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Marshall County 





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Act to Organize ]\Iarshall County, 

After the Indian Wars Had 
Ceased, 39. 

Agricultural Conditions, 75. 

Agricultural Fairs, 2^;^. 

Allman, jMayer, 416. 

Andrews, Charles L.. 498. 

Antiquarian and Historical So- 
ciety, 128. 

Argos, 119. 

Argos Globe, 303. 

Argos Newspapers, 303. 

Argos Public Schools, 121. 

Argos Reflector, 303. 

Armantrout, Aaron, 623. 

Armantrout, Lucinda, 623. 

Arrow Points, Indian Relics, etc., 

Aspinall, Novitas B., 445. 

Associate Judges. 206. 

Attorneys at Law, 200. 

Au-be-nau-be, Death of, 10; Anec- 
dote of, 10. 

Au-be-nau-be Village, 9. 

Ball, Prosper A., 558. 

Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 333. 

Banks and Bankers, 386. 

Banks, Luther, 622. 

Bates, William F., 603. 

Beaver Dams, 160. 

Beck, Annetta, 606. 

Beck, John F.. 605. 

Ben-ak Village on the Tippecanoe, 


Benevolent and Fraternal Societies. 

Berger, George, 423. 

Berger, Noah, 637. 

Berger, Samuel C., 638. 

Berkey, Noah, 621. 

Biggs, James, 613. 

Blissville, 133. 

Bloomer Costume, 191. 

Blue Ribbon, 306. 

Boating and Fishing Club, 236. 

Bock, Leonard, 587. 

Boggs, Frank P., 596, 

Bogus Mexican Dollar, 316. 

Bold Robbery, 315. 

Bollinger, Frank H., 634. 

Bondurant, Clinton A., 428. 

Boot Makers, 161. 

Borton, T. A., 468. 

Bourbon, 114. 

Bourbon Advance, 298. 

Bourbon Banking Company, 390. 

Bourbon's Colleges, 118. 

Bourbon Cornet Band, 117. 

Bourbon Democrat, 298. 

Bourbon Fair, 235. 

Bourbon Independent, 297. 

Bourbon Mirror, 298. 

Bourbon News, 298. 

Bourbon's Newspapers, 297. 

Bourbon, Postoffice, 364. 

Bourbon's Town Schools, 119. 

Bowell, C. B., 646. 

Bowman, Hiram F., 629. 

Boys, Samuel E., 517. 

Bradley, Edwin J., 492. 

Branch of the State Bank, 388. 

Bremen, 123. 

Bremen Agricultural Society, 235. 

Bremen Banner, 299. 

Bremen Clipper, 299. 
Bremen Enquirer, 299. 
Bremen Gazette, 299. 
Bremen Newspapers, 299. 
Bremen Postoffice, 364. 
Brightside, The Julia E. Work 

Training School, 345. 
Brooke, Keim F., 460. 
Buck Ague, 161. 
Buffalo, 3. 

Burgener, Samuel J., 464. 
Burr Oak, 134. 
Bussard, F. J., 644. 

Carbiener, Jacob, 505. 
Carrier's Address, 300. 
Cavender, Jacob, 428. 
Cemeteries, 318. 
Chase, Myron, 415. 
Chief Pokagon's Love Story, 43. 
Church Monitor, 296. 
City Hall and Engine House, 114, 
Civil Townships' Boundaries, 89. 
Cleaning Wheat, 164. 
Clearing up Farms, 156. 
Clerk's Office, 215. 
Climate, 78. 
Cline, Oliver, 535. 
Colfax and Turpie Debates, 374. 
Commissioners, 211. 
Commissioners' Court, 199. 
Committee on Resolutions, 302. 
Common Pleas Court, 198. 
Common Pleas Judges, 200. 
Conger, William H., 435. 
Coon and Deer Hunting, 166. 
Cooper, Charles F., 599. 
Corey, Melvin L., 568. 
' Corn Planting, 159. 
Coroners, 211. 
Corse, Fred, 527. 
County Agent, 306. 
County Auditors, 209. 
County Clerks, 208. 
County Infirmaries, 344. 
County Seat Located, 83. 
County Treasurers, 209. 
Court House, 337. 
Courthouse, Present, 337. 
Courts of Marshall County, 196. 

Courting and Marrying, 183. 

Cressner, Luther R., 643. 

Cromley, Jacob J., 543. 

Culver, 125. 

Culver City Herald, 303. 

Culver, E. R., 346. 

Culver, Emily J., 346. 

Culver Fire Department, 128. 

Culver, Henry H., 346. 

Culver, H. H., 346. 

Culver Military Academy, 346-357. 

Culver Postofffce, 364. 

Dawson, Moses, 576. 

Day, Elias, 521. 

Dead Indian Chief, 7. 

Deeds, Henry A., 447. 

Den of Wolves, 160. 

Destructive Fires, 116. 

Destructive Fires at the Countv 

Seat, 383. 
Dietrick, Christian H., 529. 
Dietrick, John R., 538. 
Dietrick, Mary A., 529. 
Dietrick, Peter E., 451. 
Ditty, L. G., 490. 
Donelson, 135. 
Dolph, Albert W., 422. 
Driven Wells, 155. 
Durr, Charles C, 628. 

Early Amusements, 188. 

Early Auditors, 216. 

Early Jury System, 205. 

Early Merchants and Landlords, 

Early Roads in Marshall County, 

Early Schools and School Teach- 
ers, 254. 

East LaPaz, 134. 

Eckert, George E., 481. 

Editorial Convention, 301. 

Edwards, Stephen, 421. 

Eidson, J. W., 609. 

Election Days, 376. 

Eley, Lorenzo D., 570. 

Elizabethtown, 133. 

Ellis, Eda L., 614. 

Ellis, Isaac N., 614. 


Enders, Christian, 471. 
English, WilHam H., 640. 
Ettinger, George D., 611. 
Everly, William, 575. 
Exchange Bank of Culver, 128. 

Fairmount, 130. 

Farmer's Monthly, 296. 

Farm Machinery and Harvesting. 

Farm Products, 166. 
Feeding Cattle, 158. 
Ferrier, J. O., 539. 
Fifer, Jacob, 604. 
Fire at Culver Military Academy. 

Fire of January 3, 1866, 384. 
Fire of February 6, 1895, 385. 
Fire of March 22, 1857, 383. 
Fire of September 20, 1858, 386. 
Fire of December 16, 185 1. 383. 
Firestone, Cephus, 562. 
First College Student, 115. 
First Congressional Convention, 

First County Jail, 342. 
First Courthouse Erected by the 

County, 336. 
First Editorial ]\Ieeting, 301. 
First National Bank, 388. 
First Permanent Lawyer, 200. 
First Presidential Election, 378. 
First Schools, 256. 
First State Bank, Bourbon, 390. 
First Treasurer's Report, 218. 
First White Settlers, 63. 
Fish and Fishing Stories, 177. 
Fishing and Game Club, 237. 
Fleet. A. F., 346. 
Flowing Wells, 90. 
Fort Wayne & Chicago Railroad. 

Fourth of July Celebration. 192. 
Fourth Ward Embroglio, 108. 
Fries, William, 458. 
Future of the Pottawattomies, 33. 

Gandy, Nathaniel, 463. 
Garn, Samuel A., 453. 
Garver, H. M., 544. 

General Tipton's Report to Gover- 
nor Wallace, 25. 

Gerard, Andrew R., 636. 

Gerard, Charles C, 636. 

Getting Lost in the Woods, 162. 

Gilmore, James A., 477. 

Going to Church, 158. 

Gonter, Charles A., 419. 

Gould, Samuel W., 579. 

Government Soil Survey of Mar- 
shall County, 74. 

Grand Reception, 294. 

Grant, Jones, 560. 

Graverson, John, 496. 

Greer's Recollections of Early 
Times, 158. 

Grimm, Gottlieb, 454. 

Grise, John F., 473. 

Grist and Saw Mills, 68. 

Haag, Jonas. 545. 

Hall, Henry B.. 510. 

Hand, William E., 469. 

Hanes, James E., 431. 

Harris, S. E., 619. 

Hartman, George D., 626. 

Hatfield, George W., 614. 

Hayes, Charles E., 448. 

Hayes, Samuel J., 486. 

Heckaman, Edward, 476. 

Hendricks, William G., 495. 

Hess, Isaiah, 594. 

Hildebrand, J. W., 533. 

Hildebrand, Maria, 533. 

Hildebrand, William, 532. 

Hitchcock, G. F., 545. 

Hogarth, Ed. S., 515. 

Hogate, James, 625. 

Hoham Block Burned August i, 

1872, 385- 
Holm, Moses, 426. 
Holtzendorff, Charles F., 639. 
Home-made Garments. 142. 
Home of the Hardy Pioneer. 65. 
Hoover, William L., 468. 
Houghton, Thomas, 434. 
House of Representatives, 214. 
Howard, Walter S., 427. 
How They Cooked. 164. 
Huckleberry Marsh. 132. 


Huff, Alfred A., 6oi. 
Huff', Clinton, 562. 
Huff, George W., 513. 
Humrichouser, Henry, 559. 
Hunting Bee Trees, 179. 

Improved Order of Red Men, 228. 

Incidents of Later Politics, 370. 

Independent Order of Odd Fel- 
lows, 225. 

Indian Age, 4. 

Indian Border Wars, 37. 

Indian Chief Po-ka-gon"s Letter, 

Indian Doctor, 160. 

Indian Love Making and Marriage, 

Indian Treaties, 35. 

Indiana Greenbacker, 295. 

Indiana Tocsin, 297. 

Interesting Historical Information, 

In wood, 130. 

Jacoby, John R., 474. 
Jacoby, Marcus A., 547. 
Jarrell, Henry L., 432. 
Johnson, Charles, 487. 
Johnson, John E., 414. 
Johnson, Luther, 617. 
Jones, Elmer E., 523. 
Jones, John R., 440. 
Judges and Other Officers, 205. 
Judges of Common Pleas Court, 

Kaszer, J., 472. 
Keen, A. A., 501. 
Kellison, Charles, 556. 
Kitch, Edward S., 561. 
Kizer, James H., 596. 
Knights of Pythias, 227. 
Knoblock, T. Frank, 549. 
Knoepfle, Christian, 523. 
Koch, Willis, 439. 
Kreighbaum, Ira J., 472. 
Kuhn, Fred H., 563. 
Kuntz, Adam. 482. 
Kyser, Franklin M.. 531. 

Laird, Anna E.. 604. 

Laird, S. A., 633. 

Lakes, 92. 

Langenbaugh, John F., 632. 

LaPaz, 134. 

LaPaz Postoffice, 365. 

LaPorte and Plvmouth Mail Route, 

Lawhead, W. E., 643. 
Lee, Thomas B., 615. 
Leitch, J. P., 631. 
Leland, John W., 585. 
Lemert, Lewis L.. 541. 
Lemler, George W., 506. 
Leonhard, John W., 478. 
Lindquist, N. S., 441. 
Linksville, 129. 
Literature, 247. 
Literary Societies, 241. 
Local Option, 305. 
Local Reminiscences of the A\'ar, 

Logan, Harley A.. 474. 
Logansport & South Bend Traction 

Company, 334. 

Mail and ]\Iagnet, 294. 

Marmont, 125. 

Marshall County as the White Man 

Found It, 70. 
Marshall County Bank, 387. 
^larshall County Democrat. 291. 
Marshall County Library. 231. 
Marshall Countv Medical Societv, 

Marshall County INIilitarv Record, 

^larshall County's C)nly Prize 
Fight, 307. 

Marshall County Republican, 2go. 

Marshall County Trust and Sav- 
ings Company, 390. 

Marshall County Watchmen, 230. 

^larshall and St. Joseph County 
Old Settlers' Societv, 240. 

Marshall, Killing of, 12. 

Martin, Jacob, 571. 

Martindale, Elijah C.. 530. 

^lasonic Lodges. 222. 

Matchette. a" C. 618. 


Matthew, William H., 508. 
Mattingly, Charles T., 483. 
Maxinkiickee, 135. 
Maxinkuckee Lake, 95. 
Maxinkiickee Postoffice, 365. 
McClnre, L. W., 572. 
McClure Library Association, 232. 
McDonald, Daniel, 409. 
McKesson, William, 451. 
Meetings in the Woods, 269. 
Meno-mi-nee, 12. 
Menominee Village, 5. 
Meredith, Benjamin F., 608. 
A'letsker, Clay W., 504. 
Mill Dams, 68. 
Miller, Amos C. 520. 
Miller, Daniel W., 443. 
Milner, Thomas, 457. 
Mind Reading, 381. 
Miscellaneous Organizations, 230. 
Monument to the Pottawattomie 

Indians, 50. 
Morlock, Daniel R., 447. 
Morlock, Fred C, 491. 
Morlock, George P., 564. 
Morlock, John, 499. 
Morlock, Joseph S.. 519. 
Morris, Edmund, 527. 
Mosher. James L., 553. 
Mound Builders, 3. 
Mozart Musical Club, 246. 
Music, 247, 251. 
Myers, Frederick H., 459. 
Myers, Jacob E., 418. 

Nees-wau-gee, 7. 
Nees-Wau-Gee Village, 6. 
Neu, Charles H., 609. 
Newman, Charles \Y., 559. 
Newspapers, 286. 
Nickel Plate Railroad, 334. 
Ni-go, Anthony, 11. 
Norris, Norman S., 530. 
North Salem, 135. 
Northern Indiana in 1829, 53. 
Noted Indian Chiefs, 39. 
Nusbaum, Charles E., 507. 

Oak Hill Cemeterv, 320. 
O'lilenis. R. C, =;88. 

O'Keefe, William, 420. 
Old Brass Band, 310. 
Old Forge, 322. 
Old Mill Dam, The, 70. 
Old Pierce, the Horse Thief, 313. 
Old Settlers' Society, 239. 
Old Time Doctors, 279. 
Old Time Fiddlers, 324. 
Old Time Taverns, 59. 
Olds, John M., 549.' 
Oratory, 247, 252. 
Organization of First Religious So- 
cieties, 272. 
Orthography of Maxinkuckee, 97. 
Osborn, Samuel, 484. 
Osborn, John, 640. 

Panama, 129. 

Parker, E. E., 543. 

Parks, Ada M., 621. 

Parks, Brodie W., 616. 

Parks, John W., 411. 

Parks, Sinclair, 620. 

Pau-koo-shuck — A Ghost Story, 

Pesch, M. A., 563. 
Peter, Martin L., 442. 
Petit, Father Benjamin Marie, 16. 
Picked, Jonathan, 581. 
Pigeons and Pigeon Roosts, 181. 
Pioneer Ague, 161. 
Pioneer Exploring Party, A, 61. 
Pioneer Hogs, 159. 
Pioneer Log Cabins, 137. 
Pioneer Mills, 187. 
Plake, George M., 506. 
Plank Roads, 151. 
Plymouth Organized as a Town, 

Plymouth and Other Postoffices, 

Plymouth Bank, 386. 
Plymouth Banner, 289. 
Plymouth Chronicle, 296. 
Plymouth Commandery Drum 

Corps, 236. 
Plymouth Fire Department, 112. 
Pl)mouth Glee Club, 237. 
Plymouth Greys, 392. 
Plymouth Journal, 286. 


Plymouth, Kankakee & Pacific 

Railroad Company, 334. 
Plymouth & Ligonier Railroad 

Company, 335. 
Plymouth Pilot, 287. 
Plymouth Silver Cornet Band, 312. 
Plymouth, South Bend & Xiles 
. Railroad, 335. 
Plymouth State Bank, 388. 
Plymouth String Band, 236. 
Plymouth, the County Seat, 100. 
Plymouth's First Business Failure, 

Pokagon, Chief Simon, 29. 
Political Riot, 372. 
Politics, 366. 

Politics Seventy Years Ago, 368. 
Polke's Cemetery, 188. 
Ponader, L. Frederick, 551. 
Pottawattomie Indians, 5. 
Pottawattomie Mills — Ben-nack"s 

Village, 55. 
Praying Bands, 306. 
Pre-Historic Age, i. 
Preliminary Organization of the 

County, 79. 
Present Infirmary, 344. 
Presidential Elections, 377. 
Preston, H. P., 438. 
Primitive Brick Making, 174. 
Primitive Saw Mills, 171. 
Principal Physicians, 281. 
Probate Court, 197. 
Probate Judges, 206. 
Progress of the Public Schools, 

Prominent Judges, Brief Sketches 

of, 199. 
Prosecuting Attorneys, 206. 
Public Buildings, 336. 
Public School Library, 233. 

Radcliffe, F. E., 618. 

Railroads, 330. 

Railsback, William, 584. 

Raising Tobacco, 190. 

Ramps, 162. 

Ramsay, Charles W., 567. 

Rea, Oliver A., 494. 

Reception to Paroled Soldiers, 395. 

Recollections of the Old Indian 
Chapel, 47. 

Recollections of Rev. Warren Tav- 
lor, 18. 

Recorders, 210, 220. 

Reeve, C. A., 600. 

