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Co^right 1913 by 
Mitchell Kennerley 

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Pr/// e/^ 7. J. Little ^ Ives Company 

East Twenty-fourth Street 

New Tork 


I. The Last Day Aboard Ship i 

II. Struck By an Iceberg 14 

III. The Foundering of the "Titanic" 5 1 

IV, Struggling in the Water for 

Life 64 

V. All Night on Bottom of Half- 
Submerged Upturned Boat 87 

VI. The Port Side: Women and Chil- 
dren First 114 

VII. Starboard Side: Women First, 
But Men When There Were 
No Women 225 

Concluding Note 325 



H^^olonel Archibald Grade Fronlhpiece ^^| 

The Titanic 


The Promenade Deck of the Titanic 


Mr. and Mrs. Isidor Straus 


First-Class Smoking Room 


Bedroom of Parlor Suite 


Suite Bedroom 


James Clinch Smith 


Boilers of the Titanic arranged in Messrs. 

Harland & Wolff's Works 


Thomas Andrews, Jr., Designer of the 



Joseph Bell, Chief Engineer 


The Last Photograph of the Titanic' s Com- 

mander and Three Officers 


Passengers of the Olympic awaiting Events 


The Overturned Engelhardt Boat B 


The Titanic narrowly Escapes Collision at 



Fifth Officer Lowe Towing the Canvas 



The Canvas Collapsible 


Captain Rostron of the S.S. Carpathia 


Photographed from the Carpathia 




"There is that Leviathan."— Ps. 104:26. 

AS the sole survivor of all the men passen- 
gers of the Titanic stationed during the 
loading of six or more lifeboats with 
women and children on the port side of the ship, 
forward on the glass-sheltered Deck A, and later 
on the Boat Deck above, it is my duty to bear 
testimony to the heroism on the part of all con- 
cerned. First, to my men companions who 
calmly stood by until the lifeboats had departed 
loaded with women and the available complement 
of crew, and who, fifteen to twenty minutes later, 
sank with the ship, conscious of giving up their 
i lives to save the weak and the helpless. 

Second, to Second Officer LJghtoUer and his 


ship's crew, who did their duty as if similar oc- 
currences were matters of dally routine; and 
thirdly, to the women, who showed no signs of 
fear or panic whatsoever under conditions more 
appalling than were ever recorded before in the 
history of disasters at sea. 

I think those of my readers who are accus- 
tomed to tales of thrilling adventure will be glad 
to learn first-hand of the heroism displayed on 
the Titanic by those to whom it is my privilege 
and sad duty to pay this tribute. I will confine 
the details of my narrative for the most part to 
what I personally saw, and did, and heard dur- 
ing that never-to-be-forgotten maiden trip of the 
Tilanic, which ended with shipwreck and her 
foundering about 2.22 a. m., Monday, April 15, 
1912, after striking an Iceberg "in or near lati- 
tude 41 degrees, 46 minutes N,, longitude 50 de- 
grees, 14 minutes W., North Atlantic Ocean," 
whereby the loss of 1490 lives ensued. 

On Sunday morning, April 14th, this marvel- 
lous ship, the perfection of all vessels hitherto 
conceived by the brain of man, had, for three and 
one-half days, proceeded on her way from South- 
ampton to New York over a sea of glass, so level 
it appeared, without encountering a ripple brought 
on the surface of the water by a storm. 

The Captain had each day improved upon 


previous day's speed, and prophesied that, with 
continued fair weather, we should make an early 
arrival record for this maiden trip. But his 
reckoning never took into consideration that 
Protean monster of the Northern seas which, even 
before this, had been so fatal to the navigator's 
calculations and so formidable a weapon of 

Our explorers have pierced to the furthest 
north and south of the icebergs' retreat, but the 
knowledge of their habitat, insuring our great 
ocean liners in their successful efforts to elude 
them, has not reached the detail of time and 
place where they become detached and obstruct 
their path. 

In the twenty-four hours' run ending the 14th, 
according to the posted reckoning, the ship had 
covered 546 miles, and we were told that the 
next twenty-four hours would see even a better 
record made. 

Towards evening the report, which I heard, 
was spread that wireless messages from passing 
steamers had been received advising the officers 
of our ship of the presence of icebergs and ice- 
floes. The increasing cold and the necessity of 
being more warmly clad when appearing on deck 
were outward and visible signs in corroboration of 
these warnings. But despite them all no diminu- 





tion of Speed was indicated and the engines kept 
up their steady running. 

Not for fifty years, the old sailors tell us, had 
so great a mass of ice and icebergs at this time 
of the year been seen so far south. 

The pleasure and comfort which all of us en- 
joyed upon this floating palace, with its extraor- 
dinary provisions for such purposes, seemed an 
ominous feature to many of us, including myself, 
who felt it almost too good to last without some 
terrible retribution inflicted by the hand of an 
angry omnipotence. Our sentiment in this respect 
was voiced by one of the most able and distin- 
guished of our fellow passengers, Mr, Charles M. 
Hays, President of the Canadian Grand Trunk 
Railroad. Engaged as he then was in studying and 
providing the hotel equipment along the line of 
new extensions to his own great railroad system, 
the consideration of the subject and of the mag- 
nificence of the Titaniifs accommodations was 
thus brought home to him. This was the pro- 
phetic utterance with which, alas, he sealed his 
fate a few hours thereafter: "The White Star, 
the Cunard and the Hamburg-American lines," 
said he, "are now devoting their attention to a 
struggle for supremacy in obtaining the most 
luxurious appointments for their ships, but the 
time will soon come when the greatest and most 


appalling of alt disasters at sea will be the result.** 
In the various trips which I have made acroM 
the Atlantic, it has been my custom aboard ship, 
whenever the weather permitted, to Cake as mocfa 
exercise every day as might be needful to put nrf' 
self In prime physical condition, but on board the 
Titanic, during the first days of the voyage, from 
Wednesday to Saturday, I had departed from 
this, my usual self-tmposed regimen, for during 
this interval I had devoted my time to social eo- 
joymeot and to the reading of books taken from 
the ship's well-supplied library. I enjoyed my- 
self as if I were in a summer palace on the sea- 
shore, surrounded with every comfort — there was 
nothing to indicate or suggest that we were on 
the stormy Adantic Ocean. The motion of the 
ship and the noise of its machinery were scarcely 
discernible on deck or in the saloons, either day 
or night. But when Sunday morning came, I con- 
sidered it high time to begin my customary exer- 
cises, and determined for the rest of the voyage 
to patronize the squash racquet court, the gym- 
nasium, the swimming pool, etc. I was up early 
before breakfast and met the professional racquet 
player in a half hour's warming up. preparatory 
for a swim in the six-foot deep tank of salt water, 
heated to a refreshing temperature. In no swim- 
bath had I ever enjoyed such pleasure be- 




fore. How curtailed that enjoyment would have 
been had the presentiment come to me telling how 
near it was to being my last plunge, and that be- 
fore dawn of another day I would be swimming 
for my life in mid-ocean, under water and on the 
surface, in a temperature of 28 degrees Fahren- 

Impressed on my memory as if it were but yes- 
terday, my mind pictures the personal appear- 
ance and recalls the conversation which I had with 
each of these employees of the ship. The racquet 
professional, F. Wright, was a clean-cut, typical 
young Englishman, similar to hundreds I have 
seen and with whom I have played, in bygone 
years, my favorite game of cricket, which has 
done more than any other sport for my physical 
development. I have not seen his name men- 
tioned in any account of the disaster, and there- 
fore take this opportunity of speaking of him, for 
I am perhaps the only survivor able to relate any- 
thing about his last days on earth. 

Hundreds of letters have been written to us 
survivors, many containing photographs for 
identification of some lost loved one, whom per- 
chance we may have seen or talked to before he 
met his fate. To these numerous Inquiries I have 
been able to reply satisfactorily only in rare in- 
stances. The next and last time I saw Wright 




was on the stairway of Deck C within three- 
quarters of an hour after the collision. I was 
going to my cabin when I met him on the stairs 
going up. "Hadn't we better cancel that appoint- 
ment for to-morrow morning?" I said rather jo- 
cosely to him. "Yes," he replied, but did not 
stop to tell what he then must have known of 
the conditions in the racquet court on G Deck, 
which, according to other witnesses, had at that 
time become flooded. His voice was calm, with- 
out enthusiasm, and perhaps his face was a little 
whiter than usual. 

To the swimming pool attendant I also made 
promise to be on hand earlier the next morning, 
but I never saw him again. 

One of the characters of the ship, best known 
to us all, was the gymnasium instructor, T. W. 
McCawley. He, also, expected me to make my 
first appearance for real good exercise on the 
morrow, but alas, he, too, was swallowed up by 
the sea. How well we survivors all remember 
this sturdy little man in white flannels and with 
his broad English accent! With what tireless 
enthusiasm he showed us the many mechanical de- 
vices under his charge and urged us to take ad- 
vantage of the opportunity of using them, going 
through the motions of bicycle racing, rowing, 
boxing, camel and horseback riding, etc. 


Such was my morning's preparation for the un- 
foreseen physical exertions I was compelled to 
put forth for dear life at midnight, a few hours 
later. Could any better training for the terrible 
ordeal have been planned? 

The exercise and the swim gave me an appetite 
for a hearty breakfast. Then followed the 
church service in the dining saloon, and I remem- 
ber how much I was impressed with the "Prayer 
for those at Sea," also the words of the hymn, 
which we sang, No. 418 of the Hymnal, About a 
fortnight later, when I next heard it, sung, I was 
in the little church at Smithtown, Long Island, at- 
tending the memorial service in honor of my old 
friend and fellow member of the Union Club, 
James Clinch Smith. To his sister, who sat next 
to me In the pew, I called attention to the fact 
that it was the last hymn we sang on this Sunday 
morning on board the Titanic. She was much 
affected, and gave the reason for Its selection for 
the memorial service to her brother because it 
was known as Jim's favorite hymn, being the first 
piece set to music ever played by him as a child 
and for which he was rewarded with a promised 
prize, donated by his father. 

What a remarkable coincidence that at the first 
and last ship's service on board the Titanic, the 
hymn we sang began with these impressive lin 


O God <rar help in age* p«st, 

Onr bope for jean to cone. 
Oar sbeltrr f kcd the etsmij falMt 

Aod oar ctenul bofBc 

One day vas so like another that it is S&aik 
to differentiate in our description all the details 
of this last day's incidents aboard ship. 

The book, that I finished and retnmed to the 
ship's library was Mary Johnston's "Old Do- 
minion." While peacefully reading the tales of 
adventure and accounts of extraordinary escapes 
therein, how little I thought that in the next few 
hours I should be a witness and a party to a scene 
to which this book could furnish no a)unter- 
part, and that my own preser^'ation from a 
watery grave would afiord a remarkable illus- 
tration of how ofttimes "truth is stranger than 

During this day I saw much of Mr. and Mrs. 
Isidor Straus. In fact, from the very beginning 
to the end of our trip on the Titanic, we had been 
together several times each day. I was with them 
on the deck the day we left Southampton and 
witnessed that ominous accident to the American 
liner, New York, lying at her pier, when the dis- 
placement of water by the movement of our gi- 
gantic ship caused a suction which pulled the 
smaller ship from her moorings and nearly caused 





a collision. At the time of this, Mr. Straus w 
telling me that it seemed only a few years back 
that he had taken passage on this same ship, the 
New York, on her maiden trip and when she was 
spoken of as the "last word in shipbuilding." He 
then called the attention of his wife and myself 
to the progress that had since been made, by com- 
parison of the two ships then lying side by side. 
During our daily talks thereafter, he related 
much of special interest concerning Incidents In 
his remarkable career, beginning with his early 
manhood in Georgia when, with the Confederate 
Government Commissioners, as an agent for the 
purchase of supplies, he ran the blockade of Eu- 
rope. His friendship with President Cleveland, 
and how the latter had honored him, were among 
the topics of daily conversation that interested 
me most. 

On this Sunday, our last day aboard ship, he 
finished the reading of a book I had loaned him, 
in which he expressed intense Interest. This book 
was "The Truth About Chlckamauga," of which 
I am the author, and It was to gain a much-needed 
rest after seven years of work thereon, and In 
order to get It oil my mind, that I had taken 
this trip across the ocean and back. As a counter- 
irritant, my experience was a dose which was 
highly efficacious. 



1 recall how Mr. and Mrs. Straus were par- 
ticularly happy about noon time on this same day 
In anticipation of communicating by wireless teleg- 
raphy with their son and his wife on their way to 
Europe on board the passing ship Amerika. 
Some time before six o'clock, full of contentment, 
they told me of the message of greeting received 
in reply. This last good-bye to their loved ones 
must have been a consoling thought when the end 
came a few hours thereafter. 

That night after dinner, with ray table com- 
panions, Messrs. James Clinch Smith and Edward 
A. Kent, according to usual custom, we adjourned 
to the palm room, with many others, for the usual 
coffee at individual tables where we listened to 
the always delightful music of the Titanic's band. 
On these occasions, full dress was always en regie; 
and it was a subject both of observation and ad- 
miration, that there were so many beautiful 
romen — then especially in evidence — aboard the 


I invariably circulated around during these de- 
^ghtful evenings, chatting with those I knew, and 
with those whose acquaintance I had made during 
the voyage. 1 might specify names and particu- 
larize subjects of conversation, but the details, 
while interesting to those concerned, might not 
be so to all my readers. The recollections of 


those with whom I was thus closely associated iifi 
this disaster, including those who suffered theV 
death from which I escaped and those who sur- 
vived with me, will be a treasured memory and 
bond of union until my dying day. From the palm 
room, the men of my coterie would always go to 
the smoking room, and almost every evening join 
in conversation with some of the well-known men 
whom we met there, including within my own 
recollections Major Archie Butt, President Taft's 
Military Aid, discussing politics; Clarence Moore, 
of Washington, D, C, relating his venturesome 
trip some years ago through the West Virginia 
woods and mountains, helping a newspaper re- 
porter in obtaining an interview with the outlaw. 
Captain Anse Hatfield; Frank D. Millet, the 
well-known artist, planning a journey west; 
Arthur Ryerson and others. 

During these evenings I also conversed with 
Mr. John B. Thayer, Second Vice-President of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, and with Mr. George 
D. Widener, a son of the Philadelphia street-car 
magnate, Mr. P. A. B. Widener. 

My stay in the smoking-room on this particu- 
lar evening for the first time was short, and I re- 
tired early with my cabin steward Cullen's prom- 
ise to awaken me betimes next morning to get 
ready for the engagements I had made before 


breakfast for the game of racquets, work in the 
gjrmnasium and the swim that was to follow. 

I cannot regard it as a mere coincidence that 
on this particular Sunday night I was thus 
prompted to retire early for nearly three hours of 
invigorating sleep, whereas an accident occurring 
at midnight of any of the four preceding days 
would have found me mentally and physically 
tired. That I was thus strengthened for the ter- 
rible ordeal, better even than had I been fore- 
warned of it, I regard on the contrary as the first 
provision for my safety (answering the constant 
prayers of those at home), made by the guardian 
angel to whose care I was entrusted during the 
series of miraculous escapes presently to be re- 



"Watchman, what of the night?" — Isaiah 21:11. 

MY stateroom was an outside one on Deck 
C on the starboard quarter, somewhat 
abaft amidships. It was No. €,51. I 
was enjoying a good night's rest when I was 
aroused by a sudden shock and noise forward on 
the starboard side, which I at once concluded was 
caused by a collision, with some other ship per- 
haps. I jumped from my bed, turned on the elec- 
tric light, glanced at my watch nearby on the 
dresser, which I had changed to agree with 
ship's time on the day before and which now reg- 
istered twelve o'clock. Correct ship's time would 
make it about 11.45. ^ opened the door of my 
cabin, looked out into the corridor, but could not 
see or hear anyone — there was no commotion 
whatever; but immediately following the collision 
came a great noise of escaping steam, I listened 
intently, but could hear no machinery. There was 


no mistaking that something wrong had happened, 
because of the ship stopping and the blowing off 
of steam. 

Removing my night clothing I dressed myself 

' hurriedly in underclothing, shoes and stockings, 

trousers and a Norfolk coat, I give these details 

in order that some idea of the lapse of time may 

be formed by an account of what I did during the 

interval. From my cabin, through the corridor 

to the stairway was but a short distance, and I 

ascended to the third deck above, that is, to the 

Boat Deck. I found here only one young lad, 

seemingly bent on the same quest as myself. 

From the first cabin quarter, forward on the 

iport side, we strained our eyes to discover what 

[had struck us. From vantage points where the 

view was not obstructed by the lifeboats on this 

deck I sought the object, but in vain, though I 

swept the horizon near and far and discovered 


It was a beautiful night, cloudless, and the 
stars shining brightly. The atmosphere was quite 
cold, but no ice or iceberg was in sight. If an- 
other ship had struck us there was no trace of it, 
and it did not yet occur to me that it was an ice- 
berg with which we had collided. Not satisfied 
with a partial investigation, I made a complete 
the deck, searching every point of the 



compass with my eyes. Going toward the stern, I 
vaulted over the iron gate and fence that divide 
the first and second cabin passengers. I disre- 
garded the "not allowed"*notice. I loolied about 
me towards the officers' quarters in expectation 
of being challenged for non-observance of rules. 
In view of the collision I had expected to see 
some of the ship's officers on the Boat Deck, but 
there was no sign of an officer anywhere, and no 
one from whom to obtain any information about 
what had happened. Making my tour of the 
Boat Deck, the only other beings I saw were a 
middle-aged couple of the second cabin prome- 
nading unconcernedly, arm in arm, forward on 
the starboard quarter, against the wind, the man 
in a gray overcoat and outing cap. 

Having gained no satisfaction whatever, I de- 
scended to the glass-enclosed Deck A, port side, 
and looked over the rail to see whether the ship 
was on an even keel, but I still could see nothing 
wrong. Entering the companionway, I passed 
Mr. Ismay with a member of the crew hurrying up 
the stairway. He wore a day suit, and, as usuat, 
was hatless. He seemed too much preoccupied to 
notice anyone. Therefore I did not speak to him, 
but regarded his face very closely, perchance to 
learn from his manner how serious the accident 
might be. It occurred to me then that he was 


putting on as brave a face as possible so as to 
cause no alarm among the passengers. 

At the foot of the stairway were a number of 
men passengers, and I now for the first time dis- 
covered that others were aroused as well as my- 
self, among them my friend, Clinch Smith, from 
whom I first learned that an iceberg had struck 
us. He opened his hand and showed me some ice, 
fiat like my watch, coolly suggesting that I might 
take it home for a souvenir. All of us will re- 
member the way he had of cracking a joke with- 
out a smile. While we stood there, the story of 
the collision came to us — how someone in the 
smoking room, when the ship struck, rushed out 
to see what it was, and returning, told them that 
he had a glimpse of an iceberg towering fifty feet 
above Deck A, which. If true, would indicate a 
height of over one hundred feet. Here, too, I 
learned that the mall room was flooded and that 
the plucky postal clerks, in two feet of water, 
were at their posts. They were engaged in trans- 
ferring to the upper deck, from the ship's post- 
oflice, the two hundred bags of registered mail 
containing four hundred thousand letters. The 
names of these men, who all sank with the ship, 
deserve to be recorded. They were: John S. 
Marsh, William L. Gwynn, Oscar S, Woody, lago 
Smith and E. D. Williamson. The first three 




were Americans, the others Englishmen, and the 
families of the former were provided for by their 

And now Clinch Smith and myself noticed a list 
on the floor of the companionway. We kept our 
own counsel about it, not wishing to frighten any- 
one or cause any unnecessary alarm, especially 
among the ladies, who then appeared upon the 
scene. We did not consider it our duty to express 
our individual opinion upon the serious character 
of the accident which now appealed to us with the 
greatest force. He and I resolved to stick to- 
gether in the final emergency, united in the silent 
bond of friendship, and lend a helping hand to 
each other whenever required. I recall having in 
my mind's eye at this moment all that I had read 
and heard in days gone by about shipwrecks, and 
pictured Smith and myself clinging to an over- 
loaded raft in an open sea with a scarcity of food 
and water. We agreed to visit our respective 
staterooms and join each other later. All pos- 
sessions in my stateroom were hastily packed into 
three large travelling bags so that the luggage 
might be ready in the event of a hasty transfer 
to another ship. 

Fortunately I put on my long Newmarket over- 
coat that reached below my knees, and as I passed 
from the corridor into the companionway my 



worst fears were confirmed. Men and women 
were slipping on life-preservers, the stewards as- 
sisting in adjusting them. Steward Cullen insisted 
upon my returning to my stateroom for mine, 1 
did so and he fastened one on me while I brought 
out the other for use by someone else. 

Out on Deck A, port side, towards the stern, 
many men and women had already collected. I 
sought and found the unprotected ladies to whom 
I had proffered my services during the voyage 
when they boarded the ship at Southampton, Mrs. 
E. D. Appleton, wife of my St. Paul's School 
friend and schoolmate; Mrs. R. C. Cornell, wife 
of the well-known New York Justice, and Mrs. 
J. Murray Brown, wife of the Boston publisher, 
all old friends of my wife. These three sisters 
were returning home from a sad mission abroad, 
where they had laid to rest the remains of a fourth 
sister, Lady Victor Drummond, of whose death 
I had read accounts In the London papers, and all 
the sad details connected therewith were told me 
by the sisters themselves. That they would have 
to pass through a still greater ordeal seemed im- 
possible, and how little did I know of the respon- 
sibility I took upon myself for their safety 1 Ac- 
companying them, also unprotected, was their 
friend. Miss Edith Evans, to whom they intro- 
duced me, Mr. and Mrs. Straus, Colonel and 



Mrs. Astor and others well known to me were 
among those here congregated on the port side 
of Deck A, including, besides Clinch Smith, two of 
our coterie of after-dinner companions, Hugh 
Woolner, son of the English sculptor, whose 
works are to be seen in Westminster Abbey, and 
H. Bjornstrom Steffanson, the young lieutenant 
of the Swedish army, who, during the voyage, 
had told me of his acquaintance with Mrs. 
Grade's relatives in Sweden. 

It was now that the band began to play, and 
continued while the boats were being lowered. 
We considered this a wise provision tending to al- 
lay excitement. I did not recognize any of the 
tunes, but I know they were cheerful and were 
not hymns. If, as has been reported, "Nearer 
My God to Thee" was one of the selections, I 
assuredly should have noticed it and regarded it 
as a tactless warning of immediate death to us all 
and one likely to create a panic that our special 
efforts were directed towards avoiding, and which 
we accomplished to the fullest extent. I know of 
only two survivors whose names are cited by the 
newspapers as authority for the statement that 
this hymn was one of those played. On the other 
hand, all whom I have questioned or corresponded 
with, including the best qualified, testified emphati- 
cally to the contrary. 


Our hopes were buoyed with the information, 
imparted through the ship's officers, that there 
had been an interchange of wireless messages witli 
passing ships, one of which was certainly coming 
to our rescue. To reassure the ladies of whom I 
had assumed special charge, I showed them a 
bright white light of what I look to be a ship 
about five miles off and which I felt sure was com- 
ing to our rescue. Colonel Astor heard me tell- 
ing this to them and he asked me to show it and 
I pointed the light out to him. In so doing we 
. both had now to lean over the rail of the ship 
and look close in towards the bow, avoiding a 
lifeboat even then made ready with its gunwale 
lowered to the level of the floor of the Boat Deck 
above us and obstructing our view; but instead of 
growing brighter the light grew dim and less and 
less distinct and passed away altogether. The 
light, as I have since learned, with tearful regret 
for the lost who might have been saved, be- 
longed to the steamer Californian of the Leyland 
line. Captain Stanley Lord, bound from London to 
Boston. She belonged to the International Mer- 
cantile Marine Company, the owners of the 

This was the ship from which two of the six 
"ice messages" were sent. The first one received 
and acknowledged by the Titanic was one at 7.30 



p. m.,an intercepted message to another ship. 
The next was about 1 1 p. m,, when the Captain 
of the Califomian saw a ship approaching from 
the eastward, which he was advised to be the 
Titanic, and under his orders this message was 
sent; "We are stopped and surrounded by ice." 
To this the Titanic's wireless operator brusquely 
replied, "Shut up, I am busy. I am working Cape 
Race." The business here referred to was the 
sending of wireless messages for passengers on 
the Titanic; and the stronger current of the Cali- 
fornian eastward interfered therewith. Though 
the navigation of the ship and the issues of life 
and death were at stake, the right of way was 
given to communication with Cape Race until 
within a few minutes of the Titanic's collision with 
the iceberg. 

Nearly all this time, until ir.30 p. m,, the 
wireless operator of the Califomian was listen- 
ing with 'phones on his head, but at 11.30 p. m., 
while the Titanic was still talking to Cape Race, 
the former ship's operator "put the 'phones down, 
took off his clothes and turned in." 

The fate of thousands of lives hung in the bal- 
ance many times that ill-omened night, but the 
circumstances in connection with the S. S. Cali- 
fomian (Br. Rep. pp. 43-46), furnish the evidence 
corroborating that of the American Investigation, 





viz., that it was not chance, but the grossest neg- 
ligence alone which sealed the fate of all the 
noble lives, men and women, that were lost. 

It appears from the evidence referred to, In- 
formation in regard to which we learned after 
our arrival in New York, that the Captain of the 
Calif ornian and his crew were watching our 
lights from the deck of their ship, which remained 
approximately stationary until 5,15 a. m, on the 
following morning. During this interval it is 
shown that they were never distant more than six 
or seven miles. In fact, at 12 o'clock, the Cali- 
fortiian was only four or five miles off at the 
point and in the general direction where she was 
seen by myself and at least a dozen others, who 
bore testimony before the American Committee, 
from the decks of the Titanic. The white rockets 
which we sent up, referred to presently, were also 
plainly seen at the time. Captain Lord was com- 
pletely in possession of the knowledge that he 
was in proximity to a ship in distress. He could 
have put himself Into immediate communication 
with us by wireless had he desired confirmation 
of the name of the ship and the disaster which 
had befallen it. His Indifference is made appar- 
ent by his orders to "go on Morseing," Instead of 
utilizing the more modern method of the inven- 
tive genius and gentleman, Mr. Marconi, which 


eventually saved us all. "The night was clear 
and the sea was smooth. The ice by which the 
Calif oTtiian was surrounded," says the British 
Report, "was loose ice extending for a distance of 
not more than two or three miles in the direction 
of the Titanic." When she first saw the rockets, 
the Calif oruian could have pushed through the ice 
to the open water without any serious risk and so 
have come to the assistance of the Titanic. A 
discussion of this subject is the most painful of all 
others for those who lost their loved ones aboard 
our ship. 

When we realized that the ship whose lights 
we saw was not coming towards us, our hopes of 
rescue were correspondingly depressed, but the 
men's counsel to preserve calmness prevailed; and 
to reassure the ladies they repeated the much ad- 
vertised fiction of "the unsinkable ship" on the 
supposed highest quaUfied authority. It was at 
this point that Miss Evans related to me the story 
that years ago in London she had been told by a 
fortune-teller to "beware of water," and now 
"she knew she would be drowned." My efforts 
to persuade her to the contrary were futile. 
Though she gave voice to her story, she presented 
no evidence whatever of fear, and when I saw 
and conversed with her an hour later when condi- 
tions appeared especially desperate, and the last 




lifeboat was supposed to have departed, she was 
perfectly calm and did not revert again to the 
superstitious tale. 

From my own conclusions, and those of others, 
it appears that about forty-five minutes had now 
elapsed since the collision when Captain Smith's 
orders were transmitted to the crew to lower the 
lifeboats, loaded with women and children first. 
The self-abnegation of Mr. and Mrs. Isidor 
Straus here shone forth heroically when she 
promptly and emphatically exclaimed: "Nol I 
will not be separated from my husband; as we 
have lived, so will we die together;" and when he, 
too, declined the assistance proffered on my ear- 
nest solicitation that, because of his age and help- 
lessness, exception should be made and he be al- 
lowed to accompany his wife in the boat. "No!" 
he said, "I do not wish any distinction in my fa- 
vor which is not granted to others," As near as 
I can recall them these were the words which 
they addressed to me. They expressed them- 
selves as fully prepared to die, and calmly sat 
down in steamer chairs on the glass-enclosed Deck 
A, prepared to meet their fate. Further en- 
treaties to make them change their decision were 
of no avail. Later they moved to the Boat Deck 
above, accompanying Mrs. Straus's maid, who en- 
tered a lifeboat. 




When dw order to load the boats was received 
I had promptly moved forward with the ladies in 
my charge toward the boats then being lowered 
from the Boat Dedc above to Deck A on the port 
side of the ship, where we then were. A tall, 
slim young Englishman, Sixth Officer J. P. 
Moody, whose name I learned later, with other 
members of the ship's crew, barred the progress 
of us men passengers any nearer to the boats. 
All that was left me was then to consign these 
la(£es in my charge to the protection of the ship's 
officer, and I thereby was relieved of their respon- 
sibility and felt sure that they woold be safely 
loaded in the boats at this point. I remember a 
steward rolling a small barrel out of the door of 
the companionway, "What have you there?" 
said I. "Bread for the lifeboats," was his quick 
and cheery reply, as I passed inside the ship for 
the last time, searching for two of my table 
companions, Mrs. Churchill Candee of Wash- 
ington and Mr. Edward A- Kent. It was 
then that I met Wright, the racquet player, and 
exchanged the few words on the stairway already 

Considering it well to have a supply of blankets 
for use in the open boats exposed to the cold, I 
concluded, while passing, to make another, and my 
last, descent to my stateroom for this purpose, only 




to find it locked, and on asking the reason why 
was told by some other steward than Cullen that 
it was done "to prevent looting." Advising him 
of what was wanted, I went with him to the cabin 
stewards' quarters nearby, where extra blankets 
were stored, and where I obtained them. I then 
went the length of the ship inside on this glass- 
enclosed Deck A from aft, forwards, looking in 
every room and corner for my missing table com- 
panions, but no passengers whatever were to be 
seen except in the smoking room, and there all 
alone by themselves, seated around a table, were 
four men, three of whom were personally well 
known to me, Major Butt, Clarence Moore and 
Frank Millet, but the fourth was a stranger, whom 
I therefore cannot identify. All four seemed per- 
fectly oblivious of what was going on on the decks 
outside. It is impossible to suppose that they did 
not know of the collision with an iceberg and that 
the room they were in had been deserted by all 
others, who had hastened away. It occurred to me 
at the time that these men desired to show their 
entire indifference to the danger and that if I ad- 
vised them as to how seriously I regarded it, they 
■would laugh at me. This was the last I ever saw 
of any of them, and I know of no one who testi- 
fies to seeing them later, except a lady who men- 
tions having seen Major Butt on the bridge five 


minutes before the last boat left the ship.* Thei 
is no authentic story of what they did when the 
water reached this deck, and their ultimate fate is 
only a matter of conjecture. That they went 
down in the ship on this Deck A, when the steer- 
age passengers (as described later) blocked the 
way to the deck above, is my personal belief, 
founded on the following facts, to wit: First, that 
neither I nor anyone else, so far as 1 know, 
ever saw any of them on the Boat Deck, 
and second, that the bodies of none of them 
were ever recovered, indicating the possibility 
that all went down inside the ship or the enclosed 

I next find myself forward on the port side, 
part of the time on the Boat Deck, and part on 
the deck below it, called Deck A, where I re- 
joined Clinch Smith, who reported that Mrs. 
Candee had departed on one of the boats. Wc 
remained together until the ship went down. I 
was on the Boat Deck when I saw and heard the 
first rocket, and then successive ones sent up at in- 
tervals thereafter. These were followed by the 
Morse red and blue lights, which were signalled 
near by us on the deck where we were; but we 
looked in vain for any response. These signals 
of distress indicated to every one of us that the 

* Sec page — . 



ship's fate was sealed, and that she might sink 
before the lifeboats could be lowered. 

And now I am on Deck A again, where I helped 
in the loading of two boats lowered from the deck 
above. There were twenty boats in all on the 
ship; 14 wooden lifeboats, each thirty feet long 
by nine feet one inch broad, constructed to carry 
sixty-five persons each; 2 wooden cutters, emer- 
gency boats, twenty-five feet two inches long by 
seven feet two inches broad, constructed to carry 
forty persons each ; and 4 Engclhardt "surf- 
boats" with canvas collapsible sides extending 
above the gunwales, twenty-five feet five inches 
long by eight feet broad, constructed to carry 
forty-seven persons each. The lifeboats were 
ranged along the ship's rail, or its prolongation 
forward and aft on the Boat Deck, the odd num- 
bered on the starboard and the even numbered on 
the port side. Two of the Engelhardt boats were 
on the Boat Deck forward beneath the Emergency 
boats suspended on davits above. The other 
Engelhardt boats were on the roof of the officers' 
house forward of the first funnel. They are 
designated respectively by the letters, A. B. C. D; 
A and C on the starboard, B and D on the port 
sides. They have a rounded bottom like a canoe. 
The name "collapsible boat" generally applied has 
given rise to mistaken impressions in regard to 



them, because of the adjustable canvas sidesJ 

At this quarter I was no longer held backl 
from approaching near the boats, but my as-l 
sistance and work as one of the crew in the* 
loading of boats and getting them away as 
quickly as possible were accepted, for there 
was now no time to spare. The Second Officer, 
Lightoller, was in command on the port side 
forward, where I was. One of his feet was 
planted in the lifeboat, and the other on the rail 
of Deck A, while we, through the wood frames 
cf the lowered glass windows on this deck, passed 
women, children, and babies in rapid succession 
without any confusion whatsoever. Among this 
number was Mrs. Astor, whom I lifted over the 
four-feet high rail of the ship through the frame. 
Her husband held her left arm as we carefully 
passed her to Lightoller, who seated her in the 
boat. A dialogue now ensued between Colonel 
Astor and the officer, every word of which I lis- 
tened to with intense interest, Astor was close 
to me in the adjoining window-frame, to the left 
of mine. Leaning out over the rail he asked per- 
mission of Lightoller to enter the boat to protect 
his wife, which, in view of her delicate condition, 
seems to have been a reasonable request, but the 
officer, intent upon his duty, and obeying orders, 


and not knowing the millionaire from the rest of 

us. replied: "No, sir, no men are allowed in these 

boats until women are loaded first." Colonel As- 

tor did not demur, but bore the refusal bravely 

and resignedly, simply asking the number of the 

boat to help find his wife later in case he also was 

I rescued. "Number 4," was Llghtoller's reply. 

' Nothing more was said. Colonel Astor moved 

away from this point and I never saw him again. 

I do not for a moment believe the report that he 

attempted to enter, or did enter, a boat and it is 

evident that if any such thought occurred to him 

at all it must have been at this present time and 

in this boat with his wife. Second Officer Ljghtol- 

ler recalled the incident perfectly when I reminded 

him of it. It was only through me that Colonel 

Astor's identity was established in his mind. "I 

assumed," said he, "that I was asked to give the 

number of the lifeboat as the passenger intended, 

r for some unknown cause, to make complaint about 

I me." From the fact that I never saw Colonel As- 

r tor on the Boat Deck later, and also because his 

body, when found, was crushed (according to the 

statement of one who saw it at Halifax, Mr. 

Harry K. White, of Boston, Mr. Edward A. 

Kent's brother-in-law, my schoolmate and friend 

from boyhood), I am of the opinion that he met 

ite on the ship when the boilers tore through 

Lit, as described later. 



One of the incidents I recall when loading the 
boats at this point was my seeing a young woman 
clinging tightly to a baby in her arms as she ap- 
proached near the ship's high rail, but unwilling 
even for a moment to allow anyone else to hold 
the little one while assisting her to board the life- 
boat. As she drew back sorrowfully to the outer 
edge of the crowd on the deck, I followed and per- 
suaded her to accompany me to the rail again, 
promising if she would entrust the baby to me I 
would see that the officer passed it to her after she 
got aboard. I remember her trepidation as she 
acceded to my suggestion and the happy expres- 
sion of relief when the mother was safely seated 
with the baby restored to her. "Where is my 
baby?" was her anxious wail. "I have your 
baby," I cried, as It was tenderly handed along. I 
remember this Incident well because of my feeling 
at the time, when I had the babe In my care; 
though the interval was short, I wondered how I 
should manage with it In my arms If the lifeboats 
got away and I should be plunged into the water 
with it as the ship sank. 

According to LIghtoller's testimony before the 
Senate Committee he put twenty to twenty-five 
women, with two seamen to row, in the first boat 
and thirty, with two seamen, in the second. 

Our labors in loading the boats were now 



shifted to the Boat Deck above, where Clinch 
Smith and I, with others, followed Lightoller and 
the crew. On this deck some difficulty was expe- 
rienced in getting the boats ready to lower. Sev- 
eral causes may have contributed to this, viz., lack 
of drill and Insufficient number of seamen for such 
emergency, or because of the new tackle not work- 
ing smoothly. We had the hardest time with the 
Engelhardt boat, lifting and pushing it towards 
and over the rail. My shoulders and the whole 
weight of my body were used in assisting the crew 
at this work. LightoUer's testimony tells us that 
as the situation grew more serious he began to 
take chances and in loading the third boat he filled 
it up as full as he dared to, with about thirty-five 
persons. By this time he was short of seamen, 
and in the fourth boat he put the first man passen- 
ger. "Are you a sailor?" Lightoller asked, and 
received the reply from the gentleman addressed 
that he was "a yachtsman," Lightoller told him 
if he was "sailor enough to get out over the bul- 
warks to the lifeboat, to go ahead." This pas- 
senger was Major Arthur Peuchen, of Toronto, 
who acquitted himself as a brave man should. My 
energies were so concentrated upon this work of 
loading the boats at this quarter that lapse of 
time, sense of sight and sense of hearing recorded 
pressions during this interval until the last 

I impn 


boat was loaded; but there is one fact of which I 
am positive, and that is that every man, woman, 
officer and member of the crew did their full duty 
without a sign of fear or confusion. LightoUer's 
strong and steady voice rang out his orders in 
clear firm tones, inspiring confidence and obe- 
dience. There was not one woman who shed 
tears or gave any sign of fear or distress. There 
was not a man at this quarter of the ship who in- 
dicated a desire to get into the boats and escape 
with the women. There was not a member of 
the crew who shirked, or left his post. The cool- 
ness, courage, and sense of duty that I here wit- 
nessed made me thankful to God and proud of 
my Anglo-Saxon race that gave this perfect and 
superb exhibition of self-control at this hour of 
severest trial. "The boat's deck was only ten feet 
from the water when I lowered the sixth boat," 
testified Lightoller, "and when we lowered the 
first, the distance to the water was seventy feet. 
We had now loaded all the women who were in 
sight at that quarter of the ship, and I ran along 
the deck with Clinch Smith on the port side some 
distance aft shouting, "Are there any more 
women?" "Are there any more women?" On 
my return there was a very palpable list to port as 
if the ship was about to topple over. The deck 
was on a corresponding slant. "All passengers t 




the starboard side," was Lightoller's loud com- 
mand, heard by all of us. Here I thought the 
final crisis had come, with the boats all gone, and 
when we were to be precipitated into the sea. 

Prayerful thoughts now began to rise in me that 
my life might be preserved and I be restored to 
my loved ones at home. I weighed myself in the 
balance, doubtful whether I was thus deserving of 
God's mercy and protection. I questioned myself 
as to the performance of my religious duties ac- 
cording to the instructions of my eariiest Precep- 
tor, the Rev. Henry A. Colt, whose St. Paul's 
School at Concord, N. H., I had attended. My 
West Point training In the matter of recognition 
of constituted authority and maintenance of com- 
posure stood me in good stead. 

My friend. Clinch Smith, urged immediate obe- 
dience to Lightoller's orders, and, with other men 
passengers, we crossed over to the starboard quar- 
ter of the ship, forward on the same Boat Deck 
where, as I afterwards learned, the officer in com- 
mand was First Officer Murdoch, who had also 
done noble work, and was soon thereafter to lose 
his life. Though the deck here was not so notice- 
ably aslant as on the port side, the conditions ap- 
peared fully as desperate. All the lifeboats had 
been lowered and had departed. There was some- 
what of a crowd congregated along the rail. The 





light was sufficient for me to recognize distina 
many of those with whom I was well acquainted. 
Here, pale and determined, was Mr. John B. 
Thayer, Second Vice-President of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, and Mr. George D. Widener. 
They were looking over the ship's gunwale, talking 
earnestly as if debating what to do. Next to them 
It pained me to discover Mrs. J. M. Brown and 
Miss Evans, the two ladies whom more than an 
hour previous I had, as related, consigned to the 
care of Sixth Officer Moody on Deck A, where he, 
as previously described, blocked my purpose of ac- 
companying these ladies and personally assisting 
them into the boat. They showed no signs of 
perturbation whatever as they conversed quietly 
with me. Mrs. Brown quickly related how they 
became separated, in the crowd, from her sisters, 
Mrs. Appleton and Mrs. Cornell. Alas ! that they 
had not remained on the same port side of the 
ship, or moved forward on Deck A, or the Boat 
Deckl Instead, they had wandered In some un- 
explained way to the very furthest point diag- 
onally from where they were at first. At the time 
of introduction I had not caught Miss Evans' 
name, and when we were here together at this crit- 
ical moment I thought it important to ask, and 


he gave me her name. Meantime the 

s ga 
working on the roof of the officers' 

crew wei 
quarters 1 


cut loose one of the Engelhardt boats. All this 
took place more quickly than it takes to write it. 

Meantime, T will describe what was going on at 
the quarter where I left Lightollcr loading the last 
boat on the port side. The information was ob- 
tained personally from him, in answer to my care- 
ful questioning during the next few days on board 
the Carpathia, when I made notes thereof, which 
were confirmed again the next week in Washing- 
ton, where we were both summoned before the 
Senate Investigating Committee. "Men from the 
steerage," he said, "rushed the boat." "Rush" 
is the word he used, meaning they got in without 
his permission. He drew his pistol and ordered 
them out, threatening to shoot if they attempted 
to enter the boat again. 1 presume it was in con- 
sequence of this incident that the crew established 
the line which I encountered, presently referred to, 
which blocked the men passengers from approach- 
ing the last boat loaded on the port side forward, 
where we had been, and the last one that was 
safely loaded from the ship. 

During this very short interval 1 was on the 
starboard side, as described, next to the rail, with 
Mrs. Brown and Miss Evans, when I heard a 
member of the crew, coming from the quarter 
where the last boat was loaded, say that there was 
room for more ladies in It. I Immediately seized 


each lady by the arm, and, with Miss Evans on my 
right and Mrs, Brown on my left, hurried, with 
three other ladies following us, toward the port 
side; but I had not proceeded half-way, and near 
amidship, when I was stopped by the aforesaid 
line of the crew barring my progress, and one of 
the officers told me that only the women could 

The story of what now happened to Mrs. 
Brown and Miss Evans after they left me must 
be told by Mrs. Brown, as related to me by her- 
self when I rejoined her next on board the Car- 
paihia. Mis'S Evans led the way, she said, as they 
neared the rail where what proved to be the last 
lifeboat was being loaded, but In a spirit of most 
heroic self-sacrifice Miss Evans insisted upon 
Mrs. Brown's taking precedence in being assisted 
aboard the boat. "You go first," she said. "You 
are married and have children." But when Miss 
Evans attempted to follow after, she was unable 
to do so for some unknown cause. The women in 
the boat were not able, it would appear, to pull 
Miss Evans in. It was necessary for her first to 
clear the four feet high ship's gunwale, and no 
man or member of the crew was at this particular 
point to lift her over. I have questioned Mr. 
LightoUer several times about this, but he has not 
been able to give any satisfactory explanation and 




cannot understand it, for when he gave orders to 
lower away, there was no woman in sight. I have 
further questioned him as to whether there was 
an interval between the ship's rail and the life- 
boat he was loading, but he says, "No," for until 
the very last boat he stood, as has already been de- 
scribed, with one foot planted on the ship's gun- 
wale and the other in the lifeboat. I had thought 
that the list of the ship might have caused too 
much of an interval for him to have done this. 
Perhaps what I have read in a letter of Mrs. 
Brown may furnish some reason why Miss Evans' 
efforts to board the lifeboat, in which there was 
plenty of room for her, were unavailing. "Never 
mind," she Is said to have called out, "I will go 
on a later boat." She then ran away and was not 
seen again; but there was no later boat, and it 
would seem that after a momentary impulse, be- 
ing disappointed and being unable to get into the 
boat, she went aft on the port side, and no one 
saw her again. Neither the second officer nor I 
saw any women on the deck during the interval 
thereafter of fifteen or twenty minutes before the 
great ship sank. 

