Skip to main content

Full text of "The twentieth century New Testament; a translation into modern English made from the original Greek (Westcott & Hort's text)"

See other formats







Made from the original Greek ( WESTCOTT 

& HORT'S TEXT) by a company of 

about twenty scholars representing 

the various sections of the 

Christian Church 


New York Chicago Toronto 

Fleming H. Revell Company 

London and Edinburgh 


1900 19011902 1903 1904 


Entered at Stationer's Hall 

All rights reserved 



ENGLISH-SPEAKING people of to-day have not, until quite 

A Tt Tnto atl n recentl y. had the opportunity of reading the Bible in the 

Modem English of their own time. Though in the course of the 

last hundred years the Bible has been translated into the 

vernacular of most countries, the language of our Bible remains the English 

of three hundred years ago. 

This translation of the New Testament is an endeavour to do for the Eng- 
lish nation what has been done already for the people of almost all other 
countries to enable Englishmen to read the most important part of their 
Bible in that form of their own language which they themselves use. It had 
its origin in the recognition of the fact that the English of the Authorized 
Version (closely followed in that of the Revised Version), though widely 
valued for its antique charm, is in many passages difficult, or even quite un- 
intelligible to the modern reader. The retention, too, of a form of English 
no longer in common use is liable to give the impression that the contents of 
the Bible have little to do with the life of to-day. The Greek used by the 
New Testament writers was not the Classical Greek of some centuries earlier, 
but the form of the language spoken in their own day. Moreover the writers 
represent those whose utterances they record as using the words and phrases 
of every-day life. 

We believe that the New Testament will be better understood by modern 
readers if presented in a modern form ; and that a translation of it, which 
presents the original in an exalted literary and antiquated dress, cannot, 
despite its " aroma " and the tender memories that have gathered around it, 
really make the New Testament for the reader of to-day the living reality 
that it was to its first readers. In this respect the present translation differs 
altogether in its aim from that of the Revised Version of 1881. No attempt 
is made in that Version to translate the original into the language of our own 
time. Its authors state in their preface : 

" We have faithfully adhered to the rule that the alterations to be introduced should be ex- 
pressed, as far as possible, in the language of the Authorized Version, or of the 
Versions that preceded it." 

Our constant effort, on the contrary, has been to exclude all words and 


phrases not used in current English. \Ve have, however, followed the 
modern practice of using an older phraseology in the rendering of poetical 
passages, and of quotations from tHe Old Testament, and in the language of 

The translation of 1611, known as the "Authorized Ver- 
Neitber a 

Revision nor sion," was the outcome of many successive revisions of the 
a Paraphrase. translation completed by Tyndale in 1534, which was, at 
least to some extent, founded on that completed by Wycliffe about 1380. 
Further, the last named translation was not made from the original Greek, 
but from the Latin Version, known as the Vulgate. The present translation 
is not a revision of any previous one, but is made directly from the Greek. 
Nor is it a paraphrase. A paraphrase might be useful as a help to the inter- 
pretation of the New Testament, but it would not be the New Testament 
itself. Yet, on the other hand, our work is more than a verbal translation. 
No purely verbal rendering can ever adequately represent the thoughts con- 
veyed in the idioms of another language. In this translation, not only has 
every word been carefully weighed, but also the emphasis placed upon every 
word, and the effort has been made to give the exact force and meaning in 
idiomatic modern English. 

The Greek Since the publication of the Authorized Version of 1611, 
Text. more than 1,500 manuscripts of the whole or of parts of the 

New Testament have been discovered or have become accessible, and among 
them are the three oldest and most important. The Greek text here trans- 
lated, that of Westcott and Hort, is mainly founded on the oldest manuscripts, 
and may be said to represent that form of the text of the New Testament 
which was generally in use in the Church at the end of the Third Century. 
Parallel A large amount of time and care has been expended 

Passages. upon those passages of the gospels which record the same, 
or similar, events or discourses, in order to show the remarkable similarities, 
and the no less remarkable divergences, which abound in them. Such pas- 
sages are common in the first three gospels, while in the fourth they are more 
numerous than is generally supposed. Dr. Westcott writes : 

"The English reader has a right to expect that he will find in the Revision which is placed 
in his hands a faithful indication of the verbal agreement or difference between the 
several narratives." 

In addition to such help as that referred to by Dr. Westcott, the English 
reader should now be able, to some extent, to study the origins of the gospels, 
and to discern their relation to a common source. Great advances have been 
made in the study of this subject since the issue of the Authorized and even 


of the Revised Version. There are still, however, minute points where such 
an indication as that required by Dr. Westcott seems impossible. 

The numerous and important quotations from the Old 
Quotations _ 

and lestament are in this translation set out in modern form; 

"p^J^s"^* but minor quotations (i. <., those not specially introduced as 
quotations) from the Old Testament, the Apocrypha, the 
Book of Enoch, and other sources, are placed between single inverted com- 
mas; while, at the foot of the pages, references are given to some of the 
vast number of places, in which the writers consciously or unconsciously bor- 
row the phraseology of the Old Testament. This will enable the reader to 
see how familiar the writers were with the very words and phrases of the 
Septuagint Version of the Old Testament, and how insensibly it influenced 
them in describing the events of their own day. 

Proper The names of persons and places we have, as a rule, left 

Names. j n ^ f orms w j t h w hich English readers have been made 
familiar by the Authorized and Revised Versions, except where a change in 
the spelling seemed likely to show the correct pronunciation. 

We have attempted to give measures of space and time, 
Coins, the values of coins, and also official titles in their nearest 

and Titles. f i- u i 

English equivalents. 

Bracketed A few passages, numbering fourteen in all, will be found 

Passages. placed between square brackets. These are judged by 

Westcott and Hort " not to have originally formed part of the work in which 

they occur," but to be " stray relics from the Apostolic or sub- Apostolic age." 

The three most important of these will be found at pages 39 and 210. 

Order of the The order, in which the Books and Letters of the New 
Books. Testament appear in this translation, is due to the desire 
not to inconvenience a reader, familiar with the old order, more than is neces- 
sary, but, at the same time, to make an advance in the direction of such a 
chronological arrangement, as modern research has rendered possible. Three 
main divisions have been adopted, suggested by the character of the books 
Historical Books, Letters, and an Apocalypse ; and, in the sub-divisions, the 
Letters have been grouped under the names of those writers to whom they 
have been traditionally attributed. Within these sub-divisions the Books and 
Letters stand in a probable chronological arrangement. 

It is certain that our translation will not be acceptable to those who regard 
any attempt to re-translate the New Testament as undesirable, if not danger- 
ous. It is, nevertheless, hoped that, by this modern translation, the New 
Testament may become a living reality to many by whom the Authorized 
Version, with all its acknowledged beauties, is but imperfectly understood or 
nerer read. 


In this hope, we now commend this translation, which has been under- 
taken as a labour of love, to the good-will of all English-speaking people, 
and to the blessing of Almighty God. 

September, 1904. 


The " Tentative Edition " of this Translation was issued in three parts be- 
tween 1898 and 1901. In that Edition we endeavoured to discover what was 
practicable in a modern translation of the New Testament, before issuing a 
permanent edition. This Revision of our Translation, rendered necessary by 
the large demand for our " Tentative Edition " in every part of the English- 
speaking world, amounts practically to a careful re-translation made in the 
light of experience derived from our previous attempts, and of the many 
valuable criticisms that have been received. 














. 101 


. . 405 

TITUS .... 




HEBREWS . . . 

. . 429 

/ J 




. 28l 
. 289 

II. PETER . . . 

JUDE .... 

. 461 
. 460 




I. JOHN .... 

. 475 


33 1 


ROMANS .... 


III. JOHN . . . 



. *8* 


. 4Q-* 






I. THE PREPARATION. Chap. i. i 13. PAGE 

The Baptist and his Message 5 

The Baptism of Jesus 5 

The Temptation of Jesus . . 5 

II. THE WORK IN GALILEE. Chaps, i. 14 9. 50. 

Jesus begins His Work 6 

The first Disciples 6 

Cure of a possessed Man 6 

Cure of Peter's Mother-in-law and of many others ...... 6 

Jesus retires for Prayer 7 

Cure of a Leper 7 

Cure of a paralyzed Man 7 

Call of Levi 8 

The Disciples blamed for not observing" the Law 8 

Cure of a Man with a Withered Hand 9 

Cures by the Lake-side 9 

The twelve Apostles 10 

Jesus and His Relations JO 

Jesus accused of Acting by the Help of Satan 10 

The true Brotherhood IO 

Parable of the Sower .... ,~ .i*^. 10 

Lesson from a Lamp II 

Parable of the Seed growing unobserved 12 

Parable of the Mustard Seed 12 

Jesus stills a Storm 12 

Cure of a Madman 12 

The Raising of the Daughter of Jaeirus 13 

Cure of an afflicted Woman 14 

Jesus teaches at Nazareth 15 

The Mission of the twelve Apostles 15 

The Death of the Baptist 15 

The Return of the Apostles 16 

Tesus feeds five thousand by the Lake of Galilee 1 6 





Jesus walks on the Water 17 

Jesus at Gennesaret 17 

The Disciples blamed for neglecting Ceremonies 17 

Cure of a Syrian Girl near Tyre 18 

Cure of a deaf Mute 19 

Jesus feeds four thousand 19 

Warning against the Teaching of the Pharisees 20 

Cure of a blind Man at Bethsaida 20 

Peter's Confession of the Christ 20 

Jesus foretells His Death 21 

A Call to renounce Self 21 

The Transfiguration 21 

A Question about Elijah 21 

Cure of an Epileptic Boy 22 

Jesus a second time foretells His Death .23 

Jesus teaches at Capernaum 

On Humility 23 

On Toleration 23 

Against hindering Others 23 


A Question' about Divorce 24 

Jesus blesses little Children 24 

The Responsibilities of Wealth 24 

Jesus a third time foretells His Death 25 

The Request of James and John 26 

The Dignity of Service 26 

Cure of blind Bartimaeus 26 

IV. THE LAST DAYS. Chaps, n. i 15. 47. 

Jesus enters Jerusalem 27 

The fruitless Fig Tree 27 

Jesus in the Temple 27 
esus and the Chief Priests 28 

Parable of the wicked Tenants 28 

A Question about Tribute 29 

A Question about the Resurrection 29 

The Great Commandment 30 

Christ the Son of David 30 

Warnings against the Teachers of the Law 31 

The Widow's Offering 31 

Jesus foretells the Destruction of the Temple and the End of 

the Age '. 31 

The Need for Watchfulness 32 

The Plot against Jesus 33 

Jesus anointed by a Woman at Bethany 33 

Judas agrees to betray Jesus 33 

The Passover 33 

The " Lord's Supper " 34 

Peter's Fall foretold 34 

Jesus in Gethsemane 34 




The Arrest of Jesus 35 

Jesus before the High Priest . . . .' 35 

Peter disowns Jesus 36 

Jesus before the Roman Governor 36 

The Crucifixion of Jesus 37 

The Death of Jesus 38 

The Burial of Jesus 38 


The Resurrection of Jesus 39 

A Late Appendix 39 

Another Appendix 40 



The Ancestors of Jesus 43 

The Birth of Jesus 44 

The Visit of the Astrologers 45 

The Flight into Egypt 45 

II. THE PREPARATION. Chaps. 3. i 4. u. 

The Baptist and his Message 46 

The Baptism of Jesus 47 

The Temptation of Jesus 47 

III. THE WORK IN GALILEE. Chaps. 4. 12 18. 35. 

Jesus settles at Capernaum .48 

Jesus begins His Work .48 

The first Disciples ,48 

Jesus preaches in Galilee .49 

The Sermon on the Mount 

The Happy . . 49 

A real Disciple of Jesus .49 

Lesson from a Lamp .49 

The old Law and the new 

on Anger eo 

on Impurity co 

on Divorce ... 50 

on Oaths ei 

on Revenge . . . v~. ." . ... ... 51 

on Love ei 

About Giving ... 51 

About Praying 52 

The " Lord's Prayer " 52 

About Fasting 52 

The true Treasure 52 

Light and Darkness 52 

True Service 52 

The Cares of Life 53 

On Judging Others 53 

Encouragement to Prayer 53 




The Golden Rule 53 

The two Roads 54 

True and false Teachers 54 

The two Foundations 54 

Cure of a Leper 54 

Cure of an Officer's Servant 55 

Cure of Peter's Mother-in-law and of many others 55 

Tests of Sincerity 55 

Jesus stills a Storm 56 

Cure of two Madmen 56 

Cure of a paralyzed Man 56 

Call of Matthew 57 

Jesus blamed for His Companions 57 

The Disciples blamed for not Fasting 57 

The Raising of the Daughter of Jaeirus 57 

Cure of an afflicted Woman 57 

Cure of two blind Men 58 

Cure of a dumb Man 58 

The Need for Workers 58 

The twelve Apostles 58 

The Mission of the twelve Apostles 59 

The Cost of Christ's Service 60 

The Baptist's Message to Jesus 60 

The Testimony of Jesus to the Baptist 6 1 

The Doom of the Towns of Galilee 6r 

The Child-like Mind 62 

Jesus invites the Weary 62 

The Disciples blamed for not observing the Law 62 

Cure of a man with a withered Hand 62 

Cure of a blind and dumb Man 63 

Jesus accused of Acting by the Help of Satan 63 

Words a test of Character 64 

Warning against seeking Signs 64 

Danger of imperfect Reformation 64 

The true Brotherhood 64 

Parable of the Sower 65 

Parable of the Tares 66 

Parable of the Mustard Seed 66 

Parable of the Leaven 66 

Parable of the Tares explained 67 

Parable of the Treasure ; 67 

Parable of the Pearl 67 

Parable of the Net 67 

New and Old Truths 67 

Jesus teaches at Nazareth 67 

The Death of the Baptist 68 

Jesus feeds five thousand by the Lake of Galilee 68 

Jesus walks on the Water 69 

Jesus at Gennesaret 69 

The Disciples blamed for neglecting Ceremonies 69 

CONTENTS. xiii. 



Cure of a Syrian Girl near Tyre 70 

Jesus cures many Persons 71 

Jesus feeds four thousand 71 

Signs of the Times . . 71 

Warning against the Teaching of the Pharisees 72 

Peter's Confession of the Christ 72 

Jesus foretells His Death 72 

A Call to renounce Self 73 

The Transfiguration 73 

A Question about Elijah 73 

Cure of an epileptic Boy 74 

The Power of Faith 74 

Jesus a second time foretells His Death 74 

A Question about the Temple-rate 74 

On Humility 75 

Against hindering Others 75 

Parable of the lost Sheep 75 

On dealing with Wrong-doers 75 

Encouragement to united Prayer 76 

Parable of the unforgiving Servant 76 

IV. THE JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM. Chaps. 1 9. i 20. 34. 

A Question about Divorce f6 

Jesus blesses little Children 77 

The Responsibilities of Wealth 77 

Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard 78 

Jesus a third time foretells His Death 79 

The Request of the Mother of James and John 79 

The Dignity of Service 79 

Cure of two blind Men 80 

V. THE LAST DAYS. Chaps, ai. i 37. 66. 

Jesus enters Jerusalem 80 

Jesus in the Temple 81 

The fruitless Fig Tree 81 

Jesus and the Chief Priests 81 

Parable of the two Sons 82 

Parable of the wicked Tenants 82 

Parable of the Marriage Feast 83 

A Question about Tribute . . .~ J r~7 T T' 83 

A Question about the Resurrection .84 

The Great Commandment 84 

Christ the Son of David 85 

Warnings against the Teachers of the Law 85 

Jesus denounces the Pharisees 85 

Jesus laments the fate of Jerusalem 86 

Jesus foretells the Destruction of the Temple and the End of the 

Age 87 

The Need for Watchfulness 88 

Parable of the Good and Bad Servants 89 

Parable of the ten Bridesmaids 89 




Parable of the Talents 89 

The Great Judgment 90 

The Plot against Jesus 91 

Jesus anointed by a Woman at Bethany 91 

Judas agrees to betray Jesus 92 

The Passover 92 

The " Lord's Supper " 92 

Peter's Fall foretold 92 

Jesus in Gethsemane 93 

The Arrest of Jesus 93 

Jesus before the High Priest 94 

Peter disowns Jesus 95 

The End of Judas 95 

Jesus before the Roman Governor 96 

The Crucifixion of Jesus 96 

The Death of Jesus 97 

The Burial of Jesus 98 

VI. THE RISEN LIFE. Chap. 28. 120. 

The Resurrection of Jesus 98 

Jesus appears to the Apostles 99 


DEDICATION. Chap. i. i 4 103 

i. 52. 52. 

The Birth of the Baptist foretold 103 

The Birth of Jesus foretold 104 

Mary's visit to Elizabeth 105 

The Birth and Circumcision of the Baptist 106 

The Birth and Circumcision of Jesus 107 

The Presentation of Jesus in the Temple 107 

The Boyhood of Jesus 108 

II. THE PREPARATION. Chaps. 3. i 4. 13. 

The Baptist and his Message . . . >. 109 

The Baptism of Jesus no 

The Ancestors of Jesus no 

The Temptation of Jesus ill 

III. THE WORK IN GALILEE. Chaps. 4. 14 9. 50. 

Jesus begins His Work 112 

Jesus teaches at Nazareth 1 1 2 

Cure of a possessed Man 113 

Cure of Peter's Mother-in-law and of many others 113 

Jesus retires to a lonely Place .... 113 

The great Catch of Fish "4 

Cure of a Leper 1 14 

Cure of a paralyzed Man .' . 115 

CallofLevi "5 




Jesus blamed for His companions 115 

The Disciples blamed for not observing the Law 115 

Cure of a Man with a withered Hand 116 

The twelve Apostles 117 

The Sermon on the Mount 

The Happy 117 

The Unhappy 117 

The New Law 

on Love 117 

on Revenge 117 

The Golden Rule 117 

On judging Others 118 

True and false Teachers 118 

The two Foundations 118 

Cure of an Officer's Servant 119 

Raising of a Widow's Son 119 

The Baptist's Message to Jesus 119 

The Testimony of Jesus to the Baptist 120 

Jesus anointed by a Woman , 120 

Women who ministered to Jesus 121 

Parable of the Sower 121 

Lesson from a Lamp 122 

The true Brotherhood 122 

Jesus stills a Storm 123 

Cure of a Madman 123 

The raising of the Daughter of Jaeirus 124 

Cure of an afflicted Woman 124 

The Mission of the twelve Apostles 125 

Herod and the Baptist 125 

The Return of the Apostles 125 

Jesus feeds five thousand by the Lake of Galilee 125 

Peter's Confession of the Christ 126 

Jesus foretells His Death 126 

A Call to renounce Self 126 

The Transfiguration 126 

Cure of an epileptic Boy 127 

Jesus a second time foretells His Death 127 

On Humility 127 

On Toleration 127 

IV. THE JOURNEY TO JERUSALEM. Chaps. 9. 51 19. 28. 

Tests of Sincerity 128 

The Mission of the Seventy 128 

The Doom of the Towns of Galilee 129 

The Return of the Seventy 129 

The Childlike Mind 129 

The Great Commandment 129 

The Good Samaritan 130 

The Sisters of Bethany 130 

The " Lord's Prayer " 131 




Persistence in Prayer 131 

Encouragement to Prayer 131 

Cure of a dumb Man 131 

Jesus accused of Acting by the Help of Satan 131 

Danger of imperfect Reformation 132 

Warning against seeking Signs 132 

Lesson from a Lamp 132 

Light and Darkness 132 

Jesus denounces the Pharisees 132 

A Plot against Jesus 133 

Warnings and Encouragements 133 

Instances of Covetousness 134 

The Cares of Life 134 

The true Treasure 135 

Watchfulness 135 

Parable of the good and bad Servants 135 

The Cost of Christ's Service 136 

Signs of the Times 136 

The Settlement of Disputes 136 

The Meaning of Calamities 136 

The barren Fig Tree 136 

A Woman healed on the Sabbath 137 

Parable of the Mustard Seed 137 

Parable of the Leaven 137 

The narrow Door 137 

A Message to Herod Antipas 138 

Jesus laments the Fate of Jerusalem 138 

Cure of a dropsical Man 138 

Lessons on Humility and Hospitality 139 

Parable of the great Dinner 139 

The Cost of Self-denial 14 

A real Disciple of Jesus 14 

Parable of the lost Sheep 14 

Parable of the lost Coin 14 

Parable of the lost Son 141 

Parable of the dishonest Steward I4 2 

True Service 142 

Jesus rebukes the Pharisees I4 2 

Parable of the rich Man and Lazarus 143 

Against hindering Others 143 

On dealing with Wrong-doers 143 

The Power of Faith 143 

Duty 143 

Jesus heals ten Lepers 144 

The Coming of the Kingdom 144 

Parable of the corrupt Judge 145 

Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax-gatherer 145 

Jesus blesses little Children 145 

The Responsibilities of Wealth 146 

Jesus a third time foretells His Death 146 




Cure of a blind Man 147 

Zacchaeus the Tax-gatherer 147 

Parable of the Pounds 147 

V. THE LAST DAYS. Chaps. 19. 2933. 56. 

Jesus enters Jerusalem 148 

Jesus in the Temple 149 

Jesus and the Chief Priests 149 

Parable of the wicked Tenants 150 

A Question about Tribute 150 

A Question about the Resurrection 151 

Christ the Son of David 151 

Warnings against the Teachers of the Law 152 

The Widow's Offering 152 

Jesus foretells the Destruction of the Temple and the End of the 

Age 152 

The Need for Watchfulness 153 

The Plot against Jesus 154 

Judas agrees to betray Jesus 154 

The Passover 154 

The " Lord's Supper " 154 

The Dignity of Service 155 

Peter's Fall foretold 155 

The End at Hand 155 

Jesus on the Mount of Olives 155 

The Arrest of Jesus 156 

Jesus before the High Priest 156 

Peter disowns Jesus 156 

Jesus before the Chief Priests 157 

Jesus before the Roman Governor 157 

Jesus before Herod 157 

Jesus again before the Roman Governor 158 

The Crucifixion of Jesus 158 

The penitent Robber 159 

The Death of Jesus 159 

The Burial of Jesus 159 

VI. THE RISEN LIFE. Chap. 24. i 53. 

The Resurrection of Jesus 160 

Jesus appears on the road to Emmaus 160 

Jesus appears to the Apostles 161 

Jesus ascends to Heaven . . 162 


INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 18 165 

I. THE PREPARATION. Chap. i. 19 51. 

The Testimony of the Baptist to Jesus 166 

The first Disciples of Jesus 167 




a. i ii. 57. PAGE 

Jesus at a Wedding at Cana 168 

Jesus at Capernaum 168 

Jesus at the Temple in Jerusalem 168 

The Visit of Nicodemus to Jesus 169 

The Baptist's Testimony to Jesus in Judaea 170 

Jesus and the Woman of Samaria 171 

Jesus cures an Officer's Son in Galilee 173 

Jesus cures a Cripple in Jerusalem on the Sabbath 173 

Jesus defends His Action and explains His Mission 174 

Jesus feeds five thousand by the Lake of Galilee . 175 

Jesus walks on the Water 176 

Jesus teaches at Capernaum 

The Bread of Life 176 

Jesus and His Brothers 179 

Jesus teaches at the Festival of Tabernacles in Jerusalem . . . 179 

The " Living Water " 180 

The " Light of the World " 181 

Jesus defends His Mission and Authority 181 

Jesus cures a Man born blind 183 

The Good Shepherd " 185 

Jesus at the Re-dedication Festival ... 186 

Jesus retires beyond the Jordan 187 

Jesus raises Lazarus to Life at Bethany 187 

The Chief Priests plot the Death of Jesus . ... 189 

Jesus retires to Ephraim 190 

III. THE LAST DAYS. Chaps. 12. i 19. 42. 

Jesus anointed by Mary at Bethany 190 

Jesus publicly enters Jerusalem for the Last Time 191 

Jesus closes His public Ministry 191 

Jesus washes the Disciples' Feet 193 

Jesus points out the Betrayer 194 

Jesus teaches His Disciples privately 

The New Commandment 194 

The Way 195 

The Helper ; 195 

The Vine and the Branches 196 

The World and the Spirit of Truth 197 

Words of Farewell 198 

The Prayer of Jesus , 199 

Jesus in Gethsemane 200 

The Arrest of Jesus . 201 

Peter disowns Jesus 201 

Jesus before the High Priest 201 

Jesus before the Roman Governor 202 

The Crucifixion of Jesus 204 

The Death of Jesus 204 

The Burial of Jesus . . . . i 205 



IV. THE RISEN LIFE. Chaps. 20. i 21. 25. PAGE 

The Resurrection of Jesus 205 

Jesus appears to Mary 206 

Jesus appears to the Apostles 206 

Jesus appears to Thomas 207 

The Object of this Gospel 207 

A later Appearance of Jesus 207 

Jesus' last Words to Peter 208 

Conclusion 209 




I. THE CHURCH AND THE JEWS. Chaps, i. i 12. 25. 
Doings of the Apostles Peter and John 

Introduction 213 

Ascension of Jesus ...213 

The Apostles in Jerusalem 214 

Appointment of Matthias 214 

The Gift of the Holy Spirit 215 

Peter's Address 215 

Early Days of the Christian Society 217 

Cure of a lame Beggar 217 

Peter's Address in the Temple 218 

Peter and John before the Council 219 

The Common Fund 220 

Punishment of Ananias and Sapphira 221 

Miracles done by the Apostles 221 

Peter and John again before the Council 222 

Appointment of " The Seven ". 223 

Stephen's Ministry and Trial 224 

Stephen's Defense 224 

Stephen's Martyrdom 227 

The First Persecution 227 

Philip's Ministry in Samaria 227 

Peter and John at Samaria 228 

Philip and the Abyssinian 228 

Saul's Conversion 229 

Saul at Damascus 230 

Saul at Jerusalem and Tarsus 231 

Peter's Miracles at Lydda and Jaffa 231 

Peter and Cornelius 232 

First Conversion of Gentiles 234 

Peter's Defense of his Action . . 234 

" Christians " at Antioch 235 

Errand of Barnabas and Saul to Judrea 236 

Persecution of the Church by Herod Agrippa I 236 

Herod's Death 237 



11. THE CHURCH AND THE GENTILES. Chaps. 13. i 28.31. PAGE 
Doings of the Apostle Paul 

Paul's first Missionary Journey 

The Start from Antioch 237 

Paul and Barnabas at Cyprus 238 

Paul and Barnabas at Pisidian Anlioch 238 

Paul and Barnabas at Iconium 240 

Paul and Barnabas at Lystra 241 

Paul and Barnabas return to Pisidian Antioch .... 241 
Paul and Barnabas again at Syrian Antioch .... 242 
The Council at Jerusalem 242 

Paul's second Missionary Journey 

Paul separates from Barnabas 244 

Paul joined by Timothy at Lystra 244 

Paul determines to cross to Macedonia 245 

Paul at Philippi 245 

Paul at Thessalonica 246 

Paul at Bercea 247 

Paul at Athens 247 

Paul at Corinth 249 

Paul's Return 249 

Paul's third Missionary Journey 

Tour in Galatia 250 

ApollcJs 250 

Paul at Ephesus 250 

Paul plans to visit Jerusalem and Rome 251 

The Riot at Ephesus 25 1 

Paul again in Greece and Macedonia 252 

Paul at Troas 253 

Paul at Miletus 253 

Paul at Tyre 254 

Paul at Csesarea 255 

Paul arrives at Jerusalem 255 

Paul's Arrest 256 

Paul's Defense to the People of Jerusalem 257 

Paul's claim as a Roman Citizen 258 

Paul before the High Council of the Jews 258 

The Plot against Paul 259 

Paul sent to Coesarea 260 

Paul before Felix 260 

Paul before Festus 262 

Paul before Herod Agrippa II 263 

Paul's Voyage to Rome 265 

Paul is shipwrecked .... 267 

Paul at Malta 267 

Paul's Voyage to Rome continued 268 

Paul at Rome . . 268 




I. GREETING. Chap. i. i 275 


Trials 275 

Lack of Wisdom 275 

Wealth and Poverty 275 

Temptation 275 

True Religion 276 


On the Treatment of the Poor 276 

On " Faith and Works " 277 

On the Control of the Tongue 278 

Against false Wisdom 278 

Against Party-Strife 278 

Against Presumption 279 

Against Oppression 279 


Christian Patience 280 

Against Oaths 280 

The Power of Prayer 280 

The Blessedness of Saving a Soul 280 




I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i. 

Greeting 283 


His Thankfulness for their Faith and its Influence 283 

His Life amopg them 284 

Their Persecution by their Fellow-citizens . 284 

Frustrated Plans 285 

Timothy's Mission 285 

The Apostle's Prayer for his Converts 285 


Warning against Immorality '. 286 

Brotherly Love 286 

The Duty of Work 286 

Chaps. 4. 13 5. n. 

The Living and the Dead 286 

The Time of the Lord's Coming 287 

The Necessity for Watchfulness 287 

xxii. CONTENTS. 

V. CONCLUSION. Chap. 5. 12 28. PAGE 

Final Counsels 287 

Farewell 288 


I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 2. 

Greeting , , 291 


His Thankfulness and Confidence 291 

His Prayer for them 292 

2. 117. 

The " Man of Sin " and the " Great Apostasy " 292 

The Need for Steadfastness 292 

IV. CONCLUSION. Chap. 3. i 18. 

Mutual Prayer 293 

The Duty of Work 293 

The Apostle's Autograph Farewell 293 



I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 10. 

Greeting 297 

The Apostle's Disappointment 297 

i. ii a. 14. 

Its Special Revelation 297 

His Special Call 298 

His independent Action 298 

His Rebuke to Peter 299 

III. THE LAW AND THE GOSPEL. Chaps, a. 15 4. 31. 

The Failure of the Law 299 

The Galatians misled as to the Law 299 

Faith, not Law, the Ground of Acceptance 300 

The Purpose of the Law 301 

The Effect of the Gospel 301 

The retrograde Spirit of the Galatians 301 

The Apostle and his Converts 302 

An Allegory of the Law and the Gospel 302 

IV THE GOSPEL IN THE DAILY LIFE. Chaps. 5. i 6. 10. 

Christian Freedom 303 

The Limits of Christian Freedom 303 

The Guidance of the Spirit 303 


6. 1118 305 

CONTENTS. xxiii. 


I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 9. PAGE 

Greeting 309 

The Apostle's Thankfulness and Confidence 309 


Prevalence of Party Spirit 309 

The Power of the Cross 310 

" Weakness " and " Strength." 310 

Philosophy and Revelation ... 311 

The true Position and Work of the Apostles 312 

A flagrant case of Immorality 314 

Lawsuits between Christians 314 

The Sacredness of the Body 315 


Chaps. 7. i 1 4. 40. 
On Marriage 

The Apostle's Views 315 

Marriages with Unbelievers 316 

Christianity independent of Conditions of Life 316 

Difficulties connected with Marriage 317 

On Heathen Festivals 

A Question of Conscience 318 

The Apostle's Example 318 

A Warning from History 320 

The Apostle's Conclusions 320 

On Public Worship 

As to Covering the Head 321 

As to the " Lord's Supper " 322 

On Spiritual Gifts 

Their Variety and Unity 323 

Love the greatest of all 324 

The Gift of the " Tongues " and the Gift of Preaching . . 324 
The Necessity for Order 326 


DEAD. Chap. i5. i 58 327 

V. CONCLUSION. Chap. 16. i 24. 

The Collection for the Poor at Jerusalem 329 

The Apostle's Plans 329 

Timothy 330 

Apollos 330 

Exhortations ' . 330 

Farewells 330 

The Apostle's own Farewell 330 


I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i u. 

Greeting 333 

The Apostle's Thanksgiving for Encouragement 333 




I. 12 3. 3. PAGE 

The Purity of his Motives 334 

The Postponement of his Visit 334 

His Converts the Vindication of his Ministry 335 


The Glory of the Gospel contrasted with the Glory of the Law . 335 

The Weakness of the Apostles 336 

Christ their Motive and Strength 337 


His Appeal for their Love 339 

His Warning against Heathen Influences 339 

His Anxieties and Encouragements 339 

V. THE PALESTINE FAMINE FUND. Chaps. 8. 19. 15. 

The Example of the Macedonian Churches 340 

The Completion of the Collection at Corinth 341 

Titus and others to assist 341 

The Spirit in which to make the Collection . . . , 342 


The Assertion of his Authority 342 

His Right as an Apostle 343 

His Claims for Consideration; his Life and Work 344 

His Visions 345 

VII. CONCLUSION. Chaps. 12. n 13. 14- 

A Remonstrance 34-6 

A Defence 34& 

A Warning 34^ 

Farewells 347 


I INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. 1-13. 

The Apostle's Greeting 35* 

The Apostle's Thankfulness and Hope 351 

i. 145. 21. 

The Divine Ideal for Mankind 352 

Failure of the Gentile to reach this Ideal 35 2 

Failure of the Jew to reach this Ideal 353 

The One Hope for Jew and Gentile alike 354 

Faith the Ground of Acceptance before the Coming of the Law 356 

Results of attaining the Divine Ideal 357 

The Divine Ideal recovered in the Christ 35^ 




Chaps. 6. i 8. 39. PAGE 

Is this Faith consistent with a Sinful Life ? 358 

Can Law deliver from a Sinful Life ? 359 

God's Deliverance through the Christ and the Holy Spirit . .301 


The Apostle's Lament over Israel 363 

The Justice of Israel's Rejection by God ....'."' 363 

The Cause of Israel's Rejection 364 

The merciful Purpose in Israel's Rejection 366 

12 i 15. 21. 

On Christian Sacrifice 368 

On Christian Membership 368 

On Christian Duties 368 

On Obedience to the Authorities . . . 369 

On Brotherly Love 369 

On the Approach of " The Day " 370 

On Consideration for the Scrupulous 370 

On the Reception of the Gentiles 37 1 

VI CONCLUSION. Chaps i5. 22 16. 27. 

Personal Plans 372 

The Bearer of the Letter 373 

Personal Greetings 373 

A Doxology 374 



I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 12. 

Greeting 377 

The Apostle's Thankfulness and Prayer 377 


His Deliverance 378 

His Pre-eminence 378 

His Reconciliation 378 

The Apostle's Share in this Work 378 


The Wisdom of God in Christ 379 

Union with Christ 379 

This Union obscured by Gnostic Teaching 379 

Sharing Christ's Death ... 380 

Sharing Christ's Resurrection 380 




The Old Life and the New 380 

Christian Family Life 381 

Rules for Christian Life 381 

V. CONCLUSION. Chap. 4. 7 18. 

The Bearers of the Letter 381 

Personal Greetings and Messages 382 

The Apostle's own Farewell 382 




422 385 



I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 14. 

Greeting 389 

The Apostle's Ascription of Praise 389 


CHURCH. Chaps, i. 15 2. 22. 

Prayer for Knowledge of this Power 390 

This Power displayed in the Resurrection of Christ 390 

This Power displayed in the Conversion of the Gentiles .... 390 
This Power displayed in the Union of Jew and Gentile within 

the Church 391 


3. I 21. 

The Gospel made known to the Church through the Apostle . 391 
The Gospel made known to the Heavenly Powers through the 

Church 392 

Prayer that the Church may comprehend this Gospel 392 

Doxology 392 

IV. THE GOSPEL AND THE DAILY LIFE. Chaps. 4. i 6. 20. 

Unity in Christ 392 

The New Life and the Old 393 

Precepts for the Daily Life 394 

Christian Family Life 395 

The Christian's Armour 396 

V. CONCLUSION. Chap. 6. 2124 39 6 

CONTENTS. xxvii. 


I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i n. PAGE 

Greeting . 399 

The Apostle's Thankfulness and Prayer 399 


The Results of his Imprisonment 399 

The Spread of the Gospel 400 

Life or Death 400 

III. THE CHRISTIAN LIFE. Chaps, i. 27 2. 18. 

Unity 400 

Humility 401 

The Great Example 401 

Following this Example 401 

IV. PERSONAL PLANS. Chaps. 2. 19 3. i. 

Timothy 401 

Epaphroditus 402 


The Apostle's Warning 402 

The Apostle's Experience 402 

The Apostle's Example 403 

VI. CONCLUSION. Chap. 4. i 23. 

Exhortations 403 

The Gift from Philippi 404 

Farewell 404 

(a). TO TIMOTHY. I. 

I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 20. 

Greeting 407 

Warning against False Teaching 407 

The Apostle's Thankfulness for his Call to the Ministry . . .408 
His Charge to Timothy 408 


Public Prayer 408 

Public Testimony -.- .-rr^ 48 

Public Worship 408 

Presiding Officers 409 

Assistant Officers 409 


On Dealing with False Teachers 410 

On the Development of his Powers 410 

On his Relations with those under his Care 411 

On the Provision for Widows 411 

As to the Officers of the Church 411 

On various Subjects 4 12 

As to Slaves . 4 12 

xxviii. CONTENTS. 


IV. CONCLUSION. Chap. 6. 3 21. t>AGfl 

False Teaching 412 

True Wealth 412 

Personal Exhortations 413 

Blessing 413 


I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 18. 

Greeting 417 

An Appeal to Timothy 417 

Onesiphorus 418 

II. INJUNCTIONS TO TIMOTHY. Chaps, a. i 4. 8. 

The Service of the Good News 418 

The Danger of Controversy 418 

Impending Evils 419 

III. CONCLUSION. Chap. 4. 9 22. 

Personal Messages 420 

Farewells and Blessing 421 


I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 4. 

Greeting 425 


The Appointment of Officers of the Church 425 

On Dealing with False Teachers 426 

On his Relations with those under his Care 426 

The inspiring Motive 426 

Directions as to his Teaching 4 2 7 

III. CONCLUSION. Chap. 3. 12 15. 

Farewell Messages, and Blessing 427 



OF THE NEW REVELATION. Chaps, i. i 6. 20. 

His Superiority to Angels 431 

His Superiority to Moses and Joshua 433 

His Superiority to Aaron 435 

The Superiority of the Christian's Position 436 

7. 1-8. 13. 

Parallel with the Priesthood of Melchizedek 437 

Superior to the Levitical Priesthood 439 




Chaps. 9. i 10. 18. PAGE 

As regards its Sanctuary 440 

As regards its Power to purify 440 

As regards its High Priest 441 

As regards its Sacrifices 441 


TEACHING. Chap. 10. 19 39 442 

V. HEROES OF FAITH. Chaps, n. i la. 13. 

The Power of their Faith 444 

The Encouragement of their Endurance 446 

The Purpose of Discipline 446 

VI. CONCLUSION. Chaps. ia. 14 13. 25. 

Exhortations 447 

Warnings 447 

Certain Christian Virtues 448 

Loyalty to Christ and the Leaders in the Church 448 

Final Requests, Messages, and Blessing 448 

(a). FROfl PETER. I. 

I. INTRODUCTION. Chap. i. i 2. 

Greeting 453 

II. THE CHRISTIAN'S HOPE OF SALVATION. Chap. i. 312 . . . 453 
III. THE. CHRISTIAN'S CHARACTER. Chaps, i. 13 a. 10. 

Holiness of Life 454 

Brotherly Love 454 

Innocence 455 

Consecration 455 

TIMES. Chaps, a. n 4. 19. 

The Necessity of setting a good Example 455 

Submission to the Civil Authorities 455 

The Duty of Servants 456 

The Relations between Husbands and Wives 456 

Christian Sympathy and Forbearance 456 

Endurance after the Example of Christ 457 

Renunciation of the Heathen Life 457 

Self control, Love and Service 45^ 

The Ordeal of Suffering 458 

V. CONCLUSION. Chap. 5. i 14. 

Special Exhortations 458 

General Exhortations 459 

Messages and Blessing ....... f . ........ 459 




Greeting 463 

Christian Privileges and Christian Life 463 


CHRIST. Chap. i. 12 21 464 


LIFE. Chap. 2. i 22 464 

Chap. 3. i 1 8. 

Long-delayed but certain 466 

" The Day of the Lord " 466 

The needful Preparation 466 




Greeting 471 


The Object of the Letter 471 

The false Teachers and their certain Doom 47 1 

A Christian's Altitude towards these Teachers 472 



(a). FROfl JOHN. I. 

I. THE IMMORTAL LIFE. Chaps, i. i a. 17. 

Manifested in Christ . , 477 

Lived in the Light 477 


The Anti-Christs 478 

The Christian's Consecration 479 

3. i 24. 

The Father's Love 479 

The Children's Lives 479 

Love of " The Brethren " 480 


The Test of Inspiration 481 

V. LOVE OF GOD AND LOVE OF MAN. Chap. 4. 7 21 481 




Faith ........................ 482 

The Three-fold Testimony ................ 482 

Confidence ...................... 482 

(6). FROn JOHN. II. 
(f). FROn JOHN III. 


I. MESSAGES TO THE SEVEN CHURCHES. Chaps, i. 4 3. 22 . . 497 

II. THE VISION OF THE SEVEN SEALS. Chaps. 4. i 8. i . . .501 


II. 19 ..................... 506 


i4. 20 ............. ......... 510 

V. THE VISION OF THE SEVEN CURSES. Chaps. i5. i 16. 21 . . 513 


20. 15 ...................... 515 

VII. THE NEW CREATION. Chaps, ai. i 22. 5 ........ 520 

VIII. CONCLUSION. Chap. 22. 6 21 .............. 522 






THAN ss A.D. 

THIS gospel contains " the earliest and the simplest picture 
of the ministry of Jesus," but tells nothing of his birth or early 
life. It appears to be the work of the John Mark who is men- 
tioned more than once in the New Testament, and to have been 
compiled from information gathered from the Apostle Peter 
(whose convert Mark is supposed to have been), as well as 
from other sources, both written and oral. Of these sources 
it is plain that the compilers of ' The Gospels according to 
St. Matthew and St. Luke ' also availed themselves, as well 
as, in all probability, of a draft of this gospel. It is evident 
from the writer's habit of translating Aramaic words, and 
using Latin expressions, that his Life of Jesus was intended for 
readers of the Western World ; a view confirmed by many 
interesting traditions of the Western Church. From the 
absence of much of the Teaching of Jesus given in ' The 
Gospels according to St. Matthew and St. Luke,' it has been 
inferred that this was not available in a connected form for 
the compiler of the present gospel. 


The beginning of the Good News about Jesus Christ. i 1 

It is said in the Prophet Isaiah 2 

The Baptist 

and his ' Behold ! I send my Messenger before thy face ; 
Message. j_j e shall prepare thy way.' 

'The voice of one crying- aloud in the Wilderness : 3 
" Make ready the way of the Lord, 
Make his paths straight.'" 

And in fulfilment of this, John the Baptizer appeared in the 4 
Wilderness, proclaiming a baptism upon repentance, for the 
forgiveness of sins. The whole of Judaea, as well as all the 5 
inhabitants of Jerusalem, went out to him ; and they were 
baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. 
John was clad in clothing of camels' hair, with a belt of leather 6 
round his waist, and lived on locusts and wild honey ; and he 7 

"There is coming after me one more powerful than I, and 
I am not fit even to stoop down and unfasten his sandals. I 8 
have baptized you with water, but he will baptize you with 
the Holy Spirit." 

The Now about that time Jesus came from Naza- 9 

Baptism or reth in Galilee, and was baptized by John in the 

jesus. Jordan. And just as he was coming up out of 10 
the water, he saw the heavens rent apart, and the Spirit, like 
a dove, descending upon him, and from the heavens came n 
a voice 

"Thou art my Son, the Beloved ; in thee I delight." 

The Immediately afterwards the Spirit drove Jesus 12 

Temptation out into the Wilderness ; and he was there in the 13 

of Jesus. Wilderness forty days, tempted by Satan, and 
among the wild beasts, while the angels ministered to him. 

Ps. 2. 2. 2-3 Mai. 3. i ; Isa. 40. 3. 6 2 Kings i. 8. 1 Ps. 118. 26. " Ps. a.?; 
Isa. 42. i. 

MARK, 1. 


Jesus begins After John had been committed to prison, Jesus 14 
his work. we nt to Galilee, proclaiming the Good News of 


" The time has come, and the Kingdom of God is at hand ; 15 

repent, and believe the Good News." 

The first As Jesus was going along the shore of the 16 
Disciples. Sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and his brother 

Andrew casting a net in the Sea, for they were fishermen. 

"Come and follow me," Jesus said, "and I will set you to 17 

fish for men." 

They left their nets at once, and followed him. Going 18, 

on a little further, he saw James, Zebediah's son, and his 

brother John, who also were in their boat mending the nets. 

Jesus at once called them, and they left their father Zebediah 20 

in the boat with the crew, and went after him. 

Cure or they walked into Capernaum. On 21 

a possessed the next Sabbath Jesus went into the Synagogue 

Man. an( j began to teach. The people were amazed 22 
at his teaching, for he taught them like one who had authority, 
and not like the Teachers of the Law. Now there was in their 23 
Synagogue at the time a man under the power of a foul 
spirit, who called out : 

"What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have 24 
you come to destroy us ? I know who you are the Holy 
One of God ! " 
But Jesus rebuked the spirit : 25 

" Be silent ! come out from him." 

The foul spirit threw the man into a fit, and with a loud 26 
cry came out from him. And they were all so amazed that 27 
they kept asking : 

"What is this? Strange teaching indeed ! He gives his 
commands with authority even to the foul spirits, and they 
obey him ! " 

And the fame of Jesus spread at once in all directions, through 28 
the whole neighbourhood of Galilee. 

Cure As soon as they had come out from the Syna- 29 

M h P r"*n r i*w & ue > tne y wen * with James and John, into 
and of'many' the house of Simon and Andrew. Now Simon's 30 

others. mother-in-law was lying ill with fever, and they 
at once told Jesus about her. Jesus went up to her and, 31 
grasping her hand, raised her up ; the fever left her, and she 
began to wait upon them. 

In the evening, after sunset, the people brought to Jesus 32 

W Pan. a. 44. 2 Ps. 16, 19, 

MARK 12. 7 

all who were ill or possessed by demons ; and the whole city 33 
was gathered round the door. Jesus cured many who were 34 
ill with various diseases, and drove out many demons, and 
would not permit them to speak, because they knew him to 
be the Christ. 

jesus retires In the morning, long before daylight, Jesus 35 
for prayer, rose and went out, and, going to a lonely spot, 
there began to pray. But Simon and his companions has- 36 
tened after him ; and, when they found him, they exclaimed : 37 

" Every one is looking for you ! " 
But Jesus said to them : 38 

" Let us go somewhere else, into the country towns near, 
that I may make my proclamation in them also ; for that was 
why I came." 

And he went about making his proclamation in their Syna- 39 
gogues all through Galilee, and driving out the demons. 

cure One day a leper came to Jesus and, falling on 40 

of a. Leper, his knees, begged him for help. 

" If only you are willing," he said, " you are able to make 
me clean." 

Moved with compassion, Jesus stretched out his hand and 41 
touched him, saying as he did so : 

" I am willing ; become clean." 

Instantly the leprosy left the man, and he became clean ; and 42, 
then Jesus, after sternly warning him, immediately sent him 
away, and said to him : 44 

" Be careful not to say anything to any one ; but go and 
show yourself to the Priest, and make the offerings for your 
cleansing directed by Moses, as evidence of your cure." 
The man, however, went away, and began to speak about it 45 
publicly, and to spread the story so widely, that Jesus could 
no longer go openly into a town, but stayed outside in lonely 
places ; and people came to him from every direction. 

Cure of Some days later, when Jesus came back to i 
a paralyzed Capernaum, the news spread that he was in a 

Man. house there ; and so many people collected 2 
together, that after a while there was no room for them even 
round the door ; and he began to tell them his Message. 
And some people came bringing to him a paralyzed man, who 3 
was being carried by four bearers. Being, however, unable 4 
to get him near to Jesus, owing to the crowd, they removed 
the roofing below which Jesus was ; and, when they had made 
an opening, they let down' the mat on which the paralyzed man 
was lying. When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the man : 5 

' Child, your sins are forgiven." 

44 Lev. 13. 49. 

8 MARK, 2. 

But some of the Teachers of the Law who were sitting there 6 
were debating in their minds : 

" Why does this man speak like this ? He is blaspheming ! 7 
Who can forgive sins except God ? " 

Jesus, at once intuitively aware that they were debating with 8 
themselves in this way, said to them : 

" Why are you debating in your minds about this ? Which 9 
is easier ? to say to the paralyzed man ' Your sins are for- 
given ' ? or to say ' Get up, and take up your mat, and walk 
about ' ? But that you may know that the Son of Man has 10 
power to forgive sins on earth " here he said to the para- 
lyzed man "To you I say, Get up, take up your mat, and n 
return to your home." 

The man got up, and immediately took up his mat, and went 12 
out before them all ; at which they were amazed, and, as they 
praised God, they said : 

" We have never seen anything like this ! " 

can of Jesus went out again to the Sea ; and 13 

Levi. a n the people came to him, and he taught 
them. As he went along, he saw Levi, the son of 14 

Alphaeus, sitting in the tax-office, and said to him : ' ' Follow me. " 
Levi got up and followed him. 

And later on he was in his house at table, and a number of 15 
tax-gatherers and outcasts took their places at table with Jesus 
and his disciples ; for many of them were following him. When 16 
the Teachers of the Law belonging to the party of the Pharisees 
saw that he was eating in the company of such people, they 
said to his disciples : 

" He is eating in the company of tax-gatherers and out- 
casts ! " 
Hearing this, Jesus said : 17 

" It is not those who are in health that need a doctor, but 
those who are ill. I did not come to call the religious, but 
the outcast." 

Now John's disciples and the Pharisees were 18 
T b*amd' for* keeping a fast, and people came and asked Jesus : 
not observing "Why is it that John's disciples and the 

the Law. disciples of the Pharisees fast, while yours do 

. -, *) * 

not ? " 

Jesus answered : 19 

"Can the bridegroom's friends fast, while the bridegroom 
is with them ? As long as they have the bridegroom with 
them, they cannot fast. But the days will come, when the 20 
bridegroom will He parted from them, and they will fast 
then when that day comes. No man ever sews a piece of 21 
unshrunk cloth on an old garment ; if he does, the patch tears 
away from it the new from the old and a worse rent is 
w Dan. 7. 13. 

MARK, 23. 9 

made. And no man ever puts new wine into old wine-skins ; 22 
if he does, the wine will burst the skins, and both the wine and 
the skins are lost. But new wine is put into fresh skins." 

One Sabbath, as Jesus was walking through the corn- 23 
fields, his disciples began to pick the ears of wheat as they 
went along. 

" Look ! " the Pharisees said to him, " why are they doing 24 
what is not allowed on the Sabbath ? " 

" Have you never read," answered Jesus, " what David did 25 
when he was in want and hungry, he and his companions 
how he went into the House of God, in the time of Abiathar 26 
the High Priest, and ate 'the consecrated bread,' which only 
the priests are allowed to eat, and gave some to his comrades 
as well ? " 
Then Jesus added : 27 

"The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the 
Sabbath ; so the Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath." 28 

On another occasion Jesus went into a Syna- i 
a. Ma. with gog 116 . where there was a man whose hand was 

a withered withered. And they watched Jesus closely, to 2 

Hand. see jf jj e , wou id cure the man on the Sabbath, so 
that they might have a charge to bring against him. 

"Stand out in the middle," Jesus said to the man with 3 
the withered hand ; and to the people he said : 4 

"Is it allowable to do good on the Sabbath or harm? to 
save a life, or destroy it ? " 

As they remained silent, Jesus looked round at them in anger, 5 
grieving at the hardness of their hearts, and said to the man : 

" Stretch out your hand." 

The man stretched it out ; and his hand had become 
sound. Immediately on leaving the Synagogue, the 6 

Pharisees and the Herodians united in laying a plot against 
Jesus, to put him to death. 

cures by Then Jesus went away with his disciples to 7 
*" the Sea, followed by a great number of people 

Lake-side. f rom G a i;i ee . And a great number, hearing of 
all that he was doing, came to him from Judaea, from 8 
Jerusalem, from Edom, from beyond the Jordan, and from 
the country round Tyre and Sidon. So Jesus told his dis- g 
ciples to keep a small boat close by, for fear the crowd should 
crush him. For he had cured many of them, and so people 10 
kept crowding upon him, that all who were afflicted might 
touch him. The foul spirits, too, whenever they caught sight n 
of him, flung themselves down before him, and screamed out : 

"You are the Son of God " ! 
But he repeatedly warned them not to make him known. 12 

i Sam. 21. 6. " Ps. 2. 7. 


10 MARK, 

The twelve And Jesus made his way up the hill, and called 13 
Apostles, those whom he wished; and they went to him. 
And he appointed twelve whom he also named ' Apostles ' 14 
that they might be with him, and that he might send them 
out as his Messengers, to preach, and with power to drive 15 
out demons. So he appointed the Twelve Peter (which was 16 
the name that Jesus gave to Simon), James, the son of Zebediah, 17 
and his brother John (to whom he gave the name of Boanerges, 
which means the Thunderers), Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, 18 
Matthew, Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, 
Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscaridt, the man that betrayed 19 

Jesus went into a house ; and again a crowd 20 
and his collected, so that they were not able even to eat 
Relations, their food. When his relations heard of it, they 21 
went to take charge of him, for they said that he was out of 

.his mind. And the Teachers of the Law, who 22 

JOHUS accused i r i -j 

of Acting had come down from Jerusalem, said : 
by the Help "He has Baal-zebub in him, and he drives 

of Satan. ^ & <j emons out j,y t he h e \p o f Baal-zebub, their 
So Jesus called them to him, and answered them in parables : 23 

"How can Satan drive out Satan? When a kingdom is 24 
divided against itself, it cannot last ; and when a household is 25 
divided against itself, it will not be able to last. So, if Satan 26 
is in revolt against himself and is divided, he cannot last 
his end has come ! No man who has got into a strong man's 27 
house can carry off his goods, without first securing him ; and 
not till then will he plunder his house. I tell you that 28 

men will be forgiven everything their sins, and all the slanders 
that they utter ; but whpever slanders the Holy Spirit remains 29 
unforgiven to the end ; he has to answer for an enduring sin." 
This was said in reply to the charge that he had a foul spirit 30 
in him. 

The true And hife mother and his brothers came, and 31 
Brotherhood, stood outside, and sent to ask him to come to 
them. There was a crowd sitting round Jesus, and some of 32 
them said to him : 

" Look, your mother and your brothers are outside, asking 
for you." 

"Who is my mother? and my brothers ?" was his reply. 33 
Then he looked around on the people sitting in a circle round 34 
him, and said : 

" Here are my mother and my brothers ! Whoever does 35 
the will of God is my brother and sister and mother." 

Parable Jesus again began to teach by the Sea ; and, i ^ 
of the sower. as an i mmense crowd was gathering round 
him, he got into a boat, and sat in it on the Sea, while all 

MARK, 4. 11 

the people were on the shore at the water's edge. Then 2 
he taught them many truths in parables ; and in the course 
of his teaching he said to them : 

" Listen ! The sower went out to sow ; and presently, as he 3, 4 
was sowing, some of the seed fell along the path ; and the 
birds came, and ate it up. Some fell on rocky ground, where 5 
it had not much soil, and, having no depth of soil, sprang up 
at once ; but, when the sun rose, it was scorched, and, having no 6 
root, withered away. Some of the seed fell among brambles ; 7 
but the brambles shot up and completely choked it, and it 
yielded no return. Some fell into good soil, and, shooting up 8 
and growing, yielded a return, amounting to thirty, sixty, and 
even a hundred fold." 
And Jesus said : 9 

" Let any one who has ears to hear with hear." 

Afterwards, when he was alone, his followers and the 10 
Twelve asked him about his parables ; and he said : 1 1 

"To you the hidden truth of the Kingdom of God has been 
imparted ; but to those who are outside it all teaching takes 
the form of parables, that ' 

' Though they have eyes, they may see without perceiving ; 12 

And though they have ears, they may hear without understanding; 
Lest some day they should turn and be forgiven.' 

You do not know the meaning of this parable ! " he went 13 
on; "then how will you understand all the other para- 
bles? The sower sows the Message. The people meant 14, i 
by the seed that falls along the path are these where the Message 
is sown, but, as soon as they have heard it, Satan immediately 
comes and carries away the Message that has been sown in 
them. So, too, those meant by the seed sown on the rocky 16 
places are the people who, when they have heard the Mes- 
sage, at once accept it joyfully ; but, as they have no root, they 17 
stand only for a short time ; and so, when trouble or persecu- 
tion arises on account of the Message, they fall away at once. 
Those meant by the seed sown among the brambles are 18 
different ; they are the people who hear the Message, but 19 
the cares of life, and the glamour of wealth, and cravings 
for many other things come in and completely choke the 
Message, so that it gives no return. But the people meant 20 
by the seed sown on the good ground are those who hear 
the Message, and welcome it, and yield a return, thirty, 
sixty, and even a hundred fold. " 
Lesson from And Jesus said to them : 21 

a. Lamp. " Is a lamp brought to be put under the corn- 
measure or under the couch, instead of being put on the lamp- 
stand? Nothing is hidden unless it is some day to come v to 22 
light, nor was anything ever kept hidden but that it should 

12 Isa. 6. 10. 

12 MARK, 4-5. 

some day come into the light of day. Let all who have 23 

ears to hear with hear. Take care what you listen to," said 24 
Jesus. "The measure you mete will be meted out to you, and 
more will be added for you. For, to those who have, more will 25 
be given ; while, from those who have nothing, even what they 
have will be taken away." 

Jesus also said : 26 

Parable o-f the J . . . __. , -. . . ... 

seed growing This is what the Kingdom of God is like 
unobserved, like a man who has scattered seed on the ground, 
and then sleeps by night and rises by day, while the seed is 27 
shooting up and growing he knows not how. The ground 28 
bears the crop of itself first the blade, then the ear, and then 
the full grain in the ear ; but, as soon as the crop is ready, 29 
immediately he ' puts in the sickle because harvest has come.' " 
Parable Jesus also said : 30 

oVthe " To what can we liken the Kingdom of God ? 31 

Mustard seed. or by what can we illustrate it? Perhaps by 
the growth of a mustard-seed. This seed, when sown in the 
ground, though it is smaller than all other seeds, yet, when 32 
sown, shoots up, and becomes larger than any other herb, and 
puts out great branches, so that even ' the wild birds can roost 
in its shelter.'" 

With many such parables Jesus used to speak to the people 33 
of his Message, as far as they were able to receive it ; and to 34 
them he never used to speak except in parables ; but in 
private to his own disciples he explained everything. 

jus stniM In the evening of the same day, Jesus said to 35 

a storm, them : 

' ' Let us go across. " 

So, leaving the crowd behind, they took him with them, just 36 
as he was, in the boat ; and there were other boats with him. 
A violent squall came on, and the waves kept dashing into the 37 
boat, so that the boat was actually filling. Jesus was in the 38 
stern asleep upon the cushion ; and the disciples roused him 
and cried : 

" Teacher ! is it nothing to you that we are lost ? " 
Jesus rose and rebuked the wind, and said to the sea : 39 
"Hush! Be still !" 
Then the wind dropped, and a great calm followed. 

"Why are you so timid?" he exclaimed. "Have you 40 
no faith yet ? " 
But they were struck with great awe, and said to one another: 41 

" Who can this be that even the wind and the sea obey - 
him ? " 

cur* or a And they came to the other side of the Sea i 

Madman, the country of the Gerasenes ; and, as soon as 2 
Jesus had got out of the boat, he met a man coming out of 

39 Joel 3. 13. 88 Dan. 4. ia. 

MARK, 5. 13 

the tombs, who was under the power of a foul spirit, and 3 
who made his home in the tombs. No one had ever been able to 
secure him, even with a chain ; for, though he had many times 4 
been left secured with fetters and chains, he had snapped the 
chains and broken the fetters to pieces, and no one could master 
him. Night and day alike, he was continually shrieking in 5 
the tombs and among the hills, and cutting himself with stones. 
Catching sight of Jesus from a distance, he ran and bowed to 6 
the ground before him, shrieking out in a loud voice : 7 

"What do you want with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High 
God ? For God's sake do not torment me ! " 
For Jesus had said : 8 

" Come out from the man, you foul spirit." 9 

And he asked him : " What is your name ? " 

"My name," he said, "is Legion, for there are many of 
us ; " and he begged Jesus again and again not to send them 10 
away out of that country. There was a large drove of 1 1 

Jigs close by, feeding on the hill-side. And the spirits begged 12 
esus : 

" Send us into the pigs, that we may take possession of 

Jesus gave them leave. They came out, and entered into 13 
the pigs ; and the drove about two thousand in number 
rushed down the steep slope into the Sea and were drowned in 
the Sea. On this the men who tended them ran away, 14 

and carried the news to the town, and to the country round ; 
and the people went to see what had happened. When they 15 
came to Jesus, they found the possessed man sitting there, 
clothed and in his right mind the very man who had had the 
' Legion ' in him-^and they were awe-struck. Then those who 16 
had seen it related to them all that had happened to the 
possessed man, as well as about the pigs ; upon which they 17 
began to beg Jesus to leave their neighbourhood. As 18 

Jesus was getting into the boat, the possessed man begged him 
to let him stay with him. But Jesus refused. 19 

"Go back to your home, to your own people," he said, " and 
tell them of all that the Lord has done for you, and how he 
took pity on you. " 

So the man went, and began to proclaim in the district of 20 
the Ten Towns all that Jesus had done for him ; and every one 
was amazed. 

By the time Jesus had re-crossed in the boat to 21 
of R the' ne the opposite shore, a great number of people had 
Daughter of gathered to meet him, and were standing by the 

jaeirus. g ea ^nd one o f tne Presidents of the 22 

Synagogue, whose name was Jaeirus, came and, as soon as he 
saw Jesus, threw himself at his feet with repeated entreaties. 23 
" My little daughter," he said, " is at the point of death ; I 

14 MARK, 6. 

beg you to come and place your hands on her, that her life 

may be spared. " 

So Jesus went with him. A great number of people 24 

Cure of followed Jesus, and kept pressing round him. 
an afflicted Meanwhile a woman who for twelve years had 25 
woman. suffered from haemorrhage, and undergone 26 
much at the hands of many doctors, (spending all she had 
without obtaining any relief, but, on the contrary, growing 27 
worse), heard about Jesus, came behind in the crowd, and 
touched his cloak. 

"If I can only touch his clothes," she said, "I shall get 28 
well ! " 

At once the mischief was stopped, and she felt in herself that 29 
she was cured of her complaint. Jesus at once became 30 
aware of the power that had gone out from him, and, turning 
round in the crowd, he said : 

" Who touched my clothes ? " 

"You see the people pressing round you," exclaimed his 31 
disciples, " and yet you say ' Who touched me ? ' " 
But Jesus looked about to see who had done it. Then the 32, 
woman, in fear and trembling, knowing what had happened 
to her, came and threw herself down before him, and told him 
the whole truth. 

" Daughter," he said, "your faith has delivered you. Go, 34 
.and peace be with you ; be free from your complaint." 

Before he had finished speaking, some people from the 35 
house of the President of the Synagogue came and said : 

"Your daughter is dead! Why should you trouble the 
Teacher further ? " 

But Jesus, overhearing what they were saying, said to the 36 
President of the Synagogue : 

" Do not be afraid ; only have faith." 

And he allowed no one to accompany him, except Peter, 37 
James, and John, the brother of James. Presently they 38 
reached the President's house, where Jesus saw a scene of 
confusion people weeping and wailing incessantly. 

"Why this confusion and weeping?" he said on entering. 39 
"The little child is not dead ; she is asleep." 

They began to laugh at him ; but he sent them all out, and 40 
then, with the child's father and mother and his companions, 
went into the room where she was lying. Taking her hand, 41 
Jesus said to her : 

" Taleitha, koum ! " which means ' Little girl, I am speak- 
ing to you Rise ! ' 

The little girl stood up at once, and began to walk about ; 42 
tor ^lif was twelve years old. And, as soon as they saw it, they 
were overwhelmed^ with amazement ; but Jesus repeatedly 43 
i autioned them not to let any one know of it, and told them to 
give her something to eat. 

, 6. 15 

that place, Jesus, followed by i 
teaches at his disciples, went to his own part of the 
Nazareth, country. When the Sabbath came, he 2 

began to teach in the Synagogue ; and the people, as they 
listened, were deeply impressed. 

"Where did he get this?" they said, "and what is this 
wisdom that has been given him ? and these miracles which 
he is doing ? Is not he the carpenter, the son of Mary, and 3 
the brother of James, and Joses, and Judas, and Simon ? And 
are not his sisters, too, living here among us ? " 
This proved a hindrance to their believing in him ; on which 4 
Jesus said : 

"A Prophet is not without honour, except in his own country, 
and among his own relations, and in his own home." 
And he could not work any miracle there, beyond placing 5 
his hands upon a few infirm persons, and curing them ; 
and he wondered at the want of faith shown by the people. 6 

The Mission Jesus went round the villages, one after another, 
of the twelve teaching. He called the Twelve to him, 7 

Apostles. ant ] began to send them out as his Messengers, 
two and two, and gave them authority over foul spirits. He 8 
instructed them to take nothing but a staff for the journey 
not even bread, or a bag, or pence in their purse ; but they 9 
were to wear sandals, and not to put on a second coat. 

"Whenever you go to stay at a house," he said, "remain 10 
there till you leave that place ; and if a place does not wel- 1 1 
come you, or listen to you, as you go out of it shake off the 
dust that is on the soles of your feet, as a protest against them." 
So they set out, and proclaimed the need of repentance. 12 
They drove out many demons, and anointed with oil many 13 
who were infirm, and cured them. 

The Death ot Now King Herod heard of Jesus ; for his name 14 
the Baptist, had become well known. People were saying 
"John the Baptizer must have risen from the dead, and 
that is why these miraculous powers are active in him." 
Others again said "He is Elijah," and others "He is a 15 
Propliet, like one of the great Prophets. " But when Herod 16 
heard of him, he said "The man whom I beheaded John- 
he must be risen ! " 

For Herod himself had sent and arrested John, and put him 17 
in prison, in chains, to please Herodias, the wife of his brother 
Philip, because Herod had married her. For John had said 18 
to Herod 'You have no right to be living with your brother's 
wife.' So Herodias was incensed against John, and wanted 19 
to put him to death, but was unable to do so, because Herod 20 
stood in fear of John, knowing him to be an upright and holy 
man, and protected him. He had listened to John, but still 

16 MARK, 6. 

remained much perplexed, and yet he found pleasure in listen- 
ing to him. A suitable opportunity, however, occurred 21 
when Herod, on his birthday, gave a dinner to his high offi- 
cials, and his generals, and the foremost men in Galilee. And 22 
when his daughter that is, the daughter of Herodias came 
in and danced, she delighted Herod and those who were dining 
with him. ' Ask me for whatever you like,' the King said to 
the girl, ' and I will give it to you ' ; and he swore to her that 23 
he would give her whatever she asked him up to half his 
kingdom. The girl went out, and said to her mother ' What 
must I ask for ? ' ' The head of John the Baptizer,' answered 
her mother. So she went in as quickly as possible to the King, 25 
and made her request. 'I want you,' she said, 'to give me 
at once, on a dish, the head of John the Baptist. ' The King was 26 
much distressed ; yet, on account of his oath and of the guests 
at his table, he did not like to refuse her. He immediately 27 
despatched one of his bodyguard, with orders to bring John's 
head. The man went and beheaded John in the prison, and, 28 
bringing his head on a dish, gave it to the girl, and the girl 
gave it to her mother. When John's disciples heard of it, 29 
they came and took his body away, and laid it in a tomb. 

The When the Apostles came back to Jesus, they 30 

Return of the told him all that they had done and all that they 

Apostles. had taught. 

" Come by yourselves privately to some lonely spot," he said, 31 
" and rest for a while " for there were so many people coining 
and going that they had not time even to eat. So they 32 
set off privately in their boat for a lonely spot. And many 33 
people saw them going, and recognised them, and from all the 
towns they flocked together to the place on foot, and got there 
before them. On getting out of the boat, Jesus saw a 34 

great crowd, and his heart was moved at the sight of them, be- 
cause they were ' like sheep without a shepherd ' ; and he began 

to teach them many things. When it grew 35 

Josus feeds , ...... J , t j i 

flve thousand I ate > ' 1IS disciples came up to him, and said : 
by the Lake "This is a lonely spot, and it is already late. 

of Gniiioe. en j t ] ie p eO pi e away, so that they may go to 36 
the farms and villages around and buy themselves something 
to eat." 

But Jesus answered : " It is for you to give them something 37 
to eat." 

"Are we to go and buy twenty pounds' worth of bread,' 
they asked, " to give them to eat ? " 

" How many loaves have you?" he asked ; "go, and see." 38 
When they had found out, they told him : " Five, and two 
tisliL-s." Jesus directed them to make all the people take their 39 
84 Num. 27. 17. 

MARK, 67. 17 

seats on the green grass, in parties ; and they sat down 40 
in groups in hundreds, and in fifties. Taking the five 41 
loaves and the two fishes, Jesus looked up to Heaven, and 
said the blessing ; he broke the loaves into pieces, and gave 
them to his disciples for them to serve out to the people, and 
he divided the two fishes also among them all. Every one 42 
had sufficient to eat ; and they picked up enough broken 43 
pieces to fill twelve baskets, as well as some of the fish. The 44 
men who ate the bread were five thousand in number. 

Immediately afterwards Jesus made his dis- 45 

walks on the ciples get into the boat, and cross over in advance, 
water. j n t ne direction of Bethsaida, while he himself was 
dismissing the crowd. After he had taken leave of the people, 46 
he went away up the hill to pray. When evening fell, the 47 
boat was out in the middle of the Sea, and Jesus on the shore 
alone. Seeing them labouring at the oars for the wind was 48 
against them about three hours after midnight Jesus came 
towards them, walking on the water, intending to join them. 
But, when they saw him walking on the water, they thought 49 
it was a ghost, and cried out ; for all of them saw him, and 50 
were terrified. But Jesus at once spoke to them. 

" Courage ! " he said, " it is I ; do not be afraid ! " 
Then he got into the boat with them, and the wind dropped. 51 
The disciples were utterly amazed, for they had not under- 52 
stood about the loaves, their minds being slow to learn. 

Jesus at When they had crossed over, they landed at 53 

Gennesaret. Gennesaret, and moored the boat. But they had 54 
no sooner left her than the people, recognizing Jesus, hurried 55 
over the whole country-side, and began to carry about upon 
mats those who were ill, wherever they heard he was. So 56 
wherever he went to villages, or towns, or farms they would 
lay their sick in the market-places, begging him to let them 
touch only the tassel of his cloak; and all who touched 
were made well. 

One day the Pharisees and some of the Teachers 1 
Th ti l med le8 of the Law who had come from Jerusalem gathered 
for neglecting round Jesus. They had noticed that some of his 2 

ceremonies, disciples ate their food with their hands 'defiled,' 
by which they meant unwashed. (For the Pharisees, and 3 
indeed all strict Jews, will not eat without first scrupulously 
washing their hands, holding in this to the traditions of their 
ancestors. When they come from market, they will not eat 4 
without first sprinkling themselves ; and there are many other 
customs which they have inherited and hold to, such as the 
ceremonial washing of cups, and jugs, and copper pans). So 5 
the Pharisees and the Teachers of the Law asked Jesus this 

Num. 15. 38. 

18 MARK, 7. 

" How is it that your disciples do not follow the traditions 
of our ancestors, but eat their food with defiled hands ? " 
His answer was : 

" It was well said by Isaiah when he prophesied about you 
hypocrites in the words 

' This is a people that honour me with their lips, 
While their hearts are far removed from me ; 
But vainly do they worship me, 

For they teach but the precepts of men.' 

You neglect God's commandments and hold to the traditions 
of men. Wisely do you set aside God's commandments," he ex- 
claimed, "to keep your own traditions ! For while Moses said 

' Honour thy father and thy mother,' 

* Let him who reviles his father or mother suffer death,' 
you say ' If a man says to his father or mother " Whatever of 
mine might have been of service to you is Korban " ' (which 
means 'Given to God') why, then you do not allow him to do 
anything further for his father or mother! In this way you 
nullify the words of God by your traditions, which you hand 
down ; and you do many similar things." 
Then Jesus called the people to him again, and said : 

"Listen to me, all of you, and mark my words. There is 
nothing external to a man, which by going into him can 
' defile ' him ; but the things that come out from a man are the 
things that defile him." 

When Jesus went indoors, away from the crowd, his disciples 
began questioning him about this saying. 

" What, do even you understand so little?" exclaimed Jesus. 
" Do not you see that there is nothing external to a man, which 
by going into a man, can ' defile ' him, because it does not pass 
into his heart, but into his stomach, and is afterwards got rid 
of?" in saying this Jesus pronounced all food 'clean.' 

" It is what comes out from a man," he added, "that defiles 
him, for it is from within, out of the hearts of men, that 
there come evil thoughts unchastity, theft, murder, adultery, 
greed, wickedness, deceit, lewdness, envy, slander, haughti- 
ness, folly ; all these wicked things come from within, and do 
defile a man." 

cure or * n living tnat place, Jesus went to the dis- 

syrinn Giri trict of Tyre and Sidon. And he went into 

near Tyre. a house, and did not wish anyone to know it, but 

could not escape notice. For a woman, whose little daughter 

had a foul spirit in her, heard of him immediately, and 

came and threw herself at his feet the woman was a foreigner, 

a native of Syrian Phoenicia and she begged him to drive the 

demon out of her daughter. 

-' Isa. 39. 13. 10 Exod. ao. ia ; ai. 17. 

MARK, 7-8. 19 

"Let the children be satisfied first," answered Jesus. 27 
" For it is not fair to take the children's food, and throw it to 

" Yes, Master," she replied ; "even the dogs under the table 28 
do feed on the children's crumbs." 

"For saying- that," he answered, "you may go. The 29 
demon has gone out of your daughter." 

The woman went home, and found the child lying on her bed, 30 
and the demon gone. 

Cupe On returning from the district of Tyre, Jesus 31 

or a dear went, by way of Sidon, to the Sea of Galilee, across 

Mute. the district of the Ten Towns. Some 32 

people brought to him a man who was deaf and almost 
dumb, and they begged Jesus to place his hand on him. 
Jesus took him aside from the crowd quietly, put his fingers 33 
into the man's ears, and touched his tongue with saliva. 
Then, looking up to Heaven, he sighed, and said to the man: 34 

" Ephphatha ! " which means ' Be opened.' 

The man's ears were opened, the string of his tongue was 35 
freed, and he began to talk plainly. Jesus insisted upon their 36 
not telling any one ; but the more he insisted, the more per- 
severingly they made it known, and a profound impression 37 
was made upon the people. 

"He has done everything well!" they exclaimed. "He 
makes even the deaf hear and the dumb speak ! " 

About that time, when there was again a great i 
Jesus feeds crowd of people who had nothing to eat, Jesus 

Tour thousand. ,. , . . r r. . t> > 

called his disciples to him, and said : 

" My heart is moved at the sight of all these people, for they 2 
have already been with me three days and they have nothing 
to eat ; and if I send them away to their homes hungry, they 3 
will break down on the way ; and some of them have come a 
long distance." 

" Where will it be possible," his disciples answered, "to get 4 
sufficient bread for these people in this lonely place ? " 

" How many loaves have you ? " he asked. 5 

"Seven," they answered. 

Jesus told the crowd to sit down upon the ground. Then he 6 
took the seven loaves, and, after saying the thanksgiving, 
broke them, and gave them to his disciples to serve out ; and 
they served them out to the crowd. They had also a few 7 
small fish ; and, after he had said the blessing, he told the 
disciples to serve out these as well. The people had sufficient 8 
to eat, and they picked up seven baskets full of the broken 
pieces that were left. There were about four thousand people. 9 
Then Jesus dismissed them. Immediately afterwards, 10 

getting into the boat with his disciples, Jesus went to the 
district of Dalmanutha. 

20 MARK, 8. 

warning Here the Pharisees came out, and began to 
against the argue with Tesus, asking: him for some sigfn from 

Teaching ,11 . *. !_ o- 1 j IT 

of the tne heavens, to test him. Sighing deeply, Jesus 

Pharisees, said : 

" Why does this generation ask for a sign ? I tell you, no 
sign shall be given it." 

So he left them to themselves, and, getting into the boat again, 
went away to the opposite shore. 

Now the disciples had forgotten to take any bread with them, 
one loaf being all that they had in the boat. So Jesus gave 
them this warning. 

"Take care," he said, "beware of the leaven of the Phari- 
sees and the leaven of Herod." 

They began talking to one another about their being short of 
bread. And, noticing this, Jesus said to them : 

"Why are you talking about your being short of bread? 
Do not you yet see or understand ? Are your minds still so slow 
of comprehension ? ' Though you have eyes, do you not see ? 
and though you have ears, do you not hear ? ' Do not you 
remember, when I broke up the five loaves for the five thou- 
sand, how many baskets of broken pieces you picked up ? " 

"Twelve," they said. 

" And when the seven for the four thousand, how many 
basketfuls of broken pieces did you pick up ? " 

" Seven," they said. 

" Do not you understand now ? " he repeated. 

They came to Bethsaida. There some 

of a U foMnd people brought a blind man to Jesus, and begged 
Man him to touch him. Taking the blind man's 
at Bethsaida. h anc i ( J es us led him to the outskirts of the 
village, and, when he had put saliva on the man's eyes, he 
placed his hands on him,- and asked him : " Do you see any- 
thing ? " The man looked up, and said : 

" I see the people, for, as they walk about, they look to me 
like trees." 

Then Jesus again placed his hands on the man's eyes ; and 
the man saw clearly, his sight was restored, and he saw every- 
thing with perfect distinctness. Jesus sent him to his home, 
and said : " Do not go even into the village." 

Afterwards Jesus and his disciples went into the 
n villages round Caesarea Philippi ; and on the 
of way he asked his disciples this question 
The Christ. , Who do p e0 pi e say that i am ? 

"John the Baptist," they answered, " but others say Elijah, 
while others say one of the Prophets." 

" But you, he asked, " who do you say that I am ? " 

W Jcr. $. ai. 

MARK, 89. 21 

To this Peter replied : 

"You are the Christ." 

On which J esus charged them not to say this about him to any one. 30 
Jesus Then he began to teach them that the Son of 31 

foroteiis his Man must undergo much suffering, and that he 
t>ath. must be rejected by the Councillors, and the Chief 
Priests, and the Teachers of the Law, and be put to death, 
and rise again after three days. This statement he made 32 
openly. But Peter took Jesus aside, and began to rebuke him. 
Jesus, however, turning round and seeing his disciples, 33 
rebuked Peter. 

"Out of my sight, Satan ! " he exclaimed. " For you look 
at things, not as God does, but as man does." 

A can Calling the people and his disciples to him, 34 

to renounce JeSUS Said : 

Self. if any man wishes to walk in my steps, let 

him renounce self, take up his cross, and follow me. For 35 
whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, and whoever, for 
my sake and for the sake of the Good News, will lose his life 
shall save it. What good is it to a man to gain the whole 36 
world and forfeit his life ? For what could a man give that is 37 
of equal value with his life ? Whoever is ashamed of me and of 38 
my teaching, in this unfaithful and wicked generation, of him 
will the Son of Man be ashamed, when he comes in his 
Father's Glory with the holy angels. I tell you," he added, i 
' ' that some of those who are standing here will not know death, 
till they have seen the Kingdom of God come in power." 

The Six days later, Jesus took with him Peter, 2 

Traneura- James, and John, and led them up a high moun- 
tion. tarn alone by themselves. There his appearance 
was transformed before their eyes, and his clothes became 3 
of a more dazzling white than any bleacher in the world could 
make them. And Elijah appeared to them, in company 4 
with Moses ; and they were talking with Jesus. 

"Rabbi," said Peter, interposing, "it is good to be here; 5 
let us make three tents, one for you, one for Moses, and one 
for Elijah. " For he did not know what to say, because they 6 
were much afraid. Then a cloud came down and enveloped 7 
them ; and from the cloud there came a voice 

"This is my Son, the Beloved ; him you must hear." 
And suddenly, on looking round, they saw that there was now 8 
no one with them but Jesus alone. As they were going 9 

down the mountain-side, Jesus cautioned them not 
* Q " e " t . i ." to relate what they had seen to anyone, till after 
" the Son of Man should have risen again from the 
dead. They seized upon these words and discussed with one 10 
another what this ' rising from the dead ' meant 

Hos. 6. 2. 7 Ps. 2. 7 ; Isa. 42. i. 

22 MARK, Q. 

" How is it," they asked Jesus, " that our Teachers of the II 
Law say that Elijah has to come first ? " 

" Elijah does indeed come first," answered Jesus, "and re- 12 
establish everything ; and does not Scripture speak, with regard 
to the Son of Man, of his undergoing much suffering and being 
utterly despised? But I tell you that Elijah has come, and 13 
people have treated him just as they pleased, as Scripture says 
of him." 

When they came to the other disciples, they saw 14 
an epileptic a great crowd round them, and some Teachers of 

B y- the Law arguing with them. But, as soon as they 15 
saw Jesus, all the people, in great astonishment, ran up and 
greeted him. 

" What are you arguing about with them ? " Jesus asked. 16 

" Teacher," answered a man in the crowd, " I brought my 17 
son to see you, as he has a dumb spirit in him ; and, wherever 18 
it seizes him, it dashes him down ; he foams at theimouth and 
grinds his teeth, and he is pining away. I asked your disciples 
to drive the spirit out, but they failed." 

"O faithless generation !" exclaimed Jesus. "How long 19 
must I be with you ? how long must I have patience with 
you ? Bring the boy to me." 

They brought him to Jesus ; but no sooner did the boy see 20 
him than the spirit threw him into convulsions ; and he fell 
on the ground, and rolled about, foaming at the mouth. 

" How long has he been like this? " Jesus asked the boy's 21 

"From his childhood," he answered; "and it has often 22 
thrown him into fire and into water to put an end to his life ; 
but, if you can possibly do anything, take pity on us, and 
help us ! " 

"Why say 'possibly'?" Jesus replied. "Everything is 23 
possible for one who has faith." 
The hoy's father immediately cried out : 24 

" I have faith ; help my want of faith ! " 

But, when Jesus saw that a crowd' was quickly collecting, he 25 
rebuked the foul spirit : 

" Deaf and dumb spirit, it is I who command you. Come 
out from him and never enter him again." 

With a loud cry the spirit threw the boy into repeated convul- 26 
sions, and then came out from him. The boy looked like a 
corpse, so that most of them said that he was dead. But Jesus 27 
took his hand, and lifted him ; and he stood up. When Jesus 28 
had gone indoors, his disciples asked him privately : 

" Why could not we drive it out ? " 

" A spirit of this kind," he said, " can be driven out only by 29 

" Mai. 4. s-6. 

MARK, 9. 23 

Leaving that place, Jesus and his disciples went 30 
a. second t"ime, on their way through Galilee; but he did not 
foretells ' wish any one to know it, for he was instructing 31 
his Death. j-,j s disciples, and telling them 
"The Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of his 
fellow men, and they will put him to death, but, when he has 
been put to death, he will rise again after three days." 
But the disciples did not understand his meaning and were 32 
afraid to question him. 

Jesus They came to Capernaum. When Jesus 33 

teaches at had gone into the house, he asked them : 
Capernaum. " What were you discussing on the way ? " 

on But they were silent ; for on the way they had 34 

Humility. b een arguing with one another which was the 
greatest. Sitting down, Jesus called the Twelve and said : 35 

" If any one wishes to be first, he must be last of all, and 
servant of all." 

Then Jesus took a little child, and placed it in the middle of 36 
them. Folding it in his arms, he said to them : 

" Any one who, for the sake of my Name, welcomes even a 37 
little child like this is welcoming me, and any one who welcomes 
me is welcoming not me, but him who sent me as his Messenger. " 

On " Teacher," said John, " we saw a man driving 38 

Toleration, out demons by using your name, and we tried to 
prevent him, because he did not follow us." 

"None of you must prevent the man," answered Jesus, 39 
" for no one will use my name in working a miracle, and yet 
find it easy to speak evil of me. He who is not against 40 
us is for us. If any one gives you a cup of water be- 41 

cause you belong to Christ, I tell you, he shall assuredly not lose 
Against his reward. And, if any one puts a snare in 42 

hindering the way of one of these lowly ones who believe in 
others. me> }( w ould be far better for him if he had 
been thrown into the sea with a great millstone round his 
neck. If your hand proves a snare to you, cut it off. 43 

It would be better for you to enter the Life maimed, than to 
have both your hands and go into the Pit, into the inextinguish- 
able fire. If your foot proves a snare to you, cut it off. It 45 
would be better for you to enter the Life lame, than to have 
both your feet and be thrown into the Pit. If your eye proves 47 
a snare to you, tear it out. It would be better for you to enter 
the Kingdom of God with only one eye, than to have both 
eyes and be thrown into the Pit, where ' their worm does 48 
not die, and the fire is not put out.' For it is by fire that every 49 
one will be salted. Salt is good, but, if the salt should 50 

lose its saltness, what will you use to season it ? You must 
have salt in yourselves, and live at peace with one another," 

?1 Bos. 6. 2. Isa. 66. 24. 

24 MARK, 1O. 


A Question ^ n l eavm g that place, Jesus went into the dis- i 1( 
about trict of Judaea on the other side of the Jordan. 
Divorce. Crowds gathered about him again ; and again, as 

usual, he began teaching them. Presently some Phari- 2 

sees came up and, to test him, asked : 

" Has a husband the right to divorce his wife ? " 

" What direction did Moses give you ? " replied Jesus. 3 

" Moses," they said, " permitted a man to ' draw up in writ- 4 

ing a notice of separation and divorce his wife. ' " 

" It was owing to the hardness of your hearts," said Jesus, 5 

" that Moses gave you this direction ; but, at the beginning of 6 

the Creation, God ' made them male and female.' 

' For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother, 7, 8 
and the man and his wife shall become one ; ' 

so that they are no longer two, but one. What God himself, 9 
then, has yoked together man must not separate." 
When they were indoors, the disciples asked him again about 10 
this, and he said : 1 1 

" Any one who divorces his wife and marries another woman 
is guilty of adultery against his wife ; and, if the woman 12 
divorces her husband and marries another man, she is guilty 
of adultery." 

jesus blesses Some of the people were bringing little children 13 
little to Jesus, for him to touch them ; but the disciples 

Children, found fault with those who had brought them. 
When, however, Jesus saw this, he was indignant. 14 

' ' Let the little children come to me, " he said , " do not hinder 
them ; for it is to the childlike that the Kingdom of God 
belongs. I tell you, unless a man receives the Kingdom of 15 
God like a child, he will not enter it at all." 

Then he folded the children in his arms, and, placing his hands 16 
on them, gave them his blessing. 

The Re- And, as Jesus was resuming his journey, a man 17 
spons.bii.tios came running up to him, and threw himself on 

of wealth. n j s k nees before him. 

"Good Teacher," he asked, "what must I do to gain 
Immortal Life?" 

"Why do you call me good?" answered Jesus. " No one 18 
is good but God. You know the commandments 19 

' Do not kill. Do not commit adultery. Do not steal. Do 
not say what is false about others. Do not cheat. Honour 
thy father and thy mother.' " 

* Deut. 14. i. Gen. i. 37. 1 Gen. a. 34. ' Deut. 5. 1720. 

MARK, 1O. 25 

" Teacher," he replied, " I have observed all these from my 20 

Jesus looked at the man, and his heart went out to him, and he 21 
said : 

"There is still one thing wanting in you ; go and sell all 
that you have, and give to the poor, and you shall have wealth 
in Heaven ; then come and follow me." 

But the man's face clouded at these words, and he went away 22 
distressed, for he had great possessions. 

Then Jesus looked round, and said to his disciples : 23 

" How hard it will be for men of wealth to enter the Kingdom 
of God ! " 

The disciples were amazed at his words. But Jesus said 24 
again : 

"My children, how hard a thing it is to enter the 
Kingdom of God ! It is easier for a camel to get through 25 
a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of 

" Then who can be saved ? " they exclaimed in the greatest 26 
Jesus looked at them, and answered : 27 

"With men it is impossible, but not with God ; for every- 
thing is possible with God." 

"But we," began Peter, "we left everything and have 28 
followed you.' 

"I tell you," said Jesus, "there is no one who has left 29 
house, or brothers, or sisters, or mother, or father, or children, 
or land, on my account and on account of the Good News, 
who will not receive a hundred times as much, even now in the 30 
present houses, and brothers, and sisters, and mothers, and 
children, and land though not without persecutions, and, in 
the age that is coming, Immortal Life. But many who are 31 
first now will then be last, and the last will be first." 

Jesus > wnen th ev were on their way, going up 32 

a third time, to Jerusalem, Jesus was walking in front of the 
foretells Apostles, who were filled with misgivings ; while 
>eath " those who were following behind were alarmed. 
Gathering the Twelve round him once more, Jesus began to 
tell them what was about to happen to him. 

" Listen ! " he said. " We are going up to Jerusalem ; and 33 
there the Son of Man will be betrayed to the Chief Priests and 
the Teachers of the Law, and they will condemn him to death, 
and they will give him up to the Gentiles, who will mock him, 34 
spit upon him, and scourge him, and put him to death ; and 
after three days he will rise again." 

34 Hos. 6. 2. 

26 MARK, 1O. 

The Request James and John, the two sons of Zebediah, went 35 

of James to Jesus, and said : 

and John. " Teacher, we want you to do for us what- 
ever we ask." 

"What do you want me to do for you ?" he asked. 36 

" Grant us this," they answered, " to sit, one on your right, 37 
and the other on your left, when you come in glory. " 

"You do not know what you are asking," Jesus said to 38 
them. "Can you drink the cup that I am to drink? or 
receive the baptism that I am to receive ? " 

"Yes," they answered, "we can." 39 

"You shall indeed drink the cup that I am to drink," Jesus 
said, "and receive the baptism that I am to receive, but as to 40 
a seat at my right or at my left that is not mine to give, but 
it is for those for whom it has been prepared." 
The Dignity On hearing of this, the ten others were at first 41 
of service, very indignant about James and John. But 42 
Jesus called the ten to him, and said : 

"Those who are regarded as ruling among the Gentiles lord 
it over them, as you know, and their great men oppress 
them. But among you it is not so. No, whoever wants 43 
to become great among you must be your servant, and 
whoever wants to take the first place among you must be 44 
the servant of all ; for even the Son of Man came, not to be 45 
served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for 

Cure of They came to Jericho. When Jesus 46 

blind was going out of the town with his disciples and 
Bartimaeus. a large crowd, Bartimaeus, the son of Timaeus, 
a blind beggar, was sitting by the road-side. Hearing that it 47 
was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to call out : 

"Jesus, Son of David, take pity on me." 

Many of the people kept telling him to be quiet ; but the 48 
man continued to call out all the louder : 

" Son of David, take pity on me." 

Then Jesus stopped. " Call him," he said. 49 

So they called the blind man. 

"Courage!" they exclaimed. "Get up; he is calling 

The man threw off his cloak, sprang up, and came to 50 

" What do you want me to do for you ? " said Jes,us, address- 51 
ing him. 

"Rabboni," the blind man answered, "I want to recover 
my sight." 

" You may go," Jesus said ; "your faith has delivered you." 52 
Immediately he recovered his sight, and began to follow Jesus 
along the road. 

MARK, 11. 27 


jesus enters When they had almost reached Jerusalem, as far i 
Jerusalem, as Bcthphage and Bethany, near the Mount of 
Olives, Jesus sent on two of his disciples. 

" Go to the village facing you," he said ; "and, as soon as 2 
you get there, you will find a foal tethered, which no one 
has ever ridden ; untie it, and bring it. And, if any one says to 3 
you 'Why are you doing that?', say 'The Master wants it, 
and will be sure to send it back here at once.' " 
The two disciples went, and, finding a foal tethered outside a 4 
door in the street, they untied it. Some of the by-standers said 5 
to them : ' ' What are you doing, untying the foal ? " and the two 6 
disciples answered as Jesus had told them ; and they allowed 
them to go. Then they brought the foal to Jesus, and, when 7 ' 
they had laid their cloaks on it, he seated himself upon it. 
Many of the people spread their cloaks on the road, while 8 
some strewed boughs which they had cut from the fields ; 
and those who led the way, as well as those who followed, 9 
kept shouting : 

" ' God save him ! 

Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord ! ' 

Blessed is the coming Kingdom of our father David ! 10 

' God save him from on high ! ' " 

Jesus entered Jerusalem, and went into the Temple Courts ; n 
and, after looking round at everything, as it was already late, 
he went out to Bethany with the Twelve. 

The The next day, after they had left Bethany, Jesus 1 2 

fruitless became hungry; and, noticing a fig-tree at a 13 
Fi e Tree, distance in leaf, he went to it to see if by any 
chance he could find something on it ; but, on coming up to 
it, he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for 
figs. So, addressing the tree, he exclaimed : 14 

" May no man ever again eat of your fruit ! " 
And his disciples heard what he said. 

Jesus They came to Jerusalem. Jesus went 15 

in the into the Temple Courts, and began to drive out 
Temple, those who were buying and selling there. He 
overturned the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of 
the pigeon-dealers, and would not allow any one to carry any- 16 
thing across the Temple Courts. Then he began to teach. 17 

" Does not Scripture say," he asked, 

" ' My House shall be called a House of Prayer for all the 
nations ' ? 

But you have made it ' a den of robbers. ' " 

Now the Chief Priests and the Teachers of the Law heard this, 18 

Ps. 1 18. 25, 26. 10 Ps. 148. i. "Isa. 56. 7; Jer. 7. ii. 

28 MARK, 1112. 

and began to look for some way of putting Jesus to death ; for 
they were afraid of him, since all the people were greatly 
impressed by his teaching. As soon as evening fell, 19 

Jesus and his disciples went out of the city. 

As they passed by early in the morning, they noticed that 20 
the fig-tree was withered up from the very roots. Then Peter 21 
recollected what had occurred. 

"Look, Rabbi," he exclaimed, "the fig-tree which you 
doomed is withered up ! " 

"Have faith in God!" replied Jesus. "I tell you that if 22, 
any one should say to this hill ' Be lifted up and hurled into the 
sea ! ', without ever a doubt in his mind, but in the faith that 
what he says will be done, he would find that it would be. 
And therefore I say to you ' Have faith that whatever you ask 24 
for in prayer is already granted you, and you will find that it 
will be.' And, whenever you stand up to pray, forgive any 25 
grievance that you have against any one, that your Father who 
is in Heaven also may forgive you your offences." 

jesus They came to Jerusalem again. While 27 

and the Jesus was walking about in the Temple Courts, 
chief priests. t he Chief Priests, the Teachers of the Law, and 
the Councillors came up to him. 

"What authority have you to do these things?" they said. 28 
"Who gave you the authority to do them ? " 

" I will put one question to you," said Jesus. " Answer me 29 
that, and then I will tell you what authority I have to act as I 
do. It is about John's baptism. Was it of divine or human 30 
origin ? Answer me that." 
They began arguing together : 31 

"If we say 'divine,' he will say 'Why then did not you 

believe him ? ' Yet can we say ' human ' ? " 32 

They were afraid of the people, for every one regarded John as 
undoubtedly a Prophet. So their answer to Jesus was "We 33 
do not know." 

" Then I," replied Jesus, " refuse to tell you what authority I 
have to do these things." 

Parable And Jesus began to speakto them in parables : i ; 

or the wicked "A man once planted a vineyard, put a fence 

Tenants, round it, dug a wine-press, built a tower, and 
then let it out to tenants and went abroad. At the proper time 2 
he sent a servant to the tenants, to receive from them a share 
of the produce of the vintage ; but they seized him, and beat him, 3 
and sent him away empty-handed. A second time the owner 4 
sent a servant to them ; this man, too, the tenants struck on the 
head, and insulted. He sent another, but him they killed ; 5 
and so with many others some they beat and ome they 
killed. He had still one son, who was very dear tv. tarn ; and 6 

1 Isa. 5 i, a. 

MARK, 12. 29 

him he sent to them last of all. ' They will respect my 
son,' he said. But those tenants said to one another ' Here is 7 
the heir ! Come, let us kill him, and his inheritance will 
be ours.' So they seized him, and killed him, and threw his 8 
body outside the vineyard. What will the owner of the vine- 9 
yard do ? He will come and put the tenants to death, and 
he will let the vineyard to others. Have you never 10 

read this passagfe of Scripture ? 

' The very stone which the builders despised 
Has now itself become the corner-stone ; 
This corner-stone has come from the Lord, 1 1 

And is marvellous in our eyes.'" 

After this his enemies were eager to arrest him, but they were 12 
afraid of the crowd ; for they saw that it was at them that he 
had aimed the parable. So they let him alone, and went away. 

A Question Afterwards they sent to Jesus some of the' 13 
about Pharisees and of the Herodians, to set a trap for 

Tribute. him in the course of conversation. These men 14 
came to him and said : 

"Teacher, we know that you are an honest man, and are 
not afraid of any one, for you pay no regard to a man's 
position, but teach the Way of God honestly ; are we right in 
paying taxes to the Emperor, or not? Should we pay, or 15 
should we not pay ? " 
Knowing their hypocrisy, Jesus said to them : 

"Why are you testing me ? Bring me a florin to look at." 
And, when they had brought it, he asked : 16 

" Whose head and title are these ? " 

"The Emperor's," they said ; and Jesus replied : 17 

" Pay to the Emperor what belongs to the Emperor, and to 
God what belongs to God." 
And they wondered at him. 

A Question Next came some Sadducees the men who 18 
about the maintain that there is no resurrection. Their 
Resurrection, question was this 

" Teacher, in our Scriptures Moses decreed that, should a 19 
man's brother die, leaving a widow but no child, the man 
should take the widow as his wife, and raise up a family 
for his brother. There were once seven brothers ; of whom 20 
the eldest took a wife, but died and left no family; and 21 
the second took her, and died without family ; and so did the 
third. AJ* the seven died and left no family. The woman 22 
herself di"d te^t of all. At the resurrection whose wife will 23 
she be, ? ( se r '<en brothers having had her as their wife ? " 

10-11 p s . 1,8. 22, 23. 19 Deut. 25. 5, 6. 

30 MARK, 12. 

" Is not the reason of your mistake," answered Jesus, " your 24 
ignorance of the Scriptures and of the power of God ? When 25 
men rise from the dead, there is no marrying or being 
married ; but they are as angels in Heaven. As to the dead, 26 
and the fact that they rise, have you never read in the Book 
of Moses, in the passage about the Bush, how God spoke to 

him thus 


' I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the 
God of Jacob ' ? 

He is not God of dead men, but of living. You are 27 
greatly mistaken." 

The Great Then came up one of the Teachers of the Law 28 
command* who had heard their discussions. Knowing that 
ment. Jesus had answered them wisely, he asked him 
this question : 

"What is the first of all the commandments? " 

"The first," answered Jesus, "is 29 

' Hear, O Israel ; the Lord our God is the one Lord ; and 30 
thbu shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with 
all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength.' 

The second is this 31 

' Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thou dost love thyself.' 

There is no commandment greater than these." 

" Wisely answered, Teacher!" exclaimed the Teacher of the 32 
Law. "It is true, as you say, that ' there is one God,' and 
that ' there is no other besides him ' ; and to ' love him with 33 
all one's heart, and with all one's understanding, and with 
all one's strength,' and to 'love one's neighbour as one loves 
oneself is far beyond all 'burnt-offerings and sacrifices.'" 
Seeing that he had answered with discernment, Jesus said to 34 
him : 

" You are not far from the Kingdom of God." 
After that no one ventured to question him further. 

Christ While Jesus was teaching in the Temple 35 

the son of Courts, he asked : 

David. How is it that the Teachers of the Law say 

that the Christ is to be David's son ? David said himself, 36 
speaking under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit 

' The Lord said to my lord : "Sit at my right hand, 
Until I put thy enemies beneath thy feet.'" 

David himself calls him ' lord,' how comes it, then, that he 37 
is to be his son ? " 

'* Exod. 3. a 6. -30 Dcut. 6. 4, 5. 81 Lev. 19. 18. Deut. 6. 4, 5. 
Dcut. 4. 39 ; Lev. 19. 18 ; i Sam. 15. aa. *> PS, no. i. 

MARK, 1213. 31 

The mass of the people listened to Jesus with 
a^aTnJt the delight. In the course of his teaching, 38 

Teachers of JeSUS Said : 

the Law. "See that you are on your guard against the 
Teachers of the Law, who delight to walk about in long 
robes, and to be greeted in the streets with respect, and to 39 
have the best seats in the Synagogues, and places of honour 
at dinner. They are the men that rob widows of their homes, 40 
and make a pretence of saying long prayers. Their sentence 
will be all the heavier. " 
The widows Then Jesus sat down opposite the chests for 41 

offering, the Temple offerings, and watched how the 
people put money into them. Many rich people were putting 
in large sums ; but one poor widow came and put in two 42 
farthings, which make a half-penny. On this, calling his 43 
disciples to him, Jesus said : 

" I tell you that this poor widow has put in more than all 
the others who were putting money into the chests ; for every 44 
one else put in something from what he had to spare, while 
she, in her need, put in all she had everything that she 
had to live on." 

Jesus As Jesus was walking out of the Temple i 13 

foretells the Courts, one of his disciples said to him : 
o^eT^mpre "Teacher, look what fine stones and buildings 
and the End these are ! " 

of the Age. " Do you see these great buildings?" asked 2 
Jesus. " Not a single stone will be left here upon another, 
which shall not be thrown down." 

When Jesus had sat down on the Mount of Olives, facing 3 
the Temple, Peter, James, John, and Andrew questioned him 
privately : "Tell us when this will be, and what will be the 4 
sign when all this is drawing to its close." Then Jesus began : 5 
"See that no one leads you astray. Many will take my 6 
name, and come saying ' I am He ', and will lead many 
astray. And, when you hear of wars and rumours of wars, 7 
do not be alarmed ; such things must occur; but the end is 
not yet. For ' nation will rise against nation, and kingdom 8 
against kingdom ' ; there will be earthquakes in various places ; 
there will be famines. This will be but the beginning of the 
birth-pangs. See to yourselves ! They will betray you to courts 9 
of law ; and you will be taken to Synagogues and beaten ; 
and you will be brought up before governors and kings for 
my sake, that you may bear witness before them. But the 10 
Good News must first be proclaimed to every nation. When- 1 1 
ever they betray you and hand you over for trial, do not be 
anxious beforehand as to what you shall say, but say what- 
ever is given you at the moment ; for it will not be you who 

7 Dan. 2. 28. 8 Isa. 19. 2. 

32 MARK, 13. 

speak, but the Holy Spirit. Brother will betray brother 
to death, and the father his child ; and children will turn 
against their parents, and cause them to be put to death ; and 
you will be hated by every one on account of my Name. Yet 
the man that endures to the end shall be saved. As 

soon, however, as you see ' the Foul Desecration ' standing 
where he ought not " (the reader must consider what this 
means) "then those of you who are in Judaea must take refuge 
in the mountains ; and a man on the house-top must not go 
down, or go in to get anything otit of his house ; nor must 
one who is on his farm turn back to get his cloak. And alas 
for the women that are with child, and for those that are nurs- 
ing infants in those days ! Pray, too, that this may not occur in 
winter. For those days will be a time of distress, the like of 
which has not occurred from the beginning of God's creation 
until now and never will again. And, had not the Lord put 
a limit to those days, not a single soul would escape ; but, 
for the sake of God's own chosen People, he did limit 
them. And at that time if any one should say to you 

' Look, here is the Christ ! ' ' Look, there he is ! ', do not 
believe it ; for false Christs and false Prophets will arise, and 
display signs and marvels, to lead astray, were it possible, 
even God's People. But sec that you are on your guard ! I 
have told you all this beforehand. In those days, after 

that time of distress, ' the sun will be darkened, the moon 
will not give her light, the stars will be falling from the 
heavens,' and 'the forces that are in the heavens will be 
convulsed.' Then will be seen the 'Son of Man coming in 
clouds ' with great power and glory ; and then he will send 
the angels, and gather his People from the four winds, from 
one end of the world to the other. 

The Need Learn the lesson taught by the fig-tree. As 
for soon as its branches are full of sap, and it is 
watchfulness, bursting into leaf, you know that summer is 
near. And so may you, as soon as you see these things hap- 
pening, know that he is at your doors. I tell you that even 
the present generation will not pass away, until all these 
things have taken place. The heavens and the earth will pass 
away, but my words will not pass away. But about 

'That Day, 'or 'The Hour,' no one knows not even the angels 
in Heaven, nor yet the Son but only the Father. See 
that you are on the watch ; for you do not know when the 
time will be. It is like a man going on a journey, who leaves 
his home, puts his servants in charge each having his special 
duty and orders the porter to watch. Therefore watch, for 
you cannot be sure when the Master of the house is coming 

12 Mic. 7. 6. H Dan. la. n. W Gen. 19. 26. l Dan. 12. i. 22 Deut. 13. i. 
2< Ida. 13. 10. 2 Isa. 34. 4. Dan. 7. 13. ft Deut. 30. 4 ; Zech. a. 6 ; 

Deut. a& 64. 

MARK, 14. 33 

whether in the evening, at midnight, at daybreak, or in the 
morning lest he should come suddenly and find you asleep. 36 
And what I say to you I say to all Watch ! " 37 

The Plot ^ was now * wo days before the Festival of the i 14 
against Passover and the Unleavened Bread. The 

jesus. Chief Priests and the Teachers of the Law were 
looking for an opportunity to arrest Jesus by stealth, and 
to put him to death ; for they said : ' ' Not during the Festival, 2 
for fear of a riot." 

When Jesus was still at Bethany, in the house 3 
anointed by ^ Simon the leper, while he was at table, a 

a woman woman came with an alabaster jar of choice 

at Bethany, spikenard perfume of great value. She broke 
the jar, and poured the perfume on his head. Some of those 4 
who were present said to one another indignantly : 

"Why has the perfume been wasted like this? This per- 5 
fume could have been sold for more than thirty pounds, and 
the money given to the poor." 

" Let her alone," said Jesus, as they began to find fault with 6 
her, "why are you troubling her? This is a beautiful deed 
that she has done for me. You always have the poor with you, 7 
and whenever you wish you can do good to them ; but you 
will not always have me. She has done what she could ; she 8 
has perfumed my body beforehand for my burial. And I tell you, 9 
wherever, in the whole world, the Good News is proclaimed, 
what this woman has done will be told in memory of her." 
Judas agrees After this, Judas Iscariot, one of the Twelve, 10 

to betray went to the Chief Priests, to betray Jesus to 

Jesus. them. They were glad to hear what he said, n 
and promised to pay him. So he looked for a way to betray 
Jesus opportunely. 

Tne On the first day of the Festival of the Un- 12 

Passover, leavened Bread, when it was customary to kill 
the Passover lambs, his disciples said to Jesus : 

" Where do you wish us to go and make preparations for 
your eating the Passover ? " 
Jesus sent forward two of his disciples and said to them : 13 

" Go into the city, and there a man carrying a pitcher of water 
will meet you ; follow him ; and, wherever he goes in, say to 14 
the owner of the house ' The Teacher says Where is my 
room where I am to eat the Passover with my disciples ?' He 15 
will himself show you a large upstairs room, set out ready ; 
and there make preparations for us." 

So the disciples set out and went into the city, and found 16 
everything just as Jesus had told them ; and they prepared 
the Passover. 


34 MARK, 14. 

In the evening he went there with the Twelve, and, when 17, 
they had taken their places and were eating, Jesus said : 

" I tell you that one of you is going to betray me one who 
is eating with me." 

They were grieved at this, and began to say to him, one after 19 
another : 

" Can it be I ? " 

"It is one of you Twelve," said Jesus, "the one who is 20 
dipping his bread beside me into the dish. True, the Son 21 
of Man must go, as Scripture says of him, yet alas for that 
man by whom the Son of Man is being betrayed ! For that 
man ' it would be better never to have been born ! ' " 
The 'Lord's While they were eating, Jesus took some bread, 22 

supper.' and, after saying the blessing, broke it, and gave 
it to them, and said : 

"Take it ; this is my body." 

Then he took a cup, and, after saying the thanksgiving, gave 23 
it to them, and they all drank from it. 

"This is my Covenant-blood," he said, "which is poured 24 
out on behalf of many. I tell you that I shall never again 25 
drink of the juice of the grape, until that day when I shall 
drink it new in the Kingdom of God." 

They then sang a hymn, and went out up the Mount of Olives. 26 
Peter's Fail Presently Jesus said to them : 27 

foretold. " All of you will fall away ; for Scripture says 

' I will strike down the Shepherd, and the sheep will be 

Yet, after I have risen, I shall go before you into Galilee." 28 

" Even if every one else falls away," said Peter, "yet I shall 29 


" I tell you," answered Jesus, " that you yourself to-day 30 

yes, this very night before the cock crows twice, will disown 

me three times." 

But Peter vehemently protested : 31 

" Even if I must die with you, I shall never disown you !" 

And they all said the same. 

Presently they came to a garden known as 32 
Jesus in Gethsemane, and Jesus said to his disciples " Sit 

Ccthsemane. . '. .. -' 

down here while I pray. 

He took with him Peter, James, and John, and began to show 33 
signs of great dismay and deep distress of mind. 

"I am sad at heart," he said, "sad even to death ; wait 34 
here, and watch." 

Going on a little further, he threw himself on the ground, and 35 
began to pray that, if it were possible, he might be spared that 
hour. 36 

" P 41. 9. 21 Enoch 38. a. 24 Exod. 34. & Zech. 13. 7. 

MARK, 14. 35 

"Abba, Father," he said, "all things are possible to thee ; 
take away this cup from me ; yet, not what I will, but what 
thou wiliest." 

Then he came and found the three Apostles asleep. 37 

"Simon," he said to Peter, "are you asleep? Could not 
you watch for one hour ? Watch and pray," he said to them 38 
all, "that you may not fall into temptation. True, the spirit 
is eager, but human nature is weak." 

Again he went away, and prayed in the same words ; and 39, 40 
coming back again he found them asleep, for their eyes were 
heavy ; and they did not know what to say to him. A third 41 
time he came, and said to them : 

" Sleep on now, and rest yourselves. Enough ! My time 
has come. Hark ! the Son of Man is being betrayed into the 
hands of wicked men. Up, and let us be going. Look ! 42 
my betrayer is close at hand. " 

The And just then, while he was still speaking, 43 

Arrest of Judas, who was one of the Twelve, came up ; 
jesua. anc j with him a crowd of people, with swords 
and clubs, sent by the Chief Priests, the Teachers of the Law, 
and the Councillors. Now the betrayer had arranged a 44 
signal with them. 

"The man whom I kiss," he had said, "will be the one ; 
arrest him and take him away safely." 

As soon as Judas came, he went up to Jesus at once, and said : 45 
"Rabbi!" and kissed him. Then the men seized Jesus, 46 
and arrested him. One of those who were standing by 47 
drew his sword, and struck at the High Priest's servant, 
and cut off his ear. But Jesus interposed, and said to the men : 48 

"Have you come out, as if after a robber, with swords 
and clubs, to take me? I have been among you day after 49 
day in the Temple Courts teaching, and yet you did not arrest 
me ; but this is in fulfilment of the Scriptures." 