Reeve, C. H., 600. 

Religious Discussion, 279. 

Religious Organizations, 269. 

Removal of Menominee and His 
Band, 20. 

Representatives in the Indiana Leg- 
islature, 207. 

Restitution, 295. 

Rhoade, Christian, 537. 

Richey, Samuel R., 4&1. 

Rivers and Lakes, 90. 

Sarber, Perry E., 550. 
Sarber, William M., 410. 
Saturday Club, 243. 
Schaefer, George W., 627. 
Schilt, William F., 525. 
Schlosser, Henry, 540. 
Schlosser, Perry N., 580. 
Schroeder, James M., 582. 
Schroeter, John G., 603. 
Scofield, A. M., 449. 
Scofield, William, 448. 
Second County Jail, 343. 
Second Poor Farm, 344. 
Secret and Benevolent Societies, 

See, Jesse L., 612. 
Seller, Christian, 357. 
Seller, I. L. D., 509. 
Seltenright. F. M.. 489. 
Seminary, The, 319. 
Seminaries, 318. 
Severns, James B.. 598. 
Shafer, Abram, 501. 
SheritTs, 209. 
Sheriff's Office, 219. 
Sherland, William j\l., 437. 
Shirk, H. Y., 498. 
Sickly Season of 1850, 280. 
Singrey, Hoy L., 548. 
Sketches of County Officers, 213. 
Slayter, C. M., 551. 
Sligo, 130. 


Slumber Song of a \'anished Race, 

Smallpox, 281. 
Smith, Thomas D., 565. 
Snyder, Benjamin, 429. 
Snyder, David E., 511. 
Soice, Oliver G., 450. 
Soils, 78. 

Sons of Malta, 229. 
Soiir, Edwin, 526. 
Spanish-American War, 396. 
Speyer, H. JM., 513. 
Spinning- and Weaving, 142. 
Spiritual Rappings, 379. 
Springs and Dug Wells, 152. 
Staiiford, William, 577. 
Steinbach, Henry, 624. 
St. Michael's Academy, 260. 
State Exchange Bank of Argos, 

State Senators from 1835 to 1908, 

Stevens, A. E., 441. 
Stevens, S. N., 466. 
Stilson, A. F., 467. 
Street-lighting, 109. 
Stringer Graveyard, 318. 
Stringer, John T., 502. 
Strohecker, Dorus, 412. 
Strole, Samuel G., 433. 
Stump Speaking, 369. 
Sugar Camps, 166. 
Sunshine, The, 296. 
Surveyors, 210. 
Surveyor's Office, 221. 

Taber, Henry C., 446. 

Taber, Melissa J., 591. 

Taber, Thomas O., 589. 

Taber, Sarah J., 446. 

Tallman, Homer H., 554. 

Teegarden, 133. 

Teegarden Postofifice, 366. 

Telegraph, 326. 

Telephone, 328. 

Temperance Organizations, 303. 

Terrific Explosion, 314. 

Third Jail, 343. 

Thirteen Club, 238. 

Thomas, Andrew J., 591. 

Thomas, John D., 623. 
Thompson, Alfred A., 425. 
Thompson, Erastus J., 430. 
Tippecanoe Postofifice, 366. 
Tippecanoe Town, 136. 
Tippecanoe Town Station, 137. 
Totally Deaf Operator, A, 327. 
Township Library, 233. 
Township Schools, 260. 
Towns and Villages, 100. 
Treasurer's Office, 217. 
Trennel, John, 631. 
Tribbey, Thomas, 524. 
Troup, William H., 546. 
Troyer, Percy J., 424. 
Two of the Earliest Pioneers, 192. 
Tyner, 131. 

Unger, Harry L., 542. 
Union Town, 125. 

Van Buskirk, Charles, 630. 
Vandalia Railroad, 334. 
Vangilder, Frank, 415. 
VanVactor, Mark R., 413. 
VanVactor, Miles, 552. 
VanVactor, Riley, 417. 
VanVactor, William, 436. 
Village at Wolf Creek, 9. 
Vink, C. C, 610. 
Vollmer, Jacob, 555. 
Vollnagle, Daniel, 43S. 
Voreis, Daniel C, 553. 
Voreis, George W., 455. 
Voreis, William, 569. 

Wahl, George F., 518. 

Walnut, 129. 

Warner, Oliver J., 644. 

Warnes, William W., 515. 

Watkins, Coleman E., 536. 

Weaver, Henry D., 641. 

Weird and Strange Happenings, 

Weissert, John, 489. 
Welborn, Otice M., 646. 
Welborn, William H., 479. 
What Became of Menominee, 16. 
Whiteman, M. D. L.. 476. 
Whitesell. John E., 529. 

Whitesell, Joseph C, 455. Yantiss, William L., 606. 

Wickizer, Frank ^I., 641. Yellow River Road, 150. 

Wigwams and How Indians Lived. Yellow River Valley, J2. 

171. Yockey, Joseph A., 485. 

Wireless Telegraphy and Tele- Young Glen's Library Association, 

phony, 329. 232. 

Wise, Adam E., 470. Young, William F., 452. 

Wiseman, B. W. S., 573. Young, William T., 593. 
Wolf Creek, 130. 

Worsham, James A.. 607. Zehner, David, 456. 

Wright, Edward M., 560. Zehner, William, 462. 

Wright, ^\'illiam D., 467. Zimmerman, Albert R., 638. 


When the writer entered into an agreement with the pubhshers of this 
work that he would write a History of Marshall County, he was fully aware 
of the herculean task that loomed up before him. He had had considerable 
experience along the lines of historic writing, and knew that to gather the 
data and compile and write such a history as would be satisfactory to the 
patrons of the work, and creditable to the writer and to the publishers as 
well, would be a laborious work not easy of accomplishment. 

The writer was the author of the first history of Marshall county ever 
written, and for nearly thirty years was the editor of the Plymouth Demo- 
crat, during which time he gathered much data and wrote many articles on 
historical subjects, expecting at some future time to write another history 
of the county, greatly revised and improved. That time has come in the 
writing of the present history. The facts contained in the first history writ- 
ten by him in 1881 and in the sketches written for his paper from time to 
time, will be used in this work as occasion may require, as facts never change 
and history cannot be written without them. 

The writer came to Marshall county with his parents in 1836, when a 
mere child ; when the county was also in its infancy, and almost a wilder- 
ness, with few log cabins, no churches or schoolhouses and no public build- 
ings ; and as he has grown to manhood and age he has seen it developed 
from year to year, from a population of a few hundred to more than 25,000. 
with churches and schoolhouses on every hand, magnificent county buildings, 
five lines of railroads, telegraphs and telephones, and everything that can 
be desired to make life comfortable and enjoyable. 

Time is swiftly passing away. Already three-quarters of a century has 
gone since the first white settlement was made, and the few now living who 
were here then must soon depart to "that undiscovered country from whose 
bourne no traveler returns." While they yet remain it is deemed advisable 
to obtain the facts within their knowledge and place them upon permanent 
record for the benefit of those who come after they are gone. 

In the preparation of the matter for this work, the writer has not the 
remotest idea that perfection will be attained ; on the contrary, he is abso- 
lutely certain it will not ; therefore the reader must not expect it. His ex- 
perience in gathering statistics from various sources has already convinced 
him that the correct data in all cases cannot be obtained. During the period 
of the organization of the county, and for many years afterwards the rec- 
ords, especially as to dates, are very unreliable. The files of the countv 
])apcrs have been found to be deficient in regard to the very things it was 


desirable to know, \^'^eeks and weeks would come and go, and either noth- 
ing worthy of note transpired, or the editor did not think it worth while to 
bother his head about such trivial matters as local news. If reference was 
made to anything of a local nature, it seems to have been stated in the briefest 
manner possible, without any regard whatever to details. The oldest in- 
habitant, too, cannot call to mind dates with any degree of certainty, and so, 
upon the whole, the sources from which information must be derived are not 
sufficiently numerous and reliable to enable the historian to insure the reader 
that he will in all cases demonstrate to a mathematical certainty every propo- 
sition that may be touched upon as the work progresses. When the work 
shall be completed, there will, undoubtedly, be found many omissions. 
Among the many scenes and incidents that go to make up the history of the 
county, it will be a miracle should nothing escape the historian's notice. 
Each reader will undoubtedly peruse the work with a view of finding some- 
thing with which he was familiar, and, if he fails to find it, will probably 
make up his mind that the historian purposely omitted it. Unfavorable 
criticisms of this kind are expected, but the consciousness of knowing that 
every effort has been made to gather everything worthy of insertion shall 
stimulate the historian to bear up under these afflictions until the storm shall 
have passed. 

In the beginning of this work it has been deemed advisable to incor- 
porate in the first pages a brief sketch of the pre-historic age when the mas- 
todon flourished in this part of the country, coming on down to the IMound 
Builders, and especially to give a complete and truthful history of the Pot- 
tawattomie Indians, the first owners and inhabitants of all this part of the 
country, who were here in peaceable possession of the lands when the first 
white settlers made their appearance in this county, which has never before 
been presented i'n consecutive order, and is now for the first time placed on 
permanent record in the present History of Marshall County. 

Hoping that the arrangement of the matter found in the following pages 
will meet the approval of the people of Marshall county, for whom it is in- 
tended, the work, with all its imperfections, is respectfully submitted. 

D.\XIEL McDox.xLD. 

Plymouth, Indiana, 1908. 



Indications of the beginning of the first animal life in the territory now 
composing Marshall county is found in the discovery of numerous bones of 
the mastodon. In June, 1874, Mr. Oscar L. Bland, while bathing in a pool 
in Deep creek, on the farm of his father, Alexander Bland, in the northeast 
corner of Walnut township, Marshall county, Ind., found a very large tooth, 
whose weight at that time, including the debris connected with it, was about 
eight pounds. Further search was made, and within a few feet another 
tooth, about the same size, was found. Further examination of the banks 
of the stream was made, and, some 200 feet farther up, several very fine 
specimens of the remains of what must have been a very large animal, were 
found. The "find" naturally created quite an excitement in the neighbor- 
hood, which extended all over the country, and many exaggerated descrip- 
tions of the relics and the supposed size of the animal were made by news- 
paper correspondents and others. In December, 1874, a correspondent of 
the Warsaw Northern Indianian had the following in relation to it : 

"Mr. Alexander Bland has discovered on his farm near Bourbon a great 
number of large bones of an unknown animal, that, according to careful 
measurement, was certainly a huge old monster, the largest ever known. 
Several of the teeth are in a partial state of preservation and weigh over 
eight pounds each, and several of the ribs are almost like the ribs of a mam- 
moth man-of-war ship in size, the other bones being proportionately large. 
One of the officers of the Academy of Sciences of Chicago came here to 
investigate the remains, and pronounced the animal to have been over sixty 
feet tall and of proportionate length ! The bones are to be carefully col- 
lected and sent to the Academy Aluseum in the city, as of rare value to 

Of course the above statement was exaggerated beyond all reason, as 
neither sacred nor profane history gives any account of any living thing 
one-fifth the height or length indicated. But it had the effect of calling the 
attention of the people to it, and hundreds visited the residence of Mr. Bland 
and made an examination of the relics and locality where they were found, 
and numerous letters were received making inquiry in regard to them. 

The specimens found consisted of two teeth almost exactly alike, each 
weighing six pounds. They were eight inches long, seven inches high from 
point of root to upper surface, and four inches wide, and contained five 


divisions or separate grinders. The preservation was perfect, both as to the 
teeth and the enamel. The enamel was composed of a mixture of black, 
white and brownish gray. The third tooth was four and a half inches long, 
three and a half inches wide, three inches high, the roots having been broken 
oft. Its weight was about two pounds. There were four sections of the 
vertebrse, all in a perfect state of preservation. Their measurement was 
about thirteen inches across at bottom part, eight inches at upper part, two 
and a half inches thick, twelve inches from top to bottom, and weighed four 
and three-fourths pounds each. The section of the skull measured twenty- 
one inches in length by thirteen inches in width, was about one inch thick 
and had about loo brain cells. It was a grayish color, having much the 
appearance of the first coat of plaster on a building. One tusk was found 
in a splendid state of preservation. Since it came in contact with the air, 
portions of it have dissolved and fallen oiif. It was about nine feet long 
and about twenty inches in circumference where it joined the head. A sec- 
tion of the shoulder blade was also found. It measured eight inches in 
thickness and fourteen inches in width, and weighed thirty-six pounds. The 
outer extremity had been broken off, so that it was impossible to say what 
its length originally was. Two ribs were also found, one of which meas- 
ured two and three-fourths feet in length ; the other, somewhat smaller. 
About lOO pieces of various sizes were found, a description of which is 
impossible. The place where they were found is low, marshy ground, on 
the east bank of Deep creek. All the specimens, except two of the teeth, 
were found in a wet place, where a branch had run into the creek, and about 
four feet under ground, near and under the roots of a beech tree four and 
a half feet in circumference. The earth under and surrounding the tree 
is made entirely of drift, and has undoubtedly accumulated and the tree has 
grown since the animal mired down and died. There is no doubt but the 
remains are those of a mastodon, probably about eleven feet high, seventeen 
feet long and about sixteen feet in circumference. They inhabited this 
country so long ago that the memory of man runneth not to the contrary^ — 
certainly long prior to the Christian era. 

The geological position of the remains of the mastodon has long been 
and still is a siibject of dispute among geologists ; in a few instances they 
are said to have been found below the drift in the pliocene, and even in the 
miocene ; but they have generally been obtained from the post-pliocene or 
alluvial formations, at a depth of from five to ten feet in lacustrine deposits, 
bogs and beds of infusorial earth. Some have thought that the mastodons 
became extinct since the advent of man upon the earth, like the dinornis and 
the dodo ; according to Lyell, the period of their destruction, though geo- 
logically modern, must have been many thousand years ago. The same 
causes probably acted in their extinction as in the case of the fossil elephant 
— perhaps partly climatic changes, but more probably some great convulsion 
on the surface of the globe at an epoch anterior to man. According to Owen, 
the mastodons were elephants with molars less complex in structure and 
adapted for coarser vegetable food, ranging in time from the miocene to the 
upper pliocene, and in space throughout the tropical and temperate latitudes. 
The transition from the mastodon to the elephant type of dentition is very 


The Mound Builders. 

Since the days of the mastodon there are traces of the jNIound Builders, 
who are supposed to antedate the American Indian. Several years ago the 
writer examined two mounds situated close together, located on what was 
called the "Burr Oak Flats," a short distance north from Maxinkuckee lake. 
Digging a considerable distance into them, nothing unusual was found. The 
tops of the mounds arose to a height of about six feet above the surface of 
the ground on which they were situated, which was a level country all about, 
showing plainly that the mounds had been built for some purpose by human 
hands, But as they were composed of solid earth with nothing in them to 
indicate the object of their building it is difficult to conjecture what they 
were for. A mile or so farther west from these mounds there was also quite 
a large mound which seemed from the digging that had been done in and 
about it to have been the subject of investigation. But in that, so far as is 
known, nothing that would indicate what it was built for has been discov- 
ered. On the west side of ^laxinkuckee lake, on what is known as "Long 
Point," was in the early days quite a large sized mound, which many curious 
investigators had dug into from time to time. 

Whether these mounds were the work of the Mound Builders or not is 
not known only as a matter of conjecture. They were here, however, long 
before the Indians came to this part of the country, as trees and shrubbery 
grew on some of them and were of considerable size when they came. These 
mounds were supposed to have been intended as burial places for the dead, 
as, in excavating in some of them, human bones were found as well as tools 
and implements of stone, pottery, iron and copper. In digging into the 
mound on Long Point, Lake Maxinkuckee, a quarter of a century ago, 
human bones were found, also charcoal, stone arrow points and other Indian 
trinkets, indicating beyond a doubt that it was the burial place of Mound 
Builders or of Indians of a later period who made use of it for that purpose. 

The Buffalo. 

When most of the Indians found their way here is not positively known 
— probably not until after the passage of the ordinance of 1787, establishing 
the Northwest Territory. At that time and prior thereto the face of the 
country was quite different from what it is at present. A great deal of 
country now covered with timber was then open prairie. A few miles west 
of this' county was the beginning of a boundless prairie that extended west- 
ward to the Rocky mountains. Buffalo were numerous on the prairies of 
the Kankakee, and frequently many of them strayed over into this region, 
and occasionally still farther east. As they lived on wild grass they pre- 
ferred a prairie country, and therefore their regular runways were on the 
prairies farther west. 

A pioneer who settled in a very early day on Aubenaube's prairie, a 
short distance southwest of Maxinkuckee lake, said : 

"When we came to this country we settled on the prairie. There were 
the remains of beaver dams from a hundred yards to almost a mile long, 
and one over that length at Beaver lake. There were also round holes in 
the prairie covered with grass, that the Indians said were onoe buffalo wal- 
lows. Deep paths were worn in the solid prairies, the Indians said were 


made by the tramp of the buffalo. We found some remains of the heads 
and horns of buffalo, and the Indians then here said there were plenty of 
buffalo in their fathers' time many years before that." 

