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Twentieth Century History 


Cass County, Michigan 


Secretary Cass County Pi(iiieer>' AsMiriatitm. 







The Historj' of Cass County has been completed after more than 
a year of unremitting' effort on tlie part of tlie publishers and the editor 
and his staff. That the work will bear the critical inspection of the 
many persons into whose hands it will come, and that it measures up to 
the highest standards of modern book-making, the Publishers con- 
fidently believe. Also, through the diligent co-operation of Mr. Glover, 
the editor, the history has become a record of enduring value and 

It is not the purpose of the Publishers to delay the readers with 
a long preface. It is sufificient to acknowledge their indebtedness to 
many who have contributed of personal knowledge, of time and patience 
in their cordial endeavors to preserve and extend the fund of historical 
knowledge concerning Cass County. It would be impossible tO' mention 
the names of all who have thus assisted in making this work. Yet 
we cannot omit mention of tlie assistance rendered by the county of- 
ficials, especially County Clerk Rinehnrt, Judge Des Voignes, Register 
of Deeds Jones, County Treasurer Card, County Commissioner of 
Schools Hale. Naturally the newspapers of the county have been drawn 
upon, and Mr. Allison of the Naiional Democrat, Mr. Berkey of the 
Vigilant. Mr. Moon of the Herald, have never failed to supply us with 
exact information or further our quest in some helpful way. These and 
many others have helped to C(M:ipiIe a trustworthy history of Cass 





^ . . I 



Original Inhabitants "* 

The Count/5 Southern Boundary 22 

Early Settlement 37 

"Pioneer; of Cass County" 53 

Organization 9 

Growth and Development ^°^ 

Centers of Population ^ ^9 


^ ,• 142 

Cassopolis ^^ 

City of Dowagiac ^ -^ 


Communication and Transportation ^^ 

Industries and Finance ^°^ 

Agriculture ^^ 


Court House and Other County Institutions 207 

Education in State and County 215 

City and Village Schools ,. 228 

Libraries 244 

The Cass County Press 249 

Medicine and Surgery 257 

Cass County Bar ,. 270 

Cass County the Home of the Races , ,. . 284 

Military Records , . . . . ., 297 

Military Organizations . .,. . . .,. ... . 329 

Social Organization , 334 

Cass County Pioneer Society , ,. .,. .,. .,. ... ., 349 

Religion and the Churches 371 

Official Lists 389 


Abolitionists.— 54. n-^. 29°- 

Adams, Sterling.— 124. 

Adamsport.— (See Adamsville.) 

Adamsville.— log, 124, 125, 165, 186, 258. 

Agnew, Hugh E.— 253, 750. 

Agriculture.— 8, 198-206. 

Agricultural Implements.— no, in, 190 et 

seq. ; 198 et seq. 
Agricultural Society, Cass County.— 205, 

Aikin, Charles C— 442. 
Air Line Rail Road.— 129, 131, 136, I7S et 

Akin. Perry. — 448. 
Aldrich, Levi. — 262. 
Allen, Green. — 291. 
Allen, Reuben.— 109. 
Allison, C. C— 250, 251, 255, 765- 
Amber Club.— 339. 
Amsden, Charles T. — 674. 
Anderson, T. W.— 265. 
Andrus, Henry. — 255, 503. 
Ann Arbor Convention.— 35. 36- 
Anti-Horse Thief Society.— 206. 
Argus, The.— 254, 255. 
Armstrong, A. N. — 454. 
Arnold. William.— 614. 
Atkinson, John. — 655. 

Attorneys— (see Lawyers) prosecutmg,39l. 
Atwell,'F. J.— 276. 
Atwood, Frank.— 197. 729- 
Atwood, James. — 756. 
Atwood, W. H.— 159- 
Austin, Edwin N. — 594. 
Austin, Jesse H. — 522. 

Bacon, Cyrus. — 93. 
Bacon, Nathaniel. — 17. 
Bailey. Arthur E.— 565. 
Bair. John.— 97, 116. 
Baker, F. H.— 193- 
Baker, Nathan.— 129. 
Balch, A. C— 158. 
Bald Hill.— 10. 
Baldwin. John.— 50, 126. 
Baldwin, William.— 135- 

Baldwin's Prairie.— 7, 125. 

Ball, C. P.— 131- 

Banks— 194-197- 

Banks, Charles G.— 772. 

Baptist Churches.— 146, 378, 379. 380. 

Bar Association.— 283. 

Bar, Cass County.— 270-283. 

Barney, John G. A. — 372. 

Barnhart, Andrew.— 661. 

Barnhart, Peter.— 337- 

Barnuni, Edwin. — 139. 

Barren Lake Station.— 131- 

Beardsley, Elam.— 116, 126; Danus, lib. 

Beardsley. Ezra.— 45. 49. 93. I09, I2l- 

Beardsley, Othni.— 95. 126, i86. 

Beardsley's Prairie.— 7, 114. "5. 121, 374. 

Beckwith, E. W.— 607. 
Beckwith Memorial 1 heatre.— 247, 24S. 
Beckwith, Philo D.— 161, 190 et seq.; 245, 

Becraft, Julius O.— 159. 19'. 253. 745- 
Beebe, Bruce.— 583. 
Beeman, Alonzo P.— 136, 470- 
Beeson, Jacob.- 155. 156, 162. 
Beeson, Jesse G.— 108, 197- 
Bennett, William P.— 273- 
Benson, Henry C— 599. 
Berkey, W. H.— 252. , _, „ 
Berrien County, Attached to Cass.— 94- 
Bigelow, Hervey.— 134- 
Big Four R. R.— 177- 
Bilderback, John.— 666. 
Birch Lake.— 386. 
Bishop. George E.— 74°. 
Black Hawk War.-I02, 107, 166, i/O, 297- 
Blackman, Daniel.— 146, 148, 274. 
Blacksmiths.— 184 et passim. 
Blakeley, T. L.— 265. 
Blood. J. v.— 415- 
Bly, Kenvon.— 760. 
Bogue. Stephen.— 48, 49. '31. 289. 
Bogue, William E.— 709- 
Bonine, E. J.— 259- 
Bonine, James E.— 195. 360. 
Bonine, Lot.— 510. 
Boundaries.-22 et seq.; of Cass county, 

92 ; of townships, 93 et seq. 
Bowen, Henry H.— 566. 
Boyd, James.— 184. 
Brady.— 141- 
Brick.— 13. '10- 
Bridge, Leander.— 564. 
Brown. David and William.— 12S. 
Brown, Jonathan.— 135- 
Brownsville.— 8. 128, 187. 
Buell, B. G.— 206. 
Bugbee, Israel G.— 262. 
Bulhand. Dr.— 261. 
Bunn, C. W— 291. 


BnriK'y, Tliomas. — 137. 

Buslinian, Alexander. — 2S6. 

Business. — (See under village names.) 

Byrd, Turner. — 291. 

Byrnes, Daniel K., 464. 

Calvin lOunship. — 50, 96. 112, 113. 223. 

287-296; 377,396. 
Campbell, Malcom A. — 722. 
Canals. — 121, 172. 
Carey Mission. — 11, 16-T9, 40, 165, 185, 

Carnegie Library. — 246. 
Carr.J. R.— 278. 
Carr, L. J.— 332. 

Cass County Advocate. — 249, 250. 
Cass County. — Formed, 92 ; boundaries, 
92 ; named, 92 ; civil organization, 92. 
Cass, Gen. Lewis. — 29, 92. 
Cassopolis.^ — 99, 103, 108; 142-153; 177, 

183, 184, 189, 228-231 ; 244, 374. 

375. 379. 382, 401, 402, 403. 
Cassopolis Milling Co. — 189. 
Cassopolis Woman's Club. — 338, 339. 
Catholic Church. — 285, 371, 372, 373. 
Caul, Andrew F. — 455. 
Cavanaugh, Lawrence. — 47. 
Centers, of Population. — 119 et seq. ; in 

Volinia township, 13S. 
Chain Lakes. —8. 
Chapman. Franklin. — 479. 
Chapman, H. Sylvester. — 592. 
Chapman, J. B. — 153. 
Charles, Jacob. — 126, 138. 
Charleston. — 138, 337. 
"Charter Citizens," of Cassopolis. — 150. 
Cheesebrough, Nicholas. — 155. 
Chicago Road. — 8, 119, 120, 121, 124, 137, 

164, 166, 167. 
Chicago Trail. — 164. 
Chicago Treaty. — 19, 166. 
Chipman, John S. — 272. 
Chipman, Joseph N. — 272. 
Choate, N. F. — 193, 196. 
Christiann Creek. — 7, 124, 128, 131, i-?2, 

186, 187. 
Christiann Drainage Basin. — 8. 
Churches. — 123, 125. (See under names 

of villages), 371-388. 
Circuit Court. — 391. 
Circuit Court Commissioners. — 391. 
Circuit Judges. — 390. 
Civil War. — 297 et seq. 
Clark, Geo. Rogers. — 22. 
Clark, Walter. — 540. 
Clarke. J. B.— 275. 
Clarke, W. E.— 263. 
Clendenen, John. — 602. 
Clerks, County. — 391. 
Disbee, C. W.— 275. 
Clothing, of Early Days. — 181 et seq. 
Clubs. — 3.38 et seq. 
Clyborn, .\rchibald. — 45. 

Coates, James R. — loS. 

Colby, H. F.— rS4, 161, 193; Colby Mills, 
154. 193; G. .\., 193. 

Collins. John R. — 613. 

Commissioners, County Seat. — 98, 99, 143, 
144. 146, 147- 

Communication. — 100, 120, 121 ; 163-179. 

Condon, John. — 9. , 

Cone, C. E. — 278, 554. 

Congregational Churches. — 383. 

Conklin, Abram. — 725. 

Conklin, E. S. — 458. 

Conklin, Gilbert. — 681. 

Conklin, Simeon. — 719. 

Conkling, W. E. — 233. 

Coolidge, H. H. — 121, 123, 273. 

Cooper, Alexander. — 445. 

Cooper, Benj. — i(x). 

Corey, 136. 

Coulter, John F. — 443. 

Coulter, William H. — 636. 

Counties, Erection of. — 91. 

County Normal. — 223. 224, 232. 

County Officers. — 390-393. 

County Seat, Location of. — 98 et seq. ; 108, 
129, 132, 142, 143, 144, 145. 

Court House. — (See County Seat.) 146, 
147, 151, 187, 207-212. 

Court House Company. — 147, 207, 208. 

Courts, Established. — 93 ; county, 93 ; Cir- 
cuit, 93; 207, 271, 279. 

Craine, Orlando. — 154. 

Crawford, George. — 45. 

Crego, H. .A.— 678. 

Criswell, M. H. — 265, 509. 

Crosby, Nelson J. — 646. 

Curry, Joseph Q. — 460. 

Curtis, C. J. — 263. 

Curtis, Jotham. — 96, 116. 

Curtis, Solomon. — 707, 

Gushing Corners. — 139. 

Gushing, Dexter. — 139, 687. 

Gushing, William. — 139. 

Customs, Early. — 334 et seq. 

Dailey. — 128, 129. 

Dana, Charles. — 272. 

Davis, Alex. — 134. 

Davis. C. A.— 6. 

Davis. C. E.— 267. 

Davis, H. C. — 526. 

Davis, Job. — 133, 186. 

Denike, G. H.— 624. 

Denman, H. B. — 195. 

Dennis. Cassius M. — 439. 

Dentists.— 268. 

Des Voignes. L. B. — 278, 294, 769. 

Dewey. Burgette L. — 161, 332. 712. 

Diamond Lake. — 2. 8, 39, 49. 98. 103. 129. 

Diamond Lake Park. — 140. 
Disbrow. Henry. — 99. 
Disciples Churches. — 383. ,384. 



Distillery. — 183, 184; et passim; 187. 

Doane, William H. — 113. 

Donnell's Lake. — 13. 

Dool, Robert. — 516. 

Dowagiac— 97, 132, 151; 154-162; 177, 

188, 189 et seq. ; 231 et seq. : 245, 

375, 400, 401, 404, 405, 406. 
Dowagiac Creek. — 10. 11, 132, 134, 154. 
Dowagiac Manufacturing Co. — 161, 188, 

192, 193- 
Dowagiac Swamp. — 10. 
Drainage. — 2, 7, 8; 9-10; commissioners, 9. 
Drift, Covering Cass Co. — 3 ; distribution 

of, 5- 
Driskel, Daniel. — 117. 
Dunn, Frank. — 136, 465. 

Eagle Lake. — 141. 

East, Settlement. — 112; family. 112. 

Easton, Edd VV. — 669. 

Easton, \V. W. — 266. 

Eby, Daniel. — 765. 

Eby, Gabriel. — 127, 620. 

Eby, Peter.— 537. 

Eby, Ulysses S. — 279, 536. 

Eby, William. — 127, 

Education. — (See Schools.) 120. 215-243, 

Edwards, Alexander H.^121. 
Edwards, J. R.— 279. 
Edwards, Lewis. — ^44. 
Edwards, Thomas H. — 46, 49, 121. 
Edwardsburg.— 45, 120, 121, 122, 143, 151, 

167, 169, 170, 172. 184, 196, 237, 258. 

374, 378, 380, 381, 382. 
Electric Railroads. — 177. 
Elevation of Surface. — 4. 
Emerson, J. Fred. — 588. 
Emmons, George. — 438. 
Emmons, James M. — 561. 
Engle, Frank.— 573. 
Erie Canal. — 54, 121. 
Evangelical Churches. — 387. 

Factories. — 187 et seq. (See Mills, Man- 
Fairs. — 205, 206. 

Farmers' j\Iutual Fire Insurance Co. — 197. 
Farming. (See Agriculture.) 
Farr. Willis M.— 161, 194. 332, 724. 
Fields, George M.— 279, 629. 
Fiero, Byron. — 577. 
Fiero, John P.— 187, 710. 
Finance. — 194-197. 
Fish, A. M.— 758. 
Fish Lake. — 141. 
Flax.— 181. 

Fletcher, Don .\. — 542. 
Follett. Henry— 258. 
Forest Hall Park. — 140. 
Fosdick, John. — 95: George, 131. 
Fowle, Charles. — 193. 
Fowler, H. H.— 98, 129, 130. 143, 257. 

l-'rakes, Joseph. — 48. 
Fraternal Orders. — 123, 348. 
French, D. L. — 153. 
French, E.xplorers. — 37. 
French, Henry J. — 585. 
Friends, Settlement. — 48; societies, 385, 

[Most of 1835. 103. 

■ Frost, William ^L— 716. 
Fruit Culture. — 203. 
F'ulton, Alex, and David. — 138. 
Funk, C. H. — 654. 

Gage, John S. — 190. 

Gage, Justus. — 205. 

Gard, Edgar J. — 484. 

Gard, George W. — 206, 210, 513. 

Gard, L N. — 206. 

Gard, Jonathan. — 51, 206. 

Gard, Josephus. — 95. 

Gard, M. J.— 206. 

Card's Prairie. — 52. 

Gardner, A. B. — 191. 

Gardner, S. C. — 116. 

Garrett, Hugh P.— 648. 

Carver. — 46. 

Garvey, i\L T. — 129, 159. 

Garwood, Alonzo. — 260. 

Garwood, Benjamin F. — 535. 

Garwood, Levi. — 128. 137. 

Garwood, William H. — 425. 

Gas.— 13, 158. 

Geneva Village.— 98, 129, 143, 184, 257. 

Gibson, J. E. — 210 et seq. 

Gilbert, Eugene B.— 738. 

Gilbert, Samuel H. — 601. 

Glaciers, Action of. — 2 et seq. 

Glenwood. — 139. 

Glover. L. H. — 279. 781. 

Goble, Elijah.— 51. 138, 337. 

Goff, Frederick. — 117. 

Goodwin, Fairfield. — 265. 

Goodwin House. — 145. 

Graduates, from Schools. — 224, 229, 230. 

234. 240. 242. 
Graham, Sidney J. — 618. 
Grain, Planting and Harvesting. — 201. 202, 

Grand Armv Posts.— 329, 330, 331. 332. 
Grand Trunk R. R.— 2 ; 7, 122, 130, 136. 

137. 152. 176, 177- 
Grange. The. — 204. 205. 
Griffin, Robert S.— 262. 
Grindstone. First in County. — 47. 
Grubb, Pleasant.— 128. 

Hadden, George M.— 587. 

Hadden, M. O.— 751. 

Hadden, Samuel B.— 541. 

Haight. Joseph. — 117. 

Hale. William H. C— 215 et seq.; 642. 

Halligan, Raymond S. — 572. 

Hamilton. Patrick.— 155, 156. 



I lampion, Tli;uldcus.— 139; stock lann, 

llannaii, Pelcr. — 727. 
Jiardy, Aloiizo J. — 085. 
Hardy, George W. — 4S1. 
Harmon, Cliarlc-s O.^-'iSo, jy4, 515. Jolm 

B., 2S0. 
Harper, Josepli. — 14S, 207, 562. 
Harrington, S. S. — 15J. 
Harris Line. — 28. 
Harter, Joseph. — 113. 
Hartman, Kleckner W. — ^456. 
Jiartsell, Frank L, — 744. 
Harvey, Dan M. — 581. 
Hatch, Junins H. — 134. 
Hatch, Ohver W .— 261. 
Haydcn, Asa K. — 281. 
Hayden, 1!. W. — 435. 
Haydcn, James G. — 664. 
Hayden, W. li.^153. 
Hawks, Sanuiel. — 291. 
Henderson, Ira B. — 149. 
Hendricks, Line. — 32. 
Hendryx, Coy W. — 774, 280. 
Herald, The. — 254. 
Herkimer, George R. — 266. 
Hess, Joseph. — 628. 
Hicks, Henry B.— 517. 
Hicks. Orren V., 478. 
Hiygnis, Cornelius. — 96. 
Higgnis, Thomas T. — 409. 
High Schools. — 222, 229, 234. 
Highland Beach. — 141. 
Hinkley, Rodney. — ^48. 
llirons, Edward. — 123. 

I I irsh, Jacob. — lOo. 
Hitchcox, James. — 126. 
Holland, Marion. — 265. 
Hollister, Js'oel B. — 159, 160, 273. 
Hopkins. David.— 13S, 207. 
Hopkins, W. D. — 189. 

Hotels. (See Taverns.) 

Household Utensils. — 181 et seq. ; see 

Houses, Pioneer. — 42, 43, 104, 105, 114, 

181 et seq. 
Howard Township. — 12, 95, 113, 114, 223, 

337. 399- 
Howard, William G. — 276. 
Howard ville. — 131. 
Howell, David M.— 195, 251 ; M. L., 195. 

Howser, S. M. — ^447. 
Hoyt, W. F.— 193. 
HuiT. John.— 4S6. 
Huff, Otis.— 699. 
Hughes, G. A. — 266. 
Hunter, George W. — 703. 
Huntley, G. G. — 9. 
Hntchings, Nelson A. — 46S. 
Hux, Chris A. — 196. 660. 

Ice and Water, Influence on Surface. — 2. 

Immigration, Sources of.^S3, 54; direc- 
tion of, 94, 103. 

Indians. — 14-21; scliool, 18; in Silver 
Creek, 20 ; 102, 103 ; 284-287 ; 372 

Indian Trails. — 8, 102, 163, 1O4, 105. 

Industries.— 180-197. (.See Manufactur- 
ing, .Mills.) 

Jail.— 146, 147, 212, 213. 

James, Isaac P. — 130; Parker, 130. 

Jamestown. — 7, 130, 177, 1S4. 

Jarvis, Frank P. — 775. 

Jarvis, William. — 705. 

Jarvis, Zadok. — 640. 

Jefferson Township. — 12. 49, 95, 110; early 

settlers. III ; 22^, 398. 
Jenkins, Baldwin. — 41, 42, 43. 
Jewell, Elbridge. — 610. 
Jewell, Hiram. — loS; family, 142, 144. 
Johnson, Joseph H. — 534. 
Johnson, Oliver. — 142, 145. 
Jones, E. H. — 136. 
Jones, George D. — 48, 160, 694. 
Jones, George W.^137, 412. 
Jones, Gilnian C. — 159, 161. 
Jones, Henry. — 207. 
Jones, Horace. — 161. 
Jones, J. H. — 266. 
Jones, Nathan. — 529. 
Jones, Village. — 136, 265. 
Jones, Warner D. — 453. 
judd, Mark. — 161, 663. 
Judges, Lists of. — 390. 

Kelsey, Abner. — 129. 

Kelsey, Wm. J.— 261 ; J. H., 261, 266. 

Kentucky Raid. — in, 112, 389. 

Kessington.' — 125. 

Kester, Clinton L. — 459. 

Ketcham, Clyde W. — 280, 332, 718. 

Ketcham, W. J. — 266. 

Kimmerle, Catherine. — 108. 

Kimmerle, Charles H. — 208, 212, 432. 

Kimmerle, Henry. — 778. 

Kingsbury, Allen M.— 643. 

Kingsbury, Asa. — 131, 146, 147, 148, 194, 

195, 207, 213, 644. 
Kingsbury, Charles. — 194. 
Kingsbury, David L. — 195, 452. 
Kingsbujy, George M. — 153, 209, 551. 
Kinnane, James H. — 281, 743. 
Kirby. W. R— 485. 
Kirk, William. — 42, 113. 
Knapp, Amos. — 192, 702. 
Kyle, Joseph C. — 422. 

L' Allegro Qub. — 343. 

La Grange Prairie. — II, 12, 46. 

La Grange Township. — 11, 46 et seq.; 94. 

107. 108, 175, 186. 223. 375, 397. 
La Grange Village.— 131, 132, 133. 134, 

I^ke Alone. — 131. 


Lake, J. M.— 421. 
Lake View Park. — 141. 
Lakes.— 5, 6; Lilly lake, 7; 136; 139. 
Land Sales, — 106. 
Lawrence, Levi. — 109, 138. 
Lawrence. L. L. — 734. 
Lawson, William. — 291 ; Cornelius, 293. 
Law-yers. — 270-283. 
Leach, James H., 418. 
Lee Brothers. — 196. 
Lee, Fred E. — 191, 196. 
Lee, Ishmael. — III. 
Lee, Joseph W. — 109. 
Letters.— 178. 
Lewis, E. F. — 498. 
Lewis, Roland. — 762. 
Libraries. — 244-247. 
Lilley, Thomas J. — 532. 
Lincoln, Samuel J. — 544. 
Lindsley, John A. — 161, 726. 
Link, Donald A. — 267, 770. 
Little Prairie Ronde. — 7, 11, 19, 51; post- 
office, 138. 
Little Rocky River. — 10. 
Lock wood. Henry. — 258. 
Lofland, Joshua.— 159. 213. 
Longsduff.. George. — 488. 
Longsduff, John. — 632. 
Loupee, John. — 603. 
Loux. Abraham.- — 47. 
Loveridge, Henry L. — 463. 
Lumber. — 12, 161. CSee under Mills, Man- 
Lutheran Church. — 387. 
Lybrook, John. — 47; Isaac, 47; Henley C, 

Lybrook, Joseph. — 428. 
Lyle, C. M.— 281. 
Lyle, Daniel. — 133, 195, 196. 
Lyle,F. W.— 193, 196; C. E., 193- 

Madrey. J. W.— 291. 
Magician Beach. — 141. 
Magician Lake. — 140, 141. 
Manufacturing.— (See Mills.) 121. 133, 

134. 161. 180-194. 
Maple Island Resort. — 141. 
Marcellus Township. — 10, 97, 107, ll", 

223, 394- 
Marcellus Village.— 137, 138, 239, 240, 254, 

406, 407. 
Marckle. John. — 492. 
Markham. Israel. — 41, 184. 
Marl Beds.— 13; lime. 13. 
Marsh, A. C. — 121. 
Mason. Governor. — 33. loo. 
Mason Township. — 96. 115. 223. 397. 
Masons. — 348. 
Mater, John. — 683. 
Matthew Artis Post. — 293. 
May, Russel D. — 440. 
McAllister, James. — 418. 

AlcCleao', Ephraim. — 142, 145. 

McCleary, William. — 48. 

McCoy, C. Delivan. — 426. 

McCoy, Isaac. — 16, 17. 

McCoy, Richard. — 431. 

McCoy, William H. — ^431. 

McCutcheon, William C— 266, 268, 647- 

McDaniel, James. — 96, 115, 1 16. 

McGill, William— 612. 

Mcintosh, Daniel. — 187. 

Mcintosh, Jacob. — 548. 

Mclntyre, Fred. — 451. 

McKenney, Thomas. — 47. 

McKessick. Moses. — 125. 

McKinney's Prairie. — 11. 

McMaster, Hamilton S. — 266, 713. 

McNeil, Marion. — 617. 

McOmber. Jay W. — 156. 

Meacham, George— 45, no; Sylvester, 45. 

Mechanicsburg. — 134. 

Mechling, John W. — 591. 

Medical Society, Cass County. — 268. 

Medicine and Surgery. — 257-269. 

Merchants. — ^46, 155; in Edwardsburg, 
123; of Marcellus, 138; Cassop- 
olis, 148 et seq. (See under village 
names) ; 159. 

Merritt, Wm. R.— 127 ; J. Fred., 128. 

Methodism— 114. 132; churches, 373-378. 

Michigan Central R. R.— 122, 132, 138, 139, 
151. 155, 161, 173. 174- 

Michigan Southern R. R.— 174, et passim. 

Michigan Territory.— 27 ; history to ad- 
mission to Union, 22-36. 

Military Annals. — 103. 

Military Organizations. — ^329-333. 

Military Records.— 297-328. 

Miller, Ezra. — 109. 

Miller. George. — 276. 

Miller. O. P.— 645. 

Mills.— At Carey Mission, 18; 105. no; 
113. 115. 122, 124. 128, 129, 130. 133, 
134. 135, 137, 154. 183 et seq. 

Milton Township.— 12, 97, 114. 223. 376, 

Minnich. James J. — 568. 

Mint Culture— 203. 

Model City— 139- 

Monday Evening Club. — 346. 

Monroe Land Office.— jo6. 

Moon. Abner M.— 154, I59, 253, 254, 695. 

Moraines. — ^4: Lake Michigan moraine. 4, 

Moreland. Jacob. — 138. 

Morgan. C. A.— 267. 

Morse. C. W — 263. 

Mosher. Francis J.— 160: Ira D., 160. 

Mosher, H. L— 191. 

Motley, Edward T. — 576. 

Myers. C. M. — 267. 

National Democrat. — 251. 
Negro, Colony. — 287-296. 


Nflsdii. C, Carroll.— 294, 608. 

Nevvbi-rg Township. — lo, 07. 107, 116, 117, 

Newbcrg Village. — 136. 

Neu Buffalo.— 174. 

New Century Club. — 345. 

NeweN House. — 106, 146, 149. 

News. The. — 254. 

Newspapers. — 249-256. 

Newton, James. ^109; George, 109. 

Nichols, Jonathan. — 138. 

Nicholson, Spencer. — 136. 

Nicholsville. — 139. 

Niles. — 42; see Carey Mission; 103, 122, 

174. 249- 
Nineteenth Century Club. — 340. 
Ntjrthwest Territory. — 2^ et seq. 
Norton, Levi D. — 112. 
Norton, Nathan. — 49. 
Norton, Pleasant. — in, 213. 

Oak Beach. — 141. 

Odd Fellows.— 348. 

O'Dell, James. — 185, ^^93. 

O'Dell. John.— 604. 

Official Lists. County, Township, Village 

Officers. — 389-409. 
O'Keefe, George A. — 99. 
"Old Fort."— 146, 208. 
Olds. May .A..— 466. 
Olmsted. J. C— 237. 380, 381, 382. 
Ontwa Township. — 45 et seq. ; 94, 107, 108. 

223. 398. 
Ordinance Line. — 24, 27. 
Ordinance of 1787. — 23 et seq. 
Organic Act. — 92. 

Organization, History of. — 91 et seq. 
O'Rourke, Jerry. — 766. 
Osborn, Family. — 112; Charles. 112: Jo- 

siah, 112, 289. 
Osborn, Leander. — 264. 
Ouderkirk, Charles. — 623. 

Pardee. Elias. — 737. 

Parker, John. — 149. 

Parker, W. E.— 267. 

Parsons, William E. — 495. 

Pattison. Laurence B. — 73 ^ 

Peninsula R. R.— 175. ^ (See Grand 

Penn Township. — 48 et seq. ; 94. 97, 108. 

223. 38—, 396. 
Penn Vdlage. (See Jamestown.) 
Petticrew, John. — 134. 
Pettigrew, John.— 1S6. 
Phillips, H H.— 259, 266. 
Phillips. John H.— 560. 
Physicians. — 257-269. 
Pioneer Society. — 212. 
Pioneer Society. Cass County. — 349-370; 

officers, 349. 350: annual speakers. 

.3,50. 351: members record. 351-370. 

Pioneers. — .Alphabetical record of, 53-90; 
see Settlement : Homes of, 104 et 
seq.; of Penn, 108; of Howard, 114; 
of Silver Creek, 115; manufactur- 
ing, 180 et seq. ; farming. 198 et 
seq. ; social customs, 334 et seq, 
a traged)', 116: of Newberg, 117; of 
Marcellus, 117. 

Planck, E. A.— 265, 268, 622. 

Plank Roads. — 169. 

Pleasant Lake. — 45. 

Poe, Charles W. — 474. 

Pokagon, Chief. — 16, 19, 20, 42, 285, 372. 

Pokagon Creek. — 11, 134. 

Pokagon Prairie. — 11, 40, 44, 184, 375. 

Pokagon Township. — (See Pokagon Prai- 
rie.) 93, 107, 223, 399. 

Pokagon Village. — 134, 135, 264. 

Poor Farm, Cass County. — 213, 214. 

Population- — 107, 108 et seq. ; 122, 127, 
129, 130, 134, 135, 136. 151. 157. 288; 

Porter Township. — 50, 51, 95. 97. 107. 110. 
186, 223, 395. ' 

Post Roads. — 165, 166. 

Postal Service. — 178, 179. 

Postoffices. — 119, 120 (Sec Rural Free 
Delivery) ; 126 ; 129, 130, 136, 137, 
1.38, 139, 149. 158, 178, 179. 

Pottawottomies. — 14 et seq.; 42, 102, 115, 

Pound, Isaac S. — 652. 

Prairies. — 5, 6, 7, 11. 

Presbyterian Churches. — 380-383. 

Press, Cass County. — 249-256. 

Price, John. — 48. 

Prindle, C. P.— 263. 

Probate Judges. — 390. 

Products. Natural. — 12. 

Prosecuting .Attorneys. — 391. 

Protestant Episcopal Church. — 388. 

Public Square. — 129, 143, 145 et seq. 

Putnam, Uzziel. Sr. — 40 et seq.; 202; Ira, 
44; Uzziel, Jr.. 44. 

Puterbaugh. William F. — 630. 

Quakers,-48; 112. 29~7. 385. 386. 

Railroads. — 122. 132, 135. 151. 155. 167. 
171 et seq.; electric lines. 177; un- 
derground, 287. 

Railroad Era. — 171 et seq. 

Read, S. T. — 176. 195. 

Reames. Moses and William. — 49 ; Moses. 

Redfield, Alex. H. — 143. 144 et seq. ; 14S, 
149, 207, 212, 270, 271. 

Redfield, George H. — TOS. 

Redfield's Mills.— 129. " 

Reed, John. — 48. 49, 96. 

Registers of Deeds. — .192. 

Religion. — 371 et seq. (See Churches.) 

Renniston. William. — 108. T54. t86. 193. 

Representatives. State. — 389. 


Rei)ublic;in. I lie. — 25,3. 

Resliore, Frank. — 281. 

Re Shore, Grace. — 245, 247. 

Resorts. (.See Summer Resorts.) 

Reiich, Jonathan H. — 639. 

Reynolds, Levi J. — 546. 

Richardson, Norris. — 731. 

Riclcert, Charles C. — 420. 

Rinehart, Carleton W. — 590. 

Rinehart, Family. — no, 186. 

Rinehart, John. — 48. 

Rinehart. S. M.— 126, 127. 

Ritter, Charles A. — 195, 625. 

Ritter, John J. — 197, 735. 

Roads. — (See under Comniunication, Rail- 
roads.) 163. 164 et seq. 

Robbins, George W. — 472. 

Robertson. Alexander. — ^426. 

Robertson, George W. — 472. 

Robertson, John. — 264. 

Robinson, C. S. — 207. 

Rockwell, John D. — 597. 

Rodgers. Alexander. — 45. 

Roebeck, John L. — 491. 

Root, Eber. — 146. 

Rosewarne, Henry G. — '720. 

Ross, F. H.— 673. 

Ross, Jasper J.— 558. 

Round Oak Stove Works.— (See P. D. 
Beckwith.) — 188, 190-192. 

Rouse. Daniel G. — 97- 

Rowland, Thomas. — 99. 

Rudd, Barak L. — 140, 633. 

Rudd, Orson.— 137. 

Rural Free Delivery. — 120, 125. 12S, I3_". 
179. 204. 

Russey. E. J. — 650. 

Sage. Chester. — 45. 126. 

Sage, Family. — 124, 196; Moses. 124. 125, 
186: Afartin G., Norman, T24. 

Sailor. — (See Kessington.) 

Salisbnrv. William. — 519. 

Sandy Beach. — 140. 

School Funds. — 222. 

Schools — T20. 132. (See under names of 
villages, 215-243.) Cassopolis, 228- 
23T : Dowa.giac, 231-237: Edwards- 
bnrg, 237-239; Vandalia, 241-243; 
Marcellus, 2,39-241. 

School Officers. — 393 ; 224-227. 

Senators. — 389. 

Settlement. .Effected by Natural Condi- 
tions. — I ; early, i7 et seq. ; date of 
first, 42 : 102, 106 ; 107 et seq. 

Shaffer, Daniel.— 48. 

Shaffer David.— iti; Peter, in; TS7 ; 
George T., in. 

Shakespeare. — T35. 

Shanahan, Clifford. — 273. 

Shannon, .Mbert J. — 482. 

Sharp. Craigie. — 139. 

Shavehead.- 10; trail, 164, 165. 

Shaw, Darius. — 148, 207. 

Shaw, James. — 114. 

-Shaw, John. — 109. 138. 

Shaw, Richard. — 109. 

Shepard, James M.— 252, 556. 

Sheriffs. — 392. 

Sherman, Flias B. — 13s. nS. 14?. 144 L-t 

seq. ; 195, 271, 336. 
Shcru-iod, C. L.— 159, 160, 679. 
Shields, Martin. — 48. 
Shillito, Ernest. — 571. 
Shockley, Alfred. — 507. 
Shoemakers, Pioneer. — 182. 
Shore Acres. — 130. 
Shugart. Zachariah. — 289. 
Shurte, Isaac. — 47, 103. 
Sibley. Col. £. S.— gs! 129. 
Silo Plants. — 203. 
Silver Creek Township. — 11. 20. 96, 115, 

223, 2S5, 377, 399. 
Silver, Jacob and .Abiel. — 121: George F.. 

123; Orriu, T24, 749; Jacob. 207, 

Skinner. Samuel F. — 574. 
Smith, Amos. — 522. 
Smith, A. J. — 123. 131, 274. 
Smith, Cannon. — 114. 376. 
Smith, Daniel. — 704. 
Smith, Ezekiel C. — 114. 
Smith, Ezekiel S. — 159. 255. 272; Joel H., 

Smith. George W. — 494. 
Smith. Harsen D. — 195. 2S2, 657. 
Smith, Hiram. — 538. 
Smith, Joseph. — 1S7, 20S, 251. 
Snyder. Robert. — 436. 
Social Organizations. — .334-.348. 
Soil. — 12. 
Soldiers' and Sailors' Afonnment .^ssocia- 

tion.— 332. 333. 
Soldiers of Cass Oumtv in Civil War — 

Spalding. Erastus H. — 133. 154, 156, t6o.. 

193; Lyman, 154. 
Spencer, James M. — 275. 
Spiiuiing Wheel. — 181. 
Squatters' LTnions. — 107. 
Stage Coaches. — 121, 123. 126. 1(39. 170. 
.Standerline George. — 470. 
Stauderline, William. — 471. 
Stapleton. James S. — 261. 
Stark, Myron. — 161, 194, 74T. 
Starrett, Charles. — 700. 
State Officials from Cass County. — 300. 
Stebbins, E. S. — 264. 

Stewart. Hart L. — 98. 129, 143; A. C, 129.. 
St. Joseph Township. — 91. 
Stone Lake. — 99, 142, 145, 749. 152. 
Stretch. William H.— 626. 
Subscriptions, to Railroads. — 175. 
Sullivan. Tames. — 272. 
Sumner. Isaac. — 134. 
Summer Resorts. — 1,39. 140. T41. 


Sumnerville. — 43, 134. 
Supervisors, Tovvnsliip.— 393-401. 
Surveyors. — 392. 
Sweet, Charles E.— 282, 753. 
Swcctland, John 6.-255, 262. 
•Suishur. John F.— 659. 

'lalbot. Jolni A.— 276. 
Talladay, Alamaiidel J.— 524 
Taverns.— 43, 46, 50, 115, uC, 121, 123 

126. 13S, 146, 149, 156, 159, 337. 
_T aylor, Albon C.-682. 
I'aylor, Alexander,— 414. 
'Paylor, Clifford L.— 430. 
Taylor, James D. — 264. 
Teachers.— 216; certificates, 219 220 ^'7 
Telephones.— 127, 179. 
i'erritorial Road (sec Chicago Road) - 

1 harp, .Abner.— 49, 50. 
Thatcher, Nelson E.— 528. 
Thickstiin, David C— 638. 
Thomas, S. B. — 152. 
Thomas, Silas H.— 57S. 
Thompson, Allison D.— 502. 
Thompson, Merriit .\.— 277. 
Thompson, Squire.— 44. 
Thomson, Samuel C— 450. 
Thorp, A. L. — 264. 
Tihbits, Nathan and William.— 126 
1 letsort, Abram.— 103, 142, 145, 150, 18? 
I letsort's Sidetrack.— 139. 
'i'imes, The. — 253, 254. 

Tolbert. George H. — 596 — 

Toledo War.— 22. 33.' 34, 3^- 
1 onipkins, L. U.— jfx). 
Toney, James.— 51. 

Topography.— I "^et seq. ; striking features 
.,. . °f' 5- 
lounsts' Club.— 34r. 
'I'ownscnd. Abram.— 41, 46. 202, 23t; 

Ephraim, 41 ; Gamaliel. 44. 103 
ioivuship Officers.— 393-401. 
Townships, Forni.-ition of.— Q^ et seq 
Trades. (See .\Ianufacturins>\ Industries 

Tran.sportatinn. (See under Communica- 
tion, Railroads.) 
Treasm-crs. Coimty. — 392. 
'i'rihimc. The. — 252. 
'I'ruitt. James M. — 771. 
Truilt, Peter.— 97, 114. 
Truitt Station. — 177. 
Turner. George B. — 39, 205, 251. 27^. 
Turner. Virgil. — 777.' 
Tuttle. William.— 192. 

Cnion Hotel.— 146. 

United Brethren Churches— 387 

Universalist Church.— 387. 

Vail, Levi M.— 129. 
Van Antwerp, Lewis C— 497 
Van Buren County, Attached to Cass.-04 
\'andaha-8. 49, 130, 131, 185, 241 ^ 
408, 409. t . -*^. 

Van Riper, Abram, and Sons.— 1315 
Van Riper, J. J.— 275. 
Venice. — 154. 
Vigilant, The.— 251, 252. 
Volinia Farmers' Club.— 205 ^06 
\olmia Township.-ii. 19, 51, 52', nc, jq, 
,, ,. . 'O?,, 223, 395. ■^' 

\ olnua Village.— 138. 

Vclinia and Wayne Anti-Hor.sethief So- 
ciety. — 206. 
Voorhis, C. E.— 152, 434. 

Wakelee. — 136, 137. 

Walker, Henry C— 635. 

War, Toledo.— 22; Sac or Black Hawk 

Av '°-t' Xl''''' 297-328; Spanish, 297. 

Warner, J. P.— 193. 

Washington, Booker T. — 292. 

Water Works.— 152, 189. 

Watson, John H.— 779. 

Wayne Co.— 24. 25, 26. 91. 

Wayne Township.— 96, 223, ^97. 

Weesaw. — 19. 
-Wells. C. P.— 264. 

Wells, Henrv B.— 671 

Wells, Isaac. Sr.— 696. 

Wells, Leslie C— 423 

Wells, Willard.— 748 

Wheeler. J. H.-264. 

White. Gilbert. — 531 

White, Milton P.-233, 267, 767. 

W hue Pigeon Land Office.— 106. 
Whitman, Martin C— 98, 133. 
Whilmanville.— 133. (See La Grange Vil- 
Wilbcr, Theodore F.— 676 
Wdey, Robert H.— 763. 
W illiams, Josiah. — 127. 
Williimsville— 127, 128. 
Willnrell. Duane.— 416. 
\y.. nun's Cluhs.-338-348. 
\ - ' " din. Zaccheus. — 38. 
W.Hisler. John.— 282. ' 
W'iLdit. Elijah W.— 96. 
WnylU, Job. — 38-40. 140, t;4. 
Wright. William R— ,17 

Union. - 

ituid Rnilriiad. 
25, 126, 165. 

John H.— 496, 
s Prairie— 7. 374. 376. 



S.-nl. ; I MiU". I.. I lucll 

I5.15U. U.UAV. 

S T A T E 

I Js I> I A N A 

History of Cass County. 


Cass county, topographically considered, is much the same now 
as before the first settlement. The three generations of wliite men have 
cleared the fi>rest coverings, have drained the swamps, ha\-e changed 
some (if the water courses; have overwhelmed the wilderness and con- 
verted the soil to areas productive of useful fruitage: have net-worked 
the country with highways and reads of steel ; ha\'e (|uarried beneath 
the surface and clustered structures of brick and stone and wood into 
hamlets and villages, and from the other results of human activity 
have quite transformed the superficial aspects of our county. But the 
greater and more basal configurations of nature endure through all 
the assaults of human energy. The eternal hills still stand as the sym- 
bol of permanence and strength; the lake basins, though their water 
area is becoming gradually reduced, still dot the expanse of the county 
to form the same charming contrast of sparkling waters and green for- 
est and prairie which the original settlers looked upon. The slopes of 
drainage, the varieties of soil, the general geology of Cass county con- 
tinue with little change. 

To describe the county as nature made it seems a fit introduction 
to the history of man's occupation wdiich forms the bulk of this volume. 
The development of a people depends on environment in the first stages 
at least, imtil the powers of civilization assert their sway over the in- 
ertia of nature. Succeeding pages prove this fact over and over and 
indicate how natural conditions affected the settlement and growth of 
the county. The conspicuous natural features of the county, both as 
related to the pioneer settlement and as they can be noted now, deserve 
description. Nature is not only useful Ijut beautiful, and both attributes 
are known and valued in any proper history of a county and its people. 

It is not an impertinent query why the surface configuration of 
the county is as it is. Why the county is traversed, roughly in the di- 


rcLtinii lit the (jraiid 'I'runk R. R. line, liy the well defined range of hills 
eunstinning the axis of drainage for all the surface water of the county, 
so that the i)\erlln\v from Diamond lake passes south, while the waters 
collected two miles west of the county seat flow west into Dowagiac 
cieek' Also, what is the origin of the many lakes on the surface of the 
count}-.' Why were the hills ])iled up in such irregular confusion in 
sonie i)laces. and in others the surface hecomes almost a level plain? 
Whence come the rounded lioulders of granite which are found every- 
where. \et (juite detached from any original matrix rock, as though 
siiewn .'ilinut in some Titan contfict of ages past? These and many 
other (juestions come to the mind of one who travels over the county, 
cndea\oring, with the helj) of modern science, to 

"I*"ind tongues in trees, books in running Ijrooks, 
Sermons in. stones, and good in e\'er_\thing." 

The key to the understanding of Cass county's topography is found 
in the action of ice and water during the glacial age. The surface of 
all the region .-ihoiU the ( ireat Rakes is radically different from what 
it w;is when this part of the continent first rose from the sea and be- 
caiue a haliitahle portion of the earth's crust. Perhaps th(.)usands of 
}ears (lassed after the sea separated from the land and many forms of 
vegetable and animal life fiourished mi the -oil. Then came the ice 
age. A period of intense cold, with the intermittent warm seasons so 
brief that the rigors of winter were never entirely relaxed, co\'ered all 
the north temper.ate zone with an ocean of ice and snow, which, radi- 
ating from a i)robable center near Hudson's bay, extended its glacial 
ilow southward as far as the Ohio and Missouri rivers, which spread 
like embracing arms around the southern borders of the ice area. Geol- 
ogists have estimated the thickness of these ice fields to vary from a few 
hundred to thousands of feet, in some places a mass of glaciated material 
over a nfile high. 

Had these great ice areas been stationary, they would ha\e had 
little eft'ect in reconstructing the earth's surface. Ijut the mass was 
characterized Ijy a ponderous, irresistilile motion, sometimes but a few 
feet in a year, and now ad\-ancing and again retreating; but prolonged 
over an era of years such as human minds can hardly conceive, its effect 
wafe more tt'emendous in the aggi"egate than those cd' any natural iihe- 
iiipmena observable in historic times, siirpassiiig e\-en the earthriuake 


As tlie ice sheet passed o\'er the surface, down the mountain \:i\- 
leys and over tlie plains, individual glaciers uniting with others or from 
elevation or depression being cast upon or under a larger sheet, every- 
where the motion of the mass being marked by terrific rending, plough- 
ing antl friction, it was inevitable that the earth's surface would be 
greatly changed. The ice mass acted in some places as a mighty broom, 
sweeping the loose material down tn the liare rock and carrving the 
mingled soil and broken rock buried in the ice. .\gain it plowed up and 
moved away entire hills. And the friction of such a mass through the 
ages of its movement wore off e\cn the hanlest rock and bore the re- 
sulting sand and boulders to remote distances. Thus it came about that 
the ice sheet had not moved far from its source before it became a car- 
rier of a vast weight of rock anrl soil material transported on the sur- 
face, emliedded in the center and rolled and pushed along underneath. 

As mentioned, the motion of the ice fields was not constant. Event- 
ually its southern extremes reached as far south as indicated, but there 
were niany stages <jf aclvance and retreat, and it seeius that at one pe- 
riod the ice driven far back to the north and then came south again, 
so that f()r a portion of the United States there were two periods of 
glaciation, separated by an interval when the ice siege was raised. 

While the ice field was a.dvancing it was continually receiving new 
accessions of solid m^iterial in the manners described abo\e. But when 
the cold relaxed to, the point where melting was greater than freezing, 
the edge cif the field, decaying under the heat, began to retire. As soon 
as the ice relaxed its .gr.asp, the imbedded and surface load of solid ma- 
terial was .dropped and deposited in irregular heaps, acc(n'ding as the 
mass carriecl was great or, small. . 

This material gathered: ty the glacier in jts progress and deposited 
in its retreat,, is the "drift" which throughout Cass county covers the 
original surface to varying d.epths, and ,:from which the "soil" of the 
county has been formed. The comjxisition of this drift is readily rec- 
ognized by any observer. , \'arying in , throughout the south- 
em half of the- state fijom a few feet to several hundred feet, in the case 
of a well bored at Dowagiac.a few years ago the drill having to pene- 
trate 202 feet of drift before reaching the regular strata, of slate and 
shale, this mass of sand,, gravel, c.lay, witii large Jjoulders of granjte, is 
the tnateriaj from wbiclj ^11 the superficial arga. and surface configuration 
of .the .county, have beeu .derived. In other words, the. farmsteads and 
villages, of ,, Cass. eoiuity rest atop^ a, conglomerate, riiass which had been 


.^Tciuiid and ijuh-erized and lieaped together b_\" the action nf ice and wa- 
ter ages before Columbus discovered America. 

Whenever the edge of the ice field remained stationary, because the 
adxance of the glacier was offset by the melting away of the forward end, 
there resulted a deposit of glacial material heaped together along the 
entire border of the ice and much greater in bulk and height than tlie 
drift left l)ehind when the field was steadily withdrawing. These ridges 
of drift, Iirougbt about by a pause in the retreat of the ice mass, are 
called "moraines." 

Cass countv is crossed liv one of the longest anfl best defined of 
these moraines. The ice fields wliich co\-ered the lower peninsula of 
Michigan had three distinct divisions, considered with respect to the 
source and direction of the movement. The Lake Michigan glacier, 
whose north and south axis centered in Lake Michigan, was the west- 
ern of these fields or glacial "lolies." On the east was the "Maumee 
glacier," ath-ancing from the northeast across Lakes Huron and Erie, 
the western edge of which has been traced in Hillsdale county. Be- 
tween these two the "Saginaw glacier" protruded itself from Saginaw 
bav, and its southern ad\-ance is marked by a "frontal moraine" extend- 
ing east from Cassopolis througli south St, Joseph and Branch coun- 
ties to a junction in Hillsdale county with the Maumee glacier. The 
moraine of the Lake Michigan glacier, marking the final pause of the 
ice before it withdrew from this region, is a clearly defined ridge circling 
around Lake Michigan, at varying distances from the present shore of 
the lake, being from 15 to 20 miles distant on the south, with Valpa- 
raiso, Ind., lying upon it. It passes into Michigan in the southeast cor- 
ner of Berrien county, being observable from the railroad train west of 
Niles as far as Dayton. Thence it passes oblifjuely across Cass county — 
Cassopolis lying up oi it — and crosses northwestern Kalamazoo county. 
Valparaiso is 100 feet above the level of Lake Michigan; La Porte, 234 
feet ; and as the moraine enters Michigan it rises somewhat and corre- 
spondingly develops strength. Passing (iver the low swell in southwest 
Michigan, it is depressed somewhat in crossing the low belt of country 
which stretches from Saginaw bay to Lake Michigan, its base being 
less than 100 feet above these bodies of water. 

b^ the south line of Micliigan the moraine is more sandy than 
the corresponding arm on the opjxisite side of the lake, is less sharply 
and characteristically developed, more indefinitely graduated into the 
adjacent drift, and more extensively flanked by drifts of assorted material. 


The superficial as]iect of the formation, as ohservable in Cass county, 
is that of an irregular, intricate series of drift ridges and hills of rap- 
idly but often very gracefully undulating contour, consisting of rounded 
domes, conical peaks, winding ridges, short, sharp spurs, mounds, knolls 
and hummocks, promiscuously arranged. The elevations are accompa- 
nied by corresponding depressions. Tliese are variously known as "]X)t- 
ash kettles," "pot holes," "pots and kettles," and "sinks." Thdse that 
have most arrested popular attention are circular in outline and svmmet- 
rical in form, not unlike the homely utensils that have given them names. 
It is not to be understood that the deposits from the glaciers re- 
mained where or in the furm in which they were left bv the withdrawing 
ice. From the margin of the ice flowed great volumes of water, in 
broad, rapid ri\ers rushing from beneath the glacier, and in dashing, 
powerful cataracts plunging from the surface to the drift lielow. The 
power of this flowing water in redistributing the loose drift may be 
comprehended by comparing its action with a spring freshet in the rivers 
of today, although the forest and vegetation that nnw cover the soil 
serve as a protection against the floods, so that the glacial waters were 
many times more effective in their violence. The glacial streams, liber- 
ated from their confined channels under the ice. tossed and scattered 
and re-collected the deposited drift with the same effect that a stream 
from a garden hose will dissipate the dry dust in the road. The \\ater's 
power was sufficient to gutter out deep valleys and surround them with 
hi,gh hills of dislodged material. In other places, flowing with broader 
current, it leveled the drift into plains and wrought out the so-called 
"prairies" which are so conspicuous a feature of the cnuntv's topog- 
raphy. Not alone while the ice fields were here, but for a long period 
afterward, the surface of the county was wrought upon bv the inunda- 
tion and flow of water. In fact, the niunerous lakes are but the distant 
echoes, as it w-ere, of the .glacial age, indicating in whispers the time 
when the dominion of water was complete over all this country. When 
the ice departed and the water gradually passed off by drainage and 
evaporation, the drift ridges, the Ararats of this region, naturally ap- 
peared first, and the subsidence of water then brought the rest of the sur- 
face successively to view. But the depressions and basins, hollowed out 
by the ice and water, remained as lakes e\-en into our times, al- 
though these bodies of water are but insignificant in comparison with 
their former size, and most of them are slowly decreasing in depth and 
area even without the efforts of artificial drainage. Since the settlement 


III' while men in the county many of the smaU lakes liave "dried up," 
and tlieir bcjttonis are now plowed over and their rich "muck" soil pro- 
duces the hea\iest of crops. 

Describing the lakes of the Liiwer Peninsula, Prof. C. A. Da\-is 
says : "The small lakes, p;irticularly those of the Ltnver Peninsula, are 
commonly depressions in the (h-iil. shallow and not of large extent, fre- 
quciUK- partially tilled in around the margin with the remains of former 
generations of plants, so that man\- of the typical features of the lakes 
of hilly or mountainous regions are partly suppressed or entirel_\- want- 
ing. These lakes belong to recent geological time, and this undoubtedly 
accounts for some of their pecidiarities. Hv far the larger number of 
tiiem exhiliit the following features: A small sheet of water, roughly 
elliptical in shape, bordered by marshy areas of yarying width, or on 
two or more sides by low, al)ruptly sloping, sandy or gra\'ell_\' hills. The 
marshy tract is frequently wider on the south than on the north side, 
and its character varies from a quaking bog at the inner margin, through 
a sphagnous zone into a marsh. In the larger lakes the marshy border 
may not extend entirelv around the margin, but it is usually noticeable 
along the south shore, where it ma\- be of consideralde e.xtent while the 
rest of the shore is entirely without it." This description may he vcvi- 
lied in an examination of any of the lakes of this ci.iunty. 

The liills and morainal ridges approach most nearly the composition 
and form in which the drift was deposited from the retreating glaciers. 
Here we see the least sorting of materials, the boulders being indiscrim- 
inately mixed wdth the finer sand and gravel. Hence the soil of the hills 
is generally lighter and less varied in its productiveness than the lower 

Those i3<?rtions of the surface which were long inundated b\- the 
post-glacial waters naturally were subjected to man_\' changes. The 
rough contour was worn off bv the action of the water, and the biittoms 
of former vast lake areas becanie smoothed down so that when the wa- 
ter finally drainetl ofT they appeared as the "prairies" of today. Further- 
more, the water performed a sifting process, the constant \vash causing 
the larger rocks to settle on the lowest !e\-el and the sand and clay, as 
lighter material, to remain on the surface. In some cases, where the 
water remained sufficiently long, decomposition of vegetable and or- 
ganic matter resulted in the formation of muck — ^aS seen in the' lakes 
today — which mingled with the other materi:ds to form the rich loam 
soil that c;'.n be found in some of the prairies. 


Thus, all the prairies — Beardsley's prairie, Young's prairie, Bald- 
win's prairie, Little Prairie Ronde, and the numerous others that be- 
came the favorite sites for settlement in this county — were at one time 
covered with water, the action of which effected many of the features 
which characterize these level or gently undulating areas. 

From the prairie levels the waters, in their retreat, were collected in 
the yet lower depressions which are now the lakes of Cass county. Some- 
times the glacial ridges were piled up so as to completely surround these 
depressions, resulting in the ponds and sinks above described, and which 
could not be drained by artificial outlet except at such expense as to be 

Drainage, both natural and artificial, has been a matter of foremost 
importance from early settlement to the present time. The jiresence 
of so many lakes on the surface of the county indicates that natural 
drainage is defective. The glacial waters were drained off so gradually 
that they did not cut deep channels for their outlet, but must have flowed 
off in broad, shallow courses, which gradually narrowed down to a 
stream little larger than a brook. Just east of the village of Jamestown, 
to mention a case in ptiint, the road crosses two little water courses that 
later contribute their waters to the Christiann. The actual channels are 
mere brooks, but each is at the center of a uniform depression, some 
rods in breadth, which was clearly the bed of a once large but sluggish 
river. The writer has observed but one of these old water courses which 
indicate that the current was swift enough to "cut" the banks. M the 
north end of Lilly lake in Newberg township is a "narrow?," through 
which the waters of the once larger lake extended mirlh into what is 
now a recently drained and swampy flat. On the west side of this "nar- 
rows" the bank juts sharply down to the former lake bottom, indicating 
that the subsidence of the water caused a current thmugh the neck suffi- 
cient to cut the bank at a sharp angle. 

As already mentioned, the glacial ridge, roughly paralleled by the 
Grand Trunk Railroad, is the watershed separating the county into two 
drainage divisions. Eventually all the surface waters of the county 
find their way into the St. Joseph river. But, recognizing the line of 
division just mentioned, the drainage of the south and eastern half is 
efifected by two general outlets, and of the north and west half by one. 

Christiann creek, which reaches the St. Joseph at Elkhart, receives 
the drainage, in whole or part, of Ontwa, Mason, Jefferson, Calvin, Penn 
and Newberg townships. Its extreme sources may be traced to Mud and 

8 illSTOR^' Ol- CASS lOL'XTV 

W'ililcat lakes in iiurili I'cnii. Se\oraI nt the lakes in southwest New- 
bcrg drain into tliis creek, ami the surjilus waters frcnn the DianKJiid 
lake basin pass intn the little lirrnich that extends tmni the lake's south- 
ern extremitw thron.iL;h Brow nsxille, to a junction with the Christiann. 
A little fnrthei" south L'hristiann creek receixes accessions to its jilacid 
clu'rent t'roni the "chain lakes'" of Cahin, and from \arious small 
tributaries in east Jefferson, and from the lakes of north Ontwa. From 
the earliest ])eriod of white settlement Christiann creek has furnished 
sites f(jr mills, one of the first in the count)- being at Vandalia, where the 
water is still utilized for similar purposes, though its volume at this 
point is small. 

To the student of nature. es])ecially with reference t( j the physical 
geograph}- of this count}-, some of the facts deri\-ed from obser\-ations 
of fan-iiliar scenes become as impressi\e as the grandeur autl surpassing 
wonders that lie a thousand miles away. Surely there is cause for con- 
templation and admiration in the knowledge that at one time the great 
;irea roughlv defined bv the Christiann and its tributaries was under the 
dominion of confused and dashing waters, under whose intluence the 
land surface was moulded and shaped anew, and that when it finally 
emerged, water-worn, to the light of the sun its surface was the niore 
fit for the uses of man. From total inundation the waters withdrew 
by stages until tlie\- ai-e now confined to the diminishing lakes arid the 
narrow streams. 

The entire Christiann basin is, in turn, triliutary to the St. Joseph 
\-allev. whose irregular shore line is clearly and siunetimes abruptly de- 
fined along the southern border of Cass count}-. 1"he old Indian trail 
and Chicago road often follows close on the edge of this river bluff, 
uow descending to the old stream le\'el and now w-inding along on the 

We have described with son-ie particularity the Christiann drain- 
age area. l)ecause its features are quite typical of the other similar areas 
in the county. And before speaking of these other drainage divisions, 
it is necessary to state the i)art |)la}-ed by artificial drainage in the county. 

The pioneers found many portions of the county unfit for cultiva- 
tion and agricultural in-iiiro\-ement. Marsh hay was the only product 
of value furnished by these areas, and to offset this the flats and marshes 
vv'ere the breeding grounds of chills and fevers and for many years a 
source of disease to all who lived here. Now these same places are the 
sites of some of the most productive, valuable and healthful farmsteads 


in the cuiintv. Xi)t alone the system of ditching, under individual and 
county enterprise, has l^een responsible for this. The clearing of the 
timber tracts and undergrowth and the loosening and upturning of the 
soil by the plow increased surface evaporation and sub-drainage, and 
these were the first important agencies in removing the excess moisture 
and making the land more habitable as well as arable. 

The first acts of the legislature with reference to drainage were 
passed in 1846. For ten years all the public drainage undertaken was un- 
der the du-ection of township authorities. In 1857 the board of super- 
visors were given power to api)oint three commissioners to construct 
and maintain drains. This act was amended at different times. In 188 1 
it was provided that one drain commissioner might be appointed in 
each county, to hold office two years, anrl in 1897 the office of drain 
commissioner was formally established in each county, to be filled bv 
appointment of the !x)ard of supervisors for a term of two years, the 
first full term dating from January, 1898. In consideration of the vast 
benefit conferred upon the counties of Michigan by drainage works, it 
is noteworthy that the laws and court decisions expressly affirm that 
such construction and maintenance of drains can be undertaken onlv 
on the ground that they are "conduci\-e to' the public health, convenience 
and welfare." In other Mords, tlie increased value of lands and the ben- 
efits to private individuals are only incidental. Tlie present incumbent 
of the office is G. Gordon Hinitley, and his predecessor in the office 
was John Condon. 

Public drains may now be found in all parts of the county. In 
some places the digging of a ditch through a natural barrier and the 
maintenance of a straight channel in place of a former tortuous and 
sluggish outlet, has efifected the complete drainage of a lake basin, thus 
ending another dominion of the picturesque tamarack and marsh grass 
and making room fur waving grain fields. .\s a result of drainage 
many of the lakes which the ])ioneers knew and which are designated 
on the county maps in use today, are now quite dry and cultivable, and 
in the course of another generation many more of these sheets of crys- 
tal water, reminiscent of geologic age and picturesque features of the- 
landscape, will disappear because inconsistent with practical utility and 
the welfare of mankind. 

Another imix)rtant phase of the drainage work is the deepening 
and straightening, by dredging, of the existing water courses. Per- 
haps the most notable instance is in Silver Creek and Pokagon town- 


ships, where the siiuiuus Dowagiac creek, for considerable portions of 
its course, has been removed, as it were, bodily from its former bed and 
placed in a new straight channel, where its current hastens along at a 
rate never attained by the old stream in times of freshet. By this means, 
the water being confined to a narrow channel and not allowed to wan- 
der at its sluggish will over the ancient bed, as though unwilling to for- 
get its former greatness, a large area of timber and swamp lantl has been 
rendered available for productive purposes. By clearing of the forests 
and liy improvement of surface drainage, the "Dowagiac Swamp," so 
fearful to the early settlers as the haunt of pestilence and long deemed 
impossible of reclamation, has lost its evil rqjutation and is now not 
only traversed by solid highways as successors to the old corduroy or 
priniiti\c "rail r<jad." but is cut up into fertile and \-aluable farms. 

Resuming the description of the remaining topographical divisions 
of the county, we lind that besides the Christiann basin a large portion of 
Newberg and Marcellus townships sheds the surface water through the 
outlets afforded by Little Rocky river and its branches, which pass east 
to a junction with the St. Joseph in the county of the latter name. That 
portion of the county that forms the barrier of separation between the 
Christiann and the Little Rocky presents the most diverse and rugged 
surface to be fcjund in the county. The south part of Newberg town- 
ship was at one time Cjuite submerged, this conclusion being based on 
the numerous lake basins and plains to be found there. But north from 
Xewberg town hall, wliich is situated on a delightfully level plain, where 
the loamy soil itself indicates a difterent origin from that found in the 
rougher areas, the level is abruptl_\- Ijroken and the road ascends to a 
series of morainai hills and ridges, forming a fairly well detined group 
spreading over sections 8, 9, 10, 15, 16 and 17. Among these is "Bald 
Hill," between sections 9 and 16, conceded to be the highest elevation 
not only of this group, but perhaps of the entire county. From tliese 
hiJls of heaped up gravel, sand and clay, with corresponding deep and 
irregular sinks and \alleys, prospects are afforded on all sides. To the 
south the country appears to extend in level perspective until the hori- 
zon line is made by the hills in north Porter township. The view on the 
east is not interrupted short of the east line of the county, though all 
the intervening surface is extremely hilly and some of the most tortu- 
ous roads in the county are' in east Newberg. Northward from Bald 
Hill the descent'iilto' the valley of the Little Rocky is such that" here is 
seen the most impressive panoi-ama in Cass county. On a clear day, 


when the timliered areas have lost their fohage, the houses of Marcelhis 
village, at the center of the next township, are visible. Between arc 
the succession of woodland and cultivated fields, dotted with farm- 
houses and all the evidences of prosperous agriculture. Some of the 
landscape vistas that stretch away in every direction from the hills of 
Xewberg, not In mention the hills themselves, are worth}- the labors of 
a most critical painter. 

As soon as the Lake Micliigan moraine north and west of Cas- 
sopolis is crossed an entirely different drainage area is reached. Here 
Dowagaic creek reaches out its numerous branches and increases its 
current from the drainage of practically half the county. Fish lake, in 
tiie northeast corner of the county, is the extreme source- within the 
county. Thence the course lies westward through the Little Prairie 
Rondo, which attracted the Cards and Hufifs and other well known 
early settlers to Voiinia township. Further along, as the stream increased, 
it afforded power for mills, which all along its course have been im- 
portant factors in the industries of the county from the pioneer period. 
Wandering on in its course through Voiinia and LaGrange, its drainage 
area has been marked by alternate forest, flat marsh-land, and beautiful, 
fertile prairies. Reaching northeast LaGrange, its valley expands into 
the broad LaGrange prairie, which the succeeding pages w'ill describe 
as^the site of one of the three earliest and largest Cass county settle- 
ments. The valley again contracting as it winds through the hills east 
of Dowagiac, the stream passes into the series of marsh flats which 
characterize the country surrounding Cass county's only city. As al- 
ready mentioned, the country between the two forks of the Dowagaic, 
comprising a large part of Silver Creek, as also of the adjoining town- 
ships, has been redeemed from the reign of swamp and water by man's 
enterprise. The north branch of the Dowagiac, with its source in Van- 
Buren county, is bordered by the flats of Wayne and Silver Creek, which 
ditching and clearing are making some of the most productive land in 
the county. 

■' Between the south branch of the Dowagiac and Pokagon creek, 
comprising much of the area of Pokagon and LaGrange townships, are 
located several of the gently undulating, thinly timbered areas to which 
the pioneers gave the' name "prairies." Of these, Pokagon prairie, by 
its native fertility and beauty, first attracted the homeseekers from the 
rendezvous at Carey Mission (\iles). Also, McKinney's prairie is a 
geographical name often repeated in these pages, designating a tract 


al)out and iiicludins^- Sections 20 and 21 of LaGrange. LaGrange prairie 
belongs to die same general description. All the area, included between 
tlie central ninrainrd ridge and Dowagiac creek, was at one time, it must 
be remembered, tlie Ijoltom of the immense water basin which contained 
the lldfuls ])c;ured from the edge of the retreating glacier as it withdrew 
irom the nmrai'ie, and the niundation which continued for a long timC' 
ettected man)- changes in the surface and the arrangement of drift 

"i'be southwest part of the comity, much of it ridged and over- 
spread with the. moraine, jjresents a topography similar to Newberg, 
though not so rugged. The numerous lakes and absence of anv im- 
portant streams, indicate the work of the ice fields in sculpturing the 
surface of Howard, Jefferson and Alilton triwnships. Here are some ex- 
tensi\e flats which a complete system of drainage will in time make very 
valualile from an agricultural point of view. Howard especiall_\- was 
noted for its "oak openings," and the loose sandy soil and presence of 
many gravel and boulder ridges militated against a very early occupa- 
tion by settlers, although the same land has long since been fouml well 
adapted to practical agriculture. 

Generally speaking, the soil throughout the county, in consequence 
of its origin in the composite glacial drift, is very deep and contains 
all the chemical constituent elements of good soil. The character of the 
soil depends upon the assortment of the drift material into clay, sand or 
gravel beds, as one or the other of these layers happens to occupy the 
surface position, or as they are mingled without regard to kintl. 

A few words may be said, in conclusion, relative to what may be 
termed the "natural products" of Cass county. At the time of settlement 
the greater part of the area was covered with forest growth in all its 
primeval magnificence and wildness. The clearing of these timber areas 
—for they are meager in comparison with their former area and mostly 
of second growth trees — effected the greatest changes in the landscape, 
as it has been modified under the influences of seventy-five years of civil- 
izatiori. I'ioneers recall the heavy forest growths among which their 
first haliitatitms were constructed. In those days no value was attached 
to timber that wouUl now be bought at almost fabuUjus prices for lum- 
ber. Black walnut, measuring four or five feet in diameter, white, 
black and red oak, hickory, elm and beech, were all ruthlessly cut down 
and given prey to fire in order that space might be had for tillage. The 
timber tracts now to be found in the county, though in some cases mag- 


iiificeut features of the landscape, are restricted and hardly adequate as 
a means hy which the imagination can reconstruct the gloomv, intricate 
forest depths through which the pioneer forced his way to his wilderness 

Of coal and mineral deposits, Cass county has none. Borings for 
gas have not resulted successfully, although about twenty years ago a 
company at Dowagiac sunk a drill over nineteen hundred feet below the 
surface. From an early day the manufacture of brick has been carried 
on, but brick kilns have l.ieen numeri>us e\'erywhere and furnish no 
special point of distinction. 

The most important of nature's deposits are the marl beds. This 
peculiar form of carbonate of lime, now the basis of Alichigan's great 
Portland cement industry, the total of the state's output being second 
only to that of New Jersey, was known anrl used in this county from 
an earlv day. The plaster used in the old court house was made of marl 
lime. ]\Iany a cabin was chinked with this material, and there were 
several kilns in an early day for the burning of marl. A state geolog- 
ical report states the existence of a large Ised of marl at Donnell's lake 
east of Vandalia, Sections 31 and ^2 of Newberg, the marl in places 
being over twenty-five feet in depth. Just north of Dowagiac. in the 
lowlands of the old glacial valley is said to be a deposit of bog lime over 
six iumdred acres in extent and from eighteen to twenty-eight feet deejx 
Harwood lake, on the St. Joseph county line, is, it is claimed, surrounded 
by bog lime. Alx)ut the lakes east of Edwardsburg are marl deposits 
which were utilized for plaster fnom an early day. But as yet these 
deposits have not been developed by the establishment of cement plants, 
and that branch of manufacture is a matter to be described by a future 




Tt is asserted that wlieii tlie first wliite men settled in Cass county, 
they liad as neighbors some four or five liundred Indians. So that, 
although we make the advent of the white man the starting point of our 
history, yet for hundreds and perhaps thousands of years there has been 
no break in the period when the region we now call Cass county has 
served as the abode of human beings. 

The lands which we now till, the country dotted o\'er with our com- 
fortable dwellings, the localities now occupied by our populous towns 
and villages, were once the home of a people of a different genius, with 
difi'erent dv»ellings, different aris, different fmrial customs, and different 
ideas; but tiiey were human beings, and the manner in which-our interest 
goes out to them, and the peculiar ine.xpressible feelings' which come 
to our hearts as we look back over the vista of ages and study the few 
relics they have left, afe pro'of of the universal brotherhood of man and 
the uni\-ersal fatherhood of God. ■ 

Almost all of the Indians living here at the coming of the white 
settlers were members of th.e Pottawottomie tribe. And the_\- were the 
successors of the ])owerful Mnamis,"who had ocaipied the country when 
the French missionaries and' explorers first made record of its inhab- 
itants. This shifting of population had probably gone on for age.s, 
and many ti'ibes, of varying degrees of barbarism, have in their time 
occupied the soil of Cass county. The Pottawottomies were destined to 
be the last actors on the scene, and with the entrance of the white man 
they soon passed out forever. 

But during the first three decades of the nineteenth century they 
were the possessors of this region. The ascending smoke fnmi the wig- 
wam fires, the human voices by wood and stream, were theirs. They were 
the children of nature. The men were hunters, fishers, trappers and war- 
riors. Their liraves were trained to the chase and to the battle. The 
women culti\'ated the corn, tended the papooses and jirepared the fo<^d. 

And yet these people had attained to a degree of approximate civil- 
ization. Though they wrote no history, and published no poems, there 


certainly were traditions among them, especially concerm'ng; the creation 
oi the world. Though they erected no monuments, tlicv had their 
dwellings, wigwams though they were. Their civilization was not com- 
plicated, and yet they lived in villages, graphic accounts of which have 
been given. In place of roads they had trails, some of them noted ones, 
which will be described later^ They communicated with each other in 
writing by means of rude hieroglyphics. They had no schools, but their 
young were thoroughly trained and hardened to perform the duties ex- 
pected of them. 

The Indians had not carried agriculture to a high degree of per- 
fection, but they turned up the sod and planted garden \-egetables and 
corn, of which latter they raised more than is generallv supposed, though 
the women did most of the farm work. They were not given to com- 
merce, but they bartered goods with settlers and took their furs to the 
trading posts where they exchanged them for the white man's products. 
They made their own clothes, thgir canoes, their paddles, their tows and 
arrows, and other weapons of war, and wcfve hark baskets of sufficient 
fineness to hold shelled corn. And another interesting fact concerning 
them, they also understood how to make maple sugar. The sugar gmves 
of the county ha\'e given of their sweetness for more generations than 
we know of. 

Much of a specific u^iture has been written of the Indians of this- 
part of the country, much more than could he compressed within the space 
of tins volume. We can ()nly characterize them brieflv. Tliat thev 
were in the main peacable is the testimony of all records. On the other 
hand they were. by. no means the "noble red men" which the ideaHsm 
of Cooper and I^ongfellow has painted them. Historical facts and the 
witness of those who have had the benefi[t of personal association with 
these unfortunate people lead one to believe that the Indian, as compared 
with our own ideals .of life and conduct, was' essentially and usually a 
sordid, shiftless, unimaginative, vulgar and' brutish creature, living from 
hand to movith, and with no progressive standards of itiorality and char- 
actej\ The Indians in this \-icinity frequently 'came' and camped around 
the settlers, begging corn" and squashes and • givihg 'ventson in return. 
They supplemented this begging propensity by thieving'-^usuaily in -a 
petty degree^anditit .i,s said that they w^onld ^teal any' article 'they could 
put. their hands-on and- escape- observation.' A sharp 'watch ^Vc1s■kept on 
th6ir-,movemeynts ,when they were known 'to -be in the neighborhood'.- 
• . The Indians with- whom the settlers of Cass countv had to deal had 


Ix'cn influenced nicjre or less by coming in cinilact witli Christianity. At 
different times for a century French missionaries had penetrated tiiis 
region. Father Marest is one of the first known as having worked in 
tliis field. The r't)ttawottomies yielded more readily than other tribes 
to the teachings of the missionaries. They were deeply impressed by 
the ritual of the Catholic church. The tenacity with which many of 
the converts clung to the faith is a remarkable tribute to the power of 
that church over a barbarous peo])le. Old chief Pokagoii, whose record 
has come down to us singidarly free from tire usual stains of Indian 
weakness, was a lifelong adherent of the Catholic church, and he and his 
people formed the nucleus and chief support of a church in Silver Creek 

The natives had been subject not only tii the influences of Catholi- 
cism Init to those of Frotestantism. This brings us to the consideration 
of one of the most remarkable institutions of a missionary character that 
the middle west ever knew. Not only the w-ork of religion but many 
secular events and undertakings that concern the early history of north- 
ern Indiana and southwestern Michigan centered around the Baptist 
mission among the Pottawottomies, which was founded near the site 
of Niles in the year 1822. Here gathered the red men to receive re- 
ligious and secular instruction. The councils between the government 
authorities and the chief men of the tribe took place at the mission house. 
This was the destination to which the settler from the east would direct 
his course. After resting and refitting at this point and counseling 
with those who knew the country, the homeseekers would depart in dif- 
ferent directions to locate their pioneer almde. Thus the Carey Mission, 
as it was called, played a very conspicuous part in the history of this 
region. It served to connect the old with the new. It was founded pri- 
marily for the benefit of the Indians, it served their spiritual and often 
their physical needs, and its existence was no longer warranted after the 
Indians had departed. But the Mission was also a buffer to soften the 
impact of civilization upon the Indian regime. Its work in behalf of 
the Indians and settlers alike pushed forward the process of civilization 
and development in this region some years before it otherwise w'ould 
have been attempted. 

The name of Rev. Isaac McCoy has become fixed in history as 
that of one of the most remarkable religious pioneers of the middle west. 
His influence and fame, while centering around the Carey Mission w'hich 
he established, also spread to many parts of the west. Born in Pennsyl- 


vania in 1784, he was taken Yw his parents to the wilderness of Kentucky 
when six years old. There he met and married the gentle Christiana, a 
daughter of Captain Polk, and as faithful co-workers they devoted their 
efforts to a common cause. The people of Cass county ha\'e special 
reason to remember this pioneer missionary's wife, for her name is 
borne by the stream that runs south from the center of the county to a 
junction with the St. Joseph near Elkhart. For a nunilier of years 
Rev. McCo)' was pastor of a church in Indiana, and in 1817 was ap- 
pointed a missionary and undertook his labors among the Indians of 
the western states and territories. 

The founding of the Carey Mission was, in the language of Judge 
Nathaniel Bacon in an address delivered at Niles in 1869, "the pioneer 
step in the way of settlement. It was barely ten years since the massacre 
at Chicago, and aliout the same time after the memorable battle at Tip- 
pecanoe, and the disastrous defeat of our army at Brownstown, when 
this mission was established. Emigration had in a great measure stopped. 
Very few dared to venture beyond the older settlements, until McCoy bold- 
ly entered into the heart of the Indian country, and laegan bis mission 
school among the Pottawottomies who dwelt on the river St. Joseph. 
The fact was soon made known throughout Indiana and Ohio, and at 
once adventurers began to prepare to follow the example of the mis- 
sionary, who had led the way." 

In the same address Judge Bacon cjuoted a report of mission made 
by Major Long of the United States army in 1823. It contained the 
following description of the mission estalilishment : "The Carev Mis- 
sion house is situated about one mile from the river St. Joseph. The 
establishment was erected by the Baptist Missionary Society in Wash- 
ington, and is under the superintendence of the Rev. Mr. McCoy, a man 
whom, from the reports we have heard of him, we should consitler as 
eminently qualified for the important trust committed to him. 

"The spot was covered with a very dense forest seven months be- 
fore the time we visited it, but by the great activity of the superin- 
tendent he has succeeded in the course of this short time in building six 
good log houses, four of which afford comfortable residences for the in- 
mates of the establishment; the fifth is used as a school room, and the 
sixth forms a commodious blacksmith shop. In addition to this they have 
cleared about fifty acres of land, which is nearly all enclosed by a sub- 
stantial fence. Forty acres ha\e already been plowed and planted with 


maize, and every step has been taken to place the estaljhshnient nn an 
independent footing. 

"The school consists of from forty to sixty chihh-en.and it is con- 
templated that it will soon be increased to one hnndred. The plan adcjpted 
appears to be a very judicious one ; it is to unite a practiad and intel- 
lectual education. Tlie boys are instructed in the English language — 
reading, writing and arithmetic. They are made to attend to the usual 
occupations of a farm, and perform every operation connected with it, 
such as plowing, planting, harrowing, etc. In these pursuits they ap- 
pear to take great delight. The system being well regulated, they find 
time for everything. 

"The girls recei\-e the same instruction as the boys, and in addition 
are taught spinning, knitting, weaving and sewing, both plain and orna- 
mental. They are also made to attend to the pursuits of the dairy, 
such as milking cows, making butter, etc. All appear to be very happy, 
and to make as rapid progress as white children of the same age would 
make. Their principal excellence rests in works of imitation. They 
write astonishingly well, and many display great natin\al taste for 

"The institution receives the countenance of the most respectable 
among the Indians. There are in the school two of the great-grandchil- 
dren of To-pen-ne-ljee, the great hereditary chief of the Pottawottomies. 
The Indians \-isit the establishment occasionally and appear well pleased 
\\hh it. They have a flock of one hundred sheep, and are daily e.x- 
]Decting two hundred head of cattle." 

From a later official report, made in 1S26, it appears that the mis- 
sion "has become a familiar resort of the natives, and from the ben- 
efits derived from it in \'arious shapes they begin to feel a dependence 
on and resource in it at all times, and especially in difficult and trying 
occasions. Hiere are at present seventy scholars, in various stages of 
improvement. Two hundred and three acres are now enclosed by 
fences, of which fifteen are in wheat, fifty in Indian corn, eight in pota- 
toes and other vegetable products ; the residue is appropriated to pasture. 

"There have been added to the buildings since my last visit a 
house and a most excellent grist mill, wi irked l.iy horse power. The use- 
fulness of this mill can scarcely be appreciated, as there is no other of 
any kind within one hundred miles at least of this establishment, and 
here as benevolence is the preponderating principle, all the surrounding 
population is benefited," In fact, there were few. if any, of the first 


white settlers of the surrounding country who did not resort to the Mis- 
sion mill to get their grist ground. 

Thus the Indian occupants of the territory of Cass county had 
been taught many of the arts of civilized Hfe before the record of the 
first white settlement in the county is recorded. This dependence on the 
assistance of the white man, while it tended to ameliorate the natiu-ally 
hostile feelings between the races, at the same time subjected the settlers 
to the burden of their improvident neightors as long as they remained 
in the county. 

The Indians found in Cass county at the advent of the white set- 
tlers were in three bands. The chiefs of two of these — Pokagon and 
Weesaw — were prominent characters, reputable and representative men 
of their tribe, and the annals of the time contain frequent mention of 
their names. According to the History of 1882, Pokagon's band, num- 
bering over two hundred, occupied originally the prairie in the western 
part of the county which retains the chief's name. As the settlers came 
in and appropriated the land, the Indians moved from place to place 
in the county, the majority of them finally settling in Silver Creek town- 
ship. ^^'eesaw and his followers had their home in the northeast por- 
tion of the county, on Little Prairie Ronde, in Volinia township. The 
third band of Cass county Indians had as their chief the notorious Shave- 
head — named so because he kept his hair closely cropped except a small 
spot on top of his head and behind. He was a morose, troublesome and 
renegade Indian, never became a party to any of the treaties between 
the whites and Indians and viewed with sullen hostility every advance 
of settlement. 

But long before this time the Indians had formally relinquished their 
claims to the region now occupied by Cass county. The Chicago treaty 
of 182 1 provided for the cession to the United States of all the territory 
lying west and north of the St. Joseph river claimed by the Pottawot- 
tomie Indians. By the later treaty of 1828 all the possessions of the 
tribe withm the territory of Michigan were transferred to the govern- 
ment, with the exception of a reservation of forty-nine square miles in 
Berrien county, west of the St. Joseph and bordered by it. 

In 1833, at Chicago, a treaty was drawn up by the three commis- 
sioners of the United States and the chiefs of the Pottawottomies, among 
whom were Pokagon and Weesaw, by which it was provided that ''All 
the Indians residing on the said reservations (that in Berrien county 
being the principal one) shall remove therefrom within three years from 


this date, during \vliich time tliey sliall not be disturlied in tlieir posses- 
sion, nor in hunting upon the lands as lievetofore. In tlie meantime no 
interruption shall be offered to the survey and sale of the same by the 
United States government." 

Pokagon and his followers would not sign this treaty until thev 
were guaranteed exemption from the clause wh.ich concerned their re- 
moval. It was the cherished desire of Pokagon that his pefiple should, 
remain in "the land of their fathers," and in accordance with this inten- 
tion he jjegan to enter land in Silver Creek township in 1836, and in a 
year or so had about nine hundred acres entered in his name, although 
others of the hand had contrilmted money for its purchase. This was 
the origin of the Indian settlement in Silver Creek township, which, as 
it still continues, will be described elsewhere. 

According to the treaty, the date of remo\-al of the Indians from 
their reservation was set for 1836. When the time came the IndiaiT^ 
protested. There were many delays in executing the plan of the gov- 
ernment. Agents were busy for some time in collecting a census of the 
tribes. It was difficult to assemble the scattered bands preparatory to 
their exile. IMany escaped from the surveillance of the otificers and took 
to hiding until the exodus was accomplished. Some were assisted in 
secreting themselves by the white settlers, who' felt sympathy for them. 
Such an emigration, imj>osed from without, must always excite com- 
miseration. History is full of similar instances, as witness the e.\ile 
of the Acadians made famous in Longfellow's "Evangeline." 

Upon the day appointed for the exodus the Pottawottomies ren- 
dezvoused at Xiles, and under the escort of two companies of United 
States troops moved out on the Chicago road toward their future home 
in distant Kansas. It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these 
children of the forest slowly retiring from the homes of their childhood, 
that contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also 
many endearing scenes to which their memories would e\'er reciu" along 
their pathwav through the wilderness. They felt that they were bidding 
farewell to the hills, valleys and streams of their infancy; to the more 
exciting hunting groutids of their advanced youth, as well as the stern 
and bloody battlefields they had contended for in their manho<^d. All 
these they were leaving l>ehind them to be desecrated by the plowshare 
of the white man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these 
loved scenes that were fading in the distance, tears fell upon the cheek 
of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, and sighs 


and half-suppressed sobs escajjed from the motley groups as they passed 
along. Ever and again one of the party would break out of the train 
and flee to their old encampments on the St. Joseph. In the following 
year these and many of those who had avoided removal hv hiding, were 
collected and taken to their brethren in Kansas. 

Thus departed, with few exceptions, all of the original inhabitants 
of Cass county. From the standpoint of humanity, their mode of exist- 
ence, their ascent in the scale of human development, and their pitiful 
decadence and defeat in the contest against a superior race, will always 
claim a full share of interest. But in the history which tells of progress, 
of building of great cities and empires, of a constantly broadening scope 
of human acivity, the story of the Indian has little place. He has left 
nothing that we ha\e thought worthy of imitation, nothing of a funda- 
mental char;icter on which we might continue to build. On the con- 
trary, in the history of America, the Indian seems almost without ex- 
ception to have been an adverse factor. He must be removed just as 
it has been deemed necessary to remove the forests in order that agri- 
culture might proceed. And fortunate were the settlers of such a region 
as Cass county that this removal was accomplished without a bitter and 
relentless warfare, such as was the inevitable accompaniment of e\'eryi 
advance of white men in the far west. 



Being one of the souUiernmost tier of Michigan counties, any ques- 
ti(in that aft'ected tlie southern houndary of the state is of direct interest 
ti) Cass ciiunty. The county was not organized till 1829 and its settlers 
were comparatively few at that date. But the pioneers of that period 
as well as those who settled here later from other parts of the state were 
well acquainted with the boundary dispute that continued through the 
existence of Michigan as a territory and which culminated in what has 
gone down in history and is still remembered by the oldest inhabitants 
by the name of "the Toledo war." 

Perhaps no one still ali\-e in Cass county can recall from personal 
knowledge any of the events of this very mteresting dispute. But in the 
early thirties the settlement of the southern boundary very nearl}- pre- 
cipitated a civil war and attracted national attention. Had government 
ix)licies taken a little different turn, the southern line of Cass county 
might now embrace the great bend of the St. Joseph river that now 
sweeps through the northern half of Elkhart and St. Joseph counties of 
Indiana, and the boundaiy line between the two states of Michigan and 
Indiana would be ten miles soutli of its present direction. 

If any one will take a map co\ering the area of Indiana, Ohio and 
Michigan, he will see that the northern Ixjundary of Ohio is not on a 
line with the northern boundary of Indiana. The northwest corner of 
Ohio does not join the corner of Indiana, but is further down and runs 
a little upward, or north of due east, and terminates at the most north- 
ern cape of Maumee bay, leaving that bay within the boimds of Ohio. 
The question is, What has made this difference in the boundary lines? 
and the answer involves the history of three dififerent boundaiy line."? 
which ha\e to do intimately with the area of Cass county, or more prop- 
erly speaking, that part of Michigan territory from- which Cass county 
was made. 

In 1778-9 George Rogers Clark, a young Virginian of extraordinary 
character, who has well been called the Hannibal of the west, capturerl 
Kaskaskia and \'incennes, thus cutting ofif the supplies of the Indians. 


He had been sent out by the government of Virginia, and tliat state 
therefore laid claim to all the territory northwest of the Ohio river, 
which was the same territory ceded to Great Britain by France in the 
treaty of 1763. On March i, 1784, through her authorized delegates in 
Congress, Virginia ceded this territory to the United States. She stip- 
ulated that it be divided into states but specified no boundaries. By vir- 
tue of ancient royal charters, New York, Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut also claimed large territories north of the Ohio river, but these 
claims were all transferred to the United States, Connecticut alone re- 
serving a tract which v.'as called the Western Reserve until May 30, 
1800, when she surrendered her jurisdictional claim over this tract to 
the United State?. Thus the general government obtained the juris- 
diction over the Northwest Territory, and of the lands, subject however 
to the proprietaiy rights of the Indians. • 

When Congress assumed the jurisdiction there was no established 
government anywhere in the territory. The French commandants of the 
posts had administered the laws dictated by France, the British succeeded 
them and proclaimed the common law of England to be in force, Vir- 
ginia also had extended her laws, but there were no courts to enforce 
any of them. The question of forming some kind of government for 
the newly acquired territorj^ at once attracted the attention of Congress. 

At first a report was made providing for the formation of the ter- 
ritory- into ten states with fanciful names, but no action was taken upon 
it. This was Thomas Jefferson's scheme. From the time of its ac- 
quirement by the government until 1787, there was no organized control 
over the Northwest Territory. The people who were settling in it were 
left to struggle along as best they could. But on April 23, 1787, a com- 
mittee consisting of Mr. Johnson of Connecticut, Mr. Pinckney of South 
Carolina, Mr. Smith of New York, Mr. Dane of Massachusetts, and 
Mr. Henry of Mar>'land, reported an ordinance for the government of 
the new territory. It was discussed from time to time and very greatly 
amended, and finally, on the 13th of July, it passed Congress. This is 
the celebrated Ordinance of 1787, a document which, next to the Con- 
stitution of the United States, perhaps has occasioned more discussion 
than any other, on account of its sound principles, statesmanlike qual- 
ities and wise provisions. 

It is Article 5 of this ordinance which has most intimately to do 
with our present subject. That article provided for the formation in 
the territory of not less than three nor more than five states, it fixed the 


western, the southern, and the eastern boundaries of what became IHi- 
n.iis, Indiana and Oliio. and then the ordinance said, "If Congress sliall 
find it hereafter expechent, they shall ha\-e authorit}- to form one or two 
states in that jiart of tlie said territory which hes north of an east and 
west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake i\Iich- 
igan." We call special attention to this line, for it is the first boundary 
line with which we have to do, and has been of exceeding great import- 
ance in the so-called b<jundary line dispute. But for a strange combina- 
tion of circumstances and long continued strife, it would have been the 
southern boundary of Michigan. It is called the "ordinance line" because 
it was specified in the great Ordinance of 1787 for the go\-ernnient of 
the Northwest Territory. 

On IMay 7, 1800, Congress divided the Northwest Territory by a 
line running from the mouth of the Kentucky river to Fort Recovery, 
and thence due north to the Canadian line. It will be seen that this 
line is not the same as that prescrilied in the ordinance, which was a line 
from the mouth of the Miami river to Fort Recovery and thence due 
north, making the boundary line due north and south all the way, from 
Canada to the Ohio ri\cr where the ]\Iiami empties into it. The mouth 
of the Kentucky ri\er is several miles west of the mouth of the Miami, 
and a line from the mouth of the Kentucky to Fort Recovery runs east 
of north. This threw a three-cornered piece of territory, shaped like a 
church spire with its base resting on the Ohio river, into Ohio, which, 
when the states were (organized, was included in Indiana according to 
the ordinance, and afterwards Ohio from time to time set up claims to 
this tract. 

All the region east of this line was still to be Northwest Territory, 
and that on the west was erected into the Indiana Territory. It will be 
seen that this di\ision threw about one-half of the Michigan country into 
Indiana and left the other half in the Northwest Territory. 

And now for the first time the ordinance line, the east and west 
line drawn through the southerl_\- bend or extreme of Lake Michigan, 
conies into prominence; for all that portion of the east Michigan country 
which lay north of this line was organized as Wavne County* of the 
Northwest Territory, and its settlers supposed that their fortunes were 
thenceforth identified with those of Ohio. 

The Ordinance of 1787 had provided for the admission into the 
Lhiion of the prospective states of the Northwest Territory as follows : 
"Whenever any of the said states shall have sixty thousand free inhab- 



itants tlierein, such stales shall lie admitted by its delegates into the Con- 
gress of the United States on an equal footing with the original states 
in all respects whatever, and shall he at liberty to form a permanent con- 
stitution and state government, provided the constitution and govern- 
ment so to be formed shall be republican and in conformity to the prin- 
ciples contained in these articles ; and so far as can be consistent with the 
general interests of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at 
an earlier period, and when there shall be a less number of free inhab- 
itants in the state than sixtv thousanfl" (Article 5). 

The Northwest Territory was rapidly filling with settlers, and in 
accordance with the above provision the whole population, including 
Wa^'ne county, were agitating the question of statehood. On April 30, 
1802, Congress passed an enabling act, the first of its kind, according 
to which Ohio might frame a constitution and establish a state govern- 
ment, if it was deemed expedient. In that act the old ordinance line 
running east and west "through to the southerly extreme of Lake Mich- 
igan" was specified as her northern boundary. The Ordinance of 1787 
seemed to prescribe this as the dividing line between the three states 
south of it and the two which might be formed north of it. and so it 
seems to ha\"e Ijeen regarded and accepted at the time. In harmony with 
the enabling act, a con\'ention met at Chillicothe, Ohio, on November 
1st, to frame a constitution ior the new state. It is related in the "His- 
torical Transactions of Ohio" that while the convention was thus en- 
gaged an old hunter whose curiosity led him thither appeared on the 
scene, and, learning of the prescribed boundaries, informed the dele- 
gates that the southern extreme of Lake Michigan lay much farther 
south than they supposed, or than the maps in use indicated. This state- 
ment at once awakened great interest and was the subject of careful 
deliberation. The map used b}- Congress in prescribing the ordinance 
line of 17S7, was the one made by ^Mitchell in 1755. 

This map had been accepted as accurate by the Ohio statemakers, 
until the statement of the old hunter caused them to- pause and consider. 
According to this map a line due east from the southern bend of Lake 
Michigan would strike the Detroit river a little south of Detroit: if, how- 
ever, the old hunters statement was true and the line was farther south, 
Ohio would be deprived of much of her territory. Accordingly, after 
much deliberation, the convention embodied in the constitution the 
boundaries prescribed in the enabling act, but with the following proviso : 
"If the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan should extend so 


far south tliat a line drawn due east from it should not intersect Lake 
Erie east of the Miami (now the Maumee) river of the lakes, then 
* * * with the assent of Congress of the United States, the nortliem 
boundarj- of this state shall he established by, and extend to a line run- 
ning from the southerly extremity of Lake Michigan to the most north- 
erly cape of the Miami (now th& 'Maumee) bay, thence northeast, etc.," 
or straight on tlirough Lake Erie and Ohio to Pennsylvania. With this 
proviso the constitution was adopted on November 29th. 

The congressional committee on the admission of Ohio refused to 
consider this proviso, because, first, it depended on a fact not yet ascer- 
tained, and, second, it was not submitted as were otlier propositions of 
the constitutional convention. Congress, therefore, ignoring the proviso, 
received Ohio into the Union. 

The inhabitants of Wayne county were very indignant that Con- 
gress should specify the ordinance line as the northern boundary of the 
new state. More indignant still were they when Congress received Ohio 
into the Union and left Wayne county out in the cold. They contended 
that it was illegal to treat them thus, that the ordinance of 1787 forbade 
the further division of the Northwest Territory, until the northern part 
of it could be made a state, that to exclude the county from Ohio would 
ruin it. But all their protests were in vain. The reason was a political 
one. The Democrats, or, as they. were then called, the Republicans, had 
just secured the presidency in the election of Tliomas Jefferson. Ohio, 
as admitted into the Union, was on their side; but if Wayne county 
were a part of the state it might be thrown into the ranks of their op- 
ponents, the Federalists. Governor St. Clair declared that to win a 
Democratic state the people of Wayne county had been "bartered away 
like sheep in a market." 

The act enabling the people of Ohio to form a state provided that 
Wayne county might be attached to the new state if Congress saw fit. 
Congress did not see fit, but on the contrary attached it to Indiana Ter- 
ritory, and in 1803 Governor Harrison formed a new Wayne county 
which comprised almost all of what is now Michigan. North and east 
it was bounded by Canada, but on the other sides it was bounded by a 
"north and south line through the western extreme of Lake Michigan" 
and "an east and west line through the southern extreme of the same." 
Here the same old ordinance line appears again, as the southern Ijound- 
ary of what is now Michigan. 

But the Michigari countrv thus united was too strong to remain 


long a part of a territory, and hence, on January n, 1S05, Michigan 
Territory was formed by act of Congress. It was bounded on the west 
by a line extending through the center of Lake Michigan, and on the 
south by a line running east from the southern extreme of the same. 

It will be seen that even at this time Michigan was deprived of a 
strip of land on the west shore of Lake Michigan, which as Wayne 
county Congress had given her. Had she contended for that as persist- 
ently as she did for the strip in Ohio, she would have sought some- 
thing more valuable, for Chicago is situated in that very strip. That 
spot was comparatively worthless then, and the future is hidden from 
states as from individuals. It is interesting, however, to think what 
would have been the result if Michigan had retained the boundary lines 
which she had as Wayne county. 

But the fact which concerns us here is, that the ordinance line ap- 
pears again. After January 11, 1805, and until 1816, Michigan Terri- 
tory's southern boundary was a line running due east and west from 
the southern extreme of Lfike Michigan ; and though it had not yet been 
ascertained accru'ately just where that line would come out in Ohio, 
enough was known about it to make not only Ohio but the people of 
Indiana object very strongly to the southern boundary of Michigan Ter- 
ritory, as public documents abundantly show. 

The boundary dispute was now transferred to Ohio. No sooner 
had tlie Ohiij congressmen taken their seats after her admission into the 
Union, tiian they began working to secure formal congressional assent 
to their proviso about the boundary line. Senator Worthington secured 
the chairmanship of a committee to consider the question, but tO' no pur-' 
pose ; both houses of Congress were unmoved. The boundary of so 
distant a state was an unimportant matter. When the territory of Mich- 
igan was organized, effort to have the neglected proviso confirmed was 
again made, but in vain ; and the southern line of the territory was de- 
scribed precisely as Ohio did not wish. The Ohio, in session after ses- 
sion of her legislature, instructed her congressmen to endeavor to secure 
the passage of a law defining the northern boundary line of their state. 
It was certainly quite necessary that this be done. The lands near the 
rapids of the Miami (now the Maumee) had recently been ceded to the 
government by the Indians and were rapidly filling with settlers. Mich- 
igan magistrates exercised authority over the district, while the presi- 
dent had appointed a collector to reside at the Rapids, describing the 
place as in Ohio. 


The appeals of Ohin became sn urgent that Congress was willing- 
to consider the matter. Representative Mnrrow of Ohio proposed a bill 
confirming the northern boundary as specified in the constitution of his 
state, and was made chairman of a committee to consider the question. 
But the bill which passed provided for surveying the boundary as estab- 
lished by the enabling act of 1802, the ordinance line. Congress had not 
sufficient knowledge of the country to \-enture to change the line, and 
it is probable that the line prescribed in the ordinance of 1787 was re- 
garded as in\iolable. The bill to survey the Ijoundary was passed in 
1812, when, the go\-ernment was engaged with hostile Indians and with 
the war against England, and hence nothing was done for three years, 
or until 1815, and even tlien l:)ut little was accomplished. Had the 
survey been made at once, before the disputed strip became more pop- 
ulous, the question might have been settled ; but during the delay the 
tide of immigration was pouring into the Miami region, and the ques- 
tion of jurisdiction was becoming more and more important. Again the 
Ohio authorities tirged the survey of the state line, and the president 
ciiiiiplied w^ith the request and ordered it to be done according to the act 
of 1812. The sur\-ey was made in 1816. The surveyor general of 
Ohio employed a Mr. Harris to run the line: ncit. however, according 
to the president's directiiifi but according to the proviso of the Ohio state 
constitution, from the southern extreme of Lake Michigan to the north- 
ernmost cape of Maumee bay. The Harris line is the second of the 
boundary lines that pertain to our present discussion. 

The third soon appeared. On April 19, 1816. Congress passed the 
enabling act for the admission of Indiana as a state, fixing the northern 
boundary by a line drawn due east and west "ten miles north of the 
southern extreme of Lake Michigan." Indiana was required to ratify 
this boundary, which she did by a duly elected convention which sat 
at Corydon. June 10 to 19. 1816, and framed a constitution, and she was 
formally admitted into tlie Union on Decemlier iith. 

Moving the boundary to the north cut off from Michigan a strip 
ten miles wide and one hundred miles long, which she claimed had been 
guaranteed her by the ordinance of 1787, and by several other acts of 
Congress ; but she allowed the act to pass unchallenged at the time, 
probably because she was engaged in her contention with Ohio, and lie- 
cause the strip thus taken away from her was sparsely settled and little 
known. To justify depriving Michigan of her territory in this manner 
it was argued tliat the ordinance of 1787 expressly stipulated that the 


Ijomnlaries it laid dciwn would be subject to clianges wliich Congress 
afterwards might make, and Michigan was only a territory — that Indi- 
ana needed not only river comnumication with the south Ijut lake com- 
munication with the north — that this would facilitate and encimrage the 
building of connecting canals and the influx of settlers by wa\' of the 
lakes — that the ordinance line of 1787 would deprive Indiana of all 
this and give all the lake frontage to Michigan; and, moreover, that if 
shut out from northern waters, then, in case of national disruption, the 
interests of Indiana would be to join a western or southern confederacy. 
This ten-mile strip thus given w Indiana in no way aiYected the in- 
terests of Cass county. excei)t from the standpoint of speculative history. 
\Vhen this boundary was decided on, there were no settlers in the region 
now called Cass county, and few, if any, in all the strip in cjuestion. 
But had Ohio's victory in the contention that the Harris line should 
form the inter-state boundary also pre\'ailed to establish the northern 
line of Indiana, it is possible that Cass count}' might have embraced a 
quite different area of country from what it does to-day. 

As soon as General Cass, governor Michigan Territory, heard that 
Ohio had surveyed the Harris line, he wrote to the surveyor general of 
that state, asking why the line was not run due east from the southern 
extreme of Lake Michigan, and saying that a disputed jurisdiction was 
one of the greatest of evils, and that the sooner the business was in- 
vestigated the better. To this General Tiffin of Ohio replied that Harris 
had found the southern extreme of Lake Michigan to be mcn-e than seven 
miles south of the northernmost cape of Miami (or Maumee) bay, and 
that he had run the line between the two points. He sent General Cass 
a map illustrating the two lines, saying that the proper authority should 
decide which shorvld govern, but for his part he believed that the Harris 
line was the true one, because it was according to Ohio's proviso, and 
the state had been received into the Union with that proviso in her con- 

Hearing of this correspondence, the governor of Ohio sent to his 
next legislature a message urging that the matter be settled at once, 
and that body settled it as well as tliey could by passing a resolution to 
the effect that Congress had accepted the proviso in accepting the con- 
stitution of Ohio, and therefore that the northern boundary of the state 
was the Harris line. Hearing of this, acting Governor Woodbridge, 
in the absence of Governor Cass, wrote to the governor of Ohio, assur- 
ing him that the act was unconstitutional. He also wrote to John 


( )i.unc\- Adams, tlieu secretary of state, and there was sume \'ery strong 
correspondence on the subject, too extensi\'e to include liere. 

Illinois Territory had been formed in 1809. It included all the 
country north to the Canadian line: that is, what is now ^Visconsin and 
a part of Minnesota. In 1818 the legislature of Illinois passed a reso- 
lution requiring Nathaniel Pope, the delegate in Congress, to present the 
petition for admission into the Union. The committee to which that pe- 
tition was referred instructed Pope to prepare a bill for the admission 
of the new state. On April i8th of the same year. Congress passed an 
enabling act and provided that Illinois might elect delegates to a conven- 
tion to frame a state constitution. Illinois elected her delegates in July 
and they were authorized to meet in convention in August following "and 
if deemed expedient to form a constitution and state government, the 
same to be republican in form and not repugnant to the ordinance of 
1787, excepting so much thereof as related to the boundaries of the 
states therein formed." This exception was very important. It seems 
that the bill for the admission of Illinois had specified the ordinance line 
as the northern boundary, but this exception permitted Delegate Pope 
to amend the bill for admission, so that the northern boundary was 
mo\-ed up to where it is now. Thus was the ordinance line ignored 
against the contention of Michigan, and the northern boundary of Illi- 
nois moved about si.xty miles to the north. This helped to keep the 
boundaiy dispute before the people. Michigan's constant contention had 
been that the ordinance line was the true one, that Congress had no • 
right to change it, and that it should be the lower boundary of the 
northern tier of states w'est of Lake Michigan as well as east. 

In 1818 the governor and judges of Michigan Territory protested 
against Ohio's claims to the disputed strip, and also against the right 
of Congress to give to Indiana a strip lying further west. They knew 
it was too late to alter the northern boundary of the new state, but they 
said, "Wt take this away to preserve the just rights of the people of 
this tei'ritory * * * tliat it may not hereafter be supposed that they 
ha\-e acquiesced in the changes which have been made." They left the 
final decision to the future, as they said, "when the people of this country 
can be heard by their own representatives.'' 

The dispute with Ohio was another matter. There the contested 
strip lay in the most fertile region, near the center of population of 
Michigan, and the question of possession must continually arise. In 
18 18 the authorities of Michigan Territory sent to Congress a memorial 


stating that tlie line run by Harris was not the one whicli Congress liad 
ordered marked, but anotlier running" se\'eral miles further north. Tliey 
jilso sent a committee to Washington to press the claims of the terri- 
tory. In response. President Monroe, under the advice of a house com- 
mittee, directed that the northern boundary of Ohio be marked according 
to the provisions of the act of May 20, 1812. Mr. Harris declined to 
do the work; and so, in 1820. one Fulton was commissioned, who ran 
the line due east and west from the most southerly bend or extreme of 
Lake Michigan. The Fulton line was not a new one, but the old ordi- 
nance line correctly surveyed. Two years later the president notified 
Congress that the northern boundary of Ohio had Ijeen marked according 
to the law of 1S12. The Ohio members complained that the Fulton line 
had been run not by order of Congress but at the request of General 
Cass, and asked to have it re-marked according to the Harris sui-vey. 
The house refused, but neglected to declare the line marked by Fulton 
to be the true boundary. Thus the matter apparently was as far from 
being settled as ever. 

In 182 1 the Ottawa, Chippewa and Pottawottomie Indians ceded 
to the United States their lands east of the south bend of the St. Joseph 
river and north of the ordinance or Fulton line,- and in 1826 the Potta- 
wottomies ceded their lands west of the river and north of the same 
line. This use by the government of the ordinance line as a boundary 
encouraged Michigan to hope in its stability. 

In 1826 there was much excitement over the matter. The Ohio 
delegation to Congress secured the appointment of a committee to con- 
sider the expediency of marking the line dividing Ohio from Michigan 
Territory, this time not claiming that it be done according to their con- 
stitutional proviso. Probably they were becoming wary. The proposal 
was not considered, but Michigan was on the alert. In her next council 
she voted to instruct her delegate in Congress to prevent any change in 
the territorial boundary, and announced that she had "acquired absolute 
vested rights" by the Ordinance of 1787 and the Act of 1805. A little 
later, in 1827, Michigan organized the township of Port Lawrence in 
the very heart of the disputed tract without causing any protest from 
Ohio. The battle for the present was to be fought in Congress. 

In 1827 a bill was passed without difficulty providing for the mark- 
ing of the northern boundary of Indiana. This was the first time it 
had been surveyed. The line was run by E. P. Hendricks, under the 


autliority of the surveyor general of the United States, and the work was 
begun in Octoljer, 1827. 

JJy 1 83 1 the boundary question began to assume a serious aspect. 
The Ohio legislature petitioned Congress for a speedy and permanent 
establishment of the dividing line between that state and the territory of 
Michigan. Governor Cass was anxious. He sent to the council of the 
territory a very serious message referring briefly to the attempt of certain 
counties to separate from the territory, and to the possession by Indiana 
of a portion of the territory. He advised against urging any claim 
to the latter, as Indiana was already in possession, and it was better to 
leave the tract unclaimed until Michigan too should be a member of the 
tribunal which must decide the ciuestion. But with regard to Ohio he 
urged sending to Congress a memorial which would state the rights 
antl sentiments of the people of the territory. Before referring the 
matter to Congress, the legislative council authorized Governor Cass to 
negotiate with the governor of Ohio with a view to a compromise, 
which he did ; but as this was in vain, a memorial was sent to Congress. 
About the same time the legislature of Ohio memorialized Congress, 
and for the first time outlined their claims. The result was the passage 
of an act to provide for the determining of the latitude of the southern 
end of Lake Michigan and otlier points, preparatory to an adjustment 
of the Ohio and Michigan boundary. 

The year 1833 marked the begimiing of the end, the contest was on 
antl \\axe(l warmer until the people of the two states faced each other 
in battle array, and both defied the central government as only the se- 
ceding states have ever dared to do. Both parties were active, there was 
a sharp and continued contest in Congress ; there were memorials and 
counter memorials. 

On the nth of December, 1833, Michigan made her first formal 
petition for admission into the Union, which was refused. In 1835 she 
tried again with the same result. She had more than the requisite 
number of inhabitants, no one doubted that she should be admitted, but 
many doubted the right of admission with the boundaries which she so 
uncompromisingly claimed. 

Failing in the second attempt to olitain permission to form them- 
selves into a state, the people of Michigan determined to go on without 
permission. In January, 1835, the legislative council called a convention 
to meet the following May, to "form for themselves a constitution and; 
state government," which they did. Meantime Congress was consider- 


ing the matter of the disputed line. The senate passed a bill according 
to the desire of Ohio-, Indiana and Illinois, which was killed in the 
house by John Quincy Adams. Indiana and Illinois had turned against 
Michigan, because her insistence that Congress had no right to disre- 
gard the fundamental provisions of the Ordinance of 1787 made them 
fear that their own northern lines might be in danger; since both had 
been run regardless of the ordinance. 

^\^^en the people of Michigan heard that the senate had passed a 
bill according to the views of Ohio, there were rumors of war. Mich- 
igan declared to Congress that she woitld submit the question to the 
supreme court, but until a decision was reached she would resist, "let 
the attempt be made by whom it may, all efforts to rob her of her soil 
and trample on her rights." She offered to negotiate with Ohio' and 
Indiana regarding their conflicting claims. Indiana ignored it, and Ohio 
declined it ; but instead the governor of Ohio advised that the counties 
of the state be extended to a line running from the southern extremitv of 
Lake Michigan to the most northern cape of Maumee liay. The advice 
was promptly accepted, the legislature passed an act to that effect, and 
directed the governor to appoint three commissioners to survev and re- 
mark the Harris line. The people of the disputed tract desired it. They 
wished to come under the jurisdiction of Ohio. The Miami canal was 
in process of construction, from the mouth of the Maumee to Cincin- 
nati, and the settlers desired to secure the full benefit of it. 

Two weeks before this, the council of Michigan had passed an act 
to prevent the exercise of foreign jurisdiction within the limits of the 
territory of Michigan. Governor Lucas now sent to acting Governor 
Mason of Michigan a copy of his message to the Ohio legislature, and the 
latter issued orders to Brigadier General Joseph W. Brown, of the ^lich- 
igan militia, and prepared to resist Ohio by force. The blood of each 
part)- was up, each claimed to be a sovereign state and each resented in- 
terference by tlie national government, though Michigan was willing to 
await a decision of the supreme court. On the first of April General 
Brown and a force of volunteers had already encamped at Mom'oe, 
just nortli of the contested strip, and he was now joined by Governor 
Mason. On April second Governor Lucas and stafif. and the commis- 
sion to re-mark the Harris line, accompanied by General Bell and his 
troops, arrived at Perrysburg, just south of the contested strip. The 
election of officers in the disputed strip, under the auspices of Ohio, 
passed off quietlv : the tug- of war would come when th-^"'-!" officers at- 


tempted to exercise their functions: tlien ]\Iichigan -woulil Ijegin civil 
processes against them, and hack it up if necessary by force of arms. 
The rival governors had recei\'ed notice from President Jackson 'that 
he had sent peace commissioners who were on the way. Governor Mason 
now wrote to Governor Lucas asking him to desist from enforcing the 
Ohio kuv until the president's mediators appeared. Lucas did not deign 
to reply by writing, but sent an oral message saving he had already written 
to the president a letter which would prevent interference, and that Ohio 
did not desire the ser\ice of mediators. 

.\t this juncture the mediators appeared. Richard Rush, of Phil- 
adelphia, and Benjamin C. Howard, of Baltimore, had traveled night 
and day, which meant much in those days, and on April third they arrived 
in Toledo. They sought by diplomacy to appease the wrath of each gov- 
ernor, but failed. The men elected under the Ohio act were beginning 
to assume office, civil processes were issued against them under the Mich- 
igan act, and General Brown, with his forces, was readv to execute 

The people of the disputed strip were between two fires, and yet 
their fortunes were liound up with the government of Ohio. They 
begged the Ohio authorities to protect them. The commission to surv-ey 
the boundary line Ijcgan to run the Harris line, and had proceeded as 
far west as Tecumseh, where Ohio people say they were attacked, Mich- 
igan people that they were arrested. Governor Lucas called an extra 
session of his legislature to increase his army. The peace commissioners 
proposed that Ohio run her line, and that there be concurrent jurisdic- 
tion until settlement bv the federal judiciary. Lucas consented to both. 
Mason was willing to let the line be run, liut spurned the idea of concur- 
rent jurisdiction. 

A[ length the Ohio legislature voted to abide by the proposals of 
the peace cummissioners if the United States would compel Michigan 
to do so ; but as a safeguard Ohio passed an act against kidnappers, and 
appropriated $300,000 to carry out her plans. During the same time the 
Michigan constitutional convention was in session at Detroit, and de- 
clared that Ohio might run the line, but no authorit_\- on earth save that 
of the United States should be exercised in the disputed strip. Ohio be- 
grm to carry out the proposal of concurrent jurisdiction, resulting in 
renewed preparations for war. On the se\-enth c.f Sejitember. 1835, ^^^^ 
Ohio iudges went to hold court at Toledo. Again troojis \\'ere mus- 
tered on both sides. But the court was held at midnight, and adjourned 


just as tlie Michigan forces came up. Tlie troops were therefore dis- 
persed : tlie people on eitlier side, from many considerations, were as 
wilhng to follow their leaders to peace as to war. the Toledo war, or 
the Governor Lucas war. was over, and the dispute was destined to he 
settled by politicians nt \\'ashington. 

President Jackson had submitted the bnundary dispute to Attorney 
General Butler, who had decided that the disputed strip belonged to 
JMichigan. John Ouincy Atlams also, then secretary of state, said, 
"Never in the course of my life have I known a controversy of which all 
the right was so clearly on one side and all the power so ovenvhelminglv 
on the other, where the temptation was so intense to take the strongest 
side, and the duty of taking the weakest was so thankless." 

But the president was in a difficulty. The following year a presi- 
dential election would occur, and he desired that Martin Van Buren be 
the successful candidate. Indiana and Illinois, each of whicli states of 
course preferred its more northern boundary, naturally sympathized with 
Ohio. These three states had a large number of votes. On the other 
hand Michigai:, though having a state government, was only a terri- 
tory. Again, Arkansas as well as Michigan aspired to statehood, and 
the administration was anxious to have both admitted in time to vote 
at the next presidential election, as lx)th were supposed to be Democratic. 
Moreover, one was a slave state and the other a free state, and if only 
one were admitted the other would take ofifensc. Clearh- the onlv way 
to remove all difficulties was to settle the boundary dispute. The de- 
cision of the attorney general, though seeking to be just to Michigan, 
pointed out to the president that he might remove Governor Mason, and 
appoint for Michigan a governor who would not violate the law and yet 
who would not push matters to violence, until the question could be 
settled by Congress, an expedient to which the president finally resorted. 
This occasioned John Ouincy Adams to say that the attorney general's 
decision "was perfumed with the thirty-five electoral votes of Ohio, Indi- 
ana and Illinois."' 

Acts for the admission of both states were approved June 15, 1836. 
Arkansas was admitted unconditionally, but ^Michigan on condition that 
she give the di.sputed strip to Ohio, and receive as compensation the 
upper peninsula. In a convention at .\nn Arbor on the fourth Monday 
in September, Michigan rejected these conditions by a strong majority. 
But her senators and representatives were anxious to take their seats in 
the national Congress, men at Washington feared losing money on lands 


sold in Michigan, the administration was anxious to have the state ratify 
the act for her admission, and all these interested parties brought pressure 
to hear. Argimients in favor of the state's yielding were put in circula- 
tiiin and after much shrewd management a pipular cnnvcntinn was held 
at Ann .\rhor on Decemher 14th. which assented to the terms of the act 
of admission. This convention was not duly called, and it acted wholly 
without the proper authority ; hut strange to say, both houses of Con- 
gress by large majorities passed an act approved January 26, 1837, ac- 
cepting this convention as meeting the requirements of the case, and so 
Michigan was admitted into the Union. 

But for some years Michigan did not relincpiish her claims to her 
lost tracts of lan<l. In 1838 and again in 1842, the cpiestion was brought 
uj) in the I\Iichigan legislature, and eminent lawyers were consulted as 
to her right to the disputed tracts. And it is probable that she would 
have made a legal test of the question long ago but for the development 
of the immense wealth of her mines in the upper peninsula, which had 
been given her as a compensation for what she lost to Ohio. Tbis de- 
velopment began about the year 1845, '*"'' ?-ocm convinced her that her 
lost strips bore no comparison in value td the rich mining region which 
she had acquired. 

Such are the three boundary lines; first, tlie ordinance line, the 
Fulton line, or, as it is also called, the old Indian lioundary; second, the 
Karris line; and third, the Hendricks' line, which is the iiresent state line 
between Michigan and Indiana. From the foregoing we may see that 
the location of the line which now forms the south boundar}- of Cass 
county and of the state has been of exceeding great importance in the 
history of the Northwest, being the occasion of a dispute which lasted 
for fort}--nine years, through twelve administrations, extending o\-er the 
periods of se\'en jiresidents, and \\hich occasioned great contention, em- 
ploying much of the Ijest talent of the country, engaging many of our 
strongest characters, and very nearly resulting in a bloody war. 



