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ilei'ed accurfliug to liie Act of Ckiugicsa, in (he year eighlecH li 

leClcih'a Office oFaieBiBtrietCouttoflhe United States fori 
New -York. 



The manuscript of the following ti-anylation was sent 
to me by Mr. Brown, with the request that I would offer 
it to' some publisher, in his name. It may, therefore, bo 
proper for me to introduce it to the reader with a brief 
statement of the circumstances under which it was pre- 
pared, and is now presented to the public. 

The translator has resided for several years in Con- 
stantinople, as Dragoman of the United States Legation 
at the Ottoman Porte ; and this work of Suheily having 
been published in that city in 1840, Mr. Brown, at an 
early period of his residence there, formed the design 
of translating it, in which he was encouraged by the ap- 
probation of the celebrated orientalist Baron Von Ham- 
mer, who characterized the work as " by far the most 
interesting book that has been published at Constanti- 
nople for a long time." It is but justice to Mr, Brown, 
however, to add, that he does not claim to have made a 
translation which, in all respects, meets the demands of 
the scholar. On the contrary, in clothing this popular 
oriental work in an English dress, he thought only to 
amuse the general reader -with a pleasant representation 
of oriental sentiments and manners, and not to challenge 


iKxaoDucTOJiT 1 

the ci'iticiam of the orientalist by a scrapulous accuracy 
of rendering, although he aimed, indeed, " to preserve it 
as much like the original as possible." Conscious of the 
imperfections of his translation, yet hoping it may enter- 
tain and instruct the unlearned, he sends it forth " as a 
promise of something better in future," 

The proof-sheets have been revised by a gentleman 
of New York, who first kindly gave some touches to the 
translator's manuscript, with the help of a copy of the 
original, presented by Mr, Brown to the American Orien- 
tal Society, which an acquaintance with the Turkish en- 
abled him to make use of. But I am restricted to the sim- 
ple acknowledgment, in behalf of Mr. Brown, of this kind 
service, without having the liberty to mention the name 
of the able scholar by whom it has been rendered. 

The plan of the work, and the sources of its materials, 
are sufEciently indicated in the author's truly oriental 
preface. The personage to whom it is dedicated was 
the fourth Ottoman sovereign of the name Murad, who 
reigned between 1623 and 1640. 

To the credit of the publisher under whose favorable 
auspices this work appears, the first ever introduced to 
readers in the United States directly from the East, it 
should be distinctly understood that he has liberally as- 
sumed the whole expense of the publication. 


Yale College, November, 1S49. 


P Н E Г A C E . 

Ill tlie name of Allah, the merciful, the clement. 

O Lord, immerse me m the light of the trae path ; bind me with tlie 
thread of reaignation and contentment ; preseiTe the (jue mirror of ray 
heart from ihe mat of affliction; and show me thy countenance, O Thou 
who art my raost ardent desire ! 

If any one attempts to dispose the ordei' of the jewels of thy praises 
and adulations, or to aiTange fiie strung pearls of thanksgiving and satia- 
йюйоп, to Thee who attest enthroned on high, tlie God of might and 
gi'andenr, (the Merciful on the firmsunent above*), the vast plain of 
whose kingdom is heaven, — the fiiciilty of speech and the zone of 
eloquence excuses itself ftom the task, nnder the plea of wealtness and 
inability, and acknowledges its want of power, saying ; 

" O Sultan of the climes of eternity. 

Who can express siifQcieiit thanks for all thy beiisfiis ! 

That He, himself, k above all mundane necessities, is an aiiiJitional benefit." 

ill expressing his gi'eat glory, the eloquent tongue is a sterile raut«; and 
in the exposition of his mightiness, the mind of the learned is tongueless 
and diseased. Tlie most knowing- of the erudite are amazed at the 
commencement of the beams of His beauty ; and the most eminent of the 
, doctors of science and knowledge, are astonished at the sound of tlie 
hymns of His grandeur. 

The strung pearls of the laws of prayer and devotion, the pure neck- 
lace of the geras of prtuse and exultation ; the praise of the pui'e grave 
(of Mohammed); the offering of the illuminated garden (the cemetery 
wherein the Prophet is interred) ; the summary of the degrees of created 
things ; the royal verse of the poem of beings ; the essence of all creatures, 
and tiie quintessence of all possible things in the nbhes of biiliianey, — 
Moiiammed,^ — " Allah is the light of heaven ;" he who is seated in the tent 

" These oxdamstLona, ilirown in Iho Preface by Лв Author, are from the Konm. 


of Tkum dena; the suIUn of the canopy known by tlie name of "It was 
approached at the distance of two how-ahots or less ;" he who is ad- 
dressed m thy noble diaoourae, saying, " We will relate to yon the best 
of nan'aljvea ;" he who was ihns honored (of Allah), with the sagest of 
language, and the wiseat of woiils ; Allah adding, " He will tell you eon- 
oeming the prophets, and atrengthen your heart with it," — thus again 
was he distinguished ; ina,y Allah have peace and aaliBjaction with him ! 
The meaning of the Koran ; the sallies of the Paalms of David ; 
the reflected mirror of the light of God; the source of the two streams 
of entity and nonentity ; the union of (he two веаа of the past and the 
future; the crown of prophets; the sovereign of s,postleB; the moon 
of pnre path; Ihehelovedof Allah; thegreat Prophet; — peace and the 
best of benedicfiona be on lus excellent peraon, and on the pure 
individuflls, the blessed bodies and glorious souls of his femily, friends, 
sons, forebthera, and posterity ! beca,uae they are the sovereigna of the 
thrones of the cilies of reli^on, амА because they are the commanders of 
the battle-fields of ti-ue knowledge. iHay the satjafaetion of God be 
upon Ihem all ! 

On the praise of the sovereign whose armies are as numerous as tlie 
hosts of heaven, — may God eternalize his empire, and prolong it ! 

Allah be praiaed! He whose world-adorning beauty ennobles the 
tlirone of majesty ; whose imperial accession to the tlirone of the eali- 
phat, has given thereunto honor and magniaeenee. 

: of the globe, 

The resplendent sun of the estremity of greatness ; the star of majesty - 
and of splendor; the sultan of Uie sultana of the age, Sultan Murad, son 
of Sultan Ahmed Ebwi, son of Sultan Mohammed Khan ; may Allah 
glorify the throne of atate with his person, and bless the two worlds 
with acta of his justice and generosity; may tJie sound of the report of 
tiie equity of the hero resound in the dome of the universe, and the voice 
of his justice reach the place and inhabitants of the most distant part of 
the world ! Sivar, he whose royal diploma of majesty (berat or patent 
of sovereignty) and monogram of good fortune has been honored with 
his illustrious name and high title, the honorable divan (or council) of 
the universe has never beheld so glorious a padishah — so intelligent, so 
fortunate, so illustjious, so felicitous, and auspicioua a sovereign, O Allah, 


protect him witluii the fold of safety and security, for the sake of hun. 
w^om thou appointddat a prophet out of the chiMren of Adaiu, It is otii 
prayer and request of tbe glorious throne of God'a omnipotence, that 
Ыэ person may ever repose on the breast of felicity; sad that prosperity 
and empire, success aud yietory, be, day and niglit, attaelied to ilia noble 
and fortunate slarrup ; that he be yet im nobler than his forefathers ; that 
whereyer he may extend his armies both east and west, he may find 
suocesa. Amen, in the name of the faithful Prophet ! 

Lastly, It is evident as tlie auu in the midst of the lieaveiis, to thoae 
who seek for knowledge and information, that history polishes man's 
natufe, and rubs away the rust of Ms afflictions ; and that the talent of 
eveniug narrators is one which enlirens the cuTjle of society, and [is the 
true source of joy and pleasure. And thus tlie intelligent know that 
narrators who are gifted with afiability of dispoation, quickness of per- 
eeption,andjudgment,are possessed of sciences like strong pearls, "Sayi 
are the ignorant and the knowing equal 1"* Persons of experience and 
trial have acquired their knowledge from history and biogi'aphy, aud eol- 
leeted whatever was stiauge and remarkable. But surely this kind of 
eompUatiou cannot be easy to every one ; and its attainment cannot be 
perfected without deep study in voluminous books. Therefore, I, the 
pai'asite of the l^ie table of the love of my afleotionate brethren — that is 
to say — the humble Ahmed bin Hemdem the Ketkhoda, known by flie 
name of " Sdhailee," (may Allah spread his benefits ovei' him, and par- 
don him and his parents!) Iiave collected the following pearls from the 
seas of authentic works, and these sparkling jewels from the mines of 
celebrated authors, in which are folded and ooutnined the histories ef the 
andenta, with tlie accounts of the best of the learned and the; philoso- 
phers. I have selected ita contents from tlie most remai'kable events and 
the strongest occurrences, and have spent the capital of my life. in acquir- 
ing the valuable and choice extracts found in it. I fraualated them ftom 
the Arabic and Persian tongues, wrought them into a new form, and 
gave them new light and expression in the Turkish idiom; giving to my 
book the the ,tide of " Remarkable Events and Strange OccniTenees." 
In tJjia work I have particularly attached myself to collecting such tales 
and narratives as are autiientic and instructive, and, at the same time, 
more or less curious ; so that their moral application will be seen 
by every one. 


" The following are зоше of the works from which the extraordinary 
events and remarkable occurrencoiS have been extracted ; 

Tareeklii Mohsmmed Ып Ahmi^d bin iUustev№c.— ШеЮгу by MokamDied Ьш 

Abned Ыо Uuslevfes. 
Uamdj Ш Zebb Ш Meeoodec—TIie Golden Meadnws. Ът Meioodec. 
Jaml^t Temreeth U KLodjo BeaLecd Vazeor.^-CoUetiion of HUlories by Khodja 

'i'araekbi Slvain Dl Hulk bee Kofaee— HieKry «f K%iun' ui uiilkb" KoliEe/' 
Tsre^khi ТаЬвгев.— Ilistury of Tabaree, 
Janel ul Hika^at.— CDllecliuc of 8ti>t!es. 

ТагеекЫ ul Futuli TotneEa Ibia Alhem С<ю^е.— Hiatorr of Conqiiesu. by Ibin 

ЛсЬеш Coufae. 
Keshf ul Qainiaet Takefi Alee bin Isn Ai-dibeeLee,— Relief of ^оггоив, t>y Aiee 

ТвмвЬЫ anzziday.— Choice Hislory. 
Nodiet ul KulODb! Harsd 1ЛаЬ Muatevfee.— Jove оГ the Bean, b; Hared lllali 

Vassajai KlioSje Niiom ul ИПк Vazeer^ToBlameute of КЪрЦв ul Wnik Vaieer. 
Tureekbl Kiyamul Mulk Tabbaket Nnaree, by ЫШ Hiidj Wn Seniaj Jurjon. 
TareelEhi VaagafAbdaKuh bin Fazel Shcerasee. 
Tareokhl Falibi Eddin Daood Benakeo. 
Medjeioab nn Novadir Ntznm Aruzl SamarkaDdi. 
Zefor NamehL eharof ud Deen Tubreezee. 
ТагеекЫ ЛеЬвп Knehal Khoi^a Ala Mebk Jawoanee. 
Bluta az SaadaiD Abd or Riszak Samarkandee.^Rieing of the Fonunato Stars,- 

br, Abd at Rizzsk of eamarkand. 
Kavzat iia 8effiil, bj Hahanimed Ып fta^avend Shab ei Etilkli, known by Ih? 

name of Mirkhond Shah. 
Babeebus Sler QiasDd Deen Khoudbneer.— Tbe Friend of Biogi sphere, by Sier 

Te^kerett Devlec Shiib. Meuioffs hj Devlel Sh!ih. 

Medjalea un nolToiii Meer Alte Sheer^-MaeUnee of the Select, by Meer Alee 

Prom these works I eompiled my book, and changed fheir Arabic and 
Deri (Persian) dress to robes of Turkish. So that when my brethren of 
faithful narrtitivea, and the fiiends of pleflBant literature derive delight by 
reading the contents, may they remember their humble servant for good, 
and recite a FatJm for the repose of his sonl ! 

" If brethren, from gooA feeling' and friendshi}). 

Bestow on it one atom of regard. 
From boing a. coarse, гочкН stone, it will 

Ввсогпб a mby of Bedakehoii ; 
Aad from a simple atom, it will be' a sun of glory." 




JIlustrBlive at Iiitelllgfuce and Plely. 

Anecdote of a Camei Driver 

AuecdutB uf Ayaa Ып Muavifch, 

Anecdote of MiilasiDi Eillah, 

Anecdote of Mutaeid Billah, 

Anecdote of Mutaetd Billah on BnildiLig, . . - - 

Jllusti'attve ot QensranUy mid Bciievoleiici 

Anecdote of (he Caliph Mamoon 

Anecdote of Muetaeen Billali, , 

Anecdote of Maan bin Zajd, 

Anecdote of Jaafer KadaVee 

Anecdote of Abdullah bin Abbaa, 

Anecdote of Yaiid bin Mehleb, , . . . . 

Anecdote of Mntamid Billah, ...... 

Anecdote of Ibin Mehleb and Hedjadj, .... 

Aflecdote of Muktadlr Billah and his Viair, 

Anecdote of Abdallah bin Abi ВеЬег, 

Anecdote of Yazid bin Muavieh, 

Anecdote of Mutaaid Billab and the Gardenei', . 


Story of Naain and Bos, 
Anecdote of Samuel bin Adya, 
Aaacdote af Kiafoor and the Astrolt 



Story of the Boramikee, 

Anecdote of Kemat ed Deeii Teddaii 

Anecdote of Hcdjadj ег Zalira, . 


Anecdote about Sugar Canes, .... 

Anecdote of Mehdi Billah, 

Anecdote of Milch Cows, 


Anecdote of Mutasid BillLih 

' Anecdote of Mutasid Billah and the Magian, 
Anecdoto of lamBil ihin Bulbul, 
Sketch of the Conqueror of Coiistaiitinopb, 


Auecdote of Sinjar Kliaii, . , ■ . 
Anecdote of Stiliman bin Abdel Mclik, 


Anecdote of Abdallab Radaveo, .... 
Ajieedote of Kais bin Abadeh, . . . . 

Anecdote of Grabet el Uvaa, .... 


On Jus 

Anecdote of Melilt Shah an 


Anecdote of Shah Mahmood ai 
Anecdote of Mntasid Billah, . 


Anecdote of НаъчанМцтепа™, 

Anecdote of Навэ lU Majminrie,., 


Sloiy of the Perfumer, 

Stray of the Golden Riug at the We)l of Zemism, 

Story of an innocent person in the time of Muhtadee Billah, . 

Storyofthepoornianintbetimeof MutfadirBillah, . 

Story of the wife of Fh -оог, 

Story of HHsain Bekra 

Story of a Villi's sou and Gneet, 


Tale illnstrating the right of Bread and Salt, .... 
Anecdote of Ahmed bin Toolooii, Ahmed Yatemee, and Abool Jeesh, 

Aiiocdoto of Mulasid Billah, 

Anecdote of a Wo!f and a Toy 

Anecdote of Afadul Seince Keal, 

ATalo about Haroou otEaaheed, 


Story of Rebeea, 

Anecdote of Muhtadee Billah 

Anecdote of Mutasim BiUah'a campaign against Ankora, 
Anecdote of Muktafee Billah and Aboo Ainee, .... 

Anecdote of Jaafer Beramikee, 

Anecdote эГ the Sultan of Meraltash and Kurtnbah, . 

Anecdote of Haroon er Eaaheed's favoi' to the Imam Aboo Yoosuf, 


Snme Ii.ciltt! lions on tiie ChniigiiS «f Hic Woild, 


Oh Oh> eubjeet of tlie Orliioiiox Callplie. 




On the Government of All Booyeh. 

Divere Anecdotes, 

Aneerfote of Aboo Alee bin Siuiia and tlie young Doctor, 


Oil Ihc Сепяи.е of Poily and Evil q,u&Iil 

Anecdote of tho Imaam Esniaee, 

Stery of Shaboor Shah and the Kaisat of Room, 

Anecdote of Naam aud Rebeea, 


On Civility and Guntleneee. 

Anecdote of Alexander and the PhiloBophet, 

Anecdote of Kepeufc Khan 

Anecdote of Mnmin Zadeh and tlie Mogul, 

Anecdote of Melik Shah and Pira Zal, . . . . 

Anecdote of the Two Brothers, 

Anecdote of Solah od Deen, 

Anecdote of the Merchant and the Dervisli, 

Anecdote of Melik SalJh, 


On til* Subject of Elevated (^ii>ilitlee in П 

Anecdote of Seftali, 

Anecdote of Abdallah bin Tahir, 

Anecdote of Ahnef bin Kale, 

Anecdote of Jaafer bin Sultman, 

Anecdote of Behiam Gbior and the Shepherd, . 

Anecdote of Nooehirvan the Jnst, ...... 



n tlie Wont 

Anecdote of the Imam Shafaee, 311 

Sketch frqjn Кагтеелее 913 

Anecdote of two peiBoiiB with a eiiiglo Body, 213 

Auecdote about the Beauties of the Sea, S14 

Anecdotea of Cuiioua MalfoimatLoa, ...... 215 


Anecdolei* a.!>OHt Astrolojfers u»d Soolhsayera. 

Anecdote of Ibin Sekit, 215 

Anecdote of Taki ed Deen of Damascus, 217 

Anecdote of Mutezee aiid Remmal Hyder, ..... Э17 

Anecdote from Ziad bin Mesood, 219 


Story of MelJlt et Tahir, 325 

Story of Shems ed Deen ibin Helltam, 223 

Story of Ahead el Jerhemec, ЗЭЗ 


Oil Fevfiay. 

Anecdotes about Marvellous ThingE, Э24 

Anecdote of the Son of Valeed bin Abd el Meiik, .... 297 

Anecdote of Hashem and the Old Man, 998 

The Dream of Abdid Melik З.Ч1 




Anecdote of Abool Casira Tauibooree, . 


Amuiiug AuEcdales. 

On tlie Subject of CoiiQilcnre iii Allali. 

Anecdote of Hatim tlie Deaf, . ■ 245 

Anecdote of tlie Sheik Jemal ed Dee» 947 

Auecdole of a Hermit ЙбХ 

Auecdoteof Sehil bin Abd Allali Teaterco, . ; . . . 2ЙЗ 

Anecdote of Abdaliah Нашга Soofeo, 254 

Anecdote of Sehil bin Abdaliah, 255 

Anecdote of the Sheik Abdaliah bin Mohammed el Balkhee, . . 955 

Anecdote of the Imam Yafeb 257 

Anecdote of Alid er Rahman S59 

Anecdote of tlie Slieik Abdalloh the Andalusiaii, , . . . 2Н0 

On tlie Subject of Deucvoieiic Cliiulitic 

Anecdote of Menar and Haroon er Kasheed, 
Anecdote of the Merchant and his Slave, 

Anecdote hy Abd^lah bin Mebavik 

Anecdote of Binti Numan and Hedjadj ez Zaiim, 
Anecdote of the Present sent by Kereem el Melik, 
Stoiy of a Cunning Female, 


Anecdote of the Sovereign of Babel, 


Anecclole by Abd nl Muta, 

Anecdote of Behiam Gliior, 

Anecdote of a nimiiored Poet, .-.■.. 

Anecdote of Abdallah bin Amir, 

Anecdote of Snliman the Prophet, 

Anecdote of a Man whose Noae and Eaia were cut off. 
Anecdote of a Woman and her Lover, .... 
Anecdote of the Painter and the Goldsmith, 


Slniy of llamarvieh and the Unfortunate Youlh, 
Story of the benevolent Man and his Maiden, . 

Story of tlie Vizir and his Maiden, 

Story of Jahiz luid Mntavakkil Sillab, .... 

five Anecdotes, 

Anecdote of Ahoo Beker, 

The fail Daughter of the Ijnam Husain, . . , . 

Anecdote of Iiaila Ahilieh, 

Anecdote of the Faithful Womau 

Anecdote of Takoob bin David, . ■ . , . 

Anecdote of a Generous CJork 

Auecdotc about Belkees, ...... 

Three Anecdotes, each on different subjects, 


Story of the Vizir's Daughter, and what happened to her Lo' 
Story of the doctors Jebrail and Hindee, 

Of Elucliantnient and Sorcery. 

Sheik Abdallah the Egyptian, and the Banker, 

Jiftan Khan and Yakoob Sekakee, 

Mebshah Zad and the Lion, 

Anecdote from the "Work called " Fcrdjbaad esli Shcddeh," 

Story of Yohiya bin Beramiltee, . . . . , 


Stilly of the Kmir Sivat and tlie Calipli, 353 

Story of Imam MoOEa er Razee, 355 

Anecdote of Mallaua Ferdoosee, 356 


Of Eixlraordliiavy Occui-rencea and М1гас1ея. 

Anecdote of a Female Leper, 3G3 

Anecdote of Jesus aiid the piire Woman, . . . ■ . 365 

Anecdote of Moaes, . . . ■ 366 

Anecdote of Cadi Husain, . . : 368 

Anecdote of MutasidBiUah 371 

Anecdote of Haroon ar Rasheed, 373 

Anecdote of Abdallah bin Tahir 374 

Anecdote of Darins and Alexander, 375 

Anecdote of a Meiehant of Bagdad, 377 





KelnUTe to those individuBla who were ^flcd with judgment, IngenuHy and 
pauetmitLoa, and poeseaeed of agreeable aiid pleasant qualities. 

In the books of CoiBmentators and Histotians, it is a fact fre- 
quently mentioned, and true without doubt, that on a certain day, 
two men entered the presence of David the Prophet to make a 

They were adv^ersaries ; and one of them said, "This man's sheep 
entered my garden by night; and destroyed all the twigs growing 
on my vines, so that they, and the branches of the vines, are all 
destroyed." The Prophet judged the ease, and sentenced the own- 
er of the sheep to compensate the owner of the idnes, for the loss 
which he had sustained, by ^ving him his sheep. 

The parties left his presence, and when proceeding on their 
way met Solomon, the Prophet's son, then only in his twelfth year. 
Solomon asked them from whence they came, and they forthwith 
told him what had occured, and how his father David had judged 
the sheep to the owner of the vines, 

Solomon answered that there was a more just and proper sen- 
tence. " Come," said he, "into my father's presence, and you wOl 



hear what he will order," So they returned with him, and when 
they were before his father they repeated their complaint. The 
Prophet then asked his son," What more just and proper sentence 
could he pronounced on this case V Solomon answered, " This 
man's sheep entered that man's garden, and so far as they could 
reach them, cropped off the twigs and sprouts from his vines, but 
did notinjui'e their roots. These latter being still in the earth, will 
again Iq a short time produce. Let, therefore, the milk of this 
man's sheep be given as a remuneration to the owner of the injured 
vines, until such time as the sprigs and sprouts, having grown, can 
benefit the owner ; after which, restore the sheep to their original 

The Prophet David praying, " May God be satisfied with thee 
and thy father, and be bounteous to them both," observed to his 
son, " you have judged justly and uprightly." The two complain- 
uot3 were aaUsfied with the judgment ; and conformably to its in- 
junctions, when the vines had again sprouted, the original owner 
recdved his sheep. ,This circumstance, God makes mention of in 
his book, the Koran, in the following manner. " When David and 
Solomon sat in judgment on the plants, and then inquired on the 
subject of the sheep and the tribe, we (dual) were witnesses to their 
sentence, and we made them to understand Solomon, and he them." 

May God verify tbeii- deeds. They {tbe disputants) depart- 
ed, praising the Imowledge and talent of Soloraon, and lauded thei 
(his) divine greatness ; 

It is related in the hooks of historians, and well linown to men 
of letters, that PTezar ben Mand ben Adnaan, one higlily gifted, 
had four sons, to whom he gave the names of Ayaz, Mirzir, Anmaa, 
and Eebiah, all of whom \veve men of celebrity. When their 
much respected father was about to depait this life, he divided all 


his wealth and possessions between them ; all red domed things, he 
gave to Mirzir ; the black herbs and other similar things to Rebiah ; 
the long haired mmden slaves to Ауая, and the sofas and all white 
things to Anmaa, and in this manner willed his property. " If," 
added he, " when I am gone, any difficulty or dispute shoidd arise 
between you, go to the celebrated judge of the age, the Ameer 
Haiti Bahran, make the same known to him, and leave him to judge 
justly between you. 

Now some time after this, these four brothei-s disputed, and 
forthwith set out for the residence of the learned judge mentioned 
in the will of their deceased parent. On their way they passed 
through a meadow, where a camel had been graang, though then 
gone, and ao longer in sight. 

Mirzir on obseiTing the marks, remarked, that they were those 
of iiu one eyed camel ; Rehiah said it was also greedy ; Ayaz, that 
it was laden with oil and honey, and ridden by i woman ■ Anmiz 
that it was a stray camel. The Arabs call a one ej --d i,tmel Auver 
one that has a crooked breast Azvre, and one with no iiil Ebtei 
and a straj', or wsTideiing one, Slierood, Wbibf these fou) bro 
there were yet talking on the subject of the camel tln,y met the 
person to whom it belonged ; who, when h э ask d them if tl t,y 
had seen bis lost camel, Mirzir answered lyaskig n is it one 
eyed ? " Yes," said the camel driver. " Was it crooked breasted ' 
asked Rebiah. "Yes," answered the man Ayaz asted Had й 
oil on one side, and honey on the other; and had it not a woman 
on its baek?" " Yes," \vas again the answer. " Was it not as- 
tiay T' demanded Anmaz. " Yes, indeed," was the e^er reply, 
" pray give me back my camel." The brothers now said that 
none of them had even seen his camel. On this they had a long 
altercation with the driver, and he .finally accompanied them to the 
presence of the celebrated judge, whom the camel driver informed, 
that these men knew of his camet, for they could desciibe it. The 
biothcra, however, answered, that they had not seen it ; the owner 
of the beast insisted that thoy hiid, and demanded Siis camel. 



Now the judge spoke to the brothers and asked how they 
could know the description of a camel which they had never seen. 
They answered, that on their way they had passed through a 
meadow of wliich they observed the grass on one side was crop- 
ped, whilst on the other, it remdned untouched, from which, said 
Mirzir, I understood that the camel was blind of one eye.. Rebiah 
said, that having observed the print of its fore feet, he remarked 
tJwt one was deep whilst the other was scnrcely perceptible, and 
he knew the aninnl wis crooked buasted and Anmar s^d, that 
from observing how the e^mel m grazing had not passed on the 
other side, he deemed jt must be one ejed When they had fin- 
ished, the judge exclaimed m astonishment Blessed God ! what 
sagacity and discernment I but piay from what did yon know that 
the camel was loaded with honey and oil and that a woman rode 
on it V Ayaa answered I came to th'^t conclusion from the num- 
ber of flies about our path, which seek for honey, and a quantity 
of ants on the way-side, which search for oil ; and the lider haying 
had need to dismount from the cajnel, I remarked the piints of 
her feet, where she had stepped, making impressions upon the 
ground handsome as the paiated ones of roses. 

The judge on hearing this prirised their disceninient, and sent 
away the camel driver, saying ; " These are not the men you 
thought them to be, go and search for your camel," Then com- 
plimenting the four brothers, he invited them to dine with him, 
inquiring at the same lime the object of their visit. They inform- 
ed the Ameer of the will of their father, and how he had desired 
them, in case of any disagreement on the subject of their inheri- 
■ tance, to apply to him for its adjustment. The learned judge re- 
plied tbat it was not proper for any one to interfere between such 
wise and ingenious persons as they, " But," added he, " I welcome 
you, and am happy to see you. A sumptuous repast closed theii' 
visit, and the judge and the young men departed with mutual ad- 
miration : the former struck wth amazement at the sagacity of the 


brethren, and they, in their turn, admhing the adi4>itness with 
■which the judge had avoided passing upon then- father's will. 

Ayas ben Moiiavich bin Kara was a person possessed of great 
talent and perspicuity, was well versed in, the abstrHse sciences, 
and works of history, and narrative, and of quick and correct dis- 
cernment. Among the examples of his judgment, it is related, that 
one day a guest came to visit him, and offer a complaint, saying, 
" I deposited with such a monk a purse of gold, aad departed 
on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Latterly I returned, and when I asked 
my money of him he denied having ever received it, what shall I 
do ?" The cadi answered, " Have you spoken of this to any one 
but myself?" The guest answered in the negative, " Then go," 
said the cadi, " and some two or three days hence come to me and 
receive an answer." The cadi then sent to tlie monk, and invited 
him to his presence, which invitation he accepted, and received from 
the cadi marked attentions and regard. Aftei-wards, turnbg to the 
monk, he s^d, " I am compelled by business to leave this couutry, 
and liave a few purses of money which I desire to deposit with 
you. As there can be no person more honorable than yourself, 
God aloQe shall be a witness between us. To-morrow I will send 
them to you, and it is your duty to take good care and. guard over 
them. After this the monk departed, and on the morrow the guest 
agidn appeared for his answer. "Go," said the cadi, "demand 
your deposit, and if be refuses it, tell him that you will complain 
to the cadi, and let us see what will be the result." 

The guest, as directed, went to the monk and demanded his 
deposit. The monk smiling replied, " My intention the other day 
was only to test your temper, and not to deuy the pledge, see, here 
it is," and handed him his purse of gold. The guest returned to 
the cadi, and after overwhelming him witli thanks and expressions 
of gratitude, went to his business. 


Some days after this the monk re-visited the cadi, and was re- 
ceived with the grossest reproaches and abuse, the cadi exclaim- 
ing, " So, hypocrite, your ҮгИшпоиа conduct has let the world liiiow 
your character for duplicity." The cadi'a method for obtaining 
the guest's purse of money was applauded by eveiy one. May 
God have mercy on them all. 

The Ameer of tlie faitlifiil, Mutasim Billah, one of the caliphs 
of the Abassides, was a most just and equitable sovereign, as well 
as a man of much courage and lion-heartedness. He carried on a 
continued war agMnst iafidels, and for amiability of disposition, 
followed ill the footsteps of iiis upright predecessors. On the de- 
cease of this caliph the avaricious unbelievers, thinking it a good 
moment to make an attack upon the f^thful, collected all their 
forces and took council upon their future operations. " Gfreat di- 
visions," said they, " exist among the Islamites, and as they are 
еасЪ. engaged in their own pleasures and amusements, now is a 
good occasion to attack them." 

With this idea they resolved upon hostilities. Now one of the 
chiefs of the unbelievers was an aged man of great intelligence and 
experience, Trho, from being their elder, directed them in their un- 
dertaking. His co-relig^onests ai'ose and proceeded to the dwell- 
ing of this individual, whom, when they asked council, answered 
them. " Tour enterprise 3s neither just nor worthy, and would be 
rejected by sensible people ; for it has been seen m питетохш works 
that, notwithstanding the people of Islam are apparently divided, 
when opposed they unite and act together. Therefore you had 
better attend to your own afiairs, and give over this wild undertak- 
ing." They followed the old man's good advice, and were govern- 
ed by his councils. 



One of tlis caliphs of the Abassides, named Mutaasid Billah 
Yansur Ы nour Ulliih, was a sovereign of great good judgment and 
careful justice. He, one day, ia company with' his attendants, vi- 
sited a palace situated on the banlis of the Tigris, where he observed 
an expert fisherman tlirow his net iuto the river, and, after haul- 
ing it out, found only three or four fish in it. The caJipli remai'king 
this, commanded the fisherman to throw it into the water again, 
forbissate, "andlet«ssee,"smdhe,"ivhatmy luck will be." The 
mao did as he was ordered and soon after hauling his net out, 
felt something wd hty amon ts meshes. In consequence of the 
increased weight, the ttend t of the caliph had to aid him, and 
when the net was on sho e th f und in it a leather b^, tightly 
bound round the n o fh In I bag they at first perceived a 
number of tile, and fnally a ts b ttoni llie hand of a tender and 
young female, bent and sfanvelled. The caliph, on seeing the liand, 
exclaimed, " Poor creature, Trhat work is this, that the servants of 
God (MiissHlraans) should }}e thus cut to pieces and thrown into 
the river without our knowledge ; we must find the committer of this 
wicked act." Now, witb the caliph was one of his cadies, (judges,) 
who вроке and said, " Oh ! Ameer of the faithful, give your pre- 
cious self no trouble about tlus matter, for. by your favor, we will 
investigate, and with proper care and cu'cumspection bring it to 

The caliph at the same time called the governor of the city of 
Bagdad, and ^ving the b;^ into his hands, said, " Go to tire Bazaar, 
show it to the sack-sewers, aud inquire whose work it is ; tliey 
know each other's work ; and if yoi £ 1 tl e 'nd'vid al who sewed 
it, bring him to me." 

The cadi had the sack shown to tl e ewe a an 1 an old, giave 
looking man, on seeing it, exclaimed tl at t ■« ч 1 s own work. 
" Lately, I sold it," added he, " and t vo oth -s to one YaJiiya liha, 
a native of Damascus, of the familj of tl a Mai le ." The cadi 
on hearing this, said, " Come with me to the caUph, fear nothiiig, 
he has only a few questions to ask yon." So the old man accom- 



panied him into the presence of the cahph, ivho demanded of him 
to whom he had sold it. The old man answered aa hefore, adding, 
'Oh! prince of the faithful, he is a man of high i-ank, hut very 
wicked and tyrannical, and continually does injuiy and vexation to 
true behevera. Eveiy one fears him, and none dare complain 
agmnst him to the caliph. Lately, a lady, named Inaan Magennee, 
purchased a female slave for one thousand dinars, who was very 
fair and beautiful, and moreover, a poetess. This man supposed 
her mistress would sell her to him, but receiving the lady's reply, 
that she bad already given her her freedom, he senther word that 
there was to be a wedding in the house, and requested that the 
female should be loaned him for the occasion. The lady, therefore, 
sent her as a loan for three days, and, after four or five bad elapsed, 
sending to demand her, received for answer, that she had already 
left his house two or tliree days ago, and notwithstanding the la- 
dy's tears and complaints, she could not obtain her slave, nor even 
hear any news of her. 

The lady, from fear of this man's violence, held her peace, and 
left the quarter wherein she had resided, for it is said he had al- 
ready put several of his neighbors to death. 

When the old man was done speabing, the caliph seemed 
greatly rejoiced, and commanded that Yahiya Ilha should forth- 
with be brought before him. He came, and when he was shown 
the hand found in the bag, his color changed, and he falsely en- 
deavored to exculpate himself. The lady was likewise brought, 
and so soon as she saw the hand, she commenced weeping, and ex- 
claimed, " Yes, indeed, it is the hand of my poor murdered slave." 
" Speak," said the cahph to the Mahides, " for by my head, I 
swear to know the truth of this affair." 80 the man acknowledged 
that he had killed the slave ; and the caliph, in consideration of 
his being of the family of Hasheem,* sentenced him to pay to the 
owner of the slave one thousand pieces of gold for the loss which 

» Belli Haelieem, one of the most niicieiit AtabJEii tribes, from which the 



аЪе liad sustained, and one hundred thousand more for tlie law of 
taoUon ; after whitb be allowed him three days, in which to settle 
his айшга in the city, and then leave it for ever. 

On learning this sentence, the puhlic loudly praised the ca- 
liph's judgment, and commended his justice and equity. 

It is mentioned in the celebrated Arabic work, entitled the 
"Mirror of Uie Age," that one of the cahphs of the house of Abbaas, 
Mutusid Billali, besides being a very brave and courageous person, 
was also possessed of keen obseivation, and the faculty of knowing 
men by their physiognomy. One day as he was inspecting the 
erection of a palace on the banks of the Tigris, which be was wont 
to do once a week, and encourage the builders with presents and 
other acts of favor, lie observed tbat each of the men employed 
carrying stones to the edifice, bore but one at a time, and that with 
great gravity and slowness. Among them, however, he perceived 
one, with black hands and dark complexion, who invaiiably lifted 
two at a time, put them on his back, and with evident joy and elas- 
ticity carried them from the whai-f to the masons. On seeing this, 
the caliph pointed him out to Hussian, one of his attendants, and 
asked the cause of this man's unnatitral gayety. The attendant an- 
swered, that the caliph was more competent to form an opinion 
of the ease than himself. The, caliph thea added, that Oie man 
was probably possessed of a large sum of money, and was there- 
fore happy from the consciousness of bis wealth ; or, that he was a 
thief, who had only soiight employment srniong the workmen for 
the purpose of concealment. I do not like his appeai'ance, contin- 
ued the prince of the faithful, have him brought into my presence. 

So, when the man was come, the cahph asked him what his 
occupation was, and he answered, that be was a common laborer. 
" Have you any money laid by V demanded the caliph, " None," 



replied the man. Tell me tlie truth, again asked the caliph, repeat- 
ing the qiiestioH, andagain the roan answered in the negative. 

Then the caliph ordered an officer to strike the man, which 
being done, he immediately cried out for pity and pardon. Speak 
the ti-utb, said the officer, or the caliph will punish you as long 
as you hve : So the man avowed that bis trade was that of a 
tile-maker ; and one day, added he, when I had prepared mj kiln, 
and lit the fire, a man approached me, mounted on an ass, who 
dismounting hefore my Kin, let the ass go, and be^mung to undress 
himself, took from aiwimd his waist a gMle, which he placed by 
his side and began fleeing himself. I, seeing that the man was 
quite alone, caught him, and throwing him into the furnace of my 
kiln, closed it down. I then took his girdle, and after killing the 
sss throw it also into tbe fire ; " see, here ia the girdle." The ca- 
liph took it, and on esamiaing it, found it contained some thou- 
sands of gold pieces, and, moreover, had its owner's name written 
upon it. Oq this discovery the ealiph sent criera out, to ask in 
the st;*eeta whether any family had lost amember, or a friend, and 
if 80, to come before him. Soon an ^ed woman approached, and 
exclaimed, " My son left me with some thousands of pieces of gold, 
with which to purchase merchandise, and is lost." Theyshoived 
her the giidle, which she immediately recognised as her son's, and 
said that it had his name upon it. 

The ealiph now gave the girdle into the old woman's hands, 
saying, " See before yon tlie murderer of your son." She demand- 
ed the right of talion, and the man was forthwith hung upon the 
door of him whom he had murdei'ed. 

All the world admired the caliph's sagacity and commended 
his j lis tic e. 



!E of genfrrosUy ajid liberality, and the asntir 
itiou, with wliioli eoinc indi-viilHals are gifted 

One of the Abbasside caliplis, Memoon, was celebrated for bis 
superior knowledge of tbe Ecieneea, the excellence of his шогл1 
qrl 1 1 h 1 q ud for hia profound senae of justice ajid 

q ty H w t Bed to ti-avel about hia provinces, and by 

qiury 1 tl d f 1 and state of his people. 

I tl 04tl f Нчг ah be tookbis seat upon the throne cf 

th I pb t It la w U n in the work of that veiy correct histo- 

ni lb 1 J tl t Tahiza ben Ektem relates as follows. " I 

w w th h 1 2 1 Memoon, in Damascus ; it was ceai the 

t m f p уш tl f p their monthly stipend ; and he, the ca- 

1 pl d d to L ; but, upon examming his treasury, he, 

fi I g tl t t d 1 t tain sufiicient money for that purpose, 

wa. g t!j d t d One day be was seated near a reservoir of 

w te w lb h b til Mutasim БШаЬ, and sevei-al of the eiost 

t bl g tl m f D mascua, engnged in conversation, when 

tw m Pl d and were brought into bis presence, — 

Th cat pb f t 1 ahiya ben Ektem and the others, said, 

C m 1 t 1 1 k at the cases, and make merry the hearts 

f tl wi h b ^ht them,' With these words he arose, 
and, followed by his eompaniona, proceeded to a high seat where 
he usually repoaed. Many other individuals also followed the ca- 
liph, to see the money cases, which were opened before him with 
much taste and ceremony, 

"The caliph turned to Mohamed ben Daoud, and said, 'Since 
our treaawre has arrived, and so many persons ai'e assembled to 

see it, it woidd be a pity v^ere we to take it and enjoy ourselves in 



secret ; particularly since it liavisg been the object of their atten- 
tion and cupidity, they would return dissatisfied.' So he command- 
ed that every individual, each one according to his condition and 
gi-ade, shoiild be presented with from one hundred thousand pieces 
of gold down to fire hundred, smu two thousand, as a royal gift. 
Now, when all those arouad him, had each received this amount, 
and their number was noted, it was found that they had received 
in all one hundred and fifty-eight thousand pieces of gold. With 
the remainder the caliph ordered the soldiers to be pmd, after 
which, saluting the people assembled, he returned to his royal 

Now from this incident, judge of the power and mnjosty, and 
the grandeur of the house of Abbass. 

One of the Abbassides, Mustaeen Billah, was considered as one 
of the most noble and genei'ous among men, and one of the most 
just and vahant of that house. One of the gi-eat men of the state, 
named Ahmed ben Hemdoon, relates, that Mustaeen BiJlah ei-eoted 
a, most beautiful palace on the banks of the Tigris, at Bagdad, 
and, that his respected mother had a carpet woven for it, on the 
silk of which she had worked in gold and silver thread, the figures 
of all kinds of animals and birds. The figures were all of the purest 
metals, then- eyes rubies and turquois, and other precious stones ; 
indeed so tioh was the carpet, that she had spent the sum of one 
hundred and thirty thousand dinars upon it ; and the instnjments 
and other articles, neeesaaiy for its construction, were registered, 
the whole costing twenty thousnnd dinai-s. 

When the palace was finished, his mother made it Imoivn to 
him, saying, " I have a request to make you; come soroe day with 
your suite, and inspect the palace, amuse yourself, and afterwards 
do aa you like best." Mustaeen Billali neglected to go that day. 


;нтЕКТЛ1КМЕЫтз. 25 

Ahmed Ъеа Hemdoon Earrates, that one of the caliph's suite 
named, Atargee Hashemee told him, that the palace was actually 
strewed with jewelry, and that they ought to go to see it. So, 
adds he, Atargee and myself went, and the door-keeper let us in. 
We bad never seen any palace so ornamented before. Among 
other remai'kable things, was a gazelle of gold ; its eyes were red 
rubies. This, I took and put into my eleeve, and tbua left the 
palace. We went before the caliph, and commencing to praise the 
palace, and its incomparable carpet, and the other sti-ange things 
that we had seen, begged him, before giving any part of it away, 
to pay it a visit, Whibt yet praising it, Atargee remarked, that 
I had captured a gazeUe ; so I took it out from my sleeve and 
showed it to all present. 

The caliph addressing the courtiers around him, said, " Those 
of you who love me are at liberty to go and take from the palace 
whatever you please." 

80 we all arose, and proceeded to the palace, where we filled 
our pockets and breasts with the most costly things it contained, 
after which we returned to the caliph, who was in excellent 
spirits, and evinced his gayety. The other persons present now 
said, " What is our crime, oh 1 Emir of the faithful ?" on which 
he answered them Go you are all at hhertj to do the same," at 
which they all аюче and plimdertd the palace the delighted 
caliph at the same time observiig theia fiom a window. The 
courtiers, and other persons pieaent became шЛ and the caliph 
noticing that one of them named Ibm Mihleb bore away a pack- 
age of odoriferous mu 1 and another of ambei exclaimed — 
" Where are you i^omg t to which being an^wcied, " To the 
bath," he was greatly pleas d and oidered ill his servants to 
go also, and dividing the cifpet imong themseh s, be meiry. 
In tbis interval his mother amved and said Could I only 
have seen you once on thit carpet my liboi and pains would 
have been amply requited. The cakph, touched with her ten- 
derness, ordered the whole expense to be paid her out of bis treasu- 



ry, and that another carpet, just like the former, ahowld be made, for 
which he allotted one hundred and thirty thousand dinai-s. A richer 
one than the first was therefore made for the new palace, with other 
furniture correspondingly valuable. After this the caliph, attended 
by all his courtiers, spent some time at the palace in meriy enjoy- 
ment and there gave permi^ion to them to take tbat carpet likewise, 
adding, " Our portion is health, without which wealth and riches 
are worthless ; let our friends and followers partake of whatever is 
ours." So great and generous a prince wtis Mustaeen Billah. 

It is related, in the history caOed the "Mirror of the Age," 
that there was, in the government of the Abbassides, a man 
among the ranks of the princes of Arabia who was fataoue for his 
hospitality, generosity and liberality ; and one whose door was 
ever open to the needy. ТЫя person's name whs M&in bin Ziad ; 
his jurisdiction extended, and his coisi-age was renowned from the 
re^on of Damascus to Bagdad. This ameer was once amusing 
himself with a few friends, in a most incomparahly heautiftd gar- 
den, when a poet of mucli celebrity and talent came in search of an 
opportunity to make known to the ameer an injustice which he 
had suffered. 

None offered, or even when any was found who could pre- 
sent him to the ameer, a pretext was wanting to excuse his vbit. 
Finally, as there was a resei-voir in the garden, the source of which 
was beyond the walb, the poet, taking a smooth piece of boaid, 
wi-ote on it the following lines, explicative of his feeling, and put- 
ting the board into the stream, let it be bom down to the reservoir. 
It so happened that the ameer was seated near the reservoir, and 
when the board reached him, seizing with his hand, he read,^ 


" Oh ! generosity of М^йп, make my necessities be heard, for I 
have Й0 other iiif«rmediate than thee between me and MSan." 

Tlie worthy МЭАп exclairoed, " Hasten, go fuid see who is 
beyoad the enclosure, and bring him before me." linmediately 
some of those near liim sprang to their feet, and finding tlie poet, 
brought him before the araeer, who treated him Kndly and oiTJlly. 
The ameer inquired after his health, &a. and, after quieting his mind, 
asked how many days since he had come to the city. " It is three 
days," answered the poet, "that I have been endeavoring to speak 
with you." "Please pardon our neghgence," continued theaaieer, 
at the same time endeavoring to conciliate bis good will, he ordered 
the suia of three hundred tJiousand aktchas* to be pi-esented him, 
as an indemnity for the delay. That day the ameer spent in meni- 
ment, and at night returned to his residence. On the following diiy 
he caused his guest the poet, to be mquired after, and invited him 
to accompany liim to Ыз garden, where he feasted him, and after 
evincing bis respect for lidm, presented him with the sum of one hun- 
dred thousand alttchas more. Finally, for three days the poet re- 
ceived the same treatment, each day being presented with a like 
sum, greatly to his astonishment ; at length he wrote MS.fl.n a letter, 
full of thanks and good wishes, and on the following day set out for 
his own country ; so that when M4un sent again to invite him to 
his presence lie had disappeared, leavmg only the said letter, 
from which it was evident his modesty had constrained him to 
depart. At this MA&n was grieved, and made an oath, swear- 
ing that if the poet had not depai-ted he would daily have given 
him one hundred thousand aktohas, nnlil not a coin remained in 
his treasuiy. Strange, added he, that he should go away be- 
fore informing us of it. 

» Aitclia : it ie ргоЬаЫө tliat the Tnrkish tfaiialatioli hare rasaiis pieces of 
Eilver, aa tile word Eigiiifiea white money. Il ie equivBlent tothe ISOih part 
of a piaster, of which thei'e ato uow (1848) some twenfy-three and a half to a 


In a work entitled the " Annals of the Generous," it is writ- 
ten, and is a fact therein well iinnated by that correct hiatorimi 
of past times, Abdiillah bin Jaafeer Radavee, that one day he 
and Abon Dabich Ansaree and Hassan were journeying from 
Mecca, the venerated, to Medina, the enlightened, when they 
were overtaken by a heavy fall of rain. Whibt in search of a 
place of shelter, they perceived, in a plain near to Damascus, 
an Arab's t«nt, to which they bent their steps, hoping therein to 
find an asylum. An Arah coming out, he invited them in, aad 
they spent the night there. The Arab kUled a goat, his wife 
prepared it for her husband's guests, and spread before them a 
good meal. That night they ate and dranb with pleasure, aad 
slept comfortably ; and on the morrow, desiiing to depart, Ab- 
dullah said to the Arab, "You have been good and liind to 
US, we, therefore, request that some day, when you come to Medi- 
na, you will be our guest, and allow «s to do as much for you. 
This request he strengthened by entreaty, and the Arab, answer- 
bg, " On my head and eyes be it ;" they depai-ted. 

How, some years after this incident the Arab became reduced 
to poverty, and the world was subtle to him. So his wife one day 
said to hira, " If we go to Medina, perhaps the persons to whom 
we ever offered hospitality may succor us." " But we ai'e ignorant 
of their names," answered the husband. " Inquire for Ibin ed 
Deyar," continued she ; "I saw signs of generosity in their faces, 
and hope your visit will not be fruitless." 

The Arab therefore mounted his female- camel and proceeded 
to Medina, where he inquired for Ibin de Deyar, It so happened 
that Imaam Hassan was just then pasang, and when the Arab in- 
quired of him for his old guests, he answered, that " he was his 
uncle's son," and inquired, "How do you happen to know him?" 
The Arab answered by saying, that once he had been his guest. The 
Imaam on hearing this exclaimed, " Welcome, oh ! Arab, brother, 
he has often spoken in praise of you," and calling a slave, ordered 
bim to conduct the Arab to his own dweffing, where he showed 


lii'm every attention, and presented bim witb a hundred cameb. 
Soon afterwards the Imaara Hassan arrived, followed by a train of 
servants, and he added one hundred camels more to the gift ; 
Abdullah bin Jaafcer Radavee next came in, who gave him hia 
hands (in salutation,) and presented him with one hundred thou- 
sand dirhems, sending fifty thousand more to his wife. Imme- 
diately after this Abee Dehieh Ansaree entered, who excused 
himself from doing what his fiiends had done, but, ordering 
the camels ^ven him to be brought before them, he loaded 
them all with dates of Medina. 

Finally, the Arab left Medina rich and happy, and returned to 
his tribe with great state and magnificence, and was never more 
troubled with the inconvenience of ai 

It is related in those celebrated works, which record good 
qualities and whatever is remarkable among the noble and gene- 
rous, that Abdullah bin Abbas, that most hberal of men, was one 
day visited by a man of eloquent tongue, who, addressing him, 
said, " Oh ! son of the uncle of the prophet, on whom be peace, 
this night a son was born to me, and, in compliment and friendly 
regard for you, I have named it after your own noble self; but its 
mother died m giving birth to it, and all that remains for me is to 
wish for you long life and prosperity." 

Ibin Abbas consohngly answered him, " Oh ! brother of the 
assistant of the Prophet, may God bless thee with good qualities, 
and recompense thee for this affliction," at the same moment or- 
dered his stewai-d to give the man a female slave, who could take 
care of the child, and thus free the father from the cares of a nui-se 
He also gave him two, hundred thousand pieces of silver, with 
which to purchase whatever necessaries he might need. Likewise 
he directed the man to come to him in a few days, for, said he, 



" You Ьате сошө at & moment жЬеп my treasury is poor, so pray 
excuse me, and do not fail to come," 

" God bless and prosper you, oh ! son of Abbas," answered the 
man, " had you come into the world a little eivrher, men would 
never bave mentioned in Arabia, as they now do, the name of 

It is related of that most generous and brave hestrted of men, 
Yezid bin Mehleb, that Hadgadgua Zalem liaving appointed him 
to the office of governor of Vasitb, Akeel bin Abee relates that, 
as he, Teaid bin МеЫеЪ, was on his way to it, I went to take leave 
of Min: he was very attentive to me, and made me promise to 
pay him a visit in his new office, and spend some days with him. 
He insisted so much, that I finaEy promised, and some time after- 
wards, he having by a letter reminded me of my promise, I sat out 
for his residence. When I approached it, he came forth to meet 
me, and conducted me to a suitable apartment, in жЫсЬ I found 
evciy object I could possibly need. 

At night one of Ыэ people came to invite me to his presence. 
I went, and found him engaged in coaversation with a„nnmber of 
friends, by whom he was surrounded, and the discourse turning 
on the subject of female slaves, he asked me, saying, " Oh ! Alieel, 
pray tell me your thoughts on this matter." I answered in the 
following verse, which I extemporized at the moment. " Those 
who have known them may speab, but those who are strangers to 
them, how can they offer any praises ?" 

When I had ssud this, he came to me and asked, " Are you not 
aJso a stnmger?" He spent yet two hours, after which I arose, 

* Khatera Tay. The tale of thin generous Arab Ьая been tianslalod into 




and taking кате, returned to my lod^gs. There I found a slave 
as beautiful as the resplendeut moon, a young horse, and ten 
thousand dirhems for my expenses, which the generous ameer had 
sent me. In fine, I remoiaed yet ten days, every evening of лүЫсЪ 
he sent me tlie same sum of money, so that at length I began to 
be ashamed, and begged his permission to depart, saying, " Oh ! 
ameer, you have plentifully enriched me, ршу now let me go and 
shaj-e уош' favors among my frieads and relaiioHs." To this be 
answered, " What I gave you, you are justly entitled to, go in 
peace;" and presenting me with ten thousand fchems more, he 
was pleased to make me promise to vidt him again, and not to 
forget him ia my prayers. 

It is related about that man of unic|ue generosity and courage, 
that most noble, worthy and gentle hcmg, Ibm Mehleb, that there 
was a deficiency in the revenue of the charge to which Hedjadj 
ea Zalini* had appointed him , and to obtam it, this cruel tyi'ant 
tlirew him in prison, saying, " It by the next day you do not pro- 
duce one hundred thousand aMchas, and deliver them over to me, 
I mil have you severely punished with stripes. In consequence 
of this treatment Ibin Mehleb's people collected the requisite sum 
and brought it to him. 

The andent poet Parazdaclc having received great benefits and 
acts of Mndness from him, now paid him a visit of consolation, and 
asked his people if he coidd have access to him, Ibin МеЫеЬ 
from inside bis prison, hearing Farazdack's voice, said, "He is my 
good friend, let him enter," which being done, the poet wept at 
the sight of his benefactor, and expressed his feelings in the fol- 
lowing lines. 

* Hedjadj ei Zalini, or tlin cruel. Tliia goveiiioi' is famed in eastern tales 
for his cruelty and severity. 


*' ОЬ ! Mehleb, your goodness has filled Ehorassaa ; its recipi- 
ents ask, wliere now is Tazid ? after you, not a drop of rain (good- 
ness) can fall in the east, nor any tree flourish in the land of Mar- 
din ; no joy ever be felt when your glory ia gone, nor any one ever 
be generous beyond thee." 

Yazid Ibin Mehleb oa hearing fliese sweet verses, said to his 
porter, " Where are the one hundred thousand dirhems which my 
friends collected for me? g^ve them to Farazdaclc, and let them 
thus be spent honorably, rather than as Hedjadj desired ; after 
which, let the tyrant do with me as he may wish." Farazdacb 
took the money and departed; Mid as some of Hedjadj 's people 
were present when the scene occurred, they went and informed 
their master of Yaaid's generosity in his misfortune. 

Hedjadj was greatly astonished, and exclaiming that Yazid pos- 
sessed a mountain of generosity, ordered him to be forthwith re- 
leased from prison, conciliated his good will, dressed him ma robe 
of honor, and treated him with every possible mark of attention. 

Behold what effect an act of generosity had upon the mind of 
one BO merciless as Hedjadj ; and how it changed bia fierce cha- 
racter into one of friendship and love. 

The Emir Esaw, one of the famous princes of the victorious age 
of Mutamid Billah, of the Abbasside caliphs, was the very quint- 
essence of liberality. He was governor of Diarbikir and Mardiu, 
and for generosity, was without one equal. 

It is related by that most correct of historians, Molana Asulee, 
that one day this prince was enjoying himself ia the company of 
bis friends, when a stranger presented himself before him, and after 
respects, extemporized the following lines. 
. saw, ia my dream, that you clothed me in a robe of honor 
iolet cobr, and presented me with money to the full amount 


of my debts ; my parents I devote to tliee ; oaly pray fulfil the 
dream whicb my eyes have seen." 

The noble minded ameer turnmg to his treasurer, asked him 
what stuffs were then in the treasury of a violet color, and was an- 
swered that there were seventy rolls of violet silk, besides satins 
and Damascus silks. " Go," continued the generous prince, " give 
them all to this person, and preseat him also with ten thousand 
dirhems with which to pm'obase other necessaries." At the same 
time, he said to the poet m a jocular tone, " he careful not to have 
any more dreams, lest you do not find so favorable an interpreter 
as myself." 

He then treated the stranger with benevolence and kindness, 
and sent him away rejoicing, May Allah have mercy on them all. 

Hamid ben Abbass, Vizir of Muktadir Billah, one of t!ie ca- 
liphs of the house of Abbass, was a most generous, and one of the 
best-of men. One day as he was making a visit to his gardens, at- 
tended by a numerous escort, he met ад aged man of a respectable 
exterior, weeping, and evidently in great grief. The poor man's 
house, and all he possessed, having been destroyed by fire, he, with 
his wife and children, remained exposed and destitute on the prvblic 
road. Tlie sight of the old man lam.enting his misfortune, and the 
grief of the family all in tears, touched the sensible heart of the 
viar, and feeling Bodesire to visit his rose-buds, he called one of 
his attendants and ordered him, as the man's distress had effected 
80 sensibly his breast, to perfomi a service for him. 

"As I return," said he, "from'my gardento-day, letmefindhis 
dwelling rebuilt as before, himself and family in it, free from sor- 
row, and happy. If I find this, your work win be praised, and 
whatever you ask, I will grant. Let tins be your charge." 

" Get a list of all liia clothes and effects, his animals, &c. in fine. 


of all vrhioh lie lately possessed, even more, and place tbem in the 
new house which you mil erect, so that the service wbich I ask of 
you be completed, and you gain honor thereby." After again 
recommending the charge to his attendant, he continued on to the 

The attendant forthivith collected innumerable building mate- 
rials and worlnnen, pmd the latter bountifiilly, and commenced 
erecting the building. The public assembled in gi'eat numbers to 
witness the care which was talten of the sufferer, and loudly com- 
mended the benevolence of the vizir of Abin Abbass. The atten- 
dant, by great labor and attention, bad a dwelling re-bnilt between 
morning and sun set, in several respects more eleg-ant than before; 
its door-way and walls lit up with torches, and all the neighbor- 
hood brightly illuminated :' and, according to the list, procured every 
article which had been destroyed. He also dressed the wife and 
children of the poor man in lichly embroidered robes, each aecord- 
ing to thdr stature, thus turning tbeir grief into great joy. 

After supper, Mohamed ben Abbass, in returning from his 
garden, saw that tJie grief and despair which he had witnessed in 
the morning, was changed to mirth and enjoyment ; the people 
praised the vizir for his generosity to tbe poor man; and, in fine, 
his heart being satisfied with what his attendant had done, he ex- 
pressed his satisfaction, and dressed him in several robes of honor, 
one over the other. 

When the owner of the house, and his wife and children, kissed 
his hands and implored blessings on him for his benevolence and 
generosity, he asked them if they wei-e contented and was an- 
swered, tliat every thing they fonnerly poss^sed, was restored to 
them two-fold. " May God, the bestower of all gifts," added they, 
"prolong your life in prosperity and bless all you undertake." The 
re^ster of the expenses was now brought, and when the items 
were added up it was seen that the house and effects purchased 
cost just twelve thousand dinai-s. The vizir returned to his house in 
great good spirits and mirth, and when, on the following day, tlie 



man visited liim again to repeat his thanks, he treated him with 
great attention and distinction, and presented him with one hundred 
thousand dirhems more, saying, " Let it be a capital \vitb which 

What noble generosity and henevolence ; may God he merciful 

It is relafod, in historical works, that Ahdallah bin Abi Bekir 
was a man of choice generosity, and noble feehngs ; courageous, 
and of pure conduct, and character, and a respected and revered 

One day having left his house, with the desire of enjoying the 
chase, he, whilst on the road, became very thirsty, and approach- 
ing a house which he saw near by, asbed for water: a female made 
her appearance with a cup, which she handed him, her person re- 
maining concealed behind the door. Abdallah, having drank the 
water, received new life from it, and said, " Where is the servant 'i 
let her take the cup." The woman answered ; " Long life to you ; 
oui- servant is dead, pray therefore excuse me, I am alone ; be 
pleased to put the cup on the sill of the door." Abdallah dii'ected 
one of his followers to give the excellent woman twenty thousand 
aktcbas. The woman from behind the door exclaimed ; " I ask Gfod 
to ^ve you and yours health." " Give her twenty thousand more, 
continued Abdallah," and the attendant, after doing so, retired ; 
they all then proceeded to the chase. 

Now Abdallali was a good and benevolent man, and it is relat- 
ed of him, that every holy day or festival, he freed one hundred 
slaves, and supplied provision for the forty neighboring families on 
the right and left of his dwelling. He gave r.lso many gifts to the 
passers by and he was altogether a charitable and good pereon. 


It is related that when Moaviah (on whom be peace and the di- 
vine satisfaction) died, and his son Yazid succeeded him to tlie ca- 
liphat, Abdallah Uadavee came to Damascus and visited him. He 
both complimented and cODsoled bim, and prayed for the soul of 
Moaviah. Yazid showed him great respect and attention, and 
asked him, " What was my father in the habit of giving you every 
year 1" Abdallah answered " Three hundred thousand diihems." 
Yaaid leplied, " Welcome, my good friend, I will ako give you 
three hundred thousand as your own rightful revenue, and three 
hundred thousand more for the prayer you offered for my deceased 
father's sou], and three hundred thousand additional on my own 
pai't," so he had this amount counted out and sent to Abdallah's 

Now after the latter named person had departed, one of Yazid's 
companions said to him ; " Why did you give so much money to 
one pei"son, would it not have been better to distribute it among 
the needy t" " No," replied Yazid, " it is not all to one man ; — 
perhaps it is з great deed done to the people of Medina. It is evi- 
dent that you do not know whose master he is ; but appoint a per- 
son to follow him to Medinah, and if he sees him distribute thi 
money, let him come and let us know." 

Abdallah continued on to Medina, and the day after his 
val there, distributed the whole of the sum to the inhabitaiita of 
that city ; and as it was insufficient, bon-owed forty thousand aktchas 
more, and divided them among the widows and the orphans ; so thaj; 
no one was left portionless, On seeing this the person departed, re- 
turned to Damascus, and related what he bad seen to Yazid, Avho 
exclaimed, " Do you now see V So they all sincerely praised the 
benevolence and generosity of Abdallah. 

The emir of the faithful, Mutasid Billah, that magnifioeat so- 
vereign of the house of Abbass, was unique for generosity, the pro- 



teotion whiob. be showed to his people, and the mnimcr in which 
be conciliated their regai'd. 

In the work entitled Miiati Zaman, "Mhror of the Age," it is 
related that tbia caliph ODce made au attmjk upon the Greeks ; that 
he set out with an innumerable number of troops, and one day en- 
camped near a village. His royal pavilion was pitched near to a 
vineyard, where he alighted. Soon after his arrival the gai-dener 
cried out witli a voice of complaint; heaiing whicli the caliph ex- 
claimed, " Go quickly, and see what is the cause of this man's cries." 
The attendants departed, and soon returning, brought word that 
the gardener had planted a few melons in his ground, and that 
some of the soldiers had entered it, and robbed him of bis pro- 
perty. So the caliph appointed men to go, and whei'ever they found 
melon-rinds before a tent, to bring its occupants before him. 
The men found traces of the melons before two or three tents, 
the occupante of which, being conducted to the caJiph, denied all 
knowledge of the melons, saying that their servants must have 
put them there. So the caliph next asked for the servants ; and 
they Ukewise being brought into his presence, he had them put in 
prison, and at the same time gave the gardener a handful of gold, 
to conciliate his good will. 

On the following day, eai'ly in the morning, whea the army was 
about to set out on its march, the caliph had it proclaimed to the 
troops that anesecution was about to take place; and, after having 
had the heads of the prisoners struck off before him, he mounted 
his horse and set out. 

One of the caliph's suite was named Cadi Hussmn. This per- 
son having approached the caliph, the latter, as they rode oa 
together, asked him if he wa-s satisfied, or not, with the sentence. 
" Speak out," added he, " fear noihuig, but whatever you feel, tell 
it tnily." Cadi Hussain answered, " You are a true JIuslim in 
every thing, but although of a magnaDimous disposition, you are 
too regardless of life ; if you had delayed the Elicdding of blood, 
and showed a little more respect for the holy law of our Prophet, 


83 TUR]!iai-i BVBNiKG- bntertaihmbnts. 

it would have been more becommg." Mutasid Billah exclMmed, 
" God is great ! I swear by the souls of my ancestors, that since 
my accession to the caliphat, I have never issued a judgment dis- 
respectful of the holy law, nor have I shed wrongfully any one's 
blood." Cadi Hussain answered, "Good; was it then according 
to the law, that you yesterday shed the blood of those persons 
wbo stole the melons '" The caliph answered, " There were three 
pel sons worthy of death, confined in prison; and, to frighten the 
people bj Rn execution I had their heads stmck off." Cadi Hus- 
sam add', thit m truth soon after this conversation, he saw the 
priBonpjs wbo hid been confined for tlie theft of tlie melons, and 
complimented the caiijh The cadi also said to the caliph, " The 
day that we met a dark colored man in the midst of the way, yoa 
had him executed without question or answer ; why was this ?" 
The calipli answered, " That fmthless Caramata* once came and 
professed obedience to my father ; he was a most merciless and 
tyrannical man, and he subsequently not only turned against my 
father, but caused also all his comrades, who were very numerous, 
to do the same, under pretence of excessive regard for their foolish 
creed. This accursed man is from the village of Kahay, beyond 
the Oxus, and, diiring the caliphat of my father, endeavored to do 
violence to a pure and inno ent yo tk on h s c png out for suc- 
cor, the Mussulmans I'an to h s e. b t too 1 te, for this evil- 
minded man, di-awing his 1 1 ndja m tj zed the young man 
before theii' eyes. Those p esent w tn s ed the act and catching 
the monstei-, brought h m befo e my fathe and repi-esented the 
crime to him. Ы> fathei on whom Q-od has had mercy, did not 
have the right of talion infli ted and I, happening to he near him 
on business at the lime mide the determination, which at length 
you saw me execute thit if the All-just should ever give me the 
caliphat, I would expiate the blood of the innocent youth. Up to 
that moment it wjb not m m^ power; and not before the day when 

* Cm-smst». iiama of a heretical sect which ovigii.ated A. H. HIB. 


I unexpectedly met him, could I fulfil the divine laivs, by prac- 
tising retaliation." 

Cadi Hussain, and all those present, praised the religious 
sentiments of the Commander of the faithful. May AJlali have 
mercy upon him ! 


Bxplaining that fulfllmeut of promises is s. trait of diiiracter among; the well- 
boiii. On this subject it is wiittsu in the eternal and everlasting book, the 
Koran, " Those who heUeve, fnJfil tlieir promises." 

" The principle of the fulfilment of promises proceeds from a holy peraonal 
eea^bility and a gracions nature. To act contrary to it, is blamed every~ 
where ; and that it is censured and disappraved of, is borne witness to by 
alt mankind." 

" If yoa say ' Yee,' to any thing, do it; foe a promise is obligatory to the good 

,'_ man. But should you eaj ' No,' both yoiireelf and your companion ore 
relieved end ore at ease, and no one can then call you a liar." 


One of the most remarkable anecdotes Jn histoi^ is found in 
the story of Tiey and Sharik. !Numan bin el Manzer was one of the 
noblest of the great and noble; he was considered among the Arabs 
as a famous prince, gracious and generous, and celebrated in the 
pages of liberality ; and as one who gave great gifts to all goers 
and comers. To two days in the week he had given names : one 
he called N"aam, {good fortune,) and the other Bos, (ill fortune,) 



This was a custom handed down to him from his ancestors, to fulfil 
which he was always very attentive. All those persons who came 
to see him on the day called Naam, he conaidei-ed as being ia every 
respect worthy of his hounty, and always dismissed them well- 
pleased with their reception; but as for those who were so 
unluo&y as to come during that called Bos, he rolled their heads 
in the dust of the earth with the decree of execution, and made 
their blood to flow lite tears from the eyes of the innocent. 

By divine providence, once it happened that a man of good 
birth, named Tiey, by a blast of misfortune, became afflicted and 
impoverished; and his wife aad children being miserable in adver- 
sity, he, with a hope of relief, bade them farewell and 4at out for 
the prosperous sill of Ifuman's gate. Without knomng anything 
of ffuman's custom, he forthwith entered bis presence and com- 
mencing to ofier his respects, recited a few lines eiplammg his 
situation. Now it happeued that this was the uafcrtunate diy call- 
ed Bos, and, as Numan'e eye fell upon the lucLJess fiey, he 
remembered the custom of the day. and made known that the life 
of the devoted and ignoi-ant man would fall a prey to fate. Tiey 
with the tongue of eloquence commenced a melodious compliment, 
which at tJie same time explained his situation. "0 emir! this 
unfortunate beiag has a number of children, who are without pro- 
visions or the means of procuring any; and he is come, hoping 
by the water of his face (sweat of his brow) to gmn tliem food. 
They famishmg await his i-etura ; he left them lamenting and in 
tears, and on account of having come on this day his head must 
be the forfeit. Wisdom is with God, but my children ai'e ready to 
die of hunger; do therefore, I beseech you, delay awhile my eie- 
cution, and I will fail in nothing; but after bearing the food which 
you give me to my children, will return before the sun has set. 
Then do with me whatever you may deem proper." 

When the Emir Numan heard these words, he pitied the maa 
from his heait, and the generosity of his disposition would not suffer 
the children to die for want of food; so he s^d to Tiey, " I gi-ant 



your request; but a security for your person is oecessary, and if 
you fail to return I will su ly e t Ь m in your etead." Tiey 
cast his eyes from one sid t th tl but no one had the cou- 
rage to volunteer, exce]t f N nan's officers, who hap- 
pened to bo nearest to him a ned '^ha k — a man celebrated for 
hie noble and excellent fe hng Ti j 1 ked in this man's face, 
and repeated these lines on his geuerosity : 


" Oh ! Shatik bin Aadoo, there is no езоарө from death. 

" Who will befriend helpless children, who Jaiow not even the laste of 

"Children who are in the midst of hunger, expectation of relief, poverty, 

" thou who art brother of the generous, and a member of tlie family 

of the geuerona '. 
" O brother of Nnman, bestow upon me the Uberality of your eecurity, 

and I will return to you before you make your evening meal." 

Sharik arose to his feet and said, " emb' ! I ivill be this 
man's security. Give him leave to depart." So the emir gave him 
the desired permission; and Tiey, saying, "Expect me before the 
STin sets," hastily departed to his children. 

Now the afternoon prayer-time (aser) came, and Numan said, 
" Be ready, Sharit, there is but httle expectation of the Arab's 
ever returning." Sharib replied, "The time on wbich we agreed 
was sunset; I am ready." Soon evening came, and Numan said, 
" Бө ready, Shank, and, if you have any ■will to make, make it 
now." Sharik performed the ablution called voozoo, and knelt 
down before the place of execution. 

At that moment, lo ! a man was seen running in great haste 
across the desert towards them, who proved to be none other than 
the imfortunate Tiey, bathed in perspiration; and when he saw Sha- 
nk at the place of execution, he kissed his eyes, raised hhn up, and 



putting bimself in bis place, said, " Our engagement is now fulfilled ; 
■whatever is to be, oh ! let it he done quickly." 

But the Emir Numan inclined his head for a moment upon 
the knee of admiration, and after a little reflection, again raising it 
said, " Never, in all my life, have I seen anything, O Tioy, more 
admirable than vrhat you have just done." 

"You have left no room henceforth for any one to excel inex- 
actitude of fulfilment of promise ; and you, Shank, have placed 
a seal on the chapter of generosity which evermore leaves no place 
for the name of 'generous,' I for ever abandon the unworthy 
custom of our tribe, called Bos, which bas existed so long among 
us; and may Allah pardon us for the acte of the past. With this 
innovation, let NaJim truly Ъе Na^m, and those who come into our 
presence on either day, be bountifully supplied." 

Behold in this true greatness and generosity ; and surely nothing " 
could be conceived more Uliistrative of good faith and fulfilment 
of promise. 

There is a tradition extant in the countiy about Syiia and 
Irak, regarding Samuel bin Adyia, which is as follows : The 
Emir el Kais, on setting out for his own kingdom of Room, had 
placed all his most valuable goods, clothes, and ai-ms, in the hands 
of Samuel. On his way he died, and the king sent one of hia 
own men to demand the property of the deceased. But Samuel 
answered : " The nature of the pledge is such that I can only give 
the articles confided to my care to their right owner." On this the 
king commanded bis soldiers to surround the town in which Sa- 
muel resided. Samuel bad a son, who, coming to his father's assist- 
ance, fell into the hands of the soldiers. They bound him and 
brought him under the castle in which his father resided, and 
sent word to the father, that if he wanted his son he must send 
them the pledge, or otherwise they wotdd put him to death. 



Wow Samuel returning for answer, " It is impossibJe to be 
treachei-ous to a pledge," "they at once put his son to death before 
his eyes. After this, not being able to take the castle, they depart- 
ed; and soon after\vards the sons of Еш1г el Eais, commg to Sa- 
muel, endeavored to console him for the loss of hia son. Samuel 
received them with many tokens of respect, and delivered to them 
eveiy thing which their father liad confided to his care, thus pre- 
ferring the death of a beloved child to the commission of a breach 
of faith. In consequence of this act, the sincerity and fidelity of 
Samuel became proverbial on the tongues of men. 

Among the acts tending to show praiseworthy qualitJes and 
noble traits of character in the performance of promises, is one re- 
lated in history of Hassan bin Akbah, as written by Abool Fatih.* 

Kafoor Akshadee, sultan of Egypt and Syria, once held a coun- 
cil in wliich I happened to be present. AH the great mea of his 
court were there, each one seated in his proper place, according to 
his rank. Kafoor arose and retired for a moment's repose, after 
which he returned and took bis seat. He then demanded if, in 
such a place, there did not yet Uve an astrologer, blind of one eye % 
" Go," continued he, " see and bring me news of bim If he is still 
living, bimg him before me, and if dej,d, bnng whatei er clnldi en 
he may bave left " The ofB.cPi went as directed, and leatnt that 
the astrologer was dead, but h<Ld left two children, a boy and a 
girl, both m gieat poverty ТЬеьс they biought to the sultan, 
who mq^uired aftei their cncumstanee^, and they ansnered that it 
WIS 1 long time smi,e then fathet bad died Kntoot, forthwith 
had them both diessed in nch clothes, and after buying two 
house', gave one to each, accompnnied witli e\eiy thing leqia- 


44 'intKisn EVESiKG 

eite. He silao manied tbe daughter to one of hia atten<laiits, 
made a great wedding for Ъөг, and told his coui-tiers that those 
who loved him should show it by the respect tliey paid to these 
two orphans, adding that he would tell them something about 
himself and them. 

When I was the servant, aaid the sultan, of the clerk of Ibin 
Abbas, my master one day ordered me to go and bring an astro- 
loger to him. I went, and saw a crowd aroiuid hie shop, to whom 
he was acting the part of a necromancer ; whilst I informed him 
that my master wanted him, I took up his stick and made a trial of 
my oivn fate and fortune. When I had thrown the stick, the 
astrologer looking at it aaid : " I must give you great good news, 
but indeed the same information is of much import to myself, — 
Before you there is great prosperity and honor; your star is in 
great power and strength, yoar horoscope is high in the constella- 
tion of majesty ; and you will oartsunly one day possess all the 
palaces and fortresses, and reign over all the kings (h-als) and 
governors of this land. This is not far distant, and will take 
place very suddenly." 

Now at that time I owned but two dii'hems in the wholo 
world; sowith many excuses I placed them before him. "Your 
ex USPS are excejted sid he but at the snme time he icfused 
to le eivp the money adding Let it remain mth jou ts a 
loan ^t mteipst if -st the time of your piospeiity I im alive 
tiicn lihow me wh teiei favoi ■\(m onlv do not lojget 
me and if I -im deid inqiuie for my chddien, and fulfil лопг 
promise m their bphalf 

So tl IS man wis the first to give me news of my pre ent 
^ood foitnne and Since that diy mj star hat been on the increase 
(or advancement) Fiom the mult phcity of my afiana the occur 
jence esciped ray memory up to the pie'iPnt time but jnst now 
after consulting With you I fell fatigued ■^nd letinn^ to шу cliim 
ber for a moments repose, the astiologer appealed to me in a 
dream and asked me, " Is this the way to perform a promise V at 
the same time adding the following verses : 





Put the hand of fulfilment upon the holt of piomisi 

3i-endeavo. not 

to be 

among the faithless. 

■' Do good to the шап that does good to you ; and i 

f j'ou aie unable 

to do 

him good, pray for him." 

Hereupon I awoke; and thanks be to tli%.Most Hlgli, who 
caused hU servant to fulfil his promise ! Tliis is why I asked 
you if you knew the astri 


On the subject of making proper returns for benefits received. The Prophet 
has said, " Do good to him who does good to yon ; and if you are not 
able to do this, pray for him." * 

It is related of Hasan bin Sahil, that one day during the 
vizirat of Yahiya bin Halid the Barmakide, (I was in his company,) 
Some necesMtous persons coming in, they represented their cir- 
cumstances, and each one ivaa sent away with gratifications, hless- 
ing the vizh. One Ahmed bin Halid il Ahyel arose and went out; 
and the viar, pointing out this man, said, " After our divan is closed, 
do not forget to ask me about him." This the via.r's own son did 
not fail to do at the proper time, and he thus said : 

It was during the caliphat of Miihtadeo Billah that I first 
came to this country. This man's fatlier was at that time director 
of the caliph's government. I was then m the greatest poverty, 
and moreover, very ill. One day my wife, with teai-s in her eyes, 
said to me, "They do not tell you of our sufferings, lest they 
sbould increase your afflictions; but indeed, it is now three days 

* Thia ie a Hadis, or Baying of the Prophet, handed down by tradition. 



since there has been bread or any other provisions in the liouse." 
On healing tliis I rushed out of my dwelling, overcome with grief, 
and weeping as I went. I took my shawl from around my waist, 
sold it for seventeen paras, and gave the money to my wife, tell- 
ing her to make u^ of it. Aft«r this I again left my house, and 
went striught to the palace of Halid ; but on my arrival I found he 
had gone, sun-ouuded by his suite, to the palace of the caliph, I 
followed him, and when I bad come near, be perceived and saluted 
me, asking me what I desired. I answei-ed, " Long life to you, 
Ibin Halid, what must be the wauls of him who sells his shawl 
for seventeen paras?" He passed on, and went to the palace of 
Muhtadee BiUah ; whilst I returned to my house, and told my wife 
what had oecmTed. "Would that you had not told him so," 
said she; "for you have now divulged ^our secret, and debased 
yourself in your own eyes." " But," I replied, " What is done is by 
God's order; !ie alone is able to save and to shield his servants." 
The following aioming I arose early, and went direct to the 
caliph's palace. On my way there I met a man, who said to me, 
"The vizir made mention of you in the divan, but I do not know 
whei-efore," At the same moment another man came and in- 
formed me that the vizir desired to see me. Passing on I met the 
viair, who bad left the divau and was returning to his own resi- 
dence. As soon as be saw me, be looked at me graciously; I ap- 
proached bis hos-se, and wall the ay to his dwelling he questioned 
me about my circumstances. Arrived at bis gate he said to his 
attendants, "Bring in the petitioners from such a province;" and 
when they were come he snid to them, " I will ^ve you the pro- 
duce of your country for the sum of eighteen thousand dinars, on 
the consideration, however, that this man, Yahiya, be one of 
your company." This they accepted, and as soon as they bad left 
his presence he called to me and said, " Go and possess the pro- 
duce of that р1ясе in company with these men." Doing as I was 
commanded, I joined the men, who said to me, " Save yourself 
much tiouble and labor, and leave us in the full enjoyment of this 


■]\'iNa ENTBaTAiKMEfTS. 47 

matter, and же will pay you down now your share of tbe same, 
namely, two hundred thousand divhema." This proposition I made 
known to the vizir, and as soon as he had heard Jt he recommend- 
ed me to accept it, and make use of it for my family, adding, " I 
give yoa a charge in his majesty's government; go, enjoy it in a 
seeming manner; what I bave done for you is in return for the 
favors which I received from your deceased father." 

At the close of these words the vmr, turning to his son, 
asked him, saying, "Were any one to do such an act to your 
father, what should his recompense be?" The son answered, "It 
would he proper to reward him in a manner worthy of the 
favor conferred." The vizir added, "I do not know how to repay 
sufficiently such an act, unless indeed I resign my own office of 
vizir in his favor. This is my intention; and if God pleases, I will 
execute it." 

So of a truth, after ending his business, he exalted the man 
most liighly to the caliph, resigned his vizirat, and had him ap- 
pointed in his place. May God bo contented with them all ! Such 
should be the regai-d paid to the right of bread and benefits, Ge- 
nerceity is a quality innate with pure and just men. 

Ali ben. Abbas, who was the Water Intendant of the city of 
Bagdad, under the Caliph Mamoon, related as follows ; 

" One day I was in the presence of the Emir of the faithful, 
when a man was brought bound before him. It was near night, 
and the caliph calling for me, said, ' АИ, take this man, keep him 
in close but genteel confinement, and biing him to me to-morrow.' 
So I forthwith took the man, and, mounting Lim on an ass, con- 
veyed him to my house. Seeing that the anger of the caliph was 
very great against him, and lest he should escape, I took him into 
a part of my harem, and coniined him there. I then for the first 



time saw that he was covered with severe bruises ; so I brought 
in a surgeon, ■wlo applied a salve for their cure. I asked him from 
лvhat couDtry he had come, and he answered, ' I am from a quar- 
ter in Damascus, called Bab el Jabieh.' I then told him that I 
also Tvas from Damascus ; on bearing which, he said, ' Is there not 
cause for you to love that place ?' ' Yes,' answered I, ' it gave 
me birth, and, moreover, an incident occurred to me there,' 'Be 
pleased to relate it,' said the man. 

" 80 I, told him that I once went there with an individual who 
had received the command of the city from the caliph. The ef- 
fects of the previous commander were yet being transported from 
the palace as we took possession of it. The two commanders, in 
the CO s of CO e sat on c me to wo d and fi lly the ex- 
commanle f 11 ug po the new one and 1 atte lanf wtha 
nber of en they chas d tl em h lo e then th s ds in 
their h n 1 I th ew n y elf out of t! e ndow an 1 1 1st the 
a^sainntsw еьито nd ng the palace fled to that ]и te of the 
city called Bah el Jahch, where, seemg a man standin^ at hi& door, 
I cried ont for aid and assistance against the hands of my enemies. 
The man hade me enter, and seci-ete myself ia a corner of his 
hai-em. Soon my pursuers came to the house ; and after search- 
ing every part of it for me, they at length went so ftir as to burst 
into the harem. . Tlie man's wife screamed out, and the men de- 
sisted. As soon as they were gone, the man and his wife said to 
me, 'Now calm your apprehensions, and fear nothing.' They 
then showed me every attention, and the kindne^ which I re- 
ceived from them was beyond desciiption. Some time afterwards 
they infoiToed me that the caravan for Bagdad would leave the 
city on the following day. I, however, had neither horae nor ser- 
vants, nor even a groat of money, and therefore made up my 
mind to return on foot. But early in the morning of the next day 
they came to me, and said, ' If you are determined on going, be 
quick.' '- To my surprise, the man bad provided a yell capaiisoned 
horse for myself, another for my baggage, and a black slave for my 


service, all well provided ; and after handing me a sum of money 
sufficient for all rny expenses, be and bis wife and children accom- 
panied me to th.e cai'avan, where he recommended me to one of his 
frienda who was about to midertake the same journey, took leave of 
me, and returned to the city. This is tlie incident which occuri'ed 
to me in Damascus, and I have often desired to be permitted, 
before my death, to repay the kindness which I then received. 

