
ing with puUe)^ leading to his mouth. Pilot Jr. 
trotted two races at five years old and won easily, 
and at six years old he won at two-mile heats 
and a race at four miles. He was a game horse, 
a dapple gray, of style, substance, and strength ; 
and one of the longest and most bitter contro- 
versies in which I ever engaged was over his 
pedigree. I held that his dam was by a thorough- 
bred stallion. Six trotters, possessed of standard 
speed, came from Pilot Jr., among them Pilot 
Temple, 2.24^, who won 36 races and whose dam, 
Madame Temple, was the dam of Flora Temple, 
the first trotter to beat 2,20. The best produc- 
ing son of Pilot Jr. was Bayard, sire of Kitty 
Bayard, 2.12^, and eight other trotters and six 
pacers. When in training he was almost as 
much of a puller on the bit as his grandsire, 
black Pilot. The daughters of Pilot Jr. have 
lifted him above the rank of ordinary stallions. 
Through them the line has been emphasized as 

132 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

thoroughly alive, and the gates to immortality 
have been forced open. Sally Russell, thorough- 
bred daughter of Boston, was bred to Pilot Jr., 
and produced in 1865 the gray filly Miss Russell, 
who developed into one of the greatest brood 
mares of the age. The same spring the gray 
filly Midnight by Pilot Jr. out of Twilight, 
thoroughbred daughter of Lexington, son of Bos- 
ton, was born, and she is in the list as the dam of 
the sensational gelding Jay-eye-see by Dictator, 
who trotted to a record of 2.10 and paced to a 
record of 2. 06 J; of Electricity by Electioneer, 
who trotted to a record of 2.17^, and who is a 
producing sire ; and of Noontide by Harold, who 
trotted to a record of 2.20^, and is a producing 

Miss Russell was a mare of unusual vitality and 
fertility. Seventeen of her 18 foals grew to ma- 
ture form, and she had seen her thirty-second 
birthday before her heart ceased to beat. She was 
for more than a quarter of a century a notable fig- 
ure in the pastures of Woodbum, refusing to as- 
sociate intimately with other mares grazing under 
the same trees, and she was the means of swell- 
ing, by many thousands of dollars, the revenues 
of A. J. Alexander. She was as much of a queen 

The Pilot Family 133 

among brood mares as her daughter, Maud S., 
was among trotters. Her pedigree at one time 
was assailed ; but it was established to the satis- 
faction of every reasonable man that her dam, 
Sally Russell, was the thoroughbred daughter 
of Boston and that her second dam, Maria Rus- 
sell, was a celebrated show mare by Thornton's 

Waterwitch, bay mare, foaled 1859, and by 
Pilot Jr. out of Fanny by Kinkead's St. Law- 
rence, second dam Brenda, represented to be 
thoroughbred, was another prolific mare. She 
was put to breeding at five years old, and pro- 
duced 19 foals j;hat lived. Six of these ob- 
tained records, — Mambrino Gift, 2.20; Scotland, 
2.2o|; Viking, 2.19J; Waterloo, 2.19J; Wave- 
let, 2.24^; and Warder, 2.29J. Scotland, who 
was gelded, was by the renowned thoroughbred 
stallion Bonnie Scotland, imported from Eng- 
land, and whose dam. Queen Mary, is one of the 
greatest fountains of speed in the English stud 
book. This gelding illustrated how speed at one 
gait can be utilized at another gait. The sons and 
daughters of Waterwitch rank high as producers 
of speed. The blood of the old mare is breeding 
on with striking force. Tackey, Dahlia, Diana, 

134 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Dixie, Crop, and Minerva are other daughters of 
Pilot Jr. who are in the list of great brood mares. 
Pilot Medium, one of our great sires, from whose 
loins came Peter the Great, 2.07J, sire of Sadie 
Mac, 2.1 1 J, the winner of the Kentucky Futurity 
in 1903, was by Happy Medium out of a daughter 
of Pilot Jr. 

Tattler, bay horse, foaled in 1863, by Pilot Jr., 
out of Telltale by Telamon, a thoroughbred, inbred 
to Medoc by American Eclipse, trotted to a 
record of 2.26 in 1868, and produced the two 
noted campaign-trotting stallions, Voltaire, 2.20;^, 
and Indianapolis, 2.21. He passed to Henry N. 
Smith, who bred from him, at Fashion Stud Farm, 
the black stallion Rumor, 2.20, a sire of trotters 
and producers of trotters, and Slander, 2.28, also 
a sire of speed. Dan Mace once had Tattler in 
his training stable and liked him, but Mr. Smith 
was partial to other strains and the horse was 
neglected and wasted away. 



Messenger was a gray horse of 15.3 hands, 
somewhat heavy for a thoroughbred, foaled in 
1780; bred in England by John Pratt and sired 
by Mambrino son of Engineer by Sampson by 
Blaze ; dam by Turf ; second dam, sister to Figu- 
rante by Regulus ; third dam by Starling ; fourth 
dam Snap's dam by Fox; fifth dam Gipsey by 
Bay Bolton ; sixth dam by Duke of Newcastle's 
Turk ; seventh dam by Byerly Turk ; eighth dam 
by Tafifolet Barb; ninth dam by Place's White 
Turk; and tenth dam Natural Barb mare. 
Through his sire, Mambrino, he traced directly to 
Flying Childers and to the Godolphin Arabian. 
The foundations of the successful race-horses of 
England were his foundations. He was imported 
to America to improve the running horses of this 
country, and he landed at Philadelphia in 1780. 
In England he had won 8 out of 1 3 races, but he 
never started on this side of the Atlantic. For 
two seasons he held court near Bristol, Penn- 


136 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

sylvania, and then was purchased by Henry 
Astor and taken to Long Island. Two years 
later Cornelius W. Van Ranst obtained control 
of him, and his days were spent in New York 
and New Jersey. He died of colic at Oyster 
Bay, Long Island, January 28, 1808, aged 28 
years, and a volley of musketry was fired over 
his grave. The most famous daughter left by 
him was the gray mare Miller's Damsel, foaled 
in 1802; bred by William Constable of New 
York; owned by General Nathaniel Coles, 
Dosoris, Long Island ; and dam, an imported 
English mare by Pot-8-os, son of the renowned 
English Eclipse. She raced well. Her first foal, 
1 8 14, was the chestnut colt American Eclipse 
by Duroc by imported Diomed by Florizel by 
Herod. American Eclipse stands out promi- 
nently in the annals of American racing. The 
four-mile-heat race for $20,000 a side, the North 
against the South, run at Union Course, Long 
Island, May 27, 1823, was won by American 
Eclipse from Henry, and the multitude of specta- 
tors was all night in getting back to their homes. 
Distinguished among the sons and daughters of 
American Eclipse were Ariel, Lance, Black Maria, 
Shark, Medoc, Monmouth Eclipse, and Gano. 

The Tribe of Hambletonian 137 

Potomac, out of the Figure mare, and Bright 
Phoebus, out of a daughter of Pot-8-os, were two 
sons of Messenger that met expectations on the 
running turf. As attempts were at one time 
made to cloud the pedigree of Messenger, I have 
given facts from the English and American stud 
books for the benefit of the general reader. The 
legislature of Pennsylvania passed, soon after 
the arrival of Messenger, a law prohibiting rac- 
ing with betting, and this reduced the market 
for thoroughbreds. Probably this was fortunate 
for Messenger's fame as a progenitor of harness 
speed. Mares of varying degrees of excellence 
were mated with him, and the results made clear 
the fact that he was the controlling factor. The 
improvement of the roads stimulated driving, and 
the trotter steadily grew in favor. 

Bishop's Hambletonian 

The stud book records as foaled in 1 803 a gray 
horse by imported Messenger, dam Pheasant by 
imported Shark. This horse was possessed of 
bone and substance, stood 15.2, and Herbert 
states that he raced with varying degrees of suc- 
cess, and as a stallion was distinguished for the 
elegance, speed, and endurance of his get, for the 

138 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

saddle, harness, and trotting course. He entered 
the stud in 18 10, and it was in Orange County 
that he sired Whalebone and Sir Peter (trotters) 
and the dams of Topgallant and Paul Pry, also 
One Eye, dam of Charles Kent Mare, dam of 
Rysdyk's Hambletonian. He was used in har- 
ness after he was fifteen years old, showing a 
high rate of speed, for those days, on the road. 
Isaac Bishop of Granville, New York, bought the 
stallion in 18 19, and as the Bishop place was near 
the Vermont line, seasons were made in both 
states. The inclination to trot was strong in the 
majority of his foals. Bishop's Hambletonian 
was fond of being petted, and Mrs. Bishop often 
fed him bread and cake from the kitchen door. 
After the death of Isaac Bishop, in 1831, the 
horse was taken charge of by his brother, J. M. 

Age had told upon the stallion, and Allen W. 
Thomson narrates this pathetic incident : " It 
was in September, 1833, that the gate to his yard 
was left open and he walked out and started for 
his old home, it being about two miles. He had 
to go through the village of Granville, and as he 
passed the cry was raised, ' There goes old Ham- 
bletonian,' and the boys gave him a cheer. He 

The Tribe of Hafnbletotiian 139 

knew what it meant, as he had heard it before. 
He stopped, looked around, and whinnied, and 
then went on. When he got to his old home he 
stopped at the door where he had been so often fed. 
Mrs. Bishop fed him again with bread and cakes. 
Then he went for his old stable. The door being 
shut, he lay down close by. They soon saw that 
he was unwell, and in spite of all they could do 
he died in six hours. It was believed that the 
exertion of walking home together with the pleas- 
ure of getting home caused his death. He was 
buried eight rods from his stable and a stone 
placed over his grave." 

Harrises Hambletonian 

In 1826 Isaac Munson of Wallingford, Ver- 
mont, took a spotted gray mare, a fine driver, 
said to be a daughter of Messenger, to Granville 
and bred her to Bishop's Hambletonian, and the 
result was a gray colt, foaled in 1827, that has 
passed into history as Harris's Hambletonian; 
his number in the Register is 2. This gray colt, 
when two years old, was bred to six mares and 
then passed through different hands to Russell 
Harris of Bristol, Vermont. He was sometimes 
called Bristol Gray and sometimes Harris's horse. 

I40 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

He was a large, powerful horse, of nearly i6 hands 
and weighed 1 200 pounds. He was a light step- 
per and was difficult to pass on the road. There 
were no tracks in his neighborhood, and he was 
not trained. He was a resolute horse and of 
a kind disposition when justly treated. Charles 
Backman was a great admirer of the Harris 
Hambletonian stock, and when he laid the foun- 
dations of Stony Ford the gray mare Rosa Lee, 
that he had driven many miles on the road, ap- 
peared in his first catalogue as a brood mare. 
She was by the Harris Horse. Gray Rose, dam 
of Cuyler, also appeared in the catalogue. She 
stood 15.2 and was a gray daughter of Harris's 
Hambletonian. The two trotters from Harris's 
Hambletonian were Green Mountain Maid, 2.28^, 
and Lady Shannon, 2.28^. His only pacer was 
Hero, a gray gelding, 2.20^. The gray mare 
Son tag, 2.31, who defeated Flora Temple once, 
was by Harris's Hambletonian, out of a daughter 
of Nicholas by Alexander, an Arabian. She was 
the dam of Toronto Sontag, sire of the great 
brood mare Sontag Dixie; also sire of Sontag 
Nellie, dam of the celebrated producing mare 
Sontag Mohawk. The gray gelding Vermont, 
two miles 5.09J, and Gray Trouble, 2.34 to saddle, 

The Tribe of Hatnbletonian 141 

were sons of Harris's H amble tonian, who died of 
an injury in December, 1846. 

Judson's Hambletonian was a brown horse, 
foaled in 1821, by Bishop's Hambletonian, dam 
by Wells's Magnum Bonum. He stood 1 5.2, and 
it is represented that he could trot 12 miles 
within an hour. He died in 1844, and his mem- 
ory is preserved by his son, Andrus Hamble- 
tonian, a brown horse foaled about 1840 and 
taken to Muscatine, Iowa, in the winter of 1855- 
1856, and who died there in 1858. He was 
a bay of nearly 1 5.3 hands, but was not so much 
appreciated in Vermont as he should have been. 
He was the sire of the famous trotting mare 
Princess, 2.30, the earnest rival of Flora Temple, 
and who, in her retirement, gave birth, in 1863, 
to the distinguished sire of trotters, Happy 
Medium. In the latter the wonderfully potent 
blood of Messenger was reunited through 
Hambletonian, the sire of Happy Medium. 

Mambrino, sire of Messenger, was a gray horse 
of lofty appearance, and he laid in England the 
foundation of some of the finest coach horses 
ever raised there. He was bred by John Atkin- 
son of Scholes near Leeds, England, foaled in 
1768; by Engineer, dam by Old Cadde; second 

142 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

dam by the Duke of Bolton's gray horse Little 
John, son of Old Partner. He passed from Mr. 
Atkinson to Lord Grosvenor and won his first 
race at Newmarket in 1773. In another race 
at Newmarket he beat Florizel by Herod, 
one of the best horses of his day. He 
raced until 1779, the year he fell lame while 
running in the Craven Stakes, when he was re- 
tired to the stud. Only two of Mambrino's get 
were imported to this country. One was Mes- 
senger and the other was a chestnut mare, Mam- 
brina, foaled in 1875, bred by Lord Grosvenor 
and imported into South Carolina in 1787. 
Among her produce was Eliza by imported Bed- 
ford, who, bred to Sir Archy, produced Bertrand, 
sire of Gray Eagle, whose blood is a factor in a 
number of trotters of merit. One of the great 
races of the period was that at the Washington 
course, Charleston, South Carolina, February 25, 
1826. It was three-mile heats, and four heats 
were required to decide the matter. Bertrand 
demonstrated his gameness by winning from 
Aratus and Creeping Kate. In Kentucky Ber- 
trand stood high as a sire. I draw attention to 
the racing career of Bertrand for the purpose of 
conveying to the reader an idea of the form of 

The Tribe of Hambletonian 143 

the descendants of the daughter of Messenger. 
American Eclipse, the son of Miller's Damsel, 
was not the only worthy representative of Mes- 
senger on the running turf. The corner-stones 
of the English thoroughbred structure are the 
Byerly Tiirk, the Godolphin Arabian, and the 
Darley Arabian. Herod, Matchem, and Eclipse 
were the live lines descending from these, and 
the intermingling of the strains has given us 
the grandest specimens of the equine race. In 
breeding for harness speed we must keep track 
of the live lines, just as men of judgment and 
experience do in breeding for speed under the 
saddle. Sir Archy, who was called the Godol- 
phin of America, has made his influence felt in 
trotting evolution through his sons, Kosciusko, 
Stockholder, and Timoleon, the latter the sire 
of Boston, the sire of Lexington. 


Lewis G. Morris bred a mare by imported 
Sour Crout to Messenger, and the produce in 
1806 was a bay colt who developed into a horse 
of 16 hands and is known to history as Mam- 
brino. He was never trained in harness, but 
was a natural trotter. Betsy Baker, the fastest 

144 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

mare of her day, was sired by him. Amazonia, 
a snappy chestnut mare of 15.3 hands, showing 
quality but of untraced blood, and who could 
trot close to 2.50, was bred to Mambrino, and 
the outcome was Abdallah, whose registered 
number is i. He was bred by Johil Tredwell 
of Salisbury Place, Long Island, was foaled in 
1823, and developed into a bay horse of 15.3. 
As a four-year-old he trotted a mile in 3.10, but 
was not kind in harness and was principally 
used under saddle. He made seasons on Long 
Island, in New Jersey, and in Orange County, 
and spent 1840 in the Blue-grass Region of 
Kentucky. In 1830 he passed to Isaac Snediker, 
and after many changes of fortune died of starva- 
tion and neglect on a Long Island beach and 
was buried in the sand. It is sad to think of a 
horse through whom was directly transmitted 
the charmed blood of Messenger ending his 
days in an atmosphere of cold unappreciation. 
But such is often the fate of modest merit. The 
winning performers of Abdallah are Ajax, 2.37-s; 
Brandywine, 2.36-s; Brooklyn Maid, 2.38; Fourth 
of July, 2.40; Frank Forrester, 2.30; Lady Ful- 
ton, 2.59! ; O'Blennis, 2.30; Selim, 2.32^; and Sir 
Walter, 2.27. Only three of these trotted in 

The Great Trolling; Progenilor. 


The Tribe of Hambletonian 145 

2.30 or better, but prior to 1861 a 240 horse 
was regarded as standing high above the average. 
The Charles Kent Mare was a bay of 15.3 hands, 
foaled in 1834, with powerful stifles, and as a 
four-year-old trotted a mile under saddle in 2.41. 
She was by Bellfounder, a Norfolk trotter of 
15 hands, imported from England to Boston, 
Massachusetts, in 1822, by James Boot Im- 
ported Bellfounder was foaled in 181 5, and the 
blood of his sire, Bellfounder, is at the founda- 
tion of the hackney breed. One Eye, a determined 
brown mare of 15.1, by Bishop's Hamble- 
tonian (son of Messenger), out of Silvertail, a 
hardy brown mare by Messenger, was the dam 
of the Charles Kent Mare, who found a happy 
nick in Abdallah. 

Rysdyk's Hambletonian 

The fruit of this union was a bay colt, foaled 
May 5, 1849, ^t Sugar Loaf, near Chester, 
Orange County, New York. This colt, when 
five weeks old, was purchased from the breeder, 
Jonas Seely, by a plain farmer with a lean pocket- 
book. The price named for mare and colt was 
$125, and the farmer, William M. Rysdyk, sat 
on the top rail of a fence and pondered for some 

146 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

time the vital question. The outlay would em- 
barrass him if the mare or colt should die. He 
finally said Yes, and mother and son were taken 
to Chester. The bay colt, with star and hind 
ankles white, grew into a powerful horse of 15.2 
and was named Hambletonian. His head was 
large and expressive, his neck rather short, his 
shoulders and quarters massive, and his legs 
broad and flat His triple line to thoroughbred 
Messenger, over the substance-imparting cross of 
Bellfounder, gave us the greatest progenitor of 
harness speed that the world has yet seen. £jq>e- 
rience shows that for stock purposes you want a 
horse with masculine head and neck. After the 
Civil War I was a frequent visitor to Blue Grass 
Park, the refined home of A. Keene Richards, 
near Georgetown, Kentucky, where Arabs direct 
from the desert and native horses grazed in the 
pastures, and more than once my attention was 
called to the strong points of War Dance, then 
treated with studious neglect by some of the 
breeders of the country. *' He has not the deli- 
cate head of the Arab or a tapering neck, but I 
like him all the better for this. His strong head 
and lionlike neck and shoulders are suggestive of 
constitution, and if you live long enough you 

The Tribe of Hamhletonian 147 

will find the descendants of War Dance in great 
demand.** Mr. Richards read the future aright 
Lexington, the sire of War Dance, earned the 
title of Emperor of Stallions, and War Dance him- 
self, who was out of Reel by imported Glencoe, 
ranks second to Lexington as a sire of brood 
mares. His blood is now valued highly in a 
pedigree. Lexington, like imported Diomed, Sir 
Archy, Boston, and other renowned thoroughbred 
stallions, was inbred. He was by Boston, grandson 
of Sir Archy, by imported Diomed, and his dam, 
Alice Cameal, was by imported Sarpedon (inbred 
to Eclipse) ; second dam Rowena by Sumpter by 
Sir Archy. The inbreeding of Hamhletonian 
helped him to transmit desirable qualities from 
generation to generation. As a two-year-old 
Hamhletonian spent nuptial hours with four 
mares, one of which was Katy Darling, dam of 
Alexander's Abdallah. In this one case the 
early wedding was the happiest that could be 
conceived. Hamhletonian was driven on the 
road as a three-year-old, and David Bonner, who 
sat behind him, tells me that his stride was 
lengthy, but not dwelling; head large but good, 
with splendid eyes; body round and full and he 
stood somewhat higher behind than forward ; 

148 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

disposition kind, and a prompt driver; faultless 
legs and feet and remarkable intelligence and 
docility. As a three-year-old Hambletonian 
trotted a mile over Union Course in 24&J, and 
Mr. Bonner is firm in the belief that he would 
have beaten 2.30 with regular training. In the 
stud Hambletonian gave proof of sterling merit 
and vitality. The appended table tersely tells the 
story : — 



Mares Bred 












































































































The Tribe of Hambletonian 149 

The addition shows 1287 foals by Hamble- 
tonian and service fees amounting to $185,715. 
The first time I saw Hambletonian was in 1866, 
at a fair in Orange County. The stallion was in 
the enjoyment of great fame, and Mr. Rysdyk was 
pleased to show him to me. Charles L. Sharp- 
less of Philadelphia soon after this sent me a 
photograph which he had had taken of Hamble- 
tonian, with a request to reproduce it in the 
Tur/^ Fields and Farm. Knowing Mr. Sharpless 
to be a friend of Mr. Rysdyk and his stallion, I 
complied with the request and gave mortal 
offence to the illiterate farmer. The camera had 
caught the stallion with his ears thrown back, and 
this was something that Mr. Rysdyk did not like. 
The outline of the horse was excellent. Rysdyk 
complained to his friend, David Bonner, about the 
picture, and messages were sent back and forth. 
Two years later I went with Mr. Bonner to Mr. 
Rysdyk's house, on invitation of the latter, and 
spent the night and was royally treated. The 
old gentleman had been made to see the error 
of his artistic judgment, and the best of the cel- 
lar was set before us. Rysdyk knew nothing of 
art, and every one who painted the stallion had 
to comply, as far as possible, with his direc- 

1 50 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

tions. This is the reason why so many pictures 
of wooden images dubbed Hambletonian found 
their way to the market Dexter by Hambleto- 
nian, out of Clara by Seely's American Star, began 
his sensational turf career in May, 1864, ^^^ ^ 
he steadily advanced to the throne, the reputa- 
tion of his sire grew in proportion. Mr. David 
Bonner had difficulty in persuading Mr. Rysdyk, 
in the spring of 1863, to advance the fee of the 
stallion to $100. After that the spirit of greed 
grew in the owner, and the fee quickly climbed 
to $500. Charles Backman, Robert Bonner, and 
Dexter were mainly responsible for the fever 
which kept the fee of Hambletonian at 1(500 
up to the day of his death, which occurred March 
27, 1876. In 1868 Hambletonian was in such 
poor health that he was withdrawn from public 
service. Mr. Robert Bonner paid a visit to 
Chester at this time and found the feet of the 
stallion in bad condition. Under his direction 
the feet were balanced and vigor was regained. 
The entire nervous system is deranged when the 
delicate machinery inside the horny box, as Mr. 
Bonner called the covering of the foot, is cramped, 
and impairment of vitality necessarily follows. 
Mr. Rysdyk, with the wildest dreams of his bar- 

The Tribe of Hatnbletanian 151 

ren youth realized, died before Hambletonian did ; 
but the horse will carry his name far down the 
walks of time. The 2.1 7J of Dexter at Buffalo, 
August 14, 1867, was presumed to be the limit of 
trotting speed, and people ambitious to excel 
each other on the road and track turned eagerly 
to the source of that speed. Those who had 
favored the Morgan type suddenly discovered 
that this type was physically small and of mod- 
erate capacity at the trot, and there were whole- 
sale desertions from the standard. The sons of 
Hambletonian invaded New England, and thou- 
sands were taught to undervalue the family 
founded by Justin Morgan. But time brought 
the conviction that the Morgan foundation was 
the foundation for Hambletonian to build upon, 
and intelligent opinion again does justice to 
the son of True Briton, bom in 1789. 

The forty trotters sired by Rysdyk's Hamble- 
tonian include Dexter, 2.17J; Nettie, 2.18; Orange 
Girl, 2.20; Gazelle, 2,21 ; Jay Gould, 2.21^; George 
Wilkes, 2.22; Bella, 2.22; Deucalion, 2.22; Mat- 
tie, 2.22 J; Lady Banker, 2.23; and Madeleine, 
2.2 3 J. It was not so much the speed of his sons 
and daughters as their ability to transmit speed 
which placed Hambletonian on the summit of the 




Alexanders Abdullah 

The first of Hambletonian's get, Alexander's 
Abdallah, registered number 15, was out of a 
crippled mare, Katy Darling, who had shown 
speed on the road but whose pedigree was never 
traced. Lewis J. Sutton, in whose hands Katy 
Darling fell, and who carried her to Chester and 
bred her to the two-year-old colt owned by Mr, 
Rysdyk, wrote me a number of letters concerning 
her ancestry when the subject was being warmly 
debated by the horse-loving public years ago, and 
I accepted his conclusion that her lineage was 
unknown. August 27, 1852, Alexander's Abdal- 
lah was foaled, and when 1 7 months old the bay 
colt was sold by Mr. Sutton to E. Hoyt and 
Seely Edsall of Goshen, New York. The sole 
ownership of the youngster was soon vested 
in Mr. Edsall, and he placed him in the stud in 


Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian 153 

1856, and one of his foals of the season was Gold- 
smith Maid, 2.14. In February, 1859, James 
Miller and Joel Love paid $3000 for Edsall's 
Hambletonian and took him to Cynthiana, Ken- 
tucky. In 1862 the horse was purchased by 
R. A. Alexander of Woodbum Farm, and from 
that time forward he was known as Alexander's 
Abdallah. The Federal and Confederate armies 
were then contending for the control of Kentucky, 
and peaceful industries were heavily handicapped. 
In February, 1865, Alexander's Abdallah was 
captured by a guerilla band, and ridden so hard 
that he died of exhaustion. His sire outlived him 
II years. The monument over the grave at 
Chester, a solid block of red Missouri granite, 
briefly informs the passer-by that Rysdyk's Ham- 
bletonian died March 27, 1876, aged 26 years, 
10 months, and 22 days. Alexander's Abdallah 
stood 1 5. 1 and was a compact horse with a long 
neck. His only race was a match against the 
stallion Albion, trotted at Lexington in i860. 
Albion was distanced in the first heat, and the 
time was 2.42. Katy Darling, who died in Iowa, 
produced one other foal, a chestnut colt by 
Hector, who was gelded, and who for want of 
merit or opportunity remained obscure. If the 

154 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

days of Alexander's Abdallah had been prolonged 
as were those of his sire, the chances are that his 
reputation would have been equal to that of any 
trotting stallion that ever lived. His daughter, 
Goldsmith Maid, foaled in 1857, was a great cam- 
paign mare. She became queen when she beat 
the 2.1 7j of Dexter, and for 12 consecutive 
years she was the admired of the public. Two 
other famous trotters from the loins of Alexan- 
der's Abdallah were Rosalind, 2.2 if, and Thorn- 
dale, 2.2 2 J. Fourteen of the sons of Alexander's 
Abdallah are recognized sires of speed. Con- 
spicuous among these are Almont, Belmont, 
Wood's Hambletonian, Thorndale, and Major 
Edsall. The latter sired Robert McGregor, 2. 1 7^, 
the sire of the champion trotting stallion, Cres- 
ceus. Minnequa Maid, dam of four trotters, 
including Nightingale, 2.08, was a daughter of 
Wood's Hambletonian. Twenty-nine of the 
daughters of Alexander's Abdallah are speed- 
producing dams. One of these, Maud, is the 
dam of Attorney, sire of Atlanta, dam of Alix, 
who by virtue of her 2.03^ supplanted Nancy 
Hanks as queen of the trotting turf. Favorite, 
another daughter, is the dam of the two producing 
sires, Bourbon Wilkes, 96 in the list, and Favorite 

Prepotent Softs of Hambletonian 155 

Wilkes, 31 in the list Primrose, dam of six 
trotters, of ten sires of speed, including Princeps 
and Abdalbrino, and of two producing dams, was 
one of the greatest daughters of Alexander's 
Abdallah. The trotting descendants of Primrose 
are as numerous as the wild flowers of a valley 
sheltered from cold winds and bathed in sunshine. 
Lady Abdallah was another celebrated daughter 
of Alexander's Abdallah. 

Belmont and Almont 

Belmont, bay horse of 15.1, foaled May 18, 
1864, by Alexander's Abdallah out of Belle by 
Mambrino Chief, showed a 2.20 gait at a trot over 
the Woodburn track, but was reserved for the 
stud and died November 13, 1889, without a 
record. Fifty-nine of his sons and daughters have 
standard records ; 74 of his sons are sires of speed, 
and 68 of his daughters are dams of speed. 

Almont, bay horse of 15.2^, foaled in the spring 
of 1864; by Alexander's Abdallah, dam Sally 
Anderson by Mambrino Chief, was also without 
a 2.30 record, he having been reserved for the 
stud. As a four-year-old, he distanced his only 
competitor in 2.39!. He died July 4, 1884, and 
left behind him a powerful family. He has 37 

156 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

in the list, only two of which are pacers, and 
among his 96 producing sons are Altamont, 
Hamlin's Almont Jr., and Piedmont. His pro- 
ducing daughters number 80. 

George Wilkes 

Although George Wilkes was four years 
younger than Alexander's Abdallah, being foaled 
in 1856, he founded a much more powerful family. 
His life was longer, and that was greatly to his 
advantage. Dolly Spanker, a mare possessed of 
excellent road qualities, was sent in 1855 by her 
owner, Harry Felter of New York, to Chester 
and bred to Hambletonian. The result was a 
brown colt, reared by hand on account of the 
early death of her mother, and named Robert 
Fillingham. Z. E. Simmons purchased him as a 
three-year-old, and he was carried on the books 
of Simmons Brothers as the property of Will- 
iam L. Simmons. Although he stood but 15 
hands, he was the embodiment of power, and was 
raced with great success. He made his first 
start as a five-year-old, and he defeated in the 2 1 
races won by him such horses as Commodore 
Vanderbilt, Lady Thorn, General Butler, Confi- 
dence, Ethan Allen, Fearnaught, Draco Prince, 

The Chief of i Fowarful Trtb. 

The Held o( » Creit TroiLlng 

Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian 157 

Rhode Island, Lucy, American Girl, and M3rron 
Perry, His record of 2.22 was made at Provi- 
dence, October 13, 1868. As he was small and 
his hind action was called ducklike, there was no 
irrepressible desire to breed to him in the East, 
and in 1873 W. H. Wilson persuaded the Sim- 
mons Brothers to send him to Kentucky. The 
mares that visited him in the Blue-grass District 
nicked wel! with him, and the boom methods of 
William L. Simmons did the rest. When the 
stud reputation of the brown " pony " began to 
grow, an eflfort was made to establish the pedigree 
of Dolly Spanker as by Henry Clay. Reams of 
paper were spoiled in the discussion, and I was 
thick in the fight. Mr. Felter, the Messrs. Sim- 
mons, and others in a position to know insisted 
that the lines of Dolly Spanker could not be 
traced, and this was the decision of the American 
Trotting Register Association. Mr. Simmons 
often regretted that he had dropped the name of 
Fillingham for George Wilkes, because the man 
whom he sought to honor by the change proved 
an ingrate. Trotters and paoers from George 
Wilkes followed each other in such rapid succes- 
sion that all the horse-loving world fixed its eyes 
upon the modest quarters that the brown stallion 

158 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

occupied near Lexington. Thousands sang his 
praises, and the literature sent out by William L. 
Simmons fed the excitement. May Bird, 2.21, 
was the first prominent produce of George Wilkes, 
and she died without issue on the farm of Robert 
Bonner. Harry Wilkes, who took a record of 
2.13^, was a star performer, but was succeeded by 
stars of greater magnitude. George Wilkes died 
at Ashgrove Farm, May 28, 1882, and his roll of 
honor consists of 72 trotters and 1 1 pacers, and 
sub-families of speed scattered over the entire 
country. Among the 102 speed-begetting sons 
of George Wilkes are Baron Wilkes, Alcantara, 
Alcyone, Bourbon Wilkes, Brown Wilkes, Jay 
Bird, Kentucky Wilkes, Onward, Patchen Wilkes, 
Red Wilkes, Simmons, Wilton, Wilkes Boy, 
Gambetta Wilkes, The King, and Sherman. At 
one period the ownership of a good stallion by 
George Wilkes was equivalent to a generous 
income from government bonds. Ninety-nine of 
the daughters of George Wilkes are speed-pro- 
ducing dams. In all directions the blood breeds 
on, and the family will survive coming genera- 
tions. After I had begun this history Mr. William 
L. Simmons, who is now breeding and racing 
runners instead of trotters, sent me a few notes 

Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian 159 

from Ashgrove Farm, which I reproduce: "After 
Lady Thorn defeated Dexter, Mr, Relf proposed 
two matches with George Wilkes saying, ' Sim- 
mons, let's you and I make a couple of matches. 
I know you think the brown horse can beat my 
mare and I think she can beat your horse.* We 
made one to harness and one to wagon to be 
trotted a week apart. On the day of the first 
race McLaughlin, who had trained both the mare 
and the horse (having softening of the brain. 
Crooks took Wilkes in charge, and Peg Pfeifer 
drove the big mare) walked up to us and says : 

* Well, old man, you have matched the old mare 
against the little horse.' *Yes,' says Mr. Relf. 

• What do you think of it, Sam ? ' ' Think of it,' 
replied Sam, • Mr. Relf, if that little horse is any- 
where near himself, he will make you think the 
sun has gone down. Mr. Relf, you tie one of 
them coal cables around the little horse's sulky 
and the other end around that big mare's neck, 
and he will choke her to death.* George Wilkes 
won both races in straight heats, trotting the 
fastest wagon race up to that time. While a trot 
was in progress at Fashion track. Long Island, 
and the people all interested in the contest, we 
sneaked Wilkes over to the old Centreville track. 

i6o The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

then out of use and somewhat grass-grown, and 
gave him a repeat, Horace Jones up. He went 
the first mile comfortably in 2.19^ and the next 
in 2.18J; after walking 12 minutes without being 
unhooked. After cooling him out we drove 
back to Fashion Course and got there before the 
trot was over without our absence being noticed. 
After the last heat a number of gentlemen ad- 
joined to the bar on Jackson Avenue. Just as 
we reached the room Bill Cunningham led Wilkes 
(then Robert Fillingham) from the highway and 
around the corner of the house in full view of 
everybody. Sam McLaughlin shouts, * You've 
been trying the little horse. TU bet I can come 
within one second of how well he went.' I re- 
plied, * Not for a basket,' and he said * Yes, for a 
basket,' and fixed 2.33 as the mark. * You win, 
Sam. You must have gone to guessing school. 
Joe, set up the wine.' A few days after we 
matched him against the then king of turf, Ethan 
Allen, and the result is now biography — Wilkes 
won with consummate ease. Ethan was favorite 
at about 100 to 30 at first, but before the start 
the brown horse was 100 to 60. There was a 
world of money bet. 

" Sam McLaughlin drove George Wilkes two 

Prepotent Sans of Hambletonian i6i 

miles over Union Course, Long Island, in 444 so 
easily that on dismounting he picked up his fore- 
foot, spat on the shoe, which was so hot that it 
sizzled as if at white heat and suddenly dropped 
into water, declaring that he never moved him and 
could drive him two miles in 4.36 or 4.37 sure. 

" George Wilkes worked a half-mile over the 
Union (Long Island) Course in 1.04 to a 120- 
pound wagon. 

" He worked a quarter of a mile from the half 
to the three-quarter pole in 29 seconds, Mr. Relf, 
Wesley Bishop, and myself timing him. This 
was done to 85-pound wagon. 

" He went from the stand on the Union to the 
drawgate to a wagon (85 pounds) in 1.44, when 
he was pulled up and finished the mile in a 
walk in 2.18. 

"All this was 40 years ago, over ground at 
least 10 seconds slower than tracks of to-day, 
with old methods of training, shoeing, etc., and 
without the aid of the delusive and deceptive 
bike. If alive and fit to-day, George Wilkes 
would defeat every horse in the world easily. 
Compare ground 10 seconds, shoeing and train- 
ing 3 or 4 seconds, and the bike from 4 to 20 
seconds, according to the horse, and we must 

1 62 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

conclude that the equal of George Wilkes ia 
speed has not yet appeared. As a sire he will 
never be approached." 

The transfer of George Wilkes from New York 
to Kentucky gave him the benefit of a climatic 
outcross, but just how much merit there is in 
this cross belongs more to the realm of specula- 
tion than to demonstrated fact. Some breeds of 
domestic animals have more power to accommo- 
date themselves to climatic conditions than others, 
which shows higher plasticity in organism; and 
when such is the case there is generally an in- 
crease in size and vitality. Constitution is affected 
by the change when artificial conditions are not 
introduced, and food has its influence. The 
mares sent to Ashgrove from distant states usu- 
ally ran in woodland pastures and were nourished 
by blue-grass. George Wilkes himself had the 
advantage of a large paddock, and his stable was 
liberally ventilated. The change from training 
environment evidently added to his vigor, and 
freedom from artificial restraint improved the 
mares at his court. I have long believed in the 
climatic outcross, and yet when reasons are de- 
manded that will satisfy the sceptical it is diffi- 
cult to give them. C. J. Hamlin was one of the 

Prepotent Sans of Hambletonian 163 

men who underrated the ability of George Wilkes. 
His contention was that the vitality-sapping race 
campaigns had weakened his power of transmis- 
sion. He overlooked the fact that change of 
climate and complete relaxation had restored the 
vitality used up in the training stable. August 
Weismann tells us that the most active birds 
have long lives. The stormy petrel lays only a 
single egg once a year, because through wonder- 
ful activity the species can be preserved without 
resort to large families. Jungle fowls that fly 
badly lay about 20 eggs each. The track horse 
certainly leads an active life, and the devel- 
opment of gait enables him to transmit with a 
higher degree of uniformity the acquired or in- 
tensified character. The use of an organ increases 
and the disuse of it decreases its capacity. While 
germ cells to a degree limit growth, we obtain 
size by an increase of nourishment from genera- 
tion to generation. Haeckel's theory 7>i reproduc- 
tion is that it is an overgrowth of an individual 
— that heredity is simply a continuity of growth. 
The trotting brain, the trotting instinct, of George 
Wilkes was certainly duplicated in his progeny, 
and therefore there was continuity of growth in 
this direction. 

1 64 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Red Wilkes, bay horse, foaled in 1874, and by 
George Wilkes out of Queen Dido by Mambrino 
Chief, she out of a daughter of Red Jacket by 
Billy Root by Sherman Morgan, was a large 
horse and not free from coarseness, although he 
had a finish-giving cross from Justin Morgan. 
He was trained comparatively little, and yet he 
is one (rf the greatest producing sons of the 
founder of the Wilkes family. The fastest of 
his 1 24 trotters was Ralph Wilkes, who took a 
record of 2.o6f before death claimed him at 
Maplehurst, the breeding farm of Colonel John E. 
Thayer ; but the sensational campaign horse was 
Prince Wilkes, 2.14^, who died in South America 
after George A. Singerly had received $30,cxx> 
for him. A sensational young trotter was Phil 
Thompson, 2.16^. Among the 46 pacers by Red 
Wilkes is Ithuriel, 2.09^. Ashland Wilkes, 2. 17 J, 
ranks high among the 98 producing sons of Red 
Wilkes. He is the sire of both trotters and 
pacers, his fastest pacer being John R. Gentry, 
2.00}. Allie Wilkes is another great producing 
son of Red Wilkes. His fastest trotter is Jupe, 
2.07J, and his fastest pacer is Arlington, 2jo6\. 
Of the daughters of Red Wilkes 91 are speed- 
producing dams. 

Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian 165 

Kentucky Wilkes, by George Wilkes, out of 
Minna by Red Jacket, a grandson of Sherman 
Morgan, she out of Undine by Gray Eagle, is the 
same age as Red Wilkes, but a horse of different 
pattern. He is a wiry, nervous horse, with the 
head and neck of an Arab, and legs of steel. He 
was severely campaigned and retired with a trot- 
ting record of 2.21 J. With restricted opportuni- 
ties in the stud, he is the sire of two trotters with 
records faster than 2.1 1, — Bravado, 2.10^, and 
Temple Wilkes, 2.1 of. The fast pacer. Crafty, 
2.09^, is also by him. Chain Shot, 2.o6|, is out 
of a daughter of Kentucky Wilkes. At this writ- 
ing Kentucky Wilkes is still living like one done 
with the exciting problems of life, at Marshland, 
the breeding farm of ex-Secretary of the Navy 
Benjamin F. Tracy. 