An inspection of the American and British Re- 
ports shows that all women and children of the 
first cabin were saved except five. Out of the one 
hundred and fifty these were the five lost: (i) 


Miss Evans; (2) Mrs. Straus; (3) Mrs. H. J. 
Allison, of Montreal; (4) her daughter, Miss 
Allison, and { 5 ) Miss A. E. Ishara, of New York. 
The first two have already been accounted for. 
Mrs. Allison and Miss Allison could have been 
saved had they not chosen to remain on the ship. 
They refused to enter the lifeboat unless Mr. Alli- 
son was allowed to go with them. This statement 
was made In my presence by Mrs. H, A. Casso 
beer, of New York, who related it to Mrs. Alli- 
son's brother, Mr. G. F, Johnston, and myself. 
Those of us who survived among the first cabin 
passengers will remember this beautiful Mrs. Alli- 
son, and will be glad to know of the heroic mould 
in which she was cast, as exemplified by her fate, 
which was similar to that of another, Mrs, Straus, 
who has been memorialized the world over. The 
fifth lady lost was Miss A. E. Isham, and she is 
the only one of whom no survivor, so far as 1 can 
learn, is able to give any Information whatever as 
to where she was or what she did on that fateful 
Sunday night. Her relatives, learning that her 
stateroom, No. C, 49, adjoined mine, wrote me in 
the hope that I might be able to furnish some in- 
formation to their sorrowing hearts about her last 
hours on the shipwrecked Titanic. It was with 
much regret that I replied that I had not seen my 
neighbor at any time, and, not having the pleasure 







^^^ vis 

of her acquaintance, identification was impossible. 
I was, however, glad to be able to assure her fam- 
ily of one point, viz., that she did not meet with 
the horrible fate which they feared, in being 
locked in her stateroom and drowned. I had re- 
visited my stateroom twice after being aroused by 
the collision, and am sure that she was fully 
warned of what had happened, and after she left 
Jier stateroom it was locked behind her, as was 

The simple statement of fact that all of the first 
cabin women were sent off in the lifeboats and 
saved, except five — three of whom met heroic 
death through choice and two by some mischance 
— is in itself the most sublime tribute that could 
be paid to the self-sacrifice and the gallantry of the 
first cabin men, including all the grand heroes who 
sank with the ship and those of us who survived 
their fate. All authentic testimony of both first 
and second cabin passengers is also in evidence 
that the Captain's order for women and children 
to be loaded first met with the unanimous approval 
of us all, and in every instance was carried out 
both in letter and in spirit. In Second Officer Ligh- 
toller's testimony before the Senate Committee, 
when asked whether the Captain's order was a 
rule of the sea, he answered that it was "the rule 
of human nature." There is no doubt in my mind 



that the men at that quarter where we were would 
have adopted the same rule spontaneously whether 
ordered by the Captain, or not. Speaking from 
my own personal observation, which by compari- 
son with that of the second officer I find in ac- 
cord with his, all six boat loads, including the last, 
departed with women and children only, with not 
a man passenger except Major Peuchen, whose 
services were enlisted to replace the lack of crew. 
I may say further that with the single exception of 
Colonel Astor's plea for the protection of his wife, 
in delicate condition, there was not one who made 
a move or a suggestion to enter a boat. , 

While the light was dim on the decks it was al- 
ways sufficient for me to recognize anyone with 
whom I was acquainted, and I am happy in being 
able to record the names of those 1 know beyond 
any doubt whatever, as with me in these last ter- 
rible scenes when Lightoller's boats were being 
lowered and after the last lifeboat had left the 
ship. The names of these were: James Clinch 
Smith, Colonel John Jacob Astor, Mr. John B. 
Thayer and Mr, George D. Widener, So far as 
I know, and my research has been exhaustive, I am 
the sole surviving passenger who was with or as- 
sisted LightoUer in the loading of the last boats. 
When I first saw and realized that every lifeboat 
had left the ship, the sensation felt was not an 



■ fe; 


agreeable one. No tho 
bead, but I experienced a feeling which others may 
recall when holding the breath in the face of some 
frightful emergency and when "vox faucibus 
hiesit," as frequently happened to the old Trojan 
hero of our school days. This was the nearest ap- 
proach to fear, if it can be so characterized, that 
is discernible in an analysis of my actions or feel- 
ings while in the midst of the many dangers which 
beset me during that night of terror. Though 
still worse and seemingly many hopeless conditions 
soon prevailed, and unexpected ones, too, when I 
felt that "any moment might be my last," I had 
no time to contemplate danger when there was 
continuous need of quick thought, action and com- 
posure withal. Had I become rattled for a mo- 
ment, or in the slightest degree been undecided 
during the several emergencies presently cited, I 
am certain that I never should have lived to tell the 
tale of my miraculous escape. For it is eminently 
fitting, in gratitude to my Maker, that I should 
make the acknowledgment that I know of no re- 
corded instance of Providential deliverance more 
directly attributable to cause and effect, illustrat- 
ing the efficacy of prayer and how "God helps 
those who help themselves." I should have only 
courted the fate of many hundreds of others had I 
lupinely made no effort to supplement my prayers 



with all the strength and power which He has 
granted to me. While I said to myself, "Good- 
bye to all at home," I hoped and prayed for es- 
cape. My mind was nerved to do the duty of the 
moment, and my muscles seemed to be hardened 
ill preparation for any struggle that might come. 
When I learned that there was still another boat, 
the Engelhardt, on the roof of the officers' quar- 
ters, I felt encouraged with the thought that here 
was a chance of getting away before the ship sank ; 
but what was one boat among so many eager to 
board her? 

During my short absence in conducting the 
ladies to a position of safety, Mr. Thayer and Mr, 
Widener had disappeared, but I know not whither. 
Mr, Widener's son, Harry, was probably with 
them, but Mr. Thayer supposed that his young 
son, Jack, had left the ship in the same boat with 
his mother. Messrs. l"hayer and Widener must 
have gone toward the stern during the short in- 
terval of my absence. No one at this point had 
jumped into the sea. If there had been any, both 
Clinch Smith and I would have known it. After 
the water struck the bridge forward there were 
many who rushed aft, climbed over the rail and 
jumped, but I never saw one of them. 

I was now working with the crew at the davits 
on the starboard side forward, adjusting them, 



ready for lowering the Engclhardt boat from the 
roof of the officers' house to the Boat Deck below. 
Some one of the crew on the roof, where it was, 
sang out, "Has any passenger a knife?" I took 
mine out of my pocket and tossed it to him, say- 
ing, "Here is a small penknife, if that will do any 
good." It appeared to me then that there was 
more trouble than there ought to have been in 
removing the canvas cover and cutting the boat 
loose, and that some means should have been 
available for doing this without any delay. Mean- 
time, four or five long oars were placed aslant 
against the walls of the officers' house to break the 
fall of the boat, which was pushed from the roof 
and slipped with a crash down on the Boat Deck, 
smashing several of the oars. Clinch Smith and I 
scurried out of the way and stood leaning with 
our backs against the rail, watching this procedure 
and feeling anxious lest the boat might have been 
stove in, or otherwise injured so as to cause her to 
leak in the water. The account of the junior 
Marconi operator, Harold S. Bride, supplements 
mine, "I saw a collapsible boat," he said, "near 
a funnel, and went over to it. Twelve men were 
trying to boost it down to the Boat Deck. They 
were having an awful time. It was the last boat 
left. I looked at it longingly a few minutes; then 
1 gave a hand and over she went." 


About this time I recall that an officer on the 
roof of the house called down to the crew at this 
quarter, "Are there any seamen down there among 
you?" "Aye, aye, sir," was the response, and 1 
quite a number left the Boat Deck to assist in ' 
what I supposed to have been the cutting loose 
of the other Engelhardt boat up there on the roof. 
Again I heard an inquiry for another knife. I 
thought I recognized the voice of the second of- 
ficer working up there with the crew. Lightoller 
has told me, and has written me as well, that 
"boat A on the starboard side did not leave the 
ship," * while "B was thrown down to the Boat 
Deck," and was the one on which he and I even- 
tually climbed. The crew had thrown the Engel- 
hardt boat to the deck, but I did not understand 
why they were so long about launching it, unless 
they were waiting to cut the other one loose and 
launch them both at the same time. Two young 
men of the crew, nice looking, dressed in white, 
one tall and the other smaller, were coolly debat- 
ing as to whether the compartments would hold 
the ship afloat. They were standing with their 
backs to the rail looking on at the rest of the crew, 
and I recall asking one of them why he did not 

•With the efldence on the subject presented later he recog- 
nues that Boat A floated away und was afterwards utili>ed< 



At this time there were other passengers 
around, butClInch Smith was the only one asso- 
ciated with me here to the last. It was about this 
time, fifteen minutes after the launching of the last 
lifeboat on the port side, that I heard a noise that 
spread consternation among us all. This was no 
less than the water strilting the bridge and gur- 
gling up the hatchway forward. It seemed mo- 
mentarily as if it would reach the Boat Deck. It 
appeared as if it would take the crew a long time 
to turn the Engelhardt boat right side up and lift 
it over the rail, and there were so many ready to 
board her that she would have been swamped. 
Probably taking these points into consideration, 
Clinch Smith made the proposition that we should 
leave and go toward the stern, still on the star- 
board side, so he started and I followed imme- 
diately after him. We had taken but a few steps 
in the direction Indicated when there arose before 
us from the decks below, a mass of humanity sev- 
eral lines deep, covering the Boat Deck, facing us, 
and completely blocking our passage toward the 

There were women in the crowd, as well 
as men, and they seemed to be steerage passengers 
who had just come up from the decks below. In- 
stantly, when they saw us and the water on the 
deck chasing us from behind, they turned in the 


opposite direction towards the stern. This 
brought them at that point plumb against the iron 
fence and railing which divide the first and second 
cabin passengers. Even among these people there 
was no hysterical cry, or evidence of panic, but oh, 
the agony of it! Clinch Smith and I instantly saw 
that we could make no progress ahead, and with 
the water following us behind over the deck, we 
were in a desperate place. I can never forget the 
exact point on the ship where he and I were lo- 
cated, viz., at the opening of the angle made by 
the walls of the ofEcers' house and only a short 
distance abaft the Titanic's forward "expansion 
joint." Clinch Smith was immediately on my left, 
nearer the apex of the angle, and our backs were 
turned toward the ship's rail and the sea. Look- 
ing up toward the roof of the officers' house I 
saw a man to the right of me and above lying on 
his stomach on the roof, with his legs dangling 
over. Clinch Smith jumped to reach this roof, and 
I promptly followed. The efforts of both of us 
failed. I was loaded down with heavy long-skirted 
overcoat and Norfolk coat beneath, with clumsy 
life-preserver over all, which made my jump fall 
short. As I came down, the water struck my right 
side. I crouched down into it preparatory 
jumping with it, and rose as If on the crest of 
wave on the seashore. This expedient brought the 





attainment of the object I had In view. I was able 
to reach the roof and the iron railing that is along 
the edge of it, and pulled myself over on top of the 
officers' house on my stomach near the base of the 
second funnel. The feat which I instinctively ac- 
complished was the simple one, familiar to all 
bathers in the surf at the seashore. I had no time 
to advise Clinch Smith to adopt it. To my utter 
dismay, a hasty glance to my left and right 
showed that he had not followed my example, and 
that the wave, if I may call it such, which had 
mounted me to the roof, had completely covered 
him, as well as all people on both sides of me, in- 
cluding the man I had first seen athwart the roof. 
I was thus parted forever from my friend, 
Clinch Smith, with whom I had agreed to remain 
to the last struggle. I felt almost a pang of re- 
sponsibility for our separation; but he was not in 
sight and there was no chance of rendering assis- 
tance. His ultimate fate is a matter of conjecture. 
Hemmed in by the mass of people toward the 
stern, and cornered in the locality previously de- 
scribed, it seems certain that as the ship keeled 
over and sank, his body was caught in the angle or 
in the coils of rope and other appurtenances on the 
deck and borne down to the depths below. There 
could not be a braver man than James Clinch 
He was the embodiment of coolness and 


courage during the whole period of the disaster. 
While in constant touch and communication with 
him at the various points on the ship when we 
were together on this tragic night, he never showed 
the slightest sign of fear, but manifested the same 
quiet imperturbable manner so well known to all of 
his friends, who join with his family in mourn- 
ing his loss. His conduct should be an inspira'tion 
to us all, and an appropriate epitaph to his mem- 
ory taken from the words of Christ would be: 
"Greater love hath no man than this, that a man 
lay down his life for his friend," 





"There is sorrow on the sea; it cannot be quiet." 
— Jeremiah 49:23. 

BEFORE I resume the story of my personal 
escape it is pertinent that I should, at this 
juncture, discuss certain points wherein the 
statements of survivors are strangely at variance. 

First: Was there an explosion of the ship's 

1 am of opinion that there was none, because I 
should have been conscious of it. When aboard 
ship I should have heard It and felt it, but I did 
not. As my senses were on the lookout for every 
danger, I cannot conceive It possible that an ex- 
plosion occurred without my being made aware of 
it. When I went down holding on to the ship and 
was under water, I heard no sound Indicating any- 
thing of the sort, and when I came to the surface 
there was no ship In sight. Furthermore, there 
was no perceptible wave which such a disturbance 
would have created. 

The two ranking surviving officers of the Ti- 



tanic, viz., Second Officer Lightoller and Third 
Officer Pitman, with whom I had a discussion on 
this and other points in almost daily conversation 
in my cabin on the Carpathia, agreed with me that 
there was no explosion of the boilers. The second 
officer and myself had various similar experiences, 
and, as will be noticed in the course of this narra- 
tive, we were very near together during all the 
perils of that awful night. The only material dif- 
ference worth noting was the manner in which 
each parted company with the ship, and finally 
reached the bottom-up Engelhardt boat on top 
of which we made our escape. According to his 
testimony before the Senate Committee, he stood 
on the roof of the officers' quarters in front of 
the first funnel, facing forward, and as the ship 
dived, he dived also, while I held on to the iron 
railing on the same roof, near the second funnel, 
as has been described, and as the ship sank I was 
pulled down with it. The distance between us on 
the ship was then about fifteen yards. 

There are so many newspaper and other pub- 
lished reports citing the statements of certain sur- 
vivors as authority for this story of an explosion 
of the boilers that the reading world generally has 
been made to believe it. Among the names of 
passengers whose alleged statements (I have re- 
ceived letters repudiating some of these inter- 






views) arc thus given credence, I have read those 
of Miss Cornelia Andrews, of Hudson, N. Y.; 
Mrs. W. E. Carter, of Philadelphia, Pa.; Mr. 
John Pillsbury Snyder, of Minneapolis, Minn.; 
Miss Minahan, of Fond du Lac, Wis., and Lady 
Duff Gordon, of England, all of whom, according 
to the newspaper reports, describe their position 
in the lifeboats around the ship and how they 
heard, or saw, the "ship blow up," or "the boilers 
explode" with one or two explosions just before 
the ship sank out of their sight. On the other 
hand, Mr. Hugh Woolncr told me on the Car' 
pathia that from his position in the lifeboat, which 
he claims was the nearest one to the Titanic when 
she sank some seventy-five yards away, there 
was a terrific noise on the ship, as she slanted to- 
wards the head before the final plunge, which 
sounded like the crashing of millions of dishes of 
crockery. Woolncr and I when on board the 
Carpathia, as presently described, had our cabin 
together, where we were visited by Officers Ligh- 
toller and Pitman, This was one of the points we 
discussed together, and the conclusion was at once 
reached as to the cause of this tremendous crash. 
Since then, Lightoller has been subjected to rigid 
examination before this country's and England's 
Investigating Committees, and has been a party 
to discussions with experts, including the designers 




and builders of the Titanic. His conclusion ex- 
pressed on the Carpathia is now strengthened, and 
he says that there was no explosion of the boilers 
and that the great noise which was mistaken for 
it was due to "the boilers leaving their beds" on 
E Deck when the ship was aslant and, with their 
great weight, sliding along the deck, crushing and 
tearing through the doomed vessel forward to- 
ward the bow. Third Officer Pitman also gave 
his testimony on this, as well as the next point con- 
sidered. Before the Senate Committee he said: 
"Then she turned right on end and made a big 
plunge forward. The Titanic did not break 
asunder. I heard reports like big guns In the dis- 
tance. I assumed the great bulkheads had gone 
to pieces." Cabin-steward Samuel Rule said: "I 
think the noise we heard was that of the boilers 
and engines breaking away from their seatings 
and falling down through the forward bulkhead. 
At the time it occurred, the ship was standing 
nearly upright in the water." 

The peculiar way in which the Titanic is 
described as hesitating and assuming a ver- 
tical position before her final dive to the depths 
below can be accounted for only on this hypothesis 
of the sliding of the boilers from their beds. A 
second cabin passenger, Mr. Lawrence Beesley, 
a Cambridge University man, has written an ex- 



cellent book about the Titanic disaster, dwelling 
especially upon the lessons to be learned from it. 
His account given to the newspapers also contains 
the most graphic description from the viewpoint 
of those in the lifeboats, telling how the great ship 
looked before her final plunge. He "was a mile 
or two miles away," he writes, "when the oars- 
men lay on their oars and all in the lifeboat were 
motionless as we watched the ship in absolute si- 
lence — save some who would not look and buried 
their heads on each others' shoulders. . . . 
As we gazed awe-struck, she tilted slightly up, re- 
volving apparently about a centre of gravity just 
astern of amidships until she attained a vertical 
upright position, and there she remained — motion- 
less! As she swung up, her lights, which had 
shown without a flicker all night, went out sud- 
denly, then came on again for a single Qash and 
then went out altogether; and as they did so there 
came a noise which many people, wrongly, I think, 
have described as an explosion. It has always 
seemed to me that it was nothing but the engines 
and machinery coming loose from their place and 
bearings and falling through the compartments, 
smashing everything in their way. It was partly 
a roar, partly a groan, partly a rattle and partly a 
smash, and it was not a sudden roar as an explo- 
sion would be; it went on successively for some 


seconds, possibly fifteen or twenty, as the heavy 
machinery dropped down to the bottom (now the 
bows) of the ship; I suppose It fell through the 
end and sank first before the ship. (For evidence 
of shattered timbers, see Hagan's testimony, page 
85.) But it was a noise no one had heard before 
and no one wishes to hear again. It was stupefy- 
ing, stupendous, as it came to us along the water. 
It was as if all the heavy things one could think 
of had been thrown downstairs from the top of a 
house, smashing each other, and the stairs and 
everything in the way. 

"Several apparently authentic accounts have been 
given in which definite stories of explosions have 
been related — in some cases even with wreckage 
blown up and the ship broken in two; but I think 
such accounts will not stand close analysis. In 
the first place, the fires had been withdrawn and 
the steam allowed to escape some time before she 
sank, and the possibility from explosion from this 
cause seems very remote." 

Second: Did the ship break in two? 
I was on the Carpathia when I first heard any 
one make reference to this point. The seventeen- 
year-old son of Mr, John B. Thayer, "Jack" 
Thayer, Jr., and his young friend from Philadel- 
phia, R. N. Williams, Jr., the tennis expert, in de- 
scribing their experiences to me were positive that 




they saw the ship split in two. This was from 
their position In the water on the starboard quar- 
ter. "Jack" Thayer gave this same description to 
an artist, who reproduced it in an Illustration in 
the New York Herald, which many of us have 
seen. Some of the passengers, whose names I 
have just mentioned, are also cited by the news- 
papers as authority for the statements that the 
ship "broke in two," that she "buckled amidships," 
that she "was literally torn to pieces," etc. On 
the other hand, there is much testimony available 
which is at variance with this much-advertised sen- 
sational newspaper account. Summing up its in- 
vestigation of this point the Senate Committee's 
Report reads: "There have been many conflicting 
statements as to whether the ship broke in two, 
but the preponderance of evidence is to the eflfect 
that she assumed an almost end-on position and 
sank intact." This was as Lightoller testified be- 
fore the Committee, that the Titaiiic's decks were 
"absolutely intact" when she went down. On this 
point, too, Beesley is In accord, from his viewpoint 
in the lifeboat some distance away out of danger, 
whence, more composedly than others, he could 
see the last of the Ill-fated ship as the men lay on 
their oars watching until she disappeared. "No 
phenomenon," he continues, "like that pictured in 
some American and English papers occurred — 


that of the ship breaking in two, and the two ei 
being raised above the surface. When the noise 
was over, the Titanic was still upright like a col- 
umn; we could see her now only as the stern and 
some 150 feet of her stood outlined against the 
star-specked sky, looming black In the darkness, 
and in this position she continued for some min- 
utes — I think, as much as five minutes — but It may 
have been less. Then, as sinking back a little at 
the stern, I thought she slid slowly forwards I 
through the water and dived slantingly down." ' 

From my personal viewpoint I also know that 
the Titanic's decks were Intact at the time she sank, 
and when I sank with her, there was over seven- 
sixteenths of the ship already under water, 
and there was no indication then of any im- 
pending break of the deck or ship. I recently 
visited the sister ship of the Titanic, viz., the 
Olympic, at her dock In New York harbor. 
This was for the purpose of still further 
familiarizing myself with the corresponding locali- 
ties which were the scene of my personal expe- 
riences on the Titanic, and which are referred to 
In this narrative. The only difference in the deck 
plan of the sister ship which I noted, and whidi 
the courteous officers of the Olympic mentioned, is 
that the latter ship's Deck A Js not glass-enclosed 
like the Tilanic'i; but one of the principal points o ' 



discovery that I made during ray investigation con- 
cerns this matter of the alleged breaking in two 
of this magnificent ship. The White Star Line 
officers pointed out to me what they called the 
ship's "forward expansion joint," and they 
claimed the Titanic was so constructed that she 
must have split in two at this point, if she did so 
at all. I was interested in obser\'ing that this "ex- 
pansion joint" was less than twelve feet forward 
from that point on the Boat Deck whence I 
jumped, as described {to the iron railing on the 
roof of the officers' quarters). It is indicated by 
a black streak of leather-covering running trans- 
versely across the deck and then up the vertical 
white wall of the officers' house. This "joint" ex- 
tends, however, only through the Boat Deck and 
Decks A and B, which are superimposed on Deck 
I C. If there was any splitting in two, it seems to 
me also that this superstructure, weakly joined, 
would have been the part to split; but It certainly 
did not. It was only a few seconds before the 
time of the alleged break that I stepped across this 
dividing line of the two sections and went down 
with the after section about twelve feet from this 
"expansion joint." 

One explanation which I offer of what must 
be a delusion on the part of the advocates of the 
"break-In-two" theory is that when the forward 




funnel fell, as hereafter described, it may have 
looked as If the ship itself was splitting in two, par- 
ticularly to the young men who are cited as au- 

Third: Did either the Captain or the First Of- 
ficer shoot himself? 

Notwithstanding all the current rumors and 
newspaper statements answering this question af- 
firmatively, I have been unable to find any passen- 
ger or member of the crew cited as authority for 
the statement that either Captain Smith or First 
Officer Murdoch did anything of the sort. On the 
contrary, so far as relates to Captain Smith, there 
are several witnesses, including Harold S. Bride, 
the junior Marconi operator, who saw him at the 
last on the bridge of his ship, and later, when sink- 
ing and struggling in the water. Neither can I dis- 
cover any authentic testimony about First Ofiicer 
Murdoch's shooting himself. On the contrary, I 
find fully sufficient evidence that he did not. He 
was a brave and efficient officer and no sufficient 
motive for self-destruction can be advanced. He 
performed his full duty under difficult circum- 
stances, and was entitled to praise and honor. 
During the last fifteen minutes before the ship 
sank, I was located at that quarter forward on the 
Boat Deck, starboard side, where Murdoch was 
In command and where the crew under him were 



O'LoUKtiUn, Flnt,. 


engaged in the vain attempt of launching the 
Engelhardt boat. The report of a pistol shot dur- 
ing this interval ringing in my ears within a few 
feet of me would certainly have attracted my at- 
tention, and later, when I moved astern, the dis- 
tance between us was not so great as to prevent my 
hearing it. The "big wave" or "giant wave," de- 
scribed by Harold Bride, swept away Murdoch 
and the crew from the Boat Deck first before it 
struck me, and when I rose with it to the roof of 
the officers' house, Bride's reported testimony fits 
in with mine so far as relates to time, place, and 
circumstance, and I quote his words as follows: 
"About ten minutes before the ship sank, Captain 
Smith gave word for every man to look to his own 
safety. I sprang to aid the men struggling to 
launch the life raft {Engelhardt boat), and we 
had succeeded in getting it to the edge of the ship 
when a giant wave carried it away." Lightoller 
also told me on board the Carpalhia that he saw 
Murdoch when he was engulfed by the water and 
that if before this a pistol had been fired within 
the short distance that separated them, he also is 
confident that he would have heard it. 

Fourth: On which side did the ship list? 

The testimony on this point, which at first blush 

appears conflicting, proves on investigation not at 

1 so, but just what was to be expected from the 



mechanical construction of the ship. We find the 
most authoritative testimony in evidence that the 
Titanic listed on the starboard side, and again, on 
equally authoritative testimony, that she listed on 
the port side. Quartermaster Hitchens, who was 
at the wheel when the iceberg struck the ship, tes- 
tified on this point before the Senate Committee 
as follows: "The Captain came back to the wheel 
house and looked at the commutator (clinome- 
ter) in front of the compass, which is a little in- 
strument like a clock to tell you how the ship is 
listing. The ship had a list of five degrees to the 
starboard about five or ten minutes after the im- 
pact. Mr. Karl Behr, the well-known tennis 
player, interviewed by the New York Tribune is ' 
quoted as saying: "We had just retired when the . 
collision came. I pulled on my clothes and went 
down the deck to the Beckwith cabin and, after I 
had roused them, I noted that the ship listed to the 
starboard, and that was the first thing that made 
me think that we were in for serious trouble." On 
the other hand, the first time I noticed this list was, 
as already described in my narrative, when I met 
Clinch Smith in the companionway and we saw a 
slight list to port, which gave us the first warning 
of how serious the accident was. The next and 
last time, as has also been described, was' when 
Second Officer LightoUer ordered all pasengers to 




starboard side because of the very palpable 
list to port, when the great ship suddenly appeared 
to be about to topple over, Lightoller also cor- 
roborates the statement as to this list on the port 
side. Other witnesses might be quoted, some of 
whom testify to the starboard list, and others to 
the one to port. The conclusion, therefore, is 
reached that the Titanic listed at one time to star- 
board and at another time to port. This is as it 
should be because of the transverse water-tight 
compartments which made the water, immediately 
after the compact, rush from the starboard quar- 
ter to the port, and then back again, keeping the 
ship balancing on her keel until she finally sank. 
If she had been constructed otherwise, with longi- 
tudinal compartments only, it is evident that after 
the impact on the starboard side, the Titanic would 
have listed only to the starboard side, and after a 
very much shorter interval would have careened 
over on that quarter, and a much smaller propor- 
tion of lives would have been saved. 



"Out of the deep hat 
—Pa. 130:1. 

I called unto Thee, O Lord." 

I NOW resume the narrative description of my 
miraculous escape, and it is with consider- 
able diffidence that I do so, for the personal 
equation monopolizes more attention than may be 
pleasing to my readers who are not relatives or 
intimate friends. 

As may be noticed in Chapter II, it was Clinch 
Smith's suggestion and on his initiative that we 
left that point on the starboard side of the Boat 
Deck where the crew, under Chief Officer Wilde 
and First Officer Murdoch, were in vain trying to 
launch the Engelhardt boat B which had been 
thrown down from the roof of the officers' quar- 
ters forward of the first funnel. I say "Boat B" 
because I have the information to that effect In a 
letter from Second Officer Llghtoller, Confirma- 
tion of this statement I also find in the reported 
interview of a Saloon Steward, Thomas Whitely, 
in the New York Tribune the day after the Car- 





iia's arrival. An analysis or his statement 
shows that Boat A became entangled and was 
abandoned, while he saw the other, bottom up and 
filled with people. It was on this boat that he 
also eventually climbed and was saved with the 
rest of us. Clinch Smith and I got away from this 
point just before the water reached it and drowned 
Chief Officer Wilde and First Officer Murdoch, 
and others who were not successful in effecting a 
lodgment on the boat as it was swept off the deck. 
This moment was the first fateful crisis of the 
many that immediately followed. As bearing 
upon it I quote the reported statement of Harold 
S. Bride, the junior Marconi operator. His ac- 
count also helps to determine the fate of Captain 
Smith, He says: "Then came the Captain's voice 
[from the bridge to the Marconi operators], 

L'Men, you have done your full duty. You can do 
^o more. Abandon your cabin. Now, it is every 

' man for himself.' " "Phillips continued to work," 
he says, "for about ten minutes or about fifteen 
minutes after the Captain had released him. The 
water was then coming Into our cabin. ... I 
went to the place where I had seen the collapsible 
boat on the Boat Deck and to my surprise I saw 
the boat, and the men still trying to push it off. 
They could not do it. I went up to them and was 
just lending a hand when a large wave came awash 


of the deck. The big wave carried the boat off. 
I had hold of an oarlock and I went off with it. 
The next I knew I was in the boat. But that was 
not all. I was in the boat and the boat was up- 
side down and I was under it. . . . How I 
got out from under the boat I do not know, but I 
felt a breath at last." 

From this it appears evident that, so far 
as Clinch Smith is concerned, it would have 
been better to have stayed by this Engelhardt 
boat to the last, for here he had a chance 
of escape like Bride and others of the crew who 
clung to it, but which I only reached again after 
an incredibly long swim under water. The next 
crisis, which was the fatal one to Clinch Smith and 
to the great mass of people that suddenly arose 
before us as I followed him astern, has already 
been described. The simple expedient of jump- 
ing with the "big wave" as demonstrated above 
carried me to safety, away from a dangerous posi- 
tion to the highest part of the ship; but I was the 
only one who adopted It successfully. The force 
of the wave that struck Clinch Smith and the oth- 
ers undoubtedly knocked most of them there un- 
conscious against the walls of the officers' quarters 
and other appurtenances of the ship on the Boat 
Deck. As the ship keeled over forward, I believe 
that their bodies were caught in the angles of this 




deck, or entangled in the ropes, and in these other 
appurtenances thereon, and sank with the ship. 
My holding on to the iron railing just when I did 
prevented my being knocked unconscious. I pulled 
myself over on the roof on my stomach, but before 
I could get to my feet I was in a whirlpool of 
water, swirling round and round, as I still tried to 
cling to the railing as the ship plunged to the 
depths below. Down, down, I went: it seemed a 
great distance. There was a very noticeable pres- 
sure upon my ears, though there must have been 
plenty of air that the ship carried down with it. 
When under water I retained, as it appears, a 
sense of general direction, and, as soon as I could 
do so, swam away from the starboard side of the 
ship, as I knew my life depended upon it. I swarp 
with all my strength, and I seemed endowed with 
an extra supply for the occasion, I was incited to 
desperate effort by the thought of boiling water, 
or steam, from the expected explosion of the ship's 
boilers, and that I would be scalded to death, like 
the sailors of whom I had read in the account of 
the British batde-ship Victoria sunk in collision 
with the Camperdown in the Mediterranean In 
1893. Second Officer Lightoller told me he also 
had the same idea, and that If the fires had not 
been drawn the boilers would explode and the 
water become boiling hot. As a consequence, the 



plunge in the icy water produced no sense of cold- 
ness whatever, and I had no thought of cold until 
later on when I climbed on the bottom of the up- 
turned boat. My being drawn down by suction to 
a greater depth was undoubtedly checked to some 
degree by the life-preserver which I wore, but it 
Is to the buoyancy of the water, caused by the 
volume of air rising from the sinking ship, that I 
attributed the assistance which enabled me to strike 
out and swim faster and further under water than 
I ever did before, I held my breath for what 
seemed an interminable time until I could scarcely 
stand it any longer, but I congratulated myself 
then and there that not one drop of sea-water was 
allowed to enter my mouth. With renewed de- 
termination and set jaws, I swam on. Just at 
the moment T thought that for lack of breath 
I would have to give in, I seemed to have been 
provided with a second wind, and it was just then 
that the thought that this was my last moment 
came upon me. I wanted to convey the news of 
how I died to my loved ones at home. As I swam 
beneath the surface of the ocean, I prayed that 
my spirit could go to them and say, "Good-bye, 
until we meet again in heaven." In this connec- 
tion, the thought was in my mind of a well authen- 
ticated experience of mental telepathy that oc- 
curred to a member of my wife's family. Here 


was a similar experience of a ship- 
wrecked loved one, and I thought if I prayed hard 
enough that this, my last wish to communicate 
with my wife and daughter, might be granted. 

To what extent my prayer was answered let 
Mrs. Gracie describe in her own written words, 
I as follows: "I was in my room at my sister's 
I house, where I was visiting, in New York. After 
retiring, being unable to rest I questioned myself 
several times over, wondering what it was that 
prevented the customary long and peaceful slum- 
ber, lately enjoyed. 'What is the matter?' I 
uttered. A voice in reply seemed to say, 'On 
your knees and pray.' Instantly, I literally obeyed 
with my prayer book in my hand, which by chance 
opened at the prayer 'For those at Sea.' The 
thought then flashed through my mind, 'Archie 
is praying for me,' I continued wide awake until 
a little before five o'clock a. m., by the watch 
that lay beside me. About 7 a. m. I dozed a 
while and then got up to dress for breakfast. At 
8 o'clock my sister, Mrs. Dalliba Dutton, came 
softly to the door, newspaper in hand, to gently 
break the tragic news that the Titanic had sunk, 
and showed me the list of only twenty names 
saved, headed with 'Colonel Archibald Butt'; but 
my husband's name was not included. My head 
sank In her protecting arms as I murmured help- 



lessly, 'He is all I have in the whole world.' I 
could only pray for strength, and later in the day, 
believing myself a widow, I wrote to my daughter, 
who was in the care of our housekeeper and ser- 
vants in our Washington home, 'Cannot you see 
your father in his tenderness for women and 
children, helping them all, and then going down 
with the ship? If he has gone, I will not live 
long, but 1 would not have him talte a boat.' " 

But let me now resume my personal narrative. 
With this second wind under water there came to 
me a new lease of life and strength, until finally 
I noticed by the increase of light that I was draw- 
ing near to the surface. Though it was not day- 
light, the clear star-lit night made a noticeable 
difference in the degree of light immediately be- 
low the surface of the water. As I was rising, 
I came in contact with ascending wreckage, but 
the only thing I struck of material size was a 
small plank, which I tucked under my right arm. 
This circumstance brought with it the reflection 
that it was advisable for me to secure what best 
I could to keep me afloat on the surface until 
succor arrived. When my head at last rose above 
the water, I detected a piece of wreckage like a 
wooden crate, and I eagerly seized it as a nucleus 
of the projected raft to be constructed from 
what flotsam and jetsam I might collect. Look- 



ing about me, I could see no Titanic In sight. She 
had entirely disappeared beneath the calm surface 
of the ocean and without a sign of any wave. 
That the sea had swallowed her up with all her 
precious belongings was indicated by the slight 
sound of a gulp behind me as the water closed 
over her. The length of time that I was under 
water can be estimated by the fact that I sank 
with her, and when I came up there was no ship 
in sight. The accounts of others as to the length 
of time it took the Titanic to sink afford the 
best measure of the interval I was below the sur- 

What impressed me at the time that my 
eyes beheld the horrible scene was a thin light- 
gray smoky vapor that hung like a pall a few feet 
above the broad expanse of sea that was covered 
with a mass of tangled wreckage. That it was 
a tangible vapor, and not a product of imagina- 
tion, I feel well assured. It may have been caused 
by smoke or steam rising to the surface around 
the area where the ship had sunk. At any rate 
it produced a supernatural effect, and the pictures 
I had seen by Dante and the description I had 
read in my Virgil of the infernal regions, of 
Charon, and the River Lethe, were then upper- 
most in my thoughts. Add to this, within the 
area described, which was as far as my eyes could 




reach, there arose to the sky the most horrible 
sounds ever heard by mortal man except by those 
of us who survived this terrible tragedy. The 
agonizing cries of death from over a thousand 
throats, the wails and groans of the suffering, 
the shrieks of the terror-stricken and the awful 
gaspings for breath of those in the last throes of 
drowning, none of us will ever forget to our 
dying day, "Helpl Help I Boat ahoy I Boat 
ahoyl" and "My God! My God!" were the 
heart-rending cries and shrieks of men, which 
floated to us over the surface of the dark waters 
continuously for the next hour, but as time went 
on, growing weaker and weaker until they died 
out entirely. 

As I clung to my wreckage, I noticed just 
in front of me, a few yards away, a group 
of three bodies with heads In the water, face 
downwards, and just behind me to my right an- 
other body, all giving unmistakable evidence of 
being drowned. Possibly these had gone down 
to the depths as I had done, but did not have 
the lung power that I had to hold the breath and 
swim under water, an accomplishment which I 
had practised from my school days. There was 
no one alive or struggling in the water or calling 
for aid within the imnaediate vicinity of where 
I arose to the surface. I threw my -right leg^ 



over the wooden crate in an attempt to straddle 
and balance myself on top of it, but I turned 
over in a somersault with it under water, and 
up to the surface again. What may be of interest 
is the thought that then occurred to me of the 
accounts and pictures of a wreck, indelibly im- 
pressed upon my memory when a boy, because of 
my acquaintance with some of the victims, of a 
frightful disaster of that day, namely the wreck 
of the f'ille de Havre in the English Channel in 
1873, and I had in mind Mrs. Bulkley's de- 
scription, and the picture of her clinging to some 
wreckage as a rescue boat caught sight of her, 
bringing the comforting words over the water, 
"We are English sailors coming to save you." I 
looked around, praying for a similar interposition 
f Fate, but I knew the thought of a rescuing boat 
was a vain one — for had not all the lifeboats, 
loaded with women and children, departed from 
the ship fifteen or twenty minutes before I sank 
with it? And had I not seen the procession of 
them on the port side fading away from our 

But my prayerful thought and hope were 
answered in an unexpected direction. I espied 
to my left, a considerable distance away, a better 
vehicle of escape than the wooden crate on which 
my attempt to ride had resulted in a second duck- 


ing. What I saw was no less than the same 
Engelhardt, or "surf-boat," to whose launching 
I had lent my efforts, until the water broke upon 
the ship's Boat Deck where we were. On top of 
this upturned boat, half rechnlng on her bottom, 
were now more than a dozen men, whom, by their 
dress, I took to be all members of the crew of 
the ship. Thank God, I did not hesitate a mo- 
ment in discarding the friendly crate that had been 
my first aid. I struck out through the wreckage 
and after a considerable swim reached the port 
side amidships of this Engelhardt boat, which 
with her companions, wherever utilized, did good 
service in saving the lives of many others. All 
honor to the Dane, Captain Engelhardt of Copen- 
hagen, who built them. I say "port side" because 
this boat as it was propelled through the water 
had LightoUer in the bow and Bride at the stern, 
and I believe an analysis of the testimony shows 
that the actual bow of the boat was turned about 
by the wave that struck it on the Boat Deck and 
the splash of the funnel thereafter, so that its 
bow pointed in an opposite direction to that of 
the ship. There was one member of the crew 
on this craft at the bow and another at the stern 
who had "pieces of boarding," improvised pad- 
dles, which were used effectually for propulsion. 
When I reached the side of the boat I met with 




a doubtful reception, and, as no extending hand 
was held out to me, I grabbed, by the muscle of 
the left arm, a young member of the crew 
nearest and facing me. At the same time I threw 
my right leg over the boat astraddle, pulling my- 
self aboard, with a friendly lift to my foot given 

I by someone astern as I assumed a reclining posi- 

[ tion with them on the bottom of the capsized boat. 
Then after me came a dozen other swimmers 
who clambered around and whom we helped 
aboard. Among them was one completely ex- 
hausted, who came on the same port side as my- 
self. I pulled him In and he lay face downward 
in front of me for several hours, until just before 
dawn he was able to stand up with the rest of us. 
The journey of our craft from the scene of 
the disaster will be described in the following 
chapter. The moment of getting aboard this up- 
turned boat was one of supreme mental relief, 
more so than any other until I reached the deck 

I of the hospitable Carpathia on the next morning. 

I I now felt for the first time after the lifeboats 
left us aboard ship that I had some chance of 
escape from the horrible fate of drowning in the 
icy waters of the middle Atlantic, Every moment 
of time during the many experiences of that night, 
it seemed as if I had all the God-given physical 
strength and courage needed for each emergency, 


and never suffered an instant from any exhaustion, 
or required the need of a helping hand. The only 
time of any stress whatever was during the swim, 
just described, under water, at the moment when 
I gained my second wind which brought me to 
the surface gasping somewhat, but full of vigor. 
I was all the time on the lookout for the next 
danger that was to be overcome. I kept my 
presence of mind and courage throughout it all. 
Had I lost either for one moment, I never could 
have escaped to tell the tale. This is in answer 
to many questions as to my personal sensations 
during these scenes and the successive dangers 
which I encountered. From a psychological view- 
point also, it may be a study of interest illustrat- 
ing the power of mind over matter. The sensa- 
tion of fear has a visible effect upon one. It 
palsies one's thoughts and actions. One. becomes 
thereby short of breath; the heart actually beats 
quicker and as one loses one's head one grows 
desperate and is gone. I have questioned those 
who have been near drowning and who know this 
statement to be a fact. It is the same in other 
emergencies, and the lesson to be learned is that 
we should — 

"Let courage rise with danger. 
And strength to strength oppose." 



I this 

1 the hour of dangei 

To attain i 

very much a matter of physical, mental and 
religious training. But courage and strength 
would have availed me little had I not provi- 
dentially escaped from being knocked senseless, 
or maimed, as so many other strong swimmers 
undoubtedly were. The narrow escapes that I 
had from being thus knocked unconscious could 
be recapitulated, and I still bear the scars on my 
body of wounds received at the moment, or 
moments, when I was struck by some unde- 
fined object. I received a blow on the top of 
my head, but I did not notice It or the other 
wounds until I arrived on board the Carpathia, 
when I found inflamed cuts on both my legs and 
bruises on my knees, which soon became black 

, and blue, and I was sore to the touch all over 
my body for several days. 
It is necessary for me to turn to the accounts 

' of others for a description of what happened dur- 
ing the interval that I was under water. My 
information about it is derived from many sources 
and includes various points of general interest, 
showing how the Titanic looked when she foun- 
dered, the undisputed facts that there was very 
little suction and that the forward funnel broke 
from the ship, falling on the starboard side into 

, the sea. Various points of personal interest are 




also derived from the same source which the 
reader can analyze, for estimating the interval 
that I was below the surface of the ocean and 
the distance covered in my swim under water; for 
after I rose to the surface it appears that I had 
passed under both the faUing funnel and then 
under the upturned boat, and a considerable dis- 
tance beyond. Had I gone but a short distance 
under water and arisen straight up, I should have 
met the horrible fate of being struck by the fall- 
ing funnel which, according to the evidence sub- 
mitted, must have killed or drowned a number 
of unfortunates struggling in the water. I select 
these accounts of my shipwrecked companions, 
which supplement my personal experience, par- 
ticularly the accounts of the same reliable and 
authoritative witnesses already cited, and from 
those who were rescued, as I was, on the bottom 
of the upset Engelhardt boat. 

The following is from the account of Mr. 
Beesley: "The water was by now up to the last 
row of portholes. We were about two miles 
from her, and the crew insisted that such a tre- 
mendous wave would be formed by suction as 
she went down, that we ought to get as far as 
possible away. The 'Captain' (as he calls Stoker 
Fred Barrett), and all, lay on their oars. Pres- 
ently, about 2 a.m. (2.15 a. m. per book account), 



u near at I on rcmanbcr. we obfcrved bcr 

setding vciy rapidlr. with the bow and bridge 
completely under water, and condudcd it was now 
only a question of minutes before she went: and 
>o it- proved. She slowly tilted, straight on end, 
with the stem vertically opward. . . . To 
oor amazement, she remained in that upright posi- 
tion for a time which I estimate as five minutes." 
On a previous page of my narrative, I have al- 
ready quoted from his book account how "the 
stem and some 150 feet of the ship stood out- 
lined against the star-specked sky. looming black 
in the darkness, and in this position she continued 
for some minutes — I think as much as live minutes, 
but it may have been less." Now, when I disap- 
peared under the sea, sinking with the ship, there 
is nothing more surely established in my testimony 
than that about nine-sixteenths of the Tilaitic 
was sdll out of the water, and when my head 
reached the surface she had entirely disappeared. 
The New York Times, of April 19, 1912, con- 
tained the story of Mr. and Mrs. D. H. Bishop, 
first cabin passengers from Dowagiac, Michigan. 
Their short account is one of the best 1 have read. 
As they wrote it independently of Beeslcy's ac- 
count, and from a different point of view, being 
in another lifeboat (No. 7, the first to leave the 
ship), the following corroborative testimony, 



taken from their story, helps to establish the 

"We did not begin to understand the situation 
till we were perhaps a mile away from the Titanic. 
Then we could see the row of lights along the 
deck begin to slant gradually upward from the 
bow. Very slowly the lines of light began to 
point downward at a greater and greater angle. 
The sinking was so slow that you could not per- 
ceive the lights of the deck changing their posi- 
tion. The slant seemed to be greater about every 
quarter of an hour. That was the only difference. 