" As I ended these words the bound and imprisoned man sud- 
denly excliumed, ' God bless you, my brother, behold at^yoгlr feet 
the man whom you desh-e to recompense,' at the same time telUng 
me all about the occurrences of that period, and my conduct and 
conversation with him whilst his guest. Immediately I struck the 
chains from off his neck, and freed his hands from the irons which 
confined them. I kissed his eyes and face, saying, 'There is no 
sorrow for you from this day forth,' Afterwards I questioned him 
as to what had happened to him ; and he told me all his story, which 
was as follows : 'The same trouble whicii came upon your head has 
now visited mine: they accused me of a great crime which I had not 
committed, and conveyed me in chains before the Commander of 
the faithful. But the worst of all my affliction is, that my wife and 
childrenareignorantof what has happened tome; and the greatest 
favor which I can ask at your hands, is, that if I am condemned 
to death, you will let them know, by a letter, that I have ceased 
to exist.' 

" But I answered, ' O brother, cease to be afflicted I with God's 
permission you m\l again return in life and health to your family, 
and rejoice the heai-ts of your children.' I immediately got ready 
a number of the choicest things of Bf^dad, gave the man many 
presents, and prepared others for his wife. Moreover, I bestowed 
on him one hundred thousand dirhems with which to cover his 
expenses, and restore his family ; and said, ' Let tbe caliph now 
do with me whatever he pleases.' But the man was dissatisfied, 
and said, ' It would be ungenerous in me to accept your Idndness, 
you must not incur the anger of the caiiph on my account : let us. 


therefore, now agree, that if he pardons me on your request, good; 
but if his anger against me is not appeased, I will go to him, and 
he may do with m^^rhatever he sees proper, so that no misfor- 
time hefalls you.' 

" On the followmg morning I weat to the presence of the caliph, 
and saw that ho was in anger; for as soon as he saw me he ex- 
claimed, 'Ali, where is the man'?' at the same time mqniring 
for the executioner. I remained silent, and he repeated the ques- 
tion; when I answered, '0 Commander of the fiuthfull a strange 
accident has befallen him; prj,y permit me to relate it to you.' 
'Speak, then,' said he; and his angnr increasing, he added, 'if 
you say he has escaped, by my father's soul I swear to cut off 
your head,' 'Hear me,' answered I; 'behold we are both here, 
and your orders, whatever they are, shall be obeyed.' 80 he at 
length permitted me to apeak, and I then narrated all that had 
occun'ed to eacb of us, telling him the generosity and kindness 
which I had received from the man, and how he in turn had 
become a prey to misfortune. ' The Commander of the f^thful is 
generous,' said I; 'and can appreciate the nobleness of soul which 
made him refuse to escape lest he should bring trouble on his bene- 
factor. It now remains for your majesty to order what shall be 

" Машооп was astonished at the generous humanity of the 
man, and said, ' Afvna an hoo, we have pardoned him.' Over- 
whelmed with such condescension, I threw myself at the caliph's 
feet, and kissed tliem. He continued, ' He did this noble act to 
one who was a stranger to him ; if we had known it when he was 
here, we would have bestowed upon him a reward.' I expressed 
the grateful feelings with which these words inspired me, and 
begged the caliph to grant him the honor of kissing bis feet. 

" When I returned for him and gave him the joyful news, he 
devoutly returned thanks to God for his deliverance, and then 
Went with mc to the presence of the caliph, who made many in- 
quiries of him, and finally clothed him in a dress of honor. He 



also gave him ten horses, ten mules, and ten camels, besides 
many other valuable things, and ten thousand pieces of silver. 
He also oi-dered letters of recommendation to be imtten to the 
hakeem (governor) of Syria, that every attention should be paid 
him, and no other tas he levied on Ыш than the religions tithe, 
called asher. ' Write to lis, ' added the caliph, as he dismissed him, 
'news from Syria.' And whenever his letters came to the caliph, 
be would call me, and tell me that he had heai-d from my friend." 
See in this anecdote the goodness and generosity of the noble 
Caliph Mamoon; and learn to do good acts, and bestow favors 
without their being asted of you. 

It is related by Messoody,* that Hcdjadj ez Zalim was desi- 
rous of injuring Yazid bin Mehlebee, and made a foray into his 
kingdom, where, seizing upon his person, he offered 1уш every 
indignity and degradation. During his confinement, Yazid, by 
means of gifts and kind words, gained the heaj-ts of his keepers, 
BO that they were^ready to risk their lives and souls for him. One 
night they let him escape from prison; and forthwith setting out 
for Damascus, he fled to the dwelhug of Suliman bin Abd el Mefek, 
who was the brother of the then reigmng cihph, and claimed his 
protection. This indrndual was to be the heir and successor of 
' the caliph. He received Yazid with muih cmlity and courtesy, 
showing him everj ittention and respei,t, and left him at liberty 
to do as he should think proper legirding the disposal of his time. 

Soon after this, Hedjadj pz Zahm heard of Yazid's flight, and 
wrote a letter to the caliph m which he ^io>>sly caJumniated Ya- 
a.d, charging him with several false ciimes, and adding that he 

* Messoody is one of the, most pleasanf and sprightly of Arabian Buthors, 
and the compoeer of this work has drawn largely on his Meroodj ea Zeheb. 


52 Tuuaisri EVBHiKo ekteiitainments. 

had escaped from piison and fled to his brother, having with liim 
a great sum belon^ng to the royal treasury. " It remains for you 
to decide what shall be done with him," said he. When the 
caliph read the letter he became very much aiigered, and gave 
orders f« bis men to go and seize Yaaid, and, after putting him in 
chains, to bring him before him. " If my brother," continued the 
caliph, "refuses to give Mm up, and makes any difficulty, re- 
member what my orders to you are, this letter will inform him 
of the same." 

When the letter reached Sulimait, he read it, and wrote an 
answer to the caliph, as follows : 

" Yaaid bin Mehleb has from the most ancient times been on 
terms of true friendship with our ancestors, and now the faithless 
Hedjadj, not having received the marks of regard and distinction 
from him which he expected, is envious, and wishes to shed bis 
blood unjustly. The accusations made t^iunst him are false ; for 
he had at first but four hundred thousand aktchas, and yet re- 
tains tliree hmidred thousand: therefore this unfortunate man baa 
been compelled to seek refuge with me, and to aslt our assistance. 
If the caliph will pei-mit me, I will pay over that amount from my 
own treasury, and the public can then say nothing reproachful of 
us." So he sent a man with this letter to the caliph, who, when he 
read it, become greatly enraged at the calumnies of Hedjadj, but 
sent again another to bis brother commanding him without fail 
to deliver Ynzid up to him. When the envoy reached Suliman, 
he read its contents and was greatly grieved. He filled a belt 
with gold, and attached it to the neck of the " light of hia 
eyes," that is to say, his son Ayub ; he also filled another with 
silver, and put it around the neck of Tasad, and theu addressiiig 
a letter to his brother wrote, " Commander of the faithful, 
my desire \vas to be the third of these two chained persona, and 
to preserve the good name of the ealiphat. But I will obey what- 
ever you may order, and have sent your brother's son Ayub 
with Yazid. If Hedjadj the accused injures Yazid blu Mehleb, 



then let me be tbe next to die." This letter lie sent to the caliph, 
who, when he selw Ynad bin Mehleb in chains, and read the let- 
ter, was greatly ashamed, and snid, " If we have injured уош- 
father's feelings, Ayub, we did. wrong ;" and spriiiguig from 
his seat, he took the chains from off Ayuh's neck and kissed his 
face end eyes. Then dressing Yazid bin Mehleb in a lich cloak 
of honor, he said to him, "The tyranny of Hedjadj is how known 
tome." Afterwards he gave Ay ub three hundred thousand dir- 
hems, and to Yaaid one hundred thousand; he likewise made for 
them a royal feast, and showed them great favor. He wrote a let- 
ter to Hedjadj saying that Yazid had brought to him whatever 
he had taken in money or effects, and made over to him all bis 
debts and obligations. "Beyoti cai'eful," added he, "to see that 
no harm or wrong is done to any of his people, who may have 
remained with you." At the same time he addressed a letter to 
his brother excusing himself and conciliating his frien^hip, and 
ordered that whatever government Yazid bin Mehleb desked 
should, without delay, be given to bim ; after which, he sent Ayub 
and Yazid back to his brother at Damascus. 

The day they ariived there, Suliman bin Abd el Melek and all 
his chief officers went out to meet them ; and phwing Yazid at liis 
side, Sulimau treated him like the most distinguished of his 

What protection and genei-osity in one who, being himself the 
heir apparent of the caliphat, would cond^cend to petition the 
caliph for an act of hberality, and expose his own life, and, what 
is still dearer, that of his child, for the attainment of the just dues 
of an unfortunate individual ! Such indeed should be the great 
heart of a sovereign. 



It is liiiown to the pioug, all -intelligent, and believing, that tlie wealtli and 
riches of a Bovereign increase in the ratio of Ыв pure intentioiia and. the 
pratection and care accorded by him to hk subjects ; and that on the other 
hand, evil intention is the source of degradation and abaEement, and 
the cause of poverty and indigence. It has been banded down by Veheb 
bin Meuieh, as a saying of the Prophet, on whom be peace, " That when- 
ever a goveraor purposes injustice, and acts Hccordingly, God will send mis- 
fortune upon his oounljy by a loss of business in its etreets, dearth in its 
products, and barrennras among its animals ; bnt when his intentions are 
good and jnst, andhe esecntea £hem, God blesses that country with plenty." 
The relator spoke in sincerity and truth. 

It is related that in. the countrj' of Moi'ooco, on the west, there 
was once a king who had heard a certain woman's garden highly 
praised, as being of a generous soil, and productive of fniit, such 
as w f d th A Ъ t y; its sugar-canes, in parfi- 

cwla th w d t tl a^. In fact, so шисЬ did they 

prai tthtthkjg dym ted his horse and set out for 
the gd wthth tf fpygita visit. On his arrival 
Ьө1 dthtthd tb p dtoo much ; for when they 
had tmft. hfuid them most delicious. From 

eaci Ih y fill d P f J *• the sight of which the 

king wis t t d d g tting the better of him, he 

said, I wtll g th w f thi g rden whatever he may ask, 
so that it be mine." Soon afterwards he oidered one of his atten- 
dants to squeeze one or two more of the canes ; but although they 
squeezed an entire armful, they did not get as much out of all of 
them as they did from the two first : at which the king being aston- 
ished, he mquired of the woman if there were any difference among 
the canes. The woman answered " No," adding that they were all 
of one kind, and up to that time had produced a glass of juice 
a piece ; " bat now," s^d she, " they seem to differ from their usual 


custom, and we do not bnow the reason, unless it be that the 
intention of the bing has been changed from what it was at first." 
When the king heard these words he repented of his avari- 
cious desires, and asked pardon (of God). A while after, he re- 
quested the woman to squeeze one or two more of the canes, 
which heing done, the cup was filled as formerly; and handing 
the cup to the king, she returned thanks to God that he had had 
compassion upon the ting's honor and corrected the royal mind. 
" Evidently," said she, " this remarkable plenty is a proof of the 
change in his intentions : for tlie good intentions and protection 
of kings and princes draw down plenty and prosperity; whilst 
on the contrary evil dispositions blast all abundance and .affection, 
and prevent what would otherwise be beneficial." The king was 
greatly pleased at these words, gave the woman numerous pre- 
sents, and for ever afterwards was upon bis guard against envy 
and avarice. 

It is related as follows of one of the^calipbs of tJie house of 
Abbas, named Mehdi Billah, who was seated on the throne of the 
caliphat in the one hundred and fifty-eighth year of the Hedjreb. 

One day being desirous of amusing himself with the chase, he 
mounted his horse, and, attended by his domestic officers and 
other attendants, proceeded to the mountains, where they started 
a flock of antelopes. The soldiers and attendants of the caliph 
immediately pursued them, each one following a different ante- 
lope ; the caliph himself choosing out one and chasing it. In this 
sport the company soon became separated, and the caUph was 
lost from his sidte. After pursuing the antelope until his strength 
was exhausted, he succeeded in coming up with and killing it ; 
but on looking round he found no trace or sign of his attendants : 
he was qidte alone, night was near, and he was thirsty. At a. 



! he perceived a ЫасЬ tent, and proceeding towards it 
found that it was the residence of an Arab, wlio had pitched it 
near the banks of a streana wliioh had once watered the valley, 
but was now dry. As he came near he perceived an Arab woman, 
with two children, a boy and a girl ; and when she approached him, 
he saluted her, and claimed her hospitality. " You are welcome, 
friend," answered she, holding his stirrup and assisting bim to 
dismount from his horse. She tied the horse and spread a mat for 
the caliph, on which he seated himself, and from fatigue soon fell 
asleep. On aw.iking he found that night had set in, and yet none 
of bis people had made their appearance. He asked the woman if 
the town was near; she replied that it was a considerable dis- 
tance off, and added her hopes that he would accept of her humble 
dwelling for Lhat night. He consented and passed the night 
in her tent. 

In the morning he ai-ose and went to the edge of the plain, and 
said to the Arab woman, " How strange that the water of such a 
stream should be dried up ! do you reside here alone ?" She re- 
plied, " Yes, good sn ; foi-merly we were not here alone : but may 
God grant vigilance to the caliph, so that he may leaiii what passes 
in the world ; the bed wliich you see was once that of a great 
stream of running water, and twenty thousand Ai'abs and many 
Turkmen tribes dwelt with us near it ; but it was God's providence 
that oar late sovereign should die — he who had been a just 
person, and moreover was one who paid attention to passing 
events, and protected the poor against the hand of the oppres- 
sor. The caliph who succeeded him is occupied only with 
his pleasures and pastimes, and as he neglects the affairs of his 
kingdom, his ministers and other high officers become also of his 
disposition and character. To such a length have matters gone, 
that oppresMOn is openly practised, and no one ever aslts who are 
the oppressed, or who the oppressor ; for the hand of tlie poor and 
tyrannized cannot reach the caliph and make known its grievances. 
No one pities the fate of those who go to thegates of justice, or 


to his viars, to make known their complaints ; no attention is paid 
to thera, aud their patience is worn away. For this reason the peo- 
ple of this neighhorhood have, one by one, emigrated from their 
homes; and as honor is gone, they also ore departed. Good for- 
tune brought you to ua last night; for to^moiTowI also am going 
to leave the country." 

When the caliph heard these words, he was grieved from the 
bottom of his heart, repeated of his misconduct, and determined 
in future to change it. " Hereafter," thought he, " I will attend 
to the affairs of the faithfid. Let it he a covenant between God and 
me, one that I mil surely fulfil, that tlie interests of the poor shall 
be henceforth judged according to the holy laws." 

The Arab brought before the caliph whatever she had to eat, 
eonMsting of a cup of yaoort {curdled milk) and a lamb which she 
roasted. "I have also a cup of sharab, (wine,)" added she, "is 
it admissibJe ? The caliph answered in the afurmative; and she 
placed it before him in (wo howls, which he drank, and was great- 
ly exhilarated by it. Then turning to the Arab he said, " I am 
one of the caliph's favorite attendants, and by God's permission 
will certainly be of use to you." The woman answered, " Much 
prosperity to yoa, you have done us great honor by this visit;" 
and filling another bowl gave it to the caliph, who also drank it, 
much to the increase of his good humor. After this he said to the 
woman, "Dovoukaow me?" She answered, "just now you told 
me who you were." The -.caliph said, "lam the caliph's chief 
vizir, and lieutenant, possessed of full powers." The Arab woman 
on healing tliis arose, and boiving low, filled another bowl of wine, 
which she handed to the caliph. He drank it and said, " Arab, do 
you bnow who is your guest ?" " Yes," answered she. " I will 
now tell you trnly," continued the caliph, " for you have done 
me a great service ; behold in me the caliph of the universe and 
the sultan of the family of Adam." At this the Ai'ab jumped on 
her feet and eschiimed, " May God glonfy you !" Tlie caliph told 
her that to-morrow she should see his words verified. The Arab 



answered, " God be praised ; you have deigned to honor iis with 
your noble feet, and all favor is from God." After a little more 
conversation the caliph asked for iinother Ьож1 of wine; but was 
refused by the Arab, who, when asked the reason said, "When 
I gave you the first bowl, you told me that you were one of the 
favorite attendants of the caliph; on the second, you called your- 
self his chief vizir ; and oa the third, you asserted that you were 
the caliph himself. Now I fear that if I give you one more you 
will lay claim even to the character of the most holy Prophet," 
At this answer, the caliph, much pleased, laughed, and became 
very merry; and as he felt pleased with the wit of the Arab, he 
passed there yet another night. , In the mornmg when he awoke 
he observed the Arab's wife going out to milk two goats which she 
bad, and calling as slie did so to her little daughter to bring her a 
kettle to hold the milt. The child had scarcely obeyed her aaid 
retmiiecl, when she screamed out to ber mother to hasten and escape 
with the kettle, for the bed of the river was fast fiHing with water. 
The woman ran towards the tent ; and indeed behold the river, 
which for such a length of timp had been diy was now fiOed with 
water rushing impetuously The Arab letumed thanks and has 
tened to impart the news to the caliph, saymg, " Blessed be God ' 
Tour noble footsteps h«e been the cau&e of giving Ьтк to us 
this river which was the source of our suppoit Peiliapa your 
majesty by God'b aid has ohmged vour mtentionb fiom evil to 
good, and this is the < duse of this compassion and metcy on us 
Come forth and behold the eflect of this diiine fdvoi " The ca 
liph did as he was desired and returned thinks to the Most High. 
The Arab ь worda made t deep mip ession upon the mind of the 
cahph and while hr pii^ed he wppt Tlie Arab now aided him 
to mount his hoibe and as he lode anaj he told her to assem- 
ble all hei tr be ini pf ople foi he designed to make her their 
chief aid giving hei a viiften paper ti this effect, he added, 
I a!ho f ee JO 1 f om all taxition for e\er: sow and reap and 
enjoy }0Ш produce Ine n quet and pe ce, and no tithe shall 


еүег be required of jou. Let me see bow you will conduct your- 
self, and I will aid you accordingly." 

When the .caliph had reached the city he sent criers into the 
streets to proclaim a rei^ of justice for the future ; and in fact 
ever afterwardsnbe paid strict attention to the affairs of bis king- 
dom, and every thing was adjusted ^гееаЫу to law and equity, 
so much so, that his reign became proverbial in the mouth of the 
world. Ever afterwards, during the whole course of his life, he 
was attentive to the afiairs of his subjects and rayahs, so that even 
as in Adam's time, the wolf and the sheep walked quietly and 
in equality together, in the meadows and the plains. 

Divine favor led him thus jn the true and straight path. May- 
God have mercy on them all ! 

Ibin Abbas narrates, that there was once a king who, being 
desirous of seeing his dominions, set out on his travels and one 
day dismounted at the dwelling of a village peasant. At night- 
fall the man's cows, as usual, returned from their pasture ; and 
after milking one of them, the peasant brought the milk and sat it 
before the king. From two cows alone he got thirty batmans of 
milk. Kow when the king had drunk the milk, he was so much 
pleased with its flavor, that he conceived the idea of paying the 
man whatever he might ask, and taking away a cow. 

On the nest day the villager again commencing to milk his cows 
got from three of tbem only five batmans of milk (thirteen and 
a half pounds to the batman) ; afterwards he milked the others, and 
found that he had not got (и much from them all, as on the other 
days he got from one. 

The king was greatly astonisbedat this, and exclaimed, "How 
is this ? The pasture is the same ; what then is the cause of this 
diminufion?" The villager answered, "God alone knows the rea- 


8on ; it is posabb that the king's intentions have undergone a 
change, and the diminution may be the result of a covetous desire 
to possess what belongs to his subjects. It is a sajdiig well verified 
by the experience of time, that if the sovereign of the age toolia 
with the eye of envy upon his subjects and regai'ds their pro- 
perty with a look of covetousness, God will withdraw his bless- 
ing from that people." 

Tbe king repented on hearing this, asked pardon of God, and 
changed his intentions. At sunset the cows agaia came in from 
then- pasture ; and when the villager miiked them, behold ! they 
gave even more than usual ; which the villager seeing, he exclaim- 
ed, " God he praised ! Our king has changed his evil purposes, 
and see in this a divine proof of it." 


Mutasid BiBah, one of the caliphs of the race of Abbas, 
was a brave, lion-hearted, liberal, and just man. Actuated by feel- 
ings of uprightness, he protected the holy law, and ordered pun- 
ishment whenever it was deemed necessary. 

During his caliphat, his cadi asker, or supreme military judge, 
was one Hussidn, the most learned man of that period. The Cadi 
Ahoo Omar, relates as follows : One day I was in the office of the 
Judge Hussain, when one of the caliph's favorite attendants came to 
answer to a charge of debt brought against him by a merchant. 
The judge ordered the parties to stand up side by side and be 
judged ; but the atteadaat vefuaed, sayiag, ' Have you no regard for 


me, that you order me to stand up with a low-born mLm 1" The 
eadi at this became angered, and smd, " Ifot only you, but your 
master, would I make to stand up with this opponent." At the same 
time the cadi ordering some of his people to make the attendant 
ai-ise, the ease was tried, and sentence pronounced against him. 
Then the cadi oidered the office^ in whose charge he was, in 
case the attPndant dared to refuse to pay the debt, to take him 
into the street, and there sell him to the highest bidder, and pay 
отег the amount to his creditor the merchant. " If it is greater than 
the debt," added he, " give the overplus to the Commander of the 
faithful." The officer, however, received the full amount from the 
attendant ; who, after paying it, went away weeping to the caliph, 
before whom he threw hia turban on the ground, and exclaimed, 
" Is this the protection of the Commander of the faithful, that 
the Cadi Hussain should abuse me in this manner, and order me to 
he sold — me, who am a faithful servant of the caliph V 

The caliph took offence at this language, scolded the attendtmt, 
and said : " By the souJs of my ancestors, bad he even, sold you, I, 
for the sake of the holy bw would have confiimed the sale, and 
received the suiplus If you hid felt in inteiest in my honor 
and good name, you would by pajmg the debt justly due to the 
merchant, have avoided the necessity ol gomg to laлv with him." 

God be prjused suth la the m'tnner in which kings ought to 
show their obedieite to the holv law of the Prophet, to the end 
that their places be L\.ilti,d bith ni tint, lifo md m that which is to 

Mohammed bin Abdallah bin Abd el Melek relates, that during 
the reign of the Caliph Mutazid Billah it became necessary to send 
troops agEunst the infidels ; but it being the first year of the oali- 
phat, there was not sufficient money in the public treasury to 
meet the expensep. Indeed, bad it not been for Mutasid Billali, 


the prospeiity of tbe house of Abbas would have come to an end ; for 
enemies iveve rising щ every where, particularly among the tribe 
called Caramata, which ruled in Syria, Temm, and Aden, where it 
ti-ampled faithful Mussulmans under foot, and, finding a foot-hold 
in Bussorab and Lahta, made an attack нроп Bagdad. 

During the i-eign of the Caliph Mutamid Billab, Mutazid Billali 
was charged with the power of rendering justice, and he sent sol- 
diers in all directions to cut off the enemies of the true faith. One 
by one he seized upon the chiefs of the Caramatees, and had them 
executed io the city of Bagdad. When the ealiphat descended 
to him, so general were security and justice, that it surpassed the 
age of Haroon er Rasheed ; and the people gave liim the name of 
the second Seffah,^ because he had, as it were, resuscitated the 

Still it was urgently necessary to send troops against the infi- 
dels; hut the treasuiy was m a very low condition. 

At that time there was a rich merchant, a ma^an, in Bagdad, 

and the caliph waa advised to borrow money from him; to which 

advice he havu acceded he nvited the merchant to visit him. 

When he am ed Mutazid Billah ssked him Сш you lend us 

■ne hund ed th nsiud pieces of silvet n td oui le tmies are col- 

tcd**" The oa^jan r plied Wot oi ly I b it iU I possess, is 

our dispoaal Gi t. m your o d rs and whatever you wish 

Я be immediately brought to you Ilie o 1 ph was astonished 

iie confidence the min showed and asied him how he could 

3 so mu h faith in him is to oft i so large an mount of mo- 

to wh^n the magii.n answered, Emir of the faithful, God 

ng confidoil this vast country and so many subjects to your 

Д, and you havmg always governed them with justice and equi- 

, failing in nothing, cannot I, foi' a few coins, put fiiifli in you?" 

Vhen the caliph heard these words his eyes filled with fears, and 

he expressed Iiis thanks to Gfod ; after wliich he said to the magian, 

" May God bh'ss your store and preserve us from the necessity of 

« GelTKh WAS И;ө iisvne of the fcnndef of tlie calipliat. 


mating loans. You have not failed in your duty to us i if we need 
your money, we mill accept it ; and should you ever hereafter need 
oar assiistance, come to ua freely and do not fail, for our door ivill 
be always open to jou." 

The magian departed, thanking God for the noble sentiments 
with which he had inspired tlie caliph. 

Ismml ihin Eulbul was the most favored and worthy attend- 
ant of the caliph of his time. He relates that one day when the 
Emir of the faithful, Mutazid Billah, was amusing himself in the 
company of his viair and attendants, one of the tatter presented 
him with a petition, in which it was represented that in a certain 
place there was a number of men assembled, whose conduct was 
injurious to the prospeiity and good name of the state, and there- 
fore required obsei-vation. 

Whilst Mutazid Billah read the petition, anger was visible in 
his countenance ; and asking of his grand-vizir, AbdaUah, what he 
thought had better be done with these people, the vizir answered, 
" Let US send a number of men and disperse the meetmg, then act 
towards each in turn as may seem just, and make them an exam- 
ple to othera." 

To this the caliph replied, " May youi- heart's severity and 
want of mercy never be mine; for it has made my anger disap- 
pear, and giuned my best feelings in their favor. Do you aot know 
that rayahs and subjects are so many pledges confided to me by 
the Creator of all things, and that they will be asked of me at the 
day of judgment? I thought you were more mei-dful and bene- 
volent than myself, but now I see that you are less pitiful than a 
cannibal; go now examine well this matter, and see лгЬуЙиэ peo- 
ple have acted in this unlawful manner. There certainly is a cause 
for it; they have either esperienccd injustice and oppression from 



their goverttor, been burdeaed with exeesave taxes, or some cala- 
mity has befallen, their relatives smd friends. If they have been 
dealt with ипзиайу, do them justice ; if they are in poverty, 
a^ist them from the public treasury; in fine, do for them what- 
ever their necessities may require. Put in prison and punish those 
who have dared to injure them; and Ъу this means the good laws 
of the state will secure peace and quiet to eveiy one. Do not con- 
found the innocent with the guilty, and thus *um the edge of the 
Rwoi'd of justice from those who merit it; for what would our Cre- 
ator do in the world to come, and how could we answer for it be- 
fore the AU-just?" 

The vizir left the royal presence, and examined attentively the 
whole affair. He learnt who were the guilty and who the innocent, 
saw them dealt justly by, and acted towards them j^-eeably to the 
views of tlie caliph. And when the caliph's kindness and consi- 
deration for his subjects, and the advice which he gave to his vizir, 
were made known, every one piayed for his prosperity, and he 
became celebrated in the whole seven climes of the world for hia 
equity and justice. Truly, kings should he attentive to the affairs 
of their people, and attend to them in person. If they confide all 
to their vizir, and neglect their government, they do a vain and im- 
prudent thing, and ^ve cause to the enemies who surround their 
empire to attack them. When a sovereign devotes bimself close- 
ly to the affairs of his state, his officers, seeing that he is vigilant, 
fear liim, and make efforts to peiform properly their respective 
chaises; and thus good order and system are preserved. 

d Khan, the Ghazi, the conqueror of C 
one of the sultans of t!ie family of Othman the unique and cho- 
sen, was a talented and learned as well as a hrave and courageous 
man, and a soverGigrt who \vas attentive to the affairs of his Idng- 



dom. He was ia tlie habit of always uniting the TJlemas to his 
company, when he ■would take delight in engaging them in learned 
and erudite conversation. It was also his hahit to walk the streets 
and bazaars by night and day in disguise, for the purpose of ac- 
quiring information of what was passing among his people. His 
vizirs and other ministers were all very learned men, Eisd, in all 
their actions, had at heart the welfare of the state and the faith. 

One day Mollah Kevzanee, who was the most excellent of the 
great men of the age, was in his council hall, when, the conversa- 
tion turning upon аГЕшгз of state, Sultan Mohammed Khan, the con- 
queror, asked the Mollah, saying, "It is said that the Crimea 
was once a thickly populated and very wealthy countiy, famous 
for its excellent and very learned men, and that it has had no less 
than twelve thousand muftees, whose decrees are worthy of bemg 
recorded. It is related in the history of the Mollah Tashkendee, that 
it was gifted with great men and immense wealth. Why, there- 
fore, did it, in so short a time, become impoverished and mined ?" 
Mollah Kevzanee answered, " The cause of the ruin of that coun- 
try was, that its sovereign had no vizir of talent or capability." 
When Sultan Mohammed heard this, he said, " Hasten, and call my 
respected vizir, Mahmood, to me ;" and when he had come, ad- 
dressing him, he said, " I asked of Mollah Kevzanee what was the 
cause of the ruin of the kingdom of the Crimea, and he answeied 
that it was the want of a talented and capable vizh." 

So Mahmood Pasha said, " Yes, my sovereign, they have an- 
swered ti-uly; hut Mollah Mahmood has respected the rules of 
civility in the presence of majesty. Kow, the truth is this, that 
the real cause of the ruin of that country was tlie want of an at- 
tentive sovereign ; for, if a king is acquwnted with and watchful 
over the condition of the realms under his empire, those who are 
in his service will be zealous accordingly : therefore, my much res- 
pected sovereign, the vizir is not the cause of this min, but, mther, 
the sultan himself, who makes his vizir arbitratoi' over the affairs 
of rehgion and state, of this life and eternity, and places him as an 


бб TURtasii Ел^Ек:ка ektebtahtmkkts. 

absolute decider over the fates of the subjects of his kingdom, parti- 
culaiOy tlie Ulema or religious doctors of the Holy Law. Assuredly 
afFaii-s should not be left wholly to a yiziv ; he ia but an humble 
sevvaDt, nrho, if he fills his office with uprightness, is worthy of 
his charge, but, should he not do so, ought to be dismissed and 
degraded, and another found who wiE perform his duty. Wben a 
sovereign employs himself with the affairs of his empire, bis lieu- 
tenant is zealous and attentive to fulfil whatever ia given to his 
cbarge; the governors in the different parte of liis kingdom, 
awai-e that the sultan examines into then administration and 
knows who of them are good and who bad, perform their respec- 
tive duties accordingly, and abstain from misconduct ; and the 
enemies who sun-ouad his country, kcowmg the attention of the 
sovereign to the affairs of his state, learn to fear and respect him." 
Wlien Mahraood Pasha had ended tbese words, the sultan 
Siud to him, " You have spoken truly ; and may you ever be pros- 
perous and happy. Mahmood, you have awakened me, as from tbe 
sleep of negligence." He then dressed him in a robe of honor, and 
conferred numerous marks of favor upon him. A sovereign should 
not be grieved on learning the truth, nor close his ear against it; 
and tliis is the choicest and best quality of a prince. 


Ou the subject of good faith, reiigioas observances, and evil machinationa. 

In the year of the Hedjreh 601, reigned Sultan Sinjar Malek 
Shah Ogloo, one of the Seljook sultans, a prince of upright and 
just sentiments, and true piety. Once upon a time he marched 


гә. С? 

his troops and followers to the city of Talikaj] for tbe purpose of 
letting them repose there ; and when its inhabitants heard the sound 
of armed men, and the commotijn iKirnd tlie sriltau, ea*h sought 
a place from which to witness then passage It «o hippeoed that 
near the city was a high hill, with a pointed smnmit or cone, up 
which a child of one of the fiunihes of the utj had climbed for 
the purpose of seeing the passing soldiery, and was theie seated 
alone. The sulta,n's troops, like a toiTenf, pissed by there; and 
Sultan Sinjar, casting his eyes siround him espied som.ething on 
the summit of the hid which resembled a bird Supposing it to 
be such, the sultan, who was extremely e\peit with the bow, as 
he passed hy let fly an arrow at the object, ivhich, by God's pro- 
vidence, attained its mark, struck the body of the child and killed 
it on the spot жЬеге it sat. He called one of his attendants and 
directed him to go and biing him the bird. The attendant, hastei;- 
ing to do as he was bid, mounted the hill, and found a dead child 
covered. with blood. Putting it on his shield, he brought it doiru 
to the presence of the saltan ; aiid the just and merciful рпвсс, 
perceiviag that in pla«e of a bird he had killed a child, uttered an 
«xclamation of painful surprise, dismounted from his horse, threw 
himself upon the ground, his breast burning with the fire of aifiic'- 
tion, and his eyes fiUed with teai's of soiTOW. " How strangely and 
grievously have I sinned," exclaimed he, "and in a manner how 
unexpectedly am I piuned ! I will endeavor to do justice for tliis 
crime." So he sent criers throughout the city to summon the 
parents of the chUd, who were not long in being found. They 
proved to be poor indigent inbabitsmts of the place. Wlien the 
father saw his child in this condition, grief overcame Ыт and he 
wept bitterly. The sultan, seeing the man's affliction, took him by 
the hand and led him te his tent, and there, in the presence of hia 
officers, placed before liim a pile of gold and a sword ; he then 
swore that the child met his death by accident. "But there," con- 
tinued he, " is gold, and here is my head : satisfy youi-self with the 
former, and pardon me, or strike off my Jiead with the latter ; kill 



me beside your son, so that at the day of judgment you deliver 
me not up to toinnent. The choice is in your hand : either par- 
don me, or execute the light of tahon, and thus free me from this 

But the poor man answered, " My noble-hearted and justly 
minded sovereign is absolved from all criminality; for the accident 
occurred by divine destmy and providence i long may he live to 
be the soul of the world and the spirit of his empire ! The favors 
aad gifts which you offer me aie worthy of your greafjiess of 
heart ; and may yoiir reign be ever prosperous. Let all our heads 
and lives be devoted to уоиг welfare ; you are the shadow of God; 
be ever faithful to the charge given you by Him. I have absolved 
you from the blood of my child ; may he, at the day of punishment, 
not ask it at your hands, and let those now around you be wit- 
nesses to your innocence." 

The poor man's words consoled the sultan, and made a deep 
impression on him. The father did not wish to accept the money ; 
but the just king added another equal sum, and pressed them upon 
him against his will. He also conferred upon him the government 
of the country of Talikan and juade him one of his chief officers. 

What an upright and merciful sovereign, in whose mind power 
and poverty are one and equal, and whose noble cliaracter and con- 
duct made him one of the best of kings ! 

May God have mercy on them all ! 

It is лү1й1еп in books of history, that Suliman bin Abd el Melek 
of the family of the Ommiades, was a most benevolent, intelligent, 
and worthy man. He always cultivated the acquaintance and so- 
ciety of persons of mind and talent, and took pleasure in having 
the histories of preceding sultai^, and the virtues of sovereigns of 
just principles, read to hini. 



Once in. tlie course of conversation Suliman bin Abd el Meiek 
made this remark: "Praise be to God the benevolent, tbe most 
high and holy, whose grace to his seiTant of this kingdom and 
empire is, if not greater, certiunly not less than that shown to 
Suliman bin Daood.* He had power over the Deevs, Perees, 
wild beasts, bii'ds, and winds, which we have not; but for wealth 
and troops, honor and fame, we have nearly reached our expecta- 
tions." One of the learned persons present said, " You do not 
possess that which is more important than all others to your king- 
dom, and is as the niniuiig water of your empire." The sovereign 
inquired what it was. " You have not a vizir wottliy of yonr 
glory and reign. You are a king, son of a king', and you should 
have a vizir excellent, and versed in the affairs of government, one 
who is possessed of personal purity, famous for his piety and 
charity, free from haughdness, pride, and hypocrisy." The sove- 
reign repHed, "But none knows where there is to be found a 
vizir possessed of such exoeUeat qualities and brilliant talente as 
those you recommend." Then the person said, "There is now in 
the city of Balk, one named Baramikee, descended from the vizirs 
of Ard^hir Babek, whose office has come down to liim by inheri- 
tance. When the kingdom of the kings of Adjem departed from 
them, that country became Islamite. It was then that the Ba- 
ramikees took up their residence in Balk, and received the true 
faith. They possessed works on the knowledge necessary to a 
vizir, and taught their sons the science of belles lettres, as well 
as other necessary attainments; so that they became superior to 
their equals, and the most learned of the age " In such terms of 
ргщве as the preceding he commended them 

So Suliman bin Abd el Melek sent royal missives to Balk, and 
had Jaafer brought to Damascus. The pimiipol officers of the 
court went out to meet him with great honor and distmction, and 
conducted him before the sovereign. Affci kibsmo the hand of 

• The reader is here reminded of the Eastern traditiwia that give to Suli- 
man the powers abave epokcn of. 


'?0 SUKKISH EVENiwa entkutaikmewts. 

the shah, he showed him a place near the throne ; but as Jaafer 
took hia seat the countenance of the ahah changed its color, and he 
turned away from him in evident displeasure. " Tate him out," ex- 
claimed he; and as no one Itnew the reason, the officers of the king 
were astonished. One of the padishah's near attendants iQC[uir- 
ed, why, after haying Jaafer brought from Balk to Damascus with 
so much honor, he showed such sudden aversion for him ? The 
king replied, " Had it not been for hia merit and abihties, I would 
have had him executed on the spot; for this man has prepared poi- 
son about him, and one must beware of him," The attendant said, 
" If you so command, we will inquire about this matter of himself ; 
aad if he denies it, your sovereign aversion will be a just one r but 
should he avow it, and exphun a motive for it, it will remain with 
our sovereign to accept or not of liia excuses." 

So Jaafer was called to the presence of the king a second 
time, when Suliman bin Abd e! Melek said, " The reason of 
our sending 3'ou out of our presence was this, that I became 
aware you had a deadly poison about you." Jaafer saluted the 
sovereign and said, " Yes, my p^dishah, in my ling there is a pre- 
pared poison; but it lb inherited from my forefathei's, and is 
designed for myself alone up to this day it has injured no true 
believer, nor is it intended foi any other purpose than that of pro- 
tecting myself How many accidents occur, and what numerous 
sorrewB and tiibulationa are endured in the service of kings and 
sovereigns ! mayhap one day they might require of me an impor- 
tant service, which it would be beyond my powers to perform ; or 
it might be that an enemy brought upon иэ a disgi-aee beyond our 
endurance ; in which case we would then destroy ourselves, to free 
us from the shame." 

Sultan Suliman bin Abd el Melek was a man of judgment, 
and replied, " To persons of mind and talent both rashness and 
haste are at first sight faulty; for a subject which at first appears 
disagreeable, upon reflection becomes praiseworthy and commend- 
able, particularly to sovereigns and other goveriiors : therefore is 



deliberation benaficial and useful in the proper admiiustration of 
tbeiv government," виИшап bin Abd el Melek also praised Jaafev's 
talents and judgment, sa well as liia prudence and care ; and he 
oi-dered one of hia own riding horses with its rich equipments to 
be brought forth for his use, on which he mounted him, and, pre- 
ceded by all the high officers of his court, went to his court of 
justice, where he counseled with them. 

One day when Jaafer was with the king, be asked of him, 
" From what did hia majesty, our sovereign, know that I had poi- 
son, concealed about me?" Suliman bin Abd el Melek replied, "In 
the treasury of my predecessors were found two roya] rings which 
I inherited, and their quaUties are as follows. When any one has 
poison, about him, or there is poison near, these two seals become 
agitated, and rub against each other." Then taking off the rings from 
his finger, he showed them to Jaafer. AJl the persons present 
were greatly astonished at the sight. Jaafer exclaimed, " Bank 
Allah ! There are two wonderful things connected with this 
matter. One is this seal ; and the other, that once being in the 
society of the sovereign of Tabnstan, he asked your servant 
whether he had ever beheld the sea, or been rowed upon it. I re- 
plied tliat I had not ; so he remai'ked, that as I was his guest, I 
should go upon it with him. He went to the sea, where sailors 
brought a bark which we entered ; a meal also was got ready, of 
which we were partaking, when I perceived a ring on hia finger, 
made of a red ruby, the like of which I had never seen before. 
The sovereign, of delicate feelings, perceiving that I observed the 
ring attentively, took it off and offered it to me. As we sailed 
along, 1 kissed the seal and returned it to bim. Upon which he re- 
mai'ked, ' Keep it, it is yours,' and gave it hack to your servant ; 
adding that a thing which was once taken from the finger and given 
away, could not be returned to it. Your servant replied, that a 
thing worthy of a sovereign was not proper for a servant ; when, 
as I begged to return it to him, much to my regret, he threw it 
into the sea, I said, ' Had I known youi- intention of throvringit into 



the sea, I would have accepted it ; as it is, I fear I have been 
impolite in this matter.' The sovereign rephed, ' There is now 
no remedy ; уоч are to blame for not taking it, but there is some- 
thing else curious connected with the ring.' So he turned aad or- 
dered one of bis attendants to go, and from a ceitab place bring 
him a particular bos. The attendant departed, and soon returned 
■with a small box, out of which the king took a little fish made of 
fine wroiight gold and threw it into the sea. It moved about for 
an instant and descended to the bottom of the sea; then taking 
the ring -into its mouth, it swam back to the surface, and the 
sailors received and handed it to the king. He then took the ring 
from the mouth of the fish and once more presented it to your 
servant. I put it on my finger and kissed his hand ; after which 
he placed the fish in the box and locked it. This is that ring," 
said Jaafer BaramiJiee, taking it out of his breast and handing 
it to Suliman Abd el Melek; who, highly praising it, said, "If 
ever there was a miracle, it ia this." He then returoed it to 
Jaafer and observed, " It is a sovereign's gift, and ought to be 
guarded with care."* 

After this Abd el Melek placed fidl confidence in Jaafer's in- 
telligence and knowledge, and on all occasions took counsel with 

The moral of this story is, that sovereigns should on all occa- 
sions act without haste, lest its end be repentance, and that they 
may be free before the just God from punishment and shame; for 
reflection -is the source of happiness in this world and in the other. 
A viair who with due gravity attends to matters of religion and 
faith patiently, and who, confiding in God, properly reflects before- 
hand, sincerely and justly serves his sovereign and fellow-sub- 
jects. If in eveiy circumstance his eyes are steadfastly fixed on 
the All-just, and he is obedient to the holy law of the most excel- 
lent Prophet, his end will be attained with success. 

■ This talB is mentioned by D'Heitebt aa taken from the " Miijma'al 


On the subject of those generous persons who habitna 

Some of the most virtuous of th.e Arabs тгеге ooce seated 
around the vestibule of the Caabah, discussing the subject of who 
were the moat geuerous and benevolent of Arabs ; wben one of 
them said, " Of the present time Abdallah Radavee, the son of Jaa- 
fer bin abi Talih is among the most generous." Another siiid that 
Kais bill Abadeh was the most generous and benevolent of his 
tribe ; and yet another observed, that indeed he was the most ex- 
cellent and liberal of all, to a remarkable degree. Another asserted 
that Grabet el Uvsa was superior to all others. So the discus- 
sion grew warm among them as they remarked on the character 
of the diifterent candidates ; when one of the hearers, who was the 
governor, exclaimed, "Whatneed of words? let some one go to each 
and mabe a request of him and explain his wants, and we will see 
the degree of bis generosity." All approved of the proposal, and 
they deputed a person to each of the individuals under discussion. 
One, in goin^ to Abdallah Radavee, found that he had gone 
to the country ; so, having prepared a loaded camel, he was just 
putting his foot into the stirrup of the hoi^e on which he intended 
to ride, when the man arrived. " son of the nncle of the Pro- 
phet," siud the man, " I was travelling, and having become sepa- 
rated from my companions, am reduced to beggary ; generosity 
accompanies your character for honor." Abdallah Radavee dis- 
mounted from his horse and said, " You have come at a most in- 
auspicious moment; pray excuse my want of means. Mount on this 
camel, and take what is on it, namely, four thousand dinars and 
a lot of clothes; among the latter is a sword which was a sou- 
venir to me from the conquering lion of God, Ali ben Abi Talih, on 




whom Ъе tlie divine satisfaction ;* it also I give to you, and let уок 
кпож its value." The aaker of alms mounted the camel, thanlied 
Abdallah Radavee, and retm-ned. 

When he had oome to the place where the subject had been 
discussed, he dismounted from the camel ; and all pvesent, on see- 
ing him lake out of the saddle-bags clothes of costly silk, four 
thousand dinars, and the flashing sabre of the valiant lion, praised 
and extolled the generosity of the donor. 

One of the pai-ty went also to Kais bin Abadeh, and on reach- 
ing his palace found that he had retired to rest with a mmden at 
his side. Kais told the miuden to inquire the cause of the visit of 
the beggar, and to ask ivhat he desired. The beggar replied, " I 
am a poor man in great poverty, and am come with the hope of 
benefiting by the known generosity of Кшв." " Here are seven 
hundred pieces of gold in a purse; take them," said the maiden, 
" and do not disturb Kais." Opposite her stood a black slave. 
" Take him also," said she. She likewise gave him a token, and 
■ added, " Go to such a caravan, and let them give you a camel to ride 
upon, and pray excuse the humbleness of the gift." The beggar, 
greatly pleased with this present, departed, taking the camel with 

He who went to the greatest wonder of all, found him ; but he 
was blind, wholly deprived of the light of seeing. The beggar 
went to his gate, and found that Grabet el TJvsa had gone out to 
the chapel, leaning on the shoulders of two slaves. The beggar 
met him and exclauned, " O Grabet el Uvsa, I, a poor unfor- 
tunate traveller, ill and with the hope of receiving something 
from yoiir generous hands, have come to see you. I depend upon 
your Ubei'ality." Grabet el TJvsa forthwith raised his hands from 
off the two slaves, and placing his right hand on his left, siud, 
" Ay ! Yah ! you have come at a moment of poverty for Grabet 
el Uvsa ; take, however, these two slaves who have been my guides 
and support — they are thine." The beggar replied, " These two 

ir of the Prophet Mi>ham- 



are your wings; should I take them you would be left alone, and 
what would become of you." But he answered, " I have given 
them to you ; take them and keep them as slaves, or free them ; 
and if you do not, I will give them their liberty," So saying, he 
felt for tlie wall, and continued on to the chapel. The beggar tak- 
ing the two slaves returned to the place of the discussion, where 
the generosity of each was narrated. One of them they proclaim- 
ed the chief, and that was Grabet el TJvsa, on account of his be- 
ing the greatest in generosity. 

But if one justly disciiminates, the preference was due to him 
who presented the four thousand diuais and the souvenir of the 
lion of Crod. 


On tlie subject of those noble sultaiis wiio have Gxcelbd in justicu and pro- 
teeUon to their subjects, and whose magnificeiice has been surpassingly 

In the time of Mustansir Billiih, in the four hundred and eighty- 
sixth year of the Hedjreh, Mohammed bin Melek Shab, the Seljoo- 
kide, was sultan of Transoxania. His sons after him became very 
powerful, conquered the neighboring sultans, took possession of 
their countries, and held them in subjection. Even so great a kmg 
as Mohammed Sebektageea, a powerful sovereign, and owner of 
numberless troops, was conquered bj them; but after Sultan 
Mahmood's death, the son of the latter, Sultan Mesood, con- 
quered them, and took the throne of Mahmood the Seljookide, 
the father of Alb Arslan, 

, He became very powerful ; and passing over to the opposite 



side of the Euphrates on a bridge, wbich none of bis tribe had 
done before, with two hundred thousaad men, conquered Aleppo 
and Damascus, and kept possession of them. 

He became a martyr in the affair of Tusup IQiavarezmy ; and 
bis son and successor, Melek Shah, was a just sovereign, eoui-age- 
ous, lion-hearted, and benevolent to his subjects. In his time the 
wolf and the sheep, the lion and the gaaelle, lived in quiet com- 
panionsliip together. It is related that he left home one day with 
the desire of going to the chase, and on his way out observed a 
man on foot, weeping, imd approaching the city. He had the man 
called to him, and inquired the cause of his teal's ; to which he re- 
plied, " I possessed a small capital of money, with which I bought 
a Joad of water-melons, desiring to take them to the city, and sell 
them, so м to proiide food for my wife and chUdren. But two 
soldiers took them from me, and thus I lost all my capital." When 
Melek Shah heai-d this, he bade the man not to be grieved, " Weep 
not," s£Ud he, " your property shall be given you again." So calling 
one of his attendants, he told him that he wished a water-melon ; 
"go to the camp and seek, perhaps you may find one." The servant 
departed, and going i-ound the camp, came to a tent where he 
found a melon, and brought it to Melek Shah, The padisbah 
said to him, " Go, bring the owner of it to me." Departing, he did 
aa he was directed, and on his return the padishah asked the man 
where he got the melon. He replied, that his servant brought it to 
him. " Go then," replied the padishah, " and bring your seiTant to 
me," The man went, but sent away his servant and returned, saying 
that he could not find him. The padisbah became very angry ; 
and forthwith putting a cord around the man's throat, be called 
to the owner of the melons, saying, " This man is one of my pur- 
chased slaves, and I now present him to you ; go and use him 
as your own, and be careful not to let him escape." They both 
left the Shah's presence and departed for the city. On the way 
tlie man threw himself at the feet of the owner of the melons, and 
begged that he might be allowed to purchase himself for five hun- 


dred dinars. The poor man returned to the padishah. and informed 
him that he could sell the man, if his majesty would giye Ids noble 
consent, for five hundred dinars. The just Melek Shah replied, 
" How, my poor fellow, could you sell him for so small a sum t I 
gave him to you with all he possessed." The poor man thanked 
the Shah and with a gladdened heart returned to his wife. 

That is justice and good judgment which infiicts a punishment 
that serves as an example to others against oppression, while it 
is a source of felicity to those who practise it, both in this world 
and in the world to come. Those are the principles entei-tained by 
the sultans who protected religion and showed mercy towards the 
faithful. May Allah have mercy on them all ! 


On the siibjeet oFthe justice апЛ religious principles of Mahraood Khan. 

Ferdusee dedicated the work entitled the " Shah JSTameh" to 
Sultan Mahmood, one of the Sebektageen sultans. He was a per- 
fectly just and munificent; as well as a most religious and vir- 
tuous sovereign and hero. 

Once a Turkish soldier, when drunk, entered the dwelling of an 
humble dervish, and raised his hand fo the ktter's wife with evil 
intenflbns. The poor dervish presented a petition against the man 
to Sultan Mahmood, complsdning of the injuiy and oppression 
done towards him. 

Shah Mahmood had the dervish brought to him privately ; he 
bestowed presents upon him, and said, " Should that faithless man 



ever go near you again, come and infona me of it without fail." 
He directed his door-lteeper, at whatever time this man came, to 
cenduct him immediately to him, even should he be in his harem. 
The dervbh of humhle attire offered up a prayer for' the shah 
and departed. 

Three days afterwards, after nightfah, the same drunken Turb 
came again to the dervish's house after his wife ; and the dei-vish 
said to the latter, " Leave your bed and engage him for a short 
time in conversation, whiJst I go and give notice of the affiiir to 
Shah Mahmood aad return." He i-eaehed the sultan's palace, and 
seeking the gate-beeper, gave the shah news of his arrival. He 
immediately arose, and taking a shai-p sword in Jiis hand set out 
with the deiTish for his house. The dervich entered the house 
first, and seeing that the fellow liad got into his bed, he returned 
and informed the shah ; whereupon the shah, also entering, or- 
dered the dervish to extinguish the light. He then slowly ap- 
proached the bed, and with one keen blow cut the man in two 
pieces; after which he called for a light, and on looking at the 
Turk's face, returned thanks to God. The dervish asked him 
why he did so. The padishah replied, " The reason why I asked 
you to put out the light was, that I feared the person who 
had dared to commit this act was my own son; and had the light 
remained, I might, on seeing his face, have had compassion on him. 
But when the light was brought, and I saw that it was not my 
son, I ihaaked God. If," continued he, te the dervish, " you have 
any thing to eat, bring it." The man brought out a httlc honey 
and a piece of bread, which the padishah ate, and ofi'ered thanks 
to God. He also said to the dervish, " Know, that since the day 
you presented me the petition, not a morsel has entered my mouth ; 
I was excessively hungry, and asked you for something "ЛуЫсЬ 
would appease my hunger. Thanks be to God that you have been 
able to take vengeance on that oppressor !" added the sliali, as he 
bade the dervish farewell. 



Mustazid Billah one of tbe Abbasidf caliphs, had a vizir 
named Abd Allah The 1 ittei lelate^ that one night, as the caliph 
was taliiug his pleasu e one sf the p'^ps ot the tieasury, becom- 
ing drowsy, struck tie cahph on the head so la to knock oif his 
turban. The cil jh took it up and juttnw it on again, said to 
the page, "Go and reji^p yourself ind cill another page to 
me." The vizir sajs God knows that my senses hid left my head, 
and I came neaj tilling to the grsund lut ivhen I heard this I 
turned to him., and exclaimed How admirable i~> чисЬ mildness !" 
To which he replied How could I do otheiwibe, seeing it was 
only an accident oceasi ned by drowsiness' It is not proper 
tliat the poor fellow should die of fe ir but nther become wiser 
by reflection upon hia negligence." So he ordered that the num- 
ber of pages in waiting should be increased by one or two more, 
to render their duties lighter. 

Such good qualities are hei-editary; for it is related that the 
ornament of the Tizint of religion, Zeen el Abideen, had a child 
which was «tindmg at his side when the table of favors was 
seiied A boy biought in a dish of food ivitli the intention of 
puttmg it on the tahlp but let it fall. The contents were very 
hot and lighting on the Imam's child, scalded it severely. The 
servant in great alarm exclaimed, " Those who i-etain their an- 
ger and paidon the fxults of m^n "■'■ The generous Imam, 
without the leait ohinge ot minnei lephed. " Slave, in God's 
name I pionounce thee fiee ," and thus at once pardoned the ser- 
vant and EfiH- him hi!, fieedom In another nai-atiye it is added, 
that the Imam's child immediately expired 

One of the Baramikides, who have filled tbe world with the 
report of their generosity, and adorned it with their n 



judgment ■WIS Hihsan Mayme dep Hew thesage vizir of Sultan 
Milimocd hib advi er and couiii.cUi_r n ■xW his aftaira.* Noor ed 
Deen bin Mohimmed tbe author of the work entitled Jamys el 
Heliayat rehtes (hit on dijs of vacation Hassan Maymendee 
spent hs time m retiiement comers ng with his familiarfriends. On 
one such day he was ses.ted m a cliair with his feet bare, hanging 
down to the floor. Whilst thus seated, some swords were brougbt 
him for sale, and taking one ia his hand, he leaned upon it as on a 
staff. The point of tlie blade came in contact with his foot; and it 
happened just then, that a necessitous pereon, thinking it agood 
time to appeal to tbe vizir, hastened into the room, and com- 
menced relating tbe story of bis distress. For want of observation 
tbe person leant against the handle of the sword, pressing the point 
of the blade into the vizb'a foot ; but tbe latter made no complaint, 
and bore with the pain without flinching. After the man had 
finished his story, tbe sage vizir gratified his wishes and dismissed 
him. The visir's foot being wounded, blood flowed from it, which 
one of his attendaats observing, he said to tbe vizir, " How strange 
that you did not tell tbe fellow to be cai'efu], and thus spare 
yourself this pain !" As tlie blood continued to run from bis 
foot, they bound it up. Hassan Maymendee observed, " The 
poor man, seeing me alone, thought it woiild be a good time to 
beg a pair of shoes for bis son ; but bad I toJd bim to beware, 
be would have become confused, and мвяЫе to express bis 
thoughts, and thus would have bad to leave me in shame. The 
slight pain which we have esperienced allowed the poor fellow 
to go away with a glad beai-t; and as so trifling a hurt to me 
has gained bis good- will, I am heai-tjly pleased." 

Those present applauded the vizir. 

Behold in this anecdote his good and virtuous qnalities. 

» This ia evidently Mu)miood, the Sebelitagccii, a great patron of litera- 
ture. ForfoosL-e was patjoiiized by liiiii. — A. T. 




Among tlic many good obaracteristics of Hassan Maymcn- 
dee is tbis — that be never ate alone. Had he even a date, be 
w «Id d d t m those present. One day a man gave him 
th 1 wh h were scarcely ripe. The vieir, taking one, 

p d t tad t t 11 himself; the secojid shared the same 
ft d H IS th third. The pereons in attendance were 

ast h d Ь t m d silent. He gave a present to the man 
■wh 1 id Ъ 1 1 tl cumbers; and after he had gone, excused 
h Ш If t tl b t him, saying, " The reason why I ate the 

th ml 1 was tbis; tliat I found one of them exces- 

ly b tte d d d not otfer you any of it ; the second and 
tbu-d w I'^'b ■^'^'^^ tnore than tlie other; and I feared 

fl at d 1 I ft J u y, yoK would remavk that they were bit- 
t d in. th M issulman who presented them: so, rather 

th n I t i f h b hurt, I prefened quietly to eat them all 
mj It 


Oil the 5ubJG«t of esse after difficulty, plenty alter wnnt, and ple^ura 
after pain. 

It is related by the Tar.sonsite, the author of Serradj el Mol- 
loot, that once in the beautiful city of Bagdad, Sheik Aboo Heftez 
ibin Ahmed was reading with a perfumer the holy ti'aditions, when 
a roan entered and gave ten aktchas to the perftuner, saying, 
" Give me a little of a certain kind of scent." The perfumer 
(attar) arose, and gave him what he desired. He took it; but after 
going a few steps he let bis tray fall, and all the perfume was spilt. 


82 TUHiasii Е\ГЕЫ1Н"е ekiertaibmesxs. 

The mjm cried out aloud in great giief at his loss, so tbat we 
■were much pained for him, and we said to the Attar, " Do for 
chaiity's salte give the poor fellow a little more perfume ;" which 
he did. The man also collected, aa best ha could, that which 
had fallen, and the Attar remai-bed to him, " Was it proper to 
make such a lament over ten drachms of perfume "i The Most 
High is henevolent, and bestows gratuitously." Tlie man re- 
plied, "Pardon me, for you have justly spoken; but a man's 
patience is according to what he caa bear, and my grief was invo- 
luntarily expressed. I have lately been out of my mind ; the cause 
of wliich is as follows. A year or two ago, when I was wealthy 
and influential, I joined a caravan on my way to Bagdad, with 
four thousand dinars in money, and four thousand dinars more 
in jewels in a bag, and lost it all. I did not tell it to my 
companions, neither did I let them observe my affliction; for 
I had yet a little property left to keep me from want. But to- 
day a child was bora to me; and besides these ten dirbems I 
possessed nothing wherewith to buy provisions for my family. 
Should I spend them, I would be left entirely destitute, and be 
obliged to beg ; wherefore I said to myself, * Rather let me em- 
ploy it as a capital, and with its proceeds provide for my family;' 
and wben I saw it thus escape from my hands, I became despe- 
rate, and gave way to my grief." 

' Wliilst this Ш!Щ was relating his situation, a worthy person, 
whose house was directly opposite us, eat at the sill of bis door 
Ksteiiing. He arose and came over to us, and asked the man to 
goto his house with him. We supposed he was touched by the 
poor fellow's tale, and intended to give him something ; bi\t it 
was not so. He said, " When you lost the bng, who were your 
companions, and where were уон ?" He also asked many othei- 
questions about the bag, to all of which the man replied exactly 
as it occurred. 

The worthy man then left us for a moment, and on returning 
brought fiom his dwelling a sealed bag, and asked if that re- 
sembled the ове which he had lost? "Yes!" exoladmed the 


poor fellow, as soon as he ааж tbe bag; " It is the veiy same. ' 
At the same instant, pulling the seal out of his breast, he exhi- 
bited it, and proved his claim. 

The jewels of which he had spoken were in the bag; and conse- 
quently the worthy man at once delivered it over to its owner. 
But the poor fellow said, " Let these jewels all be yours ; I freely 
bestow them upon you, and pray you will accept them." The 
man replied, "Forget us not in jour prayers! the goods that 
belonged to you are youra oace more. The Lord of the universe, 
by means of a slight sorrow, has turned your difficulty into facility, 
and your hidden treasure has been brought to light." 

The lately unhappy man fervently thanked God, and with much 
joy and delight returned to his wife and children, his puree well 
filled with gold. The money he received was sufficient to set him 
up as a merchant of large capital. God forbid that he who con- 
fides in him for the necessaries of life, should remain iumgiy, or 
dependant upon the low and mean ! 

It B relat d in the history wntten by the Sheikh Amad ed 
DePn b n Ketl и, called " Bedayeh ve JHfihayeh," that once a 
pi n d essed himself near the well of Zemzem at Mecca the 
venerated fo the purpose of performing his ablutions. Ou liia 
a m wa a r n^ f eighty miscab, which he took off aiid laid down 
ne e well when he liad completed his ablutions he dressed him- 
self and departed, forgetting his ring. After finishing his pilgiimage 
the man went to Bs^dad, where in the course of a few years his 
circumstances changed, and he Ьеозше so poor that his whole 
capital was reduced to a single piece of silver. With this he pur- 
chased a few Aleppo glasses, and having placed thcra on a table, 
he stood beside it in the market-place offering tliem for sale. Hap- 
pening to place his foot upon a stone, lie fell and ovevturned tlie 



table, and all Ыз glnss-wave waa bcolien icto a thousand frag- 
ments. The man, becoming desperate, gave way so loudly to his 
soiTOw, that a crowd collected around him; and addressing them, 
he said, " Mussuluaans, at such a time, I was at the venerated 
city of Mecca, aud lost, near tlie well of Zemzem, a gold ring of 
eighty miscals, which did not giieve me as much as my present 
loss; for now all I possessed in the world was one solitary piece 
of silver, and in order that I might not be redwoed to beggary, I 
endeavored to make it a means of subsistence. It was seeing it 
thus at once lost to mo for ever, wliicli caused me such excea- 

Now among the crowd was a Mussulman listening to this man's 
recital of his misfortune, who, when he had ended, said to htm, 
" Come, brother Mu^ulman, I found the gold ring which you lost 
at Mecca, and behold here is your property;" with which woi'ds 
1 d i d tl mg to the heart-broken man. 

All p n astonished at the smgular providence of this 

ma k bl n d e. Thus this man's sorrow and affliction 

b m a u f favor from the Lord of all things, and he 

w rmly p d 1 s grateful thanks. Allah is the blessed and 

ti h ly 

■ ' An innocent pevsoli of the Sheah sect was once accused in the 
presence of that mo4t excellent of men the Caliph Muhtadef Biilah 
f th Ь f Abbas f 1 ^ d d t in 

tl n a^ t bis mm t d b tl t thy 

f p 1 m t Tl -a ph mm d d 1 m t 1 I ^ht b f 

Imbttlp fllwhd Idbmlf dw tt 

b f d T! 1 pi g tly d pi at, d p m d th t y 

It dim db HI if 1 hid 

h ! Itl 111 tl f (I d t 



Ьыио bound иаь taken to the lasidenceof the oihph Whilst on. 
the wiy thtie the) happened to mi,et thtit most gpnemi? tad 
benevoleatof persons Main bia Zeid The pooi min oa oociug 
him e\olumed O most excellent of m^n heai me Jliun 
reined m hi" hoi-se -^ad dennaded tv! y th- иип w s ipprchonded 
Those haling chaigA of him ipph''d tait the cihph had been 
eeeting tor him a lon^ limp Main siid to them EJe ^ө him 
I wdl mteroede fir him with the c liph and \yill al o ,. i ^ ou a 
recompense Bat ihey refused ti gne him iip foi 1 i, □ i 
bundled thousaid dnheois wheieupon Мшд took h m by ion,f 
out of their hands 

So they went to the cahph, and compliiined that thej had found 
the Sheite whom lie desired to have ; but whilst on their way with 
him, the Emir Maan had taken him from them, and earned him 
off, Tiie caliph immediately sent men to call Maau before him, 
and on his arrival, asked him why he had released h^i prisoner 1 
Maan replied, "0 Emir u! Mumaneen ! five thousand of my men 
have been slain in your service, fighting against your enemies; 
and my own heiid also is re;idy to be sacrificed to you, rather than 
a guilty man should impjoi-e my protection in vfdn. Have I not 
sufficient interest witli you to ask his pardon?" The caliph made 
answer, " Yes, Мчап, you have place enoiigh in my regard for 
your intercession to be received in favor of the people of a whole 
zone, and not for one man alone." Smd Маяп, " Prince of the 
fMthfal, I beg for him the honor of kissing your noble hand, and 
permission to depart in joy, favored also with your generous gifts." 
" Let him," replied the caliph, " be clothed in a dress of honor for 
Maan's sake, and receive a gift of one hundred thousand dirhems." 
Sad Maan, " Emir ul Mumaneen, let this man's gift be equal to 
his fault: his crime is very great, pray, therefore, let his gratuity 
be similarly large," The caliph commf.nded that one hundred 
thousand dirhems more should be presented to him : and when 
M;um Iiad conducted the man into the royal presence, he was 


clothed in a dress of bonor, and, after receiving the caliph's boun- 
ty, departed to his own home. 

Behold the kindness and humanity which led one to peril his 
own life for that of another witJi whom lie had no acquaintance, and 
to undertake suoh onerous and difficult service. This Ь true natu- 
ral goodness. May Allah the Most High have mercy upon him ! 

The foiloiving story is narrated by the Judge Kazer'Aboo 
Eumer, who lived during the reign of the CaBph Muktadir BilJah 
of the family of Abhas. 

Among my old acq^uaiutances, Avas one of a respectable origin, 
whose condition, in consequence of misfortunes that overtook 
him, became greatly altered for the worse. Some time subse- 
quently I met him again, and perceived that his poverty had 
been changed to splendor, and that he was engaged in extensive 
and important business, and possessed of much wealth. When 
he saw me he was greatly rejoiced, and bvited me to his house, 
whffl'e he ordered a feast to be prepared for me at once. After 
some social convei'sation, the dinner was served up, when I said, 
" I will not touch your food until you explain to me what has hap- 
pened to you." 80 he replied, "After the death of my fatlier all 
I possessed was lost to me except one house. One night I retired 
to bed with Eoiioivful feelings, saying to myself, ' What shall I do V 
I had a dream, in which I beheld one who said to me, ' You will 
bave no success or fortune until you go to Egypt ; so arise, delay 
not, but proceed thither.' I awoke, and finding that the Egyptian 
caravan was about to depai-fc, I forthwith accompanied it. On my 
aiTival there, I wandered about for two or three months without 
deiivmg profit from any one, rmtil not a kuhbeh (groat) remained 
in my pocket. Althoiigii I was hungry and in need, shame long 
i my asMng aid of any one, until compelled by necessity 



I went out one evening, hoping that I might meet witii some bene- 
volent person to whom I could disclose my situation. It was the 
Yatsee, or bour of repose; and as the governor of the city hap- 
pened just then to pass by on horse-back, he, seeing me ia a 
comer alone, stretched oiit his hand and etnick me several blows. 
Addressing him I exclwmed, ' I am not the person you take me 
to be,' and told him all my story exactly as it had occuned, 
adding, 'I have come to Misr {Cairo) in seai'ch of the fruit of 
that dream, and this has been my lot.' Hereupon he caused me 
to be hfted up, saying, ' fool that I am, it is now more than 
two montha that I have every night had a dream ia which a 
person appeared to me and said, " In Damascus, iii a certain 
quarter, and in a certain house, there is a sofa, under which are 
hidden thirty thousand pieces of silver buried — do not neglect it." 
After having received so many signs anddneotioiis, shall I not 
act, whilst you, on the strength of a single dream, have come 
all the way to Cairo ? what folly !' he repeated, and departed. I 
at once perceived that the quarter mentioned by him was the 
same in which I resided, and the house my own ; so on the fol- 
lowmg day I joined a caravan, and reached Damascus on foot. I 
proceeded directly to my house; and on breaking up the sofa, a 
secret place was disclosed which contained two vases. On opening 
them, behold ! I counted out exactly thirty thousand pieces of gold, 
which my deceased father had hidden in that spot. I found 
also a paper on which he had лvritten the amount, placed in 
one of the vases. With this money I set up in business; my 
capital annually increases ; every year I give the Zihiat, or alms 
I by tbe Koran for tlie poor ; and God, the great and 
* my store." He added, "This is the 
fruit of the blows I received in Cairo ; for which blessed be God !" 



Tbe vizir of one of the most eloquent and uprigbt of sove- 
reigns relates as follows : One day tliat great Hng ascended 
to the terrace of hia residence ; and on iooking around him, he 
beheld near his teiTace, in anothei- house, a beawtiful creature, 
fair as the rising шооп or the face of the planet Venus. From 
gaaing at her beauty lie became beside himself, and he inquired 
of his own maidens лтЬозе house it was. They replied that it 
belonged to Yivooz, one of liis own attendants, and that the 
■woman was his wife. "She is the daughter of such a one," 
added they, " very eloquent of speech, and unique in heauty." 
The king, quite lost in love and admiration, summoned Firooz to 
hE presence ; and giving him a letter, he commanded bim to deliver 
it to a certain person, and collect from him 'the money which he 
owed. Firaoz took the letter and returned to his house, where he 
prepared his arms and other necessaries, but forgot the letter con- 
fided to him, and departed. The love-stricken king arose and 
went to Firooz's door, at which he knoobed, and was asked by the 
wife within, who was there. " Open the door," commanded the 
sovereign ; and as soon as tliis was done, he entered, and saying, 
"To-day I am your guest," seated himself on the sofa. The lady, 
who was eloquent of speech, asked him what Avind had blown her 
suchgoodfortuneas thusto elevate herfrom the dust of the earth? 
The king replied, " My desii'e is simply to pay you a visit." The 
lady answered, " God preserve me from this visit ; for I think 
there is no good in it." The king responded, "I am your hus- 
band's master; pei-haps you do not recognise me. " God preserve 
me from all evil !" exclaimed the woman, " You are welcome." 
She then repeated some verses meaning, "It is unworthy of 
you to drink from the cup out of which your dog has lapped." 
The king, who was greatly ashamed at the words of the woman, 
arose and left the house in haste, and in bis confusion forgot one 
of hia slippere. Now Firooz, having recollected the paper given 
him by the king, hastily returned home for it, in time to witness the 
king's departure. He, ho\Tever, entered his house, took with him 


tho paper, and went his way. Having seen the king's slipper, lie 
understood why he had been sent out of the way ; nevertheless, 
he performed the commission as he had heen ordered. On his 
return he gave his wife one hundred golden ducats, (skerifee,) and 
directed her to go and reside a few days in her father's house ; 
" for," added he, " the sultan has presented us with a house to 
which I will remove our effects." The woman, supposing this 
to be the case, went to her father's ; hut as Firooz did not visit "her 
for several days, her brother called upon him and asked why he 
had thus separated from his wife. " Pray inform me," said he ; 
"otherwise we will lay the matter before a judge." Firooz replied, 
" I gave her all that I was bound to do ; yet if such be your 
desire, I am willing to appeal to the law." Accordingly, on the 
following day they went before the judge, whom they found 
seated beside the king. The woman's brother opened the case and 
said, " O Molana, we let this man a garden surrounded by four 
walls, well cultivated and without blemish, and which yielded its 
delicious fruit in abundance. This man, after eating the produce, 
destroyed its waDs, ruined its well, and then returned it on our 
hands." The cadi replied, " Firooz, what do you say to this V 
Firooa answered, "I returned the garden to them better cxiltivated 
than when I received it," " Did you deliver it up ?" inquired the 
cadi? "Yes," said the brother, "he did; but what was the 
cause of his so doing 1" Firooz replied, "By Allah! I returned 
that garden much against my will ; but once I found a lion's track 
in it, and fearing lest some day that royal animal's fierceness might 
do me harm, I concluded to compliment him by forsaking it alto- 
gether in his favor." 

Now when the king heard this, he exclaimed, " Go, Fu-ooz, 
enter and tranquilly enjoy your garden; for by Allah the Great, 
although a lion has visited it, he never rmsed a band to touch a 
leaf in it, nor did he taste of its fruit. At a favorable moment he 
entered it; but filled with sliame and amazement, he left it again. 
Never have I seen a garden with such high walls, strong gates. 



and pleasant cleanly waits. Go, blessed be Allah, know its value, 
and attend to yowr duties." So they left the cadi's presence, and 
no one among the public ever kaew the true facts of the case. 
Firooa Tfts greatly rejoiced ; and retmning once more to bis dwell- 
ing, he showed more honor and regard to his wife than ever he 
had done before. 


Sultan Hussain Eikra was a learned and just sovereign, unpa- 
ralleled for generosity and magnanimity of soul, whose noble 
qualities are mentioned in the book called Ahlalc el Mulisaneea 
(or Praiseworthy Qualities.) For ardor of character he had no 
eqtial on tbe face of the globe ; he also possessed a vizir of divine 
uprightness and talent, like that of Mercury, celebrated under the 
name of MeerAIy Sheer Ifevaee. Indeed, from the time of Adam 
of unequalled worthiness, down to the present period, never were 
so just a sovereign and so pious a vizir united before. The report 
of their government reached the skies, and the roar of their prow- 
ess and ardor shook the face of nature, as the earth is shaken by 
an earthquake. 

During the period of their just rale, through the protection 
which tbey afforded to science, dght hundred poets were collected 
at the foot of the sultan's throne, the most emineut and honored 
of whom, and the heads of their society, were Abd ur Rahman, 
Jamee, and Hussain, called the masters, who have successively 
enriched the world with their productions. The sultan and his 
vizir united in their service all who were most eminent for wit and 
learning ; and as these patrons of talent were capable of estimating 
their value, those who were talented individuab had the privilege 
of attending in the presence of the ruler of the world. 


Sow it IS related that ^ult-in Hus in E Ua lield a council 
four times a week ш be ittended to the affah-a of the 
faithful 01 the lemiming three dajs he sjent one in conver- 
sation ■with the Iparned men and poets ol lis ouit dbcu s 
ing ВЛ d composing with them one in comp y vi h tho e who 
were LonspiLUOuo for their talents m p n d awi gad 
writing and one in vfcitmg the publ s h ol of tie ty 
where he heaid the lessons э1 the 4tud nt n 1 p e nc of 
then- tutors and rewarded then -ipplicat on o s d} by ^ v ng 
suitable presents and piomotions to eioh To tho h 11 d 

he gave monthly stipends йиш the tiea^ y as an en u a 
meat to thai etertions which bad the effect 1 o f tim d t g 
others with the hopt of hke suLces A^ i pioof 1 11 t 

benevolent and enhghtened wis Ihis soveiei^n the f 11 w tory 
is i-elated of Ji.m . 

Among the residents near his throne was a wealtliy merchant, 
who, having divorced his wife for the thii'd time, repented of it 
and desired to talte her Ьа«к. For this purpose he had recourse to 
the ТЛета, who answered that there was no other way to йссош- 
pHsh it than by an artifice. Now the merchant, being a man of 
some importance and reputation, felt in awe of public opinion. But 
at length,' not being able to support the separation from his wife, he 
sought out a poor man, a stranger, with whom he agi'eed that the 
latter should maiTy the woman, and, after the fulfilment of the holy 
law, agdn divorce her; for which service he was to present liim 
with a hundred pieces of gold, to defray his expenses to another 
part of the country. The poor man accepted the teiias, and was 
told that after the maniage he could go whej'ever he chose. So the 
woman was married to the man. They spent the night together, 
and became so much attached to each other, and so joined in affec- 
tion, that the woman said to the poor man, " If you love me, be 
on your guard, and when tliey come to divorce us, reply that you 
are contented with your wife, and do not wish to part from her, I 
am wealthy, and we will not Avant for any thing. ■ Be joyful and 


happY, keep film to your assertion, and no one can separate us by 
f o fo ou Ё0 e e Й just km 

Ealy on the f По-пиц mo n tl e n cb t н e and 
le and d Ь s w fe Ь t tl poor m ejlxed bbe is my 
lawf 1 nif hy sh ul I I d o ce 1 e I Till n no wise do 
so At tl pee li tl e me cl a t a 1 e rt le ped to h mo fh 
He went Lastily to the cadi s ; where he was informed, that if the 
man did not of hia own fiee vnW divorce ihe woman, they could 
by no means be separated. Becoming desperate and helpless, he 
commenced a suit against the fellow on plea of " inequality of con- 
dition." The man was consequently brought to the court, where 
he was told, " You ai-e a man of low hirth, whilst this woman is 
of high and noble origin ; you are not her equal, and therefore we 
win separate yoii by force." At this the man was greatly surpris- 
ed ; but being instructed by the woman to assert tkit he also was 
nobly bom, he replied, "My father is a most respectable mer- 
chant Щ Damascus ; but having disagi'eed with him on a certain 
subject, I left that city and came here a stranger." " Well, 
we wffl see," answered they, " whether your assertion is correct 
or not; and for that piu'pose letters shall be despatched to your 
father ill Damascus, to ascertain the truth of the matter." The 
court tliereiipou granted the man a respite of forty days, 

"Whilst the answer was waiting for from DamaEcus, the £е11олт 
and his wife spent the time in pleasure and enjoyment ; hut when 
they reflected that at the end of the above mentioned period their 
situation would be veiy uncertain, they sometimes wept, and at 
oflier times laughed. At length, one evening, when three days alone 
remdued of the forty, these two persons sat tallring and weeping 
together over their atuation. On that same night Suliman Hua- 
sain was walliing incognito about the city with his tutor, as was his 
wont, to leam the true condition of his subjects ; and as he happen- 
ed to pass under their mndow, he heard both sobs and laughter 
flora ivithiu. The sultiin remarked to his tutor, " "Whence comes it 
that these people alternately weep and liiugh? assuredly tbey have 


TUTiEiSH KVENiNH вктватлгимЕктв. 93 

soraecauaeof complaintwhichweought totiiow." Sosaying.he 
knocked at the door. The man witliin having inquired who he was, 
ajid what he wanted, the sultan replied by demanding what was 
the cause of their tears, and from whom tliey had expeiienced 
injury ? The woman immediately recognised the voice of the 
sultan ; and expressing her gratitude in prayers for his life, she said, 
" Under the shadow of your majesty's protection who can commit 
oppression that the himible servant should feel it ! and yet the 
tears wo shed are from our hearts. 

" ' Oar BoiTow is heartfult, yet of iioiie we coniplaiu.' " 

She then related to him the whole history of then- maniage ; 
after which the generous sultan left them and went bis way. 

On the day following this event the sultan caused a long let- 
ter to be written to the man, as if coming from his father, saying, 
"My son, has time not yet taught you a parent's value, that you 
should leave so much wealth and riches, and go into a strange 
country, where you will not find a wife worthy of you 1 I send 
you as a present a few stuffs from Damascus, some pieces of 
silk, and other articles of value, wliioh I hope you will receive and 
enjoy. Until the present time I have had eo news of your condi- 
tion, which I ascribed to your neglect; but el ha/mdv, Ziilla Feala, 
praise be to God! tidings of yoxir good health have now rejoiced 
my heart. By the nest caravan I will send you some more stuffs 
of this country ; pray do not forget me, nor fail to write to me 

The aultan gave this letter and the packi^e of stufis to a man 
in whom he could confide, with directions to inqune for the son of 
the head merchant of the Damascus caravan, residing in such a 
quarter, and to dehver the things to the pei-son in question. The 
messenger did as he had been directed ; and when he knocked at the 
door the man came out and received the letter, and the bales of 
silk were lowered down from the camels. The woman, who was 


94 TORKiSH avKNiHS entertainmrhts. 

very intelligent, called her husband in, and told him that it was all 
a geueroua act of their noble-hearted sultan. " All you have to 
do," said she, " is to play your part like a man." So they had the 
bales of alk brought in. All the city soon heard that the man bad 
received a letter from his father. Accordingly the cadi confirmed 
the marriage act ; and the woman's former husband, becoroing des- 
perate, gave up the contest. The fellow addressed a letter of 
thanks to the sultan, acknowled^ng the imlimited favor and boun- 
ty showed htm, and asking pennission to retmn the bales of silk to 
his treasury. But Sultan Hussain Bikra wrote on the back of the 
petition, " It is a gift made by us for the sake of Gfod. Go, possess 
it, as if it had been your own father's property." Besides this he 
gave him other valuable presents. May Alhih have mercy upon him I 

It ia related that once a poor and good man was travelling, 
and amved at a city, the sovereign of which had a vizir whose 
son was unequalled for his comeUness and virtue. All the world 
.were ardent admirers of the heart- ensiiaring beauty of this youth- 
ful Phebus, but the most entranced of all was the traveller. 

This unfortunate man was one day walking about in the bazaar, 
■when suddenly he met this vizir's beautiful son, and became a 
captive, bound with the fetters of affection for this fair gazelle. 
The sovereign was also exceedingly fond of the youtb, and could 
find no repose except by frecjuently seeing him; so that he would 
not permit the lad to amuse himself in the company of any 
other person, and his only recreation consisted in riding- about 
the city. Now the unhappy traveller followed the vidr's son 
wherever he went, and stood to gaze in admiration wherever he 
stopped. Finally, in despair, he gave presents to all his servants, 
tail they were ashamed to receive more of his hberality. In this 
manner he spent his all ; nay, he sold even his clothes and the bed- 



ding on whioh he lay, to appropriate the proceeds to the same 
purpose; so that not even a mat remained under him, and he 
took up his ahode in the corner of a chapel. Being now utterly 
desljtnte, he was ashamed to appear in puhlic, and spent his time 
in prayer in the chapel comer. The poor man not having shown 
himself for three days, and his love for the vizir's son havuig 
affected the latter, he said to himself, "Let me see what has 
become of the unhappy fellow, and whether hb pai-tiolity for me is 
sincere or not." So, with the desire of proving him, he inquired of 
his servants where the poor man was. One of them replied, that he 
had seea him in a certain chapel. 80 the youth went directly thither, 
and found him with his hands uprMsed, profoundly engaged in pray- 
er. Going up behind him, he saluted him, and saying, " May your 
prayera be accepted!" embraced him, The ппЬлрру man almost 
died with emotion at this gracious treatment ; and when he had 
composed himself, the youth took his hnnd m his, and said, " Your 
affection and sincerity are well known to rae;" adding, " I am your 
guest to-day; arise, let us go to your apartment, where we will 
amuse ourselves." The unhappy man, ashamed to confess that he 
had neither house nor room, arose, left the mosk, and exclaim- 
ing with desperation, " O Allah !" set out. Coming to a locked 
door, he feigned an excuse ; and hoping to free himself from his 
embarrassment, he add, ' TJiis is my dwelling ; but шу servant has 
locked the door and gone away." The youth answered, "After 
spending so much money for me, do you hesitate to break a lock?" 
The poor man, confiding ia the All-just, broke the lock and entered 
the chamber. 