And all the. Apostles forsook him, and fled. One young 50,51 

man did indeed follow him, wrapped only in a linen sheet. 
They tried to arrest him ; but he left the sheet in their hands, 52 
and fled naked. 

Then they took Jesus to the High Priest ; and 53 
befor'e'the all the Chief Priests, the Councillors, and the 
High Priest. Teachers of the Law assembled. Peter, who had 54 
followed Jesus at a distance into the court-yard of the High 
Priest, was sitting there among the police-officers, warming 
himself at the blaze of the fire. Meanwhile the Chief Priests 55 
and the whole of the High Council were trying to get such 
evidence against Jesus as would warrant his being put to death, 
but they could not find any ; for, though there were many who 56 
gave false evidence against him, yet their evidence did not 

36 MARK, 14-15. 

agree. Presently some men stood up, and gave this false 
evidence against him 

' ' We ourselves heard him say ' I will destroy this Temple 
made with hands, and in three days build another made 
without hands.' " 

Yet not even on that point did their evidence agree. Then 
the High Priest stood forward, and questioned Jesus. 

"Have you no answer to make?" he asked. "What 
is this evidence which these men are giving against 
you ? " 

But Jesus remained silent, and made no answer. A second 
time the High Priest questioned him. 

"Are you," he asked, "the Christ, the Son of the Blessed 

"I am," replied Jesus, "and you shall all see the Son of 
Man sitting on the right hand of the Almighty ; and ' coming 
in the clouds of heaven'." 
At this the High Priest tore his vestments. 

"Why do we want any more witnesses?" he exclaimed. 
"You heard his blasphemy ? What is your verdict ? " 
They all condemned him, declaring that he deserved 
death. Some of those present began to spit at him, 

and to blindfold his eyes, and strike him, saying, as they did 
so, " Now play the Prophet ! " and even the police-officers 
received him with blows. 

Peter disowns While Peter was in the court-yard down below, 
Jesus. one of the High Priest's maidservants came up ; 
and, seeing Peter warming himself, she looked closely at him, 
and exclaimed : 

"Why, you were with Jesus, the Nazarene ! " 
But Peter denied it. 

" I do not know or understand what you mean," he replied. 
Then he went out into the porch ; and there the maidservant, 
on seeing him, began to say again to the by-standers : 

" This is one of them ! " 

But Peter again denied it. Soon afterwards the by-standers 
again said to him : 

" You certainly are one of them ; why, you are a Galilean ! " 
But he began to swear with the most solemn imprecations : 

" I do not know the man you are speaking about." 
At that moment, for the second time, a cock crowed ; and Peter 
remembered the words that Jesus had said to him ' Before a 
cock has crowed twice, you will disown me three times ' ; and, 
as he thought of it, he began to weep. 

jeaus boforo ^ s soon as it was daylight, the Chief Priests, 
the Roman after holding a consultation with the Councillors 
Governor. an( j Teachers of the Law that is to say, the 

* Ps. no. i ; Dan. 7. 13. 

MARK, 15. 37 

whole High Council put Jesus in chains, and took him away, 
and gave him up to Pilate. 

"Are you the King of the Jews ? " asked Pilate. 2 

" It is true," replied Jesus. 

Then the Chief Priests brought a number of charges against 3 
him ; upon which Pilate questioned Jesus again. 4 

"Have you no reply to make?" he asked. "Listen, how 
many charges they are bringing against you." 
But Jesus still made no reply whatever ; at which Pilate was 5 
astonished. Now, at the Feast, Pilate used to grant the 6 

people the release of any one prisoner whom they might ask 
for. A man called Barabbas was in prison, with the rioters 7 
who had committed murder during a riot. So, when the crowd 8 
went up and began to ask Pilate to follow his usual custom, 
he answered : 9 

' ' Do you want me to release the ' King of the Jews ' for you ? " 
For he was aware that it was out of jealousy that the Chief 10 
Priests had given Jesus up to him. But the Chief Priests n 
incited the crowd to get Barabbas released instead. Pilate, 12 
however, spoke to them again : 

"What shall I do then with the man whom you call the 
' King of the Jews ' ? " 
Again they shouted : " Crucify him ! " 13 

" Why, what harm has he done? " Pilate kept saying to them. 14 
But they shouted furiously : " Crucify him ! " 

And Pilate, wishing to satisfy the crowd, released Barabbas 15 
to them, and, after scourging Jesus, gave him up to be 

The soldiers then took Jesus away into the court-yard that 16 
is the Government House and they called the whole garrison 
together. They dressed him in a purple robe, and, having 17 
twisted a crown of thorns, put it on him, and then began to 18 
salute him. 

" Long life to you, King of the Jews ! " they said. 
And they kept striking him on the head with a rod, spitting 19 
at him, and bowing to the ground before him going down 
on their knees ; and, when they had left off mocking him, they 20 
took off the purple robe, and put his own clothes on him. 

The And they led Jesus out to crucify him ; and 21 

crucifixion they compelled a passer-by, Simon from Cyrene, 

of Jesus. W h was on n i s wa y m from the country, the 
father of Alexander and Rufus to go with them to carry his 
cross. They brought Jesus to the place which was known as 22 
Golgotha a name which means ' Place of a Skull.' There 23 
they offered him drugged wine ; but Jesus refused it. Then 24 
they crucified him, and divided his clothes among them, casting 
lots for them, to settle what each should take. It was nine in 25 

33 PS. 69. 31. 24 p s . 32. ,. 

38 MARK, 15. 

the morning- when they crucified him. The words of the 26 
charge against him, written up over his head, ran thus 


And with him they crucified two robbers, one on the right, 27 
and the other on the left. The passers-by railed at 29 

him, shaking their heads, as they said : 

"Ah ! you who 'destroy the Temple and build one in three 
days,' come down from the cross and save yourself! " 30 

In the same way the Chief Priests, with the Teachers of the 31 
Law, said to one another in mockery : 

"He saved others, but he cannot save himself! Let the 32 
Christ, the 'King of Israel,' come down from the cross now, 
that we may see it and believe." 

Even the men who had been crucified with Jesus reviled 

The Death At midday, a darkness came over the whole 33 

ot Jesus, country, lasting till three in the afternoon. And, 34 
at three, Jesus called out loudly : 

" ' Eloi, Eloi, lama sabacthani ? ' " which means ' My God, 
my God, why hast thou forsaken me?' 
Some of those standing round heard this, and said : 35 

" Listen ! He is calling for Elijah ! " 

And a man ran, and, soaking a sponge in common wine, put 36 
it on the end of a rod, and offered it to him to drink, saying 
as he did so : 

" Wait and let us see if Elijah is coming to take him down." 
But Jesus, giving a loud cry, expired. The Temple 37, 

curtain was torn in two from top to bottom. The 39 

Roman Officer, who was standing facing Jesus, on seeing the 
way in which he expired, exclaimed : 

" This man must indeed have been ' God's Son ' ! " 
There were some women also watching from a distance, 40 
among them being Mary of Magdala, Mary the mother of 
James the Little and of Joseph, and Salome all of whom 41 
used to accompany Jesus when he was in Galilee, and attend 
on him besides many other women who had come up with 
him to Jerusalem. 

The Burial The evening had already fallen, when, as it was 42 
of jesus. the Preparation Day the day before the Sabbath 
Joseph from Ramah, a Councillor of good position, who was 43 
himself living in expectation of the Kingdom of God, came and 
ventured to go in to see Pilate, and to ask for the body of Jesus. 
But Pilate was surprised to hear that he had already died. So 44 
he sent for the Officer, and asked if he were already dead ; and, 45 
on learning from the Officer that it was so, he gave the corpse 

Ps. a. 7. 34 Ps. it. i. * Ps. 69. ai. Wid. of Sol. a. 18, 

MARK, 15-16. 39 

to Joseph. Joseph, having bought a linen sheet, took Jesus 46 
down, and wound the sheet round him, and laid him in a tomb 
which had been cut out of the rock ; and then rolled a stone up 
against the entrance of the tomb. Mary of Magdala 47 

and Mary, the mother of Joseph, were watching to see where 
he was laid. 


The When the Sabbath was over, Mary of Magdala, I 

Resurrection Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought 

of Jesus, some spices, so that they might go and anoint 
the body of Jesus. And very early on the first day of the week 2 
they went to the tomb, after sunrise. They were saying to 3 
one another : 

"Who will roll away the stone for us from the entrance of 
the tomb ? " 

But, on looking up, they saw that the stone had already been 4 
rolled back ; it was a very large one. Going into the tomb, 5 
they saw a young man sitting on their right, in a white robe, 
and they were dismayed. But he said to them : 6 

"Do not be dismayed; you are looking for Jesus, the 
Nazarene, who has been crucified ; he has risen, he is not 
here ! Look ! Here is the place where they laid him. But 7 
go, and say to his disciples and to Peter ' He is going before 
you into Galilee ; there you will see him, as he told you.'" 
They went out, and fled from the tomb, for they were trembling 8 
and bewildered ; and they did not say a word to any one, for 
they were frightened ;******* 

(Inserted in some manuscripts from an ancient source). 

[After his rising again, early on the first day of the week, 9 
Jesus appeared first of all to Mary of Magdala, from whom he 
had driven out seven demons. She went and told the news to 10 
those who had been with him and who were now in sorrow and 
tears ; yet even they, when they heard that he was alive and 1 1 
had been seen by her, did not believe it. Afterwards, 12 

altered in appearance, he made himself known to two of , 
them, as they were walking, on their way into the country. 
They also went and told the rest, but they did not believe 13 
even them. Later on, he made himself known to the 14 

Eleven themselves as they were at a meal, and reproached 
them with their want of faith and their stubbornness, because 

40 MARK, 16. 

they did not believe those who had seen him after he had risen 
from the dead. Then he said to them : 15 

" Go into all the world, and proclaim the Good News to all 
creation. He who believes and is baptized shall be saved ; 16 
but he who refuses to believe will be condemned. More- 17 
over these signs shall attend those who believe. In my Name 
they shall drive out demons ; they shall speak with 'tpngues' ; 
they shall take up serpents in their hands ; and, it they drink 18 
any poison, it shall not hurt them ; they will place their hands 
on sick people and they shall recover." 

So the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up 19 
into Heaven, and sat at the right hand of God. But they set 20 
out, and made the proclamation everywhere, the Lord work- 
ing with them, and confirming the Message by the signs which 
attended it.] 


[But all that had been enjoined on them they reported briefly 
to Peter and his companions. Afterwards Jesus him- 

self sent out by them, from east to west, the sacred and 
imperishable proclamation of eternal Salvation.] 

19 a King's a. u ; Ps. no. i 



THAN 60 A.D. 

THIS gospel^ in common with the 'The Gospel according to 
St. Luke,' incorporates the greater part of the record of the 
ministry of Jesus given in ' The Gospel according to St. Mark.'/ 
It is probable that the compiler was able to make use of the 
same sources as St. Mark had at his disposal, and perhaps 
even of St. Mark's gospel itself. Beyond this,> he was able 
to add tq that record a very important collection of the Sayings 
of Jesus?! from some source of which the compiler of ' The i 
Gospel according to St. Luke ' was also able to avail himself. / 
The gospel, in its present form, begins with a preface giving an 
account of the birth of Jesus, and concludes with an appendix 
giving an account of his resurrection, j These are evidently 
from sources other than those from which the body of the 
work was derived.) 

The standpoint of the compiler of this gospel is clearly that 
of a Jew writing primarily for converts from Judaism, one 
marked feature being the prominence given to the fulfilment 
of Jewish prophecy. 



A Genealogy of fesus Christ, a descendant of David and \ 1 
A braham. 

The Abraham was the father of Isaac, 2 

Ancestors of Isaac of Jacob, 

Jesus. Jacob of Judah and his brothers, 

Judah of Perez and Zerah, whose mother was 3 


Perez of Hezron, 
Hezron of Ram, 

Ram of Amminadab, 4 

Amminadab of Nashon, 
Nashon of Salmon, 

Salmon of Boaz, whose mother was Rahab, 5 

Boaz of Obed, whose mother was Ruth, 
Obed of Jesse, 
Jesse of David the King. 6 

David was the father of Solomon, whose mother 

was Uriah's widow, 

Solomon of Rehoboam, 7 

Rehoboam of Abijah, 
Abijah of Asa, 

Asa of Jehoshaphat, 8 

Jehoshaphat of Jehoram, 
Jehoram of Uzziah, 

Uzziah of Jotham, 9 

Jotham of Ahaz, 
Ahaz of Hezekiah, 

Hezekiah of Manasseh, 10 

Manasseh of Ammon, 

1 Ps. a. a. 

44 MATTHEW, 1. 

Ammon of Josiah, 

Josiah of Jeconiah and his brothers, at the time II 
of the Exile to Babylon. 

After the Exile to Babylon 12 

Jeconiah was the father of Shealtiel, 
Shealtiel of Zerubbabel, 

Zerubbabel of Abiud, 13 

Abiud of Eliakim, 
Eliakim of Azor, 

Azor of Zadok, 14 

Zadok of Achim, 
Achim of Eliud, 

Eliud of Eleazar, 15 

Eleazar of Matthan, 
Matthan of Jacob, 
Jacob of Joseph, the husband of Mary, who 16 

was the mother of Jesus, who is called 

' Christ '. 

So the whole number of generations from Abraham to David 17 
is fourteen ; from David to the Exile to Babylon fourteen ; and 
from the Exile to Babylon to the Christ fourteen. 

The The birth of Jesus Christ took place as follows: 18 

Birth or His mother Mary was betrothed to Joseph, but, 
jesus. before the marriage took place, she found herself 
to be with child by the power of the Holy Spirit. Her husband, 19 
Joseph, was a religious man and, being unwilling to expose 
her to contempt, resolved to put an end to their betrothal 
privately. He had been dwelling upon this, when an 20 

angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream. 

"Joseph, son of David," the angel said, "do not be afraid to 
take Mary for your wife, for her child has been conceived by 
the power of the Holy Spirit. She shall give birth to a son ; 21 
and you shall give him the name Jesus, for it is he who shall 
save his people from their sins." 

All this happened in fulfilment of these words of the Lord in 22 
the Prophet, where he says 

' Behold ! the virgin shall be with child and shall give birth to a son, 23 
And they will give him the name Immanuel ' 

a word which means ' God is with us.' When Joseph 24 

awoke from his sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord had 

23 Isa. 7. 14. 

MATTHEW, 12. 45 

directed him. He made Mary his wife, but did not live with 25 
her as her husband until after the birth of her son ; and to this 
son he gave the name Jesus. 

The visit After the birth of Jesus at Bethlehem in Judaea, i 

of the in the reign of King Herod, some Astrologers 
Astrologers. f rO m the East arrived in Jerusalem, asking : 2 

"Where is the new-born King of the Jews ? for we saw his 
star in the east, and have come to do homage to him." 
When King Herod heard of this, he was much troubled, and 3 
so, too, was all Jerusalem. He called together all the Chief 4 
Priests and Teachers of the Law in the nation, and questioned 
them as to where the Christ was to be born. 

"At Bethlehem in Judaea," was their answer ; " fbr it is said 5 
in the Prophet 

4 And thou, Bethlehem in Judah's land, . 6 

Art in no way least among the chief cities of Judah ; 
For out of thee will come a Chieftain 

One who will shepherd my people Israel.' " 

Then Herod secretly sent for the Astrologers, and ascertained 7 
from them the date of the appearance of the star ; and, sending 8 
them to Bethlehem, he said : " Go and make careful inquiries 
about the child, and, as soon as you have found him, bring me 
word, that I, too, may go and do homage to him." 
The Astrologers heard what the King had to say, and then 9 
continued their journey. And the star which they had seen in 
the east led them on, until it reached, and stood over, the 
place where the child was. At the sight of the star they 10 
were filled with joy. Entering the house, they saw the child n 
with his mother Mary, and fell at his feet and did homage 
to him. Then they unpacked their treasures, and offered to 
the child presents of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. But 12 
afterwards, having been warned in a dream not to go back 
to Herod, they returned to their own country by another road. 

The Flight After they had left, an angel of the Lord 13 
into Egypt, appeared to Joseph in a dream, and said : 

"Awake, take the child and his mother, and seek refuge in 
Egypt ; and stay there until I bid you return, for Herod is 
about to search for the child, to put him to death." 
Joseph awoke, and, taking the child and his mother by 14 
night, went into Egypt, and there he stayed until Herod's 15 
death ; in fulfilment of these words of the Lord in the Prophet, 
where he says 

' Out of Egypt I called my Son.' 

When Herod found that he had been trifled with by the 16 
Astrologers, he was very angry. He sent and put to death all 

6 Mic. 5. a. 16 Hos. ii. i. 

46 MATTHEW, 2-3. 

the boys in Bethlehem and the whole of that neighbourhood, 
who were two years old or under, guided by the date which he 
had ascertained from the Astrologers. Then were ful- 17 

filled these words spoken in the Prophet Jeremiah, where he 

'A voice was heard in Ramah, 18 

Weeping" and much lamentation ; 
Rachel, weeping for her children, 

Refused all comfort because they were not.' 

But, on the death of Herod, an angel of the Lord appeared 19 
in a dream to Joseph in Egypt, and said : 

"Awake, take the child and his mother, and go into the 20 
Land of Israel, for those who sought to take the child's life are 

And he awoke, and, taking the child and his mother, went into 21 
the Land of Israel. But, hearing that Archelaus had succeeded 22 
his father Herod as King of Judaea, he was afraid to go back 
there ; and, having been warned in a dream, he went into the 
part of the country called Galilee. And there he settled in the 23 
town of Nazareth, in fulfilment of these words in the Prophets 
' He will be called a Nazarene.' 


The Baptist About that time John the Baptist first appeared, i 
and hi* proclaiming in the Wilderness of Judaea : 
Message. < Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at 2 

This is he who was spoken of in the Prophet Isaiah, where 3 
he says 

' The voice of one crying aloud in the Wilderness : 
" Make ready the way of the Lord, 
Make his paths straight."' 

John wore clothing made of camels' hair, with a belt of 4 
leather round his waist, and his food was locusts and wild 
honey. At that time Jerusalem, and all Judaea, as 5 

well as the whole district of the Jordan, went out to him and 6 
were baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing their sins. 

When, however, John saw many of the Pharisees and 7 
Sadducees coming to receive his baptism, he said to them : 

"You brood of vipers! Who has prompted you to seek 
refuge from the coming judgement? Let your life, then, 8 

18 Jcr. 31. 15. -" Exod. 4. 19. - Dan. a. 44. 8 Isa. 40. 3. * a Kings i. 8. 

MATTHEW, 3-4. 47 

prove your repentance ; and do not think that you can say 9 
among yourselves 'Abraham is our ancestor,' for I tell you 
that out of these very stones God is able to raise descendants 
for Abraham ! Already the axe is lying at the root of the 10 
trees. Therefore every tree that fails to bear good fruit will 
be cut down and thrown into the fire. I, indeed, baptize you 1 1 
with water to teach repentance ; but He who is Coming after 
me is more powerful than I, and I am not fit even to carry his 
sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with 
fire. His winnowing-fan is in his hand, and he will clear his 12 
threshing-floor, and store his grain in the barn, but the chaff 
he will burn with inextinguishable fire." 

The Then Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan, 13 

Baptism of to John, to be baptized by him. But John tried 14 
Jesus. t prevent him. 

"It is I," he said, "who need to be baptized by you ; why 
then do you come to me ? " 

"Let it be so for the present," Jesus answered, "since 15 
it is fitting for us thus to satisfy every claim of religion." 
Upon this, John consented. After the baptism of Jesus, and 16 
just as he came up from the water, the heavens opened, and he 
saw the Spirit of God descending, like a dove, and alighting 
upon him, and from the heavens there came a voice which 17 
said : 

"This is my Son, the Beloved, in whom I delight." 

The Then Jesus was led up into the Wilderness by the i 

Temptation Spirit to be tempted by the Devil. And, after he 2 

of Jesus. i iat j fasted for forty days and forty nights, he 
became hungry. And the Tempter came to him, and 3 

said : 

" If you are God's Son, tell these stones to become loaves of 
But Jesus answered : " Scripture says 4 

' It is not on bread alone that man is to live, but on every 
word that comes from the mouth of God.'" 

Then the Devil took him to the Holy City, and, placing him on 5 
the parapet of the temple, said to him : 6 

"If you are God's Son, throw yourself down, for Scripture 

' He will give his angels commands about thee, 
And on their hands they will upbear thee, 

Lest ever thou should'st strike thy foot against a stone.' " 

" Scripture also says," answered Jesus, 7 

" ' Thou shall not tempt the Lord thy God.'" 

Ps. 118. 26. 17 p s . 2 . 7 ; Isa. 42. i. Ps. 2. 7. 4Deut. 8. 3. 6 Ps. 91. 1112. 
7 Deut. 6. 16. 

48 MATTHEW, 4. 

The third time, the Devil took Jesus to a very high moun- 
tain, and, showing him all the kingdoms of the world and their 
splendour, said to him : 

" All these I will give you, if you will fall at my feet and 
do homage to me." 
Then Jesus said to him : 

"Begone, Satan ! for Scripture says 

' Thou shalt do homage to the Lord thy God, and worship 
him only.' " 

Then the Devil left him alone, and angels came and min- 
istered to him. 


jeaus settles When Jesus heard that John had been com- 
at mitted to prison, he retired to Galilee. After- 

Capernaum. wards, leaving Nazareth, he went and settled at 
Capernaum, which is by the side of the Sea, within the borders 
of Zebulun and Naphtali ; in fulfilment of these words in the 
Prophet Isaiah 

' The land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, 
The land of the Road by the Sea, and beyond the Jordan, 

With Galilee of the Gentiles 
The people who were dwelling in darkness 

Have seen a great Light, 
And, for those who were dwelling in the shadow-land of Death, 

A Light has risen ! ' 

At that time Jesus began to proclaim 

J *hi1*wo* l ?k. n * " Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at 

The first As Jesus was walking along the shore of the 
Disoipies. Sea of Galilee, he saw two brothers Simon, 
also known as Peter, and his brother Andrew casting a net 
into the Sea ; for they were fishermen. 

"Come and follow me," Jesus said, "and I will set you to 
fish for men." 

The two men left their nets at once and followed him. Going 
further on, he saw two other men who were also brothers, 
James, Zebediah's son, and his brother John, in their boat 
with their father; mending their nets. Jesus called them, 

10 Deut. 6. 13. M-16 Isa. 9. i a. 

MATTHEW, 4-5. 49 

and they at once left their boat and their father, and followed 22 

Jesus And Jesus went all through Galilee, teaching 23 

preaches in their Synagogues, proclaiming the Good 
in Gaiiiee. News of the Kingdom, and curing every kind 
of diseasa and every kind of sickness among the people ; 
and his fame spread all through Syria. They brought 24 
to him all who were ill with any form of disease, or who were 
suffering pain any who were either possessed by demons, 
or were lunatic, or paralyzed ; and he cured them. And he 25 
was followed by large crowds from Galilee, the district of the 
Ten Towns, Jerusalem, Judaea, and from beyond the Jordan. 

On seeing the crowds of people, Jesus went up i 

the hill ; and, when he had taken his seat, his 

j* i 1 111 

disciples came up to him ; and he began to teach 2 

them as follows : 
The Happy. " Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the 3 
Kingdom of Heaven. 

Blessed are the mourners, for they shall be comforted. 4 

Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth. 5 

Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for 6 

they shall be satisfied. 

Blessed are the merciful, for they shall find mercy. 7 

Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. 8 

Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called Sons of 9 

Blessed are those who have been persecuted in the cause of 10 

righteousness, for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 
Blessed are you when people taunt you, and persecute you, n 
and say everything evil about you untruly, and on my ac- 
count. Be glad and rejoice, because your reward in Heaven 12 
will be great ; for so men persecuted the Prophets who lived 
before you. 

A real ^ * S y U W ^ arg ^ e ^ 3 ^ ^ ^ e eart h 5 t)Ut, if 13 

Disciple of the salt should lose its strength, what will you 
Jesus. use to restore its saltness ? It is no longer good 
for anything, but is thrown away, and trampled underfoot. 
It is you who are the Light of the world. A town that stands 14 
Lesson from on a hill cannot be hidden. Men do not light 15 

a. Lamp. a lamp and put it under the corn-measure, but 
on the lamp-stand, where it gives light to every one in the 
house. Let your light so shine before the eyes of your fellow- 16 
men, that, seeing your good actions, they may praise your 
Father who is in Heaven. 

The old Law Do not think that I have come to do a*vay with 17 
and the new the Law or the Prophets ; I have not come to do 
away with them, but to complete them. For I tell you, 18 

3 Jsa. 61. i. * Isa. $i. 3. * Ps. 37. n. 8 p s . 34. 4. 

50 MATTHEW, 5. 

until the heavens and the earth disappear, not even the smallest 
letter, nor one stroke of a letter, shall disappear from the Law 
until all is done. Whoever, therefore, breaks one of these 
commandments, even the least of them, and teaches others to 
do so, will be the least-esteemed in the Kingdom of Heaven ; 
but whoever keeps them, and teaches others to do so, will be 
esteemed great in the Kingdom of Heaven. Indeed I tell you 
that, unless your religion is above that of the Teachers of the 
Law, and Pharisees, you will never enter the Kingdom of 

on You have heard that to our ancestors it was 

Anger, said 

' Thou shall not commit murder,' 

' Whoever commits murder shall be liable to answer for it to 
the Court.' 

I , however, say to you that any one wTio cherishes anger against 
his brother shall be liable to answer for it to the Court ; and 
whoever pours contempt upon his brother shall be liable 
to answer for it to the High Council, while whoever calls down 
curses upon him shall be liable to answer for it in the fiery 
Pit. Therefore, when presenting your gift at the altar, if 
even there you remember that your brother has some grievance 
against you, leave your gift there, before the altar, go and 
be reconciled to your brother first, then come and present 
your gift. Be ready to make friends with your opponent, even 
when you meet him on your way to the court ; for fear that he 
should hand you over to the judge, and the judge to his officer, 
and you should be thrown into prison. I tell you, you will 
not come out until you have paid the last penny. 
You have heard that it was said 

Impurity, < xhou shalt not commit adultery.' 

I, however, say to you that any one who looks at a woman with 
an impure intention has already committed adultery with her in 
his heart. If your right eye is a snare to you, take it out and 
throw it away. It would be best for you to lose one part of 
your body, and not to have the whole of it thrown into the Pit. 
And, if your right hand is a snare to you, cut it off and throw 
it away. It would be best for you to lose one part of your 
body, and not to have the whole of it go down to the Pit. 
on It was also said 

' Let any one who divorces his wife serve 
her with a notice of separation.' 

I, however, say to you that any one who divorces his wife, 
except on the ground of her unchastity, leads to her 

1 Exod. ao. 13 ; Enoch 27. 2 ; 90. 26, 27. 27 Exod. to. 14. 3l Deut. 24. 3. 

MATTHEW, 5-6. 51 

committing adultery ; while any one who marries her after her 
divorce is guilty of adultery. 

on Again, you have heard that to our ancestors it 33 

oaths, was said 

' Thou shalt not break an oath, but thou shalt keep thine 
oaths as a debt due to the Lord.' 

I, however, say to you that you must not swear at all, either 34 
by Heaven, since that is God's throne, or by the earth, since 35 
that is his footstool, or by Jerusalem, since that is the city of 
the Great King. Nor should you swear by your head, since you 36 
cannot make a single hair either white or black.- Let your 37 
words be simply ' Yes ' or ' No ' ; anything beyond this 
comes from what is wrong. 

on You have heard that it was said 38 

Revenge, , ^ g y e f Qf afl e ^ Q &n j & toot h f or a tooth.' 

I, however, say to you that you must not resist wrong ; but, 39 
if any one strikes you on the right cheek, turn the other to 
him also ; and, when any one wants to go to law with you, 40 
to take your coat, let him have your cloak as well ; and, if 41 
any one compels you to go one mile, go two miles with him. 
Give to him who asks of you ; and, from him who wants to 42 
borrow from you, do not turn away. 

You have heard that it was said 4? 

on ' 

Love. * Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate thy 


I, however, say to you Love your enemies, and pray for those 44 
who persecute you, that you may become Sons of your Father 45 
who is in Heaven ; for he causes his sun to rise upon bad 
and good alike, and sends rain upon the righteous and upon 
the unrighteous. For, if you love only those who love you, what 46 
reward will you have ? Even the tax-gatherers do this ! And, 47 
if you show courtesy to your brothers only, what are you doing 
more than others ? Even the Gentiles do this ! You, 48 

then, must become perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect. 

About Take care not to perform your religious duties i 

Giving. in public in order to be seen by others ; if you do, 
your Father who is in Heaven has no reward for you. 

Therefore, when you do acts of charity, do not have a 2 
trumpet blown in front of you, as hypocrites do in the Syna- 
gogues and in the streets, that they may be praised by others. 
There, I tell you, is their reward ! But, when you do acts of 3 
charity, do not let your left hand know what your right hand 
is doing, so that your charity may be secret ; and your Father, 4 
who sees what is in secret, will recompense you. 

33 Num. 30. 2; Deut. 23. 21. ** Isa. 66. i. 38 p s . 48. 2 . 38 Exod. 21. 24. 
Lev. 19. 18. Deut. 18. 13. 

52 MATTHEW, 6. 

About And, when you pray, you are not to behave as 5 

Praymg. hypocrites do. They like to pray standing in the 
Synagogues and at the corners of the streets, that they may 
be seen by men. There, I tell you, is their reward ! But, when 6 
one of you prays, let him go into his own room, shut the door, 
and pray to his Father who dwells in secret ; and his Father, 
who sees what is secret, will recompense him. When 7 

praying, do not repeat the same words over and over again, as is 
done by the Gentiles, who think that by using many words they 
will obtain a hearing. Do not imitate them ; for God, your 8 
Father, knows what you need before you ask him. You, 9 

therefore, should pray thus 
The 'Lord's 'Our Father, who art in Heaven, 
Prayer.' May thy name be held holy, 

thy Kingdom come, 10 

thy will be done 

on earth, as in Heaven. 
Give us to-day 1 1 

the bread that we shall need ; 
And forgive us our wrong-doings, 12 

as we have forgiven those who have 

wronged us ; 
And take us not into temptation, 13 

but deliver us from Evil.' 

For, if you forgive others their offences, your heavenly Father 14 
will forgive you also ; but, if you do not forgive others their 15 
offences, not even your Father will forgive your offences. 

About And, when you fast, do not put on gloomy looks, 16 

Fasting, as hypocrites do who disfigure their faces that 
they may be seen by men to be fasting. That, I tell you, is 
their reward ! But, when one of you fasts, let him anoint his 17 
head and wash his face, that he may not be seen by men to be 18 
fasting, but by his Father who dwells in secret ; and his Father, 
who sees what is secret, will recompense him. 

The true Do not store up treasures for yourselves on 19 
Treasure, earth, where moth and rust destroy, and where 
thieves break in and steal. But store up treasures for yourselves 20 
in Heaven, where neither moth nor rust destroys, and where 
thieves do not break in or steal. For where your treasure is, 21 
there will your heart be also. The lamp of the body is 22 

Light ana the eye. If your eye is unclouded, your whole body 
Darkness, will be lit up ; but, if your eye is diseased, your 23 
whole body will be darkened. And, if the inner light is darkness, 
how intense must that darkness be ! No one can serve 24 

True two masters, for either he will hate one and love the 
service, other, or else he will attach himself to one and 
despise the other. You cannot serve both GoJ and Money. 

Isa. 6. ao ; a Kings 4. 33. 

MATTHEW, 67. 53 

The Cares That is why I say to you, Do not be anxious 25 

or Life. about your life here what you can get to eat 
or drink ; nor yet about your body what you can get to 
wear. Is not life more than food, and the body than its 
clothing? Look at the wild birds they neither sow, nor 26 
reap, nor gather into barns ; and yet your heavenly Father 
feeds them ! And are not you more precious than they ? 
But which of you, by being anxious, can prolong 27 
his life a single moment? And why be anxious about 28 
clothing ? Study the wild lilies, and how they grow. They 
neither toil nor spin ; yet I tell you that even Solomon in 29 
all his splendour was not robed like one of these. If God 30 
so clothes even the grass of the field, which is living to-day 
and to-morrow will be thrown into the oven, will not he much 
more clothe you, O men of little faith ? Do not then ask 31 
anxiously ' What can we get to eat ? ' or ' What can we get to 
drink ? ' or ' What can we get to wear ? ' All these are the 32 
things for which the nations are seeking, and your heavenly 
Father knows that you need them all. But first seek his 33 
Kingdom and the righteousness that he requires, and then all 
these things shall be added for you. Therefore do not be 34 
anxious about to-morrow, for to-morrow will bring its own 
anxieties. Every day has trouble enough of its own. 

On . Do not judge, that you may not be judged, i 
judging For, just as you judge others, you will yourselves 2 
others. b e judged, and the measure that you mete will 
be meted out to you. And why do you look at the straw in 3 
your brother's eye, while you pay no attention at all to the 
beam in yours ? How will you say to your brother ' Let me 4 
take out the straw from your eye,' when all the time there is 
a beam in your own ? Hypocrite ! Take out the beam from 5 
your own eye first, and then you will see clearly how to take 
out the straw from your brother's. Do not give what 6 

is sacred to dogs ; nor yet thrftw your pearls before pigs, 
lest they should trample them under their feet, and then 
turn and attack you. Ask, and your prayer shall 7 

Encourage- ^ e g rant ed ; search, and you shall find ; knock, 

ment and the door shall be opened to you. For 8 
to Prayer. h e that asks receives, he that searches finds, 
and to him that knocks the door shall be opened. Who 9 
among you, when his son asks him for a loaf, will give 
him a stone, or when he asks for a fish, will give him a 10 
snake? If you, then, wicked though you are, know n 
how to give good gifts to your children, how much more 
will your Father who is in Heaven give what is good to 

The those that ask him ! Do to others what- 12 

Golden Rule, ever you would wish them to do to you ; for that 
is the teaching of both the Law and the Prophets. 

54 MATTHEW, 7-8. 

The Go in by the small gate. Broad and spacious 

two Roads, is the road that leads to destruction, and those 

that go in by it are many ; for small is the gate, and narrow 

the road, that leads to Life, and those that find it are 


True and false Beware of false Teachers men who come to 
Teachers, you in the guise of sheep, but at heart they 
are ravenous wolves. By the fruit of their lives you 
will know them. Do people gather grapes from thorn- 
bushes, or figs from thistles ? So, too, every sound tree 
bears good fruit, while a worthless tree bears bad fruit. A 
sound tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a worthless 
tree bear good fruit. Every tree that fails to bear good fruit 
is cut down and thrown into the fire. Hence it is by the 
fruit of their lives that you will know such men. Not 

every one who says to me ' Master ! Master ! ' will enter the 
Kingdom of Heaven, but only he who does the will of my 
Father who is in Heaven. On ' That Day ' many will say to 
me ' Master, Master, was not it in your name that we taught, 
and in your name that we drove out demons, and in your 
name that we did many miracles ? ' And then I shall say to 
them plainly ' I never knew you. Go from my presence, you 
who live in sin.' 

The two Every one, therefore, that listens to this teaching 
Foundations, of mine and acts upon it may be compared to a 
prudent man, who built his house upon the rock. The rain 
poured down, the rivers rose, the winds blew and beat upon that 
house, but It did not fall, for its foundations were upon the 
rock. And every one that listens to this teaching of 

mine and does not act upon it may be compared to a foolish 
man, who built his house on the sand. The rain poured down, 
.the rivers rose, the winds blew and struck against that house, 
and it fell ; and great was its downfall." 

By the time that Jesus had finished speaking, the crowd was 
filled with amazement at his teaching. For he taught th in like 
one who had authority, and not like their Teachers of the Law. 

Cure When Jesus had come down from the hill, great i 

of o. Lpr. crowds followed him. And he saw a leper 2 

who came up, and bowed to the ground before him, and said : 
" Master, if only you are willing, you are able to make me 

Stretching out his hand, Jesus touched him, saying as he did 3 
so : 

" I am willing ; become clean." 

M Ia. a. n. 2= Ps. 6. 8. 

MATTHEW, 8. 55 

Instantly he was made clean from his leprosy ; and then Jesus 4 
said to him : 

" Be careful not to say a word to any one, but go and show 
yourself to the Priest, and offer the gift directed by Moses, 
as evidence of your cure." 

After Jesus had entered Capernaum, a Captain 5 
an officer's in the Roman army came up to him, entreating 

Servant. n i s help. 

"Sir," he said, "my manservant is lying ill at my house 6 
with a stroke of paralysis, and is suffering terribly." 

" I will come and cure him," answered Jesus. 7 

" Sir," the Captain went on, " I am unworthy to receive you 8 
under my roof ; but only speak, and my manservant will be 
cured. For I myself am a man under the orders of others, 9 
with soldiers under me ; and, if I say to one of them ' Go,' he 
goes, and to another ' Come,' he comes, and to my slave ' Do 
this,' he does it." 

Jesus was surprised to hear this, and said to those who were 10 
following him : 

"Never, I tell you, in any Israelite have I met with such 
faith as this ! Yes, and many will come in from Sast and West 1 1 
and take their places beside Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in 
the Kingdom of Heaven ; while the heirs to the Kingdom will 12 
be ' banished into the darkness ' outside ; there, there will 
be weeping and grinding of teeth." 
Then Jesus said to the Captain : 13 

" Go now, and it shall be according to your faith." 
And the man was cured that very hour. 

When Jesus went into Peter's house, he saw 14 

of Peter 1 Peter's mother-in-law prostrated with fever. On 1 5 
Mother-in. Law his taking her hand, the fever left her, and she 
and of many rose and began to wait upon him. 

In the evening the people brought to Jesus many 16 
who were possessed by demons ; and he drove out the spirits 
with a word, and cured all who were ill, in fulfilment of these 17 
words in the Prophet Isaiah 

' He took our infirmities on himself, and bore the burden of 
our diseases.' 

Tests or Seeing a crowd round him, Jesus gave orders 18 

Sincerity. to gO acrOSS. 

And a Teacher of the Law came up to him, and said : 19 

" Teacher, I will follow you wherever you go." 

" Foxes have holes," answered Jesus, " and wild birds their 20 
roosting-places, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his 

' ' Master," said another, who was a disciple, " let me first go 21 
and bury my father." 

4 Lev. 13. 49. 11 Mai. i. n. l - Enoch 10. 4. W Isa. 53. 4. 2 Dan. 7. 13. 

56 MATTHEW, 8-9. 

But Jesus answered : 22 

" Follow me, and leave the dead to bury their dead." 
jesus stiiis Then he got into the boat, followed by his dis- 23 

a storm, ciples. Suddenly so great a storm came on upon 24 
the Sea, that the waves broke right over the boat. But Jesus 
was asleep ; and the disciples came and roused him. 25 

" Master," they cried, " save us ; we are lost ! " 

"Why are you so timid?" he said. "O men of little 26 

Then Jesus rose and rebuked the winds and the sea, and a 
great calm followed. The men were amazed, and 27 

exclaimed : 

" What kind of man is this, that even the winds and the sea 
obey him ! " 
cure of two And on getting to the other side the country 28 

Madmen, of the Gadarenes Jesus met two men who were 
possessed by demons, coming out of the tombs. They were 
so violent that no one was able to pass that way. Suddenly 29 
they shrieked out : 

" What do you want with us, Son of God ? Have you come 
here to torment us before our time ? " 

A long way off, there was a drove of many pigs, feeding ; and 30, 3 
the foul spirits began begging Jesus': 

" If you drive us out, send us into the drove of pigs." 

" Go," he said. 32 

The spirits came out, and entered the pigs ; and the whole 
drove rushed down the steep slope into the Sea, and died in 
the water. At this the men who tended them ran 33 

away and went to the town, carrying the news of all that had 
occurred, and of what had happened to the possessed men. 
At the news the whole town went out to meet Jesus, and, when 34 
they saw him, they entreated him to go away from their 

cure of Afterwards Jesus got into a boat, and, crossing i 9 
a paralyzed over, came to his own city. And there 2 

Man. some people brought to him a paralyzed man on 
a bed. When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the man : 

" Courage, Child ! your sins are forgiven." 
Then some of the Teachers of the Law said to themselves : 3 

"This man is blaspheming!" 
Knowing their thoughts, Jesus exclaimed : 4 

" Why do you cherish such wicked thoughts ? Which, I ask, 5 
is the easier ? to say ' Your sins are forgiven ' ? or to say ' Get 
up, and walk about ' ? But, that you may know that the Son 6 
of Man has power on earth to forgive sins " then he said to the 
paralyzed man " Get up, take up your bed, and return to your 
home." The man got up and went to his home. When 7,8 

the crowd saw this, they were awe-struck, and praised God for 
giving such power to men. 

MATTHEW, 9. 57 

Can of As Jesus went along, he saw a man, called 9 

Matthew. Matthew, sitting in the tax-office, and said to 
him : 

" Follow me." 
Matthew got up and followed him. 

And, later on, when he was at table in the 10 

Jesus blamed . 

for his house, a number or tax-gatherers and outcasts 
companions. caiT ie in and took their places at table with 
Jesus and his disciples. When the Pharisees saw this, they n 
sa"id to his disciples : 

"Why does your Teacher eat in the company of tax- 

Sitherers and outcasts ? " 
n hearing this, Jesus said : 12 

"It is not those who are in health that need a doctor, but 
those who are ill. Go and learn what this means 13 

' I desire mercy, and not sacrifice ' ; 

for I did not come to call the religious, but the outcast." 

... Then John's disciples came to Jesus, and asked : 14 

The Disciples ,,-,, J , j ,, -p., e \ 1-1 

blamed for Why do we and the Pharisees last while your 

not Fasting, disciples do not ? " 

Jesus answered : 15 

" Can the bridegroom's friends mourn as long as the bride- 
groom is with them ? But the days will come, when the bride- 
groom will be parted from them, and they will fast then. No 16 
man ever puts a piece of unshrunk cloth on an old garment ; 
for such a patch tears away from the garment, and a worse 
rent is made. Nor do people put new wine into old wine- 17 
skins ; for, if they do, the skins burst, and the wine runs out, 
and the skins are lost ; but they put new wine into fresh skins, 
and so both are preserved." 

While Jesus was saying this, a President of a 18 

The Raisins o J J ? , 

of the Synagogue came up and bowed to the ground 
Daughter o* before him. 

jaeirus. My daughter," he said, "has just died ; but 
come and place your hand on her, and she will be restored to 

So Jesus rose and followed him, and his disciples went 19 
also. But meanwhile a woman, who had been suffer- 20 

Cure of ' in & fr nl haemorrhage for twelve years, came up 
an afflicted behind and touched the tassel of his cloak. 

woman. " If I only touch his cloak," she said to herself, 21 

"I shall get well." 
Turning and seeing her, Jesus said : 22 

" Courage, Daughter ! your faith has delivered you." And 
the woman was delivered from her malady from that very 
hour. When Jesus reached the President's house, seeing 23 

13 Hos. 6. 6. 20 Num. 15. 38. 

58 MATTHEW, 9 1O. 

the flute-players, and a number of people all in confusion, he said: 

" Go a"way, the little girl is not dead ; she is asleep." 24 

They began to laugh at him ; but, when the people had been 25 
sent out, Jesus went in, and took the little girl's hand, and she 
rose. The report of this spread through all that 26 

part of the country. 

As Jesus was passing on from there, he was 27 
"t^o" followed by two blind men, who kept calling out : 

blind Men. Take pity on us, Son of David ! " . 

When he had gone indoors, the blind men came up to him ; 28 
and Jesus asked them : 

" Do you believe that I am able to do this ? " 

" Yes, Master ! " they answered. 
Upon that he touched their eyes, and said : 29 

" It shall be according to your faith." 

Then their eyes were opened. Jesus sternly cautioned 30 

them. " See that no one knows of it," he said. But the men 31 
went out, and spread the news about him through all that part 
of the country. 

cure of a J ust as they were going 1 out, some people 32 

dumb Man. brought up to Jesus a dumb man who was 
possessed by a demon ; and, as soon as the demon had been 33 
driven out, the dumb man spoke. The people were astonished 
at this, and exclaimed : 

" Nothing like this has ever been seen in Israel ! " 
But the Pharisees said : 34 

"He drives out the demons by the help of the chief of 
the demons." 

The Need Jesus went round all the towns and the vil- 35 
for lages, teaching in their Synagogues, proclaiming 

worker*. th e Good News of the Kingdom, and curing every 
kind of disease and every kind of sickness. 

But, when he saw the crowds, his heart was moved with com- 36 
passion for them, because they were distressed and harassed, 
' like sheep without a shepherd ' ; and he said to his disciples : 37 

"The harvest is abundant, but the labourers are few. 
Therefore pray to the Owner of the harvest to send labourers 38 
to gather in his harvest." 
The twelve Calling his twelve Disciples to him, Jesus gave i 

Apotie. them authority over foul spirits, so that they 
could drive them out, as well as the power of curing every 
kind of disease and every kind of sickness. 

The names of the twelve Apostles are these : 2 

First Simon, also known as Peter, and his brother Andrew ; 
James the son of Zebediah, and his brother John ; 
Philip and Bartholomew ; 3 

86 Num. 27. 17. 

MATTHEW, 1O. 59 

Thomas, and Matthew the tax-gatherer ; 

James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus ; 

Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot the Apostle who 4 

betrayed him. 

The Mission These twelve Jesus sent out as his Messengers, 5 

of the twelve after giving them these instructions 


" Do not go to the Gentiles, nor enter any Samaritan town, 
but make your way rather to the lost sheep of Israel. And on 6, 7 
your way proclaim that the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand. 
Cure the sick, raise the dead, make the lepers clean, drive 8 
out demons. You have received free of cost, give free of 
cost. Do not provide yourselves with gold, or silver, g 

or pence in your purses ; not even with a bag for the journey, 10 
or a change of clothes, or sandals, or even a staff; for the 
worker is worth his food. Whatever town or village you u 
visit, find out who is worthy in that place, and remain 
there till you leave. As you enter the house, greet it. Then, 12, 13 
if the house is worthy, let your blessing rest upon it, but, 
if it is unworthy, let your blessing return upon yourselves. 
If no one welcomes you, or listens to what you say, as you 14 
leave that house or that town, shake off its dust from your 
feet. I tell you, the doom of the land of Sodom and Gomorrah 15 
will be more bearable in the ' Day of Judgement ' than the 
doom of that town. 

Remember, I am sendingyou out as my Messengers like sheep 16 
among wolves. So be as wise as serpents, and as blameless as 17 
doves. Be on your guard against your fellow men, for they 
will betray you to courts of law, and scourge you in their Syna- 
gogues ; and you will be brought before governors and kings 18 
for my sake, that you may witness for me before them and the 
nations. Whenever they betray you, do not be anxious as to how 19 
you shall speak or what you shall say, for what you shall say 
will be given you at the moment ; for it will not be you who 20 
speak, but the Spirit of your Father that speaks within you. 
Brother will betray brother to death, and the father his child ; 21 
and children will turn against their parents, and cause them 
to be put to death ; and you will be hated by every one on 22 
account of my Name. Yet the man that endures to the end shall 
be saved. But, when they persecute you in one town, escape to 23 
the next ; for, I tell you, you will not have come to the end of 
the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes. A 24 

scholar is not above his teacher, nor a servant above his 
master. It is enough for a scholar to be treated like his 25 
teacher, and a servant like his master. If the head of the 
house has been called Baal-zebub, how much more the mem- 
bers of his household ! Do not, therefore, be afraid of them. 26 
There is nothing concealed which will not be revealed, nor 

15 Enoch 10. 6. 21 Mic. 7. 6. 

60 MATTHEW, 1O 11. 

anything- hidden which will not become known. What I tell 
you in the dark, say agam in the light ; and what is whispered 
in your ear, proclaim upon the housetops. And do not be 
afraid of those who kill the body, but are unable to kill the 
soul ; rather be afraid of him who is able to destroy both 
soul and body in the Pit. Are not two sparrows sold for a half- 
penny ? Yet not one of them will fall to the ground without 
your Father's knowledge. While as for you, the very hairs of 
your head are all numbered. Do not, therefore, be afraid ; you 
are of more value than many sparrows. Every one, 

therefore, who shall acknowledge me before his fellow men, I, 
too, will acknowledge before my Father who is in Heaven ; 
but, if any one disowns me before his fellow men, I, too, will 
disown him before my Father who is in Heaven. 

The cost -D n t- i ma T me that I have come to bring 

of Christ's peace upon the earth. I have come to bring, not 

Service, peace, but the sword. For I have come to set 

'a man against his father, and a daughter against her 
mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law. A 
man's enemies will be the members of his own household.' 

He who loves father or mother more than me is not worthy 
of me; and he who loves son or daughter more than me is 
not worthy of me. And the man who does not take his cross 
and follow in my steps is not worthy of me. He who has 
found his life will lose it, while he who, for my sake, has lost 
his life shall find it. 

He who welcomes you is welcoming me ; and he who 
welcomes me is welcoming him who sent me as his Messenger. 
He who welcomes a Prophet, because he is a Prophet, shall 
receive a Prophet's reward ; and he who welcomes a good 
man, because he is a good man, shall receive a good man's 
reward. And, if any one gives but a cup of cold water to one 
of these lowly ones because he is a disciple, I tell you that he 
shall assuredly not lose his reward." 

After Jesus had finished giving directions to his twelve 
Disciples, he left that place in order to teach and preach in 
their towns. 

The Baptist's Now John had heard in prison what the Christ 2 
Message to was doing, and he sent a message by his disciples 3 

* and asked 

"Are you 'The Coming One,' or are we to look for some 
one else ? " 

- Mic. 7. 6. 3 Ps. n& 26. 

MATTHEW, 11. 61 

The answer of Jesus to the question was 4 

" Go and report to John what you hear and see The blind 5 
recover their sight and the lame walk, the lepers are made 
clean and the deaf hear, the dead, too, are raised to life, and 
the Good News is told to the poor. And blessed is the man 6 
who finds no hindrance in me." 

While these men were going back, Jesus began 7 

Testimony of ^ sav ^ ^ e crowds with reference to John : 

jcsus to "WhatdidyougooutintotheWildernesstolook 8 

the Baptist. a p ^ reed waving in the wind? If not, what 
did you go out to see ? A man richly dressed ? Why, those 
who wear rich things are to be found in the courts of kings ! 
What, then, did you go for ? To see a Prophet ? Yes, I tell 9 
you, and far more than a Prophet. This is the man of whom 10 
Scripture says 

' Behold, I am myself sending- my Messenger before thy face, 
And he shall prepare thy way before thee.' 

I tell you, no one born of a woman has yet appeared who is 1 1 

S -eater than John the Baptist ; and yet the lowliest in the 
ingdom of Heaven is greater than he. From the time of 12 
John the Baptist to this very hour, the Kingdom of Heaven 
has been taken by force, and men using force have been 
seizing it. For the teaching of all the Prophets and of the 13 
Law continued till the time of John ; and if you are ready to 14 
accept it John is himself the Elijah who was destined to 
come. Let him who has ears hear. But to 15, 16 

what shall I compare the present generation ? It is like 
little children sitting in the market-places and calling out to 17 
their playmates 

' We have played the flute for you, but you have not danced ; 
We have wailed, but you have not mourned. ' 

For, when John came, neither eating nor drinking, men said 18 
' He has a demon in him ' ; and now that the Son of Man has 19 
come, eating and drinking, they are saying ' Here is a glutton 
and a wine-drinker, a friend of tax-gatherers and outcasts ! ' 
And yet Wisdom is vindicated by her actions." 
The Doom of Then Jesus began to reproach the towns in 20 
the Towns of which most of his miracles had been done, be- 
caiiiee. cause they had not repented : 

"Alas for you, Chorazin ! Alas for you, Bethsaida ! For, if 21 
the miracles which were done in you had been done in Tyre 
and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and 
ashes. Yet, I tell you, the doom of Tyre and Sidon will be more 22 
bearable in the ' Day of Judgement ' than yours. And 23 

you, Capernaum ! Will you ' exalt yourself to Heaven ' ? 
' You shall go down to the Place of Death. ' For, if the miracles 

8 Isa. 61. i. 10 Mai. 3. i. 23 Isa. 14. 1315. 

62 MATTHEW, 1112. 

which have been done in you had been done in Sodom, it 
would have been standing to this day* Yet, I tell you, the 24 
doom of Sodom will be more bearable in the ' Day of J udge- 
ment' than yours." 

The At that same time Jesus uttered the words : 25 

chiid-iike " I thank thee, Father, Lord of 

Mind. Heaven and earth, that, though thou 

hast hidden these things from the 
wise and learned, thou hast revealed 
them to the child-like ! Yes, Father, 26 

I thank thee that this has seemed 
good to thee. 

Everything has been committed to me by my Father ; nor 27 
does any one fully know the Son, except the Father, or fully 
know the Father, except the Son and those to whom the Son 

Jesus may choose to reveal him. Come to me, 28 

invites the all you who toil and are burdened, and I will 

weary. gj ve y OU res i Take my yoke upon you, and 29 
learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly-minded, and ' you 
shall find rest for your souls ' ; for my yoke is easy, and my 30 
burden is light." 

About the same time Jesus walked through the i 

The Disciples r < r- i i ,1 TT* j* i 

blamed for corn-fields one Sabbath. His disciples were 
not observing hungry, and began to pick some ears of wheat 

the Law. anc j ea j. th em But, w hen the Pharisees saw this, 2 
they said : 

" Look ! your disciples are doing what it is not allowable to 
do on a Sabbath ! " 

" Have not you read," replied Jesus, "what David did, when 3 
he and his companions were hungry how he went into the 4 
House of God, and how they ate the consecrated bread, though 
it was not allowable for him or his companions to eat it, but 
only for the priests ? And have not you read in the Law that, 5 
on the Sabbath, the priests in the Temple break the Sabbath 
and yet are not guilty? Here, however, I tell you, there is 6 
something greater than the Temple ! And had vou learnt the 7 
meaning of the words 

' I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' 

you would not have condemned those who are not guilty. 
For the Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath." 8 

Passing on, Jesus went into their Synagogue, 9 
a Mai? with ant ^ there he saw a man with a withered hand. 10 
a withered Some people asked Jesus whether it was allowable 
Hand. to work a cure on t| ie Sabbath so that they might 
have a charge to bring against him. But Jesus said to them : u 

W Enoch 10. 6. 29 Jer. 6. 16. i Sam. 21. 6. ^ Hos. 6. 6. 

MATTHEW, 12. 63 

" Which of you, if he had only one sheep, and that sheep 
fell into a pit on the Sabbath, would not lay hold of it and 
pull it out? And how much more precious a man is than a 12 
sheep ! Therefore it is allowable to do good on the Sabbath." 
Then he said to the man. 13 

" Stretch out your hand." 

The man stretched it out ; and it had become as sound as the 
other. On coming out, the Pharisees plotted against 14 

Jesus, to put him to death. 

Jesus, however, became aware of it, and went away from 15 
that place. A number of people followed him, and he 

cured them all ; but he warned them not to make him known, 16 
in fulfilment of these words in the Prophet Isaiah 17 

' Behold ! the Servant of my Choice, 18 

My Beloved, in whom my heart delights ! 
I will breathe my spirit upon him, 

And he shall announce a time of judgement to the Gentiles. 
He shall not contend, nor cry aloud, 19 

Neither shall any one hear his voice in the streets ; 
A bruised reed he will not break, 20 

And a smouldering 1 wick he will not quench, 

Till he has brought the judgement to a victorious issue, 

And on his name shall the Gentiles rest their hopes.' 21 

Cure of a blind Then some people brought to Jesus a possessed 22 
and dumb man, who was blind and dumb ; and he cured 
Man - him, so that the man who had been dumb both 
talked and saw. At this all the people were astounded. 23 

"Is it possible that this is the son of David?" they exclaimed. 
But the Pharisees heard of it and said : 24 

"He drives out demons only by the help of 
Je8 "/ A ^"" ed Baal-zebub the chief of the demons." 
by the Help Jesus, however, was aware of what was passing 25 

of Satan. j n t j le ; r m j nc J S) anc j sa jd to t h em . 

"Any kingdom divided against itself becomes a desolation, 
and any town or household divided against itself will not last. 
So, if Satan drives Satan out, he must be divided against 26 
himself; and how, then, can his kingdom last? And, if it 27 
is by Baal-zebub's help that I drive out demons, by whose 
help is it that your own sons drive them out ? Therefore they 
shall themselves be your judges. But, if it is by the help of 28 
the Spirit of God that I drive out demons, then the Kingdom 
of God must already be upon you. How, again, can any one 29 
get into a strong man's house and carry off his goods, without 
first securing him ? And not till then will he plunder his house. 
He who is not with me is against me, and he who does 30 
not help me to gather is scattering. Therefore, I 31 

tell you, men will be forgiven every sin and slander ; but 

J8 Isji. 41- 8 ; 42. i. 19-21 jsa. 42 . 2_ 4 . 

64 MATTHEW, 12. 

slander against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven. Whoever 32 
speaks against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but whoever 
speaks against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven, either 
in the present age, or in the age to come. 

words ^ ou must assume either that both tree and fruit 33 

a. Test of are good, or that both tree and fruit are worthless ; 
character, since it is by its fruit that a tree is known. You 34 
brood of vipers ! how can you, evil as you are, say anything 
good ? For what fills the heart will rise to the lips. A good 35 
man, from his good stores, produces good things ; while an 
evil man, from his evil stores, produces evil things. I 36 

tell you that for every careless thing that men say, they must 
answer on the ' Day of Judgement.' For it is by your words 37 
that you will be acquitted, and by your words that you will be 

At this point, some Teachers of the Law and -*8 

Warning _, . *. . 

against seeking Pharisees interposed. 

signs. "Teacher," they said, "we want to see some 

sign from you. " 

" It is a wicked and unfaithful generation," answered Jesus, 39 
" that is asking for a sign, and no sign shall be given it except 
the sign of the Prophet Jonah. For, just as 'Jonah was inside 40 
the sea-monster three days and three nights,' so shall the Son of 
Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 
At the Judgement, the men of Nineveh will stand up with this 41 
generation, and will condemn it, because they repented at 
Jonah's proclamation ; and here is more than a Jonah ! At 42 
the Judgement the Queen of the South will rise up with the 
present generation, and will condemn it, because she came 
from the very ends of the earth to listen to the wisdom of 
Solomon ; and here is more than a Solomon ! 

Dan er ^ sooner does a foul spirit leave a man, 43 

or imperfect than it passes through places where there is no 
Reformation. wa ter, in search of rest, and does not find it. 
Then it says ' I will go back to the home which I left ' ; but, 44 
on coming there, it finds it unoccupied, and swept, and put in 
order. Then it goes and brings with it seven other spirits more 45 
wicked than itself, and they go in, and make their home there ; 
and the last state of that man proves to be worse than the 
first. So, too, will it be with this wicked generation." 

The true While he was still speaking to the crowds, his 46 
Brotherhood, motherand brothers were standing outside, asking 
to speak to him. Some one told him this, and Jesus replied : 47, 

" Who is my mother ? and who are my brothers ? " 
Then, stretching out his hand towards his disciples, he said : 49 

40 Jon. i. 17. 42 i Kings 10. a 4, 

MATTHEW, 12-13. 65 

" Here are my mother and my brothers ! For any one who 50 
does the will of my Father who is in Heaven is my brother 
and sister and mother." 

Parable That same day, when Jesus had left the house i ; 
of the sower, and was sitting by the Sea, such great crowds 2 
gathered round him, that he got into a boat, and sat in it, 
while all the people stood upon the beach. Then he told them 3 
many truths in parables. 

" The sower," he began, " went out to sow ; and, as he was 4 
sowing, some seed fell along the path, and the birds came 
and ate it up. Some fell on rocky places, where it had not 5 
much soil, and, having no depth of soil, sprang up at once. 
As soon as the sun had risen, it was scorched, and, having no 6 
root, withered away. Some, again, feH into the brambles ; 7 
but the brambles shot up and choked it. Some, however, fell 8 
on good soil, and yielded a return, sometimes one hundred, 
sometimes sixty, sometimes thirty fold. Let him who 9 

has ears hear." 

Afterwards his disciples came to him, and said : 10 

" Wny do you speak to them in parables ? " 

" To you," answered Jesus, "the knowledge of the hidden n 
truths of the Kingdom of Heaven has been imparted, but not to 
those. For, to all who have, more will be given, and they shall 12 
have abundance ; but, from all who have nothing, even what 
they have will be taken away. That is why I speak to them 13 
in parables, because, though they have eyes, they do not see, 
and though they have ears, they do not hear or understand. 
And in them is being fulfilled that prophecy of Isaiah which 14 

' You will hear with your ears without ever understanding 1 , 

And, though you have eyes, you will see without ever perceiv- 

For the mind of this nation has grown dense, 15 

And their ears are dull of hearing, 
Their eyes also have they closed ; 
Lest some day they should perceive with their eyes, 
And with their ears they should hear, 

And in their mind they should understand, and should turn 
And I should heal them.' 

But blessed are your eyes, for they see, and your ears, for they 16 
hear ; for I tell you that many Prophets and good men have 17 
longed for the sight of the things which you are seeing, yet 
never saw them, and to hear the things which you are hearing, 
yet never heard them. 

Listen, then, yourselvesto the parable of the Sower. When 18, 
any one hears the Message of the Kingdom without under- 

14-15 Isa. 6. 910. 

66 MATTHEW, 13. 

standing it, the Evil One comes and snatches away what 
has been sown in his mind. This is the man meant by the 
seed which was sown along the path. By the seed which was 20 
sown on rocky places is meant the man who hears the Message, 
and at once accepts it joyfully ; but, as he has no root, he 21 
stands for only a short time ; and, when trouble or persecu- 
tion arises on account of the Message, he falls away at once. 
By the seed which was sown among the brambles is meant 22 
the man who hears the Message, but the cares of life and the 
glamour of wealth completely choke the Message, so that it 
gives no return. But by the seed which was sown on the 23 
good ground is meant the man who hears the Message and 
understands it, and really yields a return, sometimes one hun- 
dred, sometimes sixty, sometimes thirty fold. " 

Parable Another parable which Jesus told them was 24 

of the Tares, this 

"The Kingdom of Heaven is compared to a man who 
sowed good seed in his field. But, while every one was asleep, 25 
his enemy eame and sowed tares among the wheat, and then 
went away. So, when the blades of corn shot up, and came 26 
into ear, the tares made their appearance also. On this the 27 
owner's servants came to him, and said ' Was not it good seed 
that you sowed in your field ? Where, then, do the tares in it 
come from ? ' 

'An enemy has done this,' was his answer. 28 

' Do you wish us, then,' they asked, ' to go and gather them 
together ? ' 

'No,' said he, 'for fear that, while you are gathering the 29 
tares, you should root up the wheat as well. Let both grow 30 
side by side till harvest ; and then I shall say to the reapers, 
Gather the tares together first, and tie them in bundles for 
burning ; but bring all the wheat into my barn.' " 

Parable Another parable which he told them was this 31 
or the "The Kingdom of Heaven is like a miisi.ird- 

Mustard seed, seed, which a man took and sowed in his field. 
This seed is smaller than all other seeds, but, when it has 32 
grown up, it is larger than the herbs and becomes a tree, so 
that ' the wild birds come and roost in its branches.'" 

Parable This was' another parable which Jesus related 33 
or the "The Kingdom of Heaven is like some yeast 

Leaven. which a woman took and covered up in three 
pecks of flour, until the whole had risen." 

Of all this Jesus spoke to the crowd in parables ; indeed to 34 
them he used never to speak at all except in parables, in fulfil- 35 
ment of these words in the Prophet 

' I will speak to them in parables ; 

I will utter things kept secret since the foundation of the world.' 
Dan. 4. i a. Pa. 78. a. 

MATTHEW, 13. 67 

Parable Then Jesus left the crowd, and went into the 36 
of the Tares house. Presently his disciples came to 

explained, him, and said : 

" Explain to us the parable of the tares in the field." 
And he answered : " The sower of the good seed is the Son of 37 
Man. The field is the world. By the good seed is meant the 38 
People of the Kingdom. The tares are the wicked, and the 39 
enemy who sowed them is the Devil. The harvest-time is 
the close of the age, and the reapers are angels. And, just 40 
as the tares are gathered and burnt, so it will be at the close of 
the age. The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will 41 
gather from his kingdom all that hinders and those who live 
in sin, and 'will throw them into the fiery furnace,' where 42 
there will be weeping and grinding of teeth. 

Then shall the righteous shine, like the sun, in the Kingdom 43 
of their Father. Let him who has ears hear. 

Parable T ne Kingdom of Heaven is like a treasure hid- 44 
of the den in a field, which a man found and hid again, 
Treasure. an( j then, in his delight, went and sold everything 
that he had, and bought that field. 

Parable Again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like a mer- 45 
of the Pearl, chant in search of choice pearls. Finding one of 46 
great value, he went and sold everything that he had, and 
bought it. 

Parable Or again, the Kingdom of Heaven is like a net 47 
of the Net. which was cast into the sea, and caugnt fish of 
all kinds. When it was full, they hauled it up on the beach, 48 
and sat down and sorted the good fish into baskets, but threw 
the worthless ones away. So will it be at the close of the age. 49 
The angels will go out and separate the wicked from the 
righteous, and ' will throw them into the fiery furnace,' where 50 
there will be weeping and grinding of teeth. 

New Have you understood all this?" Jesus asked. 51 

and old " Yes," they answered. 

Truths. Then he added : 52 

" So every Teacher of the Law, who has received instruction 
about the Kingdom of Heaven, is like a householder who pro- 
duces from his stores things both new and old." 

Jesu When Jesus had finished these parables, he 53 

teaches at withdrew from that place. Going to his own part 54 
Nazareth. o f the country, he taught the people in their 
Synagogue in such a manner that they were deeply impressed. 
"Where did he get this wisdom?" they said, "and the 
miracles ? Is not he the carpenter's son ? Is not his mother 55 
called Mary, and his brothers James, and Joseph, and Simon, 
and Judas? And his sisters, too are not they all living 56 
among us ? Where, then did he get all this ? " 

4J Enoch 54. 6. <3 Dan. 12. 3. & Enoch 54. 6. 

68 MATTHEW, 13-14. 

These things proved a hindrance to their believing in him ; 57 
whereupon Jesus said : 

"A Prophet is not without honour, except in his own country 
and in his own house." 

And he did not work many miracles there, because of their 58 
want of faith. 

The Death of At that time Prince Herod heard of the fame of 
the Baptist. Jesus, and said to his attendants : 

" This must be John the Baptist ; he must be risen from 
the dead, and that is why these miraculous powers are active 
in him." 

For Herod had arrested John, put him in chains, and shut 
him up in prison, to please Herodias, the wife of Herod's 
brother Philip. For John had said to him ' You have no right 
to be living with her.' Yet, though Herod wanted to put him 
to death, he was afraid of the people, because they looked on 
John as a Prophet. But, when Herod's birthday came, the 
daughter of Herodias danced before his guests, and so pleased 
Herod, that he promised with an oath to give her whatever 
she asked. Prompted by her mother, the girl said ' Give me 
here, on a dish, the head of John the Baptist.' The king was 
distressed at this ; yet, on account of his oath and of the guests at 
his table, he ordered it to be given her. He sent and beheaded 
Johninthe prison ; and his head was brought on a dish and given 
to the girl, and she took it to her mother. Then John's 

disciples came, and took the body away, and buried it ; and 
went and told Jesus. 

When Jesus heard of it, he retired privately in a 

flve't^ou'sand boat to a lonely spot. The people, however, heard 

by the Lake of his going, and followed him in crowds from the 

or oaiiiee. towns on f oot- On getting out of the 

boat, Jesus saw a great crowd, and his heart was moved at the 
sight of them ; and hecured all thesickamong them. In 

the evening the disciples came up to him, and said : 

" This is a lonely spot, and the day is now far advanced ; 
send the crowds away, that they may go to the villages, and 
buy themselves food. 

But Jesus said : "They need not go away, it is for you to 
give them something to eat." 

" We have nothing here," they said, "except five loaves and 
two fishes." 

" Bring them here to me," was his reply. 

Jesus ordered the people to take their seats on the grass ; and, 
.taking the five loaves and the two fishes, he looked up to 
Heaven, and said the blessing, and, after he had broken the 
loaves, gave them to his disciples ; and they gave them to the 
crowds. Every one had sufficient to eat, and they picked up 

MATTHEW, 14-15. .69 

enough of the broken pieces that were left to fill twelve 
baskets. The men who ate were about five thousand in 21 
number, without counting women and children. 

jesus Immediately afterwards Jesus made the disci- 22 

walks on the pies get into a boat and cross over in advance of 

water. him, while he dismissed the crowds. After dis- 23 
missing the crowds, he went up the hill by himself to pray ; 
and, when evening fell, he was there alone. The 24 

boat was by this time some miles from shore, labouring in the 
waves, for the wind was against her. Three hours 25 

after midnight, however, Jesus came towards the disciples, 
walking on the water. Bat, when they saw him walking on 26 
the water, they were terrified. 

" It is a ghost," they exclaimed, and cried out for fear. But 
Jesus at once spoke to them. 27 

" Courage ! " he said, " It is I ; do not be afraid ! " 

" Master," Peter exclaimed, "if it is you, tell me to come to 28 
you on the water." 

And Jesus said : " Come." 29 

So Peter got down from the boat, and walked on the water, 
and went towards Jesus ; but, when he felt the wind, he was 30 
frightened, and, beginning to sink, cried out : 

" Master ! Save me ! " 
Instantly Jesus stretched out his hand, and caught hold of him. 31 

" O man of little faith ! " he said, " Why did you falter ? " 
When they had got into the boat, the wind dropped. But 32, 33 
the men in the boat threw themselves on their faces before 
him, and said : 

"You are indeed God's Son." 

Jesus at When they had crossed over, they landed at 34 
Gennesaret. Gennesaret. But the people of that place, recog- 35 
nizing Jesus, sent out to the whole country round, and brought 
to him all who were ill, begging him merely to let them touch 36 
the tassel of his cloak ; and all who touched- were made 
perfectly well. 

Then some Pharisees and Teachers of the Law i 15 
The b? a med " came to Jesus, and said : 
for neglecting " How is it that your disciples break the tra- 2 

ceremonies, ditions of our ancestors ? For they do not wash 
their hands when they eat food." 
His reply was : 3 

" How is it that you on your side break God's commandments 
out of respect for your own traditions ? For God said 4 

' Honour thy father and mother,' 

' Let him who reviles his father or mother suffer death,' 

4 Exod. 20. 12 ; Exod. 21. 17. 

70. MATTHEW, 15. 

but you say ' Whenever any one says to his father or mother 
" Whatever of mine might have been of service to you is ' Given 
to God,' " he is in no way bound to honour his father.' In this 
way you have nullified the words of God on account of your 
traditions. Hypocrites ! It was well said by Isaiah when he 
prophesied about you 

' This is a people that honour me with their lips, 
While their hearts are far removed from me ; 
But vainly do they worship me, 

For they teach but the precepts of men.'" 

Then Jesus called the people to him, and said : 

"Listen, and mark my words. It is not what enters a 
man's mouth that ' defiles ' him, but what comes out from his 
mouth that does defile him ! " 

On this his disciples came up to him, and said : 

" Do you know that the Pharisees were shocked on hearing 
what you said ? " 

" Every plant," Jesus replied, "that my heavenly Father has 
not planted will be rooted up. Let them be ; they are but 
blind guides ; and, if one blind man guides another, both of 
them will fall into a ditch." 

Upon this, Peter said to Jesus : 

" Explain this saying to us." 

"What, do even you understand nothing yet?" Jesus ex- 
claimed. " Do not you see that whatever goes into the mouth 
passes into the stomach, and is afterwards expelled ? But the 
things that come out from the mouth proceed from the heart, 
and it is these that defile a man. For out of the heart proceed 
evil thoughts murder, adultery, unchastity, theft, perjury, 
slander. These are the things that defile a man ; but eating 
with unwashed hands does not defile a man." 

cur* or* On going away from that place, Jesus retired to 

Syrian oiri the country round Tyre and Sidon. There, 

noarTyro. a Canaanite woman of that district came out 
and began calling to Jesus : 

"Take pity on me, Master, Son of David ; my daughter is 
grievously possessed by a demon." 

But Jesus did not answer her a word ; and his disciples came 
up and begged him to send her away. 

"She keeps calling out after us," they said. 

" I was not sent," replied Jesus, " to any one except the lost 
sheep of Israel." 

But the woman came, and, bowing to the ground before him, 
said : 

"Master, help me 

*- Isa. 29. 13. 

MATTHEW, 15-16. 71 

c< It is not fair," replied Jesus, " to take the children's food 26 
and throw it to dogs." 

"Yes, Master," she said, "for even dogs do feed on the scraps 27 
that fall from their owners' table. " 

" Your faith is great," was his reply to the woman ; " it shall 28 
be as vou wish ! " 
And her daughter was cured that very hour. 

Jesus ^ n l eav i n g that place, Jesus went to the shore 29 

cures'many of the Sea of Galilee ; and then went up the hill, 

Persons. anc j sa ^ down. Great crowds of people came 30 
to him, bringing with them those who were lame, crippled, 
blind, or dumb, and many others. They put them down at 
his feet, and he cured them ; and the crowd were astonished, 31 
when they saw the dumb talking, the cripples made sound, 
the lame walking about, and the blind with their sight 
restored ; and they praised the God of Israel. 

Jesus feeds Afterwards Jesus called his disciples to him, 32 
four thousand, and said : 

" My heart is moved at the sight of all these people, for 
they have already been with me three days and they have 
nothing to eat ; and I am unwilling to send them away 
hungry, for fear that they should break down on the way." 

" Where can we," his disciples asked, " in a lonely place find 33 
enough bread for such a crowd as this ? " 

" How many loaves have you ? " said Jesus. 34 

" Seven," they answered, " and a few small fish." 
Telling the crowd to sit down on the ground, Jesus took the 35, 
seven loaves and the fish, and, after saying the thanksgiving, 
broke them, and gave them to the disciples ; and the disciples 
gave them to the crowds. Every one had sufficient to eat, and 37 
they picked up seven baskets full of the broken pieces left. The 38 
men who ate were four thousand in number, without counting 
women and children. Then, after dismissing the 39 

crowds, Jesus got into the boat, and went to the neighbour- 
hood of Magadan. 

signs of Here the Pharisees and Sadducees came up, i j 
the rimes, and, to test Jesus, requested him to show them 
some sign from the heavens. But Jesus answered : 2 

[" In the evening you say ' It will be fine weather, for the 
sky is as red as fire.' But in the morning you say ' To-day it 3 
will be stormy, for the sky is as red as fire and threatening.' 
You learn to read the sky ; yet you are unable to read the signs 
of the times !] A wicked and unfaithful generation 4 

is asking for a sign, but no sign shall be given it except 
the sign of Jonah." 
So he left them and went away. 

72 MATTHEW, 16. 

Now the disciples had crossed to the opposite 5 
warning shore, and had forgotten to take any bread. 

against the T*IT *" s- 

Teaching Presently Jesus said to them : 6 

of the "Take care and be on your guard against the 

Pharisees. j eaven o f the Pharisees and Sadducees." 
But the disciples began talking among themselves about their 7 
having brought no bread. On noticing this, Jesus said : 8 

"Why are you talking among yourselves about your being 
short of bread, O men of little faith ? Do not you yet see, nor 9 
remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many 
baskets you took away ? Nor yet the seven loaves for the four 10 
thousand, and how many basketfuls you took away? How n 
is it that you do not see that I was not speaking about bread ? 
Be on your guard against the leaven of the Pharisees and 

Then they understood that he had told them to be on their 12 
guard, not against the leaven of bread, but against the teach- 
ing of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 

On coming into the neighbourhood of Caesarea 13 
Co*nfession Philippi, Jesus asked his disciples this question 
of " Who do people say that the Son of Man is?" 

the Christ. Some say John the Baptist," they answered, 14 
" others, however, say that he is Elijah, while others again 
say Jeremiah, or one of the Prophets." 

" But you," he said, " who do you say that I am ? " 15 

And to this Simon Peter answered : "You are the Christ, 16 
the Son of the Living God." 

"Blessed are you, Simon, Son of Jonah," Jesus replied. 17 
" For no human being has revealed this to you; but my 
Father who is in Heaven. Yes, and I say to you, Your 18 
name is 'Peter' a Rock, and on this rock I will build my 
Church, and the Powers of the Place of Death shall not pre- 
vail over it. I will give you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven. 19 
Whatever you forbid on earth will be held in Heaven to be 
forbidden, and whatever you allow on earth will be held in 
Heaven to be allowed." 

Then he charged his disciples not to tell any one that he 20 
was the Christ. 

Jesu . ^At that time Jesus Christ began to explain to 
foretells hi* his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem, and 
Death. undergo much suffering at the hands ofjthe Coun- 
cillors, and Chief Priests, and Teachers of the Law, and be 
put to death, and rise on the third day. But Peter took Jesus 
aside, and began to rebuke him. 

M Job 38. 17. 1 Isa. aa. aa. !" Hos. 6. a. 

MATTHEW, ie IT. 73 

"Master," he said, "please God that shall never be your 
fate ! " 
Jesus, however, turning to Peter, said : 23 

" Out of my way, Satan ! You are a hindrance to me ; for 
you look at things, not as God does, but as man does." 

A can Then Jesus said to his disciples : 24 

to renounce " If any man wishes to walk in my steps, let him 
self. renounce self, and take up his cross, and follow 
me. For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, and who- 25 
ever, for my sake, loses his life shall find it. What good 26 
will it do a man to gain the whole world, if he forfeits his life ? 
or what will a man give that is of equal value with his life ? 
For the Son of Man is to come in his Father's Glory, with his 27 
angels, and then he ' will give to every man what his actions 
deserve.' I tell you, some of those who are standing here will 28 
not know death till they have seen the Son of Man coming 
into his Kingdom." 

The ^' x days later, Jesus took with him Peter, and i 

Transfigure, the brothers James and John, and led them up 

tion. a high mountain alone. There his appearance 2 
was transformed before their eyes ; his face shone like the 
sun, and his clothes became as white as the light. And all 3 
at once Moses and Elijah appeared to them, talking with 

"Master," exclaimed Peter, interposing, "it is good to be 4 
here ; if you wish, I will make three tents here, one for you, 
one for Moses, and one for Elijah." 

While he was still speaking, a bright cloud enveloped them, 5 
and there was a voice from the cloud which said 

"This is my Son, the Beloved, in whom I delight; him 
you must hear." 

The disciples, on hearing this, fell on their faces, greatly 6 
afraid. But Jesus came and touched them, saying as he 7 
did so : 

" Rise up, and do not be afraid." 

When they raised their eyes, they saw no one but Jesus 8 
himself alone. As they were going down the moun- 9 

tain side, Jesus gave them this warning "Do not speak of 
this vision to any one, until the Son of Man has risen from 
the dead." 

A Question " How is it," his disciples asked, "that our 10 
about Elijah. Teachers of the Law say that Elijah has to come 

" Elijah indeed does come," Jesus replied, "and will restore n 
everything ; and I tell you that Elijah has already come, and 12 
people have not recognized him, but have treated him just as 

Ps. 6a. 13. 6 Pa. 2. 7 ; Isa. 42. i. U Mai. 4. 5. 

74 MATTHEW, 17. 

they pleased. In the same way, too, the Son of Man is 
destined to undergo suffering at men's hands." 
Then the disciples understood that it was of John the Baptist 
that he had spoken to them. 

cure or When they came to the crowd, a man came up 
an epileptic to Jesus, and, kneeling down before him, said : 

Boy- "Master, take pity on my son, for he is 

epileptic and suffers terribly ; indeed, he often falls into the fire 
and into the water ; I brought him to your disciples, but they 
could not cure him." 

The Power "O faithless and perverse generation !" Jesus 
of Faith, exclaimed, "how long must I be among you? 
how long must I have patience with you ? Bring the boy 
here to me." 

Then Jesus rebuked the demon, and it came out of the boy ; 
and he was cured from that very hour. Afterwards the 

disciples came up to Jesus, and asked him privately: "Why 
was it that we could not drive it out ? " 

"Because you have so little faith," he answered; "for, I 
tell you, if your faith were only like a mustard-seed, you 
could say to this mountain ' Move from this place to that ! ' 
and it would be moved ; and nothing would be impossible 
to you." 

While Jesus and his disciples were together in 22 

a eecond^me, Galilee ' he said to th .em : 

foretells ' ' The Son of Man is destined to be betrayed into 
his Death. ftiQ hands of his fellow-men, and they will put 23 

him to death, but on the third day he will rise." 

And the disciples were greatly distressed. 

A Question After they had reached Capernaum, the collec- 24 
about the tors of the Temple-rate came up to Peter, and 

Temple-rate. said : 

" Does not your Master pay the Temple-rate ? " 

"Yes," answered Peter. 25 

But, on going into the house, before he could speak, Jesus 

said : 

"What do you think, Simon? From whom do earthly 

kings take taxes or tribute ? From their sons, or from 

others ? " 

" From others," answered Peter. 26 

"Well then," continued Jesus, "their sons go free. Still, 27 

that we may not shock them, go and throw a line into the 

Sea ; take the first fish that rises, open its mouth, and you 

" Deut. 3. 5. 28 HOB. 6. a. 

MATTHEW, 17-18. 75 

will find in it a piece of money. Take that, and give it to the 
collectors for both of us. " 

on On the same occasion the dfsciples came to i 

Humility. Jesus, and asked him : 

"Who is really the greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven?" 
Jesus called a little child to him, and placed it in the middle of 2 
them, and then said : 3 

"I tell you, unless you change and become like little 
children, you will not enter the Kingdom of Heaven at all. 
Therefore, any one who will humble himself like this child 4 
that man shall be the greatest in the Kingdom of Heaven. And 5 
any one who, for the sake of my Name, welcomes even one 
little child like this, is welcoming me. But, if any one puts a 6 
Against snare in the way of one of these lowly ones who 

hindering believe in me, it would be best for him to be sunk 
others. j n fa e depths of the sea with a great millstone 
hung round his neck. Alas for the world because of 7 

such snares ! There cannot but be snares ; yet alas for the 
man who is answerable for the snare ! 

If your hand or your foot is a snare to you, cut it off, and 8 
throw it away. It would be better for you to enter the Life 
maimed or lame, than to have both hands, or both feet, and 
be thrown into the aeonian fire. If your eye is a snare to you, 9 
take it out, and throw it away. It would be better for you to 
enter the Life with only one eye, than to have both eyes and 
be thrown into the fiery Pit. 

Beware of despising one of these lowly ones, for in Heaven, 10 
I tell you, their angels always see the face of my Father 
who is in Heaven. What think you? If a man owns a 12 
Parable hundred sheep, and one of them strays, will he 
of the not leave the ninety-nine on the hills, and go and 
lost sheep, search for the one that is straying? And, if he 13 
succeeds in finding it, I tell you that he rejoices more over that 
one sheep than over the ninety-nine which did not stray. So, 14 
too, it is the will of my Father who is in Heaven that not one 
of these lowly ones should be lost. 
on dealing ^ y our Brother does wrong, go to him and 15 

with convince him of his fault when you and he are 
wrong-doers, alone. If he listens to you, you have won your 
Brother. But, if he does not listen to you, take with you one 16 
or two others, so that ' on the evidence of two or three 
witnesses, every word may be put beyond dispute.' If he 17 
refuses to listen to them, speak to the Church ; and, if he also 
refuses to listen to the Church, treat him as you would a 
Gentile or a tax-gatherer. 

I tell you, all that you forbid on earth will be held in 18 
Heaven to be forbidden, and all that you allow on earth will 

16 Deut. 19. 15. 

76 MATTHEW, 1819. ' 

be held in Heaven to be allowed. Again, I tell you 19 

Encourage- that, if but two of you on earth agree as to what 
ment to they shall pray for, whatever it be, it will be 
united Prayer, granted them by my Father who is in Heaven. 
For where two or three have come together in my Name, I 20 
am present with them." 

Then Peter came up, and said to Jesus : 21 

'of-The* " Master, how often am I to forgive my Brother 

unforgiving' when he wrongs me? As many as seven 

But Jesus answered : 22 

"Not seven times, but ' seventy times seven. ' And there- 23 

fore the Kingdom of Heaven may be compared to a king who 
wished to settle accounts with his servants. When he had begun 24 
to do so, one of them was brought to him who owed him six 
million pounds ; and, as he could not pay, his master ordered 25 
him to be sold towards the payment of the debt, togetherwith his 
wife, and his children, and everything that he had. Thereupon 26 
the servant threw himself down on the ground before him and 
said 'Have patience with me, and I will pay you all.' The 27 
master was moved with compassion ; and he let him go, and 
forgave him the debt. But, on going out, that same servant 28 
came upon one of his fellow-servants who owed him ten 
pounds. Seizing him by the throat, he said ' Pay what you owe 
me.' Thereupon his fellow-servant threw himself on the 29 
ground, and begged for mercy. ' Have patience with me,' he 
said, 'and I will pay you.' But the other would not, but went 30 
and put him in prison till he should pay his debt. When his 31 
fellow-servants saw what had happened, they were greatly 
distressed, and went to their master and laid the whole 
matter before him. Upon that the master sent for the servant, 32 
and said to him ' You wicked servant ! When you begged 
me for mercy, I forgave you the whole of that debt. Ought 33 
not you, also, to have shown mercy to your fellow-servant, just 
as I showed mercy to you ? ' Then his master, in anger, 34 
handed him over to the gaolers, until he should pay the whole 
of his debt. So, also, will my heavenly Father do to you, 35 

unless each one of you forgives his Brother from his heart." 


A Question ^ ^ le conclusion of this teaching, Jesus with- 
about drew from Galilee, and went into that district of 
Divorce. Judaea which is on the other side of the Jordan. 
Great crowds followed him, and he cured them there, 

22 Gen. 4. 24. 

MATTHEW, 19. 77 

Presently some Pharisees came up to him, and, to test him, 3 
said : ' ' Has a man the right to divorce his wife for every 
cause ? " 

" Have not you read," replied Jesus, " that at the beginning 4 
the Creator ' made them male and female,' and said 5 

' For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother, 

and be united to his wife, and the man and his wife shall 

become one ' ? 

So that they are no longer two, but one. What God himself, 6 
then, has yoked together man must not separate." 

"Why, then," they said, "did Moses direct that a man should 7 
' serve his wife with a notice of separation and divorce her ' ? " 

" Moses, owing to the hardness of your hearts," answered 8 
Jesus, "permitted you to divorce your wives, but that was 
not so at the beginning. But I tell you that any one who 9 
divorces his wife, except on the ground of her unchastity, and 
marries another woman, is guilty of adultery." 

" If that," said the disciples, " is the position of a man with 10 
regard to his wife, it is better not to marry." 

" It is not every one, "replied Jesus, "who can accept this n 
teaching, but only those who have been enabled to do so. 
Some men, it is true, have from birth been disabled for 12 
marriage, while others have been disabled by their fellow men, 
and others again have disabled themselves for the sake of the 
Kingdom of Heaven. Let him accept it who can." 

Jesus blesses Then some little children were brought to Jesus, .13 
uttie for him to place his hands on them, and pray ; 

children, but the disciples found fault with those who had 
brought them. Jesus, however, said : 14 

"Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder 
them, for it is to the childlike that the Kingdom of Heaven 
So he placed his hands on them, and then went on his way. 15 

- a man came up to Jesus, and said : 16 

sponsibiiities " Teacher, what good thing must I do to obtain 
of wealth, i mmortal Life ? " 

" Why ask me about goodness?" answered Jesus. " There 17 
is but One who is good. If you want to enter the Life, keep 
the commandments." 

"What commandments ? " asked the man. 18 

" These," answered Jesus : 

" ' Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 
Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not say what is false about 
others. Honour thy father and thy mother.' 19 


' Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thou dost thyself." 
4 Gen. i. 27. 6 Gen. a. 24. 1 Deut. 24. i. J 8 19 Exod. 20. 1217 ' Lev. 19. 18. 

78 MATTHEW, 19-2O. 

" I have observed all these," said the young man. "What 20 
is still wanting in me ? " 

" If you wish to be perfect," answered Jesus, " go and sell 21 
your property, and give to the poor, and you shall have wealth 
in Heaven ; then come and follow me." 

On hearing these words, the young man went away distressed, 22 
for he had great possessions. 

At this, Jesus said to his disciples : 23 

" I tell you that a rich man will find it hard to enter the 
Kingdom of Heaven ! I say again, it is easier for a camel to 24 
get through a needle's eye than for a rich man to enter the 
Kingdom of Heaven ! " 
On hearing this, the disciples exclaimed in great astonishment : 25 

" Who then can possibly be saved ? " 
But Jesus looked at them, and said : 26 

" With men this is impossible, but with God everything is 

Then Peter turned and said to Jesus : 

"But we we left everything, and followed you; what, 27 
then, shall we have ? " 

" I tell you," answered Jesus, "that at the New Creation, 28 
1 when the Son of Man takes his seat on his throne of glory,' 
you who followed me shall be seated upon twelve thrones, as 
judges of the twelve tribes of Israel. Every one who has left 29 
houses, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or children, 
or land, on account of my Name, will receive many times as 
much, and will 'gain Immortal Life.' But many who 30 

are first now will then be last, and those who are last will be 
first. For the Kingdom of Heaven is like an em- i 

ployer who went out in the early morning to hire 
Parable labourers for his vineyard. He agreed with the 2 

OT tnc - . _ " . .|. m 

Labourer* labourers to pay them two shillings a day, and 
in the sent them into his vineyard. On going out 3 

vineyard. a g a ; n( about nine o'clock, he saw some others 
standing in the market-place, doing nothing. ' You also may 4 
go into my vineyard,' he said, 'and I will pay you what is 
fair.' So the men went. Going out again about mid-day and 5 
about three o'clock, he did as before. When he went out about 6 
five, he found some other men standing there, and said to 
them ' Why have you been standing here all day long, doing 
nothing? ' 

' Because no one has hired us,' they answered. 7 

'You also may go into my vineyard,' he said. 
In the evening the owner of the vineyard said to his steward 8 
' Call the labourers, and pay them their wages, beginning with 
the last, and ending with the first.' Now when those who 9 
had been hired about five o'clock went up, they received two 
shillings each. So, when the first went up, they thought 10 

2* Enoch 6a. 3 ; 108. ia. Enoch 40. 9. 

MATTHEW, 2O. 79 

that they would receive more, but they also received two 
shillings each; on which they began to grumble at their n 

'These last,' they said, 'have done only one hour's work, 12 
and yet you have put them on the same footing with us, who 
have borne the brunt of the day's work, and the heat.' 

' My friend,' was his reply to one of them, ' I am not treat- 13 
ing you unfairly. Did not you agree with me for two shillings ? 
Take what belongs to you, and go. I choose to give to this 14 
last man the same as to you. Have not I the right to do as I 15 
choose with what is mine ? Are you envious because I am 
liberal ? ' So those who are last will be first, and the 16 

first last." 

When Jesus was on the point of going up to 17 
a thj e Tt/me, Jerusalem, he gathered the twelve disciples round 
foretells him by themselves, and said to them as they were 

his Death. on t | le j r way . 

" Listen ! We are going up to Jerusalem ; and there the Son 18 
of Man will be betrayed to the Chief Priests and Teachers of 
the Law, and they will condemn him to death, and give him 19 
up to the Gentiles for them to mock, and to scourge, and to 
crucify ; and on the third day he will rise." 

Then the mother of Zebediah's sons came to 20 
oVthrMoth'er nmi w ith her sons, bowing to the ground, and 

of James begging a favour. 

and John. what is it that you want ?" he asked. 21 

" I want you to say," she replied, "that in your Kingdom 
these two sons of mine may sit, one on your right, and the 
other on your left." 

" You do not know what you are asking," was Jesus' answer. 22 
" Can you drink the cup that I am to drink ? " 

" Yes," they exclaimed, "we can." 

"You shall indeed drink my cup," he said, "but as to 23 
a seat at my right and at my left that is not mine to give, but 
it is for those for whom it has been prepared by my Father." 
On hearing of this, the ten others were very indignant about 24 
the two brothers. Jesus, however, called the ten to him, and 25 
said : 
The Dignity " The rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them 

of service, as you know, and their great men oppress them. 
Among you it is not so. No, whoever wants to become great 26, 
among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to take 
the first place among you, must be your slave ; just as the 28 

9 Hos. 6. a, 

80 MATTHEW, 2O 21. 

Son of Man came, not to be served, but to serve, and to give 
his life as a ransom for many. " 

As they were going out of Jericho, a great 29 

two blind crowd followed him. Two blind men who were 30 

"ton. sitting by the road-side, hearing that Jesus was 
passing, called out : 

" Take pity on us, Master, Son of David ! " 

The crowd told them to be quiet ; but the men only called out 31 
the louder : 

"Take pity on us, Master, Son of David ! " 
Then Jesus stopped and called them. 32 

1 ' What do you want me to do for you ? " he said. 

" Master," they replied, " we want our eyes to be opened." 33 
So Jesus, moved with compassion, touched their eyes, and 34 
immediately they recovered their sight, and followed him. 


jesu enters When they had almost reached Jerusalem, i 
Jerusalem, having come as far as Bethphage, on the Mount 

of Olives, Jesus sent on two disciples. 

"Go to the village facing you," he said, "and you will 2 

immediately find an ass tethered, with a foal by her s-ide ; 

untie her, and lead her here for me. And, if any one says 3 

anything to you, you are to say this ' The Master wants 

them ' ; and he will send them at once." 

This happened in fulfilment of these words in the Prophet 4 

' Say to the daughter of Zion 5 

" Behold, thy King is coming to thee, 
Gentle, and riding on an ass, 
And on the foal of a beast of burden." ' 

So the disciples went and did as Jesus had directed them. 6 
They led the ass and the foal back, and, when they had put 7 
their cloaks on them, he seated himself upon them. The 8 
immense crowd of people spread their cloaks in the road, 
while some cut branches off the trees, and spread them on the 
road. The crowds that led the way, as well as those that 9 
followed behind, kept shouting : 

" God save the Son of David ! 

Blessed is He who conies in the name of the Lord ! 
God save him from on high ! " 

When he had entered Jerusalem, the whole city was stirred, 10 
and asked "Who is this?", to which the crowd replied n 
"This is the Prophet Jesus from Nazareth in Galilee." 

' K.I. 62. ii ; Zech. 9. 9. '' Pa. 118. 2516 ; PR. 148. i. 

MATTHEW, 21. 81 

Jesus Jesus went into the Temple Courts, and drove 12 

in the out all those who were buying and selling there. 
Temple. fje overturned the tables of the money-changers, 
and the seats of the pigeon-dealers, and said to them : 13 

" Scripture says 

' My House shall be called a House of Prayer ' ; 

but you are making it ' a den of robbers. ' ' 

While he was still in the Temple Courts, some blind and some 14 
lame people came up to him, and he cured them. But, 15 

when the Chief Priests and the Teachers of the Law saw the 
wonderful things that Jesus did, and the boys who were calling 
out in the Temple Courts " God save the Son of David ! ", they 
were indignant, and said to him : 16 

" Do you hear what these boys are saying ? " 
"Yes, "answered Jesus; " butdidyou never read the words 

' Out of the mouths of babes and suckling's thou hast called 
forth perfect praise ' ? " 

Then he left them, and went out of the city to Bethany, and 17 
spent the night there. 

Tne The next morning, in returning to the city, Jesus 18 

fruitless became hungry ; and, noticing a solitary fig tree 19 
Fie Tree, by the road-side, he went up to it, but found 
nothing on it but leaves. So he said to it : 

" Never again shall fruit be gathered off you." 
And suddenly the fig tree withered up. When the disciples 20 
saw this, they exclaimed in astonishment : 
" How suddenly the fig tree withered up ! " 

"I tell you," replied Jesus, "if you have faith, withont 21 
ever a doubt, you will do not only what has been done to the 
fig tree, but, even if you should say to this hill ' Be lifted up 
and hurled into the sea ! ', it would be done. And what- 22 
ever you ask for in your prayers will, if you have faith, be 
granted you." 

Jesus After Jesus had come into the Temple Courts, 23 

and the the Chief Priests and the Councillors of the Nation 
chief Priests, came up to him as he was teaching, and said : 

" What authority have you to do these things ? Who gave 
you this authority ? " 

" I, too," said Jesus in reply, " will ask you one question ; if 24 
you will give me an answer to it, then I, also, will tell you 
what authority I have to act as I do. It is about John's 25 
baptism. What was its origin ? divine or human ? " 
But they began arguing among themselves : 

" If we say ' divine,' he will say to us ' Why then did not you 

13 Isa. 56. 7 ; Jer. 7. 11. " p s . g. 2 . 

82 MATTHEW, 21. 

believe him?' But if we say 'human,' we are afraid of the 26 

people, for every one regards John as a Prophet." 

So the answer they gave Jesus was " We do not know." 27 

"Then I," he said, " refuse to tell you what authority I have 
to do these things. What do you think of this ? There 28 

Parable was a man w h ' iac ^ two sons. He went to the 
of the elder and said ' Go and work in the vineyard 

two sons, to-day, my son.' 

' Yes, sir,' he answered ; but he did not go. Then the father 29, 
went to the second son, and said the same. ' I will not,' he 
answered ; but afterwards he was sorry and went. Which 31 
of the two sons did as his father wished ? " 

" The second," they said. 

" I tell you," added Jesus, "that tax-gatherers and prosti- 
tutes are going into the Kingdom of God before you. For 32 
when John came to you, walking in the path of righteousness, 
you did not believe him, but tax-gatherers and prostitutes 
did ; and yet you, though you saw this, even then were not 
sorry, nor did you believe him. 

Parable Listen to another parable. A man, who 33 

of the wicked was an employer, once planted a vineyard, put a 
Tenant*, fence round it, dug a winepress in it, built a 
tower, and then let it out to tenants and went abroad. When 34 
the time for the vintage drew near, he sent his servants to the 
tenants, to receive his share of the produce. But the tenants 35 
seized his servants, beat one, killed another, and stoned a 
third. A second time the owner sent some servants, a larger 36 
number than before, and the tenants treated them in the same 
way. As a last resource he sent his son to them. ' They will 37 
respect my son,' he said. But the tenants, on seeing his son, 38 
said to each other ' Here is the heir ! Come, let us kill 
him, and get his inheritance.' So they seized him, and threw 39 
him outside the vineyard, and killed him. Now, when the 40 
owner of the vineyard conies, what will he do to those 
tenants ? " 

" Miserable wretches ! " they exclaimed, " he will put them 41 
to a miserable death, and he will let out the vineyard to other 
tenants, who will pay him his share of the produce at the 
proper times." 
Then Jesus added : " Have you never read in the Scriptures? 42 

' The very stone which the builders despised 

Has now itself become the corner-stone ; 
This corner-stone has come from the Lord, 
And is marvellous in our eyes.' 

And that, I tell you, is why the Kingdom of God will be 43 
taken from you, and given to a nation that does produce 

x Isa. 5. i a. Ps. 118. aa. 

MATTHEW, 21-22. 83 

the fruit of the Kingdom. Yes, and he- who falls on 44 

this stone will be dashed to pieces, while any one on whom it 
falls it will scatter him as dust." 

After listening to these parables, the Chief Priests and the 45 
Pharisees saw that it was about them that he was speaking ; 
yet, although eager to arrest him, they were afraid of the 46 
crowds, who regarded him as a Prophet. 

Once more Jesus spoke to them in parables. i 

" The Kingdom of Heaven," he said, "may be 2 

'oi^he* compared to a king who gave a banquet in 

Marriage honour of his son's wedding. He sent his 3 

Feast. servants to call those who had been invited to the 
banquet, but they were unwilling to come. A second time he 4 
sent some servants, with orders to say to those who had been 
invited ' I have prepared my breakfast, my cattle and fat 
beasts are killed and everything is ready; come to the banquet.' 
They, however, took no notice, but went off, one to his farm, 5 
another to his business ; while the rest, seizing his servants, 6 
ill-treated them and killed them. The king, in anger, sent 7 
his troops, put those murderers to death, and set their city on 
fire. Then he said to his servants ' The banquet is pre- 8 
pared, but those who were invited were not worthy. So 9 
go to the cross-roads, and invite every one you find to the 
banquet.' The servants went out into the roads and collected 10 
all the people whom they found, whether bad or good ; and 
the bridal-hall was filled with guests. But, when the king went 1 1 
in to see his guests, he noticed there a man who had not put 
on a wedding-robe. So he said to him ' My friend, how is it 12 
that you came in here without a wedding-robe ? ' The man was 
speechless. Then the king said to the attendants 'Tie him 13 
hand and foot, and ' put him out into the darkness ' outside, 
where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth.' For 14 
many are called, but few chosen." 

A Question Then the Pharisees went away and conferred 15 
about together as to how they might lay a snare for 

Tribute. Jesus in the course of conversation. They sent 16 
their disciples, with the Herodians, to say to him : 

"Teacher, we know that you are an honest man, and that 
you teach the Way of God honestly, and are not afraid of any 
one ; for you pay no regard to a man's position. Tell us, 17 
then, what you think. Are we right in paying taxes to the 
Emperor, or not ? " 
Perceiving their malice, Jesus answered : 18 

"Why are you testing me, you hypocrites? Show me the 19 
coin with which the tax is paid." 
And, when they had brought him a florin, he asked : 20 

" Whose head and title are these ? " 

18 Enoch 10. 4. 

84 MATTHEW, 22. 

"The Emperor's," they answered: on which he said to 21 
them : 

"Then pay to the Emperor what belongs to the Emperor, 
and to God what belongs to God." 

They wondered at his answer, and left him alone and went 22 

A Question That same day some Sadducees came up to 23 
about the Jesus, maintaining that there is no resurrection. 
Resurrection. Their question was this : 
"Teacher, Moses said 24 

' Should a man die without children, the man's brother shall 
become the husband of the widow, and raise a family for his 

Now we had living among us seven brothers ; of whom the 25 
eldest married and died, and, as he had no family, left his wife 
for his brother. The same thing happened to the second and 26 
the third brothers, and indeed to all the seven. The woman 27 
herself died last of all. At the resurrection, then, whose 28 
wife will she be out of the seven, all of them having had her ? " 

" Your mistake," replied Jesus, " is due to your ignorance of 29 
the Scriptures, and of the power of God. For at the resur- 30 
rection there is no marrying or being married, but all who rise 
are as angels in Heaven. As to the resurrection of the dead, 31 
have you not read these words of God 

' I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the 32 
God of Jacob ' ? 

He is not the God of dead men, but of living." 

The crowds, who had been listening to him, were greatly 33 

struck with his teaching. 

The oreat When the Pharisees heard that Jesus had 34 
command- silenced the Sadducees, they collected together. 

mont. Then one of them, a Student of the Law, to test 35 
him, asked this question 

"Teacher, what is the great commandment in the Law?" 36 

His answer was : 37 

" ' Thou shalt love the Lord thy God wjth all thy heart, and 
with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.' 

This is the great first commandment. The second, which 38, 
is like it, is this 

' Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thou dost thyself.' 

On these two commandments hang all the Law and the 40 

* Deut. 35. 5. 33 Exod. 3, 6, 37 p w t. $, s . 89 Lev. 19. 18. 

MATTHEW, 2223. 85 

Christ Before the Pharisees separated, Jesus put this 41 

the son ot question to them 

David. What do you think about the Christ ? Whose 42 

son is he ? " 

" David's," they said. 

"How is it, then," Jesus replied, "that David, speaking 43 
under inspiration, calls him ' lord,' in the passage 

' The Lord said to my lord : " Sit at my right hand, 44 

Until I put thy enemies beneath thy feet " ' ? 

Since, then, David calls him 'lord,' how is he David's son?" 45 
No one could say a word in answer ; nor did any one after 46 
that day venture to question him further. 

Then Jesus, speaking to the crowds and to his disciples, i 
said : 2 

warnings "The Teachers of the Law and the Pharisees 
against the now occupy the chair of Moses. Therefore 3 
Teachers of practise and lay to heart everything: that they tell 

the Law. , , , . r 11 j.i_ ' i r ^i 

you, but do not follow their example, for they 
preach but do not practise. While they make up heavy loads .4 
and pile them on other men's shoulders, they decline, them- 
selves, to lift a finger to move them. All their actions are 5 
done to attract attention. They widen their phylacteries, 
and increase the size of their tassels, and like to have the place 6 
of honour at dinner, and the best seats in the Synagogues, and 7 
to be greeted in the markets with respect, and to be called 
1 Rabbi ' by everybody. But do not you allow yourselves to be 8 
called ' Rabbi,' for you have only one Teacher, and you your- 
selves are all Brothers. And do not call any one on the earth 9 
your ' Father,' for you have only one Father, the heavenly 
Father. Nor must you allow yourselves to be called ' Leaders,' 10 
for you have only one Leader, the Christ. The man who would 1 1 
be the greatest among you must be your servant. Who- 12 

ever shall exalt himself will be humbled, and whoever shall 
humble himself will be exalted. 

Jesus ^ ut a ^ as f r y u> Teachers of the Law and 14 

denounces Pharisees, hypocrites that you are ! You turn 
the Pharisees, the key of the Kingdom of Heaven in men's faces. 
For you do not go in yourselves, nor yet allow those who try 
to go in to do so. Alas for you, Teachers of the Law 15 

and Pharisees, hypocrites that you are ! You scour land 
and sea to make a single convert, and, when he is gained, 
you 'make him twice as deserving of the Pit as you are 
yourselves. Alas for you, you blind guides ! You 16 

say ' If any one swears by the Temple, his oath counts for 
nothing ; but, if any one swears by the gold of the Temple, his 

Ps. no. i. 

86 MATTHEW, 23. 

oath is binding on him ' ! Fools that you are and blind ! 17 
Which is the more important ? the gold ? or the Temple 
which has given sacredness to the gold ? You say, too, 18 
' If any one swears by the altar, his oath counts for nothing, 
but, if any one swears by the offering placed on it, his oath 
is binding on him ' ! Blind indeed ! Which is the more 19 
important? the offering? or the altar which gives sacred- 
ness to the offering ? Therefore a man, swearing by the 20 
altar, swears by it and by all that is on it, and a man, 21 
swearing by the Temple, swears by it and by him who 
dwells in it, while a man, swearing by Heaven, swears by 22 
the throne of God, and by him who sits upon it. Alas 23 

for you, Teachers of the Law and Pharisees, hypocrites that 
you are ! You pay tithes on mint, fennel, and car ra way-seed, 
and have neglected the weightier matters of the Law justice, 
mercy, and good faith. These last you ought to have put 
into practice, without neglecting the first. You blind guides, 24 
to strain out a gnat and to swallow a camel ! Alas for 25 

you, Teachers of the Law and Pharisees, hypocrites that you 
are ! You clean the outside of the cup and of the dish, but 
inside they are filled with the results of greed and self- 
indulgence. You blind Pharisee ! First clean the inside of 26 
the cup and the dish, so that the outside may become clean 
as well. Alas for you, Teachers of the Law and 27 

Pharisees, hypocrites that you are ! You are like white-washed 
tombs, which indeed look fair outside, while inside they 
are filled with dead men's bones and all kinds of filth. It 28 
is the same with you. Outwardly, and to others, you have 
the look of religious men, but inwardly you are full of hypo- 
crisy and sin. Alas for you, Teachers of the Law and 29 
Pharisees, hypocrites that you are ! You build the tombs 
of the Prophets, and decorate the monuments of religious 
men, and say ' Had we been living in the days of our ances- 30 
tors, we should have taken no part in their murder of the 
Prophets ! ' By doing this you are furnishing evidence against 31 
yourselves that you are true children of the men who murdered 
the Prophets. Fill up the measure of your ancestors' guilt. 32 
You serpents and brood of vipers ! How can you escape being 33 
sentenced to the Pit ? That is why I send you Prophets, wise 34 
men, and Teachers of the Law, some of whom you will crucify 
and kill, and some of whom you will scourge in your Syna- 
gogues, and persecute from town to town ; in order that upon 35 
your heads may fall every drop of innocent 'blood spilt on earth,' 
from the blood of innocent Abel down to that of Zechariah, 
Barachiah's son, whom you murdered between the Temple 
jo*u iamnta {inc * tne a ' tar - All this, I tell you, will come'home 36 

tho fata to the present generation. 
or jru>aim. Jerusalem ! Jerusalem ! she who slays the 37 

28 Enoch 9. i. 

MATTHEW, 2324. 87 

Prophets and stones the messengers sent to her Oh, how 

often have I wished to gather your children round me, as a 
hen gathers her brood under her wings, and you would not 
come ! Verily, your House is left to you desolate ! For 
nevermore, I tell you, shall you see me, until you say 

' Blessed is He who comes in the Name of the Lord ! ' " 

Jesus Leaving the Temple Courts, Jesus was walking i ' 

fbreteiia the away, when his disciples came up to draw his 
o^he r Tem |Tie attention to the Temple buildings. 
and the End " Do you see all these things?" was his 2 
of the Age. answer. "I tell you, not a single stone will 
be left here upon another, which will not be thrown down." 
So, while Jesus was sitting on the Mount of Olives, his dis- 3 
ciples came up to him privately and said: "Tell us when 
this will be, and what will be the sign of your Coming, and 
of the close of the age." 