"In a couple of hours she began to go down 
more rapidly. . . . Suddenly the ship seemed 
to shoot up out of the water and stand there per- 
pendicularly. It seemed to us that it stood up- 
right in the water for four full minutes.*' Then 
it began to slide gently downwards. Its speed 
increased as It went down head first, so that the 
stern shot down with a rush." 

Harold Bride, who was swept from the Boat 
Deck, held on to an oarlock of the Engelhardt 
boat (which Clinch Smith and I had left a few 
moments before, as has already been described). 
I have cited his account of coming up under the 
boat and then clambering upon it. He testifies 
to there being no suction and adds the following: 

■"Italics are mine. — AurnoH. 



r "I suppose I was 150 feet away when the Tilantc, 
on her nose with her after-quarter sticking straight 
up into the air, began to settle — slowly. When 
at last the waves washed over her rudder, there 
was not the least bit of suction I could feel. She 

. must have kept going just so slowly as she had 
been," Second Officer Lightoller too, in his con- 

I versation with me, verified his testimony before 
the Senate Committee that, "The last boat, a flat 
collapsible (the Engelhardt) to put off was the 
one on top of the officers' quarters. Men jumped 
upon it on deck and waited for the water to float 
it off. The forward funnel fell into the water, 
just missing the raft (as he calls our upset boat). 
The funnel probably killed persons in the water. 
This was the boat I eventually got on. About 

: thirty men clambered out of the water on to it." 
Seventeen year old "Jack" Thayer was also on 

I the starboard side of the ship, and jumped from 

' the rail before the Engelhardt boat was swept 

, from the Boat Deck by the "giant wave." Young 

Thayer's reported description of this Is as follows: 

"I jumped out, feet first, went down, and as 

I I came up I was pushed away from the ship by 

f some force. I was sucked down again, and as 
I came up I was pushed out again and twisted 
around by a large wave, coming up In the midst 

Lof a great deal of small wreckage. My hand 



touched the canvas fender of an overturned life- 
boat. I looked up and saw some men on the top. 
One of them helped me up. In a short time the 
bottom was covered with twenty-five or thirty men. 
The assistant wireless operator (BrJde) was right 
next to me holding on to me and kneeling in the 

In my conversations with Thayer, LightoUer 
and others, it appears that the funnel fell in the 
water between the Engelhardt boat and the ship, 
washing the former further away from the 
Titanic's starboard side. 

Since the foregoing was written, the testimony 
before the United States Senate Committee has 
been printed in pamphlet form, from which I have 
been able to obtain other evidence, and particu- 
larly that of Second Officer LightoUer In regard 
to the last quarter of an hour or so on board 
the ship and up to the time we reached the upset 
boat. I have also obtained and substantiated 
other evidence bearing upon the same period. 
Mr. LightoUer testified as foUows: "Half an 
hour, or three quarters of an hour before I left 
the ship, when it was taking a heavy list — not a 

heavy list- 


over to port. 

the order ■ 

called, I think by the chief officer, "Everyone on 
the starboard side to straighten her up," which 
I repeated. When I left the ship I saw no women 


or children aboard whatever. All the boats on 
the port side were lowered with the exception of 
one — the last boat, which was stowed on top of 
the officers' quarters. We had not time to launch 
it, nor yet to open it. When all the other boats 
were away, I called for men to go up there; told 
them to cut her adrift and throw her down. It 
floated off the ship, and I understand the men 
standing on top, who assisted to launch it down, 
jumped on to it as it was on the deck and floated 
off with it It was the collapsible type of boat, 
and the bottom-up boat we eventually got on. 
When this lifeboat floated off the ship, we were 
thrown off a couple of times. When I came to it, 
it was bottom-up and there was no one on it. Im- 
mediately after finding that overturned lifeboat, 
and when I came alongside of it, there were quite 
a lot of us in the water around it preparatory to 
getting up on it. Then the forward funnel fell 
I down. It fell alongside of the lifeboat about four 
linches clear of it on all the people there alongside 
f of the boat. Eventually, about thirty of us got 
on it: Mr. Thayer, Bride, the second Marconi 
operator, and Col. Gracie. I think all the rest 
were firemen taken out of the water." 

Compare this with the description given by J. 
Hagan In correspondence which he began with 
me last May. J. Hagan Is a poor chap, who 


described himself in this correspondence as one 
who "was working my passage to get to America 
for the first time," and I am convinced that he 
certainly earned it, and, moreover, was one of us 
on that upset boat that night. His name does not 
appear on the list of the crew and must not be 
confounded with "John Hagan, booked as fire- 
man on the steamer, who sailed for England April 
20th on the Lap!a?id," whereas our John Hagan 
was admitted to St. Vincent's hospital on April 
zznd. In describing this period John Hagan says 
it was by the Captain's orders, when the ship was 
listing to port, that passengers were sent to the 
starboard side to straighten the ship. He went 
half-way and returned to where Lightoller was 
loading the last boat lowered. Lightoller told 
him there was another boat on the roof of the 
officers' house if he cared to get it down. This 
was the Engelhardt Boat B which, with three 
others, he could not open until assisted by three 
more, and then they pushed it, upside down, on 
the Boat Deck below. Hagan cut the string of 
the oars and was passing the first oar down to 
the others, who had left him, when the boat floated 
into the water, upside down. He jumped to the 
Boat Deck and into the water after the boat and 
"clung to the tail end of the keel." The ship 
was shaking very much, part of it being under 


water. "On looking up at it. I could see death in 
a minute for us as the forward funnel was falling 
and it looked a certainty it would strike our boat 
and smash it to pieces; but the funnel missed 
us about a yard, splashing our boat thirty yards 
outward from the ship, and washing off several 
who had got on when the boat first floated." 
Hagan managed to cling to it but got a severe 
soaking. The cries of distress that he heard near 
by were an experience he can never forget. It 
appeared to him that the flooring of the ship 
forward had broken away and was floating all 
around. Some of the men on the upset boat made 
use of some pieces of boarding for paddles with 
which to help keep clear of the ship. 

John Collins, assistant cook on the Titanic, also 
gave his interesting testimony before the Senate 
Committee. He appears to have come on deck 
at the last moment on the starboard side and wit- 
nessed the Engelhardt boat when it floated off 
into the sea, he being carried off by the same wave 
when he was amidships on the bow as the ship 
I sank, and kept down under water for at least two 
I or three minutes. When he came up, he saw this 
I boat again — the same boat on which he had seen 
I men working when the waves washed it off the 
I deck, and the men clinging to It. He was only 
j about four or five yards off and swam over to it 



and got on to it. He says he is sure there 
were probably fifteen thereon at the time he 
got on. Those who were on the boat did not 
help him to get on. They were watching the 
ship. After he got on the boat, he did not see 
any lights on the Titanic, though the stern of the 
ship was still afloat when he first reached the 
surface. He accounts for the wave that washed 
him off amidships as due to the suction which took 
place when the bow went down in the water and 
the waves washed the decks clear. He saw a mass 
of people in the wreckage, hundreds in number, 
and heard their awful cries. 

ALL my companions in shipwreck, who made 
their escape with me on top of the bottom- 
side-up Engelhardt boat, must recall the 
anxious moment after the limit was reached when 
"about 30 men had clambered out of the water 
on to the boat." The weight of each additional 
body submerged our lifecraft more and more be- 
neath the surface. There were men swimming In 
the water all about us. One more clambering 
aboard would have swamped our already crowded 
craft. The situation was a desperate one, and 
was only saved by the refusal of the crew, es- 

f pccially those at the stern of the boat, to take 
aboard another passenger. After pulling aboard 

I the man who lay exhausted, face downward in 
front of me, I turned my head away from the 

I gights in the water lest I should be called upon 



to refuse the pleading cries of those who were 
struggling for their lives. What happened at 
this juncture, therefore, my fellow companions 
in shipwreck can better describe. Steward Thomas 
Whiteley, interviewed by the New York Tribune, 
said: "I drifted near a boat wrong-side-up. 
About 30 men were clinging to it. They refused 
to let me get on. Somebody tried to hit me with 
an oar, but I scrambled on to her." Harry Senior, 
a fireman on the Titanic, as interviewed in the 
London Illustrated News of May 4th, and in the 
New York Times of April 19th, is reported as 
follows: "On the overturned boat in question 
were, amongst others, Charles LightoUer, Second 
Officer of the Titanic; CoL Archibald Gracie, and 
Mr. J. B. Thayer, Jr., all of whom had gone down 
with the liner and had come to the surface again" ; 
and ''I tried to get aboard of her, but some chap 
hit me over the head with an oar. There were 
too many on her. I got around to the other side 
of the boat and climbed on. There were thirty- 
five of us, including the second officer, and no 
women. I saw any amount of drowning and dead 
around us." Bride's story in the same issue of 
the New York Times says: "It was a terrible 
sight all around — men swimming and sinking. 
Others came near. Nobody gave them a hand^ 
The bottom-up boat already had more men than 



it would hold and was sinking. At first the large 
waves splashed over my clothing; then they began 
to splash over my head and I had to breathe when 
I could," 

Though I did not see, I could not avoid hearing 
what took place at this most tragic crisis in all 
my life. The men with the paddles, forward 
and aft, so steered the boat as to avoid contact 
with the unfortunate swimmers pointed out strug- 
gling in the water. I heard the constant explana- 
tion made as we passed men swimming in the 
wreckage, "Hold on to what you have, old boy; 
one more of you aboard would sink us all." In 
no instance, I am happy to say, did I hear any 
word of rebuke uttered by a swimmer because 
of refusal to grant assistance. There was no case 
' of cruel violence. But there was one transcendent 
piece of heroism that will remain fixed in my 
memory as the most sublime and coolest exhibition 
of courage and cheerful resignation to fate and 
fearlessness of death. This was when a reluctant 
refusal of assistance met with the ringing response 
in the deep manly voice of a powerful man, who, 
in his extremity, replied: "All right, boys; good 
luck and God bless you." I have often wished 
that the identity of this hero might be established 
and an individual tribute to his memory preserved. 
He was not an acquaintance of mine, for the tones 


of his voice would have enabled me to recognize 

Collins in his testimony and Hagan in his letter 
to me refer to the same incident, the former be- 
fore the Senate Committee, saying: "All those 
who wanted to get on and tried to get on got on 
with the exception of only one. This man was 
not pushed off by anyone, but those on the boat 
asked him not to try to get on. We were all 
on the boat running [shifting our weight] from 
one side to the other to keep her steady. If this 
man had caught hold of her he would have 
tumbled the whole lot of us off. He acquiesced 
and said, 'that is all right, boys; keep cool; God 
bless you,' and he bade us good-bye." 

Hagan refers to the same man who "swam 
close to us saying, 'Hello boys, keep calm, boys,' 
asking to be helped up, and was told he could 
not get on as it might turn the boat over. He 
asked for a plank and was told to cling to what 
he had. It was very hard to see so brave a man 
swim away saying, 'God bless you.' " 

All this time our nearly submerged boat was 
amidst the wreckage and fast being paddled out 
of the danger zone whence arose the heart-rending 
cries already described of the struggling swim- 
mers. It was at this juncture that expressions 
were used by some of the uncouth members of 






the ship's crew, which grated upon my sensibilities. 
The hearts of these men, as I presently discovered, 
were all right and they were far from meaning 
any offence when they adopted their usual slang, 
sounding harsh to my ears, and referred to our 
less fortunate shipwrecked companions as "the 
blokes swimming in the water." What I thus 
heard made me feel like an alien among my fellow 
boatmates, and I did them the injustice of believ- 
ing that I, as the only passenger aboard, would, in 
case of diversity of Interest, receive short shrift 
at their hands and for this reason I thought It 
best to have as little to say as possible. During 
all these struggles I had been uttering silent 
prayers for deliverance, and It occurred to me that 
this was the occasion of all others when we should 
join in an appeal to the Almighty as our last and 
only hope in life, and so It remained for one of 
these men, whom I had regarded as uncouth, a 
Roman Catholic seaman, to take precedence in 
suggesting the thought in the heart of everyone 
of us. He was astern and In arm's length of me. 
He first made Inquiry as to the religion of each 
of us and found Episcopalians, Roman Catholics 
and Presbyterians. The suggestion that we should 
say the Lord's Prayer together met with instant 
approval, and our voices with one accord burst 
forth in repeating that great appeal to the Creator 



and Preserver of all mankind, and the only prayer 
that everyone of us knew and could unite in, 
thereby manifesting that we were all sons of God 
and brothers to each other whatever our sphere 
in life or creed might be. Recollections of this 
incident are embodied in my account as well as 
those of Bride and Thayer, independently re- 
ported in the New York papers on the morning 
after our arrival. This is what Bride recalls: 
"Somebody said 'don't the rest of you think we 
ought to pray?' The man who made the sugges- 
tion asked what the religion of the others was. 
Each man called out his religion. One was a 
Catholic, one a Methodist, one a Presbyterian. 
It was decided the most appropriate prayer for 
all of us was the Lord's Prayer. We spoke it 
over in chorus, with the man who first suggested 
that we pray as the leader." 

Referring to this incident in his sermon on 
"T^e Lessons of the Great Disaster," the 
Rev. Dr. Newell Dwight Hillis, of Plymouth 
Church, says: "When Col. Oracle came up, 
after the sinking of the Titanic, he says that 
he made his way to a sunken raft. The sub- 
merged little raft was under water often, but 
every man, without regard to nationality, broke 
into instant prayer. There were many voices, but 
they all had one signification — their sole hope was 

iiu^c vvaa ^H 



1 God. There were no millionaires, for millions 
fell away like leaves; there were no poor; men 
were neither wise nor ignorant; they were simply 
human souls on the sinking raft; the night was 
black, and the waves yeasty with foam, and the 
grave where the Titanic lay was silent under them, 
and the stars were silent over them! But as they 
prayed, each man by that inner light saw an in- 
visible Friend walking across the waves. Hence- 
forth, these need no books on Apologetics to prove 
there is a God. This man who has written his 
story tells us that God heard the prayers of some 
by giving them death, and heard the prayers of 
others equally by keeping them In life; but God 
alone is great!" 

The lesson thus drawn from the incident de- 
scribed must be well appreciated by all my boat- 
mates who realized the utter helplessness of our 
position, and that the only hope we then had in 
life was in our God, and as the Rev. Dr. HiUIs 
says: "In that moment the evanescent, transient, 
temporary things dissolved like smoke, and the 
big, permanent things stood out — God, Truth, 
Purity, Love, and Oh ! how happy those who were 
good friends with God, their conscience and their 

We all recognize the fact that our escape from 
|. a watery grave was due to the conditions of wlnj 



and weather. All night long we prayed that the 
calm might last. Towards morning the sea be- 
came rougher, and it was for the two-fold pur- 
pose of avoiding the ice-cold water,* and also 
to attract attention, that we all stood up in column, 
two abreast, facing the bow. The waves at this 
time broke over the keel, and we maintained a 
balance to prevent the escape of the small volume 
of air confined between sea and upset boat by 
shifting the weight of our bodies first to port and 
then to starboard. I believe that the life of every- 
one of us depended upon the preservation of this 
confined air-bubble, and our anxious thought was 
lest some of this air might escape and deeper down 
our overloaded boat would sink. Had the boat I 
been completely turned over, compelling us to i 
cling to the submerged gunwale, It could not 
have supported our weight, and we should have 
been frozen to death in the ice-cold water be- 
fore rescue could reach us. My exertions had 
been so continuous and so strenuous before I got 
aboard this capsized boat that I had taken no 
notice of the icy temperature of the water. We 
all suffered severely from cold and exposure. The 
boat was so loaded down with the heavy weight 

* Temperature of water 29 degrees, of sir 37 degrees 
Fahrenheit, at midnight, April 14th (American Inquiry, page 





it carried that it became partly submerged, and 
the water washed up to our waists as we lay in 
our reclining position. Several of our companions 
near the stern of the boat, unable to stand the 
exposure and strain, gave up the struggle and 
fell off. 

After we had left the danger zone In the 
vicinity of the wreck, conversation between 
us first developed, and I heard the men aft of 
me discussing the fate of the Captain. At least 
two of them, according to their statements made 
at the time, had seen him on this craft of ours 
shortly after it was floated from the ship. In the 
interviews already referred to, Harry Senior the 
fireman, referring to the same overturned boat, 
said: "The Captain had been able to reach this 
boat. They had pulled him on, but he slipped 
off again." Still another witness, the entree cook 
of the Titanic, J, Maynard, who was on our boat, 
corroborates what I heard said at the time about 
the inability of the Captain to keep his hold on 
the boat. From several sources I have the in- 
formation about the falling of the funnel, the 
splash of which swept from the upturned boat 
several who were first clinging thereto, and among 
the number possibly was the Captain, From the 
following account of Bride, it would appear he 
was swept off himself and regained his hold later. 


"I saw a boat of some kind near me and put all 
my strength into an effort to swim to it. It was 
hard work. I was all done when a hand reached 
out from the boat and pulled me aboard. It was 
our same collapsible. The same crew was on 
it. There was just room for me to roll on the 
edge. I lay there, not caring what happened." 
Fortunately for us all, the majority of us were 
not thus exhausted or desperate. On the con- 
trary, these men on this upset boat had plenty of 
strength and the purpose to battle for their lives. 
There were no beacon torches on crag and cliff; 
no shouts in the pauses of the storm to tell them 
there was hope ; nor deep-toned bell with Its 
loudest peal sending cheerily, o'er the deep, com- 
fort to these wretched souls in their extremity. 
There were, however, lights forward and on the 
port side to be seen all the time until the Car- 
palhia appeared. These lights were only those of 
the Titanic's other lifeboats, and thus it was, as 
they gazed with eager, anxious eyes that 

■ "Fresh hope did give them strength and strength 
deliverance." • 

The suffering on the boat from cold was intense. 
My neighbor in front, whom I had pulled aboard, 

• Maturin's Bertravu 



must also have been suffering from exhaustion, 
but it was astern of us whence came later the 
reports about fellow boatmates who gave up the 
struggle and fell off from exhaustion, or died, 
unable to stand the exposure and strain. Among 
the number, we are told by Bride and Whiteley, 
was the senior Marconi operator, Phillips, but 
their statement that it was Philhps' lifeless body 
which we transferred first to a lifeboat and thence 
to the Carpathia is a mistake, for the body re- 
ferred to both Lightoller and myself know to 
have been that of a member of the crew, as de- 
scribed later. Bride himself suffered severely, 
"Somebody sat on my legs," he says. "They were 
wedged in between slats and were being 
wrenched." When he reached the Carpathia he 
was taken to the hospital and on our arrival in 
New York was carried ashore with his "feet 
badly crushed and frostbitten." 

The combination of cold and the awful scenes 
of suffering and death which he witnessed from 
our upturned boat deeply affected another first 
cabin survivor, an Englishman, Mr. R. H. Bark- 
worth, whose tender heart is creditable to his 

Another survivor of our upturned boat, James 
McGann, a fireman, interviewed by the New York 
Tribune on April 20th, says that he was one of 



the thirty ot us, mostly hremen, clinging to it as 
she left the ship. As to the suffering endured 
that night he says: "Ail our legs were frost- 
bitten and we were all In the hospital for a day 
at least," 

"Hagan" also adds his testimony as to the 
sufferings endured by our boatmates. He says: 
"One man on the upturned boat rolled off, into the 
water, at the stern, dead with fright and cold. 
Another died in the lifeboat." Here he refers 
to the lifeless body which we transferred, and 
finally put aboard the CarpalhJa, but which was 
not Phillips'. 

Lightoller testified: "I think there were three 
or four who died during the night aboard our 
boat. The Marconi junior operator told me that 
the senior operator was on this boat and died, 
presumably from cold." 

But the uncommunicative little member of the 
crew beside me did not seem to suffer much. He 
was like a number of others who were possessed 
of hats or caps — his was an outing cap; while 
those who sank under water had lost them. The 
upper part of his body appeared to be compara- 
tively dry; so I believe he and some others escaped 
being drawn under with the Titanic by clinging 
to the Engelhardt boat from the outset when it 
parted company with the ship and was washed 



from the deck by the "giant wave." He seemed 
so dry and comfortable while I felt so damp in 
my waterlogged clothing, my teeth chattering and 
my hair wet with the icy water, that I ventured to 
request the loan of his dry cap to warm my head 
for a short while, "And what wad oi do?" was 
his curt reply. "Ah, never mind," said I, as I 
thought it would make no difference a hundred 
years hence. Poor chap, it would seem that all 
his possessions were lost when his kit went down 
with the ship. Not far from me and on the star- 
board side was a more loquacious member of the 
crew. I was not near enough, however, to him 
to indulge in any imaginary warmth from the 
fumes of the O-be-joyful spirits which he gave 
unmistakable evidence of having indulged in be- 
fore leaving the ship. Most of the conversation, 
as well as excitement, came from behind me, 
astern. The names of other survivors who, be- 
sides those mentioned, escaped on the same nearly 
submerged life craft with me are recorded in the 
history of Boat B in chapter V, which contains the 
results of my research work in regard thereto. 

After we paddled away free from the wreckage 
and swimmers in the water that surrounded us, 
our undivided attention until the dawn of the next 
day was concentrated upon scanning the horizon 
in every direction for the lights of a ship that 



might rescue us before the sea grew rougher, 
for the abnormal conditions of wind and weather 
that prevailed that night were the causes of the 
salvation, as well as the destruction, of those 
aboard this ill-fated vessel. The absolute calm 
of the sea, while it militated against the detection 
of the iceberg in our path, at the same time made 
it possible for all of the lifeboats lowered from 
the davits to make their long and dangerous de- 
scent to the water without being smashed against 
the sides of the ship, or swamped by the waves 
breaking against them, for, notwithstanding news- 
paper reports to the contrary, there appears no 
authentic testimony of any survivor showing that 
any loaded boat in the act of being lowered was 
capsized or suffered injury. On the other hand, 
we have the positive statements accounting for 
each individual boatload, showing that every one 
of them was thus lowered In safety. But It was 
this very calm of the sea, as has been said, which 
encompassed the destruction of the ship. The 
beatings of the waves against the iceberg's sides 
usually give audible warning miles away to the 
approaching vessel, while the white foam at the 
base, due to the same cause, Is also discernible. 
But in our case the beautiful star-lit night and 
cloudless sky, combined with the glassy sea, 
further facilitated the iceberg's approach with- 



out detection, for no background was afforded 
against which to silhouette the deadly outline 
of this black appearing Protean monster which 
only looks white when the sun is shining 
upon it. 

All experienced navigators of the northern seas, 
as I am informed on the highest authority, know- 
ing the dangers attending such conditions, invaria- 
bly take extra precautions to avoid disaster. The 
Tiianic's officers were no novices, and were well 
trained In the knowledge of this and all other 
dangers of the sea. From the Captain down, they 
were the pick of the best that the White Star Line 
had in its employ. Our Captain, Edward J. 
Smith, was the one always selected to "try out" 
each new ship of the Line, and was regarded, with 
his thirty-eight years of service in the company, 
as both safe and competent. Did he take any 
precautions for safety, in view of the existing 
dangerous conditions ? Alas ! no ! as appears from 
the testimony in regard thereto, taken before the 
Investigating Committee and Board in America 
and in England which we review in another chap- 
ter. And yet, warnings had been received on the 
Tiianic's bridge from six different neighboring 
ships, one in fact definitely locating the latitude 
and longitude where the iceberg was encountered, 
and that too at a point of time calculated by one 



of the Titanic's officers. Who can satisfactorily 
explain this heedlessness of danger? 

It was shortly after we had emerged from the 
horrible scene of men swimming in the water that 
I was glad to notice the presence among us on 
the upturned boat of the same officer with whom 
all my work that night and all my experience was 
connected in helping to load and lower the boats 
on the Titanic's Boat Deck and Deck "A." I 
identified him at once by his voice and his ap- 
pearance, but his name was not learned until I met 
him again later in my cabin on board the Carpathia 
— Charles H. Lightoller. For what he did on the 
ship that night whereby six or more boatloads of 
women and children were saved and discipline 
maintained aboard ship, as well as on the Engel- 
hardt upturned boat, he is entitled to honor and 
the thanks of his own countrymen and of us 
Americans as well. As soon as he was recognized, 
the loquacious member of the crew astern, already 
referred to, volunteered in our behalf and called 
out to him "We will all obey what the officer 
orders." The result was at once noticeable. The 
presence of a leader among us was now felt, and 
lent us purpose and courage. The excitement at 
the stern was demonstrated by the frequent sug- 
gestion of, "Now boys, all together"; and then in 
unison we shouted, "Boat ahoyl Boat ahoy I" 



This was kept up for some time until it was seen 
to be a mere waste of strength. So it seemed to 
me, and I decided to husband mine and make pro- 
vision for what the future, or the morrow, might 
require. After a while Lightoller, myself and 
others managed with success to discourage these 
continuous shouts regarded as a vain hope of 
attracting attention. 

When the presence of the Marconi boy at the 
stern was made known, Lightoller called out, from 
his position in the bow, questions which all of us 
heard, as to the names of the steamships with 
which he had been in communication for assist- 
ance. We on the boat recall the names men- 
tioned by Bride — the Baltic, Olympic and Car- 
patkia. It was then that the Carpaihia's name 
was heard by us for the first time, and it was to 
catch sight of this sturdy little Cunarder that we 
strained our eyes in the direction whence she 
finally appeared. 

We had correcdy judged that most of the lights 
seen by us belonged to our own Tilanic's life- 
boats, but Lightoller and all of us were badly 
fooled by the green-colored lights and rockets 
directly ahead of us, which loomed up especially 
bright at intervals. This, as will be noticed in 
a future chapter, was Third Officer Boxhall's 
Emergency Boat No, 2, We were assured that 



these were the lights of a ship and were all glad 
to believe it. There could be no mistake about it 
and our craft was navigated toward it as fast as 
its propelling conditions made possible; but it did 
not take long for us to realize that this light, what- 
ever it was, was receding instead of approaching 

Some of our boatmates on the Tilanic's decks 
had seen the same white light to which I have 
already made reference in Chapter II, and the 
argument was now advanced that it must have 
been a sailing ship, for a steamer would have soon 
come to our rescue; but a sailing ship would be 
prevented by wind, or lack of facilities in coming 
to our aid, I imagined that it was the lights of 
such a ship that we again saw on our port side 
astern in the direction where, when dawn broke, 
we saw the icebergs far away on the horizon. 

Some time before dawn a call came from the 
stern of the boat, "There is a steamer coming be- 
hind us." At the same time a warning cry was 
given that we should not all look back at once 
lest the equilibrium of our precarious craft might 
be disturbed. Lightoller took in the situation and 
called out, "All you men stand steady and I will 
be the one to look astern." He looked, but there 
was no responsive chord that tickled our ears with 




The incident just described happened when we 
were all standing up, facing forward in column, 
two abreast. Some time before this, for some un- 
defined reason, LightoUer had asked the question, 
"How many are there of us on this boat?" and 
someone answered "thirty, sir." All testimony on 
the subject establishes this number. I may cite 
LightoUer, who testified: "I should roughly esti- 
mate about thirty. She was packed standing from 
stem to stern at daylight. We took all on 
board that we could, I did not see any effort 
made by others to get aboard. There were a 
great number of people in the water but not 
near us. They were some distance away 
from us." 

Personally, I could not look around to count, 
but I know that forward of me there were eight 
and counting myself and the man abreast would 
make two more. As every bit of room on the 
Engelhardt bottom was occupied and as the 
weight aboard nearly submerged it, I believe that 
more than half our boatload was behind me. 
There is a circumstance that I recall which fur- 
ther establishes how closely packed we were. 
When standing up I held on once or twice 
to the life-preserver on the back of my boatmate 
in front in order to balance myself. At the same 
time and in the same way the man in my rear held 



on to me. 1 his procedure, bemg objectionabi 
to those concerned, was promptly discontinued. 

It was at quite an early stage that I had seen far 
in the distance the unmistakable mast lights of a 
steamer about four or five points away on the port 
side, as our course was directed toward the green- 
colored lights of the imaginary ship which we hoped 
was coming to our rescue, but which, in fact, was 
the already-mentioned Titanic lifeboat of Officer 
Boxhall. I recall our anxiety, as we had no lights, 
that this imaginary ship might not see us and 
might run over our craft and swamp us. But my 
eyes were fixed for hours that night on the lights 
of that steamer, far away in the distance, which 
afterwards proved to be those of the Carpathia. 
To my great disappointment, they seemed to make 
no progress towards us to our rescue. This we 
were told later was due to meeting an iceberg as 
she was proceeding full speed toward the scene 
of the Tilaiiic's wreck. She had come to a stop 
in sight of the lights of our lifeboats {or such as 
had them). The first boat to come to her sides 
was Boxhall's with its green lights. Finally dawn 
appeared and there on the port side of our upset 
boat where we had been looking with anxious 
eyes, glory be to God, we saw the steamer Car- 
pathia about four or five miles away, with other 
Titanic lifeboats rowing towards her. But on our 


Starboard side, much to our surprise, for we had 
seen no lights on that quarter, were four of the 
Titartic's lifeboats strung together in line. These 
were respectively Numbers 14, 10, 12 and 4, ac- 
cording to testimony submitted in our next chap- 

Meantime, the water had grown rougher, and, 
as previously described, was washing over the keel 
and we had to make shift to preserve the equili- 
brium. Right glad were all of us on our up- 
turned boat when in that awful hour the break of 
day brought this glorious sight to our eyes. 
Lightoller put his whistle to his cold lips and blew 
a shrill blast, attracting the attention of the boats 
about half a mile away. "Come over and take 
us off," he cried, "Aye, aye, sir," was the ready 
response as two of the boats cast off from the 
I others and rowed directly towards us. Just be- 
1 fore the bows of the two boats reached us, 
Lightoller ordered us not to scramble, but each to 
take his turn, so that the transfer might he made 
in safety. When my turn came, in order not to 
endanger the lives of the others, or plunge them 
into the sea, I went carefully, hands first, into the 
rescuing lifeboat. Lightoller remained to the last, 
lifting a lifeless body into the boat beside me. I 
worked over the body for some time, rubbing the 
I temples and the wrists, but when I turned the neck 


it was perfectly stiff. Recognizing that rigor 
mortis had set in, I knew the man was dead. He 
was dressed like a member of the crew, and I 
recall that he wore gray woollen socks. His hair 
was dark. Our lifeboat was so crowded that I 
had to rest on this dead body until we reached 
the Carpathia, where he was taken aboard and 
buried. My efforts to obtain his name have been 
exhaustive, but futile, Lightoller was uncertain 
as to which one he was of two men he had in 
mind; but we both know that it was not the body 
of Phillips, the senior Marconi operator. In the 
lifeboat to which we were transferred were said 
to be sixty-five or seventy of us. The number was 
beyond the limit of safety. The boat sank low 
in the water, and the sea now became rougher. 
Lightoller assumed the command and steered at 
the stern. I was glad to recognize young Thayer 
amidships. There was a French woman in the 
bow near us actively 111 but brave and considerate. 
She was very kind in loaning an extra steamer rug 
to Barkworth, by my side, who shared it with a 
member of the crew (a fireman perhaps) and 
myself. That steamer rug was a great comfort 
as we drew It over our heads and huddled close 
together to obtain some warmth. For a short 
time another Titanic lifeboat was towed by ours. 
My life-belt was wet and uncomfortable and I 



threw it overboard. Fortunately there was no 
further need of it for the use intended. I regret 
I did not preserve It as a relic. When we were 
first transferred and only two of the lifeboats 
came to our rescue, some took it hard that the 
other two did not also come to our relief, when we 
saw how few these others had aboard; but the 
officer in command of them, whom we afterwards 
knew as Fifth Officer Lowe, had cleverly rigged 
up a sail on his boat and, towing another astern, 
made his way to the Carpatliia a long time ahead 
of us, but picked up on his way other unfortunates 
in another Engelhardt boat, Boat A, which had 
shipped considerable water. 

My research, particularly the testimony taken 

before the Senate Committee, establishes the 

identity of the Titanic lifeboats to which, at day- 

Ldawn, we of the upset boat were transferred. 

i These were Boats No. 12 and No. 4. The for- 

' mer was the one that LIghtoller, Barkworth, 

Thayer, Jr., and myself were in. Frederick 

Clench, able seaman, was in charge of this boat, 

and his testimony, as follows, is interesting: 

"I looked along the water's edge and saw some 
men on a raft. Then I heard two whistles blown. 
I sang out, 'Aye, aye, I am coming over,' and 
we pulled over and found it was not a raft ex- 
actly, but an overturned boat, and Mr. Lightoller 


1 that boat and I thought the wireless 

was there on that boat and 1 thought the win 
operator, too. We took them on board our boat 
and shared the amount of room. They were all 
standing on the bottom, wet through apparently, 
Mr. Llghtoller took charge of us. Then we 
started ahead for the Carpathia. We had to row 
a tidy distance to the Carpathia because there 
were boats ahead of us and we had a boat in tow, 
with others besides all the people we had aboard. 
We were pretty well full up before, but the ad- 
ditional ones taken on made about seventy in our 

This corresponds with Lightoller's testimony on 
the same point. He says: 

"I counted sixty-five heads, not including myself, 
and none that were in the bottom of the boat, 
I roughly estimated about seventy-five in the boat, 
which was dangerously full, and it was all I could 
do to nurse her up to the sea." 

From Steward Cunningham's testimony I found 
a corroboration of my estimate of our distance, 
at daydawn, from the Carpathia. This he says 
"was about four or five miles." 

Another seaman, Samuel S. Hemming, who 
was in Boat No. 4, commanded by Quar- 
termaster Perkis, also gave his testimony as 
follows : 

"As day broke we heard some hollering going 



on and we saw some men standing on what wc 

thought was ice about half a mile away, but we 

I found them on the bottom of an upturned boat. 

I Two boats cast off and we pulled to them and 

I tx>ok them in our two boats. There were no 

women or children on this boat, and I heard there 

was one dead body. Second Officer LightoUer 

was on the overturned boat. He did not get into 

our boat. Only about four or five got into 

ours and the balance of them went into the 

other boat." 

It seemed to me an Interminable time before we 
reached the Carpaihia. Ranged along her sides 
were others of the Titank's lifeboats which had 
been rowed to the Cunarder and had been emptied 
of their loads of survivors. In one of these boats 
on the port side, standing up, T noticed my friend, 
Third Officer H. J. Pitman, with whom I had 
made my trip eastward on the Atlantic on board 
the Oceanic. All along the sides of the Carpaihia 
were strung rope ladders. There were no per- 
sons about me needing my assistance, so I mounted 
the ladder, and, for the purpose of testing my 
strength, I ran up as fast as I could and ex- 
perienced no difficulty or feeling of exhaustion. I 
entered the first hatchway I came to and felt like 
falling down on my knees and kissing the deck 
[ratitude for the preservation of my life. I 


made mywayto the second cabin dispensary, where 
I was handed a hot drink. I then went to the 
deck above and was met with a warm reception In 
the dining saloon. Nothing could exceed the kind- 
ness of the ladies, who did everything possible for 
my comfort. All my wet clothing, overcoat and 
shoes, were sent down to the bake-oven to be dried. 
Being thus In lack of clothing, I lay down on the 
lounge in the dining saloon corner to the right of 
the entrance under rugs and blankets, waiting for 
a complete outfit of dry clothing. 

I am particularly grateful to a number of kind 
people on the Carpalhia who helped replenish my 
wardrobe, but especially to Mr. Louis M. Ogden, 
a family connection and old friend. To Mrs. 
Ogden and to Mr. and Mrs. Spedden, who were 
on the Titanic, and to their boy's trained nurse, 
I am also most grateful. They gave me hot 
cordials and hot coffee which soon warmed me 
up and dispersed the cold. Among the Carpathia's 
passengers, bound for the Mediterranean, I dis- 
covered a number of friends of Mrs. Grade's 
and mine — Miss K. Steele, sister of Charles 
Steele, of New York, Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. 
Marshall and Miss Marshall, of New York. 
Leaning over the rail of the port side I saw 
anxiously gazing down upon us many familiar 
faces of fellow survivors, and, among them, 



friends and acquaintances to whom I waved my 
hand as I stood up in the bow of my boat. This 
boat No. 12 was the last to reach the Carpathia 
and her passengers transferred about 8.30 a. m. 




; chapte 

, previous chapters, describing my per- 
I sonal experience on board the Titanic and 

remarkable escape from death in the icy 
waters of the middle Atlantic, were written some 
months ago. In the interim I have received the 
pamphlets, printed in convenient form, containing 
the hearings of both the American and British 
Courts of Inquiry, and have given them consid- 
erable study. 

These ofEcIal sources of information have 
added materially to my store of knowledge con- 
cerning the shipwreck, and corroborate to a 
marked degree the description from my personal 
viewpoint, all the salient points of which were 
written before our arrival in New York, and on 
the S. S. Carpathia, under circumstances which 
will be related in a future chapter. 

During the same interval, by correspondence 
with survivors and by reading all available printed 




matter in books, magazine articles and news- 
papers, I have become still more conversant with 
the story of this, the greatest of maritime disas- 
ters, which caused more excitement in our country 
than any other single event that has occurred in 
its history within a generation. 

The adopted standard by which I propose to 
measure the truth of all statements in this book 
is the evidence obtained from these Courts of In- 
I quiry, after it has been subjected to careful and 
I impartial analysis. All accounts of the disaster, 
from newspapers and individual sources, for which 
no basis can be found after submission to this re- 
fining process, will find no place or mention herein. 
In the discussion of points of historical interest 
or of individual conduct, where such are matters 
of public record, I shall endeavor to present them 
fairly before the reader, who can pass thereon 
his or her own opinion after a study of the testi- 
mony bearing on both sides of any controversy. 
In connection with such discussion where the re- 
flections cast upon individuals In the sworn testi- 
mony of witnesses have already gained publicity, 
I claim Immunity from any real or Imaginary ani- 
madversions which may be provoked by my im- 
partial reference thereto. 

I have already recorded my personal observa- 
tion of how strictly the rule of human nature, 



"Women and Children First," was enforced on 
the port side of the great steamship, whence no 
man escaped alive who made his station on this 
quarter and bade good-bye to wife, mother or 

I have done my best, during the limited time 
allowed, to exhaust all the above-defined sources 
of information, in an effort to preserve as com- 
plete a list as possible of those comrades of mine 
who, from first to last, on this port side of the 
ship, helped to preserve order and discipline, up- 
holding the courage of women and children, until 
all the boats had left the Titanic, and who then 
sank with the ship when she went down. 

I shall now present the record and story of each 
lifeboat, on both port and starboard sides of the' 
ship, giving so far as I have been able to obtain 
them the names of persons loaded aboard each 
boat, passengers and crew; those picked up out of 
the water; the stowaways found concealed beneath 
the thwarts, and those men who, without orders, 
jumped from the deck into boats being lowered, 
injuring the occupants and endangering the lives 
of women and children. At the same time will be 
described the conditions existing "when each boat 
was loaded and lowered, and whatever incidents 
occurred in the transfer of passengers to the 
rescuing steamer Carpalkia. 



The general testimony of record, covering the 
conduct which was exhibited on the port side of 
^^^ the ship, Is contained in the careful statements of 
^^K that splendid ofilicer, Charles H. LightoIIer, be- 
^^H fore the United States Senate Committee: (Am. 
^H Inq., p. 88.) 

^^H Senator Smith: From what you have said, 
^^B you discriminated entirely in the interest of the 
^^^ passengers — first women and children — In filling 
these lifeboats? 

iMR. Lightoller: Yes, sir. 
Senator Smith: Why did you do that? Be- 
cause of the captain's orders, or because of the 
rule of the sea? 
, Mr. Lightoller: The rule of human na- 
And also in his testimony before the British 
Inquiry (p. 71) : 
"I asked the captain on the Boat Deck, 'Shall 
I get women and children in the boats ?" The cap- 
tain replied, 'Yes, and lower away.' I was carry- 
ing out his orders. I am speaking of the port 
side of the ship. I was running the port side only. 
All the boats on this side were lowered except 
the last, which was stowed on top of the officers' 
quarters. This was the surf boat — the Enge!- 
hardt boat (A). We had not time to launch it, 
nor yet to open it." 


(Br. Inq.) "I had no difficulty in filling the 
boat. The people were perfectly ready and 
quiet. There was no jostling or pushing or 
crowding whatever. The men all refrained 
from asserting their strength and from crowd- 
ing back the women and children. They 
could not have stood quieter if they had been 
in church." 

And referring to the last boats that left the 
ship (Br. Inq., p. 83) : 

"When we were lowering the women, there 
were any amount of Americans standing near who 
gave me every assistance they could." 

The crow's nest on the foremast was just about 
level with the water when the bridge was sub- 
merged. The people left on the ship, or that part 
which was not submerged, did not make any dem- 
onstration. There was not a sign of any lamen- 

On the port side on deck I can say, as far as 
my own observations went, from my own en- 
deavor and that of others to obtain women, there 
were none left on the deck. 

My testimony on the same point before the 
United States Senate Committee (Am. Inq., p. 
992) was as follows: 

"I want to say that there was nothing but the 





most heroic conduct on the part of all men and 
women at that time where I was at the bow on 
the port side. There was no man who asked to 
get in a boat with the single exception that I have 
already mentioned. (Referring to Co!. Astor's 
request to go aboard to protect his wife. Am. 
Inq., p. 991.) No women even sobbed or wrung 
their hands, and everything appeared perfectly 
orderly. Lightoller was splendid in his conduct 
with the crew, and the crew did their duty. It 
seemed to me it was a little bit more difficult than 
it should have been to launch the boats alongside 
the ship. I do not know the cause of that. I 
know I had to use my muscle as best I could in 
trying to push those boats so as to get them over 
the gunwale. I refer to these In a general way 
as to its being difficult in trying to lift them and 
push them over. (As was the case with the 
Engelhardt "D.") The crew, at first, sort of 
resented my working with them, but they were 
very glad when I worked with them later on. 
Every opportunity I got to help, I helped." 

How these statements are corroborated by the 
testimony of others is recorded in the detailed 
description of each boat that left the ship on the 
port side as follows: 



BOAT No. 6.* 
No male passengers. 

Passengers: Miss Bowerman, Mrs. J. J, 
Brown, Mrs. Candee, Mrs. Cavendish and her 
maid (Miss Barber), Mrs. Meyer, Miss Norton, 
Mrs. Rothschild, Mrs. L. P. Smith, Mrs. Stone 
and her maid (Miss Icard). 

Ordered in to supply lack of crew: Major A. 
G. Peuchen. 

Said good-bye to wives and sank with ship: 
Messrs. Cavendish, Meyer, Rothschild and L. P. 

Crew: Hitchens, Q, M. (in charge). Seaman 
Fleet. (One fireman transferred from No. l6 to 
row.) Also a boy with injured arm whom Captain 
Smith had ordered in. 

Total: 28. (Br. Inq.) 

Lightoller's testimony (Am. Inq., p. 79) : 
I was calUng for seamen and one of the seamen 
jumped out of the boat and started to lower away. 

* British Report (p. 38) puts this boat first to leave port 
Bide at 13.SS. Ligbtoiier's testlmODj- shows it could not biive 
been the first. 



The boat was half way down when a woman 
called out that there was only one man in It. I 
had only two seamen and could not part with them, 
and was In rather a fix to know what to do when 
a passenger called out: "If you like, I will go." 
This was a first-class passenger, Major Peuchen, 
of Toronto. I said: "Are you a seaman?" and 
he said: "I am a yachtsman." I said: "If you 
are sailor enough to get out on that fall — that is 
a difficult thing to get to over the ship's side, eight 
feet away, and means a long swing, on a dark 
night — if you are sailor enough to get out there, 
you can go down"; and he proved he was, by 
going down. 