A little paper published in the region of the Wabash seventy years ago 
contained an account of the killing of the last buffalo that was probably ever 
in this section of the country. The story was as follows : "A young Miami 
Indian, who had never seen a buffalo, was riding along on his pony one day 
at a point between where Huntington and Wabash now stand, when he no- 
ticed a huge animal, the like of which he had never seen before. At first 
he was inclined to be scared, but as the animal moved very slowly he took 
courage and fired at it with his gun, and after several shots succeeded in 
bringing it down. He looked in wonder and amazement, not knowing what 
it was, until he brought some other Indians, who pronounced it an old buf- 
falo, in all probability the last of its kind in the state." 

The presence of the buffalo in this region is further proved by adopting 
him as one of the emblems on the state seal. And that leads to the 
inquiry, does anybody know why this peculiar design for our state seal 
was adopted? A rampant and ridiculous buffalo, and tail and hoofs up, 
is kicking away at a hardy pioneer, who has stood for many weary years 
with an ax uplifted in front of a towering oak, which seems to have been 
left alone in its glory, the pioneer never making a cut, the scene illumined 
by the rays of the rising sun that still keeps hanging on the verge of the 
horizon ! The picture is well known, but the history of its adoption as a 
part of the state seal is shrouded in mystery. It was used by the terri- 
torial officers, and as the limits of the territory comprised the present 
states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of Min- 
nesota east of the Mississippi river, the design is not so inappropriate as 
it would appear at first thought, as buft'alo were very numerous at that 
time in the western portion of the territory. 

The meaning of the hieroglyphics on the seal has been freely trans- 
lated as follows: The scene represents the struggle for the possession of 
the territory. In the figure of the buffalo, we have the emblem of all the 
original inhabitants of the forest ; the woodcutter is the type of that hardy 
race of pioneers who cleared the way for that civilization soon to burst 
in all its glory and splendor over the land, and which is fitly represented 
by the rising sun! 

The Indian Age. 
In writing the history of Marshall county, it will be of interest to 
go back to the earliest ownership of the territory of which it is now 
composed, in order that those now living here, and those who may come 
hereafter, may be able to trace our genealogy from a state of savagery 
to our present state of advanced civilization. The territory now included 
within the boundaries of Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, of which Marshall 
county is an important factor, was in the early days of the history of 
America, owned and occupied by the Miami Indians, originally known 


as the Twightwees. It was claimed by France from the time of the dis- 
covery of the mouth of the Mississippi river by LaSalle in 1682, to 1763, 
when it was rehnquished to the government of England, and held by it 
until 1779, as a part of her colonial possessions in North America. The 
state of Virginia extended its jurisdiction over it until 1783, when it 
came by treaty of peace, and by deed of cession from Virginia the property 
of the United States. In 1787 an ordinance was passed by congress creating 
the territory northwest of the river Ohio, which embraced the territory 
above referred to. 

At that time the territory now embraced in Marshall county was held 
by right of discovery and occupation by the Miami Indians, who permitted 
the Pottawattomie Indians, which were gradually gaining a foothold in this 
region, to occupy their lands and hunting grounds, until finally they were 
recognized as the owners of the territory occupied by them, being the 
country north of the Wabash river and south of Lake Michigan. After 
the United States came into possession of the territory through the ordi- 
nance of 1787, treaty making began and was kept up until all the lands 
were secured from the Indians, opened to entry, and the Indians removed 
to a reservation provided for them by the United States, an account of 
which will be given in another part of this work. 

The Pottawattomie Indians. 

Prior to the organization of Marshall county, which occurred in 
1836, the territory was owned and occupied by the Pottawattomie tribe 
of Indians, and as they were the first inhabitants here, they are entitled to 
prominent mention in this connection. Up to 1834 the population was com- 
posed entirely of Pottawattomie Indians, of whom there were, as near as 
could be estimated, about 1,500, located in villages along the lakes and 
rivers in the county. 

The Pottawattomie tribe of Indians belonged to the great Algonquin 
family, and were related by ties of consanguinity to the Ojibways, Chip- 
pewas and Ottawas. The first trace we have of them locates their territory 
in the Lake Superior region on the islands near the entrance to Green Bay, 
holding the country from the latter point to the head waters of the great 
lakes. They migrated southward and finally camped in this region, where 
they became later permanently located and were recognized as the rightful 
owners of the territory. 

The name of this tribe is said by a writer on Indian lore to be a com- 
pound of Put-a-wa, signifying a blowing out or expansion of the cheeks 
as in blowing a fire; and "Me," a nation, which, being interpreted, means 
a nation of fire-blowers. The application seems to have originated in the 
facility with which they produced flame and set burning the ancient council 
fires of their forefathers beside the waters of the Green Bay country. 

The Indians who resided in the territory of Marshall county prior 
to and at the time the white people began to come, lived in villages of 
which there were several scattered over the southern half of the county. 

^Menominee Village. 
Four or five miles to the southwest of Plymouth, just north of the 
Twin lakes, was the Me-no-mi-nee village, containing near one hundred 


wigwams, cabins, and tepees, scattered promiscuously over several acres of 
ground. Around and among the wigwams were partly cleared cornfields, 
from which the Indians raised considerable inferior corn. The village was 
the largest and most important of those within the county. Here was 
erected a church, or chapel, as it was called, by the missionaries sent out 
by the French Catholics to christianize the Indians. Through the influence 
of these missionaries the larger proportion of the Pottawattomies had em- 
braced this form of religion, and knowing no other, were attentive and 
sincere worshipers at the altar of that church. This chapel was said to 
have been erected in 1827, and stood on the north bank of the middle Twin 
lake, west of the Vandalia railroad about twenty rods. It was quite large 
for those days, and was considered a very comfortable building for the pur- 
poses for which it was intended. It was built of hewed logs and covered 
with clapboards, its dimensions being about thirty by forty feet, with 
doors and windows and a room above the west end for the missionary priest 
to live in. Up to the time of the erection of this chapel the Indians had 
not known that there was such a day as Sunday, and in none of the villages 
had an attempt been made by any of the white people to cause it to be 
observed, for the reason, probably, that they, themselves, hardly knew 
when Sunday came, and were not, as a rule, very particular about its 
observance. As soon as it became generally known that on certain days there 
were gatherings of the people there, the different bands of Indians began to 
come from far and near, so that it was not long until large congregations 
assembled when the weather was pleasant, sufficiently numerous to fill the 
building to overflowing. 

At first the services were a great mystery to them, and be it said to their 
credit, none of them were ever known to create any disturbance during the 
entire period services were held in that, the first place of worship in the 
county. The Indians knew nothing about creeds or doctrine. They had a 
vague idea that there was a Great Spirit that ruled and controlled all things, 
and that at death the spirit of the Indian was simply translated by some 
mysterious process from this mundane sphere to a similar, but happier, 
hunting ground in a far distant country, he knew not where, and that was 
about the extent of their knowledge on that subject. 

Services were held in this chapel until the Indians were driven away in 
1838, when it was closed, and never afterwards used for that purpose.' It 
was an object of curiosity for those who passed that way for many years 
later, but it finally went to rack, was torn down, and no traces of it now 

Nees-wau-gee Village. 

Next to the Me-no-mi-nee village in importance was the Nees-wau-gee 
and Ouash-qua village on the eastern shore of Lake Alaxinkuckee, imme- 
diately across the road from the present residence of Peter Spangler. All 
along that bank about 1835-36, when the white settlers began to arrive, 
there was quite a settlement of Indians, mainly under the supervision of 
Nees-wau-gee. Quash-qua also had some authority over the band, but 
delegated it mostly to his brother chief, Nees-wau-gee, who ruled his 
people with mildness, moderation and decorum. 

This was a charming spot, and the Indians who occupied it had the 


most delightful place to live this side of the land of Paradise. Fishing 
and hunting could not have been better; there was an abundance of pure 
spring water ; and all sorts of berries, and wild fruits in abundance in 
their season grew in the forests near by. Trails led in every direction to 
other villages in the region for many miles round about, so that the vil- 
lagers could visit back and forth whenever they felt inclined to do so. 
Off to the northwest, west and southwest over the lake was presented 
a picture unexcelled for beauty and grandeur anywhere in this part 
of the country. It was indeed 

' ' A scene for a painter, 

A gleaming and glorified lake, 
With its framing of forest and prairie. 

And its etchings of thicket and brake, 
With its grandeur and boldness of headland, 

Where the oaks and the tamaraes grow, 
A league with the sunlight of heaven, 
And the spirit-like shadows below." 

A Dead Indian Chief. 
Among the very first things the writer of this remembers was going 
to this village, or near it, to see the temporary burial place of an Indian 
chief. That region of country was at that time an unbroken wilderness. 
The Indian had been killed in a fracas with one of his tribe, and before 
burying him permanently his relatives and associates had fixed him up in his 
finest clothing, with a headdress gaily ornamented with colored feathers, 
and his face painted yellow, red and black. He was placed against a large 
tree in a sitting posture, and around him was built a large pen made of 
poles, the space between the poles being sufficiently wide to permit a perfect 
view of the "good Indian" therein ! A great many trinkets of various 
kinds were placed around him, and he sat there, grim and ghastly, toma- 
hawk in hand, as if waiting the approach of an expected enemy ! 

The Good Nees-wau-gee. 
This good old Indian chief, Nees-wau-gee, was the friend of all the 
early white settlers, and, while he remained, frequently visited and became 
much attached to many of them. He took a fancy to, and formed a warm 
attachment for a sprightly young man of the neighborhood, just then in 
his teens, but long since passed over into, the "happy hunting grounds." 
The old chief had a charming daughter about the age of the young man, 
and from his actions it was clear that he would not have objected to a 
match between them. He took the young man with him on one occasion, 
introduced him to his daughter, and had his French cook prepare an extra 
meal in his honor. The table was furnished with dishes made of silver 
worth many hundred dollars, and the bill of fare was elaborate and delicious. 
The young man was seated by the side of the charming young squaw, and 
after saying grace in his peculiar way, the chief, turning to his visitor, said, 
laughingly: "Maybe so you want a wife?" About that time there was a 
good deal of blushing, and "hemming and hawing," and it is quite probable, 
if there had been a hole down through the floor of the cabin sufficiently large, 
the young man would have suddenly crawled out and run home for dear 
life I At that time he was inexperienced in the mysteries of courtship 


(something which, however, he learned later on), and knowing little about 
Indian customs, he did not know but the old chief had inveigled him into his 
tent under the guise of friendship for the purpose of compelling him to 
marry his daughter, nolens volens. But other topics of conversation were 
introduced, and the subject dropped, much to the relief of the blushing young 
couple. When the young man was ready to return home the chief presented 
him with two sacks containing saddles of venison, squirrels, pheasants, 
ducks and fish, as an evidence of good will ; and as he mounted his horse, 
the entire family assembled to bid him goodbye. About a year from that 
time the good old chief disposed of his reservation to the government, 
and with his little band started west to the reservation provided for them. 

Nees-wau-gee was a quiet, peaceable chief, and made friends with 
all the white settlers in all the region round about. When the time came 
to leave he determined to go peaceably, as he had agreed he would. The 
day before he started he sent word to all the white settlers to come to his 
village as he wished to bid them farewell. A large number assembled and 
through an interpreter he said substantially : 

"My White Brethren: I have called you here to bid you farewell. 
Myself and my band start at sunrise tomorrow morning to remove to an 
tmknown country the government of the United States has provided for 
us west of the Missouri river. I have sold my lands to the government 
and we agreed to leave within two years. That time is about to expire 
and according to the agreement we have made we must leave you and 
the scenes near and dear to all of us. The government has treated us 
fairly, and it is our duty to live up to that contract by doing as we agreed, 
and so we must go. The white settlers here have been good and kind to us, 
and in leaving them it seems like severing the ties of our own kindred and 
friends. We go away and may never return, but wherever we may be — - 
wherever our lot in life may be cast we shall always remember you with 
sincere respect and esteem." 

The old chief was visibly affected, and tears were seen to flow from 
his eyes. All the people present took him by the hand and bade him a final 
adieu as well as most of the members of his band. Early the next morning, 
with their personal effects packed on their ponies, they marched away in 
single file, following the Indian trail along the east shore to the south end 
of Maxinkuckee lake, thence southwest to Kewanna, where they joined the 
other bands and immediately proceeded on their long and wearisome journey. 

On the bluft" on the east side of the lake, and south of the Nees-wau-gee 
village, was an old Indian village or camping ground, and one of the 
most delightful of the numerous places of that kind around that beautiful 
sheet of water. Walking over the plowed ground near there a number 
of years ago, in a short time a dozen or more stone or flint arrow points, 
some of them very fine, were picked up by the writer. At another time he 
picked up a fish line sinker smoothly wrought out of stone, with a crease 
or groove around one end for fastening the sinker to the fish line. It was 
one of a kind described and illustrated in the Smithsonian collection at 
Washington, and, of course, is quite rare, as but few were made, and even 
of these, many were lost, and still fewer found. It is somewhat remark- 
able that, notwithstanding our advanced civilization, the modern fish sinker 
is patterned exactly after those stone sinkers of long ago. 


Village at \Yo\i Creek. 

There was a village which had been abandoned when the whites began 
to settle here just north of Wolf creek, where also once stood a primitive 
saw and grist mill. This territory was originally in possession of the Fox 
Indians and another friendly tribe. The Pottawattomies, when they found 
their way here, claimed the right of possession, and as a natural conse- 
quence a feud sprang up between them, resulting in many hard fought battles 
before the Pottawattomies got possession. The last of these battles, accord- 
ing to tradition, was fought on the site of this village. This open space 
in the wilderness was, prior to the settlement of that part of the county 
by the whites, occupied by a few families of the Pottawattomies. In 
1836-40 this place was dotted over with small rises of ground, indicating 
the former cultivation of maize or Indian corn. It had been unoccupied, 
however, for some time prior to 1836. Still, small stalks of corn continued 
to grow each spring and summer for several years after ; Indian ponies 
running wild through the woods were occasionally seen ; war implements, 
bows and arrows, tomahawks, beads and rings, and various trinkets common 
to the Indian were found in abundance and even to this day an occasional 
arrow point or other Indian implement is picked up. 

Ben-ak Village on the Tippecanoe. 

There was an Indian village on the north bank of the Tippecanoe river, 
about six miles south of the present town of Bourbon, known as the Ben-ak 
village, as it was located on the landed reservation of the distinguished chief 
Ben-ak, and presided over by him and the elder Pe-ash-way. Ben-ak had 
other reservations over in Kosciusko county, and spent most of his time in 
that region and in traveling about from place to place, until he disposed 
of his lands, when he disappeared, probably going west with the other 
members of his tribe. 

Au-be-nau-be Village. 

There was also what was called Au-be-nau-be village, in Fulton county, 
on or near the southern line of Marshall county, and about two miles to 
the west of the Michigan road. It w-as on what was then known as ]\Ian- 
ke-kose's reserve, not far from the present town of Walnut. Au-be-nau-be 
presided as chief over several bands of Pottawattomies, in this and Fulton 
county, but made his permanent home at what was Au-be-nau-be village 
in Fulton county, a few miles south of Maxinkuckee lake. A large allot- 
ment of land was ceded to him and his band, which was called "Au-be-nau-be 
reserve." It extended half way up the east shore of Maxinkuckee lake, 
thence east a mile or so, and then south several miles into Fulton county. 

Au-be-nau-be was a stout, robust, coarse featured, sullen specimen of 
his race, and when under the influence of liquor, which he nearly always was 
for a long time prior to his tragic death, was quarrelsome, vicious and 
unmanageable. One who knew him intimately said Au-be-nau-be was born 
in 1760, at the Portage between the headwaters of the Kankakee river 
and St. Joseph river, then called by the Indians "Lock-wock," the Indian 
name for portage, and was seventy-six years old at the time of his death. 


Death of Au-be-nau-be. 

Polygamy being allowed among the Indians at that time, Au-be-nau-be 
had provided himself with a number of wives, with not all of whom he 
lived in that peace and harmony that should characterize man and wife. 
In one of his drunken sprees he quarreled with one of his wives, and 
in a fit of anger killed her. A council of the chiefs of the different bands 
of the Pottawattomies was called, so the story goes, to deliberate as to 
what the punishment should be. The council, following an ancient custom, 
decided that the oldest son should be the avenger of the murder of his 
mother and slay his father. The sentence of death was pronounced and 
the son was given a certain number of moons to carry it into execution. 
The father had the right to defend himself, and if he could keep out of 
the way and escape the infliction of the penalty until the time had expired 
he was to be considered a free man. His son kept watch of him, and as 
he wanted the old man out of the way so he could succeed him as chief 
of the band, he was really in earnest in wanting to kill him. Finally the 
opportunity presented itself. One day the old man drank to excess and, 
sitting down in a chair in the Blodgett log shanty, went to sleep. His 
son having followed him, approached stealthily into his presence, pulled 
his tomahawk from his belt, and, with a terrific blow, thrust it into his 
head up to the handle. The blood spurted to the low ceiling above; and 
with a single groan and struggle, the great chief, Au-be-nau-be, fell over 
on the floor, dead! This was at the Blodgett log cabin, just over the 
county line in Fulton county. 