In writing history tlie events and the personages of the past always 
fill more of the canvas than is given to the affairs and actors of the period 
within our ready remembrance. "No one has written a true histon- of 
his own generation." Events that are near deceive us because of their 
very proximity. To obtain their true relation to each other, all objects, 
historical as well as material, must be viewed "in perspective." We may 
chronicle events of a recent date, or place in some sort of statistical 
order the various activities and their representatives ; but to do more is 
to incur the risk of having all such historical judgments set aside in 
the future. 

There is another reason, not based on the historical difficulty just 
slated, why "first things" should receive a seemingly disproportionate 
share of our attention. It is to the pioneer generation of everv locality 
that its present inhabitants ow-e most of the advantages they enjoy. The 
American youth of to-day enters into the full use of a magnificent heritage 
that has teen won only through the toil and struggle of others. He 
begins life among luxuries that hardly existed in the wildest dreams of 
his ancestors. All the superstructure of civilization, its home and insti- 
tutional life, rests upon a foundation laid at the cost of tremendous self- 
sacrifice and effort by generations that have passed or are now passing. 

It is with this in mind that we should view- the actors and e\'ents of 
the pioneer past. With them the histor\' of Cass county began. The work 
they Ijegan and the influences they set in motion have not ceased to 
Idc operative to the present time. Character is pervasive and continuous, 
and the character of our pioneers has not yet spent its force in Cass 

Of transient residents within the borders of the present Cass county 
there were many. Perhaps some of the followers of La Salle got this far 
in the closing years of the eighteenth century. French trappers and ex- 
plorers and missionaries certainly were birds of passage during the fol- 
lowang century. Then, after the countrv passed from French to English 
control in 1763, there must have been some under the protection of the 


Union Jack \\lio ventured far from the strongholds of settlement into 
this then untamed wilderness. ,\d\'enturers of all nationalities explored 
the regiijn. 

But the only person who would have penetrated this country for 
husiness reasons was tlie trapper and fur-gatherer. Several are named 
who pur.sued this vocation within the limits of Cass county. One Zac- 
cheus W'linden, who penetrated the lake region of southern Michigan and 
set his traps among the lakes of Cass county as early as 1S14, w^as in the 
employ of John Jacob Ast(ir, who at that time, in rivalry with the 
British fur companies on the north, was spreading his fur-gathering 
activity throughout the western territory of the United States. There 
were doubtless many engaged in similar pursuits with Wooden wdio 
likewise at different times had their headquarters in Cass count}-. But 
this class can hardly be called settlers, and it is tmly necessary to call 
attention to the fact that there were such men. 

One other type of early resident may be mentioned before we i>ro- 
ceed to consider the "permanent settlers." There come down to us in 
the history of every community several instances of "relapses" from 
civilization — men who, because of natural aversion to their fellow men, 
by reason of some sorrow or the commissi(in of crime, turned their backs 
to the life in which they had been reared and severing all connection with 
social usages thenceforth chose to li^•e apart from the w^orld and bury 
their existence and their deeds in the depths of the wilderness. Of these 
restless wanderers, haunting the midshores between civilization and bar- 
barism, and making common cause with the Indians and other creatures 
of the wild, one example may be given. 

The story of the eccentric, misanthropic Job Wright is well told 
in the Cass county history of 1882. Born in North Carolina, he was 
the first settler of Greenfield, Ohio, in 1 799. He built a log cabin there, 
and, like the literary Thoreau, satisfied his slender needs by making hair 
sieves. The wire sieve not yet having been introduced, he found a good 
market for his products in the households of the neighborhood. But it 
was contrai-y to his nature to follow this or any other pursuit on a per- 
manent business basis, and with enough ahead for his wants in the 
immediate future he turned to the more philosophic, if less profitable, 
occupation of fishing. According to the account, he "followed it with a 
perseverance and patience worthy of his biblical protonym and with a 
degree of success of which even Isaak Walton might be proud." 

Job soon found that his happy environment was being taken away 


from him. The woods and meadows that had existed without change 
throughout the centuries were being occupied by an energetic people. 
Even the streams were being obstructed to furnish power to grind the 
settler's corn, and the fish felt their imprisonment and were leaving. Tlie 
countrs' was getting crowded. It was no place for a lover of nature in 
its first dress. The Indians had gone, the deer were leaving, and it was 
not long before ci\-ilization cro\\ded Job farther west. 

Various corners of the world knew him after that, but the virgin 
wilderness was always his best loved home. Onlv the promptiiigs of 
patriotism brought him forth to serve his country in the war of 1812. 
Then he returned to his wanderings. He is said to -have made his ap- 
pearance in Cass county in 1829, very naturally selecting as his location 
the island in Diamond Lake. He built a small log cabin near the north 
end of the island, and for some time lived there as a "squatter," but 
finally entered the land, when there appeared to be danger that it might 
pass intO' the hands of some one else. 

At his island home Job led, the greater part of the time, a hermit's 
life. Diu-ing a portion of the time he spent upon his little domain, 
however, hi=; mother, son and son's wife, whom he brought from Ohio, 
lived witli liim. Jnl) Wright was tall and gaunt, but powerful. His hair 
was red and lie wore a long beard. On one hand he had two thumbs, 
and claimed that this peculiar formation was the badge and token of 
the gift of prophecy and other endowments of occult power. By many 
persons he was said to have a knowledge of witchcraft, and they re- 
lated, with impressive confidence, how he could stop the flowing of blood 
by simply learning the name and age of the person whose life was en- 
dangered, and pronouncing a brief incantation. Most of his time was 
spent in hunting and fishing, but he cultivated a small part of the island, 
raising a little corn and a few vegetables for his ov\'n use. 

Despite his isolation in the center of the lake, he was very much 
disturbed by the rapid settlement of the surrounding country. He again 
set out on his wanderings. But the years had now laid their weight 
upon him and denied him the strength of middle age. He returned to 
his island refuge, where, amid the trees and in sight of the sparkling 
water, he soon passed away. 

The rest of the account reads as follows: "A few friends and ac- 
quaintances among the settlers of the neighborhood, not more that a 
dozen in all, followed the remains of the old recluse to the Cassopolis 
burying ground. George 3. Turner, passing, and happening to notice 


the little knot of men gathered about an open grave, was led by curios- 
ity- to join them. There was no minister present. The preparations were 
all made, and the rude whitewnod coffin was about to be lowered into 
the ground when one of the men, a rough-spoken luit tender-hearted 
and humane nld farmer, uttered a suggestion to the effect that some re- 
marks ought to lie made before the remains of a fellow mortal were 
laid away to rest. He called upon Mr. Turner, who, after a moment's 
hesitation, stepping upon the little mound of fresh earth at the side of 
the grave, delivered Job Wright's funeral sermon. 

"The secret of the cause which had driven the eccentric pioneer to 
this life of seclusion was buried with him." 

In discussing the first settlements of Cass county, the presence of 
the near-bv Carey Mission must be constantly borne in mind. We 
have alluded to the importance of that establishment in rendering the 
surrounding country more ax-ailable for settlement. The ^lission was 
the radiating point for the streams of settlers. \\'hile prospecting for a 
suitable location, the homeseeker would make his headquarters at the 

It is due to this fact that the first settlements in Cass county were 
made on the western edge ni the county. The pioneers entered the 
countv from die west, not fr(.im the snuth or east, as might be supposed. 

The beautiful Pokagon prairie, in the township of the same name, 
was the spot selected by the first permanent settler of Cass county. The 
man who will always be honored as the first citizen of the county was 
I'zziel Putnam. Right wnrthy he was to bear this distinction. It would 
seem not to have been a futile chance that directed him toward this re- 
gion. The qualitv of his character had nothing in common with the 
restless Job Wright. A purpose supplemented by all the rugged vir- 
tues of the true pioneer directed him in the choice of a home in this then 

He came of a stock fit to furnish pathfinders and builders of a new 
country. Bom in Wardsboro, Vermont. March 17, 1793, inheriting the 
peculiar strength and courage of the Green Mountain New Englander, 
when f(Xirteen years old he moved with his parents to western New 
York, .\fter serving a full apprentice period with a clothier, he proved 
his fitness for the hardships of a new country liy making a journey of 
fi\-e hundred miles, most of the way on foot, to the home of his parents, 
who had located near Sandusky. Ohio. He experienced in youth all 
the disadvantages of poverty, but tliere is little account to be made of 


this, for in a new country a manly strength and the homely virtue of 
patient industry were the best capital. While in Ohio he was a soldier 
in the war of 1812. In 1822 he married Ann Chapman, with whom he 
lived more than a half century, and their pioneer experiences were en- 
dured together. 

As early as 182 1 the fame of the valley of the St. Joseph had been 
carried by Indians, trappers and traders to the frontier settlements in Ohio, 
and it excited in the minds of the many adventurous individuals a desire 
to explore the region and to substantiate the representations made of its 
beauty, fertility and natural resources. Among the number was Bald- 
win Jenkins, who, leaving Ohio in October, 1824, pursued his investi- 
gations in northern Indiana and about the St. Joseph in Cass and Ber- 
rien counties, after which he returned home. Another was Abram 
Townsend, who in the same year as Jenkins visited the valley of the 
St. Joseph, and on his return tO' his home in Sandusky county, Ohio, gave 
a most flattering account of what he had seen, and announced his inten- 
tion to remove with his family to Pbkagon prairie. His praises of the 
region were echoed by an Indian trader named Andrus Parker, who 
had also explored along the course of the St. Joseph. 

Among those who listened with interest to the narratives of Town- 
send and others was Uzziel Putnam, then thirty-two years old and in 
the prime of his strength. He was foremost among the many who be- 
came convinced that the fertile region about the Carey Mission held in 
waiting the opportunities that his ambition craved. And having made 
up his mind to emigrate to the Michigan country, he at once began to get 
ready for the long and difficult journey. 

He was not alone in this undertaking. When the eventful journey 
began on the 17th of May, 1825, the party consisted of Putnam with his 
wife and child, and Abram Townsend and son Ephraim, and Israel 
Markbam. A most detailed description would not enable us to under- 
stand and appreciate the arduousness of such a journey. Their custom- 
made wagon, strong though it was, was hardly equal to the strain put 
upon it by its great load of domestic goods and by the roughness of the 
way. Three yoke of oxen furnished the traction, and between sunrise 
and sunset they had often advanced not more than seven or eight miles. 
Rains constantly hindered them, the wagon mired down in the unbeaten 
way that they chose in lieu of anything like a modern highway, which, 
ot course, did not exist. The bad roads and the heavy pull caused the 
oxen to go lame, with conseciuent delays. And in the end it was found 


necessary to improvise a bark canoe and transport most of the goods by 
\\ater to l-'ort Wayne. 

Through the gloom of rainy days, the vexatious delays caused by 
mud and accident, and the constant fatigue and exposure inseparable 
from sucli a journey, the courage of the pioneers was all the more lus- 
trous; their patient perseverance the more admirable; and the more in- 
spiring is their success in overcoming all obstacles and finally making 
a home in the wilderness — not for themselves alone, but for all future 
generations. The journey of the I'utnam party was tyijical. Thou- 
sands of pioneers, both before and after, had similar experiences, and 
we dwell some\\hat at length on those of the first Cass county settler to 
illustrate some of the ditficulties that were as a matter of course in the 
opening of a new country to civilization. 

But finall}' they reached the land they sought. Crossing the St. 
Joseph at the mouth of the Elkhart, and following the track by way of. 
Cobert's creek and Beardsley's prairie, they reached in safety the cabin 
of William Kirk, which then stood about sixty rods east of the present 
railroad depot at Niles. On the following day Baldwin Jenkins (who 
had alread)- arri\ed on the scene) and Mr. Kirk pik.ited Putnam and 
Townsend through the woods to Pokagon prairie, a distance of six 
miles, where they examined the ground and selected places for farms. 
They found small bands of Pottawottomies living on the prairie, and 
when they explained to Chief Pokagon their wish to settle there and 
cultivate the land, the old Indian objected, saying that tlie Indians' corn 
would be destroyed by the settlers" cattle and that his people would 
move oft in the fall tO' their hunting grounds, after which the whites 
could come and build their houses. 

i\Ir. Putnam, ha\-ing selected his location, now returned to Fort 
Wayne and in the last days of October brought his family and the rest 
of his goods to the new settlement, reaching ]Mr. Kirk's after a week's 

The 22nd day of November, 1S25, is the date fLxed for the first 
permanent settlement in Cass county. On that day Uzziel Putnam moved 
his fanrily into his new home on Pokagon prairie, and from that time 
until his death on July 15, 1881, this pioneer had his residence on the 
Ijeautiful prairie which it was his privilege to see become the home of 
many prosperous and happy people. His first house was a shanty twelve 
feet square, covered with bark and without floor or chimney, which Mr. 
Markham had put up for his convenience while cutting hay there during 


the previous summer. Poor as this sheher was they remained in it until 
Mr. Putnam had completed a new and more comfortable one. Even 
the new one at first had neither floor, door nor windows. All the tim- 
bers had to be hewn into shape with an ax or cut with a hand saw, 
since there was no sawmill within a hundred miles. 

Six days after ]\Ir. Putnam mo\'ed into this rough cabin on Poka- 
gon prairie, Baldwin Jenkins located in the same neighborhood, a short 
distance north of Sumnerville. where he is said to have utilized an 
Indian wigwam as a place of abode during the winter. As already men- 
tioned, he had arrived at the Mission some time before Mr. Putnam, 
and during the summer had succeeded in raising a small crop of com 
near by. In the fall he returned to Ohio, and brought his family over- 
land to Pokagon, arriving just a little too late to be regarded as the 
first settler. 

At this time it is said there were but nine families in Cass and 
Berrien counties, excepting those at the Mission — two in Cass and 
seven in Berrien. 

Before gi'ing further in the settlement of this region, a few words 
might be said concerning the life of the second settler of Cass county, 
Baldwin Jenkins. His was an unusual character, in an age and country 
that called for distinctive attributes of mind and body. Born in Greene 
county, Pennsylvania, October 4, 1783, he lived to be sixty-two years 
old. At the age of sixteen he accompanied the family to the timber re- 
gion of middle Tennessee, where he had the training and environment 
of a frontiersman. To avoid slavery the famil_\' later moved to Ohio, 
and from there Baldwin made his various ji:>urneys of investigatiiin to 
the west, and eventually moved out to Michigan. He was one of the 
largest land owners among the early settlers. Possessed of that broad 
spirit of hospitality which was the noblest characteristic of new coun- 
tries, his home, situated on the direct line of emigration, became a noted 
stopping place for travelers and homeseekers, from whom he would 
receive no compensation. He carried this hospitality to such an extent 
that the products of his farm and labor were largely consumed by the 
public. He possessed great confidence in his fellow settlers, loaning 
them money, selling them stock and farm products on time, without re- 
quiring written obligations and charging no interest. He was a man 
of parts. In religion he was a devout member of the Baptist church. 
He had a remarkably retenti\-e memory, and his mind was an encvclo- 
pedia of knowledge, so that he cciuld not only tell the names but 


also the ages of nearly all his neighliors. He was one of the first just- 
ices of the peace in western INIichigan, having been appointed by Gov- 
ernor Cass for the township of St. Joseph, which then comprised all 
the territory west of Lenawee county. He was the first road commis- 
sioner in Cass county, was one of the first associate judges appointed 
under the territorial government, and one of the delegates to the first 
constitutional convention of the state. 

The settlement on P'okagon prairie soon began to grow. In the 
summer of 1826 was added to the little community Squire Thompson. 
It is said that he and William Kirk were the first permanent settlers, 
under the influence of the Carey Mission, to cross the St. Joseph and 
make their homes on its north side in Berrien county. Mr. Thompson 
had visited the vicinity of the Mission in 1822, before tlie completion 
of the buildings, and in the spring of 1823 returned and made choice 
of a location and built a cabin on the banks of the river. He lived there 
without neighbors until the arrival of William Kirk in the following 
spring. On moving to Pokagon, he settled on section 20, and lived there 
until iiis departure for California during the height of the gold excite- 

Other arrivals were Abram Townsend, who, we have seen, ac- 
companied Uzziel Putnam hither, and who now returned as a settler: 
and Gamaliel Townsend and his family, together with the Markhams 
(Israel, Jr. and Sr., Samuel and Lane) and Ira Putnam. Gamaliel 
Townsend should be remembered as being the first postmaster in the 
township, recei\'ing and distributing the scanty mail at his father 
Abram' s house. 

Most inijiortant of all was the arrival, on August 12, 1826, of Uz- 
ziel Putnam, Jr., wlio was born on that day, and as nearly as can be 
ascertained in such uncertain problems as priority of birth or residence, 
he was the first white child born within the present limits of Cass county. 

Through the leafless forests and over the prairies swept by the 
wintry blasts there came in the early months of 1827, from Warren coun- 
ty, Ohio, Lewis Edwards and his family. Their journey was replete 
with hardships, and it was with difficulty that Mrs. Edwards and her 
year-old baby kept from freezing to death. Lewis Edwards became the 
first collector and first justice in the county, and was one of the prom- 
inent pioneers. Of Welsh descent, he was born in Burlington county. 
New Jersey, in 1799, and at the age of twenty-one was adventuring in 
various enterprises in the Ohio valley. He had all the versatile genius 


of the typical frontiersman, and 1)efure moving out to Cass county had 
been employed several years in the carpenter's trade, so that he was 
probably the first regular carpenter to settle on Pokagon prairie. He 
brought along with him his set of tools, and while his family was shel- 
tered under the roof of Uzziel Putnam he was engaged in construct- 
ing a model home for those days. His cabin contained well made win- 
dows and doors, and his skill also improvised practically all the house- 
hold furniture. His interest in fruit culture is also noteworthy. He 
brought from his father's New Jersey orchard some fine apple grafts, 
and for some years he raised the liest and greatest variety of apples in 
the county. As "Squire Edwards," he Ijecame one of the noted charac- 
ters of the vicinity, and numerous incidents connected with the transac- 
tion of ofiicial business are associated with his name. 

Beginning with 1828, the settlers came in too great numbers to 
receive individual mention, .\lexander Rodgers and family of wife aild 
eight children located in the township. He was the first supervisor 
elected after the organization of the county, although he did not serve 
on account of illness. From Giles county, \"irginia, came the Burk 
family and also Archibald Clyborn (the family name also spelled Cly- 
biourne and Clyburn), who was a member of that noted family who 
were prominent in many communities of the middle west, furnishing at 
least one of the liistoric characters of early Chicago. 


From Pokagon we turn to historic Ontwa, which was settled al- 
most contemporaneously with Pokagon. In the western part of the 
township, near tlie beautiful sheet of water rightly named Pleasant lake, 
and on the broad pran-ie where now stands the town of Edwardsburg, 
Ezra Beardsley, who had come from Butler county, Ohio, unloaded his 
household goods in the spring of 1826 and became the pioneer of the 
locality which has since borne the name of Beardsley's prairie. In the 
previous year he had prospected this site, decided upon it as his perma- 
nent home, and erected a rude cabin to shelter his family when they 
should arri\'e. During the first year his household was the only one on 
the prairie. But in the following spring the nucleus of a settlement was 
formed by the arrival of George and Sylvester Meacham, George Craw- 
ford and Chester Sage. The latter two remained only a year or so, 
when they moved to Indiana and took a prominent part in the found- 
ing of the now city of Elkhart, Mr. Crawford surveying the first plat 


and Lliester Sage"s home serving as the first cnurl huuse of l"'lkhart 

The Beardsley settlement became a fa\-nrite rendezvous for liome- 
seekers passing through or preparing to locate in the vicinity, and to 
accommodate tliis stream of visitors Ezra Beardsley commenced keep- 
ing a tavei'u, which was the first in the county. When the Beardsley 
house was crow-ded to its limit, as was often the case, the overflow w'as 
sent to the Meacham cabin, otherwise known as "bachelor's hall." Suf- 
ficient plain food and a shelter between their bodies and the sky were all 
that were asked by pioneer travelers, and this furnished they were con- 

The pioneer merchant of Ontwa, Thomas H. Edwards, was also 
selling goods from a pole shanty on the south bank of Pleasant lake, 
and thus the central settlement of the township was somewhat distin- 
guished 1)v its commercial character from the agricultural community 
wliich was growing on Pokagon prairie. 

.\ccording to the former Cass county history, Ontwa township at 
this time contained a resident whose peculiarities entitled him to a place 
with the hermit, Job Wright. Tliis individual, whose name was Gar- 
\-er and who came from Virginia, is said to have lived in his log cabin 
for nearly a month without any roof, subject to the rain and inclemen- 
cies of the weather, waiting for the moon to be in the right position in 
the zodiac before shingling his cabin, so that the shakes would not warp 
up. A few years later he became so annoyed by the increasing num- 
ber of his neighbors, and especially by the surveying of a road past his 
dwelling, that he sold out and moved to a thick wood in Indiana, miles 
from any habitation. One house within five miles, and that a tavern, 
where whiskey could be obtained, constituted his idea of Paradise. 


Next to Pokagon, and excepting the small settlement in Ontwa, 
La Grange prairie attracted a small rivulet of that great stream of emi- 
gration which at this time was flowing with increasing volume from east 
to west. The first settler in La Grange township was that pioneer with 
whom wc are already familiar, Abram Townsend, w'hose first home in 
this county was in Pokagon. He had followed the receding frontier 
for many years. Born in New York in 1771, he had moved to Upper 
Canada when young, in 18 15 settled in Huron county, Ohio, thence to 
Sandusky county (where a township was named for him), and in 1825 


began the series of explorations wliich ended in his becoming a settler 
of Cass county. 

Mr. Townsend soon had as neighbors Lawrence Ca\'anaugh and 
wife and son James; Abraham Loux, a son-in-law of Townsend; and 
Thomas McKenney and James Dickson, who located on section 17. In 
the autumn of this year, after a dreary drive from southwestern Ohio, 
the Wright family arrived. William R. Wright was one of the able 
pioneers of this vicinity, and the family connections and descendants 
have long been prominent in the countv. 

Two other familiar names may be mentioned. Isaac Shurte, who 
came to the settlement in 1829, was born in New Jersey in 1796; moved 
to Butler county, Ohio, where he married Mary Wright, and from there 
came in 1828 to Niles and in the following year to his home in La 
Grange. It was in his house that the first election in the township was 
held, and his name often appears in the early accounts of the county. 

John Lybrook, who came to the township in 1828, was a member of 
the Virginia family of that name that sent numerous of its scions to this 
portion of the middle west, and most of them came in for prominent 
mention in connection with the early and formative history of their re- 
spective communities. John Lyhrook had come to Michigan as early 
as 1823, assisting Squire Thompson to mo\-e his goods to Niles. Sev- 
eral years later he brought his parents and sisters to this localitv. and 
lived there until his removal to La Grange. It is claimed that he sowed 
the first wheat in the St. Joseph country. He also' imported the first 
grindstone seen in this region, carrying it on horseback from Detroit. 
So useful was this instrument that it became almost an institution, and 
many settlers came twenty, thirty and even forty miles for the purpose 
of sharpening their implements. 

At the time of this writing (May, 1906), there lives in Berrien 
township of Berrien county, some six or seven miles north of Niles, 
the venerable Isaac Lybrook, who is without doubt the oldest of Cass 
county's sui-viving pioneers. Born in 1825, he was a member of this 
well known Lybrook family, his father being a brother of John Lybrook, 
and his mother a sister of A. L. Burk, also a pioneer of Cass. Isaac was 
brought to Pokagon township by his mother in October, 1828, and lived 
there until he was fifteen years old. He went to Berrien county in 1840 
and has followed farming through his active career. 

Many other names might be added if it were our purpose to make 
a complete catalogue of those identified with the occupation of this town- 


ship. Many nf these ]:)ersons will be mentioned in the later history of 
the township, and as this acconnt must stop short of being encyclopedic, 
some familiar names ma\- be entirely passed over. Our purpose here 
is to indicate the most prominent of the "first settlers" of the county, 
those upon whom (le\-ol\-etl the labor of organizing and setting in mo- 
tion the ci\il machinery of the county and its divisions. Of pioneer 
history and the interesting stories told of men and events of the time, 
volumes could be written. Even so we could but feebly re-illumine 
the features and spirit of tliose times; for, truly. 

"Round aliout their cabin door the glory that blushed and bloomed 
Is but a dim-remembered story of old time entombed." 


Another locality that received immigration before the civil organ- 
ization of the county was Penn township. Here the matter of priority 
of settlement is uncertain. The first settlers appear to have been of 
transient residence. During the years 1827 and 1828 Joseph Frakes. 
Rodney Hinkley, Daniel Shaffer, John Reed and others took claims here, 
but all except Shaffer left the following year. In 1829 came George 
Jones and sons, from Butler county, Ohio. He was the largest land- 
holder in the township, according to the list of original entries. Other 
settlers of the same year were John Price, John Rinehart and sons, Ste- 
phen Bogue, William McCleary and Martin Shields. In the person of 
Martin Shields the township received a representative of the saddler's 
trade, although, like all followers of a trade in a new country, he based 
his occupation on land and agriculture. When the residents of the com- 
munity met to cast their first ballots in the new county, they found his 
house the most convenient polling place, and perhaps for that reason he 
was also the first postmaster of the town. He was evidenth' of a more 
visionarv natiu'e than most of the practical pi(jneers of this section, for 
at one time he felt called upon to preach the gospel, although when he 
opened his mouth to speak no words followed his inspiriition and his 
spiritual leadership was short-li\ed. 

This township bears a name suggestive of the character of its early 
inhabitants. The co-religionists of William Penn settled in large num- 
bers not only in the Quaker colony of Pennsylvania, but all along the 
Atlantic coast. But in the south, where slavery was the predominating 
feature of the economic system, their fundamental principles of faith 
set the Friends at variance with the majority of their fellow citizens. 


Northwest Territory, with its basic principle of prohibition of slavery, 
attracted to its broad, new lands a great immigration of these simple 
people, and consequently there is hardly a county in the middle west 
that has not had a Quaker settlement. Penn township was the locality 
to which most of the Quaker immigration to Cass county directed its 
settlement, where they had their meeting house and where their sim- 
plicity of creed and manner and dress were for many a year the most 
marked characteristics of the township's population. 

To refer at this point to one such settler, who was not the less 
prominent in the general history of the county than as a member of his 
sect. Stephen Bogue was torn in North Carolina in 1790: in 181 1, 
owing to their abhorrence of slavery, the family moved to Preble county, 
Ohio. In 1829 he came to the St. Joseph country and entered for his 
prospective home a tract of land in Penn township, whither his sister, 
the wife of Charles Jones, had arrived in the preceding year. Mr. Bogue 
returned in 183 1 to a permanent residence in this township until his 
death in 1868. He comes down to us as one of the clearest figures of 
the pioneer times. His connection with the "underground railroad" and 
the "Kentucky raid" of ante-bellum days is elsewhere recorded. He 
took a foremost part in the organization of the Birch Lake Monthly 
Meeting of the Society of Friends. His name is also mentioned in con- 
nection with the platting and establishment of the village of \'andalia. 


Pioneer settlers in the township of Jefferson were the four families 
whose heads were Nathan Norton, Abner Tharp, whose son Laban 
turned the first furrow in the township, and Moses and William Reames. 
These men had learned of the attractions of Cass county through John- 
Reed (related by marriage to Tharp and Norton), who, we have seen, 
was one of the first settlers in Penn. In the fall of 1828 the four fam- 
ilies whose heads have been named left Logan county. Ohio, and after 
the usual hardships of primitive traveling arrived in Cass county. They 
passed through the site of Edwardsburg. where they were greeted by 
Mr. Beardsley and Thomas H. Edwards, and after spending a few days 
with John Reed on Young's prairie, they proceeded to the southwest 
shore of Diamond lake, and on section i they erected the first houses 
of white man in what is now Jefferson township. In the latter part of 
1829 John Reed joined these pioneers, and his date of settlement in the 
township is placed second to that of the Tharps, Nortons and Reameses. 



From this nucleus of settlers in Jefferson in the spring of 1829 de- 
parted Abner Tharp to a suitable spot in Calvin township, where he 
erected a log cabin, plowed ten acres on the opening, and by reason of 
these improvements and the crop of corn and potatoes which he raised 
that }'ear is entitled to the place of first actual settler in that township. 
It is said that he was the sole occupant of the township throughout the 
first summer. He was not a permanent settler, however, for in 1830 
he returned to Jefferson, and in subsequent years lived in various parts 
of the west, only returning to pass his last years in Calvin township at 
the ^•illage of Brownsville. 


Only a few more names can be mentioned among those of the first 
comers to Cass county. In Porter township there located in 1828 a 
settler who ^'aried consideraljly from the regular type of ])ioneer. both 
as to personal character and the e\ents nf his career. John Baldwin was 
a southerner; a\erse to hard labur; never made impro\ements on the 
tract which he tnok up as the first settler in Porter; but, for income, 
relied upon a tavern which he kept for the accommodation of the trav- 
elers thrriugh that section, and also on his genius for traffic and dicker. 
He had hardly made settlement when bis wife died, her death being 
the first in the township. It appears that Baldwin carried to extreme 
that unfortunate trade principle of giving the least possible for the 
largest value obtainable. In on.e =ucli transaction with his neighbors the 
Indians, he l)argained for tb.e substantia! possession of certain oxen by 
the ofl:'er of a definite \-olume of fire water. There were no internal 
re\"enue officers in tliose days to determine the grade and qualitv of fron- 
tier liquor, and the strength of the potation was regulated by in(li\-idual 
taste or ilie exigencies of supply and demand. Certain] v in this case 
tlie customers of Mr. Baldwin were somewhat exacting. Having con- 
.sumed an amount of their favorite I'everage sufficient, as they judged 
from former ex])eriments, to transport then.i temporarilv to the happv 
hunting grounds, and waiting a reasonalile time for the desired effect 
with no results. the\' at (ince waited upon Mr. Balrlwin with the laconic 
explanation that the liquor contained "he:q:) too much bish" (water). 
Evidently this deputation of protest ]iro\'ed ineffectual, for a few nights 
later the aggrie\ed former ()wners of the oxen rej^aired to the Baldwin 
tax'crn. and, arming themseh'cs with shakes ]nilled fi'om the door, forced 


ail entrance, and, pulling the unfortunate landlord out of bed, proceeded 
to beat him about the head and shoulders in a most merciless manner, 
not !ea\-ing oft their fearful punishment until they thought life was ex- 
tinct. Air. Baldwin finally recovered, however, Iiut not for a long time 
was he able to resume business. This event was the subject of much 
comment among the settlers for many years, aiid was one of the very 
few Indian atrocities to be found on the annals of the county. No ar- 
rests were made, but the Pottawottomie tribe paid dearly for the assault, 
for Mr. Baldwin filed a bill with the government, claiming and event- 
ually receiving several thousand dollars in damages, which was retained 
from the Indians' annuities. 

A number of settlers arrived in Porter in 1829, among them Will- 
iam Tibbetts, Daniel Shellhammer, Caleb Calkins (who was a cai-pen- 
ter and joiner by trade), Nathan G. O'Dell, George P. Schultz. With 
Mr. Schultz came his step-son, Samuel King, then fourteen years old, 
but whO' became one of the most successful men in Porter township 
and at one time its largest land owner. 


The rather remarkable history of Volinia township had also begun 
previously to organization. During the twelvemonth of 1829 many 
people located in this portion of northern Cass county, among those 
named as first settlers being Samuel Morris, Sr., J. Morelan, H. D. 
Swift and Dolphin Morris. One does not go far in the history of this 
township, either in pioneer times or the present, without meeting the 
name Gard. With some special mention of the family of this name we 
shall close this chapter on early settlement. 

Jonathan Gard was born in New Jersey in 1799, was taken to Ohio 
in 1801. and spent his ynuth and early manhood in the vicinity of Cin- 
cinnati and in Union county, Indiana. He was well fitted by nature and 
training to lie a pioneer, possessing the rugged cjualities of mind and 
body that are needed to make a new civilization. While prospecting 
about southern Michigan in the fall of 182S. in search of a place for a 
new home, chance brought him together with a party who were bound 
on a like mission, consisting of Elijah Goble, Jesse and Nathaniel Win- 
chell and James Toney. They stopped a few days at the home of their 
old friend, Squire Thompson, on Pokagon prairie, and then proceeded 
to the region that is now comprised in Volinia township. Little Prairie 
Ronde was the spot that most attracted them, and there Mr. Goble and 


Mr. Card selected farms, wliile Mr. Toney cliose a tract on what later 
becanie known as Card's prairie. In the following spring Mr. Gard, 
Mr. Coble and Samuel Rich came to take possesion of their new homes. 
Because of the fact that Mr. Tbnev had been unable to leave his former 
home, Mr. Card t(X)k the claim that had been chosen bv Mr. Tonev, 
and thus it came about that he was the original settler on Card's prai- 
rie and gave it its name. Jonathan Card spent the remainder of his 
life at this spot, until his death in 1854. He was the founder of the 
family which has included so many w-ell known men of Cass county, 
a grandson of this pioneer being the present treasurer of Cass county. 

It is very remarkable that this beautiful region of country should 
remain absolutely unsettled until the late twenties, and that settlers from 
different parts of the United States, without any preconcerted action or 
communication with each other, should begin to pour in at just this 
time; but so it was. Here different families for the first time met each 
other, and here their lives were first united in the same community, and 
in many cases by marriage in the same home. 

None of those early settlers whom we have named remain. On the 
long and weary march they have been dropping out one by one until of 
the pioneer warfare not a veteran is left. It would be impossible, in a 
work like this, to trace the life history and describe the end of each 
one of them, and for this there would not lie sufficient space. 



■'All members of the society who came into or resided in Cass 
county prior to 1840 shall be deemed 'Pioneers of Cass County.' " 

This extract from the constitution of the Pioneer Society has sug- 
gested an appropriate record of the pioneers, in such a form as to sup- 
plement the preceding pages and to add many details of personal chro- 
nology such as the narrative could not present. Therefore it has been 
determined to bring together, in alphabetical order, a very brief and 
matter-of-fact mention of the deceased pioneers, considering under that 
designation only those who became identified by birth or settlement with 
the county not later than the year 1840. 

Completeness of the recoid is quite beyond the limits of possibility 
and has not been attempted. Yet it is believed that the pioneers of the 
county are well represented here, and in a form for easy reference. 

Moreover, a study of the following records is extremely instructive, 
as documents on the early history of the county. Records of dates and 
localities though they are, they suggest entire stories of immigration 
and settlement. The sources of the county's early citizenship, and the 
character of the stocks which determined in large measure the institu- 
tions and social conditions in the county, are indicated in these annals 
almost at a glance. 

The first deduction to be drawn is tlie overwhelming preponderance 
of New York's quota among the pioneers. Some few well known fam- 
ilies, notably the Silvers from New Hampshire, were native to the strict- 
ly New England states. Delaware furnished several worthy families, 
Vermont is honorably represented, liut either directly or as the original 
source New York state was the alma mater to more pioneers than any 
other state. New York was the recruiting ground, as is well known, for 
the western expansion which began early in the nineteenth centuiy. 
That was true, in large measure, when the practicable route of that im- 
migration was through the gateway of the Alleghanies at Pittsburg 
and down the vallev of the Ohio. But New York did not reach its full 


])re-eniint'nce in the westward m<i\-ement until the opening of the Erie 
canal in iHj-,, after which the full tide of homeseekers was rolled along 
that highwa\' into the luUricd wilderness of the west. 

l'"or a long time Ohio was an intermediate place of settlement he- 
tween the east and the far west. Also, it was a focal ground upon which 
lines of migration from New England, from the middle Atlantic and 
from siiuthern states converged. Ohio occupies, a position only second 
to New ^'ork in furnishing pioneers to Cass county. And of Ohio's 
counties, Logan, Butler and Prehle seem foremost in this respect. Here 
the uncom])romising atolitionists from North Carolina first settled be- 
fore Cass county became a goal for many. 

Carefully studied, these records tell many other things about the 
pioneer beginnings of Cass county. The stages l>y which many families 
gradually reached this point in their westward migration are marked 
by children's births at various intervening points. And sometimes the 
l)onds of marriage united families from widely sundered localities, the 
communit)' of residence which brought this about loeing now in Ohio, 
now in Indiana, and perhaps more often here in Cass county. 

These are but a few of the inferences and conclusions that mav be 
found in the annals which follow, and besides the historical value they 
thus possess, this is a means ni preserving permanently many individ- 
ual records which ha^•e a personal interest to hundreds in Cass county. 

Ashley, Thompson — Born in Penn township in 183 1 ; in 1853 went 
to California, where he died June 8, 1906. 

Abbott, Joseph H. — Born near Toronto, Canada, January 12, 1812; 
came to Howard township in 1834. where he died November i, 1878. 

Alexander, Ephraim: — Born in Pennsylvania November 6, 1819; 
came to Cass county in 1831 ; died in Dakota December 9, 1885. 

Allen, Mrs. Demarias — Born in 1799; came to Ontwa township 
in 1835; died in Jefiferson township August 5, 1887. 

Arnold, Heniw — Born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, July 25, 1807; 
came to Cass county in 1835: died August 25, 1889. 

Andrus, Mrs. Fanny — Born in Cayuga county. New York. No- 
vember 4, 1808; came to Ontwa township in 1835; died in Mason town- 
ship January 291, 1894. 

Andrus, Hazard — Born in New York in 1789; came to Ontwa in 
1834; died March 3, 1862. 

Anderson, Lemuel LI. — Born in Warren county, Ohio, July 20, 
1829; came to Cass county in 1833; died in South Bend August 5, 


Anderson, Mrs. L. H. — Born in Erie county, New York, in 183 1; 
came to Cassopolis in 1833; died in South Bend May 23, 1883. 

Ayers, David — Born in Wood county, New York, in 1829; came 
to Penn township in 1839, where he died October 30, 1895. 

Adams, Uriah M. — Bom in Sandusky county, Ohio, November 2, 
1832; came to Porter township in 1837; died July 5, 1900. 

Alexander, John — Born in Richmond, Indiana, December 22, 1824; 
came to Young's prairie in 1830; died at Michigan City, Indiana, No- 
vember 2-j, 1900. 

Alexander, Leah E. — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, April 23, 
1818; came to Penn township in 1832; died in South Dakota January 
16, 1901, as Mrs. G. H. Jones. 

Aldrich, Henry — Born in Smithfield, Rliode Island, May 5, 1813; 
came to Milton township in 1837, where he died February 8, 1901. 

Atwood, I^fayette — Born in Cattaraugus coimty, New York, 
March 18, 1824; came to Wayne township in 1836; died at Dnwagiac 
March 18, 1906. 

Aldrich, Dr. Levi — Born in Erie county, New York, January 2"]. 
1820; with his parents came to Milton in 1837; died at Edwardsburg 
December 16, 1892 ; his wife, Evaline A. Sweetland, born in Tompkins 
county. New York, September i, 1822; killed in railroad collision at 
Battle Creek, Michigan, October 20, 1893. 

Aldrich, Nathan — Born in Rhode Island January 24, 1816; came 
to Milton in 1837; died Marcli 26, 1894; his wife, Harriet M. Dunning, 
born in New York July 21, 1816; came to Ontwa in 1834; died Jan- 
uary 24, 1858. 

Alexander, John — Born in North Carolina in 1791 ; came to Penn 
in 1831 ; died in 1850; Ruth, his wife, born in 1785; died in 1845. 

Anderson, Samuel F. — Born in Rutland county, Vennont, Feb- 
ruary 19, 1803; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died April 14, 1877; 
Mahala Phipps, his wife, born in New York July 10, 1807: died Jan- 
uary 21, 1877. 

Hannah Phelps, wife of John T. Adams, born in Norwich. Con- 
necticut, April 30, 1808; came to Edwardsburg in 1835 and there died 
June 20, 1838. 

Bement, David — Born at Hartford, Connecticut. October 17, 1813; 
came to Mason township in 1836: died in Ontwa township December 
18, 1879. 

Barnard, Dr.-^Came to Cass county in 1828: died in Berrien 
Springs April 6, 1881. 

Beckwith, Walter G. — Born in New York in 1810; came to this 
county in 1836; died in Massachusetts May 18, 1884. 


Beck'.vith, Mrs. Eliza A. — Born in Ontario county, New York, 
December j. 1811; came to Cassopolis in June, 1838; died in Jefferson 
township June 27, 1880. 

Brady. David — Born in Sussex county, New Jersey, in 1785; came 
to La Grange prairie in July, 1828; died in La Grange township July 12, 

Bates, John — Born in Chautauqua county, Xew York, [ulv 7, 
1821; came to Summennlle in 1839; died May 18, 1879. 

Barnhart, Mrs. Casander S. — Born in Franklin county, Virginia; 
came to Cass county alxiut 1828; died October 12, 1878. 

Bonine, Mrs. Elizabeth G. — Born in Penn township in 1S33; daugh- 
ter of Amos Green ; died October 26, 1875. 

Bement, Mrs. Jane — Born in Cayuga, New York, September 17, 
1824; came to Mason township in 1836, where she died April 2, 1887. 

Ball, Israel — Born in Butler county, Ohio, October 2, 1814; came 
to Cass county in 1830; died in Wisconsin April 30, 1887. 

Bosley, Hiram — Born in Ohio in 1829; came to Cass county in 
1838; died m Iowa in 1889. 

Beeson, Jesse G. — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, December 10, 
1807; came t(j La Grange township in 1830, where he died February 
18, 1888. 

Bacon, Cyrus — Born in Saratoga county, New York, October 26, 
1796; came to Ontwa township in 1834; died October 4, 1873. 

Bacon, Mrs. Malinda — Born in Saratoga county, New York, March 
IS, 1802: came to Ontwa township in 18^4, where she died April 3, 

Bacon, David — Burn in Saratoga county. New York, September 
9, 1827: came to Ontwa tuwnship in 1834; died at Xiles, Michigan, 
July 25, 1899. 

Bacon, James G. — Born in Saratoga county, New York, November 
24, 1834; came to Ontwa township in 1834, where he died August 20, 

Barton, Martha A. — Born in X'irginia September 16, 1822; came 
to Cassopolis in 1830; died September 8, 1889'. 

Baldwin, William — Born in Warren county, Ohio. April 5, 182 1; 
came to Cass county in 1828 ; died in Pbkagon township August 28, 
1904. His wife, who came tO' the county in 1835, died in Pokagon Jan- 
uary II, 1892, aged 70. 

Bigelow, Harvey — Born in New York July 4, 18 16: came to La 
Grange township in 1837; died at Dowagiac November 3, 1893. 

Blish, Daniel — Born in Gilsun, New Hampshire. June 17, 1812- 
came to Silver Creek in 184O'; died November 5, 1893. 

Breece, Jac(ib B. — Born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, March 


26, 1816; came to Ontwa township in 1836; died in Jefferson January 
29, 1896; Sarah M. Wilson, his wife, torn January 19, 1S22; died 
May 5, 1885. 

Brady, James T.— Born in Ireland March i, 1802; came to Ontwa 
township in 1836; died at Elkhart December 19, 1881. 

Brady, Mary Ann Jones — Born in New Jersey June 13, 1809; 
came to Ontwa in 1836: died June 12, 1895. 

Blair, William C— Born in Middlefield, New York, May i, 1817; 
came to Edwardsburg in May, 1835, where he died July 17, 1895. 

Beeson, Benjamin F'. — Born in Indiana in 1832; came to La 
Grange township in 1832; died in Calvin township August 31, 1896. 

Baker, Alfred — Born in 1816; came to Geneva in 1829; died in 
Iowa F^ebruary 10, 1898. 

Bump, Eli — Born in Urbana, Ohio, March 13, 1819; came to Jeff- 
erson township in 1837; (hed in Vandalia May 2;^, 1899. His wife, 
Naomi Reames, Iiorn in Logan county, Ohio, September 22. 1822; 
came to Jeft'erson in 1834; died at Vandalia, March 2, 1904. 

Bonine, James B. — Born in Wayne county, Indiana. July 18, 1825; 
came to Penn township in 183 1 : died November 28, 1900. 

Baldwin. Josephus — Born in New Jersey OctolDer 15, 1812; came 
to Cass county in 1828; died in Indiana May 16, 1901. 

Brady, Noah S. — Born in Ontwa March 17, 1839; died July 5, 

Byrnes, Rev. John — Born in Ireland in 1815; came to- Pokagon 
in 1837, where he died March 12, 1903. 

Bishop, Joseph C. — Bom in New York in 1S20; came to Ontwa 
township in 1832 ; died at Edwardsburg December 26, 1902. 

Beardsley, David — Born in Butler county, Ohio, March 31, 1824; 
came to Mason township in 1832; died December 28, 1903. 

Benson, Catherine Weed — Born in Steuben county, New York, 
September i, 1816: came to Porter township in 1836; died September 
3. 1903- 

Beardsley, Hall — Born in New York in 1830; came to Porter 
township in 1838, where he died December 7, 1905. 

Bogue, Elvira — Born in Penn township Januar}' 19, 1836; died at 
Vandalia April 12, 1906, as Mrs. Thomas. 

Bacon, William H. — Born in New York in 1809; came to Ontwa 
in 1834; died October 6, 1856; his wife, Elizabeth Van Name; torn 
in 1820; died February 4, 1897, as Mrs. Starr. 

Bugbee, Dr. Israel G. — Bom in Vermont March 11, 18 14; first 
came to Edwardsburg in 1835; died May 18, 1878; his wife, Eliza- 
beth Head, born in England Septemtor 12, 1817; died June 20, 1903. 


Bog'je, Stephen — Born in Nortli Carolina October 17, 1790; came 
to l^enn township in 1829, wliere he died October 11, 1868. 

Bog'ue, Mrs. Hannah — Born in 1798; came to Penn township in 
183 1, where she died December 14, 1891, wife of Stephen Bogue. 

Bisiicp, Ehjah — Born at Saratoga Springs, New York, in 18 11: 
came to ]\Iason township in 1838; died 

Barney, John — Born in Connecticut; came to Wayne in 1836; 
died in 1852. 

Barney, Henry, Sr. — Born in Connecticut in 1763; came to Sil- 
ver Creek in 1838; died in 1850. 

Blackman, Wilson — Born in Connecticut in 1 7912; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1829: the county's first postmaster; died -. 

Bishop, Calvin — Born in New York in 1780; came to Cass county 
in 1833; died in Ontwa February 12. i8r)7; his wife, ^lary Ann. born 
in 1791; died February 26, 1861. 

Boyd, James — Born in New York August 3, 1806; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1831; died at Cassopnlis Septemlser 9, 1890; his wife, 
Mary, born in 1796; died 1877. 

Beckwith, Sylvanusi — Born in New York in 1776; came to Cass- 
opolis in 1838; died February 24, 1859; Lydia, his wife, born in 
1785; died September 15, 1875. 

Bishop, Elijah — Born in New York in 181 1; came to ]\Iason in 
1838; died in 1851. 

Blackmar, Nathaniel Bowdish — Born July 3. 181 7, in New York; 
came with father, Willson Blackmar, to Edwardsburg, July 3, 1828, 
where he died May 24, 1878. His second wife, Sophronia Lee Quimby, 
born Strafford county, N. H., May 24, 1830, came to Edwardsburg July, 

Colyar, Mrs. Catherine — Born in Logan county, Ohio, April 27, 
1814; came to Jefferson township in 1832; died January 24, 1881. 

Curtis, Mrs. Deborah A. — Born in Madison, Ohio, July 13, 1822; 
came to Mason township in 1832 ; died in 1880. 

Curry, Mrs. Elizabeth Card — Born in Union county, Indiana, De- 
cember 16, 181 1, daughter of Josephus Card; came to Volinia in 1830; 
died in Van Buren county, June 22, 1878. 

Cooper, Mrs. Nancy Brady — Born in New Jersey, May 5, 1808; 
came to LaGrange Prairie in 1831 ; died in Dowagiac, July 30, 1878. 

Curtis. Jotham^ — Born in Genesee county. New York, February 24, 
1809; came to MasOn township in 1842, where he died December 91. 

Curtis, Mrs. Elizabeth — Born in AIl>any, New York, February 7, 
1781 ; came to Mason toA\nship in 1832, where she died October 5, 1878, 
wife of Jotham Curtis. 


Condon, William — Born in Ireland, October 17, 1815 ; came to La- 
Grange township about 1839; ^i^^ March 15, 1889;; his wife. Rosanna- 
Hain, born in Ohio> June 22, 1827; came to LaGrange township in 
1830; died in Jefferson township, July 28, 1882. 

Carmichael, Arthur C- — Born in. sHarrison county, Virginia, Jan- 
uary 23, 1825: came to Jefferson in 1836: died near Benton Harbor, 
August 28, 1885. 

Colyar, Jonathan — Born in North Carolina, September 13, 1810; 
came to Jefferson township in 1831, where he died Januai-y 14, 1887. 

Carpenter, Mrs. Eliza C. — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, Octo- 
ber 14, 1802; came to Cass county in 1837; died in Milton, June 15, 

Clendaniel, George — Born in Essex county, Delaware. January 15, 
1805; came to Milton township in 1836; died in Indiana, July 3, 1887. 

Cooper, Benjamin — Born in St. Lawrence county, New York, Au- 
gust, 1794; came to Cass county in 1833; died in Howard township, 
September 9, 1887. 

Clisbee, Charles W. — ^Born in Ohio, July 24, 1833; came to Cas- 
sopolis in 1838. where he died August 18, 1889; secretary and historian 
of the Pioneer Society. 

Copley, David B. — Born in Otsego county. New York, July 13, 
1817; came to Cass county in 1835; died August 25. 1889. 

Churchill. Rebecca Hebron — Born in Porter township, January 24, 
1835, where she died February 4, 189-1. 

Copley, Jane Helen — Born in 1827: came to Volinia township in 
1838; died Septemljer 20, 1890. 

Copley, Alexander B. — Born in Jefferson county. New York, March 
II, 1812; came to Volinia in 1833; died in Cuba. March 28, 1899. 

Curtis. Delanson — -Born in OtsegO' county. New York, May 28, 
181 1 ; came to Pokagon in 1834, where he died June 10, 1893. 

Cooper, Lovina Bosley — Born in Lake county, Ohio, April 29, 1834; 
came to Jefferson township in 1839; died June 17, 1894. 

Carpenter, Messick — Born in Delaware in 1800; came to Milton 
township in 1837; died at Edwardsburg, March i, 1895. 

Colyar, William — Born in Ohio, 1807: came to Jefferson township 
in 1831; died in Van Buren count)^ January 15, 1898. 

Copley, Ebenezer — Born in Otsego county. New York, May 30. 
1820; came to Cass county in 1834: died in Wayne township. .Septem- 
ber 16, 1897. 

Cooper, Benjamin — ^Born in New York, September 19, 1820: came 
to Howard township in 1834; died in Dowagiac, June i, 1899. 

Clark, John C. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, August 25. 1814; 
came to Wayne township in 1836; died in LaGrange township. July 5. 


Chapin, Henry A. — Born in Leyden, iMassacliusetts, October 15, 
1813; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; died in Niles, December 17, 1898; 
his wife. Ruby N., who came to Edwardsburg in 1836, died in Chicago, 
Octoljer 30, 1902. 

Carpenter, James — Born in Delaware ; came to Milton township in 
1837; died at Edwardsburg, February 28, 1899. 

Carlisle, Orville D. — Born at Ontario, New York, August 31, 1833 ; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1839; died in Alabama, June 29, 1900. 

Carpenter, Purnell W. — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, August 
28, 1825; came to Milton township in 1837, where he died April 2, 1901. 

Chapman, Emily S. Harper — Born in Cassopolis, March 30, 1838, 
where she died January 7, 1902. 

Coates, Jason B. — Born Ontario county. New York, November 11, 
1817: came to LaGrange township in 1831, where he died February 23, 

Coats, Mrs. Jason B. — Born in Howard township. May 27, 1836, 
daughter of William Young: died in LaGrange township, January 20, 

Copley, Asel G. — Born in New York, July 23, 1815 ; came to Volinia 
in 1835; died May 9, 1903. 

Cays. Abram H. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, April 30, 1827; 
came to Cass county in 1839; died in LaGrange township, August 31, 
1904: his wife, Margaret Foster, born in Holmes county, Ohio, in 1833; 
came to Jefferson in 1839; died in Dowagiac, October 28, 1901. 

Coates, Laura — Born in Ontario county, New York, May 13, 1812; 
came to LaGrange in 183 1 : died at Cassopolis, March 17, 1902, as Mrs. 
William Arrison. 

Coulter, James — Born in Henrietta county, Ohio, j\Lay 17, 1808; 
came to Howard in 1834; died February iG. 1874; his wife, Ann Wil- 
son, born in Clinton county, Ohio, in 1809; died ALay 18, 1893. 

Crawford, Robert — Born in Ireland in 1782; came to Jefferson 
in 1836; died in 1858; his wife, Elizabeth, born in 1786; died in 1844. 

Coates, Jason R. — Born in New York in 1789; came to LaGrange 
in 1831; died August 7, 1832; the first buried in Cassopolis cemetery; 
his wife, Jane, born in 1787; died Octoljer 26, 1844; their daughter, 
Jane Ann, born February 29, 1823; died at Cassopolis January 24, 
1904, as Mrs. Allen. 

Deal, Owen — Born at Amsterdam, New York, July 2. 1816: came 
to Diamond Lake. December 18. 1836: died at Constantine, Michigan, 
March 22, 1880. 

Deal, Angeline Nash — Wife of Owen Deal ; born in Chenango 
cout}^ New York, July 10, 1820: came to Geneva in 1830: died at 
Constantine July 3, 1884. 


Denton, Cornelius W. — Born in Amenia, New York, June i, 1800; 
came to Porter township in 1836, where he died November i, 1878. 

Davidson, Samuel — Born in Ohio in 1810; came to Porter township 
in 1828; died at Cassopolis November 17, 1882. 

Davis, Allen— Born July 12, 1817; came to Porter township in 
1833; died at Cassopolis April 29, 1883. 

Davis, Reuben B. — Born in Hanover county. \'irginia, January i, 
1804; came to Jefferson township in 1840, where he died in 1884. 

Driskel, Daniel — Born in Pennsylvania in 1812; came to Newberg 
township in 1833, where he died September 29, 1885. 

Dcane, William H. — Born in Greene county. New York, in 1809; 
came to Howard township in 1835, where he died May 13, 1887. 

Dickson, Edwin T. — Born in 1821 ; came to !McTvinney"s Prairie 
in 1828: died in Berrien county in i8qi. 

Dunning. Allen — Born in Albau}-. N. Y.. Julv 2"/, 1796: came to 
]\Iilton in 1836; there died December 10. 1869; his wife — 

Dunning, Minerva Reynolds — Born in Tompkins countv. New 
York, January 12. 1824: came to Milton township in 1836, where she 
died March 31, 1892. 

Dickson, Austin M. — Born in LaGrange in 1832; died in Wis- 
consin, April 29, 1895. 

Dodge, Joseph — Born in Johnstown. New York, December 2, 1807; 
came to Cass county in 1839; died in Vandalia. September 2. 1895. 

Decker. Barney — Born in Ontario county. New York. September 
20. 1812; came to Cassopolis, in 1838; died in LaGrange township, Jan- 
uary 20', 1900; his wife, Martha Wilson, born in Franklin county, 
Ohio. August 10, 1816. came to LaGrange Prairie in September. 1829': 
died October 19, 1905. 

Driskel, Dennis — Born in Tennessee; came tO' Porter township in 
1833. where he died June 16. 1901 ; his wife. Mary Bair. born in Ohio, 
Februaiw 19. 1828. came to Newlierg in 1832; died in Llaho. June 24. 

Draper. John — Born in Syracuse. New York. July 17. 1836; came 
to Cass county in 1840; died at Jones, Michigan, October 17. 1905. 

Dunning, Horace B. — Born in Cayuga county. New York. Sep- 
tember 18, 1802; came to Edwardsburg in 1834 and to Cassopolis in 
1841 ; died May 30, 1868; his wife. Sarah A. Camp, born in 1807; 
died September 30, 1894. 

Davidson., Armstrong — Born in Virginia in 1784; came to Porter 
in 1829; died in 1850. 

Dickson. James — Born in Pennsylvania in 1794; came to La^ 
Grange in 1828; died September 16. 1866. 

Dennis, Nathaniel B. — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, March 


13, 1813; came to JMichigan in 1833; died in Alilttjii Fehruan- (>, 1899; 
his wife, Margaret McMichael, born in Pennsylvania July 19, 18 19; 
died April 27, 1895. 

Drew, Albert L. — Born on Beardsley's prairie July 5, 1834; died 
in Berrien county; first white child born on the Prairie; Helen Sher- 
rill, his wife; born in Jefferson February i, 1839; died December _'8, 

Dunning, Dr. Isaac — Born in New Y(irk in 1772; came to Fd- 
vvardsburg in 1834; died March 1, 1849. 

Edwards, Lewis, Sr. — Born in L.'unbert()n, Xew York, ]\Iay 29, 
1799; came to Pokagon Prairie in 1826. where he died June 24. 1878. 

F^dwards, Mrs. Ellen Collins — Born in Pokagon township January 
18, 1838; died January 28, 1879. 

East, James \V. — ^Born in 1803 ; came to Calvin township Novem- 
ber. 1833, where he died April 19, 1887. 

East, Jacob Tallxjt — Came to Cass countv in 1834; died in Volinia 
October 8, 1887. 

East, Emeline O'Dell — Born in Hyland county, Ohio, Novemlier 
6, 1813; came to Porter township in 1832; died February 2, 1899. 

East, John H. — Born in Indiana March 25, 1827; came to Calvin 
township in childhood; died at Cassopolis January ig, 1891. 

Everhart, Sarah — Born in Wayne county, Ohio; came to Porter 
township in 1830, where she died January 14, 1891. 

Eby, Mrs. Gabriel — Born in Cermany in 1826; came to Porter 
township in 1837. where she died No\ember 7, 1891 ; maiden name 
Caroline Wagner. 

Emmons, John — Born in Giles county, Virginia, August 18, 1808; 
came to Pokagon township in 1834, where he died October i, 1893. 

East, James M. — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, April 7, 1825; 
came to Cass county in 1833; died in Vandalia March 13, 1895. 

Eby, Mary Traverse — Born in West Morland, Pennsylvania, April 
3, 1813; came to this county in 1834; died June 26, 1895. 

East. .\nna Jones — Born in Tennessee April 5, 1805 ; came to- Cass 
county in 1833; died in Calvin township Octolaer 22, 1896. 

East, Emily J. — Born in Porter township July 26, 1834, where she 
died June 10, 1898, as Mrs. Hughes. 

East, Jesse S. — Born in Henry county. Indiana, June 2, 1829 ; catue 
to Cass county in 1832; died at Buchanan July 29, 1904. 

East, Enos — Born in Calvin township October 24, 1839, where he 
died March 19, 1905. 

East, Thomas J. — Born in Calvin township May 24, 1833; died 
at South Haven. Micliigan. June (>. 1905. 


East, Calvin K. — Born in Calvin township October 7, 1834; died 
at Vandalia April 17, 1906. 

Emerson, Matthew H. — Born in Hopkinton December 11, 1808; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1839, where he died March 17, 1877. 

Follett, Mrs. Mary — Born in Canandaigua county, New York, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1798; came to Mason township in 1835; died November 30, 
1880, widow of Dr. Henry Follett, who died in Mason in 1849. 

Fredericks, Henry — Born in Pennsylvania; came to Porter town- 
ship in 1840, where he died August 10, 1885. 

Frakes, Mrs. Joseph — Born in Ohio in 1804; came to Cass county 
in 1829; died March 15, 1887. 

Fox, Mrs. Sarah C. — Born in Kent county, Delaware, Februaiy 27, 
181 s; came to Howard township in 1839, where she died October 12, 

Fisher, Daniel — Born in Giles county, Virginia, in 1801 ; came to 
Howard township in 1830, where he died February 14, 1896. 

Foster, John McKinley — Born in Holmes county, Ohio, March 24, 
1835; came to Jefferson township in 1839; died at Edwardsburg Jan- 
uary 27, 1902. 

Foster, Andrew — Born in Pennsylvania in 1779; came to Beard- 
sley's prairie in 1833; died November 30', 1870; his wife, Rachel Mc- 
Michael, born in 1804; died April 26, 1884; his daughter, Margaret, 
born in 1833 ; was drowned at Picture Rock, Lake Superior, October 
29, 1856. 

Foster, James — Borji^n Pennsylvania in 1792; came to Cass 
county in 1839; ^'^^1 i" Jefferson 1872: his wife, Ann McKinlev, born 
in 1809; died in 1841. 

Green, JNIrs. Mary — Born in Volinia township June 13, 1832, daugh- 
ter of Jonathan Guard; died in Wexford county, Michigan, July i^, 

Grubb, Fanny — Born in Logan county, Ohi<:), January Ji, 1816: 
came to Cass county with Father Andrew in 1830; died January 27, 

Goddard, Anson A. — Born in Canton, Connecticut, March 11, 1806; 
came to Mason township in 1836, where he died December 5, 1880. 

Goodspeed, William L. — Born in Wyoming county. New York, 
August 9, 1829; came to Volinia in 1836, where he died February 26, 

Gawthrop, Minerva Jane — Born in LaGrange township May 12, 
1840; died in Dowagiac Noyernber 9, 1878. 

Garwood, Rachel P. — Born in Richmond, Indiana, in 1807; came 
to Cass county in 1832 ; died in Pokagon December 27, 1886. 


Griffith, Mattliew — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, ]\Iarcli lo, 
1811; came to Cass countv in 1837; died in Milton township January 
28, 1879. 

Goodspeed, Mrs. Sarah D. — Bom in the state of Massachusetts 
October 14, 1883; came to Volinia November, 1836. where she died 
November 12, 1878. 

Givens, John — Born in Virginia about 1803; ciime to LaGrange 
tounshi]) in 1835. where he died January 4, 1879; his wife, Elizabeth 
P., died October 15, 1878, aged 66. 

Grennell, Jeremiah S. — Bom in Onondaga county, New York, Sep- 
tember 30, 1824 ; came to Cass county in 1834: died in Newberg town- 
ship August 16, 1888. 

Gill, John — Born on the Isle of Man November 12, 1803; came to 
Cass county in 1835; died at Jones August 6, 1888. 

Gard, Mrs. Elizabeth Bishop — Born in Preble county, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 5, 1804; came to Volinia in 1829, where she died September 3, 1887. 

Goble, James — Born in Pokagon in 1836; died December 3, 1891. 

Green, Selina Henshaw — Born in Randolph county. North Caro- 
lina, November 12, 1819; came to Cass county in 1831 ; died in Vandalia 
February i, 1896. 

Green, Marj- Huff — Born in Preble county, Ohio, July 29. 181 5; 
came to Wayne township in 1833, where she died August 8, 1896. 

Garchier, Julius M. — Born in Cuyahoga county, Ohio, in 1S23: 
came to Cass county in 1835; died in Mason township January 21, 1900. 

Gard, ^Milton J. — Born in Butler county, Indiana, March 11, 1824: 
came to Volinia in 1829; died July 19, 1900. 

Gard, Benjamin F. — Born in Butler county, Indiana, July 30, 1829: 
came to Volinia in 1829, where he died September 23. 1900. 

Gard, Isaac N. — Bom in Union county, Indiana, July 9, 1827: 
came to Volinia in 1829, where he died July 25, 1902. 

Gard, Reuben E. — Born in Union county, Indiana, August 6, 1825; 
came to Volinia in 1829; died at Pokagon April 2, 1905. 

Goodspeed, Marshall — Born in Cayuga county. New York, .April 
I. 1830; came to Volinia in 1830, where he died September 3, 1900. 

Goodenough, Edward B. — Bom in Cayuga county. New York, in 
1835; came to Volinia in 1837; died October 15, 1900. 

Graham, Arthur — Born in Scotland in 181 2: came to Wayne town- 
ship in 1839; died at Dowagiac, April 23, 1901. 

Glenn, Thomas H. — Born in Milford, Delaware, in 1828; came 
to Milton township in 1834; died in Chicago July 21, 1901. 

Goodspeed, Edwin — Born in Cayuga county. New York, January 
15, 1835; came to Volinia same year; died April 5, 1903. 


Gardner, Rachel Ai. Roberts — Born in Erie county, New York, 
October 13, 1833;' came to jNIilton township in 1839, where she died 
August 12, 1901. 

Green, EH — Born in Wayne township in 1835; died in Mapleton, 
North Dakota, September 7, 1906; his wife, Esther Gard, born in 
VoHnia in 1838, died October 8, 1902. 

Goodrich, Robert — Born in Butler county, Ohio, December 18, 
183 1, • came to Jefferson township in 1835; died March 30, 1904. 

Gawthrop, David B. — Born in LaGrange township September 4. 
1833, where he died January 25, 1905. 

Gifford, H. Leroy — Born in Genesee county, New York, in 1825; 
came to Cass county in 1840: died at Dowagiac August 18, 1905. 

Gar\rey, Sarah Aliller — Born in Franklin county, Ohio, July 21, 
1829; came to Jefferson township in 1832; died at Cassopolis July i, 

Gilbert. William — Born in Long Island, New York. September 6, 
1822; came to Indian Lake in 1839; died October 22, 1905. 

Glover, Orville B. — Born in Upton, Massachusetts, April 11, 1804; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1839, where he died Alarch 19, 1852. 

Carr, Julia A.— Wife of O. B. Glover; born in Albion, N. Y.. 
June 2S. 1818; cnine tn Edwardsburg in 1839: died at Buchanan. 1893, 
as Mrs. Hall. 

Glover, Harrison — Born in Orleans county, New York, Februarv' 
3, 1837 ; came to Edwardsburg in 1839 ' died at Buchanan in April, 
8, 1876. 

Glenn, James L. — Born in Pennsylvania: came to Cass county about 
1835; died January i, 1876. 

Gage, John S. — Born in New York: came to Wayne township Sep- 
tember, 1839'; died 

Gage, Justus — Born in Madison count}-, New York, Alarch 13, 
1805; came to ^^'ayne in 1837; died Januar}- 21, 1873. 

Green, Amos — Born in Georgia December 10. 1794: came to 
Young's prairie in 1831: died August 6, 1854; his wife. Sarah, born 
in 1796; died December 13, 1863. 

Goodspeed, Joseph — Born in Massachusetts April i, 1797; came 
to Volinia in 1836; died April 30, 1850. 

Gilbert, Wm. J. — Born on Long Island, New York, in 1790: came 
to Silver Creek in 1839; died February 18, 1864. 

Goble, Elijah — Born in Ohio in 1803: came to Volinia in 1828: 
died . 

Hain, John — Born in Lincoln county. North Carolina, August 13, 
1799; came to LaGrange township in 1830, where he died Julv 8, 1879. 


Hardenbrook, Ailolphus — Born in Baltimore county, Maryland, 
January i8, 1823; came to Cassopolis in 1836; died in Wayne township 
Decemlier 30, 1880. 

Huff, Mrs. Margaret Case — Born in Northumberland county, Penn- 
sylvania, March i, 1804: came to Cass county in 1834; died in Volinia 
townshij) in 1881. 

Hunt, Eleazur — Born in North Carolina, Februar}- 4, 1792; came 
to Calvin in 1831, where he died August 4, 1878. 

Hunt, Mrs. ■Martha — Born in Knox county, Tennessee, October 25, 
1795; came to Cass county in 1831 ; died August 27, 1880. 

Hull, John V. — Born in Calvin township June 14, 1840; died in 
Iowa i-Vugust 23, 18S0. 

Hutchings, Hiram^ — Born in New York May 2, 182 1 ; came to 
Nevvberg township in 1836, where he died January 8, 1881. 

Henshaw, Abijah — Born in Randolph county. North Carolina, Jan- 
uar)- 3, 1812; came to Young's Prairie in 1830; died July 10, 1878. 

Hutchings, Samuel — Bom in Ulster county. New ^'nrk, Septem- 
lier 14, 179O: caiue to Newberg township in 1836, where he died Au- 
gust I, 1876. 

Hain. Da\i(l — Born in Lincoln county. North Carolina. March 25, . 
1805 ; came to LaGrange township in November, 1831, where he died 
October 26, 1878. 

Hutchinson, Jesse — B(irn in Vermont in 1809; came to Calvin 
tdwnshi]) in 1834; died in ]owa January 19, 1879. 

Harjier. Wilson- -Born in Pennsyh'ania in 1809: came to Cas- 
sopiilis in 1833; died in Berrien county August 12, 1883. 

Houghtaling, John — Born in New York June 8, 1832; came to 
Cass county in 1835; died in Newberg September 27, 1885. 

Hain, Jacob — Born in IJncoln county North Carolina: came to La- 
Grange tiiwiT^hip in 183 1 : died in Iowa in 1886. 

Hull, Isaac — Born in Pennsylvania July 3. 1807: came to Cabin in 
1837, where lie died December 19, 1873. 

Hull, Mrs. Maria Grulib^ — Born in Loudoun county, Virginia, Octo- 
ber, i8o(): came to Cass county in 1837; died November 15, 1887. 

llebrnn. N;uicy L. — Born in New York city Feliruary 17, 1822: 
came to i'urter township in 18^6; died in I'enn township. No\-ember 

28, i8.,3. 

Har|)er, Caroline Guilford — Born in Northampton, Massachusetts, 
September 4, 1816: came to Cassopolis in 1835. where she died January 

29, 1902. 

Harper, Joseph — Born in Washington countv, Pennsylvania, De- 
ceml'll'' 19, 1803: came tij Cassoixilis in Februarw 1835, wlis'"e he died 
Au;:- 18. 1894. 


Huyck, Richard R. — Bom in New York, February 21, 181 1 : came 
to Little Prairie Ronde in 1832: died December 14, 1893. 

Hathaway, Benjamin — Born in New York in 1822; came to- Cass 
in 1838: died in Vobnia March 21, 1896. 

Hebron. Gideon — Born in England in 1816: came to Porter town- 
sliip in 1833. where he died January 25, 1897. 

Harrison, Jesse — Born in Richmond, Indiana, August 17, 1822; 
came to Calvin townsbi]> in 1833; died at Cassopolis February 13, 1898. 
Hardenbrook, Adolphus T. — Born in Maryland in 1823 ; came to 
LaGrange township in 1832; died in \\'ayne in December, 1880. 

Hardenbrook, Margaret Shurte — Born in Marion county. Ohio, 
March 29, 1827; came to LaGrange about 1830; died in Wayne town- 
ship February 6, 1902. 

Hathaway, Orrin — Born in Stulien county. New York, May 20, 
1823; came to Penn township same year; died March 12. 1903. 

Hitchcox, James H. — Born in Erie county. New York, January 5, 
1826; came to Porter township in 183 1, where he died March 26, 1903. 
Haney, Charles — Born in (iermany January 29, 1809: came to 
Ontwa township in 1833; died January 8. 1892. 

Haney, Jane Smith — Born in Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, 
August 24. 1817; came to Ontwa township in 1829: died August 14, 

Hunt, Eliza Worden — Born in Niagara county. New York, April 
9. 1832; came to Edwardsburg in 1833; died at Brownsville August 26. 

Harwood, Nathan — Born in Bennington, Vermont, September 9. 
182 1 : came to Newberg in 1837; died September 29, 1903. 

Harwood, Clarissa Easton — Born in Allegany county. New York, 
October 16, 1834; came to Ne\\berg in 1834: died Feliruary 2. 1904. 
wife of William N. Harwood. 

Hanson, James — Born in Fulton county. New York. May 7, 1831; 
came to Jefferson in 1835; died in Howard township May 7, 1904. 

Hurd, Rev. John — Born in England November 27, 1823; came to 
Newberg in 1836; died at Paw Paw, Michigan, April 22, 1905. 

Hatch, Jerome B. — Born in Medina county, Ohio, March 9, 1827; 
came to Mason township in 1837 : died in Illinois April 9, 1905. 

Hitchcox, Thomas Addison — Born in Erie county. New York, 
June 22, 1829; came to Porter township in 183 1 ; died May 29, 1905. 

Hanson, \Villiam — Born in Montgoinery county. New York, No- 
vember 14, 1824; came to Ontwa in 1835; died at Edwardsburg March 
16, 1905: his first wife. Elizabeth Crawfnrd. born in 1822; died Septem- 
lier 7, 1865. 


Hcjward, I.everett C. — Born in Jefferson county, New York, No- 
vember 7, 1822; came to Cass county in 1834; (li(?cl in Dowagiac Octo- 
ber 3, 1903. 

Harwood, Silas — Born in New York October 13, 1828; came to 
Newberg in 1836, where he died December 31, 1905. 

Harmon, EHza Grubb — Born in Calvin August 13, 1837; died at 
Cassopolis March 15, 1906. 

Hicks, Edward P. — Born in England February 15, 1821; came to 
Ontwa in 1835; died in Milton township June i, 1906. 

Hicks, Richard V. — Born in England November 17, 1819; came to 
Ontwa in 1835; died in Milton township March i, 1906. 

Hathaway, Sarah E. — Born in Cayuga county, New York, June 
16, 18301; came to Volinia in 1837, where she died in Copemish, Mich- 
igan, April 24, 1906, as Mrs. H. S. Rogers. 

Huff, Amos — Born in New Jersey January 30, 1799; came to 
Volinia township in 1834, where he died July 4, 1881. 

Huyck, John — Born in New York September 27, 1783: came to 
Nicholsville in 1836; died at Marcellus September 15, 1881. 

Huyck, Abijah — Born in Delaware county. New York, October 

18, i8j8; came to Volinia township in 1836; died 

Hanson, Ephraim, Sr. — Born in New York in 1784; came to Cass 
county in 1S35; died September 4, 1837; his wife, Alida, born in 1791; 
died September 5, 1882. 

Huntley, Ephraim — Born in Saratoga county Septemlicr 10, 1798: 
came to Howard in 1833; died at Niles October i, 1881 ; his wife, Eli- 
za Ross, born 1800; died in Howard in 1S56. 

Howell, David M. — Born in Champaign county, Ohio, May 27, 
1817; came to Berrien county in 1834 and to Howard in 1840; died in 
Pemi December 12, 1883: his wife, Martha Anderson, born on March 
29, 1827; died January 11. 18G9. 

Harper, Calista — Wife of Wilson Harper; born in New York April 
II, 1819; died at Cassopolis November 24, 1843; Nancy Graves, second 
wife, born May 27, 1822: died in Berrien county April 25, 1904. 

Hopkins, David^Born in Washington county. New York, in 1794; 
came to Volinia in 1836: died April 7, iSSo. 

Hitchcox, James — Born in Ontario county. New York, in 1795; 
came toi Porter in 1830; died April 14, 185O'. 

Hirous, Joseph H. — Born in Delaware in 1805: came to Milton in 
1833; died May 25, 1873; his wife, Eleanor Shanahan, born January 12, 
1808; died October 16, 1891. 

Jo'ies, Albert — Born in Seneca county. New York. February 27, 
1828: came to tiiis C(juntv in 1836; died in Penn township December 
26, 1880. 


Janas, Benjamin — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, May 4, 1824; 
came to Cass county in 1834; died at Pbkagon December 29, 1879. 

Jewell, Elias- — Born in Monmouth county, New Jersey, in 181 1; 
came to McKinnev's Prairie in 1830; died at Dowagiac [anuarv 21. 

Jewell, Hiram — Born in Monmouth county, New Jerse}-, in 1805; 
came to LaGrange township in 1830, where he died September 28, 

Jones, Mrs. Rebecca — Born in 1810; came to Cass county in 1837; 
died January 28, 1890. 

Jones, Stephen — Born in Ohio in 1821 : came tn Cass county in 
1829; died January 12. 1891. 

Jones, Daniel S. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, May 2, 18 18; came 
to LaGrange township in 1833; died at Cassopolis July 28, 1893. 

Salina Miller — Wife of David S. Jones: hirn in New York Ma}- 5, 
1824; died at Cassopolis August 10, 1898. 

Jones, William — Born in Preble county, Ohio, March 8, 1813; 
came to Penn township in 1829, where he died March 29, 1894. 

Jones, William G. — Born in Penn township July 16, 1836; died 
in California May 11, 1895. 

Jones, George W. — Born in Preble county, Ohio, April 3, 1824; 
came to Cass county in 1830; died April 29, 1896. 

Emma Sherman — Wife of George W. Jones ; born in Cassopolis 
in 1836; died November 20, 1870. 

Jones, Jesse G. — Born in Penn township December 13, 1832, where 
he died March 16, 1884. 

Jones, Joseph — Born in Preble county, Ohio, in 1825: came to 
Cass county in 1829; died in Iowa February 16, 1897. 

Jones, Asa — Born in Erie county. New York, July 10, 1817; came 
to Cass county in 1835; died in Edwardsburg February 20, 1897: his 
wife, Nelly Massey, born in Sussex county, Delaware, October 15. 1823, 
came to Cass county in 1833; died in Edwardsburg April 30, 1899. 

Jones, George F. — Born in Seneca county, New York, August 11, 
1819, came to Newberg in 1837; died in Indiana August 22, 1898. 

Jones, Cordelia — Born in Newberg township in 1836 ; died at Van- 
dalia, November 14, 1900, as Mrs. Miller. 

Jones, Keziah — Born in Young's Prairie February' 4, 183 1 ; died in 
Penn township July 27, 1905, as Mrs. Brody. 

Jones, Nathan — Born in Preble county, Ohio, April 26, 1824 ; came 
to Young's Prairie in 1829, where he died December 8, 1905. 

Jarvis, Norman — Born in Rowan, North Carolina, April 14, 1820; 
came to LaGrange in 1834, where he died April 14, 1903. 


Jones, Finney H. — Born in I'enn in l^ecemlier, 1830; died March 

Jones. Amos — Born in Prel)le county, Ohio, August 13, 1820; 
came to Cass county in 1830; died in LaGrange township April 20, 

Jar\is, Burton — Born in Rowan count}-. North Carohna. Septemher 
6. i8i(); came to LaGrange townshi]) in 1834; died in Berrien countv, 
J;muar\ 2. njoi. 

Jewell, Jonathan M. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, March 8, 1835; 
came to LaGrange in 1839; died in \Va\ne township DecemlDcr 20, igO'5. 

Jenkins. William Baldwin — Born in Green county, Pennsyh-ania, 
October 4, 1783; came to Pokagon in 1825; died June 16, 1845. 

Jones, Henry — Born in Randolph count}'. North Carolina, in 1790; 
came to Penn township in 1830, where he died in 1851. 

Jacks. J(jseph L. — Born in hj-ie county. Pennsylvania. May 18. 
1804; arrixed at Edwardshurg July 4. 1829; flied January 7. 1885: 
Alvira Pennell, his wife, l^orn Octoljer 17, 1824; died January 23, 1872. 

Jewell. James — Born in Ohio January 7. 1803: came to LaGrange 
in 1832; died April it,. 1877; his wife. Mary, horn in 1806; ihed 
November 26, 1883. 

Keene, Leonard — Born in North Carolina January 13, 1810; came 
to Cass county in 183 1, where he died May 24, 1879. 

Keene, Mrs. Alcy — Born in Clark county. Ohio, in 1814: came to 
Calvin township in 1832; died in JefTerson township October 23, 1888. 

Kingsbin-y. Asa — Born in Massachusetts May 28, 1806; came to 
Cassopolis in 1836; died March 10, 1883. 

Keeler, Lucius — Bom in Onondag;i count}-. New York, April 23, 
1816; came to Porter township in 18:57, where he died September 26, 

Kelsey, James — Born in Had(b.n-|. Connecticut, No\-emher 3, iSio: 
came to Wavne township in 1839; died in LaGrange township October 
5, 1883. 

Kelsey, Mary Conipton — Born in Ontario countv. New York, in 
1817; came to the count\' with her husliand : died Februarv 22, if}00. 

Kirkwood, j\ndrew — Born in Scotland Julv 17, 1808; came to 
Wayne township in 1836; died in California March 13, 1891. 

Kirkwood, Lieutenant Alexander — Born in Ohio Septeniber zj. 
1834: came to Wayne in 1836; died in Chicago March 27, 1891. 

Kirkwood. James — Born in Scotland April 12, 181 1 : came to Wayne 
township in T836. where he died April 20. 1892. 

King. Samuel — Born in Sonierset countv. Pennsvlvania. in 1818; 
canie to Porter township ii-i 1828, where he died April 24, 1896. 


King, George — Born in Fairfield, Oiiio; came to Porter township 
in 182S, where he died April 26. 1896. 

Kingsley, Charles R. — Born in Franklin, Massachusetts, May 21, 
183 1 ; came to Ontwa township in 1839; died January 2, 1902. 

Kinimerle, Henry — Born in Butler county, Ohio, June 17, 1830; 
came to Casso^xjlis in 1834: died in LaGrange township Alarch 16, 

Kingsbury, Charles — Born in Massachusetts ]\Iay 4, 1812: came to 
Cassopolis in 1835; died December 23, 1876. 

Kelsey. Dr. William J. — Born in New York August 20'. 1839; 
came to LaGrange in 1839; died at Cassopolis November 29, 1893. 

Kingsley, Elijah — Born in Franklin county, Massachusetts, Octo- 
ber 5, 1796; came to Mason in 1839; died in Ontwa October 29, 1890. 

Lincoln, Bela — Born in Clinton county. New York, June 19, 1822: 
came to Young's Prairie in 1834: died Fehniary i, 1881, in Penn town- 

Lee, Ishmael — Born in Blount county. Tennessee, ]\Iay 21. 181 5; 
came to Jefferson township in 1834; died in Iowa April 22. 1879. 

Long, Mrs. Elizabeth — Born in Lancaster county, Penns}l\nnia, in 
1788: came to Edwardsburg in 1835; died Januar\' 12, 1879. 

Lybrook, Henley C. — Born in Giles county, Virginia, November 28, 
1802: came to Pokagon May 15, 1830: died in Dowagiac July 6, 1882. 

Lybrook, Baltzer — Born in Giles county, Virginia, in 1824: came 
to Pokagon in 1828: died in Silver Creek, January i, 1886. 

Lii Porte, George — Born in Ohio in 1805 : came to Cass county in 
1833: died in Wayne township June 11, 1886. 

La Porte, Mrs. Ann — Bom in Virginia Angust 25, iSii; came to 
LaGrange township in 1834: died in LaGrange township July 2, 1887. 

Leach, Joshua — Born in Orleans county, Vermont, IMarch 12, 18 12; 
came to Young's Prairie in 1833, where he died April 4, 1890. 

Lilly. David — Born in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1814: came to LaGrange 
township in 1835, where he died March 18, 1894; his wife, Sarah Simp- 
son, born in 1823, came to LaGrange township in 1830. where she died 
April 3, 1902. 

Loomis, Nancy J. Peck — Born in Champaign county, Ohio, Decem- 
ber 14. 1828; came to Jefferson townsliip in 1836. where she died Janu- 
ary 31, 1895. 

Lybrook, Mrs. Mary Hurd — Born in England February 9. 182 1 : 
came to Newberg in 1836; died in LaGrange January 26, 1903. 

Lindsley, Elizabeth — Born in Rutland county, Vermont, November 
5, 1830; came to A'oung's Prairie in 1839; died in Jefferson March 19. 


Lawrence, Levi B. — Born in Chautauqua county, New York, June 

12, 1819; came to Volinia in September, 1832, where he died August 

13, 1895; liis wife, Esther Copley, born in Jefferson county, New York-, 
March 26, 1824, came to Vohnia in 1833; died April 28, 1904. 

La Porte, Catherine Tietsort — Born in Ohio in 1830; came to 
W'ajne township in 1834; died at Do wagiac January 21, 1902. 

Lee, Samuel H. — Born in Stafford county. New Hampshire, Au- 
gust 14, 1830; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; died September 17, 1904. 

Lofland, Joshua — Born in Milford, Delaware, September 8, 1818; 
came to Cassopolis in 1836; died February 2"], 1862; his wife, Lucetta 
Silver, born in New Hampshire February 10, 1823: died at Ham- 
mond, Indiana, February 2, 1905. 

Lybrook, John — Born in Giles county, Virginia, in October, 1798; 
came to LaGrange prairie in 1828; died May 25, 1881. 

Lockwood, Dr. Henry — Born in New York February 26, 1800; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1837; died at Dowagiac November 17, 1863; 
his wife, Sophia Peck, born in Connecticut October 9. 1809; died at 
Edwardsburg" November 24, 1853. 

Lee, Mason — Born in Massachusetts in 1779: came to Jefferson 
in 1833; died September 8, 1858; his wife, Clarinda, born in 1796; 
died May 12, 1866. 

Lee, Joseph W. — Born in New Hampshire January 10, 1807; 
came to Ontwa in 1836; died August 24, 1874: his wife, Maria 
Hastings, born June 20. 1800; died February 2, 1873; his son, Abiel 
S., born in Ontwa April 4, 1838; died July 13, 1871 ; his mother, 
Elizabeth Lee, born in New Hampshire August 11, 1772; came to 
Edwardsburg in 1836; died March 12, 1852. 

Lowery, William^ — Born in Delaware in 1822; came to Edw'ards- 
burg in 1836; died January 21, i860; his wife, Elizabeth Shanahan, 
born in 1817: died at Cassopolis February 21, 1874. 

Mead, Mrs. Clarissa Brown — Born in Otsego county, New York, 
December 11, 1805; came to Edwardsburg in 1834; died in Cassopolis 
July 28, 1879. 

McCleary, Ephraim — Born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, March 31, 
1808; came to Cass county in 1829; died in Warsaw, Indiana, May 16, 

McPherson, Joseph — Born in Ohio August 16, 1800; came to 
LaGrange township in 1829; died in LaPorte county. Indiana, Tulv 4, 

Mosher, Ira D. — Burn October 26, 1802; came to Cass county 
February, 1838; died in Dowagiac November 27, 1880. 

Mowry, Mrs. Jane — Born in Hamburg. New York, in 1792; came 
to Howard township in 1836; died in Dowagiac February 25, 1879. 


Miller, George S. — Born in Essex county, New Jersey, June i8, 
1817; came to Cass county in 1835; died Mason township January 24, 

Merritt, Mrs. Adelia T. — Born in Onondaga county, New York, 
September 2, 1813; came to Baldwin's Prairie in 1836; died in Bristol, 
Indiana, January 10, 1881. 

McPherson, Sarah — Born in Virginia May 5, 1800; came to Cass 
county in 1829; died December 21, 1878. 

Marsh, Austin C. — Born in Litchfield county, Connecticut, July 
15, 1793; came to Edwardsburg in 1836, where he died June 3, 1886. 

Marsh, Mrs. Sarah Lofjand — Born in Kent county, Delaware, Feb- 
ruary 6, 1812; came to Cass county in 1836; died January 6, 1879. 

Mcllvain, Moses — Born in Lexington, Kentucky, February i, 1802; 
came to Jefferson township in 1836; died at Cassopolis October 18, 1883. 

Charity, Carmichael, wife of Moses Mclh-ain ; came to Jeffer- 
'son in 1836; died at Cassopolis May 12, 187 1. 

Meacham, Mrs. Eliza — Born in Delaware June 22, 1812; died at 
Union September 21, 1885. 

Merritt, Martin — Born in 1814: came to Cass county in 1833; died 
in Sumnerville May 20, 1886. 

Messenger, Mrs. Angeline Youngs — Born in Rising Sun, Indiana, 
y\ugust 16, 182 1 ; came to Cass county in 183 1 ; died in LaGrange town- 
ship March 18, 1887. 

McNeil, William B. — Born in Cayuga county. New York, Decem- 
ber 3, 1817; came to Mason township in 1835; died at Brownsville May 
II, 1887. 

Mcintosh, Duncan — Born in Baltimore, Maryland, May i, 1817; 
came to Penn township in 1829; died near Cassopolis May 29, 1887. 

Moore, James — Born in 1812; came to Cass county in 1838: died 
in Pokagon township January 28, 1892. 

Moore, Mrs. James — Came to Pokagon township in 1838, where she 
died April 21, 1889. 

McMullen, Eleanor — Born in Ohio September 15, 1820; came to 
Cass county in 1S37; died in Jefferson township October i, 1888. 

Meacham, Hiram — Born in Ontwa township May 26, 1834; died 
in Porter township August 31, 1898. 

Mosher, Harry C. — Born in Saratoga county. New York, June 17, 
1833; came to Cass county in 1838; died in Iowa February 27, 1900. 

Mowry, L. C. — Born in Erie county. New York, Februan,- 22, 1826 ; 
came to Cass county in 1836; died in Iowa June 30, 1900. 

McCoy, Henry — Born in Ohio July 27, 1833; came to Cass county 
in 1836; died at Marcellus February 10, 1901. 


Mead, ilirani B. — Bern in Dutchess county, New Yurk, P'ebruary 
7, 18^4; came to Edwardshurg in 1834, where he ched Januaiy 11, 

Merritt, Samuel K. — Burn in Bertrand, Michigan, June 24, 1836; 
came to Porter townsliip in same year, where he died Fehruary 16, 
1 90-'. 

Marshall, Joseph N. — Born in Stark county, Ohio, i\larch jg, 1825; 
came to Jefferson township in 1836: died at Cassopolis August 17, 1904. 
Marshall, Mrs. Lovina— Born in Jefferson township in 183 1; died 
July 5, 1889. 

Mcintosh, Mary — Born in Penn township in 1834; died at Cas- 
sopolis October 20, 1904, as Mrs. Mathews. 

Meacham, George — Born in Oneida count)-. New York. June 18, 
1799.; came to Beardsley's Prairie in April. 1827; died at Baldwin's 
Prairie January 2. 1888. 

Mcintosh. Daniel — Born March 13, 1805, in Alleghany county, 
Maryland: came to Cass county in 1831. where he died M;irch 13, 

Morris, Samuel — Born in Ohio in 1824: came to Cass county in 
1828: died in Volinia April 19, 1895. 

Messenger, Carroll — Born in Litchfield, Connecticut, February 7, 
. i8o9'; came to Cass county in 1833; '''^d in LaGrange June 21. 1896. 

McCallister. Mrs. Marian — Born in Scotland in 1807: came to 
Pokagon in 1836, where she died September 21, 1896. 

McOmber, Daniel — Born in New York in 1828: came to Wayne 
towi;ship in 1837; died in DoAvagiac May 2. 1897. 

Manning, John — ^Born in New York : came to Marcellus township 
in 1836, where he died March 11, 1898. 

McNeil, George B. — Born in Cayuga county. New York, May 12, 
1832; came to Ma,son township in 1835; died at Cassopolis May 8, 1905. 
Miller, Jacob E. — Born in Ohio January i, 1824; came to Cass 
county in i830'; died in Buchanan, Michigan, March 14, 1905. 

Masten, John M. — Born in, Kent county, Delaware, in 1829; came 
to Cass county in 183 1 ; died in rioward township April 27, 1906. 

McOmber. James — Born in Berkley, Massachusetts, February 28. 
1801 ; came to Wayne township in 1835; died in 1848. 

Mcintosh, Daniel, Sr. — Born in Scotland in i7^>5: came to Penn 
in 1829; died July 2, 1851. 

McKenney, Tliomas — Born in \\'ashingtnn county. New A'nrk, in 
1781 ; came to McKenney's prairie in 1827; died in Iowa in 1852. 

Mead, Barak — ^Born in Dutchess county, New York, in 1802 ; came 
to Edwardsburg in 1834; died at Cassopolis in 1874. 


Mansfield, William — Born in New York in i8i i ; came to Cass- 
opolis in 1838; died in 1869; Margaret Bell, his wife, horn in Ireland 
1817; died April 18, 1896. 

iMiller, Ezra — Bfjm in Erie county, New York, July <\ 1808: 
came to Edwardsburg- in 1835: died January 26, 1884; his wife, 
Maria Best, born in 1816: came to Edwardsburg in 1838; died Janu- 
aiy 2, 1883. 

Morelan, Joseph — Born in Virginia Seiiteniher 11, 1797: came to 
Volinia in 1829; died February 16, 1854; his wife, Sarah Poe, born 
in Ohio August 15, 1805; died . 

May, Russell G. — Born in New Y<_)rk in 1S04: came to Cass 
county in 1837; died in Ontwa October 8, 1886: his wife, Hannah, born 
in 1805; ched March 20, 1871. 

Mead, Flenry — Born in New York in 1797: came to Edwards- 
burg in 1836: died July 17, 1842: his wife, Mary, died at Niles ; 

his daughter, Mary, born in 1827; died July 24, 1850. as Mrs. P. A. 

Alorris, Dolphin — Born in Ross county, Ohio, in 1798; came to 
Pokagon in 1828 and to Volinia in 1829. and here died January 7, 

Morris, Henrv — And his wife, Esther Jones, son and daughter of 
pioneer parents, were murdered during the night of September 28, 
1879, at their farm home in VanBuren county, adjoining Volinia. 

Miller. John P. — Born in Pennsylvania February 18. 1809; came 
to Jefferson in J 830: died September 28. 1889. 

Nash. Ira — Born in Danbury. Connecticut. August 12. 1806; came 
to Diamond Lake in 1828: died January 26. 1881. 

Norton, Levi D. — Born in Ohio ; came to Jefferson township in 
1S28: died in Calvin township November 7. 1872. 

Norton. Martha Mcllvain — Born in Ohio November 26, 1810; 
came to Calvin township in 1832, where she died January 10, 1883. 

Newton, George — ^Born in Preble county, Ohio, August 10. 18 10; 
came to Penn township in 183 1. to Volinia in 1832, where he died 
January 23, 1883. 

Nixon, Hannah — Born in Penn township August 6. 1835. where she 
died June 18, 1885. 

_ Norton, Pleasant — ^Born in Grayson county, Virginia, in 1806; 
came to Jefferson township in 1832, where he died in 1877. 

Norton, Mrs. Rachel Fukery — Born in Highland county, Ohio, 
May 28, 180S; came to Jefferson township in 1832, where she died 
March 17, 1887. 

Norton, Sampson — Born in 182 1 ; came to Cass county in 1829; 
died in Calvin tovvnship May 3. 1892. 


Newton, Hester Green — Born March 25, 1819; came to Cass county 
in 1831; died in Volinia township April 21, 1892. 

Nixon, Esther Jones — Born in Preble county, Ohio, January 27, 
1814; came to Penn township in 1830; died November 10, 1894. 

Nicholson, John W. — Born in Champaign county, Ohio, in 183 1; 
came to Cass county in 1834; died in Iowa about 1895. 

Nothrup. Asahel D. — Born in Rutland county, Vermont, February 
13, 1822; came to Cass county in 1836; died in Calvin March 15, 1898. 

Norton, Jane — Born in Logan county, Ohio, December 5, 1807; 
came to Jefferson township in 18291; died June i, 1898. 

Northrop, Spafford B. — Born in Vermont in 1828; came to Calvin 
township in 1836; died in Wexford county, Micliigan, September 26, 

Nicholson, Ambrose — Born in Batavia, New York, July 3, 1834; 
came to Cass county in 1837; died at Kalamazoo July i, 1904. 

Neave, John — Born in England in 1780; came to Ontwa in 1836; 
died January 23, 1864: his wife, Mary Ann, born in 1805: died May 
II, 1862. 

Nixon, John — Born in North Carolina September 10, 1798: came 
to Penn in 1830; died June 10, 18S2. 

O'Dell, Nathan — Born in Highland county, Ohio, September 8, 
1819; came to Cass county with his father, James O'Dell, in 1832; died 
in Penn township February 22, 1880. 

O'Dell, John — Born in Montgomery county, New York, February 
17, 1806; came to Mason township in 183'^, where he died November 
15. 1878. 

Oxenford, Mrs. Sally Grennell — Born at Onondaga county. New 
York, July 17, 1830; came to Cass county in 1834; died at Vandalia 
July 12". 18S8. 

Oren, James — Born in Clinton county. Ohio, January 29. 1823; 
came to Calvin in 1838; died at Cassopolis February 22, 189 1. 

O'Dell, Thomas — Born in Porter township in 183 1 ; died January 
30, 1882. 

Osborn, Ellison — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, in 1823; came 
to Calvin township in 1835; died in Arkansas March 10, 1897. 

Osborn, Ellen — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, in 1834; came to 
Calvin township in 1835 ; died in Elkhart, Indiana, as Mrs. Jackson, 
May 19, 1897. 

Olmstead, William — Born in Ohio, March 15, 1835; came to How- 
ard township in 1837, where he died March 10, 1898. 

Osborn, Leander — Born in Economy, Indiana, December 27, 1825 ; 
came to Calvin township in 1835; died at Vandalia June 13, 1901. 


Osborn, Susannah East — Born in Wayne county. Indiana, October 
lO, 1829; came to Calvin township in 1833; died September 21, 1902. 

O'Dell, James S. — Born in Porter township January 10. 1830; 
died December 18, 1903. 

O'Dell, James — Born in Virginia July 20. 1799: came to Penn 
in 1832 ; died . 

Osborn, Jefferson — Born in Wayne county. Indiana. January 2, 
1824; came to Calvin in 1835; died April 4. 1901. 

Olmstead, Sylvester — Born in Connecticut in 1780; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1836; died Februar}- 3. 1861 : his wife, Polly, liorn in 
1775; died August 3. 1837. 

Olmsted, Samuel C. — Born in Connecticut July 10. 1801 : came 
to Ontwa in 1836; died — . 

Putnam, Mrs. Anna Chapman — Born in Kent. Connecticut. Janu- 
ary 19, 1792: came to Pokagon in November. 1825; died in Pokagon 
Prairie. October 15. 1880: mother of first white child born in Cass 

Putnam, Uzziel, Jr. — Born in Pokagon Prairie August 12. 1826: 
died at Pokagon February 10, 1879. 

Peck. Rachel — Born in Harrison county. Virginia. October 29. 
1798: came to Jefferson township in 1836. where she died April 15. 
1884 : wife of Marcus Peck. 

Peck, "William W. — Born in Shelby county. Ohio'. September 22. 
1830: came to Cass county with his father. Marcus Peck, in 1836; 
died in Cassopolis April 5, 1879. 

Putnam, James M. — Born in Jefferson township in 1838: died in 
Kansas February 15, 1879. 

Palmer. Joseph — Born in Saratoga count)-. New Ycjrk. ■March 5. 
1817; came to ^^d^itmanviIle in 18^2; died at Dowagiac November 9. 

Palmer. Jared — Born in Saratoga county. New York, in 1809: came 
to Whitmanville in 1832; died at Paw Paw January 18, 1879. 

Philbrick, Mrs. Eleanor Goodrich — Born in Meadowbrook, Con- 
necticut, in 181 7; came to Cassopolis in 1838; died at Grand Rapids No- 
vember 9, 1885. 

P'oe. Charles R^ — Born in Crawford county. Ohio, April 2~. 1819: 
came to Poe's Corners in 1835, where he died May 19, 1888. 

Parker, John — Born in Ohio in 181 1; came to Calvin township in 
183 1 ; died in Nebraska March 8, 1897. 

Pemberton. Reason S. — Bom in Wayne county. Indiana. March 
2^, 1822; came to Penn township in 1836; died in Marcellus April 27, 


I'olldck, William — Ijorn in Treble county, Ohio, August 6, 1820; 
came to Cass county in 1830; died at Cassoix>lis June 3, 1894; his wife, 
Harriet C. Shanahan, born in Delaware June 25, 1833, came to Edwards- 
burg in 1834; died at Cassopolis June 18, 1902. 

Putnam, Orlean — Born in Jefferson county. New York, May 7, 
i8o9'; came to Cass county in 1827; died in La(irange township Jan- 
uary 19, 1886. 

Pitcher, Silas A. — Born in Logan county, Ohio ; came to Wayne 
township in 1839; died September 7, 1897. 

I\illock, James — Born m Preble county, Ohio, February 19, 1822 ; 
came to LaGrange township in 1836; died in Penn October 16, 1898. 

Putnam, Ziltha — Born in Ohio in 1823; came to P<ik:igon in 1825, 
where siie died January 22, 1900, as Mrs. Jones. 

Pemberton, Eliphalet — Bom in Virginia in 1822; came to Penn 
township in 1836; died in Emmet county, Michigan, May 17, 1906. 

Palmer, William K. — Born in Livingston county. New York, in 
1825: came to Wayne townshi): in 1837; died at Dowagiac March 21, 

Price, Re\'. Jacob — Born in South Wales March 28, 1799; came 
to LaGrange in 1833: died August 8, 1871 ; Ann Price, an English 
lady, his wife, came with him and died October 9, 1833; his second 
wife. Sarah Bennett, born in Vermont 1810: died at Cassopolis in i88('). 

Rudti, Barker F. — Born in Vermont in 1800; came to Cass county 
in 1834; died in Newberg township February 22, 1880. 

Riiiehart, Mrs. Annie — ^Born in Ohio in 181 2; died near Union 
June 7, T889: wife of Lewis Rinehart. 

Rinehan, Lewis — Born in Virginia December 5, 1807; came to 
Cass county Feliruary 28, 1829; died at Baldwin's Prairie December 6, 

Richmond. Mrs. Nancy — Born in Ohio February i, 1815; came to 
Porter township about 1835; died July 11, 1879. 

Rinehart, John — Born in Rockingham count}', Y^irginia, June 5, 
1814; came to Young's Prairie in February, 1829: died in Porter town- 
ship February 20, 1881. 

Runkle, IMargaret Wilson — Born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, 
December q, iStS; came to Beardslev's Prairie in 1838': died Mav 24, 

Rcarnes, Moses — Born in, Northamjjton county, North Carolina, 
May 27. 1797; came to Jefferson township in 1828, where he died De- 
cember 6, 1878. 

Rinehart, Abram — Born in Rockingham county. \'irginia. Janu- 
ary 5. 1817; came to Porter township in 1829. where he died September 
2, 1895. 


Reneston, William — Born in Mifflin county, Pennsylvania, March 
13, 1796; came to LaGrange township in 1830; died August 5, 1882. 

Rosbrough, John — Born in Ohio in 1812; came to Jefferson town- 
ship in 1833, where he died August 23, 1882. 

Reames, Mary Colyar — Born in North Carolina, November 15, 1812; 
came to Cass county in 1831 ; died in Jefferson township April i, 1884. 

Root Mrs. Jane — Born in Erie county Pennsylvania, July 2, 181 1; 
came to Cass county in 183 1 ; died at Dowagiac March 5, 1887. 

Redfield, George — Born in Connecticut October 6, 1 796 ; came to 
Ontwa township in 1835, where he died October 29, 1887. 

Reames, W. D. — Born in 1820; came to Cass county in 1828; 
died in Cassopolis January 12, 1892; his wife, Rhoda Pearson, born in 
Logan county, Ohio, in 1822, came to Jefferson in 1831: died at Cass- 
opolis August 26, 1902. 

Rudd, Harry L. — Born in Rutland county, Vermont, in January, 
1821 ; came to Penn township in 1835; died in Oregon August 7, 1892. 

Reames, Levi — Born in Logan county, Ohio, November 13, 1824; 
came to Jefferson township in 1828, where he died April 2, 1894. 

Rinehart, John W. — Born in Porter township' January 21, 1834; 
died in Penn July 17, 1893. 

Rodgers, John — Born in Preble county, 'Ohio, August 13, 1815; 
came to Cass county in 1828; died in Pokagon May 8, 1895. 

Rudd, Orson — Born in Vermont September i, 1827; came to Cass 
county in 1837; died in North Dakota September 2, 1896. 

Rinehart, Jacob — Born in Rockingham, Virginia, in June, 1804; 
came to Porter in 1829, where he died May 2, 1897. 

Read, Sylvador T. — Born in Tompkins county, New York, Janu- 
ary 12, 1822; came to the county in 183 1; died in Cassopolis Januaiy 
15'. 1898. 

Reames, Nancy A. — Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1826; came 
to Jefferson township in 1834; died in LaGrange township Juh' i, 1898, 
as Mrs. Neff. 

Robbins, David H. — Born in Geauga county, Ohio, in 1828; came 
to Ontwa township in 1S36, where he died April 29, 1899; his wife, 
Marien Grant, born in Indiana in ; died June 10, 1861. 

Rogers, Hiram — Born in Morris county, Nev/ Jersey, January 16, 
1802; came to Milton township in 1831, where lie died April 17, 1889. 
Lory, his wife, born in 1810; died April 29, 1868. 

Reames, Huldah Colyar — Born in Logan county, Ohio, April 25, 
1815; came to Cass county in 1830; died September 23, 1900. 

Ross, Richard C. — Born in Stark county, Ohio, March 20, 18 14; 
came to Mason township in 1832, where he died April 22, 1901. 


Reames, Melissa — Burn in Logan county, Ohio, May 24, 1827; 
came to Jefferson tov\nship in 1828, where slie died March 13, 1900, 
as Mrs. J. L. Stephenson. 

Read, I^iayette R. — Born in Tompkins county, New York, August 
5, 1804; came to Calvin township in 1833; died in Cassopolis June 24, 

Rinehart, Christina — ^Born in Rockingham county. Virginia, July 
4. 18 19; came to Young's Pran-ie in 1829; died in Porter township July 

18, 1900, as Mrs. W. H. Stevens. 

Ross, Mahitable Bogart — Born in Genesee county. New York, April 
I, 1815; came to Edwardsburg in August, 18291; died in Mason town- 
ship January i, 1901. 

Reece, Rebecca A. — Born in Chenango county. New York, h>b- 
mary 22, 1828; came to Cass county in 1836; died in Newberg Decem- 
ber 17, 1900. 

Reames, Jeremiah B. — Bom in Logan county, Ohio, in 1825; came 
to Jefferson township in 1831, where he died December 17, 1901. 

Reese, J. Raymond — Born in Tioga county. New York, March 29, 
1S33: came to Ontwa township in 1835; died at Edwardsburg February 
22, 1902. 

Rogers, William A. — Born in Preble county, Ohio, October 27. 
1827; came to Pbkagon in 1828; died October 6, 1902. 

Roberson, Lewis B. — Born in Cass county February 13, 1837; 
died in LaGrange November 17, 1902; his wife, Adaline Tarbos, Ixirn at 
McKinney's Prairie November 22, 1837, died May 21, 1905. 

Root, Fber — Born in 1799: came to Cassopolis in 1832; died June 

19, 1S02; his wife, Eliza VVills, born in Green county, Ohio, October 
19, 1816, came to Edwardsburg in 183 1 : died April 25, 1904. 

Richardson, Evaline Meacham — Born in Porter township October 
16. 183c; died March 3, 1905. 

Rodgers, Alexander — Born in Rockliridge county, Virginia ; came 
to Pokagon township in 1828, where he died in 1866. 

Reynolds, John — Born in Ohio in 1816; came to Cassopolis in 
1838; died September 24, 1874; his wife. Lucinda Fletcher, born in 
i8'i8: died in 1873. 

Robbins, Harry J. — Born in New York, August 17, 1815; came to 
Cass co'unty in 1832; died Mav 26, 1888; his wife, Rebecca, born in 
1818: died March "7, 1866. 

Rodgers, Alexander — Born in Virginia in 1788'; came to Pokagon 
in 1828; died in 1867. 

Reading, Augustine — Born in New York September 11. 1802; 
came to Ontwa in 1831 : died in VanBuren county May 9, 1882; his 
wife, Catherine, born July 26, 1813; died December 2, 1885. 


Rich, Samuel — Born in North Carohna in 1802 ; came to Vohnia 
in 1829; died February 20, 1873. 

Rich, John H. — Born in VoHnia October 21, 1829; first white 
child born in Volinia township. 

■Robinson, Nathan — Born in New York Novemlier 15, 182O'; came 
to Jefferson in 1840; died September 3, 1879; his wife, Margaret 
Hanson, born in New York; died June 16, 1891. 

Robbins, Milton B. — Born in Ohio in 1806: came to Cass county 
in 1836; died in Ontwa March 26, 1S81 ; his wife, Sarah VanTuyle, 
born in 1804; died May 5, 1870. 

Ritter, John — Born in Virginia March 31. ly^jj^; came tO' La- 
Grange prairie in 1829; killed by lightning August 31. 1829; his wife, 
Sarah Lybrook, born December 30, 179(3; died January 23, 1834; his 
daughter, Miss Hannah, born May 24. 1818; died June 25, 1882, at 

Smith, George — Born in Sussex count)-, Delaware, September 22, 
1810; came to Ed\^•ar(lsburg■ in October, 1828; died in Alilton town- 
ship January 25, 1880. 

Smith, Major Joseph — Born in Botetourt county, Virginia, April 
II, 1809; came to Calvin township in 1831; died in Cassopolis April 
18, 1880, 

Silver, Rev, Abiel — Born in Flopkinton, New Hampshire, April 
30, 1797; came to Edwardsburg in 183 1; died at Boston March 27, 
1 881. 

Sears, iNIrs. Margaret — Born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, Feliruary 
8, 1816; came to LaGrange township in 1840: died in LaGrange town- 
ship March 30, 1881. ^ 

Spencer, Joseph — Born in Madison county. New York, in jVugust. 
1813; came to Wavne township in 183^, where he died b'ehruarv 27, 

Scott, Greenlee — Born in Lx)gan county, Ohio, in 1806; came to 
Cass county in 1830; he and wife, Mary Grubb Sci:itt, died in Api'il, 
1 88 1, in Iowa. 

Shaffer, Peter — Born in Rockingham, Virginia, January 10, 1791 ; 
came to Young's Prairie in 1828; died in Calvin July 13, 1880. 

Story, Mrs, Sophia Boots — Bom in England August 20, 181 1; 
came to Porter township in 1836, with husband, Ozail ; died November 
21, 1880. 

Springsteen. John — Born in Rockland county, New York, February 
16, 1802; came to LaGrange township in 18^7, where he died October 
31, 1880. 

Springsteen, Romelia — Born in New York August 27, 1814; came 
ti5 LaGrange in 1837, where she died May 8, 1891. 


Sulli\an, James — Dorn in Elxeter, New Hampshire, Decemljer 6. 
1811: came to Cassopolis in 1839; died in Dowagiac August 19, 1878. 

Smith, Ezekiel S. — Born in Oneida county, New York, in September 
181 1 ; came to Cassoptiiis in 1839; died in Chicago February 22, 1879. 

Squiers. Samuel — Born in Greene county, New York, June 4, 1801 ; 
came to VoHnia township m 1836, where he died December 9, 1882. 

Squiers, Elza — Born in Pennsylvania January 14, 1802; came to 
Cassopolis in 1831 ; died in Volinia township March 6, 1883. 

Smith, Mrs. Hannah Harden — ^Born in Ohio in January, 1826; 
came to Cass county in 1834: died in Cah'in December 14, 1885; wife 
of Joseph G. Hayden. 

Stephenson, Ira — Born in Logan county, Ohio, February 24, 1827; 
came to Cass county in June, 1834; died in Jefferson township December 
26, 1 886. 

Shanahan, Peter — Born in Delaware, 1797; came to Milton town- 
ship in 1834; died at Xiles March 7. 1887. 

Shellhammer, Aaron — Born in 1817: came to Cass county in 1839; 
died at Union June 8, 1889. 

Shaw, ]Mrs. Eliza J. Smith — Born in Jefferson township in 1834; 
<lied March 18, 1888. 

Sherman, Elias B. — Born in Oneida county. New York : came to 
Cassopolis in 1829, where he died November 14, 1890. 

Stretch, John — Born in W'a^ne county, Incliana, December 25, 1825; to Cass c(iunt\' in 1833; died April 30, 1892. 

Stevens, Andrew — Born in Ohio Octolier 28, 1822: came to La- 
Grange in 1833. where he died .\ugust 2^. 1892. 

Smith, I^zekiel C. — Born in Erie county. New York, June 6, 181 1; 
c;ime to Howard township in 1835, where he died July 30, 1894. 

Stephenson, Sanuiel — Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1819; came 
to Cass county in 1834; died in Jefferson township April 10, 1895. 

Sammons, .\ndrew J. — Born in New York. Decemlier 26, 1834; 
came to P(jkag<in in 1837; died in Illinois August 21, 1894. 

Shaft'er, General George T. — Born in Ohio October 9, 1821; came 
to Calvin township in 1832, where he died July 24, 1895. 

Smith, William — Born in England November 10, 1814: came to 
Silver Creek in 1840, where he died January 22. 1896. 

Smith, Cannon — Born in Sussex county. Delaware; came to Mil- 
ton township in 1828, where he died February i, 1896. His wife, Sarah 
Dunning, born in b'rie county. Pennsylvania. September 13, 1824; came 
to Milt'in towH'^liip in 1836; died in Ontwa November 17, 1904. 

Sherwood. George — Born in Dutchess county. New York, in 1819; 
came to E<lwar(lsl)urg in the "30s; died in Chicago April 18, 1896. 


Stevens, David R. — Born in Oneida county. New York. August i6. 
1822; came to Mason township in 1835. where he died June 4, 1896. 

Strickland, Mrs. Jane — Born in Butler county. Ohio, March 17. 
1826; came to LaGrange in 1831 ; died May 3. 1896. 

Shanafelt. Nehemiah — Born in Pickaway county. Ohio, in 1823: 
came to Cass county in 1835; '^1'^'' '" LaGrange township February 2, 

Smith, Jemmima Lippincott — Born in Clark county. Ohio, in 181 1; 
came to Cass county in 1832: died in Cassopolis May 30, 1897. 

Stephenson. Eri — Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1832: came 
to Cass county in 1834; died in Penn township September 20, 1896. 

Sheldon, William R. — Born in Connecticut in 1813; came to Ontwa 
township in 1835; died at Edwardsburg January 11, 1897. 

Sherman, Sarah Silver — Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, April 
I, 1807; came to Cassopolis in 1832; died in February, 1897. 

Smith, .Andrew J. — Born in Ross county. Ohio. September 2. 1818; 
came to Edwardsburg in 1840: died at Cassopolis May 2. 1897. 

Shanahan, Mary Lowery — Born in Milford, Delaware, May 2j, 
1809: came to Cass county in 1834; died at Cassopolis February 2^,, 

Silver, Benjamin F. — Born in Hopkinton. New Hampshire, in 1S08; 
came to Cass county in 183 1 ; died in Pokagon December 9, 1897. 

Sutton. Levi and Lucy — Born, res])ecti\'elv. in 1818 and 1822, in 
■Ohio; came to Porter townshi]) in 1840: died in July and June, 1S98. 

Shaffer, Abraham — Born in Clark county, Ohio, in 1828; came to 
Calvin township in 1832; died in California November 30, 1897. 

Sturr, Joseph W. — Born in Burgen county. New Jersey. November 
28. 1816; came to Wayne township in 1839. where he died February 12, 

Smith. Wesley — Born in Sussex. Delaware, in 182 1 ; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1828; died in Milton township February 18. 1899; his 
wife. Almeda. born in Erie county. Pennsylvania, in 1826: died in 
IMilton townshi]) June 18. 1892. 

Shaw. James — Born in Berlin, New York, February 28. 1813: came 
to Howard township in 1840, where he died December 11, 1898. 

Stretch, William — Born in Ohio in 1827 ; came to Cass county in 
183 1 : died in Pokagon February 6, 1903. 

Smith, Hemy \\ . — Born in Stark county, Ohio, April 12, 1818; 
came to Cass county in 1832; died in Indiana April 4, 1904. 

Stephenson, Celia — Born in Logan county, Ohio, March 20, 1817, 
came to Jeffers(_)n township about 183 1, where she died March 14, igo2, 
as Mrs. Williams. 


Si!\-er, Orrin — Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, December 12, 
i8t2: came to Edwardsburg in 1835, where he died March 27, 1899; 
liis wife, Abigail Fifield, born in New Hampshire in 1815; died at Ed- 
wardsburg December 12, 1898. 

Slianafelt, WiUiam H. — Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, Decem- 
l]er 24, 1824; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died May 22, 1900. 

Silver, Mar\" — Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, September 20, 
1816; came to Ontw-a in 1837: died at Cassopolis February 14, 1902. 

Sherwood, Charles — Born in Dutchess county. New York; came 
to Edwardsburg in 183 1 : died in Mishawaka, Indiana. January 10, 

Shurte, \\'illiam — Born in Cassopolis April 29, 183(1: died in La- 
Grange Noxember 12, 1003. 

Stephenson, John H. — Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 182 1 ; came 
to Jefferson township in 1832; died December 31, 1904. 

Springsteen, Le\i — Born in Ontario county. New- York, March 10, 
1815; came to I^aCirange township in 1836; died June 9, 1905. 

Shaw, James S. — Burn in Pickaway county, Ohio, in 1827: came 
to Penn township in 1831; died in Volinia township January 18, 1905. 

Slianafelt, Rachael — Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, October 13. 
1S24; came to Cassopolis in 1835: died in LaGrange No\-ember 10, 
1904, as Mrs. Umberfield. 

Simpson, Moses W. — Born in Pembroke. New Hampshire, May 
16, 1808: came to Pokagon in 1836, where he died June 16, 1849. 

Scjuier, Daniel C. — Born in Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, March 
2^, 1800; came to Cassopolis in 1831 ; died in Volinia township Tulv 28, 
1873. ^ . " ' 

Savage, John — Born at Salem, Massachusetts, June 1, 1788: came 
to Marcellus township in ]8_|o, where he died November, 1878. 

Shanahan, Judge Clifford — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1805 ; came to Edwardsburg in 1834 and to Cassopolis in 
1841 ; died Au.gust i, 1865; his wife, Mary Lower}-, born in Delaw-are 
on May 27, 1809; died at Cassopolis February 23, 1898. 

Scares, Richard — Born in Pennsvh-ania in 1771 : came to Cassopo- 
lis in 1836: died September 26, 1838. 