Now this chamber belonged to a vagabond of a butcher. It waa 
richly and comfortably furnished, and the youth, proceeding to the 
sofa, seated himself upon it. The unhappy and embarrassed lover 
was not long left in suspense ; for soon he beheld the brute of a 
butcher, who seeing his door opened, entered, and was astonished 
to find it occupied by a most elegant youth, before whom stood, 
in an attitude of profound respect, a sorrowful and unhappy look- 



ing т!ш. Tlie butcher was not long in perceiying that the latter 
was some unforfcunate, who, from necessity, had forced his door. 
He entered politely, begged him not to he disturbed, and added that 
he hiid fastened the door only by way of a joke. The poorfellow's 
heart, on heariug these words, found a little repose. The butcher 
arose, and setting a table, placed on it a little fruit and a bottle of 
wine, adding that ho would go ajid bring some fresh roast meat. 
The poor man's face now showed a smile, and he began to eat and 
driiib. The butcher departed, and soon returned with the roast; 
and wben they were seated arovmd the table, the youth expressed 
his Hvely pleasure and satisfaction at what he had done. Night 
settmg in, the butcher prepai-ed other fndt and viands for them, of 
which they partook ; afterwhich he made up a bed for the youth, and 
left them alone. The young man now undressed himself, and got 
into his bed; but his lovei- stood behind the door until the nest 
morning with his arms crossed Ъefore him. The butcher looked in 
seyeral times, and observed that the шап never once changed iiia 
position. Morning having come, he again prepai*ed their table. 

Kow the vizir's son had not been to see the sultan for a who!e 
day and night, which gi-eatly displeased him. He ordered the town 
criers to seek him out, and to proclaim that tlie owner of whatever 
bouse he was found in should be hung up without mercy at his own 
door. Wlien. this proclamatioa reached the ears of the vizir's son, 
he came out to t!ie door of the butcher's house. The latter know- 
ing that he was there, asserted that he had received him into his 
dwelling, in order to preserve the poor unhappy lover from shame. 
The vizir's son answered, " Feii not I will go and see the padis- 
bahand return." So he arose and depaited, and when he was come 
before the sovereign, the latter demanded the cause of his absence. 
The youth in reply related the smt.eie sfleetion of his unhappy 
lover, and the generosity and hummity of the butiher The sul- 
tan being much astonished, h^d tlip butcher brou^'jit to him, and 
inquired respecting his condition Tin sultan then had Ihat tme 
lover also brought ; and findin^ th it he was poK>es^ed of very 



gi-eat acquirements and talents, he appointed him to be his second 
Tizir. To the butcher also he gave the administration of a. pi-OTince ; 
so that both being officers of their sovereign, the lover by his de- 
voted affection, and the butcher by his generosity and protection, 
obtained their desires, and were happy to their heart's content. 


. of bread and aalt, sliowiii^ haw the оЬяк 

In the book of history it is written, that in the S60th year of 
the Flight of the Prophet, on whom be the benedictions of the 
Most High, the origin of the dynasty of the reigning house of the 
Zifarians, the cause of their victoiy ovei- other sultans; and their 
own majesty and power, were simply owing to the respect which 
they showed for the right of bread and salt, aad their close obser- 
vance of justice and equity. 

Tlie cause of the downfal of the Tahiriehs, and the elevation 
of the Zifariehs, is this. The father of Yabooh bin Lais, in his own 
country gained his livelihood by daily labor; hut he found that it 
brought him no profit, and would never enable him to amass a for- 
tune. So assembling a number of robbers, he placed himself at 
their head; and one night he and his companions broke into the 
treasury of the governor of that time, Dirhem bin Nassir, and roh- 
berf it of many rich effects, as well as of a large sum in specie. 
Wbllst escaping with their booty, they found on a table in a gold 



vessel sometliing brilliant ; and tliinlting it a jewel, Takoob's father 
put fortb bis bELtid and took it. Wondering what it could posably 
be, he licked it with his tongue and found it was salt. When be 
perceived Ъу the taste what it was, his color changed, and turning 
to his. sons and followers lie said, " Return to their places the 
goods and money which you have taken." When they asked the 
reason of bis command, he replied, " It is on account of the tight 
of bread and salt, which is respected by all. Salt is necessary to 
every meal ; and as of all favors none are greater than these two, 
their names are on every one's tongue. Unknowingly I have tasted 
of this man's salt, and to neglect observance of the light of bread 
and salt would bring upon us great misfortune. It was my in- 
tention to take these things ; but now we will return them all, and 
will shortly receive a greater booty in their stead." They all 
submitted to his commaads, returned the things they had taken, 
and departed. 

At break of day the treasurer came, and beheld the treasury 
opened and the stufls scattered about. Reflecting that this was 
an excellent moment for robbery, he took what he wanted and re- 
turned to his own house. Then going to Dirhem bin Nassir, he 
beat his garments on the ^ound and expi-essed much grief, say- 
ing, " Bobbers have entered the treasury and stolen innumer- 
able effects from it." Dirhem bin Nassir called the governor of the 
city, and commanded him immediately to find the thieves. The 
governor searched out and imprisoned a number of innocent persons. 
When Lais heard this, he was greatly gi-ieved ; his heart had com- 
pasaon on these poor unfortimate prisoners, and banishing all (ear, 
he went straight te the house of the vizh and informed him that 
he knew the robbers who bad entered his treasury, and asked to 
be taken before the sovereign. The vizir brought him before Lais 
Shah, to whom he gave an exact narrative of what had occurred, 
and informed him that the effects were in the house of his trea- 
surer Behram. The shah ordered it to be searched; which being 
done, the things were found there ; whereupon Dirhem bin Nassir, 



r greatly angered agmnst his treasurer, addressed him with 
reproaches, saying, " So, ill-omened wretch, you, who for such a 
length of time have been the recipient of our favor and were 
nourished by our bounty, now forget our benefits, take occasion to 
rob vs, reject the right of bread and salt, and after taking our 
property refuse to return it." He then ordered the crinnnal to be 
tortured and put to death. 

He next dressed Laia in a cloak of honor, and appointed liim 
to be treasurer in the place of the deceased. Lajs repented of his 
past misconduct, asked forgiveness for the same, and served the 
shah with great sincerity and fidelity. He was promoted to high 
trusts, became an emir of power, and was made commander-in- 
chief of the shah's troops. For generosity and justice his name 
became proverbial as far as the horizon extends. 

He had two sons, named Yakoob and Eumer, whom, being 
braie youths generous and manly, lie educated with much eare 
m thp court of Dirhem bin Nassir. Ifassir Billah gave Yakoob 
the dinm and standard, and sent him with the rank of general 
against the Schismatics, Yakoob made great conquests ; and as 
Duhem bm Nassir had no children, and was very old, he volun- 
tarily resigned the kingdom of Sebistan to him and his father Lais. 
A golden crown and girdle were sent him hy the caliph; and bemg 
very powerful, he, in the 358th year of the Hedjreh left Sebistan 
and marched agiunst Herat, from which place he drove Moham- 
med Oosee, and established his government over all Kennan, He- 
rat, Balkh, Taberistan, and Khorasan. He always called the Ab- 
basside caliphs his patrons ; and by conducting himself with great 
circumspection he retained their good will. Ten years afterwards 
he went with his troops against Fars, the governor of which was Is- 
mail ; him he expelled, and took possession of his country. He 
became a sovereign, possessing a coinage of his own, and having 
the Khotbeh read in his name. He also passed his time in friend- 
ly correspondence with the caliph. His family continued to reign 
until the 550th year of the Hedjreh, and the kingdom remained 


100 TURKisa nvBK] 

in tbeir possession tbree bundred years and more. The ligbt of 
bread and salt, respected Ъу them, was the cliief cause and origin 
of this honor and prosperity, and richly was their ohservance of it 

It is related by Molana Asutee, that one day when Ahmed 
bin Tooloon was goiag out to view his fish-ponds, he perceived 
near one of them an iDfant laid on a sack. Having pity on it, he 
bad it brought to his paJa«e, where he gave it to nurses to bring 
up. After some years it was delivered iHto the charge'of teachers, 
who taught it to read and wiite, and it became his most esteemed 
and confidential attendEtnt. 

Ahmed bin Tooloon took sick, and made a will in favor of hie 
son, in which he also strongly recommended to his cai'e the orphan 
youth. After his decease Ahool Jcesh made Ahmed his chief con- 
fidant, and begged him to 4erve him aa he had done liis father; to 
which Ahmed replied, " Allah be witness that I will serve you 
with perfect honesty and uprightness ' He thus became Abool 
Jeesh's chief attendant, and was consulted bj him on all his affairs. 

Row, one day, Abool Jenh called Ahmed the orphan to him, 
and said, " Go into my harem, wheie jou will hnd in a certain 
box a jewelbd chaplet; biing it to me" Ahmed departed in 
haste, and weiit into the piivitp hirem, wheifi he beheld one of 
the emir's maids in the embnce of one of the haiem pages. The 
latter threw himself at Ahmed'a feet to implore his silence, and 
then went out. The miiden oft^red heiself to Ahmed; but he 
replied, " Naooz BUlah ' Our refuge is in God, never will I 
show such treacheiy to my mnsf ei ," then takmg the chaplet, he 
brought it to the emir. The maiden, '.upposmg that Ahmed would 
teli the sultan wliat he bad & en, was gieatlj liiid; for she was 
the sultan's favorite. 


IS. 101 

About this time a maiden was bi-ouglit to the Emir El Jisha 
for sale, who was botb a poate^ and a sweet singer. He pur- 
chased her for eighteen thousand pieces of gold, and in a few days 
became much attached to her. Ahmed Yatemee, however, was 
ignorant of the affection entertained for the ^rl by the sultan. 
One day she threw herself at the emir's feet and wept, complain- 
ing that the person called Ahmed the Orphan, forgetful of the 
benefits bestowed upon him by bis master, had sought to gain her 
favor for himself. The emir at this news was greatly enraged; 
but being a most intelligent and thoughtful man, he repressed his 
feelings, aad remarked that the matter must be inquired into. 
Concealing his infcenljons, he simumoned the treasurer of his harem, 
and showing him a golden disli, he said, " If any one shall hiing 
this to you, directmg you by my orders to put mask into it, take 
it from him, cut off his head, put it into the dish, and send it to 
ШӨ." That day the council assembled ; and as the sultan sat and 
amused liimself with his companions under the influence and inspi- 
ration of wine, he recalled to mind the circumstances just nar- 
rated. Then sending for Ahmed Yatemee, he gave the golden 
vessel into his hands, and directed him to take it to the Haznadar, 
or treasurer, and tell him to put musk into it. According to the 
axiom, that safety is in fidelity, the innocent Ahmed Yatemee 
took the fatal vessel and entered the harem, where he found the 
treasurer's young man again in the company of the maiden. They 
asked Ahmed lo be seated awhile ; hut he replied, " My master 
desires a little musk, and I must return to him." The unfaithful 
page said, " Let me take it to the treasurer, after which you can 
carry it to the siiltan." So, yielding to bis importunities, he gave 
him the vessel; whereupon the p^e went to the Haznadar, and 
asked him for some musk. The Haznadar took the pi^e, cut off 
his head, and put it into the vessel, which he sealed up and sent 
by another attendant to he delivered to the sultan. The atten- 
dant, as directed, returned, and gave the dish to Ahmed Yatemee, 
who carried it to hia bid. VVlien Abool Jeesh, the sultan, saw 


Ahmed retm-n alive, and found that another had been slain in his 
stead, he wondered what could have been that pei-son's crime, for 
which he thus had suffered death. Ahmed Tatemee exclaimed, 
"May the heads of all ungrateful trfutors be like that of this one, 
who has received his just rewai-d!" Abool Jeesh inquired what 
he meant by these words; to which Ahmed replied, "Some 
time ago, when you commanded me to go to } ош hat m ti d 
bring you a jewelled ch'^flet I found this treicheious pa^e with 
such a one of your mtidens but feinn^j lest the s indil should 
be publicly spread abroad I protetfed my benefxctci s Ьож 
though every day I expected God would pum h the wietcl s per 
£dy, and now he has m^t with hi^ deseits The emu iiobe and 
had the maiden brought into his presen e and ccmmmdel hei f 
she wished for safety, to declaie the truth 4o she tcld th whole 
ch-cumstance correctly as it occuned and aftei sh Iiad made a 
full avowal, met with hpi ]U4t fate Ahmed "iitim p wis cle 
vated more than ten oradc^ highei in rmli ^nd le irse he le 
spected the right of salt and breid he found safety fond ^ei 
through the blessing of bis puie intentions 

Against that pei^i n who le pects the favors f tl p ^leit l,1o 
rious, and all-just Cre-itoi and whose gi-attude ш ulm i n 
increases, God forbid i^ain and a„ain that the door cf mc cj 
should ever be closed ! 

It is nan-ated in the history of Ibiii Juzee, that once a gentle- 
manly person from an Arab tribe came to see the Caliph Mutazid 
Billali. Being most elegant in appearance, and lively and amus- 
ing as well as civil, the cahph derived much pleasure from his 
society; and as he considered him worthy of his intimacy, he 
appointed him to be one of his choice companions. 

One of the caliph's Nadeems, of the rank of vizir, was a most 



envious person; so much so, that were it possible, he would haye 
prevented all others but hunself from ever enteiing the caUph'a 
presence. The cahph, being much pleased with the АгаЪ, treated 
him with great regard and familiarity ; so that one day the envious 
vizir, under the guise of friendship, though with evil intentions, 
invited him to his house, where he gave him a feast. He had 
several dishes prepared and brought in, containing garlic and 
onions. The Arab liked the former very much, and ate heai'tUy 
of it. After dinner the envious vizir said to the Arab, "The 
caliph has a great dislike to garlic ; therefore be careful when you 
approach him not to sit too near, l^t he be annoyed by the odor." 
The feast being ended, the Arab departed to his own house; whilst 
the viair mounted his horse and went straightway to the palace, 
where, when he had seated himself with the eahph, the latter 
inqiiired for his companion, the Arab. The vizir answeied that 
the low fellow was a dog, for he dbliked ail sociabiJity. " Once or 
twice," continued the vizir, "he, even had the audacity to say to 
me that the caliph's breath smelt so disagreeably that it was pain- 
ful to sit near him ; at which I was so enraged, that were it not for 
the dread I entertain of your highness, I would have killed him on 
the spot." 

The caliph, on hearing this, was greatly displeased. "Let us 
see," said he. Just then the Arab Nadeem entered and seated 
himself at a distance from the caliph, fearful lest he should incon- 
venience him with the smell of the garlic he had just eaten. The 
caliph addressing him said, "Come nearer; I have something to 
teU you." The Arab went near him; but during the conversation 
he covered his mouth and nose with his sleeve, that the odor might 
not reach the cahph. 

The caliph excliumed, "Ha! Arab Kiafeer, (infidel,) so the 
vizir's words are true," His heart was full of vengeance towards 
the Arab; hut he concealed it, and commenced joking. Finally he 
wrote a note with his own hand, saying, " When the bearer of this 
note reaches you, give him neither respite nor pity, but put him 



mstantly to deatli;" then sealing it, be gave it to tbe Arab, say- 
ing, " Go, deliver this to si\oh a worliman, and Tvtatever he ^ves 
you talte." The Arab was greatly rejoiced and gi-ateful for his 
goodness, and expressed hb tiianks to the caliph. 

At these words the envious vizir became sick with chagrin; and 
after the Arab had left the caliph's presence, he went to him and 
said, "Come, you lucky man; sell me for two thousand pieces 
of gold the order which the caliph gave you." The Arab, seeing 
that witliout any trouble on his part he might make two thousand 
pieces of gold, gave him the order and took the money. The 
vizir was a friend of the receiver of revenues. The Arab took his 
money, and returned to the caliph and kissed his hand. The 
caliph, much sui'prised to see him return so soon, asked him 
the reason of it; so he explained to him bow he had sold the 
order to the viar for two thousand pieces of gold. " You aie a 
polite fellow, truly," replied the caliph, *' to say that my breath 
smelt of gai-lie." The Arab swore by Allah that he had said 
nothing of the kind. " Then," asked the caliph, " what was the 
reason of your covejing your mouth and nose with your sleeve V 
The Arab replied, "The viair bvited me to a feast in his house, 
and gave me garhc to eat; afterwards he told me that the 
caliph did not like the smell of garlic, and I therefore endea- 
vored to prevent you from being incommoded by it," " I perceive 
that you have врокеп truly," replied the caliph; " your sincerity 
has saved you;" and he repeated the Arabic provei'b: "Allah 
punishes envy with its own recompense: it bi^ns with its possea- 
soi', and ends by destroying him." 

Bygone historiars relate, says Abool Faridj Maaff bin Zikiriya 
of Nihirvan, bs a proverb or ftible, that once tbe king of animals, 
the terrific lion, was paid court to by an envious wolf and a dimi- 


nutive fox. For some time, they coavereed, ate, and drank toge- 
ther ind finall) bPt o t in ompany in search of prey. Some time 
aftervaidb the lui fell ill and being unable, from weainesa, to 
proceed fuither he chose to lie still and repose. For several days 
the fox did not make his ^ppeai-ance, and paid no visit to the 
lion but the jeilous wolf was regiilar in his daily attendance, and 
in p eaent ng 1 inj witl a si are of liis prey. One day, at поод, the 
wolf came to tbe hoi ind asked after his health ; to which the 
Jion leplied with an "mgiy countenance, asking where the fox had 
hidden his tail ill th в t me, adding, that for many days he had 
not been to visit hi n m hia illness, and had by his conduct shown 
himsLlf Tinfoithtu] The w If thiaking this a favorable opportunity 
to gain n advantage and throw blame on the fox, replied, "It is 
ha d to find 1 im now a days ; he is seeking for game in уош- hunt- 
ing ground So m this mnnner he cast blame on the fox to his 
beait's content, and the lion was filled with rsige. Now the fox was 
informed by a private friend that the wolf had been slandering 
bim to the lion, and had aroused ill feelings against him. The fox 
replied that the wolf's jealousy would prove its own punishment, 
since envy never blackens the object of its malevolence ; so, arising, 
be went to the lion's abode, where' the lion, addressing him, said, 
" Is this fi-iendahip and brotherly treatment 1 whilst we were sick 
and i-eady to die, you were spending your time in gay amuse- 
nients." Now the fox, being a master of artifice, said, "Since you 
were taken ill of this complsunt I have not knowa rest either day 
or night, but have been all over the world maiing inquiries of 
every phyacian for a remedy to restore your higlmess to health; 
at last I have been so fortunate as to discover a sure oae, which is 
no other than a wolf's right ear. Nothing but my anxiety on your 
royal behalf could have kept me from your presence so long." 
Soon after the departure of the fox the wolf entered, and after 
saluting the lion, passed on to a seat beside him; whereupon the Hon 
put forth his paw, and with one grasp wrenched off the wolf's right 
ear, which he swallowed at a single gulp. The wolf fled with a 



howl as tlie blood streamed from his head, and went to the fos to 
make his complaint. The fox replied, that those who associate 
with kings should remember their fellow-courtiers with favor ; in 
order that these in turn, bemg aware of their kiodness, may seek 
to do them good rather thaa Imrm." To which he added this 
Arabic proverb: "If any man dig a pit for his brother, Allah 
wil! cast him into it himself." 

It is related by past writers, among wonderful occurrences, 
that once there was a very wealthy merchant named Abd ul 
Semee Keal, celebrated for his fortune and station. He had 
moreover a lovely wife, to whom he was most waiTiily attached. 
Having arrived one day at a certain city, while making a journey 
on business, he saw there a fair female slave, whom a broker was 
crymg out for sale. Being pleased with her appearance, he pur- 
chased her for five hundred dinars, and spent much pleasant time 
in her society. In the course of time she bore him a very hand- 
some boy, with noble and illustrious featui-es. The merchant, from 
fear of bis wife, was much troubled at the birth of the child; and 
after the mother had nursed it for six or seven months, the ill 
advised merchant one night put her to death, and exposed the 
child on an open plain. By the incalonlable bounty of God, a 
shepherd found the infant ; and bringing it to his home, he reai'cd 
it on the milk of his sheep until it grew to the age of four or five 

At this time it happened that Abd ul Semee's road brought him 
to the shephei'd's village, when he alighted at the Otter's dwelling, 
and was treated by him with all the hospitality in his power. The 
merchant, seeing the boy in his serrioe, inquired if it was his son. 
The shepherd replied by informing him where he found liira, and 
bow he had brought him up. So the merchant at once knew 


rs. 107 

it was his own son, and offered to purebase the boy. The sbep- 
herd parted with him for fifty ditiai-s, and the merchant soon after 
put him in a bag and threw him into the sea; but by God's mercy 
the waves washed the bag into the nets of some fishermen, who 
on opening it were astonished to find in it a fair-faced boy, almost 
suffocated by tlie water. On breathing the fresh air he came to 
himself, and they forthwith gave him the name of Abool Jevalik, 
. (or Father of the Sack.) He remmned in theii- service, and became 
a fishenaan lilte themselves. 

Some time after this, it happened that the merchant went on 
business to the town where the fishermen resided ; and one day, 
whilst seated in a shop, the men passed by, along with the boy, 
carrying their fish to market. The merchant called to them, and 
after purchasing some fish, he inquired whether the boy waa 
theire ; to which they replied that he was not, and related by what 
means they found him. The merchant forthwith recognised his 
son in the boy, and again purchased bim for five hundred dinars. 

The boy now remained in his service for a year or two, proving 
diligent and fsutbf id. One day the merchant wrote a letter, sealed it, 
and telJing the boy that it contMued a recommendation in his favor, 
he added, " Give it to my step-daaghter, and remain in her service 
until I i-eturn." The boy departed, and found her house. When 
he bnockcd at the door, the merchant's step-daughter came out; 
and seeing before her a youth of angelic beauty, she took the letter 
from Ьч hand and read it The lette» contamed these words: 
"When the beaier of tlus letter re'u.hes jou, fail not by some 
convenient means to put him to de*ith " Wow the merchant's 
step daughter was m every lespeot a girl of much knowledge 
and understandmg , and so taking the letter, she wrote another, 
saying, "The bpirei is much regarded by me, and worthy. When 
he leacbes you, give hmi a good reception, and immediately 
marry him to your step daughter, the Saida el Mellahee. I have 
diiected him, until I come, to t<ib chu^e of all my affaiis, both 
pu\ Ue and public. , be i,iiBful flicit you ihow no opposition to my 


108 тиак 

wishes." ӘЬе tben sealed up the letter, and giving it into his 
hands, bade him deliver it to her mother. The motber made the 
youth welcome, treated him with great attention and regard, and 
married him to her daughter. 

The youth took charge of all the merchant's affairs; and when, 
the merchant, some time afterwards returned home, he was met 
by the youth, and beheld that just the reverse of what be wished 
had befallen him. But exercising patience, he kept all to himself, 
and some days afterwards directed his servants to bring him some 
jugs of wine, and to roast a sheep. So they made a great fire ; 
and he (old them that they might eat and diink and make 
meiTy, adding, "If any one comes to you to-night, seize him 
and throw him into the fire, even if he should say I am Abd ul 
Semee himself; do as I now bid you." At night the merchant 
called the youth, and told him to go without and call him a ser- 
vant. As the youth was setting out, his wife asked him where he 
was going; and he replied that her father wished for a servant. 
His wife would not let him go out, bat said, " Let my step-father 
do his own eiTand." The merchant, supposing the yoimg loan had 
gone, arose ; and being anxious to see how his affairs had prospered, 
he came to the place agreed upon. As soon as the drunken servants 
saw the merchant, they caught hold of him; and, although he 
cried out that he was their master, they would not I'elease him, 
but, replying that their master had ordered them to do so, they 
threw him into the very fire prepared for his aoc, and his mise- 
rable body was soon reduced to ashes. 

So the youtli, by divine favoi-, was preserved, and inherited 
all the merchant's wealth; and it is a proverb handed down from 
our parents: "Never dig a well deeper than your owoneck;so 
that when you liave fallen into it, you may have strength to get 
out again." God knows what is light. 



The history of the caliph of the world, Нагоон er Rasheed, and tlie Beremikee. 

There is written in the register of the times, aad related hy 
those Avho have recorded strange nnd extraordinary ocouwennes 
the following account of that qiuntescenoe of caliphs Haroon er 
Easheed, and of his viar Jaafer the Berentikee. 

Jaafer's father had been the instructor of this caliph as well 
as of his own son; and from the conduct of Haroou at that eai-ly 
age, he knew he would one day attain to great renown. Wlien 
Haroon er Rastiecd bad become caliph, he selected Jaafer to be his 
grand vizir, and confided all the affairs of his caliphat to him. So 
attJtcbed was he to his society, that he never permitted him to be 
absent from him ; and besides being his grand vizir, he was also his 
favorite attendant, — in fine, all his afffurs were confided to him. 

Fazel, the brother of Jaafer, was also appointed vizir to 
Easheed. The splendor and есЫ of this family descended fiom 
father to son, and their munificence and generosity shone from 
the east to the west. Their talent lay in giving strength to the 
weak, Ijefriending the stranger, bestowing favora ироп the unfortu- 
nate, and upraising the overthrown. 

Whenever any one became worthy of their notice, be ivas sure 
to be fortunate for ever afterwards. Jaafer was the pupil of the 
caliph's eye, and dearer to him than his own brothers; but having 
at length incurred his displeasure, he ordered his bead to be cut 
off, laid violent hands on his children and kindred, and confiscated 
his property to the treasury. All the public edifices erected by 
Jaafer, the mosks and chapels, the buildings for the accommoda- 
tion of caravans, the palaces and charitable insfittitioas, he caused 
to be demolished ; and he even earned his resentment so far as to 
have it proclainied in the streets : " Woe to that pci'son who shall 




mention tbe name of и.пу one of tlie Beremikides, or ivbo shall 
Tisit their tombs; for whoever dares to do so shall be hung." 

Those nearest related. to the Beremikides, that most excellent 
family, were reduced to the greatest poverty ; so much so that 
Jaafer's mother resided in a corner of tbe ruined palace of her late 
son. One of the many who bad received benefits from the hand of 
ber son having asked her what were her circwmstances, Jaafer's 
mother replied, "Why do you inquire after my circumstances? 
only last week, whenever I desired to perform my religious ablu- 
tions, four hundred maidens stood ready to serve me; whilst to- 
day I dwell m вополг md affliction amongst these solitary ruins." 
This person piesented her with one thousand paras, which gave 
her veiy gie^t pleibure ; for one dirhem was then as much to her 
as a thous<md dinais чеге formerly. Wliat changes in ber condi- 
tjonbad occuned in the short space of one week is fully narrated 
in hietory, ao that now it is only deemed necessary to refer to it 
thus briefly. 

In consequence of the great anger of the caliph, no one dared 
to lisit the graves of the Beremikees. One day Hai-oon ef Rasheed 
s^d to one of bis attendants, " I have heard that some persons 
go at night to the ruias of the Beremikees' dwellings, and there 
recite veiises which they have composed respecting them. Go, then; 
conceal yourself near them ; and should any one come there, bring 
him before me." So the attendants went; and some time after 
midnight they валт an old man come with his servant to the ruins of 
the palace of the Beremikees, weep over them, read from the Holy 
Koran, and in expression of his grief recite the following lines : 

" When I saw the sword descend apon Jaafer, 
And heai'd the crier give newe of Yahiya to the caliph, 
I wept for tlio world, and my grief for them increased. 
And I said, Hereafter the world can never prosper." 

After thiii the old man arose, and the attendants approached 
him and told him the caliph wished to see him. He was greatly 
alai-med, iuid -^иШ, "Pray let me have a pen and Inkstand, that 


TUnitlSH EVES IN 0- 

1 may write a farewell letter to my family; for I am aware that 
I cannot depend upon life for the future," So he wrote a letter, 
aad gave it to his servant, containing these words : " Be cai*efwl 
never for a day to forget the benefits we have received from Jaafer." 
When the man was brought before the caliph, the latter per- 
ceived him fo be a person of property and standing, and inquired 
of him, " Wliy in defiance of our orders do yon deem it necessary 
to watch over the ruins of the Beremikees, and thus expose your 
life to peril 1" The old man replied, " God forbid, O Emir of 
the faithful, that I shonld act in defiance of your will ! but to for- 
get the great kindness and benefite which I have received from the 
Beremikees, not to remember with gnititude the obligation of their 
favors, would be rebellious and insolent to the Most High ; wherefore, 
Emir, I liave never ceased to bear them in mind. Your humble 
servant is named Mugaray, of the family of Numan bin Menzer, of 
royal descent. I formerly resided in Damascus, where I possessed 
influence and much property. But Avhilst I was one of the nota- 
bles of the land, the shadow of the world's fiivor passed from rae, 
and I lost all I bad accumulated ; and as I prefened to leave my 
country rather than remain in it in poverty, some of my ftiends 
sent me to Bagdad, advbing me to push my fortune here : Perad- 
veature, said they, you may me«t with favor from the Beremikees, 
So I left them, and, with a caravan (cajUeli) consisting of thirty- 
four persons besides females, arrived safely at Bagdad. I put my 
family in one corner of a mosk, and left them in oider to seek a 
dwelling. On my way I remarked several persons assembled in a 
chapel for the purpose of reciting the noon-day prayer, after which 
they left it and entered a garden in the neighborhood of the cha- 
pel. ' Let me see what this means,' said I ; and following them, I 
soon perceived among them a handsome man with a face radiant 
as the dawn, who took the highest seat in the company, while 
around were arrayed some ten young persons, his sons, Kow the 
principal person in this assembly was the grand vi?.iv Jaafer the 
Beremikee, who, addressing those around him, said, ' Be witness 



that I beti-otli my dangliter Ayesba for thirty thousand pieces of 
gold, as hei' do^vry, to such an one ;' after ivhich sherbets were 
brought in. One thousand pieces of gold hi a golden dish were 
also put before each person present, and the same amount was 
given to me in a amilar dish ; I counted the number of those pre- 
sent, and found there were precisely one hundred and one persons. 
The Fatilia* was recited, and each individual put his dish and his 
gold in his breast and aiose. I did the same and departed ; but 
before I had gone far, one of the yizir's servants came after шө 
and said that his master wished to see me. I returned; and on 
entering his presence, he arose, accosted me with great kindness, 
and made inquiries after my circumstances, I related to him what 
I have already told your majesty ; whereupon he welcomed me, 
saying that I had entered the dominions of a just soveveiga, 
'Be not giieved,' added be; and tahingmy hand in bis, he recom- 
mended nie to his sons. ' My occupations,' said he to them, ' are 
very ппшегош ; but be yon attentive to this guest.' So his eldest 
son Ahmed took ше to his own dwelling, showed me great atten- 
tion, and bestowed upon me many worldly favors. Every night 
one of his sons made a feast for me, and presented me with a 
thousand gold pieces for my expenses. For ten days I had not 
seen my family, hut on the eleventh day a servant came to me 
and said, ' Arise ; your family aire very desirous of seeing you.' 
So bidding Ahmed and his family adieu, I arose, and the same 
servant going before me brought me to a ready furnished palace. 
Eaising a cuitain I entered and perceived a splendid saloon rescm- 
blmg paradise itself, aud the odor of aloes and amber that perva- 
ded it entered my throat. My wife appeai-ed before me attired in 
the most richly adorned habiliments. The vizir also presented me 
with five male servants, ten female slaves, and ten tliousand dinars 
in money ; in addition to which he gave me a deed sccuiing to me 
the reveoues of two villages. This great favor and kindness was 

» The Fatiha is the opeiiuig chnpter of Iho Koran. 



received by me, a stranger, from tbe hanis of Janfer the Beremi- 
kee. I have now for ten years been living in comfort oa tlie pro- 
ceeds of bis bounty ; and no one knew whether I was a stranger or 
belonged to his family, until the time whea the Emir of the faith- 
ful withdrew his favor from him and Us, and they were overwhelm- 
ed with misfortunes. When Eumer bin Laid seized upon his estates, 
he also deprived me of my two vill^es, and made me return to 
bim their revenues for the last ten years. In remembrance of the 
past favors of my lost benefactor, I go every Tuesday and Friday 
night, and, when an opportunity offers, console myself for his loss 
by weeping over the ruins of his former splendor, and rubbing my 
face ^must them;" 

Haroon er Rasheed, on hearing these words, was greatly grieved 
and shed tears. " Go," exclaimed he ; " quickly call Laid." On his 
arrival, the caiiph ordered him to return every thing both small and 
great, tha,t he had taken from the old man, and to give hhn back 
again the revenues of the two villages. He also presented him 
■with ten thousand pieces of gold from the treasury. On seeing 
this, the old man rubbed his face upon th ft f the cal ph 
thanked him, and said, "O Emir of tho fTithf 1 this fa 1 I 
owe to the goodness and excellence of my Ъ f to f Ь d I 
not beeh faithful even to the imns of the B m k h uld 

I ever have had the honoi and good Joitu t tl calph 

At this the caUph smiled, and oidered t t! p Ы s to 

proclaim that the caliph's angei ivii.h the B m k wa j peas 
ed, and that be pardoned then faults D jly put wh t he 
h'ad done, he allowed their рюиь bequests and edifices foi Lli e pub- 
lic good to be made use of as before. May the Most High have 
mercy upon him ! 



On kuowkilge and delicacy ; on forgiveness Bnd pardon; on restraining anger; 
on i-eceivmg exonses ; and on courage and aasiduity. 

This story is narrated by Rebee, the servant of the Caliph 
Manzoor one of the Abbassidcs. 

One day a person came and informed tlie calipli that a certain 
man held secret possession of a quantity of money and effects con- 
fided to him by the family of the Ommiades, and suggested that he 
should demand the same. So the cajiph called me and said, "0 
Rebee, go find me that man," I went, and, having found him, 
brought him before tlie caliph. The btter, perceiving that he was 
dressed in the habiliments of a man of wealth, mildly asked him 
whether ha had in his possession any money or effects belong- 
ing to the Ommiades, adding, "I have information regarding 
the property ; do not therefore conceal it, bat produce it willingly, 
and I wilt recompense yon well." The man replied, " O Emir of 
tfae faithful, let me tell you all about it; will you be content with 
what is just ?" " Speak," replied the caliph. So the man asked, 
"Are you the legal or testamentary heir of the Benee Ommiades? 
if not, on what grounds do yon make this demand of me I The caliph 
replied, " I am neither their heir nor their devisee ; but as they by 
force have deprived Mussulmans of their property, I, as the i^ent 
of the Beit ul Mai, (treasury,) demand its restoration, for the pur- 
pose of having it returned to them." To this the man replied, 
" Since you have no interest in this property, and demand it for the 
treasuiy, you must legally prove that it was confided to me; for 
the Benee Ommiades were not people to lightly iiiti'ust to others 
that which they had obtained by force and oppression." 

The caliph inclmed his head in thought, and after a little reflec- 
tion addressed me, and said, " Rebee, this man's words are true, 
nothing of this can lawfully become mine ; it is but just, that he 



be liot aggrieved." So tbe caliph asked the man to excuse him, and 
added, " If you are in need of acy thing, tell me." The Sheikh 
replied, saying, " I ask to have the individual who calumni- 
ated me brought before you." So the caliph directed Eebee 
to go quickly and bring him in, which he did. Theu the Sheikh 
addressing the caliph said, " O Emir of the faithful, this man ia 
my ownpurchased slave, who stole from me three thousand dinars 
and fled. Now I know that he has calumniated ше for fear 
I should demand my money of him." The caliph turning 
to the slave, said, " Fellow, what do you reply to this f The man 
could not deny it, but acknowledged tlie truth of the charge ; so 
the caliph turning to the Sheikh requested that he would pardon 
him for his sake. The Sheikh replied, " For уочг sake I pardon 
him and give him his freedom ; I also forgive him the three thou- 
sand pieces of gold which belong to me, and will add to them three 
thousand more as a present on my part." The caliph to this 
replied, "0 Sheikh, generosity and goodness have found their 
place, but this last gift on your part is too much." The Sheikli 
answered, "When contrasted with your majesty's g>-aciou3 ivords, 
his pardon is a most insignificant thing. The caliph's boimty la 
mde ; pray then excuse the gift." 

Behold what a religious sovereign was this, who did not go 
beyond the Holy Law, nor deviate from equity. Naooz BUlah we 
seek 0Ш- refuge in Gtod. The present date is the yeai- one thou- 
sand and thirty-seven, on which we have just entered. Were a 
similar occasion and opportuEity to оссш- to tlid men iu power 
of this age, they, after taking from the Sheildi all bis goods and 
property with the supposition that he secretly possessed more, 
would tortui-ehim to death, and give the calumniiiting slave to the 
public crier for sale. 

Never was there, in the olden tuaes of Islaraism, a period of so 
much oppression and injustice as in Egypt, where, when a Mussul- 
man dies, t;hey seize upon his property, and lei'.ve nothing to bis im- 


happy children. For the Holy Law they have no respect, an^ it 
bas become a by^word in their language. 

Muhtadee Billah, one of the caliphs of the family of Abbas, was 
a veiy pious sovereign, exemplary for his attention to the Law of 
God and a protector to his people. The most learned men agree 
that after the forty caliphs, Eumer ben Abdul Aaz of the Ommiades, 
and Muhtadee Billah of the Abbassides, are to be counted as nest 
in worthiness. He was a sovereign that watched over his charge 
day and night, and wlio did not love oppression or the workers of 
sedition, but personally attended to the affairs of the poor. It ia 
related by Moilana Eskiaffee, " I speut a night once with Muhta- 
dee Billali. In the raorning a man came to him, saying that he had 
a claim on the caliph's son, and demanding that the cause should 
be tiied. The caliph called his son, listened to then' argument, and 
condemned his son to pay the man his due, thus impartially judg- 
ing the case." The Molla also relates, " Once during the month 
of holy Eamazan, I, in company witli Hashim bin Kassim, was the 
guest of Muhtadee Billah. Three dates were presented to him ; 
one of wHoh he put before himself, one he gave to me, and the 
other he presented to Hashim. We recited the evening prayer, and 
then seated ourselves at table. One or two pieces of bread and a 
little salt and vinegar in a cup were placed before us. They ate of 
it, and asked me why I did not eat;" adding, " Is not to-monxjw 
the fasti We have nothing more than this." I replied, " Emir 
of the faithful, the good things of this world are permitted to you, 
why not therefore partake of them ?" The Emii- replied, *' Allah 
be praised for the benefits which he bestows ; rather let Eumer 
ben Abdul AmIz of the Ommiades be mentioned for his abstinence 
and piety. Shall not he who was the uncle of the prophet and 
the descendant of Abbas he participators in bis blessings and fa- 



vors? As for me, I have no taatp for the good things of this life; 
and God be praised th^t I haie chosen this path, and am with- 
drawn from the enticements of tlie world." He then showed ns 
that the shirt he woip was ot a coarse stufF. In his whole life he 
never was addicted to dmnlennebs or pillage, but spent his means 
in preventing oppression and n affording protection to the hum- 
hie. May Allah lii^e meicj upon him! 

Mutasim Billah, a caliph of the family of Ahbas, was a brave 
and generous sovereign, who was much occupied in making reli- 
gious wars against infidels. One day, when amusing himself with 
his attendants, a Mussulman prisoner who had escaped from hia 
infidel captor brought a letter and presented it to the caliph. A 
full cup had been served to the caliph, and this he held in his 
hand at the moment when the letter was delivered to him. He put 
down the cup, opened the letter, and read in it, written three dif- 
ferent times, " Mutasim, O most perfect 'of men 1" Mutasim 
cried with a loud voice, " Talte away this enjoyment, and bring it 
to roe no more until the voice of that complainer reach my ear." 
He called his vizir, and informed him that he was about to under- 
take a march against Ankora; and he ordered the troops to be 
ready in three days' time, with forty thousand cavalry distributed 
among them. 

Now a woman of the family of Hashem had been taken pri- 
soner; and it was she who wrote the letter to the caliph from the 
city of Ankora, asking if, during his caliphat, it was creditable to 
his honor that she should remain in captivity. Inspired by these 
expressions, on the following day he set out from Bagdad, and made 
directly for Boom, the brave soldiers having departed one day before 


118 TURK' 

him as life avant couriers. Soon they reached Antora, surrounded 
its walls, and prepared maoliines for throwing stones against them. 
The place was besieged on all sides, no quarter or mercy was 
shown, and its citadel was taken by force. The conquerers entered 
the city and possessed themselves of tintold wealth. 

The governor of the city was brought prisoner before Mutasim 
Billah; and when the caliph questioned that infidel bey respecting 
the persons confined in his prisons, he had them all relestsed and 
brought before the caliph. On seeing them, he asked which among 
the females was of the Hashemite family ; whereupon the woman 
who had written the letter presented herself and said, "May Allah 
recompense you with good, Emir el Miimaneen, prolong your 
life from day to day, and augment your majesty." The caliph 
gave the choicest of the infidel captives as a slave to this 
Hashemite woman, as well as the best of the dwellings ia the 
place; and to the other Mussulmans who accompanied him he 
gave the best of the captive women in maniage, locating them in 
that city. He appointed a number of troops, sufBcient to protect 
the city ; and his soldiers became immensely wealthy. He gave 
the command of the city to one of bis own slaves, and married the 
Hashemite woman to him; after which ове blessed and lucky day 
he set out ой his return to Bagdad. On his arrival, all the 
grandees and notables of the city came out to meet and con- 
duct him to his palace, when he recommenced amusing himself 
among his attendants, and said, " Now bring me that full cup, 
and let me drink it." So magnanimous and benevolent a per- 
son, and so valoi'ous and brave a sovereign was he ! 

IVIulitafee Biilah, a caliph of the family of the Abassides, was 
a most benevolent and naturally mild sovereign. During his cali- 


pbat he wa? fu,cii«timed to seek amusPment T,mong the learned 
4nd pious men and poets of hi4 time He was also a very gene 
roHs peibon bo that his attend ints became ^ve^lthy and poweiful 
fiom his libeiality One of his courtiers mraed Ahool Aeuee of 
Mekla WIS fitted above all the lest with a melodious үоке 
and ta unequalled talent foi тиые and д та 1 kewise an admu able 
poet. He was nearly related to the calipli. When be fii-bt came 
from Mekka he was not so wealthy aa the other courtiers ; indeed, 
in comparison with them he was a poor шао. 

One day Muktafee addressed his attendants, and told thera 
he wo\dd give them leave of absence until the hour of ikindee;* 
adding, "Go and amuse yourselves in such manner as you 
please; but return after the aser, as I intend to-day to take some 
remedies for my health." Abool Aenee arose on hearing this, and 
begged leave to ask a favor of the caliph : it was, that he would 
allow him to act as his door-keeper for that day, and let the 
regular door-keeper go with the rest of the attendaate. ■ The caliph 
granted his request, and retired to his private apartments. Abool 
Aenee then took his post with the rod of office in his hand, and 
performed the duties of door-keeper, all the other attendants hav- 
ing left the palace. The caliph took the medicines recommended 
him, with the deared relief; and about the hour of iUndee he came 
out of his apartments in good humor. 

At that time a pet-son came on the part of Ыэ sbter to inquire 
after the health of the Emir el Mumaneen,.and received fi'om Abool 
Aenee the good news of its improvement and the good epirila of 
the caliph. When this news was taken to the Saidet el Kiisah 
slie was much pleased, and sent Abool Aenee as a token, of her 
satisfaction a roll of money amounting to the sum of one thousand 
dinars. Just then the grand vizir likewiae sent to inquire after hia 
master's health ; and he also sent Abool Aenee an expression of his 

* Tlie time of afternoon prayer is citlled in Tuikisli, tkindee; ami to 



joy, amounting to one thousand dinars. The chief ministers of the 
caliph's government sent to malie the same inquii'ies, and in return 
for the agreeable reply gave Abool Aenee a handsome sum of 

Tiie nest day the caliph took his seat on his throne, and all his 
ministers and attendants were pr^ent. Abool Aenee had counted 
the amounts received and placed them in the closet of the door- 
keeper, which he sPiled He give the ordinary door-keeper five 
hundred dinars and delneiin^ to him his staff of office, went into 
the presence of the cahph 1 ө fe t he had fl h no to kis 
The attend-Mits oommencbd co e on nd h ca p dd s 
icg them, said lou have a he n aniL.u d- j e h t 

Ahool Aenee was on duty,' adep ndhm oetu 

sand dinars. Abool Aenee asadifeep in g atitude 

to the caliph, replied, that th asf da pnnhmjsys 
service as door-keeper were -a ha he p oh s of an Ind an 
commerce. The caliph was p & ed an ] m n a ked h m what 
he had received; to which Ab Aen e p d F el 

Mahzarat (the vizirs) and the principal persons of the state had 
giren him, as expressions of the delight they felt on hearing the 
news of liis giacious majesty's improved health, each a present 
according to bis rank, and that the whole amounted to sixty 
thousand dinai'9. 

The Emir of the fiiithfiJ was much pleased, and commanded 
his treasiirer to ^ve to Abool Aenee ten thousand dinars more. 
Baying, "His saddle is new, aud may his horse not be lame; and 
since his services were perfect, let the sum be even seventy thou- 
sand." Tlie greatness and majesty of the Abasside caliphs may 
be imaged from such noble generosity and glory as this. 


The following is related of Jaafer Beremikee, tke generous 
■without calculation, the celebrated and renowned by all the 
tongues of the world, against whom Haroon er Eashecd, by the 
malicious denunciation of enemies, became incensed, and whom he 
put to deatb. Although he repented of his deed, "repentance 
profits not after destruction," and wJiat was done was done for ever. 

It happened that a poet of the desert, named Aboo Attar ibin 
Addee Arfcah, of the tribe of the Benee Tayee, was m the habit, 
every year, of composing a Kasscdeh, or Poem, which he then 
took with him to Bagdad, and presented to Jaafer, the Beremikee, 
When, on visiting Bagdad as usual, he learnt the downfal of the 
Eeremikees, and the cruel death of his patron Jaafer, be wept 
over his tomb forty days, oompoang stanzas of lamentation to his 
memory, and otherwise expressing his grief. While complaining 
agmnst the heavens of injustice, he thus wept and exebimed; 
" How many years is it now since I annually out short the space 
and distance of this desert to enjoy his noble generosity, and return 
to rejoice ray wife and children with his favors. Wow, alas ! rather 
than go back to them helpless and broken-hearted, let me die upon 
the road, — better had I never lived to see this misfortune ;" and so 
saying, he threw himself down in despair. Overwhelmed with afflic- 
tion, he fell asleep and dreamt as follows: " I saw," said he, "Jaafer, 
the Beremikee, in paradise, surrounded by the Hoorees and Gholams 
of that abode of felicity ; and I ran and threw myself at his noble 
feet, pressedjny face upon them, and inquired after his health and 
condition. He gi-acefully replied, ' Aboo Attar, Ы not grieved for 
us,. nor foj^t us in your prayers. The most high and all-just 
Ddty vifin, with unbounded mercy, pardon m the garden of satis- 
faction (heaven) the sina of those who are of good qualities and 
natures, and who have been generous and liberal. Allah be 
praised, every year duiing my life I used to give yon for your 
children, in God's name, three thousand pieces of money. You 
would then depart with a light heart; but now, after undergoing 
so much trouble and travel, it is not generous to allow you to 



return to yoTir wife and cbildren, afflicted and heart-broken. Do 
not imagine that tbis dream is futile and profitless ; but place 
your confidence in God, and at noon mount your camel, and go to 
the city of Bussorah ; there seek the sti-eet called Sook el Herraz, 
where resides a friend of ours, named Ahool Fadel Medjed ed 
Been, a native of Mosul ; give him our greeting, (salaams,) and tell 
him tbat I have sent Ыт the possessor of tlie Amar (token) of the 
last bean, to whom he must give three thousand pieces of gold. 
Should he ask you,' added he, 'what kind of an Amar, tell him it 
is that of the Bean;' and like a spirit he disappeared from my 
sight. It was something between dreaming and waking," continued 
Ibin Adee, " and when I awoke I bcgaji to think what it could 
be, and concluded, confiding in God, by feeling sure that it was 
another good deed of Jaafer. So I set out for Bussoi-ah, and on 
arriving there dismounted, tied up my camel, and searched for the 
street named Sook el Herraz, which I found filled with all that is 
rich and beautiful. I asked for the person named to me, and found 
seated in his shop a sedate, dignified, and good-featured man. 
Approaching, I saluted him in a respectful and dutiful manner ; to 
which he replied in a considerate and attentive tone. I infonned 
him that I was a poet of the desert, named Aboo Attar bin 
Addee, son of Adde ibin Artah, sent to him by the possessor of 
the token, ivith the request that he would pay me three thousand 
filooree (ducats). He put his hand to his head, (in acquiescence,) 
replying, 'To hear is to obey;' and for his own sejjurity asked, 
' What kind of a token is it T When he was told it was that of the 
Bean, he bade me welcome as a friend; for Jaafer had been his 
benefactor, the source of his prosperity, the tree of his well-being, 
and the fountain of his ease and possessions. He embraced me, 
and kissed my face, and brought me to his own dwelling, where 
he showed me every kind ot ic^ppct and attention," 

Abool Attar went on to remitk that Abool Fadel's dwelling 
was a large palace [sm-a'/) with mnumerable servants, and aU his 
domestics were clothed ш bUi-k 



An apartment was immediately got ready for Aboo! Atfar, who 
addressbg bim, said, "O Abool Fade] and Jood, (Fadel signifies 
excellence, and Jood liberality,) I Ьате a question to mabe to you. 
I have obseied that you chid en and all уош attendants are 
dressed n 1 lick for wh ch tlie o s eces arily a cause Has any 
of your off p g or one of youi near relet one o some otl cr 
one dear t you d d that jnu sh Id 1 e so enveloi ed n n ou n 
ing?" Wl n Hodj h Abool Fad 1 Medjed ed D n 1 ea d tl se 
words f om II o Addee he s t,hed and tea ч f U f om 1 a еуез 
like wate from a 1 tun At 1 n^th 1 e repl ed Ihe a se s 
that that mo t n 1 le a d gene oua pe on the ь шсе of all mj 
prosper ty ind d st H on that de ce dant of tl e compon o s of 
princes tl ongh the ntrgues of ce tain fathless perso became 
the object of Haroon e Pasheeds ange and va, c mpelled by 
bim to d J of the c p of ma ty do n We h e f r orae tt ne 
been clad in this garb of mourning and affliction; and now for the 
story of the token of the Bean, the sign of which you brought me. 
It occurred in the dwelling of Jaafer bin Yahiya, and it has never 
become known to any individual but myself I am very anxious 
to learn who informed you of it. ЕхрЫп it to mc, I pray." 

Ibin Addee replied: "O Aboo! Fadel, I ara from the countiy 
of Kahtan the tribe of the Веьее lay and ii >m the son? of Addee 
bm Artah Both my fither and myaelt aie well known to t,ieat 
and small among the Ai iba as two of the principal di, ert potts 
Every vear I compj ed a Kabsedeh and went fiom the Benee Tiy 
to Baifdad whcie I presented it to Jaifei ind received fiom 
him гз a lecompense one thouaand piecea of gold with which 
my wife and chldien weie rejoiced and made (.umtortablc for 
a whole yeai ihb jear when as usual I went to Bagdid I 
leai it tbe downfal of the Beiemikees and for forty days mourned 
оле1 the tomb ot Jaafei Rather than return m despaii to my 
family I lepmachm^ my lu kless star laid ravself down to sleep 
when hth 11 that benefi(.toi ajpeaicd to mc m dlhbnloij in a 
dieam I asked aixrnt himself and he leplied Ibm Addee 



tbe caliph, through the calimuiies of my enemies, has put me to 
death ; but God, wh.o knows that I was much attaclied to the 
family of the Prophet, has had mercy upon me, and placed me in 
glory and honor. He abo inquired after my circumstances, con- 
doled with me, and sent me to Bussorah, to see and speak with 
you. He told me to do so with the Amareh (token) of the Bean, 
■which I have done.' So now, 8idi, since AlUdi has sent me for 
some wise purpose from the Бепее Tay to this hmd, he Ьаз also 
destined this convereation with you; do, therefore, I pray you, 
explain to me the circumstances of the token of the Bean, given 
you by Jaafer, that it may be remembered and told to the tribes of 
the desert." 

Now when Abool Fadel heard this, and saw the urgency with 
which the request was made, his eyes filled with tears and he 
replied, " Ibin Addee, this is the accoant of what occured 
between the deceased and myself, 

" I am from amoag the inhabitants of the country of Jaaber, 
near Mosul. Once I was reduced to great poverty and indigence, 
through being robbed by soldiers who invaded the countrj'. Hav- 
mg a brge fiiniily, I was helpless and unable to procure food for 
them; so I chose to leave my native place, and conduct my wife and 
children to the residence of the cahph at Bagdad. As a means of 
support for my family I purchased a small quantity of beans, which, 
after roasting them, I sold again in the bazaars. My capital consisted 
of only a single oka of beaua ; but by re-selling them and purchasing 
others, I managed to gain a hvelihood. It happened that about this 
time the city of Bagdad was visif«d by a great deluge, in consequence 
of which the Tigris and Euphrates over8owed thdr banks. 

" One night we were near being drowned. I had soaked the 
beans which I intended for sale on the moiTOw ; but the Sood fill- 
ed the streets with water like so many rivers, and it was impossible 
to go out. I was amazed and knew not what to do, and could not 
help thinking what would become of me, if my little capital 
should be lost. Early in the morning my wife said to me, ' Arise ; 


confide in t];o biessing of Allah; roast your besms; and as usual, 
if God pkiises, a door will be opened to you by tliat Openei' of 
dooi'S without keys. Whatever ia necessaiy to the subsistence of 
your wife and children will be ^ven you.' So I, encomaged by 
these words, placed the bean-tray on my head, and set out. AU 
the streets were filled with water, and it waa almost impossible to 
pass tliem ; yet I strove, with an almost despairing heart,'to get 
along as well as I could. It happened that the water had reached to 
near the palace of the deceased Jaafer Beremikee ; and he, in com- 
pany with his hii-em was seated outside of his dwellmg looking at 
the ilowmg deluge It hippdied а1чо that his eyes fell upon me, 
as I лvlndered about m the water endeavoring to dispose of my 
beans and pointing me out to hj=" wife he said, 'Behold that 
man, who whilst the stieets Ьг^е become libe the sea, still per- 
sists m wan lermg throufjh them with the water up to Jua mouth. 
Sliould it be only Ifi the ршроче ot gain, his avarice merits con- 
tempt bi t if he IS compelled thus to provide for the subsistence 
of hi w fe and ehddipn thioHgh love of that great God who 
makes so^eieigns ot hia humble servants, I will do something for 
this pool bean seller ^^ hich will pi event his ever again scenting the 
odor of poieity and indigence I then heard Jaafer call to 
me firm his palace siymq Ho fellow! the vizir wants you;' 
and obe\ n^ hia summon* I went to the palace, where on my arri- 
val I stood confounded Coming up to me he bade me welcome in 
a most fiiendly mannet and told me not to be abashed. Then 
with great kindness he mqwiied nhy ш such a deluge I was en- 
gaged in the employm nt of д bean seller. ' Do. not deceive me,' 
siud he but speak (hp tiuth He aaked my name, what 
place I waa fum and what wcie my circumstances. After some 
hesitation, I g^e him a true nanatne of my past life, and how, 
after my anival in this country, I had to gain a livelihood for my 
children by purchasing an oka of beans, which I soaked at night 
and on the monow sold in the streets ; I also told iiim how, not- 
withstanding t}ie deluge, I had been encouraged by my wife, who 



urged me to rise, saying thit Allah provides for the swbsistenoe of 
all his servants, and out of his tiewures would supply the daily 
vrants of our humhle selves ' So,' said I, ' putting my confi- 
dence in Him wbo oiders all thmgs, I withstood the fatigue and 
difficulties of the we ithei , hoping to gain sufEcient to furnish food 
for my famiiy ; and this, my lord, is the tiiith of my condition.' 

"When the deceased heard my story, he smiled and said, '0 
Medjed ed Deen, be not grieved ; the Most High will provide for 
all your wants.' He then ordered room to be made in the balco- 
ny where he sat, and immediately after called out foi all the mem- 
bers of his family and his attendant's to assemble near bim Then 
addressing them, he sMd, that whoever among them le-tllyboie 
him one atom of pure affection, or observed the ughf of bread 
and salt, would take a handful of my beans, and recompense me 
for the same according to their generosity. So each took a hand- 
ful, for which some gave me a purse of gold, and others costly 
jewels and rich dresses, until the hall of reception was filled with 
them ; and only after all the beans in the tray were taken, did 
they depart. The deceased then turning to me, said, ' brother 
Medjed, the servants have all taken their share, and there is nothing 
left for the master of the house.' I, ashamed, looked iato the tray, 
and found remaining only one small bean ; this I placed before 
him, and requested him, though it was little, to consider it as much. 
He was pleased with my reply ; and taking the bean, be gave 
the half of it to his wife, and kept the remainder for himself. He 
then asked her what they should give. She replied, ' A thousand 
pieces of gold.' But the deceased answered the chaste lady and 
said, 'This benevolence of yours is not worth the price of a 
penitential robe.' To this Abbassah his wife replied, ' Whatever 
you give I will give also.' The deceased then Siud, ' Good ! here 
are a hundred thousand gold pieces;' upon which Abbassah 
offered an equal amount. When I saw this, I thought, 'Can this 
be real, or is it a dream ?' And whilst I vras reflecting, he ordered 
a servant to carry all the effects, money, and clothes to my house. 



Wben. my wife saw them slie exclaimed, ' What can this mean ; 
have you seized upon some treasury, and sent home its contents ?' 
I replied that they were the blessings sent iis by Allah in return for 
the prayers which she had made, and related to her all that had 
transpired, telling her of the benevolence and generosity of Jaafer 
Beremikee, My wife exclaimed, ' A hundred thousand blessings 
on the heart of him who has bestowed upon us at one gift so 
much wealth ! But it is better that we leave this country and go 
to another; for as all the world here knew of onr poverty, they 
will be jealous of our prosperity, think us proud, and perhaps 
bring upon us by their calumnies some great misfortune.' Her 
advice seeming to me good, I left the city of Bagdad, and came 
with a caffleh to Basaorah; here I established my residence, and 
by engaging in trade have increased ray fortune, and obtained 
great wealth, Hence all that you see me possessed of is derived 
from him whose generosity and benevolence were unequalled, 
Jaafer the Beremikee. To ше, who received such immense riches 
and favors from the deceased, what are three thousand gold pieces 
that I should not hasten to obey his orders'?" He then gave me 
three thousand gold pieces more, adding, "I swear by the great- 
ness of God, that if you come to me, I will eveiy year present 
you his usual gift of one thousand gold pieces out of what the 
deceased gave me ; and I beg that you will not forget either bim 
or myself in your prayers." 

He who, after their decease, prolongs the kindness and bene- 
volence of those who have been generous in their prosperity, 
merits grace and favor, and will surely obtain divine assistance and 
aid. May God have mercy upon them all! 

Mntaraid Baiah bin Abad, the sultan of Merakesh and Kurtu- 
bah, was unsurpassed as a poet and composer, and eminent for his 



aoquiremente in literature ; he was likewise celebrated for hia gene- 
rosity, and for courage and braveiy was a veiy lion. He ti-eated 
with great favor and liberality the learned men and poets who 
resorted to him, and a*ijuired the emment character of being the 
most bountiful sovereign of his age. 

In the histoiy called Hezanet et Tarikh by Ibin Taid ibin Hel- 
bhan, it is narrated, that this sultan had a wife named Remekieh, 
one of the most beautiful of women, of unequalled skill in poetry 
and composition, and otherwise eminent for her learning. She 
bore him a beautiful daughter, who was also ^fted with a chai*ac- 
ter of great hberality, sincere and upright in disposition, and of 
quick intellect. She was equally celebrated for her acquirements 
in poetry and composition. One day, as Ibin Abad records in his 
history, the sultan was seated with his mfe on a lofty place which 
commanded an extensive view, when by God's will a heavy rain 
began to fall, the roads fast filled with water, and the mud be- 
came so deep that people were obliged to wade throrigh it with 
legs bared to their knees. When Eemekieb saw this, she declared 
that it made l:er envious to see these people thus wadmg in the 
rain, and that she longed to do the same. Ibin Abad, with the 
view to satisfy her, commanded his vizir, saying, " Scatter before 
your palace thirty or forty thousand gold pieces worth of amber- 
gris, musk, and other odoriferous things ; and let the watermen 
pour rose-water upon it and stamp it into mud." Then turning to 
Remekieh he said, " Arise, go with your maidens and satisfy your 
desire." So she went as commanded ; and she and all her maidens 
and other attendants bared their legs, and, filled with miith and 
hilarity, collected the scattered objects. After they had finished 
their sport, Ibin Abad gave permission to his people to fall upon 
the remainder; and every one got what he could collect, snatching 
from each othei-. The historian states that Eemekieh sometimes 
offended the sultan by asking " What have I ever experienced from 
you but severity ?" Ibin Abad once replied to her reproaches by 
saying, " What ! will you not even except the day of the mud?" 


Remek Ь t tb q (a was 1 Ik d 1 J d d b ^ 
ged him f p d 1 p t 1 

Thi ty f t y ] t h ff t t fa 

the pre d tlbyl p d \ fb Tdsl f n p 

peared tl t mt y d co q d th !t d O 

day he dd ly m d d ft t k g II f t 

of Merak h cai t Uh It B tl t ih m d d th ir 1 
in the p f tb t m c, t! 

Now t bapp d tl t dur tl p d f th Ita d 
sity, hidght nmdSb h Ibtdf h b ty 

and am blty w t<k pti b\ f ! It d 

given t dllil t t b 1 1 tl t t f 1 

father' cjtal Am hfcf ptbUyb 1th d 

brought 1 to 1 dw 11 Tins p h d m t > tif 1 

aai capt tg towhmlwd fggh u 

odalii: ( b m t ) b t wl 1 t d 1 1 th 

Tinfortu te Ita d ght h p3 d th t 1 q d 

himtokwh d dwihw Itl Itt 

accordi t th p pi f th t f tl I m t 1 

Siud sh b t t! d It f th It f M -aki 1 Ы t m d 
Billah bMtzilBiUh 1 thl fyltb nf 
tune, d th p 11 g f pal w tok j ( b th 

individi 1 wb Id m t j If w 1 t m y m ! -ally 

to уош son, write д letter to my fathei, agieeablj to the lequisi 
tions of the Holy Law, and ask his permission; for otherwise I would 
rather my head were cut off than to give my consent." When 
the merchiint heard this from the gii-1, he respected her, and said, 
" You are our benefactress ; you command us ; and it is beyond 
our power to urge you. Be it as you will." So the girl herself 
addressed a letter to her father explaining her condition and beg- 
ing his permission to be married, and dispatched it to the castle of 
Igmat by a courier. Ibin Abad and the girl's mother had been 
day and nigiit in tears for the loss of their daughter, wondering 
where their delicate and tender child could be, and how she was 


130 TUKEise EVBHiKH bnteutainmehtb. 

» at a lucky time the courier of fortunate footsteps 
kissed their bands, and handed them a letter from the object of 
th«r solicitude. They immediately recognised her hand-writing, 
and learned, with gi-eat satisfaction, an account of her circum- 
stances. They offered a hundred thousand tbanks to Неатеп, and 
blessed the ЛП -Just for his goodness towards their daughter; they 
then called two witnesses from among the prisoners, and before 
all the Mussulmans in confinement betrothed their child to the son of 
the merchant, The news was carried back by the same courier; and 
soon after his arrival the sensible merchant made a great wedding, 
and had these two unequalled jewels united. Their after lives were 
spent in happiness, and they were the parents of many children. 
The excellent daughter never neglected to be of use and assistance 
to her parents. The following is a correct copy o£ the letter which 
she wrote on tbe occasion of asking their permission to marry : 

" Hear my words and listen to my disconrae on the subject of 
my conduct, which is irreproachable. Do not deny that I was a 
slave, and that I was a daughter of the prince of the Benee Abad, 
He is a great soveieign who leigns over his age , but times Ьале 
their revolutions and seditions God desiied to send divjsion 
amongst un; and whilst m abundance of sweets, be made us to 
taste only of bitterness Sedition lose up agiinst my father's 
tbrone. We became sepaiated, and be lo^t hie good dpsiiea I fled, 
and my condition became debased, 3 et my mother no longei could 
regfun her own. I was sold away as a slave ; who could then save 
me from misery? A good man received me as his wife, he was a 
handsome aud noble man ; he cheapened my price, and was pleas- 
ed with his bargain. I told him that he surely would lead me in 
the good a'oad. father, tell him of my ti-ue condition — of my 
birth and family ; this is all I can ask of your friendship and good 
will, and I hope that the princes of the 
benevolently and respectfully." 



It is a fact, weU known, tliat the Imim Aboo Yuaoof waa once 
the cpdi of Bagdad, One night he became possessor of the siwn 
of fifty thousand miscaJa of gold, and the following is an ac- 
count how tlua occurred. 

The Emir of the faithful, Ilaroon er Rasheed, one night became 
enamored of his brother Ibrahim bin Mehdee's maiden slave, and 
asked him to sell her to him for thirty thousand pieces of gold. 
But Ibrahim swore that he would neither dispose of her nor give 
her to hira ; and riiang from bis seat, he left the caliph's presence. 
Subsequently he became greatly alaamed lest liis refusal should 
offend his brother the caliph, and took council on the subject with 
Aboo Tusoof. The Imam advised him to give one half of her to 
bis brother, and sell him the other half ; whei'cby he would avoid 
breaking his oath. Ibrahira followed the Imam's advice ; aod 
givbg one half of his maiden to the caliph, he sold him the other 
half for fifteen thousand pieces of gold, the moiety of the sum 
■which had been offered him. When the money was paid over to 
Ibrahim, in gi-alJtude for his escape from his brother's anger and 
power, he presented the whole of it to Imam Yiisoof. 

Now Haroon ei' Kasheed, being greatly enamored of the 
mrndea, was desirous of consummating his pwchase that very 
night, but was prevented by her illegal condition. So he bad 
recourse to the Imum, and inquired of him whether there was 
any remedy for the matter. The Imam rephed, "Marry her to 
one of your slaves, and let him divorce her without touching her; 
after which approach her." The caliph followed his advice, for 
which he gave him five thousand pieces of gold, and mariied her 
to one of his slaves; but her husband, after the man-iage, refused 
to divorce her. The caliph offei-ed him ten tliousand pieces of 
gold as an indacement; but stil! he refused. So he iigain had 
recourao to the Imum's advice. Tlie Im^m recommended him to 


mabe a present of her to the slave, which would render the mar- 
riage contract invalid. Haroon er Easheed followed this coun- 
cil, giving the Imam ten. thousand pieces of gold as a token of his 
regard. After this he approaolied his maidea; and as an expres- 
sion of the pleasure he experienced on seeing her face again, he 
gave the ImS.iii ten thousand pieces of gold in addition to what 
he had given liim before. The maiden also presented bim, out 
of the dowry which the caliph had bestowed upon her, ten thou- 
sand pieces of gold. And thus in oae night the Im^m Yusoof 
became the owner of all these sums. 

This tale is rebted in the Shavki (Commentary) of the Maka- 
mati Hiiriree hy Mehdi Bedly Isa bin Jaafer. May Allah have 
mercy on them all ! 


Let us, in the first place, inquii'e what is the cause of the 
decrease of the power and prosperity of great and mighty sove- 
rdgns in this fading and temporary world; and how it is that a 
foreigner, by effort and bravery, is enabled to uttmn to sovei^eign 
power and place. 

God, the Master of all masters; the Creator of the world, tbe 
Opener of all doors; the Cause of all causes, who exalts his glory 
above all doubt, allots destinies from his ti-easuiy of subsistence, in 
immeasurable quantity facilitates the inmimerable hopes whic]i 
exist in the circle of esbtence of every being, and in the beat pos- 


sible manner provides for the wants of all. Once in every age 
{kuroon) he accepis of a great and gloiious sovereiga as merit- 
ing the exhibition of his power, and deems him worthy of the 
concealed treasury of his favor. And therefore it is the duty of 
that greatly fevered sovereign to acknowledge the value of the 
divine grace bestowed upon him, by showing respect and regard 
for the Men of talent and excellence yjho appear dming bis reign. 
Let them refrain from teaching their subjects with force and 
oppre^ion; for such was the eustom of the ancient soveieig as. 

During tlie sway of the sultans of the house of Otbman, irom 
the reign of Othman Ghaai to that of Selim bin Suleunan Valee, 
no unlucky hands were ever apphed to the sbhts of royalty, or the 
betrothed of the empire (i. e. the Sultan), They governed with jus- 
tice and equity; never deviated from the principles and statute of 
the Othman rules of Suleiman; and regarded the laws of their 
ancestors as if they ivere the words of the Eternal, and as twin 
brethren of the Holy Law of the Propbet. Hence the pillars of 
the state were firmly supported, and the regulations and laws of 
the government were executed with vigor and impartiality. 

On the decease of Sultan Selim Khan, Sultan Mmad Khan 
succeeded bun on the thin e The gnid vizir, Mahommed Pasha, 
acted in conform ty t) the anci nt riles snd did nothing inconsis- 
tent with them Whei Mihommed Pisha became a martyr, 
those who ы cceeded hu» in the g a,nd vizu'al chair followed in his 
footstep? and like 1 im neiei went beyond the statutes of the 
realm. The country ■ms theiefoit. prosperous; the forbidden 
goods, call d bi bes nevei enteied the ү urse of a sovereign of the 
house of Othman u-d the piopcity of the vakw/s (pious bequests) 
and' the inheritance of orphins they euefully abstained from 

It is asaerted thit isl emsi Pisha changed the name of bribes 
to that ol g fLs or p esents and i ersuaded Sultan Murad 
Khan to accept them, and to recompense those who gave them with 
high and Impoitaiit offices ; a practice in which he soon was imitated 



by his ministers. Prom that time the offlcea of the state have been 
sold to the highest bidder; aud pereons of obscure origin, and 
abject condition have become possessors of the highest offices of 
the government ; ■whilst the descendants of the most distinguished 
and faithful servants of the Othraan family have been dismissed 
from public employ, and ignominiously degraded. These modem 
office-holders show no respect to the conduct of their predeces- 
sors; they elevate all, mthout discrimination, who can pay for 
their favor; whilst the experienced and talented, if without money, 
they knowingly deba.';e. T!™s, all distinctions of right and woi-th 
being withdi'awn, the conditiou of the world becomes daily more 
ti-oubled and confused, and the enemies of religion and the state are 
strengthened on every side. 

Sultan Murad Klian, a gifted and excellent sovereign, was well 
acquainted with the condition of his emphe; and when his fortu- 
nate star ai-ose, be did not remove one step from the place where 
be was, but contented himself with learning all its afiairs from east 
and west. He appointed one of his servants to the command of 
an ai-my against Persia, and conquered the best parts of that king- 
dom. After these conquests, he pei-sonally watched over the 
affairs of his empire and government; and as he made himself well 
acquainted with al! its intei-ests, both private and public, be was 
able to aid those of his own servants, who were ia the way of 
duty. His riairs, in parficulai', were all men of gi'eat talent and 
capability. Sinan Pasba, Othman Pasha, and Rasheed Pasha, 
-were persons of strict religious principles, and well vei-sed in public 
affiurs. It was Rasheed Pasha who took the son of the Shah of 
Persia prisoner, brought him to Constantinople, and made the cap- 
ture a bond of peace between the two countries. "When a sove- 
reign," he would say, "is attentive to what is occurring around 
him, and all his ofTicers and other servants are filled with awe and 
fear of him, there is but one gate to the government, and those 
who have not tl',c entrance to it do not interfere in the affairs of 



After the decease of Sultau Murad Khan lebdhon b oke out 
on all sides, and the enemies of religion and the state buist m upon 
118, The evil-minded Kuzil-baslies attacked is oa all sdes md 
raised their bands to the skirts of the kingdom unlil much evil 
fell upon it. In tlie centre of the country of Anat hi rebellious 
3 arose ia arms; and for ten years one hundzed thousand 
s were employed in tbeir hands to injuie th LOimtiy until 
it was reduced to ruin and poverty. Many ciowned and royal 
peraon^es were made headless ; and these things continued until 
the time when the comet of glory, the Siltii Ahmed Kh-m 
shone out and illuminated the universe. Heapponted his pie 
decessor'a piime minister, Murad Pasha, to be ha cl ef vizn and 
gave him command of the army against Pei-sia ind лvhether he 
turned his band against tlie infidels or the e^il Kizil bashes by 
God's aid they were crowned with success, pai t cul ly in An to 
lia, the seat of the Tellalees, who were all put to the sword, tbeu 
evil-infected bodies efiaced from off the world, and the district 
purified of their unclean association. May Allah the High have 
шегсу upon him ! 

After the decease of Murad Pasha, those who occupied the 
seat of grand vizir had their affairs interfered with by others ; tbeu: 
full powers became curtiuled; and the Ottoman offices, hke the 
articles sold in the Pit Bazar, (old clothes market,) were vended bj 
public criers from door to door ; while those wJio had not admit- 
tance to the gramd vizir, had no attention paid to them. Other 
ministers of state took no part in the more important affairs, and 
the principles and laws of the government were whoily disregard- 
ed. A number of men with new ti-aditions, by means of bribes ia ' 
money, vei'ified tbe adf^e, Dmlet ul irgal afet ul rejal, or " place 
to the low is nun to the countiy," and it is noAv more tiian forty 
years that tl e Ottoman emp re h s be n th s red ced a d ru 
ned whle th se excelle t ofBc :s of tate ■nl o m the pace of 
twenty rthiyy oefmoe employ to anoth r I ave 

been dism d b) th d d d 1 f tl r ch i4 u e 



persons 'who possess a knowledge of tlie true condition of the 
empii'e are slighted by those who had supplanted them Ъу virtue of 
money. The great aim of these lattfii- is to despoil their fellow- 
subjects of tlieu- property, aad thus rdmburae tliemselyes for the 
вшпз expended iu obtaining their places; whilst the good иаше 
and character of the country is deemed of no value. They dispose 
at wUl of tlie subjects of the sultan, луЬо is become only a pun- 
isher, whilst they amassed all the wealth of the laad. May the 
Most High recompense them according to their deeds ! May they 
not enjoy either their ill gotten wealth, but give out thek light 
like a glowworm, and may tlieir Kves be extinguished m the same 
length of time. 

" Stretch not forth tliy liaiid to the public atove, even if it ba of tlie purest 

gold; for it is the poison of a snake, aud tlie woimd that it шакеа will go 

ou moreoiElng." 
" The light which ш ted wilh fnt from the entrails of the poor, is the Ёге-Яу 

of oppi'easioii of the state. Be not envious at beholding the redness of the 

Prmce'fl jrillm; for it is the blood of hie heart aud the team of his eyes." 

It folloffB fi-om the preceding, there is no man brought up by 
the state who has not received as many as ten camel-loads of 
bribes ; and the reason of the ruia of all good order is to be found 
in the frequent changes in office. When these are sold over twice 
a year, how can any wealth remain in the country, or subjects be 
found in it? aad Jiow can any other state of things exist, when 
the sovereign I'emains ignorant of the state of Ьв aff^rs, and 
is unacquainted with the good or evil condition of his people. So- 
Tereigns give full power to their viars, and should therefore watch 
after theh conduct, and ascertain whether they act for the interest 
of the state, and perfoi-m their ser(-ices with zeal and effect ; and 
whether their people are in the enjoyment of a peaceful tranquil- 
lity, and free from sedition nnd rebellion. At the present period, 
A, H. 103G, the practice is, whenever a man becomes the governor 
of a pi-oyi]\ce, to strive to rain its inbahitants by extortion and op- 


lUBKiaH вүввгко ebtbrtaikmbniis. 13? 

pression. If there Ъв any appeals to jiistice, tliey show a gi-eat 
i-egaid for the law, since litigation is to them a rich source of 
profit. Indeed, it seems a blessing that money ivill influence their 
hearts; for pity without a bribe к aa impossibility. They thus 
become possessors of great wealth in this world, for which they 
must suffer in the next. The sovereign will have to answer for 
these deeds, and for the oppression which they have shown to his 
rayahs and poor subjects ; and he must stand in this account in the 
presence of th All j t Th ult of th' nduct is, that aothing 
is blessed at tl p nt tam 

Have J ot often ma k d tb t a man from the lowest 
ranks of lif m h t t ra thr gh th b bes received by hhn, 
attfflns to th de y t th ш e of five or ten years, 

bis good fo t tuTi d t d ht i y th chagiins which came 

upon him, d I t h t by the sovei'eign's sword. 

We pray G d th t tl wh ! th Ottoman dynasty have 
attained to f nd ni ind y t kn w n t ivhat fidelity in ser- 

vice is, who n th f th n good name and repu- 

tation, nor ga d tl h ly law n y meet with misfortune. 

The present a1; 1 is w tt mply it. fier evidences of the 
divine Unity t test fy n f f G 1 nd his Prophet, and to 

excite zeal f th tn f th by n 1 m the recipient of the 
high favors of the Ottoman familj, Fiom the time of Adam, down 
to the present period, oppression of the people has ever been the 
cause of tiie mjury and declme of the sovereigns of the world. One 
of the sons of the suit in of the hnd of Persia who lived after the 
prophet Adam on wh эт be peace was Sihak-Mar. At that time 
Jemsheed leij^ned ■ftith justice ind equity he lived one thousand 
years, and reigned fi^e hundred until tempted by Sabm the 
accursed, he aspired to he -x god Sihik whom the Most High 
sent against Temsheed was origiH-dly in (he =ei-vice of Shadad, of 
the tribe of the Benee Himir as a Tehaush (messenger). After 
reigning as a powerful tins; one thousnnd years, he marched 
against JoiUsheed, took all his countries fiom him, and put Lim to 



death. Tlie sovereign power tben passed into the bands of Sihab, 
who reigned for two hundred years, in equity and justice. At the 
end of that time, Satan cooked a savoury dish of food, which 
pleasing Siliak, he declared that any thing he might desire should be 
gi'anted liim. Satan then asked leave to kiss the Shab'a shoulders, 
which he was permitted to do ; whereupon the forms of two ser- 
pents appeai'ed on them, and commenced paining him. Satan then 
assumed the character of a physician, and appealing before the 
Shah, he advised him to use men's brains as a remedy. Two pri- 
soners were taken out of his jail, and killed, and their brains 
rubbed on the painfnl spot. Each day two innocent persons were 
sacrificed for this piu-pose, until no more victims remained in the 
prisons ; then Ыв were cast for individuals in the city, and those 
on whom tbey fell wei-e made use of. In this way, some hundred 
of thousands of men were put to death. At length the son of a 
person named Kiavai Ahenker, a smith, was seized upon for a 
similar sacrifice. A year or two later another son was taken ; on 
which the father, maddened with grief and rage, fastened the 
еИп which he used as an apron to the simimit of a pole, aud 
called upon all those who were consuming with the cmelty of 
the tyrant, to assemble round the standard of their faith. Some 
of the population went out merely as spectator; but others took 
up arms with him, and with cries of " AOah ! Allah !" broke into 
the dwelling of the governor of Isfahan, cut off his head, and exhi- 
bited his clothes to the populace. They next marched against 
Sihak, and put him to flight; they overtook him, however, and cut 
off his head; and then finding a pei-son of the race of Jemsheed, 
named Feridoon, they placed him upon the vacant throne. Kiavai, 
who became the vizii- of Feridoon, preserved the standard of the 
apron, adorned it with different Idnds of jewels, and gave it the 
name of Derefshi Kiavany. la the conquest of Adjem (Persia) 
by the Moslems, (under the Caliph Omar,) this standard was cap- 
tured, and distributed in pieces amongst them. 

Sihak was a disciple of Harut and Marut, and was well ac- 


qmunted with sorcery, and reigned one tliousaiid years with vio- 
lence; but, on account of bis tyranny, the All-just permitted a 
smith, one of his own rayahs, to defeat all his troops, and cut 
off his head. Power and might were useless to liim; for the 
Most High is all-powerful. 


On the iho fall of the Mussniman power, aiid Oie diminution of the rule 
of the Sultan as Caliph, 

The upright caliphs, on whom be the peace of God the most 
high, namely, Aboo Beber, Omar, Othraan, and Ali, reigned for 
a period of thirty years as caliphs; and the cause of the 1оад of 
power after the Flight, is as follows: Ali, the executor of the 
Prophet, on whom be peace, was the most learned, eseellent, and 
benevolent of them all; he was unequalled in having possessed 
the full confidence of the Prophet, and was the chief register of 
the inhabitsuits of Arabia. In his time Mooavieh was Hakim of 
Syria. Having determined on his dismissal, he took council with 
Ihin Abbas, who said, "It is not now the proper time; for 
Mooavieh is greatly attached to office, and has near him Omar, 
and Ihin Azz, who are men of penetrating minds. It is therefore 
better to dissemble for a while; and after you aj-e firmly fixed in 
your caliphat, do as you please." AE lephed, " I would not for 
the whole woiid do any thing underhanded, and shall therefore 
certainly dismiss him now." 

Mooavieh rose up iu opposition to the caliph's orders, and held 
out against him ; and the wars which ensued between them are 


well kuown. During All's time, he was шшЫе to effect every 
thing; the Imftm Hassan reaigned his charge of his own free will. 
The gi'eat Sheik Mohayed ed Deen Arahi relates some of the 
sayings of Mooavieli, one of which is the following: "Kaise your 
empire and eminence, so as to reach the goal of уоиг wishes. I, 
thoHgh of humble extraction, have by force and effort elevated 
myself, гшШ I reached the place I de-sii'ed. As to Ah, he is not a 
caliph, he is only an emir ; for the glory of the universe (Mahommed), 
on whom be the peace of the Most High, declared that the 
ealiphat would commence after- thirty years." The author of the 
work entitled Jaami el Hikayat, or 'Collection of Tales,' says: 
"The cause of the dissension between the Lion of God (Ali) and 
Mooavieh, and of the dispute about the Imam Hassan, was the 
advice which he received from Omar bin el Aaz. The discord 
gained ground from his not strictly following the advice of that 
most intelligent of men, Ali bin Abbas, who hastened the dismissal 
Mooavieh. The declme of the empire and authority of Ah, and 
the greatness of Mooavieh, were owing to the intrigues and trea- 
chery of Omar bin Azz." 