Jesus replied to them as follows : 4 

"See that no one leads you astray; for many will take 5 
my name, and come saying ' I am the Christ,' and will lead 
many astray. And you will hear of wars and rumours of 6 
wars ; take care not to be alarmed, for such things must 
occur ; but the end is not yet here. For ' nation will rise 7 
against nation and kingdom against kingdom, 'and there will 
be famines and earthquakes in various places. All this, how- 8 
ever, will be but the beginning of the birth-pangs ! When 9 
that time comes, they will give you up to persecution, and 
will put you to death, and you will be hated by all nations 
on account of my Name. And then many will fall away, 10 
and will betray one another, and hate one another. Many n 
false Prophets, also, will appear and lead many astray ; and, 12 
owing to the increase of wickedness, the love of most will 
grow cold. Yet the man that endures to the end shall be 13 
saved. And this Good News of the Kingdom shall be pro- 14 
claimed throughout the world as a witness to all nations ; 
and then will come the end. As soon, then, as you see 15 

' the Foul Desecration ', mentioned by the Prophet Daniel, 
standing in the Holy Place," (the reader must consider what 
this means) "then those of you who are in Judaea must 16 
take refuge in the mountains ; and a man on the house-top 17 
must not go down to get the things that are in his house ; 
nor must one who is on his farm turn back to get his cloak. 18 
And alas for the women that are with child, and for those that 19 
are nursing infants in those days ! Pray, too, that your flight 20 

38 Jer. 22. 5. 39 Ps. 118. 26. 6 Dan. 2. 28. ? Isa. 19. 2. 10 Isa. 8. 15. 
!' Dan. iz. ii ; 8. n. 

88 MATTHEW, 24. 

may not take place in winter, nor on a Sabbath ; for that will 21 
be ' a time of great distress, the like of which has not occurred 
from the beginning of the world down to the present time ' 
no, nor ever will again. And, had not those days been limited, 22 
not a single soul would escape ; but for the sake of ' God's 
People' a limit will be put to them. And, at that time, if 23 

any one should say to you ' Look ! here is the Christ ! ' or ' Here 
he is ! ', do not believe it ; for false Christs and false Prophets will 24 
arise, and will display great signs and marvels, so that, were 
it possible, even God's People would be led astray. Remember, 25 
I have told you beforehand. Therefore, if people say to you 26 
' He is in the Wilderness ! ', do not go out there ; or ' He is in an 
inner room !', do not believe it ; for, just as lightning will start 27 
from the east and flash across to the west, so will it be with 
the Coming of the Son of Man. Wherever a dead body lies, 28 
'there will the vultures flock.' Immediately after the 29 

distress of those days, ' the sun will be darkened, the moon 
will not give her light, the stars will fall from the heavens,' 
and ' the forces of the heavens will be convulsed. ' Then will 30 
appear the sign of the Son of Man in the heavens ; and all the 
peoples of the earth will mourn, when they see the ' Son of 
Man coming on the clouds of the heavens," with power and 
great glory ; and he will send his angels, with a great trumpet, 31 
and they will gather his People round him from the four winds, 
from one end of heaven to the other. 
The Need Learn the lesson taught by the fig tree. As 32 

for soon as its branches are full of sap, and it is 
watchfuines*. bursting into leaf, you know that summer is 
near. And so may you, as soon as you see all these things, 33 
know that he is at your doors. I tell you, even the pre- 34 
sent generation will not pass away, till all these things 
have taken place. The heavens and the earth will pass 35 
away, but my words shall never pass away. But about 36 

that Day and Hour, no one knows not even the angels of 
Heaven, nor yet the Son but only the Father himself. For, 37 
just as in the days of Noah, so will it be at the Coming of the 
Son of Man. In those days before the flood they went on 38 
eating and drinking, marrying and being married, up to the 
very day on which Noah entered the ark, taking no notice till 39 
the flood came and swept them one and all away ; and so will 
it be at the Coming of the Son of Man. At that time, of 40 
two men on a farm one will be taken and one left ; of two 41 
women grinding with the hand-mill one will be taken and one 
left. Therefore watch ; for you cannot be sure on what day 42 
your Master is coming. But this you do know, that, had the 43 
owner of the house known at what time of night the thief 

21 Dan. 12. i. Enoch i. i. 24 Deut. 13. i. Isa. 34. 15. Dan. la. i ; 
Iita.. 13. to ; 34. 4. 30-31 Zcch. ia. la; Dan. 7. 13; Isa. 27. 13; Zech. a. 6j 
Dcut. 30. 4 ; a8. 64. -3 Gen. 7. 7. 

MATTHEW, 24-25. 89 

was coming, he would have been on the watch, and would not 
have allowed his house to be broken into. Therefore, do you 44 
also prepare, since it is just when you are least expecting 
him that the Son of Man will come. Who, then, is 45 

that trustworthy, careful servant, who has been placed 
bv his master over his household, to give them 

Parable of the / ./..... -, T T -11 ^.u 

good and bad their food at the proper time ? Happy will that 46 

servants, servant be whom his master, when he comes 
home, shall find doing this. I tell you that his master will put 47 
him in charge of the whole of his property. But, should he 48 
be a bad servant, and say to himself ' My master is a long 
time in coming,' and begin to beat his fellow-servants, and 49 
eat and drink with drunkards, that servant's master will come 50 
on a day when he does not expect him, and at an hour of 51 
which he is unaware, and will flog him severely, and assign 
him his place among the hypocrites, where there will be 
weeping and grinding of teeth. 

parable Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten i 
of the ten bridesmaids who took their lamps and went out 
Bridesmaids to meet the bridegroom. Five of them were 2 
foolish, and five were prudent. The foolish ones took their 3 
lamps, but took no oil with them ; while the prudent ones, 4 
besides taking their lamps, took oil in their jars. As the 5 
bridegroom was late in coming, they all became drowsy, and 
slept. But at midnight a shout was raised ' The Bride- 6 
groom is coming ! Come out to meet him ! ' Then all the 7 
bridesmaids awoke and trimmed their lamps. And the foolish 8 
ones said to the prudent ' Give us some of your oil ; our lamps 
are going out.' But the prudent ones answered 'No, for 9 
fear that there will not be enough for you and for us. Go 
instead to those who sell it, and buy for yourselves.' But 10 
while they were on their way to buy it, the bridegroom came ; 
and the bridesmaids who were ready went in with him to the 
banquet, and the door was shut. Afterwards the other brides- 1 1 
maids came. 'Sir, Sir,' they said, 'open the door to us!' 
But the bridegroom answered 'I tell you, I do not know 12 
you.' Therefore watch, since you know neither the 13 

Day nor the Hour. 

Parable ^ or ^ * s as th u gh a man, going on his travels, 14 
oVthe called his servants, and gave his property into 

Talents, their charge. He gave three thousand pounds 15 
to one, twelve hundred to another, and six hundred to a third, 
in proportion to the ability of each. Then he set out on 16 
his travels. The man who had received the three thousand 
pounds went at once and traded with it, and made another 
three thousand. So, too, the man who had received the 17 
twelve hundred pounds made another twelve hundred. But 18 
the man who had received the six hundred went and dug a 
hole in the ground, and hid his master's money. After a long 19 

90 MATTHEW, 25. 

time the master of those servants returned, and settled accounts 
with them. The man who had received the three thousand 20 
pounds came up and brpught three thousand more. ' Sir,' he 
said, ' you entrusted me with three thousand pounds ; look, 
I have made another three thousand ! ' 

'Well done, good, trustworthy servant!' said his master. 21 
' You have been trustworthy with a small sum ; now I will place 
a large one in your hands ; come and share your master's joy ! ' 
Then the one who had received the twelve hundred pounds 22 
came up and said ' Sir, you entrusted me with twelve hun- 
dred pounds ; look, I have made another twelve hundred ! ' 

' Well done, good, trustworthy servant ! ' said his master. 23 
' You have been trustworthy with a small sum ; now I will 
place a large one in your hands ; come and share your 
master's joy ! ' 

The man who had received the six hundred pounds came up, 24 
too, and said ' Sir, I knew that you were a hard man ; you reap 
where you have not sown, and gather up where you have not 
winnowed ; and, in my fear, I went and hid your money in 25 
the ground ; look, here is what belongs to you ! ' 

' You lazy, worthless servant ! ' was his Master's reply. 26 
' You knew that I reap where I have not sown, and gather 
up where I have not winnowed ? Then you ought to have 27 
placed my money in the hands of bankers, and I, on my 
return, shbuld have received my money, with interest. There- 28 
fore,' he continued, ' take away from him the six hundred 
pounds, and give it to the one who has the six thousand. For, 29 
to him who has, more will be given, and he shall have abund- 
ance ; but, as for him who has nothing, even what he has 
will be taken away from him. As for the useless servant, ' put 30 
him out into the darkness ' outside, where there will be weeping 
and grinding of teeth.' 

The Great When the Son of Man has come in his glory 31 
judgement, and all the angels with him, then he ' will take 
his seat on his throne of glory ' ; and all the nations will be 32 
gathered before him, and he will separate the people just as 
a shepherd separates sheep from goats placing the sheep on 33 
his right hand, and the goats on his left. Then the King will 34 
say to those on his right ' Come, you who are blessed by my 
Father, enter upon possession of the Kingdom prepared for 
you ever since the beginning of the world. For, when I was 35 
hungry, you gave me food ; when I was thirsty, you gave me 
drink ; when I was a stranger, you took me to your homes ; 
when I was naked, you clothed me ; when I fell ill, you visited 36 
me ; and when I was in prison, you came to me.' 
Then the Righteous will answer ' Lord, when did we see you 37 
hungry, and feed you ? or thirsty, and give you drink ? When 38 
did we see you a stranger, and take you to our homes ? or 
30 Enoch 10. 4. ::l /oh. 14. 5 ; Enoch 62. 5. 

MATTHEW, 25-26. 91 

naked, and clothe you ? When did we see you ill, or in 39 
prison, and come to you ? ' 

And the King will reply ' I tell you, as often as you did it 40 
to one of these my Brothers, however lowly, you did it to me.' 
Then he will say to those on his left ' Go from my presence, 41 
accursed, into the ' aeonian fire which has been prepared for the 
Devil and his angels.' For, when I was hungry, you gave me 42 
no food ; when I was thirsty, you gave me no drink ; when I 43 
was a stranger, you did not take me to your homes ; when I 
was naked, you did not clothe me; and, when I was ill and in 
prison, you did not visit me.' 

Then they, in their turn, will answer ' Lord, when did we see 44 
you hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or ill, or in 
prison, and did not supply your wants ? ' 

And then he will reply ' I tell you, as often as you failed to 45 
do it to one of these, however lowly, you failed to do it to me.' 
And these last will go away ' into aeonian punishment,' but 46 
the righteous 'into aeonian life.'" 

The Plot When Jesus had finished all this teaching, he i 
against said to his disciples : 

jesus. YOU know that in two days' time the Festival 2 

of the Passover will be here ; and that the Son of Man is to be 
given up to be crucified." 

Then the Chief Priests and the Councillors of the Nation met 3 
in the house of the High Priest, who was called Caiaphas, and 4 
plotted together to arrest Jesus by stealth and put him to 
death ; but they said : " Not during the Festival, for fear of 5 
causing a riot." 

After Jesus had reached Bethany, and while he 6 
anointed by was m tne house of Simon the leper, a woman 7 

a. woman came up to him with an alabaster jar of very costly 
at Bethany. p er f ume) anc j poured the perfume upon his head as 
he was at table. The disciples were indignant at seeing this. 8 

"What is this waste for?" they exclaimed. "It could 9 
have been sold for a large sum, and the money given to poor 

"Why are you troubling the woman ?" Jesus said, when 10 
he noticed it. " For this is a beautiful deed that she has 
done to me. You always have the poor with you, but you n 
will not always have me. In pouring this perfume on my 12 
body, she has done it for my burying. I tell you, wher- 13 
ever, in the whole world, this Good News is proclaimed, what 
this woman has done will be told in memory of her." 

41 Enoch 54. i, 5. ** Dan. 12. 2. 

92 MATTHEW, 26. 

judas agrees ^ was then that one of the Twelve, named 

to betray Judas Iscariot, made his way to the Chief Priests, 

Jesus. an( j said " What are you willing to give me, if I 

betray Jesus to you ? " The Priests ' weighed him out thirty 

pieces of silver ' as payment. So from that time Judas looked 

for an opportunity to betray Jesus. 

The On the first day of the Festival of the Unleavened 

Passover. Bread, the disciples came up to Jesus, and said : 

" Where do you wish us to make preparations for you to eat 
the Passover ? " 

"Go into the city to a certain man," he answered, "and 
say to him ' The Teacher says My time is'near. I will keep 
the Passover with my disciples at your house.' " 
The disciples did as Jesus directed them, and prepared the 

In the evening Jesus took his place with the twelve 
disciples, and, while they were eating, he said : 

" I tell you that one of you will betray me." 
In great grief they began to say to him, one by one : 

"Can it be I, Master ? " 

"The one who dipped his bread beside me in the dish," 
replied Jesus, "is the one who will betray me. True, the Son 
of Man must go, as Scripture says of him, yet alas for that man 
by whom the Son of Man is being betrayed ! For that man ' it 
would be better never to have been born ! ' " 
And Judas, who was betraying him, turned to him and said : 

"Can it be I, Rabbi?" 

" It is," answered Jesus. 
The ' Lord's While they were eating, Jesus took some bread, 

supper.' and, after saying the blessing, broke it and, as he 
gave it to his disciples, said : 

" Take it and eat it ; this is my body." 

Then he took a cup, and, after saying the thanksgiving, gave 
it to them, with the words : 

" Drink from it, all of you ; for this is my Covenant-blood, 
which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. And 
I tell you that I shall never, after this, drink of this juice of the 
grape, until that day when I shall drink it new with you in the 
Kingdom of my Father." 
p*ter*s Fail They then sang a hymn, and went out to 

roretoid. the Mount of Olives. 
Then Jesus said to them : 

"Even you will all fall away from me to-night. Scripture 

' I will strike down the shepherd, and the sheep of the flock 
will be scattered.' 

iZech. ii. ia. M Enoch 38. a. Exod. 24. 8. Zech. 13. 7. 

MATTHEW, 26. 93 

But, after I have risen, I shall go before you into Galilee." 32 

" If everyone else falls away from you," Peter answered, " I 33 

shall never fall away ! " 

" I tell you," replied Jesus, " that this very night, before the 34 

cock crows, you will disown me three times ! " 

" Even if I must die with you," Peter exclaimed, " I shall 35 

never disown you ! " 

All the disciples spoke in the same way. 

Jesus in Then Jesus came with them to a garden called 36 
cethsemane. Gethsemane, and he said to his disciples : 

" Sit down here while I go and pray yonder." 

Taking with him Peter and the two sons of Zebediah, he 37 
began to show signs of sadness and deep distress of mind. 

"I am sad at heart," he said, "sad even to death; wait 38 
here, and watch with me." 

Going on a little further, he threw himself on his face in 39 

" My Father," he said, "if it is possible, let me be spared 
this cup ; only, not as I will, but as thou wiliest." 
Then he came to his disciples, and found them asleep. 40 

" What ! " he said to Peter, " could none of you watch with 
me for one hour ? Watch and pray, that you may not fall into 41 
temptation. True, the spirit is eager, but human nature is 
weak. " 
Again, a second time, he went away, and prayed. . 42 

" My Father," he said, " if I cannot be spared this cup, but 
must drink it, thy will be done ! " 

And coming back again he found them asleep, for their eyes 43 
were heavy. So he left them, and went away again, and 44 
prayed a third time, again saying the same words. 
Then he came to the disciples, and said : 45 

"Sleep on now, and rest yourselves. Hark! my time is 
close at hand, and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the 
hands of wicked men. Up, and let us be going. Look ! my 46 
betrayer is close at hand." 

The And, while he was still speaking, Judas, who 47 

Arrest o* was one of the Twelve, came in sight ; and with 
jesus. him was a great crowd of people, with swords 
and clubs, sent from the Chief Priests and Councillors of 
the Nation. Now the betrayer had arranged a signal with 48 

"The man whom I kiss," he had said, "will be the one; 
arrest him." 

So he went up to Jesus at once, and exclaimed : " Welcome, 49 
Rabbi ! " and kissed him ; on which Jesus said to him : 50 

" Friend, do what you have come for." 
Thereupon the men went up, seized Jesus, and arrested him. 

3 Ps. 43. 5 . 

94 MATTHEW, 26. 

Suddenly one of those who were with Jesus stretched out his 51 
hand, and drew his sword, and striking the High Priest's 
servant, cut off his ear. 

"Sheathe your sword," Jesus said, "for all who draw the 52 
sword will be put to the sword. Do you think that I cannot ask 53 
my Father for help, when he would at once send to my aid more 
than twelve legions of angels ? But in that case how would 54 
the Scriptures be fulfilled, which say that this must be? " 
Jesus at the same time said to the crowds : 55 

" Have you come out, as if after a robber, with swords and 
clubs, to take me ? I have sat teaching day after day in the 
Temple Courts, and yet you did not arrest me. " 
The whole of this occurred in fulfilment of the Prophetic Scrip- 56 
Then the disciples all forsook him and fled. 

Je-us Those who had arrested Jesus took him to 57 

before the Caiaphas, the High Priest, where the Teachers 
High prieat. o f th e Law and the Councillors had assembled. 
Peter followed him at a distance as far as the court-yard of the 58 
High Priest, and went in and sat down among the police- 
officers, to see the end. Meanwhile the Chief Priests and the 59 
whole of the High Council were trying to get such false evidence 
against Jesus, as would warrant putting him to death, but they 60 
did not find any, although many came forward with false 
evidence. Later on, however, two men came forward and 61 
said : 

" This man said ' I am able to destroy the Temple of God, 
and to build it in three days.'" 
Then the High Priest stood up, and said to Jesus : 62 

" Have you no answer? What is this evidence which these 
men are giving against you ? " 

But Jesus remained silent. On this the High Priest said to 63 
him : 

" I adjure you, by the Living God, to tell us whether you 
are the Christ, the Son of God." 

"It is true,' Jesus answered; "moreover I tell you all 64 
that hereafter you shall ' see the Son of Man sitting on the 
right hand of the Almighty, and coming on the clouds of the 
heavens.' " 
Then the High Priest tore his robes. 65 

"This is blasplumy!" he exclaimed. "Why do we want 
any more witnesses ? You have just heard his blasphemy ! 
What is your decision ? " 66 

They answered : 

" He deserves death." 

Then they spat in his face, and struck him, while others dealt 67 
blows at him, saying as they did so : 68 

W p 8 . 1 19. i ; Dan. 7. 13. 

MATTHEW, 26-27. 95 

"Now play the Prophet for us, you Christ! Who was it 
that struck you ? " . 

peter disowns Peter, meanwhile, was sitting outside in the 69 

jesus. court-yard ; and a maidservant came up to him, 
and exclaimed : 

" Why, 5'ou were with Jesus the Galilean ! " 
But Peter denied it before them all. 70 

" I do not know what you mean," he replied. 

When he had gone out into the gateway, another maid saw 71 
him, and said to those who were there : 

" This man was with Jesus of Nazareth ! " 
Again he denied it with an oath : 72 

" I do not know the man ! " 

But soon afterwards those who were standing by came up and 73 
said to Peter: 

' ' You also are certainly one of them ; why, your very way 
of speaking proves it ! " 
Then Peter began to swear, with most solemn imprecations : 74 

" I do not know the man." 

At that moment a cock crowed ; and Peter remembered the 75 
words which Jesus had said ' Before a cock has crowed, you 
will disown me three times ' ; and he went outside, and wept 

The End of At daybreak all the Chief Priests and the Coun- i 

Judas. cillors of the Nation consulted together against 
Jesus, to bring about his death. They put him in chains and led 2 
him away, and gave him up to the Roman Governor, Pilate. 

Then Judas, who betrayed him, seeing that Jesus was con- 3 
demned, repented of what he had done, and returned the 
thirty pieces of silver to the Chief Priests and Councillors. 

" I did wrong in betraying a good man to his death," he 4 

" What has that to do with us ? " they replied. " You must 
see to that yourself." 

Judas flung down the pieces of silver in the Temple, and left ; 5 
and went away and hanged himself. The Chief Priests 6 

took the pieces of silver, but they said : 

" We must not put them into the Temple treasury, because 
they are blood-money." 

So, after consultation, they bought with them the ' Potter's 7 
Field ' for a burial-ground for foreigners ; and that is why that 8 
field is called the ' Field of Blood ' to this very day. Then 9 

it was that these words spoken by the Prophet Jeremiah were 

' They took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him who 

was valued, whom some of the people of Israel valued, and 10 

gave them for the Potter's field, as the Lord commanded me.' 
-io Zech. ii. 13. 

96 MATTHEW, 27. 

before Mean while Jesus was brought before the Roman 

tn*e*Roman Governor. 

Governor. "Are you the King of the Jews?" asked the 

" It is true," answered Jesus. 

While charges were being brought against him by the Chief 
Priests and Councillors, Jesus made no reply. Then Pilate 
said to him : 

" Do not you hear how many accusations they are making 
against you ? " 

Yet Jesus made no reply not even a single word ; at which 
the Governor was greatly astonished. Now, at the 

Feast, the Governor was accustomed to grant the people the 
release of any one prisoner whom they might choose. At that 
time they had a notorious prisoner called Barabbas. So, when 
the people had collected, Pilate said to them : 

" Which do you wish me to release for you ? Barabbas ? or 
Jesus who is called ' Christ ' ? " 

For he knew that it was out of jealousy that they had given 
Tesus up to him. While he was still on the Bench, 

his wife sent this message to him 

" Do not have anything to do with that good man, for I have 
been very unhappy to-day in a dream on account of him." 
But the Chief Priests and the Councillors persuaded the crowds 
to ask for Barabbas, and to kill Jesus. The Governor, how- 
ever, said to them : 

' ' Which of these two do you wish me to release for you ? " 

" Barabbas," they answered. 

"What then," Pilate asked, "shall I do with Jesus who 
is called ' Christ ' ? " 

" Let him be crucified," they all replied. 

" Why, what harm has he done ? " he asked. 
But they kept shouting furiously: "Let him be crucified !" 
When Pilate saw that his efforts were unavailing, but that, on 
the contrary, a riot was beginning, he took some water, and 
washed his hands in the sight of the crowd, saying as he 
did so : 

" I am not answerable for this bloodshed ; you must see to 
it yourselves." 
And all the people answered : 

" His blood be on our heads and on our children's ! " 
Then Pilate released Barabbas to them ; but Jesus he scourged, 
and gave him up to be crucified. 

TH After that, the Governor's soldiers took Jesus with 

crucifixion them into the Government House, and gathered 

or JOVUB. tne wno i e garrison round him. They stripped 

him, and put on him a red military cloak, and, having twisted 

some thorns into a crown, put it on his head, and a rod in 

MATTHEW, 27. 97 

his right hand, and then, going down on their knees before 
him, they mocked him. 

" Long life to you, King of the Jews ! " they said. 
They spat at him and, taking the rod, kept striking him on 30 
the head ; and, when they had left off mocking him, they took 31 
off the military cloak, and put his own clothes on him, and led 
him away to be crucified. 

As they were on their way out, they came upon a man from 32 
Cyrene of the name of Simon ; and they compelled him to go 
with them to carry the cross. On reaching a place 33 

named Golgotha (a place named from its likeness to a skull), 
they gave him some wine to drink which had been mixed with 34 
gall ; but, after tasting it, Jesus refused to drink it. When 35 
they had crucified him, they divided his clothes among them 
by casting lots. Then they sat down, and kept watch over 36 
him there. Above his head they fixed the accusation against 37 
him written out 


At the same time two robbers were crucified with him, one on 38 
the right, the other on the left. The passers-by railed 39 

at him, shaking their heads as they said : 40 

" You who ' destroy the Temple and build one in three days,' 
save yourself! If you are God's Son, come down from the 
cross ! " 

In the same way the Chief Priests, with the Teachers of the 41 
Law and Councillors, said in mockery : 

" He saved others, but he cannot save himself! He is the 42 
' King of Israel ' ! Let him come down from the cross now, 
and we will believe in him. He has trusted in God ; if God 43 
wants him, let him deliver him now ; for he said ' I am God's 
Son.'" Even the robbers, who were crucified with him, 44 
reviled him in the same way. 

The Dath After mid-day a darkness came over all the 45 

of jesus. country, lasting till three in the afternoon. And 46 
about three Jesus called out loudly : 

" Eloi, Eloi, lema sabacthani " that is to say, ' O my God, 
my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? ' 
Some of those standing by heard this, and said : 47 

" The man is calling for Elijah ! " 

One of them immediately ran and took a sponge, and, filling 48 
it with common wine, put it on the end of a rod, and offered 
it to him to drink. But the rest said : 49 

" Wait and let us see if Elijah is coming to save him." 
[However another man took a spear, and pierced his side ; 
and water and blood flowed from it.] But Jesus, uttering 50 
another loud cry, gave up his spirit. Suddenly the 51 

Ps. 69. 21. 35 p s . 22 . jg. 39 p s . 22. 7. 43 p s . 22 . 8. Ps. 23. I. 
48 Ps. 69. 21. 

98 MATTHEW, 27-28. 

Temple curtain was torn in two from top to bottom, the earth 
shook, the rocks were torn asunder, the tombs opened, and 52 
the bodies of many of God's People who had fallen asleep 
rose, and they, leaving their tombs, went, after the resurrec- 53 
tion of Jesus, into the Holy City, and appeared to many 
people. The Roman Captain, and the men with him 54 

who were watching Jesus, on seeing the earthquake and all 
that was happening, became greatly frightened and exclaimed : 

"This must indeed have been God's Son ! " 

There were many women there, watching from a distance, 55 
who had accompanied Jesus from Galilee and had been at-- 
tending on him. Among them were Mary of Magdala, Mary 56 
the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of Zebediah's 

The Burial When evening had fallen, there came a rich 57 

of Jesus, man belonging to Ramah, named Joseph, who 
had himself become a disciple of Jesus. He went to see Pilate, 58 
and asked for the body of Jesus ; upon which Pilate ordered it 
to be given him. So Joseph took the body, and wrapped it in 59 
a clean linen sheet, and laid it in his newly-made tomb which 60 
he had cut in the rock ; and, before he left, he rolled a great 
stone against the entrance of the tomb. Mary of 61 

Magdala and the other Mary remained behind, sitting in front 
of the grave. 

The next day that is, the day following the Preparation- 62 
Day the Chief Priests and Pharisees came in a body to Pilate, 
and said : 63 

"Sir, we remember that, during his lifetime, that impostor 
said ' I shall rise after three days.' So order the tomb to be 64 
made secure till the third day. Otherwise his disciples may 
come and steal him, and then say to the people ' He lias risen 
from the dead,' when the latest imposture will be worse than 
the first." 

"You may have a guard," was Pilate's reply; "go and 65 
make the tomb as secure as you can." 

So they went and made the tomb secure, by sealing the stone, 66 
in presence of the guard. 


The After the Sabbath, as the first day of the week 

Rourroction began to dawn, Mary of Magdala and the other 
of jou. Mary had gone to look at the grave, when sud- 
denly a great earthquake occurred. For an angel of the Lord 
descended from Heaven, and came and rolled away the 
stone, and seated himself upon it. His appearance was as 

" Wisd. of Sol. a. 18. 

MATTHEW, 28. 99 

dazzling as lightning, and his clothing was as white as snow ; 
and, in their terror of him, the men on guard trembled violently 4 
and became like dead men. But the angel, addressing the 5 
women, said : 

" You need not be afraid. I know that it is Jesus, who was 
crucified, for whom you are looking. He is not here ; for he 6 
has risen, as he said he would. Come, and see the place 
where he was lying ; and then go quickly and say to his 7 
disciples ' He has risen from the dead, and is going before 
you into Galilee; there you will see him.' Remember, I 
have told you." 

On this they left the tomb quickly, in awe and great joy, and ran 8 
to tell the news to the disciples. Suddenly Jesus met them. 9 

"Welcome ! " he said. 

The women went up to him, and clasped his feet, bowing to 
the ground before him. Then Jesus said to them : 

," Do not be afraid ; go and tell my brothers to set out for 10 
Galilee, and they shall see me there." 

While they were still on their way, some of the guard came 1 1 
into the city, and reported to the Chief Priests everything that 
had happened. So the}' and the Councillors met and, after 12 
holding a consultation, gave a large sum of money to the 
soldiers, and told them to say that his disciples came in the 13 
night, and stole him while they were asleep; "and should 14 
this matter come before the Governor," they added, "we will 
satisfy him, and see that you have nothing to fear." 
So the soldiers took the money, and did as they were 15 
instructed. And this story has been current among the 

Jews from that day to this. 

jcsus The eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the 16 

appears to the mountain where Jesus told them to meet him; 

Apostles, and, when they saw him, they bowed to the 17 
ground before him ; although some felt doubtful. 
Then Jesus came up, and spoke to them thus : 18 

" All authority in heaven and on the earth has been given to 
me. Therefore go ^nd make disciples of all the nations, 19 
baptizing them into the Faith of the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Spirit, and teaching them to lay to heart all the com- 20 
mands that I have given you ; and, remember, I myself am 
with you every day until the close of the age." 
18 Enoch 6a. 6. 



THAN 60 A.D. 

The compiler of this gospel was probably the Luke who 
also compiled the ' Acts of the Apostles ' and appears in that 
book as a companion of St. Paul. That apostle's influence 
may apparently be traced in the selection of many of the 
incidents and parables that are peculiar to this record of the 
Life and Teaching of Jesus. 

I In addition to the record of the ministry given in ' The 
Gospel according to St. Mark 'Awhich appears to rest largely on 
information derived from the Apostle Peter, and the greater 
part of which is embodied hereVthis gospel contains much of 
the teaching of Jesus which is also recorded in ' The Gospel ac- 
cording to St. Matthew,' as well as a quantity of additional and 
very important matter. /The sources from which this matter 
was drawn cannot yet be identified with certainty ; but the 
compiler evidently aimed at presenting a more complete pic- 
ture of the Life of Jesus than had hitherto been attempted. His 
standpoint appears to be that of a converted Gentile, writing 
for his fellow-converts. 

There is nothing to show where this gospel was compiled, 
though it was probably outside Palestine. It is not clear that 
it was originally drawn up in its present form ; nor can its 
date be fixed with any certainty. Its compiler is evidently at 
times translating from the Aramaic language, and at other 
times writing, with greater ease, of events of which he had 
learnt from Greek sources. Apparently he was not himself 
an eye-witness of the Life that he records. The tradition 
that he was a doctor by profession is to some extent supported 
by the internal evidence of this gospel. 




To Az> Excellency, Theophilus. 

Many attempts have been already made to draw up an account 
of those events which have reached their conclusion among us, 
just as they were reported to us by those who from the beginning 
were eye-witnesses, and aftei wards became bearers of the 
Message. A nd, therefore, I also, since I have investigated all 
these events with great care from their very beginning, have 
resolved to write a connected history of them for you, in order 
that vou may be able to satisfy yourself of the accuracy of the 
story -which you have heard from the lips of others. 


The Birth * n t ' ie re ' l S n ^ Herod, King of Judaea, there 5 
of the was a priest named Zechariah, who belonged to 
Baptist the Division called after Abijah. His wife,- whose 
name was Elizabeth, was also a descendant of 
Aaron. They were both righteous people, who lived blameless 6 
lives, guiding their steps by all the commandments and 
ordinances of the Lord. But they had no child, Elizabeth 7 
being barren ; and both of them were advanced in years. 

One day, when Zechariah was officiating as priest before 8 
God, during the turn of his Division, it fell to him by lot, in 9 
accordance with the practice among the priests, to go into the 
Temple of the Lord and burn incense ; and, as it was the Hour 10 
of Incense, the people were all praying outside. And an 1 1 
angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right of 
the Altar of Incense. Zechariah was startled at the sight and 12 
was awe-struck. But the angel said to him : 13 

" Do not be afraid, Zechariah ; your prayer has been heard, 
and your wife Elizabeth shall bear you a son, whom you shall 

104 LUKE, 1. 

call by the name John. He shall be to you a joy and a 14 
delight ; and many shall rejoice over his birth. For he shall 15 
be great in the sight of the Lord ; he shall not drink any wine 
or strong drink, and he shall be filled with the Holy Spirit 
from the very hour of his birth, and shall reconcile many of the 16 
Israelites to the Lord their God. He shall go before him in the 17 
spirit and with the power of Elijah, 'to reconcile fathers to their 
children ' and the disobedient to the wisdom of the righteous, 
and so make ready for the Lord a people prepared for him. " 

" How can I be sure of this? " Zechariah asked the angel. 18 
" For I am an old man and my wife is advanced in years." 

"1 am Gabriel," the angel answered, "who stand in the 19 
presence of God, and I have been sent to speak to you and to 
bring you this good news. And now you shall be silent and 20 
unable to .speak until the day when this takes place, because 
you did not believe what I said, though my words will be 
fulfilled in due ccoirse." 

Meanwhile the people were watching for Zechariah, wonder- 21 
ing at his remaining so long in the Temple. When he came 22 
out, he was unable to speak to them, and they perceived that he 
had seen a vision there. But Zechariah kept making signs to 
them, and remained dumb. And, as soon as his term 23 

of service was finished, he returned home. 

After this his wife, Elizabeth, expecting to become a mother, 24 
lived in seclusion for five months. 

"This is what the Lord has done for me," she said, " now 25 
that he has deigned to take away the reproach under which I 
have been living." 

The Birth ^ix mon ths later the angel Gabriel was sent 26 
of Jesus from God to a town in Galilee called Nazareth, 
foretold, to a maiden there who was betrothed to a man 

named Joseph, a descendant of David. Her name was Mary. 

Gabriel came into her presence and said : 

" Hail, you who have been highly favoured ! The Lord is 

with you." 

Mary was much disturbed at his words, and was wondering to 

herself what such a greeting could mean, when the angel 

spoke again : 

" Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favour with God. 

And now, you shall be with child and give birth to a son, 

and you shall give him the name Jesus. The child shall be 

K;at and shall be called 'Son of the Most High,' and the 
rd God will give him the throne of his ancestor David, and 
he shall reign over the descendants of Jacob for ever ; and to 
his kingdom there shall be no end." 

" How can this be ? " Mary asked the angel. " For I have 
no husband." 

" Num. 6. 3. " Mai. 4. 5-6. ** Isa. 9. 7. 

LUKE, 1. 105 

"The Holy Spirit shall descend upon you," answered the 35 
angel, "and the Power of the Most High shall overshadow 
you ; and therefore the child will be called ' holy,' and ' Son of 
God.' And Elizabeth, your cousin, is herself also expecting a 36 
son in her old age ; and it is now the sixth montli with her, 
though she is called barren ; for no promise from God shall 37 
fail to be fulfilled." 

" I am the servant of the Lord," exclaimed Mary ; " let it be 38 
with me as you have said." . 

Then the angel left her. 

Mary's visit Soon after this Mary set out, and made her 39 
to Elizabeth, way quickly into the hill-country, to a town in 
Judah ; and there she went into Zechariah's house and greeted 40 
Elizabeth. When Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, the child 41 
moved within her, and Elizabeth herself was filled with the 
Holy Spirit, and cried aloud : 42 

" Blessed are you among women, and blessed is your unborn 
child ! But how have I this honour, that the mother of my 43 
Lord should come to me ? For, as soon as your greeting 44 
reached my ears, the child moved within me with delight ! 
Happy indeed is she who believed chat the promise which she 45 
received from the Lord would be fulfilled." 
And Mary said : 46 

" My soul exalts the Lord, 

My spirit delights in God my Saviour ; 47 

For he has remembered his servant in her lowliness ; 48 

And from this hour all ages will count me happy ! 

Great things has the Almighty done for me ; 49 

And holy is his name. 
From age to age his mercy rests 50 

On those who reverence him. 

Mighty are the deeds of his arm ; 51 

He scatters the proud with their own devices, 
He casts down princes from their thrones, and the lowly he 52 


The hungry he loads with gifts, and the rich he sends empty 53 

He has stretched out his hand to his servant Israel, 54 

Ever mindful of his mercy 
(As he promised to our forefathers) 55 

For Abraham and his race for ever." 

Mary stayed with Elizabeth about three months, and then 56 
returned to her home. 

35 Exod. 13. 12 ; Ps. 2. 7. 3? Gen. 18. 14. ** Ps. 104. i. 47 i Sam. 2. i : Ps. 95. i 
(Septuagint). ** i Sam. i. n ; i>al. 3. 12. *> Ps. 126. 3; in. 9. "0 Ps. 103. 17. 
51 Ps. 89. 10 ; Job 5. 13. 52 Job 12. 18 19 ; 5. n ; Enoch 46. 5. "3 Ps. 107. 9 ; 
34. 10 (Septuagint). & Isa. 41. 8 9 ; Ps. 98. 3. *> Mic. 7. 20; Gen. 13. 17. 


106 LUKE, 1. 

The Birth and When Elizabeth's time came, she gave birth to 57 
circumcision a son ; and her neighbours and relations, hearing 58 
of the Baptist. o f t ne g- re at goodnes-s of the Lord to her, came to 
share her joy. A week later they met to circumcise 59 

the child, and were about to call him ' Zechariah ' after his 
father, when his mother interposed : 60 

" No, he is to be called John." 

" You have no relation of that name ! " they exclaimed ; and 61, 
they made signs to the child's father, to find out what he 
wished the child to be called. Asking for a writing-tablet, he 63 
wrote the words 'His name is John.' Every one was sur- 
prised ; and immediately Zechariah recovered his voice and the 64 
use of his tongue, and began to bless God. All their 65 

neighbours were awe-struck at this ; and throughout the hill- 
country of Judaea the whole story was much talked about ; 
and all who heard it kept it in mind, asking one another 66 
" What can this child be destined to become ? " For the Power 
of the Lord was with him. 

Then his father Zechariah was filled with the Holy Spirit, 67 
and, speaking under inspiration, said : 

" Blessed is the Lord, the God of Israel, 68 

Who has visited his people and wrought their deliverance, 
And has raised up for us the Strength of our Salvation 69 

In the House of his servant David 

As he promised by the lips of his holy Prophets of old 70 

Salvation from our enemies and from the hands of all that 71 
hate us, 

Showing mercy to our forefathers, 72 

And mindful of his sacred Covenant. 

This was the oath which he swore to our forefather Abraham 73 

That we should be rescued from the hands of our enemies, 74 

And should serve him without fear in holiness and righteousness, 75 
In his presence all our days. 

And thou, Child, shalt be called Prophet of the Most High, 76 

For thou shalt go before the Lord to make ready his way, 

To give to his people the knowledge of salvation 77 

In the forgiveness of their sins, 

Through the tender mercy of our God, 78 

Whereby the Dawn will break on us from Heaven, 

To give light to those who dwell in darkness and the shadow of 79- 

And guide our feet into the Way of Peace." 

The child grew and became strong in spirit ; and he lived in i 
the Wilds till the time came for his appearance before Israel. 

P. 41. 13; Exod. 3. 16; Ps. in. 9. Ps. 18. a; 80. 24, 20. 71 p s . I0 6. lo . 
7>Mic. 7. ao; Ps. 105. 8; Dan. ii. 38. W Mic. 7. 20. 76 Mai. 3. i. 78 Zech. 6. la. 
(Septuagint). 7 I 8a . 9. a ; Ps. 107. 10 ; Isa. 59. 8. 

LUKE, 2. 107 

The Birth and About that time an edict was issued by the i 
circumcision Emperor Augustus that a census should be 

of Jesus, taken of the whole Empire. (This was the 2 
first census taken while Quirinius was Governor of Syria). 
And every one went to his own town to be regis- 3 
tered. Among others Joseph went up from the town 4 

of Nazareth in Galilee to Bethlehem, the town of David, in 
Judaea because he belonged to the family and house of 
David to be registered with Mary, his betrothed wife, 5 
who was about to become a mother. While they 6 

were there her time came, and she gave birth to her first child, 7 
a son. And because there was no room for them in the inn, 
she swathed him round and laid him in a manger. 

In that same country-side were shepherds out iii the open 8 
fields, watching their flocks that night, when an angel of 9 
the Lord suddenly stood by them, and the Glory of the Lord 
shone around them ; and they were seized with fear. 

" Have no fear," the angel said. " For I bring you good 10 
news of a great joy in store for all the nation. This day there 1 1 
has been born to you, in the town of David, a Saviour, who 
is Christ and Lord. And this shall be the sign for you. You 12 
will find the infant swathed, and lying in a manger." 
Then suddenly there appeared with the angel a multitude of 13 
the heavenly Host, praising God, and singing 

" Glory to God on high, 14 

And on earth peace among men in whom he finds pleasure." 

Now, when the angels had left them and gone back to 15 
Heaven, the shepherds said to one another : 

" Let us go at once to Bethlehem, and see this thing that 
has happened, of which the Lord has told us." 
So they went quickly, and found Mar}- and Joseph, and the 16 
infant lying in a manger ; and, when they saw it, they told of 17 
all that had been said to them about this child. All who 18 
heard the shepherds were astonished at their story, while Mary 19 
treasured up all that they said, and dwelt upon it in her 
thoughts. And the shepherds went back, giving glory and 20 
praise to God for all that they had heard and seen, as it had 
been told them. 

Eight days after the birth of the child, when it was time to 21 
circumcise him, he received the name Jesus the name given 
him by the angel before his conception. 

When the period of purification of mother and 22 
Presentation child, enjoined by the Law of Moses, came to an 
of Jesus in end, his parents took the child up to Jerusalem 

5 Temple. to present h| m to ^g Lord, in compliance 23 
with the Law of the Lord that ' every first-born male shall be 
" Ps. 2. 2. 22 Lev. 12. 6. 23 Exod. 13. 2. 

108 LUKE, 2. 

dedicated to the Lord,' and also to offer the sacrifice enjoined 2^ 
in the Law of the Lord ' a pair of turtle-doves or two young 
pigeons. ' 

There was at that time in Jerusalem a man named Simeon, 25 
a righteous and devout man, who lived in constant expecta- 
tion of the Consolation of Israel, and under the guidance of the 
Holy Spirit. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit 26 
that he should not die until he had seen the Lord's Christ. 
Moved by the Spirit, Simeon came into the Temple Courts, 27 
and, when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for 
him what was customary under the Law, Simeon himself 28 
took the child in his arms, and blessed God, and said : 

" Now, Lord, thou wilt let thy servant go, 29 

According- to thy word, in peace, 

For my eyes have seen the Salvation 30 

Which thou hast prepared in the sight of all nations 31 

A Light to bring light to the Gentiles, 32 

And to be the Glory of thy people Israel." 

While the child's father and mother were wondering at what 33 
was said about him, Simeon gave them his blessing, and said 34 
to Mary, the child's mother : 

" This child is appointed to be the cause of the fall and rise 
of many in Israel, and to be a sign much spoken against 
yes, the sword will pierce your own heart and so the thoughts 35 
in many minds will be disclosed." 

There was also a Prophetess named Hannah, a daughter of 36 
Phanuel and of the tribe of Asher. She was far advanced in 
years, having lived with her husband for seven years after 
marriage, and then a widow, till she had reached the age of 37 
eighty-four. She never left the Temple Courts, but, fasting and 
praying, worshipped God night and day. At that moment 38 
she' came up, and began publicly to thank God and to speak 
about the child to all who were looking for the deliverance of 
The Boyhood When the child's parents had done everything 39 

of enjoined by the Law of the Lord, they returned 
joaus. t o Galilee to their own town of Nazareth. 

The child grew and became strong and wise, and the bless- 40 
ing of God was upon him. 

Every year the child's parents used to go to Jerusalem at the 41 
Passover Festival. When Jesus was twelve years old, 42 

they went according to custom to Jerusalem, and had finished 43 
their visit ; but, when they started to return, the boy Jesus re- 
mained behind in Jerusalem, without their knowing it. Think- 44 
ing that he was with their fellow-travellers, they went one day's 
u Lev. ii. 8. 30 Isa. 40. 5 ; 52. 10. y * Isa. 44. 6 ; 49. 6. " Isa. 8. 15. 

LUKE, 2-3. 109 

journey before searching for him among their relations and 
acquaintances ; and then, as they did not find him, they returned 45 
to Jerusalem, searching everywhere for him. It was not till the 46 
third day that they found him in the Temple Courts, sitting 
among the Teachers, now listening to them, now asking them 
questions. All who listened to him marvelled at his intelligence 47 
and his answers. His parents were amazed when they saw 48 
him, and his mother said to him : 

" My child, why have you treated us like this ? Your father 
and I have been searching for you in great distress. " 

" What made you search for me?" he answered. "Did 49 
not you know that I must be in my Father's House ? " 
His parents did not understand what he meant. However he 50, 
went down with them to Nazareth, and submitted himself to 
their control; and his mother treasured all that was said in 
her heart. 

And Jesus grew in wisdom as he grew in years, and 52 
'gained the blessing of God and men.' 


The Ba tist ^ n *' ie fifteenth year of the reign of the Emperor i 3 
and his Tiberius, when Pontius Pilate was Governor of 
Message. Judaea, Herod Ruler of Galilee, his brother Philip 
Ruler of the territory comprising Ituraea and Trachonitis, and 
Lysanias Ruler of Abilene, and when Annas and Caiaphas 2 
were High Priests, a Command from God came to John, the son 
of Zechariah, while he was in the Wilderness. And John went 3 
through the whole district of the Jordan, proclaiming a baptism 
upon repentance, for the forgiveness of sins. This was in ful- 4 
filment of what is said in the writings of the Prophet Isaiah 

' The voice of one crying aloud in the Wilderness t 
" Make ready the way of the Lord, 

Make his paths straight. 
Every chasm shall be filled, 5 

Every mountain and hill shall be levelled, 
The winding- ways shall be straightened, 
The rough roads made smooth, 

And all mankind shall see the Salvation of God." ' 6 

And John said to the crowds that went to be baptized by 7 
him : 

" You brood of vipers ! who has prompted you to seek refuge 
from the coming judgement ? Let your lives, then, prove your 8 

K i Sam. 2. 36. 4 * Isa. 40. 35. 

110 LUKE, 3. 

repentance ; and do not begin to say among yourselves 
' Abraham is our ancestor,' for I tell you that out of these very 
stones God is able to raise descendants for Abraham ! Already, 9 
indeed, the axe is lying at the root of the trees. Therefore 
every tree that fails to bear good fruit will be cut down and 
thrown into the fire." 

" What are we to do then ? " the people asked. 10 

" Let the man who has two coats, ' answered John, "share n 
with him who has none ; and the man who has food do the 
Even tax-gatherers came to be baptized, and said to John : 12 

" Teacher, what are we to do ? " 

" Do not collect more than you have authority to demand," 13 
John answered. And when some soldiers' on active service 14 
asked " And we what are we to do ? ", he said : 

" Never use violence, or exact anything by false accusation ; 
and be content with your pay. " 

Then, while the people were in suspense, and were all 15 
debating with themselves whether John could be the Christ, 
John, addressing them all, said : 16 

" I, indeed, baptize you with water ; but there is coming one 
more powerful than I, and I am not fit even to unfasten his 
sandals. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. 
His winnowing-fan is in his. hand, that he may clear his 17 
threshing-floor, and store the grain in his barn, but the chaff 
he will burn with inextinguishable fire." 

And so with many different exhortations John told his Good 18 
News to the people. But Prince Herod, being rebuked by 19 
John respecting Herodias, the wife of Herod's brother, and 
for all the evil things that he had done, crowned them all by 20 
shutting John up in prison. 

The Now after the baptism of all the people, and 21 

Baptism of when Jesus had been baptized and was still pray- 

jesua. ing, tn e heavens opened, and the Holy Spirit 22 
descended, in a visible form, like a dove, upon him, and from 
the heavens came a voice 

"Thou art my Son, the Beloved ; in thee I delight." 

The When beginning his work, Jesus was about 23 

Ancestor* or thirty \vars old. He was regarded as the son of 

Jesus. Joseph, whose ancestors were 
Eli Amos Joseph 

Mattith 24 Nahum Josheh 

Levi Azaliah Johanan 27 

Melchiah Nogah Rhesa 

Janna Mattith 26 Zerubbabel 

Joseph Mattithiah Shealtiel 

Mattithiah 25 Shimei Neriah 

M Ps. 1 18. 26. '-*' Ps. a. t ; Isa. 42. i. 

LUKE, 3-4. Ill 

Melchiah 28 Nathan Reu 

Addi David Peleg 

Cosam Jesse 32 Eber 

Elmodam Obed Shelah 

Er Boaz Kenan 36 

Joshua 29 Salah Arpachshad 

Eliezer Nahshon Shem 

Joram Amminadab 33 Noah 

Mattith Ami Lamech 

Levi Hezron Methuselah 37 

Simeon 30 Perez Enoch 

Judah Judah Jared 

Joseph Jacob 34 Mahalalel 

Jonam Isaac Kenan 

Eliakim Abraham Enosh 38 

Meleah 31 Terah Seth and 

Menan Nahor Adam the son of 

Mattithiah Serug 35 GOD. 

The On returning- from the Jordan, full of the Holy i < 

Temptation Spirit, Jesus was led by the power of the Spirit 

of Jesus, through the Wilderness for forty days, tempted by 2 
the Devil. All that time he ate nothing ; and, when it 

was over, he became hungry. So the Devil said to him : 3 

" If you are God's Son, tell this stone to become a loaf of 
bread. " 

And Jesus answered him : " Scripture says 4 

' It is not on bread alone that man is to live.' " 

And the Devil led Jesus up, and, showing him in a single 5 
moment all the kingdoms of the earth, said to him : 6 

" I will give you all this power, and the splendour of them ; 
for it has been given into my hands and I give it to whom I 
wish. If you, therefore, will do homage before me, it shall all 7 
be yours. " 

And Jesus answered him : " Scripture says 8 

' Thou shalt do homage to the Lord thy God, and worship 

him only.'" 

The Devil next led him into Jerusalem, and, placing him on 9 
the parapet of the Temple, said : 

" If you are God's Son throw yourself down from here, for 10 
Scripture says 

' He will give his angels commands about thee, to guard 

thee safely,' 

and II 

' On their hands they will upbear thee, 
Lest ever thou shouldst strike thy foot against a stone.'" 

3 Ps. 2. 7. * Deut. 8. 3. 8 Deut. 6. 13. w-U Ps. 91. 11 la.. 

112 LUKE, 4 

But Jesus answered him : " It is said 12 

' Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.' " 

When he had tried every kind of temptation, the Devil left 13 
Jesus, till another opportunity. 


jeaus begins Moved by the power of the Spirit, Jesus returned 14 

HI* work, to Galilee. Reports about him spread through all 
that neighbourhood ; and he began to teach in their Syna- 15 
gogues, and was honoured by every one. 

Jesus Coming to Nazareth, where he had been brought 16 

teaches at up, Jesus, as was his custom, went on the 
Nazareth. Sabbath into the Synagogue, and stood up to 
read the Scriptures. The book given him was that of the 17 
Prophet Isaiah ; and Jesus opened the book and found the 
place where it says 

' The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, 18 

For he has consecrated me to bring Good News to the poor, 
He has sent me to proclaim release to captives and restoration 

of sight to the blind, 
To set the oppressed at liberty, 

To proclaim the accepted year of the Lord.' 19 

Then, closing the book and returning it to the attendant, he 20 
sat down. The eyes of all in the Synagogue were fixed upon 
him, and Jesus began : 21 

"This very day this passage has been fulfilled in your 

All who were present spoke well of him, and were astonished 22 
at the beautiful words that fell from his lips. 

" Is not he Joseph's son ? " they asked. 

"Doubtless, "said Jesus, "you will remind me of the saying 23 
'Doctor, cure yourself;' and you will say 'Do here in your 
own country all that we have heard has been done at Caper- 
naum.' I tell you," he continued, " that no Prophet is accept- 24 
able in his own country. There were, doubtless, many widows 25 
in Israel in Elijah's days, when the heavens were closed for 
three years and six months, and a severe famine prevailed 
throughout the country ; and yet it was not to one of them that 26 
Elijah was sent, but to a widow at Zarephath in Sidonia. 
And there were many lepers in Israel in the time of the 27 

Dcut. 6. 16. 18-19 I,a. g,. ,_ a . , Kings 17. 9. 

LUKE, 4. 113 

Prophet EHsha, yet it was not one of them who was made 
clean, but Naaman the Syrian." 

All the people in the Synagogue, as they listened to this, 28 
became enraged. Starting up, they drove Jesus out of the 29 
town, and led him to the brow of the hill on which their town 
stood, intending to hurl him down. But he passed through 30 
the middle of the crowd and went on his way. 

cure of Then Jesus went down to Capernaum, a city 31 
a possessed in Galilee. On the Sabbath he taught 

Man. the people. They were amazed at his teaching, 32 
because his words were spoken with authority. In the Syna- 33 
gogue there was a man with the spirit of a foul demon in 
him, who called out loudly : 

"Stop! What do you want with us, Jesus of Nazareth? 34 
Have you come to destroy us ? I know who you are the 
Holy One of God ! " 
But Jesus rebuked the demon. 35 

" Be silent ! Come out from him," he said. 
The demon flung the man down in the middle of the people, 
and then came out from him, without causing him further 
harm. And they were all lost in amazement, and kept saying 36 
to one another : 

"What words are these? For he gives his commands to 
the foul spirits with a marvellous authority, and they come out." 
And rumours about Jesus travelled through every place in the 37 

On leaving the Synagogue, Jesus went into 38 
of Peter's Simon's house. Now Simon's mother-in-law was 
Mother-in-iaw suffering from a severe attack of fever, and they 
and .?* mar> y asked Jesus to cure her. Bending over her, he TO 

others. , J . .. .. , ,- , Jy 

rebuked the fever ; the fever left her, and she 
immediately got up and began to wait upon them. 

At sunset, all who had friends suffering from various 40 
diseases took them to Jesus ; and he placed his hands upon 
every one of them and cured them. And even demons came 41 
out from many people, screaming ' You are the Son of 
God.' Jesus rebuked them, and would not allow them to 
speak, because they knew that he was the Christ. 
Jesus retires ^ daybreak, Jesus went out and walked to a 42 

to a lonely spot. But crowds of people began to look 
lonely Place. f or him ; and they came to where he was and 
tried to detain him and prevent his leaving them. Jesus, 43 
however, said to them : 

" I must take the Good News of the Kingdom of God to the 
other towns also, for that was why I was sent." 
And he continued to make his proclamation in the Synagogues 44 
of Judaea. 

?* jPs. 16. 10, 

114 LUKE, 5. 

The Once, when the people were pressing round i 

great Catch Jesus as they listened to God's Message, he 
of Fish. happened to be standing by the shore of the Lake 
of Gennesaret, and saw two boats close to the shore. The 2 
fishermen had gone away from them and were washing the 
nets. So, getting into one of the boats, which belonged to 3 
Simon, Jesus asked him to push off a little way from the shore, 
and then sat down and taught the people from the boat. 
When he had finished speaking, he said to Simon : 4 

" Push off into deep water, and all throw out your nets for a 

"We have been hard at work all night, Sir," answered 5 
Simon, " and have not caught anything, but, at your bidding, 
I will throw out the nets." 

They did so, and enclosed such a great shoal of fish that their 6 
nets began to break. So they signalled to their partners in 7 
the other boat to come and help them ; and they came and 
filled both the boats so full of fish that they were almost sink- 
ing. When Simon Peter saw this, he threw himself down at 8 
Jesus' knees, exclaiming : 

" Master, leave me, for I am a sinful man ! " 

For he and all who were with him were lost in amaze- 9 
ment at the haul offish which they had made; and so, too, 10 
were James and John, Zebediah's sons, who were Simon's 

" Do not be afraid," Jesus said to Simon ; " from to-day you 
shall catch men." 

And, when they had brought their boats to shore, they left n 
everything, and followed him. 

cure On one occasion Jesus was staying in a town, 12 

or a. Leper, when he saw a man who was covered with leprosy. 
When the leper saw Jesus, he threw himself on his face and 
implored his help : 

" Master, if only you are willing, you are able to make me 

Stretching out his hand, Jesus touched him, saying as he did 13 
so : 

" I am willing ; become clean." 

Instantly the leprosy left the man ; and then Jesus impressed 14 
upon him that he was not to say a word to any one, " but," he 
added, "set out and show yourself to the Priest, and make 
the offerings for your cleansing, in the manner directed by 
Moses, as evidence of your cure." However, the story about 15 
Jesus spread all the more, and great crowds came together 
to listen to him, and to be cured of their illnesses ; but Jesus 16 
used to withdraw to lonely places and pray. 
14 Lev. 13. 49. 

LUKE, 5. 115 

cure of ^ n one f tnose days, when Jesus was teaching, 17 
a paraiyzod some Pharisees and Doctors of the Law were 
Man. sitting near by. (They had come from all the 
villages in Galilee and Judaea, and from Jerusalem ; and the 
power of the Lord was upon Jesus, so that he could work 
cures.) And there some men brought on a bed a man who 18 
was paralyzed. They tried to get him in and lay him before 
Jesus ; but, finding no way of getting him in, owing to the 19 
crowd, they went up on the roof and lowered him through the 
tiles, with his pallet, into the middle of the people and in 
front of Jesus. When he saw their faith, Jesus said : 20 

" Friend, your sins have been forgiven you." 

The Teachers of the Law and the Pharisees began debating 21 
about this. 

"Who is this man who speaks so blasphemously?" they 
asked. " Who can forgive sins except God ? " 
When Jesus became aware of the way in which they were 22 
debating, he turned to them and exclaimed : 

"What are you debating with yourselves? Which is the 23 
easier ? to say ' Your sins have been forgiven you ' ? or to 
say ' Get up, and walk about ' ? But that you may know that 24 
the Son of Man has power on earth to forgive sins " here 
he spoke to the paralyzed man "To you I say, Get up, and 
take up your pallet, and go to your home." 

Instantly the man stood up before their eyes, took up what 25 
he had been lying on, and went to his home, praising 
God. The people, one and all, were lost in amazement, 26 

and praised God ; and in great awe they said : 

" We have seen marvellous things to-day ! " 

can of After this, Jesus went out ; and he noticed a 27 
Levi. tax-gatherer, named Levi, sitting in the tax-office, 
and said to him : " Follow me." 

Levi left everything and got up and followed him. And 28, 

Jesus blamed ^ ev ' g ave a great entertainment at his house, in 
for his honour of Jesus ; and a large number of tax- 
Companions, gatherers and others were at table with them. 
The Pharisees and the Teachers of the Law belonging to their 30 
party complained of this to the disciples of Jesus. 

" Why do you eat and drink with tax-gatherers and out- 
casts ? " 
In answer Jesus said : 31 

" It is not those who are well that need a doctor, but those 
who are ill. I have not come to call the religious, but the 32 
outcast, to repent." 

The Disciples "John's disciples," they said to Jesus, "often 33 
blamed for f ast ant | sa p ravers anc j so d o the disciples of the 

not observing J \ , J . . , r . , . ... 

the Law. Pharisees, while yours are eating and drinking ! 

2* Dan. 7. 13. 

116 LUKE, 56. 

But Jesus answered them : 34 

"Can you make the bridegroom's friends fast while the 
bridegroom is with them ? But the days will come a time 35 
when the bridegroom will be parted from them ; and they will 
fast then, when those days come." 
Then, as an illustration, Jesus said to them : 36 

" No man ever tears a piece from a new garment and puts it 
upon an old one ; for, if he does, he will not only tear the new 
garment, but the piece from the new one will not match the 
old. And no man puts new wine into old wine-skins ; for, if 37 
he does, the new wine will burst the skins, and the wine 
itself will run out, and the skins be lost. But new wine 38 
must be put into fresh skins. No man after drinking 39 

old wine wishes for new. 'No,' he says, 'the old is excel- 

One Sabbath Jesus was walking through cornfields, and i 
his disciples were picking the ears of wheat, and rubbing them 
in their hands, and eating them. 

" Why are you doing what it is not allowable to do on the 2 
Sabbath ? " asked some of the Pharisees. 
Jesus' answer was : 3 

" Have not you read even of what David did, when he was 
hungry, he and his companions that he wenf into the House 4 
of God, and took the consecrated bread and ate it, and gave 
some to his companions, though only the priests are allowed 
to eat it?" 
Then Jesus added : 5 

" The Son of Man is lord even of the Sabbath." 

On another Sabbath Jesus went into the Syna- 6 
a MaiT with gg ue an ^ taught ; and there was a man there 
a withered whose right hand was withered. The Teachers of 7 

H * nd- the Law and the Pharisees watched Jesus closely, 
to see if he would work cures on the Sabbath, so that they 
might find a charge to bring against him. Jesus, however, 8 
kiK-w what was in their minds, and said to the man whose 
hand was withered : 

" Stand up and come out into the middle." 
The man stood up ; and Jesus said to them : 9 

" I ask you, is it allowable to do good on the Sabbath or 
harm ? to save a life, or let it perish ? " 
Then, looking round at them all, he said to the man : 10 

" Stretch out your hand." 

The man did so ; and his hand had become sound. But n 

the Teachers of the Law and the Pharisees were goaded to 
madness, and consulted together what they could do to 

* i Sam. ai. 6. 

LUKE, 6. 117 

The twelve Now about that time, Jesus went out, up the hill, 12 

Apostles, to pray, and spent the whole night in prayer to 
God. When day came, he summoned his disciples, and 13 
chose twelve of them, whom he also named ' Apostles.' They 
were Simon (whom Jesus also named Peter), and his brother 14 
Andrew, James, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, 15 
Thomas, James son of Alphaeus, Simon known as the Zealot, 
Judas son of James, and Judas Iscariot, who proved a traitor. 16 
Afterwards Jesus came down the hill with them and took 17 
his stand on a level place. With him were a large crowd of 
his disciples, and great numbers of people from the whole of 
Judaea, Jerusalem, and the coast district of Tyre and Sidon, 
who had come to hear him and to be restored to health. Those, 18 
too, who were troubled with foul spirits were cured ; and 19 
every one in the crowd was trying to touch him, because a power 
went out from him which restored them all. Then, 20 

THE 'SERMON raising his eyes and looking at his disciples, Jesus 

ON THE spoke as follows : 

MOUNT.' gi essec j are vou who are poor, for yours is the 
The Kingdom of God. 

Happy. Blessed are you who hunger now, for you shall be 21 

Blessed are you who weep now, for you shall laugh. 
Blessed are you when men hate you, and when they expel you 22 
from among them, and taunt you, and reject your Name as an 
evil thing on account of the Son of Man. Then indeed you 23 
may be glad and dance for joy, for be sure that your reward in 
Heaven will be great ; for that is what their ancestors did to 
the Prophets. 

The But 'alas for you who are rich,' for you have 24 

unhappy, had your comforts in full. 

Alas for you who are sated now, for you will hunger. 25 

Alas for you who laugh now, for you will mourn and 

Alas for you when all men speak well of you ; for this is what 26 
their ancestors did to the false Prophets. 

The New ^ ut to vou w ^ hear I say Love your enemies, 27 
Law show kindness to those who hate you, bless those 28 

on Love, who curse you, pray for those who insult you. 
When a man gives one of you a blow on the cheek, offer the 29 
on other cheek as well ; and, when any one takes 

Revenge, away your cloak, do not keep back your coat 
either. Give to every one who asks of you ; and, when 30 
any one takes away what is yours, do not demand its return. 

The Do to others as you wish them to do to you. If 31, 
Golden Rule, you love only those who love you, what thanks 
will be due to you ? Why, even the outcast love those who 
love them ! For, if you show kindness only to those who show 33 

20 Isa. 61. i. 24 Enoch 94. 8. 

118 LUKE, 6-7. 

kindness to you, what thanks will be due to you ? Even 
the outcast do thatf If you lend only to those from whom 34 
you expect to get something, what thanks will be due to you ? 
Even the outcast lend to the outcast in the hope of get- 
ting as much in return ! But love your enemies, and 35 
show them kindness, and lend to them, never despairing. 
Then your reward shall be great, and you shall be Sons of 
the Most High, for he is kind to the thankless and the 
bad. Learn to be merciful even as your Father is 36 

On merciful. Do not judge, and you will not be 37 

judging judged ; do not condemn, and you will not be con- 
others, demned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven. Give, 
and others will give to you. A generous measure, pressed and 
shaken down, and running over, will they pour into your lap ; 38 
for the measure that you mete will be meted out to you in 

Then, speaking in parables, Jesus said : 39 

' ' Can one blind man guide another ? Will they not both fall 
into a ditch ? A scholar is not above his teacher ; yet every 40 
finished scholar shall be like his teacher. And why do 41 

you look at the straw in your brother's eye, while you pay 
no attention at all to the beam in your own ? How can you 42 
say to your brother ' Brother, let me take out the straw in 
your eye,' while you yoursejf do not see the beam in your own ? 
Hypocrite ! Take out the beam from your own eye first, and 
then you will see clearly how to take out the straw in your 
brother's. There is no such thing as a good tree bear- 43 

True and false nl g worthless fruit, or, on the other hand, a worth- 
Teachers, less tree bearing good fruit. For every tree is 44 
known by its own fruit. People do not gather figs off thorn 
bushes, nor pick a bunch of grapes off a bramble. A good 45 
man, from the good stores of his heart, brings out what is good ; 
while a bad man, from his bad stores, brings out what is bad. 
For what fills a man's heart will rise to his lips. Why 46 

Th two do Y ou ca ll me ' Master ! Master ! ' and yet fail to 
Foundations, do what I tell you ? Every one who comes to me 47 
and listens to my teaching and acts upon it I will show you 
to whom he may be compared. He may be compared to a man 48 
building a house, who dug, and went deep, and laid the 
foundation upon the rock. Then, when a flood came, 
the river swept down upon that house, but had no power to 
shake it, because it had been built well. But those who have 49 
listened and not acted upon what they have heard may be 
compared to a man who built a house on the ground without 
any foundation. The river swept down upon it, and the 
house immediately collapsed ; and great was the crash that 

When Jesus had brought to a conclusion all that he then had I 
to say to the people, he entered Capernaum. 

LUKE, 7. 119 

cure of A Captain in the Roman army had a slave 2 
an officer's whom he valued, and who was seriously ill 

servant, almost at the point of death. And, hearing about 3 
Jesus, he sent some Jewish Councillors to him, with the 
request that he would come and save his slave's life. When 4 
they found Jesus, they earnestly implored him to do so. 

" He is a man who deserves that you should show him this 
favour," they said, " for he is devoted to our nation, and him- 5 
self built our Synagogue for us." 

So Jesus went with them. But, when he was no great distance 6 
from the house, the Captain sent some friends with the 

" Do not trouble yourself, Sir ; for I am unworthy to receive 
you under my roof. That was why I did not even venture to 7 
come to you myself; but speak, and let my manservant be 
cured. For I myself am a man under the orders of others, with 8 
soldiers under me ; and if I say to one of them ' Go,' he goes, 
and to another ' Come,' he comes, and to my slave ' Do 
this,' he does it." 

Jesus was surprised to hear these words from him ; and, turn- 9 
ing to the crowd which was following him, he said : 

" I tell you, nowhere in Israel have I met with such faith as 
this ! " 

And, when the messengers returned to the house, they found 10 
the slave recovered. 

Raising of a Shortly after, Jesus went to a town called Nain, n 
widow's son. his disciples and a great crowd going with him. 
Just as he approached the gate of the town, there was a dead 12 
man being carried out for burial an only son, and his mother 
was a widow. A large number of the people of the town 
were with her. When he saw her, the Master was moved 13 
with compassion for her, and he said to her : " Do not weep." 
Then he went up and touched the bier, and the bearers 14 
stopped ; and Jesus said : 

" Young man, I am speaking to you Rise ! " 
The dead man sat up and began to talk, and Jesus restored 15 
him to his mother. Every one was awe-struck and 16 

began praising God. 

"A great Prophet has arisen among us," they said ; "and 
God has visited his people." 

And this story about Jesus spread all through Judaea, and in 17 
the neighbouring countries as well. 

The Baptist's ^H these events were reported to John by his 18 
Message to disciples. So he summoned two of them, and 19 

Jesus. sen t them to the Master to ask 
" Are you ' The Coming One,' or are we to look for some one 
else ? " 

iPs. 118. 26. 

120 LUKE, 7. 

When these men found Jesus, they said : 20 

"John the Baptist has sent us to you to ask ' Are you 'The 
Coming One,' or are we to look for somebody else ? ' ' 
At that very time Jesus had cured many people of diseases, 21 
afflictions, and wicked spirits, and had given many blind people 
their sight. So his answer to the question was : 22 

" Go and report to John what you have witnessed and heard 
the blind recover their sight, the lame walk, the lepers are 
made clean, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised to life, the 
Good News is told to the poor. And blessed' is the man who 23 
finds no hindrance in me." 

When John's messengers had left, Jesus, 24 
Testimony of speaking to the crowds, began to say with 

jesus to reference to John : 

the Baptist. "What did you go out into the Wilderness to 25 
look at ? A reed waving in the wind ? If not, what did you go 
out to see ? A man dressed in rich clothing ? Why, those 
who are accustomed to fine clothes and luxury live in royal 
palaces. What then did you go to see ? A Prophet ? Yes, I 26 
tell you, and far more than a Prophet. This is the very man 27 
of whom Scripture says 

' Behold, I am sending- my Messenger before thy face, 
And he shall prepare thy way before thee.' 

There is, I tell you, no one born of a woman who is greater 28 
than John ; and yet the lowliest in the Kingdom of God is 
greater than he." 

(All the people, when they heard this, and even the tax- 29 
gatherers, having accepted John's baptism, acknowledged the 
justice of God. But the Pharisees and the Students of the 30 
Law, having rejected John's baptism, frustrated God's purpose 
in regard to them.) 

"To what then," Jesus continued, "shall I compare the 31 
people of the present generation ? What are they like ? They 32 
are like some little children who are sitting in the market- 
place and calling out to one another 

' We have played the flute for you, but you have not danced ; 
We have wailed, but you have not wept ! ' 

For now that John the Baptist has come, not eating bread or 33 
drinking wine, you are saying 'He has a demon in him'; 
and now that the Son of Man has come, eating and drinking, 34 
you are saying ' Here is a glutton and a wine-drinker, a friend 
of tax-gatherers and outcasts.' And yet Wisdom is vindicated 35 
by all her children." 

of the Pharisees asked Jesus to dine with 36 
noint*d by him, so Jesus went to his house and took his 
woman, place at table. Just then a woman, who 37 

22 Isa. 61. i. -a Mai. 3. i. 

LUKE, 78. 121 

was an outcast in the town, having ascertained that Jesus was 
at table in the Pharisee's house, brought an alabaster jar of per- 
fume, and placed herself behind Jesus, near his feet, weeping. 38 
Then she began to make his feet wet with her tears, and she 
dried them with the hair of her head, repeatedly ki sing his 
feet and anointing them with the perfume. When the 

Pharisee who had invited Jesus saw this, he said to himself: 39 

" Had this man been ' The Prophet,' he would have known 
who, and what sort of woman, this is who is touching him, and 
that she is an outcast." 
But, addressing him, Jesus said : 40 

" Simon, I have something to say to you." 

" Pray do so, Teacher," Simon answered ; and Jesus began : 
'There were two people who were in debt to a money-lender ; 41 
one owed fifty pounds, and the other five. As they were 42 
unable to pay, he forg-ave them both. Which of them, do you 
think, will love him the more ? " 

" I suppose," answered Simon, " it will be the man to whom 43 
he forgave the greater debt. " 

"You are right, "said Jesus, and then, turning to the woman, 44 
he said to Simon : 

"Do you see this woman ? I came into your house you gave 
me no water for my feet, but she has made my feet wet with 
tears and dried them with her hair. You did not give me one 45 
kiss, but she, from the moment I came in, has not ceased 
to kiss my feet. You did not anoint even my head with oil, 46 
but she has anointed my feet with perfume. And for this, 47 
I tell you, her sins, many as they are, have been pardoned, 
because she has loved greatly ; but one who has little 
pardoned him, loves but little." 

Then he said to the woman : " Your sins have been pardoned. " 48 
On this, those at table began to say to one -another : 49 

" Who is this man who even pardons sins ? " 
But Jesus said to the woman : 50 

" Your faith has delivered you ; go, and peace be with you." 

women who Shortly afterwards, Jesus went on a journey i 8 
ministered through the towns and villages, proclaiming the 
to Jesus. Good News of the Kingdom of God. With him 
went the Twelve, as well as some women who had been cured 2 
of wicked spirits and of infirmities. They were Mary, known 
as Mary of Magdala (from whom seven demons had been 
expelled), and Joanna (the wife of Herod's steward, Chuza), 3 
and Susannah, and many others all of whom ministered to 
Jesus and his Apostles out of their means. 

Parable Once, when a great crowd was collecting, and, 4 
* the sower, when the people of town after town were flocking 
to Jesus, he spoke to them in the form of a parable : 

' ' The sower went out to sow his seed ; and, as he was sowing, $ 

122 LUKE, 8. 

some of the seed fell along the path and was trodden upon ; 
and the wild birds ate it up. Other seed fell upon rock, 6 
and, as soon as it began to grow, having no moisture, 
withered away. Other seed fell in the middle of brambles, 7 
but the brambles grew up with it and choked it entirely. 
Other seed fell into rich soil, and grew, and gave a hundred- 8 
fold return." 
After saying this, Jesus cried aloud : 

" Let him who has ears to hear with hear." 

His disciples asked Jesus the meaning of this parable. 9 

"To you, "he said, "the knowledge of the hidden truths of the 10 
Kingdom of God has been imparted, but to others in parables 
only, that ' though they have eyes they may not see, and 
though they have ears, they may not understand.' This is 
the parable 1 1 

The seed is God's Message. By the seed which fell along the 12 
path are meant those who hear the Message ; but then comes 
the Devil and carries away the Message from their minds, to 
prevent their believing it and being saved. 

By the seed which fell upon the rock are meant those who, as 13 
soon as they hear the Message, welcome it joyfully ; but they 
have no root, and believe it only for a time, and, when the time 
of temptation comes, they draw back. 

By that which fell among the brambles are meant those who 14 
hear the Message, but who, as they go on their way, are com- 
pletely choked by this world's cares and wealth and pleasures, 
and bring nothing to perfection. 

But by that in the good ground are meant those who, having 15 
heard the Message, keep it in the good, rich soil of their 
hearts, and patiently yield a return. 
LoHson from No man sets light to a lamp and then covers it 16 

a. Lamp. with a bowl or puts it underneath a couch, but he 
puts it on a lamp-stand, so that anyone who comes in may see 
the light. Nothing is hidden which will not be brought into 17 
the light of day, nor ever kept hidden which will not some day 
become known and come into the light of day. Take 18 

care, then, how you listen. For, to all those who have, more 
will be given ; while, from all those who have nothing, even 
what they seem to have will be taken away." 

The true Presently Jesus' mother and brothers came 19 
Brotherhood, where he was, but they were not able to join Ifim 
on account of the crowd. So word was brought to him 20 
' Your mother and your brothers are standing outside, wanting 
to see you.' 
His reply, spoken to them all, was : 21 

" My mother and my brothers are those who listen to God's 
teaching and do what it bids." 

JO I .... 6. 10. 

LUKE, 8. 123 

jesus stiiis One day about that time, Jesus got into a boat 22 

a storm, with his disciples and said to them : "Let us go 
across the lake." So they put off. While they were sailing, 23 
Jesus fell asleep. A squall swept down upon the lake, and 
their boat was filling and they were in danger. So the 24 
disciples came and roused him. 

" Sir, Sir," they cried, "we are lost!" 

Jesus rose and rebuked the wind and the rushing waves, and 
they fell, and a calm followed. 

" Where is your faith ? " he exclaimed. 25 

But in great awe and amazement they said to one another : 

"Who can this be, that he commands even the winds and 
the waves, and they obey him ? " 

cure of a And tne y reached the country of the Gerasenes, . 26 

Madman, which is on the opposite side to Galilee ; and, on 27 
getting ashore, Jesus met a man, who had demons in him, 
coming out of the town. For a long time this man had worn 
no clothing, and he had not lived in a house, but in the tombs. 
Catching sight of Jesus, he shrieked out and threw himself 28 
down before him, and in a loud voice exclaimed : 

" What do you want with me, Jesus, Son of the Most High 
God ? I beseech you not to torment me." 

For Jesus was commanding the foul spirit to come out from 29 
the man. On many occasions it had seized him, and, even when 
secured with chains and fetters, and watched, he would break 
through anything that bound him, and be driven by the demon 
into the Wilds. 

" What is your name ? " Jesus asked. 30 

"Legion," he answered (for many demons had taken pos- 
session of him) ; and the demons begged Jesus not to order 31 
them away into the bottomless pit. There was a drove 32 

of many pigs close by feeding upon the hill-side ; and the 
demons begged Jesus to give them leave to enter into them. 
Jesus gave them leave. They came out from the man and took 33 
possession of the pigs ; and the drove rushed down the steep 
slope into the lake and were drowned. When the men 34 

who tended them saw what had happened, they ran away, and 
carried the news to the town, and to the country round. The 35 
people went out to see what had happened, and, when they came 
to Jesus, they found the man from whom the demons had gone 
out, sitting, clothed and in his right mind, at Jesus' feet ; and 
they were awe-struck. Those who had seen it told them how 36 
the possessed man had been delivered ; upon which all the 37 
people in the neighbourhood of the Gerasenes asked Jesus to 
leave them, for they were terrified. Jesus got into a boat and 
returned. The man from whom the demons had gone out 38 
begged Jesus to let him be with him ; but Jesus sent him away. 

" Go back to your home," he said, " and relate the story of 39 
all that God has done for you." 

124 LUKE, a 

So the man went through the whole town and proclaimed, as 
he went, all that Jesus had done for him. 

On his return, Jesus was welcomed by the people ; 40 
Th of*the' ne for every one was looking out for him. And 41 

Daughter of a man named Jaeirus, who was a Presi- 
jaeirus. dent of the Synagogue, came to Jesus, and 
threw himself at Jesus' feet, with entreaties that he would 
come to his house, because his only daughter, who was about 42 

cure or twelve years old, was dying. _ As Jesus 

an afflicted was going, the people were pressing closely round 

woman, him. And a woman, who had suffered from 43 
haemorrhage for twelve years, and whom no one could cure, 
came up behind and touched the tassel of his cloak. Instantly 44 
the haemorrhage ceased. 

" Who was it that touched me ? " Jesus asked ; and, 45 
while every one was denying having done so, Peter ex- 
claimed : 

" Why, Sir, the people are crowding round you and pressing 
upon you ! " 

" Somebody touched me," said Jesus ; " for I felt that power 46 
had gone out from me." 

Then the woman, when she saw that she was discovered, came 47 
forward trembling, and threw herself down before him ; and, 
in presence of all the people, she told him her reason for touch- 
ing him, and that she had been cured instantly. 

"Daughter," he said, "your faith has delivered you. Go, 48 
and peace be with you." 

Before he had finished speaking, some one came from the 49 
house of the President of the Synagogue and said : 

"Your daughter is dead! Do not trouble the Teacher 
But Jesus, hearing this, spoke to the President : 50 

" Do not be afraid ; only have faith, and she shall yet be 
delivered. " 

When he reached the house, he did not allow any one to go in 51 
with him, except Peter, John, and James, and the child's father 
and mother. And every one was weeping and mourning for 52 

"Do not weep," Jesus said, "she is not dead; she is asleep." 
They began to laugh at him, for they knew that she was 53 
dead. But, taking her by the hand, Jesus said in a loud 54 
voice : 

"Child, rise!" 

The child's spirit returned to her, and she instantly stood up ; 55 
and Jesus ordered them to give her something to eat. Her 56 
parents were amazed, but Jesus impressed on them that they 
were not to tell any one what had happened. 

* Num. 15. 38. 

LUKE, 9. 125 

The Mission J esus called the Twelve together.and gave them i 9 
of the twelve power and authority over all demons, as well 

Apostles, as to cure diseases. He sent .them out as his Mes- 2 
sengers, to proclaim the Kingdom of God, and to work cures. 

"Do not," he said to them, "take anything for your 3 
journey ; not even a staff, or a bag, or bread, or any silver, or 
a change of clothes with you. Whatever house you go to stay 4 
in, remain there, and leave from that place. If people do not 5 
welcome you, as you leave that town, shake even the dust off 
your feet, as a protest against them." 

Then they set out and went from village to village, telling the 6 
Good News and curing people everywhere. 

Prince Herod heard of all that was happen- 7 
and ing, and was perplexed, because it was said by 
the Baptist, some that John must be risen from the dead. 
Some again said that Elijah had appeared, and others that 8 
one of the old Prophets had risen again. But Herod himself 9 
said : 

"John I beheaded ; but who is this of whom I hear such 
things ? " 
And he endeavoured to see him. 

The When the Apostles returned, they related 10 

Return of the to Jesus all that they had done. Then 

Apostles. Jesus retired privately to a town called Bethsaida, 
taking the Apostles with him. But the people recognized him 1 1 
and followed him in crowds ; and Jesus welcomed them and 
spoke to them about the Kingdom of God, while he cured 
those who were in need of help. The day was draw- 12 

ing to a close, when the Twelve came up to him, 

Jesus feeds j j . 

flve thousand and said . 
by the Lake Send the crowd away, so that they may make 

of Galilee, their way to the villages and farms round about, 
and find themselves lodgings and provisions, for we are in a 
lonely spot here." 

But Jesus said : " It is for you to give them something to 13 

"We have not more than five loaves and two fishes," they 
answered ; "unless indeed we are to go and buy food for all 
these people." 
(For the men among them were about five thousand.) 14 

"Get them seated in companies," was his reply, "about 
fifty in each." 

This they did, and got all the people seated. Taking 15, i 
the five loaves and the two fishes, Jesus looked up to 
Heaven and said the blessing over them. Then he broke 
them in pieces, and gave them to his disciples to set 
before the people. Every one had sufficient to eat, and 17 
what was left of the broken pieces was picked up twelve 

126 LUKE, 9. 

Peter's Afterwards, when Jesus was alone, praying, 

Confession his disciples joined him, and he asked them this 
of question 

" Who do the people say that I am ? " 

"John the Baptist," was their answer; "others, however, 
say that you are Elijah, while others say that one of the old 
Prophets has risen again." 

" But you," he went on, " who do you say that I am ? " 
And to this Peter answered : 

"The Christ of God." 

Jesus, however, strictly charged them not to say this to any 

jesus one > ' ie tld them that the Son of Man must 

foretells his undergo much suffering, and be rejected by the 

Death. Councillors, and Chief Priests, and Teachers 

of the Law, and be put to death, and rise on the third 

A can ^ av- ^ nc * to a 'l P resen t he said : 

to renounce " If any man wishes to walk in my steps, let 
8elf - him renounce self, and take up his cross daily, and 
follow me. For whoever wishes to save his life will lose it, 
and whoever, for my sake, loses his life that man shall save 
it. What good does it do a man if, when he has gained the 
whole world, he has lost or forfeited himself? Whoever is 
ashamed of me and of my teaching, the Son of Man will be 
ashamed of him, when he comes in his Glory and the Glory of 
the Father and of the holy angels. Indeed, I tell you, 

some who are standing before me will not know death, till 
they have seen the Kingdom of God." 

The About eight days after speaking these words, 

Transfigure- Jesus went up the mountain to pray, taking with 

tson. i iml Peter, John, and James. As he was pray- 
ing, the aspect of his face was changed, and his clothing 
became of a glittering whiteness. And all at once two men 
were talking- with Jesus ; they were Moses and Elijah, who 
appeared in a glorified state, and spoke of his departure, 
which was destined to take place at Jerusalem. Peter and his 
companions had been overpowered by sleep but, suddenly 
becoming wide awake, they saw Jesus glorified and the two 
men who were standing beside him. And, as Moses and 
Elijah were passing away from Jesus, Peter exclaimed : 

" Sir, it is good to be here ; let us make three tents, one for 
you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah." 
He did not know what he was saying ; and, while he was 
speaking, a cloud came down and enveloped them ; and they 
were afraid, as they passed into the cloud ; and from the cloud 
came a voice which said 

'a Hos. 6. a. 3 Ps. a. 7 ; Isa. 42. i ; Enoch 40. 5. 

LUKE, 9. 127 

" This is my. Son, the Chosen One ; him you must 
hear. " 

And, as the voice ceased, Jesus was found alone. The 36 
Apostles kept silence, and told no one about any of the things 
that they had seen. 

cur or nex t day, when they had come down from 37 

an epileptic the mountain, a great crowd met Jesus. And 38 
B y- just then a man in the crowd shouted out : 

" Teacher, I entreat you to look at my son, for he is my only 
child ; all at once a spirit will seize him, suddenly shriek out, 39 
and throw him into convulsions till he foams, and will leave 
him only when he is utterly exhausted. I entreated your 40 
disciples to drive the spirit out, but they could not." 

"O faithless and perverse generation !" Jesus exclaimed ; 41 
" how long must I be with you and have patience with you? 
Lead your son here." 

While the boy was coming up to Jesus, the demon dashed him 42 
down and threw him into convulsions. But Jesus rebuked 
the foul spirit, and cured the boy, and gave him back to 
his father. And all present were struck with awe at the 43 
majesty of God. 

In the midst of the general astonishment at all 
a second time that Jesus was doing, he said to his disciples : 
foretells "Listen carefully to my words. For the Son 44 

s Death. Q ^ ]yj an j s j es tined to be betrayed into the hands 
of his fellow men." 

But the disciples did not understand the meaning of this ; 45 
it had been concealed from them so that they did not 
see it, and they were afraid to question him as to what he 

On A discussion arose among the disciples as 46 

Humility, to which of them was the greatest ; and Jesus, 47 
knowing of the discussion that was occupying their thoughts, 
took hold of a little child, and placed it beside him, and then 48 
said to them : 

"Any one who, for the sake of my Name, welcomes even 
this little child is welcoming me ; and any one who welcomes 
me is welcoming him who sent me as his Messenger. For 
whoever is lowliest among you all that man is great. " 

On Thereupon John said : 49 

Toleration. " Sir, we saw a man driving out demons by 
using your name, and we tried to prevent him, because he 
does not follow you with us." 

"None of you must prevent him," Jesus said to John; 50 
" he who is not against you is for you." 

Deut. 32. 5. 

128 LUKE, 9-1O. 


As the days before his being taken up to Heaven were 5 
growing few, Jesus set his face resolutely in the direction of 
Jerusalem ; and he sent on messengers in advance. On 5: 

their way, they went into a Samaritan village to make prepara- 
tions for him, but the people there did not welcome him, 5; 
because his face was set in the direction of Jerusalem. When 5. 
James and John saw this, they said : 

" Master, do you wish us to call for fire to come down from 
the heavens and consume them ? " 

But Jesus turned and rebuked them. And they made their 5, 
way to another village. 

Tests of And, while they were on their way, a man said 5' 

Sincerity. to JeSUS : 

" I will follow you wherever you go." 

" Foxes have holes," he replied, " and wild birds their roost- 5! 
ing-places, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head." 
To another man Jesus said : ''Follow me." 51 

" Let me first go and bury my father," said the man. 
But Jesus said : 6< 

" Leave the dead to bury their dead ; but go yourself and 
carry far and wide the news of the Kingdom of God." 

" Master," said another, " I will follow you ; but first let me 6: 
say good-bye to my family." 
But Jesus answered : 6: 

" No one who looks back, after putting his hand to the 
plough, is fitted for the Kingdom of God." 

After this, the Master appointed seventy-two i 

lie Mission t 

or the other disciples, and sent them on as his 
seventy. Messengers, two and two, in advance, to every 
town and place that he was himself intending to visit. 

"The harvest," he said, " is abundant, but the labourers are 2 
few. Therefore pray to the Owner of the harvest to send 
labourers to gather in his harvest. Now, go. Remember, I 3 
am sending you out as my Messengers like lambs among 
wolves. Do not take a purse with you, or a bag, or sandals; 4 
and do not stop to greet any one on your journey. Whatever 5 
house you go to stay at, begin by praying for a blessing 
on it. Then, if any one there is deserving of a blessing, 6 
your blessing will rest upon him; but if not, it will come 
back upon yourselves. Remain at that same house, and 7 
eat and drink whatever they offer you ; for the worker is worth 
his wages. Do not keep changing from one house to another. 
Whatever town you visit, if the people welcome you, eat 8 
what is set before you; cure the sick there, and tell people 9 

M a Kings i. 10, 

LUKE, 1C. 129 

' The Kingdom of God is close at hand.' But, whatever town 10 
you go to visit, if the people do not welcfime you, go out 
into its streets and say ' We wipe off the very dust of your 1 1 
town which has clung to our feet ; still, be assured that the 
Kingdom of God is close at hand.' I tell you that the 12 
doom of Sodom will be more bearable on ' That Day ' than 
the doom of that town. Alas for you, Chorazin ! Alas 13 

The Doom of ^ or vou> Bethsaida ! For, if the miracles which 
the Towns of have been done in you had been done in Tyre 
Gaiiiee. anc j Sidon, they would have sat in sackcloth 
and ashes and repented long ago. Yet the doom of Tyre 14 
and Sidon will be more bearable at the Judgement than 
yours. And you, Capernaum ! Will you ' exalt your- 15 

self to Heaven ' ? ' You shall go down to the Place of 
Death.' He who listens to you is listening to me, 16 

and he who rejects you is rejecting me ; while he who rejects 
me is rejecting him who sent me as his Messenger." 

When the seventy-two returned, they exclaimed 17 
The Return of j f u iiy . "Master, even the demons submit to 

J J J 

the Seventy. , UAJT i-jo 

us when we use your name. And Jesus replied : 10 
" I have had visions of Satan, fallen, like lightning from the 
heavens. Remember, I have given you the power to ' trample 19 
upon serpents and scorpions,' and to meet all the strength of 
the Enemy. Nothing shall ever harm you in any way. Yet 20 
do not rejoice in the fact that the spirits submit to you, but 
rejoice that your names have been enrolled in Heaven." 
The chiid-Mke At that same time, moved to exultation by the 21 
Mind. . Holy Spirit, Jesus said : 

" I thank thee, Father, Lord of Heaven and 
earth, that, though thou hast hidden these 
things from the wise and learned, thou hast 
revealed them to the childlike ! Yes, Father, 
I thank thee that this has seemed good to 

Everything has been committed to me by my Father ; nor 22 
does any one know who the Son is, except the Father, or 
who the Father is, except the Son and those to whom the 
Son may choose to reveal him." 

Then, turning to his disciples, Jesus said to them alone : 23 

' ' Blessed are the eyes that see what you are seeing ; for, I tell 24 
you, many Prophets and Kings wished for the sight of the 
things which you are seeing, yet never saw them, and to hear 
the things which you are hearing, yet never heard them." 

Just then a Student of the Law came forward 25 

i ne ui*OtT T * i 

command- to test Jesus further- 

ment. " Teacher," he said, "what must I do if I am 

to ' gain Immortal Life' ? " 

12 Isa. 2. ii. ** Isa. 14. 13, 15. 19 Ps. 91. 13. 2 Enoch 40. 9. 


130 LUKE, 10. 

" What is said in the Law ? " answered Jesus. " What do 26 
you read there ? " 
His reply was 27 

" ' Thou shall love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and 
with all thy soul, and with 'all thy strength, and with all thy 
mind ; and thy neighbour as thou dost thyself.' " 

" You have answered right," said Jesus ; " do that, and you 28 
shall live." 

But the man, wanting- to justify himself, said to Jesus : " And 29 
who is my neighbour ? " To which Jesus replied : 30 

The Good " A man was once going down from Jerusalem 
Samaritan, to Jericho when he fell into the hands of robbers, 
who stripped him of everything, and beat him, and went away 
leaving him half dead. As it chanced, a priest was going down 31 
by that road. He saw the man, but passed by on the opposite 
side. A Levite, too, did the same ; he came up to the spot, 32 
but, when he saw the man, passed by on the opposite side. 
But a Samaritan, travelling that way, came upon the man, and, 33 
when he saw him, he was moved with compassion. He went 34 
to him and bound up his wounds, dressing them with oil and 
wine, and then put him on his own mule, and brought him to 
an inn, and took care of him. The next day he took out 35 
four shillings and gave them to the inn-keeper. 'Take 
care of him,' he said, 'and whatever more you may spend 
I will myself repay you on my way back.' Now which, 36 
do you think, of these three men," asked Jesus, "proved 
himself a neighbour to the man who fell into the robbers' 

"The one that took pity on him," was the answer ; on which 37 
Jesus said : 

"Go and do the same yourself." 

The As they continued their journey, Jesus came 38 

sisters of to a village, where a woman named Martha 

Bethany, welcomed him to her house. She had a sister 39 
called Mary, who seated herself at the Master's feet, and* 
listened to his teaching ; but Martha was distracted by the 40 
many preparations that she was making. So she went up to 
Jesus and said : 

" Master, do you approve of my sister's leaving me to make 
preparations alone ? Tell her to help me." 

"Martha, Martha," replied the Master, "you are anxious and 41 
trouble yourself about many things ; but only a few are 42 
necessary, or rather one. Mary has chosen the good part, 
and it shall not be taken away from her." 

Deut. 6. 5 ; Lev. 19. 18. ' Lev. 18. 5. 

LUKE, n. isi 

The Lord's One day Jesus was at a certain place praying, i \ 

Prayer.' and, when he had finished, one of his disciples 
said to him : 

" Master, teach us to pray, as John taught his disciples." 

" When you pray," Jesus answered, " say 2 

' Father, May thy name be held holy, thy 
Kingdom come. Give us each day the bread 3 

that we shall need ; And forgive us our sins, 4 

for we ourselves forgive every one who wrongs 
us ; And take us not into temptation.'" 

Persistence J e * US als Said tO then } : 5 

in Suppose that one of you who has a friend 

Prayer. were to go to him in the middle of the night and 
say ' Friend, lend me three loaves, for a friend of mine has 6 
arrived at my house after a journey, and I have nothing to 
offer him ' ; and suppose that the other should answer from 7 
inside ' Do not trouble me ; the door is already fastened, and my 
children and I are in bed ; I cannot get up and give you 
anything' ; I tell you that, even though he will not get up and 8 
give him anything because he is a friend, yet because of 
his persistence he will rouse himself and give him what he 
wants. And so I say to you Ask, and your prayer 9 

Encourage- sna ll be granted : search, and you shall find ; 
ment knock, and the door shall be opened to you. 

to Prayer. p or h e th a t asks receives, he that searches 10 
finds, and to him that knocks the door shall be opened. What u 
father among you, if his son asks him for a fish, will give 
him a snake instead, or, if he asks for an egg, will give him 12 
a scorpion ? If you, then, naturally wicked though you 13 
are, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much 
more will the Father in Heaven give the Holy Spirit to those 
that ask him ! " 

euro of a. Once Jesus was driving out a dumb demon, 14 
dumb Man. and, when the demon had gone out, the dumb 
man spoke. The people were amazed at this ; but some 15 

of them said : ' ' He drives out demons by the help of Baal-zebub, 
Jesus accused ^ e cn ' e f ^ the demons " ; while others, to test 16 
^>f 8 Act?ne e him, asked him for some sign from the heavens. 
by the Help Jesus himself, however, was aware of what they 17 
of Satan. were thinking, and said to them : 
"Any kingdom wholly divided against itself becomes a 
desolation ; and a divided house falls. So, too, if Satan is 18 
wholly divided against himself, how can his kingdom last ? 
Yet you say that I drive out demons by the help of B#al- 
zebub. But, if it is by Baal-zebub's help that I drive out 19 
demons, by whose help is it that your own sons drive them 
out? Therefore they shall themselves be your judges. But, if 20 
it is by the hand of God that I drive out demons, then the 

182 LUKE, H. 

Kingdom of God must already be upon you. When a strong 21 
man is keeping guard, fully armed, over his own mansion, his 
property is in safety ; but, when one still stronger has attacked 22 
and overpowered him, he takes away all the weapons on which 
the other had relied, and divides his spoil. He who is not 23 
with me is against me, and he who does not help me to 

o.-xn er of gather is scattering. No sooner does a 24 

imperfect foul spirit leave a man, than it passes through 
Reformation, places where there is no water, in search of rest ; 
and finding none, it says ' I will go back to the home which I 
left ' ; but, on coming there, it finds it unoccupied, swept, 25 
and put in order. Then it goes and brings with it seven 26 
other spirits more wicked than itself, and they go in, and 
make their home there ; and the last state of that man proves 
to be worse than the first." 

As Jesus was saying this, a woman in the crowd, raising her 27 
/ voice, exclaimed : 

" Happy was the mother who bore you and nursed you ! " 
But Jesus replied : 28 

" Rather, happy are those who listen to God's Message and 
keep it." 

wamin ^ s tne crow ds increased, Jesus began to 29 

agaTnst speak : 

seeking siens. " This generation is a wicked generation. It 
is asking a sign, but no sign shall be given it except the sign 
of Jonah. For, as Jonah became a sign to the people of 30 
Nineveh, so shall the Son of Man be to this generation. At 31 
the Judgement the Queen of the South will rise up with the 
men of this generation, and will condemn them, because she 
came from the very ends of the earth to listen to the wisdom 
of Solomon ; and here is more than a Solomon ! At the Judge- 32 
ment the men of Nineveh will stand up with this generation, 
and will condemn it, because they repented at Jonah's proclama- 
tion ; and here is more than a Jonah ! No one sets 33 

Lesson light to a lamp, and then puts it in the cellar or 
from a Lamp, under the corn-measure, but he puts it on the 
lamp-stand, so that any one who comes in may see the 
Light and h'ght. The lamp of the body is your eye. 34 

Darkness. When your eye is unclouded, your whole body, 
also, is lit up ; but, as soon as your eye is diseased, your body, 
also, is darkened. Take care, therefore, that the inner Light 35 
is not darkness. If, then, your whole body is lit up, and no 36 
corner of it darkened, the whole will be lit up, just as when a 
lamp, gives you light by its brilliance." 

As Jesus finished speaking, a Pharisee asked 37 
him to breakfast with him, and Jesus went in and 
the Pharisees, took his place at table. The Pharisee noticed, to 38 

LUKE, 11-12. 133 

his astonishment, that Jesus omitted the ceremonial washing 
before breakfast. But the Master said to him : 39 

"You Pharisees do, it is true, clean the outside of the cup 
and of the plate, but inside you yourselves are filled with 
greed and wickedness. Fools ! did not the maker of the out- 40 
side make the inside too ? Only give away what is in them in 41 
charity, and at once you have the whole clean. But alas for 42 
you Pharisees ! You pay tithes on mint, rue, and herbs of all 
kinds, and pass over justice and love to God. These last you 
ought to have put into practice without neglecting the first. 
Alas for you Pharisees ! You delight to have the front seat in 43 
the Synagogues, and to be greeted in the markets with respect. 
Alas for you ! You are like unsuspected graves, over which 44 
men walk unawares." 
Here one of the Students of the Law interrupted him by saying : 45 

" Teacher, when you say this, you are insulting us also." 
But Jesus went on : 46 

"Alas for you, too, you Students of the Law! You load 
men with loads that are too heavy to carry, but do not, your- 
selves, touch them with one of your fingers. Alas for you ! 47 
You build the monuments of the Prophets whom your 
ancestors killed. You are actually witnesses to your ancestors' 48 
acts and show your approval of them, because, while they 
killed the Prophets, you build tombs for them. That is why 49 
the Wisdom of God said " I will send to them Prophets and 
Apostles, some of whom they will persecute and kill, in order 50 
that the ' blood ' of all the prophets ' that has been spilt ' since 
the creation of the world may be exacted from this generation 
from the blood of Abel down to the blood of Zechariah, who 51 
was slain between the altar and the House of God." Yes, I tell 
you, it will be exacted from this generation. Alas for you 52 
Students of the Law ! You have taken away the key of the 
door of Knowledge. You have not gone in yourselves and you 
have hindered those who try to go in." 

A Plot When Jesus left the house, the Teachers of the 53 

against jesus. Law and the Pharisees began to press him hard 
and question him closely upon many subjects, laying traps for 54 
him, so as to seize upon anything that he might say. 


Meanwhile the people had gathered in thou- 
_ _ sands, so that they trod upon one another, when 
Encourage- Jesus, addressing himself to his disciples, began 
ments. j^y sa yi n gr t o them : 

"Be on your guard against the leaven that is, the hypo- 
crisy of the Pharisees. There is nothing, however 
covered up, which will not be uncovered, nor anything kept 
secret which will not become known. Hence all that you have 
said in the dark will be heard in the light, and what you have 

60 Enoch 9. i. 

134 LUKE, 12. 

spoken in the ear, within closed doors, will be proclaimed 
upon the housetops. To you who are my friends I 

say, Do not be afraid of those who kill the body, but after that 
can do no more. I will show you of whom you should be 
afraid. Be afraid of him who, after killing you, has the power 
to fling you into the Pit. Yes, I say, be afraid of him. Are 
not five sparrows sold for a penny ? Yet not one of them has 
escaped God's notice. No, the very hairs of your head are all 
numbered. Do not be afraid ; you are of more value than many 
sparrows. Every one, I tell you, who shall acknow- 

ledge me before his fellow men, the Son of Man, also, will 
acknowledge before God's angels ; but he, who disowns me 
before his fellow men, will be altogether disowned before God's 
angels. Every one who shall say anything against the 

Son of Man will be forgiven, but for him who slanders the Holy 
Spirit there will be no forgiveness. Whenever they 

take you before the Synagogue Courts or the magistrates or 
other authorities, do not be anxious as to how you will defend 
yourselves, or what your defence will be, or what you will say ; 
for the Holy Spirit will show you at the moment what you 
ought to say." 

instances " Teacher," a man in the crowd said to Jesus, 
or " tell my brother to share the property with me." 
covetousness. 3 u t Jesus said to him : 

" Man, who made me a judge or an arbiter between 
you ? " 
And then he added : 

"Take care to keep yourselves free from every form of 
covetousness ; for even in the height of his prosperity a man's 
true Life does not depend on what he has." 
Then Jesus told them this parable 

" There was once a rich man whose land was very fertile ; 
and he began to ask himself ' What shall I do, for I have 
nowhere to store my crops ? This is what I will do,' he said ; 
' I will pull down my barns and build larger ones, and store 
all my grain and my goods in them ; and I will say to myself, 
Now you have plenty of good things put by for many years ; 
take your ease, eat, drink, and enjoy yourself.' But God 
said to the man ' Fool ! This very night your life is being 
demanded ; and as for all that you have prepared who will 
have it ? ' 

So it is with those who lay by wealth for themselves and are 
not rich to the glory of God." 
Tho cr And Jesus said to his disciples : 

of ur*. "That is why I say to you, Do not be anxious 
about the life here what you can get to eat ; nor yet about 
your body what you can get to wear. For life is more than 
food, and the body than its clothes. Think of the ravens 
they neither sow nor reap ; they have neither storehouse nor 

LUKE, 12. 135 

barn ; and yet God feeds them ! And how much more precious 
are you than birds ! But which of you, by being anxious, 25 
can prolong his life a moment ? And, if you cannot do even 26 
the smallest thing, why be anxious about other things ? Think 27 
of the lilies, and how they grow. They neither toil nor spin ; 
yet, I tell you, even Solomon in all his splendour was nc<: robed 
like one of these. If, even in the field, God so clothes the grass 28 
which is living to-day and to-morrow will be thrown into the 
oven, how much more will he clothe you, O men of little faith ! 
And you do not be always seeking what you can get to eat 29 
or what you can get to drink ; and do not waver. These are the 30 
things for which all the nations of the world are seeking, and 
your Father knows that you need them. No, seek his Kingdom, 31 
and these things shall be added for you. So do not be afraid, 32 
my little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you 
the Kingdom. Sell what belongs to you, and give in 33 

The true charity. Make yourselves purses that will not 
Treasure, wear out an inexhaustible treasure in Heaven, 
where no thief'comes near, or moth works ruin. For where your 34 
treasure is, there also will your heart be. Make your- 35 

selves ready, with your lamps alight ; and be like 36 
watchfulness. men w j lo are waiting for their Master's return from 
his wedding, so that, when he comes and knocks, they may 
open the door for him at once. Happy are those servants whom, 37 
on his return, the Master will find watching. I tell you that 
he will make himself ready, and bid them take their places at 
table, and will come and wait upon them. Whether it is late 38 
at night, or in the early morning that he comes, if he finds 
all as it should be, then happy are they. This you do know, 39 
that, had the owner of the house known at what time the 
thief was coming, he would have been on the watch, and would 
not have let his house be broken into. Do you also prepare, 40 
for when you are least expecting him the Son of Man will 

Parable of the "Master," said Peter, "are you telling this 41 
eood and bad parable with reference to us or to every one ? " 

servants. " Who, then," replied the Master, "is that 42 
trustworthy steward, the careful man, who will be placed 
by his master over his establishment, to give them their rations 
at the proper time ? Happy will that servant be whom his 43 
master, when he comes home, shall find doing this. His 44 
master, I tell you, will put him in charge of the whole of 
his property. But should that servant say to himself ' My 45 
master is a long time coming,' and begin to beat the men- 
servants and the maidservants, and to eat and drink and get 
drunk, that servant's master will come on a day when 46 
he does not expect him, and at an hour of which he is un- 
aware, and will flog him severely and assign him his place 
among the untrustworthy. The servant who knows his 47 

136 LUKE, 12-18. 

master's wishes and yet does not prepare and act accordingly 
will receive many lashes ; while one who does not know his 48 
master's wishes, but acts so as to deserve a flogging, will 
receive but few. From every one to whom much has been 
given much will be expected, and from the man to whom much 
has been entrusted the more will be demanded. I came 49 

The cost to cast ^ re u P on the eai "th ; and what more can 
o* Christ's I wish, if it is already kindled ? There is a 50 

service, baptism that I must undergo, and how great is 
my distress until it is over ! Do you think that I am here to 51 
give peace on earth ? No, I tell you, but to cause division. 
For from this time, if there are five people in a house, they 52 
will be divided, three against two, and two against three. 

' Father will be opposed to son and son to father, mother tq 53 
daughter and daughter to mother, mother-in-law to her 
daughter-in-law and daughter-in-law to her mother-in-law.' " 

signs of And to the people Jesus said : 54 

the Times. " When you see a cloud rising in the west, you 
say at once ' There is a storm coming,' and come it does. And 55 
when you see that the wind is in the south, you say ' It will be 
burning hot, 'and so it proves. Hypocrites! You know how to 56 
judge of the earth and the sky; how is it, then, that you cannot 
judge of this time ? Why do not you yourselves decide 57 

The what is right ? When, for instance, you are going 58 
Settlement with your opponent before a magistrate, on your 
or Disputes. wav to the court do your best to be quit of him ; 
for fear that he should drag you before the judge, when the 
judge will hand you over to the bailiff of the court, and the 
bailiff throw you into prison. You will not, I tell you, come 59 
out until you have paid the very last farthing." 

The Just at that time some people had come to tell i 

Meaning of Jesus about the Galilaeans, whose blood Pilate 
calamities. i iac j mingled with the blood of their sacrifices. 
"Do you suppose," replied Jesus, "that, because these 2 
Galilaeans have suffered in this way, they were worse sinners 
than any other Galilaeans ? No, I tell you ; but, unless you 3 
repent, you will all perish as they did. Or those eighteen 4 
men at Siloam on whom the tower fell, killing them all, do 
you suppose that they were worse offenders than any other 
inhabitants of Jerusalem ? No, I tell you ; but, unless you 5 
repent, you will all perish in the same manner." 
And Jesus told them this parable 6 

Th "A man, who had a fig tree growing in his 

barren vineyard, came to look for fruit on it, but 
r\f Tree, could not find any. So he said to his gardener 7 
' Three years now I have come to look for fruit on this fig tree, 

B Mic. 7. 6. 

LUKE, 13. 137 

without finding any ! Cut it down. Why should it rob the 
soil ? ' 

'Leave it this one year more, Sir,' the man answered, 'till 8 
I have dug round it and manured it. Then, if it bears in 9 
future, well and good ; but if not, you can have it cut down.' " 

A woman Jesus was teaching on a Sabbath in one of 10 
healed on the the Synagogues, and he saw before him a woman 1 1 

sabbath, who for eighteen years had suffered from weak- 
ness, owing to her having an evil spirit in her. She was 
bent double, and was wholly unable to raise herself. When 12 
Jesus saw her, he called her to him, and said : 

" Woman, you are released from your weakness." 
He placed his hands on her, and she was instantly made 13 
straight, and began to praise God. But the President of the 14 
Synagogue, indignant that Jesus had worked the cure on the 
Sabbath, interposed and said to the people : 

" There are six days on which work ought to be done ; come 
to be cured on one of those, and not on the Sabbath." 

" You hypocrites ! " the Master answered him. " Does not 15 
every one of you let his ox or his ass loose from its manger, 
and take it out to drink, on the Sabbath ? But this woman, a 16 
daughter of Abraham, who has been kept in bondage by Satan 
for now eighteen years, ought not she to have been released 
from her bondage on the Sabbath ? " 

As he said this, his opponents all felt ashamed ; but all the 17 
people rejoiced to see all the wonderful things that he was 

So Jesus said : 18 

Parable "What is the Kingdom of God like? and to 

or the what can I liken it? It is like a mustard-seed 19 
Mustard Seed. w hich a man took and put in his garden. The 
seed grew and became a tree, and ' the wild birds roosted in 
its branches.' " 

And again Jesus said : . 20 

Parable "To what can I liken the Kingdom of God? 

of the It is like some yeast which a woman took and 21 
Leaven. covered in three pecks of flour, until the whole 
had risen." 

The narrow Jesus went through towns and villages, teach- 22 

Door. ing as he went, and making his way towards 

" Master," some one asked, "are there but few in the path 23 
of Salvation ? " 
And Jesus answered : 

" Strive to go in by the small door. Many, I tell you, will 24 
seek to go in, but they will not be able when once the 25 
19 Dan. 4. 12. 


138 LUKE, 13-14. 

master of the house has got up and shut the door, while you 
begin to say, as you stand outside and knock, ' Sir, open the 
door for us.' His answer will be ' I do not know where you 
come from.' Then you will begin to say ' We have eaten and 
drunk in your presence, and you have taught in our streets,' 
and his reply will be ' I do not know where you come from. 
Leave my presence, all you who are living in wickedness.' 

There, there will be weeping and grinding of teeth, when you 
see Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and all the Prophets, in the 
Kingdom of God, while you yourselves are being driven out- 
side. People will come from East and West, and from North 
and South, and take their places at the banquet in the 
Kingdom of God. There are some who are last now who 
will then be first, and some who are first now who will then 
be last ! " 

Just then some Pharisees came up to Jesus and 
to said : 

Herod Antipas. " Go away and leave this place, for Herod 
wants to kill you." 
But Jesus answered : 

" Go and say to that fox ' Look you, I am driving out demons 
and shall be completing cures to-day and to-morrow, and on 
the third day I shall have done.' But to-day and to-morrow 
and the day after I must go on my way, because it cannot be 
that a Prophet should meet his end outside Jerusalem. 
Jerusalem ! Jerusalem ! she who slays the Prophets and stones 
JOBUS lament* ^ ie messen g ers sent to. her Oh, how often have I 
the Fate wished to gather your children round me, as a 
of Jerusalem. i ien takes her brood under her wings, and you 
would not come ! Verily your House is left to you desolate ! 
and never, I tell you, shall you see me, until you say 

' Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord.' " 

. ^ n one occasion, as Jesus was going, on a 
ai Sabbath, into the house of one of the leading 
Man. Pharisees to dine, they were watching him closely. 
There he saw before him a man who was suffering from 

" Is it allowable," said Jesus, addressing the Students of the 
Law and the Pharisees, "to work a cure on the Sabbath, or 
is it not ? " 

They remained silent. Jesus took hold of the man and 
cured him, and sent him away. And he said to them : 

" Which of you, finding that his son or his ox has fallen into 
a well, will not immediately pull him out on the Sabbath 

V Pi. 6. 8. Mai. i. 1 1. M Jer. xa. 5 ; Ps. 1 18. a6. 

LUKE, 14. 139 

And they could not make any answer to that. 6 

Lessons on Observing that the guests were choosing the 7 
Humility ana best places for themselves, Jesus told them this 
Hospitality, parable 

' ' When you are invited by any one to a wedding banquet, do 8 
not seat yourself in the best place, for fear that some one of 
higher rank should have been invited by your host ; and he who 9 
invited you both will come and say to you ' Make room for this 
man,' and then you will begin in confusion to take the lowest 
place. No, when you are invited, go and take the lowest 10 
place, so that, when he who has invited you comes, he may 
say to you ' Friend, come higher up ' ; and then you will be 
honoured in the eyes of all your fellow-guests. For every one n 
who exalts himself will be humbled, and he who humbles 
himself will be exalted." 

Then Jesus went on to say to the man who had invited 12 
him : 

"When you give a breakfast or a dinner, do not ask your 
friends, or your brothers, or your relations, or rich neighbours, 
for fear that they should invite you in return, and so you should 
be repaid. No, when you entertain, invite the poor, the 13 
crippled, the lame, the blind ; and then you will be happy 14 
indeed, since they cannot recompense you ; for you shall be 
recompensed at the resurrection of the good." 