Scares, Isaac — Born in Connecticut in 1795 : came to LaGrange 
in 1836: died October 15, 1839; Mary, his wife, born in 1796; died 
April 24, 187O'. 

Shanafelt, William — Born in Sandusky, Ohio, in 1794: came to 
Cassopolis in 1835; ^^^'^ March 28, 1864: his wife, Elizabeth Ernest, 
born in 1802: died December 24, 1S62. 

Shellhammer, Daniel — Born in Germanv in 1785: came to Porter 
in 1827; died in 1873. 


Shurte, Isaac — Born in New Jersey July ii, J 778; came to Cassop- 
olis in 1830; died in LaGrange March 2, 1886; his wife, Mary Wright, 
born in New Jersey June 11, 1801 ; died January 5, 1892. 

Suits, Jacob — Born in New York in 1798; came tu Sih'er Creek 
in 1836; died . 

Sheilhammer, John — Born in Penns)-lvania Septemlier 11, 181 1; 
came to Porter in 1828; died . 

Silver, John — -Born in New Hampshire in 1763: came to Edwards- 
burg in 1830; died in Indiana in 1843. 

- Silver, Jacob' — Born in New Hampshire in 178(1; came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1830 and to^ Cassopolis in 1832; died Novemlier 5, 1872; 
Abigail Piper, his wife, died in New Hampshire; second wife, Maria 
Goodrich, born in 1796; died at Cassopolis December 14, 1876. 

Silver. Jeremiah — Born in New Hampshire in 1790; came tu Ed- 
wardsburg in 1836: died in Pokagon April 19, 187(1; he built the coun- 
ty's first poor house. 

Silver, Margaret — Born in New Hampshire in 1799: came to Ed- 
wardsburg in 1837; died in Indiana as Mrs. Seth Straw. 

Silver. Joan — Born in New Hampshire in 1802; came to Edwards- 
burg in 1837; died as Mrs. Timothy Straw. 

Silver, Josiah — Born in New Hampshire 1794; came to Edwards- 
burg in 1837; died in 1870. 

Shanahan, Edward — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, in 1806 ; 
came to Jefferson in 1832; died at Kilburn, Wisconsin. October 21, 
1891 ; his wife, RelDecca Kimmey. born July 30, 1810; died at Ed- 
wardsburg October 24, 1889. 

Scares, William — Born in Erie county, Pennsylvania. June 10. 
1817; came to Cassopolis in 1836: died March 18. 1894. 

Smith, Jacob — Born in Germany in 1778: came to Ontwa in 1830: 
died August 2^. 1849; '''i'^ wife. Elizabeth, born in 1790; died ;\lav 
■24, 1864. 

Tirauions. John B. — Born in Butler county. Ohio. June 13. 1816; 
came to Cass countv in 1834; died in Howard township August 30, 

Thomas, J. Hubbard — Born in Salisbury, Vermont, September 8, 
1807; came to Mason township in Mav. 1839; died in Jefferson townshi)> 
May 3, 1884. 

Tliarp. Mrs. Rebecca Hatfield — Born in Hardin county, Ohio, in 
183s; came to Cass countv in 18^8; died at Jamestown December 11, 

Tinkler. Thomas W. — Born in Erie county. New York, May 6, 
181 1 : came tc Wayne township in April, 1839, where he died April 


Tliarp, Lucinda Jane — Born in Kentucky in 1799; came to Calvin 
in 1839. where she died February 15. 1884. 

Tliarp, Laban — Born in Logan county, Ohio, March 16, 1816; 
came to Jefferson township in 1828, where he (hed October 21, 1880. 

Tnwusend, Charlotte Hunter — Born in Champaign county, Ohio, 
lulv iJ, 1S.21 : came to Cass county in 1831 : died in I^Grange Novem- 
iier 2, 1898. 

Thomiison, Mrs. Harriet — Born in 1814: came to Cass county in 
1S37; died near Vandalia May 3, 18S9. 

Townsend, Gamaliel — Born in York, Canada, January 20, 1802; 
came to LaGrange township in 1826, where he died August 23, i88g. 

Townsend. Charlotte Hunter — Born in Champaign county, Ohio, 
[ulv 12, 1821 ; came to Cass county in 1831 ; died in LaGrange Novem- 
l)er 2, 1898. 

Thar]), Lvdia O. — Born in Logan county. Ohio, January 10, 1817; 
came to Cass county in 1827; died Septeml>er 15, 1893. 

Thar]i, Christena Maxson — Born in Logan county, Ohio, Septem- 
ber 17, 1827; came to Jefferson township in 1840, where she died Sep- 
tember II, 1 890. 

Tietsort, Alamanza — Born in LaGrange township March 28, 1834; 
died in Jefferson township December 8, 1890. 

Trattles, William — Born in England in 1814; came to Porter town- 
ship in 1837, where he died February 21, 1891. 

Tomlinson, Dorcas L.— Born in Delaware May g-, 18 10; came to 
Cass county in 1835: died in LaGrange township December 23, 1891. 

Tietsort, John — Born in Butler county, Ohio, November 22, 1826; 
came to Cassopolis in 1830, where he died April 29, 1893. 

Ellen S. Sherman, wife of John Tietsort, torn in Cassopolis Octo- 
ber 21, 1833; died August 26, 1862. 

Tietsort. Peter — Born in Butler county, Ohio, January 28, 1808; 
came to Cass county in 1830; died in Illinois February 10, 1895; his 
wife, Nancy Wood, bom in Virginia in 1806, came to the county in 
1835; "^''^'l '" Illinois August 31, 1898. 

Thompson, Henry — Born in Vermont in 18 181; came tO' Cass county 
in 1838; died in Mason township March 26, 1895. 

Thorpe, Dr. A. L. — Bom in Ohio Noveml)er g, 1826; came to 
Cass county in 1832; died in Mishawaka, Indiana, February 27, 1895. 

Thomas, Eunice Townsend — Born in Brandon, Vermont, April 24, 
1812: came to Mason township in 1839, where she died July 29, 1896, 

Traverse, Aseneth E. Shivel — Bom in Montgomery county, Ohio, 
October 10, 1827; came to Porter township in 1833; died at Cassopolis 
July 6. I go I. 


Tietsort, Elizabeth Waldron — Born in Butler county, Ohio, in 1813; 
came to LaGrange township in 1830; died April 17, 1897. 

Thompson, James — Born in Ohio in 1819; came to Penn township 
in 1829; died in Dowagiac June 9, 1898. 

Truitt, John M. — Born in Sussex! county, Delaware, in 1820; came 
to Milton township in 1831; died at Edwardsburg January 26, 1899. 

Tharp, William Z. — Born in Logan county, Ohio, February 7, 
1827; came to Jefferson township in 1830; died November 17, 1898. 

Tietsort, Sarah A. — Born in Darke county, Ohio, February '25, 
1832: came to Volinia in 1832: died June 2, 1901, as Mrs. Ferrell. 

Truitt, Henry P. — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, April 25, 
1824; came to Milton township in 183 1 ; died April 23, 1902. 

Tharp, John L. — Born in Logan county, Ohio, February 28, i828-; 
came to Cass county in 1840; died at Brownsville April 25, 1902. 

Tietsort, Julia Fisher — ^Born in Richland county, Ohio. January 21, 
1831 ; came to LaGrange in 1835; died July 29, 1902. 

Tietsort, Henry^ — Bom in Butler county, Ohio, January 26, 1817; 
came to Cassopolis in 1829; died September 26, 1903. 

Turner, George B. — Born in Franklin county, New York, March 
I, 1822; came to Cassopolis in 1836; died April 15, 1903. 

Harriet Monroe, wife of George B. Turner; born in 1827; came 
to Cassopolis in 1835; died November 5, 1858; Charlotte Tytherleigh, 
second wife, born in England in 1819; died November 25, 1893. 

Tietsort, Ira — Born in Cassopolis September 16, 1835; died in 
Detroit November 12, 1903. 

Townsend, Eliza — Born in Canada July 6, 1814; came to Mc- 
Kinney"s Prairie in 1827; died in Iowa March 22, 1906: wife of Michael 

Thomas, Harley — Born in Hartford, Connecticut, in 18 18; came to 
Cass county in 1838; died in Dowagiac in 1876. 

Truitt. Peter — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, February 7, 1801 ; 
came to Milton township in 1831, where he died December 29, 1881. 

Turner, Sterling A.- — Born in North Carolina in 179O'; came to 
Cassopolis in 1835; died May 10, 1861 ; his wife, Mary, born in 1798; 
died September 12, 1847. 

Townsend, John — Born in Wayne county, Indiana, in 1804; came 
to Young's prairie in 1829; there died November 20, 1835. 

Tarbos, William — -Born in Ohio in 1801 : came to LaGrange in 
1833; died March 24, 1874; his wife, Mary Waldron, born in 1812; 
died April 10, 1864. 

Tietsort, Abram H. — Born in New Jersey February 6, 1777: 
came to Cassopolis in 1830; died February i, 1847: his wife. Mar- 


garet Banta, iioni in Ohio January 0, 1785; died at Cassopolis Seplcm- 
Ijer 8, 1854. 

Tietsort, Abram, Jr. — Burn in Butler cuunty, Ohiu. July id, 1805; 
came to Cassopolis in 1828; died May 31, 1842; his wife, Rachel 
rhonipson, born July 17, 1807; died March 9, 1893. 

Tietsort, Levi — Born in Butler county, Ohio', January 12, 1811; 
came to Cassopolis in 1830; died in LaCrange August 17, 18O4; his 

wife, Elizabeth Waldron, born April jj, 1813; died . 

■ Tietsort, Cornelius B. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, January 24, 
1820; came to Cassopolis in 1829; died April 26, 1870-; his wife, Eliza- 
beth Mclnterfer, born April 23, 1823; died April 21, 1890. 

Tietsort, Squire V. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, April 2, 1822; 
came to Cassopolis in 1829; died June 7, 1852; his wife, Catherine Cus- 
tard, b<jrn February 19, 1826; died. . 

Thompson, Squire — Born in Virginia in 1784; came to I'okagon 
in 1826; died in California in 1850. 

. Truitt, Peter — Born in Sussex county, Delaware, I-'ebruary 7, 
1801 ; came to Milton in 183 1; died December 29, 1881. 

Townsend, Abram — Bcjrn in New York in 1771 ; came to Town- 
send's prairie in 182O; died . 

Umberfield, Ebenezer — Born in Ohio in 1828: came to LaGrange 

in 1839; died ; his w'ife, Rachel Shanafelt, born in 1828; came 

to LaGrange in 1835; died November 10, 1904. 

Van Tu}'l, Daniel — liorn in New Jersey, March 13, 1796; came to 
JeiYerson township in 1S35 ; ^^^^'^ January 20, 1880. 

Van Vlier, George — Born in Virginia in 1806; came. to Pokagod 
in 1830, where he died August 28, 1886. 

\'an Tu_\l, John — ^Born in Jefferson township October i, 1838; died 
at Edwardsburg May 25, 1899'. 

Vanderhoof, Dorcas FTow^arfl — B<irn in Canada Nmember 11, 1826; 
came to Whitmanville in 1837: died in Iowa in July, 1902. 

Van Tu)'l, Joseph M. — Born in Ohio October 19, 1833; came to 
Jefferson township in 1835. \\here he died June 20, 1905. 

Wilsey, Mrs. Nancy — Born in Galway, New York, December 13, 
1773: came to Cass county in 1835; died in Howard township Januarv 
7, 1881. 

Witherell, Gilman — Born in Concord, New Hampshire, in 1809; 
came to Pokagon in 1836, where he died Noveml^er 24, 1878. 

Walters, David — Born in New York alx)ut 18 18; came to Silver 
Creek township in 1839, where he died December 6, 1878. 

Williams, Mrs. Sarah — Born in 1806; came to Cass county in 
1830; died in Calvin township December 14, 1885. 


Williams, Mrs. Ann Parmer — Born in Kent county, Delaware, May 
4, 1801; came to Milton township in 1837; died in Howard township 
October 24, 1880. 

Warner, Hubbell — Born in New York in iSo'i ; came to Volinia in 
1837, where he died January 22, 1888. 

Wood, Mrs. Sarah Hunter — Born in Otsego county, New York, 
July 4, 1818; came to Cass county in 1836; died August 31, 1887. 

W'alton, Mrs." Jane B. — Born in Massachusetts Februaiy 19, 1809; 
came to Jefferson in 1838; died in Cassopolis August 26, 1890. 

Wright, James M. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, May 12, 1821 ; 
came to Volinia in 1S31, where he died April 23, 1896. 

Warner, Eliza A. Fox — Born in Northumberland county, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 16, 1817; came tci Volinia township in 1830; died February 
7, 1896. 

White, Joel — Born in Pennsylvania in 1809'; came to this county 
in 1830; died in Porter township March 21, 1897. 

Wright, Stephen D. — Born in Butler county, Ohio, April 4, 18-16; 
came to LaGran^ge Prairie in 1828, where he died April 25, 1898. 

White, Jrihn — Born in Ohio about 1822 ; came to Cass county in 
1830; died in Lnva February, 1898. 

Wilson, Daniel — Born in Franklin county. Ohio, in October, 1814; 
came to LaGrange township in 1829; died in Oregon January 15, 1898. 
Waterman, William — Born in Norwalk, Ohio, May 20, 181 2; came 
to site of Dowagiac in 1835, where he died March 12, 1902. 

Warner, Loomis H. — Born in Herkimer county. New York, Febru- 
ary 6, 1828; came to Volinia in 1835; died at Cassopolis April 14, 1904. 
White, Eli S. — Bom in LaGrange April 29, 1836; died in Penii 
township December 7, 1903. 

Wells. Col. Samuel — Born in Little Prairie Ronde June 4, 1833; 
died in Lidiana January 12, 1906. 

Warner, J. Harvey — Born in Herkimer county. New York, March 
23, 1832; came to Volinia in 1837: died March 24, 1906. 

Worthington, Rev. Henry — Born in Springfield, Massachusetts, 

March 12, 1815; came to Cass county in ; died at Dowagiac 

August 9, 1875. 

Wilkinson, Harvey — Born in Chautauqua county, New York, in 
1795; came to Ontwa in 1834: died January 23, 1870; his wife, Cath- 
erine M., born in 1804; died at Edwardsburg September 11, 1846. 

Wright, William R. — Born in New Jersey in 1779: came to La- 
Grange in 1828 ; died . 

Williams, Spencer — Born in .Sussex county, Delaware, May 2, 
1807; came to Ontwa in 1831 ; died in Milton May 2, 1877. 


Williams, Isaac — Born in Virginia in 1800: came to Pokagon in 
1835 ; died Novemljer 22, 1874. 

Walton. Charles — Born in Delaware in 1800; came t(j Jefferson 
in 1836; died July 30, 1870; his wife, Sarah Primrose, born in 1800; 
died May 2, 1886. 

Walton, Henry — Born in New York in 1804; came to Jefferson 
in 1831 ; died at Cassopolis April 25, 1865; his wife, Jane B., lxirn in 
Massachusetts in 1838; died at Cassopolis August 26, 1890. 

Young, William — Born in Rutland, Vermont, April 17, 1798; came 
to the county in 183 1; murdered Decemlier 16, 1879. 

Youngblood, Peter — Born in Preble county, Ohio, in June, 1813; 
came to Pbkagon in 1831 ; died in LaGrange township Decemter 20, 

Zimmerman, Jacob H. — Born in Georgia in February, 1800; came 

to Younj;'s Prairie in 1832; died 

{ Zane, Isaac^Born in Marcli, 1766; came to Jefferson township in 
1833; where he died February 19, 1839. 




Referring to tlie conditions in the large civil division of which 
Cass county was a part until the year 1829, the History of 1882 makes 
the following interesting statement: "It does not appear that go\ern- 
ment had any other than a merely nominal existence in St. Joseph town- 
ship, and it is probable that no legal acts were performed in or by it." 
Although thus far we have mentioned the county townships of Cass 
as if they already existed at that early day, they did n<>t ; and as the 
quoted words indicate, there was no government machinery in operation 
during the period to which we have devoted the chapter on "Early Set- 
tlanent." During the years 1825 to 1829 many settlers had come, but 
they were a law unto themselves. And well was it that they possessed 
the Angla-Saxon genius for law and order and "the enjoyment of mine 
without injury to thine;" otherwise there would have been anarchy. But 
though the early settlers in a sense were without law, they were not 
against law, and at the proper time steps were taken toward county 

We have already mentioned the county of Wayne and other muta- 
tions of Michigan territorial boundaries during its early history. The 
various counties erected within the territory up to the time of our pres- 
ent discussion were: Monroe, in 1817; Mackinac, in 1818; Oakland, 
in 1820; Washtenaw, in 1826; Chippewa, in 1826; Lenawee, from Mon- 
roe, in 1826. To Lenawee county was attached all the territory (com- 
prising the greater part of southern Michigan) to which the Indian 
title had been extinguished by the Chicago treaty of 1821. In Septem- 
ber, 1828, this already vast domain was further increased by the addi- 
tion of all the lands to which the Indian title had been extinguished by 
the Carey Mission treaty of 1828. This entire area, comprising about 
ten thousand square nules, was constituted and organized as the town- 
ship of St. Joseph, being attached to Lenawee county. 

By an act approved October 29, 1829. twelve counties were carved 
from this immense township. Among other sections of the act, one 
provided that : "So much of the countiy as lies west of the line be- 


tween ranges 12 ami 13 west nf the meridian and east oi the Hne be- 
tween ranges 16 and 17 west, and soutli of the Hne between townships 
4 and 5 south of the base hne, and north of the lx)undary Hne between 
this Territory and the State of Indiana, be, and the same is hereby set 
off into a separate county and the name thereof shall be Cass." 

It was a fitting tribute to an .American statesman and soldier that 
his name should be perepetuated in this beautiful county of southern 
Michigan. Lewis Cass was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, October 
9, 1782, and died at Detnoit, Michigan, June 17. 1S66. His career, 
while of nati(Uial prominence, was peculiarly identified with Michigan. 
After a period of service in the second war with Creat Britain, he was 
sent to the west as governor of the territory of Michigan, and held that 
office during the greater part of Michigan's territorial existence, from 
1813 to 1 83 1, being the incumbent of the office at the time Cass county 
was created. Thereafter he served as secretary of war, 1831-36; min- 
ister to France, 1836-42; United States senator, 1845-48; Democratic 
candidate for president. 1848; United States senator. 1849-57. ^^d sec- 
retary of state. 1857-60. 

By the provisions of the section above quoted, Cass county was con- 
stituted entirely rectangular in outline, twenty-four miles from east to 
west, and from north to south twenty-one miles and a fraction. It is 
e\-ident that the erection of the counties at this time was planned ac- 
cording to the lines of survey, witlniut regard to geographical conven- 
iences ; for no account was taken of the only irregular feature in the 
outside limits of the county, namely, the small corner cut ofif by the St. 
Joseph ri\'er. Until March 3, 1831, the legal boundaries construed the 
small triangle of land (containing one whole section and fractions of 
four others) lying east of that river to belong to Cass county. But 
an act of that date changed the lines to conform with the natural bound- 
ary, giving tlie small portion thus detached to St. Joseph count}-. For 
seventy-five }-ears Cass county has lieen bounded as at present, and, as 
we know, this is also practically the historical lifetime of the county. 

The next step was the establishment of civil government within 
the territory thus described, and this was provided by an act approved 
November 4, 1829, entitled "An act to organize the counties of Cass 
and St. Joseph, and for establishing' courts therein." The pertinent por- 
tions of this organic act are as follows ?■'■" " 

"Be it enactefl by the legislative couricil'bf the Territory of Mich- 
igan, That the counties of Cass and St.' Joseph shall be organized from 


and after the taking effect uf this act, and the inhahitants thereof en- 
titled to all the rights and privileges to which hy law the inhabitants of 
the other counties of tlais territory are entitled. 

"Sec. 2. That there shall be a county court established in each of 
said counties; and the county court of the county of Cass shall be held 
on the last Tuesday of May and on the last Tuesday of November in 
each year. * * * 

"Sec. 4. That the counties of Van Buren and Berrien, and all 
the country lying north of the same to Lake Michigan, shall be attached 
to and compose a part of the county of Cass. 

"Sec, 8. That there shall be circuit courts, to be held in the conn- 
ties of Cass and St. Joseph, and that the several acts concerning the 
supreme, circuit and county courts of the Territory of Michigan, de- 
fining their jurisdiction and ix)wers, and directing the pleadings and 
practice therein in certain cases, be, and the same are hereby made ap- 
plicable to the circuit courts in said counties. 

"Sec. 9. That the said circuit courts shall be held at the respect- 
ive county seats in said counties, at the respective court houses or other 
usual places of holding courts therein: provided, that the first term of 
said court in the county of Cass shall be holden at the school house near 
the house of Ezra Beardsley, in said county.' * * '•' 

"Sec. 10. That the county of Cass shall be one circuit, and the 
court for the same shall be held hereafter on the second Tuesday of 
August in each year." 

It will be noticed that this act provided for a "county court," a 
judicial institution of which few citizens of the county at this date have 
any direct knowledge. The county court was established in Michigan 
by a territorial act of 181 3, and the first session of the Cass county 
court was held also at the house of Ezra Beardsley, in November, 183 1. 
In April, 1833, the county court was abolished in the organized counties 
of the territory. The institution was revived in 1846, and continued 
until its final abolition in the constitution of the state adopted in 1850. 
The last term of county court held in Cass county commenced .\ugust 
5. 185 1, with Judge Cyrus Bacon on the bench. 


Following the act of organization of civil government came an 
act dividing the new county for political purposes. The original town- 
ships as defined by this act were four in number. Technically they 
were: Townships 5 and 6 and north half of township 7, in range 16 
west, to be a township by name of Pokagon. Townships 3 and 6 and 
north half of townshi]i 7 south, in range 15 west, to be a township by 

'The first term of circuit court in Cass county was opened at the house of Ezra 
Beardsley (instead of the school house), at Edwardsburg, and its business was com- 
pleted in two days. 


luimc nf La Grange. Townships 5 and 6 and north half of towni^hip 7 
south, in ranges 13 and 14 west, to be a township by name of P'enn. 
All tiiat part of Cass county known as south half of township 7 and frac- 
tional tiiwnship 8 south, in ranges 13. 14, 15 and 16 west, to be a town- 
ship by the name of Ontwa. 

This division was no doubt influenced, in part, by the density of 
p<il)ulation in the various parts of the county. We have already stated 
thai the count}' was settled by a wa\-e of immigration directed from the 
west and south rather than from the east. There is proof of tliis in 
this formation of townships. On the west was the rectangular township, 
Pokagon, six miles wide by fifteen long, and including the present Sil- 
ver Creek, Pokagon and the north half of Howard. This was the old- 
est settled portion of the county, and at the date of organization Poka- 
gon prairie contained a large per cent of the entire population of the 

To the east of Pokagon was tlie township of La Grange, exactly 
parallel in extent and of the same width, comprising what are now 
\\ ayne, La Grange and the north half of Jefferson. This was also a 
comparatively well settled portion of the county. Each of these town- 
sliiiis contained an area of ninety square miles. 

.\longside of La Grange on the east, and comprising a doulile width 
of tnwnshiijs. was Penn, emljracing in its one hundred and eighty square 
miles of area the present townships of Penn, Volinia, Marcellus and 
Newlierg, besides the north Iialf of Calvin aufl north Porter. 

This left a strip acrriss the entire southern side of the countv, and 
in width n little more than six miles, to comprise the township of Ont- 
wa. Such were the four original political divisions of Cass county. It 
will be interesting to trace the process by which fifteen townships were 
carved from these four, that process illustrating very graphically the 
growth cif the county from a sparsely settled region to a poulousness 
that made smaller political divisions both practicable and necessary. 

Before this, however, let us call attention to the fact that Cass 
county comprised at one time, as respects political and judicial ftmc- 
tions. the two adjoining counties of Van Buren and Berrien, as pro- 
vided for in the organic act quoted above. So that at the period now 
under consideration, Berrien county was a part of Cass and was organ- 
ized as one township under the name of Niles. Van Buren county and 
the territory north to Lake Michigan remained a part of Cass county 
until 1835, and was originally a part of Penn township. 


Naturally, tlie rapid filling up of the county, with settlers in a short 
time called for a subdivision by the legislature of the original town- 
ships. The first act for this purpose was dated March 29, 1833. and 
provided for three new townships, Porter, Jefferson and Volinia. 

"All that part of the township of Ontwa, in Cass county, situated 
in ranges 13 and 14, west of the principal meridian, shall comprise a 
township by the name of Porter; and the first township meeting shall 
be held at the house of Othni Beardsley." 

This is not the Porter township as we know it today. It was, as 
technically defined, the east half of the original Ontwa. It contained 
all of the present !\lason, a part of Calvin and all the present area of 
Porter except the th.ree north tiers of sections. For the act which gave 
it its present area, see forward, in connection with the township of New- 

In creating the township of Jefferson, the same act further deprived 
Ontwa of considerable territory. "That all that part of the county of 
Cass known and distinguished as township 7 south of the base line, and 
in range 15 west of the principal meridian, compose a township by the 
name of Jefferson ; and that the first township meeting be held at the 
house of Moses Reames in said township." Thus was constituted Jeff- 
erson township as we know it today. The north half was subtracted 
from original La Grange, and tlie south half from Ontwa. 

The third township created by the act of March, 1833. was Vo- 
linia. This Tiame was given bv Josephus Card, the pioneer, after a 
Polish province named Volhynia, which was the original spelling. The 
act reads : "That all that part of the county of Cass known and dis- 
tinguished as township 5 south, in ranges 13 and 14, west of the prin- 
cipal meridian, compose a township by the name of Volinia: and that 
the first township meeting be held at the house of Josephus Card in 
said township." Volinia, as thus formed, also contained the present 

No further changes occurred until March 7, 1834. when original 
Pokagon suffered its first diminishment of territory. "All that part 
of the county of Cass comprised in surv^eyed township 7 south, in range 
16 west, shall be a township by the name of Howard: and the first town- 
ship meeting shall be held at the house of John Fosdick in said town- 
ship." This also took more territory from Ontwa, which was reduced 
to the two fractional townships in the southwest corner of the countv. 

Before the passing of the territorial form of government, three 


other townships were created. Tlie act of March 17, 1S35, pi'ox'idcs 
that "all that part n\ the county nf Cass comprised in surve^xd township 
7 south, range 14 west, be a tow-nship by the name of Calvin: and the 
first townshi]) nieetins' shall be held at the dwellinsj house nf John Reed 
in said township." Thus we see that all the new townships were beins; 
erected with the lines of the t(iwnships and rans^'cs of the government 
surve\', and at present these lines govern entirel}- with the one exception 
of Porter. 

By the provisions of an act also dated March 17. 11^35. \\'a\'ne 
township came into existence. This, as we know, was a part of the 
original La Grange. But the settlers had come in fast in the last few 
\cars. the north half of the township had filled up with people who were 
soon demanding a separate organization. This demand was granted, 
and the name of the famous Revolutionary leader and Indian fighter 
was a]ii)lied to tlie new township at the suggestion, it is said, of Corne- 
lius Higgins. The technical definition of the boundaries of the town- 
ship is "that part of Cass county comprised in township 5 south, range 
15 wxst." The first township meeting was held at the bouse of Elijah 
W. Wright, April 6. 1835. 

An act approved March 23, 1836. constituted the first of the three 
fractional tow-nships of Cass county. "All that jxirtion of Cass county 
designated liy the United States sur\'ey as township 8 south, of range 
14 west, l>e. and the same is bereliy set off and organized into a separate 
township li\^ the name of Mason: and the first township meeting therein 
shall be held at the dwelling house of Jotham Curtis in said township." 
Before the passage of this act, this fractional go\-ernment township was 
a part of Porter township. 

With the admission of Michigan tO' statehood, the following town- 
ships of Cass county were constituted with boundaries as at present : 
Wayne. La Grange, Howard, Jefferson, Mason and Calvin. The re- 
maining townships, wdiich hnxe since been divide<l. were Pokagon. Vo- 
linia, Penn, Porter and Ontwa. 

The state legislature, by an act ajiproved March 20, 1837, provided 
"That all that part of the county of Cass, designated by the United 
States sur\-ey as township 5 south, range ift w-est, be set off and organ- 
ized into a separate township by the name of Silver Creek: and the first 
town meeting therein shall be held at the house of James McDaniel in 
said township." Thus Pokagon was reduced to its present size, and 
(he extreme northwest township accpiired ci\il government. 


On March 6, 1838, the township of Newberg was erected, accord- 
ing to the provisions of the following: "All that part of the county of 
Cass designated in the United States survey as township 6 south, of 
range 13 west, lie, and the same is hereby set nff and organized into 
a separate township by the name of Newberg: and the first township 
meeting therein shall be held at the house of John Cair in said town- 
ship." Newberg \\as car\'ed from Penn township, which on this date 
was limited to its present boundaries. 

Also, at the session of 1838 an act was approved whereby all that part 
of the "township of Penn in the county of Cass comprised in township 
7 south, range 13 \\cst. shall be attached to ami become part of the 
township of Porter."' 

Nine days after the estaljlishment of Newberg the legislati\'e act 
constituting Milton township was approved. "All that portion of Cass 
county designated in the United State survey as township 8 south, of 
range 16 west, be. and the same is hereby set oi¥ and organized into a 
separate township by the n;ime of Milton; and the first township meet- 
ing therein shall lie held at the house of Peter Truitt. Jr." This division 
brought Ontwa to\\nship down to its present area. 

It was five years before the final political division was established 
in Cass county. The fifteenth township was Marcellus. which, the last 
to be organized, was also the last to be settled. The government town- 
ship known as township 5 south, of range 13 west, had hitherto been 
a part of Volinia township, but in 1843 ''^^ people living within the 
area, feeling competent to manage their own affairs, petitioned the 
state legislature for a separate jurisdiction. The act organizing the 
townshij) thus defined "by the name of Marcellus" was approved Marcli 
9, 1843. The first township meeting, it was directed, should be held 
at the hiiuse of Daniel G. Rouse, who had framed and circulated the pe- 
tition for organization. 

Such is a brief account of the evolution of Cass county from an 
unorganized region into its present shape and its present order and ar- 
rangement of townships. So far as is known, the divisions into the 
various townships were never animated by any serious disputes and 
discussions such as have sometimes occurred in the adjusting of such 
matters. As stated, the townships conform to the government surveys, 
and in making the political subdivisions according to this plan no con- 
sideralile incinvenience or confusion has resulted. The citv of Dowa- 
giac, it happens, is located on the corners of four township jurisdictions. 


but di\'ision of political interests that are naturally concentrated is ob- 
viated by the incorporation of Dowagiac with a city gu\ernnient, with 
its own political representation on the same plane with the townships. 


One ver}- important part of the organization of the county was the 
locating of the county seat. This is always a matter of supreme inter- 
est to the early inhabitants of a county, and a history of the "county 
seat wars" which have been waged in many states of the Union would 
fill \-olumes. These contests have been characterized by an infinite va- 
riety of details, ranging from pitched battle and effusion of blood to 
the harmless encounters of wordy protagonists. 

Cass county had her contest o\er three-quarters of a century ago, 
in the time (if Ijeginnings, so that no living witness can tell aught of 
its details. But as the records ha\e been handed down, the location of 
the seat of government was attended with some features uf more than 
common interest. 

By the provisions of an act of the territorial council July 31. 1830, 
the governor was authorized to appoint commissioners tij locate the 
seats of justice in the several counties where they had not already been 
loca.ted ; ha\'ing Incaled the seat of justice of any county, the commis- 
sioners should report their proceedings to the governor, who, if he ap- 
pr()\ed of the same, should issue a proclamation causing the establish- 
ment of a seat of justice agreealile to the report. 

Such were the directions. \\'e will now see how they were carried 
out. Martin C. Whitman, Hart L. Stewart and Colonel Sibley were 
the comiuissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice in Cass countv. 
These men. if the charges later jjreferred against them be true, evi- 
deiilK" vuiderstood the importance of their decision, as affecting the value 
of the >ite thev should select. In fact, it appears that the practice, now 
so much condemned, of pri\'ate individuals opening their hands for the 
profits of a juililic trust, is not of modern origin. 

The enterprising commissii mers, ha\-ing Icioked o\er the countv and 
examined the eligiljdit}- of the \ai"ious sites, chose to recommend the 
plat of the village of (icnex'a, laid out on the north bank of Diamond 
lake by Dr. H. 11. bowler, as the proper location. 

Before announcing their decision. howeN'er, two of the commis- 
sioners, with, remarkable foresiglit, hastened to the land office at White 
Pigeon and entered in their own names sundry tracts of land adjoining 


Gene\-a. Their deliljerations completed and made the subject uf re- 
port, the governor announced the location of the seat of justice at Gene- 
va in accordance with the instructions of the commissioners. 

Immediately there arose a storm of indignant protest over the de- 
cision. The intentions of the commissioners to turn their official acts 
into a source of private gain were set forth at length, among the many 
other causes of dissatisfaction with the chosen site, in petitions that were 
sent to the legislature with the signatures of a large number of the \-oters 
of the county. 

The response to the petitioners came in an act of the legislative 
council, passed March 4, 183 1, to amend the previous act under which 
the seat of justice was located at Geneva. By this act the decisions of 
the former commissioners were set aside. The governor was to ap- 
point, with the consent of the council, three commissioners to re-exam- 
ine the proceedings by which the seat of justice had first been estab- 
lished, and were empowered either tn cunfirni the same or tu make new 
locations, as the public interest might, in their opinion, re([uire. They 
were authorized to accept an}- donations of land, monew labor or ma- 
terial that might be tendered them for the use of the count}-, thus per- 
mitting the usual opportunities for legitimate persuasion in such mat- 
ters. But the precaution was taken to insert a proviso that in case it 
was made to appear to the satisfaction of the governor that the com- 
missioners were guilty of any improper conduct, tending to impair the 
fairness of their decision, it should be his duty to suspend any further 

Thomas Rowland, Henry Disbrow and George A. OTveefe were 
the Commissioners ap]iointed under this act to relocate the county seat, 
and in pursuance of instructions they were to meet in the county on the 
third Monday in May, 183 1. As told in the history of Cassopolis on 
other pages, the adx'ocate^ of the new site beside Stone lake entered 
into the contest with all the zeal and enthusiasm of those embarked on 
an enterjjrise in which they would never accept defeat. Besides the do- 
nation of one-half of all the lands on the village plat to the county, the 
subtler arts of diplomacy were also invoked in procuring a favorable 
decision. The pi'oprietors of the village of Cassopolis, with frank con- 
fidence in the ultimate selection of that \-ilIage as the count}- seat, an- 
nounced with eft'ective ostentation the naming of three piincipal streets 
after the commissioners then engaged in the work of location. Whether 
the prospect of their name and fame being perpetuated in the thorough- 


t.'ires nt tlie seat of justice was especially inviting, and whether it was 
that the justice of Cassopolis' contention and the advantages offered bv 
its citizens \vere the prevailing factor in their decision, it is not of any 
moment to this discussion to inquire. It is enough that the commis- 
sioners, waving aside the claims of Geneva, as well as those of several 
other proposed sites, fixed u])on Cassopolis as the seat for the govern- 
ment machinery of the count)', and there it has ex'er since remained.* 

-Slriclly sjieaking. the settlers of Ca-^s count)- were not pioneers. The 
majority of them were people of more or less education and culture, 
trained and accustomed to the usages of civilization. In the settling of 
the countr)' there was no interim between savagery and civilization. 
The pioneers did not come and build their cabins, and defend them with 
their rifles for some years until the civil officers, courts, schorils and 
churches made their appearance. This was necessar\- in some settle- 
ments, but not here. In Cass count)- cWW go\-ernmeiit sprang into be- 
ing almost at once. The settlers brought ci\-ilizati(-)ii \\-ith them. They 
lirought the common law with them, and, in harmon\- with the legisla- 
tive statutes, they saw to it at once that the commuiiit\- should be gov- 
erned thereby. They provided for courts, for piililic buildings, for roads, 
and for every possible institution necessar)- to a civilized community. 
And the result was that Cass county soon became a populous link in 
the great chain of siniilar political communities stretching- from the At- 
lantic Iieyond the Mississippi, maintaining without a break the institu- 
tions of ci\-ilization at the standards of older communities. ■ 

*NoTE. — The following is the proclamation of Acting Governor ■Mason, issued De- 
cember 19. 1831 : 

Where.\.s, In pursuance of an act of the legislative council entitled ".\n act to 
amend an act entitled 'An act to provide for establishing seats of justice,'" Thomas 
Rowland, Henry Disbrow and George A. O'Keefe were appointed commissioners 
to re-examine the proceedings which had taken place in relation to the establishment 
of seats of justice of the counties of Branch, St. Joseph and Cass, and to confirm 
the same, and to make new locations, as the public's interest might, in their opinion, 
require ; 

And whereas, The said commissioners have proceeded to perform the said duty, 
and by a report signed by them, have located the seat of justice of the said county 
of Cass at a point on the southeast quarter of section 26. town 6. range 15 west, forty 
rods from the southeast corner of said section, on the line running west between 
sections 26 and 35; 

Note, therefore. By virtue of the authority in me vested by said act, and in 
conformity with said report, I do issue this proclamation, establishing the seat of 
justice of the said county of Cass at the said point described as aforesaid. 



In the preceding chapters we have endeavored to gi\-e an account 
of Cass county beginning with its state of nature, mentioning its orig- 
inal inhabitants, and continuing through the years of first settlement 
up to the completion of the organization of the county as a distinct po- 
litical division of the state. The establishment of civil government in 
a community is as necessarv to its growth and welfare as the founda- 
tion of a building is needed to support the structure that will be reared 
upon it. Hence, having described the institution of organized govern- 
ment in Cass county, we may now continue the account of settlement 
and development until the various parts of the county assumed some- 
thing of the condition in which \ve find them at the present day. 

This country about us is not what it was in a state of nature; great 
improvement has been made. It is still beautiful, but its beauty is of a 
different kind. Then its voices sang of solitude, now they sing of use- 
fulness. Then it had a wild beauty, and its atmosphere was laden with 
the poetry of an imagined past, when it teemed with the civilization of 
the mound-builders, or when the red man roamed through its forests 
and over its prairies. But its beauty has been chastened h\- human 
touch, and now it tells us of happy homes, and of the triumphs nf Iiuman 
life; saddened, of course, by the thought of the hardships and sorrows 
and final partings which its inhabitants liave experienced. 

To enumerate all the factors which produced this transformation 
would be impossible in any work. For every individual whose life has 
been cast wdthin the county has contributed either a forwarding or ad- 
verse influence to the development of the county. Manifestly, we can 
at best merely describe some of the general conditions and select from 
the great host of names of those whose lives have been identified with 
this co'unty some few for special mention. 

In this age when the sources for obtaining information and the 
means of communication are almost illimitable, it is difficult to realize 
the primitive conditions in that respect as they affected the early set- 
tlers of such a region as Cass county. In this day of the telegraph and 


the daily iie\\si)a]>er a false report may reacli us concerning some dis- 
laiit situation, lint the equally effecti\e and rapid means of authentica- 
lidU will tnaljle us to quickly dispro\'e the first news, and no serious 
harm is done. Xot so seventy-five years ago. The report of unfavor- 
alile cimditions in the new ^Michigan coinitry. of a serious failure of 
crops, iif an Indian scare, wnnld he a lung time in reaching the east, 
its serious aspects would increase with the circulation, and once told its 
\icious and retarding influence would continue a long time liefore 
information of perhaps an opposite character would reach the intending 

It is not sm'prising, therefore, that the settlement of Cass county 
did not iiroceed uniformly or unlirokenly. The first of the adverse in- 
fluences which checked the current of immigration was. the Sac or Black 
Mawk war of 183J. The Sac Indians had never been friendly \a ith the 
l/nited States. In the war of 18 12 thev jfiined sides with the I.'ritish. 
As a recompense thev were recei\ing an annuit\' in Canada, whither 
the}' went e\ery year, and returne(l laden with arms and ammunition. 
They crossed the border at Detroit, and probably passed through Cass 
countv bv way cjf the Indian trail along the southern border. Black 
Hawk, the powerful chief of the Sacs and Foxes, had conceived the idea 
that the several Indian tribes by comlj-ining might be powerful enough to 
resist the whites; though after being and taken east to- see the 
white man's populous towns and cities, he returned and told his braves 
that resistance was useless. 

Years before this tlie Sacs by treaty had ceded their lands east of 
the Mississippi to the United States, but had still remained upon them. 
When required to conform to their treaty they resisted. Early in 1832. 
in ugly mood, a large number of their braves went to Canada. This was 
their last annual expedition. When, returning, they reached Illinois, 
the fiends began their work of slaughter by murdering an old man, 
which was the first l.iloodshed in the memoraljle Sac and Fox war. 

W hen the news came that the Indians had commenced hostilities 
in Illinois, the settlers of southern Michigan feared that they would re- 
treat into Canada instead of going to their own lands beyond the ]\Tis- 
sissippi. There was no telegraph to con\-c\' the news, and it came in the 
form of va,gue rumors, and imagination iiictiu-ed a hundred horrors for 
every one related. Besides the fear of an invasion by Black Hawk's 
warriors, there was anxietv lest the Pottawottomies still in the country 
would rise and join in the revolt. 


Although, as was afterwards found out, there was not a hostile Ind- 
ian within a hundred miles of southern Michigan, for some time the 
danger was felt to he \-ery close and real, and the "Black Hawk war" 
was an epoch in the pioneer memory. At the first information of hos- 
tilities the authorities at Chicago sent an appeal for militia to Michigan, 
General Joseph W. Brown commanded his brigade to take the field, ap- 
pointing Niles as the rendezvous. Cass county furnished as many men 
as her small population would allow. The news was brought to Cassop- 
olis by Colonel A. Houston and communicated to Abram Tietsort, Jr,, 
whose duty it was, as sergeant of the local company, to notify the mem- 
bers of the order issued by their commander. Isaac Shurte was cap- 
tain, and Gamaliel Tuwnsend one of the lieutenants. There was great 
agitation in the scattered prairie settlements of the county as the order 
to turn out was carried from house to house, and still greater when the 
men started away from their homes for what their wives and children 
supposed to be mortal combat with the ferocious Sacs and b\)xes. 

An Indian scare has not been known in Cass county within the 
memory of but few if any now living. But tO' some extent we may im- 
agine the trepidation and alarm of those composing the settlements at 
Ihat time. No doubt some of the more timid packed their movables intu 
a wagon and made post haste to leave the danger-ridden countrw Diu-- 
ing the short time the scare lasted hundretls of families from this part of 
the west stanipetled as far east as Cincimiati, many iif them ne\-er to re- 
turn to their f<jrest homes. But the majority were of sterner stuff. They 
had endured the rigors of cold and fatigue, of hunger and bodil)- pri- 
vations, in establishing their homes on the frontier; th.ey would not easily 
be frightened away. Those settlers living in the central part of the 
county advised with one another as ti_) the practicability of taking ref- 
uge on the i'^land in Diamond lake and fortifying it against attack. 
This no doubt would have been done, had the alarm not subsided. It 
is said tliat the women of the Volinia settlement had begun the erec- 
tion of a fort when the message reached them that the war was over. 

Short as the Black Hawk war was, immigration to this portion of 
the west was alnnast com])letely checked. Xot a few returned to the 
east, while those who were preparing to emigrate hither either aban- 
doned their plans altogether or delayed their execution for a year or so. 

While we are considering some of the retarding influences in the 
settlement of Cass county, it will be proper to mention the frost of 
June, 1835. That event lived long in the memory of old settlers. Cli- 


iiiate. as \vc kinw, has nnicli tn dn in lending a cnuntry the charms 
which atlract ininii.^ratmii. The heaiities of llie landscajie, the lertiht_v 
<il the soil, tlie gentle warmth of summer, and the not too severe winter, 
were favorite themes of praise with tiiose who descril)ed their Michigan 
home to eastern friends. 

Hnt in cHmate as in human ati'airs. an ahnonnal event gains widest 
cnrrent in general knowledge, 'i'his unnsual phenomenon of a heavy 
frost at the middle of June, causing an almost total ruin of the grow- 
ing crops, although such a thing had never happened before, and so far 
as known ha.s not been paralleled in subsecjuent history, at once counter- 
balanced all the good that had ever been said of }^Iichigan"s climate. 
The seasons were never tlependable, according to the report that passed 
through tlie eastern states; the latitude was unfavorable for the produc- 
tion of tlie crops suited to the temperate zone; the climate was com- 
[larable to that of Labrador, and so on. This occurrence had an adverse 
eli'ect on immigration perhaps only second to the Black Hawk war. 

It must not be supposed that nature yielded her empire at once and 
without a struggle. Indian scares and June frosts were the uncommon- 
est of events. But the daily, usual life was a constant e.xertion against 
the forces of wildness. requiring fortitude and strength of a kind that 
the modern life knows little. Improvement was in many respects very 
grailual. It was a toilsome and slow process to transplant civilization 
to the wilderness of Cass county. The contrasts between the present 
and the past of se\^eut_\ -lue }ears ago are striking and even wonderful ; 
none the less, we dare not suppose for that reason that the transforma- 
tion was of fairy-like swiftness and ease of accomplishment. 

The first thing, of course, after the newly arrived settler had made 
his familv as comfortable as possible temporarily, was to build the tra- 
ditional kg cabin. To the younger generation in Cass county, the 
'"creature comforts"' of that time seem primitive and meager imleed. 
In obtaniing material for his house, the builder must select trees which 
w ere not too large, or they could not be handled conveniently ; not too 
small, or the cabin would be a house of saplings. The process of fell- 
ing the trees, siilitting the logs, hewing them so as to have Hat walls in- 
side, notching them at the ends so as to let them down on each other, 
slanting the gables, riving out lapboards or shingles, putting on roof 
poles, binding the shingles to them, sawing out doors and windows, 
making the fireplace, and many other things necessary in building a log 
cabin — this process is yet familiar to many old settlers. 


After the settlers had housed tlieir faniihes they made a sheUer for 
their stock, which was often done by setting poles in the ground, with 
crotches at the upper end; poles were laid from crotch to crotcii, other 
poles laid across, and the roof covered with marsh hay until it was thick- 
enough to shed water. Poles were slanted against the sides, and hay 
piled on them in the same manner. The door could be left open or 
closed by any means conA^enient. I'his made an exceedingly warm shel- 
ter, though it was so dark that the animal's eyes sometimes suffered 
from it. Swine and other stock could be left to shelter themselves, and 
they usually found some sheltered nook in the groves and forests, or 
among the thick grass, where they made themselves comfortable, though 
some of them ran wild. 

Of course, i'l a country like Cass, where it was possible, though 
difficult, to clitain from the centers of civilization the necessar}^ articles, 
these primitive methods were greatly modilied and improved upon from 
the very first. Shingle nails were often used instead <if weight poles, 
window panes soon t'Kjk the place of oiled paper or cloth, and so on. 
The first settlers brought with them the few tools necessary for their 
pioneer life, such as 'axes, adzes, iron wedges, hammers, saws, augers, 
gimlets, frows for shaving shingles, planes, chisels, etc.. and the women 
brought needles, scissors, thimbles, pins, thread, \-arn, spinning wheels, 
and some brought looms. And in the early settlement of the county, 
as we have seen, there came a fe>v trained mechanics, a carpenter, sad- 
dler, and so on. 

After the primitive log cabin came the frame building. It was the 
sawmill which marked the first move away from pioneer life. h"or as 
soon as a sawmill was accessible to any community, frame buildings 
were practicable. The county was well wooded, and all that was neces- 
sary was to cut the logs, haul them to mill, pay the toll, in whatever 
form, and haul the lumber home again. And this was an economy of 
time very precious in those days of subduing the virgin soil and making 
a settled home. It was no easy matter to hew timber, and split out 
boards with wedges, and then smooth them by hand. Hence it was that 
sawmills were, along with grist mills, the first institutions fur manu- 
facturing in this section of country. And at once frame Iniildings — 
mills, and shops of different kinds, stores, hotels, churches, schoolhouses 
and dwelling houses began to multlpl}', and the country put on the ap- 
pearance of advancing civilization. Some of those buildings are stand- 
ing to-dav, though most of them- have long since vanished, or given 


place to others. In various ])arts of the county ma_\- he found an occa- 
sional frame dwelling which was huilt in the thirties or f(.>rties, and 
many of those huilt at that lime have since been remodeled and mod- 
ernized so that few traces of their original form remain. The front 
])ortion of the Xewell house, just west of the public scpiare at Cas- 
sopolis, was constructed in 1S32 or "33. so that it has sur\-ived the stress 
of weather and time longer than any natix'e resident of the town. 

Slowlv. as the rears went h\'. impro\enients were made. Craduallv 
new, more beautiful and commodintis liuildings were put up for both 
families and dumb animals, and more and more con\-enienccs were intro- 
duced into the former ones, until to-day. as one rides through any part 
of the County, he sees not only highly improved and well stocked farms, 
but large, commodious and in many cases even artistic buildings, which 
bespeak the thrift of the owners, and the vast progress which lias been 
made since the first log buildings were made in Pokagon and Ontwa 
townships in 1826 and ' 2~. 

In the meantime, the first small groups of settlers which we have 
seen planted in certain favored parts of the countv ha\e been rapidh- 
growing and advancing out into the yet virgin regions until in a few- 
years there was hardly a section in any townshi]3 that was a\-ailable for 

Of all the transactions with which the early settlers were concerned 
none were more important than the government land sales. The first 
])nblic lands in iNIichigan disposed of under government regulatiiins were 
sold at Detroit in 181S. In 1823 the Detroit land office was divided, and 
a land office established at Abmroe, at which al! entries of lands west 
of the principal meridian were made up to 1831. It was at the land 
sale at Monroe in 1829 that the first settlers of the count}- made formal 
entry of their lands. The United States law required that exery piece 
of land should lie put up at auction, after which, if not bid off, it was 
subject to private entrv, at one dollar and a cpiarter per acre. It w-as 
an unwritten law among the settlers that each pre-emptor should have 
the privilege of making the only bid on his land. This right was uni- 
versallv respected among the settlers, no one l>idding on another's claim. 
It occasionallv happened, how-e\-er, that an eastern man, unaccustomed 
to the ways of the west, essayed to bid on the home of a settler, but was 
soon convinced, in frontier fashion, that such action was a distinct con- 
travention of western custcim. Such was the case with one ymmg man 
at the sales at White Pigeon, where the land office for this district was 


located frum 1831 to 1834. This inili\i(lual insisted on the right to bid 
(_>n an)' land offered for sale, but matle onl}- one bid when he was sud- 
ilenly felled to the floor, which instantly inspired him with respect for 
settlers' claims and usages of western society. The land speculator was 
persona nun grata with the settlers, and in some parts of the country 
associations known as "squatters" unions" were formed to protect the 
settler in his claims and when necessary to use force in compelling the 
speculator to desist from his sharp practices. It was owing to the fact 
that the public auction of land enaliled the speculator to bid in as virgin 
soil and at the usual price of a dollar and a c[uarter an acre lands that 
had been settled and improved by an industrious pioneer, that the system 
of public sales was finally abolished. After 1834 the Cass county set- 
tlers entered their lands at Kalamazoo, where the land office for this 
part of the state was continued until 1858. 

The process of settlement is graphically illustrated by the figures 
from several of the early censuses. These figures of course are cjuite 
likely to be inaccurate as exact units, but they convey in a general way 
the successive increases of population. From these statistical tables we 
see that in 1830 the county had something less than a thousand inhab- 
itants, meaning by that white persons. Tliis was the number with which 
the county began its organized existence. 

Despite the Black Hawk war that occurred in the meanwhile, by 
1834 the enumeration shows 3.280. an increase of o\-er three hundred 
per cent in four years; and three years later this number had nearly 
doubled. By 1840 Cass county was a comparatively well settled com- 
munity of nearly six thousand people, while in 1845, ^^ which date the 
townships had been formed as at present, the ])opulation was over eight 

Considering the population according to townships, we find that in 
1840, wdien all the townships had been formed except Marcellus. the 
most populous township was LaGrange. with 769 jjeriple. Then followed 
Porter, with 556; Ontwa, 543; I'okagon, 516: and thence on down to 
Newberg, with 175 persons. 

Of the older tow-nships, whose early settlement has already been 
adverted to, the population soon became settled on a substantial basis. 
Practically all the lands of Pokagon township had been entered as early 
as 1837. and the assessment roll of resident taxpayers in that town- 
ship for 1834 shows the names of fifty persons, indicating at least an 
approximate number of families. 



In LaGrange township, as shown in the above quoted figures, popu- 
lation increased more rapidly than elsewhere, owing doubtless to the es- 
tablishment of the seat of justice at Cassopolis. At the first township 
election, April, 1830, there were but eighteen voters, according iu the 
history of 1882, whereas there were elected nineteen officials for the 
\-arious civil positions, making it necessary in one or two cases that one 
man should hold several offices. But beginning with that year the set- 
tlement of the township increased rapidly. Among the early settlers not 
already mentioned were the McKenney and Dickson families; the Jewell 
family, whose first representative, Hiram Jewell, arrived in September, 
1830, and William Renniston, who came the same year; Henry Hass 
and sons; the Petticrew and Hain families; James R. Coates, whose 
death, in August, 183 1, as a result of his horse dashing him against the 
limb of a tree, furnished the first interment in the Cassopolis burying 
ground; Catherine Kimmerle, the first of that well known family, who 
brought her family of children here in 1832; and arbitrarily to end the 
list, Jesse G. Beeson, who came to settle here permanently in 1833. 
Many facts concerning the history of this township are detailed in the 
chapter on Cassopolis. In this township, too, the list of original land 
entries seldom shows a date later than 1837. 

Jn Pcnn township, the seat of the Quaker settlement, tlie first land 
entries were made in June, 1829, and the date of the last was May, 
1853. The assessment roll of 1837 of the township as then organized 
gives a good idea of the citizenship of the township at that date. It 
contains the following names : Amos Green, John Price, John Donnel, 
Jacob T. East, Elizabeth Cox, John A. Ferguson, Hiram Cox, William 
Lindsley, Marvick Rudd, Ezra Hinshaw, Reuben Hinshaw. Abijah Hin- 
shaw, Mary Jones, Lydia Jones, Jesse Beeson, Joshua Leach, Nathan 
Jones, John Lamb, John Cays, John Nixon, Moses McLeary. Henry 
Jones, Ishmael Lee, Christopher Brodie, Alpheus Ireland, Drury Jones, 
Samuel Thompson. 


Onlwa township, in which the second settlement was made, from 
the first received a good share of the immigration. The settlement was 
especially rapid from 1833 to 183S. and by the latter year there was 
little or n(.) land left for entr_\-. Idus township has produced an unusual 


number of prominent citizens, several of whom are mentioned under 
other appropriate heaehns^s. Edwardsburg was the natural center 
the county, and around the history of that village much (if the interest 
that belongs to the township gathers. Among the settlers during the 
thirties were, Ezra Miller, who turned away from Cassopolis to hicate 
in Ontwa because the landlord of the hotel in the former place charged 
him six pence for a drink of water; Reuben Allen, whu brought his family 
from ^^ermont and located on the site of Adams\-ille, using for his tem- 
porary home a frame building in ^^■hich had been a "corncracker" mill : 
Joseph W. Lee, a New Hampshire Yankee, who for a dwelling moved 
to his claim the block house built by Ezra Beardsley and which had 
been used as a hotel and as the first court house in Cass county. These 
and many others were the builders whose industry was responsilile for 
the subsecpient prosperity of Ontwa. 

\''olinia township from the earliest times has been a verv interesting 
community. Many notable enterprises have originated and been fos- 
tered there, and in the character of the early settlers there was an in- 
dividuality that removes their history far from the monotony of 
mediocrity. To mention only a few besides the names already given, 
there was Col. James Newton, an Englishman by birth, who came to 
this country in youth, served under the American flag during the war 
of 1812, and canie to Cass county about 183 1. He was prominent 
politically, was a member of the convention that framed the state con- 
stitution, and also represented Cass and Van Buren counties in one of 
the first sessions of the state legislature. His son, George Newton, was 
also prominent in the township, served as supervisor and in the state 
legislature of 1858-59. just twenty years after his father's term. An- 
other early character was John Shaw, from Pickaway county, Ohio, who 
gained celebrity in the township as a justice of the peace as well as a man 
of affairs ,generally. His motto was, "Equity first and legal technicalities 
afterward,"' and in forwarding the cause of justice he was wont to emplov 
some vet)' unusual methods. In later years he became a victim of drink, 
lost all his possessions, and his sadly checkered career came to its end in 
the county infirmary. Early in the thirties Volinia received two settlers 
who were skilled in a trade. Richard Shaw, a shoemaker, although he 
engaged in agriculture mainly. Levi Lawrence, a genius as a blacksmith, 
and the scythes which he made were the most effective implements of 


llie kind until tiie_\- were snpersedeil 1)_\' mowing- machines. He did not 
remain Imiy in the tuwnship. 


Settlement in Porter tuwnship progressed rapidh- after county or- 
ganization. One of its early residents, whose career is historical, was 
George Meacham, whom we have already met as one of the cnterie of 
pioneers in Ontwa. He mo\-ed into I'urter township in 1836 and was, a 
resident there nearly half a century. He constructed for his own use 
what was claimed to he the first threshing machine used in this section 
of the country, it being in fact Init one of the ciimi)onent parts of the 
modern grain separator, namely, the cylinder for beating out the grain. 
He was the hrst sheriff in the county, serving from 1830 to 1836. His 
jurisdiction was all tb.e country west of St. Joseph county to the lake, 
and in enipanelling a jur)' he summoned all but five of those qualified for 
this service in this great scope of territory. To ser\e on a jury at that 
time it was necessary that one had paid a minimum ta.x of fifty cents: 
this excluded the majority of the residents in this circuit. Mr. ]\Ieachani 
was also in the liiwer house of the legislature in 1839, and twenty years 
later occupied a seat in the state senate. 

Then there was the remarkable family of Rinehart brothers. Lewis. 
Samuel, Jacob, John and Abram, whose interests and connections in 
Cass county might till many pages were we to describe them in detail. 
John RinelKU't. their father, Imrn in 1771J. came to Cass county in the 
spring of 1829, settling first in I'enn and later in Porter toAvnship. The 
sons were farmers, mechanics, and Lewis. Samuel and Jacol) owned and 
operated the first sawmill in Porter township. 

.VuKing the arrixals during this decade was James Hitchcock, a stone 
and brick mason, \\ho constructed the first brick house in Mason town- 
ship. Brick earl}' became a faxorite building material in this part of the 
coinitrw and it was not many years after the county was settled before 
the priniiti\e lug hnuse was used only during the short period while 
the settler was getting started in his work of impro\'ement. 


In ])oint of populatiiin. Jefferson township soon grew to about her 
present standard. From less than fi\-e hundred in 1840. to nine hun- 
drefl in 1850. her enumeration in i860 was 1,071. with no marked 
change since that date. Besides the pioneers who made the first set- 
tlement in the northeastern corner, there are named among the earl\- 


land entries Stephen and Peter Marraoo, Aaron Brown, David T. Nichol- 
son, Daniel Burnham, F. Smith, Richmond Marmon, John Pettigrew, 
Samuel Colyar, William Barton. William Mendenhall, Obediah Sawtell, 
Isaac Hultz, several of whom became closely identified with the aft'airs 
of the county and township. Richmond Marmon was an ortliodox 
Quaker. In 1S34 came Ishmael Lee, who in later years became, accord- 
ing to the record, "(ine of the most faithful and successful conductors on 
the underground railroad, and many a wagonload of fugitive slaves 
have been piloted Ijy through the woods of Michigan on their way 
to Canada and freedom. He was a prominent actor in the well known 
Kentucky slave cases of 1848, and was one of those sued by the Ken- 
tuckians for the \'alue of the escaped fugitives, and he paid a large sum 
of money to compromise the litigation." Other arrivals were Daniel 
Vantuyl, John Stephenson, Robert Painter, a justice of the peace, mer- 
chant and manufacturer, Horace Hunt, who was a wagonmaker and made 
some of the wooden plows used by the early settlers. Many citizens of 
this township remember Pleasant Norton, who lived here from 1832 to 
his death in 1877. He was a stanch Democrat politically, and his name 
is among those occurring most frecpiently in the early civil lists of the 
county. He was twice in the legislature, was supervisor of JeiYerson nine 
times, was township treasurer four terms. At his death he left a large 
propert}'. He was a man of nati\-e aljility. of rugged personality, and 
unusual force of character, and it was these cpialities for which his 
fellow citizens honored and respected him. 

Calvin township was estimated as having two hundreil inhabitants 
by 1837. Among the earliest of these was the family of William Grubb, 
who came from Logan county, Ohio, in 1830. The same year came 
David ShafYer, a skilful hunter whose annual record gained in the wil- 
derness of this county was said to include as many as two hundred deer. 
In the southwestern portion of the township Peter Shatter located in 
1832 and resided there vmtil his death in 1880. His son, George T. 
Shaffer, was prominent locally, and as a military man his record is 
unique. He was a member of a militia company during the war of 
1812, and half a century later entered the service of his country in the 
rebellion. He became successively first lieutenant, captain, major, lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and in March, 1865, was brevetted colonel and brigadier- 
general of volunteers. 


Another CaUin settler was Le\i D. Norton, who located here from 
leffersim. His name is found frequently in comiection with the civil 
affairs of his township. It is also noteworthy that he was among those 
will I turned the first furrow's in Jefferson township and assisted in the 
production oi the first crops. 

In 1833 the East settlement was estahlished in the northea.stern 
portion of this township. The family of this name and its numerous 
connections have left a distinct impress on the liistor)- of the county. 
William East and his wife Rachel, who were members of the Society 
of Friends, thus giving another touch of distinction to the settlement , 
were the parents of the large family which formed the nucleus of this 
settlement. To mention the names of their sons will recall some of the 
early and prominent settlers of this township. They were, James M.. 
Calvin K., Armstrong, John H., Jesse, Alfred J. and Joel. 

Another well known family of early date in Calvin, and also strict 
(juakcrs in faith, were the Osliorns. Charles Osborn, the jirogenitor of 
the familv and himself at one time a resident of Cass county, was a 
fanmus Ouaker preacher and abolitionist, ha\'ing tra\-ele(l in the interests 
of his church pretty much over the civilized world. His later years 
were devoted almost entirely to anti-slavery agitation, and his position 
on this question was among the extreme radicals. William Lloyd Gar- 
rison called him "the father of all us abolitionists." His work gave 
him an international reputation among the advocates of emancipation. 
The first paper ever published which advocated the doctrine of imme- 
diate and unconditional emancipation was issued by Mr. Osborn at 
Mount Pleasant, Ohio, in i8i(). entitled the Philanthropist. In order 
to attain to complete consistency with his views, he held that none of 
the products df slave labor should be used. He himself refused to wear 
anv garments made of cotton, nor would he eat cane sugar, on the ground 
that sla\'e labor was used in its manufacture. Singularly appropriate it 
is that the history of this op]X)nent of slavery should be connected with 
the township which sheltered one of the first colonies of freedmen. 

Josiah Osborn, a son of the abolitionist, settled on Section 24 of 
Calvin township in 1835. Flis connection with the township is notable 
l)ecause he planted one of the first fruit orchards and nurseries in the 
county, clearing away the virgin forest to. make place for his fruit trees. 
He also was one of those concerned in the Kentucky raid of 1848, and 
suffered such severe losses therebv that he is said to have been obliged to 
work ten years to pay off all the nbligations incurred. 


The history of the colored settlement in Calvin, which has played 
such an important part in the annals of the township, will be considered 
on later pages. 


Turning now to some of the townships which were settled and or- 
ganized after the pioneer period, a few facts and names may be recalled 
that will complete this outline of early growth and development in the 

Howard township, although in the direct line i)f settlement, was 
passed by at first because of the prejudice against its numerous oak 
openmgs, or barrens, whose fertility and value had not yet been tested. 
But it was not long before the productiveness of its soils was established, 
and by the late thirties its population was up to the average of the newer 
townships. Long before the substantial settlement of this portion of the 
county had begun, there lived on Section i8, close to the western line 
of the county, one of the famous pioneer characters of the St. Josejih 
country. William Kirk, whom we have mentioned as an associate of 
Squire Thompson, and whose first home was in Berrien county, while 
hunting one day discovered a fine spring in Section iS and at once moved 
his family and built his log cabin Iieside the bubbling water, although he 
thus became situated far from neighbors. In his entertainment of im- 
migrants and land lookers he united pioneer hospitality with his inherent 
southern lavishness, and thus dissipated the greater part of his posses- 
sions. He was fond of the solitudes, not because of any ascetic nature, 
but because hunting and fishing and the life of the wild wi lods attracted 
him more than the occupations and society of an advanced civilization. 
It is not surprising, therefore, after the advent of the railroad and the 
progress of settlement had practically destroyed his hunting grounds, 
to find him bidding farewell to Cass county scenes and moving to the 
far west. He died in Oregon, in 1881, at the age of eightv-nine years. 
We have mentioned how necessary to dev^elopment was the sawmill. 
It is stated that the first water-power sawmill in Howard township was 
built about 1834 by Joseph Harter. who had located in the township in 
1830. In 1836 a carpenter and joiner arrived in the township in the 
person of William H. Doane, and he 1>ecame well known in township 
affairs. He brought a stove into the township in 1837, and it was the 
attraction of the neighborhood for some time, being kmown as "Doane's 


A man ui mark in the township was Ezekiel C. Smith, who located 
here in 1835. Ahiiust at once he was elected justice of the peace, and 
during- thirty-six years in that office he is said to have married four 
hundred couples. He also served as supervisor, and was sent to the state 
legislature in 1850. 

Another figure m the affairs of early Howard township was James 
Shaw, who located here in 1840, and ser\ed several times as supervisor, 
two terms in the legislature, and afterward was Democratic candidate 
for the senate. Other names that belong among the first settlers are 
found in the election polling list of 1837, which comprises: Ira Perkins, 
John W". Abbott, Jonathan Wells, O. D. S. Gallup, Zenos Smith, Henry 
Heath, J. \\ R. Perkins, iVmasa Smith, Ephraim Huntley, Joseph C. 
Teats, Ebner Emmons, Arthur C. Blue, Charles Stephenson, Zina 
Rhodes, Nathan Dumboltom, Eli Rice, Jr., Daniel Partridge, Gurdon 
B. Pitch, Sylvenon Dumboltom, Calvin Kinney, Nathan McCoy, Henry 
L. CkjuUI, Jonathan E. Wells. 


Milton township, which till 183S was the west half of Ontwa, had 
similarly attractive features with its neighbor and developed from the 
pioneer stage about the same time. This township also contains a por- 
tion of the famous Beardsley's prairie, where the pioneers were enabled 
to reap plenteous crops by the hrst year's eft'ort and which consequently 
lirst attracted the attention of the settlers. 

The hrst names are those of John Hudson and J. Melville, neither of 
whom remained long. Cannon Smith and family, who made Edwards- 
burg their home from the fall of 1828 till the spring of 183 1, .settled 
on section 14. Mr. Smith's house was a model pioneer dwelling such 
as the typical one described in the first part of this chapter. He did all 
the work himself, his only tools being an ax, dra\v-sha\e, hammer and 
auger, .\fter the trees had been felled and split, and hewn out into 
siding as nearly as possible, the draw-shave was used for the finishing. 
The studding and braces were split out like fence rails, and then labor- 
iously smoothed on one side to an even siuTace. The frame was fast- 
ened together with wooden i)ins, and the roof consisted of "shakes" 
held down with pules. Mr. Smith was a good Methodist, and this 
humble house nften sheltered his neighbors while listening to the words 
of the circuit rider of those days. 

Peter Truitt was tlie merchant and Ijusincss man of earh- Miitnn. In 


his double Ing caliin, Iniill in 1831. he opened the first stuclv of "oods 
in the townshii). antl as his merchancHse did not nionnpoHze all the 
space in his house nor its disposal require all his time and attentinn, he 
also transformed his i)lace intu the "White Oak Tree Ta\-ern.'" at which 
for many years he \\elci imed the tarr^'int;' traveler through this region. 


Silver Creek, famed as the last retreat of the Pottawottomies who 
remained behind after the great exodus, had only about one hundred 
white inhabitants in 1837. If there is an\' connection between the 
voting population and those who build the first homes, first plow the 
soil and fell the virgin forest, tlie biirden of pioneer development in 
Silver Creek must largely have fallen on those who participated in 
the first election in the fall of 1838, whose names are recorded as fol- 
lows: E. Shaw. W. W. Barney. Joseph Spencer, John AIcDaniel, Henry 
De\\-ev, Tohn Barney, John ^^'oolman. A. Barney. Samuel Stockwell. 
yac(jb Suits. P. B. Dunning. \\'illiam Brooks, James Allen. Timothy 
Treat, James Hall. 

Tlie entry of land in this town was made in section 12. by 
James McDaniel, December 16. 1834. When he located there in the 
following spring he erected the first house and plow^ed the first furrow, 
the initial events of development. He also began the constructicin of the 
sawmill which subsequently was purchased and completed liy John Bar- 
ne\-. who arrived in 1836. and whose connection with the early manu- 
facturing interests gives him a place in another chapter of this work. 

Jacob A. Suits came in September, 1836, and built the fifth house 
in the township. The next year there came Timothy Treat and family ; 
James Allen, Joseph and William Van Horn, Benj. B. Dunning. EH W. 
^"each, Patrick Hamilton, Harvvood Sellick, James McOmber, Jabes 
Cadv. Israel Sallee, George McCreary, James Hall, William Brooks, 
and others. In the same year the township was cut ofY from Pokagon 
and organized. 


Once more directing our attention to the south side of the county. 
we will mention briefly some of those concerned in the development of 
the small township of Mason. The attractiveness of Breadsley's prairie 
caused the first tide of immigration to pass over Mason's fertile soil, 
and, as we know, it was not until 1836 that a sufficient population had 
come to justify organization into a separate township. 


Tlic first settler was Elani Beardsley, who nK)\-ed on his claim in 
section ij in the early months of 1830. He erected the first cabin and 
set out the first apple trees. He was a member of the noted pioneer 
faniiK' of that name, and another was Darius Reardslev, who put up liis 
cabin in 1832. llie fate of Darius Beard.slev illustrates another sad 
feature of life in a frontier country. One day in the winter of 1833 he 
started on foot for Edwardsbura', the nearest trading- puint. where be 
bou^'bt bis household supplies. The snow was two feet deep and the 
entire distance was a trackless waste of white. He \\as detained in the 
village until well towards evening, and then set out alone in the gath- 
ering twilight toward his home. It was intensely cold, and as darkness 
came on he was unable to make out the road he had traveled in the 
morning. He was soon wandering about in the shelterless forest, and 
at last exhausted by the cold and the fatigue of stniggling; through the 
snow, he sat down under a tree to rest. Here, within half a mile of 
home and family, his neighbors found him {vnzen to death and carried 
him home in his grief-stricken wife, who. unable to leave her small 
children, had been compelled to await the results of the search which 
after several days gave her the lifeless body of her husband. Such was 
a not uncommon tragedy enacted in many a frontier community. 

One of the well known personages during the early years of Mason 
was S. C. Gardner, who. in 1835. found a home in Section T3. N< it 
long after, his house being located on the "territorial road," an important 
arterv of earlv immigration, he became a landlord and his house was 
filled almost nightlv with the tired tra^•elers who in those davs asked 
nothing better than the simplest victuals to eat and a roof to shelter 
them while tliev pillowed their beads on the hard floor. 

Others who were identified with the early development of this town- 
ship were Jotbam Curtis, at whose house the first township election was 
held ; the Miller family, numbering all told twenty persons, who formed 
what was known as the Miller settlement; Henry Thompson ; J. Hubbard 
Thomas: Elijah and Daniel Bishop, who came about 183S. 

Tlie first land selected for settlement \vc<m the iktw well peopled 
Newberg township was in Section 34, where John Bair chose his home 
in October, 1832. Here he made the first improvements effected in 
the township, built a cabin in which he dispensed hospitality to all who 
came, whether they were ministers of the gospel, land viewers, hunters 


and trappers, white men or Indians; and he himself divided his time ije- 
tween the cultivation of a pioneer farm and the avocation of hunting 
and fishing, which he loved with a frontiersman's devotion. 

He soon had a neighbor in the person of Daniel Driskel, who lo- 
cated on Section 36 in the fall of 1834. In 1835 land was entered bv 
George Pee, Marvick Rudd, Thomas Armstrong, Samuel Hutchings, 
Felix Girton, John Grennell, William D. Jones. These and such men 
as Barker F. Rudd, William D. Easton, Alexander Allen, Spencer 
Nicholson, Samuel Eberhard, Hiram Harwood, formed the nucleus 
around which larger settlements grew up, resulting in the separate or- 
ganization of the township in 1838. 


And finally the course of development also included the extreme 
northeast corner of the county, where the dense forests and heavy timber, 
the marshes and malaria, had seemed uninviting to the early settlers. 
But by the middle thirties the tide of settlement was at the flood, and 
there was no considerable area of the count}' that was not overflowed by 
eager homeseekers. All the prairie lands had been occupied, and now 
the forests must also yield before the ax and be replaced with the wav- 
ing corn. 

Joseph Haight, from Orleans county, New York, was the first set- 
tler, arriving in the summer of 1836. In the following year he was 
joined by Frederick Goff and Joseph Bair. Goff was a carpenter, and as 
it was possible by this time to get lumber at convenient distance, he 
built for himself, instead of the ordinary log cabin, a small frame house, 
which was the first in the township. 

Among other early settlers of JNIarcellus were G. R. Beelie, who 
came in 1838, Moses P. Blanchard, Daniel G. Rouse, who has already 
been mentioned as taking a leading part in township organization. These 
and others are named among those who voted at the first township 
meeting in 1843 and in the general election of the same year, that list 
being as follows: John Huyck, Daniel G. Rouse, Abijah Huyck, Will- 
iam Wolfe, Joseph Bair, Cyrus Goff, Nathan Udell, Andrew Scott, G. R. 
Beebe, Joseph Haight, Moses Blanchard, Philo McOmber, John Savage, 
E. Hyatt, Alfred Paine, Joseph P. Gilson, Lewis Thomas, Samuel Corv. 

In describing the period while civilization was getting a foothold 
in this county, while the wilderness was being deposed from its long 
reign and men's habitations and social institutions were springing up on 


lU'ai'ly every section nf land, a cnniplete sketch wnuld include the open- 
ino >'\ matls, the l'iiildin<^- nf scliools, the estahlishnient of p(]stal facil- 
ities, and the nianv other matters that necessarily belong to an advancing 
community. But with the limits of this chapter already exceeded, sev- 
eral of these snljjects will be reserved for later treatment under separate 
titles. In the following chapter we will consider that inevitable cen- 
tralization of societv that results in the formation of \-illage centers. 



The organization of the townships, which lias been ]ire\i()uslv de- 
scribed, was an artificial process, following the geometrical lines of 
government survey. But the grouping of population and the formation 
of village centers are the result of natural growth. In the following 
pages it is our pur[X)se to continue the story of settlement and growth 
with special reference to the grouping of people into comnnmities and 

It is easy tii indicate in a general way the lieginning of such a 
community. .V fertile and aralile region receives a large proportion of 
the immigration. Assuming that the}' are pioneers, it will he almost a 
necessity that most of them till the soil, even though combining that with 
another occupation. But if the settlement was on a niucb-tra\elc<l thor- 
oughfare, such as the Chicago road on the south side of the county, 
one or perhaps more of the pioneer houses would be opened for the en- 
tertainment of the transient public. On the banks of a stream some one 
constructs a saw or grist mill. At some convenient and central point 
a settler with the commercial instincts opens a stock of goods such as 
will supplv the needs of the other settlers and (if the immigrants. .\ 
postoffice comes ne.xt, the postmaster verv likelv being either the mer- 
chant or the ta\-ern-keeper. .V physician, looking for a location, is 
pleased with the conditions and occupies a cabin near the store or inn. 
A carpenter or other mechanic is more accessible to his patronage if he 
lives near the postoffice or other comnion gathering point. If the school- 
house of the district has not already been built, it is probable that it 
will be placed at the increasingly central site, and the first church is a 
natural addition. Already this nucleus of settlement is a village in 
embryo, and in the natural course of development a variety of enterprises 
will center there, the mechanical, the manufacturing, the comn.iercial and 
professional departments of human lal)or will be grouped together for 
the purpose of efficiency and convenience. Bv such accretions of popu- 
lation, by diversification of industr^^ In- natural advantages of location 
and the improvement of means of transportation, this communitv in 


lime 1)ccnines urgaiiized as a villa,t;c- and with continued prosperity, as 
a eitv. Sometimes the developniL-nt is arrested at a particular stage. 
The village remains a village, the h;uiilet ceases to grow, and we have 
;; center nf iJDpulation without special business, industrial or civic de- 
velopment. Tlien there are instances in this county of retrogression. A 
locality that could once be dignified witli the name of village has dis 
integrated under stress of rivalry from other centers or other causes, 
and is now little more than a place and a name. 

Specific illustrations of all these processes are to be found in the 
historv of the centers in Cass county. But in general it may lie stated 
that during the earlv vears, when communication was primitive and 
isolation tpiite complete e\en lietwcen localities separated by a few miles, 
the tendenc\- \vas toward centralization in numerous small hamlets and 
villages. Hut in keeping with the economic development for which the 
past centurv was noted and esj^ecially because of the improvement of all 
forms of transportation, the barriers against easy communicatiiin with 
all parts of the count\- were thrown down and the best situated centers 
grew and tiourished at the expense of the smaller centers, which grad- 
ually dwindled into c< miparative insignificance. Nothing has done more 
to accelerate moxement than the establishment of rural free delivery. 
The ixjstoffice was the central point of community life and remoteness 
from its privileges was a .severe drawback. Rural delivery has made 
every house a postoftice, juits each home in daily contact with the world, 
and while it is destroying |)rovincialism and isolation, it is effecting a 
wholesome distribution of population rather than crowding into small 
villages. .\ud the verv recent introduction into Michigan of the sys- 
tem of public transportation of school children to and from school 
v.ill remove another jmwerful incentive to village life. \\'hen 
weak districts may be consolidated and a large, well graded and modern 
union school be provided convenient and accessible to every child in the 
enlarged school area, families w'ill no longer find it necessary "to move 
to town in order to educate their children." 

These are the principal considerations that should be understood 
before we enter on the description of the various centers wdiich Cass 
county has produced ir, more than three quarters of a century of growth. 


Nowhere can the processes above described be better illustrated than 
along the meandering Chicago road that passes across the lowest tier 


of townships on the south. In the cliapter on early settlement the be- 
ginning of community life on Beardsley's Prairie has already been 
sketched. It will be remembered that Ezra Beardsley, in oriler to ac- 
commodate the increasing host of immigrants, converted his home into 
a tavern, the nearby Meacham cabin being used as an annex. On the 
south side of the lake Thomas H. Edwards in 1828 began selling goods 
to tlie settlers, and thus earl}- the community of Beardsley's Prairie had 
a center. 

With the Chicago road as the main axis of village life, a plat of 
a village site, named "Edwardsburgh," was filed on record, August 12, 
1 83 1, by Alexander H. Edwards, who appeared before Justice of the 
Peace E^ra Beardsley and "acknowledged the within plat to be his free 
act and deed." The original site of the village comprised 44 lots, luit 
Abiel Silver on June 2, 1S34, laid out an addition of 86 lots and on 
March 25, 1836, a second addition. 

Jacob and Abiel Silver figure prominently in the early life of the 
village. They purchased in 183 1 the store of Thomas H. Edwards. 
Other early merchants were Henry Vanderhoof and successors Clifford 
Shaahan and Jesse Smith ; the late H. H. Coolidge, who came here 
in 1835 to take charge of a stock of goods opened here by a Niles mer- 
chant, and who later was engaged in business in partnership with P. P. 
Willard. In 1839 ^"^^ ^- Marsh established a foundry for the manufact- 
ure of plow castings and other iron work, and this was one of the indus- 
tries which gave Edwardsburg importance as a business center. 

During the thirties and early forties Edwardsburg bid fair to be- 
come the business metropolis of Cass county. It is easy to understand 
why its citizens had implicit faith in such a future. The Detroit-Chi- 
cago road, on which it was situated, was at the time the most traveled 
route between the east and the west. The hosts who were participating 
in the westward expansion movement of the period, traveling up the 
popular Erie Canal and thence to the west by way of Lake Erie and the 
Chicago road, all passed through Edwardsburg. The mail coaches, 
which primitively represented the mail trains of to-day, carried the mail 
bags through the village and lent the cluster of houses the prestige that 
comes from being a station on the transcontinental mail. Eurthermore, 
the agitation for canals which then disputed honors with railroads seemed 
to indicate Edwardsburg as a probable station on the canal from St. 
Joseph river to the lake. 

All conditions seemed favorable for the growth of a citv on the 


south side of the county. But at the middle of the century the mighty 
rearranger of civilization, the railroad, pushed its way through Mich- 
igan and northern Indiana. The \illages touched by the railroad in its 
coin-se flourished as though by magic. Those left to one side languished 
as if the stream of life, diverted, ceased to nourish their activities. The 
Chicago niad was no longer the artery of commerce it iiad been. The 
stage coaches ceased their daily \isits. A few miles to the south the 
Michigan Southern, having left the route of original survey at White 
Pigeon, coursed through the villages and cities of northern Indiana, giv- 
ing new life to Bristol, Elkhart and South Bend, and depriving Edwards- 
burg of its ecjuaL chance in the struggle of existence. To the west Xiles 
became a station on the Michigan Central and prospered accordingly, 
while Edwardsburg, thus placed between the two great routes, suffered 
the barrenness of almost utter isolation. 

It is said that just before the period of decline began Edwardsburg 
had a population of three hundred, with churches, school and business 
houses. The permanent institutions of course remained although with 
little vitality, but the business decreased until but one store remained in 
1851. Eor twenty years Edwardsburg had practically no business acti\'- 
ity, and was little more than a community center which was maintained 
by custom and because of the existence of its institutions of church, edu- 
cation and society. 

The same power that took away gave back again. The Grand 
Trunk Railroad was completed through Edwardsburg in 1871, and with 
the establishment of communication with the world and with facilities at 
hand for transportation there followed a revival of village life. Ten 
years later the population hatl increased from 297 to 500. There were 
about twenty stores and shops and a list of professional and business 

Since then Edwai"dsburg has held her own. There is good reason in 
the assertion that the village is the best grain market that the farmers 
of the south half of the county can find. The large grain elevator along- 
side the tracks is of the most modern type, replacing the one bvn-nt down 
a few years ago, and a steam grist mill is a \'ery popular institution 
among the farmers of this section. Edwardsburg has ne\-er organized 
as a village, and hence is still, from a civic point of view, a part of the 
township of Ontwa. The \illage improvements have been made in only 
a small degree. Tbe bucket brigade still protects from fire, and the con- 


veniences and utilities whicli are onlv possil^le in an organized community 
are still absent. 

A review of the present status of the village would include men- 
tion of the \\'alter Brothers' store, the principal commercial enterprise 
of the village; half a dozen other stores and shops; and two physicians. 
The Methodist, Presbyterian and Baptist churches all have buildings, 
and the Methodists have a strong organization. It is a center of fraternal 
activity, the following orders being represented here : ]\Iasons, Odd 
Fellows, Knights of the Maccabees, Modern Woodmen of America, the 
Royal Neighbors, the Ancient Order of Gleaners, a farmers' organiza- 
tion, and the Patricians. 

It is always of interest to record the names of those who have been 
identified with a locality in the past or who are still living there but at 
the close of active service. One of the first old-timers to be mentioned 
is Eli Benjamin, who is eighty-two years old and one of the oldest resi- 
dents of Edw^ardsburg. Edward Hirons, from wdiom many of these notes 
were obtained, was born in Milton towniship seventy years ago and has 
been in Edwardsburg thirty-seven years. John C. Carmichael and 
Cassius AI. Dennis are other old-timers. Dr. (iriliin, who died recently, 
was a ph)-sician practicing here for many years, and another doctor, John 
B. Sweetland, died only a few )'ears ago. 

The (irittin House, on the uijrth side of ^lain street, west of the 
alley, in wdiicli the postoffice was for so many years and at different 
times located, is said to be the oldest building in the village. When 
Edwardsburg was a flourishing station on the stage lines it supported 
two hotels, one situated on the south side of Main street on the site of 
R. J. Hicks' store, the other on the north side of Main street on the 
site of Dr. Criswell's residence. The \acant lot at the north end of 
Walter Brothers' store was the site of a hotel erected by John Earl. 
its first landlord, in 1856. Immediately preceding the luiilding of the 
(irand Trunk the village was in comiuunication with the world bv a 
daily stage between Elkhart and Dowagiac. 

Edwardsburg has been the home of many prominent men in the 
county's bfe. Dr. Israel G. Bugbee is well entitled to a place among 
the leaders in county affairs. Judge A. J. Smith was an early resident 
of this place and taught school here, and Judge H. H. Coolidge, also 
teacher and lawyer, and his son, the present Judge Coolidge of Niles, 
was a boy among Edwardsburg boys before he ever dreamed of judicial 
honors. George F. Silver, who has lived here seventy years, is a son of 


Orrin Siher, a pioneer. Other names that readily occur are those of 
Dr. Henry Lockwood, Dr. Kdgar Reading, Dr. Levi Aldricli, Dr. Daniel 
I'honias, J. L. Jacks, J. \\\ Lee, W. K. Hopkins, who served as super- 
visor se\'eral times. "Squire" Dethic Hewitt, and his two sons, Daniel 
A. and John P., blacksmiths, H. B. ^lead, J. W. Bean, J. H. Williams, 
J. D. Bean, postmaster, Jacob R. Reese, one of the biggest merchants of 
the village. William and Isaiah Walter have been longest in the mer- 
cantile business among the present merchants. 


Traveling east along the Chicago road, about fi\e miles east of 
Edwardsburg oue crosses the Christiann creek at the site of a once am- 
bitious village. iV cluster of houses on either side of the road, most of 
them \\eatherbeaten and old, are almost the sole indication of village 
life. However, there are two grocery stores, and the last census gave 
the number of inhabitants on the village site as 207. 

Adamsville, or Adamsport, originated in the water po\\er of Chris- 
tiann creek. A mill very often is the nucleus for jx)pulation to concen- 
trate. "Tlie Sages made the town," was the statement of one who 
knew the past history of the place. The Sage family, of which Closes 
Sage was the first and principal member, with his sons, Martin G. and 
Xorman, has for three-quarters of a century been prominent in manu- 
facturing, financial and business afTairs of this part of the country, their 
interests being now centered in Elkhart, where Norman and other mem- 
bers of the family reside. The water power at Adamsville is now owned 
by Mr. H. E. Bucklen, formerly of Elkhart, now of Chicago, who bought 
it from the Sage estate and who owns all the water power on the Chris- 
tiann from Elkhart up. The grist mill is the only manufacturing concern 
now at .\damsville, though formerlv there were a stave factory and a 

Tlie first jjlat of Adamsport was filed for record March 21, 1833. 
"Appeared before Ezra Beardsley, justice of the peace. Sterling Adams, 
who acknowledged that he hatl laid out the within town of Adams Port 
and also acknowledged that the lots and streets are laid out as described." 
The platted ground was on the east side of the cr^eik and' was bisected 
by the Chicago road, the other streets being !ai-d-oiit at right angles to 
this main thoroughfare. On May 5, 1835,' the plat was received for 
record of the village of Christiann, laid out ibv- Moses Sage on the op- 
posite side of the creek. Within a year plals of "Stevens' addition" 


and "Johnson's addition" were filed. It was evidently the purpose and 
tlie hope of the founders to make Adamsville, with manufacturing as a 
basis, the foremost center of south Cass county, rivahng Edwardsburg. 
Moses Sage buih the first grist miU in 1835, and witli the mill 
running night and day for several years, it is not surprising that a con- 
siderable community soon grew up at this point. But as soon as the 
railroads were built and established new relations between centers, 
Adamsville began to decline, although its manufacturing enterprise has 
alway.s been valuable. A iMStoffice was established here in an early day 
and continued until rural free delivery made it no longer necessary. 
There is a United Brethren church in the village. 

In describing the centers of population in this chapter we make 
especial mention of the groups of population which take the forms 
of hamlets or villages. It is necessary to say that the institutions of edu- 
cation and religion are centralizing influences of great power, and a 
church or a schoolhouse is often the heart of the social community. But 
the consideration of churches and schools must be left to a later chapter, 
where it is our purpose to give an adequate account of these institu- 
tions in their relation to the county. 


Mason townsb.ip has many churches and its proportionate share of 
schools, but of other centers it is practically destitute. In tlie register's 
office will be found a plat, recorded July 23, 1872, by Moses McKissick, 
of a village site in the northeast quarter of Section 14. To this he gave 
the name Kessington or Sailor. The plat comprised nineteen lots. Al- 
though one might drive o\-er this site and notice nothing more remark- 
alile at this country crossroads than a church and a school, at one time 
]\Ir. ?^IcKessick kept a general store and there was also a blacksmith 


One otlier center along the old Chicago road remains to be de- 
scribetl. On the w'est side of south Porter township is beautiful Bald- 
win's prairie, one of the most delightful landscapes in Cass county and 
its citizenship among the most prosperous. Baldwin's prairie, ages be- 
fore the earliest fact of history recorded in this book, was the bed of 
some large lake, similar to many in this county. The processes of nature 
finally drained the waters off into the St. Joseph river; the swamp in time 
gave place to prairie, and as the Indians and the first settlers knew the 


l.naliU' the grass ami \\\k\ flowers spread their carpet over its level 

A plain 60 beautiful, with fertility so deep and so prodigal of prod- 
ucts, liid not escape the eye of the practical pioneer, and settlement and 
development were naturally followed by a concentration of population. 
Sections 7 and 8 ol south Porter were among the first entered in this 
portion of the county, and such well known pioneers as Elam Beardsley, 
James Hitchcux, Othni Beardsley, Jolin Baldwin. Chester Sage, Jacob 
Charles. Xathan and William Tibbits had taken up land on this prairie, 
ri(.jne later than 1831. 

John Baldwin kept taxern in his home for the acc(jmmodation of the 
tra\-elers along the Chicago road, and (Jthni Beardsley was another 
pioneer nm-keeper. In 1831 Jacob Charles became the first postmaster 
for this vicinity, distributing the mail at his house. The Beardsley tav- 
ern, erected in 1833, was one of the regular stations on the stage line 
and hence an imjx)rtant point. This house was burned in 1836, and 
Jarius Hitchciix then opened up his house as a tavern and stage station. 
The Hitchcox house was tni the north side of the road on the east side 
of l.'nii>n village. The brick house now standing there, and the present 
residence of Mrs. Montgomery, was built over sixty years ago and was 
the ta\-ern until the traffic of the road ceased with the beginning of the 
railroad era. This house is accordingly one of the most historic places 
in Cass county, having sheltered hundreds of emigrants during the 
pioneer period. When the stage station was located here extensive sheds 
in the rear accommodated the vehicles and horses of the stage company. 
Mr. S. M. Rinehart, whose pleasant home is just across the road, lived 
here \\iiile the stages were }-et running and many a time heard with 
bo\'ish eagerness the blast of the horn which announced the arrival of 
the stage. 

The postoffice and stage station were the beginning of the village of 
Union. L'nion has never been incorporated, and its commercial import- 
ance is cpiite overshadowed by Bristol and Elkhart, and yet it has con- 
tinued from pioneer days as a focus for the interests of a large and pros- 
perous surrounding country. 

SitiuUed on the northwestern edge of Baldwin's prairie, with its 
Imuses at the fnot of the hills which encircle the plain on the west and 
north and from which one o\-erlooks the \illage and bevond to the blue 
haze of the range on the south side of the St. Joseph river. Union makes 
no claims to metropolitan features, yet is a sup])h' center for a consid- 


erable area. Two stores, a blacksmith and repair sliop and implement 
house comprise the business enterprise. The rural mail wagons bring 
the mail for the villagers, but. contrary to what we have seen happen in 
many such centers, the postoffice is still maintained in the village. The 
postmaster is ^\'illiam Eby. son of Cabriel Eliy. uho at the age of eighty- 
seven is the oldest man in Union and by reason of fifty years' residence 
one of the oldest citi;?ens. Xelson Cleveland, of this neighborhood, is 
also about eighty-seven years old. 

]\Ir. S. \[. Rinehart, whi> contriliuted much of the information con-, 
cerning Union, was born near the James E, Bonine place in Penn town- 
ship, near A'andalia, seventy-five years ago and has li\'ed on the east side 
of Union village since he was twelve years old, so that he is the longest 
resident. He is at tliis time president of the Cass Countv Pioneer 

L'nion now has a population of about 130. Whether the future holds 
growth and dexelopment in store for this conimunity. must fie left to a 
later historian to rec(ird. Ijut the citizens are sanguine over the pros- 
pects which the promised earl}- completion of the South Bend-Kalamazoc 
electric road through the village unfolds. 


July 5. 1849, Josiah Williams, as proprietor, filed a plat of a village 
to be known as Williamsville, the site being in the southeast quarter of 
Section 7 in North Porter township. An addition was recorded to this 
plat September 14. 1850. Air. ^^'illiams was also proprietor of the first 
store. The "Williamsville neighborhood" has been a distincti\e name 
for many years, and as the center of this locality Williamsville is worthy 
of a brief history. Its population has never reached much bevond the 
hundred mark. Twenty-five years ago it had two stores, two lilacksmith 
shops, a grist mill and a sawmill, and one physician, .^t the present 
time its general acti\'ity consists of the following: A telephone ex- 
change of an independent company. It may be remarked that there are 
more telephones in use on the south side of the countv than on the north 
side. Here in 1854 the late William R. Merritt engaged in the mercan- 
tile business and for twenty years kept one of the l>est stocked country 
stores to be fourid anywhere, equaling, if not excelling, many general 
stocks kept by village merchants. His store was the trading place for 
miles around and many of his customers were found among those who 
hought on their promi=e to pay, not having any visible property to make 


llie promise g'ood. Few indeed were the people who could not obtain 
credit with him. After removing to Bristol, Indiana, the Inisincss was 
continued for a number of years by his son, J. Fred Merritt. 

It was in this little hamlet that Dr. GreenJjerry Cousins, on the 
ifith day of August, 1870. came to his death at the hands of Andrew J. 
Burns, who, after being tried twice on the charge of murder, the jury 
each time failing to agree upon a verdict, was discharged and given his 
lil>ertv after being confined in the county jail for al»ut one year await- 
ing these trials. 


Calvin township has had numerous centers, such as churches, schools, 
mills, at different times and different situations. The hamlet of Browns- 
ville alone may be considered in this part of the history, since Calvin 
center will be mentioned in connection with the negro settlement. 

Christiann creek, flowing for a considerable part of its length across 
this township, early afforded the best mill sites in the south part of 
Cass count V. A sawmill was built in section iq about iS,^2 and in the 
following vear a distillerv at that point began the manufacture of pure 
whiskey which was sold at twenty-five cents a gallon. But before this, 
in 1831, Pleasant Grubb had constructed a grist mill in section 9. This 
was one of the first flour mills in the county and its product was eagerly 
sought. David and William Brown, brothers who had come from Scot- 
land, soon purchased this mill, and the little community which grew i\]i 
around the mill honored them by giving the name Brownsville to the 
place. No plat was ever made, but enough ^-illag■e activity has prevailed 
to distinguish the locality from the general rural district. \Mien the 
former historv of the countv was published, twenty-five years ago, its 
enterprise consisted in a flour mill, a general store, two blacksmith shops, 
a cooper and a shoe shop, a millinery store, pump factoiT, harness shop, 
two carpenters and two physicians. At the present time there are the 
grist mill, nni by water power, a steam sawmill, a blacksmith shop, and 
the postoffice has been discontinued since rural free delivery was estab- 
lished. The population has remained at about one hundred. Levi Gar- 
wood, Williams Adanison :md James Hybert (colored") are named as 
the oldest residents of this comniunitv. 

Jefferson township, midway between the county seat and Edwards- 
burg, although traversed by two railmads, lias ne\'er developed any 


important center. Redfield's mills on Christiann creek on the eastern 
edge of the township at one time had a store and ]x>stoffice. a sawmill 
and grist mill, the latter run now for grinding Imckwheat and feed only. 
It still has a general store. The only other place that can be dignified 
by distinct reference in this chapter is Dailey, in section Ci. The citi- 
zens of this locality, among whom was Israel A. Shingledecker, who 
proposed the name of Itasca, desired a station w^hen the Air Line rail- 
road passed through that part of the township, and by donating three 
acres of land to the company secured a freight and passenger house. 
There being opposition to Itasca, the station was given the name of 
Dailey, in honor of j\. H. Dailey, madmaster of the railroad. A post- 
office was established in 1872, with I\I. T. Garvey as first postmaster, 
and two stores with a blacksmith shop soon supplemented the business 
activity of the place. In March, 1880, Levi M. Vail filed a plat of lots 
laid out on land iust west of the depot site. A cornet liand was at one 
time an institution of the place. The population at the last census was 
about a hundred. 

The progress of our narrative brings us now to the center of the 
county, but instead of describing the growth and present status of Cass- 
opolis it seems best to reserve the county seat village for a separate 
chapter, as also will be done in the case of the city of Dowagiac. 

In the story of the county seat contest the founding of the now ex- 
tinct village of Geneva has been described. Some additional facts are 
of interest in preserving to memory of future generations the site of 
what might have become the central city of the count}-. The plat of 
Geneva, which was recorded May i, 1832, shows that the village was 
laid out on the north side of Diamond lake. The owners of the site, 
whose signatures are affixed to the plat, were Colonel E. S. Siljley, H. L. 
and A. C. Stewart, H. H. Fowler and Abner Kelsey. With the proviso 
that Geneva be constituted the county seat, "the public scpiare is given 
to the county on which to erect county offices," besides certain other 
lots. The traveled road going east from Cassopolis passes along the 
main street of Geneva about where it reaches the north bank of Dia- 
mond lake. Geneva never had the institutions of school and church, 
but the business enterprise was considerable until Cassopolis absorbed 
it all. A store was established in 1830. Nathan Baker about the same 
time established a blacksmith shop, and several years later a furnace 


for the manufacture of plow castings, this being the lirsl industry of 
tlie kind in the count}-, and the "Baker plow" gaining a reputation far 
lievond tlie limits of the count}-. H. H. Fowler, the principal promoter 
of the village, did not relax his efforts for building up the village even 
after the countv seat had become permanent, as is evident from the fact 
th.-it in October, 1836, he recorded the plat of an addition to the original 
site. Nothing now remains of Geneva, and only those who delve into 
n-iatters of the past would know, as they passed over the site, how much 
enthusiasm and effort were once expended toward making a village rise 
on the high shnres of l)ian-iond lake. The village site and vicinity are 
nnw known as "Shore Acres." 

PEN N ( J A M ESTO W N ) . 

In the register's office is a plat of the village of Jamestown, which 
was recorded by Isaac P. James, November 12, 1869. This site was 
located on the east side of section 16 in Penn township. On November 
_'t. 1884, Itsse Wright recorded an addition, taken from land that ad- 
ji lined in secticm 15. Jamestown is ;m unfamiliar name, and many per- 
sons wnuld not recognize in it the name of the center of Penn township. 

The fcumder of the \-illage bestowed upon it the name of Jamestow-n 
for himself, the same as he did <>n the village plat. The postofiice depart- 
ment refused to adopt that name for the proposed postofTice there, as 
iliere was at that time a Jamestown postoffice in Ottawa county, and es- 
tablished tlie office under the name of Penn, and gradually that name 
liecanie the ci immon designation for the hamlet. 

There were h<ipes in the minds of the founders that, with the coni- 
liletion oi the line of the Grand Trunk railroad through the site, a con- 
siderable village might rise at this point. Parker James, a son of Isaac 
P. lames, established a store, and later a sawmill was built and one or 
two other shops opened. It now has a resident physician, two churches, 
a school house with two departn-ients. Its principal enterprises are a 
sawmill, two general stores and a blacksmith shop. One of the stores, 
in addition to the stock usually kept in country stores, keeps on hand 
agricultural implements, coal, lime, etc. Penn bad, according to the 
last census, a population of two bimdred. 


A grist mill built on the banks of Christiann creek along the state 
road in section 27 of Penn towi-iship was the enterprise which served as 
the nucleus for the village of Vandalia. This mill was built in 1849 


bv Ste]ilien Bno-ue and C. P. Ball, both valiant Quakers and notaljle 
pioneers in Penn township. February 21, 1S51, a plat of the village of 
Vandalia was filed by these two men. the land which they chose for the 
proposed village being on the east side nf Christiann creek, and coniiiris- 
ing a portion of the southeast quarter nf vection 27. The uriginal site 
has be^n expanded Ijy eight additions, and the incnrpriratcd limits of the 
village now extend across the creek dii the west side and the larger part 
of the plat lies in section 26. 

In the days of beginnings Abraham Sigerfoos was the village black- 
smith. Asa Kingsbury of Cassopolis the first mercliant. he having estab- 
lished a branch .store there with the late Judge A. J- Smith as manager, 
and T. J. Wilcox the first postmaster. The principal impetus to growth 
was, of course, the Air Line railroad, which placed the village in connec- 
tion with the outside world in 187 1. This was followed by incorporation 
in 1875, and Vandalia is now one of the three incorporated villages in 
Cass county. 


Few names are more completely lost to memory than the above. 
The proximity of Howard township to Niles, not to mention other 
causes, has never fostered the growth of villages in the township. But 
in the pioneer years, when immigration was setting in at full tide, 
George Fosdick, an enterprising settler, endeavored to found a village, 
to which he gave the name Howardville. The plat was recorded Octo- 
l)er 8. 1835, the site being in section 21. on "the north bank of Lake 
Alone," the plat being two blocks wide and running north from the lake 
shore fom^ blocks. To the present generation it is necessary to explain 
that Lake Alone is the familiar Barren lake. Its remoteness from any 
other body of water, and the absence of surface outlets, gave this lake 
its first name. Fosdick's village did not prosper, and in a short time the 
plow furrows passed without distinction over the platted as the unplat- 
ted land, and Howardville was forgotten. 

In more recent years, since the Air Line railroad was built, a sta- 
tion was established, called Barren Lake station. The town hall is 
near by, also a school. This is as far as the township of Howard has 
gone in the formation of a central community. 


The road leading north and west from Cassopolis toward Dowa- 
giac passes for the first few miles over some of the most rugged land- 


scape in Cnss county-. This is tlie highest pnint nf the water^Iieil wliich 
interposes a liarrier-like group of hills hetween the courses of the Dowa- 
giac creek and Christiann creek. But du arriving at the crest of the 
last hill the broad valley of the Dowagiac creek seems, by reason of the 
contrast, as level as a chessboard and a scene of quiet and gentle beauty. 
One is not surprised tliat this fertile and reposeful plain was early sought 
as a habitation and place of activity by the pioneers. Tlie beauty of the 
natural siuToimdings. the rich and productive soil, and the ad\-antageous 
sites for mills and industries were recognized by the first settlers, and 
■were the chief prerequisites for tlie development of a flourishing city. 
And vet the present aspect of LaGrange brings up tlie picture of 
the "Deserted Village." The main street leading north to the millp<md 
is lined with weatherbeaten houses which bear every indication of iden- 
tity with the past. Some of these buildings have long been unoccupied, 
and. uncared for, have become prey to the wind and rain, ".\rrested 
development" seems to characterize the entire place. The last store 
building, from which the stock of goods was removed several years ago. 
is almost the onlv reminder of commercial activity. Rural free deliv- 
ery caused the disestablishment of the postoffice in Februarv. iqoi. 
Tlie Methodist church is the only active religious organization. The 
two-storv, brick district school, on the south edge of the village, shows 
that the decline of commercial prosperity has not affected the progress 
of education. The water power, on the opposite side of the village, 
which once turned .grist mills and factories, now turns a turbine wheel 
of the plant that partly supplies Dowagiac Avith electric lights. 

This diversion nf the only remaining ]iermanent resource of La- 
Ci range to the benefit and use of Dowagiac is the final fact of a series of 
similar e\-ents by which LaGrange has been reduced to its present status 
among the centers of the countv. Whh all the natural advantages which 
gave promise of a tliri\ing citv, the course of e\'ents took other direc- 
tifius. First, LaGrange, though an active competitor for the honor, failed 
to gain the county seat. Its business enterprise was at the time sujierior 
to that of Cassopolis or Geneva, but its location was not central enough 
to secure the decision of the commissioners. Tbe loss of the countv seat 
might not have prevented LaGrange becoming what its promoters ar- 
dently desired. Rut with the building of the Michigan Central rail- 
road four miles to the northwest, a powerful and resourceful rival came 
into action. With the railroad furnishing transportation as a basis for 
unlimited ])roduction and industrv, Dowagiac rapidlv became a center 


of business and manufacturing. LaGrange could not compete on equal 
terms, its manufactures dwindled and were moved to the rival town, 
and with the diverting of the water power to supply Dowagiac with 
electric lighting, the last chapter has been written in the decadence of 
a village that has played a large part in early Cass county history. La- 
Grange might now well be considered a suburb of the city of Dowagiac. 
Such is a general outline of the rise and fall of this village. The 
details may be briefly recorded. The millsite had first been de\'eloped 
by Job Davis, who Iniilt a sawmill there in 1829. This mill was fiought 
by Martin C. Whitman in 183 1. In the following year he erected a 
grist mill at the same place, this being one of the first mills in the county 
for supplying the pioneers with flour. 

August 4, 1834, Mr. Whitman, as "proprietor and owner,'" filed 
the first plat of the village of Whitmanville. The site was on the nr>rth 
side, about the center, of section 15. Erastus H. Spalding, wlio owned 
land adjoining, in the southwest quarter of section 10, platted an addi- 
tion April 16, 1836, to which he gave the name LaGrange. On July i, 
1836, Mr. Whitman platted a part of his land on the southeast quarter 
of section 10 as an addition to LaGrange, and in Septemlier following 
platted some land in section 15 as an addition to Whitmanville. It 
seems, therefore, that the site that lay in section 10 was originally des- 
ignated as LaGrange, and that in section 15 as Whitmanville. The lat- 
ter name was commonly used until the legislature, by an act approved 
February 12, 1838, formally changed the name Whitmanville to La- 

In llie meantime E. H. Spalding had become proprietor of the grist 
mill, and the business activity of the place became considerable. There 
were four large stores in the place besides the mills. The large, shallow 
millpond, however, caused much malarial sickness, and this, with the 
loss of county seat prospects and the destruction of the grist mill bv 
fire, caused a setback to the prosperity of the village. 

In 1856 there was a revival. Abram Van Riper and sons Charles 
and Garry bought the millsite, constructed a flour mill and also a woolen 
mill. The latter was an institution of great importance to the commu- 
nity. It furnished labor to many persons, both women and men, and 
also children, and thus attracted a considerable population to settle in 
the vicinity. Besides the Van Ripers, the late Daniel Lyle of Dowagiac 
was interested in the woolen mill. In 1878 a stock company, known as 
the LaGrange Knitting Mills Company, ]iurchased the mill property 


;m(l cc inverted it intn a knitting factory, principally fnr the manufacture 
(if underwear. 

There were nther manufactures, llervey Bigelow had beaun the 
nianufaeture of furniture here in 1836 and continued it until 1851. 
when Dowagiac offered him hetter opportunities and he moved to that 
\;llage. William \'an Iviper estahlished a basket factory in 1868. There 
was a small foundry twenty-tne years ago. All these industries have 
gone out of existence or lieen moved away. 


On the north side of the public road that passes along the south 
side of section 30 in LaGrange townshii>, abmit where the school house 
stands and near the Pokagon creek, was once platted a village called 
Mechanicsburg. The plat ni this village was filed March 29, 1837, by 
John Petticrew, the proprietor of the sile. Several years later be huilt 
a tannerv there, but aside from that and a blacksmith shop, the village 
had nothing to justify its platting. 


These two little villages, a mile and a half apart, belong, the one 
to the pi(^neer period, the other to the railroad era. We have taken 
])ains to show the \-arious influences at w'ork in the development of the 
countv, how localities favored by natiu'e have received the first impulse 
of settlement : and how roads, streams, railroads, acts of the legislature, 
and personal enterprise have all been pivotal factors in the history of 
communities. The history of Suiunerviile and Pokagon is an excel- 
lent studv in these shifting processes. 

Sumnerville is located at the junction of the Pokagon creek with 
Dowagiac creek. The her.\-y timber growth in this locality favored the 
improvement of the water jiower at this point, and in 1835 Isaac Sumner 
built a .sawmill here, and two years later a grist mill. These twO' industries 
were all-important at that time, and were a substantial basis for a vil- 
lage. Mr. Sumner and Junius H. Hatch accordingly platted a village 
here in August, 1836, giving it the name of Sumnerville. About the 
s;ime time Alexander Davis became first merchant and Peabody Cook 
the proprietor of the first hotel. Prom this time forward the \-illage 
increased slowly in population and business. Its popiilation by the last 
census was about one hundred and fifty. In 1880, according to a gaz- 
etteer of that year, it had a population of 184, and its industries were a 
fiom-ini:- mill and a w'oolen mill. 


Pokagon, on the other hand, altliough located on the prairie where 
llie first settlement was made in Cass county, and where the hrst post- 
office was established, was, as respects its business importance, the prod- 
uct of the railroad which was constructed through in 1S46. William 
Baldwin, the noted pioneer whose death was chronicled in August, 1904, 
laid out this village June 15, 1858. The original site, to quote the rec- 
ord, was "situated on the west side of the railroad, in the southwest 
quarter of section 28." Three additions have since lieen made, expand- 
ing the village into section 23 and to both sides of the railroad. A grist 
mill had been built in 1856, and several stores and shops soon gave the 
business activity to the place which it has retained ever since. The 
population has been at about two hundred for thirty years. 


Of all the forgotten village sites in Cass county that of Shake- 
speare has had most reason to be remembered. Situated "at the Long 
rapids of the Dowagiac river," as the record reads, Shakespeare was 
platted June 17, 1836, by Jonathan Brown and Elias B. Sherman, the 
latter the well known pioneer of Cass county, the former somewhat of 
an adventurer, to judge from this transaction. The site of the village 
was on the Dowagiac, including land in sections 8, 9 and 17 of Pokagon 
township. Sherman owned forty acres at this point and Brown a sim- 
ilar tract. They decided to plat and promote a village. The water power 
could be utilized to develop splendid industries, and the eyes of the pro- 
moters could see nothing but roseate prospects for a city at this location. 
A lithographed prospectus of the proposed village was got out illustra- 
ting in most attractive style all these and other advantages, and was cir- 
culated in distant cities. The prospectus and personal representations 
of Mr. Brown sold a number of village lots. Mr. Sherman withdrew 
from the partnership as soon as he saw that the representations -were 
overdrawn, and the principal promoter soon left the country without 
ever having done anything to develop the enterprise. Dtu'ing the next 
few years more than one sanguine investor in Shakespeare lots, after 
toiling through the woods and brush to the wilderness that covered the 
"city," was brought to realize the folly of speculation in unknown quan- 
tities. But now, outside of the office of register of deeds, where "Shake- 
speare" still presents tangles in the records, few know that such a vil- 
lage ever existed. 



Aiiulher \illage that was plattetl witliout sulistantial reason for an 
existence and wliich telongs in histury because of the plat on file at the 
register's office, was Newberg. Spencer Nicholson, an early settler of 
Newherg townshiii, was the proprietor, and the \'illage [ilat was filed 
May 15. 1837. The site was on the south shore of Lilly lake, its ex- 
act location being the north end of the east half of tlie northwest quar- 
ter of section 32. 


Born of the Air Line railroad were the two villages above named. 
Jones, the main street of which is the section line between sections 34 
and 33 of Xewljerg township, at the present time has four general 
stores, one grocery, shoe st()re, two hardware stores, one saloon, har- 
ness and lilacksiuith shop, and a population approximating three hun- 
dred. The plat of the \'illage was recorded October 19, 1897, by Alonzo 
V. Beeman, but the first business structure at this point of the newly 
built Air Line railroad was a store put up in 1S71 by H. Micksel. The 
postoffice for this immediate vicinity bad been established at the house 
of Mr. E. H. Jones, on section 34, in 1870. The first postoffice in the 
township was located at Lilly lake as early as 1838, and an office at 
different points in the township had existed and been kept in farmers' 
houses from that time, with different postmasters, until the founding 
of the village of J'mes. Other early business men were David Fairfield, 
hotelkeeper and merchant : H. B. Doust, and A. L. Dunn. Mv. Frank 
Dunn, present super\'isor from Newberg, has been in ])usiness at Jones 
since 1879. K<\ H. Jones, founder of the village of Jones, is still liv- 
ing, and other old-timers of this \icinity are William Young, perhaps 
the oldest man in the town: William Harwood, Myron F. Burney, 
Alonzo P. Beeman, ex-super\isor ;uid ex-county treasurer, and Nelson 

Corey, which is situated on the county line, in section 36 of New- 
berg township, was surveyed into a village site in April, 1872. Hazen 
\\'. Brown and C. R. Crawford were the first merchants. Its popula- 
tion is still less than a hundred, ami its business interests necessarily 


In the south part of the county the building of the Grand Trunk 
railroad revived the decadent village of Edwardsburg and partly re- 


stored the commercial prestige which it liad known in the days when the 
Chicago road was the great trunk line of communication. In the north- 
east corner of the county tlie same raih'oad caused the founding of two 

Wakelee. wliich is situated, Hke Dowagiac, on the corner of four 
iownships, Marcelhis, Volinia. Xewlaerg and Penn, and being unincor- 
porated, divides its civic functions with the four townships, was named 
in honor of C. Wakelee, the first treasurer of the Peninsular or Grand 
Trunk railroad. The first plat of the village, which was recorded De- 
cember 12, 187 1, was made by Levi Garwood, on land in section 36 of 
YoHnia township. April 10, 1873, George W. Jones and Orson Rudd 
platted an addition whicl: extended the site into the other townships. A 
steam sawmill at this ])iiint converted much of the lumber wocids of 
this part of the count\' into merchantable lumlier and the station be- 
came noted as a lumber-shipping point. 


While the Grand Trunk railroad no doubt had most to do with 
the founding of the village of Marcellus, now one of the three incor- 
porated villages of the county, one or two other influences working to 
that end should lie noticed. INIarcellus township, as will be remem- 
bered, was the last to be set off and last to be settled. Its inhabitants 
were long without communication, and did not have a postoffice until 
1857, when Harrison Dykeman began carrying the mail, at irregular 
intervals, from Lawton, on the main line of the Michigan railroad in 
\'an Buren county, to his home on section 14. On the establishment of 
a regular mail route in i860, the postoffice was located in a residence 
on section 16, and was transferred from place to place until Thomas 
Burney built and opened the first store on the site of Marcellus village, 
the mail then being distributed in his store. Tlie first permanent post- 
office of the township was, therefore, one of the institutions that served 
as a basis for the village of Marcellus. 

To the pri\^ate enterprise of George W. Jones is due in large meas- 
ure the honor of founding the village. In 1868, knowing tliat the rail- 
road would be completed through this point in a short time, and confi- 
dent of the prospects presented for village growth at this place, he bought 
over two hundred acres and prepared to lay out a village. The site in 
sections 15 and 22 was surveyed and the phi recorded by Mr. Jones 
i\pril 23, 1870, he adopting the plan of Cassopolis as to blocks and 


ranges, getting the idea, no (Imil't, frdin his father-in-law. E. B. Sher- 
man, line of tlte fnunders mI that \ ilhige. Since that date the area of 
tlie village has been increased by six additions. The original name of 
the \illage was Marcelkis Center. 

Regular trains began running about the same time with the plat- 
ting of the village, and the business beginnings of the village were most 
auspicious. Some of the first merchants were Thomas Burney, already- 
mentioned, John Manning, Daniel Morrison, Herman Chapman and 
Lewis Arnold. 

Within less than ten years from the founding of the village it was 
incorporated in 1879, '"""^ the citizens who first took control of the village 
affairs were the following: David Snyder, president; Leander Bridge. 
Kenyon Ely, W. O. Matthews, Byron Beebe, Alexander Beebe, trus- 
tees; L. B. Des Voignes, clerk, now judge of the circuit court; Dr. E. 
C. Davis, treasurer; and W. R. Snyder, assesor. The list of subsequent 
officials will be found in the proper place on other pages. 


Volinia township has been as prolific of inland \'illage sites as any 
other township. Charleston, an insignificant little place on the cross 
roads between sections 3 and 10, was laid out and the plat recorded 
June 25, 1836, the proprietors whose names are signed to the plat be- 
ing Jacob Moreland, Jacob Charles, Elijah Goble, Alexander Eulton 
and David Eulton, all pioneers of the tcwvnship. The principal encour- 
agement to the founding of this village was the stage road from Niles 
to Kalamazoo that passed through this place, and Elijah Goble kept a 
tavern for the accommndalion of passing travelers. After the build- 
ing of the Michigan Central in the forties the business enterprise of the 
village ScDon failed. Charleston is now the name of a community rather 
than of such organization as the word village implies. Perhaps time 
will entirely obliterate the name, except as a historical record. 

Onlv two miles from Charleston, and also in the year 1S36, Levi 
Lawrence, David Hopkins, Obed ■ Bunker and John Shaw platted the 
village of Volinia on sections 11 and 12. The plat was recorded Sep- 
tember 20', 1836. Such is the record as it appears in the register's office. 
But this localitv has had a variety of names. The name of the post- 
office as it appeared in the Postal Guide is Little Prairie Roude. and 
under that title it was described in a gazetteer of 1880. Jonathan Nich- 
ols conducted the first hotel in this nlace. and from him the name Nich- 


olsN'ille was given to the village. But the onh- plat recorded of a village 
at this site was the above, and under the name given. 