The son, whose name was Pau-koo-shuck, succeeded his father as 
chief of the tribe, and the same year disposed of the lands belonging to 
the reservation by treaty to the government, and with his band, in Sep- 
tember, 1838, was started for the reservation west of the Missouri river. 
According to the account of one who accompanied the Indians on that 
expedition Pau-koo-shuck, when near the Mississippi river, refused to go 
any further, finally escaped and returned to the old hunting grounds, where 
he remained hunting and fishing, drinking and carousing, until he died not 
a great while afterward. 

After the death of Au-be-nau-be his remains were set up by a big 
tree and fenced in with poles, and supplied with pipes and tobacco and 
provisions sufficient to last him until he reached the happy hunting grounds 
"over there." The few white people in the neighborhood, however, did 
not approve of that manner of burial, and dug a hole in the ground and 
put him in it, covered him up and piled stone over him ; and there he 
remained and his dust is probably there yet, but as the stones have all been 
taken away, and the ground composing the little mound that covered him 
has been plowed and cultivated, there is not now a trace of the spot where 
the old chief lay. 

Anecdote of Au-be-nau-be. 

The following anecdote is told of Au-be-nau-be in connection with 

the making of the treaty of 1832. President Jackson had appointed Gov. 

Jonathan Jennings a commissioner to negotiate a treaty with the Potta- 

wattomie Indians of northern Indiana, his associates on the commission 


being John W. Davis and Marks Crume. The meeting was held at the 
forks of the Wabash, where the city of Huntington now stands, October 
26, 1832. One who was present tells the story of what happened there, as 
follows : 

During the preliminary council, Dr. John W. Davis, who was a 
pompous, big-feeling man, said something that gave offense to Au-be-nau-be, 
one of the head chiefs of the Pottawattomies. Au-be-nau-be addressed 
Gov. Jennings, saying: "Does our great father intend to insult us by 
sending such men to treat with us? Why did he not send Gen. Cass and 
Tipton? You (pointing to Gov. Jennings) good man and know how to 
treat us. (Pointing to Crume) — He chipped beef for the squaws at 
Wabash;" meaning that Crume was the beef contractor at the treaty of 
1826. Then, pointing to Dr. Davis, he said : "Big man and damn fool." 
The chief then spoke a few words to the Pottawattomies present, who 
gave one of their peculiar yells and left the council house, and could only 
be induced to return after several days, and then only through the great 
influence of Gov. Jennings. This was the treaty that set apart what is 
known as the Me-no-mi-nee reserve, consisting of twenty-two sections 
of land, extending from west of Plymouth to Twin lakes, where Me-no- 
mi-nee village was located and the old Indian chapel erected. The signing 
of this treaty was said to be the last official act of Jonathan Jennings, the 
first governor of Indiana. He was, probably, the most distinguished man 
in many ways who took an active part in the formation of the Indiana 
territory and later in the organization of the state in 1816. He had blue 
eyes, sandy hair and fair complexion. He died comparatively young, but 
he did as much for the well-being of Indiana as any man that ever lived. 
He died July 26, 1834, at Charlestown, Ind., surrounded by his family and 
friends, beloved by all. 

Anthony Ni-go. 

Among the many Indians that were here when the white people came 
and became distinguished in one way or another, and were well known to 
the early settlers, was Anthony Ni-go. He remained in the county until 
his death occurred in Plymouth in 1878. He was born somewhere in the 
territory of Kosciusko county in the year 1805, and moved into the terri- 
tory of Marshall county in 1828, locating near Ben-ak village in the 
region of where Tippecanoe town now is. His head was not clear as to 
numbers, but he said there was "heap Indian here then." His father was 
of the Pottawattomie tribe, and his mother of the Miami tribe. He claimed 
to have belonged to the Miami tribe in accordance with an Indian custom 
of designating the tribe the papooses should belong to from the mother's 
side of the house. 

He said he was married at the chapel at Me-no-mi-nee village in the 
year 1828, in accordance with the rites of the Catholic church by a mis- 
sionary then in charge. His wife's name was Ash-nic, in plain English, 
Angeline. She was what is now known as a half-breed, one of her parents 
being French and the other Indian. It was also in this chapel, at that time, 
that he was baptised into the Catholic faith by a missionary sent there to 
look after the spiritual welfare of the Indians. For forty years he had 


kept the faith, and at the time of his death he was a devout worshiper at 
the altar of the Catholic church in Plymouth. 

Killing of Alarshall. 

An Indian by the name of Marshall, a large, burly fellow, and generally 
intoxicated, visited the residence of Ni-go when he resided north of Bour- 
bon in an early day, and attempted to take improper liberties with Mrs. 
Ni-go. For her protection, and in self-defense, Ni-go took his gun down 
from over the door and shot the brute dead in his tracks. An inquest was 
held and a verdict rendered that the killing was done in self-defense. Not- 
withstanding Ni-go believed himself justifiable in permanently putting Mar- 
shall out of the way, yet he always regretted the necessity that compelled 
him to do it. 

When the Indians were removed in 1838, Ni-go was taken along with 
the Pottawattomies that were gathered up around the various localities in 
the county and taken to ;\Ie-no-mi-nee village to be removed with the 
caravan then ready to start. Ni-go obtained an interview with Gen. 
Tipton, the removing agent, and informed him that he was a Miami 
Indian, and did not come under the provisions of the treaty made with the 
Pottawattomies. Gen. Tipton told him that was true, but under the excite- 
jnent and bad feeling then existing among the Pottawattomies it would 
not be safe for him to leave then, as they could not see why he should 
be released, and serious trouble might result from his departure at that 
time, and advised him to go with the caravan the first day of the journey, 
and after they had camped for the night and all had gone to sleep to come 
to his headquarters and he would tell him what to do. That night they 
camped at a place called Chipe-way, on the banks of the Tippecanoe river, 
Gen. Tipton's headquarters being a deserted log cabin. Along about mid- 
night Ni-go stealthily found his way to Gen. Tipton's lodge. He was told 
to go up a ladder in the corner of the room into the garret above and 
remain there next morning until the caravan had moved away and was 
out of sight. He did so. It was ten o'clock in the morning before he 
ventured to leave the cabin. Upon looking around he found that he was 
all alone, his brother redskins having all departed on their long journey. 
He still had friends here, and not far away, of his own tribe, and not wishing 
to leave the scenes of his early life among the red men of the forest, he 
bade farewell to his red brothers, turned his face homeward, and, having 
secured and settled on a piece of land suited to his ideas of civilization, 
he became a peaceable citizen and had been an exemplary and law-abiding 
resident of the county to the day of his death. 

Historical Sketch of Me-no-mi-nee. 
The Pottawattomie Indian chief who was the central figure in the dis- 
turbances that led to the raising of troops and the removal of the Indians by 
force from Twin lakes September 4, 1838, was personally known to many 
of the original settlers of Marshall county, nearly all of whom, however, 
have long since passed away. In his history of Indian aflfairs. Rev. Isaac 
McCoy, a Baptist missionary, and the founder of Gary mission on the St. 
Joseph river, a short distance west of Niles. ^Michigan, thus speaks of Me- 



no-mi-nee, for whom the Alenoniinee village was named. Writing from 
Fort Wayne, about 1821, he said. 

"I had been informed by an Indian trader that on the Illinois river, 
some hundred miles from Fort Wayne, there was a company of religious 
Pu-ta-wat-o-mies, at the head of whom was one who was a kind of preacher, 
whose name was Me-no-mi-nee. As this man exhorted his followers to 
abstain from ardent spirits and many other vices and to practice many good 
morals, and as a part of their religious services consisted in praying, I was 
induced to hope that their minds were somewhat prepared to receive religious 


instruction. l\ly circumstances were such that I could not visit them at 
that time, but I w^rote the leader a letter to come to Fort Wayne to see me, 
which he did about April i, 1821. He professed to have been called some 
few years previously by the Great Spirit to preach to the Indians that they 
should forsake their evil practices, among which he enumerated the vices of 
drunkenness, theft, murder, and many other wicked practices. He had a 
few followers, the number of which was increasing. Menominee appeared 
to be more meek and more ready to receive instruction than could have been 
expected fron: a wild man who had arrogated to himself claims to be a 
leader, not only in temporal, but also in spiritual things. At his particular 


request, I gave him a writing in which I stated that he had been several days 
with me, that I had heard him preach and pray, and had conversed much 
with him ; that I hoped his instructions would do his people good, and there- 
fore requested all to treat him with kindness. "Now," said he, T will go 
home and preach to my people all my life. I will tell them that my father 
says 1 tell the truth.' " 

In June following. Rev. Mr. McCoy visited Menominee at his village 
near Twin lakes, in what is now Marshall county. It was then unorganized 
territory. Of that visit he said : 

"As we approached the village, Menominee and others met us with all 
the signs of joy and gladness which could have been expressed by those 
poor creatures. Menominee immediately cried aloud to his people, all of 
whom (1821) lived in four little bark huts, informing them that their father 
had arrived. I was no sooner seated by their invitation than men, women 
and children came around and gave me their hand — even infants were 
brought that I might take them by the hand. A messenger was immediately 
dispatched to a neighboring village to announce my arrival. In his absence 
IMenominee inquired if I had come to reside among them. Receiving evasive 
answers, he expressed great concern. He said the principal chief of their 
party, and all the people of the villages, with few exceptions, desired me to 
come. He showed me a place which he had selected for me to build a house 
upon. The huts being exceedingly hot and unpleasant, I proposed taking 
a seat out of doors. The yard was immediately swept and mats spread for 
me to either sit or lie upon. We were presently regaled with a bowl of 
boiled turtle's eggs ; next came a kettle of sweetened water for us to drink. 
I was then shown a large turtle which had been taken in a pond, and asked 
if I were fond of it ? Fearing that with their cooking I should not be able 
to eat it, I replied that I was very fond of corn and beans. This I knew was 
already over the fire. It was placed before us in one large wooden bowl, 
and we ate it with wooden ladles. Menominee had two wives, each of whom 
presented me with a bark box of sugar containing about thirty pounds each. 

"In a short time the principal chief, Pcheeko (Che-kose?) and every 
man and almost every woman and child in the village were at Menominee's, 
and all came and shook hands. On the arrival of Pcheeko we had resumed 
our station in the house, where I handed out my tobacco, and all smoked 
until the fumes and heat became almost insufferable, but mustered courage 
to remain, as I supposed it would be impolite to leave the room at that time." 

Continuing his narrative, Rev. Mr. McCoy said : 

"In compliance with an invitation from the -principal chief, Pcheeko, we 
paid him a visit on the twelfth of June, 1821, accompanied by Menominee 
and several others. Pcheeko, to show his loyalty to the government, or 
rather as an expression of respect for me, had hoisted over his hut the Ameri- 
can flag. A large kettle of hominy and venison was ready for us on our 
arrival. To my mess, besides some' choice pieces, they added sugar With 
the help of my knife, a wooden ladle and a good appetite, I dispatched a 
reasonable meal, endeavoring at the same time to indulge in as few thoughts 
as possible about the cleanliness of the cooks. In private they intimated to 
my interpreter, Abraham, that they suspected me to be partial to Alenominee. 
The lad replied that my mission was to them all. They said that they were 
glad to attend the preaching, for they were afraid that Menominee did not 


know how to preach good. On this subject Abraham replied to them that 
my business was preaching, teaching school and instructing the Indians in 
mechanical trades and in architecture ; that Menominee being a preacher re- 
ceived but little pay, and had but little to give away. I then informed them 
that I desired to address them solely on the subject of religion, and wished 
the women also to hear. They were called, but were ashamed to come into 
the house, it not being customary for women to mingle with men when in a 
council, from which they could not distinguish this assembly. The females 
generally seated themselves outside of the house near enough to hear. All 
listened attentively to the discourse, then retired about half an hour, which 
time the principal men employed in private conversation. When we re- 
assembled they made the following reply : 

" 'Our father, we are glad to see you and have you among us. We are 
convinced that you come among us from motives of charity. We believe 
that you know what to tell us, and that you tell us the truth. We are glad 
to hear that you are coming among us to live near us, and when you shall 
have arrived we will visit your house often and hear you speak of these 
good things.' 

"The bowl of hominy was then passed around the company again ; all 
smoked, shook hands and parted in friendship. On leaving, some of them 
gave their blessing. The benediction of one was as follows : 

" 'May the Great Spirit preserve your energy and health and conduct 
you safely to your family, give success to your labors, and bring you back 
to us again.' " 

Mr. McCoy remained two days. "'During that time," he said, "Me- 
nominee delivered to his people a lecture. He had no ceremony, but com- 
menced without even rising from his seat, and spoke with much energy." 

Continuing, Mr. McCoy said : "A little after dark the company dis- 
persed, and all shook hands with me as they had done in meeting. When 
we were alone, Menominee informed me that he had two wives. Some had 
said that if I had knowledge of this circumstance I would push him away 
from me. 'I tell you,' said he, 'that you may know it. It is a common 
custom among our people, and often the younger sister of a wife claims it 
as a privilege to become a second wife, that she, too, may have some one to 
provide meat for her. This is the case with regard to my two wives who 
are sisters. I did not know that it was wrong to take a second wife ; but if 
you say it is wrong, I will put one of them away.' This I thought appeared 
like cutting off a hand or pulling out an eye, because it offended, and I there- 
fore said I must think before I speak in regard to it. 

"Menominee at one time showed me a square stick on which he had 
made a mark for every sermon that he had preached. I then showed him 
in my journal the lists of texts from which I had preached at different 
times, showing at the same time that what I had preached had been taken 
from such and such places in our good book. He immediately began count- 
ing his marks and mine in order to ascertain which of us had preached most 
frequently in the course of the year. Finding a considerable difference in 
my favor, he pleaded his inferiority. He must now see all my books and 
papers, hear me read, notwithstanding he could not understand a word. I 
attempted to write in my journal, but he kept so close to me that I had to 


defer it. I retired into the bush to make some hasty notes with my pencil, 
but he followed and in a few minutes was seen gazing at me. 

"The weather being exceedingly hot, and we being obliged to use water 
taken from a filthy pond, the flies exceedingly severe on our horses, and our 
situation in every respect being very unpleasant and unwholesome, Abraham, 
who was already sick, insisted on our leaving. He said : "We stay here, 
I'm sure we die ; our horses die, too. Me no want to die here.' Alenominee 
called together all his people, of whom I took an affectionate leave after 
promising them that, if practicable, I would visit them again when the leaves 
began to fall. Menominee walked with us half a mile, begged a continua- 
tion of our friendship, declared that he would continue to please God and 
do right — and so we parted." 

Concluding his remarks concerning Menominee, Rev. Mr. McCoy said : 
"Among these tribes we rarely saw the men laboring in the field. The 
cultivation of the field was almost universally esteemed the business of the 
women. On our return trip we passed a small field in which a company of 
men were also laboring. Men, women and children came running to meet 
us at the fence, and gave me the parting hand. I did not see among them 
a particle of either bread or meat, excepting a few pigeons which they had 
killed with sticks ; some deer might have been taken, but they were destitute 
of powder and lead, and had not anything with which to purchase these 
articles. Excepting roots and weeds, their only food at this time consisted 
of corn and dried beans, of which their stock was exceedingly small." 

What Became of Menominee. 

It may be a query in the minds of many, what finally became of the 
good preacher. ^lenominee. The twenty-two sections of land ceded to him 
and Pe-pin-a-wa, Na-ta-ka and Mak-a-taw-ma-aw were never transferred 
by Menominee to the government, and, were he living, whatever interest he 
then had would still be his. The other chiefs who shared with him in the 
ownership received $14,080 for their interest, but Menominee refused to 
sign the treaty, and never transferred his interest either by treaty or sale to 
the government or others. He was placed under military surveillance at 
the time of the removal and guarded by soldiers on the 900 miles march to 
the western reservation. He was at that time a man well along in years, 
and it is more than likely, as he was never heard of afterward, that he died 
of a broken heart. 

Father Benjamin Marie Petit. 
The Catholic missionary. Rev. Father Petit, who was in charge of the 
chapel at the time of the removal of the Indians from Twin lakes, was a 
remarkable character and performed a prominent part during that exciting 
period. He was born in France, and was about twenty-five years old at 
the time of his ministrations, which began probably in the summer of 1837 
and ended in September, 1838, when the Indians were driven away. This 
ardent, youthful spirit evinced an intense enthusiasm from first to last in 
the work of his chosen field, and in an outburst of fervency he tells some- 
thing of his feelings and ministrations. "How I love these children of 
mine," he exclaimed, "and what pleasure it is for me to find myself amongst 
them. There are now from one thousand to two thousand Christians. 