Onward was a bay horse, foaled in 1875 ; bred 
by Richard West of Georgetown, Kentucky, and 
by George Wilkes out of Dolly by Mambrino 
Chief. He trotted to a record of 2.2 5 J and was 
what you might call heavy-handed. I remember 
when he came into the show ring at the great St 
Louis Fair. His action was somewhat strained, 
and I suggested to my associate judge that we 
examine his feet. The moment we lifted up the 

1 66 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

fore foot we discovered that he was shod to force 
action. The shoe must have weighed close to 
three pounds. On another occasion Onward was 
brought before me, and when the decision was in 
favor of Jay Gould, a highly formed and well-bal- 
anced horse with a ^ster record, Colonel R. P. 
Pepper, then the owner of the son of Dolly, was 
bitterly disappointed. An afiFront to his horse 
was an affront to him. No horse, during the 
time he was owned by Colonel Pepper, was ever 
more pushed than Onward; and yet he proved 
his greatness. He is the sire of 1 36 trotters, in- 
cluding Beuzetta, 2.o6f, and Onward Silver, 2.05^; 
also of 46 pacers, among them Pearl Onward, 
2.06^, Gazette, 2.07J, and Colbert, 2.07J. One 
hundred and seven sons of Onward are sires of 
speed, and 80 of his daughters are dams of speed. 
Alcantara, bay horse, foaled in 1876, and his 
brother Alcyone, one year younger, were out of 
Alma Mater by Mambrino Patchen, she out of 
Estella, thoroughbred daughter of imported Aus- 
tralian, and the blood combination was the reverse 
of a handicap. Alcantara trotted to a record of 
2.23 previous to being taken to the Berkshire 
Hills, where he was energetically managed, and 
he is the sire of 104 trotters and 47 pacers, and of 

Prepotent Sons of Hambletonian 167 

48 producing sons and 35 producing daughters. 
So many of the get of Alcantara were pacers as 
to strengthen the belief that the two gaits are 
interchangeable, especially when the trainer is 
easy-going and allows the horse to choose his 
own way of progression. Alcyone was a smaller 
but better balanced horse than Alcantara and had 
more speed, although he did not obtain so fast a 
record. He died young and yet left a great 
reputation for his chances in the stud. Three of 
his 50 trotters have records better than 2.10, — 
Martha Wilkes, 2.08 ; Bush, 2.09^ ; and Harrietta, 
2.09^. The fastest of his nine pacers is Alcyo, 
2.10. Among the 48 producing sons of Alcyone 
are Quartermaster, McKinney, and Dark Night. 
Twenty-two of his daughters are dams of speed. 
There was no antagonism between the blood of 
George Wilkes and that of Alma Mater. When 
parents bear some resemblance to each other, 
when kindred influences act in conjunction, 
potency in transmission is secured. 

Guy Wilkes, a bay horse, foaled in 1879, dam 
Lady Bunker, by Mambrino Patchen, was wor- 
shipped from afar in the palmy days of San 
Mateo Stock Farm. He had trotted to a record 
of 2.15^ and had sired early speed, and visitors to 

i68 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

California from the Eastern states caught the 
fever and proclaimed him the best son of George 
Wilkes. When William Corbitt closed out his 
stud and Guy Wilkes found a home east of the 
Rocky Mountains, enthusiasm over him abated. 
Among the 71 trotters sired by him are Fred 
Kohl, 2.07^; Huldah, 2.08^; and Lesa Wilkes, 
2.09. The fastest of his eight pacers is Seymour 
Wilkes, 2.08^. The blood of Guy Wilkes is 
going forward through 30 producing sons and 18 
producing daughters. One of the sons, Nutwood 
Wilkes, is the sire of John A. McKerron, 2.04^. 

The stallions by George Wilkes which were 
prominent at Ashgrove after the death of their 
sire were Jay Bird, a roan of 16 hands, dam 
Lady Frank by Mambrino Star, son of Mambrino 
Chief; William L., a bay of 15.3, dam Lady 
Bunker by Mambrino Patchen, second dam Lady 
Dunn by Seely's American Star; and Young Jim, 
a handsome bay of 1 5.3^, dam by Lear's Sir Will- 
iam by Howard's Sir Charles. Jay Bird is the 
sire of 82 trotters and six pacers, and one of the 
trotters is Allerton, 2.09J, a prolific sire of speed. 
He is the best of the 27 producing sons of Jay 
Bird, who has 27 producing dams. William L., 
the brother of Guy Wilkes, won highest honors 

Prepotent Sons of Hamhletonian 169 

as the sire of Axtell, who trotted as a three- 
year-old to a record of 2.12, and who was sold 
on the strength of the performance for $105,000. 
Axtell has contributed shoals of trotters to the 
list, and his blood is breeding on as forcibly as 
that of Allerton. Trevillian, 2.08J, exported to 
Europe, is the fastest of the 46 performers by 
Young Jim. The blood of this horse also shows 
vigor through his sons and daughters. 

Gambetta Wilkes by George Wilkes, dam by 
Gill's Vermont, a direct descendant of Justin 
Morgan, is the sire of 58 trotters and 59 pacers, 
a number of which have shown extreme speed. 
Behind the blood of George Wilkes and Justin 
Morgan is thoroughbred blood, and experience 
shows that this race-horse blood gives speed at 
either gait in harness. The tendency to pace is 
largely due to conformation. The King, one of 
the handsomest horses ever seen in a show ring 
or on the track, was a brother of Gambetta 
Wilkes, and he sired more than four times as 
many trotters as pacers. H. M. Whitehead, 
owner of The King, was partial to the trotter and 
insisted that the sons and daughters of his horse 
should be trained to trot. This probably reduced 
the pacing average. 

170 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Wilton and Simmons are two other great pro- 
ducing sons of George Wilkes, but Baron Wilkes 
is the greatest living representative of the founder 
of the powerful family. He was foaled in 1882, 
trotted to a record of 2.18, and on the death of 
Ralph Wilkes was purchased by Colonel John E. 
Thayer and transferred from Kentucky to Maple- 
hurst Farm, Lancaster, Massachusetts. He is the 
sire of 83 trotters and 21 pacers, and of 30 sires 
and 26 dams of speed. Three of his trotters and 
six of his pacers have records of better than 2.10. 
Making extreme speed the test, Oakland Baron 
is the greatest producing son of Baron Wilkes. 
He is owned at Hudson River Stock Farm by 
Jacob Ruppert, and is the sire of Rhythmic, 2.06^ ; 
Baron de Shay, 2.08^; and Gail Hamilton, 2.1 1|. 

Wilton, 2.19J, by George Wilkes, out of Alley 
(dam of Albert France, 2.20J, and Alley Rus- 
sell, 2.23^) by Hambletonian, second dam Lady 
Griswold by Flying Morgan, is strong in founda- 
tion blood, and among his fast produce are Will 
Leyburn, 2.07 J; Vera Capel, 2.07^; Bessie Wil- 
ton, 2.09J; Rubber, 2.10; and Moquette, 2.10. 
Doubling the blood of Hambletonian and back- 
ing it up with the blood of Justin Morgan worked 
well in the case of Wilton. 

Prepotent Sons of Hamhletonian 171 

Messenger Duroc 

When Charles Backman started to make Stony 
Ford the greatest trotting nursery of the country 
he put more faith in Messenger Duroc than any 
other stallion on the place. This rangy bay horse 
stood 16 hands, was foaled in 1865 and was by 
Rysdyk's Hamhletonian, dam Satinet by Roe's 
Abdallah Chief (he by Abdallah son of Mambrino 
out of a daughter of Philips by Duroc) ; second 
dam Catbird by Whistle Jacket (son of Mambrino 
by Messenger out of a daughter of American 
Eclipse) ; third dam Lyon mare by Bertholf Horse 
by Messenger ; and fourth dam by Duroc by im- 
ported Diomed. It was an attractive pedigree, 
and Messenger Duroc was of commanding ap- 
pearance with bold trotting action. One of his 
weaknesses wds gummy legs, and it was trans- 
mitted. Early speed came from Messenger Duroc, 
and for a time he was quite the fashion. His 
admirers even pointed to him as the successor of 
Hamhletonian. But his sons and daughters, on 
account of leg infirmity, did not stand up to the 
severe work of long campaigns, and he fell into 
disfavor. The contribution of Messenger Duroc 
to the 2.30 list was 22 trotters and one pacer; 

1 72 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

and Mr. Backman regarded this one pacer as a 
blemish on the escutcheon of his horse. The 
best of the 25 producing sons of Messenger 
Duroc was Antonio, who died comparatively 
young. As a sire of dams Messenger Duroc 
stands highest. Fifty of his daughters are pro- 



Under the head of the two-year-old colts there 
appeared in the first catalogue of Stony Ford 
stud (1870), " Electioneer, b.c, foaled May 2, 1868 ; 
got by Rysdyk's Hambletonian ; first dam Green 
Mountain Maid by Harry Clay; second dam by 
Lexington. Dam of Harry Clay by imported 
Bellfounder." One night in the famous smoking 
room of the mansion I explained to Mr. Backman 
the impossibility of the Lexington cross, and in 
succeeding catalogues the line descending from 
the great four-mile race-horse was dropped. The 
pedigree of Green Mountain Maid was short, and 
this was one reason why his breeder and owner 
did not attempt to push him to the front In 
1876 Leland Stanford, ex-Governor of California, 
visited Stony Ford and after looking the animals 
over asked the price of Electioneer. The figure 
named, $12,500, was satisfactory, and the horse, 
then eight years old, changed owners. Elaine by 
Messenger Duroc, out of Green Mountain Maid, 


174 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

was purchased at the same time by Governor 
Stanford. At Palo Alto Farm, iioo acres in 
Santa Clara Valley, California, Electioneer had a 
wonderful career. The horse was never trained 
for races, but he was a natural trotter ; and Charles 
Marvin informed me, when I was on a visit to 
Palo Alto, that he had driven Electioneer at 
better than a 2.20 gait. In his days of vigor 
Electioneer stood 15.2^, had immense quarters, 
and he combined quality with substance. When 
treated kindly he was easily controlled, and as 
Governor Stanford said in one of his announce- 
ments, he imparted the most desirable qualities, 
"soundness, high form, uniformly pure gait, ex- 
cellent disposition, and extreme speed at an early 
age." He was what is called a line trotter, and 
the low and direct action fairly consumed space. 
Mares representing many different families were 
bred to him, but his potency was so great as to 
stamp his image on the produce of all. His colts, 
like himself, were natural trotters ; and it was sel- 
dom that heavy shoes or toe weights were used 
in their track education. Uniformity of size was 
also one of the good points of the progeny of 
Electioneer, differing widely in this particular 
from the progeny of George Wilkes. Governor 

The Family of Electioneer 175 

Stanford was an advocate of early development. 
Judicious exercise, as he frequently said to me, 
was not harmful. On the contrary, it added 
strength to growth. The trainer was always 
required to stop the quick exercise before the 
fatigue point was reached. This kept the colt 
buoyed up, and he was willing to try the next 
time. Beautiful Bells was bred to Electioneer, 
and the result was the brown filly Hinda Rose, 
foaled February 27, 1880. She was a sensational 
yearling, trotting to a record of 2.36J, and there 
was great desire to see her when she came east 
as a two-year-old in the stable of Marvin. She 
trotted to a three-year-old record of 2.19^, and 
Robert Bonner vainly sought to add her to his 
collection of stars. Fred Crocker, a bay gelding, 
foaled March 23, 1878, by Electioneer out of 
Melinche by St. Clair, established the two-year- 
old trotting record at 2.2 5 J, and he riveted atten- 
tion upon his sire. The question often was 
asked, " Will the equal of Fred Crocker ever be 
seen?** Other fast two-year-olds by Election- 
eer were Bonita, 2.24J ; Wildflower, 2.2 1 ; and 
Sunol, 2.18. These were to high- wheel sulky 
on tracks not as fast as those of to-day. The 
supreme two-year-old by Electioneer is Arion, 

1 76 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

bay horse, foaled March 1 3, 1 889, dam Manette 
by Nutwood. His record of 2.1 of to high-wheel 
sulky is the best of its kind ever made. The 
champion three-year-old trotters by Electioneer 
are Hinda Rose (1883-1885), 2.19^, and Sunol 
(1889-1893), 2. 10 J. The champion yearling by 
Electioneer is Bell Bird, 1891, 2.26^. In 1894 the 
yearling record was reduced to 2.23 by Adbell 
by Advertiser, son of Electioneer. In 1891 
Sunol, as a five-year-old, reduced the trotting 
record for that age to 2.08J. This was to high- 
wheel sulky without artificial aids, and it is still 
the best of its kind. In 189 1, trotting to high- 
wheel sulky, Palo Alto reduced the stallion 
record to 2.o8f . As Sunol is out of Waxana by 
General Benton, she out of Waxy, thoroughbred 
daughter of Lexington, and as the dam of Palo 
Alto is Dame Winnie, thoroughbred daughter of 
Planet, these two performers made clear the fact, 
even to the obtuse, that Electioneer was wonder- 
fully prepotent. He transmitted the trot through 
other running mares, notably in Ansel, 2.20, dam 
Annette, thoroughbred daughter of Lexington; 
Azmoor, 2.20^, dam Mamie C, thoroughbred 
daughter of imported Hercules ; and in Advance, 
2.22^, dam Lady Amanda, thoroughbred daugh- 

The Family of Electioneer 177 

ter of imported Hurrah. Whips by Electioneer, 
out of Lizzie Whips, thoroughbred daughter of 
Enquirer, trotted in 2.27^, and sired Azote, 2.04f. 
Truman, who trotted in 2.12, is by Electioneer 
out of Telie by General Benton, and she out of 
Texana, thoroughbred daughter of Foreigner, son 
of imported Glencoe. These impressive truths 
took the wind out of the sails of dogmatic theo- 
rists, and every year added to the lustre of the 
star of Electioneer. The championship laurel was 
worn by many of his 158 trotters, and one of the 
jewels in his crown is that he sired but two pacers. 
His family is steadily growing in numbers and 
importance, and conspicuous among his 98 pro- 
ducing sons are Chimes, St. Bel, Sphinx, Elec- 
trite. Expedition, Anteeo, Arion, and Del Man 
Eighty-three of his daughters are dams of speed. 
As a direct transmitter of the trotting gait and 
as a factor in the problem of extreme speed. 
Electioneer stands in a class by himself. His 
equal has not yet appeared. He died Decem- 
ber 3, 1890. 

Chimes, brown horse, 16 hands, foaled April 4, 
1884; by Electioneer, dam Beautiful Bells by 
The Moor, trotted in 2.30^ as a three-yearold 
and was not further trained on account of a 


178 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

quarter crack. At Village Farm he made a great 
reputation as a sire of speed. His daughter 
Fantasy held the three-year-old record, 2.o8f , and 
the four-year-old record, 2.06. His son, The 
Abbot, was the champion trotter until his record of 
2.03J was beaten by Cresceus. Chimes is the sire 
of 72 in the list, and his daughters have produced 
American Belle, three-year-old, 2.1 2J ; Dare Devil, 
2.09 ; and Lady of the Manor (pacer), 2.04J. 

St Bel, the elder brother of Chimes, trotted to 
a four-year-old record of 2. 1 2^, and was making 
rapid progress in the stud at Prospect Hill Stock 
Farm, Franklin, Pennsylvania, when death cut 
short his career in September, 1891. The fastest 
of his 47 trotters is Lynne Bel, 2.10^, also a pro- 
ducing sire. Baron Bel, 2.11^, is the fastest of 
his nine pacers. 

Whips is the sire of Azote, 2.04^; Cobwebs, 
2.12; and eight other trotters. His one pacer, 
Myrtha Whips, has a record of 2.09. Whips died 
in his prime. 

Ansel, before his death, sired Answer, 2.14^, 
and eight other trotters. He also had one pacer, 
Miss Emma, 2.17. 

Anteeo by Electioneer, out of Columbine by 
A. W. Richmond, she out of Columbia, thorough- 

The Family of Electioneer 179 

bred daughter of imported Bonnie Scotland, 
trotted to a record of 2.16J, and is the sire of 46 
trotters and one pacer. The best of his nine pro- 
ducing sons is Alfred G., sire of 33 in the list. 
The fastest of his trotters is Charley Herr, 2.07, a 
stallion with an iron constitution. 

The fastest trotter by Arion is Nico, 2.o8j. 
Fannella, one of his daughters, trotted as a brood 
mare to a record of 2.22^, and is the dam of Sadie 
Mac, 2.1 1 J, the winner of the Kentucky Futurity 
in 1903. 

Sphinx (1883) by Electioneer out of Sprite by 
Belmont, second dam the famous Waterwitch by 
Pilot Jr., trotted to a record of 2.20J and is the 
sire of 56 trotters and 31 pacers. The fastest 
of his get are pacers, which shows that the 
influence of Pilot Jr. was felt in descending 

Egotist, the younger brother of Sphinx, has 
a record of 2.22^, and is the sire of 40 trotters 
and three pacers. In this instance the blood of 
Pilot Jr. did not strongly assert itself. Electrite, 
a still younger brother, has a record of 2.28^. 
He was purchased as a weanling by Allen Farm 
for 1^5000, and later was sold at a long price to 
go to Texas. He has 35 trotters and 19 pacers. 

i8o Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Here the influence of the pacing ancestry was 
more in evidence. 

The closer we inquire into the brother busi- 
ness the more we are puzzled at some of its 
vagaries. Is it not true that each organism 
possesses the power of reacting on the different 
external influences with which it is brought in 
contact? Impressions made upon the mind of 
the future mother in the nuptial hour may shape 
to some extent the fortunes of the foal. And 
nutrition is an influence that cannot be ignored 

I was in St. Louis when Lady Russell, sister 
of Maud S., started to California to form a closer 
acquaintance with Electioneer. It was a union 
which I had urged upon Mr. Brodhead, as well 
as Senator Stanford, because it would result in 
the commingling of the blood of the two great 
brood mares, Miss Russell and Green Mountain 
Maid, and naturally I was gratified at the news. 
The message came by wire from Woodbum that 
Lady Russell and the mares that accompanied 
her might be stopped and exhibited at the 
famous St. Louis Fair, and no time was lost 
in advising the public of this fact. The distin- 
guished mares from the most renowned of Ken- 
tucky breeding farms received an ovation on 

Tbe Family of Electioneer i8i 

the fair ground, and the journey to Palo Alto 
was resumed, where Lady Russell produced, 
April 5, 1889, a brown colt by Electioneer, which 
was named Expedition. The colt developed 
into a horse of speed and a sire of speed. Expe- 
dition was trained comparatively little, and yet 
in 1894 he trotted to a record of 2.15^. His 
brother, Re-Election, and his sister, Electrix, 
also trotted to records, and their blood is march- 
ing on. Mary P. Leyburn, out of a pacing 
daughter of Onward, is the fastest of the 34 
trotters by Expedition. Her record is 2.1 1 J. 
Re-Election has contributed eight trotters and 
three pacers to the list. 

Norval, 2.14!, dam Norma by Norman, 25, 
second dam by Todhunter's Sir Wallace, is one 
of the forcible speed-producing sons of Elec- 
tioneer. He has 61 trotters and 17 pacers, 
and 13 of his sons are sires of trotters. In 
1885 he was bred to Elaine, daughter of Green 
Mountain Maid, and the result was the brown 
filly Norlaine, the first of her age to reduce 
the trotting record to 2.31 J. Norlaine, unfor- 
tunately, perished in a stable fire. 

Palo Alto, who as a four-year-old trotted to 
a record of 2.20^, as a seven-year-old in 2. 12 J, 

i82 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

and then reduced the stallion record to 2.o8f, 
was one of the gamest horses that ever scored 
for the word. His first dam was by Planet, his 
second dam by imported Glencoe, and his third 
dam by imported Margrave. Why then should 
he not carry his action through stubborn contests 
of divided heats? Palo Alto died July 27, 1892, 
and as he was one of the horses that Governor 
Stanford refused to price, — a friend of mine 
offered Jt 100,000 for him, — his loss was severely 
felt The fastest of his 14 trotters was Iran Alto, 
2.12^, and three of his sons are producing sires. 

May King, the sire of Bingen, 2.06^, and other 
fast trotters, is by Electioneer out of May Queen, 
2.20, and he has a record of 2.21. 

February 16, 1887, the chestnut mare Sontag 
Dixie by Toronto Sontag, out of Dixie by Billy 
Townes, running bred, produced the bay colt Del 
Mar by Electioneer. He passed to Suburban 
Stock Farm, Glens Falls, New York. He trotted 
to a record of 2.i6|, and meeting with an acci- 
dent, was destroyed. Among his 11 trotters 
are Copeland, 2.09^, and Major Delmar, i.59f. 
He was a sire of extreme speed, and it is a pity 
that he could not have lived to witness the 
triumph of his wind-splitting son. 

The Family of Electioneer 183 

The Electioneer family is one of remarkable 
vigor, and the years add to instead of take from 
its importance. Those who believe in the doc- 
trine of the survival of the fittest will keep close 
to the family founded by one of the greatest, 
if not the greatest, son of Hambletonian. 





One of the early foals of Hambletonian was 
Volunteer (1854), dam Lady Patriot by Young 
Patriot, son of Patriot by Blucher ; second dam the 
Lewis Hulse Mare, fast at the trot and the run. 
Volunteer was placed in the stud at Washington- 
ville, Orange County, not far from Chester ; and 
as his owner, Alden Goldsmith, was industrially 
pushing him into popular favor, Mr. Rysdyk was 
nettled, and he denounced Lady Patriot as the 
poorest mare ever sent to the court of Hamble- 
tonian. This statement was far from true, but it 
had its effect upon some people. Mr. Goldsmith 
did not relax his efforts, and the reputation of 
Volunteer steadily grew. The stallion trotted 
to a wagon record of 2.37 and had a highly 
finished, courageous look. I doubt if he would 
have trained on because he was rough-gaited, 
but what he accomplished in the stud will cause 


Volunteer 185 

him long to be remembered. His first great 
trotter was Gloster, a bay gelding, bred by James 
Roosevelt of Hyde Park, New York, foaled in 
1876; dam Black Bess by Stockbridge Chief; 
second dam by Mambrino Paymaster. Alden 
Goldsmith purchased and campaigned him, and 
when he trotted to a record of 2.17 at Roches- 
ter, August 14, 1874, his fame was heralded over 
the country. A long price was refused for him, 
and it was decided to give him the benefit of a win- 
ter in California. He was taken there, and died 
October 30, 1874. Powers, 2.2 1 ; Huntress, 2.2o| ; 
Driver, 2.19^^; Bodine, 2.19J; Alley, 2.19; and 
Domestic, 2.20, were among the hard fighters 
in grand circuit campaigns, and their good feet 
and legs and unshrinking courage caused think- 
ing people to respect their sire. St Julien, who 
once divided championship honors with Maud S.| 
was the fastest of the Volunteer tribe. He was 
a bay gelding, foaled in 1879, and dam Flora 
by Harry Clay, 45, second dam by Napoleon. 
Orrin A. Hickok trained him and drove him 
to his record of 2.1 1 J at Hartford, August 27, 
1880. The producing record of Volunteer is 
38 trotters and one pacer, and 41 sires and 54 
dams of speed. Sweetness, who trotted to a 

1 86 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

record of 2.21 J, was by Volunteer, and she is 
the dam of Sidney, 2.i9f, sire of Sidney Dillon, 
the sire of Lou Dillon. Volunteer was a bay 
horse of commanding appearance, standing 15.3, 
and he died at Walnut Grove Farm, Decem- 
ber 13, 1888. Lady Patriot died at Thorn- 
dale, September 2, 1876, the property of Edwin 
Thorne. Her son, Sentinel, brother of Volun- 
teer, trotted to a record of 2.29^. He died at 
ten years old after siring trotters and sires and 
dams of trotters. Heroine, the sister of Volun- 
teer, is the dam of Shawmut, 2.26, and Hero 
of Thorndale, prominent as a brood-mare sire. 
Shawmut is also a sire of speed 


Isaiah Rynders, who was once a notable figure 
in the political life of New York City, owned a 
chestnut mare, foaled in 1852, by Seely's Ameri- 
can Star, called Widow Machree, who trotted to 
a record of 2.29 at Union Course, Long Island, 
June 7, 1861. He sent this courageous mare to 
Chester, and in the spring of 1866 a bay colt by 
Hambletonian was born. The youngster devel- 
oped into a shapely and strongly muscled horse 
and was named Aberdeen. Captain Rynders 

Aberdeen 187 

was a man of quick temper and violent speech, 
and he was led into many heated controversies 
over Aberdeen and the blood lines of his second 
dam. He came to me often in his trouble and 
was soothed as far as possible with gentle words. 
Aberdeen, who stood 15.3, trotted but one race 
and that was in a three-year-old stake, at Prospect 
Park, Long Island, which was won in 2.46. In 
private he was timed a half-mile in 1.09J. When 
Hattie Woodward, a daughter of Aberdeen, swept 
all before her in the grand circuit and trotted to 
a record of 2.15^, Captain Rynders was in his 
glory, and his stallion, as a matter of course, was 
the peer of any stallion that ever lived. Early in 
March, 1881, Captain Rynders came to me with 
a story of distress. William H. Vanderbilt had 
demanded payment of a note given his father, 
the gallant old Commodore, and Rynders said, 
with moisture in his eyes, that in order to make 
the payment he would be compelled to sell Aber- 
deen. He named a price that he would take, and 
two days later General W. T. Withers of Ken- 
tucky called at my office. As soon as he heard 
about Aberdeen he asked me to go to Passaic, 
New Jersey, with him to see Captain Rynders 
and the horse. When we arrived at the breeding 

1 88 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

establishment we found Aberdeen chained in his 
stall, and the services of three men were required 
to lead him out. Although the horse acted like 
a savage, General Withers paid the price and 
took him away. Rynders was never the same 
man after this. He grieved much over the loss 
of his horse. In October of the same year I was 
at Fairlawn and asked for Aberdeen. General 
Withers pointed to a three-acre paddock, and 
there was a stallion quietly grazing. An old 
negro groom was sent after him, and he put a 
bridle on the horse and led him to his roomy box 
stall as quietly as he would a lamb. The open- 
air treatment, combined with gentleness, had 
driven savage thoughts from the brain of Aber- 
deen, and he was as docile as any stallion at Fair- 
lawn, until the death of General Withers in 1889. 
Then he passed to Colonel James E. Clay of 
Paris, Kentucky, and remained his property until 
he died, in October, 1892. Kentucky Union, 
2.07^, is the fastest of the 49 trotters from the 
loins of Aberdeen. Among his 33 producing 
sons is Sir Walter, 2.24^, sire of Sir Walter Jr., 
2.18J, sire of Alcidalia, 2Aq\, and Glory, 2.11^. 
Wiggins, sire of Katharine A., 2.14, and other 
fast ones, is another producing son. Onward 

Happy Medium 189 

Silver, 2.05J, is out of one of the producing 
daughters of Aberdeen. 

Happy Medium 

Princess, who was born in Vermont, in 1846; 
who was by Andrus Hambletonian, a descendant 
of Messenger; who was owned by D. A. Gage 
of Chicago, and trotted under the name of Topsy ; 
who passed from him to California, where she dis- 
tinguished herself on the turf ; and who was in 
rivalry with Flora Temple, — made the acquaint- 
ance of Hambletonian in 1862, when the country 
was convulsed with war, and in the spring of 1 863 
a bay colt, bred by R. F. Galloway of Sufferns, 
New York, appeared. This colt was named 
Happy Medium, and he grew into a horse of 15.2. 
He started in public once as a four-year-old, and 
once as a six-year-old. In his last race he trotted 
to a record of 2.32J, and when eight years old 
was purchased by Robert Steel of Philadelphia, 
for $25,000. When 16 years old he passed 
from Cedar Park Stud to Fairlawn and died the 
property of General W. T. Withers, in February, 
1888. At one time the critics found much fault 
with Happy Medium, said that he was too light- 
waisted to sire a robust family, and that his weak- 

I90 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

ness was due to the vitality-sapping campaigns 
of his dam. The Happy Mediums had good 
action but were termed soft-hearted. His great- 
est triumphs were achieved at Fairlawn. The 
fastest of his 87 trotters is Nancy Hanks, dam 
Nancy Lee by Dictator, who became queen of the 
turf when Budd Doble drove her at Terre Haute, 
in September, 1892, to a record of 2.04. This 
record held for two years, when Alix beat it by 
one-quarter of a second. Milton Medium, 2.25^, 
one of the 66 producing sons of Happy Medium, 
is the sire of Lou Milton, dam of Lou Dillon, 
1.58^. The greatest producing son of Happy 
Medium is Pilot Medium, gray horse, foaled in 
1879, sire of Peter the Great, 2.07J, and 96 other 
trotters; also sire of 21 pacers. The sons and 
daughters of Pilot Medium are also speed-pro- 
ducers. Maxey Cobb, an entire son of Happy 
Medium, reduced the stallion record to 2.1 3 J in 
1884, and held the championship for five years. 


Clara was the name of a black filly, bred by 
Jonathan Hawkins of Orange County, New 
York, sired by Seely's American Star, and foaled 
in 1848. Her dam was a brown mare with four 

Dictator 191 

white feet, standing 15.2, obtained from a gypsy 
band and used for family driving. She produced 
Shark, who trotted to saddle in 2.27^. Clara 
stood 14.3, and had a star, snip, and three white 
feet. Young Hawkins drove her pretty hard 
on the country roads until the spring of 1857, 
when he sent her to Chester and bred her to 
Hambletonian, and thus became possessed of the 
phenomenal trotter Dexter. In 1863 the brown 
colt Dictator, brother of Dexter, was foaled. 
When eleven months old, Harrison Durkee, who 
had a breeding farm at Flushing, Long Island, 
purchased him. Alden Goldsmith broke him to 
harness, and as a three-year-old Dictator began 
his career at Spring Hill Stud Farm. Mr. 
Durkee was over cautious, and he talked much 
about the great speed of the brother of Dexter 
without giving the public a chance to hold their 
watches on the stallion. I frequently drove to 
Flushing in those days and saw Dictator in 
harness, but could not persuade his owner 
to enter him in races. • In 1876 John W. 
Conley urged Mr. Durkee to send Dictator to 
Kentucky, and the horse was leased to Colonel 
Richard West, of Edge Hill Farm, near George- 
town. The fee, $200, however, was too big 

192 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

for the times; and in 1878 the brother of 
Dexter was returned to Long Island. Among 
the trotters sired by Dictator while at Edge Hill 
Farm were Jay-eye-see, 2.10; Phallas, 2.13!; and 
Director, 2.17. In the summer of 1884 these 
three were the sensation of the grand circuit. 
Just before I left New York for Chicago Mn 
Durkee asked me to find a purchaser for Dic- 
tator at $15,000. At the Buffalo meeting I was 
sta3dng with Mr. C J. Hamlin, and when he 
spoke of a stallion that could take the shine out 
of Jerome Eddy, 2. 16 J, then at the head of 
his great rival, Jewett Farm, I suggested Dic- 
tator, sire of the champion trotting gelding and 
of the champion trotting stallion. Although 
Dictator was then approaching the yellow leaf, 
Mr. Hamlin authorized me to offer $20,000 for 
him. I went to New York, but could not bring 
Mr. Durkee to terms. He telegraphed, during 
the negotiations, to Major H. C. McDowell of 
Lexington, Kentucky, that I was trying to buy 
the horse ; and McDowell took the next train for 
New York. As soon as he arrived he called on 
A. A. and David Bonner, and persuaded them 
to join him in the purchase of the stallion at 
$25,000. Whatever you may say of Mr. Durkee, 

Dictator 193 

he was keen at a bargain. At Ashland, the old 
historic home of Hon. Henry Clay, Dictator 
was not in vigorous health for a time, and the 
Bonner interest passed to McDowells The horse 
died May 25, 1893, ^^ the age of 30 years. He 
was a very impressive sire, and his blood is 
breeding on. He has 46 trotters and 11 pacers 
in the list, and 56 sons are sires of speed. The 
best of these is Director, black horse, foaled in 
1877, and out of the great brood mare Dolly 
by Mambrino Chief. As a three-year-old he 
trotted to a record of 2.30, was a game race- 
horse in his maturity, and retired to the stud 
with a record of 2.17. Among the 40 trotters 
sired by Director is Directum, dam Stemwinder 
by Venture, son of Williamson's Belmont. As 
a four-year-old he made a wonderful campaign, 
and reduced the stallion record to 2.05J. The 
fastest of Director's pacers is Direct, 2.05^, the 
sire of Directly, 2.03J at the pace. Director has 
27 producing sons and 27 producing daughters. 
The blood of Dictator is so potent that extreme 
speed springs from it as we recede from the 
fountain head. 

194 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 


The first time I saw Harold, at Woodbum, I 
was disappointed in him, and in a letter which 
I wrote for publication described him as " bench- 
legged." This appellation stuck to him all his 
life. He was a bay horse, foaled September 
14, 1864, bred by Charles S. Dole of Crystal 
Lake, Illinois, by Rysdyk's Hambletonian (son of 
Abdallah), dam Enchantress by Abdallah. It 
was the desire of Mr. Dole to double the blood 
of Abdallah through good individuals, and he 
selected Enchantress because she was a bay of 
fine appearance, whose speed and courage had 
been tested on the road, and also because her 
dam was represented to be by imported Bell- 
founder. When 1 1 months old Harold was sold 
to R. A. Alexander to take the place at Wood- 
burn made vacant by the death of Alexander's 
Abdallah. He grew into a horse of 15 hands, 
with great substance for his height; but early 
visitors to the farm were not strongly impressed 
by him. If they were partial to his blood lines 
they were not fascinated by his form. Harold's 
first great success was Maud S. This magnifi- 
cent chestnut out of Miss Russell in fact created 

Harold 195 

him. She made him the fashion, and mares of 
superior rank were sent to his court. He died 
October 6, 1893, and among his 40 trotters and 
5 pacers are Noontide, 2.20^; Cammie L., 2.21; 
and Mattie Graham, 2.21^. His best producing 
son, Lord Russell, brother of Maud S., 2.o8f , is 
without a record, but that is for the reason that 
he never started in public. The best of Lord 
Russell's get is Kremlin, who beat a powerful 
field for the Transylvania at Lexington, Octo- 
ber ID, 1892, and who became the champion trot- 
ting stallion when he reduced his record to 2.07^. 
A horse of more determination than Kremlin was 
never seen in a race. Hartford, another pro- 
ducing son of Harold, sired the famous little 
pacer Robert J., 2.01^. Beulah, foaled in 1881, 
by Harold out of Sally B. by Lever, thorough- 
bred son of Lexington and Levity by imported 
Trustee, is the dam of five in the list, including 
Beuzetta, 2.o6f, and Early Bird, 2.10. Ethelwyn 
by Harold out of Kathleen by Pilot Jr., she out 
of Little Miss, thoroughbred daughter of imported 
Sovereign, is the dam of five, including Extasy, 
2.11^; Impetuous, 2.13; and Orator, 2.23. In all 
54 of the daughters of Harold are speed pro- 
ducers. Attorney, one of the 45 producing sons 

196 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

of Harold, is the sire of Atlanta, dam of Alix, 
2,03j. Doubling the blood of Abdallah, son of 
Mambrino, son of Messenger, gave us an indi- 
vidual not free from criticism, but a progenitor 
of extreme speed at the trot and the pace, 


Strathmore, formerly called Goodwin Watson, 
was a bay horse, foaled in 1866 ; bred by Aristides 
Welch of Erdenheim, near Philadelphia ; got by 
Rysdyk's Hambletonian, dam Lady Waltemire, a 
roadster of celebrity by North American ; second 
dam by Harris's Hambletonian. He was a horse 
of substance, a shade over 15 hands, and Mr. 
Welch used him principally on the road until he 
sold him, in 1873, to Colonel R. G. S toner of 
Bourbon County, Kentucky. He left but three 
or four foals on the Atlantic seaboard, and one of 
these was the bay horse Chestnut Hill, dam Polly 
Barber by Bully King, son of George M. Patchen. 
He passed to A. W. Griswold of New York, who 
drove him on the road and raced him to a limited 
extent. At Utica, in August, 1879, he trotted to 
a record of 2.22^. Steinway, bay colt by Strath- 
more out of Abbess by Albion, trotted in August, 
1879, at Lexington, to a three-year-old record of 

Stratbmore 197 

2.2 5f, and as this was fast for those days general 
attention was attracted to the sire. Steinway 
never reduced his record, but was taken to Cali- 
fornia, where he sired a high rate of speed. More 
pacers than trotters came from him; and con- 
spicuous among his pacers are Klatawah, 2.05^ ; 
W. Wood, 2.07; Agitato, 2.09; and Cricket, 2.10. 
One of his sons, Charles Derby, who trotted to a 
record of 2.20, is also a sire of fast pacers, — Don 
Derby, 2.06; Much Better, 2.07 J; and Derby 
Princess, 2.08^. Santa Claus, bay horse, foaled in 
1874, dam Lady Thorn Jr. by Williams's Mam- 
brino by Ericsson, son of Mambrino Chief ; second 
dam Kate by Highland Chief by Mambrino Chief, 
was the greatest son of Strathmore. The first time 
I saw him he was called Count Kilrush, and he 
showed as a three-year-old a high rate of speed on 
the track of Colonel West at Georgetown. In 
December, 1877, John W. Conley took the colt 
to California, where he was sold to P. A. Finegan, 
and his name changed to Santa Claus. At Sac- 
ramento, in 1879, he trotted to the five-year-old 
record, 2.18, and in 1881 and 1882 was campaigned 
in the East by O. A. Hickok, where he defeated 
such horses as Edwin Thome, Piedmont, Wedge- 
wood, Voltaire, Hannis, Adele Gould, and Fanny 

198 The Trotling and the Pacing Horse 

Witherspoon, and reduced his record to 2.17^. 
The fastest trotter sired by him is William Penn, 
2.07^, and one of his pacers, Sidney, 2.19I-, was 
out of the trotting mare, Sweetness, 2.21 J, by 
Volunteer; second dam Lady Merritt by Edward 
Everett (son of Hambletonian) ; and third dam by 
Harry Clay. Here we have three direct lines to 
Hambletonian and two to Mambrino Chief, and 
yet Sidney preferred the lateral to the diagonal 
gait and is the sire of speed at both gaits. His 
trotters, however, outnumber his pacers, the fast- 
est being Monterey, 2.09}, and Dr. Leek, 2.09^. 
His fastest pacer is Lena N., 2.05^. One of the 
mares bred to Sidney was Venus, dam of three in 
the list, and the produce was Sidney Dillon, sire 
of Dolly Dillon, 2. 07 J, and Lou Dillon, 1.58^. 
As the champion trotter of the world traces 
directly in the male line to Strathmore, I have 
gone at some length into his blood lines. The 
tendency to pace was strong in Strathmore, who 
died at Fort Wayne, Indiana, March 11, 1895. 



In the first catalogue of Stony Ford, Gray 
Rose, a gray mare of 15.2 by Bishop's Hamble- 
tonian, appeared among the brood mares. She 
was bred to R3rsdyk's Hambletonian and pro- 
duced, May 13, 1868, a bay colt named Cuyler. 
He was but a few days younger than Electioneer, 
and the two grew up side by side. At maturity 
he stood 15.3 and was a horse of range, quality, 
and good temper. When 'he was four years old 
Mr. James C. McFerran bought him from Mr. 
Backman, choosing him over Electioneer. At 
Glenview Farm, the famous breeding establish- 
ment near Louisville, Kentucky, he made a repu- 
tation, but in October, 1886, after the death of 
Mr. McFerran, was sold under the hammer to 
John H. Shults of New York. He died at Des 
Moines, Iowa, May 31, 1894. Elvira, 2.18^; 
Day Dream, 2.2 if ; and Algath, 2.23, attracted 


200 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

attention to him as a sire of early speed. Elvira, 
who was out of Mary Mambrino (dam of Bea- 
trice) by Mambrino Patchen, was bred to Pan- 
coast, 2.2 if (son of Woodford Mambrino and 
Bicara by Harold), and the result was Ponce de 
Leon, a black horse of i6 hands, who trotted to 
a record of 2.13 and is a good producing sire. 
Beatrice, the sister of Elvira, is the dam of Patron, 
2.14^, a distinguished trotter and sire; Prodigal, 
2.16, another famous trotter and sire; and Patron- 
age, the sire of Alix, 2.03^. The blood of Cuyler 
thus rounded out champion form. Both Patron 
and Prodigal are the sires of fast pacers as well 
as fast trotters. Baron Crisp, 2.12^; Cuyler- 
coast, 2.1 1 ; and Prince of Orange, 2.07^, are 
out of daughters of Cuyler. 


Camptown by Messenger Duroc (son of Ham- 
bletonian) was bred to Hambletonian, and the 
fruit was Egbert, who in the hands of Colonel 
Richard West achieved quite a reputation as a 
sire. Two of the 67 trotters by Egbert are 
Superior, 2.17^, sire of Wentworth, 2.08; and 
Egthorne, 2.12^, sire of Maid Thorn, 2.14. The 
daughters of Egbert are also noted for their speed- 

Egbert, Vicior Bismarck, and Idol 201 

producing qualities. The close doubling of the 
blood of Hambletonian returned in this case 
highly gratifying results. 