Parable of ^ ne ^ t ^ ie g uest s heard what he said and ex- 15 

the gret claimed : 

Dinner. <> Happy will he be who shall eat bread in the 

Kingdom of God ! " 
But Jesus said to him : 1 6 

" A man was once giving a great dinner. He invited many 
people, and sent his servant, when it was time for the dinner, to 17 
say to those who had been invited ' Come, for everything is now 
ready.' They all with one accord began to ask to be excused. 18 
The first man said to the servant ' I have bought a field and 
am obliged to go and look at it. I must ask you to consider 
me excused.' The next said 'I have bought five pairs of 19 
bullocks, and I am on my way to try them. I must ask 
you to consider me excused' ; while the next said ' I am just 20 
married, and for that reason I am unable to come.' On 21 
his return the servant told his master all these answers. 
Then in anger the owner of the house said to his servant 
' Go out at once into the streets and alleys of the town, and 
bring in here the poor, and the crippled, and the blind, and the 
lame.' Presently the servant said ' Sir, your order has been 22 
carried out, and still there is room.' 

'Go out,' the master said, ' into the roads and hedgerows, 23 
and make people come in, so that my house may be filled ; 
for I tell you all that not one of those men who were invited 24 
will taste my dinner.'" 

140 LUKE, 14-15. 

The cost a y> wnen great crowds of people were 25 

of walking with Jesus, he turned and said to them : 

Seif-deniai. jf an y ma n comes to me and does not hate his 26 
father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brothers, and 
sisters, yes and his very life, he can be no disciple of mine. 
Whoever does not carry his own cross, and walk in my 27 
steps, can be no disciple of mine. Why, which of you, 28 
when he wants to build a tower, does not first sit down and 
reckon the cost, to see if he has enough to complete it ? for 29 
fear that, if he has laid the foundation and is not able to finish 
it, every one who sees it should begin to laugh at him, and say 30 
' Here is a man who began to build and was not able to 
finish!' Or what king, when he is setting out to fight 31 
another king, does not first sit down and consider if with ten 
thousand men he is able to meet one who is coming- against 
him with twenty thousand ? And if he cannot, then, while 32 
the other is still at a distance, he sends envoys and asks for 
terms of peace. And so with every one of you who does 33 

A real not bid farewell to all he has he cannot be 
Disciple of a disciple of mine. Yes, salt is good ; 34 

Jesus. but, jf the salt itself should lose its strength, what 
shall be used to season it ? It is not fit either for the land or 35 
for the manure heap. Men throw it away. Let him 

who has ears to hear with hear ! " 

The tax-gatherers and the outcasts were all drawing near i 
to Jesus to listen to him ; but the Pharisees and the Teachers 2 
of the Law found fault. 

"This man always welcomes outcasts, and takes meals 
with them ! " they complained. So Jesus told them this 3 

Parable "What man among you who has a hundred 4 

of the sheep, and has lost one of them, does not leave the 

lost sheep, ninety-nine out in the open country, andgoafterthe 
lost sheep till he finds it ? And, when he has found it, he puts it 5 
on his shoulders rejoicing ; and, on reaching home, he calls 6 
his friends and his neighbours together, and says ' Come and 
rejoice with me, for I have found my sheep which was lost.' 
So, I tell you, there will be more rejoicing in Heaven over 7 
one outcast that repents, than over ninety-nine religious 
men, who have no need to repent. Or again, what 8 

Parable woman who has ten silver coins, if she loses 
of the one of them, does not light a lamp, and sweep 

tost coin. t ne nousC) an( i search carefully until she finds it ? 
And, when she has found it, she calls her friends and neigh- 9 
bours together, and says ' Come and rejoice with me, for I 
have found the coin which I lost.' So, I tell you, there is 10 
rejorcing in the presence of God's angels over one outcast 
that repents." 

LUKE, 15. 141 

Then Jesus continued : n 

Parable " ^ man had two sons; and the younger of 12 
of the them said to his father ' Father, give me my share 
lost son o f the inheritance. ' So the father divided the 
property between them. A few days later the younger son got 13 
together all that he had, and went away into a distant land ; and 
there he squandered his inheritance by leading a dissolute life. 
After he had spent all that he had, there was a severe famine 14 
through all that country, and he began to be in actual want. 
So he went and engaged himself to one of the people of that 15 
country, who sent him into his fields to tend pigs. He even 16 
longed to satisfy his hunger with the bean-pods on which the 
pigs were feeding ; and no one gave him anything. But, 17 
when he came to himself, he said ' How many of my father's 
hired servants have more bread than they can eat, while 
here am I starving to death ! I will get up and go to my 18 
father, and say to him "Father, I sinned against Heaven 
and against you ; I am no longer fit to be called your son ; 19 
make me one of your hired servants.'" And he got 20 

up and went to his father. But, while he was still a long way 
off, his father saw him and was deeply moved ; he ran and 
threw his arms round his neck and kissed him. ' Father,' 21 
the son said, ' I sinned against Heaven and against you ; 
I am no longer fit to be called your son ; make me one of 
your hired servants.' 

But the father turned to his servants and said ' Be quick and 22 
fetch a robe the very best and put it on him ; give him 
a ring for his finger and sandals for his feet ; and bring the 23 
fattened calf and kill it, and let us eat and make merry ; for here 24 
is my son who was dead, and is alive again, was lost, and is 
found.' So they began making merry. Meanwhile the 25 

elder son was out in the fields ; but, on coming home, when 
he got near the house, he heard music and dancing, and he 26 
called one of the servants and asked what it all meant. 
'Your brother has come back,' the servant told him, 'and 27 
your father has killed the fattened calf, because he has him 
back safe and sound.' 

This made him angry, and he would not go in. But his father 28 
came out and begged him to do so. 'No,' he said to his father, 29 
* look at all the years I have been serving you, without ever 
once disobeying you, and yet you have never given me even a 
kid, so that I might have a merry-making with my friends. 
But, no sooner has this son of yours come, who has eaten up 30 
your property in the company of prostitutes, than you have 
killed the fattened calf for him.' 

'Child,' the father answered, 'you are always with me, 31 
and everything that I have is yours. We could but make merry 32 
and rejoice, for here is your brother who was dead, and is 
alive ; who was lost, and is found. ' " 

142 LUKE, 16. 

Parable Jesus said to his disciples : I 

of the "There was a rich man who had a steward ; 

dishonest anc j this steward was maliciously accused to him 

of wasting his estate. So the master called him 2 
and said ' What is this that I hear about you ? Give in your 
accounts, for you cannot act as steward any longer.' 

' What am I to do,' the steward asked himself, ' now that my 3 
master is taking the steward's place away from me ? I have 
not strength to dig, and I am ashamed to beg. I know what 4 
I will do, so that, as soon as I am turned out of my stewardship, 
people may welcome me into their homes.' One by one he 5 
called up his master's debtors. ' How much do you owe my 
master ? ' he asked of the first. ' Four hundred and forty 6 
gallons of oil,' answered the man. ' Here is your agreement,' 
he said ; ' sit down at once and make it two hundred and 
twenty. And you,' the steward said to the next, 'how much 7 
do you owe ? ' ' Seventy quarters of wheat,' he replied. ' Here 
is your agreement,' the steward said ; ' make it fifty-six.' His 8 
master complimented this dishonest steward on the shrewdness 
of his action. And indeed men of the world are shrewder 
in dealing with their fellow-men than those who have the 
Light. And I say to you ' Win friends for yourselves 9 

with your dishonest money,' so that, when it comes to an end, 
there may be a welcome for you into the Eternal Home. 
He who is trustworthy in the smallest matter is trustworthy 10 
in a great one also ; and he who is dishonest in the smallest 
matter is dishonest in a great one also. So, if you have proved n 
untrustworthy with the 'dishonest money,' who will trust you 
with the true ? And, if you have proved untrustworthy with 12 

True what does not belong to us, who will give you 
Service. what is really our own ? No servant can 13 

serve two masters, for, either he will hate one and love the 
other, or else he will attach himself to one and despise the 
other. You cannot serve both God and Money." 

JeBu . All this was said within hearing of the 14 

rebukes the Pharisees, who were lovers of money, and they 

Pharisee*, began to sneer at Jesus. 

"You," said Jesus, "are the men who justify themselves 15 
before the world, but God can read your hearts ; and what is 
highly esteemed among men may be an abomination in the 
sight of God. The Law and the Prophets sufficed until 16 

the time of John. Since then the Good News of the Kingdom 
of God has been told, and everybody has been forcing his way 
into it. It would be easier for the heavens and the 17 

earth to disappear than for one stroke of a letter in the Law to 
be lost. Every one who divorces his wife and marries 18 

another woman is an adulterer, and the man who marries a 
divorced woman is an adulterer. 

8 Enoch 108. ii. " Enoch 63. 10. U Enoch 63. 10. 

LUKE, 16-17. 143 

Parable of There was once a rich man, who dressed in 19 
the rich Man purple robes and fine linen, and feasted every day 
and Lazarus. [ n gr rea t splendour. Near his gateway there had 20 
been laid a beggar named Lazarus, who was covered with sores, 
and who longed to satisfy his hunger with what fell from the 21 
rich man's table. Even the very dogs came and licked his 
sores. After a time the beggar died, and was taken by the 22 
angels to be with Abraham. The rich man also died and was 
buried. In the Place of Death he looked up in his torment, 23 
and saw Abraham at a distance and Lazarus at his side. So he 24 
called out ' Pity me, Father Abraham, and send Lazarus to dip 
the tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue, for I am 
suffering agony in this flame.' 

'Child,' answered Abraham, 'remember that you in 25 
your lifetime received what you thought desirable, just as 
Lazarus received what was not desirable ; but now he has his 
consolation here, while you are suffering agony. And not 26 
only that, but between you and us there lies a great chasm, so 
that those who wish to pass from here to you cannot, nor can 
they cross from there to us.' 

' Then, Father,' he said, ' I beg you to send Lazarus to my 27 
father's house for I have five brothers to warn them, so that 28 
they may not come to this place of torture also.' 

' They have the writings of Moses and the Prophets,' replied 29 
Abraham ; ' let them listen to them.' 

'But, Father Abraham,' he urged, 'if some one from the 30 
dead were to go to them, they would repent.' 

' If they do not listen to Moses and the Prophets,' answered 31 
Abraham, ' they will not be persuaded, even if some one were 
to rise from the dead.' " 

A inst Jesus said to his disciples : i 

hindering "It is inevitable that there should be snares; 
others. ve a las for him who is answerable for them ! It 2 
would be good for .him if he had been flung into the sea with 
a mill-stone round his neck, rather than that he should prove a 
snare to even one of these lowly ones. Be on your guard ! If 3 
On deaiin y our brother does wrong, reprove him ; but, if he 

with " repents, forgive him. Even if he wrongs you 4 
wrong-doers, seven times a day, but turns to you every time 
and says ' I am sorry,' you must forgive him." 
The Power " Give us more faith," said the Apostles to the 5 
or Faith. Master ; but the Master said : 6 

" If your faith were only like a mustard-seed, you could say 
to this mulberry tree ' Be up-rooted and planted in the sea,' and 
it would obey you. 

Which of you, if he had a servant ploughing, 7 
Duty ' or tending the sheep, would say to him, when he 
came in from the fields, ' Come at once and take your place 

144 LUKE, 17. 

at table,' instead of saying ' Prepare my dinner, and then make 8 
yourself ready and wait on me while I am eating and drinking, 
and after that you shall eat and drink yourself ? Does he feel 9 
grateful to his servant for doing what he is told ? And so with 10 
you when you have done all that you have been told, still 
say ' We are but useless servants ; we have done no more than 
we ought to have done. ' " 

Jesus On the way to Jerusalem Jesus passed between 1 1 

heals ten Samaria and Galilee. As he was entering 12 

Lepers. a village, ten lepers met him. Standing still, 
some distance off, they called out loudly : 13 

"Jesus! Sir! pity us !" 
When Jesus saw them, he said : 14 

" Go and show yourselves to the priests." 

And, as they were on their way, they were made clean. One of 15 
them, finding he was cured, came back, praising God loudly, 
and threw himself on his face at Jesus' feet, thanking him for 16 
what he had done ; and this man was a Samaritan. 

"Were not all the ten made clean?" exclaimed Jesus. 17 
" But the nine where are they? Were there none to come 18 
back and praise God except this foreigner ? Get up," he said to 19 
him, "and go on your way. Your faith has delivered you." 

The comin Being once asked by the Pharisees when the 20 

of the Kingdom of God was to come, Jesus answered : 
Kingdom. "The Kingdom of God does not come in a way 
that admits of observation, nor will people say 'Look, here 21 
it is!' or 'There it is!'; for the Kingdom of God is within 
you ! The day will come," he said to his disciples, 22 

" when you will long to see but one of the days of the Son of 
Man, and will not see it. People will say to you 'There he 23 
is ! ' or ' Here he is ! ' Do not go and follow them. For, just 24 
as lightning will lighten and flare from one side of the 
heavens to the other, so will it be with the Son of Man. But 25 
first he must undergo much suffering, and he must be 
rejected by the present generation. As it was in the days 26 
of Noah, so will it be again in the days of the Son of Man. 
They were eating and drinking and marrying and being 27 
married, up to the very day on which Noah entered the ark, 
and then the flood came and destroyed them all. So, too, in 28 
the days of Lot. People were eating-, drinking, buying, 
selling, planting, building ; but, on the very day on which Lot 29 
came out of Sodom, it rained fire and sulphur from the skies 
and destroyed them all. It will be the same on the day 30 
on which the Son of Man reveals himself. On that day, if a 31 
man is on his house-top and his goods in the house, he must 
not go down to get them ; nor again must one who is on the 

" Lev. 13. 49. * Gen. 7. 7. -i Gen. 19. 24, 26. 

LUKE, 17-18. 145 

farm turn back. Remember Lot's wife. Whoever is eager to 32, 
get the most out of his life will lose it ; but whoever will lose it 
shall preserve it. On that night, I tell you, of two men upon 34 
the same bed, one will be taken and the other left ; of two women 35 
grinding together, one will be taken and the other left." 

"Where will it be, Master? " interposed the disciples. 37 

"Where there is a body," said Jesus, "'there will the 
vultures flock.'" 

Parable Jesus told his disciples a parable to show them i \ 
of the that they should always pray and never despair, 
corrupt judge. "There was," he said, "in a certain town a 2 
judge, who had no fear of God nor regard for man. In the 3 
same town there was a widow who went to him again and 
again, and said 'Grant me justice against my opponent.' 
For a time the judge refused, but afterwards he said to 4 
himself ' Although I am without fear of God or regard for man, 
yet, as this widow is so troublesome, I will grant her justice, 5 
to stop her from plaguing me with her endless visits.' " 
Then the Master added : 6 

" Listen to what this iniquitous judge says ! And God will 7 
not he see that his own People, who cry to him night and 
day, have justice done them though he holds his hand ? He 8 
will, I tell you, have justice done them, and that soon ! Yet, 
when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on the earth ? " 

Another time, speaking to people who were satisfied that 9 
they were religious, and who regarded every one else with 
scorn, Jesus told this parable 

Parable " Two men went up into the Temple Courts to 10 

of the pray. One was a Pharisee and the other a tax- 

'and'the 9 gatherer. The Pharisee stood forward and began 1 1 
Tax-gatherer, praying to himself in this way - 

'O God, I thank thee that I am not like other men thieves, 
rogues, adulterers or even like this tax-gatherer. I fast 12 
twice a week, and give a tenth of everything I get to God.' 
Meanwhile the tax-gatherer stood at a distance, not ventur- 13 
ing even ' to raise his eyes to Heaven ' ; but he kept striking 
his breast and saying 'O God, have mercy on me, a sinner.' 
This man, I tell you, went home pardoned, rather than the 14 
other ; for every one who exalts himself will be humbled, while 
every one who humbles himself shall be exalted." 

Some of the people were bringing even their ic 

Jesus blesses . , . T *> '. ' , , 

little babies to Jesus, for him to touch them ; but, when 
Children, the disciples saw it, they began to find fault with 
those who had brought them. Jesus, however, called the little 7.6 
children to him. 

37 Isa. 34. 15. 7 Enoch 47. i, z. * 3 Enoch 13. 5. 

146 LUKE, 18. 

" Let the little children come to me," he said, " and do not 
hinder them ; for it is to the childlike that the Kingdom of 
God belongs. I tell you, unless a man receives the Kingdom 17 
of God like a child, he will not enter it at all." 

The Re- one ^ ^' ie Presidents asked Jesus this 

aponsibilities question - 

of wealth. "Good Teacher, what must I do if I am to 
gain Immortal Life?" 

" Why do you call me good? " answered Jesus. " No one 
is good but God. You know the commandments-- 

' Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not 
say what is false about others, Honour thy father and thy 
mother.' " 

" I have observed all these," he replied, " from childhood." 
Hearing this, Jesus said to him : 

"There is one thing still lacking in you; sell every thing 
that you have, and distribute to the poor, and you shall have 
wealth in Heaven ; then come and follow me." 
But the man became greatly distressed on hearing this, for he 
was extremely rich. Seeing this, Jesus said to his 

disciples : 

"How hard it is for men of wealth to enter the Kingdom 
of God ! It is easier, indeed, for a camel to get through a 
needle's eye than for a rich man to enter the Kingdom of 
God ! " 

" Then who can be saved ? " asked those who heard this. 
But Jesus said : 

"What is impossible with men is possible with God." 

" But we," said Peter, "we left what belonged to us and 
followed you." 

" I tell you," he answered, " that there is no one who has left 
house, or wife, or brothers, or parents, or children, on account of 
the Kingdom of God, who will not receive many times as much 
in the present, and in the age that is coming Immortal Life." 

Gathering the Twelve round him, Jesus said to 
. thi" U t?me, them : 

roretii " Listen ! We are going up to Jerusalem ; and 
hi* Death, there everything that is written in the Prophets 
will be done to the Son of Man. For he will be given up 
to the Gentiles, mocked, insulted and spat upon ; they will 
scourge him, and then put him to death ; and on the third day 
he will rise again." 

The Apostles did not comprehend any of this ; his meaning 
was unintelligible to them, and they did not understand what 
he was saying. 

*> Exod. ao. la 16. 38 Hos. 6. a. 

LUKE, 18-19. 147 

Cure of ^ S J esus was gating near Jericho, a blind man 35 
a blind was sitting by the road-side, begging. Hearing 36 

Man - a crowd going by, the man asked what was the 
matter ; and, when people told him that Jesus of Nazareth was 37 
passing, he shouted out : 38 

"Jesus, Son of David, take pity on me ! " 

Those who were in front kept telling him to be quiet, but he 39 
continued to call out the louder : 

" Son of David, take pity on me ! " 

Then Jesus stopped and ordered the man to be brought to him. 40 
And, when he had come close up to him, Jesus asked him : 

" What do you want me to do for you ? " 41 

" Master," he said, " I want to recover my sight." 
And Jesus said : " Recover your sight, your faith has delivered 42 

Instantly he recovered his sight, and began to follow Jesus, 43 
praising God. And all the people, on seeing it, gave 

glory to God. 

zacchaeus Jesus entered Jericho and made his way through i 
the the town. There was a man there, known 2 

Tax-gatherer, by th e name of Zacchaeus, who was a commis- 
sioner of taxes and a rich man. He tried to see what Jesus 3 
was like ; but, being short, he was unable to do so because 
of the crowd. So he ran on ahead and climbed up into a 4 
mulberry tree, to see Jesus, for he knew that he must pass 
that way. When Jesus came to the place, he looked up and 5 
said to him : 

"Zacchaeus, be quick and come down, for I must stop at 
your house to-day." 

So Zacchaeus got down quickly, and joyfully welcomed him. 6 
On seeing this, every one began to complain : 7 

" He has gone to stay with a man who is an outcast." 
But Zacchaeus stood forward and said to the Master : 8 

" Listen, Master ! I will give half my property to the poor, 
and, if I have defrauded any one of anything, I will give 
him back four times as much." 

" Salvation has come to this house to-day," answered Jesus, 9 
"for even this man is a son of Abraham. The Son of Man 10 
has come to ' search for those who are lost ' and to save them. " 

As the people were listening to this, Jesus went n 
oVThe on to tell them a parable. He did so because he 
Pounds. was near Jerusalem, and because they thought 
that the Kingdom of God was going to be proclaimed at 
once. He said : 12 

"A nobleman once went to a distant country to receive his 
appointment to a Kingdom and then return. He called ten 13 

, 34. 16. 

148 LUKE, 19. 

of his servants and gave them ten pounds each, and told 
them to trade with them during his absence. But his subjects 14 
hated him and sent envoys after him to say ' We will not 
have this man as our King.' On his return, after 15 

having been appointed King, he directed that the servants to 
whom he had given his money should be summoned, so that 
he might learn what amount of trade they had done. The first 16 
came up, and said ' Sir, your ten pounds have made a hundred.' 

' Well done, good servant !' exclaimed the master. 'As you 17 
have proved trustworthy in a very small matter, I appoint you 
governor over ten towns.' When the second came, he said 18 
'Your ten pounds, Sir, have produced fifty.' So the master 19 
said to him 'And you I appoint over five towns.' Another 20 
servant also came and said ' Sir, here are your ten pounds ; I 
have kept them put away in a handkerchief. For I was afraid 21 
of you, because you are a stern man. You take what you 
have not planted, and reap what you have not sown.' The 22 
master answered ' Out of your own mouth I judge you, you 
worthless servant. You knew that I am a stern man, that I 
take what I have not planted, and reap what I have not sown ? 
Then why did not you put my money into a bank? And I, on 23 
my return, could have claimed it with interest. Take away 24 
from him the ten pounds,' he said to those standing by, 'and 
give them to the one who has the hundred.' 

' But, Sir,' they interposed, ' he has a hundred pounds 25 
already ! ' 

' I tell you,' he answered, ' that, to him who has, more will 26 
be given, but, from him who has nothing, even what he 
has will be taken away. But as for my enemies, 27 

these men who would not have me as their King, bring them 
here and put them to death in my presence.'" 
After saying this, Jesus went on in front, going up to 28 


jesus enter* It was when Jesus had almost reached Beth- 29 
Jerusalem, phage and Bethany, near the Mount of Olives, 
that he sent on two of the disciples. 

" Go to the village facing us," he said, " and, when you get 30 
there, you will find a foal tethered, which no one has yet 
ridden ; untie it and lead it here. And, if anybody asks 31 
you 'Why are you untying it?,' you are to say this 'The 
Master wants it.' " 

So the two who were sent went and found it as Jesus had 32 
told them. While they were untying the foal, the owners 33 
asked them " Why are you untying the foal ? " And the two 34 
disciples answered "The Master wants it." 

LUKE, 19-20. 149 

Then they led it back to Jesus, and threw their cloaks on the 35 
foal and put Jesus upon it. As he went along, the people kept 36 
spreading their cloaks in the road. When he had almost 37 
reached the place where the road led down the Mount of 
Olives, every one of the many disciples began in their joy to 
praise God loudly for all the miracles that they had seen : 

" Blessed is He who comes 38 

Our King in the name of the Lord ! 
Peace in Heaven, 
And glory on high." 

Some of the Pharisees in the crowd said to him : 39 

"Teacher, reprove your disciples." 
But Jesus answered : 40 

" I tell you that if these men are silent, the very stones will 
call out." 

When he drew near, on seeing the city, he wept over it, and 41 
said : 42 

"Would that you had known, while yet there was time 
even you the things that make for peace ! But now they 
have been hidden from your sight. For a time is coming upon 43 
you when your enemies will surround you with earthworks, 
and encircle you, and hem you in on all sides ; they will 44 
trample you down and your children within you, and they will 
not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not 
know ' the time of your visitation.' " 

Jesus Jesus went into the Temple Courts and began 45 

in the to drive out those who were selling, saying as he 46 

Temple. did so : 

" Scripture says ' My House shall be a House of Prayer' ; 
but you have made it ' a den of robbers.' " 

Jesus continued to teach each day in the Temple Courts ; 47 
but the Chief Priests and Teachers of the Law were eager to 
take his life, and so also were the leading men. Yet they 48 
could not see what to do, for the people all hung upon his 

Jeai On one of these days, when Jesus was teaching 

and* the the people in the Temple Courts and telling the 
chief Priests. Good News, the Chief Priests and the Teachers of 
the Law, joined by the Councillors, confronted him, and ad- 
dressing him, said : 

"Tell us what authority you have to do these things. 
Who is it that has given you this authority ? " 

"I, too," said Jesus in reply, "will ask you one question. 

38 p s . 118. 25, 26; Zech. 9. 9. Ps. 137. 9. 46 Isa. 56. 7 ; Jer. 7. n. 

150 LUKE, 2O. 

Give me an answer to it. It is about John's baptism was it 4 

of divine or of human origin ? " 

But they began arguing together : 5 

" If we say ' divine,' he will say ' Why did not you believe 
him?' But, if we say 'human,' the people will all stone us, 6 
for they are persuaded that John was a Prophet." 
So they answered that they did not know its origin. 7 

"Then I," said Jesus, "refuse to tell you what authority I 8 
have to do these things." 

parable But Jesus began to tell the people this parable 9 
oftne'wicked "A man once planted a vineyard, and then let 

Tenants, it out to tenants, and went abroad for a long while. 
At the proper time he sent a servant to the tenants, that they 10 
should give him a share of the produce of the vineyard. The 
tenants, however, beat him and sent him away empty-handed. 
The owner afterwards sent another servant ; but the tenants 1 1 
beat and insulted this man too, and sent him away empty- 
handed. He sent a third but they wounded this man also, 12 
and threw him outside. ' What shall I do ? ' said the owner of 13 
the vineyard. * I will send my son, who is very dear tome. 
Perhaps they will respect him.' But, on seeing him, the tenants 14 
consulted with one another. ' Here is the heir ! ' they said. 
' Let us kill him, and then the inheritance will become 
ours.' So they threw him outside the vineyard and killed him. 15 
Now what will the owner of the vineyard do to them ? He will 16 
come and put those tenants to death, and will let the vineyard 
to others." 

" Heaven forbid ! " they exclaimed when they heard it. But 17 
Jesus looked at them and said : 

" What then is the meaning of this passage ? 

' The very stone which the builders despised 
Has now itself become the corner-stone.' 

Every one who falls on that stone will be dashed to pieces, while 18 
any one on whom it falls it will scatter him as dust." 

After this the Teachers of the Law and the Chief Priests were 19 
eager to lay hands on Jesus then and there, but they were 
afraid of the people ; for they saw that it was at them that he 
A Question ^ at * anilc d this parable. Having watched 20 

about their opportunity, they afterwards sent some 
Tribute, spies, who pretended to be good men, to catch 
Jesus in the course of conversation, and so enable them to 
give him up to the Governor's jurisdiction and authority. 
Tin. se men asked Jesus a question. They said : 21 

"Teacher, we know that you are right in what you say and 
teach, and that you do not take any account of a man's posi- 
tion, but teach the Way of God honestly ; are we right in 22 
paying tribute to the Emperor or not ? " 

Isa. 5. i. " Ps. 118. 22. 

LUKE, 2O. 151 

Seeing through their deceitfulness, Jesus said to them : 23 

" Show me a florin. Whose head and title are on it?" 24 

"The Emperor's," they said ; and Jesus replied : 25 

"Well then, pay to the Emperor what belongs to the 

Emperor, and to God what belongs to God." 

They could not lay hold of this answer before the people ; 26 

and, in their wonder at his reply, they held their tongues. 

A Question Presently there came up some Sadducees, who 27 
about the maintain that there is no resurrection. Their 
Resurrection, question was this 
"Teacher, Moses laid down for us in his writings that 28 

' Should a man's married brother die, and should he be 
childless, the man should take the widow as his wife, and 
raise up a family for his brother.' 

Well, there were once seven brothers ; of whom the eldest, 29 
after taking a wife, died childless. The second and third 30 
brothers both took her as their wife ; and so, too, did all seven 31 
dying without children. The woman herself was the last 32 
to die. About the woman, then at the resurrection, whose 33 
wife is she to be, all seven brothers having had her as their 
wife ? " 

"The men and women of this world," said Jesus, "marry 34 
and are given in marriage ; but, for those who are thought 35 
worthy to attain to that other world and the resurrection 
from the dead, there is no marrying or being married, nor 36 
indeed can they die again, for they are like angels and, having 
shared in the resurrection, they are God's Sons. As to the 37 
fact that the dead rise, even Moses indicated that, in the 
passage about the Bush, when he calls the Lord 

' The God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God 
of Jacob.' 

Now he is not God of dead men, but of living. For in his 38 
sight all are alive." 

" Well said, Teacher ! " exclaimed some of the Teachers of 39 
the Law, for they did not venture to question him any 40 

Christ ^ ut J esus sa id to them : 41 

the son of " How is it that people say that the Christ is 

David. t be David's son ? For David, in the Book of 42 
Psalms, says himself 

' The Lord said to my lord : " Sit at my right hand, 
Until I put thy enemies as a stool for thy feet." ' 43 

David, then, calls him ' lord,' so how is he David's son ? " 44 

D e ut. 25. 5 6. 37 Exod. 3. 2 6. 38 4 Mace. 16. 25. *&-43 Ps. no. i. 

152 LUKE, 20-21. 

While all the people were listening, Jesus said 45 

Warn I n gs . . - 

against the to the disciples I 

Teachers of " Be on your guard against the Teachers of the 46 

the Law. L aw> W h delight to walk about in long robes, 
and like to be greeted in the streets with respect, and to have 
the best seats in the Synagogues, and places of honour at 
dinner. These are the men who rob widows of their houses, 47 
and make a pretence of saying long prayers. Their sentence 
will be all the heavier." 
The widow's Looking up, Jesus saw the rich people putting i 

offering, their gifts into the chests for the Temple offer- 
ings. He saw, too, a widow in poor circumstances putting 2 
two farthings into them. On this he said : 3 

" I tell you that this poor widow has put in more than all 
the others ; for every one else here put in something from what 4 
he had to spare, while she, in her need, has put in all she 
had to live upon." 

Jesus When some of them spoke about the Tejnple 5 

foretells the being decorated with beautiful stones and offer- 
of^htTr^ple in&s, Jesus said: 

and the End " As for these things that you are looking 6 
of the Age. a ^ a time is coming when not one stone will 
be left upon another here, which will not be thrown 

So the disciples questioned Jesus : " But, Teacher, 7 
when will this be? and what sign will there be when this is 
near ? " 
And Jesus said : 8 

" See that you are not led astray ; for many will take 
my name, and come saying ' I am He,' and ' The time is close 
at hand.' Do not follow them. And, when you hear of wars 9 
and disturbances, do not be terrified, for these things must 
occur first ; but the end will not be at once." 
Then he said to them : 10 

" ' Nation will rise against nation and kingdom against 
kingdom,' and there will be great earthquakes, and plagues n 
and famines in various places, and there will be terrible 
appearances and signs in the heavens. Before all this, they will 12 
lay hands on you and persecute you, and they will betray you 
to Synagogues and put you in prison, when you will be brought 
before kings and governors for the sake of my Name. Then 13 
will be your opportunity of witnessing for me. Make up your 14 
minds, therefore, not to prepare your defence ; for I will myself 15 
give you words, and a wisdom which all your opponents 
together will be unable to resist or defy. You will be betrayed 16 
even by your parents and brothers and relations and friends, 

" Dan. a. a8. "> Isa. 19. a. 

LUKE, 21. 153 

and they will cause sqme of you to be put to death, and you 17 
will be hated by every one on account of my Name. Yet 18 
not a single hair of your heads shall be lost ! By your 19 
endurance you shall win yourselves Life. As soon, 20 

however, as you see Jerusalem surrounded by armed camps, 
then you may know that the hour of her desecration is 
at hand. Then those of you who are in Judaea must take 21 
refuge in the mountains, those who are in Jerusalem must 
leave at once, and those who are in the country places must 
not go into it. For these are to be the Days of Vengeance, 22 
when all that Scripture says will be fulfilled. Alas for the 23 
women that are with child, and for those that are nursing 
infants in those days ! For there will be great suffering in the 
land, and anger against this people. They will fall by the edge 24 
of the sword, and will be taken prisoners to every land, and 
'Jerusalem will be under the heel of the Gentiles,' until their 
day is over as it shall be. There will be signs, too, in the 25 
sun and moon and stars, and on the earth despair among the 
nations, in their dismay at the roar of the sea and the surge. 
Men's hearts will fail them through dread of what is coming 26 
upon the world ; for ' the forces of the heavens will be con- 
vulsed.' Then will be seen the ' Son of Man coming in a cloud ' 27 
with power and great glory. And, when these things 28 

begin to occur, look upwards and lift your heads, for your 
deliverance will be at hand." 

The Need Then he taught them a lesson thus 29 

tor " Look at the fig tree and all the other trees. As 30 
Watchfulness, soon as they shoot, you know, as you look 
at them, without being told, that summer is near. And so 31 
may you, as soon as you see these things happening, 
know that the Kingdom of God is near. I tell you that even 32 
the present generation will not pass away till all has taken 
place. The heavens and the earth will pass away, but my 33 
words will never pass away. Be on your guard lest 34 

your minds should ever be dulled by debauches or drunken- 
ness or the anxieties of life, and lest ' That Day ' should come 
suddenly upon you, like a snare. For come it will upon all 35 
who are living upon the face of the whole earth. Be on the 36 
watch at all times, and pray that you may have strength to 
escape all that is destined to happen, and to stand in the 
presence of the Son of Man." 

During the days, Jesus continued to teach in the Temple 37 
Courts, but he went out and spent the nights on the hill called 
the ' Mount of Olives.' And all the people would get up early 38 
in the morning and come to listen to him in the Temple 

o. 7. 24 Zech. 12. 3 (Sptuagtfnt). 25 
Dan. 7. 13 ; Jer. 7. 13. 28 Enoch 51. 2. 

Hos. o. 7. 24 Zech. 12. 3 (Sptuagtfnt). 25 p s . 65. 7. 26 I sa . 34. 4. 

Isa. 24. 17. 

154 LUKE, 22. 

Feast of the Unleavened Bread, known as i 
agamat the Passover, was near. The Chief Priests 2 

jesus. anc j the Teachers of the Law were looking for 
an opportunity of destroying Jesus, for they were afraid of the 

judas agrees Now Satan took possession of Judas, who was 3 
to betray known as Iscariot, and who belonged to the 

jesus. Twelve ; and he went and discussed with the Chief 4 
Priests and Officers in charge at the Temple the best way 
of betraying Jesus to them. They were glad of this, and 5 
agreed to pay him. So Judas assented, and looked for an 6 
opportunity to betray Jesus to them, in the absence of a crowd. 

The When the day of the Festival of the Unleavened 7 

Passover. Bread came, on which the Passover lambs had to 
be killed, Jesus sent forward Peter and John, saying to them : 8 

" Go and make preparations for our eating the Passover." 

"Where do you wish us to make preparations?" they 9 

" Listen," he answered, " when you have got into the city, a 10 
man carrying a pitcher of water will meet you; follow him into 
whatever house he enters ; and you shall say to the owner of the 1 1 
house ' The Teacher says to you Where is the room where I 
am to eat the Passover with my disciples?' The man will 12 
show you a large upstairs room, set out ; there make prepara- 

So Peter and John went on, and found everything just as Jesus 13 
had told them, and they prepared the Passover. 

When the time came, Jesus took his place at table, and the 14 
Apostles with him. 

" I have most earnestly wished," he said, " to eat this Pass- 15 
over with you before I suffer. For I tell you that I shall not 16 
eat it again, until it has had its fulfilment in the Kingdom of 

Then, on receiving a cup, after saying the thanksgiving, he 17 
said : 

" Take this and share it among you. For I tell you that I 18 
shall not, after to-day, drink of the juice of the grape, till the . 
Kingdom of God has come." 

The 'Lord** Then Jesus took some bread, and, after saying 19 

supper.* the thanksgiving, broke it and gave to them, with 
the words : 

" This is my body, [which is now to be given on your behalf. 
Do this in memory of me." 
And in the same wav with the cup, after supper, saying : 20 

"This cup is the New Covenant made by my blood which is 
being poured out on your behalf.] Yet see ! the hand of the 21 
man that is betraying me is beside me upon the table ! True, 22 

Exod. 24. 8. 

LUKE, 22. 155 

the Son of Man is passing, by the way Ordained for him, yet 
alas for that man by whom he is being betrayed ! " 
Then they began questioning one another which of them it 23 
could be that was going to do this. 
The Dignity And a dispute arose among them as to which 24 

of service, of them was to be regarded as the greatest. Jesus, 25 
however, said : 

"The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their 
oppressors are styled ' Benefactors.' But with you it must 26 
not be so. No, let the greatest among you become like the 
youngest, and him who leads like him who serves. Which is 27 
the greater the master at the table or his servant? Is 
not it the master at the table? Yet I myself am among 
you as one who serves. You are the men who 28 

have stood by me in my trials ; and, just as my Father 29 
has assigned me a Kingdom, I assign you places, so that 30 
you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom, and 
be seated upon twelve thrones as judges of the twelve tribes of 

Peter's Fail Israel. Simon ! Simon ! listen. Satan 31 

foretold, demanded leave to sift you all like wheat, but 32 
I prayed for you, Simon, that your faith should not fail. 
And you, when you have returned to me, are to strengthen 
your Brothers." 

" Master," said Peter, " with you I am ready to go both to 33 
prison and to death." 

" I tell you, Peter," replied Jesus, "the cock will not crow 34 
to-day till you have disowned all knowledge of me three times." 

The Then he said to them all : 35 

End at "When I sent you out as my Messengers, 

Hand. without either purse, or bag, or sandals, were 
you in need of anything ? " 

"No; nothing," they answered. 

" Now, however," he said, "he who has a purse must take 36 
it and his bag as well ; and he who has not must sell his cloak 
and buy a sword. For, I tell you, that passage of Scripture 37 
must be fulfilled in me, which says 

' He was counted among the godless ' ; 

indeed, all that refers to me is finding its fulfilment." 

" Master," they exclaimed, " look, here are two swords ! " 38 
" Enough ! " said Jesus. 

Jesi Jesus then went out, and made his way as usual 39 

on the Mount to the Mount of Olives, followed by his dis- 

of oiives. ciples. And, when he reached the spot, he said 40 
to them : 

" Pray that you may not fall into temptation." 

*l Isa. 53. 12. 

156 LUKE, 22. 

Then he withdrew about a stone's throw, and knelt down and 41 
began to pray. 

" Father," he said, " if it is thy pleasure, spare me this cup ; 42 
only, not my will but thine be done." 

[Presently there appeared to him an angel from Heaven, who 43 
strengthened him. And, as his anguish became intense, he 44 
prayed still more earnestly, while his sweat was like great 
drops of blood falling on the ground.] Then he rose from 45 
praying, and came to the disciples and found them sleeping 
for sorrow. 

" Why are you asleep ? " he asked them. " Rise and pray, 46 
that you may not fall into temptation." 

The While he was still speaking, a crowd ap- 47 

Arrest o* peared in sight, led by the man called Judas, 
jeaus. who was one of the Twelve. Judas approached 
Jesus, to kiss him ; on which Jesus said to him : 48 

"Judas, is it by a kiss that you betray the Son of Man ? " 
But when those who were round Jesus saw what was going to 49 
happen, they exclaimed : 

" Master, shall we use our swords ? " 

And one of them struck the High Priest's servant and cut off - 50 
his right ear ; on which Jesus said : " Let me at least do this "; 51 
and, touching his ear, he healed the wound. Then, turning to 52 
the Chief Priests and Officers in charge at the Temple and 
Councillors, who had come for him, he said : 

" Have you come out, as if after a robber, with swords and 
clubs ? When I was with you day after day in the Temple 53 
Courts, you did not lay hands on me ; but now your tim3 has 
come, and the power of Darkness." 

Je-us Those who had taken Jesus prisoner took him 54 

before the away into the house of the High Priest. Peter fol- 
High Priest, lowed at a distance. But, when they had lit afire in 55 
the centre of the court-yard and had all sat down there, Peter 
seated himself in the middle of them. Presently a maidservant 56 
peter disowns saw n ' m sitting near the blaze of the fire. Fixing 
jesus. her eyes on him, she said : 

" Why, this man was one of his companions ! " 
But Peter denied it. 57 

" I do not know him," he replied. 

A little while afterwards some one else a man saw him and 58 
said : 

" Why, you are one of them ! " 
" No," Peter said, " I am not." 
About an hour later another man declared positively : 59 

" This man also was certainly with him. Why, he is a 
GalSlaean ! " 

But Peter said : "I do not know what you are speaking 60 

LUKE, 22-23. 157 

Instantly, while he was still speaking, a cock crowed. And the 61 
Master turned and looked at Peter ; and Peter remembered 
the words that the Master had said to him " Before a cock has 
crowed to-day, you will disown me three times" ; and he went 63 
outside and wept bitterly. 

The men that held Jesus kept making sport of him and 63 
beating him. They blindfolded him and then questioned 64 

"Now play the Prophet," they said; "who was it that 
struck you ? " 
And they heaped many other insults on him. 65 

Jesus At daybreak the National Council met both 66 

before the the Chief Priests and the Teachers of the Law 

Chief Priests. anc j took Jesus before their High Council. 
" If you are the Christ," they said, " tell us so." 67 

"If I tell you," replied Jesus, "you will not believe me; 

and, if I question you, you will not answer. But from this 68, ( 

hour ' the Son of Man will be seated on the right hand of God 


"Are you, then, the Son of God ? " they all asked. 70 

" It is true," answered Jesus, " I am." 

At this they exclaimed : 71 

" Why do we want any more evidence ? We have heard it 

ourselves from his own lips ! " 

. _ Then they all rose in a body and led Jesus i 2 

jewus oeToro i-\i *<ii _* 

the Roman before Pilate. And they began to accuse him : 2 

Governor. " This is a man whom we found misleading our 
people, preventing them from paying taxes to the Emperor, and 
giving out that he himself is ' Christ, a King.'" 

" Are you the King of the Jews ? " Pilate asked him. 3 

" It is true," replied Jesus. 
But Pilate, turning to the Chief Priests and the people, said : 4 

" I do not see anything to find fault with in this man." 
But they insisted : 5 

" He is stirring up the people by his teaching all through 
Judaea ; he began with Galilee and has now come here." 
Hearing this, Pilate asked if the man was a Galilaean ; and, 6, 7 
having satisfied himself that Jesus came under Herod's juris- 
diction, he sent him to Herod, who also was at Jerusalem at the 
Jesus before time. When Herod saw Jesus, he was ex- 8 

Herod. ceed'mgly pleased, for he had been wanting to see 
him for a long time, having heard a great deal about him ; and 
he was hoping to see some sign given by him. So he questioned 9 
him at some length,'but Jesus made no reply. Meanwhile the 10 
Chief Priests and the Teachers of the Law stood by and 
vehemently accused him. And Herod, with his soldiers, treated n 
Jesus with scorn ; he mocked him by throwing a gorgeous robe 
69 Ps. no. i ; Dan. 7. 13. 

158 LUKE, 23. 

round him, and then sent him back to Pilate. And 

Herod and Pilate became friends that very day, for before 
that there had been ill-will between them. 

So Pilate summoned the Chief Priests, and the 
aeajn 8 beVore leading men, and the people, and said to them : 

the Roman ' ' You brought this man before me charged with 

Governor, misleading the people ; and yet, for my part, 
though I examined him before you, I did not find this man 
to blame for any of the things of which you accuse him ; nor 
did Herod either ; for he has sent him back to us. And, 
as a fact, he has not done anything deserving death ; so 
I shall have him scourged, and then release him." 
But they began to shout as one man : 

" Kill this fellow, but release Barabbas for us." 
(Barabbas was a man who had been put in prison for a riot 
that had broken out in the city and for murder.) Pilate, how- 
ever, wanting to release Jesus, called to them again ; but they 
kept calling out : 

" Crucify, crucify him ! " 

" Why, what harm has this man done? " Pilate said to them 
for the third time. " I have found nothing in him for which 
he could be condemned to death. So I will have him scourged, 
and then release him." 

But they persisted in loudly demanding his crucifixion ; and 
their clamour gained the day. Pilate decided that their 
demand should be granted. He released the man who had 
been put in prison for riot and murder, as they demanded, and 
gave Jesus up to be dealt with as they pleased. 

The And, as they were leading Jesus away, they 

Crucifixion laid hold of Simon from Cyrene, who was on his 

of Jeaus. wa y j n f r om the country, and they put the cross 
on his shoulders, for him to carry it behind Jesus. There 

was a great crowd of people following him, many being women 
who were beating their breasts and wailing for him. So Jesus 
turned and said to them : 

"Women of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for 
yourselves and for your children. A time, I tell you, is coming, 
when it will be said ' Happy are the women who are barren, 
and those who have never borne children or nursed them ! ' 
At that time people will begin to say to the mountains ' Fall 
on us,' and to the hills 'Cover us.' If what you see is done 
while the tree is green, what will happen when it is dry? " 
There were two others also, criminals, led out to be executed 
with Jesus. 

When they had reached the place called 'The Skull,' there 
they crucified Jesus and the criminals, one on the right, and 
one on the left 

80 Hos. 10. 8. 31 Ezek. 20. 47. 

LUKE, 23. 159 

[Then Jesus said : 34 

1 ' Father, forgive them ; they do not know what they are 


His clothes they divided among them by casting lots. Mean- 35 

while the people stood looking on. Even the leading men said 

with a sneer : 

" He saved others, let him save himself, if he is God's Christ, 

his Chosen One." 

The soldiers, too, came up in mockery, bringing him common 36 

wine, and saying as they did so : 37 

"If you are the King of the Jews, save yourself." 

Above him were the words 38 


The One of the criminals who were hanging beside 39 

penitent Jesus railed at him. 

Robber. Ar e notyou the Christ? Save yourself and us," 
he said. 
But the other rebuked him. 40 

" Have not you," he said, "any fear of God, now that you 
are under the same sentence ? And we justly so, for we are 41 
only reaping our deserts, but this man has not done anything 
wrong. Jesus," he went on, " do not forget me when you have 42 
come to your Kingdom." 
And Jesus answered : 43 

" I tell you, this very day you shall be with me in Paradise." 

The Death It was nearly mid-day, when a darkness came 44 

or Jesus. over the whole country, lasting till three in the 
afternoon, the sun being eclipsed ; and the Temple curtain was 45 
torn down the middle. Then Jesus, with a loud cry, said : 46 

" Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit." 

And with these words he expired. The Roman Captain, 47 

on seeing what had happened, praised God, exclaiming : 

" This must have been a good man ! " 

All the people who had collected to see the sight watched what 48 
occurred, and then went home beating their breasts. All 49 
the friends of Jesus had been standing at a distance, with the 
women who accompanied him from Galilee, watching all this. 

The Burial Now there was a man of the name of Joseph, 50 

of Jesus, who was a member of the Council, and who bore a 
good and upright character. (This man had not assented to 51 
the decision and action of the Council.) He belonged to 
Ramah, a town in Judaea, and lived in expectation of the 
Kingdom of God. He now went to see Pilate, and asked for 52 
the body of Jesus ; and, when he had taken it down, he wrapped 53 
it in a linen sheet, and laid him in a tomb cut out of stone, 

* Ps. 22. 18. 35 p s . 23. 7 ; Enoch 40. 5. M Ps. 6q. ai. Ps. 31. 5. 
V Wisd. of Sol. 2. i& 49 p s . 38. . 

160 LUKE, 23-24. 

in which no one had yet been buried. It was the Pre- 54 

paration Day, and just before the Sabbath began. The 55 

women who had accompanied Jesus from Galilee followed, and 
saw the tomb and how the body of Jesus was laid, and then 56 
went home, and prepared spices and perfumes. 


The During the Sabbath they rested, as directed by 

Resurrection the commandment. But very early on the first i 2 

of jeaus. day O f the week they went to the tomb, taking 
with them the spices that they had prepared. They found that 2 
the stone had been rolled away from the tomb ; and, on going 3 
into it, they could not find the body [of the Lord Jesus]. While 4 
they were at a loss to account for this, all at once two men 
stood beside them, in dazzling clothing. But, when in their 5 
fear the women bowed their faces to the ground, the men said 
to them : 

"Why are you looking among the dead for him who is 
living? [He is not here ; but he has risen.] Remember how 6 
he spoke to you before he left Galilee how he said that the 7 
Son of Man must be betrayed into the hands of wicked men, 
and be crucified, and rise again on the third day." 
Then they remembered the words of Jesus, and, on returning 8, 9 
from the tomb, they told all this to the Eleven and to all the 
rest. There were Mary of Magdala, and Joanna, and Mary, 10 
the mother of James. The other women, too, spoke about this 
to the Apostles. What they said seemed to the Apostles mere 1 1 
nonsense, and they did not believe them. 

[But Peter got up and ran to the tomb. Stooping down he 12 
saw nothing but the linen wrappings, and he went away, 
wondering to himself at what had taken place.] 

jesus appears ^ happened that very day that two of the disci- 13 
on the road pies were going to a village called Emmaus, 
to Emmaus. which was about seven miles from Jerusalem, 

talking together, as they went, about all that had just taken 14 

place. While they were talking about these things and 15 

discussing them, Jesus himself came up and went on their 

way with them ; but their eyes were blinded so that they 16 

could not recognize him. 

" What is this that you are saying to each other as you walk 17 

along ? " Jesus asked. 

They stopped, with sad looks on their faces, and then one of 18 

them, whose name was Cleopas, said to Jesus : 

"Are you staying by yourself at Jerusalem, that you have 

not heard of the things that have happened there within the 

last few days ? " 

LUKE, 24. 161 

"What things do you mean ? " asked Jesus. 19 

" Why, about Jesus of Nazareth," they answered, " who, in 
the eyes of God and all the people, was a Prophet, whose 
power was felt in both his words and actions ; and how the 20 
Chief Priests and our leading men gave him up to be 
sentenced to death, and afterwards crucified him. But we 21 
were hoping that lie was the Destined Deliverer of Israel ; 
yes, and besides all this, it is now three days since these things 
occurred. And what is more, some of the women among "22 
us have greatly astonished us. They went to the tomb at 
daybreak and, not finding the body of Jesus there, came and 23 
told us that they had seen a vision of angels who told them 
that he was alive. So some of our number went to the tomb 24 
and found everything just as the women had said ; but they 
did not see Jesus." 
Then Jesus said to them : 25 

"O foolish men, slow to accept all that the Prophets have 
said ! Was not the Christ bound to undergo this suffering 26 
before entering upon his Glory ? " 

Then, beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained 27 
to them all through the Scriptures the passages that referred 
to himself. When they got near the village to which 28 

they were walking, Jesus appeared to be going further ; but 29 
they pressed him not to do so. 

" Stay with us," they said, " for it is getting towards evening, 
and the sun is already low." 

So Jesus went in to stay with them. After he had 30 

taken his place at table with them, he took the bread 
and said the blessing, and broke it, and gave it to them. 
Then their eyes were opened and they recognized him ; but he 31 
disappeared from their sight. 

" How our hearts glowed," the disciples said to each other, 32 
"while he was talking to us on the road, and when he ex- 
plained the Scriptures to us ! " 

Then they immediately got up and returned to Jerusalem, 33 
where they found the Eleven and their companions all together, 
who told them that the Master had really risen, and had 34 
appeared to Simon. So they also related what had happened 35 
during their walk, and how they had recognized Jesus at the 
Breaking of the Bread. 

Jesi While they were still talking about these things, 36 

appears to the Jesus himself stood among them, [and said 

Apostles. " Peace be with you."] In their terror and alarm 37 
they thought they saw a spirit, but Jesus said to them : 38 

" Why are you so startled ? and why do doubts arise in 
your minds ? Look at my hands and my feet, and you will 39 
know that it is I. Feel me, and look at me, for a spirit has not 
flesh and bones, as you see that I have." 

[After saying this he showed them his hands and his feet.] 


162 LUKE, 24. 

While they were still unable to believe it all for very joy, 41 
and were wondering if it were true, Jesus said to them : 

" Have you anything here to eat ? " 

They handed him a piece of broiled fish, and he took it and 42, 
ate it before their eyes. 

" This is what I told you," he said, " when I was still with 44 
you that everything- that had been written about me in 
the Law of Moses, the Prophets, and the Psalms, must be 

Then he enabled them to understand the meaning of the 45 
Scriptures, saying to them : 46 

"Scripture says that the Christ should suffer, and that 
he should rise again from the dead on the third day, and that 47 
repentance for forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed on his 
authority to all the nations beginning at Jerusalem. You 48 
yourselves are to be witnesses to all this. And now I am my- 49 
self about to send upon you that which my Father has 
promised. But you must remain in the city until you have 
been invested with power from above." 

Je-| After this, Jesus led them out as far as Bethany, 50 

ascends to and there raised his hands and blessed them. As 51 

Heaven, he was in the act of blessing them, he left them 

[and was carried up into Heaven.] They [bowed to the ground 52 

before him and] returned to Jerusalem full of joy; and they 53 
were constantly in the Temple Courts, blessing God. 

el a Kings a. n. 




THIS gospel appears to embody the doctrine concerning 
Christ which was accepted in the Ephesian Church in Asia 
Minor by the end of the First Century. It was not authorita- 
tively attributed to the Apostle John till towards the end of 
the Second Century after Christ ; but it may safely be ascribed, 
if not to St. John himself, to some writer brought up in the 
Church of Ephesus, over which that Apostle so long presided. 

The writer apparently proposed to himself to illustrate the 
spirit of the ' Gospel of Love ' by such incidents in the life of 
Jesus as best suited his purpose ; at the same time correct- 
ing previous gospels, and making such additions to them, as 
his information enabled him to do. There is no attempt at a 
regular connected narrative ; and the writer allows himself 
such freedom in commenting upon the teaching of Jesus, that 
it is not always easy to tell where that teaching ends and the 
writer's comment begins. 

It is to the great struggle between Light and Darkness, 
Death and Life words much in use and much debated in the 
current philosophy of Ephesus that the writer devotes his 
attention, rather than to the external incidents of a story which 
has already been told, and which is plainly viewed by him from 
a greater distance of time than is the case with the compilers of 
the three other gospels. 



In the Beginning the Word was ; I 

And the Word was with God ; 
And the Word was God. 

He was in the Beginning with God ; 2 

Through him all things came into being, 3 

And nothing came into being apart from him. 

That which came into being in him was Life ; 4 

And the Life was the Light of Man ; 

And the Light shines in the darkness, 5 

And the darkness never overpowered it. 

There appeared a man sent from God, whose name was John ; 6 
He came as a witness to bear witness to the Light 7 

That through him all men might believe. 

He was not the Light, 8 

But he came to bear witness to the Light. 

That was the True Light which enlightens every man coming 9 

into the world. 

He was in the world ; 10 

And through him the world came into being 
Yet the world did not know him. 

He came to his own 1 1 

Yet his own did not receive him. 

But to all who did receive him he gave power to become 12 

Children of God 
To those who believe in his Name. 
For not to natural conception, nor to human instincts, nor to 13 

will of man did they owe the new Life, 
But to God. 

1 Gen. i. i ; Pa. 33. 6. 3 \yisd. of Sol. 9. i. Ps. 36. 9. 

166 JOHN, 1. 

And the Word became Man, and dwelt among us, 14 

(We saw his glory the glor^of the Only Son sent from the 


Full of love and truth. 
(John bears witness to him ; he cried aloud for it was he 15 

who spoke 

" ' He who is Coming ' after me is now before me, 
For he was ever First ") ; 

Out of his fulness we have all received some gift, 16 

Gift after gift of love ; 

For the Law was given through Moses, 17 

Love and truth came through Jesus Christ. 

No man has ever yet seen God ; 18 

God the Only Son, who is ever with the Father 
He has revealed him. 


When the Jews sent some Priests and Levites 19 
nyto J hn ! rom Jerusalem, to ask " Who are 
Baptist to you ? ", his statement was this : he confessed 20 

desus. ant j did no t deny it } he confessed "I am not 
the Christ." 

" What then ? " they asked. " Are you Elijah ? " 21 

"No, "he said, " I am not." 
"Are you ' the Prophet ' ? " 
He answered " No." 

"Who then are you?" they continued ; "tell us, that we 22 
may have some answer to give to those who have sent us. 
What do you say about yourself? " 

" I," he answered, " am 23 

1 The voice of one crying 1 aloud in the Wilderness 
" Straighten the way of the Lord " ', 

as the Prophet Isaiah said." 

These men had been sent from the Pharisees ; and their next 24, 

question was : 

"Why then do you baptize, if you are not the Christ, nor 
Elijah, nor yet ' the Prophet ' ? " 

John's answer was " I baptize with water, but among you 26 
stands one whom you do not know ; he is coming after me, 27 
yet I am not worthy even to unfasten his sandal." 
All this took place at Be.tb.any, across the Jordan, where John 28 
was then baptizing. 

The next day John saw Jesus coming towards him, and 29 
exclaimed : 

" Here is the Lamb of God, who is to take away the sin of 

J* Lev. a6. ii. Pa. 118. a6. " P. a. a. Mai. 4. 5; Deut. 18. 15. 
Jsa. 40. 3. Deut. 18. 15. * Isa. 53. 7, la, 

JOHN, 1. 167 

the world! It was of him that I spoke when I said 'After me 30 
there is coming a man who is now before me, for he was 
ever First.' I myself did not know him, but, that he may be 31 
made known to Israel, I have come, baptizing with water." 
John also made this statement 32 

" I have seen the Spirit descending- as a dove out of the 
heavens, and it remained upon him. I myself did not know 33 
him, but he who sent me to baptize with water, he said to me 
' He upon whom you see the Spirit descending, and remain- 
ing upon him he it is who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.' 
This I have seen myself, and I have declared my belief that he 34 
is the Son of God." 

The first next ^ay, when John was standing 35 

Disciples with two of his disciples, he looked at Jesus as 36 

of Jesus. ] ie passed and exclaimed : 

" There is the Lamb of God ! " 

The two disciples heard him say this, and followed Jesus. 37 
But Jesus turned round, and saw them following. . 38 

" What are you looking for? " he asked. 

" Rabbi," they answered (or, as we should say, "Teacher"), 
" where are you staying ? " 

" Come, and you shall see," he replied. 39 

So they went, and saw where he was staying, and spent 
that day with him. It was then about four in the after- 
noon. One of the two, who heard what John said and 40 

followed Jesus, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. He first 41 
found his own brother Simon, and said to him : " We have 
found the Messiah ! " (a word which means ' Christ,' or ' Con- 
secrated '.) Then he brought him to Jesus. Fixing his eyes 42 
on him, Jesus said : 

" You are Simon, the son of John ; you shall be called 
Kephas " (which means ' Peter,' or ' Rock '). 

The following day Jesus decided to leave for Galilee. He 43 
found Philip, and said to 1 iim : " Follow me." 
Philip was from Bethsaida, and a fellow-townsman of Andrew 44 
and Peter. He found Nathanael and said to him : 45 

"We have found him of whom Moses wrote in the Law, 
and of whom the Prophets also wrote Jesus of Nazareth, 
Joseph's son ! " 

' ' Can anything good come out of Nazareth ? " asked 46 

"Come and see," replied Philip. 
When Jesus saw Nathanael coming towards him, he said : , 47 

" Here is a true Israelite, in whom there is no deceit! " 

" How, do you know me ? " asked Nathanael. 48 

" Even before Philip called you," replied Jesus, " when you 
were under the fig tree, I saw you." 

34 Ps. 2. 7. *? Gen. 27. 35. 

168 JOHN, 12. 

"Rabbi," Nathanael exclaimed, "you are the Son of God, 49 
you are King of Israel ! " 

" Do you believe in me," asked Jesus, "because I told you 50 
that I saw you under the fig tree? You shall see greater 
things than those! In truth I tell you, "he added, "you shall 51 
all see Heaven open, and ' the angels of God ascending and 
descending ' upon the Son of Man." 


jeusat;i Two days after this there was a wedding at i 

wedding at Cana in Galilee, and Jesus' mother was there. 

cana. Jesus himself, too, with his disciples, was 2 
invited to the wedding. And, when the wine ran short, his 3 
mother said to him : " They have no wine left." 

"What do you want with me?" answered Jesus. "My 4 
time has not come yet." 

His mother said to the servants: "Do whatever he tells you." 5 
There were standing there six stone water-jars, in accordance 6 
with the Jewish rule of ' purification,' each holding twenty or 
thirty gallons. 

Jesus said to the servants : " Fill the water-jars with water; " 7 
and, when they had filled them to the brim, he added : 8 

"Now take some out, and carry it to the Master of the Feast." 
The servants did so. And, when the Master of the Feast had 9 
tasted the water which had now become wine, not knowing 
where it had come from although the servants who had taken 
out the water knew he called the bridegroom and said to him : 10 

" Every one puts good wine on the table first, and 
inferior wine afterwards, when his guests have drunk freely ; 
but you have kept back the good wine till now ! " 
This, the first sign of his mission, Jesus gave at Cana in n 
Galilee, and by it revealed his glory ; and his disciples 
believed in him. 

j.u.;,, After this, Jesus went down to Capernaum 12 
cprnaum. he, his mother, his brothers, and his disciples ; 
but they stayed there only a few days. 

ju t the Then, as the Jewish Passover was near, Jesus 13 
Tompio in went up to Jerusalem. In the Temple Courts he 14 

jruMim. found people who were selling bullocks, sheep, 
and pigeons, and the money-changers at their counters. So 15 
he made a whip of cords, and drove them all out of the Temple 

< Ps. a. 6. Gen. aS. la ; Dan. 7. 13. 

JOHN, 23. 169 

Courts, and the sheep and bullocks as well ; he scattered the 
money of the money-changers, and overturned their tables, 
and said to the pigeon-dealers : 16 

" Take these things away. Do not turn my Father's House 
into a market-house." 
His disciples remembered that Scripture said 17 

' Zeal for thy House will consume me.' 

Upon this the Jews asked Jesus : 18 

" What sign are you going to show us, since you act in this 
way ? " 

" Destroy this temple," was his answer, " and I will raise it 19 
in three days." 

" This Temple," replied the Jews, "has been forty-six years 20 
in building, and are you going to ' raise it in three days ' ? " 
But Jesus was speaking of his body as a temple. After- 21, 

wards, when he had risen from the dead, his disciples remem- 
bered that he had said this ; and they believed the passage of 
Scripture, and the words which Jesus had spoken. 

While Jesus was in Jerusalem, during the Passover Festival, 23 
many came to trust in him, when they saw the signs of his 
mission that he was giving. But Jesus did not trust himself 24 
to them, since he could read every heart, and because he did 25 
not need that others should tell him what men were ; for he 
could of himself read what was in men. 

The visit of Now there was a Pharisee named Nicodemus, i ! 
Nicodemus who was a leading man among the Jews. This 2 

to Jesus, man came to Jesus by night, and said to him : 

" Rabbi, we know that you are a Teacher come from God ; 
for no one could give such signs as you are giving, unless God 
were with him." 

"In truth I tell you," exclaimed Jesus, "unless a man is 3 
reborn, he cannot see the Kingdom of God." 

" How can a man," asked Nicodemus, " be born when he is 4 
old ? Can he be born a second time ? " 

" In truth I tell you," answered Jesus, " unless a man owes 5 
his birth to Water and Spirit, he cannot enter the Kingdom 
of God. All that owes its birth to human nature is human, 6 
and all that owes its birth to the Spirit is spiritual. Do not 7 
wonder at my telling you that you all need to be reborn. 
The wind blows where it wills, and you can hear the sound of 8 
it, but you do not know whence it comes, or where it goes ; 
it is the same with every one that owes his birth to the 

" How can that be ? " asked Nicodemus.. 9 

" What ! You a teacher of Israel," exclaimed Jesus, " and 10 

17 p s . 69. 9. 19 Hos. 6. 2. 3 Dan< 2< ^ 


170 JOHN, 3. 

yet do not understand this !. In truth I tell you that we speak 1 1 
of what we know, and state what we have seen ; and yet you do 
not accept our statements. If, when I tell you earthly things, 12 
you do not believe me, how will you believe me when I tell you 
of heavenly things? No one has ascended to Heaven, except 13 
him who descended from Heaven the Son of Man himself. 
And, as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so must the 14 
Son of Man be lifted up ; that every one who believes in him 15 
may have Immortal Life." 

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that 16 
every one who believes in him may not be lost, but have 
Immortal Life. For God did not send his Son into the world 17 
to condemn the world, but that the world might be saved 
through him. He who believes in him escapes condemnation, 18 
while he who does not believe in him is already condemned, 
because he has not believed in the only Son of God. The 19 
ground of his condemnation is this, that though the Light 
has come into the world, men preferred the darkness to the 
Light, because their actions were wicked. For he who lives 20 
an evil life hates the light, and will not come to it, for fear 
that his actions should be exposed ; but he who acts up to the 21 
truth comes to the light, that his actions may be shown to have 
been done in dependence upon God. 

After this, Jesus went with his disciples into the 22 
T Teftfmo'ny* country parts of Judaea ; and there he stayed with 
to Jesus them, and baptized. John, also, was baptizing 23 

in Judaea. a j- Aenon near Salim, because there were many 
streams there ; and people were constantly coming and being 
baptized. (Forjohn had notyet been imprisoned). Now 24, 

a discussion arose between some of John's disciples and a Jew 
on the subject of ' purification ;' and the disciples came to 26 
John and said : 

" Rabbi, the man who was with you on the other side of the 
Jordan, and to whom you have yourself borne testimony he, 
also, is baptizing, and everybody is going to him." 
John's answer was 27 

"A man can gain nothing but what is given him from 
Heaven. You are yourselves witnesses that I said ' I am 28 
not the Christ,' but 'I have been sent before him as a 
Messenger.' It is the bridegroom who has the bride ; but the 29 
bridegroom's friend, who stands by and listens to him, is 
filled with joy when he hears the bridegroom's voice. This 
joy I have felt to the full. He must become greater, and 30 
I less." 

He who comes from above is above all others ; but a child 31 
of earth is earthly, and his teaching is earthly, too. He who 

13 Prov. 30. 4. 

JOHN, 8-4. 171 

comes from Heaven is above all others. He states what he 32 
has seen and what he heard, and yet no one accepts his state- 
ment. They who did accept his statement attested the fact 33 
that God is true. For he whom God sent as his Messenger 34 
gives us God's own teaching, for God does not limit the gift 
of the Spirit. The Father loves his Son, and has put every- 35 
thing in his hands. He who believes in the Son has Immortal 36 
Life, while he who rejects the Son will not even see that Life, 
but remains under ' God's displeasure.' 

jesua nd Now, when the Master heard that the Pharisees i 

the woman had been told that he was making and baptizing 
or Samaria, rnore disciples than John (though it was not 2 
Jesus himself, but his disciples, who baptized), he left Judaea, 3 
and set out again for Galilee. He had to pass through 4 

Samaria, and, on his way, he came to a Samaritan town called 5 
Shechem, near the plot of land that Jacob gave to his son 
Joseph. Jacob's Spring was there, and Jesus, being tired after 6 
his journey, sat down beside the spring, just as he was. It 
was then about mid-day. A woman of Samaria came to draw 7 
water ; and Jesus said to her " Give me some to drink," for 8 
his disciples had gone into the town to buy food. 

" How is it," replied the Samaritan woman," that you who 9 
are a Jew ask for water from a Samaritan woman like me ? " 
(For Jews do not associate with Samaritans). 

" If you knew of the gift of God," replied Jesus, "and who 10 
it is that is saying to you 'Give me some water, 'you would have 
asked him, and he would have given you 'living water'." 

"You have no bucket, Sir, and the well is deep," she said ; n 
"where did you get that 'living water?' Surely you are 12 
not greater than our ancestor Jacob who gave us the well, 
and used to drink from it himself, and his sons, and his 
cattle ! " 

"All who drink of this water," replied Jesus, "will be 13 
thirsty again ; but whoever once drinks of the water that I 14 
will give him shall never thirst any more ; but the water that 
I will give him shall become a spring welling up within him 
a source of Immortal Life." 

"Give me this water, Sir," said the woman, "so that I 15 
may not be thirsty, nor have to come all the way here to 
draw water." 

"Go and call your husband," said Jesus, "and then come 16 

" I have no husband," answered the woman. 17 

"You are right in saying 'I have no husband,'" replied 
Jesus, "for you have had five husbands, and the man 18 
with whom you are now living is not your husband ; in saying 
that, you hve spoken the truth." 

36 P s . 78. 31. * Gen. 48. 22 (Septuagint Version). M Enoch 17. 4. M Jer. a. 13. 

172 JOHN, 4. 

" I see, Sir, that you are a Prophet !" exclaimed the woman. 19 
" It was on this mountain that our ancestors worshipped ; 20 
and yet you Jews say that the proper place for worship is in 

"Believe me," replied Jesus, "a time is coming when it 21 
will be neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem that you 
will worship the Father. You Samaritans do not know what 22 
you worship ; we know what we worship, for Salvation comes 
from the Jews. But a time is coming, indeed it is already 23 
here, when the true worshippers will worship the Father 
spiritually and truly ; for such are the worshippers that the 
Father desires. God is Spirit ; and those who worship him 24 
must worship spiritually and truly." 

"I know," answered the woman, "that the Messiah, who 25 
is called the Christ, is coming ; when once he has come, he 
will tell us everything." 

" I am he," Jesus said to her, " I who am speaking to you." 26 

At this moment his disciples came up, and were surprised 27 
to find him talking with a woman ; but none of them asked 
' What do you want ? ' or ' Why are you talking with her ? ' 
So the woman, leaving her pitcher, went back to the town, 28 
and said to the people : 

"Come and see someone who has told me everything that 29 
I have done. Can he be the Christ ? " 
And the people left the town and went to see Jesus. 30 

Meanwhile the disciples kept saying to him : 31 

"Take something to eat, Rabbi." 

"I have food to eat," he answered, "of which you know 32 

"Can any one have brought him anything to eat?" the 33 
disciples said to one another. 

"My food," replied Jesus, "is to do the will of him who 34 
sent me, and to complete his work. Do not you say that it 35 
still wants four months to harvest ? Why, look up, and see 
how white the fields are for harvest ! Already the reaper is 36 
receiving wages and gathering in sheaves for Immortal Life, 
so that sower and reaper rejoice together. For here the 37 
proverb holds good 'One sows, another reaps.' I have 38 
sent you to reap that on which you have spent no labour ; 
others have laboured, and you have entered upon the results of 
their labour." 

Many from that town came to believe in Jesus Samaritans 39 
though they were on account of the woman's statement 
'He has told me everything that I have done.' And, when 40 
these Samaritans had come to Jesus, they begged him to stay 
with them, and he stayed there two days. But far more came 41 
to believe in him on account of what he said himself, and 42 
they said to the woman : 

" It-is no longer because of what you say that we believe in 

JOHN, *--5. 173 

him, for we have heard him ourselves and know that he really 
is the Saviour of the world." 

After these two days Jesus went on to Galilee ; 43 
an officer** f r he himself declared that ' a Prophet is not 44 
son in honoured in his own country.' When he entered 45 
Gahiee. Galilee, the Galilaeans welcomed him, for they 
had seen all that he did at Jerusalem during the Festival, 
at which they also had been present. 

So Jesus came again to Cana in Galilee, where he had turned 46 
the water into wine. Now there was one of the King's 

officers whose son was lying ill at Capernaum. When this 47 
man heard that Jesus had returned from Judaea to Galilee, he 
went to him, and begged him to come down and cure his son ; 
for he was at the point of death. Jesus answered : 48 

" Unless you all see signs and wonders, you will not believe." 

" Sir," said the officer, "come down before my child dies." 49 
And Jesus answered : "Go, your son is living." The man 50 
believed what Jesus said to him, and went ; and, while he was 51 
on his way down, his servants met him, and told him that 
his child was living. So he asked them at what time the boy 52 
began to get better. 

" It was yesterday, about one o'clock," they said, " that the 
fever left him." 

By this the father knew that it was at the very time when 53 
Jesus had said to him ' Your son is living ' ; and he himself, 
with all his household, believed in Jesus. This was 54 

the second occasion on which Jesus gave a sign of his mission 
on coming from Judaea to Galilee. 

Sometime after this there was a Jewish Festival ; i 
a'crippieTn a d Jesus went up to Jerusalem. There is 2 

Jerusalem on in Jerusalem, near the Sheep-gate, a Bath with 
the sabbath. ve co i onnac i es round it. It is called in Hebrew 
'Bethesda.' In these colonnades a large number of afflicted 3 
people were lying blind, lame, and crippled. One man who 5 
was there had been afflicted for thirty-eight years. Jesus saw 6 
the man lying there, and, finding that he had been in this state 
a long time, said to him : 

" Do you wish to be cured ? " 

" I have no one, Sir," the afflicted man answered, "to put 7 
me into the Bath when there is a troubling of the water, and, 
while I am getting to it, some one else steps down before me." 

" Stand up, "said Jesus, "take up your mat, and walkabout." 8 
The man was cured immediately, and took up his mat and 9 
began to walk about. 

174 JOHN, 5. 

Now it was the Sabbath. So the Jews said to the man who 10 
had been cured : 

" This is the Sabbath ; you must not carry your mat." 

" The man who cured me," he answered, " said to me 'Take n 
up your mat and walk about.' " 

" Who was it," they asked, " that said to you ' Take up your 12 
mat and walk about ' ? " 

But the man who had been restored did not know who it 13 
was ; for Jesus had moved away, because there was a crowd 
there. Afterwards Jesus found the man in the Temple 14 

Courts, and said to him : 

" You are cured now ; do not sin again, for fear that some- 
thing worse may befall you." 

The man went away, and told the Jews that it was Jesus who 15 
had cured him. And that was why the Jews began to perse- 16 
cute Jesus because he did things of this kind on the Sabbath. 
But Jesus replied : 17 

" My Father works to this very hour, and I 

Jesus defends i t j> 

his Action work also." 

and explains This made the Jews all the more eager to kill him, 18 
hi* Mission, because not only was he doing away with the 
Sabbath, but he actually called God his own Father putting 
himself on an equality with God. So Jesus made this 19 

further reply : 

" In truth I tell you, the Son can do nothing of himself; he 
does only what he sees the Father doing ; whatever the Father 
does, the Son does also. For the Father loves his Son, and 20 
shows him everything that he is doing ; and he will show 
him still greater things so that you will be filled with wonder. 
For, just as the Father raises the dead and gives them Life, so 21 
also the Son gives Life to whom he pleases. The Father him- 22 
self does not judge any man, but has ' entrusted the work of 
judging entirely to his Son,' so that all men may honour the 23 
Son, just as they honour the Father. He who does not honour 
the Son fails to honour the Father who sent him. In 24 

truth I tell you that he who listens to my Message and believes 
him who sent me, has Immortal Life, and does not come under 
condemnation, but has already passed out of Death into Life. 
In truth I tell you that a time is coming, indeed it is already 25 
here, when the Dead will listen to the voice of the Son of God, 
and when those who listen will live. For, just as the Father 26 
has inherent Life within him, so also he has granted to the Son 
to have inherent Life within him ; and, because he is Son of 27 
Man, he has also given him authority to act as judge. Do not 28 
wonder at this ; for the time is coming when all who are in 
their graves will hear his voice, and will come out those 29 
who have done good rising to Life, and those who have lived 
evil lives rising for condemnation. I can do nothing 30 

- Enoch 69. aj. 

JOHN, 5-6. 175 

of myself; I judge as I am taught ; and the judgement that 
I give is just, because my aim is not to do my own will, but 
the will of him who sent me. 

If I bear testimony to myself, my testimony is not trust- 31 
worthy ; it is another who bears testimony to me, and I know 32 
that the testimony which he bears to me is trustworthy. You 33 
have yourselves sent to John, and he has testified to the Truth. 
But the testimony which I receive is not from man ; I am say- 34 
ing this for your Salvation. He was the ' Lamp that was 35 
burning ' and shining, and you were ready to rejoice, for a 
time, in his light. But the testimony which I have is of 36 
greater weight than John's ; for the work that the Father has 
given me to carry out the work that I am doing is in itself 
proof that the Father has sent me as his Messenger. The 37 
Father who has sent me has himself borne testimony to me. 
You have neither listened to his voice, nor seen his form ; and 38 
you have not taken his Message home to your hearts, because 
you do not believe him whom he sent as his Messenger. You 39 
search the Scriptures, because you think that you find in them 
Immortal Life ; and, though it is those very Scriptures that 
bear testimony to me, you refuse to come to me to have 40 
Life. I do not receive honour from men, but I know 41, 

this of you, that you have not the love of God in your hearts. I 43 
have come in my Father's name, and you do not receive me ; if 
another comes in his own name, you will receive him. How 44 
can you believe in me, when you receive honour from one 
another and do not desire the honour which comes from the 
only God ? Do not think that I shall accuse you to the 45 
Father ; your accuser is Moses, on whom you have been 
resting your hopes. For, had you believed Moses, you would 46 
have believed me, for it was of me that Moses wrote ; but, if 47 
you do not believe his writings, how will you believe my 
teaching ? " 

After this, Jesus crossed the Sea of Galilee i 
J v e e 8 tho^ l *d otherwise called the Lake of Tiberias. A great 2 
by the Lake crowd of people, however, followed him, because 
of -Gai i ieo. th ev saw t ne signs of his mission in his work 
among those who were afflicted. Jesus went up the hill, 3 
and sat down there with his disciples. It was near the time 4 
of the Jewish Festival of the Passover. Looking up, and 5 
noticing that a great crowd was coming towards him, Jesus 
said to Philip : 

" Where are we to buy bread for these people to eat? " 
He said this to test him, for he himself knew what he meant 6 
to do. 

85 Ecclesiasticus 48. i. 

176 JOHN, 6. 

" Twenty pounds' worth of bread," answered Philip, " would 7 
pot be enough for each of them to have a little. " 

" There is a boy here," said Andrew, another of his disciples, 8 
Simon Peter's brother, "who has five barley loaves and two 9 
fishes ; but what is that for so many ? " 

" Make the people sit down," said Jesus. ic 

It was a grassy spot ; so the men, who numbered about five 
thousand, sat down, and then Jesus took the loaves, and, after 11 
saying the thanksgiving, distributed them to those who were 
sitting down ; and the same with the fish, giving the people as 
much as they wanted. When they were satisfied, Jesus said 12 
to his disciples : 

"Collect the broken pieces that are left, so that nothing 
may be wasted." 

The disciples did so, and filled twelve baskets with the n 
pieces of the five barley loaves, which were left after all had 

When the people saw the signs which Jesus gave, they said : 14 

" This is certainly ' the Prophet who was to come ' into the 

But Jesus, having discovered that they were intending to come it 
and carry him off to make him King, retired again up the 
hill, quite alone. 

JCBUS When evening fell, his disciples went down it 

walks on the to the Sea, and, getting into a boat, began to i' t 

water. cross to Capernaum. By this time darkness had 
set in, and Jesus had not yet come back to them ; the Sea, li 
too, was getting rough, for a strong wind was blowing. 
When they had rowed three or four miles, they caught sight 
of him walking on the water and approaching the boat, and 
they were frightened. But Jesus said to them : 

" It is I ; do not be afraid ! " 

And after this they were glad to take him into the boat ; and 
the boat at once arrived off the shore, for which they had been 

Je . u . The people who remained on the further side 

teaches at of the Sea had seen that only one boat had been 

Capernaum, there, and that Jesus had not got into it with his 

The Bread or disciples, but that they had left without him. 

Llf *- Some boats, however, had come from Tiberias, 

from near the spot where they had eaten the bread after the 

Master had said the thanksgiving. So, on the next day, when 

the people saw that Jesus was not there, or his disciples either, 

they themselves got into the boats, and went to Capernaum to 

look for him. And, when they found him on the other side of 

the Sea, they said : 

" When did you get here, Rabbi ? " 

" Deut. 1 8. 15; Pi. 118. 26. 

JOHN, 6. 177 

" In truth I tell you," answered Jesus, " it is not on account 26 
of the signs which you saw that you are looking for me, but 
because you had the bread to eat and were satisfied. Work, 27 
not for the food that perishes, but for the food that lasts 
for Immortal Life, which the Son of Man will give you ; 
for upon him the Father God himself has set the seal of 
his approval." 

"How," they asked, "are we to do the work that God 28 
would have us do ? " 

" The work that God would have you do," answered Jesus, 29 
"is to believe in him whom God sent as his Messenger." 

" What sign, then," they asked, " are you giving, which we 30 
may see, and so believe you ? What is the work that you are 
doing ? Our ancestors had the manna to eat in the desert ; as 31 
Scripture says 

' He gave them bread from Heaven to eat.' " 

"In truth I tell you," replied Jesus, "Moses did not give 32 
you the Bread from Heaven, but my Father does give you the 
true Bread from Heaven ; for the Bread that God gives is that 33 
which comes down from Heaven, and gives Life to the world." 

" Master," they exclaimed, " give us that Bread always ! " 34 

"I am the Life-giving Bread," Jesus said to them; "he 35 
that comes to me shall never be hungry, and he that believes 
in me shall never thirst again. But, as I have said already, 36 
you have seen me, and yet you do not believe in me. All 37 

those whom the Father gives me will come to me ; and no one 
who comes to me will I ever turn away. For I have come down 38 
from Heaven, to do, not my own will, but the will of him who 
sent me ; and his will is this that I should not lose one of all 39 
those whom he has given me, but should raise them up at the 
Last Day. For it is the will of my Father that every one who 40 
sees the Son, and believes in him, should have Immortal Life ; 
and I myself will raise him up at the Last Day." 

Upon this the Jews began murmuring against Jesus for 41 
saying ' I am the Bread which came down from Heaven.' 

" Is not this Jesus, Joseph's son," they asked, " whose father 42 
and mother we know ? How is it that he now says that he 
has come down from Heaven ? " 

" Do not murmur among yourselves," said Jesus in reply. 43 
" No one can come to me, unless the Father who sent me 44 
draws him to me ; and I will raise him up at the Last Day. 
It is said in the Prophets 45 

' And they shall all be taught by God.' 

Every one who is taught by the Father and learns from him 
comes to me. Not that any one has seen the Father, except him 46 

81 Exod. 16. 4, 15. *" Isa. 54. 13. 

178 JOHN, 6. 

who is from God he has seen the Father. In truth I tell you, 
he who believes in me has Immortal Life. I am the Life-giving 
Bread. Your ancestors ate the manna in the desert, and 
yet died. The Bread that comes down from Heaven is such 
that whoever eats of it will never die. I am the Living Bread 
that has come down from Heaven. If any one eats of this 
Bread, he will live for ever ; and the Bread that I shall give is 
my flesh, which I will give for the Life of the world." 

Upon this the Jews began disputing with one another : 

" How is it possible for this man to give us his flesh to 
eat ? " 

" In truth I tell you," answered Jesus, " unless you eat the 
flesh of the Son of Man, and drink his blood, you have not 
Life within you. He who takes my flesh for liis food, and 
drinks my blood, has Immortal Life ; and I will raise him up 
at the Last Day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood true 
drink. He who takes my flesh for his food, and drinks my 
blood, remains united to me, and I to him. As the Living 
Father sent me as his Messenger, and as I live because 
the Father lives, so he who takes me for his food shall live 
because I live. That is the Bread which has come down from 
Heaven not such as your ancestors ate, and yet died ; he 
who takes this Bread for his food shall live for ever." 
All this Jesus said in a Synagogue, when he was teaching in 

On hearing it, many of his disciples said : 

" This is harsh doctrine ! Who can bear to listen to it ? " 
But Jesus, aware that his disciples were murmuring about it, 
said to them : 

" Is this a hindrance to you? What, then, if you should see 
the Son of Man ascending where he was before? It is the 
Spirit that gives Life ; mere flesh is of no avail. In the teach- 
ing that I have been giving you there is Spirit and there is 
Life. Yet there are some of you who do not believe in me." 
For Jesus knew from the first who they were that did not 
believe in him, and who it was that would betray him ; and he 
added : 

" This is why I told you that no one can come to me, unless 
enabled by the Father. 

After this many of his disciples drew back, and did not go 
about with him any longer. So Jesus said to the 

Twelve : 

" Do you also wish to leave me ? " 

But Simon Peter answered : " Master, to whom shall we 
go? Immortal Life is in your teaching ; and we have learnt 
to believe and to know that you are the Holy One of God." 

" Did not I myself choose you to be the Twelve?" replied 
Jesus ; "and yet, even of you, one is playing the ' Devil's' part." 
P. 16. io. W Esther 7. 4. . 

JOHN, 6-7. 179 

He meant Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot, who was about to 71 
betray him, though he was one of the Twelve. 

Jesus and After this, Jesus went about in Galilee, for he i 
his would not do so in Judaea, because the Jews 

Brothers. we re eager to put him to death. When the 2 
Jewish Festival of Tabernacles was near, his brothers said to 3 

"Leave this part of the country, and go into Judaea, so 
that your disciples, as well as we, may see the work that you 
are doing. For no one does a thing privately, if he is seeking 4 
to be widely known. Since you do these things, you should 
show yourself publicly to the world." 
For even his brothers did not believe in him. 5 

"My time," answered Jesus, "is not come yet, but your 6 
time is always here. The world cannot hate you, but it does 7 
hate me, because I testify that its ways are evil. Go yourselves 8 
up to the Festival ; I am not going to this Festival yet, because 
my time has not yet come." 
After telling them this, he stayed on in Galilee. 9 

But, when his brothers had gone up to the Festival, Jesus 10 
also went up not publicly, but privately. The Jews were n 
looking for him at the Festival and asking 'Where is he?'; and 12 
there were many whispers about him among the people, some 
saying ' He is a good man ; ' others : ' No ! he is leading 
the people astray.' 
No one, however, spoke freely about him, for fear of the Jews. 13 

About the middle of the Festival week, Jesus 14 
at the Festival went up into the Temple Courts, and began. 
of Tabernacles teaching. The Jews were astonished. 15 

in Jerusalem. " How has this man got his learning," they 
asked, " when he has never studied ? " 
So, in reply, Jesus said : 16 

" My teaching is not my own ; it is his who sent me. If 17 
any one has the will to do God's will, he will find out whether 
my teaching is from God, or whether I speak on my own 
authority. The man who speaks on his own authority seeks 18 
honour for himself; but the man who seeks the honour of him 
that sent him is sincere, and there is nothing false in him. 
Was not it Moses who gave you the Law ? Yet not one of you 19 
obeys it ! Why are you seeking to put me to death ? " 

' ' You must be possessed by a demon ! " the people exclaimed. 20 
" Who is seeking to put you to death ? " 

" There was one thing I did," replied Jesus, " at which you 21 
are all still wondering. But that is why Moses has instituted . 22 

180 JOHN, 7 

circumcision among you not, indeed, that it began with him, 
but with our ancestors and that is why you circumcise 
even on a Sabbath. When a man receives circumcision on a 23 
Sabbath to prevent the Law of Moses from being broken, how 
can you be angry with me for making a man sound and well 
on a Sabbath ? Do not judge by appearances ; judge justly." 24 

At this some of the people of Jerusalem exclaimed : 25 

" Is not this the man that they are seeking to put to death ? 
Yet here he is, speaking out boldly, and they say nothing to 26 
him ! Is it possible that our leading men have really dis- 
covered that he is the Christ ? Yet we know where this man 27 
is from f but, when the Christ comes, no one will be able to tell 
where he is from." 

Therefore, Jesus, as he was teaching in the Temple Courts, 28 
raised his voice and said : 

" Yes ; you know me, and you know where I am from. Yet 
I have not come on my own authority, but he who sent me may 
be trusted ; and him you do not know. I do know him, for it is 29 
from him that I have come, and he sent me as his Messenger." 
So they sought to arrest him ; but no one touched him, for his 30 
time was not come yet. Many of the people, however, 31 

believed in him. 

"When the Christ comes," they said, "will he give more 
signs of his mission than this man has given ? " 

The Pharisees heard the people whispering about him in this 32 
way, and so the Chief Priests and the Pharisees sent officers 
to arrest him ; on which Jesus said : 33 

" I shall be with you but a little longer, and then I am going 
to him who sent me. You will look for me, and you will not 34 
find me ; and you will not be able to come where I shall be." 

"Where is this man going," the Jews asked one another, 35 
" that we shall not find him ? Will he go to our countrymen 
abroad, and teach foreigners ? What does he mean by saying 36 
' You will look for me, and you will not find me ; and you 
will not be able to come where I shall be ' ? " 

The 'Living On the last and greatest day of the Festival, 37 
water.' Jesus, who was standing by, exclaimed : 

" If any one thirsts, let him come to me, and drink. He 38 

who believes in me As Scripture says, Out of his heart 

shall flow rivers of ' Living Water.' " 

(By this he meant the Spirit, which those who had believed in 39 
him were to receive ; for the Spirit had not yet come, because 
Jesus had not yet been exalted.) Some of the people, 40 

when they heard these words, said : 

" This is certainly ' the Prophet ' ! " ; others said : " This is 41 
the Christ ! " ; but some asked : 

" What ! does the Christ come from Galilee ? Is not it said 42 

Jer. a. 13 ; Enoch 17, 4. Deut. 18. 15. * Pa. a. a. P. 89. 34 ; Mic. 5. a. 

JOHN, 78. 181 

in Scripture that it is of the race of David, and from Bethlehem, 
the village to which David belonged, that the Christ is to 
come ? " 

So there was a sharp division among the people en account of 43 
Jesus. Some of them wanted to arrest him, and yet no one 44 
touched him. 

When the officers returned to the Chief Priests and Pharisees, 45 
they were asked : 

" Why have you not brought him ? " 

" No man ever spoke as he speaks ! " they answered. 46 

"What! have you been led astray too?" the Pharisees 47 
replied. " Have any of our leading men believed in him, or 48 
any of the Pharisees ? As for these people who do not know 49 
the Law they are cursed ! " 

But one of their number, Nicodemus, who before this had 50 
been to see Jesus, said to them : 

"Does our Law pass judgement on a man without first giving 51 
him a hearing, and finding out what he has been doing ? " 

" Are you also from Galilee ?" they retorted. " Search, and 52 
you will find that no Prophet is to arise in Galilee ! " 

The 'Light Jesus again addressed the people. *ia ; 

of "I am the Light of the World," he said. He 

the world. 1 w ] lo follows me shall not walk in darkness, but 
shall have the Light of Life." 

"You are bearing testimony to yourself !" exclaimed the 13 
Pharisees, "your testimony is not trustworthy." 

" Even if I bear testimony to myself," answered Jesus, " my 14 
testimony is trustworthy ; for I know where I came from, and 
where I am going ; but you do not know where I come from, nor 
where I. am going. You judge by appearances ; I judge no one. 15 
Yet, even if I were to judge, my judgement would be trust- 16 
worthy ; because I am not alone, but the Father who sent me 
is with me. Why, in your own Law it is said that the testi- 17 
mony of two persons is trustworthy. I, who bear testimony 18 
to myself, am one, and the Father who sent me also bears 
testimony to me." 

"Where is your father, then ? " they asked. 19 

"You know neither me nor my Father," replied Jesus. " If 
you had known me, you would have also known my Father." 

These statements Jesus made in the Treasury, while teach- 20 
ing in the Temple Courts. Yet no one arrested him, for his 
time had not then come. defends J eSUS a S^ n s P oke to the People. 21 

his Mission "I am going away," he said, "and you will 
and Authority. ] oo k f or m6) but vou w jn die i n your sin ; you 
cannot come where I am going." 

17 Deut. 17. 6. * (See page 210). 

182 JOHN, 8. 

" Is he going to kill himself," the Jews exclaimed, " that he 22 
says ' You cannot go where I am going ' ? " 

"You," added Jesus, "are from below, I am from above ; 23 
you are of this present world, I am not ; and so I told you that 24 
you would die in your sins, for, unless you believe that I am 
what I am, you will die in your sins." 

" Who are you ? " they asked. 25 

"Why ask exactly what I have been telling you?" said 
Jesus. " I have still much that concerns you to speak of and 26 
to pass judgement on ; yet he who sent me may be trusted, 
and I speak to the world only of the things which I have heard 
from him." 

They did not understand that he meant the Father. So Jesus 27, 
added : 

"When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will 
understand that I am what I am, and that I do nothing of 
myself, but that I say just what the Father has taught me. 
Moreover, he who sent me is with me ; he has not left me 29 
alone ; for I always do what pleases him. " 

While he was speaking in this way, many came to believe in 30 

So Jesus went on to say to those Jews who had believed him : 31 

" If you remain constant to my Message, you are truly my 
disciples ; and you shall find out the Truth, and the Truth will 32 
set you free." 

"We are descendants of Abraham," was their answer, " and 33 
have never yet been in slavery to any one. What do you mean 
by saying ' you will be set free ' ? " 

" In truth I tell you," replied Jesus, "every one who sins is a 34 
slave to sin. And a slave does not remain in the home always ; 35 
but a son remains always. If, then, the Son sets you free, you 36 
will be free indeed ! I know that you are descendants of 37 
Abraham ; yet you are seeking to put me to death, because my 
Message finds no place in your hearts. I tell you what I 38 
have myself seen in the presence of my Father ; and you, in 
the same way, do what you have learnt from your father." 

" Our father is Abraham," was their answer. 39 

" If you are Abraham's children," replied Jesus, "do what 
Abraham did. But, as it is, you are seeking to put me to 40 
death a man who has told you the Truth as he heard it from 
God. Abraham did not act in that way. You are doing what 41 
your own father does. " 

"We are not bastards," they said, "we have one Father 
God himself." 

" If God were your Father," Jesus replied, "you would have 42 
loved me, for I came out from God, and now am here ; and I 
have not come of myself, but he sent me as his Messenger. 
How is it that you do not understand what I say? It is because 43 
you cannot bear to listen to my Message. As for you, you are 44 

JOHN, 8-9. 183 

children of your father the Devil, and you are determined to do 
what your father loves to do. He was a murderer from the 
first, and did not stand by the truth, because there is no truth 
in him. Whenever he lies, he does what is natural to him ; 
because he is a liar, and the father of lying. But, as for me, 45 
it is because I speak the truth to you that you do not believe 
me. Which of you can convict me of sin ? Why then do not 46 
you believe me, if I am speaking truth ? He who comes from 47 
God listens to God's teaching ; the reason why you do not 
listen is because you do not come from God. " 

"Are not we right, after all," replied the Jews, "in saying 48 
that you are a Samaritan, and are possessed by a demon ? " 

"I am not possessed by a demon," Jesus answered, "but 49 
I am showing reverence for my Father ; and yet you have 
no reverence for me. Not that I am seeking honour for 50 
myself; there is one who is seeking my honour, and he 
decides. In truth I tell you, if any one lays my 51 

Message to heart, he will never really die." 

" Now we are sure that you are possessed by a demon," the 52 
Jews replied. "Abraham died, and so did the Prophets ; and 
yet you say ' If any one lays my Message to heart, he will never 
know death.' Are you greater than our ancestor Abraham, 53 
who died ? And the Prophets died too. Whom do you make 
yourself out to be ? " 

" If I do honour to myself," answered Jesus, " such honour 54 
counts for nothing. It is my Father who does me honour 
and you say that he is your God ; and yet you have not learnt 55 
to know him ; but I know him ; and, if I were to say that I do 
not know him, I should be a liar like you ; but I do know him, 
and I lay his Message to heart. Your ancestor Abraham rejoiced 56 
that he would see my day ; and he did see it, and was glad. " 

" You are not fifty years old yet," the Jews exclaimed, "and 57 
have you seen Abraham ? " 

"In truth I tell you/? replied Jesus, "before Abraham 58 
existed I was." 

At this they took up stones to throw at him ; but Jesus hid him- 59 
self, and left the Temple Courts. 

Jesus As J esus passed by, he saw a man who had i 

cures a. Man been blind from his birth. 

bom blind. Rabbi," asked his disciples, " who was it that 2 
sinned, this man or his parents, that he was born blind ? " 

" Neither the man nor the parents," replied Jesus ; " but he 3 
was born blind that the work of God should be made plain in 
him. We must do the work of him who sent me, while it is 4 
day ; night is coming, when no one can work. As long as I 5 
am in the world, I am the Light of the world." 
Saying this, Jesus spat on the ground, made clay with the 6 
saliva, and put it on the man's eyes. 

184 JOHN, 9. 

" Go," he said, " and wash your eyes in the Bath of Siloam " 7 
(a word which means ' Messenger '). So the man went and 
washed his eyes, and returned able to see. 

Upon this his neighbours, and those who had formerly 8 
known him by sight as a beggar, exclaimed : 

" Is not this the man who used to sit and beg ? " 

"Yes," some said, " it is " ; while others said : " No, but he 9 
is like him." 
The man himself said : "I am he." 

" How did you get your sight, then ? " they asked. 10 

"The man whom they call Jesus," he answered, "made n 
clay, and anointed my eyes, and said to me ' Go to Siloam arid 
wash your eyes.' So I went and washed my eyes, and gained 
my sight." 

" Where is he ? " they asked. 12 

" I do not know," he answered. 

They took the man, who had been blind, to the Pharisees. 13 
Now it was a Sabbath when Jesus made the clay and gave 14 
him his sight. So the Pharisees also questioned the man as 15 
to how he had gained his sight. 

" He put clay on my eyes," he answered, "and I washed 
them, and I can see." 

' ' The man cannot be from God, " said some of the Pharisees, 16 
" for he does not keep the Sabbath." 

" How is it possible," retorted others, " for a bad man to give 
signs like this ? " 

So there was a difference of opinion among them, and they 17 
again questioned the man : 

" What do you yourself say about him, for it is to you that he 
has given sight ? 

" He is a Prophet," the man replied. 

The Jews, however, refused to believe that he had been 18 
blind and had gained his sight^^|^^hey had called his parents 
and questioned them. ^^^BBk. 

" Is this your son," they asker^H^io ;, you say was born 19 
blind ? If so, how is it that he can see now ? " 

"We know that this is our son," answered the parents, 20 
"and that he was born Wind ; but how it is that he can see 21 
now we do not know ; nor do we know who it was that gave 
him his sight. Ask him he is old enough he will tell you 
about himself." 

His parents spoke in this way because they were afraid of the 22 
Jews ; for the Jews had already agreed that, if any one should 
acknowledge Jesus as the Chnst, he should be expelled from 
their synagogues. This was why his parents said ' He is old 23 
enough ; ask him.' So the Jews again called the man 24 

who had been blind, and said to him : 

" Give God the praise ; we know that this is a bad man." 

" I know nothing about his being a bad man," he replied ; 25 

JOHN, 910. 185 

"one thing I do know, that although I was blind, now I can 
see. " 

" What did he do to you ? " they asked. " How did he give 26 
you your sight ? " 

" I told you just now," he answered, "and you did not listen. 27 
Why do you want to hear it again ? Surely you also do not 
want to become his disciples ? " 

"You are his disciple," they retorted scornfully; "but we 28 
are disciples of Moses. We know that God spoke to Moses ; 29 
but, as for this man, we do not know where he comes from." 

" Well," the man replied, " this is very strange ; you do not 30 
know where he comes from, and yet he has given me my sight ! 
We know that God never listens to bad men, but, when a man 31 
is god-fearing and does God's will, God listens to him. Since 32 
the world began, such a thing was never heard of as any one's 
giving sight to a person born blind. If this man had not been 33 
from God, he could not have done anything at all." 

" You," they retorted, " were born totally depraved ; and are 34 
you trying to teach us ? " 
So they expelled him. 

Jesus heard of their having put him out ; and, when he had 35 
found the man, he asked : 

" Do you believe in the Son of Man ? " 

" Tell me who he is, Sir," he replied, " so that I may believe 36 
in him." 

' ' Not only have you seen him, " said Jesus ; ' ' but it is he who 37 
is now speaking to you." 

"Then, Sir, I do believe," said the man, bowing to the 38 
ground before him ; and Jesus added : 39 

" It was to put men to the test that I came into this world, 
in order that those that cannot see should see, and that those 
that can see should become blind." 
Hearing this, some of the Pharisees who were with him said : 40 

" Then are we blind too ? " 

"If you had been blind," replied Jesus, "you would have 41 
had no sin to answer for ; but, as it is, you say ' We can see,' 
and so your sin remains. 

The 'Good 1 truth I tell you, whoever does not go into i 

shepherd. 1 the sheepfold through the door, but climbs up at 
some other place, that man is a thief and a robber ; but 2 
the man who goes in through the door is shepherd to the 
sheep. For him the watchman opens the door ; and the sheep 3 
listen to his voice ; and he calls his own sheep by name, and 
leads them out. When he has brought them all out, he walks 4 
in front of them, and his sheep follow him, because they know 
his voice. They will not follow a stranger, but will run away 5 
from him ; because they do not know a stranger's voice." 

This was the allegory that Jesus told them, but they did not 6 
understand of what he was speaking. 

186 JOHN, 10. 

So he continued : 

" In truth I tell you, I am the Door for the sheep. All who 
came before me were thieves and robbers ; but the sheep did not 
listen to them. I am the Door ; he who goes in through me will 
be safe, and he will go in and out and find pasture. The thief 
comes only to steal, to kill, and to destroy ; I have come that they 
may have Life, and may have it in greater fulness. I 

am the Good Shepherd. The Good Shepherd lays down his 
life for his sheep. The hired man who is not a shepherd, and 
who does not own the sheep, when he sees a wolf coming, 
leaves them and runs away ; then the wolf seizes them, and 
scatters the flock. He does this because he is only a hired 
man and does not care about the sheep. I am the Good 
Shepherd ; and I know my sheep, and my sheep know 
me just as the Father knows me and I know the Father 
and I lay down my life for the sheep. I have other sheep 
besides, which do not belong to this fold ; I must lead them 
also, and they will listen to my voice ; and they shall become 
one flock under ' one Shepherd.' This is why the Father loves 
me, because I lay down my life to receive it again. Np 
one took it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have 
authority to lay it down, and I have authority to receive it 
again. This is the command which I received from my 

In consequence of these words a difference of opinion agai-n 
arose among the Jews. Many of them said : " He is possessed 
by a demon and is mad ; why do you listen to him ? " Others 
'said : " This is not the teaching of one who is possessed by a 
demon. Can a demon give sight to the blind ? " 

josua at tho Soon after this the Festival of the Re-dedication 
Re-dedication was held at Jerusalem. It was winter; and Jesus 

Festival. was W alking in the Temple Courts, in the Colon- 
nade of Solomon, when the Jews gathered round him, and said : 

" How long are you going to keep us in suspense? If you 
are the Christ, tell us so frankly." 

" I have told you so," replied Jesus, " and you do not believe 
me. The work that I am doing in my Father's name bears 
testimony to me. But you do not believe me, because you are 
not of my flock. My sheep listen to my voice ; I know them, 
and they follow me; and I give them Immortal Life, and they 
shall not be lost ; nor shall anyone snatch them out of my hands. 
What my Father has entrusted to me is more than all else ; 
and no one can snatch anything out of the Father's hands. 
The Father and I are one. 

The Jews again brought stones to throw at him ; and seeing 
this, Jesus said : 

8 Ps. 1 18. a6. * Ezek. 34. 33. , Mace. 4. 59. 

JOHN, 1011. 187 

" I have done before your eyes many good actions, inspired 
by the Father ; for which of them would you stone me ? " 

"It is not for any good action that we would stone you," 33 
answered the Jews, " but for blasphemy ; and because you, who 
are only a man, make yourself out to be God. " 

" Are there not," replied Jesus, " these words in your Law 34 
'I said " Ye are gods " ' ? 

If those to whom God's words were addressed were said to be 35 
' gods ' and Scripture cannot be set aside do you say of one 36 
whom the Father has consecrated and sent as his Messenger to 
the world ' You are blaspheming,' because I said ' I am God's 
Son '? If I am not doing the work that my Father is doing, 37 
do not believe me ; but, if I am doing it, even though you do 38 
not believe me, believe what that work shows ; so that you may 
understand, and understand more and more clearly, that the 
Father is in union with me, and I with the Father." 
Upon this the Jews again sought to arrest him ; but he escaped 39 
their hands. 

Jesus retires Then Jesus again crossed the Jordan to the 40 
beyond the place where John used to baptize at first, and 

Jordan. stayed there some time, during which many 41 
people came to see him. 

"John gave no sign of his mission," they said ; "but every- 
thing that he said about this man was true." 
And many learnt to believe in Jesus there. 42 

Now a man named Lazarus, of Bethany, was i \; 
Lfuaru^t' to* b~ m l? ^' ! ne belonged to the same village as 
Life at Mary and her sister Martha. This Mary, whose 2 

Bethany, brother Lazarus was ill, was the Mary who 
anointed the Master with perfume, and wiped his feet with 
her hair. The sisters, therefore, sent this message to Jesus 3 
' Master, your friend is ill ' ; and, when Jesus heard it, he 4 
said : 

' This illness is not to end in death, but is to redound to the 
honour of God, in order that the Son of God may be honoured 
through it." 

Jesus loved Martha and her sister, and Lazarus. Yet, 5, 6 
when he heard of the illness of Lazarus, he still stayed 
two days in the place where he was. Then, after that, he said 7 
to his disciples : 

" Let us go to Judaea again." 

" Rabbi," they replied, " the Jews were but just now seeking 8 
to stone you ; and are you going there again ? " 

"Are not there twelve hours in the day?" answered Jesus. 9 
" If a man walks about in the day-time, he does not stumble, 

* Ps. 82. 6. 

188 JOHN, 11. 

because he can see the light of the sun ; but, if he walks about to 

at night, he stumbles, because he has not the light." 

And, when he had said this, he added : n 

" Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep ; but I am going that 
I may wake him. " 

"If he has fallen asleep, Master, he will get well," said the 12 

But Jesus meant that he was dead ; they, however, supposed 13 
that he was speaking of natural sleep. Then he said to them 14 
plainly : 

" Lazarus is dead ; and I am glad for your sakes that I was 15 
not there, so that you may learn to believe in me. But let us 
go to him." 

At this, Thomas, who was called 'The Twin,' said to his 16 
fellow-disciples : 

" Let us go too, so that we may die with him." 

When Jesus reached the place, he found that Lazarus had 17 
been four days in the tomb already. Bethany being only about 18 
two miles from Jerusalem, a number of the Jews had come 19 
there to condole with Martha and Mary on their brother's 
death. When Martha heard that Jesus was coming, she went 20 
to meet him ; but Mary sat quietly at home. 

" Master," Martha said to Jesus, " if you had been here, my 21 
brother would not have died. Even now, I know that God 22 
will grant you whatever you ask him." 

" Your brother shall rise to life," said Jesus. 23 

" I know that he will," replied Martha, " in the resurrection 24 
at the Last Day." 

"I am the Resurrection and the Life," said Jesus. "He 25 
that believes in me shall live, though he die ; and he who 26 
lives and believes in me shall never die. Do you believe 
this? ' 

' Ves Master," she answered ; "I have learnt to believe 27 
that you are the Christ, the Son of God, 'who was to come' 
into the world." 

After saying this, Martha went and called her sister Mary, 28 
and whispered : 

" The Teacher is here, and is asking for you." 
As soon as Mary heard that, she got up quickly, and went to 29 
meet him. Jesus had not then come into the village, but was 30 
still at the place where Martha nad met him. So the Jews, who 31 
were in the house with Mary, condoling with her, when they 
saw her get up quickly and go out, followed her, thinking that 
she was going to the tomb ki weep there. When Mary came 32 
where Jesus was and saw him, she threw herself at his feet. 

"Master," she exclaimed, "if you had been here, my 
.brother would not have died ! " 
When Jesus saw her weeping, and the Jews who had come 33 

7Ps. 118. a6. 

JOHN, 11. 189 

with her weeping also, he groaned deeply, and was greatly 

" Where have you buried him ? " he asked. 34 

"Come and see, Master," they answered. 

Jesus burst into tears. 35 

"How he must have loved him!" the Jews exclaimed; 36 

but some of them said : 37 

" Could not this man, who gave sight to the blind man, have 
also prevented Lazarus from dying ? " 

Again groaning inwardly, Jesus came to the tomb. It was 38 
a cave, and a stone lay against the mouth of it. 

" Move the stone away," said Jesus. 39 

" Master," said Martha, the sister of the dead man, " by this 
time the smell must be offensive, for this is the fourth day 
since his death." 

"Did not I tell you," replied Jesus, "that, if you would 40 
believe in me, you should see the glory of God ? " 
So they moved the stone away ; and Jesus, with uplifted eyes, 41 
said : 

" Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard 
my prayer ; I knew that thou always hearest 42 

me ; but I say this for the sake of the people 
standing near, so that they may believe that 
thou hast sent me as thy Messenger." 

Then, after saying this, Jesus called in a loud voice : 43 

" Lazarus ! come out ! " 

The dead man came out, wrapped hand and foot in a winding- 44 
sheet ; his face, too, had been wrapped in a cloth. 

" Set him free," said Jesus, " and let him go." 

In consequence of this, many of the Jews, who had come to 45 
visit Mar)' and had seen what Jesus did, learnt to believe in 
him. Some of them, however, went to the Pharisees, and 46 
told them what he had done. 

Upon this the Chief Priests and the Pharisees 47 
Ohief Priest* called a meeting of the High Council, and said : 
plot the Death "What are we to do, now that this man is 

or Jesus, giving so many signs ? If we let him alone as we 48 
are doing, every one will believe in him ; and the Romans will 
come and will take from us both our City and our Nationality." 
One of them, however, Caiaphas, who was High Priest 49 
that year, said to them : 

"You are utterly mistaken. You do not consider that it 50 
is better for you that one man should die for the people, rather 
than that the whole nation should be destroyed." 
Now he did not say this of his own accord ; but, as High Priest 51 

48 Dan. n. 30 (Septuagint Version). 

190 JOHN, 1112. 

that year, he prophesied that Jesus was to die for the nation 
and not for the nation only, but also that he might unite 52 
in one body the Children of God now scattered far and 
wide. So from that day they plotted to put Jesus to 53 


Jesus ^ n conse q uenc e of this, Jesus did not go about 54 

retires to publicly among the Jews any more, but left that 
Ephraim. neighbourhood, and went into the country bor- 
dering on the Wilderness, to a town called Ephraim, where 
he stayed with his disciples. But the Jewish Festival 55 

of the Passover was near ; and many people had gone up 
from the country to Jerusalem, .for their ' purification,' before 
the Festival began. So they looked^ for Jesus there, and said 56 
to one another, as they stood in the Temple Courts : 

"What do you think? Do you think he will come to the 
Festival ? " 

The Chief Priests and the Pharisees had already issued orders 57 
that, if any one learnt where Jesus was, he should give informa- 
tion, so that they might arrest him. 


Six days before the Passover Jesus came to i 
anointed by Bethany, where Lazarus, whom he had raised 

wary from the dead, was living. There a supper was 2 
at Bethany. gi ven \ n \i\ s honour, at which Martha waited, 
while Lazarus was one of those present at the table. So Mary 3 
took a pound of choice spikenard perfume of great value, and 
anointed the feet of Jesus with it, and then wiped them with 
her hair. The whole house was filled with the scent of the 
perfume. One of the disciples, Judas Iscariot, who was about 4 
to betray Jesus, asked : 

"Why was not this perfume sold for thirty pounds, and the 5 
money given to poor people ? " 

He said this, not because he cared for the poor, but because 6 
he was a thief, and, being in charge of the purse, used to take 
what was put in it. 