Could you see the little children, when I enter a cabin, crowding around me 
and climbing on my knees — the father and mother making the sign of the 
cross in pious recollection, and then coming with a confiding smile on their 
faces to shake hands with me, you could not but love them as I do." Again 
he said : "When I am traveling in the woods, if I perceive an Indian hut, 
or even an abandoned encampment, I find my heart beat with joy. If I 
discover any Indians on my road, all my fatigue is forgotten, and when 
their smiles greet me at a distance I feel as if I were in the midst of my 
own family." This was at Twin lakes, six miles southwest of Plymouth, 
then known as "Chi-chi-pe Ou-te-pe." 

Of the chapel exercises he gave the following interesting account : 

"At sunrise the first peal was rung; then you might see the savages 
moving along the paths of the forest and the borders of the lakes ; when 
they were assembled the second peal was rung. The catechist then, in an 
animated manner, gave the substance of the sermon preached the evening 
before; a chapter of the catechism was read, and morning prayers were re- 
cited. I then said mass, the congregation singing hymns the while; after 
which I preached, my sermon being translated as I proceeded by a respect- 
able French lady seventy-two years old, who has devoted herself to the 
missions in the capacity of interpreter. The sermon was followed by a 
pater and ave, after which the congregation sang a hymn to Our Lady, and 
quietly dispersed. The next thing was confession, which lasted till evening, 
and sometimes was resumed after supper. At sunset the natives again as- 
sembled for catechism, followed by an exhortation and evening prayers, 
which finished with a hymn to Our Lady. I then gave them my benediction 
— the benediction of poor Benjamin. Many practice frequent communion. 
In the first three weeks of my pastorate I baptized eighteen adults and 
blessed nine marriages." 

All agree in saying that an indefatigable and burning zeal never was 
seen under more amiable and graceful form than in Rev. Father Petit. He 
had literally become a sort of idol among his beloved savages, whose frank- 
ness and childlike simplicity delighted him. In 1838 he wrote as follows: 
"Here I am in my Indian church of Chi-chi-pe Ou-ti-pe (Chapel at Twin 
lakes). How I love my children and delight in being among them." Speak- 
ing of the Indian chapel at Twin lakes, he said : "Now m\' cherished place 
of residence is in my Indian village (Menominee village) ; here I have a 
grand habitation, built of entire logs, placed one above the other; in more 
than one place we can see daylight through the walls. My fireplace is large 
enough to contain a quarter of a cord of wood. I have no carpet and the 
boards of my floor are so slightly fastened that they yield to the pressure of 
the foot like the keys of the piano to the musician's fingers." 

Just before the removal of the Indians, while preparations were being 
made for that sad event, he wrote : 

"One morning I said mass, and immediately afterward we began re- 
moving all the oranments from my dear little church. At the moment of 
my departure I assembled all my children to speak to them for the last time. 
I wept and my auditors sobbed aloud ; it was indeed a heart-rending sight, 
and over our dying mission we prayed for the success of those they would 
establish in their new hunting grounds. We then with one accord sang. 


'O, \'irgin, we place our confidence in Thee.' It was often interrupted by 
sobs, and but few voices were able to finish it. I then left them." 

Bishop Brute, of Vincennes, visited Menominee village in 1836 and de- 
scribed the village and the chapel as follows : 

"A large number of the Indian huts are built around the chapel, which 
is constructed of logs with the bark on, with a cross erected behind and 
rising above it, and filled with rudely made benches. The Indians begin and 
end their work without hammer, saw or nails, the ax being their only imple- 
ment, and bits of skin or bark serving to fasten the pieces together. The 
room of the missionary is over the chapel, the floor of the one forming the 
ceiling of the other. A ladder in the corner leads to it, and his furniture 
consists, as did that of the prophets, of a table and chair and a bed, or rather 
a hammock swung on ropes. Around the room are his books and the trunks 
which contain the articles used in his chapel as well as his own apparel. He 
spends his life with his good people, sharing their corn and meat, with 
water as his drink, as all Catholic Indians are forbidden to touch that which 
is the bane of their race, and he would encourage them with his example." 

Recollections of Rev. Warren Taylor. 
Rev. Warren Taylor was one of the early pioneers, having settled here 
about the time of the organization of the county in 1836. He was an itiner- 
ant Wesleyan Methodist preacher, and divided his time between farming, 
preaching and writing his recollections of early times. He wrote with great 
care, from personal knowledge so far as was possible, and in his sketch of 
the Pottawattomie Indians in this part of the country it will be observed 
that where he does not know, he says "probably," or "it is said," or "it is 
reported," etc. His paper on this subject is as follows : 

MTien the first white settlers came to Marshall county they found within its 
bounds a somewhat numerous branch of the Pottawattomie tribe of Indians. These 
Indians were divided into bauds, the most or all of which by the treaty of 1S32 
obtained reserves. The largest of these reserves were those of Aub-be-naub-bee and 
Me-no-mi-nee. The first was situated west of the Michigan road, and in the southern 
part of the county, extending perhaps into the county of Fulton. 

Me-no-mi-nee reserve embraced a region of country southwest of Plymouth, its 
northeastern corner being near the western border of the town. These two reserves 
eonViiined twenty or thirty sections each. The reserves of Ben-ack, Nis-wau-gee and 
Qu£sh-qua were much smaller, each of them containing two or three sections. The two 
latter lay on the east side of Maxinkuckee lake; the former was situated on the Tippe- 
canoe river in the southeastern part of the county. 

The Indian bands above mentioned while living in this region had several villages. 
The Aub-benau-bee ^'illage was on or near the southern line of the county, and about 
two miles west of the Michigan road. From three to four miles to the southwest of 
Plymouth in the neighborhood of the Twin lakes was a settlement of the Me-no-mi-nee 
band which contained near 100 wigwams. Around and among the wigw^ams were partly 
cleared fields from which the Indians raised considerable quantities of corn. This 
settlement was partly on the north side of the Twin lakes, and extended over one or 
two sections. The Ben-ack village was near the Tippecanoe river and about five miles 
south of the town of Bourbon. There was also a village on the Boberts prairie four 
miles southeast of Plymouth, and one at the Taber farm, about four miles south, on 
the Michigan road, which was called Pash-po, from its principal chief. 

The Pottawattomies were formerly a powerful tribe, inhabiting the northern part 
of Indiana, the southern part of Michigan, and the northeastern part of Illinois. In 
the early history of Indiana they were said to be for several years hostile to whites. 
It is said that a detachment of the Pottawattomies were on the way to oppose Harrison 
when that general approached the Prophet's town near the mouth of the Tippecanoe 


river. But before they could reach the scene of action the battle of Tippecanoe had 
been fought, and the Prophet's warriors had been defeated. It is reported, too, that, 
after the battle, the Indians retreated to a spot a few miles to the west or southwest 
of the present village of Marmont (now Culver) in Union township, which was so 
surrounded with marshes as to be almost inaccessible. During the last war with Great 
Britain the Pottawattomies were probably engaged with Tecumseh against the United 
States. In 1812 a detachment of the United States army marched from Fort Wayne 
and destroyed a large Pottawattomie village on the Elkhart river. Soon after the 
death of Tecumseh peace was declared with the Pottawattomies, the Miamis, and some 
other tribes inhabiting the Northwest territory. In 1832 the infant settlements of 
La Porte, South Bend, and Niles strongly feared that the Pottawattomies, with whom 
they were surrounded, would espouse the cause of Black Hawk and wage, if possible, 
against the white settlers a war of extermination. These fears, however, appear to 
have been unfounded. These facts have been mentioned because they belong to the 
history of the Pottawattomies, and with a branch of this tribe the early history of 
Marshall county is intimately connected. 

The great mass of the Pottawattomie nation had embraced the Catholic religion 
long, perhaps before, the settlement of northern Indiana by the whites. French 
missionaries had been among them and among many other tribes of the Mississippi 
valley. In some of the villages in this region, the Sabbath was observed as a day of 
worship. Many of our old citizens can recollect the time when they attended Indian 
meetings at the chapel on the Menominee reserve. This chapel, which was of good size 
and built of hewed logs, occupied a beautiful site on the north bank of the Twin lakes. 
The Indians who attended these meetings generally formed large congregations, and 
their behavior during services was very exemplary. Generally these meetings were 
conducted by ministers of their own nation, but occasionally French clergymen were 
present and took the lead. 

The demeanor of the Indians toward the white settlers was with few exceptions 
peaceable and friendly. A few of them had received an English education, and many 
of them were able to read books that had been translated into their language. In 
dress they had partly adopted the habits of the whites. Occasionally individuals would 
be seen dressed in fine broadcloth, which was made up in fashionable style. Such would, 
however, affix to their garments more or less of the fantastic ornaments which char- 
acterize the dress of an Indian. 

It has been observed that the Pottawattomies in this region were generally peace- 
able in their demeanor. All, however, did not possess this spirit. (Mr. Taylor then 
relates the tragic end of Au-bee-nau-bee practically as recorded in another place in this 
history. — Editor.) 

It has been observed that the Indians by the treaty of 1832 obtained within the 
county several reserves. Something like three years afterwards Col. A. C. Pepper, 
agent for the United States, held a council with the Indians for the purchase of the 
above mentioned reserves, which council was held, according to some, at the Potta- 
wattomie mills, about one mile east of Rochester, and according to others on the 
Tippecanoe river, about two miles above the crossing of the Michigan road north of 
Eochester. The purchase was effected, but whether fairly or otherwise has been a 
matter of considerable dispute. Many of the Indians were extremely dissatisfied with 
the result of the treaty, maintaining that a few individuals had consented to the 
purchase; that the wishes of the great mass of the owners had not been consulted. 
By this treaty the Indians obtained a tract of land in the then territory of Kansas, 
and perhaps something besides in the shape of an annuity. The news of this purchase 
soon brought to these reserves many white settlers, who were called "squatters," as 
the lands were not then in market. The settlers would build a house and sometimes 
make a small improvement upon the quarter section which they wished to secure. This 
was considered as establishing their claim. During the years 1836 and 1837 the most 
of the Au-bee-nau-bee and Menominee reserves were in this way taken up. The 
Indians who still lived upon the grounds regarded these settlers as intruders. Disputes 
frequently took place between them, but none of them, it is believed, terminated 
seriously. About this time congress passed a preemption law, which secured 160 acres 
at $1.25 per acre, to all actual settlers upon United States lands, if these lands were 
paid for within a specified time. The settlers of our reserves were included within the 
provisions of this act, and most of them succeeded in paying for their claims. 

Wakren Taylor. 


Those who may be interested in knowing all the facts in relation to this 
unfortunate affair are referred to the article in this work entitled "Removal 
of the Pottawattomie Indians from Northern Indiana" ; and also to an 
article, "A Monument to the Pottawattomie Indians." 


The first emigration of the Pottawattomie Indians from northern 
Indiana under the treaty stipulations made in 1836 that they would remove 
to the reservation west of the Missouri river within two years from the date 
of signing the treaty, took place in July, 1837. Under the direction of 
Abel C. Pepper, United States commissioner, the small bands of Ke-wa-na, 
Ne-bosh, Nas-wau-gee, and a few others, assembled at the village now 
kniown as Ke-wa-na, in Fulton county. They were placed in charge of 
a man by the name of George Proffit, who conducted them to their reserva- 
tion. In this emigration there were about one hundred all told, all of whom 
went voluntarily. 

Forcible Removal of Menominee and His Band. 

On the 6th of August, 1838, the time stipulated in the several treaties 
for the Indians to emigrate having expired, and Menominee and his band 
declining to go, a council was held at Menominee village, just north of 
Twin lakes, in Marshall county, five miles southwest from Plymouth. Col. 
Abel C. Pepper, Indian agent for the government, was present, and most 
of the chiefs in that part'of the county; also many of the white residents 
of the surrounding country. The treaty was read wherein it was shown 
that in ceding their lands the Indians had agreed to remove to the western 
reservation within the specified time, and that the date was then at hand 
when they must go. It was plain to those present who were familiar with 
the Indian character that there was great dissatisfaction among them, and a 
spirit of rebellion growing which if not soon suppressed would probably 
lead to serious results. The leader and principal spokesman for the Indians 
was Me-no-mi-nee. By the treaty of 1832 twenty-two sections of land 
had been reserved to him and three other chiefs, viz., Pe-pin-a-waw, Na-ta-ka 
and Mack-a-taw-ma-ah. This reservation bordered on the west of Plymouth, 
north as far as the Catholic cemetery and far enough south to take in Twin 
lakes, about half way between Plymouth and Maxinkuckee lake. The last 
three named chiefs entered into a treaty with Col. Abel C. Pepper on 
behalf of the government August 5, 1836, by which they ceded all their 
interest in the reservation above described, for which the government agreed 
to pay them $14,080 in specie, being one dollar an acre, there being 
in the reservation 14,080 acres of land, and they agreed to remove to 
the country west of the Missouri river provided for them within two 
years. Chief Menominee refused to sign this or any other treaty, and 
persistently declined to release to the government his interest in the reserva- 
tion. When Col. Pepper had made his final appeal and all had had their 


say, Menominee rose to his feet and, drawing his costly blanket around 
him, is reported by one who was present to have said in substance : 

"Members of the Council: The President does not know the truth. 
He, like me, has been imposed upon. He does not know that your treaty 
is a lie, and that I never signed it. He does not know that you made 
my young chiefs drunk and got their consent and pretended to get mine. 
He does not know that I have refused to sell my lands and still refuse. He 
would not by force drive me from my home, the graves of my tribe, and 
my children who have gone to the Great Spirit, nor allow you to tell me 
your braves will take me, tied like a dog, if he knew the truth. My 
brother the President is just, but he listens to the word of the young 
chiefs who have lied; and when he knows the truth he will leave me 
to my own. I have not sold my lands. I will not sell them. I have 
not signed any treaty, and will not sign any. I am not going to leave 
my lands, and I don't want to hear anything more about it." 

Describing the scene, one who was present said : "Amid the applause 
of the chiefs he sat down. Spoken in the peculiar style of the Indian 
orator — although repeated by an interpreter — with an eloquence of which 
Logan would have been proud, his presence, the personification of dignity, 
it presented one of those rare occasions of which history gives few instances, 
and on the man of true appreciation would have made a most profound 

In order that a clear understanding may be had of the cause that led 
up to the forcible removal of Menominee and his band, it may be briefly 
stated that at a treaty held on the Tippecanoe river October 26, 1832, 
negotiated by Jonathan Jennings, John W. Davis and Marks Crume on the 
part of the United States, and the chiefs, etc., of the Pottawattomies, exten- 
sive reservations belonging to the Pottawattomie Indians were ceded to 
the United States, from which a number of small reservations were given 
to certain chiefs and their bands named therein as follows : 

Article 2. From the session aforesaid, the following reseri-ations are made, to-wit: 
For the band of Au-bee-nau-bee thirty-six sections, to include his village. 

For the bands of Menominee, No-taw-kah, Muck-kah-tah-nio-way, and Peepin- 
oh-waw, twenty-two sections (and to several others too numerous to mention). 

The object of copying the foregoing is to show how Me-no-mi-nee came 
in possession of his interest in the twenty-two sections of land in dispute. 
This record may be found in "A Compilation of all the Treaties Between 
the United States and the Indian Tribes," published by the United States 
in 1873, at page 680. 

Menominee's contention was that he never signed any treaty trans- 
ferring his interest in the twenty-two sections above named, and the gov- 
ernment book of treaties above referred to does not show his name attached 
to any treaty, while it does show the names of the other three chiefs as 
having signed a treaty transferring their interest in the twenty-two sections 
named to the L'nited States August 5, 1836, and in that treaty the three 
chiefs agreed to remove west of the Mississippi river within two years. 
In order that the treaty may be handy of reference, it is copied below in 
full as found on page 712 of the book of treaties above referred to: 



Articles of a treaty made and concluded at a camp near Yellow river, in the State 

of Indiana, between Abel C. Pepper, commissioner, on the part of the United 

States, and Pe-pin-a-waw, Nataw-ka and Mack-a-taw-mo-ah, chiefs and headmen 

of the Pottawattomie tribe of Indians and their bands, on the fifth day of August 

in the year 1836. 

Article 1. The above named chiefs and headmen and their bands hereby cede 
to the United States twenty-two sections of land reserved for them by the second 
article of the treaty between the United States and the Pottawattomie tribe of 
Indians, on Tippecanoe river, on the twenty-sixth day of October, 1832. 

Article 2. In consideration of the session aforesaid, the United States stipulate 
to pay the above named chiefs and headmen and their bands the sum of $14,080 in 
specie after the ratification of this treaty, and on or before the first day of May next 
ensuing the date hereof. 

Article 3. The above named chiefs and headmen and their bands agree to remove 
to the country west of the Mississippi river provided for the Pottawattomie Nation by 
the United States within two years. 

Article 4. At the request of the above named band it is stipulated that after 
the ratification of this treaty the United States shall appoint a commissioner, who 
Bhall be authorized to pay such debts of the said band as may be proved to his 
satisfaction to be just, to be deducted from the amount stipulated in the second article 
of this treaty. 

Article 5. The United States stipulate to provide for the payment of the necessary 
expenses attending the. making and concluding this treaty. 