Victor Bismarck and Idol 

Victor Bismarck by Hambletonian, dam Hattie 
Wood (dam of Idol and Gazelle) by Harry Clay, 
second dam Grandmother by Terror by Eclipse, 
went from Stony Ford paddocks to Kentucky, 
where he achieved success. The climatic cross 
may have aided him. The fastest of his trotters 
was Edgemark, 2.16, the sire of Miss Whitney, 
2.07^. Edgemark had the benefit of another 
climatic cross, as he was transferred from Ken- 
tucky to Massachusetts. The fastest trotter by 
Idol, brother of Victor Bismarck, was Idolf , 2. 1 3^ , 
and the fastest pacer was Fidol, 2.04^. Gazelle, 
the sister of Victor Bismarck, trotted to a record 
of 2.21, and at Palo Alto entered the great brood- 
mare list. Louis Napoleon, by Volunteer, out 
of Hattie Wood, also passed from Stony Ford 
paddocks to Michigan, where he sired 23 trotters 
and II pacers. One of his producing sons is 
Jerome Eddy, 2.16^, sire of Fanny Wilcox, 2.10^. 
The sons and daughters of Jerome Eddy are 
also speed producers. 

202 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Hone 

Jay Gould 

Jay Gould was one of the highest formed sons 
of Hambletonian. He was a bay of 15.2, foaled 
in 1864, dam Lady Sanford by Seely's American 
Star; second dam Old Sorrel by Exton Eclipse, 
son of American Eclipse ; and third dam by Mes- 
senger Duroc by Sir Archy Duroc by Duroc by 
imported Diomed. His public appearance was 
sensational; at Bu£Falo, August 11, 187 1, under 
the name of Judge Brigham, he won the $5000 
purse» from a stout field, and equalled the stallion 
record of George Wilkes, 2.22. Mr. Jay Gould 
was one of the gentlemen who witnessed the 
race, and he joined Henry N. Smith and George 
C Hall in the purchase of the horse. The price 
paid was $30,000. His name was changed to 
Jay Gould, and the following year, at Buffalo, he 
reduced his record to 2.21^. In 1874 he trotted 
a match race at Baltimore, against Bashaw Jr. 
In the first heat Bashaw went wrong and was 
distanced. Jay Gould trotted a second mile in 
2. 1 9 J, but it was never considered a part of the 
technical record. Mr. Smith became the sole 
owner of Jay Gould, and at Fashion Stud Farm 
the stallion had access to choice mares of demon- 

Jay Gould 203 

strated speed. One of the mares bred to him 
was the famous Lucy, 2. 18 J, and the produce was 
Inheritor, who died in 1879, after siring Mont- 
gomery, 2.21 J; Lucia, dam of six with records, 
including Beulah, 2.19^, Hurly Burly, 2.16^, and 
Edgardo, 2.i3f, sire of Tomah, 2.10; Sapphire, 
dam of four with records, including Nominee, 
2. 1 7 J, and Nominator, 2,17^; and Sybil, dam of 
four with records, also of Syndic, a producing 
sire. This is a remarkable case of blood breed- 
ing on. The fastest trotter by Jay Gould is 
Pixley, 2.08J, and the fastest of his three pacers 
is Kiswick, 2. 18 J. Another great producing 
daughter is Sonnet, dam of Martense Maid by 
Jackson's Flying Cloud. In her the blood of 
Messenger and Justin Morgan is joined, and she 
is the dam of Poem, 2.11^, a producing sire; 
Prose, 2.16J; and Stanza, 2.22^. The Moccasin 
Mare, by imported thoroughbred Moccasin, dam 
Dolly Star by Hambletonian, second dam Loril- 
lard Mare by Seely's American Star, was bred to 
Jay Gould and the fruit was Sandal, who, at the 
Newminster Stud of William H. Fearing, be- 
came the dam of Mahogany, 2.12}; Ixia, 2.i8f ; 
Magic Flute, 2.2 if, a producing sire; and Three 
Feathers, 2.2 2 J. Ixia, who trotted a trial in 2,11, 

204 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

was bred to her half-brother, Magic Flute, and 
the result is Miss Fearing, 2.19^. The daughters 
of Jay Gould stand high as speed producers. 
The son of Hambletonian and Lady Sanford 
was an impressive horse on the track, in the 
show ring, or the stud, and his closing days 
were somewhat sad. When misfortune overtook 
Henry N. Smith and his stud was disbanded, 
Jay Gould, then 29 years old and but a shadow 
of himself, was led into the auction ring and sold 
for ^^50 to James O'Neil, formerly in the em- 
ploy of Mr. Smith, who kindly cared for him 
until he died, June 10, 1894. 

Edward Everett 


Edward Everett, formerly called Major Win- 
field, was a bay horse, foaled in 1855; bred by 
Adam Lilbum, and got by Rysdyk's Hamble- 
tonian out of Fanny by imported Margrave. Mr. 
Robert Bonner paid $20,000 for him when the 
world was talking about his two sons, Judge 
FuUerton and Mountain Boy, and transferred 
him to his farm at Tarrytown. He died in 
August, 1878, leaving behind him 13 trotters, 
one of which was Hambrino, 2.21^, who is the 
sire of 39 trotters and eight pacers. Delmarch, 

Edward Everett, Dauntless 205 

2.11^, is the fastest of Hambrino's trotters, and 
he is a commanding sire of trotters and pacers. 
Thirty-eight of the daughters of Hambrino are 
dams of speed. One of these produced Ed Win- 
ter, 2.i2f, and Hawthorne, 2.06J. If Edward 
Everett had lived longer and been given a wider 
opportunity, his descendants would fill larger 
space in the history of the light-harness horse. 
His son, Joe Elliot, trotted a trial for Mr. Bonner 
in 2.15^, when this rate of speed was considered 
marvellous, and Eldridge, another son, trotted in 
2.20^ for Mr. Bonner. 


Dauntless, brother of Peacemaker, was a bay 
horse foaled at Stony Ford, April 3, 1867, ^i^d 
by Hambletonian out of Sallie Feagles by Smith's 
Clay, son of Neaves's Cassius M. Clay Jr. He is 
the sire of 33 trotters, including Gean Smith, 
2.15^, and Billy Parks, 2.1 5J; and of three 
pacers, one of which was Ed Annan, 2.16^, 
prominent in Grand Circuit battles. Ten of 
his daughters are dams of speed, and the fastest 
of their produce are William Penn, 2.07J, and 
Benton M., 2.10. 

2o6 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 


In the first Stony Ford catalogue (1870), 
Startle appears with Victor Bismarck and 
Dauntless under the head of three-year-old 
colts. He was a bay colt, foaled May 14, 
1867, by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, dam Lizzie 
Walker by Seely's American Star. He stood 
15.1, but had strong shoulders and massive 
quarters. He was the first Northern-bred three- 
year-old to trot in 2.36, and he passed from 
Charles Backman through George B. Alley to 
Robert Bonner, who drove him on the road and 
track. Startle was the first horse to trot a mile 
over the old Fleetwood track in 2.19, and on 
another occasion he trotted a half-mite in 1.04^. 
Mr. Bonner thought so much of Startle that he 
paid Mr. Backman $5000 for the unborn coif 
of Lizzie Walker by Hambletonian, which came 
dead. Startle was not given much of a chance 
in the stud, but among his ten trotters were 
Instant, 2.14^, and Majolica, 2.15. Portia, one 
of his daughters, is the dam of four in the list, 
including Lightning, 2.1 1, and Protein, 21 if. 
His best producing son is Mambrino Startle, 
sire of 14 trotters, among them the excellent 

startle. Nelson 207 

campaign mare, Mambrino Maid, 2.15^. Gui- 

nette, 2.05 at the pace, and Emma Offut, 2.1 li 

at the trot, are out of daughters of Mambrino 


In all, Hambletonian has 150 sires of speed 

and 80 dams of speed. Without question he 

was the greatest trotting progenitor that ever 



Nelson is a bay horse, foaled in 1882, by 
Young Rolfe, 2.21 J (son of Tom Rolfe, he by 
Pugh Aratus, out of Pocahontas, 2.17^); dam 
Gretchen by Gideon by Rysdyk's Hambletonian ; 
second dam Kate by Vermont Black Hawk, son 
of Sherman Morgan by Justin Morgan. He trot- 
ted at Cambridge City, Indiana, October 21, 
1890, in 2. 1 of, which gave him the post of 
honor in the stallion group. Second to him in 
1890 was^ Stamboul, with a record of 2.1 1. 
Third was Axtell, with a record of 2.12, and 
fourth was Palo Alto, with a record of 2. 12 J. 
Nelson was bred and owned by C. H. Nelson 
of Waterville, Maine, and had his owner not 
become involved in a dispute with the two gov- 
erning associations, his chances for more endur- 
ing fame would have been greater. He was a 

2o8 The Trottif^ and the Pacing Horse 

horse of pure gait, carrying the blood of founda- 
tion sires, and contributed as much to the glory 
of Maine as did Thomas B. Reed, or the rugged 
pines of that stalwart state. In 1891 Nelson 
took third place in the stallion group, Palo Alto 
going to the head with a record of 2.o8f, and 
AUerton being second with a record of 2.09^. 


Bashaw (Green's), whose register number is 
50, was a black horse, foaled in 1885 ; bred by 
Jonas Seely of Orange County, New York, and 
sired by Vernol's Black Hawk (son of Long 
Island Black Hawk by Andrew Jackson), dam 
Belle by Webber's Tom Thumb (a trotter of 
speed and endurance but of untraced blood); 
second dam the Charles Kent Mare (dam of Rys- 
dyk's Hambletonian) by imported Bellfounder. 
When a suckling he and his dam passed to 
F. M. Cummings of Muscatine, Iowa, and from 
him to Joseph A. Green of Muscatine. He died 
January 25, 1880, leaving behind him quite a 
family of trotters. The fastest of his trotters was 
Josephus, 2.19I-. One of his entire sons, Hamble- 
tonian Bashaw, trotted to a record of 2.21^, and 
is a producing sire. Twenty-two other sons are 

Basbaw 209 

also sires of speed, and 32 of his daughters are 
producing dams. As the second dam of Green's 
Bashaw was the dam of the great progenitor, 
Hambletonian, iscores of people bred to him on 
that account He was not equal to his oppor- 



In 1837, *t Pompton Plains, New Jersey, there 
was born a chestnut colt of quality which has 
played an important part in equine history. He 
was named American Star after his sire, Stock- 
holm's American Star, son of Duroc, the son of 
imported Diomed, and as he was owned for many 
years by Edmund Seely, of Orange County, New 
York, he was given a prefix. The registered 
number of Seely 's American Star is 14. He 
had speed at both the run and the trot, and was 
one of the "do or die " kind. Mr. Berry remarked 
that he had the "most bottom and best game 
of any horse he ever saw." His feet were bad, 
wiring in at the heel, and this defect was trans- 
mitted. His dam was a broken-down stage mare, 
and it has been claimed that she was a daughter 
of Henry, who ran four-mile heats against Ameri- 
can Eclipse. This claim was never established. 
Mr. Battell has written much to show that Seely's 
American Star was a descendant of Justin Mor- 


The Star Family 211 

gan, but the hearsay evidence presented by him 
would not stand for a moment in any intelligent 
court. In December, 1894, I was at Stony Ford 
with Mr. Robert Bonner, and the suggestion that 
Seely's American Star was one of the Morgan 
tribe brought out an explanation from Charles 
Backman, who at one time had more Star mares 
in his stud than could be found in all the other 
breeding establishments in the country : " When 
I was a young man I was almost constantly 
on the road in New England, especially in Ver- 
mont and New Hampshire, collecting money for 
the firm with which I was then engaged. I 
drove and saw hundreds of the best Morgan 
horses, and became familiar with their striking 
points. They were, as a rule, high-headed and 
short-gaited horses. When I started to found 
a stud at Stony Ford I hunted up all the best 
daughters of Seely's American Star that could 
be bought, with the object of breeding them to 
Rysdyk's Hambletonian. I had nearly 40 of 
these mares, and their characteristics became 
familiar to me. The sons and daughters of 
Seely*s American Star were low-headed and long- 
gaited, with wide action behind, just the reverse 
of all the Morgans that I ever knew. Therefore 

2 1 2 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

I cannot accept the conclusion that Seely's 
American Star was the son of an inbred Morgan. 
If like produces like, a low-headed and long- 
gaited type could not come from an up-headed 
and short-gaited type/' Mr. Bonner, whose mind 
was intensely logical, was impressed, and he 
remarked, ''Peerless and all the best Stars that 
I ever knew had the thoroughbred form, just a 
form that we would expect from a horse of the 
recorded breeding of Seely's American Star." 

I remember an afternoon at Glen Lea, the 
country seat of William Crawford, in Orange 
County, when that able lawyer and distinguished 
statesman. General Benjamin F. Tracy, went 
through the story of Mr. Battell and tore it to 
tatters. Seely's American Star was not much 
appreciated when he entered the stud, and all 
kinds of mares were bred to him at a nominal 
fee. In i860 he got but ten colts, and that fall 
Mr. Seely gave him to Theodore Dusenbury, 
whose property he died in February, 1861. He 
stamped his offspring with his form, resolution, 
gait, and disposition, and contributed much to 
the success of Rysdyk's Hambletonian. Only 
four of his get — Widow Machree, 2.29; Bolly 
Lewis, 2.29^; Newburgh, 2.30; and Lady Whit- 

The Star Family 213 

man, 2.30 — entered the standard list, but through 
his daughters he founded a family. One of his 
sons, Conklin's American Star, is the sire of 
St Cloud, 2.21 ; Lowland Mary, 2.25; and Star, 
2.30; and their sons and daughters figure as 
moderate speed producers. Dexter, the brown 
gelding with blaze and white legs, foaled in 1858, 
first emphasized the value of the Hambletonian- 
Star combination. He was bred by Jonathan 
Hawkins of Orange County, New York, and 
George B. Alley paid $400 for him and sub- 
sequently sold him to A. F. Fawcett. He was 
trained by Hiram WoodrufiF, and appeared for 
the first time at Fashion Course, May 4, 1864. 
His turf career was short but brilliant, and 
among the horses defeated by him were General 
Butler, Lady Thorn, and Goldsmith Maid. At 
Buffalo, August 14, 1867, driven by Budd Doble, 
he started to beat the 2.19I of Flora Temple, and 
trotted the first mile in 2.20^, and the second 
mile in 2. 17 J. This established a new world's 
record, and immediately after the performance 
the announcement was made that Dexter had 
become the property of Robert Bonner. The 
price paid was $35,000, including a commission 
of $2000. Mr. Bonner at that time was the 

214 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

owner of Peerless, a fast and handsome road 
mare, and as she was by Seely's American Star, 
he recognized the value of the blood. Of Qara, 
the greatest daughter of Seely's American Star, 
I shall speak at length in the chapter devoted to 
Great Brood Mares. Dexter was the greatest 
horse of his day for speed and endurance, and 
a few years after his purchase by Mr. Bonner 
he trotted a mile to road wagon over Prospect 
Park, Long Island, carrying 319 pounds, in 2.2 if. 
Prominent among the daughters of Seely's Amer- 
ican Star were Widow Machree, dam of Aber- 
deen, a stallion whose blood bred on ; Lady Sears, 
dam of Huntress, 2.2of, and Trio, 2.23J; Lady 
Sanford, dam of Jay Gould, 2.21^, a successful 
sire, and of Emblem, dam of five in 2.30 ; Flora 
Gardiner, dam of Guy, 2.09J, and Fred Folger, 
2.20^; Nancy Whitman, dam of Madeleine, 
2.2 3 J, and Robert McGregor, 2.17^, sire of 
Cresceus; Lady Dunn, dam of Joe Bunker, 2.19J, 
and of Lady Bunker (dam of Guy Wilkes, 2. 15 J, 
£1 Mahdi, 2.25^, and William L., sire of Axtell, 
2.12); and Imogene, dam of Arthurton, sire of 
Arab, 2.15, and of the famous brood mare, Han- 
nah Price, dam of Lesa Wilkes, 2.09. Leland, 
sire of Geneva, 2.11^, and others in the list, as 

The Star Family 215 

well as of speed-producing sons and daughters, 
is the brother of Arthurton. Emma Mills, dam 
of Sweepstakes, celebrated as a speed-producing 
stallion, was by Seely's American Star. Charles 
Backman read well the future when he gathered 
into one band the choicest daughters of Star and 
bred them to Hambletonian. The blood of this 
combination is adding to the volume of speed 
from generation to generation. 



Grand Bashaw was an iron-gray horse of 15 
hands, foaled in 1816, and imported from Tripoli 
in August, 1820, by Joseph B. Morgan. The 
official record says : " He was selected by the 
importer from the best stock of Oriental horses 
in that country ; and it is believed that in point 
of beauty, action, and speed he is not excelled by 
any horse ever imported into the United States." 
His first duties in the stud were in Montgomery 
County, near Philadelphia. Pearl, a daughter of 
First Consul and Fancy by imported Messenger, 
was bred to him, and the result was Young Bashaw, 
who produced, out of a trotting and pacing mare, 
Andrew Jackson, the sire of Henry Clay. The 
latter was a black horse, foaled in 1837, and dam 
Lady Surrey, a fast trotting mare brought from 
Canada and owned by George M. Patchen. 
Henry Clay was a horse of great vitality, and for 
several years previous to his death was owned 
by General James Wadsworth of Geneseo, New 


The Clay Family 217 

York. He was blind at the time he died, in 
April, 1867. The only standard trotter sired by 
him was Black Douglas, who took a record of 
2.30, but he became the progenitor of a family of 
trotters. In 1842 Joseph Oliver, of Brooklyn, 
New York, bred to Henry Clay a fine road mare 
called Jersey Kate, who was noted as the dam of 
the fast trotting gelding, John Anderson. The 
outcome was the bay horse, Cassius M. Clay, who 
passed to George M. Patchen and was celebrated 
as the best trotting stallion of his era. Only one 
fast trotter came from his loins, and that was 
George M. Patchen. One of his sons, Cassius 
M. Clay Jr. (Amos), a black horse foaled in 1854, 
was the sire of the famous trotter, American Girl, 
2.16^. Another son, Neaves's Cassius M. Clay, a 
brown horse, foaled in 1848, and out of a daughter 
of Chancellor by Mambrino by imported Mes- 
senger, was the sire of four record trotters, — 
Lady Lockwood, 2.25; George Cooley, 2.27; 
Lew Sayers, 2.28f ; and Harry Clay, 2.29. He 
was taken from New York to Ohio, where he 
broke a leg and was destroyed. Strader's Cassius 
M. Qay was a brown horse, foaled in 1852, and 
by Cassius M. Clay (son of Henry Clay) out of a 
daughter of Abdallah, she out of a mare by Law- 

2i8 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

fence's Eclipse. He passed from R. S. Strader to 
General William T. Withers, and he died at Fair- 
lawn. He sired four trotters, Durango, 2.23!; 
Harry Clay, a black gelding, 2.23^; Equinox, 
2.27^; and Sinbad, 2.29^. Sixteen of his sons are 
sires of standard speed and 35 of his daughters 
are producers of trotters and pacers. George M. 
Patchen, a bay horse, foaled in 1849, was a great 
performer on the trotting turf from 1859 to 1863, 
and retired with a record of 2.23^, made at Union 
Course, Long Island, in August, i860. He was 
a horse of distinguished appearance as well as 
action, and his sire was Cassius M. Clay, by 
Henry Clay, dam Head'em by imported Trustee, 
son of Catton and Emma by Whisker. George 
M. Patchen was bred by Richard M. Carman of 
Monmouth County, New Jersey, and among the 
four trotters sired by him was the celebrated bay 
mare Lucy, 2.18J, foaled in 1857, who won 62 
heats in 2.30 and better, and became a speed-pro- 
ducing dam at Fashion Stud Farm. Fourteen of 
the sons of George M. Patchen are sires of speed. 
One of these is Godfrey Patchen, sire of eight 
trotters, including Hopeful, 2.1 4f, and of four pro- 
ducing sons. Another is George M. Patchen Jr. 
(California Patchen), sire of ten trotters including 

Tbe Clay Family 219 

Sam Purdy, 2.26^. Eleven sons and 15 daughters 
of California Patchen are speed producers. Sam 
Purdy was a bay horse, foaled in 1866, and his 
dam was Whiskey Jane by Illinois Medoc. He 
was a very game horse, and his record of 2.20^, 
made at Buffalo in August, 1876, was not the full 
measure of his speed. James R. Keene purchased 
the stallion and presented him to his brother-in- 
law, Major F. A. Daingerfield of Virginia. Dur- 
ing a recent visit to Castleton, the great breeding 
establishment of James R. Keene, of which Major 
Daingerfield is the manager, I heard the pathetic 
story of the death of Sam Purdy. He was down 
with colic, and as no veterinary surgeon was 
within reach, several of the physicians of Culpeper 
were sent for. All declined the summons on the 
theory that to relieve the sufferings of an animal 
not gifted with speech would degrade their pro- 
fession. The reply of Major Daingerfield was 
that Sam Purdy was worth more to the state of 
Virginia than the whole of Culpeper, and that 
he had no patience with such foolish chatter. In 
the hope that a strong physical effort would 
remove the cause of colic, Sam Purdy was liter- 
erally dragged to the near-by track. The moon 
was shining brightly, and the fire of his racing 

220 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

days was rekindled at the sight of the half-mile 
oval. The game horse forgot his su£Ferings in 
the flood of memories, and with the determina- 
tion that caused Christian martyrs to &ce fire 
without flinching, he lifted his head and reached 
out with the stroke which had so often carried 
him to victory. Like a ghost under the full-orbed 
moon he swept around the track, and there were 
hopes that through heroic effort his life would be 
saved. But the machinery cracked as he swept 
proudly down the home-stretch. At the little 
judges' stand he dropped as if a bullet had 
pierced his brain, and when the group of awe- 
struck watchers reached him he was stone dead. 
This little story reminded Hon. P. P. Johnston, 
president of the National Trotting Association, of 
an incident that occurred at the colored fair at 
Lexington. A large man, who was speeding on 
the track to road wagon, sat rigid in the rush 
down the home-stretch, and when the horse 
stopped of his own accord, the discovery was 
made that the man was dead of heart-disease. 
The figure was so braced that it did not fall when 
breath left the body. It was a striking illustra- 
tion of how closely death sometimes rides with 
life in the bright sunshine of a summer morning. 

Tbe Clay Family 221 

Years ago, at old Fleetwood Park, I saw a fast 
trotting mare die in the hands of Mr. David 
Bonner. She was to road wagon and had gone 
to the half-mile pole with a rush. Then she 
faltered, and Mr. Bonner held her together. 
When she fell there was not a quiver to indicate 
life. She had died on her feet in a struggle for 
the goal which satisfies animal ambition. 

Cicero J. Hamlin saw George M. Patchen 
repeatedly in races, and when he started the 
modest breeding venture at East Aurora, which 
developed into the famous Village Farm, he laid 
the foundations with a son of that horse. Ham- 
lin Patchen, who was by George M. Patchen out 
of Mag Addison, produced but two indifferent 
record trotters, but his daughters contributed 
to the Village Farm volume of speed. From 
them came such noted trotters as Belle Hamlin, 
2.1 2f; Globe, 2.14!; Justina, 2.20; and Nettie 
King, 2.20J. Mr. Hamlin was a strong believer 
in progression. In 1897 he said to me: " Unless 
a family shows a higher development at the end 
of every five years, it will not do to tie to. The 
individuals that do not show the stamp of im- 
provement must be discarded from the breeding 
stud. I have progressed by taking the best 

222 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

individuals of great families and uniting their 
blood in a way to produce harmonious results — 
conformation, good heads, speed, and the ability 
to adhere to gait" The Abbot, 2. 03 J, the 
fastest trotter ever . bred by Mr. Hamlin, illus- 
trates the idea. He is by Chimes (son of Elec- 
tioneer and Beautiful Bells), dam Nettie King, 
2.20^, by Mambrino King (son ci Mambrino 
Patchen and Belle Thornton by Edwin Forrest) ; 
second dam Nettie Murphy by Hamlin Patchen. 
Lord Derby, 2.05f, is another illustration. He 
is by Mambrino King, dam Clarabel by Hamlin's 
Almont Jr. (son of Almont and Maggie Gaines 
by Blood's Black Hawk); second dam by Alnion- 
arch, 2.24^ (son of Almont and Hi, thoroughbred 
daughter of Asteroid, son of Lexington); third 
dam Black Woful by Hamlin Patchen. 

Harry Clay, whose register number is 45, 
but who passed from Decatur Sayre to Erastus 
Coming, and from him to J. D. Willis, was a black 
horse, foaled in 1853, and by Cassius M. Clay Jr. 
(Neaves), grandson of Henry Clay ; dam Fan by 
imported Bellfounder, the sire of the Charles Kent 
Mare, dam of Rysdyk's Hambletonian. July 9, 
1864, he trotted at Chicago to a record of 2.29. 
He was faster than this, but those who knew him 

The Clay Family 223 

best have frankly conceded that he was not a 
resolute race-horse. He had a good deal in him 
of what Robert Bonner once, in the heat of con- 
troversy, characterized as sawdust. Four trotters 
came from his loins, the fastest of which was 
Clayton, 9.19. Shawmut, 2.26, one of his sons, 
is a speed-producing stallion ; but it is as a brood- 
mare sire that Harry Clay stands out with promi- 
nence. Flora, one of his daughters, bred to 
Volunteer, produced St. Julien, who was a sen- 
sational trotter in 1880, taking a record of 2.11^ 
at Hartford. Another daughter, Hattie Wood, 
out of Grandmother by Terror, son of American 
Eclipse, challenged national attention at Stony 
Ford by producing Gazelle, 2.21, and three suc- 
cessful sires. Idol, Louis Napoleon, and Victor 
Bismarck. Hattie Hogan by Harry Clay out 
of Nellie Sayre by Seely's American Star, pro- 
duced Hogarth, who was the champion four-year- 
old stallion of 1877, retiring with a record of 2.26. 
Her daughters were producers, and Mr. Backman 
valued her highly. The greatest of the daugh- 
ters of Harry Clay in the Stony Ford collection 
was Green Mountain Maid, whose fame will 
endure as long as the trotting horse holds a 
place in the esteem of mankind. I shall speak 

224 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

of her at length under another head. Masetto, 
2.08^ ; Hanietta, 2^)9^; Belling 2.1 3^, a producing 
sire; and Bodine, 2.19^, were out of daughters 
of Harry Clay. The blood of the black son of 
Neaves's Cassius M. Clay nicked best with plastic 
speed-supporting strains like those of Seely's 
American Star and American Eclipse. 




What may now be defined as a subsidiary 
family is that of Blue Bull. This chestnut horse 
was foaled in 1858, bred by Elijah Stone of 
Wheatland, Indiana, and sired by a horse called 
Pruden's Blue Bull. As a yearling he passed to 
Daniel Dorcll of Rising Sun, Indiana, and from 
him to James Wilson of Rushville, Indiana, who 
developed him and his foals. He was a horse of 
strong individuality, a fast pacer, and stamped 
himself upon his colts. James Wilson and his 
sons were good horsemen, and nothing by the 
chestnut stallion that could go escaped training. 
When such trotters from the loins of Blue Bull 
as Will Cody, 2.19^; Zoe B., 2.20^; Silverton, 
2.20^ ; Chance, 2.20^ ; Richard, 2.2 1 ; Mamie, 
2.21^; Gladiator, 2.22^; Elsie Good, 2.22^; and 
Kate McCall, 2.23, were prominent in Grand 
Circuit contests, there was quite a fever to breed 
to Blue Bull, notwithstanding his unsatisfactory 
Q 22$ 

226 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

pedigree. This fever abated as time rolled by, 
because it was then made plain that the pre- 
potency of the Wilson pacer was not strong 
enough to dominate generations. Blue Bull died 
July II, 1880, and his direct contribution to 
the speed list was 56 trotters and four pacers. 
Forty-eight of his sons became sires of moderate 
capacity, and 108 of his daughters became pro- 
ducing dams. The influence of Blue Bull was 
felt most largely in the female line. The family 
would be weak indeed without the group of pro- 
ducing dams. Thirty years ago. when appointed 
to make awards in the show ring, I would seri- 
ously consider, in breeding classes, animals that 
would now be passed by. Fashion changes 
because families do not maintain their suprem- 
acy. They fade away under the obliterating force 
of lines charged with superior vitality. 

Royal George 

Another subsidiary family is that of Royal 
George. This brown horse was foaled about 
1844, in Toronto, Ontario. His origin was 
obscure, and he did service at Lewiston and 
Bu£Falo, and died at St. Catherines. He left four 
trotters, Toronto Chief, Lady Byron, Tartar, and 

Subsidiary Families 227 

Lady Hamilton, and one fairly good producing 
son, Field's Royal George, the sire of Byron, 
2.2 5 j^. After the Civil War Buffalo became a 
great breeding centre, and the blood of Royal 
George was at the foundation of some of the estab- 
lishments. In this way the strain obtained more 
prominence than it otherwise would have done. 

T/ie Morse Horse 

The Morse Horse, whose number in the reg- 
ister is 6, was a gray, foaled in 1834, bred by 
James McNitt of Washington County, New 
York, and by European, an imported French 
horse from Canada ; dam Beck by Harris's Ham- 
bletonian, son of Bishop's Hambletonian. He 
was owned for many years by Calvin Morse, and 
contributed one trotter. Gray Eddy, to the 2.30 
list The best of his get was Alexander's Nor- 
man, a bay horse foaled in 1848, and dam by 
Jersey Highlander, second dam by Bishop's 
Hambletonian. In 1859 R. A. Alexander placed 
him in the stud at Woodburn, where he became 
the chief of a small tribe. Kate Crockett, by 
imported Hooton, was bred to him, and the re- 
sult was the celebrated trotting mare Lula, 2.15, 
dam of Lula Wilkes, dam of Advertiser, 2. 15 J, 

228 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

sire of the champion yearling trotter Adbell, 
2.23. Lula Wilkes is also the dam of Alia, 2.2 1^^, 
and Welbeck, 2.2 2 J. At one time Governor 
Stanford thought so well of Advertiser that he 
refused an offer of $100,000 for him. The stal- 
lion carried the blood of Electioneer and George 
Wilkes as well as that of Alexander's Norman, 
and an extravagant valuation was put on the 
combination. Jenny, daughter of Crockett's 
Arabian, was bred to Alexander's Norman, 
whose registered number is 25, and the fruit 
was May Queen, a trotter of celebrity, who re- 
tired with a record of 2.20. May Queen is in 
the great brood-mare list as the dam of Maiden, 
2.23, and May King, 2.21^. The latter, who is 
by Electioneer, is the sire of Bingen, 2.06^, a 
producing sire. Election, the brother of May 
King, is also a producing sire. A daughter of 
Todhunter's Sir Wallace, she out of Eagletta, 
thoroughbred daughter of Gray Eagle, was bred 
to Alexander's Norman, and the outcome was 
Norma, who, bred to Electioneer, produced Nor- 
val, 2.i4f, sire of the first great yearling trotter, 
Norlaine, 2.31^. Among the more than three- 
score trotters of Norval is Countess Eve, with 
a record of 2.09J. Norman, 25, passed from 

Subsidiary Families 229 

Woodburn to Blue Grass Park, where he died 
the property of A, Keene Richards, March 31, 
187 1. Mr. Richards was the importer of the 
Arabian horse, Mokhladi, the sire of Crockett's 
Arabian, and of the dam of Sannie G., 2.27. 
Alexander's Edwin Forrest, a bay horse, foaled 
in 185 1, was by Alexander's Norman, out of a 
mare by Bay Kentucky Hunter. He sired Billy 
Hoskins, 2.26^; Champagne, 2.30; and a number 
of producing sons and daughters. Norman found 
his best opportunity in Kentucky in mares de- 
scended directly from the thoroughbred race-horse. 
His blood is a factor in breeding to-day, but not 
a controlling factor. 

The Champions 

Grinnell's Champion was a chestnut horse, 
foaled in 1843, bred by Charles Simonson of 
Hempstead, Long Island, and got by Almack, son 
of Mambrino, dam Spirit by Engineer, second 
dam by American Eclipse. As Engineer, like 
Mambrino, was a son of Messenger, there was a 
double tracing to the gray thoroughbred im- 
ported from England in 1 788. As a three-year- 
old Champion was purchased by William R. 
Grinnell, who used him in the stud at Aurora, 

230 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

New York, and who sold him in 1850 to go to 
Independence, Missouri, where he was killed 
during the Civil War. Grinnell's Champion 
was the founder of the Champion family. Cham- 
pion Jr. (King's) was a chestnut horse, foaled in 
1849, and by Grinnell's Champion, dam Bird by 
Red Bird, a descendant of Duroc, the son of 
imported Diomed, and he was in service at Battle 
Creek, Michigan, from 1861 to 1865, ^^^ ^^^ ^^ 
New York in May, 1874. He was the sire of 
George B. Daniels, 2.24; Nettie Burlew, 2.24; 
and other trotters of moderate capacity. Some 
of his sons and daughters were speed producers. 
Gooding's Champion was a bay horse, foaled in 
1854, by King's Champion, dam Cynthia by Bar- 
toulet's Turk. He was owned by T. W. and 
W. Gooding of Ontario County, New York, and 
is the sire of Naiad Queen, 2.20J; Cosette Boy, 
2.21; and 15 other trotters. He also was the 
sire of seven dams of trotters, one of which was 
Colonel Wood, 2.21 J. The Auburn Horse, a 
chestnut gelding, foaled in 1858, and who passed 
into the stable of Robert Bonner after he had 
trotted to a record of 2.28^ at Auburn, New 
York, August 19, 1865, did much to bring the 
Champion family to public notice. The Auburn 

Subsidiary Families 231 

Horse was driven for several years on the road 

by Mr. Bonner, and fabulous stories of his speed 

got into print. He was by King's Champion. 

The family founded by Grinnell's Champion had 

not the power to subordinate other families with 

which it was brought into contact, and it has 

ceased to be an important factor in breeding 



The Hiatoga family, to which reference once 
was freely made, is now seldom heard of. The 
head of it was Hanley's Hiatoga, a bay horse, 
foaled in 1849, ^^^ ^y Rice's Hiatoga by a pacer 
called Hiatoga taken from Virginia to Ohio. He 
sired two trotters of standard speed, and Scott's 
Hiatoga, whose blood bred on when not opposed 
by stronger blood. Scott's Hiatoga was a bay 
horse, foaled in 1858, and his dam was by Blind 
Tuckahoe, a pacer. He was a fast pacer himself, 
and died at Bradford, Ohio, September 20, 1876. 
His best trotter was Lew Scott, a bay gelding, 
campaigned for several years by W. H. Crawford, 
and who took a record of 2.23 before he died 
on the track at Bradford, Pennsylvania, in June, 
1880. Eight of the sons of Scott's Hiatoga are 
speed producers, and 18 of his daughters are dams 

232 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

of speed. Amy Lee, 2.14, and John S. Clark, 
2.19I, are the best trotters from his daughters. 

SL Lawrence 

The St. Lawrence tribe is of minor rank ; still, 
it deserves brief mention. Old St Lawrence was 
a Canadian, and not much is known of the 
maternal line of his son, Foster St Lawrence, 
who was owned in Orleans County, New York, 
and who sired Harry Mitchell, 2.28f. The vol- 
ume of speed descended from St Lawrence is so 
small as to plunge the family into obscurity. 

A Wonderfu] Fountain of Speed. 

The Greil Molhsr o( Trotters. 



There are over 4000 mares in the " Table of 
Great Brood Mares," but less than 60 of these 
have produced five or more with standard trot- 
ting records. Severe critics like Robert Bonner, 
Leland Stanford, Charles Backman, and Benjamin 
F. Tracy regarded it as objectionable in a mare 
to vary in the transmission of form and gait 
One of the select brood mares under the high- 
est test is Green Mountain Maid. Others have 
produced a greater average of speed, but there is 
none whose blood has bred on with such deep 
persistence. I regard her as the greatest of 
matrons. Green Mountain Maid was a brown 
mare of 15 hands, with star and white hind ankles, 
foaled in 1862; bred by Samuel Conklin of Mid- 
dletown. Orange County, New York, and got 
by Harry Qay, 45 (son of Neaves's Cassius M. 
Clay Jr.), dam Shanghai Mary, a bloodlike mare 
of nervous temperament from Ohio and supposed 


234 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

to be by Iron's Cadmus, a grandson of American 
Eclipse. The first time I saw Green Mountain 
Maid was in a large paddock at the Sunshine 
Stud of D. B. Irwin, who owned the stallion 
Middletown by Rysdyk's Hambletonian. She 
was a self-willed filly, and having been frightened 
by a dog barking at her heels, was bred to Mid- 
dletown instead of being trained. Charles Back- 
man purchased her for 1(450 in foal, and from 
that hour until her death she enjoyed the freedom 
of the pastures of Stony Ford without ever being 
touched by harness. The bay filly by Middle- 
town was bom in the fields during a heavy 
rainstorm in the spring of 1867. The filly was 
puny-looking, and the wonder was that she sur- 
vived the shock of birth. She was called Storm, 
was sold at auction for 1(140, and at maturity was 
driven on the road and used as a brood mare. 
At the age of 1 7 she trotted to a record of 2.26^. 
With Storm by her side Green Mountain Maid 
was led across the hills to Chester and bred to 
Hambletonian. The result was a bay colt, foaled 
May 2, 1868, and named Electioneer. He was 
never regularly trained, but as a three-year-old 
trotted a quarter to wagon in 38 seconds. 
In the fall of 1876 Leland Stanford visited 

Great Producing Mares 235 

Stony Ford, and was so much pleased with the 
form of Electioneer that he paid the price asked 
for him, 1(12,500, and shipped him to California. 
He was eight years old at the time, but had not 
been used much in the stud and left very few 
colts east of the Alleghany Mountains. At Palo 
Alto Stock Farm he was bred to mares of differ- 
ent families, and impressed his trotting form and 
action upon all of them. His descendants are 
legion, and champion records are distributed all 
along the line of descent. After the birth of 
Electioneer, Green Mountain Maid was bred 
without exception to Messenger Duroc, son of 
Hambletonian. As Hambletonian died in 1876, 
there was no chance to return her to that horse 
after Electioneer began to prove his worth. The 
produce of 1869 was the black colt Prospero, 
who was gelded and sold to W. M. Parks, who 
campaigned him and trotted him to a record of 
2.20. Prospero died from the effects of an injury 
to his jaw-bone. The foal of 1870 was Dame 
Trot, who trotted at eight years old to a record 
of 2.22, and was a producer of speed. The fifth 
foal, Paul, was driven on the road, where he 
showed a 2.30 gait. Miranda, chestnut filly, 
born in 1872, trotted to a record of 2.31, driver 

236 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

and sulky weighing over 300 pounds. She is a 
source of speed. The seventh foal of Green 
Mountain Maid, a colt, died of a broken leg. 
The brown filly Elaine came in 1874. She was 
the champion four-year-old trotter of 1878, with 
a record of 2.24^. She was sold to Leland Stan- 
ford, in whose hands she reduced her record to 
2.20, and developed into a great brood mare. 
Bred to General Benton, she produced Elsie, dam 
of five in the list, including Palita, 2.16, and Rio 
Alto, 2.16^. Bred to Ansel, she produced An- 
selma, 2.29^. Bred to Norval, she produced Nor- 
laine, who was the champion yearling trotter of 
1887, with a record of 2.31 J. Bred to Palo Alto, 
she produced Palatine, 2.18, and Iran Alto, 2.12^, 
a producing sire. Elaine was true to her dam, 
the great mother of trotters. In 1876 Green 
Mountain Maid gave birth to a chestnut colt, 
Mansfield, who trotted to a record of 2.26 after 
being used in the stud. He is a sire of trotters 
and of the sires and dams of trotters. The 
brown filly, Elise, was born in 1877. She 
capped her hip as a yearling, and was put to 
breeding. She is in the great brood-mare list 
Elite, a bay filly, the foal of 1878, trotted half- 
miles in her work in 1.09, and passed to Wood- 

Great Producing Mares 237 

burn Farm, where she contributed three trotters 
to the list Antonio, 1880, was the twelfth foal, 
and although small, he was truly balanced, with 
beautiful action. There probably was too much 
fold of knee for long-contested races, but intense 
action is desirable in a stallion who is expected 
to control gait, especially when bred to long- 
striding mares. Antonio trotted to a record of 
2.28f after one summer's handling, but showed 
bursts of 2.12 speed. He died soon after Mr. 
Backman had refused 1^30,000 for him. The 
fastest of his 17 trotters is Swift, 2.07. Elista, 
the fourteenth foal, passed to Allen Farm, where 
she trotted to a record of 2.2o|, and is the dam 
of Elision, 2.17, and of Kiosk, a producing sire. 
Elista died young. Elina was the fifteenth foal, 
and she trotted to a record of 2.28 before joining 
brood-mare ranks. Lancelot was the sixteenth 
and last foal of Green Mountain Maid. I saw 
him an hour after he was bom, and only the 
g^atest watchfulness preserved his life. Novem- 
ber 16, 1888, he was sold as a yearling to Will- 
iam Russell Allen for ;(( 12,590, the largest price 
ever paid for a trotting yearling up to that date. 
He trotted to a five-year-old record of 2.23, and 
previous to being sold to go to Austria sired at 

238 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Allen Farm 11 trotters and pacers, and sires 
and dams of speed. On an eminence overlook- 
ing the Wallkill at Stony Ford is the grave of 
Green Mountain Maid, marked by a tall shaft 
of red granite, with this inscription: — 

Lancelot (1887), 2.23 

Also Grand Dam of Norlaine, one-year-old record 2.31} 

This stone was erected a.d. 1889, by Charles Backman, on the spot 
dedicated to her worth and honored by her dust 

Although Electioneer was without record, he 
did more to fix the rank of Green Mountain 
Maid than all of those which obtained records. 