F. Fleet, L. O. (Am. Inq., 363) and (Br. Inq.) : 
Witness says there were twenty-three women, 
Major Peuchen and Seamen Hitchens and himself. 
As he left the deck he heard Mr. Lightoller shout- 
ing: "Any more women?" No. 6 and one other 
cut adrift after reaching the Carpalhia. 

Major Arthur Godfrey Peuchen, Manufactur- 
ing Chemist, Toronto, Canada, and Major of 
Toronto's crack regiment, The Queen's Own 
Rifles (Am. Inq., p. 334) , testified : 

I was standing on the Boat Deck, port side, 


near the second officer and the captain. One of 
them said: "We must get these masts and sails 
out of these boats; you might give us a hand." 
I jumped in, and with a knife cut the lashings 
of the mast and sail and moved the mast out of 
the boat. Only women were allowed in, and the 
men had to stand back. This was the order, and 
the second officer stood there and carried it out 
to the limit. He allowed no men, except sailors 
who were manning the boat. I did not see one 
single male passenger get in or attempt to get in. 
I never saw such perfect order. The discipline 
was perfect. I did not see a cowardly act by any 

When I first came on this upper deck there were 
about loo stokers coming up with their dunnage 
bags and they seemed to crowd this whole deck 
in front of the boats. One of the officers, I don't 
know which one, a very powerful man, came along 
and drove these men right off this deck like a lot 
of sheep. They did not put up any resistance. 
I admired him for it. Later, there were counted 
20 women, one quartermaster, one sailor and one 
stowaway, before I was ordered in. 

In getting into the boat I went aft and said to 
the quartermaster: "What do you want me to 
do?" "Get down and put that plug in," he an- 
swered. I made a dive down for the plug. The 


F.ladies were all sitting pretty well aft and I could 
I not see at all. It was dark down there. I felt 
I with my hands and then said it would be better 

I for him to do it ; 

: do his work. I said, 

"Now, you get down and put in the plug and I 
will undo the shackles," that Is, take the blocks 
off, so he dropped the blocks and got down to 
fix the plug, and then he came back to assist me 
saying, "Hurry up," He said: "This boat is 
going to founder." I thought he meant our lifeboat 
was going to founder, but he meant the large boat, 
and that we were to hurry up and get away from 
it, so we got the rudder in and he told me to 
go forward and take an oar. I did so, and got 
an oar on the port side. Sailor Fleet was on my 
left on the starboard side. The quartermaster 
told us to row as hard as we could to get 
away from the suction. We got a short 
distance away when an Italian, a ■ stowaway, 
made his appearance. He had a broken wrist 
or arm, and was of no use to row. He was 
stowed away under the boat where we could not 
see him. 

Toward morning we tied up to another boat 
(No. 16) for fifteen minutes. We said to those 
in the other boat: "Surely you can spare us one 
man if you have so many." One man, a fireman, 
was accordingly transferred, who assisted in row- 


ing on the starboard side. The women helped 
with the oars, and very pluckily too.* 

We were to the weather of the Carpalhia, and 
so she stayed there until we all came down on her, 
I looked at my watch and it was something after 
eight o'clock. 

Mrs. Candee's account of her experience is as 
follows : 

She last saw Mr. Kent in the companionway 
between Decks A and B. He took charge of an 
ivory miniature of her mother, etc., which after- 
wards were found on his body when brought into 
Halifax, He appeared at the time to hesitate 
accepting her valuables, seeming to have a pre- 
monition of his fate. 

She witnessed the same incident described by 
Major Peuchen, when a group of firemen came 
up on deck and were ordered by the officer to re- 
turn below. She, however, gives praise to these 
men. They obeyed like soldiers, and without a 
murmur or a protest, though they knew better 
than anyone else on the ship that they were going 
straight to their death. No boats had been 
lowered when these firemen first appeared upon 





she Boat Deck, and it would have been an 
easy matter for them to have "rushed" the 

Her stateroom steward also gave an exhibition 
if courage. After he had tied on her life pre- 
server and had locked her room as a precaution 
against looters, which she believed was done all 
through the deck, she said to this brave man: 
"It is time for you to look out for yourself," to 
which the steward replied, "Oh, plenty of time for 
that, Madam, plenty of time for that," He was 

As she got into boat No. 6, it being dark and 
not seeing where she stepped, her foot encountered 
the oars lying lengthwise In the boat and her 
ankle was thus twisted and broken. 

Just before her boat was lowered away a man's 
voice said : "Captain, we have no seaman." Cap- 
tain Smith then seized a boy by the arm and said: 
"Here's one." The boy went into the boat as 
ordered by the captain, but afterwards he was 
found to be disabled. She does not think he was 
an Italian. 

Her impression is that there were other boatu 
in the water which had been lowered before hers. 
There was a French woman about fifty years of 
age in the boat who was constantly calling for licr 
son. Mrs. Candee sat near her. After arrival 


on the Carpathia this French woman became j 


Notwithstanding Hitchens' statements, she says 
that there was absolutely no upset feeling on the 
women's part at any time, even when the boat, as i 
it was being lowered, on several occasions hung 
at a dangerous angle — sometimes bow up and 
sometimes stern up. The lowering process seemed 
to be done by jerks. She herself called out to 
the men lowering the boat and gave instructions: 
otherwise they would have been swamped. 

The Italian boy who was in the boat was not a 
stowaway, he was ordered in by the captain as 
already related. Neither did he refuse to row. 
When he tried to do so, it was futile, because of 
an injury to his arm or wrist. 

Through the courtesy of another fellow pas- 
senger, Mrs. J. J. Brown, of Denver, Colorado, I 
am able to give her experiences in boat No. 6, 
told in a delightful, graphic manner; so much so 
that I would like to insert it all did not space pre- 

In telling of the people she conversed with, 
that Sunday evening, she refers to an exceedingly 
intellectual and much-travelled acquaintance, Mrs. 
Bucknell, whose husband had founded the Buck- 
■ nell University of Philadelphia; also to another _ 



F passenger from the same city, Dr. Brewe, who 
[ had done much in scientific research. During her 
[ conversation with Mrs. Bucknell, the latter re- 
I iterated a statement previously made on the tender 
at Cherbourg while waiting for the Titanic. She 
I said she feared boarding the ship because she had 
I evil forebodings that something might happen. 
Mrs. Brown laughed at her premonitions and 
. shortly afterwards sought her quarters. 

Instead of retiring to slumber, Mrs. Brown 
I was absorbed in reading and gave little thought 
to the crash at her window overhead which threw 
her to the floor. Picking herself up she proceeded 
see what the steamer had struck; but thinking 
nothing serious had occurred, though realizing 
that the engines had stopped immediately after the 
crash and the boat was at a standstill, she picked 
up her book and began reading again. Finally 
she saw her curtains moving while she was read- 
ing, but no one was visible. She again looked out 
and saw a man whose face was blanched, his eyes 
protruding, wearing the look of a haunted crea- 
ture. He was gasping for breath and In an un- 
dertone gasped, "Get your life preserver." He 
was one of the buyers for Gimbel Bros., of Paris 
and New York. 

She got down her life preserver, snatched up 
her furs and hurriedly mounted the stairs to A 


Deck, where she found passengers putting on life- 
belts like hers. Mrs. Bucknell approached and 
whispered, "Didn't I tell you something was go- 
ing to happen?" She found the hfeboats lowered 
from the falls and made flush with the deck. 
Madame de Villiers appeared from below in a 
nightdress and evening slippers, with no stockings. 
She wore a long woollen motorcoat. Touching 
Mrs. Brown's arm, in a terrified voice she said 
she was going below for her money and valuables. 
After much persuasion Mrs. Brown prevailed 
upon her not to do so, but to get into the boat. 
She hesitated and became very much excited, but 
was finally prevailed upon to enter the lifeboat. 
Mrs. Brown was walking away, eager to see what 
was being done elsewhere. Suddenly she saw a 
shadow and a few seconds later someone seized 
her, saying: "You are going, too," and she was 
dropped fully four feet Into the lowering lifeboat. 
There was but one man in charge of the boat. As 
it was lowered by jerks by an officer above, she 
discovered that a great gush of water was spout- 
ing through the porthole from D Deck, and the 
lifeboat was in grave danger of being submerged. 
She immediately grasped an oar and held the life- 
boat away from the ship. 

When the sea was reached, smooth as glass, 
she looked up and saw the benign, resigned coun- 





I tenance, the venerable white hair and the Chester- 
fieldian bearing of the beloved Captain Smith 
with whom she had crossed twice before, and only 
three months previous on the Olympic. He peered 
down upon those in the boat, like a solicitous fa- 
ther, and directed them to row to the light in the 
distance — all boats keeping together. 

Because of the fewness of men in the boat she 
found it necessary for someone to bend to the 
oars. She placed her oar in an oarlock and asked 
a young woman nearby to hold one while she 
placed the other on the further side. To Mrs. 
Brown's surprise, the young lady {who must have 
been Miss Norton, spoken of elsewhere), im- 
mediately began to row like a galley slave, every 
stroke counting. Together they managed to pull 
away from the steamer. 

By this time E and C Decks were completely 
submerged. Those ladies who had husbands, 
sons or fathers on the doomed steamer buried 
their heads on the shoulders of those near them 
and moaned and groaned. Mrs. Brown's eyes 
were glued on the fast-disappearing ship. Sud- 
denly there was a rift In the water, the sea opened 
up and the surface foamed like giant arms and 
spread around the ship and the vessel disappeared 
from sight, and not a sound was heard. 

Then follows Mrs. Brown's account of the 


conduct of the quartermaster in the boat 
which will be found under the heading pres- 
ently given, and it will be noticed that her state- 
ments correspond with those of all others in the 

The dawn disclosed the awful situation. There 
were fields of ice on which, like points on the 
landscape, rested innumerable pyramids of ice. 
Seemingly a half hour later, the sun, like a ball of 
molten lead, appeared in the background. The 
hand of nature portrayed a scenic effect beyond 
the ken of the human mind. The heretofore 
smooth sea became choppy and retarded their 
progress. All the while the people In boat No. 
6 saw the other small lifeboats being hauled 
aboard the Carpathia. By the time their boat 
reached the Carpathia a heavy sea was running, 
and, No. 6 boat being among the last to approach, 
it was found difficult to get close to the ship. 
Three or four unsuccessful attempts were made. 
Each time they were, dashed against the keel, and 
bounded off like a rubber ball. A rope was then 
thrown down, which was spliced in four at the 

I bottom, and a Jacob's ladder was made. Catch- 
ing hold, they were hoisted up, where a dozen of 
the crew and officers and doctors were waiting. 
They were caught and handled as tenderly as 
though they were children. 


women and children first 
kitchens' conduct 


Major Peuchcn (Am. Inq., p. 334) continued: 

There was an officers' call, sort of a whistle, 
calling us to come back to the boat. The quarter- 
master told us to stop rowing. We all thought wc 
ought to go back to the ship, but the quartermas- 
ter said "No, we are not going back to the boat; 
it is our lives now, not theirs." It was the women 
who rebelled against this action. I asked him to 
assist us in rowing and let some of the women 
steer the boat, as it was a perfectly calm night and 
no skill was required. He refused, and told me 
he was in command of that boat and that I was 
to row. 

He imagined he saw a light. I have done a 
great deal of yachting in my life, I have owned 
a yacht for six years. I saw a reflection. He 
thought it was a boat of some kind; probably it 
might be a buoy, and he called out to the next boat 
asking them if they knew any buoys were around 
there. This struck me as being perfectly absurd. 

I heard what seemed to be one, two, three 
rumbling sounds; then the lights of the ship went 
out. Then the terrible cries and calls for help — 
moaning and crying. It affected all the women in 
our boat whose husbands were among those in 
the water. This went on for some time, grad- 

■ atti 

ually getting fainter and fainter. At first it was 
horrible to listen to. We must have been five- 
eighths of a mile away when this toolc place. 
There were only two of us rowing a very heavy 
boat with a good many people in it, and I do not 
think we covered very much ground. Some of 
the women in the boat urged the quartermaster to 
return. He said there was no use going back, — 
that there were only a "lot of stiffs there." The 
women resented it very much. 

Seaman Fleet (Am. Inq., p. 363) : 

All the women asked us to pull to the place 
where the Tilanic went down, but the quarter- 
master, who was at the tiller all the time, would 
not allow it. They asked him, but he would not 
hear of it. 

Mrs, Candee continues; 

Hitchens was cowardly and almost crazed with 
fear all the time. After we left the ship he 
thought he heard the captain say: "Come along- 
side," and was for turning back until reminded by 
the passengers that the captain's final orders were: 
"Keep boats together and row away from the 
ship." She heard this order given. 

After that he constantly reminded us who were 
at the oars that if we did not make better speed 



with our rowing we would all be sucked under 
the water by the foundering of the ship. This he 
repeated whenever our muscles flagged. 

Directly the Titanic had foundered a discussion 
arose as to whether we should return. Hitchens 
said our boat would immediately be swamped if 
we went into the confusion. The reason for this 
was that our boat was not manned with enough 

Then after the sinking of the Titanic Hitchens 
reminded us frequently that we were hundreds of 
miles from land, without water, without food, 
without protection against cold, and If a storm 
should come up that we would be helpless. There- 
fore, we faced death by starvation or by drown- 
ing. He said we did not even know the direction 
In which we were rowing, I corrected him by 
pointing to the north star immediately over our 

When our boat came alongside No. 16, Hit- 
chens immediately ordered the boats lashed to- 
gether. He resigned the helm and settled down to 
rest. When the Carpathia hove in sight he or- 
dered that we drift. Addressing the people in 
both boats Mrs. Candee said: "Where those 
lights are lies our salvation; shall we not go to- 
wards them?" The reply was a murmur of ap- 
proval and immediate recourse to the oars. 



Hitchens was requested to assist in the toilsome 
romng. Women tried to taunt and provoke him 
into activity. When it was suggested that he per- 
mit the injured boy to take the tiller and that 
Hitchens should row, he declined, and in every 
case he refused labor. He spoke with such un- 
civility to one of the ladies that a man's voice was 
heard in rebuke: "You are speaking to a lady," 
to which he replied: "I know whom I am speaking 
to, and I am commanding this boat." 

When asked if the Carpathia would come and 
pick us up he replied: "No, she is not going to 
pick us up; she Is to pick up bodies." This when 
said to wives and mothers of the dead men was 
needlessly brutal. 

When we neared the Carpathia he refused to go 
round on the smooth side because it necessitated 
keeping longer in the rough sea, so we made a 
difficult landing. 

In Mrs. Brown's account of her experience she 
relates the following about the conduct of the 
quartermaster in charge of the boat in which she 

He, Quartermaster Hitchens, was at the rudder 
and standing much higher than we were, shivering 
like an aspen. As they rowed away from the 
ship he burst out in a frightened voice and warned 


them of the fate that awaited them, saying that 
the task in rowing away from the sinking ship 
was futile, as she was so large that in sinking she 
would draw everything for miles around dowa 
with her suction, and, if they escaped that, the 
boilers would burst and rip up the bottom of the 
sea, tearing the icebergs asunder and completely 
submerging them. They were truly doomed either 
way. He dwelt upon the dire fate awaiting them, 
describing the accident that happened to the S. S. 
New York when the Titanic left the docks at 

After the ship had sunk and none of the ca- 
lamities that were predicted by the terrified quar- 
termaster were experienced, he was asked to re- 
turn and pick up those in the water. Again the 
people in the boat were admonished and told how 
the frantic drowning victims would grapple the 
sides of the boat and capsize It. He not yielding 
to the entreaties, those at the oars pulled away 
vigorously towards a faintly glimmering light on 
the horizon. After three hours of pulling the 
light grew fainter, and then completely disap- 
peared. Then this quartermaster, who stood on 
his pinnacle trembling, with an attitude like some 
one preaching to the multitude, fanning the air 
with his hands, recommenced his tirade of awful 
forebodings, telling those in the boat that they 


were likely to drift for days, all the while re- 
minding them that they were surrounded by ice- 
bergs, as he pointed to a pyramid of ice looming 
up in the distance, possibly seventy feet high. He 
forcibly impressed upon them that there was no 
water in the casks in the lifeboats, and no bread, 
no compass and no chart. No one answered him. 
All seemed to be stricken dumb. One of the 
ladies in the boat had had the presence of mind to 
procure her silver brandy flask. As she held it 
in her hand the silver glittered and he being at- 
tracted to it implored her to give it to him, saying 
that he was frozen. She refused the brandy, but 
removed her steamer blanket and placed it around 
his shoulders, while another lady wrapped a sec- 
ond blanket around his waist and limbs, he look- 
ing "as snug as a bug in a rug." 

The quartermaster was then asked to relieve 
one or the other of those struggling at the oars, 
as someone else could manage the rudder while 
he rowed. He flatly refused and continued 
to lampoon them, shouting : "Here, you fel- 
low on the starboard side, your oar is not b,e- 
ing put in the water at the right angle." No one 
made any protest to his outbursts, as he broke the 
monotony, but they continued to pull at the oars 
with no goal in sight. Presently he raised his 
voice and shouted to another lifeboat to pull near 



[ and lash alongside, commanding some of the other 
ladies to take the light and signal to the other life- 
boats. His command was immediately obeyed. 
He also gave another command to drop the oars 
and lay to. Some time later, after more shouts, 
a lifeboat hove to and obeyed his orders to throw 
a rope, and was tied alongside. On the cross- 
seat of that boat stood a man in white pajamas, 
looking like a snow man in that icy region. His 
teeth were chattering and he appeared quite numb. 
Seeing his predicament, Mrs. Brown told him he 
had better get to rowing and keep his blood in 
circulation. But the suggestion met with a forci- 
ble protest from the quartermaster in charge. 
Mrs. Brown and her companions at the oars, after 
their exercise, felt the blasts from the ice-fields 
and demanded that they should be allowed to row 
to keep warm. 

Over into their boat jumped a half-frozen 
stoker, black and covered with dust. As he was 
dressed in thin jumpers, she picked up a large 
sable stole which she had dropped into the boat' 
and wrapped it around his limbs from his waist 
down and tied the tails around his ankles. She 
handed him an oar and told the pajama man to 
cut loose, A howl arose from the quartermas- 
ter in charge. He moved to prevent it, and Mrs. 
Brown told him if he did he would be thrown 


overboard. Someone laid a hand on her shoulder 
to stay her threats, but she knew it would not be 
nece8sat7 to push him over, for had she only 
moved in the quartermaster's direction, he would 
have tumbled into the sea, so paralyzed was he 
with fright. By this time he had worked himself 
up to a pitch of sheer despair, fearing that a 
scramble of any kind would remove the plug from 
the bottom of the boat. He then became very im- 
pertinent, and our fur-enveloped stoker in as 
broad a cockney as one hears in the Hay- 
market shouted: "Oi sy, don't you know you 
arc talkin' to a Iidy?" For the time being the 
seaman was silenced and we resumed our task 
at the oars. Two other ladies came to the 

While glancing around watching the edge of 
the horizon, the beautifully modulated voice of 
the young Englishwoman at the oar {Miss Nor- 
ton) exclaimed, "There Is a flash of lightning." 
"It is a falling star," replied our pessimistic sea- 
man. As it became brighter he was then con- 
vinced that it was a ship. However, the distance, 
as we rowed, seemed interminable. We saw the 
ship was anchored. Again the declaration was 
made that we, regardless of what our quartermas- 
ter said, would row toward her, and the young 
Englishwoman from the Thames got to work, ac- 





companying her strokes with cheerful words to the 
wilted occupants ot the boat. 

Mrs. Brown brushes the quartermaster in her 
final account of him. On entering the dining- 
room on the Carpathia, she saw him in one cor- 
ner — this brave and heroic seaman I A cluster of 
people were around him as he wildly gesticulated, 
trying to Impress upon them what difficulty he had 
in maintaining discipline among the occupants of 
his boat; but on seeing Mrs. Brown and a few 
others of the boat nearby he did not tarry long, 
but made a hasty retreat. 

R. Hitchens, Q. M. (Am. Inq., p. 451. Br. 
Inq.) explains his conduct: 

I was put in charge of No. 6 by the Second 0(> 
ficer, Mr, Lightoller, We lowered away from the 
ship. I told them in the boat somebody would have 
to pull. There was no use stopping alongside the 
ship, which was gradually going by the head. We 
were in a dangerous place, so I told them to man 
the oars — ladies and all. "All of you do your 
best." I relieved one of the young ladies with an 
oar and told her to take the tiller. She imme- 
diately let the boat come athwart, and the ladies 
in the boat got very nervous ; so I took the tiller 
badt again and told them to manage the best way 
they could. The lady I refer to, Mrs. Meyer, 


5 rathei 

:ed with r 

1 the boat and I spoke 

r vexed 
rather straight to her. She accused me ot wrap- 
ping myself up in the blankets In the boat, using 
bad language and drinking all the whisky, which 
1 deny, sir. I was standing to attention, exposed, 
steering the boat all night, which is a very cold 
billet, I would rather be pulUng the boat than 
be steering, but I saw no one there to steer, so I 
thought, being in charge of the boat, it was the 
best way to steer myself, especially when I saw 
the ladies get very nervous, 

I do not remember that the women urged me 
to go toward the Titanic. I did not row toward 
the scene of the Titanic because the suction of the 
ship would draw the boat, with all its occupants, 
under water. J did not know which way to go back 
to the Titanic. I was looking at all the other boats. 
We were looking at each other's lights. After the 
lights disappeared and went out, we did hear cries 
of distress — a lot of crying, moaning and scream- 
ing, for two or three minutes. We made fast to 
another boat — that of the master-at-arms. It was 
No. 1 6. I had thirty-eight women in my boat. 
I counted them, sir. One seaman, Fleet; the Ca- 
nadian Major, who testified here yesterday, my- 
self and the Italian boy. 

We got down to the Carpathia and I saw every 
lady and everybody out of the boat, and I saw ■ 


them carefully hoisted on board the Carpathia, 
and I was the last man to leave the boat. 

BOAT NO. 8 * 

No male passengers in this boat. 

Passengers : Mrs. Bucknell and her maid (Al- 
bina Bazzani) ; Miss Cherry, Mrs. Kenyon, Miss 
Leader, Mrs. Pears, Mrs, Penasco and her maid 
(Mile. Olivia); Countess Rothes and her maid 
( Miss Maloney) ; Mrs. Swift, Mrs. Taussig, 
Miss Taussig, Mrs. White and her maid (Amelia 
Bessetti); Mrs. Wick, Miss Wick, Miss Young 
and Mrs. Straus' maid (Ellen Bird). 

Women : 24, 

Said good-bye to wives and sank with the skip: 
Messrs. Kenyon, Pears, Penasco, Taussig and 

Crew: Seaman T. Jones, Stewards Crawford 
and Hart, and a cook. 

Total: 28. 

T. Jones, seaman (Am. Inq., p. 570). 
The captain asked me if the plug was in thi 
boat and I answered, "Yes, sir." "AH right," he 

■British Report <p. 3S) puts this boat second on port 
side at 1.10. Notwitlis landing Seaman Fleet's testimony 
(Am. Inq-i p. 3S3), I think she must have preceded No. 0. 



said, "any more ladies?" He shouted twice 
again, "Any more ladies?" 

I pulled for the light, but I found that I could 
not get to it; so I stood by for a while. I wanted 
to return to the ship, but the ladies were fright- 
ened. In all, I had thirty-five ladies and three 
stewards, Crawford, Hart and another. There 
were no men who offered to get in the boat. I 
did not see any children, and very few women 
when we left the ship. There was one old lady 
there and an old gentleman, her husband. She 
wanted him to enter the boat with her but he 
backed away. She never said anything; if she did, 
we could not hear It, because the steam was blow- 
ing so and making such a noise.* 

Senator Newlands : Can you give me the names 
of any passengers on this boat? 

Witness : One lady — she had a lot to say and I 
put her to steering the boat. 

Senator Newlands ; What was her name ? 

Witness: Lady Rothes; she was a countess, or 

A. Crawford, steward (Am. Inq., pp. iii, 827, 

• By the testimony of the witness and Steward Craw- 
ford it appears that Mr. and Mrs. Straus approached this 
boat and their maid got in, hut Mr. Straus would not follpw 
his wife aniJ she refused to leave hini. 





After we struck I went out and saw the iceberg, 
a large black object, much higher than B Deck, 
passing along the starboard side. We filled No. 
8 with women. Captain Smith and a steward 
lowered the forward falls. Captain Smith told 
me to get in. He gave orders to row for the light 
and to land the people there and come back to the 
ship. The Countess Rothes was at the tiller all 
night. There were two lights not further than 
ten miles — stationary masthead lights. Every- 
body saw them — all the ladies in the boat. They 
asked if we were drawing nearer to the steamer, 
but we could not seem to make any headway, and 
near daybreak we saw another steamer coming 
up, which proved to be the Carpathia, and then 
we turned around and came back. We were the 
furthest boat away. I am sure it was a steamer, 
because a sailing vessel would not have had two 
masthead lights. 

Mrs. J. Stuart White (Am. Inq., p. 1008) . 

Senator Smith: Did you see anything after the 
accident bearing on the discipline of the officers or 
crew, or their conduct which you desire to speak 

Mrs. White : Before we cut loose from the ship 
these stewards took out cigarettes and lighted 
them. On an occasion like that! That is one 



thing I saw. All of these men escaped under the 
pretence of being oarsmen. The man who rowed 
near me took his oar and rowed all over the boat 
in every direction. I said to him: "Why don't 
you put the oar in the oarlock?" He said: "Do 
you put it in that hole?" ] said: "Certainly." He 
said: "I never had an oar in my hand before." I 
spoke to the other man and he said: "1 have never 
had an oar in my hand before, but I think I can 
row." These were the men we were put to sea 
with, that night — with all those magnificent fel- 
lows left on board who would have been such a 
protection to us — those were the kind of men with 
whom we were put to sea that night! There were 
twenty-two women and four men in my boat. 
None of the men seemed to understand the man- 
agement of a boat except one who was at the end 
of our boat and gave the orders. The officer who 
put us in the boat gave strict orders to make for 
the hght opposite, land passengers and then get 
back just as soon as possible. That was the light 
everybody saw in the distance. I saw it distinctly. 
It was ten miles away, but we rowed, and rowed, 
and rowed, and then we all decided that it was 
impossible for us to get to it, and the thing to do 
was to go back and see what we could do for the 
others. We had only twenty-two in our boat. 
We turned and went back and lingered around for 


a long time. We could not locate the other boats 
except by hearing them. The only way to look 
was by my electric light. I had an electric cane 
with an electric light in it. The lamp in the boat 
was worth absolutely nothing. There was no ex- 
citement whatever on the ship. Nobody seemed 
frightened. Nobody was panic-stricken. There 
was a lot of pathos when husbands and wives 
kissed each other good-bye. 

We were the second boat (No. 8) that got 
away from the ship and we saw nothing that hap- 
pened after that. We were not near enough. We 
heard the yells of the passengers as they went 
down, but we saw none of the harrowing part of 
it. The women in our boat all rowed — every one 
of them. Miss Voung rowed every minute. The 
men (the stewards) did not know the first thing 
about it and could not row, Mrs. Swift rowed 
all the way to the Carpalhia. Countess Rothes 
stood at the tiller. Where would we have been 
if It had not been for the women, with such men 
as were put in charge of the boat? Our head sea- 
man was giving orders and these men knew noth- 
ing about a boat. They would say; "If you don't 
stop talking through that hole in your face there 
will be one less in the boat." We were In the 
hands of men of that kind. I settled two or three 
fights between them and quieted them down. Im- 

agine getting right out there and taking out a pipe 
and smoking It, which was most dangerous. We 
had woollen rugs all around us. There was an- 
other thing which I thought a disgraceful point. 
The men were asked when they got in if they 
could row. Imagine asking men who are sup- 
posed to be at the head of lifeboats if they can 
row I 

Senator Smith : There were no male passengers 
in your boat? 

Mrs. White: Not one. I never saw a finer 
body of men in my life than the men passengers 
on this ship — athletes and men of sense — and if 
they had been permitted to enter these lifeboats 
with their families, the boats would have been 
properly manned and many more lives saved, In- 
stead of allowing stewards to get in the boats 
and save their lives under the pretence that they 
could row when they knew nothing about it. 

BOAT NO. 10.* 
No male passengers in this boat. 
Passengers: First cabin, Miss Andrews, Miss 
Longley, Mrs. Hogeboom. Second cabin, Mrs. 
Parrish, Mrs. Shelley. 41 women, 7 children, 

'British Report (p. SB) says third at 1.20. I think No. 6 
went later, though fiuley (Am. loq., p. 604) claims No. 10 as 
the last lifeboat lowered. 



Crew: Seamen: Buley (in charge), Evans; 
Fireman Rice; Stewards Burke and one other. 

Stowaway: i Japanese. 

Jumped from J Deck Into boat being lowered: 
I Armenian. 

Total: 55- 


Edward J. Buley, A. B. (Am. Inq., p. 604). 

Chief Officer Wilde said: "See if you can find 
another seaman to give you a hand, and jump in." 
I found Evans, my mate, the able-bodied seaman, 
and we both got in the boat. 

Much of Seaman Buley's and of Steward 
Burke's testimony is a repetition of that of Sea- 
man Evans, so I cite the latter only; 

F. O. Evans, A. B. (Am. Inq., p. 675). 

I went up (on the Boat Deck) with the remain- 
der of the crew and uncovered all of the port 
boats. Then to the starboard side and lowered 
the boats there with the assistance of the Boat- 
swain of the ship, A. Nichol. I went next (after 
No. 12) to No. 10. Mr. Murdoch was standing 
there. I lowered the boat with the assistance of 
a steward. The chief officer said; "Get into that 
boat." I got into the bows. A young ship's 



baker (J. Joughin) was getting the children and 
chucking them into the boat. Mr. Murdoch and 
the baker made the women jump across into the 
boat about two feet and a half. "He threw them 
on to the women and he was catching children 
by their dresses and chucking them in." One 
woman in a black dress slipped and fell. She 
seemed nervous and did not like to jump at first. 
When she did jump she did not go far enough, 
but fell between the ship and the boat. She was 
pulled in by some men on the deck below, went up 
to the Boat Deck again, took another jump, and 
landed safely in the boat. There were none of 
the children hurt. The only accident was with this 
woman. The only man passenger was a for- 
eigner, up forward. He, as the boat was being 
lowered, jumped from A Deck into the boat — de- 
liberately jumped across and saved himself. 

When we got to the water it was impossible to 
get to the tripper underneath the thwart on ac- 
count of women being packed so tight. We had 
to lift the fall up off the hook by hand to release 
the spring to get the block and fall away from it. 
We pushed off from the ship and rowed away 
about 200 yards. We tied up to three other 
boats. We gave the man our painter and made 
fast to No. 12. We stopped there about an hour, 
and Officer Lowe came over with his boat No. 14 



and said: "You seamen will have to distribute 
these passengers among these boats. Tie them to- 
gether and come Into my boat to go over to the 
wreckage and picit up anyone that Is alive there." 

Witness testified that the larger lifeboats would 
hold sixty people. 

Senator Smith: Do you wish to be understood 
that each lifeboat like Nos. 12 and 14 and 10 
could be filled to its fullest capacity and lowered 
to the water with safety? 

Mr. Evans: Yes, because we did it then, sir. 

Senator Smith : That is a pretty good answer. 

Mr. Evans: It was my first experience in seeing 
a boat loaded like that, sir. 

The stern of the ship, after plunging forward, 
remained floating In a perpendicular position about 
four or five minutes. 

W. Burke, dining-room steward (Am, Inq., p. 

I went to my station and found that my boat, 
No. I, had gone. Then to the port side and as- 
sisted with No. 8 boat and saw her lowered. 
Then I passed to No. 10. The officer said, "Get 
right In there," and pushed me toward the boat, 
and I got In. When there were no women to be 
had around the deck the officer gave the order 
for the boat to be lowered. 


After the two seamen (Buley and Evans) were 
transferred to boat No. 14, some of the women 
forward said to me: "There are two men down 
here tn the bottom of the boat." I got hold of 
them and pulled one out. He apparently was a 
Japanese and coutd not speak English. I put him 
at an oar. The other appeared to be an Italian. 
I tried to speak to him but he said: "Armenian." 
I also put him at an oar. I afterwards made fast 
to an officer's boat — I think it was Mr. Lightol- 
ler's (i. e., No. 12). 

Mrs. Imanita Shelley's affidavit (Am. Inq., 
p. 1146). 

Mrs. Shelley with her mother, Mrs. L. D. Par- 
rish, were second cabin passengers. Mrs. Shelley 
had been sick and it was with difficulty that she 
reached the deck, where she was assisted to a 
chair. After some time a sailor ran to her and 
implored her to get in the lifeboat that was then 
being launched — one of the last on the ship. 
Pushing her mother toward the sailor, Mrs. Shel- 
ley made for the davits where the boat hung. 

There was a space of between four or five feet 
between the edge of the deck and the suspended 
boat. The sailor picked up Mrs. Parrish and threw 
her bodily into the boat. Mrs. Shelley jumped and 
landed safely. There were a fireman and a ship's 



baker among the crew at the time of launching. 
The boat was filled with women and children, as 
many as could get in without overcrowding. There 
was trouble with the tackle and the ropes had to 
be cut. 

Just as they reached the water, a crazed Italian 
jumped from the deck into the lifeboat, landing on 
Mrs. Parrlsh, severely bruising her right side and 


Orders had been given to keep in sight of the 
ship's boat which had been sent out ahead to look 
for help. Throughout the entire period, from the 
time of the collision and taking to the boats, the 
ship's crew behaved In an ideal manner. Not a 
man tried to get Into a boat unless ordered to, 
and many were seen to strip off their clothing and 
wrap It around the women and children, who came 
up half-clad from their beds. Mrs. Shelley says 
that no crew could have behaved In a more perfect 

J. Joughin, head baker (Br, Inq.) 

Chief Officer Wilde shouted to the stewards to 
keep the men passengers back, but there was no 
necessity for the order as they were keeping back. 
The order was splendid. The stewards, firemen 
and sailors got In line and passed the ladies In; 
and then we had difficulty to Hnd ladles to go Into 


the boat. No distinction at all as to class was 
made. I saw a number of third-class women with 
their bags, which they would not let go. 

The boat was let down and the women were 
forcibly drawn into it. The boat was a yard and 
a half from the ship's side. There was a slight 
list and we had to drop them in. The officer or- 
dered two sailors and a steward to get in. 

BOAT NO. 12.* 
No male passenger in this boat. 

Passengers: Miss Phillips. 

Bade good-bye to his daughter and sank with 
the ship: Mr. Phillips. Women and children, 40. 

Crew: Seamen Poigndestre (in charge), F. 
Clench. Later, Lucas and two firemen were trans- 
ferred from boat "D," 

Jumped from deck below as boat was lowered: 
I Frenchman. 

Total: '43. 

Transfers were made to this boat first from 
Engelhardt "D" and second, from Engelhardt up- 
set boat "B," so that it reached the Carpathia's 
side with seventy, or more. 

I the fourth boat 




F. Clench, A. B. (Am. Inq., p. 636). 

The second officer and myself stood on the gun- 
wale and helped load women and children. The 
chief officer passed them along to us and we filled 
three boats, No. 12 first. In each there were 
about forty or fifty people. After finishing No. 
1 6 boat, I went back to No. 1 2. "How many men 
(crew) have you in this boat?" the chief officer 
said, and I said, "Only one, sir." He looked up 
and said : "Jump into that boat," and that made a 
complement of two seamen. An able seaman was 
in charge of this boat. (Poigndestre.) We had 
instructions to keep our eye on No. 14 and keep 

There was only one male passenger in our boat, 
and that was a Frenchman who jumped in and 
we could not find him. He got under the thwart, 
mixed up with the women, just as we dropped Into 
the water before the boat was lowered and with- 
out our knowledge. Officer Lowe, transferred 
some of his people Into our boat and others, mak- 
ing close on to sixty, and pretty full up. When 
Mr. Lowe was gone I heard shouts. I looked 
around and saw a boat in the way that appeared 
to be like a funnel; we thought it was the top of 
a funnel, (It was Engelhardt overturned boat 


"B.") There were about twenty on this, and we 
took off approximately ten, making seventy in my 

John Poigndestre, A. B. (Br. Inq., p. 82). 

Lightoller ordered us to layoff and stand byclose 
to the ship. Boat "D" and three lifeboats made 
fast to No. 12. Stood off about 100 yards after 
ship sank. Not enough sailors to help pick up 
swimmers. No light. Transfer of about a dozen 
women passengers from No. 14 to No. 12. About 
150 yards off when Titanic sank. No compass. 

BOAT NO. 14-* 
No male passenger in this boat. 

Passengers: Mrs. Compton, Miss Compton, 
Mrs. Minahan, Miss Minahan, Mrs. Collyer, 
Miss Collyer. 

Picked up out of sea: W. F. Hoyt (who died), 
Steward J. Stewart, and a plucky Japanese. 

Women: 50. 

Volunteer when crew was short: C, Williams. 

Crew: Fifth Officer Lowe, Seaman Scarrot, 2 
firemen, Stewards Crowe and Morris. 

s tfac fifth boat on tbe 



Stowaway: 1 Italian. 

Bade good-bye and sank with ship: Dr. Mma- 
han, Mr. Compton, Mr. CoUyer. 
Total: 60. 


H. G. Lowe, Fifth Officer (Am. Inq., 116). 
12, 14 and 16 were c 


; down about the same 


time. I told Mr. Moody that three boats had 
gone away and that an officer ought to go with 
them. He said: "You go." There was difficulty 
in lowering when I got near the water. I dropped 
her about five feet, because I was not going to 
take the chance of being dropped down upon by 
somebody. While I was on the Boat Deck, two 
men tried to jump Into the boat. I chased them 

We filled boats 14 and 16 with women and chil- 
dren. Moody filled No. 16 and I filled No. 14, 
LightoUer was there part of the time. They were 
all women and children, barring one passenger, 
who was an Italian, and he sneaked in dressed 
like a woman. He had a shawl over his head. 
There was another passenger, a chap by the name 
of C. Williams, whom I took for rowing. He 
gave me his name and address {referring to 
book), "C. Williams, Racket Champion of the 


World, 2 Drury Road, Harrow-on-the-Hill, Mid- 
dlesex, England." 

As I was being lowered, I expected every mo- 
ment that my boat would be doubled up under my 
feet. I had overcrowded her, but I knew that I 
had to take a certain amount of risk. I thought 
if one additional body was to fall into that boat, 
that slight additional weight might part the hooks, 
or carry away something; so as we were coming 
down past the open decks, I saw a lot of Latin 
people all along the ship's rails. They were glar- 
ing more or less like wild beasts, ready to spring. 
That is why I yelled out to "look out," and let 
go, bang I right along the ship's side. There was 
a space I should say of about three feet between 
the side of the boat and the ship's side, and as I 
went down I fired these shots without any inten- 
tion of hurting anybody and with the positive 
knowledge that I did not hurt anybody. I fired, 
I think, three times. 

Later, 150 yards away, I herded five boats to- 
gether. I was in No, 14; then I had 10, 12, col- 
lapsible "D" and one other boat (No. 4), and 
made them tie up. I waited until the yells and 
shrieks had subsided for the people to thin out, 
and then I deemed it safe for me to go amongst 
the wreckage; so I transferred all my passengers, 
somewhere about fifty-three, from my boat and 




equally distributed them among my other four 
boats. Then I asked for volunteers to go with 
me to the wreck, and it was at this time that I 
found the Italian. He came aft and had a shawl 
over his head, and I suppose he had skirts. Any- 
how, I pulled the shawl off his face and saw he 
was a man. He was in a great hurry to get Into 
the other boat and I got hold of him and pitched 
htm in. 

Senator Smith; Pitched him in? 

Mr. Lowe: Yes; because he was not worth be- 
ing handled better. 

Senator Smith : You pitched him in among the 

^ women? 
Mr. Lowe: No, sir; in the forepart of the life- 
boat in which I transferred my passengers. 
Senator Smith: Did you use some pretty em- 
phatic language when you did this? 

Mr. Lowe: No, sir; I did not say a word to 

Then I went off and rowed to the wreckage and 

around the wreckage and picked up four people 

L alive. I do not know who these live persons were. 

I They never came near me afterwards either to say 

f this or that or the other. But one died, Mr. W. 

F. Hoyt, of New York, After we got him in the 

boat we took his collar off so as to give him more 

Jiance to breathe, but unfortunately, he died. He 


was too far gone when we picked him up. I then | 
left the wreck. I went right around, and, strange 
to say, I did not see a single female body around 
the wreckage. I did not have a light in my boat. 
Then I could see the Carpalkia coming up and I 
thought: "Well, I am the fastest boat of the lot," 
as I was sailing, you see. I was going through 
the water four or five knots, bowUng along verjrj 
nicely. ' 

By and by, I noticed a collapsible boat, Engel- 
hardt "D." It looked rather sorry, so I thought: 
"Well, I will go down and pick her up and make 
sure of her," This was Quartermaster Bright's 
boat. Mrs. H. B. Harris, of New York, was in 
it. She had a broken arm. I had taken this first 
coUapsible ("D") in tow and I noticed that there 
was another collapsible ("A") in a worse plight 
than this one that I had in tow. I got to her just 
in time and took off, I suppose, about twenty men 
and one lady. I left three male bodies in it. I may 
have been a bit hard-hearted in doing this. I 
thought: "I am not here to worry about bodies; I 
am here to save life and not bother about bodies," 
The people on the raft told me these had been 
dead for some time. I do not know whether any 
one endeavored to find anything on their persons 
that would identify them, because they were all 
to their ankles in water when I took them off. 




Joseph Scarrot, A. B. (Br. Inq., pp. 29, 30) : I 
myself took charge of No. 14 as the only sailor- 
man there. The Chief Officer ordered women and 
children to be taken in. Some men came and tried 
to rush the boat. They were foreigners and could 
not understand the orders I gave them, but I 
managed to keep them away. I had to use some 
persuasion with a boat tiller. One man jumped 
in twice and I had to throw him out the third 
time. I got all the women and children into the 
boat. There were fifty-four women and four 
children — one of them a baby in arms. There 
were myself, two firemen, three or four stewards 
and Mr. Lowe, who got into the boat. I told 
him the trouble I had with the men and he brought 
out his revolver and fired two shots and said; "If 
there is any more trouble I will fire at them." 
The shots fired were fired between the boat and 
the ship's side. The after fall got twisted and we 
dropped the boat by the releasing gear and got 
clear of the ship. There were four men rowing. 
There was a man in the boat who we thought 
was a sailor, but he was not. He was a window 
cleaner. The Titanic was then about fifty yards 
off, and we lay there with the other boats. Mr. 
Lowe was at the helm. We went in the direc^on 
of the cries and came among hundreds of dead 
bodies and life belts. We got one man, who died 


shortly after he got into the boat. One of the 
stewards tried to restore him, but without avail. 
There was another man who was calling for help, 
but among the bodies and wreckage it was too late 
for us to reach him. It took half an hour to get 
to that man. Cannot say exactly, but think we got 
abouttwenty offof the Engelhardt boat ("A"). 

E. J. Buley, A. B. (Am. Inq., p. 605) : 
(After his transfer from No. 10 to No. 14.) 
Then, with Lowe in his boat No. 14, I went back 
to where the Titanic sank and picked up the re- 
maining live bodies. We got four; all the others 
were dead. We turned over several to see if they 
were alive. It looked as if none of them were 
drowned. They looked as if frozen. The life 
belts they had on were that much (indicating) 
out of the water, and their heads lay back with 
their faces on the water. They were head and 
shoulders out of water, with their heads thrown 
back. In the morning, after we had picked up all 
that were alive, there was a collapsible boat 
("A") swamped, which we saw with a lot of 
people up to their knees in water. We sailed over 
to ihem. We then picked up another boat ("D") 
and took her in tow. I think we were about the 
seventh or eighth boat alongside the Carpathia. 




F. O. Evans, A. B. {Am. Inq., p. 677) : 
So from No. 10 we got into his (Lowe's) boat, 
No. 14, and went straight over towards the wreck- 
age with eight or nine men and picked up four 
persons alive, one of whom died on the way to the 
Carpathia. Another picked up was named J. 
Stewart, a steward- You could not hardly count 
the number of dead hodies. I was afraid to look 
over the sides because it might break my nerves 
down. We saw no other people in the water or 
heard their cries, other than these four picked 
up. The officer said: "Hoist a sail forward." 
I did so and made sail In the direction of the 
collapsible boat "A" about a mile and a half 
away, which had been swamped. There were in 
it one woman and about ten or eleven men. Then 
we picked up another collapsible boat ("D") and 
took her in tow to the Carpathia. There were 
then about twenty-five people in our boat No. 14, 
including the one who died. 