Article 6. This treaty, after the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate 
of the United States, shall be binding upon both parties. 

Proclaimed February 18, 1837. 

This is the treaty that Menominee at the council above referred to 
declared he had never signed, and from the treaty record made by the 
government from which it is taken he was correct. 

From Gen. Tipton's report of the removal, which will be copied in 
full later on, it appears that the government had been trying for some time 
previous to get this land from Menominee. In 1834 a commissioner was 
appointed by the President to purchase this land. He succeeded in pur- 
chasing one-half of the land at 50 cents per acre. The other half (eleven 
sections) was reserved for individual Indians, jMenominee coming in for 
a large share of individual property. There is no record of this treaty, 
as the President did not submit it to the senate. The refusal of the govern- 
ment to ratify this treaty undoubtedly offended Menominee and caused 
him to refuse to further treat with the government agents with reference 
to the sale of his intere.^t in the reservation, and there negotiations ceased. 

At the council above referred to considerable time was spent in trying 
to persuade Menominee and his following to accept the inevitable and 
remove peaceably to the reservation provided for them, as, if they did not, 
the government would remove them by force. Without accomplishing 
anything, however, the council disbanded. 

Menominee was a wise and experienced chief, and he knew that the 
final consummation was near at hand. As soon as the council had dis- 
banded he began at once to fire the hearts of his followers with a deter- 
mination to resist the government officers in their evident intention to 
remove them from their lands and homes which Menominee had never 
sold or transferred to the government. The consequence was the Indians 
became desperate ; intoxicating liquors, which the white traders and schemers 


had supplied them with, were drank to excess; threats of violence were 
freelv made, and the white settlers in the immediate neighborhood became 
greatly alarmed for the safety of themselves and families. Several white 
men, who had squatted on the reservation expecting to enter the land as soon 
as the Indians went awav, urged on the disturbance and it seemed probable 
that a general fight would ensue. In this alarming condition of affairs 
a number of white settlers early in August, 1838, petitioned the governor 
of Indiana for protection against what they believed would result in the 
certain destruction of their lives and property. On this subject, in his 
message to the legislature of Indiana, December 4, 1838, Gov. David Wallace 

"By the conditions of the late treaty with the Pottawattomie tribe of 
Indians in Indiana, the time stipulated for their departure to the west of 
the Mississippi expired on the sixth of August last. As this trying moment 
approached a strong disposition was manifested by many of the most 
influential among them to disregard the treaty entirely, and to cling to the 
homes and graves of their fathers at all hazards. In consequence of such 
a determination on their part, a collision of- the most serious character was 
likely to ensue between them and the surrounding settlers. Apprehensive 
of such a result, and with a view to prevent it, the citizens of Marshall 
countv, earlv in the month of August, forwarded to the executive a petition 
praying that an armed force mieht be immediately sent to their protection. 
On receipt of this petition I repaired as speedily as circumstances would per- 
mit to the scene of difliculty, in order to satisfy myself by a personal examina- 
tion whether their fears were justifiable or not. On my return to Logansport 
a formal requisition awaited me from the Indian agent. Col. A. C. Pepper, 
for one hundred armed volunteers to be placed under the command of some 
competent citizen of the state whose duty it should be to preserve the peace 
and to arrest the growing spirit of hostility displayed by the Indians. 
The requisition was instantly granted. I appointed the Hon. John Tipton 
to tlvLS command and gave him authority to raise the necessary number of 
volunteers. He promptly and patriotically accepted the appointment, and 
although sickness and disease prevailed to an alarming extent throughout 
northern Indiana, yet such was the spirit and patriotism of the people there 
that in about forty-eight hours after the requisition was authorized the 
requisite force wa^ not only mustered but was transported into the midst 
of the Indians before they were aware of its approach, or before even 
they could possibly take steps to repel it. The rapidity of the movement, 
the known decision and energy of Gen. Tipton, backed by his intimate 
acquaintance and popularity with the Indians whom it was his business 
to quiet, accomplished everything desired. The refractory became com- 
placent ; opposition to removal ceased ; and the whole tribe, with a few 
exceptions, amounting to between 800 and 900, voluntarily prepared to 
emigrate. Gen. Tipton and the volunteers accompanied them as far as 
Danville, 111., administering to them on the way whatever comfort and relief 
humanity required. There they were delivered over to Judge Polke and the 
United States removing agents. Copies of all the communications and 
reports made to the executive by Gen. Tipton while in the discharge of 
this duty I lay before you. from which I feel assured you will discover 
with mvself that much credit and manv thanks are due not onlv to him 


but to all who assisted him in bringing so delicate an affair to so happy 
and successful a termination." 

Before referring to the message of Gov. Wallace, the writer desires to 
state that diligent search and inquiry has been made in the several depart- 
ments of the state at Indianapolis, and it is much to be regretted that 
none of the papers referred to have been preserved, or at least cannot be 

The reader will observe by perusing the message of Gov. Wallace, and 
the report of Gen. Tipton, which appears later on, that Menominee nor any 
other of the Indians were in any way consulted in regard to the matters 
in dispute. Undoubtedly the information forwarded to Gov. Wallace was 
furnished him by one Watters and others like him, who were waiting to 
enter the lands as soon as the Indians were driven away. Watters was 
aided in his scheme by a few others who joined him in working the 
Indians up to a point where armed soldiers would be necessary to quell the 
disturbance and remove the Indians by force from the reservation. These 
disturbers were assisted in securing the cooperation of the governor by 
Gen. Tipton and Col. Pepper, who, without doubt, prepared and forwarded 
the petitions signed by Watters and others. The governor says on receipt 
of the petition he repaired to the scene of the disturbance as speedily as 
possible. He does not say how long he stayed or what the nature of the 
trouble was that he discovered. He says on his return to Logansport he 
found a formal requisition awaiting him from the Indian agent, Col. 
Pepper. And then he adds, "The requisition was instantly granted." And 
this, too, without consulting Menominee or any other of the Indians to get 
their side of the story or to see if he could not hold a conference with 
them, ascertain the real cause of the trouble and see if some terms of 
settlement could not be agreed upon. But he did nothing of the kind. 
He instantly granted a requisition for a company of soldiers, and appointed 
Gen. Tipton, an Indian fighter and an Indian hater, who, the governor 
says, "promptly and patriotically accepted the appointment." And then, 
the rapidity of the movement, etc., accomplished everything desired. The 
refractory became complacent, opposition to removal ceased, etc. Of course 
it did ! Gen. Tipton says : "The arrival of the volunteers in the Indian 
village was the first intimation they had of the movement of men with 
arms. Many of the Indian men were assembled near the chapel and were 
not permitted to leave camp or separate until matters were amicably settled 
and they had agreed to give peaceable possession of the land sold by 
them." They were simply surrounded by the soldiers, their guns, bows 
and arrows, tomahawks, etc., they had in their possession were taken away 
from them ; they were surrounded and placed under guard, and, as the gov- 
ernor said: "The refractory became complacent, opposition to removal 
ceased, and the whole tribe, with a few exceptions, amounting to between 
800 and 900, voluntarily prepared to emigrate." Of course "they volun- 
tarily prepared to emigrate." How could they have done otherwise, being 
deprived of their arms and surrounded with one hundred armed soldiers 
prepared to shoot the first one that offered resistance ? 

On the day prior to the exodus a meeting of the Indians was held at 
the little graveyard, a short distance from the village, at which a final 
farewell of the dead was taken by those who were to leave the following 


morning never to return. Addresses were made by the chiefs present and 
by several white settlers. An address of some length was delivered by 
Myron H. Orton, of La Porte, which was afterward printed, but unfor- 
tunately no copies of it can now be found. The scene is said to have been 
affecting in the extreme. Weeping and wailing, which was confined to a 
few at first, became general, and until they were finally induced to dis- 
perse, it looked as though a riot would surely ensue. In solemn reverence 
they turned their weeping faces from the sleeping dead, never to look upon 
the graves of their kindred again. 

Early the next morning, September 4, 1838, orders were given to move; 
the wig;wams, tepees, and cabins were torn down, and Menominee village, 
the largest in the county, had the appearance of having been swept by a 
tornado ; and immediately nearly a thousand men, women and children, 
with broken hearts and tearful eyes, took up the line of march to their 
far distant home in the west. Xo sadder sight was ever witnessed in 
the great northwest as a result of the dealings of the whites with the 
Indians, the original owners and inhabitants of all this vast country. It 
was unjustified by the facts, and, as shown by the report of Gen. Tipton, 
was cruel and almost inhuman. It makes one's blood run cold to realize 
the amount of suffering that fell to the lot of the many old and feeble 
Indians and squaws, and the mothers and their pappooses, dragged along 
through the wilderness those hot, sultry summer days with little food and 
pond water unfit to drink. 

General Tipton's Report to Governor Wallace. 

Gen. Tipton accompanied the Indians as far as Sandusky Point, where 
he made the following report to Gov. Wallace : 

Encampment Sandusky Point. Illinois. 
September IS, 1838. 

Dear Sir: I have the honor to inform you that the volunteers under my command 
reached this place last evening with 859 Pottawattoniie Indians. Three persons 
improperly called chiefs — Menominee, Black-Wolf, and Pe-pin-a-wa — are of the number. 
I have this morning put the Indians under the charge of Judge William Polke, ivho has 
been appointed by the United States to conduct them west of the Missouri river. I 
have also the honor to lay before your excellency a copy of my orderly book, or daily 
journal, to which I beg leave to refer a detailed statement of the manner in which my 
duties have been performed as commanding officer of volunteers engaged in this 
delicate sers'ice. 

It may be the opinion of those not well informed upon the subject that the 
expedition was uncalled for, but I feel confident that nothing but the presence of an 
armed force for the protection of the citizens of the state to punish the insolence of 
the Indians could have prevented bloodshed. The arrival of the volunteers in the 
Indian village was the first intimation that they had of the movement of men with 

Many of the Indian men were assembled near the chapel when we arrived, and 
were not permitted to leave camp or separate until matters were amicably settled, and 
they had agreed to give peaceable possession of the land sold by them. I did not feel 
authorized to drive these poor, degraded beings from our state, but to remove them 
from the reserve and to give peace and security to our citizens. But I found the 
Indians did not own an acre of land east of the Mississippi; that the government was 
bound to remove them to the Osage river, to support them one year after their arrival 
west, and to give to each indi\advial of the tribe 320 acres of land. Most of- them 
appeared willing to do so. Three of their principal men, however, expressed a wish to 
be governed by the advice of their priest (Mr. Petit, a Catholic gentleman), who had 


resided with them up to the time of the commencement of the quarrel between the 
Indians and the whites, when he left Twin lakes and returned to South Bend. I 
addressed a letter inviting him to join the emigration and go west. He has accepted 
the invitation, and I am happy to inform you that he joined us two days ago and is 
going west with the Indians. It is but justice to him to say that he has, both by 
example and precept, produced a very favorable change in the morals and industry of 
the Indians; that his untiring zeal in the cause of civilization has been, and will 
continue to be, eventually beneficial to these unfortunate Pottawattomies when they 
reach their new abode. All are now satisfied and appear anxious to proceed on their 
journey to their new homes, where they anticipate peace, security and happiness. 

It may be expected that I should give your excellency an intimation or an opinion 
of the causes which have led up to the difficulty now happily terminated. A few 
words on that subject must suffice. 

First, the pernicious practice (I believe first introduced into our Indian treaty 
making at Fort Meigs in 1817) of making reservations of land to satisfy individual 
Indians, and sometimes white men, opened the door for both speculation and fraud. 

By the treaty of 1832 the Pottawattomie Indians sold all their claims to land 
within the state of Indiana, except a few small reserves for particular tribes and parties. 
These reservations did not vest in the chief of any party a fee in the lands resei-ved; 
the original Indian title remained undisturbed, as you will see by the opinion of the 
attorney-general of the United States in the case of a reserve made by a treaty with 
the Prairie Pottawattomies October 20, 1832, to which I beg leave to refer. Menominee 
reserve, about which the dispute originated, was made for his band by the treaty of 
1832. He, being a principal man (but not a chief), was first named, and the reserve 
has ever since been called by both Indians and white men "Me-no-mi-nee's Reserve." 
In 1834 a commissioner was appointed by the President to purchase that reservation. 
He succeeded in purchasing one-half of the land at 50 cents per acre; the other half 
(eleven sections) was reserved for individual Indians and whites, Menominee coming 
in for a large share of individual property. Hence the otner Indians would have been 
defrauded out of their just claim to an interest in the reserve if that treaty had been 
confirmed. But the President, viewing the matter in the true light, did not submit the 
treaty to the senate, but appointed A. C. Pepper, and authorized him to open up the 
negotiation and purchase all the land for the government. He succeeded in purchasing 
the whole of the reserve at $1 per acre. Menominee did not sign the latter treaty 
because he could not possess himself of a moiety of the land and endow the chapel 
with the balance. (As Menominee owned the land it did not make any difference what 
his reasons were for not signing the treaty.) By the treaty of 1836 the Indians 
reserved the right to remain on the lands for two years. The time expired on the fifth 
of that month (August, 1838) and the Indians refused to give possession to the 
settlers who had entered upon the land in anticipation of the passage of the preemption 
law. The passage of the law of June 22 last gave to each settler who had resided on 
the reserve for four months previous to that day, a preemption right to 160 acres of 
land. On the fifth of last month, the day on which the Indians were to have left the 
reservation, the whites demanded possession, which they (the Indians) absolutely 
refused. Quarrels ensued and between the fifteenth and twentieth the Indians chopped 
the door of one of the settlers, Mr. Waiters, and threatened his life. (See his certificate 
marked "A.") [This man Waiters was the disturbing element that caused all the 
trouble in this unfortunate affair. His door would not have been chopped if he had 
not nagged the Indians on to do it for the very purpose of raising the disturbance 
so that the government would be compelled to send troops to remove them. — Editor.] 
This was followed by the burning of ten or twelve Indian cabins, which produced a 
state of feeling bordering on hostilities. The assistant superintendent of emigration, 
who had been stationed in the vicinity for some months, had failed to get up an 
emigrating party, and the pubUe interpreters were so much alarmed as to be unwilling 
to remain in the Indian villages. I entertain no doubt but for the steps taken by your 
excellency, murders would have been committed on both sides in a few days. The 
arrival of an armed force sufficient to put down the hostile movement against our 
citizens effected in three days what counseling and fair words had failed to do in as 
many months. 

I see no reason for censuring the officers to whose charge the emigration has been 
confided. They should, perhaps, have prevented the Indians from planting corn in June, 
when every one must have known that they would have been ousted on the fifth of 


August. But, on the other hand, the Indians had the right of possession until August 5, 
1838. The Indians were under the influence of bad counsel from different sources. 
They were owing large debts to the traders, who opposed the emigration of the Indians 
before their debts were paid or secured. [It will be seen by reference to Article 4 of 
the treaty above copied that provisions were made for the payment of all these debts 
by the government by a commissioner appointed for that purpose out of the amount 
($14,080) agreed upon as the purchase money, before the same should be paid to the 
Indians; therefore Gen. Tipton must have been wrongly informed in regard to the 
debts due the traders. It might as well be understood now as any other time that 
an ' ' Indian trader ' ' was never known to get left in his dealings with the Indians, and 
if these "traders" were opposed to the Indians going it was not because they had not 
already got their pay, but because they thought the Indians still had a few more 
dollars left that they could swindle them out of in some way or other. — Editor.] Some 
were anxious to keep them where they were, hoping to obtain with ease a part of 
the money paid them as annuity. Lawyers, I am told, advised Menominee to keep 
possession and defend his claim to the reserve in our courts. Another class of men, 
both subtle and vigilant office-seekers, were using their influence to procure the 
dismissal of the officers heretofore engaged in the attempt to remove the Indians that 
they might succeed to the place of the present incumbents; and still another class, 
perhaps less wicked but not free from censure, is made up of those who influenced the 
Indians to plant corn and contend for the possession of the reserve. 

I am happy in being able to state that the removal of the Indians was effected 
without bloodshed or maltreatment. Every attention that could be was paid to their 
health, comfort and convenience. When on our marches, which are sometimes very 
much hurried owing to the great distances between watering places, it is not unusual 
to see a number of volunteers walking whilst their horses are ridden by the sickly or 
infirm Indians. 

"I found no difficulty in raising the number of volunteers required, although the 
people of the northern part of the state are much afllicted with sickness. I was 
compelled to discharge one or more every day and permit them to return home on 
account of bad health. The greatest number in service at any time was ninety-seven. 
The conductor of the emigration has requested me to place at his disposal fifteen 
volunteers to attend the party and keep order in camp at night. Believing it necessary, 
I have consented to do so, and have detailed Ensign B. H. Smith, with fourteen 
dragoons, on the ser\'ice. The rest of the corps mil be discharged tomorrow. 