In Remembrance 




The Great Mother of Trotters and Producers of Trotters | 

Born 1862 — Died 1888 



Stony Ford 


Birthplace of all Her Children 

Dam of 








Dame Trot, 2.22 
















Great Producing Mares 239 

A horse of his wonderful prepotency marks the 
sweep of centuries instead of years, and cannot 
do otherwise than lift his mother into the fore- 
most place of matrons. In her young days 
Green Mountain Maid led the brood mares at 
Stony Ford at a trot; she could go no other 


Miss Russell 

I place Miss Russell but a shade lower than 
Green Mountain Maid. She was a gray mare, 
foaled in 1865; bred by R. A. Alexander; sired 
by Pilot Jr. ; dam Sally Russell by Boston ; sec- 
ond dam Maria Russell by Thornton's Rattler; 
third dam Miss Shepherd by Stockholder ; fourth 
dam Miranda by Topgallant; and fifth dam by 
imported Diomed. She spent all her life under 
the trees of Woodburn, and died full of years and 
crowned with fame. J. H. Wallace questioned 
the pedigree of Sally Russell, and in a letter sent 
to me for publication Superintendent Brodhead 
gave a concise history of the controversy : ** Long 
before the registration of trotting pedigrees 
passed from the hands of Mr. Wallace he made 
an attack on the pedigree of Sally Russell, the 
grand-dam of Maud S. All the facts in regard 
to the pedigree were brought out and its authen- 

240 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

ticity demonstrated beyond a doubt The evi- 
dence was so conclusive that Mr. Wallace dared 
not bring the matter before the Board of Censors 
of the National Trotting Horse Breeders' Asso- 
ciation, which settled all pedigrees of doubtful 
authenticity and was the authorized tribunal of 
Wallace's Trotting Register, Mr. Wallace made 
frequent attacks on this pedigree in the p^ers, 
but continued to register animals tracing to it, 
thus perpetrating in the Register what he pre- 
tended to be a fraud, when his duty as registrar 
was to have the Board of Censors pass upon it 
and expunge it from the Register if found in- 
correct. These attacks were continued until 
1893, when the matter was brought before the 
Board of Censors and the Executive Committee 
of the American Trotting Register Association. 
Mr. Wallace was advised that on a certain date 
the pedigree would be taken up, and requested 
to be present. At the time appointed I went to 
Chicago, hoping that Mr. Wallace would be 
present and produce whatever evidence he might 
have bearing on the pedigree of Sally Russell, 
but he had no evidence and prudently stayed 
away. In the presentation of the case I endeav- 
ored to bring all of the evidence bearing on the 

Great Producing Mares 241 

pedigree before the Board, including the objec- 
tions of Mr. Wallace, and in so doing presented 
the original documents or sources from which 
evidence was obtained. I insisted on the gentle- 
men composing the Board examining the origi- 
nals, which they did with great care, taking the 
deepest interest in the investigation, and patiently 
examining each document as presented." 

The official decision was that Sally Russell 
was a thoroughbred daughter of Boston. It is 
easy by insinuation or invention to assail char- 
acter or pedigree, but to prove the case is quite 
another matter. The first of Miss Russell's 18 
foals was Nutwood, chestnut colt (1870), by 
Belmont. He trotted to a record of 2.i8f, and 
was in the stud in California, Kentucky, Iowa, 
and elsewhere. The measure of his fertility was 
a roster of 133 trotters and 35 pacers. He was a 
very great stallion, but under the high trotting 
standard was not the equal of Electioneer. His 
fastest trotter is Lockheart, 2.08^, and his fastest 
pacer is Manager, 2.o6f . There are no champion 
performers, no epoch-makers, among his sons and 
daughters. But 135 of his sons and 126 of his 
daughters are speed producers. His grandsons 
are also speed producers. The blood that breeds 

242 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

on in this way is thoroughly alive. The brothers 
of Nutwood are Nutbourne (1877, died at 12 
years), and Pistachio (1886), both sires oi speed. 
The sisters of Nutwood are Lady Nutwood 
(1870); Cora Belmont, 2.24J (1872); Nutula 
(1879), a producing mare; and Rusina (1887), a 
producing dam. Maud S. by Harold was foaled 
in 1874, and she was the undisputed queen of the 
trotting turf for 11 years. Her 2.c>8f to high- 
wheel sulky, without artificial support, over a 
regulation track, made in 1885, has never been 
beaten. Lady Russell (1882), sister of Maud S., 
died at II years, after producing Expedition, 
2.i5f ; Re-Election, 2.27!; ^^^ Electrix, 2.28^. 
Russella (1880) and Russia, 2.28 (1883), ^^^^ 
sisters of Maud S. and fountains of speed. Lord 
Russell (1881), brother of Maud S., is the sire of 
Kremlin, 2.07f, and 30 others in the list. His 
sons and daughters also are producers. Pilot 
Russell (1885), brother of Lord Russell, failed 
for lack of opportunity. Mambrino Russell 
(1878) by Woodford Mambrino is the sire of 
17 performers, and 18 of his sons and 20 of his 
daughters are producers. Rustique (1888) by 
Electioneer trotted to a record of 2.i8| and died 
young. Suffrage (1889), sister of Rustique, is 

Gre^:^ Producing Mares 243 

a brood mare at Allen Farm. Sclavonic (1890) 
by King Wilkes is the last foal of Miss Russell, 
and he has a pacing record of 2.1 5 J. The filly 
of 1875 di^ ^ot live. Miss Russell trotted in 
2.44 as a three-year-old, but was not regularly 
trained. She was always an object of romantic 
interest at Woodbum, and bore herself like an 
aristocratic dame. She was as white as a ghost 
when she died at the age of 32, leaving a power- 
ful tribe of performers, which steadily increases 
with passing generations. 

Beautiful Bells 

I place Beautiful Bells third in the select group 
of great brood mares. She was black, 15.2, star 
and strip, ofiF hind ankle white, foaled in 1872 ; 
bred by L. J. Rose, Sunny Slope, California, 
and by The Moor ; dam Minnehaha by Bald Chief 
(Stevens') by Bay Chief (Alexander's), son of 
Mambrino Chief and the daughter of Keokuk by 
imported Truffle; second dam Nettie Clay by 
Cassius M. Clay Jr., 22; third dam Colonel Mor- 
gan Mare by Abdallah (sire of Hambletonian) ; 
and fourth dam by Engineer 2d, sire of Lady 
Suffolk, 2.28. The Moor was by Clay Pilot (son 
of Cassius M. Clay Jr., 20, and Lady Pilot by 

244 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

Pilot, sire of Pilot Jr.), dam Belle of Wabash, 240, 
by Young Bassinger, by Lieutenant Bassinger; 
second dam by imported William Fourth. The 
pedigree of Belle of Wabash was questioned by 
]• H. Wallace, but George C. Stevens of Wiscon- 
sin, who owned her when she was nulling The 
Moor, convinced an impartial public that he had 
correctly recorded it Beautiful Bells was a high- 
strung mare with considerable speed at the trot, 
and she retired from the turf with a record of 2.29^. 
She was purchased in 1879 by Leland Stanford, 
and made an enviable reputation as a brood mare 
at Palo Alto. She was bred almost steadily to 
Electioneer, and her first foal, Hinda Rose (1880), 
brown filly, trotted as a yearling to a record of 
2.36^, as a two-year-old to a record of 2.32, and 
as a three-year-old to a record of 2.19^. Alta 
Belle (1881), brown filly, is a producing dam. 
St Bel (1882), black colt, trotted in 2.24^ at four 
years old and died in his ninth year at Prospect 
Hill Stock Farm, Pennsylvania. He was a great 
producing stallion considering the brevity of his 
life. Rosemont (1883), ^^y ^Uy, by Piedmont, is 
the dam of three trotters and a grand-dam of 
speed. Chimes (1884), brown colt, by Electioneer, 
trotted in 2.30^ as a three-year-old, and at Village 

Great Producing Mares 245 

Farm became a remarkable sire of speed. Bell 
Boy (1885), brown colt, brother of Chimes, trotted 
in 2.26 as a two-year-old and in 2.19^ as a three- 
year-old, and was sold at auction for $51,000. He 
died soon after the sale and is the sire of 14 in 
the list and of five producing sires. One of these 
sires is Liberty Bell, 2.24, sire of Tommy Britton, 
2.o6f Palo Alto Belle (1886), bay filly, trotted to 
a three-year-old record of 2.22^, and is a produc- 
ing dam. Bow Bells (1887), bay colt, trotted to 
a record of 2.19^, and is a sire of fast trotters 
and pacers, one of which is Boreal, 2.15! at three 
years old, and sire of Boralma, 2.07. Bow Bells 
died at Hartford in 1902. Electric Bel (1888), 
brown colt, is the sire of 13 in the list, including 
Captor, 2.09J. Belleflower (1889), brown filly, 
trotted to a four-year-old record of 2.1 2 J and then 
entered breeding ranks. Bell Bird (1890), brown 
filly, trotted to a yearling record of 2.26J, and was 
reserved for breeding purposes. Belsire (1891), 
brown colt, trotted to a record of 2.18, and is a 
producing sire. Day Bell (1892), black colt, by 
Palo Alto, was sold to E. A. Manice of Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts, where he died before he had a 
chance to distinguish himself. He has two in the 
list Adbell (1893), brown colt, by Advertiser, son 

246 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

of Electioneer, trotted as a yearling to a record 
of 2.23, which is the best of its kind. He is a pro- 
ducing sire, the best of his get being Rowellen, 
2.09f. In Kentucky, in the autumn of 1902, 
Adbell broke his leg while at play in his paddock 
and was destroyed. Adebel, 2.29}, and Monbels, 
2.2 3|-, are the youngest of the trotters of Beauti- 
ful Bells, giving her 1 1 in the list Monbels was 
trained as a four-year-old simply for the purpose 
of putting a record on him. He was foaled in 
1897, and is by Mendocino, 2.19^ (son of Elec- 
tioneer), sire of Monte Carlo, 2.07^ ; and Idolita, 
2.09^. Beautiful Bells grew old gracefully at 
Palo Alto, and the memory of when I saw her 
last, in the shade of a tree, will always be with me. 
She was a remarkable producer ; but what would 
she have been without the aid of Green Mountain 
Maid ? With one exception all the foals of Beau- 
tiful Bells were by Electioneer or one of his sons. 
Minnehaha, the dam of Beautiful Bells, also 
ranks high as a producer. She is the dam of 
eight trotters, including Sweetheart, 2.22^, and 
Eva, 2.23; of six producing sons, one of which 
is Alcazar, 2.20^, sire of 12 in the list and of 
two producing sires ; and more than one of her 
daughters is a producing dam. Red Heart, who 

Great Producing Mares 247 

is out of Sweetheart, has a record of 2.19, and 
one of his trotters is Chain Shot, 2.06^. 

The success of Beautiful Bells emphasized the 
fact that a chain of producing dams is desirable 
in a pedigree. 

The Moor, who sired Beautiful Bells, died at 
the age of eight, and among the six trotters 
sired by him was Sultan, 2.24. He was a brown 
horse of commanding appearance, foaled in 1875 ; 
dam Sultana by Delmonico by Guy Miller, an 
inbred son of Rysdyk's Hambletonian ; second 
dam Celeste by Mambrino Chief ; and third dam 
by Downing's Bay Messenger. He sired 42 
trotters and 10 pacers, and 21 producing sons 
and 22 producing daughters, and died at Ab- 
dallah Park, Cynthiana, Kentucky, having been 
sold by Mr. Rose to W. H. Wilson. The most 
distinguished of Sultan's get was Stamboul, 
dam Fleetwing by Hambletonian; second dam 
Patchen Maid by George M. Patchen, 2.23}; and 
third dam by Abdallah. Fleetwing also pro- 
duced Ruby, 2.19! ; and Lady Mackay, dam of 
Oakland Baron, 2.09^, Lucy R., 2. 18 J, and Semi- 
Tropic, 2.24. Mr. Rose, who bred Stamboul, was 
an optimist, and the stallion was kept constandy 
before the public. A glamour was thrown around 

248 The TrMing and the Pacing Horse 

him and there was much curiosity to see him 
when he was brought East in his ten-year-old 
form. He had won the $20,000 stallion race in 
1888, and in the autumn of 1892 fought a long- 
distance duel with Kremlin for the stallion crown. 
The record dropped by fractions; and as Stam- 
boul had the last trial at it the announcement 
was that he had trotted in 2.07^, beating by a 
quarter of a second the record of Kremlin. 
Stamboul's performance at Stockton was rejected 
by the American Trotting Register Association, 
but accepted by the National Trotting Associa- 
tion. At the Hobart sale in Madison Square 
Garden, Mr. £. H. Harriman purchased Stam- 
boul for 1(41,000, and placed him at the head of 
Arden Farms breeding establishment, where he 
remained until he died. He was exhibited at the 
National Horse Show, New York, 1894, 1896, 
and 1897, and carried ofiF the highest honors. 
Stamboul has 46 in the list, and his grave is 
prominent in the infield of the Orange County 
Driving Park at Goshen. 



I PLACE Clara high in the group of great 
brood mares for the reason that extreme speed 
at the trot has come from her. She was a black, 
14.3 hands, foaled in 1848, and died in 1875 ; by 
Seely's American Star, dam the McKinstry 
mare (dam of Shark, 2.27! ^^ saddle). In 1858, 
when ten years old, she produced, at the Jona- 
than Hawkins Farm in Orange County, the brown 
colt Dexter by Hambletonian. He was gelded, 
and trotted to a record of 2. 17 J. He was a posi- 
tive champion when tracks and sulkies were slow, 
and I believe would have transmitted a high rate 
of speed if he had been kept entire. Lady Dex- 
ter, sister of Dexter, was bom in 1861. She was 
a. bay mare of 15 hands and was in breeding 
ranks at Stony Ford. She is the dam of Dexter 
Prince and Prince George, both by Kentucky 
Prince. Dexter Prince passed to Palo Alto, 
where he showed a very high rate of speed as a 

250 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

two-year-old and was placed in the stud. He is 
the sire of 63 in the list, and his fastest trotters 
are Eleata, 2.08^, and James L., 2.09}. Twelve oi 
his daughters are dams of speed and five of his 
sons are sires. Prince George is the sire of the 
great yearling trotter Princess Clara, 2.26^ in a 
race, and others. Dictator (brother of Dexter), 
foaled in 1863, never started in public and is 
without a record. He is the sire, however, of 
extreme speed. One of his sons, Jay-eye-see, 
dethroned Maud S. when he trotted to a record 
of 2.10. Later, when a cripple. Jay-eye-see 
shifted his gait to the pace, which is easier than 
the trot, and gained a record at this way of going 
at 2.06^. Phallas, 2.i3f, who was the champion 
trotting stallion of his day, was a son of Dictator; 
and he is a sire of speed. Director, 2.17, was 
from the loins of Dictator, and he is the sire of 
the once champion trotting stallion Directum, 
2.05I, and 56 others in the list. Among the 43 
producing daughters of Director are the dams 
of John A. McKerron, 2.04^, and Ozanam, 2.08. 
Direct, who trotted in 2.18J and paced to a rec- 
ord of 2.05^ to high-wheel sulky, is the sire of 
54 in the list, among them the pacers Directly, 
2.03J, and Direct Hal, 2.04J, and the trotter 

other Great Producing Mares 251 

Directum Kelly, four-year-old record 2.08^. 
Among the 108 producing daughters of Dictator 
are the dams of Lockheart, 2.08^, and of Nancy 
Hanks, 2.04, an ex-queen of the trotting turf. 
Here we have the brother of Dexter transmitting 
extreme speed from generation to generation. 
Alma, 2.28f, Astoria, 2.29^, and Aida are three 
producing sisters of Dexter. Almera, by Ken- 
tucky Prince, out of Alma, is the dam of five in 
the list, all by Kremlin. Kearsarge (1864) by 
Volunteer is a producing sire, and his sisters, 
Corinne and Hyacinth, are producing dams. 
Metropolitan is one of the producing sons of 
Hyacinth, and Reina Victoria is her great pro- 
ducing daughter. She is the dam of four with 
records, including Muscovite, 2.18, and Princeton, 
2.i9f, both good sires of speed. Galatea, dam of 
Prefix, dam of Liberty Bell, 2.24, sire of Tommy 
Britton, 2.06^, is a daughter of Hyacinth; and 
Prefix, dam of Prince of India, 2.23;^^, sire of 
Prince of Orange, 2.06^, is out of Galatea. We 
follow the blood of Clara link by link, and as the 
chain lengthens discover extreme speed. This is 
a supreme test of merit. Twilight, the second 
dam of Jay-eye-see, was a thoroughbred by Lex- 
ington out of Daylight by imported Glencoe. 

252 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

Orator, 2.23, and Impetuous, three-year-old 
trotting record 2.13, are by Dictator, out of 
Ethelwyn by Harold; second dam Kathleen 
by Pilot Jr., *and third dam Little Miss, thor- 
oughbred daughter of imported Sovereign. The 
power to control action out of mares with a 
strong running inheritance is another high test 

of merit. 

Alma Mater 

Alma Mater, chestnut mare, foaled in 1872, by 
Mambrino Patchen, dam Estella, thoroughbred 
daughter of imported Australian, second dam 
Fanny G. by imported Margrave, was a remark- 
able producer of trotters, and she confounded the 
critics who objected to the thoroughbred founda- 
tion for light-harness purposes. Her first foal, 
Alcantara by George Wilkes, trotted to a four- 
year-old record of 2.23, and is the sire of 153 in 
2.30, and a host of producing sons and daughters. 
Alcyone (1877), brother of Alcantara, has a rec- 
ord of 2.27, and is the sire of Martha Wilkes, 
2.08; Bush, 2.09^; Harrietta, 2.09f; and 56 
others in 2.30. Among his scores of producing 
sons is Mc Kinney, 2.1 1 J, sire of five 2.10 trotters, 
and fifty others in the list. His daughters also 
rank high as producers. Alcyone died when 

other Great Producing Mares 253 

ten years old, and his success for that short 
space of time was dazzling. Arbiter (1878) by 
Administrator trotted to a record to 2.22f, and 
is a producing sire. AUine (1880) by Belmont 
is the dam of two in the list. Alfonso (1886) by 
Baron Wilkes is the sire of 18 in 2.30. AUen- 
dorf (1883) by Onward is the sire of 32 in the 
list. Other producing sons are Alsatian and 
Baron Alexander. The nine trotters from Alma 
Mater are Allendorf, 2.19J; Arbiter, 2.2 2f; 
Alcantara, 2.23; Almater (by Hambrino), 2.24 J; 
Alcyone, 2.27 ; Amami (by Wilton), 2.28I ; Alicia, 
2.30; Alsatian, 2.30; and Baron Alexander, 2.30. 
Almeta (by Almont) has a record of 2.32I. This 
is a wonderful showing — speed from six different 

Australian was a richly bred horse by West 
Australian out of Emelia by Young Emilius, she 
out of Persian by Whisker; and he died at Wood- 
burn, where he was a noted sire of race-horses. 
j Margrave was also a richly bred horse, by Muley, 

out of Election, and tracing directly to Crofts Bay 
Barb and Burton's Barb Mare. He was im- 
ported into Virginia in 1835. If speed is not 
interchangeable, why should the half-running 
bred Alma Mater have become the mother of 

254 The Trotting and tbe Pofing Horse 

a prolific family of trotters? When eighteen 
years old Alma Mater was sold for $15,000 to 
W. S. Hobart of California. 

Dame Winnie 

Dame Winnie, a strictly thoroughbred mare, 
also accomplished wonders in the trotting stud. 
She was a chestnut, 15.2, foaled in 1871 ; bred by 
A. J. Alexander; by Planet, dam Liz Mardis by 
imported Glencoe, a first-class race-horse in Eng- 
land, who sired the immortal Pocahontas, dam 
of Stockwell, Rataplan, and King Tom, and 
whose blood has exalted value in America; 
second dam, Fanny G. by imported Margrave; 
third dam Lancess by Lance, son of American 
Eclipse; and fourth dam Aurora by Aratus. 
Planet was by Revenue, son of Trustee, dam 
Nina by Boston by Timoleon by Sir Archy 
by imported Diomed; second dam Frolicksome 
Fanny, who traced directly to the live Waxy 
line. Rosalie Sommers, the dam of Planet, was 
by Sir Charles by Sir Archy, the Godolphin of 
America. Planet was the first foal of Nina, and 
Exchequer, his brother, was the second foal. As 
Trustee, who was by Catton, out of Emma by 
Whisker, was the sire of Trustee Jr., the first 


other Great Producing Mares 255 

horse to trot twenty miles in an hour, and as he 
was the sire of Head'em, sire of the dam of 
George M. Patchen, to say nothing of John Nel- 
son, the sire of Nerea, 2.23^, when Governor Stan- 
ford's agent came to the office of the Turf, Field 
and Farm for advice with regard to thorough- 
bred mares to breed to Electioneer, his attention 
was called to Dame Winnie. The purchase was 
made, and the chestnut daughter of Planet be- 
came a famous dam of trotters at Palo Alto. 
Her record sons and daughters are: Big Jim 
(188 1, gelded) by General Benton, 2.23^; Palo 
Alto (1882), bay colt by Electioneer, 2.20J at 
four years, 2.1 2 J at seven years, and 2.08 J at 
nine years; Gertrude Russell (1883), bay filly, by 
Electioneer, 2.23^; Altivo (1890), bay colt, by 
Electioneer, 2.18^; and Paola (1887), bay colt, 
by Electioneer, 2.18. Palo Alto was one of 
the gamest race-horses that ever wore harness, 
and his record to high-wheel sulky, 2.o8f, has 
never been beaten by a stallion that way rigged. 
He died at ten years old, and is the sire of 15 
in the list, including Iran Alto, 2.12:^, and 
Pasonte, 2.13. Gertrude Russell broke down 
in training and is a producing mare. Paola 
and Altivo are sires of speed. Exchequer, 

256 Tbe Trotting and tbe Pacing Hone 

the brother of Planet, forced his way into the 
Trotting Register by siring Lucile, 2.21, and 
Rigolette, 2.22. He also is the sire of a 
speed-producing dam. 

I have elaborated the pedigree of Dame 
Winnie in order to show that she was not from 
dead or cast-off lines. She traces to progenitors 
who are at the foundation of the thoroughbred 
structure, and which have strengthened it from 
decade to decade. Her germ plasms, however, 
must have had a plastic bent to allow her to 
become such a conspicuous mother of trotters. 
It is a striking fact that Fanny G., the second 
dam of Alma Mater, should also be the second 
dam of Dame Winnie. Liz Mardis, by imported 
Glencoe, was her first foal, and Estella, by im- 
ported Australian, was her tenth foal. 

Beulah was a bay mare, foaled in 1881, and by 
Harold, dam Sally B. by Lever, thoroughbred 
son of Lexington and Levity by imported 
Trustee ; second dam by old Pilot, sire of Pilot 
Jr. She is the dam of Beuzetta, 2.o6f, by 
Onward; Early Bird, 2.10, by Jay Bird; Honey 
H., 2.28f ; Juanita, 2.29; Roberta A., 2.29^; and 
Judex, 2.29f. Here are six trotters, but only 
Early Bird and Beuzetta can be regarded as high- 

other Great Producing Mares 257 

class. As a three-year-old Beuzetta won the 
Kentucky Futurity, worth 1^31,430, for her owner, 
E. W. Ayers of Woodford County, Kentucky, 
and took a record of 2.i2|^. Early Bird is a 
producing sire. The blood of Lexington and 
Trustee has proved speed-sustaining blood in 
other trotters of renown. 

Primrose was a bay mare, foaled in 1865; by 
Alexander's Abdallah, dam Black Rose by Tom 
Teemer; second dam by Cannon's Whip; and 
third dam by Robin Grey. It was my good 
fortune to see her often at Woodburn, where 
she died, and her sister, Malmaison, dam of 
Malice, Manetta, Manfred, and Irma G. Her 
first foal was Princeps (1870), by Woodford 
Mambrino, and he passed to R. S. Veech and 
made a great name at Indian Hill Stock Farm, 
near Louisville. He is the sire of 47 trotters, 
including Greenlander, 2.12, and Trinket, 2.14; 
of five pacers and of 40 sires and 44 dams of speed. 
Primrose is the dam of six trotters and of 10 sires 
of trotters. She died in March, 1 893, leaving a rec- 
ord for uniformity which is equalled by but few. 

Lark, bay mare, foaled in 1875, by Abdallah 
Mambrino, dam by Norman, has contributed 
eight trotters to the 2.30 list, three of which have 

258 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

records of 2.20 or better. This is a great show- 
ing for a mare that was not favorably situated to 
achieve success. 

Sontag Mohawk, gray mare, foaled in 1875, by 
Mohawk Chief, dam Sontag Nellie by Toronto 
Sontag, made a distinguished record at Palo 
Alto. She is the dam of eight trotters, one of 
which, Norhawk, has a record of 2.15^, and 
another, Sally Benton, trotted to a four-year-old 
record of 2.1 y^. Conductor, one of her produc- 
ing sons, has a record of 2.14^, and is the sire 
of Walnut Hall, 2.09J, and of 1 7 others. Another 
son, Eros, 2.29^, is the sire of Dione, 2.07J, and 
18 others. One of her daughters, Sally Benton, 
is the dam of Surpol, 2.10. Sontag Mohawk was 
fertile to six di£Ferent stallions. 

Soprano, bay mare, foaled in 1875, by Strath- 
more, dam Abbess by Albion, is the dam of eight 
trotters and two pacers ; and one of her sons, 
C. F. Clay, 2.18, is the sire of 42 trotters, includ- 
ing Leola, 2.10J, and 17 pacers. 

Dolly Smith, brown mare, foaled in 1879, by 
Mambrino Chief Jr. (son of Mambrino Chief and 
a thoroughbred mare by Birmingham), dam Maid 
by Surprise, thoroughbred son of Bonnie Scot- 
land, is the dam of five trotters and two pacers. 

other Great Producing Mares 259 

Her fastest trotters are Phoebe Wilkes, 2.08^, and 
Prime, 2.1 2 J. Her fastest pacer is Phebon W., 
2.10J. When we consider the blood lines of 
Dolly Smith, and that her performers are by dif- 
ferent stallions, we look at her with an expression 
of wonder. She made herself fashionable. 

Bicara was a bay mare, foaled in 1 871, by 
Harold, dam Belle by Mambrino Chief. Bred to 
Woodford Mambrino, she produced, in 1887, the 
bay colt Pancoast, who trotted to a record of 
2.2 if, and is the sire of Cuylercoast, 2.1 1, and 24 
others in the list. Among the score of producing 
sons by Pancoast are Patron, 2.14J; Ponce 
de Leon, 2.13; Prodigal, 2.16; and Patronage, 
sire of Alix, 2.03^. The daughters also are pro- 
ducers of great speed. Bicara is the dam of six 
trotters, and her blood is much sought after. 

Mabel L., black mare, foaled in 1880, by Victor, 
son of General Knox, dam Hippenheimer by Vol- 
unteer, has five trotters, including Reina, 2. 12 J, 
and Judge Keeler, 2.14. General B. F. Tracy 
is the owner of Mabel L. He also owns Hannah 
Price, brown mare, by Arthurton (son of Hamble- 
tonian and Imogene by Seely's American Star), 
dam Priceless, an old-time trotter, by Mystery. 
She is the dam of five, one of which is Lesa 

26o Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Wilkes, 2.09. Annie G., the first foal of Hannah 
Price, is the dam of five, and two other daughters 
are speed producers. 

Charm, bay mare, foaled in 1884; by Santa 
Claus, 2. 1 7 J, dam Toto (sister of Trinket, 2.14) 
by Princeps, is the dam of eight trotters, three of 
which have records of better than 2.16, and five 
of which have records of better than 2.18. Her 
rank is very high. Toto, dam of Charm, was a 
disappointment as a trotter, but she is the dam of 
three with records from 2.1 3 J to 2.29^. 

Mabel, by Mambrino Howard (son of Mam- 
brino Chief), dam Contention by AUie West, 2.25 
(son of Almont and daughter of Mambrino Chief), 
is the dam of three trotters and two pacers. One 
of her trotters is Nightingale, 2.10^, and the 
other is Cresceus, the champion stallion. The 
blood of the foundation sire, Mambrino Chief, it 
will be observed, is doubled in her. 

Lucia, bay mare, foaled 1876, by Jay Gould, 
2.21^, dam Lucy, 2. 18 J, by George M. Patchen, 
2.23^, is descended on both sides from performers ; 
and she is the dam of six trotters, two of which, 
Edgardo, 2.i3f, and Hurly Burly, 2.16J, are pro- 
ducing sires. Two of the daughters are produc- 
ing dams. 

other Great Producing Mares 261 

Marguerite, a bay mare, foaled 1876; by Ken- 
tucky Prince, dam Young Daisy (dam of Prince 
Lavalard, 2.1 if, Wellington, 2.20, and Graylight, 
2,1 6 J) by Strideaway (son of Black Hawk Tele- 
graph and the famous pacer Pocahontas by Iron s 
Cadmus), is the dam of six, — Marguerite A., 2.1 2^ ; 
Axtellion, 2.15^; Axworthy (3), 2.15^; King 
Darlington, 2.16; Mary A., 2.27^; and Colonel 
Axtell (2), 2.30. She is descended from producers 
of a high rate of speed in male and female line, 
and is a great producer herself. 

Rosebud is a bay mare of 15.3, foaled 1881, 
by General Washington (son of General Knox 
and Lady Thorn), dam Goldsmith Maid, 2.14, by 
Alexander's Abdallah. Her mother trotted 114 
heats in 2.20 and better, when 2.20 was a high 
measure of speed. When I saw Rosebud at 
Fashion Stud Farm, in 1887, her breeder and 
owner, Henry N. Smith, told me that she was 
nervous like her mother, and required kicking 
straps in harness. She had, in 1885, a filly by 
Jay Gould, which the mother did not nurse, and 
it was raised by hand on milk and lime-water. 
This filly showed a fine gait as a yearling, but 
she got frightened and died of a broken spirit. 
Rosebud is in the great brood-mare list as the 

262 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

dam of four trotters. One of these, Artus, is a 
producing sire. Stranger, the brother of Rose- 
bud, is the sire of 39, among them Colonel Kuser, 
2.11^, and Ballona, 2.11^. Boodle, by Stranger, 
out of Bride by Jay Gould, she out of Tiny by 
Ethan Allen, trotted to a record of 2.12^, and 
among his trotters are Ethel Down, 2.10, and 
Thompson, 2.14^. Colonel Kuser, another son 
of Stranger, is the sire of Belle Kuser, 2.08^. 
The blood of Goldsmith Maid is breeding on 
better than I at one time expected that it 
would do. 

Lady Russell, gray mare, foaled 1882, by 
Harold, dam Miss Russell, was early put to 
breeding, and she is the dam of five in the 
list — Expedition, i.isf, sire of 40, including 
Mary P. Leybum, 2.1 1 J; Alcatraz, 2.i6|^ at the 
pace; Re-Election, 2.2 7 J (sire of Refina, 2.08^); 
Electrix, 2.28^ (dam of Proscription, 2.24^, and 
Impeachment, 2.18^); and Lady Kin, 2.30, trial 
2.23. Rossignol, by King Wilkes, out of Lady 
Russell, is a brood mare at Allen Farm, and the 
dam of Ka, 2.23^; Krishna, 2.24}; and Kamala, 
2.28, — all by Kremlin, son of the brother of Lady 
RusselL This is a wonderful record for a mare 
killed by lightning at eleven years old. 

other Great Producing Mares 263 

Manette, bay mare, 15.1, foaled August, 1878; 
bred by J. W. Knox, California; by Nutwood, 
2.i8f, dam Emblem (sister of Voltaire, 2.20J) 
by Tattler, 2,26 (son of Pilot Jr. and Telltale, 
thoroughbred daughter of Telamon) ; second dam 
Young Portia, by Mambrino Chief, — is by right 
of inheritance a great producer. Oro Fino, her 
first foal, by Eros (son of Electioneer), trotted to 
a record of 2.18, and became a brood mare. 
Helen T., by Electioneer, the fourth foal of 
Manette, was used as a brood mare at Bitter 
Root Farm, the great Montana breeding estab- 
lishment of Marcus Daly, and she there produced 
Potential, 2.29^, a sire of speed. Arion, the 
brother of Helen T., came in 1889, and he is 
the champion two-year-old trotter, and a growing 
sire. Athel, the brother of Arion, was bom in 
1890, and Hon. F. P. Olcott paid $25,000 for 
him at auction to place at the head of his stud at 
Round Top Farm, at Bernardsville, New Jersey. 
Thus far the best of Athel's trotters is Bugle, 
2. 1 2 J. Manaloa; by Advertiser out of Manette, 
has a record of 2.26^. The rank of Manette as 
a fountain of speed steadily grows. 

Merry Clay, by Harry Clay 45, dam Ethel- 
berta, the noted producing daughter of Harold, 

264 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

was bred to Artillery, 2.21^, son of Hambletonian 
and Wells Star by Seely's American Star, and 
the ofiFspring was Bellini, who trotted to a record 
of 2.13^, and is the sire of 15 in the list, includ- 
ing The Judge, 2. 12 J, and Alberto, 2.i3f. Mer- 
rivale, by Alcantara, is an impressive son of 
Merry Clay. He trotted to a record of 2.22, and 
is the head of Mr. H. O. Havemeyer's breeding 
stud on Long Island. Alcina, a daughter of 
Merry Clay, has a record of 2.20 ; but the fastest 
of her trotters is Masetto, 2.08^, by Constantine, 
2.12^ (brother of Thorn, 2. 12 J), by Wilkes Boy 
by Mambrino Patchen. Merry Clay runs in all 
directions to the pillars of the trotting structure, 
and Masetto is a representative of an accumu- 
lative fountain of speed. 

Lady Horton by Sweepstakes (son of Hamble- 
tonian and Dolly Mills by Seely's American 
Star), dam Nellie Horton by Horton Clay, son 
of Harry Clay 45, trotted to a record of 2.34^, 
and is the dam of seven in the list. One of these, 
Annie Stevens, 2.18J, is the dam of Helen Grace, 
2. 1 if. Sweepstakes is the sire of 42. 

Lady Stout, chestnut mare (1871), — by Mam- 
brino Patchen, dam Puss Prall by Mark Time, 
son of thoroughbred Berthune; second dam by 

other Great Producing Mares 265 

Daniel Webster by Lance, — created a marked 
sensation when she trotted at Lexington, Ken- 
tucky, in 1874, to a three-year-old record, 2.29; 
and she was sold to Robert Bonner for $1^,000 
and became the dam of Cartridge, 2.14^. In 
addition to Lady Stout, Puss Prall produced 
Lotta Prall, 2.28^^, and Black Diamond, 2.29^. 
She also is the dam of four producing sons and 
four producing daughters. One of these daugh- 
ters, Sally Southworth, is the dam of Chatterton, 
2.18, a sire of speed, and of Willie Wilkes, 2.28, 
dam of Rachel, 2. 08 J, dam of Great Spirit, 2.09^. 
It is an illustration of how blood breeds on, 
forming a chain of unbroken speed. 

Columbine, bay mare, foaled 1873, — by A. W. 
Richmond (son of Blackbird by Camden by 
Shark), dam Columbia, thoroughbred daughter 
of imported Bonnie Scotland; second dam 
Young Fashion, by imported Monarch ; and 
third dam Fashion by imported Trustee, — is the 
dam of Anteeo, 2.1 6J; Antevolo, 2.19^; J. C. 
Simpson, 2.18J; and Coral, 2.i8J^, — all by Elec- 
tioneer. Anteeo is the sire of 50, including 
Alfred G., 2.19^, the sire of Charley Herr, 2.07. 
Antevolo is the sire of 15; Anteros, his brother, 
is the sire of 35, one of which is Major Ross, 

266 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

2.25^; Conrad, another brother, is the sire of 
two; and J. C Simpson is the sire of Sally 
Simpson, 2.11^, and others. The thorough- 
bred strains in Columbine are among the best 
in the stud book, and yet her union with Elec- 
tioneer has given us a world of light-harness 

It is manifestly impossible in a work of this 
kind to give a complete list of the great brood 
mares, and I have selected from the thousands 
a few that will illustrate the importance of pay- 
ing attention to female lines. The successful 
breeder in these days of rapid progress devotes 
as much thought to the dam as he does to the 
sire. I remember the time when the sire was 
expected to do it all, and his harem was usually 
a band of mediocrity. In spite of that handicap 
progress was made, but it was slow in proportion 
to the progress of selection based upon scientific 

Now that great brood mares have multiplied 
to a degree that is cumbersome on the Register 
Association, and which gives so much latitude 
to the breeder who fails sharply to discriminate, 
it seems to me that admission to the table should 
be made more difficult. Under the present rules 

other Great Producing Mares 267 

mares that have produced two or more trotters 
with records of 2.30 or better, or two or more 
pacers with records of 2.25 or better, or one 
trotter with a record of 2.30 or better, or one 
pacer with record of 2.25 or better, are admitted ; 
also mares that have produced one 2.30 trotter, 
or one 2.25 pacer, and another son or daughter 
that has sired or produced a 2.30 trotter or a 2.25 
pacen When over 4000 mares are qualified un- 
der these rules, it is time for another forward step. 
The rules were all right in the beginning, but 
we have grown away from them. 