"Let her alone," said Jesus, "that she may keep it 7 
till the day when .my body is being prepared for burial. The 8 
poor you always have with you, but you will not always have 

Now great numbers of the Jews found out that Jesus was at 9 
Bethany ; and they came there, not solely on his account, but 
also to see Lazarus, whom he had raised from the dead. The 10 
Chief Priests, however, plotted to put Lazarus, as well as Jesus, 
to death, because it was owing to him that many of the Jews n 
had left them, and were becoming believers in Jesus. 

JOHN, 12. 191 

On the following day great numbers of people 12 
Je8U ' n ^ 8 licly who had come to the Festival, hearing that Jesus 
Jerusalem for was on his way to Jerusalem, took palm-branches, 13 
the Last Time. anc j wen t out to meet him, shouting as they went: 

" ' God save Him ! 

Blessed is He who Comes in the name of the Lord ' 
The King of Israel ! " 

Having found a young ass, Jesus seated himself on it, in 14 
accordance with the passage of Scripture 1 

' Fear not, Daughter of Zion ; 15 

Behold, thy King is coming to thee, 
Sitting on the foal of an ass.' 

His disciples did not understand all this at first ; but, when 16 
Jesus had been exalted, then they remembered that these 
things had been said of him in Scripture, and that they had 
done these things for him. Meanwhile the people who 17 

were with him, when he called Lazarus out of the tomb and 
raised him from the dead, .were telling what they had seen. 
This, indeed, was why the crowd met him because people had 18 
heard that he had given this sign of his mission. So the 19 
Pharisees said to one another : 

" You see that you are gaining nothing ! Why, all the world 
has run after him ! " 

Jesus closes Among those who were going up to worship at 20 
his public the Festival were some Greeks, who went to 21 
Ministry. Philip of Bethsaida in Galilee, and said : 
" Sir, we wish to see Jesus." 

Philip went and told Andrew, and then together they went 22 
and told Jesus. This was his reply 23 

"The time has come for the Son of Man to be exalted. In 24 
truth 1 tell you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the ground 
and dies, it remains solitary ; but, if it dies, it becomes fruitful. 
He who loves his lite loses it ; while he who hates his 25 
life in the present world shall preserve it for Immortal 
Life. If a man is ready to serve me, let him follow me ; and 26 
where I am, there my servant shall be also. If a man is ready to 
serve me, my Father will honour him. Now 1 am distressed 27 
at heart and what can I say ? Father, bring me safe through 
this hour yet it was for this very reason that I came to this 
hour Father, honour thine own name." 28 

At this there came a voice from Heaven, which said : 

" I have already honoured it, and I will honour it again." 
The crowd of bystanders, who heard the sound, said that 29 
it was thundering. 
Others said: "An angel has been speaking to him." 

13 PS. 1 1 8. 25, 26. 14-15 Zech. 9. 9. 27 Ps. 42. 0, 

192 JOHN, 12. 

" It was not for my sake that the voice came," said Jesus, 30 
" but for yours. Now this world is on its trial. Now the Spirit 31 
that is ruling this world shall be driven out ; and I, when 32 
I am lifted up from the earth, shall draw all men to myself." 
By these words he indicated what death he was destined to die. 33 

" We," replied the people, " have learnt from the Law that 34 
the 'Christ is to remain for ever'; how is it, then, that you 
say that the Son of Man must be ' lifted up ' ? Who is this 
' Son of Man ' ? " . 

"Only a little while longer," answered Jesus, "will 35 
you have the Light among you. Travel on while you have 
the Light, so that darkness may not overtake you ; he 
who travels in the darkness does not know where he is going. 
While you still have the Light, believe in the Light, that you 36 
may be ' Sons of Light.' " 

After he had said this, Jesus went away, and hid himself from 
them. But, though Jesus had given so many signs of 37 

his mission before their eyes, they still did not believe in him, 
in fulfilment of the words of the Prophet Isaiah, where he 38 

' Lord, who has believed our teaching? 
And to whom has the might of the Lord been revealed ? ' 

The reason why they were unable to believe is given by Isaiah 39 
elsewhere, in these words 

' He has blinded their eyes, and blunted their mind, 40 

So that they should not see with their eyes, and perceive with 
their mind, and turn 

And I should heal them.' 

Isaiah said this, because he saw Christ's glory ; and it was of 41 
him that he spoke. Yet for all this, even among the 42 

leading men there were many who came to believe in Jesus ; 
but, on account of the Pharisees, they did not acknowledge it, 
for fear that they should be expelled from their Synagogues ; for 43 
they valued honour from men more than honour from God. 

But Jesus had proclaimed : 44 

".He who believes in me believes, not in me, but in him who 
sent me ; and he who sees me sees him who sent me. I have 45, 
come as a Light into the world, that no one who believes in me 
should remain in the darkness. When any one hears my teach- 47 
ing^ and pays no heed to it, I am not his judge ; for I came not 
to judge the world, but to save the world. He who rejects me, 48 
and disregards my teaching, has a judge already the very 
Message which I have delivered will itself be his judge at 
the Last Day. For I have not delivered it on my own 49 
authority ; but the Father, who sent me, has himself given 
me his command as to what I should say, and what message 

* Isa. 9. 7 (Aramaic Version). * Enoch 108. n. 88 ISA. 53. i. *> Isa. 6. 10. 
Isa. 6. 13. 

JOHN, 1213. 193 

I should deliver. And I know that Immortal Life lies in keep- 50 
ing his command. Therefore, whatever I say, I say only what 
the Father has taught me." 

Jesus washes Before the Passover Festival began, Jesus knew i j 
the Disciples' that the time had come for him to leave the world 
Feet. an( j g t the Father. He had loved those who 
were his own in the world, and he loved them to the 
last. The Devil had already put the thought of betray- 2 

ing Jesus into the mind of Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon ; 
and at supper, Jesus although knowing that the Father had 3 
put everything into his hands, and that he had come from God, 
and was to return to God rose from his place, and, taking 4 
off his upper garments, tied a towel round his waist. He 5 
then poured some water into the basin, and began to wash 
the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel which 
was tied round him. When he came to Simon Peter, Peter 6 
said : 

"You, Master ! Are you going to wash my feet ? " 
"You do not understand now what I am doing," replied 7 
Jesus, " but you will learn by and by." 

" You shall never wash my feet ! " exclaimed Peter. 8 

"Unless I wash you," answered Jesus, "you have nothing 
in common with me." 

"Then, Master, not my feet only," exclaimed Simon Peter, 9 
" but also my hands and my head." 

"He who has bathed," replied Jesus, "has no need to 10 
wash, unless it be his feet, but is altogether clean ; and 
you," he said to the disciples, "are clean, yet not all of 
you." For he knew who was going to betray him, and that u 
was why he said 'You are not all clean.' When he 12 

had washed their feet, and had put on his upper garments and 
taken his place, he spoke to them again. 

" Do you understand what I have been doing to you? " he 
asked. "You yourselves call me 'the Teacher' and 'the 13 
Master', and you are right, for I am both. If I, then 'the 14 
Master ' and ' the Teacher ' have washed your feet, you also 
ought to wash one another's feet ; for I have given you an 15 
example, so that you may do just as I have done to you. In 16 
truth I tell you, a servant is not greater than his master, nor 
yet a messenger than the man who sends him. Now that you 17 
know these things, happy are you if you do them. I am not 18 
speaking about all of you. I know whom I have chosen ; but 
this is in fulfilment of the words of Scripture 
' ' He that is eating my bread has lifted his heel against me.' 

18 Ps. 41. 9. 


194 JOHN, 13. 

For the future I shall tell you of things before they take place, 19 
so that, when they take place, you may believe that I am what 
I am. In truth I tell you, he who receives any one that I 20 
send receives me ; and he who receives me receives him who 
sent me." 

jesus After saying this, Jesus was much troubled, 21 

points out and said solemnly : 

the Betrayer. " i n truth I tell you that it is one of you who 
will betray me." 

The disciples looked at one another, wondering whom he 22 
meant. Next to Jesus, in the place on his right hand, was 23 
one of his disciples, whom he loved. So Simon Peter made 24 
signs to that disciple, and whispered : 

" Tell me who it is that he means." 

Being in this position, that disciple leant back on Jesus' 25 
shoulder, and asked him : 

"Who is it, Master?" 

" It is the one," answered Jesus, " to whom I shall give a 26 
piece of bread after dipping it in the dish." 
And, when Jesus had dipped the bread, he took it and gave 
it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot : and it was then, after 27 
he had received it, that Satan took possession of him. So 
Jesus said to him : 

" Do at once what you are going to do." 

But no one at table understood why he said this to J udas. Some 28, 
thought that, as Judas kept the purse, Jesus meant that he was 
to buy some things needed for the Festival, or to give some- 
thing to the poor. After taking the piece. <5f bread, Judas 30 
went out immediately ; and it was night. 

. . . When Judas had gone out, Jesus said : 31 

Jesus teaches . > . _ ? 11 1^1 j 

his Disciples Now the Son ot Man has been exalted, and 
privately. G oc j has been exalted through him ; and God will 32 
The New exalt him with himself yes, he will exalt him 
command, forthwith. My children, I am to be with 33 

'"* you but a little while longer. You will look for 

me ; and what I said to the Jews ' You cannot come where 

I am going ' I now say to you. I give you a new command- 34 

ment Love one another ; love one another as I have loved 

you. It is by this that every one will recognize you as my 35 

disciples by your loving one another." 

" Where are you going, Master? " asked Peter. 36 

" I am going where you cannot now follow me," answered 

Jesus, " but you shall follow me later." 

" Why cannot I follow you now, Master? " asked Peter. " I 37 

will lay down my life for you." 

" Will you lay down your life for me ? " replied Jesus. " In 38 

truth I tell you, the cock will not crow till you have disowned 

me three times. 

JOHN, 14. 195 

Do not let your hearts be troubled. Believe in i ; 
e ay * God ; believe also in me. In my Father's Home 2 
there are many dwellings. If it had not been so, I should 
have told you, for I am going to prepare a place for you. And, 3 
since I go and prepare a place for you, I shall return and 
take you to be with me, so that you may be where I am ; and 4 
you know the way to the place where I am going." 

"We do not know where you are going, Master," said 5 
Thomas ; " so how can we know the way ? " 

Jesus answered : " I am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life ; 6 
no one ever comes to the Father except through me. If you 7 
had recognized me, you would have known my Father also ; 
for the future you will recognize him, indeed you have already 
seen him." 

" Master, show us the Father," said Philip, "and we shall 8 
be satisfied." 

" Have I been all this time among you," said Jesus, "and 9 
yet you, Philip, have not recognized me ? He who has 
seen me has seen the Father, how can you say, then, ' Show 
us the Father ' ? Do not you believe that I am in union with 10 
the Father, and the Father with me ? In giving you my teach- 
ing I am not speaking on my own authority ; but the Father 
himself, always in union with me, does his own work. Believe 1 1 
me," he said to them all, "when I say that I am in union 
with the Father and the Father with me, or else believe me 
on account of the work itself. In truth I tell you, 12 

he who believes in me will himself do the work that 
I am doing ; and he will do greater work still, because I 
am going to the Father. Whatever you ask, in my Name, 13 
Twill do, that the Father may he honoured in the Son. If 14 
you ask anything, in my Name, I will do it. 

If you love me, you will lay my commands to 15 
Helper. heart) and j w ; n ask the p at h er , and he will give 16 

you another Helper, to be with you always the Spirit of 17 
Truth. The world cannot receive this Spirit, because it does 
not see him or recognize him, but you recognize him, because 
he is always with you, and is within you. I will not 18 

leave you bereaved ; I will come to you. In a little while the 19 
world will see me no more, but you will still see me ; because 
I am living, you will be living also. At that time you will 20 
recognize that I am in union with the Father, and you with 
me, and I with you. It is he who has my commands and 21 
lays them to heart that loves me ; and he who loves me will be 
loved by my Father, and I will love him, and will reveal my- 
self to him." 

"What has happened, Master," said Judas (not Judas 22 
Iscariot), "that you are going to reveal yourself to us, and 
not to the world ? " 

2 Enoch 39. 4. 

196 JOHN, 14-15. 

" Whoever loves me," Jesus answered, "will lay my Message 23 
to heart ; and my Father will love him, and we will come to 
him and make our dwelling with him. He who does not 24 
love me will not lay my Message to heart ; and the Message 
to which you are listening is not my own, but that of the 
Father who sent me. 

I have told you all this while still with you, but the Helper 25, 
the Holy Spirit whom the Father will send in my Name 
he will teach you all things, and will recall to your minds all 
that I have said to you. Peace be with you ! My own 27 

peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. 
Do not let your hearts be troubled, or dismayed. You heard 28 
me say that I was going away and would return to you. Had 
you loved me, you would have been glad-that I was going to the 
Father, because the Father is greater than I. And this I have 29 
told you now before it happens, that, when it does happen, you 
may still believe in me. I shall not talk with you much more, 30 
for the Spirit that is ruling the world is coming. He has 
nothing in common with me ; but he is coming that the world 31 
may see that I love the Father, and that I do as the Father 
commanded me. Come, let us be going. 

The vine I am the True Vine, and my Father is the Vine- i j 
and the grower. Any unfruitful branch in me he takes 2 
Branches, away, and he cleanses every fruitful branch, that 
it may bear more fruit. You are already clean because of the 3 
Message that I have given you. Remain united to me, and I will 4 
remain united to you. As a branch cannot bear fruit by itself, 
unless it remains united to the vine ; no more can you, unless 
you remain united to me. I am the Vine, you are the branches. 5 
He that remains united to me, while I remain united to him 
he bears fruit plentifully ; for you can do nothing apart 
from me. If any one does not remain united to me, 6 

he is thrown away, as a branch would be, and withers up. 
Such branches are collected and thrown into the fire, and are 
burnt. If you remain united to me, and my teaching remains 7 
in your hearts, ask whatever you wish, and it shall be yours. 
It is by your bearing fruit plentifully, and so showing your- 8 
selves my disciples, that my Father- is honoured. As the 9 
Father has loved me, so have I loved you ; remain in my love. 
If you lay my commands to heart, you will remain in my love ; 10 
just as I have laid the Father's commands to heart and 
remain in his love. I have told you all this so that my n 

own joy may be yours, and that your joy may be complete. 
This is my command Love one another, as I have loved 12 
you. No one can give greater proof of love than by laying 13 
down his life for his friends. And you are. my friends, if you 14 
do what I command you. I no longer calljmi 'servants,' 15 
because a servant does not know what his master is doing ; 

JOHN, 15-16. 197 

but I have given you the name of 'friends,' because I made 
known to you everything that I learnt from my Father. It 16 
was not you who chose me, but I who chose you, and I ap- 
pointed you to go and bear fruit fruit that should remain, 
so that the Father might grant you whatever you ask in my 

The world ^ am &i vm ' vou these commands that you 17 
and the Spirit may love one another. If the world hates 18 

of Truth, you, you know that it has first hated me. If you 19 
belonged to the world, the world would love its own. Be- 
cause you do not belong to the world, but I have chosen you 
out of the world that is why the world hates you. Remember 20 
what I said to 3 r ou ' A servant is not greater than his master.' 
If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you ; if they 
have laid my Message to heart, they will lay yours to heart also. 
But they will do all this to you, because you believe in my 21 
Name, for they do not know him who sent me. If I 22 

had not come and spoken to them, they would have had no sin 
to answer for ; but as it is, they have no excuse for their sin. 
He who hates me hates my Father also. If I had not done 23, 
among them such work as no one else ever did, they would 
have had no sin to answer for ; but, as it is, they have both 
seen and hated both me and my Father. And so is fulfilled 25 
what is said in their Law 

' They hated me without cause.' 

But, when the Helper comes, whom I will send to you from the 26 
Father the Spirit of Truth, who comes from the Father he 
will , bear testimony to me ; yes, and you also are to bear 27 
testimony, because you have been with me from the first. 

I have spoken to you in this way so that you may not falter, i j 
They will expel you from their Synagogues ; indeed the time 2 
is coming when any one who kills you will think that he is 
making an offering to God. They will do this, because they 3 
have not learnt to know the Father, or even me. But I have 4 
spoken to you of these things that, when the time for them 
comes, you may remember that I told you about them myself. 
I did not tell you all this at first, because I was with you. But 5 
now I am to return to him who sent me ; and yet not one of 
you asks me ' Where are you going ? ', although your hearts 6 
are full of sorrow at all that I have been saying to you. Yet-I 7 
am only telling you the truth ; it is for your good that I should 
go away. For otherwise the Helper will never come to you, 
but, if I leave you, I will send him to you. And he, 8 

when he comes, will bring conviction to the world as to Sin, 
and as to Righteousness, and as to Judgement ; as to Sin, for 9 
men do not believe in me ; as to Righteousness, for I am 10 

25 Ps. 35. 19. 

198 JOHN, 16 

going to the Father, and you will see me no longer ; as to 1 1 
Judgement, for the Spirit that is ruling this world has been 
condemned. I have still much to say to you, but you 12 

cannot bear it now. Yet when he the Spirit of Truth 13 
comes, he will guide you into all Truth ; for he will not 
speak on his own authority, but he will speak of all that 
he hears ; and he will tell you of the things that are to come. 
He will honour me ; because he will take of what is mine, 14 
and will tell it to you. Everything that the Father has is 15 
mine ; that is why I said that he takes of what is mine, and 
will tell it to you. 

words ^ n a little while you will no longer see me ; and 16 

of then in a little while you will see me indeed." 

Farewell. At this some of his disciples said to one another : 17 

"What does he mean by saying to us ' In a little while you 
will not see me, and then in a little while you will see me 
indeed ' ; and by saying ' Because I am going to the Father ' ? 
What does he mean by 'In a little while'?" they said; 18 
".we do not know what he is speaking about." 
Jesus saw that they were wanting to ask him a question, and 19 
said : 

"Are you trying to find out from one another what I meant 
by saying ' In a little while you will not see me ; and then in 
a little while you will see me indeed'? In truth I tell you 20 
that you will weep and mourn, but the world will rejoice ; you 
will suffer pain, but your pain shall turn to joy. A woman 21 
in labour is in pain because her time has come ; but no sooner is 
the child born, than she forgets her trouble in her joy that 
a man has been born into the world. You, in the same 22 
way, are sorry now ; but I shall see you again, and your 
hearts will rejoice, and no one will rob you of your joy. And 23 
at that time you will not ask me anything ; in truth I 
tell you, if you ask the Father for anything, he will grant it 
to you in my Name. So far you have not asked for anything, 24 
in my Name ; ask, and you will receive, so that your joy may 
be complete. 

I have spoken to you of all this in figures ; a time is 25 
coming, however, when I shall not speak any longer to you 
in figures, but shall tell you about the Father plainly. You 26 
will ask, at that time, in my Name ; and I do not say that I 
will intercede with the Father for you ; for the Father himself 27 
loves you, because you have loved me, and have believed that 
I came from the Father. I came out from the Father, and 28 
have come into the world ; and now I am to leave the world, 
and go to the Father." 

"At last," exclaimed the disciples, "you are using plain 29 
words and 1 not speaking- in figures at all. Now we are sure 30 
that you know everything, and need not wait for any one to 
Isa, 66. 14. 

JOHN, lfc-17. Ito 

question you. This makes qs believe that you did come from 

" Do you believe that already ? " Jesus answered. " Listen ! 31, 32 
a time is coming indeed it has already come when you are 
to be scattered, each going his own way, and to leave me 
alone ; and yet I am not alone, because the Father is with 
me. I have spoken to you in this way, so that in me you may 33 
find peace. In the world you will find trouble ; yet, take 
courage ! I have conquered the world." 

The Prayer After saying this, Jesus raised his eyes heaven- i 17 

of wards, and said : 

Je * us - " Father, the hour has come ; honour 

thy Son, that thy Son may honour thee ; even 
as thou gavest him power over all mankind, 2 

that he should give Immortal Life to all those 
whom thou hast given him. And the Im- 3 

mortal Life is this to know thee the one true 
God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent as 
thy Messenger. I have honoured thee on 4 

earth by completing the work which thou hast 
given me to do ; and now do thou honour me, 5 

Father, at thy own side, with the honour which 
I had at thy side before the world began. 

I have revealed thee to those whom thou 6 

gavest me from the world ; they were thy 
own, and thou gavest them to me ; and they 
have laid thy Message to heart. They 7 

recognize now that everything that thou 
gavest me was from thee ; for I have given 8 

them the teaching which thou gavest me, and 
they received it, and clearly understood that 
I came from thee, and they believed that thou 

hast sent me as thy Messenger. I 9 

intercede for them ; I am noi interceding for 
the world, but for those whom thou hast 
given me, for they are thy own all that 10 

is mine is thine, and all that is thine is mine 
and I am honoured in them. Now I am n 

to be in this world no longer, but they are 
still to be in the world, and I am to come 
to thee. Holy Father, keep them by that 
revelation of thy Name which thou hast 
given me, that they may be one, as we 
are. Whilst I was with them, I it 

kept them by that revelation, and I have 
guarded them ; and not one of them has 
been lost, except that lost soul in fulfil- 
ment. of Scripture. But now I am to come 13 

200 JOHN, 1718. 

to thee ; and I am speaking thus, while 

still in the world, that they may have 

my own joy, in all its fulness, in their 

hearts. I have given them thy Mes- 14 

sage ; and the world hated them, because 

they do not belong to the world, even as I 

do not belong to the world. I do not ask 15 

thee to take them out of the world, but to 

keep them from Evil. They do not belong 16 

to the world, even as I do not belong to the 

world. Consecrate them by the Truth ; thy 17 

Message is Truth. Just as thou hast sent me 18 

as thy Messenger to the world, so I send them 

as my Messengers to the world. And it is 19 

for their sakes that I am consecrating myself, 

so that they also may be truly consecrated. 

But it is not only for them that I am inter- 20 

ceding, but also for those who believe in me 
through their Message, that they all may be 21 

one that as thou, Father, art in union with me 
and I with thee, so they also may be in union 
with us and so the world may believe that 
thou hast sent me as thy Messenger. I have 22 

given them the honour which thou hast given 
me, that they may be one as we are one I in 23 

union with them and thou with me that so 
they may be perfected in their union, and thus 
the world may know that thou hast sent me as 
thy Messenger, and that thou hast loved them 
as thou hast loved me. Father, my 24 

desire for all those whom thou hast given me is 
that they may be with me where I am, so that 
theymaysee the honourwhich thou hastgiven 
me ; for thou didst love me before the begin- 
ningofthe world. O righteous Father, 25 

though the world did not know thee, I knew 
thee ; and these men knew that thou hast sent 
me as thy Messenger. I have made thee 26 

known to them, and will do so still ; that the 
love that thou hast had for me may be in their 
hearts, and that I may be in them also." 

When Jesus had said this, he went out with his 
joua in disciples and crossed the brook Kedron to a place 

Qethvemano. , , . , . , , 

where there was a garden, into which he and 
his disciples went. The place was well known to Judas, the 
betrayer, for Jesus and his disciples had often met there. So 
Judas, who had obtained the soldiers of the Roman garrison, 

JOHN, 18. 201 

and some police-officers from the Chief Priests and the 
Pharisees, came there with lanterns, torches, and weapons. 
Jesus, aware of all that was coming upon him, went to meet 4 
them, and said to them : 

" For whom are you looking? " 

"Jesus of Nazareth," was their answer. 5 

" I am he," said Jesus. 

(Judas, the betrayer, was also standing with them.) 
When Jesus said ' I am he,' they drew back and fell to the 6 
ground. So he again asked for whom they were looking, and 7 
they answered : "Jesus of Nazareth." 

" I have* already told you that I am he," replied Jesus, "so, 8 
if it is for me that you are looking, let these men go." 
This was in fulfilment of his words ' Of those whom thou 9 
hast given me I have not lost one.' 

At this, Simon Peter, who had a sword with him, drew it, 10 
and struck the High Priest's servant, and cut off his right 
ear. The servant's name was Malchus. But Jesus said to n 
Peter : 

" Sheathe your sword. Shall I not drink the cup which the 
Father has given me ? " 

So the soldiers of the garrison, with their Com- 12 
The manding Officer and the Jewish police, arrested 
Teaus? Jesus and bound him, and took him first of 13 

all to Annas. Annas was the father-in-law of 
Caiaphas, who was High Priest that year. It was Caiaphas 14 
who had counselled the Jews, that it was best that one man 
should die for the people. 

Meanwhile Simon Peter followed Jesus, and 15 
Peter disowns so did another disciple. That disciple, being 
well-known to the High Priest, went with Jesus 
into the High Priest's court-yard, while Peter stood outside 16 
by the door. Presently the other disciple the one well-known 
to the High Priest went out and spoke to the portress, and 
brought Peter in. So the maidservant said to Peter : 17 

"Are not you also one of this man's disciples? " 
" No, I am not," he said. 

The servants and police-officers were standing round a char- 18 
coal fire (which they had made because it was cold), and were 
warming themselves. Peter, too, was with them, standing and 
warming himself. 

The High Priest questioned Jesus about his 19 

Jesus ,. i & . i_ , i , . 

before the disciples and about his teaching. 

High priest. " For my part," answered Jesus, "I have 20 
spoken to all the world openly. I always taught in some 
Synagogue, or in the Temple Courts, places where all the 
Jews assemble, and I never spoke of anything in secret. Why 21 
question me ? Question those who have listened to me as 



tlrftTt TKACHR 

202 JOHN, 18. 

to what I have spoken about to them. They must know what 
I said." 

When Jesus said this, one of the police-officers, who was 22 
standing near, gave him a blow with his hand. 

" Do you answer the High Priest like that? " he exclaimed. 

" If I said anything wrong, give evidence about it," replied 23 
Jesus ; " but if not, why do you strike me ? " 
Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas the High Priest. 24 

Meanwhile Simon Peter was standing there, warming him- 25 
self ; so they said to him : 

"Are not you also one of his disciples?" 
Peter denied it. 

" No, I am not," he said. 

One of the High Priest's servants, a relation of the man whose 26 
ear Peter had cut off, exclaimed : 

" Did not I myself see you with him in the garden ? " 
Peter again denied it ; and at that moment a cock crowed. 27 

. . From Caiaphas they took Jesus to the Govern- 28 

Jesus DOToro __ r ._ ii T- 

the Roman ment House. It was early in the morning. But 

Governor, they did not enter the Government House them- 
selves, lest they should become 'defiled,' and so be unable to eat 
the Passover. Therefore Pilate came outside to speak to them. 29 

"What charge do you bring against this man ? " he asked. 

" If he had not been a criminal, we should not have given 30 
him up to you," they answered. 

"Take him yourselves," said Pilate, "and try him by your 31 
own Law." 

"We have no power to put any one to death," the Jews 
replied in fulfilment of what Jesus had said when indicating 32 
the death that he was destined to die. 

After that, Pilate went into the Government House again, 33 
and calling Jesus up, asked him : 

" Are you the King of the Jews ? " 

"Do you ask me that yourself?" replied Jesus, "or did 34 
others say it to you about me ? " 

" Do you take me for a Jew ? " was Pilate's answer. " It is 35 
your own nation and the Chief Priests who have given you 
up to me. What have you done ? " 

"My kingly power," replied Jesus, "is not due to this 36 
world. If it had been so, my servants would be doing their 
utmost to prevent my being given up to the Jews ; but my 
kingly power is not from the world." 

" So you are a King after all ! " exclaimed Pilate. 37 

"Yes, it is true I am a King," answered Jesus. "I was 
born for this, I have come into the world for this to bear 
testimony to the Truth. Every one who is on the side of 
Truth listens to my voice." 

" What is Truth ? " exclaimed Pilate. 18 

JOHN, 18-19. 203 

After saying this, he went out to the Jews again, and said : 
" For my part, I find nothing with which he can be charged. 

It is, however, the custom for me to grant you the release of 39 

one man at the Passover Festival. Do you wish for the 

release of the King of the Jews ? " 

" No, not this man," they shouted again, " but Barabbas ! " 40 

This Barabbas was a robber. 

After that, Pilate had Jesus scourged. The soldiers made a 1,2 
crown with some thorns and put it on his head and threw a 
purple robe round him. They kept coming up to him and 3 
saying : " Long live the King of the Jews ! " and they gave him 
blow after blow with their hands. Pilate again came 4 

outside, and said to the people : 

" Look ! I am bringing him out to you, so that you may 
know that I find nothing with which he can be charged." 
Then Jesus came outside, wearing the crown of thorns and 5 
the purple robe ; and Pilate said to them : 

" Here is the man ! " 

When the Chief Priests and the police-officers saw him, they 6 
shouted : 

" Crucify him ! Crucify him ! " 

" Take him yourselves and crucify him," said Pilate. " For 
my part, I find nothing with which he can be charged." 

" But we," replied the Jews, " have a Law, under which he 7 
deserves death for making himself out to be the Son of 

When Pilate heard what they said, he became still more 8 
alarmed ; and, going into the Government House again, he 9 
sa'd to Jesus : 

" Where do you come from ? " 
But Jesus made no reply. So Pilate said to him : 10 

"Do you refuse to speak to me? Do not you know that 
I have power to release you, and have power to crucify 
you ? " 

"You would have no power over me at all," answered Jesus, 1 1 
" if it had not been given you from above ; and, therefore, the 
man who betrayed me to you is guilty of the greater sin." 
This made Pilate anxious to release him; but the Jews 12 
shouted : 

" If you release that man, you are no friend of the Emperor ! 
Any one who makes himself out to be a King is setting him- 
self against the Emperor ! " 

On hearing what they said, Pilate brought Jesus out, and 13 
took his seat upon the Bench at a place called 'The Stone 
Pavement' in Hebrew 'Gabbatha.' It was the Passover 14 
Preparation Day, and about noon. Then he said to the 
Jews : 

" Here is your King ! " 

204 JOHN, 19. 

At that the people shouted : 15 

" Kill him ! Kill him ! Crucify him ! " 
" What ! shall I crucify your King ? " exclaimed Pilate. 
"We have no King but the Emperor," replied the Chief 

Priests ; whereupon Pilate gave Jesus up to them to be 16 


So they took Jesus ; and he went out, carrying 17 
The his cross himself, to the place which is named from 
o7je8uL! n a skull > or in Hebrew, Golgotha. There they 18 

crucified him, and two others with him one on 
each side, and Jesus between them. Pilate also had these 19 
words written and put up over the cross 


These words were read by many of the Jews, because the 20 
place where Jesus was crucified was near the city ; and they 
were written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek. The Jewish 21 
Chief Priests said to Pilate : 

" Do not write ' The King of the Jews ', but write what the 
man said ' I am King of the Jews.' " But Pilate answered : 22 

"What I have written, I have written." 

When the soldiers had crucified Jesus, they took his clothes 23 
and divided them into four shares a share for each soldier 
and they took the coat also. The coat had no seam, being 
woven in one piece from top to bottom. So they said to one 24 
another : 

" Do not let us tear it, but let us cast lots for it, to see who 
shall have it. " This was in fulfilment of the words of Scrip- 

' They shared my clothes among them, 
And over my clothing- they cast lots.' 

That was what the soldiers did. Meanwhile near the cross 25 
of Jesus were standing his mother and his mother's sister, as 
well as Mary the wife of Clopas and Mary of Magdala. 
When Jesus saw his mother, and the disciple whom he loved, 26 
standing near, he said to his mother : 

"There is your son." 
Then he said to that disciple : 27 

"There is your. mother." 
And from that very hour the disciple took her to live in his house. 

Afterwards, knowing that everything was now 28 
Tr.iMu*!' finished, Jesus said, in fulfilment of the words of 

Scripture : 
"I am thirsty." 
There was a bowl standing there full ot common wine ; so 29 

** Ps. aa. 18. - P. 69. 31. 

JOHN, 19-20. 205 

they put a sponge soaked in the wine on the end of a hyssop- ' , 
stalk, and held it up to his mouth. When Jesus had received 30 
the wine, he exclaimed : 

"All is finished !" 
Then, bowing his head, he resigned his spirit to God. 

It was the Preparation Day, and so, to prevent the bodies 31 
from remaining on the crosses during the Sabbath (for that 
Sabbath was a great day), the Jews asked Pilate to have the 
legs broken and the bodies removed. Accordingly the soldiers 32 
came and broke the legs of the first man, and then those of 
the other who had been crucified with Jesus ; but, on coming 33 
to him, when they saw that he was already dead, they did 
not break his legs. One of the soldiers, however, pierced his 34 
side with a spear, and blood and water immediately flowed 
from it. This is the statement of one who actually saw it 35 
and his statement may be relied upon, and he knows that he 
is speaking the truth and it is given in order that you also 
may be convinced. For all this took place in fulfilment of 36 
the words of Scripture 

' Not one of its bones shall be broken.' 

And there is another passage which says 37 

' They will look upon him*whom they pierced.' 

After this, Joseph of Ramah, a disciple of Jesus 38 
The Burial but a secret one, owing to his fear of the Jews 
of Jesus. begged Pilate's permission to remove the body of 
Jesus. Pilate gave him leave ; so Joseph went 
and removed the body. Nicodemus, too the man who had 39 
formerly visited Jesus by night came with a roll of myrrh and 
aloes, weighing nearly a hundred pounds. They took the body 40 
of Jesus, and wound it in linen with the spices, according to the 
Jewish mode of burial. At the place where Jesus had been 41 
crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a newly-made 
tomb in which no one had ever been laid. And so, because of 42 
its being the Preparation Day, and as the tomb was close at 
hand, they laid Jesus there. 


On the first day of the week, early in the morn- 

The ; n g > while it was still dark, Mary of Magdala 

Re o"je^u*8r n went to the tomb, and saw that the stone had 

been removed. So she came running to Simon 

Peter, and to that other disciple who was Jesus' friend, and 

said to^ them : 

"They have taken away the Master out of the tomb, and we 
do not know where they have laid him ! " 

*' Exod. 12. 46. 37 Zech. 12. 10. 

206 JOHN, 20. 

Upon this, Peter started off with that other disciple, and 3 
they went to the tomb. The two began running together ; 4 
but the other disciple ran faster than Peter, and reached the 
tomb first. Stooping down, he saw the linen wrappings lying 5 
there, but did not go in. Presently Simon Peter came 6 
following behind him, and went into the tomb ; and he 
looked at the linen wrappings lying there, and the cloth which 7 
had been upon Jesus' head, not lying with the wrappings, but 
rolled up on one side, separately. Then the other disciple, 8 
who had reached the tomb first, went inside too, and he saw 
for himself and was convinced. For they did not then under- 9 
stand the passage of Scripture which says that Jesus must 
rise again from the dead. The disciples then returned to their 10 

jesus Meanwhile Mary was standing close outside the 1 1 

.appears to tomb, weeping. Still weeping, she leant forward 

Mary. j nto tne tomb, and perceived two angels clothed 12 
in white sitting there, where the body of Jesus had been lying, 
one where the head and the other where the feet had been. 

" Why are you weeping ? " asked the angels. 13 

"They have taken my Master away," she answered, "and 
I do not know where they have laid him." 

After saying this, she turned round, and looked at Jesus stand- 14 
ing there, but she did not know that it was Jesus. 

"Why are you weeping? Whom are you seeking?" he 15 
Supposing him to be the gardener, Mary answered : 

" If it was you, Sir, who carried him away, tell me where 
you have laid him, and I will take him away myself." 

" Mary ! " said Jesus. 16 

She turned round, and exclaimed in Hebrew : 

" Rabboni ! " (or, as we should say, ' Teacher '). 

" Do not hold me," Jesus said; "for I have not yet ascended 17 
to the Father. But go to my Brothers, and tell them that I am 
ascending to him who is my Father and their Father, my God 
and their God." 

Mary of Magdala went and told the disciples that she had 18 
seen the Master, and that he had said this to her. 

Jesus I" l ' ie evening of the same day the first day 19 

appears to of the week after the doors of the room, in 
the Apostles. w hich the disciples were, had been shut for fear 
of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said : 
" Peace be with you " ; after which he showed them his hands 20 
and his side. The disciples were filled with joy when they 
saw the Master. Again Jesus said to them : " Peace be with 21 
you. As the Father has sent me as his Messenger, so I am 
Bending you." 
A ter saying this, he breathed on them, and said : 22 

JOHN, 20-21. 207 

" Receive the Holy Spirit; if you remit any one's sins, they 23 
have been remitted ; and, if you retain them, they have been 

jesus But Thomas, one of the Twelve, called ' The 24 

appears to Twin,' was not with them when Jesus came ; so 25 

Thomas. th e rest of the disciples said to him : "We have 
seen the Master ! " 

" Unless I see the marks of the nails in his hands," he ex- 
claimed, "and put my finger into the marks, and. put my 
hand into his side, I will not believe it." 

A week later the disciples were again in the house, and 26 
Thomas with them. After the doors had been shut, Jesus 
came and stood among them, and said: "Peace be with you." 
Then he said to Thomas : 27 

" Place your finger here, and look at my hands ; and place 
your hand here, and put it into my side ; and do not refuse to 
believe, but believe." 
And Thomas exclaimed : 28 

" My Master, and my God ! " 

" Is it because you have seen me that you have believed ? " 29 
said Jesus. " Blessed are they who have not seen, and yet 
have believed ! " 

The ob ect There were many other signs of his mission 30 
of this that Jesus gave in presence of the disciples, which 
oospei. are no t recorded in this book ; but these have 31 
been recorded that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, 
the Son of God and that, through your belief in his Name, 
you may have Life. 

A . Later on, Jesus showed himself again to the i 

Appearance disciples by the Sea of Tiberias. It was in this 2 

of Jesus. wa y : Simon Peter, Thomas, who was called 
'The Twin,' Nathanael of Cana in Galilee, Zebediah's sons, 
and two other disciples of Jesus, were together, when Simon 3 
Peter said : "I am going fishing." 

"We will come with you," said the others. 
They went out and got into the boat, but caught nothing that 
night. Just as day was breaking, Jesus came and stood on 4 
the beach ; but the disciples did not know that it was he. 

" My children," he said, " have you anything to eat ? " 5 

" No," they answered. 

" Cast your net to the right of the boat," he said, " and you 6 
will find fish." 
So they cast the net, and now they could not haul it in on 

208 JOHN, 21. 

account of the quantity of fish. Upon this the disciple whom 7 
Jesus loved said to Peter : 

" It is the Master !" 

When Simon Peter heard that it was the Master, he fastened 
his coat round him (for he had taken it off), and threw him- 
self into the Sea. But the rest of the disciples came in the 8 
boat (for they were only about a hundred yards from shore), 
dragging the net full of fish. When they had come 9 

ashore, they found a charcoal fire ready, with some fish 
already on it, and some bread as well. 

" Bring some of the fish which you have just caught," said 10 
Jesus. So Simon Peter got into the boat and hauled the net 1 1 
ashore full of large fish, a hundred and fifty-three of them ; 
and yet, although there were so many, the net had not been 

And Jesus said to them : " Come and breakfast." 12 

Not one of the disciples ventured to ask him who he was, 
knowing that it was the Master. Jesus went and took the 13 
bread and gave it to them, and the fish too. This was 14 

the third time that Jesus showed himself to the disciples after 
he had risen from the dead. 

JOBUS' When breakfast was over, Jesus said to Simon 15 

Last word* Peter : 

to Pater. Simon, son of John, do you love me more 
than the others ? " 

"Yes, Master," he atiswered, "you know that I am your 

" Feed my lambs," said Jesus. 
Then, a second tune, Jesus asked : 16 

" Simon, son or John, do you love me?" 

"Yes, Master," he answered, "you know that I am your 

"Tend my sheep," said Jesus. 
The third time, Jesus said to him : 17 

" Simon, son of John, are you my friend ? " 
Peter was hurt at his third question being ' Are you my 
friend ? ' ; and exclaimed : 

" Master, you know everything ! You can tell that I am 
your friend." 

"Feed my sheep," said Jesus. "In truth I tell you," he 18 
continued, " when you were young, you used to put on your 
own girdle, and walk wherever you wished ; but, when you 
have grown old, you will have to stretch out your hands, 
while some one else puts on your girdle, and takes you 
where you do not wish. 

ijesus said this to show the death by which Peter was to 19 
.honour God, and then he added : " Follow me." 

Peter turned round, and saw the disciple whom Jesus loved 20 

JOHN, 21. 209 

following the one who at the supper leant .back on the 
Master's shoulder, and asked him who it was that would 
betray him. Seeing him, Peter said to Jesus : 21 

" Master, what about this man ? " 

"If it is my will that he should wait till I come," 22 
answered Jesus, " what has that to do with you ? Follow me 

So the report spread among the Brethren that that dis- 23 
ciple was not to die ; yet Jesus did not say that he was not to 
die, but said *' If it is my will that he should wait till I 
come, what has that to do with you ? " 

It is this disciple who states these things, and 24 
conclusion. W J IQ recorc j e( j ti iem an( j we know that his state- 
ment is true. 

There are many other things which Jesus did ; but, if every 25 
one of them were to be recorded in detail, I suppose that 
even the world itself would not hold the books that would 
be written. 



(Inserted in some manuscripts from an ancient source, and found 
either after John 7. $j f or after Luke 21. j8.) 

[And every one went home except Jesus, who went to the 
Mount of Olives. But he went again into the Temple 

Courts early in the morning, and all the people came to him ; 
and he sat down and taught them. Presently, how- 

ever, the Teachers of the Law and the Pharisees brought a' 
woman who had been caught in adultery, and placed her in the 
middle of the Court, and said to Jesus : 

"Teacher, this woman was found in the very act of adultery. 
Now Moses, in the Law, commanded us to stone 1 such women 
to death ; what do you say ? " 

They said this to test him, in order to have a charge to bring 
against him. But Jesus stooped down, and wrote on the 
ground with his finger. However, as they continued asking 
him, he raised himself, and said : 

" Let the man among you who has never done wrong throw 
the first stone at her." 

And again he stooped down, and wrote on the ground. When 
they heard that, they went out one by one, beginning with the 
eldest ; and Jesus was left alone with the woman in the middle 
of the Court. Raising himself, Jesus said to her : 

" Woman, where .are they ? Did no one condemn you ? " 

" No one, Sir," she answered. 

" Neither do I condemn you," said Jesus ; " go, and do not 
sin again."] 

1 Deut. za. 24. 




THIS Book contains an account of the principal events in 
the first years of the Church's history after the Ascension of 
Jesus into Heaven. These events group themselves round the 
names of St. Peter and St. Paul ; and in this Book the first 
twelve chapters relate mainly St. Peter's work among Jews, 
and the last sixteen St. Paul's work among people of other 
nations. The history ends with the imprisonment of the latter 
in Rome. 

There is strong support for the view that St. Luke was the 
author or compiler of the Book, and (from the use of the pro- 
noun "we "in several sections) that he took part in many of 
the events related. 


Doings of the Apostles Peter and John, 

The first account which I drew up, Theophilus, i 
"' dealt with all that Jesus did and taught from 
the very first, down to that day on which he was taken up to 2 
Heaven, after he had, by the help of the Holy Spirit, given in- 
structions to the Apostles whom he had chosen. With abun- 3 
dant proofs, he showed himself to them, still living, after his 
death ; appearing to them from time to time during forty days, 
and speaking of all that related to the Kingdom of God. And 4 
once, when he had gathered them together, he charged them 
not to leave Jerusalem, but to wait there for the fulfilment of 
the Father's promise "that promise," he said, "of which 
you have heard me speak ; for, while John baptized with 5 
water, you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit before many 
days have passed." 

Ascension So, when the Apostles had met together, they 6 

of Jesus, asked Jesus this question 

" Master, is this the time when you intend to re-establish the 
Kingdom for Israel ? " 
His answer was : 7 

"It is not for you to know times or hours, for the Father 
has reserved these for his own decision ; but you shall receive 8 
power, when the Holy Spirit shall have descended upon you, 
and shall be witnesses for me not only in Jerusalem, but 
throughout Judaea and Samaria, and td the ends of the 

No sooner had Jesus said this than he was caught up before 9 
their eyes, and a cloud received him from their sight. While 10 
they were still gazing up into the heavens, as he went, 
suddenly two men, clothed in white, stood beside them, and u 
said : 

" Men of Galilee, why are you standing here looking up into 
the heavens ? This very Jesus, who has been taken from you 

* Dan. 2. 44. 

214 THE ACTS, 1. 

into the heavens, will come in the very way in which you have 
seen him go into the heavens." 
The Apostles Then the Apostles returned to Jerusalem from 12 

in the hill called Olivet, which is about three quarters 

Jerusalem. o f ^ m ile From the city. 

When they reached Jerusalem, they went to the upstairs 13 
room, where they were staying. There were there Peter, 
John, James, and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew 
and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, 
and Judas the son of James. They all united in devoting 14 
themselves to Prayer, and so did some women, and Mary, the 
mother of Jesus, and his brothers. 

Appointment About this time, at a meeting of the Brethren, 15 
of when there were about a hundred and twenty 

Matthias, present, Peter rose to speak. 

" Brothers," he said, " it was necessary that the prediction 16 
of Scripture should be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit made by 
the lips of David about Judas, who acted as guide to the men 
that arrested Jesus, for he was one of our number and had his 17 
part allotted him in this work of ours." 

(This man had bought a piece of land with the price of his 18 
treachery ; and, falling heavily, his body had burst open, and all 
his bowels protruded. This became known to every one living 19 
in Jerusalem, so that the field came to be called, in their lan- 
guage, ' Akeldama,' which means the ' Field of Blood.') 

"For in the Book of Psalms," Peter continued, "it is said 20 

' Let his dwelling- become desolate, 
And let no one live in it ' ; 
and also 

' His office let another take.' 

Therefore, from among the men who have been with us all the 21 
time that Jesus, our Master, went in and out among us 
from his baptism by John down to that day on which he was 22 
taken from us s<5me one must be found to join us as a 
witness of his resurrection." 

So they put forward two men, Joseph called Barsabas, whose 23 
other name was Justus, and Matthias ; and they offered this 24 

"O Lord, who readest all hearts, show 
which of these two men thou hast chosen to 
take the place in this apostolic work, which 25 

Judas has abandoned, to go to his proper 

'" Ps. fg. 15 ; Ps. 109. 8. ' Num. 24. 25. 

THE ACTS, 1-2. 215 

Then they drew lots between them ; and, the lot having fallen 26 
on Matthias, he was added to the number of the eleven 

The Gift of I" ^ ie course f the Festival at the close of the i 
the Harvest the disciples had all met together, when 2 
Holy spirit, suddenly there came from the heavens a noise 
like that of a strong wind rushing by ; it filled the whole house 
in which they were sitting. Then there appeared tongues of 3 
what seemed to be flame, separating, so that one settled on 
each of them ; and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, 4 
and began to speak with strange 'tongues' as the Spirit 
prompted their utterances. 

Now there were then staying in Jerusalem religious Jews 5 
from every country in the world ; and, when this sound was 6 
heard, numbers of people collected, in the greatest excitement, 
because each of them heard the disciples speaking in his own 
language. They were utterly amazed, and kept asking in 7 
astonishment : 

"What! Are not all these men who are speaking Gali- 
leans ? Then how is it that we each of us hear them in our 8 
own native language ? Some of us are Parthians, some 9 
Medes, some Elamites ; and some of us live in Mesopotamia, 
in Judaea and Cappadocia, in Pontus and Roman Asia, in 10 
Phrygia and Pamphylia, in Egypt and the districts of Libya 
adjoining Cyrene ; some of us are visitors from Rome, either 
Jews by birth or converts, and some are Cretans and Ara- n 
bians yet we all alike hear them speaking in our own tongues 
of the great things that God has done." 
They were all utterly amazed and bewildered. 12 

" What does it mean ? " they asked one another. 
But there were some who said with a sneer : " They have had 13 
too much new wine." 

Peter's Then Peter, surrounded by the eleven other 14 

Addre<M. Apostles, stood up, and, raising his voice, ad- 
dressed the crowd. 

" Men of Judaea," he began, " and all you who are staying 
in Jerusalem, let me tell you what this means. Mark well 
my words. These men are not drunk, as you suppose ; for it is 15 
only now nine in the morning ! No ! This is what is spoken 16 
of in the prophet Joel 

'It shall come about in the last days,' God says, 17 

' That I will pour out my Spirit on all mankind ; 
Your sons and your daughters shall become Prophets, 
Your young men shall see visions, 
And your old men dream dreams ; 

" Joel 2. 28. 

216 THE ACTS, 2. 

Yes, even on the slaves for they are mine both men and 18 

I will in those days pour out my Spirit, 

And they shall become Prophets ; 

And I will show wonders in the heavens above, 19 

And signs on the earth below 

Blood and fire and mist of smoke ; 

The sun shall become darkness, 20 

And the moon blood-red, 

Before the Day of the Lord comes that great and awful 


Then shall every one who invokes the Name of the Lord 21 
be saved.' 

Men of Israel, listen to what I am saying. Jesus of Nazareth, 22 
a man whose mission from God to you was proved by miracles, 
wonders, and signs, which God showed among you through 
him, as you know full well he, I say, in accordance with 23 
God's definite plan and with his previous knowledge, was 
betrayed, and you, by the hands of lawless men, nailed him 
to a cross and put him to death. But God released him from 24 
the pangs of death and raised him to life, it being impossible 
for death to retain its hold upon him. Indeed it was to him 25 
that David was referring when he said 

' I have had the Lord ever before my eyes, 

For he stands at my right hand, that I should not be disquieted. 
Therefore my heart was cheered, and my tongue told its delight ; 26 

Yes, even my body, too, will rest in hope ; 
For thou wilt not abandon my soul to the Place of Death, 27 

Nor surrender me, thy holy one, to undergo corruption. 
Thou hast shown me the path to life, 28 

Thou wilt fill me with gladness in thy presence.' 

Brothers, I can speak to you the more confidently about the 29 
Patriarch David, because he is dead and buried, and his tomb 
is here among us to this very day. David, then, Prophet as 30 
he was, knowing that God ' had solemnly sworn to him to set 
one of his descendants upon his throne,' looked into the future, 31 
and referred to the resurrection of the Christ when he said 
that ' he had not been abandoned to the Place of Death, nor 
had his body undergone corruption.' It was this Jesus, 32 
whom God raised to life ; and of that we are ourselves all 
witnesses. And now that he has been exalted to the right 33 
hand of God, and has received from the Father the promised 
gift of the Holy Spirit, he has begun to pour out that gift, as 
you yourselves now see and hear. It was not David who 34 
went up into Heaven ; for he himself says 

' The Lord said to my master : "Sit on my right hand, 
Till I put thy enemies as a footstool under thy feet." ' 35 

W- Joel a. *)-3*. -* Ps. 16. 8-n. *> Ps. i 3 a. n. *- Ps. no. i. 

THE ACTS, 2-3. 217 

So let the whole nation of Israel know beyond all doubt, that 36 
God has made him both Lord and Christ this very Jesus 
whom you crucified." 

When the people heard this, they were conscience-smitten, 37 
and said to Peter and the rest of the Apostles : 

" Brothers, what can we do ? " 

"Repent," answered Peter, "and be baptized every one 38 
of you in the Faith of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of 
your sins ; and then you will receive the gift of the Holy 
Spirit. For the promise is for you and for your children, and 39 
also for all those now far away, who may be called by the 
Lord our God." 

With many other words Peter enforced his teaching, while 40 
the burden of his exhortations was " Save yourselves from 
the perverse spirit of this age." So those who accepted 41 

his teaching were baptized, and about three thousand people 
joined the disciples on that day alone. They devoted them- 42 
selves to the teaching of the Apostles and to the Common 
Life of the Church, to the Breaking of the Bread and to the 

A deep impression was made upon every one, 43 

Ea <>!r r the y * ana< many wonders and signs were done at the 

Christian hands of the Apostles. All who became believers 44 
society. j n Christ held everything for the common use ; 
they sold their property and their goods, and shared the pro- 45 
ceeds among them all, according to their individual needs. 
Every day they devoted themselves to meeting together in the 46 
Temple Courts, and to the Breaking of Bread at their homes, 
while they partook of their food in simple-hearted gladness, 
praising God, and winning the good-will of all the people. 47 
And the Lord daily added to their company those who were 
in the path of Salvation. 

Cure One day, as Peter and John were going up into i 

or lame the Temple Courts for the three o'clock Prayers, 

Mar. a man, who had been lame from his birth, was 2 
being carried by. This man used to be set down every day at 
the gate of the Temple called 'the Beautiful Gate,' to beg of 
those who went in. Seeing Peter and John on the point of 3 
entering, he asked them to give him something. Peter fixed 4 
his eyes on him, and so did John, and then Peter said : "Look 
at us." 

The man was all attention, expecting to get something from 5 
them ; but Peter added : 6 

" I have no gold or silver, but I give you what I have. In 
the Name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth I bid you walk." 
Grasping the lame man by the right hand, Peter lifted him up. 7 

89 Dan. 9. 7 ; Joel a. 32. 

218 THE ACTS, 8. 

Instantly the man's feet and ankles became strong, and, leaping 8 
up, he stood and began to walk about, and then went with them 
into the Temple Courts, walking, and leaping, and praising 
God. All the people saw him walking about and praising 9 
God ; and, when they recognized him as the man who used to 10 
sit begging at the Beautiful Gate of the Temple, they were 
utterly astonished and amazed at what had happened to him. 

While the man still clung to Peter and John, the people all u 
quickly gathered round them in the Colonnade named after 
Solomon, in the greatest astonishment. On seeing this, Peter 12 
said to the people : 

Peter'* " ^ en ^ Israel, wn y ar e you surprised at this ? 

Addres/in and why do you stare at us, as though we, by 
the Temple. an y power or piety of our own, had enabled this 
man to walk ? The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the 13 
God of our ancestors, has done honour to his Servant Jesus 
him whom you gave up and disowned before Pilate, when 
he had decided to set him free. You, I say, disowned the 14 
Holy and Righteous One, and asked for the release of a 
murderer ! The very Guide to Life you put to death ! But 15 
God raised him from the dead and of that we are ourselves 
witnesses. And it is by faith in the Name of Jesus, that this 16 
man, whom you all see and know, has by his Name been 
made strong. Yes, it is the faith inspired by Jesus that has 
made this complete cure of the man, before the eyes of you 
all. And yet, my Brothers, I know that you acted as you did 17 
from ignorance, and your rulers also. But it was in this way 18 
that God fulfilled all that he had long ago foretold, as to the 
sufferings of his Christ, by the lips of all the Prophets. There- 19 
fore, repent and turn, that your sins may be wiped away ; so 
that happier times may come from the Lord himself, and that 20 
he may send you, in Jesus, your long-appointed Christ. But 21 
Heaven must be his home, until the days of the Universal 
Restoration, of which God has spoken by the lips of his holy 
Prophets from the very first. Moses himself said 22 

4 The Lord your God will raise up from among your brothers 
a Prophet, as he raised me. To him you will listen when- 
ever he speaks to you. And it shall be that should any one 23 
among the people not listen to that Prophet, he will be utterly 

Yes, and all the Prophets from Samuel onwards, and all their 24 
successors who had a message to deliver, told of these days. 
You yourselves are the heirs of the Prophets, and heirs, too, of 25 
the Covenant which God made with your ancestors, when he 
said to Abraham 

' In your descendants will all the nations of the earth be 

U Exod. 3. 15 ; laa. 53. 13. " Enoch 38. a. 21 Mai. 4. 6. *J-29 Deut. 18. 1519 ; 
Lev. 23. 39. '* Gen. 13. 3. 

THE ACTS, 3-4. 219 

For you, first, God raised up his Servant, and sent him to bless 26 
you, by turning each one of you from his wicked ways." 

Peter and While Peter and John were still speaking to i 
John before the people, the Chief Priests, with the Officer in 
the council, charge at the Temple and the Sadducees, came 
up to them, much annoyed because they were teaching the 2 
people, and because, through Jesus, they were preaching the 
resurrection from the dead. They arrested the Apostles and, 3 
as it was already evening, had them placed in custody till the 
next day. Many, however, of those who had heard the Apostles' 4 
Message became believers in Christ, the number of the men 
alone amounting to about five thousand. 

The next day, a meeting of the leading men, the Councillors, 5 
and the Teachers of the Law was held in Jerusalem. There 6 
were present Annas the High Priest, Caiaphas, John, Alex- 
ander, and all who were of High-Priestly rank. They had 7 
Peter and John brought before them, and questioned them. 

"By what power," they asked, "or in whose name have 
men like you done this thing ? " 
On this, Peter, filled with the Holy Spirit, spoke as follows : 8 

"Leaders of the people and Councillors, since we are on 9 
our trial to-day for a kind act done to a helpless man, and 
are asked in what way the man here before you has been 
cured, let me tell you all and all the people of Israel, that 10 
it is by the Name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom you 
crucified and whom God raised from the dead it is, I say, 
by his Name that this man stands here before you lame no 
longer. Jesus is 'the stone which, scorned by you the n 
builders, has yet become the corner stone.' And Salvation 12 
is in him alone ; for there is no other Name in the whole 
world, given to men, to which we must look for our Salva- 

When the Council saw how boldly Peter and John spoke, and 13 
found that they were uneducated men of humble station, they 
were surprised, and realized that they had been companions of 
Jesus. But, when they looked at the man who had been healed, 14 
standing there with them, they had nothing to say. So they 15 
ordered them out of court, and then began consulting together. 

1 ' What are we to do to these men ? " they asked one another. 16 
"That a remarkable sign has been given through them is 
obvious to every one living in Jerusalem, and we cannot deny 
it. But, to prevent this thing from spreading further among 17 
the people, let us warn them not to speak in this Name any 
more to any one whatever." 

So they called the Apostles in, and ordered them not to 18 
speak or teach in the Name of Jesus. But Peter and John 19 
replied : 

11 Ps. 118. 2122. 12 Enoch 4. 2. 

220 THE ACTS, 4. 

"Whether it is right, in the sight of God, to listen to you 
rather than to him judge for yourselves, for we cannot help 20 
speaking of what we have seen and heard." 

However, after further warnings, the Council set them at 21 
liberty, not seeing any safe way of punishing them, because 
of the people, for they were all praising God for what had 
occurred ; for the man who was the subject of this miracu- 22 
lous cure was more than forty years old. 

After they had been set at liberty, the Apostles went to their 23 
friends and told them what the Chief Priests and the Councillors 
had said to them. All who heard their story, moved by a 24 
common impulse, raised their voices to God in prayer : 

"O Sovereign Lord, it is thou who hast 
' made the heavens, the earth, the sea, and 
everything that is in them,' and who, by the 25 

lips of our ancestor, thy servant David, who 
spoke under the influence of the Holy Spirit, 
hast said 

' Why did the nations rage, 

And the peoples form vain designs ? 

The king's of the earth set their array, 26 

And its rulers gathered together, 

Against the Lord and against his Christ.' 

There have indeed gathered together in this 27 

city against thy holy Servant Jesus, whom 
thou hast consecrated the Christ, not Herod 
and Pontius Pilate only, but the nations and 
the people of Israel besides yet only to do 28 

what thou, by thy power and of thy own will, 
didst long ago destine to be done. Now, 29 

therefore, O Lord, mark their threats, and 
enable thy servants, with all fearlessness, to 
tell thy Message, while thou stretchest out 30 

thy hand to heal, and causest signs and won- 
ders to take place through the Name of thy 
holy Servant Jesus." 

When their prayer was ended, the place in which they were 31 
assembled was shaken ; and they were all filled with the 
Holy Spirit, and began to tell God's Message fearlessly. 

The T ne w hl e body of those who had become 32 

common believers in Christ were of one heart and mind. 
Fund. Not one of them claimed any of his goods as his 

WExod. ao. ii. !-a>P.. a. i. 

THE ACTS, 4-5. 221 

own, but everything was held for the common use. The 33 
Apostles continued with great power to bear their testimony 
to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and God's blessing 
rested upon them all abundantly. Nor was there any one 34 
in need among them, for all who were owners of land or 
houses sold them, and brought the proceeds of the sales and 
laid them at the Apostles' feet ; and then every one received 35 
a share in proportion to his wants. A Levite of 36 

Cyprian birth, named Joseph, (who had received from the 
Apostles the additional name of ' Barnabas ' which means 
' The Consoler, ') sold a farm that belonged to him, and brought 37 
the money and laid it at the Apostles' feet. 

punishment o* There was, however, a man named Ananias, i 
Ananias and who, with his wife Sapphira, sold some property, 

Sapphira. anc j ) w ith her connivance, kept back some of the 2 
proceeds. He brought only a part and laid it at the Apostles' 

"Ananias," Peter exclaimed, "how is it that Satan has so 3 
taken possession of your heart that you have lied to the Holy 
Spirit, and kept back a part of the money paid for the land ? 
While it was unsold, was not it your own ? and after it was 4 
sold, was not the money at your own disposal ? How did 
you come to think of such a thing? You have lied, not to 
men, but to God ! " 

As Ananias heard these words, he fell down and expired ; and 5 
every one who heard of it was appalled. The young men got 6 
up, and, winding the body in a sheet, carried it out and buried it. 

After an interval of about three hours his wife came in, not 7 
knowing what had happened. 

"Is it true," Peter asked, addressing her, "that you sold 8 
your land for such a sum ? " 

" Yes," she answered, " we did." 

Then Peter said : " How did you come to agree to provoke 9 
the Spirit of the Lord ? Listen ! The foot-steps of those who 
have buried your husband are at the door ; and they will 
carry you out too." 

Instantly Sapphira fell down at Peter's feet and expired. On 10 
coming in, the young men found her dead ; so they carried her 
out and buried her by her husband's side. The whole n 

Church and all who heard of these events were appalled. 

Many signs and wonders continued to occur 12 

Miracles done ,t i * < .1 ^ * 

by the among the people, through the instrumentality 
Apostles. O f the Apostles, whose custom it was to meet all 
together in the Colonnade of Solomon ; but of the rest no one 13 
ventured to join them. On the other hand, the people were 
full of their praise, and still larger numbers, both of men and 14 

222 THE ACTS, 5. 

women, as they became believers in the Lord, were added to 
their number. The consequence was that people would bring 15 
out their sick even into the streets, and lay them on mattresses 
and mats, in the hope that, as Peter came by, at least his 
shadow might fall on some one of them. Besides this, the 16 
inhabitants of the towns round Jerusalem flocked into the city, 
bringing with them their sick and those who were troubled by 
foul spirits ; and they were cured every one. 

At this the High Priest was roused to action, 17 
.totm'again an ^ ne an ^ all his supporters (who formed the 
before party of the Sadducees), moved by jealousy, 
the council, arrested the Apostles, and had them placed in 18 
custody. An angel of the Lord, however, opened the 19 

prison doors at night and led them out. 

"Go," he said, "and stand in the Temple Courts, and tell 20 
the people the whole Message of this new Life." 
When they heard this, they went at daybreak into the Temple 21 
Courts, and began to teach. The High Priest and his 

party, on their arrival, summoned the High Council, including 
all the leading men among the Israelites, and sent to the gaol 
to fetch the Apostles. But, when the' officers got there, they 22 
did not find them in the prison ; so they returned and re- 
ported that, while they had found the gaol barred securely 23 
and the guards posted at the doors, yet, on opening them, 
they had not found any one inside. When the Officer in 24 
charge at the Temple and the Chief Priests heard their story, 
they were perplexed about the Apostles and as to what all this 
would lead to. Presently, however, some one came and 25 

told them, that the men whom they had put in prison were ac- 
tually standing in the Temple Courts, teaching the people. On 26 
this, the Officer went with his men and fetched the Apostles' 
without using violence, for they were afraid of being stoned 
by the people and then brought them before the Council. 27 
The High Priest demanded an explanation from them. 

" We gave you strict orders," he said, " not to teach in this 28 
Name. Yet you have actually flooded Jerusalem with your 
teaching, and you wajit to make us responsible for the death 
of this man." 
To this Peter and the Apostles replied : 29 

"We must obey God rather than men. The God of our 30 
ancestors raised Jesus, whom you put to death by hanging 
him on a cross. It is this Jesus whom God has exalted to 31 
his right hand, to be a Guide and a Saviour, to give Israel 
repentance and forgiveness of sins. And we are witnesses to 32 
the truth of this, and so is the Holy Spirit the gift of God to 
those who obey him." 
The members of the Council became frantic with rage on hearing 33 

THE ACTS, 5-6. 223 

this, and were for putting the Apostles to death. But 34 

Gamaliel, a Pharisee, who was a Doctor of the Law and 
who was held in universal respect, rose in the Council, and 
directed that the men should be taken out of court for a little 
while. He then said : 35 

" Men of Israel, take care as to what you intend to do with 
these men. For not long ago Theudas appeared, professing 36 
to be somebody, and was joined by a body of some four hun- 
dred men. But he was killed ; and all his followers scattered 
and dwindled away. After him, Judas the Galilean appeared 37 
at the time of the census, and induced people to follow him ; 
yet he, too, perished and all his followers were dispersed. And, 38 
in this present case, my advice to you is not to interfere with 
these men, but to let them alone, for, if their designs and 
their work are merely of human origin, they will come to an 
end ; but, if they are of divine origin, you will be powerless to 39 
put an end to them or else you may find yourselves fighting 
against God ! " 

The Council followed his advice, and, calling the Apostles in, 40 
had them flogged, and then, after cautioning them not to speak 
in the Name of Jesus, set them free. But the Apostles 41 

left the Council, rejoicing that they had been thought worthy 
to suffer disgrace for that Name ; and never for a single day, 42 
either in the Temple Courts or in private houses, did they 
cease to teach, or to tell the Good News of Jesus, the Christ. 

. . . . About this time, when the number of the disci- i 

Appointment , ' . , . 

or pies was constantly increasing, complaints were 
'The seven.' made by the Jews of foreign birth against the 
native Jews, that their widows were being overlooked in the 
daily distribution. The Twelve, therefore, called together the 2 
general body of the disciples and said to them : 

" It is not well for us to see to" the distribution at the tables 
and neglect God's Message. Therefore, Brothers, look for 3 
seven men of reputation among yourselves, wise and spiri- 
tually-minded men, and we will appoint them to attend to 
this matter ; while we, for our part, will devote ourselves to 4 
Prayer, and to the delivery of the Message." 

This proposal was unanimously agreed to ; and the disciples 5 
chose Stephen a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit and 
Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas, and Nicholas 
of Antioch, a former convert to Judaism ; and they brought 6 
these men to the Apostles, who, after praying, placed their 
hands on them. 

So God's Message spread, and the number of the disciples 7 

224 THE ACTS, 67. 

continued to increase rapidly in Jerusalem, and a large body 
of the priests accepted the Faith. 

sto hen's Meanwhile Stephen, divinely helped and streng- 8 
Ministry'and thened, was showing great wonders and signs 

Trial. among the people. But some members 9 

of the Synagogue known as that of Libertines, Cyrenians, 
Alexandrians, and Visitors from Cilicia and Roman Asia, were 
roused to action and began disputing with Stephen ; yet they 10 
were quite unable to withstand the wisdom and the inspira- 
tion with which he spoke. Then they induced some men to n 
assert that they had heard Stephen saying blasphemous things 
against Moses, and against God ; and they stirred up the 12 
people, as well as the Councillors and the Teachers of the 
Law, and set upon Stephen, and arrested him, and brought 
him before the High Council. There they produced witnesses 13 
who gave false evidence. 

"This man," they said, "is incessantly saying things 
against this Holy Place and the Law ; indeed, we have heard 14 
him declare that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this Place, 
and change the customs handed down to us by Moses." 
The eyes of all the members of the Council were riveted upon 15 
Stephen, and they saw his face looking like the face of an 

Stephen's Then the High Priest asked : " Is this true ?" i 
Defence. And, upon that, Stephen spoke as follows : 2 

" Brothers and Fathers, hear what I have to say. God, 

who manifests himself in the Glory, appeared to our an- 
cestor Abraham, when he was in Mesopotamia, and before 
he settled in Haran, and said to him ' Leave your country 3 
and your kindred, and come into the country that I will show 
you.' On this, Abraham left the country of the Chaldaeans 4 
and settled in Haran ; and from there, after his father's death, 
God caused him to migrate into this very country, in which 
you are now living. God did not at that time give him any 5 
part of it, not even a foot of ground. But he promised to 
' give him possession of it and his descendants after him,' 
though at that time he had no child. God's words were 6 
these ' Abraham's descendants shall live in a foreign country, 
where they will be enslaved and ill-treated for four hundred 
years. But I myself will judge the nation, to which they will 7 
be enslaved,' God said, 'and after that they shall leave the 
country and worship me in this place.'' Then God made with 8 
Abraham the Covenant of Circumcision ; and under it Abraham 
became the father of Isaac, and circumcised him when he was 
eight days old ; and Isaac became the father of Jacob ; and 

* P. at). 3. * Gen. ia. i. Deut. a. 5 ; Gen. 17. 8. * 7 Gen. 15. 1314. 
* Exod. 3. 13. 8 Gen. 7. 10; ai. 4. 

THE ACTS, 7. 225 

Jacob of the Twelve Patriarchs. The Patriarchs, out 9 

of jealousy, sold Joseph into slavery in Egypt ; but God was 
with him, and delivered him out of all his troubles, and 10 
enabled him to win favour and show wisdom before Pharaoh, 
King of Egypt, who appointed him Governor of Egypt and of 
his whole household. Then a famine spread over the whole n 
of Egypt and Canaan, causing great distress, and our ancestors 
could find no food. Hearing, however, that there was corn 12 
in Egypt, Jacob sent our ancestors there on their first visit. In 13 
the course of their second visit, Joseph revealed himself to his 
brothers, and his family became known to Pharaoh. Then 14 
Joseph sent an urgent invitation to his father Jacob and to 
his relations, seventy-five persons in all ; and so Jacob went 15 
down into Egypt. There he died, and our ancestors also, and 16 
their bodies were removed to Shechem, and laid in the tomb 
which Abraham had bought for a sum of money from the 
sons of Hamor in Shechem. As the time drew near 17 

for the fulfilment of the promise which God had made to 
Abraham, the people increased largely in numbers in Egypt, 
until a new king, who knew nothing of Joseph, came to the 18 
throne. This king acted deceitfully towards our race and 19 
ill-treated our ancestors, making them abandon their own 
infants, so that they should not be reared. It was just at this 20 
time that Moses was born. He was an exceedingly beautiful 
child, and for three months was brought up in his own father's 
house ; and, when he was abandoned, the daughter of Pharaoh 21 
found him and brought him up as her own son. So Moses 22 
was educated in all the learning of the Egyptians, and proved 
his ability both by his words and actions. When he 23 

was in his fortieth year, he resolved to visit his brother 
Israelites ; and, seeing an Israelite ill-treated, he defended 24 
him, and avenged the man, who was being wronged, by 
striking down the Egyptian. He thought his brothers 25 
would understand that God was using him to save them ; 
but they failed to do so. The next day he again appeared 26 
upon the scene, when some of them were fighting, and 
tried to make peace between them. 'Men,' he said, 'you 
are brothers ; how is it that you are ill-treating one another?' 
But the man who was ill-treating his fellow workman 27 
pushed Moses aside saying ' Who made you a ruler and 
judge over us ? Do you mean to make away with me as you 28 
did yesterday with that Egyptian ? ' At these words Moses 29 
took to flight, and became an exile in Midian ; and there he 
had two sons born to him. Forty years had passed 30 

when there appeared to him, in the Desert of Mount Sinai, an 
angel in a flame of fire in a bush. When Moses saw it, he was 31 

9 Gen. 37. ii, 28. 1 Gen. 39. 21 ; 41. 37, 40, 43, 55 ; Ps. 105. 21. 1112 Gen. 42. 
3 Gen. 45. i. !* 15 Gen. 46. 27; Exod. i. 6. 16 Joshua 24. 32; Gen. 50. 1 
-19 Exod. I. 717. 20-29 Exod. 2. 215. 30 Exod. 3, I IO. ' 

226 THE ACTS, 7. 

astonished at the vision ; but on his going nearer to look at it 
more closely, the voice of the Lord was heard to say ' I am 32 
the God of your ancestors, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob.' Moses trembled, and did not dare to look. Then 33 
the Lord said to him ' Take your sandals off your feet, for the 
spot where you are standing- is holy ground. I have seen the 34 
oppression of my people who are in Egypt, and heard their 
groans, and I have come down to deliver them. Come now 
and I will send you into Egypt.' This same Moses, 35 

whom they had disowned with the words ' Who made you a 
ruler and a judge ? ' was the very man whom God sent to be 
both a ruler and a deliverer, under the guidance of the angel 
that had appeared to him in the bush. He it was who led them 36 
out, after he had shown wonders and signs in Egypt, in the 
Red Sea, and in the Desert during forty years. This was the 37 
Moses who said to the people of Israel' God will raise up for 

S>u, from among your brothers, a Prophet, as he raised up me.' 
e, too, it was who was present at the assembly in the Desert, 38 
with the angel who talked to him on Mount Sinai, and with 
our ancestors, and who received living truths to impart to you. 
Yet our ancestors refused him obedience ; more than that, 39 
they rejected him, and in their hearts turned back to Egypt, 
while they said to Aaron ' Make us Gods who will lead the 40 
way for us, since, as for this Moses who has brought us out of 
Egypt, we do not know what has become of him.' That was 41 
the time when they made the Calf and offered sacrifice to their 
idol, and held festivities in honour of their own handiwork ! 
So God turned from them and left them to the worship of the 42 
Starry Host, as is written in the Book of the Prophets 

' Did you offer victims and sacrifices to me, O House of Israel, 

All those forty years in the Desert ? 

You took with you the tabernacle of Moloch 43 

And the Star of the god Rephan 

The images which you had made to worship. 
Therefore I will exile you beyond Babylon.' 

Our ancestors had the Tabernacle of Revelation in the 44 
Desert, constructed, just as he who spoke to Moses had directed 
him to make it, after the model which he had seen. This 45 
Tabernacle, which was handed down to them, was brought 
into this country by our ancestors who accompanied Joshua 
(at the conquest of the nations that God drove out before their 
advance), and remained here until the time of David. David 46 
found favour with God, and prayed that he might find a 
dwelling for the God of Jacob. But it was Solomon who 47 

*! ** Exod. 3. i to. M Exod. 3. 14. M Exod. 7. 3 ; 15. 4 ; Num. 14. -53. 

7 Deut. 18. 15. 3 Num. 14. 3. -4i Exod. 33. 18. -* Jer. 8. 'a ; 

Amos, 5. 3537. ** Exod. 27. 21 ; Exod. 35. i, 40. *> Deut. 4. 38. 
< P. 133. 5. 

THE ACTS, 7-8. 227 

built a House for God. Yet it is not in buildings made by 48 
hands that the Most High dwells. As the Prophet says 

' The heavens are a throne for me, 49 

And the earth a stool for my feet. 
What manner of House will you build me, saith the Lord, 

Or what place is there where I may rest ? 

Was it not my hand that made all these things ? ' 50 

O ! stubborn race, heathen in heart and ears, you are for 51 
ever resisting the Holy Spirit ; your ancestors did it, and you 
are doing it still. Which of the Prophets escaped persecution 52 
at their hands ? They killed those who foretold the coming 
of the Righteous One ; of whom you, in your turn, have now 
become the betrayers and murderers you who received the 53 
Law as transmitted by angels and yet failed to keep it." 

Stephen's As they listened to this, the Council grew fnan- 54 
Martyrdom, tic with rage, and gnashed their teeth at Stephen. 
He, filled as he was with the Holy Spirit, fixed his eyes in- 55 
tently on the heavens, and saw the Glory of God and Jesus 
standing at God's right hand. 

"Look," he exclaimed, "I see Heaven open and the Son 56 
of Man standing at God's right hand ! " 

At this, with a loud shout, they stopped their ears and all 57 
rushed upon him, forced him outside the city, and began to 58 
stone him, the witnesses laying their clothes at the feet of a 
young man named Saul. And they stoned Stephen, while he 59 
cried to the Lord : " Lord Jesus ! receive my spirit ! " 
Falling on his knees, he called out loudly : 60 

"Lord ! do not charge them with this sin ; " and with these 
words he fell asleep. 

Saul approved of his being put to death. i 8 

The First On that very day a great persecution broke out 
Persecution, against the Church which was in Jerusalem ; and 
its members, with the exception of the Apostles, were all 
scattered over the districts of Judaea and Samaria. Some 2 
religious men buried Stephen, with loud lamentations for him. 
But Saul began to devastate the Church ; he entered house 3 
after house, dragged out men and women alike, and threw 
them into prison. 


Now those who were scattered in different 
try'in directions went from place to place proclaiming 


Samaria, the Good News. Philip went down to the city of 5 
Samaria, and there began to preach the Christ. The people, 6 
one and all, listened attentively to what Philip told them, 
when they heard of, and saw, the miracles which he was 

i Kings 6. i. O so Isa. 66. 12. sl Exod. 33. 3 ; Jer. 9. 26 ; 6. 10 ; Isa. 63. 10. 

228 THE ACTS, 8. 

working. For there were many instances of people with foul 
spirits, where the spirits, with loud screams, came out of 
them ; and many who were paralyzed or lame were cured, so 
that there was great rejoicing- throughout that city. 

There was staying in the city a man named Simon, who 
had been practising magic there and mystifying the Samari- 
tan people, giving himself out to be some great Being. Every 
one, high and low, paid attention to him. 'This man,' they 
used to say, ' must be that Power of God which men call " The 
Great Power.'" And they paid attention- to him because 
they had for a long time been mystified by his magic arts. 
However, when they came to believe Philip, as he told them 
the Good News about the Kingdom of God and the Name of 
Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. Even 
Simon believed, and after his baptism -attached himself to 
Philip, and was in his turn mystified at seeing signs and great 
miracles constantly occurring. 

When the Apostles at Jerusalem heard that the 

antfjohn Samaritans had welcomed God's Message, they 
at sent Peter and John to them ; and they, on their 

Samaria. arr i va l ( prayed that the Samaritans might re- 
ceive the Holy Spirit. (As yet the Spirit had not descended upon 
any of them ; they had only been baptized into the Faith of the 
Lord Jesus). Then Peter and John placed their hands on 
them, and they received the Holy Spirit. When Simon 

saw that it was through the placing of the Apostles' hands on 
them that the Spirit was given, he brought them a sum of 
money and said : 

" Give me also this power of yours, so that, if I place my 
hands upon any one, he may receive the Holy Spirit." 

"A curse upon you and upon your money," Peter ex- 
claimed, " for thinking that God's free gift can be bought with 
gold ! You have no share or part in our Message, for your 
'heart is not right with God.' Therefore repent of this 
wickedness of yours, and pray to the Lord, that, if possi- 
ble, you may be forgiven for such a thought ; for I see that 
you have fallen into the ' bitterness of envy ' and the ' fetters 
of sin.'" 

" Pray to the Lord for me, all of you," Simon answered, 
"so that none of the things you have spoken of may befall 

Peter and John, having borne their testimony and delivered 
the Lord's Message, returned to Jerusalem, telling the Good 
News, as they went, in many Samaritan villages. 

Philip Meanwhile an angel of the Lord had said to 

and the Philip : 

At>y..inian. et out on & j ourne y southwards, along the 

21 P. 78. 37. Deut. 39. 18 ; Ia. 58. 6. 

THE ACTS, 89. 229 

road that runs down from Jerusalem to Gaza." (It is now 

So Philip set out on a journey ; and on his way he came upon 27 
an official of high rank, in the service of Candace, Queen of 
the Abyssinians. He was her Treasurer, and had been to 
Jerusalem to worship, and was now on his way home, sitting 28 
in his carriage and reading the Prophet Isaiah. The Spirit 29 
said to Philip : 

" Go up to the carriage yonder and keep close to it." 
So Philip ran up, and he heard the Abyssinian reading the 30 
Prophet Isaiah. 

" Do you understand what you are reading ? " he asked. 

"How can I," the other answered, "unless some one will 31 
explain it to me ? " and he invited Philip to get up and sit by 
his side. The passage of Scripture which he was reading 32 
was this 

' Like a sheep, he was led away to slaughter, 

And as a lamb is dumb in the hands of its shearer, 
So he refrains from opening 1 his lips. 

In his lowly condition justice was denied him. 33 

Who will tell the story of his generation ? 
For his life is cut off from earth.' 

"Now," said the Treasurer, addressing Philip, "tell 34 
me, of whom is the Prophet speaking ? Of himself, or of 
some one else ? " 

Then Philip began, and, taking this passage as his text, told 35 
him the Good News about Jesus. Presently, as they were 36 
going along the road, they came to some water, and the 
Treasurer exclaimed : 

" Look ! here is water ; what is to prevent my being bap- 
tized ? " 

So he ordered the carriage to stop, and they went down into 38 
the water both Philip and the Treasurer and Philip baptized 
him. But, when they came' up out of the water, the Spirit of 39 
the Lord caught Philip away, and the Treasurer saw no more 
of him ; for he continued his journey with a joyful heart. But 40 
Philip was found at Ashdod, and, as he went on his way, he 
told the Good News in all the towns through which he passed, 
till he came to Caesarea. 

soul's Meanwhile Saul, still breathing murderous 

conversion, threats against the disciples of the Lord, went 
to the High Priest, and asked him to give him letters to the 
Jewish congregations at Damascus, authorizing him, if he 
found there any supporters of the Cause, whether men or 
women, to have them put in chains and brought to Jerusalem. 

32-33 isa. S3 . 7, 8. 

230 THE ACTS, 9. 

While on his journey, as he was nearing Damascus, sud- 3 
denly a light from the heavens flashed around him. He fell 4 
to the ground and heard a voice saying to him " Saul, Saul, 
why are you persecuting me ? " 

" Who are you, Lord ? " he asked. 5 

" I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting," the voice an- 
swered ; "yet stand up and go into the city, and you will be 6 
told what you must do." 

The men travelling with Saul were meanwhile standing 7 
speechless ; they heard the sound of the voice, but saw no one. 
When Saul got up from the ground, though his eyes were 8 
open, he could see nothing. So his men led him by the 
hand, and brought him into Damascus ; and for three days 9 
he was unable to see, and took nothing either to eat or to 

u| Now there was at Damascus a disciple named 10 

at Ananias, to whom, in a vision, the Lord said : 

Damascus. "Ananias." 

" Yes, Lord," he answered. 

" Go at once," said the Lord, " to the ' Straight Street ', and n 
ask at Judas's house for a man named Saul, from Tarsus. He 
is at this moment praying, and he has seen, in a vision, a man 12 
named Ananias coming in and placing his hands on him, so 
that he may recover his sight." 

" Lord," exclaimed Ananias, " I have heard from many 13 
people about this man how much harm he has done at 
Jerusalem to your People there. And, here, too, he holds 14 
authority from the Chief Priests to put in chains all those who 
invoke your Name." 

But the Lord said to him : "Go, for this man is my chosen 15 
instrument to uphold my Name before the Gentiles and their 
kings, and the people of Israel. I will myself show him all 16 
that he has to suffer for my Name." 

So Ananias went, entered the house, and, placing his hands 17 
on Saul, said : 

" Saul, my Brother, I have been sent by the Lord by Jesus, 
who appeared to you on your way here so that you may 
recover your sight and be filled with the Holy Spirit." 
Instantly it seemed as if a film fell from Saul's eyes, and his 18 
sight was restored. Then he got up and was baptized, and, 19 
after he had taken food, he felt his strength return. 

Saul stayed for some days with the disciples who were at 
Damascus, and at once began in the Synagogues to pro- 20 
claim Jesus as the Son of God. All who heard him were 21 

" Is not this," they asked, " the man who worked havoc in 
Jerusalem among those that invoke this Name, and who had 

THE ACTS, 9. 231 

also come here for the express purpose of having such persons 
put in chains and taken before the Chief Priests ? " 
Saul's influence, however, kept steadily increasing, and he 22 
confounded the Jews who lived in Damascus by the proofs 
that he gave that Jesus was the Christ. 

After some time the Jews laid a plot to kill Saul, but it 23 
became known to him. They even watched the gates day 24 
and night, to kill him ; but his disciples let him down by 25 
night through an opening in the wall, lowering him in a 

saui at ^ n h* s ari "i va l in Jerusalem, Saul attempted to 26 
Jerusalem join the disciples, but they were all afraid of him, 
and Tarsus. as th e y did not believe that he was really a dis- 
ciple. Barnabas, however, taking him by the hand, brought 27 
him to the Apostles, and told them the whole story of how 
Saul on his journey had seen the Lord, and how the Lord had 
talked to him, and how in Damascus he had spoken out fear- 
lessly in the Name of Jesus. After that, Saul remained in 28 
Jerusalem, in close intercourse with the Apostles ; and he 29 
spoke fearlessly in the Name of the Lord, talking and argu- 
ing with the Jews of foreign birth, who, however, made 
attempts to kill him. But, when the Brethren found this out, 30 
they took him down to Caesarea, and sent him on his way to 

And so it came about that the Church, throughout Judaea, 31 
Galilee, and Samaria, enjoyed peace and became firmly estab- 
lished ; and, ordering its life by reverence for the Lord and the 
help of the Holy Spirit, it increased in numbers. 

Peter, while travelling from place to place 32 
MiTac*"at throughout the country, went down to visit the 

Lydda People of Christ living at Lydda. There he found 33 
and jatra. a jjj^ name d Aeneas, who had been bed-ridden 

for eight years with paralysis. 

"Aeneas," Peter said to him, "Jesus Christ cures you. Get 34 

up, and make your bed." 

Aeneas got up at once ; and all the inhabitants of Lydda and 35 

of the Plain of Sharon saw him, and came over to the Lord's 


At Jaffa there lived a disciple whose name was Tabitha, 36 
which is in Greek 'Dorcas' a Gazelle. Her life was spent 
in doing kind and charitable actions. Just at that time she 37 
was taken ill, and died ; and they had washed her body 
and laid it out in an upstairs room. Jaffa was near Lydda, 38 

232 THE ACTS, 9-1O. 

and the disciples, having heard that Peter was at Lydda, sent 
two men with the request that he would come on to them with- 
out delay. Peter returned with them at once. On his arrival, 39 
he was taken upstairs, and all the widows came round him in 
tears, showing the coats and other clothing which Dorcas had 
made while she was among them. But Peter sent everybody 40 
out of the room, and knelt down and prayed. Then, turning 
to the body, he said : 

"Tabitha! stand up." 

She opened her eyes, and, seeing Peter, sat up. Giving her 41 
his hand, Peter raised her up, and, calling in the widows and 
others of Christ's People, presented her to them alive. This 42 
became known all through Jaffa, and numbers of people came 
to believe in the Lord. And Peter stayed some days 43 

at Jaffa with a tanner named Simon. 

Peter There was then in Caesarea a man named i 

and Cornelius, a Captain in the regiment known 

Cornelius. as t ne ' Italian Regiment,' a religious man and 2 
one who reverenced God, with all his household. He was 
liberal in his charities to the people, and prayed to God con- 
stantly. One afternoon, about three o'clock, he distinctly saw 3 
in a vision an angel from God come to him, and call him 
by name. Cornelius fixed his eyes on him and, in great alarm, 4 
said : " What is it, Lord ? " 

"Your prayers and your charities," the angel answered, 
"have been an- acceptable offering to God. And now, send 5 
messengers to Jaffa and fetch a man called Simon, who is also 
known as Peter. He is lodging with a tanner named Simon, 6 
who has a house near the sea." 

When the angel, who had spoken to him, had gone, Cornelius 7 
called two menservants and a religious soldier, who was one 
of his constant attendants, and, after telling them the whole 8 
story, sent them to Jaffa. 

On the next day, while these men were on their way, just 9 
as they were nearing the town, Peter went up on the house- 
top about mid-day to pray. He became hungry and wanted 10 
something to eat ; but, while it was being prepared, he fell into 
a trance, and saw that the heavens were open, and that some- n 
thing like a great sail was descending, let down by its four 
corners towards the earth. In it were all kinds of quadrupeds, 12 
reptiles, and birds. Then he was aware of a voice which said 13 
"Stand up, Peter, kill something, and eat." 

" No, Lord, I cannot," answered Peter, "for I have never 14 
eaten anything ' defiled ' and ' unclean '." 

Again he was aware of a voice which said "What God 15 
has pronounced ' clean ', do not regard as ' defiled '." 

* Enoch 99. 3. 

THE ACTS, 1O. 233 

This happened three times, and then suddenly it was all 16 
taken up into the heavens. 

While Peter was still perplexed as to the meaning of the 17 
vision that he had seen, the men sent by Cornelius, having 
enquired the way to Simon's house, came up to the gate, and 18 
called out and asked if the Simon, who was also known as 
Peter, was lodging there. Peter was still pondering 19 

over the vision, when the Spirit said to him : 

"There are two men looking for you at this moment. Go 20 
down at once and do not hesitate to go with them, for I have 
sent them." 
Peter went down to the men and said : 21 

' ' I am the man for whom you are looking. What is your 
reason for coming ? " 
The men replied : 22 

"Our captain, Cornelius, a pious man who reverences God 
and is well spoken of by the whole Jewish nation, has been 
instructed by a holy angel to send for you to his house, and 
to listen to what you have to say." 
Upon this Peter invited them in and entertained them. 23 

The next day he lost no time in setting out with them, 
accompanied by some of the Brethren from Jaffa ; and the 24 
day following he entered Caesarea. Cornelius was expecting 
them, and had invited his relations and intimate friends to 
meet them. So, when Peter entered the city, Cornelius 25 

met him, and, throwing himself at Peter's feet, bowed to the 
ground. Peter, however, lifted him up, saying as he did so : 26 

" Stand up, I am only a man like yourself." 

Talking with him as he went, Peter entered the house, where 27 
he found a large gathering of people, to whom he said : 28 

"You are doubtless aware that it is forbidden for a Jew to 
be intimate with a foreigner, or even to enter his house ; 
and yet God has shown me that I ought not to call any 
man 'defiled' or 'unclean.' That was why I came, when I 29 
was sent for, without raising any objection. And now I ask 
your reason for sending for me." 

"Just three days ago this very hour," Cornelius said, "I 30 
was in my house, saying the Afternoon Prayers, when a 
man in dazzling clothing suddenly stood before me. 'Cornelius,' 31 
he said, ' your prayer has been heard, and your charities have 
been accepted, by God. Therefore send to Jaffa, and invite 32 
the Simon, who is also known as Peter, to come here. He is 
lodging in the house of Simon the tanner, near the sea.' 
Accordingly I sent to you at once, and you have been so good 33 
as to come. And now we are all here in the presence of God, 
to listen to all that you have been instructed by the Lord to say." 
Then Peter began. 34 

"I see, beyond all doubt," he said, "that 'God does not 
w Deut. 10. 17. 


234 THE ACTS, 1O 11, 

show partiality,' but that in every nation he who reverences 35 
him and does what is right is acceptable to him. God has 36 
sent his Message to the Israelites and told them, through 
Jesus Christ, the Good News of peace and Jesus is Lord of 
all ! You yourselves know the story which spread through all 37 
Judaea, how, beginning from Galilee, after the baptism which 
John proclaimed the story, I mean, of Jesus of Nazareth, 38 
and how God consecrated him his Christ by enduing him with 
the Holy iSpirit and with power ; and how he went about 
doing good and curing all who were under the power of the 
Devil, because God was with him. We are ourselves, too, 39 
witnesses to all that he did in Judaea and in Jerusalem ; yet 
they put him to death by hanging him on a cross ! This Jesus 40 
God raised on the third day, and enabled him to appear, not 41 
indeed to every one, but to witnesses chosen beforehand by 
God to us, who ate and drank with him after his resurrec- 
tion from the dead. Further, God charged us to proclaim to 42 
the people, and solemnly affirm, that it is Jesus who has been 
appointed by God Judge of the living and the dead. To him 43 
it is that all the Prophets bear witness, when they say that 
every one who believes in him receives through his Name 
forgiveness of sins." 

First Before Peter had finished' saying these words, 44 

conversion the Holy Spirit fell on all who were listening to 
of Gentile*. ^j ie Message. Those converts from Judaism, 45 
who had come with Peter, were amazed that the gift of the 
Holy Spirit had been bestowed even upon the Gentiles ; for 46 
they heard them speaking with ' tongues ' and extolling God. 
At this Peter asked : 

"Can any one refuse the water for the baptism of -these 47 
people, now that they have received the Holy Spirit as we did 
ourselves ? " 

And he directed that they should be baptized in the Faith of 48 
Jesus Christ ; after which they asked him to stay there a 
few days longer. 

The Apostles and the Brethren throughout i 
or Judaea heard that even the Gentiles had wel- 

HiB Action, corned God's Message. But, when Peter 2 

went up to Jerusalem, those who were converts from Judaism 
began to attack him on the ground that he had visited people 3 
who were not circumcised, and had taken meals with them. 
So Peter began to relate the facts to them as they had oc- 4 

" I was in the town of Jaffa," he said, " and was praying ; 5 
and, while in a trance, I saw a vision. There was something 
like a great sail descending, let down by its four corners put 
of the heavens ; and it came right down to me. Looking 6 

* P. 147. 1819 ; Isa. 52. 7. *8 Isa. 61. i. Deut. ai. a*. 

THE ACTS, 11. 225 

intently at it, I began to distinguish quadrupeds, wild beasts, 
reptiles, and birds ; and I also heard a voice saying to 7 
me 'Stand up, Peter, kill something and eat.' 'No, Lord, 8 
I cannot,' I answered, ' for nothing ' defiled ' or ' unclean ' has 
ever passed my lips.' Then a second time there came a voice 9 
from the heavens. "What God has pronounced 'clean'," it 
said, "you must not call 'defiled'." This happened three 10 
times, and then all was drawn up again into the heavens. 
At that moment three men, who had been sent from Caesarea n 
to see me, came up to the house in which we were. The 12 
Spirit told me to go with them without hesitation. These 
six Brothers also went with me. And, when we came into 
the man's house, he told us how he had seen the angel 13 
standing in his house, and how the angel had said to him 
' Send to Jaffa and fetch the Simon, who is also known as 
Peter ; for he will tell you truths, which will prove the 14 
means of Salvation to you and all your household.' I had 15 
but just begun to speak," continued Peter, "when the Holy 
Spirit fell on them, exactly as on us at the first ; and I recalled 16 
the saying of the Master 'John baptized with water, but 
you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit.' Since then, God 17 
had given them the very same gift as he gave us when we 
became believers in Jesus Christ the Master who was I that 
I could thwart God ? " 

On hearing this statement, they said no more, but broke out 18 
into praise of God. "So even to the Gentiles," they ex- 
claimed, "God has granted the repentance which leads to 
Life ! " 

'Christians' Now those who had been scattered in different 19 

atAntioch. directions, in consequence of the persecution 
that followed upon the death of Stephen, went as far as 
Phoenicia, Cyprus, and Antioch, telling the Message but only 
to Jews. Some of them, however, who were men of 20 

Cyprus and Cyrene, on coming to Antioch, addressed them- 
selves also to the Jews of foreign birth, telling them the Good 
News about the Lord Jesus. The power of the Lord was with 21 
them, so that a great number who had learnt to believe came 
over to the Lord's side. The news about them reached 22 

the ears of the Church at Jerusalem, and they sent Barnabas 
to Antioch. On coming there he saw to his great joy 23 
these tokens of the loving-kindness of God, and encouraged 
them all to make up their minds to be faithful to the Lord for 24 
Barnabas was a good man and full of the Holy Spirit and of 
faith and a large number of people took their stand on the 
Lord's side. Afterwards Barnabas left for Tarsus to look 25 
for Saul ; and, when he had found him, he brought him to 26 

iSWisd. of Sol. 12. 10. 

236 THE ACTS, 11-12. 

Antioch. And so it came about that, for a whole year, they 
attended the meetings of the Church there, and taught a large 
number of people ; and it was in Antioch that the disciples 
were first called ' Christians.' 

During this time, some Prophets came to 27 
Barnabaeand Antioch from Jerusalem. One of them, named 28 
Saul to Agabus, came forward and, under the influence 
Judaea. Q f ^ e Spirit, foretold a great famine that was to 
spread over all the world a famine which occurred in the 
reign of Claudius. So the disciples, without exception, deter- 29 
mined, in proportion to their means, to send something to help 
the Brethren living in Judaea. And this they did, sending it to 30 
the Officers of the Church by the hands of Barnabas and Saul. 

Persecution It was at that time that King Herod began to i 
of the illtreat some of the members of the Church. He 2 

Ch Herod by had James, the brother of John, beheaded ; and, 3 

Agrippa i. when he saw that the Jews were pleased with 
this, he proceeded to arrest Peter also. (This was during the 
Festival of the Unleavened Bread.) After seizing Peter, Herod 4 
put him in prison, and entrusted him to the keeping of four 
Guards of four soldiers each, intending, after the Passover, to 
bring him up before the people. So Peter was kept in prison, 5 
but meanwhile the prayers of the Church were being earnestly 
offered to God on his behalf. Just when Herod was 6 

intending to bring him before the people, on that very night 
Peter was asleep between two soldiers, chained to them both, 
while there were sentries in front of the door, guarding the 
prison. Suddenly an angel of the Lord stood by him, and a 7 
light shone in the cell. The angel struck Peter on the side, 
and roused him with the words : " Get up quickly." 
The chains dropped from his wrists, and then the angel said : 8 
" Put on your girdle and sandals." 

When Peter had done so, the angel added: "Throw your 
cloak round you and follow me." 

Peter followed him out, not knowing that what was 9 
happening under the angel's guidance was real, but thinking 
that he was seeing a vision. Passing the first Guard, and 10 
then the second, they came to the iron gate leading into the 
city, which opened to them of itself; and, when they had 
passed through that, and had walked along one street, all at 
once the angel left him. Then Peter came to himself and said : 1 1 

" Now I know beyond all doubt that the Lord has sent his 
angd, and has rescued me from Herod's hands and from all 
that the Jewish people have been expecting." 

THE ACTS, 12-18. 237 

As soon as he realized what had happened, he went to the 12 
house of Mary, the mother of John who was also known as 
Mark, where a number of people were gathered together, 
praying. On his knocking at the door in the gate, a maid- 13 
servant, named Rhoda, came to answer it. She recognized 14 
Peter's voice, but in her joy left the gate unopened, and 
ran in, and told them that Peter was standing outside. 

" You are mad ! " they exclaimed. 15 

But, when she persisted that it was so, they said : 

" It must be his spirit ! " 

Meanwhile Peter went on knocking, and, when they opened 16 
the gate and saw him, they were amazed. Peter signed to 17 
them with his hand to be silent, and then told them how the 
Lord had brought him out of the prison, adding : 

"Tell James and the Brethren all this." 

Then he left the house, and went away to another place. In 18 

the morning there was a great stir among the soldiers 
what could have become of Peter ! And, when Herod had 19 
made further search for him and failed to find him, he closely 
questioned the Guard, and ordered them away to execution. 
Then he went down from Judaea to stay at Caesarea. 

Herod'* It happened that Herod was deeply offended 20 
Death. with the people of Tyre and Sidon, but they went 
in a body to him, and, having succeeded in winning over 
Blastus, the Chamberlain, they begged Herod for a recon- 
ciliation, because their country was dependent on the King's 
for its food-supply. On an appointed day Herod, wearing his 21 
state-robes, seated himself on his throne, and delivered an 
oration. The people kept shouting : " It is the voice of God, 22 
and not of a man ! " 

Instantly an angel of the Lord struck him, because he did not 23 
give God the glory ; and he was attacked with worms, and died. 

Meanwhile the Lord's Message kept extending, and spread- 24 
ing far and wide. 

When Barnabas and Saul had carried out their mission, 25 
they returned to Jerusalem, and took with them John, who 
was also known as Mark. 

Doings of the Apostle Paul. 

PAUL'S FIRST Among the members of the Church at Antioch 

MISSIONARY there were several Prophets and Teachers 

JOURNEY. Barnabas, Simeon who was known by the name 

TH start of ' Black ', Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen, foster- 

from Antioch. brother of Prince Herod, and Saul. While 

238 THE ACTS, 13. 

they were engaged in the worship of the Lord and were 
fasting, the Holy Spirit said : 

"Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul, for the work to 
which I have called them." 

Accordingly, after fasting and prayer, they placed their hands 3 
on them and dismissed them. 

Paul and Barnabas and Saul, sent on this mission, as 4 
Barnabas at they were, by the Holy Spirit, went down to 

Cyprus. Seleucia, and from there sailed to Cyprus. On 5 
reaching Salamis, they began to tell the Message of God in 
the Jewish Synagogues ; and they had John with them as 
an assistant. 

After passing through the whole island, they reached Paphos, 6 
where they found an astrologer who pretended to be a Prophet 
a Jew by birth, whose name was Barjoshua. He was at 7 
the court of the Governor, Sergius Paulus, a man of intelli- 
gence, who sent for Barnabas and Saul and asked to be told 
God's Message. But Elymas, the astrologer (for that is the 8 
meaning of the word), opposed them, eager to divert the 
Governor's attention from the Faith. However, Saul (who is 9 
the same as Paul), full of the Holy Spirit, fixed his eyes on 
him and said : 10 

"You incarnation of deceit and all fraud ! You son of the 
Devil ! You opponent of all that is good ! Will you never 
cease to divert ' the straight paths of the Lord ' ? Listen ! 
The hand of the Lord is upon you even now, and you will be n 
blind for a time and unable to see the sun." 
Immediately a mist and darkness fell upon him, and he went 
feeling about for some one to guide him. When the Governor 12 
saw what had happened, he became a believer in Christ, being 
greatly impressed by the teaching about the Lord. 

After this, Paul and his companions set sail 13 
BaTiTaba's'at from Paphos and went to Perga in Pamphylia, 
pisidian where John left them and returned to Jerusa- 
Antiooh. i ern . The others went on from Perga and 14 

arrived at Antioch in Pisidia. There they went into the Syna- 
gogue on the Sabbath and took their seats. After the reading 15 
of the Law and the Prophets, the Presidents of the Synagogue 
sent them this message " Brothers, if you have any helpful 
words to address to the people, now is the time to speak." 
So Paul rose and, motioning with his hand, spoke as follows : 16 

" Men of Israel and all here who reverence God, hear what 
I have to say. The God of this people Israel chose 17 

our ancestors, and during their stay in Egypt increased the 
prosperity of the people, and then ' with uplifted arm brought 
them out from that land.' For about r orty years ' he bore with 18 
10 Hos. 14. 9. Exod. 6. 6. W Deut. i. 31. 

THE ACTS, 13. 239 

them in the Desert ' ; then, after destroying seven heathen 19 
nations in Canaan, he allotted their land to this people for 
about four hundred and fifty years. In later times he gave 20 
them Judges, of whom the Prophet Samuel was the last. And, 21 
when they demanded a king, God gave them Saul the son of 
Kish, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, who reigned for forty 
years. After removing him, he raised David to the throne, 22 
and bore this testimony to him' In David, the son of Jesse, 
I have found a man after my own heart, who will carry 
out all my purposes.' It was from this man's descendants 23 
that God, in accordance with his promise, gave Israel a 
Saviour Jesus ; John having first proclaimed, before the 24 
appearance of Jesus, a baptism upon repentance for all the 
people of Israel. As John was drawing towards the end of 25 
his career, he said ' What do you suppose that I am ? I am 
not the Christ. But there is ' ' One Coming " after me, whose 
very sandal I am not worthy to untie.' Brothers, 26 

descendants of Abraham, and all those among you who re- 
verence God, it was to us that the Message of this Salvation 
was sent. The people of Jerusalem and their leading men, 27 
failing to recognize Jesus, and not understanding the utter- 
ances of the Prophets that are read every Sabbath, fulfilled 
them by condemning him. They found no ground at all 28 
for putting him to death, and yet demanded his execution 
from Pilate ; and, after carrying out everything written 29 
about him, they took Jesus down from the cross, and laid 
him in a tomb. But God raised him from the dead ; and 30, 
he appeared for many days to those who had gone up with 
him from Galilee to Jerusalem, and who are now witnesses 
for him to the people. We also have good news to tell you, 32 
about the promise made to our ancestors that our children 33 
have had this promise completely fulfilled to them by God, 
by his raising Jesus. That is just what is said in the second 

' Thou art my Son ; this day I have become thy Father.' 

As to his raising Jesus from the dead, never again to return 34 
to corruption, this is what is said 

' I will give to you the sacred promises made to David ; ' 

and, therefore, in another Psalm it is said 35 

' Thou wilt not give up thy Holy One to undergo corruption.' 

David, after obediently doing God's will in his own time, ' fell 36 
asleep and was laid by the side of his ancestors', and did 

undergo corruption ; but Jesus, whom God raised from the 37 

dead, did not undergo corruption. I would, therefore, 38 

19 Dcut. 7. i; Joshua 14. i. 22 Ps. 80. 20; i Sam. 13. 14. 26 p s . z ,8. ,6. 
33 p s . 2. 7. Isa. 55. 3. 35 Ps. j6. 10. 30 i Kings x. 10. 

240 THE ACTS, 18-14. 

have you know, Brothers, that through Jesus forgiveness of 
sins is being proclaimed to you, and that, in union with him, 39 
every one who believes in him is absolved from every sin from 
which under the Law of Moses you could not be absolved. 
Beware, therefore, that what is said in the Prophets does not 40 
come true of you 

4 Look, you despisers, and wonder, and perish ; 41 

For I am doing" a deed in your days 
A deed which, though told you in full, you will never believe '." 

As Paul and Barnabas were leaving the Synagogue, the 42 
people begged for a repetition of this teaching on the next 
Sabbath. After the congregation had dispersed, many of the 43 
Jews, and of the converts who joined in their worship, followed 
Paul and Barnabas, who talked with them and urged them to 
continue to rely upon the loving-kindness of God. 

On the following Sabbath, almost all the city gathered to 44 
hear God's Message. But the sight of the crowds of people 45 
filled the minds of the Jews with jealousy, and they kept con- 
tradicting Paul's statements in violent language. Then Paul 46 
and Barnabas spoke out fearlessly, and said : 

" It was necessary that the Message of God should be told 
to you first ; but, since you reject it and reckon yourselves not 
worthy of the Immortal Life we turn to the Gentiles ! For 47 
this is the Lord's command to us 

' I have destined thee for a Light to the Gentiles, 
A means of Salvation to the ends of the earth '." 

On hearing this, the Gentiles were glad and extolled God's 48 
Message ; and all those who had been enrolled for Immortal 
Life became believers in Christ ; and the Lord's Message was 49 
carried throughout that district. But the Jews incited the 50 
women of position who worshipped with them, and the 
leading men of the town, and started a persecution against 
Paul and Barnabas, and drove them out of their neighbour- 
hood. They, however, shook the dust off their feet in protest, 51 
and went to Iconium, leaving the disciples full of joy and of 52 
the Holy Spirit. 

p^, The same thing occurred in Iconium, where i 

and Barnabas Paul and Barnabas went into the Jewish Syna- 
t iconium. gogue, and spoke in such a way that a great 
number of both Jews and Greeks believed in Christ. But the 2 
Jews who refused to believe stirred up the Gentiles, and 
poisoned their minds against the Brethren. Therefore Paul 3 
and Barnabas spent a long time there, and spoke out fear- 
lessly, relying upon the Lord, who confirmed the Message of 
his Love by permitting signs and wonders to take place at 

Hab. i. 5. lea. 49. 6. 

THE ACTS, 14. 241 

their hands. But the townspeople were divided, some siding 4 
with the Jews, some with the Apostles ; and, when there was 5 
an attempt on the part of both Gentiles and Jews, with their 
leading men, to resort to violence and to stone them, the 6 
Apostles heard of it, and took refuge in Lystra and Derbe, 
towns in Lycaonia, and in the district round, and there they 7 
continued to tell the Good News. 

In the streets of Lystra there used to sit a 8 
and Barnabas man who had no power in his feet ; he had been 

at Lystra. lame from his birth, and had never walked. This 9 
man was listening to Paul speaking, when Paul, fixing his 
eyes on him, and seeing that he had the faith to be healed, 
said loudly : " Stand upright on your feet." 10 

The man leaped up, and began walking about, and the n 
crowd, seeing what Paul had done, called out in the 
Lycaonian language : 

"The Gods have made themselves like men and have come 
down to us." 

So they called Barnabas 'Zeus,' and Paul ' Hermes,' because 12 
he took the lead in speaking ; and the priest of Zeus- 13 
beyond-the-Walls, accompanied by the crowd, brought bul- 
locks and garlands to the gates, with the intention of offering 
sacrifices. But, when the Apostles Barnabas and Paul 1,4 
heard of it, they tore their clothes and rushed out into the 

"Friends, why are you doing this?" they shouted. "We 15 
are only men like yourselves, and we have come with the 
Good News that you should turn away from these follies to a 
living God, ' who made the heavens, the earth, the sea, and 
everything that is in them.' In bygone times he permitted all 16 
the nations to go their own ways. Yet he has not failed to 17 
give you, in the good he does, some revelation of himself 
sending you from Heaven rain and fruitful seasons, and 
gladdening your hearts with plenty and good cheer." 
Even with this appeal they could hardly restrain the people 18 
from offering sacrifice to them. 

Presently, however, there came some Jews from Antioch 19 
and Iconium who, after they had won over the people, stoned 
Paul, and dragged him out of the town, thinking him to be 
dead. But, when the disciples had gathered round him, he got 20 
up and went back into the town ; the next day he went with 

Barnabas to Derbe. After telling the Good 21 

Ba"nabas News throughout that town, and making a 
return number of converts, they returned to Lystra, 

^AntTocn*" I con i um > a d Antioch, reassuring the minds of 22 

the disciples, urging them to remain true to the 
Faith, and showing that it is only through many troubles that 
we can enter the Kingdom of God. They also appointed Officers 23 

IB Ps. 146. 56. 

242 THE ACTS, 14-15. 

for them in every Church, and, after prayer and fasting, 
commended them to the Lord in whom they had learnt to 
believe". Paul and Barnabas then went through Pisidia, and 24 
came into Pamphylia, and, after telling the Message at Perga, 25 

went down to Attaleia. From there they sailed to 26 
Barnabas Antioch the place where they had been com- 

mitted to the gracious care of God for the work 

at Syrian which they had now finished. After their 27 

Antioch. arr ; va i ( they gathered the Church together, and 
gave an account of all that God had helped them to do, and 
especially how he had opened to the Gentiles the door of 
faith ; and at Antioch they stayed with the disciples for a 28 
considerable time. 

council ^ u ' cei "tain persons came down from Judaea, i 
at and began to teach the Brethren that, unless 

Jerusalem, they were circumcised, in accordance with the 
custom enjoined by Moses, they could not be saved. This 2 
gave rise to a serious dispute, and much discussion, between 
Paul and Barnabas and these men, and it was therefore settled 
that Paul and Barnabas and others of their number should go 
up to Jerusalem, to consult the Apostles and Officers of the 
Church about the matter under discussion. 

The Church, therefore, sent them on their journey, and they 3 
made their way through Phoenicia and Samaria, telling the 
story of the conversion of the Gentiles, to the great joy of all 
the Brethren. On their arrival at Jerusalem, they were 4 
welcomed by the Church, as well as by the Apostles and the 
Officers, and gave an account of all that God had helped them 
to do. Some of the Pharisees' party, however, who 5 

had become believers in Christ, came forward and declared 
that they were bound to circumcise converts and to direct them 
to observe the Law of Moses. 