Glenwood, in section lo of \\'a}nc township, was platted and re- 
corded in December, 1874, by Craigie Sharp, Jr., Thaddeus Hampton 
and Edwin Barnum. Glenwood's importance originated as a shipping 
point, and that is its sole claim to prestige at the present time. The 
Hampton stock farm and the barrel-hoop industry are the principal in- 
dustries of the place. Several years after the building of the ?\Iichigan 
Central the railroad company constructed a sidetrack which was long 
known as Tiets(jrt's Sidetrack. A steam sawmill was Ijuilt there in 
1855, and to the postoffice that was soon after established in the hamlet 
was given the name Model City postofifice. Thus it remained until a 
\nllage plat was made and the name changed to Glenwood. 


The Cushing family, among whom is Dexter Gushing (see sketch), 
came to Silver Creek township in the early fifties, and for many years 
have lived and been extensive land owners on the west side of the town, 
especially in sections 19 and 20. At the intersection of the east and west 
road thniugh the center of these sections with the north and south high- 
way there has grown up a focus of a communit}- known as Cushing 
Corners. There is a store, kept by William Cushing, son of Dexter 
Cushing. The school house is located at that point. A postoffice was 
established there, but beyond these elemental institutions there is little 
to justify the place with the name of village. 


The many beautiful lakes of Cass county are each year attracting 
, an increasing number of summer visitors. Cottages are built around 
the shore, a hotel is perhajis the central structure, the social community 
peculiar to the summer resort is formed, and we have one form of cen- 
tralization, the more permanent and substantial examples of which have 
already been described. The summer resort is a development of the 
modern age, as characteristic of it as the log house was of the pioneer 
epoch. It marks the reaction from the extreme concentration of so- 
ciety which has produced the crowded cities ; it is made possible by bet- 
ter facilities of transportation. Thus the same influence which in earlier 


years tended to concentrate population, now, in its higher development, 
tliffuses society and enables it to enjoy the benefits of organization with- 
out the close crowding made necessary in the cities. 

Several of the lake resorts in Cass county are well known to the 
inhabitants ui the cities, Magician lake and Diamond lake, to mention 
no others, being familiar names to thousand of persons who have never 
licen permanent residents of the coimty. Most of the resorts have been 
platted into regular village lots, and without noting any of the particular 
features of each place it will be proper in this historical \'olume to give 
the record of these plats as they are found in the register's books. 

The oldest and largest of these resorts is Diamond Lake Park, on 
the west side of Diamond lake, and half a mile from each railroad sta- 
tion in Cassopolis. The plat was filed May 8, 189 1, the signers being 
C. S. Jones, Henly Lamb, LeRoy Osborn, proprietors. Many cottages 
have been built on this plat, the northwest shore of the lake for the dis- 
tance of about half a mile presenting the appearance in summer of a 
well populated village. A numlier of the cottages are owned fiy local 
people. Ijut the resorters fn^m the cities and distant points are increas- 
ing every }'ear, and during the summer season the presence of a large 
number of strangers gi\-es the county seat village an air of gayety and 
stir that is not found in the quieter months of the year. 

Fiirest Hall Park, situated along the shore of the lake a little to 
the east of Diamond Lake Park, hut still in section 36 of LaGrange 
township, was platted in Jnne. 1898. by Barak L. Rudd, proprietor. The 
inception ui this resort was due to H. E. Sargent, superintendent of the 
Michigan Central railroad ; Nathan Corwith and J. P. Smith, business 
men of Chicago, who in 1872 erected a large cluli house on the high 
north shore of the lake and laid out the grounds with a design of mak- 
ing a resort for club purposes. This was the beginning of the now pop- 
ular resorts on the shores of the lake. 

The most recent addition to Diamond lake platted summer villages 
is Sandy Beach, on the north shore of the lake. The plat was recorded 
by Mary Shillaber January 30, 1906. These plats by no means define 
the limits of occupation for resort purposes. The island in the center 
of the lake, where the eccentric Jol) Wright made his home and grudg- 
ingly watched the encroachment of the settlers on his wild abode, is 
now well filled with cottages. Other parts of the shore line are being 
taken, and the extension of this sort of settlement finds its best example 
about Diamond lake. 


Eagle lake, in Ontwa tuwnship a few miles east of EdwardsLnirg, 
has also become popular among sportsmen and summer residents. Lake 
\'ie\v Park, on the northwest shore of the lake, has Ijeen frequented for a 
number of years. A plat of the site was filed February 24. i><<jcj, by 
Cora M. Stryker. 

Oak Beach, in section 3 and near Lake View, was platted liy Henry 
J. French April 7, 1906. 

On the south side of Eagle lake is "Brady," located in section 2 
of Ontwa, the plat being filed by John M. Brady August 7, 1895. 

Magician lake, up in the northwest corner of the county, in Silver 
Creek township, though remote from railroad facilities, presents some 
of the best pleasure grounds to Ije found in the county. The first plat 
to be laid out was that made by the Maple Island Resort Association, 
the president of which was W. F. Hoyt, and the plat filed Januaiy 14. 
1896. Maple Island Resort is located on an island in Magician lake. 

Magician Beach, on the north side of the lake and in section 3, 
though used for resort purposes a good many years previous, was platted 
on Xovember 5, 1901, the proprietors being Albert E. Gregory and wife. 

Highland Beach is a resort on the north end of Indian lake in Sil- 
ver Creek township. It was platted into lots and the plat recorded May 
29, 1905, Talmadge Tice, proprietor. 

Fish lake in Marcellus township and Barren lake in Howard town- 
ship are becoming popular resort places and are being utilized by city 
as well as bv local residents. 



The genesis of every \-ilIage slmuld lie an interesting stor}^ How 
one section of an erstwhile wilderness is chosen, almost by natural laws, 
from all those adjoining and becomes the seat of population and indus- 
try and social institutions is a theme lacking none of the interest that 
attaches to the development of a great human character. A village is 
an achievement which the combination of circiunstances and human 
purpose has evolved, and to find out and state the principal steps of such 
acciiniplishment is a lahnr wurthy of any historian. 

The description on the foreg'oing pages of the many village sites 
of the county is proof of how easy a matter it was in pioneer times to 
found a village on paper, yet quite beyond the bounds of hiunan fore- 
sight to know what the course of events would bring as destiny. Some 
village plats .never had inhabitants and long since reverted to the 
sectional system of land demarcation. Others experienced early growth 
and later, through the shifts of events already described, stopped grow- 
ing and often began to decline. The fates of the various villages re- 
mind us of the parable of the seed that fell on different soils, some to 
be destroyed before germination had begun, others to^ wither after a 
brief time of growth, and a few tO' live and flourish and produce 

The early fortunes of Cassopolis undnulitedly hinged on the loca- 
tion of the county seat. The series of endeavors which were necessary 
to g"ain that point found some strong and enterprising men ready to 
carry them forward to success. On the east shore of Stone lake Abram 
Tietsort liad luu'lt his cabin in 1829, and among the original land en- 
trants his name appears in the records of section 35 and several adjoin- 
ing ones. A little east of Tietsort's house, in section 36, was the home 
of the Jewell family, so conspicuous in the history of this part of the 
county from pioneer times to the present. Two others whose names 
deserve mention for their part in the founding of Cassopolis were 
Oliver Johnson in section 25 and Ephraim McCleary in section 26. The 
most conspiaious workers in this little drama, however, were Elias B. 


Slierman, a lawyer settler nf 1830, and Alexander H. Redfield, whose 
name belongs in the forefront of lawyers and public men of Cass county. 

It must be remembered that at the time of the events now narrated 
the county seat had already been located at Dr. Fowler's village site of 
Geneva. By fraud, so said many people, and the dissatisfaction with 
the commissioners' choice nf location was strongly expressed. 

It seems necessary to refer to the exact chronology of the events 
comprising this initial episode of Cassopolis' histoiy. Tlie data not 
being complete to verify and classify every detail, it is ])ossible that tlie 
location of the county seat and the founding of Cassopolis may have 
been brought about with some slight variation from the usually accepted 

Cass county was organized in November, 1829, but the act author- 
izing the location of a county seat was not passed until July, 1830. The 
citizens did not proceed immediately after organization to administer 
their civil functions, since the first courts were not held until the sum- 
mer of 183 1 and the first board of supervisors did not meet until Octo- 
ber, 183 1, and the place of both official gatherings was at Edwardsburg, 
in acordance with legislative enactment. The first set of commission- 
ers probably located the court house site during the summer of 1830. 
As already related, it was located on the land of Dr. H. H. Fowler, on 
section 31 of Penn township, this land having l)een entered in May, 
1830. It cannot be stated with certainty that Dr. Fowler had already 
platted a village at this point which the commissioners chose. The 
plat of Gene\'a was filed May i. 1832, several m.onths after the county 
seat question had been permanently decided, and the further fact that 
the description states that "the public square is given to the county on 
which to erect a courthouse" provided the county seat was located there, 
makes it reasonably certain that the plat was made while the decision as 
to the county seat was still in the balance. Yet the plat must have been 
made after January, 1831, since Hart L. Stewart was one of the pro- 
prietors whose name is signed to the plat and who did not enter his land 
until January, 183 1. From these facts and figures it is deducible that 
Dr. Fowler's land had no special improvements or advantages to rec- 
ommend it as the location of the courthouse site in preference to the 
similar tracts of land owned by a dozen other settlers in that immediate 
locality. And each settler was an active claimant for the honor of hav- 
ing the county seat located on his land, and no doubt in proportion with 
the degree of his pre\'ious desire was the strength of his disappoint- 


ment and dissatisfaction after the decision had been announced in favor 
of Dr. Fowler. The story of fraud in connection with the act of loca- 
tion is aside from our here except as it added strength to the ar- 
guments for change of the site. The essential fact is that each settler 
was on practically an equal basis with his neighbors in his contest for 
the site of the county seat, and that in due course of time a village 
would have been platted and \vould have sprung up wherever the com- 
missioners had "stuck the stake" for the county buildings. 

It is not known how the settlers individually stood with reference 
to the first location of the county seat. But, as elsewhere related, the 
legislature, in response to the request of what must have been an in- 
lUieiitial proportion of the citizens, passed an act, approved March 4, 
1831. for the relocation of the county seat. This restored the contest 
to its original status, and every group of settlers in the central part of 
the county urged the advantages of their favored locality upon the three 

The act provided that the commissioners should assemble in Cass- 
opolis the third Monday in May, 183 1, to consider the respective claims, 
but as Governor Mason did not issue his proclamation declaring Cassopo- 
lis to have received the choice until December 19. 1831, the matter must 
have been debated and undecided until the late fall nf that year. This 
conclusion is forced upon us if we are to accept the usual account of the 
manner in which Cassopolis was l>rought into active competition for the 

In the list ai original land entries of section 26, LaGrange town- 
ship, are found the names of E. B. Sherman and A. H. Redfield with 
the date September 22, 183 1. The story of how these young lawyers 
came into possession of this land has often been told. Sherman, having 
arri\-e(l in the midst of the excitement over the county seat affair, 
had decided that he too might enter the contest and in pursuance of his 
plans fixed upon the southeast corner nf section 26 as the location which 
he would urge upon the attention of the commissioners. Before start- 
ing to the land office at White Pigeon he learned that the Jewells also 
were preparing to enter that particular land, and in consequence he 
made all haste to anticipate his rivals. Arriving in Edwardsburg he 
admitted another young lawyer, A. H. Redfield, to a knowledge and co- 
operation in his plans, and by pooling their utmost cash resources and 
borrowing ten dollars they had emnigli to make the entn* and ]iurchase 
the desired land a few hours in adsance of the Jewells, who arrived 


in White Pig^eon just as Sherman was leaxin.t;- with the receipt fur the 
land safely in his pocket. 

Slierman and Redfield. on tlieir return to the lianks of Stone lake, 
began an aggressive campaign. 'rhe\' knew the \ahie of organization 
and harmony, and associated with themselves several of their neigh- 
bors, namely: Abram Tietsort, who gave to the \illage site forty acres 
on the banks of Stone lake in section 35; 01i\'er Johnson, who cc.mtrib- 
uted twenty acres from section 25 : and Ephraim McCleary, twenty acres 
from section 36. These five men were the proprietors whose names 
are signed to the village plat, which was recorded Xnvemher 19, 183 1. 
The village must have been platted anrl all the circumstances just re- 
lated must have taken place between September 22, the date of Sherman's 
entry of the land, and Xoveml.ier nj. In this interim the associates had 
prosecuted their case before the commissioners, naming three streets 
in their honor and ]>resenting tiie other arlvantages of the site, ami it 
was probably in tlie month of Xovemljcr that the decisinn was reached 
by the commissioners, for. as will be recalled from a previous chapter, 
the ]>roclamation of the governor was made December 19th, by which 
Cassopolis was affimied the county seat, 

Cassopolis was now secure in the possession of the seat of justice, 
and any further details with reference to this central institution must 
be found on other pages, while here we proceed with the tracing of the 
development of the village as such. And here it may be mentinned in 
passing that the original spelling of the village name, as found un old 
letters and the first plat, was "Cassapolis," and that tlie cliange from a 
to 0, which was clearly dictated by euphony, took place graduallv in 
custom and w'as finally afiimied by the postoffice department. 

The history of the public square of Cassopolis is none the less im- 
portant because few people of this generation know that the village e\er 
possessed such a locality. To picture early Cassopolis it is necessaiy to 
reconstruct mentally a public square, measuring twenty-six rods north 
and south and twenty rods east and west, around which w^ere grouped 
the early stores and taverns, and each side bisected bv the wide streets 
of State and Broadway. To compreliend the appearance of the village 
as it would be had the original plans been carried out, we must clear 
away, in imagination, all the business Iniildings which front Broad- 
wa}- on the west, from the Goodwin House on the north edge of the 
square, to the alley ten rods south of State street, and also all the build- 
ings on the east side of Broadway north of the same allev. In other 


words, a perst)n standing at tlie intersection of State and Hroadway 
would be at the center of the old square, with a clear space on the east 
to the jail and ija|)tist church, on the west to the Newell House and the 
Moon supply house, hoth buildings that belong to rui earlier period. 
All the buildings on the area of the old scpiare are of coni])aratively re- 
cent date. With the exception of the old court house and jail on the 
northeast quarter of the square and the "Old Fort," containing county 
offices, on the northwest (piarter, the square was unoccupied by per- 
manent buildings up to forty years ago-, and around its four sides 
stood some <if the structiu'es which were landmarks at that time and 
which ha\'e now nearly all disa])peared from sight and memoiy. Among 
such buildings of that lime we recall on the east side the old Cassopolis 
H(juse. a wooden Iniilding on the site of the present Baptist church, 
south of which was a blacksmith shop, and aci"oss State street, where 
the jail now stands, was a two-stor\- frame building, the upper story 
l)eing the ( )dd Fellows' hall. On the north side stood the brick store 
building, noav the Shaw hotel, and on the west side of Broadway was 
the Union hotel, built by Eber Roxjt. On the west side stood the first 
frame building built mi the plat, elsewhere mentioned, and on the 
south side ol the street the old building above mentioned and then used 
as a tin shop; and south of this sto<id a frame building occupied by 
Daniel Blackman as a law oflice and liy Asa Kingsbury as a banking 
house. The south side of the square was bordered by a frame build- 
ing still standing, then used as a store, and on the east side of Broad- 
way by the Eagle hotel. While these buildings at that time occupied 
the most eligible and conspicuous sites of the village, subsequent devel- 
opments ha\'e placed many of them on alleyways, and rows of brick 
lousiness blocks have shut them from the main routes of business trafific. 

With this understanding of the situation forty years ago, we may 
properly introduce the story of how the public square became absorbed 
for business purposes and was lost tO' the countv. The history was 
gi\-en in detail in the decision of the supreme court in iS8o, which 
permanentl}- confirmed the defendants in the riwnership of all the pub- 
lic stpiare e.xpect that portion co\ered by the court house. The deci- 
sion is interesting as the most authorit;iti\e resume of the circum- 
stances and events which pertain to the public square question. 

The history of the case as outlined in the opinion delivered by 
Judge Cooley is as follows: When the three commissioners located 
the county seat at Cassopolis. the laying out of a village plat contain- 




iiig a block of land marked "Cassopolis public square," "designed for 
buildings for public uses," was a distinct offer on the part of the propri- 
etors to dedicate the whole of the public srjuare for public buildings. 
"The inference is ytvy strong, if not conclusive, that if the county had 
proceeded to apjiropriate the whole scjuare to its needs for count}- build- 
ings this would ha\e been a good acceptance of the offer and would 
have perfected the dedication." 

But the supervisxirs did not see fit to employ the scpiare as the 
site of the first pulilic buildings, the first jail, used till 185-'. as 
also the first cnurt Imuse. used till 184 1. being situated tm lots 
not the pulilic square. Furtherninre. when the county commis- 
sioners, in 1839, planned the erection of a new court house, they con- 
veved to Asa Kingsbury and associates of the "Court House Com- 
pany" a deed to the public square and grounds, reserving only the 
privilege to erect a court house on the northeast quarter. This last 
reservation is the first and onl}- distiuct act of acceptance on the part 
of the county of the grounds originally dedicated for public purposes, 
and though the conveyance was made "with the privileges and appur- 
tenances for the uses and purposes for which said square and grounds 
were conveyed to said county," the court held that, as the conveyance 
was made by a deed which also conveyed a large number of village lots 
to the grantees for their own use and benefit, "it seems scarcely open 
to doubt that the intent was that all right of control on the part of 
the county was meant to be conveyed to the grantees." 

The proprietors of the village plat having made the broad offer to 
donate the square for public buildings generally and the county having 
accepted ior its purposes a site for a court house and at the same time 
transferred to trustees any power of control in respect to the remainder, 
the dedication to the county "must be deemed to have been restricted 
to the actual acceptance of a court house site, as being adequate to the 
county wants, and the county could not, therefore, claim as of right 
any further land for its uses." 

After the erection of the court house in 1841, for the construction 
of which the Court House Company had accepted as part payment a deed 
to certain parcels of land, including presumptively all the public square 
not covered by the court house, the question of ownership of the vacant 
square rested until the county built a jail, in 1852, on the same corner 
with the court house. Kingsbury disputed the right to do this and the 
county subsequently purchased the land of him. Then, in i860, the 


county office building was erected on the northwest quarter, and this 
also was put up against the protest of Knigsbury and associates. 

The other two quarters of the square were not occupied I)}- the 
county in any manner, antl this land was claimed individually on the 
basis of the deed gi\-en liy the county commissioners tO' the parties 
who had erected the court house. The history oi the appropriation of 
this land for commercial purposes is thus given in the decision: 

In 1S36 Kingsbury commenced business as a merchant in a store 
situated immediately south of the southwest quarter of the stjuare and 
used in connection therewith a ])art of that (|uartcr for the storage 
of lumlier, shingles, barrels and Ixi.xes, and with a hitching rack for 
horses. In 1856 he Iniilt a new store, seventy-two feet in length, with 
stone foundation, one foot of which for the entire length was upon the 
square. The cellarways for the store were on the square. From 1858 
to 1869 a tenant had hay scales on the square, set over a walled pit, 
near the center of the quarter: he moxxnl them in the year last men- 
tioned to anothoi' p;n't of the same (juartcr, where he continued to use 

In 1865 Josei^h Harper and Darius Shaw deeded their interest in 
the pul)lic square to^ Daniel Blackmail. Redfiekl also deeded to Black- 
man in i86<j. In 1S70 Blackman deeded to Kingsbury: the heirs of 
Tietsort ga\e him a deed in the same vear and Sib'ers another in 
1873. Blackmail, it seems, had set up some claims of title to the south- 
east quarter of the sipiare in 1863; a building had been moved upon it, 
which was occuiiied for a law office and millinery shop until 1878. when 
it was moved away and a brick store erected in its place. The south- 
east quarter is now (1880) built up and claimed liy the a]3])licants. In 
1868 Kingsbury platted the southwest C|uarter of the square into six 
lots and sold fi\'e of them tn persons who erected two-story brick stores 
thereon, which they now occupy and claim as owners. Kingsliury also 
erected a similar building for a b;\nking house. The buildings were 
completed in 1869 and 1870: thc\- h;i\'e been taxed to. the occu]>ants and 
the taxes paid ever since 1868. 

Such was the .situation when, in March, 1879, the board of .super- 
visors brought suit in the circuit court to eject the occupants from the 
jniblic Sf|uare, which they claimed to the county on the ground that 
the land had Iieen dedicated by the original pro]irietors in 1831. Judge 
John E. Shipman of the St. Joseph circuit decided that the dedication 
had not been perfected, and the state supreme court, in October, i88o. 


affirmed this decision in an opinion the substance of which has been 
given above. This was tlie conclusion of a rather remarkable case, 
involving many facts of history that ha\-e become quite obscured in 
later years. 

The original plat of Cassopolis, copies of which are still extant, is 
a very interesting document, from which the subsequent history of the 
village ma_\' be computed. The platted land measured one hundred and 
nineteen and one-half by one hundred and ninety-one rods, the rectangle 
being broken on the southwest corner by the lake. The north and 
south streets named on the plat were: "West," which has never been 
opened: "Disbrow," "Broadway." "Rowland," "O'Keefe." "Timber" 
and "East." On the north side of the ])lat no street was designated 
and none has since been opened. The first east and west thoroughfare 
•was "York" street, and then came "State,'" "Jefferson," "Water" and 
"South" streets, from which familiar boundaries the limits of the orig- 
inal village may be easily recalled. Subsecjuent additions have expanded 
the village mainly to the south and east, toward the railroads, encircling 
the entire east side of Stone lake. The lake occupied the principal 
natural position in influencing the location of residence and business 
enterprises at the early period. But the keystone of the village was the 
public square, designedly the site of the county's business institutions, 
around which the first business houses were grouped. 

Around the public square the first business and residence houses 
of CassopO'lis began building. On a lot facing east on the southwest 
corner of the square Ira B., Henderson erected a double log cabin, which 
became the first hotel or tavern, and near the southwest corner of the 
old square John Parker had his l<jg house. As stated elsewhere, the 
oldest building that has been left from pioneer times is the east front 
portion of the Newell House, on the north side of State street, one 
hundred and fifteen feet west of Broadway. The original part of this 
building was put up in 183J l)y Sherman and Redfield, the promoters 
of the village, and its first lawyers. This was the first frame dwelling 
house erected on the plat, and after several additions were made to it, 
became a village tavern. 

The "old red store," kept by the Silvers, was the principal mercan- 
tile institution of the pioneer village. It stood the first lot south of the 
southwest quarter of the square and now stands west on Disbrow street 
and is used as a dwelling house. In this store .\. H. Redfield kept the 
postoffice. The postoffice was established in 1831, about coincident 



witli the creation of tlie count}' seat. Tlie office was first kept in a 
small Iniildins; that stood where the (loodwin Tlouse kitchen ni:)w stands, 
at the nnrthwest corner of the square. 

'id-.e distillery of the Silvers was on the shore of the lake, just 
west of Disbrow street, and Abram Tietsort"s house was on the lake 
shore outside the old village plat. These business and private houses 
were the principal ones that fonned the nucleus of Cassopolis village in 
its beginnings. A brief retrospective sketch will describe the import- 
ant inipr<]\-ements and events which have developed the village from 
that time to the present. The ciauity buildings, the schools and churches 
belong t(i other chapters, but the main points, the "high lights." can 
be detailed liere. 

.\s a civil organization Cassopolis progressed slowly during the 
first forty years. The \illage was first incorporated by the board of 
supervisors October 14, 1863. The census taken at that time showed 
four hundred and se\-enty-five jjersons residing on the area of a mile 
square comprising the four cornering quarter sections of sections 25, 
26, 35 and 36. The heads of the families represented by the census 
and whose signatures appear on the petition to the board of super- 
visors may lie called "the charter citizens" of the village of Cassopolis, 
and deserve naming in this chapter. They are : 

Joseph Smith. 
O. S. Custard, 
M, Graham, 
David Histed, 
A. Smith, 
L. H. Glover, 
Isaac Browm, 
Ira Brownell. 
H. K. McManus. 
Charles Hartfelter, 
Byron Bradley, 
Chaides W'. Brown. 
Charles W. Clisbee, 
Peter Sturr, 
A. Garwood, 
G. A. Elv, 
L. R. Read. 
James Norton. 
L. D. Tompkins, 
J. B. Chapman, 

Jacf.ib Silver, 
Isaiah Inman, 
Ethan Kelly, 
J. P. Osboi-n, 
Thomas .Staiileton. 

D. L. French. 
Lewis Clisbee 
Barak Mead, 

I. V. Sherman. 
M. J. Baldwm. 
A. E. Cleveland. 

E. B. Sherwood 
Jefferson Brown, 
j. K. Riter, 

W. K. Palmer. 
Geo. W. Van.Xntwer]), 
S. Playford. 
Henrv Shaffer, 
Charles A. Hill 
J. Tietsort, 

John McAIanus, 
M. B. Custard, 
Joseph Harper, 
John FT. Powers, 
Bartholome^v ^^'eaver 

C. C. Allison. 
Henn' W^alton. 
:\I. Baldwin, 
H. L. King, 

S. S. Chapman, 
Hiram Brown, 
Sanford Ashcroft, 

D. Blackmail, 
S. T. Read. 
Daniel B. Smith, 
R. M. Wilsoai, 
D. S. Jones, 
Joseph Graham, 
Tames Bovd. 


Of this list of men, many of whom were identified in a prom- 
inent way with the history of tlie village, only a few are still living 
in the year of this writing". Those living and still residents of the 
village are: L. H. Glover, Charles Hartfelter, J. B. Chapman, D. L. 
French, Henry Shaffer, C. C. Allison, Daniel B. Smith : others resid- 
ing elsewhere, Byron Bradley, Charles W. Brown, Isaiah Inman, I. \^ 

From a population of less than five hundred Cassopolis has in- 
creased to one thousand five hundred. Cassopolis was in a peculiarly 
adverse position during the early years of its history. It was the county 
seat, the official center of the county. But without that institution it is 
reasonahle to believe that the village would ha\'e experienced mutations 
of fortune like Edwardsburg and other centers of the county. Before 
the railroad era, Edwardsburg on the south held the commercial su- 
premacy because of its position on the Chicago road. Then in the 
forties the Michigan Central established the main transportation route 
in the northwest corner of the county and gave origin tO' Dowagiac, 
which at once became the shipping point for Cassopolis, together with 
the northwestern parts of the countv. 

Between the establishment of the county seat in 183 1 and the 
building of the railroad in 1871, the years are marked by no event of 
pregnant meaning for the development of the village ; the communitv 
grew slowly, the various institutions were added in regular course, a 
few factories were established, civil organization followed when pop- 
ulation had reached the necessan^ limit, and at the close of the period 
just mentioned the cuunty seat was the conspicuous pillar in the cor- 
porate existence of Cassopolis. 

In 1870-71 two railroads came to Cassopolis. Theretofore the 
merchants had hauled their goods from Dowagiac. The mail had come 
from Dowagiac. The telegraph was at Dowagiac. All tlie surplus pro- 
duction and market commodities that would naturally have been dis- 
posed of at Cassopolis were transported to the railroad for shipment. 
But with the building of these railroads the Avorld was openefl, as it 
were, to Cassopolis. The court house on the public square for the first 
time had a rival institution in the depot on the south line of the village. 
Since the railroad was Iniilt the princii)al gmwlh nf the village has taken 

In 1863 the population was less than fi\e hundred. In 1870 it was 


/28 and in iS<S(> it was oij; in 1890. i,36<j: at tlie census of 1900 it 
was T.3_'{), and arcordinti tci the state census nf 1904 it was i,477- 

The Ih'st additions to the \iliage site heg'an to l)e platted alu ut 
the same time as the raih'oads were l)uiU. _\n iron foundry, a na- 
tiimrd hank, xarious husiness enter|irises, nne nf tlie newspapers and otlier 
undertakings, wlmse inceptimi dales fi'nm tlie lirst years of the rail- 
road period, indicate the adxance along all lines made hv Cassopolis 
at that time. 

In TS75, when the special charter was granted liy the legislature, 
the limits of the \-illage were extended north a quarter of a mile and 
the same distance south to the railroad. The \-illage was go\erned hy 
this charter for twenty years, and in i8(;5 the blanket charter ])ro\ided 
for all the \-illages oi Michigan became eff"ecti\'e. 

In recent years Casso]iolis has made commendable jirngress in mu- 
nicip.'d improxements. The nld method nf fighting fire with buckets has 
l;een supei'seded by a \nlunteer fire department, consisting of a chief and 
twenty mcmliers. The equipment of hose cart and hose, hook and lad- 
der truck ruid nther ajiparatus are kept readv for immediate use at the 
cit}- hall builihng. a brick two-slorv structure oil North Broadway, a 
short distance frnm the s(|uare and north of the (.■(jodwin Idouse. The 
upper story of the house is used for council rooms. The city hall was 
erected in 1895. 

But as a ])recedent to this efficient fire ]H"otection and the most 
important of all the \illage improvements is the water-works system, 
which was estalilisbed in i8(;t at a cost of $10,000. The village was 
bonded for this debt, the first (if the ten annual installments being paid 
in i89(). The water is pumped into the mains from the depths of Stone 
lake, where the water is cr\stal ])ure and ice cold, and free frxnu lime, 
or "soft." The \illa,ge has arrangements with the Cassopolis j\Iill- 
ing & I\iwer Coni|ian\- for pumping the water through the mains, and 
the s.ame conipan\- furnishes the ('.rand Trunk Railroad with water. 
The ])ower compau}- also light the \illage with electricity. 

Thiise who ha\-e been most prominently identified with the com- 
mercial acti\ity of the village should recei\'e mention. The dean of 
them all is Charles E. Voorhis. \\ ho began in the ,grocen' business in 
1865. and has been in this exclusixe line of trade for fortv vears. He 
was the first to embark in one line of trade as distinct from the "gen- 
eral store." The grocer\- firm of S. B. Thomas & Son stands second 
in point of time to ]\[r. Voorhis. S. B. Thomas began here in 1876. 


D. L. French, who went ont of Inisiness in the late nineties, was tlie 
first to engage in the hardware Inisiness exclusively, beginning in March. 
1862. W. B. Hayden has been in the hardware business since 1884. 
The late George M. Kingsbury was closely interested in the l)usincss 
life of the community for a cjuarter of a century. Others whose names 
should be recorded are: S. S. Harrington and G. L. Smith, who en- 
gaged in the mercantile business thirty years ago as partners and are 
now individually engaged in the same business ; J. B. Chapman, who 
with Henry Shaffer began the manufacturing and sale of boots and shoes 
in 1858. After seven years with Mr. Shaffer, Mr. Chapman acquired his 
interest and continued the business with different partners until 1885, 
when he again became sole prcjprietor and continued the business for 
eleven years. 


CITY OF D()\\A(iT\C. 

During tlie decade oi the thirties the few settlers who Hved in the 
vicinity of which the city of Dowagiac is now the center had to go to 
LaGrange or Cassopolis or Sumnerville for their mail and supplies. As 
related on a previous page, LaGrange was the manufacturing metropo- 
lis of the county during that decade and for some years afterward. The 
water power of Dowagiac creek in the neighborhood of the township 
corners where the city is now located early presented itself as an at- 
tractive site for industrial and village purposes, it is tnie. In the regis- 
ter's office is found a plat of the village of Venice, filed for record Aug- 
ust 6, 1836, by Orlando Craine. This site was laid out on the north 
side of Dowagiac creek, and in the soutliwest quarter of section 31 of 
Wayne township. Nothing came of this attempt to boom the loca- 
tion; not a lot was sold, and Venice is in the same class of villages as 
Shakespeare and JNIechanicsburg and some others described on previous 
pages. But it is of interest to know that all that part of the city of 
Dowagiac bounded on the south and west respectively by Division street 
and North Front street was the site of Orlando Craine's Venice. 

Among the original land entries of LaGrange township is that of 
Renniston and Hunt in section 6, dated in May, 1830. William Ren- 
niston in the same year built a carding mill on the creek just east of the 
Colby Milling Company's mill, where the road from Cassopolis crosses 
the stream. At the same site he built, a few years later, a grist mill. 
vSuccessive owners of this property were Lyman Spalding, Jonatlian 
Thorne and Erastus H. Spalding, from whom it passed into the hands 
of H. F. Colbv in 1808 and a part of the splendid manufacturing inter- 
ests now controlled under the Colliy name. 

The Venice enterprise and the manufacturing interests show that 
this locality had some advantages as a village site even in the pioneer 
period. LaGrange, however, distant only a few miles., was still in the 
ascendant. The few citizens on the present site Oif Dowagiac could have 
had mv prevision of what the future, would do' for the localitw On 
the authority of Mr. A. M. Moon of Dowagiac, the sole inhabitant of 


tlie site of Dowagiac in 1835 was Patrick Hamilton, and of course 
some settlers were grouped about the mills. Certainly the prospects of 
this spot becoming the home of trade and industry had not appeared 
at that date. LaGrange, Edwardsburg, Cassopolis, Adamsville. or any 
of serv'eral other incipient villages would have been thought at that time 
to possess better outlook for the future than the wilderness on the 
north side of Dowagiac creek where Orlando Craine had. with the 
fatuity of visionary enterprise, platted a \-illage that, except as a 
prophecy of the city of today, hardly deserves remembrance. 

But the railroad came, the new fulcrum of civilization, and changed 
and rearranged all former bases of industry and society. The seats of 
manufacturing at LaGrange were transferred to the mill sites, which 
had formerly been in the wilderness, but because of the presence of the 
iron road soon became the center of Cass county's manufacturing enter- 
prise. In I1S47 Nicholas Cheesebroi.igh was engaged in buying the right 
of way through Cass county for the Michigan Central railroad, the con- 
struction of which is described on other pages. The inception of the 
village of Dowagiac was due to him and Jacob Beeson of Niles. They 
bought of Patrick Hamilton eightv acres in the northeast corner of 
Pokagon township, and on this land was laid out the original plat of 
Dowagiac. which was recorded ui the register's office Febrtiary 16. 1848. 

Thus the original area nf Dowagiac was all in Pokagon township, 
diagonally across from the plat of Venice, which had been laid in Wayne 
township. .And all of the plat was located on the north side of the 
railroad. At the time the plat was made, the railroad had not been 
completed for operation, but no doubt the grading- was well under 
way, for trains began running into Niles the following October. The 
original village was in the area that lies south of West Division street, 
and hounded on the east by the railroad to the point where the town- 
ship line intersects the same, extending west to the intersection of Main 
with Divisi(in street, and south to Dowagiac creek. 

The railroad was responsible for the diagonal directions of the 
streets in tlie business portion of the city. In the words of the plat. 
"Front street runs parallel to the track of the Michigan Central rail- 
road." The railroad runs at an angle of thirty-six degrees with the 
north and south line. Hence, to get north bearings when standing on 
Front street it is necessary to face about tAvot-fifths of a right angle. The 
calculation and sense of direction needed to perform this feat properly 
are greater than most citizens will practice, and only the oldest residents 


can figure out the time of day by the ])iisition of the sun and reduce tlie 
bizarre cUrections to the four finidanientals of tlie sign post. 

At right angles with Front street the founders laid out Main street, 
one hundred and eight feet \vide, wider than any other street on the 
plat, and designed as the business thoroughfare. But a village is not 
made according tn plat, and when Dowagiac began to grow commer- 
cially the business men preferred to locate along Front street rather than 
on Main street, which today, without business houses except at the 
lower end, on account of its exceptional width seems incongruous and 
like a big hiatus separating the town. The other streets, as first laid out, 
were Ohio, Indiana, Michigan. New York and Pennsylvania, parallel 
with Front street, and Fine. Cinnmercial, Fligh and Chestnut streets 
parallel with Main street. In all there were one hundred and eighty- 
four lots and fractional lots in the original plat. 

Since the original plat was recorded the register of deeds at Cassopo- 
lis has recei\'ed plats of fortv additinns, showing how the limits of the 
city have extended in all directidus from the nucleus. Fxcept along' the 
line of railroad the rectangular system of platting has been followed 
in nearly all sulisequent additions. The first addition to the village was 
made in April, 1.S49, Iiy Patrick Hamilton, who laid out some of his 
land in the southeast corner of Silver Creek township, the area com- 
prising all tlie lots bounded by North Front, Spruce, Main and Division 
streets. The second addition was made by Jacob Beeson from land 
in Pokagon in March, 1S50. In 1851 Jay W. McOmber platted into 
lots a portion oif land in the southwest corner of Wayne township, and 
in the same year Erastus H. Spalding added some land from northwest 
LaGrange, so that in three years' time Dowagiac had expanded its area 
into four townships, and the many additions since that time ha\'e mere- 
ly increased this civic area, althoaigh LaGrange township has given less 
land tO' the city than any of the others, owing to the creek and mill 
sites presenting obstructions to growth in this direction. 

The municipal growth and im]3rovement of Dowagiac have kq^t 
pace witii the increase in its area and population. By i860, twelve years 
after the fnunding. the number of inhabitants was 1,181. Two years 
previously the village had been incorporated by the board of super- 
visors. The petition for incorporation was granted February i, 1858, 
and the first \-illage election was held at Nicholas Bock's American 
House, nov\ the Commercial House, on Division and Front streets. The 


officers chosen at this election and for the subsequent rears will be 
found in the official lists. 

In 1870 iXDpulation had increased to 1.932. During the next ilec- 
ade, which witnessed the construction of two other railroads through 
the count\-. the rale of increase was slower, the census for 1880 show- 
ing 2,102 inhabitants. In the meantime Dowagiac had become a city. 
The last village election was held in March, 1877, and in the following 
.\pril the first election of city officers took place. From 1877 to 1892 
the city was represented in the county board by one supervisor, and 
beginning with 1893 one supervisor has been chosen from each of the 
three wards. Thus in the ci\-ic organization of the c<iunty Dowagiac 
stands on a plane with the townships. The population has more than 
doubled since incorporation as a city. In 1890 the enumeration was 
2,806, and in 1900 it was 4,151. The state census of 1904 gave 4,404. 

Dowagiac is progressive as regards municipal improvements and 
conveniences. Streets and sidewalks, lighting and fire protection are 
the first matters to receive the attention of a village community. As 
regards the first, Dowagiac was very deficient in the first years of its his- 
tory, and hence the more to be proud of at this time. Being built on the 
banks of the creek, the village was in places marshy, and it is said that 
in the months of high water the farmers of Sil\"er Creek had to hitch 
their teams on the other side of Dowagiac swamp and come across as 
best they could on foot to do their trading. Furthermore, to C]uote the 
language of an early settler, "there was not grass enough in the whole 
town to bleach a sheet on." Grace Greenwood, the well known writer 
and sister of Dr. W. E. Clarke, while visiting the latter in 1858. wrote 
a descriptive article to an eastern paper, in which she complainetl that 
the people did not plant shade trees in their door \ards or in the streets, 
and that the burning sun shone down pitilessly on the grassless ground 
and unpri.itected d\\"eliings. Of course these deficiencies have long since 
been relieved, not by organized effort so much as by the individual ac- 
tion of many citizens moved by the desire to beautify and adorn their 
own property. The paving of streets and laying of substantial side- 
walks has been going on for years. Board walks are becoming more 
and more rare, brick antl cement being the popular materials. A num- 
ber of streets are improved with gravel roadways, and in 1894 Front 
street through the business section was paved with brick, that being 
one of the l-est in\-estments the city has made, since a paved street is at 


the verv l)asis of a melnipulit-'.n aii-i)earance. wliich prepossesses tlie fa- 
vor of strangers and visitors. 

The majority of the citizens have jiersonal recollections of the 
time when all the streets were dully illuminated with kerosene lamps. 
In 1887 the Round Oak Gas & Fuel company drilled two thousand feet 
below the surface in search for gas. hut fc)und none. The Dowagiac 
Cias iK: Fuel Cnni])any was estahlishe<l in iXcjj and supplies light and 
fuel til a large numher of patrons. 

Nearlv eveiy village and city has had its disastrous fires. The 
first one in Dowagiac occurred in January, 1864, when the business 
houses on Front street north of Commercial were burned. In January, 
iSrifi. a $50,000 fire destroyed Front street south of Commercial, and 
in lune. 1882. the block south of Beeson street was destroyed. In 1854, 
six vears after the founding of the village, a meeting of the citizens was 
held to provide for fire protection, hut it was not until 1858 that any 
important action \Aas taken. A hand fire engine was purchased and 
other apparatus procured : the engine continued in use for a quarter of 
a centurv. Hamilton Hose Co. No. i was also fomied and is still 
in existence, having been reorganized in 1880. With the installation 
of water-works in 1887 the efficiency of the fire department was increased 
several fold. The pressure in the mains rendered the old hand engine 
unnecessary, and the placing of electric signal apparatus and other im- 
provements afford a fire protection \vhich is equal to that of any other 
city of the size in southern Michigan. The volunteer hose company 
and hook and ladder company of the city are reinforced in their work 
by the independent companies of the Round Oak Stove and the Dowa- 
giac Manufacturing companies' plants. 

Dowagiac's schools and churches and library, which are the cor- 
nerstones of its institutional life, its clubs and social and professional 
interests, and much other infomiation bearing on the history of the 
citv will be. treated in other chapters, for which the reader is referred to 
the index. In a resume of the main features of Dowagiac's growth, 
the railroad nnist, of course, be given first place as the originating cause. 
As soon as the trains began canying the mail through this point in- 
stead of the stage coach or horseback carrier, a postoffice was estab- 
lished, in November, 1848. Arad C. Balch, who became the first post- 
master, at the time sold goods in the Cataract House, the name that had 
been given to a boarding house for the railroad workmen, which stood 
on the bluff east of the track. In nann'ng the successive postmasters 


many of Dowagiac's prominent citizens are mentioned, for the suc- 
cessor of Mr. Balch was M. T. Garvey, whose long career in pubhc 
affairs made him one of the best known men in Cass county ; following 
him have been Noel B. Hollister, James A. Lee, William H. Campbell, 
William M. Heazlitt, Henry B. Wells, David W. Clemmer, Clarence 
L. Sherwood, A. ]\I. ]\l<ion. H. A. Burch and Julius O. Becraft. Mr. 
Becraft is serving his third, though not successive, term. In 1899 free 
city delivery was established, and this event is another milestone in 
Dowagiac's career. 

Dowagiac's business area is now quite solidly concentrated along 
Front street from Park Place to Division and for some distance up sev- 
eral of the intersecting streets. Going back half a century in our en- 
deavor, to picture the commercial status of tiie young village, it is evi- 
dent that the business center at that time, while comparatively large 
and showing excellent groAvth since the founding of the village, was 
only a nucleus of wliat it is now. There is at hand a business direc- 
tory of Dowagiac as it appears in the Cass County Advocate of January 
II, 1851, that being the first paper established in Dowagiac, its founder 
being Ezekiel S. Smith, a brother of Captain Joel H. Smith, a long- 
time resident of Dowagiac. 

The Dowagiac House is first named in this directory. It stood 
on the corner of Main and Front streets, and is said to have been the 
first hotel built. A. J. \\^ires was the builder and was landlord at the 
date alxive given. The house received various additions, and was later 
known as the Continental. Bock's hotel, at Division and Front streets, 
has already been mentioned. The next advertiser is Livingston & 
Fargo's American Express, names very suggestive in express company 
histor\'. William Bannard was local agent of the company. 

Under the head of "dr}' goods, groceries, etc.." are named four 
firms. The first is Lofland, Lybrook & Jones, whose large brick store 
was on the northwest side of Fixint street facing the depot. The firm 
consisted O'f Joshua Lofland. Henley C. Lybrook ami Gilman C. Jones. 
G. W. Clark, also in business at that time, had a store on the corner 
of Front and Commercial streets. 

W. H. Atwood was then in business in succession to the first im- 
portant mercantile enterprise of Dowagiac. Before the founding of 
Dowagiac Joel H. Smith and brother, Ezekiel S.. had been in business 
at Cassopolis, but at the beginning of 1848 they moved a stock of goods 
by team from* Cassopolis. passing through LaGrange, then a thriving 


villas^c and which to man)- seemed at the time a more favoral)le loca- 
tion for business than Dowagiac. Tlie Smitli brothers built their one- 
story frame store on the corner of Main and Front streets, it being the 
first building specially ei'ected for mercantile purposes. It was a land- 
mark in Doiwagiac, having stood at the comer for half a centun', until 
it was moved out to Indian lake to be converted into a barn. The 
Smiths sold their business in about a year to Mr. Atwood, who, as we 
see, was proprietor in January, 185 1. 

E. H. and B. F. Spalding were also proprietors of a general store 
at that time. Turner & Rogers dealt in groceries, drugs and med- 
icines, S. Sheridan in groceries and provisions. S. Bowling in boots, leath- 
er, etc., J. C. and G. W. Andrews, who advertise stoves and tinware, 
were the pioneer hardware firm, G. \V. Andrews continuing in business 
until 1877. Their first store was in the basement of Bock's hotel. 

Others who advertised in the Advocate were Parker B. Holmes. 
iron worker and general jobber; George Walker, draper and tailor: 
Henry Arnold, carpenter and joiner: J. H. Sharp, carriage and wagon 
maker: Thomas Brayton, physician and surgeon, and J- T. Keable, 
physician and surgeon. 

There were several other Ijusiness concerns in the \iliage be- 
sides those named in the aflvertising directoi")', but the only one calling 
for mention is the clothing house of Jacob Hirsli, who beg'an business 
here in 1850. being the founder of the business which is still carried on 
by Hirsh & Phillipson. 

Other business men whose long connection w^ith commercial life 
makes them desenang of mention were Benjamin Cooper and Francis 
J. Mosher, the first exclusive grocery merchants. Mr. Mosher's father, 
Ira D., was a resident on the site of Dowagiac when the railroad came. 

C. L. Sherwood, who has been in the drug business longer than 
any of his competitors, came to Dowagiac in 1868 and purchased the 
slocks of Asa Huntington and N. B. Ilollistcr, pioneers in the business, 
and also the store of Howard & Halleck. 

In the line of groceries George D. Jones, who has lived in the 
county since 1829 and in Dowagiac since 1864, has conducted his store 
on Commercial street for more than twenty-five years. 

F. H. Ross, who was in the hardware business from i860 to 1886 
and then a real estate dealer until his retirement in 1901, is another 
who contributed to the commercial enterprise of early Dowagiac. 

The proprietor of the Daylight Store on Front street is one of the 


oldest merchants still in active business. Burget L. Dewey came to 
Dowagiac in 1865 and began as a clerk, and since 1873 has been in the 
drygoods business, building u]) one of the leading merrantile concerns 
of the city. 

The manufacturing enterprises of Dowagiac have been at the core 
of her prosperity and the source of its wealth and rqjutation among the 
cities of Michigan. An account of these interests is reserved for the 
chapter on trades and manufacturing, Init it is proper to mention the 
dates of the estaljli.shment of the different enterprises, each one of which 
marks another step in the city's progress, and also the men who have 
been foreinost in this department of activity, 'llie first of a long list 
of subsequent industrial enterprises was the tesket factory established 
in 1857 by Horace and Gilman C. Jones. In a ven,- small way. such 
as could hardly be dignified with the name of factory. P. D. Beckwith 
was already casting plows and doing general repair work, having come to 
the village in 1854, and soon laid the basis for the mammoth enter- 
prise with which his name will always be associated. In 1859 Mark 
Judd helped to establisli the planing mill which was the nucleus for the 
Judd lumber and planing mill business, which is not least among Dowa- 
giac's large enterprises. It was in 1868 that H. F. Colby became iden- 
tified with the mill interests of Dowagiac, and although, as we know, 
milling was one of the first industries at this locality, the energy and ex- 
ecutive ability displayed by Mr. Colby in expanding and organizing the 
industry are reasons for considering the date of his coming to Dowagiac 
as marking an epoch of industry. And in the sixties also were made 
the beginnings of the manufacture which has since developed into the 
large Dowagiac Manufacturing Company's plant. Myron Stark, the 
veteran manufacturer and inventor, patented his sand band in 1876 and 
soon after made Dowagiac his permanent liome. Willis M. Farr, the 
present manufacturer of the Common Sense sand bands, identified him- 
self with the manufacturing interests of the city in the seventies, at 
first as one of the partners in the drill works, and then joined with Myron 
Stark in perfecting and putting on the market the latter's excellent in- 
vention. The Hedrick sawmill dates back to its foundation in i860, 
and the extensive lumber yard and planing mill of John A. Lindsley was 
established in 1885. This summary indicates the principal events in 
Dowagiac's industrial career. 

With the splendid transportation facilities afforded by the Miclii- 
gan Central Railroad, with some of the most important manufacturing 


enterprises of Michigan, with good mercantile houses, with municipal 
iniprovemerits in keeping with the size of the city, with excellent schools, 
and churches and library, Dowagiac occupies a position of increasing 
influence among the cities of southwestern Michigan, and her devel- 
opment fully justices the faith which Jacob Beeson evinced in this 
wilderness locality in 1848. 



Man cannot live alone : he must communicate with others. We 
are parts of a great organism. So it is with communities. The time 
came when the railroad and telegraph Ijronght them in closer relations 
with each other. But even from the first there was communication 
with the outside world, for ahsolute isolatii.m is impossible. At first 
there were no railroads leading out from the eastern cities across the 
great \-alley of the Mississippi. The mountain ranges and dense forests 
were great harriers between the east and Michigan territclr^•. There 
was a canal fmm Troy to Buffalo, there were a few steamers on the 
great lakes, and there was a short horse-car railroad running out of 
Toledo. There were no wagon roads, but in place of them were Indian 

In all lands, however primitixe and liarbarous, even in the dense 
forest fastnesses of Africa or South America, there are passages from 
one locality to another. The word best descriptive of such courses of 
early communication is "trail." Before cix-ilizatiim introduced scientific 
road-making, wild animals were doubtless the markers and sun-evors 
of roads. The narrow, deep-worn, and wavering path through the 
woods, indicating the route of the deer or bear between its lair and the 
spring where it quenched its thirst or the thicket where it sought its 
quarry, was the course which the Indian, and later the white man, took 
in going through the wnods or across the prairie. Trails are easily 
made, as anyone may knuw who observes how quickly the turf of a park 
or meadow is worn down by the regular passage of human feet. And 
as the wild animal pushed its way through the brush and trees, pursuing 
the easiest and therefore a winding course to its goal, it left evidence 
of its progress in the broken twigs anrl bent bushes and trampled grass, 
so that the next creature b<iund in the same direction would pursue the 
same way and lietter flefine it, until a new trail was marked out. Thus 
the animals were the first road makers, and blazed the wav for their 
immediate successors, the roving Indian. The latter would naturally 
extend and connect the trails of animals into certain long a\enues of 


travel across the country, which they would follow in making their pil- 
grimages from one hunting ground to another or for their war expe- 

Thus it happened that when the white man first came to southern 
2\lichigan, as was also true of an}- other part of our countr}-, he found 
certain courses of communication already marked out. These were 
used by the pioneers until better, broader, straighter and more direct 
roads could be made. Oftentimes these old trails formed the most prac- 
ticable and convenient route of travel, and were consequently the basis 
of a highway ordered and constructed by the state or county. 

A description of these primitive roads in Cass count}-, showing how 
useful they \\-ere to the early settlers, was furnished by Mr. Amos Smith, 
the county surveyor at the tinie, for the History of 1882, and being 
authoritati\-e information, is quoted as follows: 

"I find that every township, in the olden time, had its highways 
and its bvw-avs. Some of these seem to have been of great importance, 
connecting localities widely separated froni each other, while dthers of 
less note served only neighboring settlements. 

'Tt is noticeable that the principal Indian trails, like our own main 
thoroughfares, ran east and w^est, while others tributary to these came 
in from the north and south. The Chicago trail, more important because 
niore used than any of the others, coming from the east, entered the 
county near the half-mile post on the east side of section i in South 
Porter, and ran thence westerly, crossing sections i, 2, 3, 4, 5. 8, 7, 
and 18 in South Porter: sections 13, 14, 15. 16, 21, 20, 17, 18, and 
7 in Mason: sections 12, 11, 10, 3, 4. 5, 6, and 7, in Ontwa: and 
sections 12, n, lO', 15, 16, 17, 18 in Milton. Tlie Chicago road, as 
it is now traveled, varies but little from the trail as above described. 

"Near the corner of sections 4, 5, 8, 9, in South Porter, the Chi- 
cago trail was intersected by the Shavehead trail, a branch from the 
north. This trail or rather system of trails, as more than a dozen dif- 
ferent ones united to form it. had two main branches which came to- 
gether on section 29, in North Porter, near the low-er end of Shavehead 
lake. The west branch, which commenced near the north line of Penn 
townshin, led southerly across Young's prairie, dividing on section 28 
in Penn. One trail continued south and east to the w-est, and 
south of Mud lake in Calvin, the other running between Donell and 
Mud lakes, the two uniting near Birch lake in Porter. The last nien- 
tioned trail was of great service to the early white settlers in procuring 
supplies from the old distillery situated on the East Branch of Chris- 
tiann creek, a little south of Donell lake. The east branch, coming from 
the direction of Pig Prairie 'Ronde, crossed the county line at the east 
line of section 12 in Newberg, just north of Long lake, ai-id ran south- 


westerly across sections 12, 13, 23, 26, ly, 34, and t^t^, in Newberg, 
and sections 4, 9, 8, 17. and 20 in North Porter, and united with the 
west branch on section 29, as before stated. Another branch of the 
Shavehead trail, of less extent than either of those just described, com- 
menced at the Indian 'sugar works, near the half-mile post on the line 
between sections 10 and 11, in North Porter, and ran thence south- 
westerly, crossing Shavehead prairie in its course, and uniting with the 
main branch on sectiiju 32. 

"Besides the three i>rincipal branches of the Shavehead trail above 
mentioned, there were many others. In fact, the whole township of 
Porter was a perfect network of trails — a regular "stamping ground" 
of the Indians, so to speak, as the numerous sugar works, Indian fields 
and villages abundantly attest. 

"The second branch of the Chicago trail commenced on section 
30, in Calvin, running thence southeasterly, crossing sections 2 and 12, 
in Mason, very nearly where the wagon road now runs, intersecting the 
Chicago trail at an Indian village a few rods west of the present village 
of Union. 

"The third branch commenced on section 3, in ]\Iason, and ran 
southwesterly, entering the Chicago trail near what is now Adamsville. 

"llie fourth and last branch of the Chicago trail, coming from 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, intersected the county and state line near the 
southwest comer of section 20, in Ontwa, and running thence north- 
westerly, united with the main trail on section 16 in Milton. 

"The trail from the Carey Mission to Grand River Mission, some- 
times called the Grand River road, crossed the county line near the 
corner of sections 6 and 7, in Howard, and running thence angling 
across Howard, Pokagon, Silver Creek, Wayne and Volinia townships, 
left the county at the north line of section 2, in Volinia. It had 
no branches. The present angling road running through the greater 
part of Pokagon township, the northwest corner of Howard and a por- 
tion of Wayne, occupies very nearly the same position. In fact, we are 
indebted to the Indian, or it may be to his predecessor, for some of our 
best lines of communication, and as many of these old routes are traveled 
today, and probably will be for all time to come, where thev were 
marked out hundreds and possibly thousands of years ago, it shows that 
remarkable skill must have been exercised in their location." 

Though the pioneers entered Cass county over the Indian trails, 
the settlement of the county had hardly progressed beyond the initial 
stages when there was agitation coupled with energetic effort on the 
part of the settlers and government alike to improve these trails into 
highways and to open new courses of travel. 

7'he establishment of post-roads is a power granted to the general 
government by the Constitution. In pursuance of the plan of internal 


inipro\ tlnis ]iro\i(led tor. tlie government undertook tlie laying 
out of such [jostal highways across Michigan territor\' long hefore Cass 
county was settled. As incidentally referred to in a previous chapter, 
the Chicago treaty with the Indians in 1821 contained a clause espe- 
cially stipulating- that the Cnited States should have the privilege of 
making and using a ro.-ul through the Indian country from Detroit and 
Fort \\';i_\ne. respecti\-ely, to Chicago. 

'I he lirst of the congressional acts whicli leil toward the construc- 
tion of the Chicago road was passed in 1824. It authorized the presi- 
dent of the United States "to cause the necessary surveys, plans and 
estimates to he made of the routes of such roads and canals as he may 
deem of national importance in a commercial iir militarv jioint of \-iew, 
or necessary for the transportation of the puhlic mail." Tlie sum of 
thirty thousand dollars was appropriated for the surveys and the jiresi- 
dent was authorized to apjKjint two competent engineers. 

The route from Detroit to Chicago was one of those which the 
e.xecuti\-e "ileemed (if national importance." and the sum of ten thou- 
sand dollars was set from the a|>propriation for the survev. In 
1S25 work was couTmeuccd at the eastern end oi the road. Tlie sur- 
veyor hegan on the plan of running on nearl\- straight lines. Init had 
progressed only a few miles when he came to the conclusion that if he 
carried out his originrd intention, the money apportioned for the work 
would be exhausted long before he could reach the western terminus. 
He then resolved to follow the old path of the Sacs and Foxes, and the 
road thus marked was ne\'er straightened. The trees were blazed fiftv 
feet on each side of the trails, the recjuirement being that the road 
should measiu-e one hundred feet in width. 

The Chicago road was surveyed through Cass county in 1832, by 
Daniel G. Garnsey. The roa<l was not worked through St. Joseph, 
Cass and Berrien counties by the government until after the Black Hawk 
war. Immigrants made such improvements as the\' f(_uind necessary, 
and the stage companies worked the road sufficiently to get their coaches 
through, and built some Iiridges. In 1833 the government made thor- 
ough work of building the road through Branch county, and in 1834 
through St. Joseph and Cass counties. It was grubbed out and leveled 
for a width of thirty feet, and the timber was cut awa^■ on each side. 
The first bridge over the St. Joseph was built in 1834. at IMottville. 
which- crossing was designated as "the Grand Traverse." 

The Chicago road, which follows appro.ximately the Chicago Indian 


trail already descriiied, was the great thoroughfare from east to west 
until the advent of the railroad in the late forties. The present genera- 
tion has difficulty in understanding the vital relation in which such a 
road stood to the people of sixty or seventy-five years ago. In making 
the journey from Cass county to Chicago hardly any one would think 
of going any way than by train, and to drive the distance, even over 
modern roadbeds, would be considered almost foolhardy. 

Sixty years ago there was no other means of reaching any of the 
great centers, such as Chicago or Detroit, except by wagon road. It 
was a seven days" trip from Niles to Detroit, when now it can be made 
in as many hours. A traveler was fortunate if he could go from 
Edwardsburg to Chicago in two days. 

But slow and difficult though this route was, it was the only one — 
the only certain means of communication and travel that an inland 
country possessed. Then came the railroad. It was the successor, or 
rather superseded this long inter-county, inter-state dirt road. and. as 
the trend of public thought is at last beginning to recognize, the rail- 
road is the national highway, the public thoroughfare, of the present, 
just as the Chicago road was the national postal and commercial route 
of the past. 

The Chicago road was also known as the "Territorial road," and 
its course from east to west along the southern border of the county was 
as much of an impetus toward settlement and development of such 
centers as Edwardsburg during the early half of the century, as tlie 
Michigan Central proved a fostering cause in the founding and growtl: 
of Dowagiac in the latter half. 

The establishment of continuous and definite highways from place 
to place was also one of the most important functions of the early terri- 
torial and state government, and continued so until the railroad age 
changed all the methods and means of long-distance travel and trans- 
portation. In the early historj- of the state it was not to be expected 
that the various and often widely separated settlements could undertake 
any extensi\-e and co-operative plan of road-making. The settlers, 
busied with the labor of clearing the forests, of making their first crops, 
and providing for immediate wants and creature comforts, had no time 
for road building except so far as to construct a temporary way to the 
common trading point. Certainly without some larger supervision 
most of the roads would have served only local purposes and would have 
been short and disconnected, and many years would have been suffered 


to elapse Ijffiirc anvtliiui;' .ippn inching a system of pulilic highways would 
have been estnhlished. 

As we may inter from the foregoing, few of the earl}- roads were 
laid out on the rectangular plan of section lines. .Vnd e\-en the later 
introduction of this method did not cause the disuse and abandonment 
of the favorite nld-time winding and diagonal routes that had been laid 
out according to the needs and conveniences of the pioneers. In the 
new prairie localities of the west, where no settlements were made until 
after the laml had been bbicked out into regular cjuadrangles by govern- 
ment engineers, the checker-lioard system of roads was adopted easily 
and natiu'ally. But in such a country as Cass county, covei'ed over at 
the time of settlement with forests and dotted with lakes and marshes, 
with Jill the conditions and appliances primiti\c and new. the settlers 
■were \er\- likel\- to disregard geometrical lines, even when made liy gov- 
ernment officials, and choose the "short cut" Iietween localities. 

Din'ing the thirties and forties the territorial council and the state 
legislature passed many acts "authorizing the establishment" of high- 
ways within or entering Cass county. Some of these became practicable 
thoroughfares, others never were constructed except officiallv. 

An act of Jul}- 30. 1830. authorized the laying out of a road "com- 
mencing where the township road laid out by the commissioners of 
Ontwa towr.ship, Cass county, from Pleasant lake in a direction to Pulaski 
(Elkhart), in Indiana, intersects the southern boundary line between 
the territory of Michigan and the state of Indiana; thence, on the road 
laid out as aforesaid until it intersects the Chicago road a few rods west 
of tlie jiostoffice, near the bouse of Ezra Beardsley, mnning thence on 
the eligible ami [iracticalile route to the entrance of the St. Joseph 
ri\er into Lake ^Michigan." Ceorge Meacbam, John Bogart and Scpiire 
Thomjison were the commissioners appointed to lay out and estalilish 
this road. 

Similarl}-. ancjther territorial road was authorized "commencing at 
the county seat of Branch county, running westerly on the most direct 
and eligible route through the seats of justice of St. Joseph and Cass 
counties to the mouth of the St. Joseph river. Another from White 
Pigeon by Prairie Rondc and Kalamazoo to Grand Rapids. "A road 
from Adams\'ille on the most direct and eligible route to the Paw Paw 
river at or near the center of Van Buren county," and many others. 

To open and inipr(i\e these roads the territorial and later the state 
government made liberal appropriations from the reserve of internal im- 


provement lands. For example, the legislature in 1848 appropriated 
three thousand acres for the purpose of opening and improving a road 
(authorized in 1840), "commencing at some point at or near the north 
bank of the river St. Joseph, in the vicinity of the village of St. Joseph, 
thence running in an easterly direction on the most eligible route to the 
village of La Grange, formerly called Whitmanville, in Cass county." 

In the late forties, at the beginning of the railroad era in this part 
of the west, the "plank mad" had a lirief reign of favor as a means of 
internal communication. ]\Iany companies were incorporated by the 
state to construct such roads with the privilege of operating them as 
toll roads. The only one constructed for any distance in Cass county 
was planned to connect Niles and Mottville via Edwardsburg. Tlie 
company was incorporated in 1849, '^^'itb capital stock authorized at 
$100,000. Only five miles of the proposed road was built, between 
Niles and Edwardsburg. Such a road was a great improvement for the 
time. Much hea\-ier loads could be hauled over the plank roads than 
over the soil roads, and they helped greatly in the development of the 
country. Had not the railroads at about the same time begun to net- 
work the country, the plank road would have been no doubt adopted as 
a solution of the transportation problem. After the railroads came all 
was changed ; old centers were abandoned, new centers were formed, 
the markets were brought nearer the farmer's home, distances were 
shortened, marketing made easier, and the development of the country 
W'as wonderfully accelerated. 

In a fair consideration of the means of communication which the 
county has employed, the stage coach must be included — the old "twice- 
a-week" stage coach. It Avas a slow mode of travel, but the passengers 
had a good time. The rate of speed in pleasant weather and wdth good 
roads w'as perhaps seven or eight miles an hour, and the average cost 
was perhaps five cents a mile. These vehicles have been forgotten as 
completely as the days they represented. When the steam horse which 
at first plowed the water took to land in the east, the finest of the stages 
were taken west, and some of them as far as the Rockies, where the stage 
coach is even yet not unknown. But the coach and the tvpe of life it 
represented are gone forever from this part of the country. 

Sixty years ago, however, the residents of Edwardsburg and other 
points along the old Chicago road, on hearing the blast of the driver's 
horn as the stage topped the hill to the east of town, hailed the event 
as a break in pioneer monotony and with one accord assembled about 


llic stage station tn welcome tlie arrival. Xo one who e\'er witnessed 
such a scene would forget the excitement and the deep interest that 
attended ever}- detail of this little drama. The stage hr(jught the latest 
news from the outside world, hrought the newspapers, brought the mails. 
The stage put the jieople in connection with the great world, and when, 
the horses having been changed and the passengers again emltarked, it 
disappeared on the prairie and then in the woods to the west, the isola- 
tion of the community was again complete until the coach came again. 
All this gives ns an idea of the life of those days, wdiich hardly seems 
real to us now when we are in direct and constant communication with 
all parts of the world. 

This is tlie descrijition of (jne of the old "Concord" stage coaches 
as described by a writer in the former history of Cass countv : "You 
can fancy this ancient vehicle — a Ijlack painted an<l deck-roofed hulk 
— starting out from Detroit, with its load of passengers, swinging on 
its thorough-braces attached to the fore and hind axles, and crowded 
to its fullest capacity. There was a Iwot projecting three or four feet 
liehind for luggage; an iron railing ran around the top of the coach 
where extra Ijaggage or passengers were stowed as occasion required. 
The driver occupied a high seat in front; under his feet \\as a ]>lace for 
liis traps and the mail ; on each side of his seat was a lamp, firmlv fixed, 
to light his way by night; inside of the coach were three seats which 
would accommodate nine passengers. You can imagine the stage coach, 
thus loaded, starting out at the "get ape' of the dri\er. as, he cracks his 
whip over the heads of the leaders, when all four horses spring to their 
work, and away goes the lumbering \-ehicle, soon lost to sight in the 
woods, stmggling along the road, lurching from side to side into deep 
ruts and often into deeper mud holes." 

Edwardsburg was a junction point on the Chicago road at which 
a branch line of stages went toward Niles. The first stage coaches in 
Cass county are said to ha\-e passed tlirough in 1830 upon the Chicago 
road and this branch. At first two stages went o\-er the road each week, 
but trips were being made tri-weeklv before the Black Hawk war sus- 
pended operations entirely in 1832. In 1833 a new line of stages was 
estalilished between Detroit and Chicago. The route was from Detroit 
via Ypsilanti, Jonesville, Coldwater river, White Pigeon, Edwardsburg 
and Niles. Teams were changed about every twelve miles. By subse- 
quent changes in ownershiii tliis line became the "Western Stage Com- 


In 1835, on account of the great increase in immigration and gen- 
eral travel, it was found necessary to put on daily stages. These were 
almost invariably crowded, and the company was compelled to put on 
a double line before the season was over. Even then the agents were 
sometimes obliged to hire extra teams and common wagons in which 
to convey passengers. The most desirable seats in the stages were fre- 
quently sold at a heavy premium by speculators. The stage companies 
upon this direct through line 'to Chicago were very liberally patronized 
and grew rich. They flourished until the railroad superseded the 


But the chief developer and re-arranger of civilization is the rail- 
road. At a time when the relations of the railroads to the individual 
citizen, the civic community and the country at large bulk so large in 
public attention and discussion, it is needless to describe the importance 
of the railroad as an institution of modern life. The coming of the rail- 
road to this part of the west marked the end of the period of pioneer 
development and the beginning of the era of n:aterial progress in which 
we are still living. 

When Cass county was first settled the pioneers had no intimation 
of the revolutionary changes in transportation and consecjuenth- all 
departmennts of industry and methods of living that would be effected 
by the railroad. It will be remembered that the first railroad in the 
United States — several miles in length only — was constructed in 
1826, almost coincidentally with the first settlement in Cass county. In 
1830, after the tide of immigration had resulted in the organization of 
the county, there were only twenty-three miles of railroad in oiJeration 
in the United States. Hence, at that time the people of Cass county 
could hardly have looked forward to any time in the near future when 
they could anticipate using railroad transportation as a common facility. 

But by the year 1835 the railroad age in the United States had 
been fairly inaugurated, with over a thousand miles in operation, and 
the lines increasing at a phenomenal rate. By this time the fever of 
railroad building had penetrated the middle west, and the subject was 
thenceforth one of increasing imp^jrtance among all classes. 

It was a long while, however, before the railroad actuallv came 
this far west. In the meantime the demands of the people for improved 
transjxjrtation resulted in the agitation of canal construction and the 


opening- of the \vater\va_\-s ot conimerce. Canal buildins^' in the middle 
west reached its fullest extent during the late thirties and the ft.irties, 
and for a time the canal and the railroad competed on even terms. 

The only convenient water way ever utilized "by the peoi^le of Cass 
county for transportation was the St. Joseph river. The early settlers 
were compelled to haul in wagons their surplus wheat and corn and 
other products to some point on this stream, such as Niles, and thence 
"ark" them to Lake Michigan, for carriage by lake vessels to the mar- 
kets of the world. Se\-eral years before the advent of the railroad, 
the first steamboat began plying on the St. Joseph, as the forerunner 
of the considerable fleet which up to the present day has navigated on 
the lower courses of that stream. 

The only serious plan for bringing this waterway into more useful 
relation to Cass county was that discussed at a meeting held in Ed- 
wardsburg, Febniary, 1836, to consider the project of constructing a 
canal from Constantine to Niles. Such a canal would have crossed 
south central Cass county, and would have been a short cut across the 
great arc made by the river in its bend into Indiana. Had the railroad 
era not been so near, this canal would doulitless have been constructed 
at some lime, and v.nuld lia\'e lieen of inestimaljle advantage to the 
development of Cass county. 

But a majority of those present at the Edwardsburg meeting fav- 
ored, e\en then, the idea of a railroad rather than a canal. The result 
was that the friends of the enterprise secru"ed the passage of an act 
by th.e legislature, March 26, 1836, incorporating the Constantine and 
Niles Canal or Railroad Company, with a capital stock fixed at $250,000. 
The company was empowered to construct either a canal or railroad 
between the termini mentioned in its name and charter. The first di- 
rectors were William Meek, George W. HofTman, Wells T. House, 
Watson Sumner, John G. Cathcart, Edward N. Bridge, J. C. Lanman, 
Jacob Beeson and Vincent L. Bradford. This enterprise ended in the 
storm of financial disaster that overtook the country in 1837, and it is 
not certain that even a survey of the route of the proposed canal or 
railroad was made. 

Such was the only canal building ever attempted in this county. 
Already the attention of the people was directed to the advance of the 
railroads from the east. In 1832 the territorial council of Michigan 
had incorporated the Detroit and St. Joseph Railroad Company. The 
ciim]ianv nutlmrized to build a single or double track railroad from 


Detroit to St.. Joseph by way of the village of Ypsilanti and the county 
seats of Washtenaw. Jackson, Calhoun and Kalaniazoo' counties, and 
to run cars on the same "by the force of steam, of animals, of any 
mechanical or other force, or of any combination of these forces"; was 
bound to begin work within two years from the passage of the act. to 
build thirty miles of track within six years, to complete half of the road 
within fifteen years, and to finish the whole of it within thirty years, 
under penalty of the forfeiture of its franchises. 

The route was surveyed, work was begtm at the eastern end. but 
before the set period of six years had expired Michigan had become 
a state. With its new dignity of statehood, Michigan was most zealous 
in fostering enterprises of internal improvement, not merely opening 
the way for the exertion of private or corporate effort, but even going 
to the extent of constructing under state auspices and appropriations 
from the public treasuiw the railroad and other highways and public 

March 20, 1837, an act of the legislature was approved that pro- 
vided for the construction of three railroads across the whole breadth 
of its territory, to be called the Northern, Central and Southern rail- 
roads. The Central was to nui from Detroit to the mouth of the St. 
Joseph. The act also provided for the purchase of the rights and prop- 
erty of companies already established, and especially those of the Detroit 
and St. Joseph Compan\'. The sum of $550,000 was appropriated for 
the survey and making of the three roads, $400,000 of which was set 
apart for the Central. Tine legislature also authorized a loan of fi\-e 
million dollars for railroad construction. 

The commissioners of Internal Impnivements were thus provided 
with funds for the carrying out of this stupendous undertaking. But 
the building began in a period of industrial depression, unlocked for 
obstacles hindered the progress of the work, and when the year 1846 
came the Central had been completed only to Kalamazoo, while the 
Southern's western operating terminal still tarried at Hillsdale. Public 
opinion as to the feasibility of railroad construction by the state seems 
to have changed in the meanwhile, and by an act of the legislature in 
the early part of 1846 an entire change of policy was efifected. 

By this act of 1846 the Michigan Central Railroad Company, com- 
posed of private individuals, was incorporated. At the same time a 
transfer of all the state's equity and control of the Central Railroad 
was made to the new corporation for the consideration of two million 


(lollars. The cliarter required tbe new cumpaiiy tn follow substantially 
the route originally decided upon, but instead of specifying that the 
mouth of the St. Joseph should be the western terminus, allowed the 
companv to build from Kalamazoo "to some point in the state of Michi- 
gan on or near Lake Michigan which shall be accessible to steamboats 
on said lake, and thence to some point on the southern boundary line of 
Michigan" ; the men. \\ho composed the company insisting on tbe latter 
provision in order that tbe\' might have a choice of destination. 

Tbe object of the compau}- was to jiroject their line across the 
northern portion of Indiana and plant its western terminus at Chicago. 
The story of the intense rivalr}' between tbe Michigan Central and the 
Michigan Southern in their struggle to be the first to accomplish this 
end is not pertinent here. But the change of the objective point from 
St. Joseph to Chicago resulted in diverting tbe course of tbe line direct 
from Kalamazoo to New Buffalo (the terminus of the Michigan char- 
ter) and thus crossing the northwest corner of Cass county. iJad the 
original jilan been carried out, Cass county would have been without 
railroad connection for a numl^er of years longer. 

But now, in the haste to construct the line, the new companv. as 
soon as the transfer bad been effected, surveyed a route to New Buffalo 
and at once pushed the work of construction as far as the Michigan 
charter would carrs^ it. The road was completed through this county 
as far as Niles by October 7. 1848. and in the spring of the following 
year New Buffalo was reached. The conflicting interests of the two 
rival railroads and the legislatures of the states through which tbe lines 
were to pass delayed tbe completion of the Michigan Central across 
Indiana. But the line was opened to Michigan City in tbe winter of 
1851-52. and in the following- spring was completed to Chicago. 

Had the plans contemplated by tbe state been carried out, the 
Michigan Southern would have lieen constnicted along the southern 
border of the state and hence through Cass county. But it was seen fit 
to turn this line south from \Mute Pigeon, and thence was constructed 
across Northern Indiana. 

The first constitution of Michig'an had expressly affirmed the pro- 
priety of internal impro\-ements being undertaken bv the state and paid 
for out of the pul)lic funds or public lands. The unhappv results that 
followed tbe projection and partial construction of the Central and 
Southern railroads under state auspices worked a complete reversal of 
public opinion on this policy. Accordingly tbe constitution of i8^o 


contained a provision prohibiting the state from contriljuting to or 
otherwise engaging in any such forms of internal improvements. 

Though the people as a state were thus forbidden to construct rail- 
roads, it was understood that smaller corporate units oif towns and cities 
were not affected by the constitutional provisions. After the Civil war 
for several years, there passed over the country a wave of popular 
activity and participation in railroad construction. Towns, villages and 
counties, not to mention hundreds of private citizens, not only in this 
state but in many states of the middle west, voted generous subscrip- 
tions or ''bonuses" to railroad enterprises, many of which Ijegan and 
ended their existence in the fertile brains of the pi'omoters. This move- 
ment had a vital connection with Cass county's welfare, and its ulti- 
mate results may be said to ha\-e gi\-en the county two of its railroad 

By the beginning of the seventies the towns and cities of the state 
had voted to various railroad companies subscriptions aggregating sev- 
eral millions of dollars. Individuals had given perhaps as much more. 
Now followed a decision of the state supreme court declaring that the 
act under which the voting had taken place was unconstitutional ; hence 
these minor civil corporations could not obligate themselves by contri- 
butions to railroad construction any more than the state itself could. 
Tl.Tis was the final phase of internal improvements under pulilic direc- 
tion or support. So much history of the matter is necessary to a proper 
understanrling of the manner in which the "Air Line" and the Penin- 
sular, now Grand Trunk, railn^jads were constructed through Cass counts-. 

LaGrange township alone, \\ith the prospective benefits of two 
railroads before it. had voted tliirt}- thousand dollars of l»nds to the 
two projected roads. But fortunately these bonds, as was true of the 
bonds of other townships in the county, were still in the keeping of the 
.state treasurer at the time the decision of the supreme court was given. 
Soon after the decision was made known a majority of the citizens of 
the various townships voted to recall the bonds and prevent their Iieing 
surrendered to the railroad companies and hence to individual purchas- 
ers. The state treasurer, however, refused to return the bonds until 
the supreme court, in behalf of LaGrange township, issued a mandamus 
compelling the state treasurer to restore the bonds. In the case of some 
townships of the state, the bonds had already passed into the financial 
markets, and in such instances the townships were obliged to pay their 


The Air Line branch of the Michigan Central which now crosses 
Cass county nearly centrally from west to east was projected almost 
entirely l.)v local capital and enterprise, the corporate name being- the 
Michigan Air Line Railroad Company. The people of the counties of 
Cass. St. Joseph, Calhoun and Jackson were the ones most vitally in- 
terested. Jackson county sttbscriljed nearly two hundred thousand dol- 
lars to the undertaking and the jjrincipal officers of the original organi- 
zation were citizens of Jackson. The line was opened to travel from 
Jackson to Homer in the summer of 1870, to Three Rivers in the autumn 
of the same year, and was completed to Niles in February, 1871. Almost 
coincident with the completion of the road it w'as leased to the Michigan 
Central Railroad Company, and soon became the property of that com- 
pany. The first regular passenger train over this road was run through 
Cass county on January 16, 1871. 

The late Mr. S. T. Read, of Cassopolis, has been given the credit 
for suggesting to the president of the Canadian Railroad the scheme 
for extending that line from its western Canadian terminus at Port 
Hunm across the peninsula of Michigan to a terminal in the com- 
mercial metropolis of Chicago. The Grand Trunk Railniad was built, 
and due to the public-spirited and persistent efforts of ]Mr. Read the 
line passed through central Cass county and the coinit}- seat. The 
people of the county liberally supported the enterprise, contributing in 
cash subscriptions and donations of rights of way to .the amount of 
one hundred thousand dollars. 

The track was completed to Cassopolis from the east on February 
9. 1871, and in the course of the same year the line was extended to 
\'alparaiso, Indiana, and subsecjuently to Chicago. 

The Grand Trunk Railroad in the United States is a patchwork of 
smaller lines and extensions of \arious date. The first line was con- 
structed under a charter given tu the I\:)rt Huron and Lake Michigan 
Railroad Company in 1847. In 1855 the Port Huron and Milwaukee 
Railroad Company was chartered, and not long afterward was amal- 
gamated with the first-named organization. October 3, 1865, the 
Peninsular Railroad Company was chartered to constnict a railroad be- 
tween Lansing and Battle Creek. January 3, iSfiS, the Peninsular Rail- 
road Extension Company was chartered for the extension of a line from 
Battle Creek to the Indiana state line. These two companies were con- 
solidated as the Peninsular Ivailway Compan}-. Numerous other con- 


solidations and changes preceded the final organization, in April. 1880, 
of the Chicago and Grand Trunk Railway Company. 

In the earlv eighties the Cincinnati. Cleveland. Chicago & St. Louis, 
popularly known as the "Big Four."' was constructed between Niles and 
Elkhart. This route passed through the southwestern curner of Cass 
county, in Alilton township, but as only a» signal station called Truitt 
has been established on that section of the line, the "Big Fnur" is not n 
Cass county road in the same relation as the Michigan Central, with 
the Air Line branch and the Grand Trunk. 

Although at tlie date nf this compilation Cass county's means of 
communication do not include electric lines, the course of development 
will soon reach this stage, and it is appropriate to describe the present 
status of this subject. 

About 1901 the "Eastern and Northwestern Railroad Company" 
was formed by a group of capitalists with headquarters in Chicago. They 
proposed a railroad from Benton Harbor to Toledo, entering Cass county 
at the northwest and leaving it about the middle of New berg tnwnship 
on the east, cuttmg the existing lines about at right angles. The line 
of original survey was run three miles to the north of Cassojiolis. 

The citizens of that village, alive to the possible loss of another 
railroad, at once made efforts to bring the road throngh the county 
seat. The terms asked by the promoters were a right of way for the 
distance of two and a half miles and land for depot site. The Cass- 
opolis citizens complied, and the road was to be in operation as far as 
Dowagiac by May, 1902, and the entire line completed by July, 1903. 
A large part of the grading was done, indeed in this respect the line is 
practically complete to Jamestown in Penn township. Cass county, but 
the financial backing failed before the rest of the construction was 
finished, and the grades and cuts are all that Cass county so far has to 
show for the enterprise. 

But tentati\-e negotiations are in progress, according to a plan to 
utilize this route for an electric road. The network of interurban elec- 
tric lines is certain to inclose Cass county within a few years. To the 
south there is a line of electric communication almost continuous be- 
tween Michigan City and Toledo. On the west a branch of the same 
system touches Niles. Berrien Springs and Benton Harbor, Berrien 
co■unt^•. Kalamazoo is another center for the radiation of these roads. 
.A.s this form of intercommunication in the middle west is the product 


of little more than a decade, it is not unreasonable to expect an equally 
phenomenal increase with the succeeding ten years. 


No phase of the general subject of communication is of more vital 
interest to the people than postal facilities. The desire to know what 
is going on in the world outside the circle of immeiliate accjuaintance is 
as deep-seated as it is wlntlesonie, and the isolation from friends and 
relatives and the settled ])arts of the country was one of the severest 
privations connected with settlement on the frontier. In truth there was 
a time in most such communities when news — if such it c(.)uld be called 
when it often was very old when it reached the hearers — had no reg- 
ular lines of dissemination and was carried only by the chance trav- 
eler. All pioneer communities have experienced such a situation in 
some degree, and the early settlers of Cass county had little definite 
connection with the outside world, although living in a comparatively 
modern age and only a few }ears before the in\'ention of the telegraph. 

Accordingly one of the first impro\-ements sought after actual home 
and shelter and means of subsistence were provided was a postal serv- 
ice, such as all the settlers had been familiar with in their former homes 
in the more settled regions. We have seen how the government early 
made provision for the establishment of a great post road from the east 
to the west. But the actual transportation and distribution of mail was 
a \er\' uncertain matter for many years, and depended" largely on the 
provision that each communit}- could make for that purpose. In the 
CcU'ly days a mail route was established between Fort Wa_\-ne and Niles. 
The mail ^\as at first carried once in four weeks, then once every two 
weeks. This mail was carried by a character known as "Old Hall," 
who bestrode one horse wdiile the mail bags were carried on a horse that 
be led. .\t Niles the mail for all the surrounding country was distrib- 
uted, the \arious communities in Cass county each receiving it by 
special carriers. Some con\'enient settler's cabin was selected as the 
postoffice, and there the neighbors would gather to receive a chance 
letter or hear the reading of a newspaper brought in by the last mail. 
The histor}- of many of these early postoffices is told in the chapter on 
the centers of ]xi])ulation. 

Letters were a luxurx- in pioneer times. They were written on 
foolscap paper and so folded that one side was left blank, so as to form 
its own envelope, it !)eing sealetl with wax or a wafer. This latter cus- 


torn was followed for many years, and some of these sheets folded ac- 
cording to the usual manner and with some of the wax of the seal still 
adhering to them, are still to be found in the count}-. 

It was perhaps well tliat the pioneer could not foresee the con- 
veniences that his twentieth century descendant enjoys in the way of 
postal facilities; he might ha\-e felt his deprivations more severely had 
he known that in 1906 the rural mail routes, radiating in every direction 
and approaching within convenient distance of e\ery luime in the county, 
would be delivering packages, letters and metropolitan dailies cmce each 
day and with greater regularity and punctuality than was the case in the 
large eastern towns of his time. 


To imderstand the development that has taken place in the means 
of communication it is not necessary to go back beyontl the memory 
of the present generation. As the result of successful experiments Mr. 
Alex. Graham Bell exhibited at the Centennial exposition in Phil- 
adelphia in 1876 an invention which was described by a standard en- 
cyclopedia published in 1877 as an instrument for the "telegraphic trans- 
mission of articulate sounds." The article further goes on to state as 
the climax of the wonderful discovery that "we may confidently expect 
that Mr. Bell will give us the means of making voice and spoken words 
audible through the electric wire to an ear hundreds of miles distant." 
And in 1906 there is probably not a person in Cass county who does not 
at least know of the telephone, and in hundreds of rural homes and in 
nearly every citv and village residence and business house will be found 
one of these instruments, so necessary to modern life. Various telephone 
and telegraph companies are now operating their lines in and through 
this county, and the news of the Russian crisis comes to every village as 
soon after the occurrence as in former days a report concerning a trial at 
Cassopolis would reach the outlying districts of the county. 

From the foregoing it appears that the world is coming to be all 
of a piece. Once every little comnumity could live by itself, make its 
own clothes, wagons, tools, and all the articles necessaiy for its exist- 
ence. But this view of self-dependence and isolation either in man 
or in the community is now thoroughly discredited. With the coming 
of railroad, telegraph, telephone, etc.. closer relations were established, 
and individuals, coiuiuunities and states ha\'e become dependent on 
each other. 



Tliat familiar heru of jiu'cnile fictimi, Ruljinson Crusoe, after being 
cast upon his desert island, was compelled to l)nild his o\\n shelter, to 
make his ,.)wn clothes, to fashion man\- of his implements and his house- 
hold utensils, to cultivate the siiil and raise and prepare all things need- 
ful for his liodily sustenance, to enact for his own guidance all his laws 
and rules of conduct, anrl to lie his own army for protection against the 
cannihals. Such a type of all-ar(_iund man, jack-of-all-trades, self-suffi- 
cient and prepared for all the uses and ad\'ersities oi the world, was 
at one time considered the projier ideal liy which each [jerson should 
fashion his life. 

But such indixidualism is now seen to be exceedingh' jirimitix'e. 
and instead of making man more inde|>endent reallv puts him nmre 
abjectly in dependence on all the humbler wants and necessities which 
are at the base (_)f the higher life. Society as now organized, and in its 
general tendencies toward the working out of the problems of human 
destiny, divides into numerous occupations the work of the world. 
S|iecializing it fr)r each clas-^ of wiirkers, and tliereh\' lea\es each of us 
the greater libert\' to work out our indi\idualitv to its h.ighest possi- 

The men and women who settled Cass county in the twenties and 
thirties of the last centm"v were in a measure Crusoes. in that most of 
the necessities of life, whether for eating, wearing or for jierforming 
the work of the field ,ind liiiusehold. were hrime products. Planted in 
the de])th of a great wilderness, remote from mills and often unattended 
bv craftsmen, the men and women who laid here the foundations of 
civilized societv were, of necessity, their own artisans to a \'ery large 
extent, and e\'ery home was a factory. Many a farmer or farmer's son. 
becoming skilled in some particular trade, was enabled thereliy to add 
substantially to the famil}' income. 

The conversion of raw material into forms suitable for the uses 
of mankind was undertaken immeiliatcK' n])on the arri\-al of the first 


permanent white settlers, who, with few tools hut an ax. hastily con- 
structed a rude cahin of logs and fashioned a few primitive articles for 
domestic use, such as tahles. henches. heds. and other furnishings of 
immediate necessity. 

Next to shelter and foodstuffs cluthing was the issue nf paramcnint 
importance to the hardy pioneers, and in the division of lahor this in- 
dustry was left to the women. Every cahin was flanked hy its patch of 
flax, and the planter who did nut possess a few sheep had to trade with 
his neighbor for wool. From these raw materials the old-fashioned 
housewife was expected to produce clothing for the famil}- and linen for 
the bed and table. The full grown flax was pulled up and spread out on 
the grotmd to rot in the rain and dew. after which it was thoroughly 
broken, liy the older I'oys. if there were any, with the \-ieorous use of 
the flax-brake, then put through a srjftening process called "scutcliing." 
and a separating process called "hackling." which left ready for the 
spinstress two fabrics, tow and thread fiber. 

By tlie use of the little spinning wdieel, proficiency in the handling 
of which was for the girls a test of advancing womanhood, the fiber, 
or lint, was made into a fine, strong thread called warp, and the tow 
into a coarser thread used as filling. These were wo\'en together on a 
hand loom, and fnun the tow-linen produced was made the summer 
wear for the family, the females usually preferring to color theirs with 
home-made dyestuf¥ to suit their taste, while the less pretentious men 
folks were satisfied tn take it as it came from the loom. WHien the 
wool was brought in. the good mother and her daughters, after thiM'- 
ougbly cleansing or scouring it by washing, shaped it intu con\enient 
rolls by the aid of a pair of hand-cards provided for that i)ur]iiise and 
spun on the big wheel into yarn filling (sometimes used for knitting 
stockings, mittens and comforters), which, when woven with linen 
warp, made tlie "linsey-woolsey" of the good old days, or, if woven 
with cotton warp, resulted in the fabric known as "jeans." The former, 
suitably dyed, was in general use as a strong, warm and handsome text- 
ure for feminine apparel, and the latter, colored with butternut juice, 
was tailored by the women for the men's wear. 

As commerce with other parts of the United States increasefl, 
cotton became a more generally used material. But during the height 
of the abolition moyement, which, as we know, had some very strong 
advocates in Cass county, a prejudice arose against the use of any 
material made by slave lahor. although only two or three instances are 


recorded of persons wlio alisiiliitel\' refused to wear ejarments tint 
contained any part cotton. 

For footwear tlie wmiderinc;' cob1iler, wlio traveler! froni house 
to Imnse. was relied ujion to fasliiim lioots and shoes frnni the home- 
tanned hides, or moccasins were procured from the Indians. Occa- 
sionally the shoemakers wr)u1d nnt qet arorcud until after snowfall, and 
man)' a ^•enerahle ofrandsire can tell of sjoing barefooted to his clnores 
with sniiw on the ground. .\ well prepared coonskin made a verv 
warm and equally unsightly cap. Cnonskins also formed a kind of 
currency .if the woods, the pelt being considered as good as gold and 
accepted in exchange for all commodities. 

Properly selected rye straws were woven by the women into bon- 
nets for themselves and hats for their masters. The women also fash- 
ioned for themseh'es curioush' \\rought sunhonnets of brightlv-colored 
goods shai>ed over pasteboard strips with fluted and ruffled capes fallinfr 
behind o\-er the shoulders. The manufacture of quilts gave oppor- 
tunit\' for social gatherings when there were neighb<Trs close enough 
to get back home liefore chore time, and the quilting ranked along 
with the huskings. log-rollings and house-raisings among the primitive 
society functions of the early davs. The industries of the homestead 
did not include the preservatii^n of fruits and vegetables. sa\-e to a small 
extent by drying, but meats were ]ireserved in various ways ; lye hominy 
or hulled corn was a regulai' institution, and some other food articles 
were occasionally laid b\' frir winter, thus forming the beginnings of 
the packing and canning industries of later times. 

Prior to the advent of cabinet malcers the settlers, perforce, in- 
cluded that trade among their acconijilishments. and made their owri bed- 
steads, tables, cupboards and .chairs. For bedsteads an oak butt, about 
eight feet long and of .sufficient diameter, was split into rails and posts. 
a shorter log was split up for slats, and the pieces selected were dressed 
down with the drawknife and fitted together with the axe. Two rails 
were used for each side and three for each end, the rounded ends of 
the slats being driven into auger holes in the rails, and the four high 
corner-]iosts Avcre tied together at the tops with strong cords, frnm 
which curtains might be suspended if desired. Even less pretentious 
forms have been described, and, of course, each article of furniture 
would be likely to vary according to the ingenuity and skill of the 
maker. In the niore fortunate homes were bedsteads with tiu'ned posts, 
square rails and cords in place of slats, a feather bed surmounted the 


"straw tick," and with plenty of "i<i\ei","' such a lodgment was com- 
fortable on the coldest winter night. There was also the trundle bed, 
a low bed that could be pushed under the large bed, where it remained 
during the day, and was pulled out for the smaller children's use at 

With equal skill a table was constructed by pinning two thin oak 
clapboards, smoothed with a sharp ax on the upper side, to cross-pieces 
set on four strong legs, the surface of the table being about fiiur feet 
by six. This type also varied. Three-legged stools were made in a 
similar simple manner. Pegs dri\-en in auger holes in the logs of the 
wall supported shelves, and on others was hung the limited wardrobe 
of the family. .\ few other pegs, or, perhaps, a pair of deer horns 
formed a rack on \\hich were suspended the rifie and powder horn, al- 
ways found in every pioneer cabin. 

Fortunately, among the early settlers there was here and there a 
craftsman who could be called upon by his neighbors to perform the 
.special form of labor for which his skill fitted him. A numlier of such 
persons have been mentioned in former chapters. It was not usual 
during the first years of the djunty's history for an artisan to depend 
entirely on his trade. There was not sufficient demand for his ser\"ices. 
He had his claim and cultivated the ground just as the other settlers, 
and during the winter season or the interims of farm labor, he was 
ready to ply his trade. 

As we have seen, certain forms of manufacturing, such as those 
represented in the sawmill and the grist mill, were introduced very soon 
after the settlement of the county began. These two particular institu- 
tions supplied the immediate necessities of life, and no community could 
progress very far without them. Other forms of manufacturing soon 
came in. and at an early date manufacturing interests formed a distinct 
part of the industrial affairs of the county. 

At Cassopolis, the name of Abram Tietsort, Jr., is first and most 
prominently associated with a trade. The log building in which he did 
cabinet making for the villagers was located on the banks of Stone 
lake, just out of the village site. He made various articles of furniture 
for the pioneer homes, and now and then was called upon to furnish a 
plain and simple coffin; for death was m-t an unknown visitor to the 
early community. 

An institution, of which there were several examples in early 
Cass countv, was the distillerv for the manufacture of the whiskey 


which, according to general knowledge, was a more universal beverage 
and consumed in more copious quantities in those days than at the 
present. .In 1833 Jacob, Abiel and Benjamin F. Silvers put up a dis- 
tillery on the Ijanks of .Stone lake, the first manui'acturing institutinn 
of Cassopolis. The frame was so large and made of such massi\e tim- 
ber that it required the efforts of a great force of men to raise it. Xearlv 
all the m;!le population of the central ])ni-tion of the cnuntv assisted in 
the wnrk. which tdok tlu'ee days" time. The distillery was run to its 
utmost capacity for a number of years, and the farmers in the surround- 
ing countr)- recei\-ed a great deal of money from its proprietors for 
their surplus corn. 

I'-acli settler learned to lie skilled in sharpening his own tocils. and 
even fasbi(.ned out by homemade process some of the iron implements 
needed. But as soon as possible he resorted for the more important 
work to a regular blacksmith, it often lieing necessary to go for that 
purpose many miles, b^or instance, it is related that a settler on Beards- 
ley's prairie had to lake his i)lowshare to be sharpened by Israel Mark- 
ham, who conducted the first blacksmith shop in the countv on Pokagon 

0\'er near the ])resent Jamestown, in Fenn townshi]). a man by the 
name of Peck established a lilacksmith shop about 1S28. but did not 
remain long. 

The early advent of carpenters and joiners to the county has been 
spoken of in an earlier clrqnei'. As soon as the people advanced beyond 
the log cabin stage it became quite necessary to procure the services 
of a skilled builder in tiie construction of the houses. 

With the art of clotiies-making delegated so completely to the 
pioneer bou>ewife. earh' Cass count\ w(juld hardly seem a pr()fitable 
l<ication for a tailor. bUit there is record of one who located at Ceneva 
about 1834, when ibat was still a \illage of some proportions. He 
was also cmplo>ed in the same line for a time at W'hitmanville. 

The business activity of Edward.sburg was increased, in 1837, '^Y 
the arrival of a hat maker named James Boyd, who later moved to 
Cassopolis, where he died. The business of bat-making was a common 
pursuit in the east during that time, but few found their way to the 
sparsely settled west. Mr. Boyd, however, made hats in this county 
tor six years, as the onl\- rejiresentative the county ever had in that iii- 
dustrv, and he sold his hats in all ]iarts of the county. 

No one could forget the old-time sugar bo.x. It was a necessary 


article in every liouseliold, ami. besides holding sugar, it often served 
other no less useful purposes. There are instances on record where 
the sugar box became the receptacle for the pioneer mail, where it was 
kept until the neighbors had time to call for it. Did the lnuisewife 
need a sugar box. it was (juitc likely that she sent her husliand to Ed- 
wardsburg. About 1837, a Mr. Keeler located in that \'illage. ;uid be- 
sides making these indispensalde sugar boxes, he split out and softened 
and wove long strips of wood into baskets for the settlers' use. He 
was a character in the neigbliorhood, made verses as well as baskets, 
and in peddling his wares aliout the county he drove to his cart, in 
lieu of a horse, a ])atient ox named "Bright."" 

Perhaps not a month passed that some one wdio claimed special 
skill in a particular craft < r to be a jack-of-all-trades — a wandering 
tinker, a coblder. a tinsmith, etc. — did not pass through or locate UKire or 
less permanently in early Cass county. Though no historical record is 
kept of such mechanics, they are worthy of our attention so far as show- 
ing how much df the work now done by a regular mechanic was attended 
to at that time b}' the well known "tinker"" character. 

In pioneer days the same spreading tree that sheltered the village 
smithy usuallv cast its shade also upon the local wagon shop. The two 
industries were born twins and did not drift apart until the era of great 
factories set in and made the manufacture of vehicles at the crossroads 
shop an economic impossibility. In tiie early years a wheelwright came 
to the county in the person of Benjamin Sweeney, who was located at 
Edwardsburg a number of years. He was also a civil engineer, and 
laid out many roads through the county. 

We have alluded to the existence at the Carey Mission of a grist 
mill as earlv as 1826. .\t that time there was not another within a 
hundred miles. Hither the first settlers brought their meager grist, if 
they did not pound or grind it with some rude contrivance at home. It 
is hardly possible to assign an exact date for the location of the first 
mill in Cass county. But the Carpenter mill, on Christiann creek, near 
the site of Vandalia.-was probaldy built about 1828. All the burrs and 
other iron parts of the mill were brought from Ohio. 

A few vears later this mill l)ecame the property of James 0"Dell, 
a miller, who located in Penn township in 1S32. Mr. O'Dell was 
prominent in pulilic aft'airs as well. ser\ ing as super\-isor. and in other 
township offices, in the state legi'^lature. and was a member of the first 
constitutional con\-ention in 1835. 


As population increased otiier grist mills were establisheil. Closes 
Sage built one in Adamsville in 1835, ^^'^^ such was the demand for 
Hour that he ran it night and day for several years. Grist mills, as 
well as saw mills, were at hrst necessarily located by convenient water 
power. i\fter the introduction of steam power the flour mills, as a 
rule, were centered in the \-illages, and where the best transportation 
facilities were offered. 

Of sawmills there were a great number throughout the county. 
Job Davis had one in L;i Grange township in 1829, the first mechanical 
industry in the township. .At the outlet of Jones lake, in the north- 
eastern part of the township, Henry Jones and Hardy Langston built 
a mill in 1830. Carding machinery was afterwards installed, this being- 
one of the early attempts at the woolen industry in this county. 

On Dowagiac creek, on the north border of L.a Grange t<j\vnship, 
and near the site of present JJowagiac, William Renneston Ijuilt, in 
1830, a woolen mill, bringmg the machinery from southern Indiana. 
Three years later he built a grist mill at the saiue place. This was 
the Ijeginning of the milling industry which has Ijeen carrieil nn at that 
location to the present time. 

The first sawmill in J'orter was commenced on sectinn 7,2, by 
Othni Beardsley, and was completed in 183 1 by Lewis, Samuel and 
Jacob Rinehart, who ran the mill fifteen years. The lumlier which 
was not bought and hauled from the mill by local purchasers was hauled 
to the St. Joseph river and thence rafted down to Mishawaka and South 
Bend, and much of it to St. Joseph. 

.Another earl)- niill, erected in the early thirties, was Uuilt on the 
south branch of Pokagon creek, in section 6 of Jefferson township, by 
John I'ettigrew-, Jr. Tins contained an old-fashioned upright saw. 
All the machinery had been Ijrought by wagon from Ohio. Primitive 
as it was, this mill supplied material for building many of the houses 
of the surrounding country, and some of its product was sold in Niles, 
South Bend and Elkhart. 

Various sites along Christiann creek have contained mills at dif- 
ferent periods of history. The Shaffer-Beardsley mill was an institu- 
tion known for a number of years, having been Imilt in 1S3O. Near by 
was the grist n-iill of Robert Painter, built in 1840. close to Painter's 
lake. Here he later installed a saw-mill and machinery for woolen 
manufacture, but th.e \icissitudes of manufacture finally overtook the 
enterprise w-ith failure. 


On that part of Christiann creek which lies in section 19, of Cal- 
vin, Daniel Mcintosh and Samuel Crossen built the first sawmill in 
that township in 1832. It soon passed into the hands of Joseph Smith, 
who, in 1833, erected a distillery and manufactured and sold pure 
whiskey at 25 cents a gallon. In the fifties J. C. Fiero, a merchant at 
Edwardsburg, erected and operated a steam grist mill in that place, 
near the site of the present creamery. The mill was destroyed hy fire 
in the spring of 1861. 

In Peter Shaffer's mill, near this location, was sawed the lumber 
for the first court house at Cassopolis. The year 183 1 is the date of the 
building of a grist mill near the present site of Brownsville. 

Several tanneries did business in the county during the early years. 
One of them was located at Brownsville. It is thus seen that at various 
periods in her history Cass county has had a great many forms of man- 
ufacturing. As a country develops, certain forms of industry become 
profitable in certain stages of that development. A tannery could sup- 
ply a very e\ ident need of the settlers, and might be operated profitably 
as a local institution for some years. But as soon as railroad transpor- 
tation become general and the centralization of manufacturing began, 
it would be necessary either that the tannery should enlarge tO' more than 
a local concern or go out of business entirely. The latter was more often 
the case. This process of industrial growth and decay is found every- 
where, and in itself illustrates the historical development of communi- 

The twenty-third annual report of the Michigan Bureau of Labor, 
giving the results of factory inspection made m Cass county in April, 
1905, names the following industries, with the year of establishment: 

At Cassopolis: 

C. W. Bunn, lumber, 1885. 

City Steam Laundry, 1900. 

Cassopolis Steam Laundry, 1902. 

Cassopolis Manufacturing Company. 1900. 

Cassopolis Creamery, 1902. 

Cassopolis Vigilant, 1872. 

Milling Power Company, 1891. 

National Democrat, 1850. 

R. F. Peck, cigars, 1904. 

Rinehart & McCoy, cigars, 1897. 

At Dozvagiac: 

City Steam Laundry, 1903. 


Colby Milling Company, 1857. 

Creamery Package Mfg. Company, 1903. 

Dowagiac Gas & Fuel Company, 1892. 

Dowagiac City Water Works, 1887. 

Daily Ncn's, 1881. 

Dowagiac Manufacturing Company, 1881. 

Geesey Brothers & Cable, hoijps and staves, 1903. 

Wm. Hislop, lumber. 

Herald, 1892. 

J. A. Lindsley, lumber, 1885. 

Byron C. Lee, cigars, 1904. 

Round Oak Stove Works, 1873. 

Republican Printing Company, 1857. 

Standard Cabinet Company, 1899. 

S. F. Snell, cigars, 1901. 

At MarccHus: 

Simon Brady, cigars, 1894. 

H. S. Chapman, gasoline engines, 1888. 

H. J. Hoover, lumber, 1895. 

Wdlard McDonald, butter tubs. 1900. 

Marcellus Milling Company. 1891. 

Marcellus Steam Laundry. 1903. 

Municipal Lighting Station. 1902. 

Murcclhis Nczcs, 1872. 

Reliance Cigar Compau}', 1905. 

.// Clciv'icood. the Hamptr)n Stock Farm Companv, staves and 
headings, established 1902, and at Polaf^oii, J. II. Phillips, lumber, estab- 
lished '1888. 

As will be seen, the inspectinn did not include the villages of Ed- 
wardslnn-g. \'andalia and L'ni(_in, where factories of equal importance 
with snme nf those mentioned are to be found. But from the figures 
gi\en some interesting summaries are drawn relative to the importance 
of manufacturing industries in the count\-. \t Dowagiac sixteen fac- 
tories and workshops were inspected, eleven kinds of goods were made 
or handled. The whole number of empkjyes found at the time of in- 
spection was 880, indicating that in a city of less than five thousand 
population, one person out of five de]iends on these industries for means 
of livelihood. Of course the Round Oak Sto\'e Works, employing, at 
the rlate of inspection, 590, and the Dowagiac Manufacturing Com- 
pany, with 165 employes, are the major industries. Taking the thirty- 
se\'en industries named in the repoi't, it is seen that the aggregate num- 
ber of employes is 994. This apprn.ximates fi\'e per cent of the popula- 


tinn of Cass county depending on what are officially designated as "fac- 
tory" industries. \\'ere the data at liand for all the handicrafts and 
manufactories of the countw the proportion of those engaged in indus- 
trial pursuits would be much larger, perhaps at least ten per cent nf the 
entire population. 

^\'ith this general survey oi the trades and factories of the pioneer 
times and the present, this chapter may appropriately be closed with some 
sketches of the largest and oldest of Cass county's manufactures. Many 
of the productive enterprises which have proved the industrial core of 
se\-eral communities in the county have been mentioned in connection 
with the history of such localities. 

Cassopolis has never been a center for manufactures. In iqoO' a 
large plant was built near the Grand Trunk depot for the manufacture 
of grain drills, the concern being known as the Cassopolis Manufactur- 
ing Compan}'. At this writing the works have been bought by the Kel- 
logg Switchboard & Supply Company, who propose the inauguration 
of an extensive industry, the village having lent its support to the prop- 
osition by voting a subsidy of $7,000, providing the companv expends 
$150,000 in wages within a certain tinie. The most substantial Cassopo- 
lis enterprise is the Power &: Milling Comjjany, which, as elsewhere 
stated, furnishes electricity and ]nimps water for the \-illage and also 
converts large ciuantities of grain into flour and food products, thus 
making the village a good grain market. The plant of the Cassopolis 
Milling Company was Imilt by J. Hopkins & Sons in 1882. and for a 
number of years the stone (irocess of milling was used. \\'. D. Hop- 
kins & Company and W. D. Hopkins were successively proprietors, and 
in 1889. the plant having come into the hands of \\'', D. Hopkins and 
A. H. Van Riper, it was changed to the full roller S}'stem and incorpo- 
rated by the name Cassojiolis Milling Company. The jilant was en- 
larged wdien the citv water works were established in i8gi, and again 
enlarged and readapted when the electric light plant was installed in 
1895. The present proprietors are W. D. Ho])kins, C. W. Daniels, 
Irving Paul, 

Dowagiac is ])re-eminently the industrial center of the C()unt}", and 
because of their importance in the history of both city and county some 
special account should be made of the i^ound Oak Stove Works, the drill 
works, the Colby mills and several other factories. 



Tlie late P. D. Beckwitli came trj Dowagiac in 1854 and Iniilt a 
small frnindrv and machine shoj), 25x60 feet, on the east side of 
Front street near Park Place. The macliinery was run hy horse jjower, 
and he and one wiirkmar. were then sufficient to do all the work. .\t 
first he made plow castings and did general repair work. The demand 
for plows was still light, despite the great improvement in agricultural 
methods since the pioneer period. In 1858 Mr. Beckwith bought a new 
site for his plant at the foot of Front street on the south side of the 
creek, where the drill works are now located. He improved the water 
]iower, and continued the manufacture of plows until the production was 
greater than the demand. 

In the meantime J<_ihn S. Gage, of Wayne township, had designed 
and patented a rude form of the roller grain drill and succeeded in get- 
ting Mr. Beckwith to buy an interest in the patent and to begin the man- 
ufacture of a type of machine which has been developed into one of the 
most useful agricultural implements that the farmers of the country 
ha\'e adopted. 

In 1867 Mr. Beckwith made his first stove, fashioned on the prin- 
ciples of the present Round Oak, but crude in workmanship and style. 
One of these stoves was placed in the Michigan Central depot, and be- 
cause of its excellent heating qualities and durability the company had 
Mr. Beckwith make several others for their use. With the stove and the 
grain drill as articles for manufacture, Mr. Beckwith in 1868 trans- 
ferred his location to a plot of two acres just across the section line in 
La Grange township and near the depot grnmids. The works have re- 
mained here e\-er since, although the grounds have Iieen extended to 
the bank of the creek. Here he erected a brick factory and installed 
machinery for the manufacture of stoves and drills. He patented his 
Round Oak stove in 1870. During the seventies the business passed 
through its most critical period. During the general financial stagna- 
tion over the entire country he was compelled to resort to personal solic- 
itation to dispose of his product and In meeting his obligations his abil- 
ity as a financier was tested to tlie utmost. But in a few years the Inis- 
iness was estajjlislied on a substantial basis, and the Round Oak stove 
works is not only the largest industrial enterprise of Dowagiac, Ijut has 
made the name of its founder and the name of the city household words 
from one end of the country to the other. The name "Round Oak" 


can be found on stoves and ranges in the most remote localities, and 
the "Round Oak" furnace has gained an enviable reputation, and Dowa- 
giac is associated with no other fact in thousands of minds that know 
nothing" of the city or its history. 

From the first stages of the manufacture Mr. Beckwith built up his 
enterprise to splendid proportions, and since his death in i88y the 
"Beckwith Estate" has C(jntr<illed and managed the business with in- 
creasing success and growth. The present officers of the Round Oak 
Company are : Fred E. Lee, general manager ; A. B. Gardner, assistant 
general manager: J. O. Becraft, secretary; J. A. Howard, manager of 
sales; A. E. Rudolphi, assistant manager of sales; H. L. Mosher, man- 
ager of furnace and advertising departments; A. K. Beckwith, super- 
intendent : and O. G. Beach, chairman. 

As already mentioned, Mr. Beckwith began his Dowagiac career 
in manufacturing in a shop 25x60 feet. At the present time the 
floor space of the plant is 250.000 scpiare feet and a new addition being 
constructed at this writing will bring that up lo 300,000 scjuare feet, or 
about fifteen acres of floor space. Mr. Beckwith began with one helper. 
At the time of his death about one hundred employes were needed to 
produce and sell the sto\es, which Ijy that time had become the sole line 
of manufacture. At this writing the force of employes is not far from 
eight hundred. And the managers are proud of the fact that the works 
are in operation practically all the time, the only shut-downs being at 
holidays for repairs. As is evident, such a force of employes in a city 
of five thousand forms the largest part of the population that could be 
classified in one group. Perhaps not far from half the population of 
Dowagiac depend on the Round Oak works for livelihood. Strikes and 
labor troubles have been unknown. It is estimated that si.xt_\--five per 
cent of the emplo_\'es have their (jwn homes, and their character as cit- 
izens is much, above that of the "factory average." 

A few other items as to the manufacture may prove pertinent to 
historical inquiry. Every day the process of manufacture requires six- 
ty-five tons of pig-iron melted in two cupolas. The incoming shipments 
of pig-iron, coal and coke for this one plant are as large as the freight 
shipments for the entire city twenty-five years ago. About twenty years 
ago the firm decided to bring out a furnace to supplement their line of 
stoves and ranges. It took ten years to bring this type of furnace to the 
degree of perfection which satisfied the Round Oak people. Every item 
of criticism or advice from the purchasers of these furnaces was care- 


fully cunsidered and often became the ground for an improvement. 
W hen the furnace was hrst put on the market tliere was much to criticise; 
after ten years customers entirely ceased to suggest improvements or ttj 
find defects, and therefore the company knew they had at last made a 
perfect furnace. The twO' points of superiority first produced by ]\lr. 
Beckwith in his original Round Oak, namely, economy in consumption of 
fuel and durability through all the tests of usage, have been maintained 
throughout the existence of the business. The latest product of this plant 
is the Roiuid Oak Chief steel range, which was brought out three years 
ago, and the present addition to the plant is a building for the manu- 
facture of ranges. I'he steel range was a success from the start, has 
once proved a failure, and remarkable sales indicate its }X)puIarity. At 
first only live or six were made each day ; now the number is eighty-live 
and soon it will be a hundred. In the conduct of the business the one-price 
principle has alw ays been maintained ; no jockeying in prices has been 
indulged in, all customers ha\e been treated alike, and a solid and sub- 
stantial basis underlies the Round Oak works in factory and counting 
rooms. In conclusKin, a word should be said of the artistic cata- 
logues and literature A\ith which the conii)anv firings their goods to the 
attention of the wcjrld. The best in the art of chromatic engraving and 
printing has been employed to produce the \arious booklets. The adver- 
tising, of which AJr. II. L. .Mosher has charge, is in keeping with the 
class of g\iods which are sold. 


According to the statement made on the first page of this company's 
catalogue for 1906, Dowagiac grain drills were first made in 1866 and 
ha\e since Ijeen continuously made on part of the present site — "the 
largest in the world devoted exclusi\ely to the manufacture of grain- 
seeding macliiner)-." The plant has grown from an eight-horse water- 
wheel plant to its present immense proportions. 

The prototype of the famous Oowagiac drill was a shoe drill first 
brought into practical form liy William Tuttle. a farmer of this section 
of Michigan. The first one made, in i8(>C), as stated, had wooden shoes 
ccivered with tin, and Philo D. Beckwith cast the first iron shoes. The 
mode of covering the grain by a chain, the second part of the invention, 
was the idea of Shepard H. Wheeler, a ])i(M:eer of Dowagiac. The first 
drill was put up and made re.idv for wi irk in the wood-working and 
repair shop of John Crawford and Ann is Knaiip, and in February, 1867, 


the two inventors secured the first patent on the machine. A part of the 
present site of tlie plant — just south of Dowagiac creel< on the west 
side of Front street — was purchased of Tvlr. Beckwitli in 1868. The 
factor}- was burned down in 1872, but was soon rebuiU, and the plant 
has been increasing in size and amount of output ever since. The bus- 
iness was in the hands of various parties during the first few years. J. 
P. Warner, who invented the spring-tooth harrow in 1880, was the 
principal partner during the seventies and for a l(jng time the plant 
was known as the Warner Drill Works. In Xo\eniber, 188 1, a stock 
company was formed under the name Dnwagiac Manufacturing Com- 
pany. In 1890 the stock was bought up by X. F. Choate, F. W. Lyle, 
C. E. Lyle. W. F. Hoyt and Charles Fowle. From the crude begin- 
nings of forty years ago the business has grown to what its owners 
claim it to be — the largest plant for the manufacture of seeding machin- 
ery in the world. At the date of the factory inspection of April, 1905, 
the number of employes given was 165, but the full force is between 
300 and 350. the output naturally varying in different seasons of the 


As elsewhere stated, the milling interests are the ijldest institutions 
of Dowagiac. William Renniston ha\ing built a carding mill in 1830, 
and a few years later a grist mill on the creek near the Cnlby Com- 
pany's present mill, on the northeast corner of section six in LaGrange 
township, where the Cassopolis and Dowagiac road crosses a branch of 
the Dowagiac creek on the mill dam. After being owned by several 
parties, this property was sold by Erastus H. Spalding in 1868 to Mr. 
H. F. Colby and became the nucleus of the present mills. 

In 1857 G. A. Colby, a brother of H. F., had built a merchant mill 
at the head oi Spalding street, and this was known as "the lower mill." 
to distinguish it from "the upper mill," which was the original Rennis- 
ton mill, though rebuilt by H. F. Colliy in 1868. H. F. Colby soon 
bought the lower mill, and the milling interests of Do\\agiac have since 
then been largely identified with the Colin- family. The Colby Milling 
Company was organized in 1891, its first members being H. F, Colb\-, 
F. L, Colby and F. H. Baker. It is a copartnership, and in 1900 Mr. 
F. L. Colby sold his interest in the business to F. \\\ Richey. The firm 
is now made up of H. F. Colby, F. H. Baker and F. W. Richey. The 
upper mill is known as the Crown Roller IMills and the lower mill as the 
State Roller Mills. 



The credit for ])ni(lucinti;- this useful invention is due to Myron 
Stark, (il l^nwagiac. and William M, l-'arr has lieen associated in its 
manufacture for thirty years and is now the sole pniprietor of the plant. 
Sketches of hoth these men will he found elsewhere in this \-olunie and 
it is sufficient to say here tl;at the factory has grown to he one of those 
that increase the reputatinn of L^owagiac as a sulistantial manufactur- 
ing center and liring outside wealth to this jwint. 


Among the plants enumerated in the inspector's report, mention 
should also he made of the Standard Cabinet Company, which was estab- 
lished in \Xi)<) and eni])loys thirty or forty men. Its outimt is sold 
throughout the middle west. 

Banking and Finance. 

Cass county had none of the unfortunate experiences with "wild- 
cat" finance which are jjart of the record of some Southern Michigan 
counties. Of ourse the financial panics and business depression of the 
thirties extended their baneful influence to the people of this county, but 
the frenzy of speculation and inflated currency were never localized here 
in a hanking institution of the wild-cat type. 