In closing this report, already much longer than I could wish, I beg leave to 
express the obligation I am under to our mutual friend. Col. Bryant, who acted in 
the capacity of aid-de-camp, and has proved himself to be an excellent officer. I am 
not less indebted to Maj. Evans, of La Porte. His knowledge of military discipline 
enabled him to be eminently useful. To Gen. N. D. Grover, Capts. Hannegan and 
Holman, Lieuts. Eldridge, LaSalle, Nash and Linton, and Ensigns McClure, Wilson, 
Smith and Holman, and to J. T. Douglass, adjutant, I am also under great obligations. 
Every commissioned officer and soldier has fully sustained the high character of 
western volunteers. I have the honor to be. Your obedient servant, 

John Tipton. 

P. S. — I transmit herewith for the information of your excellency an exhibit (B), 
showing the names of the Pottawattomie Indians as emigrants, and the number of their 
respective families. 

General Tipton's Daily Journal. 

The following is abridged from Gen. Tipton's daily journal of the 
occurrences that took place on the way: 

Tuesday, September 4, 1838. — Left Twin lakes, Marshall county, In- 
diana, early this morning. Traveling today was attended with much dis- 
tress on account of the scarcity of water. Provisions and forage were also 
very scarce and of poor quality. The distance made was twenty-one miles. 

Wednesday, 5th. — Fifty-one persons were found to be unable to con- 
tinue the journey on account of the want of transportation, and were left, 
the most of them sick, with some to care for them. On account of the diffi- 


culty of finding water, a distance of only nine miles was traveled. On the 
evening of this day a child died and was buried the next morning. 

Thursday, 6th. — A distance of seventeen miles was traveled, and less 
of suft'ering and difficulty was experienced than on any of the previous days. 
During the evening nine persons left behind the day before came into camp. 

P'rida}', 7th. — Thirteen persons more of the number left on Wednesday 
came into camp. Eighteen persons belonging to diiTerent families also 
joined the expedition. A child died in the morning. 

Saturday, 8th. — A child three years old died and was buried. A chief, 
named We-wis-sa, came in with his family, consisting of six persons. Two 
wagons which had been sent back for those left behind at Chippewa, on 
Tippecanoe river, north of Rochester, on Wednesda}^ returned, bringing 
twenty-two persons, the whole number left behind, except nine who were 
unable to travel and a few who had managed to escape. It was arranged 
for those left behind to be taken care of until able to proceed on the way. 

Sunday, 9th. — Physicians came into camp and reported about 300 cases 
of sickness, which they pronounced of a temporary character. A kind of 
hospital was erected to facilitate the administering of medical treatment. 
Two children died this day. 

Monday, loth. — The journey was renewed, and twenty-one persons, in- 
clusive of sick and their attendants, were left behind. The day was hot, but, 
as the journey was made along the Wabash, there was not so much suffering 
for water. On the evening and night after getting into camp a child and 
man died. 

Tuesday, nth. — A distance of seventeen miles was accomplished 
through an open and champaign country, with only the difficulties of pro- 
curing subsistence and forage. 

Wednesday, 12th. — The distance traveled from camp to camp was fif- 
teen miles. The encampment was made near Tippecanoe battle ground. 
At this place a quantity of dry goods, such as cloaks, blankets, calicoes, etc., 
amounting to $5,469.81, was distributed among the Indians. Here, too, a 
very old woman, the mother of We-wis-sa, died. She was said to be over 
100 years old. 

Thursday, 13th. — A distance of eighteen miles was traveled. The sultry 
heat and the dust were the chief drawbacks on the way. Two physicians 
were called m to prescribe for those indisposed. They reported 160 cases 
of sickness. 

Friday, 14th. — A journey of eighteen miles was made over a dry and 
unhealthy portion of the country. Persons, through weariness and fatigue, 
were continually falling sick along the route, and the wagons to transport 
them were becoming daily more and more crowded. As the party advanced 
into the prairie the streams were found to be literally dried up. Two deaths 
took place in the evening of this day. 

Saturday, 15th. — After traveling ten miles the migrating party were 
forced to encamp at noon near an unhealthy and filthy looking stream, as 
it was learned there would be no chance of a better place that day. Two 
small children died along the road. 

Sunday, i6th. — Danville, 111., was reached after a journey of fifteen 
miles, a large part of the way being over the Grand prairie. The heat and 
the dust made the traveling distressing. In the morning several persons 



were left sick in camp. Tiie horses had become jaded, the Indians sickly, 
and many persons engaged in the emigration more or less sick. The whole 
country passed through was afflicted, as every village and hamlet had its 
invalids. Provisions and forage were found more enormously dear the 
farther the advance of the party. The sickness of the whole country was 
found to be unparalleled. Four persons in the little town near the encamp- 
ment had died the day before. 

Monday, 17th. — The volunteers and 859 Pottawattomie Indians reached 
'Sandusky Point, where they were turned over to Judge William Polke to 
conduct them west of the Mississippi river. John Tipton. 

Indian Chief Po-ka-gon's Letter. 
The removal of the Pottawattomie Indians from northern Indiana, and 
matters connected therewith, was published in the Plymouth Democrat in 

Chief Simon Pokagoii. 

serial form in 1897-8, and copies of the issues of the paper containing it 
were sent to Simon Po-ka-gon, the last chief of the Pottawattomie Indians 
in the northwest part of the country, who, in reply, thanking the editor for 
sending him the papers, wrote the following letter, which (as he died early 
in 1899) is probably the last letter he ever wrote on the subject of his "van- 
ishing race" : 


Hartford, Mich., October, 26, 1898. 

Dear Editor: I received the issues of the paper sent me containing a history 
of my people in northern Indiana and southern Michigan. I am anxious to tell you 
that it re,ioices my heart to know there are a few men like yourself who have done much 
in the past and are still doing much for my poor, vanishing race, publishing of us what 
is authentic. I believe if the dominant race understood the facts connected with the 
dealings between the two races, that that false prejudice which now rises mountain high 
before them would vanish as the morning mist before the rising sun. 

My people, of course, have no written history. It has been recorded by another 
race — and it is as true today as when Solomon said it : " He who is first in his cause 
seemeth just, but his neighbor cometh and searcheth him." 

I rejoice to know that such men as yourself stand up boldly and searcheth the 
past history, lighting up those places which appeared dark against us, revealing the real 
facts that show conclusively that we have been blamed without fault of our own part — 
that is, unless you can blame the parent bird that does all in her power to defend her 
nest and her young. 

I thank you from "wi-o-daw" (my heart) for the straightforward manner you 
have dealt with us in reviewing past history, and pray that "waw-kwi" (heaven) will 
bless you and your influence most abundantly and hasten the day when all shall 
acknowledge that the white man and the red man are brothers, and that "ki-ji-Manito" 
(God) is " o-os-si-maw ka-ki-naw" (the father of all). Sincerely yours, 

Simon Po-ka-gon, Chief of the Pottawattomies. 

Recollections of Eye-Witnesses. 

The following interviews with residents of Marshall county who were 
present at the time of the removal, or who were conversant with the facts, 
are appended here as of historic value : 

William Sluyter — "I lived near the Menominee village, which was 
just north of Twin lakes, in ]\Iarshall county, and was present at the time 
the Indians were congregated there, September 3 and 4, 1838, to be removed 
to the western reservation. The village was composed of log huts and 
wigwams of poles, covered with bark and matting, erected without any 
system. There were seventy-five or a hundred of these primitive dwellings. 
A graveyard in which their dead were buried was near by. They buried 
their dead mostly by splitting logs in the middle and digging a trough in 
one part, putting the dead in and closing it up. Some of them were put 
under ground, and some were set upright, with poles placed around them. 

-"There were several hundred Indians there at the time, and quite a num- 
ber of soldiers — state militia, I think. Col. A. C. Pepper, I believe, was 
there in immediate charge, while I understood Gen. Tipton was the chief 
of the removal. I think the caravan went in a southeasterly direction near 
the north end of Lake Maxinkuckee, and so on down to Logansport and 
along the Wabash river. 

"I saw no ill treatment of the Indians so far as the government was 
concerned. There were, however, individual cases of bad treatment by some 
of those in authority. The soldiers disarmed the Indians, taking from them 
their guns, tomahawks, axes, bows and arrows, knives, etc., and placed 
them in wagons for transportation. There were plenty of wagons to carry 
all who were unable to walk, but not many would consent to get into the 
wagons, never having seen any vehicles of that kind, and they were afraid 
of them ! They marched off single file, with a soldier at the head of about 
every forty or fifty. It was indeed a sad sight to see them leaving their 
homes and hunting grounds, where many of them had lived all their lives, 
and going to a strange land concerning which they knew nothing. .-Kfter 


they left, the wigwams were torn down and burned ; eventually the old 
chapel, which was used as a guardhouse, was torn down, and the little grave- 
yard was finally plowed over and obliterated, and no trace of the village, the 
chapel or the graveyard can now be found." 

David How — "I was about ten years old when the Indians were re- 
moved. I was there with my father, Isaac How, who lived near by, the 
night before the caravan started. My father was one of the guards at the 
chapel in which Chief Menominee," who refused to go peaceably, was con- 
fined. I should think there were several hundred Indians there at the time, 
and a hundred or more soldiers. When they left a soldier was placed at the 
head of about every thirty or forty Indians. The Indians were all disarmed. 
Wagons were provided for all who were unable to walk and others, but 
most of them disliked to ride in a government wagon, and all walked that 
possibly could. The Indians were brought to the village from different 
parts of northern Indiana and southern Michigan by squads of soldiers, who 
forced them to leave their villages, and, after selecting such articles as could 
be conveniently carried and would be of use on the way, they tore down 
and burned up the huts and wigwams, and marched them off to the general 
rendezvous. My sympathies were always with the Indians, and I think 
many of them were shamefully treated." 

John Lovvery — "I lived close by the Indian chapel, which was located 
on the north bank of Twin lakes, a few rods west of where the railroad 
crosses the wagon road, and near where the Indians congregated in 1838, 
preparatory to being removed to a reservation west of the Alissouri river. 
I was not there at the time, being absent in La Porte county. I talked with 
those who were there, and with some who went with the Indians part of the 

"Gen. Tipton was the moving agent, had command of the soldiers and 
had had much to do with the Indians for many years previous in this part 
of the country, having been employed by the government to secure treaties 
for the extinguishment of the Indian titles to their reservations. The Pot- 
tawattomies were peaceable and were always kindly treated by him. There 
was no occasion for cruel treatment on his part, and I am satisfied none 
was offered to any of them unless they deserved it. The time specified in 
the treaties for the Indians to remove having expired. Gen. Tipton, who was 
in command of a company of militia, sent squads of soldiers to the several 
villages in this part of the state, with directions to require the Indians to 
assemble at the chapel on a day named, as a starting place. 

■'At the appointed time nearly all that were able to go met at the chapel, 
where a council was held and arrangements made for the start the next 
day. The chapel hall was used for the meeting of the council. The building 
was made of hewn logs, and its dimensions were about forty by twenty feet. 
The doors were not locked : no handcuffs were used and no indignities were 
shown any of the Indians so far as I have been able to learn. They were 
told that the treaties signed by their chiefs required them to go west to the 
reservation provided for them within two years from the date of the treaties, 
and, that time having expired, it was their duty to go peaceably. Many of 
the Indians protested that the treaties had been procured by fraud, and had 
not been signed by those having authority to sign them, and that was the 
reason they had not gone peaceably before. The treaties, however, having 


been ratified by the government, and the reservations having been made 
subject to entry, there was nothing to be done but to remove the Indians. 
That, as I was told, was done as quietly and humanely as it was possible 
under the circumstances. The country was new and unimproved, and in 
northern Indiana an unbroken wilderness. There were no wagon roads 
then and the Indian trail was difficult of passage with wagons and pack- 
horses. There were among the Indians many old men and women and 
papooses, and not a few sick and unable to go without being transported in 
wagons or on packhorses. This was the condition, as it was told to me, on 
that September morning in 1838, when over 800 Indians started on their 
long journey to the far west." 

Mrs. EiiMA Dickson, being asked her recollection of Chief jMenominee 
and the old Indian chapel, replied : "My recollection is not very clear, but 
as I remember him Menominee was a large, fine-looking man, square built, 
tall, rather stern looking ; would think he would be brave and determined in 
whatever he undertook that he thought was right. I lived with my father, 
John Houghton, about midway between Menominee village and Benak vil- 
lage, and the Indian trail between the two villages ran close by our cabin. 
In his travels between these two villages, JMenominee would nearly always 
stop to get something to eat and drink. Along this trail there would some- 
times be twenty or thirty Indians go and come daily, especially when they 
had meetings of any kind. 

'T cannot remember much about the old Indian chapel, only that it was 
a rough-hewn log building, and the cross at the end of the building was of 
the same material as the house. The priest, Father Petit, was of medium 
height and rather nice looking. He talked in the French language. A 
French woman interpreted his sermons into the Pottawattomie language to 
the Indians. I cannot remember how she looked to me. At one time when 
I was at the chapel a squaw came out at the close of service with her nose 
blacked and lay down at the foot of the cross, crying. I asked why 
she cried, and some one said she had been drunk and was doing it as a pen- 
ance for forgiveness. I felt very sorry for her. 

"It was a sad sight to see the Indians forced away, for their lands were 
taken by fraud : government would treat for their land and give firewater 
to drink, and while drinking the chiefs would sign their rights away." 

Thomas K. Houghton — "In 1838 I lived with my father on the Indian 
trail between the Ben-nack village in Tippecanoe township and the Me- 
nominee village, where the Indians were congregated to get ready to be 
removed. I was not there at the time, but it was about the only subject 
of conversation for many years, and I heard considerable about it, and my 
recollection of it is that the facts are about as stated by David How and 
William Sluj'ter." 

Mr. I. N. Clary, Lucerne, Cass county (since deceased), being inter- 
viewed, said : "I was a boy of twenty and went with the caravan as a team- 
ster, driving a four-horse team. Gen. Morgan, of Rush county, was major- 
general, and William Polke lieutenant. Dr. Jeroloman, of Logansport. was 
the physician in charge. The Indians camped the first night on the Tippe- 
canoe river, and the third night at Horney's run, north of Logansport. The 
caravan moved in wagons and on foot, the Indian men walking and hunting 
as they went. The number of wagons was sixty, and the distance made 


each day was from seven to twenty miles. Stops for the night were made 
where water was plenty, and all slept in tents and wagons. The Indians 
were well treated by the removing party, and did not suffer for food or 
water. The caravan went west from Logansport and passed through Sag- 
ama town, crossed Sagama river, and forded the Illinois river near Dan- 
ville, III, and passed through Jacksonville and Springfield, 111. We crossed 
the Mississippi at Alldan, 111., in an old shattered steamboat that was not 
safe to cross on, and it took us two days before we were all on the other side. 
The Grand river was crossed near the mouth of the Missouri, and that river 
at or near Independence. We left the Indians at a point near the Osage 
river in Kansas, having been sixty days making the journey." 

None of these Indians were ever heard of here after they were located 
on the reservation. The report of the government agent for 1855 contained 
the following: "According to the roll of 1854, there were 3,440 Pottawatto- 
mies on the reserve. There are about 250 others living among the Kicka- 
poos, some of whom have intennarried in that tribe, and all of whom ob- 
stinately refuse to move to the Pottawattomie reserve. There are a few 
scattering families in Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, and among the Sacs 
and Foxes. From all I can learn, this once numerous tribe cannot number 
in all quarters over 4,000 souls." 

At the present time it is doubtful if there are as many left in the entire 
L'nited States as were embraced in the caravan of Menominee and his band, 
about all of whom have undoubtedly by this time passed over to "the happy 
hunting grounds." 

The Future of the Pottawattomies. 

Simon Pokagon, the last chief of a small band of Pottawattomie Indians 
occupving a small reservation near Holland, Mich., in an article juet before 
his death, in 1899, on the subject of the future of his race, said: 

"As to the future of our race, it seems to me almost certain that in time 
it will lose its identity by amalgamation with the dominant race. No matter 
how distasteful it may seem to us, we are compelled to consider it as a prob- 
able result. Sensitive white people can console themselves, however, with 
the fact that there are today in the L'nited States thousands of men and 
women of high social standing whose forefathers on one side were full- 
blooded so-called savages, and yet the society in which they move, and in 
many cases they themselves, are ignorant of the fact. All white people are 
not ashamed of Indian blood ; in fact, a few are proud of it. 

"The index finger of the past is pointing to the future, showing most 
conclusively that by the middle of the next century all Indian reservations 
will have passed away. Then our people will begin to scatter, and the result 
will be a general mixing of the races. By intermarriage the blood of our 
people, like the waters that flow into the great ocean, will be forever lost in 
that of the dominant race, and generations yet unborn will read in history of 
the red men of the forest and inquire, "Where are they?' " 

It may be added, and this much is certain : that the last Indian will be 
in every sense of the word the "last." He will leave nothing behind him to 
mark the place he occupied in the world — no history nor even the monument 
the writer secured an appropriation to erect to the Pottawattomie Indians 
at Twin lakes. Books there will be, and museums and collections, but none 



by him. Should an Indian become so learned and accomplished as to write 
a history he would become a white man. Many white men have followed 
him, have studied him. Learned men from foreign countries have jour- 
neyed here for such purposes, but who of all of them has learned the secret 
of "the Indian's heart? To do that it would be necessary to become for the 
time an Indian — to "put yourself in his place." And what white man has 
ever done that? The Indian has no record, or it is as if whispered to the 
winds or committed to the leaves that fall or to the water that runs away. 
The Indian rears, while he is an Indian, no habitation that endures ; when 
it is gone there is nothing but a ring on the ground that the rain washes 
away. He throws up no highway ; his narrow path through the grass lasts 
no longer than the buffalo's road to the ford in the stream. So there must 
come a time when, leaving no trace behind, he shall pass out of this world, 
when the "last Indian" shall go — like the mist. 