When Hon. Hugh J. Jewett came to New 
York to accept the presidency of the Erie Rail- 
road, which at that time stood in need of wise 
and conservative management, he left in charge 
of Fair Oaks, the breeding farm at Zanesville, 
Ohio, his son, George M. Jewett, who was fond 
of the life of a gentleman farmer. Fair Oaks 
was a delightful place to visit, and I cherish 
sweet recollections of it. I have before me the 
catalogue of 1883, and under Duke of Bruns- 
wick, bay horse, foaled in 1864, by Rysdyk's 
Hambletonian, dam Madame Loomer by War- 
rior, second dam an English-bred mare, I find 
this note: "Duke of Brunswick has won races 

268 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

for me in 240 and trotted quarters in 35 seconds 
and no question of his ability to trot in 2.25 in 
condition, but has not been regularly handled for 
speed. His colts, like those of Almont Chief, 
have had the misfortune to fall into fhe hands 
of those who would not develop them on the 
track. Among the trials reported or witnessed 
by me were: Bonnie Oaks (five), 2.28; Jamie 
(four), 2.31 ; Lo Crine (five), 2.36; Dekasala 
(three), 2.37; Pleasant Girl (five), 2.31; Eloise 
Hersch (five), 2.38; Duke Patchen (three), 2.40; 
Maid of Fair Oaks (four), 2.45; William Wallace 
(three), 2.50; Doubt (two), 2.50; Shipman (five 
years), a winner in local races, and can show a 
2.30 gait" George M. Jewett looked, at that 
time, out upon the world through rose-colored 
glasses, and Duke of Brunswick was put in the 
best possible light before the public. Twenty 
years have passed, and the line of Duke of Bruns- 
wick is one of the thousands that have faded from 
recognition. He left but three trotters, — Gov- 
ernor Hendree, 2.23; William Wallace, 2.28^; 
and Red Duke, 2.30. By way of contrast take 
Red Wilkes, who was foaled ten years after 
Duke of Brunswick. He is the sire of 167 in 
the list, headed by Ralph Wilkes, 2.o6f ; his 

other Great Producing Mares 269 

sons are the sires of 600 in the list, and his 
daughters are the dams of 150 in the list The 
diflference in the vitality, the activity, of the two 
lines is so sharp as to be painful. Mr. Jewett 
was a man of brains and financial resources, 
advantageously situated for breeding, but he 
pinned his faith to the wrong horse. What 
breeder of reputation would now dream of claim- 
ing as a point of merit in his horse the ability to 
trot a mile in 2.40, or talk of a five-year-old show- 
ing a trial in 2.38? The span of twenty years 
is comparatively short in evolution, and yet what 
strides have been made in that time in breeding 
the light-harness horse I 



At a public sale in the American Institute 
Building, New York, in January, 1892, 11 colts 
by Electioneer sold for an average of $6415. 
Previous to this Mr. Bonner had paid 1^41,000 
for Sunol with a three-year-old record of 2. 10 J; 
and Mn Forbes had paid $125,000 for Arion with 
a two-year-old record of 2 . i of. Consignments from 
other California breeding establishments, notably 
from the farms of William Corbitt and L. J. 
Rose, had commanded extraordinary prices under 
the hammer in New York, and the pessimist felt 
like a man packed away in ice. In the late fall 
of 1889, Mr. Bonner was in California and at 
Rosemeade saw a bay filly called Reverie, foaled 
January 5, 1888, by Alcazar, dam Sallie Dur- 
brow by Arthurton, which had trotted to a year- 
ling record of 2.36. Her conformation was speedy, 
but she had what is termed a washy look. Mr. 
Rose painted her future in glowing colors, and 
when she was placed under the hammer in Madi- 


Whowu sold for SI 05.000 iFler troninE » a hlgh-i 
2.12 *t Terte Hiule. October 1 : 


Tbe Era of High Prices 271 

son Square Garden I was sitting in a box with 
Mn Bonner, directly opposite the auctioneer. 
Before any one could make a bid the owner of 
Maud S, and Sunol cried out somewhat sharply, 
" Ten thousand dollars." Mr. Rose was equal to 
the occasion. Rising to his feet, he blandly said : 
" I hope no one will raise Mr. Bonner's bid, be- 
cause I want to see this grandly bred filly go into 
his stable." Mr. Bonner bowed his acknowledg- 
ments, and the hammer fell. Reverie was one of 
the greatest of his stable disappointments. She 
was dear at $1000. The scramble for fashion- 
able pedigrees, without regard to individuality, 
was wild, and the results were disastrous. The 
boom collapsed, bringing financial ruin to thou- 
sands of over-sanguine people. Why did it 
collapse? Partially because of the general de- 
pression in business, but chiefly for the reason 
that judgment had been thrown to the winds. 
Pedigree is essential, as it reveals to us each step 
toward progress. Without it we should grope 
in the dark. But pedigree should not blind us 
to the truth that weak individuals do not comply 
with the great law of the survival of merit. 
Natural selection weeds out the old, the weak, 
and the infirm. Under man's direction the weak 

272 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

are tenderly guarded and used in reproductive 
channels. The tendency to infirmity is thus 
multiplied, and the Register is filled with animals 
hardly worth the price of registration. Some 
insects, as is well known, live only to propagate 
their kind and then die. The life of the male 
bee goes out with the shock of fertilization. If 
weak and worthless stallions were subject to the 
bee law, the monstrous error of reproducing them- 
selves with slight variations would not be re- 
peated. Another important question is why 
brothers and sisters are not of equal merit 
Every year brings disappointment to scores who 
hold that one brother should accomplish as much 
as another brother. They forget the force of 
external surroundings. Nutrition plays an im- 
portant part in development, and so does an 
atmosphere conducive to the building up of the 
nervous system. The condition of the mother 
while carrying the colt, environment after foaling, 
and the quality of the food given will have their 
influence and may account for the difference in 
the family group. I believe with Weismann that 
each organism possesses the power to react on 
the different external influences with which it is 
brought in contact. As the use of organs in- 

The Era of High Prices 273 

creases and the disuse of them decreases capacity, 
why should we not place stress on the transmis- 
sion of acquired characters? The running gait 
is in a measure antagonistic to the trotting gait, 
but it is the fastest of all gaits and has been suc- 
cessfully used to increase speed in light harness. 
Messenger, above all horses, taught us the value 
of the thoroughbred foundation ; and the fame of 
the trotting department of Woodbum was largely 
due to the fact that the groundwork of the struc- 
ture was right In 1890 Superintendent Lucas 
Brodhead stated : '' The original idea of breeding 
thoroughbred mares to trotting stallions was to 
breed fillies for brood mares and thus to build up 
pedigrees with thoroughbred foundations. These 
fillies were bred young to our trotting stallions, 
thus getting two trotting crosses on a thorough- 
bred foundation. There was no expectation of 
getting phenomenal speed from the first cross." 
After you have laid your foundation broad and 
strong, then breed stout-lunged trotter to trotter, 
always avoiding weak individuals, and you will 
find yourself on the road to championship honors. 
Increased nourishment from generation to gen- 
eration increases size to a marked degree. There 
is, however, a limit to all growth, due to germ 

274 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

cells. The germ plasm is continuous, and upon 
it depends the doctrine of heredity. The energy 
of inheritance, nevertheless, is not unchangeable 
in its type. Were it so, the theory of evolution 
would fall to the ground. The potency of some 
new lines is superior to the old, and thus advance 
steps are made. Evolution is progressive, is a 
succession of platforms one rising above the 
other; and Pope, following Spencer, furnishes 
food for reflection when he says : " The two sen- 
sations of hunger and sex have furnished the 
stimuli to internal and external activity, and 
memory or experience with natural selection 
have been the guides. Mind and body have thus 
developed contemporaneously and have reacted 
mutually." The high-bred horse has more intel- 
ligence, more sensibility, than the low-bred horse, 
and his social instincts probably are greater. 



Prior to Hambletonian» Mambrino Chief, Pilot, 
and Clay, there was no systematic breeding of the 
trotting horse. Much was left to chance, and 
darkness ruled. Pedigrees were not accurately 
recorded, and there was no intelligent guide. 
With these foundation sires, the light spread, and 
the star of evolution began to run its course. In 
January, 1871, the first compilation of 2.30 per- 
formers in harness was handed to me by Nicholas 
Saltus for publication in the Turf^ Fields and 
Famty and a start in classification was thus made. 
This table afterwards became the keynote to reg- 
istration. The first volume of Wallace's Trot- 
ting Register was issued in 1871, and there was 
no suggestion in it of a 2.30 speed basis. The 
National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders 
was formed after the Centennial Trotting Meet- 
ing in 1876, and its constitution was amended in 
December, 1882. Henry W. T. Mali was presi- 


276 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

dent of the Association; Leland Stanford, first 
vice-president; I. V. Baker, second vice-presi- 
dent; J. P. Wiser, third vice-president; L. D. 
Packer, secretary; and J. W. Gray, treasurer. 
Among the members of the Executive Committee 
were S. F. Knapp, J. D. Willis, H. N. Smith, 
W. H. Wilson, G. S. Moulton, W. T. Withers. 
J. D. Norris, Charles Backman, and Benjamin F. 
Tracy. The Board of Censors was composed of 
Guy Miller, F. D. Norris, David Bonner, W. S. 
Tilton, and E. G. Doolittle. One of the articles 
read, ** All breeders and those interested in the trot- 
ting horse are eligible to membership in this asso- 
ciation, if approved by the Executive Committee, 
who shall take into consideration the character and 
standing of the applicant" Other articles were : 
" At least one general meeting shall be held under 
the auspices of this association each year, at such 
date and place as shall be announced by the 
Executive Committee, Entries to be confined to 
geldings of five years old and under, and to mares 
and stallions of any age, owned or bred by mem- 
bers of this association, or the get of stallions 
owned or stood by members. The pool box shall 
be prohibited at all meetings, and all forms of 
gambling. The Executive Committee shall ap- 

The Dawn of Systematic Breeding 277 

point annually five skilful and trusty men who 
shall have charge of all questions relating to pedi- 
grees, and be designated as the Board of Censors. 
The supervisory control of pedigrees in Wallace's 
American Trotting Register, having been ten- 
dered to this association, the same is accepted, 
and the said Register is hereby declared to be 
the official record of pedigrees — subject always 
to such corrections and changes as the facts may 
require. In assuming and exercising this control, 
the Board of Censors on pedigrees provided for, 
and to whom this duty is specially entrusted, will 
be governed by the following regulations : — 

" Its duty shall be to examine all doubtful pedi- 
grees brought to its notice in the first and second 
volumes of the Trotting Register, and indicate 
to the compiler all additions, erasures, and correc- 
tions that should be made in said pedigrees, and 
order them to be reinserted in the fifth volume 
as corrected. Provided, that when the compiler 
objects to anything, his reason therefor shall be 
submitted in writing, and be fully considered 
before the decision is made. It shall be the duty 
of the Board of Censors to examine the third and 
succeeding volumes of the Register before publi- 
cation, and consider and determine the forms in 

278 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

which they shall appear. The Board of Censors 
shall establish certain rules with regard to giving 
names to horses, and require those rules to be 
observed in the Register, so that all clashing and 
confusion from duplication or approximations will 
be avoided. When any disagreement arises be- 
tween a party contributing a pedigree and the 
compiler of the Register, it shall be referred to 
the Board of Censors, and after a free hearing 
and examination of the evidence on both sides, 
the decision shall be so reported. This provision 
shall apply to disagreements in recorded pedi- 
grees as well as those offered for record. In 
order to establish the truth and check fraud, the 
Board of Censors may order any pedigree in- 
serted in the Register in its true form, without 
the application or wish of the owners ; provided, 
however, that 90 days' notice shall be given. In 
all contested cases the Board of Censors shall 
keep a plain record of its proceedings and find- 
ings, but all evidence substantiating them shall 
be reduced to writing and placed in the office of 
the Register." 

The rules were as follows : — 

** In order to define what constitutes a trotting-bred horse, 
and to establish a BREED of trotters on a more intelligent 

The Dawn of Systematic Breeding 279 

basiSy the following rules are adopted to control admission to 
the records of pedigrees. When an animal meets with the 
requirements of admission and is duly registered, it shall be 
accepted as a standard trotting-bred animal. 

" First — Any stallion that has, himself, a record of two min- 
utes and thirty seconds (3.30) or better; provided any of his 
get has a record of 2.40 or better; or provided his sire or his 
dam, his grandsire or his grandam, is already a standard animal. 

** Second, — Any mare or gelding that has a record of 2.30 or 

** Third, — Any horse that is the sire of two animals with a 
record of 2.30 or better. 

*^ -Fourth. — Any horse that is the sire of one animal with a 
record of 2.30 or better; provided he has either of the follow- 
ing additional qualifications : — 

'' I. A record himself of 2.40 or better. 

'' 2. Is the sire of two other animals with a record of 2.40 or 

^* 3. Has a sire or dam, grandsire or grandam, that is abready 
a standard animal. 

*^ Fifth. — Any mare that has produced an animal with a 
record of 2.30 or better. 

'' Sixth, — The progeny of a standard horse when out of a 
standard mare. 

^ Seventh, — The progeny of a standard horse out of a mare 
by a standard horse. 

'' Eighth. — The progeny of a standard horse when out of a 
mare whose dam is a standard mare. 

^* Ninth. — Any mare that has a record of 240 or better; 
and whose sire or dam, grandsire or grandam, is a standard 

28o The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

** Tenth. — A record to wagon of 3.35 or better shall be 
regarded as equal to a 2.30 record" 

Previous to giving the National Association 
of Trotting Horse Breeders supervisory control 
of the pedigrees in the Trotting Register, J. H, 
Wallace had quarrelled «with prominent Ken- 
tucky breeders, and they started and published, 
in 1881, under the editorship of J. H. Sanders, 
The Breeders' Trotting Stud Book. Rules 
for entry were: "The object of this book is to 
preserve a reliable record of the pedigrees of all 
trotting horses that have trotted a mile in 2.30 
or better ; or that trace directly or collaterally to 
such horses under the conditions hereinafter 
mentioned : — 

" Harness team or saddle records of 2.30 or 
better will entitle animals to enter. Any animal 
coming within the provisions of any of the fol- 
lowing rules will be entitled to entry : " Rule I. 
Any stallion, mare, or gelding who has a record 
of 2.30 or better. Rule H. Any stallion that 
has sired a horse, mare, or gelding with a record 
of 2.30 or better. Rule HI. Any mare that has 
produced a horse, mare, or gelding with a record 
of 2.30 or better. Rule IV. The dam of any 
stallion or mare that has sired or produced a 

The Dawn of Systematic Breeding 281 

horse, mare, or gelding with a record of 2.30 or 
better ; provided said mare was by a stallion or 
out of a mare entered in this book. Rule V. 
Any animal by a stallion entered in this Stud 
Book out of a mare entered therein. Rule VI. 
Any animal whose sire and whose dam, first 
dam and second dam's sires are entered in this 
Stud Book. 

" A public trial trotted according to the rules 
of the National Trotting Association for govern- 
ing races, and timed by three judges selected in 
the usual way by any association, a member in 
good standing of the National Trotting Associa- 
tion, shall be considered a record so far ais 
eligibility to entry in this Stud Book is con- 
cerned. A certificate giving the time made 
under the above conditions must be signed by 
the three judges and countersigned by the presi- 
dent and secretary of the Association authorizing 
said trial: such certificate to accompany the 
entry and remain on file." 

The gentlemen who signed the above as 
Committee on Rules were A. J. Alexander, 
R. West, J. C. McFerran, H. C. McDowell, 
R. S. Veech, and L. Brodhead. It will be ob- 
served that in this Stud Book, as well as in the 

282 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse . 

supervised Trotting Register, the idea to which 
I first gave publicity and which I strongly ad- 
vocated, a record of 2,30 as the basis of the speed 
standard, was turned to practical account. I am 
particular in stating the facts in detail, because 
under the rules of 1881 and 1882 the evolu- 
tionary period of breeding was given force. 
Mr. Wallace later disagreed with his Censors 
and the National Association of Trotting Horse 
Breeders, and under compulsion of rivalry which 
would have brought ruin to him, he sold out to 
the American Trotting Register Association, of 
which William Russell Allen is president. All 
interests were harmonized by this transfer, and 
all pedigrees are now registered with the new 
association. The rules for registration were 
changed from time to time, and those now in 
force read: — 

"The Trotting Standard 

"When an animal meets these requirements and is duly 
registered it shall be accepted as a standard-bred trotter : — 

" I. The progeny of a registered standard trotting horse and 
a registered standard trotting mare. 

" 2. A stallion sired by a registered standard trotting horse, 
provided his dam and grandam were sired by registered 
standard trotting horses, and he himself has a trotting record 

The Dawn of Systematic Breeding 283 

of 2.30 and is the sire of three trotters with records of 2.30, 
from different mares. 

''3. A mare whose sire is a registered standard trotting 
horse, and whose dam and grandam were sired by registered 
standard trotting horses, provided she herself has a trotting 
record of 2.30, or is the dam of one trotter with a record 
of 2.30. 

''4. A mare sired by a registered standard trotting horse, 
provided she is the dam of two trotters with records of 2.30. 

** 5. A mare sired by a registered standard trotting horse, 
provided her first, second, and third dams are each sired by 
a registered standard trotting horse. 

''The Pacing Siandard 

''When an animal meets these requirements and is duly 
registered, it shall be accepted as a standard-bred pacer : — 

" I. The progeny of a registered standard pacing horse and 
a registered standard pacing mare. 

" 2. A stallion sired by a registered standard pacing horse, 
provided his dam and grandam were sired by registered 
standard pacing horses, and he himself has a pacing record 
of 2.25, and is the sire of three pacers with records of 2.25, 
from different mares. 

"3. A mare whose sire is a registered standard pacing 
horse, and whose dam and grandam were sired by registered 
standard pacing horses, provided she herself has a pacing 
record of 2.25, or is the dam of one pacer with a record 
of 2.25. 

"4. A mare sired by a registered standard pacing horse, 
provided she is the dam of two pacers with records of 2.25. 

284 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

''5. A mare sired by a registered standard pacing horsey 
provided her first, second, and third dams are each sired by 
a registered standard pacing horse. 

^* 6. The progeny of a registered standard trotting horse oat 
of a registered standard pacing mare, or of a registered 
standard pacing horM out of a registered standard trotting 


The National Trotting Horse Breeders' Asso- 
ciation passed with the issue that called it into 
existence, and but few of the founders of it are 
now alive. The Breeders' Trotting Stud Book 
was also merged into a broader movement, and 
centralized authority over registration is, I feel 
sure, for the best interests of all engaged in 



In 1825 the New York Trotting Club was 
organized, and its race ground was at Jamaica, 
Long Island. In 1828 the Hunting Park Asso- 
ciation was established in Philadelphia, for the 
encouragement of the breed of fine horses, " espe- 
cially that most valuable one known as the trot- 
ter." Topgallant, Betsey Baker, Trouble, Sir 
Peter, Whalebone, Screwdriver, and other horses 
of that period trotted over the Hunting Course. 
The races usually were at two-, three-, and four- 
mile heats, and more attention was paid to 
endurance than speed. As the roads improved 
the taste for trotting grew, and the old song 
eulogized the 2.40 mare on the plank road. The 
Centreville track, Long Island, had a code in 
force in 1838, but the rules most generally re- 
spected were those of Union Course, Long Island. 

During and immediately after the Civil War 
there was so much laxity in the conduct of 
races that trotting fell into disrepute. It was in 


286 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

1866 that I began to advocate improvement, and 
kept at it until a change was inaugurated. The 
call was for a congress of trotting tracks to 
formulate rules for the government of trotting 
races on all the tracks of the country. Hon. 
Amasa Sprague, president of the Narragansett 
Park Association, Providence, Rhode Island, was 
a man of importance in those days, and when he 
issued a call for a meeting at the Everett House, 
New York, February 2, 1870, the responses were 
liberal. Forty-seven tracks were represented by 
105 delegates, and much labor was given by 
a committee of 13 to drafting a set of rules. 
The gentlemen who composed this committee 
were Isaiah Rynders, B. G. Bruce, H. S. Russell, 
Horatio Page, Thomas J. Vail, Alden Goldsmith, 
D. Goodhall, Jesse Boynton, J. L. Cassidy, C. J. 
Hamlin, George B. Hall, and L. L. Dorsey. 
The Fashion Course rules and the racing rules 
were gone over section by section, and the best 
ideas of both were transferred to the new code. 
The title of the voluntary association in Febru- 
ary, 1870, was The National Association for the 
Promotion of the Interests of the American 
Trotting Turf. The president was Amasa 
Sprague of Providence. Rhode Island, and the 

3 I 

The Growth of Discipline: Shows 287 

secretary was George H. Smith of Providence. 
The association was without funds, and the 
president was expected to keep the wheels oiled. 
Those who had opposed the movement tried to 
show that its birth was spontaneous, and in an 
editorial in the Tur/l Fields and Farm^ February 
18, 1870, I said: "Does any one believe that a 
call for a Turf Congress, issued by any associa- 
tion two years ago, would have met with any 
response? The people were not ripe for a 
movement then ; men had to be impressed with 
the importance of the measure, had to be taught 
to look at it as representing something broader 
than sectional pride. For two years the Turf^ 
Fields and Farm hammered at the idea, and after 
two years of agitation the Narragansett Park 
Association took the initiative in calling the 
association together." The organization born 
at the Everett House, New York, developed into 
one of the most powerful track-governing bodies 
in the world, and it stimulated breeding to an 
unexpected degree. The best people of the 
country turned their attention to the trotting 
horse, and race-tracks rapidly multiplied and had 
the support of the leading citizens of the com- 
munities in which they were located. Trickery 

288 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

was punished without regard to persons, and 
trotting passed from the shade of outlawry and 
became the dominant outdoor sport of the 
United States. Discipline is absolutely neces- 
sary to the perpetuation of an amusement upon 
which large financial interests depend, and whole- 
some discipline was the cardinal principle of the 
National Trotting Association. Amasa Sprague 
remained president until 1876, when he resigned; 
and Charles W. WooUey of Cincinnati was his 
successor. James Grant of Davenport, Iowa, 
succeeded Colonel WooUey in 1880, and he was 
succeeded in 1888 by P. P. Johnston of Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, who is still in office. The first 
Board of Appeals was composed of Thomas J. 
Vail, Hartford ; George C. Hall, Brooklyn ; H. S. 
Russell, Boston; C. J. Hamlin, Buffalo; M. S. 
Forbes, Cincinnati; K. C. Barker, Detroit; David 
A. Gage, Chicago; and George Lauman, Read- 
ing, Pennsylvania. The secretaries have been 
George H. Smith, D. F. Longstreet, T. J. Vail, 
M. M. Morse, and W. H. Gocher. The meet- 
ings were annual until 1874, when they became 
biennial. There are five districts in the territory 
over which the association has jurisdiction, and 
there are three members to a district, making the 

The Growth of Discipline : Shows 289 

total membership of the Board of Review fifteen. 
There are, in addition to the president, two vice- 
presidents, a secretary, and a treasurer. The 
Board of Review meets twice a year. May and 
December, to decide cases that have been 
appealed from the individual tracks, and the most 
careful consideration is given to each case. The 
Board of Review is the court of last resort, and 
its authority extends from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific Ocean. The executive office of the 
association is at Hartford, Connecticut 

The American Trotting Association was 
organized at Detroit, Michigan, March 2, 1887. 
The element which was dissatisfied with the 
administration of the affairs of the National 
Trotting Association was the backbone of the 
new organization. The relations between the 
National and the American are now harmonious, 
and they race under the same rules and give 
force to each other's penalties. W. P. Ijams 
is president of the American Trotting Associa- 
tion, and W. H. Knight, secretary, and the 
executive office is in Chicago. 

The office of the American Trotting Register 
Association is also in Chicago, and it is closely 
affiliated with the National and the American. 


290 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

The combined influence of the three associations 
is very great, and all who object to discipline are 
in the position of the boy who tried to whistle 
down the tides of the sea. 

The National Horse Show Association of 
America, founded in 1885, has been quite a fac- 
tor in improving the light-harness type. It rec- 
ognizes speed, but emphasizes conformation. In 
other words, its aim is to combine beauty with 
action. The faddists who sacrificed everything 
to speed have been checked. At the annual 
horse show in Madison Square Garden, New 
York, always held in the month of November, 
the keenest critics watch the distribution of rib- 
bons, and the great world of fashion honors the 
occasion. The show has made plain the fact 
that the well-bred and well-schooled horse is the 
idol of cultivated classes. The trotting-bred horse 
which possesses substance and high conforma- 
tion is easily schooled to heavy-harness classes, 
and he gathers in blue rosettes by the dozen. 
The fever kindled by The National Horse Show 
Association has spread over the entire land, and 
the annual horse show is the leading social func- 
tion of cities like Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, 
Louisville, Atlanta, St Louis, and Kansas City. 





O -D 

"> s 



Tbe Gwwib of Discipline: Shows 291 

Rules are sternly enforced, and the little group of 
so-called horsemen, which in the old days was a 
law unto itself, has ceased to o£Fend justice and 
good taste and to pull the horse down to a level 
where chicanery is a tree of luxuriant blossom. 
It has been my privilege to test the rules of the 
National Trotting Association, the , American 
Trotting Association, and of horse-show asso- 
ciations in awarding premiums under them, and 
the result contributes to a feeling of personal 
gratification that I was an humble instrument in 
adding to the crystallization of each suggestion. 

It was March 13, 1891, that the committees 
appointed by the National Trotting Associa- 
tion, the American Trotting Association, and 
the American Trotting Register Association, 
met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York, 
and agreed upon a code satisfactory to all. The 
Register Association was particularly interested 
in the drafting of a rule for governing perform- 
ances against time, and the rules now in force, 
the result of that conference, have done away 
with a vast amount of friction and given general 

The pioneer track of the evolutionary period 
was opened at Bu£Falo under the inspiration of 

292 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

C J. Hamlin, August 14-17, 1866. The pre- 
miums amounted to 1 10,500, and the meeting at- 
tracted the best horses in the country and proved 
a great success. The "mammoth purse," as it 
was styled, $5750, for free-for-all trotters, was 
won by Dexter from George M. Patchen Jr. and 
RoUa Golddust, and the fastest time was 2.25. 
The success stimulated to bolder endeavor in 
1867, and the fame of Buffalo gradually increased 
as the trotting centre of America. The maxi- 
mum premium list was $7o,ooa Hampden Park, 
at Springfield, Massachusetts, was built in 1857, 
but owing to the Civil War it did not burst into 
full flower until 1868. The first annual spring 
meeting of the Cleveland Club, under the aus- 
pices of the Northern Ohio Fair Association, 
was held June 20-23, 1871, and John Tod, a son 
of the war governor, was president, and George 
W. Howe was secretary. In 1873 the Quad- 
rilateral Trotting Combination was formed — 
Cleveland, July 29 to August i ; BufiFalo, August 
5 to 8; Utica, August 12 to 14, and Springfield, 
August 19 to 22. The premiums for the four 
meetings amounted to $169,300, and enthusiasm 
increased as the horses swept down the line. In 
1874 Charter Oak Park at Hartford was opened, 

Tbe Growth of Discipline : Shows 293 

and in 1875 there was a clash between the new 
tracks at Rochester and Poughkeepsie. The 
Grand Trotting Circuit was thus extended, and 
summer after summer I started with the horses 
at Cleveland and followed them to the close. 
The charm of those days will d\ws,ys linger with 
me. I was a member of the fortunate visiting 
delegations, and at each place there was a series 
of social entertainments. Ladies sat with gentle- 
men through elaborate dinners, and as the topic 
of conversation was the horse, the love of trotting 
was well nourished, and the fever spread to all 
sections of the country and gave a tremendous 
boom to breeding. Other circuits were formed 
and tracks multiplied until we were able to count 
them by the thousand instead of by the score. 
In his " Tales of the Turf," W. H. Gocher quotes 
Hon. Lewis J. Powers of Springfield, who has 
been the treasurer of the National Trotting 
Association from the start, and was one of the 
stewards of the Grand Circuit, as follows : — 

"To what might be termed the *01d Guard,' 
there are many pleasant memories attached to 
those meetings and banquets at which the love 
for a good horse and the purely American sport, 
harness racing, was the bond of fellowship. 

294 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Sentiment without a particle of commercialism 
brought together the men who sat around the 
board each yean To them a race was a contest 
for which they were willing to pay, should the 
association which they represented and in a few 
instances managed come out at the small end of 
the horn when the last heat was trotted. This 
happened two or three times in Springfield, there 
being one season when seven of us were called 
on to chip in $1000 apiece to balance accounts. 
Then there were years when the balance was the 
other way. In the old days the commercial 
spirit of the turf was left to those who entered 
and drove horses and the general public. The 
financial ventures of those who managed meet- 
ings were foreign to the race track. Grand Cir- 
cuit week was their holiday, and they took as 
much pride in keeping up the standard as the 
New York Yacht Club has in retaining the 
America Cup. It was the good old spirit for 
genuine sport that called Colonel Edwards to the 
front in Cleveland ; and it is with regret that I see 
this spirit on the decline, the tendency to-day 
being toward shorter races and increased specu- 
lation. Such a course, especially the latter, is 
beset with danger, for without a big grain of 

Tbe Growth of Discipline : Shows 295 

sentiment horse-racing can never retain the 
popular support which was given it in the old 
days when the names of Goldsmith Maid and 
Dexter were household words, and when every 
slip of a lad with a hobby-horse or a sled desig- 
nated it with a name that had become prominent 
on account of record-breaking performances." 

Utica, Springfield, Rochester, Poughkeepsie, 
Pittsburg, Albany, Philadelphia, Saginaw, Fort 
Wayne, Indianapolis, Glens Falls, and Portland, 
which at different periods were members of the 
Grand Circuit, are no longer links in the chain; 
but individual meetings are given at the majority 
of these places. The circuit has changed in 
many ways since the days when my enthusiasm 
was greater than now and I first began the 
pilgrimage from Cleveland to Hartford. 



Road-riding movements quickened the devel- 
opment of the light-harness horse, but men of 
resolute purpose were required to lead in order 
to lift the horse into an atmosphere of respect. 
In 1856, when Robert Bonner first appeared on 
the road, trotting was in bad repute, and years of 
stem example were required to restore it to 
public favor. Burnham's, a house of refreshment 
on Bloomingdale Road and 76th Street, was the 
first rendezvous of gentlemen drivers, and Elm 
Park on the Bloomingdale Road at 92d Street 
was the next resort Admission to the club- 
house and half-mile track was restricted to 
members. The third rendezvous was the Dubois 
half-mile track on Harlem Lane and 145th 
Street. It went out of existence soon after the 
Civil War, and the riders broke up into groups, 
some going to Bertholfs Road House, some to 
Florence's, and some to Smith's. Prominent 
among the early riders were Commodore Vander- 




Road-riding Movements 297 

bilt, Robert Bonner, Frank Work, William H. 
Vanderbilt, Shepherd F. Knapp, George B. 
Alley, Charles H. Kemer, and William TurnbuU. 
The first noted pair of Mr. Bonner were Flatbush 
Maid and Lady Palmer, and it was in the 
autumn of 1861 that he drove these good mares 
around Union Course in 2.27. At Fashion 
Course, May 10, 1862, he drove the same pair 
two miles in 5.01J, the first mile in 2.26, and 
there was profound sensation. Commodore 
Vanderbilt's pair were Post Boy and Plow Boy, 
and he was jealous of their reputation. The 
spirit of rivalry between Bonner and Vanderbilt 
grew more intense with the years, and their 
respective friends caught the fever, and breeders 
and trainers reaped the profit. Later John D. 
Rockefeller, William Rockefeller, Frank Work, 
William H. Vanderbilt, T. C. Eastman, and C. J. 
Hamlin were carried forward by the torrent, and 
the road-riding movement was at its zenith. 

The expansion of the city destroyed Harlem 
Lane for fast driving ; and then at the suggestion 
of prominent road riders I started an agitation 
for a speedway on the west side of Central 
Park. During the administration of Hugh J. 
Grant as mayor of New York, a bill was passed 

298 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

by the legislature authorizing the construction 
of such a driveway; but the opposition was so 
violent that the vote was reconsidered and the 
measure defeated When Thomas F. Gilroy 
succeeded Mr. Grant as mayor, a bill for a speed- 
way on the west bank of Harlem River was 
prepared and passed by the legislature and 
signed by the governor. In the interest of this 
measure the Road Horse Association of the 
State of New York was formed, in 1892, with 
Frederic P. Olcott, president; C. J. Hamlin, 
vice-president; J. C De la Vergne, treasurer; 
and Hamilton Busbey, secretary. Among mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee were Lawrence 
Kip. H. M. Whitehead, W. M. V. HoflFman, 
A. B. Darling, Jacob Ruppert, John H. Shults, 
Charles Backman, Henry C. Jewett, W. B. Dick- 
erman, George W. Archer, and I. V. Baker, Jr. 
The association gave moral support to the 
members of the Park Board, who favored the 
speedway — A. B. Tappen, Paul Dana, Nathan 
Straus, S. Van Rensselaer Cruger, and George C. 
Clausen; and the work was pushed during the 
administration of Mayor William L. Strong, and 
thrown open to the public in the early part of the 
administration of Mayor Robert A. Van Wyck. 

Road-riding Movements 299 

In the latter part of December, 1893, I addressed 
a letter to Hon. A. B. Tappen, president of the 
Park Commission, asking him to draw the 
attention of his associates to the autograph 
letter from Robert Bonner in relation to the 
controversy over the sidewalk plan. Mr. Bonner 
said, in his letter to me: "I do not see any 
objection to having two sidewalks on the speed- 
way so long as all means of passage across it 
shall be by archways. It is true that the build- 
ing of two sidewalks will involve greater expense, 
but as they are intended for the accommodation 
of the people, and the people have to pay for 
them, I do not see any good reason for depriving 
the public of the enjoyment to be derived from 
witnessing exhibitions of speed." A line was 
added below the signature of Robert Bonner, 
"The above letter expresses our views." The 
signatures attached were those of Lawrence Kip. 
Charles H. Kemer, J. B. Houston, F. P. Olcott, 
A. Newbold Morris, Charles Backman, William 
Rockefeller, and C. F. Hoffman, Jr. 

It took longer to build the speedway than was 
at first anticipated, and the expense was heavy ; 
but the great pleasure drive is worth to the city 
all that it cost in worry and money. In June, 

300 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

1898, ex-Mayor Gilroy wrote me a letter in 
which he said : " I am glad to learn that the 
speedway is to be opened so soon for driving 
purposes, and that the light drivers of New 
York, who have waited ivith so much patience 
for so long a time for this event, will receive the 
reward of their patience. There are driveways 
for light driving in many of the large cities of the 
country, but none of them, for length, for pictu- 
resqueness and beauty of location, for solidity as 
well as elasticity of road-bed, can compare with 
our own speedway. The side of the river on 
which it is built will always be cool in the after- 
noon shade, there are no intersecting streets from 
155th Street on the south to Dyckman Street on 
the north; and through this latter street the 
speedway connects with Kingsbridge Road, Fort 
Washington Bridge Road, and Boulevard Lafa- 
yette on the west, thus furnishing the most mag- 
nificent system of driveways possessed by any city 
on the civilized globe." The highest prices have 
been paid by gentlemen of means for horses to 
drive on the road, and the future of the light- 
harness horse depends as much upon speedways 
as it does upon tracks devoted to professional 



May 25, 1895, the Gentlemen's Driving Club 
of Cleveland was organized, with William Ed- 
wards as honorary president ; C. E. Grover, pres- 
ident; and Frank Chamberlin, secretary. Its 
object was matinee racing to road wagons, and 
although it was not the first club of the kind, it 
quickly took higher rank than any other club 
built on similar lines. It has a large and im- 
portant membership, and as horses famed for 
speed contest for ribbons and cups, the races are 
attended by thousands. The members of the 
club are amateurs, and an amateur is defined 
"as a man who has not accepted wages or hire 
for his services as a trainer or driver. Any indi- 
vidual club member who competes for the first, or 
against professional, except in such events as are 
especially arranged for amateurs, after May i, 
1 901, shall forfeit his amateur standing." 

The officers of the club at this time are : hon- 
orary president, H. M. Hanna; president, H. K. 


302 The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

Devereux; vice-president, D. R. Hanna; secre- 
tary-treasurer, F. L. Chamberlin. The Gentle- 
men's Driving Club of Boston was organized in 
January, 1899, and the officers at this time are: 
president, Albert S. Bigelow; vice-presidents, 
Peter B. Bradley, John E. Thayer, J. Malcolm 
Forbes*; treasurer, Frank G. Hall; secretary, 
T. L. Quimby, At a meeting held in New York, 
in November, 1890, the League of the Ameri- 
can Driving Clubs was organized, with the clubs 
of Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Pittsburg, and 
Syracuse in membership, to which have been 
added Columbus, New York, and Memphis. 
The officers of the league are: president, H. K. 
Devereux ; vice-president, Harry Darlington ; 
secretary-treasurer, T. L. Quimby. Horace 
White and C. K. G. Billings are prominent 
among the directors. Many thousands of dollars 
are spent each year for horses to compete for 
badges of honor at the amateur meetings, and 
lovers of the light-harness horse hope that ama- 
teur racing to road wagon has come to stay. 

^ DeceaiecL 



When the country was new and the roads 
were bad the easy-gaited saddle horse was in 
demand. Long journeys were made on his back. 
The use of light vehicles was out of the question. 
In Rhode Island there was a family of pacers 
called the Narragansett, and it is claimed that 
it sprang from stock imported from Andalusia in 
Spain. This blood was widely disseminated, and 
it was the germ from which came the tendency 
to ease of motion under saddle in other sections 
of the land. The pacing ancestors of Kentucky 
and Tennessee were from Canada, and Mr. Bat- 
tell contends that their origin was not found in 
the horses originally imported into Canada from 
France. ** There are but two sources," he writes, 
"other than the original Canadian stock, from 
which the Canadian pacer could have sprung — 
the horses imported from across the sea, or from 
the States. The English thoroughbred blood 
might add to the speed of the pacer, but it cer- 


304 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

tainly is not the source of pacing families." This 
is followed by the suggestion that the Morgan 
horse, through general intercourse between the 
people of Vermont and the people of the Prov- 
ince of Quebec, was early introduced into Canada, 
and was a strong factor in the pacing families in 
that section. Where facts are obscure there is 
always room for suggestion. Copperbottom, a 
chestnut horse of 15.2, strongly built and hand- 
some in appearance, was taken to Kentucky in 
18 16, and he was followed by Tom Hal, a roan 
of blocky build, and later by the black horse 
Pilot, the sire of Pilot Jr. General John B. 
Castleman, president of the Louisville Horse 
Show Association, and a noted breeder of saddle 
horses, says in a recent paper: "Virginia and 
the South Atlantic states had given much atten- 
tion to racing, and were even then breeders of 
the thoroughbred. The only other source of 
importation was from Canada. There they raised 
a hardy little horse, said to be a cross of the 
French importations with generally such stallions 
as could be obtained from New York and New 
England. Whatever these Canadian horses were, 
they had some of the qualities required for man's 
comfort, and the Canadian had given much atten- 

Tbe Pacing Horse 305 

tion to the development of the pace or amble. 
Many of these horses were pacers ; and our fore- 
fathers bred these Canadian mares to thorough- 
bred stallions. After a while it was noticed that 
certain lines of thoroughbred blood produced 
better results than others, and it is remarkable 
to note how great saddle sires trace to the same 
origin. The horse that man needed as a saddle 
horse began to be produced." It was not until 
after good roads were built in "Kentucky and 
Tennessee that the pacing horse was used to any 
extent in harness. He was coveted for his ability 
to control gait under the saddle. 

The foundation stock of the American Saddle 
Horse Breeders' Association is thus officially 
stated : — 

" Denmark (thoroughbred) by imported Hedge- 

" John Dillard by Indian Chief (Canadian). 

" Tom Hal (imported from Canada). 

"Cabell's Lexington by Gist's Black Hawk 

" Coleman's Eureka (thoroughbred and Morgan). 

" Van Meter's Waxy (thoroughbred). 

" Stump-the-Dealer (thoroughbred). 

" Peter's Halcorn. 

3o6 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

** Davy Crockett 

" Pat Cleburne [by Benton's gray Diomed]." 
I have before me the American Turf Register 
of 1870, and only 59 pacing races for the entire 
country for the year 1869 are recorded in it In 
the majority of these races only two horses faced 
the starter, and the time made was wretchedly 
slow. There were only four pacing races in the 
great state of New York, but one in Tennessee, 
and none in Kentucky. This shows what a feeble 
factor the pacing horse was in harness at that 
comparatively recent period The chestnut mare 
Pocahontas by Iron's Cadmus by American 
Eclipse had established a national reputation by 
pacing, June 21, 1855, at Union Course, Long 
Island, to a wagon record of 2.17^; but that 
performance weighed so lightly on the mind of 
breeders and trainers that no determined at- 
tempts at imitation were made. The pacer was 
really under ban for harness purposes ; and many 
horses that would have paced fast if left to their 
own inclinations were converted into trotters by 
the application of toe weights. When a horse 
transmits the pacing form he transmits the pac- 
ing gait or a tendency to pace. The horse paces 
naturally when the body is not long enough to 

The Prepotent Son o( Mimbrliio Chief. 