Cass(ip(ilis has the honor of possessing the first banking institution. 
Asa and Charles Kingsbury, two names most prominent in the bank- 
ing history of the county seat, began a private banking house in 1855. 
This was a Cjuarter of a century after the settlement of the county and 
\\hen we consider how important and necessary the bank is as an insti- 
tution in this age the question might naturally be asked, Where did the 
))co])le put their monev and transact their financial affairs during those 
years? In the first place, the amount of money in circulation was very 
small and the wealth of the people was quite fully represented in labor 
and tangible property. A place to keep the cash surplus was little needed. 
Then, the financial transactions of the time were not of every-day occur- 
rence, and the machinery of checks and drafts and organized finance 
was not so essential. So \\e see that banks were not so much needed in 
the earl\- da_\s as grocery stores and schools and churches, and were 
not established until the country reached a fair degree of tle\ elo])ment. 



The Kingsburys dissuhed partnership in 1857, and thereafter Asa 
Kingsbury conducted the business until the organization of the First 
National i3ank. This well known institution has had an existence of 
thirty-tive years. The personnel of its officials and stockholders has 
always been maintained at a high standard, and the organizers, in No- 
vember, 187c, were representative of the best business interests of the 
village and county at that time, as those now concerned in the man- 
agement are representati\'e of the business ideals of this epoch. The 
incorporators and stockholders were: Asa Kmgsbury, S. T. Read, Jo- 
seph K. Ritter, Isaac Z. Edwards, David M. Howell, Charles \V. Clis- 
iaee, Charles H. Kingsbury, Joel Cowgill, E. E. Sherman, Amanda E. 
Ritter. Daniel Wilson, all of Cassopolis ; also David Lilly, of LaGrange 
township; James E. Bonine, of Penn township, and N. Boardman, E. 
M. Irvin, D. C. Read and Henry F. Kellogg, from outside the countw 

The first directors were: Asa Kingsbury, Joseph K. Ritter, David 
M. Howell, David Lilly, James E. Bonine and E. B. Sherman. The 
present directors are: 2\l. L. Howell, C. A. Ritter, J. H. Johnson, H. 
D. Smith, A. M. Kingsbury, Ellen R. Funk, W. G. Bonine. all of 
Cassopolis excepting J. H. Johnson, a resident of Penn township, z^sa 
Kingsbury was president from the date of the first charter until his 
death in 18S3, when he was succeeded by David M. Howell, who first 
held the office of vice-president, and served until his death the same 
vear. His successors have been Joseph K. Ritter, 1SS4-91 ; Sylvador T. 
Read, 1893-98; Marshal L. Plowell, since 1898. The first cashier was 
Charles H. Kingsbury, who was succeeded by Charles A. Ritter. the 
present incumbent, in 1891, who then was assistant cashier ami was 
succeeded by David L. Kingsbury, assistant at this time. The bank has 
a capital of $50,000; surplus and profits, $50,000. 


H. E. ,Deiiman was the first banker of Dowagiac, establishing a 
private bank in 1856, and was the leading spirit in organizing the First 
National Bank in 1865. This for six years was the only national bank 
in the county. Also in 1865 the late Daniel Lyle and Joseph Rogers 
established a private banking office. In 1869, Mr. Denman having re- 
linquished the controlling interest in First National stock and Mr. Lyle 
beconfing the chief stockholder, the two institutions merged their inter- 


... iJ; 

ests, witli Mr. Lyle as president of the I'irst National, while in the same 
year Nelson 1*". Choate became cashier. 

When the charter of the First National expired in 1883 it was 
not renewed, hut the hank was reorganized as a private bank under the 
firm name of D. Lyle & Company, Bankers. On the death of Daniel 
Lvle — one of the foremost citizens, a man whose memory deser\es per- 
manant record not only in financial affairs of his city, but in public- 
spirited citizenship — another reorganization was effected, this time a 
state charter bein,g taken out, and at that date the City Bank of Dowa- 
giac was born. Then again, in 1004. the state bank organization was 
dissolved and since then the bank has been conducted by the firm of 
L\le, Gage & Company, Ijankers, under the old name. 

The first officers of the bank under the state organization in 1887 
were: John Lyle, president; N. F. Choate, vice president; F. W. Lyle, 
cashier; L B. Gage, assistant cashier. At the next change, in 1904, the 
officers became: F. W. Lyle, president; N. F. Choate, \"ice president; 
L B. Gage, cashier; Leon R. Lyle, assistant cashier. In Febniary, 1906, 
occurred the death of Nelson F. Choate, who had been identified with 
banking interests in the city nearly f(_irty years. The ofiicial director- 
ate then became: F. \\'. Lyle, president; I. B. Gage, vice president; 
L. R. Lyle, cashier; F. J. Phillips, assistant cashier. The flourishing 
condition of the City Bank is shown in the statement of nearly $350,- 
000 deposits and surjilus, indicating the creditable management since 
1865 and als(j the financial .status of the city and country. 


This institution, whose offices are in the Beckwith Theatre block, 
IkuI its origin in the brokerage business begun by C. T. Lee in 18(17 
and the exchan,ge bank established by him in 1875. T'^^ present firm 
was established in 1887, its personnel being C. T. Lee, Henry M. Lee 
and Fred F. Lee. C. .\. Hux has held the office of cashier since 1896. 
This bank has deposits of o^•er $300,000. 

The Sage brothers, Martin G. and Norman, while engaged in the 
mercantile and milling business at Adamsville, received money and is- 
sued certificates of deposit and sold exchange on New York. 

Aliout ten vears ago a private banking concern, backed by Chica.go 
capital, was started at Edwardsburg. .\ failure of the Chicago enter- 
prise resultec' in closing the Edwardsburg branch. The citizens there- 


upon organized a "Citizens' Bank," which did Ijusiness for one year, 
when it also closed. 

^ farmers' mutual i-ire insurance company. 

This company has had a lonser continuous career than any other 
of the financial concerns of the county. It was organized May 8, 1863, 
its object being the insurance of farm buildings at a minimum cost 
and on the mutual plan. In the list of its officials during more than 
forty years' successful business have been numbered some of the UKJst 
influential and substantial agriculturists o( the county. Its first of- 
ficers and ilirectors were: Jesse G. Beeson, one of the founders of 
Dowagiac cit)', president; A. Jewell, of Wayne township, treasurer; 
A. D. Stocking, of Dowagiac, secretary; and \\'. G. Beckwith, of Jef- 
ferson. Israel Ball, of Wayne, William R. Fletcher, of Wayne, I-'rank 
Brown, of Pokagon, Daniel Blish, of Silver Creek, directors. 

The present ofi^Icers are as follow^s : Samuel Johnson, president ; 
Frank Atwood, secretary ; J. J. Ritter, treasurer ; James H. Graham, C. 
H. Scott, Clint Elsey, Edson Woodman, Walter N. Sommers, director. 



The ])i()neer farmers (if Cass county were probably as progressive 
as those of any other part <>f the country at that time. They brought 
with them fmm their JKjmes in the ohler states the methods which pre- 
vailed there. And. as man}- of them came from the east, which was 
considered the most progressive section of the country, thev must have 
kno\^n the best methods of farming which were practiced in their (la\'. 

But the first farmers of this county were confrduted with a task 
such as has been unknown in the settlement of the more western prairie 
states. The obstacles to lie nvercome were great, the implements and 
means were primitix'C. The steel plow was not invented until after Cass 
coimty had been substantially settled and improved. Whereas the west- 
ern prairie sod is turned over for the first time by immense gang plows, 
drawn by fnur (ir fi\-e horses, (ir e\en Ijy a traction engine, the farmer 
of the twenties or thirties had to deiiend (jn a wooden moldljoard shod 
with an irun share roughh' made at a kical blacksmith shop. 

With this hint at pioneer conditions it is evident that agriculture 
has undergone de\-eloi)ment in as wonderful degree as any other phase 
of the county's historw It will lie the jjurpose of this chapter to de- 
scribe as far as jiossible the metlrnds and circumstances of early agricult- 
lu'e, and from the ])oint nf \iew of the past indicate the great changes 
that have preceded modern agriculture. 

The pioneer farmer's first work, after a rude temporary shelter had 
been pro\idcd, was to (irepare a little spot of gr<iund for the first crop. 
Those who located on Pokagon. Beardsley's and other well known 
prairies — and, as Ave know, those were the favorite selections of the 
first settlers — were \er\' fnrtunate in this respect. Relieved of the neces- 
sitv to clear ofT the trees, they had nnly tn turn nver the prairie sod. 
But even so. the undertaking involved lalior that one man alone could 
hardlv accomplish. The turf on the prairies was very tough, and the 
ground in most ])laces was filled with a net-w(.)rk of the wire-like red 
root. If the location was in the oak woods, it was necessary to girdle 
the trees, clearing away the underbrush and sweeping the surface with 


fire. The dead trunks of the trees were sometimes left standing the first 
season, and the corn grew up among tlie aisles of the lilasted forests. 

Although the surface of the grcjund had been cleared, just beneath 
there remained the roots of the former growth, and these, formed into 
massive '"stools."' were for several years insuperable obstacles to easy 
farming. An ordinary plow team would have been useless among the 
stools and grubs, and a common plow would have been quickly demol- 
ished. The jjIou used was a massive construction of wood and iron, 
and was known as the "bull ijIow." The share and coulter were of iron, 
and made \ery heavy and strong. The beam was long and of huge 
proportions, to resist the en'jrmous strain brought upon it. Usually the 
weight of one of these jionderous Ijull plows was about three hundred 
pounds, and occasionally one was found weighing five hundred pounds. 
Six or seven yoke of oxen, and sometimes more, were required to pull 
this implement through the ground. With such an equi)iment. the ordin- 
ary roots were torn from the ground like straws and subsequent culti- 
vation w"as -made easy. It usually took two persons to do the plowing, 
a man to hold the plow and either a man or a bov to drive the team. 
This process of "breaking"" new land was made a regular business by 
some of the pioneers, just as threshing is at the present time. 

In a few years plows with iron moldboards were introduced, but 
as the)' would not scour well in all kinds of soil, the}- were not consid- 
ered a success at first. Besides, as the ground was full of roots, of new 
stumps and standing trees, the wooden moldboard was less lialjte to 
break than one of iron, so it was better adapted to the conditions than 
the iron one. The cultivation was done with the hoe at first, then came 
the "fluke," a V-sbaped wooden frame with five iron flukes, drawn liy one 
horse, then the single shovel plow, then the double shovel plow, which was 
in nse for a number of vears. Among the trees, stumps and roots both 
the plowing and cultix'ation were tedious, laborious and disagreeable 
work. This condition continued for a number of years, until the stumps 
had decaved sufficientlv to make it possible to remove them. 

The planting was likewise ])rimiti\c. As the sod was turned over, 
a man followed about everv third furrow, dug into the top of the fur- 
row with his foot or wdth a hoe and planted corn, covering it in the 
same way. In some instances the corn was dropped in the furrow very 
near the outside, so that the edge of the next furrow when turned over 
would lie directly o\-er tlie grain. The corn would then come through 
between the two furrows. Wheat was sown among the stumps and trees. 


The grain \v;ls liarmwcd in with a wooden-toothed harrow. The tann- 
er who chd not have even nne nf those rude implements would cut a 
small tree, trim cjff part of the limbs -^o as to leave a bushy end, weight 
it with a log, and, hitching his team to it, would get about the same 
results as from a tooth harrow. 

ill harvesting the com the stalk was not utilized, as is done at the 
present day. The pre^•ailing■ practice was to pull the ear from the stalk, 
husk and all, haul the corn to a pile and then husk it. The husk was 
utilized for feed, and as much of the grain as was not needed for home 
consumption was hauled aw a}' to market. As soon as large crops of 
corn were grown husking bees became the fashion. The corn was 
])ulle(I from the stalk and put in a pile, as when the farmer himself, or 
he and his family did the husking. Then a number of neighbors assem- 
bled and everybody husked. This was repeated at the home of each 
farmer until all had their crops husked. 

Wheat was harvested with the craille, such an implement as a 
reaper nr har\-esting machine of any kind not then being dreamed of. 
Besides the cradle, the sickle also was in use at that time. But that was 
used only in wheat that had bluwn dnwn or g'rew among stum])S and 
trees, making it difficult and sumetimes impossible to cradle. And for 
the first few years that was a large portion of the crop. It was well 
that only a limited area ci^nkl be sown, because had there been a greater 
acreage it doubtless wduld nnt have been harvested. The work of har- 
vesting with those old-time implements was extremely slow in compar- 
ison w ilh the \vay it can I;e done with our improved harvesting machin- 
erv". The threshing was done either with a flail or the grain was tramped 
out l)y horses. Both processes were \'erv slow, the former being about 
as slow as harvesting with the sickle, ^^"hen liorses were used a thresh- 
ing floor was made (iut-of-d(jors liy smoothing the ground or beating 
it until it was as solid as could be made. The horses were ridden by 
boys, while two men worked the grain toward the center of the floor 
and thi-ew out the straw. 

In the early forties a machine came into use which threshed out the 
grain and dispensed both with the use of the flail and the tramping of 
horses. This machine consisted only of a cvlinder, and was operated 
by horse power. \\'hen the threshing was done by any of these methods 
the grain had to be separated from the chafY by fanning with a sheet, 
the wind blowing the chafT away. There were no fanning mills then. 
Init the\' were introduced a few vears later. These mills were in the 


crudest furni, but were considered a great improvement over tlie win- 
nowing sheet. All of this labor had to be done in order that the farmer 
might produce a supply of wheat sufficient to provide bread for his 
family and, if possible, a small surplus to sell. 

Wheat regularly sold for fifty cents a bushel for many years, which 
seems a small remuneration for the labor bestowed upon the raising. 
During the earh- thirties, however, when immigration was greater than 
the settled population, the newcomers took all the surplus wheat at ex- 
travagant prices. This stimulated the farmers to unusual efforts and 
the following }ear ever^'body had wheat to sell, and prices were too 
low to pay for the labor of raising. George Meacham, in his capacity 
as sheriff of the cnunty, called the farmers together at Cassopolis to take 
concerted action for disposing of the grain. It was suggested that a 
warehouse should be built at the mouth of the St. Joseph. Abiel Silver, 
one of the proprietors of the distillery at Cassopolis, came to the rescue 
bv agreeing to purchase all the surplus. It w^as not long after that the 
tide of immigration increased so that the demand once more tr.ok all 
the supply. 

Corn and wheat were the two leading crops grown then, as they 
are now. r)tlier crops that were grown were oats, rye, potatoes, buck- 
wl:eat and flax. Oats were usually fed in the straw, only enough be- 
ing threshed out for the next year's seed. A patch of potatoes was 
planted on every farm for home use, but there were very few, if any. 
grown for market. The crop being a bulky one and the market so dis- 
tant made the growing of potatoes as a market crop impracticable. Flax 
was raised for home use, the product being manufactured into linen 
for a part of the family's wearing apparel. 

No attention was paid to the rotation of crops. Corn was planted 
after com, and wheat after wheat, and that was continued year after 
year. Sometimes these crops were alternated, but only as a matter of 
convenience and not to prevent exhaustion of the soil. It was not nec- 
essar}' at that time to give any attention to this matter, which has come 
to be one of the most important questions the farmer of the present 
day has to consider. When the timber was first cleared away the land 
was full of fertility, and the possibility of the soil losing its substance 
had not yet 1ieen thought of. Had the same care been exercised in con- 
serving fertility then as the farmers are compelled to exercise now. the 
soils would never have become impoverished, as so many of tliem have. 

It has alreadv been told how some of the first settlers, immediately 


on arrixing in the county, esjiecially if they came in the faU uf the 
year, busied lhenisei\es witli cutting and stacking a sufficient amount of 
the nati\e hav to feed their stock fur the winter. Uzziel I'utnam and 
Aliram Townsend cut their iirst winter's supply of forage on the prairie 
almut the ])resent site of Eduardsljurg. 

1m »r man}' years the ha_\ crcj]) consisted of the nati\-e grasses. 
\\ hen the settlers were \"et few in number the prairie and marsh land 
grasses fm'nished an abundant supi)]y of hay for their li\e stock. When 
the prairie lands were all taken up each farmer on those lands set off' 
a portion of his farm for a mead(jw, but this was sufficient only for the 
owner, and those whrj had settled in the timber had to look elsewhere 
for a supply. There was an abundant grcjwth of grass on what were 
then known as wet jirairies, nr mowing marshes, which after being cut 
and cured in the sun, was called "niassauga" hay because of the numer- 
ous snakes by that name on tlie marshes. At first every settler could 
find a sufficient su])ply of this marsh grass near his home if he had none 
on his farm. This hay had to I)e mowed by hand, then thrown to- 
gether and bauletl from the marsh on a small sled drawn ])y a _\dke of 
oxen. The ground was so soft that a team of horses and a wagon could 
not be driven over 't. Only a small liit could be hauled out at a time 
in this way, and it took a number of these sled loads to make a wagon 
load. The same metho<l of making hay had to be employed on all of the 
v\et prairies of those days. 

With this view of the status of agriculture sixty years ago, it is 
not difilcult to realize the l)road developments that have taken place 
since then. b""arming has liecome easier with ever\- year. Its condi- 
tions and surroundings are no longer those of the common laborer. 
Several things have contributed to this change. Some claim that the 
invention of lal:or-sa\-ing machiner)- and its general use has done more 
to elevate agriculture than any other factor. It certainly is not wide 
of the mark to measure the progress of agriculture by the distance that 
separates the self-binder from the cradle. Yet there are other factors. 
The working and hiring of bel]) has been quite reformed from the 
methods of fifty years ago. The progi-essi\-e farmer no longer depends 
on transient labor. Not so-many years ago, when harvest time or other 
extra press of work arrived, the farmer would start out into the sur- 
rounding countr)- and hire by the day such men as were available. 
This is neither practicable nor imssible now. Improved machinery has 
done much to relieve the farmer of the necessity of hiring day laborers. 


His pulicy nuw is to hire a man by the year, and often a man of family, 
who will live on the farm and give it his entire attention. 

Transportation has also effected many changes in farming methods. 
In place of marketing by the bushel, the farmer now markets "on the 
hoof," that is, feeds his grain products to stock. And of recent years 
the farmers do nut hesitate to import stock cattle from distant ranges 
of the Dakotas or the Southwest and feed them for market on grain 
raised in Cass county. This in itself is one of the most important de- 
velopments of Cass county agriculture. 

In the general upward trend (if pmperty \alues land is the last thing 
to appreciate. At a distance of ten years from the beginning of the 
present remarkable era of prosperity, the farm lands of the county show 
only a slight increase in value. But now more than ever the worth of 
Cass county lands is being understood. Instead of passing on to the 
western lands, where climate and soil are uncertain, the farmers of 
Ohio and other states in the east and middle west, after selling their 
farms at from $60 to $100 an acre, are choosing to locate on moder- 
ately priced lands in Cass county rather than in\'esting in property- which 
not for many years will have the environment of comfort and culture 
found here. 

^luch of Cass county is situated in the famous Michigan fruit lielt. 
The northern part of the county shares with Van Buren count)- a repu- 
tation as a grape growing center. The shipping points of INIattawan, 
Lawton and Decatur draw upon northern Cass county for large c^uan- 
tities of grapes, as well as other fruits. There is a large acreage in the 
county better adapted to fruit culture than any other crop, and fruit- 
growing is increasing at the expense of otiier crops. 

Mention should be made of the mint culture which has become a 
feature of Cass county agriculture during the past few years. The 
muck land of \'ulinia and Wayne and other townships is well adapted 
to mint growing. ]\Iint is cultivated in rows like corn, and is cut just 
before it blooms, and from the harvest is distilled the mint oil. A still 
plant can l)e built for about $300. As an example of the croi)'s value, 
it is claimed that eight acres in V(ilinia township last season produced 
mint oil to the value of $1,050. 

One of the conspicuous methods of caring for crops should be 
mentioned, ^^'ithin recent years progressive farmers have built silo 
plants for the purpose of preserving the essential qualities of "roughen- 
ing" or fodder throughout the winter. One of the first things to catch 


the attention on many farms in tiie county is the silo plant, and often 
there are se\eral of them, in tliese huge cyhndrical, air-tight tanks, 
built of "silo lumber," a.nd some of the recent ones of cement, the 
green corn, stalk and all, after being cut up by a special machine, is 
stored very much as \egetaljles are canned. While in the reservoir it 
undergoes a slight fermentation process, but with the exception of a 
small portion on the top, which rots and molds just as the top of a can 
of fruit often does, and which is thrown out before the rest is used, 
the entire contents of the tank are preserved with original sweetness 
and wholesomeness for feeding tO' stock during the severe winter sea- 
son. \\'hat an improvement this method is over the old one of stacking 
the dry fodder in the late fall, when most of its essential cjualities have 
dried out, even one unfamiliar with agricultiu'e can readily realize. 


The Grange, whose basic purposes are educational, fraternal and 
the general improvement of the farmer and his family and the con- 
ditions under which he works, has not been the factor in agriculture in 
this county which it has ]iro\-ed in other counties of Michigan, and yet 
its influence as a state and national organization for the uplift and im- 
provement of agriculture has l)een so great and so widely distriljuted 
that it deser\es some mention in this chapter. 

The National (rirange organizatiem was commenced in iSby; but 
it was during the middle se\-enties that the movement reached its height 
in southern JMichigan, The general name applicable to the organization 
as a whole is "Patrons of Husbandr)-," the "granges" being the subor- 
dinate branches, but the name Grange is the one generally used in re- 
ferring to all departments of the organization. The Grange was the 
first fraternal organization to admit the wives and daughters on an 
equal basis in e\-ery wa)-. 

A few words should lie said about the work of the Grange in 
general. The Grange was one of tlie most active forces behind pure 
food legislation in Michigan, and to its efforts — to give only one ex- 
ample — is due the fact that oleomargarine must be lalieled with its 
true name, and not as butter. The Grange has more or less actively 
entered the field of commerce. In soiue counties "Grange Stores" have 
been established and successfully conducted. In Cass county they have 
not Ijeen so successful. 

The Grange claims to be the father of rural free delivery. Cer- 


tainly it has used its influence nowhere to better advantage, for free 
deHvery in the country is now conceded to be the greatest boon that 
has come to tlie farmer. It has brought him in touch witli the world and 
more than anything else has made obsolete the term "countrified" as 
applied to the tiller of the soil. And this is in direct line with the pur- 
poses of the Grange. 


With the celebration of the Cass ci.ninty fair in September of this 
year (1906) will be rounded out a period of fifty-five years since the 
first fair in the county and the above organization came into existence. 
The society was organized in the spring of 185 1, and the first fair 
held in the following fall. Justus Gage was president and George B. 
Turner secretary during the first year. The society held annual fairs 
from its organization up to 1884. Since that time no fairs have been 
held by the society. One }ear ago a new organization was eft'ected 
and held a successful fair. 

The Agricultural Society has been unfortunate in its choice of 
location, which three times has been changed owing to the exercise of 
"the right of enu'nent domain." Until 1857 the fairs were held on 
Samuel Graham's land at Ca?sop<iIis. Then fair grounds were bought 
and laid out near where the Air Line depot is. The Peninsular (Grand 
Trunk) railroad had the right of way, ran through the grounds and the 
society was compelled to mo\e, but at once got in the road of the Air 
Line, having purchased the grounds on which is Forest Hall on the 
shore of Diamond lake, and had to abandon its second location. In 
1 87 1 the society bought twenty acres of land of Samuel Graham in the 
nordi part of the village at a cost of $3,000. This location was als<i 
interfered with a few years ago when the railroad was surve\"ed and 
graded in a northwesterly direction across the county. 

During the years the society held its fairs it succeeded in paying 
off all its indebtedness, but to do so life memberships were sold to manv 
of the patrons. This cut down the receipts at the 1884 fair, so that there 
was not money enough to pay the premiums. Money was borrowed for 
that purpose, and a mortgage given on the grounds to secure the loan. 
In time foreclosure proceedings were begtm and the village of Cass- 
opolis bought the land and now owns it. 

VOLINIA farmers' CLUB. 

Most notable, in many respects, of all the farmers' organizations 


was the X'ciliiiia i-~aniK'rs' Chili, which was urganized in 18(13 f(ir the 
purpose ijf increasing "the knowledge of agriculture and horticulture" 
among its memhers and which held annual fairs in Volinia that were 
occasions of widespread interest and yearly anticipation, and of in- 
estimahle \alue in raising the agricultural and stock standards of the 
l(x-ality. "J'he first ofticers of the cluh were B. G. Buell, president: A. P>. 
Cojjlcy and John Struljle, \ice presidents; I^'. E. Warner, treasurt'r; 
II. S. Rogers, secretary. Of the older and original nienibers John 
Huff and William Krskin are pmlxihly the only ones now li-\-ing. Prom- 
inent among the memliers now deceased were H. S. Rogers, secretary 
for many }'ears; M. J. Card, father of the present count}- treasurer: B. 
G. Cuell. Le\-i Lawrence. Benjamin Hathawa)-. I. X. Ciard. M. B. 
Goodenough. Dr. Thomas. J. W. Eaton and James S. Shaw. 

The dull met once a month, and the annual fair was held in the 
fall on the I. N. Gard farm, and once on the Buell farm. The fair was 
an agricultural and stock displa\-. at which no premiums except ribbons 
were offered, and e\'eryone had a right to exhibit. The expenses were 
met largely by a small indixidual fee uinjii the members and by rental of 
booths. There were running races, but the horse racing feature was 
not de\-el(.)pe(l to the exclusion oi all (ither interests. .\ big tent was 
used to sheher some of the disi)lays and to provide Cjuarters for other 
indoor features. The fair lasted two da)-s and drew its attendance 
from all the country round. 


This organization, begun in 1852, and still maintained among 
the farmers of the two townships named, pro\-ides the effective restraint 
upon horse tliie\es with which nearlv ever}' agricultural communitv 
has at some time been troubled. There are about one hundred members 
of the society, although the maintenance of the organization is the only 
business of importance transacted. The sijciety has always, succeeded 
in reco\-ering captured animals, and its record is the best justification 
of its existence. The meetings of the society are held at Crane's school- 
hriuse in Volinia. At organization the charter inembership included 
eleven men, and was then confined to \'olinia township, but member- 
?hi]i was later extended to Wayne township. The first officers were 
Isaac Waldron, chairman: George Xewton. secretary: Jonathan Gard, 



The contest Ijetween Casscipolis and other \'illag'cs for the localitMi 
of the county seat has Ijeen elsewhere descriljed. For fi\-e or si.\ years 
after the organization of the cimnty there was no fixed home for tlie 
transaction of official Inisiness. The lirst courts and tlie lirst meetings 
of tlie Ijoards of supen'isors were held at lulwardsburg, and later in 
private houses in Cassopolis. A jail was the first consideration with 
the supervisors. This having loecn completed, the board, in the fall nf 
1S35, provided for the erection, on the west side of Broadway, mirth 
of York street, of a wooden Inhlding, 34 by 24 feet in dimensions, 
costing not to exceed fotu" hundred and liftv dollars, the same to l)e 
used tor a court house and "to contain desks for judges and liar." The 
late Joseph Harper took the contract for the erection of this court 
house, and it was ready for occupancy ]May i. 1835. This brst court 
house, it is seen, was not on the pulilic square and stood well to the 
north end of the original \iilage. 

However, the court house with which most of the old inhabitants 
of Cass county are familiar is the building which now stands on the 
south side of State street, west, and is used as a storage house. Its 
classic lines, its solid columns, conibining the effects of the Greek tem- 
ple with Colonial residences, indicate that in its better da\s it w;is ,-i 
nvire pretentious structure and sheltered affairs of larger importance 
th.'ni it now does. For more than half a century this Iniilding. which 
is ]iictured on another ])age, stood on the northeast quarter of the 
pulilic square, and within its walls transjMred the official actions which 
accompanied Cass county's ]>rogress from jiioneer times to the close 
of the last century. 

The "Court House Company" constructed this court house. The 
memlaers of that company were the well known citizens, Darius Shaw. 
Joseph Harper, Jacob Silver, Asa Kingsbury and A. H. Redfield. In 
August. 1839. they entered into a contract with the county commis- 
sioners, Da\-id Ho]ikins. Henry Jones and James W. Griffin to erect 
a court house 54 feet in length and 46 feet in width and 24 feet high 


from sills to eaves, the material to lie of wood, except the large brick 
vault; the first story to he fitted for office rooms and the second story 
to form the court and jury rooms. Six thousand dollars was the price 
agreed upon for putting up such a building, one-third of this sum to be 
paid in cash and the remainder in village lots, which the original own- 
ers had gi\-en to the county in consideraticm of the locating of the 
county seat at Cassopolis. 

The Court House Compan_\' discharged their duties in strict con- 
formance with specifications, and the building was ready for use in 1841. 
according to contract. Nearly sixty years elapsed from this date until 
the stone building ikjw in use was completed and accepted for court 
house purposes. The old building early became inadequate for the 
accommodation of all the county officers, and in i860 the offices of 
clerk, judge of probate, register of deeds and treasurer were trans- 
ferred to a brick building specially erected by the board of supervisors 
on the northwest quarter of the square, where the}' remained until 
the completion of the court house six years ago. The building, ciim- 
monly called the "Fort." is now used for a laundry. It was built by 
Maj. Joseijh Smith. 


The building (jf the court house which now adorns the jnililic 
square in Cassopolis has a history such as few buildings of the kind 
in Michigan possess," and in a permanent record of the county it i^^ 
proper to prepare an adequate rmd accurate account of the events and 
circumstances connected with the erection of this building. 

October 19, 1897, at the regular session of the board of super- 
visors, Mr. C. H. Kimmerle introduced a preamble and resolutions 
which was the first effective move toward the construction of a suita- 
ble county building. After reciting the facts that the old court house 
was "inadequate for the accommodation of business and was becoming 
old and dilapidated." and that the records of the county were "crowded 
into small and incon\'enient rooms in a separate building unprotected 
from fire and theft" (referring to the office quarters that had been built 
in t86o). it was resolved to construct a court house costing not to ex- 
ceed forty thousand dollars, "such building ti> be fireproof and of suffi- 
cient capacitv to accommodate all the count}' officers, the board of 
supervisors and the circuit court." 

The board deferred the consideration of the original resolution 


until the January session, and on January 6, 1898, the board adopted, 
by a vote of 14 to 4, an amended motion whose sahent provisions were 
the following : The sum of forty thousand dollars, which was to cover 
the entire cost of the building, including furniture, plumbing, heating 
apparatus, was to he raised by loan secured and evidenced by four 
hundred bonds of the county of one hundred dollars each, bearing in- 
terest at the rate of four per cent per annum and payable as follows — 
the first eighty on January 15, 1899: and eighty on the 15th of January 
each year thereafter until all were paid. 

The resolution also provided that the ])ropositi(jn should be re- 
ferred to the people at the township elections, and it will lie of interest 
to record the \-ote as cast for and against this proposition by the \-arious 
tov.'nships of the county. The total vote was 501 1, and a majority of 
229 was cast in favor of the new^ court house. The talnilated \'ote is 
as follows : 

Yes. No. 

Marcellus 174 335 

Volinia 59 222 

Wayne 44 133 

Silver Creek 81 145 

Pokagon 112 i;7 

I^ Grange 507 38 

Penn 189 1 33 

Newberg 142 192 

Porter 130 131 

Calvin 177 1 04 

Jefferson 133 39 

Ho\\ard S3 123 

Milton 32 34 

Ontwa 108 -y 

Mason 92 74 

Dowagiac, ist ward 199 141 

Dowagiac. 2nd ward 172 108 

Dowagiac, 3rd ward 164 123 

2620 2391 

The old court house was soon sold to the highest bidder, George 
M. Kingsbury being awarded the sale at $25, conditioned on his re- 
moving the building from the court house site and giving the use of the 
building for county purposes until the new^ structure was finished. 

The committee on specifications, consisting of six supervisors and 


one outsider, was first made up of tlie following: Supervisors* Huntley, 
White, Breece, Phillips, Beenian, Lindsley and Mr. David L. Kings- 

The building committee consisted of Supervisors Kimnierle, Hunt- 
ley. Lindsley, Motley and Mr. Kingsbury. 

The finance committee, as lirst made ui), were Supervisors White, 
Atwood and Card. 

D. 11 Smith was elected local superintendent of construction, and 
on October 5. 1898, the corner stone of the building was laid by the 
local lodge of Masons. 

In the meantime the cnmmittees had been called upon to consider 
the bids of the \arious contractors — and there were at least half a 
dozen applying for the contract — and on July 15, 1898, the contract 
was awarded to J. E. Gibson of Logansport, Ind., on the liasis of the 
following letter: "I. the undersigned, propose and agree to furnish all 
the material and labor necessary to erect and build your proi)osetl new 
Court house according to revised plans for and in consideration of the 
sum of $31.500. — J. E. Gibson." 

Tlie contract was let to Gibson by a vote of 11 t(T 5. The work 
then i)roceede(l. The superstructure was only partly comiileted in the 
rough when certain differences between (iil)son and the committee came 
to a crisis. The contractor claimed remuneration for extra work, while 
the committee charged failure to follow the plans and the use of improper 
matei'ial. Acc<irding to the minutes of Xo\-emher 10, "Contractor Gib- 
son announcei] he wouhl do no further work until an estimate was 
made an<l not then unless the estimate was a lilieral one, he to be the 

Because of this alleged "unreasonable neglect and suspension of 
work ;m(l f;n'lnre to follow drawings and specifications" and various 
other items enumerated, including unauthorized departures from the 
original jilans. a meeting of the board of supervisors was called, No- 
vember i/th. at which it was resolved that the contract between Gibson 
and llic countv was terminated. In I'-ebruary, 1899, the work already 
done on the court house was estimated at the value of ten thousand 
dollars, and it was calculated that $25,000 was needed to comiilete the 
building according to plans and specifications. 

Febrnarv 23. iSqq, the board made a contract with the firm of 
lames Rowsnn and August ^lohnke. of Grand Rapids. .\ quotation 

*For full names of supervisor.^, see official lists for the year. 


from the contract \vill show the position of the board with reference 
to the matter. After reciting the original contract between the county 
and Gibson and the status of the work up to date, it continues — "Where- 
as said Jordan E. Gibson so disregarded his said contract and the plans, 
specifications and dra\\ings both in the use of unfit material anil in the 
manner of the performance of bis work and so delaj'ed and neglected 
the completion of said building that much of the work done b\' him has 
been injured and damagetl by the frost, so that the said county through 
its board of supervisors acting under provisions of said contract tle- 
clared his employment at an end and took possession of said luiilding 
and premises and all and singular of said material, au'l to the end that 
said imperfect work and material might be removed, mended and re- 
placed and said building constructed according to plans and specifica- 
tions, this contract is entered into, etc." 

Under the new contract the work proceedetl rapidly. January 8, 
1900, the building committee reported that "the court house is now 
substantially completed. About that time the county offices were 
moved to their new home, and the court house was formally accepted 
at the October session of 1900. The total cost of the building, includ- 
ing all extras, was as follows : 

Amount under contract, including that paiil Gibson $35,200.00 

Furniture, including lighting fixtures 3. 575-09 

Extra work on building 1.922.79 

Heating contract 3.100.00 

Total $43-797-88 

The excess of cost over the first contract was credited to the failure 
of Gibson to perform his contract. "Since the county was compelled 
to re-let the contract at an increased price and re-build a considerable 
part of the work constructed l)y Gibson, for which the county had 
actually paid him. the excess apparent from this report was created." 

The finance committee managed the negotiation of the Ixinds admir- 
ably. The first series of $8,000. payable January 15. 1899. was not sold, 
but le\ied u])on the taxable property of the countv for the \'ear 
1898. thus effecting a sax'ing of nearl_\- two hundred dollars in interest. 
The remaining thirty-two thousand were sold to the First National 
Bank of Cassopolis and delivered in sums of not less than five thousand 
dollars as the work on the court house required. 

In the meantime I. E. Gibson had sued the count\- for the value of 


the material which he claimed tn he (ni the gnniinl at the time the contract 
was terminated. Jn the faU df jSyy the L'nited States circuit court, 
before which the case was heard, decided adversely to the county, and on 
March y, 190 1. the judgment was affirmed in the United States court of 
appeals, to which the county had taken an appeal on a writ of error and 
bill of exception. As there were no available funtls in the countv treas- 
ury to meet the judgment, it was resolved hy the board of supervisors 
to issue fifteen bonds of $1,000 each, at four per cent, the first seven to 
mature on January 15, 190^, and the remaining eight cm January 15, 
1905. Supervisor Kimnierle, with the county treasurer, negotiated 
these bonds successfully tn tlie hanks of the cuunty, Jn estimating the 
cost of the ciiurt house to Cass county, the amount of this judgment 
must he added to the other estimate, so that the aggregate cost of the 
court hduse was nearly sixty thousand (kjjlars. 


Cass county's first public Iniilding was ;i jail. The boartl of super- 
visors, in March, 1S32, voted a sum n<it to exceed $350 from the 
amount subscribed for the location of the county seat at Cassc^polis to 
be expended on a "gaol." .\lexander 11. Redfield let the cuntract, which 
specified that the structure should be 15 by 30 feet in gniunil dimen- 
sions and (ine stnrx high, of hewn logs one foot scjuare. The building 
was not complete<l in contract time and was not ready for use till 1834. 
Shortly afterward the jail was iloored and lined wHth plank, the logs 
being driven full of nails and covered with strap iron as additional 
protection. The l(.)ck", nearh- as large as one of the windows, is now 
a relic in the Pioneer Society's collection. This first iail, which was 
torn down about 1870, stood on the northeast corner of block i south, 
range 2 west, on the south, side of State street and west of Disbrow. 
The jailer's residence, v. frrmie building erected a numljer of years after 
the jail, is still standing, ha\ ing been converted into a paint shop. 

The first jail was re])laced in 183 1 by a brick structure that stood 
on the court house square just north of the present court house. It 
was not a satisfactory building in point of its main purpose, the secure 
confinement of prisoners. 

In 1878-79 was erected the present jail and sherift"'s residence at 
a cost of $17,770. W. H. ]\Tyers, of Fort Wayne, Ind., was the con- 
tractor, and Charles C. Banks, Charles L. ^lorton and Joseph Smith 
were the bnilding committee, Daniel ?>. Smith being local sujicrintendent 


of construction. The jail was completeil in Februar)', 1879, the first 
plans for its erection having been made by the board of supervisors in 

When the jail was built there was installed what was then a 
modern heating plant. It jiroved unsatisfactory, and when the new 
court house was built a brick addition to house the furnace plant was 
erected adjoining the jail, and a model steam heating plant installed for 
both buildings. 


The Cass County Poor Farm, comprising 280 acres in sections 2. 
3 and 10, of Jefferson township, with its equipment of buildings, is the 
principal public charity in the county. Though the poor and unfortunate 
are always with us, the provisions for their care change to greater effi- 
ciency onlv to keep pace with the development of the community, and the 
increase of comforts with S(jciety at large. Hence the first maintenance 
of the public poor was as crude as the need for such charity was limited. 

The county poor were first provided for at a farm near Edwards- 
burg, a visit of the county commissioners to the institution being re- 
corded in the later thirties. 

The county officials next ]:)urchased of Asa Kingsbury the land in 
Jefferson township upon which the present institution is located, l)ut 
a small log house was the only building designed for shelter, and small 
as was the number of inmates, the methods and means of caring for 
them was completely lacking in system. In view of this situation the 
board of supervisors, in October, 1853, appropriated the sum of $2,000 
for the erection of a suitable building. Pleasant Norton was the agciU 
appointed to manage the construction, and W. G. Beckwith and Joshua 
Lofland were the Ijuilding committee. The contract for a brick build- 
ing was given to Lewis Clisbee and son, at $1,795. ^nd the work com- 
pleted and accepted in November, 1854. 

Fourteen years later, in 1868, a committee from the board of super- 
visors rejxirted that the poor house was "an utterly unfit habitation for 
the paupers of the county," consequently the board recommended the 
raising of $5,000 for an addition to the building. This tax levy was 
approved by the people at the polls in April, 1869. The money could 
not be used, however, for the erection of a new building, only for 
"additions." and the appropriations were made under that strict con- 
struction, although when the additions were completed early in 187 1, 
the institution was practicallv new throughout. P. W. Silver was the 


contractor, and was paid in all nearly $8,000 for the construction work. 
D. Al. i'lowell, James Boyd and Ciideon Gibbs. superintendents of the 
poor at the time, were also the building" committee to whom the credit 
of erectinji the Iniildings belongs. In 1871 the as_\'lum, a brick addi- 
tion t\\-o stories high, was constructed, its cust being about the same as 
the outlay fur the other buildings, so that the count}- invested about 
$15,000 in this institution during the early '70s. 







By William H. C. Hale, 
County Commissioner of Schools. 

In giving a histoiy of education in Cass county, it is necessary to 
speak briefly of education in the state of Michigan, as the educational 
affairs have always been nearly uniform throughout the state. 

Michigan was under the government of France from 1634 until 
1760. Settlements were made at various places around the Great Lakes 
by the Jesuit missionaries, but the most important French settlement 
was the founding of Detroit by Cadillac in 1701. 

Under the French control centralization was the fundamental prin- 
ciple in all affairs. The military commandant was supreme in the state, 
and the priest or bishop in the church. Education was the function of 
the church. The initiative in even'thing was in the officials, not in 
the people. There were no semi-independent local organizations. like 
the New England towns, to provide for the management and support 
of schools. 

Two years after the founding of Detroit, Cadillac recommended 
the establishment of a seminary at that place for the instruction of chil- 
dren of the savages with those of the French. It is doubtful if this rec- 
ommendation produced any immediate results, as it is stated that no 
indication of schools or teachers can l;e found until 1755. a half century 
later. Private schools of varying degrees of excellence are reported 
to have existed from 1755. Most of these were short-lived and of in- 
ferior character. 

Under the English control educational aff'airs remained the same 
as under the French, and after the United States occupied and formed 
a territorial government there w'as little change in educational affairs 
until 1827, when a law w^as enacted providing for the establishment of 
common schools throughout the territory. This act required every 
township containing fifty families to support a school in which "read- 
ing, writing, orthography, arithmetic and decent liehavior" should be 


taugln. This was the first legal course ui study for the Michigan pu- 
])ils. The period of centralization had now passed, and local democracy 
was to ha\e its opportunity. Emigration from the eastern states had 
now reversed the old J^rench ideas. 

The actual state of elementary education an.d of educational affairs 
as late as 1836 is well pictured by Justice Thomas M. Cooley of the 
State Supreme Court. "The scliodjs at the time state government was 
established were still \er) primitive affairs, 'fhere were as vet no pro- 
fessional teachers. Some farmer or mechanic, or perhaps a grown-up 
son or daugh.ter who had had the advantages of the common schools 
of New "^'ork or New I^ngland, offered his or her ser\-ices as a teacher 
fluring the dull season of regular employment, and consented to take 
as wages -^nch sum as the district could aiYord to pay. A summer school 
taught liy a woman, who would be paid six or eight dollars a month, 
and a winter schoijl taught by a man whose compensation was twice as 
great was what was generally provided for. Rut in a<ldition to the 
wages the teacher received her board 'boarding round' among the pa- 
trons of the school and remaining with each a number of days deter- 
mined by the number of ])upils sent to school. If we shall incline 
to \-isit one of these schools in the newer portion of the state we shall 
be likely to find it housed in a log structure covered with bark, imper- 
fectly plastered between the logs to exclude the cold, and still more 
imperfect!}- warmed by rm ojien fireplace or Ijy a box stove, for which 
fuel is provided, as the board for the teacher is, by proportional con- 
tril)utors. Tlie seats f^r the jiupils may be slabs set on legs; the desks 
may he other slabs laid upon supports fixed to the logs which constitute 
the sides of the room, 'fhe school books are miscellaneous and consist 
largely of those brought by the ])arents when emigrating to the terri- 
tory. Those who write must rule their paper with pencils of their own 
manufacture, and the master will make pens for them from the goose 
f|ui]l. i'or the most [iru't the ink is of home mrmufacture. There are 
no globes: no means of illustration; not even a blackboard. Such in 
many cases was the Michigan school. Better school buildings were 
now springing up, but as a rule nothing could seem more dreary or dis- 
piriting than the average school district. Ne\'ertheless, many an intel- 
lect recei\e(l a quickening in those schools, which fitted it for a life of 
useful and honorable activity. The new settlers made such provision 
for the education of their children as was possible under the circum- 
stances in which they were placed, and the fruits of their labors and 


sacrifices in this direction were in many cases surprising." Long after 
the formation of the state government in 1S37 the schools of Cass 
county fitted very chjsely the descriptions given by Judge Cooley of 
the territorial schools. 

Michigan owes a large debt of gratitude to Isaac C. Crary and 
John D. Pierce. More than any other two men, they were instrumental 
in laying the foundations of her educational system, and in giving direc- 
tion to its early development. 

Mr. Crary was a member of the constitutional convention of 1835, 
and was appointed chairman of the committee on education. The com- 
mittee reported an article on education wdiich was adopted by the con- 
vention almost without debate. This article provided for a system of 
education very similar to what we now have. 

In the constitutional convention of 1850, Mr. Crary and Mv. Pierce 
were both members from Calhoun county. 'Slv. Pierce was a member 
of the committee on education. An article was finally adopted provid- 
ing for our present system of education, but not without some very ex- 
tended and serious debates. 

The question of free schools was earnestly debated, and the de- 
bates revealed a wide diversity of views. The discussions upon this 
topic were long and earnest, and resulted in the compromise which pro- 
vided for a free school in each district for three months each year. The 
limit of three months was unsatisfactory to the friends of free schools, 
but they accepted it on the principle that "half a loaf is better than no 
bread at all." 

It is impossible in this article to enter into a full discussion of 
every section of the constitution on education. Section one states that 
"the superintendent of public instruction shall have the general super- 
vision of public instruction, and his duties shall be prescribed by law." 

John D. Pierce was appointed the first superintendent of public 
instruction by Governor Mason July 26. 1836. At the session of the 
legislature held in January, 1837, he reported a system of common 
schools, and a ])lan for a university and its branches. The plan has 
undergone many changes since then, Init the fundamental principles 
remain practically the same. 

Mr. Pierce gave a long and verv complete report to the first legis- 
lature. As a basis for the recommeuflations which be proposed to make, 
he began by calling attention to the vital im]3(irtance of knowledge and 
virtue as the "Ijroad and permanent foundations of a free state." 


In regard to tlie importance of education he said : "In an educated 
and virtuous community there is safety; the rights of indi\iduals are 
regarded and property is respected and secure. It may be assumed as 
a fundamental principle in our form (jf government that knowledge is 
an element so essential to its existence and vigorous actinn that we can 
ha\-e no rational hope of its perpetuation unless it is general!}- diffused." 
He emphasized especiall}- the \alue and importance of elementary edu- 
cation for the great mass of the penple. "L'niversities may be highly 
important and academies of great utility, Ijut primary schools are the 
main dependence. National liberty, sound morals and education must 
stand or fall together. CVmimon schools are democratic in their nature 
and influence; they tend to unify society; in them the rich and the i)cior 
come together on terms 'jf perfect ecjualitv. 

"Let free schools be established and maintained in perpetuity and 
there can be no such thing as a permanent aristocracv in our land; for 
the monopoly of wealth is jjowerless where mind is allowed freely to 
come in contact with mind. We need wisdom, and prudence, and fore- 
sight in our couucil-;; hxedness of purpose, integrity and uprightness of 
heart in our rulers ; unwavering attachment to the rights of men among 
all people : but these high attributes of a noble patriotism, these essential 
elements of civilization and impro\'ement will disajipear when schools 
shall cease to exert an all-i)er\ading influence through the length and 
breadth of oiu" land." 

A primary school system was soon organized. Tbe unit of this 
system was, as it still is, the subdi\ision of the township known as the 
school district, and not to exceed nine sections or one-fourth of a town- 
ship. This limit was not remo\e(l until igoi. The school district was 
made practical!}- ;flmost independent in tl-ie n-ianagement of its educa- 
tional affairs. As the law- riow stands, the officers are the niotlerator, 
treasurer and director, all elected fi-)r three years. 

In the upper peninsula an entire toW'Usliip n-iay be organized into 
one district, w-ith a board of education consisting of five members. In 
the township districts there may be anv number of schools. Tlie ol:)ject 
of the township unit systen-i was to firing all lands of a tow-nship under 
taxation for school purposes. 

School districts ma}' now lie consolidated into one district by the 
consent of a niajorit}- of tlie resident taxpayers of each district. 

School districts when consolidated, may levy taxes for the pur- 
pose of transporting pupils to and from school w-ithin the boundaries 


of the district and may use the funds arising from the one mill tax 
fur the same purpose. The law for the consolidation of school dis- 
tricts was enacted in 1903. Since then there ha\-e been a few cases of 
consolidation. There Inue been nine cases of the consolidation of two 
districts and four cases where three ov more districts have been con- 
solidated. The counties where consolidation has been tried are St. 
Clair, Wayne, Genesee, Kent, Isabella, Marquette, Emrnet, Macomb, 
Kalamazoo and Charlevoix. 

The legislature of 1901 enacted a law by which township high 
schools may be organized. Only pupils who have passed the eighth 
grade can be admitted to those schools. There have been no such 
schools organized up to this time, but the matter has l)een under con- 
sideration in se\'eral counties. 

One of the pro\-isions with which the early settlers became un- 
willingly familiar was the famous "rate bill" law, passed in 1843, 
which provided that the patrons of each school might raise the funds 
necessary to continue the school through the tenn. The_ parents or 
guardians of the children were assessed a tax in proportion to the time 
such children attended school. This rate bill was made out by the 
teaciier at the close of each term, and the amount distributed among 
the patrons. The law did udt work well, for the poor parents or those 
indifferent to education would send tn school as long as the public funds 
lasted, and when the rate h\\\ set in would take their children nut. 
Primary education thus Ijecame a question of ability U> pay for it. and 
the fundamental princijile of po]>ular education was threatened. Never- 
theless, despite the inequalitv, the rate bill law was not repealed until 


Under the provisions of the first school law of the state the tnwn- 
ship school inspectors were the examining and supervising board of the 
township. They were requirerl to examine all persons proposing to 
teach in the public schools "in regard to moral character, learning and 
ability to teach school." At first the certificates were valid for one year. 
An amendment to the law in 1839 allowed the inspectors, in their 
discretion, to grant certificates for a term of not less than six months 
nor more than two years. Until the passage of the act creating the 
office of county superintendent in 1867, all examinations of teachers 
of all grades, and all supervision of the common schools were made 
by the township boards of school inspectors. This system of certifica- 


lion and supervision continued fur thirt_v years. It liad many weak 
points, and was pronounced a failure by the state superintendent in his 
report for 1866. 

In 1867 the legishiture passed an act creating the oftice of county 
superintendent of schools. The law pro\-ided for the election of the 
superintendents, for a term of two years, by \ote of the people at the 
April electiiin. The count}- superintendents held examinations in each 
township at least once a year, and granted three grades of certificates. 
The first grade was valid for two years; the second for one year; and 
the third for six months. 

The extent of the examination was left to the tliscretion of the 
superintendent, \vith only the proviso that it must include orthography, 
reading, writing, grammar, geograjihy and arithmetic. 

In 1S75 the legislature repealed the county su[)erintendency act and 
submitted a system of townshi]) su]ierintendents, difl:'ering only a little 
from the discarded and wortliless plan of township inspectors. The 
township superinten<lent's duties were xery similar to those of the 
county superintendent, in the holding of examinations, and granting 

A new law, enacted in 1881, attempted to coml>ine county exami- 
nations with township supervision. The law pnn'ided for a county 
hoartl of three examiners elected by the chairman of the boards of 
school inspectors, for a term of three years. This board examined the 
teachers of the county and ga\-e three grades of certificates, the first 
grade valid f(jr three years; the second for two years; the third for one 
year, throughout the county. The chairman of the board of school 
insjiectors was made supennsor of the schools of his township with the 
ordinar}- duties and powers pertaining to that position. 

In 1S87 this law was revised and amended. Under this new law 
twij coimtv examiners were chosen for a term of two years, Ijy the 
chairman of the township lx)ards of inspectors. These two with the 
judge of proliate, ap])ointed and employed a secretary for the term of one 
year. " The secretarx- examined candidates for positions as teachers, and 
the cither members of the board acted with him in granting certificates. 
The examination questions were to lie furnished by the superintendent 
of public instruction. In 1881 theory and art of teaching, history of the 
United States, and civil government had been added to the studies 
in which examinations must be made. In 1887 physiology and hygiene 
were also included. 


The secretary was required to visit each school in tlie count\' at 
least once in the year, and to perform all the usual duties of a supervis- 
ing officer. 

In 1891 an act was passed providing for ccjunty commissioners of 
schools and two county examiners. 

Until 1903 commissioners were elected on the first Monday of 
April for a term of two years ; since then they are elected for four years. 
The commissioner is a county superintendent with a different title, and 
is charged with the duty of supervising the schools of the countv. 

Two school examiners are elected by the county board of super- 
visors for a term of two years. The examiners assist the commissioner 
in conducting examinations. 

Three grades of certificates are granted. The first grade is valid 
for four years, the second grade for three }-ears, and the third grade 
for one vear. 

.Ml questions for examination are prepared and furnished by the 
state superintendent. Certificates may be renewed without examination 
under certain circumstances, and the examiners in one countv mav 
accept examination papers written in another county and treat them 
as if written before themselves. 

The State Board of Education conducts examinations every year 
and grants teachers' certificates valid for life, or until revoked by the 

The Normal College at Ypsilanti, and the normal schools at Mt. 
Pleasant. Marquette and Kalamazoo, grant limited and life certificates 
to their respective graduates. 

The State Board of Education also grants limited and life certifi- 
cates, without examination, to graduates of such colleges of the state as 
comply with certain prescribed conditions in respect to courses of 
study and instruction. 

In 1891 authority was granted by the legislature to the faculty of 
the department of literature, science and the arts of the Universitv, 
to give a legal certificate of qualification to teach in any of the schools 
of the state. 

In incorporated cities the superintendent and board of education 
are empowered to examine their teachers and grant certificates. 

Graduates of county normal training classes are granted certifi- 
cates, which are valid for three vears. 



The moneys used for the support of the common schools are, the 
interest from the primary interest fund, the one-miU tax, the unappro- 
priated dog tax, hhrary moue_\s which are appropriated hy the township 
board for school pui"poses, the tuition of non-resident pupils and the 
voted tax in the district. The primary money can be used for no other 
purpose than the payment of the wages of legally qualified teachers and 
only by districts in winch fi\e mtinths of school were maintained during 
the last preceding year. 

The supervisor assesses upon the taxable prupert)- of his town- 
ship one mill upon each dollar of valuation. This tax is paid o\-er to the 
treasurers of the se\-eral school districts. 

The cpialified \'oters may levy a ta.x for general school purposes. 
When a tax is voted, it is reported to the super\-is(>r who assesses it on 
the taxal)le pro])erty of the district. 

\\'hene\'er the unappropriated dog tax in any township is over and 
abii\e the sum of one hundred dollars, it is apportioned among the 
sexeral school districts of such township or city in proportion to the 
numlier of children of school age. The primary money in 1845 ^^'^'^ 
twenty-eight cents a scholar. There was a slow increase per cai)ita until 
1880. when it was forty-seven cents a scholar. After 1880 a portion 
of all s]iecific state taxes, except those received from the mining com- 
panies of the upper peninsula, were applied in paying the interest upon 
the primary school fund. Since then there has been a steady increase. 
In 1881 it was $1.06: i8go, $1.33: 1900, $2.15; 1905, $3.30. On 
account of the back taxes on railroads jjaid during the year 1906 the 
primary money for the Octol>er semi-annual apportionment is esti- 
mated at $10 per capita. 


In the first school law no prox'ision was made for the union of 
districts or for the grading of schools, and no law was made authorizing 
the consolidation of districts to form union .schools until 1846. The 
first graded school was established at Flint in 1846. From 1846 to 
i860 there were twenty-se\-en graded schools established in the state. 
Cassopolis and Dowagiac established graded schools in 1857. In i860 
Detroit reported a high schoril with a single teacher and an average 
attendance of thirty-seven ]nipils. 

The first constitution of the state provided for the establishment 


of branches of the university. These branches were to serve a three- 
fold purpose, provide for local needs, tit students for the university, 
and prepare teachers for the primary schools. Branches were estab- 
lished at Pontiac, Monroe, Niles, Tecumseh, Detroit, Kalamazoo, 
Romeo and White Pigeon. These branches were supported by appro- 
priations made by the regents of the university. 

After graded schools began to be established in 184O, the L"ni\-er- 
sity branches went into disfa^jr, and they ceased to exist after 1849. 
High schools then became the connecting link between the unixersity 
and the ordinary common schools. 

Cass county has five graded schools, three of which are on the 
university list. Dowagiac, Cassop(jlis and Alarcellus high school grad- 
uates may enter the state university without entrance examinations. 

The Dowagiac schools employ thirty teachers, Cassopolis nine, 
Marcellus se\'en, \'andalia four, Edwardsburg four. 


Schools were soon established in Cass county by the early set- 
tlers. ^^'hene\■er a settlement was formed, arrangements were soon 
made for the education of the children. The first school in the county 
was taught in 1828 in the western part of what is now Pokagon town- 
ship. The first school in the limits of La Grange township was taught 
in 1830. Penn 1830, Ontwa 1829 or 1830, Volinia 1832 or 1833, Por- 
ter 1838 or 1839, Wayne 1835. Howard 1833. Milton 183 1 or 1832. 
Jefferson 1833, Calvin 1834, Marcellus 1840, Mason 1836. The date 
of the building of the first school house in Silver Creek was 1838 or 
1839, and Newberg 1837. Schools may have been taught before the 
.school houses were built, but if so the fact is unobtainable at this time. 

There are at the present time one hundred and fourteen organized 
school districts in tlie county, in which are employed one hundred and 
fifty-seven teachers. The total wages paid to teachers in 1905 was 
$48,901.86, of which men teachers received $14,003.91 and women 
teachers received $34,897.95. 

The average monthly wages paid men teachers was $46.83. and 
women teachers received an average wage of $33.43 a month. 

The legislature of 1903 enacted a law permitting the establish- 
ment of county normal training classes for teachers of rviral schools. 
In accordance with that law a class was organized and conducted in 
connection with the Dowagiac city schools during the year 1905-1906. 


A class of fourteen was graduated June i8, 1906. The graduates were: 
Fred J. FI. Fricke, F. Ethel Wooster, N. Beryl Van Antwerp, Lillie 
Elaine Pray, Hilary F. Sweetland. Bernice E. Williams, Ethel Eugenia 
W'dodin, Agnes Straub, Jennie May Easton, Claribel ?^Iorton, Ray 
Murphy, Grace Asenetli East, J(ihn Alfred Norton, Mabel Cook. 

Graduates of county normal training classes are granted three- 
year certificates which may l)e renewed in the county where received, 
or they may be transferred to other counties. 

The pupils of the eighth grade in tiie rural schools are examined 
each year upon questions which are furnished by the state superintend- 
ent. Those who pass are granted diplomas by the county commissioner. 
These diplomas will admit those who hold them to high schools and the 
Agricultural College without examiuatidu. 


From 1837 til 1867 the common schools were under the supervisimi 
and management of the township boards of school inspectors. Then the 
legislature created tlie office (if county superintendent of schools. The 
first county superintendent of schools for Cass county was Chauncy 
L. Wliitnev. who was elected April i, 1867. The term of office was two 
years. Mr. Whitney resigned the position in the fall of the same year, 
and Rev. Albert H. Gaston was appointed to fill the vacancy. In 1869 
Ir\-ing Clendenen was elected, and in 1871 Eewis P. Rinehart. Samuel 
Idlmsnn was chosen in 1873 and filled the office until it was abolished 
in 1875. 

Emm 1873 to 188 1 the schools were under the supervision of town- 
shi]) superintendents. In 1881 the legislature enacted a law which 
pnivided fnr a county board of school examiners. This board con- 
sisted of three members and were elected for three years by the chair- 
man of the township board of school inspectors. 

The county board of school examiners on organization elected one 
of their number chairman and one secretaiy. The secretary was the 
executive officer of the board. The following are the boards of ex- 
aminers under this act: 

1881-1882: E. M. Stephenson, secretary, i year; Michael Pember- 
ton, chairman, 2 years; Daniel B. Ferris, 3 years. 

1882-1883: Michael Pemberton, secretary, i year; Daniel B. Fer- 
ris, chairman. 2 years ; Charles A. Mo.sher, 3 years. 

1883-1884: Daniel B. Ferris, secretaiw, i year; Charles A. Mosher, 
chairman. 2 vears ; Michael Pemberton, 3 )-ears. 


1884-1S85: Charles A. Alosher, secretary, i year; .Michael Peniber- 
lon, chairman, 2 years ; Ralph W. Hain, 3 years. 

1885-1886: Michael Pemberton, secretary, i year; Ralph W. Hain, 
chairman, 2 years; Charles A. Mosher, 3 jears. 

1886-1887: Ralph W. Hain, secretary, i year; Charles A. Mosher, 
chairman, 2 years; Michael Pemberton, 3 years. 

In 1887 the law was re\ised and amended. Two county examin- 
ers w^ere chosen for a term of two years, b_\- the chairmeir of the 
township boards of school inspectors. These two examiners with the 
judge of probate, appointed and employed a secretary for the term of 
one year, who became ex-officio a member of the county board and its 
executive officer. The secretary visited all the schools in the c<.>unty 
and recei\-ed a salary of $800 per annum. 

The following are the boards of county examiners under this act : 

1887-1888: Frank S. Plall, secretary, i year; Charles A. :\Ioslier, 
chairman, i year; Michael Pemberton, 2 years. 

1888-1889: Daniel B. Ferris, secretary, 1 year; Michael Pem- 
berton, chairman, i year ; William W. Chalmers, 2 years. 

March i, 18S9, Daniel B. Ferris resigned and George W. (iard 
was appointed to fill the vacanc}-. 

1889-1890: George W. Gard. secretary, 1 year; William W. Chal- 
mers, chairman, i year: Edmund Schoetzow, 2 years. 

1890-1891 : Michael Pemberton. secretary, i year; Edmund 
Schoetzow, chairman, i year; ?vliss Hattie Graham, 2 }ears. 

In the year 1891 an act was passed providing for count}- commis- 
sioners of schools and two county examiners, the three to constitute 
a county board for the examination of teachers. The county com- 
missioner wa'^ to be chrisen bv the people at the election nn the first 
Monday in April, for the term of two years. In igoj the act was 
amended and thereafter the commissioner was to be elected for a term 
of four years. To be eligible to the office of commissioner a person 
must ha\'e liad an experience of twelve months as a teacher in the 
public schools of the state, must be a graduate of the literaiy department 
of some reputable college, university or state normal school having a 
course of at least three years, or hold a state teacher's certificate, or 
be the holder of a first grade county certificate; but this last certificate 
qualifies the holder only in the county where it is granted. In counties 
having less than fifty districts a second grade certificate qualifies the 

The two school examiners are elected bv the county board of super- 


visors fur a term (jf two \eai-s. Any person is eligible to the office of 
examiner who has the qualifications required for a commissioner, or 
who has taught in the public schools nine months and holds, or has 
held within three years, a second grade certificate. 

'!"he law of 189 1 jinnided that the county hoard of supervisors 
shoukl elect a commissioner to serve from June J^, iSyi, until July, 
1893. In accordance with this act the Cass county board of super- 
visors elected Miciiael remberton commissioner. 

At the election held on the first Monday in April, 1893, Chester 
E. Cone was chijsen commissioner for two years. Mr. Cone was re- 
elected tln"ee times, thus serving eight vears. 

In 1901 William Irl. C. Hale was elected county commissioner 
for the term of two }-ears, and in 1903, the law having been changed, he 
was re-elected for a term of four vears. 

The following arc the county boards of school examiners under 
the act of 1891 : 

1891-1892: Michael I'emberton, commissioner, 2 )ears; Hattie 
Graham, examiner, 2 years ; Edmund Schoetzow, examiner, i vear. 

1892-1893: Michael Pemberton, commissioner, i year; George A. 
Shetterley, examiner, 2 years; Hattie Graham, examiner, i year. 

1893-1894; Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; Hattie Gra- 
ham, exatniner, 2 years ; George A. Shetterley, examiner, i year. 

1 894- 1 895 : Chester E. Cone, commissioner, i year; Simon E. 
Witwer, examiner, 2 years; Hattie Graham, examiner, i year. 

1895-1896: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 )'ears; Lemuel L. 
Coates, examiner, 2 years ; Simon E. Witwer, examiner, i year. 

1896-1897: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, i year; Simon E. Wit- 
wer, examiner, 2 years ; Lemuel L. Coates. examiner, i year. 

1897-1898: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; Lemuel L. 
Coates. examiner, 2 years ; Simon E. Witwer, examiner, i }ear. 

1 898- 1 899: Chester E. Cone, cotnmissioner, i \ear; b'rank E. 
l-'aulkner. examiner, 2 years; Lemuel L. Coates, examiner, 1 year. 

1899-1900; Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; John Finley, 
examiner, 2 years ; Sitnon E. Witwer, examiner, i year. 

1900-1901 : Chester E. Cone, commissioner, i year; Clififord N. 
Brady, examiner. 2 years ; John iMuley. examiner, i year. 

1901-1902: William H. C. Hale, commis.sioner, 2 years; John Ein- 
lev. examiner. 2 years; Clifford N. Brady, examiner, i year. 

I9<:)2-I903; William \l. C. Hale, commissioner. 1 year; Clifford N. 
Bradv. examiner. 2 years; Jolm Finley. examiner. 1 year. 

[903-1904: Willi.nn 11. C. Hale, commissioner. 4 years; Clifford 
N. Bradv. examiner, 1 year; John Finley, examiner, 2 years. 


1 904- 1 905 : William H. C. Hale, commissioner, 3 years; Herman 
S. East, examiner, 2 years; John Finley, examiner, i year. 

1905-1906: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, 2 years; Herman 
S. East, examiner, t year; John Finley, examiner, 2 years. 

Mr. Hale's term expires July i, 1907. 

Mr. East's term expires October, 1906. 

Mr. Finley's term expires October, 1907. 

The commissioner's salary was .f 1,000 per annum until Octolier, 
1905. when it was increased to $1,200. The examiners recei\e four 
dollars a day for the time spent upon examination work. 

In closing it may be said that Cass county has always kept pace 
with the progress of the times and all the schools, city, village and 
rural, compare most favorably with those of the other counties in the 
state. There is a growing sentiment among the pupils of the rural 
schools to enter high schools and high school graduates are becoming 
more and more inclined to take college courses. The people of Cass 
county, as compared with other counties, ha\'e always lieen ^-ery liberal 
in the support of their schools, and no fears need be entertained in re- 
gard to our future educational progress. 




The first sclioolhuuse in tliis N'illag'e was a lug caljin. which stuod 
on lot 5. hlock i south, range 1 west, just south of where Fisk's drug 
store now stands. The first huildiug to be used exclusively as a school- 
house and erected for that purpose was a frame building, put up in 
1843, '^'i \^nd donated by Joseph Harper, on the east side of Rowland 
street on lot 8, block i north, range 2 east. The building is now occu- 
pied by John D. Williams as a dwelling house. The "union school" 
movement, described nn pre\inus pages, was made effective in Cass- 
opolis in 1857 by the erection nf a "Union" schoolhouse on the site 
of the ]>resent school liuilding at .a c<ist of $1,500, Daniel S. Jones being 
the builder. A])ril 29, 1878, this, a wood building, as it then stood 
with certain additirms and modificatidns from the original, was burned. 
School work for the rest of the term and for sexeral months in tlie 
fall was carried on in the most suitable temporary quarters that could 
be found. The sum of ten thousand dollars was voted for the new 
brick building, .and the completi<in of the building for occupanc}' in 
Januaiy, 1879, ga\e Cassoiiolis the central school which has now been 
in use over a cpiarter of a centurv. and in many cases has sheltered two 
generations of school children. The luiilding committee appointed to 
supervise the construction of this building were ^^'. P. Bennett, A. 
Garwood. J. K. Ritter. S. C. Van ALatre, J. R. Carr, W. W. Peck, 
the six school trustees. 

As originally constructed the Cassopolis school was the most mod- 
ern and perfect school structure in the county, and its long period of 
use shows that the money of the village was well spent in its construc- 
tion. The dimensions of the original building were 72 by 62 feet, two 
stories, the upper being used for high school purposes, and the first for 
the grades. In 1879 a two-story addition was built on the north side 
of the building and C(innected throughout with the old building. This 
building was necessarv to accomuKidate the increased school popula- 
tion and the extension of educational work that has taken place since 


the old buikling was constructed. The cost of the addition was $3,000. 

Of the citizens who have done most for educational interests in 
CassopoHs, special mention should be made of John R. Carr, who for 
many years served as a member of the lx)ard, was a member of the 
building committee in 1878. and in numberless ways has shown a lively 
and helpful interest in the growth of the village's educational institu- 

In 1876 the school was graded by H. C. Rankin, then superintend- 
ent, and the first class was graduated three years later. Since Mr. 
Rankin, who remained at the head of the school four years, the fol- 
lowing superintendents ha\e been his successors: 

1S81-82, G. A. Osinga. 1891-92, George M. Fisk. 

1883, C. W. Mickens. 1893-98, Joseph Biscomb. 

1884-86, W. C. Hewitt. 1899-1901, R. H. Struble. 

18S7-90, W. W". Chalmers. 1902-05, J. M. Geiser. 

At this writing the board of education consists of: C. C. Allison, 
president: C. E. Cone, secretary; C. H. Funk, treasurer; U. S. Eby, 
W. L. Jones. The faculty for 1906-07 are: 

Superintendent — Paul P. Mason. 

Principal of High School — Carrie L. Ranney. 

Sciences and Mathematics H. S. — Geo. W. Hess. 

Fatin in H. S. and 8th Grade — Elisabeth Steere. 

7th and part of 6th Grade — Fee Wolford. 

5th and part of 6th Grade — Daisy Billings. 

4th and part of 3d Grades — Ella Gardner. 

2d and part of 3d Grade — Grace Decker. 

1st and Kindergarten — Maud Eppley. 

Fi 1902 the high scliool was accredited with the F'ni\-ersity of 
jVIichigan. This means that the course of study and the grade of in- 
struction are such that the Cassopolis high school is on a par with the 
high schools of Michigan. The high scIkioI is noted for the number 
of its graduates who have gone to the \-ariiius universities and colleges, 
and at this writing a number of former students are studying within 
the walls of higher institutions throughout the countiy. 


1879 — May Smith. Fottie G. Rankni. 

1880— Ellen D. GifPin, Addie M. Kingsbury, Charles L. Smith. 
Kirk Reynolds, Mary Barnette, Carrietta Chapman. Lois .\msden, Min- 


nie B. Smith, Blanche E. Peck, Ellen N. Tietsort, Ellen A. Ritter, Al- 
Ijert H. Graham, Nellie M. French. 

i8Si — Addie Martin, William G. Loomis, Anna Graham, Melissa 

18S2 — Bertha Lowella Chapman, Fanny Eugenia Glover, W. 
James Champion. 

iS<S3— Ella .M. Rogers, Eva Al. Colby, INIabel Patch, Lemuel L. 

1884 — Carrie Goodwin, Laura Beverley, Carrie Woodruff. 

1885 — Georgiana Kingsbury, Myrta Norton, George Shaffer, Ber- 
tha Anderson, Cora M. Banks, Katie Kingsbury. 

1886 — Perlia B. Ferris, Glencora Graham, James S. Stapleton, 
Lora M. Curtis, Rolfe F. Patrick, Frank H. Green. 

1887 — Susan R. Wei)!), b'rances Graham, Rosa Early. David L. 
Kingsbun", Carrie Higbee. Mary C. Bosvvorth, Belle Norton. 

1888 — h^va C. Ditzell, tiertha Kings.bun'. Lora Kingsliury. Addie 
Graham, Ada Tho-mas. 

1889' — Charles L. Beckwith, Fred Pattersnn, Carl Bngue. lunma 
Anderson, Clara Darling, Harlan P. Bosworth, William T. C. Shaft'er, 
Fanchon Stockdale, Jean Powell, E. Mae Carr. 

1890 — Otis Beeson, Wilber G. Bonine, \\'alter C. B(.)gue, I'aul A. 
Cowgill, Belle Bogue, Nettie Savage, Maude Mcllvain, Ethel Slnute, 
Charles A. Webb, Edward Reighard, Paul Savage, \\ ]\laiishe]d. 
Ella Johnson, Nellie Wetmore, Blanche Giffin, Dora Norton. 

1891 — Belle Goodwin, Jessie Cure, Melville J. Shepard, Delia Wil- 
son. Edna Stockdale, Raymond R. Phelps, J. Paul Hopkins, Jay C. 
Northrop, Helen French, Jessie Jones, Mildred Sherman. . 

1892 — Grace S. Hall, Ruby C. Abbott, Charles L. ■ Goodwin, 
George F. Bosworth, Bernice Merwin, Eva L. Trowbridge, Halford E. 
Reynolds, Mortimer F. Stapleton. 

1893 — Roy Bond, Walter George, Stanley A. Farnuiu. Lura Phelps, 
Winifred Smith, Flora Wright. Harry Eggleston, Stanford J. Farnum, 
True Savage, Winifred Marr, Ruth Myers. 

1894 — Glenn S. Harrington, Edith Younglilood. Frank B. French, 
Mav Kingsbur)', Belle Donough, Blanche Clark, Carrie Daniels, Ona 
Kline, Blanche McLitosh, Blanche Fulton. 

1895 — Gideon W. Tallerday, Florence Higgins, Bert Hayden, 
Robert Pangborn, Ward Shaw, Mary Miller, Clare Fletcher, Lora Mc- 
Cully, Adella Hartsell, Lena Deal, Joseph Churchill, Glenn Dunning. 

1896' — May Alexander, Blanche Fisher, Lutie Longfellow, Mary 
L. Stamp, Blanche Shepard, Bert A. Dool, Ernest Morse, Jesse L. 
Tallerday, Stephen Tallerday, Phillip Savage, Grace A. Dixon, Leona 
Fulton, Lottie L. North, Cora Skinner. George Donough, Glenn Leach, 
John P. Norton. LaMoine .\. Tharp, Fred L. Woods. 

1897 — Herbert A. Anderson, Zora Emmons, Flora Lawrence, Mai^ 
Shurte, Mary Townsend, Lottie M. Turner, Bessie S. Carr, Glennie A. 


Kingsbury, Allan W. Reynolds, George Townsend, Jessie Bonine, James 
H. Kelsey, Carroll N. Pollock, Glennie Tietsort, Jessie M. Turner, Bart- 
lett Bonine, Jessie Howell, Justin Mechling, Percy F. Thomas, Grace 
Van Riper. 

1898 — Lynn B. Boyd, Frank Mansfield, Howard D. Shaw, Jasper 
Otis Haithcox, Jessie E. Kingsbury, Dora L. Messenger, Ellen S. Rick- 
ert, Asa K. Hayden, Frederick G. Walter, Herbert Leroy Smith, Uunald 
S. Morse, Josie Kline, Claudia B. McDonald, Crete Connelly. 

1899' — ^Florence Ashcraft, Bertha Dacy, Edna Graham, Nellie 
Jones, Bertha Myers, Grace Stearns, Grace L. Voorhis, Ray K. Holland, 
Leon Beall, Lilly Brown, Alma Emmons, Belle Hayden, Henrietta Law- 
son, Marie Pollock, Elnora Thickstun, Joseph F. Hayden, Cyrus Myers. 

1900 — Hattie Wright, Chloa McDonald, Mabel F. Aloon, Edith 
Ryon, Vivian Jerome, Frances Glennette Willsey, Kate Ditzell, S. Edna 
Cook, Una Jones, Vera Hayden. 

1901 — Helen Anderson, Alberta Kingsbury, Howard K. Holland. 
Fred Wright. Nellie Dunning, Hiram Jewell, J. Howard Mcintosh, 
Joseph K. Ritter. 

1902 — Charles Condon, Frank Kelly, Mayme Dunbar, Jav Hay- 
den, Charles Jones, Fanchon Mason, Nellie Stevens. 

1903 — Jules Verne Des Voignes, Eugene Eby, Vera Ditzell, Mary 
Sincleir, Helen Donough, Newton G. VanNess, Elizalieth Jerome, 
Maude Tharp. Mahala Reynolds, Vesta Pollock. 

1904 — Crv'Stal Thompson, Stella Hayden, Ruth Jones, Leora 
Johnston, Georgia Van Matre, Arietta Van Ness. Edna Pollock, Hazel 

1905 — I\Iary Kinimerle, Read Chamliers, Carl Morse, Fred J. ]\liller, 
Clarence Timm, Winfield Leach. 

i9o6' — Mabel Peck, Robert \Vood, Rebecca Tones. 


The citizens of Dowagiac take great pride in their fine schools, 
which, with a history of development covering half a centiuw, are now 
in the front rank of schools in scmthern Michigan. To describe first 
the material equipment and school property, the eleven hundred pupils 
who now attend school in the city are accommodated in three buildings, 
any one of which is as far in advance of the pioneer shelter afforded 
by the log schoolhouse of the forties as is jiossible to conceive. The 
splendid high school building, which was cnm]ileted in 1003 at a cost 
of fortv thousand dollars, presents the most modern features of school 
architecture. It was built on the site of what A\as known as "the ward 
school," on James and Oak streets, anrl the old building, erected in 
1864, forms the rear wing of the structure as a whole. The high scbuol 


occupies the second lloor of the new hiiikhng, while the first contains 
eight grade rooms. The primary and kindergarten grades retain the 
first door of the old huilding, which while adjoining the high schndj 
with possibility of direct cnmmunicatinn. is nevertheless entirely separate 
so far as mo\'ement <if ])npils and administration are concerned. On the 
second tloor of the ward Imilding are located the rooms set apart for the 
use i)f the Xnrmal Training class, a new etlucational institution to he 
descrilied in a later paragraph. To mention only a few of the features 
that mark the new high .schocil huilding as a model, a brief description 
must include its chaste yet simple architecture, devoid of the tedious 
ornamentation of earlier ])eriods, the wide and ample and commodious 
effects gained without introduction of bare and factory-like exterior 
and interior: the large study room on the second floor; the well equipped 
laboratories: the grouping of rocnns and halls for the purpose of etYective 
discipline: the fan system of ventilali< m : the autiimatic regulation of 
fuinace heating: and man.)- other conveniences which a Ijrief inspection 

Besides the high school building, which is the general name for 
the entire structure at James and Oak streets, there is the Central build- 
ing or Union scliool l;uilding. on Main and Parsonage streets, the 
central porti<ai of which, built in iSoi. is the oldest school building in 
the city. L'ntil the erection of the new liigh school building, the high 
.school was accommodated there, but now it is the home of the Seventh 
and Eighth grades departmental work, and also the lower grades for 
that section of the cit}-. 

The McKinley Imilding, a foiu--room brick building in the First 
ward on the South side, erected in 1903. accommodates si.\ grades 
with four teachers. 

The institutions of education above descriljed have developed front 
the district school, supported at first by ])rivate contributions. The 
settlers of this vicinity had Iniilt a log schoolhouse and employed Miss 
Hannah Compton (afterward Mrs. Elias Jewell) as teacher in 1840. 
This schoolhouse stood on the n\d cemetery grounds, near West and 
Green streets, and was attended by the children of the Hamilton, 
AfcOmbei' and other pioneer families. .'\ school in Wayne townshij). 
near the present citv limits, next afforded educational facilities, as also 
a select school ke])t by ?\Irs. Henry Hills out on the State road, in .section 
25 of Silver Creek. Several select schools were taught. In 1850. after 
the founding of the village, a schoolhouse was built on the site of the 


present Methudist church. The church suciet}', in the latter 50s, buught 
and removed this building. 

Such was the situation when A. D. P. Van Buren came to Dowa- 
giac and organized the schools on the basis of permanent growth. Tn 
quote his own words: "Miss H. i^Iarie Metcalf, of Battle Creek, had 
started the Young Ladies" school at Dowagiac, but soon found it so 
large that she sought help, consequently 1 was requested to take charge 
as principal, which 1 did, October 4. 1856, she l)ecoming assistant. The 
village of Dowagiac was then some seven }-ears nld, had some 1,200 in- 
habitants, had t\\(i churches, four ta\-erns, and stores enough to ac- 
commodate the surrounding countr}-. 

"The school was comix)sed of girls from the age of twenty down 
to the child of se\-en or eight years. These, with some ten or twelve 
Ixiys, to fa\i)r certain parents, constituted our charge. .Vfter we had 
taught a quarter of the term the directors of the school district made 
arrangements with us to take charge of the Union school, which the 
people of Dowagiac were about to organize. Hence our iirogram was 
changed, and I was to be the one to call the school clans together here, 
as I had done six }-ears before in Battle Creek, and form them into ;i 
union school." 

So Dowagiac became equipped with a union school, so far as the 
preliminary organization and a year's trial of the school was concerned, 
but the town yet lacked a suitable school building. It was not till 1861 
that this was provided, in the erection of a porti(jn of the Central school 
building mentioned above. 

The instruction and care of the eleven hundred pu]iils in attend- 
ance at these schools is the work of Superintendent W. E. Cimkling. 
with a corps of instructors consisting of one ])rincipal for each of the 
three buildings and twenty-seven departmental and grade teachers. This 
large teaching force in itself represents the progress from a time when 
one teacher could care for the school children of the village. Mr. Conk- 
ling, the superintendent of the schools since 1896, and himself a gradu- 
ate of the high school with the class of 1881, is an enthusiastic and able 
educator and merits much of the credit for the present satisfactory con- 
ditions of education in Do\\agiac. The Ijuilding committee who su|)er- 
vised the construction of the high school building, which, perhaps, for 
many years will lie the best example of public architecture in the city, 
were Dr. F. H. Fssig and Dr. M. P. W'hite, who are still members of 
the school board. The other members of the board at this writing are : 


E. Thillipstju, president; Dr. J. H. Junes, treasurer; and Dr. F. H. 
CiM.lding, secretar)'. 

Dowagiac high school is naturally the scholastic pride of the city. 
Its rank as an institution cf learning of secondary grade is indicated 
hy its being accredited for the fourth time with the Universit}' of Michi- 
gan, so that high school graduates enter without examination the uni- 
versity or any of tlie colleges and normal schools of the state. And the 
high school is also accredited with the North Central Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Scluujjs, which includes the leading colleges 
and universities of the north central states. The high school course of 
study adopted at the middle of the _\ear 1906 is that reported by the 
state superintendent uf public instruction in accordance with the report 
of the Michigan commission on high school curricula. 

At the present writing there are one hundred and furty ])upils in 
the high school. Since the first class was graduated in 1864 the gradu- 
ates up to ,\pril. lyoC). numbered 334. The graduating class in 190O 
contained seventeen members. ele\'en of whom had signified their in- 
tention to go to college. The axerage age of giaduates is now about 
18 years and 6 months. 

Many successful men and wonien found their earlv iuspiratidU 
and training in the Dowagiac High scIkxjI. In this sketcli uf the school 
we may mention specifically some of the graduates in the various years. 
Of the class of 1870 was Charles W. Foster, now a lieutenant in the 
U. S. army. Arthur K. Beckwitli, suiierintendent of the Ruund Oak 
slK)ps, graduated in 1878, and a classmate was Harry B. Tuthill, judge 
O'f Superior Court at iMichigan City, Ind. The class of 1879 gave Dowa- 
giac three of its well knnwn men. Dr. F. H. Ccidding, W. F. White, 
manager of the drill wurks, and I'rank W. Lyle. Fred L. Colliy. the 
mill man. now of Detroit. \\as in the class of 1880, and Victor M. Tut- 
hill, of Grand Rapids, came out in 1882. Another graduate is Dr. .Mice 
I. Conklin, of Chicago. Clyde ^^'. Ketcham, the lawyer, graduated in 
1894, and Fred E. Phillipson, also of Dowagiac, in 1893. Miss Louie 
Colby, of the Prang Educational Company, W. C. Edwards, of the Ed- 
wards Manufacturing Company, and A. B. Gardner, of the Round Oak 
wnrks, all graduated in 1888. The class of '94 also graduated John F. 
Mur])h\-, a surgeon in the If. .S. navy; Robert L. Hampton, the Glen- 
wood stockman: Earl B. FTawks, a lawyer in the state of Washington, 
and Bert H. Fleming, a Methodist minister. A. P. Oppenheim, the 
merchant, graduated in 1895 ; J. Bernard Onen, the Battle Creek law- 


yer, in 1896; Fred L. Dewey, the merchant, in 1897. Classmates of 
Mr. Dewey, were Xels X. Stenberg, dentist at Three Rivers; J. Whit- 
iield Scattergood, local editor of the Daily News; and F. B. Wedow, 
with the American Express Co. at Manistee. Clifford C. Robinson, a 
physician at Indiana Harbor; F. E. Phillipson, the merchant in Dowa- 
giac, and Hall H. King, assistant secretary of state at Lansing, were 
members of the class of 1898. From the class of '991 should be men- 
tioned I. J. Phillipson, lieutenant in the army ; Bessie M. Vrooman, 
teacher at Big Rapids, IMich. ; E. J. Blackmore, dentist at Hartford, 
Mich. ; B. S. Gardner, dentist at Dowagiac, and S. P. Savage, principal 
of the Central school at Dowagiac. C. J. Brosan, principal of the 
high school at Ovid, Mich., belonged to the class of 1901 ; T. J. Brosan, 
now practicing law in Detroit, came out in 1902, and Roy Marshall, 
who has made rapid stritles in newspaper work and is now connected 
with the Detroit free Press, was also a member of the class of 190J. 


1864 — Isaac R. Dunning, Lottie Hills, Hattie Smead. 

1866^ — Jesse P. Borton, J. B. Craw-ford, Josie Harris, Lydia He- 
bron, John Rosevelt, Daniel E. Thomas. 

1867 — Annis Gage, Fannie Hebron. Una Hebron, Frank A. Lar- 

1868 — Delia Beckwith, Maggie Cullom. 

1869 — ]\Iinnie Arens. Marcia Buck, Nellie Cady. 

187O' — C. Wilber Bailey, Charles W. Foster, Frank H. Reshore, 
A. N. Woodruff. 

1872 — Florence Cushman, Carrie Harwood, Frank McAlpine. 

1873 — Sarah Andrus, W. H. Hannan, Etta Henderson, Nellie 
Hull, Byron McAlpine. 

1875- — Ella Reshore. 

1876 — Hattie Foster, Augusta Dopp, Ida Mosher, Anna Tuthill. 

1877 — Edward Brow-nell, Lola Keatley, b'annie Starratt. 

1878 — Melva Arnold, Arthur Beckwith, Eva Coney, Harry Tuthill. 

1879 — Ida Arens, Dora Blachlev, Lillian Brownell, Alice Barnev, 
F. H. Codding, Allie Clark. W. F.'Hoyt, F. W. Lyle, Belle Mason, 
Susie Rouse, Ed. Snyder, Nellie Stebbins, Cora \\'heelock. 

1880 — Addie Brasier, F. L. Colby. Grace Gustine, Homer D. Nash, 
Kittie E, Starks. 

1881 — Lottie Andrews, Stella Coney, W. E. Conkling, Ina Dopp, 
Stella Powell. May Spencer. Matilda Stark, Asa P. Wheelock. 

1882 — Kate Bassett, Emma Brownell, Ida Howard, Belle Huff. 
Carleton S. Roe, Nora Sliepard, Victor M.. Tuthill. 


1883 — Addie S. ,\danis, Cameron C. Clawson, Rutli E. Cone)'. 
Lou Keatley. Maude Martin. Mabel Rouse. Rose Snyder. 
1884 — Horace G. Conkling. 

1885 — Eva Barker, Eva Barney, Dixon Churcliill, Will Jessup. 
1886 — Grace Bilderhack. Stella Bond. Mary E. Conkling, Lyle 
I-'letcher. Ella Gra}'. Grace Mater, Lena Taylor, May Van Riper. 

1887 — Harrv I-Jigelnw. Lula Griswokl, Jessie H(j\vser, (jeorgia 

1888— Louie Colliy, W. C. lulwards, Lura Detendorf, Flora Bren- 
ner, A. B. Gardner. ( Irace Hardy, .\ddie Hendersun, Morence Junes. 
Edith Jones. Ruth Smith. Mary Taylor. 

1889 — S_\'l\ia L)a\'. Cora Ferris. Xellic hdanders. Lena Judd. 
Minnie Rice. Lena Starrctt. 1 lattie Wiley. 

1890 — Nellie Boyd. Alice 1. Conklin. Clara (iriswold, Mabel C. 
Lee. Hannah G. Stenberg. Minta M. Wenner. 

1891 — Estella Ackerman. Edward 1'. Cimk. Arthur W. Griswold, 
Frank C. Hardy, Lizzie Hartsell, Frances M. Merwin. Maleta Rudolphi. 
1892 — Jennie Larkin. Minnie Steele. Russell Van Antwerp. 
1893— \\\ E. Becker. Jay I'.oyrl. lA-a McNab. Mabel C. Miller. 
yVnna E. Rudolphi. Kate L. Bigelow, Harriet F. Dewey, Fred E. Phillip- 

1894 — L;A'erne C. Bilderback. ISlancbe A. I'danders. Bert H. Flem- 
ming. Earl B. Hawks. Inlin A. Iar\is Glennie E. Rcames. Grace E. 
^^'atson. Robert L. Hampton. M'abel E. Allen. Tna C. Gage. C. W. 
Ketcham. Parker McMasier. John 1'". Murphy, Bessie Stenberg. 

1895 — Hannah L. Ackerman. Letha B. Elkerton. Guy B. Flem- 
ming. Peter M. Halfert. Amy E. Pegg. Homer S. Reames. La\^erne E. 
Searls, Genevieve Howser. (iertrude Dewey, Bertha Van Ri]ier. Riiliert 
F. Munger, Leslie C. Sammons, .\. P. Oppenheim. 

1896 — Leon L. Barney. Phebe Hunter. Ralph Wanamaker. ]\lyron 
Copley. William N. Beach, Maude E. Becker, J. Bernard Onen. 

1897 — Eva L. Park. Louise J. Reshore, Margaret Shigley, Herbert 
P. Curtis, Fred L. Dewey, Mabel Smith, Glenn E. True. Martha E. 
Luedtke, Clarice Bushnell. Mvrta Mae Clarke, Bertha Sprague. Frank 
M. Broadhurst. Alice I. Frost, Ethel Goble, Nels L. Stenberg. J. W. 
Scattergood, Ethel Tice, Mae Williams, ^^'alter Lang. Thomas P. Leary. 
Verna E. M_\-ers. Frank B. Wedow. 

1898 — Eva Hollowav, Clara Lvle. Gertrude Rix. Eva Co])ley. 
Maude Miller. Jere Mosher. Clifford'C. Robinson. Herbert E. Phillip- 
scjn. Edith Bisho]), I<"red Woods. Bae Lake, Belle Stewart Gushing, 
Mabel Shotwell. Olive Marsh. Mabel Carr, Mary A. Murphy, Maude 
Smith, Ray Fiern, Edith Op|)enlieim. Addie Sisson. Minnie M. Par- 
meter. Paul H. King. 

1899^ — lr\-ing J. Philli]iscin. b^.essie Vrooman. Zora Denyes. Lucile 
Gregory. Harry W. Palmer. Katie Maier. Frank E. McMichael. Earl J, 


Blackmore, Anna Elliutt, Bo}cl S. Gardner, Mabelle I'lewelling, Aliltun 
Hollovvay, James AUnphy, Edna Nurton, Laura Nicul, May Reighard, 
Sarah Parmeter, Samuel P. Savage, Verna B. True, Irene White. 

IQOO' — Mary E. Morse, Earle M. Parker, R. N. Cary, Jessie Gard- 
ner. Lena Swisher, Frank Edwards, Ezra Rutlierford. Henry Savage, 
Guy Zehier, OHve Knapp, Edward O'Brien, Ethel Wooster, Frank 
Stahl, Eugene Colgan, Jessie Smith. 

lyoi — Cornelius J. Brosnan, luuma Burk, Jennie Fisher, 01i\'e 
Gard, Grace Hampton, Alice Hawks. Hazel Hoyt, Hilda Hoover, Mattie 
Jenkins, Alice Julian, Burt Patch, I'earl Rice, Ina Sommer, Bernice 
Spencer, Harry Straub, Ber}l Van Antwerp. 

1902 — Frank Benedict, Robert Bielby, Frank Burn, Thomas J. 
Brosman, Eva E. Brown. Lilian Byers, Lloyd Conkling, Nellie Curtis, 
Birdie Fraser, Verna Hackett, Myrle Hopkins, Lora Leecler, Roy 
Marshall, Iva Michael, Ona Michael, Mary Norton, Ethel Pitcher, 
Maude Swislier. 

1903 — Pearl Anderson, DeZera Araue. Mabel Atlee. Earle Brown, 
Eva Burk, Hazel Caster, Ida Lee, Verge Lybrook, Viola IMerwin. Joseph 
R. Mitcheni, Irene Morton, Maud Preston, Donald B. Reshore, Louise 

1904 — Amy Acton, W. T. AUiger, Lavina Bryant, Virginia Chap- 
man, Beulah Connine, Winifred Fiero, Genevieve Hopkins, W. H. Lake, 
Anna Lewis, Edna Mann, Teresa O'Brien, Irene Sprague, Anita \Valker, 
Charles Wilber, Marion Wilson, Lyell J. Wooster, Fred D. Wooster. 

1905 — Walter Andrews. Vivian Blackmore, Ethel Conklin, LaVina 
Defendorf, Grace East, Minnie Egmer. Mable E. Engle, Carrel Flewell- 
ing, Olive Kinsey, Ray Murphy, Guy Neff, Edith Ryder, Edna Ryder, 
Otis G. Shanafelt, Charles Stahl. 

1906 — Laverne Argabright, Carmeleta Bartun, Lee Benner, Mamie 
Burk, Orris Gardner, Cora Green, Ruth Hendryx, Thomas Hackett, 
William Hamilton, Helen Hoy, Max Ireland, Nita Kibler, Marguerite 
Lewis, Lois Powell. Fanny Springsteen. Elsie Stahl. A'<ilney Wells. 


Being the earliest important center in Cass county, it is natural 
that we find in Edwardsburg a scliool record going back to the pioneer 
clays. The prixate subscription schools, such as taught in tlmse days, 
and described on previous pages, were instituted here in the winter 
of 1829-30. in a ]3art of a doulile log house, Ann Wood being the 
first teacher. J. C. Olmsted, who, in the spring of 1836, when eleven 
years old, reached his present home east of Edwardsburg, says that his 
first teacher during the summer of 1836 was Angeline Bird, who taught 
in a private house. Then, in the summer of 1S37, the villagers built a 


frame sclioulhouse on lot 112, west of the present school building, the 
lot being" donated by Abiel Siher. This structure served until the "(ild 
brick" schoolhouse was erected on lot 132, adjoining the J\I. E. church 
lot on the east, in 1847, '^"'^1 which many years afterward served as 
a prixate residence. Its dimensions were 24 by 30 feet, with a parti- 
tion across the north end, leaving the room 24 by 24, and as many as 
115 scholars attended the school each day during the winter of 1856-57, 
an assistant teacher being emploxed. The next building was constructed 
in 1 86 1 at a cost of $3,000. 

In 1886 District No. 3, comprising Edwardsburg, was matle a 
graded school by Prof. G. W. Loomis, who was the first princiijal. 
Since that time the school has had the following principals ; 

1887-8— William Jessup. 

1889-90 — John B. Boyd and Michael Pemberton. 

1890-1- — Edmund Schoetzow. 

1891-2 — Miss Clare Pemberton. 

1892-4— H. R. Foster. 

1894-5 — F. A. Preston. 

1895-9 — Lemuel L. Coates. 

1899-1901 — V. D. Hawkins. 

1901-2 — Luther Ettinger and J. G. McMacken. 

1902-4 — J. G. McMacken. 

1904-6 — Clifford N. Brady. 

1906-7 — Claude L. Pemberton. 

The coiu'se of study through the regular twelve grades compares 
favorably with village schools of similar size and from time to time has 
1>een revised and adjusted to local needs and educational progress 
throughout the county and state. 

The board of education at this writing is: Henry Andrus, director; 
William K. Hopkins, moderator; J. D. Bean, treasurer; Marcus S. Olm- 
sted, trustee; Edwin Harris, trustee. 

The faculty for 1906-07: Claude L. Pemberton, principal; Miss 
Charlotte Preble, grammar; Miss Anna Hafelt, intermediate; Miss 
Nellie \\'illiams, jirimary. 

Informal commencement exercises were held in 1887, the year the 
school was fully graded, and Lillian Krome was then graduated. 

Following is the list of graduates, dating from 1888. 

1888 — Laura Snyder, Merta Miller, Ida Harvvood, Genevieve 
Hanson, Bertha Thompson. 

1893 — Henrietta Hadden, Dora Silver. 


1894 — Lisle Shanahan, Hugh Beauchamp, Blanche Williams. Flnr- 
ence Holdenian, Letta Lukenbach. 

1896 — Clifford Brady, Jessie Thornton, Alabel Parsons, Carrie 
Hadden, Anna Beauchamp, Alice Brady, Grace Hogmire, JNIatie Cohb, 
Mamie Graham. 

1897 — I"^^ Smith, Andrew Hadden, Fred Harwooil. 

1898 — Claude Reed, Roliert Hadden. Verna Paul, d instance 
Brady, Jessie Rickert. 

1899' — Walter Thompson, 3iJaxa Cook, William Parish. 

1900 — Harley J. Carlisle, Ida Perkins, Florence Parsons, Harry 
Kitchen, Warren Ouiniby, Margaret Hadden. ]\[arion Bradv. Ida Runkle. 
Lizzie Runkle. 

1901 — Winnifred Smith. Arthur Runkle. John Kitchen. 

1902 — George Andrus, Arthur Brady, Carl Manchow, Lloyil Dun- 
ning, Harry Meredith, Eleanor Bacon. Martha Hadden. Ella Truitt. 
Minnie Rogers. 

1903 — Maude E. Kelsey, Lewis H. Runkle. Adah B. Curtis. Gene- 
vie\e Light. George L. Hadden, Winifred Hanson. 

1904 — Zendella Truitt, Lottie M. Rose, David Bacon, Charles A. 
Bement, Flora E. Martin. 

1905 — Leona Bean, Mary Snyder. Bessie 01i\'er. Lvdia Thornton. 
Belle Harwood, Blenn Van Antwerp. 

1906 — Elizabeth Hadden. Thomas Head. Leidv Olmsted. Harry 


The founding of a village at ^Nlarcellus Center soon made necessary 
the fonnation of a school of higher grade than the ordinary district 
school, the children of the villagers at first attending the school east of 
town. In 1874 district No. 9 was organized within the village, the first 
meeting being in xA^ugust. The first school board were : Levi Bridge. 
W. O. Matthews. David Snyder. Under the supervision of George W. 
Jones. Leander Bridge and David Hain, as building committee, $1,000 
was expended in the erection of a one-story brick schoolhouse. 24 by 36 
feet in dimensions. Joel Booth was the first teacher. In 1S76 a second 
story was added at a cost of .$844. and thereafter two teachers empl(ived. 
Miss Kellogg being the extra teacher. The number of scholars in- 
creased so that rooms had to be rented in Centennial hall. The last 
teacher in the old building was Eugene Bradt. assisted by Estella Hois- 
ington and Mrs. John Baent. 

It was not until 1881 that the Marcellus schools attained to the full 
possibilities of usefulness and classified efficiency. At the regular school 
meeting in 1880 it was voted to raise $7,000 by issue of bonds for new 


buiklings. Twehe lots were purchased of G. W. Jones, located in the 
east part of the block lx)unded b_\' Arbor, Center, Woodland and Burney 

In the fall of that year was completed the two-story, four-room 
brick building on the south side of the village, at an expense of $8,000, 
and in the bellowing spring was occupied. The building committee 
who hai-l charge of this con.struction were George W. Jones, David 
Snyder. John JManning. .\lex. Taylor, Manning Taylor, Dr. A. Carbine. 

At the regular school meeting of 1882 it was voted to grade the 
school. The board of trustees at that date were : Dr. Horace Carbine, 
H. M. Xottingham, Levi Burney. ^^■. O. George. Dr. C. E. Davis. L. B. 
Des \'oignes. 

The principals, or superintendents, of the Marcellus graded school 
ha\-e been, R. T. Edwards, who published the first catalogue in 1882: 
George DeLong. ]\Ir. Abjntgomery. J. W. Hazard. C. H. Knapp. Ed- 
mimd Schoetzow. \V. L. Ta}lor. Edmund Schoetzow. who. with the 
excei)tion of two years, has served since the fall of 1891. C. H. Knapp, 
in 1887, got out a catalogue for a ten-grade course of study. When 
Mr. Schoetzow took charge, in 1891, he organized the full twelve grades 
and completed the regular high school curriculum. 

The school was so crowded that in June, 1892, it was voted to bond 
the district for $2,500 to build a two-stoiy addition, which was com- 
pleted about January. 1893. 

For 1906-7 the Board of Education are: Dr. C. E. Davis, presi- 
dent; E. M. Ketcham, treasurer; F. S. Flail, secretary; I. S. Smith. G. 
^^ . Kroll. trustees. Faculty; Edmund Schoetzow. superintendent; 
Grace Templeton. principal ; Leone B. Dennis, assistant principal ; Eva 
C. Ditzell, second grammar; Frances \'olkmer. first grammar; Katherine 
Brennan. second primaiy ; Inez Willard, first primary. Inez Willard is 
teaching her seventeenth year in the first primary room, having taught 
nine years the first time. The total number of graduates is 119. Of 
these 100 were under Edmund Schoetzow's administration. 


1889 — Edwin Drury. ]\Iaude Bogert, Guy Keene. 

1890 — Julius Stern, Charles Giddings, Homer Kidney. Pearle An- 

1891 — Grace Arnold. Bertha M. Hartman. Margaret R. Hutchin- 

1893 — Guy Snyder. 


1894 — Earle R. Clemens, Mae Manning, Belle Taylor, Enoch G. 
Bogert, John M. Alexander. 

1895- — Harriet L. Vincent, BeDee M. t\.iurman, Helen B. iNlunger, 
Grace E. Taylor, Jessie I. Mayhard. 

1896 — William C. Hartman, Edith L. Hall, Mabel A. Vincent, 
Parthenia M. Stillwell, Ola AT Nicholson, Charles R. Welcher, Maude 
M. Palmer, Mabel C. Easterbrook, Pearle E. Swift, *Barton C. Notting- 
ham, Bert J. Vought. 

1897 — Roy E. Goodspeed, Mamie \'. Sherman, W'illard J. Gunter, 
Annis M. Mikel, Willard C. Davis, Eliza A. Reynolds. 

189S— A. Florence Taylor, Tacie R. Udell, V. Maude Marr. 

1899 — Clyde Clemens, \'era M. Jones, Carolyne L. Stern, Margery 
I. Kern, Florence McManigal, Burt L. Loveridge. 

1900 — Bertha Harris, Elma Alohney, Mary Remington. Susie 
Lutes, Georgia H. Hartman. L. Clare Poorman, Leroy S. Long, Nellie 
Batchelor, Earle J. Gould. 

1901 — Carl G. Fulton, Leona Kent, Irene Cropsey, Harry A. Brad- 
ford, Louella Apted, Clella E. Davis, Genevieve Mumford, Gav A. 
Webb, Merle Mack, Edna R. DeCou. 

1902 — Clair Smith. Sarah M. Hall, Frances C. Streeter. Mal>el S. 
Long, Sarah E. Lutes. Lura Rosewarne, Jennie Lowry, Anna Bachelor, 
Mabel S. Fletcher, Lulu 'SI. Franklin, Jennie Cleckner, Abby R. ]\Iunger. 
John H. Ma.xam. 

1903 — Neva F. Kent, Birdie Walker. Hattie R. Potter, Harry P. 
Jones, Albert J. Carpenter, Helen H. Stern, Ethel Apted, Hollister H. 
Savage, Deane E. Herbert, Daisy E. Lewis, Jennie i\I. Thompson. 

1904 — Rosa Hartshorn. Esther George. Mary Long, Alice Street- 
er. Beulah Potter, Clark Whitenight, Bessie Thurkow. 

1905 — Henriette George, Mary DeForest, Neva I. Arntild. Ethel 
M. Hnllidav. Fmar Hice. Florence Stern. A'era Thurkow, Jessie M. 

1906 — \'aughn R. LaBarre, Jennie M. Spitler. Leona Mae Moxley 
(colored). Fanny M. Saulpaugh, Mildred I. Krise, Cleta Beatrice Kern. 
Sarah Orril INIack. Clarence A. Bradford. C. Blanche Waldron. Rena 
Hoisington, Grace M. Lewis, Kathrs'n B. Colburn, V. Kathn.'n Ta\'lnr. 
Verna B. Siegel. 


The A'andalia Public School \\-as graded liv Jesse Borton, the prin- 
cipal, in 1873. Mr. Borton had been at the head of the school some 
time before and remained there until 1876. His successors have been : 

1877-8 J. Handschue. 
1879-89 Michael Pemberton. 

' Killed in the Spanish-American war. 


1890 rimniab Chalmers. 

1891-3 Chester K. Cone. 

] 894-5 A. ¥. Trobst. 

1896-8 C. L. Pemberton. 

1899 C. L. Cathennan. 

1900 S. J. Hole. 
1901-3 L. O. UeCanip. 
1905 H. S. East. 

190O *1\. T. Baldwin, John Myron. 

The school has graduated one hundred and nine students notwith- 
stantling there were no graduating classes in 1884, 1886, 1896, 1899 
and 1904, and the first class in 1883. 


1883 — Rose Bonine, Minnetta Thurston, Roljert Coats, Florence 
Thomas, William Shillings, C.eorge D. Smith. Ella Carrier, Elroy 

1885 — Ida Tinker. Fred Jefferson, Herman S. East, *Alattie Cross, 
Henry Lane, *Uena O'Dell. 

1887 — C. H. Bonine. Erma b'aulkner, Eva O'Dell, William Oxen- 

1888 — Samuel Stephens. Clare Pemberton, Leroy E. Deal, G. E. 
Campbell, Bertha Bonine. 

1889' — Edna Fellows. Charles Wetherbee, Frank Lewis, FNet 
O'Dell, John Setzler, *Edith Roys, Lnren Miller. 

1890 — Pearl Bump, J. C. b'aulkner, M, Lena Lynch, Carrie Kirk. 
Minnie Lambert, '"Cora Thomas. 

T091 — Frank E. Faulkener. '''Charity ?^lulrine. Earl Merritt, Rali)li 

1892 — *E\-a Jefferson, Bertha Arnold, Mary Seager. 

1893 — F'rank Blood, Nellie Royer, Cora Arnold, Blanche Simpson, 
Lola Thurston, Iva Cussans. Clara Whited. 

1894 — Ella Symons, Nellie Kirk, Ada Phillips, Guy Van .\nt- 
werp. Charles Setzler, Bernice A'lcKinne}-, Myrta Shillings, Mary Smith, 
Albert Roys, Ethel Orr. Margaret fVmberton. Cora Royer, Odessa 
.Seager. ^^'illiam Setzler. 

1895 — Belle L\nch. Meda \\'eikle, Etta Train, Mary Skinner, Han- 
nah Bogue. 

1897 — Leona Hollister. Ethel Deal. Blanche McCabe. John Simp- 
son, "Verna Royer. 

1898 — Minnie WMlson. \^esta Lewis. Hattie Mealoy. Clarence 
Faulkner, Edna Barnum. 

* Resigned. 


1900 — Glennie Heslet, Flora Hollister, Ruby M. Johnston, Anna 
Setzler, Vera Lynch, jMarie Denison, Mabel Honeyman. 

1901 — Blanche W'illse, .Arlie Bonine, Blanche Denison, LuW'ida 

1902 — Leon Alexander, Ward A. Bump, hdorence Doan, \\'a)'ne 
Beardsley, Mabel A. Bonine. 

1903 — Clara Seidl, Fancheon Lewis, *P. Jay Freer, Carl Johnson, 
G. Belle Freer. 

1905 — Sadie Bonine, Clara Bonine, Mabel Curtis, Deva Brickell, 
Floyd Keller. 

1896 — Georgiana Longsduff, Onear Fisher, Reta Van Antwerp, 
Burt Pullin. 

The faculty for 1906 and '07: John Myron, principal; Mrs. Mae 
Dunning and Miss Ruby M. Johnston, assistants: ^Nliss Minnie Wilson, 
intermediate: Miss Mabel Bonine, primary. 

* Deceased. 



ladies' LIERAKY association of CASSOrOLIS. 

In October, 1870, an organization under the name of "Cassopolis 
Reading Room and Librar}- Assdcialion" \vas effected, and the fol- 
lowing February incorporated with the following named incorporators : 
W. W. Peck, W. P. Bennett, C. S. Wheaton, J. T. Stevens, A. Gar- 
wood, A. B. Morley. A. Maginnis, H. Norton, O. Rudd, M. L. Howell, 
John Tietsort, J. M. Shepard, L. H. Glover, J. B. Boyd. The declared 
objects of the organization were, "the establishment and maintenance 
of a library .'uid reading room; the prociu'ing and furnishing of lectures 
on literary and scientific subjects; and tlie affording of such other means 
of literary, scientific and improvement as the assnciation 
b}- its ln--laws ma}- pr(j\-i(le." The juililic reading room feature of the 
organization was kejit u\) less than a year, but the library has Ijeen 
maintained to the ]>resent lime, and contains about fifteen huinlrecl 
volumes of choice fiction, history and travels, sheltered in the Pioneer 
Room of the Court House. 

A few of the ladies of Cassopolis have managed the library since 
the discontinuance of the reading room, and September 5th, 1905, new 
articles of incorporation were executed by the following women, who 
were made directors under ihe new organization — Ladies' Library As- 
sociation of Cassopolis: ]\Iay S. Armstrong, Lucy E. Smith, Allie ^I. 
DesVoignes, Addie S. Tietsort, Hattie J. Holland. Maryette H. Glover, 
Sarah B. Price. 

Its officers are: Sarah B. Price, President; Maryette H. Glover, 
Secretary: Addie S. Tietsort. Treasurer. 

Article VII of the articles of association is as follows : The 
oflicers shall lie women twenty-one years of age and residents of Casso- 
polis, and members of the association. Any person paying the mem- 
bership fee pro\ided for in the bv-laws may become a member. 

The membership fee is one dollar, and the further fee of seventy- 
five cents each year after the first year. This i)a)-ment authorizes the 



member to draw books from the library, whicli is open to its members 
Saturda_v afternoons, and in charge of the ladies. 

*THE ladies' library ASSOCIATION. 

riie library movement in Dowagiac was begun by the ladies of 
the city in 1872. April 9th a meeting was called and a constitution 
and by-laws were presented and adopted. The city was then canvassed 
for subscribers to the capital stock, the amount of which was fixed at 
Si, 000, divided into 500 shares at $2.00 each. About 200 shares were 
sold. With this money books were purchased and the enterprise was 
fairl)- started. Books were loaned under proper regulations. The sign- 
ers of the constitution, or charter members, were : Mesdames ]\Iaria 
Palmer, Amanda W. Jones, Mary E. Lyle, ]\Iay E. Bowding, Emma 
E. Van Riper, Jerusha E. Bailey, Lorraine Dickson, Caroline J. Mul- 
vane, Lillie A. Curtis and Miss Gertrude ReShore. A room was rented 
for the library until 1888, when P. D. Beckwith became interested in 
the cause and knowing the need of a permanent home for the library, 
built for it a small frame building and fitted it up with cases for the 
books and all necessary furniture and, with the lot on which the building 
stood, deeded it to the Association. Until his death Mr. Beckwith was 
ever a good and generous friend to the library cause. 

By the will of \\'m. K. Palmer, an old and respected citizen, the 
Association received $1,200, the only gift of money ever received. In 
1902 the charter of the Association was renewed for thirty years. 

To the ladies of the Association who worked so long and earnestly 
the people of Dowagiac are indebted for tlie splendid Public Library 
they now possess. 

Feeling the need of a wider_ influence than a subscriptir)n library 
could have, they interested their friends in an efifort to secure a Carne- 
gie Library for the citv, and on receipt of the offer, went before the 
city council and pledged their books and' income to the support of a 
public library. The money from the Palmer estate furnished the 
foundation of a permanent book fund for the library, and the incinne 
from the rent of the former library building is expended quarterly for 
books for the Public Library. 

The Ladies' Association, while co-operating with the PuIjHc Li- 
brary board and having its only purpose in advancing the interests of 
the librai-y, is still maintained as an independent organization. The 

* Note — This article was contributed to the history by RcShore. 


ofikers for the current year are: Mrs. Maljle Lee Junes, President: 
Miss Frances 1\1. Rdss, \'ice President; Airs. J. O. Becraft, Treasurer: 
Mrs. E. \. Rdgers. Secretary-. 


The Ijuilding- is tlie gift of .\ndrew Carnegie, the grounds the gift 
(if the Beckwith Estate. i'he Puijiic Liijrary and Reading Room were 
estal)lislied hy a resolution adopted March i6th, 1903; at a meeting of 
the coninmn council of the city, and at the same meeting the mayor 
appointed as the first Ijoard of trustees, Mrs. E. N. Rogers. ]\Irs. F. J. 
.Vtwell, :\lrs. A. B. Gardner, Miss N. .\. Atwell, Miss Grace ReShore, 
Messrs. Wm. F. Hoyt, C. \V. Flendryx, Rev. L. M. Cirant, F. L. Be- 
craft. The hoard organized and elected officers, C. W. Hendryx, presi- 
dent; Mrs. \. B. Gardner, \ice president: Miss Grace ReShore, secre- 
tary. Building committee: ^^'. F. Hoyt, Mrs. Gardner, F. L. Becraft. 

The architect selected was Berkeley Brandt of Chicago. The 
material used for the Iniikling is \itrified brick in two colors — with 
columns and trimmings in Bedford stone. The interior finish is in 
weathered oak. walls tinte<I terra cmta with light buff ceilings. At the 
right of the entrance is the children's room, with low shelves on three 
sides of the room fur hooks. The deli\'ery desk is in the center, with 
the steel book-stacks at the back ; the general reading room at the left 
of the entrance. At the right frcmi the stack room is the librarian's 
room, and at the left is the reference and trustees' room. 

The lighting is a combination of electricity and gas. The furniture 
is oak in Mission style. In the basement is an assembly room seating 
about 250, which will be used for the children's league and other small 

The Library recei\-ed from 'Sir. Elias Pardee, an old resident of 
the city, a valualile museum consisting of stuffed birds and small ani- 
mals and some \-er}' fine deer and elk heads : birds' nests and eggs, shells, 
etc., which add greatly to the attractiveness of the rooms and interest 
and instruct the young people. 

In November, 1903, the cornerstone of the building was laid with 
appro))riate ceremonies by the ^Michigan Grand Lodge of Masons. Xo- 
\-ember roth. 1904, the librarv was opened with an informal reception 
in the evening, and the next day began issuing books. At the time 
of opening the librarv contained 3.533 volumes — 2.752 of which were 
frcm the Ladies' Library Association. 783 from the public school lilirary. 


1,026 volumes have been added since. The circulation for the past year 
was 21,198 volumes. Readers' cards have been issued to 1,703 persons. 
The officers of the library board for the current year ( 1906) are : 
Wm. F. Hoyt, President; Frances ]\I. Ross, Vice President: Grace 
ReShore, Secretary and Liljrarian. 


The Beckwith Memorial Theatre, dedicated by Colonel Robert G. 
Tngersoll in January, 1893, is constructed of Lake Superior red sand- 
stone with backwalls of firick. The building is 85x115 feet in dimen- 
sions, and is three stories in height. The front has a genuinely monu- 
mental effect, the first story being a magnificent arcade of fi_iur great 
arches, with twenty feet to each span, and showing the depth of the 
walls. On each pier is the portrait of a noted woman in In ild relief, 
such famous women as George Eliot, George Sands, Mary Anderson, 
Sarah Bernhardt, Rachael and Susan B. Anthony being represented. 
Above this space smoothly chiseled stone reduces the effect again, and 
the top story front consists of semi-circular headed arches which form 
another arcade. Upon the bay directly over the main entrance is a 
large medalion portrait of Philo D. Beckwith, beneath which a mag- 
nificently car\-ed panel liears the name "Beckwith." In the other front 
bays are portraits in medalirm of Beethoven. Cliopin. Rossini. Wagner. 
Verdi, Liszt, Voltaire, Ingersoll, Payne, Hugo, Emerson. Whitman, 
Goethe and the immijrtal Shakespeare. 

The main entrance to the Ijuilding is in the middle di\'ision of 
the ground floor front and is eighteen feet in width. This also furnishes 
the entrance to the corner ground floor room, which is occupied by Lee 
Brothers & Company's bank, than which there is no finer banking room 
in the country. On the opposite side is the entrance to the postoffice, 
which is fitted up with the latest appliances for the expeditious handling 
of the mails. From off the arcade a magnificent flight of stairs leads 
to the second floor, the front ]iortion of which is occupied by the offices 
of the Beckwith estate. 

The stage is fiftv feet wide and thirty-eight feet deep, with Iieauti- 
fully ornamented boxes on either side. Everything has been done with 
a lavish hand. There are fifteen elegantly furnished dressing rooms, in 
which are all the conveniences for the comfort of the disciples of Thespis 
who visit this house. The drop curtain is a composite work of art. 
The general rlesign is an original figure composition in classic Greek, 


and is nionunienlal and decorative in contradistinction to the realistic 
schudi and apparently inspired by the artist's study of the theatre itself. 
The figures are superbly drawn and ixiinted, and the landscape portion 
is magnificent. Tlie whole presents a fitting picture by the greatest 
artists of the time. Each has dune well his pari. Xo one mintl could 
ha\'e conceixed it: nor could an\- one hand lia\'e executed it. It will live 
as a classic work oi art when its makers shall have passed away. 