On Iho decline of ihe EmpirB of the Beni Ommiya, and the increase and 
rise of the Abbaside Caliphs. 

Tlie fii-st of the sovereigns of the Beni Ommiya, and the last 
of the Mooavieh's, was Mervaa Khamar, They comprised fourteen 
individuals, who made Damascus the seat of their throne (capital). 
Their empii-e extended to the coantries of Adjem, Arab, Mektah, 



Temin, and Magreb; and their majesty, and glory, and power, 
were celebrated from east to north. The cause of tlie decUae of 
the dynasty is as follows ; 

Mooavieh atbuned to the government (Imaret) in the forty -first 
year of the Hedjreh; and his dynasty terminated at the death of 
Mervan, in the year one hundred and thirty. The cause of the 
accession of the family of Abhas, is this: Haehem bin Abd el 
Malek, the thirteenth of the Benee Ommiya, who became caliph, 
was a low and bad man; and whilst he was particularly aifected 
with the evilpassionof amassing wealth, his troops aud people were 
left in misery. The generosity of Mooavieh and Taaid, as well as of 
the other princes of the same family, was well remembered; but 
Hashem's lowiiess and vulgarity were so disgusting, that his own 
princes and other of&cers deserted him, and intrigued against him. 
If any one in his presence spoke of death, or of any evil disease, 
he would stop him and reproach him, for he did not like to hear 
of such things. After Hashem's death, his son Walid ascended 
the throne. He was a tyrant and a wicked man, and frightened 
the people with his oppression. At length they killed him, and 
his son Yaad succeeded him. This sovereign lessened the pay of 
the troops, and received the name of " YsiBid the Senseless." He 
was avoided by every one, both great and small ; and when he 
died, his young son, named IbaLim, took his place. He reigned 
two months, wlien Mervan the Red made his appeai'ance, who put 
Ibrahim fo death, saying he was but a child. The Most High, 
however, had destined the empire to the Benee Abbas. Mervan, 
■ who experienced much trouble in his rdgn, was a merciless and 
cruel person, who showed no favor to tlie learned and good, but 
governed them all as if they were no better than his rayahs, and 
intrigued against them. He was of a bad disposition, and unclean. 
Up to the time of Hashem, the government had been carried on 
systemaiically and in good order; for all his predecessore were 
men of knowledge, and gifted with generosity and liberality. After 
Hashem, each succeeding member of the dynasty became worse 



than the re t an I mo e ty ■ann cil The public deserted Hashem, 
and his rayil a d other Ij ct were impoverished and mined. 
Enemies are eey dealat this interval, ia the one 
himdred a] d twenty htth vei of the Hedjreh, Mohammed bm 
Ali bin Abl 11 h of tl e f a ly of Abbas, began secretly to 
eicite the peop! a t the 1 ph. On Abdallah's death, 
which occur ed o a aite he v 11 d Ыз claims to his son, the 
Imam Ibrah m and n c se of In leath, they were to descend 
to his second son, Abool Abbas,, the Imam Seffah. In the year 
one hundj-ed was bom Abool Muslim Khorassanee, called Abd 
er Kahman, whose destiny il was to call to the true faith both 
Arabs and Adjems, as was predicted in the holy tradition.* 
Ibrahim came to this person, and with many praises appointed 
him Imam, at the same time presenting him \vith a banner, to 
which he gave the name of Raift Zull, or "The F!^ of the 
Shadow." He told him to go and begin with Khorassan. Abool 
Mnshm assembled thirty or forty thousand men, when Ifasser Sear 
was the general of the filthy OmmavieJis : him he marched against 
and defeated. When the neira of this defeat reached Mervan 
the Red, he sought out the Imam Ibrahim, and put him to death. 
His brather, Abool Abbas Mansm-, and his other relatives, took 
Sight; but in the one hundred and thirty-second year of the 
Hedjreh they made their appearance again, and ascending the 
mosk of Kufab, proclaimed to the people Mervan'a oppression and 
the ruin he was bringing upon then country, and exhorted them to 
submit to the rale of the sons of Abbas. All present agreed to do so. 
Their star thus once more found strength to rise; they conquered 
the whole of Adjem, and in one year subdued Egypt, Syria, Aleppo, 
and all Iriik and Arabia, aiid their empire reached even to Temin, 
His uncle's son, Abd Allah bin Ali, was his general; he sent him 
against Mei-van, whom he defeated neai' Mosul, and dispersed hia 

» "Certainly God will send eveiy huiiiSred years fl eorereign to avert 
the errora of the people." 



army. cMervan fled to Egypt, pursued Ъу the genera], who, hav- 
ing overtaken him in the neighborhood of the village of Aboo вшг, 
cut off his head. Now it is seen that there were fourteen sovereigns 
of the Benee Ommiyah, whose united reigns lasted nearly one 
hundred years ; and that they att'uned a high degree of power ini 
distinction, their empire eitending over Arab Adjem Үешш and 
Aden. From Hashem to Mervan two oi thiee indmduils only 
showed respect for the world ind tht, cau^p of tl e downfal of 
their dynasty, was their hatied of the learned ind virtuous and 
the cruelty and oppresaim which thpy pnctised tfwaids th ir 
rayaha and other subjects Behold m this n'lnatue abundant 
instances of examples to be shunned. 

Wliich show» the gieatnp?s of the maje t^ nd ioiy cf the 
Abbasside caliphs ind the с-иа^ of thn leoit, ise and oveithrow 
of their empi e St gieat was once then ^bij лпА poner and 
the splendor ot their leign tbat the Sultans and H'lkims of the 
neighboring t,ouitnes cime to viait then heiven Idte capital ш 
Bagdad, and would often pass a whole yeai in wuting for an 
audience, sometimes obt lining th-vt fivoi and sometimes faiLng to 
do so. Accoi4iing to the account written by that sultan of tradi- 
tioners, that most correct histoiian, Ibin el Juzee, entitled " Monta- 
zim," and "Mizan ShahiSaad Edden Eermani," on the subject of 
the grandeur and splendor of their reign, their wealth and trea- 
sures, and the number of their troops, the following may be con- 
sidered a true picture. 

In the time of Muktadir Billah, one of the caliphs, and in 
the three hundred and fouith year of the Hedjreh, ambassadors 
came from the kings of Room to offer him magnificent presents. 
They were introduced to the viaii's of the caliph, the chief of 



whom, IbiiiSaid, lodged them in some dwellings of bis own, where 
he feasted them boimtifidly. When they had sufficiently recruit- 
ed tiiemselvea, they asked to he presented to the caliph. Their 
request was made known, smd orders were issued for their pre- 
sentation. On the day following, the ambassadors mounted, and 
went to the palace of tlie vidr, and all the principal auihorilies of 
the government likewise pai-aded to the pala«e of the caliph, 
where each one took liis appointed station. The ambassador with 
the grand vizir, on then' way to the piilaoe, passed through the 
midst of the city, and visited the principal bazars and streets of 
Bagdad. On arriving at the palace, they found eight thousand 
door-keep era, in caps of gold, stationed at its gates, all ranged 
in files, and each holding a rod in his hand. On either side of 
the gates valuable horoscopes were suspended. Passing these, they 
entered the court of the oahph's own palace, called the " Dehlizi 
Azem," and found both sides of the way lined with attendants. 
The court itself was Uned, right and left, with the officers of 
the govemment, completely covered with gold, and arrayed in 
embroidered garments, who wei-e sent to meet and salute the 
vizir, A historian named Sulee says, " I saw on that occasion, 
stationed oa both sides of the way of the imperial gate caDed the 
Dehlizi Adew,, sixteen thousand soldiers, and besides these, one 
thousand pages belonging to the guard, appointed to serve in the 
royal palace, all dressed m golden sashes, with embroidered clotlies 
and scimitars of gold. At the door of the palace were one hundred 
private keepers, standing near tbe entrance ; iuid on either side of 
the way were the sultans and the Beyler Beys, waiting with the 
Ojak Beys to be mtroduced to the caliph. Over the private en- 
ti-ance ivas a window of gilded lattice-work, from which hung a 
sleeve of black velvet, worked in jewels of different kinds, five 
cubits ia length. When the Hakims and Srdtans, who саше to be 
presented to the caliph, had had their audiences, it was the custom 
to kiss this sleeve, and then ask permission to retire. 

When the vizir and the ambassadors had reached this place. 


'jUREisii l;vE^■I^"G kntisutainments. 145 

they respectfiilly kissed the sleeve, and then continued on to 
the palace of the caliph. The private attendants of the caliph 
nest met them, and saluted them aa they passed. After this, they 
met the caliph's eimuchs, seven thousand in number, four thou- 
sand white and thi-ee thouisand black, who were drawn up in rows 
on either side, and saluted them aa they passed by. According to 
the hbtory entitled the Mei-ati Zaman, from the northern entiimce 
to the palace of the caliph, and from the owter gates to the cas- 
tle of the caliph, besides tlie other valuable objects on either side 
of the way, were thirty-eight thousand horoscopes. When the 
amba^adors beheld these places thus richly ornamented, they in- 
quired if they formed the residence' of the caliph. Each place was 
then named and described to them. They came nest to the 
palace caHed Dar esk Skedjreh, where the caliph's cuirasses and 
other arms were hung up, the former amounting to ten thousand, 
and the latter to eighteen thousand pieces all adorned with jewels ; 
besides which there were innumerable other curious and rare arti- 
cles. At the J)ar esh Shedjreh, ranged on both sides of the way, 
were one hundred lions confined by golden chains. Passing on 
between them, they proceeded to the place of the caliph's throne, 
called Bar el Ferdoos, or the " House of Paradise," having in front 
of it a large reservoir, in which grew a tree of рш-е silver, its leaves 
being of gold, and its fruit of divers hues. When the wind blew, 
different tunes proceeded from the bi'anches ; and birds of various 
plumage were perched upon them here and there, each of which 
sang with a different note. The ambassadors beheld all tlus as 
they proceeded from the Dar el Ferdoos to the place where the 
caliph was seated on a throne of ivory and ebony richly jeweled. 
They nibbed their foreheads on the throne ; and then retiring they 
took their station in a place distant one hiindred cubits' length from 
him. The vizir, with crossed aims, stood before the throne, and a 
Terjuman interpreted his words to the caliph. He caused the 
ambassadors to he invented with robes of honor, and presented 
each of them with tmce one hmidred Ihouaand aktches; after 



■which they retTimed by the ■way tJiey came, The vizir shoived 
them the caliph's own palace, where more than a Inindi-ed enor- 
mo4S elephants were exhibited to them ; after which they retmn- 
ed to the Bar el Khelifeh. There they each received another robe 
of honor, and departed by the Bab Shems. Beyond the palace 
was a street called Sooh es Selaseh, a celebrated high road which 
nms th ougl the heart of the city ; and also a place called Zat 
el Me ae wl ere were more than a thousand Minarets. Just aa 
they 1 id ei bed it, the mid-day prayer was being proclaimed 
f om tiem by the Ezz^ns, The ambassadors were puzzled at 
hea Щ so many voices crying oiit the Allah Ehb№ at once, and 
a^ked ■ffbit t meant. " Are these the columns of Islam ?" they 
inquired ; and some of the ambassadors, acknowledging that 
the Mahommcdan religion was a good one, made a profession of it. 
In this way they returned to their houses, praising the power, 
greatness, and glory of the caliph. 

To what a degree of might and majesty did the preceding 
calipha attain 1 and what a comparison it ofiera with the age of 
the caliph Muktadir Billah, during which the enemies of the go- 
vernment appeared every where ! The empire of the family of 
Abbas was a fabric of majesty, which produced thirty-seven 
caliphs, who iw five hvuidred and twenty-four years held the reigns 
of government, and ruled from east to west. The cause of the de- 
cline of their power, was their disregai-d of the laws of tlieir an- 
cestors, and their having deserted the royal path of justice. When 
the cahph Mustassera Billah attfuned to the caliphat, he took pos- 
session of that paradise-like residence of Bagdad, and, being with- 
out experience, was inclined to dissipation and self-indulgence. He 
left the affaira of his government to his grand vizh ; whilst his fa- 
vorite pa^es, eunnchs, and other servants were each vizirs them- 
selves. Whenever the vizir complained against them, the caliph's 
favorites would put him down by replying that their sovereign 
wished to reign alone. If the viar for a moment neglected his 
charge, the other authorities would commit oppression and tyran- 



ny ovev tbe rayalis. Tlio Hakims and Beys wbo had !ong admin- 
istered the govemmeat ivere dismissed, and yoimg and inexperi- 
enced persons put in their places. Tlras, every one became dkaSect- 
ed; and the neighboring enemies of the goTernment, hearing of 
its internal dissensions, and knowing that the caliph was not an 
upright man, stirred up a bitter enmity between him and Menkoo 
Khan, one of Jenghiz Khan's sons. All the disaimiJation of the 
viar was ineffectual ; the quarrel increased, and Menkoo Khan 
sent his brother Holagoo Khan, with foui- hundred thousand Mogul 
troops against Bagdad, who beseiged the city and plied their bat- 
tering-rams gainst its walls. At last, when the caliph was reduced 
to extremity, he, with Iiis son aud three thousand of the noblest 
of the family of Abbas, mounted their horses, and left the castle 
for the camp of Holagoo, in order to make their peace with the 
conqueror. The caliphs and his sons were admitted; but the 
Emirs and Ayans were kept outside. 

Having showE a friendly face to the caliph, Holagwt ordered 
the city gates to be thrown open ; which being done, the Moguls 
entered the city and took possession of it. On the following ^ay 
the caUph and his three sons were thrown into prison, and the 
inhabitants of the city were put to the sword to satisfy the fuiy of 
these conquering troops. Holagoo nest cut off the heads of the 
cahph's sons. He caused the caliph himself to be wrapped in a 
green ox-hide and exposed to the sun, where he expired under the 
feet of the passing infidel Tatars ; and this was the, end of the 
family of Abbas. May the Moat High have mercy on them all! 

So, from being a great empire, they were stripped of wealth, 
ti-oops, and possessions of every kind. The cause of this downfal 
was the young caliph's giving himself np to dissipation and amuse- 
ment, and leaving the direction of his governmeut to a few youths 
and eunuchs ; his ignorance of the consideration due to men of learn- 
ing ; and his having displaced those officers who possessed wisdom 
and experience, and appointed yoimg persons in tiieir places, with- 
out talents or knowledge of governing, who oppressed the world. 



His subjects ha™g been disappointed and exasperated by snob 
treatment, when the enemies of liis government made their appear- 
ance, the country was yielded up by them without much resistance. 


Tlie dowiifol of llie Gergany kinge, and the rise of the sun of felicity of the 
Delmean (called the family of the Boiyae). 

According fo Mir Kliond Shah, the head of the Delmean dynasty 
Tras Aboo Shejaie, a man sprung from the middle class of society. 
He had thvee sons, Ali, Hassan, and Ahmed. One day Aboo Shejaie 
paid a visit to an astrologer, to consult him about a dream be had 
had, and to ask fov its interpretation. "I saw," said he, "in my 
dream, a (ire, which increased as it burnt, and by degrees consumed 
the whole country. It consisted of three parts, from ea«h of which 
there proceeded a great Ught ; and before it stood an immense 
crowd of people, ■mth their hands crossed before them." The as- 
trologer was a man of talent, and hesitated to tell the young man 
the signification of the dream. " If you do not give me," said he, 
" either a horse, a piece of gold, or a robe, I will not esplain it to 
you." To which Aboo Shejaie rephed, " Vallah ! in all my life I 
never owned a hoi-se, nor have I ever seen ten pieces of gold to- 
gether at one time ; moreovei- 1 have but a single cloak. But piay 
accept my best prayers, and explain to me my dream, whereby 
you will confer on me a great favor." The astrologer replied, " Be 
it then good news to you ; for kaovr that you are destined to have 
three sons, who are to reign upon the earth, each one of whom 
will be a powerful sovereign. When that time arrives, I pray 
you to have me in remembrance." Aboo Shejaie answered, that 



be must be making game of him, and laugbed; but the astrologer 
declared it was tnie, and would not retract a word of what he had 
said. Amed ed Dowlet, the elder son, went to the city of Mera* 
vedy. Its govemor, who resided in the town of Kerieh, was a 
veij hriive and generoiis person ; and on account of liis intelligence 
and good management, and his НЬеЫИу to all those who visited 
him, they never would leave him. Many persons assembled around 
him, and more than a thousand %rent with him against Ispahan; 
but then Ibin Yakiit who had ten thousand hoi-semen, made war 
against him, and drew him off. He went to the Idngdom of Ork- 
han, aiid conquered it ; and as he continued, Ыв army and power 
mcreased in strength, and he became exalted and honoi-ed. After 
this he sent his brother Ruken ed Dowlet, and conquered Eiaa- 
roomi. Subsequently, he made Ispahan the capital of his empire, 
and the govemora in that neighborhood began to fear him ; he also 
became possessor of many troops, and went on conquering. In the 
twelfth year he defeated the forces of Ibin Tabut, the governor 
of Sliiraz, and thus mastered the whole comitry. He gave up 
the city to the soldiers; but not so much as a mustard-grain or a 
ciTimb of the booty was talien by himself. He entei'ed the palace 
of Ibin Yabit, wondering where he coidd obtain the means of pay- 
ing his soldiers ; when suddenly a snake thi-ust its head out of a 
bo!e in the roof of the palace, and drew it back again. As it did 
this several Umes, the general took its conduct as a sign to himself, 
and ordered Amed ed Dowlet, the servant of the harem, to go 
out and see what the serpent was about outside of the roof. The 
servant went, and on examining the spot found a number of 
boxes filled with gold; some of which he brought to Hamed 
ed Dowlet, who, with thanks to God for the g 
menced distributing it to Ks ti-oops, and mating н 

" No one hits power wttliniit trouble avd aiiKiety. In seeking for a ser- 
pent, you find a rich tieasuro. Who would not iilie to seek for a serpent, aiid 
find a rich treasm'e 1" 


150 тинк 

After this he inquired for an expert t^lor to cut him out 
some clothes, A deaf one was found, who had been in tho employ 
of Ibia Yakut. When Amed ed Dowlet saw him, he exclaimed, 
" Bring me an eU measure," wliich is called m Регяап tdiob. 
The deaf tdlor, heai'ing only the word ichob, replied, " What 
can a man of fortune and wealth want with a tchoh ? I do not 
deny that thei-e is need of a measure; for 1 have a Ъох of stuff 
belonging fo Ibin Yabut, which ought to he cut up. If you desire, 
I will bring it." Amed ed Dowlet thanked God, and ordered it 
to he brought in. So the ttubr departed, and soon returned with 
the box of choice stuff, out of which he cut a suit worthy of a 
sovereign, and dressed him in it. 

The power of the family of the Boiya became so gi'eat, that it 
ultimately conquered Bagdad; and Amed ed Dowlet appointed 
his brother Moaa ed Dowlet to be govei'nor of that city. For a 
long time money, was struck and prayers read in their names, 
joined to those of the caliph. They resided sometimes in Shiraz, and 
at other times in the Sar el Malik, at Bagdad. There were nmeteen 
sovereigns from this family, all of whom governed with justice and 
equity. They respected and protected the pure, and the learned, 
and the poets. " Wealth," said they, " is not lastmg ; rather let 
our name remain on the page of the universe." They therefore 
took no care to amass money, but freely bestowed it upon the 
worthy, and thus endeavored to acquire a good reputation. God 
be merciful to them all ! 

An upiiifht and good man wis once a^ked иh^t wie the 
signs of 1 mm of tilcnt, md the connexion cxi'.tin^ betvieen 
them. He leplied, "Thcie aje thiee tbmgs which bhow a good 



imderatanding : namely, first, tlie faculty of expressing one's ideas 
inafewwords; for many words cause son'ovr, and blame." "If," 
asked they, " the individual is absent, from wliat can bis talents be 
estimated ?" " From three tbings," was the reply ; " from the 
character of the person he sends oa his business, from the man- 
ner in which his letters are written, and from the kind of present 
he may send; for the person ha sends must be the representative 
of himself, the letter which he writes must he of the same qual- 
ity with Ьк conversation, and the degree of his benevolence and 
good favor will be known from Ids present." 

It has likewise been шй. that one of the strongest proofs of 
talent, is the faculty of disguising one's thoughts from others (dis- 
shnidation), good behavior in society, and an unassuming deport- 
ment. This last ti*ait arises from the good characteristics which 
are bestowed upon man by his Creator. A good disposition is con- 
sidered as the most glonous of all divine gifts and benefits ; so 
much so, that the greatest of prophets, on whom may Allah 
bestow his blessings and peace, has said, " He who does not use 
dissimulation, wdl not find the aid of others." 

The following is imputed to Ibin Anwat, known as Habeeb 
Allah Hafiz. " Once a man appeared in the presence of the Pro- 
phet Suliman, oa whom be peace, and represented that during the 
meeting of the people a goose disappeared. Suliman ordered 
that the congregation should meet again at the Mejid (chapel) ; 
which bemg done, he mounted the pulpit, and asked, ' Is it right 
that you should steal a goose from one of your brethren in the 
faith, and pnt its feathers on your head, when you come to cha- 
pel?' When the person who had taken the goose heard this, ho 
immediately clapped his hand to his head to feel for the feathers ; 
and the Prophet seeing it exclaimed, 'Behold the man who has 
taken the goose ;' and in fact so it turned out to be the case." 


1Б2 TnHEiSH EVENMe кктЕатАхнмдытз. 

Ill the fouv hundred aiid sixtieth yeai- of the Hedjreh, an Idam 
sultan, named Asad ed Dowlet, reigned witli great power and dis- 
tinction, and was celebrated for tlie cai-e he took of his govern- 
ment. Dui-ing that period a mei-chaut, a stranger, who had 
formed the intention of maltmg a pilgrimage to Mecca, arrived at 
a town in the empire of Asad ed Dowiet, where he put up. When 
the time of the pilgrimage anived, the sti-anger did not know 
with whom to deposite the money he had with him, which was 
more than was necessary for the joiimey, and amounted to a thou- 
sand pieces of gold. So he concealed it afc the foot of a large 
tree which gi'ew without the city; and, supposing that it would 
be safe there, proceeded on his way. On returning from his pil- 
grimage, he visited the place where his money had been concealed ; 
but not findiiig it, he was greatly distressed and wept with gnef 
for hia loss. Meeting mth a friend, he was ad\ ised to petition the 
sultan on the subject, which he did; and when the sultan had 
read his petition, he was requested to have pauence foi a few days. 
The sultan next called all the pilgrims of the city togethei, and 
asked whether any of them, during the year, had administered as a 
medicine the root of a certain tree ? One of them, replying in 
the affirmative, said that be bad done so to aa oiHcer in his high- 
ness's service. The sultan accordingly had this individual brought 
before him ; whereupon lie acknowledged that whea dig^ng for 
the roots of the before mentioned tree, he had found a sum of 
money, amounting to a thousand pieces of gold, which had been 
concealed there. He then handed the sultan the sum found by 
him, which was forthwith delivered to its o^vner. The latter 
returned his best thanks and prayei's for the restoration of his lost 
property, and set out for his own countiy. All those present 
extolled the talent and intelligence of Asad ed Dowiet ; bis great 
name is written on the leaf of time, with praise for his good Etcts ; 
and his excellence and benevolence aio widuly celebrated. 


Wli n lb S w I p Ii il fl bund 1 d 

ninety litl J f th H d| 1 til t J tip n Al 
ed D 1 t 4,b J t D 1 tb At tl t 

time, dtt dmkaf ^"ad betwd Ab 

Siooa without ceasing. One day tlie sultan took from his waist 
a rich !md valuable belt, and bestowed it upon that excellent 
Sheik. ITiis the latter afterwai'ds gave to оие of the sultan's 
own attendants. The siiltau observing it on the mdividual, inquired 
bow he came by it. Tlie man replied, that he had received it from 
tbe Slieik as a present. The sultan was greatly dbpleased, and 
rebuted the attendaat severely for having accepted it ; at the same 
time he swore to take the Sheik's life for caring so iittle for his 
^fts. But one of tlie Sheik's friends giving him information of 
what had oceiiired, he acted on the proverb which says, " Sepa- 
rate from him whom you cannot withstand," and forthwith de- 
pai-ted from that country in disguise. On coming to another city, 
and disEQOuniing at a caravanserai, he walked to the market-place 
in searcli of provisions. Whilst thus engaged, he observed a youth 
of talent and science, around whom a crowd of people were col- 
lected asking him for remedies. The youth in. tura shoлved to each 
one the remedies for his complaint, and the means of recovery 
from his maJady. Presently a woman made her appearance, hear- 
ing a white vase in her hand, which she showed to Mm. The youth 
said that the vase belonged to a Jew ; which the woman confirmed. 
Afterwards he said, that she had eaten that day half aa egg 
and some curds ; and this the woman also avoided. The youiig 
man nest asked if the woman did not tlien reside in a filthy 
pai-t of the city ; and the woman answered afiii-matively. Ahoo 
Sinna, observing the youth's superior talents, was astonished at his 
language and the remedies which he prescribed. The young 
man's eyes happened to meet -those of Aboo Sinna ; and making 
hira a secret sign of recognition, he addressed the Sheik with de- 



ference and said, " You are he who has received that divine sci- 
ence, and are that unequalled and most perfectly excellent pei-son, 
the Eeis АЪоо Ali bin Siirna, who fled from Ispahan tbroiigh fear 
of the Sultan Alai ed Dowlet, and ai-e come to this place with the 
intention of residing hei-e." Then feeling kindly towards the Sheik, 
he left all his business, kissed the Sheik's feet, took his hand in 
his, ajid led him to his own honse. After receiving from the young 
man all the usual attentions of a servant, the Sheik asked him 
whence he had drawn his conclusions, and how he knew that tlie vase 
belonged to a Jew. The youth replied, " I observed the old wo- 
man's tunic, and knew from its marks that she was a Jewess ; and 
I judged that the vase also belonged to one of the same people. 
Her dress was soiled with eggs and curdled milk ; and I knew that 
she must have eaten of both these things. Moreover, knowing that 
the Jew quarter at this time is a filthy place, I remarked that it 
was unclean." "But," sidd the Sheik, "How did yon become 
acquainted with me and my profesaon?" The youth said in re- 
ply, " Knowing the envy of АЫ cd Dowlet, the circumstance of 
your having fled from him is a proof of the renown of your excel- 
lence, and that your sagacity and mental powers must be as bright 
as the sun in the heavens. I have heard too of the good quahties 
with which you are gifted, and I beheld on your noble front the 
chai'acteristJcs of those traits, which beamed upoa me like the mid- 
day sun ; -from all of which I felt assui'ed that you were the cele- 
brated physician Aboo Sinna. I likewise knew that the sultan could 
not bear to be sepai'ated from you for a moment, and therefore was 
convinced that you must liave left him by your own desire and 
agMust his will," The young man next bent the knee of polite- 
ness before the Sheik, and thanked God for allowing him to meet 
■with such a man. The Sheik (hen s.iid, "WJiat have you to ask 
of me ? tell me your wishes, and, as far as my destiny permits, I 
wiD endeavor to promote them." The intelligent youth replied, 
"It is impossible that you bhould lemain separated from the sul- 
tan; and what I ask from yoT.i is, that when you again appear before 



bim, you win relate the occurrence whicli you have witnessed, and 
obtain me a place in his service, even hs one of his most humble 

Some days after this, a man came to the Sheilc on the part of 
the sultan, who begged his pardon for the past, and invited him 
to i-eturn to bis palsice. The Sheik took the youth with him, and 
on reaching the sultan, related what he had witnessed respecting 
him ; wherefore the sultan forthwith appointed him to be one of his 
own pages. 


On the coiidenination of folly, the raitly of taleut, aiid on evil charncteriBUea. 

The gi-eat Sheik Muhid ed Deen ol Arabec, of Saliheh, near 
Mecca, on wliom be peace I asserts that folly is a disease, for which 
there B no other cure than death. 

" Every disease has its remedy, except for folly; that alone is inonrable." 
The Prophet, on whom be peace ! lias hkewise smd, " Folly is 
the commonest portioa of mankiBd." 

The characteristics of oae possessed of folly are as follows. 
His head is long ; because the part from which a man's folly 
issuts 33 lib brain, and length of head is owing to smallness of 
bram, "md httle brains denote little intelligence, which is the 
cauhH of tolly A man's chai-acter may be known by his acts : 
bj lui n lei lo:iking to the termination of his affairs; by his never 


156 TURKrsH кунягие 11КТЕдтл1«м15кте. 

changing Ыз opinion ; by his never gratifying the wishes of others ; 
by his being self-willed ; by his pretendiag to know what he does 
not know; by his having no desire to learn ; by his disclosing his 
secrets ; by his telling every one all be knows, as well as what he 
does not know ; by his inattention to the mles of society ; by his 
precipitancy in replying to wliat is said by others ; by Hs igno- 
rance of science ; by his haste and negligence ; and by his ill- 
timed laughter in company, which resembles the braying of 

The following anecdote is nan'ated by Esmaec,* one of the best 
men of his age. 

I once saw a powerful man of Bassora, who was seated in 
front of Ida door, dressed in splendid clothes, and snrraunded by 
elegant looMng attendants, and was engaged with them in conver- 
sation. Now, this man had a very long and tliick head. Observing 
this, I asked myself whether this characteristic of the man was a 
proper token of his mind ; and with a view of learning the fact, I 
saluted him and asked him his name. " My name," i-eplied he, 
" is Aboo Ahd er Bahma Rbeem Melibi Tevra ed Deen."! I 
smiled and felt convinced of the weakness of his mind ; for the man 
had showed me the smallness of his miderstanding and the exten!; 
of his igiiorance. 

«The author of the Arabian novel called Antar. 

t Thess words gsnerally commenee chapters of tlio Koran, aftd агч quoi-,. 
ed iiicoiTeotly. 


I Id that once two fools set out in company to go from 

on J] another. Whilst on their way one of them said, 

C m 1 « lave a talk together;" so they sought out a com- 
i -table pi o t I w I tl f nversaljon one 

of h m ad 11 Id Idt t vn fl k f heep; so tbiit 
I Ш h a whe I h f tb t d k their milk, or 

mak II f th 1 Ti th pi d Ishoildlle 

tola pkof 1 htlmltt thmlo nci^ 

y I p. d thm dtethirll ipitb 

first spealier ask d f th th why I w h d for чо eiil 
gi'atification; anl p tly j di g f m w ids to llow4 

they beat each tl 1 g th y Ь d t th to "tand up 

At length they t j p 1 J It f the uhject of 

thek quaiTel to ti j I f f t! fi t pis by and be j^o 

vemed by his d It 1 pp d tl t m n passed aloi^ 

driving an ass Iddwtht Jids fh y ^vhich he was 
taking to the city f i 8 f h tl y j elated what 

had occurred t th m d k d ) m h h f the two was 
fooiish. Now th m w g t f 1 tl ther of them, and 
taking off the bag fh yh g t h f the disputants, 

sajdng, " Beat each other with these, and I wdl see which of 
you is the gi-eater fool," They did so, and be looked on. With 
the first blow the sMns burst open, and the honey raa over the 
ground. When he saw the honey flowing, " Yallah !" exclaimed 
he, " may my blood flow like this honey, if either of you have 
any sense ; you are both foob." What a wise decision for one 
wlio was forgetful of hia own liurt ! 


One of (he ancient and powevfii.l kings of Adjem (Persia) wi!^ 


158 TUjiit'Kn ЕЛ'гч1м. глт7Етд1имЕмга, 

a famous sovereign, of a just and eqmtable character, be was dis- 
tinguished for generosity and hbeiihty, and was known hy the 
name of " Shfiboov, the double sbonldeied." One day he called 
bis yiairs, and said to them, " I iiave occasion to ask your advice. 
I pitrpose raabing a jom-cey, and visiting the Kaiser of Eooni, 
to learn something about his circumstances B,iid conduct; what 
do you say to this?" Tfie vizira all counselled together, and after- 
wards replied to their king ; " The idea which your toajesty has 
conceived is certainly dangerous; for a sovereign cannot easily 
tmvel about in the world alone as he may choose. We therefore 
counsel that, by all means, you forego your intention." Yet, not- 
withstanding their eadeavors to prevail upon him to change his 
Diind, they were xiasuccessful. At length he asked the advice of 
one of his vizii-s who had held the office from the time of his father, 
a most talented and leaiued person, so much so that he was re- 
garded as a pbiloaopher, and as one acquainted with al! religions 
and all language. From him the Shah received the same reply, 
namely, that it would be better to forego his design. Still he deter- 
mined to make the journey. So telling the viair that he had 
the following request to make of him, namely, that he would favor 
his project and provide means for performing the journey. The 
wise ^1дг then btgged bhahoor to permit him to go first to the 
country of the Kiisei of Eoom, where he woidd be ready to for- 
waid hi4 views and wishs'j on his arrival; and the vizir, having re- 
ceived the roj 1 CO I'ent immediately commenced putting on robes, 
and attiiing h mself m the guise of a monk. He was learned in 
the %1васе of niedic ne ind ia the presoiibing of remedies, and in 
suigery In that fcieiKe his abilities were great, and he carried 
with him Ctunehe omtmentb which had the quality, if rubbed upon 
thp flch, of curing wounds m a veiy short time that had other- 
wise proved moTinble as well as of immediately assuaging the 
pain anaina rora thera Foi hi4 services he never accepted com- 

fi nyonc 

im,e set ont ft-- 4 1 ]wve ^aid, for the Idngdoro of 


the Kaiser of Room, wbere lie soon acquired gi-eat celebrity, and 
his reputation spread over all the world. He became celebrated 
among religious people for hia piety and self-denial, and even 
obtained gi'eat renown among the patriai'chs and priests of the 
TTflzarenes. The best of these latter, including their famous 
chief named Abool Abad, soon became very intimate with the 
vizir. Abool Abad always acted on the vizir's advice, took his 
coiincU and opinion, and yet surprised the vizhby his own learn- 
ing and intelligence, In fiae, the vizir was so much pleased iVith 
his company, that he foi-got Shaboor, until one day there was a 
great feast at Constantinople to which all the public, both great 
and small, were invited. Now Shaboor had set out on his journey 
incognito, and ai'rived at Constantinople ; where, with the view of 
not being known, he dressed himself in his worst clothes, and 
mingling with the ciowd at the feast partook of the food pre- 
pai'ed for tliem. Wow the Kaiser of Room, besides having Sha- 
boor's fonn portrayed on the walls of the city, had had his likeness 
painted and p«t up in all the public places ; so that whoever stop- 
ped to see them should leara to recogmze him. He had him abo 
pmnted on all his cups and other vessels. It so happened that 
Shaboor was looking intently at one of the portraits of himself 
which the Kaiser had had painted, when an intelligent man's eyes 
happened to fall «pon his person; then looking at the portraits 
he recognized Shaboor, of which he forthwith gave information 
to the Kaiser. The latter looked at him atteiitiToly, and like- 
wise recognized him. Shaboor, however, denied himself ; at which 
the Kiuser said that if he was not indeed Shaboor, he lesembled 
him exceedingly, and so ordered him to be executed. Shaboor 
observed the merciless executioner approaeliiag him, and was fain 
to acknowledge his identity to save his life, 80 they took him 
before tlio Kaiser, who showed him every respect and attention, 
and was a.stonished that a victorious егешу should come to him 
of his own accord. At length, however, he cast Shaboor into 
prison, and proclaimed war against his country ; then getting 



readj lus armameafa he set out with in вшитвгаЫө host. For 
Shalioor t! py made an elephant of bullock в hide, forty layei^ 
thn,k mside of which was on apartment Tvith a wmdow like that 
of a Bngizine so that the people outside in ghtlook in upon 
The feet oi the elephant weie made !ikp the wheels of a wt 
that it might be drawn about om, bundled sf Iwart men were 
appointed to be it4 guirds In tli s way bhah Shahoor 
ned towTids hs own Iragd m and because he refused to fol- 
low the aduce of his wise men he became a victim to this 
gulf of danger He now repented of whit he 
lamentLd the f t lity which h d conip upon him, blamed bim- 
Belt as 15 ciusB and aou^lit lelief fiom the difficult position 
m «Inch lie wa'i pliced He wondered where he could find a 
salve for hia mcurible floimd and iesigni,d himnelf to the pro- 
vidence of the boveieign Lord of ill aajng To whom shall 
I tell my compl int fiom whom shall I seek relief?" As to 
the Kusei he entered mto the teiutory ot Pei-aia; and at every 
haltinii plice he hid the ekphint in which &haboor was eon- 
fined bro\ ght ne'ir his tent md that of h s patriarch, where it 
remamel with a tent pitched ove it su rounded on all sides by 
his gmidh Lvery diy a p odnoe of fehabooi was subdued, its 
trees cut down and rum earned wheiever tliey proceeded; whilst 
Shabooi s wise viair passed his time in a tent pitehed for bim near 
that ot the pitnueh planning means to hbei'ate his master. Every 
night he Ч] ent in the society of the patinith relating to him 
oiiiioua o cm епсөь and news by which means his voice reached 
Shaboo and consoled his iffli ted liPiit by the appropiiate tales 
which he told Shabior undei tood fiom the subject of his vizir's 
diseoui-ae thit the litters intentions weie to pioeure his release. 
The Kaiser ai-rived at the province of Fars, cutting down the trees, 
wasting the country, and spreading ruin and devastation at every 
Btep, until he finally reached the site of the throne and the capital 
of Sliahoor, which he commanded to he besieged day and niglit, 
Hia eno^nes weakened its walls, until Shaboor became apprehen- 
sive that the place would be captured. 


" I acted according to my iiicliiiatioii, and in the end aiyjiiired a bad name." 

" To whom," exclaimed the Shah, " shall I complain against this 
affliction? mj' own hands have brought it upon me." 

One night, being excessively troubled, he stad to the attendants 
■who brought him wine and food from the Kaiser, " Envy and 
affiiofion have made a deep impression upon me. If it be your 
desire to proloEg my life, loosen a few of my strong chains ; either 
stop my breath at once, or restore my wasted frame, by loosing this 
collar from my neck, and these chains from my body." The faith- 
ful attendants had pity on Shaboor; they mentioned his name lo 
the patiiarch, at whose side the vizir happened to be; and the 
latter understood that Shaboor had cut off all hope of the thread 
of life, and was desperate. The vizir, seeing that it was time to 
answer the affliction of his master by going to bis assistance, and 
that the aid of Him who nourishes all was near, that night ad- 
dressed the patriarch, saying, " I have a singular story to tell you, 
if you will lisf«n to it." The patriarch replied that it would give 
him great pleasure to do so; adding that his hearing would be 
charmed and Ыэ understanding embelhshed by the vizir's wisdom. 
So the vizir commenced, and related the followmg story, intending 
it as an example to console Shaboor : 

patriarch, once in oxar country there were two young 
croatures, beautiful as Perees, and of good and benevolent qua- 
lities. One of these young persons was named "Aiyhi el Ehel," 
and the other, the female, "Saidet eu Nai-." These two fair 
creatures were united and formed one, and never for a moment 
were sepai-ated from each other. One day Aiyin e! Ehel was 
engaged in conversation with some friends, when one of the latter 
spoke highly m praise of a lady who was beautiful as Zahrah, 
.(Venus,) the envy of the Perees. When Aiyin el Ehel heard this 
person spolien of in such flattering terms, he became enamored 


162 TiTBiaari kvesikg ЕктЕнтлшмивта. 

of her, heart and soul, — so miicli so, that he asked her name ; to 
which the speaber replied that ehe was called Saidet ez Zeheb, 
and that her dwelling-place was Ai-ahia. The youth could no 
longer control himself, but forthwith set out in search of her. 
Having reached her and heheM her beauty, he saw that she was 
a sweet and lovely creatm-e, but not more so than his own wife. 
And yet, according to the nature of man, lon^g for the enjoy- 
ment of something new, he began to desire the beautiful Saidet ea 
Zeheb. But Siudet ez Zeheb also had a husband, who, becoming 
acquainted with the meeting of these two, seized and eanied off 
Aiyin el Eliel to a dark and sohtary lioaae, where he confined him, 
placing over him an ugly old woman, who had biit one eye, and 
whose eaiB, nose, and hands had been cut off. Aiyin el Ehel, now 
knowing the extent of hia misfortune, and tliat he had brought it 
upon himself, commenced weeping and moaning. His lamentations 
reached the hearing of the old woman, who, seeing Aiyin el Ehel in 
tears, was attentive to him, and said, " Pray Avhat is the cause of 
your being confined in this wild and distant place?" Aiyin el 
Ehel niplied, " 0, pitiful mother, I am an innocent youth, igno- 
rant of any crime." The old woman said, " Your story is lite that 
of the run-away horse, who said, I was seduced by a liog. The 
horse at first lied, but when at last ha took up the skirt of 
faithfulness, and disclosed the tnith, be лтав freed froHi his misfor- 
tune." When Aiyin e! Ehel heard these merciful words, he said to 
the old woman, O mrthei i my tell us ь metl i ig about what 
occurred between the escaped hoise and the ho^ So the old 
woman related a folloAVS 

"It is said that theie was once i hands ue man who pos 
sessed a horse swift i& the wnd of which he to k luy ^leat 
care; and not confiding in his own tenant he nsed to give bim 
all his fodder himself In the mo iniig he aio e eaib and 
mounting his horse rode him ovei hill and dale to «here there 
Avas a ф'ееп sp t then 1 дИто" he unbridled ind n 4iJdled 
him, iind Ipt him ,iazp ip n whatevei i getUnn 1 e toiild tmd 


afterwards, putting on his saddle and bridle again, lie returned 
home, walking bj bis side The e iien, the attentions he aho'fved 
to hia horse. One daj hwing done ts befo e mentioned, lie 
took the animal out wheie there was somt, giecn pasture, and 
dismounted to let bim graze foi оше time suddenly the horse 
sprang away from his master ■vnd fied auiOiia the desert, carry- 
ing with him his siddle and biidic The maate) sought every 
where, but in vaia the зЬаЛеь ot mght suuoimdpd him, the beast 
still fled on and wis lost from sight aod ■xi length bis master 
returned home. АЛ nigbt long the Ьогье had bo ne the saddle and 
bridle; being fatgued uid oveicoie ly sleep and hunger, he 
wanted to feed, but wi pievented by the b i lie and when he 
wished tr lie down the saddL and it J stumps prevented him. 
The seco d •* d tJurd d y he was tioubled m this vaj ; and in the 
hope of fii hug eltef he went off m a particulii direction. On tbe 
way he met w th a ivci wl icii Ьъ crossed though with great 
difficulty b t tl e br die on his 1 eid aid the s ddle on his back, 
got wet in I at no nday the suns heat шыеа mg, it beoajce 
tightly bou d around I s waist, and he suffered greatly. Hunger 
also made aroads upon him, until he was no longer able to walk 
or slir. J st then a sh rp-tuslied hog сашө by him, and, taking 
him for in unei| cted prey; ran his tusks into his side; then 
stopping, hp emarked that it was a poor faint borse, consisting 
only of 1 few bo es 

•TOth eating and drinking it had not!iin^ to do; so iiiuigm' reductd it tii 
skin mid bones.' 

Going nearer, the hog inquu^ed the cause of his leamiess ; and the 
horse replied that it was occasioned by the hunger he suftered in 
consequence of his saddle and bridle. The hog then asked \vhat 
was the cause of his present dangerous predicament, and of what 
nature was his fault or crime. The horse answered, * 1 am not 
conscious of havhig committed' any fault.' But the hog snid, 
' You certainly conceal some wrong yoii have committed, and are 


thuroiore reduced to despair of life; come and speak tiuly, for 
" safety ia in aineerity," and you will Ъа freed from the eliidns of 
mi-ifortune.' So the horse, scenting the odor of compessioa from 
the language of the hog, related to him я11 that had happened to 
him, and his own treachery. When the hog had learat all ahout 
the horeo, he ssdd to him, ' Yon liave been lying from head to 
foot; hoir GSn you s;iy you are innocent? After receiving so 
many benefits from the hands of your master, yon have made him 
a base retiu-n, and have met with this affliction as a punishment 
for your ingi'atitude. Had yoti returned to yom- master before it 
ciime upon you, you would have escaped this misery : but you per- 
sisted in your fault, and continued in yonr evil conduct ; so that 
at length you have received the recompense of your evil deeds. 
Wliat can I do to assist you? I had another design upon you; 
but since you have experienced so much sorrow, and snfJered such 
adversity, as an act of charity I will free you, and give you your 
life,' So with hia tusks he at once cut loose the horse's bridle and 
saddle ; and the latter, being freed from hia lies, with a light and 
swift foot fled away across the plam 

When Ацш (I Elicl henid thi4 tale fiom the old woman he 
disclosed л\\ his own i istoiy to hei acknoTvledged his faults, 
and with bim ility and bubmib^aveness be£,f,ed of her, saying, " 
mothei themeiciful hog -«hi-li was but an impure animal, had 
pity upon the hoi-se and freed him from his confinement. Is it 
proper then that you who ne gifted with human feelings, and are 
elevated m mture above tint -mimal sho ild allow me to remain 
here in nffliction? Leave me nut heie m confinement and sorrow, 
but be geaeious free me fiom the gulf of an foitune into which I 
have fdlen and jou will recene many fiio o m return for your 
goodne^ To tlis the old womin leplud Since you were 
tempted to sensu liLy Л>у the stduotions of Satan, and have 
acbnowLdged youi Jai!t while still but a youth mabe yourself 
in every lespeot wo thy of piidon ind foigivenesa, strengthen 
jour good intentions let th ctid ol lequest leave youi' hand, be 


TURKISH EVBKiKG ЕКТЕПтлпчмикта. 165 

constant m your patience Hud submission, and, please God, I wi31 
find the means of freeing you. ' Let loose the bitow of destiny ; 
for it always reaches its target V " When Aiyin e! Ehel heaid 
these benevolent words from the old woman, he said, " It is better 
for the imprudent to he silent, and leave others to remedy their 
eiTors;" and after that held his peace. 

Now the vizir spoke these vroids to the patriarch, but so as to 
reach the ears of the person for whom they were intended ; and 
again addressing the patriarch, he contmued, " Let this story be 
finished here to-moiTOW night; л*е can then give a good and per- 
fect conclusion to it." The patiiajch conaidtied the vidr's words 
as good; and the latter, rising fiom his seat, letired to his place 
of repose. The place where tlie preceding conversation had been 
held permitted Shaboor Shah to hear the words of his vizir. 
From the story he undei-atood that it was a parable intended for 
himself; that Aiyin el Ehel meimt Shaboor Shah; that Saidet en 
Nar (War signifies fire) was the kingdom of Pei-sia, to whose 
inhabitants he alluded on accoant of their being fire-worshipers ; 
by Saidet ez Zeheb was meant the country of JEtoom ; Zaib, Saidet 
ez Zeheb's husband, was the Kaiser; Aiyin el Ehel's desire for 
Ssudet ez Zeheb was his own desire to visit and see Room. In the 
old woman with the hands cut off he recognised himself, powerless 
and tormented; and the whole story meant that he should be 
patient, and his viair would without fail endeavor to bring about 
his delivei'ance. Shaboor listened, aad was somewhat consoled by 
his remarks. When night came on again, and with it the time 
for the fulfilment of his promise, the patriarch begged the vizir to 
conclude his stoiy. The latter recommenced and said, 

"Aiyin el Ehel was for some time in despair. When each night 
the old woman lighting her lamps would tell him to have a little 
more patience, he repeated to her the Arabic proverb : " He knows 
not the sorrows of a prisoner who has himself never suflered con- 
finement;" and said, "It is not easy, O motber, to have patience; 
if you have any means of i-eleasing me, pray let me know it." To 



tbis the old oreatuve replied, " How lieadstrong you are! Where is 
youv pi"udeiice? Is this manly courage? If you are a prey to the 
ravages of time, be patient. 

'Patience 18 bittei', but beai's sweet fiuite; though you a 

the Borrows of time, be uot hopeless of hatlec fortune.' 

' 1Ъвге are many ioclis without beys; the Opener eomes, e 

To console you," continued she, "1 have composed a story to 
suit your cfise." Aiyiu el Ehel prayed her to relate it; where- 
upon she commenced as followa : 

" Once in times past there was a merchant of wealth and gene- 
rosity, who bad a teilented daughter рш-е as a Peree. The garden 
of hie existence had produced no other fruit than bei'. One of his 
friends brought her a heai't-sednciug beautiful gaaelle. The mer- 
chant's dai^hter, having no worldly troubles, loved this gazelle to 
such a degree that she was never without it for a moment. She 
had a collar made for it richly worked in gold; and for its sup- 
port she kept a fat cow. As tlie gazelle daily grew iu stature, two 
little horns made their appearance on its head, at which the mer- 
chant's daughter was greatly astonished, as if she expected to see 
it next take the colore of the chameleon. One day the girl inqvur- 
ed of her companions the cause of the two hoi-na which had ap- 
peared 0Й her gazeUe. They told her that siiodar one's grew on the 
male of this same species of gazelle, and attained to a greater 
length than any other of its membei's. The girl forthwith repeated 
this to her father, and begged him to procure a gaaelle for her, of 
good size and full-grown horns. The parent oi-dered his hunts- 
men to catch such a one ; and when they had done so, it was 
brought to his daughter. The girl saw that each of its boras was 
more than a cubit long, and that branches grew out of them 
here and there; its eyes were black as kohel, and its form wm 
perfect. The fau- young girl adorned it with rich and costly oma- 




meats, and provided for it whatever it совИ possibly want. Tlie 
small gsiidle and the latter one being kept together, thej soon 
showed a UUing for each other; and one day the former address- 
mg the latter said, ' Before 1 saw you, I thought there was no- 
thing existing with my form.' To which the large one replied, 
' Away on tlie plains tbei'e are an infinite numbef of animals lite 
us, increasing and multiplying in countless numbers.' The young 
gazelle, in accordance with its nature, deared to see those of ite 
«wn species, and asked the elder one to conduct it and show it the 
world. It so ansiously pressed its request, that the latter replied, 
' You shoiild know the value of the food which you find ready 
prepared for you ; pray, therefore, forego your desire to visit the 
distant mountains and plains, where every patli is beset with dan- 
ger, lest you repent of it when too late.' Bat the younger animal 
persisted with such urgency, that the other at length yielded, and 
they both arose and set out for the wild plains. The young 
gazelle was delighted with its ti'avels, and associated awhile with 
those possessed of the two horns; until one day it happened to 
get sepamted from the flock, when it wildly ran about on the 
рЫпэ, Meeting with a gully produced by a torrent, it fell into 
it, and notwithstanding all its endeavors was unable to get out 
itself, for the gully was very deep. So it had to remain there, 
and begged of the larger gazelle to deliver it from this dilemma; 
which the latter was unable to affect, and could only cry and 
lament its lot. 

" In the mean time the merchant's daughter was heart-broken for 
the escape of her favorites ; and the merchant, pained at the sight 
of his child's distress, urged the huntsmen, with many gifts, to go 
in search of the lost gazelles. He sent several of his own servants 
with orders to find them and bring them hack. They seai'ched for 
some time, and at length perceived at a distance a man driving a 
gaaelle before him. They went towards him, and then observed that 
a huntsman bad taken a large gazelle, and having bound its feet, 
WHS about to out its throat with his knife. Looking attentively 


1Ө8 TURMsa EVKKiua 

they peredved that it was the lai'gest of the two gasiellea of which 
they лүөге m search; so taking- it out of bis hands, tliey asked 
iviiere were its ornaments. He rephed, 'Here they are.' 'How 
did you take it?' added they. Ho replied, ' I had prepared my 
nets, and was watching them, when this one and a doe were the 
firat to come near ; the former was caught in my net, but the latter 
fied away over the pimn.' The merchant on hearing this, said, 
th!;t if he could catch it also, he would give him the diesa which 
he held in his hands. So the hunter, maldng every endeavor to 
succeed, got on the track of the doe, heai-d its voice, and finally, 
upon coming up to it, perceived that it лгаа the merchant's. It 
was in a narrow ravine ; so hastening on, he caught it and con- 
veyed it to the merchnat, who recompensed him properly, and 
returned to his own mansion with both the gazelles. There find- 
ing his daughter still in great grief, he put the animals into their 
accustomed place. But the doe showed an aversion for the lai'ge 
one, and would not associate with it, avoiding it whenever it came 
near. Many means were employed to overcome its dislike, but with- 
out effect ; until, one day, when by chance the doe was asleep, the 
other gazelle drew near and gently accosting it, reproached it for 
the groundl^s aversion it had manifested. The doe replied, ' And 
are you not that unfaithful and perfidious creature who in time of 
pleasure was my devoted fiiend, but who, when I was a prey to 
misfortune, did not come to my assistance, but thought only of 
your own gratification and enjoyment?' To this the other re- 
plied, ' light of my eyes, refrain from such words, I myself 
was a pi'ey to misfortune in the hands of the huntsman ; other- 
wise I would never have forgotten the rights of companionship. 
From, this the doe knew that her companion had been caught 
like herself; she therefore changed her ferocity into familiai-ity, 
aiid they ever after remained as good friends as before." 

Ajyin el Ehcl, having listened to the old woman's tale, leamt 
from it that she was unable to bring about his deliverance, and re- 
frained from asking her any шоге questione. 


" Every discourse has i*s Lime, aud evciy deed its hour." 

s jianated that when the wise and pleasant- spoken vizir had 
ihis point, he became silent and excused himself, saying, 
7, pardon me; for Insliallah ! tJie work of the past night yet 
IS undone." The intelligent patriarch rephed, "Omanof рш'е 
faith, do not ask to be excused ; pray amuse us wth your oomfort- 
inci«asiiig discourse, and apply a remedy for шу afiiict«d heart 
■with your truthful speech." So the visar, again commendng, said. 
Sow Aiyin el Ehel, in his sorrowful night, drew hie torch 
toward the aurora ; and early the next morniiag the merciless Ztdb 
beat the urifortimate prisoner with severe blows, and fiTghtened 
bim by adding that he would soon kill him. So he lost all hope 
of life, and increased his lamentations. Again night came on ; and 
the old woman not ariiving as usual, the prisoner became yet more 
alarmed. At midnight she came; and he addressed her, saying, 
" O loving mother, what is the cause of your delay 1" She replied, 
" young man of broken spirit, the observation which you mode 
last night, censuring me with the remark, ' No one knows the 
sorrow of one who is in confinement,' has touched me ; and were 
I to tell you all the contempt which I have experienced, and all 
the afflictions I have gone through, you would forget youre, and 
no more reproach me.' Aiyin el Ehel replied, " Up to the present 
time shame has withheld me from asking you any questions; but 
now I beg you to tell me a little of your histojy." So the old 
woman related as follows : 

" youth, I was once the favored wife of one of the favorites 
of a sovere^n, hy whom I had several children. One day that 
sovereign, who was a tyrant, becoming displeased with my husband, 
put him and my sons to death, aad sold me and my daughters 
in the public market. It happened that my present tyrannical owner 
bought me, and brought me to this place, where I became reduced 
to feebleness by his exactions and the nevei'-ending work which he 



gave me to pet'form. I bore with this treatment for seven yews, 
until 1 could support it no longer, and raa away. He found me 
again and cut off my nose. I served seven years more, with the 
same sorrows, and fied away again. Again he i-ecovered me, aad 
tben put out one eye and cut off my hands, I served i^irn yet 
seven yeara, and once more fled. He found me out again, and 
tliis time cut off my ears. I now am tired of life; and have de- 
termined this night to free you from the tyrant's prison. I know 
that he will Dot suffer me to live; but death to me will now be a 
comfo!'t!" She in fact forthwith cast off Aiyin el Ehel's chains, 
and said to him, " Now go, your way is open." She then took a 
khonjar and placed it in his hand ; but he caught her arm, and ad- 
dressed her, sayiug, " It is not proper that you should die at my 
hands ; come and be free with me. If death he in thb path, let 
us meet God's decree together." The old woman replied, " I am 
now feebie and aged, and not favored -mth sight." The youth 
answered, "Allah is benevolent; pray make haste. "When you 
can go HO fuithei-, I ivill bike you on my back ; and I am strong," 
The old woman said, " Since you offer me so much aid, I yet 
hope, that with your encouragement, I may not be an impediment 
to your escape. But tarry not; let us depart." In a short tune 
they reached Aiyin el Ehel's dwelling, where he showed the old 
woman many marks of respect, treated her as his mother, and re- 
compensed her richly. 

Here the vizir ended his story, the afflicted Shaboor having 
beard all he had .related. He also understood from the fable which 
it contiuned, that by the doe he meant Shahoor ; by the excursion 
of the doe and the gazelle over the plains, Shahoor'e amusement 
with his vizir ; by the captivity of the doe, Shahoor's imprisou- 
ment by the Kaiser ; and by the disgust of the doe for the ga- 
zelle, Shaboor's want of faith in his vbir. When he heard the vizir 
speak of the project to release Aiyin el Ehel, namely, that if be was 
unable to walk he would cany him, his hopes and resohition were 
strengthened. In fine, the night of the eijterprize to free Shaboor 


TURKISH KVj;KiNa ектекгагнмелтз. ill 

had come. The wise vizir by some means got into the patriarch's 
kitchen, and put an inebriating drug into the food there prepaiing. 
At night the patriarch as usual went to his supper, and the vizir 
retired to liia own tent. An lioiiv afterwards the patriarch and 
all his attendants were sunk in a profound stupor; when the 
vizir saying, "Wow ia the moment of action," arose, went to 
the tent in whicli Shahoor was confined, opened the door of his 
prison, knocked off his chains, took him out, and stealthily left 
the Kaiser's camp. They approached the foot of the oifadel, and 
cried out to the watchmen on the walls, that their Shah Sha- 
boor was free. Immediately cords were let down, and they were 
drawn up iQto the castle, where, though the soldiers were weak- 
ened with the long siege, the sight of their sovereign gave them 
iiew heart and strength. The vizir addressing them said, " The 
Kaiser is now negligent, supposing you too weab to fight. He is 
jUed with pride, his ti-oops ai*e all drank and overcome with sleep ; 
come, let us sally forth and surprise them," The proposition be- 
ing approved of, Sliaboor's soldiers marched against the Kdser's 
carap, routed liis troops, and captured all they possessed. They 
took the Kaiser prisoner and brought bim before Shaboor, who 
went out to meet him, paid him great respect and honor, treated 
bim kindly, and addre^ed him thus, " lu the time of your power 
you did not put ше to death ; therefore, now it is my turn, you 
shall meet with no harm from me. For it is said, 

' Whenevef your ensiny falls into your hands, treat him uot with eBverity ; tlie 
puniehmBnt of his own feeliiigs is sufficient.' 

In thankfulness to Him who from bis great kindness, whilst I 
was a captive, gave me power to overcome you, I will Jet you go 
free. I will not recompense you with cruelty; hut, I demand of 
you, that you restore peace among those of my provinces where 
you have excited rebellion ; that you rebuild such of my walls as 
id; that you plant trees in the place of all 


Jl2 TUMtian вУЕжыо ЕктЕятлшмвнта. 

those you have cut down, and cultivate their growth ; and more- 
over that you free aU the prisoners you have talten, and send them 
back to me." The Kmser agi'eed to all these demands, and be- 
came responsible for their due accomplishment. Shaboor then 
made a great feast for him, and they spent many days in amuse- 
ment and in pleasure, after which the Kaiser set out for his own 
kingdom. To the day of bis death he was tiibntary to Shaboor; 
and tbey ever afterwards observed the laws of friendship towards 
each other. 


In the timss of the kmgs of the family of the Beni Ommieb, 
there resided in the city of Cufah a veiy respectable mercliant, 
named Rehieh bin Jaber, a man possessed of excellent feelings and 
kindness. of heart. He had a son wlio was also of a good natm'al 
disposition; and as the close of the father's !ife was drawing Dear, 
аЦ his hopes and desires became centred in this his only child. 
He named the boy Numan, paid great care and attention to his 
edH:.ation and tausrht the fai jouth to lead And wiite so that he 
soon hecime possessed of the crompl shments of plensuie and 
knowledge He puiehased a maiden slase of ai ehc feafuiia 
and uncommoi beiutj m short e\erj way woithy to be the 
companion of his sou and bu name wns Waam biuti Tevfik 
The mistei who inst uct d them did il! hi, e nld to tea«h thai 
jeshlt hoo (objL(,t ot je<dousy of the Ноопез of piradise ) who 
was 1 tendei m i d n sucli js tl e eye c t the \vo Id hid 
nevei beheld noi the eti of the sou ot man he-^id of logethei 
they learnt to read and write and m tl e con e of f me 1 d 
acqmred all the informatioa necessaiy foi them a d whei 



they araved at the years of maturity, both, like the son and 
mooD, in pure brilliancy and light, луеге equal in knowledge and 
accoraplisiiraents, particularly in the talent of music and song. In 
the garden of beauty they ivero like tv/o cedars. 


Their irealthy parent Iiad erected for them a palace, like that 
of Aram Zat ul Amad, or the gardens of Paradise, which he had 
paittted heautiftilly, and richly furnished, and where his son and his 
cedar-shaped Naani wei'e sent to spend theii- evenings in pleasure 
and enjoyment. 

One night when he was di4po4ed to make merry with Ins slave, 
she took a Jute in hei hand and mth a sweet expression of couo- 
tenanoe sang a harmonious aii Whibt they were thus engaged, 
by chance the govemoi of the city of Cufah, the cause of much 
sorrow, Hedjadj ez Zalim, or " the Cruel, " passed by the house. 
Hearing the melodious soimd of the sweet creatui-e's voice, he 
sighed involuntarily and aftpi hstramg for some lime, he praised 
bei' eloquent tongue, and the tasie with which she played upon 
the instrument, adding, " If this slave's face and person are equal 
to the delicacy of her voice, I will give whatever may be demanded 
foi- so priceless a jewel. Go see," said he, " and bring me news 
whose she is; for as there canaot possibly be found ai\y thing bet- 
ter, I will buy her for a present to the caliph." So calling the 
chief of the city police, and confiding the accomplishment of the 
afiair to him, a. mastei' of intrigue, he recommended him to be 
diligent and expeditious. Tliia man next morning very early called 
to his aid a cunning old woman, and said to Iier, " Help, mo- 
ther of praise-worthy conduct, Hedjadj the cruel and unmerciful 
has need of you : you must mform mo to whom this girl belongs. 


how we eliall be able to obtain possession of her, what ai'range- 
ment mxist be made to bring it abowt, and what promises will de- 
ceive her." The artful old woman made i-eply, " On my head 
and eyes be iti if the object of your desires be in the aliies among 
the Pleades, under the earth, or on the face of the earth, I will 
make it my duty to find her; and so you may consider ber aa al- 
ready in your service." 

" She wi^ the soiiieress of (he day, that artful old wretch ; «he was expert in 
all ways of deceit, inid could vex eveu Hai-iit ;" she was a fox for ciui- 
ning-, and could leach that animal tricks." 

The officer conducted the old woman to Hedjadj the Cruel ; 
and when she was introduced to him, Hedjadj said, " Go to the 
dwelling of Kuman bb Rebieh ; and if you find that slave wor- 
thy of being presented to the caliph, do whatever may seem best 
to you, and render yourself worthy of my liberality," Then that 
old wretch attired herself m the habit of a Soft/ a Inmdred 
years old. Taking in her hand an iron-shod ebony stick, she put 
a sliawl on her head; and seated xipon her aas, bending it almost 
double ivith her weight, and mating that unfortunate one weep 
to God, she sat out oa her way, saying in a loud voice, "Allali 
is one God, O inattentive people!" md thus reached Numan bin 
Rebieh's dwelling. The simple-minded people who met her on her 
way embraced her hands and feet, and implored her prayere. 

At noon she reached Wuman'a dwelling, but, on wisiiing to 
enter it, was prevented by the door-keepers. Tlie old witch add 
to them, " I am a servant of God, who have deserted the world, 
and have no other desii-e than to acquire knowledge and offer 
devotion; what then will it profit you to prevent my entrance?" 
Whilst they were engaged in discussing her request, a servant 
from within made his appeaa'anoe, and the old woman addressed 
him, saying, " Wherever I bend my steps they bring good for- 
tune; and as every one profits by my prayera, is it proper for 

* All angel condemned to eternal piiniBlimeut. 


these door-keepecs to obstruct my entranced" The simple-minded 
servant said to the door- beepers, " Disturb her not, let her come 
in;" and placing himself before the old woman, he condiicted 
her fo Kaani, Wuman's comfort, ivitli whom he left her, thinking 
tliereby to merit hev prayers. Иаат, being likewise deceived by the 
woman's appearance, showed her every mark of respect and honor, 
and invited her to be seated, that she might enjoy her conversa- 
tion. The old woman was scarcely seated before she exckimed, 
" Let prayer-time not be forgotten ; show me a retired place where 
I may perfoiin my devotions." Naam, like the waving cypress, 
hastened to serve her, and spread her carpet in a retired place 
with her own hands. The old ivoman prolonged her prayers from 
noon to ih'ndee, and from then till nightfall, without once rising 
from her carpet. Thus, by her great show of piety, she gained not 
only ITaam's heart, but also the hearts of her attendants, who 
all knelt around her and implored her blessing. Every night the 
oM wretch told Waam's maidens stories about pious people ;nntil 
early оие morning she aldose, and asked penuission to depart. 
When Waam asked her where she was going, she answered that 
she wished to visit some holy persons who resided in the vici- 
nity; and she so praised them, that Naam begged to be allowed 
the privilege of accompanying her. " Let me change my dress," 
said she ; " and I will go with you, to benefit by the prayera of the 
good people." The old woman said, " If the recompense of your 
holy visit is written on your forehead, it will be easy; be not 
grieved, you will in due time meet with the full accomplishment of 
your wishes." So they disguised themselves, left the house, and 
departed on their way. The unfortunate girl put faith in the old 
woman's ivords; and soon they reached a door- way, the portal 
to the palace of Hedjadj ez Zalim, which they entered. Then 
putting Naam in a vestibule, " Remain here," said she, " whilst I 
go and see whether the holy man is alone." So, going in, she 
informed Hedjadj of her success ; and then the accursed creature 
departed by another door. Hedjadj came to the vestibule; and 


beholding tile beauteous girl, he saw that she was a most graceful 
creature, resplendent as tbe moon in her fourteenth day, illuminat- 
ing the whole vastibule with ber splendor. 

" A pure maiden miequaliud, 
Wilh Uie world a slave to her ringlets. 
She is a fi'esli rose fi-ora the gai'den of fidelity, 
Aud a thousand philomels lu'e her lovers." 

Forthwith he ordered his steлvard fo'talie'a sufficient number 
of soldiers, and conduct the maiden to the caliph. The o£B.cer 
immediately got ready a Utter, and, putting the unfortunate and 
wretched Naam into It, set out for Damascus. Poor Ifaam now bnew 
something of the crael misfortune to which she had become a prey; 
her suffering heart was tortured with anxiety, and her eyes wept 
tears of blood 4t being sepaiattd fiom bei lover and home. lu 
thhty 01 forty dtys they leaclied Damiscus and enteied the 
palace of the calipli ivhei tlie stewaid presented Hedjadj s letter, 
and deliieied гр tiie muden Wow when Abd el Halek saw the 
maiden s heart ornimentmf» and woild emhellishmg dove like love- 
liness, be aoLnowled^ed her to be i perfect beauty whom the 
Painter of cieation had diawn on tlie p ge of e\iati,nce «uch as 
the eye of ohseivition hid nevei seen and ot wluch the ear of 
imagination had never heard. 

" She WBB well made, graceful, delicate, and I'reeli, 
From head to foot omameut and splendor; 
Limpid water never reached the olearuesa of her lipe, 
No cord couM encircle her delicate waist ;. 
Her teeth in brightneas could malte the atsu-s euvioue, 
Hei smiles are proiileQ in the eye of tlie soul ; 
Rose-bude open when she smiles, 
Jewels are scattered ahout when she speaks." 


Involunt ly tl caliph Ь m 1 t n 1 f ti 1 utf 1 
creatii Bd th tl d f nt I ( 3 If) p d 1 n 

his ha d th I b b m n m I t tb co t h h t 
He ap] 1 Itii 1 n ad d f d h nt th t f 

his ha n h 1 d d th tte d t t p j f h 
apartm ta w tl i f h Ъ a iy t at h ku dly d I tt 
tive to 11 h t 

Th hph Ь gl d t f t d t 1 t 

Ahbas 1 1 dy h b& ty w n mp -нЫ d ■wh 
mind w ■« Id pt at g 1 ly f I d H dj dj has 
dofle m 1 uld n t h b n q U d f the 

pleasu t mill et nwththllbdd 

to my w y wli 1 p Hb I t t ly w thy 

of accept, Ahh Sbali pi d M y y ] 1 u b 

lasting, what kmd of present in it tliat he has made joh . The 
caliph gave Hedjadj's letter to hia sister, wherein he stated he had 
bought for twelve thousand pieces of gold and sent to him a maiden 
worthy of his honorable acceptance. His sister then said, " With 
your permission I will go and see her, aad gala her good will and 
fi-iendship." The caliph went abroad; and his sister went to Naam, 
where she saw an angel indeed in human form. " May Allah aid 
yoii," said she ; and a-sked after her health. 

nooH fi-om the вЮея ; 
! yet liiieeen?' 

Truly if one gives his heart to so precious a jewel aa you, you 
merit it; one look of yours is worth twelve thousand pieces of 
gold, and most cheap at such a price. It was the good luck of my 
brother, the caliph, that sent you to him." 

Now Abbassah's beauty was celebrated all over that country; 
but when it was brought into comparison with the union of Saam's 
charms, the moon appeai-ed eclipsed. That lady of ladies ini^uh'ed 
after hei- health, adding, " Your head was fortunate indeed that you 


iNaam dy 

eaying, f 

me, and f 


tell me I Ъ 

the ca 


astonish d 

t tl 

you not k 


should b ra tl mp f so great a soveieign " But pooi 

gl d addresbiiig Abbassih, ibkpd liei, 
t { rm tills fliy hand-maiden who sold 
I Ul. to whom does this abode belong' 
tl me of уош' own beauteous person, 
f my filiction." Abhassah was greatly 
e t and asked what it meant. "Do 

id y that it was Hedjadj, governor of 
Ciifah, who bought you foi twelve thousand pieces of gold, and 
sent you to the caliph; that this is the palace of the caJiph; and 
that I am the caliph's sister?" When Niiam heard these words 
she burst Jato teai-a and лvept bittcily, so as to wound the hean 
and liver of Abbassah. 

" The fountain of her вош'се overflowed ; 
Her liver was bvaivded like tulips, 
AinT ber teaia fell lilte morning dew." 

Abbassah was a woman of jntelligence, and she perceived tliat 
tbere must be some secret connected with Wuman; so, afcer some 
words of consolation, she arose and went to tlie caliph, and said to 
him, " O Emir of the fiuthful, a few days repose must be given 
her; delay awhile before үом go near the maiden, until she 
becomes familiar with the other slaves. 8Jie is now in low spirits ; 
leave her to hei-seJf." The caliph seemed displeased, and said, 
"Pray let a physician be summoned to the maiden." Abbassah 
answered, "On my head and eyes be it; let us see." 80 she 
began to ask every where for a physician. But let us leave Naam 
and her imfortunate condition, and return to the unbappy Numan. 
When Nuraan had the misfortnae to be separated fiom his 
mistress, and found that his faitiiful girl and beloved one did not 
return tliat night to his dwelling, his heart beat and his eyes wept 
as he bewailed her absence; and his aggrieved father lamented 



TTitb hia son the loss of his mistress. The rose-cheek of Numan's 
beauty faded like autianm leaves; and the afSicted parent, with the 
hope of ohtainiBg relief for his son's complaiat, sought a physi- 
cian. If divine wisdom guide the bumble sei'vaiit, the desire of 
the afflicted will be accomplished, and the object of his hopes be 
attained. Thus whilst the distressed father, Rehieh bin Jaber, ivas 
seated overwhelmed with giief, suddenly a voice reached his ear, 
saying, "Let him appear wbo needs an espert physician, an able 
astrologer, versed in geomancy and ttie other hidden sciences." 
This was a man who, according to the custom of the coimtiy, pro- 
claimed bis calling in the pwblic street. Kebieh at once ordered his 
servants to bring in the man; the sei-vants did as they were bid, 

1 dtdtb]Iy bf lu-mt wl Ь dhm 

thin mm dbgdflm mdyt 

I tl ffl t ft WI n tl p t pi h d 

fIN pullkwtit md w ddd 

dttlp f 1 nh tntmfdi btl 

] hi Ifmthp fl Hitl 

f I 1 ted th wh 1 m ta f h d n d 

add d T 11 m y t d 1 f 1 1 

this eaith to whose slarts his she beccme a prisoner, and is there 
any means b^ which she can be freed fiom this affliction?" 

Non the phjsiuin was in adept m the science of geomancy. 
So tal Щ some sand in his hand he scitteied and divided it, 
Itioled it lis memmg and fwice bent his head; he once more 
threw the sand agim spiead it and peicened that she was in . 
Suia He then answered the fatbei sijing Good news to youl 
f 1 the elobp of tb(s trial la united with lurt although it bears 
hea\ily upon you After your miiden kft you, she did not pass 
the lugbt m tins citi but deputed ficm it" The old man 
answered, Smce you aie чше ьЬе is in Чуиа throw once more, 
tl at we miy know m whose hou'e slie ii md who holds her in 
coiifinemenf The physician did is he vas tequested, and threw 
the sind a„ im On ехаюшш!:; it he smilmgly said, " Good news, 


180 тивк 

good news! youv maiden Ьяз Ъееп sent by tlie govemov of tliia 
country to the city of Damascus, and is полү in the palace of the 
caliph. With divine permission we will loosen this knot." The old 
man was gi'eally rejoiced at this news, and gave the physician 
large and valuable presents, assuring him that aJl he possessed 
was at bis sei-vioe, if he would only find a remedy for bis son's 
affliction. The physician replied, " You must provide whatever is 
essential for the journey; we will proceed directly to Damascus, 
where we will see what God will show us." The father gave the 
physician a thousand pieces of gold, then got ready a iramher 
of horses, and set out for Syria. After some days they reached 
the city of Damascus ; and taking lodgings in the centre of the 
city they opened a shop, which they stocked with jai-s from 
Kishan for drags and liqmds. For some days they ti'eated the 
sick who visited them for their complaints with suitsihle remedies ; 
and soon the name of the physician became celebrated throughout 
the city. Poor Numan, with the hope of finding relief from his 
grief, sat opposite the physician, consuming away like a taper and 
wholly submissive to his orders. 

One day, unexpectedly, a female slave of the caliph's palace 
gave information to Abbassah that an expei-t physician from Irak 
had visited their city, who cured the afflictions of all who applied 
to him, and prescribed remedies for every manner of disease. So 
Abbassah ordei-ed her to describe to the phyaeian poor TTaam's 
condition, "Let us see," added she, "\vbat be will do for her." 
One of the harem attendants named СяЬгталаЬ proceeded to the 
physician's shop and said to him. "I am a servant of the inner 
palace of the caUph, One of his most favored maidens is in ill 
health ; and if you can provide a remedy for her, you will be for- 
tunate, and worthy of great favor and recompense." The physi- 
cian replied, " On my head and eyes be it." After questioning 
Cahrmaaah, he assured her that the maiden had no natural disease ; 
"but," said he, "tell me her name." "Stranger," answered 
Cahrmanah, " are you a giver of medicine to the sick, oi' a seller 


of girls V The pliysioian replied, "Pardon me ■ the reason why I 
asbed the name of tiie eiclt person is th 1 1 miy see ta t miin- 
ber, imte some holy appropriate name o 1 e sta and tl un- 
dertalte the necessary remedies.'' Cah-m n ah exclaim 1 May 
God bless you ! your knowledge has 1 e n mauife ted n every 
science ; the maiden's name is Иаате, d 1 f tl e T fil At 
tbb the physician said, " Inshallah, if God pleases, his assistance 
(tev^k) will aid us." 

When poor Kuman heard this conversation, scalding icMrs fidl 
from his eyes, and involuntarily he uttered a plaintive moan. Tl;e 
physician spoke to him in his own tongue, and said, " ^ash тлЫп, 
kamush bash (divulge not, and be silent) ; nse, and hand me 
that vase of medicine." Numan obeyed ; and after the physician had 
wrapped a piece of majum (electuary) in a paper and poured some 
liquid into a jar, he told Human to tie up its mouth tightly with 
paper, and write with his own hand this direction, " Mix every 
morning a little of the liquid with Avaler, and drink it." This Ku- 
man did as directed, and then delivered the jar and paper to 

When Naam saw her lover's handwriting, ebe immediately 
sprang to her feet ; and having hastily mixed and drunk the sher- 
bet, she said to Cahimanab, " Your goodness has been recompens- 
ed : my fceai'b finds great relief from this medicine ; and if my com- 
plaint can be relieved, it will be by means of this. What kind of a 
man is this physician 1" continued she to Cahrmanah. The lat- 
ter replied, " He is just anived ft-ora Cufah, and is a man of 
estraordinary talents. 

He I гч n Ь s employ i youth ' and as she went on to describe 
his beiutiful tj n and dress Waim's eyes filled with tears, and 
she understood thit without doubl it was her lover. 

Wbibt thev weie thus enwni^pd in conversation, the caliph 


182 TUHToeii 

came to pay the maiden a yisit; and Cahrmanah said to hiiu, " O 
Prince of the faithful, an expert pliysiciaji has come to our city ; from 
bim I obtained some medicines which have Ъееа most beneficial to 
her." On hearing this, tbe caliph was greatly rejoiced, and putting 
into a puree five hundred pieces of silver he gave it to Naam, and 
bade ber send a portion of it to the physician who had benefited 
her, "His labor is not lost," continued the caliph ; " only let him 
he diligent and attentive." Ifaam tool; one bandred of tlie pieces 
and gave them to Cahnnanah, She put the remainder into a pui-se, 
with a scrap of paper, on which she wrote with her own. hand, 
" The greeting of Waam, who is separated from her beloved friend, 
her country, and her liorae." Then sealing it up she delivered it 
to Cahrmanah, who conveyed it to tlie expert physician, saying, 
"Thanks and blessings upon you; for, Inshalkb, your remedies 
have proved beneficial to our sick one, and she has regained her 
color and strength. Her heart is rejoiced, and she has sent you 
this purse," The pliysician gave the purse over to Wuman, who 
opened it ; and when he perceived the maiden's handwriting his 
senses left bim, and bis cypress form, like a shadow, strewed tbe 
ground. The physician threw rose-scented \vater in his face ; where- 
upon his senses slowly returned, and tears flowed from his eyes; 
When Oahrmanab beheld this, her heart was touched ; she wept, 
and much grieved thus addr^sed Numan, " part of rny liver, 
may they never smile who make you weep ; what, pray, can be the 

f) joy of tbe lieart mid light of the eyes, 
The envy of Peroea and jealousy of Hoorees, 
This must be a strange condition for you, 
Tliis is no common sorrow ; for 
Ou tliB mirror of your heart ia llie dust of grief, 
Aiid it seems there ia a sorrow in your breost," 

ITuman replipt!,, " 1 have found you more piteous and tender than 
рзу parents, I cm the unhappy being wliose companion Hedjadj ez 


Zalim, governor of Cufah, by means of a deceitful old woman, en- 
ticed away and sent off to the calipli. Tbis is the grief whioli baa 
separated me from my home and country, and sent me, into a sor- 
rowful exile." On hearing this Cahnnanah involuntarily sbed tears, 
and said, " Your words are true, the affliction of that beautiful 
creature is caused wholly by her separation from you." 

The physician then offered the purse to Calirmanah, saying, 
" I have no need of money or gain ; but I implore you by my gray 
hairs to favor our cause, disclose not our secret, and if in this 
affair you do us a service you will be remembered imtil death in 
our prayers." He moreover presented to Cahrmanah, for lier atten- 
tions, the humble gift of five thousand pieces of gold. Cahrmanah 
promised to peril even her life in their cause, and to bring the 
two lovers together. 

"No OOP should ett sorrow, foi Goii Kii! ijive Bid 
Perhaps a remedy mai bi> found for e^ch il! 
I will aid 3 ou as lon^ as I hve, 
Aud weep until I see vou smile " 

So taking with lipr some medicines, she went to Naam and when 
she began to conversp with Naam on the subjei t of her history, 
she soon found venfled till that Numan had said Niam wept and 
smd, "My fate under God's providence is in your hands, and my 
prayer is that you will conceal our secret." Cahrmanah asked, " Do 
you not desire to see your lover, tliat unhappy one who has been 
captivated by your locks 1" Naam replied, " Do you ask the sick 
if be wish for health? Let me once more behold his beanteous form, 
and I can die content." Cahrmanah then said, " Aiise, and bring me 
a suit of clothes." Naam did as she was desired ; and Cahrmanah, 
taking the garments in her hand, proceeded to the dwelling of the 
physician. When she asked Numan if he desired to see the 
maiden again, he answered, "Yes, be it only to look and die." 
" Arise then." said Cahrmanah, " dress yourself in that female 


184 TDiisisH Еүкткс! 

attii'e, and let us be gone ; the All-just alone has power to accom- 
plish yo\u' desires." She then dressed Fuman in a woman's guise, 
saying, " ITow offer up prayers fir eucces- " Tibi g lea f th 
physician they departed d w t t tl tnn f th p 1 
The eunuch stationed tJ ast d wl 1 mp n w 

adding, that he could itj tl t t Cl-mal 
plied that she was the ist f N m tl n 1 t f tl 
caJiph ; and so he suffer dthmtp ^Mnthjld to 

the gate of the inner court of the Harem, Cahmianah said, " I 
cannot pass beyond this, and will await you here. This passage 
bas two sides, each of which has ten rooms; take the right 
hand, count the rooms as you pass, and remember that the ninth 
is Ifaam'a, whilst the tenth is that of the caliph's sister Ahbassah, 
Do not mistake, but enter the ninth room ; and after seeing your 
mistress, return to this spot." Kumaa passed on, counting the 
apartments as he went ; but terror and embarrassment caused him 
to miss a number, and he entei-ed that of Abbassab, In it stood 
a rich throne-like sofa, and the sides of the J'oom were ornamented 
with brocade and silk. It was empty; and the unfortunate Numan, 
almost hfeless with fear, threw himself on the sofa, supposing it to 
be the apartment of Naam. 

