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Europe, Jlsia, Sfricke. and America , 



Vol. I. 



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William W. Gray, Printer- 






S>3S®I?ILIS ®W 1W&WB&&9 

This History of the Settlement of the Colony; 
and Narrative of the Adventures of one of the 
most accomplished Hero's of the World; 

Is respectfully dedicated, by the 





Lord Steward of his Majesties most Honourable Household 


Cheat Chamberlaine of England. 



And all your Honourable friends and Well-wishers. 

my lords: 

Sir Robert Cotton, that most learned Treasurer of Anti- 
quitie, having by perusall of my generall Historie, and others, 
found that I had likewise undergone divers other as hard ha- 
zards in the other parts of the world, requested me to fix 
the whole course of my passages in a booke by it selfe, whose 
noble desire I could not but in part satisfie; the rather, be- 
cause they have acted my fatal Tragedies upon the Stage, 
and racked my Relations at their pleasure. To prevent 
therefore all future misprisions, I have compiled this true 
discourse. Envie hath taxed me to have writ too much, and 
done too little; but that such should know, how little I es- 
teeme them, I have writ this, more for the satisfaction of my 
friends, and all generous and well disposed Readers: To 
speake only of my selfe were intolerable ingratitude; because, 
having had so many co-partners with me; I cannot make a 
Monument for my self, and leave them unburied in the fields, 
whose lives begot me the title of a Soldier; for as they were 
companions with me in my dangers, so shall they be parta- 
kers with me in this Tombe. 


For my Sea Grammar (caused to bee printed by my wor- 
thy friend, Sir Samuel Saltonstall) hath found such good en- 
tertainment abroad, that I have beene importuned by many 
noble persons, to let this also passe the Presse. Many of the 
most eminent Warriers, and others, what their swords did, 
their penns writ: Though I bee never so much their inferiour, 
yet I hold it no great errour, to follow good examples; nor 
repine at them, will doe the like. 

And now my most Honourable good Lords, I know not to 
whom I may better present it, than to your Lordships, whose 
friendships, as I conceive, are as much to each others, as my 
duty is to you all; and because you are acquainted both with 
my endeavours, and writings, I doubt not but your honours 
will as well accept of this, as of the rest, and Patronize it un- 
der the shadow of your most noble vertucs, which I am ever 
bound in all duty to reverence, and under which I hope to 
have, shelter, against all stormes that dare threaten. 

Your Honours to be commanded, 



His birth; apprentiship; going into France; his beginning 
with ten shillings and three pence; his service in Nether- 
lands; his bad passage into Scotland; his retume to Wil- 
loughhy; and how he lived in the woods. 

Chap. 2. The notable villany of foure French Gallants, 
and his revenge; Smith throwne over-boord, Captaine La 
RGche of Saint Malo releeves him. 

Chap. 3. A desperate Sea-fight in the Straights; his 
passage to Rome, Naples, and the view of Italy. 

Chap. 4. The Siege of Olumpagh; an excellent strata- 
gem by Smith; another not much worse. 

Chap. 5. The Siege of Stowlle-Wesenburg; the effects 
of Smiths Fire-works; a worthy exploit of the Earle Ros- 
worme; Earle Meldritch takes the Bashaiv prisoner. 

Chap. 6. A brave encounter of the Turks armie with the 
Christians; Duke Mercury overthroweth Assan Bashaw: 
He divides the Christian armie; his noblenesse and death. 

Chap. 7. The unhappy siege of Caniza; Earle Meldritch 
serveth Prince Sigismundus; Prince Moyses besiegeth Rc- 
gall; Smith's three single combats. 

Chap. 8. Georgio Busca an Albane, his ingratitude to 
Prince Sigismundus; Prince Moyses his Lieutenant, is over- 
throwne by Busca, Generall for the Emperour Rodolphus; 
Smiths Patent from Sigismundus, and reward. 

Chap. 9. Sigismundus sends Ambassadours unto the Em- 
perour; the conditions re-assured; he yeeldeth up all to Bus- 
ca, and returneth to Prague. 

Chap. 10. The Battell of Rottenton; a pretty stratagem 
of fire-works by Smith. 

Chap. 11. The names of the English that were slaine in 
the battle of Rottenton; and how Captaine Smith was taken 
prisoner; and sold for a slave. 

Chap. 12. How Captaine Smith was sent prisoner thorow 
the Blacke and Dissahacca Sea in Tartaria; the description 
of those Seas, and his usage. 

Chap. 13. The Turks diet; the Slaves diet; the attire of 
the Tartars; and manner of Warres and Religions, &c. 

Chap. 14. The description of the Crym- Tartars; their 
houses and carts; their idolatry in their lodgings. 


Chap. 15. Their feasts; common diet; Princes estate; 
buildings; lawes; slaves; entertainment of Ambassadours. 

Chap. 16. How he levieth an Armie; their Armes and 
Provision; how he divideth the spoile; and his service to the 
Great Turke. 

Chap. 17. How Captaine Smith escaped his captivity; 
slew the Bashaw of Nalbrits in Cambia; his passage to Rus- 
sia, Transilvania, and the middest of Europe to Africa. 

Chap. 18. The observations of Captaine Smith; Mr. 
Henry Archer, and others in Barbary. 

Cap. 19. The strange discoveries and observations of the 
Portugals in Affrica. 

Chap. 20. A brave Sea-fight betwixt two Spanish men of 
warre, and Captaine Merham, with Smith. 

Chap. 21. The continuation of the generall History of 
Virginia; the Summer lies; and New England; with their 
present estate from 1624, to this present 1629. 

Chap. 22. The proceedings and present estate of the 
Summer lies, from An. Dom. 1614, to this present 1629. 

Chap. 23. The proceedings and present estate of New- 
England, since 1624, to this present 1629. 

Chap. 24. A briefe discourse of divers voyages made un- 
to the goodly Country of Guiana, and the greatvRiver of the 
Amazons; relating also the present Plantation there. 

Chap. 25. The beginning and proceedings of the new 
plantation of St. Christopher by Captaine Warner. 

Chap. 26. The first planting of the Barbados. 

Chap. 27. The first plantation of the He of Mevis. 

Chap. 28. The bad life, qualities and conditions of Py- 
rats; and how they taught the Turks and Moores to become 
men of wane. 



Two greatest Shires of England did thee beare, 
Renowned Yorkshire, Gaunt-stild Lancashire; 
But what's all this? even Earth, Sea, Heaven above, 
Tragabigzanda Callamata's love, 
Deare Pocahontas, Madam Shanoi's too, 
Who did what love with modesty could doe, 
Record thy worth, thy birth, which as I live, 
Even in thy reading such choice solace give, 
As I could wish, (such wishes would doe well) 
Many such Smiths in tliis our Israel. 




Thou haste a course full of honour runne, 

Envy may snarle, as dogges against the Simne 

May barke, not bite: for what deservedly 

With thy lifes danger, valour, pollicy, 

Quaint warlike stratagems, ability 

And judgment, thou hast got, fame sets so high 

Detraction cannot reach: thy worth shall stand 

A patterne to succeeding ages, and 

Cloth'd in thy owne lines, ever shall adde grace, 

Vnto thy native country and thy race; 

And when dissolv'd, laid in thy mother's wombe; 

These, CWar-like, Smith's Epitaph and tombe. 




Mosgst Frenchmen, Spaniards, Hungars, Tartars, Turks, 

And wilde Virginians too, this tells thy works; 

Now some will aske, what benefit? what gaine? 

Is added to thy store for all this paine? 

Th' art then content to say, content is all, 

Th' ast got content for perils, paine and thrall; 

Tis lost to looke for more: for few men now 

Regard Wit, Learning, Valour; but allow 

The quintessence of praise to him that can 

Number his owne got gold, and riches, than 

Th' art Valiant, Learned, Wise; Pauls counsell will. 

Admire thy merits, magnifie thy skill. 

The last of thine to which I set my hand 

Was a Sea Grammar; this by Sea and Land, 

Serves us for imitation: I know none, 

That like thy selfe hast come, and runne, and gone, 

To such praise-worthy actions: bee't approu'd, 

Th' ast well deserv'd of best men to be lou'd: 

If France, or Spaine, or any forren soile 

Could claime thee theirs, for these thy paines and toile, 

Th' adst got reward and honour, now adayes, 

What our owne natives doe, we seldome praise. 

Good men will yeeld thee praise; then sleight the rest* 

Tis best praise-worthy to have pleas'd the best. 

Tuissimus ed. iorden. 



Deahe noble Captaine, who by Sea and Land, 

To act the earnest of thy name hast hand 

And heart; who canst with skill design the Fort, 

The Leaguer, Harbour, City, Shore, and Port: 

Whose sword and pen in bold, ruffe, Martiall, wise. 

1'ut forth to try and beare away the prize, 

From Cxsar and Blaize Monhit: Can it be, 

That Men alone in Gonnals fortune see 

Thy worth advanc'd? no wonder since our age. 

Is now at large a Bedlem or a Stage- 




Thou that hast had a spirit to flie like thunder, 

Without thy Countries charge through those strange dangers, 
Doth make my muse amaz'd, and more to wonder, 

That thy deserts should shared be by strangers, 
And thou neglected; (ah miracle!) most lamented, 

At thy great patience thus to rest contented. 

.For none can truly say thou didst deceive, 

Thy Soldiers, Sailers, Merchants, nor thy friends, 

But all from thee a true account receive; 

Yet nought to thee all these thy vertues brings; 

Is none so noble to advance thy merit, 
If any be, let him thy praise inherit* 




To combate with three Turks in single du'le. 
Before two Armies, who the like hath done? 

Slaine thy great tailor; found a common weale 
In faire d?nerica; where thou hast wonne 

No lesse renowne amongst their Savage Kings, 
Than Turkish warres, that thus thy honour sings. 

Could not those tyrants daunt thy matchlesse spirit. 

Nor all the cruelty of envies spight? 
Will sot thy Country yet reward thy merit, 

Nor in thy acts and writings take delight? 
Which here in so few sheets doth more express© 

Than volumes great, this is thy happinesse. 




THorhastno need to covet new applause. 

Nor doe I thinke vaine-glory moves thee to it; 
But since it is thy will (though without cause) 

To move a needlesse thing, yet will I doe it- 
Doe it in briefe I will, or else I doe the wrong, 

And say, read or'e Captaine Smiths former song; 
His first then will invite thee to his latter: 

Header 'tis true} I am not brib'd to flatter. 




The old Greefce Beard, counts him the onely man, 
Who knows strange Countries, like his Ithacan, 
And wise, as valiant, by his observation, 
Can tell the severall customes of each Nation.- 
All these are met in thee, who will not then 
Repute thee in the ranke of worthiest men? 

To th' Westerne world to former times unknowne. 
Thy active spirit hath thy valour showne.- 
The Turks and Tartars both can testifie, 
Thee t' have deserv'd a Captaines dignity; 
But verse thou need'st not to express thy Worth, 
Thy acts, this booke doe plainly set it forth. 




No *Faithi?i Campe? tis false.- see pious Smith 

Hath brought stragling Astrsa backc, and with 

An all outdaring spirit made Valour stand 

Vpheld by Verlve in bold Jllars his land.- 

If Valourous, be praise; how great's his Name? 

Whose Valour joyned with Vertue laud's his Fame. 

T'was Homers boast of wise Laertes sonne, 

f Well-read in men and Cities- than thou none- 

(Great Smith) of these can more true tales rehearse; 

What want thy praises then, but Homers verse? 

Jn Smithum Distichon. 

Quisque suae sortis }Faber: an Faber exstitit unquam 
Te (Smithe) fortune verior usque sux? 

I. C. 
C, P. 



To see bright honour sparkled all in gore, 

Would Steele a spirit that ne're fought before; 

And that's the height of Fame, when our best bloud, 

Is nobly spilt in actions great and good: 

So thou hast taught the world to purchase Fame, 

Hearing thy stpry on a glorious frame, 

And such foundation doth thy merits make it, 

As all detractions rage shall never shake it; 

Thy actions crowne themselves, and thy owne pen, 

Gives them the best and truest Epiphonem. 


* Nulla fdes pietasque rnris, qui cas(ra seqiuUur. 

f HoT&civ & avdpQ7tov iSev acsa, xai voqv &yvd mm. 

Odyss, a. 



Can one please all? there's none from Censure free, 

To looke for't then it were absurd in thee; 

It's easie worke to censure sweetest Layes, 

Where Ignorance is Iudge thou'd have no praise; 

Wisdom I know will mildly judge of all, 

Envious hearts, tongues, pennes, are dippt in Gall, 

Proud malignant times will you now bring forth 

Monsters at least to snarle at others worth; 

O doe not so, but wisely looke on him 

That wrought such Honours for his Countries King; 

Of Turks and Tartars thou hast wonne the field, 

The grcr.t Bashaw his Courage thou hast quel'd; 

In the Hungarianwarre thou'st shewd thy Arts, 

Prou'd thy Selfe a Souldiev true in all parts: 

Thy Armes are deckt with that thy Sword hath wonne, 

Which mallice can't out-weare till day be done: 

For three proud Turku in single fight thou'st slue, 

Their Heads adorne thy Jirmes, for witnesse true; 

Let JWars and JVeptune both with Pregnant wit, 

Extoll thy due deserts, He pray for it. 




A> T D 





Europe, &sia, Africke, and Am&Yica: 

Beginning about the yeere 1593, and continued 
to this present 16^9. 


His Birth; Apprentiship; Going into France; IBs be- 
ginning with ten shillings and three pence; His 
Service in Netherlands; His had passage into Scot- 
land; His returne to Willougliby; And how he lived 
in the Woods. 

He was borne in Willoughby in Lincolne- shire, and a 
Scholler in the two Free-schooles of Alford and Louth. His 
father anciently descended from the ancient Smiths of Crudley 
in Lancashire; his mother from the Rickands at great Heck in 
York-shire. His parents dying when he was about thirteene 
yeeres of age, left him a competent means, which hee not be- 
ing capable to manage, little regarded; his minde being even 
then set upon brave adventures, sould his Satchell, bookes, 
and all he had, intending secretly to get to Sea, but that his fa- 
thers death stayed him. But now the Guardians of his estate 
more regarding it than him, he had libertie enough, though 


no meanes, to get beyond the Sea. About the age of fifteene 
yeeres hee was bound an Apprentice to Mr. Thomas Sendall 
of Linne, the greatest Merchant of all those parts; but be- 
cause hee would not presently send him to Sea T he never saw 
his master in eight yeeres after. At last he found meanes to 
attend Mr. Perigrine Barty into France, second sonnc to the 
Right Honourable Perigrine, that generous Lord Willoughby, 
and famous Souldicr; where commins; to his brother Robert, 
then at Orleans, now Earle of Linsey, and Lord great 
Chamberlaine of England; being then but little youths under 
Tutorage: his service being needlesse, within a moneth or 
six weekes they sent him haeke againe to his friends; who 
when he came from London they liberally gave him (but out 
of his ownc estate) ten shillings to be rid of him; such oft is 
the share of fatherlesse children, but those two Honourable 
Brethren gave him sufficient to returne for England. But 
it was the least thought of his determination, for now being 
freely at libertie in Paris, growing acquainted with one Mas- 
ter David Hume, who making some use of his purse, gave 
him Letters to his friends in Scotland to preferre him to King 
James. Arriving at Roane, he better bethinkes himselfe, see- 
ing his money neere spent, downe the River he went to Ha- 
ver de grace, where he first began to learne the life of a soul- 
dier: Peace being concluded in France, he went with Cap- 
taine Ioseph Duxbunj into the Low-countries, under whose 
Colours paving served three or foure yeeres, he toake his 
journey for Scotland, to deliver his Letters. At AncMsmi he 
imbarked himselfe for Lethe, but as much danger, as ship- 
wracke and sicknesse could endure, hee had at the holy He 
in Northumberland neere Banvieke: (being recovered) into 
Scotland he went to deliver his Letters. After much kinde 
usage amongst those honest Scots at R'qnceth and Browmoth, 
but neither money nor means to make him a Courtier, he 
returned to Willoughhy in Lincohe-shire; where within a 
short time being glutted with too much company, wherein he 
he took small delight, he retired himselfe into a little wood- 
die pasture, a good way from any towne, invironed with ma- 
ny hundred Acres of other woods: Here by a faire brook he 
built a Pavillion of boughes, where only in his eloa?hs he 
lay. His studie was Machiavilk Art of vvavre, and Marcus 
Aureliits; his exercise a good horse, with his lance and Ring; 
his food was thought to be more of venison than any thing 


else; what he wanted his man brought him. The countrey 
wondering at such an Hermite; His friends perswaded one 
Seignior Theadora Polalogu, Rider to Henry Earle of Lin- 
colne, an excellent Horse-man, and a noble Italian Gentle- 
man, to insinuate into his wooddfsh acquaintances, whose 
Languages and good discourse, and exercise of riding drew 
him to stay with him at Tattersall Long these pleasures 
could not content him, but hee returned againe to the Low- 


The notable villany of four e French Gallants, and 
his revenge; Smith throwne over-board. Captains 
La Roche of Saint Malo releeves him. 

Thus when France and Netherlands had taught him to 
ride a Horse and use his Armes, with such rudiments of 
warre, as his tender yeeres in those martiall Schooles could 
attaine unto; he was desirous to see more of the world, and 
trie his fortune against the Turkes, both lamenting and re- 
penting to have seene so many Christians slaughter one ano- 
ther. Opportunitie casting him into the company of fourc 
French Gallants well attended, faining to him the one to be 
a great Lord, the rest his Gentlemen, and that they were all 
devoted that way; over-perswaded him to goe with them into 
France, to the Dutchesse of Mercury, from whom they should 
not only have meanes, but also Letters of favour to her no- 
ble Duke, then Generall for the Emperour Rodolphus in 
Hungary; which he did, with such ill weather as winter af- 
fordeth, in the darke night they arrived in the broad shallow 
In-let of Saint Valleries sur Some in Pkardie; his French 
Lord . knowing he had good apparell, and better furnished 
with money than themselves, so plotted with the Master of 
the ship to set his and then owne trunckes a shore leaving 
Smith aboard till the boat could returne, which was the next 
day after towards evening; the reason hee alleaged was the 
sea went so high hee could come no sooner, and that hr§ 


Lord was gone to Amiens where they would stay his com- 
mirig; which treacherous villany, when divers other souldiers, 
and passengers understood, they had like to have slaine the 
Master, and had they knowne how, would have runne away 
with the ship. 

Comming on shore hee had but one Carralue, was forced 
to sell his cloake to pay for his passage. One of the soul- 
diers, called Curzianvere, compassionating his injury, assur- 
ed him this great Lord Depreau was only the sonne of a 
Lawyer of Mortaigne in base Britany, and his Attendants 
Cursett, La Nelie, and Monferrat, three young citizens, as 
arrant cheats as himselfe; but if he would accompany him, 
he would bring him to their friends, but in the interim sup- 
plied his wants: thus travelling by Deepe, Codebeck, Hum- 
phla, Fount- demer in Normandie, they came to Cane in base 
Normandie; where both this noble Curzianvere, and the great. 
Prior of the great Abbey of S. Steven ( where is the ruinous 
Tombe of William the Conquerour ,) and many other of his 
friends kindly welcomed him, and brought him to Mortaigne, 
where hce found Depreau and the rest, but to small purpose; 
for Mr. Curzianvere was a banished man, and durst not be 
scene, but to his friends: yet the bruit of their cosenage occa- 
sioned the Lady Collumber, the Baron Larshan, the Lord 
Shasghc, and divers other honourable persons, to supply his 
wants, and with them to recreate himselfe so long as hee 
would: but such pleasant pleasures suited little with his poore 
estate, and his restlesse spirit, that could never finde content, 
to receive such noble favours as he could neither deserve nor 
requite: but wandring from Port to Port to finde some man of 
war, spent that he had, and in a Forest, neere dead with griefe 
and cold, a rich Farmer found him by a faire Fountaine under 
a tree: This kinde Pesant relceved him againe to his content, 
to follow his intent. Not long after, as he passed thorow a 
great grove of trees, betweene Pounterson and Dina in Bri- 
taine, it was his chance to meet Cursett, more miserable than 
himselfe: His piercing injuries had so small patience, as with- 
out any word they both drew, and in a short time Cursett fell 
to the ground, where from an old ruinated Tower the inhabi- 
tants seeing them, were satisfied, when they heard Cursett 
confesse what had formerly passed; and that how in the di- 
viding that they had stolne from him, they fell by the ears 
amongst themselves, that were actors in it; but for his part, he 


excused himselfe to be innocent as well of the one, as of the other. 
In regard of his hurt, Smith was glad to be so rid of him, direct- 
ing his course to an honourable Lord, the Earle of Ployer, 
who during the warre in France, with his two brethren, Vis- 
count Poomory, and Baron cV Mercy, who had beene brought 
up in England; by him he was better refurnished than ever. 
When they had shewed him Saint Malo Mount, Saint Michael, 
Lambed, Simbreack, Lanion, and their owne faire Castle of 
Tuncadeck, Gingan, and divers other places in Britanny, (and 
their Brittish Comwaile) taking his leave, he tooke his way 
to Ramies, the Britaines chiefs Citie, and so to Nantes, Poy- 
ters, Kochell, and Burdeaux. The rumour of the strength of 
Bayon in Biskay, caused him to sec it; and from thence tooke 
his way from Leskar in Biearne, & Paw in the kingdom of 
Navar to Tolonza in Gascoigne, Bezers and Carcassone, 
Narbone, Montpellier, Nimes in Langucdock, and thorow the 
Country of Avignion, by Aries to Marcellos in Province, there 
imbarking himselfe for Italy, the ship was enforced to To- 
lonne, and putting againe to sea, ill weather so grew upon 
them, they anchored close aboard the shore, under the little 
Isle of S. Mary, against Neice in Savoy. Here tire inhumane 
Provincialls, with a rable of Filgrimes of divers Nations going 
to Rome, hourely cursing him, not only for a Hugonoit, but 
his Nation they swore were all Pyrats, and so vildly railed on 
his dread Soveraigne Queene Elizabeth, and that they never 
should have faire weather so long as hee was aboard them: 
their disputations grew to that passion, that they threw him 
over-board, yet God brought him to that little Isle, where was 
no inhabitants, but a few kine and goats. The next morning 
he espied two ships more riding by them, put in by the 
storme, that fetched him aboard, well refreshed him, and so 
kindly used him that he was well contented to trie the rest 
of his fortune with them. After he had related unto them 
his former discourse, what for pitie, and the love of the honour- 
able Earle of Ployer, this noble Britaine his neighbour, Cap- 
taine la Roche of Saint Malo, regarded and entertained him 
for his well respected friend. With the next faire wind they 
sailed along by the Coast of Corsica and Sardinia, and cros- 
sing the gulfe of Ttinis, passed by Cape Bona to the Isle of 
Lampadosa, leaving the coast of Barbary till they came at 
Cape Rosata, and so along the African shore, for Alexandria 
in jEgypt. There delivering their fraught, they went te 


Scandaroone; rather to view what ships was in the Roade, 
than any thing else: keeping their course by Cypres and the 
coast of Asia, say ling by Rhodes, the Archipellagans, Can- 
did, and the coast of Grecia, and the Isle of Zaffalonia^ 
They lay to and againe a few dayes betwixt the Isle of 
Corfae and the Cape of Otranto in the Kingdome of Naples. 
in the Entrance of the Adriatike sea. 


Jl desperate Sea-fight in the Straights; his passage 
to Rome, Naples, and the view of Italy. 

Betwixt the two Capes they meet with an Argosie of 
Venice, it seemed the Captaine desired to speak with them r 
whose untoward answer was such, as slew them a man; 
whereupon the Britaine presently gave them the broad-side, 
then his Sterne, and his other broad-side also, and continued 
the chase, with his chase peeces, till he gave them so many 
broad-sides one after another, that the Argosies sayles and 
tackling was so tome, she stood to her defence, and made shot 
for shot; twice in one home and a halfe the Britaine boarded 
her, yet they cleared themselves, but clapping her aboard 
againe, the Argosie ii red him, which with much danger to 
them both was presently quenched. This rather augmented 
the Britaines rage, than abated his courage; for having re- 
accommodated himseli'e againe, shot her so oft betweene 
wind and water, slice was readie to sinke, then they yecld- 
ed; the Britaine lost fifteene men, she twentie, besides di- 
vers:were hurt, the rest went to worke on all hands; some to 
stop the Jeakes, others to guard the prisoners that were 
chained, the rest to riJle her. The Silkes, Velvets, Cloth of 
gold, and Tissue, Pyasters, Chicqueenes and Sultanies, 
which is gold and silver, they unloaded in foure and twentie 
homes, was wonderfull, whereof having sufficient, and tired 
with toile, they cast her oft' with her company, with as much 
good merchandize as would have fraughted such another Bri- 
taine, that was but two hundred Tunnes, she foure or jive 



To repaire his defects, hee stood for the coast of Calabria, 
but hearing there was six or seven Galleyes at Mesina hee 
departed thence for Malta, but the wind comming faire, he 
kept his course along the coast of the Kingdome of Sicilia 
by Sardinia and Corsica, till he came to the Road of Antibo 
in Peamon, where he set Smith on shore with hue hundred 
chicqueenes, and a little box God sent him worth neere a§ 
much more. Here he left this noble Britaine, and embarked 
himselfe for Lygorne, being glad to have such opportunitie 
and meanes to better his experience by the view of Italy; 
and having passed Tuskany, and the Countrey of Sicana, 
where hee found his deare friends, the two Honourable Bre- 
thren, the Lord Willoughby and his Brother cruelly wound- 
ed, in a desperate fray, yet to their exceeding great honour. 
Then to Viterbo and many other Cities he came to Rome, 
where it was his chance to see Pope Clement the eight, with 
many Cardinalls, creepe up the holy Stayres, which they say 
are those our Saviour Christ went up to Pontius Pilate, 
where bloud falling from his head, being pricked with his 
crowne of thornes, the drops are marked with nailes of 
Steele, upon them none dare goe but in that manner, saying 
so many Ave-Maries and Pater-nosters, as is their devotion, 
and to kisse the nailes of Steele: But on each side is a paire 
of such like stakes, up which you may goe, stand, or kneele, 
but divided from the holy Staires by two walls: right against 
them is a Chappell, where hangs a great silver Lampe, 
which burnetii continually, yet they say the oyle neither in- 
creaseth nor diminisheth. A little distant is the ancient 
Church of Saint John de Laterane, where he saw him say 
Masse, which commonly he doth upon some Friday once a 
moneth. Having saluted Father Parsons, that famous En- 
glish Iesuite, and satisfied himselfe with the rarities of 
Rome, he went downe the River of Tiber to Civita Vechia, 
where he embarked himselfe to satisfie his eye with the faire 
Citie of Naples and her Kingdomes nobilitie; returning by 
Capua, Rome and Seana, he passed by that admired Citie 
of Florence, the Cities and Countries of Bolonia, Ferrara, 
Mantua, Padua and Venice, whose Gulfe he passed from 
Malamoco and the Adriatike Sea for Ragouza, spending 
some time to see that barren broken coast of Albania and Dal- 
matia, to Capo de Istria, travelling the maine of poore Sla- 
vonia by Lubbiano, till he came to Grates in Steria, the Seat 


of Ferdinando Arch-duke of Austria, now Emperour of Al- 
bania: where he met an English man, and an Irish Iesuite, 
who acquainted him with many brave Gentlemen of good 
qualitie, especially with the Lord Ebersbaught, with whom 
trying such conclusions, as he projected to undertake, pre- 
ferred him to Baron Kisell, Generall of the Artillery, and he 
to a worthy Collonell, the Earle of Meldritch, with whom 
going to Vienne in Austria, under whose Regiment, in what 
service, and how he spent his time, this ensuing Discourse 
will declare. 


The Siege of Olumpagli; an excellent stratagem by 
Smith; another not much worse. 

After the lossc of Caniza, the Turkes with twentie thou- 
sand besieged the strong Towne of Olumpagh so straight- 
ly, as they were cut off from all intelligence and hope of 
succour; till lohn Smith, this English Gentleman, acquainted 
Baron Kisell, Generall of the Archdukes Artillery, he had 
taught the Governour, his worthy friend, such a Rule, that 
he would undertake to make him know any thing he intend- 
ed, and have his answer, would they bring him but to some 
place where he might make the flame of a Torch seene to 
the Towne; Kisell inflamed with this strange invention; 
Smith made it so plaine, that forthwith hee gave him guides, 
who in the darke night brought him to a mountaine, where 
he shewed three Torches equidistant from other, which plain- 
ly appearing to the Towne, the Governour presently appre- 
hended, and answered againc with three other fires in like 
manner; each knowing the others being and intent; Smith, 
though distant seven miles, signified to him these words: On 
Thursday at night I will charge on the East, at the Alarum, 
salley you; Ebershaught answered he would, and thus it was 
done: First he writ his message as briefe, you see, as could 
be, then divided the Alphabet in two parts thus: 


A. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. k. I. 
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1 1. 1. 1. 

m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. v. w. x. 

o '■ 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 

a 9 

The first part from A. to L. is signified by shewing and 
hiding one linke, so oft as there is letters from A. to that let- 
ter you meane; the other part from M. to Z. is mentioned 
by two lights in like manner. The end of a word is signified 
by shewing of three lights, ever staying your light at that letter 
you meane, till the other may write it in a paper, and an- 
swer by his signall, which is one light, it is done, beginning 
to count the letters by the lights, every time from A. to M. 
by this meanes also the other returned his answer, whereby 
each did understand other. The Guides all this time having 
well viewed the Campe, returned to Kisell, who doubting of his 
power being but ten thousand, was animated by the Guides, 
how the Turkes were so divided by the River in two parts, 
they could not easily second each other. To which Smith 
added this conclusion; that two or three thousand pieces of 
match fastened to divers small lines, of an hundred fathome in 
length being armed with powder, might all be fired and 
stretched at an instant before the Alarum, upon the Plaine of 
Hysnaburg, supported by two staves, at each lines end, in 
that manner would seeme like so many Musketteers; which 
was put in practice; and being discovered by the Turkes-, 
they prepared to encounter these false fires, thinking there 
had beene some great Armie: whilest Kisell with his ten 
thousand being entered the Turks quarter, who ramie up and 
downe as men amazed. It was not long ere Ebersbaught 
was pell-mell with them in their Trenches; in which distract- 
ed confusion, a third part of the Turkes, that besieged that 
side towards Knousbrack, were slaine; many of the rest 
drowned, but all fled. The other part of the Armie was so bu- 
sied to resist the false fires, that Kisell before the morning put 
two thousand good souldiers in the Towne, and with sm all 
losse was retired; the Garrison was well releeved with that 
they found in the Turkes quarter, which caused the Turkes 
to raise their siege and returne to Caniza: and Kisell with 


much honour was received at Kerment, and occasioned the 
Author a good reward and preferment, to be Captaine of two 
hundred and fiftie Horse-men, under the Conduct of Colonell 
Voldo, Earle of Meldritch. 


The Siege of Stowllc-Wescnburg; the effects of Smitlis 
Fire-works; a worthy exploit of the Earle Kos- 
worme; Earle Meldritch takes the Bashaw pri- 

A generall rumour of a generall peace, now spred it selfe 
over all the face of those tormented Countries: but the Turke 
intended no such matter, but levied souldiers from all parts he 
could. The Emperour also, by the assistance of the Chris- 
tian Princes, provided three Armies, the one led by the Arch- 
duke Mathias, the Emperours brother, and his Lieutenant 
Duke Mercury to defend Low Hungary, the second, by Fer- 
dinando the Arch-duke of Steria, and the Duke of Mantua 
his Lieutcnavit to regaine Caniza; the third by Gonzogo, 
Govemour of High Hungary, to joyne with Gcorgio Busca, 
to make an absolute conquest of Transilvania. 

Duke Mercury with an Armic of thirtie thousand, whereof 
necre ten thousand were French, besieged Stoidlc-icesenburg, 
otherwise called Alba Regalis, a place so strong by Art and 
Nature, that it was thought impregnable. At his first com- 
niing, the Turkes sallied upon the Germane quarter, slew 
fceere five hundred, and returned before they werejthought on. 
The next night: in like manner they did neere as much to 
the Bemers and Hungarians; of which fortune still presum- 
ing, thinking to have found the French quarter as carelesse, 
eight or nine hundred of them were cut in pieces and taken 
prisoners. In this encounter Mousieur Grandvile, a brave 
French Colonell, received seven or eight crucll wounds, yet 
followed the Encmie to the ports; he came off alive, but with- 
in three or foure dayes died. 

Earle Meldritch, by the information of three or foure 
Christians, (escaped out of the Towne) upon every Alarum? 


where there was greatest assemblies and throng of people, 
caused Captaine Smith to put in practice his fiery Dragons, 
hee had demonstrated unto him, and the Earle Von Sulch at 
Comoro,, which hee thus performed: Having prepared fortie 
or fiftie round-bellied earthen pots and filled them with hand 
Gunpowder, then covered them with Pitch, mingled with 
Brimstone and Turpentine; and quartering as many Musket- 
bullets, that hung together but only at the Center of the divi- 
sion, stucke them round in the mixture about the pots, and co- 
vered them againe with the same mixture, over that a strong 
Searcloth, then over all a goode thicknesse of Towze-match 
well tempered with oyle of Lin-seed, Campheer, and powder 
of Brimstone, these he fitly placed in slings, graduated so 
neere as they could to the places of these Assemblies. At 
midnight upon the Alarum, it was a fearfull sight to see the 
short flaming course of their flight in the aire, but presently 
after their fall, the lamentable noise of the miserable slaugh- 
tered Turkes was most wonderfull to heare: Besides, they 
had fired that Suburbe at the Port of Buda in two or three 
places, which so troubled the Turkes to quench, that had 
there beene any means to have assaulted them, they could 
hardly have resisted the fire, and their enemies. The Earle 
Rosivorme, contrary to the opinion of all men, would needs 
undertake to finde meanes to surprize the Segeth and Sub- 
urbe of the Citie, strongly defended by a muddie Lake, 
which was thought impassable. 

The Duke having planted his Ordnance, battered the, 
other side, whilest Rosworme, in the darke night, with every 
man a bundle of sedge and bavins still throwne before them, 
so laded up the Lake, as they surprized that unregarded 
Suburbe before they were discovered: upon which unexpect- 
ed Alarum, the Turkes fled into the Citie, and the other 
Suburbe not knowing the matter, got into the Citie also, 
leaving their Suburbe for the Duke, who with no great re- 
sistance, tooke it, with many peeces of Ordnance; the Ci- 
tie, being of no such strength as the Suburbs, with their 
owne Ordnance was so battered, that it was taken perforce> 
with such a mercilesse execution, as was most pitifull to be- 
hold. The Bashaw notwithstanding drew together a partie 
of five hundred before his owne Pallace, where he intended 
to die; but seeing most of his men slaine before him, bv the 
valiant Captaine Earle Meldritch, who tooko him prisoner* 


with his owne hands; and with the hazard of himselfe saved 
him from the fury of other troops, that did pull downe his 
Pallaee, and would have rent him in peeces, had he not beene 
thus preserved. The Duke thought his victory much ho- 
noured with such a Prisoner; tooke order hee should bee 
used like a Prince, and with all expedition gave charge pre- 
sently to repaire the breaches, and the ruines of this famous 
Citie, that had beene in the possession of the Turkes neere 
threescore veares. 


A brave encounter of the Turkes Annie with the 
Christians; Duke Mercury overthroweth Assail 
Bashaw; Mee divides the Christian Annie; His no- 
blenesse aiirf death. 

Mahomet, the great Turke, during the siege, had raised an 
Armie of sixtie thousand men to have releeved it; but hear- 
ing it was lost, he sent Assan Bashaw Generall of his Armie, 
the Bashaw of Buda, Bashaw Amaroz, to see if it were pos- 
sible to regaine it; The Duke understanding there could be 
no great experience in such a new levied Armie as Assan 
had; having put a strong Garrison into it: and with the brave 
Colonell Rosworme, Culnits, Meldriich, the Rhine- Grave, 
Vahan and many others; with twenty thousand good soul- 
diers, set forward to meet the Turke in the plaines of Girke. 
Those two Armies encountred as they marched, where began 
a hot and bloudy Skirmish betwixt them, Regiment against 
Regiment, as they came in order, till the night parted them: 
Here Earle Meldriteh was so invironed amongst those halfe 
circuler Regiments of Turkes, they supposed him their pri- 
soner, and his Regiment lost; but his two most couragious 
friends, Vahan and Culnits, made such a passage amongst 
them, that it was a terror to see how horse and man lay 
sprawling and tumbling, some one away, some another on the 
ground. The Earle there at that time made his valour shine 
more bright than his armour, which seemed then painted with 
Turkish bloud, he slew the brave Zanzack Bugola, and made 


his passage to his friends, but neere halfe his Regiment was 
slaine. Captain Smith had his horse slaine under him, and 
himselfe sore wounded; but he was not long unmounted, for 
there was choice enough of horses, that wanted masters. 
The Turke thinking the victory sure against the Duke, 
whose Armie, by the Siege and the Garrison, he had left be- 
hind him, was much weakned, would not be content with 
one, but he would have all; and lest the Duke should returne 
to Alba Regalis, he sent that night twenty thousand to be- 
siege the Citie, assuring them he would keepe the Duke or 
any other from releeving them. Two or three dayes they 
lay each by other, entrenching themselves; the Turkes daring 
the Duke daily to a sett battel 1, who at length drew out his 
Army, led by the Rhine- Grave, Culnits and Meldritch, who 
upon their first encounter, charged with that resolute and 
valiant courage, as disordered not only the formost squadrons 
of the Turkes, but enforced all the whole Armie to retire to 
the Campe, with the losse of five or six thousand, with the 
Bashaw of Buda, and foure or five Zanzacks, with divers 
other great Commanders, two hundred Prisoners, and nine 
peeces of Ordnance. At that instant appeared, as it were, 
another Armie comming out of a valley over a plaine hill, 
that caused the Duke at that time to be contented, and to 
retire to his Trenches; which gave time to Assan to reorder 
his disordered squadrons: Here they lay nine or ten dayes, 
and more supplies repaired to them, expecting to try the event 
in a sett battell; but the souldiers on both parties, by reason 
of their great wants and approach of winter, grew so discon- 
tented, that they were ready of themselves to breake up the 
Leager; the Bashaw retiring himselfe to Buda, had some of 
the Reare Troopes cut off. Amaroz Bashaw hearing of this, 
found such bad welcome at Alba Regalis, and the Towne so 
strongly repaired, with so brave a Garrison, raised his siege, 
and retired to Zigetum. 

The Duke understanding that the Arch-duke Ferdinando 
had so resolutely besieged Caniza, as what by the losse of 
Alba Regalis, and the Turks retreat to Buda, being void of 
hope of any reliefe, doubted not but it would become againe 
the Christians. To the furtherance whereof, the Duke divi- 
ded his Armie into three parts. The Earle of Rosworme went 
with seven thousand to Caniza; the Earle of Meldritch with 
six thousand he sent to assist Georgio Busca against the 

Vavt of tkeOraueh afCapHOHlil SMTFH,anmysl TVKKES 


his passage to his friends, but neere halfe his Regiment was 
slaine. Captain Smith had his horse slaine under him, and 
himselfe sore wounded; but he was not long unmounted, for 
there was choice enough of horses, that wanted masters. 
The Turke thinking the victory sure against the Duke, 
whose Armie, by the Siege and the Garrison, he had left be- 
hind him, was much weakned, would not be content with 
one, but he would have all; and lest the Duke should returne 
to Alba Regalis, he sent that night twenty thousand to be- 
siege the Citie, assuring them he would keepe the Duke or 
any other from releeving them. Two or three dayes they 
lay each by other, entrenching themselves; the Turkes daring 
the Duke daily to a sett battel!, who at length drew out his 
Army, led by the Rhine- Grave, Culnits and Meldritch, who 
upon their first encounter, charged with that resolute and 
valiant courage, as disordered not only the formost squadrons 
of the Turkes, but enforced all the whole Armie to retire to 
the Campe, with the losse of five or six thousand, with the 
Bashaw of Buda, and foure or five Zanzacks, with divers 
other great Commanders, two hundred Prisoners, and nine 
peeces of Ordnance. At that instant appeared, as it were, 
another Armie comming out of a valley over a plaine hill, 
that caused the Duke at that time to be contented, and to 
retire to his Trenches; which gave time to Assan to reorder 
his disordered squadrons: Here they lay nine or ten dayes. 
and more supplies repaired to them, expecting to try the event 
in a sett battell; but the souldiers on both parties, by reason 
of their great wants and approach of winter, grew so discon- 
tented, that they were ready of themselves to breake up the 
Leager; the Bashaw retiring himselfe to Buda, had some of 
the Reare Troopes cut off. Amaroz Bashaw hearing of this, 
found such bad welcome at Alba Regalis, and the Towne so 
strongly repaired, with so brave a Garrison, raised his siege, 
and retired to Zigetum. 

The Duke understanding that the Arch-duke Ferdinando 
had so resolutely besieged Caniza, as what by the losse of 
Alba Regalis, and the Turks retreat to Buda, being void of 
hope of any reliefe, doubted not but it would become againe 
the Christians. To the furtherance whereof, the Duke divi- 
ded his Armie into three parts. The Earle of Rosworme went 
with seven thousand to Caniza; the Earle of Meldritch with 
six thousand he sent to assist Georgio Busea against the 


Transikanians, the rest went with himselie to the Garrisons 
of Strigonium and Komara; having thus worthily behaved: 
himselie, he arrived at Vienne, where the Areh-dukes and 
the Nobilitie with as much honour received him, as if he had 
conquered all Hungaria; his very Picture they esteemed 
would make them fortunate, which thousands kept as curious- 
ly as a precious rclique. To requite this honour, preparing 
himselie to returne into France, to raise new Forces against 
the next yeare, with the two Areh-dukes, Matildas and Maxi- 
milian, and divers others of the Nobilitie, was with great 
magnificence conducted to Nureftfmrg, there by them royally 
feasted, (how it chanced is not knowne;) but the next morning 
he was found dead, and his brother in law died two dayes 
after; whose hearts, alter this great triumph, with much sor- 
row were carried into France. 


The unhappie Siege of Caniza; Earle Meldritcli ser- 
veth Prince Sigismundus; Prince Moyses besieg- 
cth Regall; Smiths three single combats; His Patent 
from Sigismundus, and reward. 

The worthy Lord Rosvcorme had not a worse journey to 
the miserable Siege of Caniza, (where by the extremitie of an 
extraordinary continuing tempest of haile, wind, frost and 
snow, in so much that the Christians were forced to leave their 
Tents and Artillery, and what they had; it being so cold 
that three or foure hundred of them were frozen to death in 
anight, and two or three thousand lost in that miserable 
flight in the snowie tempest, though they did know no ene- 
mie at all to follow them:) than the noble Earle of Meldritcli 
had to Transilvania, where hearing of the death of Michael 
and the brave Duke Mercury, and knowing the policie of 
Busca, and the Prince his Roialtie, being now beyond all be- 
leefe of men, in possession of the best part of Transilvania, 
perswaded his troopes, in so honest a cause, to assist the 
Prince against the Turke, rather than Busca against the: 


The souldiers being worne out with those hard payee and 
travells, upon hope to have free libertie to make bootic upon 
Avhat they could get possession of from the Turkes, was ea- 
sily perswaded to follow him whithersoever. Now this no- 
ble Earle was a Transilvanian borne, and his fathers Coun- 
trey yet inhabited by the Turkes; for Transilvania was yet 
in three divisions, though the Prince had the hearts both of 
Country and people; yet the Frontiers had a Garrison 
amongst the unpassable mountaines, some for the Empcrour, 
some for the Prince, and some for the Turke: to regaine 
which small estate, hee desired leave of the Prince to trie his 
fortunes, and to make use of that experience, the time of 
twentie yeares had taught him in the Emperours service, 
promising to spend the rest of his dayes for his countries de- 
fence in his Excellencies service. The Prince glad of so 
brave a commander, and so many expert and ancient soul- 
diers, made him Campe-master of his Armie, gave him all 
necessary releefe for his troopes and what freedome they de- 
sired to plunder the Turkes. 

The Earle having made many incursions into the Land of 
Zarkam among those rockie mountains, where were some 
Turks, some Tartars, but most Bandittoes, Rennegadoes, 
and such like, which sometimes hee forced into the Plaines 
of Regall, where is a Citie not only of men and fortifications, 
strong of it selfe, but so environed with mountaines, that 
made the passages so difficult, that in all these warres no at- 
tempt had beene made upon it to any purpose: Having sa- 
tisfied himselfe with the Situation, and the most convenient 
passages to bring his Armie unto it: The earth no sooner 
put on her greeue habit, than the Earle overspread her with his 
armed troopes. To possesse himselfe first of the most conve- 
nient passage, which was a narrow valley betwixt two high 
mountaines; he sent Colonell Veltus with his Regiment, dis- 
persed in companies to lye in Ambuscado, as he had directed 
them, and in the morning to driue all the cattell they could 
findc before a Fort in that passage, whom he supposed would 
sally, seeing but some small partie, to recover their prev; 
which tooke such good successe, that the Garrison was cut 
off by the Ambuscado, and Veltus seized on the Skonces, 
which was abandoned. Meldritch glad of so fortunate a be- 
ginning; it was six dayes ere he could with six thousand Pi- 
©ners make passage for his Ordnance: The Turkes having 


such warning, strengthhed the Towne so with men and pro- 
vision, that they made a scorne of so small a number as Mel- 
(hitch brought with him before the Citie, which was but 
eight thousand. Before they had pitched their Tents, the 
Turkes sallied in such abundance, as for an houre they had 
rather a bloudy battel! than a skirmish, but with the losse of 
ncere lifteenc hundred on both sides. The Turkes were 
chased till the Cities Ordnance caused the Earle to retire. 
The next day Zachd Moysesi, Generall of the Armie, pitched 
also his tents with nine thousand foot and horse, and six and 
twenty peeces of Ordnance: but in regard of the situation of 
this strong Fortresse, they did neither feare them nor hurt 
them, being upon the point of a faire promontory, environed 
on the one side within halfe a mile with an im-usefull moun- 
taine, and on the other side with a faire Plaine, where the 
Christians encamped, but so commanded by their Ordnance, 
they spent necre a month in entrenching themselves, and rai- 
sing their mounts to plant their batteries; which slow pro- 
ceedings the Turkes oft derided, that their Ordnance were at 
pawne, and how they grew fat for want of exercise, and 
fearing lest they should depart ere they could assault their 
Citie, sent this Challenge to any Captaine in the Armie. 

That to delight the Ladies, who did long to see some 
court-like pastime, the Lord Turbashaw did dehe any Cap- 
taine, that had the command of a Company, who durst corn- 
bate with him for his head: The matter being discussed, it 
was accepted, but so many questions grew for the undertak- 
ing, it was decided by lots, which fell upon Captaine Smith, 
before spoken of. 

Truce being made for that time, the Rampiers all beset 
with faire Dames, and men in Amies, the Christians in Bat- 
talio; Turbashaw with a noise of Howboyes entred the field 
well mounted and armed; on his shoulders were fixed a 
pairc of great wings, compacted of Eagles feathers within a 
ridge of silver, richly garnished with gold and precious stones, 
a lanizary before him, bearing his Lance, on each side another 
leading his horse 1 ; where long hee stayed not, ere Smith with 
a noise of Trumpets, only a page bearing his Lance, passing 
by him with a courteous salute, tooke his ground with such 
goode successe, that at the sound of the charge, he passed the 
Turke thorow the sight of his Beaver, face, head and all, 
that he fell dead to the ground, where alighting and unbracing 


his Helmet, cut off his head, and the Turkes tooke his 
body; and so returned without any hurt at all. The head 
hee presented to the Lord Moses, the General], who kindly 
accepted it, and with joy to the whole armie he was general- 
ly welcomed. 

The death of this Captaine so swelled in the heart of one 
Grualgo, his vowed friend, as rather in raged with madncsse 
than choller, he directed a particular challenge to the Con- 
querour, to regaine his friends head, or lose his owne, with 
his horse and Armour for advantage, which according to his 
desire was the next day undertaken: as before upon the sound 
of the Trumpets, their Lances flew in peeccs upon a cleare 
passage, but the Turke was neere unhorsed. Their Pistol! s 
was the next, which marked Smith upon the placard; but the 
next shot the Twice was so wounded in the left armc, that 
being not able to rule his horse, and defend himselfe, he was 
throwne to the ground, and so bruised with the fall, that he 
lost his head, as his friend before him; with his horse and 
Armour; but his body and his rich apparell was sent backe to 
the Towne. 

Every day the Turkes made some sallies, but few skir- 
mishes would they endure to any purpose. Our workes and 
approaches being not yet advanced to that height and effect 
which was of necessitie to be performed; to delude time. 
Smith with so many incontradictiblc perswading reasons, ob- 
tained leave that the Ladies might know he was not so much 
enamoured of their servants heads, but if any Turke of their 
ranke would come to the place of cornbate to redeeme them, 
should have his also upon the like conditions, if he could 
whine it. 

The challenge presently was accepted by Bonny Mulgro. 
The next day both the Champions entring the field as before, 
each discharging their Pistol], having no Lances, but such 
martiall weapons as the defendant appointed, no hurt was 
done; their Battle-axes was the next; whose piercing bils 
made sometime the one, sometime the other to have scarce 
sense to keepe their saddles, specially the Christian received 
such a blow that he lost his Battle-axe, and failed not much 
to have fallen after it, whereat the supposing conquering 
Turk, had a great shout from the Rampiers. The Turk 
prosecuted his advantage to the uttermost of his power; 
yet the other, what by the readinesse of his horse, and his 


judgment and dexterity in such a businesse, beyond all mens 
expectation, by Gods assistance, not onely avoided the Turkes 
violence, but having drawne his Faulchion, pierced the Turke 
so under the Culets thorow backe and body, that although 
he alighted from his horse, he stood not long ere hce lost hi.s 
head, as the rest had done. 


Georgio Busca an Albanc his ingratitude to Prince 
Sigismundus; Prince Moyses his Lieutenant, is 
overthrown^ by Busca, Gen er all for the Em per our 
Rodolplms; Sigismundus yeeldeth his Conn trey to 
llodolphus; Busca assistelh Prince Rodoll in Wal- 

Tins good successe gave such great encouragement to the 
whole Armie, that with a guard of six thousand, three spare 
horses, before each a Turkes head upon a Lance, he was 
conducted to the Generalls Pavillion with his Presents. — 
Moyses received both him and them with as much respect as 
the occasion deserved, embracing him in his armes, gave him 
a faire Horse richly furnished, a Semitere and belt worth 
three hundred ducats; and Meldritch made him Sergeant ma- 
jor of his Regiment. But now to the siege, having mounted 
six and twenty peeccs of Ordnance fifty or sixty foot above 
the Plaine, made them so plainly tell his meaning, that with- 
in fifteene dayes two breaches were made which the Turkes 
as valiantly defended as men could; that day was made a 
darksome night, but by the light that proceeded from the 
murdering Muskets, and peace-making Canon, whilest their 
slothfull Governour lay in a Castle on the top of a high 
mcuntaine, and like a valiant Prince asketh what's the mat- 
ter, when honour and death stood amazed each at other, to 
see who should prevaile to make him victorious: Moyses com- 
manding a genera] 1 assault upon the sloping front of the high 
Promontory, where the Barons of Budendorfe and Obenvin 
lost neere halfe their Regiments by logs, bags of powder, and 


such like, tumbling downe the hill, they were to mount ere 
they could come to the breach; notwithstanding with an in- 
credible courage they advanced to the push of the Pike with 
the defendants, that with the like courage repulsed, till the 
Earle Meldritch, Becklejield and Zarmna, with their fresh 
Regiments seconded them with that fury, that the Turks re- 
tired and tied into the Castle, from whence by a flag of truce v 
they desired composition. The Earle remembering his fa- 
thers death, battered it with all the Ordnance in the Towne, 
and the next day took it; all he found could beare Armcs- he 
put to the sword, and set their heads upon stakes round about 
the walles, in the same manner they had used the Christians^ 
when they tooke it. Moyses having repaired the Rampiers, 
and thrown downe the worke in his Campe, he put in it a 
strong Garrison, though the pillage he had gotten in theTowne 
was much, having been for a long time an impregnable den 
of theeves; yet the losse of the Armie so intermingled the 
sowre with the sweet, as forced Moyses to seek a further re- 
venge, that he sacked Veratio, Solmos, and Kupronka, and 
with two thousand prisoners, most women and children, came 
to Esenberg, not farrc from the Princes Palace, where he 
there Encamped. 

Sigismundus comming to view his Armie, was presented 
with the Prisoners, and six and thirtie Ensignes; where cel- 
ebrating thanks to Almightie God in triumph of those victo- 
ries, hee was made acquainted with the service Smith had 
done at Olumpagh, Stowle- Wesenburg and Regall, for which 
with great honour hee gave him three Turkes heads in af 
Shield for his Armes, by Patent, under his hand and Seale, 
with an Oath ever to weare them in his Colours, his Picture 
in Gould, and three hundred Ducats, yeerely for a Pension? 

Sigismvndvs Bathori, Dei gratia Dux Trans Hvan ice f 
Wallachice, & Vandalorum; Comes Anchard, Salford; Gro- 
ivenda; Cunctis his literis significamus qui eas lecturi aut, 
audituri sunt, concessam licentiam aut facultatem Iohanni 
Smith, natione Anglo Generoso, 250. militum Capitaneo sub 
Illustrissimi & Gravissimi Henrici Voldct 7 Comitis de Meldri, 
Salmarice & Peldoice primario, ex 1000. equiribus & 1500. 
peditibus bello Vngarico conductione in Provincial supra. 


scriptas sub Authoritate nostra: cui servituti omni laudc, 
perpetuaq. mcmoria dignum prsebuit sese erga nos, ut virum 
strenuum pugnanteca pro aris & focis decet. Quare favoro 
nostro militario ipsum erdine condonavimus, & in Sigillum 
illius tria Turcica Capita designare & deprimere concessi- 
mus, quae ipso gladio suo ad Vrbem Regalem in singular! 
prselio vicit, mactavit, a(q; decollavit in Transilvanice Pro- 
vincial Sed fortuna cum variabilis ancepsq; sit idem forte 
fortuito in Wallachia Provincia Anno Domini 1602. die Men- 
sis Novembris 18. cum multis aliis etiam Nobilibus & aiiis 
quibusdam militibus captus est a Domino Bascha electo ex 
Gambia regionis Tartarice, cujus severitate adductus salu- 
tem quantam potuit quaesivit, tantumque eftecit, Deo omni- 
potent^ adjuvante, ut deliberavit se, & ad suos Commiiitones 
rcvertit; ex quibus ipsum libera vimus, & ha?c nobis testimo- 
uia habuit ut majori licentia liueretur qua dignus esset, jam 
tendet in patriam suam dulcissiman: Rogamus ergo onines 
nostras eharissimos, confinitimos, Duces, Principes, Comites, 
Baroncs Gubcrnatpres Vrbium & Navium in eadem Regione 
& eeeterarum Provinciarum in quibus ille residere conatus 
fuerit ut idem permirtatur Oapitaneus libere sine obstaculo 
omniversarj, Hsec facientes pergratum nobis feceritis. Sig- 
natum Lpsprizia in Misnia die Mensis Decembris 9. Anno 
Domini 1603. 


Cum Privilegio pwprim Majectatis. 

D'niversis, & singulis, cujusicunq. loci, status, gradus, or- 
dinis, ac conditionis ad quos hoc prsesens scriptum pervene- 
cit, Guilielmus Segar Eques auratus alias dictus Gar terns 
Principalis Rex Armorum Anglicorum, Salutem. Sciatis, 
quod Ego praedictus Garterus, notum, testatumque iaeio, quod 
Patentem suprascriptum, cum manu propria praedicti Ducis 
Transilvanice subsignatum, et Sigillo suo affixum, Vidi: & 
Copiam veram ejusdem (in perpetuam memoriam) transcripsi, 
& recordavi in Arhivis, & Registris Officii Armorum. Datum 
Londini 19. die Augusti, Anno Domini 1625. Annoque 


Regni Domini nostri Caroli Dei gratia Magnae Britannia, 
Francice, fr Hiberniee Re°;is, Fidei Defensoris &c. Primo. 


Sigismvndvs Bathor, by the Grace of God, Duke of 
Transilvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia, Earle of Anchard, 
Salford and Growenda; to whom this Writing may come or 
appeare. Know that We have given leave and licence to John 
Smith an English Gentleman, Captaine of 250. Souldiers, 
under the most Generous and Honourable Henry Volda, 
Earle of Meldritch, Salmaria, and Pe.ldoia, Colonell of a 
thousand horse, and fifteene hundred foot, in the warres of 
Hungary, and in the Provinces aforesaid under our authori- 
ty; whose service doth deserve all praise and perpetuall me- 
mory towards us, as a man that did for God and his Coun- 
try overcome his enemies: Wherefore out of Our love and 
favour, according to the law of Armes, We have ordained 
and given him in his shield of Armes, the figure and des- 
cription of three Turks heads, which with his sword before 
the towne of Regall, in single combat he did overcome, kill, 
and cut off, in the Province of Transilvania. But fortune, 
as she is very variable, so it chanced and happened to him 
in the province of Wallachia, in the yeare of our Lord, 1602. 
the 1 8. day of November, with many others, as well Noble 
men, as also divers other Souldiers, were taken prisoners by 
the Lord Bashaw of Gambia, a Country of Tartaria; whose 
cruelty brought him such good fortune, by the helpe and 
power of Almighty God, that hec delivered himselfe, and re- 
turned againe to his company and fellow souldiers, of whom 
We doe discharge him, and this hee hath in witnesse thereof, 
being much more worthy of a better reward; and now in- 
tends to returne to his owne sweet Country. We desire 
therefore all our loving and kinde kinsmen, Dukes, Princes, 
Earles, Barons, Governours of Townes, Cities, or Ships, in 
this Kingdome, or any other Provinces he shall come in, that 
you freely let passe this the aforesaid Captaine, without any 
hinderance or molestation, and this doing, with all kindnesse 
we are always ready to doe the like for you. Sealed at 


Lipswick in Misenland, the ninth of December, in the yeare 
of our Lord, 1603. 


With, the proper privilege of his Majestie. 

To all and singular, in what place, state, degree, order, or 
condition whatsoever, to whom this present writing shall 
come: I William Segar Knight, otherwise Garter, and prin- 
cipall King of Amies of England, wish health. Know that 
I the aforesaid Garter, clo witnesse and approve, that this 
aforesaid Patent, I have seene, signed, and sealed, under the 
proper hand and Seale Manual of the said Duke of Tran- 
silvania, and a true coppy of the same, as a thing for perpet- 
uall memory, I have subscribed and recorded in the Register 
and office of the Heralds of Armes. Dated at London the 
nineteenth day of August, in the yeare of our Lord, 1625. 
and in the first yeare of our Soueraigne Lord Charles by the 
grace of God, King of great Britaine, France, and Ireland; 
Defender of the faith, &c. 



Sigisinundus sends Ambassadonrs vnto the Emperour; 
the conditions re-assured; He yeeldeth up all to 
Busca, and returneth to Prague. 

Bvsca having all this time beene raising new forces, was 
commanded from the Emperour againe to invade Transilvania, 
which being one of the fruitfullest and strongest Countries 
in those parts, was now rather a desart, or the very specta- 
cle of desolation; their fruits and fields overgrowne with 
weeds, their Churches and battered Palaces and best build- 
ings, as for feare, hid with Mossc and Ivy; being the very 
Bulwarke and Rampire of a great part of Europe, most fit 


by all Christians to have beene supplyed and maintained, was 
thus brought to mine by them it most concerned to support 
it. But alas, what is it, when the power of Majestie pam- 
pered in all delights of pleasant vanity, neither knowing nor 
considering the labour of the Ploughman, the hazard of the 
Merchant, the oppression of Statesmen; nor feeling the piercing 
torments of broken limbs, and inveterated wounds, the toil- 
some marches, the bad lodging, the hungry diet, and the ex- 
treme misery that Souldiers endure to secure all those estates, 
and yet by the spight of malicious detraction, starves for want 
of their reward and recompences; whilest the politique Cour- 
tier, that commonly aimes more at his owne honors and ends, 
than his Countries good, or his Princes glory, honour, or se- 
curity, as this worthy Prince too well could testifie. But 
the Emperor being certified how weak and desperate his es- 
tate was, sent Busca againe with a great Army, to trie his 
fortune once* more in Transilvania. The Prince considering 
how his Country and subjects were consumed, the small 
means he had any longer to defend his estate, both against 
the cruelty of the Turke and the power of the Emperor, and 
the small care the Polanders had in supplying him, as they 
had promised, sent to Busca to haue truce, till messengers 
might be sent to the Emperour for some better agreement, 
wherewith Busca was contented. The Ambassadours so 
prevailed, that the Emperour re-assured vnto them the con- 
ditions he had promised the Prince at their confederacie for 
the lands in Silesia, with 60000. ducats presently in hand, 
and 50000. ducats yearely as a pension. When this conclu- 
sion was knowne to Moyses his Lieftenant [then in the field 
with the Army, that would doe any thing rather than come 
in subjection to the Germans, he encouraged his Souldiers, 
and without any more adoe marched to encounter Busca, 
whom he found much better provided than he expected; so 
that betwixt them in six or seven houres, more than five or 
six thousand on both sides lay dead on the field. Moyses 
thus overthrowne, fled to the Turks at Temesware, and his 
scattered troopes some one way, some another. 

The Prince vnderstanding of this so sudden and unexpect- 
ed accident, onely accompanied with an hundred of his Gen- 
try and Nobility, went into the campe to Busca, to let him 
know, how ignorant he was of his Lieuftenants errour, that 
had done it without his direction or knowledge, freely offering 


to performe what was concluded by his Ambassadours with 
the Emperour; and so causing all his Garrisons to come out 
of their strong holds, he delivered all to Busca for the Empe- 
rour, and so went to Prague, where he was honourably re- 
ceiued, and established in his possessions, as his Emperial! 
Majestie had promised. Busca assembling all the Nobility, 
tooke their oaths of allegeance and fidelity, and thus their 
Prince being gone, Transihania againe became subject to 
the Emperour. 

Now after the death of Michael, Vavoyd of Wattachia, the 
Turke sent one Ieremie to be their Vavoyd or Prince; whose 
insulting tyranny caused the people to take Armes against 
him, so that he was forced to flie into the confines of Moldavia; 
and Busca in the behalfe of the Emperour, proclaimed the 
Lord Rodoll in his stead. But Ieremy having assembled an 
Army of forty thousand Turks, Tartars, and Moldavians, 
returned into Wallackia. Rodoll not yet able to' raise such a 
power, fled into Transihania to Busca, his ancient friend; 
who considering well of the matter, and how good it would 
be for his owne security to have Wattachia subject to the 
Emperour, or at least such an employment for the remain- 
ders of the old Regiments of Sigismundus, (of whose great- 
nesse and true affection hee was very suspitious,) sent them 
with Rodoll to recover Wattachia, conducted by the valiant 
Captaines, the Earle Meldritch, Earle Veltus, Earle Neder- 
spolt, Earle Zarvana, the Lord Bechlefield, the Lord Buden- 
dorfe, with their Regiments, and divers others of great ranke 
and quality, the greatest friends and alliances the Prince had: 
who with their thirty thousand, marched along by the river 
Alius, to the streights of Rebrinke, where they entered Wal- 
lachia, encamping at Raza; Ieremie lying at Argish, drew his 
Army into his old campe, in the plaines of Peteske, and with 
his best diligence fortified it, intending to defend himselfe till 
more power came to him from the Crym- Tartar. Many 
small parties that came to his campe, Rodoll cut off, and in 
the nights would cause their heads to be throwne vp and 
downe before the trenches. Seven of their Porters w<?re ta- 
ken, whom Ieremie commanded to be flayed quicke, and af- 
ter hung their skinnes vpon poles, and their carkasses and 
heads on stakes bv them. 