The Speed-begeltlng Son o( Ceor^ Wilkes 

The Pacing Horse 307 

allow the diagonal stroke to be made with ease. 
The hind leg then follows the corresponding fore 
leg to avoid interference. I have seen Mr. Bon- 
ner» who was a profound student of equine 
structure and the greatest enthusiast that the 
world has known on foot-balancing, take a pac- 
ing colt and in a few minutes change it to a 
trotter by simply changing the bearing of its 
heels. Colts of this description had the trotting 
conformation, but the form was distorted by an 
uneven growth of^ hoof. Were the laws of balance 
better understood than they are by the mass of 
mankind, the list of pacers would not swell as it 
does from year to year. It is not worth while to 
devote much space to obscure pacing families 
when we see pacers springing from sires of estab- 
lished blood lines and of world-wide reputation. 
Take Greorge Wilkes, for instance. Although a 
great progenitor of trotters, he sired pacers, and 
his sons and daughters are producers of pacers. 
With him it is not inheritance, only so far as con- 
formation is modified by mares to which he was 
bred, or by reversion to some previous type. 
Man is often bewildered by the way in which a 
former ancestor, after lying dormant for genera- 
tions, awakens and asserts its power. Gambetta 

3o8 The Trotting and the Pacing Hor^ 

Wilkes by George Wilkes, dam Jewel by Gill's 
Vermont, tracing directly to Justin Morgan, trotted 
to a record of 2.19^, and is the sire of about as many 
pacers as trotters. The fastest of his 137 perform- 
ers in harness are pacers, — Guinette, 2.05 ; Lottie 
Loraine, 2.05^ ; Eyelet, 2.06^ ; and Cubano, 2.06^. 
His inheritance, so far as known, is purely a trot- 
ting inheritance, but in transmitting speed he 
varies form so as to contribute to the lateral as 
well as the diagonal column. Dictator by Ham- 
bletonian out of Clara by Seely's American Star 
carries the blood of two foundation trotting sires, 
and his son Director out of Dolly by Mambrino 
Chief was a great trotter ; but Direct by Director 
out of Echora, 2.23^, by Echo by Hambletonian, 
has a record at both ways of going, — 2.18J at a 
trot and 2.05 J at the pace, — and he is the sire of 
both pacers and trotters. The fastest of his get, 
Directly, 2.03J, is a pacer, and at Shultshurst he 
is demonstrating that the trot and the pace are 
interchangeable according to the influence exer- 
cised by the mares fertilized by him in moulding 
conformation. Jay-eye-see, the sensational trotter, 
by Dictator, was a compact little horse with the 
open Star action behind which permitted the hind 
feet to clear the forward ones ; and I saw enough 

The Pacing Horse 309 

of him to believe that he would have beaten his 
record of 2.10 at the trot if he had kept thoroughly 
sound. When he became tender on one of his 
legs, he was differently balanced, and shifted to 
the easier pacing gait, and took a record at that 
way of going of 2.06J. Baron Wilkes, who trotted 
to a record of 2.18, and who carries the blood of 
George Wilkes and Mambrino Patchen, the best 
son of Mambrino Chief, is one of our greatest 
sires of trotters, and yet the fastest of his get are 
pacers, — Bumps, 2.03J, and Reubenstein, 2.05. 
With such illustrious examples before us we need 
not puzzle our wits to discover the origin of the 
Narragansett pacer or the source of the Canadian 

John R. Gentry, one of the handsomest horses 
in the world for his size, and a standard-bred 
trotter, is a fast pacer. He was bred by H. G. 
Toler, Wichita, Kansas; foaled in 1889; by Ash- 
land Wilkes, 2. 1 7 J, who traces twice to Hamble- 
tonian through George Wilkes and Administrator ; 
dam Dame Wood by Wedge wood, 2.19 (son of 
Belmont and Woodbine); second dam Fancy, 2.30, 
by Winton. We should look for him to show 
extreme speed at the trot, whereas, owing to his 
form, he is a pacer with extreme speed. Among 

310 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

the great pacers beaten by him in the fierce bat- 
tles of the turf are Joe Patchen, Star Pointer, 
Robert J., Anaconda, and Frank Agan. He was 
sold at auction in 1896, for 1 19,900, has challenged 
the admiration of the country, and has frequently 
been driven on the road, where his manners are 
perfect, by his owner, Edward H. Harriman. As 
a sire he transmits both the trotting and the pac- 
ing gaits. 

Joe Patchen, the iron-hearted and iron-limbed 
horse, is owned by Hon. John McCarty, whose 
Parkway Farm at Goshen is not far from Arden 
Farms, the estate of Mr. Harriman. He is a 
powerfully built black horse, foaled in 1889, and 
sired by Patchen Wilkes (son of George Wilkes 
and Kitty Patchen by Mambrino Patchen); dam 
Josephine Young by Joe Young, who traces twice 
through his sire, Joe West, to Justin Morgan. 
Betty Brown, the dam of Kitty Patchen, was a 
daughter of Mambrino Patchen (son of Mambrino 
Chief) out of a daughter of Mambrino Chief. 
The potent foundation strains of Morgan, Ham- 
bletonian, and Mambrino Chief are closely inter- 
woven in Joe Patchen, and yet the result is a 
great pacer, with pacing conformation. Joe 
Patchen never knew when he was beaten on the 

The Pacing Horse 311 

turf ; he was resolute of purpose to the very end, 
and I often was moved to applaud his determined 
finishes. He retired to the stud with a record of 
2.01J, where both trotters and pacers are coming 
from his loins. His greatest triumph is Dan 
Patch, a brown horse foaled in 1896; bred by 
D. A. Messner of Oxford, Indiana; dam Zelica, 
a mare of great quality, by Wilkesberry ; second 
dam Abdallah Belle by Pacing Abdallah. Dan 
Patch has the pacing lines with some pacing 
blood, and at Providence, Rhode Island, August 
29, 1902, he paced to a record of 1.59^. During 
the season of 1903, Dan Patch, driven by the 
master reinsman, M. H. Mc Henry, paced 13 ex- 
hibition miles in 2.04 or better, and dropped below 
two minutes — at Brighton Beach, 1.59; Colum- 
bus, 1.59J; Lexington, 1.59J; Memphis, 1.56J; 
and Memphis, 1.5 7 J. The 1.56J is the best har- 
ness record with shield, and the 1.5 7 J is the best 
wagon record with shield. 

Prince Alert, bay gelding, foaled in 1892, by 
Crown Prince (son of Artemas) ; dam Till, a bay 
trotting mare of 15 hands, of untraced blood, 
was bred by G. W. Fort of Knightstown, Indi- 
ana, and October 31, 1902, he paced to a record 
of two minutes at Memphis. He wears hopples, 

3" The Trotting and tbe Pacing Horse 

and during the season of 1903 had the advantage 
of a wind-shield. At Empire City Park, New 
York, September 23, he paced in 1.57; at Lex- 
ington, October 10, in 1.59^; and at Philadelphia, 
October 15, in 1.59^. The wind-shield, with 
which his best performance was made, is of far 
more assistance to the performer than a dirt- 
shield, which is a narrow strip of canvas fastened 
to the axle of the sulky which goes in front, 
drawn by a runner. The 1.57 performance has 
been rejected. 

Previous to 1903 the pacing champion was 
Star Pointer, who in 1897 acquired a record of 

'•59i« H^ is ^ big b^y horse, foaled in 1889, 
and a typical pacer, descended from a family of 
pacers. When Campbell Brown, a courtly gen- 
tleman from Spring Hill, Tennessee, was in the 
flesh, I followed Brown Hal down the Grand 
Circuit line and grew enthusiastic over some of 
the races in which he was engaged. Brown Hal 
was a handsome horse, finely coupled by Tom 
Hal Jr. (Gibson's), dam Lizzie (dam of Little 
Brown Jug, 2.1 if) by Netherland by Henry Hal; 
and when he left the turf it was with a record of 
2.12^. Gibson's Tom Hal was by Kittrell's Tom 
Hal, out of Julia Johnson by Adam's Stump-the- 


1.59Vi. the FIrat P»eer icross Ihe Two-ml 

2.aOH, ItiB Trail Ine-b red Pacer cwnel by E. H. Hin 

The Pacing Horse 313 

Dealer. The original Tom Hal was a roan 
taken from Canada to Kentucky, and it has 
been claimed that he carried the blood of Justin 
Morgan. The people of Maury and other coun- 
ties of Tennessee were fond of the saddle, owing 
in a measure to the quality of the roads, and the 
pacing conformation was cultivated by them. 
In addition to Brown Hal, the fast pacers sired 
by Gibson's Tom Hal were Little Brown Jug, 
who took his record of 2.1 if in 1881; Hal 
Pointer, 2.04^, once a shining light of the Vil- 
lage Farm campaign stable; and Imperial Hal, 
2. 1 2 J. There were no trotters from him, because 
he stamped his form upon his progeny. Sweep- 
stakes, a mare with sloping hips, foaled in 1871, 
and by Knight's Snow Heels, son of Knight's 
Tom Hal, the son of Gibson's Tom Hal; dam 
Kit by McMeen's Traveller by Sugg's Stump-the- 
Dealer, was bred to Brown Hal, thus bringing 
together kindred strains, and the result was Star 
Pointer. He is a representative of strictly pac- 
ing lines, and I shall look for him to produce 
pacers, except when he breeds away from his 
own type. Sweepstakes is the greatest of pac- 
ing matrons, and she passed from Armstrong 
Glenn, who raised her, to Captain H. P. Pointer 

314 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

of Spring Hill, who bred her to Brown Hal. 
She is the dam of five in the list, — Star Pointer, 
'•59i; Hal Pointer, 2.04^; Elastic Pointer, 2.06^; 
Cloud Pointer, 2.24^; and Tennessee Pointer, 
2.2 3f. Brown Hal is the sire of 48 in the list, 
including Hal Dillard, 2.04^; Hal Chaffin, 2.05^; 
Elastic Pointer, 2.o6j^; Star Hal, 2.06^; and Hal 
Braden, 2.07J. 

Mr. John K. Ottley, a banker and breeder of 
Georgia, and one of the moving ^irits of the 
Atlanta Horse Show, which commands the sup- 
port of the fashion of the South, rides a gaited 
saddle horse, but is not an admirer of the pacer 
in harness. In a recent letter to me he says : — 

''In the small towns of the South and on the 
plantations the walking horse is a great fovorite. 
In the larger towns and cities the gaited horse 
takes its place. 

"In the Southern cities some few people have 
copied, from our English cousins and brethren 
of the North, the walk-trot horse, but a large per- 
centage of the gentlemen prefer the present 
gaited horse, which has the three gaits of walk, 
trot, and canter, with the addition of the rack, 
slow gait, fox trot, or stepping pace. 

" The pacing horse is not popular in the South. 

The Pacing Horse 315 

Pacers are not pleasant drivers over country 
roads where they are at all rough. The pacer 
in the South has very little market value except 
for racing purposes. The few that are used for 
pl^aaur?^ driving are generally used by people 
who simply want speed, and the pacer is selected 
for the reason that more speed can be bought for 
less money, than in the trotter. 

" The most popular horse in the South with the 
greatest number for general utility and pleasure 
purposes is the standard-bred trotter. He has 
more finish and greater endurance than any 
other horse used in the South. In fact, the 
trotter is now recognized as the ideal harness 
horse in the South." 

Large purses are now offered for pacers, and 
pacing races afiford a means for lively specula- 
tion; therefore we find the pacer much more in 
evidence than formerly. He has multiplied so 
rapidly as to give rise to the thought that he will 
ultimately destroy the trotting breed. Through 
the use of hopples, combined with hurried prepa- 
ration for track contests, many horses are added 
to the pacing column which otherwise would be 
found in the trotting column. The hopple is the 
refuge of the lazy or incompetent trainer. 



I HAVE before me a manuscript sent to me 
in 1877 by E. H. Douglas of Tennessee, describ- 
ing the foundation pacing horses of that state : — 

" Black Hawk (Dr. C. T. Bright's), so known in 
Tennessee. Was bred in Kentucky; by Davy 
Crockett out of a Blackburn Whip mare. This 
horse captured many premiums in Tennessee, 
and was the equal of John Waxy as a combined 
harness and saddle horse. Was able to trot to 
harness in 2.55, and repeat under saddle in 2.50 
over the same ground with only time to change 
from harness to saddle. His best colts were 
sired in Sumner County. Dr. Bright bought 
Old Black Hawk and gave |>iooo for him. He 
was killed under General William Bates at 
Shiloh. It is from this stock that we have the 
fast trotting mare Kate Allen. 

" Thompson's Traveller by Old Traveller 
sired the toughest and best horses in Tennessee. 
They were sound as gold dollars and tough as 


The Multiplication of the Pacer 317 

iron ; could work all day and run foxes at night ; 
eat less and stand more on empty bellies than 
any horses I ever saw. They were the best 
saddle horses in the Confederate cavalry, and 
looked like race-horses built on the Jack Malone 
and Bonnie Scotland type. They were the most 
useful stock in our state. Many of the fastest 
pacers in Tennessee, such as Prince Pulaski and 
Mattie Hunter, are proofs of the value of the 
Traveller blood. 

" There is a Clipper stock that once was popu- 
lar, but unsound eyes obscured them. They 
were from the Tom Hal family of Kentucky. 

"The two premium saddle horses and sires 
of middle Tennessee were Old Mountain Slasher 
and Thompson's Traveller. Pedigrees as given 
in handbills are doubtful, but Mountain Slasher 
is good enough to trace to for speed and saddle 
horses. He was a beautiful iron-gray, dappled 
when young, and had a white or silver tail and 
mane. Was near a three-minute horse on the 
road, and was in his day Tennessee's ideal saddle 
horse, always creating a sensation in the fair ring. 
He was a model fit for a king to ride. His 
running walk and fox trot have never been 
equalled since his day. It would have carried 

3i8 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

you with perfect ease to rider and horse from ten 
to twelve miles an hour. We doubt if Kentucky, 
or any other state, ever had the superior of Old 
Mountain Slasher. His prepotency was remark- 

Mr. Douglas describes Love's Pilot as a rich 
brown of 15.2, by a son of Elliott's Pilot Jr. by 
Alexander's Pilot, dam Fanny Fern, a premium 
saddle mare. 

*• Fayette Denmark was a strong and hand- 
some bay of 16 hands, going all saddle gaits, and 
got by Washington Denmark of Kentucky, son 
of imported Hedgeford, dam by Gray Eagle. He 
took premiums in Kentucky, and at Nashville, 
Murfreesboro, Franklin, and Columbia, Tennes- 
see, and later was returned to Kentucky." 

A handbill, issued in 1882, describes Dillard 
Denmark as a rich brown of 15.2. "Dillard the 
Third, the sire of Dillard Denmark, was out of 
Electra, she by Thompson's or Pointer's Slasher. 
Electra was quite as fast and fine a saddle mare 
as Zephyr, her grand-dam on sire's side. Zephyr 
captured all the blue ribbons wherever shown. 
Electra's dam. Stockings, was by Highlander, a 
four-mile race-horse by Glencoe. Stockings was 
a number one saddle mare, having often coon- 

The Multiplication of the Pacer 319 

walked or running-walked seven or eight miles 
an hour, never requiring or allowing rider to use 
whip or spur." 

Much color, if not fiction, was infused into 
these early descriptions, and I quote them to 
show how the ancestors of pacing horses were 
regarded by the warm-blooded people of Ten- 
nessee. The Tom Hal family is the live pacing 
family of Tennessee and America. 

In 1876, when the chestnut mare from Ten- 
nessee, Mattie Hunter, who acquired a record of 
2.1 2 J, paced a series of races in the Grand Cir- 
cuit with Rowdy Boy, Lucy, and Sleepy Tom, 
the public heart was fired by the whirlwind 
rushes, and the stewards of the circuit awoke 
to the fact that a field of fast pacers was a draw- 
ing card, and there was an upward trend in the 
value of purses for pacers. Sleepy Tom was a 
chestnut gelding by Tom Rolfe, and, although 
totally blind, fought his races with great deter- 
mination. The confidence that he reposed in 
his driver was wonderful. He obtained a record 
of 2.12^. In 1883 the brown gelding Richball 
was a circuit sensation, beating such horses as 
Westmont, Gurgle, Flora Belle, Sleepy Tom, 
Buffalo Girl, and Lucy, and by this time nearly 

320 Tbe Trotting and tbe Pacify Horse 

every prominent trotting stable had added one or 
more fast pacers to its string. The pacing races 
appealed to the speculative feeling, and the bet- 
ting was fast and furious when they were in 

The brown gelding Little Brown Jug made 
his appearance in 1879, and in 1880, 1881, and 
1882 was a brilliant star in the pacing firmament 
His best race was at Hartford, Connecticut, 
August 24, 1 88 1, where he beat Mattie Hunter 
and Lucy in 2.1 if, 2.1 if, 2.12^. His brother, 
Brown Hal, later paced to a record of 2.12^, and 
won distinction as a sire of fast pacers. John- 
ston, a bay gelding, by Joe Bassett, won his first 
race at East Saginaw, Michigan, July 4, 1883, 
and marched straight to championship honors. 
In 1884 he paced to high-wheel sulky to a record 
of 2.o6f . This high-wheel record was reduced 
by Dan Patch in 1903 to 2.04f. At the close of 
1902 the records stood : — 

star Pointer, bay horse, by Brown Hal .... 1.59} 

Dan Patch, brown horse, by Joe Patchen . . . . i .59^ 
Prince Alert, bay gelding, by Crown Prince . . .2.00 

John R. Gentry, bay horse, by Ashland Wilkes . . . 2.00} 

Joe Patchen, black horse^ by Patchen Wilkes . . 2.01} 

Little Boy, bay gelding, by Kenton 2.01} 

Robert J., bay gelding, by Hartford 2.01} 

Coney, black gelding, by McKinney 2.02 

S.OlV^ the Sire ot the Champion Picer. Dan Patch. 1.56^. 

A Disilnfulshed Sire of Fki 

The Multiplication of the Pacer 32 1 

Through the aid of dirt-shields in 1903 the 
important change was 

Dan Patchy Oct. 22, at Memphis 1.56^1 

One hundred horses paced miles in 2.10 or 
better during the season of 1 903, and at the close 
of 1902 there were 471 horses with records of 
2.10 and better. The list of fast pacers grows 
astonishingly from year to year. 

The exciting races in 1895 for championship 
honors were between Robert J., Joe Patchen, and 
John R. Gentry, and as each of these horses was 
trotting-bred the truth was forced upon thou- 
sands that the two gaits are interchangeable. 
Now nearly as much money is offered every 
season by track managers for pacers as for trot- 
ters. Under the rules of registration and the 
rules of racing the pacer is a type distinct from 
the trotter. 

Although the pacing interest was of minor 
importance prior to 1861, I append a table show- 
ing the reduction of the pacing record from 
1839: — 

Drover, bay gelding 1839 2.28 

Fanny Elllsler, gray mare 1844 2.27I 

Unknown, chestnut gelding 1844 2.23 

Pet, roan gelding 1852 2.18} 


322 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Pocahontas, chestnut mare r855 2.17I 

Sleepy George, bay gelding 1879 2.1 si 

Sleepy Tom, chestnut gelding .... 1879 2.12^ 

Little Brown Jug, brown gelding .... 1881 2.ii| 

Johnston, bay gelding 1883 2.10 

Johnston, bay gelding 1884 2.06^ 

Direct, black horse 1891 2.06 

Hal Pointer, bay gelding 1892 2.05} 

Mascot, bay gelding 1892 2.04 

Robert J., bay gelding 1894 2.01 1 

John R. Gentry, bay horse 1896 2.00} 

Star Pointer, bay horse 1897 1.59} 

Dan Patch, bay horse 1903 1.564 x 

The 2.17^ of Pocahontas, in 1855, was to 
wagon, a big handicap as wagons were built in 
those days. Johnston's 2.06J was to high-wheel 
sulky on a regulation track, and it stands out as 
conspicuously as does the 2.o8f of Maud S. to 
high wheels on the regulation track at Cleveland. 
The 2.06 of Direct was on the kite track at Inde- 
pendence, Iowa, which was &ster than an oval for 
high wheels. The bicycle sulky came into gen- 
eral use in 1892, and all subsequent records were 
made to it. The fastest unquestioned record in 
the compilation is that of Star Pointer. The 
1. 56 J of Dan Patch was with dirt-shield. Star 
Pointer was a marvellous horse, bred from pac- 
ing lines for pacing purposes, and among the 
great pacers defeated by him in races were Joe 

Tbe Multiplication of the Pacer 323 

Patchen, John R. Gentry, and Frank Agan. In 
1897 he paced nine miles in 2.02 J or better, and at 
Readville, August 28th, established the record at 
^•59i- ^^ ^898 he beat two minutes four times 
and equalled his record of 1.59 J. No wonder 
that the people of the fertile pacing district of 
Tennessee are proud of Star Pointer and his 

The pacing gait was at one time considered 
slower than the trotting gait, but higher breeding 
for lateral action gave a more direct stroke to the 
pacer and carried him in advance of the trotter. 
High breeding, with skill in training, driving, and 
equipment, has improved the physical form of the 
trotter, giving less friction to the diagonal stroke, 
and I look forward to the time when the trotting 
record will again equal, if not surpass, the pacing 



The Kentucky Trotting Horse Association 
was organized in 1873, and when I attended its 
first meetings at Lexington, the outlook was any- 
thing but cheerful. Only what you might call 
a corporal's guard paid to see the races ; and the 
officers of the famous Kentucky Association, the 
then oldest active racing association in America, 
with General John C. Breckinridge at its head, 
predicted a speedy failure. The best people went 
to the running races, and noses were turned up 
at the trotter. The pioneers of the movement, 
however, were made of stern stuff, and did not 
readily yield to discouragement. Colonel Rich- 
ard West, Major Henry C. McDowell, Lucas 
Brodhead, W. H. Wilson, R. G. Stoner, Dr. L. 
Herr, R. P. Todhunter, J. C. McFerran, R. S. 
Veech, and John E. Green, the three last from 
Louisville, persevered in the effort, and the asso- 
ciation steadily grew in importance and influence. 
It became the fashion for gentlemen from the 




z i 


Breeding and Breeding Establishments 325 

East, notably New York, Buffalo, Philadelphia, 
and Boston, to charter private cars and spend 
the week in the Blue-grass section with the 
trotter; and it was not long before the accommo- 
dations of Lexington were severely overtaxed 
during the October meeting. The gates of the 
running track finally were closed, and thousands 
flocked to the well-appointed grounds of the 
trotting association. The leading breeding es- 
tablishment was Woodbum Farm, founded by 
R. A. Alexander; and next in importance were 
Glenview Stock Farm, J. C. McFerran, at Louis- 
ville; Indian Hill, R. S. Veech, Louisville; 
Edge Hill, Richard West, Georgetown; Ash- 
land, H. C. McDowell, Lexington; Fairlawn, 
General W. T. Withers, Lexington ; Forest 
Park, Dr. L. Herr, Lexington; and Abdallah 
Park, Cynthiana. Other establishments were 
founded by William L. Simmons, Z. E. Sim- 
mons, B. J. Treacy, Cecil Brothers, T. C Anglin, 
Bowerman Brothers, L. L. Dorsey, R. P. Pepper, 
W. C. France, T. E. Moore, R. C. Estill, W. W. 
Estill, P. P. Johnston, Lewis Brothers, Lister 
Witherspoon, W. W. Baldwin, W. E. D. Stokes, 
Scott Newman, Peter Duryea, J. F. Calloway, 
John E. Madden, T. J. McGibbon, Richard Pen- 

326 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

istan, Dr. S. Price, J. T. Shackelford, R. S. 
Strader, R. G. Stoner, A, S. Talbert, J. W. 
Bailey, and L, V. Harkness. The latter is the 
proprietor of Walnut Hall Farm, one of the best- 
appointed establishments of its kind in the world. 
The whole Blue-grass section was a nest of 
breeding farms, and weeks instead of days were 
required thoroughly to inspect them. Nutrition 
is essential to successful live-stock farming, and 
the sweet and holding grass of the undulating 
limestone lands of Kentucky furnishes the grazing 
that builds up constitution with rapid growth. 

In Orange County and Dutchess County, 
New York, the grazing lands are excellent, and 
the great foundation establishments after the 
Civil War were Stony Ford, where Charles 
Backman gathered around his table and in the 
smoking room men of distinction from all parts 
of the civilized world, and Thomdale, where 
Edwin Thome dispensed refined hospitality. 
Other Orange and Dutchess County breeders 
were Alden Goldsmith, Harrison Mills, J. M. 
Mills, Guy Miller, R. F. Galloway, Benjamin F. 
Tracy, E. H. Harriman, and Jacob Ruppert. In 
Erie County, New York, the spirit of rivalry was 
strong and the overshadowing establishments 


Breeding and Breeding Establishments 327 

were those of C. J. Hamlin and Henry C. Jewett 
R, L. Howard and Gerhardt Lang also had much 
money invested in breeding at Buffalo. W. E. 
Spier, John B. Dutcher, Erastus Corning, John 
H. Shults, James Butler, J. W. Daly, W. B. 
Dickerman, Robert Bonner, F. G. Babcock, Jud- 
son H. Clark, H. N. Bain, I. V. Baker, George 
D. Sherman, D, S. Hammond, Harrison Durkee, 
W. R. Janvier, S. C. Wells, John McCarty, J. 
Howard Ford, William Simpson, Brayton Ives, 
Carll S. Burr, E. R. Ladew, H. O. Havemeyer, 
and A. A. Housman had or still have important 
breeding farms in the state of New York. The 
establishment of greatest magnitude in New 
Jersey was Fashion Stud Farm, at Trenton, in 
the prosperous days of Henry N. Smith; but 
other breeding farms in the state were those of 
A. B. Darling, E. S. Wells, F. P. Olcott, R, A. 
Fairbairn, William H. Fearing, Hugh J. Grant, 
W. C. Hendrickson, W. F. Redmond, and A. V. 

The pioneer breeding establishment of Cali- 
fornia, previous to the death of Leland Stanford, 
was Palo Alto; and other extensive breeders of 
the state were William Corbitt, L. J. Rose, J. B. 
Haggin, W. S. Hobart, Monroe Salisbury, and 

328 The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

Henry Pierce. Jay Beach was prominent in 
Oregon, the Dubois Brothers in Colorado ; H. I. 
& F. D. Stout, Walter I. Hayes, and Nat 
Bruen commanded earnest attention in Iowa; 
in Kansas, Sprague & Akers and H. G. Toler 
were prominent; in Minnesota N. W. Kittson, 
W. R. Merriam, and G. W. Sherwood bred 
extensively. In Michigan S. A. Browne, Walter 
Clark, Dewy & Stewart, and Sutherland & Ben- 
jamin; in Illinois were Arthur J. Caton, F. S. 
Gorton, A. G. Danforth, Fred Seacord, W. A. San- 
born, and C. W. Williams; in Indiana, W. P. 
I jams, M. L. Hare, James Wilson, and White 
River Stock Farm. Bitter Root Farm, during the 
life of Marcus Daly, was the foremost breeding 
farm of Montana ; but other breeders that obtained 
prominence in that state were Huntley & Clark, 
C. X. Larabee, and W. H. Raymond. In Wis- 
consin, H. L. Dousman, Jerome I. Case, John 
L. Mitchell, Uhlien Brothers, and F. S. Waters 
were prominent. George M. Jewett, C. F. Emery, 
W. H. White, Frank Rockefeller, John B. Cassily, 
George H. Ketcham, L. G. Delano, Allen G. 
Thurman, and Lewis & Albough kept Ohio to the 
front. May Overton, G. M. Fogg, V. L. Kirk- 
man, A. H. Robinson, J. W. Thompson, and 

Breeding and Breeding Establisbments 329 

Campbell Brown stood in the front rank of 
Tennessee breeders; and R. H. Plant is the best- 
known breeder in Georgia. In Wyoming we 
have A. C Beckwith, and in Canada J. P. Wiser, 
Cyrille Laurin, and Simon James. To West 
Virginia I credit Henry Schmulbach and W. G. 
Bennett ; to Virginia, H. C. Chamblin and Floyd 
Brothers ; to Texas, Henry Exall and J. W. Bailey ; 
to North Carolina, L. B. Holt ; to Maryland, C. M. 
Garmendia ; to Maine, C. H. Nelson, J. M. John- 
son, and B. F. Briggs ; to Connecticut, C. M. Pond, 
W. B. Smith, Rundle & White, Albert C. Hall, 
Charles H. Maury, and Miss A. A. Marks; to 
Rhode Island, F. E. Perkins and F. C. Sayles ; 
and to Vermont, Edwin Bates and Joseph Bat- 
tell. Miller & Sibley founded a second Palo 
Alto at Franklin, Pennsylvania, and for years it 
was the greatest breeding establishment of the 
state. Other prominent Pennsylvania breeders are 
Robert Steel, A. H. Moore, H. S. Henry, Powell 
Brothers, and John P. Crozier. In New Hamp- 
shire, Frank Jones, during his lifetime, stood in 
the very front rank. Massachusetts is one of the 
greatest among trotting-horse breeding states. 
At Pittsfield we have Allen Farm, upon which 
W. R. Allen has spent hundreds of thousands of 

330 Tbe Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

dollars. At Lancaster is Maplehurst Farm, Colo- 
nel John E. Thayer, the home of Baron Wilkes. 
At Great Barrington are Forkhurst Farm, Charles 
H. Kemer, and Locustwood, Colonel William 
L, Brown. The great Dream wold Farm of 
Thomas W. Lawson is at Scituate. At Read- 
viUe is Forbes Farm, the home of Arion, Bingen. 
and Nancy Hanks. H. S. Russell, Elizur Smith, 
George B. Inches, C. C. Mayberry, Charles 
Whittemore, and C. W. Lasell stand high on 
the roster of Massachusetts breeders. 

Death treads closely on the heels of Time, and 
the breeding situation is constantly changing; 
but the trotting horse will live until the Union is 
broken into fragments or good roads are wrecked 
by a convulsion of nature or of sentiment 

The question of how to breed successfully 
is an important one, and the reader, I am 
sure, will thank me for introducing the views of 
a man of large experience. The appended letter 
was written to me from Boston, under date of 
September 22, 1903: — 

" It seems to me that in the Eastern states, 
at least, where it is so expensive to raise horses 
to the age at which they can be useful for racing 

Breeding and Breeding Establishments 331 

or for fast driving on the road, the key of the 
breeding problem is to have a few really good 
mares rather than a large number of less value. 
In other words, if I intended to invest ten thou- 
sand dollars in brood mares I would consider it 
a safer investment, with less chances of failure, to 
buy five mares worth two thousand apiece, than 
to buy twenty mares worth five hundred. But 
one must be a very good judge to be sure you 
get your value in the five mares. Before starting 
a trotting stud of my own, I had seen many 
failures by others, because breeding and speed 
were not sufficiently valued and sought after in 
sire and dam. I chose Anon because of his 
phenomenal speed; he had recently trotted as 
a two-year-old in 2.1 of to a high- wheel sulky 
with no ball bearings. His sire stood far ahead 
as a producer of 2.30 speed. His dam was sired 
by Nutwood, who was the second sire of 2.30 
speed. As the greatest producer of speed, there- 
fore, I put Electioneer as the best son of Hamble- 
tonian 10. One must remember that he stood at 
the extreme Western section of our country, that 
he was kept as a private stallion, and his wonder- 
ful showing was from the mares of one owner* 
" The other noted stallions have stood in locali- 

33^ The Trotting and the Pacing Horse 

ties where they could have the choice mares of 
a large circle of horsemen. Alexander's Ab- 
dallah, George Wilkes, Dictator, and Happy 
Medium seem to be the order of merit in which 
the other sons of Hambletonian should be 
ranked. The two-minute record for trotting and 
the 1.57 record for pacing show that we are fast 
getting to the time when we can claim that we 
have a trotting and pacing breed of horses in this 
country that approximates in breeding to the 
thoroughbred race-horse in England. 

"J. Malcolm Forbes.'* 

Since the above letter was written, Mr. Forbes, 
who stood for all that was praiseworthy in sport, 
has passed away, leaving a gap that is really diffi- 
cult to fill. 

The evolution of the trotter has been aided by 
trainers, drivers, sulky builders, harness makers, 
and track builders. The successful trainers of 
to-day are thoughtful, hard-working men, with a 
larger store of information than those of fonner 
decades. They understand balancing through 
shoeing better than their predecessors, and re- 
spect the rules drawn up for the preservation of 
discipline. The material that they handle is iax 

Breeding and Breeding Establishments 333 

better than that of twenty or thirty years ago, and 
quicker results are obtained. The tracks and 
vehicles are seconds faster than when Dexter 
was heralded as the invincible trotter of the 


Abben, 196, 25S. 

Abbot, The, 33, 76, 120^ 1 78, 222. 

Career of, 77. 

Ulostration of progression in 
horses, 223. 

Records by, 9, I2« 
Abdalbrino, 155. 
Abdallah (i), son of Mambrino, 37. 

Descendants of, 100, 144-145, 
194, 217, 243, 247. 

History of, 143-144. 
Abdallah (15), Alexander's, 32, 33, 
39, 78, 123, 126, 147, 332. 

Death of, 153. 

Descendants of, 154-155* 17I) 
257, 261. 

Goldsmith Maid sired by, 153. 

History of, 152-153. 
Abdallah, Conklin's, 65. 
Abdallah, Spaulding's, 38. 
Abdallah Belle, 34» 311. 
Abdallah Chief, Roe's, 171. 
Abdallah Mambrino, 257. 
Abdallah Park, 247, 325. 
Aberdeen, ancestry of, 214. 

History of, 186-188. 

Progeny of, 188-189. 
Adbell, 176, 228, 245-246. 
Addison, loa 
Adebel, 246. 
Adelaide, 65. 
Adele Gould, 197. 
Administrator, 253, 309. 
Adonis, 26 
Advance, 176, 

Advertiser, 176, 227, 245, 263. 

Valaation put on, by Leland 
Stanford, 228. 
Agitato, 197. 
Aida, 251. 
Ajax, 144. 
Albert France, 170. 
Alberto, 264. 
Albion, 153, 196, 258. 
Alcantara, ancestry of, 31, 121, 158, 
166, 252, 253. 

Career of, 166. 

Descendants of, 127, 264. 
Alcatraz, 262. 
Alcazar, 246, 270. 
Alcidalia, 188. 
Aldna, 264. 
Alcyo, 167. 
Alcyone, 121, 127, 158, 166^ 167, 

Aldine, 71, 85. 

Alexander (Arabian), 14a 

Alexander, A. J., 281. 

Dame Winnie bred by, 254. 

Miss Russell owned by, 132. 
Alexander, John K., 118. 
Alexander, R. A., 129, 153. 

Harold bought by, 194. 

Miss Russell bred by, 239. 

Morse Horse owned by, 227. 
Alexander's Abdallah. 5^^ Abdallah, 

Alfonso, 253. 
Alfred, 129. 
Alfred G., 179, 265. 




AlgiUb, 199. 
Alice Gameal, 147. 
AlicU, 253. 

Altt, 75. 1^ "I, 122, 126b 154, 19^ 
Career o( 75-76. 
ColnmbUn Expotition Stake won 

by, 102. 
Records by, 9, 12, 19a 

AUen, William Rnnell, 13, 15-16, 

18, 20, 73, 237. 

President of American Trotting 

Register Association, 282. 

Allendorf, 253. 

Allen Farm, PitUfield, Mass., 123, 

Residence at, of — - 

Elista, 237. 

Lancelot, 237-238. 

Roasignol, 262. 

Suffrage, 242^243. 
Allerton, 79, 80^ 119, 168. 
Alley, 170, 185. 
Alley, George B., 206, 297. 
Dexter bought by, 213. 
Alley Russell, 17a 
AUie West, 33, 78, 260. 
AUie Wilkes, 164. 
Alline, 253. 
Alma, 251. 
Alroack, 37, 229. 
Alma Mater, 31, 121, 127, 166, 252- 

Almater, 253. 
Almera, 251. 
Almeta, 253. 
Almonarch, 222. 
Almont, 31, 32, 33, 78, 124, 154. 
Descendants of, 124, 155-156, 
222, 253, 26a 
Almont Chief, 268. 
Almont Jr., Hamlin's, 222. 

Almont Star, 31. 
Alsatian, 253. 
AlU Belle, 244. 
Altamont, 156. 
Altamont Jr., Hamlin*s^ 1561 
Altivo, 255. 
Amazonia, 144. 

America, early horses in, 1-4, 86-95. 
Importation to, of — 

Grand Bashaw, 216. 

Bellfounder, 145. 

Mambrina, 142. 

Margrave, 253. 

Messenger, 135. 
American Belle, 178. 
American Boy, 37. 
American Commander, 36. 
American Eclipse, 116, 120^ 134, 143, 

201, 2ia 
Career of, 136. 
Descendants of, 171, 201, aoi, 

223, 229, 234, 254, 306. 
Pedigree of, 11 7-1 18. 
American Girl, 45, 107, 157, 217. 
American Saddle Horse Breeders' 

Association, foundation 

stock of, 305-306. 
American Star (37), 31, 32, 33, 38, 

100, 21a 
American Star, Conklin's, 213. 
American Star (14), See^s, 33, 49, 

78, 150, 168, 186, 190^ 

202, 206, 259, 264, 308. 
Pedigree of, 210-212. 

American Star, Stockholm's, 100, 2 lo. 

American Trotting Association, or- 
ganization of, 289. 

American Trotting Register Associ- 
ation, 282, 289. 

Americus, race of, against Dutchman 
and Lady Suffolk, 42-44. 



Amos (Cassius M. Clay Jr.), 217. 

Amy Lee, 332. 

Anaconda, 31a 

Andrew Jacluon, ao8, 216. 

Andms Hambletonian, 38, 141. 

An^n, T. C, breeding establish- 
ment of, 325. 

Annabel, 126-127. 

Annette, 72, 176. 

Annie G., 26a 

Annie Stevens, 264* 

Annie Wilton, 76. 

Ansel, 72, 178, 236. 
Pedigree of, 176. 

Anselma, 236. 

Answer, 178. 

Anteeo, 177, 178, 265. 

Descendants of, 179, 265-266. 

Anteros, 265. 

Antevolo, 265. 

Antonio, 172, 237. 

Arab, 214. 

Arabian, Croclcett's, 228, 229. 

Arabian, Leeds', 118. 

Aratos, 142, 254. 

Arbiter, 253. 

Archer, George W., 298. 

Arden Farms breeding establish- 
ment, E. H. Harriman's, 

Argonaut, 107. 

Ariel, 136. 

Arion, 75, 126, 175-176, 177, 179, 
«63» 3JO, 331. 
Price paid for, by J. M. Forbes, 

Two-year*old record by, 82. 

Aristos, 100. 

Arlington, 164. 

Artemas, 311. 

Arthnrton, 214, 259, 270. 

Artillery, 264. 

Artus, 262. 

Ashgrove Farm, George Wilkes at, 

Ashland, H. C McDowell's, 193, 

Ashland Wilkes, 164, 309, 320. 

Association for Promotion of Inter- 
ests of American Trotting 
Turf, formation of, 286- 

Associations, early racing, 285. 

Asteroid, 222. 

Astor, Henry, Messenger bought by, 

Astoria, 251. 
Athel, 263. 

AtlanU, 75, 76, 154, 196. 
Atlanta, horse shows at, 29a 
Attorney, 75, 76, 154. 

Descendants of, 195-196. 
Auburn Horse, the, 230-231. 
Aurora, 254. 
Australian, 253, 256. 
Autograph, 31. 
Awful, 37, 42. 
A. W. Richmond, 178, 265. 
Axtell, 79, 80, 120, 169, 207, 214. 
Axtellion, 261. 
Axworthy, 72, 261. 
Ayers, E. W., Beuzetta owned by, 

Ayres P., 6. 

Azmoor, 176. 

Azote, 102, 177, 178. 

Babcock, F. G., 327. 

Babraham, 89. 

Bacchus, 38. 

Backman, Charles, 125, 150, 206, 
215, 223, 233, 298, 299, 
Officer of National Association 
of Trotting Horse Breed- 
ers, 276. 



Bickman, Charles [continued^ — 

Monument erected to Green 
MountAin Maid by, aj8. 

Owner of — 
Antonio, 237. 

Green Monntain Maid, 234. 
Meaaenger Doroc, 171-172. 
Roaa Lee, 14a 

Quoted on pedigree of Seely*s 
American Star, 21 1-2 12. 
Bailey, J. W^ 326^ 329. 
Bain, H. N., 327. 
Bair, W. W., 7a 
Baker, I. V^ 276^ 327. 
Baker, I. V., Jr^ 298. 
Balch, W. P., 98. 
Bald Chief, 243. 
Baldwin, W. W., 325. 
Ballona, 262. 

Baltimore, races at, 27, 42. 
Barb Mare, Burton's, 253. 
Barefoot, ill. 
Barker, K. C^ 288. 
Barney Henry, 102. 
Baron Alexander, 253. 
Baron Bel, 178. 
Baron Crisp, 20a 
Baron de Shay, 17a 
Baron Wilkes, 158, 253, 330. 

Ancestry of, 121, 170. 

Foals by, 170. 

Pacers descended from, 309. 
Bashaw, Green's, 208-209. 
Bates, Benjamin, loa 
Bates, Edwin, 329. 
Battell, Joseph, 88, 89, 112, 329. 

Qted concerning the Pilot family, 

On Canadian pacing horses, 303. 

Pedigree of Seely's American Star 
according to» 210-21 1. 
Bayard, 131. 
Bay Barb, Croft's, 253. 

Bay Bokon, 135. 
Bay Chief, Alexander^ 243. 
Bay Kentucky Hunter, 229. 
Bay Messenger, 38, 78, 247. 
Beach, Jay, 328. 
Bean, Leri, 93. 
Beatrice, 76, 121, aoa 
Beautiful Bay (True Briton), 88-89. 
Beautiful Bells, 76^ 177, 222, 243. 
Ancestry of, 243-244. 
Bred to Electioneer, 175. 
Beck, 227. 