Presently a stately aad noble pei-son, like the world-adorning 
Phcebns entered the apartment, and beheld seated there a woman 
who from fright did not rise to her feet. Ahbassah (for it was she) 
exclaimed, " What foohsh woman are you, who without permis- 
siou thus enter my apartment ?" Then acting on her Hasbemite 
generosity of character she added, " What kind of person are 
you ? let US know." Poor IS"umaa threw himself at Abbassah's 
feet, and rabbed his face imd eyes upon thera in humility. Ahbas- 
sah, on beholding this, was touched with pity, and said, " Be not 
dieted, you ai-e in a place of safety," She then uncovered Nu- 
man'a face and breast, and seeing he was a man, exclaimed in a 
tone of pity, "Unhappy man, what secret cause has reduced yon 
to this disguise : what misfortune has befallen yon? speak with 


candor and let me know the truth, for safety is in sinceiity. Who 
you are and whei'e your home is, is known from your disguise?" 
Wuman replied, " I am a wretched man ever in trouble and soitow ; 
I have seen much affliction ; my heart ia giieved and my spirit 

Numan's tears flowed from his eyes as he related all his histo- 
ry, with the eloquence of natural feeling, until Abhassali's also 
fell upon her angelic mirror-like bosom, aad she exclaimed, " 
Numan, youarenow in a place of safety; be happy." She clapped 
her hands together and called her maidens; and when they were 
come, "Hasten," said she, to one of them, "prepare me a seat ;" 
and to another, " G-o, convey my salutations to sweet Niiam, and 
invite her to come alone and see me." The maiden departed, and 
did as she was directed ; and Waaia, replying, " On ray head and 
eyes be it," arose, and came to Abbassah's apai'tment. 

Abbassah having told her maidens to make place for her, led 
Waam into the apartment, where, as soon as Numan beheld her, 
these true faithful lovers rushed into eacli other's arms, and fell 
senseless on the floor. Afahassah threw rose-water into their faces, 
and recalled them to their senses; and they both cast themselves 
at her feet, offering up many prayers for her benevolence. The 
maidens who attended upon Abbassah were greatly rejoiced for 
thar companion's sake; they took their instruments and played 
a joyous air, aecompMiying themselves with their voices ; even 
Naam forgot her past sorrows, and taking a lute in her hand, sang 
an ak appropriate to the occasion of her reunion with her lover. 

During this display of delight, lo ! the caliph himself unex- 
pectedly came to visit his new maiden ; and bearing the sound of 
music and song, he approached on light steps his sister's door, saying, 
"Barik Allah! what sweet voices m'e these?" When Abbassah 
became awai-e of his approach, she threw a shawl over Numan's 
head and advanced to meet her brother. The latter, as soon as he 
was seated, said to her, " Whatever your pastime may have been, 
pray continue it, and let us be a partaker of your joys." 80 Ab- 


186 TtmrasH EVENiira- enteriaikmenis. 

bassah mimediately baaded ber brother three cups, brim full e( 
ruby hquid, which he drank; and after it had given him plea- 
sure, she addressed him thus, " Emir of the faithful, this is our 
story : In past times thei-e was once an old man who had a heart- 
binding son, who was brought up with great delicacy; and fca- 
him he had purchased a maid, who studied with his son, was his 
constant companion, and who, in fine, for knowJedge and ac- 
complishments became the wonder of the world. One night as 
these two were amusing themselves, the governor of the city in 
which they lived, an unjust and tyi'annioa! man, happened to be 
making his rounds, and passed by tlieh' dwelling, where he beard 
the sweet voice of the maiden. On the following day, by means 
of an astute and intrigueing woman, he deceived the maiden, got 
her into his power, and sent her to the sovereign of the age as , 
a present. The youthful owner of the maiden became greatly 
distressed oa being separated from his beloved mistress, and 
devoted his life to seeking her out. By some means he obtained 
admittance into the palace whei-e she was confined, and there 
they met. In the midst of their rejoicings, and the mutual reci- 
tal of the sufferings they had experienced during their separation, 
the sovereign himself suddenly entered the room; and on behold- 
ing them he, without delay or asking any questions, drew his swoni 
and put them both to death on the spot. This is all we can 
expect of an ignorant sovereign who never inquires into the merits 
of an affair; but what do you thiuk he should have done?" The 
caliph replied, " What a strange and ignorant fellow he must have 
been ; the two unfortunate persons were excusable, he should there- 
fore have learnt their stoi-y, aided the accomplishment of their de- 
sires, and prevented tyranny. But he was of a bad nature and 
an ignora t 

АЬЬаьь h th 1 un d Emir el Mumeneen, generosity 

and benev 1 an 1 ntan of the tribe of Koraisb. Tell 

me ; should h t occur in your reign and under 

your emp by th 1 f j ш noble fm-efathers, what would 


rs. 18V 

joudo?" The caliph replied, " I sweai- that were I convinced 
that the condition of tbe individuals was such as you describe, I 
would bestow many gifts upon then», send them back to their 
country, attd punish the governor who, whibt it was his duty to 
prevent injustice to Mussulmans, did the revei'se," 

Abbassah thaated and blessed the caliph, kissed his hand, and 
said, " May the shadow of your justice and penetration never pass 
by the innocent." Then suddenly throwing off the shawl from 
over Numan, " Behold," s^d she, '* O Prince of the faithful, the 
afflicted youth, the siibject of my tale ; and this is the maiden who 
was so cruelly separated from her lover. Hedjadj ев Zalim treated 
thom as I described; and is it proper tliat he should endeavor with 
a lie to cause your aoble se!f to commit sin? power is in your own 
royal hands." 

The caliph, overcome with surprise and emotion, suddenly 
arose, and taking the maiden from Ahbassah's hands gave her up 
to Human, dressed him in a robe of honor, and placed him in the 
rank of bis militaiy officers. He dismissed Hedjadj ez Zalim from 
bis government, and appointed the physician in his place; and 
after learning from him his true condition, said, " Blessed be God ; 
how dear must tiaith be to you, seeing that you chose to incur 
difficulty and danger for its sake." He also questioned Cab-manah; 
and finding her faithful and true, he bestowed on her one thousand 
dirheras. Under the shadow of the caliph's favor she never knew 
adveraity, and the pity which she bad felt for the two lovers was 
converted into joy. As for Hedjadj, on being dismissed from hia 
offioe he soon sank into poverty and wretchedness. 



poiideace, and excel iu good breeiliag. 

It is related tliat one of the Arab kings, a prince of humble 
extraction, named Melek ibin Mehleb, appointed the celebrated 
and bi"aye Emir Hedjadj ez Zalira his general in chief, and sent 
him against the tribe of the Khavaridj. The benevolent Emir sub- 
dued that evil band, killed the gi'eater pajt of them, and captured 
their wives and children. He abo took an incalcTilable amount of 
bootj, to inform himself respecting which the Melek sent him a 
niessenger of much eloquence. This person having arrived, Hedj- 
adj inquired of him, " brother Arab, how did you leave the 
Emir Melek ibitt МеЫеЬ V To which the other repUed, " I found 
him thus, — hie friends ia the greatest mblh possible, and his evil 
wishers overwhelmed with sorrow and grief" Hedjadj sшked 
how be beliaved toward the troops. The man answered that 
he was moderate in his disposition, and on very Idnd terms with 
their officers. Hedjadj then asked what was his affection and 
regard for the Kayahs ; and the messenger answered, it was just 
Ube that of paients for their cliildren. Hedjadj next inquired 
how he behaved in time of battle ; and the messenger replied 
that he did not know either bodily pain or the sensation of fear. 
Hedjadj then said, " How does he conduct himself in seasons of 
relasalionV The messenger replied, "The world in bis eyes is 
less than a rose-leaf, and he values riches no more than the 
dust." Hedjadj agsun asked, " In short, what is the nature of 
his mind and capacity ?" Tlie man replied, " It is like a cir- 
cle, of whiob the begiiming and end are unknown, and whose 
head and feet are not to be found." Hedjadj pr.iised the bre- 
vity of the ambassador's replies, and remarked that he was a 
magaane of secrets. Then addressing those who were witb hiiu. 


be said, " This maa's sharp and subtle language has amazed me. 
He has raised roses in the garden of my heart, in favor of him 
who sent him; and his ready wit gives me a perfect idea of the 
modest and superior mtelligenoe of Ibin Mehleb." He then ex- 
pressed to the envoy his high opinion of him, and clothed him 
in a dress of honor besides presenting him many other gifts. 

An accoont of a conversation between a philosopher of India 
and Alexander of the two hoi-ns, (Alexander the Great,) a mon- 
arch distinguished for bis equity and justice, unrivalled for wisdom 
and mtelligence, and a sovereign well versed in the knowledge of 
the true and practical Aristotle, This learned master was a disciple 
of the divine and equally learned Plato. It is related by him that 
Alexander's father Phihp temporized with Darius, who at that 
same period was abo a great sovereigo, and, to prevent any dispute 
and war between them, annually sent Daviua a thousand eggs of 
gold of a certain known iveight, tlu'ough which giffa he kept up 
a good understanding between them. When Philip quitted this 
life, his son Alexander ascended the throne. His mind and in- 
telligence were perfect, and for knowledge and courage he was 
unique in his age, so much so that his renown daily increased, and 
spread over the whole world. As he did not send to Darius the 
tribute which the latter had received from his father, Darius sent 
him a messenger, demanding the cause of the delayed remittance. 
Alexander wrote to him in reply, that the hen wliich had laid the 
golden eggs was dead; but thathev son who held her place, being 
deeply versed in the arts and sciences, would not frul, if Darius desir- 
ed it, to present him in their stead with some jewels made of bril- 
liant Damascus steel. When the messenger with this answer 


геаоЪей Darius, the fire of his rage becoiomg lighted, he ехсЫш- 
ed that it was necessary to teach Alexander his limits, and to 
punish him for his audacity; and with this view he marched a 
large army against him. Thus war was waged between them, 
which ended in the death of Darius. Alexander becoming vic- 
torious over his father's old enemy, no one remained to oppose 
him ; so that he extended Ыз empire and dominions over all the 
adjoinmg parts, and their inhabitants submitted to his sway. 

When Alexander had concluded the war with Darius, and had. 
conquered Jiis kingdom, tbeie was a great soveieign reigning in 
India, named Keebed, to whom A!ex^,nder addie^sed letters con- 
taining these demands, " Submit to me, and send me every year a 
fised sum of money as tribute ; by which means you will enjoy 
most perfect quiet and tranquillity. Be also leady to do this forth- 
with, so that I may point you out as an example to others. " 

Now when Alexaader's letter reached Keebed, he read and 
comprehended its contents; for he was a wise and good sovereign, 
He лте11 knew Alexander's power and worth ; so he showed regard 
and cons delation for hs m^s eager and to his missne replied 
' The piobabihty of our not sulmittmg to the great lulei of 
the imiverso oi standing; in opprsition to him в deterred So 
hp sent him some piesents such as were never before known 
to be collected togethei by any one s (ereign Among the e 
■ms a mobt beautiful Pe)i,e like maiden the like of whom has 
ne^ei l"een seen mce the sun of the world commenced hia 
revohmg CDui-se Anotl bi wi4 a pblosophei of most remark 
able wisdim of an eagei di position and generosity of cha 
laoter who m consequence of the fineness of his mental struc 
tuie knew the contents of another s mind before making tdj mqui 
ries of him; and who could g^ve correct explanations of another's 
thoughts. Another present was a most learned physician, who, for 
his power of preserving health and curing diseases, followed next 
to the Messiah. He was a most perfect master of the science of 
medicine; the remedies which he applied for the most difficult of 


TtrBKISH b^E41Nlr LVlERliibME Г^ 191 

diseases brought dd and lehef to eveiy ailment but that of fate; 
and the very dust of 1ич feet wis woi thy of being a crown for the 
most learned sage. Another piesi nt was a cup, which remained 
ever filled. All the cieatmes on the face of the earth, perhaps 
even the army of Alexandpi, m fine all manlimd and the Perees, 
might drink out of it ■nithout lessening its contents one drop. All 
these objects he offered to Alexander, as a mark of his resjiect, and 
sent them each in charge of one of his own attendants, over whom 
one was appointed as their chief. When the Indian Sultan's mes- 
sengers reached Alexander, he gave them a flattering reception, 
and lodged them m a rich palace. On the following day they had 
the honor of deUvering the presents to Alexander. He had assem- 
bled all his principal men, ministers, and committees of state in a 
great divan; and before these the Indian Sultan's messengers pre- 
sented their gifts. The madden was first offered ; and all pi-esent, 
having once fixed their eyes upon her beautifo! features, were una- 
ble to remove them to any other object. Even Alexander became 
greatly enamored of her ; he appointed her to be over all his other 
maidens and las whole household of §iils bfcame submissive to her. 
Then thit uniqup king oideibd the eiudite philosopher to be 
tried before buno brought bpfoie him hp had him lodged in a 
high dwelling wheie the tiial ivai to take place For this pur- 
pjie he had a lai^'e cup filled to ib, bnm with bbiified oil, so 
full thit not anothei diop could be put into it. This ciip he had 
sent to the Indian philosophT who when he saw it, put a thou- 
sand needles into tbe oil and retuined it to Alexander. Alexander 
oi'dered the needles to be melted, run mto the form of a globe, and 
returned to the philosopher, who changed the shape of the globe, 
and casting it into the form of a pure mirror, sent it back to the 
soverdgii. Alexander next put the mirror in a plate of pure water, 
and sent it to the philosopher. The latter changed it into an 
unequalled bottle; and putting it into the dish filled with water, it 
floated on its surface. This he sent tti Alexander, who emptied 
the bottle of its water, filled it up with eaj'ih, and returned it to 


the phiioaophei ih*" philo%jphei oa ьее ng it chmged Lolor 
and wept aEd full of giief and despair letumed the bottle to 
Alexaoder just as he had leceived it 

On the following diy Alexmdei assembled a gteat йпчв and 
called together аП hia learned men- He also sent for the philoso- 
pher, who presented himself before the honored assembly. As he 
was appriraehing, Alexauder fixed his eyes closely upoa his form, 
and remarked that he was a man of tall stature, lai'ge frame, hand- 
some couatenance, and of large hands. Hethoughtto himself, "This 
flgm'e being inconsistent with science, his handsome form shows a 
character for perspicacity, ardor, and spirituiility," As he revolved 
these thoughts in his mind, the philosopher observed hira atten- 
tively, rubbed a ring against hia cheek, ;ind aftei'wavds placed it 
agdnst hie nose; then with a qiuck step approaching Alexander, 
he offered him such compliments as are addressed to sovereigns. 
Alexander showed him great respect and attention ; aad bidding 
him be seated, they entered into convei-salion. He inquired of the 
philosopher what was the object of bia rubbing the ring upon bis 
cbeelE as he approached bim, and afterwards placing it against his 
nose. To which the philosopher i-eplied, "I observed that your 
majesty noted my personal appearance in a maimer which seemed 
to say, "They have sent me this man on account of his insinuatmg 
form, for it is rare to see knowledge combined with such fair pro- 
portions.' I, for this reason, and to verify the accuracy of your 
judgment, inljmated by my gesture that I was truly one of a hun- 
died, even as there is but one nose on a face.* 

The Zul liiii-nwn (posaesser of the two bonis or mler of a 
period), greatly pleased with the philosopher's wise explanation, 
said, " I sent you a cup filled with pure oil ; what was your 
idea in putting needles into it V ITie philosopher answered, " You 
observed that I was so filled with divine sciences that there was 
no room for another atom ; and I aaswered, that I judged you 
wei-e both filled with my wisdom, and instigated by many escel- 

» In Turkish the same word (уоог) теаи.ч botli " face " and '■ kimdted." 


lent examples, just as the needles found a place among the 
pure oil." 

Alexander then asked, " When I sent yoii tbe same needles 
formed into a globe, what was your object in retui-ning them to 
me shaped and polished like a minor ?" The philosopher replied, 
" You had said that the destruction of life and the shedding of 
blood had suiToimded your heart with the rust of afliiction, and 
there was no longer any thing left you besides the love of science. 
I answered that I would change your sensible character, through 
good and pleasant means ; and that the bright mirror is to you, 
what an atom is to the sun." 

Alexander next remained, "I had put tie globe under water; 
whilst you flattened it out and gave it a coneave form. Tou then 
placed it on the same irater, there turned it, and thus returned it 
to me. I poured out the water, filled the vessel with eartb, and 
sent it back to you ; and when you beheld this, not being able to 
do any thing moi*, you commenced weeping, and sent it back to 
me untouched. Pray what was the cause of your weeping ?" 
The philosopher replied, " Your idea in putting the globe into the 
dish of water and sending it to me, was to show that the days of 
your life were drawing to a close, and that I understood how 
difE.cult it was i» the days of ease to acquire many sciences. Now, 
great lord, let it be known to you that much may be done, by pro- 
per means, ui these days of ease, and in a short space of time. 
Tliia is seen by the globe, which, being put under the water, came 
to the surface, floated, and shone brightly there." Alexander 
spoke aud said, " But what is the answer to the earth ?" The 
philosopher replied, " Your object relative to the eaith was evi- 
dently to show that the end of all things is death and corruption, 
and you asked whether there was any way to prevent it. But as 
I could propose no remedy, I wept involuntarily to think that every 
soul that places his foot on the temporary palace of this life must 
drink from the hand of destiny and pass away into the other world. 
Fortunate is the person who spends a fcлv days with ease and com- 



fort ill the great house of this fleeting жойб.; and whose good 
deeds are mentioned and Ыз memory spoken of with pleasure after 
he is gone." 

The great and powerful Alexander praised the philosopher, and 
would have given him innumei-able presents ; hut he refused them 
all, exeuang himself thus, " Were I in the least degree to seek 
after worldly goods, I should lose my possession of that divine 
knowledge which is a gift from аЬоүе. Now having aecomplished 
my duty to Alexander, I have but a word or two more to say." 
" Speak," replied Alexander. The philosopher continued, " sove- 
reign of the world ! you afe the master of the peisons of all the 
dwellers in the habitable quarter of this globe, who ha\e submit- 
ted to your rule. Now, do whatever is your will, but be careful 
that yon are master of theur hearts also ; for thdt, j ou must know, 
is the possession in which true royal power and i\ealth consist." 
Alexander, in return for the philosopher's council and advice, made 
liim sit on a silver throne at his side, strewed him over with pearls, 
and made hint a thousand excuses for the poorness of the gift. 
May the Most ffigh have mercy upon him ! 

.ffl, of the ill-omened family of Jcnghiz, after the 
the death of his father Oktay Khan, ascended his throne in 
the month of Eebia el Akher and the six hundred and forty- 
tlUrd year of the Flight. Having joined the Isavian* (Christian) 

1 Ья (Je» 



religion, he endeavored hard to propagate that aholisbed rite,* and 
NasariniarQ (fl nst jn ty) d^ly strengthened itself in bis heart. 
The iniqmtous Na aim jiieata collected aroundhim ; and while he 
debased the proles^ors of Islamism, he exalted and aggrandized 
these hlasphemers One of these priests, who had much influence 
over him constantly Ubored agmnst the Islamites, and devised 
measures to ruin the white nation of the Prophet, which may the 
Moat High preserve fixjin sorcery and divination. He kept urg- 
ing Kepeut Khan utterly to destroy tliat people. But the Khan 
did not adopt his advice ; for he bnew that they were very nume- 
rous. At length he one day came to tiiat accursed Kepeub Khan 
and represented to him that he had devised a new plan. Kepeuk 
Khan ioquired what it was ; and the graceless fellow replied, that 
it was to mate eunuchs of nil the Mussulmans and their sons, so 
that they would naturally cease to be a people, and thus the creed 
of Isa, on whom be peace, would prevail. Kepeuk Khan approved 
of this plan, and for its execution caused a decree to be sent on 
the subject throughout the country over which he ruled. That 
odious Khan one day assembled a numerous divan (or council). 
All the priests who had planned the affah' took up the orders 
which had been proposed, inquired what they contained, read 
them, and, after sealing them with the tamghd (sign manual) of 
Kepeuk Khan, left the divan in great joy. The Khan was about to 
expedite the persons who had been appointed to convey the said 
orders to Iran and Tooran, when divine aeal and a prophetic mir- 
acle evinced itself according to the holy verse of the Koran : 
" Their pride upon this earth and their iniquitous fraud, "f and the 
tradition of the prophet, on whom be peace: "0 God send one 
of your dogs upon him." A dog suddenly mshed upon him, 
which first tore up the orders that were in his hands, and then 
mutilating him in a shameful manner with his teeth, fled away 
over the plains and disappeared from sight. 

• It will be remembered thai Mohiimmcd abolished all religiojia but hie 


Verily he that draws a diigger ugainat another shall receive il 
point in his оута breast. 

Says Sahibi Tiibakat, In the year six hundred and forty-eight 
I was travelling on business of a commercial nature, from Ehovas- 
siin to Hindustan, in company with the master Reshid ed Deen, 
and the Haldm of Belkee, a most learned person. On the way I 
asbcd him to relate to me something strange \vhich he had seen 
or heard during his travels ; and the Khodjah told the following 

" A son of a Mussnlman, an inhabitant of Termuz, became a 
prisoner in the hands of an infidel Mogul. The boy by readmg 
the glorious Koran became possessed of a most noble exterior; and 
the MogoJ, obsei-ving his uigenuousness and capacity, spared no 
pains in his education. When he had reached the age of 
puberty he confided all bis aff.iirs to him, givmg him such full 
authority that he became the envy of his equals ; bo much so that 
the Mogul's relations and friends spread the seeds of destruction 
upon the soil of envy for that tender Mussulman plant. They waited 
patiently for an opportunity of satisfying their evil mtentions; until 
at length the Mogul died, having ordered in his wiil that sevei-al 
of the prettiest gh'Is In bis Seray (palace) should be interred with 
him ahve. 'When yon bury ше,' said be, 'put them in my 
grave with my body, and close up the door.' Up to the time of 
, the KeuBghun sovereign's being blessed with the true faith, this rite 
was perfomied; but he abolished it. Now the Mogul's envious 
relatives, having hidden their vengeance ia their breasts for such a 
length of time, were all united in the design of interring the youth 
in the place of the ^rls ; and he, being helpless, performed the 


ffhoosool (rite of ablution) and with gi-eat grief was put into the 
tomb. Its door was closed up, and his satisfied enemies, leaving 
the wretched youth to hia lot, departed. The young man rubbed 
his face «pon the earth, and in deep affliction asked aid of Him 
who supplies the wants of all mankind, as it is written in the holy 
Book ; ' Say, who will save you from the darkness of the land and 

"Aid was sent bim from above; for suddenly a light appeared 
ia оне coraer of the cave, and two frightful figures with burning 
torches in their hands came to the deceased iofidel and sti'uck him, 
so that the fire from their torches was scattered about the vault. A 
spai'k of the size of a pia's head struck the wretched young man's 
face and burnt him uj on which one of the two beings cried out, 
' Th€sre must be a Ыи sulm i heie ;' and asked, ' Who are you ?' 
To which the young min rep] ed 'I am an unfortunate Mussul- 
man, who fell a piisonei mto the hands of an infidel.' He who 
had addi'essed bim struck one comer of the cave with his torch ; 
and a hole opened th ough which it was easy to escape. Then 
turning to the youth he mide i ign for him to go out. He did 
as he was bid, and found J imself m the plain of Termuz, which is 
distant from the place of bui-ial three month's march of a caravan 
travelling day and night." 

The raj'ah added, "I became acquainted with that young man 
at Termuz, and heard this story from bim, without the interme- 
diation of any thb'd party; and, in fact, I saw the bnrnt scar on 
his face." 


It is nan'atee! thtit once ivben the great stud generous Siiijoo- 
kide sidtan Jelal ed Deen Meielt Shall bin Arelaii, was hunting in 
the neighborhood of Ispahan, he alighted from his horse at a most 
beautiful spot covej-ed with verdure ; where amusing himself with 
his companions, each one set out in a different direction in search 
of game, until they perceived several unfortunate calves grazing on 
the plain. Meeting with a cow, they wounded, flayed, cooked, and 
ate her on the spot. Soon afterwards the noble sultan, being in 
great good humor, mounted liis courser and retumiDg to his royal 
residence. aiTivcd with all his troops, officers, and attendants at в 
bridge, over which he intended to pass. He there beheld an aged 
man seated on the bridge, who, as soon as his eyes fell upon the 
person of the padishah, arose, crossed the road, and taking his 
horse's reins in his hands, commenced crying out aloud, " just 
sovereign and sultan of good character,, your bumble servant has 
several young orphan children, for whose nomishment he pos- 
sessed a cow, which has been hunted down and eaten. A whole 
day and night my children have been crying for food ; but having 
no longer any atrengtb left, I know not what to do for them. If 
you, with all your power and glory will be just, defer not what is 
my light and due until to-morrow; else when you come to the Serati 
Mustakim (a narrow bridge over which the faithful must pass on 
the judgment day), I will lay hold of your skirt, overwhelm you with 
shame and contrition, and demand justice in the presence of the 
Eternal Avenger for the way in which you have dealt towards 
me." The old man wept as he uttered these words, and his tears 
wounded the hearts of all the padishah's troops. The Sultan^ 
Melek Shah dismounted from his horse, and excusing himself, said, 
"0 venerable man, I declare that I had no knowledge of the injus- 
tice done you." He then replaced the old man's cow, with seventy 



others, each of which gave milk. Havmg thita with the hand of 
benefit gained the good will oE the old man, and received his pray- 
ers in his hebalf, he remounted his horse and returned to the city. 
Some time aft«r this, when Jelil ed Been Malek Shah departed 
from this transitory woild for the pahce ot eternity, the same old 
man came to his tomb, accompamed by his orphan children; and 
overwhelmed in tears and ^riet, they rubbed their faces upon its 
earth. Then 1-шат^ his head, Asilh fei-veut heart and weeping 
eyes he thus addiei'-ed that i Duit wheie wuit is never felt : 

" O God, I Bwear by thy patli, which is the true one ; by thy faithfa] ones who 
are uow aervanls iii Ihy court; by (he teais of iunocent orphaiis; by 
the sighs of the aged aud oppressed ; by that eubmission which is obh- 
galory on as ; and by thy great bounties, which are not promised in the 

King and Most High, and Sovereign who decreases not ! 
on the day when your servant Melek Shah, feai'ful of your punish- 
ment, had pity ироа our condition, and answeied our petition for 
justice by releaang us from the oppression we had experienced, 
he changed our gtief into joy. We therefore implore thee, thou 
who art the most piteous of the pitiful, that through the incalcula- 
ble treasury of thy grace he be not excluded from admission into 
Paradise, but with great mercy be pardoned and made happy." 

By Divine will, some of the most glorious of the saints after- 
wards seeing Melek Shah in their dreams, they asked him how he 
was in the other world, and how he stood in the presence of the 
All-just; and they say that the happy sultan, thanking and bless- 
ing God, rephed, " The prayers of that old man have gained me 
the blessing and pity of God ; for it is written in the holy tradi- 

"God shows mercy to those wlio ate merciful; do Uierefote meioy to 


those who УГО on the earth, that thoso who v.- 


It is related that in the time of the Benee Israel (Israelites) 
there were two brothers of great celebrity. Each оне was the 
sovereiga of a sepai'ate countrj. One was a paternal and juat 
goyemor, possessed of a good disposition and pure faith; whilst 
the other was so very tyrannical and oppressive, that thorns sprang 
up in pbce of roses, and his bitter words were as so many snates. 
In the days of these two sovereigns there was a prophet engaged 
in inviting mMkind to his faith, and in pointing out the true reli- 
gion. The Most High had also granted to this prophet the know- 
ledge that the just sovereign who followed in the ways of God 
had but thirty years longer to live. The good prophet gave infor- 
mation of the diviue decree to the subjects of thb king. All of 
them were in consequence in great grief : their hearts burned with 
sighs and sobs, and they were much afflicted, and felt pity for him. 
Whilst those who had the misfortune to be under the nde of the 
merciless tyrant wept with the others, and prayed to Allah that 
he would not permit them to suffer thirty yeara more of bis op- 
pression. Finally the subjects of those two kings assembled toge- 
ther, and sepaj-ated all the sucking infants and other children from 
their mothers; so that both parents and cliildi'en lamented the in- 
fliction to which they were exposed, and begged that the life of the 
just king might be prolonged, and that of the tyrannical one cut 
short. They spent three days, in this manner, praying to the All- 
merciful. On the fouith day the great and glorious God made a 
revelation to the same prophet, and commanded liim to give the 



good news to the aggrieved, tliat, according to his HSiial mercy 
towards his servants, he bad accepted tJieir prayers, and had given 
thirty years of the tyrannical king's life to the just one; also tliat 
he had given the former three yeare of time to prepare for death. 
At this all the people were rejoiced, and offered up innumerable 
prayei-a and thanbs to God for his mercy. Three years afterwards 
the Boiil of the merciless sovereign was called away to J'ehennem, 
(bell), and found a place there for his excessive oppressions. The 
just king lived yet tliit-ty years, which were taken from the life of 
the former, comporting himself well, and being finally placed in an 
exalted position in the other world. The protection which he 
showed to the poor and weak was the cause of his felicity, both in 
this world and in the other. 

" O heart altached to justice etrive to execute it; strive to refrain from all 
falBSJieaa aud hypocrisy ; hang out the Ьвлпег of juelice on the roof of 
the palace of accomplishment ; lead thy etepe into happy lands and ways. 
The learned, eo вв to bind the fate of nations, taught this to Alexander 
(the Great), namely to acquire a knowledge of allscentE, tliat he might ho 
able to diaiinguisli the false from tlie true, and thiia find out the real 


Concerning the submission to the commands of the Lord, the 
respect shown to the Law of the Prophet, the regard paid to 
the rights of Mtisstilmans, the zeal for Islamism, the religion, and 
the equity of Sultan Selah ed Deen bin Ayoob. 

On the decline of the Fatimite dynasty, the reign of Sultan 
Selah ed Deen bin Ayoob, a prince unriviilled for piety and jus- 
tice, became most eminent in Egypt and Damascus. After the 


202 TURKISH HVKKiKCi вятедтл1ММЕЫтй. 

martjrdom of he paternal uncle, Noor ed Deeii, he hecame an 
independent sovereign, and reigned with (he above mentioned qua- 
lities over Mosul, Haleb, Damascus, Egypt, and Yamin, He was 
a strict observer of the Holy Law. In the history entitled Tarikh 
er Ravzeta'ia fi Abhbar ed DeTletam, it is stated by the chief judge 
Shafiay, that a slave belonging to a merchant residing in Diar- 
Beiir escaped from his master, and was sold from one band 
to another imtil he was brought at last to Egypt, and was disposed 
of to the Sultan Selah ed Deen. He was employed in the sultan's 
service; and becoming a favorite mth the sultan, be attained the 
rank of vizh-, in which he died. As he had no children, his inhe- 
ritance fell to his master the sultan. He left a fortune of eighty 
thousand pieces of gold. 

Some time aft«r his death his former master heard of it. Taking 
the proper documents with him from Diar-Bekir, he travelled to 
Damascus, where he exhibited his proofs and receipts at the holy 
Mehkemeh, (court or tiibunal of justice,) and, having had them 
properly authenticated, continued on to Egypt, He wentto the resi- 
dence of the chief judge of that period, entered his reclamations, 
and exhibited his titles. The judge told him that his claim was a 
good one, and returned the documents to him, adding, tliat though 
his adversary was a pei-son of high rank, he was one who devoutly 
respected the laws of the Holy Book. " Come to-moiTow," said 
he, " and present your statement before the comioil ш the castle, 
and let us see what will be done." The man departed; and on 
the day following the judge went to the divan, where, while 
engaged in conversation with the sultan, he informed the latter 
that a legal adversary had just appeared and filed a complaint 
against him. The man himself now entering the divan, the judge 
arose from the sultan's side, and, after pointing out the indivi- 
dual as his advei-sary, left him, and seated himself in his own 
place. The claimant presented his petition to the sultan, who 
read it, and saying to the man, " Let ns subject the matter to the 
Holy Law," left his seat and repaired with him before the judge. 



They both stood up before him ; and after the judge had hstened 
to the suit, lie thus addressed the sovereign : " Molana Sultan, 
a slave belonging to this man fled from him. Having subsequent- 
ly heard of him, he has produced his papers in this court and 
proved his claim," The sultan replied, " The slave acquired all 
his goods and wealth while with me. What says the Holy Law on 
the subject ?" "Duiing all that time," repUed the judge, " the 
slave was the property of this man ;" and he cited the verse of 
the Koran which says : " The slave can po^ess r.otliing but by liis 
master." The suILan acquiesced in the holy justness of the sen- 
tence, and returning, he seated himself in his own place, where 
lie ordered that the whole of the property left by the deceased 
slave should be delivered to the man. 

All those present blessed the sultan This man possessed two 
fieehold estates {тиЩ These the sidtan purchased of him for 
ei^ht thousand dmare, foi the paipose of converting them into 
pious foundations (vakoof), and paid the money for them. But he 
afterwaid piesented them again to the man, saying, "Tlie public 
may possibly say that the propeity -ftas worth more, and that the 
sultan obtained them at tno low a puce , and as what occasions 
discontent does not suit me, I have leturnedtlieni." 

Behold what a just soveieign, and firm supporter of equity 
and leligion , and see m this, an mstance of the degree of sub- . 
««■-вюп which is due to the Holy Law May the Most High 
h<i\e mticy on them all ' 


ni'i ^tEi&nBOii.Hooii. 
It IS relitcd t! it o гсс among tlie benevolent men iliere was a 
weflthy mercliaat ivho bvedm the ndglibojhooii of a patient, self- 
resijjUed Dervtsl Oi « day a young son of the merchant went 
into the Denihs dwelling at a moment when the latterwas 
taking ■% meaJ vnth his wile The boy, child-like, looked on as 
if ho pxpe^ted to be itmttd to join them ; but this not being 
done he returned weeping to his home. The merchsmfc inquiring 
of 1 m the ciu^e of his tears he replied that he had been at the 
house of the Deivi&h ivblst he was eating, and wanted some of 
their food The meichint much pdned arose and went to the 
Deivishs Ьтаве where he a&ked whether it was right for hiia 
whilst eating not to ask a child that stood by and saw him, to taste 
a morsel of his meal. He added, " Had you satisfied his desire, 
he would not have wept in the manner he did, nor have given me 
pain." The Dervish e.tcused himself, saying that a secret not 
wortJiy of being told was the cause of his not asbing the child to 
partake. The merchant, not considering himself fully answei-ed, 
asked what the secret was. "Let us know it ;" said he. The 
Dervish replied, " For the sake of Allah pai-doii ws, and bring not 
the veil of our honor to the dust." But the merchant insisting 
the more, the Dervish continued, "Pray be not the cause of expos- 
ing our secret ;" and recited these verses r 

" O thou who mountest a delicate aiiimal, beware lest thou become fee- 
ble in that mud aad water. Desire not fire йвт the house of the poor 
man J for Ihe amoke from his windows is the giief of hie heart." 

The old man was gi-eatly troubled, and rephed, " You must cer- 
tainly let us know it." The Dervish now desperate, said, " The 
food on which wo fed is /tailed (legitimate) to me and my wife, but 
forbidden to all others ; and that is the true reason why I did not 



off any f t to 11 Merchant replied, " Subhhan 

Allah Bl d b C d (. 1 tlien be legitimate to one, 

and f b dd n to otbe ! Tl Denisli answered, " Yes ; for 
the Ө tb e d ) p I ha not had sufficient strengtb to gain 
food he w 1 to ppo t natu e But going oiit this morning 
wjtl n mpti 1 and I ion d on a certain pile of ruins the dead 
body ot an s I ! Й and cooked a piece of its flesh ; nnd- 
wh 1 1 1 nd y f e e t t your child came in. This 
isth I Го ft 

d joy ; bal how knoweat thoii how 


Wl e tbe old m li t 1 a d tl from the Dervisli, lie threw 
h n If at I f et and w 1 1 iyvah !" said he, " if the M<ffit 
H i at the lay ot j dgm t and pentance asks after him who 
li ed unde t! e ввтө shade n th me, how shall I answer bim ?" 
He then took the Dervish's hand iii his own ; and leading him to 
his own dwelling, he divided his wealth with bim, giving one half 
to the Dervish, and keeping the other for liimself. 

That niglit the merchant saw the Sultan of prophets, on whom 
be peace, in his sleep. He told him that the intercession made in 
his favor by the prayers of the Dervish had been received at the 
court of eternity; that his ivealth in this world had been blessed 
to him ; and that in the other be would enjoy half the felicity of 
his neighbor the Dervish. 

Now the sultans and exalted hakims, as well as others in 
ofBce who have it in their power to do good, are required to infoim 
themselves of the condition of their subjects and the poor; and, 
by attending to their w;mls, to endeavor to lessen and assiwge 
them with a suiiiciency ; so that on the morning when secret 
things are made public, in the presence of that Judge who asks 
not what h;ii! he? n done, they be not exposed to the fangs of pun- 
ishment snd torture. 




It is related of that just prince, tbe Icing of Damascus, Melek 
Salih, that every night he went about the city in disguise, inquir- 
ing into the condition and circumstances of the poor. One very cold 
.night, when every one was frozen with the snow and rain that fell, 
he heard, as he was maltrng his rounds, a voice proceeding from a 
oonyent. On approaching it he perceived a naked Dervish, trembling 
with the cold, and crying out, " O Allah, the sultans of the world, 
and the governors over the sons of Adam, make their innumerable 
gifts The source of selfish happiness; and whilst sun-onnded by 
their power, pride, and enjoyment, they seek not to know, but neglect 
thy poor and needy servants. If, at the last day, these insolent peo- 
ple should, through thy gloiy and grandeur, enter Paradise, and 
be counted wo th) of its tranquillity, I seek not nor do I desire to 
set my toot therein 

Melek Salih ed Deen approached this poor Dervish with weep- 
ing eyes and se idmg for a purse of silver and a dre^, lie fell at 
bis feet and concilnted his good will, and s^d, "It is cei'tmn that 
dervishes at the list day (lit. to-morrow) must be sovereigns in 
Paradise tleiefoie let us in our princedom associate with you 
to-day m tbs woild We now come to you in peace; and it is 
our hope tilt to mo o yo nlso wlen in the enjoyment of 
your sove J w 1 ot close tl e door ot amity against us, but, 

besfo vmg o fa o pon us 1 1 eat u. 'ith peace and affection. 



On the subject of great benevolence, dclicaey of chiiiactev, nobleness, 
and pride. 

It is related of one gifted witb tlie characteristic of great be- 
nevolence, namely, Omar bin Hamrali, tliat one day lie visited Mau- 
soor, one of the Abbaside caliphs ; nnd whilst conversing with 
him, a man came in to complain of his conditio». Mansoor said, 
" Men zulmek, who has oppressed yon?" He replied, "Omar 
has seized upon a village belonging to me, which he has pillaged 
and keeps possession of." Turning to Om:ir, the Prince of the 
faithful commanded him to rise and stand up with bis adversary. 
Said Omar, " If the village belongs to him, 1 have no cause of 
, altercation with him. If I am in theright, be witness to the fact: 
t it to him for nothing ; let him therefore go and 
n of it. I prefer to give up a hundred suoli ullages, 
■a every present which the Prince of the faithful has 
e bonor to make me, rather than rise np to contend in his 
presence." Barih Allah ! God be praised ! this is the way to 
show the respect due to rank, and the regard that belongs to those 
who are in high places. 

One day the calipli Seffah was conversing witli 0mm Selraeh on 
the subject of the delicacy and benevolence of Omar bin Ilarorah ; 
when 0mm Selmeh asked that he might be sent to her, so as to 
give her an opportunity of seeing him. " I \vii! give him," said 
she, " my jewelled chaplet with fifty thousand dinars. Let us see 
whether he will accept it. If he does, he lias no delicacy of feel- 
ing, and we will ascertain the fact." So Seffah sent Omar to Omm 
Selmeh, who, during the interview showed him every mark of re- 
gard and respect, and asked him whether the chaplet which she 



held in her hand would suit him. " If it does," added she, " pray 
accept it from me," She then offered it to Omar, who, from mo- 
tives of civility, did not decline it : but when he arose to go, he left 
it behind him. 0mm Selmeh, supposing he had forgotten it, sent it 
after him by one of her people, who, having found him, delivered 
it te hira. Omar toot it ia liia hand, and made a present of it to 
the servant who brought it. When Omm Selmeh learnt this, she 
praised Omar's great benevolence, and purchased the chaplet 
bacli again from tlie servant for five thousand pieces of gold. 

It is related tliat when Abd Allah bin Tahir became governor 
(yialee) of Egypt, one of the nobles of Egypt sent one night as a 
pr^ent to tlie former one bond ed maiden slaves eich c^njmg a 
plate filled with gold. Ibin Tabu lead the note sent vitli the 
present, and then wrote on the back ot it A present from jou 
which can be received at night cin be also reoened durmg the 
day ;" adding also, in Arabic What God has given me is better 
than your gift; perhaps уош ^ift has ocui'.onel jou nioie plea 
sure than to me." And thus 1 e lefi'.i.d the ofteiing 

It is said that Ahnef bin Kais was possessed of a mc«t excel- 
lent temper. One day a persoa asked him, " From whom did 
you receive your disposition?" To which he replied that he learnt 
it of Kais bin Asim. " One day," said he, "I was at his house, 
as a guest, when dinner was brought in. Kais had a young son 
seated by his side. A maiden came in, having in her hand a dish ; 
in placing which before Kais she by accident let it fall upon the 
Lead of the child, killing it upon the spot. Kais, seeing the fright 



displayed on the maiden's countenance, exclaimed, " I free thee it 
the name of God, and consider thee blameless." Behold what gene 
rosity and benevolence ! 

The following is related of Jaafer bin Suliman, one of those 
persons who were celebrated for their natural kindness and bene- 
volence of disposition. One of his servants purloined a very valua- 
ble jewel from him, and sold it. Some time afterwards the jewel 
was seen in the hands of a merchant; and on being asked of whom 
he had obt^ned it, he replied that he had bought it of a certain 
individual for one thousand dinars. So they apprehended the mer- 
chant, and took him and the jewel before Jaafer bin Suliman; to 
whom the merchant stated that such a one bad sold it to him. It 
happeaed that the pei'son indicated was in the presence of Jaafer 
at the time ; and suddenly his countenance changed through shame. 
Jaafer took the jewel in his hand, and addressing him, said, " At 
such a time I made you a present of this jewel; and you sold it, 
peihips, on account of your necessities." Then giving the full 
value of the jewel to the merchant, he presented it again to the 
man sdj ing, " Receive it as a souvenir from me ; and let them not 
chedt J oil ^not]lel time when you sell it, but dispose of it at its 
ju^t (jlue " At the same time he added several other gifts on his 

One of the great sultans, Behram Ghior, was a very brave, 
benevolent, and equitable sovereign. One day he mounted hia 
horse with the intention of going to the chase. On Lis way a gazelle 
was stai'ted, which he pursued, chasing it to a considerable dis- 
tance, until it disappeared from sight. When separated from all 
hb attendants, his strength failed him ; and dismounting from his 



horae, he seated himself under the shade of a large tree. Opposite 
him he perceived a shepherd, whom he called, and requested to 
hold his horse while he went aside for a moment. Tlie shepherd, 
finding himself alone and unobsei-ved, took out bis knife and began 
cutting ofF the jewelled chains of Behram Ghior's bridle. Behram 
Gliior happened to see the shepheid; and rather than put him to 
the hlush, he turned away his head, and ■walked ia another direction. 
The shepherd, after cutting off the chain, put it in his bosom; and 
Behram Ghior, coming up soon after, mounted his horse and rode 
away. When he came to his реорЗе he told his equerry that a shep- 
hei-d having done him some service, he had presented him with 
the chain of his biidle. " Do not, therefore, think it is lost," said 
he, " or chai'ge any one with having taken it." 

It is narrated in the book called ISham es Selateen, tliat one 
day Kooshirvan the Just (the flowing water, the cream of the Chos- 
roes kings of Persia) assembled all his attendants and people for 
the purpose of making a great feast, and numerous varieties of 
choice fruits were brought in on golden dishes. After eating and 
drinking till they all got drunk, they retired to a comer to con- 
verse, and Nooshirvan remained alone with one attendant. Nooshir- 
van also being drunk, he half closed his eyes in a doze, with a golden 
plate before bim that weighed one thousand misoaJs. The attendant, 
deeming this a proper object of acqiusition, was putting it in his 
bosom just as the eyes of Nooshirvan opened and met those of the 
thief. The attendant put his finger to his mouth, and saying, 
" Л(вА makuTt, Jet it not be known," concealed the vessel. When 
the ofBoer charged- with keeping the plate came to collect the ves- 
sels, and missed Wooshirvaa's dish, he exohumed, " Stii' not from 
your places ; 1 will search you all, until I find who has taken the 
dish." Nooshirvan, hearing this, became angry with the officer, and 


oi-dered liim not to talk foolishly, " The person," said, " Who has 
the dish will never return it; and he who saw him take it would 
rather be reprimanded than ехроке him, since he would not wish 
to be considered an infomier." He added, " I do not wish you 
to seek for him ; let the meeting be broken up, and eveiy one de- 
part in peace." So tbe meeting dispersed; the Nadim (attendant) 
also returning to his dwelling. He melted the gold, and made 
out of it a most elegant khondjar. He ako bought him a fine suit 
of clothes, and in all their newness returned again before Nooshir- 
van. The latter, on beholding his attendant, called him to his aide, 
and in a low voice asked him whether all his new and elegant ap- 
parel was out of that dish. The attendant replied, " It is from 
my sovereign's favor, niay it be everlasting; and m;iy his life and 
empire endure to eternity." Nooshirvan was greatly pleased with 
his reply, and bestowed upon him yet more presents and gi'atiti- 


On temarkabla coincidenGea, strange Ihiiigs, and wonderful ereatui-ee. 

The Sheik Abd Allah, author of the work entitled Tohfeh el 
Elhab, relates as follows. lu the year 500 of the Hedjreh, I saw 
a man belonging to the tribe of the Ads in the Bulgar country, 
whose height was more than twenty-eight cubits. He had a hand- 
some figure and agreeable features, and was very remarkable for 
his strength : for instance, he would overtake a horse going at 
full speed, seisie it with one of his hands as if it were an apple, 



snatch it lip undei- his iirm, and return it to the ground again. He 
could phiok up a palm or an oak tree by its roots, and with one 
blow could break a sword in pieces. This mail had a sister re- 
markable for her beauty, wliom he gave to a man in marriage ; but 
the first lime they embraced each other she squeezed him so tight- 
ly as to break his back, and caused his deiith. After which event 
every one was afraid to release Iier from her widowhood. This 
author adds, " I saw both of these individuals ; and there was no other 
like them in all the country of Bulgar. They were both unrivalled 
for their beauty; but there was not a bath in their country into 
which they conid enter. They wei-e, indeed, wonderful creatures ; 
but Allah is omnipotent !" 

The Imam Shafaee, may Allah sanctify bib tomb, says : 
Once, as I was journeying to a country in the vicinity of Yamin, 
1 met a man who from his waist upwards had two bodies, each 
with two arms, whilst the remainder of bis membere were perfect. 
From his waist downwards he was Uke other men, and he ate and 
drank like any other person. These two individuals would at times 
offend each other, quaiTel, and become friends again. Some years 
afterwards I happened to have occasion to visit that same place, 
where I found that one of these men had died ; that they had tied 
very tightly the ligament which confined the two bodies together 
at the waist ; but that when they had divided this part so as to sepa- 
rate the living one from the dead, the former idso fell ill and died. 

In the history of Kazveenee it is related as follows : I was onci 
a vessel bound on a voys^e ; but meeting with a great storm 



we were cast away on an island, where we bad to remain several 
fhiys. Duiing our stay tbere, one moonlight night we heard 
laughter and playing like that of men, hut were unable to under- 
stand the language. Some of the sailora ran in the direction from 
which the sounds proceeded, and caught two of the pei-sons who 
made them. They were ao beautiful, that one never could be satis- 
fied with looking at them They were merramds. Each of them 
had black hiir bingLng down to their ankles ; and great Allah ! 
but buch bciuti IS tlens was never seen before. One of the 
sailois k(,pt one ot them bi three or four days, and then let her 
go but, anothti kept 1 IS fnui or five years, living in free intimacy 
with hcj Sle bore him thiee sons, each as fair and beautiful 
as tl e Pet CCS 

Four 01 hveyeirsafterwiids, this вш1ог, having occasion to make 
another voyage in the same direction, took his wife with him. One 
day when the vessel was sailing very fast, she threw herseif into 
the sea; and her husband would have followed her had his com- 
rades not prevented him. Some time after this occurred, as they 
were returning by the same place, they beheld the mei-maid in the 
sea, approaching the vessel, and holding in her hand a box. Hav- 
ing delivered it to her husband, she, hy signs, commended her chil- 
dren to his care, and then, after swimming for some time by the 
aide of the ship, disappeai-ed in the sea. The sailor on opening the 
box found, besides several jewels, two royal pearls of great size. 
These, on arriving in port, he sold for a large sum; which made a 
considerable capital for him, so that be became a wealthy mer- 
chant. There ai-e other instances besides this in which fishermen 
in those parte have caught mermaids, and found them most affec- 
tionate and grateful. 

In the time of Nasir ed Dowlet some presents were sent him 


on tbe part of the Armenian patriarch, among which was a young 
l;ul wlio had all the members of two persons united to a single 
body, Nasir ed Dowlet sent him to his physicians, to see whether 
they could separate him. These pereons replied that if both usually 
ate at one mouth it would he impractlBable ; and in fact, on ques- 
tioning the lad, it turned out as had been am'mised. He lived to a 
good old age. 

It is related in the histoiy of Ibin Zulak tliat once a man was 
TOya^ng among the islands of Andalusia, when he fell in with a 
woman at the Isles of the Sea, whose beauty is described by those 
who saw her as being that of an angel come upon earth. She hved 
■with this man some seven or eight years, and bore him three or 
foui- children, all very handsome. 

One day whilst making a voyage at sea, accompanied by her, 
she took up a child which she was yet suckling, and approaching 
the waist of the vessel, seemed greatly agitated ; she finally threw 
herself into the sea, aud dived to the bottom. Soon afterwards she 
re-appeared, having a large box in her hand; approaching the 
■vessel, she delivered it to her husband, and then again dived down 
into the sea. The box was foond to be filled to the biim with 
pearls, by the sale of which the man became very rich. Blessed 
Allah! there is no end to Ms power; I put faith in him, and am . 
pi'eservcd by him. 

In the work called "Tariki Guzideh," by Jekl ed DeenTurb, 
the following nairativeof what occurred in the time of Aboo Said : 



J If with four eyes and two feet ; aiso a man with a beard 

Ik J t t an ordinaiy person, but his reins were haiiy like those 
of Ь lid his language could not be understood, although he 

p h ded all tliat was said to him. He was kept constantly 

hn d by a chain. 

It is related hy the author of the surae history that once a 
woman appeared in tlie city of Gaaveen, whose head was like that 
of any other woman; hut her reins were haiiy, like those of a 
bear, her hands and feet were precisely like the paws of a bear, and 
she had no teetli. The inhabitants of that plaee smd that a hear 
having carried off iier mother, this monster was the fruit of their 


Ibin Kethir in his histoiy, quoting Ibiu Sekil leUtes ind t>-l!s 
that, among the sages of Arabia and the poi-ts ind masto-s of 
politeness, Ommieh ibia Abi es Salat was celebnted thioughout 
the world. Once, when the esceilent and most noble Prophet miy 
God be propitious to him and blass him, was m the company of 
some of his worthy friends, they asked him, saying, " Would you 


like to bear some of the poetry of Ommieh ibiti Abies Salat?" He 
replying, "Yes," tbey read some poems. He ci-ied, "Encore," 
asking for more; and ;« lie stood and swayed bis body to and fro 
with delight, his cloak fell from iiis blessed sliouldei-s. His friends 
aroTjnd him seized it, and tearing it into pieces divided it iimongst 
them as relics. He was the poet of poats among the Arabs, 
but, though often in the company of the Prophet, did not embrace 
the blessed religion of Islam. His death was a ciirious one. 

One day he took a cup in his bant! ; and as he was about to 
drink its contents, he heard the voice of a crow proceeding from 
ft coraer of the room in which he was with some friends. He 
replied to the crow, " Va/eek et turab, to the earth with you." 
Again the crow spoke ; and again he answered as before. Those 
present now a.sked him, " learned soothsayer, what have yon 
understood from the voice of the crow ?" " It said," replied 
Ommieli, " Know that in the same hour in which you drink of tlie 
cup in your hand, you will die ;" to which I answered, " To the 
eaith with you." The second time it said. " If you want proofs 
of what I say, I will fly from here and perch upon the dunghill 
opposite us, feed there oa something, and die of a bone sticking in 
my throat; yow will then drink of the cup in yoiir hand, and die 

As he stiid this, the crow flew and lit on the dunghill ; where, 
after scratching two or three times, it fell down and esph'ed. 
Ommieh now exclaimed, " Behold the crow's woi^ds have been veri- 
fied; I win therefore also drink of the cup in my hand, and see 
what will ensue." The moment he drank it ho fell down and 
delivered up his sonl. 

Wliat sagacity and wonderful kviowledge ! 


la the nine hundred and ninetieth year of the Hcdjreh, and 
dming the reign of Sitltan Murad bin Selim Khan, Molana Taki 
ed Been, of Damascwa, the inventor o£ the astronomical tables, 
had a brother who attained to the gOFernment of a Sandjalt, ia 
the province of Diar-Beltii'. lie had the rank of a Meeri Liva, and 
was even more perfect in astronomical tables than his brother. 

One day being unwell, all his friends called to inquire after hia 
health. In the course of conversation the Meer directed one of 
his attendants to bring bim his astrolabe. Takiug it in his haaid, 
he examined it attentively ; then addressing his friends, he said, 
" To-morrow I shall bid you all farewell ; do not forget roe in your 
prayers. My life is about to close, and I have but two days more to 
live." He then freed all his slaves, made his will, and commenced 
reading the gieat Koran. He made his peace with every one, divid- 
ed his property among his children ; and after repentance and 
asking divine pardon, on the second day he expired, and delivered 
up the precious jewel of hia soul to the house of fatality. 

It is related in the medical history called Kitab el Embafee, that 
Mahmood bin Salih, vizir of the sultan of Aleppo, excited the 
sultan against Mutezee, by telling him that the latter deserved to be 
put to death, and that moreover it was demanded by the laws. So 
the sultan ordered his people to bind Mutezce; and no less than 
thii'ty or forty pereons set out for that purpose. These individuals 
put up at a house which happened to be that of Muteaee ; and 
the latter, mistaking them for ordinary guests, \vas getting ready 
a dinner for them, when lus brother informed him that they had 
come to make him a prisoner. "What," continued he, "is to be 
done ? if we let them take you, it will be a disgrace to us, and 
yet we have not sufficient force to oppose them. Let me know 
your opinion on the subject." Mutezee replied, " Be not troubled ; 


218 TuiiKisH EVBSiw 

let them repose to night, and we will see what will turn up on the 
morrow." So he arose at midnight, and said his prayers ; and hia 
brother coming in, he said to him, "Tell my pupil Salamee to 
come to me." Salamee came ; and Muteaee directed him to go out 
and observe the position of the planet Mars ; for though Mutezee was 
one of the moat distinguished men of his time, be was blind. Sala- 
mee went out as he was bid, and informed Mutezee of the place 
of the planet. Mutezee bade him next take a balance, bind it 
with a cord, and tie one end of tlie latter tightly to his foot. Sala- 
mee did as he was hid ; and Mutezee commenced repeating to 
himself the Azaim, or those verses of the Koran which serve as a 
chai-ra, among wliich were the following : 

" O Eternal of speedy diseasea, O Maker of all ei-eation, O Constructor of 
all constructions, give me thy glory which ceases not, and tliino asylum 
whose meats Ihy guests can never consume." 

He added a few more words to the preceding, and then out 
the cord bound to his foot. Suddenly an alai'ming noise was 
heard. Some people entered hastily from without, and announced 
that the house in which the guests were had fallen down and 
crushing all those who were under it. 

Morning came, and an hour or two afterwards a messenger 
arrived from Aleppo, with strict orders to do no harm to Mutezee, 
and not even to remove him ; for the vizir Mahmood bin Salih, 
who had wished to do the venerable man harm, having gone into 
a bath, it had caved in upon him, and billed him on the spot. His 
son, the successor to the viair, being one of his (M«i«zee's) best 
friends, sent to ealut* him and beg his good prayers in his behalf. 

In the reign of the deceased and pardoned conqueror, the Sul- 
tan Selim Khan, there was a famous soothsayer named Remmal 



Hyder (the lion soothsayer). For discovering the occult things of 
the world, and exposing all that was hidden and secret, be was 
unique, and the wonder of that period. Sultan Selim, ттЬо was 
constantly endeavoring to make him commit errors, one day 
mounted his horse and paid a visit to the mosk of АуооЪ Ensaree 
(may the Creator sanctify his tomb !) attended by Eemmal, On the 
way the sultan, addressing Hyder, inquired, " What gate shall we 
go out at ? Test your geomancy, and tell us. See what it shows 
you." Hyder drew some magical agns upon a paper, and wrote, 
'• By an unusual and strong passage, which will be broken open 
for tliat purpose." And then folding up the paper, he handed it 
to the colonel whose duty it was to accompany the sultan. The 
latter, after proceedmg a little further, turned his horse's head 
diiectly against the wall of the tower, and ordered an opening to 
be made tJiere. Immediately a passage was made with picks and 
spades, and through the aperture the sultan chose to pass. 

Immediately afterwards, the sultan calling the colonel near him, 
asked for the paper written by Hyder, and to his astonishment 
read, " By an unusual and strong passage, which will be broken 
open for that purpose." The sultan was much pleased, and praised 
Hyder's talent, and bestowed upon him several costly gifts. 

People yet pass through the openmg made at the tower. It 
lies on the way to Ayoob, and is called Egri Capoo, or the 
Crooked Gate. 

!Saim bin Uid All ih miiatbs this as coming from Ziad bin 
Mesood, Hesiis A learned man {uUma) told me as follows: 
" I and an intelligent mei chant a resident of Alexandiia, once set 
out togethei on a pilgiimage to Me:,ca I being somewhat ac- 
qainted with georainey, was desirous ot peifecUng myself in that 
science. One dav accompamed by the meichint, I went into the 



Holy Caaba of Mecca. We perfoiraed ouv ablutions at the welt of 
Zemzem; and, after making a few geimflections, seated oui-selves, 
and commenced a conversation. Now my comrade bad five hun- 
dred pieces of gold about him in a roll; these he took out of hb 
pocket, and placed under the border of his robe. After a lit- 
tle time liad elapsed we arose and, forgetting the roll, left the 
Caaba. Soon afterwards, the gold coming to his recollection, we 
returned in search of it, but found no traces of it. As we were 
talking about it, an inhabitant of Mecca, an intelligent person, ad- 
dressing me, said, " There is a man here well skilled in the art of 
geomancy, who, if you have recourse to him, will doubtless find 
out what you bave lost, and perhaps even procure it for you." 
Having a considerable knowledge of the science myself, and a 
great passion for it, I accompanied the merchant to the geo- 
mancer. I found the plan (mjei) ; and giwg the instrument (Ыга) 
into his hands, he looked at it, and said to me, " Is not this 
project yours?" To which I replied, "Yes; I made it for ano- 
ther." The soothsayer then observed it again attentively, and 
said, " You have lost a roll of gold ; but be not giieved, it can be 
found." Then addressing me, he continued, " The money has 
fallen into the hands of your son." I answered, " I am a stian- 
ger, and have certainly no one here related to me." The sooth- 
sayer became angry with ше, and said, " My art has never belied 
any one ; do you speak the truth ? The individual who has taken 
the money came from the east. It is strange ; but he must have 
some relationship with you. What place are you from V I re- 
plied, " I am from Bagdad, and it is now thirty years since I left 
that city." " Have you no son there ?" he asked. I answered, 
" When I departed I left a wife in the femijy way, from whom I 
have never been able to obtain any news whatever, nor do I know 
whether she yet live?." " Go," said the soothsayer ; " the person 
who has found the money must assuredly be your son. Ciy out, 
and he will appear ; and you will have the happiness of seeing 
your own child in him." 



Full of astonishment as we were, I went with the merchant to 
the court of the Caaba, where I cried out aloud, " Hms аиу Mus- 
sulman found a i-olJ of money? if so, let it be returned to its owner, 
and a reward will be given to the finder." Suddenly ft handsome 
young man approjiohed us and s^d, " I found one on this spot ;" 
and forthwith drawing out the roll, he placed it before «s. I asked 
him from what country he was ; and he replied, tbal he was 
from Bagdad. 1 asked him from what quarter and bouse, and 
found that he was from my own house. I next asked him what 
was his father's name. He answered, " I know bis name, but 
am ignorant of bis appearance ; for whilst 1 was yet in my mother's 
womb he went on a journey, since which nearly thirty years have 
el ip'ied " He also gave me news of his mother, and I was as- 
auied that he nas, my own son. I embiaced and kissed him, and 
he acknowledged me as hn, father. 

My companion the meichant was greatly rejoiced with me at 
the di'-covery of my son, and taking out of the roll one hundred 
pieces of gold, he piesented them to him, and gave me also fifty 
pieces I leturned with the merchant to the soothsayer, to whom 
he а1чо gave seveiid pieoes of go3d. The soothsayer was much 
gratiftid -nilh (he pioof which the affair furnished of the ti'uth of 
bis art, and thankpd God I, being a zealous devotee of the same 
science, begged thit tbe soothsayer would allow me to enter his 
seivici wliicb favoz he gi'anting me, I remained three or four 
ycais with hitQ pcifeeting myself in it. 



It ie surprisingly struDge, how, by following iu the path of tiie Divine will, 
destiny will lead yon, without any intention or design on уонг pait, to the 
proper ^kd suitable place. 

The Emir Azz ed Deen says : It is rolated by Daood Ezdee 
tlaat the Melek et Takir, one of the Tcherkes sultans, had a strong 
desire for the acquirement of knowledge. He sought for such per- 
sons as, like himself, held the helles-lettrea in respect, and showed 
coimtenanoe and protection to their followers. He also was ac- 
quainted with the science of mom! philosophy. During his reign 
his confidential secretary was one Ahmed bin Saidee, an A!ep- 
pine, whom he took with hha to Egypt. 

One day when tlie sultan was eagf^ed in convei-sation with 
the chief judge, Ahmed bin Saidee entered to kiss his hand and 
ask his orders ; after which the sultan thoughtfully recited at 
random the two following verses : 

e much iuforniatiou about tra- 

Cadi Tadj ed Deen, on hearing tbe verses, exclaimed, " Brnik 
Allah! whose are they? do you know?" The sultan replied, "1 
do not know whose they are ; they only happened to come to my 
recollection." The cadi esalaimed, " They are the vei'ses of your 
secretary, Abmed bin Saidee, who just now kissed your hand." 
What was remarkable in the circumstance was, that the writer 
should happen to be present at the moment. 



The Cadi Shems ed Deen ibin Helbam relates the following : 
Several literaiy men of that period, travelling together, arrived at 
a village near Bagdad called Sermenray, where they saw the 
palace of the Shereef Eadee, then going to ruin, ila beauty vanished, 
and its foundations alone remaining. One of them, on beholding 
the wreck of so goodly an edifice, expressed his astonishment 
by reciting the following vei-ses : 

" We stood ml the place of their ruins, where nothing remained but the foun- 
dations of their walle. I wept until blood fell from my eyes ; where eomany 
men once dwelt, now yon find but the end. My eyes since then are ruined; 
fot the sight of such failed grandeur has made a waste of my heart." 

Whilst repeating them, one of the company inquired whose they 
were ; to which he replied that he did not know. The inquirer 
exclaimed, to the astonishment of all present, " They are the verses 
of the owner of the palace, Shereef Radce." 

The author of the work entitled Durret el Gliawas, " the Pearl 
of the Diver," relates, that Abeed el Jerhemee was three hundred 
years old when he became ennobled by the true faith of Islam. 
One day being in the company of Muavieh in Bagdad, the caliph, 
in the coiwse of conversation, said to him, "Pray Sheik, tell us 
what is the most cuiious thing you have met with in the course of 
your long life." The Sheik replied, " Once, ia the beginning of 
my travels, I met with a tribe of people of which a bandsom.e 
individual bad just died, and his friends were conveying bis remains 
to the tomb. Being afi-aid of their numbers, I joined the proces- 
sion, and they began to bury the deceased. I was astonished on 
observing that some of those present laughed while others wept, 
when the following verses came to my recollection : 


" Thei'e is jealousy amongst the tribes of man, when one is rich and one 1Я 
poor ; the guest however knows iiol that the former is not inherited, but 
obiained by tlieft." 

One of tlie people of tlie place, on henring tliem, asked me 
whether I knew who wrote the verses 1 had cited ; and, on my 
replying that I did not, he said, to my astonishment, " Then leam 
that they were written by the person at whose funeral you eie 
assisting." What a remarkable coincidence, that I should happen 
to be at bis burial ! 

CHAPTER T W E S T Y - F I F ■!' Г1 . 

On the raiafortuuo wliicli perfidy biUigs upon those who are giiiUy of it ; and an 
explication of the verse which says, " Whatever ynu are comes from your- 
Belf; good is iromgood, evd from evil." 

In the 160th year of the Hedjreh, Melidee, one of the Abba- 
side caliphs appointed Isa bin Moosa to be the heir apparent or 
successor to the caltphat; though subsequently he changed his mind 
and appointed his own son Hadee, and sent him to govern Kho- 
rassan. On his arrival at that place, he governed it until symp- 
toms of insurrection arose among its inhabitants. Certain perfidious 
hypocrites asserted to the caliph that one Ibrahim bin Zekvan was 
the cause of the troubles. The caliph, being enraged against him, 
sent several individuals to Hadee, whom he ordei'ed to deliver Ibra- 
him up to them, that they might bring !iim before him. Hadee 
made a pretext for not sending him, and wrote a reply to the caliph's 
demand ; which however proved inefTectual, for he persisted in hav- 
ing him sent. So, seeing the pertinacity of the caliph, lie finally 
Bent him. 



When Ibrahim went into the presence of the caliph, the latter 
made some inquiries of him, and then ordered his execulion. Ibra- 
him, innocent and helpless, on aniving at the place of execution, 
begged permission of the executioner to renew his ablutions and 
say a prayer of two rakats, Iq the meantime Mehdee withdrew 
into his palace ; and suddenly a great noise proceeded from the 
Seray, as if the whole world was in affliction. Whilst all present 
were waiting to kaow what had oceuiTed, the Aga of the bai'cm 
appeared and gave news of the sudden death of Mehdee ; the cause 
of which was, that one of the female slaves of the harem, being 
je,alous of another, put an emerald into bis drink, and gave it to hun. 
The emerald was poisonous, and immediately caused the death of 
Mehdee, to the grief of all present, and the deliverance of the 
innocent Ibrahim. 

Herthmah bin Ayin, a distinguished individual among the 
Emirs of the Benee Abbas relates this story ; 

Once a man came to me on the part of the caliph of the time, 
Hadee bin Mehdee, to say that he wished to see me. I arose and 
went to him. It was night ; and as soon as he saw me he exclaimed, 
" I have called you, and desire that you show no opposition to any 
thing whicli I order you to do, but perform it." I replied, " 
Emir of the faithfnl, how many heads have I that I should dare to 
disobey youl" So he continued, "My wish is this. How much 
have I su£f d f m 1 1 y In Hal d ! he has turned the people 
from ш.е, a d 1 p d tl m f or of my brother Han)on er 
Easheed. Q tl f tl t delay, to the prison in which 

Yahiya and h fid cut off their heads, as also 

those of all tl d d ts f Ab Talib whom you may find, and 

bring them t m T k m Idiers with you ; go to Gufah; 
and take out f 11 tl d d nts of Abi Talib, and reduce 

the town t 1 


228 TURKISH EVUKIK6 еитептлшыввтз. 

Herthmah adds ; When I lieaj'd this, Г really expired with 
emotion. I begged him, saying, "0 Emir el Moomeneen, this is an 
aflair of great importance, which I am unable to accomplish ; and 
Ъу the Eonls of your ancestors I beg you to release me from it." 
I bowed my face to the earth to implore his forbearance; but be- 
coming greatly angered, he exclaimed, " I swear, by the soids of 
my forefathers, that if you neglect to do what I have commanded 
you, I will inflict upon you the severest punishment, dishonor you, 
and cut you in pieces as small as yonr eare." He then in a gi-eat 
vage arose and entered his harem. I thought, that in bis fuiy 
against me, he might order my own execution ; and in my heart I 
formed the vow, that if I should escape from this abyss I would 
collect all my property and go to some other clime, where no one 
woidd know my history. 

Whilst I was thus reflecting, a servant came and said the caJiph 
wanted me. Believing that I should soon be a corpse, I repeated 
the creed of faith and went towards the harem, whence I heard 
a female voice exclaiming, "Come, Herthmah I I am Hyzran; 
arise, come, and see what a misfortune has overtaken me." I enter- 
ed the bouse, and foimd Hyzran concealed belibd the curtain. 
Addressing me he said, "Hadee, who was inclined to violence and 
oppression, has now been visited by dai-k misfortune, and convcy- 
ed'to the valley of corniption. The Preserver from all evils has 
delivered Iiim from his own evil designs." He added, "Behold 
his present condition ;" and raising the curtain, I beheld Hadee 
added to the list of the departed. Hyzran aftenvai'ds said, " When 
Hadee returned fi'om without, I threwmyself at his feet, embraced 
them, and begged of him to give me one drop of Haroon's blood. 
He shook me ofl", trembled, and in a great passion asked for water 
which he had scarcely drunk, when he expired. God decrees al 
things. Now hasten to the prison, release Tahiya, take him wit! 
you, and tell him what has just occurred ; so that the риЬко ma; 
be disposed to elect Haroon to succeed him." 

I departed in haste, and released Yahiya. I then went U 




Haroon md saluted him. Astonished at beholding me, he ex- 
claimed, " Hertlimah what is the cause of уош' visit ?" So I 
related it to him from be^nning to end. 

Нө returned thankful praises to God, and at the same moment 
learnt that there had been a blessed and lucky birth in his bai'em. 
In consideration of the fortunate circumstance imder which the 
boy was born, he wbs greatiy rejoiced, and forthwith called him 
Mamoon. The Arabs call that night Lailah Hashmieh, or the night 
in which one Hashemite cahph mounted the saddle of the hearse 
and rode to the clime of non-existe.nce ; another ascended the cali- 
phite throne ; and a third, appearing from behind the veil, of noth- 
ingness, entered the palace of the world. The page of existence 
is like unto the painter's canvass, from which objects can be efb«ed 
and others drawn on it at pleasure. 

Whatever (he oaiivass has received remains ; 

All that God has traced upon the page of this earth 

Can be seen in an instant of time." 

During the reign of Valeed bin Abd el Meiek, one of the 
Ommiade sultans, Tarik bin Ziad, a very brave man, was appoint- 
ed to the chief command of the army, and sent to conquer the 
coasts of Andalusia in the county of the west. This general, ac- 
companied by his valorous troops, siibdried Andahisia, and became 
possessed of so much wealth that it was more than Kisah. They 
obtained as much wealth as was collected in the time of the pro- 
phet Suliman. In one place were found one hundred and 
seventy khosrevan (royal) crowns, set with itibies, diamonds, 
emeralds, and other precious stones, until it is said that each 
crown was worth as much as the tribute (heradi) of Room. 



They entered a wonderfully Tvi'ougbt palace, fifty cubits in hdght ; 
from bottom to top it was inorusted with silver, and its furniture 
was so ricbly embellished that man is incapable of describing it. 
They fouttd also the dining-table of Suliman, son of David, on 
whom be peace. It was made of a green emerald, and its vessels 
of pure gold ; its feet were of white jasper, and it was set with 
f 1 p 1 Th ) 1 f d b k, in which all binds of stones, 
and pi fs d m t 1 pi led ; io it also the sciences of 

h t y dm t! t 1 t g to preservation from fire, and 

tl ft 7 "^ V ofoundly treated. The same 

bkd s^dt! bjtf 1 and jewels, and also the i-ules 
of poibons and antidotes. It contamed likewise drawings of the 
earth's form, and of its seas, islands, and mountains. Among other 
useful things which they found, there was an elixir so poweiful 
that were a single dracbm of pure gold adulterated so as to 
form several thousands, it would vender the whole pure agdn. 
They also found a mirror whicli showed the world, made for 
the Prophet Suliman, of different medicinal compounds, in 
which you could see, at one moment, all the climes of the uni- 
verse. In the vestibule of the edifice was an apartment where 
they found, on one of its aofas, a camel-load of rubies of Behre- 
man, and other jeweb ; all of which the general -in- chief, Tarik 
bin Ziad collected together, and sent to the caliph of that period, 
Veleed bin Ahd el Melelt, who, bis historians unite in saying, be- 
came so wealthy that no sovereign has ever equalled him. 


It is written in the history of Ektemi Cufah, that Hasham bin 
Abd el Melek was famous among the Benee Ommieh for hb villa- 


nous aspect, and the dis^eeableness of his conduct. It happened 
one day that his attention was attracted to a great cloud of dust which 
made its appearance on the higb road. He tmiied his steps in that 
direction, accompanied by one of his attendants named Eefia, and 
remarked a cai-avan on its way from Damascus to Cufah. HashHm's 
eye falling upon an aged person in the caravaiii he inquired of him 
whence he came, from what tribe he was, and wliither lie ivas 
going. The old maa replied, " I am from Cufah ; but wliiit does 
it interest you to know to what tribe I belong 1" Haaham lepli^'d, 
" The reason is this ; you are from an intelligent tribe." The old 
man answered, " I am from the tribe of Hakkem, and am related 
to the tribe of Dakeh." Hasham exclaimed, " El hamdu Ullah ! 
praise be to God ! one should be thanltfnl not to be connected with 
that bad tribe," Т!ге old man replied, " As you know whether a 
tribe is good or bad, pray teli us ivhat is your own family." Hasham 
answered, " Our origin is the Koraish." The old man replied, 
" Tbe tiibe of the Koraish are innumerable ; among its people 
are high and low, wise and ignorant. From which portion of its 
people, pray, are you V Hasham answered, " I am from the cele- 
brated Benee Omraieh." The old man, now smDing, ironically 
exclaimed, "Merliaha! Meihaba ! well met, well met! brother 
Ommiade ; it is well that you let «s know your tribe. Great- 
ness of origin and noleness of descent are united in your person; 
the blueuesB of your eyes, the unequalled features of your physi- 
ognomy, the eloquence of your tongue, and the gentleness of your 
expressions, render you more than man." Then changing his tone, 
he added, "We ha\e a right to tebnke you, viho are the most 
abased of cteition, you belong to that tnbe of which it is stated, 
in the book ot the all knowing Soierejgn, that \ou aie descended 
from the accursed fiee pointed out in the ^егче 'The wicktd 
became pious, not the faithful ' Your males are wicked and 
Bintul, youi femiles aie of e\il condition .md of unchaste pio 
pensities Oni" of \our great men, Uflan, raised the standaid 
111 oppo«ltlOl^,lкlm^t ihc Piophet fif God. on whom be peace and 



blessings. You pride yourselves on Sohar ibin Harb. In the days 
of hia ignorance he was but a farrier ; and on turning Mussul- 
man, he became a hypocrite, tyrant, and deceiver. Alibeh bin 
Abi Mueed was refused by ' the faithful news-giver ' (Mohammed) 
the claim of belonging to tbe Koraish, whilst you give hira that 
descent. His filthy, drunken, and evil-minded son Valeed, when 
performing the morning namaz, made four riJcats (instead of 
three) ; and in his drunbenness asJted whether he should not 
make some more. You have made a filthy fellow like him go- 
vernor over the faithful Hakkem ibin el As; and although his son 
Mei-van was i-epulsed by the Propliet, you took him up and showed 
hira respect and regard. Is not one of the chaste females of your 
tribe, Hammalet ul Ha tab pbced on the same footmg with Aboo 
Laheb ?* Another too, named Hind, gave rich objects to Vahshee 
for bis sinful deeds, to induce him to murder the chief of raartyrs, 
Hamza, on whom bepeace;f and after he was killed she tore him 
in pieces with her tectb. 

' Have yon not board the story of Ihc sou of Hind, wimt she did to the rela- 
tion of the Piopliet ; to whose family ehe showed much evil, and sucked 
the life-blood of the Pinphet's uncle?' 

What more, fellow, shall I teach you ?" excIшmed the good old 
man, and then continued on his way. 

Hasbam remained silent, and finally turning to liis page, said, 
" Have you seen what this old man bas done to us ?" " His teme- 
■rity," answered the page, "and my own astonishment have driven 
everything he said out of my mind." " It is well for you," 
exclaimed Hseham; "but if any thing has remained, keep it to 
yourself, or I will kilt you," 

When Hasbam had returned to his people, be sent messcngei-s 

» See chaptpr of the Koran, called Aboo Lnkb, 

t Uncle of Ihe Prophet. See Ockley's History of the Saracens, p. 37. 


in every direction to find the old man ; but tbe latter wbs lost like 
a spirit, or like a Jinn. No trace of him remained behind — in short 
he had fled from the abyss of dnnger to the sliirts of safety. 

It is notorious that Abdul Melilt bin Mervan, of the Oramiadea, 
dreamed that he made water four times on the Holy Caaba. Hav- 
ing told this dream the nest morning to Said bin Meseeh, (on whom 
be the mercy of Allah !) the latter interpreted it as follows: "Four 
individuals from your tribe ■will hereafter goveiTi that very respect- 
ed and holy place." And, in fact, Valeed, and Suliman, and Yezid, 
and Hasham, who are at the head of the list of the tyrannical, 
became the administrators and governors of the affairs of the 
Islamites, and continued in iniquity. It is not astonishing that 
tbeir government soiled the purity vrh'ich should pervade offices. 


Oil tlie subject of gi'eat uaters. 

It is related by Veheb bin Jezzir, that there was once a celebrated 
glutton named Meiseret el Abresh. One of his friends asked him 
if he ever astonished any one by his great eating. Meiseret replied, 
" One day I arose at daylight, and there was no food prepared 
in the market. It ivas the seuson of fresh dates ; so I ate ;i. biio- 


died loaves of bread with a mekooh of these dates." The mekook 
is a Syrian measure equivalent to twelve Stambool kilehs or bush- 
els. " And did it not hurt you?" I asked. " It only swelled my 
belly," replied he. 

One day Meiseret el Abresh mounted a large ass which he 
owned, and journeying onward he came to an Arab village on the 
road. Its inhabitants on seeing him went out to meet him, and 
invited him to a feast. Dismounting from his ass, and tying it up, 
he entered their teat. At lugbt they killed his ass, coolted it, and 
served it up before hira. He ate the whole of it alone, and went 
to sleep. On rising next morning he asked for his asa ; and they 
told him he had eaten it the night previous for his supper. They 
then presented him with a eamel, on which he mounted and 

It Is related by Mutamir bia Suliman, that oae Hellal Maznee 
was a famous glutton. Some one once addressing him, said, " Peo- 
ple say you ai'e a gi'eat eater ; now, pray tell us the truth." Maz- 
nee replied, " Vallah ! yesterday I had a goodly fat young camel of 
four years old, which I killed for food. They stuffed its liver with 
spices, and made it into a hash. My wife and self sat down to 
this and ate the whole of it. At night as we sat together I attempted 
to kiss her, but found I could not make our lips meet. Where- 
upon which she laughed and exclaimed, ' Do not forget, husband, 
that a camel lies between us.' " 


Suliman bin Abd el Melik, one of the Ommiade caliphs, -was a very 
great eater. Esraaee,* the quintessence of tbe excellent, relates : 
One day the caliph and Omar bin Abd el Aziz went together to 
the town of Taifeh.f to pay a visit to a farm owned there by Omri 
bin Asim, After riding about for some time, we dismounted from 
our horses ; and the caliph, addressing the cook of the farm, asked 
him, " Shemerdil, have you any thing ready for our dinner V 
Shemerdil replied, " My Sovereign, I have a fat goat, fiueen geese, 
and twenty fowls each fatter than a goose ; and they are all 
ready." He forthwith ordered them to be brought in ; so the table 
was prepared, and they commenced eating. The caliph invited 
Omar bin Abdul Aziz to join Iiim, but the latter declined on the 
plea of fasting; so he ate all himself. The meats being removed, 
the dessert was served, consisting of one hundred pomegranates, 
four hundred figs, and much other fruit; all of which he ate. 
Then after a little conversation, he walked about, and approached 
the kitchen, where, meeting with the head cook, he inquired of 
him what he had to eat. This person replied, " There are thirty- 
three pots boiling." Opening each, he took out three ladlefulls, 
and swallowed them ; after which he walked away. At the table 
set for the attendants he ate again. 

Historians relate much relative to this sultan's gormandiang 
characteri sties ; but the most remarkable of all is, that he daily ate 
to tbe amount of one hundred Damascus ruttels, a ruttel being 
equivalent to seven hundred dirhema. He at length died of a 

" Esmaoo, the Author of the Arabic novel of Antar, was a Nadiia, or boon 
companion, of the Caliph Hatoon er Easheed.— A, T. 

t Taifeh is a small towo near Mecca ; from which place, my teacher telle 
me, the fiuest grapes of Cojistantiuople, called ichanask, were originally 
brought.— A. T. 



suvfeit caused by eating too much fruit. May God bare mercy 
upon him ! 

It is related that among tlie greatest eaters Imown was an ac- 
quaintance of a monk, Once passbg by the convent he \vas invited 
ill by the monk, who asked him if he would not take something to 
eat. The monk told him thei-e were boiled lentils m the kitchen, 
and said, " Will you eat some if they are brought InT' "Bring some," 
was his reply. So the monk placed before him ten loaves of bread, 
and then, went to tfae kitchen, to bring him a vessel of soup. Per- 
ceiving on his return that the bread was consumed he put down 
th up say ng th 1 1 Id go f b d a 1 b 1 1 1 m 

ten loa e. mo turn 1 > 1 tl t the s j was 
done puttm^ d n tl b ad 1 t k [ tl nptj d 1 
and tU d 1, f Щ tl kt 1 n hut by tl tim h t b k 
th b ead g I th mm th m 1 b gl t tn 

1 F b d at t n d ft t lim nd find tb s up 

nund t df Ш ntlfi Uylh 1 tt n w ats 

fi d Aft U I t tl n Ш t d h and 

bade the monk adipu Whun the monk mqwired of Mm where 
he was gomg, he lephed, " 1 am gomg to the opposite village to 
consult a physician much praised for his skill." "What do you 
want with a physician * * asked the mont. The fellow answered, 
" My stomich has been out of order for some days past, and my 
appetite much weakened in consequence, I purpose asking him 
for a restorative." The rnonk answered, "Pray grant me a favor." 
" Wliat is it V asked the man 1 " It is," said he, " that after you 
have corrected your stomach, you will not pass this way ^аЬ." 