The battell of Eotenton; a pretty stratagem ofjire- 
workes by Smith. 

Rodoll not knowing how to draw the enemie to battell, 
raised his Armie, burning and spoyling all where he came, and 
returned againe towards Rebrinke in the night; as if he had fled 
upon the generall rumour of the Crym- Tartars comming, 
which so inflamed the Turkes of a happy victory, they vrged 
Ieremy against his will to follow them. Rodoll seeing his 
plot fell out as he desired, so ordered the matter, that having 
regained the streights, he put his Army in order, that had 
beene neere two dayes pursued, with continuall skirmishes 
in his Reare, which now making head against the enemie, 
that followed with their whole Armie in the best manner they 
could, was furiously charged with six thousand Hydukes, 
Wallachians, and Moldavia?is, led by three Coloiiells, Over- 
sail, Dubras, and Caleb, to entertaine the time till the rest 
came up; Veltas ?j\d Nederspolt with their Regiments, en- 
tertained them with the like courage, till the Zanzacke Ha- 
mesbeg, with six thousand more, came with a fresh charge, 
which Meldritch and Budendorfe, rather like enraged lions, 
than men, so bravely encountred, as if in them only had con- 
sisted the victory; Meldritchs horse being slaine vnder-him, 
the Turks pressed what they could to have taken him prison- 
er, but being remounted, it was thought with his owne hand 
he slew the valiant Zanzacke, whereupon his troopes retyr- 
ing, the two proud Bashaives, Aladin, and Zizimmits, brought 
up the front of the body of their battell. Veltus and Neder- 
spolt having breathed, and joyning their troopes with Beckle- 
field and Zarvana, with such an incredible courage charged 
the left flancke of Zizimmns, as put them all in disorder, 
where Zlzimmus the Bashaw was taken prisoner, but died 
presently upon his wounds. Ieremie seeing now the maine 
battell of Rodoll advance, being thus constrained, like a vali- 
ant Prince in his front of the Vantgard, by his example so 
brauely encouraged his souldiers, that Rodoll found no great 
assurance of the victorie. Thus being joyned in this bloudy 
massacre, that there was scarce ground to stand upon, but 
upon the dead carkasses, which in lesse than an hower were 


so mingled, as if each Regiment had singled out other. — 
The admired Ala&in that day did leave behinde him a glo- 
rious name for his valour, whose death many of his enemies 
did lament after the victory, which at that instant fell to Ro- 
doll. It was reported Icremie was also slaine, but it was not 
so, but fled with the remainder of his Armie to Moldavia, 
leaving five and twenty thousand dead in the field, of both 
Armies. And thus Rodoll was seated againe in his Soue- 
raignty, and WaMachia became subject to the Emperour. 

But long he rested not to settle his new estate, but there 
came n ewes, that certaine Regiments of stragling Tartars, 
were foraging those parts towards Moldavia. Meldritch with 
thirteene thousand men was sent against them, but when they 
beard it was the Crym- Tartar and sonnes, with an Army of 
thirty thousand; and leremie, that had escaped with fourteene 
or fifteen thousand, lay in ambush for them about Langanaw f 
he retired towards Rottenton, a strong garrison for Rodoll; 
but they were so environed with these hellish numbers, they 
could make no great haste for skirmishing with their scouts, 
forragers, and small parties that still encounticd them. But 
one night amongst the rest, having made passage through a 
wood, with an incredible expedition, cutting trees thwart 
each other to hinder their passage, in a thicke fogge early in 
the morning, unexpectedly they met two thousand loaded 
with pillage, and two or three hundred horse and cattell; the 
most of them were slaine and taken prisoners, who told them 
where leremic lay in the passage, expecting the Crym- Tartar 
that was not farre from him. Meldritch intending to make 
his passage perforce, was advised of a pretty stratagem by the 
English Smith, which presently he thus accomplished; for 
having accommodated two or three hundred truncks with 
wilde fire, vpon the heads of lances, and charging the enemie 
in the night, gave fire to the truncks, which blazed forth such 
flames and sparkles, that it so amazed not oncly their horses, 
but their foot also; that by the mcanes of this flaming en- 
counter, their owne horses turned tailcs with such fury, as by 
their violence overthrew Ieremy and his Army, without any 
losse at all to speak of to Meldritch. But of this victory long 
they triumphed not; for being within three leagues of Rot- 
te?iton, the Tartar with neere forty thousand so beset them, 
that they must either fight, or be cut in peeces Hying. Here 
Busca and the Emperour had their desire; for the iSunne 1^0 


sooner displayed his beames, than the Tartar his colours; 
where at midday he stayed a while, to see the passage of a 
tyrannicall and treacherous imposture, till the earth did blush 
with the blond of honesty, that the Sunne for shame did hide 
himselfe, from so monstrous sight of a cowardly calamity. — 
It was a most brave sight to see the banners and ensignes 
streaming in the aire, the glittering of Armour, the variety 
of colours, the motion of plumes, the forrests of lances, and 
the thicknesse of shorter weapons, till the silent expedition of 
the bloudy blast from the murdering Ordnance, whose roar- 
ing voice is not so soone heard, as felt by the aymed at ob- 
ject, which made among them a most lamentable slaughter. 


The names of the English thai were slaiue hi the 
hatiell of Rottenton; and how Captuine Smith is 
taken prisoner; and sold for a slave. 

In the valley of Veristhorne, betwixt the riuer of Alius, 
and the mountaine of Rottenton; was this bloudy encounter, 
where the most of the dearest friends of the noble Prince Si- 
gismundus perished. Meldritch having ordered his eleven 
thousand in the best manner he could; at the foot of the 
mountaine upon his flancks, and before his front, he had 
pitched sharpe stakes, their heads hardened in the fire, and 
bent against the enemie, as three battalion of Pikes, amongst 
the which also there was digged many small holes. Amongst 
those stakes was ranged his footmen, that upon the charge 
was to retire, as there was occasion. The Tartar having 
ordered his 40000. for his best advantage, appointed Musta- 
pha Bashaw to beginnc the battell, with a generall shout, all 
their Ensignes displaying, Drummes beating, Trumpets and 
Howboyes sounding. Nederspolt and Mavazo with their 
Regiments of horse most valiantly encountred, and forced 
them to retire; the Tartar Begolgi with his Squadrons, 
darkening the skies with their flights of numberles arrowes, 
who was as bravely encountred by Veltus and Oberwiii, 
which bloudie slaughter continued more than an houre, tU! 


the matchlesse multitude of the Tartars so increased, that 
they retired within their Squadrons of stakes as was direct- 
ed. The bloudy Tartar, as scorning he should stay so long 
for the vietorie, with his massie troopes prosecuted the charge: 
but it was a wonder to see how horse and man came to the 
ground among the stakes, whose disordered troopes were so 
mangled, that the Christians with a loud shout cryed Victo- 
ria; and with five or six field peeces, planted vpon the rising 
of a mountaine, did much hurt to the enemy that still conti- 
nued the battell with that furie, that Meldritch seeing there 
was no possibilitie long to preuaile, ioyned his small troopes 
in one body, resolned directly to make his passage or die in 
the conclusion; and thus in grosse gaue a general charge, 
and for more than half an houre made his way plaine before 
him, till the maine battel of the Crym- Tartar with two Re- 
giments of Turkes and lanizaries so overmatched them, that 
they were overthrowen. The night approaching, the Earle 
with some thirteene or fourteene hundred horse, swamme the 
River, some were drowned, all the rest slaine or taken pri- 
soners: And thus in this bloudy field, neere 30000. lay, some 
headlesse, armelesse and leglesse, all cut and mangled; where 
breathing their last, they gaue this knowledge to the world, 
that for the liues of so few, the Cri/m-Tartar neuer paid 
dearer. But now the Countreyes of Transilvania and Wal- 
lachia, (subjected to the Emperour) and Sigismundus that 
brave Prince his subject and Pensioner, the most of his No- 
bilitie, brave Captaines and Souldiers, became a prey to the 
cruell devouring Turke: where had the Emperour been as 
ready to have assisted him, and those three x\rmies led by 
three such worthy Captaines, as Michael, Busca, and Him- 
sclfe, and had those three Armies joyned together against the 
Turke, let all men judge, how happie it might have beene for 
all Christendoms and have either regained Bulgaria, or at 
least have beat him out of Hungaria, where hee hath taken 
much more from the Emperour, than hath the Emperour from 

In this dismall battell, where Nederspolt, Veltus, Zarvana, 
Mavazo, Bavell, and many other Earles, Barons, Colonels, 
Captaines, brave Gentlemen, and Souldiers were slaine — 

* Extracted out of a l?ooke intituled, The warres of Hungaria, WaUachia and .Mol- 
davia, written by Francisco Fenieza, a learned Italian, the Princes Secretarie, and 
translated by Mr. Puivhas. 


Give mee leave to remember the names of our owne Coun- 
try-men with him in those exploits, that as resolutely as the 
best in the defence of Christ and his Gospell, ended their 
dayes, as Baskerjieid, Hardwicke, Thomas Milemer, Robert 
Mullineux, Thomas Bishop, Francis Compton, George Davi- 
son, Nicholas Williams, and one John a Scot, did what men 
could doe, and when they could doe no more, left there their 
bodies in testimonie of their mindes; only Ensigne Carleton 
and Sergeant Robinson escaped: but Smith among the slaugh- 
tered dead bodies, and many a gasping soule, with toile and 
wounds lay groaning among the rest, till being found by the 
Pillagers hee was able to live, and perceiving by his armor 
and habit, his ransome might be better to them, than his death, 
they led him prisoner with many others; well they used him 
till his wounds were cured, and at Axopolis they were all 
sold for slaves, like beasts in a market-place, where everie 
Merchant, viewing their limbs and wounds, caused other 
slaves to struggle with them, to trie their strength, hee fell to 
the share of Bashaw Bogall, who sent him forthwith to Adri- 
nopolis, so for Constantinople to his faire Mistresse for a slave. 
By twentie and twentie chained by the neckes, they marched 
in file to this great Citie, where they were delivered to their 
several Masters, and he to the young Charatza Tragabig- 


.How Captaine Smith was sent prisoner thorow the 
Blacke and Dissabacca Sea in Tartaria; the des- 
cription of those Seas, and his usage. 

This Noble Gentlewoman tooke sometime occasion to 
shew him to some friends, or rather to speake with him, be- 
cause shee could speake Italian, would feigne her selfe sick 
when she should goe to the Banians, or weepe over the 
graves, to know how Bogall tooke him prisoner; and if he 
were as the Bashaw writ to her, a Bohemian Lord conquered 
bv his hand, as hee had many others, which ere long hee 


would present her, whose ransomes should adorne her with 
the glorie of his conquests. 

But when she heard him protest he knew no such matter, 
nor ever saw Bogall till he bought him at Axopolis, and 
that liee was an English-man, onely by his adventures made 
a Captaiue in those Countreyes. To trie the truth, shee 
found means to finde out many could speake English, French, 
Dutch, and Italian, to whom relating most part of these for- 
mer passages he thought necessarie, which they so honestly 
reported to her, she tooke (as it seemed) much compassion 
on him; but having no use for him, lest her mother should 
sell him, she sent him to her brother, the Tymor Bashaw of 
Nalbrits, in the Countrey of Gambia, a Province in Tartar ia. 

Here now let us remember his passing in this speculative 
course from Constantinople by Sander, Screwe, Panassa, 
Musa, Lastilla, to Varna, an ancient Citie upon the Blacke 
Sea. In all .which journey, having little more libertie, than 
his eyes judgment since his captivitie, he might see the 
Townes with their short Towers, and a most plaine, fertile, 
and delicate Countrey, especially that most admired place of 
Greece, now called Romania, but from Varna, nothing but the 
Rlacke Sea water, till he came to the two Capes of Taur 
and Pergilos, where hee passed the Straight of Niger, which 
(as he conjectured) is some ten leagues long, and three broad, 
betwixt two low lands, the Channell is deepe, but at the en- 
trance of the Sea Dissabacca, there are many great Osie- 
shoulds, and main great blaeke rockes, which the Turkes said 
were trees, weeds, and mud, throwen from the in-land Coun- 
try es, by the inundations and violence of the Current, and 
cast there by the Eddy. They sayled by many low lies, and 
saw many more -of those muddy rockes, and nothing else, but 
salt water, till they came betwixt Susax and Curuske, only 
two white townes at the entrance of the river Bruapo appear- 
ed: In six or seven dayes saile, he saw foure or five seeming 
strong castles of stone, with flat tops and battlements about 
them, but arriving at Gambia, he was (according to their cus- 
tome) well used. The river was there more than halfe a 
mile broad. The Castle was of a large circumference, 
fourteene or nfteene foot thick, in the foundation some six foot 
from the wall, is a Pallizado, and then a ditch of about fortie 
foot broad full of water. On the west side of it, is a Towne 
all of low r Oat houses, which as he conceived could bee of no 


great strength, yet it keepes all them barbarous Countreycs 
about it in admiration and subjection. After he had stayed 
there three days; it was two dayes more before his guides 
brought him to Nalbrits, where the Tymor then was resident, 
in a great vast stonie Castle with many great Courts about 
it, invironed with high stone wals, where was quartered their 
Armes, when they first subjected those Countreycs, which on 
ly live to labour for those tyrannicall Turkes. 

To her unkinde brother, this kinde ladie writ so much for 
his good usage, that hee halfe suspected, as much as she in- 
tended; for shee told him, he should there but sojourne to 
learne the language, and what it was to be a Turke, till time 
made her Master of her selfe. But the Tymor her brother, 
diverted all this to the worst of crueltie, for within an houre 
after his arrivall, he caused his Drub-man to strip him naked, 
and shave his head and beard so bare as his hand, a great 
ring of iron, with a long stalke bow^d like a sickle, rivetted 
about his necke, and a coat made of Vlgries haire, guarded 
about with a peece of an undrest skinne. There were many 
more Christian slaves, and neere an hundred Forsados of 
Turkes and Moores, and he being the last, was slave of slaves 
to them all. Among these slavish fortunes there was no 
great choice; for the best was so bad, a dog could hardly 
have lived to endure, and yet for all their paines and labours 
no more regarded than a beast. 


The Turkes diet; the Slaves diet; the attire of the 
Tartars; and manner of IVarres and Religions, &c. 

The Tymor and his friends fed upon Pillaw, which is 
boiled Rice and Garnances, with little bits of mutton or Buc- 
kones, which is rosted peeces of Horse, Bull, Vlgrie, or any 
beasts. Samboyses and Muselbils are great dainties, and yet 
but round pies, full of all sorts of flesh they can get chopped 
with variety of herbs. Their best drink is Coffa, of a graine 
they call Coava, boiled with water; and Sherbecke, which is 
only honey and water; Mares milke, or the milke of any 


beast, they hold restorative: but all the Comminaltie drinke 
pure water. Their bread is made of this Coava, which is a 
kinde of blacke wheat, and Cuskus a small white seed like 
Millia in Biskay: but our common victuall, the entrailes of 
Horse and Vlgries; of this cut in small peeces, they will fill 
a great Cauldron, and being boiled with Cuskus, and put in 
great bowles in the forme of chaffing-dishes, they sit round 
about it on the ground, alter they haue raked it thorow so 
oft as they please with their foule fists, the remainder was for 
the Christian slaves. Some of this broth they would temper 
with Cuskus pounded, and putting the fire off from the hearth, 
powre there a bowle full, then cover it with coales till it be 
baked, which stewed with the remainder of the broth, and 
some small peeces of flesh, was an extraordinary daintie. 

The better sort are attired like Turkes, but the plaine Tar- 
tar hath a blacke slieepc skinne over his backe, and two of 
the legs tied about his necke; the other two about his middle, 
with another over his belly, and the legs tied in the like man- 
ner behinde him: then two more made like a paire of bases, 
serveth him for breeches,' with a little close cap to his skull 
of blacke felt, and they use exceeding much of this felt, for 
carpets, for bedding, for Coats, and Idols. Their houses are 
much wprse than your Irish, but the In-land Countreyes have 
none but Carts and Tents, which they ever remove from 
Countrey to Countrey, as they see occasion, driving with them 
infinite troopes of blacke sheepe, Cattell and Vlgries, eating 
all vp before them, as they goe. 

For the Tartars of Nagi, they have neither Towne, nor 
house, corne, nor drinke; but flesh and milke. The milke 
they keep in great skinnes like Burracho J s, which though it 
be never so sower, it agreeth well with their strong stomackes. 
They live all in Hordias, as doth the Crim- Tartars, three or 
foure hundred in a company, in great Carts fifteene or six- 
teene foot broad, which is covered with small rods, wattled 
together in the forme of a birds nest turned vpwards, and 
with the ashes of bones tempered with oile, Camels haire, 
and a clay they have, they lome them so well, that no wea- 
ther will pierce them, and yet verie light. Each Hordia 
hath a Murse, which they obey as their King. Their Gods 
are infinite. One or two thousand of those glittering white 
Carts drawen with Camels, Deere, Bids, and Vlgries, they 
bring round in a ring, where they pitch their Campe; and the 


Murse, with his chiefe alliances, are placed in the midst. — 
They doe much hurt when they can get any Stroggs, which 
are great boats used upon the river Volga, (which they call 
Edle) to them that dwell in the Countrey of Perolog, and 
would doe much more, were it not for the Muscovites Garri- 
sons that there inhabit. 


The description of the Crym-Tartars; their houses 
and carts; their Idolatry in their lodgings. 

Now you are to understand, Tartary and Scythia are all 
one, but so large and spacious, few or none could ever per- 
fectly describe it, nor all the severall kinds of those most bar- 
barous people that inhabit it. Those we call the Crym- TV- 
tars, border upon Moldavia, Podolia, Lituania, and Russia, 
are much more regular than the interior parts of Scythia. — - 
This great Tartarian Prince, that hath so troubled all his 
neighbours, they alwayes call Chan, which signifieth Empe- 
rour; but we, the Crym-Tartar, He Jiveth for most part in 
the best champion plaines of many provinces; and his remov- 
ing Court is like a great Citie of houses and tents, drawee on 
Carts, all so orderly placed East and West, on the right and 
left hand of the Prince his house, which is alwayes in the 
midst towards the South, before which none may pitch their 
houses, every one knowing their order and quarter, as in an 
Armie. The Princes houses are very artificially wrought, 
both the foundation, sides, and roofe of wickers, ascending 
round to the top like a Dove-coat; this they cover with white 
felt, or white earth tempered with the powder of bones, that 
it may shine the whiter; sometimes with blacke felt, curi- 
ously painted with vines, trees, birds, and beasts; the breadth 
of the Carts are eighteene or twenty foot, but the house stretch- 
eth foure or five foot over each side, and is drawne with ten or 
twelve, or for more state, twenty Camels and Oxen. They 
have also great baskets, made of smaller wickers like great 
chests, with a covering of the same, all covered over with 
blacke felt, rubbed over with tallow and sheeps milke to keepe 
out the raine; prettily bedecked with painting or feathers; in 


those they put their household stuffe and treasure, drawnc 
upon other carts for that purpose. When they take downe 
their houses, they set the doore alwayes towards the South, 
and their carts thirtie or fortie foot distant on each side, East 
and West, as if they were two walls: the women also have 
most curious carts; every one of his wives hath a great one 
for herselfe, and so many other for her attendants, that they 
seeme as many Courts, as he hath wives. One great Tartar 
or Nobleman, will have for his particular, more than an hun- 
dred of those houses and carts, for his severail offices and 
uses, but set so farre from each other, they will seeme like a 
great village. Having taken their houses from the carts, 
they place the Master alwayes towards the North; over whose 
head is alwayes an Image like a Puppet, made of felt, which 
they call his brother; the women on his left hand, and over 
the chiefe Mistris her head, such another brother, and be- 
tweene them a little one, which is the keeper of the house; 
at the good wives beds-feet is a kids skinne, stuffed with 
wooll, and necre it a Puppet looking towards the Maids; next 
the doore another, with a dried cowes udder, for the women 
that milke the kine, because only the men milke mares; eve- 
ry morning those Images in their orders they besprinkle with 
that they drinke, be it Cossmos or whatsoever, but all the 
white mares milke is reserved for the Prince. Then without, 
the doore, thrice to the South, every one bowing his knee in 
honour of the fire; then the like to the East, in honour of the 
aire; then to the West, in honour of the water; and lastly to 
the North, in behalfe of the dead. After the servant hath 
done this duty to the foure quarters of the world, he returnes 
into the house, where his fellowes stand w r aiting, ready with 
two cups and two basons to, give their master, and his wife, 
that lay with him that night, to wash anej drinke, who must 
keepe him company all the day following; and all his other 
wives come thither to drinke, where he keepes his house that 
day; and all the gifts presented to him till night, are laid vp 
in her chests; and at the doore a bench full of cups, and 
drinke for any of them to make merry. 



Their feasts; common diet; Princes estate; buildings; 
tributes; lawes; slaves; entertainment of Jlmhas- 

For their feasts they have all sorts of beasts, birds, fish, 
fruits, and hearbs they ean get, but the more variety of wilde 
ones is the best; to which they have excellent drinke made 
of rice, millet, and honey, like wine; they have also wine, 
but in Summer they drinke most Cossmos, that standeth rea- 
dy alwayes at the entrance of the doore, and by it a fidler; 
when the master of the house beginneth to drinke, they all 
cry, ha, ha, and the fidler playes, then they all clap their 
hands and dance, the men before their Masters, the women 
before their Mistresses; and ever when he drinks, they cry 
as before; then the fidler stayeth till they drinke all round; 
sometimes they will drinke for the victory; and to provoke 
one to drinke, they will pull him by fhe ears, and lugge and 
draw him, to stretch and heat him, clapping their hands, 
stamping with their feet, and dancing before the champions, 
offering them cups, then draw them backe againe to increase 
their appetite; and thus continue till they 'be drunke, or their 
drinke done, which they hold an honour, and no infirmity. 

Though the ground be fertile, they sow little corne, yet 
the Gentlemen have bread and hony-wine; grapes they have 
plenty, and wine privately, and good flesh and fish; but the 
common sort, stamped millet, mingled with milke and water. 
They call Cassa for meat, and drinke any thing; also any 
beast unprofitable for service they kill, when they are like to 
die, or however they die, they will eat them, guts liver and 
all; but the most fleshy parts they cut in thinne slices, and 
hang it up in the Sunne and wind without salting, where it 
will drie so hard, it will not putrifie in a long time. A Ramme 
they esteeme a great feast among fortie or fiftie, which they 
cut in peeces boiled or roast, pftits it in a great bowle with 
salt and water, for other sauce they have none; the master of 
the feast giveth every one a peece, which he eateth by him- 
selfe, or carrieth away with him. Thus their hard fare 
makes them so infinite in Cattcll, and their great number of 
captived women to breed vpon r makes them so populous. — 


But neere the Christian frontiers, the baser sort make little 
cottages of wood, called Vlusi, daubed over with durt, and 
beasts dung covered with sedge; yet in summer they leave 
them, beginning their progresse in Aprill, with their wives, 
Children, and slaves, in their carted houses, scarce convenient 
for foure or five persons; driving their flocks towards Pere- 
copya, and sometimes into Taurica, or Osow, a towne upon 
the river Tanais, which is great and swift, where the Turke 
hath a garrison; and in October returne againe to their Cot- 
tages. Their Clothes are the skinnes of dogges, goats, and 
sheepe, lined with cotton cloath, made of their finest wooll, 
for of their worst they make their felt, which they use in 
aboundance, as well for shooes and caps, as houses, beds, 
and Idolls; also of the coarse wooll mingled with horse haire, 
they make all their cordage. Notwithstanding this wander- 
ing life, their Princes sit in great state upon beds, or carpits, 
and with great reverence are attended both by men and wo- 
men, and richly served in plate, and great silver cups, deli- 
vered upon the knee, a.ttired in rich furres, lined with plush, 
or taffity, or robes of tissue. These Tartars possesse many 
large and goodly plaines, wherein feed innumerable herds of 
horse and ca'ttell, as well wilde as tame; which are Elkes, 
Bisoncs, Horses, Deere, Sheepe, Goates, Swine, Beares, and 
divers others. 

In those countries arc the mines of many faire Monaste- 
ries, Castles, and Cities, as Bacasaray, Sahitium, Almassary, 
Pereeopya, Cremum, Sedacom, Capha, and divers others by 
the Sea, but all kept with strong garrisons for the great 
Turke, who yearely by trade or tralficke, receiveth the chiefe 
commodities those fertile countries afford, as Bezer, Rice, 
Furres, Hides, Butter, Salt, Cattell, and Slaves, yet by the 
spoiles they get from the secure and idle Christians, they 
maintaine themselves in this Pompe. Also their wives, of 
whom they have as many as they will, very costly, vet in a 
constant custome with decency. 

They are Mahometans, as are the Turks, from whom also 
they have their Lawes, but no Lawyers, nor Attournies, one- 
ly Judges, and lustices in every Village, or Hordia; but cap- 
tall criminalls, or matters of moment, before the Chan him- 
selfe, or Priuie Counsells, of whom they are alwayes heard, 
and speedily discharged; for any may have accesse at any 
time to them, before whom they appeare with great reverence, 


adoring their Princes as Gods, and their spiritual! Iudges as 
Saints; for Iustice is with such integrity and expedition exe- 
cuted, without covetousnesse, bribery, partiality, and braw- 
ling, that in six moneths they have sometimes scarce six cau- 
ses to heare. About the Princes court none but his guard 
weares any weapon, but abroad they goe very strong, because 
there are many bandytos, and Theeves. 

They use the Hungarians, Russians, Wallachians, and 
Moldavian slaves (whereof they have plenty) as beasts to 
every worke; and those Tartars that serve the Chan, or no- 
blemen, have only victuall and apparell, the rest are general- 
ly nasty, and idle, naturally miserable^ and in their warres 
better theeves than souldiers. 

This Chan hath yeerely a Donative from the King of Po- 
land, the Dukes of Lituania, Moldavia, and Nagagon Tar- 
tars; their Messengers commonly he useth bountifully, and 
verie nobly, but sometimes most cruelly; when any of them 
doth bring their Presents, by his household Officers they are 
entertained in a plaine field, with a moderate proportion of 
flesh, bread and Avine, for once; but when they come before 
him, the Saltaines, Tuians, Vlans, Marhies, his chiefe Offi- 
cers and Councellors attend, one man only bringeth the Am- 
bassadour to the Court gate, but to the Chan he is led be- 
tweene two Councellors; where saluting him upon their bend- 
ed knees, declaring their message, are admitted to eat with 
him, and presented with a great silver cup full of Mead from 
his owne hand, but they drinke it upon their knees: when 
they are dispatched, he invites them againe, the feast ended, 
they go backe a little from the Palace doore, and rewarded 
with silke Vestures wrought with gold downe to their anckles, 
with an horse or two, and sometimes a slave of their own 
Nation; in them robes presently they come to him againe, to 
give himthankes, take their leave, and so depart. 


How he levieth an Jlrmie; their Armes and Provision, 
how he divideth the spoile, and his service to the 
Great Tnrke. 

When he intends any warres, he must first have leave of 
the Great Turke, whom he is bound to assist when hee com- 
manded), receiving daily for himselfe and chiefe of his No- 
bilitie, pensions from the Turke, that holds all Kings but 
slaves, that pay tribute or are subject to any: signifying his 
intent to all his subjects, within a moneth commonly he rais- 
eth his Armie, and everie man is to furnish himselfe for three 
moneths victuals, which is parched Millet, or grownd to 
meale, which they ordinarily mingle with water (as is said) 
hard cheese or cruds dried, and beaten to powder, a little will 
make much water like milke, and dried flesh, this they put 
also up in sackes: The Chan and his Nobles have some bread 
and Aquavitce, and quicke cattell to kill when they please, 
wherewith verie sparingly they are contented. Being provi- 
ded with expert Guides, and got into the countrey he intends 
to invade, he sends forth his Scouts to bring in what prison- 
ers they can, from whom he will wrest the utmost of their 
knowledge fit for his purpose: having advised with his Coun- 
cell, what is most fit to be done, the Nobilitie, according to 
their antiquitie, doth march; then moves he with his whole 
Armie: if hee fiilde there is no enemie to oppose him, he ad- 
viseth how farre they shall invade, commanding everie man 
(upon paine of his life) to kill all the obvious Rusticks; but 
not to hurt any women, or children. 

Ten, or fifteene thousand, he commonly placeth, where 
hee findeth most convenient for his standing Campe; the rest 
of his Armie hee divides in sevcrall troops, bearing ten or 
twelve miles square before them, and ever within three or 
foure dayes returne to their Campe, putting all to fire and 
sword, but that they carrie with them backe to their Campe; 
and in this scattering manner he will invade a Countrey, and 
be gone with his prey, with an incredible expedition. But if 
he understand of an enemie, he will either fight in Ambusca- 
do, or flie; for he will never fight any battell if he can chuse, 
but upon treble advantage; yet by his innumerable flights of 


arrowes, I have scene flie from his flying troopes, we could 
not. well judge, whether his fighting or flying was most dan- 
gerous, so good is his horse, and so expert his bowmen; but 
if they be so entangled they must fight, there is none can bee 
more hardy, or resolute in their defences. 

Regaining his owne borders, he takes the tenth of the prin- 
cipall captives, man, woman, childe, or beast (but his cap- 
taines that take them, will accept of some particular person 
they best like for themselves) the rest are divided amongst the 
whole Annie, according to every mans desert; and quality; 
that they keepe them, or sell them to who will give most; 
but the}' will not forget to use all the meanes they can, to 
'know their estates, friends and quality, and the better they 
finde you, the worse they will use you, till you doe agree to 
pay such a ransome, as they will impose upon you; there- 
fore many great persons have endured much misery to con- 
ceale themselves, because their ransomes are so intolerable: 
their best hope is of some Christian Agent, that many times 
commeth to redeeme slaves, either with money, or man for 
man; those Agents knowing so well the extreme covetous- 
nesse of the Tartars, doe use to bribe some lew or Mer- 
chant, that feigning they will sell them againe to some other 
nation, are oft redeemed for a very small ransome. 

But to this Tartarian Armie, when the Turke commands, 
he goeth with some small artillery; and the Nagagians, 
Perecopens, Crimes, Osovens, and Cersessians, are his tribu- 
taries; but the Petigorves, Oczaconians, Byalogordens, and 
Dobrucen Tartars, the Turke by covenant commands to fol- 
low him, so that from all those Tartars he hath had an Army 
of an hundred and twenty thousand excellent, swift, stomack- 
full Tartarian horse, for foot thev 4iave none. Now the 
Chan, his Sultaines and nobility, use Turkish, Caramanian, 
Arabian, Parthian, and other strange Tartarian horses; the 
swiftest they esteeme the best; seldome they feede any more 
at home, than they have present use for; but upon their plaines 
is a short wodde like heath, in some countries like gaile, full 
of berries, farre much better than any grasse. 

Their Armes are such as they have surprised or got from 
the Christians or Persians, both brest-plates, swords, semi- 
teres, and helmets; bowes and arrowes they make most 
themselves, also their bridles and saddles are indifferent, but 
the nobility are very handsome, and well armed like the 


Turkes, in whom consisteth their greatest glory; the ordina- 
ry sort have little armor, some aplaine young pole unshaven, 
headed with a peeee of iron for a lance; some an old Chris- 
tian pike, or a Turks cavarine; yet those tattertimallions will 
have two or three horses, some foure or five, as well for service, 
as for to eat; which makes their Armies seem thrice so man)" 
as there are soiihfiers. The Chan himselfe hath about his 
person ten thousand chosen Tartars and Janizaries, some 
small Ordnance, and a" white mares taile, with a peece of 
greene taffity on a great Pike, is carried before him for a 
standard; because they hold no beast so precious as a white 
mare, whose milke is onely for the King and nobility, and 
to sacrifice to their Idolls; but the rest have ensignes of divers 

For all this miserable knowledge, furniture, and equipage, 
the mischiefe they doe in Christendoms is wonderful, by rea- 
son of their hardnesse of life and constitution, obedience, agil- 
itie, and their Emperours bountie, honours, grace, and dig- 
nities he ever bestoweth upon those that have done him any 
memorable service in the face of his enemies. 

The Caspian Sea, most men agree that have passed it, to 
be in length about 200. leagues, and in breadth an hundred 
and fifty, environed to the East, with the great desarts of the 
Tartars of Turkamane; to the West, by the Circasses, and the 
mountaine Caucasus; to the North, by the river Volga, and 
the land of Nagay; and to the South, by Media, and Persia: 
this sea is fresh water in many places, in others as salt as the 
great Ocean; it hath many great rivers which fall into it, as 
the mighty river of Volga, which is like a sea, running ncere 
two thousand miles, through many great and large Countries, 
that send into it many*bther great rivers; also out of Saberya, 
Yaick, and Yem, out of the great mountaine Caucasus, the 
river Sims, Arash, and divers others, yet no Sea neerer it 
than the blacke Sea, which is at least an hundred leagues 
distant: in which Country live the Georgians, now part Ar- 
menians, part Nestorians; it is neither found to increase or 
diminish, or empty it selfe any way, except it be under ground, 
and in some places they can findc no ground at two hundred 

Many other most strange and wonderfull things are in the 
land of Cathay towards the North-east, and Chyna towards 
*hc South-east, where are many of the most famous Kin gel omc^ 


in the world; where most arts, plenty, and curiosities 
are in such abundance, as might seeme incredible, which 
hereafter I will relate, as I have briefly gathered from such 
authors as have lived there. 


Mow captaine Smith escaped captivity; stew the Ba- 
shaw ojfNalbrits in Gambia; his passage to Russia. 
Transilvania, and the mid fie si of Europe to Affrica. 

All the hope he had ever to be delivered from this thra'i- 
dome, was only the love of Tragabigzanda, who surely was 
ignorant of his bad usage; for although he had often debated 
the matter with some Christians, that had heene there a Idiig 
time slaves, they could not finde how to make an escape, by 
any reason or possibility; but God beyond mans expectation 
or imagination helpeth his servants, when they least thinke 
of helpe, as it hapned to him. So long he lived in this mi- 
serable estate, as he became a thresher at a grange in a. great 
field, more than a league from the Tyntnrs house; the Ba- 
shaw as he oft used to visit his granges, visited him, and tooke 
occasion so to beat, spurne, and revile him. that forgetting 
all reason, he beat out the Tymors braines with -his threshing 
bat, for they have no flailes; and seeing his estate could be 
no worse than it was, clothed hiniselfe in his clothes, hid his 
body under the straw, filled his knapsacke with come, shut 
the doores, mounted his horse, and ranne into the desart at 
all adventure; two or three dayes thus fearfully wandring 
he knew not whither, and well it was he met not any to aske 
the way; being even as taking leave of this miserable world, 
God did direct him to the great way or Castragan, as they 
call it, which doth crosse these large territories, and gene- 
rally knowne anmng them by these marks. 

In every crossing of this great way is planted a post, and in 
it so many bobs with broad ends, as there be wayes, and eve- 
ry bob the figure painted on it, that demonstrated! to what 
part that way leadeth; as that which pointeth towards the 
Cryms Country, is marked with a halfe Moone, if towards 


tbe Georgians and Persia, a blacke man, full of white spots, 
if towards China, the picture of the Sunne, if towards Mus- 
covia, the signe of a Crosse, if towards the habitation of any 
other Prince, the figure whereby his standard is knowne. — 
To his dying spirits thus God added some comfort in this 
melancholy journey, wherein if he had met any of that \ ilde 
generation, they had made him their slave, or knowing the 
figure engraven in the iron about his necke, (as all slaves 
have) he had beene sent backe againe to his master; sixteene 
dayes he travelled in this feare and torment, after the Crosse, 
till he arrived at JEcopolis, upon the river Don, a garrison of 
the Muscovites. The governour after due examination of 
those his hard events, tooke off his irons, and so kindly used 
him, he thought himselfe new risen from death, and the good 
Lady Callamata, largely supplied all his wants. 

This is as much as lie could learne of those wilde Coun- 
tries, that the Country of Gambia is two dayes journey from 
the head of the great river Brnapo, which springeth from 
many places of the moimtaines of Innagachi, that joy no \\. em- 
selves together in the Poole Kerkas; which they account for 
the head, and lalleth into the Sea Dissabacca, called by some 
the lake Meotis, which receiveth also the river Tanais, and 
all the rivers that fall from the great Countries of the Circassi, 
the Cartaches, and many from the Tauricaes, Precopes, 
Cummani, Cossnnka, and the Cryme; through which Sea 
he sailed, and up the river Bruapo to Nalbrits, and thence 
through the. desarts of Circassi to Mcoplis, as is related; 
where he stayed with the Governour, till the Convoy went 
to Coragnaw; then with his certificate how hee found him, 
and had examined with his friendly letters sent him by Zu- 
malacke to Caragnau:, whose Governour in like manner so 
kindly use him, that by this meanes he went with a safe con- 
duct to Letch, and Donka, in Cologoske, and thence to Bcr- 
niske, and Newgrod, in Seberia, by Rezechica, upon the ri- 
ver Nipei\ in the confines of Littuania; from whence with 
as much kindnesse he was convoyed in like manner by Co- 
roski, Du.beresko, Duzibell, Drohobus, and Qstroge in Volo- 
nia; Saslaw and Lasco in Podolia; Halico and Collouia in 
Polonia; and so to Hirmonstat in Transilvania. In all his 
life he seidome met with more respect, mirth, content, and 
entertainment; and not any Governour where he came, but 
gave hiiii somewhat as a present, besides his charges: seeing 


themselves as subject to the like calamity. Through those 
poore continually forraged Countries there is no passage, but 
with the Carravans or Convoyes; for they are Countries ra- 
ther to be pitied, than envied; and it is a wonder any should 
make warres for them. The Villages are onely here and 
there a few houses of straight Firre trees, laid heads and 
points above one another, made fast by notches at the ends 
more than a mans height, and with broad split boards, pinn- 
ed together with woodden pinnes, as thatched for coverture. 
In ten Villages you shall scarce finde ten iron nailes, except it be 
in some extraordinary mans house. For their Townes /Ecopolis, 
Letch, and Donko, have rampiers made of that woodden 
walled fashion, double, and betwixt them earth and stones, 
but so latched with crosse timber, they are very strong against 
any thing but fire; and about them a deepe ditch, and a Pa- 
lizado of young Firre trees: but most of the rest have only 
a great ditch cast about them, and the ditches earth is all 
their rampier; but round well environed with Palizadoes. — 
Some have some few small peeces of small Ordnance, and 
slings, calievers, and muskets, but their generallest weapons 
are the Russe bowes and arrowes; you shall find pavements 
over bogges, onely of young Firre trees laid crosse one over 
another, for two or three houres journey, or as the passage, 
requires, and yet in two dayes travell you shall scarce see six 
habitations. Notwithstanding to see how their Lords, Gover- 
nours, and Captaines are civilized, well attired and acoutred 
with Jewells, Sables, and Horses, and after their manner 
with curious furniture, it is wonderfull; but they are all 
Lords or slaves, which makes them so subject to every in- 

In Tramilvania he found so many good friends, that but 
to see, and rejoyce himselfe (after all those encounters) in his 
native Country, he would ever hardly have left them, though, 
the mirrour of vertue their Prince was absent. Being thus 
glutted with content, and neere drowned with joy, he passed 
high Hungaria by Fileck, Tocka, Cassovia, and Vnderoro- 
ivay, by Vlmicht in Moravia, to Prague in Bohemia; at last 
he found the most gracious Prince Sigismundus, with his 
Colonell at Lipswick in Misenland, who gave him his Passe. 
intimating the service he had done, and the honours he had 
received, with fifteene hundred ducats of gold to repaire his 
losses: with this he spent some time to visit the faire Cities 


and Countries of Drasdon in Saxonie, Magdaburgh and 
Brunswicke; Cassell in Hessen; Wittenberg, Vllum, and 
Minikin in Bavaria; Aughsbrough, and her Vniversities; Ha- 
ma, Franckford, Mentz, the Palatinate; Wormes, Speyre, and 
Strausborough; passing Nancie in Loraine, and France by 
Paris to Orleans, hee went downe the river of Loyer, to An- 
giers, and imbarked himself e at Nantz in Britanny, for .6*7- 
6«p in Biskay, to see Burgos- Valiadolid, the admired monas- 
terie of the Escuriall, Madrill, Toledo, Cordua, Cuedyriall> 
Civill, Cheryes, Coles, and Saint Lucas, in Spaine. 


The observations af Captaine Smith; Mr. Henrie 
Archer and others in Barbaric 

Being thus satisfied with Europe and Asia, understanding 
©f the warres in Barbarie, hee went from Gibralter to Guta 
and Tanger, thence to Saffee, where growing into acquain- 
tance with a French man of wane, the Captaine and some 
twelve more went to Morocco, to see the ancient monuments 
of that large renowned Citie: it was once the principall Citie 
in Barbarie, situated in a goodly plaine Countrey, 14. miles 
from the great Mount Atlas, and sixtie miles from the At- 
lanticke Sea; but now little remaining, but the Kings Pa- 
lace, which is like a Citie of it selfe, and the Christian 
Church, on whose flat square steeple is a great brouch of iron, 
whereon is placed the three golden bals of Affrica: the first 
is neere three Ells in circumference, the next above it some^ 
what lesse, the uppermost the least over them, as it were an 
halfe Ball, and over all a prettie guilded Pyramides. Against 
those golden Bals hath been shot many a shot, their weight 
is recorded 700. weight of pure gold, hollow within, yet no 
shot did ever hit them, nor could ever any Conspirator attaine 
that honor as to get them downe. They report the Prince of 
Morocco betrothed himselfe to the Kings Daughter of JEthi- 
opia, he dying before their mariage, she caused those three 
golden Balls to be set up for his Monument, and vowed vir- 
ginitie all her life. The Alfantka is also a place of note 3 


because it is invironed with a great wall, wherein lye the 
goods of all the Merchants securely guarded. The luclerea 
is also (as it were) a Citic of it selfe, where dwell the Iewes: 
the rest for the most part is defaced: but by the many pinna- 
cles and towers, with Balls on their tops, hath much appear- 
ance of much sumptuousnesse and curiositie. There have 
been many famous Universities, which are now but stables 
for Fowles and Beasts, and the houses in most parts lye tum- 
bled one above another; the walls of Earth are with the great 
fresh flouds washed to the ground; nor is there any village in 
it, but tents for Strangers, Larbes and Moores. Strange tales 
they will tell of a great Garden, wherein were all sorts of 
Birds, Fishes, Beasts, Fruits, and Fountaines, which for beau- 
tie, Art and pleasure, exceeded any place knowne in the 
world, though now nothing but dung-hils, Pigeon-houses, 
shrubs and bushes. There are yet many excellent fountaines 
adorned with marble, and many arches, pillers, towers, ports 
and Temples; but most only reliques of lamentable mines 
and sad desolution. 

When Mully Hamet reigned in Barbarie, hee had three 
sonnes, Mully Shecke, Mully Sidan, and Mully Befferres, he 
a most good and noble King, that governed well with peace 
and plentie, till his Empresse, more cruel than any beast in 
Affrica, poysoned him, her owne daughter, Mully Shecke 
his eldest sonne borne of a Portugall Ladie, and his daugh- 
ter, to bring Mully Sidan to the Crowne now reigning, which 
was the cause of all those brawles and warres that followed 
betwixt those Brothers, their children, and a Saint that start 
up, but he played the Devil 1. 

King Mully Hamet was not blacke, as many suppose, but 
Molata, or tawnie, as are the most of his subjects; everie way 
noble, kincle and friendly, verie rich and pompous in State 
and Majestic, though hee sitteth not upon a Throne nor Chaire 
of Estate, but crosse legged upon a rich Carpet, as doth the 
Turke, whose Religion of Mahomet, with an incredible mi- 
serable curiositie they observe. His Ordinarie Guard is at 
least 5000 but in progresse he goeth not with lesse than 
20000. horsemen, himselle as rich in all his Equipage, as any 
Prince in Christendome, and yet a Contributor to the Turke. 
In all his Kingdome were so lew good Artificers, that hee 
entertained from England, Gold-smiths, Plummers, Carvers, 
and Polhhers of stone, and Watch-makers, so much he: 



delighted in the reformation of workmanship, hee allowed each 
of them ten shillings a day standing fee, linnen, woollen, 
silkes, and what they would for diet and apparell, and cus- 
tome-free to transport, or import what they would; for there 
were scarce any of those qualities in his Kingdomes, but 
those, of which there are divers of them living at this present 
in London. Amongst the rest, one Mr. Henry Archer, a 
Watch-maker, walking in Morocco, from the Alfantica to the 
Iuderea, the way being verie foule, met a great Priest, or a 
Sante (as they call all great Clergy-men) who would have 
thurst him into the durt for the way; but Archer; not know- 
ing what he was, gave him a box on the eare, presently he 
was apprehended, and condemned to have his tongue cut out, 
and his hand cut off: but no sooner it was knowen at the 
Kings Court, but 300. of his Guard came, and broke open 
the Prison, and delivered him, although the fact was next de- 
gree to treason. 

Concerning this Archer, there is one thing more worth 
noting: Not farre from Mount Atlas, a great Lionesse in the 
heat of the day, did use to bathe her selfe, and teach her 
young Puppies to swimme in the river Cauzeff, of a good 
bredth; yet she would carrie them one after another over the 
river; which some Moores perceiving watched their opportu- 
nitie, and when the river was betweene her and them, stole 
foure of her whelps, which she perceiving, with all the speed 
shee could passed the river, and comming neere them they 
let fall a whelpe (and fled with the rest) which she tooke in 
her mouth, and so returned to the rest: a Male and a Female 
of those they gave Mr. Archer, who kept them in the Kings 
Garden, till the Male killed the Female, then he brought it 
up as a Puppy-dog lying upon his bed, till it grew so great 
as a Mastiffe, and no dog more tame or gentle to them hee 
knew: but being to returne for England, at Saffee he gave 
him to a Merchant of Marsellis, that presented him to the 
French King, who sent him to King lames, where it was 
kept in the Tower seven yeeres: After one Mr. Iohn Bull, 
then servant to Mr. Archer, with divers of his friends, went to 
see the Lyons, not knowing any thing at all of him; yet this 
rare beast smelled him before hee saw him, whining, groan- 
ing, and tumbling, with such an expression of acquaintance, 
that being informed by the Keepers how he came thither; Mr. 
Bull so prevailed, the Keeper opened the grate, and Bull 


went in: But no Dogge could fawne more on his Master, than 
the Lyon on him, licking his feet, hands, and face, skipping 
and tumbling to and fro, to the wonder of all the beholders; 
being satisfied with his acquaintance, he made shift to get out 
of the grate, But when the Lyon saw r his friend gone, no 
beast by bellowing, roaring, scratching, and howling, could 
expresse more rage and sorrow, nor in foure dayes after 
would he either eat or drinke. 

In Morocco, the Kings Lyons are all together in a Court, 
invironed with a great high wall; to those they put a young 
Puppy-dogge: the greatest Lyon had a sore upon his necke, 
which this Dogge so licked that he was healed: the Lyon 
defended him from the furie of the rest, nor durst they eat 
till the Dogge and he had fed; this Dog grew great, and 
Jived amongst them many yeers after. 

Fez also is a most large and plentifull countrey, the chiefe 
Citie is called Fez, divided into two parts; old Fez, contain- 
ing about 80. thousand households, the other 4000. pleasant- 
ly situated vpon a River in the heart of Barbarie, part upon 
hils, part upon plaines, fidl of people, and all sorts of Mer- 
chandise. The great Temple is called Carucer, in bredth 
seventeene Arches, in length 120. borne up with 2500. white 
marble pillars: under the chiefe Arch, where the Tribunall is 
kept, hangeth a most huge lampe, compassed with 110. lesser, 
under the other also hang great lamps, and about some are 
burning fifteene hundred lights. They say they were all 
made of the bels the Arabians brought from Spaine. It hath 
three gates of notable height, Priests and Officers so many, 
that the circuit of the Church, the Yard, and other houses, is lit- 
tle lesse than a mile and an halfe in compasse; there are in this 
Citie 200. Schooles, 200. Innes, 400. water-miles, 600. water- 
Conduits, 700. Temples and Oratories; but fiftie of them most 
stately and richly furnished. Their Alcazer or Burse is wall- 
ed about, it hath twelve gates, and fifteen walks covered with 
tents, to keepe the Sun from the Merchants, and them that 
come there. The Kings Palace, both for strength and beau- 
tie is excellent; and the Citizens have many great privileges. 
Those two Countrey es of Fez and Morocco, are the best part 
of Barbaric, abounding with people, cattell, and all good ne- 
cessaries for mans use. For the rest, as the Larbes, or Moun- 
tainers, the Kingdomes of Cocow, Algier, Tripoly, Tunis, 
and JEgypt; there are many large histories of them in divers 


languages, especially that writ by that most excellent States- 
man, John de Leo, who afterward turned Christian. The 
unknowen Countries of Ginny and Binne, this six and twen- 
tie yeeres have beene frequented with a few English ships 
only to trade, especially the river of Senega, by Captaine 
Brimstead, Captaine Brockit, Mr. Crump, and divers others. 
Also the great river of Gambra, by Captaine Iobson, who is 
returned in thither againe in the yeere 1626. with Mr. Wil- 
liam Grent, and thirteene or fourteene others, to stay in the 
Countrey, to discover some way to those rich mines of Gago 
or Tumbatu, from whence is supposed the Moores of Bar- 
barie have their gold, and the certaintie of those supposed 
descriptions and relations of those interiour parts, which dai- 
ly the more they are sought into, the more they are correct- 
ed. For surely, those interiour parts of Affrica are little 
knowen to either English, French, or Dutc/i, though they 
use much the Coast; therefore wee will make a little bold 
with the observations of the Portugalls, 


The strange discoveries and ohservaiiovs of the Por- 
tugalls in Affrica. 

The Portugalls on those parts have the glorie, who first 
coasting along this Westerne shore of Affrica, to fmde pas- 
sage to the East Indies, within this hundred and fiftie yeeres, 
even from the Streightsof Gibralter, about the Cape of Bone 
Esperance to the Persian Gulfe, and thence all along the 
Asian Coast to the Moluccas, have subjected many great 
Kingdomes, erected many Common-wealths, built many great 
and strong Cities; and where is it they have not beene by 
trade or force? no not so much as Cape de Verd, and Serm- 
\eone; but most Bayes or Jlivers, where there is any trade 
to bee had, especially gold, or convcniencic for refreshment, 
but they are scattered; living so amongst those Blacks, by 
time and cunning they seeme to bee naturalized amongst 
them. As for the Isles of the Canaries, they have faire 


Townes, many Villages, and many thousands of people rich 
in commodities. 

Orcoardo Lopez, a noble Portugal!, Anno Dom. 1578, 
imbarquing himselfe for Congo to trade, where he found 
such entertainment, finding the King much oppressed with 
enemies, hee found means to bring in the Portugalls to as- 
sist him, whereby he planted there Christian Religion, and 
spent most of his life to bring those Countrcyes to the Crowne 
of Portugall, which he describeth in this manner. 

The Kingdome of Congo is about 600. miles diameter any 
way, the chiefe Citie called St. Savadore, seated upon art 
exceeding high mountaine, 150. miles from the Sea, verie 
fertile, and inhabited with more than 100000. persons, where 
is an excellent prospect over all the plaine Countrcyes about 
it, well watered, lying (as it were) in the Center of this 
Kingdome, over all which the Portugalls now command, 
though but an handfull in comparison of Negroes. They 
have flesh and fruits verie plentifull of divers sorts. 

This Kingdom is divided into five Provinces, viz. Bamba, 
Sundi, Pango, Batta and Pembo; but Bamba is the princi- 
pal!, and can affcord 400000. men of warre. Elephants are 
bred over all those Provinces, and of wonderfull greatnesse; 
though some report they cannot kneele, nor lye downe, they 
can doe both, and have their joynts as other creatures for use: 
with their fore-feet they wili leapc upon trees to pull downe 
the boughes, and are of that strength, they will shake a great 
Cocar tree for the nuts, and pull downe a good tree with 
their tuskes, to get the leaves to eat, as well as sedge and 
long grasse, Cocar nuts and berries, &c. which with their 
trunke they put in their mouth, and chew it with their smal- 
ler teeth; in most of those Provinces, are many rich mines, 
but the Negars opposed the Portugalls for working in them. 

The Kingdome of Angola is wonderfull populous, and 
rich in mines of silver, copper, and most other mettalls; 
fruitfull in all manner of food, and sundry sorts of cattell, 
but dogges flesh they love better than any other meat; they 
use few clothes, and no Armour; bowes, arrowes, and clubs, 
are their weapons. But the Portugalls are well armed 
against those engines, and cloe buy yearely of the Blacks more 
than five thousand slaves, and many are people exceeding 
well proportioned. 


The Anchicos are a most valiant nation, but most strange 
to all about them. Their Armes are Bowes, short and small, 
wrapped about with serpents skinnes, of divers colours, but 
so smooth you would thinke them all one with the wood, 
and it makes them very strong; their strings are little twigs, 
but exceeding tough and flexible; their arrows short, which 
they shoot with an incredible quicknesse. They have short 
axes of brass and copper for swords; wonderfull loyall and 
faithfull, and exceeding simple, yet so active, they skip 
amongst the rockes like goats. They trade with them of Nu- 
bea, and Congo, for Lamache, which is a small kind of shell 
fish, of an excellent azure colour, male and female, but the 
female they hold most pure; they value them at divers pri- 
ces, because they are of divers sorts, and those they use for 
eoine, to buy and sell, as we doe gold and silver; nor will 
they have any other money in all those Countries, for which 
they give Elephants teeth; and slaves for salt, silke, linncn 
cloth, glasse-beads, and such like PortugaU commodities. 

They circumcise themselves, and mark their faces with 
sundry slashes from their infancie. They keepe a shambles 
of mans flesh, as if it were beefe, or other victuall; for when 
they cannot have a good market for their slaves; or their ene- 
mies they take, they kill, and sell them in this manner; some 
are so resolute, in shewing how much they scorne death, they 
will offer themselves and slaves, to this butchery to their 
Prince and friends; and though there be many nations will 
eat their enemies, in America and Asia, yet none but those 
are knowne to be so mad, as to eat their slaves and friends 

Religions and idolls they have as many, as nations and hu- 
mours; but the devill hath the greatest part of their devotions, 
whom all those Blacks doe say is white; for there are no 
Saints but Blacks. 

But besides those great Kingdomes of Congo, Angola, and 
Azichi, in those unfrequented parts are the kingdomes of 
Lango, Matania, Buttua, Sofola, Mozambeche, Quivola, the 
Isle of Saint Lawrence, Mombazi, Melinda, the Empires of 
Monomatopa, Monemugi, and Presbiter John, with whom 
they have a kinde of trade, and their rites, customes, climates, 
temperatures, and commodities by relation. Also of great 
Lakes, that deserve the names of Seas, and huge mountaines 
of divers sorts, as some scorched with heat, some covered 


with snow; the mountaines of the Sunne, also of the Moone, 
some of crystall, some of iron, some of silver, and mountaines 
of gold, with the originall of Nilus; likewise sundry sorts of 
cattell, fishes, Fowles, strange beasts, and monstrous ser- 
pents; for Affrica was always noted to be a fruitfull mother 
of such terrible creatures; who meeting at their watering pla- 
ces, which are but Ponds in desart places, in regard of the 
heat of the Country, and their extremities of nature, make 
strange copulations, and so engender those extraordinary 
monsters. Of all tfiese you may reade in the history of this 
Edward Lopez, translated into English by Abraham Hart- 
well, and dedicated to Iohn Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, 
1597. But because the particulars are most concerning the 
conversion of those Pagans, by a good poore Priest, that first 
converted a Noble man, to convert the King, and the rest of 
the Nobility; sent for so many Priests and ornaments into 
PortugaU, to solemnize their baptismes with such magnifi- 
cence, which was performed with such strange curiosities, 
that those poore Negros adored them as Gods, till the Priests 
grew to that wealth, a Bishop was sent to rule over them, 
which they would not endure, which endangered to spoile all 
before they could be reconciled. But not to trouble you too 
long with those rarities of uncertainties; let us returne againe 
into Barbary, where the warres being ended, and Befferres 
possessed of Morocco, and his fathers treasure, a new bruit arose 
amongst them, that Mully Sidan, was raising an Annie against 
him, who after tooke his brother Befferres prisoner; but by 
reason of the uncertainty, and the perfidious, treacherous, 
bloudy murthers rather than warre, amongst those perfidious, 
barbarous Moores, Smith returned with Merit am, and the rest 
to Saffe, and so aboard his Ship, to try some other conclusions 
at Sea. 


A brave Sea fight betwijcl two Spanish men of warre, 
and Captaine Merham, with Smith. 

Merham a captaine of a man of war then in the Road, in- 
vited captaine Smith, and two or three more of them aboord 
with him, where he spared not any thing he had to expresse 
his kindnesse, to bid them welcome, till it was too late to goe 
on shore, so that necessitie constrained them to stay aboord; 
a fairer Evening could not bee, yet ere midnight such a storme 
did arise, they were forced to let slip Cable, and Anchor, and 
put to Sea; spooning before the wind, till they were driven 
to the Canaries; in the calmes they accommodated them- 
selves, hoping this strange accident might yet produce some 
good event; not long it was before they tooke a small Barke 
commiug from Teneryf, loaded with Wine; three or foure 
more they chased, two they tooke, but found little in them, 
save a few passengers, that told them of five Dutch men of 
warre, about the Isles, so that they stood for Boyadora, upon 
the Affncan shore, betwixt which and Cape Noa, they des- 
cried to saile. Merham intending to know what they were, 
hailed them; very civilly they daused their topsailes, and de- 
sired the man of warre to come aboord them, and take what 
he would, for they were but two poore distressed Bickiners. 
But Merham the old fox, seeing himselfe in the lions pawes, 
sprung his loufe, the other tacked after him, and came close 
up to his nether quarter, gave his broad side, and so louied 
up to windward; the Vice-Admirall did the like, and at the 
next bout, the Admirall with a noise of Trumpets, and all his 
Ordnance, murtherers, and muskets, boorded him on his broad 
side; the other in like manner on his ley quarter, that it was 
so darke there was little light, but tire and smoake; long he 
stayed not, before he fell off, leaving 4. or 5. of his men spraw- 
ling over the grating; after they had battered Merham about 
an houre, they boorded him againe as before; and threw foure 
kedgers or grapnalls in iron chaines; then shearing off they 
thought so to have torne downe the grating; but the Admi- 
ralls yard was so intangled in their shrouds, Merham had time 
to discharge two crosse bare shot amongst them, and divers 
bolts of iron made for that purpose, against his bow> that 


made such a breach, he feared they both should have sunke 
for company; so that the Spaniard was as yare in slipping his 
chained Grapnalls, as Merham was in cutting the tackling, 
kept fast their yards in his shrouds; the Vice-admirall pre- 
sently cleared himselfe, but spared neither his Ordnance nor 
Muskets to keepe Merham from getting away, till the Admi- 
rall had repaired his leake; from twelve at noone, till six at 
night, they thus interchanged one volly for another; then the 
Vice-admirall fell on starne, staying for the Admirall that 
came up againe to him, and all that night stood after Mer- 
ham, that shaped his course for Mamora, but such small way 
they made, the next morning they were not three leagues off 
from Cape Noa. The two Spanish men of warre, for so 
they were, and well appointed, taking it in scorne as it seem- 
ed, with their chase, broadside and starne, the one after the 
other, within Musket shot, plying their ordnanee; and after 
an houres worke commanded Merham a maine for the King 
of Spaine upon faire quarter; Merham dranke to them, and so 
discharged his quarter peeces: which pride the Spaniard to 
revenge, boorded him againe, and many of them were got to 
the top to unsling the maine saije, which the faster and 
some others from the round house, caused to their cost to 
come tumbling downe; about the round house the Spaniards 
so pestered, that they were forced to the great Cablen and 
blew it up; the smoake and fire was so vehement, as they 
thought the Ship on fire; they in the fore castle were no lesse 
assaulted, that bleu up a peece of the grating, with a great 
many of Spaniards more; then they cleared themselves 
with all speed, and Merham with as much expedition to, 
quench the fire with wet clothes and water, which begannc 
to grow too fast. The Spaniard still playing upon him with 
all the shot they could; the open places presently they cover- 
ed with old sailes, and prepared themselves to fight to the 
last man. j The angry Spaniard seeing the fire quenched, 
hung out a flagge of truce to ha, ve but a parley, but that des- 
perate Merham knew there was but one way with him, and 
would have none, but the report of his Ordnance, which hee 
did know well how to use for his best advantage. Thus 
they spent the next after-noone, and halfe that night, when 
the Spanyards either lost them or left them. Seven and 
twentie'men Merham had slaine, and sixteene wounded, and 
could frnde they had received 140. great shot. A wounded 


Spanyard they kept alive confessed, they had lost 100. men 
in the Admirall, which they did feare would sinke, ere she 
could recover a Port. Thus reaccommodating their sailes, 
they sailed for Sancta Cruse, Cape Goa, and Magadore, till 
they came againe to Saffee, and theq he returned into Eng- 














Of all these Cauntryes, their Commodities, People, Government. 
Customes, and Religion yet knowne. 



Sometymes Govemour in those Countryes and 
Admirall of New-England. 

From the London Edition of 1627-. 





D\xcl\essfe of TUc\\\noi\<\ an& licnox... 

May it please your Grace., 

This History, as for the raritie and varietic of the subject. 
so much more for the judicious Eyes it is like to vndergoe, 
and most of all for that great Name, whereof it darcth im- 
plore Protection, might and ought to haue beene clad in bet- 
ter robes then my rude military hand can cut out in Paper 
Ornaments. But because, of the most things therein, I am 
no Compiler by hearsay, but haue beene a rcall Actor; I 
take my selfe to haue a properties in them: and therefore haus 
beene bold to challenge them to come vnder the reach of my 
owne rough Pen. That, which hath beene indurcd and passed 
through with hardship and danger, is thereby sweetned to the 
Actor, when he becometh the Relator. I haue deeply hazar- 
ded my selfe in doing and suffering, and why should I stieko 
to hazard my reputation in Recording? He that acteth two 
parts is the more borne withall if he come short, or fayle in. 
one of them. Where shall we looke to finde a Julius Ccesar, 
whose atchieuments shine as cleare in his owne Commen- 
taries, as they did in the field? I confesse, my hand, though, 
able to weild a weapon among the Barbarous, yet well may 
tremble in handling a Pen among so many Ivdicious: espe- 
cially when I am so bold as to call so piereing, and so glori- 
ous an Eye, as your Grace, to view those poore ragged Hnest 


Yet my comfort is, that heretofore honourable and vertu- 
Ous Ladles, and comparable but amongst themselues, haue 
offered me rescue and protection in my greatest dangers: 
even in forraine parts, I haue felt reliefe from that sex* — - 
The beauteous Lady Tragabigzanda, when I was a slaufe 
to the Turkes, did all she could to secure me. When I over- 
came the Badiaw of Nalbrits in Tartaria, the charitable La- 
dy CaUamata supplyed my necessities. In the vtmost of 
many extremities, that blessed Pokahontas, the great Kings 
daughter of Virginia, oft saved my life. When I escaped 
the crueltie of Pirats and most furious stormes, a long time 
alone in a small Boat at Sea, and driven ashore in France, 
the good Lady Madam Chanoyes, bountifully assisted me. 