Tlie scenery is designed fur the c}clorama efi^ect which has been 
found so effectix'e, and which was first used in the ,\uditorimu in Chi- 
cago. By this arrangement a scene can be set as a street or a garden 
by simijly moving the scenes, which are profiled on both sides and top, 
anywhere desired. Every set of machineiy is a finished piece of art. 
It is, after the latest fashion, lashed together with ropes, and is cai}able 
of being made into seventv-fi\'e distinct stage dressings. 

.All the ornamental work in the house is after the fashion of the 
(irecian school, and e\'erything possible has been done to make this, the 
first memorial theatre erected in the countr)-, the most beautiful play- 
hoirse in the land. There are 499 o\-er-stufFed mohair plush, chairs, dyed 
in a light fawn and flesh colors, 329 of which are in the parquette and 
170 gracing the balcony. The gallery seats 200 comfortably. 

The problem of electric lighting of theatres has been solved in this 
house by the use of a large switchboard, in which there are twenty- 
five levers and nine ])o\verful resistance coils. The lighting of the stage 
itself is exceptionally coiuplete, four hundred electric lamps in three 
colors being utilized for this purpose. The heating and the ventilation 
have been well looked to, and there never was a theatre whose air was 
more ])m-e and whose warmth was more regular and comfortable. 

'idicre i^ ;i rooun- fo\er and ;in abundance of fire escapes: in fact 
nothing has been left undone which could add to the attractiveness and 
completeness of this house. It is a new and splendid model which time 
will demonstrate tO' be almost, if not quite, the acme of human skill in 
architecture, design and decoration. 



In the year of this writing there are eight newspapers puhhshed 
regularly in Cass county. Of these there is one daily, and one pub- 
lished twice a week. Outside of the two large centers Edwardsburg and 
Marcellus support each a paper. 

In one respect, at least, the newspaper history of Cass county is 
noteworthy. All hut one of the eight papers have had a continuous 
existence — though nut all under continuous proprietorship — for at least 
a quarter of a century. The newspaper graveyard of Cass county is 
surprisingly small. Tlie li\e ones are not so much troubled by the 
ghosts of defunct enterprises as in many other counties that might be 
named. Not that jnurnalism has been without the usual reefs and 
shallows in this county. Not that there are no wrecks to record. Here, 
as elsewdiere, some newspapers, delivered in hope, have died in blameless 
infancy ; one or two, having served their ephemeral purpose, passed out 
without the sting of failure ; the existence of one or two others was 
fitful and stressful from the first, and the end was the happiest part of 
their career. 

The early settlers of the county had no newspaper. Perhaps the 
most familiar paper that could lie considered a "home paper" was the 
Niles Herald, which was published by A. E. Draper from 1833 to 1838, 
being suspended at the latter date. In its columns, no doubt, were pub- 
lished the legal notices from Cass county. The only other paper in 
southwestern Michigan that regularly published at that time, so 
far as is known to the writer, was the Kalamazoo Gaccttc. which was 
established in 1834, and is now in its 73rd volume. 

More than fifteen years elapsed after the organization of Cass 
county before the first newspaper enterprise ventured a permanent abode 
in the county. The Cass County Advocate issued its first number March 
II, 1845. '^'''^ publishers got their equipment from the old Niles Ex- 
press. It announced a regular weekly appearance, but, as is well known, 
the intentions of early editor.s — often, too. of those still with us — did 
not possess the lireadth and height and irresistible force needed to over- 


come the insuperable obstacles that beset pioneer publishing. Very 
often tlie person whose name conspicuously appeared as "editor and 
prnprietiir," also was incumlient of the long list of positions that rank 
licli'W the supreme office dnwn U< the despised "devil." As business 
manager, as news gatherer, as tyi>esetter, as foreman i.if the press room, 
and p<jwer man for the hand press, the iild-tinie pulilisher had no sine- 
cru'e. Tfjo often his supjily nf juiper ran out before the means of trans- 
portation by wagon could firing him his next invoice. These condi- 
tions, and many otb.ers that we cannot here describe in detail, might 
ha\e interfered with the regular editing of the first Cass county news- 
paper. Certain it is, that its career was fitful. 

IMr. E. A. Gra\'es was the editor and proprietor: a Democrat in 
politics and conducting his paper accordinglv. Abram Townsend bought 
the enterjirise in iSq/i, but he, too, failed t(T make it prosperous. In 
1S50 it fell into the hands of another well known citizen, Ezekiel S. 
Smith. He evidently belie\-ed that Cassopolis was not a good field for 
a newspaper, and that the new railniad-Iiorn village of Dowagiac offered 
a Ijetter location. 

The remo\-al of the Cass County Adi'ocaic to Dowagiac in 1850 
ga\e that \-illage its first newspai>er. IMr. L. P. Williams soon bought 
the plant of I\fr. Smith, and by him the name was changed to the 
Dowagiac Times and Cass Coiiiit\ I'icl^ublicaii. In 1854, while the 
proprietor was a\va\- on :i business trip, the ciflice and the entire plant 
was destroyed by fire. Thus perished the first newspaper, after having 
lived nearly ten years. Its history was closed, for no successor, phoenix- 
like, ever rose from its ashes. 

The contents of the early newspaper call for brief comment. 
Apropos of this point, Mr. C. C. Allison says: "If you turn o\-er the 
pages of the early ]iaper expecting to find local news you will be dis- 
appointed. Now our papers exist and arc patronized for the local in- 
formation they contain : at that time this idea of journalism had not 
arrived, at least not in this part of the country. A letter from a foreign 
country, describing alien people anrl customs, was eagerly seized upon 
bv the editor, and its none too interesting facts spread over several col- 
umns of type. At the same time local imiiro\ements, county news, and 
the personal items which now form the live features of the simll news- 
paper, were usually omitted entirely or passed over with scant attention. 
Marriages and death.s and liirths formed the bulk of the local news in the 
newspaper of fifty years ago." 


After the departure of the Cass County Ailz'ucatc the citizens of 
Cassopohs evidentl}- feh the void caused liy no local newspaper. A 
stock company was organized, George B. Turner was selected as editor, 
and on March 17, 1850, the first nuniher of the National Dcmocntt 
was gi\'en to the public. I'ifty-six years ha\e passed since that date, 
and the National Democrat still flourishes. H. C. Shurter was the 
publisher for the original company. 

The first few years of this paper's existence were not unmarked 
by vicissitudes, at least in ownership. In 1854, Air. G. S. Boughton 
bought the paper, antl within a few months sold it to W. \\'. \'an Ant- 
werp. During the latter's proprietorship the late Daniel Blackman was 
editor. When the original stock company resumed control of the en- 
terprise in 1858, Mr. Blackman continued as editor, with Air. H. B. 
Shurter as puljlisher. But, however well the paper may have served its 
ostensible ends, its financial condition remained discouraging. In 186 1 
the plant was sold at sheriff's sale. The purchasers were Pleasant Nor- 
ton, D. AI. Howell and Maj. Joseph Smith. It was transferred by them 
to L. D. Smith, who managed it tw'o years — the first two' years of the 
war, when news was at a premium e\-ery where. In March, 1863, the 
paper re\"erted to Messrs. Norton, Howell and Smith. Major Smith 
taking the editurial end of the business. 

In i8h2 the proprietors had emploved as their publisher a young 
man, then twenty-tv>-o years old, named C. C. Allison. Born in Illinois 
in 1840 and coming tOi Cassopolis when eight years old, the dean, as 
he now is, of the newspaper profession in Cass county began his career, 
and is likely to end it in the National Democrat ofhce. He entered the 
office as an apprentice in 1855. He set type, wmte news items, and in 
a few years was master of the business. On May 5, 1863, he b()nght 
the paper, and from that date to this he has owned, managed and edited 
the oldest paper in (Jass county. 

The National Democrat is published weekly, is Democratic in poli- 
tics, and it has Ijeen the steadfast policy nf its proprietor to keep it in 
the first rank, an impartial and comprehensive disseminator of news, and 
at the same time an advocate of progress and public spirit in the affairs 
to which newspaper influence may be legitimately directed. 

The Repuljlican interests of the county are represented at Cassopolis 
by the Vigilant, which is alsn far more than a partisan journal; it is 
well edited, has live, clean news, and its standard of newspaper enter- 
prise is the very liighest. The / 'igilant has witnessed an entire genera- 


tion uf human progress, anJ its columns have contained the history in 
epitome of Cass county since tlie lOth of Ma}-, 1872, when its first cop_\' 
was issueiJ. IJ. B. IJarrinyton and Al. H. Barher were the founders 
of the paper. It went through se\-eral changes of ownership during the 
first years. C. L. Morton and W. H. Mansfield purchased it in Febru- 
ar}-, 1873, and in the following July Mr. ]\Iansfield became sole ])ro- 

In 187'! Air. Alanslield associated with himself Mr. James M. 
Shepard, a dentist b}- profession, and lia\ ing followed from 1868 to that 
date the practice of dentistry in Cassopolis. Air. She])ard. whose subse- 
quent career in public affairs is so well known, became the sole owner 
of the J'igiliint in 1878, and has conducted the paper under his per- 
sonal supervision except while engaged in his public duties. For se\'en- 
teen years Afr. ^\^ H. Berkey has been connected with the office, and 
for about ten years has been managing editor (if the J'igilaut. He is 
a thorough and alert newsiiaper man and shares in the credit for the 
success of the J'igHaiit. 

.Althnugh the jilant nf the Times and Cuss Coiiiily Republican was 
destroyed by fire in 1854, Dowagiac did not long remain an unoccupied 
field for newspaper endeavor. In the same year Air. James L. Hantt 
established the Dowagiac Tribune. The Tribune held undis]nite(l pos- 
session of the field until 1858. In the meantime the policy of its editor 
was bringing upon him a storm of disapproval that ended in a small 
newspaper war. 

It should be rememliered that the newspapers of that time were 
more of political "organs" than e\-en the strougest of modern ]iartisan 
journals. To advocate the success of its party and to give much the 
greater part of its news and editorial space to that cause was often the 
sole cause of a colmtr^• newspaper's existence. And the change from 
that custom to the later "news" paper is recent enough to be rememliered 
by all. 

Hence it came about that when the course of the Tribune had be- 
come distasteful beyond endurance to the Republicans of the county, the 
officials and leaders of Cass county Reptiblicanism met to consider and 
take action concerning their newspaper "organ." As a result of this 
meeting, which was held in January, 1858. o^•ertures were made to Air. 
Gantt either to dispose of the paper or to allow a committee to select 
an editrir. in which case the expense would be borne by the ]iart}- organ;- 


zation. Mr. Gantt had no mind to surrender his prerogatives or pohcies, 
and his paper was issued as before. 

But there remained another method. Tlie party leaders induced 
W. H. Campbell and N. B. Jones to establish another paper in Dowagiac. 
This rival was called the Republican. Mr. Jones retired at the end of 
three months, but i\Ir. Campbell conducted the paper with such energy 
and was so well supported by his constituents that in 1859 ^^i'- Gantt 
sold him the good will of the Tribune, and moved tlie plant of the latter 
away. Thus the Republican was left master of the situation, and con- 
tinued for many years as the only Dowagiac paper. The names of the 
committee who were responsible for the establishment of the Republican 
were Justus Gage, Jesse G. Beeson, W. G. Beckwith, Joshua Lofland 
and ^Villiam .Sprague. 

The Republican, like other Cass county papers, has passed through 
a series of ownerships. Mr. Campbell continued its publication until 
January, 1865. At that date Mr. Charles A. Smith, a young man of 
only twenty-one years, but a practical printer and energetic newspaper 
man, took control and conducted the business successfully for two years. 
Mr. Jesse G. Roe was the next purchaser, but being unaccjuainted with 
the practical side of newspaper business, after three weeks he sold the 
plant to its founder, Mr. Campbell. In 1868 Mr. H. C. Buffington was 
installed as proprietor and editor, and continued the publication until 
September, 1875, when the business passed to Richard Holmes and C. J. 
Greenleaf. These ]>artners gave much space to purely local matters, 
and their management throughout was quite successful. In September. 
1880, another transfer was made, when Mr. R. X. Kellogg bought the 
Republican plant. Under I\Ir. Kellogg's ownership the name was 
changed from the Cass County Republican to the Dowagiac Republican. 

Successive owners of the Republican were E. H. Spoor, Becraft & 
Amsden, Becraft alone, then a Mr. Rose, Becraft & Son, and J. O. 
Becraft. Mr. Becraft was pubhsher of the Republican until 1904, when 
he sold it to Mr. H. E. Agnew, the present proprietor. 

In i88c Mr. W^ M. Wooster entered the lists of Cass county 
journalism. He had been proprietor of the Van Buren County Repub- 
lican, which he sold to Mr. Buflrngton, the former Republican editor. 
Buying the equipment of the Lawrence Advertiser, he removed it to 
Dowagiac, and on September i, 1880, he issued the first nuinber of 
the Dowagiac Time.-;, as an indejiendent in politics — an unusual course 
for a paper to take at that time. In 188 1 the Times was sold to Mr. 


A. .M. All 1(111, whu has lieeii identitied with Cass county journalism 
nearly thirty years, and who came to Dowagiac from Marcellus. Mr. 
Moon conducted the Times until 1885, when he sold it to its present 
proprietor, James Heddon. in 1897 Charles Heddon established the 
Daily Nctcs, which was issued from the same office as the I'inics. and 
the two papers are practically under one management. In this con- 
nection it is of interest that Ward Bros, established a paper called the 
Daily Xcz^s in Dowagiac about 1S80, although its existence was short. 

The third paper of Dowagiac is the Herald, which was estalilished 
in 1892 by Mr. N. Klock as the Standard. R. E. Curtis bcjuyht this 
paper in 1897, and it later became the property of J. A. Weljster, who 
changed the name to the Herald. In April, 1903, A. M. Moon became 
the proprietor of the Herald and has since issued it every week. 

Alarcellus has a somewhat disconnected newspaper rec<.ird. but the 
Neies lias a record of nearly thirty jears, and has been a good pai>er, 
ai:ly edited and well patronized, since its start. The Messenger was the 
first paper in the village, established by S. D. Perry in 1874. The Good- 
speed brothers, Volinia farmers, soon came into possession of the plant 
and issued a paper known as the Standard under the management of 
Rufus Nash. The last issue appeared in August, 1876, and in 1877 
Mr. A. M. Moon bought the plant and brought out the first number of 
the Marcellus Nezos. When Mr. Moon moved to Dowagiac he took 
part of the equipment of the Nci.<'s. but left the intangible interests and 
subscription lists of the News to his successors, C. C. Allison and J. J. 
A. Parker, who issued the first number under their management on 
December 24. 1881. Mr. Parker soon bought the interest of Mr. .Mli- 
son, who had entered the newspaper field at Marcellus as a branch 
enterprise to his Cassopolis paper. Following Mr. Parker, the pro- 
prietor of the Nexvs was Mr. Wliite, then Dr. C. E. Davis, who sold to 
tlie present proprietor, A. E. Bailey. 

"^ilie Vandalia Journal was established by William A. DeGroot, and 
the first number was dated June 14. 1881. The pa]>er later passed to 
Jos. L. Sturr. wh(i, after a short time, discontinued its publication and 
moved the t\'pe and presses to Chicago. 

Se\'eral \-ears ago Mr. F. M. Viall established a small news sheet at 
Vandalia, Init after about si.x months gave up the enterprise without 
having won fame fi>r himself and brought the jiaper to any dignity in 

The Edwardsburg Argus, whose present projirietor is Henry Andrus 


(see sketch), was established in 1875, its first issue appearing October 
5th. WiUiam A. Shaw, H. B. Davis, F. 'M. Jerome and G. F. Bugijee 
were connected witli the paper until 1879. l" February of this year Dr. 
John B. Sweetland took charge of the paper, which he thereafter con- 
ducted in his vigorous and virile way, "neutral in nothing, independent 
in evenihing," and was the proprietor for twenty years, until his death 
in 1899. Dr. Sweetland, in conformity with his principles, kqjt his paper 
independent in politics, and if he favored any movement especially it 
was the Prohibition. Mr. Henry Andrus was local editor of the Argus 
a long time under Dr. Sweetland, and since the latter's death has con- 
ducted the paper, maintaining it at the high standard of former years. 
The Argus is issued regularly e\'ery Thursday. 

Illustrative of newspaper politics of half a century ago, is an inci- 
dent related by C. C. Allison, the veteran editor of the Democrat. In 
1840 Ezekiel S. Smith had been appointed by Gov. Woodbridge to the 
position of attorne\- in Cass county. Smith was a Whig, of the same 
brand and stripe as his political chief. He made it a point to emphasize 
his beliefs and aggrandize his party whenever possible while in Cass 
county. At that time the Democratic party was dominant in this sec- 
tion, its official organ at tlie county seat being the Cass County Adz'o- 
cate, with its pioneer editor, Abram Townsend. 

Townsend was not succeeding in making his paper pay dividends, 
however successful it may ha\-e been as a political and news organ. 
One day, in this financial stress, he applied to Attorney Smith for a 
cash loan. "No more loans on that paper," replied Smith, who was 
already Townsend's creditor; "why don't you go to Asa Kingsbury?" 
Kingsbury was a leader in Democratic afifairs at that time, and his 
financial support to the Advocate had also been drawn upon to the limit. 
On being informed of Kingsbury's unwillingness to extend further 
credit. Attorney Smith, acting upon a sudden idea, asked, "What will 
}'ou take for that newspaper over there?" "Do you realh- want to 
buy it. Mr. .Smith?" "Y'es, I will buy the equipment and you can con- 
tinue as my editor," was the decisive manner in which the transaction 
was closed. "Now, " continued Smith, after counting (Uit the stipulated 
amount less what Townsend owed him, "let us go over and get out 
this week's paper." The make-up was about ready to go to press, and 
after looking it over the only change that the new proprietor requested 
was that the leading editorial be withdrawn and one written by himself 
substituted. This was done, and the Advocate appeared on the regular 


ilay of issue witliout any delay consequent upon the change of owner- 
ship, which took place quite unheralded to the citizens of the county 
seat. But for that reason the consternation was all the greater among 
the stanch Democracy when, on the first page of their loyal paper, they 
read a pungent editorial lauding the principles of Whiggism to the skies 
and holding up the sacred tenets and leaders of the Van Buren party 
to scorn and ridicule. 



Tlie early followers of Aesculapius, in Cass county as elsewhere, 
were in the main honest, practical and sympathetic men. Such is the 
testimony of those whose personal knowledge connects the present with 
the past. Without the advantages of hroad technical training, such as 
are within reach of the medical student now, without the vast heritage 
of accumulated experience, analyzed and classified for apnlication ti. 
every morbid condition of mankind, the pioneer physician had to com- 
pensate for his narrowness of professional vision and skill by a perva- 
sive sympathy and inspiring" cheerfulness. 

JNIuch of the practice was done by doctors who followed their pro- 
fession as an adjunct tt) the more necessary — to their own welfare — 
occupation of tilling the new soil or merchandising, or any dther of the 
trades or activities by which the early settlers gained a li\'ing. There 
were, proportionately, fewer "town doctors." Some of the "farmer 
doctors" were college graduates and men of considerable attainments, 
though necessarily rough in exterior, and, although handicapped for 
want of appliances, were perhaps as fully competent to combat the dis- 
eases incident to those conditions as our more modern physicians are 
to combat our more modern diseases. For it is a well known scientific 
truth that many of the refinements and advantages of modern civiliza- 
tion are really violations of the natural laws, which bring about their 
own diseases as punishment. 

:\ verv brief record is left of those physicians who came to Cass 
county during the pioneer period. There was Dr. Henry H. Fowler, 
who seemed possessed of the pioneer spirit, for several new settlements 
in this part of the country knew him as a citizen as much as a profes- 
sional man. He was interested in the formation of the village of Geneva, 
on Diamond lake, and was a factor in having that place designated as the 
seat of justice. He had first located at Edwardsburg about 1830. 

There seems to have been no physician during the thirties who left 
a permanent impress on the life and affairs of the county. During that 
decade Cassopolis and vicinity had, for varying lengths of time, doctors 


named Isaac Bruwn. Charles L. Cluws, David E. Brown, Benjamin i'. 
Gould, wiio was a college graduate and practiced in Cassopolis till his 
death, in 1844; Da\'id .\. Clows, and James Bloodgood. The first physi- 
cians in the county seem U> have located at Edwardsburg. Of those 
early practitioners the most prominent was Henry Ltjckwood. Bom 
in New York in 1803, '^ graduate of a medical college of that state, he 
located at Edwardsburg about 1837, and was in active and prosperous 
practice there till 18O2. He died in December of the following year. 

The old tnwn of Adamsville, in the southern part of the county, 
had a notable doctor in the ear]\- days in the jjerson of Henry Follett. 
Born in New York in 1789, he studied medicine under pri\'ate direc- 
tiim, ser\e(l in the war of 1812 as assistant surge(3n, and in 1836, with 
his famil}-, made the journey in pioneer fashion fmrn the east to his 
new home at Adams\ille. Two years later he moved to a farm near the 
\-illage, and in a combination of the two pursuits passed the remainder 
of liis life, his death occurring in 1849. 

There were <jtber physicians in the county during this period, ixit 
little record other than their names is preserved. Those earliest physi- 
cians — as well as tlieir successors for many years — traveled about on 
horseback. There were no telephones by which medical assistance could 
lie summoned to reni<ite parts of the rural districts, and hence, up to 
recent years, the sight of a flying horseman hastening to town was a 
signal to the neighbors that some one was ill. An hour or so later 
back would ctmie the physician, muffled up beyiind recognition during 
the severe winter season, or bespattered with mud from hard riding over 
the mirv roads. There were no carriages. If there had been they would 
ha\e been useless because of the rough and muddy roads, which were 
scarceK- more than trails cut through the woods. The distances traveled 
in reaching the sufferers were long, because the roads wound around so 
much, and often the patient was dead before the doctor could arrive. 
Sometimes after he:\v\ rains the streams would be swollen so as to 
render the fords impassable, or the bridges would be carried aw^ay, 
necessitating a long detour in order to reach the destination. But num- 
1:)erless and arduous as were the difficulties which beset the pioneer 
practitioner — and <inly a few have been alluded to, so that the picture 
is quite inadequate to reveal the hard life of our lirst doctors — it is to 
the lasting honor of the rugged character and faithful devotion to duty 
(jf those men that no call for help, matter not where it was or what its 
answering meant in the way of personal hardship, was refused. 


But tlie times and conditions of practice changed rapidly. Dr. 
H. H. Phillips, of Cassoixjlis, whose professional recollections in this 
county go hack nearly forty years, states that when he began to practice 
the physicians no longer were traveling about the country on horse- 
back, with their medicine, surgical instruments, etc., in a saddle-bag. 
Buggies had already come into general use among the country practi- 
tioners, and the hard lot of the early thjctur was in many other respects 

The diseases of those times were principallv malaria, caused Ijy 
lack of drainage in the county ; Ijronchitis and pneumonia, due to e.K- 
posure incident to their mode of life, and diarrhoea and dysentery in- 
duced by their coarse fare. Contagious diseases, on account of the iso- 
lation of the settlers, had little opportunity to spread. Heroic treat- 
ment was accorded their patients by old-time doctors. The tale is tuld 
of (jne such physician — not of Cass county, however — who gave a pa- 
tient suffering from a "blocked liowel" one hundred grains of calomel 
at a single dose, and, strangest of all, there was complete reco\-ery from 
both the ailment and the dosage. 

But malaria is no longer to be contended with. The marshes have 
been drained. Whereas the earh- settlers fought mosquitoes — now 
known as most active agents in the spreading of contagious diseases — 
b_\- means of smudges, screen doors now shut out the pests from our 
homes. This use of wire screening is one of many improvements that 
provided wholesome sanitary conditions and guarded against disease. 
The decrease of malaria is graphically illustrated in the statement of 
Dr. Phillips that not one bottle of Cjuinine is used now to thirty required 
when he Ijegan practice. Malaria was e\'erywhere then, and quinine 
was the sovereign remedy in its treatment. 

Passing from the pioneer period of medical practice, we find a 
number of men of uKjre than ordinary ability who adorned the pro- 
fession during the last half of the century. Dr. E. J. Bonine. who 
practiced in Cassopolis from 1844 to the outbreak of the Civil war. 
was a soldier and politician as well as doctor. Born in Indiana in 1821, 
he prepared for his profession, as was then the custom more than now, 
under a private preceptor instead of within college walls. He was 
elected to represent the county in the legislature in 1832. He was. in 
turn, a Whig, a Free-soiler. and then helped to organize the Repul>lican 
party. He enlisted for service in the rebellion, and was advanced from 
the ranks to surgeon in chief of the Third Division of the Ninth Armv 


Corps. He located at Niles after returning from the war, and was 
prominent professionally and 'in public life until his death. 

In the death of Dr. L. D. Tompkins on October i, 1902, there 
passed away the oldest medical practitioner in the county. Arriving in 
the county in 1848, he saw and experienced the conditions of pioneer 
practice. Still alive a half century later, his retrospect covered the most 
important period in the develnpment of medical and surgical practice, 
and he could appreciate as none ijthers could the changes that a life- 
time had wrought. 

"But perhaps it still is better that his busy life is done: 

He has seen old \iews and patients disappearing one by one-." 

A fnrmer account of his life says: "During the first eight (ir ten 
years of his residence in the count\' he almost in\-arial:)lv tra\'elecl on 
horseback. The mads were not then as numerous as now, and most 
of those which had been cleared and improved were in a condition in- 
ferior to those of the present. Large bodies of land were unfenced, and 
it was the uni\ersal custom among those persons familiar with the 
country when traveling in the saddle to save time by 'going cross lots' 
by way of the numerous paths leading through the 'openings' and heavy 
timber. Dr. Tompkins rode ver)' frequently upon these paths and often 
in the darkness of night was oljliged to lean forward upon his horse's 
neck to avoid being brushed from the saddle by overhanging linilis of 
the trees. Sometimes, \\earied with tra\el and loss of rest, he would 
fall asleep in the saddle, but the trust\- horse, plodding" on through the 
darkness along the winding narrow path, would firing him safely home." 
At the time of his death llr. Tompkins was more than eighty-fi\-e years 
old. a remarkable age for one whose earlier experiences had been so 
rugged. Born in Oneida count}-. New York, in 18 17, he moved to Ohio 
at the age of fifteen, and there prepared for his profession and practiced 
until he came to Cassopolis in May, 1848. In 1852 he graduated fron> 
the well known Tvusli Medical College of Chicago. More than one 
physician now or f()rmerlv of Cass countv ascriljes the inspiration of 
his work to this aged doctor. In the histor\' of Cass county medicine 
be will always be a venerable figure. 

Onlv five years ^■ounger in vears at the time of his death was the 
late Dr. .\lonzo Garwood, whose professional connection with Cass 
county was finly a little less than that of Dr. Tompkins. Coming to 
Cass count\' in 1S50, the close of a long life came July i, 1903. He 


was born October 15, 1824, in Logan county, Oliio, pursued his studies 
under the direction of a physician in his native county, later attended, 
under the preceptor system, the well known Starling Medical College, 
and on his graduation came directly to Cassopolis. Dr. Garwood gave 
considerable attention to public affairs, especially local school interests, 
and was of such political prominence that he was sent to the state senate 
in 1857. He was surgeon oi the 28th regiment, Michigan infantry, 
during the Civil war. 

The list of Cassopolis physicians, past and present, is a long one. 
There was Richard ]\,1. Wilson, an early representative of the Eclectic 
school, who was here in the fifties. Alonzo B. Treadwell, well remeni- 
bered by many in the county, began practice in the year that Dr. Wilson 
left, and continued for ten years, until his death in 1874. He had a 
varied career, was largely self-educated, served in the army, and died 
in the prime of years. For awhile he was partner with Drs. Tompkins 
and Kelsey. The latter, William J. Kelsey, father of the present Dr. 
J. H. Kelse}-. had high professional connectif.m in this county, and was 
a man of acknowledged ability. He was born in this county in 1839, 
and was a graduate of Rush Medical College in 1865. 

Other names that occur are those of Drs. Robert Patterson, Fred- 
erick F. Sovereign, F. P. Hoy, J. D. Mater, each of whom remamed but 
a short time. 

Dr. James S. Stapleton, born in Cassopolis in 1867, graduated from 
Hahnemann Medical College, in Chicago, and located in bis native 
town, where he remained until his removal to Jones, \\bere he died 
August 13, 1898. 

Oliver W. Hatch, born in ]\Iedina county, Ohio, July 2S. 1823. 
came to Mason township, Cass county, with bis parents, in 1837. attended 
the early district schools and also a select school taught by tlie late 
Judge H. H. Coo'lidge at Edwardsburg, and received bis medical edu- 
cation by private study, at the L.a Porte Medical College and at Rush 
Medical College in Chicago, where he spent his last term in 1848. He 
practiced at Georgetown, 111., three years, then at Mishawaka, Ind., si.x 
months, after which he located in Mason township and was a practicing 
physician there until 1903, when he retired and moved to Cassopolis, 
where be still resides, being the oldest physician in the county. 

Dr. Bulhand, who died at Union Septemlier 11. 1905, was noted 
for his svmpathv and strength of character, as well as his ahilitv as 
a practitioner. He was absolutelv frank, and never used bis profession 


cxcejit according- tu its own ethics and the standards of personal integ- 
rity. He retired before his death, ha\ing practiced alj(jut twenty years, 
and hxed <.>n his farm in Cahin. 

Down at Edwardslxirg Dr. Israel G. Bughee for many years com- 
hined his professional duties .with business and official affairs. He was 
born in Xernmnt in )8[4, studied medicine in Cass county and in a 
Xew \'ork niedical college, and jiracticed in I'.dwardsburg fr(jm 1840 
to i8()y. He died in 1S78. 

.\moug' the contemporaries of Dr. Bugbee were Dr. Alvord, Dr. 
John Tieal. Dr. Enos Penwell. and se\'eral others. Within the last f(jur 
}-ears there died in Edwardsburg Dr. John B. Sweetland, whose con- 
nection w ith that \'illage lasted forty }ears. A graduate of the Uni- 
\'ersity of Buffalo and a first-class physician, he was just as much a 
man of affairs. He served as a private and a surgeon during the war, 
was politicalK- acti\c and represented this countv in the legislature, and 
bis versatile cliaracter also lei! him into journalism, becoming editor 
and ijublisher of the Edwardsburg Argus. Dr. Sweetland was b<irn in 
Xew ^'ork in 1834. 

Another Edwardsburg plnsician. now deceased, was Le\i Aldrich. 
He was born in Erie county, Xew York. January 27. 1820, and gradu- 
ated in medicine in 1849. He located in Edwardsliurg in the early 
sixties, and remained there till his death. 

Dr. Robert S. Critfin, born in Erie county. New York. September 
25, 1828, came to the \-illage. and at the age of nineteen years began 
the study of medicine with Dr. Lockwood, and afterwards attended 
the Medical college at Lal'orte. Ind., and at different times practiced 
a number of years in b^dwardsburg. He died there December 27, 1905. 

The Cass County History of 1882 states that fifty physicians had 
]iracticed in Dowagiac fnmi the time of its estal>lishment as a village. 
Many have located there since that date. Manifestly no com]ilete record 
of these could be here com])iled. The majority remained a more or less 
brief time, and of these only the names are preserved. 

The first Dowagiac doct(ir seems to have been somewhat of an 
original character. It is related that, in a case of fever where the 
patient was not exjjected to li\e, be summoned Fred \\^erz, the \-illage 
fiddler, to the liedside and commanded him to remain tlierc day and 
night and fiddle bis most inspiriting tunes when the patient had sink- 
ing S])ells. The doublv afflicted one recovered. This stoiw notwithstand- 
ing. Dr. Thomas Brayton was a much loved physician. He began 


practice in the village al'.out the middle nf the last centur\' and con- 
tinued until his death in a railroad accident during the sixties. 

Another eccentric practitioner was a Dr. Jarvis, whose ability as 
a drayman was as conspicuous as his skill in setting bones. It is said 
that for some time he drove a bull ('r steer to his vehicle instead of a 

Dr. C. \y. ■\[nrse. now deceased, was for a number of vears in 
practice at Dowagiac, and part of the time was in the drug business. 

Few of the old-time doctors were Iietter known than Dr. C. P. 
Prindle, who died at Dowagiac August 2, 1876, at the age of fifty-one 
years. He olitained his education and professional training in his nati\e 
state of New ^'ork. and came to Michigan to find his field of labor about 
1850. Finall}-, in 1835, he located at Dowagiac and practiced there 
until his death. He was a rugged and forceful character, both in his 
profession and as a citizen. Like Dr. Tompkins, he spent much of his 
time in the saddle, and wherever and whenever duty called him he went 
without tbouglit of In's personal convenience. He had a deep dislike 
for ostentation and superficial learning, and in practice, as in his per- 
sonal relations, was direct, earnest, and withal sympathetic. The esteem 
in which he was held is shown by the fact that during his funeral the 
stores and Imsiness houses of Dowagiac were closed. 

A physician who attained high rank in his profession was William 
E. Clarke, now deceased, -who spent some of the younger years of his 
career in Dowagiac. He went to the armv from this town, had an 
eventful record as a surgeon, and after the war moved to Chicago. 

The first representative of the eclectic school of medicine in Dowa- 
giac and Cass county was Cyrus J. Curtis. Born in New York state in 
1819. he died at Dowagiac .\pril 21. 1875. He studied medicine and 
was a graduate of the Worthington Medical College of Ohio, and prac- 
ticed in \-arious parts of the C(iuntry until December. 1864. when he 
located at Dowagiac. Here he restricted his practice to the treatment 
of chronic diseases. The names of those who were associated with him 
in practice for varying lengths of time indicate several other well known 
Dowagiac physicians; these were S. T. McCandless. D. B. Stnrgis. 
William Flora. Linus Daniels. H. S. Mc^Master. and his son, E. A. Cur- 

The medical profession of the early davs had few regulations, 
either imposed bv the state or inherent in the fraternity. The strict 
code of professional ethics which now go\-erns with greater power than 


any system of law had Ijeen scarcely formulated at that time. There 
were im recjuirements as to len.^th and extent of preparation. Anyone 
who had en(jugh faith in his own knowledge and skill could set himself 
up in practice. Herhs and roots supplied the materia medica which, 
according to certain formulas, were decocted by certain persons for 
the healing of man or beast, and se\eral of these so-called "herb doctors" 
achie\'ed some distinction in the C(nint\-. One of these was Dr. A: J. 
Boughton, whose practice extended o\-er a large territory. "Dr." 
Whitehead, an Indian "medicine man," who located at Dowagiac in the 
sixties, practiced the "herlj art" among such persons as relied on that 
form of healing. 

James D. Taylor was a homeopathic practitioner in Dowagiac from 
185S until his death in 1871. Dr. J. H. Wheeler, who practiced in 
Dowagiac from 1867 to 1877, the year of his death, was an early settler 
of the county, having come here in 1835. He was a surveyor, and 
began the study of medicine during his leisure hours. Other Dowagiac 
physicians whose work here has been closed liy death or remo\-al, were 
L. V. Rouse, deceased : E. C. Prindle, son of Dr. C. P. Prindle, who 
has located elsewhere; P.. A. Curtis, now of Chicago, besides those whose 
connection with the citv was transient. Dr. b'dward S. Stebbins, now 
deceased, located liere in iSfi8, and devoted much of bis time to special- 
ties, particularly the then new science of electro-therapeutics. 

Each of the smaller \illages has had its medical representati\'es. 
In Vandalia the first pbysician was Dr. A. L. Thorp, who settled there 
in 184Q, and whose death occurred in Mishawaka, Indiana, only a few 
years ago. The doctor who was longest in practice in A^andalia was 
Leaujler Osborn. who was born in 1825 and who died in June. igoi. 
He taught school in earlv life, recei\ed bis impulse to study medicine 
from Dr. E. J. Bonine. and com])leting his studies in Rush Medical 
College, he began ]iractice in the \'illage in 1853. He was also interested 
in politics, being in several local offices, and in 1866 was elected to the 

In Pbkagon the principal former representatives were John Robert- 
son and Charles P. Wells. The former was born in New York in 1825, 
and, coming to the county in 184S, practiced at Snmnerville and Pbkagon 
until failing health compelled him to abandon active work. Dr. Wells 
was born in New York in 1834, and his father was one of the first set- 
tlers of Howard township in this county. He was a graduate of a Cin- 
cinnati medical college, an<l in 186^ located at Pokagon, where he bad 


the first drug store in tlie village and carried on his practice for niany 

At Jones there was Dr. Thomas L. Blakeley, who, after three rears' 
service in the war of the rehellion, took up the study of medicine, and 
in 1872 located at Jones, heing the first physician of that place. He 
also conducted a drug store. Otis Moor, deceased, a graduate of the 
Rush Medical College in 1872, was for some years located at Williams- 

The personnel of the medical ]irofession of Cass county at this 
writing is as follows : 

Cassopolis — T. W. Anderson, M. H. Criswell, Fairfield Goodwin, 
Marion Holland, G. A. Hughes, J. H. Kelsey, W. C. McCutcheon, H. 
H. Phillips, and Dr. R. Fl. von Kotsch. 

Dowagiac — William W. Easton, George W. Green, George R. 
Herkimer, J. H. Jones, \\'. J. Ketcham, S. H. McMaster, C. M. Myers, 
^^'illiam E. Parker, Clarence S. Robinson, M. P. White. 

Marcellus — C. E. Davis and Ernest Shellito. 

Vandalia — S. L. Loupee, E. C. Dunning, Otis E. Newsom. 

Edwardsburg — E. W. Tonkin and E. B. Criswell. 

Pokagon — Charles A. Morgan and William A. Skeler. 

Jones — C. C. Fenstermacher, J. V. Blood. 

Union — Edgar A. Planck. 

Penn^ — J. C. Huntsinger. 

Wakelee — Edward Wilson. 

Calvin — John Harris, U. S. Kirk. 

Adamsville — WMlliam F. Lockwood. 

In Cassopolis Dr. .Anderson is probably the ranking physician in 
point of seniority. Dr. Criswell (see sketch) has been located here since 
1900, although he has practiced in the county much longer. Dr. Good- 
win, now retired from acti\e practice, was captain of a company of 
Michigan cavalry in the rebellion and did not complete his medical edu- 
cation until after the war. He liegan his practice in Cassopolis in 1874, 
and has been active in business, especially in real estate, as well as in 
his profession. Fie built Hotel Goodwin and is its landlord. 

Dr. Holland, who came to Cassopolis from Edwardsburg in 1895, 
was a graduate of the medical department of the State University in 
1875, and from the dental department in 1877. He located in Edwards- 
burg in 1880 and conducted a drug store in connection with a general 


Dr. (I. A. Hughes, wlni h.ns practiced here for the past thirty years, 
was reared in St. Josepli cnuntw this state. He is a specialist in eve, 
nose and throat diseases, hesides a general practice. 

J. H. Kelsey. the successor in ])ractice of liis father. Dr. W. J., was 
horn in CassopoHs October 3, 1878, graduated from tlie niechcal depart- 
ment of the State University and lias since practiced in Cassopolis. 

\y. C. ^McCutcJTenn, whose sketch will be found elsewhere, has l>een 
practicing in Cassopolis since 1894. He was prepared at the Royal 
College of Physicians and Surgeons at Kingston, Ontario, and gradu- 
ated from Queen's University. On coming to Cassopolis he was a |)art- 
ner of Dr. Goodwin for a time, and has also served two years as county 

Dr. H. H. PhilliiJS, wlio is one of the oldest practicing iihvsicians 
in the county, was born and reared in Xew York, served in the Ci\il 
war from Minnesota, and fmm that state came to Cass county in March, 
1866. He has been engaged in general practice since the S])ring nf 1868, 
and until ten years ago was located at X^andalia. 

Dr. P. H. von Kotscli is a recent addition to the ranks of the pro- 
fession in Cass county. 

Dr. \y. W. East(in. who has been a resident of Cass countv nearlv 
all his life, and in Dowagiac since 1880, was born in Siber Creek 
t(T\vnship in 1853, attended Notre Dame University and graduated from 
Bennett Medical College in 1877. 

Dr. George R. Herkimer, homeopath at Dowagiac, was born at 
Niles in 1866. attended \lliion College and the University of ]\[ichigau, 
and since graduation from the Hahnemann College at Chicago in 1890 
has been located in Dowagiac. 

Dr. J- PI- Jones, who was born in New York in 1861 and came 
to this state at twenty-one, taught school and graduated from the I'ni- 
versity of ]\Iichigan in 1803, and since 1804 has been practicing in 

Dr. \X. J. Ketcham, Imrn in New York Cit>- in 1850, came to this 
county in i860, read medicine with C. P. Prindle, graduated from the 
medical department of the Uni\-crsity of Michigan in 1875, and after 
several vears" practice in \^olinia located permanenth^ at Dowagiac. 

Dr. H. S. McMaster was born in New York in 1842. Ser\ed in 
the war, studied at Albion College, prepared for his profession in several 
schools, finally graduating from Bennett Medical College of Chicago, 
and located at Dowagiac in 1871. being the first city physician there. 


Dr. C. ]\[. ]\lyers, who was born in Pokagon township in 1864, 
stndied at Valparaiso, tanght scliool in country and town, and followed 
a year's private study with three years in the Chicago Hahnemann Med- 
ical College. 

Dr. Clarence S. Robin.son is another Cass county alumnus of the 
Bennett Medical College, from which he was graduated in 1880. He 
then located at Volinia and in 1894 in Dowagiac. Dr. Rohinsun was 
born in \\'akarusa, Indiana. 

Dr. yi. P. White, wlio has practiced at Dowagiac since 1880, was 
born near \\akelee, this countv, was a student at the \'aIparaiso Xor- 
mal. and graduated at the medical department of Northwestern Univer- 
sity. He began practice at W'akelee. 

Dr. W. E. Parker has Ijeen practicing in Dowagiac for nearly twenty 
years. Born in Jefferson township in this county in 1854, he studied 
with Tompkins and Kelsey, and in 1879 graduated from Rush Medical 
College. He practiced in CassojMlis four years and in Three Rivers five 
years, and since then has been in Dowagiac except one year. In 1891 he 
graduated from the Post-Graduate Medical Sch(X)l of Chicago, where 
he specialized in the diseases of the e\e. ear, nose and throat, ami gives 
attention to this branch besides his general practice. 

At Marcellus Dr. C. E. Davis is the senior physician. He was 
born in Ohio in 1846, came to Cass county in 1861, served in the Civil 
war, and in 1869 began practice, which was interrupted by two years of 
study in the medical department of the Uni\'ersity of Pennsylvania, from 
which he was graduated in 1873. He has 1>een located in Marcellus 
since 1874. 

Dr. Charles .\. Alorgan of P(ikagnn has been established in that 
vicinity since his graduation from the medical department of the State 
Uni\-ersity in 1871. He is a nati\-e of \\'ales, came to Cass comity when 
seven years old. and took part in the war of the rebellion. 

Dr. Donald A. Link, whose death occurred by drowning in On- 
tario August 15, 1906. was born in that ])rovince of Canada October 22, 
1865. studied medicine at McGill University and graduated from Detroit 
College of Medicine in 1895. after which he came to Cassopolis. He 
spent two years in the Klondike, and on his return in 1900. located in 
Volinia. where he practiced till his death. 

The majority of the physicians in the smaller centers are young men 
who have recently located in practice, although this statement in no way 
reflects upon their ability and standing in the profession. As indicated 


in the list above gi\-eii, all portions of the county are represented by 
medical men. Cah'in township, with its large colored population, is 
served by two colored i)h}-sicians. 

The practice of dentistry is no longer a sulxirdinate branch of a 
regular physician's practice, but has attained the rank of a separate pro- 
fession. Its requirements in the way of natural altility and technical 
preparation are constantl}- lieing raised, so that the dentistry of today 
compares with that of twenty years ago about as the delicate work of 
the watchmaker compares with that of the blacksmith. Cass county's 
representati\-es in this profession are the following named: Cyrus H. 
Funk, Farnum Brothers ( S. A. and S. J.), C. W. Martin, of Cassopolis. 

Physicians of this dav acknowledge and appreciate the value of pro- 
fessional association. The bonds of common interest and mutual help- 
fulness are being drawn more closely in the numerous organizations 
whose membership is drawn exclusively from the ranks of the profession. 
The Cass County Medical Society was estal^lished some years ago as an 
independent body, but has in recent times been affiliated with the State 
Medical Society and. tliereby, also with the American Medical Associa- 
tion. Thus it has the same constitution and bv-laws as all similar so- 
cities in the counties of the state. 

Dr. F. A. Planck of Union is tlie president of the Cass County 
Medical .Society for 1906; the secretary is Dr. McCutcheon of Cassopo- 
lis. The society meets once each three months, their time of meeting 
being technically defined as the last Thursday following the full moon 
in December, March, June and September. It is the general practice 
to have papers on two medical subjects read at each meeting, followed by 
discussions. Important cases are often brought up for clinical discus- 
sion. The membership of the societv includes a majority of the active 
practitioners in the county. 

Though the present system of co-ordination of county medical so- 
cities and their affiliation with the state and national central lx>dics is 
of comparati\e1y recent date, the history of medical organization in 
Cass county goes l^ack more than half a century. The first medical so- 
ciety in the cotinty was organized in August, 1851. Of co^urse, similar 
objects have been proposed as the practical purposes of such societies, 
whatever their date, namely, the advancement of the professional stand- 
ard, social intercourse and the establisliment of a schedule of charges 
for services. 

The officers nf the first Cass Countv Medical Societv were : Pres- 


ident, Dr. D. E. Brown ; vice president, Dr. Henry Lockwood ; secre- 
tary, Dr. Alonzo Ganvood ; treasurer, Dr. E. Penwell ; standing commit- 
tee, Drs. I. G. Bugbee, J. Allen and B. XA'ells. 

This first organization in time ceased its functional activity. More 
than twenty-five years from the date of its founding another society was 
fomied. The first officers elected, for the year 1877-7S, were: Presi- 
dent, Dr. \\. C. Morse: vice presidents, Drs. A. Ganvood, L. Osborn, 
R. Patterson; secretary. Dr. \\'. J. Ivelsey; treasurer, J. B. Sweetland. 

The charter members of this society, besides those just named, were: 
Drs. L. D. Tompkins, F. Goodwin, J. Robertson, Edward Prindle, H. 
H. Phillips, Otis Moor, W. J. Ketcham, O. W. Hatch. 




'Jlie Ijar of (Jass county lias ne\er lacked men rif distinction bv 
reason of sound ability, depth of learning, forensic skill. an<l acti\e, \irile 
character. Such men have honored the i)rofession, have upheld the dig- 
nity of law and its institutions, and have been the strongest guarantee 
of healthful progress in all the lines of human activity. So broad is the 
field of modern jurisprudence, so peculiar and vital its expression and 
practice, that its ablest representatives are by no- means confined to one 
localitw ncir any one localitv necessarilv without several leaders in coun- 
sel and court practice. It is not our purpose here to state the distincti\e 
merits of the \'arious representati\es of the county bar, both past and 
present, but rather t(_i mention briefly those who have represented their 
professi<jn, if not al\\a_\s in an eminent degree, at least with that share of 
success and honor which has made their names worth}- of record in the 
history of the county. 

While the pioneers of the Cass county bar have, of course, passecl 
away, there are those of the present members to do them honor because 
of personal and professional association during the intermediate genera- 
tion while the first lawyers were going to their decline and the younger 
legal aspirants were attaining seasoned and successful activity. Two 
names are mentioned as the "first lawvers" of Cass county, designating 
men who were not less useful in civic and business life than in the law. 

The first of these, .Mexander H. Redfield, was born in Ontario coun- 
ty. New York, October 24, 1S05. A college-bred man, having spent 
three years in Hamilton College and graduating from Union College in 
1829, he studied la\\- and was admitted to practice in the supreme court 
of New York in July, 1S31. and in the following month arrived in 
Cass county. /\s elsewhere related, he was one of the original propri- 
etors of the site of Cassopolis, helped lay out the village and secure the 
location of the county seat, and was the first jxistmaster. He took part in 
the Black Hawk war as a colonel in the Michigan militia. He was a 
business man as much as a lawver. and his o|->erations in real estate took 
an increasing amount of his time and attention. He was also, drawn 


into the swirl of politics. In 1847, after sixteen years of residence in Cass 
county, he was elected to represent the fourteenth district in the Michi- 
gan senate, and his subsequent removal to Detroit deprived Cass county 
of its first lawyer and une jf its ablest pioneer men of affairs. There- 
after, until his death in i860, he was almost continuously de\-oted to 
public and political activity. Mr. Redfield was noted fnr his method- 
ical I'usiness and professional haliits, and his ability to pursue a rigid 
routine of details was given as a chief cause of his success. 

.Associated with A. H. Redfield in the formative events of Cassopo- 
lis' early history was another nati\e of New York state, but a somewhat 
earlier settler of Cass county. Born in Oneida county in 1803, E'ias B. 
.Sherman came t<i the tcrriti;ir\- of Michigan in 1825, was admitted to the 
bar in Ann Arbor in 1829, and in September of the same vear made his 
first accpiaintance with Cass county. He and ]\Ir. Redfield were attor- 
neys in the first court of the county. He was the only prosecuting at- 
torney the count)- had during the territurial period of Michigan. He was 
appointed to the ottice in November, 1829, and at the first popular elec- 
tion after the granting of statehood in 1836 was chosen to the office by 
general suffrage. He was the leading county official during the first 
years. He held the office of district surveyor si.x years, from 1830, and, 
dating from his appointment in March, 183 1, was Cass county's probate 
judge until i8.|o. He was more of a tnisted and honored public official 
than a lawyer, and in later }ears directed much of his attention to farm- 
ing. His death occurred November 14, 1890. 

In those years of historical beginnings the judicial circuit of which 
Cass county was a part embraced a varving number of counties, at one 
time practically all of southwestern Michigan. The first court of any 
kind held in Cass county was the two days' session of the circuit court 
held in August, 1831, at the house of Ezra Beardsley in Edwardsburg. 
Those were the days when the lawyers used to ride on horseback from 
one county to another on the circuit, put up at the hotel and attend the 
session of court. They used to tell stories and have jolly times. These 
peregrinations of the court were accompanied by a large force of lawyers, 
and it thus happened that many lawyers from adjoining counties were 
almost as well known professionally in Cass county as the few who had 
their residence in the county. Naturally the Cass county bar was numer- 
ically verj' small during the decade or so following the organization of 
the county and the establishment of the first courts. 

Among the law}-ers resident of outside counties but whose practice 


made tlieni familiar figures in this county might be mentioned Joseph N. 
Chipman, who spent a short time in Cass county, later going to Niles, 
where he died in 1870. He was known by his confreres as "Wliite 
Chip," to distinguish him from another well known Berrien county law- 
yer of that time, John S. Chipman, whose sobriquet was "Black Chip." 
Charles Dana, also a resident of Berrien, was, to quote the words of one 
who described him from personal knowledge, "a thin, dried-up, little 
man, with a remarkable feminine voice, but by all odds the best special 
pleader at the bar. Everybody liked Dana both for his goodness of heart 
and his unquestioned ability as a lawyer." The Cass county session of 
tlie circuit court was often attended in the early days by two noted Kal- 
amazoii lawyers. Charles E. Stuart and Samuel Clark. The former was 
a successful jury lawyer, but is specially remembered f(ir his later pnmi- 
inence in politics, having represented his district in Congress as a mem- 
ber of the and afterwards becoming one of the United States sen- 
ators from Michigan. Mr. Clark had also moved in the larger sphere 
of politics, and as a lawyer had the solid ability and the worth of per- 
sonal character which made his position secure among friends and pro- 
fessional associates. 

Although it is hardly proper to class his name among those of the 
legal pioneers, the career of James Sullivan, whose f(jrty years of practice 
in this county begrm in 1838. was of first importance in the history of the 
old-time lawyers. Born in New Hampshire December 0, 181 1, member 
of a distinguished New England family of Irish origin, he graduated 
from Dartmouth College at the age of eighteen, studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and after a brief period of practice came to Niles in 
1837. He soon moved to Edwardsburg, in this county, and from there 
to Cassopolis, and from 1853 till his death in 1878 lived in Dowagiac. 
For a long time he was prosecuting attornev of the countv, became a 
state senator, and was a member of the constitutional convention in 1850 
which formed the instrument which is \et the basis of Michigan govern- 
ment. It is said that Mr. Sullivan's success as a lawyer depended more 
upon his powers as a logician and close reasoner than as an orator. His 
high legal ability gave him distinction and influence in spite of serious 
defects O'f personal character and manner. He has been described as 
"eccentric, erratic, nervous and intense, and yet no man of gentler nature 
or kinder- heart has been known to the old residents of Cass county." 

Ezekiel S. Smith, ,-inother early practitioner, came to the county in 
1S4P, bearing a con'imission from Gov. Woodbridge as prosecuting 


attorney. After serving his term he practiced in the county, was also a 
merchant and one of the early editors. In 1852 he moved to Chicago, 
wliere he died in 1880. 

Judge Henry H. Coohdge, well remembered for his connection with 
the profession at Niles, where he died some years ago, was a resident 
lawyer of Cass county for about fifteen years. He settled at Edwards- 
burg in i83('), when t\venty-fi\'e years o](\, was admitted to the liar in 
1844, was elected jirosecutiug attorney in 1850, and moved from the 
county to Niles in 1859. He was at one time circuit ju<lge of the dis- 
trict comprising Cass and Berrien counties. 

The Cass county liar of todav is strcmg and aljle, and no disparag- 
ing word is intended when we sa)", in y\e\\ of an earlier time, "There 
were giants on the earth in those days.' The early lawyers left their 
impress on the jurisprudence of the state, and were largely influential 
for good in different phases of the early growth and development of 

Another lawyer wh<_) belongs; to the past in life and acti\'e career but 
whose influence is a force with the }et living, was George Brunt Turner, 
who was born in Franklin countv, New York, March i, 1822. He came 
to ]\Iichigan when thirteen years old and already entering upmi serious 
work, and from 1830 till his death was a resident of Cass county. Fie 
was one of those who got his legal knowledge largely under the direc- 
tion of Alexander H. Redfield. He was self-educated, and won promotion 
through the first grades by dint of ambitious and sustained effort. He 
was successful as a lawyer, but is also remembered for his activity in 
other fields. He was for several years editor of the first paper pulilisbed 
in Cass county, the Cass Comity Adz'ocaie, now the Natiiiiial Democrat. 
His [)artv affiliation akjne prevented him from accpiiring distinction in 
state and perhaps natirinnl jiolitical affairs. In 1848 he was elected a 
memlier of the stat« legislature and re-elected in 1849, -^"f' ^^'^s Dem- 
ocratic candidate for other offices. His death occurred .'vpril 15, 1903. 
Clifford Shanahan, who was born in Delaware in 1801 and died in 
Cass county in 1865, after a residence in the county of thirty-one years, 
was admitted to the bar in Cassopolis about 1845. He was best known, 
however, through his retention of the office of probate judge for the 
long period of twenty-four }'ears, from 1840 to 1864, a record that has 
been equaled since that time onlv by William P. Bennett, whose term 
began January i, 1869, and continued to his death, June 16, 1896. 
Dowasfiac's first resident lawver was Noel B. Hollister, who came 


to the cuuuty in 1850. He remained unly a few yeai"s, and in connec- 
tion with his law practice conducted a drug store. He served as cir- 
cuit court conimissiuner. 

A huvyer of uiuisual. ahilit_\- and experience, at one time circuit 
judge, and a man of atTairs in the Ijest sense, the late Daniel Black- 
man was a member of the Cass county bar twenty-one years and his 
inriuence still remains. He was born in Newtown, Connecticut, De- 
cember 31, 182 1. At the age of twenty-four he was admitted to the 
bar of his native state and after five years' practice in Danbury located 
in Cassopolis in July, 1851. He was elected in 1869, on a non-partisan 
ticket, to the position of cnx'uit judge. Resigning in No\'ember, 1872, 
he mo\-ed to Chicago and liecame a member of the liar of that city. 
He was liehind se\"eral moxements that resulted in material and civic 
improvement in his village, and should be remembered in particular as 
one of the men who did much to make Cassopolis a station on the Pen- 
insular Railroad (now the Grand Trunk). He died in Chicago in 1896. 
'Jlie late Judge Andrew J. Smith became a licensed memljer of the 
Cass county bar in the early fifties, and from that time to his death was 
active not onlv in the law but in official antl political life, the horizon 
of his influence lieing extended hevond the l)Ounds of the countv into 
the state at large. Through youth and early manhood he had to. strug- 
gle to reach the vantage ground on which he would pursue his chosen 
career. Born in Ohio Septemlier 2. 1818, at eight years of age he went 
with the family to the pioneer district of Indiana, where circumstances 
would not permit him to attend the full measures of the meager winter 
terms of the district school. He had to work his way. His election to 
the office of constable of Valparaiso at the age of twenty shows that 
he earlv gained the confidence and esteem^ of his fellow citizens, and 
from that time on he was much in ])ul)lic life. He was a teacher and 
pupil alternately for a numlier of years, and while reading law he sup- 
ported himself l>y teaching or clerking in a store. He located at Ed- 
wardsburg in 1840, seven years later moved to Cassopolis, where in 
1853 he was admitted to the bar and in the following year elected pros- 
ecuting attorney. He served altogether twelve years in this office. In 
1874 he was elected attorney general of the state. In the fall of 1878, 
on the resignation of Judge Henry H. Coolidge from the judgeship of 
the second judicial district, Mr. Smith was elected circuit judge, and 
re-elected for the full term in the spring r>f 188 1. His private life was 
in harmonv with hi^ public career, and there are many testimonies to 


his public-spirited and wholesome acti\-ity to be found among the rec- 
ords and his personal associates in the county. 

During the twelve years from 1853 to 1865 James .M. Spencer was 
an attorney in the county. He was admitted to the bar in Cassopohs 
in the former year, being at the time only twenty-one years old. He 
held the olTfice of justice of the peace at Dowagiac in Pokagon township, 
was circuit court commissioner two years and was United States 
assessor of internal rexxnue in the district comprising Cass count}-. 
From this county Air. Spencer mo\-ed tn Topeka. Kansas. 

Prominent among the lawyers who may be classed as the inter- 
mediate generation of the Cass county bar was the late Charles W. 
Clisbee. His connection with the Cass county bar began in the late 
fifties, and he was a contemiMrary of a group some of whom are still 
acti\-e in their profession. Mr. Clisbee was born in Clexeland, Ohio, 
July 24. 1833, and came to Cassopolis with the family five years later. 
He prepared for college at Oberlin, Ohio, entered Oberlin College, but 
spent the greater part of his collegiate career in Williams College, 
Massachusetts. He graduated from Hamilton College (New York), 
where he studied in the law school, in 1856, and two )ears later was 
admitted to the bar. B}- election in i86j he liecame pr(jsecuting attor- 
ney of Cass county. He was a delegate to the con\'ention which re- 
nominated Lincoln in 1864. In 1866 Cass county sent him to the state 
senate. INIr. Clisliee had a remarkably powerful \-oice. and much of 
his public career pivoted on this God-given talent. In 1869 he was 
appointed reading clerk of the national house of representatives, held 
, the office without interruption until 1875, ^"^1 '" December, 1881, was 
again appointed to that jxisition. He was also reading secretary of the 
Republican national convention in Chicago in 1880. Upon the resig- 
nation of Judge Coolidge he was appointed to the vacancy and served 
until Judge Smith, his successor, was elected. During the interims of 
his service at W'ashington he practiced his profession in Cassopolis. 
giving special attention to the pnisecution of pension claims, until his 
death, August 18, 1889. 

One of the versatile and scholarly men who have represented the 
Cass county bar in the past was Joseph B. Clarke, now deceased. He 
was born in Connecticut. Graduating from the Rensselaer Scientific 
School at Troy, New York, he prepared for his legal career at Roches- 
ter, N. Y. The capacity of his intellectual powers may te judged 
■^rom the fact that he was at various times editor of daily newspapers 


in Rnchester and Buffalo, was professor of chemistry and other sciences 
in the Vernnmt IVIechcal CoUege and elsewhere, as well as incumbent 
of \arious cix'il positions under the general government. From Cold- 
water, Michigan, he moved to Dowagiac in. 1859. He was a circuit 
court commissioner in this county, as well as in Branch C(mnty, was 
prosecuting attorney, ruid for many years United States commissioner 
for the western district of I\lichig;in. 

hV)r a number of years between 1859 and 1881 George Miller was 
a member of the county bar. with residence at Dowagiac. He ser\-ed 
as circuit court commissioner, and in 1868 was elected ])rosecuting .at- 
torney. He mo\ed from the count\' in 187 1. returned in 1875, and in 
]88i again left. His death occurred in Benton Harbor. 

During the sixties the county bar was honored by the membersbi]) 
of Jacol.) J. Van Riper. \vho afterward became attorne_\- general of tlic 
state. He was admitted to the Cass county bar in January. i8fl3. and 
remained in acti\e practice, with residence at Dowagiac, until 1872, 
when he mo\ed to Buchanan in Berrien county, where he was elected 
judge of profiate and served for eight years. He is now practicing 
law at Niles in that county. 

Freeman J. .\twell, deceaserl, who wris born in Orleans county. 
New York, in 1831, read law there, and during the course of the Ci\il 
war, in which he took a soldier's jiart, admitted to the bar, located iti 
Dowagiac in 1869, and ])y a successful practice made his career a jiart of 
the legal history of the county. 1m >r four years he was the county's 
prcseaiting attorney, and died INlarch 18, 1904. He is well remembei^ed 
among the former lawyers rif the county. 

Among Cass county's native sons whu aspired to legal prominence 
was John A. Talliot, who was horn in Penn township in 1847. He had 
an armv career, antl was a graduate of the law department of the Uni- 
versitv of Michigan. His career was one of promise, but was ended, 
after ten vears' practice, Jiv death in December, 1878. A noteworthy 
effort was the compilation of "Talbot's Tables of Cages." 

Another former member of the county Iwr and a native of Cass 
county was William G. Howard, who was born in Milton township in 
1840. He was a college graduate, and was admitted to the bar at 
Kalamazoo in 1869. In the following year he began practice at Dowa- 
giac in partnership with James Sullivan. In the same year he was 
elected prosecuting attorney. He transferred his professional connec- 


tions to Kalamazoo in 1873, where he continued the practice until his 
death, August 8, 1906. 

George Ketcham, whose death occurred in Minnesota, was horn 
in Mason township in 1850, graduated from Hillsdale College in 1873, 
studied law at Niles with the late Judge Coolidge, and was admitted at 
Cassopolis in 1874. He held the office of circuit court commissioner. 

Merritt A. Thompson, who practiced here during the eighties, was 
a product of Cass county, horn in Penn township in 1847. He gradu- 
ated from the law department of the State University in 1872, and had 
his office at Vandalia from 1874 to 1881, when he removed from the 
county, but later returned and died at the infirmary from mental afflic- 
tion November 21, 1901. 

Warner J. Sampson, who died at Cokhvater a few years ago, was 
admitted to practice in Cass county in 1880 and for some time was 
located at Marcellus, w'hen he went to Hillsdale, where he died. 

Jason Newton was admitted to the bar at Cassopolis and practicetl 
tliere fur a time. 

So much for those whose active connection with the bar of Cas.-- 
county has ceased. Tt is an impressive list. They were men of widely 
divergent characters and intellectual powers, but together they were 
worthy representati\'es of a noble profession. Comparisons between 
the past and the present personnel of the profession cannot be drawn 
here. Methods have doulitless changed in seventy years, the old-time 
lawyer might feel much nut of place among the present niemliers of tlie 
profession. The lawver nowadavs is often a jjusiness man and does not 
feel the professional cleavage which w-as cpiite pronounced forty or 
fifty years ago, when he was perhaps a member of a rather distinct 
professional class. But now. as then, the lawyers "comprise a large 
part of the finest intellect of the nation," an assertion made by a high 
authority which is, of course, as applicable to the smaller political 
divisions as to the nation at large. 

The present bar of Cass count\' is to be described separate! v from 
those already mentioned only liecause they are still living; not that 
there is a special set of characteristics to be assigned to each of the two 
groups thus made. As alreadv stated, some of those vet in acti\'e prac- 
tice were contemporaries or, at anv rate, juniors in service along with 
those who' have passed away. The associations and traditions, as well 
as the power of professional and personal influence, of the past, are 
still potent with the li\'ing members of the Cass countv bar. 


In tlic spring of igo'S tliere was elected to the office of circuit 
jmlgf (if the thirty-sixth judicial district a Cass county lawyer of over 
t\venty-rt\e years' experience in the courts and legal affairs of tb.e 
county. L. Burget Des Voignes (see sketch elsewhere), a native of 
Ohio and now in the prime of life, was admitted to the bar in St. 
Joseph county, this state, so<.)n after he had arrived at his majority, and 
a short time after graduated from the law department of the University 
of Alichigan, He practiced in ^larcellus from October. 1878. until 
the death of the Cass county probate judge, William B. Bennett, when 
lie was ap]niinted by the governor to the place and at the same time 
took up his residence in Cassopolis, He was re-elected to that office 
three times, and passed from that position to the circuit judgeship. He 
has also served as circuit court commissioner and as county prosecuting 

llie oflice of judge' of pnibate is filled by one of the younger mem- 
bers of the Cass county bar. Chester E. Cone came here from Indiana 
about ten years ago. became principal of the Vandalia high school, was 
then elected commissioner .jf schools, serving until succeeded bv Mr. 
Hale, the present commissioner. While in the office of commissioner 
he was industrious!}- reading law, and after a successful examination 
before the state examining board opened his oflice in Cassopolis, where 
he practiced until the resignation of Judge Des Voignes from the office 
of probate judge. He has also served as circuit court commissioner and 
is a member of the school board and the board of village trustees. 

The composition of the circuit court for the September term, 
1906, was as follows : 

L. Burget Des Voignes. circuit judge: George M. Fields, prose- 
cuting attorne\' : Carlton W. Rineharl, clerk; Edwartl J. Russey, sher- 
iff: Jacob Mcintosh, undersheriff: H. A. Sherman, reporter; Chester 
F. Cone, commissioner; Joseph R. Edwards, commissioner; William 
H. Hannon. deputy sheriff; Marcus S. Olmstead, deputy sheriff; George 
I. Nash, deputy sheriff'. 

An active attorne}' for twenty-eight years and from 1899 until re- 
centh' judge of the Cass-\'an Buren circuit court, John R. Carr is in 
many wavs prominent in the aft'airs of his county. Born on Prince Ed- 
ward's Island, British North America, May 18, 1841. alxnit the close 
of our Ci\il war he came to relati\-es in Van Buren county, Michigan, 
where lie made bis start by teaching district schools. In 1868 he en- 
tered the l:iw department of the University of Michigan, where two 


years later he was graduateil and admitted to the liar. ]\Ir. Carr tlien 
formed a partnership, which was to continue with success and profit 
for twenty-eight years, with Mr. M. L. HoweU. In 1899, as is well 
known, the judicial districts of southwestern Ivlichigan were recon- 
structed, anil whereas theretofore Cass had been linked with Berrien, 
and Van Buren with Kalamazoo, at the date mentioned each of the more 
populous counties was made into a separate district, and Cass and \'an 
Buren were made to form the thirty-sixth judicial district. .Vn electirm 
for circuit judge was then in order, and, contrary to the general trend 
of political matters in this section of the state and t(T the surprise, jier- 
haps, of both parties, a Democrat was the successful candidate in the 
new thirty-sixth. Mr. Carr was the fortunate gentleman to bring suc- 
cess to his party, and his ser\'ice on the circuit bench showed that the 
confidence of the electors was not misplaced. On his election he dis- 
solved his partnership with ]\Ir. Howell, and since retiring from office 
he has re-engaged in active practice. Air. Carr served as prosecuting 
attorney of the county four years, also two years as circuit co-urt com- 
missioner. He is a ruling elder and trustee and acti\'e worker in the 
Presbyterian church of Cassopolis, his home town. 

Joseph R. Edwards, circuit court commissioner, anil wIkj ser\-ed 
as county clerk two years, is one of Dowagiac's young lawyers and a 
justice of the peace in that city. 

A Cassopolis attornev who has also Ijeen in the official life nf the 
county is Ulysses S. Eby. He was born in Porter township of this 
county August 7. i<%4. An alumnus of the famous Valparaiso Nor- 
mal, after finishing his studies there he began teaching school in Cass 
county and continued that until elected county clerk in 1896. He held 
the ofifice two years. Returning to Valparaiso, he graduated from the 
law school and was admitted Iiefore the Michigan supreme court. He 
was elected prosecuting atti^rney of the count}-, and was associated in 
practice with Clarence M. Lyle. At present he practices alone. He is 
a member of the Cassopolis scliool board. 

George M. Fields, prosecuting attorney of Cass county, who is a 
resident lawyer of Dowagiac. has been an active member of the county 
bar for over ten years, and has held his present office since 1902. A 
more complete sketch of Mr. Fields will be found on other pages. 

The oldest practicing lawyer, both in point of age and of years 
since admission to the bar. is Lowell H. Glover of Cassopolis. He 
began his stuilies pri\ately at Edwardsburg, later with Daniel Black- 


man in Cassopolis, and since achnissiun to the bar in October, 1862, lias 
been in continuous practice. He bas beld the office of circuit court com- 
missioner; was ten years deputy comity clerk; elected justice of the peace 
in April, ]iS(j_', he has held the ot'l'ice to the present date, less one year; 
has held various village offices, and was postmaster during Cleveland's 
first term. Under the only Democratic administration that Michigan 
has had in the last forty years he was deputy commissioner of the state 
land oftice. 

Coy W. Hendryx of Dowagiac (see sketch elsewhere) studied 
law with his uncle, the late Spafford Tryon, one of the able men of the 
past, and was admitted to the bar in 1882. Appointed in i886', for 
twelve years he held the <iftice of United States commissioner of the 
western district of Michigan. He has also Ijeen a circuit court com- 
missiiiner and city attorney of Dowagiac. 

Marshall L. Howell of Cassopolis is an example of "the success- 
ful la\\}er in business." a combination which has been noted as one of 
the tendencies of the nrndern American bar. Besides caring for a large 
practice in the hical. state and United States courts, he is president of 
the First National ISank of Cassopolis. He was born in Cassopolis 
January 25, 1847, 'i-''' ^'1^ best educational opportunities, graduating 
from Kalania^'dn College at the age of twenty anil from the law de- 
partment cif the L'nixersily of ?i1ichigan in 1870-, and since that date has 
been in cnntinumis practice. He served as prosecuting -attorney one 
term, lieginning in 1874, and in 1876 was candidate for presidential 
electiir on the Democratic ticket. 

Charles O. Harmon is one of the younger Cassopolis lawyers. 
Horn in Porter townshi]). he has a long record of public ser^'ice. After 
ser\-ing four \ears in the office of register of deeds, he took a place 
in the office of the secretary of state at Lansing. During his three 
}ears in the state capital he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and 
on returning to this county opened his office in Dowagiac and sorm after 
at Marcellus. He then Imuglit a set of abstract books and l(x;ated at 
Cassopolis. Id is father, the late John B. Harmon, bax'ing died a few 
days after entering u])on his second term as couiit\- clerk, the son, 
Charles O., was elected to the vacanc_\- and cnmiileted his father's term 
with credit. 

;\nother new member of the Cass county bar is Clyde W. Ketcham 
of Dowagiac, who is rapidly coming into prominence in his practice. 
Born in this count\- tliirt\- vears ago, he attended the local schools. 


was in newspaper work awhile, and Ijegan studying law with Mr. C. E. 
Sweet. In i<S97 he was elected justice of the peace in Dowagiac, serv- 
ing one term. He completed his law studies in the University of Mich- 
igan, and after admission formed a partnership with Charles E. Sweet, 
but is now practicing alone. 

James H. Kinnane, the only president the Cass County Bar Asso- 
ciation has ever had, was born in Kalamazoo county in 1859, was ad- 
mitted to the bar some twenty years ago, and has practicetl in Dowa- 
giac since 1898. He has held several positions under the federal and 
state as well as local authority, and is at present city attorney of Dowa- 
giac. (See more extended sketch elsewhere. J 

Asa Kingsbun- Hayden, son of the postmaster of Cassopolis, a 
native of the county and a graduate of the Cassopolis high school, is 
an active member of the bar and representative of various insurance 
companies. An interesting fact about Mr. Hayden's career is that he 
graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan be- 
fore attaining his majority. Consequently he was unable to obtain bis 
diploma — equivalent to admission to the bar — and had to wait till 
time could confer upon him the full prerogatives for legal practice in 
the state of Michigan. 

Clarence M. Lyie, in ])ractice at Cassopolis since 1900, first in 
partnership with U. S. Eby and since December, 1905, with H. D. 
Smith, was born in Van Buren county in 1874, was educated in this 
state and in South Dakota, where he lived from the age of eight years, 
being a student at Dakota University. Returning east, he studied in 
the literary and law departments at Valparaiso, about 1898 was ad- 
mitted to the South Dakota bar, but in the same year came to Cassopo- 
lis. where he studied in the office of Howell & Carr and in 1900 was 
graduated from the law dejiartment at Ann Arbor. 

Frank Reshore, at one time connected with the legal i)rofessiun in 
this county, gave up the law for other vocations, which he still ])ursues 
in Dowagiac. Born in Ohifj in 1853 and brought to this county a year 
later, he graduated from the Dowagiac schools in 1870, and while clerk- 
ing in his father's store, read law, completing his studies by gradua- 
tion from the law department of the State University in 1875. 

It is a fact worthy of mention that a group of half a dozen law- 
yers whose professional careers identified them with Cass county were 
all born in Orleans' county, New ^'ork. From that portion of the 
Empire state, bv various mutes anrl influenced b}- different causes 


and circumstance^, they fDregjithered in Cass county. One of these 
is Harsen D. Smith, the well known attorney of Cassopolis. Born in 
the county mentioned March 17, 1842, he was a teacher in earlv life, 
and in 1867 was admitted to the har in Coldwater, this state. After 
se\-eral years' [iracticc in Jackson he came to Cassopolis in 1870 and 
formed a partnershi]! with the late Charles W. Clisbee; was with the 
late A. J. Smith until the election of the latter as circuit judge. He is 
now senior meniher of the firm of Smith & Lyle. When the thirtv- 
sixth judicial district was created he was appointed circuit judge to 
ser\e till the regular election, lie was ]irosecuting attorney four years 
and a numljer of years a member of the state board of pardons. (See 

Charles E. Sweet of Dowagiac, of whom more extended mention 
is made elsewhere, has been engaged in successful practice in the county 
for twenty years. He is another Cass county lawyer who came under 
the influence and tutelage of the late Spafford Tryon. Mr. Sweet 
ser\ed one term as justice of the jieace. twice as circuit court commis- 
sioner and twice as prosecuting attorney. 

John ^^'ooster of Dowagiac was born in Hillsdale count)-, ]\Iich- 
igan, in 1S47, taught school as a means to an end, graduated from 
Hillsdale College in 1873, 'i"*^' after reading law two years in Kalama- 
zoo was admitted to the bar. His first office was at Constantine, but 
the same }-ear he located in Dowagiac. He has ser\'ed as. city attorne\- 
four times. 

Other attrirneys whose names appear as active members of the 
Cass count}' bar are two voung law\ers at Marcellus, \\\alter C. Jones 
and Otis Huff, and Fred Pbilliiison of Dowagiac. 

From the preceding it will be seen that many changes ha\-e taken 
place in the personnel of the count}- liar in these years. Many new 
names have come into prominence, of men fitted to maintain and advance 
yet higher the standard of the past, whose talents, whose industry, w-hose 
devotion to the best ideals of the profession are not less worthy of ad- 
miration and honor than those same qualities ii-i their predecessors. 
Perhaps the most cons]-)icuous fact for comparison is that a larger pro- 
portion of the present niembers seem to have received collegiate train- 
ing, and an increasingly fewer number are being introduced to the jiro- 
fession by the old-time method of rough and tumble experience and 
diligent thunibing the pages of Blackstone under the inspiration of indi- 
vidual an-ibition. No doubt those whose experience covers both the old 


and tlie new would assert that tlie period of preparation lias been re- 
lievetl of many difficulties that characterized it in tlieir time; Ijut on the 
other hand, the novitiate — while the aspirant waits for his clients — 
would seem to be as trying and as uncertain now as ever. 

A few years ag'o a movement was made to organize the Cass 
Count}- Bar Association. The preliminary meetings were held, consti- 
tution and by-laws were adopted, officers elected, and the first dues 
were paid in by some of the members, but since the first flush of organ- 
ization the association has lapsed from activity, and now exists more 
by grace of its origin than by any manifestations of active energy. Its 
officers, who continue in office because their successors have never been 
elected, are: J. H. Kinnane, president: H. D. Smith, vice president; 
A. K. Havden, secretarv, and L. H. Glover, treasurer. 



Cass county presents a peculiar field for the study of American 
ability to assimilate races. Of the salient American stock the popula- 
tion of the county is typical in a high degree. The county is still rural. 
The distracting features of metropolitan life have not been introduced 
and with them the European racial elements which we find in manu- 
facturing centers. Its settlers, as we know, were drawn largely from the 
best stocks of the east, many from the Xew England states. Cass county 
citizens may truly he called re])reseiitati\e .\merican stock, a com- 
mingling of the best social elements and traditions. 

So much as regards the white Americans, and the ethnic varia 
tions presented by the Teuton and Slav, the Gaul and Saxon, who in 
varying proportions constitute the bulk of the population, are not to be 
discriminated in this article. But among this dominant race in Cass 
county are to be found two other races, and to what extent these are 
integrated with the bodies politic, industrial and social of the county 
it is the purpose of this article to inquire, at the same time recording 
the historical connectitjn of these two peoples with Cass county. Cass 
county's history becomes unique because of the presence of these three 
heterogeneous racial groups within its borders, and a chapter may prop- 
erly be devoted to this phase of its history. 

It is a remarkable fact that the epochs of American domestic his- 
tory have turned upon the two races whose representatives are now 
living side by side with the white citizens of this county. The annals 
of settlement and expansion in America from the landing of the May- 
flower immigrants to the final winning of the great west from the 
wilderness were marked with conflict with the red men, who were the 
aboriginal possessors of the land. And the introduction of the black 
race from Africa at about the same time with the landing of the Pil- 
grims sowed the seed which more than two centuries later bore fruit in 
the Civil war, the crisis of the nation's existence. And now, in the 
peace and prosjierity of the twentieth century, the destinies of the three 
raciallv distinct people are l.ieing wrought to the infinite purpose while 


dwelling side by side in Cass county. It is from this higher historical 
viewpoint that the history of the Indian remnant and the negro colony 
of Cass coiinty should be considered. 

At an earlier point in this narrative w'e have related how Pokagon 
and his followers would not sign the Chicago treaty until they had 
been exempted from the clause providing that they leave their ances- 
tral home. Old Chief Pokagon was an Indian above the average in 
character and intelligence, understood the advantages to his race of 
civilization and was devoted to the Catholic religion, which the mis- 
sionaries had taught him. It was his purpose to settle his people in their 
old home anil as far as necessary conform to the institutions and laws 
of the white people. In effecting this he first directed his efforts to 
securing title to sufficient land for his tribe, and used his influence to 
invest the cash apportionment of his followers in a tract of land in 
Silver Creek township, which, though entered in the name of Pokagon, 
was really owned in severalty. In the original land entries Pokagon's 
entries, \\hich were nearly all made in the winter of 1836-37. con- 
sisted of the following tracts in Silver Creek: Section 11, 296 acres: 
section 14. 258 acres: section 21, 160 acres: section 22. 160 acres — in 
all 874 acres in his name, all located in adjacent sections of the town- 
ship and in the vicinity where the present Indian community lives. 

On this land Pokagon's people lived, maintaining in part their 
tribal organization and in part the relations of American citizens. The 
church which they built and which becahie the center of Catholic in- 
fluence in the county is elsewhere described. While Pokagon lived all 
went well. After his death in 1841 his son Pete became chief and dis- 
sensions arose that did' much to disintegrate the tribe. The last cen- 
sus shows only eight or nine Indian families in Silver Creek. The 
last government annuity was given them in 1865 and with the cessn- 
tion of this allowance all reason for the tribal organization passed. And 
vet the Indians clung to this form of social organization, and when 
Simon Pokagon died about six years ago, being the last of the Pokagon 
line and thus ending the chiefhood in the family inheritance, the remain- 
ing number, following the custom of generations, came together and 
proceeded to elect Lexis, one of their number, as chief, thus tenacious- 
ly holding on to old forms and customs. Further, a petition was' made 
to the Indian commissioner that Tom Topash be appointed interpreter 
between the government and the Indians. But the reply came that an 
interpreter was no longer needed, that the relations between the gov- 


cnmu'iit al Washington and this remnant of Pottawottomies had ceased, 
and that with the discliarging of tlie last debt a few years ago tlie de- 
scendants of Pokagon's band were placed upon the same individual 
basis with all other American citizens. For these Indians in northwest 
Cass county are citizens. They attend the town meeting and vote, are 
safeguarded and restrained by the same laws, churches and schools are 
open to them, and the Indian community of Cass county has nothing in 
commiin with the picture that usually rises in the mind at the mention 
of America's aboriginal race, dwelling in wigwams, the men lying at 
indolent ease on the ground and the women scratching the soil with a 
stick, and such other illusions as will always be associated with the In- 
dian race. 

Ln general reputati(jn for thriftiness and substantial character, the 
Boziel family, residing northeast of Siher Creek church, are the lead- 
ers of the settlement. They own about a hundred acres and are well 
liked in the country. Thomas Topash is chairman of the business com- 
mittee of the Catholic church, and his uncle, Ste\'e Topash, near the" 
tiiwn hall, is anrither well known Indian. 

The \eteran of the community is Alexander Bushman, a half- 
breed Shawnee, whose maternal grandfather was a wdiite man, made 
a prisoner 1j_\- the Shawnees in the Revolutionary war, continued to 
li\'e with them and act as interpreter when this tribe was removed to 
the Osage river west of St. Louis, and becaiue a well-to-do farmer and 
frm't grower. The latter's daughter moved with the Shawnees to Kan- 
sas and married a white man naiued Bushman, one of their children be- 
ing .\le.xander, who is now seventy-eight years old and has lived with 
the Pottawottomies since he was ten years old. He is a shrewd and 
intelligent old man, and having been ]ilaced in positions of resijonsibil- 
itv in acting for hi^ people in their relation with the government at 
various times, he has had opportunities tO' oteerve and compare and 
judge his people from a larger point of view. He speaks of his family 
with pride evidently born of his white blood as "working people." He 
hiuTielf was trained in a manual labor school and learned how to work. 
He married in Kansas, and after the war he came to Michigan on ac- 
count of relatives of his wife who li\ed here. Bushman was pleased 
with this country, and, ha\-ing money, be bought land near the town 
hall in Silver Creek and there has lived to the present time. 

"The Indian is spoiled by ,gi\ing him too much money" is one of 
the facts of Indian character that he states from his observation and 


experience. "The Indians' are good workers, but are withdut steadi- 
ness and continuit}- of purpose: they take httle interest in their homes 
and farms as compared witli the white people, and seem, as it were, 
stranded on the shores of civiHzation, ahke unable to re>.ert to their 
former condition or to possess and become a part of the life in which 
they live. The love of personal display is strong among our penple. 
They will, when money comes to them, buy top buggies and other 
luxuries to the neglect of home comforts and personal necessities. Their 
social diversions are refined from. the old customs. They have dances 
for which the music is often furnished by Indian fiddlers, antl liig din- 
ners follow these routs, which are often the aftemiath to wood-cutting 
bees. But the bane of my people, as it has been for generations, is 
drink, and the Indian character seems powerless against this tempta- 

Such was his estimate of his own people, and in the main it seems 
just. The judgment of a white citizen who has had close relations with 
these people was much more severe, but it was directed mainly against 
the Indian lack of thrift and inability to perform the duties and re- 
sponsibilities which are the lot of white citizens. To measure the In- 
dian strictly by the commonest standards of white people seems unfair. 
In point of intelligence the comparisons result more favorably. The 
Indian children who attend the district schools are not rated inferior 
in this respect to their white mates, and the teachers who ha\e had such 
children under their direction find little cause of disparagement. 


In 1836 a fugitive slave named Lawson came tiT Cabin township 
with a Quaker preacher named Way. Lawson was the first negro set- 
tler of Calvin township and Cass county, so far as known, and was the 
pioneer of the movement which in a few years made Cass county a ref- 
uge and secure retreat for the lilack race. But the first comers of this 
race were accidental settlers, and nothing in the nature of a definite 
mo\-ement of the unfoilunate people began until the later forties. 

It was the Quaker settlement, elsewhere described, which undoubt- 
edly was the first cause of Cass county's colored settlement.. Due to 
the uncompromising anti-slavery attitude of the Friends, it was among 
the settlements and following their general line of direction that the 
institution of the "underground railroad" flourished. The "under- 
ground railroad" for the transportation of fugitive slaves from the 


soutli to free Canada is so closely identified with the slavery period and 
hence so familiar a topic of American history that no description is 
needed here. But it should be stated that Cass county was on the direct 
route of this "railroad," and according to some writers was the junc- 
tion point for the lines from Illinois and froni Indiana, which con- 
\'erged here. As the slaves were hurried along this route it happened 
that some of them stopped in Cass C(junty, finding homes and pn.itec- 
tion among the abolitionists and their own peojile. For already a col- 
ony of freed negroes had located in the county. The majority of these 
were originallv from North Carolina, having first taken up their homes 
in the north in L'jgan county. Ohio, and about ii'^45 or 184O, owing to 
the cheapness of land in this county, as well as to the settlement of their 
white friends and sympathizers from the same part of Ohio, came in 
considerable numbers to Cass county. Many of these freed negroes 
purchased small farms and became, as it were, the backbone of the col- 
ored settlement. Among these early settlers were Hars-ey Wade, Neu- 
som Tann, Nathaniel Boon, Turner and Crawford Byrd, Kitchen Artis 
and Harrison Ash. A little later the colony was augmented through 
the provisions of the will of a Cable county. Virginia, planter named 
Sampson Saunders, who left $15,000 with his administrators for the 
purchase of land and the settlement of his liberated slaves in a free 
state. Cahnn township, with its cheap lands and friendly abolitionists, 
was selected as the site of this colony, and the Saunders colony, con- 
sisting of four brothers and their families and others, was a very inv 
portant addition to the negro population of the county. 

The extent of the migration and the distribution of the colored 
people can lie veiy well understood fronn the census of 185O'. At that 
date there were 10.518 white persons of the county and 389 negroes. 
lujualh- distributed, the colored people would have been a mere 
sprinkling in the county. But two townships contained two-thirds of 
the entire number, so that they were already a very noticeable element 
among the population. Cah'in township had the largest number then 
as today, there being 1,58, negroes to 466 whites. In Porter township 
there were 105 colored to 1,154' whites, and. the, other townships rep- 
resented by this race were Howard with 72 colored persons,, Penn with 
31, Ladrange and Cassopohs with 15, Jefferstm with 5, and Silver 
Creek with 3. 

With such a considerable ctjlored population, among whom was a 
number of fugitive slaves, .it was ine\'ital>le that Cass county should 


attract considerable attentirm in the snutli, mit only among" the slaves, 
but from the \vhites wliose blacks had escaped them. The planters of 
Bourbon count}-, Kentucky, had suffered especial loss from escajiing 
slaves, many of whom had taken refuge in Cass and Calhoun counties. 
The presence of the slaves in this county led to a concerted mo\-ement 
on the part of Kentuckians for their recapture, an event which has 
come down through history under the familiar name "f the "Kentucky 
Raid." It is nut to be understood that the raid was made against a 
single locality and by (Jiie party of slave hunters. The Kentuckians di- 
rected their efforts to a broatl field and carried on their (iperations fur 
a considerable period of time, involving many separate expeditions, 
each with its own account. Hence the many versions of the raid are not 
contradictory, but describe the movement of different parties. Also, 
these raids extended over a period of several years, beginning with 1847. 

One of the chief parties of raiders from Kentucky came to this 
count v in August, 1847. Although they maintained secrecy in tlieir 
intentions and directed their movements in the same manner that \\ould 
characterize a gang of horse thieves, it is noteworthy that they clearly 
had the laws of the United States to support them in reco\-ering their 
fugitive slaves and were compelled to act co\'ertly only l^ecause of the 
hostility of the citizens to the institution of slavery. It was humane 
anarchy set against legalized oppression. 

The Kentuckians first had their headquarters at Battle Creek, but 
opposition to their plans was so determined that they moved south to 
Bristol. Ind., whence they directed their movements intO' Cass county. 
Setting out at night, in several detached parties, they endeavored tci 
round up all the slaves that belonged to them and of which they had 
been furnished information. In the course of the night they paid visits 
to Josiah Osborn, the East .settlement, in Calvin township, Zachariah 
Shugart near Vandalia and Stephen Bogue, names of the most influen- 
tial Quakers and abolitionists in the countv. At each of these houses 
one or more negroes were captured and carried awav bv their former 

But before the southerners could collect the slaves and get away 
from the county the alarm had been spread by Bogue and Shugart, and 
a large party of citizens armed with guns and clubs stopped the progress 
of the Kentuckians and compelled them to go to Cassopolis, where they 
might prove their ovvuership of the blacks before a regular justice 
court. Excitement ran high that morning, and as the crowd of slave- 


owners, negroes an<I citizens ])ressc(l on from near \'aiulalia to the 
county seat the news si>rca(l to all jiarts of the C(Hint)-, and when the 
strange procession arri\c(l an immense throng had gathered ahout the 
court house. 

riu' legal ]>roceedings turned upon a writ of haheas corpus, rec|uir- 
iug the Kentuckians to show cause why the negroes should not be released 
I'l-oni custody. Ceorge B. Turner was retained as attorney for the 
Kentuckians ;md James Sullixan and I"!7,ekiel S. Siuith acted in he- 
h.alt of the fugitives. The case was tried before Circuit C(jurt Commis- 
sioner MclKain fi-oni I'.errit'u count}', who, illegalh', so it was later 
decided, had come from that connt\' to hear the case in the absence 
of .\. II. Kedlicld, ol (ass couutw The commissioner decided ad- 
versely to the Kentuckians. and at once the nine slaves were liberated 
.ind the same night were lunrieil <uU of the counl\' li\ A\a\ of the 
underground railroad. 

The sl.'ue owners — n.ames, so far as preserved, were Rev. 
.\. Stevens, llubli.ard lUickner. C. P.. Rust, John ].. Craves (sheriff of 
llouibon count} ), James Scott, (1. W. llrazier, Thornton Timlierlake, 
and Messrs. Ilristow and Lemon — were thus deprived of anv recoiu'se 
so far as local courts were concerned, mid in February. iS4cS, brought 
suit to recover the v.ahie of their lost slaves in the United States Cir- 
cuit L'ourt for ilu' 1 )istrict of Michigan. Thornton Timberlake was 
the plaintiff r.;nned. and the defendants were Josiah Oslxjrn, Jefferson 
Osborn, bllison ( )'~liorn. 1 )avid T. Xicholson, Ishmael Lee, William 
Jones and hdicne/er Mcllv.ain — all ]iromincnt men of this county e.Kcejit 
Mr. MclKain, who, acting as circuit court commissioner, had liberated 
the sla\es. The case was not heard until Jann.ary, i<S5i, when the 
jnrv stood ciglit to four in favor of the plaintiff. The case was then 
compromised !)}• the defendants ])a}iug a thousand dollars and costs, 
which amounted to .about $3,000. Thus noniinalh- the Kentuckians 
.got justice, but their slaves were gone and it is said that their attorneys 
took as fees ;i]] the monc}- paid over by the defendants, so that virtually 
the Cass count}- abolitionists trium])hed in their sturdy opposition 
to sla\erv whether -^.inctioned b}' l;iw or not. 

The history of the Kentucky raid has been briefly sketched since 
the two pre\-ious histories of the county ha\e described the circum- 
st.ances with considerable <letail at a time when some of the ]irin- 
ci])al actors were \ ct living .and nothing cotdd be added to their ac- 
count-'. The incidents are not.'ible in themselves and form a very iiii- 


portant cliapter in tlic history ol Uie cnunl)' and nalion, while the 
movement ayainst slavery was gaining strength. C)l its elTecls on the 
negro colony in the cmmty. il is pmliahle thai it increased rather than 
retarded the llighl of fngiti\-cs to this \icinity. It advertised the 
county ni<ire hroadly as a safe retreat for slaws and also caused the 
slave owners to hesitate hefore taking forcihlc means of recovering their 

'Jhus tile negro ])opulation of the county continued on the in- 
crease during the fifties. 'i'he free negroes continued to come here 
from Ohio and other northern states, and during that decade some of 
the men settled who hecame the leaders of their race. Isaac P. Slew- 
art came from ()hio in 1X54, and heginning with eight\' acres in CaKin 
township hecame a man of suh'^tance as years passed on until he owned 
between two and three Inmdred acres. Samuel 1 lawks, now one of tiie 
wealthiest and most inlluenlird men u\ CaK'in township, settled here 
before the war and hv indnslr\- and good management found the key 
to success, (ireen .\llen, now deceased, at one time paid the largest 
tax of any man in Calvin. lialon Nevvsom, grandfather of Dr. \ew- 
som, of Calvin Center, and James A. Alitchell, all from ( )hio, were 
good reliable citizens and res]5ected throu,ghoiU the conimuuity. Tur- 
ner Byrd, who came from North Carolina by way of Logan county, 
Ohio, and who was an early settler about Chain lakes and founder and 
pastor of the Baptist church there, was a successful man and tliovigh 
uneducated was thoroughly respected by both while and black. Har- 
rison j\sh was another whose promises were relied upon with the 
surety that indicates strength of character. William Lawson came into 
the county in 1853 and was the first merchant among his race, and also 
a good farmer. Some of the older citizens still Hving, besides Mr. 
Hawks, already mentioned, are William Allen, a son of Josepli Allen 
and nei)hew cjf Green Allen, who is admittedly one of the ablest busi- 
ness farmers in Cass county, and who made his money by hard work 
and economy; Jesse W'. Madrey, of C'assoiwlis, wdio came to the county 
in 1852 as a l^oy, and has won a home and substantial place in the 
regard of his fellow citizens; and C. W. Bunn, who years ago Ijegan 
a sawmill Inisiness in CaKin after the timber had supposedly laeen 
used up, later establishing himself in the lumber business at Cassopolis, 
and owns property both here and at South Bend. 

W^iat estimate shall l>e placed upon this unique colored settle- 
ment, which at the present lime in Cah'in lownshi]) iiossesses the ma- 


jority (60 per cent) of the population and a large proportion of the 
lam! and wealth, liesides exercising a cimtrdlling influence in politics, 
religion and education? Let the foremost representative of tlie colored 
ranee answer this cjuestion in his own words. In 1903 Booker T. 
^Vashing■ton contributed to the Outlook an article entitled "TwO' Gen- 
erations Under Freedom," in which he described at length this interest- 
ing C(ilnn\- in Cass ccjunty. The article is one of the documents (jf 
Cass countv history, and this chajiter may Ije concluded with the quo- 
tation of its salient points together with a very few comments on the 
part of the present writer: 

"When I visited Calvin township recently," says Mr. Washington, 
"I found that it contained a population of 759 negroes and 512 whites. 
In addition to these a large negro population had overflowed into the 
adjoining tn\vnship nf Porter, and to some extent into' all but two of the 
towns in the cnunty. As 1 dmxe from Cassopolis in the direction 
of Calvin township, we soon began going through well cultivated 
farms and past comfortable-looking farm houses. The farms fur the 
most part in their general appearance compared favorably with the a\er- 
age farms we saw in Alichigan. Many of the houses were large, at- 
tractive and well buill. The yards were made beautiful with grass, 
shruijbery and flowers, 'i'he barns, stock, poultry and other farm at- 
tachments were in keeping with everything else we saw. In our dri\e 
of nearly ten hours, in which we covered nearly thirty miles of terri- 
tory, through Calvin township and a part of Porter, we saw little to in- 
dicate that we were in a negm town except the color of the faces of the 
jieople. They were up to the a\erage of their white neighbors. 

"In a few cases it was interesting to see standing on the same 
])remises the small cabin in which the people began life years ag(.i, 
and then to see near it a modern frame cottage containing six or se\'en 
rtHims. To me it was interesting and encouraging to note to what 
extent these people 'li\'ed at home," that is, produced what the_\' con- 
sumed. My visit took me through the communitv during the harvest- 
ing season, and at that time most of the farmers were engaged in 
threshing wheat and oats. On one farm we saw a large modern steam 
thresher at work, operated wholly by negroes and owned by a negro, 
Mr. Henry L. Archer. Mr. Archer not only threshed grain for the 
negro farmers in the township, but for the white farmers as well." 

]\Ir. Washington spoke highly, but in terms which all citizens 
would .•ip])ro\-c, of the successful colored men alxn-e mentioned, nnniel}'. 


William .\llen, Samuel Hawks, Cornelius Lawson, Jesse W. Madrey, 
and C. W. Bunn. Continuing his description, he states that "a c(jn- 
siderable number of the colored people of Calvin township own their 
homes, and many of those who are renting are doing so from negro 
landowners. In a few cases \\hite people in the county are renting 
property owned by negroes." 

With respect to political relations and civic performance Mr. 
Washington could lind no e\'idence that "there was any fricticjn l;c- 
lv\^een the two races. The county officials informed me that there 
were no reports of cheating at the ballot boxes, and that the affairs of 
the township were conducted as well politically as anv in the county. 
For some _\'ears it had been the boast of the negro tax collector of 
Calvin county that he was one of the first collectors to secure and pay 
into the county treasury all of the township taxes. * * * Each 
township in the county is entitled to one representative on the c<.)unty 
lx)ard of supei-visors which has the control of the affairs of the entire 
county. The representative of Cah'in is a l)lack man, and I was told liy 
several white people of the county that the negro supervisor \'oted in- 
telligently and conser\'atively. '" * * I was informed by several 
reliable white men of the count\' that there had never lieen an}' troulile 
worth menticming growing out of political differences. When the war 
between the states broke out, as soon as colored soldiers were permitted 
to enlist, practically every negro man iti the township who' was eligil>le 
enlisted and went to the front. As a result there is a Grand Army post 
in Calvin named Matthew Artis Post, in honor of one of the old set- 
tlers and soldiers. * * * Jn ^ly inspection of their church houses 
there were two things that specially pleased me. One was the fine and 
neat appearing parsonage which stood near the Chain Lake Baptist 
church: the other was the appearance of the gra\'eyard near the same 
building. The church house, the parsonage and the gravevard gave one 
a picture which made him feel he was in a "Massachusetts village. The 
graveyard was laid out in family plots, and most of the graves had 
marble slabs or headstones. There were evidences that the Ijurial place 
received systematic care." 

Since the enfranchisement of the negro no distinction is made 
between the white and colored men for jury service in the courts of 
the county, and among the jurors on the regular panel at each term of 
the circuit court are found colored men, both members from Cal\'in 
at the Septeml)er ( iqciG) term lielonging to that race. Reuben Bever- 


ley, now deceased, then of Cassopolis, was the first colored man to he 
summoned and accepted as a juror in Cass county. His son later served 
four years as register of deeds (if the C(junty. 

While DU his visit to the cciunl)- Mr. Washington took opportunity 
Id gain llie npinion of some of the white men whose positions made 
their judgment concenhng the race \aluahle. Judge L. B. Des Voignes 
spoke with con\icition of the impro\'ement of the material condition 
of the negr(jes tluring the preceding twent)- years, and of the decrease 
of crime among them. "I do not recall any instance where white resi- 
.dents of the township ha\e ohjected to colored people buying land 
there. 1 do not think there is any depreciation in the price of land. 
To a stranger buying land the colored residents might be an objection; 
but 1 do not think it \v(.)uld be to those who' know the colored people 
of Calvin. The cohered residents have helped to contribute to the 
])rosperity of the county, considering the opportunities they ha\-e had. 
There is a prosperous colored community in \'olinia, of not more than 
a hundred persons, and there are colored residents in several of the 
townships of Cass county." 

Mr. C. O. Harmon, then count}- clerk, corroborated the testimony 
of Judge Des Voignes, adding that the colored people were "quick to 
take advantage of impro\ements, such as the telephone and improved 
machiner}-. The merchants of Cassopolis find these people extra good 
customers. That may be one criticism to make — that they buy too 
freely for their own g(iod." ]\lr. C. C. Nelson gave as his opinion that 
whereas the people of Cahin were once haphazard and lawless, the 
township at (Hie time furnisliing two-thirds of the court business of the 
countw that conilition was now [last and the colored people had im- 
pro\fd more, proportionatelw than the whites. 

The editor of this history was cjuoted by Mr. Washington as 
sa^•ing that "the first generation of negro settlers were fine men — none 
fietter. The second generation was bad. The third shows a marked 
improvement But through it all the liest men have supported the law 
unfailingly. There is no social mingling. Init otherwise the relations 
of the races are entirel_\' friendly. I do not know of more than a 
dozen marriages between the whites and the blacks in the entire 

The observations and inferences of ]\Ir. ^^'ashington. though the 
result of a brief visit to his peo])le. must stand in the main as correct 
and judicious. The settlement will long deserve serious consideration 


and study as one of the notable experiments in the development of a 
racial community in mastering and adapting the principles of American 
democracy. Evidences of clannishness among the colored people are 
to be considered in a favorable light, since it seems that a wholesome 
integration of the race, independent, yet harmonious, is the true solu- 
tion of the "negro problem." The ideas of these people certainly tend 
to good citizenship and a desire for homes, schools and morality. Yet 
the struggles of the settlement in this direction have some pathetic 
shadows. It is confessed that the disturbing element in this colony 
comes from the injection of a lower type from communities which 
have not had the advantages of that in Cass county. As long, tlien, 
as the older settlers remain predominant, with the training in self-cun- 
trol and civic strength which "two- generations of freedom" give them, 
the welfare of the community seems to be assured. Ihit what if the 
stock be weakened by the withdrawal to the cities — which is certainly 
taking place among the younger people — and the infusion of inferior 
classes among those that remain? Can this small colony, enterprising 
and high-minded though it is. become tlie leax'en for the whole lump 
and succeed in communicating its inheritance to all those who come ? 
These questions need cause no immediate alarm, since all con<liti(ins 
point to progress rather than retrogression. 

Education and schools received little mention by Mr. Washing- 
ton because his visit to the county was during the summer vacation. 
The school at Calvin Center is entirely attended by negro children and 
taught liy a colore^! man, and several other schools ha\-e negro teachers 
and colored children in the majority. Comparing these with other 
schools for the race, especially tliose to be found in the smith, there is 
afforded ground for the highest satisfaction with the progress these 
people are making in education. A comparisim with one oi the schools 
in the same county supported and attended by the whites results to the 
advantage of the latter, as should be natural. The colored people 
believe thoroughly in schools and send their children to them as a mat- 
ter of course, but it is confessed that they are not so strict in keejiing 
them in school as their white neighbors, altlniugb the recent compulsorv 
attendance law will leave little latitude in that direction for either 

There is a difference of opinion regarding the power of the 
churches, some maintaining that their bold on the people is not so 
strong as formerly and that the ministers are not broadening as rapidly 


as the peiiple in their cuiiceiitions nf moral duties and the relatiims n( 
tlie church t(i society. The modern era has certainly hrout;iit man\' new 
interests which the older and less educated negroes did not have. Reail- 
ing is more general and it is prolialile that not a family with a settled 
home goes without a weekly ]ierusal of the local jiaper, and manv 
mctroiiolitan ])apers go out dail\- oxer the rural routes to these homes 
in CaKin and Porter. Literar_\- societies, fraternities and bands and 
other musical interests are not uncommon and indicate the widening 
scope of the people's training and progress. 

To the general obser\-er it seems that there is a tendency to seg- 
regation ni the race. This is encoiu'aging rather than to he considered 
with delicate tact in con\ersation. .\s the colored i>eople are becom- 
ing more independent and lietter ada])te(l to .\merican ideals, it seems 
that the bonds of race will bring them closer in their own social rela- 
tions and at the same time strengthen those relations in Inisiness, edu- 
cation, politics and activity for the general welfare wdiich do not recog- 
nize racial lines. By all means the jilanting of a negro cohnn' in Cass 
Count)- two generations agri has redounded to the credit of the world 
and a(l\-anced society one ste]) further toward the goal of aspiration 
and slri\-ing on the part of this age. And for Cass county it is no 
small distincti<in that it has been the arena on which some of the most 
interesting and pressing ])roblems of race assimilation and ada|>tation 
ha\-e been ad\-anced to solution. 




The military history of Cass county has ah^eady been written in de- 
tail in the work of 1882. Fortunately the crises which demand almost 
unanimous outpouring of life and property in defense of country occur 
but rarely. The Sauk and Black Hawk war was the first martial event 
that concerned this county and, as we know, was too distant to cause 
more than an alarm an<l militia muster. The war with iNIexico marie 
comparatively small demand on the \-(ilunteer fcirces nf the country, and 
no organization and perhaps no individuals from Cass county partic- 
ipated in that war. But the Civil war called for the county's best and 
bravest, and the call was not made in vain. The manhood of the state 
was drained off to fight in the south, and Cass county may never cease 
to be proud of the record her soldiers made in the rebellion. As stated, 
the history of our soldiers in that war has been fully written, not only 
in the Cass county history but forms a part of the annals of the state 
and nation. The detailed description of the movements of the regiments 
and divisions to which Cass county soldiers belonged does not, there- 
fore, seem to require repetition on these pages. But the names of those 
who enlisted from this county to fight on the battlefields of the south 
deserve space in every history of the county, and for this reason the 
individual records of Cass county soldiers in the Civil war are appended 
in full to this chapter. 

No regular organization was formed in this county for service in 
the Spanish-American war. Some individuals enlisted in the regiments 
formed in the state to fill out Michigan's quota, but so far as known none 
of these reached the field of action, most of the volunteers for that war 
getting their military experience in camp on American shores. 

Cass county has several representatives in the regular army and 
navy. In the list of Dowagiac high school alumni will be fcmnd brief 
mention of several who have attained rank in the army. Cassopolis 
is also proud of three young men now in the regular service of their 
country each with the rank of lieutenant, they being Frank M. Bennett 
and Steven V. Graham, in the navy, and Jay Paul Hopkins in the army. 




The following records represent the enlistments and service of Cass 
comity men in the various regiments of the northern armies. In a few 
cases an entire company of a regiment would be composed of Cass county 
boys, but as a rule the roster of the regiments show those from this 
county distributed through the companies, occasionally only one Cass 
county soldier being found in a company. But the compilation is thought 
to contain the names of all those \\-ho went from this cnimty. 

The indi\idual record consists generally of the dates of enlistment 
and of the muster out or discharge, or of the sadder chronicle of death 
on tlie field nv in hospital. The abbreviations used to con\'ey these 
and other facts are self-explanator}-. 


C0MP.\NY E. 

Capt. Daniel McOmber, Dowagiac. 

Capt. William H. Colburn, Silver Creek; 

com. April ii, 1865; m. o. Dec. 16, 1865; 

1st Lieut. May 17. 1864; Sergt. vet. Jan. 

I, 1864; Corp., July 26, 1861. 
First Lieut. William H. Clark, Dowagiac. 

May 17, 1864; declined com. 
Second Lieut. Nathan H. DeFoe, Dow- 
agiac, Jan. 22, 1S61 ; res. May 11, 1862. 
First Sergt. William T. Codding. Dow- 
agiac, July 22. 1S61 ; m. o. Sept. 16. 

Sergt. Jehiel Hall. Dowagiac. July 23. 

i86i ; killed at Stone River Dec. 31, 

Sergt. Cyrus Phillips. Dowagiac. July 22, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i. 1864; prom, ist Lieut. 

Co. F. 
Sergt. Leonard H. Norton, La Grange, 

Aug. ID, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i. 1864: died of 

wounds INIarch 5, 1864. 
Corp. William H. Colburn, Silver Creek, 

July 26, 1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; prom. 

Ist Lieut, from Sergt. 
Corp. Asher Huff, Dowagiac. July 26. 

1861 ; dis. for disability March 12. 1863. 
Corp. Comfort P. Estes, Dowagiac, July 

26. t86i ; vet. Jan. i, 1864: killed at 

Kenesaw June 18, 1864. 
Corp. Christopher Harmon, Dowagiac, 

July 26, i86t ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. 

Sergt. Dec. 16. 1865. 
Corp. Theo. De Camp. Silver Creek. July 

26. 1861 ; dis. for disability March n. 

Corp. William H. Clark. Dowagiac, July 

26, iSfii : vet. Jan. I. 1S64: m. o. as 

Sergt. May 28. 1865. 
Corp. Victor Wallace. Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i. 1864; m. o. as Sergt. 

Dec. 16. 1865. 
.\rnold, Desire, Silver Creek, July 26, 

1861 ; killed at Stone River Dec. 31, 

Brownell. Lorenzo D., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Nov. 18, 1862. 
Barrack, Jonathan A.. Calvin, Aug. I, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 17, 1862. 
Burhng, Robert G., Pokagon, July 26, 

1861 : dis. for disability Oct. 24. 1862. 
Bragg, Gustavus, Pokagon, Aug. 7, iS6t ; 

died of wounds at Trenton, Ga.. Sept. 

10. 1863. 
Caston, Hiram,, Jefferson. July 26, 1861 ; 

m. o., wounded, Sept. 16, 1S64. 
Cone, Hulett. Dowagiac. Aug. 31, 1861 ; 

died at Park Barracks. Kv., Nov. 5, 

Calhoun. Alliert, Aug. .so, 1861 : died in 

rebel liosp.. Wilmington, N. C. March 

5. i8fi5. 
Day. Lucius C. Dowagiac, July 26, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. i. 1864; m. o. July 15, 1865. 
Finehart. Daniel P., Pokagon, Tulv 26, 

1861 ; died Feb. 8, 1862. 
Fleming, James H., Voliuia. .\ug. — , 
t86i ; died of wounds at .Atlanta. Ga., 
Dec. 25, 1863. 
Heath, Edward C, Pokagon, July 26. 

1861 ; Corp-. ; 'died Aug. 23, 1862. 
Hill, James, Dowagiac, July 26,' 1861 ; vet. 

Ian. I. 1864: m. o. Dec. l6, 1865. 
Hanna; Nathaniel L.; Dbwagiac! Aug. to, 
1861 ; dis. for disability March 27, 18(53. 
Hover. John B., Calvin, 21, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. i, 1864: prom. Prin. Mus. 
Higgins. George W., Dowagiac. July 26, 
1S61 : dis. for disability ^Larch 27, 1862. 



Henderson, George H., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; m. o. July 15, 1865. 
Hitsman, Sidney, Dowagiac, July 26, 1861 

vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Higgins, Daniel, Dowagiac, Aug. i, 1861 

dis. Dec. 5, 1862. 
Krisher, John, Jr., Calvin. Sept. g, 1861 

vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. l6, 1865. 
Leonard, William, Cassopolis. July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; ni. o. Dec. 16 

L'!ca.s, Henry, Newberg, July 31. 1861 

vet. Jan. i, 1864; detached at m. o. 
Lewis. Edwin H., Cassopolis, July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1S64; dis. for disabil- 
ity April 18, 1862. 
Miller, William H. H., Calvin, July 26, 

1S61 ; vet. Jan. I, 1864; killed at Frank- 
lin, Tenn., Nov. 30. 1864. 
Munger. Charles A., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i, 1864; prom. 1st Lieut. 

from Sergt. 
Momany, Oliver F., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; wounded; transferred to Vet. Res. 

Corps Feb. t6, 1864. 
McDonald, Alva, Pokagon, Aug. 1, 1864; 

m. o. Oct. 3, 1864. 
Northrup, Adonirani, Calvin, Aug. i, 

1864; killed at Stone River Dec. 31. 

Nevill, John G., Dowagiac, Aug. i, 1864; 

W'ounded ; transferred to Vet. Res. 

Corps April 16, 1864. 
Orange, Andrew, Dowagiac. ."Vug. 10. 

1861 ; dis. Dec. 5, 1862. 
Peters, John, Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability May 26, 1862. 

Pierson, Bartley, Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability May 3, 1862. 
Corp. Peter Runimels, Silver Creek, July 

26, 1861; vet. Jan. I, 1S64 ; m. o. Dec. 

16, 1865. 
Rea, Albert W., Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. I, 1864; died of wounds Dec. 15, 

Spicer, George G.. iJowagiac. July 26, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i. 1864: m. o. Dec. 16, 

Shanafelt, Albert .•\.. Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; m. o. Sept. 28, 1864. 
Shanafelt. Herbert R., Dowagiac, July 26, 

1861 ; died of wounds Columbia, S. C. 
Shearer, James H., Dow-agiac, Aug. I, 

1861 ; died at Smithton, Mo., Jan. 29, 

Stevens, Joseph H., Dowagiac. Aug. i, 

1861 ; died of wounds July 7, 1864. 
Stevenson, Zimri, Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. i, 1864; ni. o. Dec. 16, 1865. 
Slurr, Joseph L., Calvin, Aug. i, 1861 ; 

m. o. Sept. 18, 1864. 
Tillotson, John D., Calvin, .\ug. I. i85i ; 

m. o. Dec. 16. 1865. 
Trenholm. Benjamin. Calvin. Sept. 9, 

1861 ; m. o. Sept. 16, 1864. 
Worden, Amasa P. R.. Dowagiac. July 26, 

1861 ; died of wounds .\pril 7, 1864. 


Morse. Abel S., Silver Creek, dis. for dis- 
ability Aug. 15, 1861. 

Row, Fred. P., Silver Creek: dis. for dis- 
ability Sept. 10, 1861. 

Stage, William, transferred to Sappers 
and Miners Sept. 5, 1861. 


Field ,^ND St.\ff. 
Col Chas. E. Clarke, Dowagiac, com. Oc- 
tober 16, 1864 ; m. o. as Lieut. Col. 
Sept. 7, 1865: com. Lieut. Col. Feb. I, 
T864; Maj. June 21, 1862; Capt. U. S. 
Army July 28, 1866; Brevet Major 
March 7, 1867. for gallant and meritor- 
ious services-in the siege of Port Huron, 
La. ; retired June 28, 1878. 


Sergt. Maj. Henry W. Ellis. Pokagon, 

com. May 13, i86i^; m. o. 20, 

Principal Musician Geo. L. Hazen, Calvin, 

e. Jan. i, 1862; vet. Feb. I, 1S64; m. o. 

Aug. 20, 1865. 
Musician John R. Lee, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. by order Sept. 20, 1862. 
Briggs. George, Porter, e. .^ug. 30. 1862 ; 

dis. by order July 22, 1865. 

Woodard, .Mvah. Porter, e. .\ug. 30. 1862; 
died of disease at Ft. Morgan. .\la.. 
Sept. 24, 1864. 

C0MP.\NY C. 

First Lieut. Jas. A. Ellis, Dowagiac. com. 

Dec. I, 1862; trans, ist Lieut, to Co. D, 

July 20, 1863. 
.Anderson, Andrew J., Calvin, e. Jan. 11, 

1864: trans, to 7th U. S. Heavy .\rtil- 

lery June 1. 1864. 
Freeman, Henry W., Porter, e. Jan. 20. 

1864; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps. 
Gilbert. Anson. W^ayne. e. Dec. 21. 1863 ; 

died of disease at New Orleans. La.. 

Oct. 12. 1864. 
Hawks. Henry. Mason, e, Jan. it, 1864: 

trans, to 7tb L^. S. Heavy .Artillery 

June I, 1864. 
Turnley. Hiram M.. e. .^ug. 20. 1861 ; dis. 

for disability March 28, 1864. 



Company D. 
Capt. Charles E. Clarke, Dowagiac, com. 

Aug. 20, 1861 ; prom. JNIajor. 
Capt. James A. Ellis, Dowagiac, com. 
Sept. I, 1863; resigned July 19, 1864; 
trans, ist Lieut, from Co. C, July 20, 
1863; 2d Lieut. Co. D, Aug. 20, 1861. 
First Lieut. Frederick J. Clarke, Dow- 
agiac, com. Aug. 19. 1861 ; killed in bat- 
tle at Port Hudson, La., May 27, 1862. 
First Lieut. William W. Mcllvaine, Cass- 
opolis. com. Sept. I, 1863; com. 2d 
Lieut, Dec. i, 1862; Sergt. Aug. 20, 
1861 ; resigned as ist Lieut. July 20, 

First Lieut Charles St. John, Dowagiac. 
com. March 7, 186^; m. o. July 20, 
1865; 2d Lieut. Co. F; Sergt. Co. D; 
vet. Feb. i, 1864. 

Second Lieut. John G. Allison, Porter, e. 
Sergt. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. i. 1S64: 
m. o. as Sergt. July 20, 1865. 

Sergt. Hiram Meacham, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 

Sergt. William O. Kellam, e. Aug. 20, 
1861 ; dis for disability April 30, 1S64. 

Sergt. Ira Coe. e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; prom. 2d 
Lieut. U. S. C. T. 

Corp. Charles K. Weil, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 
prom. 1st Lieut, ist La. Battery. Nov. 
29, 1862. 

Corp. Ira Coe, e. Aug, 20. t86i ; dis. at 
end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 

Corp. Thomas M. Sears, La Grange, e. 
Nov. 21, 1862; vet. March 2, 1864; dis. 
by order Aug. 20, 1865. 