On tlie subject of those who are eciisui-ed for thsir groat avarice. 

Of all the caliphs Mansoor Devankee лүав niost.uelebrated for 
avarice. One of liis own servants, named Rebia, relates as follows ; 
We once set out on a pilgrimage to Meo a and ben on our way, 
the famous Selcm Hadee, following afte thp cil ph's takt revan 
(palankeen), began in a loud voice to rec te some verses. The 
caliph much pleased, eti-uck the botton of tie taht levan with 
his foot and called to me. I approa 1 ed a d vl n I asked for his 
orders, he exclaimed. " The sultan is inuch pleased with Selem 
Hadee, and gives him half a dirhem; let him continue reciting," 
At the same time he directed his accountant to regislei the sum 
in the book of expenses. When Selem Hadee saw the half dir- 
hem, he exclaimed, "O glory of the family of Abb;is, Emir 
el Mumaneen, when I went on a pilgrimi^e with Hiisham of the 
Benee Ommieh, I recited some verses near his mahfeh (htter), and 
he bestowed upon me thirty thousand dirhems." To this Mansoor 
remarked, " Rebia, Haaham wronged the treasury of his peo- 
ple ; it would therefore be but right for me to take f om Sim 
what was given him, and restore it to the treasury." It w not 
till after an hour's dispute with Selem that I pi ail d pa 
Mansoor to abandon, the idea of compelling him t tu n the 
money he had received from Hasbam ; and then only n d t 
that every day and night during the pilgrimage he 1 ould e te 
ve es n f ont of Mansoor's mahfeh. 

M**naoo was a most pious and just maa ; but parsimony is 
n o t c US all in sovereigns. They require to be always gra- 
c ous a d be e olent to the world, and ever keep open the door . 
of 1 be 1 tj and generosity. 



It is rebited tliut iJieie once resided in Biigdad a x'eiy wealthy 
roan named Abool Castm, wlio ivas noted for bis avarice and par- 
simony. So sti'ong; was his ruling passion, that he could not even 
be prevailed upon to throw away his old shoes ; but whenever it 
became intently necessary, he would have them stitched at a cob- 
bler's stall, and continue to wear them for four or five years. At 
length they became so heavy and large, that it was proverbial in 
that city to say that a, thing was " as clumsy as Abool Oaaim's 

One day as this man was walking in the bazaai-s of Bagdad, a 
friend of his, a broker, informed him that a merchant from Aleppo 
was just amved, and had brought some bottles for sale. " Come," 
added he, " I will get them for you at a low price ; and after beep- 
ing them a month or so, you can sell them again for three times 
as much as you gave, and so make a handsome profit." The mat- 
ter was soon aiTanged between them. Abool Oasim bought the 
bottles for sixty dinars ; and after employing several porters to 
oaiTy them to his house, he passed on. He had also another friend, 
an auctioneer, whom he likewise happened to meet, and who told 
him that a merchant from the town of Yezd bad some rose-water 
for sale. " Come," said he, " I will get it for you now at a low 
rate, and dispose of it for you at some other time for double the 
amount." So Abool Casim was prevailed upon to buy the rose- 
water also ; and on reaching home he filled his bottles with the 
water, and placed them on a slielf in one of his apartments. 

The day following Abool Саят went to the bath. As he was 
undressing himself, one of bis friends going out saw his old shoes, 
and jokingly said, " Casim, do let me change your shoes ; for 
these have become very clmnsy." Abool Casim merely replied, 
" Inshallah, if God wishes ;" and continuing to undress himself, he 
went into the bath. Just then the cadi, or judge of the city, came 
to the bath, and undressed liimself near to Abool Casim, Some 


rirnKlSH EVK.S'I 


time afterwards Abool Casiia came out of the inner room of the 
bath, and, when ho had dressed himself, looked for his shoes. Not 
finding them, but seeing a new pair in their place, he thought his 
friend had made the change that he desij-ed ; so putting them on, 
he returned to his house. When tlie cadi came out of the hath, 
and had p«t on his clothes, he asked for his shoes ; but lo! they 
could no where be found. Seeing, close by, the old ones of Ahool 
Cadm, he naturally concluded that that person had purloined his. 
So the cadi was greatly incensed ; and ordering Abool Casim to 
be brought before him, he accused him of stealing shoes out of 
baths, impiTsoned him two or three days, and fiaed him. 

Abool Casim, oa his release, said to himself, "These shoes have 
dishonored me, and I have been severely punished for their sake." 
So with revengeful feehngs he threw them into the Tigris. Two 
days aftei'wards some fishermen, on drawing their seines in the 
river, found a pair of old shoes in them, which they immediately 
recognized as those of Abool Casim, One of them remarked that 
perhaps he had fallen into the river. He took the shoes in his hand 
and carried them to Abool Casim's house ; but finding its door 
closed, he threw them in at a window which was open. Unfortu- 
nately the shoes fell on the shelf where the bottles of rose-water 
■were ranged ; so that it was thrown down, the bottles broken, and 
all the rose-water spilt. 

When Casim returned to his house be opened the door and 
beheld the loss he had sust^ned. He tore his hair and beard with 
grief, wept aloud, and charged the shoes with being his ruin. "To 
be free from further misfortune from them, I will bury them " said 
he "ill a corner of my house, and then all will ead." So the same 
night he arose and commenced digging a hple in a comer of bis 
dwelling. His neighboi-s, hearing the noise, thought he was under- 
mining their house ; and rising in affright, they complained to the 
governor of the city, who sent and apprehended Casim and 
threw him into prison; from which he was released only on the 
payment of a fine. 



23S luiuusii EvaniK» bSTEitiAiUMbNia. 

After tbis Casim returned to liis house, overwhelmed with 
grief; and taking his old shoes, he threw them into the sluice of a 
neighboring caravansary. In the course of a few days, the sluice 
being stopped, it overran its banks ; and worlcmen having been 
called to clean it out, lo! Casim's shoes were found to be tha 
cause of the inconvenience. So the governor agmn threw him into 
prison, and fined him to a large amount. 

Abool Casim, now perfectly in despair, took his old shoes, and 
after washing tliem clean laid them on the terrace of his house, 
witli the ioteiition, after they were well dried, of burning them, 
and so putting an, end to aUshameand misfortune on their account. 
But it happened that while the shoes were drj'ing a neighbor's 
dog passing over the t«rrace saw them, and, mistaking them for 
dried meat, took one in his month, bprang from one terrace to the 
other, and in doing so let it fall. The neighbor's wife was en- 
ceinte ; and as she happened to be sitting at the foot of the wall 
the shoe feU upon her, aad in her alarm she was prematurely 
brought to bed. Her husband, in great anger, complained to the 
goveinor ; and Abool Oasim was onoe more thrown into prbon, and 
made to pay a fine. 

Abool Casim now tore his hair and beard with grief; and ae- 
ouang theshoes of being the cavae of all liis misfortunes, he took 
tbera in his hand, and going before the Cadi of Bagdad, related to 
him all that had befallen him. "I beg you," added he, " to re- 
ceive my declaration; and I hope all these Mussulmans will bear 
witness that I now break off all further connexion between me 
and these shoes and h-w e no longer any tl ing to do with them. I 
dao ask г cert facate showing that I am free from them, and they 
fiom lae so th^t if henceforth theie aie аву punishments or 
fines to be mcuned questions to be asked or answers to be given, 
the* may take them all upon themselves." The cadi, much 
amused with what he heard cfi\e the desired certificate, and add- 
ed a piesent to Abnol Ca im 

Behold Ш tins tile to what misfoitunc'i the avaricious uubjeut 
theraseh es ! 



Concerning tliose who fall in love and are CB[ilivaledby the tender poBsion. 

The following is told by the sidtan of traditioners, Abool Fe- 
redj ibin el Joozee, 

I heard my master, the Sbak Abool Hassan, relate, that л 
person of his acquainta,iioe, a learned man, became enamored of a 
beautiful Waaarene (Christian) woman, and fell a captive to the 
chains of love. His affection for the object of his pasdon impaired , 
his strength, and the pain of love rendered him ill. Tliis love-sick 
man possessed a true friend and constant companion, who endea- 
vored to procure a relief for his disorder. As he was become 
very weak, his friend mounted him on an aas, Hnd conducted him 
to an infiimary, where he left him in charge of the physician. But 
the poor man's illness only bcreasing, he called his true friend 
to his bed-side, and informed him of the cause of his complaint, 
saying, " It is now some time since I fell a captive to the love- 
locks of such a Christian woman ; and since then I have been una- 
ble to obtain an interview with her. The hour of my edjid (fatal 
moment) b now near, and the intei'view cannot take place except 
at the great day. It has not been our destiny to be happy to- 
gether in this world ; my g;rief and affection have increased, and 
we can only be united in the other." He then closed his eyes and 
expired, and his friend prepared his body for interment. " Some 
days after the funeral," says he, " I went to the Christian woman, 
to tell her what had happened. I found her very iU and afflicted; 
and when. I informed her of her lover's death, the excellent crea- 
ture sighed, and wept, and exclaimed, ' It was not our lot to come 
together in this world, and our union is deferred imti! it can take 
place in the other. Be witness that I now forsake this futile reli- 
^oUj and accept that of Mohammed, on whom be peace.' She 
then recited the kelanbi skekadit, or confession of faith, embraced 



the Islam religion, and immediately expired in a state of fidelitj'." 
The relater adds, " Never in my life have I met ivith a stranger 
thing than this." * 


It is narrated in the liistory of Aina, that once in a socia! 
assembly of persor^ of education, the conversation turned upon 
the subject of love, and each one related a story. Among those 
who listened to the different tales was an aged man, who, being 
requested by those present to tell what lie had seen and heardj 
related as follows : 

I once had a daughter unequalled for her beauty. Moreover 
there resided in our quartei- of the city a merchant's son, in whose 
society she had grown up, and to whose love-locks she fell a cap- 
tive. She concealed her passion within her heart, and hid it 
from us. Our neighbor, the merchant's son, was also deeply en- 
amored of a vei-y worthy youth, the slave of a person residing 

" Altlioiiifli a slave, he was fairer than iiis maetsir." 

Now this last mentioned youth made love to my daughter, and 
was a captive to the chains of hei' ringlets. One day there was a 
large assembly ie which I and the youth who made love to my 
daughter happened to be, as well as the merchant's son who was 
in love with the lover of my daughter. Suddenly the youth 
repeated to himself in a low voice tlie folloiving verses : 

• It is 110 doubt from such religious belief 8a this that, in the interior of 
Aaia Minor, Christians fi-eqiiently нге compelled, as it were, to marry Mneaul- 
таан. Some adopt tho Islam faith, whilst others do not. 

„■,;, Google 

" The sign of tliose wiio are toi'nipiitcd by lovo's passion, is tears ; abose 
all, of Oiat lover who finds none to eympathize with him." 

When the merchant's son heard these words, he exclaimed, "Ahmi- 
tuyasaidee! I admire уоч, my lord! do you give me permission 
to dio in the path of love?" The youth replied, "Yea, if you are 
true to your love, and your condition ia conformable to your 
words." Scarcely had he ended saying this, when the merchant's 
son fell backwards exclaiming, " ҮаМакЪооЬ el ashikeen! thou 
Fiiend of true lovers !" and expired. All those present were shocked, 
and rising, they took tbeir leave. I did so hkewise, and went to my 
on n house, when 1 1 elated the occun-ence to my wife. My dangh- 
tei, unknown to us, was listc-ning to my words, and we observed 
that hei complexion ohingied She asked her mother whether the 
son of sucli a one wab jeally dead ; and being replied to in the 
nffirmitive, she shrieLed out and expired. " What shall we do ? 
Al! knowledge IS with Allah," we said; and having prepared her 
for mterment, we were on our way to the cemetery when we met 
the funeral procession of the young man who had been beloved of 
my daughter, and had expired first. We carried them together to 
their graves. Now the youth who had recited the verses, and was 
in love with my daughter, on hearing the news of her decease, 
shrieked out and expired. His master prepared the body for iuter- 
ment, and we witnessed its burial also. All three were interred 
side by side. Thus were these two lovers and a mistress, in the 
same day, both in life and in their tombs. May God have mercy 
on them all ! 



It is j-elated that once an Arab named Moosa, wJiilst travelling, 
came to a chapel ia wbich the people were assembled for prayers, 
The Arab, who had a puree of money in his poctet, followed them 
in and took a place behind the Imam. Prayers commencing, the 
Imam exclaimed, reciting the verse of the Koran, " And he ask- 
ed what is in thy right hand, Mosea (Moosa)?" 

The Arab, pulling the purse from his bosom, exclaimed, " You 
ere can be no doubt of it;" and fled. 

It is related that an Arab of the desert bad once stolen the 
saddle-cover {ghashieh) of another person, and put it in his bosom. 
It being prayer-time the people assembled in a chapel, whither the 
Arab also went. The Imam accidentally commenced reciting the 
chapter of the Koran, entitled EI Gashieh (the day which enve- 
lopes) : " Hath the news of the all-enveloping (El Gashieh) day of 
judgment reached thee f The Imam then continuing, had just 
added, "The faces of some on that day shall be cast down ;"* 
when the Arab drew out the saddle-cover, and begged him to take 
it and let his face alone. 

It is related that an Arab named Moos 
• Koran, chapter ӨЗ. 


chapel, heard the 1гаяш recite the vevstis, " Moses, verily the 
magistrates are deliberating concemiag thee, to put tliee to death. 
Depart therefore ; Icertainlyadvise thee well."* The Arab hastily 
finished his prayer, and aa he left the chapel heard the Imam's 
voice continuing, " What is in thy light hand, Moses V " Ho ! 
Imam, this stjok ia mine. Come after me, and know that with it 1 
will dig your grave at the chapel door." 


On tlie subject of placing our confidence in God, who iiDS eaid, " Pnt tiiy faifli 
in that life which dies not ; and when thou art in want, ask of Him ; if 
than need aid, ask it also of Him. Know tha't al] people, if united, could 
do thee nothing, nor benefit thee at all, except in ae much as He Ьвв 
written it; end that should ail people unite to do thee wrong, they can 
not bai'iii thee, except when God has written it." Thos has the Frophet 

It is related that in the time of Haroon er Rasheed there was 
a great famine and deamess of provisions. Many persons died of 
hunger. Haroon er Rasheed and all the people repented of their 
evil acts, implored divine pai'don, and refrained from the nse of 
forbidden things. He bad all the instrumenta of sin broken, and 
forbade all kinds of plays and amusements. 

One day during thia period, observing an Arab dancing and 
clapping his hands, he ordered bim to be brought before him and 
said, "How is it, that whilst the people aie in so much distress 
and affliction, you dimce and play?" The Arab replied, "Elham- 

" Kocan, chapter 28. 


244 TunKisK KVE-mw» 

du llUah ! God be praised 1 My bid has a magazine filled with 
grain; he leaves no one hungry or in want, bxit pi-ovides for my 
support; and in my delight Idance." The caliph wept and re- 
plied, "Put confidence in your own Lord, and be not grieved; 
foi' he is the Creator of his people, and it is He who provides for 
them out of his endless bounties when unable to help themselves. 
He is secuiity for the necessities of his people; — aever wil! he 
leave them hungry or in need of others. This famine is, no doubt, 
caused by our want of confidence." So saying, lie returned to 
the path of reiianee on God's mercies. 

It is related that once there was a great famine in 
that most of the inhabitants left the city, and went every one 
to a different place. Among them was a poor but learned man, 
the neighbor of a wealtby person, named Ibin Abdallah. Tbis 
man, with the hope of doing something for his family, wished 
also to depart. But his wife said to him, "If you leave us here 
alone at such a time, what will be our lot? who wil! look after us, 
or provide for us?" The man replied, "I have a bond against 
Ibin Abdallah for money lent him; after. I am gone, present it, 
and he will every day give you provisions." He wrote these 
lines on a paper, and gave it to his wife r " My wife said to ше, 
'When I am left in this place, who will aid me?' I replied, 
'Allih and AbddlUh,'" aftei i\luoh he depaited His wife and 
childien took the paper and piesented it to Ibm Abdallah, who 
read it, and appointed a man to supply them with food daily; 
and, until the husband i^tumed, he continued to bc=tow his ge- 
nerosity upon them 


It la lelatrd m the liistoiy called Mirat ez Zemau," that 
Hiiitn Авгщ ivTs once leduced to i\tieme poverty. He was, 
hoiieiei a рюиь md zedlous bcivant of God. One day one of 
his fneods bet out on i pilgiimige to Mecca. This inspired 
Hatim Asam with the desire of domg the заше. So returning to 
his wife and children, he said to them, "Will you ^ve your father 
permission to go to Mecca this year, that he may acquit himself 
of that divine ordinance, and offer up prayers for you!" His 
eldest son replied, "You have not a farthing, and ai-e not ac- 
quainted with any one who will defray your expenses; neither 
have you any thi ig to leave to j зиг family." But he also had a 
young daisghter who addiessmg her mother, srid, "God will 
provide foi us our f ithei is also an humble servant of Him ; why 
should jou therefoie object Ю his gobgl Leave him alone; let 
him depart to accomplish hii wishes, and pray for ча," All the 
other childien e\claimpd True! it is just; let him go." So 
early in the morning Hatim Asam bade them farewell, and set 
out on foot foi Mecca 

Tliat diy all the neighbor" collected around Hatim Asam'a 
house. They aBlced Why did you let him go, and leave you 
a\l in this needy condition without any one to aid you." Hatim's 
oldest son lephed I endeaioied to prevent him; but this little 
girl was the cause of his going Tliey аЛ blamed the girl; and 
she, tujnmg her face towaida the Judge of all wants, prayed : 
"0 God thou hast promised to my people to bestow thy ex- 
cellence on tliem Thou will not harm tbem, nor place them in dan- 
ger; do not njw theiefoie make me ashamed among- them;" 
and she rubbed her face against the earth in Iramble devotion. 

Now it happened that, at the same hour, the Emir of the 
faithful went forth to the chase. The day was very hot; and the 
heat making him excessively thirsty, he cried out, "Let us hasten 
back to the city, where I can procure a drop of water." Just 



then they came to Hatim Asam's door; and, on Imocking at it, 
this aame little ^rl approached, and, inquiring who knocked, 
heard the reply, "Help, help! open the door. The Emir of the 
ffuthful is here, and asks a cup of water from yon." Hatim's 
wife, turning her face towards heaven, exclaimed, "Thanks be to 
God! Last night Hatim's poor children went to bed himgry; 
to-day the Emir el Мчшапееп comes to hb door to crave a cup 
of water." The little ghl handed the caliph a draught of water 
in a clean cup, which he drank; and receiving fresh vigor from 
it, he inquired whose house it was. His vizir replied, " It belongs 
to a pious man named Hatim Asam, I have heard that he has 
put on the ibmm,* and gone on the holy pilgrimage, and that 
his wife and children last night went supperless to bed." The 
cahph replied, "We have also come to be an addition to the 
number of his family, having been a burden to tliem, and 
having dnmk of their water. It is not generous to leave them 
unrequited." So, unbuckling a golden belt from his waist, he 
threw it on the sill of Hatim's door; at the same time exclaiming, 
"Let those who love me show legard to Hatim's family." All 
his follo«ets immediately unfastened their belts, threw them on 
the dooi bill, and depaited The vizir told the family that it was 
tbe caliph s bounty "Wait an hour," said he, "and I will hiing 
you the \alup of the belts " In fai-t, soon afterwards he returned 
and redeemed them with a hundred thousand pieces of gold, which 
he put into a bag and presented to Hatim's wife. When Hatim's 
little girl saw the splendid sight, she wept; and on being asked the 
cause of her tears, she replied, "Because last night I Jay down a 
hungered; and to-day, the look of an humble being like ourselves 
has conferred upon us so much wealth. Wow, therefore never let 
those who are under the favorable regard of the King of kings 
beg of any other. Our poverty is from the smalbess of our 
patience ; and my confidence in him is the cause that he has 
bestowed so much bounty on Hatim's family." 

* Penitential cloaks, in whicli pHpima dieee during then' v]»'it Id Meecu. 



But let us return to Hatim, who, having journeyed one station 
with the caravan, stopped at a Aoreai (hotel), where the Emir el 
Hadj (the chief of the pilgrim caravan) fell ill of a complaint for 
which no remedy could ho found. The Emir ordered those about 
him to make search in the caravan for some pious person to pray 
for him, and have bim brought before him ; saying, that he would 
ask, in person, his assistance for his recovery. Some one replied, 
that Hatim Asam was in the cai-avan among the pilgrims. 
"Hasten," replied he, "and look for him." So, search being made 
for the pious man, he was brought before the Emir, at whose feet 
he knelt and saluted him with good wishes (prayers); and in the 
same hour that he did so the Emir recovered. He had a tent 
pitched for Hatim beside hjs own; and collecting all the poor 
around hira, he, the same night was about recommencing his jour- 
ney, when the reflection entered the mind of Hatim, "0 God 
and the Prophet! Hatim has received your favor — what may he 
the condition of his wife and children?" Whereupon he heard a 
voice crying out, "0 Hatim, whoever arranges his affaii-s peace- 
ably with us will be treated peaceably by us;" which assured 
him that his wife and children had received divine favor. Hatim 
returned grateful thanks; and with heartfelt joy and contentment 
be performed his pilgrimage. On returning home, his wife and 
children came out to meet him. Hatim kissed bis youngest 
daughter and wept. He exclmmed, "Know that God regards 
not your great men, — but he views with favor those who know 
the most; thei-efore what is most needful to you is knowledge. 
Whoever confides in God will find mercy from him." 

The Sheik Jemal ed Deen bin Abdalkh, of Damiuscus, relates 
the following; 


Once, ill company with a number of cLoice friends, I made a 
visit, to Mount Lebanon; and, as it was much frequented by boly 
and devout persons, we hoped to fall in with some of them. 
We ascended the mountain; wbere, sifter walking about a great 
deal, 1 became fafigued. Coming (o a stream, I seated myself 
beside it, and told my companions that I would wait for them 
there. So they continued on; and I, after going through my 
ablution, pei-formed several rikats (genuflections in prayer). I then 
arose; and whilst wandering about, I heard a voice. On pro- 
ceeding in the direction from winch it tame, I entered a cave, in 
which I walked for a considerable time At the end of it I per- 
ceived an old man of a frightful figme, engaged in reading the 
Koran. He лтаэ howevei blind of both eyes. I saluted the 
alarming, though holy pei4on I asked hmi whether he was a 
human being or a jinn, adding that I myself was a man. He was 
greatly surprised, and replied, "It is now more than thirty years 
since I have seen any of my brethren of humanity." I approached 
him, kissed his hand, and seating myself beside him, saw three 
tombs near him. After reposing myself a httle, I arose, made 
my noon-day prayers, and then occupied myself with my own 
affairs whilst the holy man was engaged in his devotions. When 
the ikindee {tiie third hour of daily prayer) was come, he per- 
formed his namas. Raising bis hand lie commenced his prayers, 
saying, "0 God have mercy upon the people of Mohammed; 
rejoice the people of Mohammed!" He reraarlted to me, 
"Every one who day and night repeats this prayer лудН receive 
the degree of an abdal (Santon), and be of Him who taught me, 
as it is written, 'He (God) who taught man what he did not 
know.' Go, loot into the cell opposite you; and Avhatever you 
find there, eat." I went into the ceil, and saw lying on a black 
stone several clusters of fresh grapes, fresh figs, and other fniits; 
and being surprised, I asked how they came there. "Have a 
httle patience," was his reply, "and yon will soon see." Shortly 
afterwards I saw a beautiful bird, with white wings, a green breast. 


and a yellow neck, and altog^tber adoined with plumage of vari- 
ouB colora. It held in its шоцЛ a clustei' of grapes, and in it&two 
claws it brought two figs. It entered the cell, where it put the 
fruit down. In this manner it returned twice, each time bringing 
in fruit, and departed. The Sheik said to me, "Do you now see, 

AbdalkhV I replied, "Yes." He continued, "It k now 
more than fifty years since I fii^at entered the cave. This bird, by 
divine command, serves me in the manner you have witnessed ; and 

1 with a pure heart put confidence in the Creator of all things i for 
it is written, 'He who feai^ God wiC receive from him the sup- 
ply of all his wants, when he least expects it.' Up to tlie pre- 
sent time this bird lias come to me ten times a day; but now, in 
honor of you, it ivill come tivenLy times, — for which God be 

This holy man had on a caftan (cloak) quite new, and so 
transparent that I never, in my life, had seen anything like it. I 
inquired of him, "Where did you obtain this cloak; does it never 
wear old?" The holy man replied, "This bii-d, every Ramazan, 
brings me ten pieces from the back of a tree ; out of which I make 
a eioak, and wrap the remainder round my head." Near the holy 
man was a stone, on which the bird would pour a little water; 
this the Sheik rubbed over his head, and the bird would take 
every hair out of his head, cleaner tiian if cut with a razor. 

One morning, as I was conversing with the Sheili, seven per- 
sons entered from without; their eyes were divided lengthwise, and 
their feet were formed like the hoofs of a goat. The Sheik said 
to me, "These persons are Islam jinns ; every day they come to 
me and take a lesson." Approaching him, they read the chapter 
T, H.,* which the Sheik commented on; and after saluting him, 
they departed. He now asked me how I found the cave, and who 
showed it to me. I told him how I had left Damascus with 
my companions; and how, they having separated from me, I wtw 



left alone, and, whilst wandering about, by Divine providence fell 
upon the entrance to the cave, on coming into which I had the 
honor to meet him. "God be thanked!" siud the Sheik; "were 
it not for your companions, I would keep you all night; but they 
must be troubled by your absence, so now go and deliver them 
fiom anxiety " Kissing bis hand I arose, and the Sheik accompa- 
nied me to the entrince of the cave, where an enormous and fright- 
f 1 h t IS Th 8b k poke a few words to it, and then 

b d m Щ t t b k Tear not," said he; "he will cai-ry 
y t d d 'e you from ail troiiblc." I kissed 

Ltd nd k d his good prayers in my behalf. 

Wh I I d If h eafter, you should make the holy 

plimgd t gltt look at the side of the Zemzem gate 
f m f h d h n арреагш1св. Kiss his hand, and 
d -es; for he is a holy man, whose 
Q him my salaams ; and should he 
tell him. they are from Ibraheem Ker- 
w rds iie left me. 

which carried me into Damascus and 
t d the mosk of the Beuee Ommieh, 
me, they were greatly rejoiced. I 
11 th t h d happened to me, and returned with 
lot withstanding all our researches, 
we were u Ы t fi d t! trance to the cave. My fiiend ob- 
served to me tbat it was a divine gift, which would not be found 
when sought after. Finally we entered Damascus. 

Each year I went to Mecca; but it was only at the eighteenth 
pilgrimage that I found the holy man, when I kissed his hand, and 
informed him that Ibraheem Kermanee saluted him. " Peace be on 
you and on him !" he exclaimed, " when did you see the Sheik V 
So I related to him the circumstances, and invoked his good prayers 
for me. He informed me that what bad occurred to me was a di- 
vine favor, or I never could have seen the Sheik ; for when he 
entered the cave and took up !iis secret abode there, he prayed, 





d t 


t d 





h m> f 

t d t 







" God еопоей] me from thy servants, aiid only permit me to 
meet with any one by tby holy will ;" and his prayers were accept- 
ed. " I have recently btiried him," continued he. On my asking, 
"How did yoii know of his decease?" he replied, "A voice went 
fiwra the East to the Weat, saying, ' faithful one ! man of 
God ! be ready to assist at the funeral of Ibraheem Kerraanee.' All 
the men of God assembled there, prepared the body for interment, 
and buried it beside those tombs which you saw." 

It is related tliat there was once a holy man, a man of great 
piety, who, by Divine favor was, wherever ha went, accompa- 
nied by a small cloud of Paradise* ; and his prayers were always 
accepted by God. By Divine providence, a weakness coming upon 
him, his limbs became shortened, and the cloud which usually 
accompanied him left him. The holy man (hermit) was much 
giieved. He ai-ose at roidnight and wept ; and whilst praymg to 
God, he heard a voice, saying, " The acceptance of your pi-ayera 
and the success of your hopes are dependent on the prayere of the 
sovereign of such a country." The hermit departed to the ting 
of the country mentioned, and soxight an interview with his door- 
keepers, so as to make known his circumstances to the king. The 
door-keepers gave him this reply, " Our sovereign holds a divan 
once a week, and no one once sees his face at any other time." So 
the hermit passed a week in offering up devotions in the corner of 
a chapel; and when the king held his divan, he represented his 
condition to him. The king directed his people to have the hermit 
brought to him in his palace. After this he arose and entered his 
palace, where he sent for his vizir. 

The hermit relates, " We went into an immense and splendidly 
furnished palace ; and through it passed into a miserable apart- 

* In Arabic lilli zaletl, shadow of Paradiso, — one of the sttractLons held 
oat by Moliammed to (lie sun-burut Arabs of the desert. 



meat, whose iow walla were about to crumble down. Here we 
saw the same person who had held the divan ; he bad laid aside 
hia silk robes, put on an old monk's frock, and was seated on no- 
thing but an old mat. Near him was a moon-faced female slave, 
who was his wife ; and a little boy passed in and out to tlienj. 
When he saw me, lie showed me very great regard and honor; 
aud I knew that he was of the true sovereignty, one of the sub 
tana of tills world and of eternity. Addressing his wife (k/iatoon.) 
he asbed, "Do you know who' this great man is?" She re- 
plied, "Yes; he is the master of the cloud." From this I saw 
that his wife was also one of God's people. The king, turaing 
round, said, " God knows that I have no enjoyment from my sove- 
ieiq;nty My forefifhers came and departed just as you see me; 
d,nd now Щ time has come. I did not wish to accept the throne, 
and requested the people to choose for their king whomsoever they 
wivhed, it bemg my intention to withdraw into retiiement ; but I 
leflected that su(,h and such things might happen, — that a tyrant 
mi^lit be placed over a division of God's people, and an injury 
be done to thi"!! Uws, for which I would have to answer in the 
other woild bn, m fine, I conGluded that I would, once a week, 
hold a dii in in pel son, to devote myself to the welfare of God's 
people, and spend the other days in prayer to the Creator, My 
chief vizir oversees the affairs of the Mussulmans with justice ; for 
which God be thanked! though no other vizir or public ser- 
vant knows anything about my conduct. This poor creature is my 
uncle h d ughter and my wile she is always with me, and is faithful 
to me it я11 times Tou to night are our guest ; and to-morrow, 
God wiling jou may depart rejoicing." He then took two 
babkets of pJm kqf and gave them to a boy who attended 
upon h m dnectmg him to go and dispose of them, and bring 
ЬтеэтеЬеапч sweet cike (Aaima), and bread. The boy wentand 
brought the things wJ ii-h vere asked for, and we ate and slept. 
\.t mid ight the^ a o e and remained praying until the morning. 
Afier h ibh ig tie moiling prayer they lifted up their hmih uiu! 



prayed, '0 Allah, thy servant begs thee to return hira his oloud 
— that one which thou gavestfo him as 3" guide; return it, God.' 
The wife responded, 'Amen;' and I saw the cloud descend again 
from heaven. He rubhed his hand against it, and exclaimed, 'God 
be prised! Your prayer has been accepted; joy to you!' So I 
arose ; and embracing him, I kissed his hand, took leave of him, and 
returned to my own country. I always mention them in my five 
daily prayers; and whatever I pray for, or ask, is accorded to me. 
For which God be praised !" 

Sehil bin Abd Allah Testeree, one of the most pious of men, 
relates the following : 

" When I was three years old, my uncle, the Sheik Mohammed 
bin Suvar, used fo arise and pray in the night ; and I would also 
arise with him. My uncle states that I was born in the holy month 
of Ramazaa. The Almighty would generally send a sleep upon 
me during the days of that month, and I woidd continue sleeping 
and nur^ng from my mother's breast until the sunset call to 
prayer. One of God's acts of grace to me was this: Once when I 
was passing through a desert field, I looked for water to perform 
the ablutions of the noon-day prayer, and finding none, my heart 
was grieved. Suddenly I perceived a bear brining a basin of 
water, which it put before me. I refnuned from using it for my 
ablutions ; and whilst wondering whether it was pure or not, the 
bear spoke and said, '0 Sehil, we are a tiibe cut off from the 
people, and rely upon love.' Suddenly I heard a voice from an 
unknown direction saying, ' Sehil asked water for his ablutions, 
but found none.' They then gave me this jar saying, ' Take it 
and depart.' When the jorwas put before me I saw two angels 
pouring water into it, and I could hear their voices very well. 
Whilst yet astonished, and reflecting on what I had seen, I otaei-v- 


254 TURK 

ed that tlie jar remamed, but those who brought it bad disappear- 
ed. I was greatly grietl;d, and conversod foi' some time with the 
bear, I perfonned my ablutions with, the water, but when I wis 
about to diiak, a voioe came to me from my Aaft/ (guardian angel), 
saying, that it was not time to drink of that water. So I set the 
jaj down; whereupon it moved, and continuing to-roU, it disap- 
peared from my sight," 

The Almighty gave Sebil power over the mid beasts aud 
birds. They would come and go at bis call. He woidd buy meat 
in the marbet, and feed them one or two days at a time in his 
house; whea the people Avould go to gaze at him and them. May 
God bless his secrets, and bless us with bis bounty ! 

ЛЬоо Hamza Soofee, the most eminent of the great Sheiks, 
relates : la the commencement of my travels, and in the times of 
reli^ous wars and abstinence, I travelled every year one thousand 
furlongs. One year, из I made the holy pilgrimage, I fell into a 
■well in the desert, so deep tliat a rope of one hiindred fathoms 
fh>ladjj would not reach its bottom. Whilst there, I saw two 
persons come to close up the mouth of the well; for which pur- 
pose they brought some trees, and commenced filling it. I wish- 
ed to cry out from, the welt ; but a voice came from my hatif, 
commending me to put up a pva,yer of confidence and to ask 
md of other's. I therefore remained silent, and the two persons 
fastened the mouth of the well and went away. I continued there 
all night. The next day I-observed that sometbmg had thrust its 
feet throiigli into the irell and was making a sign to me. I climb- 
ed up to the feet, and cateliing hold of them, was di'awn above 
groimd ; when I beheld ia my deliverer an enormous and fright- 
ful animal, such as I never had seen before. A voice at that 
moment came to me, saying, " Aboo ITamza., we have delivered 



thee from niiii by means of Aine associate," I prostrated myself 
to the groand, and pi-aised (Jod for hia mercies. The servant of 
God, who puts firm tmst in Him, will always be sure to receive 
aid from Him. 

behil bm Alhh iphtei In the bpf,mniu'; of my tiaiels I 
went to the aliode oi fliP tube of Ad, and enteied a Inige town 
of sculptured stones, whpie I 4aw a Sheik of extitoidmaiy size 
engiged m priyer, with his fate directed towaids the Caaba. I 
remiiLed a jebbck, oi cloak, on the SheUt's back, the punty and 
cleanliness ot winch sui-passed all I had seen in my life When I 
saluted him, he leturned my salutation, and said, "Know, O 
SehU, that this cloak is tainted with the odor of old tins, and that 
it is one remaining from the time of Jesus. I once saw Moham- 
med Muatapha* with it on, was honored with his regard and believed 
in him." I asked him, "Pray what do men call you?" To which 
he replied, "The Surat which says, ',It hath been revealed imto me, 
that a company of Jinna attentively heard,' &c.f was sent down 
from heaven on my accoimt !" 

The most eminent of tbe great sheiks, Abd Allah bin Moham- 
med el Balkhee, relates : I once lived among the ruins of the illus- 
trioiis city of Mecca, ITo one bxew by what means I siipported 
myself. One day, early in the morning, whilst seated 'in the holy 
temple in the place of Ibi-aheem, on whom be peace, the Sheik 
Mohammed bin Ahd Allah el Basree came in, followed by four 
persons. After making a turn round the temple, they went off in 

' The Prophet. 

■t The seventy-secoiid Surat oF the Koran, entillert " Tlie Jiiinp." 



the direction of tbe gate called Bab Benee Sheibeh. I, thinking it 
was a propitious time, followed after them. One of them turned 
and ordered me away; hut the Sheik Mohammed, address- 
ing Mm, siud, "Do not offend him." 80, that, coimljiig myself, 
we were six pereons ; and the Sheilt Mohammed addressing us 
said, " Follow each other in my steps, so as to make hut the tracks 
of one person ; and do not leave me." The Sheik preceded us, 
and we walked on as he had just commenced. The ground under 
our feet seemed to fold up like paper ; and we continued on in this 
way imtil we arrived at the Seddi Yajooj, where we recited the 
evening prayer, and then proceeded. 

As we went along we met a venerable and holy man, whom 
the Sheik embraced, and then held a friendly conversation with. 
The Sheik, with very great civility and calmness went towai'ds him, 
and bade him sit down ; and whilst they were amicably converang 
together I beheld some men like birds fly towai-ds and assemble 
around the venerable man. They talked about moral philosophy, 
and made some of those persons tremble like the shaking of an 
earthquake, whilst others cried out Allah with so much vehe- 
mence that I thought the earth and sky would crumble together. 
Some persons came up as quick as lightning and passed away. 
' This continued tmtil morning, when they performed the matin 
prayer, always following the venerable person. They then sepa- 
rated, and we went a short way on, until we reached the other 
side of mount Caf, where is a fine country, whose earth is whiter 
than snow, and with very many lights, but not resembling those of 
this world. Whilst going over this ground we met with wonder- 
ful and cijrious creatures, Thdr forms were like those of man ; 
but thar faces can be compared to nothing, and were more shin- 
ing than the sun. Our eyes were dazzled, and our Sheik seemed 
like a drunken camel ; ho threw his head from right to left, until 
his thoughts left him. 

Wo went on until the matin prayer, when we arrived at a 
place where there was a large town. All its walls were of gold 



and silver, and it was smroimded Ъу trees interlaced in each other's 
branches. On every side rivera ran lilie ton-cnts. We ate fruits 
of the most delicious kind, and drank water like that of the 
АЫ Zellal. I never tasted any thing so exquisite aa that fruit, and 
its ilavor i-emains in my month to this day. It had the appear- 
ance of an apple; and the Sheik directed us to take one or two 
apiece. We each pulled oif three. A person who had told me 
to go away conld not reach bis hand to the fruit ; and it wae 
remarked, that this was the residt of his incivility, and the prohi- 
bition which he wished to put upon me. The Sheik now told him 
to put forth his hand; whereupon it reached the fniit, Emd he took 
one. Then, turning round, the Sheik iaquired, "Do you know this 
city?" To which, they having replied in the negative, ho added, 
" It is called the City of the Saints, into which none other than they 
can enter," After remaining a litile longer we set out and con- 
tinued on our way ; and reaching Mecca at noon, we repeated the 
prayers of that hour. Tiie SJieik then turned to me, and said, 
"Promise me never, during my life, to divulge our adventure to 
any one." As he depai'ted, lie added that ho vpould again return 
to meet me. May Allah profit us with then blessings ! 

The sultan of leaj-ned doctors, Tafee, says that one of the 
most devout and pure of men related to bim as follows : I was 
seated in the mausoleum of the Prophet, when I obseiTed three 
pious men enter by the portal called the Bab es Salam, who pray- 
ed over the head of the tomb and departed. A benevolent indivi- 
dual near me informed me that these pei*sons were " men of God," 
"Arise," said he, "lose not the opportunity, but follow after 
them," So I did as he recommended, and \vas following them. 


when one tmned round and looted closely into my face. This 
alai-med me so tliat I was Bear ffiinting ; nevertheless I continwed in 
their footsteps. They left the chapel, and I did the same. One 
of them, now turning round, again ioobed in my face and said, 
"Depart and go after thy gains; thou canst not accompany ns." 
The chief of them added, "It is proper that the Most High 
should leave hia exalted place for one still higher." 

They agmn continuing on, I followed. I distinctly saw the 
earth and mountains folding up under our feet lilie a carpet; and 
I heard a voice coining «p from under the earth with a roaring 
sound. Tlie treasui-es of the earth, one by one, were exposed to 
my view, and then again disappeared. We reached a valley in 
which they recited their prayers under its trees, and where we 
met with seventy glorious and pious individnab. Arjsi^ the next 
morning, and proceeding on our way, we came to a city, which 
had a castle whiter than snow, built of stone. From each of its 
walb 3owed a sti-eam of great size, the source of which was 
within the city. They ran out by openings latticed with pure 
gold. We entered by these same openings, and belield sevei-al 
banks, and balconies, and palaces, all covered with arches of gold 
resting on columns of silver. The gravel beneath the water con- 
sisted of the most precious jewels; the ground was covered with 
many kinds of flowers, and different fruits; imd on the trees, bii-ds 
of many species were singing. The fruite were so delicious that a 
man would not be satisfied with eating a whole rttlel (a pound of 
twenty ounces). 

We remained forty days in that city, enjoying the pleasures 
of devotion, and then departing by the way through which we 
had entered, that is, by the Avater-passage, We had not proceeded 
far, when my companions asked me where they should take me to. 
I replied, that I hoped they would conduct me to Mecca. The 
chief of them then told me, that the city which we had just 
viated was the "City of the Saints," that the Moat High had 
d it especially to them, and that no one else could enter 



it. "It is not abyays foiind in the same plswe," added he ; "it is 
alternately in Yemin, in Sham, in Room, and in Adjem; for it 
makes the circnit of the four qufLrtera of tlie globe. Ifone hut 
those who have reached the degree of lioliness of the forty, can 
enter it." 

After going a little fm-ther we saw another city, which he told 
me was the city of Yemia, Soon afterwards, reaching the city 
of Mecca, we entered the Holy House (Caaha), where they took 
leave of me and depai'ted. I had put a few of the apples of that 
city in my bosom; and on them I subsisted four or five months, 
eating notliing else. They are, when compared with the power 
of the Lord, of the two worlds, but as a drop of Avater taken 
from the sea. 

Abd er Bahmaa el Bestany relates, that it is said by one of 
the learned and miraculous persons with whom he met, "The sur- 
face of the earth contains one thousand cities, which I have visited; 
the smallest and most insignificant of them is 'Zatal Imad made a 
garden unequalled in the imiverse.'* When Abd AUah entered 
the city called 'Medineti Uidjash,' he found in the road to it 
the tomb of Gush bin Shedad bin Ad; and near its head he saw 
a table made of yellow wood, supported on four legs of cypress. 
On the sides of the table was written, 'A tliousand kings eat 
off the table wluch you have seen, and made meiTy, all of whom 
were blind of their right eye; and among them, God only knows 
how many were perfect,' 



If my beart "Was not oppressed, "witli gncf, I would have 
added many more things liere. 

It is rdafed, that once in Bagdad, "the pJaco of Paradise," 
the Sheik Abdallah AndaJusee (of Andalusia, in Spain), who was 
one of the greatest of Sheiks and tlie most pious of men, as well 
as a very upright peraon everj' way worthy of confidence, deter- 
mined fo spend a yenr in travel. For this purpose he left that 
ciiy, followed by no less than ten thousand disciples, among 
whom were Jeneed Bagdadee and Sheik Shebly. By the per- 
missioa of the Sheik they all returned except the Sheik Shebly 
aDd forty other persona, who remained in his service. 

On their way thpy came fo one of the infidel towns ; where the 
Shak haying abked for water for his ablutions, no sign of any 
could he seen. At one end of the town they perceived a church, 
which was well built and furnished with bells, and where nume- 
rous priests, deacons, and monks, all assembled together for the 
purpose of making their devotions according to their religion. In 
front of tliis church was a lai-ge well, from which a number of 
women were drawing water ; among whom was a most beautiful 
girl, dressed in silk, with many valuable and jewelled crosses 
suspended around her neck. Those who beheld this fair creature 
exclaimed, "What a beautiful woman !" When the Sheik Abdalbh 
saw her, he became a prey to the snare of lore, and asked whose 
daughter she was. He was told that she was the daughter of 
the king of the couniry; on which he inquired, why she was 
then engaged as he saw her. Tbey told him, that her father had 
placed her there for the purpose of being educated in abstinence, 
so that when she was given in maiiiage she might know her hus- 


band's wortli and be respectful towards him. In fine, the heauty 
of this girl made such an impression on the Sheik, that he became 
quite beside himself, and remained three days in that place 
without once speaking to any one. 

Slieik Sumballee states that he went to him and said, "My 
Hultan, your disciples and all your fakirs ai'e in despair at your 
affliction; and it is now three days ance you have eaten or drank 
any thing, or spoken a word to any one." To this the Sheik replied- 
with a sigh ; but at length arising, he called his disciples around him, 
and said, "I am indeed in a bad state, and have no power over my- 
self; that beautiful creatm'e has imprisoned my heart in such a way, 
that none but the All-Just can fi'ee me. I am wholly unable to 
separate myself one step from tliis place. What was to come upon 
me has come. Forget me not m your prayers, and depart in 
peace." All his fakirs (disciples devoted to meditation and 
austeiity) lamented and wailed over him; and Shebly speaking, 
said, "0 Sheik, do not dishonor us in the midst of these infidels. 
Your oi-ders are obeyed from the east to the west, and all look to 
you for protection; how can we leave you among the infidels?" 
To which be answered, " I knew all this ; but thus has the pen of 
fate decreed, I have fallen into the sea of nothingness; the knot 
of command is loosened, and my ability to dii-eot is rolled «p." 
Then falling down upon his face, he wept so violently, that even 
the infidels, the trees, and the stones wept with him. Afterwai-ds 
he arose, and again commanded all his friends to depait ind leave 
him to himself. "Destiny and fate have reached me siid he 
"therefore forget me not m your prayers," We all m teais ex 
claimed, "0 Lord of the two worlds, be kind to him i and then 
left liim. On our return to Bagdad, more than loity thousind 
pereons, composed of the magistrates and the people cime out to 
meet us. On expressing their surprise at not seeing the Shtik, 
we explained what had occuired to him; wben such a sound 
of grief came from tlie crowd, that it seemed a signal of the judg- 
ment-day. Many individuals were nearly killed with sorrow. 


262 TUKiasK evenins esikiitaikmbnts. 

and raising tlieir hands in prayer, exclaimed, " O tboii Guider of 
the ening, lye ask of thee the Sheik who is confided to thee." 
Then turning round they departed. 

Shaik Shebly relates : Grief deprived me of strength, and one 
year afterwards, desirous of learning what had become of the 
Sheik, I staried boia Bagdad for the town wliei'e we bad left him. 
On iBquhing of the people of the place about him, they answei'ed, 
that be ■was herding swine at the foot of the opposite mountain. 
I asked the cause ofhis being there ; and tliey replied, "He asked 
for the king's daughter, and it was agreed that be should tend the 
king's swine one year in place of a dowry {mihr)." Shehly adds, 
that on bearing this, a toiTent of tears fell from his e}es, and 
approaching the mountain, he saw the Sheik clothed m the diess 
of a monk, with a hat on his head and a cord raund his wai'it, and 
leaning upon a staff. On seehig me lie inclined his head, and tears 
of blood fell from his eyes upon the ground. I saluted him ; and 
when he had replied, I naid to him, "What a condition you have 
got into, Sheik! — is it juat that an Imam of your celebrity, the 
author of so many commentaries and ti'aditions, should change his 
honors to so great debasement," Turning round he answered, 
"0 brother, I have no longer any command over myself, and am 
become as a slave who obeys whatever his master orders him to 
do; from being the moat famed of all, I am become so dependent 
upon others, that .if my mastei- pitilessly debases me and rejects 
me, he alone has the power to command. O friend, flee from such 
injurious things!" Then turning his face towards heaven, he 
added, "My God, my lord (MohammedJ, my master, I did not 
think this of thee." At the same IJme weeping, he siud, "0 
Shehly, pray for me." Whereupon I commenced praying, 
"O Allah, thou art He to whom we look for help; Thou art the 
Helper, we eonfide ia thee ; free us from tliis sorrow, for none 
can do it but thee." On ending this prayer, the Sheik added, 
"Amen," and then rubbed his face upon the earth, weeping 
and wailing in the moat piteous manner. Alarmed at his crieSj 



tlie swine made a sudden strange noise like that of the last 
day; then collecting around him, they also rahbed their faces on 
the eaith. So speaking to the Sheik, I begged him to occupy his 
mind in thinking of coDiineataries and tj'aditions, — of something of 
special selectjon. But he replied, "I have forgotten them all; 
nothing now remains in my memory but two Ayats (verses) of the 
Koran : one is, ' And whomsoever God shall render despicable, there 
shall be none to honor;'* and the other, 'He that bath exchanged 
faith for infidelity hath aheady enei ti-om the straight way.' f The 
tradition is as follows, 'Put to death him who clianges his reli- 
gion.' J This is all that has remained within me." "Blessed be 
Gfod," exclaimed I; "this is what is needed." At the same time 
I asked liim whether he would not accompany us to Bagdad. He 
replied, "From being the shepherd of the heai'ts of so many pure 
aad pious men, I have become a keeper of swine; how the» can I 
go theie?" He added however, "Go, collect my friends together, 
and wait for me at such a place ; for the world is again my own." 
So I returned to Bagdad, and gave the joyful news to all his 
friends. Thi-ee days afterwards we set out from that city; and aa 
we were looking out for the Sheik at the appomted place, we saw 
bim repeating with a frightfully loud voice, the Kelimehi Tevbid, 
or profession of God's unity, along the banks of a lai-ge river. 
The sight of him gave us all infinite pleasure. He approached 
us, and crying out to me, said, " Shehly, ^ve me one of your 
garments." I did so ; and when we had dressed him in it iie 
renewed his ablution, recited his Namaa (prayers), and returned 
thanks and praises to God. We abo ail exclaimed, "We thank 
thee, God, that he is returned to us, and that thou hast restor- 
ed us to him." On 0Ш- inqmiing aiter his health, and what had 

* Koran SS as. + Когэи 9 ; 102. 

I This tradition has been violated by tlie present Snitaii Abdol Mojid, 
ueli aa laturu to Christiauity fiom 



happened to him after oiiv departure, he said, " After you left me 
1 nibbed my forehead upon the ground in hnrailitj, aod prayed to 
God to pardon the sins of bis servant, and the All-merciful God 
was good to me." We now continued on to Bagdad; Mid on the 
day of ОШ- anival there all the pious persons of the city, males, 
females, and cliildren, came out to meet us. Seventy diiFerent 
communities came oiit to receive and greet him ; and tbey con- 
ducted the Sheiij to Jiis own dwelling. That same day some one 
or two hundred infidels embraced the faith. 

A month afterwards I was seated one day with the Sheik in a 
private cahinet, when some one knocked at tbe door. On open- 
ing it, we beheld a woman dressed wholly in black, wbo replied 
to our mterrogations, by saying, that she was the handmaid of 
the Siieik who bad vMited theNazarene village. On bringing her 
to the Sheik, his countenance changed color, and he trembled 
like the leaves of autumn ; he wept and asked who had sent her. 
She replied as follows. "After your departure I had no rest or 
comfort, hut lay overwhelmed in grief and tears. In my sleep 
I heard the terrible voice of some one saying, 'If you leave this 
infidelity and idolatry, and embrace the true faith, I wili cause 
you to reach the side of the Sheik, and all your deah-es to he 
attained.' On my consenting, he recited the Kelimai Shahadet or 
profession of faith, and bade me wink my eyes, I did so ; and on 
opening them again I found myself in the outskirts of a city. 
Then placing himself at my side he brought me mto the city, to a 
door at which he knocked, saying, 'Pray give my compliments to 
the Sheik, and tell him that his brother Hadee sends him many 
salaras.'" "Welcome!" exclaimed.the Sheik, on hearing this ; and 
receiving the maiden into his house, he rendered her so devout, so 
assiduous in her fasta, and so prayerful, that she became the ob- 
ject of the reference and demands for prayers of all the most cele- 
brated and pious women of that country. 

Some time after this she fell ill, and asked for the Sheik. We 
found her reduced to a spider's web by her austerity and devo- 


tional exercises. The Sheik inquired how she was, and wept, 
Whereupon she exclaimed, " Weep not, Sheilt ; for we will soon 
be resuscitated together. I will he уош' companion in the abode 
of the All-gracious in Eden." On uttei'ing these words she gave 
up her soul, and we buried her with marks of respect and regard. 
One night I saw the Sheik in a dream ; he was seated on an elevat- 
ed throne, ornamented with jewels, with that pure girl by his 
ade. Seventy Hoorees waited upon them ; and she and the Sheik 
walked hand in hand in the inner court of the exalted place, rock- 
ing to and fro as tliey went. May God have mercy on them all ! 


d forlunale ways, gtacioi 

Ibraheem bin Mehdee, one of the descendanls of the caliphs, 
was a youth of noble attdnments. He was the INadim, or boon 
companion, of one ov two calipte. He says: Jaafer Beramlkee, 
the vizir of Haroon er Rasheed, was one day sitting in his private 
apartments with his own Jfadims, and invited me to be of their 
company. Then calling his door-keeper, he ordered him to let no 
one enter, not even Ahd el Melik bitt Salek (the cahph's uncle) 
himself, A bountiful repast was then spread before us, and we 
ate and drank to our great delight. The door-keeper however neg- 
lected to inforce the orders which he had received ; and lo ! we 
saw the uncle of the caliph, Abd el Melik bin Salek, enter the 
apartment in which we sat. Jaafer was ranch confused, and we 
all immediately jumped up to show the respect due to the visiter; 


BVEKiKG i;nteetaikmekts. 

who, observing the confusion of Jaafer went directly to a seat and 
sat down. He inquired after Jaafeji's bealtli, and begged that his 
entrance might not piit a stop to the amuaemente in hand. He 
then laid aside his tui'ban and c]oalc, and toolt pai't m the repast. 
Salek was, however, a very abstemious man, and never even sat down 
with the caliph dining the meals of the latter. At length every 
one became agnin at his ease and we renewed our mirth. Whea 
the cup came round to the old gentleman, he drank it off without 
hesitation, begging us to excuse him for the act. Jaafer smiled, 
then took his hand and kissed it, and iaquired what he could do 
for him. Ahd el Melik replied that he would call upon him some 
other time to talk about his business. But Jaafer persisted in ask- 
ing what he desired, and declared that he would not eat another 
mouthful until he was bformed, Abd el Melik then answered, 
that he asked for thvee things ; one of which was, that, as the 
caliph was displeased with him, he desired to be restored to his 
favor. Jaafer replied that the caliph not only was pleased with 
him, but felt greatly obliged to him. " Moreover," said the caliph's 
uncle, "I owe ten thousand pieces of gold, and ask it fo be paid 
for me ;" to which Jaafer answered that the caliph had ordered з 
debt of his amounting to that sum to be paid out of his treasury, 
and added, " I beg you also to accept of another similar amount 
from me for your own expenses." Abd el Melik next said, (hat 
he wislied his son to be united in mai'iiage, on terms of equality, 
to the daughter of the caliph; and Jaafer replied that the caliph 
had commanded his daughter to be tmited in wedlock to his son, 
adding also the government of Egypt as a gift to the latter. 

Abd el Melik now took his leave, and on his way thought that 
Jaafer had promised these things whilst under the excitement of 
wine. "Let us see," said he, "to-mon'ow, what he will do." In 
the mean time Jaafer continued his amusement with his Kadims, 
who were surprised at his conduct towaj-ds the uncle of the caliph; 
"For," thotight they, "though he may give away offices and 
money, how can he, without permission, give away the caliph's 



? True, never were such favora given, before 
to any Tizir ; but to-morrow wffl show tbe result." 

The meeting broke up, and on the following morning Jaafer 
wmted upon the caliph, who asbed hira whether it was just for him 
to make merry in private without him, JaaJer replied that he had 
thought himself peifeotly private ; but though he had directed no 
one to be admitted, lo! Abd el Melik appeared and saluted him 
with "Peace be upon you." "I was so confused," added he, 
"that I answered him, 'Allah be on youl' then aiising, I showed 
him tlie proper evidences of respect." " Is this true V asked the 
caliph, "or do you not make a mistal^e?" "It is the truth," 
answered Jaafer, " and he acted fowaids me in the most generous 
end affable manner possible." "How?" exclaimed the caliph; 
"pray tell me wJiat he did." "Seeing our confusion and disor- 
der," replied Jaafer, "he forthwith threw off bia cloak and turban, 
took a seat amongst us, and drank oiF a cup of wine, asking me at 
the same time to paj-don the act. I kissed his band, and inquired 
what were his ordei's. 'No,' said he, 'I will come to-morrow 
and talk with, you about that.' But I insisting, he added, 'In 
the first place the Commander of the faithful is displeased with 
me;' but I assured him that you were not offended with him. 
'I Oive,' continued he, 'ten thousand dinars, >vhioh I desire the 
cilipli to pay for me.' I then told him that you had commanded 
ten thousand dinaia to be paid for him out of your own treasury, 
begging hmi at the same time, to accept of the same sum from me. 
' Next, said he I have to beg that my son be married to the 
caliph s diughter ' to wliich I replied by telling him that 
you had not only determined to give your daughter to bis son, 
but would jjive bim also the government of Egypt vrith her." The 
oaliph exclaimed, " Good ! I accept all you have done, and confirm 
your promises," 

Jaafer now threw himself at the feet of the caliph, and pro- 
ceeded oa. to his bureau of affairs, where, in the presence of all 
the nobles and chief men of the court, he sent twenty thousand 


dinars to Abd el Melilr, and invited him to come to see him at 
hia divan. Abd el Melilc consequently presented himself with his 
Eon, and fownd there a large concourse of people assembled, and 
the caliph on his throne surrounded by all his court. On his sa- 
luting the caliph, the latter arose to his feet, and made his uncle 
sit down on the edge of the throne along aide of him. He Best 
ordered the marriage of his daughter to be re^stered, and be- 
stowed several dresses of honor in succession upon hJra and his 
son. He abo commanded the latter to be girded" with {the sword 
of) the government of Egypt, All the officers of the caliph ac- 
companied Ahd el Melik to his dwelling, and each asked of the 
other which of these three benevolent persons was the most gra- 
cious. Ibraheem Mehdee a Ids that all allotted the title of supe- 
riority to Abd el Melk who w of a very austere and pious 
character; some thoi^lt that J a fer s temerity and benevolence 
w^ greatest ; and otl e ъ p ed tl e caliph's gi-eat goodness 
and amiableness f cha acte 

This оссттепсө shows the degiee of authority which the caJiph 
bestowed upon Jaafer Beramibee, and the favor wliich he displayed 
towards him ; and yet subsequently he cut off his head, and showed 
his anger even against his servants and followers, verifymg the Per- 
sian adage, which says, "Near the sovei'eign the fire burns hotest." 

It is related in some liistoriea, that a wealthy and influential 
man of the Benee Ommieh was once calumniated, out of envy, to 
the Abbaside Caliph, Haroon er Rasheed, by the Governor of 
Damascus, It was said that he lived with great pomp and luxuiy ; 
and that, as a measure of precaution, his removal would benefit 
the country. The caliph, a most intelligent and wke sovereign. 


bad a confidential persoa in his service, named Menar, likewise very 
wealthy ; him he called, [and ordered to set out immediately for 
Sham (Damasoua), to inquire into the circuniBtances of the case, 
and bring the taan bound before him. He also commanded hini 
to report whatever the individual might say to him, 

Menar mounted his camel, and in dght days reached Damas- 
cus ; having found the house, he diBmormtcd at it, and learned that 
the person for whom he searched was in his bath. The latter, 
however, sent bis sons and sciTants out to meet Menar, and con- 
ducted him into the dining-room of the house. Then, after per- 
forming bis natnax, he came out to see his guest. A repast was 
brought in, and a bounteous meal was spread before them. After 
its conclusion, he returned thanks to his Creator, and prayed for 
the caliph; he next renewed his expressions of welcome to his 
guest, and asked what was his business. 

Menar relates: "I gave him the order which I bad received res- 
pecting him. He kissed it and put it upon his head, (as a mark of 
respect,) and, after openbg it, read its contents. Then, calliag 
together all his people, in the course of a few minutes nearly one 
thousand men were assembled, which made me suspect that he 
intended to offer resistance. Turning to these, he said, 'May my 
bread be lawful to all of you, and may you be freed from all 
duty towards me, if you act contrary to my ordera.' ' God for- 
bid,' exclaimed they, all at once; 'we are submissive to your 
commands.' ' Then, let every one occupy himself, each with his 
own business; bring me qiuokly a melifek (fitter)' This being 
done, he said to them and his sons, 'I am going to the caliph; 
attend all of you, as usual, to your own concerns uniil I return.' 
Then, entering the melifeh, he left Damascus and praceeded 
towards Bagdad. On the way he came along ade of me, and, at 
the sight of every villa£;e that we entered, he would exclaim, 
'Menar, this is mine; this vmeyaid is mine, it produces me so 
much revenue.' The greatei p-ut of the country round about 
Damascus belonged to him nd pet j le were envious of his wealth. 


After contimuDg on for some di tance lif said to i 
wliere is your note-book?' Thb 1 liande I to him, and he й 
it to his belt. Soon after coming neai a lar^e town, ' 'Ibis also is 
miae/ said he; on wbioh I exdaimed, 'My good friend, we are 
getting far away from your family, you journey jn fetters, and wbo 
knows what may hefall yon ; why, therefore, do you tell me so 
niiich about your property ?' Turiung towards me, he replied, 
' D Menar, I have made a mistake ; I thought that, bemg in the 
service of the caliph, you were a man of wisdom and intelligence, 
whilst you are an ignorant fellow. You tell me that we do not 
know what may happen to me, or how my affairs may turn out. 
The lot of you, of me, of the Emir of the fmthful, and of all men, 
is in the hands of the Most High ; he commands and dii'ects all 
things, and nothing oeems but by his destination. Should the 
world and all it contains be brought together, and be given over 
to you, it find they would not be able to do tlie smallest thing of 
themselves, or without the destiny of God. Be it good, or be it 
evil, it will happen ; put your confidence in Allah, Menar. I 
have committed no fault i^inst the caliph which I should guard 
against. T)ie caliph is a just and mild prince, who does notiiing 
against the Holy Law; but, wei'e he the cruel slid tyrannical man 
that yon say, your reflections might become verified. God he 
praised that he is free from the tifuts of character which yon seem 
to apprehend. He will certainly investigate the charge agamst me, 
and separate the tnith from the fake; in which case I have no 
cause for grief; in fine — but I will say nothing more to yoa on the 

"With the conclusion of these words he commenced reading the 
gi-eat Koi-an, and continued doing so until we reached Bagdad. I 
there preceded him into the presence of the caliph, and related to 
him all the conversation which we had held from Damascus to 
Bagdad. The caliph lent an attentive ear to my words, and said, 
'This man must be a pei-son of fideUty, and his conduct lias been 
upiiglit, I believe that what has been represented against him la 


false. Go, produce him, ani ba careful not to biing hiro in chains,' 
On entering the apfirtment he kissed the oahph's hand, who show- 
ed him much favoi- and regard, saying to him, '1 have given you 
much trouble in. this matter.' He then bestowed several cloaks of 
honor upon him. He answered the caiiph, saying, that 'It bad 
been no trouble, hut an honor to him ; and his commands had Ъееи 
a distinoiaoa of which he was proud, for which God be praised,' 
The caliph, in reply, said to the mao, 'Henceforward I sliall ex- 
pect to bear from you about tliat countiy ; I have full confidence 
in you, let me see you exert yourself.' Then putting a royal 
firman into his hands, he commanded him ia all cases to ikc it. 
Turning to me, he said, 'Menai-, go, accompany our friend hack to 
his residence, where let him meet his family agaiii,' He also pre- 
sented him with several horses and mules. On our arrival at 
Damascus it was like a festival; for all the people of tJie city 
came out to meet him, ofiering up prayers aad blessings on the 

What a rehgioua caliph, and just sovereign, who attends to 
the investigation of his affairs, and acts conformably to the Holy 

It is narrated by that quintessence of historians, НокЬл tbat 
there was once a benevolent merchant who owned a slave whom 
he had reared from his eailiest youth, and in whose hands he con- 
fided all liis property and wealth. He was likewise the keeper of 
his goods, and received all the proceeds of tlie sale of his mer- 
chandise. This merchaut had a sou who had scarcely attain- 
ed the age of puberty. By divine wisdom the merchant left tliis 
perishable world ; and the sou, and the slave aforesaid, fell into a 
dispute about the bheritance. They carried their quajTel before 


273 тиккгаи evkninu виткатАи^мЕвтз. 

the cadi, and each stood up in court against the other. The dis- 
pute increased, and tlie cadi was unable to decide it. Wow the 
governor (/takim) of tliat country, who was a most intelligent and 
equitable person, whenever the cadi was unable to judge a case, 
had it referred to himself. So the anit of these two youths was made 
known to him; and he held a divan, in winch they appeared to 
state their diffei-enee. The elder of the two invited the other 
to point out his father's tomb, if he knew it ; to which he answer- 
ed, "I was a guest at such a place when my father died ; and on 
hearing it I came to his grave, which was pointed out to me," 
The governor then asked the youth who disputed the other's legi- 
timacy, whether he knew where bis father's tomb was, when the 
same replied that he did ; "for," said he, " I interred him there 
myself." "Go then," added the governor, "and bring me a de- 
cayed bone of your father." The lad departed, found the grave, and 
returned with a bone for the Hakim, who sent for a phlebotomist 
to take blood from the youth who had been the slave of the 
deceased. The blood was allowed to flow over the bone, and it 
spirted to the light and left of it, without one drop remaining on 
it. Afterwards blood was taken from the son who had really 
been the fruit of the reins of the deceased, and the whole of it 
was absorbed hy the bone. The governor now exckumed, " See, 
this is the real and true son of the deceased merchant, and he has a 
right to the inheritance." So be decided that ail the property 
should be delivered up to him ; which was done, and the slave 
Behold Avhat intelligence ! 

Abd Allah bin Mebarik, a well instructed and talented person, 
relates the following : 

I once set out on a pilgrimage to visit the £eit Ullak (or 


:грти J. \ -1 "73 

Caaba) at Mecca, aiid one day bgged lehind the сгга-1ги to pei 
form my devotions. After saym^ m} nama^ I iemounti,d my 
camel ; and on tlie way I fell in with a woman tiavellmg on foot, 
wearing a black shawl oa her shoulders with mother like i cap over 
her head. From her slow walking, I knew that she had been left 
by her animal ; and approaching her, I said, " £!s salam alaikum, 
O woman of Allah." She answered, " Ve alcdka, salam, 
Abdallah, for pence is spoken by the God of mercy." " God 
have mercy on уоч ; why, pray, are you walking here on the high 
road all aJone ?" She answered,* "None can show the straight 
way to bira whom he misleads," From this I knew that she had 
lost her way, and therefore inquired of her whence she came and 
whither she was going. ,She replied, "God be praised, who 
makes his servants walk in the night time, from the Mesjed el 
Haram (Caaba) to the Mesjed el Akza {Temple of Jentsalem)." 
From which answer I imdei-stood that she was on her way from 
Mecca to Jerusalem. I next asked her how long ehe had been in 
that place. "Three consecutive nights," said she. "Have yon 
DO provisions ?" I asked. She replied, " He who gives me to eat 
and drink." "With what do you make your ablutions in this 
place?" I inquired. She answered, "Whenever yon can find no 
water, use good clean earth." I said, "Will you not eat some- 
thing from my stock of provisions ?" Upon which she immedi- 
ately exclaimed, "Wait until the night." I remarked to her that 
the mouth ia which we then were, was not one of fasting. " God 
recompenses him who performs a good deed for his sake," I men- 
tioned then that no one is compelled to on a journey ; and she 
replied, " Bid if you prefer it, it is good." Much surprised at her 
answera, I asked her why she did not reply in the manner that I 
did (and not from the Koran); when she said, "Nothing is ever 
spoken which He does not know." I next asked her from which 
tribe she was; and she answered; "Ask it not; God alone, who 
hears and sees ail things, and knows what is in the hearts of his 

* AH lliis womon's replies ai-e prissages from the Koran.— Л. T. 



people, can make БисЪ inquiries." "Pardon me," saidl; "ior- 
gii-e my faults," She exclaimed, " Бе it so ; but God alone cun 
pardon," "Can I not put you on my camel and conduct you to 
your с(у?/ей (caravan)?" I asked. She answered, " Whatever you 
do with a good design He knows." So putting her on my camel, 
which I made to kneel down for that purpose, I said, "Pray, be 
comfortable." To which she replied. "Tell the faithful to turn 
away their eyes." I looked aside, begging her to take a seat ; but 
at the moment when she was about to do so, the animal rose, and 
her dress catching on the saddle, it was torn. She immediately 
exclaimed; "No hann comes upon you but what coHies of your 
own hands." "Wait," said I; "let me put the noose on the cam- 
el," As I did so, she observed, "And we have explained that to 
Suliman," and mounted the anima!. She tlien added, "Praise be 
to Him who has made them (the camels) submissive to us, who con- 
quered them for us; and we will return to him." I now took the 
animal's noose in my hand, and pulled it quickly after me, animat- 
ing it with my voice; when she excliumed, "Walk slowly and 
lower your voice." I walked on slowly-, humming some verees that 
came to my recollection ; but displeased at this she said, " Read 
on as much of the Koran as you know," " God be thanked," added 
I, " for the good I have heard from you ;" to which she answered, 
" The wise only utter useful things," 

After proceeding in this manner for some time, I inquired of 
her whether she had a husband in the caravan, and she answered, 
"Oh, those who believe ask not after those things which you 
change for the woise I 4aiJ nothing more until we had reached 
the cafileh, when 1 m ju red whom she had in the latter, and she 
answered, " Goods ind sons ire the ornament of the life of this 
world." From this I peici-iied that she had sons there, and ask- 
ed her about them when she said, "They incline towards the 
signs of the stars," which words taught me that they were lead- 
ers of the escort. So on approaching the tents, I remarked to 
her that we liad reached the same, and asked whom I should call 


ЕктЕктАтмЕктй. 21 б 

for. She replied, " God called Ibrahim his friend, враЬө with 
Moses, and (said to) Jobii, this book is with power." I therefore 
imm(.'diately called out for Ibrahim, Moses and John; when three 
young and handsome men came foi-wai-d to meet her, and take her 
off the camel. Addressing them, she said, " Send one of yon 
with a note to the city, and let him see what food is best to be 
bought here." So one of them departed, and returned with a 
dish of food. They conducted me to their tent, placed it before 
me, iind the mother remarked, " Eat and diink, and much good 
may it do you for what you have done in limes past."* 

But I told the sons that I would not parfalie of their food un- 
til I leamt something about their mother ; when they answered, 
" It is now forty years since she has spoken either with us or any 
others, words of a worldly nature ; and as if she feared to say 
something wrong, her whole conversation with us is from the 
Book of God." " Blessed be He, who ia the author of all good 
and excellence," exclaimed I ; " her prayers do a benefit in either 
world (this and the other)." 

May the Most High have mercy on all and eveiy one of the 
faithful of both sexes ! 

Hind hiuti Kuman ivas one of the most eloquent of women. 
She was also the envy of the world for the gi'eat perfection of her 
beauty and intelligence, and was descended from the most noble 
of the Arab tribes. One day she лvas mentioned in the presence 
of Hedjadj : her beauty, eloquence and superior intelligence were 
priused; and it was remarked, that she was the most emhiently 
fair and best mannered woman of the age. Hedjadj became 

e Koran, 6Э : 24. 



deeply enamored of her fi-om tlicso commendations, and asked her 
of ber fether in marriage, sending several persons to him for that 
purpose. He went to an immense expense for her; and besides 
the established dowry, he acknowledged (as a promise) tliat he 
owed her also two hundred thousand dirhems. After espousing 
her, he remmned some time with ITuman ; and, on his being ap- 
pointed Valee or Governor of Bagdad, carried her there witb him. 

Some time after this, he one day entered his harem (private 
female apartments), and heard the voice of ITuman in the yard. 
Walking slowiy and sofdy to where she was, lie saw Hind with a 
mirror in her hand, in which she gaaed upon her own beauteous 
face and recited the foUomng verse : 

" What is Hmd but an Arab's filly? 
" She is a horse's foal with a mule for het partner. 
" If my colt tsltes after me, it will be a Ьошв ; 
" But if after him, it will ptova a mule." 

Hedjadj listened, then turned back, and, without letting Hind 
know what he had done, determined to divorce her. He sent for 
AbdaJlah bin Tiihir, and oi-dered him to act as his proxy, to inform 
Hind in the proper terms of his detei-mination. He also sent her 
the two hundred thousand dirhems which he had imposed on 
himself. Abdallah departed and performed hia en-aod; when 
Hind, arising from hei- seat, exclaimed, "Well met, O Ibin 
Tabir. I swear that we prmsed God, but never associated with 
that person." She ordered Abdallah to keep the two hundi'ed 
thousand dirhems in return for the good news which he had 
brought her; "for," added she, "yo« have freed me from that 
unclean dog." From that moment she became separated from him. 
Some time after this the matter was spoken of before the Om- 
miade caliph Abd el Melik bin Murvan, and the story of Hedjadj's 
separation from Hind binti Н"ишап was narrated ; whereupon some 
one remarked, that really so beautiful a orciiturc as she ought 
not to have been united to that sanguinary man. 


The caliph became enamored of her from what he heard, and 
despatched oue of the higher officers of bis court to ask her in mar- 
riage. He sent her numerous spleadid presents, and wrote her a 
letter, in which he made his request. The caliph's prosy went to 
Damascus, where he offered Hind the letter and the presents of 
the caliph. On reading the former, she raised it to her head 
(in respect) ; then taking a pen in her hand, she addressed the 
caliph a letter, saying, " May the hfe and honor of the Caliph of 
the uiithful be everlaating! The reply of your bandmmdenKii.d is, 
that the once pure vase, which you consider worthy of your service, 
has been defiled by the use made of it by that unclean dog's 
mouth; nevertheless she awiuts your majesty's commands." The 
caliph, on the receipt of this letter, read its contents and was much 
amused. He praised Hind's delicacy and elegance, and wrote on 
the margin of the letter the following maxim; "When a dog 
laps from your cup or dish, wash it out seven times, then rub it 
with earth, and you may use it;" and returned it to her. 

Hind was much pleased and accepted his offer, with tins con- 
dition however, that Hedjadj should accompany her from the 
place of Numan's (her father's) residence, to the caliph's palace in 
Вашлйсив, and bold the hridle of the camel which carried the 
makfeh in which she rode ; and that on the day of her entrance into 
the city he should dit-mount fiom his horse, and with head and 
feet bare conduct her camel to the p laoe of the oaliph. The 
latter on reading the condition laughed with great mirth, and was 
very anxious to h we an mtemew with her. He sent orders to 
Hedjadj to do as she might command and bring her to him with 
as much speed as practicable. On the receipt of the caliph's 
orders, Hedjadj got every thing ready and set out from Irak for 
Damascus ; and on his arival at Maareh (where ITiunan resided) 
he dismounted from his horse and took the reins of Hind's camel 
in his hand. All the principal people of the city (Damascus) went 
out to ment iiei-. Slie got into a richlj' ornamented /levdedj, the 
camel of wliich was quite enveloped in costly paraphernalia, 


Hind thus rode along, suiTOunded by lier maidens, and led by 
Hedjadj. She ordered one of her women to raise the fringe of 
the cover of her hevdedj : ivhich being done, Hedjadj was greatly 
ashamed and pained ; whilst she and her maidens amused them- 
selves and were very mirthful. Passing from Maareh they enter- 
ed Damiwcus ; and that same day Hedjadj led her camel with 
bared head and feet. On the way Hmd took a piece of gold 
out of her purse and let it fall ; on which calling to one of her 
attendants, "Tell that hammal (porter)," said she, "that a du-- 
hem has been dropped md let him find it " Hedjadj sought foi the 
piece of gold and finding it, handed it to the woman, saying, 
"It ь not Й dnhem but t dinar,' whereupon Hmd exclimied, 
"We lost a duhem (copper piece), and in its place hive found, 
thanks be fo God, a piece of gold " Hedjadj heaimg this 
rema,ik, was gieitly ashamed, and m this way they continued 
on to the palace of the Commander of the faithful, who «bowed 
Hmd marks of ^leit legird, and went m peison to meet hei 
When the cimel knelt down he hmitvLlf lifted her out of the 
hevdedj, and aciompanied hu into the haiem, wheie be т\ is 
much pleased with her «oeieti, and conceived a warm affe:,tion 
foi bei He alwtis tieatcd In wiili icsp ct, and iui seme 
timr enjojcd hi i soeitf> 

It is naiTated that the noble and high born Kerecm el Melik 
was one of the most pious and eloquent of men of his age. One 
day, wluJst passing through a garden, he observed a fair creature, 
as beauteous as the forehead of Venus, amusing herself in gazing 
from a balcony. Falling excessively in love with her, he sent her 
a souvenb' of some elegant aitieles, through the handsof her confi- 


dential handmaiden; at the same time Ъө wrote ber a missive in 
verse and prose, begging her ассер1алсе of them, and sohoiting 
an iHterriew. Tlie lady was a very knowing and sensible pei-son. 
She accepted of the present; to which she rephed by means of 
symbols, that is by sending him a pastille of ambergris containing 
a piece of red gold. Kereem el Melik received the present, but 
did not imderstand what it jneant, and was consequently greatly 
troubled. He had, however, a son, unequalled for his compre- 
hension and sharpness of intellect, who, seeing his father's trou- 
ble, inquired the cause of it. The fatiier tJien showed him the 
pastille with its contents, at which the son laughed heartily. His 
father asked him why he laughed ; and the cunning bnv replied 
by saying, that her object in sending the things was \i ' ■ evident, 
reciting at the same time the following lines : 


" I present you with the amber, pure guld from the mine eoiicealed in ila 

centre, hiding the reine. 
"The meaning of the gold and the amber together, is that tlia former is 

hidden in darltnees." 

Kereem el Melik praised very much the delicacy, intelligence, 
and purity of the beautiful female, and was greatly pleased with 
the brightness and wit of bis son. 

It is related, that in the reign of Bibere, Sultan of Egypt, 
there was at Cairo (Misri Cahireh) a woman remai-kable for her 
beauty and for her thefts ; in short, so much was she superior in per- 
sonal attractions and in tbe intelligence of her mind, that no man 


had ever веөа Ьег equal, and no woman had bi'ought forth Buch 
апоШег. She whs also most expert as an intriguant, and cun- 
ning in the science of judging othere. She could pass a thread 
through her evil eye; and, as if she possessed the power of amag- 
net, could atti'act othere, as smoothly as a hair passes through oil. 

One day this beautiful creature atthed herself in the most 
c<Mtly gold-embroidered garment, and attended by seven or eight 
female slaves went to a vapour bath {kammam). Towards evening 
she Bent her slaves home, while slie herself remained in a corner 
of the bath imtil the Ьоет for retiring to rest. After that tune 
the goveiTior of the city saw a woman at the head of the street, 
and inquired who she was, Tlie woman answered, that she was 
the wife •,-' one of the principal men of the place; that her 
dwelliiip- ,ifas m the outskuts of the city; that a friend had invited 
hei to the bath, and having obtained leave of her husband, she went 
there; that after leaving the bath, she felt inclined to make a 
shorttum in the bazaars, and having sent her servants away, she 
had walked about for some time, until her strengtli gave out. 
Unable even to reach the dwelling of any one, she feared her 
husband, and begged the governor to place her under the care 
of some ti'usty person, until, in the coui'se of a night's time, she 
would be able to satisfy her husband. 

Now the chief judge (cadi) resided near the spot; and the 
governor of the city, on his way to the woman's house, knocked 
at hie door, and, after relating all about the female whom he had 
fallen in with, asked him to receive her under his roof for the 
night. The cadi consentmg, he had her placed in his own private 
cabinet, where all the public effects were deposited for safe 
keeping. He showed the woman evidences of respect, had her 
bed prepaj'ed for her, and then left her alone. After seeking 
repose for a short time, the woman arose, opened the boxes con- 
tamed in the room where she was, and took out as much of their 
cotrtents as she could сшту away, amounting in value to some 
twenty thousand pieces of gold. She next took lier own drawei's 


and clicmise, and a cloak which was emhroidered with gold and 
pearls ; and dig^Hg a hole in the cadi's yard, she put them into it. 

Eaily in the morning, whilst every body yet slept, she opened 
the door, and departed. Afterwards when all bad arisen, they 
sought for the woman; but in hei place there was nothing but the 
wind blowing by. Entenng the cabmet, they perceived that all 
the boxes had been opened, and that the articles confided by the 
Mussulmans to the care of the jacfge were gone, Tlie cadi tore his 
beard and hmr, and seat immediatply foi the govemoi' of the city, 
whom he accused of having intioduced an accursed woman, a thief, 
mto his house, by means of a ruse , snd said that, using her for 
the purpose, he had stolen goods belonging to the Mussulmans of 
the city and to himself, to the amouat of twenty thousand pieces 
of gold. "Either find that woman," exclaimed the cadi, "and 
bring her to me, or go with me before the sidfcan, and be tried for 
the crime which you have committed." ■ The head of the police 
threw himself at the cadi's feet, and begged that he would gran^ 
him a few days' time in which to make seai'ch for her ; " after 
which," sMd be, " if I have been unsuccessful, I will refund the 
value of the stolen goods." 