And so verily these my adventures haue tasted the same 
influence from your Gratious hand, which hath given birth 
to the publication of this Narration. If therefore your Grace 
shall daigne to cast your eye on this poore Booke, view I 
pray you rather your owne Bo-untie (without which it had 
dyed in the wombe) then my imperfections, which haue no 
helpe but the shrine of your glorious Name to be sheltered 
from censorious condemnation. Vouchsafe some glimpse of 
your honorable aspect, to accept these my labours; to pro- 
tect them vnder the shadow of your excellent Name: which 
will inable them to be presented to the Kings royall Maiestie, 
tlie most admired Prince Charles, and the Queene of Bohe- 
mia: your sweet Recommendations will make it the worthi- 
er of their good countenances. And as all my endeavours 
are their due tribute: so this Page shall record to posteritie. 
that my service shall be to pray to God, that you may still 
continue the renowned of your sexe, the most honoured of 
men. and the highly blessed of God. 

Your and devoted servant. 



I. This plaine History humbly sheweth the truth; that 
our most royall King lames hath place and opportunitie to 
inlarge his ancient Dominions without wronging any; (which 
is a condition most agreeable to his most iust and pious reso- 
lutions:) and the Prince his Highness may see where to 
plant new Colonies. The gaining Prouinces addeth to the 
Kings Crown: but the reducing Heathen people to ciuilitic 
and true Religion, bringeth honour to the King of Hcauen. 
If his Princely wisedome and powerfull hand, renowned 
through the world for admirable government, please but ta 
set these new Estates into order; their composure will be 
singular: the counsell of divers is confused; the general! 
Stocke is consumed; nothing but the touch of the Kings sa- 
cred hand can erect a Monarchy. 

II. Most noble Lords and worthy Gentlemen, it is your 
Honors that haue imployed great paines and large expence in. 
laying the foundation of this State, wherein much hath beene 
buried vnder ground, yet some thing hath sprung vp, and gi- 
uen you a taste of your adventures. Let no difficulties alter 
your noble intentions. The action is an honour to your Coun- 
try: and the issue may well reimburse you your surames ex- 
pended. Our practices haue hitherto beene but assayes, and 
are still to be amended. Let your bountie supply the ne- 
cessities of weake beginnings, and your excellent iudgemenrs 
rectifie the proceedings; the returne cannot choose in the end 
but bring you good Commodities, and good contentments, by 
your aduancing shipping and fishing so vsefull vnto our Nation. 

III. Yee valiant and generous spirits, personall possessors 
of these new-found Territories, banish from among you Cow- 
ardise, covetousnes, iealousies, and idlenes, enemies to the 
raising your honours and fortunes; vertue, industry, and ami- 
tie, will make you good and great, and your merits line to 
ensuing Ages. You that in contempt of necessities, hazard 
your liues and estates, imploying your studies &: labours in 
these faire endevours, Hue and prosper as I desire my soule 
should prosper. 

IIII. For my selfe let emulation and enuie cease, I ever 
intended my actions should be vpright: now my care hath 
beene that my Relations should giue every man they concerne. 


their due. But had I not discovered and liuecl in the most 
of those parts, I could not possibly haue collected the sub- 
stantiall truth from such a number of variable Relations, that 
would haue made a Volume at least of a thousand sheets. 
Though the beginning may seeme harsh in regard of the An- 
tiquities, breuitic, and names; a pleasanter Discourse ensues. 
The stile of a Souldier is not eloquent, but honest and iusti- 
fiablc; so I desire all my friends and well-wishers to excuse 
and accept it, and if any be so noble as to respect it, he that 
brought Nav England to light, though long since brought in 
obsenritie, he is ngainc to be found a true servant to all good 

So I ever rest yours to command, 



A Gentleman desirous to be vnknoione, yet a great Benefac- 
tor to Virginia, his hue to the Author, the Company, and 

Stat, reade, behold, skill, courage knowledge, Arts; 
Wonder of Nature.- Mirror of our Clime. 
Mars, Vulcan, Neptune striue to haue their parts, 
Rare Ornaments, rich honours of our time. 

From far fetcht Indies, and Virginia's soyle, 
Here Smith is come to shew his Art and skill. 
He was the Smith that hammered famins foyle, 
And on Powhatan's Emperour had his will. 

Though first Columbus, Indies true Christofer; 
Cabots braue Florida, much admirer; 
Meta Incognita, rare Martin Frobisher; 
Gilberts braue Humphrey, Neptunes deuourer; 

Captaine Amadis, Raleighs discouerer; 
Sir Richard Grenvill, Zealands braue coaster.- 
Drake, doomes, drovvne, death, Spaines scorner; 
Gosnolds Relates, Pring prime observer. 

Though these be gone, and left behinde a name, 

Yet Smith is here to Anvile out a peece 

To after Ages, and eternall Fame, 

That we may haue the golden Iasons fleece. 

He Vulcan like did forge a true Plantation, 
And chain'd their Kings to his immortall glory.; 
Restoring peace and plentie to the Nation, 
Regaining honor to this worthy Story. 

By him the Infidels had due correction, 
He blew the bellowes still of peace and plenties 
He made the Indians bow vnto subiection, 
And Planters ne're return'd to Albion empty. 

The Colonies pin'd staru'd, staring, bones so feeble, 
By his braue proiects proued strong againe.- 
The Souldiers 'lowance he did seeke to treble, 
And made the Salvage in vncouth place remaine. 

He left the Countrey in prosperous happie state, 
And plenty stood with peace at each mans doore. 
Regarding not the Salvage loue nor hate: 
Themselues grew well, the Indian wondrous poore 


This there he did and now is home return'd, 
To shew vs all that never thither goe.- 
That in his heart, he deepely oft hath mourn'd, 
Because the Action goeth on so slow. 

Wise, Rich, 
gratie, prize 

Braue, Benefactors.. 

Replant, want, continue still good Actors. 

and bring 

kinde, eyes 

Be to blind; 

By Gods great might, giue Indians light. 

money, to 

j doe 

S P end that good, 

That may giue Indians heav'nly food. 

no lesse, 
God you 

. , still 

And shall blesse; 

Both you and yours the Lands possesse. 

See here behold as in a Glasse, 
All that is, or is and was. 

S. M 

T. T. 1624 



Loe here Smiths Forge, where Forgery's Roague-branded, 

True Pegastts is shoo'd, fetters are forged 
For Silke-sotts, Milk-sops, base Sloth, farre hence landed, 

(Soile-chang'd,* Soule-soil'd still) Englands dregs, discharged. 
To plant (supplant!) Virginia, home-disgorged.- 
Where vertues praise frames good men Stories Armour 
Gainst Time, Jlchilles-Yike, with best Arts charged; 
Pallas, all-arm'd, all-learn'd, can teach Sword-Grammer, 
Can Pens of Pikes; Armes t' Arts; to Scholar, Souldier, hammer 

* Coelum non animum mutant- 


Can Pilgrim make a Maker; all so well 

Hath taught Smith scoure my rustie out-worne Muse, 
And so coniur'd her in Virginian Cell, 

That things vnlearn'd long by want of vse, 
Shee fresh areeds me read, without abuse 
By fabling. Arthurs great Acts little made 
By greater lies she saith; seales Faith excuse 
f T' Island, Groonland, Estotiland to wade 
After lie-legends' Malgo Brandon, are Wares braide. 

The Fryer of Linne\ frights her with his black Art; 

Nor British Bards can tell where Madoc^ planted. 
Cabots, Thorns, Elyots truth have wonne her heart, 

Eldest discov'rers of New Worlds Cont'nent (granted 

So had iust Fates.) Colon and Vespuce panted; 

This got the name,f last, least of Three; the Other 

New Worlds Isles found first: Cabot is most chanted 

In Three-Mens-song; did more New World discover 

Then both, then any; and hundred degrees coasted over. 

Haile Sir Sebastian, Englands Northern Pole, 

Virginia's finder; Virgin Eliza nam'd it, 
Gaue 't Raleigh. (Rut, Prat, Hore, I not enrole) 
Amadas rites to English right first fram'd it.- 
Lane planted, return'd nor had English tam'd it; 
Greenviles and Whiles men all slaine; New Plantation 
Iames founds, Sloth confounds, fcare, pride, faction sham'd it. 
Smiths Forge mends all, makes chaines for Savage Nation, 
Frees, feeds the rest; the rest reade in his Bookes Relation. 

f These are said a thousand yeares agoe to haue beene in the North parte of America 

i He is said to discover the Pole 1360. 

§ Madocap Owen Planted some remote Western parts. 1170. 

f America named of Americus Vesputius which discovered les then Colon or Sir 
Sebastian Cabot, and'the Continent later. Colon first found the Isles 1492. the Conti- 
nent 1498. Aboue a yeare after Cabot had don it. He -was. set forth by Henry 7. 
and after by Hen. 8 Knighted and made grand Pilot of England by Ed. 6. Vnder 
whom he procured the sending of Sir Hugh Willoughby, and discovery of Greenland 
and Russia.- having by himself discovered on America from 67. North lat. to neers 40 




Who hues to line at home, yet looke abroad, 

And knoiv both passen and vnpassen road, 

The prime Plantation of an vnknowne shore, 

The men, the manners, fruitfidnesse, and store: 
Read but this little Booke, and then confesse, 
The lesse thou lik'st and loifxt, thou liii'st the less?. 

He writ it with great labour, for thy good, 
Twice over, now in paper, 'fore in blood; 
It cost him deare, both paines, without an ayme 
Of private profit, for thy publicke gaine. 

That thou mightst read and know and safely see, 

What he by practice, thou by Theoree,. 

Commend him for his loyall loving heart, 

Or else come mend him, and take thou his part 



I know not how Desert more great can rise, 

Then out of Danger t' ane for good mens Good; 
Nor who doth better winne th' Olympian prize, 
Than he whose Countryes Honor stirres his bloud; 
Private respects haue private expectation, 
Publicke dcsignes., should publish reputation. 

This Gentleman whose Volumne heere is stoard 

With strange discoverie of GODS strangest Creatures, 
Giues vsfnll view, how he hath Say Id, and Oar'd, 

And Marcht, full many myles, whose rough defeatures. 
Hath beene as bold, as puissant, vp to binde 
Their barbarous strength's, to follow him dog linde. 

But wit, nor valour, now adayes payes scores 

For estimation; all goes now by wealth, 
Or friends; tush! thrust the beggar out of dores 

That is not Purse-lyn'd; those which hue by stealth 
Shall haue their haunts; no matter what's the guest 
In many places; monies well come best. 


But those who well discerne, esteeme not so.- 
Nor I of thee braue Smith that hast beat out 
Thy Iron thus; though I but little know 

To what t' hast seene; yet I in this am stout- 
My thoughts, maps to my minde some accidents, 
That makes mee see thy greater presidents, 

10. DONE 



How great apart of knowledge had wee lost, 

Both of Virginia and the Summer Isles t 
Had not thy carefull diligence and cost 

Inform'd vs thus, with thy industrious stile! 

Like Caesar now thou writ'st what thou hast done, 
These acts, this Booke will hue while ther's a Sunne. 




Envie avant. For Smith whose Anvill was Experience, 
Could take his heat, know how and when to Strike, 
Wrought well this Peece; till After-negligence 
Mistaking temper, Cold, or Scorch , d,- or like 
Vnskilfull workmen, that can never Fyle 

Nor Pollisli it, that takes in Forge such toyle.- 

Heere Noble Smith, thou shew est the Temper true, 
Which othev Tampring- Tenors never knew. 





Where actions speake the praises of a man, 

There, Pennes that vse to flatter silent be, 
Or if they speake, it is to scorne or scanne; 

For such with vertue seldome doe agree. 

When I looke backe on all thy labours past, 

Thy travels, perils, losses oft sustained 
By Sea and Land; and (which is worst and last) 

Neglect or small reward, so dearely gaind. 

I doe admire thy still vndanted spirit; 

Vn wearied yet to worke thy Countries good. 
This be thy praise then, due vnto thy merit; 

For it th' hast ventur'd life; and lost thy blood. 

1. 2. 3. 1 2. 3. 

Truth, travayle, and Neglect, pure, painefull, most vnkinde, 

1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 

Doth proue. consume, dismay, the soule, the corps, the mindc. 




Moke then enough I cannot thee commend.- 
Whose both abilities and Loue doe tend 
Soto advance the good of that Estate, 
By English charge, and Planters propagate 
Through heapes of painfull hazards; in the first 
Of which, that Colovij thy Care hath nurst. 
And often that effected but with ten 
That after thee, and now, three hundred men 
Haue faild in, 'mong the Salvages, who shake 
At bruit of Thee, as Spaine at Name of Drake. 
Which well appeares; considering the while 
Thou governeclst, nor force of theirs, ne guile 
Lessend a man of thine; but since (I rue) 
In British blood they deeply did imbrue 
Their Heathen hands. And (truth to say) we see. 
Our sclues wee lost, vntimely leaving Thee. 


Nor yet perceiue I any got betweene 

Thee and thy merit; which hath better beene 

In prayse; or profit much; if counted hist; 

Free from the Weales abuse, or wronged trust. 

Some few particulars perhaps haue sped; 

But wherein hath the publicke prospered? 

Or is there more of those Vast Countries knowne, 

Then by thy Labours and Relations showne 

First, best? And shall wee loue Thee now the lesse? 

Farre be it! fit condignely to expresse 

Thankes, by new Charge, or recompence; by whom, 

Such past good hath, such future good may come. 



Not like the Age wherein thou liu'st, to lie 

Buried in baseness, sloth, or Ribaldrie 

(For most doe thus) hast thou thy selfe applide; 

But, in faire Actions, Merits height descride.- 

Which (like foure Theaters to set thee forth) 

The worlds foure Quarters testifie thy worth. 

The last whereof (America) best showes 

Thy paines, and prayse; and what to thee shee owes; 

(Although thy Sommer shone on th' Elder Three, 

In as great Deeds as great varietie) 

For opening to Her Selfe, herself in Two* 

Of Her large Members; Now Ours, to our view. 

Thereby endearing vs to thy desart, 

That doubly dost them to our hands impart; 

There by thy Worke, Heere by thy Workes,- By each 

Maist thou Fames lasting Wreath (for guerdon) reach 

And so become, in after Times t, ensue, 

A President for others, So to doe. 


Virginia now inhabited, and New-England 




Amoxgst so many that by learned skill, 

Haue given iust prayse to thee, and to thy Booke, 
Deare friend receiue this pledge of my good will, 
Whereon, if thou with acceptation looke, 

And thinke it worthie, ranke amongst the rest.- 
Vse thy discretion, I haue done my best. 







1170 The first voyage to the new World, by Madock 
Prince of Wales. The next by Hanno Prince of 
Carthage and how it was offred K. Hen. 7. by 

1418 Chr. Cullumbus, that vndertooke it for the Spa- 
niards. 1492. 79 

How Iohn Cabot was imployed by King Hen. 
1497 the 7. and found the Continent before Cullumbus. 
1576 Also Sir Martin Frobisher, and Sir Humphrey 
1583 Gilbert ranged towards the North. And how 
1585 Captaine Amidas was sent to discouer the coast 
of Florida by Sir Walter Raleigh and his associ- 
ates. And the Country Wingandacoa was called 
Virginia by Queene Elizabeth. 80-8.5 

1585 Sir Richard Greenvill sent thither with 108. he 
left for a plantation. The discovery of the Rivers 
Chawonok and Moratoc. The trechery of their 
King, who with eight more were slaine, and they 
all returned to England againe the same yeare 
with Sir Francis Drake. 86-93 

The Observations of Master Heriot. Of their 
commodities, victuall, fruits, beasts, fishes, and 
foules. Their Religion, and beliefe of God, of 


the Creation of the world, and man; the immor- 
talitie of the soule; the subtiltie of their Priests; the 
peoples simplicitie, and desire of salvation, and 
other Accidents. 94-99 

1586 Sir Rich: Greenvill sent to supply them. Not 
finding them, left fiftie. Their successe. 99 

1587 Master White sent to relieue them, found they 
were all slaine, yet left 115. more and departed. 100 

1589 Returning the second time, he could not heare of 

them; his Observations, and Accidents. 103 

1602 A discovery by Captaine Gosnoll of Elizabeths 
Isles; his Observations, Relations, and returne. 105 

1603 The voyage of Captaine Pring to the same Coast. 108 

1605 The discovery of Captaine Waymouth; his Ob- 
servations, Relations, and returne. 109 



Of Virginia now planted, discovered by Capt. Smith. 

The Latitude, Temperature, and Capes; a des- 
cription of Chisapeack Bay, and seaven navigable 
1606 Rivers that fall into it, with their severall Inhabi- 
tants, and diversitie of Language. 113-121 

Of things growing Naturally, as woods, fruits, 
gummes, berries, herbs, roots; also of beasts, birds, 
and fishes; how they divide the yeare, prepare 
their ground, plant their corne, and vse it, and 
other victuall. 121-127 

What commodities may be had by industry. The 
discription of the people, their numbers, constitu- 
tions, dispositions, attyre, buildings, lodgings and 
gardens, their vsage of children, striking of fire, 
making their Bowes and Arrowes, kniues, swords, 
targets, and boats: how they spinne, make fish- 
hooks, and ginnes, and their order of hunting. 
Consultations and order in Warres. Their mu- 
sicke, entertainment, trade, Physicke, Chirurgery 
and Charmes. 128 

Their Religion, God, burials ordinary and extra- 
ordinary, Temples, Priests, Ornaments, solemni- 
ties, Coniurations, Altars, sacrifices, black boyes, 
and resurrection. 138 

The manner of their gouernment, their Emperor; 
his attendants, watch, treasury, wiues, successors 
and authority; tenure of their lands, and manner 
of punishment, with some words of their Lan- 
guage Englished. 142-148 


Of the Accidents and Proceedings of the English. 


1606 Their orders of government, Accidents in going, 
first landing and government setled. The Salva- 
ges assault the Fort, the ships returne, their 
names were left. «S 


1607 Occasion of sicknes, plenty vnexpected, the build- 
ing of lames Towne, the beginning of Trade, two 
proiects to abandon the Country. Their first at- 
tempts vpon the Salvages. Captaine Smith taken 
prisoner; their order of Triumph, and how he 
should haue beene executed, was preserved, sav- 
ed lames towne from being surprised, how they 
coniured him. Powhatan entertained him, would 
haue slaine him; how Pocahontas his daughter 
saved him, and sent him to lames Towne. The 
third plot to abandon the Countrey suppressed. 154 


Their first supply and Accidents. The Salvages 
opinion of our God. Captaine Smith revisits 
Powhatan; lames Towne burnt; A conceited gold 
mine; A needlesse charge; Captaine Newports re- 
turne for England. • 163 


1608 lames Towne rebuilt, with a Church and Store- 
house; The Salvages plot to murther all the Eng- 
lish; their insolencies suppressed. Different opi- 
nions among the Councell. The names landed 
in this Supply. 1 70 



The discovery of the Bay of Chisapeack. Their 
fight and conference with the Kuskarawaoks; 
Ambuscadoes prevented in the river Patawomek; 
A mine like Antimony. How to deale with the 
Salvages. Smith neare killed with a Stingray. 
With many other Accidents in the discovery. A 
needlesse misery at lames towne redressed. 173 


The second Voyage to discover the Bay. Their 
Incounter with th e Massawomekes and Tochvhoghs; 
the Sasquesahanoughs offer subiection to the Eng- 
lish. The exceeding loue of the Salvage Mosco. 
Their fight with the Rapahanocks; their right with 
the Manahokes. The King of Hassaninga^s bro- 
ther taken prisoner; his relation of those moun- 
tainers; peace concluded with all those Nations. 
The discovery of the river Payankatank; their 
fight with the Nandsamunds. and Chisapeacks; 
their returne to lames town. 181 


The Presidency surrendered to Cap. Smith. The 
second Supply by Captaine Newport, many Pre- 
sents sent from England to Powhatan, his scorne, 
Consultations; factions suppressed; Cap. Smith vi- 
siteth Powhatan; Pocahontas entertaines him with 
a Maske; the Coronation of Powhatan, and Con- 
ditions. The discovery of the Monacans; a pun- 
ishment for swearing; the Chickahamanians forced 
to Contribution; the abuses of the Mariners; Mas- 
ter Scriveners voyage to Werowocomoco. Cap- 
taine Smiths Relation to England of the estate 
of the Colony: the names of them arrived in this 
Supply- Nandsamund forced to Contribution. 
The first Marriage in Virginia. Apamatuck dis- 
covered. !9£ 



Captaine Smiths iourney to Pamavnkee. The 
discovery of the Chawivonocks. Smiths discourse 
to Powhatan; His reply and flattery; and his 
discourse of Peace and Warre. Poivhatans plot to 
murther Smith, discovered by his daughter Poca- 
hontas. 205 


Their escape at Pamavnkee. The Dutchmen de- 
ceiue Captaine Whine, and arme the Salvages; 
sixteene English beset by seven hundred Salvages, 
Smith takes their King Opechankanough prisoner; 
the Salvages excuse and reconcilement. Master 
Scrivener and others drowned; Master Wiffins 
desperate iourney to Pamavnkee; Powhatan con- 
straines his men again to be trecherous; he is 
forced to fraught their Ship; Smith poysoned; 
the Dutch mens trechery. 213 


The Dutch-mens plot to murther Smith. He tak- 
eth the King of Paspahegh prisoner, and others; 
they become all subiect to the English. A Sal- 
vage smoothered, yet recovered; three or foure 
Salvages slaine in drying stolne powder. 222 


Great extremity occasioned by ratts; Bread made 
of dryed Sturgeon; the punishment for loyterers; 
the discovery of the Mangoags. Captaine Argals 
first arrivall; the inconveniences in a Plantation. 227 


1609 The government altered; the arrivall of the third 
Supply; mutinies; Nandsanmnd planted; breach 


of peace with the Salvages; Powhatans chiefe seat 
bought for Copper; Mutinies. Captaine Smith 
blowne vp with Gun-powder; a bloudy intent; the 
causes why he left the Country and his Com- 
mission; his retume for England; the ends of 
the Dutch-men. 233 


Certaine Verses of seaven Gentlemen. 245 







With the Accidents and Proceedings of the same. 


For the Stories of Arthur, Malgo, and Brandon, that say 
a thousand yeares agoe they were in the North of America; 
or the Fryer of Linn that by his black Art went to the North 
pole in the yeare 1360. in that I know them not. Let this 

The Chronicles of V/ales report, that Madock, sonne to 
Owen Quineth, Prince of Wales seeing his two brethren at 
debate who should inherit, prepared certaine Ships, with men, 
and munition, and left his Country to seeke aduentures by 
Sea: leauing Ireland North he sayled west till he earned to a 
Land vnknowne. Returning home and relating what plea- 
sant and fruitfull Countries he had seene without inhabi- 
tants, and for what barren land his brethren and kindred 
did murther one another, he provided a number of Ships, and 
got with him such men and women as were desirous to Hue 
in quietnesse, that arriued with him in this new Land in the 
yeare 1170: Left many of his people there and returned for 
more. But where this place was no History can show. 

The Spaniards say Hanno a Prince of Carthage was the 
first: and the next Christopher Colhtmbus, a Genoesian, 
whom they sent to discover those vnknowne parts. 1492, 

80 The Discoveries and Accidents of Cap. Phi: Amidas. Lib. l| 

But we finde by Records, Collumbus offered his seruice in 
the yeare 1488. to King Henry the seauenth; and by accident 
vndertooke it for the Spanyards. In the Interim King Hen- 
ry gaue a Commission to Iohn Cabot, and his three sonnes, 
Sebastian, Lewis, and Sautius. Iohn and Sebastian well 
provided, setting sayle, ranged a great part of this vnknowne 
world, in the yeare 1497. For though Collumbus had found 
certaine lies, it was 1498. ere he saw the Continent, which 
was a yeare after Cabot. Now Americus came a long time 
after, though the whole Continent to this day is called Ame- 
rica after his name, yet Sebastian Cabot discovered much 
more then them all, for he sayled to about forty degrees 
Southward of the lyne, and to sixty-seuen towards the North: 
for which King Henry the eight Knighted him and made him 
grand Pilate of England. Being very aged King Edward 
the sixt gaue him a Pention of £166. 13s. Ad. yearely. By 
his directions Sir Hugh Willowby was sent to finde out the 
Country of Russia, but the next yeare he was found frozen 
to death in his Ship, and all his Company. 

Mr. Martin Frobisher was sent in the yeare 1576. by our 
most gracious Queene Elizabeth, to search for the Northwest 
passage, and Meta incognita: for which he was Knighted, ho- 
nored, and well rewarded. 

Sir Humphrey Gilbert a worthy Knight attempted a Plan- 
tation in some of those parts: and obtained Letters Pattents 
to his desire: but with this Proviso, He should maiataine 
possession in some of those vast Countries within the tearme 
of sixe years. Yet when he was provided with a Navy 
able to incounter a Kings power, even here at home they fell 
in diuisions, and so into confusion, that they gaue over the 
Designe ere it was begun: notwithstanding all his losse, his 
vndaunted spirit began again, but his fleet fell with New- 
found land, and he perished in his returne, as at large you 
may read in the third Volume of the English Voyages, writ- 
ten by Mr. Hackluit. 

Vpon all those relations and inducements, Sir Waller Ra- 
leigh, a noble Gentleman, and then in great esteeme, vnder- 
tooke to send to discover to the Southward. And though 
his occasions and other imploy merits were such he eould not 
goe himselfe, vet he procured her Majesties Letters Pattents, 
and pcrswaded many worthy Knights and Gentlemen to 

The Discoveries and Accidents of Cap. Philip Amidas. 81 

adventure with him to finde a place fit for a Plantation. — 
Their Proceedings folio weth. 

The most famous, renowned, and euer worthy of all me- 
mory, for her courage, learning, judgment, and vertue, 
Queene Elizabeth, granted her Letters Patents to >S'ir Walter 
Raleigh for the discovering and planting new Lands and 
Countries not actually possessed by any Christians. This 
Patenty got to be his assistants Sir Richard Grenvell the va- 
liant, Mr. William Sanderson a great friend to all such noble 
and worthy actions; and divers other Gentlemen and Mar- 
chants, who with all speede prouided two small Barkes well 
furnished with all necessaries, vnder the command of Cap- 
taine Philip Amidas and Captaine Barlow. The 27. of 
Aprill they set sayle from the Thames, the tenth of May pas- 
sed the Canaries, and the tenth of lune the West Indies: 
which vnneedful Southerly course, (but then no better was 
knowne) occasioned them in that season much sicknesse. 

The second of luly they fell with the coast of Florida in 
shoule water, where they felt a most delicate sweete smell, 
though they saw no land, which ere long they espied, think- 
ing it the Continent: an hundred and twenty myles they say- 
led not finding any harbor. The fust that appeared, with 
much difficulty they entered, and anchored, and after thankes 
to God they went to view the next Land adjoyning to take 
possession of it for the Queenes most excellent Maiestie: 
which done, they found their first landing place very sandy 
and low, but so full of grapes that the very surge of the Sea 
sometimes over-flowed them: of which they found such plen- 
ty in all places, both on the sand, the greene soyle and hils, 
as in the plaines as well on euery little shrub, as also climb- 
ing towardes the tops of high Cedars, that tbey did thinke in 
the w T orld were not the like abundance. 

We passed by the Sea-side towards the tops of the next 
hills being not high: from whence we might see the Sea on 
botb sides, and found it an He of twenty myles in length, 
and six in breadth; the vallyes replenished with goodly tall 
Cedars. Discharging our Muskets, such a fiocke of Cranes, 
the most white, arose by vs, with such a cry as if an Army of 
men had shouted altogether. This He hath many goodly 
Woods, and Deere, Conies, audFoule in incredible abundance, 
and vsing the Authors owne phrase, the Woods are nor. such 
as you finde in Bohemia, Moscovia, or Hercinia, barren and 

82 The Discoveries and Accidents of Cap. Philip Amidas. 

fruitlesse, but the highest and reddest Cedars of the Avorld, 
bettering them of the Assores, Indies, or Libanus: Pynes, 
Cypres, Saxefras, the Lentisk that beareth Mastick, and ma- 
ny other of excellent smell and qualitie. Till the third day 
we saw not any of the people, then in a little Boat three of 
them appeared, one of them went on shore, to whom wee 
rowed, and he attended vs without any signe of feare; after 
he had spoke much though we vnderstood not a word, of his 
owne accord he came boldly aboord vs, we gaue him a shirt, 
a hat, wine and meate, which he liked well, and after he had 
well viewed the barkes and vs, he went away in his owne 
Boat, and within a quarter of a myle of vs in half an houre, 
had loaderi his Boat with fish, with which he came againe to 
the poynt of land, and there divided it in two parts, poynting 
one part to the Ship, the other to the Pinnace, and so de- 

The next day came diners Boats, and in one of them the 
Kings Brother, with forty or fifty men, proper people, and in 
their hehauiour very ciuill; his name was GfimganUmeOi the 
King is called IVifiginia, the Country Witigandacoa, Leau- 
ing his Boats a little from our ships, he came with his trayne 
to the poynt; where spreading a Matte he sat downe. — 
Though we came to him well armed, he made signes to vs to 
sit downe without any shew of feare, stroking his head and 
brest, and also ours, to expresse his loue. After he had made 
a long speech vnto vs, we presented him with diners toyes, 
which he kindly accepted. He was greatly regarded by his 
peop!e,£for none of them did sit, nor speake a word, but foure, 
on whom we bestowed presents only, but he tooke all from 
them, making signes all things did belong to him. 

The King himselfe in a conflict with a King his next 
neighbour and mortall enemy, was shot in two places through 
the body, and the thigh, yet recouered: whereby he lay at his 
chiefe towne six dayes iourney from thence. 

A day or two after shewing them what he had, Granga- 
nameo taking most liking to a Pewter dish, made a hole in it, 
hung it about his necke for a brest-plate, for which he gaue 
vs twenty Deere skins, worth twemy Crownes; and for a 
Copper Kettell, fif'tie skins, worth fiftie Crownes. Much 
other trucke we had, and after two dayes he came aboord, 
and did eate and drinke with vs very merrily. Not long af- 
ter he brought his wife and children, they were but of meane 

The Discoveries aud Accidents of Cap. Philip Amidas. 83 

stature, but well fauoured and very bashfull; she had a long 
eoat of Leather, and about her privities a peece of the same, 
about her forehead a band of white Corrall, and so had her 
husband, in her eares were bracelets of pearle, hanging downe 
to her middle, of the bignesse of great Pease; the rest of the 
women had Pendants of Copper, and the Noblemen hue or 
sixe in an eare; his apparrell as his wiues, onely the women 
weare their haire long on both sides, and the men but on one; 
they are of colour yellow, but their hayre is black, yet we 
saw children that had very fayre Chesnut coloured hayre. 

After that these women had been here with vs, there came 
downe from all parts great store of people, with Leather, Cor- 
rall, and diuers kinde of dyes, but when Granganameo was 
present, none durst trade but himselfe, and them that wore 
red Copper on their heads, as he did. When euer he came, 
he would signifie by so many fires he came with so many 
boats, that we might know his strength. Their Boats are 
but one great tree, which is but burnt in the forme of a trough 
with gins and fire, till it be as they would haue it. For an 
armour he would haue engaged vs a bagge of pearle, but we 
refused, as not regarding it, that wee might the better learn 
where it grew. He was very iust of his promise, for oft we 
trusted him, and would come within his day to keepe his 
word. He sent vs commonly euery day a brace of Bucks, 
Conies, Hares, and fish, sometimes Mellons, Walnuts, Cu- 
cumbers, Pease, and diuers rootes. This Author sayth, their 
corne gioweth three times in hue moneths; in May they sow, 
in luly reape; in Iune they sow, in August reape; in Iuly sow, 
in August reape. We put some of our Pease in the ground, 
which in ten cUyes were 14. ynches high. 

The soyle is most plentiful!, sweete, wholesome, and fruit- 
full of ail other, there are about 14. seuerall sorts of sweete 
swelling tymber trees: the most parts of the vnderwood, 
Bayes and such like: such Okes as we, but far greater and 
better. After this acquaintance, my selfe with seuen more 
went twenty myle into the Riuer Occam, that runneth toward 
the Cirtie Skicoack, and the eueuing following we came to 
an i called Roanoak, from the harbour where we entred 7. 
leagues; at the North end was 9. houses, budded with Cedar, 
foitlried round with sharpe trees, and the entrance like a 
Turnpik. When we came towards it, the wife of Granga- 
nameo came running out to meete vs, (her husband was 

84 The Discoveries and Accidents of Cap. Philip Amidas. 

absent) commanding her people to draw our Boat ashore for 
beating on the billowes, other she appoynted to carry vs on 
their backes aland, others to bring our Ores into the house 
for stealing. When we came into the other roome, (for there 
was flue in the house) she caused vs to sit downe by a great 
fire; and after tooke off our clothes and washed them, of some 
our stockings, and some our feete in warme water, and she 
herselfe tooke much paines to see all things well ordered, and 
to provide vs victual 1. 

After we had thus dryed our selues, she brought vs into an 
Inner roome, where she set on the bord standing a long the 
house somewhat like frumentie, sodden venison, and rosied 
fish; in like manner mellons raw, boyled rootes and fruits of 
diiiers kindes. There drinke is commonly water boyled with 
Ginger, sometimes with Saxefras, and wholesome herbes, but 
whilest the Grape lasteth they drinke wine. More loue she 
could not expresse to entertaine vs; they care but onely to 
defend themselues from the short winter, and feede on what 
they finde naturall in sommer. In this feasting house was 
their Idoll of whom they tould vs vncredible things. When 
we were at meate two or three of her men came amongst vs 
with their Bowes and Arrowes, which caused vs to take our 
armes in hand. She perceiuing our distrust, caused their 
Bowes and Arrowes to be broken, and they beaten out of 
the gate: but the euening approaching we returned to our 
boate, whereat she much grieuing brought our supper halfe 
boyled, pots and all, but when she saw vs, but put our boat a 
Utile off from the shoar and lye at Anchor, perceiuing our Ie- 
lousie, she sent diuers men and 30. women to sit al night on 
the shoare side against vs, and sent vs flue Mats to couer vs 
from the raine, doing all she could to perswade vs to her 
house. Though there was no cause of doubt, we would not 
aduenture: for on our safety depended the voyage: but a more 
kinde louing people cannot be. Beyond this He is the maine 
land and the great riuer Occam, on which standeth a Towne 
called Pomeiock and six dayes higher, their City Skicoak: 
those people neuer saw it, but say their fathers afflrme it to 
be aboue two hours iourney about. Into this riuer falleth 
an other called Cipo, where is founde many Mustells where- 
in are Pearles: likewise another Riuer called Namapona, on 
the one side whereof standeth a great towne called C/iatva- 
nock, the Lord of the Country is not subiect to Wmgandacoa. 

The Discoveries and Accidents of Cap. Philip Amidas. 85 

Beyond him an other king they eal Menatonon. These 3. 
are in league each with other* Towards the south. 4. dayes 
iourney is Sequotan, the southernmost part of Wingandacoa. 

Adioyning to Secotan beginneth the country Pomouik. be- 
longing to the King called Piamacum^ in the Cctr.tfy Nasi* 
ok vpori the great riuer Neus. These haue mortall warres 
with Wingina, King of Wingandacoa. Betwixt Piemacum 
and the Lord of Secotan, a peace was concluded: notwith- 
standing there is a mortall malice in the Secotans, because 
this Piemacum invited diuers men, and 30. women to a feast f 
and when they were altogether merry before their ldoll, 
which is but ameere illusion of the Deuill, they sudainly 
slew all the men of Secotan, and kept the women for their 
vse. Beyond Roanoak are many Isles full of fruits and other 
Naturall increases, with many Townes along the side of the 
Continent* Those lies lye 200. myles in length, and be- 
tweene them and the mayne, a great long sea, in some pla- 
ces. 20. 40. or 50. myles broad, in other more, some where 
lesse. And in this sea are 100. lies of diuers bignesses, but to 
get into it, you haue but 3. passages and they very dangerous. 
Though this you see for most part be but the relations of Sal- 
uages, because it is the first, I thought it not a misse to re- 
remember them as they are written by them that returned 
and ariued in England about the middest of September the 
same yeare. This discouery was so welcome into England 
that it pleased her Maiestie to call this Country of Wingan- 
dacoa, Virginia, by which name now you are to vnderstand 
how it was planted, disolued, reuned, and enlarged, 

The Performers of this voyage were the following* 

Philip Amadas. \ r „ ntWs Henry Greene. 

Arthur Barlotv. \ Ua P tames ' Beniamen Hood. 

Willliam Grenuill. Simon Ferdinando. ) Of the 

lohn Wood. Nicholas Peryman. > Compa- 

lames Browewich John Heives. S nie. 

86 Sir Richard Grenvill, and Master Ralph Layne. 

Sir Richard Grenuills voyage to Virginia, for Sir 
IValter Raleigh, 1585. 

The 9. of Aprill he departed from Plimouth with 7. sayle: 
the chiefe men with him in command, were Master Ralph 
Layne, Master Thomas Candish Master lohn Arundel, Mas- 
ter Slukley, Master Bremige, Master Vincent, Master Heryot 
and Master Mw C7ar&e. The 14. day we fell with the Ca- 
naries, and the 7. of May with Dominico in the West Jttcfa: 
we landed at Portorico 9 after with much a doe at Jzabella on 
north of Hispaniola, passing by many lies. Vpon the 20, 
we fell with the mayne of Florida, and were put in great 
danger vpon Cape Fear. The 26. we Anchored at Wocokon, 
where the admiral had like to beene cast away, presently 
We sant to Wingina to Roanoak, and Master Arundell went 
to the mayne, with Manteo a saluage, and that day to Croo- 
ion. The 11. The Generall victualed for 8. dayes with a se- 
lected company went to the maine, and discovered the Townes 
of Pomeiok, Aquascogoc, Secotan, and the great Lake called 
Paquipe. At Aquascogoc the Indians stole a siluer Cup, 
wherefore we burnt the Towne and spoyled their corne, so 
returned to our fleete at Tocbkon. Whence we wayed for 
Hatorask, where we rested, and Granganimeo, King Wingi- 
na\s brother with Manteo came abord our Admirall, the Ad- 
mirall went for Weapomeiok, and Master lohn Arundell for: 
England. Our Generall in his way home tooke a rich loa- 
den ship of 300. tunns, with which he ariued at Plimouth the. 
1 8. of September. 1585. 

These were left under the command of Master Ralph Layne 
to inhabite the Country, but they returned within a yeare. 

Philip Amidas Admirall. Master Rogers. 

Master Thomas Heryot. Master Haruy. 

Master Acton. Master Snelling. 

Master Stafford. Master Antony. Russe. 

Master Thomas Luddington. Master Allen. 

Master Maruyn. Master Michaell Pollison, 

Cap. Vaghan. Master Thomas Bockner. 

Master Kendall. Master Iamesmason. 

Master Gardiner. Master Dauid Salter, 

Master Predeox. Master lames Skinner. 
With diuers others to the number of 108. 

Sir Richard Grenvill, and Master Ralph Layne. 8? 

Touching the most remarkeable things of the Country and 
our proceeding from the 17 of August 1585. till the 18. of 
lune 1586. we made Roanoack our habitation. The vtmost 
of our discouery Southward was Secotan as we esteemed 80. 
leagues from Roanoacke. The passage from thence was 
thought a broad sound within the maine, being without ken- 
ning of land, yet full of flats and shoulds that our Pinnasse 
could not passe, and we had but one boat with 4. ores, that 
would carry but 15. men with their prouisions for 7. dayes: 
so that because the winter approached we left those discoue- 
ries till a stronger supply. To the Northward; our farthest 
was to a Towne of the Chesapeacks, from Roanoack 130. 
myles. The passage is very shallow and dangerous by rea- 
son of the breadth of the sound and the little succour for a 
storme, but this teritory being 15. myle from the shoare, for 
pleasantnest of seate, for temporature of climate, fertility of 
soyle and comoditie of the Sea, besides beares, good woods. 
Saxefras, Walnuts &c. is not to be, excelled by any other 

There be sundry other Kings they call Weroances as thq 
Mangoacks, Trypaniks and opposians, which came to visit vs. 

To the northwest our farthest was Chawonock from Roa- 
noack 130. myles our Chawonoack passage lyeth through a 
broad sound, but all fresh water, and the channell Nauigable 
for a Ship, but out of it full of shoules. 

The townes by the way by the water, are Passaquenock 
the womens towne, Chepanoc, Weapomeiok; from Musca- 
munge wee enter the riuer and Jurisdiction of Chawonock. 
there it beginneth to straiten, and ztChawonock it is as Thames 
at Lambeth: betwixt them as we passed is goodly high land 
on the left hand, and there is a towne called Ohanock, where 
is a great corne field, it is subiect to Chawonock, which is the 
greatest Prouince vpon the riuer, and the Towne it selfe can 
put seuen hundred men into the field, besides the forces of 
the rest. The King is lame, but hath more vnderstanding 
then all the rest. 

The river of Moratoc is more famous then all the rest, and 
openeth into the sound of Weapomeiok, and where there is 
but a very small currant in Chawonock, it hath so strong a 
currant from the Southwest, as we doubted how to row 
against it. Strange things they report of the head of the ri- 
uer, and of Monitor it selfe, a principall towne on it, and is 

83 Sir Richard Grenvill, and Master Ralph Laync, 

thirtie or fortie dayes Iourney to the head. This lame King 
is called Jlenatonon When I had him prisoner two dayes, 
he told mee that 3, dayes Iourney in a Canow vp the riuer 
Chaiconoek, then landing and going foure dayes Iourney 
Northeast, there is a King whose Country lyeth on the Sea, 
but his best place of strength is an Hand in a Bay inuironed 
with deepe water, where he taketh that abundance of Pearle, 
that not onely his skins, and his nobles, but also his beds and 
houses are garnished therewith. This King was at Chawo- 
nock two yeares agoe to trade with blacke pearle, his worst 
sort whereof I had a rope, but they were naught; but that 
King he sayth hath store of white, and had trafficke wjth 
whjte men, for whom he reserued them; he promised me 
guides to him, but aduised me to goe strong, for he was vn- 
willing strangers should come in his Country, for his Coun- 
trey is populous and valiant men, If a supply had come in 
A prill, J resolued to haue sent a small Barke to the North- 
ward to haue found it, whitest I with small Boates and 200, 
men would haue gone to the head of the riuer Chawonock, 
with sufficient guides by land, inskonsing rny selfe euery two 
dayes, where I would leaue Garrispns for my retreat till I 
came to this Bay. 

Very neare unto it is the riuer of Moratoc, directly from the 
West, the head of it springeth out of a mayne Rocke, which 
standeth so neare the Sea, that in stormes the Sea beats oner 
it into this fresh spring, that of it selfe at the surse is a vio- 
lent streame. I intended with two Wherries and fortie per- 
sons to haue JJenatonons sonne for guide, to try this present- 
ly, till I could meete with some of the Moratocks, or Man- 
goaks, but hoping of getting more victuall from the Saluages, 
we as narrowly escaped startling in that Discouery as euer 
men did. 

For Pemissapan who had changed his name of Winginu 
vpon the death of his brother Granganameo, had giucn both 
the Chawonests, and Mangoaks word of my purpose; also he 
told me the Chawonocks had assembled two or three thou- 
sand to assault me at Roanok, vrging me daily to goe against 
them, and them against vs; a great assembly I found at my 
comming thether, which suddaine approach did so dismay 
them, that we had the better of them: and this confederacy 
against vs was procured by Pemissapan himselfe our chiefe 
friend we trusted; but sent word also to the Moratoks ai|d the 

Sir Richard Grenvill, and Master Ralph Layne. 89 

Mangoacks, I came to inuade them, that they all fled vp into 
the high Country, so that where I assured my selfe both of 
succour and prouision, I found all abandoned. But being 
thus farre on my iourney 160. myles from home, and but vic- 
tuals for two dayes, besides the casualties of crosse winds, 
stormes, and the Saluages trechery, though we intended no 
hurt to any: I gaue my company to vnderstand we were one- 
ly drawn e forth vpon these vaine hopes by the Salunges to 
bring vs to confusion: a Councell we held, to goe forward or 
returne, but they all were absolutely resolued but three, that 
whilst there was but one pynt of Corne for a man, they would 
not leaue the search of that riuer; for they had two Mastiue 
Dogs, which boy led with Saxetras leaues (if the worst fell 
out) vpon them and the pottage they would line two daycs, 
which would bring them to the sound, where they should 
finde fish for two dayes more to passe it to Iloanock, which 
two dayes they had rather fast then goe backe a foote, tili 
they had scene the Mangoaks either as friends, or foes. 

Though I did forsee the danger and misery, yet the desire 
| had to see the Mangoaks was, for that there is a prouince 
called Chaunis Tcmoatan, frequented by them and well 
knowne to all those Countries, where is a mine of Copper they 
call Wassador; they say they take it out of a riuer that falletli 
swiftly from high rocks in shallow water, in great Bowles, 
couered with leather, leaning a part open to receiue the met- 
tall, which by the change of the colour of the water where 
the spout falleth, they suddainly chop downe, and haue the 
Bowlefull, which they cast into the fire, it presently melteth, 
and doth yeeld in hue parts at the first melting two parts 
mettall for three of Ore. The Mangoaks haue such plenty 
of it, they beautifie their houses with great plates thereof: 
this the Salvages report; and young Ski/w the King Chawo- 
nocks sonne my prisoner, that had beene prisoner among the 
Mangoacks, but neuer at Chaunis Temoataii, for he sayd 
that was twentie dayes iourney overland from the Mangoaks. 

Menatonon also confirmed all this, and promised me guids 
to this mettall Country; by Land to the Mangoaks is but one 
dayes iourney, but seauen by water, which made me so wil- 
ling to haue met them for some assay of this mettall: but 
when we came there we found no creature, onely we might 
see where had beene their fires. After our two dayes iourney, 
and our victuals spent, in the euening we heard some call as 

90 The Discoveries and Accidents of Cap. Philip Amidas. 

we thought Manteo. who was with me in the boat; this made 
vs glad, he made them a friendly answer, which they answer- 
ed with a song we thought for welcome, but he told vs they 
came to fight. Presently they did let flie their Arrowes a 
bout the boat, but did no hurt, the other boat scouring the 
shore we landed: but they all were fled, and how to finde 
them wee knew not. So the next morning we returned to 
the mouth of the riuer, that cost vs foure dayes rowing vp, 
and here our dogs pottage stood vs in good stead, for we had 
nothing els: the next day we fasted being windbound, and 
could not passe the sound; but the day following we came to 
Chippanum, where the people were fled, but their wires af- 
forded vs fish: thus being neare spent, the next day God 
brought vs to Roanocke. 1 conclude a good Mine, or the 
South Sea will make this Country quickly inhabited, and so 
for pleasure and profit comparable with any in the world: 
otherwise there will be nothing worth the fetching. Provi- 
ded there be found a better harbour then yet there is, which 
must be Northward if there be any. Master Vanghan, no 
lesse hoped of the goodnessc of the Mine, then Master Heri- 
ot that the riuer Moratocks head, either riseth by the Bay of 
Mexico, or very neare the South Sea; or some part thatopen- 
eth neare the same, which cannot with that facilitic be done 
as from the Bay of Pearles, by insconsing four dayes iourney 
to the Chawonoks, Mdfigoahs; and Moratocks, &c. 

The conspiracy of Pemissapan; the Liscouerij of it; 
and our relume for England with Sir Francis 

Ensenore a Saluagc, father to Pemissapan, the best friend 
we had alter the death of Graiiganimeo, when I was in those 
Discoueries, could not prevaile any thing with the King from 
destroying vs, that all this time God had prcserued, by his 
good counsell to the King to be friendly vnto vs. Pemissa- 
pan thinking as the brute was in this last iourney we were 
slained and starued, began to blaspheme our God that would 
suffer it, and not defend vs, so that old Ensenore had no more 
credit for vs: for he began by all the dcuises he could to 

The Discoveries and Accidents of Cap. Philip Amidas. 91 

inuade vs. But in the beginning of this brute, when they saw 
vs all returne, the report false, and had Manteo, and three 
Saluages more with vs, how little we esteemed all the people 
We met^and feared neither hunger, killing, or any thing, and 
had brought their greatest Kings sonne prisoner with vs to 
Roanock: it a little asswaged all his deuises, and brought En- 
senore in respect againe, that our God was good, and wee 
their friends, and our foes should perish, for we could doe 
them more hurt being dead, then liuing, aud that being an 
hundred myles from them, shot, and strucke them sicke to 
death, and that when we die it is but for a time, then we re- 
turne againe. But that which wrought the most fearc among 
them was the handy-worke of Almightie God. For certaine 
dayes after my returne, Menaionon sent messengers to me 
with Pearle, and Okisco King of JVeopomeoke, to yecld him- 
selfe seruant to the Queene of England. Okisco with twen- 
ty-foure of his principall men came to Pemissapan to acknow- 
ledge this dutie and subiection, and would performe it. All 
which so changed the heart of Pemissapan, that vpon the 
advice of Ensenore, when w r e were ready to famish they came 
and made vs wires and planted their fields they intended to 
abandon (we not hauing one corne till the next haruest to sus- 
taine vs.) This being done our old friend Ensenore dyed 
the twenty of Aprill, then all our enemies wrought with Be- 
missapan to put in practice his deuices, which he easily im- 
braced, though they had planted corne by vs; and at Dasa- 
monpeack two leagues from vs. Yet. they got Okisco our 
tributary to get seuen or eight, hundred (and tiie Mandoages 
with the Chisapcans should doc the like) to meete (as their 
custome is) to solemnize the Funerall of Ensenore. Halfe 
of whom should lye hid, to cut off the stranglers, seeking 
crabs and prouision: the rest come out of the mayne vpon the 
Signall by fire. Twenty of the principall of Pemissapans 
men had charge in the night to beset my house, put fire in 
the Reeds that couered it, which might cause me run out so 
naked and amazed, they might without danger knocke out 
my braines. The same order for Mr. Heriots, and the rest: 
for all should haue beene fired at an instant. In the meane 
time they should sell vs nothing, and in the night spoyle our 
wires, to make necessitie disperse vs. For if we were but 
ten together, a hundred of them would not meddle with vs. 
So our famine increased, I was forced to send Captaine 

92 The Discoveries and Accidents of Cap* PhikAmidas. Lib. i. 

Stafford to Croatan, with twcntie to feed himselfe, and see if he 
could cspie any saylc passe the coast; Mr. Predeox with ten 
to Hatarask vpon the same occasion: and other small parties 
to the Maync to Hue vpon rootes and Oysters. 

Pemissapan sequesting himselfe, I should not importune him 
for victual!, and to draw his troupes, found not the Chawonests 
so forward as he expected, being a people more faithfull and 
powerfull, and desired our friendships, and was offended with 
him for raising such tales, and all his proiects were revealed 
to me by Skico my prisoner; who finding himselfe as well 
vsed by me, as Pemissapan tould me all. These troubles 
caused me to send to Pemissapan, to put suspition in his 
head, 1 was to goe presently to Croatan to meete a Fleete 
came to me, though I knew no such matter: and that he 
would lend me men to fish and hunt. He sent me word he 
would come himselfe to Roanock: but delaying time eight 
daves that all his men were there to be assembled, not liking 
so much company, I resolued the next day to goe visit him, 
but first to giue them in the He a Canvisado, and at an in- 
stant to seaze on all their Canows about the lie. But the 
tovvne tooke the Alarum before I ment it. For when I sent 
to take the Canows, he met one going from the shore, ouer- 
threw her and cut off two Salvages heads; wherevpon the cry 
arose, being by their spyes perceiued: for they kept as good 
watch over vs, as we of them. Vpon this they to their Bowes, 
and we to our Armes: three or foure of them at the first were 
slaine, the rest fled into the woods. The next morning I 
went to Dassamonpeack and sent Pemissapan word 1 was 
going to Croatan, and tooke him in my way to complaine 
Osocon would haue stole my prisoner Skico. Herevpon he 
did abide my comming, and being among eight of the prin- 
cipallest, I gaue the watchword to my men, and immediate- 
ly they had that they purposed for vs. Himselfe being shot 
through with a Pistoll fell downe as dead, but presently start 
vp and ran away from them all, till an Irish Boy shot him 
over the buttocks, where they tooke him and cut orf his head. 

Seauen dayes after Captaine Stafforton sent to me he des- 
cry ed nventie-three Sayle. The next day came to me him- 
selfe (of whom I must say this, from the first to the last, he 
neither spared labour, or perill by land or sea, fayre weather, 
or foule, to perform e any serious seruice committed to him.) 
He brought me alerter from Sir Francis Drake.whose generous 

The Discoveries and Accidents of Cap. VhihAmidas. Lib. i. 9$ 

mind offered to supply all my defects, of shipping, boats, 
munition, victuall, clothes, and men to further this action: and 
vpon good consultation and deliberation, he appointed me a 
ship of 70. tuns, with an hundred men, and foure moneths vic- 
tuals, two Pinnaces, foure small Boats, with two sufficient 
Masters, with sufficient Gangs. All this being made ready 
for me, suddenly arose such a storme for foure dayes, that had 
like to haue driuen the whole Fleete on shore: many of them 
were forced to the Sea, whereof my ship so lately giuen me 
was one, with all my prouision and Company appointed. 

Notwithstanding, the storme ceasing, the Generall ap- 
pointed me a ship of 1 70. tuns, with all prouisions as before, 
to carry me into England the next August, or when I had 
performed such Discoueries as I thought fit. Yet they durst 
not vndertake to bring her into the harbour, but she must ride 
in the road, leauing the care of the rest to my selfe, advising 
me to consider with my Company what was fittest, and with 
my best speed returne him answer. 

Herevpon calling my Company together, who Were all as 
priuy of the Generals offer as my selfe; their whole request, 
was, (in regard of all those former miseries, and no hope of 
the returne of Sir Richard Grenvill,) and with a generall con- 
sent, they desired me to vrge him, we might all goe with him 
for England in his Fleete; for whose reliefe in that storme 
he had sustained more perill of wrack, then in all his honora- 
ble actions against his enemies. So with prayses to God we 
set sayle in lune 1586. and arriued in Portsmouth the 27. of 
Inly the same yeare: Leaving this remembrance to posteritie. 

To reason lend me thine attentiue eares, 
Exempt thy selfe from mind distracting cares. 
Least that's here thus proiected for thy good} 
By thee reiected be, ere vndcrstood. 

Written by Mr. Ralph Layve, fJovemour. 

94 The Observations of Master Thomas Hcriot. 

The Observations of Mr. Thomas Heriot in this Voy- 
age. — For Merchandize and Vietualls. 

What before is writ, is also confirmed by that learned 
Mathematician Mr. Thomas Heriot, with them in the Coun- 
try, whose particular Relation of all the Beasts, Birds, Fishes, 
Foules, Fruites, and Bootes, and how they may be vsefull; 
because I haue writ it before for the most part in the Dis- 
course of Captaine Amiclas. and Captaine Layne, except Silk 
grasse, Wormc silke, Flax like Hempe, Alltim, Wapeith, or 
Terra sigillata, Tar, Rosen, and Turpentine, Civet-cats, Iron 
ore, Copper that held Silver, Coprose and Pearle: Let those 
briefes suffice, because I would not trouble you with one thing 


For Dyes, Showmaclc, the herbe Wasebur, little rootes 
called Chapacor, and the barke of a tree called by the Inhabi- 
tants Tango niQclconominge, which are for divers sorts of Reds. 

What more then is related is an herbe in Dutch called Mel- 
den, described like an Orange, growing foure foote high; the 
seede will make good broth, and the stalke burnt to ashes 
makes a kinde of Salt: other Salt they know not, and we vsed 
of it for Pot-herbs. Of their Tobacco we found plenty, which 
they esteeme their chiefe Physicke. 

Ground nuts, Tiswaw we call China rootes; they grow in 
clusters, and bring forth a bryer stalke, but the leaie is far 
vnlike, which will climbe vp tq the top of the highest tree: 
the vse knowne is to cut it in small peeces, then stampe and 
straine it with water, and boyled makes a gelly good to eate, 
Cassavia growes in Marishes, which the Indians oft vse for 
bread and broth. Habascon is like a Parsnip, naught of it 
selfe, except compounded: aijd their Leekes like those in 

Seqiimummener, a kind of Berry like Capers, and three 
kinde of Berries like Acornes, called Sagatamenor, Osametior, 
and Pummiickoner. 

Saquennckot and Maquowoc, two kinde of beasts, greater 
then Conies, and very good meate; in some places such plen- 
ty of gray Conies, like hayres, that all the people make them 
mantels of their skins. I haue the names of 28. severall sort* 

TVie Observations of Master Thomas Hcriot. " 95 

that are dispersed in the Country: of which 12. kindes we 
haue discouered and good to eate; but the Salvages some- 
times kill a Lyon and eate him. 

There is pleiitie of Sturgeon in February, March, Aprill, 
and May; all Hcrings in abundance; some such as ours, but 
the most part of 1 8.20. or 24. ynches long, and more. Trouts, 
Porpisses, Rayes; Mullets, Old-Wiues, Plaice, Tortoises both 
by Sea and Land: Crabs, Oysters, Mussels, Scalops, Peri- 
winckles, Crevises^ Secanank: we haue the Pictures of 12. 
sorts more, bnt their nanics We know not. 

Turkeys, Stockdoues, Partridges, Cranes, Hemes, Swans, 
Geese, Parrots, Faulcons, Merlins. 1 haue the names in 
their language of 86. sevcrall sorts. Their w r oods are such 
as ours in England for the most part, except Rakeock, a great 
sweet tree, whereof they make their Canowes: and Ascopo^ 
a kinde of tree like Lowrell, and Saxefras. 


Their Clothing, Townes, Houses, Warres, Arts, Tooles, 
handy crafts, and educations, are much like them in that 
part of Virginia we now inhabite: which at large you may 
reade in the Description thereof. But the relation of their 
Religion is strange, as this Author reporteth. 

Some Religion they haue, Which although it be farre from 
the truth, yet being as it is there is hope it may be the easier 
reformed. They beleetie there are many gods which they call 
Mantoac, but of different sorts and degrees. Also that there 
is one cheife God that hath beene from all eternitie, who as 
they say when he purposed first to make the world, mado 
first other gods of a principall order, be as instruments to be 
vsed in the Creation and government to follow: And alter the 
Sunne, Moone, and Starres, as pettie gods, and the instru- 
ments of the other order more principall. First (they say) 
were made waters out of which by the gods were made all 
diversitie of creatures that are visible or invisible. 

For mankindc they say a Woman was made first, which 
by the working of one of the gods concerned and brought 
forth children; and so they had their beginning, but how ma- 
ny yeares or ages since they know not; having no Records 
hut onely Tradition from Father to soone. 

96 The Observations of Master Thomas Heriot. 

They thinkc that all the gods are of humane shape, and 
therefore represent them by Images in the. formes of men; 
which , they call Keivasowok: one alone is called Kewasa; 
them they place in their Temples, where they worship, pray, 
sing, and make many offerings. The common sort thinke 
them also gods. 

They beleeue the immortalitie of the Soule, when life de- 
parting from the body, according to the good or bad workes 
it hath done, it is carried vp to the Tabernacles of the gods, 
to perpetual I happinesse, or to Popogusso, a great pit: which 
they thinke to be at the furthest parts of the world, where the 
Sunne sets, and there burne continually. 

To confirme this they told me of two men that had beene 
lately dead, and revived againe; the one hapned but few 
yeares before our comming into the country; of a bad man, 
which being dead and buried, the next day the earth over 
him being scene to moue, was taken vp, who told them his 
soule was very neare entering into Popogusso, had not one 
of the gods saued him and gaue him leaue to returne againe, 
to teach his friends what they should doe to avoyd such tor- 
ment, The other hapned the same ycare we were there, 
but sixtie myles from vs, which they told me for news, that 
one being dead, buried, and taken vp as the first, shewed, 
that although his body had layne dead in the graue, yet his 
soule liued, and had travailed far in a long broad way, on 
both sides whereof grew more sweet, fayre, and delicate trees 
and fruits, then ever he had scene before; at length he came 
to most braue and fayre houses, neere which he met his Fa- 
ther, that was dead long agoe, who gaue him charge to goe 
backe, to shew his friends what good there w T as to doe, to in- 
ioy the pleasures of that place; which when hee had done 
free should come againe. 

What subtiltie so ever be in the Weroances, and Priests; 
this opinion worketh so much in the common sort, that they 
haue great respect to their Governours; and as great care to 
avoyde torment after death, and to enioy blisse. Yet they 
haue divers sorts of punishments according to the offence, ac- 
cording to the greatnesse of the fact. And this is the sum of 
their Religion, which I learned by having speciall familiari- 
tie with their Priests, wherein they were not so sure ground- 
ed, nor gaue such credit, but through conversing with vs, they 
were brought into great doubts of their owne, and no small 

The Observations of Master Thomas Heriot. 97 

admiration of ours: of which many desired to learne more 
then we had meanes for want of utterance in their Language 
to cxpresse. 

Most things they saw with vs as Mathematicall Instruments, 
Sea-Compasses; the vertue of the Loadstone, Perspectiue 
Glasses, burning Glasses: Clocks to goe of themseiues; Bookes, 
writing, Guns, and such like: so far exceeded their capacities, 
that they thought they were rather the workes of gods then 
men; or at least the gods had taught vs how to make them, 
which loued vs so much better then them; and caused many 
of them giue credit to what Ave spake concerning our God. In 
all places where I came, I did my best to make his immortall 
glory knowne. And I told them, although the Bible I shewed 
them, contained all; yet of it selfe, it was not of any such ver- 
tue as I thought they did conceiue. Notwithstanding many 
would be glad to touch it, to kisse, and imbrace it, to hold it 
to their breasts, and heads, and stroke all their body over 
with it. 

The King Wingina where we dwelt; would oft be with vs at 
Prayer. Twice he was exceeding sicke and like to dye. And 
doubting of any helpe from his Priests, thinking he was in such 
danger for offending vs and our God, sent for some of vs to 
pray, and be a meanes to our God, he might liue with him af- 
ter death. And so did many other in the like case. One 
other strange Accident (leauing others) will I mention before 
I end, which mooued the whole Country that either knew or 
heard of vs, to haue vs in wonderfull admiration. 

There was no Towne where they had practised any vil- 
lany against vs (we leaving it vnpunished, because we sought 
by all possible meanes to winne them by gentlenes) but with- 
in a few dayes after our departure, they began to dye; in some 
Townes twenty, in some forty, in some sixty, and in one 
an hundred and twenty, which was very many in respect of 
their numbers. And this hapned in no place (we could learn) 
where we had bin, but where they had vsed some practise to 
betray vs. And this diease was so strange, they neither knew 
what it was, nor how to cure it; nor had they knowne the 
like time out of minde; a thing specially observed by vs, as 
also by themseiues, in so much that some of them who were 
our friends, especially Wingina, had observed such effects 
in foure or hue Townes, that they were perswaded it was the 
worke of God through our meanes: and that we by him might 

t)8 The Obsersatwus of Master Thomas Heriot. 

kill and slay whom we would, without weapons, and not come 
neerc them. And therevpon, when they had any vnderstand- 
ing, that any of their enemies abused vs in our Iourncyes, 
they would intrcat vs, we would be a meanes to our God, 
that they, as the others that had dealt ill with vs, might dye 
in like sort: although We shewed them their requests were 
vngodly; and that our God Would hot subiect himselfeto 
any such requests of men, but all things as he pleased came 
to passe: and that we to shew our selues his true servants, 
ought rather to pray for the contrary: yet because the effect 
fell out so suddenly after, according to their desires, they 
thought it came to passe by our meanes, and Would come 
giue vs thankes in their manner, that though We satisfied 
them not in words, yet in deeds we had fulfilled their desires. 