One of the ladies there passed over a flask of 
whisky to the people who were all wet through. 
She asked if anybody needed the spirits, and these 
people were all soaking wet and nearly perished 
and they passed it around among these men and 
women. It took about twenty minutes after we 
sighted the Carpathia to get alongside of her. 
We saw five or six icebergs — some of them tre- 


mendous, about the height of the Titanic — and 
field ice. After we got on the Carfathta we saw, 
at a rough estimate, a twenty-five mile floe, sir, 
flat like the floor. 

F. Crowe, steward (Am. Inq., p. 615) : 
I assisted in handing the women and children 
into boat No, 12, and was asked if I could take 
an oar. I said; "Yes," and was told to man 
the boat, I believe, by Mr. Murdoch. After get- 
ting the women and children in we lowered down 
to within four or five feet of the water, and then 
the block and tackle got twisted in some way, 
causing us to have to cut the ropes to allow the 
boat to get into the water. This officer, Lowe, 
told us to do this. He was In the boat with us. 
I stood by the lever — the lever releasing the 
blocks from the hooks in the boat. He told me 
to wait, to get away and cut the line to raise the 
lever, thereby causing the hooks to open and allow 
the boat to drop in the water. 

There was some shooting that occurred at the 
time the boat was lowered. There were various 
men passengers, probably Italians or some foreign 
nationality other than English or American, who 
attempted to "rush" the boats. The officers 
threatened to shoot any man who put hi 
into the boat. An officer fired a revolver, 


is foot ^H 
but ^1 



either downward or upward, not shooting at any 
one of the passengers at all and not injuring any- 
body. He fired perfectly clear upward and down- 
ward and stopped the rush. There was no dis- 
order after that. One woman cried, but that 
was all. There was no panic or anything in the 

After getting into the water I pushed out to 
the other boats. In No. 14 there were fifty-seven 
women and children and about six men, Including 
one officer, and I may have been seven, I am 
not quite sure. I know how many, because when 
we got out a distance the officer asked me how 
many people were in the boat. 

When the boat was released and fell I think 
she must have sprung a leak. A lady stated that 
there was some water coming up over her ankles. 
Two men and this lady assisted in bailing it out 
with bails that were kept in the boat for that 
purpose. We transferred our people to other 
boats so as to return to the wreck and see If we 
could pick up anybody else. Returning to the 
wreck, we heard various cries and endeavored 
to get among them, and we were successful in 
doing so, and picked up one body that was float- 
ing around in the water. It was that of a man 
and he expired shortly afterwards. Going fur- 
ther into the wreckage we came across a steward 


~lB4 THE TRu¥h AtSOf TM 

(J. Stewart) and got him into the boat. He was 
very cold and his hands were kind of stiff. He 
recovered by the time that we got back to the 

A Japanese or Chinese young fellow that we 
picked up on top of some wreckage, which may 
have been a sideboard or a table that was float- 
ing around, also survived.* We stopped (in the 
wreckage) until daybreak, and we saw in the dis- 
tance an Engelhardt collapsible boat ("A") with 
a crew of men in it. We went over to the boat 
and found twenty men and one woman; also three 
dead bodies, which we left. Returning under sail 
we took another collapsible boat in tow (boat 
"D") containing fully sixty people, women and 

I did not see the iceberg that struck the ship. 
When it came daylight and we could see, there 
were two or three bergs around, and one man 
pointed out that that must have been the berg, and 
another man pointed out another berg. Really, 
I do not think anybody knew which one struck 
the ship. 

Mrs. Charlotte Collyer, third-class passenger, 

* UDduubtedly reference <g here made to the same Jap- 
anese described in an account attributed to a aecond-dua 
passenger, Mrs. Collyer, and which follows Crowe's tud- 


in The Semi-Monthly Magazine, May, 1912; 

A little further on we saw a floating door that 
must have been torn loose when the ship went 
down. Lying upon it, face downward, was a 
small Japanese. He had lashed himself with a 
rope to his frail raft, using the broken hinges 
to make the knots secure. As far as we could 
sec, he was dead. The sea washed over him 
every time the door bobbed up and down, and he 
was frozen stiff. He did not answer when he 
was hailed, and the officer hesitated about trying 
to save him. 

"What's the use?" said Mr. Lowe. "He's 
dead, likely, and if he isn't there's others better 
worth saving than a Jap!" 

He had actually turned our boat around, but 
he changed his mind and went back. The 
Japanese was hauled on board, and one of the 
women rubbed his chest, while others chafed his 
hands and feet. In less time than it takes to 
tell, he opened his eyes. He spoke to us in his 
own tongue; then, seeing that we did not under- 
stand, he struggled to his feet, stretched his arms 
above his head, stamped his feet and in five 
minutes or so had almost recovered his strength. 
One of the sailors near to him was so tired that 
he could hardly pull his oar. The Japanese 
bustled over, pushed him from his seat, took his 



j66 the truth about the "titanic" 

oar and worked like a hero until we were finally 
picked up. I saw Mr. Lowe watching him in 
open-mouthed surprise. 

"By Jove!" muttered the officer, "I'm ashamed 
of what I said about the little blighter. I'd 
save the likes o' him six times over if I got the 

Miss Minahan's affidavit (Am. Inq., p. 1109) : 
After the Titanic went down the cries were 
horrible. Some of the women implored Officer 
Lowe of No. 10 to divide his passengers among 
the three other boats and go back to rescue them. 
His first answer to these requests was: "You 

ought to be d glad you are here and have 

got your own life." After some time he was 
persuaded to do as he was asked. As I came up 
to him to be transferred to the other boat, he 
said: "Jump, G — d d — n you, jump." I had 
shown no hesitancy and was waiting until my turn. 
He had been so blasphemous during the hours 
we were in his boat that the women in my end of 
the boat all thought he was under the influence 
of liquor. (Testimony elsewhere shows that 
Officer Lowe is a teetotaler.) Then he took all 
the men who had rowed No. 14, together with 
the men from other boats, and went back to the 
scene of the wreck. We were left with a steward 




and a stoker to row our boat, which was crowded. 
The steward did his best, but the stoker refused 
at first to row, but finally helped two men who 
were the only ones pulling on that side. It was 
just four o'clock when we sighted the Carpalhia, 
and we were three hours getting to her. On the 
Carpathia we were treated with every kindness 
and given every comfort possible. 

The above affidavit being of record shows 
Officer Lowe in an unfortunate, bad light. There 
is no doubt of it that he was intemperate In his 
language only. In all other respects he was a 
first-class officer, as proven by what he accom- 
plished. But I am glad that I have the account 
of another lady passenger in the same boat, which 
is a tribute to what he did. I met Officer Lowe 
in Washington the time that both of us were sum- 
moned before the U. S. Court of Inquiry, and I 
am quite sure that the only point against him is 
that he was a little hasty in speech in the accom- 
plishment of his work. 

Miss Corapton, who lost her brother, I had the 
pleasure of meeting on the Carpathia. She is still 
a sufferer from Injuries received in the wreck, and 
yet has been very kind In sending me an account 
of her experience, from which I cite the follow- 



As she stood on the rail to step "into boat No. 
14 it was impossible to see whether she would 
step into the boat or into the water. She was 
pushed into the boat with such violence that she 
found herself on her hands and knees, but for- 
tunately landed on a coil of rope. This seemed 
to be the general experience of the women. All 
the passengers entered the lifeboat at the same 
point and were told to move along to make place 
for those who followed. This was difficult, as 
the thwarts were so high that it was difficult to 
climb over them, encumbered as the ladies were 
with lifebelts. It was a case of throwing one's 
self over rather than climbing over. 

Miss Compton from her place in the stern of 
the lifeboat overheard the conversation between 
Officer Lowe and another officer, which the for- 
mer gave in his testimony. 

Just before the boat was lowered a man jumped 
in. He was immediately hauled out. Mr. Lowe 
then pulled his revolver and said: "If anyone 
else tries that this is what he will get." He then 
fired his revolver in the air. 

She mentions the same difficulties, elsewhere 
recorded, about the difficulties in lowering the 
boat, first the stern very high, and then the bow; 
also how the ropes were cut and No. 14 struck 
the water hard. At this time the count showed 



58 in the boat, and a later one made the number 
60. A child near her answered in neither of 
the counts. 

"Mr. Lowe's manly bearing," she says, "gave 
us all confidence. As I look, back now he seems 
to me to personify the best traditions of the 
British sailor. He asked us all to try and find 
a lantern, but none was to be found. Mr. Lowe 
had with him, however, an electric light which 
he flashed from time to time. Almost at once 
the boat began to leak and in a few moments 
the women in the forward part of the boat were 
standing in water. There was nothing to bail 
with and I believe the men used their hats. 

"OiEcer Lowe insisted on having the mast put 
up. He crawled forward and in a few moments 
the mast was raised and ready. He said this 
was necessary as no doubt with dawn there would 
be a breeze. He returned to his place and asked 
the stewards and firemen, who were acting as 
crew, if they had any matches, and insisted on 
having them passed to him. He then asked if 
they had any tobacco and said: 'Keep it in your 
pockets, for tobacco makes you thirsty.' Mr. 
Lowe wished to remain near the ship that he 
might have a chance to help someone after she 
sank. Some of the women protested and he re- 
plied: 'I don't like to leave her, but if you feel 


that way about it we will pull away a little 
distance,' " 

Miss Compton's account corroborates other in- 
formation about boat No. 14, which we have else.- 
where. She was among the number transferred 
to Engelhardt boat "D." "I now found myself," 
she said, "in the stern of a collapsible boat. In 
spite of Mr. Lowe's warning the four small boats 
began to separate, each going its own way. Soon 
it seemed as though our boat was the only one 
on the sea. We went through a great deal of 
wreckage. The men who were supposed to be 
rowing — one was a fireman — made no effort to 
keep away from It. They were all the time look- 
ing towards the horizon. With daylight we saw 
the Carpathia, and not so very long afterwards 
Officer Lowe, sailing towards us, for, as he had 
predicted, quite a strong breeze had sprung up. 
We caught the rope which he threw us from the 
stern of his boat. Someone in ours succeeded 
in catching it and we were taken in tow to the 

No. 16.* 
No male passenger. 
Passengers: Fifty women and children — 
second and third-class. 


Crew: Master-at-arms Bailey in charge. Sea- 
man Archer, Steward Andrews, Stewardess 
Leather, and two others. 

Total: s6. 


E. Archer, A. B. (Am. Inq., p. 645) : 
I assisted in getting Nos. 12, 14 and 16 out — 
getting the falls and everything ready and passen- 
gers into No. 14. Then 1 went to No. 16. I 
saw that the plug was in tight, I never saw any 
man get in, only my mate. I heard the officer 
give orders to lower the boat and to allow no- 
body in it, having fifty passengers and only my 
mate and myself. The master-at-arms came 
down after us; he was the coxswain and took 
charge. When we were loading the boat, there 
was no effort on the part of others to crowd 
into it; no confusion at all. No individual men, 
or others were repelled from getting in; every- 
thing was quiet and steady. One of the lady 
passengers suggested going back to see if there 
were any people in the water we could get, but 
I never heard any more of it after that. There 
was one lady in the boat, a stewardess (Mrs. 
Leather) who tried to assist in rowing. I told 
her it was not necessary, but she said she would 


like to do it to keep herself warm. There was I 
one fireman found in the boat after we got clear. 
I do not know how he came there. He was trans- 
ferred to another boat (No. 6) to help row. 

C. E. Andrews, steward {Am. Inq., p. 623) : 
Besides these six men I should think there were 
about fifty passengers. 

There was no effort on the part of the steerage 
men to get into our boat. I was told by the 
officer to allow none in it. When the officer 
started to fill the boat with passengers and the 
men to man it, there were no individuals who 
tried to get in, or that he permitted to get in. 
There was no confusion whatever. The officer 
asked me if I could take an oar. I said I could. 

BOAT No. 2.* 

Only one old man, third-class, a foreigner in 
this boat. 

Passengers: Miss Allen (now Mrs. J. 
Mennell), Mrs. Appleton, Mrs. Cornell, Mrs. 
Douglas and maid (Miss Le Roy), Miss Madill, 
Mrs. Robert and maid (Amelia Kenchen). One 
old man, third-class, foreigner, and family: 

■* British Report (p. 39) gives Hiis as the eeveiith boat 
lowered on the port side at l.W a. m. 



Brahim Youssef, Hanne Youssef, and children 
Marian and Georges. The rest second and third- 

Bade good-bye to wife and sank with ship: 
Mr. Douglas. 

Crew: Fourth Officer Boxhall, Seamen Osman 
, and Steward Johnston, cook. 

Total: 25. 

J. G. Boxhali, Fourth Officer (Am. Inq., p, 240, 
and Br. Inq.) : 

I was sent away in Emergency boat 2, the last 
boat but one on the port side. There was one 
of the lifeboats (No. 4) lowered away a few 
minutes after I left. That was the next lifeboat 
to me aft. Engelhardt boat "D" was being got 
ready. There was no anxiety of people to get 
into these boats. There were four men in this 
boat — a sailorman (Osman), a steward (John- 
ston), a cook and myself, and one male passenger 
who did not speak English — a middle-aged man 
with a black beard. He had his wife there and 
some children. When the order was given to 
lower the boat, which seemed to be pretty full, 
it was about twenty minutes to half an hour be- 


fore the ship sank. Someone shouted through 
a megaphone: "Some of the boats come back 
and come around to the starboard side." All 
rowed except this male passenger, ' I handled one 
oar and a lady assisted me. She asked to do it. 
I got around to the starboard side intending to 
go alongside. I reckoned I could take about three 
more people off the ship with safety; and when 
about 22 yards off there was a little suction, as 
the boat seemed to be drawn closer, and I thought 
it would be dangerous to go nearer the ship, I 
suggested going back (after ship sank) to the 
sailorman in the boat, but decided it was unwise 
to do so. There was a lady there, Mrs. Douglas, 
whom I asked to steer the boat according to my 
orders. She assisted me greatly in it. They told 
me on board the Carpailiia afterwards that It 
was about ten minutes after four when we went 

After we left the Titanic I showed green lights 
most of the time. When within two or three ship 
lengths of the Carpalhia, It was just brealting 
daylight, and I saw her engines were stopped. 
She had stoppjpd within half a mile or a quarter 
of a mile of an iceberg. There were several other 
bergs, and I could see field ice as far as I could 
see. The bergs looked white in the sun, though 
when I first saw them at daylight they looked 





black. This was the first time I had seen field 
ice on the Grand Banks. I estimate about 25 in 
my boat. 

F. Osman, A. B. (Am. Inq., p. 538) : 
All of us went up and cleared away the boats. 
After that we loaded all the boats there were. 
I went away in No, 2, the fourth from the last 
to leave the ship, Boxhall was in command. 
Murdoch directed the loading. All passengers 
were women and children, except one man, a third- 
class passenger, his wife and two children. After 
I got in the boat the officer found a bunch of 
rockets which was put In the boat by mistake for 
a box of biscuits. The officer fired some off, and 
the Carpathia came to us first and picked us up 
half an hour before anybody else. Not until 
morning did we see an iceberg about 100 feet out 
of the water with one big point sticking on one 
side of It, apparently dark, like dirty Ice, 100 yards 
away. I knew that was the one we struck. It 
looked as if there was a piece broken off. 

There was no panic at all. There was no 
suction whatever. When we were in the boat I 
shoved off from the ship and I said to the officer: 
"See if you can get alongside to see if you can 
get some more hands — squeeze some more hands 
in"; so the women started to get nervous after 


I said that, and the officer said: "All right." 
The women disagreed to that. We pulled around 
to the starboard side of the ship and found that we 
could not get to the starboard side because it was 
listing too far. We pulled astern again that way, 
and after we lay astern we lay on our oars and saw 
the ship go down. It seemed to me as if all the 
engines and everything that was in the after part 
slid down into the forward part. We did not go 
back to the place where the ship had sunk be- 
cause the women were all nervous, and we pulled 
around as far as we could get from it so that 
the women would not see and cause a panic. We 
got as close as we would dare to. We could not 
have taken any more hands into the boat. It 
was impossible. We might have gotten one in; 
that is all. There was no panic amongst the 
steerage passengers when we started manning the 
boats. I saw several people come up from the 
steerage and go straight up to the Boat Deck, 
and the men stood back while the women and 
children got into the boats — steerage passengers 
as well as others. 

Senator Burton: So In your judgment it was 
safer to have gone on the boat than to have stayed 
on the Titatiicf 

Witness: Oh, yes, sir- 
Senator Burton: That was when you left? 





Witness: Yes, sir. 

Senator Burton : What did you think when the 
first boat was launched? 

Witness: I did not think she was going down 

J. Johnston, steward (Br, Inq.) : 

Crew: Boxhall and four men, including per- 
haps McCuUough. (None such on list.) Box- 
hall said: "Shall we go back in the direction of 
cries of distress?" which were a half or three- 
quarters of a mile off. Ladies said: "No." 
Officer Boxhall signalled the Carpathia with lamp. 
Soon after launching the swish of the water was 
heard against the icebergs. In the morning 
Carpathia on the edge of ice-field about 200 yards 

Mrs. Walter D. Douglas's affidavit (Am. Inq., 
p. 1 100) : 

Mr, Boxhall had difficulty in getting the boat 
loose and called for a knife. We finally were 
launched. Mrs. Appleton and a man from the 
steerage faced me. Mrs. Appleton's sister, Mrs. 
Cornell, was back of me and on the side of her 
the officer. I think there were eighteen or twenty 
in the boat. There were many who did not speak 
English. The rowing was very difficult, for no 





3 Steer under Mr, Box- 
hall's orders, and he put an old lantern, with very 
little oil in it, on a pole, which I held up for some 
time. Mrs. Appleton and some other women had 
been rowing, and did row all the time. Mr. Box- 
hall had put into the Emergency boat a tin box 
of green lights like rockets. These he sent off 
at intervals, and very quickly we saw the Ughts 
of the Carpathia, whose captain said he saw our 
green lights ten miles away and steered directly 
towards us, so we were the first boat to arrive at 
I the Carpathia. When we pulled alongside, Mr. 

IBo)diall called out: "Slow down your en^nes 
and take us aboard. I have only one seaman." 

Mrs. J. B. Mennell (nee Allen) : 

My aunt, Mrs. Roberts' maid, came to the 
door and asked if she could speak to me. I went 
into the corridor and she said: "Miss Alien, 
the baggage room is full of water." I repUed she 
needn't worry, that the water-tight compartments 
would be shut and it would be all right for her 
to go back to her cabin. She went back and re- 
turned to us Immediately to say her cabin, which 
was forward on Deck E, was flooded. 

We were on the Boat Deck some minutes be- 
fore being ordered into the lifeboat. Neither ray 
aunt, Mrs. Roberts, my cousin, Miss Madill, nor 


myself ever saw or heard the band. As we stood 
file by and get 




there we saw a line of 
into the boat — some sixteen 
ers. An ofiicer* came along and shouted to 
them : "Get out, you damned cowards ; I'd 
like to see everyone of you overboard." They 
all got out and the officer said: "Women and 
children into this boat," and we got in and were 

With the exception of two very harrowing 
leave-takings, we saw nothing but perfect order 
and quiet on board the Titanic. We were rowed 
round the stern to the starboard side and away 
from the ship, as our boat was a small one and 
Boxhall feared the suction. Mrs. Cornell helped 
to row all the time. 

As the Titanic plunged deeper and deeper we 
could sec her stern rising higher and higher until 
her lights began to go out. As the last lights 
on the stern went out we saw her plunge dis- 
tinctively, bow first and intact. Then the screams 
began and seemed to last eternally. We rowed 
back, after the Titanic was under water, toward 
the place where she had gone down, but we saw 
no one in the water, nor were we near enough to 
any other lifeboats to see them. When Boxhall 

^^H any othi 

^^H • Pnibal 

^^^H FeudieiL, 


lit his firil light the screams grew loader ind 
then (tied down. 

Wc touM hear the lapping of the water oa 
the icebcrK», but saw none, even when Boxh^ 
lit hit grccn lights, which he did at regulir ta- 
icrviiU, till wc sighted the Carpaihia. Our boat 
was the first one picltcd up by the CarpatkiA. 
I happened tci he the lirst one up the ladder, as 
the oilier* seemed afraid to start up, and when 
the officer who received me asked where the 
Titanie was, I told him she had gone down. 

Copt. A. H. Rostron, of the Carpaihia (Am. 
In(i., p. aa) : 

Wc pikked up the first boat, which was in 
thnrdc (if an otTiter who I saw was not under full 
control (if Iiis boat. lie sang out that he had 
only one sciinian in the boat, so 1 had to 
muniruvrc the ship to get as close to the boat as 
puisibic, as I kiiew well it would be difEcult to 
do the pulliiiK- By the time we had the first 
boat's people it was breaking day, and then I 
could sex the remaining boats all around within 
nil iirua of about four miles. I also saw iceberg] 
all II round inc. There were about twenty ic« 
bergs that would be anywhere from about 15 
to aoo feet high, and numerous smaller 1 _ 
also numerous ones we call "growlers" anywhen 


lit his first light the screams grew louder and^ 
then died down. 

We could hear the lapping of the water on 
the icebergs, but saw none, even when Boxhall 
lit his green lights, which he did at regular in- 
tervals, till we sighted the Carpathia. Our boat 
was the first one picked up by the Carpathia. 
I happened to be the first one up the ladder, as 
the others seemed afraid to start up, and when 
the officer who received me asked where the 
Titanic was, I told him she had gone down. 

Capt. A. H. Rostron, of the Carpathia (Ami 
Inq., p. 22) : 

We picked up the first boat, which was in 
charge of an officer who I saw was not under full 
control of his boat. He sang out that he had 
only one seaman In the boat, so I had to 
man<Euvre the ship to get as dose to the boat as 
possible, as I knew well it would be difficult to 
do the pulling. By the time we had the first 
boat's people it was breaking day, and then I 
could see the remaining boats all around within 
an area of about four miles. I also saw icebergs 
all around me. There were about twenty ice- 
bergs that would be anywhere from about 150 
to 200 feet high, and numerous smaller bergs 
also numerous ones we call "growlers" anywhere 



from lo to 12 feet high and lO to i 
above the water. 

BOAT No. 4.* 
No man passenger in this boat. 

I Passenger's: Mrs. Astor and maid { Miss 
Bidois) , Miss Bowen, Mrs. Carter and maid 
(Miss Serepeca), Mrs. Clark, Mrs. Cummings, 
Miss Eustis, Mrs. Ryerson and children, Miss 
S. R., Miss E. and Master J. B. and maid 
(Chandowson), Mrs, Stephenson, Mrs. Thayer 
and maid, Mrs. Widener and maid. 
^H IVomen and children: 36. (Br. Rpt.) 
^H Crew: Perkis, Q. M., In charge. Seamen: 
^H McCarthy, Hemmings,t Lyons ; J Storekeeper 
^V Foley and Assistant Storekeeper Prentice ;t Fire- 
HP men: Smith and Dillon ;t Greasers: Granger and 
' Scott;t Stewards: Cunningham,! Siebert.J 

Bade good-bye to wives and sank with ship: 
Messrs. Astor, Clark, Cummings, Ryerson, 
Thayer, Widener and his son Harry. 
Stowaway: One Frenchman. 
Total: 40. (Br. Rpt.) 

•British Report (p. 38) says this was 
lifeboat thut left tlie ship slid lowereil at 
t Picked up froiu sea. 
t Piclted uj) from sea but dicil iu boat. 

the eighth and last 



C. H. Lightoller, Second Officer {Am. Inq., 

Previous to putting out Eiigelhardt Boat "D," 
Lightoller says, referring to boat No. 4: "We 
had previously lowered a boat from A Deck, one 
deck down below. That was through ray fault. 
It was the first boat I had lowered. I was in- 
tending to put the passengers in from A Deck. 
On lowering the boat I found that the windows 
were closed; so I sent someone down to open the 
windows and carried on with the other boats, but 
decided it was not worth while lowering them 
down — that I could manage just as well from the 
Boat Deck. When 1 came forward from the 
other boats I loaded that boat from A Deck by 
getting the women out through the windows. My 
idea in filling the boats there was because there 
was a wire hawser running along the side of the 
ship for coaling purposes and it was handy to 
tie the boat in to hold it so that nobody could 
drop between the side of the boat and the ship. 
No. 4 was the fifth boat or the sixth lowered on 
the port side." * 

* I agree witli this statement though other testimanf and 
the British Report decide njiiiinst vs. The difference may 
be reconciled by the fact thut the loailing of this boat began 
early, but the final lowering was delayed. 



W. J. Perkis, Quartermaster (Am. Inq., 
p. 581): 

I lowered No. 4 into the water and left that 
boat and walked aft; and I came back and a man 
that was In the boat, one of the seamen, sang out 
to me: "We need another hand down here," so 
I slid down the lifeline there from the davit into 
the boat. I took charge of the boat after I got 
in, with two sailormen besides myself. There 
were forty-two, including all hands. We picked 
up eight people afterwards swimming with life- 
preservers when about a ship's length away from 
the ship. No. 4 was the last big boat on the 
port side to leave the ship. Two that were picked 
up died in the boat — a seaman (Lyons) and a 
steward (Slebert). All the others were passen- 
gers. After we picked up the men I could not 
hear any more cries anywhere. The discipUne 
on board the ship was excellent. Every man knew 
his station and took it. There was no excitement 
whatever among the officers or crew, the firemen 
or stewards. They conducted themselves the 
same as they would if it were a minor, everyday 

Senator Perkins (addressing Perkis, Symon and 

All three of you seem to be pretty capable 
young men and have had a great deal of ex- 



perience at sea, and yet you have never been 
wrecked ? 

Mr. Pcrkis: Yes, sir. 

Senator Perkins: Is there any other one of 
you who has been in a shipwreck? 

Mr. Hogg: I have been in a collision, Sena- 
tor, but with no loss of life. 

Senator Perkins: Unless you have something 
more to state that you think will throw light on 
this subject, that will be all, and we thank you 
for what you have said. 

Mr. Hogg: That is all I have to say except 
this: I think the women ought to have a gold 
medal on their breasts. God bless them. I will 
always raise my hat to a woman after what I 

Senator Perkins: What countrywomen were 

Mr. Hogg: They were American women I 
had in mind. They were all Americans. 

Senator Perkins: Did they man the oars? 
Did they take the oars and pull? 

Mr. Hogg: Yes, sir; I took an oar all the 
time myself and also steered. Then I got one 
lady to steer; then another to assist me with an 
oar. She rowed to keep herself warm. 

Senator Perkins: One of you stated that his 
boat picked up eight people, and the other that 




he did not pick up any. Could you not have 
picked up just as well as this other man? 

Mr. Hogg; I wanted to assist in picking up 
people, but I had an order from somebody in the 
boat (No. 7) — I do not know who it was — not 
to take in any more; that we had done our best. 

Senator Perkins: I merely ask the question be- 
cause of the natural thought that if one boat 
picked up eight persons the other boat may have 
been able to do so. — You did not get any orders, 
Mr. Symon (boat No. i), not to pick up any 
more people? 

Mr. Symon: No, sir; there were no more 
around about where I was. 

Senator Perkins: As I understand, one of the 
boats had more packed into it than the other. 
As I understand it, Mr. Symon pulled away from 
the ship and then when he came back there they 
picked up all the people that were around? 

Mr. Symon made no reply. 

S. S. Hemming, A, B. (Am. Inq.) : 
Everything was black over the starboard side. 
I could not see any boats. I went over to the 
port side and saw a boat ofE the port quarter and 
I went along the port side and got up the after 
boat davits and slid down the fall and swam to 
the boat about 200 yards. When I reached the 


boat I tried to get hold of the grab-line on the 
bows. I pulled my head above the gunwale, and 
I said: "Give us a hand, Jack," Foley was in 
the boat; I saw him standing up. He said: "Is 
that you, Sam?" I said: "Yes" to him and the 
women and children pulled me in the boat. 

After the ship sank we pulled back and picked 
up seven of the crew including a seaman, Lyons, 
a fireman, Dillon, and two stewards, Cunningham 
and Siebert, We made for the light of another 
lifeboat and kept In company with her. Then day 
broke and we saw two more lifeboats. We pulled 
toward them and we all made fast by the painter. 
Then we helped with boat No. 12 to take off the 
people on an overturned boat ("B"). From this 
boat ("B") we took about four or five, and the 
balance went into the other boat. There were 
about twenty altogether on this boat ("B"). 


A. Cunningham, Steward (Am. Inq., p. 794) : 
I first learned of the very serious character of 
the collision from my own knowledge when I 
saw the water on the post-office deck. I waited 
on the ship until all the boats had gone, and then 
threw myself into the water. This was about 
2 o'clock. I was in the water about half an hour 
before the ship sank. I swam clear of the ship 
about three-quarters of a mile. I was afraid of 



the suction. My mate, Siebert, left the ship with 
me. I heard a lifeboat and called to it and went 
toward it. I found Quartermaster Perkis in 
charge. Hemmings, the sailor, Foley (store- 
keeper) and a fireman (Dillon) were in this boat. 
I never saw any male passengers in the boat. We 
picked up Prentice, assistant storekeeper. I think 
No. 4 was the nearest to the scene of the accident 
because it picked up more persons in the water. 
About 7.30 we got aboard the Carpathia. When 
we sighted her she might have been four or five 
miles away. 

R. P. Dillon, trimmer (Br. Inq.) : 
I went down with the ship and sank about two 
fathoms. Swam about twenty minutes in the 
water and was picked up by No. 4. About 1,000 
others in the water in my estimation. Saw no 
women. Recovered consciousness and found 
Sailor Lyons and another lying on top of me dead. 

Thomas Granger, greaser (Br. Inq.); 

I went to the port side of the Boat Deck aft, 
climbed down a rope and got into a boat near 
the ship's side. No. 4, which had come back be- 
cause there were not enough men to pull her. 
She was full of women and children. F. Scott, 
greaser, also went down the falls and got into this 



boat Perkis, qoartenTiaster, and Honmings then I 
in it. Afterwards picked up Dillon and anotfaerl 
man (Prentice) out of the water. 

F. Scott, greaser (Br. Inq.) : 

Wc went on deck on starboard side first as she 
had listed over to the port side, but we saw no 
boats. When I came up the engineers came up 
just after me on the Boat Deck. I saw only eight 
of them out of thirty-six on the deck. Then we 
went to the port side and saw boats. An officer 
fired a shot and 1 heard him say that If any man 
tried to get in that boat he would shoot him like 
a dog. At this time all the boats had gone from 
the starboard side. I saw one of the boats, No. 
4, returning to the ship's side and I climbed on 
the davits and tried to get down the falls but 
fell in the water and was picked up. It was 
nearly two o'clock when I got on the davits and i 
down the fall. 

Mrs. E. B. Ryerson's affidavit (Am. Inq.» 
p. 1107): 

We were ordered down to A Deck, which 1 
partly enclosed. We saw people getting into 
boats, but waited our turn. My boy. Jack, was 
with me. An officer at the window said: '^That 
boy catmot go." My husbajid said: '*Of c 



that boy goes with his mother; he is only thir- 
teen"; so they let him pass, I turned and kissed 
my husband and as we left he and the other men 
I knew, Mr, Thayer, Mr. Widener and others, 
were standing together very quietly. There were 
two men and an officer inside and a sailor outside 
to help us. I fell on top of the women who were 
already in the boat and scrambled to the bow 
with my eldest daughter. Miss Bowen and my 
boy were in the stern, and my second daughter 
was in the middle of the boat with my maid. 
Mrs. Thayer, Mrs. Widener, Mrs. Astor and 
Miss Eustis were the only ones I knew in our 

Presently an officer called out from the upper 
deck: "How many women are there in that 
boat?" Someone answered: "Twenty-four." 
"That's enough; lower away." 

The ropes seemed to stick at one end. Some- 
one called for a knife, but it was not needed until 
we got into the water as it was but a short dis- 
tance; and then I realized for the first time how 
far the ship had sunk. The deck we left was 
only about twenty feet from the sea. I could 
see all the portholes open and the water washing 
in, and the decks still lighted. Then they called 
out: "How many seamen have you?" and they 
answered: "One." "That is not enough," said 


the ofBcer, "I will send you another"; and he sent 
a sailor down the rope. In a few minutes several 
other men, not sailors, came down the ropes over 
the davits and dropped Into our boat. The order 
was given to pull away, and then they rowed off. 
Someone shouted something about a gangway, 
and no one seemed to know what to do. Barrels 
and chairs were being thrown overboard. As the 
bow of the ship went down the lights went out. 
The stern stood up for several minutes black 
against the stars and then the boat plunged down. 
Then began the cries for help of people drowning 
all around us, which seemed to go on forever. 
Someone called out: "Pull for your lives or 
you will be sucked under," and everyone that 
could rowed like mad. I could see my younger 
daughter and Mrs. Thayer and Mrs. Astor row- 
ing, but there seemed to be no suction. Then we 
turned and picked up some of those in the water. 
Some of the women protested, but others per- 
sisted, and we dragged in six or seven men. The 
men rescued were stewards, stokers, sailors, etc., 
and were so chilled and frozen already that they 
could hardly move. Two of them died in the 
stern later and many of them were raving and 
moaning and delirious most of the time. We had 
no lights or compass. There were several babies 
in the boat. 




Officer Lowe called out to tic together, and as 
soon as we could make out the other boats in the 
dark five were tied together. We could dimly 
see an overturned boat with about twenty men 
standing on it, back to back. As the sailors in 
our boat said we could still carry from eight 
to ten people, we called for another boat to volun- 
teer and go and rescue them, so we cut loose our 
painters and between us got all the men off. Then 
when the sun rose we saw the Carpathta stand- 
ing up about five miles away, and for the first 
ime saw the icebergs all around us. We got on 
itioard about 8 o'clock. 

Mrs. Thayer's affidavit: 

The after part of the ship then reared in the 
air, with the stern upwards, until it assumed 
an almost vertical position. It seemed to re- 
main stationary in this position for many 
seconds (perhaps twenty), then suddenly dove 
straight down out of sight. It was 2.20 
a. m. when the Titanic disappeared, according 
to a wrist watch worn by one of the passengers 
in my boat. 

We pulled back to where the vessel had sunk 
and on our way picked up six men who were swim- 
ming — two of whom were driznk and gave us 


kindly handed me for publication in my book con- 
tains the following: 

"We were in the companionway of A Deck 
when order came for women and children to Boat 
Deck and men to starboard side. Miss Eustis 
and I took each other's hands, not to be separ- 
ated in the crowd, and all went on deck, we 
following close to Mrs. Thayer and her maid and 
going up narrow iron stairs to the forward Boat 
Deck which, on the Titanic, was the captain's 

"At the top of the stairs we found Captain 
Smith looking much worried and anxiously waiting 
to get down after we got up. The ship listed heav- 
ily to port just then. As we leaned against the 
walls of the officers' quarters rockets were being 
, fired over our heads, which was most alarming, as 
I we fully realized if the Titanic had used her wire- 
lless to ill effect and was sending rockets it must be 
serious. Shortly after that the order came from 
the head dining room steward (Dodd) to go 
down to A Deck, when Mrs. Thayer remarked, 
'Tell us where to go and we will follow. You 
ordered us up here and now you are taking us 
back,' and he said, 'Follow me.' 

"On reaching the A Deck we could see, for the 
I decks were lighted by electricity, that a boat 
I was lowered parallel to the windows; these were 

SI? ^H 

a the rM^™ 


«^«Md aa4 m wciwcr duir pot under the nul''' 
fw- w «o slc|p «■. IW dup had listed bad]y by 
dw boat hoag far oat from tbc side, 
•f Ac WGH sud, *No woman could 
im ^Msc' A oD Tms made for a 
r a( dtt Ivwcr 4eds, but before it 
<Mr (tt ifc ut. «c «a« al a Ac boat. Whether 
4h9 Ind 4nnM Ac toK «ner with bcmtfaooks 
lWM«t «hc aide I 4» M« haum, hot die ^lace was 
wriH) l— fnJ «dii Ac Im^W two mm in the 

*1 TCRwnAKir soraiK Cbkad .Abbs, who called 
VvKtd4iv«' and »a te wmM Mkw m mi o ^m 

hftat, sfilfiDC ibc nnaANr «i^ ««r hoac, iiUdi Aiy 

i«M ipw '?••. Vlac< 

I ««k'ri%Ba «> Amr % 

i|*Nlk My to- «Nn «fed li^jc «aA I 

ws Ttety damn. Xjner wc iwmi 4k 4 

or ^Tt^' Iwfl fnimvii nc i 

boat, and thn' 4fid cwMd : 

aroiind a hsbr thinK cUd. and mine tor m ] 

nvCTnS<'r of the <tw pulled in frtnr. the 

"Our boat 1 think toot ofi cwry ' 
thc<}e«k«t that tiiTKand was the laKMi^^Kg 
«idc to be lowenrd. 

"When wc reacbwl the 5es we j 
had);' lnt«d, her nose well in «c that 1 
wrier «n Ak {> Deck, wfaidi wc «aaldy 




as the boat was lighted and the ports on D Deck 
were square instead of round. No lights could 
be found in our boat and the men had great diffi- 
culty in casting off the blocks as they did not know 
how they worked. My fear here was great, as she 
seemed to be going faster and faster and I dreaded 
lest we should be drawn in before we could cast 

"When we finally were ready to move the order 
was called from the deck to go to the stern hatch 
and take off some men. There was no hatch 
open and we could see no men, but our crew 
obeyed orders, much to our alarm, for they were 
throwing wreckage over and we could hear a 
cracking noise resembling china breaking. We 
implored the men to pull away from the ship, but 
they refused, and we pulled three men into the 
boat who had dropped off the ship and were 
swimming toward us. One man was drunk and 
had a bottle of brandy in his pocket which the 
quartermaster promptly threw overboard and the 
drunken man was thrown into the bottom of the 
boat and a blanket thrown over him. After these 
three men were hauled in, they told how fast the 
ship was sinking and we all implored them to pull 
for our lives to get out from the suction when she 
should go down. The lights on the ship burned 
till just before she went. When the call came that 


she was going I covered my face and heard some 
one call, 'She's broken.' After what seemed a 
long time I turned my head only to see the stern 
almost perpendicular in the air so that the full 
outline of the blades of the propeller showed 
above the water. She then gave her final plunge 
and the air was filled with cries. We rowed back 
and pulled in five more men from the sea. Their 
suffering from the icy water was intense and two 
men who had been pulled into the stern after- 
wards died, but we kept their bodies with us until 
we reached the Carpathia, where they were taken 
aboard and Monday afternoon given a decent 
burial with three others. 

"After rescuing our men we found several life- 
boats near us and an order was given to tie to- 
gether, which we obeyed. It did not seem as if 
we were together long when one boat said they 
could rescue more could they get rid of some 
of the women and children aboard and some of 
them were put into our boat. Soon after cries 
of 'Ship ahoy' and a long low moan came to us 
and an ofiicer in command of one of the boats 
ordered us to follow him. We felt that we were 
already too crowded to go, but our men, with 
quartermaster and boatswain in command, fol- 
lowed the officer and we pulled over to what 
proved to be an overturned boat crowded with 



men. We had to approach it very cautiously, 
fearing our wash would sweep them ofF. We 
could take only a few and they had to come very 
cautiously. The other boat (No. 12) took most 
of them and we then rowed away." 

This rescue, which Mrs. Stephenson so well 
describes, occurred at dawn. Her story now re- 
turns to the prior period of night time. 

"The sea was smooth and the night brilliant 
with more stars than I had ever seen. 

"Occasionally a green light showed which 
proved to be on the Emergency boat, and our 
men all recognized it as such. We all prayed 
for dawn, and there was no conversation, every- 
one being so awed by the disaster and bitterly 

"With the dawn came the wind, and before 
long quite a sea was running. Just before day- 
light on the horizon we saw what we felt sure 
must be the lights of a ship. The quartermaster 
was a long time in admitting that we were right, 
urging that it was the moon, but we insisted and 
they then said it might be the Carpalhia as they 
had been told before leaving the Titanic that she 
was coming to us. For a long time after daylight 
we were in great wreckage from the Titanic, 
principally steamer chairs and a few white 



"We felt we could never reach the Carpalhia 
when we found she had stopped, and afterwards 
when we asked why she didn't come closer we 
were told that some of the early boats which put 
off from the starboard side reached her a little 
after four, while it was after six when we drew 
under the side of the open hatch. 

"It had been a long trying row in the heavy 
sea and impossible to keep bow on to reach the 
ship. We stood in great danger of being swamped 
many times and Captain Rostron, who watched 
us come up, said he doubted if we could have 
lived an hour longer in that high sea. Our boat 
had considerable water in the centre, due to the 
leakage and also the water brought in by the 
eight men from their clothing. They had bailed 
her constantly in order to relieve the weight. 
Two of the women near us were dying seasick, 
but the babies slept most of the night in their 
mothers' arms. The boatswain's chair was slung 
down the side and there were also rope ladders. 
Only few, however, of the men were able to go 
up the ladders. Mail bags were dropped down 
in which the babies and little children were placed 
and hoisted up. We were told to throw off our 
life-preservers and then placed in a boatswain's 
chair and hoisted to the open hatch where ready 
arms pulled us in; warm blankets waited those in 


need and brandy was offered to everybody. We 
were shown at once to the saloon, where hot 
coffee and sandwiches were being served." 

No male passenger in this boat. 

Passengers: Mrs. J, M. Brown, Mrs. Harris, 
Mrs. Frederick Hoyt, the Navratil children. 

Picked up from ike sea: Frederick Hoyt. 

Bade good-bye to wife and sank with ship: 
Mr. Harris. 

Crew: Bright, Q. M., in charge; Seaman 
Lucas; Steward Hardy. 

Stowaway: One steerage foreigner, Joseph 

Jumped from deck below as boat was lowered: 
H. B. Steffanson (Swede) , and H, Woolner 

Total: 44- British Report (p. 38) : Crew 
2, men passengers 2, women and children 40. 


C. H. Lightoller, Second Officer (Am. Inq., 
p. 8.): 


In the case of the last boat I got out, the veryi 
last of all to leave the ship, I had the utmost 
difficulty in finding women. After all the other 
boats were put out we came forward to put out 
the Engelhardt collapsible boats. In the mean- 
time the forward Emergency boat (No. 2) had 
been put out by one of the other officers, so we 
rounded up the tackles and got the collapsible 
boat to put that over. Then I called for- women 
and could not get any. Somebody said: "There 
are no women." This was on the Boat Deck I 
where all the women were supposed to be because ' 
the boats were there. There were between fifteen 
and twenty people put into this boat — one seaman 
and another seaman, or steward. This was the 
very last boat lowered in the tackles. I noticed 
plenty of Americans standing near me, who gave 
me every assistance they could, regardless of 

And before the British Court of Inquiry the 
same officer testified: 

Someone shouted : "There are no more 
women." Some of the men began climbing in. 
Then someone said : "There are some more 
women," and when they came forward the men 
got out of the boat again. I saw no men in her, 



I but I believe a couple of Chinese stowed away in 

[ her. 

When that boat went away there were no 
women whatever. I did not consider it advisable 
to wait, but to try to get at once away from 
the ship. I did not want the boat to be "rushed." 
Splendid order was maintained. No attempt was 
made to "rush" that boat by the men. When 
this boat was being loaded I could see the water 
coming up the stairway. There was splendid 
order on the boat until the last. As fir as I 
know there were no male passengers in the boats 
I saw off except the one man I ordered in, Major 

A. J. Bright, Q. M. (Am. Inq., p. 831) : 
Quartermaster Rowe, Mr, Boxhall and myself 
fired the distress signals, six rockets 1 think in all, 
at intervals. After we had finished firing the 
distress signals, there were two boats left 
(Engelhardt coUapsibles "C" and "D"). All the 
lifeboats were away before the collapsible boats 
were lowered. They had to be, because the 
collapsible boats were on the deck and the other 
boats had to be lowered before they could be 
used. The same tackle with which the lifeboats 
and the Emergency boats were lowered was em- 

side to the other to get her away. Saw a famtj 
red light abaft the Thank's beam about nine milea^ 
away — the headlight also. The witness wasi 
transferred to No. 12. 