The Apostles and the Officers of the Church held a meeting 6 
to consider this question. After much discussion, Peter 7 

rose and said : 

"You, my Brothers, know well that long ago God singled 
me out that through my lips the Gentiles should hear the 
Message of the Good News, and become believers in Christ. 
Now God, who reads all hearts, declared his acceptance 8 
of the Gentiles, by giving them the Holy Spirit, just as 
he did to us. He made no distinction between them and 9 
us, when he purified their hearts by their faith. Why, 10 
then, do you now provoke God, by putting on the necks of 
these disciples a yoke which neither our ancestors nor we were 

THE ACTS, 15. 243 

able to bear? No, it is through the loving-ferygiess of the n 
Lord Jesus that we, just as they do, believe that'ie Fhave been 
saved." Rx> 

Every voice in the assembly was hushed, as tfviy listened 12 
to Barnabas and Paul, while they gave an account .of all the 
signs and wonders which God had shown among the Gentiles 
through them. After they had finished speaking, James 13 

addressed the Council. 

"Brothers," he began, " hear what I have to say. Simon 14 
has described the manner in which God first visited the 
Gentiles, in order to take from among them a people to bear 
his Name. And that is in harmony with the words of the 15 
Prophets, where they say 

' " After this I will return ; 16 

And I will rebuild the House of David which has fallen 
Its very ruins I will rebuild, 

And will set it up once more ; 

That so the rest of mankind may earnestly seek the Lord 17 

Even all the Gentiles on whom my Name has been bestowed," 

Says the Lord, as he does these things, foreknown from of old.' 18 

In my judgement, therefore, we should not add to the 19 
difficulties of those Gentiles who are turning to God, but we 20 
should write to them to abstain from food that has been 
polluted by being sacrificed to idols, from impurity, from eat- 
ing the flesh of strangled animals, and from blood. For in 21 
every town, for generations past, there have been those who 
preach Moses, read as he is in the Synagogues every Sabbath." 

It was then decided by the Apostles and the Officers, with the 22 
assent of the whole Church, to choose some of their number, 
and send them to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas. Those 
chosen were Judas (called Barsabas) and Silas, who were 
leading men among the Brethren. They were bearers of the 23 
following letter 

' The Apostles, and the Brothers who are the Officers 
of the Church, send their greetings to the Brethren of 
Gentile birth in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia. 
As we had heard that some of our number had upset 24 

you by their assertions, and unsettled your minds 
without instructions from us we met and decided to 25 

choose certain men and send them to you with our 
dear brothers Barnabas and Paul, who have sacrificed 26 

themselves for the Name of our Lord, Jesus Christ. 
We are accordingly sending Judas and Silas, and 27 

they will tell you by word of mouth what we are now 
writing. We have, therefore, decided, under the 28 

guidance of the Holy Spirit, to lay no further burden 

16 isjer. I2 . ,5; Amos 9. n 12; Isa. 45. 21. 

244 THE ACTS, 15-16. 

upon $n evtyond these necessary conditions that you 29 

abstaid tlom food offered to idols, from blood, from 
eatingjauhe flesh of strangled animals, and from 
impurP.y. If you guard yourselves against such 
things, it will be well with you. Farewell.' 

So the bearers of this letter were sent on their way, and 30 
went down to Antioch. There they called a meeting of all the 
Brethren, and delivered the letter, the reading of which caused 31 
great rejoicing by its encouraging contents. Judas and Silas, 32 
who were themselves Prophets, further encouraged the 
Brethren by many an address, and strengthened their faith. 
After some stay, they were dismissed with kind farewells from 33 
the Brethren, and returned to those who had sent them. 

Paul and Barnabas, however, remained in Antioch, where 35 
they taught and, with the help of many others, told the Good 
News of the Lord's Message. 

Some time after this, Paul said to Barnabas : 36 
o, " Let us go back, and visit the Brethren in 

SECOND & . , . ; ... , T ,, 

MISSIONARY every town in which we have told the Lord s 
JOURNEY. Message, and see how they are prospering." 

Paul Barnabas wished to take with them John, 37 
separates whose other name was Mark ; but Paul felt 38 
B rnaba ^ iat ^^ ou &ht not to take with them the 
man who had deserted them in Pamphylia, and 
had not gone on with them to their work. This caused such 39 
unpleasant feeling between them that they parted, Barnabas 
taking Mark and sailing for Cyprus, while Paul chose Silas 40 
for his companion and, after he had been committed by the 
Brethren to the gracious care of the Lord, started on his 
journey and went through Syria and Cilicia, strengthening the 
Churches in the Faith. 

Paul joined Among other places Paul went to Derbe 
by Timothy and Lystra. At the latter place they found a 
at Lyatra. disciple, named Timothy, whose mother was a 
Jewess who had become a believer in Christ, while his father 
was a Greek, and who was well spoken of by the Brethren in 2 
Lystra and Iconium. Wishing to take this man with him on 3 
his journey, Paul caused him to be circumcised on account of 
the Jews in that neighbourhood, for they all knew that his 
father had been a Greek. As they travelled from town 4 

to town, they gave the Brethren the decisions which had been 
reached by tne Apostles and Officers of the Church at Jerusalem, 
for them to observe. 

So the Churches grew stronger in the Faith, and increased 5 
in numbers from day to day. 

THE ACTS, 16. 245 

They next went through the Phrygian district 6 
determines f Galatia, but were restrained by the Holy Spirit 
to cross to from delivering the Message in Roman Asia. 
Macedonia, when they reached the borders of Mysia, they 7 
attempted to go into Bithynia, but the Spirit of Jesus did 
not permit them. Passing through Mysia, they went down to 8 
Troas ; and there one night Paul saw a vision. A Macedonian 9 
was standing and appealing to him ' Come over to Mace- 
donia and help us.' So, immediately after Paul had seen the 10 
vision, we looked for an opportunity to cross over to Mace- 
donia, concluding that God had summoned us to tell the Good 
News to the people there. 

Paul at Accordingly we set sail from Troas, and ran u 

phiiippi. before the wind to Samothrace, reaching Neapolis 
the next day. From there we made our way to Phiiippi, 12 
which is the principal city of that part of Macedonia, and also 
a Roman Settlement. 

In that city we spent several days. On the Sabbath we 13 
went outside the gate to the river-side, where we supposed 
there would be a Place of Prayer ; and we sat down and 
talked to the women who were gathered there. Among 14 
them was a woman, named Lydia, belonging to Thyatira, a 
dealer in purple cloth, who was accustomed to join in the 
worship of God. The Lord touched this woman's heart, so 
that she gave attention to the Message delivered by Paul, and, 15 
when she and her household had been baptized, she urged us 
to become her guests. 

"Since you have shown your conviction," she said, "that 
I really am a believer in the Lord, come and stay in my house." 
And she insisted on our doing so. 

One day, as we were on our way to the Place of Prayer, we 16 
were met by a girl possessed by a divining spirit, who made 
large profits for her masters by fortune-telling. This girl 17 
followed Paul and the rest of us, calling out : 

"These men are servants of the most high God, and they 
are bringing you news of a way to Salvation." 
She had been doing this for several days, when Paul, much 18 
vexed, turned and said to the spirit within her : 

" In the Name of Jesus Christ I command you to leave her." 
That very moment the spirit left her. When her 19 

masters saw that there was no hope of further profit from her, 
they seized Paul and Silas, dragged them into the public square 
to the authorities, and took them before the Magistrates. 20 

"These men are causing a great disturbance in our town," 
they complained; "they are Jews, and they are teaching 21 
customs which it is not right for us, as Romans, to sanction 
or adopt." 
On this the mob rose as one man against them, and the 22 

246 THE ACTS, 16-17. 

Magistrates stripped them of their clothing- and ordered them 
to be beaten with rods. After beating- them severely, the 23 
Magistrates put them in prison, with orders to the Governor 
of the Gaol to keep them in safe custody. On receiving so 24 
strict an order, the Governor put them into the inner cell, and 
secured their feet in the stocks. About midnight, while 25 

Paul and Silas were praying and singing hymns to God, and 
while the prisoners were listening to them, suddenly there was 26 
an earthquake of such violence that the Gaol was shaken to its 
foundations ; all the doors flew open, and all the prisoners' 
chains were loosened. Roused from his sleep, and seeing the 27 
prison doors open, the Governor drew his sword intending to 
kill himself, in the belief that the prisoners had escaped. But 28 
Paul called out loudly : 

" Do not harm yourself; we are all here." 

Calling for a light, the Governor rushed in, and flung himself 29 
trembling at the feet of Paul and Silas. Then he led them 30 
out, and said : 

" What must I do to be saved ? " 

" Believe in Jesus, our Lord," they replied, "and you shall 31 
be saved, you and your household too." 

Then they spoke to him of God's Message, and to all his 32 
household as well. And that very hour of the night he took 33 
them and washed their wounds, and he himself and every one 
belonging to him were baptized without delay. Afterwards he 34 
took them up to his house and set before them something to eat, 
rejoicing that he, with all his household, had come to believe 
in God. In the morning the Magistrates sent the 35 

police with an order for the men to be discharged. The 36 
Governor of the Gaol told Paul of his instructions. 

"The Magistrates have sent an order for your discharge," 
he said, "so you had better leave the place at once and go 
quietly away." 
But Paul's answer to them was : 37 

"They have flogged us in public without trial, though we 
are Roman citizens, and they have put us in prison, and now 
they are for sending us out secretly ! No, indeed ! Let them 
come and take us but themselves." 

The police reported his words to the Magistrates, who, on 38 
hearing that Paul and Silas were Roman citizens, were 
alarmed, and went to the prison, and did their best to con- 39 
ciltate them. Then they took them out, and begged them to 
leave the city. When Paul and Silas left the prison, they went 40 
to Lydia's house, and, after they had seen the Brethren, and 
encouraged them, they left the place. 

pui at After passing through Amphipolis and Apol- i 
Tho..ionica. Ionia, Paul and Silas came to Thessalomca. 
Here the Jews had a Synagogue ; and, following his usual 2 

THE ACTS, 17. 247 

custom, Paul joined them, and for three Sabbaths addressed 
them, drawing his arguments from the Scriptures. He laid 3 
before them and explained that the Christ must undergo 
suffering and rise from the dead ; and "It is this man," he 
declared, "who is the Christ this Jesus about whom I am 
telling you." 

Some of the people were convinced, and threw in their lot with 4 
Paul and Silas, as did also a large body of Greeks who were 
accustomed to join in the Jewish services, and a great number 
of women belonging to the leading families. But the 5 

Jews, becoming jealous, engaged some worthless fellows from 
the streets, and, getting a mob together, kept the city in an 
uproar. They attacked Jason's house, with the intention of 
bringing Paul and Silas before the Popular Assembly ; and, 6 
not finding them there, they proceeded to drag Jason and 
some of the Brethren before the City Magistrates, shouting 
out : 

"These men, who have turned the world upside down, have 
now come here, and have been harboured by Jason ! They are 7 
all defying the decrees of the Emperor. They say that some 
one else is king a man called Jesus ! " 

On hearing this, the people and the City Magistrates were 8 
much concerned ; and, before letting them go, they took bail 9 
from Jason and the others. 

Paul That very night the Brethren sent Paul and 10 

at Beroea Silas off to Beroea ; and on reaching that place, 
they went to the Jewish Synagogue. These Jews of Beroea n 
were better disposed than those in Thessalonica, for they 
welcomed the Message with great readiness, and daily ex- 
amined the Scriptures to see if what was said was true. As a 12 
consequence, many of them became believers in Christ, besides 
a considerable number of Greek women of position, and of men 
also. But, when the Jews of Thessalonica found out 13 

that God's Message had been delivered by Paul at Beroea, 
they came there too, exciting and disturbing the minds of the 
people. Immediately upon that, the Brethren sent Paul off 14 
on his way to the sea coast, but both Silas and Timothy 
stayed behind in Beroea. The friends who escorted Paul took 15 
him as far as Athens, and, after receiving a message for Silas 
and Timothy to join him as quickly as possible, they started 
on their return. 

Paul While Paul was waiting for them at Athens, 16 

at Athens, his heart was stirred at seeing the whole city full 
of idols. So he argued in the Synagogue with the Jews and 17 
with those who joined in their worship, as well as daily in 
the public Square with those who happened to be there. 
Among others, some Epicurean and Stoic Philosophers joined 18 
issue with him. Some would ask "What is this prater 

248 THE ACTS, 17. 

wanting to make out?", while others would say "He seems 
to be a Preacher of foreign Deities." (This was because he 
was telling the Good News about Jesus and the Resurrec- 
tion). So they laid hold of him and took him to the Court of 19 

"May we hear," they asked, "what new teaching this is 
which you are giving? For you are bringing some strange 20 
things to our notice, and we should like to know what they 

(All Athenians and the foreigners staying in the city found no 21 
time for anything else but telling, or listening to, the last new 
thing.) So Paul took his stand in the middle of the Court, 22 
and said 

" Men of Athens, on every hand I see signs of your being 
very devout. For as I was going about, looking at your 23 
sacred shrines, I came upon an altar with this inscription 
'To AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What, therefore, you worship in 
ignorance, that I am now proclaiming to you. The God 24 
who made the world and all things that are in it he, Lord 
as he is of Heaven and Earth, does not dwell in Temples 
made by hands, nor yet do human hands minister to his 25 
wants, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives, 
to all, life, and breath, and all things. He made all races of 26 
men from one stock, apd caused them to settle on all parts of 
the earth's surface fixing a time for their rise and fall, and 
the limits of their settlements that they might search for God, 27 
if by any means they might feel their way to him and find him. 
And yet he is not really far from any one of us ; for in him 28 
we live and move and are. To use the words of some of your 
own poets 

' His offspring, too, are we.' 

Therefore, as the offspring of God, we must not think that 29 
the Deity has any resemblance to anything made of gold, or 
silver, or stone a work of human art and imagination. 
True, God looked with indulgence on the days of men's ignor- 30 
ance, but now he is announcing to every one everywhere the 
need for repentance, because he has fixed a day on which he 31 
intends to 'judge the world with justice,' by a man whom he 
has appointed and of this he has given all men a pledge by 
raising this man from the dead." 

On hearing of a resurrection of the dead, some began jeering, 32 
but others said that they would hear what he had to say about 
that another time. And so Paul left the Court. There were, 33, 
however, some men who joined him, and became believers in 
Christ. Among them were Dionysius, a member of the Court 
of Areopagus, a woman named Damaris, and several others. 

P. 146. 56. 26 iga. 4a . & . 96 Gen. 9. 19. Aratus 5. i Pa. 9. 8 ; 

4a . & . 96 Gen. 9. 
Enoch 41. 9. 

THE ACTS, 18. 249 

Pau| On leaving- Athens, Paul next went to Corinth, i j 

at There he met a Jew of the name of Aquila, a 2 

Corinth. native of Pontus, who, with his wife Priscilla, 
had lately come from Italy, in consequence of the order which 
had been issued by the Emperor Claudius for all Jews to leave 
Rome. Paul paid them a visit, and, since their trade was the 3 
same as his, he stayed and worked with them their trade 
was tent-making-. Every Sabbath Paul gave addresses in the 4 
Synagogue, trying to convince both Jews and Greeks. 

But, when Silas and Timothy had .come down from Mace- 5 
donia, Paul devoted himself entirely to delivering the 
Message, earnestly maintaining before the Jews that Jesus 
was the Christ. However, as they set themselves against him 6 
and became abusive, Paul shook his clothes in protest and said 
to them : 

"Your blood be on your own heads. My conscience is 
clear. From this time forward I shall go to the Gentiles." 
So he left, and went to the house of a certain Titius Justus, who 7 
had been accustomed to join in the worship of God, and whose 
house was next door to the Synagogue. Crispus, the 8 
President of the Synagogue, came to believe in the Lord, and 
so did all his household ; and many of the Corinthians, as 
they listened to Paul, became believers in Christ and were 
baptized. One night the Lord said to Paul, in a 9 

vision : 

" Have no fear, but continue to speak, and refuse to be 
silenced ; for I am with you, and no one shall do you harm, 10 
for I have many People in this city." 

So he settled there for a year and a half, and taught God's n 
Message among the people. 

While Gallio was governor of Greece, the Jews made a 12 
combined attack on Paul, and brought him before the Gover- 
nor's Bench, charging him with persuading people to worship 13 
God in a way forbidden by the Law. Just as Paul was on the 14 
point of speaking, Gallio said to the Jews : 

"Jews, if this were a case of misdemeanour or some 
serious crime, there would be some reason for my listening 
patiently to you ; but, since it is a dispute about words, and 15 
names, and your own Law, you must see to it yourselves. I 
do not choose to be a judge in such matters." 

Saying this, he drove them back from the Bench. Then 16, 
they all set upon Sosthenes, the President of the Synagogue, 
and beat him in front of the Bench, but Gallio did not trouble 
himself about any of these things. 

Paul's Paul remained there some time after this, and 18 

Return. then took leave of the Brethren, and sailed to 
Syria with Priscilla and Aquila, but not before his head had 
been shaved at Cenchreae, because he was under a vo'w. 

-10 Isa. 43. 5- 

250 THE ACTS, 18-19. 

They put into Ephesus, and there Paul, leaving- his com- 19 
panions, went into the Synagogue and addressed the Jews. 
When they asked him to prolong his stay, he declined, saying 20 
however, as he took his leave, " I will come back again to 21 
you, please God," and then set sail from Ephesus. On reach- 22 
ing Caesarea, he went up to Jerusalem and exchanged 
greetings with the Church, and then went down to Antioch. 
PAUL'S THIRD After making some stay in Antioch, he set out 23 
MISSIONARY on a tour through the Phrygian district of Galatia, 
^"ur'fn" strengthening the faith of all the disciples as he 

Qalatia. Went. 

Meanwhile there had come to Ephesus an 24 

Apoiios. Alexandrian Jew, named Apollos, an eloquent 
man, who was well-versed in the Scriptures. He had been 25 
well-instructed in the Cause of the Lord, and with burning 
zeal he spoke of, and taught carefully, the facts about Jesus, 
though he knew of no baptism but John's. This man began 26 
to speak out fearlessly in the Synagogue ; and, when Priscilla 
and Aquila heard him, they took him home and explained the 
Cause of God to him more carefully still. When he wanted to 27 
cross to Greece, the Brethren furthered his plans, and wrote 
to the disciples there to welcome him. On his arrival he 
proved of great assistance to those who had, through the 
loving-kindness of God, become believers in Christ, for he 28 
vigorously confuted the Jews, publicly proving by the 
Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ. 

pui While Apollos was at Corinth, Paul passed i 

t Epheaus. through the inland districts of Roman Asia, and 
went to Ephesus. There he found some disciples, of whom he 2 
asked : 

" Did you, when you became believers in Christ, receive the 
Holy Spirit?" 

"No," they answered, "we did not even hear that there 
was a Holy Spirit." 

" What then was your baptism?" Paul asked. 3 

"John's baptism," was their answer. 

"John's baptism was a baptism upon repentance," rejoined 4 
Paul, "and John told the people (speaking of the 'One 
Coming ' after him) that they should believe in him that is in 

On hearing this, they were baptized into the Faith of the Lord 5 
Jesus, and, after Paul had placed his hands on them, the Holy 6 
Spirit descended upon them, and they began to speak with 
' tongues ' and to preach. There were about twelve of them 7 
in all. 

P.aul went to the Synagogue there, and for three months 8 
spoke out fearlessly, giving addresses and trying to convince 

* Pa. 1 18. a6. 

THE ACTS, 19. 251 

his hearers, about the kingdom of God. Some of them, how- 9 
ever, hardened their hearts and refused to believe, denouncing 
the Cause before the people. So Paul left them and withdrew 
his disciples, and gave daily addresses in the lecture-hall of 
Tyrannus. This went on for two years, so that all who lived in 10 
Roman Asia, Jews and Greeks alike, heard the Lord's Message. 

God did miracles of no ordinary kind by Paul's hands ; so 
that people would carry home to the sick handkerchiefs or 
aprons that had touched his body, and their diseases would 
leave them and the wicked spirits go out of them. An 13 

attempt was made by some itinerant Jews, who were 
exorcists, to use the Name of the Lord Jesus over those who 
had wicked spirits in them. 

" I adjure you," they would say, " by the Jesus, whom Paul 

The seven sons of Sceva, a Jewish Chief Priest, were doing 14 
this ; but the wicked spirit answered them : 15 

" Jesus I acknowledge, and Paul I know, but you who are 
you ? " 

Then the man, in whom this wicked spirit was, sprang upon 16 
them, mastered both of them, and so completely overpowered 
them, that they fled out of the house, stripped of their clothes, 
and wounded. This incident came to the knowledge of all 17 
the Jews and Greeks living at Ephesus ; they were all awe- 
struck, and the Name of the Lord Jesus was held in the 
highest honour. Many, too, of those who had become 18 
believers in Christ came with a full confession of their 
practices ; while a number of people, who had practised 19 
magic, collected their books and burnt them publicly ; and on 
reckoning up the price of these, they found it amounted to 
five thousand pounds. So irresistibly did the Lord's 20 

Message spread and prevail. 

Sometime after these events Paul resolved to 21 
^o'viait" 1 * S through Macedonia and Greece, and then 
Jerusalem make his way to Jerusalem. "And after I have 
and Rome. \^ en there," he said, " I must visit Rome also." 
So he sent to Macedonia two of his helpers, Timothy and Erastus, 22 
while he himself stayed for some time longer in Roman Asia. 
The RI t J us t about that time a great disturbance arose 23 
at about the Cause. A silversmith named Demetrius, 24 

Ephesus. wn o made silver models of the shrine of Artemis, 
and so gave a great deal of work to the artisans, got these 25 
men together, as well as the workmen engaged in similar 
occupations, and said : 

"Men, you know that our prosperity depends upon this 

252 THE ACTS, 19-2O. 

work, and you see and hear that not only at Ephesus, but 26 
in almost the whole of Roman Asia, this Paul has convinced 
and won over great numbers of people, by his assertion that 
those Gods which are made by hands are not Gods at all. 
So that not only is this business of ours likely to fall into dis- 27 
credit, but there is the further danger that the Temple of 
the great Goddess Artemis will be thought nothing of, and 
that she herself will be deprived of her splendour though all 
Roman Asia and the whole world worship her." 
When they heard this, the men were greatly enraged, and 28 
began shouting " Great is Artemis of the Ephesians ! " The 29 
commotion spread through the whole city, and the people 
rushed together into the amphitheatre, dragging with them 
Gaius and Aristarchus, two Macedonians who were Paul's 
travelling companions. Paul wished to go into the amphi- 30 
theatre and face the people, but the disciples would not let 
him, while some of the chief religious officials of the province, 31 
who were friendly to him, sent repeated entreaties to him not 
to trust himself inside. Meanwhile some were shouting one 32 
thing and some another, for the Assembly was all in con- 
fusion, most of those present not even knowing why they had 
met. But some of the crowd prompted Alexander, whom the 33 
Jews had pushed to the front, and he waved his hand to show 
that he wanted to speak in their defence to the people. How- 34 
ever, when they recognised him as a Jew, one cry broke from 
them all, and they continued shouting for two hours " Great 
is Artemis of the Ephesians ! " 

When the Recorder had succeeded in quieting the crowd, he 35 
said : 

" Men of Ephesus, who is there, I ask you, who needs to be 
told that this city of Ephesus is the Warden of the Temple of 
the great Artemis, and of the statue which fell down from 
Zeus ? As these are undeniable facts, you ought to keep 36 
calm and do nothing rash ; for you have brought these men 37 
here, though they are neither robbers of Temples nor blasphe- 
mers of our Goddess. If, however, Demetrius and the 38 
artisans who are acting with him have a charge to make 
against any one, there are Court Days and there are Magis- 
trates ; let both parties take legal proceedings. But if you 39 
want anything more, it will have to be settled in the regular 
Assembly. For I tell you that we are in danger of being pro- 40 
ceeded against for to-day's riot, there being nothing to account 
for it ; and in that case we shall be at a loss to give any reason 
for this disorderly gathering." 
With these words he dismissed the Assembly. 41 

pui again in When the uproar had ceased, Paul sent for the i 2O 
or*ce and disciples, and, with encouraging words, bade them 

*' irooHhviv nd <itxrtpi\ on liic lonrnpv tn IVf nrAHonin- 


goodbye, and started on his journey to Macedonia. 

THE ACTS, 2O. 253 

After going through those districts and speaking many 2 
encouraging words to the disciples, he went into Greece, 
where he stayed three months. He was about to sail to 3 
Syria, when he learnt that a plot had been laid against 
him by the Jews ; so he decided to return by way of Mace- 
donia. He was accompanied by Sopater the son of Pyrrhus, 4 
of Beroea, Aristarchus and Secundus from Thessalonica, 
Gaius of Derbe, and Timothy, as well as by Tychicus 
and Trophimus of Roman Asia. These men went to 5 
Pa Ul Troas and waited for us there ; while we our- 6 

at Troas. selves sailed from Philippi after the Passover, 
and joined them five days later at Troas, where we stayed 
for a week. 

On the first day of the week, when we had met for the 7 
Breaking of Bread, Paul, who was intending to leave the 
next day, began to address those who were present, and 
prolonged his address till midnight. There were a good 8 
many lamps in the upstairs room, where we had met ; and a 9 
young man named Eutychus, sitting at the window, was 
gradually overcome with great drowsiness, as Paul continued 
his address. At last, quite overpowered by his drowsiness, he 
fell from the third storey to the ground, and was picked up 
for dead. But Paul went down, threw himself upon him, and 10 
put his arms round him. 

" Do not be alarmed," he said, " he is still alive." 
Then he went upstairs ; and, after breaking and partaking of n 
the Bread, he talked with them at great length till daybreak, 
and then left. Meanwhile they had taken the lad away alive, 12 
and were greatly comforted. 

Paul We started first, went on board ship, and 13 

at Miletus, sailed for Assos, intending to take Paul on 
board there. This was by his own arrangement, as he in- 
tended to go by land himself. So, when he met us at Assos, 14 
we took him on board and went on to Mitylene. The day 15 
after we had sailed from there, we arrived off Chios, touched 
at Samos the following day, and the next day reached 
Miletus ; for Paul had decided to sail past Ephesus, so as to 16 
avoid spending much time in Roman Asia. He was making 
haste to reach Jerusalem, if possible, by the Festival at the 
close of the Harvest. 

From Miletus, however, he sent to Ephesus and invited the 17 
Officers of the Church to meet him ; and, when they came, he tS 
spoke to them as follows : 

"You know well the life that I always led among you from 
the very first day that I set foot in Roman Asia, serving the 19 
Lord, as I did, in all humility, amid the tears and trials which 
fell to my lot through the plots of the Jews. I never shrank 20 
from telling you anything that could be helpful to you, or from 

254 THE ACTS, 2O-21. 

teaching you both in public and in private. I earnestly pointed 21 
both Jews and Greeks to the repentance that leads to God, 
and to faith in Jesus, our Lord. And now, under spiritual 22 
constraint, I am here on my way to Jerusalem, not knowing 
what will happen to me there, except that in town after town 23 
the Holy Spirit plainly declares to me that imprisonment and 
troubles await me. But I count my life of no value to myself, 24 
if only I may complete the course marked out for me, and 
the task that was allotted me by the Lord Jesus which was 
to declare the Good News of the Love of God. And now, I 25 
tell you, I know that none of you will ever see my face 
again you among whom I have gone about proclaiming 
the Kingdom. Therefore I declare to you this day, that my 26 
conscience is clear in regard to the fate of any of you, for I 27 
have not shrunk from announcing the whole purpose of God 
regarding you. Be watchful over yourselves, and over the 28 
whole flock, of which the Holy Spirit has placed you in 
charge, to shepherd the Church of God, which he won for 
himself at the cost of his life. I know that, after my de- 29 
parture, merciless wolves will get in among you, who will not 
spare the flock ; and from among yourselves, too, men will 30 
arise, who will teach perversions of truth, so as to draw away 
the disciples after them. Therefore, be on your guard, re- 31 
membering how for three years, night and day, I never ceased, 
even with tears, to warn each one of you. And now I 32 
commend you to the Lord and to the Message of his Love a 
Message which has the power to build up your characters, and 
to give you your place among all those who have become 
Christ's People. I have never coveted any one's gold or silver 33 
or clothing. You, yourselves, know that these hands of mine 34 
provided not only for my own wants, but for my companions 
also. I left nothing undone to show you that, labouring as I 35 
laboured, you ought to help the weak, and to remember the 
words of the Lord Jesus, how he said himself ' It is more 
blessed to give than to receive.'" 

When Paul had finished speaking, he knelt down and prayed 36 
with them all. All were in tears ; and throwing their 37 
arms round Paul's neck, they kissed him again and again, 
grieving most of all over what he had said that they would 38 
never see his face again. Then they escorted him to the 
ship. . 

Paul When we had torn ourselves away and had i ; 

t Tyro. set sail, we ran before the wind to Cos ; the next 
day we came to Rhodes, and from there to Patara, where we 2 
found a ship crossing to Phoenicia, and went on board and 
set sail. After sighting Cyprus and leaving it on the left, we 3 
sailed to Syria, and put into Tyre, where the ship was to 

Pa. 74. a. *> Deut. 33. 34. 

THE ACTS, 21. 255 

discharge her cargo. There we found the disciples and 4 
stayed a week with them. Speaking under the influence of 
the Spirit, they warned Paul not to set foot in Jerusalem. 
However, when we had come to the end of our visit, we 5 
went on our way, all the disciples with their wives and 
children escorting us out of the city. We knelt down on the 
beach, and prayed, and then said good-bye to one another ; 6 
after which we went on board, and they returned home. 

Pau , After we had made the run from Tyre, we 7 

at landed at Ptolemais, and exchanged greetings 

caesarea. w jth the Brethren there, and spent a day with 
them. The next day we left, and reached Caesarea, where 8 
we went to the house of Philip, the Missionary, who was one 
of ' the Seven,' and stayed with him. He had four unmarried 9 
daughters, who had the gift of prophecy. During our 10 

visit, which lasted several days, a Prophet, named Agabus, 
came down from Judaea. He came to see us, and, taking n 
Paul's girdle, and binding his own feet and hands with it, 
said : 

"This is what the Holy Spirit says 'The man to whom 
this girdle belongs will be bound like this at Jerusalem by the 
Jews, and they will give him up to the Gentiles '." 
When we heard that, we and the people of the place began 12 
to entreat Paul not to go up to Jerusalem. It was then .that 13 
Paul made the reply : 

"Why are you weeping and breaking my heart like this? 
For my part, I am ready not only to be bound, but even to 
suffer death at Jerusalem for the Name of the Lord Jesus." 
So, as he would not be persuaded, we said no more to him, 14 
only adding "The Lord's will be done." 

Pau| At the end of our visit, we made our prepara- 15 

arrives at tions, and started on our way up to Jerusalem. 
Jerusalem. Some of the disciples from Caesarea went with 16 
us, and brought Mnason with them, a Cypriot disciple of long 
standing, with whom we were to stay. On our arrival 17 

at Jerusalem, the Brethren there gave us a hearty welcome ; 
and the next day Paul went with us to see James, and all the 18 
Officers of the Church were present. After greeting them, 19 
Paul related in detail all that God had done among the 
Gentiles through his efforts ; and, when they had heard it, they 20 
began praising God, and said to Paul : 

" You see, Brother, that the Jews who have become believers 
in Christ may be numbered by tens of thousands, and they are 
all naturally earnest in upholding the Jewish Law. Now they 21 
have heard it said about you, that you teach all Jews in foreign 
countries to forsake Moses, for you tell them not to circumcise 
their children or even to observe Jewish customs. Well now, 22 

256 THE ACTS, 21. 

as they are certain to hear of your arrival, do what we are 23 
going to suggest. We have four men here, who have of their 
own accord put themselves under a vow. Join these men, 24 
share their purification, and bear their expenses, so that they 
may shave their heads ; and then all will see that there is no 
truth in what they have been told about you, but that, on the 
contrary, you yourself rule your life in obedience to the Jewish 
Law. As to the Gentiles who have become believers in Christ, 25 
we have sent our decision that they should avoid food offered 
to idols, and blood, and the flesh of strangled animals, and 

On this, Paul joined the men, and the next day shared their 26 
purification, and went into the Temple, and gave notice of the 
expiration of the period of purification when the usual offering 
should have been made on behalf of each of them. 

Paul's But, just as the seven days were drawing to a 27 

Arrest. close, the Jews from Roman Asia caught sight of 
Paul in the Temple, and caused great excitement among all 
the people present, by seizing Paul and shouting : 28 

" Men of Israel ! help ! This is the man who teaches every 
one everywhere against our People, our Law, and this Place ; 
and, what is more, he has actually brought Greeks into the 
Temple and defiled this sacred place." 

(For they had previously seen Trophimus the Ephesian in Paul's 29 
company in the city, and were under the belief that Paul had 
taken him into the Temple.) The whole city was stirred, 30 
and the people quickly collected, seized Paul, and dragged 
him out of the Temple, when the doors were immediately 
shut. They were bent upon killing him, when it was 31 

reported to the Officer commanding the garrison, that all 
Jerusalem was in commotion. He instantly got together 32 
some officers and men, and charged down upon the crowd, 
who, when they saw the Commanding Officer and his men, 
stopped beating Paul. Then he went up to Paul, arrested him, 33 
ordered him to be doubly chained, and proceeded to inquire 
who he was, and what he had been doing. Some of the crowd 34 
said one thing, and some another ; and, as he could get no defi- 
nite reply on account of the uproar, he ordered Paul to be taken 
into the barracks. When Paul reached the steps, he was 35 
actually being carried by the soldiers, owing to the violence of 
the mob ; for the people were following in a mass, shouting 36 
out: ",Kill him!" 

Just as he was about to be taken into the Fort, Paul said to 37 
the Commanding Officer : 

" May I speak to you ? " 

44 Do you know Greek?" asked the Commanding Officer. 
" Are not you, then, the Egyptian who some time ago raised 38 

36 Num. 6. j. 

THE ACTS, 2122. 257 

an insurrection and led the four thousand Bandits out into the 
Wilderness ? " 

" No," said Paul, " I am a Jew of Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen 39 
of a city of some note ; and I beg you to give me permission 
to speak to the people." 

The Commanding- Officer gave his permission, and Paul, stand- 40 
ing on the steps, made signs with his hand to the people, and, 
when comparative silence had been obtained, he spoke to them 
in Hebrew, as follows : 

" Brothers and Fathers, listen to the defence i 

Defence to which I am about to make." 
the People of When they heard that he was speaking to them 2 

Jerusalem. j n Hebrew, they were still more quiet ; and Paul 
went on : 

" I am a Jew, a native of Tarsus in Cilicia, but I was brought 3 
up in this city under the teaching of Gamaliel, and educated 
in accordance with the strict system of our ancestral Law. I 
was as zealous in God's service as any of you who are here to- 
day. In my persecution of this Cause I did not stop even at 4 
the taking of life. I put in chains, and imprisoned, men and 
women alike and to that the High Priest himself and all the 5 
Council can testify. For I had letters of introduction from 
them to our fellow Jews at Damascus, and I was on my way 
to that place, to bring those whom I might find there 
prisoners to Jerusalem for punishment. While I was 6 

still on my way, just as I was getting close to Damascus, 
about mid-day, suddenly there flashed from the heavens a 
great light all round me. I fell to the ground, and heard a 7 
voice saying to me ' Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me ? ' 
' Who are you, Lord ? ' I replied. Then the voice said ' I am 8 
Jesus of Nazareth whom you are persecuting.' The men with 9 
me saw the light, but did not hear the speaker's voice. Then 10 
I said 'What am I to do, Lord?' 'Get up and go into 
Damascus,' the Lord said to me, 'and there you shall be 
told all that you have been appointed to do.' In consequence n 
of that dazzling light I could not see, but my companions led 
me by the hand, till I reached Damascus. There a man named 12 
Ananias, a strict observer of our Law, well spoken of by all the 
Jewish inhabitants, came to see me. Standing close to me, he 13 
said 'Saul, my Brother, recover your sight.' And then and 
there I recovered my sight and looked up at him. Then he 14 
said ' The God of our ancestors has appointed you to learn his 
will, and to see the Righteous One, and to hear words from his 
lips ; for you shall be a witness for him to all the world of what 15 
you have just seen and heard. And now why wait any longer? 16 
Be baptized at once, wash away your sins, and invoke his 
Name. After my return to Jerusalem, while I was 17 

praying one day in the Temple, I fell into a trance, and saw 18 
Jesus saying to me ' Make haste and leave Jerusalem at once, 


258 THE ACTS, 22-23. 

because they will not accept your testimony about me.' ' Lord,' 19 
I answered, ' these people know that I used to imprison and 
scourge, in Synagogue after Synagogue, those who believed in 
you ; and, when the blood of your martyr, Stephen, was being 20 
shed, I was myself standing by, approving of his death, and 
took charge of the clothes of those who were murdering him. 
But Jesus said to me ' Go ; for I will send you to the Gentiles 21 
far away '. " 

Paul's claim ^P to this P om t the people had been listening 22 
as a Roman to Paul, but at these words they called out : 

citizen. j^ill fo\ m \ A fellow like this ought not to have 

been allowed to live ! " 

As they were shouting, tearing off their clothes, and throwing 23 
dust in the air, the Commanding Officer ordered Paul to be 24 
taken into the Fort, and directed that he should be examined 
under the lash, that he might find out the reason for their 
outcry against him. But just as they had tied him up to be 25 
scourged, Paul said to the Captain standing near : 

"Is it legal for you to scourge a Roman citizen, uncon- 
victed ? " 

On hearing this, the Captain went and reported it to the Com- 26 
manding Officer. 

" Do you know what you are doing ? " he said. " This man 
is a Roman citizen." 
So the Commanding Officer went up to Paul and said 27 

" Tell me, are you a Roman citizen ? " 

"Yes," replied Paul. 

" I had to pay a heavy price for my position as citizen," said 28 
the Officer. 

" I am one by birth," rejoined Paul. 

The men who were to have examined Paul immediately drew 29 
back, and the Officer, finding that Paul was a Roman citizen, 
was alarmed at having put him in chains. 

On the next day the Commanding Officer, wish- 30 
b4fbrthe '"& * fi nc ^ out the real reason why Paul was de- 
Hieh council nounced by the Jews, had his chains taken off, 
of the jaw*. an d directed the Chief Priests and the whole of the 

High Council to assemble, and then took Paul down and 

brought him before them. Paul fixed his eyes upon the i 

Council, and began : 

" Brothers, for my part, I have always ordered my life 

before God, with a clear conscience, up to this very day. 

At this, the High Priest Ananias ordered the men standing 2 

near to strike him on the mouth ; whereupon Paul turned to 3 

him and said : 

" God will strike you, you white-washed wall ! Are you 

sitting there to try me in accordance with law, and yet, in 

defiance of law, order me to be struck ? " 

THE ACTS, 23. 259 

The people standing near said to Paul : 4 

" Do you know that you are insulting God's High Priest? " 
"I did not know, Brothers, that it was the High Priest," 5 

said Paul, "for Scripture says 

'Of the Ruler of thy People thou shalt speak no ill'." 

Noticing that some of those present were Sadducees and others 6 
Pharisees, Paul called out in the Council : 1 

" Brothers, I am a Pharisee and a son of Pharisees. It is 
on the question of hope for the dead and of their resurrection 
that I am on my trial." 

As soon as he said this, a dispute arose between the Pharisees 7 
and the Sadducees ; and there was a sharp division of opinion 
among those present. (For Sadducees say there is no such 8 
thing as a resurrection, and that there is neither angel nor 
spirit, while Pharisees believe in both.) So a great uproar 9 
ensued, and some of the Teachers of the Law belonging to 
the Pharisees' party stood up and hotly protested : 

" We find nothing whatever wrong in this man. Suppose a 
spirit did speak to him, or an angel 

The dispute was becoming so violent, that the Commanding 10 
Officer, fearing that Paul would be torn in pieces between 
them, ordered the Guard to go down and rescue him from 
them, and take him into the Fort. 

That night the Lord came and stood by Paul, and said : u 

"Courage ! You have borne witness for me in Jerusalem 
and you must bear witness in Rome also." 

The Plot 1 the morning the Jews combined together, 12 
against Paul, and took an oath that they would not eat or drink 
till they had killed Paul. There were more than forty in the 13 
plot ; and they went to the Chief Priests and the Councillors, 14 
and said : 

" We have taken a solemn oath not to touch food till we have 
killed Paul. So we want you now, with the consent of the 15 
Council, to suggest to the Commanding Officer that he should 
bring Paul down before you, as though you intended to go 
more fully into his case ; but, before he comes here, we will be 
ready to make away with him." 

However, the son of Paul's sister, hearing of the plot, went to 16 
the Fort, and on being admitted, told Paul about it. Paul i? 
called one of the Captains of the garrison and asked him to 
take the lad to the Commanding Officer, as he had something 
to tell him. The Captain went with the lad to the Command- 18 
ing Officer, and said : 

" The prisoner Paul called me and asked me to bring this lad 
to you, as he has something to tell you." 

The Commanding Officer took the lad by the hand, and, step- 19 
ping aside, asked what it was he had to tell him. 
5 Exod. 22. 28. 

260 THE ACTS, 23-24. 

" The Jews have agreed," answered the lad, " to ask you to 20 
bring Paul down before the Council to-morrow, on the plea of 
your making further inquiry into his case. But do not let them 2 1 
persuade you, for more than forty of them are lying in wait for 
him, who have taken an oath that they will not eat or drink, 
till they have made away with him ; and they are at this very 
moment in readiness, counting upon your promise." 
The Commanding Officer then dismissed the lad, cautioning 22 
him not to mention to anybody that he had given him that 
information. Then he called two Captains, and ordered 23 

Paul sent them to have two hundred men ready to go to 
to Caesarea, as well as seventy troopers and two 

caesarea. hundred lancers, by nine o'clock that night, and 24 
to have horses ready for Paul to ride, so that they might take 
him safely to Felix, the Governor. To him he wrote a letter, 25 
somewhat as follows 

' Claudius Lysias sends his compliments to His Ex- 26 

cellency Felix the Governor. The man whom 27 

I send with this had been seized by the Jews, and was 
on the point of being killed by them, when I came upon 
them with the force under my command, and rescued 
him, as I learnt that he was a Roman citizen. Wish- 28 

ing to ascertain exactly the ground of the charges they 
made against him, I brought him before their Council, 
when I found that their charges were connected with 29 

questions of their own Law, and that there was noth- 
ing alleged involving either death or imprisonment. 
Having, however, information of a plot against the 30 

man, which was about to be put into execution, I am 
sending him to you at once, and I have also directed 
his accusers to prosecute him before you.' 

The soldiers, in accordance with their orders, took charge 31 
of Paul and conducted him by night to Antipatris ; and on the 32 
next day, leaving the troopers to go on with him, they returned to 
the Fort. On arriving at Caesarea, the troopers delivered the 33 
letter to the Governor, and brought Paul before him. As soon 34 
as Felix had read the letter, he enquired to what province Paul 
belonged, and, learning that he came from Cilicia, he said : 

" I will hear all you have to say as soon as your accusers 35 
have arrived." 

And he ordered Paul to be kept under guard in Herod's 
Government House. 

Paul Five days afterwards the High Priest Ananias i 

bfor FIJM. came down with some of the Councillors and a 
barrister named Tertullus. They laid an information with 
the Governor against Paul ; and, when the hearing came on, 2 
Tertullus began his speech for the prosecution. 

"We owe it to your Excellency," he said, "that we are 3 

THE ACTS, 24. 261 

enjoying profound peace, and we owe it to your foresight that 
this nation is constantly securing reforms advantages which 
we very gratefully accept at all times and places. But not to 4 
be tedious I beg you, with your accustomed fairness, to listen 
to a brief statement of our case. We have found this man a 5 
public pest ; he is one who stirs up disputes among the Jews 
all the world over, and is a ringleader of the Nazarene heretics. 
He even attempted to desecrate the Temple itself, but we 6 
caught him ; and you will be able, by examining him on all 8 
these points, to satisfy yourself as to the charges which we are 
bringing against him." 

The Jews also joined in the attack and bore out his state- 9 
ments. On a sign from the Governor, Paul made 10 

this reply : 

" Knowing, as I do, for how many years you have acted as 
Judge to this nation, it is with confidence that I undertake my 
own defence. For you can easily ascertain that it is not more 1 1 
than twelve days ago that I went up to worship at Jerusalem, 
where my prosecutors never found me holding discussions with 12 
any one, or causing a crowd to collect either in the Temple, or 
in the Synagogues, or about the city ; and they cannot establish 13 
the charges which they are now making against me. This, 14 
however, I do acknowledge to you, that it is as a believer in 
the Cause which they call heretical, that I worship the God of 
my ancestors. At the same time, I believe everything that is 
in accordance with the Law and that is written in the Prophets ; 
and I have a hope that rests in God a hope which they also 15 
cherish that there will one day be a resurrection of good and 
bad alike. This being so, I strive at all times to keep my 16 
conscience clear before both God and man. After some years' 17 
absence I had come to bring charitable gifts to my nation, and 
to make offerings ; and it was while engaged in this that they 18 
found me in the Temple, after completing a period of purifica- 
tion, but not with any crowd or disorder. There were, how- 19 
ever, some Jews from Roman Asia who ought to have been 
here before you, and to have made any charge that they may 
have against me Or. else let my opponents here say what 20 
they found wrong in me when I was before the Council, except 21 
as to the one sentence that I shouted out as I stood among 
them ' It is about the resurrection of the dead that I am on 
my trial before you to-day '. " 

Felix, however, adjourned the case though he had a fairly 22 
accurate knowledge of all that concerned the Cause with the 
promise : 

"When Lysias, the Commanding Officer, comes down, I 
will give my 'decision in your case." 

So he gave orders to the Captain in charge of Paul to keep him 23 
in custody, but to relax the regulations, and not to prevent 
any of his personal friends from attending to his wants. 

262 THE ACTS, 24*-25. 

Some days later Felix came with his.wife Drusilla, who was 24 
herself a Jewess, and, sending for Paul, listened to what he 
had to say about faith in Christ Jesus. But, while Paul 25 
was speaking at length about righteousness, self-control, and 
the coming judgement, Felix became terrified, and interrupted 

" Go for the present, but, when I find an opportunity, I will 
send for you again." 

He was hoping, too, for a bribe from Paul, and so he used 26 
to send for him frequently and talk with him. 

But, after the lapse of two years, Felix was succeeded by 27 
Porcius Festus ; and, wishing to gain popularity with the Jews, 
he left Paul a prisoner. 

Paul Three days after Festus had entered upon i 

before his Province, he left Caesarea and went up to 
Festus. Jerusalem. There the Chief Priests and the 2 
leading men among the Jews laid an information before him 
against Paul, and asked a favour of him, to Paul's injury 3 
to have Paul brought to Jerusalem. All the while they 
were plotting to make away with him on the road. But Festus 4 
answered that Paul was in prison at Caesarea, and that he 
himself would be leaving for that place shortly. 

" So let the influential men among you," he said, " go down 5 
with me, and, if there is anything amiss in the man, charge him 
formally with it." 

After staying among them some eight or ten days, Festus 6 
went down to Caesarea. The next day he took his seat on the 
Bench, and ordered Paul to be brought before him. On Paul's 7 
appearance, the Jews who had come down from Jerusalem sur- 
rounded him, and made many serious charges, which they failed 
to establish. Paul's answer to the charge was ' I have 8 
not committed any offence against the Jewish Law, or the 
Temple, or the Emperor.' But, as Festus wished to gain 9 
popularity with the Jews, he interrupted Paul with the ques- 
tion : 

"Are you willing to go up to Jerusalem and be tried on 
these charges before me there ? " 

" No," replied Paul, " I am standing at the Emperor's Bar, 10 
where I ought to be tried. I have not wronged the Jews, as 
you yourself are well aware. If, however, I am breaking n 
the law and have committed any offence deserving death, I 
do not ask to escape the penalty ; but, if there is nothing in 
the accusations of these people, no one has the power to give 
me up to them. I appeal to the Emperor." 
Upon that. Festus, after conferring with his Council, answered : 12 

"You have appealed to the Emperor : to the Emperor you 
shall go." 

THE ACTS, 25-26. 263 

Paul before Some days later King Agrippa and Bernice came 13 
Herod down to Caesarea, and paid a visit of congratula- 

Agrippa.ii. t j on to p es tus ; and, as they were staying there 14 
for several days, Festus laid Paul's case before the King. 

"There is a man here," he said, "left a prisoner by Felix, 
about whom, when Icame tojerusalem, the Jewish Chief Priests 15 
and the Councillors laid an information, demanding judge- 
ment against him. My answer to them was, that it was not the 16 
practice of Romans to give up any man to his accusers till the 
accused had met them face to face, and had also had an oppor- 
tunity of answering the charges brought against him. So they 17 
met here, and without loss of time I took my seat on the 
Bench the very next day, and ordered the man to be brought 
before me. But, when his accusers came forward, they brought 18 
no charge of wrong-doing such as I had expected ; but I found 19 
that there were certain questions in dispute between them 
about their own religion, and about some dead man called 
Jesus, whom Paul declared to be alive. And, as I was at a loss 20 
how to enquire into questions of this kind, I asked Paul if he 
were willing to go up to Jerusalem, and there be put upon his 
trial. Paul, however, appealed to have his case reserved 21 
for the consideration of his August Majesty, so I ordered him to 
be detained in custody, until I could send him to the Emperor." 

"I should like to hear this man myself," Agrippa said to 22 

"You shall hear him to-morrow," Festus answered. 

So the next day, when Agrippa and Bernice had come in full 23 
state and had entered the Audience Chamber, with the superior 
officers and the principal people of the city, by the order of 
Festus Paul was brought before them. Then Festus said : 24 

" King Agrippa, and all here present, you see before you the 
man about whom the whole Jewish people have applied to me, 
both at Jerusalem and here, loudly asserting that he ought not 
to be allowed to live. I found, however, that he had not done 25 
anything deserving death ; so, as he had himself appealed to 
his August Majesty, I decided to send him. But I have noth- 26 
ing definite to write about him to my Imperial Master ; and 
for that reason I have brought him before you all, and especially 
before you, King Agrippa, that, after examining him, I may 
have something to write. For it seems to me absurd to send 27 
a prisoner, without at the same time stating the charges made 
against him." 
Turning to Paul, Agrippa said : i 

" You are at liberty to speak for yourself." 
Then Paul stretched out his hand and began his defence. 

" I have been congratulating myself, King Agrippa," he 2 
said, " that it is before you that I have to make my defence to- 
day, with regard to all the charges brought against me by 
Jews, especially as you are so well-versed in all the customs 3 

264 THE ACTS, 26. 

and questions of the Jewish world. I beg you therefore to 
give me a patient hearing. My life, then, from youth 4 

upwards, was passed, from the very first, among my own 
nation, and in Jerusalem, and is within the knowledge of 
all Jews ; and they have always known if they choose to give 5 
evidence that, in accordance with the very strictest form of 
our religion, I lived a true Pharisee. Even now, it is because 6 
of my hope in the promise given by God to our ancestors that 
I stand here on my trial a promise which our Twelve Tribes, 7 
by earnest service night and day, hope to see fulfilled. It is 
for this hope, your Majesty, that I am accused and by Jews 
themselves ! Why do you all hold it incredible that God 8 
should raise the dead ? I myself, it is true, once 9 

thought it my duty to oppose in every way the Name of 
Jesus of Nazareth ; and I actually did so at Jerusalem. 10 
Acting on the authority of the Chief Priests, I myself threw 
many of the People of Christ into prison, and, when it was pro- 
posed to put them to death, I gave my vote for it. Time after n 
time, in every Synagogue, I tried by punishments to force 
them to blaspheme. So frantic was I against them, that I 
pursued them even to towns beyond our borders. It 12 

was while I was travelling to Damascus on an errand of this 
kind, entrusted with full powers by the Chief Priests, that at 13 
mid-day, your Majesty, I saw right in my path, coming from 
the heavens, a light brighter than the glare of the sun, which 
shone all round me and those travelling with me. We all fell 14 
to the ground, and then I heard a voice saying to me in 
Hebrew ' Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting me ? By 
kicking against the goad you are punishing yourself.' ' Who 15 
are you, Lord?' I asked. And the Lord said : ' I am Jesus, 
whom you are persecuting ; but get up and stand upright ; 16 
for I have appeared to you in order to appoint you a servant 
and a witness of those revelations of me which you have 
already had, and of those in which I shall yet appear to you, 
since I am choosing you out from your own people and from 17 
the Gentiles, to whom I now send you, to open their eyes, and 18 
to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of 
Satan to God ; so that they may receive pardon for their sins, 
and a place among those who have become God's People, by 
faith in me.' After that, King Agrippa, I did not fail to 19 

obey the heavenly vision ; on the contrary, first to those at 20 
Damascus and Jerusalem, and then through the whole of 
Judaea, and to the Gentiles as well, I began to preach repent- 
ance and conversion to God, and a life befitting that repentance. 
This is why the Jews seized me in the Temple, and made 21 
attempts upon my life. However I have received help from 22 
God to this very day, and so stand here, and bear my 
testimony to high and low alike without adding a word to 
J Ezelc. a. i. " i Chron. 16. 35. 1718 Jga. 42 . 7( ,e ; Deut. 33. 3, 4. 

THE ACTS, 26-27. 265 

what the Prophets, as well as Moses, declared should happen 
that the Christ must suffer, and that, by rising from the 23 
dead, he was destined to be the first to bring news of Light, not 
only to our nation, but also to the Gentiles." 

While Paul was making this defence, Festus called out 24 
loudly : 

"You are mad, Paul ; your great learning is driving you 
mad. " 

"I am not mad, your Excellency," he replied; "on the 25 
contrary, the statements that I am making are true and sober. 
Indeed, the King knows about these matters, so I speak 26 
before him without constraint. I am sure that there is 
nothing whatever of what I have been telling him that has 
escaped his attention ; for all this has not been done in a 
corner. King Agrippa, do you believe the Prophets ? I know 27 
you do." 
But Agrippa said to Paul : 28 

" You are soon trying to make a Christian of me ! " 

"Whether it is soon or late," answered Paul, " I would to 29 
God that not only you, but all who are listening to me, might 
to-day become just what I am myself except for these 
chains ! " 

Then the King rose, with the Governor and Bernice and 30 
those who had been sitting with them, and, after retiring, dis- 31 
cussed the case among themselves. 

"There is nothing," they said, "deserving death or im- 
prisonment in this man's conduct " ; and, speaking to Festus, 32 
Agrippa added : 

"The man might have been discharged, if he had not 
appealed to the Emperor." 

Paul's ^ s ** was Decided that we were to sail to Italy, i 

voyage to Paul and some other prisoners were put in charge 
Rome. o f a Captain of the Augustan Guard, named Julius. 
We went on board a ship from Adramyttium, which was on 2 
the point of sailing to the ports along the coast of Roman Asia, 
and put to sea. Aristarchus, a Macedonian from Thessalonica, 
went with us. The next day we put into Sidon, where Julius 3 
treated Paul in a friendly manner, and allowed him to go to 
see his friends and receive their hospitality. Putting to sea 4 
again, we sailed under the lee of Cyprus, because the wind was 
against us ; and, after crossing the sea of Cilicia and Pamphylia, 5 
we reached Myra in Lycia. There the Roman Officer 6 

found an Alexandrian ship on her way to Italy, and put us on 
board of her. For several days our progress was slow, and it 7 
was only with difficulty that we arrived off Cnidus. As the 
wind was still unfavourable when we came off Cape Salmone, 

268 THE ACTS, 27. 

we sailed under the lee of Crete-, and with difficulty, by keeping 8 
close in shore, we reached a place called ' Fair Havens,' near 
which was the town of Lasea. 

This had taken a considerable time, and sailing was already 9 
dangerous, for the Fast was already over ; and so Paul gave 
this warning. 

"My friends," he said, "I see that this voyage will be 10 
attended with injury and much damage, not only to the cargo 
and the ship, but to our own lives also." 

The Roman Officer, however, was more influenced by the cap- 1 1 
tain and the owner than by what was said by Paul. And, as the 12 
harbour was not a suitable one to winter in, the majority were 
in favour of continuing the voyage, in the hope of being able 
to reach Phoenix, and winter there. Phoenix was a Cretan 
harbour, open to the north-east and south-east. So, 13 

when a light wind sprang up from the south, thinking that 
they had found their opportunity, they weighed anchor and 
kept along the coast of Crete, close in shore. But shortly 14 
afterwards a hurricane came down on us off the land 
a north-easter, as it is called. The ship was caught by it 15 
and was unable to keep her head to the wind, so we had to 
give way and let her drive before it. Running under the lee 16 
of a small island called Cauda, we only just managed to secure 
the ship's boat, and, after hoisting it on board, the men frapped 17 
the ship. But, afraid of being driven on to the Syrtis Sands, 
they lowered the yard, and then drifted. So violently were we 18 
tossed about by the storm, that the next day they began throw- 
ing the cargo overboard, and, on the following day, threw out 19 
the ship's tackle with their own hands. As neither sun nor 20 
stars were visible for several days, and, as the gale still con- 
tinued severe, all hope of our being saved was at last aban- 
doned. It was then, when they had gone a long time 21 
without food, that Paul came forward, and said : 

" My friends, you should have listened to me, and not have 
sailed from Crete and so incurred this injury and damage. 
Yet, even as things are, 1 urge you not to lose courage, for 22 
there will not be a single life lost among you only the 
ship. For last night an angel of the God to whom I 23 
belong, and whom I serve, stood by me, and said ' Have 24 
no fear, Paul ; you must appear before the Emperor, and 
God himself has given you the lives of all your fellow- 
voyagers.' Therefore, courage, my friends ! for I believe God, 25 
that everything will happen exactly as I have been told. We 26 
shall, however, have to be driven on some island." 

It was now the fourteenth night of the storm, and we were 27. 
drifting about in the Adriatic Sea, when, about midnight, the 
sailors began to suspect that they were drawing near land. 
So they took soundings, and found twenty fathoms of water. 28 
After waiting a little, they took soundings again, and found 

THE ACTS, 27-28. 267 

fifteen fathoms. Then, as they were afraid of our being driven 29 
Upon some rocky coast, they let go four anchors from the stern, 
and longed for daylight. The sailors wanted to leave 30 

the ship, and had lowered the boat, on pretence of running 
out anchors from the bows, when Paul said to the Roman 31 
Officer and his men : 

" Unless the sailors remain on board, you cannot be saved." 
Upon that the soldiers cut the ropes which held the boat, and 32 
let her drift away. In the interval before daybreak 33 

Paul kept urging them all to take something to eat. , j 

"It is a fortnight to-day," he said, "that, owing to your 
anxiety, you have gone without food, taking nothing. So 34 
I urge you to take something to eat ; your safety depends 
upon it, for not one of you will lose even a hair of his head." 
With these words he took some bread, and, after saying the 35 
thanksgiving to God before them all, broke it in pieces, and 
began to eat ; and the men all felt cheered and had something to 36 
eat themselves. There were about seventy-six of us on board, 37 
all told. After satisfying their hunger, they further lightened 38 
the ship by throwing the grain into the sea. When 39 

Paul is daylight came, they could not make out what 
shipwrecked, land it was, but, observinga creek in which there 
was a beach, they consulted as to whether they could run the 
ship safely into it. Then they cast off, and abandoned the 40 
anchors, and at the same time unlashed the gear of the steer- 
ing oars, hoisted the foresail to the wind, and made fcr the 
beach. They got, however, into a kind of channel, and 41 
there ran the ship aground. The bows stuck fast and could 
not be moved, while the stern began breaking up under the 
strain. The advice of the soldiers was that the prisoners 42 

should be killed, for fear that any of them should swim 
away and make their escape. But the Roman Officer, anxious 43 
to save Paul, prevented their carrying out their intention, and 
ordered that those who could swim should be the first to 
jump into the sea and try to reach the shore ; and that the 44 
rest should follow, some on planks, and others on different 
pieces of the ship. In these various ways every one managed 
to get safely ashore. 

Paul When we were all safe, we found that the i 

at Malta, island was called Malta. The natives showed us 2 
marked kindness, for they lit a fire and took us all under shelter, 
because it had come on to rain and was cold. Paul had 3 
gathered a quantity of dry sticks and laid them on the fire, 
when a viper, driven out by the heat, fastened on his hand. 
When the natives saw the creature hanging from his hand, 4 
they said to one another : 

" Evidently this man is a murderer, for, though he has been 
saved from the sea, Justice has not allowed him to live." 

268 THE ACTS, 28. 

However, Paul shook the creature off into the fire and took no 5 
harm. The natives were expecting inflammation to set in, or 6 
that he would suddenly fall dead ; but, after waiting for a long 
time, and seeing that there was nothing amiss with him, they 
changed their minds and said that he was a God. 

In that neighbourhood there was an estate belonging to the 7 
Governor of the island, whose name was Publius. He took 
us up to his house, and for three days entertained us most 
courteously. It happened that the father of Publius was ly- 8 
ing ill of fever and dysentery. So Paul went to see him ; and, 
after praying, he placed his hands on him and cured him. 
After this, all the people in the island who had any illness came 9 
to Paul, and were cured. They also presented us with many ic 
gifts, and when we set sail they put supplies of necessaries on 

Paul's vo age After three months, we set sail in a ship that n 
to Rome had wintered in the island. She was an Alexan- 

continued. d r ; an vessel, and had the Twin Sons of Zeus for 
her figure-head. We put in at Syracuse and stayed there three 12 
days, and from there we worked to windward and so got to 13 
Rhegium. A day later a south wind sprang up and took us to 
Puteoli in two days. There we found some of the Brethren, 14 
and were urged to stay a week with them ; after which we 
went on to Rome. The Brethren there had heard about us, 15 
and came out as far as the Market of Appius and the Three 
Taverns to At sight of them Paul thanked God and 
was much cheered. 

On our reaching Rome, Paul was allowed to live by himself, 16 
except for the soldier who was in charge of him. 

Paul Three days after our arrival, Paul invited the 

at Rom*, leading Jews to meet him ; and, when they came, 
he spoke to them as follows : 

"Brothers, although^! had done nothing hostile to the in- 
terests of our nation or to our ancestral customs, yet I was sent 
from Jerusalem as a prisoner, and handed over to the Romans. 
The Romans, when they had examined me, were ready'to 
release me, because there was nothing in my conduct deserv- 
ing death. But, as the Jews opposed my release, I was com- 
pelled to appeal to the Emperor not, indeed, that I had any 
charge to make against my own nation. This, then, is my 
reason for urging you to come to see me and talk with me ; 
because it is for the sake of the Hope of Israel that I am here 
in chains." 

" We," was their reply, " have not had any letter about you 
from Judaea, nor have any of our fellow-Jews come and 
reported or said anything bad about you. But we shall be 

THE ACTS, 28. 269 

glad to hear from you what your views are, for, with regard to 
this sect, we are well aware that it is spoken against on all 

They then fixed a day with him, and came to the place 23 
where he was staying, in even larger numbers, when Paul 
proceeded to lay the subject before them. He bore his testi- 
mony to the Kingdom of God, and tried to convince them 
about Jesus, by arguments drawn from the Law of Moses 
and from the Prophets speaking from morning till even- 
ing. Some were inclined to accept what he said ; 24 
others, however, rejected it. So, as they disagreed among 25 
themselves, they began to disperse, Paul adding only 

" True, indeed, was the declaration made by the Holy Spirit, 
through the Prophet Isaiah to your ancestors 

' Go to this nation and say 26 

" You will hear with your ears without ever understanding, 
And, though you have eyes, you will see without ever 


For the mind of this nation has grown dense, 27 

And their ears are dull of hearing, 
Their eyes also have they closed ; 
Lest some day they should see with their eyes, 
And with their ears they should hear, 

And in their mind they should understand, and should turn 
And I should heal them.' 

Understand, then, that this Salvation of God was sent for the 28 
Gentiles ; and they will listen." 

For two whole years Paul stayed in a house which he rented 30 
for himself, welcoming all who came to see him, proclaiming 31 
the Kingdom of God, and teaching about the Lord Jesus 
Christ, with perfect fearlessness, unmolested. 

26-27 Isa. 6. 9-10. Ps. 67. a. 




















44 A.D. 

THIS Letter is believed to have been written by the James 
who was known to the Early Church as ' James the Just.' He 
was not an Apostle, but was one of the brothers of Jesus, and 
presided over the Church at Jerusalem, in which position he 
came into contact with large numbers both of Jews and 
Christians (Acts 12. 17; 15. 13). The Letter is addressed to 
converts from Judaism, and speaks, in strong condemnation, 
of vices which prevailed in the corrupt society of Jerusalem, 
and into which the recent converts to Christianity were, to 
some extent, relapsing. There are indications in the Letter 
that some, at all events, of those for whom it was intended 
had been passing through days of persecution possibly the 
persecution by Herod Agrippa I., 44 A.D. (Acts 12. i), in which 
the Apostle James was martyred. The writer of this Letter 
met with a similar fate in 63 A.D. 


.:-'. JAMES. '," i':{ 


JAMES, a Servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, i 1 

The Twelve Tribes that are living abroad. 


Trials. ^fy Brothers, whatever may be the temptations 2 

that beset you from time to time, always regard 
them as a reason for rejoicing, knowing, as you do, that the 3 
testing of your faith develops endurance. And let endurance ^4 
do its work perfectly, so that you may be altogether perfect, 
and in no respect deficient. 

If one of you is deficient in wisdom, let him ask 5 
vwsdom! wisdom from the God who gives freely to every one 

without reproaches, and it will be given to him. But 6 
let him ask with confidence, never doubting ; for the man who 
doubts is like a wave of the sea driven hither and thither at the 
mercy of the wind such a man must not expect that he will re- 7 
ceive anything from the Lord, vacillating as he is, irresolute at 8 
every turn. Let a Brother in humble circumstances be 9 

proud of his exalted position, but a rich Brother of 
W p^^ert" ld humiliation ; for the rich man will pass away 10 

' like the flower of the grass.' As the sun rises, n 
and the hot wind blows, ' the grass withers, its flower fades,' 
and all its beauty is gone. So is it with the rich man. In 
the midst of his pursuits he will come to an untimely end. 

Blessed is the man who remains firm under 12 
>mptation. temptat ; on) f or) w h en he has stood the test, he 
will receive the crown of Life, which the Lord has promised 
to those who love him. Let no one say, when he is tempted, 13 
"It is God who is tempting me ! " For God, who cannot be 

10-" Isa. 40, 7, 12 Dan. 13. 12. 

276 JAMES, 1-2. 

tempted to do wrong, does not himself tempt any one. A 14 
man is in every case tempted by his own passions allured 
and enticed by them. Then Passion conceives and gives 15 
birth to Sin, and Sin, on reaching maturity, brings forth 
Death. Do not be deceived, my dear Brothers. Every 16, 

good thing given us, and every perfect gift, is from above, and 
comes down to us from the Maker of the Lights in the heavens, 
who is himself never subject to change or to eclipse. Because 18 
he so willed, he gave us Life, through the Message of the 
Truth, so that we should be, as it were, an earnest of still 
further creations. 

Mark this, my dear Brothers : Let every one 19 
Religion. ^ e quick to listen, slow to speak, and slow to get 

angry; for the anger of man does not forward the 20 
righteous purpose of God. Therefore, have done with all 21 
filthiness and whatever wickedness still remains, and in a 
humble spirit receive that Message which has been planted in 
your hearts and is able to save your souls. Put that 22 

Message into practice, and do not merely listen to it deceiving 
yourselves. For, when any one listens to it and does not 23 
practice it, he is like a man looking at his own face in a mirror. 
He looks at himself, then goes on his way, and immediately 24 
forgets what he is like. But he who looks carefully into the 25 
perfect Law, the Law of Freedom, and continues to do so, not 
listening to it and then forgetting it, but putting it into prac- 
tice that man will be blessed in what he does. When 26 
a man appears to be religious, yet does not bridle his tongue, 
but imposes upon his own conscience, that man's religious 
observances are valueless. That religious observance which 27 
is pure and spotless in the eyes of God our Father is this 
to visit orphans and widows in their trouble, and to keep one- 
self uncontaminated by the world. 


on the My Brothers, are you really trying to combine 

Treatment faith in Jesus Christ, our glorified Lord, with the 
^J* worship of rank ? Suppose a man should enter 
your Synagogue, with gold rings and in grand 
clothes, and suppose a poor man should come in also, in 
shabby clothes, and you are deferential to the man who is 
wearing grand clothes, and say "There is a good seat for 
you here, but to the poor man "You must stand ; or sit 
down there by my footstool," is not that to make distinc- 
tions among yourselves, and to show yourselves prejudiced 
judges? Listen, my dear Brothers. Has not God 

chosen those who are poor in the things of this world to be rich 

JAMES, 2. 77 

through their faith, and to possess the Kingdom which he has 
promised to those who love him ? But you you insult the 6 
poor man ! Is not it the rich who oppress you ? Is not it they 
who drag you into law-courts ? Is not it they who malign that 7 
honourable Name which has been bestowed upon you ? Yet, if 8 
you keep the royal law which runs 'Thou shalt love thy neigh- 
bour as thou dost thyself,' you are doing right ; but, if you 9 
worship rank, you commit a sin, and stand convicted by that 
same law of being offenders against it. For a man who 10 

has laid the Law, as a whole, to heart, but has failed in one 
particular, is liable for breaking all its provisions. He who said 1 1 
' Thou shalt not commit adultery ' also said ' Thou shalt not 
murder.' If, then, you commit murder but not adultery, you 
are still an offender against the Law. Therefore, speak and 12 
act as men who are to be judged by the ' Law of Freedom.' 
For there will be justice without mercy for him who has not 13 
acted mercifully. Mercy triumphs over Justice. 

My Brothers, what is the good of a man's saying 14 
On ' Faith that he has faith, if he does not prove it by actions ? 
^"J^, Can such faith save him ? Suppose some Brother 15 

or Sister should be in want of clothes and of daily 
bread, and one of you were to say to them " Go, and peace 16 
be with you ; find warmth and food for yourselves," and yet you 
were not to give them the necessaries of life, what good would 
it be to them ? In just the same way faith, if not followed by 17 
actions, is, by itself, a lifeless thing. Some one, indeed, may 18 
say "You are a man of faith, and I am a man of action." 
" Then show me your faith," I reply, "apart from any actions, 
and I will show you my faith by my actions." It is a part of 19 
your Faith, is it not, that there is one God ? Good ; yet even 
the demons have that faith, and tremble at the thought. Now 20 
do you really want to understand, you foolish man, how it is 
that faith without actions leads to nothing ? Look at our 21 
ancestor, Abraham. Was not it the result of his actions that he 
was pronounced righteous after he had offered his son, Isaac, 
on the altar? You see how, in his case, faith and actions 22 
went together ; that his faith was perfected as the result of his 
actions ; and that in this way the words of Scripture came 23 
true "Abraham believed God, and that was regarded by God 
as righteousness," and " He was called the friend of God." 
You see, then, that it is as the result of his actions that a man is 24 
pronounced righteous, and not of his faith only. Was not it 25 
the same with the prostitute, Rahab ? Was not it as the result 
of her actions that she was pronounced righteous, after she 
had welcomed the messengers and hastened them away by a 
different road ? Exactly as a body is dead without a spirit, 26 
so faith is dead without actions. 

8 Lev. 19. 18. H Exod. 20. 13 14 ; Deut. 5. 17 18. 2 1 Gen. 22. 2. 9. 
23 Gen. 15. 6 ; Isa. 41. 8. 

278 JAMES, 3-4. 

On I do not want many of you, my Brothers, to i 

the control become teachers, knowing, as you do, that we 
Ton* 1 *!*, who teach shall be judged by a more severe 

standard than others. We often make mistakes, 2 
every one of us. Any one who does not make mistakes when 
speaking is indeed a perfect man, able to bridle his whole body 
as well. When we put bits into horses' mouths, to make them 3 
obey us, we control the rest of their bodies also. Again, think 4 
of ships. Large as they are, and even when driven by fierce 
winds, they are controlled by a very small rudder and steered 
in whatever direction the man at the helm may determine. So 5 
is it with the tongue. Small as it is, it is a great boaster. Think 
how tiny a spark may set the largest forest ablaze I And the 6 
tongue is like a spark. Among the members of our body it 
proves itself a very world of mischief; it contaminates the 
whole body ; it sets the wheels of life on fire, and is itself set 
on fire by the flames of the Pit. For while all sorts of beasts 7 
and birds, and of reptiles and creatures in the sea, are tame- 
able, and actually have been tamed by man, no human being 8 
can tame the tongue. It is a restless plague ! It is charged 
with deadly poison ! With it we bless our Lord and Father, 9 
and with it we curse men who are made 'in God's likeness.' 
From the very same mouth come blessings and curses ! My 10 
Brothers, it is not right that this should be so. Does a spring 1 1 
give both good and bad water from the same source ? Can a 12 
fig tree, my Brothers, bear olives ? or a vine bear figs ? No, 
nor can a brackish well give good water. 

Against Who among you claims to be wise and intelli- 13 

raise gent ? Let him show that his actions are the out- 
>m ' come of a good life lived in the humility of true 
wisdom. But, while you harbour envy and bitterness and a spirit 14 
of rivalry in your hearts, do not boast or lie to the detriment of 
the Truth. That is not the wisdom which comes from above ; 15 
no, it is earthly, animal, devilish. For, where envy and rivalry 16 
exist, there you will also find disorder and all kinds of base 
actions. But the wisdom from above is, before every thing 17 
else, pure ; then peace-loving, gentle, open to conviction, 
rich in compassion and good deeds, and free from partiality 
and insincerity. And righteousness, its fruit, is sown in peace 18 
by those who work for peace. 

Acainst What is the cause of the fighting and quarrel- i < 
Party-strife, ling that goes on among you ? Is not it to be 
found in the desires which are always at war 
within you ? You crave, yet do not obtain. You murder and 2 
rage, yet cannot gain your end. You quarrel and fight. You 
do not obtain, because you do not ask. You ask, yet do not 3 
receive, because you ask for a wrong purpose to spend what 

'> Gen. i. 36. 

JAMES, 4-5. 279 

you get upon your pleasures. Unfaithful people ! Do not 4 
you know that to be friends with the world means to be at 
enmity with God ? Therefore whoever chooses to be friends 
with the world makes himself an enemy to God. Do you sup- 5 
pose there is no meaning in the passage of Scripture which 
asks ' Is envy to result from the longings of the Spirit which 
God has implanted within you ? ' No ; the gift that God gives 6 
is for a nobler end ; and that is why it is said ' God is opposed 
to the haughty, but gives help to the humble.' There- 7 

fore submit to God ; but resist the Devil, and he will flee from 
you. Draw near to God, and he will draw near to you. Make 8 
your hands clean, you sinners ; and your hearts pure, you 
vacillating men ! Grieve, mourn, and lament ! Let your 9 
laughter be turned to mourning, and your happiness to gloom ! 
Humble yourselves before the Lord, and he will exalt you. 10 

Do not disparage one another, Brothers. He who dis- n 
parages his Brother, or passes judgement on his Brother, dis- 
parages the Law and passes judgement on the Law. But, if 
you pass judgement on the Law, you are not obeying it, but 
judging it. There is only one Lawgiver and Judge he who 12 
has the power both to save and to destroy. But who are you 
that pass judgement on your neighbour? 

A Listen to me, you who say ' To-day or to-morrow 13 
Presumption, we will go to such and such a town, spend a year 

there, and trade, and make money,' and yet you do 14 
not know what your life will be like to-morrow ! For you are 
but a mist appearing for a little while and then disappearing. 
You ought, rather, to say ' If the Lord wills, we shall live and 15 
do this or that.' But, as it is, you are constantly boasting 16 
presumptuously! All such boasting is wicked. He, then, who 17 
knows what is right but fails to do it that is sin in him. 

Listen to me, you rich men, weep and wail for i 
opp^aefon. tj 16 miseries that are coming upon you ! Your 2 

riches have wasted away, and your clothes have 
become moth-eaten. Your gold and silver are rusted ; and 3 
the rust on them shall be evidence against you, and shall eat 
into your very flesh. It was fire, so to speak, that you stored 
up for yourselves in these last days. I tell you, the wages of 4 
the labourers who mowed your fields, which you have been 
fraudulently keeping back, are crying out against you, and the 
outcries of your reapers have reached the ears of the Lord of 
Hosts ! You have lived on earth a life of extravagance and 5 
luxury ; you have indulged your fancies in a time of bloodshed. 
You have condemned, you have murdered, the Righteous One ! 6 
Must not God be opposed to you ? 

6 Prov. 3. 34. 3 Prov. 16. 27. 4 Deut. 24, 15, 17 : Mai. 3. 5 ; Isa. 5. 9. 8 Jer. 12. 3. 

JAMES, 5. 

Be patient, then, Brothers, till the Coming- of 7 

cnristian . T i T- ,1 c i * f 

Patience, the Lord. Even the farmer has to wait for 
the precious fruit of the earth, watching over it 
patiently, till it has had the spring and summer rains. And 8 
you must be patient also, and not be discouraged ; for the 
Lord's Coming is near. Do not make complaints against one 9 
another, Brothers, or judgement will be passed upon you. The 
Judge is already standing at the door ! Brothers, as an 10 
example of the patient endurance of suffering, take the 
Prophets who spoke in the name of the Lord. We count those 1 1 
who displayed such endurance blessed ! You have heard, too, 
of Job's endurance, and have seen what the Lord's purpose 
was, for ' the Lord is full of pity and compassion.' 

Above all things, my Brothers, never take an 12 
oath, either by heaven, or by earth, or by any- 
thing else. With you let ' Yes ' suffice for yes, 
and ' No ' for no, so that you may escape condemnation. 

If any one of you is in trouble, let him pray; 13 
The Power jf anv one is happy, let him sing hymns If 14 

Prayer. anv one f vou 1S '^> ^ et him send for the 
Officers of the Church, and let them pray over 
him, after anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. The 15 
prayer offered in faith will save the man who is sick, and the 
Lord will raise him from his bed ; and if he has committed 
sins, he will be forgiven. Therefore, confess your sins to one 16 
another and pray for one another, that you may be cured. 
Great is the power of a good man's fervent prayer. Elijah was 17 
only a man like ourselves, but, when he prayed fervently that it 
might not rain, no rain fell upon the land for three years and 
a half. And, when he prayed again, the clouds brought rain, 18 
and the land bore crops. My Brothers, should one of 19 

you be led astray from the Truth, and some one 
Bleslednes* bring him back again, be sure that he who brings 20 
of saving a sinner back from his mistaken ways will save 
a SOUL t h at man ' s sou i from Death, and throw a veil over 
countless sins. 

1 Deut 11.14. u Da"- " ' p - I0 3- 8. n Prov. 10. 13. 





THESSALONICA, now the Turkish town of Salonica, was an 
important seaport in Macedonia, on the great highway by 
which trade travelled between Europe and Roman Asia. 
Attracted, probably, by its large Jewish population, and by its 
admirable position as a centre for the diffusion of his Message, 
the Apostle Paul visited the town in the course of his second 
missionary journey (Acts 17), preaching in the Synagogue, and 
working at his trade as a tent-maker (I. Thess. 2. 9 ; II. Thess. 
3. 8). At first he gained many converts, but after a short time 
his unbelieving countrymen succeeded in arousing a strong 
opposition against him and his companions. This was carried 
so far that a mob collected and attacked the house in which 
they were staying, and Paul and Silas barely escaped with their 
lives. Leaving Thessalonica, they went on to Beroea, and from 
there to Athens and Corinth. But while the Apostle was at 
Athens, news reached him that the little Christian community, 
from which he had thus been compelled to part, was itself suffer- 
ing persecution. On hearing this, the keen interest which he 
felt in their welfare made him eager to return to them (2. 18). 
But, this proving at the time impossible, he sent Timothy to 
them, to obtain further information, and to comfort and en- 
courage them amidst their sufferings (3. 2). Upon Timothy's 
return to Corinth, with good news of the faith and love shown 
by the Thessalonian converts, the Apostle wrote this Letter. 

ro THE 



To the Thessalonian Church in union with God 
Greeting. the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, 
FROM Paul, Silas, and Timothy. 
May God bless you and give you peace. 


We always mention you in our prayers and thank God 2 
for you all ; recalling continually before our God and Father 3 

the efforts that have resulted from your faith, 
HIS Thank- ^ e j o jj prompted by your love, and the patient 

rulneas for . ^ j \ TJ 

their Faith, endurance sustained by your hope in our Lord 
and its Jesus Christ. Brothers, whom God loves, we 4 
ice ' know that he has chosen you, because the Good 5 
News that we brought came home to you, not merely as so 
many words, but with a power and a fulness of conviction due 
to the Holy Spirit. For you know the life that we lived among 
you for your good. And you yourselves began to follow, not 6 
only our example, but the Master's also ; and, in spite of much 
suffering, you welcomed the Message with a joy inspired by 
the Holy Spirit, and so became a pattern to all who believed 7 
in Christ throughout Macedonia and Greece. For it was 8 
from you that the Lord's Message resounded throughout 
Macedonia and Greece ; and, more than that, your faith in 
God has become known far and wide ; so that there is no 
need for us to say another word. Indeed, in speaking about 9 
us, the people themselves tell of the reception you gave us, 
and how, turning to God from your idols, you became servants 
of the true and living God, and are now awaiting the return 10 
from Heaven of his Son whom he raised from the dead 
Jesus, our deliverer from the Coming Wrath. 


Yes, Brothers, you yourselves know that your i 
HI* Life reception of us was not without result. For, 2 

u although we had experienced suffering and 
ill-treatment, as you know, at Philippi, we had the 
courage, by the help of our God, to tell you God's Good 
News in spite of great opposition. Our appeal to you 3 
was not based on a delusion, nor was it made from un- 
worthy motives, or with any intention of misleading you. 
But, having been found worthy by God to be entrusted with 4 
the Good News, therefore we tell it ; with a view to please, not 
men, but God who proves our hearts. Never at any time, 5 
as you know, did we use the language of flattery, or make 
false professions in order to hide selfish aims. God will bear 
witness to that. Nor did we seek to win honour from men, 6 
whether from you or from others, although, as Apostles of 
Christ, we might have burdened you with our support. But 7 
we lived among you with the simplicity of a child ; we were 
like a woman nursing her own children. In our strong affec- 8 
tion for you, that seemed to us the best way of sharing with you, 
not only God's Good News, but our very lives as well so dear 
had you become to us. You will not have forgotten, Brothers, 9 
our labour and toil. Night and day we used to work at our 
trades, so as not to be a burden to any of you, while we pro- 
claimed to you God's Good News. You will bear witness, and 10 
God also, that our relations with you who believed in Christ 
were pure, and upright, and beyond reproach. Indeed, you n 
know that, like a father with his own children, we used 
to encourage and comfort every one of you, and solemnly 
plead with you ; so that you should make your daily lives 12 
worthy of God who is calling you into the glory of his King- 

, _ This, too, is a reason why we, on our part, are 13 

Thoir Peraecu- ,. ' ,. ' , , . ,, , *. . . . * 

tion by their continually thanking God because, in receiving 
Feiiow. the teaching that you had from us, you accepted 
citizen*. j t ^ nQ j. as tne t eacn ; n g of man, but as what it really 
is the teaching of God, which is even now doing its work 
within you who believe in Christ. For you, Brothers, began 14 
to follow the example of the Churches of God in Judaea which 
are in union with Jesus Christ; you, in your turn, suffering at 
the hands of your fellow-citizens, in the same way as those 
Churches did at the hands of the Jews the men who killed 15 
both the Lord Jesus and the Prophets, and persecuted us also. 
They do not try to please God, and they are enemies to all man- 
kind, for they would prevent us from sneaking to the Gentiles 16 
with a view to their Salvation, and thus are always ' filling up 
the measure of their iniquity.' But the Wrath of God has come 
upon them to the full ! 

*Jer. ii. 90. I* Gen. 15. 16. 


As for ourselves, Brothers, our having been 17 
Frustrated bereaved of you even for a short time though in 
pians. body only, and not in spirit made us all the more 
eager to see your faces again ; and the longing to do so was 
strong upon us. That was why we made up our minds to 18 
go to see you at least I, Paul, did, more than once but 
Satan put difficulties in our way. For what hope or joy will 19 
be ours, or what crown shall we have to boast of, in the 
presence of our Lord Jesus, at his Coming, if it be not you ? 
You are our pride and our delight ! 20 

And so, as we could bear it no longer, we i 
Timothy's made up our minds to remain behind alone at 

"' Athens, and sent Timothy, our Brother and 2 
God's Minister of the Good News of the Christ, to strengthen 
you, and to encourage you in your faith, so that none of you 3 
should be shaken by the troubles through which you are 
passing. You yourselves know that we are destined to 
meet with such things. For, even while we were with you, 4 
we warned you beforehand that we were certain to encounter 
trouble. And so it proved, as you know. Therefore, since I 5 
could no longer endure the uncertainty, I sent to make 
inquiries about your faith, fearing that the Tempter had 
tempted you, and that our toil might prove to have been in 
vain. But, when Timothy recently returned to us from 6 

you with good news of your faith and love, and told us how 
kindly you think of us always longing, he said, to see us, just 
as we are longing to see you on hearing this, we felt 7 
encouraged about you, Brothers, in the midst of all our diffi- 
culties and troubles, by your faith. For it is new life to us to 8 
know that you are holding fast to the Lord. How can we thank 9 
God enough for all the happiness that you are giving us in the 
sight of our God ? Night and day we pray most earnestly 10 
that we may see you face to face, and make good any de- 
ficiency in your faith. 

May our God and Father himself, and Jesus, 1 1 
The Apostle's our Lord, make the way plain for us to come to 
his "converts, you. And for you, may the Lord fill you to 12 

overflowing with love for one another and for 
every one, just as we are filled with love for you ; and so make 13 
your hearts strong, and your lives pure beyond reproach, in 
the sight of our God and Father, at the Coming of our Lord 
Jesus, with all his Holy Ones. 


Further, Brothers, we beg and exhort you in the name of 
our Lord Jesus to carry out more fully than ever as indeed 
you are already doing all that you have heard from us as to 


what your daily life must be, if it is to please God. For you 2 
have not forgotten the directions that we gave you on the 
authority of our Lord Jesus. 

For this is God's purpose that you should be 3 
warning pure ; abstaining from all immorality ; each of 4 
immorauty. vou recognizing the duty of taking one woman 

for his wife, purely and honourably, and not for 5 
the mere gratification of his passions, like the Gentiles who 
know nothing of God ; none of you over-reaching or taking 6 
advantage of his Brother in such matters. ' The Lord takes 
vengeance' upon all who do such things, as we have already 
warned you and solemnly declared. For God's Call to us does 7 
not permit of an impure life, but demands purity. Therefore 8 
he who disregards this warning disregards, not man, but 
God who gives you his Holy Spirit. 

As to love for the Brethren there is no need to 9 
Brotherly write to you ; for you have yourselves been taught 

Love ' by God to love one another ; and indeed you 10 
do act in this spirit towards all the Brethren throughout 

Yet, Brothers, we urge you to still further 
The Duty ot efforts. Make it your ambition to live quietly, 1 1 

>r " and to attend to your own business, and to work 
with your hands, as we directed you ; so that your conduct 12 
may win respect from those outside the Church, and that you 
may not want for anything. 


We do not wish you to remain in ignorance, 13 
The Living Brothers, with regard to those who have passed 
*De*d!* to their rest, that your grief may not be like that 

of others, who have no hope. For, as we believe 14 
that Jesus died and rose again, so also we believe that God will 
bring, with Jesus, those who through him have passed to their 
rest. This we tell you on the authority of the Lord 15 

that those of us who are still living at the Coming of the Lord will 
not anticipate those who have passed to their rest. For, with a 16 
loud summons, with the shout of an archangel, and with the 
trumpet-call of God, the Lord himself will come down from 
Heaven. Then those who died in union with Christ shall rise 17 
first ; and afterwards we who are still living shall be caught 
up in the clouds, with them, to meet the Lord in the air ; and 
so we shall be for ever with the Lord. Therefore, com- 18 

fort one another with what I have told you. 

P. 79. 6 ; Jcr. 10. a$. P. 94. i. Ezek. 37. 14. 


.The Time ot ^ u * as * *' ie times and the moments, there i 5 
the Lord's is no need, Brothers, for any one to write to 

coming. vou YOU yourselves know well that the Day 2 
of the Lord will come just as a thief comes in the night. 
When people are saying 'All is quiet and safe,' it is then that, 3 
like birth-pains upon a woman with child, Ruin comes sud- 
denly upon them, and there will be no escape ! You, however, 4 
Brothers, are not in darkness, that the daylight should take 
you by surprise as if you were thieves. For you all are ' Sons 5 
of Light ' and ' Sons of the Day.' 

We have nothing to do with night, or dark- 
The Necessity ness. Therefore let us not sleep as others do. 6 
watchfulness. No, let us be watchful and self-controlled. It is 7 

at night that men sleep, and at night that 
drunkards get drunk. But let us, who belong to the Day, 8 
control ourselves, and put on faith and love as a breastplate, 
and the hope of Salvation as a helmet. For God destined us, not 9 
for Wrath, but to win Salvation through our Lord Jesus 
Christ, who died for us, that, whether we are still watching 10 
or have fallen asleep, we may live with him. There- n 

fore encourage one another, and try to build up one another's 
characters, as indeed you are doing. 


Final We beg you, Brothers, to value those who toil 12 

counsels, among you, and are your leaders in the Lord's 
service, and give you counsel. Hold them in the very greatest 13 
esteem and affection for the sake of their work. Live at peace 
with one another. We entreat you also, Brothers 14 

warn the disorderly, comfort the faint-hearted, give a helping 
hand to the weak, and be patient with every one. Take care 15 
that none of you ever pays back wrong for wrong, but 
always follow the kindest course with one another and 
with every one. Always be joyful ; never cease to 16, 

pray ; under all circumstances give thanks to God. For 18 
this is his will for you as made known in Christ Jesus. 
Do not quench the Spirit ; do not make light of preaching. 
Bring everything to the test ; cling to what is good ; 
shun every form of evil. May God himself, the giver 

of peace, make you altogether holy ; and may your spirits, 
souls, and bodies be kept altogether faultless until the 
Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. He who calls you will not 24 
fail you ; he will complete his work. 

8 Isa. 59. 17. 22 Job i. i ; 2. 3. 


Brothers, pray for us. 25 

Greet all the Brothers with a sacred kiss. I 26, 27 

Farewell. a( jj ure y OU j n the Lord's name to have this letter 
read to all the Brethren. 

May the blessing of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. 28 




IT is probable that about a year intervened between the 
Apostle's two Letters to this Macedonian Church. The 
Thessalonians had misunderstood what he had said in the first 
Letter as to the nearness of the time of Christ's Return to the 
earth ; a misunderstanding which led to the neglect of the 
ordinary duties of life, accompanied by unrestrained religious 
excitement. To correct this misapprehension, and to urge 
them to fortitude, calmness and industry, St. Paul wrote this 
second Letter. 




To the Thessalonian Church in union with God 
" n& our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, 
FROM Paul, Silas, and Timothy. 

May God, the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ bless you and 
give you peace. 


His Brothers, it is our duty always to thank 

Thankfulness God about you, as is but right, considering the 

and wonderful growth of your faith, and because, 
9nce - without exception, your love for one another 
is continually increasing. So much is this the case that 
we ourselves speak with pride, before the Churches of God, 
of the patience and faith which you have shown, in spite of all 
the persecutions and troubles that you are enduring. These 
persecutions will vindicate the justice of God's judgement, and 
will result in your being reckoned worthy of God's Kingdom, 
for the sake of which you are now afflicted ; since God 
deems it just to inflict suffering upon those who are now 
inflicting suffering upon you, and to give relief to you who are 
suffering, as well as to us, at the Appearing of the Lord Jesus 
from Heaven with his mighty angels, ' in flaming fire.' Then he 
will ' inflict punishment upon those who refuse to know God, 
and upon those who turn a deaf ear ' to the Good News of Jesus, 
our Lord. These men will pay the penalty of unutterable 
Ruin banished ' from the presence of the Lord and from the 
glorious manifestation of his might, when he comes to be 
honoured in his People, 'and to be revered in all who have learnt 
to believe in him (for you also believed our testimony) as he 
will be on ' That Day.' With this in view, our constant 

8 Isa. 66. 14 15 ; Jer. 10. 25 ; Ps. 79. 6. 910 i sa . 2 . I0> lx> I9> 2I ; p s . gcj. 7 ; 
68. 35 (Septuagint) ; Isa. 49. 3. 


His Prayer prayer for you is that our God may count you 
for them, worthy of the Call that you have received, and by 
his power make perfect your delight in all goodness and the 
efforts that have resulted from your faith. Then, in the loving- 
kindness of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ, will the name 
of Jesus, our Lord, be honoured in you, and you in him. 


The As to the Coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and i 

'Man of sin,' our being gathered to meet him, we beg you, 
and the 'Great B ro thers, not lightly to let your minds become 2 

asy ' unsettled, nor yet to be disturbed by any revelation, 
or by any message, or by any letter, purporting to come from us, 
to the effect that the Day of the Lord is come. Do not let any 3 
one deceive you, whatever he may do. For it will not come until 
after the Great Apostasy, and the appearing of that Incarna- 
tion of Wickedness, that Lost Soul, who so opposes himself to 4 
every one that is spoken of as a God or as an object of worship, 
and so exalts himself above them, that he seats himself in 
the Temple of God, and displays himself as God ! Do 5 

not you remember how, when I was with you, I used to speak 
to you of all this ? ' And you know now what the restraining 6 
influence is which prevents his appearing before his appointed 
time. Wickedness, indeed, is already at work in secret ; but 7 
only until he who at present restrains it is removed out of the 
way. Then will 'Wickedness Incarnate ' appear, but the Lord 8 
Jesus will destroy him with the breath of his lips, and annihilate 
him by the splendour of his Coming. For at the Coming 9 
of the Lord there will be great activity on the part of Satan, 
in the form of all kinds of deceptive miracles, signs, and 
marvels, as well as of wicked attempts to delude to the ruin 10 
of those who are on the path to destruction, because they have 
never received and loved the Truth to their own Salvation. 
That is why God places them under the influence of a delusion, 1 1 
to cause them to believe a lie ; so that sentence may be passed 12 
on all those who refuse to believe the Truth, but delight in 

The Need But, Brothers, whom the Lord loves, it is our 13 

*or duty always to thank God about you, for, 
tedfMtneM. f rom the first, God chose you for Salvation 
through the purifying influence of the Spirit, and your 
belief in the Truth. To this you were called by the Good 14 
News which we brought you, to attain to the glory of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. Stand firm then, Brothers, and hold 15 

1? Isa. 66. 5. Dan. n. 3637; Ezek. a8. a. 8 I sa . n. 4; Job 4. 9. 
is Dcut. 33. i a. 


fast to the truths that we taught you, whether by word or by 
letter. And may our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and 16 

God our Father, who loved us and, in his loving-kindness, 
gave us unfailing consolation and good ground for hope, 
console your hearts, and strengthen you to do and to say all 17 
that is right. 


Mutual 1 conclusion, Brothers, pray for us pray that i 

Prayer. the Lord's Message may spread rapidly, and be 
received everywhere with honour, as it was among you ; 
and that we may be preserved from wrong-headed and wicked 2 
men for it is not every one who believes in Christ. 

But the Lord will not fail you ; he will give you strength, 3 
and guard you from Evil. Yes, and the confidence that 4 
our union with the Lord enables us to place in you leads 
us to believe that you are doing, and will do, what we direct 
you. May the Lord bring you to the love of God, and 5 

to the patience of the Christ. 

The Duty We urge you, Brothers, in the name of the 6 
of work. Lord Jesus Christ, to avoid any Brother who is 
living an ill-ordered life, which is not in agreement with the 
teaching that you received from us. For you know well that 7 
you ought to follow our example. When we were with you, our 
life was not ill-ordered, nor did we eat any one's bread without 8 
paying for it. Night and day, labouring and toiling, we used 
to work at our trades, so as not to be a burden upon any of 
you. This was not because we had not a right to receive 9 
support, but our object was to give you a pattern for you to 
copy. Indeed, when we were with you, what we urged 10 
upon you was ' If a man does not choose to work, then he 
shall not eat. ' We hear that there are among you people who 1 1 
are living ill-ordered lives, and who, instead of attending to 
their own business, are mere busy-bodies. All such people 12 
we urge, and entreat, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
to attend quietly to their business, and earn their own 
living. You, Brothers, must not grow weary of doing 13 

what is right. If any one disregards what we have said in this 14 
letter, mark that man and avoid his company, that he may feel 
ashamed. Yet do not think of him as an enemy, but caution 15 
him as you would a Brother. May the Lord, from 16 

whom all peace comes, himself give you his peace at all times 
and in ^11 ways. May he be with you all. 

The Apostle's *> P au ^> a ^d this greeting in my own hand- 17 
Autograph writing. It is my signature to every letter. This 
Farewell. j s h ow j wr ite. May the blessing of our Lord 18 
Jesus Christ be with you all. 




THE Roman province of 'Galatia,' in Asia Minor, included, 
not only the district which had previously borne that name, 
but also various adjacent districts subsequently included. 
Hence it is uncertain whether, in the New Testament, the 
name is used in its wider or in its narrower sense. Nor 
is it possible to fix with certainty the date of the Apostle's 
visits to 'Galatia,' or of this Letter to his converts there. 

The Christian Churches in ' Galatia ' appear to have been 
founded by St. Paul about the year 51 A. D., while he was on his 
second missionary journey (Acts 16. 6). Three years later he 
re-visited the district in the course of his third journey (Acts 
1 8. 23). He appears to have been seriously ill on the first- 
mentioned occasion, but his impulsive converts gave him an 
eager welcome, and soon became devotedly attached to him 
(Gal. A. 13 15). After he had left them, however, their 
enthusiasm for him and for his Message gradually cooled, and 
the present Letter was written as the result of information 
which reached him, that his converts were being led astray 
by teachers from Jerusalem, who impugned his apostolic 
authority and personal character, and insisted that all 
Christians ought to observe the Jewish Law and be circum- 

St. Paul was now, for the first time, face to face with the 
question whether Christianity could stand alone as a new and 
universal religion, or could exist only as ' a modified and 
extended Judaism.' His reply takes the form, first, of a 
personal narrative in which he establishes the direct revela- 
tion to him of what he delights to call ' his Gospel ' by the 
Christ himself, and its independence of Judaism; and, then, 
of a brief statement of the teaching (afterwards developed at 
length in his Letter to the Christians at Rome) that mere 
obedience to Law can never ensure a man's being 'pronounced 
righteous ' fryTibd ; for this, the Apostle argues, can follow 
only upon faith in the Christ. The Law, intended only to be 
provisional, has been superseded by the Gospel. 




To the Churches in Galatia, i 

Greeting. p ROM Paul, an Apostle whose commission is not 
from men and is given, not by man, but by Jesus Christ 
and God the Father who raised him from the dead ; 
AND FROM all the Brothers here. 2 

May God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ, bless you 3 
and give you peace. For Christ, to rescue us from this 
present wicked age, gave himself for our sins, in accor- 4 
dance with the will of our God and Father, to whom be 5 
ascribed all glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

The Apostle's ^ am astonished at your so soon deserting him, 6 
Disappoint- who called you through the love of Christ, 

ment. f or a different 'Good News,' which is really no 7 
Good News at all. But then, I know that there are people 
who are harassing you, and who want to pervert the Good 

News of the Christ. Yet even if we or if an angel from 8 

Heaven were to tell you any other ' Good News ' than that 
which we told you, may he be accursed ! We have said it 9 
before, and I repeat it now If any one tells you a 'Good 
News ' other than that which you received, may he be accursed ! 

Is this, I ask, trying to conciliate men, or God ? Am I ic 
seeking to please men ? If I were still trying to please men, 
I should not be a servant of Christ. 


its special I would remind you, Brothers, that the Good n 
Revelation. News which I told is no mere human invention. 
I, at least, did not receive it from man, nor was I taught it, but 12 
it came to me through a revelation made by Jesus Christ. 


298 GALATIANS, 1-2. 

His special You heard, no doubt, of my conduct when I 13 

can. was devoted to Judaism how I persecuted the 
Church of God to an extent beyond belief, and made havoc of it, 
and how, in my devotion to Judaism, I surpassed many of my 14 
contemporaries among my own people in my intense earnest- 
ness in upholding the traditions of my ancestors. But 15 
when God, who had set me apart even before my birth, 
and who called me by his love, saw fit to reveal his Son 16 
in rne, so that I might tell the Good News of him among 
the Gentiles, then at once, instead of consulting any human 
being, or even going up to Jerusalem to see those who were 17 
Apostles before me, I went into Arabia, and came back again 
to Damascus. Three years afterwards I went up to 18 
Jerusalem to make the acquaintance of Peter, and I stayed 
a fortnight with him. I did not, however, see any other 19 
Apostle, except James, the Master's brother. (As to what I 20 
am now writing to you, I call God to witness that I am speaking 
the truth). Afterwards I went to the districts of Syria and 21 
Cilicia. But I was still unknown even by sight to the Christian 22 
Churches in Judaea; all that they had heard was 'Themanwho 23 
once persecuted us is now telling the Good News of the very 
Faith of which he once made havoc.' And they praised God 24 

Hj- on my account. Fourteen years afterwards i ' 

independent I went up to Jerusalem again with Barnabas, 

Action. am j j took Titus also with me. It was in 2 
obedience to a revelation that I went ; and I laid before the 
Apostles the Good News that I am proclaiming among the 
Gentiles. I did this privately before those who are thought 
highly of, for fear that I might possibly be taking, or might have 
already taken, a course which would prove useless. Yet even 3 
my companion, Titus, though a Greek, was not compelled to 
be circumcised. But, on account of the false Brothers who 4 
had stolen in, the men who had crept in to spy upon the liberty 
which we have through union with Christ Jesus, in order to 
bring us back to slavery why, we did not for a moment yield 5 
submission to them, that the Truth of the Good News 
might be yours always ! Of those who are thought some- 6 
what highly of what they once were makes no difference to 
me ; God does not recognise human distinctions those, I say, 
who are thought highly of added nothing to my Message. 
On the contrary, they saw that I had been entrusted with the 7 
Good News for the Gentiles, just as Peter had been for the 
Jews. For he who gave Peter power for his mission to the 8 
Jews gave me, also, power to go to the Gentiles. Recognizing 9 
the charge entrusted to me, James, Peter, and John, who were 
regarded as pillars of the Church, openly acknowledged 
Barnabas and me as fellow-workers, agreeing that we should 
go to the Gentiles, and they to the Jews. Only we were to 10 

1 " Isa. .}). i. 

GALATIANS, 2-3. 299 

remember the poor the very thing I was myself anxious to 
HI* Rebuke do. But, when Peter came to Antioch, I n 

to Peter, opposed him to his face ; for he stood self-con- 
demned. Before certain persons came from James, he had 12 
been in the habit of eating with the Gentile converts ; but, 
when they came, he began to withdraw and hold aloof, for 
fear of offending those who still held to circumcision. The 13 
rest of the Jewish converts were guilty of the same hypocrisy, 
so that even Barnabas was led away by it. But, when I saw 14 
that they were not dealing straightforwardly with the Truth of 
the Good News, I said to Peter, before them all, " If you, who 
were born a Jew, adopt Gentile customs, instead of Jewish, 
why are you trying to compel the Gentile converts to adopt 
Jewish customs ? " 


The Failure We, though we are Jews by birth and not out- 15 
or the Law. casts of Gentile origin, know that no one is 16 
pronounced righteous as the result of obedience to Law, but 
only through faith in Christ Jesus. So we placed our faith in 
Christ Jesus, in order that we might be pronounced righteous, 
as the result of faith in Christ, and not of obedience to Law ; 
for such obedience ' will not result in even one soul's being 
pronounced righteous.' If, while seeking to be pronounced 17 
righteous through union with Christ, we were ourselves seen 
to be outcasts, would that make Christ an agent of sin? 
Heaven forbid ! For, if I rebuild the very things that I pulled 18 
down, I prove myself to have done wrong. I, indeed, ig 
through Law became dead to Law, in order to live for God. 
I have been crucified with Christ. So it is no longer I that 20 
live, but it is Christ who lives in me ; and, as for my present 
earthly life, I am living it by faith in the Son of God, who 
loved me and gave himself for me. I do not reject 21 

the love of God. If righteousness comes through Law, then 
there was no need for Christ to die ! 

The Gaiatians Foolish Galatians ! Who has been fascinating i 
misled as to you you before whose very eyes Jesus Christ 

the Law. was depicted upon the cross ? Here is the one 2 
thing that I want to find out from you Did you receive the Spirit 
as the result of obedience to Law, or of your having listened 
with faith ? Can you be so foolish ? After beginning with 3 
what is spiritual, do you now end with what is external? 
Did you go through so much to no purpose? if indeed it 4 
really was to no purpose ! He who supplies you abundantly 5 
with his Spirit and endows you with such powers does he do 

16 Ps. 143. a. 

800 GALATIANS, 8. 

this as the result of obedience to Law? or as the result of 
your having listened with faith ? It is just as it was with 

' He had faith in God, and his faith was regarded by God 
as righteousness.' 

Faith not see ' t^ 6 "' ^ at those whose lives are based 7 

Law,' the on faith are the Sons of Abraham. And Scripture, 8 
Ground of foreseeing that God would pronounce the Gentiles 

Acceptance. r j ghteous ag the result Q f fa j th> f oreto ld the Good 

News to Abraham in the words 

' Through thee all the Gentiles shall be blessed.' 

And, therefore, those whose lives are based on faith share the 9 
blessings bestowed upon the faith of Abraham. 

All who rely upon obedience to Law are under a curse, for 10 
Scripture says 

' Cursed is every one who does not abide by all that is 
written in the Book of the Law, and do it.' 

Again, it is evident that no one is pronounced righteous before 1 1 
God through Law, for we read 

' Through faith the righteous man shall find Life.' 
But the Law is not based on faith ; no, its words are 12 

' Those who practise these precepts will find Life through them.' 

Christ ransomed us from the curse pronounced in the Law, by 13 
taking the curse on himself for us, for Scripture says 
' Cursed is any one who is hanged on a tree.' 

And this he did that the blessing given to Abraham might be 14 
extended to the Gentiles through their union with Jesus Christ ; 
that so, through our faith, we also might receive the promised 
gift of the Spirit. 

To take an illustration, Brothers, from daily life : No one 15 
sets aside even an agreement between two men, when 
once it has been confirmed, nor does he add conditions to it. 
Now it was to Abraham that the promises were made, ' and to 16 
his offspring.' It was not said ' to his offsprings,' as if many 
persons were meant, but the words were 'to thy offspring,' 
showing that one person was meant and that was Christ. 
My point is this : An agreement already confirmed by God 17 
cannot be cancelled by the Law, which came four hundred 
and thirty years later, so as to cause the promise to be set 
aside. If our heritage is the result of Law, then it has ceased 18 
to be the result of a promise. Yet God conferred it on 
Abraham by a promise. 

Gen. 15. 6. Gen. u. 3 ; 18. 18. Deut. a*. a6. " Hab. a. 4. " Lev 18. 5. 
W Deut. ai. aj. "' Gen. ia. 7. 

GALATIANS, 34. 301 

The Purpose What, then, you ask, was the use of the Law ? 19 
of the Law. It was a. later addition, to make men conscious of 
their wrong-doings, and intended to last only till the coming 
of that ' offspring ' to whom the promise had been made ; 
and it was delivered through angels by a mediator. Now 20 
mediation implies more than one person, but God is one only. 
Does that set the Law in opposition to God's promises ? 21 
Heaven forbid ! For, if a Law had been given capable of 
bestowing Life, then righteousness would have actually owed 
its existence to Law. But the words of Scripture represent 22 
the whole world as being in bondage to sin, so that the 
promised blessing, dependent, as it is, upon faith in Jesus 
Christ, may be given to those who have faith in him. 

Before the coming of faith, we were kept under the guard of 23 
the Law, in bondage, awaiting the Faith that was destined to be 
revealed. Thus the Law has proved a guide to lead us to Christ, 24 
in order that we may be pronounced righteous as the result of 
faith. But now that faith has come we no longer need a guide. 25 
The Effect ^* or vou are a ^ Sons of God, through your faith 26 
of the in Christ Jesus. For all of you who were baptized 27 
Qospei. m t o union with Christ clothed yourselves with 
Christ. All distinctions between Jew and Greek, slave and 28 
freeman, male and female, have vanished ; for in union with 
Christ Jesus you are all one. And, since you belong to 29 
Christ, it follows that you are Abraham's offspring and, under 
the promise, sharers in the inheritance. 

My point is this : As long as the heir is under age, there is i < 
no difference between him and a slave, though he is master of 
the whole estate. He is subject to the control of guardians 2 
and stewards, during the period for which his father has power 
to appoint them. And so is it with us ; when we were under 3 
age, as it were, we were slaves to the puerile teaching of this 
world ; but, when the full time came, God sent his Son born 4 
a woman's child, born subject to Law to ransom those who 5 
were subject to Law, so that we might take our position as 

And it is because you are sons that God sent into our hearts 6 
the Spirit of his Son, with the cry ' Abba, our Father.' You, 7 
therefore, are no longer a slave, but a son ; and, if a son, then 
an heir also, by God's appointment. 

Yet formerly, in your ignorance of God, you 8 
crade'sViHt became slaves to ' gods 'which were no gods. But 9 

of the now that you have found God or, rather, have 

Gaiatians. be en found by him how is it that you are turn- 

ing back to that poor and feeble puerile teaching, to which 

yet once again you are wanting to become slaves ? You are 10 

scrupulous in keeping Days and Months and Seasons and 


302 GALATIANS, 4. 

Years ! You make me fear that the labour which I have spent n 
on you may have been wasted. 

TH A ostie ^ entreat you, Brothers, to become like me, as 12 
and P hi*8 I became like you. You have never done me any 
Converts, wrong. You remember that it was owing to 13 
bodily infirmity that on the first occasion I told you the Good 
News. And as for what must have tried you in my condition, it 14 
did not inspire you with scorn or disgust, but you welcomed me 
as if I had been an angel of God or Christ Jesus himself! 
What has become, then, of your blessings? For I can bear 15 
witness that, had it been possible, you would have torn out 
your eyes and given them to me ! Am I to think, then, that I 16 
have become your enemy by telling you the truth? Certain 17 
people are seeking your favour, but with no honourable object. 
No, indeed, they want to isolate you, so that you will have to 
seek their favour. It is always honourable to have your favour 18 
sought in an honourable cause, and not only when I am with 
you, my dear children you for whom I am again enduring a 19 
mother's pains, till a likeness to Christ shall have been formed 
in you. But I could wish to be with you now and speak in a 20 
different tone, for I am perplexed about you. 