This marueilous Accident in all the Country wrought so 
strange opinions of vs, that they could not tell whether to 
thinke Vs gods or men. And the rather that all the space of 
their sicknesse, there Was no man of ours knowne to die, or 
much sicke* They noted also we had no women, nor cared 
for any of theirs: some therefore thought we were not borne 
of women, and therefore not mortall, but that we were men 
of an old generation many yeares past, and risen againe from 
immortalitie. Some Would Prophesie there were more of 
our generation yet to come, to kill theirs and take their pla- 
ces. Those that Were to come after vs they imagined to be 
in the ay re, yet invisible and without bodies; and that they 
by our intreaties, for loue of vs, did make the people die as 
they did, by shooting invisible bullets into them. 

To confirme this, their Physicians to excuse their Igno- 
rance in curing the disease, would make the simple people 
beleeue, that the strings of bloud they sucked out of the sicke 
bodies, were the strings wherein the invisible bullets were 
tyed, and cast. Some thought we shot them our selues, from 
the place where we dwelt, and killed the people that had 
offended vs, as we listed, how farre distant soever. And 
others said it was the special] worke of God for our sakes, as 
we had cause in some sort to thinke no lesse, whatever some 
doe, or may imagine to the contrary; especially some Astrol- 
ogers by the eclipse of the Sunne we saw that yeare before 
our Voyage, and by a Comet which began to appearc but a 
few dayes before the sicknesse began: but to exclude them 
from being the speciall causes of so speciall an Accident 

Sir Richard Grenvils second Voyage, Lib. i. 99 

there are farther reasons then I thinke fit to present or al- 

These their opinions I haue set downe, that you may see 
there is hope to imbrace the truth, and honor, obey, feare and 
loue vs., by good dealing and government: though some of 
our company towards the latter end, before we came away 
with Sir Francis Drake shewed themselues too furious, in 
slaying some of the people in some Townes, vpon causes 
that on our part might haue bin borne with more miidnesse; 
notwithstanding they iustly had deserued it. The best never- 
thelesse in this, as hi all actions besides, is to be indevoured and 
hoped; and of the worst that may happen, notice to be taken 
with consideration; and as much as may be eschewed; the 
better to allure them hereafter to Civilitie and Christiantie, 

Thus you may see^ Ifow 

Nature her selfe delights her selfe in sundry Instruments, 

That sundry things be done to decke the earth with Ornaments; 

Nor suffers she her servants all should runne one race, 

But wills the walke of every one frame in a divers pace- 

jhat divers wayes and divers workda, the world might better grace, 

Written by Thoma§ llcriot, one pf the Voyage, 

Row Sir ]£ichard Greftvill went to reUeue them, 

In the yeare of our Lord 1586, Sir JValter Raleigh and 
his Associates prepared a ship of a hundred tun, fraughted 
plentifully of all things necessary: but before they set saylo 
from England it was Easter, And arriving at Haiorash\ 
they after some time spent in seeking the Collony vp in the 
Country, and not finding them, returned with all the provi- 
sion againe to England. 

About H. or 15. dayes after, Sir Richard Grenvill 'accom- 
panied with three ships well appoynted, arrived there. Who 
not finding the aforesaid ship according to his expectation, 
nor hearing any news of the Collony there seated, and left by 
him as is said 1585, travailing vp and downe to seeke them, 
but when he could heare no newes of them, and found their 
habitation abandoned, vnwilling to lose possession of the 
Country, after good deliberation he landed fiftie men in the 
Jle of RoanoaJc, plentifully furnished with all manner of pro- 
vision for two yeares: and so returned for England.. 

100 The Observations of Master Iohn White. 

Where many began strangely to discant of those crossc be- 
ginnings, and him; which caused me remember an old say- 
ing of Euripides. 

Who broacheth ought tliats new, to fooles vntaught, 
Ilimselfe shall nidged be, and good for naught. 

Three Ships more sent to relieue them by Mr. White, 

We went the old course by the west Indies, and Simon 
Ferdinando our continuall Pilot mistaking Virginia for Cape 
Fear, we fayled not much to haue beene cast way, vpon the 
conceit of our all-knowing Ferdinando, had it not beene pre- 
vented by the vigilancy of Captaine Stafford. We came to 
Hatorask the 22. of Iuly, and with fortie of our best men, 
intending at Roanoack to find the 50 men left by Sir Rich- 
ard Grenvill. But we found nothing but the bones of a man, 
and where the Plantation had beene, the houses vnhurl, but 
overgrowne with weeds, and the, Fort defaced, which much 
perplexed vs. 

By the History it seemes Simon Ferdinando did what he 
could to bring this voyage to confusion; but yet they all ar- 
rived at Hatorask. They repayred the old houses at Roan- 
ock, and Master George How, one of the Councell, stragling 
abroad, was slaine by the Salvages. Not long after Master 
Stafford with 20. men went to Croatan with Manteo, whose 
friends dwelled there: of whom we thought to have some 
news of our 50 men. They at first made shew to fight, but 
when they heard Manteo, they threw away their Armes, and 
were friends, and desired there might be a token giuen to be 
knowne by, least we might hurt them by misprision, as the 
yeare before one had bin by Master Layne, that was ever their 
friend, and there present yet lame* 

The next day we had conference with them concerning the 
people of Secotan, Aquascogoc, and Pomeiok, willing them 
of Croatan to see if they would accept our friendship, and 
renew our old acquaintance: which they willingly imbraced, 
and promised to bring their King and Governours to Roanoak, 
to confirme it. We also vnderstood that Master Howe was 
slaine by the men of Wingina, of Dassamonpeack: and by 

The Ohservations of Master Iohn White. 101 

them of Roanoack, that the fiftie men left by Sir Richard 
Grenvill, were suddainly set vpon by three hundred oi'Secotan, 
Aquascogoc, and Dassamonpeack. First they intruded theni- 
selues among 1 1 of them by friendship, one they slew, the 
rest retyring to their houses, they set them on fire, that our 
men with what came next to hand were forced to make their 
passage among them; where one of them was shot in the mouth, 
and presently dyed, and a Salvage slaine by him. On both 
sides more were hurt; but our men retyring to the water side, 
got their boat, and ere they had rowed a quarter of a myle 
towards Hatorask, they tooke vp foure of their fellowes, 
gathering Crabs and Oysters: at last they landed on a little lie 
by Hatorask, where they remained a while, but after departed 
they knew not whether. So taking our leaues of the Croa- 
tans, we came to our Fleet at Hatorask. 

The Governour having long expected the King and Go- 
vernours of Pomeiok, Secotan, Aquascogoc, and Dassamon- 
peack,, and the 7. dayes expired, and nonewes of them, being 
also informed by those of Croatan, that they of Dassamon- 
peack slew Master How, and were at the driving our men 
from Raonoack he thought no longer to deferre the revenge. 
Wherefore about midnight, with Captaine Stafford, and twen- 
tie-foure men, whereof Manteo was one, for our guide, (that 
behaved himselfe towards vs as a most faithful! English man) 
he set forward. 

The next day by breake of day we landed, and got beyond 
their houses, where seeing them sit by the fire we assaulted 
them. The miserable soules amazed fled into the Reeds, 
where one was shot through, and we thought to haue beene 
fully revenged, but we were decerned, for they were our friends 
eome from Croatan to gather their corne, because they vnder- 
stood our enemies were fled after the death of Master Hoiv, 
and left all behinde them for the birds. But they had like 
to haue payd too deare for it; had we not chanced vpon a 
Weroances wife, with a childe at her backe, and a Salvage 
that knew Captaine Stafford, that ran to him calling him by 
his name. Being thus disappointed of our purpose, we ga- 
thered the fruit we found ripe; left the rest vnspoyled, and tooke 
Menatonon his wife with her childe, and the rest with vs to 
Roanoak. Though this mistake grieued Manteo, yet he im- 
puted it to their own folly, because they had not kept pro- 
mise to come to the governor at the day appointed. The. 13, 

102 The Observations of Master Iohn VV r hite. 

of August our Salvage Manteo was Christened, and called 
Lord of Dassamonpeack, in reward of his faithfulnesse. And 
the 18th, Ellinor the Governours daughter, and wife to Ana- 
nias Dare, was delivered of a daughter in Roanoak; which be- 
ing the first Christian there borne, was called Virginia. 

Our ships being ready to depart, such a storme arose, as 
the Admirall was forced to cut her Cables: and it was six 
dayes ere she could recover the shore, that made vs doubt 
she had beene lost, because the most of her best men were 
on shore. At this time Controversies did grow betwixt our 
Governour and the Assistants, about choosing one of them 
12. to goe as Factor for them all to England: for all refused 
saue one, whom all men thought most insufficient: the Con- 
clusion was by a generall consent, they would haue the Go- 
vernour goe himselfe, for that they thought none would so 
truly procure there supplyes as he. Which though he did 
what he could to excuse it, yet their importunitie would not 
cease till he vndertooke it, and had it vnder all their hands, 
how vnwilling he was, but that necessity and reason did doub- 
ly constraine him. At their setting sayle for England, waigh- 
ing Anchor, twelue of the men in the flyboat were throwne 
from the Capstern, by the breaking of a barre, and most of 
them so hurt, that some never recovered it. The second time 
they had the like fortune, being but 15. they cut the Cable 
and kept company with their Admirall to Flowres and Coru- 
os; the Admirall stayed there looking for purchase: but the 
flyboats men grew so weake they were driuen to Smerwick 
in the West of Ireland. The Governour went for England; 
and Simon Ferdinando with much adoe at last arrived at 
Portsmouth, 1587. 

The Names of those were landed in this Plantation were. 

Iohn White Governour. Iohn Samson. 

Roger Bayley. Thomas Smith. 

Anajiias Dare. Dionis Haruic 

Simon Ferdinando. Roger Prat, 

Christopher Couper. George How. 

Thomas Stevens. Antony Cage. 

With divers others to the number of about 115. 

The Observations of Master Iohn White. 1 03 

The Tift Voyage to Virginia; vndertaken by Mr. 
John White. 1589. 

The 20 of March three ships went from Plimouth. and 
passed betwixt Barbary and Mogadoro to Dominico in the 
West Indies. After we had done some exployts in those 
parts, the third of August wee fell with the low sandy lies 
westward of Wokokon. Bat by reason of ill weather it was, 
the 11, ere we could Anchor there; and on the 12. we came 
to Croatan, where is a great breach in 35. degrees and a halfe, 
in the Northeast poynt of the lie. The 15. we came to Ha- 
torask in 36. degrees and a terse, at 4. fadom, 3 leagues from 
shore: where we might perceiue a smoake at the place where 
I left the Colony, 1587. The next morning Captaine Cooke, 
Captaine Spicer, and their companies, with two boats left our 
ships, and discharged some Ordnance to giue them notice of 
our comming, but when we came there, we found no man, 
nor signe of any that had beene there lately: and so returned 
to our Boats. The next morning we prepared againe for 
Roanoack. Captaine Spicer had then sent his Boat ashore 
for water, so it was ten of the Clocke ere we put from the 
ships, which rode two myles from the shore. The Admirals 
boat, being a myle before the other, as she passed the bar, a 
sea broke into the boat and filled her halfe full of water: but 
hy Gods good will, and the carefull stealage of Captaiue 
Cook, though our provisions were much wet we safe escaped, 
the wind blew hard at Northeast, which caused so great a 
current and a breach vpon the barre; Captaine Spicer passed 
halfe over, but by the indiscreet steering of Ralph Skinner, 
their boat was overset, the men that could catch hold hung 
about her, the next sea cast her on ground, where some let 
goe their hold to wade to shore, but the sea beat them 
downe. The boat thus tossed vp and downe Captaine Spi- 
cer and Skinner hung there till they were drowne; but 4. 
that could swim a little, kept themselues in deeper water, 
were saued by the meanes of Captaine Cook, that presently 
vpon the oversetting of their boat, shipped himselfe to saue 
what he could. Thus of eleuen, seuen of the chiefest were 
drowned. This so discomfited all the Saylers, we had much 
to do to get them any more to seeke further for the Planters, 
but by their Captaines forwardnesse at last they fitted them- 
selues againe for Hatorask in 2 boats, with 19. persons. It 

104 The Observations of Master Iolm White. 

was late ere we arrived, but seeing a fire through the woods, 
we sounded a Trumpet, but no answer could we heare. The 
next morning we went to it, but could see nothing but the 
grasse, and some rotten trees burning. We went vp and 
downe the He, and at last found three fairc Roman Letters 
carved. C. R. O. which presently we knew to signine the 
place where I should find them, according to a secret note 
betweene them and me: which was to write the name of the 
'place they would be in, vpon some tree, dore, or post: and if 
they had beene in any distresse, to signine it by making a 
crosse over it. For at my departure they intended to goe iif- 
tie myles into the mayne. But we found no signe of dis- 
tresse; then we went to a place where they were left in sun- 
dry houses, but we found them all taken downe, and the place 
strongly inclosed with a high Palizado, very Fortlike; and in 
one of the chiefe Posts earned in fayre capitall Letters CR 0- 
ATAN, without an) signe of distresse, and many barres of 
Iron, two pigs of Lead, fourc Fowlers, Iron shot, and such 
like heauie things throwne here and there, ovcrgrowne with 
grasse and weeds. We went by the shore to sceke for their 
boats but could finde none, nor any of the Ordnance I left 
them. At last some of the Sailers found divers Chists had 
beene hidden and digged vp agaiiie, and much of the goods 
spoyled, and scattered vp and downe, which when I saw, I 
knew three of them to be my owne; butbookes, pictures, and 
all things els were spoyled. Though it much grieued me, 
yet it did much comfort me that 1 did know they were at 
Croatan; so we returned to our Ships, but had like to haue 
bin cast away by a great storme that continued all that night. 
The next morning we weighed Anchor for Croatan: hav- 
ing the Anchor a-pike, the Cable broke, by the meanes where- 
of we lost another: letting fall the third, the ship yet went 
so fast a drift, we fayled not much there to haue split. But 
God bringing vs into deeper water; considering we had but 
one Anchor, and our provision neare spent, we resoiued to 
goe forthwith to S. Iohns He Hispaniola, or Trinidado, to 
refresh our selues and seeke for purchase that Winter, and the 
next Spring come againe to seeke our Country-men. But 
our Vice Admirall would not, but went directly for England, 
and we our course for Trinidado. But within two daves 
after, the wind changing, we were constrained for the West- 
erne Ues to refresh our selues, where we met with many of 

The Discoveries and Observations of Cap. Bar: Gosnoll. 105 

the Queenes ships our owne consort, and divers others, the 
23. of Seeptember 1590. And thus we left seeking our Co- 
lony, that was neuer any of them found, nor seenc to this day 
1622. And this was the conclusion of this Plantation, after 
so much time, labour, and charge consumed. Whereby we 

Not all at once, nor all alike, nor ever hath it beene, 
That God doth offer and confer his blessing's vpon men. 

Written by Master lohn White, 

Jl brief e Relation of the Description of Elizabeths He. 
and some others towards the North part of Virgi- 
nia; and what els they discovered in the yeare 1602. 
by Captaine Bartholomew Grosnoli, and Captaine 
Bartholomew Gilbert; and divers other Gentlemen 
their Associates. 

All hopes of Virginia thus abandoned, it lay dead and 
obscured from 1590. till this yeare 1602. that Captaine Gos- 
noll, with 32. and himselfe in a small Barke, set sayle from 
Dartmouth vpon the 26. of March. Though the wind fa- 
voured vs not at the first, but forced vs as far South- 
ward as the Asores, which was not much out of our 
way; we ran directly west from thence, whereby we made 
our iourney shorter then heretofore by 500. leagues: the 
weakness© of our ship, the badiies of our saylers, and our ig 
norance of the coast, caused vs carry but a low sayle, that 
made our passage longer then we expected. 

On fryday the 11. of May we made land, it was somewhat 
low, where appeared certaine hummocks or hills in it: the 
shore white sand, but verie rockie, yet overgrowne with fayre 
trees. Comming to an Anchor, 8 Indians in a Baske shal- 
lop, with mast and sayle came boldly aboord vs. It seemed 
by their signes and such things as they had, some Biskiner? 
had fished there: being about the latitude of 43. But the 
harbour being naught, and doubting the weather, we went 
not ashore, but weighed, and stood to the Southward int® 
the Sea. The next morning we found our selues imbayed 
with a mightie headland: within a league of the shore we 

10(3 The Discoveries and Observations of Cap. Bar: Gosiioll. 

anchored and Captaine Gosnoll, my selfe, and three others 
uent to it in our boat, being a white sand and a bold coast. 
1 hough the weather was hot, we marched to the highest 
nils Ave could see; where we percieued the headland part of 
the mayn neare mvironed with Hands. As we were re- 
turning to our ship, a good proper, lusty young man came to 
Vs, with whom we had but small conference, and so we left 
him. Here m 5. or 6. houres we tooke more Cod then we 
knew what to do with, which made vs perswade our seines, 
uere might be found a good fishing in March, Aprill, and May. 
At length we came among these fay-re lies, some a league, 
w\' or6. fromtheMayne, by one of them we anchored 
V\ e found it foure myles in compasse, without house or inha- 
bitant. In it is a lake neare a myle in circuit; the rest over- 
growne with trees, which so well as the bushes, were so over- 
grownc with Vines, we could scarce passe them. And by 
me blossomes we might perceiue there would be plenty of 
Strawberries, kespises, Gousberries, and divers other fruits- 
besides, Deere and other Beasts we saw, and Cranes, Hemes, 
with divers other sorts of fowle; which made vs call it Mar- 
ilia 1 s I'lneyard. 

The rest of the lies arc replenished with such like; very 
rocky, and much tinctured stone like Minerall. Though 
we met many Lidimis, yet we could not see their habitations: 
they gaue vs fish, Tobacco, and such things as they had. But 
the next Isle we arrived at was but two leagues from the 
Alaine, and lo, myle about, invironed so with creekes and 
coves, it seemed like many Isles linked together by small pas- 
sages like bridges. In it is many places of plaine grasse, and 
such other fruits, and berries as before were mentioned. In 
mid-May we did sow Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Pease, which 
m 14. dayes sprung vp 9. inches. The soyle is fat and lusty: 
the crust therol gray, a foot or lesse in depth. It is full of 
high timbred Okes, their leaues thrise so broad as ours- Cedar 
straight and tall, Beech, Holly, Walnut, Hazell, Cherry trees 
ike ours, but the stalke beareth the blossom or fruit thereof 
like a cluster of Grapes, forty or fiftie in a bunch. There is 
a tree of Orange colour, whose barke in the filing is as smooth 
as V civet. I here is a lake of fresh water three myles in com- 
passe, m the midst an Isle containing an acre or thereabout, 
overgrowne with wood: here are many Tortoises, and abun- 
dance of all sorts ofioules, whose young ones we tooke and 

The Discoveries and Observations of Cap. Bar: Gosnoll. 107 

eate at our pleasure. Grounds nuts as big as egges, as good 
as Potatoes, and 40. on a string, not two ynches vnder ground. 
All sorts of shell-fish, as Schalops, Mussels, Cockles, Crabs, 
Lobsters, Welks, Oysters, exceeding good and very great,* 
but not to cloy you with particulars, what God and nature 
hath bestowed on those places, I refer you to the Authors 
owne writing at large. We called this Isle Elizabeths Isle, 
from whence we went right over to the mayne, where we 
stood a while as ravished at the beautie and dilicacy of the 
sweetnesse, besides divers cleare lakes, whereof we saw no 
end, and meadows very large and full of greene grasse, &c. 
Here we espyed 7. Salvages, at first they expressed some 
feare, but by our courteous vsage of them, they followed vs 
to the necke of Land, which we thought had beene severed 
from the mayne, but we found it otherwise. Here we ima- 
gined was a river, but because the day was farre spent, wo 
left to discover it till better leasure. But of good Harbours, 
there is no doubt, considering the Land is all rocky and bro- 
ken lands. The next day we determined to fcrtifie our sclues 
in the Isle in the lake. Three weekes we spent in building 
vs there a house. But the second day after our comming 
from the Mayne, 11. Canows with neare 50. Salvages came 
towards vs. Being vnwilling they should sec our building, 
we went to, and exchanged with them Kniues, Hatchets, 
Beades, Bels, and such trifles, for some Bevers, Lyzards, 
Martins, Foxes, wilde Catteskinnes, and such like. We saw 
them haue much red Copper, whereof they make chaines, 
collars, and drinking cups, which they so little esteemed they 
would giue vs for small toyes, and signified vnto vs thcy 
had it out of the earth in the Mayne: three dayes they stay- 
ed with vs, but every night retyred two or three myle from 
vs: after with many signesof loue and friendship they depart- 
ed seaven of them staying behind, that did helpe vs to dig 
and carry Saxafras, and doe any thing they could, being of 
a comely proportion and the best condition of any Salvages 
we had yet incountred. They haue no Beards but counter- 
feits, as they did thinke ours also was: for which they would 
haue changed with some of our men that had great beards. 
Some of the baser sort would steale; but the better sort, we 
found very civill and iust. We saw but three of their women, 
and they were but of meane stature, attyred in skins like the 
men, but fat and well favoured. The wholesomenesse and 

108 The Discoveries and Observations of Cap. Martin Pring. 

temperature of this climate, doth not oncly argue the people 
to be answerable to this Description, but also of a perfect 
constitution of body, actiue, strong healthfull, and very wit- 
ty, as the sundry toyes by them so cunningly wrought may 
well testine. For our selucs, we found our selues rather in- 
crease in health and strength then otherwise; for all our toyle, 
bad dyet and lodging; yet not one of vs was touched Avith 
any sicknesse. Twelue intended here a while to haue stay- 
ed, but vpon better consideration, how meanely we were pro- 
vided, we left this Island (with as many true sorrowfull eyes 
as were before desirous to see it) the 18. of lune, and arrived 
at Exmouth, the 23 of luly. 

But yet mans minde cloth such it selfe explay, 

As Gods ^reat Will doth frame it every way, 

vlivk Such thoug-hts men haue, on earth that doe but Hue, 

As men may craue, but God doth onely ...iue. 

Written by Iohn liricrion one of the Voyage. 

,i Voyage of Captaine Martin Pring, with two Barks 
from BriAo% for the North part o/' Virginia. 1603. 

By the inducements and perswasions of Mr Richard Hack- 
luite, Mr Iohn Whitson being Maior, with his brethren the 
Aldermen, and most of the Merchants of the Citie of Bristoiv, 
raised a stocke of 10001. to furnish out two Barkes, the one of 
50. tuns, with 30. men and boyes, the other 26. tuns, with 
13. men and boyes, having Martin Pring an vnderstanding 
Gentleman, and a sufficient Mariner for Captaine, and Robert 
Salierne his Assistant, who had bin with Captaine Gosnoll 
there the yeare before for Pilot. Though they were much 
crossed by contrary wincles vpon the coast of England, and 
the death of that ever most memorable, miracle of the world, 
our most deare soveraigne Lady and Queene Elizabeth: yet 
at last they passed by the westerns Isles, and about the 7. of 
lune, fell vpon the north part of Virginia, about the degrees 
of fortie three. Where they found plentie of most sorts of 
iish, and saw a high country full of great woods of sundry 
sorts. As they ranged the coast at a place they named Whit- 
son Bay, they were kindly vsed by the Natiues, that came to 
them, in troupes, of tents, twenties, and thirties, and 

The Discoveries & Observations of Cap. Geo: Waymouth. 1 09 

sometimes more. But because in this Voyage for most part 
they followed the course of Captaine Gosnoll, and haue made 
no relation but to the same eflect he writ before, we will thus 

Lay hands vnto this worke with ail thy wit, 
I But pray that God would speed and profit it 

Robert Salterne. 

JL relation of a Discovery towards the Northward of 
Virginia, by Captaine George Waymouth 1605, 
imp'loyed thether by the right Monorahle Thomas 
Aruiidellj Barari of Warder, in the Rdigne of oar 
most royal! King IaMe's. 

Vpon tuesday the fift of March we set sayle from Ratcliffe, 
but by contrary winds we were forced into Dartmouth till the 
last of this moneth, then with 29. as good sea men, and all 
necessary provisions as could possibly be gotten, we put to 
sea, and the 24 of Api'ill fell with FloiOres and Coruos. We 
intended as we were directed towards the Southward of 39. 
But the winds so crossed vs wee fell more Northwards about 
41. and 20. mhmits, we sounded at 100, farthom, and by that 
we had run 6 leagues we had but 5. yet saw no land; from the 
mayne top we descryeda whitish sandy clift, West North -west 
some 6. leagues from vs, but ere we had run two leagues fur- 
ther we found many shouies and breaches, sometimes in 4. 
fadomandthe next throw 15. or 18. Being thus imbayed 
among those shouies, we were constrained to put back againe* 
which we did with no small danger, though both the winde and 
weather were as fayre as we could desire. Thus we parted from 
the Land, which we had not before so much desired, and at the 
first sight reioyced, as now we all ioyfully praysed God that he 
had delivered vs from so eminent danger. Here w T e found ex- 
cellent Cod, and saw many Whales as we had done 2. orS.daies 
before. Being thus constrained to put to sea, the want of wood 
and water caused vs take the best advantage of winde, to fall 
with the shore wheresoever: but we found our Sea cards most 
directly false. The 1 7. of May we made the Land againe* 
but it blew so hard, we durst not approach it. The next dav 

110 The Discoveries & Observations of Cap. Geo: Way mouth. 

it appeared to vs a mayne high land, but we found it an Island 
of 6. myles in compasse: within a league of it we came to an 
anchor, and went on shore for wood and water, of which we 
found sufficient. The water gushing forth downe the rocky 
clifts in many places, which are all overgrown with Firre, 
Birch, Beech, and Oke, as the Verge is with Gousberries, 
Strawberries, wild Pease, and Rose bushes, and much foule 
of divers sorts that breed among the rockes: here as in all pla- 
ces els where we came, we found Cod enough. 

From hence we might descerne the mayne land and very 
high mountaines, the next day because we rode too open to 
the Sea, we waighed, and came to the Isles adiovning to the 
mayn: among which we found an excellent rode, defended 
from all windes, for ships of any burthen, in or 10. fa- 
dom vpon a clay oze. This was vpon a Whitsonday, where- 
fore we called it Pentecost Harbour. Here I cannot omit 
for foolish feare of imputation of flattery, the painfull indus- 
try of our Captaine, who as at Sea he was alwayes most 
carefull and vigilant, so at land he refused no paines: but his 
labour was ever as much or rather more then any mans; which 
not onely incouraged others with better content, but also ef- 
fected much with great expedition. We digged a Garden 
the 22. of May, where among our gardenseeds we sowed 
Pease and Barley, which in 16. dayes grew vp 8. ynches, 
although this was but the crust of the ground, and much in- 
feriour to the mould we after found in the mayne. 

After we had taken order for all our necessary businesses, 
we marched through two of these Isles. The biggest was 4. 
or 5. myles in compasse; we found here all sorts of ordinary 
trees, besides, Vines ? Currants, Spruce, Yew, Angelica, and 
divers gummes: in so much many of our company wished 
themselues setled here. Vpon the 30. our Captaine with 13. 
went to discover the mayne: we in the ship espyed 3. Canowe*; 
that came towards the ship. Which after they had well view- 
ed, one of them came aboord with 3. men, and by our good 
vsage of them not long after the rest, two dayes we had their 
companies, in all respects they are but like them at Elizabeths 
Isles, therefore this may suffice lor their description. In this 
time our Captain had discovered a fayre river, trending into 
the mayne 40 myles, and returned backe to bring in the ship. 
The Salvages also kept their words and brought vs 40. Bever, 
Oter. and sable skins, for the value of .5. shillings in kniues, 

The Discoveries & Observations of Cap. Geo: Waymouth. Ill 

glasses, combes, and such toyes, and thus we vsed them so 
kindly as we could, because we intended to inhabit in their 
Country, they lying aboord with vs and we ashore with them; 
but it was but as changing man for man as hostages; and in 
this manner many times we had their companies. 

At last they desired our Captaine to goe with them to the 
mayne to trade with their Bashabes, which is their cluefe 
Lord, which we did, our boat well manned with 14. yet would 
they row faster with 3. Ores in their Canowes then we with 
8. but when we saw our old acquaintance, would not stay 
aboord vs as before for hostage, but did what they could to 
draw vs into a narrow cirke, we exchanged one Owen IxriJ- 
fin with them for a yong fellow of theirs, that he might see 
'if he could discover any trechery, as he did; for he found there 
assembled 283. Salvages with bowes and arrows, but not any 
thing at all to trade as they pretended. These things consi- 
dered, we conceited them to be but as all Salvages ever had 
beenc, kinde till they found opportunitie to do mischiefe.— 
Wherefore we determined to take some of them, before they 
should suspect we had discovered their plot, lest they should 
absent themsclues from vs, so the first that ever after came 
into the ship were three which we kept, and two we tooke 
on shore with much adoe, with two Canowes, their bowes 
and arrowes. t » 

Some time we spent in sounding all the Isles, channels, ana 
inlets, thereabouts, and we found 4. severall waies a ship 
might be brought into this Bay. In the interim there came I. 
Canowes more boldlv aboord vs, signifying we should bring 
our ship where he dwelt to trade. We excused our selues 
why we could not, but vsed them kindly, yet got them away 
with all the speede we could, that they should not be per- 
ceiued by them in the houle, then we went vp the river 26. 
myles, of which I had rather not write, then by my relation 
detract from it, it is in breadth a myle, neare 40. myles; and 
a channel of 6. 7. 8. 9. or 10, fadom, and on both sides every 
halfe myle gallant Coues, to containe m many of them 10U 
sayle, where they may lye on Oze without Cable or Anchor, 
oiiely mored with a Hanser, and it floweth 18. foot, that you 
may make, dock, or carine ships with much iacilitie: besides 
the land is most rich, trending all along on both sides in an 
equall plaine, neither rocky nor mountainous, but verged wittt 
a greene border of grasse, doth make tender to the beholder 

112 The Discoveries & Observations of Cap. Geo. Waymouth. 

her pleasant fertilities if by cleansing away the woods she 
Were converted into meadow. 

The woods are great, and tall, such as are spoken of in the 
Islelands, and well watered with many fresh springs. Our 
men that had scene Oranoiiue so famous in the worlds eares, 
Reogrande, Loyer, and Slion^ report, though they be great 
and goodly rivers, yet are not comparable to it. Leaving our 
ship we went higher, till we were 7. myles higher 1 then the 
salt water flowed; we marched towards the mountaines we 
had scene; but the weather was so hot, and our labour so 
great, as our Captaine was contented to returner after we had 
erected a crosse we left this faire land and river, in which the 
higher we went the better we liked it, and returned to our 
ship, ' By the way we met a Canow that much desired one 
of our men to go vp to their Basshahes; but we knew their 
intents, and so turned them off; and though we had both 
time and provision to haue discovered much more, and might 
jiaue found peradventure good trade, yet because our compa- 
ny was but small, we would not hazard so hopefull a busi- 
nesse as this was, either for our private, or particular ends, 
icing more regardfull of a publicke good, and promulgating 
Gods holy Church by planting Christianity, which was the 
intent of our adventurers so well as ours; returning by the 
Isles in the entry of the Sound we called them St. Georges 
Isles, and because on sunday we set out of England, on sun- 
day also the 16. of lune we departed hence. When we had 
run 30. leagues we had 40. fadom, then 70. then 100. After 
2. or 3. watches more we were in 24. fadoms, where we 
tooke so much Cod as we did know what to doe with, and the 
18. of luly came to Dartmouth, and all our men as well God 
be thanked as when they went forth. 

Thus you may see; 

God hath not all his gifts bestowed on all or any one, 

Words sweetest, and' wits sharpest, courage, strength of bone; 

All raritiea of mincle and parts doe all concurre in one. 

Written by lames Hosier, one of the Voyage. 


VIHQ BUS'S 1®HA®M* a (8© (8* 




Sometimes Governour of the Countrey, 

By these former relations you may see what inconvenien- 
ces still crossed those good intents, and how great a mat- 
ter it was all this time to finde but a Harbour, although there 
be so many. But this Virginia is a Country in America be- 
Iweene the degrees of 34. and 45. of the North latitude. — 
The bounds thereof on the East side are the great Ocean: on 
the South lyeth Florida: on the North nova Francia: as for 
the West thereof, the limits are vnknowne. Of all this 
Country we purpose not to speake, but ouely of that part 
which was planted by the English men in the yeare of our 
Lord, 1606. And this is vnder the degrees 37. 38. and 39. 
The temperature of this Country doth agree well with Eng- 
lish constitutions, being once seasoned to the Country. — 
Which appeared by this, that though by many occasions our 
people fell sicke; yet did they recover by very small meanes, 
and continued in health, though there were other great cau- 
ses, not onely to haue made them sicke, but even to end their 
dayes, &c. 

The Sommer is hot as in Spuine; the Winter cold as in 
France or England. The heat of sommer is in June, Inly, 
and August, but commonly the coole Breeses asswage the 
vehemency of the heat. The chiefe of winter is halfe De- 
cember, Ianuary, February, and halfe March. The colde is 


WJEffi 8 US IIP 7(DiyA®IBo H(3<S>(8» 




Sometimes Governour of the Countrey. 

By these former relations you may see what inconvenien- 
ces still crossed those good intents, and how great a mat- 
ter it was all this time to rinde but a Harbour, although there 
be so many. But. this Virginia is a Country in America be- 
tweene the degrees of 34. and 45. of the North latitude. — 
The bounds thereof on the East side are the great Ocean: on 
the South lyeth Florida: on the North nova Francia: as for 
the West thereof, the limits are vnknowne. Of all this 
Country we purpose not to speake, but onely of that part 
which was planted by the English men in the yeare of our 
Lord, 1606. And this is vnder the degrees 37. 38. and 39. 
The temperature of this Country doth agree well with Eng- 
lish constitutions, being once seasoned to the Country. — 
Which appeared by this, that though by many occasions our 
people fell sicke; yet did they recover" by very small meanes, 
and continued in health, though there were other great cau- 
ses, not onely to banc made them sicke, but even to end their 
dayes, &c. 

The Sommer is hot as in Spaine; the Winter cold as in 
France or England. The heat of sommer is in lime, luly, 
and August, but commonly the coole Breeses asswage the 
vehemency of the heat. The chiele of winter is halfe De- 
cember, Ianuary, February, and halfe March. The colde i? 

H4 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

extreame sharpe, but here the Proverbe is true, that no ex- 
treame long continueth. 

In the yeare 1607. was an extraordinary frost in most, 
of Europe, and this frost was found as extreame in Virginia. 
But the next yeare for 8. or 10. dayes of ill weather, other 
14 dayes would be as Sommer. 

The windes here are variable, but the like thunder and 
lightning to purine the ayre, I haue seldome either seene or 
heard in Europe. From the Southwest came the greatest 
gusts with thunder and heat* The Northwest winde is com-* 
monly coole and bringeth faire weather with it. From the 
North is the greatest cold, and from the East and Southeast 
as from the Barmudas, fogs and raines* 

Sometimes there are great droughts, Other times much 
raine, yet great necessitic of neither, by reason we see not 
but that all the raritie of needful fruits in Europe, may be there 
in great plentie, by the industry of men, as appeareth by 
fhose we there Planted. 

There is but one entrance by Sea into this Country^ and 
that is at the mouth of a very goodly Bay, 18. or 20. myles 
i>road. The cape on the South is called Cape Henry, in ho- 
nour of Our most noble Prince. The land white hilly sands 
like vnto the Dowries, and all along the shores great plentie 
of Pines and Firres. 

The North Cape is called Cape Charles, in honour of the 
worthy Duke of Yorke. The Isles before it, SmitlCs Isles, 
ny the name of the discover. Within is a country that may 
haue the prerogatiue over the most pleasant places knowne, 
for large and pleasant navigable Rivers, heaven and earth 
never agreed better to frame a place for mans habitation; 
were it fully manured and inhabited by industrious people. 
Here are mountaines, hils, plaines, valley es, rivers, and 
brookes, all running most pleasantly into a faire Bay, com- 
passed but for the mouth, with fruitfull and delightsome land. 
In the Bay and rivers are many Isles both great and small, 
some woody, some plaine, most of them low and not inhabi- 
ted. This bay lyeth North and South, in which the water 
fioweth neare200. myles, and hath a channell for 140 myles 
of depth betwixt 6 and 15 fadome, holding a breadth for the 
most part 10 or 14 myles. From the head of the Bay to the 
Northwest, the land is mountanous, and so in a manner 
from thence by a Southwest line; so that the more 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. lly 

Southward, the farther off from the Bay are those mountaines. 
From which fall certaine brookes which after come to hue 
principall navigable rivers. These run from the Northwest 
into the Southeast, and so into the West side of the Bay, 
where the fall of every River is within 20 or 15 myles one of 
the other. 

The mountaines are of divers natures: for at the head of the 
Bay the rockes are of a composition like Mill stones. Some 
of Marble, &c. And many peeces like Christall we found, 
as throwne downe by water from those mountaines. For in 
Winter they are covered with much snow, and when it dis- 
solveth the waters fall with such violence, that it causeth 
great inundations in some narrow valleys, which is scarce 
perceived being once in the rivers. These waters wash from 
the rocks such glistering tinctures, that the ground in some 
places seemeth as guilded, where both the rocks and the earth 
are so splendent to behold, that better iudgemenis then ours 
might haue beene perstvaded, they contained more then pro- 
babilities. The vesture of the earth in most places doth mani- 
festly proue the nature of the soyle to be lusty and very rich. 
The colour of the earth we found in diverse places, resembleth 
bole Armoniac, terra asigillata, and Lemnia, Fullers earth, 
Marie, and divers and other such appearances. But general- 
ly for the most part it is a blacke sandy mould, in some places 
a fat slimy clay, in other places a very barren gravell. But 
the best ground is knowne by the vesture it beareth, as by 
the greatnesse of trees, or abundance of weeds, &c. 

The Country is not mountanous, nor yet low, but such 
pleasant plaine hils, and fertile valleyes, one prettily crossing 
another, and watered so conveniently with fresh brookes and 
springs, no lesse commodious, then delightsome. By the ri- 
vers are many plaine marishes, containing some 20 some 100, 
some 200 Acres, some more, some lesse. Other plaines there, 
are few, but onely where the Salvages inhabit: but all over- 
growrre with trees and weeds, being a plaine as 
God first made it. 

On the west side of the Bay, we sayd were 5. faire and 
delightfull navigable rivers. The first of those, and the next 
to the mouth of the Bay hath his course from the West North- 
west. It is called Powhatan, according to the name of a 
principall countrey that lyeth vpon it. The mouth of this 
Fiver is neare three myles in breadth, yet doe the shoules force 

116 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

the Channell so neare the land, that a Sarce will overshoot it 
at point blanche. It is navigable 150 myles, the shouldes and 
soundings are here needlesse to be expressed. It falleth from 
Rockes farre west in a Country inhabited by a nation they 
call Monacans. But where it commeth into our discovery it 
is Powhatan. In the farthest place that was diligently ob- 
served, arc falles, rockes, shoales, &c. which makes it past 
navigation any higher. Thence in the running downewaid, 
the river Is enriched with many goodly brookes, which are 
maintained by an infinit number of small rundles and plea- 
sant springs, that disperse themselues for the best ser- 
vice, as do the veines of a mans body. From the South 
there fals into it: First, the pleasaut river of Apamatuck. 
Next more to the East are two small rivers of Qui- 
youghcohanocke. A little farther is a Bay wherein fall- 
eth 3 or 4 prcttie brookes and creekes that halfe intrench the 
Inhabitants of JVarraskoyac, then the river of Nandsanutnd, 
and lastly the brooke of Chisapcack. From the North side 
is the river of Chickahamania, the backe river of lames Towne; 
another by the Cedar Isle, where we liued ten weekes vpon 
Oysters, then a convenient harbour for Fisher boats at Ke- 
coughtan, that so turneth it selfe into Bayes and Creekes, it 
makes that place very pleasant to inhabit;; their cornefields 
being girded therein in a manner as Peninsulaes. The most 
of these rivers are inhabited by severail nations, or rather 
families, of the name of the rivers. They haue also over 
those some Governour, as their King, which they call IVero- 
wances. In a Peninsula on the North side of this river are. 
the English Planted in a place by them called lames Towik\. 
in honour of the lyings most excellent Majestic. 

The first and next the rivers mouth are the Kecoughtans, 
who besides their women and children, haue not past 20. 
lighting men. The Paspaheghes (on whose land is seated 
lames Towne, some 40. myles from the Bay) haue not past 
10. The river called Chickahamania 'neare 250. The JVca- 
nocjes 100. The Arrovchoiocks 30. The place called Poa-'na- 
tan, some 40. On the South side this river the Appamatuchs 
haue sixtie fighting men. The Quiyougcohanocks 25. The 
Nandsamunds 200. The Chesapeacks 100. Of this last place 
the Bay beareth the name. In all these places is a severail 
commander, which they call Wcrowancc, except the Chicka: 
hamanians, who are governed bv the Priests and their 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 117 

Assistants, or their Elders called Caw-cawwassoughes. In 
sommer no place affordeth more plentie of Sturgeon,nor in win- 
ter more abundance of foule, especially in the time of frost. I 
tookc once 52 Sturgeons at a draught, at another 68. From 
the later end of May till the end of lime are taken few, but. 
yong Sturgeons of two foot, or a yard long. From thence 
till the midst of September, them of two or three yards long 
and few others. And in 4 or 5, houres with one Net were or- 
dinarily taken 7 or 3: often more, seldome lesse. In the small 
rivers all the yeare there is good plentie of small fish, so that 
with hookes those that would take paines had sufficient. 

Fouretecne myles Northward from the river Powhatan, is 
the river Pamavnkee, which is navigable 60 or 70 myles, but 
with Catches and small Barkes 30 or 40 myles farther. At 
the ordinary flowing of the salt water, it divideth it selfe into 
two gallant branches. On the South side inhabit the people 
of Youghtanund, who haue about 60 men for wanes. On 
the North branch Mattapament, who haue 30 men. Where 
this river is divided the Country is called Pamavnkee and 
nourisheth neare 300 able men. About 25. myles lower on 
the North side of this river is Werawocomoco, where their 
great King inhabited when I was delivered him prisoner; yet 
there are not past 40 able men. Ten or twelue myles lower, 
on the South side of this river, is Chiskiack, which hath some 
40 or 50 men. These, as also Apamatuck, Irrohatock, and 
Poivhatan, are their great Kings chiefe alliance, and inhabit- 
ants. The rest his Conquests. 

Before we come to the third river that falleth from the 
mountaines, there is another river (some 30 myles navigable) 
that commeth from the Inland, called Payankatanke, the In- 
habitants are about 50 or 60 serviceable men. 

The third navigable river is called Toppahanock. (This 
is navigable some 130 myles) At the top oi'it inhabit the peo- 
ple called Mannahoacks amongst the mountaines, but they are 
aboue the place we described. Vpon this river on the North 
side are the people Cuttataivomen, with 30 fighting men. — ■ 
Higher are the Moraughtacunds, with 80. Beyond them Ra- 
pahanock with 100. Far aboue is another Cuttatawomen with 
20. On the South is the pleasant seat of Nantaughtacund 
having 150 men. This river also as the two former, is replen- 
ished with fish and foule. 

118 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

The fourth river is called Patawomeke, 6 or 7 myles in 
breadth. It is navigable 140 myles, and fed as the rest with 
many sweet rivers and springs, which fall from the bordering 
hils. These hils many of them are planted, and yeeld no 
lesse plentie and varietie of fruit, then the river exceedeth 
with abundance offish. It is inhabited on both sides. First 
on the South side at the very entrance is Wighcocomoco and 
hath some 130 men, beyond them Sekacaivone with 30. — 
The Onawmanient with 100. And the Patawomekes more 
then 200. Here doth the river divide itselfe into 3 or 4 con- 
venient branches. The greatest of the least is called Qui- 
yough, trending Northwest, but the river it selfe turneth 
Northeast, and is still a navigable streame. On the Wes- 
terne side of this bought is Tauxenent with 40 men. On the 
North of this river is Secoivocomoco with 40. Somewhat 
further Potapaco with 20. In the East part is Pamacaeack 
with 60. Alter Moyowance with 100. And lastly, Nocotch- 
tanke with 80. The river aboue this place maketh his pas- 
sage downe a low pleasant valley overshaddowed in many 
places with high rockyfrm untaines; from whecne distill innu- 
merable sweet -and pleasant springs. 

The hit river is called Paivtuxunt, of a lesse proportion 
then rest; but the channell is 16 fadome deepe in some pla- 
ces. Here are infinit skills of divers kindes offish more then 
elswherc. Vpon this river dwell the people called Acquinta- 
nacksuak, Paivtuxunt, and Maltapanient. Two hundred 
men was the greatest strength that could be there perceived. 
But they inhabit together, and not so dispersed as the rest. 
These of all other we found most civill to giue intertable- 

Thirtie leagues Northward is a river not inhabited, yet 
navigable; for the red clay resembling bole Armoniack we 
called it Bolus. At the end of the Bay where it is 6 or 7 
myles in breadth, it divides it selfe into 4. branches, the best 
commeth Northwest from among the mountaines, but though 
Canows may goe a dayes iourney or two vp it, we could not 
get two myles vp it with our boat for rockes. Vpon it is seat- 
ed the Sasquesahanocks, neare it North and by West run- 
neth a creeke a myle and a halfe: at the head whereof the 
Eble left vs on shore, where we found many trees cut with 
hatchets. The next tyde keeping the shore to seeke for some 
Salvages; (for within thirtie leagues sayling, we saw not 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. J (9 

any, being a barren Country,) we went vp another small ri- 
ver like a ereeke 6 or 7 myle. From thence returning we 
met 7 Canowes of the Massowomeks, with whom we had 
conference by signes, for Ave vnderstood one another scarce a 
word: the next day we discovered the small river and people 
of Tockwliogh trending Eastward. 

Having lost our Grapnell among the rocks of Sasquesa- 
hanocks, we were then neare 200 myles from home, and our 
Barge about two tuns, and had in it but twelve men to per- 
formethis Discovery, wherein we lay about 12 weekes vpon 
those great waters in those vnknowne Countries, having no- 
thing but a little meale, oatemeale and water to feed vs, and 
scarce halfe sufficient of that for halfe that time, but what 
provision we got among the Salvages, and such rootes and 
fish as we caught by accident, and Gods direction; nor had 
we a Mariner nor any had skill to trim the sayles but two 
saylers and my sclfe, the rest being Gentlemen, or them were 
as ignorant in such toyle and labour. Yet necessitie in a 
short time by good words and examples made them doe that 
that caused them ever after to feare no colours. What I did 
with this small meanes I leaue to the Reader to iudge, and 
the Mappe I made of the Country, which is but a small mat- 
ter in regard of the magnitude thereof. But to proceed, 60 
of those Sasquesahanocks came to vs with skins, Bowes, Ar- 
rows, Targets, Beads, Swords, and Tobacco pipes for pre- 
sents. Such great and well proportioned men are seldome 
seene, for they seemed like Giants to the English, yea and to 
the neighbours, yet seemed of an honest and simple dis- 
position, with much adoe restrained from adoring vs as 
Gods. Those are the strangest peeple of all those Coun- 
tries, both in language and attire; for their lauguage it may 
well beseeme their proportions, sounding from them, as a 
voyce in a vault. Their attire is the skinnes of Beares, and 
Woolues, some haue Cassacks made of Beares heads and 
skinnes, that a mans head goes through the skinnes neck, 
and the eares of the Beare fastened to his shoulders, the nose 
and teeth hanging downe his breast, another Beares face 
split behind him, aud at the end of the nose hung a Pawe, 
the halfe sleeues comming to the elbowes were the neckes of 
Beares, and the armes through the mouth with pawes hang- 
ing at their noses. One had the head of a Wolfe hanging in 
a chaine for a Iewell, his Tobacco pipe three quarters of a 

120 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

yard long, prettily earned with a Bird, a Deere, or some such 
devise at the great end, sufficient to beat out ones braines: 
with Bowes, Arrowes. and clubs, sutable to their greatnesse. 
These are scarce knowne to Powhatan. They can make 
neare 600 able men, and are pallisadoed in their Townes to 
defend them from the Massawomekes their mortall enemies. 
Fiue of their chiefe Werowances came aboord vs and crossed 
the Bay in their Barge. The picture of the greatest of them 
is signified in the Mappe. The calfe of whose leg was three 
quarters of a yard about, and all the rest of his limbes so an- 
swerable to that proportion, that he seemed the goodliest 
man we ever beheld. His hayre, the one side was long, the 
other shore close with a ridge over his crowne like a cocks 
combe. His arrowes were flue quarters long, headed with 
the splinters of a white christall-like stone, in forme of a 
heart, an inch broad, and an inch and a halfe or more long. 
These he wore in a Woolues skinne at his backc for his Qui- 
ver, his bow in the one hand and his clubbe in the other, as 
is described. 

On the East side the Bay, is the river Tochwhogh, and 
vpon it a people that can make 100 men, seated some sea- 
ven myles within the river: where they haue a Fort very 
well pallisadoed and mantelled with baikes of trees. Next 
them is Ozinies with sixty men. More to the South of that 
East side of the Bay, the river Rapahanock, neere vnto 
which is the river Kuscarawaock. Vpon which is seated a 
people with 200 men. After that, is the river Tants Wigh- 
cocomico, and on it a people with 100 men. The people of 
those rivers are of little stature, of another language from 
the rest, and. very rude. But they on the river Acohanock 
with 40 men, and they of Accomack 80 men doth equalize 
any of the Territories of Powhatan, anb speake his language, 
who over all those doth rule as King. 

Southward we went to some parts of Chawonock and the 
M'ingoags to search for them left by Mr White. Amongst 
those people are thus many severall Nations of sundry Lan- 
guages, that environ Powhatans Territories. The Chawo- 
nockes, the Mangoags, the Monacans, the Mannahokes, the 
Masawomekes, the Powhatans, the Sasquesahanocks, the 
Atqaanachukes, the Tockwoghes, and the Kuscarawaokes. 
All those not any one vnderstandeth another but by Interpre- 
ters. Their severall habitations are more plainly described by 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 121 

this annexed Mappe, which will present to the eye, the way 
of the mountaines, and current of the rivers, with their seve- 
rall turnings, bayes, shoules, Isles, Inlets, and creekes, the 
breadth of the waters, the distances of places, and such like. 
In which Mappe obserue this, that as far as you see the little 
Crosses on rivers, mountaines, or other places haue beene 
discovered; the rest was had by information of the Savages. 
and are set downe according to their instructions. 

Thus haue T walkt a wayless way, with vncouth pace, 

Which yet no Christian man did ever trace: 

But yet I know this not affects the minde, 

Which eares doth heare; as that which eyes doe finde. 

Of such things which are naturally in Virginia, and 
how they rse them. 

Virginia doth afford many excellent vegetables, and liuing 
Creatures, yet grasse there is little or none, but what grow- 
eth in low Marishes: for all the Countrey is overgrowne with 
trees, whose droppings continually turneth their grasse to 
weeds, by reason of the rancknes of the ground, which would 
soone be amended by good husbandry. The wood that is 
most common is Oke and Walnut, many of their Okes are so 
tall and straight, that they will beare two foote and a halfe 
square of good timber for 20 yards long; Of this wood there 
is two or three severall kinds. The Acornes of one kinde, 
whose barke is more white then the other, and somewhat 
sweetish, which being boyled, at last affords a sweet oyle, 
that they keepe in gourds to annoint their heads and ioynts. 
The fruit they eate made in bread or otherwise. There is 
also some Elme, some blacke Walnut tree, and some Ash: 
of Ash and Elme they make sope Ashes. If the trees be very 
great, the Ashes will be good, and melt to hard lumps, but if 
they be small, it will be but powder, and not so good as the 
other. Of walnuts there is 2 or 3 kindes; there is a kinde of 
wood we called Cypres, because both the wood, the fruit, and 
leafe did most resemble it, and of those trees there are some 
neare three fadome about at the foot, very straight, and 50, 
60, or 80 foot without a branch. By the dwelling of the Sal- 
vages are some great Mulbery trees, and in some parts of the 

V22 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

Countrcy, they are found growing naturally in prettie groues. 
There was an assay made to make silke, and surely the 
wormes prospered excellent well, till the master workeman 
fell sicke. During which time they were eaten with Rats. 

In some parts were found some Chesnuts whose wild fruit 
equalize the best in France, Spaine, Germany, or Italy. — 
Plums there are of three sorts. The red and white are like 
our hedge plums, but the other which they call Putchamins, 
grow as high as a Palmcta: the fruit is like a Medler; it is 
first greene, then yellow, and red when it is ripe; if it be not 
ripe; it will draw a mans mouth awry, with much torment, 
but when it is ripe, it is as delicious as an Apricot. 

They haue Cherries, and those are much like a Damson, 
but for their tastes and colour we called them Cherries. We 
saw some few Crabs, but very small and bitter. Of vines 
great abundance in many parts that climbe the toppes of high- 
est trees in some places, but these beare but few grapes. Ex- 
cept by the rivers and savage habitations, where they are not 
overshadowed from the sunne, they are covered with fruit, 
though never pruined nor manured. Of those hedge grapes 
we made neere twentie gallons of wine, which was like our 
French Brinish wine, but certainely they would proue good 
were they well manured. There is another sort of grape 
neere as great as a Cherry, this they call Messamins, they be 
fatte, and the iuyce thicke. Neither doth the taste so well 
please when they are made in wine. They haue a small 
fruit growing on little trees, husked like a Chesnut, but the 
fruit most like a very small Acorne. This they call Chc- 
chinquamins, which they esteeme a great daintie. They 
haue a berry much like our Gooseberry, in greatnesse, co- 
lour, and tast; those they call Rawcomens, and doe eat them 
raw or boyled. Of these naturall fruits they liue a great 
part of the yeare, which they vse in this maimer; The Wal- 
nuts, Chesnuts, Acornes, and Checliinquamins are dryed to 
keepe. When they need Walnuts they breake them between 
two stones, yet some part of the shels will cleaue to the fruit. 
Then doe they dry them againe vpon a Mat over a hurdle. 
After they put it into a morter of wood, and beat it very 
small: that done they mixt it with Water, that the shels may 
sinke to the bottome. This water will be coloured as milke, 
which they call Pawcohiccora, and keepe it for their vse. 
The fruit like Medlers they call Putchamins, they cast vpon 

Captains Iohn Smith in Virginia. 123 

hurdles on a Mat, and preserue them as Pmines. Of their 
Chesnutsand Chechinquamins boyled, they make both broath 
and bread for their chiefe men, or at their greatest feasts. — 
Besides those fruit trees, there is a white Popular, and another 
tree like vnto it, that yeeldeth a very cleare and an odorife- 
rous Gumme like Turpentine, which some called Balsom. 
There are also Cedars and Saxafras trees. They also yeeld 
gummes in a small proportion of themselues. Wee tryed 
conclusions to extract it out of the wood, but nature afforded 
more then our arts. 

In the watry valleyes groweth a Berry which they call 
Ocoughtanamnis very much like vnto Capers. These they 
dry in sommer. When they eat them they boile them neare 
halfe a day; for otherwise they differ not much from poyson. 
Mattoum groweth as our Bents. The seed is not much vn- 
like to Rie, though much smaller. This they vse for a dain- 
tie bread buttered with deare suet. 

During SommeT there are either Strawberries, which rip- 
en in Aprill, or Mulberries which ripen in May and lime. — 
Raspises, hurts; or a fruit that the inhabitants call Mara- 
cocks, which is a pleasant wholesome fruit much like a Le- 
mond. Many herbes in the spring are comonly dispersed 
throughout the woods, good for brothes and saliets, as Vio- 
lets, Purslain, Sorrell, &c. Besides many we vsed whose 
names we know not. 

The chiefe root they haue for food is called Tockawhoughe. 
It groweth like a flagge in Marishes. In one day a Salvage 
will gather sufficient for a weeke. These rootes are much 
of the greatnesse and taste of Potatoes. They vse to 
cover a great many of them with Oke leaues and Ferae, and 
then cover all with earth in the manner of a Cole^t; over it, 
on each side, they continue a great fire 24 houres before they 
dare eat it. Raw it is no better then poyson, and being rost- 
ed, except it be tender and the heat abated, or sliced and 
dryed in the Sunne, mixed with sorrell and meale or such 
like, it will prickle and torment the throat extreamely, and 
yet in sommer they vse this ordinarily for bread. 

They haue another roote which they call Wighsacan: as 
th'other feedeth the body, so this cureth their hurts and dis- 
eases. It is a small root which they bruise and apply to the 
wound. Pocones is a small root that groweth in the mouii- 
taines, which being dryed and beate in powder, tumerli red. 

124 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

And this they vse for swellings, aches, annointing their 
ioynts, painting their heads and garments. They account it 
very precious, and of much worth. Musquaspen is a roote 
of the bignesse of a finger, and as red as bloud. In drying, 
it will wither almost to nothing. This they vse to paint 
their Mattes, Targets, and such like. 

There is also Pellitory of Spaine, Sasafrage, and divers 
other simples, which the Apothecaries gathered, and com- 
mended to be good, and medieinable. 

In the low Marishes grow plots of Onyons, containing an 
Acre of ground or more in man}' places; but they are small, 
not past the bignessc of the top of ones Thumbe. 

Of beasts the chiefe are Deere, nothing differing from ours. 
In the deserts towards the heads of the rivers, there are ma- 
ny, but a mongst the rivers few. There is a beast they call 
Aroughcun, much like a badger, but vseth to liue on trees as 
Squirrels doe. Their Squirrels some are neare as great as 
our smallest sort of wilde Rabbets, some blackish or blacke 
and white, but the most are gray. 

A small beast they haue they call Assapanick, but we call 
them flying Squirrels, because spreading their legs, and so 
stretching the largenesse of their skins, that they haue beene 
seene to fly 30 or 40 yards. An Opassom hath a head like 
a Swine, and a taile like a Rat, and is of the bignesse of a 
Cat. Vnder her belly shee hath a bagge, wherein she lodg- 
eth, carrieth, and suckleth her young. A Mussascus is a 
beast of the forme and nature of our water Rats, but many of 
them smell exceeding strongly of Muske. Their Hares no 
bigger then our Conies, and i'ew of them to be found. 

Their Beares are very little in comparison of those of Mus- 
eovia and {Tartaria. The Beaver is as big as an ordinary 
water dog, but his legs exceeding short. His forefeete like 
a dogs, his hinder feet like a Swans. His taile somewhat 
like the forme of a Racket, bare without haire, which to eat 
the Salvages esteeme a great delicate. They haue many Ot- 
ters, which as the Beavers they take with snares, and es- 
teeme the skins great ornaments, and of all those beasts they 
vse to feed when they catch them. An Vtchunquoyes is like 
a wiide Cat. Their Foxes are like our silver haired Conies, 
of a small proportion, and not smelling like those in Eng- 
land. Their Doggcs of that Country are like their Woolues, 
and cannot barke but howle, and the Woolues not much 

Capfaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 125 

bigger then our English Foxes. Martins, Powlecats, Weesels, 
and Minkes we know they haue, because we haue seene ma- 
ny of their skinnes, though very seldome any of them aliue. 
But one things is strange, that we could never perceiue their 
Vermine destroy our Hennes, Egges, nor Chickens, nor doe 
any hurt, nor their flyes nor serpents any way pernicious, 
where in the South parts of America they are alwayes dange- 
rous, and often deadly. 

Of Birds the Eagle is the greatest devourer. Hawkes there 
be of divers sorts, as our Falconers called them: Sparrow- 
hawkes, Lanarets, Goshawkes, Falcons, and Osperayes, but 
they all prey most vpon fish. Their Partridges are little big- 
ger then our Quailes. Wilde Turkies are as bigge as our 
tame. There are Woosels or Blackbirds with red shoulders, 
Thrushers and divers sorts of small Birds, some red, some 
blew, scarce so bigg as a Wrenne, but few in Sommer. In 
Winter there are great plentie of Swans, Cranes, gray and 
white with blacke wings, Herons, Geese, Brants, Ducke, 
Wigeon, Dotterell, Oxeies, Parrats, and Pigeons. Of all 
those sorts great abundance, and some other strange kinds, to 
vs vnknowne by name. But in Sommer not any, or a very 
few to be seene. 

Offish we were best acquainted with Sturgeon, Grampus, 
Porpus, Scales, Stingraies, whose tailes are very dangerous. 
Bretts, Mullets, white Salmonds, Trowts, Soles, Plaice, Her- 
rings, Conyfish, Rockfish, Eeles, Lampreys, Catfish, Shades, 
Pearch of three sorts, Crabs, Shrimps, Crevises, Oysters, 
Codes, and Muscles. But the most strange fish is a small 
one, so like the picture of St George his Dragon, as possible- 
can be, except his legs and wings, and the Toadefish, which 
will swell till it be like to burst, when it commeth into the 

Concerning the entrailes of the earth, little can be said for 
certaintie. There wanted good Refiners; for those that tooke 
vpon them to haue skill this way, tooke vp the washings from 
the mountaines, and some moskered shining stones and span^ 
gles which the waters brought downe, flattering themselues 
in their owne vaine conceits to haue beene supposed what 
they were not, by the meanes of that ore, if it proued as their 
arts and iudgements expected. Onely this is certaine, that 
many regions lying in the same latitude, afford Mines very 
rich of divers natures. The crust, also of these rockes would 

126 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

easily perswade a man to beleeue there are other Mines then 
yron and steelle, if there were but meanes and men of experi- 
ence that knew the Mine from Spar. 

Of their Vlauied fruits in Virginia, and how they 
rse them. 

They divide the yeare into hue seasons. Their winter 
some call Popanoio, the spring Cattapeuk, the sommer Co- 
hattayough, the earing of their Corne Nepinongh, the harvest 
and fall of leafe Taquitock. From September vntill the midst 
of November are the chiefc feasts and sacrifice. Then haue 
they plentie of fruits as well planted as naturall, as corne, 
greene and ripe, fish, fowle, and wilde beasts exceeding fat. 

The greatest labour they take, is in planting their corne, 
for the Country naturally is overgrowne with wood. To 
prepare the ground they bruise the barke of the trees neare 
the root, then doe they scortch the roots with fire that they 
grow no more. The next yeare with a crooked peece of 
wood they beat vp the weeds by the rootes, and in that mould 
they plant their Corne. Their manner is this. They make 
a hole in the earth with a sticke, and into it they put foure 
graines of wheate and two of beanes. These holes they make 
foure foote one from another; Their women and children do 
continually koepe it with weeding, and when it is growne 
middle high, they hill it about like a hop-yard. 

In Aprill tiny begin to plant, but their chiefe plantation 
is in May, and so they continue till the midst of lime. What 
they plant in Aprill they reapein August; for May in Septem- 
ber, for I uiie in October; Every stalke of their corne common- 
ly beareth two eares, some three, seldoine any foure, many 
but one, and some none, Every eare ordinarily hath betwixt 
200 and 500 graines. The stalke being greene hath a sweet 
iuice in it, somewhat like a sugar Cane, which is the cause 
that when they gather their corne greene, they sucke the 
stalkes: for as we gather greene pease, so doe they their corne 
being greene, which excelleth their old. They plant also 
pease they call Assentamens, which are the same they call 
in Italy, Fagioli Their Beanes are the same the Turkes 
call Garnanses, but these they much esteeme for dainties. 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 127 

Their come they rost in the eare greene, and bruising it 
in morter of wood with a Polt, lap it in rowles in the leaues 
of their come, and so boyle it for a daintie. They also re- 
seme that corne late planted that will not ripe, by roasting 
it in hot ashes, the heat thereof drying it. In winter they es- 
teeme it being boylecl with beanes for a rare dish, they call 
Pausarowmena. Their old wheat they first steepe a night 
in hot water, in the morning pounding it in a morter. They 
vse a small basket for their Temmes, then pound againe the 
great, and so separating by dashing their hand in the basket, 
receiue the flower in a platter made of wood, scraped to that 
forme with burning and shels. Tempering this flower with 
water, they make it either in cakes, covering them with ashes 
till they be baked, and then washing them in faire water, 
they drie presently with their owne heat: or else boyle them 
in water, eating the broth with the bread which they call 
Ponap. The groutes and peeces of the comes remaining, 
by fanning in a Platter or in the wind, away, the branne they 
boyle 3 or 4 houres with water, which is an ordinary food 
they call Vstatahamen. But some more thriftie then cleanly, 
doe burne the core of the eare to powder, which they call 
Pungnough, mingling that in their meale, but it never tasted 
well in bread, nor broth. Their fish and flesh they boyle 
either very tenderly, or boyle it so long on hurdles over the 
fire, or else after the Spanish fashion, putting it on a spit, they 
turne first the one side, then the other, till it be as drie as 
their ierkin Beefe in the west Indies, that they may keepe it 
a moneth or more without putrifying. The broth of fish or 
flesh they eat as commonly as the meat. 