J. Hardy, Chief Steward, second-class (Am. I 
Inq., p. 587): 

We launched this boat filled with passengers. 1 
Mr. Lightoller and myself loaded it. I went away I 
in it with the quartermaster (Bright) and two! 
firemen. There were Syrians In the bottom of 1 
the boat, third-class passengers, chattering the! 
whole night in their strange language. There* 
were about twenty-five women and children. Wej 
lowered away and got to the water; the ship thenJ 
had a heavy list to port. We got clear of th^ 
ship and rowed out some distance from her. Mr.l 
Lowe told us to tie up with other boats, that we] 
would be better seen and could keep better to-l 
gether. He, having a full complement of passen- 
gers in his boat, transferred about ten to ours, J 
making thirty-five in our boat. When we left J 
the ship, where we were lowered, there were no.J 
women and children there in sight at all. Then 
was nobody to lower the boat. No men passen- 
gers when we were ready to lower it. They had 
gone; where, I could not say. We were not mora 
than forty feet from the water when we wei 




lowered. We picked up the husband (Frederick 
W. Hoyt) of a wife that we had loaded in the 
boat. The gentleman took to the water and 
climbed in the boat after we had lowered it. He 
sat there wringing wet alongside me, helping to 

I had great respect and great regret for Officer 
Murdoch. I was walking along the deck for- 
ward with him and he said: "I believe she is 
gone, Hardy." This was a good half hour before 
my boat was lowered. 

Senator Fletcher: Where were all these pas- 
sengers; these 1,600 people? 

Mr. Hardy: They must have been between 
decks or on the deck below or on the other side 
of the ship. I cannot conceive where they were. 

In his letter to me, Mr. Frederick M. Hoyt 
relates his experience as follows: 

"I knew Captain Smith for over fifteen years. 
Our conversation that night amounted to little or 
nothing. I simply sympathized with him on the 
accident; but at that time, as I then never ex- 
pected to be saved, I did not want to bother him 
with questions, as I knew he had all he wanted 
to think of. He did suggest that I go down to 
A Deck and see if there were not a boat along- 
side. This I did, and to my surprise saw the hi 


"D" Still hanging on the davits (there having 
been some delay in lowering her), and it occurred 
to me that if I swam out and waited for her to 
shove off they would pick me up, which was what 

Hugh Woolner, first-class passenger (Am. Inq., 
p. 887): 

Then I said to Steffanson, "Let us go down 
on to A Deck," And we went down again, but 
there was nobody there. I looked on both sides 
of the deck and saw no people. It was absolutely 
deserted, and the electric lights along the ceiling 
of A Deck were beginning to turn red, just a glow, 
a red sort of glow. So I said to Steffanson, "This 
is getting to be rather a tight corner; let us go 
out through the door at the end." And as we 
went out the sea came in onto the deck at our 
feet. Then we hopped up onto the gunwale, pre- 
paring to jump into the sea, because if we had 
waited a minute longer we should have been boxed 
in against the celling. And as we looked out we 
saw this collapsible boat, the last boat on the port 
side, being lowered right in front of our faces. 

Senator Smith: How far out? 

Mr. Woolner: It was about nine feet out. 

Senator Smith: Nine feet away from the side 
of A Deck? ~ 



Mr. Woolner: 


Senator Smith: 

You saw a collapsible boat be- ^H 

ing lowered? 


Mr. Woolner: 

Being lowered; yes. ^M 

Senator Smith 

Was it filled with people? H 

Mr. Woolner: 

It was full up to the bow, and ^| 

I said to Steffanson, "There is nobody in the ^M 

bows. Let us make a jump for it. You go ^| 

first." And he 

jumped out and tumbled in ^M 

head over heels 

into the boat, and I jumped ^M 

too and hit the 

gunwale with my chest, which ^M 

had on the life 

-preserver, of course, and 1 ^M 

sort of tumbled 

od the gunwale and caught ^M 

the gunwale with 

my fingers and slipped off back- ^B 


Senator Smith : 

Into the water? 

Mr. Woolner: 

As my legs dropped down I 

felt that they were in the sea. 

Senator Smith: 

You are quite sure you jumped 

nine feet to get tl 

at boat? 

Mr. Woolner: 

That is my estimate. By that 

time you see we 

were jumping slightly down- 

K ward. 

^H Senator Smith : 

Did you jump out or down? 

■ Mr. Woolner: 


^H Senator Smith: 

Both out and down? 

■ Mr. Woolner: 

Slightly down and out. 

^M Senator Smith 

It could not have been very 


far down if the water was on A Deck; it must 
have been out- 
Mr. Woolner: Chiefly out; but it was suffi- 
ciently down for us to see just over the edge of 
the gunwale of the boat. 

Senator Smith: You pulled yourself up out of 
the water? 

Mr. Woolner: Yes; and then I hooked my 
right heel over the gunwale, and by this time 
SteSanson was standing up and he caught hold 
of me and lifted me in. 

One lady (Mrs. Harris) had a broken elbow 
bone. She was in a white woollen jacket. At 
dawn Officer Lowe transferred five or six from 
his boat No. 14 to ours, which brought us down 
very close to the water. At daylight we saw a 
great many icebergs of different colors, as the 
sun struck them. Some looked white, some looked 
blue, some looked mauve and others were dark 
gray. There was one double-toothed one that 
looked to be of good size; it must have been about 
one hundred feet high. 

The Carpalhia seemed to come up slowly, and 
then she stopped. We looked out and saw there 
was a boat alongside and then we realized she 
was waiting for us to come up to her Instead of 
her coming to us, as we hoped. Then Mr. Lowe 
towed us with his boat, No, 14, under sail. After 



taking a group of people off of boat "A" — a 
dozen of them — including one woman, we sailed 

! to the Carpathia. There was a child in the boat 
one of those little children whose parents 

[ everybody was looking for (the Navatil children) . 

The last of the Titamc's boats which were never 
launched, but floated off, were the two Engelhardt 
collapsibles "A" and "B" on the roof of the 
officers' house. In my personal account I have 
already given the story of boat "B," the upset one 
on which Second Officer Lightoller, Jack Thayer, 
myself and others escaped. Since I wrote the 
account of my personal experience I have had 
access to other sources of information, including 
some already referred to; and though at the ex- 
pense of some repetition, I think it may be of 
interest to include the record of this boat in the 
present chapter, as follows: 


[The Upset Boal] 

Passengers: A. H. Barkworth, Archibald 
[ Gracie, John B, Thayer, Jr., first cabin. 

Crew; Second Officer Lightoller, Junior Mar- 
i Operator Bride, Firemen: McGann, Senior; 


Chief Baker Joughin ; Cooks : Collins, May- 
nard; Steward Whiteley, "J. Hagan." Seaman J. 
McGough (possibly). Two men died on boat. 
Body of one transferred to No. 12 and finally to 
Carpalhia. He was a fireman probably, but 1 
Cunard Co, preserved no record of him or his j 


C. H. Lightoller, Second OiBcer (Am. Inq., 
pp. 87, 91, 786}: 

I was on top of the officers' quarters and there 
was nothing more to be done. The ship then took 
a dive and I turned face forward and also took 
a dive from on top, practically amidships a little 
to the starboard, where I had got to. I was 
driven back against the blower, which is a large 
thing that shape (indicating) which faces for- 
ward to the wind and which then goes down to the 
stoke hole; but there is a grating there and it was 
against this grating that I was sucked by the 
water, and held there under water. There was a 
terrific blast of air and water and I was blown out 
clear. I came up above the water, which barely 
threw me away at all, because I went down again 
against these fiddley gratings immediately abreast 
of the funnel over the stoke hole to which this 




hddley leads. Colonel Grade, I believe, was 
sucked down in identically the same manner on the 
fiddley gratings, caused by the water rushing down 
below as the ship was going down. 

I next found myself alongside of that over- 
turned boat. This was before the Titanic sank. 
The funnel then fell down and if there was any- 
body on that side of the Engelhardt boat It fell 
on them. The ship was not then submerged by 
considerable. The stern was completely out of 
the water. I have heard some controversy as to 
the boilers exploding owing to coming in contact 
with salt water, by men who are capable of giving 
an opinion, but there seems to be an open ques- 
tion as to whether cold water actually does cause 
boilers to explode. 

I hardly had any opportunity to swim. It was 
V the action of the funnel falling that threw us out 
I a considerable distance away from the ship. We 
had no oars or other effective means for propel- 
ling the overturned boat. We had httle bits of 
wood, but they were practically ineffective. 

On our boat, as I have said before, were 
Colonel Grade and young Thayer, I think they 
were the only two passengers. There were no 
women on our overturned boat. These were all 
taken out of the water and they were firemen and 
others of the crew — roughly about thirty. I take 


that from my own estimate and from the estimate 1 
of someone who was looking down from the i 
bridge of the Carpathia, 

And from the same officer's testimony before 
the British Court as follows: 

An order was given to cut the lashings of the ^ 
other Engelhardt boats. It was then too late as 
the water was rushing up to the Boat Deck and 
there was not time to get them to the falls. He 
then went across to the officers' quarters on the 
starboard side to see what he could do. Then 
the vessel seemed to take a bit of a dive. He 
swam off and cleared the ship. The water was 
so intensely cold that he first tried to get out of it 
into the crow's nest, close at hand. Next he was 
pushed up against the blower on the forepart of 
the funnel, the water rushing down this blower, 
holding him against the grating for a while. Then 
there seemed to be a rush of air and he was 
blown away from the grating. He was dragged 
below the surface, but not for many moments. 
He came up near the Engelhardt boat "B" which 
was not launched, but had been thrown into the 
water. The forward funnel then fell down. 
Some little time after this he saw half a dozen 
men standing on the collapsible boat, and got on 
to it. The whole of the third funnel was still visi- 




ble, the vessel gradually raising her stern out of 
the water. The ship did not break in two, and 
could not be broken in two. She actually attained 
the perpendicular before sinking. His Impression 
was that no lights were then burning in the after 
part not submerged. It is true that the after part 
of the vessel settled level with the water. He 
watched the ship keenly all the time. After she 
reached an angle of 60 degrees there was a rum- 
bling sound which he attributed to the boilers leav- 
ing their beds and crashing down. Finally she at- 
tained an absolute perpendicular position and then 
went slowly down. He heard no explosion what- 
ever, but noticed about that time that the water 
became much warmer. There were about those 
on the Engelhardt boat "B," several people 
struggling in the water who came on it. Nearly 
twenty-eight or thirty were taken oE in the morn- 
ing at daybreak. In this rescuing boat {No. 12), 
after the transfer, there were seventy-five. It was 
the last boat to the Carpaihia. The next morn- 
ing (Monday) he saw some icebergs from fifty 
to sixty to two hundred feet high, but the nearest 
was about ten miles away. 

After the boats had left the side of the ship he 
heard orders given by the commander through the 
megaphone. He heard him say: "Bring that boat 
alongside." Witness presumed allusion was made 


to bringing of boats to the gangway doors. Wit- 
ness could not gather whether the orders were 
being obeyed- Said he had not been on the Engel- 
hardt boat more than half an hour before a swell 
was distinctly visible. In the morning there was 
quite a breeze. It was when he was at No. 6 boat 
that he noticed the list. Though the ship struck 
on the starboard side, it was not an extraordinary 
thing that there should be a list to port. It does 
not necessarily follow that there should be a list 
to the side where the water was coming in. 

Harold Bride, junior Marconi operator in his 
Report of April 27th to W. B. Cross, Traffic 
Manager, Marconi Co. (Am. Inq., p. 1053) 
says : 

Just at this moment the captain said: "You can* 
not do any more; save yourselves." Leaving the 
captain we climbed on top of the house compris- 
ing the officers' quarters and our own. Here I 
saw the last of Mr. Phillips, for he disappeared, 
walking aft. I now assisted In pushing off the col- 
lapsible boat on to the Boat Deck. Just as the 
boat fell, I noticed Captain Smith dive from the 
bridge into the sea. Then followed a general 
scramble out on to the Boat Deck, but no sooner 
had we got there than the sea washed over. I 
managed .to catch hold of the boat we had pre- 





viously fixed up and was swept overboard with 
her. I then experienced the most exciting three 
or four hours anyone can reasonably wish for, 
and was, in due course with the rest of the sur- 
vivors, picked up by the Carpaihia. As you prob- 
ably heard, I got on the collapsible boat the sec- 
ond time, which was, as I had left it, upturned. I 
called Phillips but got no response, I learned 
later from several sources that he was on this 
boat and expired even before we were picked up 
by the Titanic' s lifeboat (No. 12). I am told 
that fright and exposure were the causes of his 
death. So far as I can find out, he was taken on 
board the Carpaihia and buried at sea from her, 
though for some reason the bodies of those who 
died were not identified before burial from the 
Carpaihia, and so I cannot vouch for the truth of 

He also gave testimony before the American 
Inquiry (pp. IIO, i5i) : 

This boat was over the ofiicers' cabin at the 
side of the forward funnel. It was pushed over on 
to the Boat Deck. It went over the starboard 
side and I went over with it. It was washed off 
and over the side of the ship by a wave Into the 
water bottom side upward. I was Inside the boat 
and under it, as !t fell bottom side upward. I 


coutd not tell how long. It seemed a life time to 
me really. I got on top of the boat e%'entually. 
There was a big crowd on top when I got on. I 
should say that I remained under the boat three- 
quarters of an hour, or a half hour. I then got 
away from it as quickly as I could. I freed my- 
self from It and cleared out of It but I do not 
know why, but swam back to it about three-quar- 
ters of an hour to an hour afterwards. I was up- 
side down myself — I mean I was on my back. 

It is estimated that there were between thirty 
and forty on the boat; no women. When it was 
pushed over on the Boat Deck we all scrambled 
down on to the Boat Deck again and were going 
to launch it properly when it was washed over be- 
fore we had time to launch it. I happened to be 
nearest to it and I grabbed it and went down with 
it. There was a passenger on this boat; I could 
not see whether he was first, second or third class. 
I heard him say at the time that he was a passen- 
ger. I could not say whether it was Colonel 
Grade, There were others who struggled to get 
on; dozens of them in the water. I should judge 
they were all part of the boat's crew. 

I am twenty-two years old. Phillips was about 
twenty-four or twenty-five. My salary from the 
Marconi Co. is four pounds a month. 

As to the attack made upon Mr. Phillips to 



take away his life belt I should say the man was 
dressed like a stoker. We forced him away. I 
held him and Mr. Phillips hit him. 

H J. Collins, cook (Am. Inq., p. 628) : 
I This was my first voyage. I ran back to the 
upper deck to the port side with another steward 
and a woman and two children. The steward had 
one of the children in his arms and the woman 
was crying, I took the child from the woman and 
made for one of the boats. Then the word came 
around from the starboard side that there was a 
collapsible boat getting launched on that side and 
that all women and children were to make for it, 
so the other steward and I and the two children 
and the woman came around to the starboard 
side. We saw the collapsible boat taken off the 
saloon deck, and then the sailors and the firemen 
who were forward saw the ship's bow in the water 
and that she was sinking by her bow. They 
shouted out for us to go aft. We were just turn- 
ing round to make for the stern when a wave 
washed us off the deck — washed us clear of it, 
and the child was washed out of my arms. I 
was kept down for at least two or three minutes 
under water. 

Senator Bourne: Two or three minutes? 
Mr. Collins: Yea; I am sure. 


Mr. Collins: Yes, sir. 

Senator Bourne: Did you see the bow? 

Mr. Collins: No, sir. 

Senator Bourne: How far were you from the 
stern end of the ship when you came up and got 
on to the collapsible boat? 

Mr. Collins: I could not just exactly state how 
far I was away from the Titanic when I came up. 
I was not far, because her lights were out then. 
Her lights went out when the water got almost to 
amidships on her. 

Senator Bourne: As I understand it, you were 
amidships of the bow as the ship sank? 

Mr. Collins: Yes, sir. 

Senator Bourne: You were washed off by a 
wave? You were under water as you think for 
two or three minutes and then swam five or six 
yards to the collapsible boat and got aboard the 
boat? The stern (of ship) was still afloat? 

Mr. Collins: The stern was still afloat. 

Senator Bourne: The lights were burning? 

Mr. Collins: I came to the surface, sir, 
and I happened to look around and I saw 
the lights and nothing more, and I looked In 
front of me and saw the collapsible boat and I 
made for it. 

Senator Bourne : How do you account for this 
. wave that washed you off amidships? 


Mr. Collins: By the suction which took place! 
when the bow went down In the water, Ther«^ 
were probably fifteen on the boat when I got on,^ 
There was some lifeboat that had a green hght 
on it and we thought it was a ship, after the Ti- 
tatiic had sunk, and we commenced to shout. All 
we saw was the green light. We were drifting 
about two hours, and then we saw the topmast 
lights of the Carpathia. Then came dayhght and 
we saw our own lifeboats and we were very close 
to them. When we spied them we shouted to 
them and they came over to us and they lifted a. 
whole lot of us that were on the collapsible boat* 

J. Joughin, head baker (Br. Inq.) : 

I got on to the starboard side of the poop} 
found myself in the water. I do not believe my 
head went under the water at all, I thought I sawl 
some wreckage. Swam towards it and found col- 1 
lapsible boat {"B") with LIghtoller and aboutJ 
twenty-five men on it. There was no room for J 
me, I tried to get on, but was pushed off, but I ] 
hung around. I got around to the opposite j 
and cook Maynard, who recognized me, helpeili 
me and held on to me. 

The experience of my fellow passenger on t 
boat, John B. Thayer, Jr., is embodied in ao 

^P WOMEN first; men NEXT 221 

counts written by him on April 20th and 23rd, 
just after landing from the Carpathia: the first 
given to the press as the only statement he had 
made, the second in a very pathetic letter written 
to Judge Charles L. Long, of Springfield, Mass., 
whose son, Milton C. Long, was a companion of 
young Thayer all that evening, April 14th, until 
at the very last both jumped into the sea and Long 
was lost, as described: 

"Thinking that father and mother had man- 
aged to get off in a boat we, Long and myself, 
went to the starboard side of the Boat Deck 
where the boats were getting away quickly. Some 
were already off in the distance. We thought of 
getting into one of them, the last boat on the for- 
ward part of the starboard side, but there seemed 
to be such a crowd around that I thought it un- 
wise to make any attempt to get into It. I thought 
it would never reach the water right side up, but 
it did. 

Here I noticed nobody that I knew except Mr. 
Lingrey, whom I had met for the first time that 
evening. I lost sight of him in a few minutes. 
Long and I then stood by the rail just a little aft 
of the captain's bridge. There was such a big list 
to port that it seemed as if the ship would turn 
on her side. 

About this time the people began jumping from 


the stern. I thought of jumping myself, but was 
afraid of being stunned on hitting the water. 
Three times I made up my mind to jump out and 
slide down the davit ropes and try to swim to the 
boats that were lying ofE from the ship, but each 
time Long got hold of me and told me to wait a 
while, I got a sight on a rope between the davits 
and a star and noticed that the ship was gradually 
sinking. About this time she straightened up on 
an even keel again, and started to go down fairly 
fast at an angle of about thirty degrees. As she 
started to sink we left the davits and went back J 
and stood by the rail aft, even with the secondjl 
funnel. Long and myself stood by each other and 
jumped on the rail. We did not give each other 
any messages for home because neither of us 
thought we would ever get back. Long put his 
legs over the rail, while I straddled it. Hanging | 
over the side and holding on to the rail with his 1 
hands he looked up at me and said; 'You arc J 
coming, boy, aren't you?' I replied: 'Go ahead, 1 
I'll be with you In a minute.' He let go and slid'1 
down the side and I never saw him again. Almost ■ 
immediately after he jumped I jumped. All this'l 
last part took a very short time, and when we 1 
jumped we were about ten yards above the water. 
Long was perfectly calm all the time and kept hi»J 
nerve to the very end." 


How he sank and finally reached the upset 
boat is quoted accurately from the news- 
paper report from this same source given 
in my personal narrative. He continues as 
follows : 

"As often as we saw other boats in the distance 
we would yell, 'Ship ahoy I' but they could not 
distinguish our cries from any of the others, so 
we all gave it up, thinking it useless. It was very 
cold, and the water washed over the upset boat 
almost all the time. Towards dawn the wind 
sprung up, roughening the water and making it 
difHcult to keep the boat balanced. The wireless 
man raised our hopes a great deal by telling us 
that the Carpaihia would be up In about three 
hours. About 3.30 or 4 o'clock some men at the 
bow of our boat sighted her mast lights. I could 
not see them as I was sitting down with a man 
kneeling on my leg. He finally got up, and I 
stood up. We had the Second Officer, Mr. Ligh- 
toller, on board. He had an officer's whistle and 
whistled for the boats in the distance to come up 
and take us off. Two of them came up. The first 
took half and the other took the balance, includ- 
ing myself. In the transfer we had difficulty in 
t balancing our boat as the men would lean too far 
lover, but we were all taken aboard the already 


crowded boats and taken to the Carpathia in 

One of these boats was No. 4, in which his 
mother was. 




I KNOW of the conditions existing on the port 
side of the ship from personal knowledge, 
as set forth in the first five chapters de- 
scribing my personal experience, while the pre- 
vious chapter VI is derived from an exhaustive 
study of official and of other authoritative infor- 
mation relating to the same side from experiences 
of others. I have devoted an equal amount of 
study to the history of what happened on the star- 
board side of the ship, and the tabulated state- 
ments In this chapter are the outcome of my re- 
search into the experiences of my fellow passen- 
gers on this side of the ship where I was located 
only during the last half hour before the ship 
foundered, after all passengers on the port side 
had been ordered to the starboard in consequence 
of the great list to port, and after the departure 
of the last boat "D," that left the ship on the 
port side. During this last half hour, though it 


seemed shorter, 017 attrataoo was confined to the ' 
work of the crew, assisting them in their vain ef- 
forts to laonch the Engelhardt boat "B'* thrown 
down from the roof of the officers' house. All the 
starhoard boats had left the ship before I came 

Many misunderstandings arose in the public 
mind because of ignorance of the size of the ship 
and inability to understand that the same condi- 
tions did not pre\-ail at every point and that the | 
same scenes were not wimessed by ever)' one of us. I 
Consider the great length of the ship, 852 feet; 
its breadth of beam, 92.6 feet; and its many decks, 
eleven in number; counting the roof of the of- 
ficers' house as the top deck, then the Boat Deck, 
and Decks A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and, in the 
hold, two more. Bearing this in mind I illustrated 
to my New York friends, in answer to their ques- 
tions, how impossible it would be for a person 
standing at the corner of 50th Street and Fifth 
Avenue to know just what was going on at 52nd 
Street on the same Avenue, or what was going on 
at the corner of 52nd Street and Madison Avenue. 
Therefore, when one survivor's viewpoint differs I 
from that of another, the explanation is easily | 

Consideration must also be taken of the fact 
that the accident occurred near midnight, andj 

WOMEN first; men NEXT 227 

though it was a bright, starlit night, and the 
ship's electric lights shone almost to the last, it 
was possible to recognize only one's intimates at 
close quarters, 

My research shows that there was no general 
order from the ship's officers on the starboard 
side for "Women and children first." On the 
other hand, I have the statements of Dr. Wash- 
ington Dodge, John B. Thayer, Jr., and Mrs. 
Stephenson, also the same of a member of the 
crew testifying before the British Court of In- 
quiry, from which it appears that some sort of a 
command was issued ordering the women to the 
port side and the men to the starboard, indicating 
that no men would be allowed in the port boats, 
and only in the starboard side boats after the 
women had entered them first. If such were the 
orders, they were carried out to the letter. An- 
other point of difference, especially conspicuous to 
myself, is the fact that on the starboard side there 
appears to have been an absence of women at the 
points where the boats were loaded, while on the 
port side all the boats loaded, from the first up to 
the last, found women at hand and ready to enter 
them. It was only at the time of the loading of 
the last boat "D," that my friend. Clinch Smith, 
and I ran up and down the port side shouting: 
"Arc there any more women?" This too is the 


testimony of Officer LightoUer, In charge of load- 
ing boats on the port side. 

BOAT NO. 7 * 
No disorder in loading or lowering this boat. 

Passengers: Mesdames Bishop, Earnshaw, 
Gibson, Greenfield, Potter, Snyder, and Misses 
Gibson and Hays, Messrs, Bishop, Chevre, 
Daniel, Greenfield, McGough, Marechal, Seward, 
Sloper, Snyder, Tuclcer. 

Transferred from Boat No. 5: Mrs. Dodge 
and her boy; Messrs. Calderhead and Flynn. 

Crew: Seamen: Hogg (in charge), Jewell, 

Total: 28. 


Archie Jewell, L. O. (Br. Inq.) : 

Was awakened by the crash and ran at once on 
declt where he saw a lot of ice. All went below 
again to get clothes on. The boatswain called all 
hands on deck. Went to No. 7 boat. The ship 
had stopped. All hands cleared the boats, cleared 
away the falls and got them all right, Mr. Mur- 

• First to leave ship starboard side at 13.45 J Br. Ilpf., p. 3 


doch gave the order to lower boat No. 7 to the 
rail with women and children in the boat. Three 
or four Frenchmen, passengers, got into the boat. 
No. 7 was lowered from the Boat Deck. The 
orders were to stand by the gangway. This boat 
was the first on the starboard side lowered into the 
water. All the boats were down by the time it 
was pulled away from the ship because it was 
thought she was settling down. 

Witness saw the ship go down by the head very 
slowly. The other lifeboats were further off, his 
being the nearest. No. 7 was then pulled further 
off and about half an hour later, or about an hour 
and a half after this boat was lowered, and when it 
was about 200 yards away, the ship took the final 
dip. He saw the stern straight up in the air with 
the lights still burning. After a few moments she 
then sank very quickly and he heard two or three 
explosions just as the stern went up in the air. 
No. 7 picked up no dead bodies. At daylight 
they saw a lot of icebergs all around, and reached 
the Carpalhia about 9 o'clock. This boat had no 
compass and no light. (The above, given in de- 
tail, represents the general testimony of the next 

G. A. Hogg, A. B. (Am. Inq., p. 577) : 

He had forty-two when the boat was shoved 




from the ship's side. He asked a lady if she could 
steer who said she could. He pulled around in 
search of other people. One man said: "We have 
done our best; there are no more people around." 
He said: "Very good, we will get away now." 
There was not a ripple on the water; it was as 
smooth as glass. 

Mrs. H. W. Bishop, first-class passenger (Am. 
Inq., p. 998) : 

The captain told Colonel Astor something in 
an undertone. He came back and told six of us 
who were standing with his wife that we had bet- 
ter put on our life belts. I had gotten down two 
flights of stairs to tell my husband, who had re- 
turned to the stateroom for the moment, before I 
heard the captain announce that the life belts 
should be put on. We came back upstairs and 
found very few people on deck. There was very 
little confusion — only the older women were a' lit- 
tle frightened. On the starboard side of the Boat 
Deck there were only two people — a young 
French bride and groom. By that time an old 
man had come upstairs and found Mr. and Mrs. 
Harder, of New York. He brought us all to- 
gether and told us to be sure and stay together — 
that he would be back in a moment. We never 
saw him again. 


About five minutes later the boats were lowered 
and we were pushed in. This was No. 7 lifeboat. 
My husband was pushed in with me and we were 
lowered with twenty-eight people in the boat. We 
counted off after we reached the water. There 
were only about twelve women and the rest were 
men — three crew and thirteen male passengers; 
several unmarried men — three or four of them 
foreigners. Somewhat later five people were put 
into our boat from another one, making thirty- 
three in ours. Then we rowed sdll further away 
as the women were nervous about suction. We 
had no compass and no light. We arrived at the 
Carpalhia five or ten minutes after five. Th6 con- 
duct of the crew, as far as I could see, was abso- 
lutely beyond criticism. One of the crew in the 
boat was Jack Edmonds, (?) and there was an- 
other man, a Lookout (Hogg), of whom we all 
thought a great deal. He lost his brother. 

D. H. Bishop, first-class passenger (Am. Inq., 
p. 1000) : 

There was an officer stationed at the side of the 
lifeboat. As witness's wife got in, he fell into the 
boat. The French aviator Marechal was in the 
boat; also Mr. Greenfield and his mother. There 
was little confusion on the deck while the boat 
was being loaded; no rush to boats at all. Wit- 


ness agrees with his wife in the matter of the 
counting of twenty-eight, but he knows that there 
were some who were missed. There was a 
woman with her baby transferred from another 
lifeboat. Witness knows of his own knowledge 
that No. 7 was the first boat lowered from the 
starboard side. They heard no order from any 
one for the men to stand back or "women first," 
or "women and children first." Witness also says 
that at the time his lifeboat was lowered that that 
order had not been given on the starboard side. 

J. R. McGough's aiEdavit(Am, Inq,, p. 1 143) : 
After procuring life preservers we went back 
to the top deck and discovered that orders had 
been given to launch the lifeboats, which were 
already being launched. Women and children 
were called for to board the boats first. Both 
women and men hesitated and did not feel inclined 
to get into the small boats. He had his back 
turned, looking in an opposite direction, and was 
caught by the shoulder by one of the officers who 
gave him a push saying: "Here, you are a big 
fellow; get into that boat." 

Our boat was launched with twenty-eight peo- 
ple in all. Five were transferred from one of the 
others. There were several of us who wanted 
drinking water. It was unknown to us that there 

WOMEN first; men next 


ank of water and crackers also in our boat 
until we reached the Carpalhia. There was no 
light in our boat. 

Mrs. Thomas Potter, Jr. Letter: 

There was no panic. Everyone seemed more 
stunned than anything else. . . . We watched 
for upwards of two hours the gradual sinking of 
the ship — first one row of light and then another 
disappearing at shorter and shorter intervals, 
with the bow well bent in the water as though 
ready for a dive. After the lights went out, some 
ten minutes before the end, she was like some 
great living thing who made a last superhuman 
effort to right herself and then, failing, dove bow 
forward to the unfathomable depths below. 

We did not row except to get away from the 
suction of the sinking ship, but remained lashed 
to another boat until the Carpalhia came in sight 
just before dawn. 

BOAT NO. 5 * 

No disorder in loading or lowering this boat, 

Passengers: Mesdames Cassebeer, Chambers, 

Crosby, Dodge and her boy, Frauenthai, Golden- 

* Second boat lowered OD the starboard side at 12J5 [Br. 
apt. p. 38.] 


berg, Harder, Kimball, Stehli, Stengel, Taylor, 
Warren, and Misses Crosby, Newson, Ostby and 

Frolichcr Stebli. 

Messrs: Beckwitb, Behr, Calderbead, Cham- 
bers, Flynn, Goldenberg, Harder, KimbaJl, Stehli, 

Bade good-bye to tcrces and daughters and sank 
loilh skip: Captain Crosby, Mr. Ostby and Mr. 

Jumped from deck into boat being lowered: 
German Doctor Frauenthal and brother Isaac, P. 

Cretv: 3rd Officer Pitman. Seaman: Olliver, 
Q. M.; Fireman Shiers; Stewards, Etches, Guy. 
Stewardess . 

Total: 41. 


H. J. Pitman, 3rd Officer (Am. Inq., p. 277, 
and Br. Inq.) : 

I lowered No. 5 boat to the level with the rail 
of the Boat Deck. A man in a dressing gown said 
that we had better get her loaded with women and 
children. I said: "I wait the commander's or- 
ders," to which he replied: "Very well," or some- 
thing like that. It then dawned on me that it 
might be Mr. Ismay, judging by the description I 

WOMEN first; men NEXT 235 

had had given rae. I went to the bridge and saw 
Captain Smith and told him that I thought it was 
Mr. Ismay that wanted me to get the boat away 
I with women and children in it and he said: "Go 
I ahead; carry on." I came along and brought in 
my boat. I stood in it and said: "Come along, 
ladies." There was a big crowd. Mr. Ismay 
helped get them along. We got the boat nearly 
full and I shouted out for any more ladies. None 
were to be seen so I allowed a few men to get 
into it. Then I jumped on the ship again. Mr. 
Murdoch said: "You go In charge of this boat 
and hang around the after gangway." About 
thirty (Br. Inq.) to forty women were in the boat, 
two children, half a dozen male passengers, my- 
self and four of the crew. There would not have 
been so many men had there been any women 
around, but there were none. Murdoch shook 
hands with me and said: "Good-bye; good luck," 
and I said: "Lower away." This boat was the 
second one lowered on the starboard side. No 
light in the boat. 

The ship turned right on end and went down 
perpendicularly. She did not break in two. I 
heard a lot of people say that they heard boiler 
explosions, but I have my doubts about that. I 
do not see why the boilers would burst, because 
there was no steam there. They should have 


been stopped about two hours and a half. The I 
fires had not been fed so there was very little | 

> from the 

steam there, rrom the distance 1 was 1 
ship, if it had occurred, I think I would have 
known it. As soon as the ship disappeared I said: 
"Now, men, we will pull toward the wreck." 
Everyone in my boat said it was a mad idea be- 
cause we had far better save what few I had in 
my boat than go back to the scene of the wreck 
and be swamped by the crowds that were there. 
My boat would have accommodated a few more — 
about sixty in all. I turned No. 5 boat around to 
go in the direction from which these cries came but 
was dissuaded from my purpose by the passen- 
gers. My idea of lashing Nos. 5 and 7 together 
was to keep together so that if anything hove in 
sight before daylight we could steady ourselves 
and cause a far bigger show than one boat only. 
I transferred two men and a woman and a child 
from my boat to No. 7 to even them up a bit. 

H. S. Etches, steward (Am. Inq., p. 810) : 
Witness assisted Mr. Murdoch, Mr. Ismay, 
Mr. Pitman and Quartermaster Olliver and two 
stewards in the loading ajid launching of No. 7, 
the gentlemen being asked to keep back and the I 
ladles In first. There were more ladies to go in j 
No. 7 because No. 5 boat, which we went to next; 

WOMEN first; men next 

took i 


: ladies. In No. 7 boat I 

saw one child, a baby boy, with a small woollen 
cap. After getting all the women that were there 
they called out three times — Mr. Ismay twice — 
in a loud voice: "Are there any more women be- 
fore this boat goes?" and there was no answer, 
Mr. Murdoch called out, and at that moment a 
female came up whom he did not recognize. Mr. 
Ismay said: "Come along; jump in," She said: 
"I am only a stewardess." He said: "Never mind 
— you are a woman; take your place." That was 
the last woman I saw get into boat No. 5. There 
were two firemen In the bow; Olliver, the sailor, 
and myself; and Officer Pitman ordered us into 
the boat and lowered under Murdoch's order. 

Senator Smith: What other men got into that 

Mr. Etches: There was a stout gentleman, sir, 
stepped forward then. He had assisted to put his 
wife in the boat. He leaned forward and she 
stood up in the boat and put her arms around his 
neck and kissed him, and I heard her say; "I can- 
not leave you," and with that I turned my head. 
The next moment I saw bim sitting beside her in 
the bottom of the boat, and some voice said: 
"Throw that man out of the boat," but at that 
moment they started lowering away and the man 


Senator Smith: Who was he? 

Mr. Etches: I do not know his name, sir, butl 
he was a very stout gentleman. (Dr. H. Wj 

We laid off about 100 yards from the ship am 
waited. She seemed to be going down at the head"' 
and we pulled away about a quarter of a mile and 
laid on our oars until the Titanic sank. She 
seemed to rise once as though she was going to 
take a final dive, but sort of checked as though 
she had scooped the water up and had levelled 
herself. She then seemed to settle very, very 
quiet, until the last when she rose and seemed to 
stand twenty seconds, stern in that position (indi- 
cating) and then she went down with an awful 
grating, like a small boat running off a shingley 
beach. There was no inrush of water, or any- 
thing. Mr. Pitman then said to pull back to the 
scene of the wreck. The ladies started calling out. 
Two ladies sitting in front where I was pulling 
said: "Appeal to the officer not to go back. Why 
should we lose all of our lives in a useless attempt 
to save others from the ship?" We did not go 
back. When we left the ship No. 5 had forty- 
two, including the children and six crew and the 
officer. Two were transferred with a lady and 9.i 
child into boat No. 7. 

Senator Smith : Of your own knowledge do you' 






know whether any general call was made for pas- 
sengers to rouse themselves from their berths; 
and when it was, or whether there was any other 
signal given ? 

Mr. Etches: The second steward (Dodd), sir, 
was calling all around the ship. He was directing 
some men to storerooms for provisions for the 
lifeboats, and others he was telling to arouse all 
the passengers and to tell them to be sure to take 
their life preservers with them. 

There was no lamp in No. 5. On Monday 
morning we saw a very large floe of fiat ice and 
three or four bergs between in different places, 
and on the other bow there were two large bergs 
in the distance. The field ice was about three- 
quarters of a mile at least from us between four 
and five o'clock in the morning. It was well over 
on the port side of the Titanic m the position she 
was going. 

A. OlHver, Q. M. (Am. Inq., p. 526) : 
There were so many people in the boat when I 
got into it that I could not get near the plug to 
put the plug In. I Implored the passengers to 
move so I could do It. When the boat was put In 
the water I let the tripper go and water came into 
the boat. I then forced my way to the plug and 
put it in; otherwise It would have been swamped. 


There was no rush when I got into the boat. I 
heard Mr. Pitman give an order to go back to the 
ship, but the women passengers implored him not 
to go. We were then about 300 yards away. 
Nearly all objected. 

A. Shiers, fireman (Br. Inq., p. 48) : 
He saw no women left. There were about 
forty men and women in the boat. There was no 
confusion among the officers and crew. We did 
not go back when the Titanic went down. The 
women in the boat said: "Don't go back." They 
said: "If we go back the boat will be swamped." 
No compass in boat. 

Paul Mauge, RItz kitchen clerk (Br. Inq.) : 
Witness was berthed in the third-class corridor. 
Was awakened and went up on deck. Went down 
again and woke up the chef. Going through the 
second-class cabin he noticed that the assistants 
of the restaurant were there and not allowed to 
go on the Boat Deck. He saw the second or third 
boat on the starboard side let down into the water, 
and when it was about ten feet down from the 
Boat Deck he jumped into it. Before this he 
asked the chef to jump, but he was too fat and 
would not do so. (Laughter.) I asked him 
again when I got in the boat, but he refused. 


WOMEN first; men NEXT 


When his boat was passing one of the lower decks 
one of the crew of the Titanic tried to pull him 
out of the boat. He saw no passengers prevented 
from going up on deck. He thinks he was al- 
lowed to pass because he was dressed like a pas- 

Mrs. Catherine E. Crosby's affidavit (Am, 
Inq., p. 1144): 

Deponent is the widow of Captain Edward 
Giflord Crosby and took passage with him and 
their daughter, Harriette R, Crosby, 

At the time of the collision, Captain Crosby 
got up, dressed, went out, came back and said to 
her : "You will lie there and drown," and went out 
again. He said to their daughter: "The boat is 
badly damaged, but I think the water-tight com- 
partments will hold her up." 

Mrs. Crosby then got up and dressed, as did 
her daughter, and followed her husband on deck. 
She got into the first or second boat. About thirty- 
six persons got In with them. 

There was no discrimination between men and 
women. Her husband became separated from 
her. She was suffering from cold while drifting 
around and one of the ofScers (Pitman) put a 
sail around her and over her head to keep her 


George A. Harder, first-class passenger (Am. I 
Inq., p. 1028) : 

As we were being lowered, they lowered one 
side quicker than the other, but reached the water 
safely after a few scai-es. Someone said the plug 
was not in, and they could not get the boat de- 
tached from the tackle. Finally, a knife was 
found and the rope cut. We had about forty- 
two people in the boat — about thirty women, Of- 
ficer Pitman, a sailor and three men of the crew. 
We rowed some distance from the ship — it may 
have been a quarter or an eighth of a mile. We 
were afraid of the suction. Passengers said 
"Let us row a little further." They did so. Then 
this other boat. No. 7, came along. We tied 
alongside. They had twenty-nine in their boat, 
and we counted at the time thirty-six in ours, so 
we gave them four or five of our people in order 
to make it even. 

After the ship went down we heard a lot of 
cries and a continuous yelling and moaning. I 
counted about ten icebergs in the morning. Our 
boat managed very well. It is true that the of- 
ficer did want to go back to the ship, but all the 
passengers held out and said: "Do not do that; it 
would only be foolish; there would be so many 
around that It 'would only swamp the boat." 
There was no light in our boat. 




C. E. H. Stengel, first cabin passenger (Am. 
Inq., p. 975): 

Senator Smith : Did you see any man attempt to 
enter these lifeboats who was forbidden to do so? 

Mr. Stengel : I saw two. A certain physician * 
in New York, and his brother, jumped into the 
same boat my wife was in. Then the officer, or 
the man who was loading the boat said: "I will 
stop that, I will go down and get my gun." He 
left the deck momentarily and came right back 
again. I saw no attempt of anyone else to get 
into the lifeboats except these two gentlemen that 
jumped into the boat after it was started to lower. 

Senator Bourne: When you were refused ad- 
mission into the boat in which your wife was, were 
there a number of ladles and children there at the 

Mr. Stengel: No, sir, there were not. These 
two gentlemen had put their wives in and were 
standing on the edge of the deck and when they 
started lowering away, they jumped in. I saw 
only two. 

N. C. Chambers, first-class passenger (Am. 
Inq., 1 041) : 

Witness referring to boat No, 5 as appearing 
sufficiently loaded says: "However, my wife said 
• Dr. H. W. Frauenthsl. 


she \ 

; was going in that boat and proceeded to jump 
in, calling to me to come. As I knew she would 
get out again had I not come, I finally jumped 
into the boat, although I did not consider it, from 
the looks of things, safe to put many more in. As 
I remember it, there were two more men, both 
called by their wives, who jumped in after I did. 
One of them, a German I believe, told me as I 
recollect it on the Carpathia that he had looked 
around and had seen no one else, and no one to 
ask whether he could get in, or not, and had 
jumped in. Witness describes the difficulty in 
finding whether the plug was in, or not, and re- 
calls someone calling from above: "It's your own 
blooming business to see that the plug is in any- 

Mrs. C. E. H. Stengel, first-class passenger, 
writes as follows: 

"As I stepped into the lifeboat an ofScer in 
charge said: 'No more; the boat is full.' My 
husband stepped back, obeying the order. As the 
boat was being lowered, four men deliberately 
jumped into it. One of them was a Hebrew doc- 
tor — another was his brother. This was done at 
the risk of the lives of all of us in the boat. The 
two companions of this man who did this were the 
ones who were later transferred to boat No. 7, to 



which we were tied. He weighed about 250 
pounds and wore two life preservers. These men 
who jumped in struck me and a little child. I was 
rendered unconscious and two of my ribs were 
very badly dislocated. With this exception there 
was absolutely no confusion and no disorder in the 
loading of our boat." 

Mrs. F. M. Warren, first-class passenger's ac- 

. . . Following this we then went to our 
rooms, put on all our heavy wraps and went to 
the foot of the grand staircase on Deck D, again 
interviewing passengers and crew as to the dan- 
ger. While standing there Mr. Andrews, one of 
the designers of the vessel, rushed by, going up the 
stairs. He was asked if there was any danger 
but made no reply. But a passenger who was 
afterwards saved told me that his face had on it 
a look of terror. Immediately after this the re- 
port became general that water was in the squash 
courts, which were on the deck below where we 
were standing, and that the baggage had already 
been submerged. 

At the time we reached the Boat Deck, star- 
board side, there were very few passengers there, 
apparently, but it was dark and we could not es- 
timate the number. There was a deafening roar 



of escaping steam, of which we had not been 
conscious while Inside. 

The only people we remembered seeing, except 
a young woman by the name of Miss Ostby, who 
had become separated from her father and was 
with us, were Mr. Astor, his wife and servants, 
who were standing near one of the boats which 
was being cleared preparatory to being lowered. 
The Astors did not get into this boat. They 
all went back inside and I saw nothing of 
them again until Mrs. Astor was taken onto the 

We discovered that the boat next to the one the 
Astors had been near had been lowered to the 
level of the deck, so went towards it and were 
told by the officers in charge to get in. At this 
monient both men and women came crowding to- 
ward the spot. I was the second person assisted 
in. I supposed that Mr. Warren had followed, 
but saw when I turned that he was standing back 
and assisting the women. People came in so rap- 
idly in the darkness that it was impossible to dis- 
tinguish them, and I did not see him again. 

The boat was commanded by Officer Pitman 
and manned by four of the Tiianic's men. The 
lowering of the craft was accomplished with great 
difficulty. First one end and then the other was 
dropped at apparently dangerous angles, and we 


feared that we would swamp as soon as we struck 
the water. 