Tell me, you who want to be still subject to 21 
*rthi e ^ Law Why do not you listen to the Law ? Scrip- 22 
and the ture says that Abraham had two sons, one the 
oospei. child of the slave-woman and the other the child 
of the free woman. But the child of the slave-woman was 23 
born, in the course of nature, while the child of the free 
woman was born in fulfilment of a promise. This story may 24 
be taken as an allegory. The women stand for two Covenants. 
One Covenant, given from Mount Sinai, produces a race of 
slaves and is represented by Hagar (the word Hagar meaning 25 
in Arabia Mount Sinai) and it ranks with the Jerusalem of to- 
day, for she and her children are in slavery. But the Jerusalem 26 
above is free, and she it is who is our mother. For Scripture 27 

1 Rejoice, thou barren one, who dost never bear, 
Break into shouts, thou who art never in labour, 
For many are the children of her who is desolate 
aye, more than of her who has a husband.' 

As for ourselves, Brothers, we, like Isaac, are children born in 28 
fulfilment of a promise. Yet at that time the child born in the 29 
course of nature persecuted the child born by the power of the 
Spirit ; and it is the same now. But what does the passage 30 
of Scripture say ? 

' Send away the slave-woman and her son ; for the slave's 
son shall not be co-heir with the son of the free woman.' . 
'*> Isa. 54. i. 30 Gen. 21. 10. 

GALATIANS, 4-5. 303 

And so, Brothers, we are not children of a slave, but of her 31 
who is free. 


Christian It is for freedom that Christ set us free ; stand i 
Freedom, firm therefore, and do not again be held under the 
yoke of slavery. 

Understand that I, Paul, myself tell you that if you allow 2 
yourselves to be circumcised, Christ will avail you nothing. I 3 
again declare to every one who receives circumcision, that he 
binds himself to obey the whole Law. You have severed 4 
yourselves from Christ you who are seeking to be pronounced 
righteous through Law ; you have fallen away from love. For 5 
we, by the help of the Spirit, are eagerly waiting for the ful- 
filment of our hope that we may be pronounced righteous as 
the result of faith. If a man is in union with Christ Jesus, 6 
neither is circumcision nor the omission of it anything, but 
faith, working through love, is everything. 

You were once making good progress ! Who has hindered 7 
you from obeying the Truth ? The persuasion brought to bear 8 
on you does not come from him who calls you. A little leaven 9 
leavens all the dough. I, through my union with the Lord, 10 
am persuaded that you will learn to think with me. But the 
man who is disturbing your minds will have to bear his punish- 
ment, whoever he may be. If I, Brothers, am still n 
proclaiming circumcision, whyam I still persecuted ? It seems 
that the Cross has ceased to be an obstacle ! I could 12 
even wish that the people who are unsettling you would go 
further still and mutilate themselves. 

The Limit* of Remember, Brothers, to you the Call came to 13 
Christian give you freedom. Only do not make your free- 
Freedom, dom an opportunity for self-indulgence, but serve 

one another in a loving spirit. Indeed, the whole Law has 14 

been summed up in this one precept 

' Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thou dost thyself.* 

But, if you are continually wounding and preying upon one 15 
another, take care that you are not destroyed by one another. 
The Guidance This is what I have to say : Let your steps be 16 
of the guided by the Spirit, and then you will never gratify 
spirit. the cravings of your earthly nature. For these 17 
cravings of our earthly nature conflict with the Spirit, and the 
Spirit with our earthly nature they are two contrary princi- 
ples so that you cannot do what you wish. But, if you follow 18 
M Lev. 19. 18. 

304 GALATIANS, 5-6. 

the guidance of the Spirit, you are not subject to Law. The 19 
sins of our earthly nature are unmistakeable. They are sins 
like these unchastity, impurity, indecency, idolatry, sorcery, 20 
quarrels, strife, jealousy, outbursts of passion, rivalries, 
dissensions, divisions, feelings of envy, drunkenness, revelry, 21 
and the like. And I warn you, as I warned you before, that 
those who indulge in such things will have no place in the 
Kingdom of God. But the fruit produced by the Spirit is love, 22 
joy, peace, forbearance, kindliness, generosity, trustfulness, 
gentleness, self-control. Against such things there is no law ! 23 
And those who belong to Jesus, the Christ, have already 24 
crucified their earthly nature, with its passions and its 

Since our Life is due to the Spirit, let us rule our conduct 25 
also by the Spirit. Do not let us grow vain, and provoke or 26 
envy one another. Brothers, even if a man should be i 

caught committing a sin, you who are spiritually minded 
should, in a gentle spirit, help him to recover himself, taking 
care lest any one of you also should be tempted. Bear 2 

one another's burdens, and so carry out the Law of the Christ. 
If a man imagines himself to be somebody, when he is really 3 
nobody, he deceives himself. Let every one test his own 4 
work, and then his cause for satisfaction will be in himself and 
not in a comparison of himself with his neighbour ; for every 5 
one must bear his own load. ... He, however, who 6 
is being instructed in the Message ought always to share 
his blessings with the man who instructs him. 

Do not be deceived. God cannot be mocked. What a 7 
man sows that he will reap. For he who sows the field of his 8 
earthly nature will from that earthly nature reap corruption ; 
while he who sows the field of the spirit will from that spirit 
reap Immortal Life. Let us never tire of doing right, for at 9 
the proper season we shall reap our harvest, if we do not 
grow weary. Therefore, I say, as the opportunity ID 

occurs, let us treat every one with kindness, and especially 
members of the Household of the Faith. 


See in what large letters I am writing with my own n 
hand. Those who wish to appear to advantage in 12 

regard to outward observances are the very people who are 
trying to compel you to be circumcised ; and they do it only 
to avoid being persecuted for the cross of Jesus, the Christ. 
Even these men who are circumcised do not themselves keep 13 
the Law ; yet they want you to be circumcised, so that they 
may boast of your observance of the rite. But, for my part, 14 
may 1 never boast of anything except the cross of Jesus Christ, 

GALATIANS, 8. 305 

our Master, through whom the world has been crucified 
to me, and I to the world. For neither is circumcision nor 15 
the omission of it anything ; but a new nature is everything. 
May all who rule their conduct by this principle find peace 16 
and mercy they who are the Israel of God. 

For the future let no one trouble me ; for I bear the marks 17 
of Jesus branded on my body. 

May the blessing of Jesus Christ, our Lord, rest on your 18 
souls, Brothers. Amen. 

16 Pa. 135. j ; ia& 6. 




CORINTH was the capital of the Roman province of Achaia. 
It contained a large, mixed population of Greeks, Jews, and 
Italian freedmen. The community famous for its trade, its 
festivals and games of world-wide renown, its wealth and its 
luxury was highly cultured, but grossly immoral. The 
Christian Church at Corinth was founded by St. Paul during 
the year and a half that he stayed in that city in the course 
of his second missionary journey (Acts 18. n) ; and this Letter 
to his Corinthian converts was probably written at Ephesus 
towards the close of St. Paul's stay there on his third 
missionary journey (Acts 19). News had been brought to the 
Apostle of dissensions and disorders which had arisen in the 
Cnurch at Corinth (i Cor. i. n) ; and about the same time he 
received a letter from that Church, asking guidance from him 
in several important matters (i Cor. 7. i). These were the 
circumstances under which he wrote the present Letter of 
rebuke and advice. 




To the Church of God in Corinth, to those who i-: 
Greeting. nave been consecrated by union with Christ Jesus 

and called to become his People, and also to all, wherever 

they may be, who invoke the Name of our Lord Jesus 

Christ their Master and ours, 
FROM Paul, who has been called to be an Apostle of Jesus 

Christ by the will of God, 
AND FROM Sosthenes, our Brother. 
May God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ bless you and 3 

give you peace. 

I always thank God about you for the blessing 4 
ThankftHnesa bestowed upon you in Christ Jesus. For through 5 

and union with him you were enriched in every way 
confidence. m y Our power to preach, and in your knowledge 
of the Truth ; and so became yourselves a confirmation of my 6 
testimony to the Christ. And thus there is no gift in which 7 

Jou are deficient, while waiting for the Appearing of our Lord 
esus Christ. And God himself will strengthen you to the 8 
end, so that at the Day of our Lord Jesus Christ you may be 
found blameless. God will not fail you, and it is he who 9 
called you into communion with his Son, Jesus Christ, our 


But I appeal to you, Brothers, by the Name of 10 
Prevalence o* our Lord Jesus Christ, to agree in what you profess, 
*" and not to allow divisions to exist among you, 
but to be united of one mind and of one opinion. For I have n 
been informed, my Brothers, by the members of Chloe's house- 


hold, that party feeling exists among you. I mean this, 12 
that every one of you says either ' I follow Paul,' or ' I Apollos,' 
or ' I Kephas,' or ' I Christ.' You have rent the Christ in 13 
pieces ! Was it Paul who was crucified for you ? or were 
you baptized into the Faith of Paul ? I am thankful that I 14 
did not baptize any of you except Crispus and Gaius, so that 15 
no one can say that you were baptized into my Faith. I 16 
baptized also the household of Stephanas. I do not know 
that I baptized any one else. My mission from Christ was 17 
not to baptize, but to tell the Good News ; not, however, 
in the language of philosophy, lest the cross of the Christ 
should be robbed of its meaning. 

The Message of the Cross is indeed mere folly 18 
T th P cro1fc r to those who are' in the path to Ruin, but to us 
who are in the path of Salvation it is the very 
power of God. For Scripture says 19 

' I will bring the philosophy of the philosophers to nought, 
And the shrewdness of the shrewd I will make of no account.' 

Where is the Philosopher? where the Teacher of the Law? 20 
where the Disputant of to-day ? Has not God shown the 
world's philosophy to be folly ? For since the world, in God's 21 
wisdom, did not by its philosophy learn to know God, 
God saw fit, by the ' folly ' of our proclamation, to save 
those who believe in Christ ! While Jews ask for miraculous 22 
signs, and Greeks study philosophy, we are proclaiming 23 
Christ crucified ! to the Jews an obstacle, to the Gentiles 
mere folly, but to those who have received the Call, whether 24 
Jews or Greeks, Christ, the Power of God and the Wisdom of 
God ! For God's ' folly ' is wiser than men, and God's ' weak- 25 
ness ' is stronger than men. 
'weakness 1 Look at the facts of your Call, Brothers. There 26 

nd are not many among you who are wise, as men 
'strength.' rec k on wisdom, not many who are influential, 
not many who are high-born ; but God chose what the world 27 
counts foolish to put its wise men to shame, and God chose 
what the world counts weak to put its strong things to shame, 
and God chose what the world counts poor and insignificant 28 
things that to it are unreal to bring its 'realities' to nothing, 
so that in his presence no human being should boast. But 29, 
you, by your union with Christ Jesus, belong to God ; and 
Christ, by God's will, became not only our Wisdom, but 
also our Righteousness, Holiness, and Deliverance, so that 31 
in the words of Scripture 

' Let him who boasts make his boast of the Lord ! ' 
Isa. 29. 14. a> Isa. 19. ii ia ; 33. 18. Jer. 9. 34. 

I. CORINTHIANS, 23. 811 

Philosophy For my own part, Brothers, when I came to i 2 
and ' you, it was with no display of eloquence or 

Revelation, philosophy that I came to tell the hidden purpose 
of God ; for I had determined that, while with you, I would 2 
know nothing but Jesus Christ and him crucified ! Indeed, 3 
when I came among- you, I was weak, and full of fears, and 
in great anxiety. My Message and my Proclamation were not 4 
delivered in the persuasive language of philosophy, but were 
accompanied by the manifestation of spiritual power, so that 5 
your faith should be based, not on the philosophy of man, but 
on the power of God. 

Yet there is a philosophy that we teach to those whose faith 6 
is matured, but it is not the philosophy of to-day, nor that of 
the leaders of to-day men whose downfall is at hand. No, 7 
it is a divine philosophy that we teach, one concerned with the 
hidden purpose of God that long-hidden philosophy which 
God, before time began, destined for our glory. This philo- 8 
sophy is not known to any of the leaders of to-day ; for, had 
they known it, they would not have crucified our glorified 
Lord. It is what Scripture speaks of as 9 

'What eye never saw, nor ear ever heard, 
What never entered the mind of man 

Even all that God has prepared for those who love him.' 

Yet to us God revealed it through his Spirit ; for the Spirit 10 
fathoms all things, even the inmost depths of God's being. 
For what man is there who knows what a man is, except n 
the man's own spirit within him ? So, also, no one compre- 
hends what God is, except the Spirit of God. And as for us, 12 
it is not the Spirit of the World that we have received, but the 
Spirit that comes from God, that we may realize the blessings 
given to us by him. And we speak of these gifts, not in Ian- 13 
guage taught by human philosophy, but in language taught 
by the Spirit, explaining spiritual things in spiritual words. 
The merely intellectual man rejects the teaching of the Spirit 14 
of God ; for to him it is mere folly ; he cannot grasp it, 
because it is to be understood only by spiritual insight. 
But the man with spiritual insight is able to understand 15 
everything, although he himself is understood by no one. 
For ' who has so comprehended the mind of the Lord as 16 
to be able to instruct him ? ' We, however, have the very 
mind of Christ. 

But I, Brothers, could not speak to you as men with spiritual i 3 
insight, but only as worldly-minded mere infants in the Faith 
of Christ. I fed you with milk, not with solid food, for you 2 
were not then able to take it. 

9 Isa. 64. 4. 16 Isa. 40. 13. 

312 I. CORINTHIANS, 3-4. 

No, and even now you are not able ; you are 3 
Politio'n'and s tiW worldly. While there exist among you 

work of the jealousy and party feeling, is it not true that you 

Apostles. are W orldly, and are acting merely as other 
men do? When one says 'I follow Paul,' and another 'I 4 
follow Apollos,' are not you like other men ? What, I ask, is 5 
Apollos ? or what is Paul ? Servants through whom you were 
led to accept the Faith ; and that only as the Lord helped each 
of you. I planted, and Apollos watered, but it was God who 6 
caused the growth. Therefore neither the man who plants, 7 
nor the man who waters, is of any account, but only God 
who causes the growth. In this the man who plants and the 8 
man who waters are one ; yet eacli will receive his own reward 
in proportion to his own labour. For we are God's fellow 9 
workers ; you are God's harvest field, God's building. 

In fulfilment of the charge which God had entrusted to me, 10 
I laid the foundation like a skilful master-builder ; but another 
man is now building upon it. Let every one take care how 
he builds ; for no man can lay any other foundation than the 1 1 
one already laid Jesus Christ. Whatever is used by those 12 
who build upon this foundation, whether gold, silver, costly 
stones, wood, hay, or straw, the quality of each man's work 13 
will become known, for the Day will make it plain ; because 
that Day is to be ushered in with fire, and the fire itself will 
test the quality of every man's work. If any man's work, 14 
which he has built upon that foundation, still remains, he will 
gain a reward. If any man's work is burnt up, he will suffer 15 
loss ; though he himself will escape, but only as one who has 
passed through fire. 

Do not you know that you are God's Temple, and that God's 16 
Spirit has his home in you ? If any one destroys the Temple 17 
of God, God will destroy him ; for the Temple of God is 
sacred, and so also are you. 

Let no one deceive himself. If any one among you imagines 18 
that, as regards this world, he is a wise man, let him become 
a ' fool,' that he may become wise. For in God's sight this 19 
world's wisdom is folly. Scripture tells of 

' One who catches the wise in their own craftiness,' 
and it says again 20 

'The Lord sees how fruitless are the deliberations of the wise.' 
Therefore let no one boast about men ; for all things are 21 
yours whether Paul, or Apollos, or Kephas, or the world, or 22 
life, or death, or the present, or the future all things are 
yours ! But you are Christ's and Christ is God's. 23 

Let men look upon us as Christ's servants, and as stewards i 4 
of the hidden truths of God. Now what we look for in 2 

19 Job 5. jj, 13. *> Ps. 94. xi. 


stewards is that they should be trustworthy. But it weighs 3 
very little with me that I am judged by you or by any human 
tribunal. No, I do not even judge myself ; for, though I am 4 
conscious of nothing against myself, that does not prove me 
innocent. It is the Lord who is my judge. Therefore do not 5 
pass judgement before the time, but wait till the Lord comes. 
He will throw light upon what is now dark and obscure, and 
will reveal the motives in men's minds ; and then every one 
will receive due praise from God. 

All this, Brothers, I have, for your sakes, applied to Apollos 6 
and myself, so that, from our example, you may learn to 
observe the precept ' Keep to what is written,' that none of 
you may speak boastfully of one teacher to the disparagement 
of another. For who makes any one of you superior to others? 7 
And what have you that was not given you ? But if you 
received it as a gift, why do yon boast as if you had not ? Are 8 
you all so soon satisfied ? Are you so soon rich ? Have you 
begun to reign without us ? Would indeed that you had, so 
that we also might reign with you ! For, as it seems to me, 9 
God has exhibited us, the Apostles, last of all, as men doomed 
to death. We are made a spectacle to the universe, both to 
angels and to men ! We, for Christ's sake, are 'fools,' but 10 
you, by your union with Christ, are men of discernment. We 
are weak, but you are strong. You are honoured, but we 
are despised. To this very hour we go hungry, thirsty, and n 
naked ; we are beaten ; we are homeless ; we work hard, 12 
toiling with our own hands. We meet abuse with blessings, 
we meet persecution with endurance, we meet slander with 13 
gentle appeals. We have been treated as the scum of the 
earth, the vilest of the vile, to this very hour. 

It is with no wish to shame you that I am writing like this ; 14 
but to warn you as my own dear children. Though you 15 
may have thousands of instructors in the Faith of Christ, 
yet you have not many fathers. It was I who, through 
union with. Christ Jesus, became your father by means of 
the Good News. Therefore I entreat you Follow my 16 
example. This is my reason for sending Timothy to 17 

you. He is my own dear faithful child in the Master's service, 
and he will remind you of my methods of teaching the Faith of 
Christ Jesus methods which I follow everywhere in every 

Some, I hear, are puffed up with pride, thinking that I am 18 
not coming to you. But come to you I will, and that soon, if it 19 
please the Lord ; and then I shall find out, not what words 
these men use who are so puffed up, but what power they 
possess ; for the Kingdom of God is based, not on words, but 20 
on power. What do you wish ? Am I to come to you with a 21 
rod, or in a loving and gentle spirit ? 

20 Dan. 2. 44. 

314 I. CORINTHIANS, 5-6. 

A fl rant There is a wide-spread report respecting a case i 

caeo of of immorality among you, and that, too, of a 
immorality, kind that does not occur even among the 
Gentiles a man, I hear, is living with his father's wife ! Instead 2 
of grieving over it and taking steps for the expulsion of the 
man who has done this thing, is it possible that you are still 
puffed up ? For I myself, though absent in body, 3 

have been present with you in spirit, and in the name of our 
Lord Jesus I have already passed judgement, just as if I had 
been present, upon the man who has acted in this way. I have 4 
decided having been present in spirit at your meetings, when 
the power of the Lord Jesus was with us to deliver such a man 5 
as this over to Satan, that what is sensual in him may be 
destroyed, so that his spirit may be saved at the Day of the 
Lord. Your boasting is unseemly. Do not you know 6 

that even a little leaven leavens all the dough ? Get rid en- 7 
tirely of the old leaven, so that you may be like new dough 
free from leaven, as in truth you are. For our Passover Lamb 
is already sacrificed Christ himself ; therefore let us keep our 8 
festival, not with the leaven of former days, nor with the leaven 
of vice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of 
sincerity and truth. 

I told you, in my letter, not to associate with immoral 9 
people not, of course, meaning men of the world who are 10 
immoral, or who are covetous and grasping, or who worship 
idols; for then you would have to leave the world altogether. 
But, as things are, I say that you are not to associate with any 1 1 
one who, although a Brother in name, is immoral, or covetous, 
or an idolater, or abusive, or a drunkard, or grasping no, 
not even to sit at table with such people. What have I to do 12 
with judging those outside the Church ? Is it not for you 
to judge those who are within the Church, while God 13 
judges those who are outside ? ' Put away the wicked man 
from among you.' 

Lawsuit* Can it be that, when one of you has a dispute i 
btwen with another, he dares to have his case tried 

Christians, before the heathen, instead of before Christ's 
People ? Do not you know that Christ's People will try the 2 
world ? And if the world is to be tried by you, are you unfit 
to try the most trivial cases ? Do not you know that we are 3 
to try angels to say nothing of the affairs of this life ? Why, 4 
then, if you have cases relating to the affairs of this life, do 
you set to try them men who carry no weight with the 
Church ? To your shame I ask it. Can it be that there is 5 
not one man among you wise enough to decide between two 
of his Brothers? Must Brother go to law with Brother, and 6 
that, too, before unbelievers ? To begin with, it is undoubtedly 7 

7 Exod. 12. 21. 13 Oeut. 22. 24. 

I. CORINTHIANS, e~7. 315 

a loss to you to have lawsuits with one another. Why not 
rather let yourselves be wronged ? Why not rather let 
yourselves be cheated ? Instead of this, you wrong and 8 
cheat others yourselves yes, even your Brothers ! Do not 9 
you know that wrong-doers will have no share in God's 
Kingdom ? Do not be deceived. No one who is 

immoral, or an idolater, or an adulterer, or licentious, or a 
sodomite, or a thief, or covetous, or a drunkard, or abusive, or 10 
grasping, will have any share in God's Kingdom. Such 1 1 

some of you used to be ; but you washed yourselves clean ! 
you became Christ's People ! you were pronounced righteous 
through the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ, and through the 
Spirit of our God ! 

The Everything is allowable for me ! Yes, but every- 12 

sacredness of thing is not profitable. Everything is allowable 
the Body. f or me i Yes, but for my part, I will not let myself 
be enslaved by anything. Food exists for the stomach, and 13 
the stomach for food ; but God will put an end to both the 
one and the other. The body, however, exists, not for im- 
morality, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body ; and, as 14 
God has raised the Lord, so he will raise up us also by the 
exercise of his power. Do not you know that your bodies are 15 
Christ's members? Am I, then, to take the members that 
belong to the Christ and make them the members of a prostitute? 
Heaven forbid ! Or do not you know that a man who unites 16 
himself with a prostitute is one with her in body (for ' the two,' 
it is said, ' will become one ') ; while a man who is united with 17 
the Lord is one with him in spirit? Shun all immorality. 18 
Every other sin that men commit is something outside the 
body ; but an immoral man sins against his own body. 
Again, do not you know that your body is a shrine of the Holy 19 
Spirit that is within you the Spirit which you have from 
God ? Moreover, you are not your own masters ; you were 20 
bought, and the price was paid. Therefore, honour God in 
your bodies. 


With reference to the subjects about which you i 

ON MARRIAGE. 111 it r 

The Apostle's wrote to me : It would be well for a man to 

views. remain single. But, owing to the prevalence of 2 
immorality, I advise every man to have his own wife, and 
every woman her husband. A husband should give his wife 3 
her due, and a wife her husband. It is not the wife, but the 4 

16 Gen. a. 24. 


husband, who exercises power over her body ; and so, too, it 
is not the husband, but the wife, who exercises power over his 
body. Do not deprive each other of what is due unless it is 5 
only for a time and by mutual consent, so that your minds may 
be free for prayer till you again live as man and wife 
lest Satan should take advantage of your want of self-control 
and tempt you. I say this, however, as a concession, not 6 
as a command. I should wish every one to be just what I am 7 
myself. But every one has his own gift from God one in 
one way, and one in another. 

My advice, then, to those who are not married, and to 8 
widows, is this : It would be well for them to remain as I 
am myself. But, if they cannot control themselves, let them 9 
marry, for it is better to marry than to be consumed with 
passion. To those who are married my direction is ic 

yet it is not mine, but the Master's that a woman is not to 
leave her husband (if she has done so, let her remain as she is, 1 1 
or else be reconciled to her husband) and also that a man is not 

Marriages to divorce his wife. To all others I say I, ii 

with not the Master : If a Brother is married to a 
unbelievers. WO man, who is an unbeliever but willing to live 
with him, he should not divorce her; and a woman who is i^ 
married to a man, who is an unbeliever but willing to live with 
her, should not divorce her husband. For, through his wife, the i^ 
husband who is an unbeliever has become associated with 
Christ's People ; and the wife who is an unbeliever has 
become assooiated with Christ's People through our Brother 
whom she has married. Otherwise your children would be 
'defiled,' but, as it is, they belong to Christ's People. How- i< 
ever, if the unbeliever wishes to be separated, let him be so. 
Under such circumstances neither the Brother nor the Sister 
is bound ; God has called you to live in peace. How can you i( 
tell, wife, whether you may not save your husband ? and 
how can you tell, husband, whether you may not save yo'ur 

In any case, a man should continue to live in the i; 
independent condition which the Lord has allotted to him, and 
or conditions i n which he was when God called him. This 

ruf *- is the rule that I lay down in every Church. Was it 
a man already circumcised when he was called ? Then he 
should not efface his circumcision. Has a man been called 
when uncircumcised ? Then he should not be circumcised. 
Circumcision is nothing ; the want of it is nothing ; but to ic 
keep the commands of God is everything. Let every one 2C 
remain in that condition of life in which he was when the 
Call came to him. Were you a slave when you were called ? 21 
Do not let that trouble you. No, even if you are able to gain 
your freedom, still do your best. For the man who was a 22 


slave when he was called to the Master's service is. the Master's 
freed-man ; so, too, the man who was free when called is 
Chris t's slave. You were bought, and the price was paid. Do 23 
not let yourselves become slaves to men. Brothers, let every 24 
one remain in the condition in which he was when he was 
called, in close communion with God. 

Difficulties With regard to unmarried women, I have no 25 
^"wJth***' command from the Master to give you, but I tell 
Marriage, you my opinion, and it is that of a man whom the 
Master in his mercy has made worthy to be trusted. 

I think, then, that, in view of the time of suffering that has 26 
now come upon us, what I have already said is best that a 
man should remain as he is. Are you married to a wife? 27 
Then do not seek to be separated. Are you separated from a 
wife ? Then do not seek for a wife. Still, if you should marry, 28 
that is not wrong ; nor, if a young woman marries, is that 
wrong. But those who marry will have much trouble to bear, 
and my wish is to spare you. What I mean, Brothers, 29 

is this : The time is short. Meanwhile, let those who have 
wives live as if they had none, those who are weeping as if not 30 
weeping, those who are rejoicing as if not rejoicing, those who 
buy as if not possessing, and those who use the good things of 31 
the world as using them sparingly ; for this world as we see it 
is passing away. I want you to be free from anxiety. The 32 
unmarried man is anxious about the Master's Cause, desiring 
to please him ; while the married man is anxious about worldly. 33 
matters, desiring to please his wife ; and so his interests are 
divided. Again, the unmarried woman, whether she is old or 34 
young, is anxious about the Master's Cause, striving to be pure 
both in body and in spirit, while the married woman is anxious 
about worldly matters, desiring to please her husband. I say 35 
this for your own benefit, not with any intention of putting a 
halter round your necks, but in order to secure for the Master 
seemly and constant devotion, free from all distraction. 

If, however, a father thinks that he is not acting fairly 36 
by his unmarried daughter, when she is past her youth, and 
if under these circumstances her marriage ought to take 
place, let him act as he thinks right. He is doing nothing 
wrong let the marriage take place. On the other hand, a 37 
father, who has definitely made up his mind, and is under no 
compulsion, but is free to carry out his own wishes, and who 
has come to the decision, in his own mind, to keep his un- 
married daughter at home, will be doing right. In short, the 38 
one who consents to his daughter's marriage is doing right, 
and yet the other will be doing better. 

A wife is bound to her husband as long as he lives ; but, if 39 
the husband should pass to his rest, the widow is free to 
marry any one she wishes, provided he is a believer. Yet 40 

318 I. CORINTHIANS, 79. 

she will be happier if she remains as she is in my opinion, 
for I think that I also have the Spirit of God. 

ON With reference to food that has been offered in i 

HEATHEN sacrifice to idols We are aware that all of us 
^ou'^sti"* have knowledge ! Knowledge breeds conceit, 

"of " * while love builds up character. If a man thinks 2 
conscience, that he knows anything, he has not yet reached 
that knowledge which he ought to have reached. On the other 3 
hand, if a man loves God, he is known by God. With 4 

reference, then, to eating food that has been offered to idols 
we are aware that an idol is nothing in the world, and that 
there is no God but one. Even supposing that there are so- 5 
called ' gods ' either in Heaven or on earth and there are many 
such ' gods ' and ' lords ' yet for us there is only one God, the 6 
Father, from whom all things come (and for him we live), 
and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things come 
(and through him we live). Still, it is not every one 7 

that has this knowledge. Some* people, because of their 
association with idols, continued down to the present time, eat 
the food as food offered to an idol ; and their consciences, 
while still weak, are dulled. What we eat, however, will not 8 
bring us nearer to God. We lose nothing by not eating this 
food, and we gain nothing by eating it. But take care 9 
that this right of yours does not become in any way a 
stumbling-block to the weak. For if some one should see you 10 
who possess this knowledge, feasting in an idol's temple, will 
not his conscience, if he is a weak man, become so hardened 
that he, too, will eat food offered to idols ? And so, through this 1 1 
knowledge of yours, the weak man is ruined your Brother for 
whose sake Christ died ! In this way, by sinning against your 12 
Brothers and injuring their consciences, while still weak, 
you sin against Christ. Therefore, if what I eat makes my 13 
Brother fall, rather than make my Brother fall, I will never eat 
meat again. 

The Apotie' Am I not free ? Am I not an Apostle ? Have 
Example. I not seen our Lord Jesus ? Are not you your- 
selves my work achieved in union with the Lord ? Ill am not 
an Apostle to others, yet at least I am to you ; for you are the 
seal that stamps me as an Apostle in union with the' Lord. 

The defence that I make to my critics is this : Have not we 3, 
a right to food and drink ? Have not we a right to take a wife 5 
with us, if she is a Christian, as the other Apostles and the 
Master's brothers and Kephas all do ? Or is it only Barnabas 6 
and I who have no right to give up working for our bread ? 
Does any one ever serve as a soldier at his own expense ? Does 7 
any one plant a vineyard and not eat its produce ? Or does 


any one look after a herd and not drink the milk ? Am 8 

I, in all this, speaking only from the human standpoint ? Does 
not the Law also say the same ? For in the Law of Moses it is 9 

' Thou shalt not muzzle a bullock while it is treading out 
the grain.' 

Is it the bullocks that God is thinking of? or is not it said 10 
entirely for our sakes ? Surely it was written for our sakes, 
for the ploughman ought not to plough, nor the thrasher to 
thrash, without expecting a share of the grain. Since n 

we, then, sowed spiritual seed for you, is it too much that we 
should reap from you an earthly harvest? If others share- in 12 
this right over you, do not we even more ? Still we did not avail 
ourselves of this right. No, we endure anything rather than 
impede the progress of the Good News of the Christ. Do not 13 
you know that those who do the work of the Temple live on 
what comes from the Temple, and that those who serve at the 
altar share the offerings with the altar ? So, too, the Master 14 
has appointed that those who tell the Good News should get 
their living from the Good News. I, however, have not availed 15 
myself of any of these rights. I am not saying this to 

secure such an arrangement for myself; indeed, I would far 

rather die Nobody shall make my boast a vain one ! If I tell 16 

the Good News, I have nothing to boast of, for I can but 
do so. Woe is me if I do not tell it ! If I do this work 17 
willingly, I have a reward ; but, if unwillingly, I have been 
charged to perform a duty. What is my reward, then ? To 18 
present the Good News free of all cost, and so make but a 
sparing use of the rights which it gives me. 

Although I was entirely free, yet, to win as many converts as 19 
possible, I made myself every one's slave. To the Jews I became 20 
like a Jew, to win Jews. To those who are subject to Law I be- 
came like a man subject to Law though I was not myself sub- 
ject to Law to win those who are subject to Law. To those 21 
who have no Law I became like a man who has no Law not that 
I am free from God's Law ; no, for I am under Christ's Law 
to win those who have no Law. To the weak I became weak, 22 
to win the weak. I have become all things to all men, so as 
at all costs to save some. And I do everything for the sake 23 
of the Good News, that with them I may share in its blessings. 

Do not you know that on a race-course, though all run, 24 
yet only one wins the prize ? Run in such a way that you 
may win. Every athlete exercises self-restraint in every- 25 
thing ; they, indeed, for a crown that fades, we for one that 
is unfading. I, therefore, run with no uncertain aim. I box 26 
not like a man hitting the air. No, I bruise my body and 27 

Deut. 25. 4. 

320 I. CORINTHIANS, 9 1O. 

make it my slave, lest I, who have called others to the contest, 
should myself be rejected. 

A warn in ^ want you to bear in mind, Brothers, that all i 
from our ancestors were beneath the cloud, and all 
History, passed through the sea ; that in the cloud and in 2 
the sea they all underwent baptism as followers of Moses ; and 3 
that they all ate the same supernatural food, and all drank the 4 
same supernatural water, for they used to drink from a super- 
natural rock which followed them, and that rock was the Christ. 
Yet with most of them God was displeased ; for they were 5 
' struck down in the desert.' 

Now these things happened as warnings to us, to teach us 6 
not to long for evil things as our forefathers longed. Do not 7 
become idolaters, as some of them became. Scripture says 

4 The people sat down to eat and drink, and stood up to dance.' 

Nor let us act immorally, as some of them acted, with the result 8 
that twenty-three thousand of them fell dead in a single day. 
Nor let us try the patience of the Lord too far, as some of them 9 
tried it, with the result that they ' were, one after another, des- 
troyed by the snakes.' And do not murmur, as some of them 10 
murmured, and so 'were destroyed by the Angel of Death.' 
These things happened to .them by way of warning, and were 1 1 
recorded to serve as a caution to us, in whose days the close of 
the ages has come. 

Therefore let the man who thinks that he stands take care 12 
that he does not fall. No temptation has come upon you that is 13 
not common to all mankind. God will not fail you, and he will 
not allow you to be tempted beyond your strength ; but, when 
he sends the temptation, he will also provide the way of 
escape, so that you may have strength to endure. 

Tho Apostio's Therefore, my dear friends, shun the worship 14 
conclusions, of idols. I speak to you as men of discernment ; 15 
form your own judgement about what I am saying. In 16 

the Cup of Blessing which we bless, is not there a sharing 
in the blood of the Christ ? And in the Bread which we break, 
is not there a sharing in the Body of the Christ ? The Bread is 17 
one, and we, though many, are one body ; for we all partake 
of that one Bread. Look at the people of Israel. Do not those 18 
who eat the sacrifices share with the altar ? What do I mean ? 19 
you ask. That an offering made to an idol, or the idol itself, 
is anything ? No ; what 1 say is that the sacrifices offered by 20 
the Gentiles ' are offered to demons and to a Being who is no 
God,' and I do not want you to share with demons. You 21 
cannot drink both the Cup of the Lord and the cup of demons. 

&Nura. 14. 16. Num. 11.34. 7 Exod. 33. 6. Num. ai. 6. M a Sam. 24. 16. 
Dcut. yt. 17. 21 Mai. i. 7. 

I. CORINTHIANS, 1O 11. 321 

You cannot partake at the Table of the Lord and at the table 

of demons. Or ' are we to rouse the jealousy of the Lord ' ? 22 

Are we stronger than he ? 

Everything is allowable ! Yes, but everything is not profit- 23 
able. Everything is allowable ! Yes, but everything does not 
build up character. A man must not study his own interests, 24 
but the interests of others. 

Eat anything that is sold in the market, without making 25 
inquiries to satisfy your scruples ; for ' the earth, with 26 
all that is in it, belongs to the Lord.' If an unbeliever invites 27 
you to his house and you consent to go, eat anything that is 
put before you, without making inquiries to satisfy your 
scruples. But, if any one should say to you ' This has been 28 
offered in sacrifice to an idol,' then, for the sake of the speaker 
and his scruples, do not eat it. I do not say ' your ' scruples, 29 
but 'his.' For why should the freedom that I claim be con- 
demned by the scruples of another ? If, for my part, I take 30 
the food thankfully, why should I be abused for eating that for 
which I give thanks ? 

Whether, then, you eat or drink or whatever you do, do 31 
everything to the honour of God. Do not cause offence either 32 
to Jews or Greeks or to the Church of God ; for I, also, 33 
try to please everybody in everything, not seeking my own 
advantage, but that of men in general, that they may be 
saved. Imitate me, as I myself imitate Christ. I 

ON PUBLIC ^ praise you, indeed, because you never forget 2 
WORSHIP, me, and are keeping my injunctions in mind, 
A to covering ex actly as \ laid them upon you. But I 3 

Head. am anx j ous ^at you should understand that the 
Christ is the Head of every man, that man is the Head of 
woman, and that God is the Head of the Christ. Any man 4 
who keeps his head covered, when praying or preaching in 
public, dishonours him who is his Head ; while any woman, 5 
who prays or preaches in public bare-headed, dishonours 
him who is her Head ; for that is to make herself like one of 
the shameless women who shave their heads. Indeed, if a 6 
woman does not keep her head covered, she may as well cut 
her hair short. But, since to cut her hair short, or shave 
it off, marks her as one of the shameless women, let her 
keep her head covered. A man ought not to have his head 7 
covered, for he has been from the beginning ' the likeness of 
God ' and the reflection of his glory, but woman is the reflection 
of man's glory. For it was not man who was taken from 8 
woman, but woman who was taken from man. Besides, man 9 
was not created for the sake of woman, but woman for the sake 
of man. And, therefore, a woman ought to wear on her head 10 
a symbol of her subjection, because of the presence of the 

33 Deut. 32. ai. 26 Ps. 24. i. 7 Gen. 5. i. 


322 I. CORINTHIANS, 11. 

angels. Still, when in union with the Lord, woman is not n 
independent of man, or man of woman ; for just as woman 12 
came from man, so man comes by means of woman ; and all 
things come from God. Judge for yourselves. Is it fitting 13 
that a woman should pray to God in public with her head 
uncovered ? Does not nature herself teach us that, while for 14 
a man to wear his hair long is degrading to him, a woman's 15 
long hair is her glory ? Her hair has been given her to serve 
as a covering. If, however, anyone still thinks it right 16 

to contest the point well, we have no such custom, nor have 
the Churches of God. 

AS to the ^ n S' lv ' in S directions on the next subject, I 17 
' Lord's cannot praise you ; because your meetings do 
supper.' more harm than good. To begin with, I hear 18 
that, when you meet as a Church, divisions exist among 
you, and, to some extent, I believe it. Indeed, there must 19 
be actual parties among you, for so only will the men of real 
worth become known. When you meet together, as I 20 

understand, it is not possible to eat the Lord's Supper ; for, as 21 
you eat, each of you tries to secure his own supper first, with 
the result that one has too little to eat, and another has too 
much to drink ! Have you no houses in which you can 22 
eat and drink ? Or are you trying to show your contempt for 
the Church of God, and to humiliate the poor? What can I 
say to you ? Shall I praise you ? In this matter I cannot 
praise you. For I myself received from the Lord the account 23 
which I have in turn given to you how the Lord Jesus, 
on the very night of his betrayal, took some bread, and, after 24 
saying the thanksgiving, broke it and said " This is my own 
body given on your behalf. Do this in memory of me." And 25 
in the same way with the cup, after supper, saying " This cup 
is the new Covenant made by my blood. Do this, whenever 
you drink it, in memory of me." For whenever you eat this 26 
bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till 
he comes. Therefore, whoever eats the bread, or drinks the 27 
Lord's cup, in an irreverent spirit, will have to answer for an 
offence against the Lord's body and blood. Let each man 28 
look into his own heart, and only then eat of the bread 
and drink from the cup. For the man who eats and drinks 29 
brings a judgement upon himself by his eating and drinking, 
when he does not discern the body. That is why so many 30 
among you are weak and ill, and why some are sleeping. 
But, if we judged ourselves rightly, we should not be judged. 31 
Yet, in being judged by the Lord, we are undergoing 32 
discipline, so that we may not have judgement passed 
upon us with the rest of the world. Therefore, my Brothers, 33 
when you meet together to eat the Supper, wait for one 

'- Exod. 34. 

I. CORINTHIANS, 11-12. 823 

another. If a man is hungry, let him eat at home, so that your 34 
meetings may not bring a judgement upon you. The 

other details I will settle when I come. 

ON SPIRITUAL ^ n t * ie next P" ace > Brothers, I do not want you i j 

GIFTS. to be ignorant about spiritual gifts. You 2 

Their variety know that there was a time when you were 

and unity. Q en tiles, going astray after idols that could not 
speak, just as you happened to be led. Therefore I tell you 3 
plainly that no one who speaks under the influence of the 
Spirit of God says ' JESUS is ACCURSED,' and that no one can say 
'JESUS is LORD,' except under the influence of the Holy Spirit. 

Gifts differ, but the Spirit is the same ; ways of serving 4, ( 
differ, yet the Master is the same ; results differ, yet the God 6 
who brings about every result is in every case the same. To 7 
each man there is given spiritual illumination for the general 
good. To one is given the power to speak with wisdom 8 
through the Spirit ; to another the power to speak with know- 
ledge, due to the same Spirit ; to another faith by the same 9 
Spirit ; to another power to cure diseases by the one Spirit ; 
to another supernatural powers ; to another the gift of 10 
preaching ; to another the gift of distinguishing between true 
and false inspiration ; to another varieties of the gift of 
' tongues ' ; to another the power to interpret ' tongues.' All n 
these result from one and the same Spirit, who distributes his 
gifts to each individually as he wills. 

For just as the human body is one whole, and yet has many 12 
parts, and all its parts, many though they are, form but one 
body, so it is with the Christ ; for it was by one Spirit that we 13 
were all baptized to form one Body, whether Jews or Greeks, 
slaves or free men, and were all imbued with one Spirit. The 14 
human body, I repeat, consists not of one part, but of many. 
If the foot says ' Since I am not a hand, I do not belong to the 15 
body,' it does not on that account cease to belong to the body. 
Or if the ear says ' Since I am not an eye, I do not belong to 16 
the body,' it does not on that account cease to belong to the 
body. If all the body were an eye, where would the hearing 17 
be ? If it were all hearing, where would the sense of smell be ? 
But in fact God has placed each individual part just where 18 
he thought fit in the body. If, however, they all made up 19 
only one part, where would the body be ? But in fact, although 20 
it has many parts, there is only one body. The eye cannot say 21 
to the hand ' I do not need you,' nor, again, the head to the 
feet ' I do not need you.' No ! Those parts of the body that 22 
seem naturally the weaker are indispensable ; and those parts 23 
which we deem less honourable we surround with special 
honour ; and our ungraceful parts receive a special grace 
which our graceful parts do not require. Yes, God has so 24 
constructed the body by giving a special honour to the part 

324 I. CORINTHIANS, 12-14. 

that lacks it as to secure that there should be no disunion in 25 
the body, but that the parts should show the same care for one 
another. If one part suffers, all the others suffer with it, and 26 
if one part has honour done it, all the others share its joy. 
Together you are the Body of Christ, and individually its 27 
parts. In the Church God has appointed, first, 28 

Apostles, secondly Preachers, thirdly Teachers ; then he has 
given supernatural powers, then power to cure diseases, 
aptness for helping others, capacity to govern, varieties of the 
gift of ' tongues.' Can every one be an Apostle ? can every 29 
one be a Preacher ? can every one be a Teacher ? can every 
one have supernatural powers ? can every one have power to 30 
cure diseases ? can every one speak in ' tongues ' ? can 
every one interpret them ? Strive for the greater gifts. 31 

Love the Yet ^ can st ^ show you a way beyond all 
greatest of comparison the best. Though I speak in i 

" the ' tongues ' of men, or even of angels, yet 
have not Love, I have become mere echoing brass, or a 
clanging cymbal ! Even though I have the gift of preaching, 2 
and fathom all hidden truths and all the depths of know- 
ledge ; even though I have such faith as might move moun- 
tains, yet have not Love, I am nothing ! Even though I 3 
dole my substance to the poor, even though I sacrifice my 
body, that I may boast, yet have not Love, it avails me 
nothing ! Love is long-suffering, and kind ; Love is 4 

never envious, never boastful, never conceited, never behaves 5 
unbecomingly ; Love is never self-seeking, never provoked, 
never reckons up her wrongs ; Love never rejoices at evil, but 6 
rejoices in the triumph of Truth ; Love bears with all things, 7 
ever trustful, ever hopeful, ever patient. Love never 8 

fails. But, whether it be the gift of preaching, it will be done 
with ; whether it be the gift of ' tongues,' it will cease ; whether 
it be knowledge, it, too, will be done with. For our knowledge 9 
is incomplete, and our preaching is incomplete, but, when the 10 
Perfect has come, that which is incomplete will be done with. 
When I was a child, I talked as a child, I felt as a child, I n 
reasoned as a child ; now that I am a man, I have done with 
childish ways. As yet we see, in a mirror, dimly, but then 12 
face to face ! As yet my knowledge is incomplete, but then I 
shall know in full, as I have been fully known. Meanwhile 13 
Faith, Hope, and Love endure these three, but the greatest 
of these is Love. 

The oift of Seek this Love earnestly, and strive for spiritual i j 
the Tongue* 'gifts, above all for the gift of preaching. He 2 
nd the Qift who, when speaking, uses the gift of ' tongues ' is 
*'"* speaking, not to men, but to God, for no one 

Zech. 8. 17 (Septuagint). 

I. CORINTHIANS, 14. 325 

understands him ; yet in spirit he is speaking of hidden 
truths. But he who preaches is speaking to his fellow men 3 
words that will build up faith, and give them comfort and 
encouragement. He who, when speaking, uses the gift of 4 
' tongues ' builds up his own faith, while he who preaches 
builds up the faith of the Church. Now I want you all to speak 5 
in ' tongues,' but much more I wish that you should preach. 
A Preacher is of more account than he who speaks in 
'tongues,' unless he interprets his words, so that the faith 
of the Church may be built up. This being so, Brothers, 6 
what good shall I do you, if I come to you and speak in 
'tongues,' unless my words convey some revelation, or know- 
ledge, or take the form of preaching or teaching? Even with in- 7 
animate things, such as a flute or a harp, though they produce 
sounds, yet unless the notes are quite distinct, how can the tune 
played on the flute or the harp be recognized ? If the bugle 8 
sound a doubtful call, who will prepare for battle ? And so with 9 
you ; unless, in using the gift of ' tongues,' you utter intelligible 
words, how can what you say be understood ? You will be 
speaking to the winds ! There is, for instance, a certain 10 
number of different languages in the world, and not one of 
them fails to convey meaning. If, however, I do not hap- n 
pen to know the language, I shall be a foreigner to those 
who speak it, and they will be foreigners to me. And so 12 
with you ; since you are striving for spiritual gifts, be 
eager to excel in such as will build up the faith of the 
Church. Therefore let him who, when speaking, 13 

uses the gift of ' tongues ' pray for ability to interpret them. 
If, when praying, I use the gift of 'tongues,' my spirit 14 
indeed prays, but my mind is a blank. What, then, is my con- 15 
elusion ? Simply this I will pray with my spirit, but with my 
mind as well ; I will sing with my spirit, but with my mind as 
well. If you bless God with your spirit only, how can the man 16 
in the congregation who is without your gift say ' Amen ' to 
your thanksgiving? He does not know what you are say- 
ing ! Your thanksgiving may be excellent, but the other 17 
is not helped by it. Thank God, I use the gift of ' tongues' 18 
more than any of you. But at a meeting of the Church I 19 
would rather speak five words with my mind, and so teach 
others, than ten thousand words when using the gift of 
' tongues. ' 

Brothers, do not show yourselves children in understanding. 20 
In wickedness be infants, but in understanding show your- 
selves men. It is said in the Law 21 

( In strange tongues and by the lips of strangers will I 
speak to this people, but even then they will not listen to me, 
says the Lord.' 

I.a. rf. n. 

326 I. CORINTHIANS, 14. 

Therefore the gift of the ' tongues ' is intended as a sign, not 22 
for those who believe in Christ, but for those who do not, while 
the gift of preaching is intended as a sign, not for those who 
do not believe in Christ, but for those who do. So, 23 

when the whole Church meets, if all present use the gift of 
'tongues,' and some men who are without the gift, or who 
are unbelievers, come in, will not they say that you are mad ? 
While, if all those present use the gift of preaching, and an 24 
unbeliever, or a man without the gift, comes in, he is con- 
vinced of his sinfulness by them all, he is called to account by 
them all ; the secrets of his heart are revealed, and then, 25 
throwing himself on his face, he will worship God, and declare 
" ' God is indeed among you ! ' " 

What do I suggest, then, Brothers ? Whenever you meet for 26 
worship, each of you comes, either with a hymn, or a lesson, 
or a revelation, or the gift of 'tongues,' or the interpreta- 
tion of them ; let everything be directed to the building up 
of faith. If any of you use the gift of ' tongues,' not more than 27 
two, or at the most three, should do so each speaking in his 
turn and some one should interpret them. If there is no one 28 
able to interpret what is said, they should remain silent at the 
meeting of the Church, and speak to themselves and to 
God. Of preachers two or three should speak, and the rest 29 
should weigh well what is said. But, if some revelation is 30 
made to another person as he sits there, the first speaker should 
stop. For you can all preach in turn, so that all may learn 31 
some lesson and all receive encouragement. (The spirit that 32 
moves the preachers is within the preachers' control ; for God 33 
is not a God of disorder, but of peace.) This custom prevails 
in all the Churches of Christ's People. 

TH Necessity At the meetings of the Church married women 34 

for order, should remain silent, for they are not allowed to 
speak in public ; they should take a subordinate place, as 
the Law itself directs. If they want information on any 35 
point, they should ask their husbands about it at home ; 
for it is unbecoming for a married woman to speak at a 
meeting of the Church. What ! did God's Message 36 

to the world originate with you ? or did it find its way to 
none but you ? 

If any one thinks that he has the gift of preaching or any 37 
other spiritual gift, let him recognize that what I am now 
saying to you is a command from the Lord. Any one who 38 
ignores it may be ignored. Therefore, my Brothers, strive 39 
for the gift of preaching, and yet do not forbid speaking in 
'tongues.' Let eveiything be done in a proper and orderly 40 

Isa. 45. 14. 



Next, Brothers, I would remind you of the Good News i ; 
which I told you, and which you received the Good News on 
which you have taken your stand, and by means of which 2 
you are being saved. I would remind you of the very words 
that I used in telling it to you, since you are still holding fast 
to it, and since it was not in vain that you became believers 
in Christ. For at the very beginning of my teaching I gave 3 
you the account which I had myself received that Christ 
died for our sins (as the Scriptures had foretold), that he was 4 
buried, that on the third day he was raised (as the Scriptures 
had foretold), and that he appeared to Kephas, and then to the 5 
Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred 6 
of our Brothers at one time, most of whom are still alive, 
though some have gone to their rest. After that, he appeared 7 
to James, and then to all the Apostles. Last of all, he appeared 8 
even to me, who am, as it were, the abortion. For I 9 

am the meanest of the Apostles, I who am unworthy of the 
name of ' Apostle,' because I persecuted the Church of God. 
But it is through the love of God that I am what I am, and the 10 
love that he showed me has not been wasted. No, I have 
toiled harder than any of them, and yet it was not I, but the 
love of God working with me. Whether, then, it was I or n 
whether it was they, this we proclaim, and this you believed. 

Now, if it is proclaimed of Christ that he has been raised 12 
from the dead, how is it that some of you say that there is no 
such thing as a resurrection of the dead ? But, if there is no 13 
such thing as a resurrection of the dead, then even Christ has 
not been raised ; and, if Christ has not been raised, then our 14 
proclamation is without meaning, and our faith without mean- 
ing also ! Yes, and we are being proved to have borne false 15 
testimony about God ; for we testified of God that he raised 
the Christ, whom he did not raise, if, indeed, the dead do not 
rise ! For, if the dead do not rise, then even Christ himself has 16 
not been raised, and, if Christ has not been raised, your faith is 17 
folly your sins are on you still ! Yes, and they, who have 18 
passed to their rest in union with Christ, perished ! If all that 19 
we have done has been to place our hope in Christ for this 
life, then we of all men are the most to be pitied. 

But, in truth, Christ has been raised from the dead, the first- 20 
fruits of those who are at rest. For, since through a man 21 
there is death, so, too, through a man there is a resurrection 
of the dead. For, as through union with Adam all men 22 
die, so through union with the Christ will all be made 

* Hos. 6. a. 

328 I. CORINTHIANS, 15. 

to live. But each in his proper order Christ the 

first-fruits ; afterwards, at his Coming, those who belong 
to the Christ. Then will come the end when he surrenders 
the Kingdom to his God and Father, having overthrown all 
other rule and all other authority and power. For he must 
reign until God ' has put all his enemies under his feet.' The 
last enemy to be overthrown is death ; for God has placed all 
things under Christ's feet. (But, when it is said that all things 
have been placed under Christ, it is plain that God is excepted 
who placed everything under him.) And, when everything has 
been placed under him, the Son will place himself under God 
who placed everything under him, that God may be all in all ! 

Again, what good will they be doing who are baptized on 
behalf of the dead ? If it is true that the dead do not rise, why 
are people baptized on their behalf?. Why, too, do we risk our 
lives every hour ? Daily I face death I swear it, Brothers, by 
the pride in you that I feel through my union with Christ Jesus, 
our Lord. If with only human hopes I had fought in the 
arena at Ephesus, what should I have gained by it ? If the 
dead do not rise, then ' Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow 
we shall die ' ! Do not be deceived. 

' Good character is marred by evil company.' 

Awake to a righteous life, and cease to sin. There are some 
who have no true knowledge of God. I speak in this way to 
shame you. 

Some one, however, may ask ' How do the dead rise ? and 
in what body will they come ? ' You foolish man ! The seed 
you yourself sow does not come to life, unless it dies ! And 
when you sow, you sow not the body that will be, but a mere 
grain perhaps of wheat, or something else. God gives it 
the body that he pleases to each seed its special body. All 
forms of life are not the same ; there is one for men, another 
for beasts, another for birds, and another for fishes. There 
are heavenly bodies, and earthly bodies ; but the beauty of the 
heavenly bodies is not the beauty of the earthly. There is a 
beauty of the sun, and a beauty of the moon, and a beauty of 
the stars ; for even star differs from star in beauty. It is the 
same with the resurrection of the dead. Sown a mortal body, 
it rises immortal ; sown disfigured, it rises beautiful ; sown 
weak, it rises strong ; sown a human body, it rises a spiritual 
body. As surely as there is a human body, there is also 

a spiritual body. That is what is meant by the words ' Adam, 
the first man, became a human being ' ; the last Adam became 
a Life-giving spirit. That which comes first is not the 
spiritual, but the human ; afterwards comes the spiritual ; 

s. no. i ; 8. 6. 82 Isa. aa. 13. 33 Menandcr, Thais. Gen. a. 7 

I. CORINTHIANS, 15-13. 329 

the first man was from the dust of the earth ; the second man 47 
from Heaven. Those who are of the dust are like him 48 
who came from the dust ; and those who are of Heaven 
are like him who came from Heaven. And as we have borne 49 
the likeness of him who came from the dust, so let us bear 
the likeness of him who came from Heaven. This 50 

I say, Brothers Flesh and blood can have no share in the 
Kingdom of God, nor can the perishable share the imperish- 
able. Listen, I will tell you God's hidden purpose ! We 51 
shall not all have passed to our rest, but we shall all be trans- 
formed in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last 52 
trumpet-call; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will 
rise immortal, and we, also, shall be transformed. For this 53 
perishable body of ours must put on an imperishable form, and 
this dying body a deathless form. And, when this dying body 54 
has put on its deathless form, then indeed will the words of 
Scripture come true 

' Death has been swallowed up in victory ! Where, O 55 
Death, is thy victory ? Where, O Death, is thy sting ? ' 

It is sin that gives death its sting, and it is the Law that 56 
gives sin its power. But thanks be to God, who gives us the 57 
victory, through Jesus Christ, our Lord. Therefore, 58 

my dear Brothers, stand firm, unshaken, always diligent in the 
Lord's work, for you know that, in union with him, your toil 
is not in vain. 


The With reference to the Collection for Christ's i 

collection People, I want you to follow the instructions that 
for the Poor j gave to the Churches in Galatia. On the first 2 

at Jerusalem. ^^ Q f ever y wee k each of yOU should put by 

what he can afford, so that no collections need be made after 
I have come. On my arrival, I will send any persons, whom 3 
you may authorize by letter, to carry your gift to Jerusalem ; 
and, if it appears to be worth while for me to go also, they 4 
shall go with me. 
The Apostle's I w i" come to you as soon as I have been 5 

Plans. through Macedonia for I am going through 
Macedonia and I shall probably make some stay with you or, 6 
perhaps, remain for the winter, so that you may yourselves 
send me on my way, wherever I may be going. I do not 7 
propose to pay you a visit in passing now, for I hope to 
stay with you for some time, if the Lord permits. I intend, 8 
however, staying at Ephesus till the Festival at the close of 
the Harvest ; for a great opening for active work has pre- 9 
sented itself, and there are many opponents. 

47 Gen. 2. 7. 6* Isa. 25. 8. 63 ( 57 Hos. 13. 14. 


330 I. CORINTHIANS, 16. 

If Timothy comes, take care that he has no 10 
Timothy. cause f or feeling anxious while he is with you. 
He is doing the Master's work no less than I am. No one, n 
therefore, should slight him. See him safely on his way to 
me, for I am expecting him with some of our Brothers. 

As for our Brother Apollos, I have often urged 12 
Apoiios. ^^ t) g. Q to y OU ^{.jj t h e others. He has, how- 
ever, been very unwilling to do so as yet ; but he will go as 
soon as he finds a good opportunity. 

Be watchful ; stand firm in your faith ; show 13 
Exhortation*. y Ourse i ves men ; be strong. Let everything you 14 
do be done in a loving spirit. 

I have another request to make of you, Brothers. You 15 
remember Stephanas and his household, and that they were 
the first-fruits gathered in from Greece, and set themselves 
to serve Christ's People. I want you, on your part, to 16 
show deference to such men as these, as well as to every 
fellow labourer and earnest worker. I am glad Stephanas 17 
and Fortunatus and Achaicus have come, for they have made 
up for your absence ; they have cheered my heart, and your 18 
hearts, also. Recognize the worth of such men as these. 

The Churches in Roman Asia send you their 19 
'"* greetings. Aquila and Prisca and the Church 
that meets at their house send you many Christian greetings. 
All our Brothers send you greetings. Greet one another 20 

with a sacred kiss. 

The I, Paul, add this greeting in my own hand- 21 

Apostle's own writing. Accursed be any one who has no love 22 

Farewell. f or the Lord. THE LORD is COMING. May the 23 

blessing of the Lord Jesus be with you. My love to all of 24 

you who are in union with Christ Jesus. 




IN the brief period that seems to have intervened between 
the writing of St. Paul's two existing Letters to the Corinthians, 
the Apostle appears to have paid a second visit to Corinth, of 
which no account has come down to us (2 Cor. 12. 14 ; 13. i.). 
Apparently that visit failed of its object, and the reception given 
to the Apostle was not such as he had the right to expect. 
It seems that St. Paul, returning to Ephesus, wrote a strongly- 
worded letter to his disloyal Corinthian converts, and that this 
letter effected, as he afterwards learned, the purpose which 
the visit had failed to effect. (That letter is generally thought 
to have been lost, but it has been suggested, with some proba- 
bility, that part of it forms the last four chapters of this so-called 
' Second Letter ' to the Corinthians). |A few months later, a 
riot instigated by Demetrius, the silversmith, drove the Apostle 
from Ephesus (Acts 19. 20; 2 Cor. i. 8). Travelling north- 
wards, the Apostle went to the Troad, in the hope of meeting 
Titus (who had been sent, possibly with the ' Lost Letter,' to 
Corinth), and of receiving from him some re-assuring news as 
to the position of matters in the Corinthian Church. But 
Titus had not yet arrived, and, after waiting for him for some 
time in vain, St. Paul, keenly disappointed (2 Cor. 2. 13), went 
on into Macedonia. There he met Titus at Philippi ; and to the 
Apostle's great joy Titus was able to report that the Letter had 
been well received, and promptly acted upon, by the majority of 
the Corinthian Christians, and that they cherished a hearty 
affection for St. Paul himself. On the other hand the Apostle 
was greatly distressed to learn that there were members of the 
Church who still stubbornly refused to submit to his authority, 
and who attacked him with cruel and persistent slander. This 
news, brought by Titus, may have been the occasion of the 
present Letter. It is an outburst of passionate feeling, in 
which the Apostle expresses his gratitude for the kindness and 
obedience manifested towards him by the majority of the 
Church, and defends his own personal character and apostolic 
authority against the unscrupulous attacks of the minority. 




To the Church of God in Corinth, and to all I 
Greeting. Christ's People throughout Greece, 

FROM Paul, an Apostle of Christ Jesus, by the will of God, 
AND FROM Timothy, a Brother. 

May God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ bless you and 2 
give you peace. 

Blessed is the God and Father of Jesus Christ 3 
Thaifk'.'rtvK our Lord ' the all-merciful Father, the God ever 
for ready to console, who consoles us in all our 4 

E "^nentf re " trou ^' es ) so tnat we mav be able to console those 
who are in any trouble with the consolation that 
we ourselves receive from him. It is true that we have our full 5 
share of the sufferings of the Christ, but through the Christ we 
have also our full share of consolation. If we meet with 6 
trouble, it is for the sake of your consolation and salvation ; 
and, if we find consolation, it is for the sake of the consolation 
that you will experience when you are called to endure the very 
sufferings that we ourselves are enduring ; and our hope for 7 
you remains unshaken. We know that, as you are sharing our 
sufferings, you will also share our consolation. We 8 

want you, Brothers, to know that, in the troubles which befel 
us in Roman Asia, we were burdened altogether beyond 
our strength, so much so that we even despaired of life. 
Indeed, we had the presentiment that we must die, so that we 9 
might rely, not on ourselves, but on God who raises the dead. 
And from so imminent a death God delivered us, and will 10 
deliver us again ; for in him we have placed our hopes of future 
deliverance, while you, also, help us by your prayers. And 1 1 
then many lips will give thanks on our behalf for the blessing 
granted us in answer to many prayers. 



The Purity Indeed, our main ground for satisfaction is 12 
of his this Our conscience tells us that our conduct in the 
Motives, world, and still more in our relations with you, was 
marked by a purity of motive and a sincerity that were inspired 
by God, and was based, not on worldly policy, but on the help 
of God. We never write anything to you other than what you 13 
read in public apd acknowledge. And my hope is that you 
will acknowledge to the very end and, indeed, you have 14 
already partly acknowledged it about us that you have a 
right to be proud of us, as we shall be proud of you, on the 
Day of our Lord Jesus. 

The Postpone- With this conviction in my mind, I planned to 15 
mentor his come to see you first, so that your pleasure 

visit. might be doubled to visit you both on my way to 16 
Macedonia, and to come to you again on my return from 
Macedonia, and then to get you to send me on my way into 
Judaea. As this was my plan, where, pray, did I show 17 
any fickleness of purpose ? Or do you think that my plans are 
formed on mere impulse, so that in the same breath I say ' Yes ' 
and ' No ' ? As God is true, the Message that we brought you 18 
does not waver between ' Yes ' and ' No ' ! The Son of God, 19 
Christ Jesus, whom we Silas, Timothy, and I proclaimed 
among you, never wavered between 'Yes ' and ' No.' With him 
it has always been ' Yes.' For, many as were the promises of 20 
God, in Christ is the ' Yes '- that fulfils them. Therefore, 
through Christ again, let the 'Amen 'rise, through us, totheglory 
of God. God who brings us, with you, into close union with 21 
Christ, and who consecrated us, also set his seal upon us, and 22 
gave us his Spirit in our hearts as a pledge of future blessings. 

But, as my life shall answer for it, I call God to witness that 23 
it was to spare you that I deferred my visit to Corinth. I do 24 
not mean that we are to dictate to you with regard to your 
faith ; on the contrary, we work with you for your true happi- 
ness ; indeed, it is through your faith that you are standing 
firm. For my own sake, as well, I decided not to pay you I 
another painful visit. If it is I who cause you pain, why, who 2 
is there to cheer me, except the very person whom I am 
paining? So I wrote as I did, for fear that, if I had come, I 3 
should have been pained by those who ought to have made me 
glad ; for I felt sure that it was true of you all that my joy was 
in every case yours also. I wrote to you in sore trouble and 4 
distress of heart and with many tears, not to give you pain, but 
to let you see how intense a love I have for you. 

Now whoever has caused the pain has not so much pained 5 
me, as he has, to some extent not to be too severe pained 

II. CORINTHIANS, 2-3. 335 

every one of you. The man to whom I refer has been 6 
sufficiently punished by the penalty inflicted by the majority 
of you ; so that now you must take the opposite course, and 7 
forgive and encourage him, or else he may be overwhelmed by 
the intensity of his pain. So I entreat you to assure him of 8 I had this further object, also, in what I wrote 9 
to ascertain whether you might be relied upon to be obedient 
in everything. When you forgive a man anything, I forgive 10 
him, too. Indeed, for my part, whatever I have forgiven (if 
I have had to forgive anything), I have forgiven for your sakes, 
in the presence of Christ, so as to prevent Satan from taking 1 1 
advantage of us ; for we are not ignorant of his devices. 

When I went to the district round Troas to tell the Good 12 
News of the Christ, even though there was an opening for 
serving the Master, I could get no peace of mind because I 13 
failed to find Titus, my Brother ; so I took leave of the people 
there, and went on to Macedonia. All thanks to God, 14 

who, through our union with the Christ, leads us in one con- 
tinual triumph, and uses us to spread the sweet odour of the 
knowledge of him in every place. For we are the fragrance 15 
of Christ ascending to God both among those who are in the 
path of Salvation and among those who are in the path to 
Ruin. To the latter we are an odour which arises from death 16 
and tells of Death ; to the former an odour which arises from 
life and tells of Life. But who is equal to such a task ? Unlike 17 
many people, we are not in the habit of making profit out of 
God's Message ; but in all sincerity, and bearing God's com- 
mission, we speak before him in union with Christ. 

His converts Are we beginning to commend ourselves again ? i 

vindication ^ r are we e some wno nee d letters of com- 

of his mendation to you, or from you ? You yourselves 2 
Ministry, are our letter a letter written on our hearts, and 
one which everybody can read and understand. All can 3 
see that you are a letter from Christ delivered by us, a 
letter written, not with ink, but with the Spirit of the Living 
God, not on ' tablets of stone,' but on ' tablets of human 


The Glory of This, then, is the confidence in regard to God 4 
the Gospel that we have gained through the Christ. I do not 5 
^Itht'he* 1 mean tna t we are fit to form any judgement by 
Giory of the ourselves, as if on our own authority ; our fitness 

Law - comes from God, who himself made us fit to be 6 
ministers of a New Covenant, of which the substance is, not a 
3 Exod. 31. 18 ; 34. i ; Prov. 3. 3 ; Ezek. n. 19; 36. 26. 

336 II. CORINTHIANS, 8-*. 

written Law, but a Spirit. For the written Law means Death, 
but the Spirit gives Life. 

If the system of religion which involved Death, embodied 7 
in a written Law and engraved on stones, began amid such 
glory, that the Israelites were unable to gaze at the face 
of Moses on account of its glory, though it was but a passing 
glory, will not the religion that confers the Spirit have still 8 
greater glory ? For, if there was a glory in the religion that 9 
involved condemnation, far greater is the glory of the religion 
that confers righteousness ! Indeed, that which then had glory 10 
has lost its glory, because of the glory which surpasses it. And, 1 1 
if that which was to pass away was attended with glory, far 
more will that which is to endure be surrounded with glory ! 

With such a hope as this, we speak with all plainness ; 12 
unlike Moses, who covered his face with a veil, to prevent 13 
the Israelites from gazing at the disappearance of what 
was passing away. But their minds were slow to learn. 14 
Indeed, to this very day k at the public reading of the Old 
Covenant, the same veil remains unlifted ; only for those who 
are in union with Christ does it pass away. But, even to this 15 
day, whenever Moses is read, a Veil lies on their hearts. ' Yet, 16 
whenever a man turns to the Lord, the veil is removed.' And 17 
the ' Lord ' is the Spirit, and, where the Spirit of the Lord is, 
there is freedom. And all of us, with faces from which the veil 18 
is lifted, seeing, as if reflected in a mirror, the glory of the Lord, 
are being transformed into his likeness, from glory to glory, 
as it is given by the Lord, the Spirit. 

Therefore, since it is by God's mercy that we are engaged in i < 
this ministry, we do not lose heart. No, we have renounced the 2 
secrecy prompted by shame, refusing to adopt crafty ways, or to 
tamper with God's Message, and commending ourselves to every 
man's conscience, in th sight of God, by our exhibition of the 
Truth. And, even if the Good News that we bring is veiled, it is 3 
veiled only in the case of those who are on the path to Ruin 
men whose minds have been blinded by the God of this Age, 4 
unbelievers as they are, so that the light from the Good News 
of the glory of the Christ, who is the very incarnation of God, 
.should not shine for them. (For it is not ourselves that we 5 
proclaim, but Christ Jesus, as Lord, and ourselves as your 
servants for Jesus' sake.) Indeed, the same God who said 6 
'Out of darkness light shall shine,' has shone in upon our 
hearts, so that we should bring out into the light the knowledge 
of the glory of God, seen in the face of Christ. 

T he This treasure we have in these earthen vessels, 7 

weakness or that its all-prevailing power may be seen to come 

'* from God, and not to be our own. Though hard 8 
pressed on every side, we are never hemmed in ; though per- 

7 M Exod. 34. 29, 30, 34, 35. 18 Exod. 24. 17. 

II. CORINTHIANS, 4-5. 337 

plexed, never driven to despair ; though pursued, never aban- 9 
doned ; though struck down, never killed ! We always bear 10 
on our bodies the marks of the death that Jesus died, so that 
the Life also of Jesus may be exhibited in our bodies. Indeed, 1 1 
we who still live are continually being given over to death for 
Jesus' sake, so that the Life also of Jesus may be exhibited 
in our mortal nature. And so, while death is at work within us, 12 
Life is at work within you. But, in the same spirit of faith as 13 
that expressed in the words ' I believed, and therefore I spoke,' 
we, also, believe, and therefore speak. For we know that he 14 
who raised the Lord Jesus will raise us also with him, and 
will bring us, with you, into his presence. For all this is for 15 
your sakes, that the loving-kindness of God, spreading from 
heart to heart, may cause yet more hearts to overflow with 
thanksgiving, to his glory. 

Therefore, as I said, we do not lose heart. No, even though 16 
outwardly we are wasting away, yet inwardly we are being 
renewed day by day. The light burden of our momentary 17 
trouble is preparing for us, in measure transcending thought, 
a weight of imperishable glory ; we, all the while, gazing not 18 
on what is seen, but on what is unseen ; for what is seen is 
transient, but what is unseen is imperishable. For we know i , 
that if our tent that earthly body which is now our home is 
taken down, we have a house of God's building, a home not 
made by hands, imperishable, in Heaven. Even while in our 2 
present body we sigh, longing to put over it our heavenly 
dwelling, sure that, when we have put it on, we shall never be 3 
found discarnate. For we who are in this ' tent ' sigh under 4 
our burden, unwilling to take it off, yet wishing to put our 
heavenly body over it, so that all that is mortal may be 
absorbed in Life. And he who has prepared us for this change 5 
is God, who has also given us his Spirit as a pledge. 

Therefore we are always confident, knowing that, while our 6 
home is in the body, we are absent from our home with the 
Lord. For we guide our lives by faith, and not by what we 7 
see. And in this confidence we would gladly leave our home 8 
in the body, and make our home with the Lord. Therefore, 9 
whether in our home or absent from our home, our one ambi- 
tion is to please him. For at the Bar of the Christ we must 10 
all appear in our true characters, that each may reap the results 
of the life which he has lived in the body, in accordance with 
his actions whether good or worthless. 

Christ Therefore, because we know the fear inspired 1 1 

their Motive by the Lord, it is true that we are trying to win 
and strength. m en, t> u t our motives are plain to God ; and I 
hope that in your inmost hearts they are plain to you also. 

18 Ps. 1 16. 10. 

338 II. CORINTHIANS, 5-6. 

We are not " commending ourselves " again to you, but rather ia 
are giving you cause for pride in us, so that you may have an 
answer ready for those who pride themselves on appearances 
and not on character. For, if we were "beside ourselves," it 13 
was in God's service ! If we are now in our senses, it is in 
yours ! It is the love of the Christ which compels us, when we 14 
reflect that, as one died for all, therefore all died ; and that he 15 
died for all, so that the living should no longer live for them- 
selves, but for him who died and rose for them. 

For ourselves, then, from this time forward, we refuse to 16 
regard any one from the world's standpoint. Even if we once 
thought of Christ from the standpoint of the world, yet now 
we do so no longer. Therefore, if any one is in union with 17 
Christ, he is a new being ! His old life has passed away ; a 
new life has begun ! But all this is the work of God, who recon- 18 
ciled us to himself through Christ, and gave us the Ministry of 
Reconciliation to proclaim that God, in Christ, was recon- 19 
ciling the world to himself, not reckoning men's .offences 
against them, and that he had entrusted us with the Message 
of this reconciliation. 

It is, then, on Christ's behalf that we are acting as 20 
ambassadors, God, as it were, appealing to you through us. 
We implore you on Christ's behalf Be reconciled to God. 
Him who never knew sin God made to be Sin, on our 21 
behalf; so that we, through union with him, might become 
the Righteousness of God. Therefore, as God's fellow- i 

workers, we also appeal to you not to receive his loving- 
kindness in vain. For he says 2 

' At the time for acceptance I listened to thee, 
And on the day of deliverance I helped thee.' 

Now is the time for acceptance ! Now is the day of de- 
liverance ! Never do we put an obstacle in any one's way, 3 
that no fault may be found with our ministry. No, we are 4 
trying to commend ourselves under all circumstances, as God's 
ministers should in many an hour of endurance, in troubles, in 
hardships, in difficulties, in floggings, in .imprisonments, in 5 
riots, in toils, in sleepless nights, in fastings ; by purity, by 6 
knowledge, by patience, by kindliness, by holiness of spirit, 
by unfeigned love ; by the Message of Truth, and by the 7 
power of God ; by the weapons of righteousness in the right 
hand and in the left ; amid honour and disrepute, amid 8 
slander and praise ; regarded as deceivers, yet proved to be 
true ; as unknown, yet well-known ; as at death's door, yet, 9 
see, we are living ; as chastised, yet not killed ; as saddened, 10 
yet always rejoicing ; as poor, yet enriching many ; as having 
nothing, and yet possessing all things ! 

17 Isa. 43. 1 8, 19. 2 Isa. 49. 8. Pa. nB. 1718. 



His Appeal for We have been speaking freely to you, men of n 
their Love. Corinth ; we have opened our heart; there is 12 
room there for you, yet there is not room, in your love, for us. 
Can you not in return I appeal to you as I should to children 13 
open your hearts to us ? 

Do not enter into inconsistent relations with 14 
'^gafnat "* those who reject the Faith. For what partnership 
Heathen in. ca n there be between righteousness and lawless- 
fiuences. negs ? Qr w j iat j^g light to do with darkness ? 
What harmony can there be between Christ and Belial ? or 15 
what can those who accept the Faith have in common with 
those who reject it ? What agreement can there be between 16 
a temple of God and idols ? And we are a temple of the 
Living God. That is what God meant when he said 

' I will dwell among them, and walk among them ; 

And I will be their God, and they shall be my people. 
Therefore " Come out from among the nations, 17 

And separate yourselves from them," says the Lord, 
"And touch nothing impure ; 
And I will welcome you ; 

And I will be a father to you, 18 

And you shall be my sons and daughters^' 
Says the Lord, the Ruler of all.' 

With these promises, dear friends, let us purify ourselves from I 
everything that pollutes either body or spirit, and, in deepest 
reverence for God, aim at perfect holiness. 

Make room for us in your hearts. In no 2 

His Anxieties . J . , 

and instance have we ever wronged, or harmed, or 
Encourage- taken advantage of, any one. I am not saying 3 

lts " this to condemn you. Indeed, I have already 
said that you are in our very heart, to live and die together. I 4 
have the utmost confidence in you ; I am always boasting 
about you. I am full of encouragement and, in spite of all our 
troubles, my heart is overflowing with happiness. 

Ever since we reached Macedonia, we have had no rest in 5 
body or mind ; on every side there have been troubles conflicts 
without, anxieties within. But God, who encourages the 6 
downcast, has encouraged us by the arrival of Titus. And it 7 
is not only by his arrival that we are encouraged, but also by 
the encouragement which he received from you ; for he tells 
us of your strong affection, your penitence, and your zeal on 
my behalf so that I am happier still. For, though I caused 8 
you sorrow by my letter, I do not regret it. Even if I were 

11 Ps. 119. 32. 1818 Lev. 26. ii, 12; Ezek. 37. 27; Isa. 52. n ; a Sam. 7. 14; 
Hos. i. 10 ; Isa. 43. 6 ; Amos 4. 13 (Septuagint). 

340 II. CORINTHIANS, 7-8. 

inclined to regret it for I see that fny letter did cause you 
sorrow though only for a time I am glad now ; not because 9 
of the sorrow it caused you, but because your sorrow brought 
you to repentance. For it was God's will that you should feel 
sorrow, in order that you should not suffer loss in any way at 
our hands. For, when sorrow is in accordance with God's 10 
will, it results in a repentance leading to Salvation, and which 
will never be regretted. The sure result of the sorrow that 
the world knows is Death. For see what results that other n 
sorrow sorrow in accordance with God's will has had in your 
case. What earnestness it produced ! what explanations ! what 
strong feeling ! what alarm ! what longing ! what eagerness ! 
what readiness to punish ! You have proved yourselves 
altogether free from guilt in that matter. So, then, even 12 
though I did write to you, it was not for the sake of the wrong- 
doer, or of the man who was wronged, but to make you 
conscious, in the sight of God, of your own earnest care for 
us. And it is this that has encouraged us. 

In addition to the encouragement that this gave us, we 13 
were made far happier still by the happiness of Titus for his 
heart has been cheered by you all. Although I have been 14 
boasting a little to him about you, you did not put me to 
shame ; but, just as every thing we had said to you was true, 
so our boasting to Titus about you has also proved to be the 
truth. And his affection for you is all the greater, as he 15 
remembers the deference that you all showed him, and recalls 
how you received him with anxious care. I am glad 16 

that I can feel perfect confidence in you. 


te remind you, Brothers, of the love 

1 * that God has shown to the Churches in Macedonia 
Macedonian how, tried though they were by many a trouble, 
'**" their overflowing happiness, and even their deep 
poverty, resulted in a flood of generosity. I can bear witness 
that to the full extent of their power, and even beyond their 
power, spontaneously, and with many an appeal to us for 
permission, they showed their love, and contributed their share 
towards the fund for their fellow-Christians. And that, not only 
in the way we had expected ; but first they gave themselves to 
the Lord, and to us also, in accordance with God's will. And 
this led us to urge upon Titus that, as he had started the work 
for you, he should also see to the completion of this expression 
of^your love. And, remembering how you excel in everything 
in faith, in teaching, in knowledge, in unfailing earnestness, 
and in the affection that we have awakened in you I ask you 
to excel also in this expression of your love. 


Th I am not laying a command upon you, but I 8 

completion am making use of the earnestness shown by 
Collection at others to test the genuineness of your affection. 

Corinth. For you do not forget the loving-kindness of our 9 
Lord Jesus Christ how that for your sakes, although he was 
rich, he became poor, so that you also might become rich 
through his poverty. I am only making suggestions on this 10 
matter ; for this is the best course for you, since you were a 
year before others, not only in taking action, but also in 
showing your readiness to do so. And now I want you to n 
complete the work, so that its completion may correspond with 
your willing readiness in proportion, of course, to your means. 
For, where there is willingness, a man's gift is valued by its 12 
comparison with what he has, and not with what he has not. 
For our object is not to give relief to others and bring distress 13 
on you, but, by equalizing matters, to secure that, on the present 14 
occasion, what you can spare may supply their need, so that 
at another time what they can spare may supply your need, 
and thus matters may be equalized. As Scripture says 15 

' The man who had much had nothing over, and the man 
who had little did not lack ! ' 

Titua I thank God for inspiring Titus with the same 16 

and other* keen interest in your welfare that I have; for 17 

to assist. Titus has responded to my appeals and, in his 
great earnestness, is starting to go to you of his own accord. 
We are sending with him the Brother whose fame in the 18 
service of the Good News has spread through all the Churches ; 
and not only that, but he has been elected by the Churches to 19 
accompany us on our journey, in connexion with this expres- 
sion of your love, which we are personally administering to the 
honour of the Lord, and to show our deep interest. What we are 20 
specially guarding against is that any fault should be found 
with us in regard to our administration of this charitable fund ; 
for we are trying to make arrangements which shall be right, 21 
not only in the eyes of the Lord, but also in the eyes of men. 
We are also sending with them another of our Brothers, whose 22 
earnestness we have many a time proved in many ways, and 
whom we now find made even more earnest by his great 
confidence in you. If I must say anything about Titus, he is 23 
my intimate companion, and he shares my work for you ; if it 
is our Brothers, they are delegates of the Churches, an honour 
to Christ. Show them, therefore so that the Churches 24 

may see it the proof of your affection, and the ground for our 
boasting to them about you. 

With reference, indeed, to the Fund for your fellow- i 
Christians, it is quite superfluous for me to say anything to 
you. I know, of course, your willingness to help, and I am 2 

15 Exod. 16. 18. 21 Prov. 3. 4 (Septuagint). 


always boasting of it to the Macedonians. I tell them that 
you in Greece have been ready for a year past ; and it was 
really your zeal that stimulated most of them. So my 3 
reason for sending our Brothers is to prevent what we said 
about you from proving, in this particular matter, an 
empty boast, and to enable you to be as well prepared 
as I have been saying that you are. Otherwise, if any Mace- 4 
donians were to come with me, and find you unprepared, 
we to say nothing of you should feel ashamed of our 
present confidence. Therefore I think it necessary to urge 5 
the Brothers to go to you in advance, and to complete the 
arrangements for the gift, which you have already promised, 
so that it may be ready, as a gift, before I come, and not look 
as if it were being given under pressure. 

The spirit in Remember the saying ' Scanty sowing, scanty 6 
which to make harvest; plentiful sowing, plentiful harvest.' Let 7 
the collection, every one give as he has determined beforehand, 
not grudgingly or under compulsion ; for God loves ' a 
cheerful giver.' God has power to shower all kinds of 8 
blessings upon you, so that, having, under all circumstances 
and on all occasions, all that you can need, you may be able to 
shower all kinds of benefits upon others. (As Scripture says 9 
' He scattered broadcast, he gave to the poor ; 
His righteousness continues for ever.' 

And he who supplies 'seed to the sower, and bread for eating,' 10 
will supply you with seed, and cause it to increase, and will 
multiply ' the fruits of your righteousness '). Rich in all 1 1 
things yourselves, you will be able to show liberality to all, 
which, with our help, will cause thanksgiving to be offered to 
God. For the rendering of a public service such as this, not 12 
only relieves the needs of your fellow-Christians, but also results 
in the offering to God of many a thanksgiving. Through the 13 
evidence afforded by the service thus rendered, you cause men 
to praise God for your fidelity to your profession of faith in the 
Good News of the Christ, as well as for the liberality of your 
contributions for them and for all others. And they also, in their 14 
prayers for you, express their longing to see you, because of 
the surpassing love of God displayed toward you. All 15 

thanks to God for his inestimable gift ! 


Now, I, Paul, make a personal appeal to you by 

Assertion the meekness and gentleness of the Christ I who, 

or hi* "in your presence, am humble in my bearing 

Authority. towart i s VOU) j, ut> wnen absent, am bold in my 

language to you" I implore you not to drive me to "show 

7 Prov. 32. 8 (Septuagint). ' J Pa. na. 9. iu Hos. 10. la ; Isa. 55. u>. 

II. CORINTHIANS, 1O-11. 343 

my boldness," when I do come, by the confident tone which 
I expect to have to adopt towards some of you, who are 
expecting to find us influenced in our conduct by earthly 
motives. For, though we live an earthly life, we do not 3 

wage an earthly war. The weapons for our warfare are not 4 
earthly, but, under God, are powerful enough to pull down 
strongholds. We are engaged in confuting arguments and 5 
pulling down every barrier raised against the knowledge of 
God. We are taking captive every hostile thought, to bring 
it into submission to the Christ, and are fully prepared to 6 
punish every act of rebellion, when once your submission is com- 
plete. You look at the outward appearance of things ! 7 
Let any one, who is confident that he belongs to Christ, reflect, 
for himself, again upon the fact that we belong to Christ no 
less than he does. Even if I boast extravagantly about our 8 
authority which the Lord gave us for building up your faith 
and not for overthrowing it still I have no reason to be 
ashamed. I say this, that it may not seem as if I were trying 9 
to overawe you by my letters. For people say " His letters are 10 
impressive and vigorous, but his personal appearance is in- 
significant and his speaking contemptible." Let such a man be n 
assured of this that our words in our letters show us to be, 
when absent, just what our deeds will show us to be, when 
present. We have not indeed the audacity to class or 12 
compare ourselves with some of those who indulge in self- 
commendation ! But, when such persons measure themselves 
by themselves, and compare themselves with themselves, they 
show a want of wisdom. We, however, will not give way to 13 
unlimited boasting, but will confine ourselves to the limits of 
the sphere to which God limited us, when he permitted us to 
come as far as Corinth. For it is not the case, as it would be 14 
if we were not in the habit of coming to you, that we are 
exceeding our bounds ! Why, we were the very first to reach 
you with the Good News of the Christ ! Our boasting, there- 15 
fore, is not unlimited, nor does it extend to the labours of 
others ; but our hope is that, as your faith grows, our influence 
among you maybe very greatly increased though still confined 
to our sphere so that we shall be able to tell the Good News in 16 
the districts beyond you, without trespassing on the sphere 
assigned to others, or boasting of what has been already 
done. ' Let him who boasts make his boast of the 17 
Lord.' For it is not the man who commends himself that 18 
stands the test, but the man who is commended by the 

His Ri B ht I could wish that you would tolerate a little folly i 
as an in me ! But indeed you do tolerate me. I am 2 
Apostle. jealous over you with the jealousy of God. For I 
betrothed you to one husband, that I might present you to the 


Christ a pure bride. Yet I fear that it may turn out that, just as 3 
the Serpent by his craftiness deceived Eve, so your minds may 
have lost the loyalty and purity due from you to the Christ. 
For, if some new-comer is proclaiming a Jesus other than him 4 
whom we proclaimed, or if you are receiving a Spirit different 
from the Spirit which you received, or a Good News different 
from that which you welcomed, then you are marvellously 
tolerant ! I do not regard myself as in any way inferior to the g 
most eminent Apostles ! Though I am no trained orator, yet 6 
I am not without knowledge ; indeed we made this perfectly 
clear to you in every way. 

Perhaps you say that I did wrong in humbling myself that 7 
you might be exalted I mean because I told you God's Good 
News without payment. I robbed other churches by taking 8 
pay from them, so that I might serve you ! And, when I was 9 
with you and in need, I did not become a burden to any of 
you ; for our Brothers, on coming from Macedonia, supplied 
my needs. I kept myself, and will keep myself, from being 
an expense to you in any way. As surely as I know anything 10 
of the Truth of Christ, this boast, as far as I am concerned, 
shall not be stopped in any part of Greece. Why ? Because 1 1 
I do not love you ? God knows that I do ! 

What I am doing now I shall continue to do, that I may cut 12 
away the ground from under those who are wishing for some 
ground for attacking me, so that as regards the thing of which 
they boast they may appear in their true characters, just as we 
do. Men of this stamp are false apostles, treacherous workers, 13 
disguising themselves as Apostles of Christ ! And no wonder ; 14 
for even Satan disguises himself as an angel of Light. It is not 15 
surprising, therefore, if his servants also disguise themselves as 
servants of Righteousness. But their end will be in accordance 
with their actions. 

I say again Let no one think me a fool 1 Yet, 16 
H '* fo*' m * ^ vou d> at least welcome me as you would a 
consideration) fool, that I, too, may indulge in a little boasting. 
uf* and When I speak thus, I am not speaking as the 17 

Master would, but as a fool might, in boasting so 
confidently. As so many are boasting of earthly things, I, 18 
too, will boast. For all your cleverness, you tolerate fools 19 
willingly enough ! You tolerate a man even when he en- 20 
slaves you, when he plunders you, when he gets you into his 
power, when he puts on airs of superiority, when he strikes 
you in the face ! I admit, to my shame, that we have been 21 
weak. But whatever the subject on which others are not 
afraid to boast though it is foolish to say so I am not afraid 
either ! Are they Hebrews ? So am I ! Are they Israelites ? 22 
So am 1 1 Are they descendants of Abraham,? So ajn I ! 

" Jer. 9. 24. Gen. > i > 

II. CORINTHIANS, 11-12. 346 

Are they ' Servants of Christ ' ? Though it is madness to 23 
talk like this, I am more so than they ! I have had more 
of toil, more of imprisonment ! I have been flogged times 
without number. I have been often at death's door. Five 24 
times I received at the hands of the Jews forty lashes, all 
but one. Three times I was beaten with rods. Once I was 25 
stoned. Three times I was shipwrecked. I have spent a 26 
whole day and night in the deep. My journeys have been 
many. I have been through dangers from rivers, dangers 
from robbers, dangers from my own people, dangers from 
the Gentiles, dangers in towns, dangers in the country, 
dangers on the sea, dangers among false Brothers. I have 27 
been through toil and hardship. I have passed many a sleep- 
less night ; I have endured hunger and thirst ; I have often 
been without food ; I have known cold and nakedness. And, 28 
not to speak of other things, there is my daily burden of 
anxiety about all the Churches. Who is weak without my 29 
being weak ? Who is led astray without my burning with 
indignation ? If I must boast, I will boast of things which 30 
show my weakness ! The God and Father of the Lord Jesus 31 
he who is for ever blessed knows that I am speaking the 
truth. When I was in Damascus, the Governor under King 32 
Aretas had the gates of that city guarded, so as to arrest me, 
but I was let down in a basket through a window in the wall, 33 
and so escaped his hands. 

I must boast ! It is unprofitable ; but I will i 
HIS visions. p ass to visions an( j revelations given by the Lord. 
I know a man in union with Christ, who, fourteen years ago 2 
whether in the body or out of the body I do not know ; God 
knows was caught up (this man of whom I am speaking) to 
the third Heaven. And I know that this man whether in 3 
the body or separated from the body I do not know ; God 
knows was caught up into Paradise, and heard unspeakable 4 
things of which no human being may tell. About such a 5 
man I will boast, but about myself I will not boast except 
as regards my weaknesses. Yet if I choose to boast, I shall 6 
not be a fool ; for I shall be speaking no more than the 
truth. But I refrain, lest any one should credit me with 
more than he can see in me or hear from me, and because 
of the marvellous character of the revelations. It was for this 7 
reason, and to prevent my thinking too highly of myself, 
that a thorn was sent to pierce my flesh an instrument of 
Satan to discipline me so that I should not think too highly 
of myself. About this I three times entreated the Lord, praying 8 
that it might leave me. But his reply has been ' My help is 9 
enough for you ; for my strength attains its perfection in the 
midst of weakness.' 

Most gladly, then, will I boast all the more of my weak- 
nesses, so that the strength of the Christ may overshadow me. 

346 II. CORINTHIANS, 12-13. 

That is why I delight in weakness, ill-treatment, hardships, 10 
persecution, and difficulties, when borne for Christ. For, when 
I am weak, then it is that I am strong ! 


A I have been " playing the fool !" It is you who n 

Remonstrance, drove me to it. For it is you who ought to have 
been commending me ! Although I am nobody, in no respect 
did I prove inferior to the most eminent Apostles. The marks 12 
of the true Apostle were exhibited among you in constant 
endurance, as well as by signs, by marvels, and by miracles. 
In what respect, I ask, were you treated worse than the 13 
other Churches, unless it was that, for my part, I refused to 
become a burden to you ? Forgive me the wrong I thus did 
you ! 

Remember, this is the third time that I have 14 
I0- ' made every preparation to come to see you, and I 
shall refuse to be a burden to you ; I want, not your money, 
but you. It is not the duty of children to put by for their 
parents, but of parents to put by for their children. For my 15 
part, I will most gladly spend, and be spent, for your welfare. 
Can it be that the more intensely I love you the less I am to 
be loved ? You will admit that I was not a burden to 16 

you, but you say that I was "crafty" and caught you " by a 
trick " ! Do you assert that I took advantage of you through 17 
any of those whom I have sent to you ? I urged Titus to go, 18 
and I sent our Brother with him. Did Titus take any ad- 
vantage of you ? Did not we live in the same Spirit, and 
tread in the same footsteps ? 

Have you all this time been fancying that 19 
' n *' it is to you that we are making our defence ? No, 
it is in the sight of God, and in union with Christ, that we are 
speaking. And all this, dear friends, is to build up your 
characters ; for I am afraid that perhaps, when I come, I may 20 
find that you are not what I want you to be, and, on the other 
hand, that you may find that I am what you do not want me 
to be. I am afraid that I may find cjuarrelling, jealousy, ill- 
feeling, rivalry, slandering, back-biting, self-assertion, and 
disorder. I am afraid lest, on my next visit, my God may 21 
humble me in regard to you, and that I may have to mourn 
over many who have long been sinning, and have not repented 
of the impurity, immorality, and sensuality, in which they have 

For the third time I am coming to see you. ' By the word i 1 
of two or three witnesses each statement shall be established.' 
I have said it, and I say it again before I come, just as if I 2 
1 Deut. i<. 15. 


were with you on my second visit, though for the moment 
absent, I say to those who have been long sinning, as well as 
to all others that if I come again, I shall spare no one. And 3 
that will be the proof, which you are looking for, that the 
Christ speaks through me. There is no weakness in his 
dealings with you. No, he shows his power among you. For 4 
though his crucifixion was due to weakness, his life is due to 
the power of God. And we, also, are weak in his weakness, 
but with him we shall live for you through the power of 
God. Put yourselves to the proof, to see whether you 5 

are holding to the Faith. Test yourselves. Surely you 
recognize this fact about yourselves that Jesus Christ is in 
you ! Unless indeed you cannot stand the test ! But I hope 6 
that you will recognize that we can stand the test. We pray 7 
God that you may do nothing wrong, not that we may be seen 
to stand the test, but that you may do what is right, even though 
we may seem not to stand the test. We have no power at all 8 
against the Truth, but we have power in the service of the Truth. 
We are glad when we are weak, if you are strong. And what 9 
we pray for is that you may become perfect. This is my 10 

reason for writing as I am now doing, while I am away from 
you, so that, when I am with you, I may not act harshly in the 
exercise of the authority which the Lord gave me arid gave 
me for building up and not for pulling down. 

And now, Brothers, good-bye. Aim at per- n 
Farewells, fection ; take courage ; agree together ; live in 
peace. And then God, the source of all love and peace, 
will be with you. Greet one another with a sacred 12 

kiss. All Christ's people here send you their greetings. 13 

May the blessing of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of 14 
God, and the communion with the Holy Spirit, be with you 




ST. PAUL had often wished to visit Rome, but up to the 
time of writing this Letter he had been prevented by various 
causes from doing so (Rom. i. n, 13 : Acts 19. 21). At last 
there seemed to be a prospect of the realization of his long- 
cherished desire. In the course of his third missionary journey 
he was in Corinth, and was about to go to Jerusalem to carry 
to the poorer Christians there the charitable contributions of 
several other Churches. It was his intention, upon leaving 
Jerusalem, to visit Spain, and he hoped on his way to spend a 
short time in Rome (Rom. 15. 24). He wrote the present 
Letter in anticipation of this journey to the West and for the 
purpose of putting in writing beforehand a full statement of 
certain important truths. 

Philosophy, the Apostle teaches, had failed as a means of 
Salvation for the Gentile. The Law had failed as a means 
of Salvation for the Jew. In this Letter he establishes the 
doctrine that faith in Christ is the only ground of acceptance 
with God for all mankind. 

The extent to which he develops his subject gives the Letter 
largely the aspect of a treatise. 


. ROMANS. . ! 


The To all in Rome who are dear to God and have 1-7 1 
Apostle's been called to become Christ's People, 

Greeting. FROM Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, who has 
been called to become an Apostle, and has been set apart 
to tell God's Good News. This Good News God promised 
long ago through his Prophets in the sacred Scriptures, 
concerning his Son, Jesus Christ, our Lord ; who, as to 
his human nature, was descended from David, but, as to 
the spirit of holiness within him, was miraculously 
designated Son of God by his resurrection from the dead. 
Through him we received the gift of the Apostolic office, 
to win submission to the Faith among all nations 
for the glory of his Name. And among these nations are 
you you who have been called to belong to Jesus Christ. 
May God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ bless you 
and give you peace. 

The Apostle's First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ 8 
Thankfulness about you all, because the report of your faith is 

and Hope, spreading throughout the world. God, to whom 9 
I offer the worship of my soul as I tell the Good News of 
his Son, is my witness how constantly I mention you when 
I pray, asking that, if he be willing', I may some day at 10 
last find the way open to visit you. For I long to see you, 1 1 
in order to impart to you some spiritual gift and so give 
you fresh strength or rather that both you and I may find 12 
encouragement in each other's faith. I want you to know, 13 
Brothers, that I have many times intended coming to see you 
but until now I have been prevented that I might find 
among you some fruit of my labours, as I have already among 
the other nations. 

352 ROMANS, 1. 


The Divin. I have a duty to both the Greek and the Bar- 
ideal barian, to both the cultured and the ignorant. 
for Mankind. ^nd S o, for my part, I am ready to tell 
the Good News to you also who are in Rome. For I am 
not ashamed of the Good News ; it is the power of God which 
brings Salvation to every one who believes in Christ, to the 
Jew first, but also to the Greek. For in it there is a revela- 
tion of the Divine Righteousness resulting from faith and 
leading on to faith ; as Scripture says 

' Through faith the righteous man shall find Life.' 

So, too, there is a revelation from Heaven of 
ortheGerTtiie the Divine Wrath against every form of un- 
to reach this godliness and wickedness on the part of those 
**'' men who, by their wicked lives, are stifling 
the Truth. This is so, because what can be known about God 
is plain to them ; for God himself has made it plain. For 
ever since the creation of the universe God's invisible attri- 
butes his everlasting power and divinity are to be seen 
and studied in his works, so that men have no excuse ; 
because, although they learnt to know God, yet they did not 
offer him as God either praise or thanksgiving. Their specu- 
lations about him proved futile, and their undiscerning minds 
were darkened. Professing to be wise, they showed themselves 
fools ; and they transformed the Glory of the immortal God 
into the likeness of mortal man, and of birds, and beasts, and 

Therefore God abandoned them to impurity, letting them 
follow the cravings of their hearts, till they dishonoured their 
own bodies ; for they had substituted a lie for the truth 
about God, and had reverenced and worshipped created 
things more than the Creator, who is to be praised for ever. 
Amen. That, I say, is why God abandoned them to 

degrading passions. Even the women among them perverted 
the natural use of their bodies to the unnatural ; while the men, 
disregarding that for which women were intended by nature, 
were consumed with passion for one another. Men indulged 
in vile practices with men, and incurred in their own persons 
the inevitable penalty of their perverseness. Then, as 

they would not keep God before their minds, God abandoned 
them to depraved thoughts, so that they did all kinds of 
shameful things. They revelled in .every form of wickedness, 
evil, greed, vice. Their lives were full of envy, mur- 
der, quarrelling, treachery, malice. They became back-biters, 

17 Hab. a. 4. 23 p a , 10 6, ,,,,. 

ROMANS, 1-2. 353 

Slanderer's, impious, insolent, boastful. They devised new 
sins. They disobeyed their parents. They were undiscerning, 31 
untrustworthy, without natural affection or pity. Well aware 32 
of God's decree, that those who do such things deserve to 
die, not only are they guilty of them themselves, but they 
even applaud those who do them. 

Therefore you have nothing to say in your own defence, i 
whoever you are who set yourself up as a judge. In judging 
others you condemn yourself, for you who set yourself up 
as a judge do the very same things. And we know that 2 
God's judgement falls unerringly upon those who do them. 
You who judge those that do such things and yet are your- 3 
self guilty of them do you suppose that you of all men will 
escape God's judgement? Or do you think lightly of his 4 
abundant kindness, patience, and forbearance, not realizing 
that his kindness is meant to lead you to repentance ? Hard- 5 
hearted and impenitent as you are, you are storing up for 
yourself Wrath on the ' Day of Wrath,' when God's justice as 
a judge will be revealed ; for ' he will give to every man what 6 
his actions deserve.' To those who, by perseverance in doing 7 
good, aim at glory, honour, and all that is imperishable, he 
will give Immortal Life ; while as to those who are factious, 8 
and disobedient to Truth but obedient to Evil, wrath and anger, 
distress and despair, will fall upon every human being who 9 
persists in wrong-doing upon the Jew first, but also upon 
the Greek. But there will be glory, honour, and peace for 10 
every one who does right for the Jew first, but also for the 
Greek, since God shows no partiality. n 

All who, when they sin, are without Law will also perish 12 
without Law ; while all who, when they sin, are under Law, 
will be judged as being under Law. It is not those who hear 13 
the words of a Law that are righteous before God, but it is 
those who obey it that will be pronounced righteous. When 14 
Gentiles, who have no Law, do instinctively what the Law 
requires, they, though they have no Law, are a Law to them- 
selves ; for they show the demands of the Law written upon 15 
their hearts ; their consciences corroborating it, while in their 
thoughts they argue either in self-accusation or, it may be, 

in self-defence on the day when God passes judgement on 16 

men's inmost lives, as the Good News that I tell declares that 
he will do through Christ Jesus. 

But, perhaps, you bear the name of 'Jew, 'and 17 
FaM jews f " * are relying upon Law, and boast of belonging to 
to reach this God, and understand his will, and, having been 18 

ideal. carefully instructed from the Law, have learnt 
to appreciate the finer moral distinctions. Perhaps you are 19 
confident that you are a guide to the blind, a light to those 

6 Ps. 62. 12; Prov. 24. 12. 


354 ROMANS, 23. 

who are in the dark, an instructor of the unintelligent, and 20 
a teacher of the childish, because in the Law you possess the 
outline of all Knowledge and Truth. Why, then, you teacher 21 
of others, do not you teach yourself ? Do you preach against 
stealing, and yet steal ? Do you forbid adultery, and yet com- 22 
mit adultery ? Do you loathe idols, and yet plunder temples ? 
Boasting, as you do, of your Law, do you dishonour God by 23 
breaking the Law ? For, as Scripture says 24 

'The name of God is reviled among the Gentiles because of 
you ' ! 

Circumcision has its value, if you are obeying the Law. But, 25 
if you are a breaker of the Law, your circumcision is no better 
than uncircumcision. If, then, an uncircumcised man pays 26 
regard to the requirements of the Law, will not he, although 
not circumcised, be regarded by God as if he were? Indeed, 27 
the man who, owing to his birth, remains uncircumcised, and 
yet scrupulously obeys the Law, will condemn you, who, for 
all your written Law and your circumcision, are yet a breaker 
of the Law. For a man who is only a Jew outwardly is not 28 
a real Jew ; nor is outward bodily circumcision real circum- 
cision. The real Jew is the man who is a Jew in soul ; and 29 
the real circumcision is the circumcision of the heart, a 
spiritual and not a literal thing. Such a man wins praise 
from God, though not from men. 

What is the advantage, then, of being a Jew? i 
rh %o" jow* P * or what is the good of circumcision ? Great in 2 
and contiie every way. First of all, because the Jews were 

*"* entrusted with God's utterances. What follows 3 
then ? Some, no doubt, showed a want of faith ; but will their 
want of faith make God break faith ? Heaven forbid ! God 4 
must prove true, though every man prove a liar ! As Scripture 
says of God 

1 That thou mayest be pronounced righteous in what thou sayest, 
And gain thy cause when men would judge thee.' 

But what if our wrong-doing makes God's righteousness all the 5 
clearer? Will God be wrong in inflicting punishment? (I 
can but speak as a man.) Heaven forbid ! Otherwise how 6 
can God judge the world ? But, if my falsehood redounds to 7 
the glory of God, by making his truthfulness more apparent, 
why am I, like others, still condemned as a sinner? Why 8 
should we not say as some people slanderously assert 
that we do say ' Let us do evil that good may come ' ? The 
condemnation of such men is indeed just ! 

What follows, then ? Are we Jews in any way superior to 9 
others ? Not at all. Our indictment against both Jews and 
Greeks was that all alike were in subjection to sin. 

'** Isa. 53. 5. * Ps. 116. ii ; 51. 4. 

ROMANS, 3. 355 

As Scripture says 10 

' There is not even one who is righteous, 

Not one who understands, not one who is searching for God ! 1 1 
They have all gone astray ; they have one and all become 12 

depraved ; 

There is no one who is doing good no, not one ! ' 
' Their throats are like opened graves ; 13 

They deceive with their tongues.' 
' The venom of serpents lies behind their lips,' 

' And their mouths are full of bitter curses.' 14 

' Swift are their feet to shed blood. 15 

Distress and trouble dog their steps, 16 

And the path of peace they do not know.' 17 

' The fear of God is not before their eyes.' 18 

Now we know that everything said in the Law is addressed 19 
to those who are under its authority, in order that every mouth 
may be closed, and the whole world become liable to the judge- 
ment of God. For ' no human being will be pronounced right- 20 
eous before God ' as the result of obedience to Law ; for it is Law 
that shows what sin is. But now, quite apart from Law, the 21 
Divine Righteousness stands revealed, and to it the Law and 
the Prophets bear witness the Divine Righteousness which 22 
is bestowed, through faith in Jesus Christ, upon all, without 
distinction, who believe in him. For all have sinned, and all 23 
fall short of God's glorious ideal, but, in his loving-kindness, 24 
are being freely pronounced righteous through the deliverance 
found in Christ Jesus. For God set him before the world, to 25 
be, by the shedding of his blood, a means of reconciliation 
through faith. And this God did to prove his righteousness, 
and because, in his forbearance, he had passed over the sins 
that men had previously committed ; as a proof, I repeat, at 26 
the present time, of his own righteousness, that he might be 
righteous in our eyes, and might pronounce righteous the 
man who takes his stand on faith in Jesus. 

What, then, becomes of our boasting ? It is excluded. 27 
By what sort of Law ? A Law requiring obedience ? No, 
a Law requiring faith. For we conclude that a man is 28 
pronounced righteous on the ground of faith, quite apart 
from obedience to Law. Or can it be that God is the God 29 
only of the Jews ? Is not he also the God of the Gentiles ? 
Yes, of the Gentiles also, since there is only one God, and 30 
he will pronounce those who are circumcised righteous as 
the result of faith, and also those who are uncircumcised 
on their showing the same faith. Do we, then, use this 31 
faith to abolish Law ? Heaven forbid ! No, we establish 

1018 p s . 14. i, 3 ; 5. 9 ; 140. 3 ; 10. 7 ; 36. i ; Isa. 59. 78. 
' Ps. 143. 2. 

356 ROMANS, 4. 

Faith the What then, it may be asked, are we to say i ' 
Ground of about Abraham, the ancestor of our nation ? If 2 
^aefo'rot'he" ^ e was pronounced righteous as the result of 
coming of obedience, then he has something to boast of. 
the Law. Yes, but not before God. For what are the 3 
words of Scripture ? 

' Abraham had faith in God, and his faith was regarded by 
God as righteousness.' 

Now wages are regarded as due to the man who works, not 4 
as a favour, but as a debt ; while, as for the man who does 5 
not rely upon his obedience, but has faith in him who can pro- 
nounce the godless righteous, his faith is regarded by God as 
righteousness. In precisely the same way David speaks of 6 
the blessing pronounced upon the man who is regarded by 
God as righteous apart from actions 

' Blessed are those whose wrong-doings have been forgiven and 7 

over whose sins a veil has been drawn ! 
Blessed the man whom the Lord will never regard as sinful ! ' 8 

Is this blessing, then, pronounced upon the circumcised only 9 
or upon the uncircumcised as well ? We say that 

' Abraham's faith was regarded by God as righteousness.' 

Under what circumstances, then, did this take place? after 10 
his circumcision or before it ? Not after, but before. And it 1 1 
was as a sign of this that he received the rite of circumcision 
to attest the righteousness due to the faith of an uncircum- 
cised man in order that he might be the father of all who 
have faith in God even when uncircumcised, that they also 
may be regarded by God as righteous ; as well as father of 12 
the circumcised to those who are not only circumcised, but 
who also follow our father Abraham in that faith which he had 
while still uncircumcised. 

For the promise that he should inherit the world did not 13 
come to Abraham or his descendants through Law, but 
through the righteousness due to faith. If those who take 14 
their stand on Law are to inherit the world, then faith is 
robbed of its meaning and the promise comes to nothing ! 
Law entails punishment ; but, where no Law exists, no breach 15 
of it is possible. 

That is why all is made to depend upon faith, that all may 16 
be God's gift, and in order that the fulfilment of the promise 
may be made certain for all Abraham's descendants not only 
for those who take their stand on the Law, but also for those 
who take their stand on the faith of Abraham. (He is the 
Father of us all ; as Scripture says ' I have made thee the 17 

Gen. 15. 6. T-* P. ja. i a. Gen. 15. 6. Gen. 17. n. V Gen. 17. 5. 

ROMANS, 4-5. 357 

Father of many nations.') And this they do in the sight of 
that God in whom Abraham had faith, and who gives life to 
the dead, and speaks of what does not yet exist as if it did. 
With no ground for hope, Abraham, sustained by hope, put 18 
faith in God ; in order that, in fulfilment of the words' So 
many shall thy descendants be,' he might become ' the Father 
of many nations.' Though he was nearly a hundred years 19 
old, yet his faith did not fail him, even when he thought of his 
own body, then utterly worn out, and remembered that Sarah 
was past bearing children. He was not led by want of faith 20 
to doubt God's promise. On the contrary, his faith gave him 21 
strength ; and he praised God, in the firm conviction that 
what God has promised he is also able to carry out. And 22 
therefore his faith 'was regarded as righteousness.' 

Now these words ' it was regarded as righteousness ' 23 
were not written with reference to Abraham only, but also 24 
with reference to us. Our faith, too, will be regarded by 
God in the same light, if we have faith in him who raised 
Jesus, our Lord, from the dead ; for Jesus ' was given up to 25 
death to atone for our offences,' and was raised to life that we 
might be pronounced righteous. 

Therefore, having been pronounced righteous i 
or attaining as the result of faith, let us enjoy peace with God 
the Divine through Jesus Christ, our Lord. It is through 2 

Bal ' him that, by reason of our faith, we have ob- 
tained admission to that place in God's favour in which we now 
stand. So let us exult in our hope of attaining God's glorious 
ideal. And not only that, but let us also exult in our troubles ; 3 
for we know that trouble develops endurance, and endurance 4 
strength of character, and strength of character hope, and that 5 
'hope never disappoints.' For the love of God has filled our 
hearts through the Holy Spirit which was given us ; seeing 6 
that, while we were still powerless, Christ, in God's good 
time, died on behalf of the godless. Even for an upright man 7 
scarcely any one will die. For a really good man perhaps 
some one might even dare to die. But God puts his love for 8 
us beyond all doubt by the fact that Christ died on our behalf 
while we were still sinners. Much more, then, now that we 9 
have been pronounced righteous by virtue of the shedding of 
his blood, shall we be saved through him from the Wrath of 
God. For if, when we were God's enemies, we were recon- 10 
ciled to him through the death of his Son, much more, now 
that we have become reconciled, shall we be saved by virtue 
of Christ's Life. And not only that, but we exult in God, n 
through Jesus Christ, our Lord, through whom we have now 
obtained this reconciliation. 