In May also amongst their corne they plant Pumpeons, and 
a fruit like vnto a muske mellon, but lesse and worse, which 
they call Macocks. These increase exceedingly, and ripen 
in the beginning of luly, and continue vntill September. — 
They plant also Maracocks a wild fruit like a Lemmon, which 
also increase infinitely. They begin to ripe in September, 
and continue till the end of October. When all their fruits 
be gathered, little els they plant, and this is done by their 
women and children; neither doth this long suffice them, for 
neare three parts of the yeare, they onely obserue times and 
seasons, and liue of what the Country naturally aflbrdeth 
from hand to mouth, &c. 

128 The Voyages and Discoveries qj 

The Commodities in Virginia, or that may be had by 

The mildnesse of the ayre, the fertilitie of the soyle, and 
situation of the rivers are so propitious to the nature and vse 
of man, as no place is more convenient for pleasure, profit, 
and mans sustenance, vnder that latitude or climat. Here 
will liue any beasts, as horses, goats, sheepe, asses, hens, 
&c. as appeared by them that were carried thether. The 
waters, Isles, and shoales, are full of safe harbours for ships 
of wane or marchandize, for boats of all sorts, for transpor- 
tation or fishing, &c. The Bay and riuers have much mar- 
chantable fish, and places fit for Salt coats, building of ships, 
making of Iron, &c. 

Muscovia and Polonia doe yearely receiue many thou- 
sands, for pitch, tarre, sope-ashes, Rosen, Flax, Cordage, 
Sturgeon, Masts, Yards, Wainscot, Firres, Glasse, and such 
like; also Swethhmd for Iron and Copper. France in like 
manner, for Wine, Canvas, and Salt. Spaine asmuch for 
Iron, Steele, Figges, Reasons, and Sackes. Italy with Silkes 
and Velvets consumes our chiefe Commodities. Holland 
maintaines it selfe by fishing and trading at our owne doores. 
All these temporize with other for necessities, but. all as vn- 
certaine as peace or warres. Resides the charge, travell, and 
danger in transporting them, by seas, lands, stormes, and Py- 
rats. Then how much hath Virginia the prerogatiue of all 
those flourishing Kingdomes, for the benefit of our Land, 
when as within one hundred myles all those are to be had, 
either ready provided by nature, or else to be prepared, were 
there but industrious men to labour. Onely of Copper we 
may doubt is wanting, but there is good probabilitie that both 
Copper and better Minerals are there to be had for their la- 
bour. Other Countries haue it. So then here is a place,' a 
nurse for souldiers, a practise for mariners, a trade for mar- 
chants, a reward for the good, and that which is most of all, 
a businesse (most acceptable to God) to bring such poorc 
Infidels to the knowledge of God and his holy Gospelh 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 129 

Of the natiirall Inhabitants of Virginia. 

The land is not populous, for the men be few; their far 
greater number is of women and children. Within 60 myles 
of lames Towne, there are about some 5000 people, but of 
able men fit for their warres scarce 1500. To nourish so 
many together they haue yet no meanes, because they make 
so small a benefit of their land, be it never so fertile. Six or 
seauen hundred haue beene the most hath beene scene toge- 
ther, when they gathered themselues to haue surprised me at 
Pamavnkee, having but fifteene to withstand the worst of their 
fury. As small as the proportion of ground that hath yet 
beene discovered, is in comparison of that yet vnknowne: the 
people differ very much in stature, especially in language, as 
before is expressed. Some being very great as the Sasquesa- 
hanocks; others very little, as the Wighcocomocoes: but gene- 
rally tall and straight, of a comely proportion, and of a co- 
lour browne when they are of any age, but they are borne 
white. Their hay re is generally blacke, but few haue any 
beards. The men weare halfe their beards shaven, the other 
halfe long; for Barbers they vse their women, who with two 
shels will grate away the hayre, of any fashion they please. 
The women are cut in many fashions, agreeable to their 
yeares, but ever some part remaineth long. They are very 
strong, of an able body and full of agilitie, able to endure to 
lie in the woods vnder a tree by the fire, in the worst of win- 
ter, or in the weedes and grasse, in Ambuscado in the Som- 
mer. They are inconstant in every thing, but what fearc 
constraineth them to keepe. Craftie, timerous, quicke of ap- 
prehension, and very ingenuous. Some are of disposition 
fearefull, some bold, most cautelous, all Savage. Generally 
covetous of Copper, Beads, and such like trash. They are 
soone moued to anger, and so malicious, that they seldome 
forget an iniury: they seldome steale one from another, lest 
their coniurers should reveale it, and so they be pursued and 
punished. That they are thus feared is certaine, but that 
any can reueale their offences by coniuration I am doubtful!. 
Their women are carefull not to be suspected of dishonestie 
without the leaue of their husbands. Each household know- 
eth their owne lands, and gardens, and most Hue of their owne 
labours. For their apparell, they are sometimes covered 
with the skinnes of wilde beasts, which in Winter are dressed 

130 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

with the hayre, but in Sommcr without. The be tier 
sort vse large mantels of Deare skins, not much differing in 
fashion from the Irish mantels. Some imbrodered with 
white beads, some with Copper, other painted after their 
manner. But the common sort haue scarce to cover their 
nakedncsse, but with grasse, the leaues of trees, or such like. 
We haue scene some vse mantels made of Turky feathers, so < 
prettily wrought and woven with threads that nothing could 
be discerned but the feathers. That was exceeding warmc 
and very handsome. But the women are alwayes covered 
about their middles with a skin, and very shamefast to be 
seene bare. They adorne themselues most with copper 
beads and paintings. Their women, some haue their legs, 
hands, breasts and face cunningly imbrodered with divers 
workes, as beasts, serpents, artificially wrought into their 
flesh with blacke spots. In each eare commonly they haue 
3 great holes, whereat they hang chaines, bracelets, or cop- 
per. Some of their men weare in those holes, a small greene 
and yellow coloured snake, neare halfe a yard in length, 
which crawling and lapping her selfe about his necke often- 
times familiarly would kisse his lips. Others weare a dead 
Rat tycd by the taile. Some on their heads weare the wing 
of a bird, or some large feather with a Rattell. Those Bat- 
tels are somewhat like the chape of a Rapier, but lesse, which 
they take from the taile of a snakr. Many haue the whole 
skinne of a fiawkc or some strange foule, stuffed with the 
wings abroad. Others a broad pcece of Copper, and some 
the hand of their enemy dryed. Their heads and shoulders 
are 'painted red with the rootc Pocone brayed to powder, 
mixed with oyle, this they hold in sommer to preserue them 
from the heate, and in winter from the cold. Many other 
formes of paintings they vse, but he is the most gallant thai 
is the most monstrous to behold. 

Their buildings and habitations are for the most part bv 
the rivers, or not farre distant from some fresh spring. Then- 
houses are built like our Arbors, of small young springs hqvM 
ed and tycd, and so close covered with Mats, or the barkes 
oi* trees very handsomely, that notwithstanding either 
winde, raine, or weather, they are as warmc as stooues, but 
very smoaky, yet at the toppe of the house there is a ho!'*, 
made for the smoake to goe into right over the fire. 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 131 

Against the fire they lie on little hurdles of Reeds covered 
with a Mat, borne from the ground a foote and more by a hur- 
dle of wood. On these round about the house they lie heads 
and points one by th' other against the fire, some covered 
with Mats, some with skins, and some starke naked lie on 
the ground, from 6 to 20 in a house. Their houses are in 
the midst of their fields or gardens, whieh are small plots of 
ground. Some 20 acres, some 40. some 100. some 200.^ 
some more, some lesse. In some places from 2 to 50 of 
those houses together, or but alittle separated by groues of 
trees. Neare their habitations is little small wood or old trees 
on the ground by reason of their burning of them for fire. — 
So that a man may gallop a horse amongst these woods any 
way, but where the creekes or Rivers shall hinder. 

Men, women, and children haue their sevcrall names ac- 
cording to the severall humor of their Parents. Their wo- 
men (they say) are easily delivered of childe, yet doc they 
loue children very dearely. To make them bardie, in the 
coldest mornings they them wash, in the rivers, and by paint- 
ing and oyntments so tanne their skinnes, that after a yeare 
or two, no weather will hurt them. 

The men bestow their times in fishing, hunting, warres, 
and such man-like exercises, scorning to be scene in any wo- 
man-like exercise, which is the cause that the women be 
very painefull, and the men often idle. The women and 
children doe the rest of the worke. They make mats, bas- 
kets, pots, morters, pound their come, make their bread, pre- 
pare their victuals, plant their corne, gather their come, beare 
all kind of burdens, and such like. 

Their fire they kindle presently by chafing a dry pointed 
sticke in a hole of a little square peece of wood, that firing 
it selfe, will so fire the mosse, leaues, or any such like dry 
thing, that will quickly burne. In March and Apriil they 
liue much vpon their fishing wires; and feed on fish, Tur- 
kies, and Squirrels. In May and lime they plant their fields, 
and liue most of Acornes, Walnuts, and fish. But to amend 
their dyet, some disperse themselues in small companies, 
and liue vpon fish, beasts, crabs, oysters, land Tortoises, 
strawberries, mulberries, and such like. In Iune, luly, 
and August, they feed vpon the roptes of Tocknough 
berries, fish, and greene wheat. It is strange to see how 
their bodies alter with their dvet. even as the deere 

io~J The Voyages and Discoveries of 

and wilde beasts they seeme fat and leane, strong and 
weake. Powhatan their great King, and some others that 
are provident, rost their fish and flesh vpon hurdles as be- 
fore is expressed, and keepe it till scarce times. 

For fishing, hunting, and warres they vse much their bow 
and arrowes. Their arrowes are made some of straight 
young sprigs, which they head with bone, some 2 or 3 yn- 
ches long. These they vse to shoot at Squirrels on trees. 
Another sort of arrowes they vse made of Reeds. These 
are peeced with wood, headed with splinters of christall, or 
some sharpe stone, the spurres of a Turkey, or the bill of 
some bird. For his knife he hath the splinter of a Reed to 
cut his feathers in forme. With this knife also, he will ioynt 
a Deere, or any beast, shape his shooes, buskins, mantels, 
&e. To make the notch of his arrow he hath the tooth of a 
Beaver, set in a sticke, wherewith he grateth it by degrees. 
His arrow head he quickly maketh with a little bone, which 
he ever weareth at his bracert, of any splint of a stone, or 
glasse in the forme of a heart, and these they glew to the 
end of their arrowes. With the sinewes of Deere, and the 
tops of Deeres homes boyled to a ielly, they make a glew 
that will not dissolue in cold water. 

For nlieir warres also they vse Targets that are round and 
made of the barkes of trees, and a sword of wood at their 
backes, but oftentimes they vse for swords the home of a 
Deere put through a peece of wood in forme of a Pickaxe. 
Some a long stone sharpned at both ends, vsed in the same 
manner. This they were wont to vse also for hatchets, but 
now by trucking they haue plentie of the same forme of yron. 
And those arc their chiefe instruments and amies. 

Their fishing is much in Boats. These they make of one 
tree by burning and scratching away the coales with stones 
and shels, till they haue made it in forme of a Trough. — 
Some of them are an elne deepe, and fortie or nftie foote in 
length, and some will beare 40 men, but the most ordinary 
are smaller, and will beare 10, 20, or 30. according to their 
bignesse. Instead of Oares, they vse Paddles and stickes, 
with which they will row faster then our Barges. Betwixt 
their hands and thighes, their women vse to spin, the barkes 
of trees, Deere sinewes, or a kinde of grasse they call Pcm- 
menaw, of these they make a thread very even and readily. 
This thread scrvcth for many vses. As about their housing, 

Captame lohn Smith in Virginia. 13o 

apparell, as also they make nets for fishing, for the quantitie 
as formally braded as ours. They make also with it lines 
for angles. Their hookes are either a bone grated as they 
noch their arrowes in the forme of a erooked piime or fish- 
hooke, or of the splinter of a bone tyed to the clift of a little 
sticke, and with the end of the line, they tie on the bate. — 
They vse also long arrowes tyed in a line, wherewith they 
shoote at fish in the rivers. But they of Accawmacke vse 
staues like vnto lauelins headed with bone. With these they 
dart fish swimming in the water. They haue also many ar- 
tificial! wires, in which they get abundance of fish. 

In their hunting and fishing they take extreame paines; yet 
it being their ordinary exercise from their infancy, they esteeme 
it a pleasure and are very proud to be expert therein. And 
by their continuall ranging, and travell, they know all the ad- 
vantages and places most frequented with Deere, Beasts^ Fish, 
Foule, Roots, and Berries. At their huntings they leaue their 
habitations, and reduce themselues into companies as the Tar- 
tars doe, and goe to the most desert places with their fami- 
lies, where they spend their time in hunting and fowling vp 
towards the mountaines, by the heads of their livers, where 
there is plentie of game. For betwixt the rivers the grounds 
are so narrow, that little commeth here which they devoure 
not. It is a marvell they can so directly passe these deserts, 
some 3 or 4 dayes iourney without habitation. Their hunt- 
ing houses are like vnto Arbours covered with Mats* These 
their women beare after them, with Corne, Acornes, Morters, 
and all bag and baggage they vse. When they come to the 
place of exercise, every man doth his best to shew his dexte- 
ritie, for by their excelling in those qualities, they get their 
wiues. Fortie yards will they shoot levell, or very neare the 
marke, aud 120 is their best at Random. At their huntings 
in the deserts they are commonly two or three hundred toge- 
ther. Having found the Deere, they environ them with ma- 
ny fires, and betwixt the fires they place themselues. And 
some take their stands in the midsts. The Deere being thus 
feared by the fires, and their voyces, they chase them so long 
within that circle, that many times they kill 6, 8, 10, or 15 
at a hunting. They vse also to driue them into some narrow 
poynt of land, when they find that advantage; and so force 
them into the river, where with their boats they haue Am- 
huscadoes to kill them. When they haue shot a Deere bv 

134 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

land, they follow him like blond-hounds by the bloud, and 
straine, and oftentimes so take them. Hares, Patridges, 
Turkies, or Egges, fat or leane, young or old, they devoure 
all they can catch in their power. In one of these huntings 
they found me in the discovery of the head of the river of 
Chickahamania, where they slew my men, and tooke me pri- 
soner in a Bogmire, where I saw those exercises, and gather- 
ed these Observations. 

One Salvage hunting alone, vseth the skinne of a Deere 
slit on the one side, and so put on his arme, through the neck, 
so that his hand comes to the head which is stuffed, and the 
homes, head, eyes, cares, and every part as artificially coun- 
terfeited as they can devise. Thus shrowding his body in 
the skinne by stalking, he approacheth the Deere, creeping 
on the ground from one tree to another. If the Deere chance 
to find fault, or stand at gaze, he turneth the head with his 
hand to his best advantage to seeme like a Deere, also gaz- 
ing and licking himseife. So watching his best advantage 
to approach, having shot him, he chaseth him by his bloud 
and straine till he get him. 

When they intend any wanes, the Werowances vsually 
hauc the advice of their their Priests and Coniurers, and their 
allies, and ancient friends, but chiefely the Priests determine 
their resolution. Every fVeroivance, or some lustie fellow, 
they appoint Captaine over every nation. They seldome 
make warre for lands or goods, but for women and children, 
and principally for revenge. They haue many enemies, name - 
ly, all their westenily Countries beyond the mountaines, and 
the heads of the rivers. Vpon the head of the Powhatans 
are the Monacans, whose chiefe habitation is at Rasamueak; 
vnto whom the Mow heme nchughes, the Massimiacacks, the 
Monahassaniighs, the Monasickapanoughs, and other nations 
pay tributes. Vpon the head of the river of Toppahanock is 
a people called Mannahoacks. To these are contributors the 
Tauxanias, the Shackaconias, the Ontponeas, the Tignina- 
ieos, the Whonkenteaes, the Stegarakes, the Hassinungaes, 
and divers others, all confederates with the Monacans, though 
many different in language, and be very barbarous, liuing for 
the most part of the wild beasts and fruits. Beyond the 
mountaines from whence is the head of the river Patawo- 
mekc, the Salvages report inhabit their most mortall enemies, 
the Massawomekes, vpon a great salt water, which by all 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia, 135 

likelihood is either some part of Cannada: some great lake, 
or some inlet of some sea that falleth into the South sea. — 
These Massawomekes are a great nation and very populous. 
For the heades of all those rivers, especially the Pattawo- 
mekes, the Pautuxuntes, the Sasquesahanocks, the Tock- 
woughes are continally tormented by them: of whose crueltie, 
they generally complained, and very importunate they were 
with me, and my company to free them from those tormen- 
tors. To this purpose they offered food, conduct, assistance, 
and continuall subiection. Which I concluded to effect. — 
But the councell then present emulating my successe, would 
not thinke it fit to spare me fortie men to be hazzarded in 
those vnknowne regions, having passed (as before was spoken 
of) but with 12, and so was lost that opportunitie. Seaven 
boats full of these Massawomekes wee encountred at the head 
of the Bay; whose Targets, Baskets, Swords, Tobaccopipes, 
Platters, Bowes, and every thing shewed, they much exceed- 
ed them of our parts, and their dexteritie in their small boats, 
made of the barkes of trees, sowed with barke and well luted 
with gumme, argueth that they are seated vpon some great 

Against all these enemies the Powhalans are constrained 
sometimes to fight. Their chiefe attempts are by Stratagems, 
trecheries, or surprisals. Yet the Werowances women and 
children they put not to death, but keepe them Captiues. 
They haue a method in warre, and for our pleasures they 
shewed it vs, and it was in this manner performed at Matta- 

Hauing painted and disguised themselues in the fiercest 
manner they could devise, They divided themselues into 
two Companies, neare an hundred in a company. The one 
company called Monacans, the other Powhatans. Either 
army had their Captaine. These as enemies tooke their 
stands a musket shot one from another; ranked themselues 
15 a breast, and each ranke from another 4 or 5 yards, not 
in fyle, but in the opening betwixt their fyles. So the Reare 
could shoot as conveniently as the Front. Having thus 
pitched the fields, from either part went a messenger with 
these conditions, that whosoever were vanquished, such as 
escape vpon their submission in two dayes after should Hue, 
but their wiues and children should be prize for the Con- 
<merours. The messengers were no sooner returned, but 

136 Tiie Voyages and Discoveries of 

they approached in their orders; On each flanke a Ser- 
ieant, and in the Reare an Officer for Lieutenant, all duly 
keeping their orders, yet leaping and singing after their ac- 
customed tune, which they onely vse in Warres. Vpon the 
first flight of arrovves they gaue such horrible shouts and 
schreeches, as so many infernall hell-hounds could not haue 
made them more terrible. When they had spent their ar- 
rowes, they ioyned together prettily, charging and retyping, 
every ranke seconding other. As they got advantage they 
catched their enemies by the hayre of the head, and downe 
he came that was taken. His enemy with his wooden 
sword seemed to beat out his braines, and still they crept to 
the Reare, to maintaine the skirmish. The Monacans de- 
creasing, the Powhatans charged them in the forme of a 
halfe Moone; they vnwiliing to be inclosed, fled all in a troopq 
to their Ambuscadocs, on whom they led them very cunning- 
ly. The Monacans disperse themselues among the fresh 
men, wherevpon the Powhatans retired, with all speed to 
their seconds; which the Manacans seeing, tookc that advan- 
tage to retire againe to their owne battel], and so each return- 
ed to their owne quarter. All their actions, voyces, and 
gestures, both in charging and retiring were so strained to 
the height of their qualitie and nature, that the strangenessp 
thereof made it seeme very delightfull. 

For their Musicke they vse a thicke Cane, on which they 
pipe as on a Recorder. For their warres they haue a great 
deepe platter of wood. They cover the mouth thereof with 
a skin, at each corner they tie a walnut, which meeting on 
the backside neere the bottome, with a small rope they twitch 
them together till it be so taught and stiffe, that they may 
beat vpon it as vpon a drumme. But their chiefe instruments 
are Rattles made of small gourds, or Pumpeons shels. Of 
these they haue Base, Tenor, Countertenor, Meane, and Tre- 
ble. These mingled with their voyces sometimes twenty or 
thinie together, make such a terrible noise as would rather 
affright, then delight any man. If any great commander ar- 
rive at the habitation of a Werowance, they spread a Mat as 
the Turkes doe a Carpet for him to sit vpon. Vpon another 
right opposite they sit themselues. Then doe all with a tun- 
able voice of shouting bid him welcome. After this doe two 
or more of their chiefest men make an Oration, testifying 
their loue. Which they doe with such vehemency, and so 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 137 

great passions, that they sweat till they drop, and are so out 
of breath they can scarce speake. So that a man would 
take them to be exceeding angry, or stark mad. Such vic- 
tuall as they haue, they spend freely, and at night where his 
lodging is appointed, they seta woman fresh painted red with 
Pocenes and oyle to be his bed-fellow. 

Their manner of trading is for copper, beads, and such 
like, for which they giue such commodities as they haue, as 
skins, foule, fish, flesh, and their Country Come. But their 
victualls are their chiefest riches. 

Every spring they make themselues sicke with drinking 
the iuyce of a roote they call JVighsacan, and water; whereof 
they powre so great a quantitie, that it purgeth them in a ve- 
ry violent manner; so that in three or foure dayes after, they 
scarce recover their former health. Sometimes they are 
troubled with dropsies, swellings, aches, and such like disea- 
ses; for cure whereof they build a Stoue in the forme of a 
Doue-house with mats, so close that a few coales therein co- 
vered with a pot, will make the patient sweat extreamely. 
For swellings also the) vse small peeces of touchwood, in the 
forme of cloues, which pricking on the griefe they biirne 
close to the flesh, and from thence draw the corruption with 
their mouth. With this roote JVighsacan they ordinarily 
heale the greene wounds. But to scarrifie a swelling, or 
make incision, their best instruments are some splinted stone. 
Old vicers, or putrified hurts are seldome seene cured amongst 
them. They haue many professed Phisicians, who with 
their charmes and Rattles, with an infernal rout of words 
and actions, will seeme to sucke their inward griefe from 
their navels, or their grieved places; but of our Chirurgians 
they were so conceited, that they beleeued any Plaister would 
heale any hurt. 

But 'tis not alwayes in Phisicians skill, 
To heale the Patient that is sicke and ill: 
For sometimes sicknesse on the Patients part. 
Proves stronger fam?. then all Phisicians art. 

o v "» 

138 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

Of their Religion. 

There is yet in Virginia no place dicovered to be so Savage 
in which they haue not a Religion, Deere, and Bow, and Ar 
rowes. All things that are able to doe them hurt beyond 
their prevention, they adore with their kinde of divine wor- 
ship; as the fire, water, lightning, thunder, our Ordnance, 
peeees, horses, &c. But their chiefe God they worship is the 
Devill. Him they call Okee, and serue him more of feare 
then loue. They say they haue conference with him, and 
fashion themselues as neare to his shape as they can imagine. 
In their Temples they haue his image euill favouredly carved, 
and then painted and adorned with chaines of copper, and 
bends, and covered with a skin, in such manner as the defor- 
mitie may well suit with such a God. By him is commonly 
the sepulcher of their Kings. Their bodies are first bowelled, 
then dried vpon hurdles till they be very dry, and so 
about the most of their ioynts and necke they hang bracelets, 
or chaines of copper, pearle, and such like, as they vse to 
wcare, their inwards they stuffe with copper beads, hatchets; 
and such trash. Then lappe they them very carefully in white 
skins, and so rowle them in mats for their winding sheets. 
And in the Tombe which is an arch made of mats, they lay 
them orderly. What remaineth of this kinde of wealth their 
Kings haue, they set at their feet in baskets. These Temples 
and bodies are kept by their Priests. 

For their ordinary burials, they dig a deepe hole in the 
earth with sharpe stakes, and the corpse being lapped in 
skins, they lay them vpon stickes in the ground, and so cover 
them with earth. The buriall ended, the women being pain- 
ted all their faces with blacke cole and oyle, doe sit twenty - 
foure houres in the houses mourning and lamenting by turnes, 
with such yelling and howling, as may expresse their great 

In every Territory of a Werowance is a Temple and a 
Priest; two or three or more. Their principall Temple or 
place of superstition is at Vttamussack, at PamavnkeCj neare 
vnto which is a house, Temple, or place of Powhatans. 

Vpon the top of certaine red sandy hils in the woods, there 
are three great houses filled with images of their Kings, and 
Devils, and Tombes of their Predecessors. Those houses 
are neare sixtie foot in length built arbour-wise, after their 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 139 

building. This place they count so holy as that but the 
Priests and Kings dare come into them; nor the Salvages dare 
not goe vp the river in boats by it, but they solemnly cast 
some peece of copper, white beads, or Pocones into the river, 
for feare their Okce should be offended and revenged of them. 

Thus* Feare was the first their Gods begot.- 
Till feare began, their Gods were not. 

In this place commonly are resident seauen Priests. The 
chiefe differed from the rest m his ornaments, but inferior 
Priests could hardly be knowne from the common people, 
but that they had not so many holes in their eares to hang 
their iewels at. The ornaments of the chiefe Priest were 
certaine attires for his head made thus. They tooke a dosen, 
or 16, or more snakes skins and stuffed them with mosse, and 
of Weesels and other Vermines skins a good many. All 
these they tie by their tailes, so as all their tailes meete in 
the top of their head like a great Tassell. Round about this 
Tassell is as it were a crown e of feathers, the skins hang 
round about his head, necke, and shoulders, and in a manner 
cover his face. The faces of all their Priests are painted as 
vgly as they can devise, in their hands they had every one his 
Rattle, some base, some smaller. Their devotion was most 
in songs, which the chiefe Priest beginneth and the rest fol- 
lowed him, sometimes he maketh invocations with broken 
sentences by starts and strange passions, and at every pause, 
the rest giue a short groane. 

Thusseeke they in deepe foolishnesse. 
To climbe the height of happi 

It could not be perceiued that they keepe any clay as 
more holy then other; But onely in some great distresse of 
want, feare of enemies, times of triumph and gathering toge- 
ther their fruits, the whole Country of men, women, andchil 
dren come together to solemnities. The manner of their de- 
votion is, sometimes to make a great fire, in the house or 
fields, and all to sing and dance about it with Rattels and 
shouts together, foure or fiue houres. Sometimes they set a 
man in the midst, and about him they dance and sing, he all 
the while clapping his hands, as if he would keepe time, and 
after their songs and dancings ended they goe to their Feasts. 

140 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

Through God begetting feare, 
Mans blinded rninde did reare 
A hell-g.- d to the ghosfc^ 
A heaven god tr> the hoasts; 
Yea God vnto the Seas.- 
Feare did create, all these. 

They haue also divers conizations, one they made when 
I was their prisoner; of which hereafter you shall reade at 

They haue also certaine Altar stones they call Pawcoraii? 
ces, but these stand from their Temples, some by their hou- 
ses, others in the woods and wildernesses, where they haue 
had any extraordinary accident, or incounter. And as you 
travell, at those stones the}- will tell you the cause why they 
were there erected, which from age to age they instruct their 
children, as their best records of antiquities. Vpon these they 
offer bloud, Deere suet, and Tobacco. This they doe when 
they returne from the Warres, from hunting, and vpon many 
other occasions. They haue also another superstition that 
they vse in stormes, when the waters are rough in the Rivers 
and Sea coasts. Their Coniurers runne to the water sides, 
or passing in their boats, after many hellish outcryes and in- 
vocations, they cast Tobacco, Copper, Pocones, or such trash 
Into the water, to pacific that God whom they thinke to be 
very angry in those stormes. Before their dinners and sup- 
pers the better sort will take the first bit, and cast it in the fire, 
which is all the grace they are knowne to vse. 

In some part of the Country they haue yearely a sacrifice 
of children. Such a one was at Quiyoughcohanock some ten 
myles from lames Towne, and thus performed. Fifteene of 
the properest young boyes, bctweene ten and fifteene yearcs 
of age they painted white. Having brought them forth, the 
people spent the forenoon in dancing and singing about them 
with Rattles. In the aiternoone they put those children to 
the roote of a tree. By them all the men stood in a guard, 
every one having a Bastinado in his hand, made of reeds 
bound together. This made a lane bctweene them all along, 
through, which there were appointed fiue young men to fetch 
these children: so every one of the fiue went through the guard 
to fetch a chilclc each after other by turners,, the guard fiercely 
beating them with their Bastinadoes, and they patiently en- 
during and receiuing all, defending the children with their* 
naked bodies from the vnmercifull blowes, that pay them 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. .141 

soundly, though the children escape. All this while the wo- 
men weepe and cry out very passionately, prouiding mats, 
skins, mosse, and dry wood, as things fitting their childrens 
funerals. After the children were thus passed the guard, the 
guard tore down the trees, branches and boughs, with such 
violence that they rent the body, and made wreaths for their 
heads, or bedecked their hayre with the leaues. What els 
was done with the children, was not scene, but they were all 
cast on a heape, in a valley as dead, where they made a great 
feast for all the company. The Werowance being demanded 
the meaning of this sacrifice, answered that the children were 
not all dead, but that the Okee or Dwell did sucke the bloud 
from their left breast, who chanced to be his by lot, till they 
were dead, but the rest were kept in the wildernesse by the 
young men till nine moneths were expired, during which 
time they must not converse with any, and of these were made 
their Priests and Coniurers. This sacrifice they held to be 
so necessary, that if they should omit it, their Okee or Devill, 
and all their other Quiyoughcosughes, which are their other 
Gods, would let them haue no Deere, Turkies, Corne, nor 
fish, and yet besides, he would make a great slaughter amongst 

They thinke that their Werowances and Priests which they 
also esteeme Quiyoughcosughes, when they are dead, doe goe 
beyond the mountaines towards the setting of the sunne, and 
ever remaine there in forme of their Okee, with their heads 
painted with oyle and Pocones, finely trimmed with feathers, 
and shall haue beads, hatchets, copper, and Tobacco, doing 
nothing but dance and sing, with all their Predecessors. But 
the common people they suppose shall not Hue after death, 
but rot in their graues like dead dogs. 

To divert them from this blind Idolatry, we did our best 
endevours, chiefly with the Werowance of Quiyoughcoliajwck, 
whose devotion, apprehension, and good disposition, much 
exceeded any in those Countries, with whom although we 
could not as yet prevaile, to forsake his false Gods, yet this 
he did beleeue that our God as much exceeded theirs, as our 
Gunnes did their Bowes and Arrowes, and many times did 
send to me to lames Towne, intreating me to pray to my God 
for raine, for their Gods would not send them any. And in 
this lamentable ignorance doe these poore soules sacrifice 
themselues to the Devill, not knowing their Creator; and we 

142 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

had not language sufficient, so plainly to expresse it as make 
them vnderstand it; which God grant they may. 

For, Religion ]tis that cloth distinguish vs, 

From their bruit humor, well we may it know; 
That can with vnderstanding argue thus, 
Our Cod is truth, but they cannot doe so. 

Of the manner of the Virginians Government. 

Although the Country people be very barbarous, yet haue 
they amongst them such government, as that their Magistrates 
tor good commanding, and their people for due subiection, 
and obeying, excell many places that would be counted very 
eivill. The forme of their Common-wealth is a Monarchical! 
government, one as Emperour ruleth ouer many Kings or 
Governours. Their chiefe ruler is called Powhatan, and 
taketh his nameofhisprincipall place of dwelling called Pow- 
hatan. But his proper name is Wahunsonacock. Some 
Countries he hath which haue beene his ancestors, and came 
viito him by inheritance, as the Country called Powhatan, 
Anohatcck, Appamatuck, Pamavnkee, Youghtanund, and 
Mattapament. All the rest of his Territories expressed in the 
Mappe, they report haue beene his severall Conquests. In all 
his ancient inheritances, he hath houses built after their man- 
ner like arbours, some 30. some 40. yards long, and at every 
house provision for his entertainement according to the time. 
At fVerowcomoco on the Northside of the river Pamavnkee, 
was his residence, when I was delivered him prisoner, some 
14 myles from lames Towne, where for the most part, he was 
resident, but at last he tooke so little pleasure in our neare 
neighbourhood, that he retired himselfe to Orapakcs, in the 
desert betwixt Chickahamania and Youghtanund. He is of 
personage a tall well proportioned man, with a sower looke, 
his head somwhat gray, his beard so thinne, that it seemetli 
none at all, his age neare sixtie; of a very able and hardy bo- 
dy to endure any labour. About his person ordinarily attend- 
ed! a guard of 40 or 50 of the tallest men his Country doth 
afford. Lyerv night vpon the foure quarters of his house are 
omc Sentinels, each from other a slight shoot, and at every 
lialfe home one from the Corps du guard doth hollow, shaking 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 145 

his lips with his finger betweene them; vnto whom eye- 
rv Sentinell doth answer round from his stand: if any taile, 
they presently send forth an officer that beateth him ex- 

^Troyle from Orapakes in a thicket of wood, he hath a 
house in which he keepeth his kinde of Treasure, as skinnes, 
copper, pearle, and beads, which he storeth vp against the 
time of his death and buriall. Here also is his store of red 
paint for oyntment, bowes and arrowes, Targets and clubs. 
This house isfiftieor sixtie yards in length, frequented onely 
bv Priests. At the foure corners of this house stand ioure 
Images as Sentinels, one of a Dragon, another a Beare, the 
third like a Leopard, and the fourth like a giantlike man, all 
made evill favouredly, according to their best workemanship 
He hath as many women as he will, whereof when he lieth 
on his bed, one sitteth at his head, and another at his feet, 
but when he sitteth, one sitteth on his right hand and another 
on his left. As he is weary of his women, he bestoweth 
them on those that best deserue them at his hands. When he 
dineth or suppeth, one of his women before and alter meat, 
bringeth him water in a wooden platter to wash his hands. 
\nother waiteth with a bunch of feathers to wipe them m 
stead of a Towell, and the feathers when he hath wiped are 
dryed againe. His kingdomes descend not to his sonnes nor 
his children, but first to his brethren, whereof he hath 3. 
namely, Opitchapan, Opechcmcanougli, and Ccttakmgli, and 
after their decease to his sisters. First to the eldest sister, 
then to the rest, and after them to the heires male or female 
of the eldest sister, but never to the heires of the males. 

He nor any of his people vnderstand any letters, whereb} 
to write or reade, onely the lawes whereby he ruleth is cus- 
tome. Yet when he listeth his will is a law and must be 
obeyed: not onely as a King, but as halfe a God they estecme 
him. His inferior Kings whom they call Werowcmces, are 
tved to rule by customes, and haue power of lite and death 
at their command in that nature. But this word Werowance, 
which we call and construe for a King, is a common word, 
whereby they call all commanders: for they haue but tew 
words in their language, and but few occasions to vse any 
officers more then one commander, which commonly the) 
call Werowance, or Caucorouse, which is Captaine. 1 he} 
all know their severall lands, and habitations, and limits, to 

144 The Voyages and Discoveries of 

fish, foule, or hunt in, but they hold all of their great Weto* 
ioance Powhatan, vnto whom they pay tribute of skinnes, 
beads, copper, pearle, deere, turkies, wild beasts, and corne. 
What he eommandeth they dare not disobey in the least 
thing. It is strange to see with what great feare and adora- 
tion, all these people doe obey this Powhatan. For at his 
feete they present whatsoever he eommandeth, and at the least 
frowne of his brow, their greatest spirits will tremble with 
feare: and no marvell, for he is very terrible and tyrannous 
in punishing such as offend him. For example, he caused 
certaine malefactors to be bound hand and foot, then having 
of many fires gathered great store of burning coales, they 
rake these coales round in the forme of a cockpit, and in the 
midst they cast the offenders to broyle to death. Sometimes 
he causeth the heads of them that offend him, to be laid vpon 
the altar or sacrificing stone, and one with clubbes beats out 
their hraines. When he would punish any notorious enemy 
or malefactor, he causeth him to be tyed to a tree, and with 
Mussell shels or reeds, the executioner cutteth off his ioynts 
one after another, ever casting what they cut off into the fire; 
then doth he proceed with shels and reeds to case the skinne 
from his head and face; then doe they rip his belly and so 
burne him with the tree and all. Thus themselues reported 
they executed George Cassen. Their ordinary correction is 
to beat them with cudgels. We haue scene a man kneeling 
O" his knees, and at Poivhatans command, two men haue 
Veate him on the bare skin, till he hath fallen senselesse in a 
sound, and yet never cry nor complained. And he made a 
woman for playing the whore, sit vpon a great stone, on her 
bare breech twenty-foure houres, onely with corne and wa- 
ter every three dayes, till nine dayes were past, yet he loued 
her exceedingly: notwithstanding there are common whores 
by profession. 

In the yeare 1608, he surprised the people of Payanhttank 
his neare neighbours and subiects. The occasion was to vs 
vnknowne, but the manner was thus. First he sent divers 
of his men as to lodge amongst them that night, then the Am- 
buscadoes environed all their houses, and at the houre appoint- 
ed, they all fell to the spoyle, twenty-foure men they slew, 
the long haire of the one side of their heads, with the skinne 
cased off with shels or reeds, they brought away. They sur- 
prised also the women, and the children, and the Werowancr. 

Captaine Iolin Smith in Virginia. 145 

All these they presented to Pov:hatan. The Werowance. 
Women and children became his prisoners, and doe him ser- 
vice. The lockes of haire with their skinnes he hanged on 
a line betwixt two trees. And thus lie made ostentation of 
his triumph at Werowocomoco,\vheve he intended to hatie done 
as much to mee and my company. 

And this is as much as my memory can call to minde wor- 
thy of note; which I haue purposely collected, to satisfie my 
friends of the true worth and qualitie of Virginia. Yet some 
bad natures will not sticke to slander the Countrey, that will 
slovenly spit at all things, especially in company where they 
can finde none to contradict them. Who though they were 
scarce euer ten myles from lames Towne, or at the most but 
at the falles; yet holding it a great disgrace that amongst so 
much action, their actions were nothing, exclaime of all things, 
though they never adventured to know any thing; nor euer 
did any thing but devoure the fruits of other mens labours. 
Being for most part of such tender educations, and small ex- 
perience in Martiall accidents, because they found not Eng- 
lish Cities, nor such faire houses, nor at their owne wishes 
any of their accustomed dainties, with feather beds and downe 
pillowes, Tavernes and Alehouses in every breathing place, 
neither such plentie of gold and silver and dissolute libertie, 
as they expected, had little or no care of any thing, but to 
pamper their bellies, to fly away with our Pinnaces, or pro- 
cure their meanes to returne for England. For the Coun- 
try was to them a misery, a mine, a death, a hell, and their 
reports here, and their actions there according. 

Some other there were that had yearely stipends to passe 
to and againe for transportation: who to "keepe the mysterie 
of the businesse in themselues, though they had neither time 
nor meanes to know much of themselues; yet all mens acti- 
ons or relations they so formally tuned to the temporizing 
times simplicitie, as they could make their ignorances seeme 
much more, then all the true actors could by their experi- 
ence. And those with their great words deluded the world 
with such strange promises, as abused the businesse much 
worse then the rest. For the businesse being buikled vpon 
the foundation of their fained experience, the planters, the 
money and meanes haue still miscarried: yet they ever re- 
turning, and the planters so farre absent, who could contra- 
dict, their excuses? which,, still to maintaine their vaine glorv 

1 4b* The Voyages and Discoveries of 

and estimation, from time to time haue vsed such diligence a£ 
made them passe for truths, though nothing more false. And 
that the adventurers might be thus abused, let no man wonder; 
for the wisest liuing is soonest abused by him that hath a 
faire tongue and a dissembling heart . 

There were many in Virginia meerely proiecting, verball, 
and idle contemplators, and those so devoted to pure idlenesse, 
that though they had liued two or three yeares in Virginia, 
lordly, necessitie it selfe could not compel! them to passe the 
Peninsula, or Pallisadoes of lames Towne, and those witty 
spirits, what would they not affirrae in the behalfe of our 
transporters, to get victuall from their ships or obtaine their 
good words in England, to get their passes. Thus from the 
clamors, and the ignorance of false informers, are sprung those 
disasters that sprung in Virginia: and our ingenious verbalists 
were no lesse plague to vs in Virginia, then the Locusts to 
the Egyptians. For the labour of t wentie or thirtie of the best 
onely preserved inChristianitie by their industry, the idle livers 
of neare two hundred of the rest: who liuing neere ten moneths 
of such naturall meanes, as the Country naturally of it selfe 
afforded, notwithstanding all this, and the worst fury of the 
Salvages, the extrremitie of sicknesse, mutinies, faction, ig- 
norances, and want of victuall; in all that time I lost but seaven 
or eight men, yet subiected the salvages to our desired obe- 
dience, and receiued contribution from thirtie hue of their 
Kings, to protect and assist them against any that should as- 
sault them, in which order they continued true and faithfull, 
and as subiects to his Maiestie, so long after as I did governe 
there, vntill I left the Countrey: since, how they haue revolted, 
the Countrie lost, and againe replanted, and the businesses 
hath succeded from time to time, I referre you to the relations 
of them returned from Virginia, that haue beene more deli- 
gent in such Observations. 

IQHN SMITH writ this with his ownehand 

Captaine Iohn Smith in Virginia. 


Because many doe desire to know the manner of their Lan- 
guage, 1 haue inserted these few words. 

Kakatorawines yowo. What 
call you this. 

Nemarough, a man. 

Crenepo, a woman. 

Maroivanchesso, a boy. 

Yehawkans, Houses. 

Matchcores, Skins, or gar- 

Mockasins, Shooes. 

Tussan, Beds. Pokalawer, 

Attawp, A bow. Attonce, 

Monacookes, Swords. 

Aumoughhowgh, A Target. 

Paivcussacks, Gunnes. 

Tomahacks, Axes. 

Tockahacks, Pickaxes. 

Pamesacks, Kniues. 

Accowprets, Sheares. 

Pawpecones, Pipes. 

Mattassin, Copper. 

Vssawassin, Iron, Brasse, Sil- 
ver, any white mettall. 

Musses, Woods. 

Attasskuss, Leaues, weeds, or 

Chepsin, Land. 

Shacquoiwcan, A stone. 

Wepenter, A cookold. 

Suckahanna, Water. 

Noughmass, Fish. 

Copotone Sturgeon. 

Weghshaughes, Flesh. 

Sawwehone, Bloud. 

Netoppew, Friends. 

Marrapough, Enemies. 

Maskupow, the worst of the 

Maivchick chammaij, The best 
of friends. 

Casacunnakack, peya quagh 
acquintan vttasantasough, 
In ho wmany daies will there 
come hither any more Eng- 
lish Ships. 

Their Numbers. 

Necut, 1 . Ningh, 2. Nuss, 3. 

£ Yoivgh, 4. Paranske, 5 
Comotinch, 6. Toppaivoss, 
7. Nusswash, 8. Kekata- 
wgh, 9. Kaskeke, 10. 

They count no more but by 
tennes as followeth. 

Case, how many, 

Ninghsapooeksku, 20. 

Nussapooeksku, 30. 

Yowghapooeksku, 40. 

Parankestassapooeksku , 50. 

Comatinchtassapooeksku , 60 

Nussswashtassapooeksku, 70. 

Kekataughtassapooeksk u , 90. 

Necuttoughtysinough, 1 00. 

Necuttwevnquaough, 1000. 

Rawcosowghs, Dayes. 

Keskowghes, S mines. 

Toppquough, Nights. 

Nepawweshoivghs, Moones. 

Pawpaxsoughes, Yeares, 

Pummahumps, Starres, 

Osies, Heavens. 

Okees, Gods. 

Quiyoughcosoughs, Pettie 
Gods, and their affinities. 

Righcomoughes, Deaths. 

Kekughes, Liues. 

Mowchick woyaivgh tawgh 
noeragh kaqvere mccher, I 


The Voyages and Discoveries of 

am very hungry? what shall 
I eate? 

Tawnor nehiegh Powhatan, 
Where dwels Powhatan. 

Mache, nehiegh yourowgh, 
Orapaks. Now he clvvels 
a great way hence at Ora- 

Vittapitchewayne anpechitchs 
nehawper Werowacomoco, 
You lie, he staid ever at 

Kator 7iehiegh mattagh neer 
vttapitchewayne, Truely he 
is there I doe not lie. 

Spaughtynere keragh . wero- 

ivance mawmarinough kekate 
wawgh peyaquaugh. Run 
you then to the King Maw- 
marynough and bid him come 

Vtteke, e peya iveyack wigh- 
ivhip, Get you gone, and come 
againe quickly. 

Kekaten Pokahontas Pa- 
tiaquagh niugh tanks manot- 
yens neer moivchick raivrenock 
audowgh, Bid Pokahontas 
bring hither two little Baskets, 
and I will giue her white 
Beads to make her a Chaine. 















It might well be thought, a Countrie so faire (as Virginia 
is) and a people so tractable, would long ere this haue beene 
quietly possessed, to the satisfaction of the adventurers, and 
the eternizing of the memory of those that effected it. But 
because all the world doe see a defailement; this following 
Treatise shall giue satisfaction to all indifferent Readers, how 
the businesse hath bin carried: where no doubt they will ea- 
sily vnderstand and answer to their question, how it came to 
passe there was no better speed and successe in those pro- 
ceedings. Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll, one of the first 
movers of this plantation, having many yeares solicited many 
of his friends, but found small assistants; at last prevailed with 
some Gentlemen, as Captaine John Smith, Mr Edward-maria 
Wing field, Mr Robert Hunt, and divers others, who depended 
a yeare vpon his proiets, but notning could be effected, till 
by their great charge and industrie, it came to be apprehended 
by certaine of the Nobilitie, Gentry, and Marchants, so that 
his Maiestie by his letters patents, gaue commission for esta- 
blishing Councels, to direct here: and to governe, and t© 




IP IB® (BUB SB 0)0 £9 (DO 









It might well be thought, a Countrie so faire (as Virginia 
is) and a people so tractable, would long ere this haue beene 
quietly possessed, to the satisfaction of the adventurers, and 
the eternizing of the memory of those that effected it. But 
because all the world doe see a defailement; this following 
Treatise shall giue satisfaction to all indifferent Readers, how 
the businesse hath bin carried: where no doubt they will ea- 
sily vnderstand and answer to their question, how it came to 
passe there was no better speed and successe in those pro- 
ceedings. Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll, one of the first 
movers of this plantation, having many yeares solicited many 
of his friends, but found small assistants; at last prevailed with 
some Gentlemen, as Captaine lohn Smith, Mr Edward-maria 
Wingfield, Mr Robert Hunt, and divers others, who depended 
a yeare vpon his proiets, but notning could be effected, till 
by their great charge and Industrie, it came to be apprehended 
by certaine of the Nobilitie, Gentry, and Marchants, so that 
his Maiestie by his letters patents, gaue commission for esta- 
blishing Councels, to direct here: and to governe, and t? 

£50 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

execute there. To effect this, was spent another yeare, and 
by that, three ships were provided, one of 100 Tuns, another 
of 40. and a Pinnace of 20. The transportation of the com- 
pany was committed to Captaine Christopher Newport, a 
Marriner well practised for the Westerne parts of America. 
But their orders for government were put in a box, not to be 
Opened, nor the governours knowne vntill they arrived in 

On the 19 of December, 1606. we set sayle from Black- 
wall, but by vnprosperous winds were kept six weekes in the 
sight of England; all ' which time, Mr Hunt our Preacher, 
was so weake and sicke, that few expected his recovery. — 
Yet although he were but twentie myles from his habitation 
(the time we were in the Downes) and notwithstanding the 
stormy weather, nor the scandalous imputations (of some few, 
little better then Atheists, of the greatest ranke amongst vs) 
suggested against him, all this could never force from him so 
much as a seeming desire to leaue the business, but preferred 
the service of God, in so good a voyage, before any affection 
to contest with his godlesse foes, whose disasterous designes 
(could they haue prevailed) had even then overthrowne the 
businesse, so many discontents did then arise, had he not with 
the water of patience, and his godly exhortations (but chiefly 
by his true devoted examples) quenched those flames of envie. 
and dissention. 

We watered at the Canaries, we traded with the Salvages 
at Dominica; three weekes we spent in refreshing our selues 
amongst these west-India Isles; in Gwardalupa we found a 
bath so hot, as in it we boyled Porck as well as over the fire. 
And at a little Isle called Monica, we tooke from the bushes 
with our hands, neare two hogshheads full of Birds in three 
or foure houres. In Mevis, Mona, and the Virgin Isles, we 
spent some time, where, with a lothsome beast like a Cro- 
codil, called a Gwayn, Tortoises, Peilicans, Parrots, and fish- 
es, we daily feasted. Gone from thence in search of Virginia, 
the company was not a little discomforted, seeing the Marri- 
ners had 3 dayes passed their reckoning and found no land, 
so that Captaine Matliffe (Captaine of the Pinnace) rather 
desired to bcare vp the helme to returne for England, then 
make further search. But God the guider of all good actions. 
forcing them by an extreame stonne to hull all night, did 
•lriue thenx by his providence to their desired Port, beyond 

With the first supply in Virginia. 151 

all their expectations, for never any of them had scene tha» 
coast. The first land they made they called Cape Henry: 
where thirtic of them recreating themselucs on shore, were 
assaulted by hue Salvages, who hurt two of the English very 
dangerously. That night was the box opened, and the orders 
read, in which Bartholomew Gosnoll, Iohn Smith, Edward 
Wing field, Christopher Newport, Iohn Ratliffe, Iohn Martin, 
and George Kendall, were named to be the Councell, and to 
choose a President amongst them for a yeare, who with the 
Councell should governe. Matters of moment were to be 
examined by a Iury, but determined by the maior part of the 
Councell, in which the President had two voyces. Vntill 
the 13 of May they sought a place to plant in, then the Coun- 
cell was sworne, Mr Wing field was chosen President, and an 
Oration made, why Captaine Smith was not admitted of the 
Councell as the rest. 

Now falieth every man to worke, the Councell contriuc, 
the Fort, the rest cut downe trees to make place to pitch their 
Tents; some provide clapbord to relade the ships, some make 
gardens, some nets, &c. The Salvages often visited vs kind- 
ly. The Presidents overweening iealousie would admit no 
exercise at amies, or fortification, but the boughs of trees cast 
together in the forme of a halfe moone by the extraordinary 
paines and deligence of Captaine Kendall Newport, Smith, 
and twentie others, were sent to discover the head of the ri- 
ver: by divers small habitations they passed, in sixdayes the} 
arrived at a Towne called Powhatan, consisting of some 
twelue houses, pleasantly seated on a hill; before it three fer- 
tile Isles, about it many of their corneficlds, the place is very 
pleasant, and strong by nature, of this place the Prince is 
called Powhatan, and his people Powhatans, to this place 
the river is navigable: but higher within a mylc, by reason 
of the Rockes and Isles, there is not passage for a small Boat, 
this they call the Falles, the people in all parts kindly intrea- 
ted them, till being returned within twentie myles of lames 
lowne, they gaue iust cause of iealousie, but had God not 
blessed the discoveries otherwise then those at the Fort, there 
had then beene an end of that plantation; for at the Fort, where 
they arrived the next day, they found 17 men hurt, and a boy 
slaine by the Salvages, and had it not chanced a crosse barre 
shot from the Ships strooke downe a bough from a tree 
amongst them, that caused them to retire, our men had all 

152 r Vhe Discoveries and Accidents, 

beene slaine, being securely all at worke, and their armes in 
dry fats. 

Herevpon the President was contented the Fort should be 
pallisadoed, the Ordnance mounted, his men armed and ex- 
ercised, for many were the assaults, and ambuscadoes of the 
Salvages, and our men by their disorderly stragling were often 
hurt, when the Salvages, by the nimblenesse of their heeles 
well escaped. What toyle we had, with so small a power to 
guard our workemen adayes, watch all night, resist our ene- 
mies, and effect our business^, to relade the ships, cut downe 
trees, and prepare the ground to plant our Corne, &c, I referre 
to the Readers consideration. Six weekes being spent in this 
manner, Captaine Newport (who was hired onely for curtrans- 
portation) ' was to returne with the ships. Now Captaine 
Smith, who all this time from their departure from the Cana- 
ries was restrained as a prisoner vpen the scandalous sug- 
gestions of some of the chiefe (envying his repute) who famed 
he intended to vsurpe the government, murther the Councell, 
and make himselfe King, that his confederats were dispersed 
in all the three ships, and that divers of his confederats that 
revealed it, would affirme it, for this he was committed as a 
prisoner: thirteene weekes he remained thus suspected, and 
by that time the ships should returne they pretended out of 
their commisserations, to referre him to the Councell in En- 
gland to receiue a check, rather then by particulating his de~ 
signes make him so odious to the world, as to touch his life, 
or vtterly overthrow his reputation. But he so much scorned 
their charitie, and publikely defied the vttermost of their cru- 
eltie, he wisely prevented their policies, though he could not 
suppresse their envies, yet so well he demeaned himselfe in 
this businesse, as all the company did see his innocency, and 
his adversaries malice, and those suborned to accuse him, 
accused his accusers of subornation; many vntruthes were al- 
ledged against him; but being so apparently disproved, begat 
a generall hatred in the hearts of the company against such 
vniust Commanders, that the President was adiudged to giue 
him 2001. so that all he had was seized vpon, in part of sa- 
tisfaction, which Smith presently returned to the Store for 
the generall vse of the Colony. Many were the mischiefes 
that daily sprung from their ignorant (yet ambitious) spirits; 
but the good Doctrine and exhortation of our Preacher Mr 
Hunt reconciled them, and caused Captaine Smith to be 

With the first supply in Virginia. 


admitted of the Councell; the next day all reeeiued the Com- 
munion, the day following the Salvages voluntarily desired 
peace, and Captaine Newport returned for England with 
newes; leaving in Virginia 100. the 15 of Iune 1607. 
By this obserue; 

Good men did ne'er their Countries mine bring - . 
But when euill men shall injuries beginne; 
Not caring to corrupt and violate 
The iudgments-seats for their owne Lucr's sake: 
Then looke that Country cannot long haue peace. 
Though for the present it haue rest and ease. 

The names of them that were the first Planters, were these folk 

Mr. Edward Maria Wingfield. 


Richard Simons. 

Captaine Bartholomew Gosnoll. 


Edward Brookes- 

Captaine Iohn Smith. 


Richard Dixon 

Captaine Iohn RatlifFe. 


Iohn Martin. 

Captaine Iohn Martin. 


Roger Cooke. 

Captaine George Kendall. J 

Anthony Gosnold. 


Mr. Robert Hunt Preacher. 

Tho.- Wotton, Chivurg. 


Mr. George Percie. 

Iohn Stevenson. 


Anthony Gosnoll. 

Thnmas Gore. 


George Flower. 

Henry Adling. 

Cap. Gabriell Archer. 

Francis Midwinter. 

Robert Fenton. 

Richard Frith. _> 

Robert Ford. 

William Laxon. 


William Brustcr. 

Edward Pising. 


Edward Harrington. 

Thomas Emry. 

Dru Pickhouse. 

Robert Small. 


Thomas Iacob. 

Iohn Lay don. 

Iohn Brookes.. 

William Cassen. 

Ellis Kingston. 

George Cassen. 

Thomas Sands. 

Thomas Cassen. 

Beniamin Beast. 

William Rhodes. 


lehu Robinson. 

C 1 

William White. 

r g 


Thomas Mouton. 


Old Edward. 

Eustace Clovill. 


Henry Tavin. 


Stephen Halthrop. 

George Goulding. 

Kellam Throgmorton. 


Iohn Dods. 

Edward Morish. 

William Iohnson, 

Nathaniell Powell. 

William Vnger. 

Edward Browne. 

lam: Read, Blacksmith. 

Robert Behethland. 

Ionas Profit; Sailer. 

Iohn Pennington, 

Tho: Cowper, Jiarber. 

Ieremy Alicock. 

Wil.- Garret, Bricklayer. 

George Walker. 

Edward Brinto, JSfason. 

Thomas Studley. 

William Loue, Taylor. 

Richard Crofts. 

Nic- Scot, Drum. 

Nicholas Houlgraue. 

Wil.- Wilkinson, Chirurg. 

Thomas Webbe. 

Samuell Collier, boy. 

Iohn Waller. 

Nat. Pecock, boy. 

Iohn Short. 

lames Brumfield, boy. 

William Tankard. 

Richard Mutton, boy. 

William Smethes. 

With divers others to the 

Francis Snarsbrough. -J 

number of 100. 

154 The Discoveries and Accident 

What happened till the first suppli 

Being thus left to our fortunes, it fortuned that within teu 
dayes scarce ten amongst vs could either goe, or well stand, 
such extreame weaknes and sicklies oppressed vs. And 
thereat none need marvaile, if they consider the cause and 
reason, which was this; whilest the ships stayed, our allow- 
ance was somewhat bettered, by a daily proportion of Bis- 
ket, which the sailers would pilfer to sell, giue, or exchange 
with vs, for money, Saxefras, furres, or loue. But when 
they departed, there remained neither taverne, beere-housc, 
nor place of reliefe, but the common Kettell. Had we beene 
as free from all shines as gluttony, and drunkenncsse, we 
might haue beene canonized for Saints; But our President 
would never haue beene admitted, for ingrossing to his pri- 
vate, Oatmeale, Sacke, Oyle, Aquaviice, BeefeT Egges, or 
what not, but the Kettell; that indeed he allowed equally to 
be distributed, and that was halfe a pint of wheat, and as 
much barley boyled with water for a man a day, and this 
having fryed some 26. weekes in the ships hold, contained as 
many wormes as graines; so that we might truely call it ra- 
ther so much bran then corne, our drinke was 'water, our 
lodgings Castles in the ayre: with this lodging and dyet, our 
extreame toile in bearing and planting Pallisadoes, so strain- 
ed and bruised vs, and our continual labour in the extremities 
of the heat had so weakened vs, as were cause sufficient to 
haue made vs as miserable in our natiue Countrcy, or any 
other place in the world. From May, to September, those 
that escaped, liued vpon Sturgeon and Sea-crabs, fiftie in 
this time we buried, the rest seeing the Presidents proiects 
to escape these miseries in our Pinnace by flight (who all 
this time had neither felt want nor sicklies) so moved our 
dead spirits, as we deposed him; and established RatcUfe in 
his place, (Gosnoll being dead) Kendall deposed, Smith 
newly recovered, Martin and Rattliffe was by his care pre- 
served and relieued, and the most of the souldiers recovered, 
with the skilfull diligence of Mr. Thomas Wotton our Chiriir- 
gian general!. But now was all our provision spent, the Stur- 
geon gone, all helps abandoned, each houre expecting the 

With the first supply in Virginia. 155 

fary of the Salvages; w hen God the patron of all good in- 
devours, in that desperate extrcmitie so changed the heart 
of the Salvages, that the y brought such plenty of their fruits-, 
and provision, as no man wanted. 

And now where some affirmed it was ill done of the Coun- 
cell to send forth men so badly provided, this incoutradicta- 
ble reason will shew them plainely they are too ill advised to 
nourish such ill conceits; iirst, the fault of our going was our 
owne, what could be thought fitting or necessary we had, but 
what we should find, or want, or where we should be, we 
were all ignorant, and supposing to make our passage in two 
moneths, with victuall toliue, and the advantage of the spring 
to worke; we were at Sea fiue moneths, where we both spent 
our victuall and lost the opportunitie of the time, and season 
to plant, by the vnskilfull presumption of our ignorant trans- 
porters, that vnderstood not at all, what they vndertooke. 

Such actions haue ever since the worlds beginning beene 
subiect to such accidents, and every thing of worth is found 
full of difficulties, but nothing so difficult as to establish a 
Common wealth so ihrre remote from men and meanes, and 
where mens mindes are so vntoward as neither doe w T ell them- 
selues, nor suffer others. But to proceed. 

The new President and Martin, being little beloved, of 
weake iudgement in dangers, and lesse Industrie in peace, 
committed the managing of all things abroad to Captaine 
Smith: who by his owne example, good words, and faire pro- 
mises, set some to mow, others to lindc thatch, some to build 
houses, others to thatch them, himselfe alwayes bearing the 
greatest taske for his owne share, so that in short time, he 
provided most of them lodgings, neglecting any for himselfe. 
This done, seeing the Salvages superiiuitic beginnc to decrease 
(with some of his workernen) shipped himselfe in the Shallop 
'to search the Country for trade. The want of the language, 
knowledge to mannage his boat without sailes, the want of a 
sufficient power, (knowing the multitude of the Salvages) 
apparell for his men, and other necessaries, were infinite im- 
pediments, yet no discouragement. Being but six or seaven 
in company he went downe the river to Kecoughtan, where 
at first they scorned him, as a famished man, and would in 
derision offer him a handfuii of Come, a peece of bread, for 
their swords and muskets, and such like proportions also for 
their apparell. But seeing by trade and courtesie there was 

156 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

nothing to be had, he made bold to try such conclusions as 
necessitie inforced, though contrary to his Commission: Let 
fly his muskets, ran his boat on shore, whereat they all fled 
into the woods. So marching towards their houses, they 
they might see great heapes of corner much a doe he had to 
restraine his hungry souldiefs from present taking of it, ex- 
pecting as it hapned that the Salvages would assault them, 
as not long after they did with a most hydeous noyse. Six- 
tie or seaventie of them, some blacke, some red, some white, 
some party-coloured, came in a square order, singing and 
dauncing out of the woods, with their Okee (which was an 
Idoll made of skinnes, stuffed with mosse, all painted and 
hung with chaines and copper) borne before them: and in this 
manner being well armed, with Clubs, Targets, Bowes and 
Arrowes, they charged the English, that so kindly receiued 
them with their muskets loaden with Pistoll shot, that downe 
fell their God, and divers lay sprauling on the ground; the 
rest fled againe to the woods, and ere long sent one of their 
Quiyoiighkasoucks to offer peace, and redeeme their Okee. 
Smith told them, if onely six of them would come vnarmed 
and loade his boat, he would not only be their friend, but 
restore them their Okee, and giue them Beads, Copper, and 
Hatchets besides: which on both sides was to their con- 
tents performed: and then they brought him Venison, Turkies, 
wild foule, bread, and what they had, singing and dauncing 
in signe of friendship till they departed. In his returne he 
discovered the Towne and Country of Warraskoyack. 

Thus God vnboundlesse !>y his power, 
Made them thus kinde would vs devour. 