Mr. Pitman's orders were to pull far enough 
away to avoid suction If the ship sank. The sea 
was like glass, so smooth that the stars were 
clearly reflected. We were pulled quite a distance 
away and then rested, watching the rockets in ter- 
rible anxiety and realizing that the vessel was 
rapidly sinking, bow first. She went lower and 
lower, until the lower lights were extinguished, 
and then suddenly rose by the stern and slipped 
from sight. We had no light on our boat and 
were left in intense darkness save from an occa- 
sional glimmer of light from other lifeboats and 
one steady green light on one of the ship's boats 
which the officers of the Carpalhia afterwards 
said was of material assistance in aiding them to 
come direct to the spot. 

With daylight the wind increased and the sea 
became choppy, and we saw icebergs in every di- 
rection; some lying low in the water and others 
tall, like ships, and some of us thought they were 
ships. I was on the second boat picked up. 

From the time of the accident until I left the 
ship there was nothing which in any way resem- 
bled a panic. There seemed to be a sort of aim- 
less confusion and an utter lack of organized ef- 




BOAT No. 3.* 

No disorder in loading or lowering this boat. 

Passengers: Mesdames Cardeza and maid 
(Anna Hard), Davidson, Dick, Graham, Harper, 
Hays and maid (Miss Pericault), Spedden and 
maid (Helen Wilson) and son Douglas and his 
trained nurse, Miss Burns, and Misses Graham 
and Shutes. 

Men: Messrs. Cardeza and man-servant 
(Lesneur), Dick, Harper and man-servant 
(Hamad Hassah) and Spedden. 

Men who helped load women and children in 
this boat and sank with the ship: Messrs. Case, 
Davidson, Hays and Roebling. 

Crew: Seamen: Moore (in charge). For- 
ward Pascoe, Steward: McKay; Firemen: "5 
or 6"; or "10 or 12." 

Total: 40. t 

G. Moore, A. B. (Am. Inq., 559) : 
When we swung boat No. 3 out I was told by 
the first officer to jump in the boat and pass the 

• Third boat lowered on starboard side 1.00 (Br. Rpt, p. 38). 
t British Report (p. 38) sajB 15 crew, 10 men psissen- 
eers, 3i women and children. Total 50, 


ladies in, and when there were no more about 
we took in men passengers. We had thirty-two 
in the boat, all told, and then lowered away. Two 
seamen were in the boat. There were a few men 
passengers and some five or six firemen. They 
got in after all the women and children. I took 
charge of the boat at the tiller- 
Mrs. Frederick O. Spedden, first-class passen- 
ger's account: 

. . . Number 3 and Number 5 were both 
marked on our boat. Our seaman told me that 
it was an old one taken from some other ship,* 
and he didn't seem sure at the time which was the 
correct number, which apparently was 3. 

We tied up to a boat filled with women once, 
but the rope broke and we got pretty well separ- 
ated from all the other lifeboats for some time. 
We had in all about forty in our boat, including 
ten or twelve stokers in the bow with us who 
seemed to exercise complete control over our cox- 
swain, and urged him to order the men to row 
away from the sinking Titanic, as they were in 
mortal terror of the suction. Two oars were lost 
soon after we started and they didn't want to 
take the time to go back after them, in spite of 

•" All boats were new and none transferred from an- 
other ship," President Ismay's testimony. 


some of the passengers telling them that there 
was absolutely no danger from suction. All this 
accounts for the fact of our being some distance 
ofi when the ship went down. We couldn't per- 
suade the coxswain to turn around till we saw 
the lights of the Carpathta on the horizon. It 
was then that we burned some paper, as we 
couldn't find our lantern. When the dawn ap- 
peared and my small boy Douglas saw the bergs 
around us and remarked: "Oh, Muddle, look at 
the beautiful north pole with no Santa Claus on 
it," we all couldn't refrain from smiling in spite 
of the tragedy of the situation. 

No more accurately written or interesting ac- 
count (one which I freely confess moves me to 
tears whenever re-read) has come to my notice 
than the following, which I have the consent of 
the author to Insert in Its entirety; 




Miss Elizabeth W. Shutes 

Such a biting cold air poured into my state- 
room that I could not sleep, and the air had so 

WOMEN first; men next 



strange an odor,* as If it came from a clammy 
cave. I had noticed that same odor In the ice 
cave on the Eiger glacier. It all came back to 
me so vividly that I could not sleep, but lay in 
my berth until the cabin grew so very cold that 
I got up and turned on my electric stove. It 
threw a cheerful red glow around, and the room 
was soon comfortable; but I lay waiting. I have 
always loved both day and night on shipboard, 
and am never fearful of anything, but now I was 
nervous about the icy air. 

Suddenly a queer quivering ran under me, ap- 
parently the whole length of the ship. Startled 
by the very strangeness of the shivering motion, 
I sprang to the floor. With too perfect a trust 
in that mighty vessel I again lay down. Some 
one knocked at my door, and the voice of a friend 
said: "Come quickly to my cabin; an iceberg has 
just passed our window; I know we have just 
struck one," 

No confusion, no noise of any kind, one could 
beheve no danger imminent. Our stewardess 
came and said she could learn nothing. Looking 
out into the companionway I saw heads appearing 
asking questions from half-closed doors. All 
sepulchrally still, no excitement. I sat down 
again. My friend was by this time dressed; still 

* Seaman Lee testifies to this odor. 



her daughter and I talked on, Margaret pretend- 
ing to eat a sandwich. Her hand shook so that 
the bread kept parting company from the chicken. 
Then I saw she was frightened, and for the firsts 
time I was too, but why get dressed, as no one:] 
had given the slightest hint of any possible danger £1 
An officer's cap passed the door. I asked: 
there an accident or danger of any kind?" "Nonej 
so far as I know," was his courteous answeriH 
spoken quietly and most kindly. This same office] 
then entered a cabin a little distance down thflj 
companlonway and, by this time distrustful 
everything, I listened intently, and distinctl]^ 
heard, "We can keep the water out for a while." 
Then, and not until then, did I realize the horror 1 
of an accident at sea. Now it was too late to I 
dress; no time for a waist, but a coat and skirt I 
were soon on; slippers were quicker than shoes; 
the stewardess put on our life-preservers, and we J 
were just ready when Mr. Roebling came to tellJ 
us he would take us to our friend's mother, 
was waiting above. 

We passed by the palm room, where two shoifl 
hours before we had listened to a beautiful con- J 
cert, just as one might sit In one's own home. 
With never a realizing sense of being on the J 
ocean, why should not one forget? — no motion,,! 
no noise of machinery, nothing suggestive of a j 



ship. Happy, laughing men and women con- 
stantly passing up and down those broad, strong 
staircases, and the music went on and the ship 
Lwent on — nearer and nearer to its end. So short 
n life, so horrible a death for that great, great 
■ ship. What is a more stupendous work than a 
shipl The almost human pieces of machinery, 
yet a helpless child, powerless in its struggle 
with an almighty sea, and the great boat sank, 
fragile as a rowboat. 

How different are these staircases now I No 
laughing throng, but on either side stand quietly, 
bravely, the stewards, all equipped with the white, 
ghostly life-preservers. Always the thing one 
tries not to see even crossing a ferry. Now only 
pale faces, each form strapped about with those 
white bars. So gruesome a scene. We passed on. 
The awful good-byes. The quiet look of hope in 
the brave men's eyes as the wives were put into 
the lifeboats. Nothing escaped one at this fearful 
moment. We left from the Sun Deck, seventy- 
five feet above the water. Mr. Case and Mr. 
Roebling, brave American men, saw us to the 
lifeboat, made no effort to save themselves, but 
stepped back on deck. Later they went to an 
honored grave. 

Our Hfeboat, with thirty-six In it, began lower- 
ing to the sea. This was done amid the greatest 



contusion. Kough seamen all giving ditterent 
orders. No officer aboard. As only one side of 
the ropes worked, the lifeboat at one time was 
in such a position that it seemed we must capsize 
in mid-air. At last the ropes worked together, 
and we drew nearer and nearer the black, oily 
water. The first touch of our lifeboat on that 
black sea came to me as a last good-bye to life, 
and so we put off — a tiny boat on a great sea — 
rowed away from what had been a safe home 
for five days. The first wish on the part of all 
was to stay near the Titanic. We all felt so much 
safer near the ship. Surely such a vessel could 
not sink. I thought the danger must be exag- 
gerated, and we could all be taken aboard again. 
But surely the outline of that great, good ship 
was growing less. The bow of the boat was 
getting black. Light after light was disappearing, 
and now those rough seamen put to their oars and 
we were told to hunt under seats, any place, any- 
where, for a lantern, a light of any kind. Every 
place was empty. There was no water — no stim- 
ulant of any kind. Not a biscuit — nothing to keep 
us alive had we drifted long. Had no good 
Carpathia, with its splendid Captain Rostron, its 
orderly crew, come to our rescue we must have 
all perished. Our men knew nothing about the 
position of the stars, hardly how to pull together. 


WOMEN first; men next 

Two oars were soon overboard. The men's hands 
were too cold to hold on. We stopped while they 
beat their hands and arms, then started on again. 
A sea, calm as a pond, kept our boat steady, and 
now that mammoth ship is fast, fast disappearing. 
Only one tiny light is left — a powerless little 
spark, a lantern fastened to the mast. Fascinated, 
I watched that black outline until the end. Then 
across the water swept that awful wail, the cry 
of those drowning people. In my ears I heard: 
"She's gone, lads; row like hell or we'll get the 
devil of a swell." And the horror, the helpless 
horror, the worst of all — need it have been? 

To-day the question is being asked, "Would 
the Titanic disaster be so discussed had it not been 
for the great wealth gathered there?" It surely 
would be, for at a time like this wealth counts 
for nothing, but man's philanthropy, man's brains, 
man's heroism, count forever. So many men that 
stood for the making of a great nation, morally 
and politically, were swept away by the sinking 
of that big ship. That is why, day after day, the 
world goes on asking the why of it all. Had a 
kind Providence a guiding hand in this? Did our 
nation need so mighty a stroke to prove that man 
had grown too self-reliant, too sure of his own 
power over God's sea? God's part was the sav- 
ing of the few souls on that calmest of oceans 


on that fearful night. Man's part was the pushing 
of the good ship, pushing against all reason, to 
save what? — a few hours and lose a thousand 
souls — to have the largest of ships arrive in port 
even a few hours sooner than anticipated. Risk 
all, hut push, push on, on. The icebergs could 
be avoided. Surely man's experience ought 
have lent aid, but just so surely it did not. 

In years past a tendency to live more simply 
away from pomp and display led to the founding 
of our American nation. Now what are we de- 
manding to-day? Those same needless luxuries, 
]f they were not demanded they would not be; 
supplied. Gymnasiums, swimming pools, 
rooms, had better give way to make space for the 
necessary number of lifeboats; lifeboats for the 
crew, also, who help pilot the good ship across 
the sea. 

Sitting by me in the lifeboat were a mothi 
and daughter (Mrs. Hays and Mrs. Davidson) 
The mother had left a husband on the Titanic, 
and the daughter a father and husband, and 
while we were near the other boats those two 
stricken women would call out a name and ask, 
"Are you there?" "No," would come back the 
awful answer, but these brave women never lost 
courage, forgot their own sorrow, telling me to 
sit close to them to keep warm. Now I began 





I wish for the 

I left 1 

I; hanging 

in my cabin. I had thought of it for a minute, 
and then had quickly thrown on a lighter weight 
skirt, I knew the heavier one would make the 
life-preserver less useful. Had I only known how 
calm the ocean was that night, I would have felt 
that death was not so sure, and would have 
dressed for life rather than for the end. The 
life-preservers helped to keep us warm, but the 
night was bitter cold, and it grew colder and 
colder, and just before dawn, the coldest, darkest 
hour of all, no help seemed possible. As we 
put off from the Titanic never was a sky more 
brilliant, never have I seen so many falling stars. 
All tended to make those distress rockets that 
were sent up from the sinking ship look so small, 
so dull and futile. The brilliancy of the sky only 
intensified the blackness of the water, our utter 
loneliness on the sea. The other boats had 
drifted away from us; we must wait now for 
dawn and what the day was to bring us we dare 
not even hope. To see if I could not make the 
night seem shorter, I tried to imagine myself 
again in Japan. We had made two strange night 
departures there, and I was unafraid, and this 
Atlantic now was calmer than the Inland sea had 
been at that time. This helped a while, but my 
hands were freezing cold, and I had to give up 


pretending and think of the dawn that must soon 1 

Two rough looking men had jumped into our 
boat as we were about to lower, and they kept 
striking matches, lighting cigars, until I feared we 
would have no matches left and might need them, 
so I asked them not to use any more, but they 
kept on. I do not know what they looked like. 
It was too dark to really distinguish features 
clearly, and when the dawn brought the light it 
brought something so wonderful with it no one 
looked at anything else or anyone else. Some 
one asked: "What time is it?" Matches were 
still left; one was struck. Four o'clock! Where 
had the hours of the night gone? Yes, dawn 
would soon be here; and it came, so surely, so 
strong with cheer. The stars slowly disappeared, 
and in their place came the faint pink glow of 
another day. Then I heard, "A light, a ship." 
I could not, would not, look while there was a 
bit of doubt, but kept my eyes away. All night 
long I had heard, "A light I" Each time It proved 
to be one of our other lifeboats, someone lighting 
a piece of paper, anything they could find to 
burn, and now I could not believe. Someone 
found a newspaper; it was lighted and held up. 
Then I looked and saw a ship. A ship bright 
with lights; strong and steady she waited, and 




we were to be saved. A straw hat was offered 
(Mrs. Davidson's) ; it would burn longer. That 
same ship that had come to save us might run us 
down. But no; she is still. The two, the ship 
and the dawn, came together, a living painting. 
White was the vessel, but whiter still were those 
horribly beautiful icebergs, and as we drew nearer 
and nearer that good ship we drew nearer to 
those mountains of ice. As far as the eye could 
reach they rose. Each one more fantastically 
chiselled than its neighbor. The floe glistened like 
an ever-ending meadow covered with new-fallen 
snow. Those same white mountains, marvellous 
in their purity, had made of the just ended night 
one of the blacke»t the sea has ever known. And 
near them stood the ship which had come in such 
quick response to the Titatiic's call for help. The 
man who works over hours is always the worth- 
while kind, and the Marconi operator awaiting 
a belated message had heard the poor ship's 
call for help, and we few out of so many 
were saved. 

From the Carpathia a rope forming a tiny 
swing was lowered into our lifeboat, and one by 
one we were drawn into safety. The lady pulled 
up just ahead of me was very large, and I felt 
myself being jerked fearfully, when I heard some 
one say: "Careful, fellers; she's a lightweight." 


I bumped and bumped against the side of the ship 
until I felt like a bag of meal. My hands were 
so cold I could hardly hold on to the rope, and 

fearful of lettin 

I heard: 

tting go. Again 
"Steady, fellers; not so fast!" I felt I should 
let go and bounce out of the ropes; I hardly think 
that would have been possible, but I felt so at 
the time. At last I found myself at an opening 
of some kind and there a kind doctor wrapped me 
in a warm rug and led me to the dining room, 
where warm stimulants were given us immediately 
and everything possible was done for us all. 
Lifeboats kept coming in, and heart-rending was 
the sight as widow after widow was brought 
aboard. Each hoped some lifeboat ahead of hers 
might have brought her husband safely to this 
waiting vessel. But always no. 

I was still so cold that I had to get a towel 
and tie it around my waist. Then I went back to 
the dining-room and found dear little Louis,* the 
French baby, lying alone; his cold, bare feet had 
become unwrapped. I put a hot water bottle 
against this very beautiful boy. He smiled his 

Knowing how much better I felt after taking 
the hot stimulant, I tried to get others to take 

" One of the NatTatil children whose pathetic story has 
been full}' related In the newspapers. 

WOMEN first; men NEXT 


something; but often they just shook their heads 
and said, "Oh, I can't." 

Towards night we remembered we had nothing 
• — no comb, brush, nothing of any kind — so we 
went to the barber-shop. The barber always has 
everything, but now he had only a few tooth- 
brushes left, I bought a cloth cap of doubtful 
style; and felt like a walking orphan asylum, but 
very glad to have anything to cover my head. 
There were also a few showy silk handkerchiefs 
left. On the corner of each was embroidered in 
scarlet, "From a friend." These we bought and 
we were now fitted out for our three remaining 
days at sea. 

Patiently through the dismal, foggy days we 
lived, waiting for land and possible news of the 
lost. For the brave American man, a heart full 
of gratitude, too deep for words, sends out a 
thanksgiving. That such men are born, live and 
die for others is a cause for deep gratitude. What 
country could have shown such men as belong to 
our American manhood? Thank God for them 
and for their noble death. 



No disorder in loading or lowering this boat. 

• This WHS the fourth boat to leave the starboard side. 


Passengers : Lady Duff Gordon and maid 
(Miss Francetelli). 

Men: Lord Duff Gordon and Messrs. Solo- 
mon and Stengel. 

Total: 5. 

Crew: Seamen: Symons {in charge), Hors- 
well. Firemen: Collins, Hendrickson, Pusey, 
Shee, Taylor. 

Total: 7. 

Grand Total: I2. 


G. Symons, A. B. (Br. Inq.) : 

Witness assisted in putting passengers in Nos. 
5 and 3 under Mr. Murdoch's orders, women and 
children first. He saw 5 and 3 lowered away and 
went to No. I. Mr. Murdoch ordered another 
sailor and five firemen In. Witness saw two ladies 
running out of the Saloon Deck who asked if 
they could get in the boat. Murdoch said : "Jump 
in." The officer looked around for more, but 
none were in sight and he ordered to lower away, 
with the witness in charge. Before leaving the 
Boat Deck witness saw a white light a point and 
a half on the port bow about five miles away. 

Just after boat No. i got away, the water was 
up to C Deck just under where the ship's name is. 



Witness got about 200 yards away and ordered 
the crew to lay on their oars. The ship's stem 
was well up In the air. The foremost lights had 
disappeared and the only light left was the mast 
light. The stern was up out of the water at an 
angle of forty-five degrees; the propeller could 
just be seen. The boat was pulled away a little 
further to escape suction; then he stopped and 

After the Titanic went down he heard the 
people shrieking for help, but was afraid to go 
back for fear of their swarming upon him, though 
there was plenty of room in the boat for eight or 
a dozen more. He determined on this course 
himself as "master of the situation." * About a 
day before landing in New York a present of five 
pounds came as a surprise to the witness from 
Sir Cosmo Duff Gordon. 

The President: You state that you were sur- 
prised that no one in the boat suggested that you 
should go back to the assistance of the drowning 

Witness : Yes. 

The President: Why were you surprised? 

Witness : 1 fully expected someone to do so. 

The President: It seemed reasonable that such 
a suggestion should be made? 
• Italics arc mine, — Author. 


I should ! 

would have 


Witness : Y( 
been reasonable. 

The President: You said in America to Sena- 
tor Perkins that you had fourteen to twenty pas- 
sengers in the boat? 

Witness: I thought I had; I was in the dark. 

The President : You were not in the dark when 
you gave that evidence. 

Witness said he thought he was asked how 
many people there were in the boat, all told. 

The Attorney General: You meant that the 
14 to 20 meant everybody? 

Witness : Yes. 

The Attorney General: But you know you 
only had twelve all told? 

Witness : Yes. 

The President: You must have known per- 
fectly well when you gave this evidence that the 
number in your boat was twelve. Why did you 
tell them in America that there were fourteen to 
twenty in the boat? 

Witness: I do not know; it was a mistake I 
made then and the way they muddled us up. 

The Attorney General: It was a very plain 
question. Did you know the names of any pas- 
sengers ? 

Witness: I knew Sir Cosmo Duff Gordon's 
name when we arrived in America. 


The Attorney General : Did you say anything 
in America about having received the five pounds? 

Witness: No, sir; and I was not asked. 

The Attorney General: You were asked these 
very questions in America which we have been 
putting to you to-day about going back? 

Witness: Yes, sir. 

The Attorney General: Why did you not say 
that you heard the cries, but in the exercise of 
your discretion as "master of the situation" you 
did not go back? 

Witness : They took us in three at a time in 
America and they hurried us through the ques- 

The Attorney General : They asked you : "Did 
you make any effort to get there," and you said: 
"Yes; we went back and could not see anything." 
But you said nothing about your discretion. Why 
did you not tell them that part of the story? You 
realized that if you had gone back you might 
have rescued a good many people? 

Witness : Yes. 

The Attorney General: The sea was calm, the 
night was calm and there could not have been 
a more favorable night for rescuing people? 

Witness : Yes. 

The testimony at the American Inquiry above 


referred to, because of which this witness was I 
called to account, follows : 

G. Symons, L. O. (Am. Inq., p. 573) : 

I was in command of boat No. i. 

Senator Perkins: How many passengers did 1 
you have on her? 

Mr. Symons: From fourteen to twenty. 

Senator Perkins: Were they passengers or 

Mr. Symons: There were seven men ordered I 
In; two seamen and five firemen. They were or- ] 
dered in by Mr. Murdoch. 

Senator Perkins: How many did you have all 

Mr. Symons: I would not say for certain; it j 
was fourteen or twenty. Then we were ordered i 

Senator Perkins : You did not return to the ship 
again ? 

Mr. Symons: Yes; we came back after the ship i 
was gone and saw nothing. 

Senator Perkins: Did you rescue anyone that 
was in the water? 

Mr. Symons: No, sir; we saw nothing when 
we came back. 

Witness then testified that there was no confu- 
sion or excitement among the passengers. It 
was just the same as if it was an everyday affair. 



He never saw any rush whatever to get into either 
of the two boats. He heard the cries of the 
people in the water. 

Senator Perkins: Did you say your boat could 
take more? Did you make any effort to get 

Mr. Symons: Yes. We came back, but when 
■we came back we did not see anybody or hear 

He says that his boat could have accommo- 
dated easily ten more. He was in charge of her 
and was ordered away by Officer Murdoch, Did 
not pull back to the ship again until she went 

Senator Perkins: And so you made no attempt 
to save any other people after you were ordered 
to pull away from the ship by someone? 

Mr. Symons: I pulled off and came back after 
the ship had gone down. 

Senator Perkins; And then there were no peo- 
ple there? 

Mr. Symons: No, sir; I never saw any. 

C. E. H. Stengel, iirst-class passenger (Am. 
Inq., p. 971) : 

There was a small boat they called an Emer- 
gency boat in which were three people, Sir Duff 
Gordon, his wife and Miss Francatelli. I asked 



to get into the boat There was no one else 
around that I could see except the people working 
at the boats. The officer said: "Jump in." The 
railing was rather high. I jumped onto it and;* 
rolled into the boat. The officer said: "That's* 
the funniest thing I have seen to-night," and 
laughed heartily. After getting down part of the 
way the boat began to tip and somebody "hol- 
lered" to stop lowering. A man named A. L. 
Soloman also aslted to get in with us. There] 
were five passengers, three stokers and two sea-i 
men in the boat. 

Senator Smith: Do you know who gave in-i 
structions ? 

Mr. Stengel: I think between Sir Cosmo Duff 
Gordon and myself we decided which way to go. 
We followed a light that was to the bow of the 
ship. . . .Most of the boats rowed toward that 
light, and after the green lights began to burn I 
suggested that it was better to turn around and 
go towards them. They were from another life- 
boat. When I got Into the boat it was right up 
against the side of the ship. If it had not been, 
I would have gone right out into the water be- 
cause I rolled, I did not step in it; I just simply 
rolled. There was one of the icebergs particu- 
larly that I noticed — a very large one which 
looked something like the Rock of Gibraltar. 






Charles Hendricksen, leading iireman (Br. 


When the ship sank we picked up nobody. 
The passengers would not listen to our going back. 
Of the twelve in the boat, seven were of the crew. 
Symons, who was in charge, said nothing and we 
I all kept our mouths shut. None of the crew ob- 
[ jected to going back. It was a woman who ob- 
jected, Lady Duff Gordon, who said we would be 
swamped. People screaming for help could be 
heard by everyone in our boat. I suggested go- 
ing back. Heard no one else do so. Mr. Duff 
Gordon upheld his wife. 

After we got on the Carpathia Gordon sent for 
them all and said he would make them a present. 
He was surprised to receive five pounds from him 
the day after docking in New York. 

I Hendricksen recalled. 

Witness cross examined by Sir Cosmo Duff 
Gordon's counsel. 

What did you say about Sir Cosmo's alleged 
statement preventing you from going back? 

Witness: It was up to us to go back. 

Did anyone in the boat say anything to you 
about going back? 


Witness: Lady Duff Gordon said something to' 
the effect that If we went back the boat would be 

Who was it that first said anything about Sir 
Cosmo making a presentation to the crew? 

Witness: Fireman Collins came down and said. 
so when we were on board the Carpalhia. i 

Before we left the Carpathia all the peopl£: 
rescued were photographed together. We mem- 
bers of the crew wrote our names on Lady Duff 
Gordon's life-belt. From the time we first left 
off rowing until the time the vessel sank, Lady 
Duff Gordon was violently seasick and lying on' 
the oars. 

A. E. Horswell, A. B. (Br. Inq.) : 
Witness said it would have been quite a safi 
and proper thing to have gone back and that it 
was an inhuman thing not to do so, but he had to 
obey the orders of the coxswain. Two days after 
boarding the Carpathia some gentlemen sent for 
him and he received a present. 

J. Taylor, fireman (Br. Inq.) : 

Witness testifies that No. i boat stood by aboul 
100 yards to avoid suction and was 200 yards < 
when the Titanic sank. He heard a suggestiofld 
made about going back and a lady passengeq 
talked of the boat's being swamped if they did » 




Two gentlemen in the boat said it would be dan- 

Did your boat ever get within reach of drown- 
ing people? 

Witness: No. 

How many more could the boat have taken In? 

Witness: Twenty-five or thirty in addition to 
those already in it. 

Did any of the crew object to going back? 

Witness : No. 

Did you ever hear of a boat's crew consisting 
of six sailors and one fireman? 

Witness: No. 

Lord Mersey: What was it that Sir Cosmo 
Duff Gordon said to you in the boat? 

Witness : He said he would write to our homes 
and to our wives and let them know that we were 

Witness said he received five pounds when he 
was on board the Carpathia. 

R. W. Pusey, fireman (Br. Inq.) : 
After the ship went down we heard cries for a 
quarter of an hour, or twenty minutes. Did not 
go back in the direction the Titanic had sunk. I 
heard one of the men say: "We have lost our kit," 
and then someone said: "Never mind, we will 
give you enough to get a new kit." I was sur- 


prised that no one suggested going back. I was 
surprised that I did not do so, but we were all 
half dazed. It does occur to me now that we 
might have gone back and rescued some of the 
strugglers. I heard Lady Duff Gordon say to 
Miss Francatelli : "You have lost your beautiful 
nightdress," and I said: "Never mind, you have 
saved your lives; but we have lost our kit"; and 
then Sir Cosmo offered to provide us with new 

Sir Cosmo Duff Gordon (Br, Inq.) : 
No. 7 was the first boat I went to. It was justj 
being filled. There were only women and the 
boat was lowered away. No. 3 was partially 
filled with women, and as there were no more, 
they filled it up with men. My wife would not go 
without me. Some men on No. 3 tried to force 
her away, but she would not go. I heard an offi- 
cer say: "Man No. i boat." I said to him: "May 
we get in that boat?" He said: "With pleasure; 
I wish you would." He handed the ladies in and 
then put two Americans in, and after that he said 
to two or three firemen that they had better get 
in. When the boat was lowered I thought the 
Titanic was in a very grave condition. At the 
time I thought that certainly all the women 
had gotten off. No notice at all was taken 


WOMEN first; men next 



in our boat of these cries. No thought en- 
tered my mind about Its being possible to go 
back, and try to save some of these people. 
I made a promise of a present to the men in 
rhe boat. 

There was a man sitting next to me and about 
half an hour after the Titanic sank a man said to 
me: "I suppose you have lost everything?" I 
-said: "Yes." He said: "I suppose you can get 
more." I said: "Yes." He said: "Well, we 
have lost all our kit, for we shall not get any- 
thing out of the Company, and our pay ceases 
from to-night." I said: "Very well, I will give 
you five pounds each towards your kit." 

Were the cries from the Titanic clear enough 
to hear the words, "My God, My God"? 

No. You have taken that from the story in the 
American papers. 

Mr. Stengel in his evidence in New York said, 
"Between Mr. Duff Gordon and myself we de- 
cided the direction of the boat." 

That's not so; I did not speak to the coxswain 
in any way. 

Lady Duff Gordon (Br. Inq.) : 

After the three boats had been gotten away my 
husband and I were left standing on the deck. 
Then my husband went up and said, might we 


not get into this boat, and the officer said very 
politely: "If you will do so I should be very 
pleased." Then somebody hitched me up at the 
back, lifted me up and pitched me into the boat. 
My husband and Miss Francatelll were also 
pitched into the boat; and then two Americans 
were also pitched in on top of us. Before the 
Titanic sank I heard terrible cries. 

Q. Is it true in an article signed by what pur- 
ports to be your signature that you heard the last 
cry which was that of a man shouting, "My God, 
My God" ? 

A. Absolutely untrue- 
Address by Mr. A. Clement Edwards, M. P., 
Counsel for Dock Workers' Union (Br. Inq.) : 

Referring to the Duff Gordon incident he said 
that the evidence showed that in one of the boats 
there were only seven seamen and five passengers. 
If we admitted that, this boat had accommoda- 
tion for twenty-eight more passengers. 

The primary responsibility for this must neces- 
sarily be placed on the member of the crew who 
was in charge of the boat — Symons, no conduct of 
anyone else in the boat, however reprehensible, 
reUeving that man from such responsibility. 

Here was a boat only a short distance from the 
ship, so near that the cries of those struggUng in 
the water could be heard. Symons had been told 

WOMEN first; men next 



to stand by the ship, and that imposed upon him 
a specific duty. It was shown in Hendricksen's 
evidence that there was to the fullest knowledge 
of those in the boat a large number of people in 
the water, and that someone suggested that they 
should return and try to rescue them. Then it 
was proved that one of the ladies, who was shown 
to be Lady Duff Gordon, had said that the boat 
might be swamped if they went back, and Sir 
Cosmo Duff Gordon had admitted that this also 
represented his mental attitude at the time. He 
(Mr. Edwards) was going to say, and to say 
quite fearlessly, that a state of mind which could, 
while within the hearing of the screams of drown- 
ing people, think of so material & matter as the 
giving of money to replace kits was a state of 
mind which must have contemplated the fact that 
there was a possibility of rescuing some of these 
people, and the danger which might arise if this 
were attempted. 

He was not going to say that there was a blunt, 
crude bargain, or a deal done with these men: "If 
you will not go back I will give you five pounds"; 
but he was going to suggest as a right and true 
inference that the money was mentioned at that 
time under these circumstances to give such a sense 
of ascendancy or supremacy to Sir Cosmo Duff 
Gordon in the boat that the view to which he 



gave expression that they should not go back 
would weigh more with the men than if he had 
given it as a piece of good advice. There were 
twenty-eight places on that boat and no one on 
board had a right to save his own life by avoid- 
ing any possible risk involved in filling the vacant 
places. To say the least of it, it was most repre- 
hensible that there should have been any offer of 
money calculated to influence the minds of the 
men or to seduce them from their duty. 

From the address of the Attorney-General, Sir 
Rufus Isaacs, K. C. M.* P. (Br. Inq.) : 

In regard to boat No. i, I have to make some 
comment. This was the Emergency boat on the 
starboard side, which figured somewhat promi- 
nently in the inquiry on account of the evidence 
which was given in the first instance by Hendrick- 
sen, and which led to the calling of Sir Cosmo 
Duff Gordon. Any comment I have to make in 
regard to that boat is, I wish to say, not directed 
to Sir Cosmo or his wife. For my part, I would 
find it impossible to make any harsh or severe 
comment on the conduct of any woman who, in 
circumstances such as these, found herself on the 
water in a small boat on a dark night, and was 
afraid to go back because she thought there was 
a danger of being swamped. At any rate, I will 

WOMEN first; men NEXT 


make no comment about that, and the only rea- 
son I am directing attention to No. I boat is that 
it is quite plain that it was lowered with twelve 
persons in it Instead of forty. I am unable to say 
why it was that that boat was so lowered with 
only five passengers and seven of the crew on 
board, but that circumstance, I contend, shows the 
importance of boat drill. 

As far as he knew from the evidence, no order 
was given as to the lowering of this boat. He 
regretted to say that he was quite unable to ofEer 
any explanation of it, but he could not see why 
the boat was lowered under the circumstances, 
The point of this part of the inquiry was two- 
fold — (i) the importance of a boat drill; (2) 
that you should have the men ready. 

No doubt if there had been proper organiza- 
I tion there would have been a greater possibility 
of saving more passengers. What struck one was 
that no one seemed to have known what his duty 
was or how many persons were to be placed in 
the boat before It was lowered. In all cases no 
boat had its complement of what could be carried 
on this particular night. The vessel was on her 
first passage, and if all her crew had been en- 
gaged on the next voyage no doubt things would 
have been better, but there was no satisfactory 
organization with regard to calling passengers 


and getting them on deck. Had these boats had 
their full complement it would have been another 
matter, but the worst of them was this boat No i, 
because the man, Symons, in charge did not ex- 
ercise his duty. No doubt he was told to stand 
by, but he went quite a distance away. His evi- 
dence was unsatisfactory, and gave no proper ac- 
count why he did not return. He only said that 
he "exercised his discretion," and that he was 
"master of the situation." There was, however, 
no explanation why he went away and why he did 
not go back except that he would be swamped. 
That was no explanation. I can see no justifica- 
tion for his not going back. From the evidence, 
there were no people on the starboard deck at 
the time. They must have been mistaken in mak- 
ing that statement, because, as they knew, four 
more boats were subsequently lowered with a 
number of women and children. The capacity of 
this boat was forty. No other boat went away 
with so small a proportion as compared with its 
capacity, and there was no other boat which went 
away with a larger number of the crew. I 
confess it is a thing which I do not understand 
why that boat was lowered when she was. Speak- 
ing generally, the only boats that took their full 
quantity were four. One had to see what ex- 
planation could be given of that. In this particu- 


lar case it happened that the officers were afraid 
the boats would buckle. Then they said that no 
more women were available, and, thirdly, it was 
contemplated to go back. It struck one as very 
regrettable that the officers should have doubts 
in their minds on these points with regard to the 
capacity of the boats. 

BOAT NO. 9* 

No disorder when this boat was loaded and 

Passengers: Mesdames Aubert and maid (Mile* 
Segesser), Futrelle, Lines; Miss Lines, and sec- 
ond and third-class. 

Men: Two or three. 

Said good-bye to wife and sank with ship: Mr. 

Crew: Seamen: Haines (in charge), Wynne, 
Q. M., McGough, Peters; Stewards Ward, Wldg- 
ery and others. 

Total: 56. 


A. Haines, boatswain's mate (Am, Inq,, 755) ; 

Officer Murdoch and witness filled boat 9 with 
ladies. None of the men passengers tried to get 
into the boats. Officer Murdoch told them to 

* Tbe fifth boat lowered on starboard side, 1.30 (Br. Rpt., 
p. 38). 



Stand back. There was one woman who refused 
to get in because she was afraid. When there 
were no more women forthcoming the boat was 
full, when two or three men jumped Into the bow. 
There were two sailors, three or four stewards, 
three or four firemen and two or three men pas- 
sengers. No. 9 was lowered from the Boat Deck 
with sixty-three people in the boat and lowered 
all right. Officer Murdoch put the witness in 
charge and ordered him to row off and keep 
clear of the ship. When we saw it going down 
by the head he pulled further away for the safety 
of the people in the boat: about loo yards away 
at first. Cries were heard after the ship went 
down. He consulted with the sailors about going 
back and concluded with so many in the boat it 
was unsafe to do so. There was no compass in 
the boat, but he had a little pocket lamp. On 
Monday morning he saw from thirty to fifty ice- 
bergs and a big field of ice miles long and large 
bergs and "growlers," the largest from eighty to 
one hundred feet high. 

W. Wynne, Q. M. (Br. Inq.) : fl 

Officer Murdoch ordered witness into boat No. 
9- He assisted the ladies and took an oar. He 
says there were fifty-six all told in the boat, forty- 
two of whom were women. He saw the light c 


WOMEN first; men NEXT 

a steamer — a red light first, and then a white one 
— about seven or eight miles away. After an 
interval both lights disappeared. Ten or fifteen 
minutes afterwards he saw a white light again in 
the same direction. There was no lamp or com- 
pass in the boat. 

W. Ward, steward (Am. Inq., 595) : 
Witness assisted in taking the canvas cover off 

of boat No. 9 and lowered it to the level of the 

Boat Deck.* 

Officer Murdoch, Purser McElroy and Mr. Is- 
may were near this boat when being loaded. A 
sailor came along with a bag and threw it into 
the boat. He said he had been sent to take charge 
of it by the captain. The boatswain's mate, 
Haines, was there and ordered him out. He got 
out. Either Purser McElroy or Officer Murdoch 
said: "Pass the women and children that are here 
into that boat." There were several men stand- 
ing around and they fell back. There were quite 
a quantity of women but he could not say how 
many were helped into the boat. There were no 
children. One old lady made a great fuss and 
absolutely refused to enter the boat. She went 

• Brice. A. B. (Am. Inq., p. 648) and Wheate, Asg't. 2nd 
Steward (Br. Inq.), say No. 9 was &Ued from A Deck with 
womeu and children only. 


back to the comparuonway and forced her way in 
and would not get into the boat. One woman, 
a French lady, fell and hurt herself a little. Pur- 
ser McEtroy ordered two more men into the boat 
to assist the women. When No. 9 was being low- 
ered the first listing of the ship was noticeable. 

From the rail to the boat was quite a distance 
to step down to the bottom of it, and in the dark 
the women could not see where they were step- 
ping. Purser McElroy told ft-itncss to get into 
the boat to assist the women. Women were called 
for, but none came along and none were seen on 
deck at the rime. Three or four men were then 
taken into the boat undl the officers thought there 
were sufficient to lower away with safety. 

No. 9 was lowered into the water before No. 
11. There was some difficulty in unlashing the 
oars because for some time no one had a knife. 
There were four men who rowed all night, but 
there were some of them in the boat who had 
never been to sea before and did not know the 
first thing about an oar, or the bow from the 
stern. Haines gave orders to pull away. When 
200 yards off, rowing was stopped for about an 
hour. Haines was afraid of suction and we pulled 
away to about a quarter of a mile from the ship. 
The ship went down very gradually for a while 
by the head. We could just see the ports as she 


dipped. She gave a kind of a sudden lurch for- 
ward. He heard a couple of reports like a vol- 
ley of musketry; not like an explosion at all. His 
boat was too full and it would have been mad- 
ness to have gone back. He thinks No. 9 was 
the fourth or fifth boat picked up by the Car- 
pathia. There was quite a big lot of field ice and 
several large icebergs in amongst the field; also 
o or three separated from the main body of the 

J. Widgery, bath steward (Am. Inq., 602) : 
Witness says that all passengers were out of 
their cabins on deck before he went up. 

When he got to the Boat Deck No. 7 was about 
to be lowered, but the purser sent him to No. 9. 
The canvas had been taken off and he helped 
lower the boat. Purser McElroy ordered him 
into the boat to help the boatswain's mate pass in 
women. Women were called for. An elderly 
lady came along. She was frightened. The 
boatswain's mate and himself assisted her, but 
she pulled away and went back to the door (of 
the companionway) and downstairs. Just before 
they left the ship the officer gave the order to 
Haines to keep about 100 yards off. The boat 
was full as it started to lower away. When they 
got to the water he was the only one that had a 



knife to cut loose the oars. He says that the balJ 
ance of his testimony would be the same as thatJ 
of Mr. Ward, the previous witness. 


No disorder when this boat was loaded andj 

Passengers: fVomen: Mrs. Schabert and tw( 
others of first cabin; all the rest second and third 
class. Fifty-eight women and children in all. 

Men: Mr. Mock, first cabin, and two ethers. 

Crew: Seamen : Humphreys ( In charge) , Brice ; 
Stewards: Wheate, MacKay, McMicken, Thes- 

singer, Wheelton; Fireman ; Steward' 

ess: Mrs. Robinson. 

Total: 70. 


W. Brice, A. B. (Am. Inq., 648) : 
This boat was filled from A Deck. An officer 
said: "Is there a sailor in the boat?" There was 
no answer. I jumped out and went down the fall 
into the bow. Nobody was in the stern. I went 
aft and shipped the rudder. By that time the boat- 
had been filled with women and children. Wfi; 
had a bit of difficulty in keeping the boat clear of' 
a big body of water coming from the ship's side. 
* Sixth boat lowered on starboard side, 1.25 (Br. Rpt. 



The after block got jammed, but I think that must 
have been on account of the trip not being pushed 
right down to disconnect the block from the boat. 
We managed to keep the boat clear from this 
body of water. It was the pump discharge. 
There were only two seamen in the boat, a fire- 
man, about six stewards and fifty-one passengers. 
There were no women and children who tried to 
get into the boat and were unable to do so. There 
was no rush and no panic whatever. Everything 
was done in perfect order and discipline. 

Mr. Humphreys, A. B., was in charge of No. 
II. There was no light or lantern in our boat. 
I cut the lashing from the oil bottle and cut rope 
and made torches. The ship sank bow down first 
almost perpendicularly. She became a black mass 
before she made the final plunge when boat was 
about a quarter of a mile away. Boat No. 9 was 
packed. Passengers were about forty-five women 
and about four or five children in arms. 

E. Wheelton, steward (Am. Inq.) : 
As I made along B Deck I met Mr. Andrews, 
the builder, who was opening the rooms and look- 
ing in to see if there was anyone in, and closing 
the doors again. Nos. 7, 5 and 9 had gone. No. 
II boat was hanging in the davits. Mr. Mur- 
j-doch said: "You go too." He shouted: "Women 


and children Rrst." f-Ie was then on the Utp 6eA 
ttamiinji by the tafirail. The boat was loaded 
with wumen and children, and I think there were 
ci(tht or nine men in the boat altogether, Lndud- 
itiB our crew, and one passenger. 

"Have you got any sailors in?" asked Mr. 
Murdoch. I said: "No, sir." He told two sail- 
ors to jump into the boat. We lowered awajr. 
Kvcrylhing went very smooth until we touched 
iho water. When wc pushed away from the ship's 
side we had a slight difficulty in hoisting the after 
Mock. Wc pulled away about 300 yards. We 
rowed around to get close to the other boats. 
There were about fifty-eight all told in No. 11. 
It took all of its passengers from A Deck except 
the two sailors. I think there were two boats left 
on the starboard side when No. 1 1 was lowered. 
The eight or nine men in the boat included a pas- 
senger. A (luartermastcr (Humphreys) was in 
charge. ■ 

C. D. MacKay, steward (Br. Inq.) : ^ 

No. 1 1 was lowered to A Deck. Murdoch or- 
dered me to take charge. We collected all the 
women (40) on the Boat Deck, and on A Deck 
we collected a few more. The crew were fiveg 
stewards, one lircman, two sailors, one forwan 
and one aft. There was Wheclton, McMicket 


WOMEN first; men NEXT 287 

Thessenger, Wheate and myself. The others 
were strangers to the ship. There were two sec- 
ond-class ladies, one second-class gentleman, and 
the rest were third-claas ladles. I found out that 
they were all third-class passengers. We had 
some difficulty in getting the after fall away. We 
went away from the ship about a quarter of a 
mile. No compass. The women complained that 
they were crushed up so much and had to stand. 
Complaints were made against the men because 
they smoked. 

' J, T. Wheate, Ass't. 2nd Steward (Br. Inq.) : 
Witness went upstairs to the Boat Deck where 
Mr. Murdoch ordered the boats to the A Deck 
where the witness and seventy of his men helped 
pass the women and children into boat No. 9, and 
none but women and children were taken in. He 
then filled up No. i r with fifty-nine women and 
children, three male passengers and a crew of 
seven stewards, two sailors and one fireman. He 
could not say how the three male passengers got 
there. The order was very good. There was 
nobody on the Boat Deck, so the people were 
taken off on the A Deck. 

Philip E. Mock, first cabin passenger [letter] : 
No. II carried the largest number of passen- 
gers of any boat — about sixty-five. There were 



only two first cabin passengers in the boat besides 
my sister, Mrs. Schabert, and myself. The re- 
mainder were second-class or stewards and stew- 
ardesses. We were probably a mile away when 
the Thank's lights went out. I last saw the ship 
with her stern high in the air going down. After 
the noise I saw a huge column of black smoke 
slightly lighter than the sky rising high Into the 
sky and then flattening out at the top like a mush- I 
room. I 

I at no time saw any panic and not much con- ' 
fusion. I can positively assert this as I was near 
every boat lowered on the starboard side up to 
the time No. 1 1 was lowered. With the exception 
of some stokers who pushed their way into boat 
No. 3 or No. 5, I saw no man or woman force 
entry into a lifeboat. One of these was No. 13 
going down, before we touched the water. 