Corp. James K. Train, e. Dec. 16, 1863; 
m. o. Aug. 20, T865. 

Corp. Theodore Perarie. Ontwa, e. Dec. 
2. 1864; m. o. .^ug. 20, 1865, 


Aikins. .Alexander, Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863: 

m, o Aug. 20, 1865. 
Baker. Ferdinand, m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Bell, James M., JefTerson. e. Aug. 20, 

1S61 ; vet, Feb. i, 1864; dis. for dis- 
ability Aug. I. 1865. 
Brown, Francis D., e. Aug, 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Carter, Elijah H., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 

1862; died at Port Hudson, La., of 

wounds May 27. 1863. 
Carter, John ^I., Calvin, e. Aug. 12, 1862; 

died of disease at Port Hudson, Sept, 

2, T863. 
Christie, Willard, e. Aug. 20. tS6i ; dis, 

at end of service Aug. 23, T864. 
Curtis, Edward, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at New Orleans, La., Nov, 30, 

T862. , ., 

Gushing, James H„ Silver Creek, e, April 

12 1864; dis. bv order Sept, 5, 1S65. 

Dorr. Peter, Penn, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; vet. 

Feb. I, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Estabrook, Aaron L., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Estabrook, George R., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Fraker, Oliver P., Porter, e. Aug. 20, 
1861; vet. Feb- i, 1864; dis. for dis- 
ability May 18, 1865. 
Gannett, Lewis, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Grennell, Oliver C, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Gates, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of 

disease at Baltimore Oct. 8, 1861. 
Gilbert, Allison J., Wayne, e. Dec. 21, 

1863 ; dis. for disability June 2, 1865. 
Goodrich, Noah, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 12, 1864. 
Gregg, James H., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Greenman, James J., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 

1862: m. o. July 21. 1865. 
Hall, George M., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 6, 1863. 
Hall, Philander W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Harmon, Benjamin H., died at Port Hud- 
son. La., of wounds J\Iay 27, 1863. 
Harmon. James, e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; dis. 

by order March 28, 1864. 
Harmon, Sylvester, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 
of disease at Port Hudson. La., Aug. 
13. 1863. 
Hcrrod, Francis M., Porter, e, Jan. 2, 

1864: m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Horr, Calvin L.. Calvin, e. .\ug. 14, 1862; 

m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Hover, Evart, Silver Creek, e, March 31, 

1864: m, o. .\ug. 20, 1865. 
Jackson, J. J., Porter, e. Aug. 27, 1862; 

dis. for disability IMarch 10, 1863. 
Johnston, Albert, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. by 

order Feb. 10, 1863. 
King, Edward, e, Aug. 20. 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 23, 1864, 
King, John. e. Jan. I, 1862: vet. Feb. i, 

Kidder, Norman C, e. Aug. 12, 1862: m. 

o. Ju'y 21, 1865. 
Kirk, George W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 
of disease at Camp Williams Nov. 2T, 
Lake, William H , e. Aug, 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1S64, 
Lewis. Peter, e. Aug, 20. i.86t ; died "f 
disease at Port Hudson. La,, Aug. 12. 
Mcintosh, Jacob M., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis, at end of service Aug. 23, 1864, 
Mecham. Cvrus. e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; dis. 
for disabilitv Oct. 14. 1862. 



Meacham, William J., e. Jan. i, 1S62 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Miller, James M. ; dis. for disability Sept. 

18, 1863. 
Montgomery, Milton, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Baton Rouge, La., 

Aug. 3, 1S62. 
Montgomery, Samuel, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Port Hudson, La., 

July 18, 1863. 
Myers, George R., e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; died 

of disease at New Orleans, La.. Aug. 

12, 1862. 
Nesbitt. William, e. Aug. 20, 1&61 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Neville, Jerry. Silver Creek, e. Dec. 22, 

1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Osborn, Allen S.. Calvin, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; m. o. July 21. 1865. 
Osborn, Arthur, e. Nov. 10, 1862 ; m. o. 

Aug. 20, 1865. 
Osborn, Job E., Calvin, e. Aug. 14, 1862 ; 

died of disease at Port Hudson. La., 

Oct. 4, 1863. 
O'Neil, Timothy, Silver Creek, e. Nov 

21, 1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 1S65. 
Overmeyer, Thomas J., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Owen, Andrew J., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Patrick, Levi W., died of disease at Baton 

Rouge, La., July 3, 1862. 
Randall. Lorenzo D., e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1S64. 
Reynolds, George, e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Reynolds, Paul S., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Rinehart, Henry, e. Aug. 18, 1862 ; m. o. 

July 21, 1865. 
Ring. John, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for dis- 
ability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Robb. John, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. for dis- 
ability Jan. 20, 1862. 
Rogers, Leroy, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 23. 1864. 
Sickles. George W., e. Aug. 20, 1S61 ; died 

in action at Port Hudson, La., Tune 30, 

Starks, William. Silver Creek, e. April 12, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 20. 1865. 
Shawl. Merrin, Silver Creek, e. April 12, 

1S64; m. o. Aug. 20. 1865. 
Stockwell, John, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 14, 1862. 
Stone. Edmund, e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; died 

of disease at New Orleans, La., Aug. 12, 
St. John, Charles, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

20, 1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1864; dis. for 

prom. 2d Lieut., this regt., Co. J, Nov. 
I. 1864. 
Swinehart, Lewis, Porter, e. Aug. 18, 

1862; died of disease at Port Hudson, 

La., Aug. 29, 1863. 
Tracy, Spencer, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died of 

disL-ase at I'nrt Hudson, La., Sept. 22, 

Wallace, William, e. Dec. 19. 186 v. m. o. 

July 21, 1865. 
Wheeler, Thomas, Penn, e. Aug. 25, 1864; 

m. o. Aug. 20. 1865. 
Wieting, John, Silver Creek, e. ^Nlarch 31, 

1864; dis for disability Dec. 15. 1864. 
W ilscy, William H., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Carrolton, La., March 6, 


Company E. 

Second Lieut. Charles St. John. Dowagiac. 
prom, from Serg. Co. D. July 18, 1864; 
prom. 1st Lieut., Co. D. March 7, 1865. 

CoMP.\NY F. 


Corselman. Levi. Marcellus, e. ^larch i, 
1862; dis. by order Sept. 14. 1865. 

Company G. 


Clark. George H., Wayne, e. Dec. 19, 

1S63; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Dewey, Enoch, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 21, 

1863; 111. o. Aug. 20. 1865. 
Stevens. Isaac R.. Silver Creek, e. Oct. 
20, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 

Company K. 
First Lieut. John Jacks. E<hvardsburg, 

com. Sept. I, 1862; dis. for disability 

Oct. 27, 1863. 
First. Lieut. Edward C. Beardsley, Dow- 
agiac, com. Nov. 25. 1864. 
Second Lieut. John Jacks, Ontwa, com. 

Aug. 20, 1863 ; prom. First Lieut. 
Second Lieut. Edward C. Beardsley. Dow- 
agiac. com. June 3. 1864; prom. First 

Sergt. Charles Morgan, e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Aug. 23. 1864. 
Sergt. E. C. Beardsley. e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

prom. Second Lieut. 
Sergt. John P. Carr, Jefferson, e. Aug. 

20. 1861 ; vet. Feb. i. 1864; ni. o. Aug. 

26. 1865. 
Corp. John R. Lee. e. Aug. 20. 1861 : trans. 

to regimental band. 
Corp. Alonzo Benedict, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability Oct. 26. 1862. 
Corp. Leonard Sweet, e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; 

dis. for disability Oct. 26. 1862. 
Corp. David Ogden. e. Aug. 20. i86t ; 

vet. Feb. i. 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Corp. James H. Smith, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability Jan. 20. 1862. 
Corp. John Chatterdon, Howard, e. Aug. 



JO. 1861; vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. 
11, 1865. 


Barrett, Ransom, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Port Hudson, La.. June 

25, 1862. 
Bramhall, Nathan W., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Port Hudson, La.. 
• Feb. 6, 1864. 
Brunson, Perry, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

to enter Regular Army Dec. 23, 1862. 
Bump, Adolphus. JclTerson. e. Aug. 20, 

1861 ; vei. Feb. i, 18O4; m. o. Aug. 20. 

Coder, Willett G., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 26, 1861. 
Cole, Johnson B., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 29, 1862. 
Eby, George W. N., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Jan. 5, 1863. 
Hanson, Benjamin, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Ship Island, La., March 

18. 1862. 
Haskins, Calvin, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 

1861 ; vet. Feb. i, 1S64; m. o. Aug. 20, 

Heyde, Henry, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 
Joy. Elias W., Jefiferson, e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; 

vet. Feb. I, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Kieffer, Jacob, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 

Lamson, Horace, dis. at end of service 

Aug. 2i, 1864. 
Lockwood, Henry P., e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Baton Rouge. La., 

July 24, 1863. 
McKinstry. Albert, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; dis. 

by order March 9, 1864. 
Mott, Sylvester, e. Aug. 20, 1861 ; died 

of disease at Camp Williams Oct. 8, 

Putnam, Uzziel. Pokagon, e. Aug. 20, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Jan. 26, 1864. 
. , Niles. vet. Feb. i. 1864; 

m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Rourke. Patrick, e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; vet. 

Feb. I, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. 
Shiry, William, Baton Rogue, e. Aug. 20, 

i86i ; died of disease New Orleans, La., 

Sept. II, 1862. 
Smith. Mathew. e. .\ug. 20. 1862; died 

of disease at New Orleans Aug. 2q, 

Sweet, Leonard, re-e. Dec. 5. 1863: ni. o. 

Aug. 20, 1865. 
Thayer, Ezra, Jefferson, e. .\ug. 20, 1861 ; 

vet. Feb. I, 1864; m. o. .'\ug. 20, 1S65. 
Westfall, Marvin F., Jefferson, e. Aug. 

20. 1861 ; vet. Feb. i. 1864 ; dis. for dis- 
ability June 4, 1865. 
Williams, George W., e. Aug. 20. 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. 


C0MP,\NY A. 

Capt. Joseph Harper. Cassopolis, com. 

Sept. 26, 1861 ; resigned May 7, 1862. 
First Lieut. Charles A. Van Riper. La 

Grange, com. Oct. 4, 1861 ; resigned Feb. 

28, 1863. 
First Lieut, .\ustin L. Abbott, Pokagon. 

com. Feb. 2^,. 1863 ; resigned July 3. 

Second Lieut. David ^I. McLelland. Dow- 

agiac. com. Oct. 14, 1861 ; resigned Nov. 

16, 1862. 
Second Lieut, Robert S. M. Fox, Howard, 

com. .A-pril 8, 1864; prom. 1st Lieut. 

Co. G. 
Sergt. Austin L. Abbott. Pokagon, e. 

Sept. 28. 1861 : prom, ist Lieut. Co. A. 
Sergt. George B. Crane, Pokagon. e. Oct. 

4. 1861 ; died of disease at Little Rock, 

Ark., July 23, 1864. 
Sergt. Benjamin F. Dunham, Cassopolis, 

e. Oct. 4, 1861 ; prom. Com. Sergt. April 

I, 1862; died of disease at St. Louis, 

Mo.. May 24, 1862. 
Sergt. James Hill, Cassopolis, e. Oct. g, 

1861 ; dis. for disability May 31. 1864. 
Sergt. Joseph R. Edwards, Pokagon, e. 

Sept. 28, 1861 ; dis. at end of service 

Jan. q. 1865. 
Sergt. Robert S. M. Fox, Howard, e. Oct. 

2. 1861 ; vet. Dec. 25. 1863; prom. 2d 

Lieut. Co. A. 
Sergt. Isaac D. Harrison. Pokagon, e. 

Sept. 28. 1861: vet. Dec. 2^. 1863; m. 

o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Corp. Isaac D. Harrison. 
Corp. William E. Stevens, Mason, e. Oct. 

22, 1861 ; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. K. 
Corp. Lewis Van Riper, La Grange, e. 

Oct. 4, 1861 ; dis. for disability Jan. 21, 

Corp. William Lingual. Pokagon, e. Sept. 

30, 1861 : dis. at end of service Feb. 14, 

Corp. Almon W. Eck, Wayne, e. May 18, 

i86s: vet. Feb. 29, 1864; ni. o. Feb. 

15, "1866. 

Musician Wellman Blanchard, Pokagon, 
e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 

16, 1862. 


.Mien, ."Monzo W^. Pokagon, e, Sept. 28, 
1861 ; died of disease at Memphis, Tenn.. 
Oct. 25, 1863. 



Allen, Nelson K., Porter, e. Jan. 30, 1864; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Barker, George F., e. Dec. 15, 1861 ; vet. 

Dec. 5, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Bilderback, Peter, Silver Creek, e. Oct. 

31, 1861 ; died of wounds at Pittsburg 

Landing, June 5, 1862. 
Bilderback, Wesley B., Silver Creek, e. 

Oct. 31, 1861 ; dis. for disability Nov. 

14. 1863. 
Bronner, David, Penn, e. Oct. 18, 1861 ; 

died of disease April — . 1862. 
Brown, Albert E., Ontwa, e. March 2, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Brown, Charles G., Dowagiac, e. Sept. 5, 

1862; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Buckley, Peter, Pokagon. e. March 18, 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Bucklin, George S.. Wayne, e. Nov. 12, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Sept. 9, 1862. 
Bush, Asa L., Dowagiac, e. Feb. 18, 1862 ; 

died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 

20, 1863. 
Byer.s, Charles F.. La Grange, e. Aug. 19, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Carr, Allen M., Ontwa, e. Feb. 25. 1864; 

dis. for disability May 22, 1865. 
Caves, Samuel, died of disease at Niles, 

Mich., March 23, 1862. 
Clasby, James. La Grange, e. Feb. iS, 

1862; dis. at end of service Feb. 17, 

Campbell, Daniel, Pokagon, e. March 18, 

1863 ; died of wounds at Camden. Ark., 

Oct. 6, 1865. 
Cleveland, Charles E., e. Jan. 27, 1862 ; dis. 

at end of service Jan. 27, 1865. 
Colby, James E., e. Oct. 14, 1861 : died in 

action at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 
Colvin, James M.. e. Oct. 29, 1861 ; vet. 

Dec. 25, 1863; accidentally killed Sept. 

5. 1864. 
Curtis, Franklin P., Mason, e. Feb. 14, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Davis, Edson. Dowagiac. e. Oct. 5. 1861 : 

vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Delaney. Thomas, Cassopolis, e. Oct. 9. 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863 : dis. by order 

Aug. 14, 1865. _ 
Denison, Franklin. Cassopolis, e. Oct. 9, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 28, 1863 ; dis. for disabil- 
ity May II. 1865. 
Eggleston. William J., Mason, e. Feb. 16, 

1865 ; dis. by order May 22, 1865. 
Emmons, Darius, Dowagiac. e. Feb. 22, 

1864 ; dis. by order May 22, 1865. 
Emmons, Jonathan. Dowagiac, e. Feb. 

22, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Emmons, William A., Dowagiac, e. Feb. 

22, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Foster, Francis M.. Penn.. e. Feb. 23. 

1864 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866, 

Gallagher, James, Jefferson, e. Dec 8 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Gilbert. Samuel, Mason, e. Oct. 25. 1861 ; 

dis. by order Sept. 7, 1862. 
Gillespie, George, Dowagiac. e. Dec. 28, 

1861 ; dis. by order April 25, 1863. 
Goodrich, James, Jefferson,' e. Feb. 22, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1S66. 
Goff, Hiram, Wayne, e. Nov. 9, 1861 ; died 

at home. 
Graham, Edward R., Cassopolis, e. Feb. 

21. 1862; dis. at end of service Feb 21 

Graham, Henry C. LaGrange. e. Sept. 7, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Haas, Jacob, Howard, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Haines, Thomas L., Ontwa, e. March 2, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Hartsel, Edward, Dowagiac, ,e. Oct. s, 

1861 ; died of disease at Columbus, Ohio. 
Hatfield, Andrew V., dis. by order Jan 24 

Hauser, Michael B., Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 28, 1862. 
Heaton, Abram, Porter, e. Dec. 5. 1863; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Heaton. Lester M., Porter, e. Dec. 29 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Higgins, Benjamin F., Newberg, e. Oct. 

12. 1861 ; dis. by order April 21, 1863. 
Higgins. James P.. e. Dec. 10, 1861 ; vet. 

Dec. 25. 1863; dis. for disabilitv July 8. 

Higgins, John. Newberg, e. Dec. n. 1861 ; 

yet. Dec. 25. 1863: m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Higley. Solomon G.. Ontwa. e. Dec 29 

1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Higley, William, Ontwa, e. March 2 

1865: m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Hill. Henry T., Cassopolis, e. Feb. 18, 

1862; dis. at end of service Feb 17 

Hibray, Jacob P., Newberg. e. Oct. 3, 

1861 ; died of disease at Montgomery 

Ala., May i, 1862. 
Hitchcock, Lucius P., Porter, e. Feb ^ 

1864: m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. ' '' 

Holmes, Henry, Pokagon. e. Alarch 18. 

1863; died of disease at Dowagiac Oct. 

20, 1863. 
Holmes, William, Silver Creek, e. Nov. 

19, 1861 ; died of disease at Dowagiac 

June 10, 1863. 
Homer, James, LaGrange, e. Oct. 18, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 28, 1863 : m. o. Feb i ■; 

Hudson, James, Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 1863; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Huff, Charles H.. LaGrange. e. Jan. 17, 

1865 : dis. by order Jan. 24. 1866. 
Hunt. John H., Jefferson, e. Nov. 11, 



1861 ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 
Ireland, Elon M., m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Jackson, Erastus M., Porter, e. Feb. 7, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Jackson, George, Mason, e. Feb. 14, 1865; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Jackson, John S., Porter, e. Feb, 7, 1864; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Jennings, Abram, Dovvagiac, e. Oct. IS, 

1861 ; dis. by order July 23, 1862. 
Johns, Aaron, Mason, e. Oct. 18, 1861 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1S66. 
Kugan, Edward, Jefferson, e. Feb. 28, 
1862; captured at Little Rock, Ark., 
Sept. 3, 1864; exchanged May 27, 1865; 
dis. at end of service July 8, 1865. 
Kelley, John H., Calvin, e. Feb. 7, 1865; 
died of disease at Washington, Ark., 
Jidy 2, 1865. 
Kelley, Joseph, Calvin, e. Feb. 26, 1864 ; 

dis. by order May 22, 1865. 
Keyes, John. Wayne, e. Nov. 9, 1861 ; dis. 

by order July 16, 1862. 
Landon. Edward, Mason, e. Feb. 16, 1865 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Langley, Zachariah B., Pokagon, e. Oct. 
13, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 
Lillie. John. LaGrange, e. Dec. 28, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. 
Liphart, George M.. LaGrange, e. Oct. 31, 
1861 ; died at Indianapolis, Ind., April 
17. 1865. 
Lewnian, Simon, LaGrange, e. Fel.i, 22, 
1864; died of disease at DuwiH's Bluff. 
Ark., Dec. 16, 1864. 
Maloney, Lawrence, Pokagon, e. Feb. 3, 
1864; died of disease at Camden, Ark., 
Dec. 9, 1865. 
Marsh, Benjamin, LaGrange, e. Dec. 7, 

1863; ni. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Marsh, Nathan. LaGrange, e. March 16, 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Miner, William A., LaGrange, e. Oct. 5, 
1861 : vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15. 
Munson, .Mien C, Volinia, e. Sept. 2, 
1864; dis. at end of service Sept. g, 
Myers, George, Volinia, e. Feb. 18, 1S64; 
died of disease at Camden, Ark., l^ec. 
9, 1865. 
Neff, .A.aron, Jefferson, e. Feb. 22. 1SO4 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Niblett, James, Mason, e. Feb. 8, 1864; 

dis. by order May 22, 1865. 
Nichols, Arthur, Penn, e. Dec. 11, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability July 17, 1862. 
Norton, Bela A., LaGrange, e. Jan, 27, 
1862: dis. at end of service Jan. 27, 

Odcll, Victor M., e. Feb. i, 1862; missing 

in battle at Shiloh April 7, 1862. 
Pratt. Henry D., Pokagon. e. Nov. 17, 
1861 ; died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., 
June 5, 1862. 
Pratt, James E., La Grange, e, Oct. 21. 
1861 ; vet. Jan. 2, 1S64; m. o. Feb. 15, 
Philips, William J., Mason, c. Jan. 18. 
1864: died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, 
Ark.. Nov. 26, 1864. 
Post, John H., Pokagon, e. Oct. 8, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Jan. 27, 1865. 
Reams, Peter, Jefferson, e. Feb. 23, 1864 ; 

dis. for disability May 26, 1865. 
Roberts. James H., Mason, e. F"eb. 15, 

1865; m. o. Feb, 15, 1866. 
Robinson, Levi, Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; 
vet. Dec. 25, 1863; dis. by order March 
I, T864. 
Rogers, Jesse, Porter, e. Dec. s, i86;; m. 

o. F"eb. 15, 1866. 
Root, Charles, La Grange, e. Feb. 22, 1864 ; 
died of disease at Little Rock, .\rk.. 
Aug. 8, 1864. 
Root. Josiah C, La Grange, c. Oct. 31, 

1861; dis. for disability July 17, 1862. 
Riisburgh, Enos, Jefferson, e. Feb. 26. 

1862; dis. by order Nov. t6, 1862. 
Rost, John A., La Grange, e. Feb. 18, 

1S62: dis. for disability June 4. 1862. 
Russey, John M., La Grange, e. Feb. 21. 
1862; vet. Feb. 29, 1864: m. o. Feb. is. 
Sergt. James M. Savage, La Grange, e. 
Oct. ^i, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 2=;, 1863; m. o. 
Feb. T3, i86r3. 
Scotten. William, Ontwa, e. March 2. 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Sccor. Isaac. La Grange, e. Oct. 28, 1861 : 
died at Jackson. Tenn. (railroad acci- 
dent). Sept. 24, 1862. 
Secor. Joseph W., La Grange, e. Oct. 24, 

i86i ; dis. bv order Sept. I, 1862. 
Shanafclt. William H., e. Oct. 31, i86t ; 
vet. Dec. 25. 1863; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Shcpard, Charles. Calvin, e. Feb. 25, 1864 ; 

died of disease at Niles. Mich. 
.Shuste. Thomas P., LaGrange. e. Nov. 
IT. tSfii ; dis. for disability Sept. 20, 
Simpson. Thomas, La Grange, e. Oct. 20, 
i.%r ; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 
Soules, Peter, Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 28, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Stanage, Benton, La Grange, e. Feb. 20, 

1864: m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Stephenson. James B., Jefferson, e. Feb. 
22, 18(14; died of disease at Little Rock, 
Ark., June 28, 1864. 
Sleerc, William H., Wayne, e. Nov. 19, 
1861 ; dis. for disability .Aug. 2, 1862. 



Stevens, Samuel, Mason, e. Feb. 15, 1865; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Smith, Nelson A., Porter, e. Oct. 13, 1S61 ; 

dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. 
Temple, Franklin, Ontwa, e. March 2, 

1S65; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Thomas. Noble O., La Grange, e. Oct. 

31, 1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 

7, 1865. 
Thomas. Sherwood, La Grange, e. Oct. 

M. 1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 

Thompson, Smith. Marcelhis, e. Oct. 20. 

1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 

Townsend. ^\'illianl. La Grange, e. Oct. 

31, 1861 ; died of disease at St. Louis, 

^lo., Nov. II, 1863. 
Tubbs, Lester, Porter, e. Dec. 5. 1863 ; m. 

o. Feb. IS, 1866. 
Upham. George. La Grange, e. Feb. 23. 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Van Tuvl, Richard, ^Nlason, e. Feb. 27, 

1864; ni. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
White, Seth, Wayne, e. Nov. 12. 1861 ; 

\et. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Wilcox, Henrj', Pennsylvania, e. Feb. 4, 

1862 : killed in railroad accident at Jack- 
son. Tenn., Sept. 24. 1S62. 
Willard. John. e. March 3, 1864; died of 

disease at St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 20. 1863. 
Williams, Samuel, Jefferson, e. Feb. 23, 

1864; ni. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Winfrey, George. Dowagiac, e. Dec. 15. 

1861 ; dis. by order July 24. 1862. 
Wing. Orlando, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2. 1862 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1S66. 
Wolfe, Franklin, e. Feb. 26. 1862; vet. 

Feb. 29, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Woolsey, Lewis, La Grange, e. Oct. 4, 

1861 ; died of disease at Camp Logan, 

Tenn., May 21, 1862. 

C0MP.\NY B. 

Baldwin. Edwin K.. La Grange, e. Dec. 

I, 1S63; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Bell. Richard H., Howard, e. March 29, 

1S62; vet. March 22, 1864; m. o. Feb. 

15, 1866. 
Bryant. Thomas G.. Mason, e. March I. 

1865 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Dennis, John, Milton, e. IVIarch i. 1865: 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Driscoll. Noah, Porter, e. Feb. 13. 1S64; 

m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Dunn, Ambrose, Cassopolis, e. Feb. 15, 

1864: m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Haas. George. *La Grange, e. Dec. i. 1863; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Haas. John, La Grange, e. Dec. i, 1863 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Haas. John A.. La Grange, e. Dec. i, 

1803; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Higby. Calvin J.. Newberg. e. Sept. 5, 

1S64; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Huyck, William D.. dis. for disability 

Nov. 9. 1865. 
Mosher, Isaac, Pokagon, c. Feb. 16, 1863; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1865. 
Palmer, Charles H., vet. Jan. 2, 1864. 
Parkerton. William, Dowagiac. e. Feb. 

19. 1862; vet. Feb. 27, 1864; m. o. Feb. 

15, 1866. 
Pettus, Luther. La Cirangc. e. Dec. i, 

1S63 : died of disease at Camden, Ark., 

Sept. I. 1865. 
Rose, John. Poka.gon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 9. 1865. 
Wheeler, Edwin. Marcellus. e. Feb. 2g, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 


Ashley, Horace, e. Dec. 31. 1861 ; dis. for 

disability July IQ. i8f)2. 
Barmore. John E.. e. Dec. 5, 1861 ; vet. 

Dec. 29. 1863. 
Cobb. Albert T., Dowagiac. e. Dec. 25, 

1861 : dis. for disability Feb. 25, 1862. 
Doty, James H., Porter, e. Feb. 22. 1864; 

vet. Dec. 24. 1863. 
Doty, William J., e. Dec. 7. 1861 ; vet. 

Dec. 24. 1863; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Griffith. Samuel, Milton, e. Oct. 25. 1S61 ; 

vet. Dec 24, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Corp. Charles Hungerford. Dowagiac. e. 

Oct. 25, 1861 ; dis. by order June 30. 

Kapi)elman. John. Pokagon. e. March 1. 

1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
King. Samuel P., Porter, e. Feb. 22. 1S64 : 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Kirk, William H.. Porter, e. Feb. 22. 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Marks. Isaac. Dowagiac. e. Feb. 15, 1862; 

vet. Feb. 25. 1864. 
IMcGee. Lemuel S.. Dowagiac. e. Jan. 4. 

7862: vet. Jan. 2. 1864; m. o. Feb. 15. 

Olmstead, John. e. Feb. 8, 1862:. dis. by 

order March 18. 1862. 
Sergt. John H. Patterson, e. Nov. 25. 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 24, 1863 ; m. o. Feb. 

15, 1866. 
Sanders. Daniel. Pokagon. e. Feb. 21. 

1865: m. o. Feb. 15. 1S66. 
Stillwell, Edwin C, Dowagiac. e. Jan. 5. 

1862; vet. Dec. 31. 1863. 
Thompson. Reason. Porter, e. Feb. 23, 

1S64; died of disease at Camden, Ark., 

Sept. 8. 1865. 
Welch, John C, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 25, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 31. 1863; prom. 2d. 

Lieut. Co. I July 3. 1864. 



Company D. 

Simmons. Peter \V.. Mason, e. Aug. 31. 

1H64; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Sirrine, Henry F., Volinia, e. Sept. 2, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9. 

Springsteen, John \\ ., Volinia, c. Sept. 6, 

US64; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 

Company E. 

Barton, Reuben, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 

1864 ; dis. by order Sept. 14, 1865. 
Beebe. William H.. died of disease at St. 

Louis, Mo., June i. 1862. 
Leach, James I\L. Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 

1864; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 
Odell, Joseph, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864 ; 

dis. by order Sept. 14. 1865. 
Perkins, Harvey W., Howard, e. Oct. 18, 

1S64: dis. by order Oct. 24, 1865. 
Walz, John, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 29, 

1864: died of disease at Grand Raptds. 


Company F. 

Second Lieut. William Horton, Jr., Dowa- 
giac ( Sergt. Co. I), resigned June 12, 

Sergt. Philo H. Simmons, dis. for disabil- 
ity March 16, 1862. 

Sergt. Robert. A. Walton. Howard, e. 
Oct. 12. i86i ; vet. Jan. i, 1S64 ; m. o. 
Feb. 5, 1866. 


Albrecht, Jacob G.. Porter, e. Feb. 22. 
1864; ni. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Bellows, Job. S., Ontwa. e. Sept. 2, 1864; 
dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 

Brown. Luman. Jefferson, e. Nov. 25, 
1861 ; died May i, 1862, of wounds re- 
ceived at Shiloh April 6. 1862. 

Butler. Henry M.. m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Dean, Thomas, O'ntwa, e. Nov. 8. 1861 ; 
dis. at end of service Jan. 7. 1865. 

Dnrstern. Michael, e. March 16, 1862; dis- 
charged by order July 15. 1862. 

Hawkins. Charles. Pokagon. c. Dec. 30, 
1863: m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 

Hawkins, Benjamin, vet. Dec. 30. 1863; 
m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 

Hawkins. Charles, discharged by order 
June 17, 1865. 

Inman. Isaiah. La Grange, e. Aug. 31. 
1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Leich, Elias, Milton, e. Dec. 5, 1861 ; trans, 
to Veteran Reserve Corps Jan. 15, 1864. 

Lewis. George W., Jefiferson. e. Nov. 22. 
1861 ; vet. Dec. 30, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Lynch, William J.. Milton, e. Oct. 15. 
i8()T : died on hospital boat May. 1S62. 

Markle. John, ^Milton, e. Feb. 22, 1862; 

vet. Feb. 24, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
.McNitt, Charles W.. Porter, e. Feb. 26, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
jAlitchell. Robert, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21, 

1865 ; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Moran, James, Jefiferson, e. Dec. 2, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 30, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Morgan. Charles .A... Milton, e. Oct. 15, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. i. 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Noble, James M.. Milton, e. Dec. 3, 1861 ; 

dis. by order June 25. 1862; re-e. March 

8, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
O'Keefe, Eugene. Silver Creek, e. Oct. 30, 

1861 ; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. 
Parks, Almenon, e. March 7, 1862; vet. 

March 8, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Reigle. George W.. Porter, e. Feb. 22, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Reynolds. Henry C. La Grange, e. Sept. 

23. 1864: dis. at end of service Sept. 

29, 1865. 
Rogers, Charles F.. Pokagon, e. Nov. ig, 

1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15, 

Rogers, Hiram, Ontwa. e. Nov. 21. 1861; 

dis. for disability March 16. 1862. 
Rogers. Hiram L., Pokagon. e. Oct. 14, 

i86r ; died of disease at Keokuk, Iowa, 

May 6, 1862. 
Simmons, Joseph, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 

i86r ; dis. for disability March 16, 1862. 
.Snow. William H.. Jefferson, e. Nov. 22, 

i86t : dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. 
Tuttle. Jacob, Milton, e. Oct. 15, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability March 16, 1862. 
Whitmore, George A.. La Grange, e. 

March 15. 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Wilson. James. Ontwa. e. Dec. 13. 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 3, 1863 ; m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Wilson. Joseph S.. Ontwa. e. Dec. 14, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 3. 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 

Warden, George R., Jefferson, e. Dec. Si 

1861 ; dis. by order July 25. 1862. 
Wvant. Tames. Ontwa. e. Nov. 21. 1861 ; 

dis. by order July 8. 1862. 
Zeek. William F.. Ontwa. e. Sept. 2, 1864; 

dis. by order Oct. 31. 1865. 

Company G. 

First Lieut. Robert S. M. Fox. Howard, 
com. Oct. IQ. 1864: resigned Sept. 18, 

Lawrence, Joseph, Silver Creek, c. Dec. 

10. 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Nichols. Warren W.. Marcellus, e. Sept. 

27. 1864 : dis. by order Sept. 30. 1865. 
Schuh. Nicliiil.Ts. La Grange, e. Dec. 3, 

1863: m. o. Feb. 15. t866. 



Shawl. Alexander, Pokagon. e. Sept. 3, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. g. 

Shiver. Walter. Ontwa, e. Dec. 24, 1863; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Stamp, David, Porter, e. Dec. 5. 1863 ; m. 

o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Ties, Anton, La Grange, e. Dec. 3, 1S63 ; 

m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 

Company H. 

Bailey, James E., Silver Creek, e. Feb. 14, 

1864; dis. by order May 22, 1865. 
Born, Henry, Mason, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Conrad, Jacob, Volinia, e. Feb. 20, 1864; 

m. o, Feb. 15, 1866. 
Eggleston, Harvey. Porter, e. Aug. 11, 

1862 ; vet. Dec. 26, 1863 ; dis. by order 

Sept. 30, 1865. 
Franklin. .Samuel W., INIason. e. Jan. 29, 

1864; died of disease at Duvall's Blul^, 

Ark., Oct. 21, 1864. 
Salyer, James. Mason, e; died of disease 

at Duvall's Bluff, Ark.. Sept. 24. 1864. 

Company I. 

Second Lieut. John C. Welch, Dowagiac, 
com. July 3, 1864; prom. 1st Lieut. Co. 

A. Jan. 7. 1865. 
Allen. Israel IM., Pokagon, e. Sept. 2. 1864; 

dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Anmack, Jacob. Pokagon. e. Sept. 2, 1864 ; 

dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Cole. William L., La Grange, e. Jan. 17, 

1864: m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Corin, Robert, Ontwa. e. Sept. 2, 1864; 

trans, to 5th U. S. Colored Infantry 

.^pril I. 1865. 
Curtis, Thomas J., Mason, e. Aug. 31, 

1864; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark., Nov. I. 1864. 
Fisher. John, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21. 1S65; 

m. o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Hayden, Edward W., e. Dec. 25. 1861 : dis. 

for disability July 26. 1862. 
Hoyt, Henry, Mason, e. Aug. 31, 1864 •. 

dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Johnson. I^riah. died of disease at Deca- 
tur. Mich.. June i. 1862. 
Johnson, Egbert, Mason, e. Aug. 31. 1864; 

died of disease at Washington. .Ark., 

July T. 1S65. 
Leader, Nathan H., Pokagon, e. Sept. 2. 

1864: tlis. by order May 6, 1865. 
Horton. William. Jr., Dowagiac, e. Dec. 

II. 1861 : vet. Dec. 25, 1863; Sergeant, 

prom. 2d Lieut. Co. I. 
Knapp. Bruce, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 24, 
1864; dis. for disability Aug. 23, 1864. 

Tuttle. Royal J., Silver Creek, e. Feb., 

1864; died of disease at Duvall's Blutt. 

Ark., .A-ug. 12, 1864. 
McMichael. Albert. Ontwa, e. Feb. 24. 

1862; vet. Feb. 26, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15. 

Nye. Lsaac, Jefferson, e. Se!>t. i. 1S64 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
On. .Adam. Mason, e. Aug. 20, 1864; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. 
Searles, Henry M.. Mason, e. Feb. 24. 

1861 ; vet. Feb. 26. 1864; m. o. Feb. i=i. 

Smith. Hiram. La Grange, e. .Aug. 29, 

1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 

Stephenson, Harvey. Pokagon. e. Sept. i, 

1864: dis. at end of service Sept. g, 

St. John. John. Pokagon. e. Sept. 3. 1864; 

dis. at end of sendee Sept. 9, 1865. 
Tibbits. Nathan, Porter, e. Dec. 15, 1863; 

died of disease at Huntersville. Ark., 

July 2, 1864. 
Treat, Horace J., Silver Creek, e. Oct. 10, 

1861 : died in action at Pittsburg Land- 
ing .A-pril 6, 1862. 
Yawkey. .Amos, Howard, e. March 7, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Vetter, Joshua T.. vet. Dec. 29. 1863. 
Willard. William. Jefferson, e. Dec. 3. 

1S63; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark.. Jan. 6. 1865. 

Company K. 

Second Lieut. William E. Stevens, Mason, 

e. Oct. 22, 1861: vet. Dec. 25, 1863; 

Sergeant Co. .A. com. April 2, 1865: m. 

o. Feb. 15. 1866. 
Bidlack. Charles E., Porter, e. Oct. 14, 

1864: dis. by order Oct. 27, 1865. 
Crandall. Lewis, Wayne, e. Feb. 22. 1864; 

m. o. Feb, i.i, 1866. 
Drake, Lorenzo, dis. by order Aug. 12, 

Farnham. Erastus S.. e. Dec. 9, 1861 : dis. 

at end of service Sept. 7. 1865. 
French, Noah, Sergeant, e. Oct. 10, 1861 ; 

dis. bv order July 19. 1862. 
Hardy, Robert, Milton, e. Oct. 2T, 1861 ; 

dis. by order Oct. 17, 1862. 
Nostrand. John J.. Silver Creek, e. Nov. 
II. 1S61 : dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 
Rawson. Charles W.. Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 
1864 ; dis. at end of senice Sept. 9, 
Sayers, James, Pokagon. e. Feb. 24, 1863 : 

dis. by order June i, 1865. 
Shepard. Caleb, Howard, e. Dec. 28. 1861 : 



vet. Dec. 29, 1863 ; dis. bv order Aug. 

12, 1865. 
Tappan, Harlow, Alarcellus, e. Feb. 25, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 
Weatherwax, John G., Porter, e. Feb. 13, 

1864; died of disease at Little Rock, 
Ark., June 13, 1864. 
Webber, Geo. W., Ontvva, e. Feb. 29, 
1864; ni. o. Feb. 15, 1866. 



Surgeon William E. Clarke, Dowagiac, 

Surgeon 4th Mich. Infantry, trans. 

Surgeon to 19th Infantry Aug. 12, 1862; 

resigned July 18, 1863. 
Asst. Surgeon Leander D. Tompkins, 

Cassopolis, com. Aug. 12, 1862 ; resigned 

for disability Sept. 7, 1863. 


Quartermaster Sergt. John M. Myers, 

Cassopolis, e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; appointed 

1st Lieut, and Quartermaster; m. o. 

June 10, 1865. 
Commissary Sergt. George S. Larzelere, 

Silver Creek, com. Jan. 14, 1863 ; m. o. 

June 15, 1865. 
Principal Musician Ezekiel O'wen, La 

Grange, e. Aug. 9, 1862; m. o. June 10, 


Company A. 
Capt. Joel H. Smith, Dowagiac, com. July 

22, 1862; resigned July 11, 1864. 
Capt. George T. Shaffer. Calvin, com. May 

IS, 1864; promoted Maj. 28th Mich. Inf.; 

wounded in action June 22, 1864. 
First Lieut. George T. Shaffer, Calvin, 

com. August 2, 1861 ; promoted Capt. 
First Lieut. Henry J. Ohls, Marcellus, 

com. May 8, 1865 ; Sergt. Aug. 8, 1862 ; 

m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Second Lieut. Reuben B. Larzelere. Dowa- 
giac, com. July 28, 1862; resigned Aug. 

7, 1863. 

Sergt. Isaac Z. Edwards, Pokagon. c. Aug. 

6, 1862 ; promoted 2d. Lieut. Co. E. 
Sergt. Norman B. Farnsworth. Silver 

Creek, e. .\ug. 2. 1864; dis. for disabil- 

itv Sept. 2, 1863. 
Sergt. John S. Gritilis, Wayne, c. Aug. 11, 

1862; killed at Resaca, Ga., May 5, 1864. 
Sergt. Barker F. Rudd, Newberg, e. Aug. 

8, 1862 ; dis. for wound Oct. 23. 1863. 
Sergt. George S. Larzelere, Silver Creek. 

e. Aug. 9, 1862; appointed Commissary 

Corp. George H. Batten, Penn, e. Aug. 9. 

1862; died of disease at Murfreesboro, 

Tenn., Aug. 29, 1863. 
Corp. Zach Aldrich. Newberg, e. .\ug. 9, 

1862; prom, sergt.; dis. for loss of an 

eye Feb. 9, 1864. 
Corp. John Manning. Marcellus, e. Aug. 

13. 1862 ; dis. for wound, lost hand. May 

9, 1863. 

Corp. Alexander Kirkwood, Wayne, e. 

Aug. 9, 1862; prom, ist Lieut. Co. I. " 
Corp. Amos D. Stocking, Pokagon, e. Aug. 

2, 1862; dis. for disability Feb. i, 1863. 
Corp. Albert T. Cobb, Wayne, e. Aug. 5, 

1862 ; dis. for disability Feb. 8, 1863. 
Corp. William Slipper, Penn, e. Aug. 2, 

1862; m. o. Sergt. June 10, 1865. 
Corp. James S. Crego. Silver Creek, e. 

Aug. 7, 1862 ; m. o. Sergt. June. 
Musician Ezekiel Owen, La Grange, e. 

Aug. 9, 1862; prom. Principal Musician 

Sept. I, 1863. 
Musician Franklin R. Sherman, Pokagon, 

e. July 31, 1862; m. o. June 22, 1865. 
Wagoner, Isaac Hamlin, Pokagon, e. July 

20, 1862 ; died of disease at Washington, 

D. C, Feb. 17, 1863. 

.A.llen. Loren A., Pokagon, e. Aug. 16, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
.\llison, George W., Pokagon, e. Aug. 7, 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Allison, Henry C, La Grange, e. Aug. 3, 

1864; m. o. i\lay 19, 1865. 
Anderson. Jacob M., Newberg. e. Aug. 

22. 1863 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
Baker, Albert, Mason, e.- Aug. 5, 1862; 

died of disease at Nicholasville, Kv., 

Dec. 5, 1862. 
P>e]l. Samuel D., Silver Creek, e. 8. 

1862; m. o. June 10. 1865. 
Benton. Flic, Pokagon, e. ; m. o. 

June 10. 1865. 
Bend, Thomas F., Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 1862; 

dis. for wound April 28, 1865. 
Bowerman, Addison, Newberg, e. .\ug. 

27, 1S63 ; died of disease at Nashville, 

Tenn., Sept. 25, 1864. 
Bridge. Daniel G., iSIarcellus, e. Aug. 8. 

1862; m. o. June 10. 1865. 
Corbit. James, Penn, e. Aug. 8, 1S62 ; 

killed on picket before Atlanta, Ga.. Julv 

23. 1864. 

Corwin. Amos B.. Penn. e. .'\.ug. S, 1S62; 

m, o. June 10. 1865. 
Cooper, Harley R., Jefferson, e. Dec. 15. 

1863; m. o. May 26, 1865. 
Crawford, George. Pokagon. e. .\ug. 8. 

1862; Sergt.; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Crocker. Milford, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 

t6, 1S64: m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Fosdick. Franklin H.. Penn, e. Feb. 27. 

1864 ; dis. for disability Jlme 27, 1865. 



Danahy, Timothy, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, 

1S62; died of wounds at Resaca, Ga. 

May 25, 1864. 
Davis, Norman, Pokagon, e. Aug. 7, 1862 

dis. for disability Feb. 8, 1863. 
Davis, Reason, New berg. e. Aug. 13 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Davis, William, Penn, e. Aug. 9, 1862 

m. o. June lO, 1865. 
Edwards, Henry, Pokagon, e. Aug. 9 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Evans, John, Pok.-igon, e. Aug. 9, 1862 

m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Freeman, Adin, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 2 

1862; killed in action at Thompson': 

Station, Tenn.. March 5, 1863. 
Fuller, Oren A., Penn, e. Aug. 7, 1862 

dis. for wounds May 20, 1863. 
Fuller, William R., Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Garwood, Levi. Volinia, e. Aug. 8, 1862 

dis. for disability Aug. 21, 1S63. 
George, Stephen L., Silver Creek, e. Aug, 

Q, 1862 ; dis. for disability Jan. 14, 1864. 
Gilbert, Jeremiah B., Penn, e. Feb. 27, 

1864; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Gillon, Patrick I., Pokagon, e. Aug. 9 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Gleason, Charles H., Pokagon, e. Aug. 9 

1S62 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Grinnell, Sylvester M., Penn, e. Feb. 27 

1864; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Hagerman, Noah D., Penn, e. Aug. 9. 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Hamilton, John P., Wayne, e. Aug. 11 

1862 ; died in action at Thompson's Sta- 
tion, Tenn.. March 5, 1863. 
Hannah, James A., La Grange, e. Aug. 9, 

1862 ; died in action at Thompson's Sta- 
tion, Tenn., March 3, 1863. 
Hawes, Jerome B.. Pokagon, e. Aug. 11 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Hoover, Calvin, La Grange, e. Aug. 8 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Hungerford, Homer M., Wayne, e. .\ug 

9. 1862; missing in action near Dalton, 

Ga., 1S64. 
Laylin, Oren. Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 1862 ; m 

o. June 10, 1865. 
Lilly. Aaron. Wayne, e. S, 1862 ; m 

o. June 10. 1865. 
Lundy, Ira C. Penn, e. .^.ug. 8, 1862; m 

o. June 10, 1S65. 
Lundy, Robert, Penn. e. .•Vug. ir, 1862 

dis. for disability Feb. 8, 1863. 
Lundy, Thomas, Penn, e. 8, 1862 

died of disease at Annapolis. Md., Apri 

13- 1863. 
Lytle, William M., Alarcellus, e. Jan. i 

1863; dis. for wound Nov. 12. 1864. 
Mead. Smith, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 2 

1862 ; m. o. June 10. 1865. 

Means, Andrew, Pokagon, e. Aug. 8, 1S62 ; 
dis. for disability Aug. 18, 1863. 

Muncy, Nimrod, Wayne, e. Aug. 2, 1862 ; 
m. o. June 10, 1863. 

Nicholas, Ezra W., Marcellus, e. Aug. 9, 
1862; died of wounds at Vining's Sta- 
tion, Ga., Sept. 4, 1864. 

Nichols, William H., Marcellus, e. Jan. 

I, 1863; died of wounds at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., June 20, 1864. 

Parker, Haynes G., Calvin, e. Aug. 8, 

1862; died of disease at Nashville, 

Tenn., July 13, 1864. 
Parker, Romaine, Pokagon. e. Aug. 4, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Parker, Thomas S., Calvin, e. Aug. 8, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Peters. John, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 22, 

1863 ; died of wounds at Chattanooga, 

Tenn., June 20, 1S64. 
Potter, Thomas, Jefferson, e. Aug. 7, 

1862 ; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., 

Nov. 13, 1862. 
Reams, Caleb M., Penn, e. Aug. 26. 1862; 

m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Reams, Isaiah G., Penn, e. Sept. 12, 1862; 

m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Reams. Silas G., Penn, e. Aug. 31. 1863; 

m. o. May 24, 1865. 
Savage, Henry B., Marcellus, e. Aug. 12, 

1862 ; died in action at Thompson's Sta- 
tion, Tenn., March 5, 1863. 
Schideler, John, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 7, 

1862 : died in rebel prison at Richmond, 

Va., March — , 1863. 
Schideler, Robert, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

7, 1862; dis. for disability. 
Shawl. Madison, Silver Creek, e. July 25, 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1S65. 
Shepard, Purley, Silver Creek, e, .\ug. 2, 

1S62 ; died of disease at Lookout Mount- 
ain, Tenn., Oct. 26, 1864. 
Sherman, C. C, Pokagon. e. July 23. 1862; 

m. (>. June 16. 1865. 
Spaukiing, Joel, Newberg. e. Aug. 9, 

1862 ; m. o. May 10, 1865. 
Spencer, Edward, Wayne, e. Aug. 9, 1862 ; 

m. o. June 10, 1S65. 
Stedman, Livingston. Pokagon, e. .Vug. 8, 

1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Stuart. Salmon, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Suits, Jacob, Wayne, e. Aug. 9, 1862 : m. 

o. June 10. 1865. 
Suits, Solomon A., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

9, 1862 ; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Sullivan, Solomon A., Wayne, e. Aug. 4, 

1862 ; m. o. June 10. 1865. 
Taylor, John. Pokagon, e. .Aug. 4. 1862; 

m. o. June 10. 1865. 
Thompson. Francis M.. Wayne, e. Aug. 

II, 1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 

3 in 


L'ndc-rwood, Eiios, Newberg, e. Aug. 9. 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 
Underwood. Stephen W.. Pcnn, e. Aug. 9, 

1862; ni. o. July II, 1865. 
WicUliani, William C, Silver Creek, e. 

.■\ufi;. 13, 1862; died of disease at Dan- 
ville, Ky., Dec. — , 1862. 
Wiggins. George E., Wayne, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; died of wounds at Richmond, Va., 

March — . 1863. 
Wiggins, Lorenzo R., Wayne, e. Aug. 7, 

1S62; died in rebel prison, Richmond, 

Va., March — , 1863. 
Winchell, Seneca W., Pokagon, e. Aug. 2, 

1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 

Company C. 

Phillips, Juhii H.. Newberg, e. Jan. 17, 
18(14; ni. o. July 19, 1865. 

Company D. 

Secnnd Lieut. Isaac Z. Edwards, Pokagon, 

trans, frum Co. E. July 37. 1863 ; prom. 

1st Lieut. June i, 1864; resigned as 2d 

Lieut. Aug. 6. 1864. 
Harrigan, William, Marcellus, e. Sept. 

15. 1864; m. o. June 23 1865. 
Wright, Giles, Newberg. c. Sept. 5. 1863; 

m. o. July 19, 1S65. 

Company E. 

Second Lieut. Isaac Z. Edwards. Pokagon. 
com. May 1, 1863; trans. 2d. Lieut, to 
Co. D. 

Ashley. William H.. e. .\ug. — , 1862 ; 
confined in Libby Prison ; died at An- 
napolis. Md., April 11, 1863. 

Basley, Hiram E., Jefiferson. e. Dec. 15, 

1863, in loth Infantry. 

Hollister, Albert E., Penn, e. Sept. 29, 

1864. in loth Infantry. 

l\!ahey. Martin. Silver Creek, e. Dec. 

22. 1863. in loth Infantry; trans, to loth 

Mich. Infantry. 
Martin. George H.. m. o. Aug. 3. 1R65. 
Miller, Charles Z., e. Aug. — , 1862; died 

at Nicholasville. Ky.. Dec. 13, 1862. 
Quay, William H., Newberg, e. Jan. 23, 

1864; died of disease at Nashville, 

'Penn., March 21, 1864. 
Quay. Edward L., Newberg, e. Dec. 21. 

1863; m. o. July 19, 1865. 

Welch, Thomas C, Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 

1863; m. o. July 19, 1865. 
White, Enos H.. Pokagon, e. Nov. 18, 

1864; m. o. July 19, 1865. 

Company G. 
Beaman, Alonzo P., Newberg, e. Jan. 5, 

1864; m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Boghart. Peter C., Newberg. e. Jan. 5, 

1S64, in loth Infanlrv; died of disease 

March 3. 1864. 
;\Iadden. Michael. Silver Creek, e. Dec. 

23. 1863; ni. o. July 19. 1865. 
McCoy, John, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 23, 

1S63; m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Reams. Erastus, Dowagiac, e. Sept. 12, 

1862; m. o. June 10. 1865. 
Reed. Henry S., Newberg, e. Jan. 5, 1864; 

died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., 

June 30, 1864. 
Reed, William '1'., Newberg, e, Jan. 5. 

1864; died of disease at Chattanooga, 

Tenn., Aug. 7, 1864. 
Trattles, Daniel, Newberg, e. Aug. 11, 

1862 : m. o. June to. 1865. 

Comp.any H. 

Bair, Myron "SI.. Newberg. e. Jan. 20, 
1S64; m. o. June 10. 1865. 

Hawkins, Lsaac, Dowagiac, e. .\ug. 13, 
1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. 

INlnsician George N. Rosebrock. Ontwa. e. 
.-\ug. 13. 1862: died of disease at Cov- 
ington. Ky., Oct. 21. 1862. 

Teagen. Samuel. Porter, e. Aug. 13, 1862; 
dis. for disability July 6. 1863. 

Company I. 
P'irst Lieut. .Alexander Kirkwood. Wayne, 

com. Nov. Ti. 1864; m. o. June 10, 

Buttrick, William, Wayne, e. Jan. 4. 1S64; 

m. o. June 24. 1865. 
Carroll. Thomas. Wayne, e. Dec. 17. 1863 ; 

m. o. July T9, 1865. 
Cooper. Asbury. Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 

1S63. in loth Infantry ; trans, to loth 

iNlicbigan Infantry. 
Havens. Adam. Wayne, e. Jan. 4. 1864. in 

loth Infantry; trans, to loth Michigan 

White. William L., Wayne, e. Dec. 4, 

1863 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 



Scrgt. Maj. James S. McElheny. Dowa- 
giac, e. Aug. m. 1861 ; prom. 2d Lieut. 
Co. G. 

Hosp. Steward James R. Leader. Poka- 
gon; m. o. Oct., 1862. 

Company .\. 

First Lieut. Sidney G. I\Iorse, Cassopolis. 
com. June. 1862 ; 1st Sergt. Co. M. May 
12. 1862; killed in battle at Second Bull 
Run, Aug. .30, 1862. 



First Lieut. John H. Simmons. Dowagiac, 
com. March 7, 1865 ; m. o. Nov. 7, 1865. 

Private Richard L. Crawford. Penn, e. 
Feb. 4, 1864; m. o. Jan. 23, 1866. 

Company B. 

Capt. Rollin C. Denison, Dowagiac, trans. 

from Co. M. Oct.. 1861 ; trans, to Co. 

M, Nov., 1861. 
Capt. William Heazelit. Dowagiac. trans. 

from Co. K, July iS, 1862 ; m. o. Oct. 

30, 1864. 
Second Lieut. John Simmons, Dowagiac, 

prom. 1st Lieut. Co. A, March 7, 1865. 

Com p.^ NY C. 
Randall. Wesley C, Jefferson, e. March 
13, 1865 ; m. o. May ig, 1866. 

Company E. 
Bugler George Krupp, Pokagon, e. Dec. 

30, 1863 ; m. o. ^larch 25, 1866. 
Shanafels, George, Calvin, e. Feb. 6, 

1865; m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 

Company' D. 
First Lieut. John Munson, Volinia, com. 
March 7, 1865; 2d Lieut. Dec. 4, 1864; 
m. o. trans, to Co. G, March 10, 1865. 

Company' G. 

First Lieut. James S. McElheny, Dowa- 
giac, com. May 18, 1863 ; 2d Lieut. Nov. 
12, 1862: killed in action at Monterey, 
Md., July 4, 1863. 

First Lieut. John Munson. Volinia, trans, 
from Co. D, ist Lieut. March 10, 1865; 
m. o. l\Iarch 10, 1866. 

Private Warren Simpson, Jefferson, e. 
Feb. 8, 1865 ; m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 

Company' K. 

Capt. William M. Hazelet, Dowagiac, com. 

- Nov. 12, 1862 ; 2d Lieut. Co. M ; wound- 
ed in action at Gettysburg July 3, 1863; 
and at Cold Harbor June i, 1864; trans. 
Capt. to Co. B; m. o. Oct. 30, 1864. 


Apted, William, Volinia, e. Feb. 15. 1865; 

ni. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 
Conner, Isaac B., Volinia, e. Feb. 17, 

1865 ; trans, to Co. G. 
Fonger, William, La Grange, e. Nov. 30, 
■ '863. 
Hanna, Ilezekiah. Volinia. e. Nov. 26, 

1863; died at Washington, D. C. July 

II, 1864. 
Herbert, William P., Corp., Vnlinia, e. 

Dec. IS, 1863: m. o. Marcli 10, 1865. 
James, Lewis, Volinia, e. Dec. 16, 1863 ; 

m. o. March 10, 1866. 
Kenny, James, blacksmith, Volinia, e. 

Nov. 30, 1S63 ; m. o. Jan. 10, 1865. 

Munson, John, saddler, Volinia, e. Nov. 

30, 1863 ; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. D, Dec. 

4, 1S64. 
Myers, James W., Jefferson, e. Feb. 7, 

1865 ; m. o. Dec. 8, 1865. 
Sweet, George W., Volinia, e. Dec. 16, 

1863; m. o. July 16, 1863. 
Welcher, Nelson, Volinia, e. Nov. 30. 

1863; died at Detroit, Mich., Oct. 27, 

Winegarden, Abram S.. \'olinia, e. Nov. 

30. 1863; dis. by order July 7, 1865. 

Company L. 
Corp. Albert Vincent, Volinia, e. Aug. 20. 
1861 ; died in rebel prison. 

Koonse. Herbert, Mason, e. Jan. 26, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 25, 1865. 
Redmcin, J. W., Mason, e. Feb. 26, 1865 ; 

m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. 

Company !M. 

Capt. Rollin C. Denison. Dowagiac, com. 
Aug. 12, 1861 ; resigned April 23, 1863. 

Capt. David W. Clemmcr, Dowagiac, com. 
May 2, 1863; wounded in action at 
Gettysburg, Penn., July 3, 1863; m. o. 
Dec. 14, 1864. 

First Lieut. Charles H. Sprague, Dowa- 
giac, com. Aug. 12. 1861 ; prom. Capt. 
Co. A. 

First Lieut. David W. Clcmmer. Dinva- 
giac. com. Aug. 12. 1861 : prom. Capt. 
May- 2, 1863. 

Second Lieut. David W. Clemmer, Dowa- 
giac, com. May 12, 1862; prom, ist 
Lieut. Nov. 12, 1862. 

Second Lieut. William M. Heazlit, Dowa- 
giac, com. Aug. 12, i86r : prom. Capt. 
Co. K, Nov. 12. 1862. 

First Sergt. David W. Oemmer, Dowa- 
giac, e. Aug. 12. 1861 ; prom. 2d Lieut. 
May 12. 1862. 

Sergt. Sidney G. Morse, Cassopolis ; 1st 
Sergt. May 12, 1862: Commissary Sergt. 
Aug. 16, 1861 ; prom, ist Lieut. Co. A. 

Sergt. William Dickson, Dowagiac, e. 
Aug. 12, 1861 ; prom. 2d Lieut. May 12, 
1862; dis. for disability January, 1864. 

Sergt. Joseph L. Tice, Dowa.giac. e. Aug. 
22, 1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; dis. by 
order Aug. i, 1865. 

Sergt. John H. Simmons. Dowagiac ; 
prom. 2d Lieut. Co. B. 

Sergt. "Matthew B. Dopp. Dowagiac, e. 
Auff. 19, 1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863: m. 
o. March 25, 1866. 

Sergt. Gilbert Vincent, Volinia, e. Aug. 
20. 1861; dis. for disability Nov. i. 

Sergt. John W. Robinson. Dowagiac, e. 



Aug. 2J, iiSfji ; vet. Dec. 21. i8<.)3; ni. o. 

March 25, 18O6. 
Corp. James S. McElheiiy. Dovvagiac, e. 

Aug. 15. 1861 ; prom. Sergt. January, 

i86j; Sergeant Maj. October, 1862. 
Corp. Charles Allen, Dovvagiac, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; prom. Sergt. October, 1862; 

died in rebel prison at Florence, Ala. 
iMusician John H. Simmons, Dowagiac, c. 

Aug. 16, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; pro- 
Musician George W. Pierson, Dowagiac, 

e. Aug. 16, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 29, 1863; 

m. o. July 29, 1865. 
Farrier Abram R., Sigerfoos, Dowa.giac, 

c. Aug. 19. 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; 

m. o. July 31, 1865. 
Wagoner Daniel Rummell, Dowagiac, e. 

Aug. 16, iS5i ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863 ; m. o. 

Aug 8. 1865 

James R. Leader, Pokagon. e. Aug. 20, 

i86t ; jiromoted Hospital Steward. 
Henry W. Ellis, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 16. 

1861 ; dis. for disability Nov. i. 1862. 
Cliarles C. Wilcox, DoAva,giac. e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; prom. Sergt. ; dis. at end of 

John H. Simmons, Dowagiac. c. .-Xug. 16, 

1861 ; prom. Sergt. 
Albert H. Lewis, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 

1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. March 

25, 1 866. 


Angle, IMiili]), Wavue, e. Aug. ig, 1S61 ; 

vet. ])ec. 21. iSVi^; m. 0. ' March 2S. 

Barnaby. .Alvin P., Volinia, c. Jan. 23. 

1864; dis. by order May 3. 1865. 
Barney, William W., La Grans-e, e. Feb. 

15, 1864; died of disease April 5, 1864. 
Becraft, William F.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

20, t86t : vet. Dec. 21, 1863; dis. by 

order May 31, 1865. 
Beutley, Pardon F., Pokagon. e. Aug. 13, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863: died at Alex- 
andria, Va., Nov. 22, 1864. 
Bilderback. John, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

20. 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; prom. 

Sergt. ; trans, to Co. D. 
Bulhand, Joseph L.. Edwardsburg, e. Aug. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21. 1863; ni. o. IMarch 

2=;, 1866. 
Cables, Jerome L. Volinia, e. Aug. 17, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 186^ : m. o. Aug. 7. 

Chatterson, Joseph. Silver Creek, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21. t86^: m. o. Nov. 
24, 1865. 

Clock, Miles A., Porter, e. ; m. o. 

Aug. 7, 1865. 

Colby, Frank, Penn, e. Feb. 2, 1864; vet. 

Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. July 10, 1865. 
Cook, Albert H., Dowagiac. e. Aiig. 21. 

1861 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 24, 

Crawford, Charles C. Penn, c. Feb. 16, 

1864 ; died in action Wilderness. Va.. 

May 6. 1864. 
Day. James E.. Porter, e. Feb. 9, 1S64 ; 

m. o. March 25, 1866. 
Dewitt, Isaac A.. Dowagiac, e. Au.g. 19, 

18C1 ; vet. Dec. 21, 186?; m. o. March 

25, 1866. 
Drummond, Alcius, Dowagiac, e. Au.g. 

22, 1861 ; dis. for disability April to. 

Ellsworth, Andrew J.; m. o. March 25, 

Ensign, Leroy, Pokagon, e. Aug. 13, 

1861 ; died in battle at Winchester, Va., 

Afay 24, 1862. 
Gates, Henry C, Dowagiac, e. Sept. S, 

t86i ; died of disease at Alexandria, 

Va.. Sept. 24, 1862. 
Crush, John, Volinia, e. Aug. t6. t86i ; 

vet. Dec. 21, 186^; m. o. March 2^^, 

Hutson, Edward R., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

12. t86i ; dis. for disability. 
Huff, Franklin. Dowagiac. e. Aug. 22. 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; dis. at end of 

service Au,g. 22, 1864. 
King. John R.. c. Oct. 10, 1862: died in 

rebel prison, Richmond. Va., Feb. •;, 

Labadie, A. C, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 

1861 ; dis. for disability April 3, 1863. 
Lamphere, Elias, Dowagiac' e. Aug. 12, 

i86t : dis. for disability April, 1862, 

Lillie, George, Dowagiac, e. .Au.g. 17, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Jan. T3. 1863, 

Lyons, John. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 1S61 ; 

dis. for disability September, 1862. 
McCreevy, Hiram, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 17, 

tS6i ; vet. Dec. 21. 1863; dis. by order 

July 31. 1865. 
Meachani, Charles, Dowa.giac, e. .Vug. 16, 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863: m. o. ?ilarch 

25, 1866. 
Morland. Joseph, Volinia. e. Jan. 16. 1864; 

m. o. March 25, 1866. 
Norton. Cassins M.. Dowagiac, e. Oct. 

21, T862 ; dis. by order June 19, 1865. 
Niver, William C, Ontwa, e. Aug. 22, 

t86i ; died of disease at .Annapolis. Md., 

Oct. 3. 1862. 
Ornt, Eli, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service. 
OInev. Darwin, Dowagiac. e. .\u!X- to. 

i86t : vet. Dec. 21, 1863: killed in battle 

at Gettysburg. Penn.. July 3, 1863. 



Oyler, John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22. 1861 ; 

dis. for disability July. 1862. 
Peck, Coleman C, Cassopolis, e. Aug. 19. 

1861 ; dis. at end of sen'ice. 
Pettigrew, William M., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863 ; m. o. May 

II, 1866. 
Pierce. Thomas P., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; died of disease at Richmond, 

Reimer, Henry, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Nov. 2g, 1862. 
Robinson, Richard M., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. Aug. 

22, 1864. 
Roberts. Luman C, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 12, 

1S61 ; vet. Dec. 21. 1863; m. o. Nov. 

24, 1865. 
Rose. Alexander. La Grange, e. Dec. 21. 

1S63 ; m. o. Aug. 8, 1865. 
Rutter. Benjamin H.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

20, i86x ; dis. at end of service Sept. 

6. 1864. 
Rutter, Henry C. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 17, 

1861 ; died of disease April, 1862. 
Serrine, Ezra, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 16, 

1861 ; dis. for disability May. 1862. 
Stults. Seth S.. Dowagiac. e. Aug. 26. 

1861 ; vet. Dec. 21. 1863; Sergt. ; trans. 

to Co. F. 
Shrackengast. George W.. Dowagiac, e. 

Aug. 22, 1861 : vet. Dec. 21. 1863. 

Shaw, John N., Corp.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

16, 1861 ; dis. at end of service. 
Simons. Joseph R. C, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

22. 1861 ; vet. Dec. 21, 1863 ; died at Ft. 

Bridger. Utah. Nov. 18, 1865. 
Smyth. Daniel, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 32, 

1861 ; dis. for disability Jan. 14, 1863. 
Spillman, Jacob, Dowagiac, e. .'\ug. 26, 

1861 ; dis. by order. 
Stone, George, Corp., Jefferson, e. Feb. 7, 

1865; m. o. March 25, 1866. 
Suydam, William H.. Silver Creek, e. 

l^ec. 26, 1863 ; dis. bv order Aug. 3. 

Taylor. Halbert R.. Wayne, e. Dec. 28, 

1863 ; m. o. March 25, 1866. 
Thomas, Cassius, Porter, e. Feb. 19. 1864 ; 

died of yellow fever May 6. 1S64. 
Tinkler, George W.. Dowagiac. e. Aug. 

16. 1861 ; dis. at end of service. 
Tice. iNIyron C. Dowagiac. e. Au.g. 19, 

1861 : m. o. July 13. 1865. 
Watson. Joseph H.. Dowagiac, c. Aug. 21, 

1861 ; taken prisoner in action at Robb's 

Tavern, Va. 
Wilber. Oscar, Dowagiac, e. .Aug. 22, 

1861 : died of disease Aug. 29, 1862. 
Wiley. James P., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 17. 

1861 • vet Dec. 21. 1863: m. o. March 

2^. 1866. 


Company D. 
Fellows. Austin P., Milton. Nov. 8, 1863; 
m. o. .-^ug. 17, 1865. 

Company L 
Farrier John H. A.shley, Mason, e. Aug. 

24, 1864; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 
Rix, Alfred, Mason, e. Aug. 24, 1864; 

taken prisoner at Shoal Creek, .-Ma., 

Nov. 5, 1864. 
Stephens, George, Mason, e. Aug. 24, 

1861 ; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 

Company L. 

First Lieut. Andrew J. Foster, com. .^ug. 
24, 1861 ; resigned Aug. 31, 1862. 

First Lieut. John H. Hutton. com. Sept. 
9, 1862 ; 2d Lieut. Aug. 24, 1861 ; re- 
signed for disability April 9. 1864. 

Quartermaster Sergt. William P. Thomas, 
e. Sept. 12. 1861 : died of disease at Cor- 
inth. Miss.. June 25. 1862. 

Sergt. Jay Blodgett. e. Sept. 16, i86t ; dis. 
for disability Sept. 9. 1862. 

Corp. John K. Stark, e. Sept. 17. 1861 : 
dis. for disability Aug. 14. 1862. 

Corp. Harvey L. Drew, e. Sept. 16, 1S61 ; 

trans, to 3d Cav. Nov. 2. 1861. 
Corp. .Mbert P. Anderson, e. Sept. 14. 

1861 ; died of wounds near Boonville. 

Miss.. July 3. 1862. 
Corp. William H. Todd. e. Sept. 16. 1861 ; 

dis. for disability Dec. 9. i86^- 
Corp. Samuel INIaxham, e. Sept. 18. 1S61 ; 

dis. for disability Dec. 6. 1862. 
Corp. Abner P. Stimpson. e. Sept. 14. 

1S61; vet. Jan. 5. 1864: m. o. Aug. 30, 

Wagoner Robert Lingrell. e. Sept. 8. i86t ; 

vet. Jan. 5. 1864; prom. Sergt.; m. o. 

Aug. 17. 1865. 
Quartermaster Sergt. S. J. W. Thomas. 

e 1S62; killed at battle of Bear River, 

Feb. 20. 1863. 

Andrews. James H.. iNlason. e. Aug. 27. 

1864: dis. bv order June 3. '865. 
Barker. John C. e. Oct. I. 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5. 1864: m. o. Aug. 17. 1865. 
Burns. Lawrence, e. Sept. 14. 1861 ; vet. 

Tan. .=;. 1864; died in action in Alabama 

Oct. 7. 1864. 



Burns, Roger, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1855. 
Carlisle, William, e. Sept. 14, 1S61 ; trans. 

to V'et. Res. Corps. 
Dailey, Hiram, e. Nov. 14, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Eisele, Felix, e. Sept. 24, 1861 ; died in 

action at Mossy Creek, Dec. 27, 1863. 
Eisele, iVIartin, e. Sept. 24, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Goodrich, J T., e. Nov. i, i86l ; vet. Jan. 

S, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Griffith, John W., e. Sept. 7, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; ni. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Hanson, John, e. Sept. 16, i86i ; dis. at 

end of service Oct. 22, 1864. 
Hewitt, Henry W., c. Sept. 16, 1861 

for disability May 30. 1863. 
Ketcham, .\lonzo. e. Sept. 14, i85i 

Jan. 5, 1804; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Layton. James L., Xewberg, m. o. 

17, lS65- 
Loveland, Andrew J 

vet. Jan. 5, 1864. 
Lowry, William S., e 

Jan. 5, 1S64; dis. 

Lybacher, Porter, Mason, e. Aug 

1861 ; m. o. July 5. 1865. 
Mallory, Marquis D., e. Oct. i, 1861 ; dis, 

at end of service Oct. 22, 1864. 
Manco, Theo., e. Sept. 13, 1861 ; vet. Jan, 

5, 1S64; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Mann, George H., JNIason. e. Aug. 14. 

1862; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 



0. Aug. 

1, 1861 ; 

Sept. 13, 1S61 ; vet. 
by order June 4, 


.Mannermg, W. 11., e. Oct. 10, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Aug. 16, 1862. 
Marshall, James M., Alason, e. Aug. 19, 

1862; dis. for disability Dec. 6, 1802. 
Moore, Lorenzo D., e. Sept. 24, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; died of wounds at Shoal 

Creek, Ala., Dec. i, 1864. 
Nelson, Edgar, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 

5. 1864; dis. by order May 19, 1865. 
Parker, Chandler, e. Nov. 1, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Shockley, Alfred, e. Sept. 14, 1861 ; vet. 

Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Smith, Henry, e. Sept. 16, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Oct. 22, 1864. 
Smith, Walter, e. Sept. 17. 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Oct. 22, 1864. 
Stark, Edward, e. Sept. 24, r86i ; dis. for 

disability Oct. 20, 1862. 
Stilson, Hiram, Mason, e. Aug. 14, 1862; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 15. 1865. 
Stilson, John, Mason, e. Sept. i, 1864; 

m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Stilson. William C, Mason, e. Aug. 24, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. 
Weiting. Jacob, dis. for disabilitv Alarch 

W illiams, Richard J., c. Sept. 14. 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. 5, 1864; dis. for promotion 

Sept. 20. 1864. 
Williams, Theodore, e. Sept. 18, 1861 ; 

killed by guerrillas at Madisonville, 
Tenn., March 7. 1864. 
Wooden, Timothy, e. Sept. 16, 1861 : died 

of disease at St. Louis, Mo.. Jan. 31, 




Smith, George W., Penn, e. Feb. 15, 1864; 
m. o. Feb. 12, 1866. 

Company F. 
Second Lieut. Morrel Wells, La Grange, 

e. Sept. 30, 1861. Corp. ; vet. Jan. 19, 

1864; Sergt. ; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. F; 

prom,. 1st Lieut. Co. I, Nov. 17, 1864 ; 

m. o. Feb. 12, 1866. 
Second Lieut. Robert H. Carr, Dowagiac, 

e. Sept. 26, 1861 ; Corp., Sergt., 2d Lieut. 

July 4, 1S64; m. o. as Sergt., Feb. 12, 



Beebe, Benjamin F., Volinia, e. Feb. 24, 

i8(>4; died of disease Duvall's Bluff, 

Ark., July 29. 1864. 
Vance, William J., Volinia, e. Jan. 19, 

1864; m. o. Feb. 12, 1866. 
Wallace, John L, Dowagiac, e. Sept. 30, 

1861 ; di'^. for prom. June 20. 1863. 

Company L 

First Lieut. Morrel ■ Wells, La Grange, 
com. Nov. 17, 1864; m. o. Feb. 12, 1866. 


Foster. David, Pokagon, e. Dec. 29. 1863; 
m. o. Feb. 12. 1S66. 


Company A. Company C. 

McManus. John, La Grange, e. Nov. 3, McCy. William. D. P. R., Aug. i. 1862; 
T8C3 ; m. o. Aug. 15, 1865. m. o. July I, 1865. 



Partridge, Edwin D., Pokagon, e. Dec. S, 

1863; m. o. Aug. IS, 1865. 
Riggs, Rensselaer, Porter, e. Aug. 18, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Shoemaker, John H., Marcellus, e. July 

15, 1862; m. o. July I. 1865. 

Company G. 
Cowles, David B.. Howard, e. Nov. 3, 
1863 ; trans, to Veteran Reserve Corps 
Aug. 17, 1864. 

Company I. 

Bedwell, George W., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

II. 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Corp. Brown, Preston W., Dowagiac, e. 

July 2g, 1862; m. o. July i, 1865. 
Driskel, Noah. Porter, e. Aug. 11. 1862; 

dis. for disability April 2, 1863. 
Eaton, Frank P., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 11, 

1862 ; dis. for disability ^larch 3, 1863. 
Fetterly, Charles, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 2, 

1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Joy, Fraklin D.. Penn, e. .^ug. 11, 1862; 

m. o. May 3, 1865. 
Kennedy, David A., Penn, e. Aug. II, 

1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Powers, Samuel H.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. II, 

1862 ; died of disease at Nashville, 

Tenn., Jan. 12, 1863. 
Roberson, Jonathan S., Corp., e. Aug. 2, 

1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. i, 

Matthews. William, Penn. e. Ang. 11, 

1862: sick at Nashville at m. o. 
Morton, Charles L.. Porter, e. .-Vug. 11. 

1862 ; dis. for disability Feb. 27, 1863. 
Sigerfoos. .Mbertus, Porter, e. Aug. 11, 

1862 ; sick at Nashville at ni. o. 
Scrgt. Witherell. Henry A., Pokagon, e. 

Aug. II. 1862: died of disease at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., April 9, 1864. 
Lewis, James. Newberg. e. Aug. 11. 1862; 

killed in action at Stone River. 
Lew'is, Franklin B.. e. .\ug. 11. 1862; died 

of disease at Nashville. 

Company M. 


First Lieut. Hiram F. Beals, Dowagiac. 

com. Aug. 13, 1862. 
Quartermaster Sergt. William H. Davis, 

Dowagiac. e. July 26, 1862 ; dis. by 

order May 19, 1865. 
Commissary Sergt. James W. .'^rgo, e. 

July 24, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Sergt. James D. Dawson, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; dis. for disability July 8, 1863. 
Sergt. Edward Pearce, Wayne, e. .'Vug. 

IS, 1862; m. o. July I. 1865. 
Corp. Truman Pond, Wayne, e. .\ug. 2, 

i8fi2: died of disease at Louisville, Kv.. 

Oct. 27. 1862. 

Corp. George Scott, Volinia, e. Aug. 5, 

1862; dis. for disability Jan. i, 1863. 
Corp. John Fox, Milton, e. Aug. 7, 1862; 

dis. by order May 19, 1865. 
Corp. Elias Ingling. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

6, 1862; m. o. July i, 1865. 
Corp. John W. Bowles, Volinia, e. Aug. 7, 

1862 ; absent sick at m. o. 
Farrier Henry Cooper, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

13, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Teamster Charles D. Northrup, Dowagiac. 

e. Aug. S, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Wagoner Josiah Ipes, e. Aug. 2, 1862 ; m. 

o. July I. 1865. 


Abbott. Hiram. Milton, e. .\ug. 16, 1862; 

m. o. Julv I, 1865. 
.A.ldrich. James M.. e. Aug. 1^2, 1S62; died 

of disease at Lebanon, Kv.. Nov. 18. 

.Arnold, Alvin, Newberg, e. Aug. 13, 1862 ; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps. 
.\rnold. Robert, Volinia, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

m. o. July I, i86s. 
Baldwin, Thomas, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 5, 

1862; m. o. July I. 1865. 
Dunbar, George W.. Milton, e. .\ug. 13. 

1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Finch, Mathew, Volinia, e. Aug. 10. 1862; 

dis. for disability May i. 1863. 
Ferris, Albert P. Volinia, e. Aug. 11, 

1862 : dis. by order May 3. 1865. 
Garwood. Levi J., Volinia, e. Aug. 2. 

1862: dis. by order June 29. 1865. 
Higgins. George W.. Dowagiac, e. July 

26, 1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Haight. Horatio. Marcellus, e. Aug. 7. 

1862: m. o. July I, 1865. 
Hoyt, Henry. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 2, 1862; 

died of disease at Nashville. Dec. 26. 

Huff, Simon. Volinia. e. Aug. 15. 1862: 

m. o. July I. 1865. 
Humiston, Perry, e. Aug. 8, 1862; m. o. 

July I, 1865, 
Jaquavs. William, Volinia. e. -'Vug. I3- 

1S62; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps 

Jan. 15. 1864. 
Little. John H.. Volinia, e. Aug. 6. 1S62; 

dis. for disability Feb. 11, 1863. 
Northrup, Freeman G., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

6. 1862: died of disease at Mitchellville. 

Tenn.. Nov. 22, 1862. 
Parks, Tames, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 6. 1862: 

dis. by order April 28. 1865. 
Pond, Wesley D., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 9. 

1862; m. o. July I. 1865. 
Quick. Robert I.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, 

1862 ; dis for disability Feb. 4, 1863. 
Rankin, John F.. Dowagiac, e. .\ug. 12, 

1862; m. o. July I, 1865. 



Shaiiahaii, Henry, c. Ails'. 12, 1862; 111. o. 

July I, 1865. 
Southvvorth, George AL, Volinia, e. Aug. 

11, 1862; m. o. July I. 1S65. 
Sweetland, James M.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

7, 1862; dis. for disability Jan. 7, 1863. 
Swcelland, John B., Edwardsburg, e. Aug. 

12, 1862; dis. by order to appointment 
as United States Medical Cadet Sept. 
20. 1863. 

Taylor, Nelson, m. o. July i, 1865. 

Thompson, Benjamin F.. Milton, e. Aug. 
15, 1862; prom, to Corp. 1863. after the 
battle of Stone Kiver; dis. for disabil- 
ity Nov. II, 1864. 

Tharp, John L.. Penn, e. Aug. g. 1862 ; 
dis. for disability March 25, 1864. 

Van Tuyl. John. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 8. 
1862 ; m. o. July i, 1865. 

Vaughn. Dewitt C, Calvin, e. \usi. 6, 
1862; died of disease in Indian,! March 
18, 1863. 

Welch, Michael, La Grange, e. Aug. 5, 

1862 ; died in rebel prison Richmond, 

Va., Dec. 18, 1862. 
Welcher, Sherman B., Volinia, e. Aug. 

6, 1862 ; died of disease at Woodson- 

ville, Ky., Dec. — , 1862. 
Wilson. Samuel, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, 

18O2 ; m. o. July I, 1865. 


Brown, Simeon, Wayne, e. Nov. 18, 1863. 
Day. Robert B., Wayne, e. Dec. 21, 1863. 
Rigin. Thomas. I\Iason, e. Nov. 3, 1863. 
Ross. William. Silver Creek, e.' Dec. 23, 

Randall, Charles. Silver Creek, e. Aug. 30, 

Shoemaker, Franklin C, Penn, 

23., 1863. 
Williams, Leonard W., Penn, e. 





Surg. Sylvester L. Morris, Dowagiac, 
Oct. 2^, 1S63 ; Assistant Surgeon Sept. 
3, 1S63 ; resigned July 28, 1864. 

C0MP.\NY D. 

Dean. Edward, La Grange, e. Jan. 23, 
1865; transferred to ist Michigan Cav- 

Randall, Wesley C, Jefferson, e. i\Iarch 
13. 1S65 ; m. o. May ig, 1866. 

Shilling, Lemuel C, Volinia. e. March 15. 
1865 ; m. o. Jan. 9, 1866. 

CoMI'.\NY H. 

King. Franklin T.. La Grange, e. Jan. 6, 

1865 ; 


transferred t(.i 1st Michigan Cav- 

C0MP.\NV K. 
.Mva H., Volinia, e. March 15, 
transferred to 7th Michigan Cav- 

Harrington, Silas, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 
17. 1865; transferred to 7th Michigan 


Company E. 
Savage. Frank, Marcellus. c. March 31, 
1S65 : m. o. Feb. 16, 1866. 

Company G. 
Branch. Arthur R.. Silver Creek, e. March 

7, 1865 ; m. o. Feb. 16, 1866. 
Nearpass, Ira N., Newberg, e. March 31, 

1865 ; m. o. May i6„ 1866. 

Company K. 
Potts, James H., Silver Creek, e. March 
10. 1865; m. o. March 31. 1866. 

Company L. 
Bliss, Edwin S., Newberg. e. Jan. 26. 
1864; m. o. May 30. 1865. 

Dewev. Orlando, Marcellus; m. o. March 

25, "1866. 
Kilmer, George F., Penn. e. Feb. 11, 

1864 ; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Mathers, William, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 

17. 1865; m. o. March 10, 1866. 

Company M. 

Cole, Hiram G., Jefferson, c. Feb. 6. 1865; 

m. o. Feb. 8, 1866. 
Deline, Frank H., Calvin, c. Feb. 6, 1865 ; 

died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., June 

24. 1865. 


Company A. Cmcker. William A.. Jeft'erson, e. Sept. 

.Mexander. Samuel, Jefferson, e. Sept. 9, g. 1862; trans, to Invalid Corps Sept. 

1862 ; missing in action. 10. 1863. 



Collins, Joseph E., Pokagon, e. Sept. 12, 

1862 ; died at Alexandria, V'a., Jan. 12, 

Foster, Zach. ; trans, to ist Mich. Cav. 
Harrison, Jesse, Jefferson, e. Sept. 9. 

1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps April 

10, 1864. 
Henderson, William, jNIilton. e. Dec. 29, 

1862 ; m. o. June 7, 1865. 
Huyck, John. 
Maloy, Thomas, Pokagon, e. Sept. 29, 

1862; m. o. Dec. 15. 1865. 
Milliman, Samuel, Pokagon. e. Sept. iS, 

Nelson, Walter, Pokagon, e. Sept. 29, 

1862; died in battle at Gettysburg, Pa., 

July 3, 1863. 
Peck, George P., Jefferson, e. Sept. 9, 

1862 ; dis. for disability Nov. 25. 1862. 
Richardson, Varnum, Pokagon, e. Sept. 

IS. 1862; dis. for disability .March 28. 

Smith, Thomas J.. Milton, e. Dec. 25, 

1S62; ni. o. July 6, 1865. 
Stout, John. Alilton; m. o. Dec. 15. 1865. 
Wortler. George A.. Milton, e. Dec. 27, 



Irwin, Andrew; m. o.. Dec. 15, 1865. 



Chaplain John Fletcher. Edwardsburg, 
Aug. 23, 1864; m. o. July 21, 1865. 

Company L. 

Capt. George Miller, Pokagon, Nov. 3, 
1862 ; resigned March 12, 1864. 

Commissary Sergt. James F. Prater, 
Wayne, e. Dec. 12. 1862 ; prom. Regi- 
mental Commissary Sergt. May I, 1864; 
m. o. July 21, 1865. 

Sergt. Henry L. Barney, Wayne, e. Dec. i. 
1862 ; prom, in U. S. Cav. Troops. 

Sergt. Clagon Dunham, Volinia, e. Dec. 
28, 1862 ; m. o. June 30, 1863. 

Corp. Martin Quinlan, Volinia. e. Jan. 10, 
1863; m. o. July 21, 1865. 

Teamster John C)yler. Pokagon, e. Nov. 
12, 1862; m. o. Dec. 5. 1865. 

Barrett, George, Wayne, e. Dec. 28, 1862 ; 
m. o. June 13, 1865. 

Blackman, Jerome, Dovvagiac, e. March 
24, 1863; m. o. July 21, 1865. 

Brownell. William, Wayne, e. Dec. 27, 
1862 ; m. o. May 27, 1865. 

Ellsworth. Daniel. Howard, e. Jan. i, 

1863; dis. for disability June 9, 1865. 
Elliott, P'ranklin, Jefferson, e. Jan. i, 1863; 

died in rebel prison at Richmond, Va., 

Feb. 17, 1864. 
Garrigan. John, Volinia, e. Dec. 18, 1862; 

died in rebel prison pen, Andersonville, 

Ga., June 19. 1864. 
Kelly, Edgar D., Wayne, e. Dec. 13. 1862 ; 

m. o. July 21, 1S65. 
Rose. John H., Dowagiac, e. April 2;i„ 

1863; dis. for disability June 9, 1865. 
Smith, Judson, Wayne, e. Jan. 12, 1863 ; 

m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Smith, Henry, Silver Creek, e. Jan. 12, 

1863; died of disease in Tennessee. Dec. 

27. 1863. 
Travis, Ezekiel, Wayne, e. Nov. 11. 1S62; 

m. o. Dec. 5. 1S65. 
Ovcrbeck, Augustus, Volinia, e. Jan. 8, 

1863 ; died at Dandridge, Tennessee, 

Dec. 15, 1863. 
Williams, James A.. Corp.. Penn, e. Dec. 

29. 1862; m. o. July 21, 1865. 
Davis, M. Barney. 
Willis I!arncv. 


Company G. 
Canning, George, Marcellus, e. Nov. 5. 
1863; m. o. Nov. 2, 1865. 

Company I. 
Allen, William H„ Penn, e. Sept. 19, 

1863; m. o. May 17, 1865. 
Canning. Thomas, Marcellus, e. Sept. 19. 

1863; m. o. Aug. 24. 1865. 
Lettick. William, La Grange, e. Dec. 7, 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 

CoMP.\Ny K. 
Sergt. Horace R. Brown, Ontwa, e. Sept. 
22, 186^ ; died of disease at Lexington, 
Ky., July 8, 1864. 

Blackburn, Thomas, Ontwa, e, Nov. 2, 

1863; m. o. Sept. 22. 1865, 
Blue, Erwin, Ontwa, e. Nov. 2. 1863; 

killed by accident at Shelbyville, Ky., 

July 17, T864. 
Brown, Carlton, Ontwa, e. Sept. 30, 1863 ; 

m. o. July 18, 1865. 
Lofand, Joshua. Ontwa, e. Sept. i, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Farrier William W. Marr. Ontwa. e. 

Sept. 22, 1863; m. o. Sept. 22, 1S65. 
Saddler Albert R. Raymond, Ontwa. e. 

Oct. 9, 1863; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Shideler, George, Ontwa, e. Oct. 26. 

1863: m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Shiar, Alonzo S., Ontwa, e. Sept. 22, 1S63 ; 



died of di'icase nt AshUiiid. Ky., July Steele, John S., Ontvva, c. Oct. 14. 186.5; 

It, 1864. m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 

Stark. Edward. Silver Creek, e. Sept. 10, Farrier Wieling. Jacob II., Silver Creek, 

1863; ni. o. Oct. 9, 1865. e. Sept. 10, 1863; m. o. Sept. 22. 18G5. 


Battery A. 

Second Lieut. George J. Nash. Volinia. 

e. March 6, 1865 ; m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Hanning. Samuel ; m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Hickox, .William H., La Grange, e. Dec. 

30. 1863 ; m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Mesler, William, La Grange, e. Dec. 25. 

1863 ; m. o. July 28, 1865. 
Williams. Levi P., Porter, e. Feb. 9, 1863 ; 

ni. o. July 28, 1865. 

Battery E. 
-•\bbott. Seneca W.. Ontvva. e. Sept. 5. 
1864 : m. o. Aug. 30, 1865. 
Battery F. 
Norris, Webb; m. o. iNlay 6. 1865. 

Battery G. 

Smith, Horace, Sergt., Adanisville, e. Nov. 

23, 1861 ; dis. for disability Aug. 25, 


Wickerly, David, e. Dec. 15. 1861 ; dis. 

for disability July 28, 1862. 


Armstrong. Benjamin F., Pokagon, e. 

Sept. 17, 1863; dis. for disability May 

15. 1S65. 
Arnold, Edward R., Corp., A'olinia. e. Oct. 

9. 1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Barney, Myron F., Newberg. e. Sept. 7. 

1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Blanchard, George L., Pokagon, e. Sept. 

5, 1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Burnham, Charles M., Jefferson, e. Dec. 

31, 1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Canfield, Washington B., Marcellus. e. 

Sept. 17, 1863; dis. for disability Jan. 

12. i86s. 
Crane, Judson J., Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 

1864; m. o. July I. 1865. 
Day, Alexander P., Volinia, e. Sept. 3, 

1864: m. o. July I, 1865. 
Davis, Charles J.. Newberg. e. Sept. 7, 

1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Drake, George S., New-berg. e. Oct. 3, 

1863: m. o. July 1, 1865. 
Goff. William H.. Penn, e. Sept. 4, 1863; 

m. o. July I, 1865. 
Goff, Stephen C. Penn, e. Sept. 3. T864; 

tn. o. July I, 1865. 
Goff, Sylvester J., Volinia, e. Sept. 3, 

1864; m. o. July I. 1865. 
Goodrich, George, Pokagon, e. Sept. 5, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Harwood, William M., Penn, e. Aug. 29. 

1864; m. o. July I. 1865. 
HoUoway, Charles, Newberg, e, Sept. 12, 

1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 

Holloway. William, Penn, e. Aug. 25, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Hutchings, William W., Newberg, e. Sept. 

26. 1863; died of disease at Washington. 

D. C. March 21, 1864. 
Lemon, John F., Penn. e. Sept. i. 1864; 

m. o. July I, 1865. 
Martin, Robert N., Penn. e. Sept. 5, 

1863 ; dis. for disability Nov. 23, 1864. 
Murphy, William, Jefferson, e. Jan. 2. 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Patrick, Christopher, Corp., Marcellus, e. 

Sept. 7, 1863; m. 0. July I, 1865. 
Pemberton, Eliphalet. iMarcellus. e. Oct. 3, 

1863; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Pound, Lsaac S., Pokagon, e. Sept. i, 

1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Rudd, Baruk L., Newberg, e. Sept. g, 

1863 ; m. o. July I. 1865. 
Shoemaker, Frank C, Pokagon, e. Aug. 

30, 1864; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Skinner, James R., Marcellus, e. Oct. 2, 

1863 ; m. o. July I, 1865. 
Skinner. Harrison H.. Marcellus. dis. for 

disability Dec. 6, 1864. 
Tompkins. Melvin R., Newberg, e. Sept. 

26, 1863; m. o. July I. 1865. 
Turengo. Andrew. Jefferson, e. Jan. 4. 

1864; m. o. July I. 1865. 
Vincent, Henry, Volinia, e. Oct. 2, 1863 ; 

m. o. July I, 1865. 
Wetherell, Smith D., Corp., Volinia, e. 

Nov. 5, 1863; m. o. July i. 1865. 
Wilsey, Erasmus, Marcellus, e. Sept. 10, 

1864; m. o. July I. 1865. 


Company F. 
Sergt. Frank Upson, Howard, e. July 17. 

i8fil : died in action at Gaines' Mills 
Jime 2T. 1862. 




Company E. 
Corp. Joel Cowgill, Calvin, e. May 25, 

1861 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps July i, 

Sergt. John S. Gliddon, e. May 21, 1861 ; 

vet. Dec. 31, 1863 ; dis. by order Sept. 

15. 1864. 
Private William Jackson, Jefferson, e. 

May 25, t86i ; vet. Dec. 31, 1863; ni. o. 

July 28, 1865. 

Sergt. Benjamin F. Lee, Ontwa. e. May 

25, 1861 ; died May 18, 1S62, of wounds 

received at Williamsburg. 
Corp. Henry Meacham, Ontwa, e. May 

25. 1861 : trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 

IS. 1864. 

Company I. 

Coleman, Francis A., Wayne, e. Feb. 21, 
1S65 : dis. by order June 15, 1865. 


Company A. Company D. 

Haigh, William, e. Aug. 28. 1861 ; vet. Stamp. E. 11, Porter, e. Sept. 18, 1862 ; 

Dec. 15, 1863 

m. o. June 3, 


Assistant Surgeon Cyrus Bacon, Ontwa, 
enrolled June 19, 1861, at Fort Wayne 
(near Detroit), Mich.; mustered in 

Aug. 22, 1861 ; resigned JNIay 6, :862 ; 
appointed Ass't Surgeon of Regular 
Army July 3, 1862; died Sept. i, 1868. 


Dec. 22, 1863 ; 

Company A. 
Grant, William. Pokagon. e. Dec. 21, 
1863 ; died in action near Petersburg. 

\'a.. June 27, 1864. 

Lane. Thomas. Milton. 

m. o. July 30, 1865. 


Company A. 

Ayres, Sylvester B., Howard, e. Oct. i. 

1S64; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 

Company B. 

Dougherty, Thomas, Howard, e. Sept. 29, 

1864; dis. by order June 20, 1865. 
Hedger. Charles W.. Pokagon. e. Feb. g. 

1865; m. o. Sept. 15, 1865. 
Kelly. Ethan. La Grange, e. March 17. 

1865 : dis. by order Aug. 10, 1S65. 
Mater. John, e. 1861 ; dis. 1862 ; re-e. in 
same company, and finally dis. Sept. 26, 

Company C. 
Fisher. Francis. Porter, e. Oct. I, 1864; m. 
o. June 20. 1865. 

Company D. 
Bender, Joseph D., Newberg, e. April 5. 
1865; m. o. Sept. IS, i86s. 

Sept. 3, 

Hendricks. Clark, Pokagon 

1864: m. o. June 20, 1865. 
Higgins, Charles J.. Pokagon. e. Sept. 3. 

1864; m. o. June 20, 1865. 

Co^rpANV G. 

Cole. Brayton I\I.. La Grange, e. March 

25. 1865; IV.. o. Sept. 15, 1865. 
Myers. William. Silver Creek, e. October 

4. 1864 ; absent sick at m. o. 

Company H. 

Saltsgiver. Henry, Porter, c. Oct. 3, 1864; 
m. o. Sept. 15. 1S65. 

Company L 

Thompson. John B., Howard, e. Sept. 30, 
1864 : m. o. June 20. 1865. 


Company C. 
Ayers, Thomas B., Porter, e. Oct. 27, 

1864; m. o. July 19. 1865. 
Barker, Peter, Marcellus, e. Oct. 31, 1864; 

m. o. July 19, 1865. 
Brown, William A., Calvin, e. Nov. 2, 

1864; m. o. July ig, 1865. 

Company E. 
Baer, Westell. Marcellus, e. Oct. 20, 1864; 
m. o. July 19, l86s. 

Company K. 
Philips, John, Newberg, e. Jan. 17. 1864; 
m. o. July 19. 1865. 




Company C. 
Angle, John A., Wayne, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., 

March 20, 1862, 
Beardsley, EHsha L., e. Nov. 22, 1861 ; 

died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., June 

31, 1862. 
Birdgett. John, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability Sept. 15, 1862. 
Farnhani, John B., Ontwa, e. Aug. 24, 

i86i ; died of disease at Bardstown. Ky., 

Feb. 6. 1862. 

Company D. 
Hathaway, Henry C, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; 

absent sick at m. o. 
Lucas, William H., e. Aug. 24, 1861 : killed 

at Stone River. 
O'Connor. Cyrus W., e. Aug. 24. 1861 ; 

dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Philips, William J., e. Aug. 24. 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 30. 1864. 

Corp. David Klase. 


Baldwin. Daniel, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; died of 

wounds near Atlanta. Ga.. Aug. 7, 1864. 
Blakely. Thomas L., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; 

dis. for disability Aug. 4, 1862. 
Booth, Zeivala, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Chamberlain, William L., e. Aug. 24, 

1S61 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 

Haines, James L.. dis. at end of service. 
Latham, Kneeland, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

by order July i, 1863. 
Milliman, Bryant, dis. at end of service. 
Mullen, Sidney S., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Nottingham. Judson, dis. at end of serv- 
ice Sept. 30, 1864. 
Poorman. John, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. ,30, 1864. 


Company E. F., e. March , ; m. o. Sept 

Sergt. Joel Cowgill, Calvin, e. March 9, 

1S65; m. o. Sept. 16, 1865. 
Musician Charles E. Deal, La Grange, Co. 

Quay, George W., e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; died 

near Atlanta, Ga., of wounds Aug 7, 

Ryan, James N. C, e. Aug. 24. 1861 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Schug. Emanuel, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

at. end of service Sept. 30. 1864. 
Schug. William F.. e. Aug. 24. 1861 ; trans. 

to Vet. Res. Corps Nov. 15. 1863. 
Shoemaker, Samuel S.. dis. for disability. 
Smith, Cyrus, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. at 

end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Tayler, George, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; died of 

disease at Bardstown, Kv., Feb. s. 

'Iliompson, Smith, e. Aug. 24, 1861 ; dis. 

for disability Sept., 1861. 
Vanordstrand, John, e. Aug. 24, 1S61 ; dis. 

at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. 
Van Valkenburg, Benjamin, e. Aug. 24, 

1S61 : dis. at end of service Sept. 30. 

Vanordstrand. Jerome P.. Sergt.. c. Aug. 

24. 1861 ; dis. at end of service Sept. 1,0. 


Company G. 
Bryan, James, dis. at end of service Sept. 

30, 1864. 
Bryan. Moses, died of wounds at Chat- Tenn.. Sept. 15. 1863. 
Granger. Chauncev. dis. for disabilitv June 

8, 1864. 
Haines. James L.. di; 

Sept. 26, 1864. 
Higgins, Thomas W 

March 18, 1862. 
Nichols, Charles N., dis. at end of service 

Sept. 30, 1864. 
Nichols, James O.. died at Chickamauga. 

Tenn.. Sept. 20, 1863. 
Scott, Lorenzo H.. dis. at end of service 

Sept. 30, 1864. 
.Skinner. Harrison H.. Corp.. dis. for dis- 
ability Feb. 15. 1862. 

16. 1865. 
Musician Elam Dacy. La Grange ; Co. F., 
e. ; m. o. Sept. 16. T865. 

at end of service 
died of disease 


Company A. 
Beamau, Marvin D., Penn, e. Feb. 29, 

T864; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Woliver, Philander J., Marcellus. e. Dec. 

3, 1863; Corp.; m. o. July 25, 1865. 

Company C. 
Blood. Charles H.. Volinia, e. Feb. 26, 

1864; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
Blood, George A.. Volinia, e. Jan. 2, 

1862: vet. Jan. 18. 1864: m. o. July 25. 




Dailey, William S., Porter, e. 
1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864 ; m. 

Dec. 13, 
July 25, 

Haefner, Christian G., Volinia. e. Feb. 27, 

1864; m. o. July 2$, 1865. 
Jacquays, Smith C, Volinia. e. Feb. 26, 

1S64; died of disease at Philadelphia 

May 20, 1865. 
Johnson, Henry M., Porter, e. Dec. 13, 

1861 ; died of disease at Danville, Ky., 

Nov. 20, 1862. 

Company E. 
Brown, William H., Pokagnn, e. Feb. 29, 

1S64; m. o. 
Caldwell, William W., Pokagon, e. Oct. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 18. 1864; m. o. Jnly 

25, 1865, 
Crego, Hilance J., Poka.gon, e. Oct. 22, 

1861 ; dis. by order April 16. 1863. 
Fluallen. Simon E., Corp. Sergt., e. Oct. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864: m. o. Jnly 

25, 1865. 
Hazen. Charles, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 27, 

1861 : dis. for disability Sept. 20, 1862. 
Hnngerford, Calvin A., Dowagiac, e. Oct. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 18. 1864; m. o. Jnly 

25, 1865. 
Hnngerford, Mason. Dowagiac. e. Oct. 22, 

1861 ; m. o. at end of .service Jan. 16, 

Hntson, Edward R., Dowagiac, e. Oct. 

22, 1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. Jnly 

25, 1865. 

Kegley, William, Dowagiac. e. Oct. 2 

1861 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. Jnly 2 


Lewis, Ephraim, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 2 

1861 ; vet. Jan. iS. 1864: m. o. Jnly 2 

Moody, Loren, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 2. 

1S61 ; vet. Jan. 18, 1864; m. o. Jnly 25 


C0MP.\NY G. 

Clendenning, James, e. Dec. 13, 1S61 ; dis. 

for disability Oct. 29, 1863." 
Roy, William G., Penn, e. Dec. 12, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. 18, 1864; Sergt.; m.. o. Jnly 

25, 1865. 
Salter. James, e. Dec. 12, 1861 ; vet. Feb. 

13, 1864: dis. by order June 20, 1865. 
Salter, Silas, e. Dec. 12, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability Sept. 12, 1862. 
Weist, William F.. Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, 

1861 : dis. for disability Nov. 23, 1863. 

CoilP.\NY H. 

Campbell. Seth R.. Silver Creek, e. Feb. 

27, 1865: m. o. Jnly 25. 1865. 
Wright. Gilbert, Silver Creek, c. Feb. 27. 

1865 : 111. o. July 25, 1865. 


Wait, Byron, Jefferson, e. Feb. 
died of disease at Louisville, 
I, 1865. 

3. 1865 ; 
Ky., July 


Company B. 

Austin, Harvey H., e. Nov. 25, 1S61 ; vet. 

Jan. 4, 1864. 
Cope, Jacob, e. Oct. 5. 1861 ; dis. at end 

of service. 
Eaton, Abner, e. Dec. 18, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability Jan. 10, 1863. 
Garner, Henry, Porter, e. Nov. 28, 1861 ; 

vet. Jan. 4, 1864; m. o. July t8. 1865. 
Moore, Jared C, m. o. July 18, 1865. 
Morse. Albert J., e. Jan. 2. 1862; vet. Jan. 

4, 1864; m. o. July 18, 1865. 
Stewart. James A., vet. Jan. 4, 1S64; m. o. 

Jnly 18, 1865, 

Company E. 

Calkins, Thomas J., Porter, 
1864; m. o. Jnly 18. 1865.. 


Company F. 

Wilson, John, m. o. July iS, 1S65. 
Zimmerman. ^lichael. Porter, e. Sept. 27. 
1865; m. o. July 18. 1865. 


, George. Porter, e. Sept. 
July 18. 1865. 

Company A. 


1864 ; 

Fields, Alonzo, Porter, e. Sept. 27, 1864; 

dis. by order May 30, 1865. 
Company B. 
Bovet, Leon, Volinia, e. May 27. 1865; 

m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Leitz, Joel B., Marcellus, e. Oct. 22, 

1864; died of disease at Alexandria, Va.. 

June 3, 1865. 

Mowry, Jacob, Marcellus, e. Oct. 
dis. by order Sept. 11. 1865. 

Company C. 
Hice, John, Volinia, e. March 18. 1865; 

m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Park, John, Calvin, e. Nov. .so, 1864 ; dis. 

by order Aug. 2. 1865. 
Parsons, Ezra. Calvin, e. Oct. 22, 1S64 ; 

m. o. Aug. 13. 1865. 




1864; m. 
18. 1865; 
Nov. 4, 

Racey, Rubert.. Millon, c. Oct. 22 

dis. by order June 25, 1865. 
Sampson, John, Calvin, e. Oct. 21, 1864; 

m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 

C0MP.\NV D. 
Adams, John, Porter, e. Oct. 22, 

o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Daniels, John, Volinia, e. Alarcli 

m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Dunn, Anson L., Newberg, e, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Wagner, John, Calvin, e. Dec. 5, 1864; m. 

o. Aug. 13, 1865. 

CoMP.\NV E. 
Descartes, Peter, dis. at end of service 

Jan. 28, 1S65. 
De Witt, James, Dovvagiac, e. Dec. 23, 

1861 ; dis. for disability May 19, 1862. 
Doherty, Charles, dis. at end of service 

Jan. 28, 1865. 
Ducat, Duffy, dis. by order July 21, 1865. 
Gee, Alexander, m. o. Aug. 9, 1865. 
Girardin, Richard, dis. by order Sept. 9, 

Greenwood, Anthony, dis. for disability 

July o, 1862. 
Johnson, Fred, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 21, 

1861 ; vet. Jan. 25. 1864; dis. by order 

Aug. 5, 1865. 
Kelly. John, m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Littlejohn, William, dis. for disability 

Aug. 3, 1862. 
Logan, John, dis. for disability ."^ug. 3, 


for disability 

at end of service Ja 

Mclaggart, Archibald, di 

Aug. 3, 1862. 
Nephew, .\nthony, dis. for disability Aug 

II, 1862. 
Nye, Theo., di 

28, 1865. 
Walustrand, Julius, Marcellus, e. Oct. 22, 

1864; m. o. .\ug. 13, 1865. 

C0MP.\NY G. 

East, .-Mva. Porter, e. Oct. 10, 1864; died 

of disease at Baltimore, Md., Feb 21 


Company H. 
Harder, James E., Howard, 

1865; in. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Honeywell, Newell, Howard, e. Oct. 6, 

1864; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Howard, John F.. Howard, e. April i, 

1865; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Hudson, William, Howard, e. April i, 

1S65 ; m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Johnson, John S., m. o. Aug. 13, 1865. 
Root, John W.. Volinia. e. March 18, 

1865 ; dis. by order Sept. 20, 1865. 

Bell, Edward B., e. Feb. 5. 1862; died of 

disease at Griffith's Landing. Miss , Oct 

3. 1863. 
Joshn, Hiram, Newberg, e. Feb. 16, 1862; 

dis. for disability Aug. 25. 1862. 

Company K. 
Hogeboom. Cornelius P.. m 

March 18, 

Aug. 13, 

Company C. Company K. 

Rapp, George. Volinia. e. Tan., 1865; m. o. Prebamsky, Frank. Volinia. e. March 30, 
July 8, 1865. 1865 ; m. o. July 8, 1865. 


Company B. 

Dick. William M., Howard, e. July 2, 
1862 ; ni. o. June 3, 1865. 

Doan, Thomas R., Howard, e. Aug. 3, 
1862; killed on Mississippi River by ex- 
plosion .A.pril 28, 1865. 

Earl. Levi F.. Howard, e. Aug. 2, 1862. 

Foote, John M.. Howard, e. Aug. 5, 1862; 
trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Dec. 15, 

Harder. Tunis J., Howard, e. Aug. 5, 
1862 ; m. o. June 3, 1865. 


Company A. Hunt. Henry H., Porter, e. March 9. 

Bowen, Henry H., Porter, e. Feb. 27, 

Kenyon, Varnum. Howard, e. Aug. 6, 

1862; died of disease at Fredericksburg, 

Va., Feb. S, 1863. 
Kenyon. Jesse A.. Howard, e. Aug. 6, 

1862; died of wounds at Washington 

Dec. 16, 1862. 
Schell, George D., Howard, e. Aug. I, 

1862 ; dis. by order June 16, 1865. 
Taylor. Fred. Howard, e. Aug. 7, 1862; 

dis. for disability Dec. S. 1862. 

1865 ; m. o. June 30. 1865. 

Goldsmith, I-Ienry, Porter. 

1865: ni. o. June 30, 1865. 

Feb. 27, 

1S65; m. o. June 30. 1865. 
Lubbow. William. Porter, e. March 7. 
1865; m o. June 30. 1865. 



Powers, William, Porter, e. March i, 

1SO5; m. o. June 30, 1SO5. 
Preston, Wintield 6., Porter, e. March 5, 

1SO5; 111. o. June 30, x8t)j. 
Rinehart, Nathan, Porter, e. Peb. 27, 

1865 ; m. o. J une 30, 1805. 
Stearns, Warren S., Porter, e. P"eb. 27, 

1805; 111. o. June 30, 18O5. 
Story, Milton, Porter, e. Peb. 2/, 18O5 ; 

ni. o. June 30, 1865. 
Story, William A., Porter, e. Feb. 27, 

1865; m. o. June 30, 18O5. 
Stout, Stephen S., Porter, e. March g, 

1865 ; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Sutton, John W., Porter, e. P'eb. 28, 1865 ; 

ni. o. June 30, 1865. 
Sutton, Joshua L., Porter, e. P'eb. 27, 

1865; ill. o. June 30, 1865. 
Weaver, William H., Milton, e. March 15, 

1865; in. o. June 30, 1865. 
Williams, Charles H., Porter, e. Feb. 27, 

1865 ; 111. o. June 30, 1865. 

Company B. 
Bell, John P., iMilton, e. Aug. 25, 1864; 
111. o. June 30, 1865. 

Company C. 
Avery, Charles, Porter, e. March 5, 1865; 

111. o. June 30, 1865. 
Calkins, Henry H., Porter, e. Feb. 21, 

1865; 111. o. June 30, 1865. 
Hilton, Hiram, Porter, e. Feb. 27, 1865 ; 

111. o. June 30, 1865. 
Jessup, A. H., Porter, m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Kyle, J. C, Porter, 111. o. June 30, 1865. 
Kyle, A. R., Porter, ni. o. June 30, 1865. 

Company E. 
Averill, Pliny T., Penn, e. March 16, 
1865 ; m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Blaiichard, Bradford, Pokagon, e. March 

^ 7, i805 ; m. o. J une 30, 18O5. 

Curtis, George, Untua, e. bept. 5, 18O4; 

died 01 disease at Chicago, HI., March 

15, 18O5. 
Kenyon, Hiram, Pokagon, e. Alarch 10, 

1805; 111. o. June 30, x8t)5. 
McKiiistry, Charles, Pokagon, e. March 7, 

iJSOj ; m. o. J une 30, 1805. 
Parker, Augustus N., Pokagon, e. March 

13, i86s ; 111. o. June 30, 1865. 
Parker, William H., Jr'okagon, e. iMarcli 

7, 1805; m. o. June 30, 1805. 
Penrod, Nathan, Penn, e. March lO, 1865; 

111. o. June 30, 1865. 
Steinbeck, Aiorgan, xMilton, e. Aug. lO, 

18O4; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Witherell, Duane, Pokagon, e. iMarch 7, 

18O5; m. u. June 30, 18O5. 

Company P". 
Van I'uyl, George, ni. o. June 30, 18O5. 

Company H. 
Hodges, Benjamin, Penn, e. March lO, 

18D5; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Rea, John, Penn, e. March lb, 18O5 ; m. 

o. June 30, 1805. 
Share, Edwin, Milton, e. Sept. 12, 1804; 
111. o. June 30, 1805. 

Company K. 
Ames, Bela, in. o. June 30, 1865. 
Meacham, Oliver G., Porter, e. Feb. 2j, 

1805 ; in. o. June 30, 1865. 
Nickerson, Evert B., Mason, e. Feb. 2^, 

1865; 111. o. June 30, 1865. 
Reed, Otis, m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Reese, John M., Milton, e. Aug. 24, 1804; 

m. o. June 30, 1865. 


Co-mpany D. 

Sergt. Amos W. Poorman, Marcellus, e. 
Aug. 9, 1862; died of disease at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., June 13, 1864. 

Corp. Roswell Beebe, Marcellus, e. Aug. 
II, 1862; killed at Tcbbs' Bend, Ky., 
July 4, 1S63. 


Babe, Bruce, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Musician Joseph Beck, Newberg, e. Aug. 

15, 1862 ; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Musician Samuel P. Beck, Newberg, e. 

Aug. IS, 1862; dis. for disability Jan. 

6, 1863. 
Beebe, Gideon, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 

1862 ; dis. for disability March 4. 1S65. 
Butler, Ransom L., Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; dis. by order July 26, 1863. 

Kent, Daniel, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 1862; 

dis. by order March 19, 1863. 
McKibby, Daniel, Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Messenger, Edward, Marcellus, e. Aug. 

II, 1864; dis. for disability Feb. 5, 1863. 
Nottingham, Horace M., Marcellus, e. 

Aug. 8, 1862 ; m. o. 
Nottingham, Oscar H., Marcellus, e. Aug. 

8, 1862; died of disease at Bowling 

Green, Ky., March 14, 1863. 
Poorman, John A., Marcellus, e. Aug, II, 

1862 ; ni. o. June 24, 1865. 
Root, Jacob, Marcellus, e. Aug. 12, 1862 ; 

III. o. June 24, 1865. 

Shears, Martin. V., Marcellus, e. Aug. 11, 

1862 ; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Shoemaker. Samuel, Marcellus, e. Aug. 

II. 1862; m. o. June 28. 1865. 



Taylor, Charles A.. Marcellus, e. Aug. 1 1, 

1862 ; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Taylor. Timothy A., Marcellus, e. Aug. 

II. 1862; ni. o. May 13, 1865. 
Young-, Simon, Marcellus, e. Aug. !i, 

1862; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Fed. i^, 


C0MP.\NY E. 

Bristol, Luther, Milton, e. Sept. 6, 1864; 
m. o. June 24, 1865. 

Company F. 

Bement. George, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13. 1S62; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Bradbury, Benjamin F., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 

1,3, 1S62: died of disease at Bedford. 

Ky., June 7, 1S63. 
Colby, Ira O., Ontwa. e. Aug. 13, 1862; 

died of disease at Mumfiirdsviile, Ky., 

Jan. I. 1863. 
Day. Perry U., Dowagiac. c. -\ng. 0, 

1862; died of wounds at Tunnel Hill, 

Ga., May 12, 1864. 
Goodrich, Levi C. Dowagiac, m. n. June 

24, 1865. 
Hastings, Justus H., Ontwa, e. Aug. 11, 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Loux, Edwin G., Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862: 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Mears, John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 11, 1S62; 

trans, to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 15, 1S64. 

Meredith, Nathaniel, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 

1862; ni. o. June 14, 1865. 
McFaren, Henry, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; 

ni'. o. June 24, 1865. 
Niblett, William E., Ontwa, e. Aug. ig, 

1862; ni. o. June 24, 1865. 
Rozclle, Joshua C, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13. 

1862; died of disease at Bowling Greeii. 

Ky., Feb. 25, 1863. 

Company G. 
Bows. William. Newberg. e. Aug. 21. 

1862 ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps June g. 

Bennian, William H., Newberg, e. Aug. 

22. 1862 ; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Bennett, John J., Porter, e. Au,g. 12, 1862 ; 

m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Bird, William, Newberg, e. .\ug. 21. 1S62: 

ni. o. June 24. 1865. 
Cook. Orlan P.. Newberg, e. Aug. 22, 

1862; dis. for disability Sept. 23, 1863. 
Crump, William, Marcellus, e. Aug. 22, 

1862 ; died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., 

.\pril 24. 1863. 
Kenney. Fernando. Newberg, e. Aug. 22. 

1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. 
Neumann. Louis. Newberg. e. Aug. 13. 

1862; m. o. June 24. 1865. 
Stickney. Sidney M., IMarcellus. e. Aug. 

22. 1S62 : died of disease at Louisville. 

Ky., Oct. ,w. 1862. 



Lieut. Col. George T. Shaffer. Calvin, 
com. Dec. 10. 1864; Maj. com. .Aug. 15. 
1864; Brevet Col. and Brevet Brig. Gen. 
v. S. Volunteers. March 13. 1865. for 
gallant and meritorious services at bat- 
tles before .Atlanta, Ga., and al Wise 
Fork, N. C; m. o. June 5, 1866. 

Surg. .Alonzo Garwood, Cassopolis, com. 
Aug. 15, 1864; m. o. June 5, 1S66. 

Company A. ^ 

Sergt. Thomas J. Baunder, Volinia. e, 

Sept. I. 1864: m. o. June 7. 1865. 
Schooley. Henry. Volinia. e. Sept. 8. 1864; 

m. o. Jime 5. 1866. 

Company E. 
Averv, David C. Volinia. e. Sept, 7. 1864; 

m. o. May 4, 1865. 
Baird, John. Howard, e. Oct. iS. 1864; 

m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Baird. William S.. Howard, e. Oct. 17. 

1864; "1- o. June 5. 1S66. 
Davis, Low^ell, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; 

m. o. June 7, 1865. 
Emery. Robert. Volinia. e. Sept. t2, 1864: 

dis. for wounds June 30. 1S65. 

Pope, Lyman, A., m. o. .\ug. 16, i86^. 
Randall. William. Milton, e. Sept. .3. '1864; 
m. o. Alay 22. 1865. 

Co.MP.WY G. 

Blackman, David R., \'olinia, e. Sept. 15, 

1864 ; m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Delong, Henry, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864: 

ni. o. Jtme 5, 1866. 
Hill, Charles A., Jefferson, e. Sept. 2g. 