Beckwith, A. C, 329. 
Bedford, 142. 
Bedford, E. T., 85. 
Bell, Robert, 13a 
Bella, 151. 
Bell Bird, 176, 245. 
Bell Boy, 245. 

Belle, 81, 123, I5S» aoS, 259. 
Belle Brasfield, 65. 
Belle F., 109. 
Belleflower, 245. 
Belle Hamlin, 7, 84, 85, 221. 
Belle Kuser, 262. 
Belle Loupe, 123. 
Belle of Saratoga, 97. 
Belle of Wabash, 244. 
Belle Patchen, 121. 
Belle Thornton, 120, 222. 
Bellfounder (English), 145. 
Bellfounder (imported), 145, 173, 

194, 208, 222. 
Bellfounder, Brown's, 123. 
Bellfounder, Latourett's, 38. 
Belling, 224, 264. 
Bellnut, team record of, 7. 
Belmont, 123-125, 127, 154, 155, 

179, 241, 253, 309. 
Belmont, Williamson's, 26, 193. 
Belsire, 245. 
Bemay, 8, 85. 
Ben Franklin, loa 



Bennett, W. G., 329. 

Benton M., 205. 

Bertholf Hone, the, 171. 

Berthune, So^ 264. 

Bertrand, 142. 

Bessie WUton, 170. 

Betsey Baker, 38* 143-144, 285. 

Betsey Richards, 118. 

Betty Brown, 121, 310. 

Betty Leeds, 89. 

Benlah, 103, 195, 203, 256. 

Benzetta, 125, 166, 195, 256-257. 

Bicara, 124, 200^ 259. 

Bicycle sniky, advent of, 11-12, 74. 

Comparison of high-wheel sulky 
and, 18-22, 83. 

Effect of, on kite track, 5. 
Bigelow, Albert S., 302. 
Big Jim, 255. 

Billings, C K. G^ I2-I3f I9> 20, 27- 

Director of League of American 
Driving Clubs, 302. 

Double-harness teams owned by, 


Billy Barr, 99. 

Billy Hoskins, 229. 

Billy Parks, 205. 

Billy Root, 97, 164. 

Billy Townes, 182. 

Bingen, 75, 77, 182, 228, 33a 

Bird, 23a 

Birmingham, 120, 258. 

Bishop, Isaac, 138. 

Bishop, J. M., 138. 

Bishop, Wesley, 161. 

Bishop's Hambletonian. See Ham- 

bletonian. Bishop's. 
Bitter Root Farm, 263, 328. 
Black Bashaw, 38. 
^ack Bess, 185. 
Blackbird, 265. 
Blackburn Whip, 316. 

Black Diamond, 265. 

Black Douglas, 217. 

Black Hawk (5), 42, 97-98. 

Lady Suffolk bred to, 44. 

See also Vermont Black Hawk. 
Black Hawk, Blood's, 104, 222. 
Black Hawk, Dr. C. T. Bright's, 316. 
Black Hawk, Gist's, 305. 
Black Hawk, Vemol's, 208. 
Black Hawk Telegraph, 261. 
Black Kate, loa 
Blacklock strain, 48. 
Black Maria, 136. 
Black Rose, 257. 
Black Woful, 222. 
Blanch Star, 31. 
Blanco, 62. 
Blandina, 123. 
Blaze, 135. 
Blind Tuckahoe, 231. 
Blucher, 184. 

Blue Bull, family of, 225-226. 
Blue Grass Park, 146. 
Bodine, 53-61, 185, 224. 
BoUy Lewis, 212. 
Bolton Starling, 89. 
Bond, Colonel, 40. 
Bonita, 175. 
Bonner, A. A., 192. 
Bonner, David, 99, 147, 149, 150^ 

192, 221, 276. 
Bonner, Frederic, 18-19, 23. 
Bonner, Robert, 5, 212-213, 233, 
296, 297, 327. 

Flatbush Maid and Lady Palmer 
driven by, 297. 

Hambletonian (Rysdyk's) cured 
by, 15a 

Letter concerning sidewalks on 
the Speedway, 299. 

Owner of — 

Auburn Horse, the, 230-231. 
Edward Everett, 204. 



Chimci, 6, 76, 177, 222, 244-245. 
Cincinnati, races at, 42. 

Maud S. at, 69. 
Clara, 49, 150, I90-I9i> 214. 3^8. 

History of, 249-251. 
Qarabel, 222. 
Clark, Judson H., 327. 
Gark, Walter, 328. 
Qark Chief, 124-125. 
Clay, Henry, 114. 
Qay, James B., 114, 115. 
Clay, Colonel James E., Aberdeen 

bought by, 188. 
Gay, Smith's, 205. 
Gay family, the, 216-224, 263-264. 
Gay Pilot, 243. 
Clayton, 223. 
Geora, 84. 

Geveland, Gentlemen's Driving Gub 
of, 301-302. 

Goldsmith Maid-Smuggler race 
at, 51-62. 

Races at, 28, 29, 71, 85. 
Gimate, effect of, on hones, 162, 

Gingstone, 84. 
Goud Pointer, 314. 
Cobwebs, 178. 
Cock of the Rock, loi. 
Cockroft, James M., 113. 
Cohnfield, Isador, 84. 
Colbert, 166. 

Coles, General Nathaniel, 136. 
Colonel Axtell, 261. 
Colonel Kuser, 262. 
Colonel Morgan Mare, the, 243. 
Colonel Wood, 23a 
Columbia, 265. 

Columbian Exposition Stake, 102. 
Columbine, 178, 265-266. 
Columbus, 98. 

Columbus, Ohio, races at, 33, 79. 
Comanche, 112. 

Comee, 100. 

Conmiodore Vanderbilt, 156. 
Complete Trotting and Pacing Rec- 
ord, Chester's, 83, 94. 
Conductor, 258. 
Coney, 32a 
Confidence, 156. 
Conklin, R. Bw, 65. 
Conkltn, Samuel, Green Mountain 

Maid bred by, 233. 
Conklin's American Star, 213. 
Conley, John W., 191, 197. 
Connecticut, breeders in, 329. 
Conqueror, 4, 37. 
Conrad, 266. 
Constable, William, 136. 
Constantine, 264. 
Consternation, 80. 
Contention, 33, 78, 26a 
Controller, wagon record of, 7. 
Cook, William H., loa 
Copeland, 31, 182. 
Copeland Maid, 31. 
Copperbottom, 304. 
Cora Belmont, 242. 
Coral, 265. 

Corbitt, William, 168, 270^ 327. 
Coriander, 36. 
Corinne, 251. 

Corning, Erastus, 222, 327. 
Cosette Boy, 230. 
Countess Eve, 228. 
Count Kilrush (Santa Claus), 197. 
Crafty, 165. 
Crawford, W. H^ Lew Scott cam 

paigned by, 231. 
Cresceus, 14, 178. 

Ancestry of, 32-33, 78, 214, 260. 

Career of, 78-79. 

Records made by, 7, 9, 12, 33-34. 

The Abbot beats, 77. 

Wagon performances by, 7, 8. 
Cricket, 197. 



Crockett's Arabian. See Arabian. 

Crop, 134. 

Crown Prince, 35» 311. 

Crozier, John P., 329. 

Creeping Kate, 142. 

Crusader, 78. 

Cubano, 30S. 

Cummings, F. M., 208. 

Cunningham, ^* Bill,'* 160. 

Cupid, 26. 

Cuyler, 140, 199-200. 

Cuylercoast, 200^ 259. 

Cynthia, 230. 

Dahlia, 133. 

Daingerfield, Bilajor F. A., Sam Purdy 

owned by, 219. 
Daly, J. W., 327. 
Daly, Marcus, 263, 328. ' 
Damania, team record of, 7. 
Dame Trot, 235. 
Dame Winnie, 80, 176. 

Pedigree of, 254, 256. 
Dame Wood, 123, 309. 
Damsel, Miller's, 118, 136, 143. 
Danforth, A. G^ 328. 
Daniel Lambert, loo-ioi, 104. 
Daniel Webster, 265. 
Dan Patch, 14, 320, 322. 

Ancestry of, 34, 121, 311. 

Career of, 34-35» 3"» 

Records of, 35> 311. 
Dansereau, Louis, 130. 
Dare Devil, 120, 178. 
Dariel, loi. 
Dark Night, 167. 
Darley Arabian, 118, 143. 
Darling, A. B., 73, 298, 327. 
Dauntless, 205. 
Davy Crockett, 81, 306, 316. 
Day Bell, 245. 
Day Dream, 199. 
Daylight, 251. 

Defiance, 40. 

Dekasala, 268. 

De la Vergne, J. C, 298. 

Delano, L. G., 328. 

Del Mar, 31, 177, 182. 

Delmarch, 204-205. 

Delmonico, 247. 

Denmark, 305. 

Denning Allen, 102. 

Denny, R. S., 100. 

Derby, American-bred hone wins 

the English, 48. 
Derby Princess, 197. 
Deucalion, 151. 
Devereux, H. K., 301-302. 
Dewy & Stewart, breeding establish- 
ment of, 328. 
Dexter, 45, 49, 249, 333. 

Ancestry of, 150, 191, 213. 

Buffalo record of (2.17^), 151. 

Career of, 49, 213-214. 

Death of, 50. 

Effect of career of, on Rysdyk's 
Hambletonian, 150. 

Ethan Allen and running mate 
vx., 98. 

George M. Patchen Jr. beaten 
by, 292. 

Harness record of, 8. 

Lady Thorn a rival of, 116. 

RoUa Golddust beaten by, 293. 

Wagon record of, 7. 
Dexter Prince, 249-25a 
Diamond, 89. 
Diana, 133. 

Dickerman, W. B., 298, 327. 
Dick Swiveller, 84. 
Dictator, 74, 79, 80, 308, 332. 

Descendants of, 132, 190, 193, 
250-251, 252, See Jay. 

History of, 190-193. 
Dillard Denmark, 318-319. 



DiUird the Third, 318. 

Diomed, loo^ 103, 117, r36^ I47t I7>> 

J02, 210, ajo, 239, 254. 
DioBe, 258. 

Direct, 193, 250^ 308, 322. 
Direct Hal, 250. 
Directly, 193, 250, 308. 
Director, 125, 192, 193, 250^ 308. 
Directum, 80, 125, 193, 25a 
Directum Kelly, 250-251. 
Diit-ihieldi, 5-6. Sa Shields. 
Dixie, 134, 182. 
Doble, 81. 
Doble, Budd, Dexter trained and 

driven by, 49, 98, 213. 
Goldsmith Maid driven by, 51-61. 
Nancy Hanks driven by, 74, 190. 
Dr. Leek, 198. 
Dole, Charles &, 194. 
Dolly, 125, 193, 208. 
I>olly Dillon, 26b 198. 
DoUy Mills, 264. 
Dolly Smith, 258-259. 
Dolly Spanker, 156, 157. 
Dolly Star, 203. 
Domestic, 185. 
Don Derby, 197. 
Don Juan, 42. 
Don Quixote, 41. 
DoolitUe, E. G., 276. 
DoreU, Daniel, 225. 
Dorsey, L. L., no, in, 286, 325. 
Doubt, 268. 
Douglas, E. H., quoted concerning 

Tenneisee pacing hones, 

Dousman, H. L., 328. 
Draco, 98, 106, 108. 
Draco Prince, 156. 
Dreamwold Farm, Lawson's, 330. 
Drew Horse, the, 38. 
Driver, 185. 
Drover, 321. 

Dubois, L. B., 122. 

Dubois, Major O^ 130. 

Dubois Brothers, breeding establiih- 
ment of, 328. 

Duke of Brunswick, G. M. Jewett 
quoted concerning, 267. 
Red Wilkes contrasted with, 268- 

Duke Pstchen, 268. 

Dunlap, George, 1 16. 

Durkee, Harrison, 191-193, 327. 

Duryea, Peter, 325. 

Dusenbuiy, Theodore, Seely's Amer- 
ican Star given to, 212. 

Dutcher, John B^ 327. 

Duroc, 37, 100, 103, 117, 136, 171. 
Descendants of, 202, 210, 33a 
See American Star, Seely's. 

Dutchman, 6^ 8, 42. 

Race against Americus and Lady 

Eagletta, 228. 

Early Bird, 195, 256. 

Katitman, T. C, 297. 

East Saginaw, races at, 320. 

Eaton Horse, the, 39. 

Echo, 308. 

Echora, 308. 

Eclipie (American). See American 

Eclipse (English), 136. 
Eclipse, Lawrence's, 217-218. 
Ed Annan, 205. 
Eden Stock Farm, in. 
Edgardo, 203, 26a 
Edge Hill, Colonel Richard West's, 

124, 191, 325. 
Edgemark, 201. 
Edsall, Seely, 152-153. 
Edward, 84. 

Edward Everett, 198, 204-205. 
Edwards, William, 51, 71, 301. 



Edwin Forrest (bay horse), 74, Si, 

120» 222, 229. 
Edwin Forrest (black gelding), 4, 8. 
Ed Winter, 205. 
Edwin Thome, 197. 
Egbert, aoo-201. 
Egotist, 127, 179. 
Egthome, 200. 
Elaine, bought by Robert Bonner, 

» 73-1 74- 
Descendants of, 181, 236. 

Elastic Pointer, 314. 

Eldridge, 205. 

Eldridge, Richard, 113. 

Eleata, 250. 

Election, 228, 253. 

Electioneer, 31, 32, 72, 76, 80, 81, 

82, 199. 

Ancestry of, 173. 

Beautiful Bells bred to, 244-246. 

Breeding of, 234. 

Characteristics of progeny, 174. 

Death of, 177. 

Descendants of, 127, 132, 173- 
183, 222, 228, 235, 242, 
246, 255, 263, 265, 331. 

Prices paid for eleven colts by, 
Electra, 318. 
Electric Bel, 245. 
Electricity, 132. 
Electrite, 127, 177, 179. 
Electrix, 181, 242, 262. 
Elina, 237. 
&ise, 236. 
Elision, 237. 
Elista, 237. 
Elite, 236-237. 
Eliza, 142. 
El Mahdi, 214. 
Eloise Hersch, 268. 
Elsie, 236. 
Elsie Goody 225. 

Elvira, 121, i99-2oa 

Emblem, 214, 2^3. 

Emelia, 253. 

Emery, C F., 328. 

Emma, 218, 254. 

Emma Artebum, 127. 

Emma Mills, 215. 

Emma Offut, 207. 

Enchantress, 194. 

Engineer, 41, 135, 141, 229. 

Engineer 2d, 41, 243. 

Enquirer, 48, 177. 

Envoy, 76. 

Ephraim Smooth, 40. 

Equinox, 218. 

Equity, 6, 85. 

Erdenheim, Aristides Welches, 196. 

Graves of Flora Temple and 
Leamington at, 48. 
Ericsson, 81, 197. 
Eros, 258, 263. 
Estabella, 127. 
Estella, 166, 252, 256. 
Estill, R. C, 325. 
EstiU, W. W., 325. 
Ethan Allen, 47, 97, 9^-99. 

George Wilkes beats, 156^ 160. 

Trotters sired by, 99, 262. 
Ethan Allen, Holobird's, loi. 
Ethan Allen, Woodard's, loo-ioi. 
Ethelberta, 263. 
Ethel Down, 262. 
Ethelwyn, 195, 252. 
European, 227. 
Eva, 246. 

Evans, Robert, 92, 93. 
Eventide, 80^ 122. 
Everett House, New York, a note- 
worthy meeting at, 286- 
Eureka, Coleman's, 305. 
Exall, Henry, 329. 
Exchequer, 254, 255-256. 



Expectation, 3I1 33. 
Expedition, 177, 242, 262. 

Cmreer of, 181. 
Extisy, 195. 
Exton Eclipse, 203. 
Eyelet, 308. 

Fairbairn, R. A^ 327. 
Fairlawn Stud Farm, W. T. \ritben>, 
loi, 188, 325. 

Aberdeen at, 188. 

Happy Medium at, i89-i9a 
Fair Oaks estate, 267. 
Fan, 222. 
Fancy, 216, 309. 
Fannella, 179. 
Fannie, 33. 
Fanny, 133, 204. 
Fanny Cook, loa 
Fanny EUsler, 321. 
Fanny Fern, 318. 
Fanny G^ 252, 254. 
Fanny Wilcox, 201. 
Fanny Witherspoon, 124, 197-198. 
Fantasy, 126, 178. 
Farrington Horse, the, 105. 
Fashion, 265. 

Fashion Course, Dexter at, 49. 
Fashion Stud Farm, H. N. Smith's, 
103, 104,116,134,327. 

Disbandment of, 204. 

Jay Gould (stallion) at, 202-203. 

Rosebud at, 261. 
Faugh-a-Ballagh, 48. 
Favorite, 154. 
Favorite Wilkes, 154-155. 
Fawcett, A. F., Dexter owned by, 

Fayette Denmark, 318. 
Fearing, William H., 203, 327. 
Feamaught, 106-108, 156. 
Feamaught Jr., 107. 
Felter, Harry, 156, 157. 

Fidol, 201. 

Field's Royal George, 227. 

Figurante, 135. 

Figure (Justin Morgan), 89. 

Figure Mare, the, 137. 

Fillmore, 7. 

Finegan, P. A., 197. 

First Consul, 216. 

Fisette, Pierre, 13a 

Flatbush Maid, 297. 

Flaxy, 31. 

Fleetwing, 247. 

Fleety Golddust, ill. 

Flirt, 76. 

Hora, 67, 68, 185, 223. 

Flora Belle, 319. 

Flora Gardiner, 214. 

Flora Temple, 45, 140^ 141, 213. 

Ancestry of, 46, 131. 

Career of, as trotter, 46^47. 

Death of, 48. 

Harness records of, 8. 

Offspring of, 48. 
FlorizeU 136, 142. 
Floyd Brothers, breeders, 329. 
Fly, dam of Lou Milton, 28, 3a 
Flying Childers, 135. 
Flying Qoud, Jackson's, 203. 
Flying Qoud, Ward's, 102. 
Flying Morgan, 170. 
Fogg, G. M., 328. 
Forbes, J. Malcolm, 5-6, 18, 74, 75. 

Death of, 332. 

Price paid for Arion by, 270, 

Letter of, on successful breeding, 

On wind-shields, 82-83. 

Vice-president of Gentlemen's 

Driving Qub of Boston, 


Forbes, M. S., 288. 

Forbes Farm, 75, 33a 

Ford, J. Howard, 327. 



Foreigner, 177. 

Forest Pferk, Dr. L. Kerr's, 325. 
Forkhurst Farm, C. H. Kernor's, 330. 
Fort, G. W., Prince Alert bred by, 

Foster, Charles J., quoted, 42-44. 

Foster St. Lawrence, 232. 

Fourth of July, 144. 

Fox, 135. 

France, W. C, 325. 

Frank, trotting record of, 6. 

Frank Agan, 310, 323. 

Frank Forrester, 144. 

Fred Crocker, 81, 175. 

Fred Folger, 214. 

Fred Kohl, 127, 168. 

Frolicksome Fanny, 254. 

Gage, Dayid A., 189, 288. 
Gail Hamilton, 170. 
Galatea, 107, 251. 
Galloway, R. F., 189, 326. 
Galway, James, 67. 
Gambetta Wilkes, 158. 

Pacers and trotters sired by, 169, 

Gano, 116, 117, 118, 136. 

Garmendia, C M., 329. 

Garnett, W., ill. 

Gazelle, 151, 201, 223. 

Gazette, 166. 

Gean Smith, 205. 

Geers, E. F., The Abbot trained by, 

Three abreast driven by, 85. 

General Benton, 72, 176, 177, 236, 

General Butler, 49, 156, 213. 

General Knox, ancestry of, 102-103. 

Descendants of, 259, 261. 

Grave of, 104. 

Lady Thorn bred to, 117. 

Trotters sired by, 103-104. 

General Taylor, 4, 39. 
General Washington, 103, 117, 261. 
Geneva, 214. 

Gentlemen's Driving Clubs, 301-302. 
George B. Daniels, 230. 
George Cooley, 217. 
George M. Patchen, ancestry of, 39, 
ii8, 255. 

Career of, 218. 

Descendants of, 196, 218, 221, 
247, 260. 

Ethan Allen beats, 98. 

Flora Temple vs,, 47. 

Saddle record of, 6. 
George M. Patchen Jr., 49, 218- 

George Palmer, 107. 
George Wilkes, 32, 332. 

Ancestry of, 156, 158. 

Descendants of, 31, 34, 80, 81, 

126-127, 158' 2^9 252* 

Foals by, 157-158. 

History of, 156-163. 

Pacers sired by, 158, 307-308. 

Stallions by, 158, 16^170. 
Gertrude Russell, 255. 
Gideon, 207. 

Gifford Morgan, 37, 109-1 10. 
Gipsey, 135. 
Gladiator, 225. 
Glencoe, 76, 107, 177, 182, 251, 254, 

Glenn, Armstrong, Sweepstakes 

raised by, 313. 
Glenview Stock Farm, J. C. McFer- 

nm's, 199, 325. 
Globe, 7, 85, 221. 
Glory, 188. 
Gloster, 185. 
Gocher, W. H., 288. 

"Tales of the Turf" by, quoted, 

Godfrey Patchen, 218. 



Godolphin Anbuui, 89^ iiS; 1359 

" Godolphin of America," Sir Archy 

ctOed, 143. 
Golddnst tribe, the, iio-iix 
Goldsmith, Alden, 184-18$, 191, 286^ 

Goldsmith Maid, 45t 66, 155, 154, 

Career of, 51. 

Dexter beats, 49, 213. 

General Washington bred to^ 103. 

Harness records of^ 8. 

Race against Smuggler, 51-62. 
Goliah, 38, 120. 
Goodhall, D., 286. 
Gooding, T. W., 230. 
Gooding, W., 23a 
Gooding's dampion, 2301 
Goodwin Watson (Strathmore), 196. 
Gordon, W. J., 84. 
Gorton, F. S., 328. 
Goss, Darid, 93. 
Goss, Joel, 93. 
Goss, John, 93. 
Gonld, Jay, Jndge Brigham Qay 

Gould) bought by, 202. 
GoTemor nendree, 208. 
Grand Bashaw, importation of, 216. 
Grand Circuit, origins of, 292-293. 
Grandmother, 201, 223. 
Grant, Hugh J., 297-298, 327. 
Grant, James, president of National 
Trotting Association, 288. 
Grant, U. S., rides behind Dexter, 

St Julien risited by, 67-68. 

Grattan, 102. 

Gray, J. W., 276. 

Gray, Lugerean, 129. 

Gray Eagle, 72, 142, 165, 228, 318. 

Gray Eddy, 227. 

Grayligfat, 261. 

Gray Roae, 140^ 199. 

Gray Trouble, 44, 140. 

GrMt Eastern, 6^ 63, 65. 

Great Spirit, 265. 

Green, *" Charley," Lucille Golddnst 

driyen by, 53-61. 
Green, John E., 324. 
Green, Joseph A., 208. 
Greenlander, 257. 
Green Mountain Maid, 32, 173. 

Ancestry of, 140^ 223, 233-234. 

Descendants of, 181, 234-239. 

Foals of, sired by Messenger 
Duroc, 235-238. 

History o^ 233-238. 

Monument over grave of, 238. 
Green Mountain Morgan, 109-1 iol 
Gretchen, 207. 

Grinnell, William R., 229-2301 
Griniiell*s Champion. Set Cham- 
Griswold, A. W., 196, 
GroTcr, C E., president Qereiaiid 

Driving Qub» 301. 
Guinette, 207, 308. 
Gurgle, 319. 
Gussie Wilkes, 8a 
Guy, 84, iio»i25,2i4. 
Guy Miller, 247. 
Guy Wilkes, 121, 168, 214. 

Haggin, J. R, 327. 

Hal Braden, 314. 

Hal Chaffin, 314. 

Halcom, Peter's, 305. 

Hal Dillard, 314. 

Hale, Silas, 109. 

Hall, Albert C, 12-13, 329. 

Hall, Frank G., 302. 

Hall, George B., 286. 

Hall, George C, 202, 288. 

Hal Pointer, 313, 314, 322. 



Hambletonian, Bishop's, 36, 102, 103. 
Ancestry of, 137. 
Death of, 139. 

Descendants of, 138, 145, 227. 
Hambletonian, Harris's, 31, 37, 139- 
Descendants of, 140, 196, 227. 
Hambletonian, Jadson's, 141. 
Hambietonian, Rysdyk's, 25, 30, 32, 
Ancestry of, 100^ 125, 138, 145, 

208, 222. 
Descendants of, 152-172, 184, 
186, 191, 194, 196, 198- 
»7» 234, 235, 247, 259, 

264, 309- 
Description of, 146. 
Foals by, 148-149. 
Green Mountain Maid bred to, 

History oi, 145-15 1. 

Monument at grave of, 153. 

Pictures of, 149- 15a 

Trotters sired by, 151. 
Hambletonian, Wood's, 154. 
Hambletonian Bashaw, 208. 
Hambletonian-Mambrino Chief de- 
scendants, 125-126. 
Hambrino, 204, 253. 
Hamlin, C. J., 73, 76, 286^ 288, 297, 

Champions in double harness 

owned by, 85. 
George M. Patchen a foundation 

horse for, 221. 
George Wilkes underrated by, 

Offer of, for Dictator, 192. 
Quoted on progression in horses, 

Hamlin Pktchen, 76, 221, 222. 
Hammond, D. S., 327. 

Hampden P^rk, SpringSeld, built, 

Handspring, 76. 
Hanna, H. M., 301. 
Hannah D., 109. 
Hannah Price, 214, 259. 
Hannis, 128, 197. 
Happy Medium, 26, 27, 74, 79, 141, 

History of, i89-i9a 
Hare, M. L., 328. 
Harker, Joseph, 69. 
Harkness, L. V., 326. 
Harold, 70, 132, 195-196, 200, 242, 
252, 256, 259, 262. 

History of, 194-196. 

Maud S. sired by, 242. 

Miss Russell bred to, 194-195. 
Harriet Clay, 127. 
Harrietta, 127-128, 167, 224, 252. 
Harriman, Edward H., 123, 326. 

John R. Gentry owned by, 31a 

Stamboul bought by, 248. 
Harris, Russell, 139. 
Harris, S. T., quoted, 107. 
Harry Bassett, 48. 
Harry Qay (45), 67, 173, 185, 198, 

201, 217, 263, 264. 
Harry Qay, son of Neaves's Cassius 
M. Clay, 217, 222-223, 233. 
Harry Qay, son of Strader's Casiius 

M. Qay, 218. 
Harry Mitchell, 232. 
Harry Wilkes, 158. 
Hartford, 195, 320. 
Hartford, races at, 66, 68, 70, 185. 
Harvey Mare, the, 104. 
Hattie Hogan, 223. 
Hattie Wood, 201, 223. 
Hattie Woodward, 187. 
Havemeyer, H. O., 128, 264, 327. 
Hawkins, James, 93. 
Hawkins, Jonathan, 190^ 213, 249. 



Hawthorne, 205. 

Hayes, Samuel, 75. 

Hayes, Walter I., 328. 

Head'em, 218, 255. 

Heath, James, 105. 

Hector, 37, 42, 98, 153-154- 

Hedgeford, 305, 318. 

Heinsohn, D., 129, 130. 

Heir at Law, 6, 120, 137. 

Helen Grace, 264. 

Helen T., 263. 

Hendrickson, W. C, 337. 

Henry, 136, 210. 

Henry, H. S., 329. 

Henry day, 38, 157, 216, 3l8. 

Henry Hal, 312. 

Hercules, 176. 

Hero, 140. 

Herod, 136^ 142, 143. 

Heroine, 186. 

Hero of Thomdale, 186. 

Herr, Dr. L., 116, 11 8-1 19, 324. 

Heustis, David, 102. 

Hi, 222. 

Hiatoga, 38. 

Hiatoga family, the, 231-232. 

Hickok, Orrin A., 67, 68. 

St. Jttlien trained and driven by, 

Santa Qaus campaigned by, 197- 
Highland Chief, 197. 
Highlander, 318. 
Highland Maid, 8, 47. 
Hill, David, 97. 
Hills Black Hawk. See Vermont 

Black Hawk. 
Hinda Rose, 175, 176, 244. 
Hippenheimer, 259. 
Hobart, W. S., 254, 327. 
Hofiman, C F., Jr., 299. 
Hoffman, W. M. V., 298. 
Hogarth, 223. 

Hoke, Andrew, no. 

Hoke Mare, the, 112. 

Holcomb, J. W., 98. 

Holt, Ln B., 329. 

Home Farm, H. S. RnsscU's, 107. 

Honest Allen, 101-102. 

Honest Anse, Flora Temple bcati^ 

Honest George, 85. 

Honey H., 256. 

Hooton, 227. 

Hopeful, 65, 218. 

Hopples, the use of, 315. 

Horace Jones, 160. 

Horse shows, 290-291. 

Horton Clay, 264. 

Hotspur, 99. 

Housman, A. A., 327. 

Houston, J. B., 299. 

Howard, R. L., 327. 

Howe, George W., 292. 

Hoyt, E., 152. 

Hudson River Stock Farm, Jacob 
Ruppert's, 170. 

Huldah, 168. 

Hunting Park Association, Phila- 
delphia, 285. 

Huntley & Qark, breeders, 328. 

Huntress, 185, 214. 

Hurly Burly, 203, 26a 

Hurrah, 177. 

Hyacinth, 251. 

Idol, aoi, 223. 
Idolf, 201. 
Idolita, 246. 
Ijams, W. P., 20, 328. 

President of American Trotting 
Association, 289. 
Illinois, stud farms in, 328. 
Illinois Medoc, 219. 
Imogene, 214, 259. 
Impeachment, 262. 



Imperial Hal, 313. 
Impetuous, 195, 25 
Inbreeding considered, 125-127. 
Inches, George B., 330. 
Independence, 84, 103-104. 
Independence, la., kite track, 5, 322. 

Races at, 74, 79. 
Indiana stud farms in, 328. 
Indianapolis, 134. 
Indian Chief, 104, 305. 
Indian Hill Stock Farm, R. S. 

Veech's, 257, 325. 
Indicator, ill. 
Inheritor, 203. 
Instant, 206. 
Iowa, breeding establishments in, 

Iran AHo, 182, 236, 255. 
Iron Duke, Golddust beats, in. 
Irma G., 257. 
Iron's Cadmus, 62, 63, 99, 234, 261, 

Iroquois^ 48. 
Irwin, D. 6., 234. 
Ithuriel, 164. 

Ives, Brayton, breeding farm of, 327. 
Ixia, 203-204. 

Jack Rossiter, 42. 
James K. Polk, 42. 
James I^, 250. 
James, Simon, 329. 
Jamie, 268. 
Janvier, W. R., 327. 
Jay Bird, 80, 158, 168, 256. 
Jay-eye-see, 5, 11, 308-309. 

Ancestry of, 132, 192, 250. 

Career of, 70. 

Records by, 9. 
Jay Gould, 151, 202-204, 214. 

Foals sired by, 203, 260, 261, 262. 

Onward beaten by, 166. 
J. C. Simpson, 265, 266. 

Jeanne d*Arc, 130. 

Jennie Cameron, 89. 

Jennie Johnson, 127. 

Jennison, A., 105. 

Jennison Horse, the, 105. 

Jenny, 228. 

Jerome Eddy, 192, 201. 

Jersey Highlander, 227. 

'Jessie Pepper, 126. 

Jewel, 308. 

Jewett, George M., 328. 

Quoted concerning the Duke of 
Brunswick line, 267-268. 
Jewett, Henry C, 298, 327. 
Jewett, Hugh J., 267. 
Jewett Farm, Jerome Eddy at, 192. 
Joe Bunker, 214. 
Joe Elliot, 205. 
Joe Patchen, 34, I2i, 310-31 1, 320, 

Joe West, 310. 
Joe Young, 310. 
John A. McKerron, 168, 250. 
John Goldsmith, 26. 
John Morgan, Flora Temple beats, 

John Nelson, 255. 

John R. Gentry, 123, 164, 309-310, 

320, 321, 322, 323. 

John S. Gark, 232. 

Johnson, J. M., 329. 

Johnson, Peter, Bodine driven by, 

John Stewart, 4. 

Johnston, 320, 322. 

Johnston, P. P., president National 
Trotting Association, 18, 
20, 220, 288, 325. 

John Waxy, 316. 

Jones, Frank, 329. 

Jones, Morris J., 76. 

Jones, William, 40. 

Josephine Young, 310. 



Joiephtts, J08. 

Joilyii Hone, the, 19. 

Jaanita, 256. 

Jubilee de Janiette, 104. 

Jubilee Lambeiti 104. 

Judex, 256. 

Judge, The, 264. 

Judge Brigham (Jay Gould), 203. 

Judge Fullerton, 53-61, 65, 204. 

Judge Keeler, 127, 259. 

Julia Aldrich, 7. 

Julia Johnson, 312. 

Juliet, 128. 

Jupe, 164. 

Jupiter, 38. 

Justina, 7, 84, 85, 221. 

Justin Morgan, 31, 32* 

Descendants of, 96-1 1 2, 203, 207. 

Description of, 90-92. 

Effect of Rysdyk's Hambletonian 
on, 151. 

History of, 88-94. 

Pacing horses daim blood of, 

Pedigree of, 89. 

Stud career of, 93. 

Ka, daughter of Rossignol, 262. 
Kalamazoo, races at, 47. 
Kamala, 262. 
Kansas, breeding establishments in, 

Kansas Chief, 65. 
Kansas City, horse shows at, 29a 
Kate, 197, 207. 
Kate Allen, 316. 
Kate Crockett, 227. 
Kate McCall, 225. 
Katharine A., 188. 
Kathleen, 195, 252. 
Katie Middleton, 119. 
Katy Darling, 147, 152-153. 
Kearsarge, 251. 

Keene, James IL, Sam Pnrdy 

bought by, 219. 
Kennedy, C. W., 131. 
Kenton, 32a 

Kentucky, breeding establishments 
!«• 325-326. 

Pacing horses in, 304. 
Kentucky Clay, 31, 32. 
Kentucky Futurity Stake, 179, 257. 
Kentucky Hunter, 26^ 46. 
Kentucky Prince, iio^ 124,249,251. 

Descendants of, 125, 266^ 
Kentucky Queen, 110. 
Kentucky Trotting Horse Associa- 
tion, the, 324. 
Kentucky Union, 188. 
Kentucky Whip, 76. 
Kentucky Wilkes, 97, 158. 

Description of, 165. 
Keokuk, 243. 

Kemer, Charles H., 297, 299, 33a 
Ketcham, George H., 78, 328. 
King, The, 158, 169. 
King Darlington, 261. 
King Rene, 123-124. 
King Tom, 254. 
King Wilkes, 243, 262. 
Kiosk, 237. 

Kip, Lawrence, 298, 299. 
Kirkman, V. L., 328. 
Kiswick, 203. 
Kit, 313. 
Kite tracks, advent of, 11. 

Passing of, 5, 79. 
Kittson, N. W., 48, 328. 
Kitty Bayard, 131. 
Kitty Patchen, 121, 31a 
Kitty Temple, 48. 
Klatawah, 197. 

Knapp, Shepherd F., 276^ 297. 
Knight, W. H., 18, 289. 
Knox, J. W., Manette bred by, 263. 
Kosciusko, 122, 143. 



Kremlin, 8o» 122-123, 126, 195, 242, 
251, 262. 

Career of, 195. 

Stallion record of, 24S. 
Krishna, 262. 

Ladew, £. R., 327. 
Lady Abdallah, 155. 
Lady Amanda, 176. 
Lady Banker, 151. 
Lady Bunker, 121, 167, 168. 
Lady Byron, 226. 
Lady de Jamette, 104. 
Lady Dexter, 249. 
Lady Dake, 48. 
Lady Dann, 168, 214. 
Lady Frank, 80, 168. 
Lady Fulton, 144. 
Lady Griswold, 170. 
Lady Hamilton, 227. 
Lady Horton, 264. 
Lady Hunter, 65. 
Lady Kin, 262. 
Lady Lockwood, 217. 
Lady Mackay, 247. 
Lady Maud, 103. 
Lady Merritt, 198. 
Lady Moscow, 42, 44, 10&-109. 
Lady Nutwood, 242. 
Lady of the Manor, 178. 
Lady Palmer, 297. 
Lady Patriot, 184, 186. 
Lady Pilot, 243. 

Lady Russell, descendants of, 181, 
242, 262. 

Exhibition of, at St. Louis Fair, 

Electioneer bred to, i8i. 
Lady Sanford, 202, 214. 
Lady Sears, 214. 
Lady Shannon, 14a 
Lady Smathers, 108. 
Lady Stout, 119, 264-265. 

Lady Suffolk, 4, 8, 9, 37, 243. 
First appearance of, 41. 
Racing career of, 41-44. 
Skin of, as an advertisement, 

Lady Surrey, 216. 

Lady Sutton, 4, 108-109. 

Lady Thorn, 32, 45, 116, 156, 261. 

Career of, 11 6-1 17. 

Dexter beats, 49, 213. 

General Knox bred to, 103. 

George Wilkes beats, 159. 
Lady Thorn Jr., 197. 
Lady Vernon, 47. 
Lady Victory, 42. 
Lady Waltemire, 196. 
Lady Whitman, 212-213. 
Lance, 136, 254, 265. 
Lancelot, 237. 
Lancess, 254. 
Lancet, 97. 
Lang, Gerhardt, 327. 
Lang, T. L., 103. 
Langmaid, William, 93. 
Larabee, C X., 328. 
Lark, 257-258. 
Lasell, C W., 330. 
Lauman, George, 288. 
Laurin, Cyrille, 329. 
Lawrence, Leonard W., 41. 
Lawson, Thomas W., 330. 
Lea, 26. 
League of the American Driving 

Leamington, 48. 
Leland, 214. 
Lena N., 198. 
Lena Pepper, 126. 
Leola, 258. 

Lesa Wilkes, 168, 214, 259-26a 
Lever, 195, 256. 
Levity, 195, 256. 
Lewis & Albough, breeders, 328. 




Lewis Brothers, breederSp 325. 

Lewis Hulse Mare, the, 184. 

Lew Sayers, 217. 

Lew Scott, 231. 

Lexington, 48, 72, 107, 176, 195, 
222, 251, 256, 257, 305. 
Ancestry of, 143, 147. 
Electioneer's claim to, as ances- 
tor, refuted, 173. 

Lexington, Ky., races at, 29, 34-35» 
70, 81, 195. 

Liberty, 103. 

Liberty Bell, 245, 251. 

Lieutenant Bassinger, 244. 

Light-harness horses, development 
of, 9-10. 

Lightning, 206. 

Lilburn, Adam, 204. 

Linsley, D. C, quoted, 90-92, 109. 

Little Albert, 102. 

Little Boy, 320. 

Little Brown Jug, 312, 313, 320, 

Little Ida, 81. 

Little John, 142. 

Little Miss, 195, 252. 

Liz Mardis, 254, 256. 

Lizzie, 312. 

Lizzie Walker, 206. 

Lizzie Whips, 177. 

Lobasco, 102. 

Lock Goss Horse, the, 106. 

Lockheart, 241, 251. 

Lo Crine, 268. 

Locustwood Farm, W. L. Brown's, 

London, 119. 

Long-distance performances, 4. 

Ix»ngfellow, 48. 

Long Island Black Hawk, 208. 

Longstreet, D. F., 288. 

Lord Qinton, 102. 

Lord Derby, 120, 222. 

Lord Russell, 80, 195, 242. 
Ijorillard Mare, the, 203. 
Lottie Loraine, 308. 
Lou, 79. 
Lou Dillon, 4, 14, 82-83. 

Ancestry of, 26-27, ^ 3°^ 1S6, 
190, 198. 

Career of, 27-29. 

Price paid for, 27. 

Protest against 2X>5 record of, 

Records by, 4f 7> 9f 12-13, 29-3a 
Louis Napoleon, 201, 223. 
Louisville, horse shows at, 29a 

Races at, 47. 
Lou Milton, 26, 28, 19a 
Love, Joel, 153. 
Love's Pilot, 318. 
Lowland Mary, 213. 
Lucia, 203, 260. 
Lucile, 256. 
Lucille Golddust, 52-61. 

Oflbpringof, 1 11- 112. 
Ludlle's Baby, 112. 
Lucy, 157, 203, 218, 260, 319, 3aa 
Lucy R., 247. 
Lula, 52-61, 227. 
Lula Wilkes, 227-228. 
Lynne Bel, 178. 
Lyon Mare, the, 171. 

Mabel, 32, 78, 26a 

Mabel L., 259. 