From address of the Attorney-General, Sir^ 
Rufus Isaacs, K. C, M. P. 

"No. ri took seventy, and carried the largest I 
number of any boat." 

BOAT NO. 13 * 
No disorder when this boat was loaded i 

1 starboard side, IJ5 (Br. 


Passengers: Women: Second cabin, including 
Mrs. Caldwell and her child Alden. AH the rest 
second and third-class women. 

Men: Dr. Dodge only first cabin passenger. 
' Second cabin, Messrs. Beasley and Caldwell. 
One Japanese. 

Crew: Firemen: Barrett (in charge), Beau- 
champ, Major and two others. Stewards: Ray, 
Wright and another; also baker . 

Total: 64. 


Mr. Lawrence Beesley's book, already cited, 
gives an excellent description of No. 13's history, 
but for further details, see his book, The Loss of 
ythe SS. Titanic, Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston. 

F. Barrett, leading stoker (Br. Inq.) : 
Witness then made his escape up the escape 
ladder and walked aft on to Deck A on the star- 
board side, where only two boats were left, Nos. 
13 and 15. No. 13 was partly lowered when he 
got there. Five-sixths in the boat were women. 
No. 15 was lowered about thirty seconds later. 
When No. 13 got down to the water he shouted: 
"Let go the after fall," but, as no one took any 
notice, he had to walk over women and cut the 
fall himself. No. 15 came down nearly on top of 
them, but they just got clear. He took charge of 




the boat until he got so cold that he had to give 
up to someone else. A woman put a cloak over 
him, as he felt so freezing, and he could not re- 
member anything after that. No men waiting on 
the deck got into his boat. They all stood In one 
line in perfect order waiting to be told to get into 
the boat. There was no disorder whatever. 
They picked up nobody from the sea. 

F. D. Ray, steward (Am. Inq., 798) : 
Witness assisted In the loading of boat No. 9 
and saw it and No. 1 1 boat lowered, and went 
to No. 13 on A Deck. He saw it about half filled 
with women and children. A few men were or- 
dered to get in; about nine to a dozen passengers 
and crew. Dr. Washington Dodge was there and 
was told that his wife and child had gone away in 
one of the boats. Witness said to him: "You had 
better get in here then," and got behind him and 
pushed him and followed after him. A rather 
large woman came along crying and saying: *'Do 
not put me in the boat; I don't want to get in one. 
I have never been In an open boat in my life." 
He said: "You have got to go and you may as 
well keep quiet." After that there was a small 
child rolled in a blanket thrown into the boat to 
him. The woman that brought it got into the 
boat afterwards. 




^e left about three or four men on the deck at 
the rail and they went along to No. 15 boat. No. 
13 was lowered away. When nearly to the water, 
two or three of them noticed a very large dis- 
charge of water coming from the ship's side 
which he thought was the pumps working. The 
hole was about two feet wide and about a foot 
deep with a solid mass of water coming out. 
They shouted for the boat to be stopped from be- 
ing lowered and they responded promptly and 
stopped lowering the boat. They pushed it off 
from the side of the ship until they were free 
from this discharge. He thinks there were no 
sailors or quartermasters in the boat because they 
apparently did not know how to get free from the 
tackle. Knives were called for to cut loose. In 
the meantime they were drifting a little aft and 
boat No. 15 was being lowered immediately upon 
them about two feet from their heads and they 
all shouted again, and they again replied very 
promptly and stopped lowering boat No. 15. 
They elected a fireman (Barrett) to take charge. 
Steward Wright was in the boat; two or three 
children and a very young baby seven months old. 
Besides Nos. 9, 11, and 13, No. 15 was lowered 
to Deck A and filled from it. He saw no male 
passengers or men of the crew whatever ordered 
out or thrown out of these lifeboats on the stat; 





hmrd ude. Ewrybody wai vcrf ordecff and 
Acre *rai no occasion ro tbrow anybody ont. Lt 
No, 13 there were aboot four or live Srcmen. one 
baker, three stewards: about nine of tbe crew. 
Dr. Wathinglon Dodge was the Ofdr firsc-claas 
pas-ienger and the rest were third-daas. There 
waj one Japanese- There was no crowd wfaat- 
crer on A Deck while he was loa(£ng tfae»c boats. 
No. 13 W3» foIL I 

Extracts from Dr. WashingMo Dodge's ad- 1 
drcM ; "TTie Loss of the Titamu" a copy of which 
be kindly sent me: 

I heard one man say that the impact was due 
to ice. Upon one of his listeners* questioning the 
authority of this, he replied: "Go up forward and 
look down on the fo'castle deck, and you can see 
for yourself," I at once walked forward to the 
end of the promenade deck, and looking down 
could sec, just within the starboard rail, small 
fragments of broken ice, amounting possibly to 
leveral cartloads. As I stood there an incident 
occurred which made me take a more serious view 
of the situation, than I otherwise would. 

Two stokers, who had slipped up onto the j 
promenade deck unobserved, said to me: "Do j 
you think there is any danger, sir?" I replied: 
"If there is any danger it would be due to i 




vessel's having sprung a leak, and you ought to 
know more about it than I." They replied, in 
what appeared to me to be an alarmed tone: 
"Well, sir, the water was pouring Into the stoke 
'old when we came up, sir." At this time I ob- 
served quite a number of steerage passengers, 
who were amusing themselves by walking over 
the ice, and kicking It about the deck. No ice or 
iceberg was to be seen in the ocean. 

I watched the boats on the starboard side, as 
they were successively filled and lowered away. 
At no time during this period, was there any 
panic, or evidence of fear, or unusual alarm. I 
saw no women nor children weep, nor were there 
any evidences of hysteria observed by me. 

I watched all boats on the starboard side, com- 
prising the odd numbers from one to thirteen, as 
they were launched. Not a boat was launched 
which would not have held from ten to twenty- 
five more persons. Never were there enough 
women or children present to fill any boat before 
it was launched. In all cases, as soon as 
those who responded to the of&cers' call were 
in the boats, the order was given to "Lower 

What the conditions were on the port side of 
the vessel I had no means of observing. We were 
in semi-darkness on the Boat Deck, and owing to 


the immense length and breadth of the vessel, and 
the fact that between the port and the starboard 
side of the Boat Deck, there were officers' cabins, 
staterooms for passengers, a gymnasium, and in- 
numerable immense ventilators, it would have 
been impossible, even in daylight, to have ob- 
tained a view of but a limited portion of this boat 
deck. We only knew what was going on within 
a radius of possibly forty feet. 

Boats Nos. 13 and 15 were swung from the 
davits at about the same moment. I heard the 
officer In charge of No. 13 say: "We'll lower this 
boat to Deck A." Observing a group of possibly 
fifty or sixty about boat 15, a small proportion of 
which number were women, I descended by means 
of a stairway close at hand to the deck below, 
Deck A. Here, as the boat was lowered even 
with the deck, the women, about eight In num- 
ber, were assisted by several of us over the rail 
of the steamer into the boat. The officer in 
charge then held the boat, and called repeatedly 
for more women. None appearing, and there 
being none visible on the deck, which was then 
brightly Illuminated, the men were told to tumble 
in. Along with those present I entered the boat. 
Ray was my table steward and called to me to 
get in. 

The boat in which I embarked was rapidly 


WOMEN first; men next 



lowered, and as it approached the water I ob- 
served, as I looked over the edge of the boat, 
that the bow, near which I was seated, was being 
lowered directly into an enormous stream of 
water, three or four feet in diameter, which was 
being thrown with great force from the side of 
the vessel. This was the water thrown out by the 
condenser pumps. Had our boat been lowered 
into the same it would have been swamped In an 
instant. The loud cries which were raised by the 
occupants of the boat caused those who were 
sixty or seventy feet above us to cease lowering 
our boat. Securing an oar with considerable dif- 
ficulty, as the oars had been firmly lashed to- 
gether by means of heavy tarred twine, and as in 
addition they were on the seat running parallel 
with the side of the lifeboat, with no less than 
eight or ten occupants of the boat sitting on them, 
none of whom showed any tendency to disturb 
themselves — we pushed the bow of the lifeboat, 
by means of the oar, a sufficient distance away 
from the side of the Titanic to clear this great 
stream of water which was gushing forth. We 
were then safely lowered to the water. During 
the few moments occupied by these occurrences I 
felt for the only time a sense of Impending dan- 

We were directed to pull our lifeboat from the 


steamer, and to follow a light which was carried 
in one of the other lifeboats, which had been 
launched prior to ours. Our lifeboat was found 
to contain no lantern, as the regulations require; 
nor was there a single sailor, or officer in the boat. 
Those who undertook to handle the oars were 
poor oarsmen, almost without exception, and our 
progress was extremely slow. Together with two 
or three other lifeboats which were in the vicinity, 
we endeavored to overtake the lifeboat which 
carried the light, in order that we might not drift 
away and possibly become lost. This light ap- 
peared to be a quarter of a mile distant, but, in 
spite of our best endeavors, we were never en- 
abled to approach any nearer to it, although we 
must have rowed at least a mile. 


No disorder In loading or lowering this boat. 

Passengers: All third-class women and children 
(S3) and 

Men: Mr. Haven (first-class) and three others 
(third-class) only. Total: 4. 

Crew: Firemen: Diamond (in charge), Cavcll, 
Tzyloi; Stewards: Rule, Hart. Total: 13. 

Grand Total (Br. Rpt., p. 38) : 70. 

I this next to lost lowered 00 star- 




G, Cavell, trimmer (Br. Inq.) ■ 

The officer ordered five of us in the boat. We 
took on all the women and children and the boat 
was then lowered. We lowered to the first-class 
(i. e. A) deck and took on a few more women 
and children, about five, and then lowered to the 
water. From the lower deck we took in about 
sixty. There were men about but we did not take 
them in. They were not kept back. They were 
third-class passengers, 1 think — sixty women, 
Irish. Fireman Diamond took charge. No other 
seaman in this boat. There were none left on the 
tbird-class decks after I had taken the women. 

S. J. Rule, bathroom steward (Br. Inq.) : 
Mr. Murdoch called to the men to get into the 
boat. About six got in. "That will do," he said, 
"lower away to Deck A." At this time the ves- 
sel had a slight list to port. We sent scouts 
around both to the starboard and port sides. 
They came back and said there were no more 
women and children. We filled up on A Deck — 
sixty-eight all told — the last boat to leave the 
starboard side. There were some left behind. 
There was a bit of a rush after Mr. Murdoch 


said we could fill the boat up with men standing 
by. We very nearly came on top of No. 13 when 
we lowered away. A man, Jack Stewart, a stew- 
ard, took charge. Nearly everybody rowed. No J 
lamp. One deckhand in the boat, and men, \ 
women and children. Just before it was 
launched, no more could be found, and about 
half a dozen men got in. There were sixty- 
eight in the boat altogether. Seven members of 
the crew. 1 

J. E. Hart, third-class steward (Br. Inq., 75) : 

Witness defines the duties and what was done 

by the stewards, particularly those connected with 

the steerage. 

"Pass the women and children up to the Boat! 
Deck," was the order soon after the collision, f 
About three-quarters of an hour after the colli- I 
sion he took women and children from the C Deck, I 
to the first-class main companion. There were! 
no barriers at that time. They were all opened. I 
He took about thirty to boat No. 8 as It was be- I 
Ing lowered. He left them and went back for ■ 
more, meeting third-class passengers on the way 1 
to the boats. He brought back about twenty-five 1 
more steerage women and children, having some 
little trouble owing to the men passengers want- 
ing to get to the Boat Deck. These were all 

WOMEN first; men NEXT 299 

third-class people whom we took to the only boat 
left on the starboard side, viz., No. 15. There 
were a large number already in the boat, which 
was then lowered to A Deck, and five women, 
three children and a man with a baby In his 
arms taken in, making about seventy people 
in all, Including thirteen or fourteen of the 
crew and fireman Diamond in charge. Mr. 
Murdoch ordered witness into the boat. Four 
men passengers and fourteen crew was the 
complement of men; the rest were women and 

When boat No. 15 left the boat deck there 
were other women and children there — some first- 
class women passengers and their husbands. Ab- 
solute quietness existed. There were repeated 
cries for women and children. If there had been 
any more women there would have been found 
places for them in the boat. He heard some of 
the women on the A Deck say they would not 
leave their husbands. 

There Is no truth in the statement that any of 
the seamen tried to keep back third-class passen- 
gers from the Boat Deck. Witness saw masthead 
light of a ship from the Boat Deck. He did his 
very best, and so did all the other stewards, to 
help get the steerage passengers on the Boat Deck 
i soon as possible. 



No disorder in loading or lowering this boat. 

Passengers: President Ismay, Mr. CarterJ 
Balance women and children. 

Crew: Quartermaster Rowe (in charge ).j 
Steward Pearce. Barber Weikman. Firemcni 

Stowaways: Four Chinamen, or Filipinos. 

Total: 39. 


G. T. Rowe, Q. M. {Am. Inq., p. 519, and Bn 
Inq.) : 

To avoid repetition, the tesrimony of this wlfcj 
ness before the two Courts of Inquiry is consolii 
dated : 

He assisted the ofEcer (Boxhall) to fire dis-' 
tress signals until about five and twenty minutes 
past one. At this time they were getting out the 
starboard collapsible boats. Chief Officer Wilde J 
wanted a sailor. Captain Smith told him to get I 
into the boat "C" which was then partly filled.! 
He found three women and children in there 1 

* Br. Rpt., p. 38, makes this last boat lowered 


no more about. Two gentlemen got in, Mr. Is- 
may and Mr. Carter. Nobody told them to get 
in. No one else was there. In the boat there 
were thirty-nine altogether. These two gentle- 
men, five of the crew (including himself), three 
firemen, a steward, and near daybreak they found 
four Chinamen or Filipinos who had come up be- 
tween the seats. All the rest were women and 

Before leaving the ship he saw a bright light 
about five miles away about two points on the 
port bow. He noticed it after he got into the 
boat. When he left the ship there was a list to 
port of six degrees. The order was given to 
lower the boat, with witness In charge. The rub 
strake kept on catching on the rivets down the 
ship's side, and it was as much as we could do to 
keep off. It took a good five minutes, on account 
of this rubbing, to get down. When they reached 
the water they steered for a light in sight, roughly 
five miles. They seemed to get no nearer to it 
and altered their course to a boat that was carry- 
ing a green light. When day broke, the Car- 
palhia was in sight. 

In regard to Mr. Ismay's getting into the boat, 
the witness's testimony before the American 
Court of Inquiry is cited in full: 

Senator Burton: Now, tell us the circumstances 


under which Mr. Ismay and that other gentleman 
got into the boat. 

Mr. Rowc: When Chief Officer Wilde asked if 
there were any more women and children, there 
was no reply, so Mr. Ismay came into the boat. 

Senator Burton : Mr. Wilde asked if there werea 
any more women and children? Can you san 
that there were none? ■ 

Mr. Rowe: I could not see, but there were 
none forthcoming. 

Senator Burton: You could see around there on 
the deck, could you not? 

Mr. Rowe: I could see the fireman and stew*! 
ard that completed the boat's crew, but as re- 1 
gards any families I could not see any. 

Senator Burton: Were there any men passen- 
gers besides Mr. Ismay and the other man? 

Mr. Rowe: I did not see any, sir. 

Senator Burton: Was it light enough so that ! 
you could see anyone near by? 

Mr. Rowe: Yes, sir. 

Senator Burton: Did you hear anyone ask Mr. i 
Ismay and Mr. Carter to get in the boat? 

Mr. Rowe: No, sir. 

Senator Burton: If Chief Officer Wilde had ' 
spoken to them would you have known it? 

Mr. Rowe: I think so, because they got in the 
after part of the boat where I was. 




Alfred Pearce, pantryman, third-class (Br. 
Inq.) : 

Picked up two babies in his arms and went into 
a collapsible boat on the starboard side under 
Officer Murdoch's order, in which were women 
and children. There were altogether sixty-six 
passengers and five of the crew, a quartermaster 
in charge. The ship had a list on the port side, 
her lights burning to the last. It was twenty min- 
utes to two when they started to row away. He 
remembers this because one of the passengers 
gave the time. 

J. B. Ismay, President International Mercan- 
tile Marine Co. of America, New Jersey, U. S. A. 
(Am. Inq., pp. 8, 960) : 

There were four in the crew — one quartermas- 
ter, a pantryman, a butcher and another. The 
natural order would be women and children first. 
It was followed as far as practicable. About 
forty-five in the boat. He saw no struggling or 
jostling or any attempts by men to get into the 
boats. They simply picked the women out and 
put them into the boat as fast as they could — the 
first ones that were there. He put a great many 
in — also children. He saw the first hfeboat low- 
ered on the starboard side. As to the circum- 
stances of his departure from the ship, the boat 


was there. There was a certain number of men 
in the boat and the officer called and asked if 
there were any more women, but there was no 
response. There were no passengers left on the 
deck, and as the boat was in the act of being low- 
ered away he got into it. The Titanic was sink- 
ing at the time. He felt the ship going down. He 
entered because there was room in it. Before he 
boarded the lifeboat he saw no passengers jump 
into the sea. The boat rubbed along the ship's 
side when being lowered, the women helping to 
shove the boat clear. This was when the ship 
had quite a list to port. He sat with his back to 
the ship, rowing all the time, pulling away. He 
did not wish to see her go down. There were j 
nine or ten men in the boat with him. Mr. Car- 
ter, a passenger, was one. All the other people I 
in the boat, so far as he could see, were third- 
class passengers. 

Examined before the British Court of Inquiry 
by the Attorney-General, Sir Rufus Isaacs, 
Mr. Ismay testified: 

I was awakened by the impact; stayed in bed 
a little time and then got up. I saw a steward 
who could not say what had happened. I put a 
coat on and went on deck. I saw Captain Smith. 
I asked him what was the matter and he said we . 

WOMEN first; men next 305 

[ had struck ice. He said he thought it was seri- 
. ous. I then went down and saw the chief engi- 
neer, who said that the blow was serious. He 
thought the pumps would keep the water under 
control. I think I went back to my room and 
then to the bridge and heard Captain Smith give 
an order in connection with the boats. I went to 
the boat deck, spoke to one of the officers, and 
rendered all the assistance I could in putting the 
women and children in. Stayed there until I left 
the ship. There was no confusion; no attempts 
by men to get into the boats. So far as I knew 
all the women and children were put on board the 
boats and I was not aware that any were left. 
There was a list of the ship to port. I think I 
remained an hour and a half on the Titanic after 
the impact. I noticed her going down by the 
head, sinking. Our boat was fairly full. After 
all the women and children got in and there were 
no others on that side of the deck, I got in while 
the boat was being lowered. Before we got into 
the boat 1 do not know that any attempt was made 
to call up any of the passengers on the Boat Deck, 
nor did I inquire. 


And also examined by Mr. A. C. Edwards, M. 
P., counsel for the Dock Workers' Union. Mr. 
Ismay's testimony was taken as follows: 


Mr. Edwards: You were responsible for deter- 
mining the number of boats? 

Mr, Ismay: Yes, in conjunction with the ship- 

Mr. Edwards: You knew when you got into the 
boat that the ship was sinking? 

Mr. Ismay: Yes. 

Mr. Edwards: Had It occurred to you apart 
perhaps from the captain, that you,, as the repre- 
sentative managing director, deciding the number 
of Ufeboats, owed your life to every other person 
on the ship? 

The President: That is not the sort of question 
which should be put to this witness. You can 
make comment on it when you come to your 
speech If you like. 

Mr, Edwards: You took an active part in di- 
recting women and children into the boats? 

Mr. Ismay: I did all I could. 

Mr. Edwards : Why did you not go further and 
send for other people to come on deck and fill the 

Mr, Ismay: I put in everyone who was there 
and I got in as the boat was being lowered away, 

Mr. Edwards: Were you not giving directions 
and getting women and children in? 

Mr. Ismay: I was calling to them to come in. 

Mr. Edwards: Why then did you not give in- 


WOMEN first; men NEXT 


:self eithei 

I the other side 


structions or 

of the deck or below decks to get people up? 

Mr. Ismay: I understood there were people 
there sending them up. 

Mr. Edwards: But you knew there were hun- 
dreds who had not come up? 

Lord Mersey: Your point, as I understand It 
now, is that, having regard for his position, as 
managing director, it was his duty to remain on 
the ship until she went to the bottom? 

Mr. Edwards: Frankly, that is so, and I do not 
flinch from it; but I want to get it from the wit- 
ness, inasmuch as he took it upon himself to give 
certain directions at a certain time, why he did not 
discharge his responsibility after in regard to 
other persons or passengers. 

Mr. Ismay: There were no more passengers 
who would have got Into the boat. The boat was 
being actually lowered away. 

Examined by Sir Robert Finley for White Star 

Mr. Finley: Have you crossed very often to 
and from America? 

Mr. Ismay: Very often. 

Mr. Finley: Have you ever, on any occasion, 
attempted to Interfere with the navigation of the 
vessel on any of these occasions? 


Mr. Ismay: No. ' 

Mr. Finley: When you left the deck just be- 
fore getting into the collapsible boat, did you hear 
the officer calling out for more women? ] 

Mr, Ismay: I do not think I did; but I heard ] 
them calling for women very often. 1 

Mr. Edwards: When the last boat left the I 
Titanic you must have known that a number of 1 
passengers and crew were still on board? 

Mr. Ismay: I did. 

Mr. Edwards: And yet you did not see any 
on the deck? 

Mr. Ismay: No, I did not see any, and I 
could only assume that the other passengers had 
gone to the other end of the ship. 

From an address (Br. Inq.) by Mr. A. Clement 
Edwards, M. P., Counsel for Dock Workers* 
Union : 

What was Mr. Ismay's duty? 

Coming to Mr. Ismay's conduct, Mr. Edwards 
said it was clear that that gentleman had taken 
upon himself to assist in getting women and 
children into the boats. He had also admitted 
that when he left the Titanic he knew she was 
doomed, that there were hundreds of people in 
the ship, that he didn't know whether or not 
there were any women or children left, and that 


he did not even go to the other side of the Boat 
Deck to see whether there were any women and 
children waiting to go. Counsel submitted that 
a gentleman occupying the position of managing 
director of the company owning the Titanic, and 
who had taken upon himself the duty of assisting 
at the boats, had certain special and further duties 
beyond an ordinary passenger's duties, and that he 
had no more right to save his life at the expense 
of any single person on board that ship than the 
captain would have had. He (Mr. Edwards) 
said emphatically that Mr. Ismay did not dis- 
charge his duty at that particular moment by 
taking 3 careless glance around the starboard side 
of the Boat Deck. He was one of the few persons 
who at the time had been placed in a position of 
positive knowledge that the vessel was doomed, 
and it was his clear duty, under the circumstances, 
to see that someone made a search for passengers 
in other places than in the immediate vicinity of 
the Boat Deck. 

Lord Mersey: Moral duty do you mean? 

Mr. Edwards: I agree; but I say that a 
managing director going on board a liner, com- 
mercially responsible for it and taking upon him- 
self certain functions, had a special moral obliga- 
tion and duty more than is possessed by one 
passenger to another passenger. 


Lord Mersey: But how is a moral duty rela- 
tive to this inquiry? It might be argued that 
there was a moral duty for every man on board 
that every woman should take precedence, and I 
might have to inquire whether every passenger 
carried out his moral duty. 

Mr. Edwards agreed that so far as the greater 
questions involved in this case were concerned 
this matter was one of trivial importance. 

From address of Sir Robert Finlay, K. C, M. 
P., Counsel for White Star Company (Br. Inq.) : 

It has been said by Mr. Edwards that Mr. 
Ismay had no right to save his life at the expense 
of any other life. He did not save his life at 
the expense of any other life. If Mr. Edwards 
had taken the trouble to look at the evidence he 
would have seen how unfounded this charge Is. 
There Is not the slightest ground for suggesting 
that any other life would have been saved if Mr. 
Ismay had not got into the boat. He did not get 
Into the boat until it was being lowered away. 

Mr. Edwards has said that it was Mr. Ismay's 
plain duty to go about the ship looking for pas- 
sengers, but the fact Is that the boat was being 
lowered. Was it the duty of Mr. Ismay to have 
remained, though by doing so no other life could 
have been saved? If he had been impelled to 






commit suicide of that kind, then it would have 
been stated that he went to the bottom because 
he dared not face this inquiry. There is no ob- 
servation of an unfavorable nature to be made 
from any point of view upon Mr. Ismay's con- 
duct. There was no duty devolving upon him of 
going to the bottom with his ship as the captain 
did. He did all he could to help the women and 
children. It was only when the boat was being 
lowered that he got into it. He violated no point 
of honor, and if he had thrown his life away in 
the manner now suggested it would be said he did 
it because he was conscious he could not face this 
inquiry and so he had lost his life. 

Floated off the ship. 

Passengers: T. Beattle,* P. D. Daly.J G. 
Rheims, R. N. Williams, Jr., first-class; O. 
Abelseth,! W. J- Mellers, second-class; and Mrs. 
Rosa Abbott,J Edward LIndley,t third-class. 

Crew: Steward : E. Brown. Firemen : J. 
Thompson, one unidentified body,* Seaman: 
one unidentified body-* 

'Body fcnui<i in boat by Oceacuc 

tDied in boat. 

f Pulled into boat out of ka. 


An extraordinary story pertains to this boat. 
At the outset of my research it was called a "boat 
of mystery," occasioned by the statements of the 
Titanic's officers. In his conversations with me, 
as well as in his testimony, Officer Lightoller stated 
that he was unable to loosen this boat from the 
ship in time and that he and his men were com- 
pelled to abandon their efforts to get it away. 
The statement in consequence was that this boat 
"A" was not utilized but went down with the 
ship. My recent research has disabused his mind 
of this supposition. There were only four Engel- 
hardt boats in all as we have already learned, 
and we have fully accounted for "the upset boat 
B," and "D," the last to leave the ship in the 
tackles, and boat "C," containing Mr. Ismay, 
which reached the Carpatkia's side and was 
unloaded there. After all the mystery we have 
reached the conclusion that boat "A" did not 
go down with the ship, but was the one 
whose occupants were rescued by Officer Lowe 
in the early morning, and then abandoned 
with three dead bodies in it. This also was 
the boat picked up nearly one month later by the 
Oceanic nearly 200 miles from the scene of the 

I have made an exhaustive research up to date 

WOMEN first; men next 


for the 

of dis 

' Boat A left 


the ship. Information in regard thereto is ob- 
tained from the testimony before the British 
Court of Inquiry of Steward Edward Brown, 
from first-class passenger R. N. Williams, Jr., 
and from an account of William J. Mellers, a 
second cabin passenger as related by him to Dr. 
Washington Dodge. Steward Brown, it will be 

r observed, testified that he was washed out of the 
©at and yet "did not know whether he went 

Vdown in the water." As he could not swim, an 
analysis of his testimony forces me to believe 
that he held on to the boat and did not have 
to swim and that boat "A" was the same one 
that he was in when he left the ship. I am 
forced to the same conclusion in young Williams' 
case after an analysis of his statement that he 
toolt off his big fur overcoat In the water and 
cast It adrift while he swam twenty yards 
to the boat, and In some unaccountable way 

b'tiie fur coat swam after him and also got 

pinto the boat. At any rate It was found in 
the boat when it was recovered later as shown 
in the evidence. 

I also have a letter from Mr. George Rhelms, 
of Paris, indicating his presence on this same boat 
with Messrs. Williams and Mellers and Mrs. 
Abbott and others. 


Edward Brown, steward (Br. Inq.) : 
Witness helped with boats ;, 3i i and C, and 1 
then helped with another collapsible; tried to get | 
it up to the davits when the ship gave a list to 
port. The falls were slackened but the boat 
could not be hauled away any further. There 
were four or five women waiting to get into the 
boat. The boat referred to was the collapsible 
boat "A" which they got off the ofRcers' house. 
They got it down by the planks, but witness does 
not know where the planks came from. He I 
thinks they were with the bars which came from ' 
the other boats; yet he had no difficulty In getting 
the boat off the house. The ship was then up 
to the bridge under water, well down by the head. 
He jumped into the boat then and called out to 
cut the falls. He cut them at the aft end, but 
cannot say what happened to the forward fall. 
He was washed out of the boat but does not know 
whether he went down in the water.* He had 
his lifebelt on and came to the top. People were 
all around him. They tore his clothes away J 
struggling in the water. He could not swim, but J 
got into the collapsible boat "A." Only men were I 
in it, but they picked up a woman and some meal 




afterwards, consisting of passengers, stewards 
and crew. There were sixteen men. Fifth 
Officer Lowe in boat No. 14 picked them up. 

O. Abeheth (Am. Inq.) : 

Witness describes the period just before the 
ship sank when an effort was made to get out 
the collapsible boats on the roof of the officers' 
house. The officer wanted help and called out: 
"Are there any sailors here?" It was only about 
five feet to the water when witness jumped off. 
It was not much of a jump. Before that he could 
see the people were jumping over. He went under 
and swallowed some water. A rope was tangled 
around him. He came on top again and tried 
to swim. There were lots of men floating around. 
One of them got him on the neck and pressed 
him under the water and tried to get on top, but 
he got loose from him. Then another man hung 
on to him for a while and let go. Then he swam 
for about fifteen or twenty minutes. Saw some- 
thing dark ahead of him; swam towards it and 
it was one of the Engelhardt boats ("A"). He 
had a life-preserver on when he jumped from 
the ship. There was no suction at all. "I will 
try and see," he thought, "if I can float on the 
lifebelt without help from swimming," and he 
Qoated easily on the lifebelt. When he got on 


boat "A" no one assisted him, but they said when 
he got on: "Don't capsize the boat," so he hung' 
on for a Httle while before he got on. 

Some were trying to get on their feet who were 
sitting or lying down; others fell Into the water 
again. Some were frozen and there were two 
dead thrown overboard. On the boat he raised 
up and continuously moved his arms and swung 
them around to keep warm. There was one lady 
aboard this raft and she (Mrs. Abbott) was 
saved. There were also two Swedes and a first- 
class passenger. He said he had a wife and child. 
There was a fireman also named Thompson who 
had burned one of his hands; also a young boy 
whose name sounded like "Volunteer." He and 
Thompson were afterwards at St. Vincent's Hos- 
pital. In the morning he saw a boat with a sail 
up, and in unison they screamed together for help. 
Boat A was not capsized and the canvas was not 
raised up, and they could not get It up. They, 
stood all night in about twelve or fourteen inches- 
of water* — their feet in water all the time. Boat^ 
No. 14 sailed down and took them aboard am 
transferred them to the Carpathia, he helping 
row. There must have been ten or twelve save( 
from boat A; one man was from New Jersevja 
with whom he came in company from Londoi 
" Italics are mine. — Author. 


WOMEN first; men NEXT 


At daybreak he seemed unconscious. He took 
him by the shoulder and shook him. "Who are 
you?" he said; "let me be; who are you?" About 
half an hour or so later he died. 

In a recent letter from Dr. Washington Dodge 
he refers to a young man whom he met on the 
Carpathia, very much exhausted, whom he took 
to his stateroom and gave him medicine and 
medical attention. This young man was a gende- 
man's valet and a second cabin passenger. This 
answers to the description of William J. Mellers, 
to whom I have written, but as yet have received 
no response. Dr. Dodge says he believes this 
young man's story implicitly: He, Mellers, "was 
standing by this boat when one of the crew was 
endeavoring to cut the fastenings that bound it 
to the vessel just as the onrush of waters came 
up which tore it loose. It was by dinging to this 
i.boat that he was saved." 

^ R. N. Williams, Jr., in his letter writes me as 
follows : 

"I was not under water very long, and as soon 
as I came to the top I threw off the big fur coat 
I had on. I had put my lifebelt on under the coat, 
I also threw off my shoes. About twenty yards 

f. away I saw something floating. I swam to It and 


found it to be a collapsible boat. I hung on to 
it and after a while got aboard and stood up in 
the middle of it. The water was up to my waist.* 
About thirty of us clung to it. When Officer 
Lowe's boat picked us up eleven of us were alive; 
all the rest were dead from cold. My fur coat 
was found attached to this Engelhardt boat 'A* 
by the Oceanic, and also a cane marked 'C. 
Williams' This gave rise to the story that my 
father's body was in this boat, but this, as you 
see, is not so. How the cane got there I do not 

Through the courtesy of Mr. Harold Wlngate 
of the White Star Line in letters to me I have 
the following information pertaining to boat "A" : 

"One of the bodies found in this boat was that 
of Mr. Thompson Beattie. We got his watch and 
labels from his clothes showing his name and 
that of the dealer, which we sent to the executor. 
Two others were a fireman and a sailor, both 
unidentified. The overcoat belonging to Mr. 
Williams I sent to a furrier to be re-conditloned, 
but nothing could be done with it except to dry 
it out, so I sent it to him as it was. There was 
no cane in the boat. The message from the 
Oceanic and the words 'R. N. Williams, care of ! 

Italics are mine. — Author. 

WOMEN first; men NEXT 319 

Duane Williams' were twisted by the receiver of 
the message to 'Richard N. Williams, cane of 
Duane Williams,' * which got into the press, and 
thus perpetuated the error. 

"There was also a ring found in the boat whose 
owner we eventually traced In Sweden and re- 
stored the property to her. We cannot account 
for its being in the boat, but we know that her 
husband was a passenger on the Titanic — Edward 
P. Lindell, a third-class passenger. The widow's . 
address is, care of Nels Persson, Helsingborg, 

Rescue of the occupants of boat "A" at day- 
light Monday morning is recorded in the testi- 
mony of Officer Lowe and members of the crew 
of his boat No. 14 and the other boats 12, 10, 4 
and "D" which were tied together. No. 14 we 
recall was emptied of passengers and a crew 
taken from all the boats referred to went back 
to the wreck. The substance of the testimony 
of all of them agrees and I need only cite that 
of Quartennaster Bright, in charge of boat "D," 
as follows: 

A. Bright, Q. M. (in charge) (Am. Inq., 834) : 
Just at daylight witness saw from his place in 
Italics are mine. — Author. 


boat "D" one of the other collapsible boats, "A," 
that was awash just flush with the water. Officer 
Lowe came and towed witness's boat to the other 
collapsible one that was just awash and took from 
it thirteen men and one woman who were in the 
water up to their ankles. They had been singing 
out in the dark. As soon as daylight came they 
could be seen. They were rescued and the boat 
turned adrift with two dead bodies in it, covered 
with a lifebelt over their faces. 

Admiral Mahan on Ismay's duty: 

Rear Admiral A, T. Mahan, retired, in a 
letter which the Evening Post publishes, has this 
to say of J. Bruce Ismay's duty: 

In the Evening Post of April 24 Admiral 
Chadwick passes a distinct approval upon the 
conduct of Mr. Ismay in the wreck of the Titanic 
by characterizing the criticisms passed upon it as 
the "acme of emotionalism." 

Both censure and approval had best wait upon 
the results of the investigations being made in 
Great Britain. Tongues will wag, but If men like 
Admiral Chadwick see fit to publish anticipatory _ 
opinions those opinions must receive anticipator] 

Certain facts are so notorious that they 1 

WOMEN first; men NEXT 


no inquiry to ascertain. These are (t) that 
before the collision the captain of the Titanic 
was solely responsible for the management of the 
ship; {2) after the collision there were not boats 
enough to embark more than one-third of those 
on board, and, (3) for that circumstance the 
White Star Company is solely responsible, not 
legally, for the legal requirements were met, but 
morally. Of this company, Mr. Ismay is a prom- 
inent if not the most prominent member. 

For all the loss of life the company is re- 
sponsible, individually and collectively: Mr, 
Ismay personally, not only as one of the mem- 
bers. He believed the Titanic unsinkable; the 
belief relieves of moral guilt, but not of respon- 
sibility. Men bear the consequences of their mis- 
takes as well as of their faults. He — and Ad- 
miral Chadwick — justify his leaving over fifteen 
hundred persons, the death of each one of whom 
lay on the company, on the ground that it was 
the last boat half filled; and Mr. Ismay has said, 
no one else to be seen. 

No one to be seen; but was there none to be 
reached? Mr. Ismay knew there must be many, 
because he knew the boats could take only a third. 
The Titanic was 882 feet long; 92 broad; say, 
from Thirty-fourth street to a little north of 
Thirty-seventh, Within this space were con- 

K plet 


gregated over 1,500 souls, on several decks. 
True, to find any one person at such a moment 
in the Intricacies of a vessel were a vain hope; 
but to encounter some stragglers would not seem 
to be. Read in the Suii and Times of April 25 
Col. Grade's account of the "mass of humanity, 
men and women" that suddenly appeared before 
him after the boats were launched. 

In an interview reported in the New York 
Times April 25 Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge, a 
very distinguished officer, holds that Mr. Ismay 
was but a passenger, as other passengers. True, 
up to a certain point. He is in no sense responsi- 
ble for the collision; but when the collision had 
occurred he confronted a wholly new condition 
for which he was responsible and not the captain, 
viz., a sinking vessel without adequate provision 
for saving life. Did no obligation to particularity 
of conduct rest upon him under such a condition? 

I hold that under the conditions, so long as 
there was a soul that could be saved, the obliga- 
tion lay upon Mr. Ismay that that one person and 
not he should have been in the boat. More than 
1,500 perished. Circumstances yet to be de- 
veloped may justify Mr. Ismay's actions com- 
pletely, but such justification is Imperatively re- 
quired. If this be "the acme of emotionalism" 
I must be content to bear the imputation. 





Admiral Chadwick urges the "preserving a 
life so valuable to the great organization to which 
Mr. Ismay belongs." This bestows upon Mr. 
Ismay's escape a kind of halo of self-sacrifice. No 
man is indispensable. There are surely brains 
enough and business capacity enough in the White 
Star company to run without him. The reports 
say that of the rescued women thirty-seven were 
'widowed by the accident and the lack of boats. 
Their husbands were quite as indispensable to 
them as Mr. Ismay to the company. His duty 
to the ship's company was clear and primary; that 
to the White Star company so secondary as to 
be at the moment inoperative. 

We should be careful not to pervert standards. 
Witness the talk that the result is due to the 
system. What is a system, except that which 
individuals have made it and keep it? Whatever 
thus weakens the sense of individual responsibility 
is harmful, and so likewise is all condonation of 
failure of the individual to meet his responsibility. 

' I" 

■ If 



By Charles Vale 

COLONEL GRACIE died on the fourth 
of December, 1912. He had been in 
feeble health all through the summer, but 
had no definite physical complaint. He felt ill 
and weak, and ascribed his condition to the ex- 
posure and strain through which he went in the 
Titanic disaster. Mrs. Gracie and his daughter 
were with him up to the end, which he knew was 
coming, for the day before he died he had the 
minister of the Church of the Incarnation brought 
to his bedside, and Holy Communion was admin- 
istered. On the next day he was unconscious for 
twelve hours ; but just before he died he 
became conscious for about ten minutes, recogniz- 
ing everyone and bidding them good-bye. 

The funeral service was held at Calvary 
Church, where he was married, and a large num- 
ber of the members of the Seventh Regiment, to 
which he belonged, were present. The church 
was beautifully decorated. Mrs. Astor was there, 


and many other Titanic survivors, several of 
whom Colonel Grade had helped into the boats 
at the dme of the disaster. The interment took 
place at the Grade plot at Woodlawn. 

And so his book finishes here. He had in- 
tended to write a final chapter, reviewing the 
tragedy of the Titanic in retrospect, and in the 
light of all the later information that he had 
gathered; drawing the lessons that seemed most 
necessary in the present, and most serviceable for 
the future; and rounding out his story with the 
finishing touches. 

But the actual Finis must be written by another 
hand. Well, it does not greatly matter. The 
real work has been completed, In its entirety. 
The picture has been drawn, the details faithfully 
gathered together and arranged in their due 
order. The rest was merely an affair of reflection 
and comment; and of such looking backward 
there has been already sufficient. 

I met Colonel Gracie, for the first — and last — 
time, at a luncheon at the Waldorf-Astoria, in 
New York, when the world was still ringing with 
echoes of the great catastrophe. The extraor- 
dinary experiences through which he had passed, 
and the terrible scenes that he had witnessed, were 


9til! as vivid to him as if they had happened the 
day before; but he talked very quietly, directly, 
unaffectedly, neither obtruding nor avoiding the 
personal element. There was something strangely 
gracious In his attitude; I heard no harsh or con- 
demnatory word from him : he seemed to have the 
rare gift of comprehension of human nature, the 
rare sense of proportion. He accused no man of 
cowardice or inefficiency; but narrated the facts 
as he saw them, volunteering no Inferences. And 
gradually, In that atmosphere of careless, casual 
security; with men and Women from every corner 
of more than one continent scattered about the 
room; with all the obvious, and more subtle, pre- 
suppositions of civilization that a luxurious hotel 
in a huge metropolis Illustrates; — there was 
evolved the picture of the great ship, going to her 
doom In the night, with her living cargo. I can- 
not express fully the vividness of that image, — 
carved, as it were, from the darkness of memory 
and imposed on the sunlight of a summer's day. 
It stands out for me, ineffaceable, unforgettable — 
as it must stand out for all who passed through 
those tragic hours and still live to recall how 
near they were to death. One retraced the grow- 
ing realization of the gravity of the situation; the 
conviction that the ship must Inevitably sink be- 
fore help could arrive; and, finally, the resolute 


facing of destiny. Good and bad deeds were done 
that night and morning: but the good outvalue 
the bad, immeasurably; and when the littlenesses 
have been duly reckoned, and the few cowards 
dismissed, and the uncouth or selfish weighed and 
found wanting, there remains the grand total of 
brave and steadfast men and women whose names 
must be enrolled impcrishably in any record of 

In a note like this, closing a work which de- 
pends so much on the intimate connection of the 
author with the scenes that he describes, it is per- 
missible to be personal. I had read, in a daily 
paper, Colonel Gracie's first account of his ex- 
periences; had been struck by the special quality 
of the writing, by the pervading atmosphere of 
true chivalry — no other word can suggest quite 
adequately the impression conveyed by that nar- 
rative, written under the stress of poignant 
memories. I think that the effect produced by the 
account was the same with all who read it: cer- 
tainly I have met no one who did not recognize 
the spirituality and fineness shining through the 
written words — a spirituality not opposed to, but 
entirely in consonance with, the unmistakable 
virility of the author. And so, when I met him, 
I was peculiarly interested in his personality: it 
seenied to me that this man who was sitting at my 



left hand, talking quietly, had descended as dis- 
tinctly into hell as any human being would care 
to acknowledge, and had risen again from the 
dead — or, at least, from the sea of the dead — into 
a world which could never again be quite the 
same to him. I found myself looking from time 
to time at his eyes; and I saw in them what I have 
seen only once or twice in the eyes of living men — 
the experience of death, the acceptance of death, 
and the irrevocable impress of death. Andj 
though he carried himself as a man accustomed 
to adventures and unafraid of the big or little 
ironies of destiny, he was conscious, I think, of a 
certain isolation, a new aloofness from the ordi- 
nary routine of daily life. He had been so near 
to the end of dreams, had seen the years flash 
past so suddenly into true perspective, that it was 
difficult to resume the trivial round and recon- 
stitute a mental world in which details should ac- 
quire again their former pretence of importance. 
Colonel Gracie survived for less than eight 
months after the loss of the Titanic. Judged by 
the imperfect reckoning of impulse, it would seem 
almost unfair that he should have gone through 
so much, winning his life In the face of such 
deadly hazards, only to surrender It after a brief 
interval. But he himself would have been the 
I last to complain. His implicit faith in Providence 


could not be shaken by any personal suffering. 
He made a brave fight for life, as he had made 
a brave fight for the lives of others while the 
Titanic was sinking. When the end was inevi- 
table, he accepted it with composure, though he 
had foreseen it with sadness. 

The thought of the tragedy with which his 
name will always be associated, was constantly in 
his mind. The writing of his book involved a 
great deal of intimate correspondence, with the 
perpetual revival of painful memories. He made 
no effort to evade this strain: it was part of the 
task that he had undertaken. He felt strongly 
that the work he was doing was absolutely neces- 
sary, and could not be neglected. It was both a 
public service and a private duty. Simply and 
sincerely, he dedicated himself to that service and 
duty. And now, he has done his work, and lived 
his life, and gone out into the light beyond the 
darkness. His country has lost a very gallant 
gentleman. The world has one more legend of 
brave deeds. 



■ "t 






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