1864: m. o. May 31. 1865. 
Nichols. Tyler. Volinia. e. Sept. 5. 1864; 

m. o. June ig. 1865. 

Company H. 
Bates, Buel H., Penn. c. Aug. 22. 1864; 

m. o. May 29, 1865. 
Bogert. Cornelius. Penn. e. .^ug. 20, 1864: 

dis. by order May 27, 1865. 
Clendenning. H. AL T., Penn. e. Aug. 10. 

1S64; m. o. June 8. 1865. 
Deacon, Isaac, Volinia. e. Sept. 20. 1864 ; 

m. o. June 5. 1866. 
Kinney. Nelson, Corp.. Penn. e. ."Kug. 20. 

1864 ; m. o. June 5, 1866. 
North, Nathaniel. La Grange, e. .\usr, ,^0. 

1S64; died of disease at Charlotte, N. C. 

June 7, 1865. 



North. Norman, La Grange, e. Aug. 30, 

1864; m. o. June 5. 1866. 
Patterson, James, 2d Lieut., Penn, e. Aug. 

23. 1864; died of disease at Alexandria, 

Va., Feb. 21, 1865. 
Peniberton, Nathan, Penn, e. Aug. 28, 

1864; m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Robinson, Edmund, died of disease at Da- 
vids Island, N. Y., April 16, 1865. 
Tappan, William E., Penn, e. Aug. 29, 

1S64; died of disease at Alexandria, 

Va., Feb. 4, 1865. 
Trill, George, Pokagon, e. Sept. i, 1864; 

died of disease at Ale.xandria, Va., Feb. 

12, 1S65. 

Company L 

Brj'ant, James, Milton, e. Sept. 16, 1S64; 

m. o. June 5, 1866. 
Freeman, Miles, Howard, e. Oct. 18, 

1864: m. o. May 30, 1865. 
Mitchell, Alonzo J.. Milton, e. Sept. 14, 

1864 ; m. o. Jan. g, 1866. 

Com p.^ NY K. 

Harris, r.enjamin S., Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 

1865 ; m. o. May 30, 1865. 
Smith, Carlton, Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 1865 ; 

m. o. Feb. 19, 1866. 


Company H. 
Harwood. Henry \V., Ontwa. e. Dec. 2, 

1864 ; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Harwood, Jacob W., Jefferson, e. Dec. 6, 

1864 ; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Hirons. Oliver C, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2. 

1864: m. o. June 30, 1865. 

Massey. Robert D.. Sergt., Ontwa, e. Nov. 

28. 1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Massey, Peter, Corp., Otitwa, e. Nov. 28, 

1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Shaw, Edwin O., Corp.. Ontwa, e. Nov. 

30, 1864; m. o. June 30, 1865. 
Smith. Frank A.. Corp., Ontwa, e. Dec. 

2, 1864 : m. o. June 30, 1865. 


Company B. 
.Mien, Nathan S., Penn, e. x\ug. 19, 1864; 
m. o. July 28, 1865. 

Company E. 
Second Lieut. Winfield S. Shanahan, 
Cassopolis, e. March 7. 1865 ; Corp. 
March 6, 1S63 ; m. o. July 28, 1865. 


Bibbins, Charles, Ontwa. e. .^pril 13, 1S63 ; 

missing in action at Cold Harbor June 

12, 1864. 
Nichols, Alexander, Ontwa, e. April 12, 

1863 ; m. o. July 25, 1865. 
\\'yant, George. Ontwa. e. March 6, 1863 ; 

ni. o. Aug. 7, 1865. 

Company F. 
Reigar, Daniel H.. Sergt., Ontwa, e. May 
4, 1863 ; m. o. Jvdy 28, 1865. 

Company' G. 
Jackson, Henry H., Pokagon, e. Aug, 12. 

i86s ; died of disease at Chicago. 111.. 

Oct. 3, 1863. 
McNeil. William B.. Ontwa, e. .\ug. 12, 

1863; dis. for disability March 22. 1864. 
Smith, Wight D., Dowagiac, e. July 4. 

1S63 ; m. o. July 28. 1865. 

Company H. 
Northrop, William B., Calvin, e. Feb. 26. 

1864; died of wounds in General Hos- 
Northrop. IMarion .\., Penn. e. Feb. 26, 
1864: died of disease at Chicago, 111., 
.April 17, 1S64. 

Company I. 
Beach, Myron W., Volinia, e. Sept. 7. 

1863 ; dis. for disability. 
Bedford, William, Pokagon. c. .\ug. 3, 

1863: ni. o. July 28, 1865. 
Fessenden, Clement, Volinia. e. Sept. 21. 

TS63; dis. for disability .April 7, 1865. 
George. David L., Silver Creek, c. .Aug. 

25. 1863 ; died of wounds received at 

Wilderness May 6, 1864. 
Huff, .Asher. Silver Creek, e. .Aug. 24. 

1863 ; dis. by order Dec. 28, 1864. 
Huff, Isaac. Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 1863 ; miss- 
ing in action before Petersburg. Va., 

June 17, 1864. 
Nash, Charles. Volinia. e. Sept. 21. iS6^; 

m. o. July 28. 1865. 
Nash. Theodore, Volinia, e. Sept. 21, 

1863: died near Petersburg. Va.. June 

20. 1864. 
Waterman. Charles. Silver Creek, e. July 

28. 186^; died near Peter^bur,g, Va., 

June 2S. 1S64. 

Company K. 
Tnhns. Davi.I. La Grange, e. Tan. 27. 186^; 
m. o. July 28. 1865. " 




Hood, Philandt-r. Pukagun, c. Aug. 17, 
1SO4; 111. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 

Company B. 
Alexander, Jacob, Howard, e. Oct. i, 

1SO4 ; 111. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Brown, John, Calvin, e. Oct. 20, 1863; 

in. o. Sept. 30, 1865, 
Brown, Stuart, Calvin, e. Oct. 20, 1863 ; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Butcher, David, Calvin, e. Oct. 21, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Callaway, Giles, Porter, e. Oct. 21, 18O3; 
^ m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Coker, James, Calvin, e. Oct. lO, 1803; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Coker, Michael, Calvin, e. Oct. 18, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Curtis, George H., Calvin, e. Dec. 4, 1863; 

111. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Dungie, John, Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 18O3; ni. 

o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Gibbins, William, Jefiferson, e. Aug. 24, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 18O5. 
Harris, Charles W., Howard, e. Oct. i, 

1864; 111. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hawley, William, Calvin, e. Oct. 22, 1863 ; 

dis. for disability May 26, 1864. 
Howard, William, Calvin, e. Oct. 5, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Limus, John, Pokagon, e. Oct. 10, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Little, Stewart, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Mathews, Allison L., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 

1864; died of disease at Orangeburg, S. 

C, Aug. 6, 1865. 
Newman, William H., Calvin, e. Oct. 7. 

1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Seton. Joseph, La Grange, e. Oct. 18, 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Stewart, George W., Calvin, e. Nov. 20, 

1863; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C, 

July 27, 1864. 
Stewart, James M., Calvin, e. Oct. 18. 

1863; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Stewart, John T.. Calvin, e. Oct. 21. 1863; 

ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wade, Berry, Corp., Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 

1863; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C 

Aug. 22, 1864. 
Williams, George W., Calvin, c. Oct. 21, 

1863 ; died of disease at Coluniliia, S. 

C. Aug. 12, 1865. 
Wood, John W., Calvin, e. Oct. 19, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company C. 
Ford. William. La Grange, 
1S65; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Feb. 17, 


liill, Dennis K., Howard, e. Oct. i, 18O4; 

111. o. Sept. 30, 18O5. 
Kedniaii, Vvilhs, Howard, e. Oct. i, 18O4; 

111. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wallace, James H., Ontwa, e. Sept. 5, 

1864; ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wilson, Nathaniel, Calvin, e. Oct. 18, 

1803; 111. o. Sept. 30, 18O5. 

Company D. 

Artis, George, Calvin, e. Nov. 5, 1863 ; 

ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Barrister, Gustavus, Howard, e. Oct. i, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Calloway, Creed, Porter, e. Nov. 18, 18O3; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hunt, Jordan P., Calvin, e. Oct. 2^, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Mattock, Henry, Pokagon, e. Feb. 16, 

1865 ; ill. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Simons, William H., Calvin, e. Nov. 17, 

1803; m. o. Sept. 30, 1805. 
Vaughn, James, Calvin, e. Sept. 2i, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company ¥. 

Brown, John, Howard, e. Dec. 19, 1S63; 

died of disease Jan. 17, 1864. 
Bowden, John, La Grange, e. Nov. 28, 

1863 ; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C, 

Nov. 14, 1864. 
Boyd, Anderson, Pioward, e. Dec. 12, 

18O3; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Conner, William F., Sergt., .Penn, e. Dec. 

II, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Dungil, Wright, Penn, e. Aug. 22, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
P'ord, Edward, Milton, e. ; died of disease 

at Beaufort, S. C, Jan. 14, 1865. 
Harrison, Milford, Howard, e. Dec. 12, 

18(13; ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hays, Arick, Penn, e. Aug. 24, 1864; m. o. 

Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hays, William H., Calvin, e. Oct. 4, 1864; 

absent sick at m. o. 
Henry, Martin V., Penn, e. Dec. 2, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1S65. 
Mill, Anthony, Penn, e. Sept. I, 18O4; m. 

o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Howard, Ezekiel, Porter, e. Oct. 3. 1804; 

III. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Lett, Zach., Corp., Penn, e. Dec. 14. 18O3; 

111. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Mathews, Henry A., La Grange, e. Sept. 

5, 1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Plowden. William P., Howard, e. Dec. 

19, 1863; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Ramsay. Joseph, Penn, e. Dec. 11, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 



Roberts, John, Penn, e. Aug. i8, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Van Dyke, Lewis. Sergt., Pemi, e. Dec. 

II. 1863; 111. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company G. 

Ashe. Joseph C. Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

ni. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Bricey, George, Howard, e. Dec. 19, 1863 ; 

dis. for disabiHty May 26, 1864. 
Boyd, Lawson, Calvin, e. Dec. 29, 1S63 ; 

ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Bird, James M., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Bird, Turner, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864 ; 

ni. o. Sept. ,30. 1865. 
Farrar. Alfred, Corp.. e. Dec. 21, 1863; 

absent sick at m. o. 
Heathcock. Bartlett. Porter, e. Dec. 29, 

1863; died of disease in Michigan April 

5, 1864. 
Heathcock. Berry, Porter, e. Dec. 29, 

1863 ; dis. for disability May 28. i86.> 
Hill, Jackson, Penn. e. Sept. i, 1864; in. 

o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Huston, John, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 26, 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Jefferson, Thomas, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Lawrence, Alfred, Howard, e. Dec. 12, 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Russell, Henderson. Poka.gon, e. Dec. 30. 

1863 : m. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Russell. Jacob, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1863; 

dis. for disability June 8, 1865. 
Russell, John, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1863 ; 

dis. for wounds June 8. 1865. 
Stewart, John E., Calvin, e. Feb. 28, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Stewart, Sylvester, Ontwa, e. Dec. 28, 

1863 ; dis. for disability May 30, 1865. 
Thornton, Henry. Calvin, e. Sept. 29, 

1S64 : m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Windburn. George, Howard, e. Sept. 23, 

1864: m. o. Sept. ,30, 1865. 
Wines, Ebenezer, Howard, e. Sept. 23. 

1864 ; m. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 

Company H. 

Corp. Aquilla R. Corey, Howard, e. Dec. 
24, 1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 


Cousins, Ely, Porter, e. Dec. 26, 1863; m. 

o. Sept. 30, 1S65. 
Cousins, David, Penn, e. Dec. 4, 1863; 

absent sick. 
Dorsey, James W., Howard, e. Dec. 24, 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Gibson, Marquis, Penn, e. Aug. 19, 1864; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Griffin, Solomon, Penn, e. Dec. 21, 1863; 

111. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Hill, Allen, Penn. e. Sept. i. 1864; in. o. 

Sept. 30, 1865. 
Sanders, Peter, Porter, e. Dec. 9, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
White. Henry. Calvin, e. Dec. 13. 1863; 

died of disease at Beaufort. S. C., Aug. 

7, 1864. 
White, Wright. La Grange, e. Feb. 17. 

1865; 111. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Washington. George, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 

18, 1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Sergt. James Wheeler. Wayne, e. Dec. 29, 

1863: m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 

Company L 

Anderson, Amos, Porter, e. Sept. 17, 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Anderson. Jefferson B.. Porter, e. Jan. 11. 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Gillan, Andrew, La Grange, e. Dec. 31. 

1863 ; m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Morton. Henry, Calvin, e. Sept. 21,. 1864 ; 

111. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Sharpe. Joseph. Silver Creek, e. March 15, 

1865 ; dis. by order Oct. 28. 1865. 
Wilson. Jnel. Howard, e. Dec. 24, 1863; 

m. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 

Company K. 

Sergt. Abner R. Bird. Calvin, e. Jan. 16, 

1864; ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Harris, William. Calvin, e. Sept. 23. 1864 ; 

m. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Murphy, Percival, Calvin, e. Jan. 15, 1864; 

dis. by order Nov. 13, 1865. 
Stafford. James K., Porter, e. Aug. 24. 

1864; m. o. Sept. 30. 1865. 
Talbot. Wii'iam H., Porter, e. Oct. 5, 

1864; ni. o. Sept. 30, 1865. 
Wilson, Giles i"!., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864 ; 

m. o. Sept. ,30, 1863. 


Company C. 
Dickerson, Albert, died of disease at 

Louisville, Ky.. Feb. 24, 1864. 
Peachey. Aaron. Marcellus. e. Aug. 23, 

1864: died of disease at Nashville. 

Tenn.. Nov. 21, 1864. 

Company D. 
Gaines, Franklin. Pokagon, e. Dec. 

1863: m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. 
Little. John H.. Marcellus. e. Aug. 

1864: dis. by order June 6, 1865. 


CoMi-ANv F. Slank-y, James S., OiUvv.i, c. Jan. 4, 1864; 

Williams, Isaac N., Penii. e. Aug. 21. "i- "■ Sept. 22, 1865. 

1864; (lis. by order June 6, 1865. Van Tassell, David, Ontwa. e. Jan. 4, 

CoMrANvG. '*^''-*' '^''^'^ "^ disease Feb. 16, 1864. 

Cramptnu. Abel, Pokagon, e. Dec. 15, Company K. 

1863; m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. i,,,.„^^ William, Silver Creek, c. Dec. 21, 

f^J TTf V ^"'•^^f "'. ^- °f- '^' '«6,?; m. o. Sept. 22. 1S65. 

1803 died of disease at Ringgo d, &a., aim,:, -wi,- v. ci <~ 1 
Am^ c ii^fi, White, William H.. Silver Creek; m. o. 

Rogers. Lucius. Ontwa, c. Jan. 4, 1864; ^ "' ^ ^■ 

dis. by order June 6. 1865. 

Mershon. .\ndre\v, dis. by order July 2, 1863. 

Company K. jMcClellaud, William. 

First Lieut. Charles W. Thorp, Nicholas- ThooP- Sylvester A. 

ville, Nov. 27, 1863; Second Lieut. Oct. Comp\nv I 

II, 1862; Corp. Aug. 12, 1861 ; dis. for 

disability Alay 24. 1864. Lieut. William Stewart. Sept. i. 1862; m. 

Christie. Walter T., Marcellus; died of o. at end of service at end of war, Jan. 

wounds at Washington, D. C. May 12. i. 1865. 

1863. Corp. Samuel Iiiling. Ncwbcrg. e. Sept. 

Goodspeed, Edwin C. I, 1862; trans, to 5th Midi, liift. ; m. o. 
Beebe, George S. 


Company D. 
Beckwith. Henry L.. e. W'h. 22. 1S64; vet. recruit; m. o. July 7, 1865. 


Company H. 
Graham, S. J., Mason, e. April, 1861 ; dis. for disability 1861. 


Company E. 1S65; wounded in left arm at Rocky 

Graham. Sidnev J.. Mason, re-eul. Sept., R'^ge, May 9, 1865. 

iSfii ; vet. Feb. 1864; m. o. .May 20, 


Williams. Llenry. Mason. 

Tompkins, Newbcrg. 


Graham. Sidney J., e. .April 17, 1861. in Co. TL; rc-e. in Co. E, 49th Ohio Vol. 
Lift. ( See above.) 



W. J. MAY POST, G. A. R. 

W. J. Mav Post, No. 65, G. A. R., was organized at Jones July 
24th, i88j, with the following charter members: 

*Thomas L. Blakely. nth ISIicb. Infantry: Isaac S. Pound. 14th 
Mich. Battery : ='=Tabez S. Tompkins; Alonzo B. Congden. 88th Indiana 
Infantry; Tames L. Haine, nth Mkh. Infantry; *Anson L. Dunn, 
14th Mich" Infantry; -Hugh Ferguson, nth Mich. Infantry; -Cyrus 
W. O'Conner, nth ^Wch. Infantry; Samuel P. King. 12th Mich. In- 
fantry; Daniel Trattles, 19th Mich. Infantry; *Stephen A. Clardner. 
124th Ohio Infantry; Joseph H. Dunworth; =^Horton M. Squires. 
Sharp Shooters; -Henry Seigle; William Alexander. 12th Mich. In- 


Thomas Planning Post, No. 57. G. A. R.. at Marcellus. was 
chartered May 19. 1882. The Post's charter members were the fol- 
lowing : 

H. T. Kellogg, \Vm. Bedford, H. J. Ohls. Frank Shmihower, 
H M. Nottingham, \\'m. Schugg. G. I. Nash. Oren Flolden, H. E. 
Giddings. R. Haryell. C. E. Dayis, B. F. Groner. W. R. Snider, Samuel 
Kidney. J-din Littell, George Heckleman, Jas. Boner, H. H. Hartman. 
1. B. Fcirtner, George Eggleston, W. H. Vincent, E. Schugg, George 
Sayage. Chas. Guich. William Casselman. J. T. Van Sickle. Robt. 
I^IcDonald. Clarence Lomi.son. Asa Sheldon. E. S. W^eaver, Chas. Souls, 
Asa Sheldon, Wm. McKeeby, A. H. Lewis, Chauncey Druiy, S. P. 
Hartshorn, Noah Kunes. Beneyille De Long, James Youngs, Isaac 
Snyder. L. P. Raym<:m(l, Joseph Gearhart, Carr Finch. Wm. Collier, 
H.' Sheldon. James Wagner. W. H. AVaugh. Sr., S. Eberhart, Zenas 
Kidney. B. F." Harrington, \\\ J. Herbert, ^I. F. Burney. Lewis Timm. 
George Reynolds. George Scott, Henry Whitney. J. G. Harper, J. J. 
Hinchey, Robt. Lundy. 

* Dead. 


'Jlie present meniljershii> oi this Post is as follows: 
H. J. Kellogg, H. .M. Nottingham, W. R. Snider, C. E. Davis, 
John Littell, J. B. Fortner, W. H. Waugh, Sr., VV. J. Herbert, W. H. 
X'incenl, W'ni. Bradford, Clarence Lomison, Bemer Lewis, Richard 
Harvell, Noah Kunes, H. L. Cooper, Carr Finch, Chas. Tutton, G. I. 
Nash. V. W. Spigelmeyer. B. F. Adams, R. T. Streeter. W. H. Burch, 
Jo?. Romig. J(jhn Crockett. F. C. Brown. R. D. Snyder. A. J. Ma.xan, 
Clark H. Beardslee. N. W. Holcomb. H. J. Ikes. E. \\". La Barre. I. 
\\". Steininger, John Sniitli, Julins W'aterstradt, Roht. Smith, \V. G. 
\\ alters. E. S. Mack. Levi Dennis, (ieiirge F. Bowersox, Isaac Long, 
Daniel Emery, S. ]\l. Reigle, iM-anklin T. Wolf, B. H. Hodges. Isaac 
De Con, Wm. Mclntyre. P. S. Yonells, Pomeroy Castle, Peter Bowers, 
C. P. Bradford, H. C. Lambert. C. \\'. Graham. J, S. Brown. Wm. 

The office of Post Ccmimander has been held in successimi liy 
the following named : H. J. Ohis, G. G. Woodmansee, George Munger, 
Ray T. Streeter, one term each ; II. J. Kellogg, Peter Schall. Clarence 
Lomison, W. R. Snider, Levi Dennis, B. F". Groner, two terms each; 
George I. Nash. fi\-c terms : J. B. Fortner, three terms. 


J. B. Sweetland I'ost. No. 448. at Fdwardshnrg. was cliartere<l 
July 21. 1899. with the following members: 

William W. Sweetland. Edward Beach. John James. Enoch F. 
Newell. Jonas Sassaman, Charles R. Kingsley. George O. Bates. Tlieo- 
dore Manchow, John Jacks. Emanuel Rhineliart. James H. Andrus, 
Charles E. Gardner, George Bement, Covington \\'^y. 

The present members are : 

Benajmin F. Thompson. Jonas Sassaman. Aaron Dever. ^\'m. W. 
.Sweetland. John James. James H. .\ndrus. George \^'illianrs, CaKin 
Steuben, Covington ^Vay, Theodore Manchow, William Funk, Roger 
Burns, John Jones. 


Matthew Artis Post. No. 341. was organized at Day ]\Iarcli to. 
1866, with twenty-one members, as follows: 

Commander. Bishop E. Curtis; Senior Vice Commander. Henry D. 
Stewart ; Junior Vice Commander, James Monroe ; Adjutant, Abner R. 
Bvrd ; Ouartermaster, Solomon Griffin ; Surgeon, Harrison Griffin ; Chap- 


lain, George Scott ; Officer of Day, Zachariah Pompey ; Officer of Guard, 
John Copley; Sergeant Major, James M. Stewart; Quartermaster Ser- 
geant, James H. Ford. Members : Peter Saunders, Caswell Oxendine, 
Berry Haithcock, John Curry, Samuel Wells, John Brown, Martin 
Harris, Andrew Gillum, George Broaidy, L. B. Stewart. 

The officers and members in August. 1906, are as follows : 

Commander, Aljner R. Byrd : Senior Vice Commander. Jame^ 
Monroe; Junior Vice Commander, Caswell Oxendine; Adjutant. Bishop 
E. Curtis; Ouartermaster, Geo. H. Curtis; Surgeon. John A. Harris; 
Chaplain. Zachariah Pompey; Officer of the Day, James M. Stewart; 
Officer of the Guard. John Copley ; Ouartermaster Sergeant, L. B. 
Stewart; Sergeant I\[ajor. Solomon Griffin. Comrades: Wm. S. 
Copley, Hiram Smith. .\. B. Anderson, Bennett Allen. 

Matthew Artis \Y. R. C. No. 164, auxiliary to Matthew Artis 
Post. No. 341, was organized November 7. 1888. with the following 
ten members ; 

Marj' Copley, Cora Copley, Amelia Copley, ]Marinda Johnson. 
Anna Eliza Griffin, Eva Dungey, Eva O. Byrd, Sarah E. Curtis, Eliza 
Oxendine, Elizabeth Stewart. 


Albert Anderson Post. No, 157, was organized at Cassopolis July 
7, 1883, and the following members mustered; 

Zacheus Aldrich. William G. \\'atts. Fairfield Goodwin. Thomas 
M. Scares, James Patterson, Samuel A'. Pangborn, William T. Dilts. 
Jacob Mcintosh, Maro A. Abbott. John Pangborn, John Jackson, Joel 
Cowgill, Isaiah Harris, James M. Roberts, Edmond Landon. William 
Wallace Marr, Owen L. Allen, Mandn F. Westfall, Marcellus K. 
Whetsell, Jos. T. Bangham. 

Since the first muster the following conuMdes have been added 
to the membership: 

July 21, 1883 — Fred A. Beckwith. John L. Tharp. John Glass. 

July 28. 1883 — Francis Coon. Alonzo Garwood. George B. 
Crandell, Benjamin F. Hogue. 

August 4, 1883 — Samuel Williams. James M. Cowin. Henry C. 
Walker, E. W. Cornell, Wm. G. Roberts. 

August II. 1883 — Henry James. John A. Bronner, Jonathan H. 
Breed. I. M. Harris. 


August i8, 1883 — Vincent Reanies, Lewis Crandall, E. G. Loux, 
Charles Hedger, Reuben Beverly. 

August 9, 1884 — James M. Shephard, Francis Squires, Levi J. 
Garwood, William Clark, George T. Shaffer, Leander D. Tompkins, 
James J\L Noble, Jesse W. Madrey. 

August 16. 1884 — Daniel L. Clossun, John H. Keene, James H. 
B\rd, Edward P. Boyd. 

August 4. i88f). and since that time — Norris Richardson, Robert 
Toas, Michael Grimm, Erastus Saunders, John Rodman, S. AL Gren- 
nell, William Matthews, Abram Heaton, William Berkey, Moses F. 
Paisley, Henry Morton, Marion Garrison, Henry C. Westfall, John D. 
Williams, Edgar V. Hays, William H. Owen. 

soldiers' and sailors' monument association. 

To commemorate the bravery and patriotism of the m.nny soldiers 
who ha\'e gone from this comity tn the wars of the cnuntry, and to 
stimulate the interest and veneration of the present and future genera- 
tions for the deeds of war which were necessary for the establishment 
of tlie republic, a moxement has been set on foot to raise funds and 
erect a soldiers" monument to the soldiers and sailors of Cass countv. 

The movement had its incejition in the rooms of the H. C. Gilbert 
IVist. No. 4c;, at Dowagiac, in April. 1003, when it was first proposed 
to raise the modest sum oi fi\e hundred dollars and locale such a m<.>nu- 
ment as that would i)ro\'i(le on a soldiers' lot in Riverside cemeterw 
\\'illis M. Vnvv and Lewis J. Carr were appointed from the post to 
solicit funds, and these two later appointed a third G. A. R. menilicr, 
John Bilderliack, and Burgette L. Dewey, the merchant, and Clyde 
W. Ketcham. the lawAer. were afterward added. On the motion of 
Mr. Farr the committee proceeded to raise a fund of five thousand 
dollars or more, instead of five hundred, and amplify the plans and oli- 
jects accordingly. Individual donations have been mainly relied ujiou, 
a can\'ass was made among the citizens of Dowagiac and the couiU}', 
and also outside, nearly one thousand dollars being contriluited to the 
fund by what were considered outside parties. The pupils of the public 
schools were also given an opportunitv to gi\-e small sums. .\ benefit 
was gi\'en b\- a baseball team, sexeral clubs donated sums, the proceeds 
of a lecture and a legerdemain entertainment swelled the fund. The 
largest •^uni was given by the P. D. Beckwith Estate, fi\-e hundred 
dollars, and other large contributors ha\-e been Willis \l. Farr, Bur- 


gette L. Dewey, Hon. William Alden Smith, Hon. Edward L. Hamil- 
ton, Charles R. Hannan of Boston, Mrs. Ellen T. Atwell, E. H. Spoor 

of Redlands, Cal., Mrs. Jerome Wares of Chicago, C. L. Sherwood, 

Burlingame, H. R. Spencer, Otis Bigelow, the Cit}^ Bank, J. O. Becraft. 

The executive committee, on whom has fallen the chief burden 
in promoting this cause, consists of Willis M. Farr. Lewis J. Carr, 
John Bilderback. Burgette L. Dewey and Clyde W. Ketcham. B_\- Ins 
enthusiasm and untiring efforts in behalf of the monument 'Sir. Earr 
has rendered nnxst signal service, and that the large sum has l>een 
raised and the monument become a fact is due to the unselfish w<jrk 
on the part of its principal promoters. 

In addition to the above fund the city council of Dowagiac do- 
nated five hundred dollars, and the Board of Supervisors of Cass county 
one thousand dollars, making a sum total of $6,500.00. 



Tlie social tie was as strong, if not stronger, in the early days as 
in modern life. Job Wright, the hermit and recluse, whom we ha\'e 
elsewhere mentioned as seeking solitude on the island of Diamond lake, 
was an abnormal character. Such aversion to the society of fellow 
man is so uncommon as to mark its possessor with the interest of a phe- 
nomenon in human existence. His course was like a soldier trying to 
li\e bv himself during the Ci\il war. As there were ties which drew 
the soldiers t(5getber, ties which exist e\'en today, so there were ties which 
drew the early settlers together. They had common interests, had a 
common \A'ork to do, and were threatened bv common dangers. Their 
\er}- circumstances made it necessary that they stand together, min- 
ister to each otiier in sickness, and weep with those that wept; and this 
made them rejoice with those who rejoiced. There are bonds in the 
Crand Ami}- of the Re])ublic which do not exist in any other society of 
men. And so it is with the early settlers of this county. We see this 
when they get together. They have no grips nor secret words, and yet 
one who is not an early settler is as effectually debarred from entering 
into their experiences as though he were on the outside of lodge-roon? 

Of course, the pleasurable occasions of the early days were in the 
main quite different from those of the present. They were also less 
frecpient. and for that reason enjoyed with more zest. Some of those 
pleasures accompanied the tasks that had to be performed — in fact, were 
a part of them. The work was of such a nature that neighbors often 
assisted one another. Without particularly intending it. each neigh- 
borhood was a co-operative society. The clearing of the land, getting 
rid of large timber, necessitated what were known as log rollings. No 
one individual could dispose of the great trees of those primeval for- 
ests. If he liad undertaken it his progress would have been so slow and 
the work so difficult that he would have given up in despair long before 
his was completed. Necessity compelled co-operation in this work, 
and that principle was carried into much of the other labor that had to 


be performed. A man who was so selfish or so mean as to refuse his 
assistance to a neighbor who needed help was regarded with disfavor 
by the other settlers. In fact, he became almost an outcast. In more 
ways than one he was a greater loser than the one whom he refused to 

After the settlers had been here for a number of years and were 
raising large crops of corn, husking bees began to take the place of the 
log rollings of the earliest days. This does not mean that the log roll- 
ings ceased when the com huskings began, for both were kept up at the 
same time throughout a number of years. But after each farmer had 
a comparatively large acreage cleared the log rollings became less fre- 
quent and the corn huskings more frequent. 

The women, too. had their methods of co-operation as well as the 
men. and they also made opportunities by this means for social gather- 
ings. Wool pickings and quiltings were among tiieir frolics, and those 
occasions were not less enjoyable to them than the log rollings, house 
raisings and corn huskings were to the men. Manv of tlie women knew 
as much about outdoor work as the men. Often they assisted their hus- 
bands in the fields in order that the farm work might be done at tlie 
proper time and the necessaries of life provided for the family. And 
their household duties were more arduous than those of the farmers" 
wives of the present day. Besides, on account of living so far apart, 
their isolation was more complete. The occasions on which the womei: 
of the neighborhood would get together to help one another with a por- 
tion of their work aflforded a pleasant relief from the toilsome labor at 
home, whether it was the labor of the field or the household. Besides 
the diversions already mentioned there were evening apple-parings, in 
which both }Oung men and young women took part, and taffy-pullings 
for the younger people in the season of maple-sugar making. These 
gatherings closed by guessing contests, "spatting out." and. frequently. 
by dancing. 

Tliere was but little social diversion for that purpose alone, but it 
was associated with the usual labor in one form or another. This was 
not because the people of those days would not have enjoyed pleasure 
for pleasure's sake as well as the people of this generation, but rather 
because stern necessit}' decreed otherwise. Thus the social life of the 
pioneers became a part of their industrial life, and it is impossible to sep- 
arate the two in description. A few years later, when the people did not 
have to devote to labor every hour not spent in sleep, they found other 


methods for employing tlie time when they could come together. Sing- 
ing schools, spelling schools, debating clubs and literary societies liegan 
ti 1 take the place of corn bushings, apple-parings and tafTy-pullings. But 
e\en these, like the other gatherings which preceded them, had their 
duulile purpose. The opportunity they aftorded for mingling socially 
was not the onl}- reason they came into existence. The cultivatiim of 
the musical talent, the mastery of the art of spelling or training fnr talk- 
ing in public were the i)aram(nint objects. 

What e\'ent — except the contrastingly sad one of death — would 
stir pioneer sentiment more than a wedding? The union of families 
that liad perhaps met here after leaving homes in widely diverse parts 
of the ciiuntry was an occurrence worthy of social happiness and one 
to lie celebrated with jubilation. Marriages and births were the exents 
most in keeping with the spirit of hope and progress that animated 
ever\- new communit)-. Therefore, let us recall one of the early wed- 
dings, a celebration of great interest to the county, eagerl_\' looked for- 
ward to and long rememljered among pioneer happenings. 

Thnngh nut the first wedding in the couiUy. the marriage of Elias 
B. Sherman and Sarah, the daughter of Jacob Silver, on Xew Year's 
dav of 1833, was the first in the county seat and perhaps the most nota- 
ble of the earlv weddings. At that time Mr. Sherman, though a young 
man of abnnt thirty, had attained the prominence befitting the incum- 
bent of tlie offices of prosecuting attorney, probate judge and district 
surveyor of Cass county, and who was also one of the founders of the 
village of Cassopolis. There was no minister in Cassopolis at that time, 
and as the bride desired the cerem<iny to be ]3erformed according to the 
Episcopal rites, the matter of finding the proper minister threatened to 
be a serious olistacle. Haiipily, it was learned that Bishop Philander 
Chase li;id recently located at Gilead in Branch county, and thither Mr. 
Sherman went and made known to the bishop his need. Although no 
railr(>ad afl'orded the bishop a quick and comfortable ride to the place of 
ceremony and it was necessar}- for him to undergo a long drive over the 
frozen roads, such difficulties were made nothing of by i)ioneer minis- 
ters. On the a]iiiointed morning the bisho]i was on hand, and the peo- 
ple of the village and the surrounding countr\- were all ali\e to the 
festi\-e importance of the day. The guests assembled in the second story 
of the building in which Jacob .'Silver sold goods, where elaborate 
preparations had been made in anticijiation. and in the presence of many 
who.i^e names have been mentioned in connection with the early history 


of the county tlie marriage was performed, the first of the many that have 
occurred in the vihage during the subsequent three-quarters of a cen- 

One other occasion may be described before proceeding with the 
special social and fraternal history. In 1837 Elijah Coble built a tav- 
ern at the little center called Charleston, in Volinia township. Having 
completed the structure, he resolved to have a house wanning, to which 
he invited all his fellow pioneers. This was, therefore, perhaps the first 
gathering specially designed to include early settlers. It is stated that 
from seventy-five to one hundred people, mostly from the north part 
of the county, assembled at the Coble tavern on the designated day. 
The features of the meeting which we would most like to reproduce were 
unfortunately lost with the passing of the day itself, for the experiences 
those old settlers exchanged can never be retold : the melody of the songs 
they sang has gone with the breath that made it. 

At this meeting in Volinia, as on other social occasions, music and 
dancing were features of the entertainment. It must not be supposed 
that the muse of song and harmony was a stranger tn the pinneer set- 
tlements. Of instrumental music there was little. Init the quietness and 
isolation of life in the wilderness was favoraljle to the expression of 
feeling by song. The earnest intoning of the old hymns in the first 
churches, the old-time melodies that were flung to the air at the social 
gatherings and the eager interest taken in the singing scIk.miIs. all show 
that the love of harmony was as fundamental here as anmng nlder civ- 

And although there were no pianos and organs, an occasional settler 
possessed a more portable instrument and with this he softened some of 
the asperities of frontier life. Among the settlers wlm came to ]\Iilton 
township in 1829, was a 'Slv. ^Morris, who delighted to play on a fife. 
Surely, as its shrill notes sounded through the forest aisles, the birds 
must have realized the presence of a new fcirm of existence competing 
with them in tlieir solitudes. 

Peter Barnhart, who settled in Howard in 1830, was a fiddler, and 
it was his presence that lent the spirit of rhythm to many a pioneer dance. 
Isaiah Carberr\-. an early settler in the same township, was also skillful 
with the bow and was in demand at the dances. Tliese dances were 
usually held in the evening after logging, husking or quilting bees. The 
democratic character of pioneer society prevented their being exclusive, 
and the fact that thev were held after a da^■ of hard lalior is evidence 


tliat there was little brilliance of costuine or house decoration. The 
dyed liiiinesi)un dresses of the girls and the home-tailored garments and 
rough. Coarse hijots of the men detracted mithing from the \vholes(jnie 
jileasure of the occasion. 

It would not lie out of ])lace in a history of this kind to descril^e all 
the e\ents and institutions of scicial li\'ing which lia\'e been strong and 
endiu'ing enough to give permanence to the organizations which men 
and women form in promoting their cinunuinit)' life. But in reality this 
entire histor\- is given to the description of the forms and institutions 
which ha\e grown u]i in Cass county because of the introduction of civil- 
ization and the increasingly close contact between the social units. Civil 
g»vernment has Ijeen described. The organization of communities for 
civil, Ijusiness and other jnirposes has taken many pages of this volume. 
Business and industry ha\e been described mainly in their relation to 
the people at large. \\'hen ci\il war was raging it called (ov citizens in 
the most ]ierfected form of disciplined organization. Schools, as else- 
where descrilied. ha\e always been the center of the social community, 
and churches are the yer\- essence oi the social life. These subjects 
hnding exjjosition on other pages, it remains for this chapter to group 
together some of the social organizations which have positive influence 
and definite pur])ose and iovm a recognized part in the life of Cass 
county's people. 

women's clubs. 

The Casso])olis Woman's Club, now a member of the great fed- 
eratiiin of woiuen's clubs, was organized in 1898. Among those who 
assisted in the organization and becaiue charter members may be men- 
tioned Mesdames Coulter, Gorjdwin, Sate Smith. Funk. Biscomb, Lodor, 
Mcintosh, Xell Smith. .Armstrong. Cowgill ( n( iw deceasetl), Reynolds 
and .Mlison. The cluli was brought into the federation in 1901, 

The Cassopolis W^oman's Club holds weekly sessions from October 
to April inclusixe. Its work is mainly literary, although it has taken a 
lieneficial interest in certain matters of civic improvement and in beau- 
tifying the \'illage. In its regular sessions tojiics of current and .gen- 
eral importance are taken up according to a program that is arranged 
before the beginning of each season's work. 

The following are the ofPcers of the club for the season of 1905-06 
just closed: President, Mrs. Addie S. Coulter; first vice president. 
Mrs. Catherine Criswell : second \ice iirc^ident. Airs. Helen Reynolds; 


recording secretary, Mrs. Clara Eliy ; corresp(5n(ling secretary, Mrs. 
Emma Cobb; treasurer. Airs.. Jennie Carman. 

Calendar committee — Mrs. Hattie !\1. Tbickstum ( chairman j, Mrs. 
Rebecca B. Woods, Mrs. .\llie M. Des \'(iignes. Mrs. .May S. Arm- 

Members: — Mrs. May S. Armstrong. Miss Katherine Armstrong, 
Mrs. May F. Allison, Mrs. Tliursy .\. Boyd, Mrs. May Bowen, Mrs. 
Addie S. Coulter, Mrs. Emma Cobli, Mrs. Katherine Criswell, Mrs. 
Jane Crosby, Mrs. Jane Carman, Mrs. Allie M. Des Voignes, JMrs. Clara 
Eby, Mrs. Maude \V. Eppley. Mrs. THlen R. Funk, Mrs. Ina M. I'isk. 
Mrs. Helen Francis, Mrs. Lida R. Goodwin. Mrs. Lola Geiser, Mrs. 
Grace Hain, I\Irs. Myra Hughes. Mrs. Ruth T. Hayden. Mrs. Katherine 
Harmon, Mrs. Hattie J. Holland. Mrs. Helen Johnston, Mrs. Blanche 
Link, Airs. Emily Mcintosh, Mrs. Helen Reynolds. Miss Nellie Rudd, 
Mrs. Grace Rinehart, Mrs. Nellie Stemm, Airs. Leni AI. Smith, Airs. 
Sate R. Smith, Mrs. Lucy E. Smith, Airs. Ocenia Sears, Airs. Hattie 
Thickstun, Airs. Alice Voorhis, Airs. Ida Warren, Airs. Ella Waldo 
Gardner. Mrs. Rebecca B. Woods, Mrs. Clara Zeller. 

Honorary members; — Airs. Jennie Lo(l(Tr. Airs. Amelia Biscumb. 


The .Amlier Club is composed of some of the most intellectual wo- 
men in Cassopolis. It is unic[ue in its organization, or rather in its lack 
of organization, having neither go\erning rules nor officers, and keep- 
ing no records. 

It sprung into existence in December, 1895, with the following 
members : Airs. Henrietta Bennett, Mrs. Alaryette H. Glover, Airs. 
Ocenia B. Harrington, Mrs. Augusta E. Higljee. Airs. Stella Kingsbury. 
Airs. Elma A. Patrick. Aliss Sarah B. Price, Mrs. Addie S. Tietsort, 
Airs. Ida AI. A'ost, all of whum are living and retain their membership 
in the club, e.\ce]iting the last named lady, who died December 5, 1899. 
Before the death of A'Irs. Yost the club had held annual banquets, and 
that year arrangements were completed for the banquet to be held at 
her home the day she died. Neither that nor subsequent banquets have 
been held. 

Since the beginning of the clu!) three nf the members have moved 
from Cassopolis. but are still recognized as members. The member- 
ship has been increased to seventeen bv the addition of the following 
ladies : Airs. Carrie L. Carr. Airs. Carrie AV. Fitzsimons. Airs. Calista 


Kelsey, Mrs. Grace M. O'Leary, Mrs. Cora L. Osmer, Mrs. May E. 
Ritter, Mrs. Elizabeth H. Sharpe, Mrs. ]\Iaria F. Thomas, Mrs. Luhi 

Tlic meetings of the club are held weekly Monday afternoons in 
rotation at the hcimes of its nieml)ers. It is purely a reading club. 
While their reading has been along general lines in history, books of 
travel and other literary works, thev have made a study of Shakespeare 
a specialty. 


The Nineteenth Century Club of Dowagiac was organized in i8Sc). 
the first meeting being held September 5th oi that year. It joined the 
state federation in 1892, being a charter member of the federation. It 
joined the countv federation in U)0_'. The club, whose membership is 
limited to fiftv. meets on Thursdax- of each week from October to June. 
With its mott<.), ".\ woi-kman is made Ijy working," the cluli has pursued 
at various times the studv of history literature and art of European 
countries and America and h;is contril'.uted to ci\-ic betterment bv plant- 
ing trees and i\y alumt the ])u1ilic schools and li1)rary grounds: has do- 
nated paintings to the high school and books to the liljrary, maintains 
a life membershi|) in the Children's Home at St. Joseiih, has contributed 
to the Stone Alemorial Scholarship Fimd at Ann Arbor ; has sent maga- 
zines to the state prison at Jackson, the asvlum at Kalamazoo, the hospi- 
tal at Ann Arbor and the Old People's Home at South Haven ; has sent 
Christmas boxes to the ci mnt}- poor-house and in many ways directed its 
efforts toward practical philanthropy. The club has secured literary and 
musical talent for home entertainments and once a year gives an open pro- 
gram of its own to the ]uiblic. In local and state legislation the club has 
secured the jmssage liy the cit}- council of an ordinance preventing ex- 
pectoration in streets and one jirobibiting bicycle riders from cutting 
corners and riding across ])rivate i)ro])ertv: has sent petitions to the 
legislature in regard to ]ilacing women on boards of control, concerning 
cigarette anrl ju\'enile court laws; and has sent petitions to the ignited 
States Congress asking the passage of the lateh- enacted Hevburn pure- 
food bill, and also concerning the industrial condition of women, which 
was the first federal measure lo which the women's clubs ga\'e their 

The following are the names of the charter niemliers of the cluli: 
Mrs. H. W. Richards, IMrs. Susan Van ITxem, Mrs. E. L. Knapp. Mrs. 


Henry Porter, Mrs. B. L. Dewey, Mrs. Theodore Wilbur, Mrs. Willis 
Farr, Mrs. H. F. Co11j\-, Mrs. R. B. Marsh, Mrs. F. W. Lyle, .Mrs. 
Augustiiis Jewell, Mrs. William M. X'moman, Mrs. H. B. Burcli. Mrs. 
John Giniper, Miss h ranees !M. Ross. 

The first officers were: President. Mrs. R. B. Marsh; vice i>res- 
ident, iSliss Ross (Frances) ; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. K. L. Kn.'ipp. 

The present officers are: President. Miss Frances M. Rose: vice 
president, Mrs. T. J. Edwards; recording secretary. Miss Edith Oppen- 
heim; corresponding secretary. Miss Olive M. Marsh: treasurer, Mrs. 

A. E. Jewell : custodian, Mrs. J. FT. Jones. 

Tlie present members are : Mrs. C. E. Avery, Mrs. S. M. Baits, 
]\'Irs. Otis Bigelow. Mrs. Eugene Gilbert. Mrs. B. A. Cromie, Mrs. 
James Harley, Mrs. F. H. Essig, Mrs. C. B. Harris, Mrs. Tliomas 
Harley, Mrs. C. W. Ketcham, Mrs. Roy Jones, Mrs. E. P. McMaster, 
Miss Edith 0])penheim. Miss Frances M. Ross, Mrs. Grace Sweet, 
Mrs. W. M. Vrooman. Mrs. E. E. Alliger, Miss Irene Buskirk, Mrs. 
C. L. Fowle. Mrs. H. J. Bock, Mrs. A. E. Gregory, Mrs. W. C. Ed- 
wards, Mrs. W. F. Hoyt, Mrs. Carrie Frost Herkimer, Miss Elma Kin- 
zie, Mrs. A. E. Jewell, Miss Olive M. Marsh, Mrs. J. H. Kinnane, Mrs. 
H. W. Palmer, Mrs. Fannie Wares, Mrs. Ira Gage, Mrs. M. P. White, 
Miss Mary Andrew, Mrs. Roy Burlingame, Mrs. F. H. Baker, Mrs. A. 

B. Gardner, Mrs. F. H. Codding, Mrs. W. E. Conkling, Mrs. T. J. 
Edwards. Mrs. A. E. Rudolphi, Mrs. E. B. Jewell, Mrs. John Warren, 
Mrs. J. H. Jones. Mrs. J. L. Parker, Mrs. E. N. Rogers, Mrs. C. W. 
Southworth, Mrs. D. W. Van Antwerp. 

The Tourists' Club of Dowagiac was organized January 30, 1896. 
There were, at first, no dues. The only recjuirements for membership 
were a common knowledge of English and a genuine desire to learn bv' 
study. College and high school graduates, former teachers and those 
whose education depended mostly on reading, all met on an equal foot- 
ing and enjoyed together what are called "tours." A country being se- 
lected for a visit and a wall map perhaps manufactured, its geography 
and then its history to the present time is given in topics, next its cities 
visited as realisticall}- as possible, the motto and flag if a country, shield 
if a state, noted, and information and pleasure second only to a bona fide 
visit gained. Beginning at home, the United .States was thoroughly ex- 
plored, then England and France, the countries of southern Europe, this 
vear Holland. Belgium and .Switzerland, the next vear Denmark, Nor- 


\va\' and S\ve<len, and after Kurupe is thurtjugiily "done," probably 
South America will be "N-isited." 

A supplementary exercise at each meeting is called "Current 
Events," and consists of anything in the line of disco\-ery, invention, re- 
search (if any kind as found in the daily papers, "(jueer, quaint and curi- 
ous," often amusing, al\\a_\-s interesting. The program opens with qim- 
tations from some author of the country studied, or upon some given 
t(jpic, as "lii\e," "h(jpe," "anger." (iood local musical talent, \'ocal s(j1os 
and piaiKi nuniljcrs by memljers or visitors (especially young phu'ers 
needing a kindly audience), a little original music and some mild poetry 
have lirightened the programs. The educating influence of the study, 
the "tra\el," is plainly seen in nianv instances and no mother has neg- 
lected her children! Tlmugh the majority are grandmothers, all are 
udl, and that haq^-string of "neglected families" is evidently liroken. 
Jf housekeeping and other woman's work will not allow two hours of 
recreation and mental uplifting in a week, it is sad indeed for woman! 
Lodges are Ijeneticial and so are chilis. The Tourists' Cluli is pleased 
to ni'te that while the city press at first accepted reix)rts of their meet- 
ings on sufferance, they are imw snught as an appreciated part (jf the 
news. Thus the assurance that the club has been no' drawback to the 
city, but a source of interest and enio\nient to many is a matter for 

The season begins with the first Thursday in October and closes 
with the last Thursday in May. Some years a reading club of th(ise w^lio 
had time to spare has met e\'er)- Thursday during the vacation and has 
become acquainted with the Iliad, the Odyssey, part of the Anabasis and 
other gems of the classics. The plan of "free-for-all" has been changed 
to dues of one d(illar a year, as the club has joined the county federation 
and has also local expenses in the way of printed programs, flowers for 
funerals of members and often for the sick or "shut-in," and other dues, 
A committee, changed every }ear, arranges the program and material 
for the same is obtained from the city public library and from private li- 
braries — often from illustrated leaflets from agents for railroad excur- 
sions in various directions and from Baedecker's guide Ijooks. Most of 
the ])residents ha^■e serxed two successive years and there is probably not 
a member who would not make a good president if other duties might 
allow. /Vn average of four topics a year is prepared by each memlier 
and if one drops out volunteers take her work. 'A\'ork, not style" seems 
to be the motto of this club. The membershi]) is limited to twentv-fi\'e. 


but a few more are equally welcome. There is a committee ou music 
and a committee on program, the first appointed by the president, the 
second elected. 

The first program from January to June, i8q6, reads : President, 
Mrs. F. J. Atwell ; vice president. Airs. C. H. Bigelow; secretary, Mrs. 
E. R. Spencer. 

Members: — Mrs. Will .Vndvews. Mrs. H. Arthur, Mrs. F. J. At- 
well, Mrs. O. S. Beach, Mrs. J. O. Becraft, Mrs. M. Hungerford, Mrs. 
William Larzelere, Mrs. G. B. Jvloore. Mrs. M. E. Morse, Airs. R, E. 
Morse,- Mrs. A. Benedict, Airs. C. H. Bigelow, Mrs. Otis Bigelow, Mrs. 
H. Defendorf, Mrs. T. J. Edwards, Mrs. B. Elkerton, Airs. AI. Idan- 
ders, Mrs. Will Henwood, Airs. H. H. Porter. Aliss Grace ReslKjre. 
Mrs. T. J. Rice, Mrs. John .\. Root, Airs. C. L. Sherwood, Airs, E. R. 
Spencer, Airs. Susan Thomas, Airs. S. Tryon, Airs. T. F. Wilbur. 

A few have resigned, a few removed from the city and a few 
passed on to. the better countrv. In memoriam : — Airs. AI. E. Alurse. 
Mrs. C. L. Sherwood, Airs. S. Thomas, Airs. S. Tryun, Airs. W. H. 

Officers elected for 1906-07 are: President, Airs. J. O. Becraft; 
vice president. Airs. .\. Hard}- : secretary, Aliss Julia Alichael ; treasur- 
er, Mrs. R. Van Antwerp. 

Present members: — Airs. Jennie Allen, Aliss Jidia Alston, Airs. C. 
Amsden, Airs. F. J. Atwell, Airs. C. FI. Bigelow, Airs. J. O. Becraft. 
Mrs. I. Buchanan, Airs. AI. Campbell. Airs. L. J. Carr, Airs. W. W. 
Easton, Mrs. A. Hardy, Aliss Julia Alichael, Airs. G. B. Aloore, Airs. 
G. W^ Moore, Mrs. R. E. Alorse, Airs. F. H. Reshore, Airs. J. .\. Root, 
Mrs. C. Schmitt, Aliss Nettie Tryon. Airs. R. Van Antwerp, Mrs. Will 


The idea of a ladies" literary club in Alarcellus originated with Mrs. 
Dora Scott and Mrs. .Anna Walters, who consulted with several others 
and as a result the following notice appeared in the Marcelhis News for 
September 30, 1892: "All the ladies interested in a literar}- club will 
meet at the home of Airs. A. Taylor Tuesday afternoon, October 4, at 
half-past two o'clock to organize. " Fifteen ladies were present and an 
organization was formed under the temporary name of the "Ladies' Lit- 
erar\' Club," with the following" charter memliers: 

Airs. Lydia Taylor, Airs. Allie Des Voignes, Airs. Lizzie Jones, 
Mrs. Susnn Jones, Airs. Cora White, Airs. Lena \A'hite, Airs. Effie 


Gran). .Mrs. Allie Hmlsuii, Mrs. Delia Hall. Mrs. L;iura H.jffnian, Mrs. 
Lena {''landers, Mrs. .\nna Walter. Mrs. Dora Scutt, Mrs. Fannie Mc- 
.Manii;al. Mrs. Anna Davis, Mrs. I'earl Arnold, Mrs. Laura Tanner. 
Mrs. Mary Cooley, [Mrs. ^iae Sclmetzovv. 

Tlie lirsl officers were: 1 'resident, Mrs. Lydia Taylor; vice pres- 
iilenl, Mrs. Allie AL Des Voignes ; secretary atid treasurer, Mrs. Dora 
Scott: critic, Mrs. ]\Iae K. Schoetznw. 

It was decided to read the play, "The Merchant of X'enice;" to 
hold the meetings at the houses of the members and on the Ahmday 
evenings from October i to May i of each year. The time and man- 
ner of holding the meetings has ne\-er been changed. 

The first year se\-eral Shakespearean plays were read, as well as 
some of INIilton's poems. The title of "L'AlIegro," at the suggestion of 
Mrs. Cora White, was adopted as the permanent name of the cluli. The 
first }-ear's work was brought to a close with a bancjuet at the Imme of 
Mrs. Lizzie |ones. gix'en in honnr of the "martM'ed husbands." and at 
which about thirt}'-six guests were [iresent. 

The ()fficers for \o,o<)-j are: 1 'resident, L\(lia Taxlnr: \ice presi- 
dent, Louise Sill : secretary, E\-a Ditzell : treasurer, .\m:nida Harring- 
ton : corresiionding secretarv and lilirarian, Anna Walter: critic, Lux'ia 
Lukcnb.acli : par.. Edna I^a\'is. 

]\Iembers (_)ctol::er, 1906: — Mrs. Fearl Arnold, Mrs. FanclKjn Bailey, 
^liss Alice E>aile_\', ]\Irs. liester Ba_\ley. Mrs. Josephine Beebe, Mrs. 
Merle Burlington, ]\Iiss Ethel C(i\\Iing, Mrs. Edna Davis, Miss Leone 
Dennis, Miss Eva Ditzell. Mrs. Nellie Goodes, Mrs. Amanda Harrington, 
Miss Pearl Hartman, Mrs. Allie Hudson, Mrs. Lizzie Jones. Mrs. Bessie 
Jones. Mrs. Georgia Jones. Mrs. Elida Kmll, Mrs. Luvia Lukenbach, 
Mrs. k'nima McManigal. Mrs. b'annie McManigal. ]Mrs. Edna Latch, 
Mrs. Mae R. Schoetzow, ]Mrs. Louise Sill, ]\Irs. Florence Sill. AL'S. Lydia 
Taylor, Miss Frances Volkmer, Mrs. Anna Walter, Miss Licz \\'illard, 
Miss Lulu \\'eaver. Mrs. Kate Worden, Ah's. Dora Scott (honorary 

The club work for the first few years was entirely of a literary 
nature and was confined for some time to a study of the leading English 
authors, especially Shakespeare, but the scope of the study gradually 
widened and other departments have been added, including charitable 
work. The \arious committees for the )'ear (1906-07) arc Simsbine, 
l^hilanthni])ic. Civic Improvement ;md Forestry, and Audobon. 

The first printed programs were arranged for the year beginning 


October 5, 1896. The club joined the state federation in 1900 and has 
been regularly represented by delegates at all succeeding meetings. The 
organization of the County Federation of Women's Clubs was the direct 
result of the issuance of invitations by L'.Mlegro Club to those of Uowa- 
giac and Cassopolis to join with it in the matter. Two cIuIjs in D(jwa- 
giac and one in Cassopolis, also the New Century of Marcellus re- 
sponded by sending delegates and the federation was formed in 1902. 


By the persistent efforts and earnest endeavors of two sagacious 
townswomen, Airs. Parmelia Hunger and ]\Irs. Inez Nottingham, who 
felt the need of mental improvement and foresaw the benefits to be de- 
rived by the mothers and housewi\es of Marcellus by special literary 
training and an interciiange of ideas and experiences concerning the 
home and home-making, the rearing and education of children, the help 
that might be gained by an organized body to those around them ; and 
having a deep desire to better know our own country, its history, laws, 
government and resources, its neighbors and its relation to tiiem, the 
Isabella Club of Marcellus was organized October 23. 1895, with the 
following officers and members: President, Mrs. Parmelia Munger; 
\ice president. Mrs. Lovinia Ridgeley; secretary and treasurer. Mrs. Al- 
mira W'elcher. 

Charter members: — Mrs. Libljie Emerv. Mrs. Frances Huber, Mrs. 
Kate Loveridge, Miss Florence Munger, [Mrs. Theresa Poorman, Mrs. 
Eunice Lomison, !\Irs. Jane Shannon, Miss Pearl Poorman, [Mrs. Inez 
Nottingham, Mrs. Sabrina Groner, Mrs. Alice Walker. JMiss F.dna 
\Velcher. After a lapse of eleven years the names of only six of the 
charter members remain upon the roll. Parmelia Munger and Lovinia 
Ridgley are deceased, while others ha\-e found new homes and moved 
from Marcellus. 

The clul> membership is limited to fifteen and the club is barred 
from joining the State Federation of W'omen's Clubs, t\ventv-one mem- 
bers being required. It is a member of the county federation. Early 
in the club vear of 1900 the name Isabella was dropped and "New Cen- 
tuiy" adopted, which name the organization now hears. 

The meetings are held Wednesday, fortnightly, at 2 o'clock in the 
afternoon. The mottO' of the club is. "We plan our work and work our 
plan.'" Tine programs are of a miscellaneous nature, the club maintain- 
ing the determination to studv such subjects as are practical and bene- 


ficial. I'or three years the club has had the benefit of the State Travel- 
ing Library. It has also taken a fuur years' Bay View reading course 
in connection with the program. It has a small library of its own. 
There is a social feature of the program appreciated by the members, an 
annual sncial da}-, to which the husbands and friends of the members 
are invited. In 1904 the club held its first annual "Pioneer Day," and 
gave a reception t(_i the pioneers nf the town and surrounding country. 
This da}- of reminiscences was fully enjnyed by the gray-haired guests, 
and at their request the club determined to gi\'e them one dav in each 
year, and set Wednesday nearest the middle of October as their da\', 
which is to be kno\\n and observed as "Pioneer Day." 

In [)hilanthriipic work the Xew Century Club has kept apace with its 
sister clulis of larger membei'shi]). The club has made a home among 
its members for a friendless child, which has been pmvided with cloth- 
ing and books; it has also provided need_\- children with necessaries, that 
they might attend church and school ; it has cared for sick friends, and 
sent tokens and remembrances to the aged. It jiiined with the other 
clubs of the county in sending relief to the Children's Home nf St. Jo- 
se])h, [Michigan. 

With the L'AllegTo Club last year the school children of Marcellus 
were incited to the remo^•ing nf old rulibish and rank weeds detrimental 
to public health, frtmi the back \ards and alleys, and beautif\ing the 
grounds with summer flowers and pretty vines. Thus many children 
were kept from the streets, and their minds from thoughts which leail 
to vice and crime. To keep the children's minds filled with healthful 
thoughts small prizes were offered, which made them zealous and anxious 
to repeat their efforts. 

The club }-ear of 1906-7 opened September 19th. with the following 
officers: President, Mrs. Frances Huber; vice president, Mrs. Almira 
\\'elcher ; secretary rmd treasurer, Mrs. Ida -\. Parker. 

The other memliers are: Airs. Kate Lo\eridge, Mrs. .\da Bucklin, 
Mrs. Inez Nottingham, Mrs. Bertha Palmer, Mrs. Jane Shannon, Mrs. 
Georgia Jones, Mrs. Edna Davis. Mrs. Alice Streeter, Mrs. Jessie Hill, 
Mrs. Nellie Seigel. Mrs. Alice Mack. y\vs. Sadie Shillito. 


A number of lulwardsburg's literary women met at Mrs. Mary 
Latson's November 19, 1894, for the purpose of organization for a sys- 
tematic studv of literature and current events, and for social improve- 


nient. The organization was effected by the adoption of rules, among 
whicli was one hmiting the membership of the dub to twenty members, 
and the election of officers, who were : President, Mrs. Mary Latson ; 
secreiar}', Mrs. Frances E. Sweetland ; critic, 2\lrs. Lucy Reed; assistant 
critic, Aliss Lydia Blair. 

The following ladies became charter members: Mrs. Emma Aikin, 
Mrs. Mary Carlisle, Miss Eva C. Ditzell, Mrs. Ella Haynes, Mrs. M. 
Amelia May, Mrs. Frances E. Sweetland, Mrs. Alice Shanahan, Miss 
Lydia Blair, Mrs. Kate Criswell, ]Mrs. Hattie J. Holland, Miss Minnie 
Jacks, Mrs. Lizzie Parsons, Miss Jennie Sweetland, Mrs. Addie Thomp- 
son, Miss Bell Blair, JNIrs. Lenora Dennis, Mrs. Addie Harwood, Mrs. 
Mary Latson. Mrs. Lucy Reed, Mrs. ]\lary E. Schoch. 

The club meets e\'ery Monday evening from October ist tu April 
30th. A different program is arranged at the beginning of the season for 
each of the meetings, that for October 1, 1906, being: 
Roll Call — \'acation Happenings. 
Our Beginnings. 

Appointing Program Committee for 1907-8. 
Club Song. 

Social Hour, led by Miss Jacks. 

During the year, among other subjects, the following will be con- 
sidered : Pilgrim Mothers. Musical Composers, The Indian. ^len Who 
Have .\chie\ed Eminence, The Xew U. S. Xavy, American Bridge 
Building, \\'hy Gi\e Thanks, Women's Organizations, The Immigra- 
tion Problem, The Sah-ation Army. The Cotton Industr_\', The Origin 
of the Stars and Stripes, The South, Old and Xew, Journalism, Early 
and Late, Inaugiiration Day, Why March 4th. Culia, Opening Up of 
Oklahoma, The American Desert and Its Secrets, San Francisco, Old 
and New. 

At this writing the membership is as follows: Aliss Alfreda Al- 
len, Mrs. Frances Case, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Gosling, !Mrs. Mary L. Har- 
mon, Mrs. Martha Parsons, ]\lrs. Flelen Rinehart, Mrs. Addie Tliomp- 
son, Mrs. Elizabeth Bean, Airs. Irene Dunning, Mrs. Addie Harwood, 
Miss Minnie Jacks, Mrs. Julia Redfield, Mrs. Laura Snyder, ^Nlrs. Bertha 
Van Antwerp, ]\Iiss Bell Blair, ]\Irs. Lenora Dennis, Mrs. Ella Haynes, 
Mrs. Mary Latson, I\Irs. Alyrta Reese. Mrs. .Mice Shanahan. 

The present oiffcers are : President, Mrs. Alice Shanahan : vice 
president, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Gosling; secretary, Mrs. Addie Hanvood : 
assistant secretarv. Miss Minnie jacks: treasurer. Airs. Helen Rinehart. 


Fraternities of \ariuus kiiuls and for various puriwses have such 
vogue among- the people tliat U wuukl be diflicult to name all the organ- 
izations of that nature which can be found in a single county, and an}-- 
thing like a history of each one would be quite impossible. Of the old 
orders, the Odd Fellows were the first to get a hold in this county. 
Cass County Lodge No. 21, 1. O. O. F., was organized February 18, 
1847, and has been in continuous existence nearly sixty years. The 
village of Fdwardsburg obtained a lodge of the same order in 1850 by 
the institution of Ontwa Lodge No. 49 on July 18th. The Odd Fellows 
were also the first secret order to be established in Do\vagiac. Dowagi- 
ac Lodge No. 57, I. O. O. F., was instituted September 12, 185 1. Ful- 
lowing these three pioneer lodges the Odd Fellows have been organized 
in various other centers in the county, and both encampments and 
auxiliary Rebekah lodges have been formetl. 

The Masons were not far behind the Odd Fellows. The first meet- 
ing of members of this fraternity was held at the old Union Imtel in 
Cassopolis June 12, 1852, and so<in afterward Backus Lodge No. 55. [■'. 
& ,\. M.. was organized. Dowagiac Lodge No. 10 was organized Jan- 
uary II, 1855, and at Fdwardsburg, St. Peter's Lodge No. 106, V. & 
A. M.. was instituted January 14, 1858. The Masons have also increased 
in jjower antl number, and bnth Cassopolis and Dowagiac ha\'e chai)ters 
of the Roval Arch, while there are several lodges in other parts of the 
ciiunt\-, thei'e being une in Cah'in wlmse membership is of the colored 

These two orders are the oldest an<l perhaps the strongest in tntal 
memljership in the ccjunty. The Ancient Order of United Workmen 
has been active in the county for thirty years or more. The Maccabees 
are prubablv as energetic in fraternal work as any other order, and their 
numbers are steadily increasing. There are bnth Knights and Lady IMac- 
cabees in the two principal towns of the county. Besides these there 
are the Knights of Pythias, the Mmlcrn Woodmen of America, the In- 
dependent Order of Foresters, the Tribe of Ben Hur, the Catholic 
Knights and Ladies of America, the Royal Arcanum, and various lesser 
known orders. 

Dowagiac is the home ofiice of the International Congress, a purely 
fraternal beneficial order, vvhich has several branches in other villages 
of the countv. 



Octoljer 9, 1873, about twu hundred early settlers of the cminty 
met at the Court House in Cassopi.lis. for the purpose of organizing- 
a society. Hon. George Newton was called to temporarily preside, and 
Hon. A. B. Copley was chosen as secretary. All the townships, ex- 
cepting Howard, were represented. The chairman appointed a com- 
mittee consisting of one from each township on organization. .\ recess 
was then taken until afternoon. 

Upon reassembling, Uzziel Putnam, Sr.. the first white settler in 
the county, was elected ])ermanent chairman, and C. C. Allison and 
W. H. Mansfield, editors of the local ]>apers, appointed secretaries. A 
constitutiiin was adopted and the fulluwing officers elected: 

Uzziel Putnam, Sr., President. 

George Meacham, Vice President. 

A. B. Copley, Secretary. 

John Tietsort, Assistant Secretar}', and an executi\'e committee 
of one from each township elected. Forty-one pioneers signed the 
constitution at this meeting. 

The executive committee met at Cassopolis January Ji, 1874. and 
adopted the Ijy-laws and adjourned to May 22nd, when Daniel S. Jones, 
G. B. Turner, John Nixon, George T. Shaffer and Joseph Smith were 
appointed a committee to make arrangements for the first annual re- 
union and picnic, to be held on the Fair grounds in Cassopolis, June 17. 

Since that time the society has held its annual reimion on the third 
Wednesday of June, with a single exception of one year. The last 
was the thirty-third reunion. These meetings have been largelv attended, 
there being present from four to seven thousand people. 

Following is a list of principal officers : 
Year. President. Secretary. Treasurer. 

1873 — Uzziel Putnam, Sr. .A. B. Copley Joseph Smith 

1874 — Uzziel Putnam, Sr. A. P.. Copley Joseph Smith 

1875 — Uzziel Putnam, Jr. John T. Enos Asa Kingsburv 

1876 — Uzziel Putnam, Jr. John T. Enos Jno. Tietsort 

1877 — Uzziel Putnam, Jr. L. H. Glover Jno. Tietsort 

1878 — Uzziel Putnam, Jr. L. H. Glover Jno. Tietsort 

35 U 


1879 — Geo. B. Turner 
1880 — Geo. B. Turner 
1881 — Joseph Harper 
1882 — Jesse G. Beeson 
1883 — -Gillman C. Jones 
1884 — Gillman C. Jones 
1885— M. T. Garvev 
1886— S. T. Read 
1887— Jos. N. Marshall 
1888 — Henrv Kimmcrle 
1889— Ezekiel Smith 
1890 — Geo. T. Shaffer 
1891 — Chester Morton 
1892 — Abijah Huyck 
1893 — Geo. Longsduff 
1894— M. J. Card 
1895 — David R. Stevens 
1896 — Henry Michael 
1897 — Elias Morris 
1898— James M. Truitt 
1899 — Levi J. Reynolds 
1900 — J. Bovd Thomas 
1901 — Isaac Wells 
1902 — Jon'n C. Olmsted 
1903 — John Huff 
1904 — Geo. J. Townsend 
1905 — Henry A. Crego 
1906 — S. M'. Rinehart 

The principal speakers have been prominent men in the. state. For 
the \arii uis _\ears the speakers have Ijeen as follows : 

1874 — Rev. James Ashley. 
1875 — Ji-iflgs F- J- Littlejobn. 
1876 — Go"\'ernor ]cAm ]. Baglev. 
iSj7_Hon. E. W. Keightle'v. ' 
1878— Hon. S. C. Cnffinbury. 
1879^ — Hon. Levi Bishop. 
t88o — Local Pioneers. 
i88t — Governor David H. Jerome. 
1882 — Hon. Thomas W. Palmer. 
1S83 — Go\-ernor Josiah W. Begole. 
1884 — Ex-Governor Austin Blair. 
1885 — Emorv A. Storrs. 
1886— Rev. A. J. Eldred. 
1887 — Governor Cynis G. Luce. 
1888 — General L. S. Trowbridge. 
1880^ — Hon. George L. Yaple. 
1890 — Judge Thomas R. Sherwood. 




J no. Tietsort 




jno. Tietsort 




Jno. Tietsort 




C. H. Kingsbury 




C. H. Kingsbury 



. Clisbee 

Jas. H. Stamp 



. Clisbee 

Joel Cowgill 



. Clisbee 

Joel Cowgill 



. Clisbee 

C. C. Nelson 



. Clisbee 

C. C. Nelson 



. Clisbee 

C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 



C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 




C. C. Nelson 


85 i 

189 1 — Local Pioneers. 

1892 — Governor Edwin D. W'inans. 

1893 — Governor John T. Rich. 

1894— Hon. R. R. Pealer. 

1895 — Local Pioneers. 

1896 — Hon. Thomas j\larrs. 

1897— Rev. A. J. Eldred. 

1898^ — Rev. Reason Davis. 

1899^ — ^Hon. William Alden Smith, M. C. 

1900 — Rev. A. J. Eldred. 

1901 — Hon. E. L. Hamilton. 

1902 — Hon. Thomas O'Hara. 

1903 — Hon. Henry Chamherlin. 

1904 — Rev. Nimrod F. Jenkins. 

1905 — Governor Fred M. \\'arner. Judge O. W. Coolidge. 

1906 — Hon. William Aiden Smith, M.'C. 

The' membership of the Pioneer Society, from date of organization 
to the present, with place of residence at time of joining the Society, 
and date of settlement and place of birth, is given in the following 
columns : 

George Redfield 
Uzziel Putnam, Jr. 
George Meacham 
Peter Shafifer 
Henry Tietsort 
John Tietsort 
William Jones 
Elias P). Sherman 
John Nixon 
Reuben Henshaw 
Abijah Henshaw 
Mrs. C. ]\'Iessenger 
George T. Shaffer 
E. Shanahan 
Toseph Smith 
"L. D. Smith 
D. S. Jones 
G. B. Turner 
Julia Fisher (wife of 

Henry Tietsort) 
H. Meacham 
J. R. Grenell 
Correl Messenger 
A. J. Cannichael (wife 

of Geo. T. Shaffer Calvin Ohio 1836 

Date of 

' coming 


Birth Place. to 









New York 





La Grange 










New York 



North Carolina 



North Carolina 



North Carolina 


La Grange 













Cass County 


La Grange 




New York 


La Grange 


183 s 


Cass Countv 



New York ' 


La Grange 





Charlotte Turner 
Esther Nixon 
.Miss Hannah Ritter 
James Boyd 
Lafayette Atwood 
Sarah Miller (wife of 

Chas. Kingsbury) 
Charles W. Clisbee 
R. V. Hicks 
Philo B. White 
A. D. Northrup 
Amos Northrup 
Moses H. Lee 
Henry L. Barney 
James E. Bonine 
^laria C. Jones 
Samuel Graham 
John Struble 
James H. Graham 
Silas Harwood 
A. B. Copley 
Joseph Harper 
D. M. Howell 
Tchabod Pierson 
G. \\'. Jones 
Lucinda Atwood 
Abijah Huyck 
Sila Huvck 
T. ^I. Tinkler 
Robert Watson 
N. Bock 
Arthur Graham 
Silas A. Pitcher 
Adam Suite 
Justus Gage 
Tacob Hurtle 
T. A. Barney 
"S. T. Read ' 
Orson Rudd 
\\'illiam Sears 
James Oren 
Pleasant Norton 
Rachel Norton 
Ricliard B. Norton 
Tames Townsend 
Ezra B. Warner 
S. D. Wright 
Nathan Jones 
Isaac Bonine 
Lowell H. Glover 
Thos. J. Casterline 



La Grange 

La Grange 





























Silver Creek 












La Grange 

La Grange 





Taunton, Eng. 
New York 
New York 




New York 



New Hampshire 



New York 



Ohio ' 

New York 

New York 


Ohio ' 




New York 


New York 





New York 

New York 

On the ocean 


New York 



Ohio ' 





Xew York 




New York 

New York 



Asa Kinu;sbur_v 
Eli Green 
Samuel Squires 
Leonard Haskins 
IMaria M. White 
L. S. Henderson 
Theodore Stebbins 
Mrs. Theo. Stebbins 
John S. Gage 
Mrs. John S. Gage 
JMrs. Lucretia Gage 
i\Irs. Thomas Tinkler 
Chester C. ]Morton 
Mrs. C. C. Morton 
E. O. Tavlor 
Mrs. E. 6. Taylor 
Ebenezer Copley 
George Whitbeck 
Mrs. Geo. Whitbeck 
Mrs. Elienezer Copley 
William G. Blair 
Jonathan Olmsted 
Horace Vaughn 
Chaimcev Kenned}' 
John S. Jacks 
Horace Cooper 
David Bement 
Charles Haney 
B. F. Wilkinson 
Charles Morgan 
William R. Sheldon 
H. H. Bidwell 
R. D. l\Iay 
Samuel H. Lee 
John M. Brady 
Noah S. Bradv 
John Gill 
\'alentine Noves 
L G. Bugbee 
Elizabeth H. Bugbee 
Aaron Shellhammer 
John Shellhammer 
James H. Hitchcox 
Horace Thompson 
^[rs. Horace Thompson 
Joshua Brown 
Lucius Keeler 
William Trattles 
!\Irs. William Trattles 
Abel Beebe 
Mrs. Abel Beebe 

La Grange 




Cass Co., Mich. 






New York 






New York i 



New York i 



New York 



New York i 



New York i 



New York i 



New York 



New York 






New York 



New' York 



New York 



New York 



New- York 



New York 



New York 



New York 



New York 






Cass Co., Mich. 









Baden, (iermany 



New York- 









New York 



New York 



New Hampshire 



New York 






Isle of ]\Lin 



New York 






Dartmouth. Eng. 









New Yorlc 

1 83 1 





New- York- 






New York 






Canada East 



New York 







James Motley I'ortcr 

Mrs. James Motley Porter 

George Whited Porter 

ATrs. George Whited Porter 

Mrs. Ik'tscy Whited Porter 

Hall r.eardsley Porter 

Mrs. Hall Beardsley Porter 

Henry Long Porter 

Edward Long Porter 

Oscar Long Porter 

Mrs. Oscar Long Porter 

A. H. Long Porter 

Mrs. A. H.^Long Porter 

Jacob Rinehart Porter 

l\[rs. Jacob Rinehart Porter 

Albert Thompson Porter 

.Samuel Rinehart Porter 

Mrs. Samuel Rinehart Porter 

Abram Rinehart Porter 

Mrs. Abram Rinehart Porter 

T. A. Plitchcox Porter 

Gideon Hebron Porter 

j\lrs. Gideon Hebron Porter 

Marcus ATcHuran Porter 
]\Trs. Marcus McHuran Porter 

John M. Fellows Calvin 

Amos Huff \'olinia 

James M. Wright A'olinia 

Mrs. J. M. Wright A'olinia 

Elizabeth Squires \^o!inia 

George Spicer \"olinia 

Mrs. George Spicer \'olinia 

George Newton \"olinia 

Esther Newton \"olinia 

Milton J. Gard \'olinia 

Jay Rudd Penn 

J. K. Ritter Cassopolis 

Henry Sbanafelt La Grange 

RTrs. FT. .Sbanafelt La Grange 

Mrs. D. M. Warner Cassopolis 

C. Z. Terwilleger A'olinia 

Tames M. Truitt Milton 

'iMargaret P. Truitt Milton 

Charlotte Morris A'olinia 

T-Tattie C. Buell A'olinia 

G. J. Townsend Penn 

E. T-f. Townsend Penn 

John FT. Rich ^'olinia 

George Lyon Penn 

Selina Green Penn 

Tobias Riddle Rerrien Co. 


New York 


Cass Co., INIich. 

Cass. Co., l\Iich. 

Cass Co.. jNIich. 



Cass Co., Mich. 


New York 


New York 







New York 

New York 



Cass Co., IMicb. 

Cass Co., j\Tich. 


New York 










Berrien Countv 




Cass Co., Mich. 

Berrien County 


Cass Co.. ]\Tich. 

Cass Co., Mich. 

Cass Co., Mich. 

Cass Co., 'Mich. 


North Carolina 






1 83 1 



1 83 1 
1 83 1 
1 83 1 


1 83 1 

1 83 1 



Asahel. Z. Copley 


New York 


Leonard Goodrich 


New York 


John Squiers 




John Rinehart 




Daniel Vantuyl 


New Jersey 


Tames East 




E. C. Smith 


New York 


T\Irs. E. C. Smith 


New York 


David Histed 


New York 


Charles Smith 


New York 


Harriet Smith 


New York 


James Shaw 


New York 


Peter Sturr 


New Jersey 


William Bilderbeck 

Silver Creek 

New' [ersey 


Sarah Bilderbeck 

Silver Creek 

Ohio " 


Iliram Rogers l^^ 


New Jersey 


S. AI. Grinnell 


New York 


Jane A. Grinnell 


New York 


J. Fred Merritt 


Cass Co., Mich. 


"Mary A. ?v[erritt 


Cass Co., Mich. 


Martha Warren 


New York 


Nelson A. Hutchings 




George Evans 

.... England 


James M. Dver 


New York 


Phebe C. Dyer 


New York 


Rebecca Jones 


New York 


]\Iary Driskell 




Dennis Driskell 




Edward IL Jones 


New York- 


Samuel Everhart 




iNTars^ Everhart 


New York 


Thomas W. Ludwick 




Julia A. Ludwick 


Ohio ■ 


Amos Cowgill 

La Grange 



Mrs. E. E. Cowgill 

La Grange 

New York 


:\rrs. M. A. Bucklin 

La Grange 



Laura L. Henderson 




Lewis Rinehart 




Anna Rinehart 




Le Roy Curtis 


New York 


Hardy Langston 

Berrien County 

North Carolina 


Mary Langston 

Berrien County 



A\'ashburn Benedict 

La Grange 



Loann Curtis 


New York 


Albert Jones 


New York- 


H. D. Shellenbarger 




Sarah Shellenbarger 




William Renesten 

La Grange 



C. C. Grant 


New York 


Margaret Davidson 

La Grange 



Sarah Hebron 


North Carolina 




Xathaiiicl LUackinure 
J(.)hn ] lain, Jr. 
Jesse G. Beeson 
Alary Beeson 
Isaac A. Huff 
Isaac N. Gard 
David Hain 
Leander Osborne 
] larrison Strong 
Fidelia A. Strong 
i\Iargaret Stevenson 
Sanniel Patrick 
Moses N. Adams 
Elenora E. Stephens 
Weslev Hunt 
II. A.' Wiley 
S. C. Olmsted 
W. II. I fain 
Elmira Gilbert 
L. Dickson 
Calesta Stratton 
Lucinda Davis 
David R. Stephens 
Elias Jewell 
T. .\. .Shingledecker 
Barltara Shingledecker 
^^'illianl Weaver 
Elizabeth Weaver 
S. II. Gilbert 
John G. Clark 
Tames P. Doty 
R. J. Dickson 
Hannah B. Dickson 
Elizabeth Gard 
Tohn Hain 
Elizalicth Gilbert 
William Saulsbury 
Peter Ylufi 
C'ool Runkle 
Margaret Runkle 
Merritt A. Thompson 
J. B. Thomas 
]\Irs. J. B. Thomas 
B. K. Jones 
Isaac Wells 
William I. Hall 
B. F. Ru<ld 
Loomis II. Warren 
Orley .Ann Warren 
Susanah Davis 
Reuben Pi. Davis 


La Grange 

La Grange 

La Cirange 

La Grange 


La Grange 











La Grange 







La Grange 

La Grange 



Porter ' 

La Grange 

La Grange 


1 \ikagon 


La Grange 










La Grange 







New York 

North Carolina 
New York 
New York 
New York 
New York 

La Grange, Mich. 
New York- 

New York 
New Jersev 

New York 
New York 

New York 
New" York 

North Carolina 
New York 
Ontwa', Mich. 
New York 
Cass County 




1 84 1 

1 84 1 


1 836 






John Bar1)cr 




Mrs. Kate E. Barber 




Leonard Kecnc 


North Carolina 


Alsey Keene 




Ebenezer Anderson 


New Jersey 


George Laporte 




Peter Youngblood 

La Grange 



John Rosebrough 




James W. Robinson 




Alex. L. Tharp 




J. H. Thomas 




G. A. Meacham 


New York 


WilHam Clark 


North Carolina 


Edwin T. Dickson 

Berrien County 



Laban Tharp 




Lydia Tharp 




Sanford Ashcraft 


New York 


Abigail Ashcraft 


New York 


R. Russell 


New York 


E. Russell 




B. Lincoln 


New York 


Acacha Lincoln 




\A'illiam D. Brown ell 


New York 


James L. Glenn 




Henry Kimmerle 

La Grange 

Ohio ' 


M. J. Kimmerje 

I-a Grange 



D. A. Squier 




R. H. Wilev 

La Grange 



H. S. Rodgers '■' 

Vol in i a 



M. A. Folmer 




Spencer Williams 




T. Wood 


New York 


A. C. Ellis 


New York 


H. M. Osborn 




Stephen Jones 

La Grange 



Elias Pardee 




C. C. Allison 

La Grange 



Josiah Kinnison 




Henry Michael 

Silver Creek 



Hiram Lee 




David B. Copley 


New York 


]\lrs. Abbey H. Copley 


New York 


H. A. Chapin 




P. W. Southworth 




Mrs. J. A. Southworth 




Asa Huntington 




Zera A. Tyler 


New York 


William Allen 




Lyman B. Spalding 

La Grange 

La Grange 


Mrs. M. S. Robinson 




Davifl GawUirop 

La Grange 





Henry W. Smith 
Airs. Nancy J. Smith 
Eli ISenjaniin 

John Al. Truilt 
Ann E. Truitt 
Z. Tinkham 
lolm T. Aliller 
"W. 11. Smith 
RobiTt D. Alerritt 
Airs. Robert Alerritt 
Nathan Skinner 
Airs. Nathan Skinner 
W. G. Beckwith 
J. M. Jewell 
Elias Jewell 
Tames S. Odell 
Mrs. J. S. Odell 
Airs. W. H. Smith 
John Williams 
Emmett Dunning 

B. A. Tharp 
Dyer Dunning 
Emily Tyler 

C. AI. Doane 
Emory Doane 
Green Allen 

Isaac Johnson ^ 
Russell Cook ^ 
Airs. Russell Cook '- 
AI. Carpenter 
Airs. Eliza Carjicnter 
Peter Truitt 
T. S. Shaw 
W. \V. Smith 
H. C. Parker 
C. 1'. \\'ells 
Tames P. .Smith 
Susan C. Smith 
J. E. Garwood 
Airs. J. E. Garwood 
Joseph Kirkwood 
Harrison Adams 
Airs. Harrison Adams 
Solomon Curtis 
Airs. Louisa Curtis 
Ann Coulter 
Ann H. Hopkins 
^Irs. Norton Ihirklin 


























La Grange 







La Grange 

























New York 




Ohio ' 










New Y'ork 




New Jersey 












Ohio ' 




New York 






North Carolina 




New York 


New Hampshire 














New York 


New York 


New York- 




Ohio ' 








New York 


New Y'ork i 


Ohio 1 








,Mrs. j. J. Riiter 

La Grange 



William K. Ak-rritt, Jr. 




William Robbins 




Matilda P. Griffith 




Lizzie E. Tewksbury 


New York 

W. I. Griffith 




Mrs. W. I. Griffith 




Thomas J. b'oster 

.St. Joseph Co., Ind. 




Amos Smith 




\\'illiam Condon 




Airs. L. Goodspeed 


New York 


Daniel Blish 


New Hampshire 


Mrs. Julia Blish 


New York 


Catherine Roof 




Hugh C. McNeil 


New York 


Joseph Spencer 


New "N'ork 


Laura Spencer 


New York 


Samuel DeCou 


New Jersey 


Isabella Batchelor 


New York 


A. A. Goddard 




C. \V. Morse 




L. B. Patterson 




Hannah M. Patterson 


Cass County 


William Hicks 




Jacob Tittle 




Henry Fredricks 




Henry Harmon 


Ohio ' 


Henry Eloodsjood 


New York 


Asa B. Wetherbee 


New York 


Abrani Fiero 

La Grange 

New York 


Hannah Henshaw 




Eli Bump 




lames Pollock 




Leander Bridge 


New York 


Harriet A. Bridge* 


New York- 


Ira J. Putnam 


Cass Count\- 


lolin F. Dodge 


New York- 


Avril Earl 

La Grange 

New York- 


Gamaliel Townscnd 

La Grange 

Canada West 


Tohn Hain, Sr. 

La Grange 

North Carolina 


P. P. Perkins 

Howard ' 

New York 


E. P. Cli.sbee 




Orlean Putnam 

La Grange 

New York- 

82 1; 

Amelia Putnam 

La Grange 

New York 


James A. Lee 


New York 


Patience Lee 


New York 


John Bedford 




* The first white child horn in X'ewberg township. 



Nathan Phillips 
George Rogers 
Abraham Rinchart 
Hannah E. Rineharl 
John L}'brook 
J oscpli L.vbrook 
Ellen P. 'Hihrey 
Adelia T. Merritt 
Daniel Mcintosh 
Hugh P. Garrett 
John McPherson 
William Young- 
John A. Jones 
Zora E. Jones 
Roderick L. \'an Ness 
Julia E. \"an Ness 
Joseph L. Jacks 
Dr. A. J. ijoughton 
Matthew T. Garvey 
Sarah E. Garvev 


New York 


(. )nt\va 

New York 






New York 


La Grange 



La Grange 

Cass County 





Bristol, Ind. 

New York 





La Grange 













Cass Countv 




184 s 


Vol in i a 














Amos Jones 
W'illiam Reames 
Charles R. Poe 
John C. Carmichael 
Samuel Morris 
David Beardslev 
Mrs.. Mary Dewey 
Valentine Noyes 
I'ricl Enos 

Polly M. Shellhammcr 
James W. East 
Frank Savage 
Archibald Dimn 
Henrv Aldrich 
George Smith 
Milton Hull 
William Lawson 
T'4)hraim Hanson 
Jonathan Colyer 
Sarah Atwood 
Catherine Colver 
Arthur Smith 
Mary Jane Smith 
Salicia Emmons 
Uzziel Putnam 
James P.. Treat 
Elizabeth Grubb 
Martha Norton 

La Grange 




North Carolina 


















New York 















New York 



Rhode Island 






North Carolina 



New York 



North Carolina 

18-, I 





Ohio " 






New "^'ork 



New York 



New York 


Silver Creek 

New York 










John A. Reynolds 
Laura J. Rc)nolds 
Joshua Leach 
A. F. Northrup 
Charity Rich 
N. B. Goodenough 
Cjeorge Longsduff 
Margaret Seares 
George L. Stevens 
Fhas Morris 
Charlotte Morris 
Elijah Gohle 
Eliza Gohle 
Levi Springsteen 
Braddock Carter 
Caroline Carter 
Anselm Jessup 
Richard C. Ross 
Mehitable Ross 
William Hitchcox 
Elizabeth Hitchcox 
George Bement 
Mrs. Betsy Gardner 
David T. Truitt 
A. J. Gardner 
David Beardsley 
Mrs. Belinda Miller 
Ann C. Aliller 
Lewis H. Miller 
Virgil Turner 
Arietta Van Ness 
Elizabeth D. Keeler 
Joshua Richardson 
Eveline E. Richardson 
Thomas Stapleton 
Mrs. C. J. Greenleaf 
Maryette H. Glover 
Thomas Odell 
Henry J. Brown 
Sadie Huyck 
Jacob B. Breece 
Sarah M. Breece 
Aaron J. Nash 
Margaret R. Nash 








La Grange 

:\ Jason 



































William H. Olmstead 


Sarah A. Olmstead 


Jacob Suits 

Mary Reames 


John E. Reames 


New York I 


New Wivk 1 


Vermont 1 


Vermont 1 


CJhio 1 


New ^'urk 1 








\'an Buren Co. 




Ohio ' 




New York ] 


New York 


Vermont ] 






New \'ork- 








New York 



83 i 

New York 




New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 





















New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 


New York 








Loviiiia Reames 
Samuel Ingling 
Jane D. Ingling 
Jos. H. Burns 
Ann I£. Burns 
John Pjilderback 
Cynthia Bilderback 
Eleazer Hammond 
Reason S. Pemherton 
Margaret Pemherton 
Erastus Z. Morse 
Israel P. Hutton 
John H. Hutton 
Anne Moorlag 
Sarah Ann Moorlag 
William Loupe 
Mar_v Loupe 
Jantha Wood 
^Villiam H. Doane 
Lois A. Doane 








Xew York 



New York 



New York 


Silver Creek 



Silver Creek 




New York 





\ andalia 






Berrien County 



















New York 



New York 



New A'ork 



Gabriel Eby 
Caroline Eby 
Hiram N. Woodin 
Martha C. Woodin 
H. II. Poorman 
Henrv E. Hain 
William M. Hass 
Nancv Simpson 
J. M.' Huff 
Josephine B. Smith 
Porr\' Curtiss 
G. W. Smith 
Alfred Shockle\' 
11. 1'.. Shurter ' 
^ilartin Stamp 
.\. I). Thom])son 
C. Al. Odell 
Kimmey Shanahan 
Samuel W. Breece 
Jacob Reese 
Marcus Sherrell 
IT. D. Bowling 
Mrs, Marv Childs 
A, 1. Ditz 

Willi-im XX'. Carpenter 
Georsre W. Williams 
Insper K. .\ldrich 
Mrs. EniiK Curtis 








New York 



New York 








La Grange 












Silver Creek 





^ 1S54 





New York 


















New York 












New York 





1 [owanl 









Enos Rosebrough 
George Tharp 
Peter Fox 
John Fless 
Henrv D. Goodrich 
John O. Pollock 
William D. Fox 
Elias B. Lowman 
John A. Parsons 
Nathaniel B. Crawford 
Byron H. Casterline 
George S. Bassett 
David D. Brady 
Horace Warren 
Harvey Depuy 
George B. Crawford 
Asher J. Shaw 
Robert N. JNIartin 
John R. Everhart 
Sarah Driscol Everhart 
John Manning 
Richard M. Williams 

Cyrus Tuthill 
Nicholas Haller 
Catherine Haller 
Samuel Stevens 
John F. Burnett 
Marcus L. Morton 
jNToses Crosby 
Sarah Stanard 
James ^l. Chapman 
Mary Chapman 
Simon B. Poor 
Henrv B. Wilson 
Ira Stephenson 
J. H. Beauchamp 

James G. Havden 
Jacob Allen, \l. D. 
Henrv Thompson 
Edmund D. Bement 
Sarah H. Simpson 
Harriet Benedict 
William H. Smith 
Melissa J. Smith 
Hannah "L. Hall 
Charles Ferrell 
















La Grange 





Porter _Co., Ind. . 

La Grange 

















La Grange 

Riverside. Calif. 

IV fa son 



I^a Grange 



Cass Co. 








( )hio 












New Jersey 










New York 






Ohio '" 

1 86 1 



Ohio ' 





1 85 1 

New York 






New York 


New Jersey 




New York 


New York 




New York 


New York 


North Carolina 








New York 






New Hampshire 


New York 






New York 

1 84 1 





NAMES ADDED IN 1 884 AND 1885. 

Lengiiel Smith 
Hiram Jewell 
Alnnzo Garwood 
Sewell Hull 
luhvard Chatterdon 
I'.enj. F. Tleeson 
Nancy Osborn 
Ellen Jackson 
Turner B^'rd 
Jonathan Hill 
"Jacob Hill 
William J. Abbott 
Flias M.'lngling 
Alice K. Shanahan 
Damarius Allen 
Rtifus W. Landon 
Jarius Avers 
James A. Williams 
Fliza l\r. Weatherby 
Sarah Fox 





New Jersev 



Ohio " 

1 8 so 





New York 






New York 






North Carolina 


Elkhart, Tnd. 

Cass Co. 


Fa\'ette Co., la. 



















New York 






New A'ork 





Pleasant Arnick 
Abram Hutchins 
Roxaua Bement 
Jane Jenkins 
Harriet Patterson 
Mary A. Houghtalinc 
Ilcnrv S. Quick'a Smith 


Diamond Lake 



New York 



New A^ork 









Ohio ■ 


La Grange 

New Jersey 






lohn Keegan 
Thomas Kirkwood 
Melissa Kirkwood 
lyiicajah P. Grennell 
Margaret Pearson 
Anna W. Shurter 
Mrs. Curtis 














New Jersev 


Ohio " 



Hcnrv Stevenson 
Henrictte Stevenson 
S. H. Morse 
lanies L. Simpson 
David Thomas 






James Griffis 
Parmelia N. Griffis 
Eliza F. Hunt 
Phineas Nixon 
Grace S. Pound 
^fary A. Dunn 
Harriet A. Root 
Henry D. Arnold 
Alary Dunn Arnold 
Joseph W. Sturr 
Levisa Sturr 
Stephen A. Nichols 
Mary A. Nichols 
Nelson Hedger 
Samuel JMcKee 

Joudan P. Osborn 
Rhoda M. Huey 
Smyra Spencer 
Abner Brown 
Betsey J. Stephenson 

Lovina Allen Haithcock 
Eennet Allen 
H. Alarquis Gibson 
Percilla Casey Ford 
Richmond Lake 
Fred A. Hadsell 
Flenry A. Crego 
Flenry W. Harwood 
Joseph Foresman 
\\"iniam H. Owen 
Robert C. Sloan 
Byron Fiero 
Tva Wrieht Fiero 
William R. Sheldon 
:\rilton Wright 
Elizabeth ]\Tvers \\Vis:ht 

Ulvsses S. Eby 
Willis Haithcock 
George H. Curtis 
]\Iercv Wood Zelner 
E. A\'. \Vagor 













New berg 






La Grange 










New Jersey 












New York 






1889 TO 1895. 





New York 


Cass Co. 



New York" 






IN 1896. 








North Carolina 

J 854 


North Carolina 



New A'ork 











La Grange 







New York- 


La Grange 

La Grange 


La Grange 






La Grange 



La Grange 




IN 1897. 





North Carolina 






Kent Co.. Mich. 



New York 




Rachcjl Shanafelt Um- 

La Grangfe 

.Xiidrcw C. Foster 


Reason Freer 


j . J I . W' arner 


James A foreland 


William Laporte 

La Grange 

Elmore F. Lewis 


William Pegg 


J. J. Cables 


Cynthia Allen Cables 


William FI. Beeson 

La Grange 

Nimrod Muncy 



Mary A. Hass 

La Grange 

Daniel M. Fisher 


Tames H. Abbott 


Tohn r.cdford 

I Toward 

I'liillip Ware 



Hi ram Cobb 


Nellie r,eardsle\- Cobb 

( )nt\va 

William Butts 


Leverett E. Mather 


Nathan G. Stanard 


Lora Beardsley Stanard 


Ida Springsteen Benedict La (Grange 

Timotiiv B. Benddict 

T^a Grange 

Silas II. Thomas 


William J. Primrose 


David ludie 


Tohn D. Williams 


Ilenrv L. Case 


C\iitliia Tyler Case 


Clara Mead Zeller 



Thomas ^1. Scares 

I^a Grange 

Perry A. Ca>-s 

I>a Grange 

El wood East 


Mortimer O. Iladden 


Susan Foresman 

La Grange 

Harriet Stephens 


Emily Wheeler 


George Scott 


Olive Parmenter Scott 


Sanniel Hawks 







New York 
New York 
La Grange 
New York 
New York 
La Grange 
















1 89 1 









La Grange ' 


I^a Grange 












New York 




La Grange 


La Grange 




New York 


New York 


New York 




New ^'ork 









Margaret Hedger Olmsted Jefferson 

R(j}al Salisbury 
Edmund Landen 
I'aulina Allen Landen 
Abram H. Haff 
\V. C. Griffith 
Wm. H. C. Hale 
Thomas M. Areux 
Luc}- Regnall Areux 
Elizabeth Hulse Stevens 

Luther J. Pray 
Bruce Beebe 
Joseph Parker 
George Green 
Franklin T. Wolfe 
David A. Squire 
Myron F. Burney 
Robert Patterson 
Calvin A. Collev 













La Grange 








Philo Brown Calvin 

Herbert E. Moon Cassopolis 

Israel Flartsell Penn 

Charles B. Zeller Cassopolis 

John R. Carr Cassopolis 

Edwin AMiite Porter 

George F. Holliway Cassopolis 

Edwin W. Beckwith Jeft'erson 

Warren W. Reynolds Cassopolis 

George B. McNiel Cassopolis 

George I\L Rivers Cassopolis 

Harsen D. Smith Cassopolis 

Charles Harlfelter Cassopolis 

Allen M. Kingsbury La Grange 

William Hartsell Penn 

Franc A. Lamb Cassopolis 

John J. Fisher Cassoiiolis 

Eher Revnolds Cassopolis 

Edward Keegan Jeft'erson 

Timothy B. Kingsbury La Grange 
Gertrude Ferris Kingsbury La Grange 

Giarles Tietsort La Grange 

Charles A. Ritter Cassopolis 

Joseph Graham Cassopolis 

Qiarlcs E. \'oorhis Cassojiolis 
Emeline Crandall A'oorhis Cassopolis 







New York 














Kalaniazoo Co. 













1 841 

Lenawee Co. 




New York 








Nova Scotia 









185 1 

New York 


New York 


New York 












La Grange 


New Jersey 




Berrien Co. 










New York 




Wilbur F. Pollock 
lulia Mice Pollock 
"Marshall L. Howell 
David L. Kingsbury 
Samuel Anderson 
Alamandal J. Tallerday 
Sterling B. Turner 
Jacob H. Osborn 
Lewis Freer 
William Green 
(")mar J. East 
David Long 
Frank W. Lambert 
Alice Osborne Lambert 
Fred G. Pollock 
William Hcaton 
Wm. H. H. Pemberton 
Delancie Pemberton 
Narcissus Lewis 
Jennie Mulrine Keene 
Harry J. Keene 
Flernian S. East 
Flora James East 
Charles W'. East 
Ellen Curtis East 
Charles W. Chapman 
Clarence L. Sherwood 
loscph R. Edwards 
Frank W. Lvle 
P.arak L. Rudd 
Pert Clasky 
Tra Tietsort 
Orvillc W. Coolidge 
Perrv A. Tietsort 
Charles C. Philbrick 
Andrew F. Caul 
Rnliert H. Wilev 
Clitus W. Martin 
Isabel Grimm IMartin 
Sarah Piunberrv Shaw 
Asher J- Shaw 
Maria Shaw Kennedy 
Catherine Cullen 
i\Tarearet Runkle Kingslev 
^^'illiam A. Wright 
Clara M. Wright 
Charles O. Haefner 
John H. Root 
Simeon Htiff 
Penjamin F. Graham 
Lincoln P. Card 

"Forest Plall'' 
Grand Rapids 


St. Joseph Co. 


I-a Grange 

Berrien Co. 

Elkhart Co. 


Cass County 

New York 




Rhode Island 

Cass Co. 




Cass Co. 

Cass Co. 


Kalamazoo Co. 

Cass Co. 






New Jersey 



La Grange 





Pcnn sylvan i,n 



Berrien Co. 










Cass Co. 




M. Blanche Mcintosh Link \'ohnia 

Charles E. Osborn Cassoiiolis 

James H. Leach Penn 

Xathan Marsh Cassopolis 

Sarah Hunt Marsh Cassopolis 

Adaline Robinson Tietso rt Cassopolis 

Florence M. Tietsort Cassopolis 

Adaline M. Philbrick Crand Rapids 

C. Fred Hoover Porter 

Iliram R. Schutt T '" 

Ezra Pearson ( 

Lydia Langsduff Carter i 

Joseph H. Wctherbee Xc\vberi,^ 

Nancy Honts Wetherbce X'; 
Abel Hamilton 
Adelbert M. Smith 
Justin A. Dunning 
John Bedford ! 

keziah Tngling McOm'' JiC 

Sarah Ingling Parker 
Allison B. 'J"hompson 

Charles C. Aikin l,- . .iiii-iii'i;; 

Emma Spraguc Aikin Edwardsburg 

;\Iar_\- E. Solomon Schoch Edwardslnirg 

John C. Schoch Edvvardsl)urg 

Daniel S. Stryker Edwardsburg 

Kate Milliman T'dwardsburg 

Richard J. Hicks I'dwardsburg 

Marcus S. Olmstead Edwardsburg 

Marv Ketcham Olmstead Edwardsburg 

George A. Tuesley 
Cassius M. Dennis 
Andrew J. Tuesley 
George A. Siietterly 
Jesse Title 
T-Tenrv Andrus 
James H. Andrus 
Edward Hirons 
Julia Tietsort Gates 
Charles W. Tietsort 
Abraham L. Clendenen 
Thomas J. Mealoy 
Cvnthia Fisher Mealov 
Alfred J. F.ast 
W'illiam T. Oxenford 
Dema Brody Oxenford 
Jacob Mcintosh 
W. W. Flollister 
Frank Swinehart 
Silas H. Thomas 
Elvira Bogue Thomas 























1 'crni 
















F.lkhart, Ind. 


New York 




.\\v\' Yorlc 




]'i ii;i;\lvania 

1 8 36 

Mi:; n 






Xen yr.rk 


Xew York 




Ob in 


Im liana 

1 8^6 

















St. Jos. Co., Ind. 






\'an Buren Co. 














Cass Co. 


Cass Co. 




















Emih- A. Smith ( )\vl-ii 
James H. Beaucliamp 
Samuel B. Hadden 
Davis W. Ball 
Edwin G. Loux 
Mary E. Shanafelt-Wol 
Josephine Shanafelt-Mc 
Adelbert Kram 
Bishop E. Curtis 
John Hildebridle 
Sarah Lutz Hildebridle 


(_ aUin 





cott La Grange 

rwin La Grange 




Herbert Solomon 
\'incent Reames 
Eliza Grubb Harmon 
John C. Harmon 
"Fred B. Wells 
Harmah Crane Dibble 

C. H. Kimmerle 
Gorden G. Huntlev 
C. E. Lyle 
Marquis D. Withercll 
Elmer W. Griffis 
Jerman S. Draper 
Henry Springsteen 






La (Grange 














Xew York 






La Grange 


La Grange 










La Porte Co.. Ind. 









1 861 

New York 










New York 
New York 




In the preceding cliajiters we lia\e descn'lied many phases of Cass 
count\''s histnrw and ha\e endeaxnred so far as imssilile U> sji\"e a 
compi"ehensi\'e account of its institutions and its people from the first 
settlement to the iM'esent date. I*"or the last we ha\e reserxed an ac- 
count of religious influences and. church organizations and ])ersoualities. 
It concludes the historical narratix'e with a certain hap]iy ])ropriety. 
For religion has well heen called the ca])Stone of the arch of life, land- 
ing together and gi\ing staljilit\' to the other parts — the culmination 
of the hopes and experiences of the human race. 

Though last to be descrihed. religion was h}- no means last among 
the stages of de\'elopnient in the ci\-ilized life of Cass county. 'Idie 
pioneers did not lea\e their religion behind when they settled here, but 
brought it with them. In the first settlements that were formed there 
were ]3robaI)lv not a suthcienl number of any one sect to form a church 
bv themsel\-es. and so the\' worshiped together. The ]ioints of doctrine 
or practice which <li\ided them were hehl in abeyance, persons of each 
sect vielded a little for the good of the whole, and in a spirit of union 
and Christian toleration the}- came together and each one tried to 
derive all the good he could from the meetings, exercises and chscourses. 
For a time there were no church buildings, but schoolhouses were soon 
erected, or private houses ser\-ed for the purpose, and there in the 
winter, or in the open air in summer, the people assembled The jiioneer 
religious meeting was spontaneous, necessarily had little formalism, 
and the first meetings, unrecorded in history, were of the kind told 
about in the Rible, where "two or three met together" to give expression 
to the rich and sincere feeling within them. This kind of worship was 
largely individual, was inherent in the nature of the i>ioneer man and 
woman wherever he was, and was not necessarily dependent on the 
organized religion known as the church. 


Of the first representati\-es of organized religion in this county 
there is. unfortunately, no definite record. As we have made clear in 
an earlier chapter, the fir^t Christian influence to penetrate the wilder- 


ncss of soutliern Aiichigan was ihat emanating from the devoted priests 
wlio, of their own initiative, or close in the train of those who conquered 
the land for the King of France, sought to win to their religion the 
souls of the heathen red men. The names of the early fathers who 
may have passed over this region are not accessible, and the only monu- 
ment they ha\e left is the zeal and self-sacrifice with which they under- 
took their cause. l*"rom the letters of the Jesuit Father, Joseph Marest, 
we get some of the earliest descriptions of 'the St. T'>-i-:i'i riuintry and 
its Indian inhaljilants. It is known that the Jcsu: nission on 

the banks of the St. Joseph at the present site of AllL•^. vMaulished in 
the early }ears of the eighteenth centur)-. But this disappeared \ears 
before the permanent settlement of this region. 

The work of the F'rcnch Catholic missionaries left a permanent 
record for the historical times of Cass county. When ' ! liis 

associates founded the C'arey Mission tliey found tlui the 

Pottawottoniies still clung to the Catholic ritual and mode of worship. 
A knowledge of some of the religious holidays, such as Christmas, was 
found among them. After'the removal of the Indians from liiis coun- 
try, Pokagon and liis band of Roman Catholics located, as we kui'w. 
in Silver Creek, and there formed the first organized Catholic cni- 
inunity in the county. I'orty acres of tlie lands purchased by them w<is 
deeded to the church, and on this tract, in 1838, wa.s built tlie first 
churcli in the township. I'likagon, it is related, met \' 
cultics in the construction of tliis edifice. ' His white i: 
rather o]3poscd to the religicjn espoused by the Indians. The Jntiians 
were unequal to the of raising and joinini^- the liuilding which 
the)' had planned, ;md without the assistance of the white man's skill 
they could not ha\-e iiroceeded with the construction. John G. .\. 
Rarncy. the well known ])ioncer of the township, was appealed to. and 
at once promised bis assistance. \\''hen the timbers were in readiness 
be rmd his three hired men quickly raised and framed the building. 
The church, of hewn logs, was twenty by thirty feet, standing on the 
noi-fb shore of la.'iig lake. It was destitute of any floor but tlie earth, 
and the scats were roughly cut benches. Eut ser\-ices were held here 
bv \arious priests iov five or six x'ears. 

This was the beginning of the Church of the Si'cred lleart nf 
Mary, which might well be con.sidered the \-isible monument to the 
work bcgmi 1)\' the Jesuit jiriests almost two centuries licfore. 

In 1844 the first regular priest was assigned to this congreg'Ation. 


About the same time a school was estabhshed and conducted by Father 
Mari\auh, and later by the Catholic sisters. This school was supported 
fro)n the government annuities of the Indians. 

Aljout 1S47, wlien l'"ather Baroux was stationed here, the church 
was remodeled and was supplied with pews. This church, established 
by the Indians, was the nucleus of the Catholic settlement in this county. 
One- of the first white settlers to become a communicant of this churcli 
was Dennis Daly and his brothers, Patrick and Cornelius. \Vi 
T)aly soon afterward attended the services he and one other 
were the only white worshippers, all the rest being Indians. This was 
the beginning of white influence in the church, and with the siiI>^c(|-H-iit 
removal of many of the Indians and other causes of decline 
of the Sacred Heart came in time to be the place of ^^ ■ i- 
Roman Catholics almost entirely. 

In 1858 a new church edifice was erected, .\uguM!iic 1. 1 ■;.;-n 
being foremost in the work which brought about its construction. Ex- 
tensive additions were made to this building, and in September, 1861, 
the building was completed practically as it stands today. The church 
organization became almost inacti\e for some years, and when Father C. 
J. Roeper began his pastorate in 1S75. it was necessary to undertake 
many repairs and restorations. 

The church membership has remained about tin- s.-mu- ;!',r :;sdi 
various periods, it being now al;out fifty families. 

The Dowagiac Catholic cliurch began its organi/^ ; ...11^,1, .-.i.-ut 
1858, although the first house of worship was not erected until 187-'. 
This, the first edifice of the Church of the Holy i\fa: 
cated August 30. 1876. The same priest has alway 
.Silver Creek and Dowagiac churches, the present ; 
John G. Wall. In 1892 the present beautiful brick » 
Front street, was erected. The first chiu'ch had been located at the 
upper end of Orchard street, and for some time was the smallest church 
in the city. To Re\-. Joseph Joos. who assumed the pastorate in 1891. 
was due much of the credit for constructing the new church. Pt a cost 
of $15,000, and liringing the membershiii from fifty to about one hun- 
dred and fifty families. 


The Methodists ha\-e always been pioneers of e\'angelism. Through- 
out the middle west their circuit riders and missionaries have aiipeared 


usually iirst, an<I always anmno the lirst ti i (le\el(i|> the rehgious side 
nf tlie scattered c imiinuiities. 

Of the lies^inuings of AIethn(hsni in Cass cmiuty a ciintril)utiir to 
the cnlleetiiins nf tlie Michigan i'inneer Society lias this to sav ; 

l\e\-. hj-astus h'elton. who was appointed September 29, 1829. by 
the ( )hiu conference to tlie St. Joseph Mission, labored in Cass, Berrien 
and St. Ji'^eijh counties, and in the following vear returned to the same 
field with Leonard I!, (iurlev as assistant. Classes were prohablv 
formed this \ear > ai the .south side of Beardsley's ])rairie and on \'oung's 
jM'airie (I'enn townshi])). In iS^i h'ehon was a]i])ointed to the Krda- 
mazoii missidU, and Rex. T. J. Kolie to the Wavne circuit, the latter 
being prominent am<ing the Alethochst workers in this section. Traxel- 
ing from Kalamazoo "on liorseback and witli the traditional saddle- 
hags," Rew Robe established preaching at Little Prairie Ronde ( Vo- 
linia), ^'oung"s ])rairie, I )iamond lake. Cassopolis, LaGrange and 
Pokagon and Beardsley's [jrairies. There were twent}--fi\e missions in 
all, arrangetl so he could reach each once in four weeks. 

Octoljer 12, 1834. at the conference in Wayne count)-. Indiana, 
the St. Joseph circuit was represented b_\- S. R. Robinson ruid the Cass:j- 
polis circuit by R. C. Meek. In the same vear Rev. Robe forme(l a class 
in Siher (_'reek. Xathaniel Weed being the class leader. At the organi- 
zation of the Pokagon Prairie chinch, in 1832, Edward Powers was 
ap])ointed class leader, and the first meetings were held in Powers" 
log bouse on Pokagon creek. 

The ^licbigan conference was organized in 1836, but it was not 
until 1840 that the southwest part of the state was attache<l to its juris- 
diction. At the first conference in ^Marshall the Edwardsburg charge 
was represented b\' Re\-s. J. B\ron and D. Knox. 

From this descrijiiion of the general status of Methodism in the 
count\', we may piroceed to menti(jn the indi\i<lual organizations, lid- 
wardsburg e\'identh- had the first, or certainh- one of the first, classes. 
But the legal organization was not effected by election of trustees until 
February 13. 1837, when the corporate name was adopted and the 
following members elected as trustees; Hiram Rogers, Clifford Shana- 
han, Henry A. Chapin, Leonard Hain. .\sa M. Smith. The Edwards- 
burg church has had two brick buildings during its history. The 
Methodists and Preslnterians in Edwardsliurg are now about on a par 
in ]ioint of strength and membership. 

At Cassopolis the Methodists were earl}- acti\-e. as noticed in the 


preceding paragraplis. But fur n number of ^•ears the circuit riders 
held their meetings in the cimrthduse and sclioolhnuses. and it was not 
until 1855 that Joshua Lntland and William Shanafelt ga\c t<i the 
denomination a house erected on Rowland street in 1846 liv Jacoh Sih'er 
and Joshua Lnfland as a churdi edifice open to all dennminatinns. This 
building now forms the front i^art of F. ;\f. Fisk's drug store. On the 
lot, on Rowland street, from \\hich the nld huikling.had been remo\-ed. 
the society built in 1874 the present Methodist church ami ]);irsnnage, 
at a cost of about $S,ooo. The building committee were W. W. Feck. 
^^'illiam L. Jakways, D. B. Smith and John Boyd. Rev. F. A. B.aldwin 
is the ]iresent jjastor of the si^cietv, and the trustees are Jnhn .Vtkinsnn, 
Wm. B. Hayden. W'm. H. Coulter, E. Ja>- Brown. William Berkey, 
Horace Cobb. John Hiltnn. Har^•e_^• Xoecker. There are abnut i.^n 
names on the church rrill. 

The ]\Iethodists \\ere ;icti\e in the vicinity of Dowagiac befire 
any village had been platted. The "Cataract House" Avas the iilace 
of early meetings under the direction of the circuit rider, R. C. Meek, 
already mentioned. A'arious lay preachers directed the work here for 
some years. In T84Q the church was organized, and was known as the 
Wayne circuit until 1852. \\'hen the name Dowagiac first a])pears on 
Methodist minutes. The trustees appointed in that year were Strawtlier 
Bowling. ,\aron Henwond, Robert AA'atson. Samuel Bell, Benjamin Bell. 
John Huff. Fli Beach, showing who were some of the earl\- leaders in 
Methodism in Dowagiac. The church building, in which the Metlio- 
dists have worshiped for nearly half a centurA*. was erected in 1839 
while Rev. F. H. Day was pastor. 

The earl\- establishment of a Methodist class on Pokagi"in prairie 
has been described. The ] church at Sumner\ille originated 
in a verA- successful reyi\'al meeting held on the ]irairie in 1840. The 
meetings were held in a schonlhouse for more than ten years, and in 
1854 the first building was completed. 

La Crange was also a field of labor for the early ]\Tethodists. The 
church at La Grange \'illage was organized Xo\-ember to, T858, at the 
hous-e of Charles Van Riper, who was one of the first trustees, the 
others being John ,\. Ymi Riper, Washburn Benedict, Abram Van 
Riper, Jacob Zimmerman, John S. Secor, Joshua Lofland, Joseph W. 
Sturr. The house of worship was erected soon afterward. The church, 
like tlie village, has been on the decline for many years, and its mem- 
bership is reduced to twenty-seven. Rev. F. .\. Bablwin. of Cassopolis, 


has charge uf ihc society, and preaches fur them each Sunday aftei- 
nuun. The present trustees are; Tnnothy B. Benedict, James W . 
:5pringsleni, James Curtis, x\lrs. Ida Benedict, Mrs. Samantha Curtis, 
i'red B. \\ chs, Clarence T. Wells. 

ihe Aieihodist meeting held on Voung's prairie in i'enn township 
b) Re\'. Teltun in 183 J, had a regular house ot worship, but for many 
years in the interim the meetings were held at private homes or school- 
houses, 'ilie hrst legal organization ot the church took place June 17, 
1858, its trustees being M. P. Grcnncll, David J. Whitney, iiarrison 
Launburg, Josepli Jones and William Russey. The church was re- 
organized in 1870, and in 1877 the church, edifice at Vandalia village 
was erected. The trustees at the time were John Lutes, .V. Bristol, 
\\ illiam t. Bort, Isaac Reiff, L. Osborn. 

The iSorih Toiler Methodist Episcopal church was organized in 
18.46, with fourteen members, if ugh berguson, G. W. Black and Nathan 
Skinner being the first trustees. Services were held in a sciiooihouse 
until 1858, when a church was elected on section 12. 

1 he Afethodist church builuing at Union village, now used prin- 
cipally by the b'rec iJaplists, \\as erected in its first form in 1858. 
Ow ing to a revi\al of that }ear the Aietiiodists of this vicinity were very 
strung and built the church without outside assistance, in 1877 the 
church \\as relmilt at a cost of $1,300. 

Coulter's Chapel, the Methodist organization in Tioward, was 
erected in 1858 at a cost of $1,300, being located on section 13. The 
charter members were James and A-nn Coulter, who gave the site and 
lil.;crally toward the buiUling; Dennis and Cynthia A. Ir'armelee, Eliza 
Sniitli and i'llizalielh Young. 

l\e\'. i'cllon, above mentioned, held religious meetings in Aiilton 
township in 1830, and the lirst society of this denomination was insti- 
tuted ill 1832. Concerning the organization of the first society the 
following miscellaneous record dated July 1, 1839, tells: "in accordance 
to pre\ious notice gi\eii according to statute providing for organization 
(if religious societies, a meeting of members and hearers of the M. E. 
church convened at the sciiooihouse near Cannon Smith's in the town-