He then went through the whole city, comer after comer. 
One day, having heard the voice of a woman proceeding from the 
cupola of a house, he looked ia to see whose it might be ; when a 
female slave calling to him said, her mistress wished to see him. 
The governor immediately got off his hoi-se ; and on opening the 
cupola, he observed a large quantity of valuable objects. After 
conversing for some time with the lady, she told him not to be 
grieved ; for, having shown her so much generosity and goodness, 
it was not jiBt for her to afiiict him. " I have no need of wealth," 
added she ; and opening the boxes about her, she showed him that 
they were filled with purses of money. " See," said she, " this 
ti'easure. Promise to an-ange tliis matter with me; and if, after 
that, 'you will many me, all this wealth and these rich clothes 
shall be youi^s, which enjoy to your perfect contentment, — for I 


tnily wish this — I swear it," The beautiful creature added, " Go 
immediately to the cadi'a hoiiae, tell him that I have sought him 
every where ; and if he is alive I will find him, and his own house 
shall certsuuly be also examined." The man, overcome by the 
wealth thus shown him, did as he was bid ; and having reported 
the woman's words to the cadi, the latter exclaimed, " Ah ! infidel, 
so you give me the appearance of a thief! Perhaps you will next 
endeavor to deprive me of life ; but my character will not allow 
of this. Come, however, and seai-ch." Kow the woman had also 
told the man where she had bidden her clothes. They went theie ; 
and after looking in several places, they finally dug near the sinlt 
and brought forth a pair of drawers, a chemise soiled with blood, 
and a cloak wrought with pearls and jewels. On this the man 
exclaimed to the cadi, "So, wretch ! you are both murderer and 
false accuser ; but I лт111 bring you to ti'ial in the presence of the 
sultan." The cadi was amazed, and exclaiming "There is no power 
but what comes from God," threw himself at the feet of the 
govemor, "I did it," cried he; "nothing nowremamsbut my 
character : do not therefore, I implore уои Ift it be rmned." In 
fine, his entreaties overcame the governor. Tbej kissed and made 
friends, and declared that neither had any right to piosecuto the 
other. The governor of the city was greatly rejoiLcd "Let the 
past be past," said he, "and what has happened be forgotten; but 
come, tet us find out how this beautiful female has been able to 
acquire so much riches and costly objects. I will maiTy her, and 
for a few days enjoy the gifts of heaven." 

So they went to the place where she resided and knocked at 
her door. Fo one answered. One of the neighbors put his head 
out of a window, and cried out that the house wa^ emptv, and 
that no one dwelt there. " Do not, therefore," said he, " be knock- 
ing there uselessly." The governor answered, "On such a day 
persons did occupy it ; for I saw them." To this the fellow replied, 
" You are right. The house had been a long while empty ; but four 
or five'days ago a female came and occupied it for a short time. 


Sinue then, however, she Ьак removed agaiu, aad I tto not know 
where sbe has goae. None of us know wliat loud of a person she 
was ; aiid it is now three days since she left here. Sue, this is,the 
key which she asked ш to deliver to the owner of the ^house." 
The governor opened the door, and did not find in it as much even 
as an old straw mat; so he toned hack lilte a dog who has been 
hit in the reins, and stood filled with astonishment. 

Besides the rogueiy of this woman, she must, like the Prophet 
Suliman, have possessed command over the ah, to he able, in bo 
short a time, to remove so large a quantity of effects ; for none 
other than that prophet could do such things. The cunning rogue 
appeared for a moment to exculpate the governor, and that ia a 
dishonest way ; after which she disappeared, and never was beard 
of again. 

C HA P T E E, T II I R T Y - T W . 

On the laws of boncficonce and bouuty. 

God the Most High has said, "If you are thankful, I will 
increase my gifts ; but if you are ungrateful, my punishments are 
great." (Koran.) Wise men have remarked, that " respect for bene- 
fits bestowed by benefactors, is an obligation upon the sons of 
Adam ; and that it is the most important of all duties," 

" Never forget the benefits which othai-a have bestowed upon you,— baar 
Uiem always jti mind." 


Tliere are tkose who, wliilst ail manbind sre confused and astonish- 
ed, at the day of judgment wijl hear a voice crying out, "O ye 
praisers, arise, and assemble in the shadow of the standard of the 
celestia.1 Paradise." The select will ask of the best of prophets, 
on whora be blessings from the Lord of the univerae and on all 
other prophets, and learn that piaisers are those individuals who 
are senMble of the obligations conferred on them by the bounties 
of the All-Just, and a«t accordingly." 

SeSan Thooree, on whom be peace, one day as he went along 
the high road saw a youth who had caught and held captive a 
poor nightingale in a cage. The unhappy bhd, from the estent of 
its grief, thi-ew itself from side to side, until it was near death. Its 
cries reached the ear of Sefian Thooree, who jocosely addressed the 
youth, saying, "If you release this poor bii'd from the confine- 
ment of its ci^e, you will receive, great benefits in this world, and 
also attain those of eternity." The youth released the bird; and 
as long as Sefian Thooree lived, the bird offered up prayers for 
his ivelfare. At length death came upon him, and be espired. 
That nightingale went and lit upon his coffin, where it wept and 
lamented him. Oa his interment it remained amongst those who 
were around his tomb, and would not leave it. Some time later 
it also espired, and was buned at his feet. 

See the gi-atltude even of a bird, which never forgot the bene- 
fits bestowed on it! Man could not do better. 

It is related thut in the country of Babel there was once a just 
and talented sovereign, of benevolent sentiments, who had a liand- 
some son, scarcely arrived at the age of puberty. In the course 
of divine providence, that sovereign died; and when on his deatli- 
bed, he summoned the vizli-s, ministers, and other cliief men of 
his Itingdom into his presence, and made known to them bis last 



will. It was, that his brother, the uncle of Ьдэ son, should caiTy 
■on the affairs of the state until the latter became of age , after 
which he was to fate possession of the goveinment, and no one 
was to interfere with him. "All of you be obndieat to him," 
said he. Then turning to his brother, he coatiaupd, " And do 
yon conform to tbia arrangement ; and sboiild Satan tempt you, 
or you be led to the commission of any improper act, lesist and 
refrain fi-om it ; and do not neglect the command (from the Koran), 
' Certainly God bas commanded thee to execute what has been 
confided to thee by its owner.'" 

Now when the sovereign had expired, bis brother, according to 
his last testament, directed the government until tJie prince came 
of age, when the chief men of the state were deteimined that the 
wUl of their deceased lord should take immediate effect. They 
therefore made this demand of the iincle ; but his throat having 
tasted of power, he was averse to leaving it, and spent liia days 
and n^hts in imagining some device by which to rid himself of 
his nephew. 

One day he and his coiu'tiers mounted their horses and set out 
on a bunting expedition. The prince also was with them; and 
riding near his uncle, they proceeded on together. Finding a 
moment when they were separated from the rest of the court, the 
uncle, with his own bands, tore out his nephew's eyes, placed him 
near an oak-tree, and left him there. The mutilated prince sought 
about in the forest for a place of retreat and safety. He came to 
a tree ; and having by great effort succeeded in climbing into it, 
he sat down on one of its branches. Now through the overrul- 
ings of divine Providence, the shade of that tree was the place 
of abode of the king of the Petees (Anglice Fairies). Every night 
they all usually assembled there, and spent the time in amuse- 
ment. When they met in the evening, they, as was their wont, 
talked over the events of the day. One of them said, "I have 
a most strange piece of news to tell." "What is it?" said the 
others. He added, "To-day the brother of the sovereign of 



Babel has inflicted a great cruelty upon the prince of that coun- 
try; lie has plucked out his eyes, and rendered him complete- 
ly blind. The prince is now seated on a branch of this tree." The 
king of the Perees, observed, "If the prince only knew the qua- 
lities of that tree, he would attain the object of his desii-es." 
"What are ite qualities?" inquired the other Perees. The king 
replied, "If he pulls off two of its leaves, and rubs them over his 
eyes, their sight will he perfectly restored, so that he wiH be able 
to see even better than before." 

The unhappy prince heard these wdrds, and thanked the 
Author of all good; then breaking off two of the leaves of the 
tree, he rubbed them over his eyes, when they immediately open- 
ed, and he once more looked upon the world. He next plucked 
a qnantity of the leaves and put them in his bosom, and then 
prepared to descend from the tree. When about to do so, 
the king of the Perees, exclaimed, " There is a snake in the tree 
opposite to us, whose fate is the same as that of the brother of 
the (deceased) sovereign of Babel ; both are made upon the same 
grade and move upon the same point : so that if the snake is kill- 
ed, the «ncle of the prince will at the same moment expire." The 
prince listened to this conversation, and returned thanks to God, 
He next found the snake and killed it; whereupon his uncle imme- 
diately fell down dead. 

The unfortunate prince now proceeded directly to the city ; 
and the inhabitants, filled with joy, went out to meet him. With 
a heart full of happiness, he took possession of his throne, where 
he ruled with much felicity. The uncle, who had disregarded 
the rights of benevolence, lost the throne on which he might yet 
have sat happily, and entered the earth of shame (fell ignomi- 



.eik Abd ul Muta relates, that once a venerable man was 
i at the Haram (sacred СааЪа) of Mecca, repeating, "0 
Thou who drawest me towiirds thge," and then walking about to and 
fro. When asked what these words meant, he replied. One night 
I was occupied near tlie holy Moak of Mecca in making the pre- 
scribed turns ai-ound it, when someuhing struck my foot. Looking 
down I observed that it was a puree, which, on examination, proved 
to contain a thousand dinars. My evO nature tempted me to do 
what wag wroHg, and my covetousneas told me that it was a 
handsome and lucky windfal, and that I ought to keep it to my- 
self, and assuage my wants by its means. The principles of 
Holy Law, however, coming to the fud of equity, I determined to 
render its possession legal. 

" Eat what is lawful, such на game fmm the marliet ; ami do nut, like Iho 
vulture, prey on carrion." 

"It is not jiist," Slid I to mvelf " for me to keep the property of 
a Mussulman; wh^t answer could I give about it, to-morrow, 
in the other woildl 80 I waited awhile to see if the owner 
would make Ыэ ippeatince when I would restore him his pro- 
perty. The cafikh of the pilgnms suddenly coming by, I ended 
my turns round the Caaba and left with it. 

The next year, however, I heard a cryer proclaim, "Whoever 
has found my purse, I will give him thirty sherifs " (a gold coin). 
Con^dering the blessing of that much legitimate money as better 
than the holy House itself, I gave him the purse, and received in 
return the thirty sherifs. Then going to a slave-merchant's shop, 
I purchased a little Arab boy, whose figure waa somewhat that of 
a human being. I noutiahed him as if he were my own child, 
until the anival of the Habeshees (Ethiopians), with whom the boy 


conversed in their own tongue. They remained a few days and 
then departed, when I asked the boy what they had desired with 
him. He answered, "I am the son of the snltan of the West 
. (Magreb, from which is derived Morocco). The king of Habesh 
made war with my father ; who being defeated, they took me a 
prisoner. These people have come on my father's part to procnre 
me; he gave them a thousand pieces of gold with which to purchase 
me, and sent them off in search of his son. I have experienced 
kindness from you, and thei*efore disclose this secret to you ; do 
not give me for less than that sum." 

On the following day, they again returing, I sold the hoy to them 
for fifty thousand dinars ; with which sura I purchased stuffs of Irak, 
and set out with the cafileh for Bagdad. Shortly after my arrival 
there, a broker one day came and infonned me that a hapless 
merchant had died, leaving a very handsome daughter. " Come," 
said be ; "1 will get her for you." 80 I asked for the maiden, 
and was united to her. I was surprised to observe that the jehaz 
(or dowry which she braiight with her) was composed of nine 
purses of gold money, placed on cine dishes; aud that on eight 
of them, one thousand was written, whilst on the umth there was 
only nine hundred and seventy dinars written. I aaked why there 
was this difference of thirty pieces between the last purse and the 
others. The maiden replied, " My father once lost this pnrse 
of money in Mecca ; and the subsequent year, having gone there 
again on a pilgrimage, he caused a ciiei to pioclaim that he would 
give thirty pieces of gold to whoevei had found it. A good man 
came and put the purse into his hands jnst as when he lost it; 
whereupon my father presented him with thn ty gold pieces out 
of it ; and tins is the cause of the contents being less than those 
of the others." " Holy Allah !" I exclaimed , " all these goods 
of mine are the fruits blessed to me of the thirty dinars which I 
accepted as a legal gift. May God have mercy upon your father ! 
the pious feeling which caused mc to abstain from what is forbid- 
den has di-awn upon me this grace." 



wifoi™ to Ihe will of God. 


The Pi-ophet, on whom be peace, has said : " The sultan is the 
shadow of God upon the earth, and the oppressed seek refuge 
under it." 

" Justice brinp perfection upon the country : 
" Equity ever does good by its deeds." 

It is related that once Behram Ghior mounted his hoi'se with 
tbe intention of going to the chase ; aaid that when he arrived at 
the place where game was known to exist, a heavy rain began to 
fall. Like the eye of the weeping lover, the world became sub- 
merged with water; each individual sought a place of shelter, and 
even Behram, foregoing his chase, went directly to the hut of a 
villager, and demanded his hospitality. The pei-son not knowing 
who his visiter was, and also being unable to show that respect 
and attention which is due to soveieigns Behiam Ghioi Tsas dis 
pleased, but yet did not show it 

At eventide the peasant ь lattle leturned from their pasture 
towards his cottago when the shepherds remaiked that they hid 
not obtfdned as m ich nulk from the ciws this daj as on other 
days, nor as much is the\ ] id int pat d The pastue ^nid 
they, "is the same a^ f imeilj whit then c n jobsiUj be the 



How the peasant had a pretty and very intelligent daughter, 
who aaid to her father, " The ulema (leai'ned) have written, 
that the cause of such occurrences as that now observed by us, is, 
the sovereign's having changed the good mtentions he enterfcuned 
towards his people. The displeasure and ill-will of lungs has an 
effect upon fallow fields and the dugs of milch атшаЬ ; from which 
circumstance it has been said ; 


The fother replied, "You are right, my daughter; it is neces- 
sary for us to leave this country and seek a home in some other 
place," The daughter to this answered, " It is extremely difficult 
to do that ; it therefore seems to me better for us to serve well 
our giieat, who is a man of authority, and be careful not to neglect 
any token of respect and consideration towai-ds him. The result 
will depend upon the commands of God." So the peasant, early in 
the morning, brought out food and drink worthy of the sultan, and 
placed them before Behram ; who ate and drank, and, becoming 
good humored, called the peasant before him, 


" Come let us eit down and enjoy ourselves ; 
" bot mc, at least for one day, Ъе a Kaikobad." 

After a moment's conversation with the peasant, Behram lost all 
sense of shame, and addressing him, asked, " Have you no pretty- 
faced daughter, whose beauty I can contemplate and chase away 
my melancholy %" The peasant on,hearing this arose, and going 
into his harem, he led his daughter, fedr and modest, into the presence 
of Betiram ; who, on seeing the handsome girl, immediately became 
enamored and love-bound by the band of her ringlel.s, and was 
soon quite beside himself. Yet in the presence of the father he 
behaved with decency towards her, and immediately conceived the 



idea of being generous to tLe girl's parent, of marrying her in 
the presence of the chief men of the country, and compensating 
the father for the loss of the girl's services. They ate and drank 
together, and early the next morning the peasant's shepherds said 
to their master, " God be pi-aised ! the cows have given a greater 
quMitity of milk than they have етег done before." The peasant 
was greatly asfonlshed at this, and Ыз daughter told him that it 
was the blessing resulting from the chaste conduct of their guest. 
Behram overheard this remark ; and on the following day, when 
he had ascended his throne, he assembled all the ministers and 
chief officers of his court, and in their presence appointed the 
peasant, whose hospitality he had enjoyed, to be chief over all the 
country where be resided. He also espoused his daughter, and 
had her conducted to his seray (palace), where he afterwards spent 
many years with her most happily. She bore him several hand- 
some children, and they lived together in perfect onity. 

Now, from this tale it is seen how the justice and uprightness 
of kings !ta^ governors, and their pure intentions, are the occasion 
of life, blessing, and prosperity to their subjects ; and that, on the 
other hand, the happiness and contentment of the subjects is the 
cause of the prolonged life and reign, as well iis the increase of the 
glory and majesty of kings. 

Once upon a time an Arab of eloquence, a poet whose writings 
are esteemed, was travelling alone over a desert, when an enemy 
who had long fruitlessly sought an opportunity to effect his piti- 
less designs, fell in with him ; and the poet, knowing the imposd- 
bility of escaping with his life, addressed his enemy by name, and 
SMd to him : " I know tliat you seek my life ; but I request that you 
will go to my house, knock at the dooi-, and say to my daughters. 



'Keep vratcb, daughters of the tribe ; forsurely your father — '" 
The eaeniy was an igHorant fellow ; and after replying, " On my 
head be it," he put the poet, withoat mercy, to death, and then went 
directly to his bouse. On his blocking at the door, the poet's 
daughters presented themselves, and he exclaimed as above. 
Immediately the girls seized hold of the Arab's garments, and, 
crying out to the Mussulmans that the man was the murderer of 
then- father, had him conducted before the govemor ; when the 
latter asking the daughters how they knew he was the murderer, 
they replied, " Our father by telling this шяп to go to his daugh- 
ters and say, ' Keep watch, daughters of the tribe ; for surely 
your father — ' meant that they were to supply the following words, 
'is killed. Seize on him who repeats these lines.' "* As soon as 
the governor had struck the Arab a few times, he acknowledged his 
crime, and he was forthwith put to death in obedience to the law 
of taiion. 

" Put faith in tlie merciful God in all Ills comraanda ; none ever found harm 
who confided in him. Confide in God, arid be patient under hie Judgments ; 
and thus attain to what you desire of Ilim." 

It is related that when Abd Allah bin Amir was appointed 
governor of Ii-ak he had two oldfythfu! friends, one of whom was 
an Ansaree, and the other aThekefee. One day tlie latter remarked 
to the former, " Pray join me in a visit to our friend Abd Allah bin 
Amir, I am confident we will be greatly the better of bis bounty." 
The former replied, "The Lord of the univei^e gives or refuses 
all things. He that gave Abd Allah the place which he occupies 
is merciful and gracious; and He who gives ua hope in the favor 

* From the celebrated Arabian poet Mutanebee. — Л. T 



of the governor is able to assist «s. He is also able to send to us 
here the gifts which we may hope to obtain by yisiting Abd Allah. 
I will therefore place my faith in Him who made you, and me, and 
Abd AlLah out of nothing." 

80 the Thekefee joined a caravan and set out alone for Abd 
Allah bin Amir, who on seeing him showed him much regard and 
attention. When he inquired after the Ansaree, tlie Thekefee re- 
plied, " Of a truth he was afraid of the ti'ouble of a journey, and 
offered reasons as an excuse for not accompanying me ; lie how- 
ever prays for your prosperity." So Abd Allah bin Amir presented 
the Thekefee with ten thousand dirhems and a female slave, and 
kept him a few days with him ; after which, he bavmg asked per- 
mission fo return to Lis wife and children, Bin Amk added four 
thousand dinais more. At the same time he gave him eight 
thousand dinai's and some clothes, and begged him to present them 
to his friend the Ansaree. He also wrote the latter a letter beg- 
ging him not to forget liim in his prayei^s at the holy hours of sup- 
plication, and assuring him of his sincere friendship for hira. The 
prayei-s of the Ansaree and the faith which he placed in God were 
of more use to him than the trouble which the Thekefee took to 
make the journey to Abd Allah, and brought him one or two 
thousand dinars more than his friend obtained. 

Be not theiefore doubtful of the value of faith in God, who pro- 
vides for all, and whose gifts are bestowed upon all his creatures 
without distinction. 

It is narrated that the Prophet SuUman, on whom he peace ! 
once addresang an owl, asked it why it kept aloof from man, who 
is the most noble of all creatures. The bird replied, " prophet, 
I would have lived with man ; but I have observed a certain degi-ee 
of untruth in him which prevents me, and has caused me to believe 


that it is better for me to keep apart, from liim, and reside alone," 
"Pray," continued Su!imaa, "tell me what you observed?" To 
■which the owl replied : 

" There was once a pious person — a man of truth— who bad. a 
wife as pious as Iiimself. These two were always together, and 
used to offer up tlieir prayers to the All-Just at one time. There 
was a tree growing near that pious man's dwellmg in which I had 
taken up my abode ; and I was continually envious of the affection 
and good will that these two individuals evinced towards each 
other. One day diiring their conversation, the woman said to the 
pious man, ' Should I be called upon to die before you, would you 
forget me V To this the good man replied, ' We have our refuge 
in Allah 1 Should such a sad occurrence take place, I would buiy 
you under that tree, and, retiring within our house, never again 
cross its threshold.' The woman also promised that should he die 
first, she would never again look in the face of any human being, 
but inter him under the same tree, and watch over his grave until 

" By divine will it happened that the man died first ; and the 
woman, according to her promise, buried him under the tree, put 
on mourning, and spent her time in devotional eierciaes. One day 
some one knocked at her door, and she demanded who it was, 
' Open, for God's sake,' was the reply ; ' I only crave a drink 
of water.' The woman handed the person what he asked ; and the 
fellow, who was one of the city guards, drank it, and then said to 
the woman, 'I am surprised, woman, at your grief; pray what 
is the cause of it V ' My faithful friend,' she replied, ' has exphed ; 
and I am mourning for his loss.' ■ The guard, on heaimg this, 
wept and sighed, and said, ' We are just alike ; for my wife died 
only a week or two ago. What can we hope for in this life, with 
any certainty of obtaining it, but death; and if we weep ■г thou- 
sand times, what will it profit ns ? See, we are two persons afflicted 
by the command of God. Come, let us live together and pass our 
days in remembrance of those who are departed.' By this lan- 



guage the fellow brought tlie woman over to him ; and be married 
her. She dressed herself and girded hei'self up, and, qmte forget- 
ting her late husband, made merry wifh the new one 

" Some days after this the guatd enteted the house in great 
trouble, and told the woman it had become necessary for him to 
leave the city. On her asking after the cause, the guard re- 
plied, that the goveraor of the city hid hung a Christian sub- 
ject, and ordered Ыа body to be lelt suspended to the gibbet for 
forty days. ' Whilst I was with you,' contmued he, ' and in conse- 
quence of my negligence, some peibons Ьале stolen away the 
body; so tliat should its absence be perceived I shall certainly 
be hung up in its stead.' ' la tbeie no remedy'' asked the woman. 
' There is no other,' replied the guard, ' than to put another body 
in the pla«e of the stolen one ' The woman immediately retnera- 
bered the remains of her deceased husband, and proposed, as 
they were still fresh, to hang them up m place of the body which 
had been stolen. The guard having consented, she took a spade 
in her hand and dug the body up out of the grave. But on see- 
ing it, the guard exclaimed that it would be known; 'for,' said 
he, ' when we hung the other person we put a hot howl on his 
head, on account of which his hair and head aJl fell off.' On hear- 
ing this, the woman imme<hately heated a howl as hot as fire, and 
clapped it on the head of the unfortunate pjous defunct, which 
soon made his Ъзлг and head to disappear. Then carrying the 
body to the ^bbet, they hung it up. 

" Some days later, the fellow and his wife had a quarrel, in 
which they spoke to each other in most injurious terms. The 
guard told her that if she had been capable of fidehty, it would 
have been shown to her late husband. After the altercation had 
been prolonged for some time the fellow drew a khandjar, with 
which he stabbed his wife and killed her. The neighbors came 
Ш, and found the woman dead ; so apprehending the fellow, they 
bound him closely, and led him before the governor. I was pre- 
sent," added the owl, " at thi." occurrence, and involuntarily fled 


■\v.-iy 111 Ч till, leison why I choose lather tj leain in & li 

The pioplet bulim n on whota Ьр pBice' on. heaimg tliis 
ti-le 1 DEtbd b} th e\^mpIe which it off led and wis greatly 
Eurpnaed at it Indeed it i a btrange Ihi ig to h pe for fidelity 
from thp female sex Th=it ^omen aie iiniaitbtul oinnot imi 
versally be said and yet ve need not be i^tonished at the women 
of o I t w'i foi whi ^^^,^ the poet 

A traveller who had journeyed over land and seas, and who 
was a person of much knowledge, relates : Once, ia the course of 
my ti-avels I visited a pl;ice in Eoomely, a town called Kaiilly, 
where I was the guest of a militaiy man who possessed an estate 
in that coxintry. He treated me with many maj-bs of regard and 
consideration ; and I remained for some time an inmate of his hos- 
pitable house. TJiis person bad four or five sons, who were even 
moi-e generous than himself, and of very agreeable and pleasant 
manners. Their father had both of his ears and his nose cut off; 
and one night, whilst we were making meriy, I looked up in his 
face wondering how so excellent a person as he should have 
become so disfigured: perceiving which, be thus addressed me, 
" I think, guest, that you are wondering what is the cause of the 
condition of my ears and nose." "I answered that I should truly 
be greatly obliged to know the сяияе "Pray," said I, "was it 
done in some holy war ! I p es me t w "I will tell you," 

replied he ; "I once had a co s n the daughter of my father's 
brother, to whom, in my youth I made love ; and, finally, her 
father having given her to me ve became very happy together. 
We owned a farm new the sea sho e wl ch was the most delight- 



fill part of the city. We moved thither; find, whilst amusing 
owvselves and maldng merry, infidels attacked our city, and took 
me, my wife, and some Mussulmans prisonera, and canied ua off 
to their own country. An iron was attached to my leg, and my 
wife was separated from me witbout my knowing where they had 
taken her. I remained for a whole year at work in irons, at the 
expiration of which time they put confidence in me, and teok 
them off, and I was permitted to walk about at my ease. I 
inquired after my wife, and was informed that the commander of 
such a castle having asked for a handsome female slave, they 
gave my wife to him, and that she now readed in affluence. 
Inspired by warmth of affection for my лү1?е, I wandered about 
nntil I reached the castle which had been indicated as that con- 
taining her. I.entered a vineyard situated immediately opposite 
the entrance to a large palace, where I mixed myself up amongst 
a number of pi'isonera at work there, and joined them in their 

" One day there was a great festiva!, and tbey commenced 
making merry. My wife also made her appearance, and sat down 
in the midst of the company. The day ended in this way, and 
' night set in. The candles were lighted ; and all those who did 
not reside there took their leave, and the commander was left 
alone with bis own people. I do not know whether my wife was 
informed of my presence, or whether she recognised me ; but I 
was caught and bound fast to a mai-hle piOar, and they then 
recommenced eating and drinking. As 1 stood thus confined, 
the man arismg from his seat approached and caressed her before 
my eyes, and asked her if it was true that that person (meaning 
me} had been her husband. She owned that I had. ' So then,' 
said he, ' you love him more than me ?' She answered to this 
in the negative. He said, 'If you truly love me more than him, 
seiae and cut off his ears.' She at once arose, and, without any 
pity, out off my ears with a knife ; then resuming her seat, they 
continued eating iind drinking. Soon afterwards, the commander 



щәш addressing her, said, 'If you love me Riove than tbat man, 
arise and cut off his nose.' 80 gettmg up from lier seat, she out 
off my nose likeiviae ; and, after continuing for some time longer 
eating and drinking, tbey went to bed together, whilst I remdned 
tied to tbe marble column. 

" Not long after this, I suddenly felt my arms released by a 
woman, irho came up behind me for that purpose. Then, leading 
me away from that spot into a place of retii'ement, she put healing 
salve upon my wounds. iShe inquired who had treated me in this 
manner; and I told her, with many thanks for her benevolence. 
The woman exclaimed, ' The person who has so ill-used you is my 
husband ; but smce the ai-rival here of this woman, he has never 
looked upon my face, nor come near me. All his wealth and 
money is, however, in my chaige ; can you not serve the infidel a 
good deed ?' Inspired to exertion by her words I asked her what 
I should do. 'Had I but somen apon I added wheteupon 
she arose and led me into the con mandei s stoie room whue she 
told me to select whatever awoid I might choose So I picked 
out one which would suit my aim and pioceedtd to the phce 
where they lay asleep, drunk and entwined jn tich other & ■iims. 
With one blow of the sword I cut them mio tour pieces The 
woman who had boimd my wounds gave me stiength by s^ymg, 
'If you do not put them to de'ith now he will to monow mim- 
ing leave neither you nor me alive.' To which she added, ' Do 
now whatever you will, then take me with you into Islam lands,' 

" She filled seven or eight boses of gold out of the money in 
the treasury, laid aside rich and costly gaiments, and then told 
me that the garden of the house ran down to the sea-sliore, where 
there was a galley fastened close by it. She ran and fetched the 
key of the prisons, and, opening their doors. Jet out all the Mus- 
sulman captives confined there. She took ten of these latter to 
carry valuables from the treasuiy to the galley; and, after adding 
a small store of provisions, we embarked all the Mussulmans 
there on beard of it. We oui'selves then went on board, weighed 


the anchor, set sail, and that same night left the place of our sor- 
rows. We continued under sail during all the following day ; and, 
in fine, after sailing four days and four nights, the fifth day we 
beheld before us as it were a black hank of cloud, which, by 
God's grace, proved to be our own country. 

" We landed at my own farm, and all the people of the city 
came out to see us; but supposing from our appearance that we 
were the infidels who sometimes visited the coast, they began to 
fly. However, recognising some of our friends, we called to them 
not to fear, for we had returned from eaptavity, Oe hearing my 
words they came back, and we cast anchor near the shore. ' Pray 
get us one or two wagons,' said I ; and they were forthwith brought 
us. Into them I placed the costly effects and the woman whom I 
Lad brought with me. I gave every one of the captives who re- 
turned with me money to bear their expenses to their own homes. 
I next married the woman after the ordinance of God. She be- 
came blessed with the holy faith of Islamism; and these fine 
children by whom you perceive me snrrounded were bome me 
by her. 

" Praises be to the God of all benevolence ! this is the history 
of what occurred to me," added the man. He would not let me 
leave him, but kept me as his guest for a long time. This is what 
he related of his travels ; but the truth of the statements rests 
upon the narrator. 

In the year 058 of the Hedjreh, a fellow in Cairo picked up 
a woman whom he took to his house. He p t 1 'n ' le of it, 
closed the door upon her, and, taking the key v tl 1 m retu ned 
to the bazaar to make purchases of some a t cles of wh h he 
stood in need. Ho then bought a piece of meat and as he was 
about to give it to the keeper of » cooking establ I me t to have 



it roasted, be met witb aa individiia] to whom lie owed a siim of 
money. This person, having apprehended him, had him talten 
before a cadi, when, the debt being proved, the latter put the 
■ fellow into prison. The ivoroaii thus remsuned a]one in the house. 
Now the prisoner had an old fiiend, who, hearing of his coi 
ment, went to see him. The friend found the man in chains, and, 
after saluting him, inquired the cause of hia present situation. 
" My tale is a omious one," answ.ercd the prisoner. " This morn- 
ing I went out to buy some provisions from the market ; and. 
after purchasing a piece of meat, was about ^ving it to a cook 
to he roasted, when I fell in with a pSraon to whom I am 
indebted. He had me carried off to the Mehkemeh for trial ; 
and thi-ew me, as you see, into prison. I have a favor to ask 
of you. Take this key, and go to my house ; open the door, and 
tell the woman there what has occurred to me. Let her rettim 
to her own home; then close the door agsiin, and bring me back 
the key." 

The friend promised to execute what had been asked of him. 
He took the key, went to the house, and, on opening the door, 
beheld his own wife seated alone upon the sofa, arrayed in 
elegant attire. The woman, was a cunning person ; and, as soon 
as- she recognised her husband, she exclaimed, " O man, you have 
found me in this predicament. If you accept of me, уош' repu- 
tation is good; but if you do not, I gladly release you from all 
ties of matrimony." Then, taking her anklets and bracelets off, 
she handed them to her husband, adding, " Be these also уош^а ; 
and let us separate according to the biown requisitions." The 
husbafld accepted of the tilings offered to him, and put them in 
his bosom. He theu said to the woman, " Come, let us go before 
the cadi, and have a legal decision (hujjet) drawn up for our 
divorce ; then i-etui-n you to my house." 

The man and his wife closed the door, and set out directly for 
the llehkemeh of the judge. Wiien tliey araved there, the m?m 
exclaimed, " O Molana (air), this woman is my wife. It is 11017 


three days since we agreed to be divorced from eacli otber ; Ы 
therefore, a document be drawn up attesting our sepaRition. 
The judge now, turning towards the woman, asked, " woman, 
what have you to say in this matter?" She immediately repl 
"He speaks falsely. To-day he took me to an improper pli 
and then toot off my anklets and armlets ; which he, at this 
moment, has ia his bosom. If you do not credit my words, search 
him. And, as he has pronounced my divorce in your presence, 
let my dowry and clothes be restored to me," With these words 
she began to ciy out for justice; and the judge, having searched in 
the man's bosom for the articles, produced them, and banded 
them over to the woman. At the same time, he commanded the 
тш1 to give her her mihri muedjil (dowty of divorce) * 

The husband was likewise sent to prison , and on entermg it 
he was asked by his friend, who hsd been put there before him, 
what was the cause of his imprisonment He rephed, by exdami- 
iug, "May your face be black' youi ill conduct and Lad luck 
have brought upon me all this misfortune " Why," a ked the 
fellow, " did you not go ia my house ? what have \ ou done with 
the key?" "Wretch!" ansvieied the m^n, "I did go to your 
house, as yon requested; and on opening the dooi I found my 
own wife there, who, on seeing me, foi|,ot hei di4y tonaid^t me, 
and, handing me her anklets and aimleta, bade me also keep 
her dowry imd divorce her So 1 took them , and, putting them 
into my bosom, I went with Ъ r to the Melikemeh to be divoii«d 
from her in form. When I theie isked foi a hujjet to be diawn 
up, the wOMMi asserted that I h-id coramitled лю1ежө upon 
her, and had beat her and deprived her of her clothes; and she 
demanded that, as I had divorced her, I should give ber her dowiy 

* By Islam law, a marri»ge is made with two dowries, one called 
mihri mvidjil aiid thp othet mikri mtiddjel. Oue is given to her in effaofe, 
on tlie oonaBion of the wedding ; and the other, EJwaya in топву, is to he 
given her in ci^o of bein^ divoi-ceii- The lultev often prevents divotpefj Cor 


ition. This tbe cadi having required, lie sent me here to 
prison until it should bo complied, with. Here," added the man, 
" is your key ; and I have fallen a victim to the contagious ill 
luck wbich accompanies it." 

: гггевшоиа 

It is narrated by a person of veracity, that once in the land of 
Adjem (Persia), a master goldsmith and a painter of talent for a 
time formed an association together, and hved on teiins of bro- 
therly intimacy. After this, being disposed to travel, they entered 
into a covenant to remain faithful to each other, and not to go 
one step beyond their association, — that one should not act without 
the coiiaent of the other, nor in any manner be treacherous to the 
other's interests. 

Having made this agreement, they set out upon their j'omney. 
Their means being rather- limited, on coming to a great convent, 
they put up there as guests. The monks of that convent, being 
pleased with them, showed them respect and tokens of esteem. 
They, particularly the painter, covered the walls of the convent 
with curious paintings ; and the monks paid him much attention, 
and begged them to remain awhile with them. Having assented 
to this, they spent some time m the convent; and the monks placed 
so much confidence in them as to disclose to them the places con- 
taining the gold and silver idols of the convent. So one day they 
(Collected all these idols, and at night they made their escape with 
ihem. On reaching a city in a country of Islamites, they took up 
their abode there; when, according to their agreement, they put 
the gold and silver into a bos, imd spent only as much of it as 
|iheir necessities required. 



It so happened that the goldsmith roarried a person's daughter, 
and the expenses of the association were thus increased. In the 
course of time the wife bore her husband two children ; and one 
day, when the other was ahsent, the goldsmith opened the box 
containing the treasures, and, stealing away one-half of the gold 
and silver, carried it to his own dwelling. On the piunter'e re- 
turn he remarked that the box had been opened, and a portion 
of the contents taken out. When he questioned the goldsmith about 
it, the latter said that he had not touched it, and denied the theft. 

Now the painter was a cunning fellow, and he immediately 
saw that the matter required good management. In the yicinity 
of theff i-esidenoe lived a huntsman, to whom he applied to pro- 
cure him two bear cnhs, for which he promised to pay him 
handsomely. The hunter consenting, he was soon fmnislied with 
the cubs, which the painter took and tamed. There was in that 
city also a carpenter; and, going to his shop, he bought of him the 
figure of a man made out of wood, and returned home. He then 
painted the figure, so that it was quite impossible to tell it from 
the goldsmith. This he put in a place by itself; and when tlie 
bear cubs were to Ъө fed, he always had it done from the band 
of the figure, until they became in time so accustomed to the 
siglit of it as to treat it hke their father or rootber. 

One day the painter invited the goldsmith to his house; and 
he accordingly came, brin^g his two young sons with him. He 
treated them hospitably, and they passed the night there. On the 
following day he pnt the sons of the goldsmith in a secret part of 
his bouse ; and when the father asked permission to take his leave 
he inquired for his sons. The painter replied, " An оссштепсе has 
happened which may aeiTe as an example to others ;■— I am really 
ashamed to relate it to you," " What is it ?" asked the goldsmith 
with surpiiae. The painter added, " Wliilst your sons were at 
play, and running about, they both became suddenly metajnor- 
pliosed into the form of two bear cubs ; and the afSictipo which has 
befallen these two innocent children miist have been sent on account 




of some great sin." The goldsmith became excessively grieved. 
" What, does this mesm/^esclaimed he ; " and why have yoa done 
this to my sons V They qitarrelled, and finally both went before 
the cadi of the place. The cadi and his associates were greatly 
Burpriaed at the etrangeness of the case. " What can this mean 1" 
exclaimed they all. " Never has such a thing happened before 
since the commg of Mohammed. What are the evidences of this 
remarkable occurrence ?" " I am quite as much astonished at it 
as yourselves," answered the painter ; "but if you will allow me, 
I will bring the two metamorphosed children into your presence. 
The case will then be clear, and we will see whether or not they 
recognise their father." 

The cadi and his company at once agreed to have the cubs 
brought before them. "Let us see," said they, "and judge for 
ourselves." The painter had cunningly kept the cubs hungry from 
the preceding night; and he now brought them from his house 
to the Mehkemeh of the judge, and placed them opposite the 
goldsmith. The cubs; as soon as they saw the latter, supposing 
him to be the same figure which the painter bad made, rushed to- 
wards hira, licked his feet, and began caressing him. The cadi 
and thtse with him were much affected at the sight, and exclaimed 
that if the cubs had not recognised their father in the goldsmith, 
they certainly would not act as they did. The goldsmith was be- 
wildered between doubt and conviction ; and so taking the two 
cubs with him, he returned to the bouse of the painter, where he 
begged pardon for his faiilt, and avowed it. He also returned the 
gold and silver effects which he had stolen from the box, and 
placed them all before the painter ; at the same time he acknow- 
ledged his fault, and repented of what he had done. He likewise 
begged that the painter would pray to God to restore his sons to 
man's form again. The painter now led away the cubs, and putting 
them into the same house in which he had confined the goldsmith's 
oliildrea ; he sat up all the following night appai-ently engaged in 
prayer. Early the next morniag he went for the boys, and taking 



them by the hand, brought them to theh' fathei", exclaiming, " God 
be praised ! our prayers have been, accepted ;" and delivered them 
up to their parent. The goldsmith -was very much rejoiced, and 
offered many tlianks to the painter, after which he carried his sons 

Now news of this occurrence becatne spread about in the city, 
and it was told how the two sons of the goldsmith, after becoming 
metamorphosed, were again restored to human shape. Upon this 
the cadi had the painter cited before him, and required hira to re- 
late the truth about the matter. The painter informed him that 
such and such a compact had been made hetAveen himself and the 
goldsmith, — that the latter had acted so and so towards him, but 
that he was unable to prove the charge, " So I got up a ruse," 
said he, " to mabe iiim acliuowledge the theft of the gold and sil- 
ver, and succeeded by my shill in the art of painting." " Barik 
Allah !" exclmmed all those who heard the recital ; " a person's 
talents should be such as these." They added also many com- 
pliments and praises to tho painter, on the ingenuity of his thoughts, 
and his success in laying so wise a plan. 



Narratives about tlime who have been rendered misotable by thepermutatJonB 
of Time, iLiid those benevolent persons w!io, when filled with misfortune, 
hare become the racipienlsof tlie dirine favor of the Eternal God. 


Hamameh, the son of Ahmed bin Tooloon, was sovereign of 
Egypt. During his reign he was in the constant habit, every 
Friday and Monday, of getting into his earqfah (barge) and 
paying visits to sacred places. 

One day he visited one of these places (a holy man's tomb), 
and observed a young man of a handsome countenance seated near 
the tomb, weeping. Hamai-vieh, touched by his tears, asked him 
from whose oppression he was suffering ; and the young man 
replied that, oppression aside, bis condition was a most unhappy 
one, " Do you know to whom this tomb belongs ?" asked Hamai-- 
vieh. The youth answered, " It is" now forty years since its oc- 
cupant died," Hamarvieht hen idded, " Foi шою than twenty 
years I have been a visitant at the temb and have nevei met 
you here before ; so that you must be agitated by some greit 
affliction Avliich induces j ou to come a d veep lee thu-, ' Tho 
youth answered, "The ocupmt of this tomb vismj fathei He 
left me much wealth and possessions all of wh ch I have 4pent, 
until there is now nothing left except a han Isome young female 
sbve. Driven to the step by nece tj I have j ist given her to 
a broker to sell for me, and an agent of the sultan bought her. 
When I bade her farewell and returned to my home, the grief and 
wretchedness occasioned by parting from her nearly caused my 
death. The hand of separation tore the collar of my pal^ence, and 
my will has taken the reins of direction, and tranquillity fled from 


rs. 30"? 

my hand. Filled with this giief, 1 have come to my father's tomb 
to weep over my condition." 

Hamarvieh was deeply touched at the tale of the young man. 
" Be no longer troubled," eaid he, " for you have attained the 
object of your desires. Behold! I am the sultsm ; my deputy 
bought youi" female slave for me. He purchased a suitable house, 
furnished and got it ready, and presented me with the wkole. I 
accepted of them, and sbould have gone to see the ^rl ; but as 
it is, may the Most High bless your slave to you. I give you, be- 
Eudes her, the house and all that it contains. So, go immediately, 
and this night let your desires be attained; forget me not in your 
devotions — and this is all I ask of you." 

The unhappy young man, like one who has at last met with 
his destiny, set out forthwith for the house presented him by the 
sultan. He became perfectly happy in the company of his slave ; 
and, as long as he lived, never ceased praying for the long life and 
prosperity of the noble and generous sultan. 

It is related that once a very generoits and \vealthy man was 
reduced by the vicissitudes of the times to great poverty. He had 
left him, however, a female slave of incomparable beauty, whom 
he loved, and who loved him passionately. He, one day, addi'ess- 
ing this young woman, add, " I have no hc^e of being freed from 
my poverty but by death. Yet I have thought that I may seoiu'e 
your prosperity by disposing of you to some generous indiwdual ; 
and if you are only happy and comfortable, I will be thankful to 
the All-Just for the blessings thus bestowed upon you." The slave 
answered, " It is better for me to be dead than to be separated 
from you ; nevertheless, sell me for a good sum, which will deliver 
you from your indigence." 

The slave was not only very beautiful, but she abo possessed a 



talent for uiusic, Theve was, at that time, a veiy beneyolent тав, 
named Ibin Mamer ; and to him the owner of the slave conducted 
ber. She performed a. piece of music in the presence of this per- 
son; and, as he was greatly pleased with her talents, he offered to 
give three hundred thousand pieces of silver for her. But her 
master answered that he had spent quite as much as that in having 
her taught. The purchaser said, " But you have in the mean 
time heen enjoying the sight of her beauty ; here, I will g^ve you 
also satin enough for ten drawers, ten head of horses and mules, 
besides many other objects." So the owner consented to let him 
have the slave ; and having received the sum agreed upon and the 
aforementioned arfdclea, he delivered her to the purchaser. 

The seller of the slave accompanied her to the dwelling of her 
new master; and when she was about to enter the harem of the 
latter, she seized hold of the door-post, and began to weep, and 
addressing her late master, she bade him be happy in tlie enjoy- 
ment of the money which he had received. " As for me," added 
she, " there is nothing now left but adversity and my own unhappy 
thoughts ; for, as you are helpless and desperate, yon cannot effect 
any thing yourself, nor procure any assistance from others. No- 
thing but patience is left you ; and I therefore recommend it to 
you." The man, on hearing this, wept, and replied, that as it was 
impossible to soften the hai-slmess of faithless Time, nothing but 
Death was between them. " Pardon me," said he, " I leave you 
with a heart filled with «ad thoughts, and will offer «p my prayere 
in your behalf. I will gay, Salaras and praises be unto thee, O 
God ! I have no hope of ever more beholding this beloved crea- 
tm'e ; yet may Ibin Mamer, the generous and gracious, reach the 
object of his desires." Uttering these words, the man wept bit- 
terly. At this sight the emir of noble sentiments (Ibin Mamer) 
also wept ; and taking the slave by the hand, he asked Allah to 
bless them both. "Expend the amount which I have giyen 
you," said he, " in providing for your support ; and when you are 
in the enjoyment of this life's pleasures, do not forget me in yous' 


The maiitbua becoming igim the ownei' of Hs slave, tliey both 
exprpssed ra-my thanks to the emir foi his иоЫө generosity, and 
filled with t^hdue^'i icturned to tlitir heme, лүЬеге they afterwards 
spent a life of h ijij mc^s 

It is related that tliere was once a king "who was very fond oftlio 
society of females, and possessed one of superior beauty, to whom 
lie was greatly attached. Bow this king liad a vizir who always 
prevented him from giving himself up to love for women. The 
sovereign consequently resigned all converse with his female slaves, 
and would constantly pass his nights outside of his palace. 

One daj, when this sovereign went into his harem amongst its 
inmates, the latter suiTOunded him, exclaiming, " O our piince, 
'why have you abandoned MS ? teU us our fault." The sovereign 
replied, " You have comoutted no fault ; but my vizir prevents me 
from enjoying more of your society, Emd states divers pretences 
as hb reasons for so doing," Оиө of the female slaves exclaimed, 
" I have the favor to ask of my sovereign, that you present me 
to that vizir, and some day witne^ his intercourse with me." Tlie 
sovereign consenting, he had the viair caUed before him, and then 
informed him that he presented him with that female slave. 

The vizir accepted the gift; and soon becoming violently ena- 
mored of the slave, he wished to make her his concubine,* But the 
slave, being cunning, would notallowit; and the passion of the vizir 

* The word Eignifjing female slave, jarieh, ia Arabic, aiid the only one 
used among the Turlta, АП janelts are not concubinea, and tUeii' condition 
does not depend entirely npoii ihe views of the mnBter.~A. T. 


growing stronger, it quite mastered bim. la fine, he begged and 
entreated ber, and she now sent word to tlie sovereign to come and 
be witness of what was going to happen between hor and the vizir. 
She coquettishly exoMmed to her lover, " If the whole world was 
given to me I would not acquiesce in your desires, except you do 
what I wish." " Command me," answered the vizir, " sad I will 
obey you." So the slave had an ass's saddle afld bridle brought, 
and told the vmi- to put it on his ЪасЬ, and the bridle in his mouth, 
and let her ride him ; in which case she would consent to his 
wishes. The vizir having acceded to her demands, she made him 
go down upon his hands and knees, put the saddle on his back, and 
the bridle iu his mouth ; after which she mounted on his back, 
and, whilst riding him about the house, lo ! the sovereign sud-^ 
denly entered. 

On seeing liis viar in this position, the sovereign exclaimed, 
" How is this ? you pvevented me from enjoying the society of 
women ; yet how do I see уон employed!" The vizir answered, 
" My sovereign, behold what I always feared might be your lot ; 
and I endeavored to preserve you agMnst it. I have fallen into 
the very same misfortune which I dreaded you might meet with." 
The sovereign smiled, and was much pleased with the ready 
answer of his vizir. He made him nimierous presents; and he also 
jrave to the female slave many tokens of his satisfaction, and 
recommended the viai' to show her more favor than to his other 
women for his salie. 

Which shows the truth of the tfadition of the Prophet, " He wlio lives 
aiid concoals his pasBion, dies a martyr." 

Tlie folloiving is related by that veiy distinguished person 
Jahiz. One day the caUph Mutevekkel Billah sent for me to 


in'stcuot bis Eon. When I entered his presence he looked at me 
attentirely, and was not pleased with my appearance ; snd so, 
after receiving a roll of gold pieces from him, I withdrew. On my 
way 1 met with one of the most celebrated emirs of that time, 
named Mohararaed Yesar, who called me to him, and took me 
,ia his company in a boat on the Tigris. The boat was richly fur- 
nished ; and, whibt pacing over the water we partook of the 
most delicate viands, and drank of the most delightful wines, — in 
fine, we made a very pleasant and meiTy excuraon. 

I^fow the emu owned a beiutiful female slave, who sang 
sweetly Slie was with us, and sat behind a screen. Taking her 
instrument m hei h md, bhe plnyed in air ; and then commencing 
with hei voice, she sang these ^eise 

" Where la the heart flee fi-om love, whirh h\9 not its tears and sortowa. 
O 1 ou who \r« faithfu! J our love is aaffieieiit for you ; as for me, how 
shall I conceal iny onat I am wretched and foilora." 

The ttemulous aiid pJamtne tones of her voice, as she sang, 
showed that she wis unbippy She pulled aside the curtain 
which separated het fiom us and hei appearance struck me with 
an effect equal to that made by i biiffht new moon emet^ng from 
behind the dark clouds of njglit. Indeed, I never had beheld so 
beautiful a woman before in my hfe. After gaaing at us for a 
moment, she suddenly threw herself into the Tigris. We all arose 
in alarm. Close beside the emir stood a youth of a handsome 
exterior, whose occupation was to fan the former. As soon as 
this individual saw the slave throw herself into the water, Ье let 
the fan drop from his hand, and exclaimed, " With what eye shall 
I henceforth look upon the world ?" and recited tliia veree : 

" Who dies fbr love, dies in this maimer ; 

" The only happiness of love ш to be able thus to die." 

So saying, he threw himself into the river after the slave. Filfed 
with astonishment, we called for aid; and divers immediately 
coming to our assistance, they jumped into the Tigris. Biving 


812 iTiiKiaii MVBSiHe entj;iitaihmem'I'«, 

very deeply, they some time afterwards ai'ose again to the surface ; 
when we beheld the two jndividuab of whom they had been in 
search, closely embracing each other, and both dead, Mohammed 
bin Tesar was much affected at the sight of the sad spectacle 
before him; aad seeing tliat hie feelings were qiute overcom- 
ing liim, I exclaimed, " O emir, be not thus grieved, but be 
patient. If yon will permit me, I will tel! you a most singular 
occurrence, of wliioJi this one reminds me, and which may offer 
you some consolation." " Spealf, O Jahiz," he replied, "relate 
the tale, and relieve me of the sad thoughts which now oppress 
my mind." 

80 I said, " O emir, one of the Ommiade caliphs, Suliman bin 
Abd el MeUk,^ once purchiffied a most beautiful female slave, who 
possessed a very sweet voice for music. He soon beaime warmly 
enamored of her, and could not separate himself from her for a mo- 
ment. Now whilst this slave was yet with her late master, she bad 
a lover, a bandsome youth ; and one day when Suliman bin Abd 
el Melik was employed in examiaiiag the affairs of the MusEulinans, 
in a great divan (council), a young man handed him a petition, in 
which the cahph read, ' O Emir of the faithful, I have a favor to 
ask of your ji!stice and generosity — it is tliat you command your 
female slave who sings so well to sing these verses in your pre- 
sence, I, your humble servant, will then, by hearing them, have 
drunk two cups filled with ray warmest desires, and will have had 
my share of this life.' The caliph, in sm-prise, asked whose petition 
it was, and who was the individual who had brought it. The per- 
son was called, and appeared in the form of a youth, who acknow- 
ledged that it was his. After some moments spent in refleciion, 
the caliph told him to come to his palace of Zebr Jedee on the 
following day, 

"Tlie youth expressed many thaiiks,f and withdrew. The nest 

« The fifth Ommiade caliph, 

+ It is worthy of remark, tiiat Orientals do not thank the pci-soji who 
bestdWB the favor, Be <в done by Occidentals ; but offer brief prayer to 
Allali for the benefit thus done them. The phrase expressing thanks ie, 
however, always Dsed in the traaslaUon. — A. T. 



day the caliph went with a numerous suite to liis palace ahove 
mentioned, Bituated in. an elegant vineyai'd. I accompaHied him. 
This palace was an elevated one that resembled that of the Khawr- 
nab (of Baliram in Babylonia) in magnificence, Hei'e the calipli 
was SttiTOunded by his pages and courtiers; and soon the young 
man who had presented the petition made bis appearance, very 
richly dressed. He was presented to the caliph; and, after kiss- 
ing hands, stood before him. All the persons present were much 
touched at the beauty of the youth. The caliph now ordered the 
female slave, with her mstrument, to be brought in; and she imme- 
diately made her appearance, dressed in rich and costly attire, and 
looking very timid and modest. Taking the insti^ument on which 
she usually perfoiTned, in her band, she approached and seated 
herself opposite to the place whei-e the youth was standiag. A 
bottle of boiled wine and two Damascus goblets were now brought 
in, and placed before the young man; who, taking one of the cups 
in his hand, fiJled it with wine, and, turning to the slave, asked 
her to sing sometbing;, — on which she commenced : 

' Hb who desires for lovo, must be geiieroiis ; like Kab bio Mamch, wlio 
spent his Boul, Wiioao loiiga for riclies, mast not give away as miich 

On ending these lines, the youth drank off one of the cups, and 
asked her to sing something to the cup, when she continued : 

separation, — those who came before 
d d But separation, anoii as has 
Ь U m h 

At th 1 th t p k t tl in a confidential tone, 
ad t h d d tl ti tl ther cup. Taking it in his 

1 d Ь fi 1 J J t tl cal ph, saying, ' Emu- of the 
f thf 1 ] [ t d y h I lenee to our minds. May 

th M t H t,i nd J h p] J b th in tliis world and in the 
t Th n tu t tl I h i,laimed, ' This is onr last 


pledge; pray ang something suitable to it.' So, tuning her in- 
stroment, she sang aa follows : 

' The longest and mnst iusiipportEkble of all days is that which separates lovers. 
Oheail, why didst tlioa lead thyself to that cruel passion? Knoweet thou 
not that it wreslles violeully with loveis 7' 

On their tei-mination the youth drank off the contents of the 
cup which he lieid in hia hand, and after returning thanks arose. 
He bade farewell to all those present, and was in the act of with- 
drawing, when, approaching a window, he threw himself out of it, 
and, alighting on his head, was billed immediately. 

" The caliph, on seeing this, was greatly distressed, and exclaim. 
ed, ' Wretched youth ! what cruel haste he made to put an end 
to his life ! Did he tbinlf that, after bringing my slave where he 
could thus sit and conTei"se freely with her, I could ever take her 
back again iuto my harem? ITo, I swear by Allah, that my iuten- 
tion was to present her to him. But "we are God's, and to God 
■we shall return." '* He ordered the superintendant of his palace to 
seek for some relations of the female slave and deliver her to them. 
' Supply her,' said he, ' with whatever she may desire or need, and 
^ve her in marriage to some one.' The servant did as he was bid, 
aud tdkuig hei by the hand said, * Come let us go.' On reachmg 
the head of the staiioase she withdrew her hand from his, and, 
thiowmg heiself dowa the stairs, fell upon her head and expired. 
The cahph, at this new disaster, was filled with amazement ; he 
ordeied the two bodies to be prepared for interment, aud con- 
signed them togethei to the same grave." 

Mohammed hm Yesar, on hearing my recital of the foregoing 
tale, was a httle leheved of the sad feelings which oppressed him. 



Fazeel bin Ауая says, that if the Most High would accept of 
a prayer from bim, his most humble servant, that prayer would 
be offered up in behalf of lovers; "for," adds he, "they are com- 
pelled and reduced to despair, and have no power over their own 

Omar bin Abdul Azeez had a sister, who was a very pure, 
reMgioiis, and pions woman. One day slie met in her house with 
Izeh, the celebrated mistress of Ketheer; and addressing the for- 
mer, she asbed the meaning of the verses which Eetheer had 
made about 3ier, viz : 

" The deblsof all debtors were settled, siid the money sufficed for them al!. 
She promised a kiss, and it hae not been paid." 

Izeh replied, "I had promised him a kiss, and had not fulfilled 
the same. He made allusion to it in these lines." The pious 
woman excl^med on hearing tbis, " Cover your promise, and let the 
fault be mine." She immediately freed forty female slaves, as an 
atonement for the sin which the other had committed. 

• Ketheer, the celebrated lover of Izeh, 
that be once sent a slave of his with some goods for sale to 
Damascus, who, on the way fell in with the village of his mas- 
ter's sweetheart, Izeh told a woman to go and purchase some 


816 TUiiKisn EVENisa kntektainments. 

garments for her from Ketbeer's slave; *' but," added she, " be 
careful not to tell him who they are for, nor even let him know 
that you were sent by me." The womaa went, and procured 
some materials suitable for clothes for Izeh, as well as some others 
for the women of the village, paying for them all. One of the 
latter, however, did not pay for the stufts purchased for her for 
some days; and when at length she brought the money, and was 
about to give it to Ketheer's slave, the latter cited very appropri- 
ately this hemiafich : 

" She paid all her debts, and also those of tlie (ТеЫ.огв." 

The woman who had gone on the part of Izeh, being quite sur- 
prised, exclaimed, " O fellow, why should J. conceal from you, that 
all the things which I have taken of you are for Izeh, whose servant 
I am ? and see, there is her house," The man replied, " And do 
you be witness that I am the slave of Ketheer. The servant and 
all he possesses belong to his master.* ITo money at all is neces- 
sary, and I will receive none." In fine, he retiirncd the money to 
the woman, and withdrawing from that place went baok to his 
master, to whom he related that he had sold all his goods to Izeh, 
hut had refused payment for them. On which Ketheer exclaimed, 
"I call God to witness, that you did well; I free you from this 
moment, and shall consider all the rest of the goods s 

It is narmted in the book of Mohammed bin Daood et Tay, 
that a youth belonging to the tiibe of the Benee Azreh fell in love 


IS. 31? 

with the daughter of some one. When the girl became aware of 
his affection, she chose to afflict him by refusing to meet him. Tbe 
poor fellow concealed his passion from all others; and he became 
weak and thin from the strength of the love whiob. he bore for 
that girl (Jaiieh).* He took to his bed, and was at the pomt of 
death. At last his relatives becoming acquainted with the cause 
of bis illness, they pitied him, and carried news of his condition 
to the peison whom he loved. The girl immediately went to the 
dwelling ot her lo\er, whom she found reduced by the violence of 
love, and ohinged like leaves m autumn. On seeing this, she shed 
tears ; and the unhappy youth opening his eyes also wept, and 
recited these hues 

" If she visits my Coffin as LI posses by, ray haud will be Bttotclied forth to 
implore her pity. If she vieils my tomb and salutes me, my tears will 
flow ever iu my grave." 

His mistress on healing these words from her lover was very 
much affected, and exclaimed, " I swear by AOali, tliat I did not 
know you wei-e in this condition : my whole heart and soul are de- 
voted to you." To tbis she added many kind remarlts, and press- 
ed her face affectionately agrnnst bis. The poor lover opened his 
eyes; aad ^ter reciting a couplet suitable to his situation, he 
Kghed once, and delivered up his soul. Hia mistress, who was a 
tender and affectionate ^-1, repeated the following lines : 

" 1 HO longer posses any means to meet you in life, therefore nothing remaiiia 
a for hope, and God's command 

And having sighed a few moments over his remains, she also 
expired. Their bodies were washed and interred in tlie same grave. 

« Here this word is foimd used for a free woman. 



A person in the company of Halid bin Valed once irelated aa 
follows: Emir, there was an individual who had a very beauti- 
ful wife, and they were both warmly attaehed to eich othei One 
day whilst oonversbg with his wife, tbia man looked fixedly m 
her face, and then buret into tears. Tlie woman, much euipn^ed, 
inquired the cause of his grief; and he replied, "Wbibt tbua m 
the enjoyment of your society, I suddenly reflected th it death 
might separate us; that you would become the wife of anotliei 
man; and that whilst you would he a source of cmtoit and joy 
to him, I would lie in the fi-ightful and solitary tomb '' " God foi 
bid," replied the woman, "that I should ever become the wife 
of another after you are gone." The man was rejoiced at this 
answer, and thanked his wife for her devotion. 

Some time after this the wife's husband died; and f^thful to 
her promise, she refused to marry again. This woman, however, 
had a father, who insisted so much upon her marrying again, that in 
the course of time she was, gainst her wHl, obliged to ooDsent. 
The wedding took place, and during the night the woman saw her 
late husband in a dream, who coming to her house, took the ring 
of its door in his hand and recited the following verses : 

" All ia this house are alive — I alone am with the dead. I have bean ex- 
changed for another, whom I know. The tomb still liolda me. Whilst 
yon have again become a bride, I remain in the coid tomb with the ani- 
mals. Where now ia that promise made in tears, that when I died you 
would go to no other husband V 

Suddenly she awoke, screamed out, and arose from her bed. She 
withdrew into an apaj-Lment alone, and told licr parents that she 
would never sleep again with aman. "I never consented to this 
marriage," added she; "you compelled me to it against my will." 
In fine, as long as she lived she never would live with the hus- 
band her parents had given her to, nor with any other. 


Tliere was once an inhabitant of Yamin, named Ibin Jeobery, 
a very wealtby man, who went to Bagdad. One day whilst walk- 
ing along a retired street, his eye happened to light upon a beau- 
tiful female, A mutual affection was bimediately conceived be- 
tween them, and he promised the fair creature to go in search of 
her after dark. On entering her dwelling, however, he met with 
her father, who apprehended and conducted bim before the Emir 
of Irak, Khalid bin Ahdallah Kashi-ee. "I caught him entering 
my house," said the father ; "and he must be a thief." Khalid 
Laving questioned the man, he acknowledged that he was atliief; 
and the former immediately commanded one of bis hands to be 
cut off. On heai'ing what had occurred, the fiur creature addressed 
the following lines to the emir ; 

Khahd on di OS p d e truth of the 

matter ; and commanding Ibm Jeohery to he hi ought before him, he 
said, "I nowlmow all about you; why did you acknowledge your- 
self a thief ?" To which Ibin Jeohery replied in these Imes : 

' Khalid, I coaiesa ll 

; I no longe.' c. 

raced I 


(h for nothing bnt 

the truth hi my death 

If it 

is not forbidden- 

-I regard it us 




If the worid requires our eeparatioii, I will 
Our secret is, God inows, that I love hoi 
For one glimpse I am proclaimed a thief. 
If you are generous you will pardon that 
Aiid tliDS do a good deed to one of God's 
The end of all things is raeroy ; 
It comes in fine to the lover and the mistress." 

Khalid, much pleased witb the conduct of Ibin Jeohery, as- 
sured him of his good feelings. He also commanded the father to 
give him the young woman in marriage; and as the father did not 
dare to refuse, a gi-eat wedding was made for them. Ibin Jeohery 
became known throughout all Bagdad by the name of Ashik, 
(the lover), and was much beloved by ail its inhabitants for his 

It is related that one night during the caliphat of Aboo Bekr 

, es Sadik,* on whom be peace, Aboo Eetr was walking in the 

streets of Medina, when ho suddenly heard a low, plaintive cry, 

proceeding from a house close beside him. Approaching the door, 

the caliph heard a female weeping and reciting the following lines ; 

" Tiiou Imat made me a captive ; I am lost lU thy love ; 
Thy face is like the moon in her fifteenth night." 

When he knocked at the door it opened ; and the young woman 
coming out, Aboo Dekr asked her whether she was a free womaji 

of the Pmphet Mohammed. 



or a slave. " I am tbe latter, companion of the Prophet of 
Allah," she replied. " To whom have you given youv heart ?" next 
inquired the caliph. " By the respect which you bear for the 
tomb of the Prophet." said she, " leave me, I implore you, alone 
with my sorrow." But Ahoo Bekr exclaimed, " It is quite im- 
possible for me to depart ustil yon have toJd me all about your- 
self," She immediately replied, by reciting these two linos : 

" Separation now dietrabeE mj breast, and 
I weep for love of Abool CaBim." 

From this the caliph at once knew what ailed the young wo- 
man. 80 continuing on to the chapel of the Prophet, he sat doivn, 
and sent a man for the owner of the girl. On this person's arrival 
he inquired about the young slave ; and purchasing her of him at 
a handsome price, he sent her to Mohammed bin Casim bin Jaafer 
bin Tahb, begging him to accept of her for bis sake, and retain 
her in his service. 

The noble generosity of the calipli may be seen in this occur- 
rence. God be merciful to him ! 

It is related that Siti Sebineh, the fair daughter of the Imam 
Husaia,* on whom he peace, was unequalled for her learning, and 
became proverbial for her graciousness and generosity. One day 
a number of persons, distinguished for their talents and informa- 
tion, had assembled in her presence ; when she corrected the errors 

* One of tlia B0U8 of the сяИрЬ All, 


of the verses of the poets, and bestowed upon all numerous evi- 
dences of her favor. Amongst the poets were Ketbeer, Izeh, Jemeel, 
Ahvas, Jerir, Hessib, and Feradek ; all of -whom came together to 
her residence. Siti Sekineh had prepared them an elegant repast; 
and each had some error in his verses, which she prettily cor- 
rected. Then turning to Perzdek, she said, "Who is the chief of 
poets to-day?" Feriidek replied, that be was, , But Siti Sekineh 
denied it; she recited a verse and said, " See whose may these 
lines be." She then dismissed them. On the day following they 
assem.bled again, when the Silj met them and invited them in, 
and they seated themselves. At her ade, this time, sat a hand- 
some female slave, holding in her hand a fan, with which she 
cooled her mistress. When Ferzdek beheld the slave, affected by 
the sight of her shadow, he immediately became enamored of her 
(was captivated by the zone of her beaiity). The poor fellow 
threw himself at the feet of Siti Sekineh, and exclaimed, " Ya sddet 
m nisa, princess of women, I have strong cliums ^aiust you; for 
I came expressly from Mecca to see and visit you, and have com- 
posed two verses explicative of my situation, which I beg leave 
to by before you. You inquired who was the chief of poets; and 
when I replied that it was myself, you accused me of falsehood. 
"Now you may ask for the verses of other individuals ; for I am 
powerless, and my fear is that I may die before meeting with the 
accomplishment of my desires. In the name of the memory of 
your ancestors, I beg, that should I die, you may be so good as 
to put me ia my coffin and inter me m the apartment of the female 
slave who is now m your service. This, piincess, is the last 
prayer of Ferzdek." So saying, he repeated two verses on the 
subject of love. The Siti, quite overcome by his languf^e, laughed 
excessively, and exclaimed, " May God kill you for your tricks !" 
She then commanded the female slave to collect her wardrobe, and 
go and be a faithful servant to Ferzdek ; which the woman having 
done, they two lived a long time afterwards happily together. 



Yahiya bin Maaz Sinan, the author of the book called Mesariel 
Ushak (Lovers' Wrestles), relates as follows ; 

Once I WM going from Mecca to Sena, and wHlst still at the 
distance of five merkalehs (each eight hours) from that place, 
some of my companions ascended the mountain. " Come with 
lis," sdd they to me ; " let us all go up together, and make a visit 
to the tombs of Arvah and Afran." So I went with them, and 
on reaching the valley we beheld tlie tombs of this Sena and his 
mistress, placed side by side. Beside each grave grew a tree, 
which on reaching the height of a man inclined towards the other, 
and joined their branches together, as if two sighs (caused by 
separation) met and embraeed each other. Over these two graves 
was a marble slab, on which the folloivmg verses were engi-aved ; 


Tiie two limbs ol a tree grew up and entwined together ; 

But the vicisBitudes of 1!шө threw them asunder. 

TIis£e trees spi'ang up Li the desert. 

They will once more meet again in the other world ; 

They will be rannited whom the bowels of the earth have eoparatod. 

Ill life thoir hope was in union; 

It took place in the grave, and will be perpetuated hereafter. 

Leila Ahilieh, celebrated among the Arabs for her beauty, had 
been the mistress of Tevhet bin elHameer. Leila one day mounted 
her litter (placed on the bank of a camel) ; and setting out in com- 
pany with her husband, they continued on their way, until they 
reached the tomb of Tevhet. When they arrived there, her hus- 
band remai'ked, " Leila, here is the gi'ave of the liar whom they 
called Tcvbet, and who wrote these verses : 




If Leiia Ahilieh salatee me. 

Be there rocks andstouesau my breast, 

I will surely in joy return the salutation ; 

And a voice wiu proceed from my'grave 

Like that of a long absent friend to one who is beloveil." 

On repeating the lines, the husband added to Leila, " If you 
lore the Most High, go to Tevbet's tomb smd salute him." But 
she begged him to leave her alone, and refused to go. Her hue- 
band, however, insisted upon her doing so, adding that the unfor- 
tunate man who lay interred there had been made wretched through 
his passion for her. " Now if you have any regard for me," said 
he, " go up to his grave and salute him." 

Leila, thus compeUed, pressed her camel forward, until she 
came alongside of Tevbet's tomb, when she exclaimed, " Salam 
alaih, ya Tevbet el Maanee, 1 salute thee, O Tevbet the Maanyite." 
Fow a bird had made its nest on the tomb of the deceased ; and 
startled by Leila's voice, it rose up and flew away, frightening 
Leila's camel, во that it sprang aside and let her and the litter in 
which she sat fall to the ground, killing her on the spot. Her 
husband prepai'ed her remains for interment and buiied them be- 
side those of Tevbet. The most remarkable part of this strange 
occun-ence is that Tevbet should thus have performed, so long 
after his death, vrhat he promised in his verses. It needs to be 
added, that this Leila AhOieh is not she who was the mistress of 
Medjnoon, whose name was Leila Amir.* 

It is related by Medain, that once Ibin Ziad was travelling with 

• The love tale of Leila and Medjnoon is well known amongst the Persimis 
and Turlis as well as the Arabs. It is the most popular of all oi'iental tnlfis, 
and is equivalent to the Romeo avid .Tuliet of English literature. — A. T. 


a number of peraons on horaetiack, when they met a fellow having 
a very handsome female for his companion. Calling after this 
man, t!iey approached him : he, suddenly fixing an arroiv in his 
bow, seemed thinking whether or not he should let йу sit them, 
whenthe bowstring snapped. At thb they rushed upon him, and 
toob the femiile from him. In one of her ears she had an ear-ring 
made of a most valuable peari ; and wbibt they were endeavoring 
to get possession of it hev master fled away. The woman now 
demanded of those who had aeized her, what they saw in her ear- 
ring which made it such im object of their cupidity, " If you 
could get the !ai-ge peai'ls which are in that man's turhan," added 
she, " they are worth the entire poll-tSiX of Room, and would be to 
you a capitiil for life." Immediately letting the woman go, they 
all pursued after the man, and called out to him to give np to 
them the sums which were in his turban. Now, there was a bow- 
string in the man's turban which he had forgotten ; and being thus 
reminded of it, he immediately took it out, and, fiistening it to his 
bow, let йу an arrow at his pursuers. Being a skilful archer, he 
killed one of them on the spot ; and the remainder turned and fled, 
leaving the woman once more at liberty. The man thus regained 
his slave, whom he warmly praised for her sagacity and fidelity. 

Yakoob bin David, the generous and excellent vizir of Mehdee, 
one of the Abbaside caliphs, teEs the following story : 

One day the Emir el Mnmineeu sent for me ; and on going to 
him 1 found him making merry, seated in a beauliful garden like 
that of Paradise, and surrounded by his courtiers and by every thing 

* The third caliph of the house of Abbas.— A. T, 



of the most costly bind. He was served by a young female slave 
so exquisitely beautiful, that in all my life I never had seen any 
human be t § equal to her. As soon ss he observed me, he ex- 
claimed What do you say, Yakoob bin David, to this jovial 
society' To which I, offering him my .compliments, replied, 
Ы'гу tl ere never be any beauty and perfection like this ; may 
your enjoyment be everlasting ; and may the eupportera of your 
majesty's greatness be perpetual." The caliph answered, " I be- 
stow all the gayeties and appurtenances of tliis meeting, together 
with this female slave (Jarieh), upon you. I also add to the gift the 
sum of a hundred thousand dinars, and command you to spend a 
fev^ days in the most peifect gratification and enjoyment possible." 
TheQ turning his face, he added, "I have need of you in a matter 
in which you must be very zealous and attentive," In reply to this 
I kissed the caliph's feet, and remaiked that I was his majesty's 
servant, whose duty it was to hear and obey his commands 
with all fidelity — commands which were always a source of ho- 
nor to me. 

The caliph now delivered over to me a dignified looking man, 
saying, "I wish you to put me at rest from all apprehension of 
this man's evil macbinations ; for if he lives, he will some day be a 
source of trouble and sorrow to me." I answered, begging him 
to believe tliat I would endeavor to I'elievehis mind from all appre- 
hensions, by esecuting his orders respecting the man. The caEpli 
then bade me .sweai' to caray out the commands be had given me, 
— which I did. 

I then took the man with me, and returned to my own palace, 
where I confined him in one of its apartments. I became so 
much enamored of the beautiful slave which the caliph had given 
me, that I had a suite of rooms prepared for her neai- my own 
divan, and was separated from her only by a curtain. Whenever 
I could be free from business I spent my time in her society, en- 
joying iier conversation and ictiniacy. I passed a feiv days in this 
manner, and then ordered my prisoner to be brought before me 



Iqmdfl nt dlty dfdthth 

w mttll t d llfmdj bt]db 

cal m t d t tl E f til f thf 1 b\ 1 1 h d 

audi tl gdnsphmjLti Ih 

calfhhad b 1 by tli ir ( d I d tl 

f g 1 p t mj 1 Th D th Ь M If 

at my teet, exclaiming, lokoob, jou are a man known for 
your intelligenceand independence of opinion: be not a participator 
in the sbedding of innocent blood ; go not into the presence of 
God with the blood of a descendant of Alee upon you. If others 
choose to do it, let tliem," "I swear, by Allah," I replied, "and by 
the respect which I entertaia for the Prophet's tomb, that you ivill 
meet with nothing but good from me." I tl g Г m 
money for his expenses on the way, prese t d 1 tl h 

and bade hira set out immediately, and e 1 1 m If 

place unknown to me, where he should r m m f 11 Tl 

man did as I bade him, and departed. 

Wow, the jarieh which the caliph had p ted m tl 1 d 
heard all that passed between me and tl m d g t 

once to the caliph, she related it all to 1 1 ni d t ly th 

caliph sent men ; and, having agaiu app 1 d d tl p n 
of the dignified figure, he put him once m p H tl n 

ordered me to call on him ; and, on my t 1 p 1 

inquired with an appearance of pleasure d gt t fi t W 11 

Takoob bin David, how have you perfor d tl 1 h I 

confided to you?" "Long life to the P n f th f thi 1 I 
replied, "his work is done." " Swear by yh d tl t 1 ty 
say is true," said the caliph ; and I swore byl h dtltfws 
even so. " Go," said the caliph to those n 1 ш h g tl t 
man." And lo ! they led in the very p n I I 1 d j ist 
released. " Is this the return which yo n k 1 m d tl e 

caliph, " for the confidence and reliance wb h I pi d y ш 
fidelity? Is it riglit that you should thus lieat me with deception 
and tresc'iery?" I couLl make no possible reply, but stood for 


328 Tui^jSH B\BS] 

some time in silence. At length the caliph spoke. " Leave me, 
Ibin Yakoob," said he to me; and to those around him he added, 
" Take him and imprison him in the dark dungeon, called the 
' Mutbik,' and enler into its registers that he is to be confined 
theve for evpr." Obeying the caliph's commands, they led me 
away from his pi'eience, and let me down into a deep well, where 
I was provided with food and drink every three days. I was only 
mformed of the five times a day for prayer, by some one striking 
on the trap-door of the well. 

Here I remained for some length of time, — ^how long I did not 
know, the impurity of the place having deprived my eyes of their 
sight. At length, one day, the mouth of the dungeon opened, a basket 
was let down to me, and I heard some one cry out, " O Ibin David, 
he happy once more." I was then taken out of the prison and con- 
ducted to a hatl wheiP after being cleansed I was clothed and again 
led into the piesence of the c dipb. " Salam alaik, O Emir of the 
faithful," said I snlutms; 1 im " What Emir of the faithful do you 
mean 1" asked some оие Ihe Emir el Mehdee," said I. Avoice 
from the hall tlien(.-(cl limed God's mercy rest upon El Mehdee;" 
from which I knew thit he wa dead. I was bidden again to sa- 
lute the caliph ; and I said, " Salam alaik, ya Ameer el mumineen." 
" What emir do you salute f was again asked me. I replied, " The 
Emir el Hadee." The same voice once more spoke from the seat 
of honor, saying, " God's mercy rest upon El Hadee." So I 
again said, " Salanas to the Emir el Mumineen Haroon er Easheed ;" 
and the same voice immediately responded, "And salams to thee, 
Ibin David ; and God's mercy and blessing be with thee." This 
person iaquired of me how I was, and bade me pardon hira for 
all I had suffered. I replied by saying that I pardoned El Mehdee, 
and thanked Haroon er Rasheed for delivering me from my prison; 
adding, " Prince of the faithful, my eyes no longer spe nor my 
ears hear; and I am become an aged and mfitm min "Ask 
whatever you desire," said the calipli ; ' t r I xa " t f d to you 
for many benefits and services which you rendeicd me." So 



I asked to be permitted to go to Mecca, and spend tbe remainder 
of my days in tbe neighborhood of that sainted place, in prayers 
for tbe Commander of tbe faithful. Haroon er Rasheed forthwith 
granted my request, and commanded that all mywants should be 
provided for. I came, therefore, to Mecca, and am spending the 
remainder of my life in the service of all true believere. 

The cause of all my misfortunes and sufferings was woman's 
deceit, which I did not preserve myself against ; but, being blinded 
by the passion of love for the female slave given me by the caliph, 
did not conceal my secret from her. Becoming possessed of this 
latter, she divulged it to my ruin, and thus I was rendered miser- 
able through my own fault. The moral of this stoiy will be under- 
stood by persons of experience. 


It is related that one of the military commanders of Mamoon, 
one of the Abbaside caliphs, Abdallah bin Tahu", was a very dig- 
nified and influential man. One day the caliph became enraged 
with him, and asked the opinion of the couvliers* around bim as 
to what should be done to him. All advised bis death ; so the 
caliph ordered bis confidential secretaiy to write a note summoning 
Abdallah bin Tahir to his presence, as he had some business 
with him. Now, the confidential clerk of the caliph was a great 
friend of Abdallah bin Tahir ; wherefore, after writing the note, he 
added in a comer the words, " Ya Moosa! (0 Moses 4)" and sent 
it to the commander. On receiving it, Abdallah read its contents, 
and, in obedience to the order which it contained, \vas about to 

• It is to be underatood that the Oriental courtiers are not lihe those of the 
west. The term nse<i is nadims, which sigailies the private can^pniiLoiis of 
fhe prince, who serve him and are dependent on his boauiias. — A. T. 



proceed to the caliph's palace ; but, before doing so, he went into 
his harem, where he possessed a very beautiful as ivell as a most 
intelUgeat female slave, who moreover was a poetess. This young 
woman, for brightness of miud and for elegance, was quite incom- 
parable. Seeing tbe note in his hand, she took it from him, read 
it; and, on perceiving the words, " Ya Moosa," she screamed out, 
" For God's sake, emir, do not go, — refrain from it ; for the clerk 
who wrote this is your friend, and has given you notice to be upon 
your guard. The words, 'Va Moosa,' are the commencement of 
the line, ' Moses, the people command thee to be killed.' " 

Abdallah thanked G-od for tiie female's perspicacity ; and hav- 
ing been able to show, in a reply which he wrote, some good 
ejouses, he escaped the danger which threatened him. 

Tl w f f th P pi t Suliman — on whom be peace — was 
B Ik 11 t b tl t f the Jmn Her atoi-j is ьо good an 

pi t th Id d hows --o mucb of the tvibdom of the 

Of f m tl t t d med woithy of being cited hpie 

la t t th -eign of the countty of &aha was a 

p m d Y I 1 H was Inown аь posse^smg a benei o 

1 t d { ful h t ^nd % mmd full of taknts and m 
fmt H Id hs subjects m such a mannei a^ ren- 

d d th m t j 1 d y One d^j, ■nhen this excellent 
p w t 11 h le to an extensue plain wheie weie 

t p t nbl f j^litfnl di^ona One of those was 

wh t th tl bl k th y were entwined around each othei m a 
dp t fl t d ti wh te one had i ei.eived a wound in a very 
t 1 p t f t 1 iy Tb black serpent being thus victorious, 
tl t gtb f tl wh t was exhausted ; it could move no 


TijMnsH EVBKise вктвдтАгамиита. 331 

more, and the black one wreaked its veng-eanee upon the helpless 
animfil. King Yeshrah, touched with pity, went to the assistance 
of the white snake, and aided it in its uonquered state ; he placed 
a diamond- pointed arroir in his bow, and, taking aim. at the black 
snake, he let fly aod instantly killed it. The white snake, now 
regaining its existence, crawled away nntil it became lost from 
the king's sight. King Yeshrah. much pleased, returned to his 

One day while this same king was seated alone, a youth of a 
handsome exterior persisted in being allowed to enter the pre- 
sence of Yeshrah. The king, much surprised at the oondnet of 
the youth, asked him how he dared be so bold as to approach his 
privacy uninvited ; to Which the youth replied, *' Be not displeased 
with me, king ; the cause of my conduct is that I, who liave 
been benefited by your goodness, belong to the family of the 
Jinns {tdifekjann), and received my life from your benevolent hand 
on a certain occasion." The king, greatly surprised, bade the youth 
explain on what occasion; and the latter said, "I am the white 
serpent, which was engaged in a conflict on such a plain, and, 
when reduced to the point of destruction, was saved by you. You 
destroyed my enemy ■ and to make a return for your kindness, I 
am come, accoidi ttl yigD df d done to 

you,' to ask leave t t y 

Ti 1 il d I have 

already many se ts d h 

p Ы i ) more." 

" Can I not, th p oc y 

p t 1 f your 

treasury, or jew If y 1 d 

k Ith } t! 1 t tl e king 

repUed, " I already 1 tl 

Id d b t little 

for such things. L t m 1 

th wh t know- 

ledge you have a f t f d I 

11 g ft about 

it." The king il 1 Th f 

t t my t! tl bode of 

the learned, and I 1 eady p 

p t f 11 k ds of 

science." After m m t fl 1 

th y th h d to the 

king, " 0, sovei g f th w !d 

I fi d th t f oflers 

have been accept 1 1 t y m j 

ty N I 1 t r who 


332 TDKKisH EVBNiue ЕктЕктл1Кмвнта. 

ia as beautiful as an angel (lit. a Peree) ; bo eye of the world haa 
ever witnessed her equal and if you haie a desire to marry her, 
it will be my duty to effect it." When the king heard the praises 
of the Peree faced gul, he experienced ' t! e 'nmo t part of his 
heart, a desiie foi hei, and wished greatly to bel Id her cbaiins. 