Mac, race against Lady Suffolk, 44. 

McCarty, John, 327. 

Joe Patchen owned by, 310. 
McDonald, William, 47. 
McDowell, " Andy," 75. 
McDowell, Major Henry C, 281, 

Dictator bought by, 192-193. 

Mace, "Dan," driver and trainer, 
53-6^9«» 100,117. 134- 



McFerran, James C, 199, 281, 324. 

McGibbon, T. J., 325. 

McHenry, M. H., Dan Patch driven 

by, 3» >• 
Mackay, John W., 81. 
McKinney, 167, 252, 320. 
McKinstry Mare» the, 249. 
McLanghlin, H. £., quoted, 23-24. 
McLaughlin, "Sam,'' trainer, 159. 
McNitt, James, 227. 
Madam Temple, 46, 131. 
Madden, John E., 325. 
Madeleine, 151, 214. 
Madison Square Garden, horse shows 

at, 290. 
Mag Addison, 221. 
Mag Ferguson, 124. 
Maggie Gaines, 222. 
Magic Flute, 203. 
Magna Charta, 109. 
Magnolia, 102. 
Magnum Bonnm, 141. 
Mahogany, 203. 
Maid, 258. 

Maid of Ashland (Lady Thorn), 116. 
Maiden, 228. 
Maid of Fair Oaks, 268. 
Maid Thorn, 200. 
Maine, breeding farms in, 329. 
Majolica, 206b 
Major Delmar, 14, 30-32, 82, 182. 

Records by, 7, 29. 
Major Edsall, 32, 78. 
Major Ross, 265-266. 
Major Winfield (Edward Everett), 

Mali, Henry W. T., president of 

National Association of 

Trotting Horse Breeders, 

Malice, 257. 

Malmaison, 257. 

Mambrina, 142. 

Mambrino (English, sire of imported 
Messenger), 100, 120. 
Pedigree of, 135, 141-142. 
Mambrino (son of imported Messen- 
ger), 117, 143. 
Descendants of, 37-38, 143-145, 
171, 217, 222, 229. 
Mambrino, Williams's, 197. 
Mambrino Boy, 79, 80, 1 19-120. 
Mambrino Chief, 32, 38, 39, 78, 79, 
80, 116, 1 1 7-1 18, 120, 
124-125, 127, 128, 155, 
164, 168, 193, 197, 198, 
243, 247, 258, 259, 260, 
Ancestry of, 113, 125. 
Description of, 114- 115. 
Lady Thorn sired by, 116, 117. 
Mambrino Chief Jr., 258. 
Mambrino Dudley, 122. 
Mambrino Gift, 63, 128, 133. 
Mambrino Howard, 32, 78, 260. 
Mambrino Kate, 119. 
Mambrino King, 76, 120^ 127, 222. 
Mambrino Maid, 206-207. 
Mambrino Patchen, 31, 32, 80, 118, 
119, 121, 168. 
Descendants of, 121, 127, 166, 

200, 222, 252, 264, 31a 
Trotters sired by, 1 19-120. 
Mambrino Paymaster, 38, 113, 116, 

Mambrino Pilot, 128. 
Mambrino Russell, 242. 
Mambrino Star, 80, 168. 
Mambrino Startle, 206-207. 
Mamie, 225. 
Mamie C, 176. 
Manager, 241. 
Manaloa, 263. 
Manetta, 257. 
Manette, 82, 176^ 263. 
Manfred, 257. 



Manice, E. A., 24$. 

Manifield, 336. 

Blaplehnnt Fann, John E. Thayer's, 

Marguerite, 261. 

Marguerite A., 261. 

Margrave, 183, 204, 252, 255, 254. 

Maria Roasell, 133, 239. 

Marion, 107. 

Mariposa Stock Farm, 76. 

Marks, Miss A. A., 329. 

Mark Time, 1 19, 264. 

Marshland Stud, Benjamin F. 

Tracy's, 165. 

Martense Maid, 203. 

Martha WQkes, 167, 252. 

Marvin, Charles, trainer and driver, 

53-61, 63, 72, 82, 174. 

Mary A., 261. 

Mary Mambrino, 121, 20a 

Mary P. Leyburn, 181, 262. 

Mascot, 322. 

Masetto, 224, 264. 

Massachusetts, breeding farms in, 75, 

107, 123, 3»9-330- 

Introduction of horses into, 2. 
Matchem, 143. 

Blates, trotting with running, 6^ 98. 
Mat tie, 151. 
Mattie Graham, 195. 
Mattie Hunter, 317, 319, 32a 
Maud, 154. 

Maud S., 5, II, 18, 19, 20, 21, 133, 

Ancestry of, 70, 72, 1 12, 194, 242. 

Career of, 69-72. 

Death of, 72. 

Double-harness work by, 85. 

Records by, 5, 9. 

St. Julien and, 68. 
Maud v., team record of, 7. 
Maury, Charles H., 329. 
Maxey Cobb, 79, 84, 190. 

Mayberry, C C, 330, 

May Bird, 158. 

May Day, 39. 

Mayflower, 81. 

May King, 182, 228. 

Maynard, J. E^ 98. 

May Queen, 182, 228. 

Meddler, 75. 

Medoc, 128, 134, 136U 

Mclinche, 81, 173. 

Memphis, races at, 27, 28, 3(\ 35, 85. 

Mendocino, 246. 

Mercedes, 127. 

Merriam, W. R., 328. 

Merrivale, 264. 

Merry Clay, 263-264. 

Messenger, 32, 36^ 41, 86-87, >03> 

ii3» "7- 
Career of, 135-136. 

DescendanU of, 36-37, 136-14 1, 
History of, 135-136. 
Pedigree of, 135. 
Value of thoroughbred founda- 
tion shown by, 273. 
Messenger Duroc, 171, 200, 202. 
History of, 171- 172. 
Progeny of, by Green Mountain 
Maid, 235-238. 
Messenger-Hambletonian combina- 
tion, 141. 
Messner, D. A., Dan Patch bred by, 

Metropolitan, 251. 
Michigan, breeding establishmenta 

in, 328. 
Middletown, Green Mountain Maid 

bred to, 234. 
Midnight, 132: 
Miller, Guy, 276, 326. 
Miller, James, 153. 
Miller & Sibley, breeders, 329. 
Miller's Damsel, 118, 136^ 143. 



Mills, Harrison, 326. 

Mills, J. M., 326. 

Mihon Medium, 26-27, 19a 

Minerva, 134. 

Minna, 97, 165. 

Minnehaha, 81, 243, 246-247. 

Minnesota, breeding establishments 

in, 328. 
Miranda, 235-236, 239. 
Miriam, 107. 
Miss Copeland, 31. 
Miss Emma, 178. 
Miss Fearing, 204. 
Miss Russell, 70, 112, 262. 

Breeding of, to Harold, 1 94-1 95* 

Career of, 132-133. 

Death of, 243. 

Exclusiyeness of, 132. 

History of, 239-243. 

Pedigree of, 132-133. 
Miss Shepherd, 239. 
Miss Whitney, 64, 201. 
Mitchell, John L., 328. 
Moccasin, 203. 
Moccasin Mare, the, 203. 
Mocking Bird, 12a 
Modesty, 37. 
Mohawk Chief, 258. 
Mokhladi, 229. 
Molly Morris, 65. 
Monarch, 265. 

"Monarch of the Home-stretch," 
Robert McGregor called, 


Monbels, 246. 

Monk, The, 6, 85, 12a 

Monmouth Eclipse, 136. 

Montana, stock farms in, 263, 328. 

Monte Carlo, 246. 

Monterey, 198. 

Montgomery, 203. 

Moor, The, 177, 243-244. 

Moore, A. H., 329. 

Moore, T. E., 325. 

Moquette, 17a 

Morgan, John M., 63. 

Morgan, Joseph B., Grand Bashaw 

imported by, 216. 
Morgan, Justin, owner of Justin 

Morgan, 88, 93. 
Morgan, Barnard's, 1 10. 
Morgan Chester, 37. 
Morgan Eagle, 4, 38, 108, 109, iia 
Morgan Eagle, Henderson's, 109. 
Morgan Tally Ho, loi. 
Morgan tribe, the, 37, 86-88, 94-95. 
Morrill, 38. See Old MorrilL 
Morrill, French, 106. 
Morris, A. Newbold, 299. 
Morris, Lewis G., 143. 
Morrow, R. S., 67. 
Morse, Calvin, 227. 
Morse, M. M., 288. 
Morse Horse, the, 38, 227-229. 
Moscow, 4, 44. 
Moulton, G. S., 276. 
Mountain Boy, 204. 
Mountain Maid, 106. 
Much Better, 197. 
Muley, 253. 
Munson, Isaac, 139. 
Muscovite, 251. 
Myron Perry, 157. 
Myrtha Whips, 178. 
Mystery, 127, 259. 
Mystic, 127. 
Myrtic Park, races at, 51. 

Naiad Queen, 23a 

Nancy Awful, 65. 

Nancy Hanks, 9, 11, 154, 33a 

Career of, 74. 

Pedigree of, 74, 190^ 251. 
Nancy Lee, 74, 190. 
Nancy Pope, 129. 
Nancy Taylor, 129. 



Nancy Whitman^ 33, 78, 314. 
Napoleon, 38, 65, 185. 
Narka, 112. 

Narragantett pacen, 2» 303. 
NaabTille, racet at, 80. 
National AiKxnation of Trotting 
Hone Breeders, fonnation 
of, 275. 

Officers of, 276. 

Passing of, 284. 

Rules of, 276-28a 

Sally Rttssell's pedigree decided 
by, 239-241. 
National Horse Show Association, 

the, 29a 
National Trotting Association, for- 
mation of, 286-287. 

Officers of, 288-289. 
Natural Barb Mare, 135. 
Naugatttck, 39. 
Nellie Horton, 264. 
Nellie Sayre, 223. 
Nelson, 79, 207-208. 
Nelson, C. H., 207, 329. 
Nerea, 255. 
Nets Medium, 84. 
Netherland, 312. 
Nettie, 151. 
Nettie Burlew, 230. 
Nettie Qay, 243. 
Nettie King, 76, 221, 222. 
Nettie Murphy, 76, 222. 
Newburgh, 212. 
Newman, Scott, 325. 
Newminster Stud, W. H. Fearing's, 

New York, breeding establishments 

in, 326-327. 
New York Trotting Gub, the, 285. 
Nicholas, 140, 
Nico, 179. 
Nigger Baby, 38. 
Nightingale, 4, 33, 78, 120, 260. 

Nina, 254. 

Nominator, 203. 

Nominee, 203. 

Noontide, 132, 195. 

Nora WUkes, 8a 

Norcross, £. L^ 106. 

Norhawk, 258. 

Norlaine, 181, 228, 236. 

Norma, 181, 22& 

Norman, 38, 181, 227, 228-229, 257. 

Norris, F. D., 276. 

Norris, J. D., 276. 

North American, 196. 

Norton, Selah, 88. 

Norval, 181, 228, 236. 

Nova Scotia, horses introduced into, 

firom France, 2. 
Nutboume, 242. 
Nutspra, 7. 
Nutula, 242. 
Nutwood, 7, 82, 331. 

Ancestry of, 123, 241. 

Descendants of, 127, 1 75-1761 
Nutwood Wilkes, 168. 

Oakland Baron, 170^ 247. 
O'Blennis, 144. 
Ohio, breeding farms in, 328. 
Olcott, Frederic P., 263, 298, 299^ 

Old Cadde, 141. 

Old Morrill, 105, 106. 

Old Mountain Slasher, 317. 

Old Partner, 142. 

Old Sorrel, 202. 

Old Traveller, Thompson's, 316, 317. 

Ole Bull, 39. 

Oliver, Joseph, Cassius M. Qay bred 

by, 217. 

One Eye, 138, 145. 

One Eyed Kentucky Hunter, 46. 

Oneida Chief, 42. 



CyNeil, James, Jay Gould cared for 

by, 204. 
Onward, 125, 158, 165. 

Career of, 165--166. 

Descendants, x66, 181, 253, 256. 
Onward Silver, 125, 166. 

Pedigree of, 188-189. 
Orange Girl, 151. 
Orator, 195, 252. 
Oro Fino, 263. 

Ottley, John K., quoted on pacers 
and trotters in the South, 

Ouida, 126. 

Overton, May, 328. 

Ozanam, 25a 

Facers, Alcantara's, 166-167. 

Distinct type from trotters, 321. 
Electioneer sires only two, 1 77. 
Famous, 195, 197-198, 314-3*9. 
In the South, 314-315. 
Tom Hal family of, 317-319. 
Pacing Abdallah, 34, 311. 
Pacing records, 34-35f 3«>» 321-322. 
Packer, L. D., 276. 
Page, Horatio, 2i86. 
Palatine, 236. 
Palita, 236. 

Palo Alto, ancestry, 80, 176, 182, 255. 
Career of, 181-182. 
Descendants, 182, 236, 245, 255. 
Records by, 5, 22, 176, 207, 208. 
Palo Alto Belle, 245. 
Palo Alto Stock Farm, 327. 
Residence at, of — 
Advertiser, 228. 
Beautiful Bells, 244. 
Dame Winnie, 255. 
Dexter Prince, 249-250. 
Electioneer, 174, 235. 
Lady Russell, 181. 
Sontag Mohawk, 258. 

Pancoast, 76, 122, 1 24, 200^ 259. 

Paola, 255. 

Parks, W. M., Prospero campaigned 

by, 235. 
ParkviUe Farm, J. H. Shults's, 103. 
Parkway Farm, John McCarty's, 31a 
Pasonte, 255. 

Patchen, George M., Cassius M. 
Clay owned by, 217. 
Henry Clay bred by, 216. 
Patchen Maid, 247. 
Patchen Wilkes, 121, 158, 310^ 3aa 
Pat Cleburne, 306. 
Pate, R. C, 122. 
Patriot, 184. 
Patron, 121, 200, 259. 
Patronage, 75, 76, 121, 200, 259. 
Paul, 235. 
Paul Pry, 41, 138. 
Paymaster, 113, 120. 
Peacemaker, 205. 
Pearl, 216. 
Pearl Onward, 166. 
Peerless, 212, 214. 
Pelham, 4, 8, 42. 
Penistan, Richard, 325-326. 
Pennsylvania, breeding Carma iii| 

Pepper, R. P., 166^ 325. 

Perkins, F. E., 329. 

Perkins, S. R., 106. 

Perkins, Urban, 105. 

Perrin, George E., 46. 

Persian, 253. 

Pet, 321. 

Peter Swigert Mare, the, 72. 

Peter the Great, 75, 134, 19a 

Pfeifer, " Peg," driver, 159. 

Phallas, 79, 125, 192, 250. 

Pheasant, 137. 

Phebon W., 259. 

Philadelphia, horse shows at, 29a 

Races at, 42, 47. 



Philips, 171. 
Phil Thompson, 164. 
Phoebe Wilkes, 259. 
Piedmont, 124, 156, 197, 244. 
Pierce, Henryt 27, 328. 
Pierce Brothers, 26. 
Pilot (Alexander's, black horse), 38, 
256, 304, 318. 

Description of, 129. 

History of, 1 29-131. 
Pilot, Love»s, 318. 
Pilot Jr., ancestry of, 38, 1 29-131. 

Descendants of, 127, 128, 131- 
134, 179, 195. 239, 252, 
263, 318. 

History of, 129, 131. 

Mambrino Chief matched against, 

Miss Russell sired by, 239. 

Trotters sired by, 131. 
Pilot Medium, 134, 190. 
Pilot Russell, 242. 
Pilot Temple, 131. 
Pixley, 203. 
Planet, 80, 176, 254. 
Plant, R. H., 329. 
Pleasant Girl, 268. 
Plow Boy, 297. 

Pocahontas (by Ethan Allen, dam 
Pocahontas by Iron's Cad- 
mus), 99, 
Pocahontas (by imported Glencoe), 


Pocahontas (pacer, by Iron's Cad- 
mus), 63, 99, 207, 261, 
306, 322. 

Poem, 203. 

Pointer, Captain H. P., pacers bred 

by, 313-314. 

Polly Barber, 196. 

Ponce de Leon, 121, 2cx>, 259. 

Pond, C. M., 329. 

Porter, John, 100. 

Portia, 206. 

Post Boy, 297. 

Potential, 263. 

Pot-8-os, 136, 137. 

Potomac, 137. 

Powell Brothers, breeders, 329. 

Powers, 185. 

Powers, Lewis J., quoted in "Tales 

of the Turf," 293-295. 
Pratt, John, 135. 
Prefix, 251. 
Price, Dr. S., 326. 
Priceless, 259. 
Prime, 259. 

Primrose, 126, 155, 257. 
Prince, 7, 47. 
Prince Alert, 14, 35, 82, 311-312, 

Prince George, 249-250. 
Prince Imperial, 48. 
Prince Lavalard, 261. 
Prince of India, 251. 
Prince of Orange, 200, 251. 
Princeps, 122. 126, 155, 257, 26a 
Prince Pulaski, 317. 
Prince Regent, 127. 
Princess, 27, 141. 

Ethan Allen beats, 98. 

Flora Temple vi., 47. 

Hambletonian (Rysdyk's), bred 
to, 189. 
Princess Clara, 112, 25a 
Princeton, 251. 
Prince Wilkes, 164. 
Prodigal, 76, 121, 200^ 259. 
Progression in horses, 22I-223, 
Prophet, 31. 
Prophet Jr., 31. 
Proscription, 262. 
Prose, 203. 

Prospect Hill Stock Farm, 178, 244. 
Prosper©, 235. 
Protein, 206. 



Pruden*8 Blue Bull, 225. 
Pugh AratuSy 207. 
Pass Prall, 119, 264. 
Descendants of, 265. 

Quadrilateral Trotting G>mbination, 
formation of, 292. 

Quartermaster, 167. 

Queen Dido, 164. 

Queen Mary, 133. 

Queen's Daughter, The, 48. 

Quimby, T. L., secretary of Gentle- 
men's Driving Club of 
Boston, 502. 

Quimby Messenger, 38. 

Races, famous : — 

American Eclipse vs. Henry, 136. 
Bertrand vs, Aratus and Creep- 
ing Kate, at Charleston 
(1826), 142. 
Columbian Exposition Stake, 

Dutchman-Americus-Lady Suf- 
folk, 42-44. 
Fearnaught's, at Buffalo (1868), 

George Wilkes vs, Ethan Allen, 

Goldsmith Maid vs. Smuggler at 
Qeveland (1876), 51-62. 
Kentucky Futurity Stake, 179, 

Stallion, for |20,ooo (1888), 248. 
Rachel, 265. 

Ralph Wilkes, 126, 164, 268. 
Rarus, 8, 65-67. 
Rataplan, 254. 
Rattler, 3, 42. 
Rattler, Biggart's, 38. 
Rattler, Thornton's, 133, 239. 
Raymond, W. H., 328. 
Reality, 112. 

Records, championship, 4. 

Double-harness, 7-9, 30, 71, 84- 


Five-year-old, 176. 

Four-in-hand, 7. 

Half-mile, 7. 

High-wheel, 5-6. 

Lady Suffolk standard, 45. 

One-year-old, Norlaine's, 236, 

Pacing, 34-35, 320, 321-322. 

Saddle, 6. 

Stallion, 78-80, 190, 195, 207, 208. 

Team, 6-9, 30, 71, 84-85. 

Three-abreast, 7. 

Three-year-old, 176, 206. 

Two-year-old, 81-84, 175-176. 

Wagon, 7-9, 30. 
Dexter's, 214. 
Volunteer's, 184. 
Red Bird, 23a 
Red Duke, 268. 
Red Heart, 246-247. 
Red Jacket, 37, 164, 165. 

Ancestry of, 96-97. 
Redmond, W. F., 327. 
Red Wilkes, 97, 158, 164. 

Comparison of, with Duke of 
Brunswick, 268-269. 

Descendants of, 268-269. 
Re-Eiection, 181, 242, 262. 
Refina, 262. 
Registration of trotters, rules for, 

Regulus, 135. 
Reina, 102, 127, 259. 
Reina Victoria, 251. 
Reindeer, Flora Temple beats, 47. 
Relf, C P., 116^ 159, 161. 
Reubenstein, 309. 
Revenue, 254. 

Reverie, Robert Bonner buys, 270- 



Rhode IsUnd, 47, 157. 

Rhode I$Und, breeding io, 329. 

Rhythmic, 170. 

Rke, WiUiam, 93. 

Richard, 225. 

Richards, A. Keene, 146-147, 239. 

Richball, 319. 

Rigolette, 256. 

Rio Alto, 236. 

Ro«d Hone Anodation of State of 

New York, formation of, 

Road houses, old-time New York, 

Robbie P., 104. 
Roberta A., 256. 
Robert Brace, 76. 
Robert Fillingham (George Wilkes), 

Robert J., 195, 310^ 320, 321, 322. 
Robert McGregor, 4. 32, 33, 78, 

Robin Grey, 257. 
Robinson, A. H., 328. 
Rochester, races at, 42, 68, 70, 79, 

Rockefeller, Frank, 328. 
Rockefeller, John D., 297. 
Rockefeller, William, 84, 104* 297, 

Rockwell, Elias Lee, 13a 

Rodes, Levi S., 116. 

Rodes Mare, the, 31, 1 16, 118. 

Rogers, Joseph, 93. 

Rolls, 37. 

Rolla Golddost, iii, 292. 

Roma, 112. 

Roosevelt, James, 185. 

Rota Lee, 14a 

Rosalie Sommers, 254. 

Rosalind, 112, 154. 

Rosaline Wilkes, 112. 

Rosamond, iii. 

Rose, L, J^ 270, 327. 

Breeder of — 

Beaatifnl Bells, 243. 
Reverie, 27a 
Stamboul, 247-248. 
Rosebud, 261, 262. 
Rose Leaf^ team record of^ 7. 
Rosemont, 244. 
Rose of Washington, 98. 
Rossignol, 262. 

Round Top Farm, Athd at, 263. 
Roving Nelly, 80. 
Rowdy Boy, 319. 
RoweUen, 246. 
Rowena, 147. 
Royal Fearnaught, 108. 
Royal George, 38. 

Family of, 226-227. 
Rubber, 17a 
Ruby, 247. 
Rumor, 134. 

Rundle & White, breeders, 329. 
Running mates, trotting with, 6, 98. 
Rnppert, Jacob, 170, 298, 326. 
Rusina, 242. 
Russell, Henry S., 52, 60, 62, 63, 98, 

107, 286, 288, 330. 
Russella, 242. 
Russell's Hambletonian. See Ham- 

bletonian, Russell's. 
Russia, 242. 
Rustique, 242. 
Ryndeis, Isaiah, 286. 

Aberdeen owned by, 186-188. 
Rysdyk, 48. 

Ryadyk, William M., 145-151. 
Rysdyk's Hambletonian. See Ham- 
bletonian, Rysdyk^s. 

Sadie Mac, 134, 179. 
St. Arnaud, 127. 
St. Bel, 177, 178, 244. 
St. Clair, 81-82, 175. 



St. Qoud, 213. 

St Elmo, 108. 

St. Julien, 8, 67-68, 185, 223. 

St. Lawrence, Kinkead's, 133. 

St. Lawrence tribe, the, 232. 

St Louis, horse shows at, 290. 

Lady Russell exhibited at, 180. 

Races at, 42. 
St. Remo, 68. 
Saladin, 38. 

Salisbury, Monroe, 327. 
Sallie Durbrow, 270. 
Sallie Feagles, 205. 
Sally Anderson, 33, 124. 
Sally B., 195, 256. 
Sally Benton, 258. 
Sally Miller, 4. 
Sally Russell, 112, 239. 

Bred to Pilot Jr., 132. 

Miss Russell produced by, 132- 

Pedigree of, settled, 239-241. 

Sally Simmons, 7. 

Sally Simpson, 266. 

Sally South worth, 265. 

Saltus, Nicholas, compilation of 2.30 

performers by, 45, 275. 

Sampson, 135. 

Sam Purdy, 219. 

Story of death of, 219-220. 

Sanborn, W. A., 328. 

Sandal, 203. 

Sanders, J. H., Breeders' Trotting 

Stud Book edited by, 280. 

Sanders, Millard F., 27. 

San Mateo Stock Farm, 167-168. 

Sannie G., 229. 

Santa Glaus, 25, 197, 260. 

Santa Rosa Farm, 26. 

Sapphire, 203. 

Sarah Puff, 42. 

Sargeant, A. V., 327. 

Sarpedon, 147. 

Satinet, 171. 

Sayles, F. C, 76, 329. 

Sayre, Decatur, 222. 

Scannell, John J., 77. 

Schmulbach, Henry, 329. 

Sclavonic, 243. 

Scotland, 133. 

Screwdriver, 3, 40, 285. 

Seacord, Fred, 328. 

Searcher, 102. 

Seely, Edmund, owner of American 
Star, 2ia 

Seely, Jonas, 208. 

Rysdyk's Hambletonian bred by, 

Seely's American Star. See Ameri- 
can Star, Seely's. 

Selim, 144. 

Semi-Tropic, 247. 

Senator L., 4. 

Sentinel, 186. 

Shackelford, J. T., 326. 

Shanghai Mary, 233-234. 

Shark, 136, 137, 191, 249, 265. 

Sharpless, Gharles L., 149. 

Shawmut, 186^ 223. 

Shepard, Jonathan, 93. 

Sherman, 158. 

Sherman, George D., 327. 

Sherman, James, 96. 

Sherman Black Hawk, 38, 102. 

Sherman Morgan, 38, 96-97, loi, 

Sherwood, G. W., 328. 

Shields, dirt and wind, 12-13, 14-17, 
Official discussion of, 20-21. 
Views of J. M. Forbes on, 82-83. 

Shipman, 268. 

Shults, John H., 73, 103, 199, 298; 

Shultshurst, 72, 73, 308. 

Sibley, J. €., 73. 



Sidi Hunet, ia6. 

Sidney, 25, 36^ 28» i86» 198. 

Sidnqr Dillon, 26^ 50^ 186^ 198. 

Signmly loa. 

Silrertail, 145. 

Silverton, 225. 

Simmoni, 7, 158, 17a 

Simmons, William L^, loi, 156^ 157, 

I5«. 325- 
Quoted concerning George 

Wilkei, 159-162. 
Simmons, Z. E., 98, 156^ 325. 
Simonson, Charles, 229. 
Simpson, William, 327. 
Sinbad, 218. 

Singerly, George A., 164. 
Sir Archy, 78, 118, 120^ 121, 122, 

142, 143, 147, 254. 
Sir Archy Duroc, 202. 
Sir Giarles, 103, 254. 
Sir Charles, Howard's, 168. 
Sir Henry, 37. 
Sir Peter, 138, 285. 
Sir Wallace, Todhunter's, 181, 228. 
Sir Walter, 144, 188. 
Sir Walter Jr., 188. 
Sir WUUam, Lear's, 168. 
Slander, 134. 
Slasher, 318. 
Sleepy George, 322. 
Sleepy Tom, 319, 322. 
Smathers, E. £., 29, 31. 
Smith, Elizur, 330. 
Smith, George H., 287, 288. 
Smith, Henry N., 52, 276. 
Owner of — 

General Knox, 103. 

Jay Gould, 202. 

Lady Thorn, 1 16-1 1 7. 

Rosebud, 261. 

Tattler, 134. 
Smith, W. &, 329. 
Smuggler, 52, 63, 64, 65, 79. 

Snap, 135. 

Snediker, Isaac, 144. 
Snow, David, loa 
Snow Heels, 313. 
Sonnet, 203. 
Sontag, 31, 14a 
Sontag Dixie, 31, 140^ 182. 
Sontag Mohawk, 140^ 258b 
Sontag NeUie, 140, 258. 
Sophie, 74. 
Soprano, 258. 
Soto, 81. 

Sour Croat, 117, 143. 
Sovereign, 195, 252. 
Speedway, agitation for a, in New 
York, 297-298. 

Building of, 299-300. 
Sphinx, 177, 179. 
Spicer, driver of Americus, 44. 
Spier, William K, 30, 327. 
Spirit, 229. 
Splan, driver, 66. 
Sprague, Amasa, 99, 286. 
Sprague & Akers, breeders, 328. 
Sprague Golddust, 1 1 i-i 1 2. 
Spring Hill Stud Farm, 191. 
%>rite, 127, 179. 
Stamboul, 126^ 207, 247-248. 
Stanford, Leland, 72, 233. 

Advertiser owned by, 228. 

Advocate of early development 
of horses, 174-175. 

Beautiful Bells bought by, 244. 

Dame Winnie bought by, 255. 

Elaine owned by, 236. 

Electioneer bought by, 173, 234. 

Refusal of 1 100,000 for Palo 
Alto, 182. 

Two-year-old champions bred 
by, 81^2. 

Vice-president of National Asso- 
ciation of Trotting Hocse 
Breeders, 276. 



Stanza, 203. 
Star, 213. 
Star Hal, 314. 
Starling, 135. 
Star Pointer, 35, 310^ 322. 
Pedigree of, 313-314- 
Records by, 35, 312, 322. 
Startle, 206-207. 
Steams, George M., letter concerning 

Robert Bonner, 73. 
Steel, Robert, 189, 329. 
Steinway, 196-197. 
Stemwinder, 193. 
Stevens, George C, Belle of Wabash's 

pedigree settled by, 244. 
Stockbridge Chief, 98, 185. 
Stockholder, 120, 143, 239. 
Stockings, 318-319. 
Stockwell, 254. 
Stokes, W. E. D., 325. 
Stone, Elijah, 225. 
Stone, Samuel, 93. 
Stoner, G>lonel R. G., 196^ 324, 326. 
Stonewall Jackson, 49. 
Stony Ford, Charles Backman's, 125, 

171, 234, 249, 326. 
Monument to Green Mountain 

Maid at, 238. 
Storm, 234. 

Stout, H. I. & F. D., breeders, 328. 
Strader, R. S., 217-218, 326. 
Stranger, 103, 262. 
Strathmore, 25, 196-198, 258. 
Strideaway, 261. 
Stnmp-the-Dealer, 305. 
Stump-the-Dealer, Adam's, 312-313. 
Stump- the-Dealer, Sugg's, 313. 
Suburban Stock Farm, 30, 182. 
Suffrage, 242. 
Sulkies, bicycle, 5, 11-12, 74. 

High-wheel, vs, bicycle, 18-22, 

Sultan, 81, 247. 

Sultana, 247. 
Sumpter, 147. 
Sunol, 5, II, 175, 176. 

History of, 72-73. 

Price paid for, by Robert Bonner, 

Records by, 9, 82. 
Sunshine Stud, D. B. Irwin's, 234. 
Superior, 20a 
Surpol, 258. 
Surprise, 258. 
Sutherland & Benjamin, breeders, 

Sutton, Lewis J., 152. 

Sweepstakes, 215, 264, 313. 

Sweetheart, 81, 246, 247. 

Sweetness, 25, 185-186^ 198. 

Sweet Owen, 127. 

Swift, 237. 

Sybil, 203. 

Syndic, 203. 

Tackey, 133. 

Tacony, 47, 98. 

Taffolet Barb, 135. 

« Taking the Reins," Ehninger's, 5a 

Talbert, A. S., 326. 

" Tales of the Turf," W. H. Gocher's, 

quoted, 293-295. 
Tanner, Charles, 2a 
Tartar, 226. 
Tattler, 134, 263. 
Team records, 6-9, 30^ 71, 84-85. 
Telamon, 134, 263. 
Telegraph, 31, 65. 
Tclie, 177. 
Telltale, 263. 
Temple Wilkes, 165. 
Tennessee, breeding farms in, 328- 

Foundation pacing horses of, 316- 

Tennessee Pointer, 314. 



Terre Haute, ncei al, 74, 75, 77, 79, 

Terror, 201, 233. 
Texana, 177. 

Texas, breeding farmf in, 329. 
Thayer, John E^ 164, 170, 302, 330. 
The Abbot. See Abbot. 
The Judge. See Judge. 
The King. See King. 
The Monk. See Monk. 
Thomas Jeflferson, 63. 
Thompson, 262. 
Thompson, J. W., 328. 
Thomson, Alden W., quoted, 13S- 

Thorn, 264. 

Thorndale, Edwin Thome's, 125, 


Thome, Edwin, 113-114, 186. 

Thometta, 117. 

Thornton's Rattler. See Rattler. 

Three Feathers, 203. 

Three-year-olds, Electioneer's, 176. 

Records by, 176, 206. 

Thurman, Allen G., 328. 

Till, dam of Prince Alert, 311. 

Tilton, W. S., 276. 

Timoleon, 143, 254. 

Tiny, 262. 

Tippoo Saib, 36. 

Tod, John, 292. 

Todhunter, R. P., 324. 

Toler, H. G., 309, 328.* 

Tomah, 203. 

Tom Crowder, 38. 

Tom Hal, 304, 305, 313. 

Tom Hal, Gibson's, 312-313. 

Tom Hal, Kittrell's, 312. 

Tom Hal, Knight's, 313. 

Tom Hal family, the, 317, 318, 319. 

Tom Hal Jr., 312. 

Tommy Britton, 245, 251. 

Tom Rolfe, 207, 319. 

Tom Teemer, 257. 
Tom Thumb, 208. 
Topgallant, 3, 36, 40, 41, 138, 239, 

Topsy (Princess), 189. 
Toronto Chief, 31, 226. 
Toronto Sontag, 31, 140, 182, 258. 
Toto, 260. 

Tough, Captain W. S., 62. 
Tracy, Benjamin F., 73, 97, 165, 

233, 259, 276, 326. 
Pedigree of Seely's American 

Star according to, 212. 
Tramp, iii. 
Traveller, Lloyd's, 89. 
Traveller, McMeen's, 313. 
Traveller, Morton's imported, 89. 
Traveller, Thompson's, 316-317. 
Treacy, a J., 325. 
Tredwell, John, Abdallah (i) owned 

by, 144. 
Trevillian, 169. 
Trinket, 70, 126, 257, 26a 
Trio, 214. 
"Trotting Horse of America, The," 

Foster's, 42. 
Trotting and Pacing Record, Ches- 
ter's, 83, 94. 
Trouble, 285. 
True Briton, 88-89, 151. 
Truffle, 243. 
Truman, 177. 
Trustee, 38, 48, 195, 218, 254, 256, 

Trustee Jr., 254-255. 
Tuckahoe, 63. 
Tuna, loi. 
Turf, 135. 

Turk, Bartoulet's, 230. 
Turk, Duke of Newcastle's, 135. 
Turnbull, William, 70^ 297. 
Tuscarora, 112. 
Twilight, 132, 251. 



Twombley, Ezekiel, 97. 
Two-year-olds, champion, 81-S4. 
Electioneer's, 175-176. 

Uhlien Brothers, breeders, 328. 

Unakla, 68. 

Undine, 165. 

Union Coarse, races at, 46-47, 285. 

Unknown, 321. 

Vail, Thomas J., 286, 288. 
Valensin Stock Farm, 25. 
Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 296-297. 

Post Boy and Plow Boy driven 
by, 297. 

Rivalry between Robert Bonner 
and, 297. 
Vanderbilt, William H., 69-70, 85, 

187, 297. 
Van Ranst, C W., 136. 
Veech, R. S., 257, 281, 324. 
Velie, Wellington, 46. 
Venture, 193. 
Venus, 26, 28» 30^ 198. 
Vera Capel, 170. 
Vermont, breeders in, 329. 
Vermont (gray gelding), 140. 
Vermont, Gill's, 308. 
Vermont Black Hawk, 38, 65, 100^ 

Description of, 97. 
Vermont Hero, 102, 103. 
Vermont Morgan, 1 10. 
Victor, 78, 259. 
Victor Bismarck, 201, 223. 
Viking, 133. 

Village Farm, C. J. Hamlin's, 76, 85, 

Chimes at, 178, 245. 

Hal Pointer at, 313. 
Virginia, horses in early, 2. 

Stock farms in, 329. 
Voltaire, 134, 197, 263. 

Volunteer, 25, 67, 185-186, 198, 251, 
History of, 184-186. 
Voyager, 130. 

Wadsworth, General James, 216. 

Wagner, 76. 

Wallace, J. H., Belle of Wabash's 
pedigree questioned by, 
Retirement of, from editorship 

of Register, 282. 
Sally Russell's pedigree ques- 
tioned by, 239-241. 

Wallace's Trotting Register, 240. 
First issue of, 275. 
Semi-official org^n of National 
Association of Trotting 
Horse Breeders, 277-278. 

Walnut Grove Farm, 186. 

Walnut Han, 258. 

Wakiut HaU Farm, L. V. Harkness's, 

War Dance, 147. 

Warder, 133. 

Washington, Burr's, 38. 

Washington Denmark, 318. 

Waterloo, 133. 

Waters, F. S., 328. 

Waterwitch, 127, I33-I34t I79* 

Wavelet, 133. 

Waxana, 72, 176. 

Waxy, 48, 72, 176, 254. 

Waxy, Van Meter's, 305. 

Webster, 128. 

Wedgewood, 123, 197, 309. 

Welbeck, 228. 

Welch, Aristides, 48, 196. 

Wellington, 261. 

Wells, E. S., 327. 

Wells, S. C, 327. 

Wells SUr, 264. 

Went worth, 20a 



West, Colonel Richard, 124, 165, 191, 

aoo, 281, 324. 
West Australian, 253. 
Westmont, 319. 

West Virginia, breedeis in, 329, 
Whalebone, 41, 138, 285. 
Whip, Blythe's, no. 
Whip, Cannon's, 257. 
Whips, 177, 178. 
Whisker, 218, 253, 254. 
Whiskey Jane, 219. 
Whistle Jacket, 171. 
White, Horace, 302. 
White, W. H.. 328. 
Whitehead, H. M., 169, 298. 
White River Stock Farm, 328. 
White Turk, 135. 
Whittemore, Charles, 330. 
Wichita, races at, 33. 
Widow Machree, i86» 212, 214. 
Wiggins, 188. 
WUdair, 89. 
WildBower, 81, 175. 
Wilkes, Ralph, 17a 
Wilkesberry, 34, 311. 
Wilkes Boy, 121, 158, 264. 
Wilkes Golddust, 112. 
Will Cody, 225. 
William Fourth, 244. 
William L., 79, 168-169, 214. 
William Penn, 198, 205. 
William WaUace, 268. 
William Welch, 48. 
Williams, C. W., 328. 
Williams,G. T., 113. 
Williams, Warren, 113. 
Willie WUkes, 265. 
Willis, J. D., 222, 276b 
Will Leybnrn, 170. 
Wilson, James, 225, 328. 
Wilson, W. H., 63, 157, 247, 276, 

Wilton, 158, 170, 253. 

Wind-shields, J. M. Forbes's Tiews 

on, 82-83. S^ Shields. 
Winthrop Messenger, 37. 
Winton, 309. 

Wisconsin, breeding farms in, 328. 
Wiser, J. P., 329. 
Wiser, W. P., 276. 
Wttherell Messenger, 38. 
Withers, General W. T., loi. 
Aberdeen bought by, 187-188. 
Almont bought by, 124. 
Cassias M. Clay owned by, 218. 
Happy Medium owned by, 189- 

Member of Executive Committee 
of National Association of 
Trotting Horse Breeders* 
Witherspoon, Lister, 325. 
Woodbine, 122, 123, 309. 
Woodbum Farm, R. A. Alexander's, 

123, 129, 153. 325-1 
Residence at, of — 

Australian, 253. 

£lite, 236-237. 

Miss Russell, 239. 

Primrose, 257. 

Woodbum Farm cup, 71. 

Woodbury Morgan, 37, 96, 108, 


Woodford, 76, 122. 

Woodford Mambrino, 80, 122-123, 

126, 200, 242, 257. 

Woodruff, Hiram, 42. 

Dexter trained by, 213. 

Quoted, 108-109. 

WooUey, Charles W., 51, 288. 

Work, Frank, 84, 297. 

Wyoming, breeding £arms in, 329. 

Yankee (of year 1806), 3. 
York Boy, 8, 85. 
Young America, 97. 



Young Bashaw, 37, 38, 2l6i 

Young Portia, 263. 

Young Bassinger, 244. 

Young Rolfe, 207. 

Young Bulrush, 105. 

Young Daisy, 261. 


Young Emelius, 253. 

ZanesYlUe, Fair Oaks breeding farm 

Young Engineer, 37. 

at, 267. 

Young Fashion, 265. 

Zelica, 34, 311. 

Young Flaxy, 31. 

Zephyr, 318. 

Young Jim, 34, 168, 169. 

Zilcadi, iio-ili. 

Young Morrill, 38, 106, 108. 

ZilcadiGolddust, 113. 

Young Patriot, 184. 

Zee B., 225. 




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