Smith perceiving (notwithstanding their late miserie) not 
any regarded but from hand to mouth (the company being 
well recovered) caused the Pinnace to be provided with things 
fitting to get provision for the yeare following; but in the 
interim he made 3. or 4. iournies and discovered the people 
of Chickahamania: yet what he carefully provided the rest 
carelesly spent. Wingfield and Kendall liuing in disgrace, 
seeing all things at randome in the absence of Smith, the com- 
panies dislike of their Presidents weaknes, and their small 
loue to Martins never mending sicknes, strengthened them- 
selues with the sailers, and other confederates to regaine their 
former credit and authority, or at least such meaues abord the 

With the first supply in Virginia. 157 

Pinnace, (being fitted to saile as Smith had appointed for trade) 
to alter her course and to goe for England. Smith vnex- 
pectedly returning had the plot discovered to him, much trou- 
ble he had to prevent it, till with store of sakre and musket 
shot he forced them stay or sinke in the riuer, which action 
.cost the life of captaine Kendall. These brawles are so dis- 
gustfull, as some will say they were better forgotten, yet all 
men of good iudgement will conclude, it were better their 
basenes should be manifest to the world, then the busines 
beare the scome and shame of their excused disorders. The 
President and captaine Archer not long after intended also to 
haue abandoned the country, which proiect also was curbed, 
and suppressed by Smith. The Spaniard never more greedily 
desired gold then he victuall, nor his souldiers more to aban- 
don the Country, then he to keepe it. But finding plentie 
of Corne in the river of Chickahamania where hundreds of 
Salvages in diuers places stood with baskets expecting his 
comming. And now the winter approaching, the rivers be- 
came so covered with swans, geese, duckes, and cranes, that 
we daily feasted with good bread, Virginia pease, pumpions, 
and putchamins, fish, fowle, and diverse sorts of wild beasts 
as fat as we could eate them: so that none of our Tuftaffaty 
humorists desired to goe for England. But our Comedies 
never endured long without a Tragedies some idle exceptions 
being muttered against Captaine Smith, for not discovering 
the head of Chickahamania river, and taxed by the Councell, 
to be too slow in so worthy an attempt. The next voyage 
hee proceeded so farre that with much labour by cutting of 
trees in sunder he made his passage, but when his Barge could 
pass no farther, he left her in a broad bay out of danger of 
shot, commanding none should goe a shore till his f returne: 
himselfe with two English and two Salvages went vp higher 
in a Canowe, but hee was not long absent, but his men went 
a shore, whose want of government, gaue both occasion and 
opportunity to the Salvages to surprise one George Cassen, 
whom they slew, and much failed not to haue cut of the boat 
and all the rest. Smith little dreaming of that accident, being 
got to the marshes at the rivers head, twentie myles in the 
desert, had his * two men slaine (as is supposed) sleeping by 
the Canowe, whilst himselfe by fowling sought them victuall, 

* jfefiu Robinson and Thomas Emry slaine. 


158 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

\\ ho finding lie was beset with 200. Salvages, two of them 
hi i e slew, still defending himselfe with the ayd of a Salvage 
his guide, whom he bound to his arme with his garters, and 
vsed him as a buckler, yet he was shot in his thigh a little, 
and had many arrowes that stucke in his cloathes but no great 
hurt, till at last they tooke him prisoner. When this newes 
came to lames towne, much was their sorrow for his losse, 
fewe expecting what ensued, Sixe or seuen weekes those 
Barbarians kept him prisoner, many strange triumphes and 
coniurations they made of him, yet hee so demeaned himselfe 
amongst them, as he not onely diverted them from surprising 
the Fort, but procured his owne libertie, and got himselfe and 
his company such estimation amongst them, that those Sal- 
vages admired him more then their owne Quiyouckosucks. 
The manner how they vsed and deliuered him, is as followeth. 
The Salvages hauing drawne from George Cassen whe- 
ther Captaine Smith was gone, prosecuting that opportunity 
they followed him with 300. bowmen, conducted by the King 
of Pamavnkee, who in diuisions searching the turnings of the 
riuer, found Robinson and Entry by the fire side, those they 
shot full of arrowes and slew. Then finding the Captaine, 
as is said, that vsed the Salvage that was his guide as his sheld 
(three of them being slaine and diuers other so gauld) all the 
rest would not come neere him. Thinking thus to haue re- 
turned to his boat, regarding them, as he marched, more then 
his way, slipped vp to the middle in an oasie creeke and his 
Salvage with him, yet durst they not come to him till being 
neere dead with cold, he threw away his armes. Then ac- 
cording to their composition they drew him forth and led him 
to the fire, where his men were slaine. Diligently they chafed 
rns benummed limbs. He demanding for their Captaine, they 
shewed him Opechankanough, King of Pamavnkee, to whom 
he gaue a round Ivory double compass Dyall. Much they 
marvailed at the playing of the Fly and Needle, which they 
could see so plainely, and yet not touch it, because of the 
glasse that covered them. But when he demonstrated by 
that Globe-like lewell, the roundnesse of the earth, and skies, 
the spheare of the Sunne, Moone, and Starres, and how the 
Sunne did chase the night round about the world continually; 
the greatnesse of the Land and Sea, the diversitie of Nations, 
varietie of complexions, and how we were to them Antipodes, 
and many other such like matters, they all stood as amazed 

With the first supply in Virginia. 159 

with admiration. Notwithstanding, within an houre after 
they tyed him to a tree, and as many as could stand about 
him prepared to shoot him, but the King holding vp the Com- 
pass in his hand, they all laid downe their Bowes and Arrowes, 
and in a triumphant manner led him to Orapaks, where he 
was after their manner kindly feasted, and well vsed. 

Their order in conducting him was thus; Drawing them- 
selues all in fyle, the King in the middest had all their Peeces 
and Swords borne before him. Captaine Smith was led after 
him by three great Salvages, holding him fast by each arme: 
and on each side six went in fyle with their Arrowes nocked. 
But arriving at the Towne (which was but onely thirtie or 
fortie hunting houses made of Mats, which they remoue as 
they please, as we our tents) all the women and children 
staring to behold him, the souldiers first all in fyle performed 
the forme of a Bissom so well as could be; and on each flanke, 
officers as Serieants to see them keepe their orders. A good 
time they continued this exercise, and then cast themselues 
in a ring, dauncing in such severall Postures, and singing 
and yelling out such hellish notes and screeches; being strange- 
ly painted, every one his quiver of Arrowes, and at his backe 
a club; on his arme a Fox or an Otters skinne, or some such 
matter for his vambrace; their heads and shoulders painted 
red, with Oyle and Pocones mingled together, which Scarlet- 
like colour made an exceeding handsome shew, his Bow in 
his hand, and the skinne of a Bird with her wings abroad 
dryed, tyed on his head, a peece of copper, a white shell, a 
long feather, with a small rattle growing at the tayles of their 
snaks tyed to it, or some such like toy. All this while Smith 
mid the King stood in the middest guarded, as before is said, 
and after three dances they all departed. Smith they con- 
ducted to a long house, where thirtie or fortie tall fellowes 
did guard him, and ere long more bread and venison was 
brought him then would haue served twentie men, I thinke 
his stomacke at that time was not very good; what he left 
they put in baskets and tyed over his head. About midnight 
they set the meate againe before him, all this time not one of 
them would eate a bit with him, till the next morning they 
brought him as much more, and then did they eate all the 
old, and reserved the new as they had done the other, which 
made him thinke they would fat him to eat him. Yet in this 
desperate estate to dnfend him from the cold, one Maocassatcr 

160 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

brought him his gowne, in requitall of some beads and toyes 
Smith had given him at his first arrivall in Virginia. 

Two dayes after a man would haue slaine him (but that the 
guard prevented it) for the death of his sonne, to whom they 
conducted him to recover the poore man then breathing hislast. 
Smith told them that at lames towne he had a water would 
doe it, if they would let him fetch it, but they would not per- 
mit that; but made all the preparations they could to assault 
lames towne, craning his advice, and for rccompence he should 
haue life, libertie, land, and women. In part of a Table bookc 
he writ his minde to them at the Fort, what was intended, 
how they should follow that direction to affright the messen- 
gers, and without fayle send him such things as he writ for. 
And an Inventory with them. The difficultie and danger, 
he told the Salvages, of the Mines, great gunnes, and other 
Engins exceedingly affrighted them, yet according to his re- 
quest they went to lames towne, in as bitter weather as could 
be of frost and snow, and within three dayes returned with 
an answer. 

But when they came to lames towne, seeing men sally out 
as he had told them they would, they fled; yet in the night 
they came againe to the same place where he had told them 
they should receiue an answer, and such things as he had 
promised them, which they found accordingly, and with which 
they returned with no small expedition, to the wonder of them 
all that heard it, that he could either divine, or the paper could 
speaker then they led him to the Youthtanunds, the Malta- 
panients, the Payankatanks, the Nantaughtacunds, and 
Onawmanients vpon the rivers of Rapahanock, and Pataivo- 
mek, over all those rivers, and backe againe by divers other 
severall Nations, to the Kings habitation at Pamavnkee, where 
they entertained him with most strange and fearefull Coniu- 

As if neare led to hell, 
Amongst the Devils to dwell. 

Not long after, early in a morning a great fire was made 
in a long house, and a mat spread on the one side, as on the 
other; on the one they caused him to sit, and all the guard 
went out of the house, and presently came skipping in a great 
grim fellow, all painted over with coale, mingled with oyle; 
and many Snakes and Wesels skins stuffed with mosse, and 

With the first supply in Virginia. 161 

all their taylestyed together, so as they met on the crowne of 
his head in a tassell; and round about the tassell was as a Co- 
ronet of feathers, the skins hanging round about his head, 
backe, and shoulders, and in a manner covered his face; with 
a hellish voyce and a rattle in his hand. With most strange 
gestures and passions he began his invocation, and environed 
the fire with a circle of meale; which done, three more such 
like devils came rushing in with the like antique tricks, paint- 
ed halfe blacke, halfe red: but all their eyes were painted 
white, and some red stroakes like Mutchato's, along their 
cheekes: round about him those fiends daunced a pretty 
while, and then came in three more as vgly as the rest; with 
red eyes, and white stroakes over their blacke faces, at last 
they all sat downe right against him; three of them on the 
one hand of the chiefe Priest, and three on the other. Then 
all with their rattles began a song, which ended, the chiefe 
Priest layd downe hue wheat cornes: then strayning his 
armes and hands with such violence that he sweat, and his 
veynes swelled, he began a short Oration: at the conclusion 
they all gaue a short groane; and then layd downe three 
graines more. After that, began their song againe, and then 
another Oration, ever laying downe so many cornes as be- 
fore, til they had twice incirculed the fire; that done, they 
tooke a bunch of little stickes prepared for that purpose, con- 
tinuing still their devotion, and at the end of every song and 
Oration, they layd downe a sticke betwixt the divisions of 
Corne. Till night, neither he nor they did either eate or 
drinke, and then they feasted merrily, with the best provisions 
they could make. Three dayes they vsed this Ceremony; 
the meaning whereof they told him, was to know if he in- 
tended them well or no. The circle of meale signified their 
Country, the circles of corne the bounds of the Sea; and the 
stickes his Country. They imagined the world to be flat and 
round, like a trencher, and they in the middest. After this 
they brought him a bagge of gunpowder, which they care- 
fully preserved till the next spring, to plant as they did their 
corne; because they would be acquainted with the nature of 
that seede. Opitchapam the Kings brother invited him to 
his house, where, with as many platters of bread, foule, and 
wild beasts, as did inviron him, he bid him wellcome; but 
not any of them would eate a bit with him, but put vp all the 
remainder in Baskets. At his returne to Opechancanovghsy 

162 The Discoveries and Accidents* 

all the Kings women, and their children, flocked about him 
for their parts, as a due by Custome, to be merry with such 

But his waking 1 mind in hydeous dreames did oft see wondrous shape; 
Of* bodies strange, and huge in growth, and of stu cndious makes. 

At last they brought him to Meronocomoco, where was 
Powhatan their Emperor. Here more then two hundred of 
those grim Courtiers stood wondering at him, as he had beene 
a monster; till Powhatan and his trayne had put thcmselues 
in their greatest braveries. Before a fire vpon a seat like a 
bedsted, lie sat covered with a great robe, made of Rarowcun 
skinnes, and all the tayles hanging by. On either hand did sk 
a } T oung wench of 16 or 18 yeares, and along on each bide 
the house, two rowes of men, and behind them as many wo- 
men, with all their heads and shoulders painted red; many of 
their heads bedecked with the white downe of Birds; but 
ever}' one with something: and a great chayne of white beads 
about their necks. At his entrance before the King, all the 
people gaue a great shout. The Queene of Appamatuck was 
appointed to bring him water to wash his hands, and another 
brought him a bunch of feathers, in stead of a Towell to dry 
them: having feasted him after their best barbarous manner 
they could, a long consultation was held, but the conclusion 
was, two great stones were brought before Powhatan: then 
as many as could layd hands on him, dragged him to them,, 
and thereon laid his head, and being ready with their clubs, 
to bcate out his braines, Pocahontas the Kings dearest daugh- 
ter, when no intreaty could prevaile, got his head in her amies, 
and laid her owne vpon his to saue him from death: whereat 
the Emperour was contented he should Hue to make him 
hatchets, and her bells, beads, and copper; for they thought 
him as well of all occupations as themselues. For the King 
himselfe will make his owne robes, shooes, bowes, arrowes, 
pots; plant, hunt, or doe any thing so well as the rest. 

They say lie bore a pleasant shew, 
But sure his heart was sad 
For who can pleasant be, and rest, 
That hues in feare and dread.- 
And having life suspected, doth 
It still suspected lead. 

Two dayes after, Powhatan having disguised himselfe in 
the most fearfullest manner he could, caused Capt. Smith to 

With the first supply in Virginia. 165 

be brought forth to a great house in the woods, and there vp- 
on a mat by the fire to be left alone. Not long after from 
behinde a mat that divided the house, was made the most 
dolefullest noyse he ever heard; then Powhatan more like a 
devill then a man with some two hundred more as blacke 
as himselfe, came vnto him and told him now they were 
friends, and presently he should goe to lames towne, to 
send him two great gunnes, and a gryndstone, for which he 
would giue him the Country of Capahowosick, and for ever 
•esteeme him as his sonne Nantaquoud. So to lames towne 
with 12 guides Powhatan sent him. That night they quar- 
tered in the woods, he still expecting (as he had done all this 
long time of his imprisonment) every hourc to be put to one 
death or other: for all their feasting. But almightie God 
(by his divine providence) had mollified the hearts of those 
sterne Barbarians with compassion. The next morning be- 
times they came to the Fort, where Smith having vsed the 
Salvages with what kindnesse he could, he shewed Rawhunt, 
Powhatans trusty servant two demi-Culverings and a mill- 
stone to carry Powhatan: they found them somewhat too 
heavie; but when they did see him discharge them, being 
loaded with stones-, among the boughs of a great tree loaded 
with Isickles, the yce and branches came so tumbling downe, 
that the poore Salvages ran away halfc dead with feare. But 
at last we regained some conference with them, and gaue 
them such toyes; and sent to Powhatan, his women, and 
children such presents, and gaue them in generall full con- 
tent. Now in lames Towne they were all in combustion, 
the strongest preparing once more to run away with the Pin- 
nace; which with the hazzard of his life, with Sakre falcon 
and musket shot, Smith forced now the third time to stay or 
sinke. Some no better then they should be, had plotted with 
the President, the next day to haue put him to death by 
the Leviticall law, for the Hues of Robinsov and Emry, pre- 
tending the fault was his that had led them to their ends: 
but he quickly tooke such order with such Lawyers, that he 
layd them by the heeles till he sent some of them prisoners 
for England. Now ever once in foure or fine dayes, Poca- 
hontas with her attendants, brought him so much provision, 
that saved many of their liues, that els for all this had starved 
with hunger,- 

164 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

Thus from numbe death our good God sent reliefe. 
The sweete asswager of all other griefe. 

His relation of the plenty he had seene, especially at We- 
rawocomoco, and of the state and bountie of Powhatan, (which 
till that time was vnknowne) so revived their dead spirits (es- 
pecially the loue of Pocahontas) as all mens feare was aban- 
doned. Thus you may see what difficulties still crossed any 
good indevour: and the good successe of the businesse being 
thus oft brought to the very period of destruction; yet you see- 
by what strange means God hath still delivered it. As for the 
insufficiency of them admitted in Commission, that error could 
not be prevented by the Electors; there being no other choise, 
and all strangers to each others education, qualities, or dis- 
position. And if any deeme it a shame to our Nation to haue 
any mention made of those inormities, let them pcrvse the 
Histories of the Spanyards Discoveries and Plantations, where 
they may see how many mutinies, disorders, and dissentions 
haue accompanied them, and crossed their attempts: which 
being knowne to be particular mens offences; doth take away 
the general! scorne and contempt, Avhich malice, presumption, 
covctousnessc, or ignorance might produce; to the scandall 
and reproach of those, whose actions and valiant resolutions 
doserue a more worthy respect. 

Now whether it had beenc better for Captaine Smith, to 
haue concluded with any of those severall proiects, to haue 
abandoned the Countrey, with some ten or twelueof them, who 
were called the better sort, and haue left Mr Hunt our Preach- 
er, Master Anthony Gosnoll, a most honest, worthy, and indus- 
trious Gentlemen, Master Thomas IVoiton, and some 27 others 
of his Countreymen to the fury of the Salvages, famine, and 
all manner of mischiefes, and inconveniences, (for they were 
but fortie in all to kcepe possession of this large Countrey;) 
or starue himselfe with them for company, for want of lodg- 
ing: or but adventuring abroad to make them provision, or by 
his opposition to preserue the action, and saue all their liues: 
I leaue to the censure of all honest men to consider. But 

We men imagine in our Iolitie, 
That 'tis all one, or good or bad to be. 
Hut then anone wee alter this againe, 
(("happily wee feele the sence of paine; 
For then we're turn'd into a mourning vainc. 

Written bv Thomas Studies, the first Cape Merchant in Virginia, 

.Robert Ft j nton % Edward Harrington, and /. £■ 

With the first supply in Virginia. 166 


The Arrivall of the first supply, with their Proceed- 
ings, and the Ships retume. 

All this time our care was not so much to abandon the 
Country; but the Treasurer and Councell in England, were 
as diligent and carefull to supply vs. Two good ships they 
sent vs, with neare a hundred men, well furnished with all 
things could be imagined necessary, both for them and vs; 
The one commanded by Captaine Newport: the other by 
Captaine Francis Nelson, an honest man, and an expert 
Marriner. But such was the lewardnesse of his Ship (that 
though he was within the sight of Cape Henry) by stor- 
my contrary winds was he forced so farre to Sea, that 
the West Indies was the next land, for the repaire of 
of his Masts, and reliefe of wood and water. But Newport 
got in and arrived at lames Towne, not long after the redemp- 
tion of Captaine Smith. To whom the Salvages, as is sayd, 
every other day repaired, with such provisions that sumcient- 
ly did serue them from hand to mouth: part alvvayes they 
brought him as Presents from their Kings, or Pocahontas; 
the rest he as their Market Clarke set the price himselfe, how 
they should sell: so he had inchanted these poore soules be- 
ing their prisoner; and now Newport, whom he called his 
Father arriving, neare as directly as he foretold, they esteem- 
ed him as an Oracle, and had them at that submission he 
might command them at what he listed. That God had 
created all things they knew he adored for his God: they 
would also in their disconrses tearme the God of Captaine 

Thus the Almightie was the b ringer on, 

The guide, path, terme, all which was God alone. 

But the President and Councell so much envied his esti- 
mation among the Salvages, (though we all in general) equal- 
ly participated with him of the good thereof, that they wrought 
it into the Salvages vnderstandings (by their great bounty 
in giving foure times more for their commodities then Smith 
appointed) that their greatnesse and authoritie as much ex- 
ceeded his, as their bountie and liberalise. Now the arrivall 
of this first supply so overioyed vs, that wee could not devise 
too much to please the Mariners. Wegaue them libertie to trucke 

166 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

or trade at their pleasures. But in a short time it followed, 
that could not be had for a pound of Copper, which before was 
sould vs for an ounce: thus ambition and sufferance cut the 
throat of our trade, but confirmed their opinion of the great- 
nesse of Capt. Newport (wherewith Smith had possessed 
Powhatan) especially by the great presents Newport often sent, 
him, before he could prepare the Pinnace to goe and visit him: 
so that this great Savage desired also to see him. A great 
coyle there was to set him forward. When he went he was 
accompanied with Captaine Smith, and Mr Scrivener, a very- 
wise vnderstanding Gentlemen, newly arrived and admitted 
of the Councell, with thirtie or fortie chosen men for their 
guard. Arriving at Werowocomoco, Newports conceit of this 
great Savage bred many doubts and suspitions of trecheries, 
which Smith to make appeare was needlesse, with twentie 
men well appointed, vndertooke to encounter the worst that 
could happen: Knowing 

All is but one, and selfe-same hand that thus 
Both one while scourg-eth, and that helpeth vs. 

Nathaniell Powell. -^ Iohn Taverner. ~\ ^ 

Robert Echethland. J £ William Dyer. / J§ 

Michell Rhittiplace. f g. Thomas Coe. V S. 

William Phittiplace. t |* Thomas Hope. C 3 

Anthony Gosnoll. \ § Anas Todkill. _j s 

Richard Wyllin. -> v 

These, with nine others (whose nanes I haue forgotten) 
comming a-shore, landed amongt a many of creekes, over 
which they were to passe such poore bridges, onely made of 
a few cratches, thrust in the ose, and three or foure poles 
laid on them, and at the end of them the like, tyed together 
onely with barkes of trees, that it made them much suspect 
those bridges were bvt traps. Which caused Smith to make 
diverse Salvages goe over first, keeping some of the chiefe as 
hostage till halfe his men were passed, to make a guard for 
himsejfe and the rest. But finding all things well, by two 
or three hundred Salvages they were kindly conducted to 
their towne. Where Powhatan strained himselfe to the vt- 
most of iiis greatnesse to entertaine them, with great shouts of 
ioy, Orations of protestations; and with the most plenty of 
victualls he could provide to feast them. Sitting vpon his 
bed of mats, his pillow of leather imbrodered (after their rude 
manner with pearle and white Beads) his attyre a faire robe 
of skihnes as large as an Irish mantell: at his head and feete 

With the first supply in Virginia. 167 

a handsome young woman: on each side his house sat twen- 
tie of his Concubines, their heads and shoulders painted red. 
with a great chaine of white beads about each of their neckes. 
Before those sat his chiefest men in like order in his arbour- 
like house, and more then fortie platters of fine bread stood 
as a guard in two fyles on each side the doore. Foure or 
fine hundred people made a guard behinde them for our pas- 
sage; and Proclamation was made, none vpon paine of death 
to presume to doe vs any wrong or discourtesie. With many 
pretty Discourses to renew their old acquaintance, this great 
King and our Captaine spent the time, till the ebbe left our 
Barge aground. Then renewing their feasts with feates, 
dauncing and singing, and such like mirth, we quartered that 
night with Powltatan. The next day Newport came a shore 
and receiued as much content as those people could giue him: 
a boy named Thomas Salvage was then giuen vnto Powha- 
tan, whom Newport called his sonne; for whom Powhatan 
gaue him Namontack his trustie servant, and one of a shrewd, 
subtill capacitie. Three or foure dayes more we spent in 
feasting, dauncing, and trading, wherein Powhatan carried 
himselfe so proudly, yet discreetly (in his salvage manner) as 
made vs all admire his naturall gifts, considering his educa- 
tion. As scorning to trade as his subiects did; he bespake 
Newport in this manner. 

Captaine Newport it is not agreeable to my grealnesse, in 
this pedling manner to trade for (riffles; and I esteeme you 
also a great Werowance. Therefore lay me downe all your 
commodities together; ichat I like I will take, and in recom- 
pence giue you what I thinke fitting their value. Captaine 
Smith being our interpreter, regarding Newport as his father, 
knowing best the disposition of Powhatan, told vs his intent 
was but onely toxheate vs; yet Captaine Newport thinking 
to out braue this Salvage in ostentation of greatnesse, and so 
to bewitch him with his bountie, as to haue what he listed, 
it so hapned, that Powhatan hauing his desire, valued his 
corne at such a rate, that I thinke it better cheape in Spaine: 
for we had not foure bushells for that we expected to haue 
twentie hogsheads. This bred some vnkindnesse betweene 
our two Captaines; Newport seeking to please the vnsatiable 
desire of the Salvage, Smith to cause the Salvage to please 
him; but smothering his distast to avoyd the Saluages suspi- 
tion, glanced in the eyes of Powhatan many trifles who fixed 

168 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

liis humor vpon a few blew beades. A long time he impor- 
tunately desired them, but Smith seemed so much the more 
to affect them, as being composed of a most rare substance of 
the colour of the skyes, and not to be worne but by the greatest 
kings in the world. This made him halfe madde to be the 
owner of such strange lewells: so that ere we departed, for 
a pound or two of blew beades, he brought ouer my king for 
2. or 300. Bushells of corne; yet parted good friends. The 
like entertainment we found of Opechankanough king of Pa- 
mavnkee, whom also he in like manner fitted (at the like rates) 
with blew beads, which grew by this meanes, of that estima- 
tion, that none durst weare any of them but their great kings, 
their wiues and children. And so we returned all well to 
lames towne, where this new supply being lodged with the 
rest, accidentally fired their quarters and so the towne, which 
being but thatched with reeds, the fire was so fierce as it burnt 
their Pallisado's, (though eight or ten yards distant) with their 
Armes, bedding, apparell, and much priuate prouision. Good 
Master Hunt our Preacher lost all his liberary and all he had 
but the cloathes on his backe: yet none neuer heard him re- 
pine at his losse. This happned in the winter in that extreame 
frost. 1607. Now though we had victuail sufficient I meane 
onely of Oatmeale, meale and corne, yet the Ship staying 14. 
weekes when shee might as wel haue beene gone in 14. dayes, 
spent a great part of that, and neare all the rest that was sent 
to be landed. When they departed ^fhat their discretion 
could spare vs, to make a little poore meale or two, we called 
feastes, to relish our mouthes: of each somwhat they left vs, 
yet I must confesse, those that had either money, spare clothes 
credit to giue billes of paiment, gold rings, furrs, or any such 
commodities, were euer welcome to this remouing tauerne, 
such was our patience to obay such vile commanders, and buy 
our owne provisions at 15. times the value, suffering them 
feast (we bearing the charge) yet must not repine, but fast, 
least we should incurre the censure of factious and seditious 
persons: and then leakage, ship rats, and other casuallties 
occasioned them losse, but the vessels and remnants (for totals) 
we were glad to receaue with all our hearts to make vp the 
account, highly commending their prouidence for preseruing 
that, least they should discourage any more to come to vs. Now 
for all this plenty our ordynary was but meale and water, so 
that this great charge little releeued our wants, whereby with 

With the first supply in Virginia. 169 

the extremitie of the bitter cold frost and those defects, more 
then halfe of vs dyed; I cannot deny but both Smith and 
Skriuener did their best to amend what was amisse, but with 
the President went the maior part, that there homes were 
to short. But the worst was our guilded refiners with their 
golden promises made all men their slaues in hope of recom- 
pences; there was no talke, no hope, no worke, but dig gold, 
wash gold, refine gold, loade gold, such a bruit of gold, that 
one mad fellow desired to be buried in the sands least they 
should by there art make gold of his bones, little neede there 
was and lesse reason, the ship should stay, there wages run 
on, our victualls consume 14. weekes, that the Mariners 
might say, they did helpe to build such a golden Church that 
we can say the raine washed neere to nothing in 14. dayes. 
Were it that captaine Smith would not applaude all those 
golden inventions, because they admitted him not to the sight 
of their trialls nor golden consultations; I know not, but I 
haue heard him oft question with Captaine Martin and tell 
him, except he could shew him a more substantiall triall, he 
was not inamoured with their durty skill, breathing out these 
and many other passions, neuer any thing did more torment 
him, then to see all necessary busines neglected, to fraught 
such a drunken ship with so much guilded durt. Till then 
we neuer accounted Captaine Newport a refiner, who being 
ready to set saile for England, and we not hauing any vse 
of Parliaments, Plaises, Petitions, Admiralls, Recorders, In- 
terpreters, Chronologers, Courts of Plea, nor Iustioes of peace 
sent Master Wing field and Captaine Archer home Avith him, 
that had ingrossed all those titles, to seeke some better place, 
of imployment. 

Oh cursed gold those, hunger-starued movers, 
To what misfortunes lead'st thou all those lpversi 
For all the China wealth, nor Indies can 
Suffice the minde of an av'ritious man. 

170 The Discoveries and Accidents 


The Arrivall of the Phoenix; her returne; and olher 

The authoritie noAV consisting in Captaine Martin, and the 
still sickly President, the sale of the Stores commodities 
maintained his estate, as an inheritable revencw. The 
spring approaching, and the ship departing, Mr. Scrivener 
and Captaine Smith divided betwixt them the rebuilding-' 
lames towne; the repairing our Pallizadoes; the cutting downe 
trees; preparing our fields; planting our corne, and to re- 
build our Church, and recover our Store house. All mei*,' 
thus busie at their severall labours, Master Nelson arrived 
with his lost Phoenix; . lost (I say) for that we all deemed 
him lost. Landing safely all his men, (so well he had man- 
naged his ill hap,) causing the Indian Isles to feede his corn- 
company, that his victuall to that we had gotten, as is said 
before, was neare after our allowance sufficient for halfe a 
yeare. He had not any thing but he freely imparted it, 
which honest dealing (being a Marriner) caused vs admire 
him: we would not hauc wished more then he did for vs. — 
Now to relade this ship with some good tydings, the Presi- 
dent (not holding it stood with the dignitie of his place to leaue 
the Fort) gaue order to Captaine Smith to discover and search 
the commodities oi' the Monacans Countrey bey nd the Falls. 
Sixlie able men was allotted them, the which within six (hives, 
Smith had so well trained to their amies and orders, that they 
little feared with whom they should incounter: yet so vnsea- 
sonable was the time, and so opposit was Captaine 3Liriin 
to any thing, but onely to fraught this ship also with his 
phantasticall gold, as Captaine Smith rather desired to relade 
her with Cedar, (which was a present dispacth) then either 
with dui't, or the hopes and reports of an vncertaine discovery, 
which he would performe when they had lesse charge and 
more leisure. 

But, The God oflleav'n, lie eas'ty can 
Immortali/.e a mortal! man. 

With glory and with fame. 
The same God, ev'n as eas'ly may 
Afflict a mortall man, 1 say, 

With sorrow and with shame. 

With the first supply in Virginia. 171 

Whilst the conclusion was a resolving, this hapned. 

Powhatan (to expresse his loue to Newport) when he de- 
parted, presented him with twentie Turkies, conditionally to 
returne him twentie swords, which immediately was sent 
him; now after his departure he presented Captaine Smith 
with the like luggage, but not finding his humor obeyed in 
not sending such weapons as he desired, he caused his peo- 
ple with twentie devices toobtaine them. At last by ambus- 
cadoes at our very Ports they wovld take them perforce, sur- 
prise vs at worke, or any way; which was so long permitted 
they became so insolent there was no rule; the command 
from England was so strait not to offend them, as our autho- 
ritie-bearers (keeping their houses) would rather be any thing 
than peace-breakers. This charitable humor prevailed, till 
well it chanced they medledwith Captaine Smith, who with- 
out farther deliberation gaue them such an incounter, as some 
he so hunted vp and downe the Isle, some he so terrified with 
whipping, beating, and imprisonment, as for revenge they 
surprised two of our forraging disorderly souldiers, and having 
assembled their forces, boldly threatned at our Ports to force 
Smith toredeliver seven Salvages, which for their villanies he 
detained prisoners, or we were all but dead men. But to try 
their furies he sallied out amongst them, and in lesse than an 
houre, he so hamprcd their insolencies, they brought them his 
two men, desiring peace without any further composition for 
their prisoners. Those he examined, and caused them all 
beleeue, by severall vollies of shot one of their companions 
was shot to death, because they would not confesse their in- 
tents and plotters of their villanies. And thus they all agreed 
in one point, they were directed onely by Powhatan to ob- 
taine him our weapons, to cut our owne throats, with the 
manner where, how, and when, which we plainly found most 
true and apparant: yet he sent his messengers, and his dear- 
est daughter Pocahontas with presents to excuse him of the 
iniuries done by some rash vntoward Captaines his subiccts, 
desiring their liberties for this time, with the assurance of his 
loue for ever. After Smith had given the prisoners what cor- 
rection he thought fit, vsed them well a day or two after, 
and then delivered them Pocahontas, for whose sake onely 
he fayned to haue saved their lines, and gaue them libertie. 
The patient Councell that nothing would moue to warre 
with the Salvages, would gladly haue wrangled with Captaine 


The Discoveries and Accidents, 

Smith for his crueltie, yet none was slaine to any mans 
knowledge, but it brought them in such feare and obedience, 
as his very name would sufficiently affright them; where be- 
fore, wee had sometime peace and warre twice in a day, and 
very seldome a weeke, but we had some trecherous villany 
or other 

The fraught of this Ship being concluded to be Cedar, by 
the diligence of the Master, and Captaine Smith, she was 
quickly reladed: Master Scrivener was neither idle nor slow to 
follow all things at the Fort; the Ship being ready to set sayle, 
Captaine Martin being alwayes very sickly, and vnserviceable, 
and desirous to inioy the credit of his supposed Art of finding 
the golden Mine, was most willingly admitted to retume for 
England. For 

He hath not fill'd his lapp, 
That still doth hold it oap. 

From the writings of Thomas Studky and Anas Todkill. 

Their Names that were landed in this Supply, 

Mathew Scrivener appointed to 

Michaell Phittiplace. 

William Phittiplace. 

Ralph Morton. 

Richard Wyffing. 

lohn Taverner. 

William Cantrell. 

Robert Barnes. 

Richard Fetherstone. 

George Hill 

George Pretty. 

Nathaniell Causy. 

Peter Pory. 

Robert Cutler. 

Michaell Sicklemore. 

William Bentley. 

Thomas Coe. 

Doctor Russell. 

lefi'rey Abbot. 

Edward Gurganu. 

Richard Worley. 

Timothy Leeds. 

Richard Killingbeck, 

William Spence. 

Richard Prodger. 

Richard Pots. 

Richard Mull'max. 

William Bayley. 

Francis Perkins. 

lohn Harper. 

i leorge Forest. 

be one of the Councell. 
-| lohn Nichols. 

William Griuell. 

Raymond Goodison. 
William Simons, 
lohn Spearman. 
Richard Bristow. 
William Perce, 
lames Watkins. 
lohn Bouth. 
Christopher Rods. 
Richard Burket. 
lames Burre. 
Nicholas Ven. 
Francis Perkins. 
Richard Gradon. 
Rowland Nelstrop, 
Richard Savage. 
Thomas Savage. 
Richard Milmer. 
William May. 
Bishop Wiles. 
Thomas Hope. 
William Ward, 
lohn Powell. 
William Yong. 
William Beckwith. 
Larence Towtales. 


With the first supply in Virginia. 


Thomas Field, 
lohn Harford. 
Dani: Stallings, Jeweller. 
Will: Dawson, a refiner. 
Abram Ransack, a refiner. 
Wil: lohnson, a Goldsmith. 
Peter KefFer, a gunsmith. 
Reb: Alberton, a perfumer 

1 Apolhe- Richard Belfield, a Goldsmith. 

S earies. Post Ginha't, a Chirufg. 

lohn Lewes, a Cooper. 
Robert Cotton, a Tobacco-pipe- 
Richard Dole, a Blarksmith. 

And divers others to the 
number of 120. 


The Accidents thai hapned in the Discovery of the 
Bay of Chisapeack. 

The prodigalitie of the Presidents state went so deepe into 
our small store, that Smith and Scrivener tyed him and his 
Parasites to the rules of proportion. But now Smith being 
to depart, the Presidents authorito so overswayed the dis- 
cretion of Mr Scrivener, that our store, our time, our strength 
and labours were idely consumed to fulfill his phantasies. — 
The second of June 1608. Smith left the Fort to pcrforme 
his Discovery with this company. 

Walter Russsell, Doctor of Phusicke. 

Ralfe Morton. "] 

Thomas Momford, 

William Cantrill 

Richard Fetherston. 

lames Ikirne. 

ilichell Sicklemore, J 

lonas Profit. 
Robert Small, 
lames Watkins. 
lohn Powell, 
lames Read. 
Richard Keale. 



These being in an open Barge neare three tvns burthen, 
leaving the Phoenix at Cape Henry, they crossed the Bay- 
to the Easterne shore, and fell with the Isles called Smiths 
Isles, after our Captaines name. The first people we saw 
were two grim and stout Salvages vpon Cape Charles; with 
long poles like Iauelings, headed with bone, they boldly de- 
manded what we were, and what we would; but after many 
circumstances they seemed very kinde, and directed vs to 
Accomack, the habitation of their Werowance, where we were 
kindly intreated. This King was the comliest, proper, civill 
Salvage we incountred. His Country is a pleasant fertile 
clay soyle, some small creekes; good Harbours for small 
Barks, but not for Ships. He told vs of a strange accident 

1 74 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

lately happened him, and it was, two children being dead; 
some extreame passions, or dreaming visions, phantasies, or 
affection moued their parents againe to revisit their dead 
carkases whose bonummed bodies reflected to the eyes of 
the beholders such delightfull countenances, as though they 
had regained their vitall spirits. This as a miracle drew 
many to behold them, all which being a great part of his peo- 
ple, not long after dyed, and but few escaped. They spake 
the language of Poivhatan, wherein they made such descrip- 
tions of the Bay, Isles, and rivers, that often did vs exceeding 
pleasure. Passing along the coast, searching every inlet, 
and Bay, fit for harbours and habitations. Seeing man) 
Tsles in the midst of the Bay we bore vp for them, but ere 
we could obtainethem, such an extreame gust of wind, rayne, 
thunder, and lightening happened, that with great danger we 
escaped the vnmercifull raging of that Ocean-like water. The 
highest land on the mayne 5 yet it was but low, we called Keales 
hill, and these vninhabited Isles, Russels Isles. The next 
day searching them for fresh water, we could find none; the 
defect whereof forced vs to follow the next Easterne Channell, 
which brought vs to the river of fVighcocomoco. The people 
at {irst with great fury seemed to assault vs, yet at last with 
songs and daunces and much mirth became very tractable, 
but searching their habitations for water, we could fill but 
three barricoes, and that such puddle, that never till then we 
ever knew the want of good water. We digged and searched 
in many places, but before two daies were expired, we would 
hauc refused two barricoes of gold for one of that puddle wa- 
ter of Wighcocomoco. Being past these Isles which are many 
in number, but all naught for habitation, falling with a high 
land vpon the mayne, found a great Pond of fresh water, but 
so exceeding hot wee supposed it some bath; that place we 
called poynt Player, in honor of that most honourable House 
of Mousay in Britaine, that in an extreame extremitie once 
relieued our Captaine. From Wighcocomoco to this place, 
all the coast is low broken Isles of Morap, growne a myle or 
two in breadth, and ten or twelue in length, good to cut for 
hay in Summer, and to catch fish and foule in Winter: but 
• he Land beyond them is all covered over with wood, as is 
the rest of the Country. 

Being thus refreshed in crossing ouer from the maine to 
other Isles, we discouered the wind and waters so much 

With the first supply in Virginia. 


increased with thunder, lightning, and mine, that our mast and 
sayle blew ouerbord and such mighty waues ouerracked vs 
in that small barge that with great labour we kept her from 
sinking by freeing out the water. Two dayes we were in- 
forced to inhabite these vninhabited Isles which for the extre- 
mitie of gusts, thunder, rainne, stormes, and ill wether we 
called Limbo. Repairing our saile with our shirts, we set sayle 
for the maine and fell with a pretty convenient riuer on the 
East called Cuskarawaok, the people ran as amazed in troups 
from place to place, and diuers got into the tops of trees, they 
were not sparing of their arrowes, nor the greatest passion 
they could expresse of their anger. Long they shot, we still 
ryding at an Anchor without there reatch making all the 
signes of friendship we could. The next day they came vn- 
armed, with euery one a basket, dancing in a ring, to draw 
vs on shore: but seeing there was nothing in them but villany, 
we discharged a volly of muskets charged with pistoll shot, 
whereat they all lay tumbling on the grownd, creeping some 
one way, some another into a great cluster of reedes hard by; 
where there companies lay in Ambuscado. Towards the 
euening we waved, and approaching the shoare, discharging 
fiue or six shot among the reedes we landed where there lay 
a many of baskets and much bloud, but saw not a Salvage. 
A smoake appearing on the other side the riuer, we rowed 
thither, where we found two or three little houses, in each a 
fire.there we left some peeces of copper, beads, bells, and 
looking glasses, and then went into the bay, but when it 'was 
darke we came backe againe. Early in the morning foure 
Salvages came to vs in their Canow, whom we vsed with 
such courtesie, not knowing what we were, nor had done, 
hauing beene in the bay a fishing, bade vs stay and ere long 
they would returne, which they did and some twentie more 
with them; with whom after a little conference, two or three 
thousand men women and children came clustring about vs, 
euery one presenting vs with something, which a little bead 
would so well requite, that we became such friends they would 
contend who should fetch vs water, stay with vs for hostage, 
conduct our men any w hither, and giue vs the best content. 
Here doth inhabite the people of Sarapinagh, Nause, Arseek, 
and Nantaquak the best Marchants of all other Salvages. — 
They much extolled a great nation called Massaivomekes, in 
search of whom we returned bv Limho: this riuer but onely 

176 The Discoveries and Accidents. 

at the entrance is very narrow, and the people of small sta- 
ture as them of Wighcocomoco, the Land but low, yet it may 
proue very commodious, because it is but a ridge of land be- 
twixt the Bay and the maine Ocean, finding this Easterne 
shore, shallow broken Isles, and for mostpart without fresh wa- 
ter, we passed by the straites of Limbo for the Westerne shore: 
so broad is the bay here, we could scarce perceiue the great 
high clifts on the other side: by them we Anchored that night 
and called them Riccards Cliftes. 30. leagues we sayled more 
Northwards not finding any inhabitants, leauing all the Eas- 
terne shore, lovve Islandes, but ouergrowne with wood, as all 
the Coast beyond them so farre as wee could see: the Wes- 
terne shore by which we sayled we found all along well wa- 
tered, but very mountanous and barren, the vallies very fertill, 
but extreame thicke of small wood so well as trees, and much 
frequented with wolues, Beares, Deere and other wild beasts: 
We passed many shallow creekcs, but the first we found Na- 
uigable for a ship, we called Bolus, for that the clay in many 
places vnder the clifts by the high water marke, did grow 
vp in red and white knots as gum out of trees; and in some 
places so participated together as though they were all of one 
nature, excepting the coulour, the rest of the earth on both 
sides being hard sandy grauell, which made vs thinke it Bole- 
Armoniack and Terra sigillata. When we first set sayle some 
of our Gallants doubted nothing but that our Captaine would 
make too much hast home, but hauing lien in this small barge 
not aboue 12. or 14, dayes, oft tyred at the Oares, our bread 
spoyled with wet so much that it was rotten (yet so good were 
their stomacks that they could disgest it) they did with con- 
tinuall complaints so importune him now to returne, as caused 
him bespeake them in this manner. 

Gentlemen, if you would remember the memorable history 
of Sir Ralph Layne, hoiv his company importuned him to 
proceed in the discovery o/"Moratico, alleadging they had yci 
a dog, that being boyled with saxafras leaves, would richly 
feede them in their returnes; then what a shame luould it be 
for you (that haue bin so suspitious of my tendernesse) to force 
me returne, with so much provision as we haue, and scarce 
able to say where we haue bcene, nor yet heard of that we were 
sent to sceke? You cannot say but I haue shared with you 
in the ivorst which is past; and for what is to come, of lodging, 
dyety or whatsoever. I am contented you allot the worst part 

fVith the first supply in Virginia. 177 

to myself e. As for your fear cs that I will lose my self e in 
these vnknowne large waters, or he swallowed vp in some stor- 
miegust; abandon these childish feares, for ivorse then is past 
is not likely to happen: and there is as much danger to returne 
as to proceede. Regaine therefore your old spirits for returne 
I will not (if God please) till I haue scene the Massawomeks, 
found Patawomek, or the head of this water you conceit to 
be endlesse. Two or 3 dayes we expected windc and wether, 
whose aduerse extremities added such discouragement, that 
three or foure fell sicke, whose pittifuil complaints caused vs 
to returne, leauing the bay some nine miles broad, at nine 
and ten fadome water. 

The 16. of lune we fell with the riuer Patowomek: feare 
being gone, and our men recovered, we were all content to 
take some paines, to know the name of that seuen mile broad 
riuer: for thirtie myles sayle, we could see no inhabitants: 
then we were conducted by two Savages vp a little bayed 
creeke, towards Onawmanient, where all the woods were 
layd with ambuscado's to the number of three or foure thou- 
sand Salvages, so strangely paynted, grimed and disguised, 
shouting, yelling and crying as so many spirits from heli could 
not have shewed more terrible. Many brauado's they made, 
but to appease their fury, our Captaine prepared with as 
seeming a willingnesse (as they) to ineounter them. But 
the grazing of our bullets vpon the water (many bcmg 
shot on purpose they might see them) with the Ecco of the 
woods so amazed them, as downe went their bones and ar- 
rowes; (and exchanging hostage) lames Watkins was sent 
six myles vp the woods to their Kings habitation. We were 
kindly vsed of those Salvages, of whom we vnderstood, they 
were conmanded to betray vs, by the direction of Powhatan, 
and he so directed from the discontents at lames towne, be- 
cause our Captaine did cause them stay in their country 
against their wills. 

The like incounters we found at Patoivomek, Cccocawonet 
and diuers other places: but utMoyaones, Nacotchtant and To- 
ngs the people did their best to content vs. Hauing gone so 
high as we could with the bote, we met diuers Saluages in 
C&nowes, well loaden with Uhe flesh of Beares, Deere and 
other beasts, whereof we had part, here we found mighty 
Rocks, growing in some places aboue the grownd as high as 
the shrubby trees, and diuers other solid quarries of diuers 

1 78 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

tinctures: and diuers places where the waters had falne from 
the high mountaines they had left a tinctured spangled skurfe, 
that made many bare places seeme as guilded. Digging the 
growne aboue in the highest clifts of rocks, we saw it was a 
claie sand so mingled with yeallow spangles as if it had beene 
halfe pin-dust. In our returne inquiring still for this Malch- 
qneon, the king of Pataivomeke gaue vs guides to conduct 
vs vp a little riuer called Quiyough, vp which we rowed so 
high as we could. Leauing the bote, with six shot, and di- 
uers Salvages, he marched seuen or eight myle before they 
came to the mine: leading his hostages in a small chaine they 
were to haue for their paines, being proud to be so richly 
adorned. The mine is a great Rocky mountaine like Anti- 
mony; wherein they digged a great hole with shells and 
hatchets: and hard by it, runneth a fayre brooke of Christal- 
like water, where they wash a way the drosse and keepe the 
remainder, which they put in little baggs and sell it all ouer 
the country to paint there bodyes, faces, or Idol Is; which 
makes them looke like Blackmoores dusted over with siluer. 
With so much as we could carry we returned to our bote, 
kindly requiting this kinde king and all his kinde people. — 
The cause of this discovery was to search this mine, of which 
Neivport did assure vs that those small baggs (we had giuen 
him) in England he had tryed to hold halfe siluer; but all 
we got proued of no value: also to search what furrs, the best 
whereof is at Cuscarawaoke, where is made so much Raw- 
ranoke or white beads that occasion as much dissention 
among the Salvages, as gold and siluer amongst Christians; 
and what other mineralls, riuers, rocks, nations, woods, fish- 
ings, fruites, victuall, and what other commodities the land 
afforded: and whether the bay were endlesse or how farre 
it extended: of mines we were all ignorant, but a few Bea- 
uers, Otters, Bcares, Martins and minkes we found, and in 
diuers places that aboundance of fish, lying so thicke with 
their heads aboue the water, as for want of nets (our barge 
driuing amongst them) we attempted to catch them with a 
frying pan: but we found it a bad instrument to catch fish 
with: neither better fish, more plenty, nor more variety for 
smal fish, had any of vs euer seene in any place so swimming 
in the water, but they are not to be caught with frying pans: 
some small cod also we did see swim close bv the shore bv 

With the first supply in Virginia. 179 

Smiths lies, and some as high as Riccards Clifts. And some 
we haue found dead vpon the shore. 

To express all our quarrels, trechcries and incounters 
amongst those Salvages 1 should be too tedious: but in breefe, 
at all times we so incountred them, and curbed their insolen- 
cies, that they concluded with presents to purchase peace: 
vet we lost not a man: at our first meeting out. Captaine euer 
obserned this order to demand their bowes and arrowes, 
swordes, mantells and furrs, with some childe or two for hos- 
tage, whereby we could quickly perceiue, when they intend- 
ed any villany. Hauing finished this discouery (though our 
victuall was neere spent) he intended to see his imprisonment- 
acquaintances vpon the riuer of Rapahanoek, by many called 
Toppahanock, but our bote by reason of the ebbe, chansing 
to grownd vpon a many shoules lying in the entrances, we 
spyed many fishes lurking in the reedes: our Captaine sport- 
ing himselfe by nayling them to the grownd with his sword, 
set vs all a fishing in that manner: thus we tooke more in 
owne houre then we could eate in a day. But it chansed 
our Captaine taking a fish from his sword (not knowing her 
condition) being much of the fashion of a Thornback, but a 
long tayle like a riding rodde, whereon the middest is a most 
poysoned sting, of two or three inches long, bearded like a 
saw T on each side, which she strucke into the wrist of his 
arme neare an inch and a halfe: no bloud nor wound was 
seene, but a little blew spot, but the torment was instantly so 
extreame, that in foure houres had so swollen his hand, arme 
and shoulder, we all with much sorrow concluded his fune- 
rall, and prepared his graue in an Island by, as himselfe di- 
rected: yet it pleased God by a precious oyle Doctor Russell 
at the first applyed to it when he sounded it with probe (ere 
night) his tormenting paine was so well asswaged that he eate 
of the fish to his supper, which gaue no lesse ioy and con- 
tent to vs then ease to himselfe, for which we called the Isl- 
and Stingray Isle after the name of the fish. 

Hauing neither Chirurgian, nor Chirurgery, but that pre- 
seruatiue oyle we presently set sayles for lames towne, pas- 
sing the mouthes of the riders of Payankatank and Pamavn- 
kee, the next day we safely arriued at Kecougtan. The sim- 
ple Salvages seeing our Captaine hurt, and an other bloudy 
by breaking his shinne, our numbers of boAves, arrowes, 
swords, mantles, and furrs, would needes imagine we had 

180 The Discoveries and Accidents. 

beene at warres (the truth of these accidents would not sa- 
tisfie them) but impatiently importuned vs to know with 
whom. Finding their aptnesse to beleeue we fayled not (as 
a great secret) to tell them any thing that might affright 
them, what spoyle we had got and made of the Massawo- 
meks. This rumor went faster vp the river then our Barge, 
that arrived at Waraskoyack the 20 of luly; where trimming 
her with painted streamers, and such devises as we could, we 
made them at lames tovvne iealous of a Spanish Frigot, 
where we all God be thanked safely arrived the 21 of Inly. 
There we found the last Supply were all sicke, the rest some 
iame, some bruised, all vnable to doe any thing but com- 
plaine of the pride and vnreasonable necdlesse crueltie of the 
silly President, that had riotously consumed the store: and 
to fulfill his follies about building him an vnnecessary build- 
ing for his pleasure in the woods, had brought them all to 
that misery; that Had we not arrived, they had as strangely 
tormented him with revenge: but the good newes of our Dis- 
covery, and the good hope we had by the Salvages relation, 
that our Bay had stretched into the South Sea, or somewhat 
neare it, appeased their fury; but conditionally that Ratliffe 
should Be deposed, and that Captaine Smith would take vpon 
him the government, as by course it did belong. Their re- 
quest being effected, he substituted Mr. Scrivener his deare 
friend in the Presidency, equally distributing those private 
provisions the other had ingrossed, appointing more honest 
officers to assist master Scrivener (who then lay exceeding 
sicke of a Callenture) and in regard of the company, and 
lieate of the yearn, they being vnable to v.orke, he left them 
to hue at ease, to recover their healths, but imbarked himselfe 
to finish his Discovery. 

Written by TTaitjr Riixsefli.tin'as TV/-//,', and Tfiamas JUomford 

With the first supply in Virginia. 18.1 


The Government surrendered to Master Scrivener. 

What happened the second Voyage in discovering the Bay. 

The 24 of Iuly, Captaine Smith set forward to finish the 
discovery with twelue men: their names were 

MicheRSicldemor, fj ££wSSSi {? 

lames Bourne. s William Ward 

Anthony Bagm.11, Chir. J W.lliam Ward. J 

The wind being contrary caused our stay two or three 
Saves at Kecoughtan: the King feasted vs with much mirth 
his people were perswaded we went purposely to be revenged 
of the Massawomeks. In the evening we fired a few rackets, 
which flving in the ayre so terrified the poore Salvages, they 
supposed nothing vnpossible we attempted; and desired to as- 
sist vs The first night we anchored at Stingray Isle. 1 he 
next day crossed Patawomeks river, and hasted to the river 
Bolus We went not much further before we might see the 
Bav to divide in two heads, and arriving there we found it 
divided in foure, all which we searched so farre as we could 
sayle them. Two of them we found inhabited but mcros- 
Lg the Bay, we incountred 7 or 8 Canowes fill I of Jta- 
S, we seeing them prepare to assault vs, lett our Oares 
and made way with our sayle to incounter them, yet were we 
but fine with our Captaine that could stanc for withm 2 
daves after we left Kecoughtan, the rest (being all of the last 
supply) were sicke almost to death, vrt.ll they were season- 
ed to the Country. Having shut them vnder our Tarpawhng 
we pu their hats vpon stickes by the Barges side, and betwixt 
two hats a man with two peeces, to make vs seeme many, 
Z so we thinke the Indians supposed those hats to be men 
for thev fled with all possible speed to the shore, and there 
Led? staring at the sayling of our barge till we anchored 
St aeaunst them. Long it was ere we cou d draw them to 
cotevmovs At last they sent two of their company vo* 
armed in a Canow, the rest all followed to second them tf 


182 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

neede required. These two being but each presented with a 
bell, brought aboord all their fellowes, presenting our Cap- 
taine with venison, beares flesh, fish, bowes, arrowes, clubs, 
targets, and beares-skinnes. We understood them nothing 
at all, but by signes, whereby they signified vnto vs they had 
beene at warres with the Tockwoghes, the which they con- 
firmed by shewing vs their greene wounds, but the night part- 
ing vs, we imagined they appointed the next morning to meete, 
but after that we never saw them. 

Entring the river of TocJcivogh, the Salvages all armed, 
in a fleetc of boats, after their barbarous manner, round invi 
roned vs; so it chanced one of them could speake the language 
of Powhatan, who perswaded the rest to a friendly parley. 
But when they saw vs furnished with the Massawomeks wea- 
pons, and we faining the invention of Kecoughtan, to haue 
taken them perforce; they conducted vs to their pallizadoed 
towne, mantelled with the barkes of trees, with scaffolds 
like mounts, brested about with brests very formally. Their 
men, women, and children with daunces, songs, fruits, furres, 
and what they had, kindly welcommed vs, spreading mats for 
vs to sit on, stretching their best abilities to expresse their 

Many hatchets, kniues, peeces of iron, and brasse, we saw 
amongst them, which they reported to haue from the Sasque- 
sahanocks, a mightie people and mortall enemies with the 
Massawomeks, The Sasquesahanocks inhabit vpon the chiefe 
Spring of these foure branches of the Bayes head, two dayes 
journey higher then our barge could passe for rocks, yet we 
prevailed with the Interpreter to take with him another In- 
terpreter, to perswade the Sasquesahanocks to come visit vs, 
for their language are different. Three or foure dayes we 
expected their returne, then sixtie of those gyant-like people 
came dovvne, with presents of Venison, Tobacco-pipes three 
foot in length, Baskets, Targets, Bowes and Arrowes. Fiue 
of their chiefe Werowances came boldly aboord vs to crosse 
the Bay for Tockwhogh, leaving their men and Canowes; the 
wind being so high they durst not passe. 

Our order was daily to haue Prayer, with a Psalme, at 
which solcmnitie the poore Salvages much wondrcd, our 
Prayers being done, a while they were busied with a con- 
futation till they had contrived their businesses Then they 
began in a most passionate manner to hold vp their hands 

With the fist supply in Virginia, 183 

to the Sunne, with a most fearefull song, then imbracing our 
Captaine, they began to adore him in like manner: though 
he rebuked them, yet they proceeded till their song was 
finished: which done with a most strange furious action, and 
a hellish voyce, began an Oration of their loues; that ended, 
with a great painted Beares skin they covered him: then one 
ready with a great chayne of white Beads, weighing at least 
six or seaven pound, hung it about his necke, the others had 
18 mantels, made of divers sorts of skinnes sowed together; 
all these with many other toyes they layd at his feete, strok- 
ing their ceremonious hands about his necke for his Creation 
to be their Governour and' Protector, promising their aydes, 
victualls, or what they had to be his, if he he would stay with, 
them, to defend and revenge them of the Massawomeks. — 
But we left them at Tockwhogh, sorrowing for our departure, 
yet we promised the next yeare againe to visit them. Many 
descriptions and discourses they made vs, of Atquanachucky 
Massawomek, and other people, signifying they inhabit vpon 
a great water beyond the mountaines, which we vnderstood 
to be some great lake, or the river of Canada: and from the 
French to haue their hatchets and Commodities by trade.— < 
These know no more of the territories of Powhatan, then his 
name, and he as little of them, but the Atquanachuks are on 
the Ocean Sea. 

The highest mountainc we saw Northward we called Pe- 
regrines mount, and a rocky river, where the Massawomeks 
went vp, Willowbyes river, in honor of the towne our Cap- 
taine was borne in, and that honorable house the Lord Wil- 
lowby, his most honored good friend. The Susquesahanocks 
river we called Smiths falles; the next poynt to Tockwhogh, 
Pisings poynt; the next it poynt Bourne. Powells Isles and 
Smals poynt is by the river Bolus; and the little Bay at the 
head Profits poole; Watkins, Reads, and Momfords poynts 
are on each side Limbo; Ward, Cantrell, and Sicklemore, 
betwixt Patawomek and Pamavnkee, after the names ot the 
discoverers. In all those places and the furthest we came vp 
the rivers, we cut in trees so many crosses as we would, and 
in many places made holes in trees, wherein we writ notes, 
and in some places crosses of brasse, to signifie to any, Eng- 
lishmen had beene there. 

Thus having sought all the inlets and rivers worth noting, 
we returned to discover the river of Puwtnxunt; these people 

184 The Discoveries and Accidents 

we found very tractable, and more civill then any, we promis- 
ed them, as also the Patawomeks to revenge them of the Mas- 
sawomeks, but our purposes were crossed. 

In the discovery of this river some call Rapahanock, we 
were kindly entertained by the people of Moraughtacund; 
here we incountered our old friend Mosco, a lusty Salvage of 
Wighcocomoco vpon the river of Pataivomek, we supposed 
him some French mans sonne, because he had a thicke blacke 
bush beard, and the Salvages scldome haue any at all, of 
which he was not a little proud, to see so many of his Coun- 
trymen. Wood and water he would fetch vs, guide vs any 
whether, nay, cause divers of his countrymen helpe vs towe 
against winde or tyde from place to place till we came to 
Pataivomek: there he rested till we returned from the head of the 
river, and occasioned our conduct to the mine we supposed 
Antimony. And in the place he fayled not to doe vs all the 
good he could, perswading vs in any case not to goe to the 
Rapahanocks, for they would kill vs for being friends with 
the Moraughtacunds that but lately had stolne three of the 
Kings women. This we did thinke was but that his friends 
might onelv haue our trade: so we crossed the river to the 
Rapahanocks. There some 12 or 16 standing on the shore, 
directed vs a little Creeke where was good landing, and 
Commodities for vs in three or foure Canowes we saw lie 
there: but according to our custome, we demanded to exchange 
a man in signe of loue, which after they had a little consulted, 
foure or iiue came vp to the middles, to fetch our man, and 
leaue vs one of them, shewing we neede not feare them, for 
they had neither clubs, bowes, nor arrowes. Notwithstand- 
ing, Anas Todkill, being sent on shore to see if he could 
discover any Ambuscadoes, or what they had, desired to goe 
over the playne to fetch some wood, but they were vnwil- 
ling, except we would come into the Creeke, where the boat 
might come close ashore. Todkill by degrees having got 
some two stones throwes vp the playne, perceived two or 
three hundred men (as he thought) behind the trees; so that 
offering to returne to the Boat, the Salvages assayed to carry 
him away perforce, that he called to vs we were betrayed, and 
by that he had spoke the word, our hostage was over-boord, 
but Watkins his keeper slew him in the water. Immediaily 
we let fly amongst them, so that they fled, and Todkill es- 
caped, yet they shot so last that he fell flat on the ground 

With the first supply in Virginia. 1 85 

ere he could recover the boat. Here the Massawomek Tar- 
gets stood vs in good stead, for vpon Mosco's words, we had 
set them about the forepart of our Boat like a forecastle, from 
whence we securely beat the Salvages from off the plaine 
without any hurt: yet they shot more then a thousand Arrowes, 
and then fled into the woods. Arming our selues with these 
light Targets (which are made of little small sticks woven 
betwixt strings of their hempe and silke grasse, as is our Cloth, 
but so firmely that no arrow can possibly pierce them:) we 
rescued Todkill, who was allbloudy by some of them who were 
shot by vs that held him, but as God pleased he had no hurt; 
and following them vp to the woods, we found some slaine, 
and in divers places much bloud. It seems all their arrowes 
were spent, for we heard no more of them. Their Canows 
we tooke; the arrowes we found we broke, saue them we 
kept for Mosco, to whom we gaue the Canowes for his kind- 
nesse, that entertained vs in the best trivmphing manner, 
and warlike order in armes of conquest he could procure of 
the Moraughtacunds, 

The rest of the day we spent in accommodating our Boat, 
in stead of thoules wee made stickes like Bedstaues, to which 
we fastened so many of our Massawomek Targets, that invi- 
roned her as wast clothes. The next morning we went vp 
the river, and our friend Mosco followed vs along the shore. 
and at last desired to goe with vs in our Boat. But as we 
passed by Pisacack, Matchopeak, and Mecuppom, three 
Townes situated vpon high white clay clifts; the other side 
all a low playne marish, and the river there but narrow. — 
Thirtie or fortie of the Rapahanocks, had so accommodated 
themselues with branches, as we tooke them for little bushes 
growing among the sedge, still seeing their arrowes strike 
the Targets, and dropped in the river: whereat Mosco fell 
flat in the Boat on his face, crying the Rapahanocks, which 
presently we espied to be the bushes, which at our first volley 
fell downe in the sedge: when wee were neare halfe a myle 
from them, they shewed themselues dauncing and singing 
very merrily. 

The Kings of Pissassack, Nandtaughtacund, and Cutia- 
tawomen, vsed vs kindly, and all their people neglected not 
any thing to Mosco to bring vs to them. Betwixt Secobeck 
and Massawteck is a small Isle or two, which causeth the ri- 
ver to be broader then ordinary; there it pleased God to +ake 

186 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

one of our Company called Mr Fetherstone, that all the time 
he had beene in this Country, had behaved himselfe honest- 
ly, valiantly, and industriously, where in a little Bay we call- 
ed Fetherstones Bay wee buryed him with a volley oi' shot: 
the rest notwithstanding their ill dyet, and bad lodging, 
crowded in so small a Barge, in so many dangers never rest- 
ing, but alwayes tossed to and againe, had all well recovered 
their healths. The next day wee sayled so high as our Boat 
would float, there setting vp crosses, and graving our names 
in the trees. Our Sentinel! saw an arrow fall by him, though 
we had ranged vp and downe more then an houre in digging 
in the earth, looking of stones, herbs, and springs, not seeing 
where a Salvage could well hide himselfe. 