The youth, mu^h pleased at the evident ncl at on shown by 
the king for his sister, ш an instant of t me d sap| eared from 
sight, and like a spint becjme, invisible Iramed tely afterwards 
returning, he was accompanied by a Per f ee 1 g rl -u splendid 
(as Khorsheed Phcebus) — a revolutioner of past times — a devas- 
tator of all human reason — a rosebnd of silver lips — a douhle- 
chinned rose-form — a slender- shaped beauty gently moved by the 
■wind, and each wave of whose curls was a snare for heai'ts. When 
tbis beautiful creature with the musk-scented looks came before 
the king's eyes, the reins of his self-control left his hands ; he 
became greatly enamored of her charms, accepted of her for his 
wife, and immediately offered to espouse her. The Venus-like girl 
on her part expressed her willingness to be betrothed to the king, 
but however on one condition, — and on that would depend her 
union with him. "Let me hear what it is," said the king. The 
fair creature replied, " Every tiling which I do, be it good or evii, 
you must consent to, nor must you think of changing it. In this 
manner no harm can come upon you from me ; if you marry 'me, 
know that I am a Jinn, that my Junoon is a conquerer,* and I will 
vanish immediately from your sight, so that you can np.ver be- 
hold me agaJD." 

The king, no longer master of himself, consented to her de- 
mand, and exclaiming, " On my head and eyes Ъе it," expressed 
his compliance. They remained together a long time happily ; and 
the lovely wife bore him a handsome son, as beautiful as an angel, 
much to the king's joy and satisfaction. One day when they were 

; is not clearly miderstCKid. 

This acoouni 

: of the 

> character of 



■ to herseif, whi 

-A. T. 


enjoying each others society and coflversatioii, a ( 
hiui ; and his wife suddenly casting the child into its mouthi the 
dog fled away, and was lost from sight. The king was excessively 
displeased at what she had done, and became filled with sadness 
and melancholy; but concealing it, be continued to act up to the 
condition which he had agi'eed to. He renewed his intimacy with 
his wife; they were happy together, and she hore him an angelic 
daughter, which for beauty and perfection was splendid as a 
Hooree of Paradise. The king was now ^ain greatly rejoiced, 
and was consoled by this daughter for the loss of his son. For 
some time he was made happy hy this child ; but once duiing the 
winter season, when the weather was most severe, as he and his 
■wife were sitting around a brizier she suddenly seized the child 
and cast it into the fire, I t as oon nsum d by tl h 
ing coaJs. The king, not k n th of tl d t as 

excessively affUeted; he a and t i^ by 1 If g t 

to his grief in a fiood of t Tl fir t p t n n m d 

his liver;* but recovering f 1 p ) n m d a n 1 

ing countenance. Some time after this, by divine power, the king 
had another daughter born to him. The child possessed a pure 
aspect, and was so delicately beautiful, that, on account of its 
resembling the Hoorees of Paradise, it merited the name of Bel- 
kees. All watchful care was bestowed on its cradle; daily it in- 
creased in sweetness and beauty, and was a source of joy and 
gladness to the king, 

Wondeiing whether it was his wife's design also to make way 
with this child, he begged her not to treat it as she had done the 
other two; "for," added he, "my heart is already become embit- 
tered with the loss of my offspring; do not, therefore, I beg you, 
add new grief to what it has already suffered," " By the compact 
which we made," she answered, "I was to admit of no infraction 
of its condition, — and you have no right even to ask me this ques- 

• Amoiigall OrientaiB (he iiveris Eupposed to be the seat of the afft^otiojis^A.T. 


S3i TDHitrsH eve:iino ektertaikmeuts. 

tion. However, I excuse you this time ; but know that if it should 
ever occur agmn, our union will be changed to separation, our mar- 
riage tie will be loosed, and our joys and delights will be certainly 
turned into sorrow." The king on hearing this remained silent, 
and thus sought to excuse himself. 

About this time a powerful enemy appeared against the king 
in person; and as no one else was capable of opposing him, the 
king set out to do it himself, taking the angel-faced woman with 
him. He entered a fortress, and his enemy suiTounded it with his 
troops. The war becoming prolonged, the king's provisions began 
to diminish until there лтеге but few i-emiuning. He was occupied 
constantly with planning some means of relief, and had recourse 
to a vizir in whom he at all times placed confidence. The viar 
had, however, joined himself to a party of discontented persons, 
and was disposed to deal treacherously towards his sovereign. The 
king, supposing him as faithful as formerly, took council with him 
as to what they should do on account of the shortness of the pro- 
visions. The viar replied that the troops had not food sufficient for 
tea days, and sent a small quantity of biscuit to the king's tent. 
The queen was greatly pleased, and at night put the biscuit into the 
fire and consumed it. When this came to the knowledge of the 
king, it gave him great grief; and having no command over him- 
self he exclaimed, "Ho! woman, are you my enemy that you 
should do such an act? or do you wish to be our i-uin?" To which 
the woman replied, " I am not your enemy ; but am, perhaps, your 
most fMtliful friend. Your infidel vizir, from enmity towards you, 
has joined witli your opponents and poisoned the provisions, with 
the view of destroying both you and your soldiers. To prove laj 
words, I have retained a small portion of the biscuit, with, which 
you can make an experiment." The bread was given to an animal, 
which immediately fell down and expired. 

The woman now added to the king, " Henceforth I can have 
no more intercourse with you ; my worldly connexion with you 
now must cease. The son which I tlircw to the dog still lives. 



and has been brought up by a tender nurse in the form of a dog. 
The daughter which I exposed to the fire is also in perfect health ; 
for the fire is its nurse. I must now bid уои an et«nial fai-ewell — 
for our intercourse is at an end. When sepai-ated from me, do not 
be grieved, for I wiU send so many Jinn soldiers against your ene- 
mies, that the latter will be routed and ruined in a moment. Be 
happy, and keep with you my much loved daughter Belkees. She 
■will succeed you upon the throne, — will become a great and illus- 
trious queen, and receive great benefits. As for myself, I will not 
be neglectful of you, and have commended you to Allah." On 
finishing these latter words she disappeared from the king's sight 
for ever. <. 

Some days after this, troops of Jinns came to the assistance 
of the king's army; and together they completely luuted his 
enemy's forces, most of whom were killed. The victorious king 
returned as a conqiierer to his throne ; but he was afflicted by the 
loss of hia wife. At length the "fatal moment" (edjel) arrived, 
and he died; his daughter Belkees succeeded him on the throne, 
and her history has been written in 3 detailed manner. 

three; anecdotes. 


It is related that once an individual named Baklan having re- 
volted, Beiak Khan, who was of the dynasty of Ektay bin Jen- 
gheez, assembled his forces and marched agmnst him towards the 
country of Khoten. One of his soldiers on the way shot an arrow 
into a swallow's nest, and knocked it down. A pearl dropped out 
of this neat, and rolling along, fell into a well. On seeing this these 
Moguls foliowed it into the well, and discovered there a thou- 
sand purses of gold. 



About the same time, a bey of these Moguls pitched hie ten», 
af the foot of a large tree, and he and his companions fastened 
their hoises to its branches. During the night the horses quarrel- 
led and split the tree into two parts; and in the niornmg the Mo- 
gulsfound inside and under the tree six thousand purses of gold. 

It 19 stated in the work called Medjeraa Kevadir, "Collec- 
tion of Remarkable Оссштепсез," that duiing the reign of Sultan 
Melik Shah, there was a physician at Herat named Ismaeel Edeeb, 
who in knowledge was the unique philosopher of his time. One 
day on going into the bazar he saw a butcher devouring the 
entrails of each sheep which he killed, whibt yet warm ; and not 
being pleased with his conduct, he remarked to a grocer in the 
neighborhood that the young butcher would soon have a bad illness 
come upon him. *' But when he is taken HI," continued he, "come 
quickly, and let me know it." 

H"ow, soon after this the young man died suddenly, and his 
relatives began to weep and lament his fate. Tlie grocer went and 
informed tbe physician of what had occurred, but said it waa too 
late to aid him, for he was already dead. The physician, however, 
went to see the body; and rmsing the veil from off his iace he 
began to apply remedies for the butcher's disease, which was apo- 
plexy. In three days the young man had recovered and greatly 
Burpmed the inhabitants of that place by his restoration to life. 

It is related in historical works that one of the celebrated men 
of Egypt had a stroke of apoplexy, and all the physicians of the 



place were called m at the deith The rel itivea and fimily of the 
deceased commenced piepaiafion& foi the interment tf tl e bod}. 
A physician named Kxinee hipppned tf 1 e pie ent at the time. 
He looked upon the fice of the coip e and declared that the min 
was not deid So ргераиПд remedies for his re toraton he 
showed that he WAt, a mighty man f r after ippljing some ten 
blows of 1 whip to the deceased, he felt his pulse and perceived 
a slight movement Those around him declared that no one had 
evei known the pulse of a dead man to move. He, however, con- 
tinued the appho^ation of the whip, until the deceased recovered his 
senses, arose, and hegan to ask for food. This person lived many 
years afteiTvards, and his history was a subject of astonishment to 
all who heard it. 


Story iibout the daiightei of a powerful vizir, and what occurred to her Inver. 

In ancient times there was a fortunate sovereign who in majes 
tj d g d mbJ d AI d H i d vi w as 

J p t (M ht ) d h f L wl d d t 1 p^ ty 
w tlthqlTl ^Idmtbtfldh 

t f as th tt d 11 th Id h t 

Th Ik w h d d It f 1 1 ty Tvh f 

n 1 hk b gl t tl ky f b ty d tl 

tw 1 11 d 1 tl tl w t f tl h Ю 

11 y th m t f tl w id tl y m d t b tw 

wa t> yp t tl S ^ f J 7 d tl 1 d f 

th I q w 1 k tw f h i n g Th wh 1 


;nikq ektbrtainmests. 

world was libe the fire fly whii'IinT ^roшld the trircne' of their 
sweetness and b t 

The prefeie w g by tl p Ы t tl 1 It t 
the vizir ; which t d tl f tl -ti d u 1 1 

until it induced th 1 tt t ю{1 f 1 1 h 1 fh Sh 
declared that e tl h tl d ght must ul 1 n 

for together they IdtxtTh hmdp 

rate, sent for his iz d raddhmfhbd gd 

for him, to sell hduglteadlh htmltbd vi 
lence to his feel ngtth m hf hmlbvi n 
his part heing h Ipl d t pp h t, f th 1 

did as he was b d d d 1 t Ь 1 t tl 1 1 t 

many her to some one. " But if I do this," sad he to himself, 
"the king will be envious; and I shall bring upon myself his 
anger." At length he concluded to put his daughter into a box, 
close up its mouth, and deliver it to a broker in the bazar, with 
orders to sell it for forty thousand aktchas, proclaiming to the 
public that it contained a precious jewel, — that the person who 
took it would not repent it, and that he who did not take it would 
also repent it. 

The broker did as lie was bid; but every person in the bazar 
refused buying the box and its contents, without seeing the latter, 
except a poor water- earner, who, having painted bis cups the color 
of a cornelian, sold his water "for the love of the Imam Hassan, 
and the Imam Husain." He poured out sweet water to the thirety, 
and sold to thera "waters of the Nile." "Tliis box," thought the 
water -earner, "has some hidden meaning;" and, as he was a per- 
son doing well, and had credit, he went to a merchant and bor- 
rowed at interest the sum of forty thousand aktchas : this he paid 
over to the broker, and took the box, which he then had placed on 
tlie back of a porter and carried to his house. 

On opening the bos the water-carrier was greatly surprised 
to End that it contained a most beautiful Peree-faced, jasmin- 
[ maiden; and extremely delighted he helped the fair 



eveature out of Ihe box, and humbly assured her that he was her 
most devoted servant. He next asked to be informed, "of what 
garden she жав a rose — of what vineyard the cypress." Tbe girl 
Tvas as intelligent as she was beautiful, and thought it best not to 
divulge the secret of her parentage ; she therefore only replied, 
"I was a feeble creature, and they sold me; it fell to your lot to 
puvcbase me. From being a jewel of great value, I have become 
a stranger in a strange house; and, as a helpless maiden, I now 
throw myself upon the protection of your skirts, where let me be 
as a servant." The water-carrier (Saka) was deeply touched at 
her tale; and as the person from whom he borrowed the amount 
paid for Ъег was his townsman, then about to depart for his own 
country, he placed the miuden as a pledge for the money in his 
hands, and sent her to the care of his mother. When the mer- 
chant, his townsman, had aiTived at his own country, he went 
directly to the mother of his friend the water-carrier, and consign- 
ed the maiden to her charge, saying that she was sent by her son. 
Now the mother of the water-caimer was so extremely poor 
as to need even a morsel of bread ; and yet, for her son's sake, she 
received the maiden with tokens of respect and regard, and told 
hev that she should be her daughter quite as much as he was her 
son. The maiden on observing the poverty of the woman, took a 
jewel out of her bosom, and bade her take it to the person who 
had brought her, and say that they needed a purse of money. 
The woman did as the girl had said, and returned with a purse of 
money, which she espended for provisions and other necessaries. 
The woman, who so lately bad been in the extreme of poverty, 
now clothed herself in dresses of different kinds, and put on cloaks 
of lich silk, " Go," said the maiden to her again, " and tell tbe 
me an end me two more purses of money ;" which she did, 
and h y b ght slaves and domestics. The woman now became 
1 ke n Pa.radise ; and the mwden, famous for her beauty, 
n ell g П e and spiiituality, erected a palace-Iiie building, in wliich 
they took up then' abode. 



Now about this time a gay young man fell in love with her, 
and, becoming greatly affected by his passion, asked for a meeting 
with her. To bring this about he tried numerous manceuvres, hut 
all without ever succeeding in inducing the maiden to act impro- 
perly. Finally, losing all hopes of effecting a meeting with her, 
he went to the city where the water-carrier resided, and ad- 
dressing him said, " My poor fellow, jou remain in this strange 
place without any happiness, whilst your female slave amuses her- 
self magnificently, by erecting palaces as large as caravan serays, 
and getting up all kinds of amusements and pastimes. You were 
formerly known as a pious and religious man, but now you have a 
bad name." The water-carrier wae a man of an honest character, 
and he believed all the fabehoods which the fellow related to him ; 
BO disposing of hia water-skin and cup, he purchased a sharp dag- 
ger and set out for his native town with the intentiou of billing the 
girl. On reaching tlie place he found, to his great surprise, that 
his house had become an immense palace, in front of л¥Ь1сЬ slaves 
and guards were in attendance. When the maiden saw the water- 
carrier from the balcony, she ordered her attendants to, conduct 
her master in ; and he, on seeing this, had all his evil suspicions 
strengthened. On approaching the jarieh, she came forward to meet 
him ; and just as she was about to kiss his hand, the water-car- 
rier struck her with the sharp poignard which he had with Ыш for 
that purpose and wounded her. As he was about repeating the 
blow, she fled away from hiro, and throwing herself from the roof 
of the house, was dashed to pieces by the fall. 

Just at this moment a Jew was passing by ; and beholding a 
most beautiful young woman in this condition, he told her that he 
could find remedies for her bruises, and carried her away with him 
to his own dwellmg. As for the water- carrier, searching through- 
out the house for the maiden, he went down stairs, but found no 
signs of the object of his search. Filled with giief, he sought hia 
mother, and informed her what had occurred. The latter was 
greatly afflicted, and weeping for the fate of the poor girl, asked 



what would be bis condition in the other world. She assured her 
son of the maiden's virtue and fidelity ; on which he repented of 
what be had done, and sought for her in every part of the place. 

As for the Jew, on reaching bis dwelling he applied healing 
salves to the wounds of the sufferer, and did all he could for her 
relief. The health of the young woman daily improved ; and her 
beauty being again restored to her, the Jew became enamored of 
her, and asbed to be permitted to visit her. The maiden thus 
seeing that a Jew, one of an evil rebgion, dai-ed to approach her, 
which, should she permit, would ^ve her a bad reputation both 
in this world and the other, she gently repulsed him, saying, " Pray 
go first to the bath ; and after you have purified yourself, come back 
to me." The Jew, now believing in her sincerity, did as she bade 
him ; and as soon as he was gone, thinking- that death was better 
than such a life, she threw herself from the top of the house into 
the sea, which was close beside it, and was lost in its wares. Now 
near that place were three fishermen, all brothers ; and these, on 
pulling up their seine, were greatly surprised to find a rose-formed, 
Peree-faced maiden in it, quite lifeless. On being hastily drawn 
to the shore, she for some time breathed with difBculty, but finally 
came to her senses. They dressed her m other clotlies, and then 
quarrelled about possessing bei', each claiming her for hiniBelf. 
"Whilst thus engaged a horseman suddenly rode up before them, 
whoinquiredthe cause of their quarrel, and one of the three related 
to bun what had occurred. " You are all brothers," exclaimed the 
horseman , " why should you quarrel for such a matter ? I will judge 
and decide on it for you," Then taking three arrows from his 
quiver, he shot them off, each in a different dii'ection, saying, that 
wboevei brought him one of the arrows first, should have the 
maiden. All having consented to this arrangement, they ran after 
the arrows; but as soon as the horseman thus found himself left 
alone with the girl, he caught ber up behind him on his horse and 
fied away with her, leavmg the brothers to gaze after him ashe sped. 

The horseman on reaching his own village felt as happy as if 


342 TunaiSH evehiuo ЕктввтАШМЕкта. 

he had captured a whole treasury of booty ; he observed atten- 
tively the beauty of the fair creature жЬо had thus fallen into his 
hands, and immediately became deeply smitten with her. His 
■ passion overcoming him, he pressed his suit with warmth ; and the 
girl, to put him off, exclaimed, " Why, O young man, are you so 
impatient ? tbere is no hurry ; let night come, and then all your 
wishes will be accomplished." Then, with amorous gestures, she 
added, '' Ооше let me don your armor, set me on your horse, give 
me your flag, and see wliether it will suit me." The horseman, 
unable to refuse her anything, arrayed her as she had desired, and 
put her OH his horse. After riding twice around him, she galloped 
the horse a short distance in several directions ; then suddenly 
giving liim the reins, slie started at full speed for the open country, 
where she disappeared from the horseman's sight. She rode on 
all that night and the night following ; and on the nest morning 
arrived before a fortress, the gate of which was fastened. At day- 
break the gate was opened ; and the keepere of the fortress, finding 
the girl there, took her in. 

Now the prince of that р1ме had recently died, directing as 
his last will, that, as he had left no heir to inherit his throne, 
his people should adopt and pay obedience to whomsoever they 
might find under the walls of his castle. The persons who had 
found the maiden informed her of this ; so attiring her in a costume 
hke that of a king, tliey led her to the vacant throne, where having 
seated her, they all pi-omised obedience to her commands. 

Whilst the girl was thus a sovereign, she had a fountain erected 
in the gateway of the fortress, on which she had her own portrait 
painted ; and she placed persons to observe those who came to the 
foantaio, with directions that whoever shoidd look at the portr^t 
and agh, should be conducted before her. Some time after this, 
it happened that the poor water-carrier visited the fountain ; and 
beholding the portrait painted on it, he manifested much agitation 
at the sight. So he was immediately taken by those placed there 
for that purpose, and conducted into the presence of the sovereign ; 



s to the cause of his sighrag;, he related 
the history of the maiden-slave from the commencement to the 
end. He was then confined in a prison. Soon after came the 
fishermen, the three brothers, who on seeing the portrait sighed. 
These also wei pp eh 1 d d d t d b f th n 

and when they 1 d t U 1 t th j kn w f ll p wl 

portrait they Id nthyto ptn fimnt Aft 

them came thhrsnn dil Jw who n 1 1 1 1 tl p 
trait, also sigh d Tl 1 k wi 1 d hef e tl n 

who command d th f m t 1 np n 1 a d th i tt to 
be hnng. The t nd th £ h m w then b ngl t 

out, and e.ich 1 fh Tl f m w 1 th d n ti 

dress of a kb d tl m d alt 11 t u d Ь 

the nobles and 1 f m □ f tl jl 1 t d 11 tl t i d 

eurredtoherf mb 5, £, t d SI tl d I nntd 

cended from one of high birth, but from one of the people ; this 
person is my legal possessor, and I now, of my own will, confide 
the kingdom to him. Accept of him, and may he be a blessing to 
you all." So they accepted of the water-carrier, and chose 
h iin for their sovereign ; they showed bim every evidence of res- 
pe ct and regard, and he sat on the throne of the kingdom. As for 
the pure and virtaous daughter of the vizir, she lived a long while 
in happy union with the water-carrier. 

Now this tale shows how goodness and uprightness are never 
lost; and how those who are sorrowful and afflicted will, by means 
of the blessings of patience, become sovereigns. Difficulty termi- 
nates with facility; and it is a matter of cert^oty that all troubles 
end through the pity and compassion of God. 




It is narrated that during the time of Ilaroon er Easbeed, the 
Hakims Jebrail and Hindee once.met together. Both of them were 
unique for their learning and wisdom. It is said that a disease 
fell upon Ibrabeem, the son of Haroon's paternal uncio Salih. He 
became very ill ; and Haroon, sending for Jebrail, made inquiries 
about his state. The latter replied, "He is in a very bad condi- 
tion, there is scai-cely a breath remaining in his body ; and if he 
dies at sunset, it will be well for him." Tlie caliph was very much 
grieved on learning this, and became very soiTOwful. When dinner 
was placed before him, he drew back his hand, and began to weep. 
The vizir Jaafer Beramikee, on seeing this, sent for the Hakim 
Hindee ; who, when he arrived and saw the patient, replied that 
there was no cause to be afflicted. At sunset a great cry was 
heard, on which the caliph sent to see what had happened ; and 
the reply was, that Ibralieem had improved. Haroon exclaimed, 
that this was an evidence of the greater talents of Hindee ; but the 
latter replied, tliat he had merited nothing. The caliph and Hin- 
dee now went together to Ibraheem, when the caliph discovered 
that his breath was stopped, and called the attention of the Hakim 
to the circumstance. The latter arose, and, asking for a needle, 
stuck it into tbe great toe of the patient, which caused him to 
draw up his leg. The Hakim on this excltumed, " O Mussulmans, 
can a dead man feel pain'!" Then asking for a little incense, he 
mixed with it a perfume, and let the smoke ascend into the 
patient's face. Ibraheem now sneezed three times, a»d, lising up 
from the bed, sat upi-ight. The caUpb inquired of him what had 
been his sensations; when the latter replied, "I was in a most 
pleasant and agreeable state, when a black dog bit my foot, the 
pain of which awoke me." 

Ibi-aheem lived thirty years after this, and the caliph conferred 
great honors and distinctions upon the Hakim Hindee, 



The Sheik Abdallah Andaluseo (of Andalusia) was one of the 
moat distinguished men of his time. He was particulaily well 
versed in the science of conformity, of tnlismane, of alchemy, and 
enchantment and performed the mo^t remarkable things by their 
ad 1 th t t f t! m tl f 11 w g: 

H ii f th Ь tmtt It f E£,jpt was a most eager 

t 1 t f th f 1 ntm t d his time many 

P m d t! ppea-a as p i чь rs f the science, among 

whm thhkbo tdTh Itan begged the 

hkt listwhil da large city to 

pp tl mnut f M t J f A nd it were vme- 

yd dg^d wtl llbd ff t. t. h bitants appeared 

g d t fli g th 1 f th ty and the air was 

fiJI d w th b d t th Ity f wl 1 th p ople gazed with 

dmi t Ih mh b t f t E^Tp* b Ь Id tl se things, which 

formed a specimen of Paradise to believera. They were amazed 
at the pdifices which the city contained; and they all exclaimed, 
" Blessed be He who is able to effect whatever He desires." 

It is narrated by one of the sheiks of Egypt, that Sheik АЬ- 
daJlah had a banker, a friend of his, of long standing, -: One day 
tlie sheik sent for the banker, and asked him for the loan 
;еэ of gold, of which he stood in great need ; 


but the unjust banker delayed the delivery of tbe money, and at 
length excused himself from gi-anting the request. The sheik kept 
Bilence, and ma,de no reply. On the following day, as the banker 
■was seated in his shop he received from a friend tlie present of a 
large fish, which the banker placed in the hands of his servant, 
with orders to сшту it to his house, and Lave it dressed fordinner. 
Just at this moment the sheik called on the banker, to whom he 
said, " I have come to-day to take you with me to an entei'tain- 
ment wHch I am going to give in the plain of Kaiafa." The 
banker made^objections; hut hia excuses not being sufEcient, he 
arose and set out with the sheik. 

The relater states what followed in the words of the banker 
himself: When we reached Kaiafa, we went out through the 
Gate of the Plain, and passed over the ruins near that place. We 
walked on over the sands of the plain, when lo ! an immense 
palace appeared before iis, which greatly surprised me. Whilst 
thinking who could have erected it, a great number of people, ser- 
vants and attendants, issued from the palace, and came forward to 
meet the sheik. We entered the garden, which was hke that of the 
exalted Paradise. On one side, the most pure and delicious waters 
Sowed into reservoins, in delightful streams, purling and meander- 
ing through the pathways, along which grew divers kinds of flowei-s 
and fruit-trees. Arouad the sides of the reservoirs were spread 
sofas of the richest stuffs, on which sat youths of both seses (gho- 
lams and lioorees), served by attendants, the like of ivhom I bad 
never seen, except in the service of sovereigns. The sheik made 
a sign to those, and forthwith a collation of numerous meats was 
served for us, with gohieta of delicious sherbets. We here sat 
ourselves down; and we ate, drank, and made merry. After that 
the sheik made inquiries about tlie treasury ; when the attendants 
brought before us some forty or fifty purses of money on their 
shoulders, and placed them in the middle of the apartment. Tiie 
sheik^now turning to me said, "80 you thought me destitute 'of 
money, and refused to loan me a hundred pieces of gold." At 


this I was greatly ashamed, but the sbeik changed the conversa- 
tion to a subject of aiuuseruent, much to my rehef. 

After this we remained one or two weelra in the palace, enjoy- 
ing' ourselves. The sheik reruarked to me, that he did not bring 
me there merely to spend a few days. " I have," said be, " a 
most angelic daughter, to whom I have given all this wealth 
and these servants ; so that she is in need of nothing. I now give 
her in marriage to you. I may then see your cbildren and spend 
some days in enjoyment." Acquiescing Jn his request, I replied 
that I луог^Ы be governed by his commands. So he sent for wit- 
nesses from the Mehkemeh (Islam legal religious magistracy), and 
the marriage ceremony was performed ; after which he ordered his 
daughter to be brought in. On beholding her I imagined that I 
saw a moon-like angel rising from beyond the palace, as fair as 
the moon in her fourteenth night. Ifever in my life had I seen so 
extremely beautiful a creature. Putting her hand in mine, he bade 
me be happy said enjoy myself, aftei' which he retnraed to his own 
residence. I led my biide into our apai'tments, and we hved for 
the space of one or two months in the most perfect enjoyment and 

One night, whilst reposing as usual beside my wife, I awoke, 
and beheld her lying dead, and covered with her own blood. I 
cried out with feelings of atupiiae and distress, which aivoke the 
sheik, and caused him to come to me. He seemed greatly incensed 
against me, and asked if that was the return I made for his gene- 
rosity towards ше, or the manner to treat one who in all his life 
had never in any лтау injured me. " Go," exclaimed he to the 
attendants, "bring here the governor of the city." They forthwith 
departed. I almost lost my senses, and wondered what would be 
the end of ai! these strange occuirences. Overcome by my feel- 
ings, I fell in a swoon upon the floor. At length, the sun beating 
in upon me, my eyes again opened ; and lo ! I found myself lying 
ou the sands of Karafa, and niiither pulace nor people within my 


I arose and returned to my own home, where ray wife made 
no remark on seeing me. At length I related to her the occur- 
rences of the two months ; but she replied that T had gone crazy, 
— that the fish which I sent from the shop in the morning was still 
uncleaned, for it was not yet noon. My amazement, on hearing 
this, was increased, and I felt convinced that the past was the 
effect of the sheik's science. I went to see him ; and on perceiymg 
mehesmiled, and exclaimed, "In the abundance of your mirth and 
happiness, you have quite forgotten us." I kissed hJs hand ; when 
be added, "You have witnessed the great power of divine science 
— have you Hot V and when I begged his forgiveness, he said, 
"There is noend to strange things like this," May Allah have 
mercy upon him ! 


It ia I'elated that Yakooh, who was one of the most learned 
men of his age, and unique for his knowledge of rhetoric and the 
art of description, was once praiabg the former science to the viar 
of the Aineedi Habesh, Jiftan Khan, and remarked that he was a 
perfect adept In the art of sorceiy {neiri nedjat), and [had per- 
formed numerous strange things by means of it. The Khan 
placed much confidence in him ; he considered him capable of 
aiding him through every difficulty, and in all cases had recourse 
to his assistance, so much as that he never deviated from whatever 
he was pleased to advise. The Molla performed the most curious 
things in the service of the khan, of which the following is the 
most remarkable. 

One day he was seated outside of his tent, when a flock of 


EVENINCl жвтндтАгамвитз. S49 

cranes flew отег him. On observing them, the кЪип asked the- 
moUa if he was able to bring down one or two of them, Tlie molla 
replied by asking which of them he desired. The khan pointed 
out one in front, one in the centre, and another in the rear of the 
flock ; all of which were immediately brought to the gioimd. This 
circumstance caused great feith to be placed in the powers of the 
molla ; and the khan ever afterwards knelt in his presence. 

Once the caliph's vizir, at Bagdad, injured himself; and for 
three days the fire would not come out, and all the endea.vors made 
by the caliph proved ioeifectual. Finally a crier prochiimed that 
the whole affair was caused by Sekakee, and that it was neoessai-y 
for the vizir to kiss the hinder part of a dog, after which Sekakee 
would release him. The vizir, quite desperate, kissed the unclean 
animal, and the matter was loosed. The vizii' was deeply offended 
at Sekakee, which the latter well knew. So going to the ЬЫп, 
he said, "By computations of the stars, it is evident that reverses 
of fortune are to happen to vizirs, — may no evil influence come 
upon the 1петЬе1« of the government therefrom." The khan, hav- 
ing no other resource, dismissed the vizir from his of&ce. A year 
after this he placed Sekakee in the service of the vizir ; and the 
latter conciliated his good wUl, though at the same time he 
cherished anger agsdnst him in his own heart, until an opportunity 
should offer to gratify it. 

By divine destiny about this' time the Ilameh had bewitched a 
standard-bearer, and the soldier made his appearance out of the 
fire, with his arms in a blaze before the khan's attendants, who 
were all assembled at his pavilion. The khan was much discon- 
certed at this circuiastaiice, and the viar remarked it. He regarded 
this as a favorable opportunity for making an impression upon the 
mind of the khan ; so he remarked to him, that he (the khan) 
was not ignorant of the fact that the molla was ambitious of pos- 
sessing the kingdom, and that he was able to bewitch not only the 
soldier, but all tbe people on the face of the earth. The khan 
on hearing this was greatly alai'med ; so that he hound the Ilameh 


mid threw bim into prison. Thus, by divine command, tiiis man's 
talents were a sonreo of injury to liimself ; for, after remaining in 
prison a yeai*, lie died tlicre in gi-eat grief and suficnrig. 

ТЪе autbor of the work entitled Jarai ul Hikayat, says : One 
of my friends relntes tJiat, a mimber of Taras once liaving assem- 
bled together for the pnrpose of going to war, we Ket out for the 
country of the enemy, and on the way fell in with я place shaded 
by a grove of o&lis. Amongst the company was a yoiith, who 
remarbed that he had a presentiment tbr.t a hon would seize 
Ыш in that grove and be the cause of his death. "Should this 
indeed be шу fate," added he, " I beg you to send my ass and 
clothes to Kiy fsmily." "We were much troubled at what he 
said ; and it happened that, oa our v.'ay, a lion really did spiing 
out of a tliicliet upon the young man, threw him off hia ass, and, 
whibt the youth was still repeating the confesEion of faith, car- 
ried him into the deepest part of the grove. We were all veiy 
much grieved at \vhat we beheld ; and, on arriving at our city, so 
aa to deliiet his effects to bis wife, ive л^ent to hei dwelling On 
knoolimg at the door, it opened, and the young; jnan, to our very 
great dstonibhmeat, siood before us To oui questions as to how 
he had escaped, be replied, " As soon as the lion cained mo off 
I heard a loud voice calling out , (his frightened the hon so that 
it laid me down, and i/ent аиау m the diiection fiom TihicJi the 
voice seemed to ccme Eaiaing up тү heid, I saw tlie anmal 
engaged in conflict with anothei moie teirible thin it'.elf, and 
thinking thb a good opp'itumty to effect my escape, I fled 
away On my way I met mlh the body of a dead peisoii, half 
devoured, with a money Hit glided aiouud his viai^l I fomd 
several piec of t,old in the pur'.e , and taking them with me I 
fled on until it =1 ^th I f II in -with Re^iial pcupb nd felt =ak 


rs. 351 

The Cadi Abool Casim Moosa relates the following, in the book 
called Ferdjbaad esh Sbeddeh : One day, whlht seated in Cufa, 
beside Aboo Alee Omar, one of the attendants rushing before ua 
screamed out that a certain person had been seized by it lion and 
carried away iato a thicket. All present \vei-e much affected by 
the news, and hastened to inform Aboo Alee of the same. " God 
liave mercy on us," exclaimed Aboo Alee, " how strange this is ! 
for the father of that person was also killed by a lion." Several 
days subsequent to this I went again to Aboo Alee ; and whilst 
converdng with him, lo! the man wbo had been can-ied off by the 
lion suddenly appeared and saluted us. Greatly surprised, we 
asked him how he had escaped ; and he answered, " "When the 
lion first seized upon me I became insensible, but soon after re- 
covering my senses I found myself alone with all my limbs sound, 
and so fled away. Whikt running, my foot struck against a 
purse, which I put under ray arm, and continued ou until I was 
safe. On examining the purse I found in it, sealed with the seal 
of my own father, a note in his hand- writing." Aboo Alee on 
seeing the notu and its seal was gi-eatly surprised. 



Mohammed Damashkee relates as follows : I'azcl bin Yiihiya, 
who was the vizir of the Caliph Mamoon, had a son born to him 
during the period of his power. All the poets of the time wrote 


Sfi2 TuEKiae evbkjng ЕнтиктдгвмЕкте. 

and composed kasidehs and ghazals (poems) in compliment to the 
child, for which they received pi-eseiits ; but none of them pleased 
Fazel. I was tlien in great poverty ; and Fazel kindly directed me 
also to compose some lines on the same subject. I replied that 
respeoL for his presence prevented my doing so ; but he urged me 
to compose something, saying that I must write -whatever came 
into my head. I composed several lines on the inspiration of the 
moment, and presented them to Fazel. Pleased with what I 
bad written, he presented me with ten thousand pieces of gold. 
With these I put my affairs in order, and purchased houses and 
la«d, until I was quite comfortable. 

Some time after this the sun of the Beramikides began to set ; 
and whea then" fortunes had changed, I one day went to a bath, 
where a fair featured youth served as fellai: (to kneel and rub Iiim). 
The benefits which I had received from the Beramikides recurred 
to my recollection and the ^ei^es which I wrote on the son of 
Fazel came upon my Ьоп^^ие On my reciting them, the youth 
who attended upcn me became quite beside himself, and fell down 
upon the floor ol the bath Supposing him affected with epilepsy, 
I left the bath, and acoldmg the keeper, accused him of having 
given me a silly felloiv foi my tellak. But he excused himself by 
sweaiing that the youth bad been for some time past employed in 
the bath, and nothing like it had happened before. So I returned to 
the bath, when the youth coming up to me kissed шу hand, and 
asked me if I knew who bad composed the Imes which I had re- 
cited. I informed him that I myself bad composed them. " On 
what occasion did you write them V he next inquired. I told him 
that Fazel having had a son bora to him, I wrote them on his birth. 
" Where is that child now?" he continued. On my replying that 
I did not know, he exclaimed in a tone of affliction, " Behold that 
unfortunate youth before you!" On being thus reminded of times 
long past, I was quite overcome, 

Mohammed Damaslikee adds : On thus learning that the 
youth before me was indeed of such high rank, and that it was on 


11 of his birth tbat I, as above stated, became possessed 
of my wealth, and comforts, I exclaimed, "Dear boy! I am now 
an old man, and all tbat I possess has been bestowed upon me 
by your generous father. I have no one to leave behind me. 
Come therefore with me before a cadi ; and I will confer upon 
you all that I am legally worth, which will be making some return 
for the benefits your parent bestowed upon me." On heaiing this 
the eyes of the youth tilled with tears ; and he exclaimed, " Never, 
never will I tabe back from you one kubbeh (cent) of what my 
father gave you." Ifor indeed, adds Mohammed Damashbee, was 
I ever able to induce him to accept any thing from me. 

One of the effects of divine ролүег is related by Mohammed 
bin Casim Aniyar. The Emir Sivar was for a time the governor 
of the country of Rohba. Bin Casim says : One day after 
leaving the presence of the caliph I went direct to my own palace, 
when I entered into the hareni of my family. Being hungry, 
some food was laid before me. But I did not like it, and bade the 
attendants to remove it ; which was done. I was troubled in my 
mind, and did not feel disposed to associate with my family ; so I 
lay down to take a little repose, but could not sleep. I therefore 
again arose, and ordering a horse to he saddled for me, I mounted 
him, and rode over the bridge of Bagdad, following unwittingly 
whatever route I chanced to meet. Whilst riding on one side of 
the city, one of my men came up to me and kissed my hand. I 
inquired of him whence he eame; and he replied that he had been 
to dispose of the produce of a certain village, and had received 
for it a hundred thousand pieces of silver. " Come along after me," 
said I ; and continued on. Soon afterwards I came to a part of 
the city where there was a chapel, and alighted from my horse 
for the purpose of perfonning the noon-day namaz in that place. 


I performed one or two rikats, and seated myself, лгЬеп I 
observed a blind man coming towai-ds me, holding by the wall 
as he groped his way. Inquiring of this blind persoawhat lie wished, 
he replied, " I smelled an odor about you which caused me to know 
that you are a generous afld benevolent man, to whom I can 
relate my circumstances, when perhaps you may fulfil my hopes." 
"Speak," said I; "Jet me hear what you have to say." The blind 
man added, "The houses which you see opposite this chapel once 
belonged to my father; he disposed of them, and we left here for 
Khoi-assan. But not long afterwards my father died, and I became 
blind. Being unable to work, I sank into poverty; so once more 
setting out, I returned with a caravan to this country. The request 
I have to make is, that you will Ье so good as to aid me in finding 
the owner of these bouses, whom I will request to conduct me 
into the presence of the governor of Rehba, the Emu- Sivar, who 
was once a sincere friend of my father." I asked the blind man 
what was his father's name ; and he answered tliat he was known 
by the name of Jeleel Salar. It happened that this person bad 
once been a warm friend of mine, for whom I had great regai-d ; so 
lexclMmed, "Welcome, good sir, welcome! tell me what you need. 
Emu- Sivar h^ plenty to eat and drink, blessed be God, who has 
conducted you to his feet ; for I am the Emir Sivar whom you 
seek." Then calling in the servant who had the hundred thou- 
sand aktchas, I took that sum from him and presented it to the 
blind man. I also bade him come to me early in the morning, at a 
certain place; after which I mounted my horse and returned 
directly to my own house. 

I next went to the Commander of the faithful, to whom I 
related the whole incident. The caliph was much pleased, and 
ordered me to give out of his own treasuiy two thousand pieces of 
gold to the blind man. He next asked me whether I had any debts ; 
and I answered, " Yes, Emir el Mumineen, I owe to such a person 
a himdred thousand aktchas." So he immediately commanded me 
to be paid that sum, with an additional one of the same amount ; 


which I took, and returned to my own palace. There I told the 
blind man that the Most High had sent ]ma two tliousand pieces 
of go]d, and two huadred thousand aktcliae; foi' ivbicb lie must 
praj for the cHliph, I next gave the blind man, from my owh 
property, Я thousand pieces of gold. He remained some days 
as our guest, and then returned with the calileh to Khoraesan, 
where his wife aad obildren were. He frequently seat me letters 
aud presents from that country; and I was then kept constantly 
acquainted with his circumstances. 

To the i^ell informed it is known that tht S \11дп of Klioras- 
san. Alee bin Mooai ei Razee, ftom hemg' a min of gieat wealth, 
and pure in couduct «ind character was by the changes of lime, 
reduced to the greatest want In bi^, extremity hL waited upon a 
learned old man foi advice who counselled him to pioatrate himself 
in prayer, and ask aid of the Mo t High and then perform what- 
ever commands might be given him. 

" Wliatever occurred aiider tlie shadow of His Majesl,;', 
" iirought shame to no ouo." 

Tbe sultan haviatf rubbed bis foreliead agaiust tliat pure garden 
(the Prophet's house), spent the night in prayer. Ho performed 
two riliats, and made supplication to the Giver of nil gifts and 
the Judge of all wants; and whilst in teai's he fell asleep. During 
tlie repose of tke sultan, he bebeld the " Beautiful of the beau 


teous" {the. Prophet), who addre^ing Ima said, "Your coiidiiion 
is known to me; but just at this time our hands are empty r we 
are therefore excusable. Take, however, the tablet which is hung 
up in our box, and expend it for yoiir relief until you become the 
recipient of divine favor," The unhappy man took the tablet, 
broke it up, and, by disposmg of it, soon became possessed of much 
■wealth. The tablet, however, renewing its form, the stdtan asked 
pei-mission to restore it to the place where it had hung suspended. 
He saw the Glory of the universe (the Prophet) in his sleep, who 
said fo him, " We are the heirs of the house of the Apostle of 
God ; is it, therefore, proper or becoming in you not to deem right 
the favor which ive have shown to our guest? We gave it to you 
gratis, to supply your innocent wants, and we have no need our- 
self of sUch things. We are also thankful for the sei-rices which 
you have rendered to us." May the Most High bless his secrets, 
and bestow upon us the blessings of bis person ! 


That most celebrated poet, Ferdoosee, was in the service of the 
Sultan Mahmood; and whilst engaged in composing the Shah 
Kameh he received so much attention from the sultan as to become 
the object of the envy of his associates. He took precedence of 
all the other poets before the throne of the sultan; and tlieir envy 
and jealousy being thus excited, they began to inti-igue against him, 
until they succeeded in producing a gi'eat aversion in the raicd of 
the Vizir Hassan Maimandee against Ferdoosee. 

This ill will on the pan of the vizir, which continued for some 
months nnd even yeaas, occasioned much trouble to I 



and after finishing the work of the Sliah Wameh, he found himself 
without recompense. The stoiy ahont this matter being generally 
so well known, we refrain from reproducing it here. The result of 
the affair was, that the other poets prevailed upon tbe Sultan 
Mahmood to command Ferdoosee to compose a poem on the sub- 
ject of the war between Kiavkeshany and Eskibos, and what 
occured to Rustem in the said war; which poem would show the 
degree of his talent and eloquence. This the sulfan asked Ferdoosee 
to do; and the gr at j t s p f m d I's work on the exploits 
of these two warr -s tl at h 1 q n and talents left the other 
poets as much aston 1 d a tl m of Pharaoh were ; and 

he himself appeal d fair nd 1 t as did the Prophet Moses 
when illumined by d e t i t a His work thus being 
sealed with the ac pta f tl th poele, Ferdoosee's stand- 
ing became higher than ever in the consideration of the sultan. 

The pith of the poem is, that KiavJieshany sent Eskibos, that 
celebrated prince, to the wars of Iran. Tbe latter fonaed an 
agreement with the Imam, and the army slopped in front of the 
troops of Toolus, and invited them to fight. Toolus finally put his 
troops in battle array, the conflict commenced, and he and Eskibos 
joined in single combat., Eskibos, placing his back against a moun- 
tain, gave apace for Toolus to march out and fight. The warrior 
Rustem, however, prevented him from so doing, saying "You 
are the commander of the army and must remain in its centre ; but 
under your auspices I will soon teach him his bounds," adding : 

" Ая heart of the army, you keep up the line, 

" But I wilt явоп teach them their heads to incline," 

Eustem, so celebrated for his valor, was on foot, and at once 
marched on against Eskibos, who let fl.j an aiTOw at him. Rus- 
tem took his buckler, and shot an arrow in return, wliich knocked 
over the horse on which his enemy rode and killed it. Eskibos 
BOW sped another arrow at Rustem, which passed quite through 


358 TURKISH EVENiNs витватд1ммикта. 

fais buckler and wounded him. Em'aged at this, Eustem marched 
onwards against him and let fly another arrow, which, stiiking him 
in the breast, at once put an end to his life. This valiant act of 
Rustem was described in detail in the Shah Nameh; and on the 
sultan seeing a drawing of it, he exclaimed that if Ferdoosee were 
to receiye for his work the revenues of Iran and Tooran, it would 
not be a sufficient recompense. 

Now on that night Ferdoosee saw Rustem in a dream. He 
was in the market of the town called Tekta Abad, with a gold 
helmet on his head, and his cuirass adorned with jewels. Placing 
his lance on tlie ground, and standing on the place of conflict, he 
stiTick his hand forcibly against his breast, and saluted Ferdoosee, 
who was preparing to express his request to him with words of 
regard and respect. Ferdoosee returned his salutation, saying, 
" Salam alailc, valiant prince, the champion of the world, and 
the joy of those who register the deeds of the brave." Pleased 
with these words, the hero of the age smiled like a rose ; then 
weeping, he said to the Molla (Ferdoosee), " We are unable to 
express to you the degree of acknowledgment due to your learn- 
ing : you are aware of our inefiiciency, pray then excuse «s. Once 
upon a time I fought with a celebrated warrior, and at such a 
place cut off his head ; and not liking the golden collar which was 
around his neck, and which was a sign of heroism, I left it there." 
Then letting fly an arrow, Rustem pointed out the place where 
the collar was, a huge mound of earth; and he added, "Be it a 
gift fi-om me." When Ferdoosee awoke he was greatly surpris- 
ed, and thought to himself, "If I speak of this the people will 
not believe me, but regard it as an idle fancy." Consequently he 
kept the dream to himself. 

Some time after this Sultan Mahmood went on a hunting ei- 
eui-sion to Yakta Abad, and visited the tumulns which Rustem had 
pointed out as being the place of the golden collar. Feidoosee was 
with him. The sultan's escort encamped without the city. Ferdoo- 
see's dream came into his mind, and he pwd a visit to the tumulus, 


wliioh he perceived to be jtist where the arrow had fallen. He 
was on friendly terms with the chief Ayaa of the sultan, Riid to 
him he related what had occurred to him. The foi-mer told him to 
have no doubts of his dream; "for," said he, "it will, Insbi^llah, 
come true." The Ауаг now лтent to tlie sultan and remarked, 
that, as his majesty was in tlie habit of going frequently to that 
place to exercise himself in shooting, it seemed to him that a 
proper target ought to be prepared for him. "Let it be erected," 
replied, the sultan; and the Ауаг, preparing without loss of time 
for the labor, set seventy yoke of oxen to work, and soon had the 
tumulus removed. Oa digging up its fouadation, Uie Ауаи related 
Ferdoosee's dream to the sultan; who replied that if it was not 
all a wild delusion, the contents of the tumulus would now soon 
testify to ifs oorrectiioss. Just then, and at the moment when the 
story was being related, the plough of one of the workmen caught 
in a h'nk of the соПаг and could not be moved. The earth around 
it was removed, and the collar whs brought forth and exhibited to 
the sultan, who exclaimed that it was justly due to the Molla Fer- 
doosee, and should be given up to him, which was immediately 
done. But Ferdoosee spoke to the Ауаи, saying, that it \гая the 
recompense of eloquence and ought to be divided equiilly amongst 
all the poets tlieie [ lesent The Ауаг did as he was requested by 
the Molh lud the si ire nf tl e collai- that fell to him (Ferdoosee) 
was tht ӨӨ hun Ired mibkils of gold. Wow, as in our days, the biave 
are recompen ed for their deeds by receiving crowns and belts, 
60 at thit time thei hid a golden collar thrown around their necks. 
The Khodjah Abd ul Alee wrote the following lines : 

" O Time, why in otir days are great men williont gouerosity? Did not 
Rustem яау qf Нөпог, that Bahrain held our etirrup and tenia? One 
night he said tn Ferdoosee, ' O dear one, onr heart is ready to pecfoim its 
dnty to yon. The silvoi- is collBCted and hidden in a secret place ; with 
the luhora of onr dab, our poigiHarii, and our bloivs, be prepared, so вя to 
need no aid fi-om our hand. Great as is the shame whicli our moving 
away ciinaa» as, know that theie is no glory in life, since tiie debused 
are in more honor than the distiugniahed.' " 



On mirBtlos hIii'Ii have occurred to регчоля of distinct on 

The iiillioi of the woik entitl.d KeUif cl Gamdi telates I 
wds olteti ill the biUt of nairatmg the &tiange stoij of what 
occurred, in lecent times, to Ismaeel Heikeel, and one d<iv whilst 
about to do so one of the persons, piesent lObe and said, "I чт 
the son of that I->maeel mentioned Lj you, and mj oivn mme !& 
Shems ed Deen " I was much pleased at this meeting aud 
inquired of him whether he had eier seen the complaint иЬюЬ 
exibted in his lather's thigh The joimg man leplitd, ' At that 
time 1 was veiy small, and could not jidge of such matters, but 
I remembei that aftei he leeovered hair giew out of that place " 

The storj IS as lolbws A sote made it'i appeaiance m ihe 
right thigh, of lamaeel Heikeel, which no medicmes coald cure. At 
length he represented the matter to the Kiazraonee Said Razee ed 
Deen Taoos, who assembled together all the surgeons of Aleppo, 
and asked of them a remedy for the complaint. They all agreed 
that tliere was no help for it but amputation; wliich was also 
extremely dangerous, on account of the sore being in the midst of 
the veins of his thigh, bo that its excision might cause his death. 

About that time Said made a journey to Bagdad, and Ismaeel 
accompanied him; on which occasion he showed his complaint to 
the best surgeons the place contained. These also replied that they 
were unable to offer any remedy; whereupon Ismaeel exclaimed, 
that since he had no hopes of any cure from the sui-geons, he 
would turn his face towards the Lord of all doctora, and implore 
Him to vouchsafe a remedy for his afHiction. Accordingly he 
visited all the mabids and me^ds (places of worship and prayer), 
and the tombs of the martyrs (Hassan and Husain), where he 
offeitd up his suppjicalions night and day. 



"I passed my time," says he, "ia imploring вошө relief from 
my sufferings ; until one day, when employed on the banks of the 
Tigris in cleansing my clothes, I beheld, on tumiDg round, four 
horsemen with their swords buckled to their sides ; one of whom was 
covered with a cloak. The person on his right made a huge jump 
and stood near me ; he saluted me, and reiUMiiing hetween mo aud 
his companion asked mc, ' Do you wish to go to-moiTow to your 
wife and children?' 'Yes, my lord,' I replied. 'Come near 
me then,' added he; 'what is your difficulty— let me see it.' 
So approaching him, I exhibited my sore to him. He stretched 
forth his hand and squeezed it violently, causing me very great 
pain. One of the three, who bore a spear, addressing me in 
Arabic, exclaimed, 'Health to you, Ismaeel ! you have attained 
your wishes, and are now free from fear.' I was surprised to 
find that he knew my name. Tui-niug to me, he added, ' Tou 
have merited the good will of the Imam.' On hearing this last 
word, I rushed quietly to his side and embraced his blessed stirrup. 
I rubbed his foot against my face, and even followed them a short 
distance. At length he bade me return; but I replied, that I 
would never leave his service. Again he hade me return ; ' for in 
that is your tranquility,' said he. Still I persisted in remaining ; 
when the horsemen who bore the spear exclaimed, ' Are you not 
ashamed to disobey the words of the Imam ?' I then, from neces- 
sity, stopped ; and when they had proceeded a short distance 
from me, the face of that blessed person turned again towards me, 
and he cried out, ' When you retura to Bagdad, Mustanser will 
ask for you and offer you something, which take good care not 
to accept.' On hearing tliis, ray astonishment was increased ; and 
whilst in this state, the horsemen ail disappeai*ed from my sight. 
" After this occurrence I visit«d the tombs of the great mar- 
tyrs, and made inquiiies after tbe four horsemen whom I had seen.' 
ITo one knew anything about them ; all that people could say was, 
that perhaps, from the description which I gave of them, I had met 
with some holy and pious persons. ' Ko,' said I ; '_tlie person of 



whom 1 ask was the Imam liimself.' ' Was he olotlied in a cloak, 
or did he boar a spear ?' ' He was dressed iu a cloat,' I answer- 
ed, ' Why did yoii not show bim your sore ?' they asked. ' 1 
did so,' said I; and m my trepidation having looked down at 
my right thigh, I perceived that there was not the least sign of a 
Bore. Turning next to my left thigh, I found it also perfectly 
sound ; and those present becoming aware of what had occuned 
to me, they rushed upon me, and tore my clothes la pieces, each 
one seizing a fragment as a blessed memento of the miraciilons 
cure performed upon me. Indeed I suddenly became so much 
the object of the people's regard, that I was almost killed with 
their attentions ; and I was only relieved from them by the friend 
Avith whom I had visited the city, who placed iae for seciirity 
within the ti-easury, where I passed the night. 

" On the following day I went to Bagdad, The citizens having 
already heard of what had occun-ed to me, they besieged me in 
the same manner ; so that I was near being crushed to death by 
thera. Said Razee ed Deeu, on observing this, freed me from 
their hands, and conducted me to the vizir of Said Mustanser, 
where he related my cure. ТЪе Smd assembled the physicians 
and inquired of them how long after cutting out my sore it 
would require to heal the wound. They all answered that the 
shortest space of time would certainly be two months ; it would 
also remain white and no hair grow out of it. ' Uncover it,' said 
he, ' and let us see the place.' The physicians present added, ' It 
was only three days since we saw it and pronounced it incurable.' 
At the vizir's command, my thigh was exposed ; and all the phy- 
sicians present cried out and were amazed at the sight. The viair 
now conducted me to the presence of Mustanser, to whom he 
related the story as it had occurred. Mustanser offered me a 
thousand filoorees (golden ducats), which I declined accepting." 

The son of this person, Ismaeel Herkeel, adds, " By the com- 
mand of the Shah (Mustanser), my father took up his residence 
in Bagdad ; and in the hope of beholding the blessed peisoa 



It is related in the work of Ibin el Joozee called Muntazim, 
that in the fowr hundred and fourth year of the Flight of the bless- 
ed Prophet, a woman was attacked with leprosy. Portions of 
her nose, cheeks, toes, and fingera fell off, and her reins were 
affected. Her husband and children conceived an aversion for her, 
and left her outside of the city ; whither her son daily carried two 
loaves of bread, and threw them to her. One day she said to him, 
" For the love of God, pray bring me a jar of water, that I may 
appease my thirst." Her son threw down the jar near his mother 
and fled away. Overcome by thirst, the poor woman made an 
attempt to leicli a stream near hei hut bemg unable fiom wpsk 
ness, she fell piostiate on her face, and lay there cohered with 
blood and dirt This helplesb being now became tbp object of 
that divine favoi which is unending her senses weie lestoied to 
her, and all her шетЬегв and Ъег body weie nnde whole Kneel- 
ing down on (he earth, she offered up pra^ej-, ot gratitude <ind 
thanks. When the people of the neighboihood leaint the cure 
she had undeujone, andheaidhei stoiy, they asked to be infonned 
of the manner m which it occurred ; and tlie poor woman д -elated 
simply what she knew of it. " When I asked for water," said she, 
" I fell down oil the road, quite insensible. Two blessed persons 
in the shape of men appeared before the eyes of my heart, and 
two females, who resembled angels ; they gave me a loaf of bread, 
a portion of vegetables, and a cup of water. I ate the bread, and 
drank the water ; and never before bad I eaten or dmnk of snch 
bread and water, nor indeed ever he^rd of the like, so delicious 
were they. I prostrated my face in the dust before those per- 



sons, and inquired wlio tliey were. I tben learned tliat these two 
excellent people weie tiie Imams Hassan and Husain ; and the 
angel-like females were Fatimah the lovely and Hadijah the great, 
on whom he peace, and may their intercession be made for us !* 


O'er which they have passed to the highest point. 
To love them is an evidence of tidelity and happiiieea ; 
To hate them is a sign of blasphemy and wickedness. 
To be near thsm is an elevated distinction ; 
To despise tiiem is a t«ken of evil and inckedness.' 

The blessed Imam Hassan rubbed his hand over my face and my 
ears ; and the blessed Husain leant bis foot against my baob, until 
I arose. My nose, Ups, toes, and fingers were again restored to 
me ; and I felt my strength return." 

Ibin cl Joozee adds that the inhabitants around the country 
where this miraculous cure occurred flocked in crowds to see the 
■woman, and ask her good prayers in their behalf. May Allah 
have mercy on them all ! 

"Theie were the two favorite, vvivee of the Prophet, whose intercession \н 
thus «hown to bedeaired by Mnssuhnaiis.— A. T. 



Hiizreti Isa (the Lord Jesus), on whom be peace, was once 
infonned, through divine inspiration from Him who kaows all 
things, as follows : " There is a pure and pious womaa amongst 
our worshippers, who on the day after the judgment must he a 
companion of thine, O Jesus, in Paradise. She desires ardently 
to see you, and lesides ia such a ruin. Go, therefore, and see 

Jesus went to the place indicated, and there found a blind 
female without hands or feet, engaged in offering up prayers and 
thanks to the Almighty. Jesus saluted her by excbimjng " £!s 
salam, aleik ;" and she responded, " Ve aleik es salam, thou of 
high regard." Jesus said to her, " O woman of Gfod, how are you 
able to reside in these ruins ?" and the female answereii, " Thanks 
be to Allah, I here enjoy all the benefils bestowed upon sovereigns 
and kings." " How can you thus enjoy yourself, hidden from 
all the world and from mankind, and witbout hands or feet ; 
what kind of pleasures can you find here ?" The pious woman 
replied, " Abd Allah (servant of God), if I had hands and feet, 
they might have been engaged in perdition and sin; my eyes 
might have been looking on what is forbidden to them ; and what 
would my condition have been in the day of resurrection?" 
Jesus was much surprised at what he heard, and exclaimed, " 
woman of God, if you have япу thing to ask of me, ask it, aiid I 
will serve you." The plows female replied, " My only request is 
for the pardon of my sins." Jesus told her, "Pardon is of God, 
and appertains to Him alone. If you have any other request, pray 
make it." The woman said, " Then give me your assistance to re- 
new my ablutions, and to turn towards the Kibla " (of Mecca). So 
Jesus brought her water and aided her to turn towards the Kibla ; 
and when she had performed her prayers to God, he commenced 
offering up supplications to that place where none ever apply in 


vaiQ. At their termination, a great outcry was heard, of wiiicb 
Jesii3 inquired tlie cause from the persons near tliat place. Tliey 
replied, " That poor woman had a son, whom she gave into our 
care ; we were neglectful of him, and he has been torn in pieces 
by a wolf ; this caused the noise which you just now heard." 
Jesus approached the woman, aad informed her of what had hap- 
pened to her son; whereupon she returned thanks, saying (in 
Arabic), " Thanks be to Allah, who has placed him above want, 
and relieved him from the di£E.cuUies of ablution and inteiment." 
" Joy to thee, woman," said Jesus, " whom the Most High has 
caused to Ъе in, perfect suhmissioa and resignation to Him; and 
who has blessed and pardoned thee," and vouchsafed to thee the 
happiness of beiug my companion in Paradise." The р1огш woman 
answered, " You must be Jesus ?" To which he replied, " Yes, 
I am Jesus." " Blessed be God," the pious woman escl^med, 
" for the promises you have made to me ;" and immediately she 
expired. Jesus washed and interred her, and exclaimed, "Happy 
art thou, woman, who goest before mo into Puradlae !" 

It is related in some works of repute that once, when the Pro- 
phet Moses, on whom be peace, was offering «p his adorations to 
the Almighty, he said, " God, I beg of thy great mercy to be 
allowed to witness an act of justice brought about by tliy power." 
God's command came to Moses, saying, " Go to such a fountain 
in the desert ; remain there, and witness the effect of divine 

Moses conseriuently went, and remained hidden in the place 
indicated to him. Soon afterwards he descried a young man 



approaching the fountain on a steed SAvift as the antumn wind. 
He dismounted, from hb horse, undressed himself, took from his 
poctet a purse of gold, and placed it near the fountain. He next 
made bis ablutions performed one or two rildats of prayer, and 
again mounting his hoi^e departed, forgettmg the purse of gold. 
After him onme a fan youth over the plain, who drank of the 
water ; and ppiceivmg a purse, of which there was no owner pre- 
sent, he took it up, tied it around him, and departed. A little 
while latei, a blind man came to the fountain, leaning on his staff, 
who performed his ablutions and prayers. Scarcely had he ended, 
when the young man who had forgotten his purse returned in 
search of it, bending to his horse's neck as the latter flew over 
the ground. On reaching the edge of the fountain, and not find- 
ing the purse where he had left it, he demanded it of the blind 
man, who replied that he had not seen it. The oaths of the latter 
were however insufB-cient. Tlie young man, becoming enraged, 
drew his sword and stmck the bJind man's head from his shoulders ; 
then searching the body for his purse, he was unable to find it, 
and at length departed in disappointment. 

The Prophet Moses, grieved at what be had witnessed, pros- 
trated himself to the earth, and implored the Most High to acquidnt 
him with the wisdom of this occurrence. Suddenly the angel 
JebrEuI (Gabriel), that faithful bearer of God's commands, descend- 
ed near him, and exclaimed, "0 Moses, the wisdom of the ooctir- 
rence which you have just witnessed is this ; The father-of the 
young man who took the purse filled with gold, after serving the 
other young man who owned the purse for several уеагө, under a 
promise of so much recompense, was finally refused what was his 
due. Injustice was done, and the obligation of the Mussulman 
remained upon his debtor. The man died, and the sum due bim 
became the inheritance of his son. The exact amount of gold in 
the purse was precisely the wr^es due to the father of the orphan, 
who has thus obtained his rights. As to the blind niati whom you 
eaw, previous to becoming blind he had murdered the father of the 



youtb who owned the purse. The youth was then quite young, 
and he is now possessed of much wealth ; the blood of the father 
has thus been expiated hy the performance of the law of taliou. 


" He that doe» evil to another 
Wii! one day have evil done lo him. 
Do good then, that good шау be done to thee ; 
For suloiy Every thing has Us recompenae. 

A Hrd рописв down upon an ant ; 
And whilst the victim was yet in his bill 
Aaother bii'd bore the first away in ita clawa." 

The author of the лүогк called, "The Mirror of the 14mes," 8e- 
bet ibin el Joozee, narrates the following, as told by Cadi Husain, 
one of the Mosahiba, or companions of pleasure, of the Abbaside 
caliph Mutasid Billah. 

Once, after amusing ourselves for some time with the ealiph, he 
at midnight dismissed us, and we all withdrew for the Eight. I ai'ose 
and returned to my own dwelling, where, as it was late, I entered 
the harem, undressed myself,-and went to bed. I scarcely had 
got to sleep when some one knocked at ray door, and I was awobe 
and told that the caliph wished me to come to him. Much sur- 
prised, and feeling assured that sometbing of moment had oocun-ed 
to induce him to send for me, I arose aad went in haste to the 
palace of the caliph. Hb Harem Agasee told me that his master 
was in his private apartments, and that I was to follow bim there. 
Accordingly I went after Ihiin, in great mental agitation, to the 
caliph's bedside. I found him sitting up in bed ; and when I 
saluted him he asked for the chief police officer of the city. Im- 
mediately some one went for him, and conducted bim to the room 
in which we were. The caliph, on seeing this officer, asked him if 


Г8. 369 

there was not an individual in prison named Jemai ed Deen ; and 
ordered him to be brought immediately, which the officer forthwith 
set out to do. We all in the meanwhile remained perfectly silent, 
and I was greatly alarmed, being aware that the caliph was a man 
of violent passions. 

Soon after the ofScer returned, bringing with him Jemal ed 
Deen ; of whom the caliph inquu-ed the cause of his imprisonment. 
The man replied, "I had four camels in the charge of such a one 
of the cahph's servants, who used them to carry giain from his 
village to the city, and this helped to maiatain me. The servant 
having once loaded them and set out for the city, robbers, dur- 
ing a dark night, stole one of them with its load ; and accusing 
me of being the thief, he cast me into ptison, where I have now 
remained for three years, having no one to interest himself in my 
behalf and see jietice done me." The caliph on bearing this, sent 
for hia treasurer, and commanded him to present Jemal ed Dee"* 
with five hundred pieces of gold; he then ordered tlie chief officer of 
the city immediately to take measures to find the four camels, and, 
requiring four years' hhe of the same from the man who had them 
in charge, to .deliver them and the amount collected to their owner. 
The officer took Jemal ed Deen and depaited, leaving us again 
standmg in silence by the caliph's bedside, until he returned and 
announced that the orders of the caliph had been executed. 

The caliph next told him that he also bad a blacksmith of Da- 
mascus-confined in prbon, and ordered that the latter should like- 
wise he brought before him. The officer departed, and soon return- 
ed, bringing the individual. Tbe caliph inquired of the smith why 
he had been imprisoned ; and he answered, " I came here from 
Damascus ; and being a stranger, I apprenticed myself to a smith 
in order to procui-e a livelihood, and served him for a Stipulated 
amount of wages. As usual, we commenced our labors one morning 
very early ; and besides myself there was another apprentice, a 
young lad. I worbed at the bellows whilst the boy and the mas- 
ter smith worked with the hammers. Whilst beating the iron, the 


3l0 тивкгвн BVffNiKo 

hammer slipped from tlie boy's hand, which caused the horse-shoe 
to йу from the anvil aiid stribe the youth in a teuder part of his 
body, killing him on the spot. On seeing this, the smith sprang 
out of the shop and 8ed, leaving me alone there with the dead boy. 
Just at that time, it so happened that the chief of the police passed 
by ; and seeing me and the deceased in the shop, he apprehended 
me, and threw me into prison. Being a stranger in the country,and 
not knowing how to write, I have remained there «p to the pre- 
sent time. " The caJiph gave this person also five hundred pieces 
of gold, and directed that, after being taken to a bath and dressed 
in clean garments, he should be released. After this, covering him- 
self with a quilt, he lay down again to sleep. 

As for me, I followed the Harem Agasee {chief eunuch), and 
returned to my own dwelhng, where I retired to rest. Early the 
next morning I arose, and according to my habit went to the 
divan of the caliph, whom I found in good humor convereing with 
his compaiiiois. I heai'd nothing of what had оссштей during 
Hie previous night, and I circumspectly asked some of the persons 
present whether the caliph had spoken to them of the great асй 
of benevolence he had performed. All however remained silent, 
and the caliph hhnself asked what sort of benevolent acts I 
aJluded to; "for," said he, "I know of none." Supposing he 
was joking, I exclaimed, " Emir el Mnmineen, last niglit you 
commanded the chief of the police to biing out of prison into your 
presence Jemal ed Deea and the smith of Damascus; and after 
having their suits decided upon with all justice, you dismissed 
them with a present. Tliis took place in the presence of that 
officer, and of all your attendants of the harem ; and I also 
remained for two whole houre in your presence listening to your 
sentences. " Praise be to Allah," esclaimed the caliph, " who 
directed us in the right way ! I am thankful for wbnt he does ;" 
adding, " I swear by the glory of the Lord, and the love which I 
bear for the pure soul of tlie Prophet, I know nothing of what you 
have just related. Nevertheless my respect for yourself and my 



confidence in the testimony of the several persons whom you cite, 
cause me to believe it." " Praise to God," I exclmmed, " that the 
blessed Prophet has bestoived upon you the disposition to benefit 
the oppressed serrante of God in this manner. It is no doubt a 
divine gift." All the individuals present were gi'eatly siu-prised, 
and offered up tlianks to the Almighty. May he have mercy 
upon them all ! 

Mutasid Billah, one of the Abbaside caliphs, was a prince of 
a most benevolent character, and was celebrated for his justice 
and the protection which he accorded to bis subjects. One night 
being unable to sleep, he commanded the head of the police to be 
sent to him early the following morning. This being done, the 
caliph ordered liim to proceed immediateij to the sea-shore, where 
a vessel was then arriving. "As soon as slie is come to smchor," 
said he, " and has lowered her sails, go oa boajd, where you will 
find a young person dressed in a blue shut. Take that person and 
immediately conduct him to me." The officer did as he was 
directed ; he proceeded to the sea-shore, and behold a vessel 
arrive there. The person whom he was in search of came on shore 
fram the vessel ; and apprehending the man, he conducted him 
before the caliph, who, on seeing him, exclaimed to the sailor, 
" Where, fellow, are the woman's clothes ; what have you done 
with them ?" He asked this in anger ; and the sailor, surprfeed 
at what he heard, was unable to deny the matter ; but at once 
acknowledged that he had killed the woman. " Where then are 
her clothes ?" asked the caliph again ; and the sailor pulled out 
from his breast, an embi'oidered pocbet handkerchief, a gold 
bracelet, and armlets worked with pearls. "When did you kilt 
herl" next demanded the caliph. The sailor replied that, tempt- 


ed by the devO (Shaitan), he had, at a certain place, thrown har 
into the sea. 

The caliph next ordered the pubhc criers of the city to pro- 
claim that whoever had lost a relative should come and see the 
murderer. Now the deceased was the daughter of a poor woman, 
who, coming to the caliph, represented thit she had legally mirried 
her to the sailor, and that he had t^ken hei a vay w tl h ш Th 
caliph delivered the handkerchief and jewels to the won n ind 
informed her that the man before 1 er v is tl e ш irde er of I ei 
daughter, adding, that he еЬопЫ he lealt w th ач si e m t,I t de 
mand. The woman having dema ded tl e ese ution of tl e la v 
of talion (viz. death for death), the eo! pi comn anded tl e si lor 
to be hung on the yard-arm of Ь ovn essel The bw w s 
therefore executed, and the act serv d s a examjl to otl e 
evil-minded persons. 

Cadi Husain relates : I еясЫш d to tl e cal pi En I 
Mumineen, here is another miracle Ь t he epl e 1 ]> t 
no miracle; for whilst 1 was asleep 1 leheld the в Iti of all 
bein^ (the Prophet), on whom be peice vho c mma ded ne to 
send quickly to a vessel which he po nted out to m and I tl e 
beheld a person precisely agreeii g v th the apj ea a e i th a 
felbw. ' Execute Justice upon bim eomn anded tl e P oj hef 
' for he has murdered an innocent vomin and t v s mv duty 
to perform the injuctions of the Holv L-iw I a vol e a I f o th 
with called for the head of the pol ce who thanks be to Allah 
has performed his duty." 

One day when the Caliph Haroon er Easheed was seated in 
the place of state, he exclaimed hastily, " See which of the pages 
are in attendance at the door." Faael bin Rehia was there, with 
one of the servants of the Benee Ommieh, named Haahim bin 


re. 87й 

Suliraan. At the caliph's desire the latter oaly came in. The 
caliph spoke kindly to him; and, after some conversation together, 
Ьө took off his costly gii-dle and presented it to Haabim, avIio 
kissed it respectfully, put it over his head, and began to weep, his 
tears falling down upon his beard. The caliph, in surprise, asked 
bim. the cause of his grief; and Hashim replied that if the caliph 
would give him pej-misMon, he would tell him the ocoun-ence 
which had made his tears to Sow. As the caliph granted the 
desired permission, Hashim related as follows : 

" One day I went to see Val d b Abd I Melik of the 
Ommiades. I found him with two v f f 1 laves (jarieks) 
seated at his side, both as beautiful n 1 Г1 ey had never 

seen me before, and they asked the M 1 k to 11 hem to make 
sport of the Arab (lit. laugh at his 1 aid) Val d also did not 
know me ; he called me to hira, and I app h d and sat down by 
his side. He handed musical instruments to the two female slaves, 
and they commenced playing on them. In perfonning they made 
two or three mistakes, on which I made a remark. ' See,' exclmm- 
ed the girb, 'the Arab points out our errors!' Valeed looked at 
me iu great disdain ; and I asked his permission to show to the 
performers the parts in which they had made the mistakes. ' Good,' 
Slid he, ' let us see.' So taking an instrument in my band, I tuned 
it, and bade them try it again. Much pleased, they both exclaim- 
ed, ' Barik Allah / Hasliitn has become our master,' Valeed now 
asked me if I was not Hashim bin Suliman ; and when I replied 
in the afSrmative, he was mucli pleased, and presented me with 
thirty thousand aktchas. One of the female slaves also asked 
Valeed's permission to offer something to the master Hashim ; 
and it being accorded her, she took off her necklace and gave 
it to me. Tliey spent that day in great joy and merriment, 
and afterwards asked for a vessel in which to cross over to the 
othar side.* They entered it and were going out, when the 

" Tliis probably 0Eniirip.ll nt litigd.iil— A. T, 



female slave's foot slipping, she fell into tbe water, and ■was 
dro\viied. Valeed was greatly grieved at this oecun-encc, and 
addressing me, exclaimed, ' O Hashim, pray dispose of that neck- 
lace to me, and let it be a memento of the fair creature whom I have 
just lost, to remind me of her.' He gave me in plaee of it thirty 
thousaad dirhems ; aiid I just now, being reminded of the sad 
occurrence, could not refrain from teare." 

The caliph, at the conclusion of tliis tale, exclaimed, " Ш Ьлтл- 
dii lAUah, praise he to God, for permitting me to inheiit both 
the caJiphat and his kingdom !" 

It is narrated by Alee bin El Jehem, that when the Caliph 
Mutavaklce) a!a Allah succeeded to the caliphat, there was sent to 
bim, among other choice presents, a beauUful female slave, named 
Mahboobeh (the beloved) from Abd AUah bin Tahir, tben governor 
of Khorassan, This slave, besides being a good einger, could also 
compose verses of much merit. The caliph whs greatly pleased, 
and became wannly attached to his slave; but some time after- 
wards becoming angry with her, he for sevei^al days did not go 
near her. One evening the caliph had some friends with him, and 
I also was present. After making merry for some time, we al! 
retired to rest. In the course of the night, the caliph awoke, and 
calhng out to me said, "0 Alee, I have just had a dream, in 
which I thought I made friends with Mahboobeh." I replied, 
" Whatever favor you show to your beloved and to your own 
slave, is done justly." Whibt we were titlking about this, one of 
the female slaves in waiting remarked that a voice had just been 
heard proceeding from Mahboobeh's apartment. So we both arose 
and began listening ; whereupon we distingiiisbed her voice, accom- 
panied by an instrument, singing the following verses : 



" I wander about the palaco, aiid know none- to 
I can complain of my grief. lie will not addr 
Ab if I had committed some crimo. 
Is tliere none to tell me my fault, ho that I ra 
Is thOTe no one to intoroede with the prince 1 
It ееегав to me that he has pardoned my fault. 
Oh when will morning come ; 
So that his heart may return to me, ai 

The caliph listened attentively until she had ceased, and then 
immediately cried out, "Why have yon stopped so soon?" Mah- 
booheh oa this, perceiving that the ealiph had heard her sing, 
rushed from her apartment, and throwing herself at his feet, " 
Commander of the faithful," cried she, " I dreamt that I had 
been restored to your affection, that you were again pleased with 
me. The joy which jt gave me, awgke me ; I arose, and after com- 
posing the lines which jou have just heai'd, was reciting them," 
The ealiph was astonished at the coincidence, " Billahi el Asiraf" 
excbimed he, "I have had precisely the same dream, and, in 
ainazementat the circumstance, was relating it to Alee." He con- 
ferred large presents on his slave, and she again became the object 
of hb affection. 

Darius, complaining to Alexander of the reverses of fortune 
in this world, asked, " When the celestial sphere ( feleh) turns too 
late, and fortune is unpropitious, what can be done to remedy it?" 
Alexander ri'plied, " There is but one remedy for such an evil. 
Pray order top four nails, each of sixty thousand kantars of iron." 



" What do yon wisli to do with them ?" asked Darius. Alexander 
added, " I ЛУ111 put one of tbeso nails in each of the four comers 
of the world, so as to prevent the sphere from ever reti'ogradmg ; 
for I know of no other remedy." 

It is related that there was once in Bagdad, that abode of 
Paradise, a very wealthy merchant who was extremely penurious : 
never in his life bad he given an aktcha Jn alms, In the same 
city there was likewise a very poor and pious porter, who, one day, 
when pressed by want, left bis humble home and wandered about 
the city in search of food foj' his family. God's providence led 
him before the door of the rich merchajit, where bread was just 
then being bated ; and the odor of it reaching the porter's nostrils, 
he involuntarily knoclced at the door, and begged " a piece of 
bread fortlie sake of ABah." The wife of the merchant, on hear- 
П the f It p ty f the poor man who was thus compelled 

to b a; SI e 1 ad g ow up daughter, to whom she gave a loaf 
f b ead d t n h to go and give it, in God's name, to the 
b g a TI latt e d it with gratitude, and, after expressing 
1 И h. L d Y ted On his way, by God's providence, he met 
tl n hant h wn d the house where he had received the 
b ad Ih n It nqiired where hehadgot it; "for," added 
I th iio n this city, besides my own, in which 

bead lib tl at d iheporter, preceding Mm, conducted him 

to h n d y 1 reaching it, " There is the house in 

wl h I Ith b ead." 

The merchant was very much displeased, and said to the por- 
ter, " Never let me see jou here again ;" adding severe censures on 
his conduct. Then turning round, he entered his house, where he 
demanded of his wife whether she had given the bi'ead to the 
beggar. Tlie woman answered in the affirmative ; but added tliat 


she had sent it by the haad of her daughter. The merchant now 
blamed his wife severely, and cat off his daughter's right hand as 
a punishment for what she had done, thus maiming her for life'. 
Submissive to the will of God, she remained in this pitiful state. 

Not long after this, this same wealthy merchant became so 
poor as to want even a supper. All he could gain in a day was 
scarcely sufficient for the support of oae person, and he was unable 
to provide food for his daughter. So he at length had to say to 
hei-, " I am unable to-day to ^ve yon any thing ; go therefore and 
procure food for youraelf as best you can." The poor girl had 
never before been out any where ; and deeply afflicted with her 
destitute condition, she set forth on her way. 

The place she went to was a market ; and she saw that several 
persons were assembled for traffic in front of the door of a mer- 
chant's shop. Unable to tell her wants, she stood aloof; but the 
merchant, happening to obseiTe her, was convinced that she was a 
female of good, character. So addressing her, he inquired if she 
was of age. The girl replied in the affirmative. " Then you need 
neither iiuSsM (executor) I I {p y) m a d I will by 

God's command, take you my 1 I 1 w f Th tl 

chants who stood by appr dfhtl dd dl f rthw th 
conducted the gir! to his vn dw 11 c, wl tl m n 
mony was perfonned. A 1 f d wis fl d ) f tl m 

and after the merchant h ! t 1 ttl 1 I 1 fh lit 
partake of the food. But 1 h t t d d th ught to 1 -s if 
" I have but one hand. If I t t 1 t f th t p t k f tl m ! 
he will perceive the defect ; and as he supposed that I was perfect m 
all my limbs, he will immediately divoice me on account of my be- 
ing thus maimed. I know not how to find my father's house ; and 
at this hour whither sliall I go?" Whilst thus engaged, she heard 
a voice, telling her not to be grieved, for He who ci-eated her from 
nothing was able to restore her hand to her. Tlie girl, on this, 
s^d a Bismillah ; and then stretching forth her maimed hand, by 
the power of the Most High it was restored precisely as the other. 


ТЬе mercliant, ignorant of this, asked her why it was, that not till 
after being pressed three times, she had stretched out her hand 
to partake of the food. The girl was now emhan-assed ; and to 
relieve herself, she related the whole of what had happened to her. 

The merchant was greatly sui'prised at what he heard ; and 
turning to the girl, he asked her if she did not recognise him. On 
her replying that she did not, he added, "Behold in me the poor 
porter who went to your door to beg for bread. The shop at 
which you found me was once your father's ; he sold it to me, and 
it is now Ш It w for me that youi- hand was cut off ; the 

Most H h bl dth 1 af of bi'ead which you bestowed upon me, 
and, in m b ft, has restored your hand. He lias also 

reduced } f tl t poverty, and made me rich ; and thus 
destiny h d d m prosperous." 

Now the moral of thia tale is, that you forget not the poor, 
but give bread to the hungiy ; for the advantage which results 
from the bestowal of alms is aa evident aa the sun. 

This book, cilled Ne^adn es 4o} n!te (SkLt(,hes of Rf 
markable Occurrences b} Soh le) hlled with stion^e tales 
agreeable anecdotea 4nd sprightly sallies, hi~, by His Ta^ibtance, 
been printed at the Eoyal Press under tlie superintend ance of 
Mustapha es Samep — тл) AUih abundantly endow h m with hia 
gracious favors, — ш tht, middle of the month ot Kim^an the 
blessed, and in the yeit (of the Hedjieh) one thousind t«o hun 
dred and fifty-sis. 




EelhuDS— Едщув and OratloDS, . 

Bortow— *ulDbfiignphy d£ 1Й1П0, . 
■BaBwonh— Anglo-Sajoji DicUonarv, . 
Bremer, rrednktt— Works, . 
Brawn— Tutbieh Evanb^ Enler 

" TheWajioflJieHonr, . . . 

Downing— I^ndBMpe Gardening, , - . 
DwIght-Gi-ecLm & Roman MjfllDlogr, HH 

Forcl— Spariiania and liieir Coim 
Founlain of Living Walere, . 
GamBnfNamralHiecoiT, . , 
GibbB— Ghumjci^ Text Book, 

Goldemtlh's Works, . . . 

Heaiilong Hall ипД Nijhtins™ ibbej 

HowituMaij— Songs and Baliai, . 
Howa, J. W. S.— PracUcel Blocutloa 

Ad Capl. Bonoevl 

C u Heading Book, . . 



...-. lamo, ... 1 

Svo. Illusiraled, ] 

Theodore— Connueat of Morida, . . 

Spanlah Legends, . 
Skeun Book, lima 

TaleaofaTiavelier. "iamc 

^ " Theodore— Connueat of F 

Xingebuiy on Atlillery and Infanlry, . . . ^ 

Klipelein— Anglo-Saxon Grammar, . . . 3S 

" Anglo-Saxon G<^№la, . . . ■ . йв 

« eiossary -ШАяя^сщ^ .'.'.'. SB 

Lamb-Dramatic Poela, E3 Л 3U 

" EKayaofElia, 23*30 

T ,.r ,. ^- Alleghaniea, , , 17 

j-ly, Рлы, and Freseiii, 

; : , . , ;. a'^gon tS, : 

IT, Aepecta of Nature, . 

Scenes ami ^eiighls in Europe. By 6, H, 
Ssdswiok, Miss— ClBrente, . 

nd Tale, . . 33 

Spencer— The Eael. Illustraled, , 
Si. John's Adventui-es in *e Lybiao 
Taylor- Rhymea of Tra- -' 

.bull- ll^GeniuBofllaly, . 

Tulhlil, Mrs.— The Nursery Sook,