A8 Gen. 15. 5; 17. 5. 22 Gen. 15. 6. 25 \s^ ^ 12 (Septuagint). 
5 Ps. 22. 5. 

358 ROMANS, 5-6. 

Therefore, just as sin came into the world 
Divme "ideal through one man, and through sin came death ; 


ed so, also, death spread to all mankind, because all 
,o Christ. men had s ; nned Even before the time of the i 3 
Law there was sin in the world ; but sin cannot be charged 
against a man where no Law exists. Yet, from Adam to 14 
Moses, Death reigned even over those whose sin was not a 
breach of a law, as Adam's was. And Adam foreshadows the 
One to come. But there is a contrast between Adam's 15 

Offence and God's gracious Gift. For, if by reason of the 
offence of the one man the whole race died, far more were 
the loving-kindness of God, and the gift given in the loving- 
kindness of the one man, Jesus Christ, lavished upon the 
whole race. There is a contrast, too, between the gift and the 16 
results of the one man's sin. The judgement, which followed 
upon the one man's sin, resulted in condemnation, but God's 
gracious Gift, which followed upon many offences, resulted in 
a decree of righteousness. For if, by reason of the offence of 17 
the one man, Death reigned through that one man, far more 
will those, upon whom God's loving-kindness and his gift 
of righteousness are lavished, find Life, and reign through 
the one man, Jesus Christ. Briefly then, just as a 18 

single offence resulted for all mankind in condemnation, so, 
too, a single decree of righteousness resulted for all man- 
kind in that declaration of righteousness which brings Life. 
For, as through the disobedience of the one man the whole 19 
race was rendered sinful, so, too, through the obedience of 
the one, the whole race will be rendered righteous. Law 20 
was introduced in order that offences might be multiplied. 
But, where sins were multiplied, the loving-kindness of God 
was lavished the more, in order that, just as Sin had reigned 21 
in the realm of Death, so, too, might Loving-kindness reign 
through righteousness, and result in Immortal Life, through 
Jesus Christ, our Lord. 


What are we to say, then ? Are we to continue i Q 

Is thin Faith . . . . ., . " >-, ,, , i j 

consistent to sin, in order that God s loving-kindness may 

with a be multiplied ? Heaven forbid ! We became 2 
sinful Lif? (jead t o s j n> am j | 1OW can W e go on living in it? 
Or can it be that you do not know that all of us, who were 3 
baptized into union with Christ Jesus, in our baptism shared 
his death ? Consequently, through sharing his death in our 4 
baptism, we were buried with him ; that, just as Christ was 
raised from the dead by a manifestation of the Father's 
power, so we also may live a new Life. If we have become 

ROMANS, 67. 359 

united with him by the act symbolic of his death, surely we 
shall also become united with him by the act symbolic of his 
resurrection. We recognize the truth that our old self was 6 
crucified with Christ, in order that the body, the stronghold of 
Sin, might be rendered powerless, so that we should no longer 
be slaves to Sin. For the man who has so died has been pro- 7 
nounced righteous and released from Sin. And our belief is, 8 
that, as we have shared Christ's Death, we shall also share his 
Life. We know, indeed, that Christ, having once risen from 9 
the dead, will not die again. Death has power over him no 
longer. For the death that he died was a death to sin, once 10 
and for all. But the Life that he now lives, he lives for God. 
So let it be with you regard yourselves as dead to sin, but 1 1 
as living for God, through union with Christ Jesus. 

Therefore do not let Sin reign in your mortal bodies and 12 
compel you to obey its cravings. Do not offer any part of 13 
your bodies to Sin, in the cause of unrighteousness, but once 
for all offer yourselves to God (as those who, though once 
dead, now have Life), and devote every part of your bodies to 
the cause of righteousness. For Sin shall not lord it over 14 
you. You are living under the reign, not of Law, but of Love. 

What follows, then ? Are we to sin because we are living 15 
under the reign of Love and not of Law ? Heaven forbid ! 
Surely you know that, when you offer yourselves as servants, 16 
to obey any one, you are the servants of the person whom you 
obey, whether the service be that of Sin which leads to Death, 
or that of Duty which leads to Righteousness. God be thanked 17 
that, though you were once servants of Sin, yet you learnt to 
give hearty obedience to that form of doctrine under which 
you were placed. Set free from the control of Sin, you became 18 
servants to Righteousness. I can but speak as men do 19 
because of the weakness of your earthly nature. Once you 
offered every part of your bodies to the service of impurity, 
and of wickedness, which leads to further wickedness. Now, 
in the same way, offer them to the service of Righteousness, 
which leads to holiness. While you were still servants of 20 
Sin, you were free as regards Righteousness. But what 21 
were the fruits that you reaped from those things of which 
you are now ashamed ? For the end of such things is Death. 
But now that you have been set free from the control of Sin, 22 
and have become servants to God, the fruit that you reap is 
an ever-increasing holiness, and the end Immortal Life. The 23 
wages of Sin are Death, but the gift of God is Immortal Life, 
through union with Christ Jesus, our Lord. 

can Law Surely, Brothers, you know (for I am speaking i 
deliver from to men who know what Law means) that Law 
a sinful Life?h as power over a man only as long as he lives. 
For example, by law a married woman is bound to her 2 

380 ROMANS, 7. 

husband while he is living ; but, if her husband dies, she is 
set free from the law that bound her to him. If, then, during 3 
her husband's lifetime, she unites herself to another man, she 
will be called an adulteress ; but, if her husband dies, the law 
has no further hold on her, nor, if she unites herself to 
another man, is she an adulteress. And so with you, my 4 
Brothers ; as far as the Law was concerned, you underwent 
death in the crucified body of the Christ, so that you might be 
united to another, to him who was raised from the dead, in 
order that our lives might bear fruit for God. When we were 5 
living merely earthly lives, our sinful passions, aroused by the 
Law, were active in every part of our bodies, with the result that 
our lives bore fruit for Death. But now we are set free from the 6 
Law, because we are dead to that which once kept us under 
restraint ; and so we serve under new, spiritual conditions, 
and not under old, written regulations. 

What are we to say, then ? That Law and sin are the same 7 
thing? Heaven forbid! On the contrary, I should not have 
learnt what sin is, had not it been for Law. If the Law did 
not say ' Thou shalt not covet,' I should not know what it is to 
covet. But sin took advantage of the Commandment to 8 
arouse in me every form of covetousness, for where there is no 
consciousness of Law sin shows no sign of life. There was a 9 
time when I myself, unconscious of Law, was alive ; but when 
the Commandment was brought home to me, sin sprang into 
life, while I died ! The very Commandment that should 10 
have meant Life I found to result in Death! Sin took u 
advantage of the Commandment to deceive me, and used it 
to bring about my Death. And so the Law is holy, and 12 
each Commandment is also holy, and just, and good. 

Did, then, a thing, which in itself was good, involve Death in 13 
my case ? Heaven forbid ! It was sin that involved Death ; so 
that, by its use of what I regarded as good to bring about my 
Death, its true nature might appear ; and in this way the Com- 
mandment showed how intensely sinful sin is. We know that 14 
the Law is spiritual, but I am earthly sold into slavery to Sin. 
I do not understand my own actions. For I am so far from 15 
habitually doing what I want to do, that I find myself doing 
the very thing that I hate. But when I do what I want not 16 
to do, I am admitting that the Law is right. This 17 

being so, the action is no longer my own, but that of Sin 
which is within me. I know that there is nothing good in me 18 
I mean in my earthly nature. For, although it is easy for me 
to want to do right, to act rightly is not easy. I fail to do the 19 
good thing that I want to do, but the bad thing that I want 
not to do that I habitually do. But, when I do the very thing 20 
that I want not to do, the action is no longer my own, but 

7 Exod. 30. 14, 17 ; Dent. 5. 18, 31. 

ROMANS, 78. 361 

that of Sin which is within me. This, then, is the 21 

law that I find When I want to do right, wrong presents 
itself! At heart I delight in the Law of God ; but throughout 22, 
my body I see a different law, one which is in conflict with the 
law accepted by my reason, and which endeavours to make 
me a prisoner to that law of Sin which exists throughout my 
body. Miserable man that I am ! Who will deliver me from 24 
the body that is bringing me to this Death? Thank God, 25 
there is deliverance through Jesus Christ, our Lord ! Well 
then, for myself, with my reason I serve the Law of God, but 
with my earthly nature the Law of Sin. 

cod's There is, therefore, now no condemnation for i J 

Deliverance those who are in union with Christ Jesus ; for 2 
thl chfit h through your union with Christ Jesus, the Law of 
and the the life-giving Spirit has set you free from the 
Holy spirit. L aw o f sin and Death. What Law could not do, 3 
in so far as our earthly nature weakened its action, God did, 
by sending his own Son, with a nature resembling our sinful 
nature, to atone for sin. He condemned sin in that earthly 
nature, so that the requirements of the Law might be satisfied 4 
in us who live now in obedience, not to our earthly nature, but 
to the Spirit. They who follow their earthly nature are earthly- 5 
minded, while they who follow the Spirit are spiritually minded. 
To be earthly-minded means Death, to be spiritually minded 6 
means Life and Peace ; because to be earthly-minded is to be 7 
an enemy to God, for such a mind does not submit to the Law 
of God, nor indeed can it do so. They who are earthly can- 8 
not please God. You, however, are not earthly but 9 

spiritual, since the Spirit of God lives within you. Unless a 
man has the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Christ ; 
but, if Christ is within you, then, though the body is dead as a 10 
consequence of sin, the spirit is Life as a consequence of 
righteousness. And, if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from n 
the dead lives within you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the 
dead will give Life even to your mortal bodies, through his 
Spirit living within you. 

So then, Brothers, we owe nothing to our earthly nature, 12 
that we should live in obedience to it. If you live in obedience 13 
to your earthly nature, you will inevitably die ; but if, by the 
power of the Spirit, you put an end to the evil habits of the 
body, you will live. All who are guided by the Spirit of God 14 
are Sons of God. For you did not receive the spirit of a 15 
slave, to fill you once more with fear, but the spirit of a son 
which leads us to cry 'Abba, Our Father.' The Spirit himself 16 
unites with our spirits in bearing witness to our being God's 
children, and if children, then heirs heirs of God, and joint- 17 
heirs with Christ, since we share Christ's sufferings in order 
that we may also share his Glory. 


362 ROMANS, 8. 

I do not count the sufferings of our present life worthy 18 
of mention when compared with the Glory that is to be 
revealed and bestowed upon us. All Nature awaits with 19 
eager expectation the appearing of the Sons of God. For 20 
Nature was made subject to imperfection not by its own 
choice, but owing to him who made it so yet not without 21 
the hope that some day Nature, also, will be set free from 
enslavement to decay, and will attain to the freedom which 
will mark the Glory of the Children of God. We know, indeed, 22 
that all Nature alike has been groaning in the pains of labour 
to this very hour. And not Nature only ; but we ourselves 23 
also, though we have already a first gift of the Spirit we 
ourselves are inwardly groaning, while we eagerly await 
our full adoption as Sons the redemption of our bodies. By 24 
our hope we were saved. But the thing hoped for is no longer 
an object of hope when it is before our eyes ; for who hopes for 
what is before his eyes ?. But, when we hope for what is not 25 
before our eyes, then we wait for it with patience. 

So, also, the Spirit supports us in our weakness. We do 26 
not even know how to pray as we should ; but the Spirit 
himself pleads for us in sighs that can find no utterance. 
Yet he who searches all our hearts knows what the Spirit's 27 
meaning is, because the pleadings of the Spirit for Christ's 
People are in accordance with his will. But we do know 28 
that God causes all things to work together for the good 
of those who love him those who have received the Call in 
accordance with his purpose. For those whom God chose 29 
from the first he also destined from the first to be transformed 
into likeness to his Son, so that his Son might be the eldest 
among many Brothers. And those whom God destined for 30 
this he also called ; and those whom he called he also pro- 
nounced righteous ; and those whom he pronounced righteous 
he also brought to Glory. 

What are we to say, then, in the light of all this? If God 31 
is on our side, who can there be against us ? God did not 32 
withhold his own Son, but gave him up on behalf of us all; 
will he not, then, with him, freely give us all things ? Who 33 
will bring a charge against any of God's People ? He who 
pronounces them righteous is God ! Who is there to condemn 34 
them ? He who died for us is Christ Jesus ! or, rather, it was 
he who was raised from the dead, and who is now at God's 
right hand and is even pleading on our behalf ! Who is there 35 
to separate us from the love of the Christ ? Will trouble, or 
difficulty, or persecution, or hunger, or nakedness, or danger, 
or the sword ? Scripture says 36 

' For thy sake we are being killed all the day long-, 
We are regarded as sheep to be slaughtered.' 

sa. 50. 89 ; P. no. i. 3 Pa. 44. aa. 

ROMANS, 89. 363 

Yet amidst all these things we more than conquer through him 37 
who loved us ! For I am persuaded that neither Death, nor 38 
Life, nor Angels, nor Archangels, nor the Present, nor the 
Future, nor any Powers, nor Height, nor Depth, nor any 39 
other created thing, will be able to separate us from the 
love of God revealed in Christ Jesus, our Lord ! 

. . .. , I am speaking: the truth as one in union i 9 

The Apostle's . , _, . r j o 

Lament with Christ ; it is no he ; and my conscience, 
over Israel, enlightened by the Holy Spirit, bears me out 
when I say that there is a great weight of sorrow upon me, 2 
and that my heart is never free from pain. I could wish that 3 
I were myself accursed and severed from the Christ, for the 
sake of my Brothers my own countrymen. For they are 4 
Israelites, and theirs are the adoption as Sons, the visible 
Presence, the Covenants, the revealed Law, the Temple wor- 
ship, and the Promises. They are descended from the Patri- 5 
archs ; and, as far as his human nature was concerned, from 
them came the Christ he who is supreme overall things, God 
for ever blessed. Amen. Not that God's Word has 6 

failed. For it is not all who are descended from 
T O* Israels* Israel who are true Israelites ; nor, because 
Rejection they are Abraham's descendants, are they all his 7 
by cod. Children ; but 

' It is Isaac's children who will be called thy descendants.' 

This means that it is not the children born in the course 8 
of nature who are God's Children, but it is the children 
born in fulfilment of the Promise who are to be regarded as 
Abraham's descendants. For these words are the words of a 9 

' About this time I will come, and Sarah shall have a son.' 

Nor is that all. There is also the case of Rebecca, when she 10 
was about to bear children to our ancestor Isaac. For in order 1 1 
that the purpose of God, working through selection, might not 
fail a selection depending, not on obedience, but on his Call 
Rebecca was told, before her children were born and before 12 
they had done anything either right or wrong, that ' the elder 
would be a servant to the younger.' The words of Scripture 13 

' I loved Jacob, but I hated Esau.' 
7 Gen. ai. 12. 9 Gen. 18. 10. 12 Gen. 25. 23. i Mai. i. 43. 

364 ROMANS, 9. 

What are we to say, then? Is God guilty of injustice? 14 
Heaven forbid ! For his words to Moses are 15 

' I will take pity on whom I take pity, and be merciful jto 
whom I am merciful.' 

So, then, all depends, not on human wishes or human efforts, 16 
but on God's mercy. In Scripture, again, it is said to Pharaoh 17 

' It was for this very purpose that I raised thee to the throne, 
to show my power by my dealing's with thee, and to make my 
name known throughout the world.' 

So, then, where God wills, he takes pity, and where he wills, 18 
he hardens the heart. 

Perhaps you will say to me ' How can any one still be 19 
blamed ? For who withstands his purpose ? ' I might rather 20 
ask ' Who are you who are arguing with God ? ' Does a thing 
which a man has moulded say to him who has moulded it 
'Why did you make me like this?' Has not the potter 21 
absolute power over his clay, so that out of the same lump he 
makes one thing for better, and another for common, use ? 
And what if God, intending to reveal his displeasure and make 22 
his power known, bore most patiently with the objects of his 
displeasure, though they were fit only to be destroyed, so as 23 
to make known his surpassing glory in dealing with the 
objects of his mercy, whom he prepared beforehand for glory, 
and whom he called even us not only from among the Jews 24 
but from among the Gentiles also ! This, indeed, is what 25 
he says in the Book of Hosea 

' I will call those my People who were not my People, 

And her my beloved who was not beloved. 

And in the very 'place where it was said to them 26 

" Ye are not my People ", 

They shall be called Sons of the Living God.' 

And Isaiah cries aloud over Israel 27 

' Though the Sons of Israel are like the sand of tne sea in 
number, only a remnant of them shall escape ! For the Lord 28 
will execute his sentence upon the world, fully and without 

It is as Isaiah foretold 29 

' Had not the Lord of Hosts spared some few of our race to us, 
We should have become like Sodom and been made to resemble 


The cause What are we to say, then ? Why, that Gentiles, 30 
or uraet' who were not in search of righteousness, secured it 
Rejection. a righteousness which was the result of faith ; 
while Israel, which was in search of a Law which would ensure 31 

18 Exod. 33. 19. 1? Exod. 9. 16. '< Exod. 7. 3 ; 9. 12 ; 14. 4, 17. w Isa. 29. 6; 
45- 9- 21 Jcr. j. 6 ; Isa. 29. 16 ; 45. 9 ; Wisd. of Sol. 15. 7. Jer. 50. 35 ; 
Isa. 13. 5,6 (Hebrew);- Isa. 54. 10. 25 Hos. a. 23. * 2 s Hos. i. 10; 
Isa. 10. 32, 93. Isa. i'. 9. 

ROMANS, 9-10. 365 

righteousness, failed to discover one. And why? Because 32 
they looked to obedience, and not to faith, to secure it. They 
stumbled over ' the Stumbling-block.' As Scripture says 33 

' See, I place a Stumbling-block in Zion a Rock which shall 

prove a hindrance ; 
And he who believes in him shall have no cause for shame.' 

Brothers, my heart's desire and prayer to God for my People i 
is for their Salvation. I can testify that they are zealous for the 2 
honour of God ; but they are not guided by true insight, 
for, in their ignorance of the Divine Righteousness, and in 3 
their eagerness to set up a righteousness of their own, they 
refused to accept with submission the Divine Righteousness. 
For Christ has brought Law to an end, so that righteousness 4 
may be obtained by every one who believes in him. For 5 
Moses writes that, as for the righteousness which results from 
Law, 'those who practise it will find Life through it.' But 6 
the righteousness which results from faith finds expression in 
these words ' Do not say to yourself "Who will go up into 
heaven ?" 'which means to bring Christ down 'or "Who 7 
will go down into the depths below ? " ' which means to bring 
Christ up from the dead. No, but what does it say ? ' The 8 
Message is near thee ; it is on thy lips and in thy heart ' which 
means ' The Message of Faith ' which we proclaim. For, 9 
if with your lips you acknowledge the truth of the Message 
that JESUS IS LORD, and believe in your heart that God 
raised him from the dead, you shall be saved. For with their 10 
hearts men believe and so attain to righteousness, while with 
their lips they make their Profession of Faith and so find 
Salvation. As the passage of Scripture 'says 1 1 

' No one who believes in him shall have any cause for 

For no distinction is made between the Jew and the Greek, for 12 
all have the same Lord, and he is bountiful to all who invoke 
'him. For 'every one who invokes the Name of the Lord shall 13 
be saved.' But how, it may be asked, are they to invoke one 14 
in whom they have not learnt to believe ? And how are they 
to believe in one whose words they have not heard ? And how 
are they to hear his words unless some one proclaims him ? 
And how are men to proclaim him unless they are sent as his 15 
messengers ? As Scripture says 

' How beautiful are the feet of those who bring good 
news ! ' 

Still, it may be said, ever} 7 one did not give heed to the Good 16 
Ne vs. No, for Isaiah asks 

' Lord, who has believed our teaching ? ' 

2-3 Isa. 8. 14; 28. 16. o Lev. ri. s . -9 Deut. 50. 1214. u Isa - & 6- 
13 Joel 2. 32. 15 Isa. 52. 7 (Hebrew). W I sa . 53. i. 

366 ROMANS, 1O-11. 

And so, we gather, faith is a result of teaching-, and the 17 
teaching comes in the Message of Christ. But I ask ' Is it 18 
possible that men have never heard ? ' No, indeed, for 

' Their voices spread through all the earth, 
And their Message to the very ends of the world.' 

But again I ask ' Did not the people of Israel understand ? ' 19 
First there is Moses, who says 

' I, the Lord, will stir you to rivalry with a nation which 

is no nation ; 
Against an undiscerning nation I will arouse your anger.' 

And Isaiah says boldly 20 

1 1 was found by those who were not seeking me ; 
I made myself known to those who were not inquiring of me.' 

But of the people of Israel he says 21 

4 All day long I have stretched out my hands to a people 
who disobey and contradict.' 

The merciful I ask, then, ' Has God rejected his People ? ' i 
Pt |rae*J n Heaven forbid ! For I myself am an Israelite, a 
Rejection, descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. 
God has not rejected his People, whom he chose from the 2 
first. Have you forgotten the words of Scripture in the story 
of Elijah how he appeals to God against Israel ? 

1 Lord, they have killed thy Prophets, they have pulled 3 
down thy altars, and I only am left ; and now they are eager 
to take my life.' 

But what was the divine response ? 4 

' I have kept for myself seven thousand men who have 
never bowed the knee to Baal.' 

And so in our own time, too, there is to be found a remnant of 5 
our nation selected by God in love. But if in love, then no 6 
longer as a result of obedience. Otherwise love would cease 
to be love. What follows from this ? Why, that Israel as a 7 
nation failed to secure what it was seeking, while those whom 
God selected did secure it. The rest grew callous ; as 8 
Scripture says 

4 God has given them a deadness of mind eyes that are 

not to see and ears that are not to hear and it is so to this 

very day.' 

David, too, says 9 

4 May their feasts prove a snare and a trap to them 

A hindrance and a retribution ; 

May their eyes be darkened, so that they cannot see ; 10 

And do thou always make their backs to bend.' 

M P*. 19. 4. 1 Deut. 3*. ai. 30-31 Isa. 65. i a. 1-2 Pa. 94. 14 ; i Sam. la. aa. 
* i King 19. 10. * i Kings 19. 18. 8 Isa. 39. 10 ; Deut. 39. 4. * 10 Ps. 69. aa, 33. 

ROMANS, 11. 367 

I ask then ' Was their stumbling to result in their fall ? ' 1 1 
Heaven forbid ! On the contrary, through their falling away 
Salvation has reached the Gentiles, to stir the rivalry of Israel. 
And, if their falling away has enriched the world, and their 12 
failure has enriched the Gentiles, how much more will result 
from their full restoration ! 

But I am speaking to you who were Gentiles. Being 13 
myself an Apostle to the Gentiles, I exalt my office, in the hope 14 
that I may stir my countrymen to rivalry, and so save some 
of them. For, if their being cast aside has meant the reconcilia- 15 
tion of the world, what will their reception mean, but Life 
from the dead ? If the first handful of dough is holy, so is the 16 
whole mass ; and if the root is holy, so are the branches. 

Some, however, of the branches were broken off, and you, 17 
who were only a wild olive, were grafted in among them, and 
came to share with them the root which is the source of the 
richness of the cultivated olive. Yet do not exult over the 18 
other branches. But, if you do exult over them, remember 
that you do not support the root, but that the root supports 
you. But branches, you will say, were broken off, so that I 19 
might be grafted in. True ; it was because of their want of 20 
faith that they were broken off, and it is because of your 
faith that you are standing. Do not think too highly of 
yourself, but beware. For, if God did not spare the natural 21 
branches, neither will he spare you. See, then, both the 22 
goodness and the severity of God his severity towards those 
who fell, and his goodness towards you, provided that you 
continue to confide in that goodness ; otherwise you, also, will 
be cut off. And they, too, if they do not continue in their 23 
unbelief, will be grafted in ; for God has it in his power to 
graft them in again. If you were cut off from your natural 24 
stock a wild olive and were grafted, contrary to the course 
of nature, upon a good olive, much more will they the natural 
branches be grafted back into their parent tree. 

Brothers, for fear that you should think too highly of your- 25 
selves, 1 want you to recognize the truth, hitherto hidden, that 
the callousness which has come over Israel is only partial, and 
will continue only till the whole Gentile world has been 
gathered in. And then all Israel shall be saved. As Scripture 26 

' From Zion will come the Deliverer ; 

He will banish ungodliness from Jacob. 

And they shall see the fulfilment of my Covenant, 27 

When I have taken away their sins.' 

From the stand-point of the Good News, the Jews are God's 28 
enemies on your account ; but from the stand-point of God's 
selection, they are dear to him on account of the Patriarchs. 

11 Deut. 32. ai. 2627 Isa. ^g. 20) al ; 37. ^ 

368 ROMANS, 11-12. 

For God never regrets his gifts or his Call. Just as you at 29, 
one time were disobedient to him, but have now found mercy 
in the day of their disobedience ; so, too, they have now 31 
become disobedient in your day of mercy, in order that they 
also in their turn may now find mercy. For God has given 32 
all alike over to disobedience, that to all alike he may show 
mercy. Oh ! the unfathomable wisdom and knowledge 33 

of God ! How inscrutable are his judgements, how untrace- 
able his ways ! Yes 
' Who has ever comprehended the mind of the Lord ? Who has 34 

ever become his counsellor? 
Or who has first given to him, so that he may claim a recompense ? ' 35 

For all things are from him, through him, and for him. 36 
And to him be all glory for ever and ever ! Amen. 


On Christian I entreat you, then, Brothers, by the mercies of i J 

Sacrifice. God, to offer your bodies as a living and holy 
sacrifice, acceptable to God, for this is your rational worship. 
Do not conform to the fashion of this world ; but be trans- 2 
formed by the complete change that has come over your 
minds, so that you may discern what God's will is all that 
is good, acceptable, and perfect. 

on Christian In fulfilment of the charge with which I have 3 
Membership, been entrusted, I bid every one of you not to 
think more highly of himself than he ought to think, but to 
think till he learns to think soberly in accordance with the 
measure of faith that God has allotted to each. For, just as 4 
in the human body there is a union of many parts, and 
each part has its own function, so we, by our union in 5 
Christ, many though we are, form but one body, and 
on Christian individually we are related one to another as its 

Duties. parts. Since our gifts differ in accordance 6 

with the particular charge entrusted to us, if our gift is to 
preach, let our preaching correspond to our faith ; if it is to 7 
minister to others, let us devote ourselves to our ministry ; 
the teacher to his teaching, the speaker to his exhortation. 8 
Let the man who gives in charity do so with a generous heart ; 
let him who is in authority exercise due diligence ; let 
him who shows kindness do so in a cheerful spirit. Let 9 
your love be sincere. Hate the wrong ; cling to the right. 
In brotherly love, be affectionate to one another ; in showing 10 
respect, set an example of deference to one another ; never 1 1 
flagging in zeal ; fervent in spirit ; serving the Master ; 
.rejoicing in your hope ; stedfast under persecution ; per- 12 

M *> Iita. 40. 13, 14. 

ROMANS, 1213. 369 

severing in prayer ; relieving the wants of Christ's People ; 13 
devoted to hospitality. Bless your persecutors bless and 14 
never curse. Rejoice with those w^~ re rejoicing, and weep 15 
with those who are weeping ^ L me same spirit of sympathy 16 
animate you all, not a spirit of pride ; be glad to associate 
with the lowly. Do not think too highly of yourselves. 
Never return injury for injury. Aim at doing what all men 17 
will recognize as honourable. If it is possible, as far as 18 
rests with you, live peaceably with every one. Never avenge 19 
yourselves, dear friends, but make way for the Wrath of God ; 
for Scripture declares 

' " It is for me to avenge, I will requite," says the Lord.' 
Rather 20 

' If your enemy is hungry, feed him ; if he is thirsty, give 
him to drink. By doing this you will heap coals of fire upon 
his head.' 

Never be conquered by evil, but conquer evil with good. 21 

Let every one obey the supreme Authorities, i 

On Obedience _, . > . . J ' , ... ,-,-,. 

to the ror no Authority exists except by the will ot God, 
Authorities. anc } the existing Authorities have been appointed 
by God. Therefore he who sets himself against the Authori- 2 
ties is resisting God's appointment, and those who resist 
will bring a judgement upon themselves. A good action 3 
has nothing to fear from Rulers ; a bad action has. Do you 
want to have no reason to fear the Authorities ? Then do 
what is good, and you will win their praise. For they are 4 
God's servants appointed for your good. But, if you do what 
is wrong, you may well be afraid ; for the sword they carry is 
not without meaning ! They are God's servants to inflict his 
punishments on those who do wrong. You are bound, there- 5 
fore, to obey, not only through fear of God's punishments, but 
also as a matter of conscience. This, too, is the reason for your 6 
paying taxes ; for the officials are God's officers, devoting them- 
selves to this special work. In all cases pay what is due from 7 
you tribute where tribute is due, taxes where taxes are due, 
respect where respect is due, and honour where honour is due. 

On Owe nothing to any one except brotherly love ; 8 

Brotherly for he who loves his fellow men has satisfied 

Love. the Law. The commandments, ' Thou shalt not 9 
commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, 
Thou shalt not covet,' and whatever other commandment 
there is, are all summed up in the words 

' Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thou dost thyself.' 

Love never wrongs a neighbour. Therefore Love fully satisfies 10 
the Law. 

16 Prov. 3. 7. 17 Prov. 3. 4 (Septuagint version). 19 Deut. 32. 35 (Hebrew). 
*> Prov. 35. 21, 23. 9 Hxod. 20. 13, 17 ; Deut. 5. 17, 21 ; Lev. 19. 18. 

370 ROMANS, 1314. 

This I say, because you know the crisis that n 
the Approach we have reached, for the time has already come 
of The Day. 1 f or y O u to rouse yourselves from sleep; our 
Salvation is nearer now than when we accepted the Faith. 
The night is almost gone ; the day is near. Therefore let us 12 
have done with the deeds of Darkness, and arm ourselves 
with the weapons of Light. Being in the light of Day, let us 13 
live becomingly, not in revelry and drunkenness, not in lust 
and licentiousness, not in quarrelling and jealousy. No ! 14 
Arm yourselves with the spirit of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
and spend no thought on your earthly nature, to satisfy its 

As for those whose faith is weak, always receive i 
Consideration them as friends, but not for the purpose of pass- 

tor the ing judgement on their scruples. One man's 2 
Scrupulous. f a ith permits of his eating food of all kinds, while 
another whose faith is weak eats only vegetable food. The man 3 
who eats meat must not despise the man who abstains from 
it ; nor must the man who abstains from eating meat pass 
judgement on the one who eats it, for God himself has received 
him. Who are you, that you should pass judgement on the 4 
servant of another ? His standing or falling concerns his own 
master. And stand he will, for his Master can enable him to 
stand. Again, one man considers some days to be more sacred 5 
than others, while another considers all days to be alike. Every 
one ought to be fully convinced in his own mind. He who 6 
observes a day, observes it to the Master's honour. He, 
again, who eats meat eats it to the Master's honour, for he 
gives thanks to God ; while he who abstains from it abstains 
from it to the Master's honour, and also gives thanks to 
God. There is not one of us whose life concerns him- 7 

self alone, and not one of us whose death concerns himself 
alone ; for, if we live, our life is for the Master, and, if we 8 
die, our death is for the Master. Whether, then, we live or 
die we belong to the Master. The very purpose for which 9 
Christ died and came back to life was this that he might be 
Lord over both the dead and the living. I would ask 10 

the one man ' Why do you judge your Brother ? ' And I would 
ask the other ' Why do you despise your Brother ? ' For we 
shall all stand before the Bar of God. For Scripture says n 
' " As surely as I live," says the Lord, " every knee shall bend 

before me ; 
And every tongue shall make acknowledgement to God."' 

So, then, each one of us will have to render account of himself 12 
to God. 

Let us, then, cease to judge one another. Rather let this 13 
be your resolve never to place a stumbling-block or an obstacle 

11 Isa. 45. 23. 

ROMANS, 14-15. 371 

in a Brother's way. Through my union with the Lord Jesus, 14 
I know and am persuaded that nothing is 'defiling in itself.' 
A thing is ' defiling ' only to him who holds it to be so. 
If, for the sake of what you eat, you wound your Brother's 15 
feelings, your life has ceased to be ruled by love. Do not, 
by what you eat, ruin a man for whom Christ died ! Do 16 
not let what is right for you become a matter of reproach. 
For the Kingdom of God does not consist of eating and drink- 17 
ing, but of righteousness and peace and gladness through the 
presence of the Holy Spirit. He who serves the Christ in 18 
this way pleases God, and wins the approval of his fellow 
' men. Therefore our efforts should be directed towards all 19 
that makes for peace and the mutual building up of character. 
Do not undo God's work for the sake of what you eat. Though 20 
everything is 'clean,' yet, if a man eats so as to put a stumbling- 
block in the way of others, he does wrong. The right course 21 
is to abstain from meat or wine or, indeed, anything that is a 
stumbling-block to your Brother. As for yourself keep this 22 
faith of yours to yourself, as in the presence of God. Happy 
is he who never has to condemn himself in regard to the very 
thing which he thinks right ! He, however, who has mis- 23 
givings stands condemned if he still eats, because his doing 
so is not the result of faith. . And anything not done as the 
result of faith is a sin. 

We, the strong, ought to take on our own shoulders the i 
weaknesses of those who are not strong, and not merely 
to please ourselves. Let each of us please his neighbour 2 
for his neighbour's good, to help in the building up of his 
character. Even the Christ did not please himself ! On the 3 
contrary, as Scripture says of him 

' The reproaches of those who were reproaching 1 thee fell 
upon me.' 

Whatever was written in the Scriptures in days gone by 4 
was written for our instruction, so that, through patient en- 
durance, and through the encouragement drawn from the 
Scriptures, we might hold fast to our hope. And may God, 5 
the giver of this patience and this encouragement, grant you 
to be united in sympathy in Christ, so that with one heart and 6 
one voice you may praise the God and Father of Jesus Christ, 
our Lord. 

Therefore always receive one another as friends, 7 
the R^eption j ust as tne Christ himself received us, to the glory 

of the of God. For I tell you that Christ, in vindication 8 
Gentiles. o f G OC }' S truthfulness, has become a minister of 
the Covenant of Circumcision, so that he may fulfil the promises 

3 Ps. 69. 9. 

372 ROMANS, 15. 

made to our ancestors, and that the Gentiles also may praise 9 
God for his mercy. As Scripture says 

4 Therefore will I make acknowledgement to thee 

among- the Gentile 
And sing in honour of thy Name.' 

And again it says 10 

' Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with God's People.' 

And yet again 1 1 

' Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles, 
And let all Peoples sing his praises.' 

Again, Isaiah says 12 

' There shall be a Scion of the house of Jesse, 
One who is to arise to rule the Gentiles ; 
On him shall the Gentiles rest their hopes.' 

May God, who inspires our hope, grant you perfect happiness 13 
and peace in your faith, till you are filled with this hope by the 
power of the Holy Spirit. 

I am persuaded, my Brothers yes, I Paul, with regard to 14 
you that you are yourselves full of kindness, furnished with 
all Christian learning, and well able to give advice to one 
another. But in parts of this letter I have expressed myself 15 
somewhat boldly by way of refreshing your memories 
because of the charge with which God has entrusted me, that 16 
I should be a minister of Christ Jesus to go to the Gentiles 
that I should act as a priest of God's Good News, so that 
the offering up of the Gentiles may be an acceptable sacri- 
fice, consecrated by the Holy Spirit. It is, then, through my 17 
union with Christ Jesus that I have a proud confidence in my 
work for God. For I will not dare to speak of anything but 18 
what Christ has done through me to win the obedience of 
the Gentiles by my words and actions, through the power 19 
displayed in signs and marvels, and through the power of the 
Holy Spirit. And so, starting from Jerusalem and its neigh- 
bourhood, and going as far as Illyria, I have told in full the 
Good News of the Christ ; yet always with the ambition to tell 20 
the Good News where Christ's name had not previously been 
heard, so as to avoid building upon another man's foundations. 
But as Scripture says 21 

' They to whom he had never been proclaimed shall see ; 
And they who have never heard shall understand ! ' 


pronai That is why I have so often been prevented from 22 
Plan*. coming to you. But now there are n<9 further 23 
openings for me in these parts, and I have for several years been 
9 P. 18. 49. 10 Deut. 33. 43. " P. 117. . 12 Isa. u. 10. a Isa. $a. 15. 

ROMANS, 15-16. 373 

longing to come to you whenever I may be going to Spain. 24 
For my hope is to visit you on my journey, and then to 
be sent on my way by you, after I have first partly satis- 
fied myself by seeing something of you. Just now, however, 25 
I am on my way to Jerusalem, to take help to Christ's People 
there. For Macedonia and Greece have been glad to 26 
make a collection for the poor among Christ's People at 
Jerusalem. Yes, they were glad to do so ; and indeed it 27 
is a duty which they owe to them. For the Gentile con- 
verts who have shared their spiritual blessings are in duty 
bound to minister to them in the things of this world. When 28 
I have settled this matter, and have secured to the poor at 
Jerusalem the enjoyment of these benefits, I shall go, by way 
of you, to Spain. And I know that, when I come to you, it 29 
will be with a full measure of blessing from Christ. 

I beg you, then, Brothers, by Jesus Christ, our Lord, and by 30 
the love inspired by the Spirit, to join me in earnest prayer to 
God on my behalf. Pray that I may be rescued from those in 31 
Judaea who reject the Faith, and that the help which I am 
taking to Jerusalem may prove acceptable to Christ's People ; 
so that, God willing, I may be able to come to you with a joyful 32 
heart, and enjoy some rest among you. May God, the giver of 33 
peace, be with you all. Amen. 

The Bearer ^ commend to your care our Sister, Phoebe, who i 1( 
of the helps in the work of the Church at Cenchreae ; 
Letter. anc j j as fc y OU ^ o gj v e.her a Christian welcome 2 
one worthy of Christ's People and to aid her in any matter in 
which she may need your assistance. She has proved herself 
a staunch friend to me and to many others. 

Personal Give my greeting to Prisca and Aquila, my 3 
Greetings, fellow-workers in the Cause of Christ Jesus, 
who risked their own lives to save mine. It is not I 4 
alone who thank them, but all the Churches among the 
Gentiles thank them also. Give my greeting, also, to the 5 
Church that meets at their house, as well as to my dear friend 
Epaenetus, one of the first in Roman Asia to believe in 
Christ ; to Mary, who worked hard for you ; to Andronicus 6, 7 
and Junias, my countrymen and once my fellow-prisoners, 
who are men of note among the Apostles, and who became 
Christians before I did ; to my dear Christian friend Ampliatus ; 8 
to Urban, our fellow-worker in the Cause of Christ, and to my 9 
dear friend Stachys ; to that proved Christian Apelles ; to the 10 
household of Aristobulus ; to my countryman Herodion ; to n 
the Christians in the household of Narcissus ; to Tryphaena 12 
and Tryphosa, who have worked hard for the Mcister ; to my 
dear friend Persis, for she has done much hard work for the 
Master ; to that eminent Christian, Rufus, and to his mother, 13 
who has been a mother to me also ; to Asyncritus, Phlegon, 14 

374 ROMANS, 16. 

Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the Brothers with them ; also 15 
to Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, 
and to all Christ's People who are with them. Greet one 16 
another with a sacred kiss. All the Churches of the Christ 
send you greetings. 

I urge you, Brothers, to be on your guard against people 17 
who, by disregarding the teaching which you received, cause 
divisions and create difficulties ; dissociate yourselves from 
them. For such persons are not serving Christ, our Master, 18 
but are slaves to their own appetites ; and, by their smooth 
words and flattery, they deceive simple-minded people. Every tg 
one has heard of your ready obedience. It is true that I am 
very happy about you, but I want you to be well versed in all 
that is good, and innocent of all that is bad. And God, the 20 
giver of peace, will before long crush Satan under your feet. 

May the blessing of Jesus, our Lord, be with you. 

Timothy, my fellow- worker, sends you his greeting, and 21 
Lucius, Jason, and Sosipater, my countrymen, send theirs. I, 22 
Tertius, who am writing this letter, send you my Christian 
greeting. My host Gaius, who extends his hospitality to the 23 
whole Church, sends you his greeting ; and Erastus, the City 
Treasurer, and Quartus, our Brother, add theirs. 

A Now to him who is able to strengthen you, as 

Doxoiogy. promised in the Good News entrusted to me and 
in the proclamation of Jesus Christ, in accordance with the 
revelation of that hidden purpose, which in past ages was kept 
secret but now has been revealed and, in obedience to the 
command of the Immortal God, made known through the 
writings of the Prophets to all nations, to secure submission 
to the Faith to him, I say, the wise and only God, be ascribed, 
through Jesus Christ, all glory for ever and ever. Amen. 




COLOSSAE was a town in Roman Asia, which had once been 
a place of considerable importance, but which, at the time of 
this Letter, had lost much of its former prosperity. It does 
not appear that St. Paul had had any close personal connexion 
with the Church at Colossae, but it is plain from the Letter 
itself that his authority was recognized over a wide area. The 
Apostle's attention had been drawn to the Church at Colossae 
by a visit which he had received from Epaphras, who had been 
closely associated with the Christians living there, and who had 
told St. Paul of a dangerous heresy which threatened to under- 
mine the religious life of his fellow-Christians in that place. 

This heresy consisted in a teaching, ' drawn from the 
atmosphere of mystical speculation,' and ' with no foundation 
in history,' which attempted to bridge the chasm between God 
and Man by the assumption that there were many angelic 
mediators. The necessity for this assumption lay in the pre- 
valent error that all matter was evil and, therefore, in direct 
opposition to God. 

Two obvious inferences from this heresy were the duty of the 
worship of angels, and the need for rigid asceticism. 

Against such unsatisfying mediation, and its consequent 
dangers, St. Paul sets the Life, Work, and Person of the 
historical Christ the one, all-sufficient mediator, the Head of 
all creation. 

The obscurity of this Letter is due partly to the ruggedness 
and compression of the Apostle's style, and partly to the fact 
that the Letter combats a form of heretical teaching which is 
by no means familiar to the reader of to-day. 




Greetin ^ Christ's People at Colossae the Brothers who i, 2 

are faithful to him, 

FROM Paul, an Apostle of Christ Jesus, by the will of God, 
AND FROM Timothy, our Brother. 
May God, our Father, bless you and give you peace. 

The Apostle's Whenever we pray, we never fail to thank God, 3 
Thankfulness the Father of our Lord, Jesus Christ, about you, 
and Prayer. now th a j- we nav e heard of your faith in Christ 4 
Jesus and of the love that you have tor all his People, on 5 
account of the hope which awaits its fulfilment in Heaven. Of 
this hope you heard long ago in the true Message of the Good 
News which reached you bearing fruit and growing, as it 6 
does, through all the world, just as it did among you, from the 
very day that you heard of God's loving-kindness, and under- 
stood what that loving-kindness really is. It is just what you 7 
learnt from Epaphras, our dear fellow-servant, who, as a 
minister of the Christ, faithfully represents us, and who 8 
told us of the love with which the Spirit has inspired 
you. And therefore we, from the very day that we 9 

heard this, have never ceased praying for you, or asking that 
you may possess that deeper knowledge of the will of God, 
which comes through all true spiritual wisdom and insight. 
Then you will live lives worthy of the Master, and so please 10 
God in every way. Your lives will be fruitful in every kind of 
good action, and your characters will grow through a fuller 
knowledge of God ; you will be made strong at all points with a 1 1 
strength worthy of the power manifested in his Glory strong 
to endure with patience, and even with gladness, whatever 
may befall you ; and you will give thanks to the Father who 12 
made you fit to share the lot which awaits Christ's People in 
the realms of Light. 



His For God has rescued us from the tyranny of 

Deliverance. Darkness, and has removed us into the Kingdom 

of his Son, who is the embodiment of his love, and through 

whom we have found deliverance in the forgiveness of our sins. 

His For Christ is the very incarnation of the invisible 
Pre-eminence, God First-born and Head of all creation ; for in 
him was created all that is in Heaven and on earth, the visible 
and the invisible Angels and Archangels and all the Powers of 
Heaven. All has been created through him and for him. He 
was before all things, and all things unite in him ; and he 
is the Head of the Church, which is his Body. The First- 
born from the dead, he is to the Church the Source of its 
Life, that he, in all things, may stand first. For it pleased 
the Father that in him the divine nature in all its fulness 

H|> should dwell, and through him to reconcile all 
Reoonciiia- things to himself (making peace by the shedding 

tion. O f Christ's blood offered upon the cross) whether 
on earth or in Heaven. And it pleased God that you, once 
estranged from him and hostile towards him in your thoughts, 
intent only on wickedness but now he has reconciled you to 
himself by the sacrifice of Christ's earthly body in death it 
has pleased God that you should stand in his presence holy, 
pure, and blameless, if only you remain true to your Faith, firm 
and immovable, never abandoning the hope held out in the 
Good News to which you listened, which has been proclaimed 
among all created things under Heaven, and of which I, Paul, 
was made a minister. 

The Apostle'* Now at last I can rejoice in my sufferings on 
share your behalf, and in my own person I supplement 

in this work. t j ie afflictions endured by the Christ, for the sake 
of his Body, the Church ; of which I myself became a minister 
in virtue of the office with which God entrusted me for your 
benefit, to declare the Message of God in all its fulness that 
Truth which has been hidden from former ages and genera- 
tions. But now it has been revealed to God's People, to 
whom il was his pleasure to make known the surpassing glory 
of that hidden Truth when proclaimed among the Gentiles 

-'Christ among you! Your Hope of glory!' This is the 
Christ whom we proclaim, warning every one, and instruct- 
ing every one, with all the wisdom that we possess, in the 
hope of bringing every one into God's presence perfected by 
union with Christ. It is for that I toil, struggling with all 
the energy which he inspires and which works powerfully 
within me. 



The wisdom ^ want you to know in how great a struggle i 

of cod I am engaged for you and for Christ's People 
in Christ. a j Laodicea, and for all who have not yet seen 
me ; in the hope that they, being bound to one another by 2 
love, and keeping in view the full blessedness of a firm convic- 
tion, may be encouraged to strive for a perfect knowledge of 
God's hidden Truth, even Christ himself, in whom all treasures '3 
of wisdom and knowledge lie hidden. I say this to 4 

prevent any one from deceiving you by plausible arguments. 
It is true that I am not with you in person, but I am with you 5 
in spirit, and am glad to see the good order and the unbroken 
front resulting from your faith in Christ. 

Union with Since, therefore, you have received Jesus, the 6 

Christ. Christ, as your Lord, live your lives in union with 
him rooted in him, building up your characters through 7 
union with him, growing stronger through your faith, as you 
were taught, overflowing with faith and thanksgiving. 

Take care there is not some one who will carry you away 8 
by his ' philosophy ' a hollow sham ! following, as it does, 
mere human traditions, and dealing with puerile questions of 
this world, and not with Christ. For in Christ the Godhead 9 
in all its fulness dwells incarnate ; and, by your union with 10 
him, you also are filled with it. He is the Head of all Arch- 
angels and Powers of Heaven. By your union with him you 1 1 
received a circumcision that was not performed by human 
hands, when you threw off the tyranny of the earthly body, 
and received the circumcision of the Christ. For in baptism 12 
you were buried with Christ ; and in baptism you were also 
raised to Life with him, through your faith in the omnipotence 
of God, who raised him from the dead. And to you, who 13 
once were ' dead, ' by reason of your sins and your uncircum- 
cised nature to you God gave Life in giving life to Christ ! 
He pardoned all our sins ! He cancelled the bond which 14 
stood against us the bond that consisted of ordinances and 
which was directly hostile to us ! He has taken it out of 
our way by nailing it to the cross ! He rid himself of all the 15 
Powers of Evil, and held them up to open contempt, when he 
celebrated his triumph over them on the cross ! 

This um< ^ not > then, allow any one to take you to task 16 

obs'curecMay on questions of eating or drinking, or in the 
Gnostic matter of annual or monthly or weekly festivals. 

Teaching. These things are only the shadow of what is to 17 
come ; the substance is in the Christ. Do not let any one 18 
defraud you of the reality by affecting delight in so-called 

3 Isa. 45. 3 ; Prov. a. 34. 

380 COLOSSIANS, 2-3. 

' humility ' and angel-worship. Such a man busies himself 
with his visions, and without reason is rendered conceited by 
his merely human intellect. He fails to maintain union with 19 
the Head, to whom it is due that the whole body, nourished 
and knit together by the contact and connexion of every part, 
grows with a divine growth. 

Sharing Since, with Christ, you became dead to the 20 
Christ's puerile teaching of this world, why do you sub- 
Death. m it ( as though your life were still that of the 
world, to such ordinances as ' Do not handle, or taste, or ii 
touch'? For all the things referred to in them cease to exist 22 
when used. You are following mere human directions and 
instructions. Such prohibitions appear reasonable where 23 
there is a desire for self-imposed service, and so-called 
' humility,' and harsh treatment of the body, but are of no 
real value against the indulgence of our earthly nature. 

sharing Since, therefore, you were raised to Life with i 

Christ's the Christ, seek for the things that are above ; 
Resurrection. f or ; t ; s there that the Christ is 'seated at the 
right hand of God.' Fix your thoughts upon the things that 2 
are above, not upon those that are on earth. For you died, 3 
and your Life now lies hidden, with the Christ, in God. When 4 
the Christ, who is our Life, appears, then you also will appear 
with him in glory. 


The oid nfe Therefore destroy all that is earthly in you 5 
and the New. immorality, uncleanness, passions, evil desires, 
and that greed which is idolatry. These are the things on 6 
account of which the Wrath of God comes, and to which you, 7 
like others, once devoted your lives, when you lived for them. 
You, however, must now lay aside all such things anger, 8 
passion, malice, slander, abuse. Never lie to one another. 9 
Get rid of your old self and its habits, and clothe yourselves 10 
with that new self, which, as it gains in knowledge, is being 
constantly renewea ' in resemblance to him who made it.' In u 
that new life there is no distinction between Greek and Jew, 
circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave, 
freeman ; but Christ is all ! and in all ! 

Therefore, as God's People, consecrated and dear to him, 12 
clothe yourselves with tenderness of heart, kindliness, humility, 
gentleness, forbearance ; bearing with one another, and,. when 13 
there is any ground for complaint, forgiving one another 
freely. As the Master freely forgave you, so you must for- 
give one another. Over all these virtues put on love ; for 14 

22 Isa. 39. 13. 1 Pa. no. i. 10 Gen. i. 37. 

COLOSSIANS, 84. 381 

that is the girdle which makes all complete. Let the 15 
Peace that the Christ gives decide all doubts within your hearts ; 
for you also were called to the enjoyment of peace as members 
of one Body. And show yourselves thankful. Let the Message 16 
of the Christ dwell in your minds in all its wealth, bringing 
all wisdom with it. Teach and admonish one another with 
psalms, and hymns, and sacred songs, full of the loving-kind- 
ness of God, lifting your hearts in song to him. And, whatever 17 
you say or do, do everything in the Name of the Lord Jesus ; 
and through him offer thanksgiving to God the Father. 

. Wives, submit to your husbands, as befits those 18 

On riSTian tii i T i T T 

Family who belong to the Lord. Husbands, love 19 

Life. your wives, and never treat them harshly. 

Children, always obey your parents ; for that is pleasant to 20 
see in those who belong to the Lord. Fathers, never 21 

irritate your children, lest they should become disheartened. 

Slaves, always obey your earthly masters, not only when 22 
their eyes are on you, as if you had but to please men, but 
giving them ungrudging service, in your reverence for the 
Master. Whatever you do, do it with all your heart, as if 23 
working for the Master and not for men, since you know that 24 
it is from the Master that you will receive the inheritance 
which will be your recompense. You are serving Christ, the 
Master. Those who do wrong will reap the wrong they have 25 
done ; and there will be no partiality. Masters, do i 4 

what is right and fair by your slaves, for you know that you 
also have a Master in Heaven. 

Rule* tor Devote yourselves to prayer. Give your whole 2 
Christian mind to it, and also offer thanksgiving ; and at 3 

Life. the same time pray for us, that God may give us 
an opening for our Message, so that we may speak of the 
truths hidden in the Christ the truths for which I am 
in chains ! Then I shall make them known, as I ought to 4 
do. Show tact in your behaviour to the outside world, 5 

making the most of every opportunity. Let your conversation 6 
always be kindly, and seasoned, as it were, with salt ; that 
you may know in each case what answer you ought to give. 


The Bearers ^ ear Brother, Tychicus, will tell you all 

or the about me. He is a faithful minister, and a fellow- 
Letter, servant in the Master's cause. I send him to you 
expressly that you may learn our circumstances, and that he 
may give you encouragement. With him will be Onesimus, 


our dear faithful Brother, who is one of yourselves. They will 
tell you all that is going on here. 

personal ^^ fellow-prisoner, Aristarchus, sends you his 10 
Greetings and greeting, and Barnabas's cousin, Mark, sends his. 

Messages. (You have received directions about him. If he 
comes to you, make him welcome.) Joshua, who is called n 
Justus, also sends his greeting. These are the only converts 
from Judaism who have worked with me for the Kingdom of 
God ; I have found them a great comfort. Epaphras, who is 12 
one of yourselves, sends you his greeting. He is a servant of 
Christ Jesus, and is always most earnest in your behalf in his 
prayers, praying that you may stand firm, with a matured 
faith and with a sure conviction of all that is in accordance 
with God's will. I can bear testimony to the deep interest he 13 
takes in you, as well as in the Brethren at Laodicea and at 
Hierapolis. Luke, our dear doctor, sends you his greeting, 14 
andDemassends his. Give mygreetingto the Brethren 15 

at Laodicea, and to Nymphe, and to the Church that meets at 
her house. And when this letter has been read to you, see 16 
that it is also read before the Church at Laodicea, and that you 
yourselves read the letter which will be forwarded from there. 
Give this message to Archippus ' Take care to discharge 17 
to the best of your ability the office to which you were ap- 
pointed in the Master's Cause.' 

The A ostio's I P au l> a dd this greeting in my own hand- 18 
own writing. Remember these chains of mine. 
God's blessing be with you. 




ONESIMUS, who was the bearer of this Letter, had been 
a slave to Philemon. He had robbed his master and run away 
from him ; but, on reaching Rome, he had come under the 
influence of St. Paul, and had been converted to Christianity. 
Philemon, who lived probably at Laodicea in Asia Minor, 
was also one of the Apostle's converts; and St. Paul sent 
Onesimus back to him with this Letter, asking Philemon to 
forgive him, and to receive him as a Brother-Christian. 



To our dear friend and fellow- worker Philemon, to our sister I, 2 

Apphia, to our fellow-soldier Archippus ; 
AND TO the Church that meets at Philemon's house ; 
FROM Paul, now a prisoner for Christ Jesus, 
AND FROM Timothy, a Brother. 
May God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ bless you 3 

and give you peace. 


I always mention you in my prayers and thank God 4 
for you, because I hear of the love and the faith which 5 
you show, not only to the Lord Jesus, but also to all his 
People ; and I pray that your participation in the Faith 6 
may result in action, as you come to a fuller realization 
of everything that is good and Christlike in us. I have 7 
indeed found great joy and encouragement in your love, 
knowing, as I do, how the hearts of Christ's People have 
been cheered, Brother, by you. 

And so, though my union with Christ enables me, with all 8 
confidence, to dictate the course that you should adopt, yet 9 
the claims of love make me prefer to plead with you yes, 
even me, Paul, though I am an ambassador for Christ Jesus 
and, now, a prisoner for him as well. I plead with you for 10 
this Child of mine, Onesimus, to whom, in my prison, I have 
become a Father. Once he was of little service to you, but u 
now he has become of great service, not only to you, but to 
me as well ; and I am sending him back to you with this 12 
letter though it is like tearing out my very heart. For 13 
my own sake I should like to keep him with me, so that, 
while I am in prison for the Good News, he might, attend 
to my wants on your behalf. But I do not wish to do 14 
anything without your consent, because I want your generosity 



to be voluntary and not, as it were, compulsory. It may 15 
be that he was separated from you for an hour, for this very 
reason, that you might have him back for ever, no longer 16 
as a slave, but as something better a dearly loved Brother, 
especially dear to me, and how much more so to you, not only 
as your fellow man, but as your fellow Christian 1 If, then, you 17 
count me your friend, receive him as you would me. If he 18 
has caused you any loss, or owes you anything, charge it to 
me. I, Paul, put my own hand to it I will repay you my- 19 
self. I say nothing about your owing me your very self. Yes, 20 
Brother, let me gain something from you because of your 
union with the Lord. Cheer my heart by your Christlike 

Even as I write, I have such confidence in your compliance 21 
with my wishes, that I am sure that you will do even more 
than I am asking. Please also get a lodging ready for me, for 22 
I hope- that I shall be given back to you all in answer to your 


Epaphras, who is my fellow-prisoner for Christ Jesus, sends 23 
you his greeting ; and Marcus, Aristarchus Demas, and 24 
Luke, my fellow-workers, send theirs. 

May the blessing of the Lord Jesus Christ rest on your 25 




EPHESUS was a busy seaport and the chief city of Roman 
Asia. In it stood the famous temple of Diana. St. Paul's 
visit to Ephesus is recorded in the Acts (Chapter 19) and 
lasted for more than two years. His stay there was eventful ; 
and, when it came to an end, the Apostle went to Greece, and 
then returned, by way of Miletus, to Jerusalem. Shortly 
afterwards he was arrested, on the complaint of the Jews, 
and taken to Caesarea (Acts 23. 23), and from there to Rome 
(Acts 28. 1 6). From one of these places probably the latter 
he may have written the present Letter. 

The genuineness of this Letter has been frequently assailed, 
but it may, with some confidence, be attributed to the Apostle 
himself. It appears to have been a circular letter addressed, 
not merely to the Christians of Ephesus, but also to the other 
Churches in Roman Asia ; indeed, it was also known as 
"The Letter to Laodicea," and may be the letter referred to in 
Colossians 4. 16. In it the Apostle is not so much replying 
to arguments hostile to Christianity, as developing, upon 
lines similar to those laid down in the Letter to the Colossians, 
his conception of the unity of all Christians in the Christ, the 
invisible Head of their one Society. 




Greeting. To Christ's People [AT EPHESUS] who are faith- i 

ful to him, 

FROM Paul, an Apostle of Christ Jesus, by the will of God. 
May God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ bless you and 2 
give you peace. 

The Apostle's Blessed is the God and Father of Jesus Christ, 3 
Ascription of our Lord, who has blessed us on high with every 

Praise. spiritual blessing, in Christ. For he chose us in 4 
our union with Christ before the creation of the universe, that 
we might be holy and blameless in his sight, living in the 
spirit of love. From the first he destined us, in his good- 5 
will towards us, to be adopted as Sons through Jesus Christ, 
and so to enhance that glorious manifestation of his loving- 6 
kindness which he gave us in The Beloved ; for in him, and 7 
through the shedding of his blood, we have found redemption in 
the pardon of our offences. All this accords with the loving- 8 
kindness which God lavished upon us, accompanied by 
countless gifts of wisdom and discernment, when he made 9 
known to us his hidden purpose. And it also accords with 
the good-will which God purposed to exhibit in Christ, in 10 
view of that Divine Order which was to mark the com- 
pletion of the ages, when he should make everything, both 
in Heaven and on earth, centre in him. In him, I say, for by u 
our union with him we became God's Heritage, having from 
the first been destined for this in the intention of him who, 
in all that happens, is carrying out his own fixed purpose ; 
that we should enhance his glory we who have been the' first 12 
to rest our hopes on the Christ. And you, too, by your union 13 
with him, after you had heard the Message of the Truth, the 
Good News of your Salvation you believed in him and were 
sealed as his by receiving the holy Spirit, which he had pro- 
mised. And the Spirit is a pledge of our future heritage, 14 
fore-shadowing the full redemption of God's own People to 
enhance his Glory. 

390 EPHESIANS, 1-2. 


pra or therefore I, ever since I heard of the faith 

for Knowledge in the Lord Jesus which prevails among you, 
or this Power. an( j of your confidence in all Christ's People, 
have never omitted to thank God on your behalf, whenever I 
make mention of you in my prayers. My prayer is that the 
God of Jesus Christ our Lord, the all-glorious Father, may in- 
spire you with wisdom and true insight through a fuller know- 
ledge of himself ; that your minds may be so enlightened that 
you may realize the hope given by God's Call, the wealth of the 
glory of his heritage among Christ's People, and the transcen- 
dant greatness of the power which he is able to exercise in deal- 

ing with us who believe in him. The same mighty 
cMapiayecMn powerwas exerted upon the Christ, when he raised 
the Resurrec- the Christ from the dead and ' caused him to sit 
tion of Christ. at ^j s right hand' on high, exalting him above 
all Angels and Archangels of every rank, and above every name 
that can be named, whether in the present age, or in the age 
to come. And God placed 'all things under Christ's feet,' and 
gave him to the Church as its supreme Head ; for the Church 
is Christ's Body, and is filled by him who fills all things every- 
where with his presence. You yourselves were once dead be- 
cause of your offences and sins. For at one time you lived in 
sin, following the ways of the world, in subjection to the Ruler 

of the Powers of the air the Spirit who is still at 
This Power wor k among the disobedient. And it was among 

displayed in ,, ,, ,. , .. j i 

the conver- them that we all once lived our lives, indulging 
sion of the the cravings of our earthly nature, and carrying 
Qentiies. Qu ^ ^ Q desires prompted by that earthly nature 
and by our own thoughts. Our very nature exposed us to the 
Divine Wrath, like the rest of mankind. Yet God, in 

his abundant compassion, and because of the great love with 
which he loved us, even though we were ' dead ' because of our 
offences, gave Life to us in giving Life to the Christ. (By 
God's loving-kindness you have been saved.) And, through our 
union with Christ Jesus, God raised us with him, and caused 
us to sit with him on high, in order that, by his goodness to 
us in Christ Jesus, he might display in the ages to come the 
boundless wealth of his loving-kindness. For it is by God's 
loving-kindness that you have been saved, through your faith. 
It is not due to yourselves ; the gift is God's. It is not due to 
obedience to Law, lest any one should boast. For we are God's 
handiwork, created, by our union with Christ Jesus, for the good 
actions in doing which God had pre-arranged that we should 
spend our lives. 

W Peut. 33. 4. 20 Pa. no. i. 22 PS. $. $, 

EPHESIANS, 2-3. 391 

This Power Remember, therefore, that you were once Gen- 1 1 
displayed ! tiles yourselves, as your bodies showed ; you 
the union of wefe ca u et j The Uncircumcised ' by those who 

Jew and Gen- <<r>i_ t- ' j > j 

tile within were called 1 he Circumcised circumcised only 
the church, by the hand of man ! Remember that you were 12 
at that time far from Christ ; you were shut out from the 
citizenship of Israel ; you were strangers to the Covenants 
founded on God's Promise ; you were in the world without 
hope and without God. But now, through your union with 13 
Christ Jesus, you who once were ' far off' have, by the shedding 
of the blood of the Christ, been brought ' near.' He it 14 

is who is our Peace. He made the two divisions of mankind 
one, broke down the barrier that separated them, and in his 15 
human nature put an end to the cause of enmity between 
them the Law with its injunctions and ordinances in order 
to create, through union with himself, from Jew and Gentile, 
one New Man, and thus make peace. And when, upon the 16 
cross, he had destroyed their mutual enmity, he sought by 
means of his cross to reconcile them both to God, united in one 
Body. He came with the Good News of peace for you who 17 
were ' far off,' and of peace for those who were ' near ' ; for it 18 
is through him that we, the Jews and the Gentiles, united in 
the one Spirit, are now able to approach the Father. It 19 

follows, then, that you are no longer strangers and aliens, but 
are fellow-citizens with Christ's People and members of God's 
Household. You have been built up upon the foundation laid 20 
by the Apostles and Prophets, Christ Jesus himself being 'the 
corner-stone.' United in him, every part of the building, closely 21 
joined together, will grow into a Temple, consecrated by its 
union with the Lord. And, through union in him, you also are 22 
being built up together, to be a dwelling-place for God through 
the Spirit. 


For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Jesus, i 
The Gospel t he Christ, for the sake of you Gentiles for you 2 

made known . r .1 -i i i 

to the church have heard, I suppose, of the responsible charge 
through the with which God entrusted me for your benefit, 
Apostle. anc j a j SQ t j lat j t wag by (j; rec t revelation that 3 

the hidden purpose of God was made known to me, as I 
have already briefly told you. And, by reading what I 4 
have written, you will be able to judge how far I understand 
this hidden purpose of God in Christ. In former genera- 5 
tions it was not made known to mankind, as fully as it has 
now been revealed by the Spirit to the Apostles and Prophets 
among Christ's People that, by union with Christ Jesus and 6 

Isa. 57. 19 ; 52. 7. M Isa. 28. 16. 

392 EPHESIANS, 3-4. 

through the Good News, the Gentiles are co-heirs with us and 
members of one Body, and that they share with us in God's 
Promise. Of this Good News I became a minister, in virtue 
of the charge with which God entrusted me in the exercise of 
his power yes, to me, who am less than the least of all 
Christ's People, was this charge entrusted ! to tell the Gentiles 
the Good News of the boundless wealth to be found in 
the Christ, and to make clear what is God's way of working 
out that hidden purpose which from the first has been 
concealed in the mind of the Creator of all things ; so 
that now to the Archangels and to all the Powers 
made ifnown on high should be made known, through the 
to the Church, the all-embracing wisdom of God, in 
"power!* accordance with that purpose which runs through 
through the all the ages and which he has now accomplished 
church. j n Jesus, the Christ, our Master. And in union 
with him, and through our trust in him, we find courage 
to approach God with confidence. Therefore I beg 

you not to be disheartened at the sufferings that I am under- 
going for your sakes ; for they redound to your honour. 

For this reason, then, I kneel before the 

the y church Father from whom all ' fatherhood ' in Heaven 

may and on earth derives its name and pray that, 

"thuToos**! 1 * n P ro P ort ' on to the wealth of his glory, he will 

strengthen you with his power by breathing his 

Spirit into your inmost soul, so that the Christ, through your 

faith, may make his home within your hearts in love ; and 

I pray that you, now firmly rooted and established, may, with 

all Christ's People, have the power to comprehend in all its 

width and length and height and depth, and to understand 

though it surpasses all understanding the love of the Christ ; 

and so be filled to the full with God himself. 

To him who, through his power which is at 
Blo *y- W0 rk within us, is able to do far more than any- 
thing that we can ask or conceive to him be all glory through 
the Church and through Christ Jesus, for all generations, age 
after age. Amen. 


unity in I ur g e y ou i then I who am a prisoner in the i 
Christ. Master's cause to live lives worthy of the Call 

that you have received ; always humble and gentle, patient, 2 

bearing lovingly with one another, and striving to maintain 3 

in the bond of peace the unity given by the Spirit. There is 4 
but one Body and one Spirit, just as there was but one hope 

EPHESIANS, 4. 393 

set before you when you received your Call. There is but one 5 

Lord, one Faith, one Baptism. There is but one God and 6 
Father of all the God who is over all, pervades all, and is in 

all. Every one of us, however, has been entrusted with 7 

some charge, each in accordance with the extent of the 

gift of the Christ. That is why it is said 8 

' When he went up on high, he led his captives into captivity, 
And gave gifts to mankind.' 

Now surely this ' going up ' must imply that he had already 9 
gone down into the world beneath. He who went down is the 10 
same as he who went up up beyond the highest Heaven, that 
he might fill all things with his presence. And he it is who n 
gave to the Church Apostles, Prophets, Missionaries, Pastors, 
and Teachers, to fit his People for the work of the ministry, 12 
for the building up of the Body of the Christ. And this shall 13 
continue, until we all attain to that unity which is given by 
faith and by a fuller knowledge of the Son of God ; until we 
reach the ideal man the full standard of the perfection of 
the Christ. Then we shall no longer be like infants, tossed 14 
backward and forward, blown about by every breath of human 
teaching, through the trickery and the craftiness of men, 
towards the snares of error ; but holding the truth in a spirit 15 
of love, we shall grow into complete union with him who is 
our Head Christ himself. For from him the whole Body, 16 
closely joined and knit together by the contact of every part 
with the source of its life, derives its power to grow, in 
proportion to the vigour of each individual part ; and so is 
being built up in a spirit of love. 

The New This, then, as one in union with the Lord, i*f 
Life and the I say to you and urge upon you : Do not con- 
Old - tinue to live such purposeless lives as the Gen- 
tiles live, with their powers of discernment darkened, cut off 18 
from the Life of God, owing to the ignorance that prevails 
among them and to the hardness of their hearts. Lost to all 19 
sense of shame, they have abandoned themselves to licentious- 
ness, in order to practise every kind of impurity without 
restraint. But far different is the lesson you learnt 20 

from the Christ if, that is, you really listened to him, and 21 
through union with him were taught the Truth, as it is to be 
found in Jesus. For you learnt with regard to your former 22 
way of living that you must cast off your old nature, which, 
yielding to deluding passions, grows corrupt ; that the very 23 
spirit of your minds must be constantly renewed ; and that 24 
you must clothe yourselves in that new nature which was 
created to resemble God, with the righteousness and holiness 
springing from the Truth. 

s. 68. 18. 

894 EPHESIANS, 4-5. 

precepts Since, therefore, you have cast off what is 25 
for the false, ' you must every one of you speak the 
Daily Life, truth to your neighbours. ' For we are united to 
one another like the parts of a body. ' Be angry, yet do not 26 
sin.' Do not let the sun go down upon your anger ; and give 27 
no opportunity to the Devil. Let the man who steals steal 28 
no longer, but rather let him toil with his hands at honest 
work, so that he may have something to share with any one 
in want. Never let any foul word pass your lips, but only such 29 
good words as the occasion demands, that they may be a help to 
those who hear them. And do not grieve God's Holy Spirit ; 30 
for it was through that Spirit that God sealed you as his, against 
the Day of Redemption. 'Let all bitterness, passion, anger, 31 
brawling, and abusive language be banished from among 
you, as well as all malice. Be kind to one another, tender- 32 
hearted, ready to forgive one another, just as God, in Christ, 
forgave you. Therefore imitate God, as his dear children, i , 
and live a life of love, following the example of the Christ, 2 
who loved you and gave himself for you as ' an offering and a 
sacrifice to God, that should be fragrant and acceptable.' 

As for unchastity and every kind of impurity, or greed, do 3 
not let them even be mentioned among you, as befits Christ's 
People, nor shameful conduct, nor foolish talk or jesting, for 4 
they are wholly out of place among you ; but rather thanks- 
giving. For of this you may be sure that .10 one who is 5 
unchaste or impure or greedy of gain (for to be greedy of gain 
is idolatry) has any place awaiting him in the Kingdom of the 
Christ and God. 

Do not let any one deceive you with specious arguments. 6 
Those are the sins that bring down the Wrath of God upon 
the disobedient. Therefore have nothing to do with such 7 
people. For, although you were once in Darkness, now, by 8 
your union with the Lord, you are in the Light. Live as 
' Children of Light ' for the outcome of life in the Light 9 
may be seen in every form of goodness, righteousness, and 
sincerity always trying to find out what is pleasing to the 10 
Lord. Take no part in deeds of Darkness, from which n 
no good can come ; on the contrary, expose them. It is 12 
degrading even to speak of the things continually done by 
them in secret. All such actions, when exposed, have their 13 
true character made manifest by the Light. For everything 
that has its true character made manifest is clear as light. 
And that is why it is said 14 

* Sleeper, awake ! 
Arise from the dead, 
And the Christ shall give thee light ! ' 

Zech. 8. 16. Ps. 4. 4. 2 Pa. 40. 6 ; Ezek. ao. 41. 

EPHESIANS, 5-6. 395 

Take great care, then, how you live not unwisely but 15 
wisely, making the most of every opportunity ; for these are 16 
evil days. Therefore do not grow thoughtless, but try to under- 17 
stand what the Lord's will is. Do not drink wine to excess, 18 
for that leads to profligacy ; but seek to be filled with the 
Spirit of God, and speak to one another in psalms and hymns 
and sacred songs. Sing and make music in your hearts to 19 
the Lord. Always give thanks for everything to our God and 20 
Father, in the Name of our Lord Jesus. Christ ; and submit to 21 
one another from reverence for him. 

Christian Wives should submit to their husbands as sub- 22 
Family Life, mitting to the Lord. For a man is the Head 23 
of his wf f e, as the Christ is the Head of the Church 
being indeed himself the Saviour of his Body. But as the 24 
Church submits to the Christ, so also should wives submit to 
their husbands in everything. Husbands, love your 25 

wives, just as the Christ loved the Church, and gave himself 
for her, to make her holy, after purifying her by the Washing 26 
with the Water, according to his promise ; so that he might 27 
himself bring the Church, in all her beauty, into his own 
presence, with no spot or wrinkle or blemish of any kind, but 
that she might be holy and faultless. That is how husbands 28 
ought to love their wives as if they were their own bodies. 
A man who loves his wife is really loving himself; for no one 29 
ever yet hated his own body. But every one feeds his body 
and cares for it, just as the Christ for the Church ; for we are 30 
members of his Body. 

' For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and 31 
be united to his wife ; and the man and his wife shall become 

In this there is a profound truth I am speaking of Christ 32 
and his Church. However, for you individually, let each love 33 
his wife as if she were himself; and the wife- be careful to 
respect her husband. 

Children, obey your parents, as children of the Lord ; for i Q 
that is but right. ' Honour thy father and mother ' this is the 2 
first Commandment with a promise 'so that thou mayest 3 
prosper and have a long life on earth.' And fathers, do 4 

not irritate your children, but bring them up with Christian 
discipline and instruction. 

Slaves, obey your earthly masters, with anxious care, giving 5 
them ungrudging service, as if obeying the Christ ; not only 6 
when their eyes are on you, as if you had merely to please men, 
but as slaves of Christ, who are trying to carry out the will of 
God. Give your service heartily and cheerfully, as working for 7 
the Master and not for men ; for you know that eve&y one will 8 

i 8 Prov. 33. 31 (Septuagint). Gen. a. 34. 3 s Exod, 30, a ; Deut. 5. 16, 

396 EPHESIANS, 6. 

be rewarded by the Master for any honest work that he has done, 
whether he is a slave or a freeman. And masters, 

treat your slaves in the same spirit. Give up threatening 
them ; for you know that he who is both their Master and yours 
is in Heaven, and that before him there is no distinction of rank. 
The For the future, find strength in your union 

Christian's with the Lord, and in the power which comes 
Armour. from his might. Put on the full armour of God, 
so that you may be able to stand your ground against the strata- 
gems of the Devil. For ours is no struggle against enemies of 
flesh and blood, but against all the various Powers of Evil 
that hold sway in the Darkness around us, against the Spirits 
of Wickedness on Hgh. Therefore take up the full armour of 
God, that, when the evil day comes, you may be able to with- 
stand the attack, and, having fought to the end, still to stand 
your ground. Stand your ground, then, ' with truth for your 
belt,' and ' with righteousness for your breast-plate,' and with 
the readiness to serve the Good News of Peace as shoes for 
your feet. At every onslaught take up faith for your shield ; 
for with it you will be able to extinguish all the flaming darts of 
the Evil One. And receive ' the helmet of Salvation,' and ' the 
sword of the Spirit ' which is the Message of God always 
with prayer and supplication. Pray in spirit at all times. Be 
intent upon this, with unwearying perseverance and sup- 
plication for all Christ's People and on my behalf also, 
that, when I begin to speak, words may be given me, so that 
I may fearlessly make known the inmost truth of the Good 
News, on behalf of which I am an Ambassador in chains ! 
Pray that, in telling it, I may speak fearlessly as I ought. 


To enable you, as well as others, to know all that concerns 21 
me and what I am doing, Tychicus, our dear Brother and 
faithful helper in the Master's Cause, will tell you everything. 
I am sending him to you on purpose that you may learn all 22 
about us, and that he may cheer your hearts. 

May God, the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ give our 23 
Brothers peace, and love linked with faith. May God's 24 

blessing be with all who love our Lord Jesus Christ with an 
undying love. 

4 Isa. n. 5; 59. 17. 1B Isa. 52. 7. I? Isa. 59. 17; ii. 4; 49. a ; 51. 16 ; Hos. 6. 5. 




PHILIPPI was a Roman military station in Macedonia, and 
the first place in Europe at which St. Paul is known-tohave 
preached (Acts 16. 12). The Apostle gained many converts 
there, but his stay was cut short by persecution. Subsequently 
he twice revisited the town (Acts 20. 2, 6). The Philippian 
Christians appear to have cherished a specially warm affection 
for the Apostle. Although their own means were but slender, 
they repeatedly contributed to his support with great generosity 
(Phil. 4. 15, 16). ) Upon hearing of his imprisonment at Rome, 
they sent Epaphroditus to carry their gifts to him, and to assure 
him of their heart-felt sympathy (Phil. 2. 25). While in Rome, 
Epaphroditus fell ill ; upon his recovery St. Paul sent this 
Letter by him to Philippi, expressing to the members of the 
Church there his gratitude for their kindness, and urging them 
to unity and humility. 

The Letter expresses warm personal affection, and contains 
counsel and warning to the Apostle's converts, mingled with 
kindly messages and encouragement. It was written at a 
time when his trial before the Emperor Nero was drawing to 
an end, and when St. Paul was daily awaiting the issue. 
His friends had deserted him, death stared him in the face, and 
yet the Letter sounds a note of confidence and joy. 




To all Christ's People at Philippi, with the Pre- i 
Greeting. siding Officers and Assistants, 
FROM Paul and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus. 
May God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ bless you, and 2 
give you peace. 

Every recollection that I have of you is a cause 3 
Apostle's f thankfulness to God, always, in every prayer 4 
Thankfulness that I offer for you all and my prayers are full of 

and Prayer. j ov because of the share that you have had in 5 
spreading the Good News, from the first day that you received 
it until now. For of this I am confident, that he who began a 6 
good work in you will complete it in readiness for the Day of 
Jesus Christ. And, indeed, I am justified in feeling thus about ^ 
you all ; because you have a warm place in my heart you who 
all, both in my imprisonment and in the work of defending 
and establishing the Good News, shared my privilege with me. 
God will bear me witness how I yearn over you all with the 8 
tenderness of Christ Jesus. And what I pray for is this that 9 
your love may grow yet stronger and stronger, with increasing 
knowledge and all discernment, until you are able to appreciate 10 
all moral distinctions. And I pray, too, that you may be 
kept pure and blameless against the Day of Christ, bearing n 
a rich harvest of that righteousness which comes through Jesus 
Christ, to the glory and praise of God. 


The Results Brothers, I want you to realize that what has 12 
of his im- happened to me has actually served to forward 
prisonment. the Good News. It has even become evident, not 13 
only to all the Imperial Guard, but to every one else, that it is for 


Christ's sake that I am in chains. And besides this, most of 14 
our Brothers have gained confidence in the Lord through my 
chains, and now venture with far greater freedom to speak of 
God's Message fearlessly. 
The a read ^ ' 1S true ^ at some ^ proclaim the Christ out 15 

of the of jealousy and opposition ; but there are others 
Gospel. w ho proclaim him from good-will. The latter do 16 
it from love for me, knowing that I have been appointed to 
plead the cause of the Good News. The former spread the 17 
news of the Christ in a factious spirit, and not sincerely, think- 
ing to add to the pain of my chains. But what of that ? Only 18 
that in some way or other, either with assumed or with real 
earnestness, Christ is being made known ; and at that I rejoice. 
Yes, and I will rejoice, for I know that, through your prayers 19 
and through a rich supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, 'all 
this will make for my Salvation.' And this will fulfil my 20 
earnest expectation and hope that I shall have no cause for 
shame, but that, with unfailing courage, now as hitherto, Christ 
will be honoured in my body, whether by my life or by my death. 

Lifa For to me life is Christ, and death is gain. But 21, 

or what if the life here in the body if this brings 

Death. me f ru it from my labours ? Then which to choose 
I cannot tell ! I am sorely perplexed either way ! My own 23 
desire is to depart and be with Christ, for this would be far 
better. But, for your sakes, it may be more needful that I 24 
should still remain here in the body. Yes, I am confident that 25 
this is so, and therefore I am sure that I shall stay, and stay 
near you all, to promote your progress and joy in the Faith ; 
so that, when you once more have me among you, you, in 26 
your union with Christ Jesus, may find in me fresh cause for 


Under all circumstances let your lives be worthy 27 
unity. Q f the Q OO( J N ews of the Christ : so that, whether 
I come and see you, or whether I hear of your affairs at a dis- 
tance, I may know that you are standing firm, animated by 
one spirit, and joining with one heart in a common struggle 
for the Faith taught by the Good News, without ever shrinking 28 
from your opponents. To them this will be a sign of their 
Destruction and of your Salvation a sign from God. For, >n 29 
behalf of Christ, you have had the privilege granted you, not 
only of trusting in him, but also of suffering on his behalf. 
You will be engaged in the same hard struggle as that which 30 
you once saw me waging, and which you hear that I am 
waging still. 

"Job 13. 16. 

PHIL1PPIANS, 2. 401 

If, then, any encouragement comes through i 
Humility. un ; on w ;th Christ, if there is any persuasive power 
in love, if there is any communion with the Spirit, if there is 
any tenderness or pity, I entreat you to make my happiness 2 
complete Live together animated by the same spirit and in 
mutual love, one in heart, animated by one Spirit. Nothing 3 
should be done in a factious spirit or from vanity, but each of 
you should with all humility regard others as of more account 
than himself, and one and all should consider, not only their 4 
The Great own interests, but also the interests of others. Let 5 
Example, the spirit of Christ Jesus be yours also. Though 6 
.the divine nature was his from the beginning, yet he did not look 
upon equality with God as above all things to be clung to, but 7 
impoverished himself by taking the nature of a servant and 
becoming like men ; he appeared among us as a man, and 8 
still further humbled himself by submitting even to death 
to death on a cross ! And that is why God raised him to the 9 
very highest place, and gave him the Name which stands 
above all other names, so that in adoration of the Name of 10 
Jesus every knee should bend, in Heaven, on earth, and under 
the earth, and that every tongue should acknowledge JESUS n 
CHRIST as LORD to the glory of God the Father. 

Following Therefore, my dear friends, as you have always 12 
this Example, been obedient in the past, so now work out your 
own Salvation with anxious care, not only when I am with you, 
but all the more now that I am absent. Remember it is God 13 
who, in his kindness, is at work within you, enabling you both 
to will and to work. In all that you do, avoid murmuring and 14 
dissension, so as to prove yourselves blameless and innocent 15 
' faultless children of God, in the midst of an evil-disposed and 
perverse generation,' in which you are seen shining like stars 
in a dark world, offering to men the Message of Life ; and 16 
then I shall be able at the Day of Christ to boast that I did not 
run my course for nothing, or toil for nothing. And 17 

yet, even if, when your faith is offered as a sacrifice to God, 
my life-blood must be poured out in addition, still I shall rejoice 
and share the joy of you all ; and do you also rejoice and share 18 
my joy. 


I hope, however, as one who trusts in the Lord 19 
Timothy. j esuS; f O sen d Timothy to you before long, so 
that I may myself be cheered by receiving news of you. For 20 
I have no one but him to send no one of kindred spirit who 
would take the same genuine interest in your welfare. They 21 
are all pursuing their own aims and not those of Christ Jesus. 

1011 I sa . 4S . 2 . 1* Deut. 32. 5. 16 Isa. 49. 4. 


But you know what Timothy has proved himself to be, and 22 
how, like a child working for his father, he worked hard with 
me in spreading the Good News. It is Timothy, then, 23 

whom I hope to send, as soon as ever I can foresee how it will 
go with me. And I am confident, as one who trusts in the 24 
Lord Jesus, that before long I myself shall follow. Still I think 25 

it necessary to send Epaphroditus to you now, 
Epapnroditus. f or ^ e j g mv Brother, fellow-worker, and fellow- 
soldier, and he was also your messenger to help me in my 
need. For he has been longing to see you all, and has been 26 
distressed because you heard of his illness. And I can assure 27 
you that his illness very nearly proved fatal. But God had 
pity on him, and not on him only but also on me, that I might 
not have sorrow upon sorrow. I am all the more ready, there- 28 
fore, to send him, so that the sight of him may revive your 
spirits and my own sorrow be lightened. Give him, then, 29 
the heartiest of Christian welcomes, and hold such men 
in great honour. For it was owing to his devotion to the 30 
Master's work that he was at the point of death, having risked 
his own life in the effort to supply what was wanting in the 
help that you sent me. 

In conclusion, my Brothers, all joy be yours in your union i 
with the Lord. To repeat what I have already written does 
not weary me, and is the safe course for you. 


The Beware of those ' dogs ' ! Beware of those 2 

Apostle 1 * mischievous workers ! Beware of the men who 
warning, mi Dilate themselves ! For it is we who are the 3 
circumcised we whose worship is prompted by the Spirit of 
God, who exult in Christ Jesus, and who do not rely upon 
external privileges ; though I, if any man, have cause to rely 4 
even upon them. 

Tne If any one thinks he can rely upon external 

Apostle's privileges, far more can I ! I was circumcised 5 
Experience, when eight days old ; I am an Israelite by race, 
and of the tribe of Benjamin ; I am a Hebrew, and the child 
of Hebrews. As to the Law, I was a Pharisee ; as to zeal, I 6 
was a persecutor of the Church ; as to such righteousness 
as is due to Law, I proved myself blameless. But 7 

all the things which I once held to be gains I have now, for 
the Christ's sake, come to count as loss. More than that, I 8 
count everything as loss, for the sake of the exceeding value of 
the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord. And for his sake 
I have lost everything, and count it as refuse, if I may but 

PHILIPPIANS, 3^4. 403 

gain Christ and be found in union with him ; any righteous- 9 
ness that I have being, not the righteousness that results 
from Law, but the righteousness which comes through faith 
in Christ the righteousness which is derived from God and 
is founded on faith. Then indeed I shall know Christ, and 10 
the power of his resurrection, and all that it means to share 
his sufferings, in the hope that, if I become like him in his 
death, I may possibly attain to the resurrection from the dead, n 
Not that I have already laid hold of it, or that I am already made 12 
perfect. But 1 press on, in the hope of actually laying hold of 
that for which indeed I was laid hold of by Christ Jesus. For 13 
I, Brothers, do not regard myself as having yet laid hold of it. 
But this one thing I do forgetting what lies behind, and 
straining every nerve for that which lies in front, I press on to 14 
the goal, to gain the prize of that heavenward Call which 
God gave me through Christ Jesus. Let all of us, 15 

then, whose faith is mature, think thus. Then, if on any 
matter you think otherwise, God will make that also plain 
to you. Only we are bound to order our lives by what we have 16 
already attained. 

The Brothers, unite in following my example, and 17 

Apostle's fix your eyes on those who are living by the 
Example, pattern which we have set you. For there are 18 
many of whom I have often told you, and now tell you even 
with tears who are living in enmity to the cross of the Christ. 
The end of such men is Ruin ; for their appetites are their 19 
God, and they glory in their shame ; their minds are given up 
to earthly things. But the State of which we are citizens is in 20 
Heaven ; and it is from Heaven that we are eagerly looking 
for a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, who, by the exercise of 
his power to bring everything into subjection to himself, will 21 
make this body that we have in our humiliation like to that 
body which he has in his Glory. 


So then, my dear Brothers, whom I am long- i 4 
uione. j n g. to see vou w j lQ are mv j Q y anc j mv crowil) 

stand fast in union with the Lord, dear friends. 

I entreat Euodia, and I entreat Syntyche, to live in harmony, 2 
in union with the Lord ; yes, and I ask you, my true comrade, 3 
to help them, remembering that they toiled by my side in 
spreading the Good News ; and so, too, did Clement and my 
other fellow-workers, whose names are 'in the Book of Life.' 

All joy be yours at all times in your union with the Lord. 4 
Again I repeat All joy be yours. Let your forbearing spirit 5 
be plain to every one. The Lord is near. Do not be anxious 6 

3 Ps. 69. 38. 


about anything ; but under all circumstances, by prayer and 
entreaty joined with thanksgiving, make your needs known 
to God. Then the Peace of God, which is beyond all human 7 
understanding, will stand guard over your hearts and 
thoughts, through your union with Christ Jesus. 

In conclusion, Brothers, wherever you find anything true or 8 
honourable, righteous or pure, lovable or praiseworthy, or 
if ' virtue ' and ' honour ' have any meaning, there let your 
thoughts dwell. All that you learnt and received and heard 9 
and saw in me put into practice continually ; and then God, 
the giver of peace, will be with you. 

The oi ^ was a matter f great joy to me, as one in 10 
from union with the Lord, that at length your interest 

Phiiippi. i n me had revived. The interest indeed you had, 
but not the opportunity. Do not think that I am saying this n 
under the pressure of want. For I, however I am placed, have 
learnt to be independent of circumstances. I know how to 12 
face humble circumstances, and I know how to face prosperity. 
Into all and every human experience I have been initiated 
into plenty and hunger, into prosperity and want. I can do 13 
everything in the strength of him who makes me strong I 
Yet you have acted nobly in sharing my troubles. And you at 14, 
Phihppi know, as well as I, that in the early days of the Good 
News at the time when I had just left Macedonia no Church, 
with the one exception of yourselves, had anything to do with 
me as far as giving and receiving are concerned. Indeed, 16 
even while I was still in Thessalonica, you sent more than once 
to relieve my wants. It is not that I am anxious for your gifts, 17 
but I am anxious to see the abundant return that will be placed 
to your account. I have enough of everything, and to spare. 
My wants are fully satisfied, now that I have received from 18 
Epaphroditus the gifts which you sent me the sweet fra- 
grance of a sacrifice acceptable and pleasing to God. And 19 
my God, out of the greatness of his wealth, will, in glory, fully 
satisfy your every need, through your union with Christ Jesus. 
To him, our God and Father, be ascribed all glory for ever 20 
and ever. Amen. 

Give my greeting to every one of the People of 21 
""' Christ Jesus. The Brothers who are with 

me send you their greetings. All Christ's People here, and 22 
especially those who belong to the Emperor's household, send 

May the blessing of the Lord Jesus Christ rest on your 23 




NOTHING is known with any certainty as to the history 
either of this or of the other two ' Pastoral Letters.' 

Timothy, to whom this and the next Letter are addressed, 
was the son of a Greek father and a Jewish mother, and was 
converted by St. Paul from Judaism to Christianity. He 
lived at Lystra in Asia Minor (Acts 16. i 4), joined St. Paul 
on his second missionary journey, and, according to this 
Letter, was placed by the Apostle in charge of some Church. 
Tradition says that it was the Church in Ephesus. 

The object of this Letter is to guide and encourage this 
young Officer of the Church in the discharge of his duties ; and 
it contains many general directions on the affairs of the Church. 




Greeting. To Timothy, my true Child in the Faith, i, 2 

FROM Paul, an Apostle of Christ Jesus by the appointment of 

God, our Saviour, and Christ Jesus, our Hope. 
May God, the Father, and Christ Jesus, our Lord, bless you, 

and be merciful to you, and give you peace. 

warning I beg you, as I did when I was on my way into 3 
against False Macedonia, to remain at Ephesus ; that you may 

Teaching. ms t ru ct certain people there not to teach new and 
strange doctrines, nor to devote their attention to legends and 4 
interminable genealogies, which tend to give rise to argument 
rather than to further that divine plan which is revealed in 
the Faith. The object of all instruction is to call forth that love 5 
which comes from a pure heart, a clear conscience, and a 
sincere faith. And it is because they have not aimed at these 6 
things that the attention of certain people has been diverted to 
unprofitable subjects. They want to be Teachers of the Law, 7 
and yet do not understand either the words they use, or the 
subjects on which they speak so confidently. We know, 8 

of course, that the Law is excellent, when used legitimately, 
by one who recognizes that laws were not made for good men, 9 
but for the lawless and disorderly, for irreligious and wicked 
people, for those who are irreverent and profane, for those who 
illtreat their fathers or mothers, for murderers, for the im- 10 
moral, for people guilty of sodomy, for slave-dealers, for liars, 
for perjurers, and for whatever else is opposed to sound 
Christian teaching as is taught in the glorious Good News n 
of the ever-blessed God, with which I was entrusted* 

408 I. TIMOTHY, 12. 

I am thankful to Christ Jesus, bur Lord, who 12 
Thank'rtnness ^ as ^ een m y strength, for showing that he thought 
for his* call me worthy of trust by appointing me to his 
to the ministry, though I once used to blaspheme, and to 13 

netry. persecute, and to insult. Yet mercy was shown 
me, because I acted in ignorance, while still an unbeliever; 
and the loving-kindness of our Lord was boundless, and filled me 14 
with that faith and love which come from union with Christ 
Jesus. How true the saying is, and worthy of the fullest accep- 15 
tance, that ' Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners ' ! 
And there is no greater sinner than I ! Yet mercy was shown 16 
me for the express purpose that Christ Jesus might exhibit in 
my case, beyond all others, his exhaustless patience, as an 
example for those who were afterwards to believe on him and 
attain Immortal Life. To the Immortal King, ever- 17 

living, invisible, the one God, be ascribed honour and glory 
for ever and ever. Amen. 

This, then, is the charge that I lay upon you, 18 
HIS charge Timothy, my Child, in accordance with what was 

to Timothy. .. ', i i ^ A i j e i ^ A i 

predicted or you right the good right in the 
spirit of those predictions, with faith, and with a clear con- 19 
science ; and it is because they have thrust this aside, that, as 
regards the Faith, some have wrecked their lives. Hymenaeus 20 
and Alexander are instances the men whom I delivered over 
to Satan, that they might be taught not to blaspheme. 


First of all, then, I urge that petitions, prayers, I 
Public intercessions, and thanksgivings should be 

offered for every one, especially for kings and all 2 
who are in high positions, in order that we may lead a quiet 
and peaceful life in a deeply religious and reverent spirit. This 3 
will be good and acceptable in the eyes of God, our Saviour, 
whose will is that every one should be saved, and attain to a 4 
full knowledge of the Truth. There is but one God, 5 

and one mediator between God and men the man, Christ 
Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom on behalf of all men. 6 

This must be our testimony, as opportunities 
public present themselves ; and it was for this that I was 7 

' myself appointed a Herald and an Apostle (I am 
telling the simple truth and no lie) a Teacher of the Gentiles 
in the Faith and Truth. 

My desire, then, is that it should be the custom 8 
worshi everywhere for the men to lead the prayers, with 
hands reverently uplifted, avoiding heated con- 
troversy. I also desire that women should adorn 9 

I. TIMOTHY, 28. 409 

themselves with appropriate dress, worn quietly and modestly, 
and not with wreaths or gold ornaments for the hair, or 
pearls, or costly clothing, but as is proper for women who 10 
profess to be religious with good actions. A woman 1 1 

should listen silently to her teachers, and show them all 
deference. I do not consent to a woman's becoming a teacher, 12 
or exercising authority over a man ; she ought to be silent. 
Adam was formed first, not Eve. And it was not Adam who 13, 
was deceived ; it was the woman who was entirely deceived and 
fell into sin. But women will find their salvation in mother- ig 
hood, if they never abandon faith, love, or holiness, and behave 
with modesty. How true is that saying ! i 

When a man aspires to be a Presiding-Officer 

P ofn' dine * n *^ e Church, he is ambitious for a noble task. 

The Presiding-Officer should be a man of blame- 2 
Jess character ; a faithful husband ; living a temperate, 
discreet, and well-ordered life ; hospitable, and a skilful 
teacher, not addicted to drink or brawling, but of a for- 3 
bearing and peaceable disposition, and not a lover of money ; 
he should be a man who rules his own household well, 4 
and whose children are kept under control and are well- 
behaved. If a man does not know how to rule his own 5 
household, how can he take charge of the Church of God ? 
The Presiding-Officer should not be a recent convert, that he 6 
may not be blinded by pride and fall under the same con- 
demnation as the Devil. He should also be well spoken of by 7 
outsiders, that he may not incur censure and so fall into the 

snares of the Devil. So, too, Assistant- 8 

Assistant Officers should be serious and straightforward 

Officer*. . , . , ,. , 

men, not given to taking much drink or to 
questionable money-making, but men who hold the deep 9 
truths of the Faith and have a clear conscience. They should 10 
be tested first, and only appointed to their Office if no objection 
is raised against them. It should be the same with the n 
women. They should be serious> not gossips, sober, and 
trustworthy in all respects. Assistant-Officers should be 12 
faithful husbands, and men who rule their children and their 
households well. Those who have filled that post with honour 13 
gain for themselves an honourable position, as well as great 
confidence through the faith that they place in Christ 


I am writing this to you, though I hope that I shall come to 14 
see you before long ; but in case I should be delayed, I want 15 
you to know what your conduct ought to be in the Household 

410 I. TIMOTHY, -4. 

of God, which is the Church of the Living God the pillar and 
stay of the Truth. Yes, and confessedly wonderful are the 16 
deep truths of our religion ; for 

' He was revealed in our nature, 
Pronounced righteous in spirit, 

Seen by angels, 

Proclaimed among the Gentiles, 
Believed on in the world, 
Taken up into glory.' 

But the Spirit distinctly says that in later times i ^ 
On Dealing there will be some who will fall away from the 
*Techer8 e F^th, and devote their attention to misleading 

spirits, and to the teaching of demons, who 2 
will make use of the hypocrisy *of lying teachers. These 
men's consciences are seared, and they discourage marriage 3 
and enjoin abstinence from certain kinds of food ; though God 
created these foods to be enjoyed thankfully by those who hold 
the Faith and have attained a full knowledge of the Truth. 
Everything created by God is good, and there is nothing 4 
that need be rejected provided only that it is received 
thankfully ; for it is consecrated by God's blessing and' ]by 5 

Put all this before the Brethren, and you will be a good 6 
servant of Christ Jesus, sustained by the precepts of the Faith 
and of that Good Teaching by which you have guided your 
life. As for profane legends and old wives' tales, leave them 7 
alone. Train yourself to lead a religious life ; for while the 8 
training of the body is of service in some respects, religion is 
of service in all, carrying with it, as it does, a promise of Life 
both here and hereafter. How true that saying is and worthy of 9 
the fullest acceptance ! With that aim we toil and struggle, 10 
for we have set our hopes on the Living God, who is the 
Saviour of all men, and especially of those who hold the Faith. 

Dwell upon these things in your teaching. Do n, 
on the not let any one look down on you because you 
or M lowers. are y oun g> but, by your conversation, your con- 
duct, your love, your faith, and your purity, be 
an example to those who hold the Faith. Till I come, apply 13 
yourself to public reading, preaching, and teaching. Do not 14 
neglect the divine gift within you, which was given you, amid 
many a prediction, when the hands of the Officers of the 
Church were laid on your head. Practise these things, devote 15 
yourself to them, so that your progress may be plain to every 
one. Look to yourself as well as to your teaching. Persevere 16 
in this, for your doing so will mean Salvation for yourself as 
well as for your hearers. 

I. TIMOTHY, & 411 

Do not reprimand an older 4 man, but plead i , 
On hi* with him as if he were your father. Treat the 
Reiationawith young men as brothers, the older women as 2 

^huTearcfc* 1 " m thers, and the younger women as sisters 

with all purity. Show consideration for 3 

on the widows I mean those who are really widowed. 

Pr widow. f ' 0r But, if a widow has children or grand-children, 4 

let them learn to show proper regard for the 
members of their own family first, and to make some return to 
their parents ; for that is pleasing in God's sight. As for the 5 
woman who is really widowed and left quite alone, her hopes are 
fixed on God, and she devotes herself to prayers and supplica- 
tions night and day. But the life of a widow who is devoted 6 
to pleasure is a living death. Those are the points on which 7 
you should dwell, that there may be no call for your censure. 
Any one who fails to provide for his own relations, and 8 
especially for those under his own roof, has disowned the 
Faith, and is worse than an unbeliever. A widow, 9 

when her name is added to the list, should not be less 
than sixty years old ; she should have been a faithful wife, 
and be well spoken of for her kind actions. She should have 10 
brought up children, have shown hospitality to strangers, 
have washed the feet of her fellow Christians, have relieved 
those who were in distress, and devoted herself to every 
kind of good action. But you should exclude the younger n 
widows from the list ; for, when they grow restive under 
the yoke of the Christ, they want to marry, and so they 12 
bring condemnation upon themselves for having broken their 
previous promise. And not only that, but they learn to be idle 13 
as they go about from house to house. Nor are they merely 
idle, but they also become gossips and busy-bodies, and talk 
of what they ought not. Therefore I advise young widows 14 
to marry, bear children, and attend to their homes, and so 
avoid giving the enemy an opportunity for scandal. There 15 
are some who have already left us, to follow Satan. Any 16 
Christian woman, who has relations who are widows, ought 
to relieve them and not allow them to become a burden to the 
Church, so that the Church may relieve those widows who are 
really widowed. 

Asto Those Officers of the Church who fill their 17 

the officers office well should be held deserving of especial 
or the church, consideration, particularly those whose work lies 
in preaching and teaching. The words of Scripture are 18 

' Thou shalt not muzzle the ox while it is treading out the 

and again 

' The worker is worth his wages." 

18 Deut. 25. 4. 

412 I. TIMOTHY, 56. 

Do not receive a charge against an Officer of the Church, 19 
unless it is supported by two or three witnesses; but rebuke 20 
offenders publicly, so that others may take warning. I 21 

charge you solemnly, before God and Christ Jesus 

n and the Chosen Angels, to carry out these direc- 

subjects. tions, unswayed by prejudice, never acting with 

partiality. Never ordain any one hastily, 22 

and take no part in the wrong-doing of others. Keep your 
life pure. Do not continue to drink water only, but 23 

take a little wine on account of the weakness of your 
stomach, and your frequent ailments. There are some 24 

men whose sins are conspicuous and lead on to judgement, 
while there are others whose sins dog their steps. In the 25 
same way noble deeds become conspicuous, and those which 
are otherwise cannot be concealed. 

All who are in the position of slaves should i 
AS to regard their masters as deserving of the greatest 

Slaves. , , -VT r /-^ j 

respect, so that the Name of God, and our 
Teaching, may not be maligned. Those who have Christian 2 
masters should not think less of them because they are their 
Brothers, but on the contrary they should serve them all the 
better, because those who are to benefit by their good work 
are dear to them as their fellow Christians. 


Those are the things to insist upon in your 
T Fal M teaching. Any one who teaches otherwise, and 3 

refuses his assent to sound instruction the in- 
struction of our Lord Jesus Christ and to the teaching 
of religion, is puffed up with conceit, not really knowing 4 
anything, but having a morbid craving for discussions and 
arguments. Such things only give rise to envy, quarrelling, 
recriminations, base suspicions, and incessant wrangling on 5 
the part of these corrupt-minded people who have lost all 
hold on the Truth, and who think of religion only as a source 

of gain. And a great source of gain religion is, 6 
wwijth when it brings contentment with it ! For we 7 

brought nothing into the world, because we can- 
not even carry anything out of it. So, with food and shelter, 8 
we will be content. Those who want to be rich fall into the 9 
snares of temptation, and become the prey of many foolish 
and harmful ambitions, which plunge people into Destruction 
and Ruin. Love of money is a source of all kinds of evil ; 10 
and in their eagerness to be rich some have wandered away 
from the Faith, and have been pierced to the heart by many a 

18 Deut 19. 15. 

I. TIMOTHY, 6. 413 

But do you, Servant of God s avoid all this, n 
Personal Aim at righteousness, piety, faith, love, endur- 

Exhortations. . r> ii c j.t. 

ance, gentleness. Run the great race of the 12 
Faith, and win the Immortal Life. It was for this that you 
received the Call, and, in the presence of many witnesses, 
made the great profession of Faith. I urge you, as in the 13 
sight of God, the source of all life, and of Christ Jesus who 
before Pontius Pilate made the great profession of Faith I 14 
urge you to keep his Command free from stain or reproach, 
until the Appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ. This will be 15 
brought about in his own time by the one ever-blessed 
Potentate, the King of all kings and Lord of all lords, who 16 
alone is possessed of immortality and dwells in unapproach- 
able light, whom no man has ever seen or ever can see to 
whom be ascribed honour and power for ever. Amen. 

Urge upon those who are wealthy in this life not to pride 17 
themselves, or fix their hopes, on so uncertain a thing as 
wealth, but on God, who gives us a wealth of enjoyment on 
every side. Urge upon them to show kindness, to exhibit a 18 
wealth of good actions, to be open-handed and generous, 
storing up for themselves what in the future will prove to be 19 
a good foundation, that they may gain the only true Life. 

Timothy, guard what has been entrusted to you. Avoid the 20 
profane prattle and contradictions of what some miscall 
' theology,' for there are those who, while asserting their pro- 21 
ficiency in it, have yet, as regards the Faith, gone altogether 

Blessing. God Muss YOU all. 




WHAT has been said as to the history of the first of these 
two " Letters to Timothy" applies equally to the second. 

This Letter contains warnings against false Teachers, and 
exhortations to an earnest discharge of duty. It has been 
supposed to be the last extant letter written by St. Paul. 





Greeting. To Timothy, my dear Child, ' 1-2 1 

FROM Paul who, by the will of God, is an Apostle of Christ 

Jesus, charged to proclaim the Life that comes from 

union with Christ Jesus. 
May God, the Father, and Christ Jesus, our Lord, bless 

you, and be merciful to you, and give you peace. 

An Appeal to I am thankful to God, whom I serve, as my 3 

Timothy, ancestors did, with a clear conscience, when I 
remember you, as I never fail to do, in my prayers night and 
day alike, as I think of your tears, longing to see you, that my 4 
happiness may be completed, now that I have been reminded 5 
of the sincere faith that you have shown. That faith was seen 
first in your grandmother Lois and your mother Eunice, and 
is now, I am convinced, in you also. And that is my reason 6 
for reminding you to stir into flame that gift of God, which is 
yours through your ordination at my hands. For the Spirit 7 
which God gave us was not a spirit of cowardice, but a spirit 
of power, love, and self-control. Do not, therefore, be ashamed 8 
of the testimony which we have to bear to our Lord, nor yet of 
me who am a prisoner for him ; but join with me in suffering 
for the Good News, as far as God enables you. It was God 9 
who saved us, and from him we received our solemn Call 
not as a reward for anything that we had done, but in fulfil- 
ment of his own loving purpose. For that love was extended 
to us, through Christ Jesus, before time began, and has now 10 
been made apparent through the Appearing of our Saviour, 
Christ Jesus ; who has made an end of Death, and has 
brought Life and Immortality to light by that Good News, of n 
which I was myself appointed a Herald and Apostle, and 


418 II. TIMOTHY, 12. 

Teacher. That is why I am undergoing these sufferings; 12 
yet I feel no shame, for I know in whom I have put my faith, 
and am convinced that he is able to guard what I have 
entrusted to him until 'That Day.' Keep before you, as an 13 
example of sound teaching, all that you learnt from me as 
you listened with that faith and love which come from union 
with Christ Jesus. Guard by the help of the Holy Spirit, who is 14 
within us, the glorious trust that has been committed to you. 

You know, of course, that all our friends in 15 
onesiphorus. R oman ^sia turned their backs on me, and 
among them Phygellus and Hermogenes. May the Lord 16 
show mercy to the household of Onesiphorus ; for he often 
cheered me and was not ashamed of my chains. On the con- 17 
trary, when he arrived in Rome, he sought eagerly for me till 
he found me. The Lord grant that he may find mercy at the 18 
hands of the Lord on ' That Day.' The many services that he 
rendered at Ephesus you have the best means of knowing. 


The service of ^ vou > t nen > my Child, find strength in the i 
the Good help which comes from union with Christ Jesus ; 

New*. an( j wn at you learnt from me, in the presence of 2 
many listeners, entrust to reliable men, who will be able in 
their turn to teach others. Share hardships with me, as a 3 
true soldier of Christ Jesus. A soldier on active service, to 4 
please his superior officer, always avoids entangling himself 
in the affairs of ordinary life. No athlete is ever awarded the 5 
wreath of victory unless he has kept the rules. The labourer 6 
who does the work should be the first to receive a share of the 
fruits of the earth. Reflect upon what I say ; the Lord will 7 
always help you to understand. Keep before your mind Jesus 8 
Christ, raised from the dead, a descendant of David, as told in 
the Good News entrusted to me ; in the service of which I am 9 
suffering hardships, even to being put in fetters as a criminal. 
But the Message of God is not fettered ; and that is why I 10 
submit to anything for the sake of God's People, that they 
also may obtain the Salvation which comes from union with 
Christ Jesus, and imperishable glory. How true this saying is n 
' If we have shared his death, we shall also share his life. If 12 
we continue to endure, we shall also share his throne. If we 
should ever disown him, he, too, will disown us. If we lose 13 
our trust, he is still to be trusted, for he cannot be false to 

The Dancer of Remind people of all this ; urge them solemnly, 14 
controversy, as in the sight of God, to avoid controversy, a 
useless thing and the ruin of those who listen to it. Do your 15 

II. TIMOTHY, 2-3. 419 

utmost to show yourself true to God, a workman with no 
reason to be ashamed, accurate in delivering the Message of 
the Truth. Avoid profane prattle. Those who indulge in it 16 
only get deeper into irreligious ways, and their teaching will 17 
spread like a cancer. Hymenaeus and Philetus are instances 
r of this. They have gone completely astray as regards the 18 
Truth ; they say that a resurrection has already taken place, 
and so upset some people's faith. Yet God's firm foundation 19 
still stands unmoved, and it bears this inscription 

and this 


Now in a large house there are not only things of gold and 20 
silver, but also others of wood and earthenware, some for better 
and some for common use. If, then, a man has escaped from 21 
the pollution of such errors as I have mentioned, he will be 
like a thing kept for better use, set apart, serviceable to its 
owner, ready for any good purpose. Flee from the passions 22 
of youth, but pursue righteousness, faith, love, and peace, in 
the company of those who, with a pure heart, invoke the Lord. 
Shun foolish and ignorant discussions, for you know that they 23 
only breed quarrels ; and a Servant of the Lord should never 24 
quarrel. He ought, on the contrary, to be courteous to every 
one, a skilful teacher, and forbearing. He should instruct 25 
his opponents in a gentle spirit ; for, possibly, God may give 
them a repentance that will lead to a fuller knowledge of 
Truth, and they may yet come to a sober mind, and escape 26 
from the snares of the Devil, when captured by the Lord's 
Servant to do the will of God. 

Be sure of this, that in the last days difficult i 3 
lm Evi| d ' ne ti mes W 'H come. Men will be selfish, mercenary, 2 

boastful, haughty, and blasphemous ; disobedient 
to their parents, ungrateful, impure, incapable of affection, 3 
merciless, slanderous, wanting in self-control, brutal, careless 
of the right, treacherous, reckless, and puffed up with pride ; 4 
they will love pleasure more than they love God ; and while 5 
they retain the outward form of religion, they will not allow 
it to influence them. Turn your back on such men as these. 
For among them are to be found those who creep into homes 6 
and captivate weak women women who, loaded with sins, 
and slaves to all kinds of passions, are