Vpon the alarum by that we had discovered our amies, 
there was about an hundred nimble Indians skipping from 
tree to tree, letting fly their arrowes so fast as they could: 
the trees here served vs for Baricadoes as well as they. But 
Mosco did vs more service then we expected, for having shot 
away his quiver of Arrowes, he ran to the Boat for more. — 
The Arrowes of Mosco at the first made them pause vpon the 
matter, thinking by his bruit and skipping, there were many 
Salvages. About halfe an houre this continued, then they 
all vanished as suddenly as they approached Mosco follow- 
ed them so farre as he could see vs, till they were out of 
sight. As we returned there lay a Salvage as dead, shot in 
the knee, but taking him vp we found he had life, which 
Mosco seeing, never was Dog more furious against a Beare, 
then Mosco was to haue beat out his braines, so we had him 
to our Boat, where our Chirurgian who went with vs to cure 
our Captaines hurt of the Stingray, so dressed this Salvage 
that within an houre after he looked somewhat cheare fully, 
and did eate and speake. In the meane time we contented 
Mosco in helping him to gather vp their arrowes, which were 
an armefull, whereof he gloried not a little. Then we de- 
sired Mosco to know what he was, and what Countries 
were beyond the mountaines; the poore Salvage mildly an- 
swered, he and all with him were of Hasinninga, where there 
are three Kings, more, like vnto them, namely the King of 
Stegora, the King of Tauxuntania, and the King of Shaka- 
honea, that were come to Mohaskahod, which is onely a 
hunting Towne, and the bounds betwixt the Kingdome of 
the Mannahocks, and the Nandtaughtacunds. but hard by 

With the firSl supply in Virginia. 187 

where we were. We demanded why they came in that 
manner to betray vs, that came to them in peace, and to seeke 
their loues; he answered, they heard w r e were a people come 
from vnder the world, to take their world from them. We 
asked him how many worlds he did know, he reply ed, he 
knew no more but that which was vnder the side that co- 
vered him, which were the Powhatans, with the Monacans 
and the Massaivomeks, that were higher vp in the moun- 
taines. Then we asked him what was beyond the moun- 
taines, he answered the Sunue: but of any thing els he knew 
nothing; because the woods were not burnt. These and 
many such questions wee demanded, concerning the Massa- 
ivomeks, the Monacans, their owne Country, and where were 
the Kings of Stegora, Tauxsintania, and the rest. The 
Monacans he sayd were their neighbours and friends, aud 
did dwell as they in the hilly Countries by small rivers, lining 
vpon rootes and fruits, but chiefly by hunting. The Massa- 
ivomeks did dwell vpon a great water, and had many boats, 
and so many men that they made warre with all the world. 
For their Kings, they were gone every one a scverall way 
with their men on hunting: But those with him came thi- 
ther a fishing till they saw vs, notwithstanding they would 
be altogether at night at Mahaskahod. For this relation we 
gaue him many toyes, with perswasions to goe with vs, and 
he as earnestly desired vs to stay the comming of those Kings 
that for his good vsage should be friends with vs, for he was 
brother to Hasimiinga. But JTosco advised vs presently to 
begone, for they were all naught, yet we told him we would 
not till it was night. All things we made ready to enter- 
tain what came, and Mosco was as diligent in trimming his 
aiTowes. The night being come we all imbarked, for the 
riuer was so narrow, had it beene light the land on the one 
one side was so high, they might haue done vs exceeding 
much mischiefe. All this while the K. of Hasinninga was 
seeking the rest, and had consultation a good time what to 
doe. But by their espies seeing we were gone, it was not 
long before we heard their arrowes dropping on every side 
the Boat; we caused our Salvages to call vnto them, but 
such a yelling and hallowing they made that they heard no- 
thing, but now and then a peece, ayming so neare as we 
could where we heard the most voyces. More then 12 myles 
they followed vs in this manner; then the day appearing, we 

188 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

found our selues in a broad Bay, out of danger of their shot, 
where wee came to an anchor, and fell to breakfast. Not 
so much as speaking to them till the Sunne was risen; being 
well refreshed, w r e vntyed our Targets that couered vs as a 
Deck, and all shewed our selues with those shields on our 
amies, and swords in our hands, and also our prisoner Amoro- 
leck; a long discourse there was betwixt his Countrimen and 
him, how good wee were, how well wee vsed him, how wee 
had a Patawomek with vs, loued us as his life, that would 
haue slaine him had we not presented him, and that he 
should haue his libertie would they be but friends; and to 
doe vs any hurt it was impossible. Vpon this they all hung 
their Bowes and Quivers vpon the trees, and one came swim- 
ming aboord vs with a Bow tyed on his head, and another 
with a Quiver of Arrowes, which they deliuercd our Cap- 
taine as a present, the Captaine hauing vsed them so kindly 
as he could, told them the other three Kings should doe the 
like, and then the great King of our world should be their 
friend, whose men we were. It was no sooner demand- 
ed but performed, so vpon a low Moorish poynt of Land 
we went to the shore, where those foure Kings came 
and receiued Amoroleck: nothing they had but Bowes, 
Arrowes, Tobacco-bags, and Pipes: what we desired, none 
refused to giue vs, wondering at every thing we had, and 
heard we had done: our Pistols they tooke for pipes, which 
they much desired, but we did content them with other 
Commodities, and so we left foure or fiue hundred of our 
merry Mannahocks, singing, dauncing, and making merry, 
and set sayle for Moraughtacund. 

In our returnes we visited all our friends, that reioyced 
much at our Victory against the Manahocks, who many times 
had Warres also with them, but now they were friends, and 
desired we would be friends with the Rapahanocks, as Ave 
were with the ,Mannahocks. Our Captaine told them, they 
had uvise assaulted him that came onely in loue to doe them 
good, and therefore he would now burne all their houses, 
destroy their corne, and forever hold them his enemies, till 
they made him satisfaction; they desired to know what that 
should be: he told them they should present him the Kings 
Bow and Arrowes, and not offer to come armed where he 
was; that they should be friends with the Moraughtacunds his 
friends, and giue him their Kings sonne in pledge to perform**. 

With the first supply in Virginia. 189 

it, and then all King lames his men should be their friends. 
Vponthis they presently sent to the Rapahanocks tomeete him 
at the place where they first fought, where would be the Kings 
of Nantautacund and Pissassac: which according to their pro- 
mise were there so soone as we; where Rapahanock presented 
his Bow and Arrowes,and confirmed all we desired, except his 
sonne, having no more but him he could not live without him, 
but in stead of his sonne he would giue him the three women Mo- 
raughtacund had koine. This was accepted: and so in three or 
foure Canowes, so many as could went with vs to Moraughta- 
cund, where Mosco made them such relations, and gaue to his 
friends so many Bowes and Arrowes, that they no lesse loti- 
ed him then admired vs. The 3 women were brought our 
Captaine, to each he gaue achayneofBeads: and then caus- 
ing Moraughtacund, Mosco, and Rapahanock stand before 
him, bid Rapahanock take her he loued best, and Moraught- 
acund chuse next, and to Mosco he gave the third. Vpon 
this away went their Canowes over the water, to fetch their 
venison, and all the provision they could, and they that wanted 
Boats swam over the river: the darke commanded vs then to 
rest. The next day there was of men, women, and children, 
as we coniectured, six or seauen hundred, dauncing, and 
singing, and not a Bow nor Arrow seene amongst them. — 
Mosco changed his name Vttasantasough, which we interpret 
Stranger, for so they call vs. All promising ever tQ be our 
friends, and to plant Come purposely for vs; and we to pro- 
vide hatchets, beads, and copper for them, we departed, giu- 
ing them a Volley of shot, and they vs as loud shouts and 
cryes as their strengths could vtter. That night we anchor- 
ed in the river of Payankatank, and discovered it so high as 
it was navigable, but the people were most a hunting, saue 
a few 7 old men, women, and children, that were tending their 
corne, of which they promised vs part when w r e would fetch 
it, as had done all the Nations where ever we had yet beene. 
In a fayre calme, rowing towards poynt Comfort, we an- 
chored in Gosnolls Bay, but such a suddaine gust surprised 
vs in the night with thunder and rayne, that we never thought 
more to haue seene lames Towne. Yet running before the 
wind, we sometimes saw the Land by the flashes of fire from 
heaven, by which light onely we kept from the splitting shore, 
vntill it pleased God in that blacke darkness to preserue vs 
by that light to finde poynt Comfort: there refreshing our 

190 Tiie Discoveries and Accidents, 

selues, because we) had onely but heard of the Chisapeacks 
and Nandsamunds, we thought it as fit to know all our neigh- 
bours neare home, as so many Nations abroad. 

So setting sayle for the Southeme shore, we sayled vp a 
narrow riuer vp the country of Chisapeack; it hath a good 
channell, but many shoules about the entrance. By that we 
had sayled six or seaven myles, we saw two or three little 
garden plots with their houses, the shores overgrowne with 
the greatest Pyne and Firre trees we ever saw in the Coun- 
try. But not seeing nor hearing any people, and the riuer 
very narrow, we returned to the great riuer, to see if we 
could finde any of them. Coasting the shore towards Nand- 
samund, which is most Oyster-bankes; at the mouth of that 
riuer, we espied six or seauen Salvages making their wires, 
who presently fled: ashore we went, and where they wrought 
we threw diuers toyes, and so departed. Fane we were not 
gone ere they came againe, and began to sing, and daunce, 
and recall vs: and thus we began our first acquaintance. At 
last one of them desired vs to goe to his house vp that riuer, 
into our Boat voluntarily he came, the rest ran after vs by 
the shore with all shew of loue that could be. Seauen or 
eight myles we sayled vp this narrow riuer: at last on the 
Westerne shore we saw large Cornefields, in the midst a lit- 
tle Isle, and in it was abundance of Corne; the people he told 
vs were all a hunting, but in the Isle was his house, to which 
he inuited vs with much kindnesse: to him, his wife, and 
children, we gaue such things as they seeme much contented 
them. The others being come, desired vs also to goe but a 
little higher to see their houses: here our host left vs, the rest 
rowed by vs in a Canow, till we were so far past the Isle the 
riuer became very narrow. Here we desired some of them 
to come abord vs, whereat pausing a little, they told vs they 
would but fetch their bowes and arrowes and goe all with vs, 
but being a shore and thus armed, they perswaded vs to goe 
forward, but we could neither perswade them into their Ca- 
now nor into our Boat. This gaue vs cause to prouide for the 
worst. Farre we went not ere seauen or eight Canowes full 
of men armed appeared following vs, staying to see the con- 
clusion. Presently from each side the riuer came arrowes 
so fast as two or three hundred could shoot them, whereat 
we returned to get the open. They in the Canowes let fly 
also as fast, but amongst them Ave bestowed so many shot, 

With the first supply in Virginia. 191 

I the most of them leaped Overboord and swam ashore, but two 
or three escaped by rowing, being against their playnes: our 
Muskets they found shot further then their Bowes, for wee 
made not twenty shot ere they all retyred behind the next 
trees. Being thus got out of their trap, we seised on all their 
Canowes, and moored them in the midst of the open. More 
then an hundred arrowes stucke in our Targets, and about 
the boat, yet none hurt, onely Anthony Bagnall was shot in 
his Hat, and another in his sleeue. But seeing their multi- 
tudes, and suspecting as it was, that both the Nandsamunds 
and the Chisapeacks were together, we thought it best to 
ryde by their Canowes a while, to bethinke if it were bet- 
ter to burne all in the Isle, or draw them to composition, till 
we were prouided to take all they had, which was sufficient 
to feed all our Colony: but to burne the Isle at night it was 
concluded. In the interim we began to cut in peeces their 
Canowes, and they presently to lay downe their bowes, ma- 
king signes of peace: peace we told them we would accept it, 
would they bring vs their Kings bowes and arrowes, with a 
chayne of pearle; and when we came againe giue vs foure 
hundred baskets of full Corne, otherwise we would breake 
all their boats, and burne their houses, and corne, and all they 
had. To performe all this they alledged onely the want of 
a Canow; so we put one a drift and bad them swim to fetch 
her: and till they performed their promise, wee would but 
onely breake their Canowes. They cryed to us to doe no 
more, all should be as we would: which presently they per- 
formed, away went their bowes and arrowes, and tagge and 
ragge came with their baskets: so much as we could carry 
we tooke, and so departing good friends, we returned to lames 
Towne, where we safely arrived the 7. of September, 1608. 
There we found Mr. Scrivener, and divers others well reco- 
vered; many dead: some sicke: the late President prisoner 
for mutiny: by the honest diligence of Master Scrivener, the 
haruest gathered, but the provision in the store much spoyled 
with rayne. Thus was that summer (when little wanted) 
consumed and spent, and nothing done (such was the go- 
uernment of Captaine Ratliffe) but onely this discovery; 
wherein to expresse all the dangers, accidents, and incounters 
this small number passed in that small Barge, by the scale of 
proportion, about three thousand myles, with such watery 
dyet in those great waters and barbarous Countries (till then 

192 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

to any Christian vtterly vnknowne) I rather referre their merit 
to the censure of the courteous and experienced Reader, then 
I would be tedious or partiall being a partie. 

Bat to this place to come who will adventure, 

With iudgements guide and reason how to enter.- 

Finds in this worlds broad sea, with winde and tvde, 

Ther's safer sayle then any where beside. 

But 'cause to wanton novices it is 

A Province full of fearefulnesse 1 wiss; 

Into the great vast deepe to venter out.- 

Those shallow rivers let them coast about. 

And by a small Boat learne there first, and marke, 

How they may come to make a greater Barke. 

Written by Anthony Bugnall,. JYathanadl Powell, and Anas TodLill. 


The Presidency surrendred to Captaine Smith: tkt 
Arrival! and veturne of the second supply. And 
what happened. 

The tenth of September, by the Election of the CouncelJ, 
and request of the Company, Captaine Smith receiued the 
Letters Patents: which till then by no meanes he would ac- 
cept, though he was often importuned therevnto. Now the 
building of Ratliffes Pallace stayed as a thing needlesse; the 
Church was repaired; the Store-house recouered; buildings 
prepared for the Supplyes, we expected; the Fort reduced to 
a hue-square forme; the order of the Watch renewed; the 
squadrons (each setting of the Watch) trained; the whole Com- 
pany euery Saturday exercised, in the plaine by the west 
Bulwarke, prepared for that purpose, we called Smithfield: 
where sometimes more than an hundred Salvages would 
stand in an amazement to behold, how a fyle would batter a 
tree, where he would make them a marke ,to shoot at; the 
boats trimmed for trade, which being sent out with Lieute- 
nant Percy, in their Iourney incountred the second Supply, 
that brought them backe to discover the Country of Monacan. 
How or why Captaine Newport obtained such private 
Commission, as not to returne without a lumpe of gold, a 
oertaintie of the South sea, or one of the lost company sent 

With the second supply in Virginia. 193 

"out by Sir Walter Raleigh, I know not; nor why he brought 
such a hue peeced Barge, not to beare vs to that South sea, 
till we had borne her over the mountaines, which how farre 
they extend is yet vnknowne. As for the Coronation of 
Powhatan, and his presents of Bason and Ewer, Bed, Bed- 
- stead, Clothes, and such costly nouelties, they had beene 
much better well spared then so ill spent, for wee had his fa- 
vour much better onely for a playne peeee of Copper, till this 
stately kinde of soliciting, made him so much overvalue him- 
selfe, that he respected vs as much as nothing at all. As for 
the hyring of the Poles and Dutch-men, to make Pitch, Tar, 
Glasse, Milles, and Sope ashes, when the Country is replen- 
ished with people, and necessaries, would haue done well, 
but to send them and seauentie more without Viictualls to 
worke, was not so well aduised nor considered of, as it should 
haue beene. Yet this could not haue hurt vs had they beene 
200. though then we were 130 that wanted for our seines. 
For we had the Salvages in that decorum (their harvest be- 
ing newly gathered.) that we^feared not to get victuals for 
500. Now was there no way to make vs miserable, but to 
neglect that time to make prouision whilst it was to be had, 
the which was done by the direction from England to per- 
forate this strange discovery, but a more strange Coronation 
to loose that time, spend that victualls we had, tyre and starue 
our men, hauing no meanes to carry victuals, munition, the 
hurt or sicke, but on their owne backes. How or by whom 
they were inuented I know not: but Captaine Newport we 
onely accounted the Author, who to effect these proiects, had 
so guilded mens hopes with great promises, that both Com- 
pany and Councell concluded his resolution for the most part: 
God doth know they little knew what they did, nor vnder- 
stood their owne estates to conclude his conclusions, against 
all the inconveniences the foreseeing President alledged. — 
Of this Supply there was added to the Councell, one Cap 
taine Richard Waldo and Captaine Wynne, two ancient 
Souldiers, and valiant Gentlemen, but yet ignorant of the 
busines, (being but newly arriued.) Ratliffe was also per- 
mitted to haue his voyce, and Mr. Scrivener, desirous to see 
strange Countries: so that although Smith was President, yet 
the Maior part of the Councell had the authoritie and ruled 
it as they listed. As for clearing Smiths obiections, how 
Pitch and Tarre, Wainscot, Clapbord, Glasse, and Sope ashes. 

194 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

could be provided, to relade the ship, or provision got to 
Hue withall, when none was in the Country, and that we had, 
spent, before the ship departed to effect these projects. The 
answer was, Captaine Newport vndertooke to fraught the 
Pinnace of twentie tunneswith Cornein going and returning 
in his Discovery, and to refraught her againe from Werowo- 
comoco of Powhatan. Also promising a great proportion of 
victualls from the Ship; inferring that Smiths propositions 
were onely devices to hinder his iourney, to effect it himselfe; 
and that the crueltie he had vsed to the Salvages, might well 
be the occasion to hinder these Designes, and seeke revenge 
on him. For which taxation all workes were left, and 120 
chosen men were appointed for Newports guard in this Dis- 
covery. But Captaine Smith to make cleare all those seem- 
ing suspicions, that the Salvages were not so desperate as 
was pretended by Captaine Newport, and how willing (since 
by their authoritie they would haue it so) he was to assist 
them what he could, because the Coronation would consume 
much time, he vndertooke himselfe their message to Powha- 
tan, to intreat him to come to lames Towne to receiue his 
presents. And where Neivport durst not goe with less then 
120. he onely tooke with him Captaine Waldo, Mr. Andrew 
Buckler, Edward Brinton, and Samuel Collier: with these 
foure he went over land to Werowocomoco, some 12 myles; 
there he passed the river of Pamavnkee in a Salvage Canow. 
Poivhatau being 30 myles of, was presently sent for: in the 
meane time Pocahontas and her women entertained Captaine 
Smith in this manner. 

In a fayre plaine field they made a fire, before which, he 
sitting vpon a mat, suddainly amongst the woods was heard 
such a hydeous noise and shreeking, that the English betooke 
thcmselues to their armes, and seized on two or three old men 
by them supposing Powhatan with all his power was come to 
surprise them. But presently Pocahontas came, willing him 
to kill her if any hurt were intended, and the beholders, which 
were men, women, and children, satisfied the Captaine there 
was no such matter. Then presently they were presented 
with this anticke; thirtie young women came naked out of 
the woods, onely covered behind and before with a few greene 
leaucs, their bodies all painted, some of one colour, some of 
another, but all differing, their leader had a fayre payre of 
Bucks homes en her head, and an Otters skiniie at hei girdle, 

With the second supply in Virginia. 196 

<and another at her arme, a quiver of arrowes at her backe, 
a bow and arrowes in her hand; the next had in her hand a 
sword, another a club, another a pot-sticke; all horned alike: 
the rest every one with their severall devises. These fiends 
with most hellish shouts and cryes, rushing from among the 
trees, cast themselues in a ring about the fire, singing and 
dauncing with most excellent ill varietie, oft falling into their 
infernal] passions, and solemnly againe to sing and daunce; 
having spent neare an houre in this Mascarado, as they en- 
tred in like manner they departed. 

Having reaccommodated themselues, they solemnly invited 
him to their lodgings, where he was no sooner within the 
house, but all these Nymphs more tormented him then ever, 
with crowding, pressing, and hanging about him, most tedi- 
ously crying, Loue you not me? loue you not me? This salu- 
tation ended, the feast was set, consisting of all the Salvage 
dainties they could devise: some attending, others singing and 
dauncing about them; which mirth being ended with fire- 
brands in stead of Torches they conducted him to his lodging. 

Thus did they shew their feats of armes, and others art in dauncingv 
Some other vs'd there oaten pipe; and others voyces chanting - . 

The next day came Powhatan: Smith delivered his mes- 
sage of the presents sent him, and delivered him Namontack 
he had sent for England, desiring him to come to his Father 
Newport, to accept these presents, and conclude their revenge 
against the Monacans. Wherevnto this subtile Savage thus 
reply ed. 

//' your King haue sent me Presents, I also am a King, 
and this is my land: eight dayes I ivill stay to receiue them. 
Your Father is to come to me, not I to him, nor yet to your 
Fort, neither will I bite at such a bait: as for the Monacans 
/ can revenge my owne iniuries, and as for Atquanachuk, 
where you say your brother was slaine, it is a contrary way 
from those parts you suppose it; but for any salt water beyond 
the mountaines, the Relations you haue had from my people 
are false. Wherevpon he began to draw plots vpon the 
ground (according to his discourse) of all those Regions. — - 
Many other discourses they had (yet both content to giue 
each other content in complementall Courtesies) and so Cap- 
taine Smith returned with this answer. 

196 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

Vpon this the Presents wete sent by water which is ncare 
an hundred myles, and the Captains went by land with fiftie 
good shot. All being met a Werowocomoco, the next day 
was appointed for his Coronation, then the presents were, 
brought him, his Bason and Ewer, Bed and furniture setvp, 
his scarlet Cloke and apparell with much adoe put on him, 
being perswaded by Namontack they would not hurt him: 
but a foule trouble there was to make him kneele to receiue 
his Crowne, he neither knowing the maiesty nor meaning of 
a Crowne, nor bending of the knee, endured so many per- 
swasions, examples, and instructions, as tyred them all; at 
last by leaning hard on his shoulders, he a little stooped, 
and three having the crowne in their hands put it on his head, 
when by the warning of a Pistoll the Boats were prepared 
with such a volley of shot, that the King start vp in a horri- 
ble feare/ till he saw all was well. Then remembering him- 
selfe to congratulate their kinduesse, he gaue his old shooes 
and his mantell to Captaine Newport: but perceiving his pur-' 
pose was to discover the Monacans, he laboured to divert his 
resolution, refusing to lend him either men or guides more 
then Namontack; and so after some small complementall 
kiridnesse on both sides, in requitall of his presents he pre- 
sented Newport with a heape of wheat eares that might con- 
taine some 7 or 8 Bushels, and as much more we bought in 
the Towne, wherewith we returned to the Fort. 

The Ship having disburdened her selfe of 70 persons, with 
the first Gentlewoman and woman-seruant that arrived in our 
Colony, Captaine Neivport with V10 chosen men, led by 
Captaine Waldo, Lieutenant Pcrcic, Captaine Winne, Mr. 
West, and Mr Scrivener, set forward for the discovery of 
Monacan, leaving the President at the Fort with about 8*0. 
or 90. (such as they were) to relade the Ship. Arriving at 
the Falles we marched by laud some fortie myles in two dayes 
and a halfe, and so returned downe the same path we went. 
Two tovvnes we discovered of the Monacans, called Massi- 
nacak and Mowhemenchouch, the people neither vsed vs well 
nor ill, yet for our securitie we tooke one of their petty 
Kings, and led him bound to conduct vs the way. And in 
our returnes searched many places we supposed Mines, about 
which we spent some time in refyning, having one William 
Callicut, a refyner fitted for that purpose. From that crust 
of earth we digged, he perswaded vs to beleeue he extracted 

With the second supply in Virginia. 197 

some small quantitie of silver; and (not vnlikely) better stuffe 
might be had for the digging. With this poore tryall, being 
contented to leaue this fayre, fertile, well watered Country; 
and comming to the Falles, the Salvages fayned there were 
divers ships come into the Bay, to^kill them at lames Towne. 
Trade they would not, and finde their Corne we could not; 
for they had hid it in the woods: and being thus deluded, we 
arrived at lames Towne, halfe sicke, all complaining, and ty- 
red with toyle, famine, and discontent, to haue onely but dis- 
covered our guilded hopes, and such fruitlesse certainties, as 
Captaine Smith foretold vs. 

But those that hunger seeke to slake, 
Which thus abounding wealth would rake.- 
Not all the gemmes of Ister shore, 
Nor all the gold of Lydia's store, 
Can fill their greedie appetite; 
It is a thing so infinite. 

No sooner were we landed, but the President dispersed so 
many as were able, some for Glasse, others for Tarre, Pitch, 
and Sope-ashes, leauing them with the Fort to the Councels 
oversight, but 30 of vs he conducted dowe the river some 6 
myles from lames towne, to learne to make Clapbord, cut 
downe trees, and lye in woods. Amongst the rest he had 
chosen Gabriel Beadle, and John Russell, the onely two gal- 
lants of this last Supply, and both proper Gentlemen. Strange 
were these pleasures to their conditions; yet lodging, eating, 
and drinking, working or playing, they but doing as the Pre- 
sident did himselfe. All these things were carried so plea- 
santly as within a weeke they became Masters: making it 
their delight to heare the trees thunder as they fell; but the 
Axes so oft blistered their tender fingers, that many times 
every third blow had a loud othe to drowne the echo; for 
remedie of which sinne, the President devised how to haue 
every mans othes numbred, and at night for every othe to 
haue a Cann of water powred downe his sleeue, with which 
every offender was so washed (himselfe and all) that a man 
should scarce heare an othe in a weeke. 

For he who scornes and makes but iests of cursings, and his othe. 
He doth contemne, not man but God, nor God, nor man, but both. 

By this, let no man thinke that the President and these 
Gentlemen spent their times as common Wood-naggers 
at felling of trees, or such other like labours, or that they 

198 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

were pressed to it as hirelings, or comnon slaues; for what 
they did, after they were but once a little invred, it seemed 
and some conceited it, onely as a pleasure and recreation, yet I 
30 or 40 of such voluntary Gentlemen would doe more in | 
a day then 100 of the rest that must be prest to it by com- 
pulsion, but twentie good workmen had beene better then 
them all. 

Master Scrivener, Captaine Waldo, and Captaine Winne \ 
at the Fort, every one in like manner carefully regarded their 
charge. The President returning from amongst the woods, 
seeing the time consumed and no provision gotten, (and the 
Ship lay idle at a great charge and did nothing) presently 
imbarked himselfe in the discovery barge, giving order to the 
Councell to send Lieutenant Percie after him with the next I 
barge that arrived at the Fort; two Barges he had himselfe i 
and 18 men, but arriving at Chickahamania, that dogged Na- 
tion was too well acquainted with our wants, refusing to ] 
trade, with as much scorne and insolency as they could ex- - 
presse. The President perceiuing it was Powhatans policy > 
to starue vs, told them he came not so much for their Corne, , 
as to revenge his imprisonment, and the death of his men i 
murthered by them, and so landing his men and ready to ) 
charge them, they immediately fled: and presently after sent t 
their Ambassadors with corne, fish, foule, and what they had 1 
to make their peace, (their Corne being that yeare but bad) ) 
they complained extreamely of their owne wants, yet fraught - 
ed our Boats with an hundred Bushels of Corne, and in like 
manner Lieutenant Percies, that not long after arrived, and ! 
having done the best they could to content vs, we parted \ 
good friends, and returned to lames towne. 

Though this much contented the Company, (that feared 1 
nothing more then starving) yet some so envied his good sue- - 
cesse, that they rather desired to hazzard a starving, then his 
paines should proue so much more effectuall then theirs. — 
Some proiects there were invented by Newport and Ratliffe, 
not onely to haue deposed him, but to haue kept him out of 
the Fort; for that being President, he would leaue his place - ; 
and the Fort without their consents, but their homes were 
so much too short to effect it, as they themselues more nar- 
rowly escaped a greater mischiefe. 

All this time our old Taverne made as much of all of them 
that had either money or ware as could be desired: by this 

With the second supply in Virginia, 199 

time they were become so perfect on all sides (I meane the 
souldiers, saylers, and Salvages) as there was tenne times 
more care to maintaine their damnable and private trade, then 
to provide for the Colony things that were necessary. Nei- 
ther was it a small policy in Newport and the Marriners to 
report in England we had such plentie, and bring vs so ma- 
ny men without victuals, when they had so many private 
Factors in the Fort, that within six or seauen weeks, of two 
or three hundred Axes, Chissels, Hows, and Pick-axes, scarce 
twentie could be found: and for Pike-heads, shot, Powder, 
or any thing they could steale from their fellowes, was vend- 
ible; they knew as well (and as secretly) how to convey them 
to trade with the Salvages for Furres, Baskets, Mussaneeks, 
young Beasts, or such like Commodities, a* exchange them 
with the Saylers for Butter, Cheese, Peefe, Porke, Aqua 
vita, Beere, Bisket, Oatmeale, and Oyie: and then fayne all 
was sent them from their friends And though- Virginia af- 
foorded no Furres for the St(ve, yet one Master in one voy- 
age hath got so many by Affl indirect meanes, as he confes- 
sed to haue sold in Ens^nd for 301. 

Those are the S^int-seeming Worthies of Virginia, that 
haue notwithstanding all this [meate, drinke, and wages; but 
now they oegin to grow weary, their trade being both per- 
ceived and prevented; none hath beene in Virginia that hath 
observed any thing, which knowes not this to be true, and 
yet the losse, the scorne, the misery, and shame, was the 
poore Officers, Gentlemen, and carelesse Governours, who 
were air 4hus bought and sold; the adventurers cousened, 
and the action overthrowne by their false excuses, informa- 
tions, and directions. By this let all men iudge, how this 
businesse could prosper, being thus abused by such pilfring 
occasions. And had not Captaine Newport cryed Peccavi, 
the President would haue discharged the ship, and caused 
him to haue stayed one yeare in Virginia, to learne to speake 
of his owne experience. 

Master Scrivener was sent with the Barges and Pinnace 
to Werowocomoco, where he found the Salvages more readie 
to fight then trade; but his vigilancy was such as prevented 
their proiects, and by the meanes of Namontack got three or 
foure hogsheads of Corne, and as much Pocones, which is a 
red roote, which then was esteemed an excellent Dye. 

200 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

Captaine Newport being dispatched, with the tryals of 
Pitch, Tarre, Glasse, Frankincense, Sope ashes; with that 
Clapboord and Waynscot that could be provided; met with 
Mr. Scrivener at poynt Comfort, and so returned for England. 
We remaining were about two hundred. 

The Copy of a Letter sent to the Treasurer and 
Councell of Virginia from Captaine Smith, then 
President in Virginia. 

Right Honorable, frc. 

I received your Letter, wherein you write, that our minds 
are so set vpon faction, and idle conceits in diuiding the 
Country without your consents, and that we feed You but 
with ifs and ands, hopes, and some few proofes; as if we 
would keepe the mystery of the be^inesse to our selues: and 
that we must expressly follow your instructions sent by Cap- 
tain Newport: the charge of wliose voyage amounts to neare 
two thousand pounds, the which if we cannot defray by the 
Ships returne, we are alike to remain as banished men. To 
these particulars I humbly intreat your Pardons if I offend 
you with my rude Answer. 

For our factions, vnlesse you would haue me run away 
and leaue the Country, I cannot prevent them: because I do 
make many stay that would els fly any whether. For the 
idle Letter sent to my Lord of Salisbury, by the President 
and his confederats, for diuiding the Country &c, What it 
was I know not, for you saw no hand of mine to it; nor euer 
dream't I of any such matter. That we feed you with hopes, 
&c. Though I be no scholer, I am past a schoole-boy; and 
I desire but to know, what either you, and these here doe 
know, but that I haue learned to tell you by the continuall 
hazard of my life. I haue not concealed from you any thing 
I know; but I feare some cause you to beleeue much more 
then is true. 

Expressly to follow your directions by Captaine Newport, 
though they be performed, I was directly against it; but ac- 
cording to our Commission, I was content to be overruled by 
themaior part of the Councell, I feare to the hazard of vsall; 

With the second supply in Virginia. 201 

which now is generally confessed when it is too late. Onely 
Captaine Winne and Captaine Waldo I haue sworne of the 
Coimcell, and Crowned Powhatan according to your instruc- 

For the charge of this Voyage of two or three thousand 
pounds, we haue not receiued the value of an hundred pounds. 
And for the quartred Boat to be borne by the Soukliers over 
the Falles, Newport had 120 of the best men he could chuse. 
If he had burnt her to ashes, one might haue carried her in a 
bag, but as she is, fine hundred cannot, to a navigable place 
aboue the Falles. And for him at that time to find in the 
South Sea, a Mine of gold; or any of them sent by Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh: at our Consultation I told them was as likely as 
the rest. But during this great discovery of thirtie myles, 
(which might as well haue beene done by one man, and much 
more, for the value of a pound of Copper at a seasonable 
tyme) they had the Pinnace and all the Boats with them, 
but one that remained with me to serue the Fort. In then- 
absence I followed the new begun workes of Pitch and Tarre, 
Glasse, Sopeashes, Clapboord, whereof some small quantities 
we haue sent you. But if you rightly consider, what an 
infinite toyle it is in Russia and Swethland, where the woods 
are proper for naught els, and though there be the helpe both 
of man and beast in those ancient Common-wealths, which 
many an hundred yeares haue vsed it, yet thousands of those 
poore people can scarce get necessaries to liue, but from hand 
to mouth. And though your Factors there can buy as mucft 
in a week as will fraught you a ship, or as much as you 
please; you must not expect from vs any such matter, which 
are but as many of ignorant miserable soules, that arc scarce 
able to get wherewith to liue, and defend our selues against 
the inconstant Salvages: finding but here and there a tree fit 
for the purpose, and want all things els the Russians haue. 
For the Coronation of Poivhatan, by whose advice you sent 
him such presents, I know not; but this giue me leaue to tell 
you, I feare they will be the confusion of vs all ere we heare 
from you againe. At your Ships arrival!, the Salvages har- 
vest was newly gathered, and we going to buy it, our owne 
not being halfe sufficient for so great a number. As for the 
two ships loading of Corne Newport promised to provide vs 
from Powhatan, he brought vs but fourteene Bushels; and 
from the Moiiacans nothing, but the most of the men sicke 

202 The Discoveries and Accidents 

and neare famished. From your Ship we had not provision 
in victuals worth twenty pound, and we are more then two 
hundred to liue vpon this: the one halfe sicke, the other little 
better. For the Saylers (I confesse) they daily make good 
cheare, but our dyet is a little meale and water, and not suf- 
ficient of that. Though there be fish in the Sea, foules in 
the ayre, and Beasts in the woods, their bounds are so large, 
they so wilde, and we so weake and ignorant, we cannot much 
trouble them. Captaine Neivport we much suspect to be the 
Author of those inventions. Now that you should know, 
I haue made you as great a discovery as he, for lesse charge 
then he spendeth you every meale; I haue sent you this 
Mappe of the Bay and Rivers, with an annexed Relation of 
the Countries and Nations that inhabit them, as you may 
see at large. Also two barrels of stones, and such as I take 
to be good Iron ore at the least; so divided, as by their 
notes you may see in what places I found them. The Soul- 
diers say many of your officers maintaine their families out 
of that you sent vs: and that Neivport . hath an hundred 
pounds a yeare for carrying newes. For every master you 
haue yet sent can find the way as well as he, so that an hun- 
dred pounds might be spared, which is more then we haue 
all, that helps to pay him wages. Cap. Ratliffe is now call- 
ed Sickletnore, a poore counterfeited Imposture. I haue sent 
you him home, least the company should cut his throat. — 
What he is, m w every one can tell you: if he and Archer 
returne againe, they are sufficient to keepe vs alwayes in 
factions. When you send againe I entreat you rather send 
but thirty Carpenters, husbandmen, gardiners, fisher men, 
blacksmiths, masons, and diggers vp of trees' roots, well pro- 
vided, then a thousaud of such as we haue: for except wee 
be able both to lodge them, and feed them, the most will 
consume with want of necessaries before they can be made 
good for any thing. Thus if you please to consider this ac- 
count, and the vnnecessary wages to Captaine Newport, or 
his ships so long lingering and staying here (for notwith- 
standing his boasting to leaue vs victuals for 12 moneths, 
though we had 89 by this discovery lame and sicke, and but 
a pinte of Corne a day for a man, we were constrained to 
giue him three hogsheads of that to victuall him homeward) 
or yet to send into Germany or Poleland for glasse-men and 
the rest, till we be able to sustaine ourselues, and releeue 

With the second supply in Virginia. 


them when they come. It were better to giue fiue hundred 
pound a tun for those grosse Commodities in Denmarke, then 
send for them hither, till more necessary things be provided. 
For in over-toyling our weake and vnskilfull bodies, to satis- 
fie this desire of present profit, we can scarce ever recover 
our selues from one Supply to another. And I humbly in 
treat you hereafter, let vs know what we should receive, and 
not stand to the Saylers courtesie to leaue vs what they please, 
els you may charge vs what you will, but we not you with any 
thing. These are the causes that haue kept vs in Virginia. 
from laying such a foundation, that ere this might haue given 
much better content aud satisfaction; but as yet you must 
not looke for any profitable returnes: so I humbly rest. 

The Names of those in this Supply, were these: 
with their Proceedings and Accidents. 

Captaine Peter Winne, > ,, . , ] , „ ,, r , ,. 

Captaine Richard Waldo, \ were a PP°V nted io ** °f ** <*"*** 
Master Francis West, brother to the Lord La Warre. 

Thomas Graues. 


Iohn Clarke. 

Raleigh Chroshaw. 

Ieffrey Shortridge 

Gabriel Beadle. 

Dionis Oconor. 

lohn Readle. 

Hugh Winne. 

Iohn Russell. 

Dauid ap Hugh. 

William Russell. 

Thomas Bradley. 

Iohn Cuderington. 

Iohn Burras. 

William Sambage. 

Thomas Lavander 

Henry Leigh. 

Henry Sell. 

Henry Philpot. 

Master Powell. 

Harmon Harrison.. 


David Ellis. 

Daniel Tucker. 

Thomas Gibson. 

Henry Collins. 


Thomas Dawse. 

Hugh Wbllestou,. 

Thomas Mallard. 

Iohn Hoult. 

William Tayler. 

Thomas Norton. 

Thomas Fox. 

George Yarington. 

Nicholas Hancock. 

George Burton. 


Thomas Abbay. 


William Dowman. 


Thomas Maxes. 


Michael Lowick. 


Master Hunt. 


Thomas Forrest. 


Iohn Dauxe. 


Thomas Phelps. 


Milman.} „ 
Hillard. i S °! e9 ' 

Iohn Prat. 

Mistresse Forrest, and Anne Burras her maide; eight Dutch 
men and Poles, with some others, to the number of seaventie 
persons, &c. 

204 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

These poore conclusions so affrighted vs all with famine, 
that the President provided for Nandsamimd, and tooke with 
him Captaine Winne, and Mr Scrivener, then returning from 
Captaine Newport. These people also long denied him not 
onely the 400 Baskets of Corne they promised, but any trade 
at all; (excusing themselues they had spent most they had, 
and were commanded by Powhatan to keepe that they had, 
and not to let vscome into their river) till we were constrain- 
ed to begin with them perforce. Vpon the discharging of 
our Muskets they all fled and shot not an Arrow; the first 
house we came to we set on fire, which when they perceiued, 
they desired we would make no more spoyle, and they would 
giue vs halfe they had: how they collected it I know not, 
but before night they loaded our three Boats; and so we re- 
turned to our quarter some foure jmyles downe- the River, 
which was onely the open woods vnder the lay of a hill, 
where all the ground was covered with snow, and hard frozen; 
the snow we digged away and made a great fire in the place; 
when the ground was well dryed, we turned away the fire; 
and covering the place with a mat, there we lay very warme. 
To keepe vs from the winde we made a shade of another 
Mat; as the winde turned we turned our shade, and when 
the ground grew cold we remoued the fire. And thus many 
a cold winter night haue wee laine in this miserable manner, 
yet those that most commonly went vpon all those occasions, 
were alwayes in health, lusty, and fat. For sparing them 
this yeare, the next yeare they promised to plant purposely 
for vs; and so we returned to lames towne. About this time 
there was a marriage betwixt John Laydon and Anne Burras; 
which was the first marriage we had in Virginia. 

Long he stayed not, but fitting himselfe and Captaine 
Waldo with two Barges. From Chawopowcanock, and all 
parts thereabouts, all the people were fled, as being iealous 
of our intents; till we discovered the river and people of Ap- 
aniatuck; where we found not much, that they had we equal- 
ly divided, but gaue them copper, and such things as con- 
tented them in consideration. Master Scrivener and Lieu- 
tenant Percie went also abroad, but could find nothing. 

The President seeing the procrastinating of time, was no 
course to Hue, resolved with Captaine Waldo (whom he knew 
to be sure in time of need) to surprise P&whqtan, and all his 
provision, but the vnwiliingnesse of Captaine Winne, and 

With the second supply in Virginia. 205 

Master Scrivener, for some private respect, plotted in England 
to ruine Captaine Smith, did their best to hinder their proiect; 
but the President whom no perswasions could perswade to 
starue, being invited by Powhatan to come vnto him: and if 
he would send him but men to build him a house, giue him a 
gryndstone, fiftie swords, some peeces, a cock and a hen, with 
much copper and beads, he would load his Ship with Corne. 
The President not ignorant of his devises and subtiltie, yet 
vnwilling to neglect any opportunitie, presently sent three 
Dutch-men and two English, having so small allowance, few 
were able to doe any thing to purpose: knowing there needed 
no better a Castle to effect this proiect, tooke order with Cap- 
taine Waldo to second him, if need required; Scrivener he left 
his substitute, and set forth with the Pinnace, two Barges, 
and fortie-six men, which onely were such as voluntarily of- 
fered themselues for his Iourney, the which by reason of Mr 
Scriveners ill successe, was censured very desperate, they all 
knowing Smith would not returne emptie, if it were to be had; 
howsoever, it caused many of those that he had appointed, 
to find excuses to stay behinde. 


Captaine Smiths Iourney to Pamavnkee* 

The twentie-nine of December he set forward for Were- 
ivocomoco: his Company were these; 

In the Discovery Barge himselfe. Anas Todkill. ~\ 

Robert Behethland. ^ William Loue. | §5 

Nathanael Graues. I £ William Bentley. 

Iohn Russell. I ~ Ietfrey Shortridge. 

Raleigh Chrashow. f 3 Edward Pising. 

Michael Sicklemore. I § William Ward. 

Richard Worley. J 

In the Pinnace. 

Lieutenant Percie, brother to the ~Ejirle of Northumberland- 
Master Francis West, brother to the Lord La Warre 
William Phittiplace, Captaine of the Pinnace. 
Michael Phittiplace. -j 05 lames Browne, 

left* rev Abbot, Serieant. 
William Tankard. 
George Yarington. 

Ionas Profit, Master. Iohi. Dods, Souldier. 

Robert Ford, Clarke of the Cow Henry Powell, Souldier. 

cell. . 

}C5 lames Browne. -j §p 

§ Edward Brinton. / S, 

S£ George Burton- f § 

3 Thomas Coe J ? 

206 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

Thomas Gipson, David Ellis, Nathanael Peacock, Saylers. 
John Prat, George Acrig, lames Read, Nicholas Hancock, 
lames Watkins, Thomas Lambert, foure Dutch-men, and 
Richard Salvage were sent by land before to build the house 
for Powhatan against our Arrivall. 

This company being victualled but for three or foure dayes, 
lodged the first night at Warraskoyack, where the President 
tooke sufficient provision. This kind King did his best to 
divert him from seeing Powhatan, but perceiuing he could 
not prevaile, he advised in this manner. Captaine Smith, 
you shall find Powhatan to vse you kindly, but trust him not, 
and be sure he haue no opportunitie to seize on your Amies; 
for he hath sent for you onely to cut your throats. The Cap- 
taine thanking him for his good counsell: yet the better to 
try his loue, desired guides to Chawwonock; for he would 
send a present to that King, to bind him his friend. To per- 
forme this iourney was sent Mr Sicklemore, a very valiant, 
honest, and a painefull Souldier: with him two guides, and 
directions how to seeke for the lost company of Sir Walter 
Raleighs, and silke Grasse. Then we departed thence, the 
President assuring the King perpetuall loue; and left with him 
Samuel Collier his Page to learne the Language. 

So this Kings deeds by sacred Oath adiur'd. 
More wary proues, and circumspect by ods.* 
Fearing at least his double forfeiture; 
To offend his friends, and sin against his Gods. 

The next night being lodged at Kecoughtan; six or seaven 
dayes the extreame winde, rayne, frost and snow caused vs 
to keepe Christmas among the Salvages, where we were ne- 
ver more merry, nor fed on more plentie of good Oysters, 
Fish, Flesh, Wild foule, and good bread; nor never had 
better fires in England, then in the dry smoaky hou- 
ses of Kecoughtan: but departing thence, when we found 
no houses we were not curious in any weather to lye 
three or foure nights together vnder the trees by a fire, 
as formerly is sayd. An hundred fortie eight foules the 
President, Anthony Bagrudl, and Serieant Pising did kill at 
three shoots. At Kiskiack the frost and contrary winds 
forced vs three or foure dayes also (to suppresse the insolency 
of those proud Salvages) to quarter in their houses, yet guard 
our Barge, and cause them giue vs what we wanted; though 
we were but twelue and himselfe, yet we never wanted shelter 

With the second supply in Virginia. 20? 

where we found any houses. The 12 of lanuary we arriv- 
ed at Werowocomoco, where the river was frozen neare halte 
a myle from the shore; but to neglect no time, the President 
with his Barge so far had approached by breaking the ice, 
as the ebbe left him amongst those oasie shoules, yet rather 
then to lye there frozen to death, by his owne example he 
taught them to march neere middle deepe, a flight shot through 
this muddy frozen oase. When the Barge floated, he ap- 
poynted two or three to returne her aboord the Pinnace. — 
Where for want of water in melting the ice, they made fresh 
water, for the river there was salt. But in this march Mr 
Russell, (whom none could perswade to stay behinde) being 
somewhat ill, and exceeding heauie, so overtoyled himselfe 
as the rest had much adoe (ere he got ashore) to regaine life 
into his dead benummed spirits. Quartering in the next 
houses we found, we sent to Powhatan for provision, who 
sent vs plentie of bread, Turkies, and Venison; the next day 
having feasted vs after his ordinary manner, he began to aske 
vs when we would be gone: fayning he sent not for vs, nei- 
ther had he any corne; and his people much lessc: yet for for- 
tie swords he would procure vs fortie Baskets. The Presi- 
dent shewing him the men there present that brought him 
the message and conditions, asked Powhatan how it chanced 
he became so forgetfull; thereat the King concluded the mat- 
ter with a merry laughter, asking for our Commodities, but 
none he liked without gunnes and swords, valuing a Basket 
of Corne more precious then a Basket of Copper; saying lie 
could rate his Corne, but not the Copper. 

Captaine Smith seeing the intent of this subtill Salvage 
began to deale with him after this manner. " Powhatan, 
though I had many courses to haue made my provision, yet 
beleeving your promises to supply my wants, I neglected all 
to satisfie your desire: and to testifie my loue, I sent you my 
men for your building, neglecting mine owne. What your 
people had you haue ingrossed, forbidding them our trade: 
and now you thinke by consuming the time, we shall consume 
for want, not having to fulfill your strange demands. As for 
swords and gunns, 1 told you long agoe I had none to spare; 
and you must know those I haue can keepe me from want: 
yet steale or wrong you I will not, nor dissolue that friend- 
ship we haue mutually promised, except you constraine me 
by our bad vsage." 


208 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

The King having attentiuely listned to this Discourse, pn 
mised that both he and his Country would spare him what h 
could, the which within two dayes they should receiue. " Yei 
Captaine Smith," sayth the King, "some doubt I haue of 
your comming hither, that makes me not so kindly seeke to 
relieue you as I would: for many doe informe me, your com- 
ming hither is not for trade, but to invade my people, and pos- 
sesse my Country, who dare not come to bring you Corne, 
seeing you thus armed with your men. To free vs of this 
feare, leaue aboord your weapons, for here they are needlesse, 
we being all friends, and for ever Powhatans." 

With many such discourses they spent the day, quartering 
that night in the Kings houses. The next day he renewed 
his building, which hee little intended should proceede. For 
the Dutch-men finding his plentie, and knowing our want, 
and perceiving his preparations to surprise vs, little thinking 
we could escape both him and famine; (to obtaine his 
favour) revealed to him so much as they knew of our estates 
and proiects, and how to prevent them. One of them being 
of so great a spirit, iudgement, and resolution, and a hireling 
that was certaine of his wages for his labour, and ever well 
vsed both he and his Countrymen; that the President knew 
not whom better to trust; and not knowing any fitter for that 
imployment, had sent him as a spy to discover Powhatans 
intent, then little doubting his honestie, nor could ever be 
certaine of his villany till neare halfe a yeare after. 

Whilst we expected the comming in of the Country, we 
wrangled out of the King ten quarters of Corne for a copper 
Kettell, the which the President perceiving him much to af- 
fect, valued it at a much greater rate; but in regard of his 
scarcity he would accept it, provided we should haue as much 
more the next yeare, or els the Country of Monacan. — 
W T herewith each seemed well contented, and Powhatan began 
to expostulate the difference of Peace and W T arre after this 

" Captaine Smith, you may vnderstand that I having seene 
the death of all my people thrice, and not any one lining of 
those three generations but my selfe; I know the difference 
of Peace and Warre better then any in my Country. But 
now I am old and ere long must die, my brethren, namely 
Opitchapam, Opechancanough, and Kekataugh, my two sis- 
ters, and their two daughters, are distinctly each others sue- 

With the second supply in Virginia. 209 

cessors. I wish their experience no lesse then mine, and your 
lone to them no lesse then mine to you. But this bruit from 
Nandsamund, that you are come to destroy my Country, so 
much affrighteth all my people as they dare not visit you. 
What will it availe you to take that by force you may quick- 
ly haue by loue, or to destroy them that provide you food. 
What can you get by warre, when we can hide our provisions 
and fly to the woods? whereby you must famish by wronging 
vs your friends. And why are you thus iealous of our loues 
seeing vs vnarmed, and both doe, and are willing still to hede 
you, with that you cannot get but by our labours? Thinke 
you I am so simple, not to know it is better to eate good meate, 
lye well, and sleepe quietly with my women and children, 
laugh and be merry with you, haue copper, hatchets, or what 
I want being your friend: then be forced to flie from all, to 
lie cold in the woods, feede vpon Acornes, rootes, and such 
trash, and be so hunted by you, that I can neither rest, eate, 
nor sleepe; but my tyred men must watch, and if a twig but 
breake, every one cryeth there commeth Captainc Smith: then 
must I fly I know not whether: and thus with miserable feare, 
end mv miserable life, leauing my pleasures to such youths 
as you, which through your rash vnaduisednesse may quickly 
as miserably end, for want of that, you never know where to 
finde. Let this therefore assure you of our loues, and every 
yeare our friendly trade shall furnish you with Corne; and 
now also if you would come in friendly manner to see vs, 
and not thus with your guns and swords as to invade your 
foes." To this subtill discourse, the President thus replyed. 
" Seeing you will not rightly conceiue of our words, we 
striue to make you know our thoughts by our deeds; the vow 
I made you of my loue, both my selfe and my men haue kept. 
As for your promise I find it euery day violated by some of 
your subiects: yet we finding your loue and kindnesse, our 
custome is so far from being vngratefull, that for your sake 
onely, we haue curbed our thirsting desire of revenge; els 
had they knowne as well the crueltie we vse to our enemies, 
as our true loue and courtesie to our friends. And I thinke 
your iudgement sufficient to conceiue, as well by the adven- 
tures we haue vndertaken, as by the advantage we haue (by 
our Armes) of yours: that had we intended you any hurt, 
long ere this we could haue effected it. Your people com- 
ming to lames Towne are entertained with their Bowes and 

210 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

Arrowes without any exceptions; we esteeming it with you 
as it is with vs, to wear our armes as our apparell. As for 
the danger of our enemies, in such warres consist our chief- 
est pleasure: for your riches we haue no vse: as for the hi- 
ding your provision, or by your flying to the woods, we shall 
not so vnadvisedly starue as you conclude, your friendly care 
in that behalfe is needlesse, for we haue a rule to finde be- 
yond your knowledge." 

Many other discourses they had, till at last they began to 
trade. But the King seeing his will would not be admitted 
as a law, our guard dispersed, nor our men disarmed, he 
(sighing) breathed his minde once more in this manner. 

" Captaine Smith, I neuer use any Werowance so kindely 
as your selfe, yet from you I receiue the least kindnesse of 
any. Captaine Newport gaue me swords, copper, clothes, a 
bed, towels, or what I desired; euer taking what I offered 
him, and would send away his gunnes when I intreated him: 
none doth deny to lye at my feet, or refuse to doe what I de- 
sire, but onely you; of whom I can haue nothing but what 
you regard not, and yet you will haue whatsoeuer you de- 
mand. Captaine Newport you call father, and so you call 
me; but I see for all vs both you will doe what you list, and we 
must both seeke to content you. But if you intend so friend- 
ly as you say, send hence your armes, that I may beleeue 
you; for you see the loue I beare you, cloth cause me thus 
nakedly to forget my selfe." 

Smith seeing this Salvage but trifle the time to cut his 
throat, procured the salvages to breake the ice, that hisBoate 
might come to fetch his corne and him; and gaue order for 
more men to come on shore, to surprise the King, with whom 
also he but trifled the time till his men were landed: and to 
keepc him from suspicion, entertained the time with this re- 

" Poichatan you must know, as I haue but one God, I ho- 
nour but one King; and I liue not here as your subiect, but 
as your friend to pleasure you with what 1 can. By the gifts 
you bestow on me, you gaine more then by trade: yet would 
you visit mee as I doe you, you should know it is not our cus- 
tome, to sell our curtesies as a vendible commodity. Bring 
all your countrey with you for your guard, I will not dislike 
it as being ouer iealous. I3nt to content you, to morrow I 
will leaue my armes, and trust to your promise. I call you 

With the second supply in Virginia. 21 1 

father indeed, and as a father you shall see I will loue you: 
but the small care you haue of such a childe caused my men 
perswade me to looke to myselfe." 

By this time Powhatan hauing knowledge his men were 
ready whilest the ice was a breaking, with his luggage wo- 
men and children, fled. Yet to auoyd suspicion, left two or 
three of the women talking with the Captaine, whilest hee 
secretly ran away, and his men that secretly beset the house. 
Which being presently discouered to Captaine Smith, with 
his pistoll, sword, and target hee made such a passage among 
these naked Diuels; that at his first shoot, they next him 
tumbled one ouer another, and the rest quickly fled some 
one way some another: so that without any hurt, onely ac- 
companied with Iohn Russell,hee obtained the corps du guard. 
When they perceiued him so well escaped, and with his 
eighteene men (for he had no more with him a shore) to the 
vttermost of their skill they sought excuses to dissemble the 
matter: and Powhatan to excuse his flight and the sudden 
comming of this multitude, sent our Captaine a great brace- 
let and a chaine of pearle, by an ancient Oratour that bespoke 
vs to this purpose, perceiuing euen then from our Pinnace, a 
Barge and men departing and comming vnto vs. 

" Captaine Smith, our Werowance is fled, fearing your 
gunnes, and knowing when the ice was broken there would 
come more men, sent these numbers but to guard his corne 
from stealing, that might happen without your knowledge: 
now though some bee hurt by your misprision, yet Powha- 
tan is your friend and so will for euer continue. Now since 
the ice is open, he would haue you send away your corne* 
and if you would haue his company, send away also your 
gunnes, which so affrighteth his people, that they dare not 
come t© you as he promised they should." 

Then hauing prouided baskets for our men to carry our 
corne to the boats, they kindly oifered their seruice to guard 
our Armes, that none should steale them. A great many 
they were of goodly well proportioned fellowes, as grim as 
Diuels; yet the very sight of cocking our matches, and being 
to let fly, a few wordes caused them to leaue their bowes 
and arrowes to our guard, and beare downe our corne on 
their backes; wee needed not importune them to make dis- 
patch. But our Barges being left on the oase by the ebbe, 
caused vs stay till the next high-water, so that wee returned 

212 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

againe to our old quarter. Powhatan and his Dutch-men 
brusting with desire to haue the head of Captaine Smith, for 
if they could but kill him, they thought all was theirs, neglected 
not any opportunity to effect his purpose. The Indians with 
all the merry sports they could devise, spent the time till 
night: then they all returned to Powhatan, who all this time 
was making ready his forces to surprise the house and him at 
supper. Notwithstanding the eternall all-seeing God did 
preuent him, and by a strange meanes. For Pocahontas his 
dearest iewell and daughter, in that darke night came through 
the irksome woods, and told our Captaine great cheare should 
be sent vs by and by: but Powhatan and all the power he 
could make, would after come kill vs all, if they that brought 
it could not kill vs with our owne weapons when we were 
at supper. Therefore if we would liue shee wished vs pre- 
sently to be gone. Such things as she delighted in, he would 
haue giuen her: but with the teares running downe her 
cheekes, she said she durst not be seene to haue any: for if 
Poivhatan should know it, she were but dead, and so shee 
ramie away by her selfe as she came. Within lesse then an 
houre came eight or ten lusty fellowes, with great platters of 
venison and other victuall, very importunate to haue vs put 
out our matches (whose smoke made them sicke) and sit 
down to our victuall. But the Captaine made them taste 
euery dish, which done he sent some of them backe to Poiv- bid him make haste for hee was prepared for his com- 
ming. As for them hee knew they came to betray him at 
his supper: but hee would prevent them and their other in- 
tended villanies: so that they migjjt be gone. Not long af- 
ter came more messengers, to see what hewes; not long after 
them others. Thus wee spent the night as vigilantly as they, 
till it was high-water, yet seemed to the saluages as friendly 
as they to vs: and that we were so desirous to giue Poivha- 
tan content, as he requested, wee did leaue him Edivard 
Brynton to kill him foule, and the Dutch-men to finish his 
house; thinking at our returne from Pamavnkee the frost 
would be gone, and then we might findc a better oportunity 
if necessity did occasion it, little dreaming yet of the Dutqh- 
mens treachery, whose humor well suted this verse: 

Is any free, that may not liue as freely as he list? 

Let vs liue so, then we'are as free, and bruitish as the best; 

With the second supply in Virginia. 213 

How wee escaped surprising at Pamavnkee. 

We had no sooner set sayle but Poivhatan returned, and 
sent Adam and Francis (two stout Dutch-men) to lames 
towne: who faining to Captaine Winne that all things were 
well, and that Captaine Smith had vse of their armes, wherefore 
they requested new (the which were giuen them) they told 
him their comming was for some extraordinary tooles, and 
shift of apparell; by which colourable excuse they obtained 
sixe or seauen more to their confederacie, such expert theeues, 
that presently furnished them with a great many swords, 
pike-heads, peeces, shot, powder and such like: Saluages 
they had at hand to carry it away, and the next day they re- 
turned vnsuspected, leauing their confederates to follow, and 
in the interim to convay them such things as they could: for 
which seruice they should Hue with Powhatan as his chiefe 
affected, free from those miseries that would happen the Co- 
lony. Samuel their other consort Poivhatan kept for their 
pledge, whose diligence had prouided them three hundred of 
their kinde of hatchets; the rest fifty swords, eight peeces, and 
eight pikes. Brynton and Richard Salvage seeing the Dutch- 
men so diligent to accomodate the Saluages with weapons, 
attempted to haue gotten to lames towne, but they were ap- 
prehended, and expected euer when to be put to death. 

Within two or three dayes we arriued at Pamavnkee, the 
King as many dayes entertained vs with feasting and much 
mirth. And the day appointed to beginne our trade, the 
President, Lieutenant Percie, Mr. West, Mr. Russell, Mr. 
Behethland, Mr. Crashaw, Mr. Powell, Mr. Ford, and some 
others to the number of fifteene, went vp to Opechancanoughs 
house a quarter of a mile from the riuer) where wee found 
nothing but a lame fellow and a boy: and all the houses 
round about of all things abandoned. Not long wee stayed 
ere the King arriued, and after him came diuerse of his peo- 
ple loaden with bowes and arrowes: but such pinching com- 
modities, and those esteemed at such a value, as our Cap* 
taine began with the King after this manner. 

" Opechancanough, the great loue you professe with your 
tongue, seemes meere deceit by your actions. Last yeere 

E E 

214 The Discoveries and Accidents 

you kindly fraughted our ship: but now you haue inuited niee 
to starue with hunger: you know my want, and I your plen- 
ty; of which by some meanes I must haue part: remember it 
is fit for Kings to keepe their promise. Here are my com- 
modities, whereof take your choice, the rest I will propor- 
tion fit bargains for your people." 

The King seemed kindly to accept his offer, and the better 
to colour his proiect, sold vs what they had to our owne con- 
tent, promising the next day more company, better prouided. 
The Barges and Pinnace being committed to the charge of 
Mr. Phetiplace; the President with his old fifteene marched 
vp to the Kings house, where wee found foure or fiue men 
newly arriued, each with a great basket. Not long after 
came the King, who with a strained cheerfulnesse held vs 
with discourse what paines he had taken to keep his promise; 
till Mr. Russell brought vs in newes that we were all betray- 
ed: for at least seuen hundred Saluages well armed, had in- 
uironed the house, and beset the fields. The King coniec- 
turing what Russell related, wee could well perceiue how 
the extremity of his feare bewrayed his intent: whereat some 
of our company seeming dismaied with the thought of such 
a multitude; the Captaine encouraged vs to this effect. 

" Worthy Country-men, were the mischiefes of my seeming 
friends no more then the danger of these enemies, I little car- 
ed were they as many more: if you dare doe, but as I. But 
this is my torment, that if I escape them, our malicious 
Coimcell with their open mouthed Minions, will make me 
sucli a peace breaker (in their opinions in England) as will 
breake my necke. I could wish those here, that make these 
seeme Saints, and me an oppressor. But this is the worst of 
all, wherein I pray you aid mee with your opinions. Should 
wee beginne with them and surprise the King, we cannot 
keepe him and defend well our selues. If we should each 
kill our man, and so proceed with all in the house; the rest 
will all fly: then shall wee get no more then the bodies that 
are slaine, and so starue for victual!. As for their fury it is 
the least danger, for well you know, being alone assaulted 
with two or three hundred of them, I made them by 
the helpe of God compound to saue my life. And wee are 
sixteene, and they but seauen hundred at the most; and as- 
sure your selues, God will so assist vs, that if you dare stand 
but to discharge your pieces, the very smoke will bee sufficient 

With the second supply in Virginia. 215 

to affright them. Yet howsoeuer, let vs light like men, and 
not die like sheepe: for by that meanes you know God hath 
oft deliuered mee, and so I trust will now. But first, 1 will 
deale with them, to bring it to passe we may fight for some- 
thing, and draw them to it by conditions. If you like this 
motion, promise me you will be valiant." 

The time not permitting any argument, all vowed to exe- 
cute whatsoeuer hee attempted, or die: whereupon the Cap- 
taine in plaine tearmes told the King this. 

" 1 see Opechancanough your plot to murder me, but I 
feare it not. As yet your men and mine haue done no harme, 
but by our direction. Take therefore your Armes, you see 
mine, my body shall bee as naked as yours: the Isle in your 
riuer is a fit "place, if you be contented: and the conquer- 
our (of vs two) shall be Lord and Master ouer all our men. 
If you haue not enough, take time to fetch more, and bring 
what number you will: so euery one bring a basket of corne, 
against all which I will stake the value in copper, you see.I 
haue but fifteene, and our game shall be, the Conquerour 
take all." 

The King being guarded with forty or fifty of his chiefe 
men, seemed kindly to appease Smiths suspicion of vnkind- 
nesse, by a great present at the doore, rhey intrcated him to 
receiue. This was to draw kim out of the doore, where the 
bait was guarded with at least two hundred men, and thirty 
lying vnder a great tree (that lay thwart as a barricado) each 
his arrow nocked ready to shoot. The President command- 
ed one to go see what kind of deceit this was, and to receiue 
the present; but he refused to doe it: yet the Gentlemen and 
all the rest were importunate to goe, but he would not per- 
mit them, being vexed at that Coward: and commanded Lieu- 
tenant Percie, Master West, and the rest to make good the 
house; Master Powell and Master Behethland he command- 
ed to guard the doore, and in such a rage snatched the King 
by his long locke in the middest of his men, with his Pistol! 
readie bent against his breast. Thus he led the trembling 
King, neare dead with feare amongst all his people: who de- 
livering the Captaine his Vambrace, Bow, and Arrowes, all 
his men were easily intreated to cast downe their Armes, 
little dreaming any durst in that manner haue vsed their 
King: w T ho then to escape himselfe bestowed his presents in 
good sadnesse, and causin^„a great many of them come 

216 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

before him vnarmed, holding the King by the hayre (as is 
sayd) he spake to them to this effect. 

" I see (you Pamavnkees) the great desire you haue to 
kill me, and my long suffering your iniuries hath imboldened 
you to this presumption. The cause I haue forborne your 
insolencies, is the promise I made you (before the God I 
serue) to be your friend, till you giue me iust cause to be 
your, enemy. If I keepe this vow, my God will keepe me, 
you cannot hurt me; if I breake it, he will destroy me. But 
if you shoot but one Arrow to shed one drop of bloud of any 
of my men, or steale the least of these Beads, or Copper, I 
spurne here before you with my foot; you shall see I will 
not cease revnenge (if once 1 begin) so long as I can hcare 
where to finde one of your Nation that will not deny the 
name of Pamavnk. I am not now at Rassaweak halfe 
drowned with myre, where you tooke me prisoner; yet then 
for keeping your promise and your good vsage and saving 
my life, I so affect you, that your denyals of your trechery, 
doe halfe perswade me to mistake my selfe. But if I be the 
marke you ayme at, here I stand, shoot he that dare. You 
promised to fraught my Ship ere I departed, and so you shall, 
or I meane to load her with your dead carcasses, yet if as 
friends you will come and trade, I once more promise not to 
trouble you, except you giue me the first occasion, and your 
King shall be free and be my friend, for I am not come to 
'"hurt him or any of you." 

Vpon this away went their Bowes and Arrowes, and men, 
women, and children brought in their Commodities: two or 
three houres they so thronged about the President and 
so overwearied him, as he retyred himselfe to rest, leauing 
Mr Behethland and Mr Powell to receiue their presents, but 
some Salvages perceiuing him fast asleepe, and the guard 
somewhat carelesly dispersed, fortie or fiftie of their choise 
men each with a club, or an English sword in his hand began 
to enter the house with two or three hundred others, that 
pressed to second them. The noyse and hast they made in, 
did so shake the house they awoke him from his sleepe, and 
being halfe amazed with this suddaine sight, betooke him 
strait to his sword and Target; Mr Chrashaw and some others 
charged in like manner; whereat they quickly thronged fas- 
ter backe then before forward. The house thus cleansed, 
the King and some of his aunyents we kept yet with him, 

With the second supply in Virginia. 217 

who with a long Oration, excused this intrusion. The rest 
of the day was spent with much kindnesse, the companie 
againe renewing their presents with their best provisions, 
and whatsoever he gaue them they seemed therewith well 

Now in the meane while since our departure, this hapned 
at our Fort. Master Scrivener having receiued Letters from 
England to make himselfe either Ccesar or nothing, he began 
to decline in his affection to Captaine Smith, that ever re- 
garded him as himselfe, and was willing to crosse the sur- 
prising of Powhatan. Some certaine daies after the Presi- 
dents departure, he would needs goe visit the Isle of Hogs, 
and tooke with him Captaine Waldo (though the President 
had appointed him to be ready to second his occasions) with 
Mr Anthony Gosnoll and eight others; but so violent was the 
wind (that extreame frozen time) that the Boat sunke, but 
where or how none doth know. The Skiff was much over- 
loaden, and would scarce haue liued in that extreame tem- 
pest had she beene empty: but by no perswasion he could 
be diverted, though both Waldo and an hundred others doubt- 
ed as it hapned. The Salvages were the first that found 
their bodies, which so much the more encouraged them to 
effect their proiects. To advertise the President of this hea- 
vie newes, none could be found would vndertake it, but the 
Iourney was often refused of all in the Fort, vntill MasteT 
Richard Wyffin vndertooke alone the performance thereof. 

In this Iourney he was incouutred with many dangers and 
difficulties in all parts as he passed. As for that night he lodg- 
ed with Powhatan, perceiuing such preparation for warre, 
not finding the President there: he did assure himselfe some 
mischiefe was intended. Pocahontas hid him for a time, and 
sent them who pursued him the cleane contrary way to seeke 
him; but by her meanes and extraordinary bribes and much 
trouble in three dayes travell, at length he found vs in the 
middest of these turmoyles. This vnhappy newes the Pre- 
sident swore him to conceale from the company, and so dis- 
sembling his sorrow with the best countenances he could, 
when the night approached went safely aboord with all his 
Souldiers; leauing Opechancanough at libertie, according to 
his promise, the better to haue Powhatan in his retnrne. 

Now so extreamely Powhatan had threatned the death of 
his men, if they did not by some meanes kill Captaine Smith: 

218 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

that the next day they appointed all the country should come 
to trade vnarmed: yet vnwilling to be trecherous, but that 
they were constrained, hating fighting with him almost as ill 
as hanging, such feare they had of bad successe. The next 
morning the Sunne had not long appeared, but the fields ap- 
peared covered with people and Baskets, to tempt vs on 
shore: but nothing was to be had without his presence, nor 
they would not indure the sight of a gun. When the Pre- 
sident saw them begin to depart, being vnwilling to loose 
such a bootie, he so well contrived the Pinnace, and his Bar- 
ges, with Ambuscadoes, as onely with Lieutenant Percie, 
Mr. West, and Mr. Russell, with their Armes went on shore; 
others he appointed vnarmed to receiue what they brought. 
The Salvages flocked before him in heapes, and the banke 
serving as a trench for a retreat, he drew them fayre open to 
his Ambuscado's. For he not being to be perswaded to goe 
visit their King, the King knowing the most of them vnarm- 
ed, came to visit him with two or three hundred men, in the 
forme of two halfe Moones; and with some twentie men, and 
many women loaden Avith painted Baskets. But when they 
approached somewhat neare vs, their women and children 
fled. For when they had environed and beset the fields in 
this manner, they thought their purpose sure, yet so trembled 
with feare as they were scarce able to nock their Arrowes: 
Smith standing with his three men ready bent, beholding 
them till they were within danger of our Ambuscado's, who 
vpon- the word discovered themselues, and he retyred to the 
Barge. Which the Salvages no sooner perceived, then away 
they fled, esteeming their heeles for their best advantage. 

That night we sent Mr. Chrashaw, and Mr. Ford to lames 
towne to Cap. Winne. In the way betweene Werowocomo- 
m and the Fort they met foure or flue of the Dutch-mens 
Confederates going to Powhatan: the which to excuse those 
Gentlemens suspicion of their running to the Salvages, re- 
turned to the Fort and there continued. 

The Salvages hearing our Barge goe downe the river in the 
night, were so terribly affrayde, that we sent for more men 
(we having so much threatned their ruine, and the rasing of 
their houses, boats, and wires) that the next day the King 
sent our Captaine a chayne of Pearle, to alter his purpose 
and stay his men: promising though they wanted themselues, 
to fraught our ship and bring it aboord to avoyd suspition. 

With the second supply in Virginia. 219 

So that fiue or six dayes after, from all parts of the Country 
within ten or twelue myles in the extroame frost and snow, 
they brought vs provision on their naked backes. 

Yet notwithstanding this kindnesse and trade, had their 
art and poyson beene sufficient, the President with Mr. West, 
and some others had beene poysoned; it made them sicke, 
but expelled itselfe. Wecuttanow, a stout young fellow, 
knowing he was suspected for bringing this present of poy- 
son, with fortie or fiftie of his chiefe companions (seeing the 
President but with a few men at Potavncak) so proudly 
braued it, as though he expected to incounter a revenge.— 
Which the President perceiuing in the midst of his company, 
did not onely beate, but spurned him like a dogge, as scorn- 
ing to doe him any worse mischiefe. Wherevpon all of them 
fled into the woods, thinking they had done a great matter 
to haue so well escaped: and the townesmen remaining pre- 
sently fraughted our Barge to be rid of our companies, fram- 
ing many excuses to excuse Wecutianoiv, (being sonne to 
their chiefe King, but Powhatan) and told vs if we would 
shew them him that brought the poyson, they would deliver 
him to vs to punish as we pleased. Men may thinke it 
strange there should be such a stirre for a little corne, but had 
it beene gold with more ease wee might haue got it; and 
had it wanted, the wdiole Colony had starued. We may be 
thought very patient to endure all those iniurics, yet onely 
with fearing them wee got what they had. Whereas if we 
had taken revenge, then by their losse, we should haue lost 
our selues. We searched also the Countries of Youghtanund 
and Mattapanient, where the people imparted that little they 
had w r ith such complaints and tears from the eyes of wo- 
men and children, as he had beene too cruell to haue beene 
a Christian, that would not haue beene satisfied and moued 
with compassion. But had this hapned in October, Novem- 
ber, and December, when that vnhappie discovery of Mona- 
can was made, we might haue fraughted a ship of fortie 
tuns, and twise as friuch might haue beene had from the Ri- 
vers of Rapahanock, Pataivomek, and Pawtuximt. 

The mains occasion of our thus temporizing with them 
was, to part friends as we did, to giue the lesse cause of sus- 
pition to Powhatan to fly, by whom we now returned with 
a purpose to haue surprised him and his provision. For ef- 
fecting whereof (when we came against the Towne) the 

220 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

President sent Mr Wyffin and Mr Coe ashore to discover and 
make way for his intended proiect. But they found that those 
damned Dutch-men had caused Powhatan to abandon his 
new house and Werowocomoco, and to carry away all his 
corne and provision: and the people they found so ill affected, 
that they were in great doubt how to escape with their liues. 
So the President finding his intent frustrated, and that there 
was nothing now to be had, and therefore an vnfit time to 
revenge their abuses, sent Master Michael Phittiplace by 
Land to lames towne, whether we sayled with all the speed 
we could; wee having in this Iourney (for 251. Copper, and 
501. of Iron and Beads) enough to keepe 46 men six weekes, 
and every man for his reward a moneths provision extraordi- 
nary (no trade being allowed but for the store) we got neare 
2001 waight of deere suet, and delivered to the Cape Mer- 
chant 479 Bushels of Corne. 

Those temporizing proceedings to some may seeme to© 
charitable, to such a daily daring trecherous people: to others 
not pleasing, that we washed not the ground with their 
blouds, nor shewed such strange inventions in mangling, 
murdering, ransacking, and destroying (as did the Spanyards) 
the simple bodies of such ignorant soules; nor delightfull, be- 
cause not stuffed with Relations of heapes and mynes of gold 
and silver, nor such rare commodities, as the Portugals and 
Spanyards found in the East and West Indies. The want 
whereof hath begot vs (that were the first vndertakers) no lesse 
scorne and contempt, then the noble conquests and valiant 
adventures beautified with it, prayse and honour. Too much 
I confesse the world cannot attribute to their ever memora- 
ble merit: and to cleare vs from the blind worlds ignorant 
censure, these few words may suffice any reasonable vnder- 

It was the Spanyards good hap to happen in those parts 
where were infinite numbers of people, who had manured the 
ground with that providence, it affoorded victualls at times. 
And time had brought them to that perfection, they had the 
vseofgold and silver and the most of such commodities as 
those Countries afiborded: so that, what the Spanyard got 
was chiefely the spoyle and pillage of those Countrey people, 
and not the labours of their owne hand. But had those 
fruitfull Countries beene ay salvage, as barbarous, as ill peo 
pled, as little planted, laboured, and manured, as Virginia: 

With the second supply in Virginia. 221 

their proper labours it is likely would haue produced as small 
profit as ours. But had Virginia been peopled, planted, ma- 
nured, and adorned with such store of precious Iewels, and 
rich commodities as was the Indies: then had we not got- 
ten and done as much as by their examples might be expected 
from vs, the world might then haue traduced vs and our merits, 
and haue made shame and infamy our recompence and reward. 
But we chanced in a Land even as God made it, where 
we found onely an idle, improvident, scattered people, igno- 
rant of the knowledge of gold or silver, or any commodities, 
and carelesse of any thing but from hand to mouth, except 
babies of no worth; nothing to encourage vs but what acci- 
dentally we found Nature afforded. Which ere we could 
bring to recompence our paines, defray our charges, and satis- 
fie our Adventurers; we were to discover the Countrey, sub- 
due the people, bring them to be tractable, civill, and indus- 
trious, and teach them trades, that the fruits of their labours 
might make vs some recompence, or plant such Colonies of 
our owne, that must first make prouision how to Hue of them- 
selues, ere they can bring to perfection the commodities of 
the Country: which doubtlesse will be as commodious for 
England as the west Indies for Spaine, if it be rightly man- 
naged: notwithstanding all our home-bred opinions, that 
will argue the contrary, as formerly some haue done against 
the Spanyards and Portugalls. But to conclude, against all 
rumor of opinion, I onely say this, for those that the three first 
yeares began this Plantation; notwithstanding all their fac- 
tions, mutinies, and miseries, so gently corrected, and well 
prevented: pervse the the Spanish Decades; the Relations of 
Master Hackluit, and tell me how many ever with such small 
meanes as a Barge of 22 tuns, sometimes with seauen, eight, 
or nine, or but at most, twelue or sixteene men, did euer 
discover so many fayre and navigable Rivers, subiect so ma- 
ny severall Kings, people, and Nations, to obedience, and 
contribution with so little bloudshed. 

And if in the search of those Countries we had hapned 
where wealth had beene, we had as surely had it as obedience 
and contribution, but if we haue overskipped it, we will not 
enuie them that shall find it: yet can we not but lament, it 
was our fortunes to end when we had but onely learned how 
to begin, and found the right course how to proceed. 

By Richard Wyffin\ William PhMplace, Jefrey Abbot, and Anas TodMU. 


222 The Discoveries and Accidents, 


How the Salvages became subiect to the English. 

When the Ships departed, all the provision of the Store 
(but that the President had gotten) was so rotten with the 
last Summers rayne, and eaten with Rats and Wormes, as 
the Hogges would scarcely eate it. Yet it was the Souldiers 
dyet till our returnes, so that we found nothing done, but our 
victuals spent, and the most part of our tooles, and a good 
part of our Armes conveyed to the Salvages. But now cast- 
ing vp the Store, and finding sufficient till the next harvest, 
the feare of starving was abandoned, and the company divi- 
ded into tens, fifteens, or as the businesse required; six houres 
each day was spent in worke, the rest in Pastime and merry 
exercises, but the vntowardnesse of the greatest number 
caused the President advise as followeth. 

" Countrymen, the long experience of our late miseries, I 
hope is sufficient to perswade every one to a present correc- 
tion of himselfe, and thinke not that either my pains, nor the 
Adventurers purses, will ever maintaine you in idlenesse and 
sloath. I speake not this to you all, for divers of you I know 
deserue both honour and reward, better then is yet here to be 
had: but the greater part must be more industrious, or starue, 
how euer you haue beene heretofore tollerated by the au- 
thoritie of the Councell, from that I haue often commanded 
you. You see now that power resteth wholly in my selfe: 
you must obey this now for a Law, that he that will not worke 
shall not eate (except by sicknesse he be disabled:) for the 
labours of thirtie or fortie honest and industrious men shall 
not be consumed to maintaine an hundred and fiftie idle loy- 
terers. And though you presume the authoritie here is but 
a shadow, and that I dare not touch the Hues of any but my 
owne must answer it: the Letters patents shall each weeke 
be read to you, whose Contents will tell you the contrary. — 
1 would wish you therefore without contempt seeke to ob- 
serue these orders set downe, for there are now no more 
^Councellers to protect you, nor curbe my endevours. There- 
fore he that offendeth, let him assuredly expect his due pun- 

With the second supply in Virginia, 223 

He made also a Table, as a publicke memoriall of every 
mans deserts, . to incourage the good, and with shame to 
spurre on the rest to amendment. By this many became ve- 
ry industrious, yet more by punishment performed their bu- 
sinesse, for all were so tasked, that there was no excuse could 
prevaile to deceiue him: yet the Dutch-mens consorts so 
closely convayed them powder, shot, swords, and tooles, that 
though we could find the defect, we could not finde by whom, 
till it was too late. /. . 

All this time the Dutch men remaining with Powhatan, 
(who kindly entertained them to instruct the Salvages the 
vse of our Armes) and their consorts not following them as 
they expected; to know the cause, they sent JVanas their 
companion, a stout young fellow, disguised like a balvage, 
to the Glasse-huusc, « [date hi the uuods ncarc a myle Irora 
lames Towne; where was their Rendezvous for all their vn- 
suspected villany, Fortie men they procured to lie in Am- 
buscado for Captaine Smith, who no sooner heard of this 
Dutch-man, but he sent to apprehend him (but he was gone) 
vettocrosse his returne to Powhatan, the Captaine present- 
ly dispatched 20. shot after him, himselfe returning from the 
Glasse-house alone. By the way he incountred the King of 
Paspahesh, a most strong stout Salvage, whose perswasions 
not being able to perswade him to his Ambush, seeing him 
onely armed but with a faucheon, attempted to haue shot 
him but the President prevented his shooting by graplmg 
with him, and the Salvages as well prevented him for draw- 
ing his faucheon, and perforce bore him into the Kiver to 
haue drowned him. Long they strugled in the water, till the 
President gQt such a hold on his throat, he had neare stran- 
gled the King; but having drawne his faucheon to cut off his 
head, seeing how pitifully he begged his life, he led him pri- 
soner to lames Towne and put him in chaynes. 

The Dutch-man ere long was also brought in, whose vil- 
lany though all this time it was suspected, yet he fayned 
such a formall excuse, that for want of language Captaine 
Winne vnderstood him not rightly, and for their dealings 
with Powhatan, that to saue their Hues they were constrain- 
ed to accommodate his armes, of whom he extreamely com- 
plained to haue detained them perforce, and that he made 
this escape with the hazard of his life, and meant not to haue 
returned, but was onely walking into the woods to gather 

224 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

Walnuts. Yet for all this faire tale, there was so small ap- 
pearance of truth, and the plaine confession of Paspahegh of 
his trechery, he went by the heeles. Smith purposing to re- 
gaine the Dutch-men by the saving his life. The poore Salvage 
Si J his best by his daily messengers to Powhatan, but all re- 
turned that the Dutch-men would not returne, neither did 
Powhatan stay them; and to bring them fiftie myles on his 
mens backes they were not able. Daily this Kings wiues, 
children, and people came to visit him with presents, which 
he liberally bestowed to make his peac?. Much trust they 
bad in the Presidents promise: but the King finding his 
guard negligent, though fettered yet escaped. Captaine 
Winne thinking to pursue him found such troupes of Salva- 
ges to hinder his passage, as they exchanged many vollies of 

shot for flights nf Arrmves; Captain© Smith aearing of this 

in returning to the Fort, tooke two Salvages prisoners, called 
Kemps and Tussore, the two most exact villaines in all the 
Country. With these he sent Captaine Winne and fiftie 
choise men, and Lieutenant Pcrcie, to haue regained the 
King, and revenged this iniury, and so had done, if they had 
followed his directions, and beene advised with those two 
villaines, that would haue betrayed both King and kindred 
for a peece of Copper, but he trifling away the night, the 
Salvages the next morning by the rising of the Sunne, brav- 
ed him to come askore to fight, a good time both sides let 
fly at other, but we heard of no hurt, onely they tooke two 
Canowes, burnt the Kings house, and so returned to lames 

The President fearing those Bravado's would but incourage 
the Salvages, began againe himselfe to try his conclusions, 
whereby six or seauen were slaine, as many made prisoners. 
He burnt their houses, tooke their Boats, with all their fishing 
wires, and planted some of them at lames towne for his owne 
vse, and now resolved not to cease till he had revenged him- 
selfe of all them had iniured him. But in his iourney passing 
by Paspahegh towards Chickahamania, the Salvages did their 
best to draw him to their Ambuscadoes; but seeing him re- 
gai dlesly passe their Country, all shewed themselues in their 
bravest manner. To try their valours he could not but let 
fly, and ere he could land, they no sooner knew him, but they 
threw downe their amies and desired peace. Their Orator 

With the second supply in Virginia. 225 

was a lustie young fellow called Okaning, whose worthy 
discoure deserveth to be remembred. And thus it was: 

" Captaine Smith, my Master is here present in the com- 
pany, thinking it Capt. Whine, and not you, (of him he in- 
tended to haue beene revenged) having never offended him. 
Tf he hath offended vou in escaping your imprisonment, the 
fishes swim, the fonles fly, and the very beasts striue to es- 
cape the snare and Hue. Then blame not him being a man. 
He would intreat you remember, you being a prisoner, what 
paines he tooke to saue your life. If since he hath miured 
you he was compelled to it: batl-owsceuer, you haue reveng- 
ed it with our too great losse. We perceiue and well know 
you intend to destroy is, that ^-re here to intreat and desire 
your friendship, and to enioy our houses and plant our fields, 
of whose fruit you shall participle: otherwise you will haue 
the worse by our absence; for we can plant any where, though 
with more kbour, and we know you cannot liue if you want 
our harvest, and that reliefe we bring you. If you promise ys 
peace, we will beleeue you; if you proceed in revenge we will 
abandon the Country." 

Vpon these tearmes the President promised them peace, till 
they did vs iniury, vpon condition they should bring in pro- 
Thus all departed good friends, and so continued 


till Smith left the Countrey. 

Arriving ?* lames Towne, complaint was made to the Pre- 
sident, that the Ciiickahmmimans, who all this while conti- 
nued trade and seemed our friends, by colour thereof were 
the onely theeues. And amongst other things a Pistoll being 
stolne and the theefe fled, there was apprehended two proper 
young fellowes, that were brothers, knowne to be his con- 
federates. Now to regaine this Pistoll, the one was impri- 
soned, the other was sent to returns the Pistoll againe within 
twelue houres, or his brother to be hanged. Yet the Presi- 
dent pittying the poore naked Salvage in the dungeon, sent 
him victuall and some Char-coale for a fire: ere midnight his 
brother returned with the Pistoll, but the poore Salvage in 
the dungeon was so smoothered with the smoake he had made 
and so pittiously burnt, that wee found him dead. The other 
most lamentably bewayled his death, and broke forth into such 
bitter agonies, that the President to quiet him, told him 
that if hereafter they would not steale, he would make him 
aliue againe: but he little thought he could be recovered.— 

226 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

Yet we doing our best with Aqua mice and Vineger, it pleas* 
ed God to restore him againe to life, but so drunke and 
affrighted, that he seemed Lunaticke, the which as much tor- 
mented and grieued the other, as before to see him dead.— 
Of which maladie vpon promise of their good behavour, the 
President promised to recover him: and so caused him to be 
layd by a lire to.sleepe, who in the morning having well slept, 
had recovered his perfect senses, aad then being dressed of his 
burning, and each a peece of Copper gkien them, they went 
away so well contented, that this was spread among all the 
Salvages for a miracle, that Captaine Smith could make a 
man aliue that was dead. 

Another ingenuous Salvage of Poivhatans, having gotten 
a great bag of Powder, and the backe of an Armour, at We- 
rowocomoco amonrsi a many of his companions, to shew his 
extraordinary skill, be cl*d dry it on the backe as he had 
seene the Soulifas at lames Towne. But he dryed it so 
long, they peeping over h to see his skirl, it tooke fire, and 
blew him to death, and one or "iwo more, and the rest so 
scorched, they had little pleasure to meddle any more with 

These and many other such pretty Accidents, so amazed 
and affrighted both Powhatan, and all his people, that from 
all parts with presents they desired peace; returning many 
stolne things which we never demanded nor thought of; and 
after that, those that were taken stealing, both Powhatan 
and his people haue sent them backe to lames towne, to re- 
ceiue their punishment; and all the Countrey became abso- 
lute as free for vs, as for themselues. 

With the second supply in Virginia. 227 


What was done in three moneths having Victualls. 
The Store devoured by Rats, how we lined three 
moneths of such naturall fruits as the Country of* 

Now we so quietly followed our businesse, that in three 
moneths wee made three or foure Last of Tarre, Pitch, and 
Sope ashes; produced a tryall of Glasse; made a Well in the 
Fort of excellent sweet water, which till then was wanting; 
built some twentie houses; recovered our Church; provided 
Nets and Wires for fishing; and to stop the disorders of our 
disorderly theeues, and the Salvages built a Blockhouse in 
the neck of our Isle, kept by a Garrison to entertaine the 
Saluages trade, and none to passe nor repasse Saluage nor 
Christian without the presidents order. Thirtie or forty- 
Acres of ground we digged and planted. Of three sowes in 
eighteene moneths, increased 60, and od Pigs. And neare 
600. chickings, brought vp themselues without hauing any 
meate giuen them: but the Hogs were transported to Hog-Isle: 
where also we built a block-house with a garison to giue vs 
notice of any shipping, and for their exercise they made 
Clapbord and waynscot, and cut downe trees. We built al- 
so a fort for a retreat neere a conuenient Riuer vpon a high 
commanding hill, very hard to be assalted and easie to be 
defended, but ere it was finished this defect caused a stay. 

In searching our casked corne, we found it halfe rotten, 
and the rest so consumed with so many thousands of Rats 
that increased so fast, but theire originall was from the ships, 
as we knew not how to keepe that little we had. This did 
driue vs all to our wits end, for there was nothing in the 
country but what nature afforded. Vntil this time- Kemps and 
Tassore were fettered prisoners, and did double taske and 
taught vs how to order and plant our fields: whom now for 
want of victuall we set at liberty, but so well they liked our 
companies they did not desire to goe from vs. And to ex- 
presse their loues for 16. dayes continuance, the Countrie 
people brought vs (when least) 100. a day, of Squirrils, Tur- 
kyes, Deere and other wilde beasts: But this want of corne 
occasioned the end of all our works, it being worke sufficient 

228 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

to provide victuall. 60. or 80. with Eiisigne Laxon was 
sent downe the riuer to Hue vpon Oysters, and 2Q. with 
lieutenant Percy to try for fishing at Poynt Comfort: but in 
six weekes they would not agree once to cast out the net, he 
being sick and burnt sore with Gunpouder. Master West 
with as many went vp the falls, but nothing could be found 
but a few Acornes; of that in store euery man had their 
equall proportion. Till this present, by the hazard and in- 
deuours of some thirtie or fortie, this whole Colony had 
ever beene fed. We had more Sturgeon, then could be de- 
uoured by Dog and Man, of which the industrious by drying 
and pounding, mingled with Caviare, Sorell and other 
wholesome hearbes would make bread and good meate: 
others would gather as much Tockwhogh roots, in a day as 
would make them bread a weeke, so that of those wilde 
fruits, and what we caught, we liued very well in regard of 
such a diet. But such was the strange condition of some 
150, that had they not beene forced nolens, volens, per- 
force to gather and prepare their victuall they would all 
haue starued, or haue eaten one another. Of those wild 
fruits the Salvages often brought vs, and for that, the 
President would not fullfill the vnreasonable desire, of those 
distracted Gluttonous Loyte.ers, to sell not only out ket- 
tles, hows, tooles, and Iron, nay swords, pieces, and the 
very Ordnance and howses, might they haue prevayled to 
haue beene but Idle: for those Saluage fruites, they would 
haue had imparted all to the Saluages, especially for one bas- 
ket of Come they heard of to be at Powhatans, fifty myles 
from our Fort. Though he bought neere halfe of it to sa- 
tisfie their humors, yet to haue had the other halfe, they 
would haue sould their soules, though not sufficient to haue 
kept them a weeke. Thousands were there exclamations, 
suggestions and deuises, to force him to those base inventions 
to haue made it an occasion to abandon the Country. Want 
perforce constrained him to indure their exclaiming follies, 
till he found out the author, one Dyer a most crafty fellow 
and his ancient Maligner, whom he worthily punished, and 
with the rest he argued the case in this manner. 

u Fellow souldiers, I did little thinke any so false to report, 
or so many to be so simple to be perswaded, that I either in- 
tend to starue you, or that Powhatan at this present hath 
come for himselfe, much lesse for you; or that I would not 

With the second supply in Virginia. 229 

haue it, if I knew where it were to be had. Neither did I 
thinke any so malitious as now I see a great many; yet it shal 
not so passionate me, but I will doe my best for my most 
maligner. But dreame no longer of this vaine hope from 
Powhatan, not that I will longer forbeare to force you, from 
your Idlenesse, and punish you if you rayle. But if I finde 
any more runners for Newfoundland with the Pinnace, let 
him assuredly looke to ariue at the Gallows. You cannot 
deny but that by the hazard of my life many a time I haue 
saued yours, when (might your owne wills haue preuailed) 
you would haue starued: and will doe still whether I will or 
noe; But I protest by that God that made me, since necessitie 
hath not power to force you to gather for your selues those 
fruites the earth doth yeeld, you shall not onely gather for 
your selues, but those that are sicke. As yet I neuer had 
more from the store then the worst of you: and all my Ln- 
dish extraordinay prouision that I haue, you shall see me di- 
uide it amongst the sicke. And this Saluage trash you so 
scornfully repine at; being put in your mouthes your sto- 
mackes can disgest, if you would haue better you should haue 
brought it; and therefore I will take a course you shall pro- 
uide what is to be had. The sick shall not starue, but equal- 
ly share of all our labours; and he that gathereth not every- 
day as much as I doe, the next day shall be set beyond the 
riuer, and be banished from the Fort as a drone, till he amend 
his conditions or starue." Bnt some would say with Seneca, 

I know those things thou sayst are true good Nurse, 
But fury forceth me to follow worse. 
My minde is hurried headlong vp and downe.- 
Desiring better counsell, yet finds none.. 

This order many murmured was very cruell, but it caused 
the most part so well bestirre themselues, that of 200. (ex- 
cept they were drowned) there died not past seuen: as for 
Captaine Winne and Master Leigh they were dead ere this 
want hapned, and the rest dyed not for want of such as pre- 
serued the rest. Many were billetted amongst the Saluages, 
whereby we knew all their passages, fields and habitations, 
how to gather and vse their fruits as well as themselues; lor 
they did" know we had such a commanding power at lames 
towne they durst not wrong vs of a pin. 

So well those poore Salvages vsed vs that were thus bil- 
letted that diuers of the Souldiers ran away, to search Kemps 

230 The* Discoveries and Accidents, 

and Tassore our old prisoners. Glad were these Salvages 
to haue such an opportunity to testifie their loue vnto vs, for 
in stead of entertaining them, and such things as they had 
stollen, with all their great Offers, and promises they made 
them how to reuenge their iniuryes vpon Captaine Smith; 
Kemps first made himselfe sport, in shewing his countrie men 
(by them) how he was vsed, feeding them with this law, who 
would not work must not eat, till they were neere starued 
indeede, continually threatning to beat them to death: neither 
could they get from him, till hee and his consorts brought 
them perforce to our Captaine, that so well contented him 
and punished them, as many others that intended also to fol- 
low them, were rather contented to labour at home, then ad- 
uenture to liue idly amongst the Salvages; (of whom there 
was more hope to make better Christians and good subiects, 
then the one halfe of those that counterfeited themselues 
both.) For so affraide was al those kings and the better sort 
of the people to displease vs, that some of the baser sort that 
we haue extreamely hurt and punished for their villanies 
would hire vs, we should not tell it to their kings, or coun- 
trymen, who would also punish them, and yet returne them 
to lames towne to content the President for a testimony of 
their loues. 

Master Sicklemore well returned from Chaivwonoke; but 
found little hope and lesse certaintie of them were left by Sir 
Walter Raleigh. The riuer, he saw was not great, the peo- 
ple few, the countrey most over growne with pynes, where 
there did grow here and there straglingly Pemminaw, we call 
silke grasse. But by the riuer the ground was good, and 
exceeding furtill; 

Master Nathanael Powell and Anas Todkill were also by 
the Quiyoughqnohanocks conducted to the Mangoags to 
search them there: but nothing; could they learne but they 
were all dead. This honest proper good promise-keeping 
king, of all the rest did euer best affect vs, and though to his 
false Gods he was very zealous, yet he would confesse our 
God as much exceeded his as our Gunns did his Bow and 
Arrowes, often sending our President many presents, to pray 
to his God for raine or his corne would perish, for his Gods 
were angry. Three dayes iourney they conducted them 
through the woods, into a high country towards the South- 
west: where they saw here and there a little corne field, by 

With the second supply in Virginia. 231 

some little spring or smal brooke, but no riuer they eould see: 
the people in all respects like the rest, except their language: 
they liue most vpon rootes, fruites and wilde beasts; and trade 
with them towards the sea and the fatter countryes for dryed 
fish and corne, for skins. 

All this time to recouer the Dutch-men and one Bentley 
another fugitiue, we imployed one William Volday, a Zwit- 
zar by birth, with Pardons and promises to regaine them. — 
Little we then suspected this double villaine of any villany; 
who plainly taught vs, in the most trust was the greatest trea- 
son; for this wicked hypocrite, by the seeming hate he bore 
to the lewd conditions of his cursed country men, (hailing 
this opportunity by his imployment to regaine them) conuayed 
them euery thing they desired to effect their proiects, to dis- 
troy the Colony. With much deuotion they expected the 
Spaniard, to whom they intended good seruice, or any other, 
that would but carry them from vs. But to begin with the 
first oportunity; they seeing necessitie thus inforced vs to 
disperse our seines, importuned Powhatan to lend them but 
his forces, and they would not onely distroy our Hoggs, fire 
our towne, and betray our Pinnace; but bring to his seruice 
and subiection the most of our company. With this plot they 
had acquainted many Discontents, and many were agreed to 
their Deuilish practise. But one Thomas Douse, and Tho- 
mas Mallard (whose christian hearts relented at such an vn- 
christian act) voluntarily reuealed it to Captaine Smith, who 
caused them to conceale it, perswading Douse and Mallard 
to proceed in their confedracie: onely to bring the irreclama- 
ble Dutch men and the inconstant Salvages in such a manner 
amongst such Ambuscado's as he had prepared, that not many 
of them should returne from our Peninsula. But this brute 
comming to the eares of the impatient multitude they so im- 
portuned the President to cut off those Dutch-men, as amongst 
many that offred to cut their throats before the face of Pow- 
hatan, the first was Lieutenant Percy, and Mr. lohn Cude- 
rington, two Gentlemen of as bold resolute spirits as could 
possibly be found. But the President had occasion of other 
imploiment for them, and gaue way to Master Wyffin 
and Sarieant Jeffrey Abbot, to goe and stab them or shoot 
them. But the Dutch men made such excuses, accusing Vol- 
day whom they supposed had reuealed their proiect, as Abbot 
would not, yet Wyffing would, perceiuingit but deceit. The- 

232 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

King vnderstanding of this their imployment, sent presently \ 
his messengers to Captaine Smith to signifie it was not his 
fault to detaine them nor hinder his men from executing his 
command: nor did he nor would he maintaine them, or any 
to occasion his displeasure. 

But whilst this businesse was in hand, Arriued one Cap- 
taine Argall, and Master Thomas Sedan, sent by Master Cor- 
nelius to truck with the Colony, and fish for Sturgeon, with 
a ship well furnished, with wine and much other good pro- 
vision. Though it was not sent vs, our necessities was such 
as inforced vs to take it. He brought vs newes of a great sup- 
ply and preparation for the Lord La Wane, with letters that 
much taxed our President for his heard dealing with the Sal- 
vages, and not returning the shippes fraughted. Notwith- 
standing we kept this ship tell the fleete arriued. True it is 
Argcdl lost his voyage, but we reuictualled him, and sent him 
for England, with a true relation of the causes of our defail- 
ments, and how impossible it was to returne that wealth they 
expected, or obserue there instructions to indure the Salvages 
insolencies, or doe any thing to any purpose, except they 
would send vs men and meanes that could produce that they 
so much desired: otherwises all they did was lost, and could 
not but come to confusion. The villany of Volday we still 
dissembled. Adam vpon his pardon came home but Samuell 
still stayed with Powhatan to heare further of their estates 
by this supply. Now all their plots Smith so well vnder- 
stood, they were his best advantages to secure vs from any 
trechery, could be done by them or the Salvages: which with 
facility he could revenge when he would, because all those 
countryes more feared him then Powhatan, and hee had such 
parties with all his bordering neighbours: and many of the 
rest for loue or feare would haue done any thing he would 
haue them, vpon any commotion, though these fugitiues 
had done all they could to perswade Poivhatan, King lamas 
would kill Smith, for vsing him and his people so vnkindly. 

By this you may see for all those crosses, trecheries, and 
dissentions, how he wrestled and overcame (without bloud- 
shed) all that hapned: also what good was done; how few 
dyed; what food the Country naturally arToordeth; what small 
cause there is men should starue, or be murthered by the 
Salvages, that haue discretion to manage them with courage 
and Industrie. The two first yeares, though by his adven- 

With the third supply in Virginia. 233 

tures, he had oft brought the Salvages to a tractable trade, 
yet you see how the envious authoritie ever crossed him, and 
frustrated his best endevours. But it wrought in him that 
experience and estimation amongst the Salvages, as other- 
wise it had bin impossible, he had ever effected that he did. 
Notwithstanding the many miserable, yet generous and wor- 
thy adventures, he had oft and long endured in the wide 
world, yet in this case he was againe to learne his Lecture 
by experience. Which with thus much adoe having obtain- 
ed, it was his ill chance to end, when he had but onely learn- 
ed how to begin. And though he left those vnknowne dif- 
ficulties (made easy and familiar) to his vnlawfull successors, 
(who onely by liuing mlames Towne, presumed to know more 
then all the world could direct them:) Now though they had 
all his Souldiers, with a tripple power, and twice tripple bet- 
ter meanes; by what they haue done in his absence, the world 
may see what they would haue done in his presence, had he 
not prevented their indiscretions: it doth iustly proue, what 
cause he had to send them for England, and that he was nei- 
ther factious, mutinous, nor dishonest. But they haue made 
it more plaine since his returne for England; having his ab- 
solute authoritie freely in their power, with all the advanta- 
ges and opportunitie that his labours had effected. As I am 
sorry their actions haue made it so manifest, so I am vnwil- 
ling to say what reason doth compell me, but onely to make 
apparent the truth, least I should seeme partial!, reasonlesse, 
and malicious. 


The Mrivall of the third Supply. 

To redresse those jarres and ill proceedings, the Treasu- 
rer, Councell, and Company of Virginia, not finding that re- 
turne, and profit they expected; and them ingaged there, not 
hauing meanes to subsist of themselues, made meanes to his 
Maiestie, to call in their Commission, and take a new in their 
owne names, as in their owne publication, 1610. you may 
reade at large. Having thus annihilated the old by vertue of 
a Commission made to the right Honourable* Sir Thomas 

234 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

West, Lord d'e la Wane, to be Generall of Virginia; Sir TJm- 
mas Gates, his Lieutenant; Sir George Somers, Admiral!; Sir 
Thomas Dale, high Marshall; Sir Ferdinando Wainman, 
Generall of the Horse; and so all other offices to many other 
worthy Gentlemen, for their liues: (though not any of them 
had ever beene in Virginia, except Captaine Newport, who 
was also by Patent made vice-Admirall:) those noble 
Gentlemen drew in such great summes of money, that they 
sent Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Somers, and Captaine 
Neivport with nine shippes, and hue hundred people, who 
had each of them a Commission, who first arrived to call in 
the old, without the knowledge or consent of them, that had 
endured all those former dangers to beat the path, not any re- 
gard had at all of them. All things being ready, because 
those three Captaines could not agree for place, it was con- 
cluded they should goc all in one ship, so all their three Com- 
missions were in that Ship with them called the Sea-Venture. 
They set sayle from England in May 1609. A small Catch 
perished at Sea, in a Hericano: the Admirall with an hundred 
and fiftie men, with the two Knights, and their new Com- 
mission, their Bils of Loading, with all manner of directions, 
and the most part of their provision arrived not. With the 
other seauen Ships as Captaines arrived Ratliffe, whose right 
name (as is sayd) was Sick'emore, Martin, and Archer with 
Captaine Wood, Captaine Webbe, Captaine Moone, Captaine 
King, Captaine Davis, and divers Gentlemen of good meanes, 
and great parentage. But the first as they had beene trou- 
blesome at Sea, began againe to marre all ashore: for though 
(as is said) they were formerly sent for England, yet now 
returning againe, graced by the titles of Captaines of the 
passengers, seeing the Admirall wanting, and great probabil- 
itie of her losse, strengthened themselues with those new 
companies, so exclaiming against Captaine Smith, that they 
mortally hated him ere ever they saw him. Who vnderstand- 
ing by his Scouts the arrival! of such a Fleete, little dream- 
big of any such supply, supposed them Spanyards. But he 
fiuickly so determined and ordered our affaires, as we little 
feared their Arrivall, nor the successe of our incounter; nor 
were the Salvages any way negligent for the most part, to 
ayd and assist vs with their best power. Had it so beene 
we had beene happy; for we would not haue trusted them 
but as our foes, where receiuing them as our Countrcyrnen 

With the third supply in Virginia. 235 

and friends, they did what they could to murther our Presi- 
dent, to surprise the Store, the Fort, and our lodgings, to 
vsurpe the government, and make vs all their servants and 
slaues, till they could consume vs and our remembrance; and 
rather indeed to supplant vs then supply vs, as master Wil- 
liam Box an honest Gentleman in this voyage thus relateth. 

In the tayle of a Hericano wee were separated from the 
Admiral), which although it was but the remainder of that 
Storme, there is seldome any such in England, or those 
Northerne parts of Europe. Some lost their Masts, some their 
Sayles blowne from their Yards; the Seas so over-raking our 
Ships, much of our prouision was spoyled, our Fleete sepa- 
rated, and our men sicke, and many dyed, and in this mise- 
rable estate we arriued in Virg'mia. 

But in this Storme, 

When ratling Thunder ran along the Clouds.; 

Did not the Saylers poore, and Masters proud 

A terror feele as strucke with feare of God? 

Did not their trembling ioynts then dread his rod? 

Least for foule deeds and black mouth'd blasphemies* 

The nifull time be come that vengeance cryes. 

To a thousand mischiefes those lewd Captaines led this 
lewd company, wherein were many vnruly Gallants, packed 
thither by their friends to escape ill destinies, and those would 
dispose and determine of the government, sometimes to one, 
the next day to another; to day the old Commission must 
rule, to morrow the new, the next day neither, in fine they 
would rule all, or mine all: yet in charitic we must endure 
them thus to destroy vs, or by correcting their follies, haue 
brought the worlds censure vpon vs to be guiltie of their 
blouds. Happie had we beene had they never arrived, and we 
for ever abandoned, and as we were left to our fortunes: for 
on earth for the number was never more confusion, or misery, 
then their factions occasioned. 

The President seeing the desire those Braues had to rule; 
seeing how his authoritie was so vnexpectedly 'changed, would 
willingly haue left all, and haue returned for England. But 
seeing there was small hope this new Commission would 
arriue, longer he would not suffer those factious spirits to 
proceede. It would be too tedious, too strange, and almost 
incredible; should I particularly relate the infinite dangers, 
plots, and practices, he daily escaped amongst this factious 

236 The Discoveries and Accidents 

crew; the chiefe whereof he quickly layd by the heeles, till his 
leasure better served to doe them iustice: and to take away 
all occasions of further mischiefe, Master Percie, had his re- 
quest granted to returne for England, being very sicke; and 
Mr West with an hundred and twentie of the best he could 
chuse, he sent to the Falles; Martin with neare as many to 
Nandsamund, with their due proportions of all provisions ac- 
cording to their numbers. 

Now the Presidents yeare being neare expired, he made 
Captaine Martin President to follow the order for the election 
of a President every yeare: but he knowing his owne insuf- 
ficiency, and the companies vntowardnesse and little regard 
of him, within three houres after resigned it againe to Cap- 
taine Smith, and at Nandsamund thus proceeded. The peo- 
ple being contributers vsed him kindly; yet such was his iea- 
lous feare, in the midst of their mirth, he did surprise this 
poore naked King, with his Monuments, houses, and the Isle 
he inhabited, and there fortified himselfe; but so apparantly 
distracted with feare, as imboldened the Salvages to assault 
him, kill his men, release their King, gather and carry away 
a thousand bushels of Corne, he not once offering to inter- 
cept them; but sent to the President then at the Falles for 
thirtie good shot; which from lames Towne immediately was 
sent him. But he so well imployed them they did iust noth- 
ing, but returned complaining of his tendernesse: yet he came 
away with them to lames Towne, leauing his company to 
their fortunes. 

Here 1 cannot omit the courage of George Forrest, that 
had seauenteene Arrowes sticking in him, and one shot 
through him, yet liued sixe or seauen dayes, as if he had 
small hurt, then for want of Chirugery dyed. 

Master West hauing seated his men by the Falles, presently 
returned to reuisit lames Towne: the President followed him 
to see that company seated; met him by the way, wondering 
at his so quicke returne; and found his company planted so 
inconsiderately, in a place not onely subiect to the rivers in- 
vndation, but round invironed with many intollerable incon- 

For remedie whereof he presently sent to Powhatan to sell 
him the place called Powhatan, promising to defend him 
against the Monacans. And these should be his Conditions 
(with his people) to resigne him the Fort and houses, and all 

With the third supply in Virginia. 237 

that Countrey for a proportion of Copper; that all stealing 
offenders should be sent him, there to receiue their punish- 
ment; that every house as a Custome should pay him a Bush- 
ell of Corne for an inch square of Copper, and a proportion 
of Pocones, as a yearely tribute to King lames for their pro- 
tection, as a dutie; what else they could spare to barter at 
their best discretions. 

But both this excellent place and those good Conditions 
did those furies refuse, contemning both him, his kinde care 
and authoritie. So much they depended on the Lord Gene- 
rals new Commission, as they regarded none: the worst they 
could doe to shew their spights they did; supposing all the 
Monacans Country, gold; and none should come there but 
whom they pleased. I doe more then wonder to thinke how 
onely with flue men, he either durst or would adventure as 
he did, (knowing how greedie they were of his bloud) to land 
amongst them, and commit to imprisonment all the Chief- 
taines of those mutinies, till by their multitudes being an 
hundred and twentie they forced him to retyre: yet in that 
interim he surprised one of their Boates, wherewith he re- 
turned to their ship; where in deed was their prouision, which 
also he tooke, and well it chanced he found the Marriners so 
tractable and constant, or there had beene small possibilitie 
he had ever escaped. There were divers other of better rea- 
son and experience, that from their first landing, hearing the 
generall good report of his old Souldiers, and seeing with 
their eyes his actions so well mannaged with discretion, as 
Captaine Wood, Captaine Wcbbe, Cap. Moone, Captaine 
Fitz lames, Master William Powell, Master Partridge, Mas- 
ter White, and divers others, when they perceiued the ma- 
lice of Ratliffe and Archer, and their faction, left their com- 
panies, and ever rested his faithfuil friends. But the worst 
was that the poore Salvages, that daily brought in their con- 
tribution to the President, that disorderly company so tor- 
mented those poore soules, by stealing their come, robbing 
their gardens, beating them, breaking their houses and keep- 
ing some prisoners; that they daily complained to Captaine 
Smith, he had brought them for Protectors, worse enemies 
then the Monacans themselues: which though till then, for 
his loue they had endured, they desired pardon if hereafter 
they defended; since he would not correct them, 
as they had long expected he would. Somuch thev importuned 

233 The Discoveries and Accidents^ 

him to punish their misdemeanors, as they offered (if 
he would leade them) to fight for him against them. But 
having spent nine dayes in seeking to reclaime them; shew- 
ing them how much they did abuse themselues with these 
great guilded hopes of the South Sea Mines, commodities, or 
victories, they so madly conceived; then seeing nothing would 
prevaile, he set sayle for lames Towne. 

Thus oft we see from small greene wounds, and from a little griefe, 

A greater sore and sicknesse growes, then will admit reliefe.- 

For thus themselues they did beguile, and with the rest play'd theefe. 

Now no sooner was the Ship vnder sayle, but the Salva- 
ges assaulted those hundred and twentie in their Fort, finding 
some stragling abroad in the woods: they slew many, and so 
affrighted the rest, as their prisoners escaped, and they safely 
retyred, with the swords and cloakes of those they had slaine. 
But ere Avee had sayled halfe a league, our ship grounding, 
gaue vs once more libertie to summon them to a parley; 
where we found them all so strangely amazed with this poore 
silly assault of twelue Saluages, that they submitted them- 
selues vpon any tearmes to the Presidents mercy; who pre- 
sently put by the heeles sixe or seauen of the chiefe offen- 
ders: the rest he seated gallantly at Powhatan, in that Sal- 
vage Fort, readie built, and prettily fortified with poles and 
barkes of trees, sufflicient to haue defended them from all 
the Salvages in Virginia, dry houses for lodgings and neere 
two hundred accres of ground ready to be planted, and no 
place we knew so strong, so pleasant and delightfull in Vir- 
ginia for which we called it No7i-such. The Salvages also 
hee presently appeased, redeliuering to either party their for- 
mer losses. Thus all were friends. 

New officers appointed to command, and the President 
againe ready to depart, at that instant arriued Captaine West, 
whose gentle nature (by the perswasions and compassion of 
those mutinous prisoners, alledging they had onely done this 
for his honor) was so much abused, that to regaine their old 
hopes, new turboyles did arise. For they a-shore being pos- 
sessed of all there victuall, munition, and euery thing, grew 
to that height in their former factions, as the President left 
them to their fortunes: they returned againe to the open ayre 
at Wests Fort, abandoning Non-such, and he to lames towne 
with his best expedition, but this hapned him in that Iourney. 

With the third supply in Virginia. 239 

Sleeping in his Boate, (for the ship was returned two daies 
before) accidentallie, one fired his powder-bag, which tore the 
flesh from his body and thighes, nine or ten inches square in 
a most pittifull manner; but to quench the tormenting fire, 
frying him in his cloaths he leaped over-boord into the deepe 
river, where ere they could recouer him hee was neare 
drowned. In this estate without either Chirurgian, or Chi- 
rurgery he was to goe neere an hundred myles. Arriving at 
lames towne, causing all things to be prepared for peace or 
warres to obtaine prouision, whilest those things were provi- 
ding, Ratliffe, Archer, and the rest of their Confederates, be- 
ing to come to their trials; their guiltie consciences, fearing 
a iust reward for their deserts, seeing the President vnable to 
stand, and neere bereft of his senses by reason of his torment, 
they had plotted to haue murdered him in his bed. But his 
heart did faile him that should haue giuen fire to that merci- 
lesse Pistoll. So not finding that course to be the best, they 
ioyned together to vsurpe the government, thereby to escape 
their punishment. The President had notice of their pro- 
iects, the which to withstand, though his old souldiers im- 
portuned him but permit them to take their heads that would 
resist his command, yet he would not suffer them, but sent 
for the Masters of the ships, and tooke order with them for 
his returne for England. Seeing there was neither Chirur- 
gian, nor Chirurgery in the Fort to cure his hurt, and the 
ships to depart the next day, his Commission to be suppres- 
sed he knew not why, himselfe and Souldiers to be reward- 
ed he knew not how, and a new commission granted they 
knew not to whom (the which disabled that authority he hadt, 
as made them presume so oft to those mutinies as they did: 
besides so grievous were his wounds, and so cruell his tor- 
ments (few expecting he could Hue) nor was he able to fol- 
low his busines to regaine what they had lost, suppresse those 
factions, and range the countries for provision as he intend- 
ed; and well he knew in those affaires his owne actions and 
presence was as requisite as his directions, which now could 
not be, he went presently abroad, resoluing there to appoint 
them governours, and to take orders for the mutiners, but he 
could finde none hee thought fit for it would accept it. In 
the meane time, seeing him gone, they perswaded Master 
Percy to stay, who was then to goe for England, and be their 
President. Within lesse then an houre was t;his mutation 

240 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

begun and concluded. For when the Company vnderstood 
Smith would leaue them, and saw the rest in Armes called 
Presidents and Councellors, diuers began to fawne on those 
new commanders, that now bent all their wits to get him re- 
signe them his Commission: who after much adoe and many 
bitter repulses; that their confusion (which he tould them was 
at their elbowes) should not be attributed to him, for leauing 
the Colony without a Commission, he was not vn willing 
they should steale it, but never would he giue it to such as 

And thus, Strange violent forces drew vs on vnwilling- 

Reason perswading 'gainst our loues rebelling. 
We saw and knew the better, ah curse accurst! 
That notwithstanding we imbrace the worst. 

But had that vnhappie blast not hapned, he would quick- 
ly haue qualified the heate of those humors, and factions, 
had the ships but once left them and vs to our fortunes; and 
haue made that provision from among the Salvages, as we 
neither feared Spanyard, Salvage, nor famine; nor would 
haue left Virginia nor our lawfull authoritie, but at as deare 
a price as we had bought it, and payd for it. What shall I 
say but thus, we left him, that in all his proceedings, made 
lustice his first guide, and experience his second, even hating 
basenesse, sloath, pride, and indignitie, more then any dan- 
gers; that neuer allowed more for himselfe, then his souldiers 
with him; that vpon no danger would send them where he 
would not lead them himselfe; that would never see vs want, 
what he "either had, or could by any meanes get vs; that would 
rather want then borrow, or starue then not pay; that loued 
action more then words, and hated falshood and coveteous- 
nesse worse then death; whose adventures were our Hues, and 
whose losse our deaths. 

Leaving vs thus with three ships, seaven boats, commodi- 
ties readie to trade, the harvest newly gathered, ten weekes 
provision in the store, foure hundred nintie and od persons, 
tvventie -foure Peeces of Ordnance, three hundred Muskets, 
Snaphances, and Firelockes, Shot, Powder, and Match suffi- 
cient, Curats, Pikes, Swords, and Morrios, more then men; 
the Salvages, their language, and habitations well knowne 
to an hundred well trayned and expert Souldiers; Nets for 
iishing; Tooles of all sorts to worke; apparell to supply our 

With the third supply in Virginia. 241 

wants; six Mares and a Horse; flue or sixe hundred Swine; as 
mauy Hennes and Chickens; some Goats; some sheepe; what 
was brought or bred there remained. But they regarding 
nothing but from hand to mouth, did consume that wee had, 
tooke care for nothing, but to perfect some colourable com- 
plaints against Captaine Smith. For effecting whereof three 
weekes longer they stayed the Ships, till they could produce 
them. That time and charge might much better haue beene 
spent, but it suted well with the res" of their discretions. 

Besides lames towne that was strongly Pallizadoed, con- 
taining some fiftie or sixtie houses, he left fiue or sixe other 
severall Forts and Plantations: though they were not so 
sumptuous as our successors expected, they were better then 
they provided any for vs. All this time we had but one Car- 
penter in the Countrey, and three others that could doe little, 
but desired to be learners: two Blacksmiths; two saylers, and 
those we write labourers Were for most part footmen, and 
such as they that were Adventurers brought to attend them, 
or such as they could perswade to goe with them, that neuer 
did know what a dayes worke was, except the Dutch-men 
and Poles, and some dozen other. For all the rest were poore 
Gentlemen, Tradsmen, Serving-men, libertines, and such like, 
ten times more fit to spoyle a Commonwealth, then either be- 
gin one, or but helpe to maintaine one. For when neither 
the feare of God, nor the law, nor shame, nor displeasure of 
their friends could rule them here, there is small hope ever to 
bring one in twentie of them ever to be good there. Not- 
withstanding, I confesse divers amongst them, had better 
mindes and grew much more industrious then was expected: 
yet ten good workemen would haue done more substantial! 
worke in a day, then ten of them in a weeke. Therefore 
men may rather wonder how we could doe so much, then vse 
vs so badly, because we did no more, but leaue those exam- 
ples to make others beware, and the fruits of all, we know- 
not for whom. 

But to see the justice of God vpon these Dutch-men; Val- 
do before spoke of, made a shift to get for England, where 
perswading the Merchants what rich Mines he had found, 
and great service he would doe them, was very well reward- 
ed, and returned with Lord La Wane: but being found a 
meere Impostor, he dyed most miserably. Adam and Fran- 
cis his two consorts were fled againe to Powhatan, to whom 

242 The Discoveries and Accidents, 

they promised at the arrivall of my Lord, what wonders they 
would doe, would he suffer them but to goe to him. But the 
King seeing they would be gone, replyed; You that would 
haue betrayed Captaine Smith to mee, will certainely betray 
me to this great Lord for your peace: so caused his men to 
beat out their braines. 

To conclude, the greatest honour that ever belonged to 
the greatest Monarkes, ?vas the enlarging their Dominions, 
and erecting Common-Veales. Yet howsoever any of them 
haue attributed to thenzselues, the Conquerors of the world: 
there is more of the world never heard of them, then ever 
any of them all had in subiection: for the Medes, Persians, 
and Assyrians, never Conquered all Asia, nor the Grecians but 
part of Europe apd Asia. The Romans indeed had a great 
part of both, as well as Affrica: but as for all the Northerne 
parts of Europe and Asia, the interior Southern and Westerne 
parts of Affrica, all America and Terra incognita, they were 
all ignorant: nor is our knowledge yet but superficiall. That 
their beginnings, ending, and limitations were proportioned 
by the Almightie is most evident: but to consider of what 
small meanes many of them haue begun is wonderfull. For 
some write that even Rome her selfe, during the Raigne of 
Romulus, exceeded not the number of a thousand houses. — 
And Carthage grew so great a Potentate, that at first was 
but incirculed in the throngs of a Bulls skinne, as to fight 
with Rome for the Empire of the world. Yea Venice at this 
time the admiration of the earth, was at first but a Marish, 
inhabited by poore Fishermen. And likewise Ninivie, The- 
bes, Babylon, Delus, Troy, Athens, Mycena and Sparta, grew 
from small beginnings to be most famous States, though now 
they retaine little more then a naked name. Now this our 
yong Common-wealth in Virginia, as you haue read once 
consisted but of 38 persons, and in two yeares increased but 
to 200. yet by this small meanes so highly was approved the 
Plantation in Virginia, as how many Lords, with worthy 
Knights, and braue Gentlemen pretended to see it, and some 
did, and now after the expence of fifteene yeares more, and 
such massie summes of men and money, grow they disani- 
mated? If we truely consider our Proceedings with the Spa- 
nyards, and the rest, we haue no reason to despayre, for with 
so small charge, they never had either greater Discoveries, 
with such certaine tryals of more severall Commodities, then 

With the third supply in Virginia. 243 

in this short time hath beene returned from Virginia, and by 
much lesse meanes. New England was brought out of ob- 
scuritie, and affoorded fraught for neare 200 sayle of ships, 
where there is now erected a braue Plantation. For the 
happines of Summer Isles, they are no lesse then either, and 
yet those haue had a far lesse, and a more difficult beginning, 
then either Rome, Carthage, or Venice. 

Written by Richard Pots, Clarke of the Councell, William Tankard, and G. P. 


Now seeing there is thus much Paper here to spare, that you 
should not be altogether cloyed with Prose; such Verses as 
my ivorthy Friends bestowed vpon New England, / here 
present you, because with honestie I can neither reiect, nor 
omit their courtesies. 



Damk'd Envie is a sp'rite, that ever haunts 

Beasts, mis-nam'd Men; Cowards, or ignorants. 
But, onely such shee followes, whose deare WORTH 
(Maugre her malice) sets their glory forth. 

If this faire Ouerture, then, take not; It 

Is Envie's spight (deare friend) in men of wit; 
Or Feare, lest morsels, which our mouths possesse, 
Might fall from thence; or else, tis Sottishnesse. 

If either; (I hope neither) thee they raise; 

Thy* Letters are as Letters in thy praise; 
Who, by their vice improve (when they reproouej 
Thy vertue; so, in hate, procure thee Loue. 

Then, On firme Worth, this Monument I frame; 

Scorning for any Smith to forge such fame. 

Iohn Banies, Heref. 



That which wee call the subiect of all Storie, 
Is Truth.- which in this Worke of thine giues glorie 
To all that thou hast done. Then scorne the spight 
Of Envie,- which doth no mans Merits right. 

My sword may helpe the rest: my Pen no more 

Can doe, but this; I'aue said enough before. 

Your sometime Souldier, I. Codrintan, now Temples 





It over-ioyes my heart, when as thy Words 
Of these designes, with deeds I doe compare. 
Here is a Booke, such worthy truth affords, 
None should the due desert thereof impare: 
Sith thou, the man,deseruing of these Ages, 
Much paine hast ta'en for this our Kint,'domes good, 
Tn Climes vnknowne, 'Mongst Turkes and Saluages, 
T' inlarge our bounds; though with thy losse of blood. 
Hence damn'd Detraction.- stand not in our way. 
Envie, itselfe, will not the Truth gainesay. 

JY. Smith. 



Caftaine and friend; when I pervse thy Booke 

(With Iudgements eyes) into thy heart I looke: 
And there I finde (what sometimes Albion knew) 
A Souldier, to his Countries-honour, true. 

Some fight for -wealth,- and some for emptie praise; 

But thou alone thy Countries Fame to raise. 
With due discretion, and undaunted heart, 
I (oft) so well haue seene thee act thy Part 

In deepest plunge of hard extreamitie, 

As forc't the troups of proudest foes to flic 
Though men of greater Ranke and lesse desert 
Would Pish-away thy Praise, it can not start 

From the true Otvner: for all good mens tongues 

Shall keepe the same. To them that Part belongs. 
If, then, Wit, Courage, and Successe should get 
Thee Fame,- the Muse for that is in thy debt.- 

A part whereof (least able though I be) 

Thus here I doe disburse, to honor Thee. 

Raleigh Crashait: 


Michaell Phettiplace, Wil: Phettiplace, and Richard Wiffing, 
Gentlemen, and Souldiers vnder Captaine Smiths com- 
mand: In his deserued honour for his Worke, and Worth. 

Why may not wee in this Worke haue our Mite, 
That had our share in each black day and night, 
When thou Virginia foild'st, yet kept'st vnstaind: 
And held'st the King of Paspeheh enchaind. 
Thou all alone this Salvage sterne didst take. 

Pamavnkees King wee saw thee captiue make 
Among seauen hundred of his stoutest men, 
To murther thee and vs resolved; when 
Fast by the hayre thou ledst this Salvage grim A 
Thy Pistoll at his breast to governe him.- 
Which did infuse such awe in all the rest 

(Sith their drad Soveraigne thou had'st so distrest) 
That thou and wee (poore sixteene) safe retir'd 
Vnto our helplesse Ships. Thou (thus admir'd) 
Didst make proud Poivhatan, his subiects send 
To Tames his Towne, thy censure to attend.- 
And all Virginia's Lords, and pettie Kings, 
Aw'd by thy vertue, crouch, and Presents b rings 
To gaine thy grace; so dreaded thou hast beene; 
And yet a heart more milde is seldome seene; 
So, making Valour Vertue, really; 
Who hast nought in thee counterfeit, or slie; 
If in the sleight be not the truest Art, 
That makes men famoused for faire desert. 

Who saith of thee, this sauors of vaine-glorie, 
Mistakes both thee and vs, and this true Storie. 
If it be ill in Thee, so well to doe; 
Then, is ill in Vs, to praise thee too. 
But, if the first be well done; it is well, 
To say it doth (if so it doth) excell. 
Praise is the guerdon.of eachdeare desert 

Making the practised act the praised part 
With more alacritie. Honours Spurrre is Praise,- 
Without which, it (regardlesse) soone decaies. 

And for this paines of thine wee praise thee rather, 
That future Times may know who was the father 
Of that rare Worke fNerv England J which may bring, 
Praise to thy God, and profit to thy King. 



Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process 
Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: Dec. 2003 



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