,no i« TM'i^oV, 5liol7t[y ''off ''■«j'"A''a a/ows'.ly ' 

lik<l -fe 

7« -^S'^''^"!' "'^ 


Many a time old Chief Menominee heard those drowsy cadences from 
the long rows of bronzed warriors at Menominee village at Twin lakes, now 
a vanished locality. Fainter and fainter grew the melody, until the singers 
who were seated side by side leaned toward each other, drooping closer and 
closer, nearer a reclining position, until gradually one by one pillowed his 
head on his brother's shoulder. Then sleep prevailed so profound that noth- 
ing could waken it. Yet that constant muffled hum of the pianissimo mel- 
ody, "A-e-ah-ah ! A-e-ah-ah ! O-a, O-a," and the reiteration of the same to 
an indefinite degree, til! the listeners were actually drowsy, too! Then the 
leader at the head of the row of sleeping warriors roused them suddenly 
with \he explosive fortissimo call; "Ty-ah!" and again almost simultane- 


ously, by the doubly fortissimo, "Ugh, Ty-ali!" Instantly every Indian was 
awake, risen to his feet, all greeting each other noisily and with joy, as 
though they had been parted for a long time — many a year ! 


Among the treaties made between the government and the various 
tribes of Indians then occupying this part of the Northwest Territory a 
number of reservations were set ofif to various bands of the different tribes. 
Those who occupied the territory now known as Marshall county were the 
Pottawattomie tribe of Indians. They were divided into bands and governed 
by chiefs. 

The largest reservation was called the "Me-no-mi-nee reserve." It was 
located beginning about a mile west and north of Plymouth, near where 
the Catholic cemetery is located. The east line ran directly south to a point 
about a mile south of WoU Creek Mills, thence about three miles and a half 
west, thence north to the north line and east to the starting point. It 
contained twenty-two sections, or 14,080 acres in all, and embraced within 
its boundaries Pretty lake. Twin lakes, and a considerable portion of 
Yellow river southwest of Plymouth. The most noted Indian village in 
the county (Menominee) was located on this reservation near Yellow river 
and near Twin lakes. Here a treaty was negotiated which will be noted 
further on. 

There was another small reservation containing several sections located 
on Maxinkuckee lake, beginning a short distance south of where Mr. Van 
Schoiack formerly lived, thence north along the water's edge of the lake 
to about where the Peru point now is, thence east far enough to take in the 
town of Maxinkuckee. It was called Neeswaugee and Ouashqua reserva- 
tion. All the summer cottages from a short distance north of the Peru 
club house, now the Brownell cottage, to the division line between Mr. 
Van Schoiack and Mr. Edwards are in what was once this reservation. 

Adjoining the Neeswaugee and Quashqua reservation on the south 
and extending south a considerable distance into Fulton county was what 
was called the Aubenaube reservation. Next to the Menominee it was the 
largest reservation in the county. It contained ten or twelve sections in 
this county and quite a number in Fulton county. It extended east from the 
lake five or six miles. 

Immediately east of Aubenaube reserve was what was called Mankekose 
reserve, containing four or five sections. These are all the Indian reserva- 
tions in the county of which any record has been kept. 

On December 4, 1834, a treaty between William Marshall, commis- 
sioner on the part of the United States, and Comoza, a chief of the 
Pottawattomies and his band, was concluded on the banks of this lake, which 
is spelled in the document "Mux-ee-nie-kuc-kee." By this treaty the Indians 
ceded to the United States two sections of land reserved for them by the 
second article of the treaty between the United States and the said Indians 
on the Tippecanoe river October 26, 1832, and they further agreed to yield 
peaceable possession within two years, a^d in consideration of the sum of 


$400 in goods and an annuity of $400 for one year. The treaty was signed 
by WilHam Marshall. Xeeseeawquet. Comoza, Ah-he-pah-am-sa, Pawpee, 
and was witnessed by J. B. Buret, secretary of the commission, and by 
Cyrus Taber and Joseph Barron, interpreters. 

Another treaty was made August 5. 1836, at the camp near Yellow 
river known as the ^Menominee village, near Twin lakes, between Abel C. 
Pepper on the part of the United States, and Pe-pin-a-waw, Na-ta-ka and 
Mac-a-ta-ma-ah, chiefs and headmen of the Pottawattomie tribe of Indians 
and their bands. By this treaty the Indians ceded twenty-two sections 
reserved for them, for which the government agreed to pay the Indians 
the sum of $14,080 in specie after the ratification of the treaty. It was 
further agreed that the chiefs and headmen and their bands should remove 
to the country west of the Mississippi river provided for the Pottawattomie 
nation within two years. At the request of the band entering into this 
treaty it was stipulated that after its ratification the L^nited States should 
appoint a commissioner who should be authorized to pay such debts of the 
band as might be proved to his satisfaction to be just, to be deducted from 
the amount stipulated to be paid for the land ceded. 

The treaty was signed by Abel C. Pepper as the agent of the United 
States, and the following Pottawattomie chiefs : 

Pee-pin-a-waw, Pash-po-ho, Pah-siss, 

Qua-taw, Pam-bo-go, Wee-wis-saw, 

Na-ta-ka, I-o-wah, jMa-che-saw, 

Kan-kaw-kay, Co-qua-wah, Nas-waw-hah, 

Mac-a-taw-mo-way, Mup-a-hue, Mas-saw, 

Pis-saw, See-co-ese, Ash-kum, 

Wi-aw-koos-say, O-kah-maus, Me-shaw-ki-to-quah, 

Nas-waw-kay, Nu-bosh, Ku-waw-nay. 

Te-cum-seh, Jo-quiss, 

These names were taken down by the interpreter, as the Indians did not 
know how to spell or write, and the interpreter spelled them according 
to the sound as well as he could, and it is not strange that there should 
be many ways of spelling different names and places bearing Indian 
names. The reader will undoubtedly see in Kan-kaw-kay, our present 
Kankakee ; in I-o-wah, the state of Iowa ; in Ku-waw-nay, the town of 
Kewanna, in Fulton county ; Nas-waw-kay, and Nas-waw-hah, brother 
chiefs were what finally came to be in English "Nees-wau-gee." 

None of the foregoing chiefs, except Pee-pin-a-waw, Na-taw-ka and 
Mac-a-taw-may-ah. had any interest in the twenty-two sections named in 
the treaty. The securing of their names to the treaty was more as a blind 
to make it appear that they really had some interest in the reservation than 
for any other purpose. This was done because Chief Me-no-mi-nee, the 
principal owner of the reservation, refused to sign the treaty or become a 
party to it in any way. The names of these chiefs were readily secured, 
because most or all of them were indebted to the white traders and schemers 
for articles which they had sold them, and for which the}- could get no pay 
unless they were connected with the treaty and filed their claims with the 
commissioner and had them paid out of the amount the government was 


to pay the Indians for the twenty-two sections of land ceded. This was 
the final result of it. The white traders secured the allowance of their 
claims, which were paid out of the amount the government agreed to pay for 
the reservation, and the Indians received just that much less. And to make 
the matter worse the government agents dickered with these three principal 
Indian chiefs for the 14,006 acres of land at $1 an acre instead of $1.25, 
the regular price. So in this way the Indians were cheated out of $3,500, 
besides the fraudulent claims that were allowed and paid out of the amount 
agreed to be paid for the reservation. Before the two years expired in 
which the Indians had to vacate the reservation, the white traders and 
schemers had sold the Indians enough whisky, tobacco, beads, red calico 
and trinkets of no practical value (in fact, a detriment to them), at exorbitant 
prices, to eat up all the government had paid them for the reservation, 
and when the time came for them to be driven awa}' west of the Mississippi 
river they had not a cent of the $14,080 left. No wonder Menominee, who 
had not disposed of his interest in the reservation, when the government 
agents and soldiers came to forcibly remove him west of the Mississippi 
cried aloud in the agony of his heart : "My God, has it come to this ?" 


In the early settlement of this part of the great northwest there was 
a great deal of trouble between the Indians and the white people that 
settled in among the Indians for the purpose of eventually driving them out 
and occupying their lands. This naturally created bad blood among the 
Indians, and they determined to resist the encroachments of the white 
intruders to the last extremity. 

A few miles south of Maxinkuckee lake, on the north bank of Eel 
river, about six miles from the point where that river enters into the 
Wabash, near where Logansport has since been built, was a large Indian 
village known as Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua, whose inhabitants were of the Shaw- 
nee and Pottawattomie tribes, whose principal chief was the Shawnee 
Prophet and his brother, the famous Tecumseh, who were at that time 
temporarily located at what was known as "Prophet's Town," near the 
confluence of the Tippecanoe and Wabash rivers, several miles below. That 
was a few years after the close of the war of 181 2. Traders and explorers 
and those looking for homes were finding their way into this section of the 
unexplored west, and quite a number of pioneers had pitched their tents, 
or erected log cabins, and settled down to the realities of life among the 
Indians in the wilderness. 

The Indians were not very friendly at best toward the white settlers, 
and especially were they opposed to these intruders taking possession of 
the watercourses leading to the southwest. The few white settlers that 
were attempting to make a settlement at that time were continually har- 
rassed and annoyed bv these vicious warriors, and they had no assurance 
when they went to bed at night in their little cabin home that their scalps 
would not be taken oil before morning. These depredations and petty 
annoyances were kept up so continually from this village that the govern- 


ment decided to send a regiment of troops, then doing service at various 
points along the river Ohio, for the purpose of quieting the disturbances. 
Accordingly about five hundred men under Capt. Wilkenson moved some 
time in June, 1791, for the scene of the outbreaks. According to the report 
of the expedition, after many days' hard marching through the wilderness 
the little army reached the Wabash river at the very point for which the 
commander had aimed at the commencement of his march — a very remark- 
able circumstance, as finding one's way through the tangled wilderness of 
this part of the country at that time was like attempting to navigate the 
boundless ocean without compass or rudder. 

Here the little army crossed the Wabash river, and, following the 
trail a north-by-east course a distance of three miles. Eel river was reached. 
While reconnoitering it was discovered that the Indians had taken the alarm 
and were flying in every direction from the village. 

A general charge was ordered. The men forced their way over every 
obstacle, and plunged through the river with great bravery. The Indians 
were unable to make the slightest resistance. Six warriors and, in the 
hurry and confusion of the charge, two squaws and a child were killed. 
Thirty-four prisoners were taken with a loss on the part of the whites 
of two men killed and one wounded. "I found the village." says Capt. 
Wilkenson in the report of the battle, "scattered along the Eel river for 
full three miles, on an uneven, scrubby oak barrens, intersected alternately 
by bogs almost impassable, and impen^ious thickets of plum, hazel and 
blackjacks. I encamped in the town — Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua — that evening, 
and the next morning I cut up the corn scarcely in the milk, burned the 
cabins, mounted my young warriors, squaws and pappooses in the best 
manner in my power, and, leaving two infirm squaws and a child with a 
short talk, took up the line of march for a Kick-a-poo town, on the 
Wabash, where disturbances had been reported. Not being able to dis- 
cover any path in the direct course of the Kickapoo town. I marched by 
the road leading to the Tippecanoe, in the hope of finding some diverging 
trail which might favor my design. I camped that night about six miles 
from Ke-na-pa-com-a-qua, and marched next morning at 4 o'clock. My 
course continued west until 9 o'clock, when I turned to the northwest on 
a small hunting path, and at a short distance I launched into the boundless 
prairies of the west, with the intention to pursue that course until I could 
strike a road which leads from the Pottawattomies of Lake Michigan 
immediately to the town I sought. With this view I pushed forward 
through bog after bog, to the saddle skirts in mud and water ; and after 
persevering for eight hours I found myself environed on all sides by 
morasses which forbade my advancing, and at the same time rendered it 
difficult for me to extricate my little army. The way by which we had 
entered was so much beaten and softened by the horses that it was almost 
impossible to return by that route, and my guides pronounced the morass 
in front impassable. A chain of thin groves extending in the direction 
of the Wabash at this time presented itself to the left. " It was necessary 
I should gain the groves, and for this purpose I dismounted, wenf 
forward, and, leading my horse through a bog to the armpits in mud and 
water, with great difficulty and fatigue I accomplished my object: and 
changing my course to southwest I regained the Tippecanoe road and 


encamped on it at 7 o'clock, after a march of thirty miles which broke 
down several of my horses. 

"I was in motion next morning at 4 o'clock, and reached the Tippe- 
canoe village by noon, and found that it had just been abandoned. After 
the destruction of this town last June the Indians had returned and cul- 
tivated their corn, which I found in high perfection. To refresh my horses 
and give time to cut down the corn, I determined to halt until next morning. 
In the course of a day I had discovered some murmurings and discontent 
among the men and reluctance to advance further into the enemy's country. 
This induced me to call for a state of the horses and provisions, when, to 
my surprise and mortification, 220 horses were returned lame and tired, 
with barely five days' provisions for the men. Under these discouraging 
circumstances I was compelled to abandon my designs and return to the 
Ohio river, where I arrived on the 21st of August, after a march by actual 
computation of 451 miles." 

Precisely over what territory Capt. Wilkenson's little army traveled in 
their skirmish after the Indians in this region cannot be ascertained to a 
certainty, but it is quite certain that it struck the "boundless prairie," 
it was in the neighborhood of Kewanna and Bruce's lake in Fulton county, 
and also in the region west of Maxinkuckee lake southwest of the now 
town of Culver in Marshall county, as there was said to be a village or 
retreat there on a spot which was so completely surrounded with bogs and 
marshes as to be almost inaccessible. 

The Indian trail the captain was trj'ing to find, leading from Lake 
Michigan to the Kickapoo town, came by way of South Bend, Sumption's 
prairie, thence by way of Potato and Pine creek, near Knott's mill in Polk 
township, Marshall county ; thence in the direction of the old La Porte 
road to the west of Plymouth and near the old brewery; thence along the 
west bank of Yellow river to the village at Twin lakes; thence through 
the Burr Oak flats near Culver and west of the lake by way of the Kewanna 
prairie and Bruce's lake, and so on to Logansport and Winamac. There 
were several other trails, but this was the one he was trying to find. 

After the Indian Wars Had Ceased. 
About the time the territory embraced in what is now northern Indiana 
first began to be settled, the regular, or more properly the irregular Indian 
wars and outbreaks in the Northwest Territory, of which this region was 
a part, had practically ceased, and most of the warriors had gone west 
to assist their tribes in resisting further encroachments of the whites upon 
what they believed to be their inalienable rights. Those that were left 
here were mostly old men, women and children, sick and crippled and 
otherwise helpless, among whom were a number of chiefs who had charge 
of the remnants of the bands that inhabited the various villages scattered 
promiscuously all over the county. 

Noted Indian Chiefs. 

Among the more or less distinguished Indians having or assuming 

authority, who remained here until the last, and who were well remembered 

by the older settlers of the county, were Au-be-nau-bee, Nas-wau-gee, Ren-ak, 

Pe-ash-way, Ni-go, Marshall and others. Most of these had seen a good 


deal of service, and had endured many hardships and privations before 
they were finally overcome and compelled to surrender to the advancing 
march of civilizatipn. 

Some of them had been active participants with the Shawnee Prophet, 
under whose spiritual guidance the noted battle of Tippecanoe had been 
fought, and his brother, the^ famous Te-cum-seh. Prior to this midnight 
fight these chiefs and many of their followers frequently made pilgrimages 
from the different camps about Maxinkuckee lake and the Tippecanoe to 
what was known as "Prophet's Town," near where the Tippecanoe river 
enters into the Wabash. The town had been established by the Prophet 
and his brother, Te-cum-seh, and the inhabitants were governed by religious 
fanaticism that had been worked up by the Prophet, who claimed supernat- 
ural powers. He was the John Alexander Dowie of his day among the 
Indians. His town was the center and capital of the religion he preached. 
Here the Great Spirit was supposed to dwell and here were performed 
the strange and mysterious rites with which the new worship was carried 
on. Hideous dances, midnight orgies, self-inflicted tortures and the dark 
ceremonies of Indian magic occupied the time of the frenzied savages. 
The Prophet pretended to be in constant communication with the Great 
Spirit and to be instructed by Him to make known to the Indians that he 
could give celestial rewards for all who would become his followers, and 
he boldly laid claim to the power of foretelling future events, curing sick- 
ness, preventing death on the battlefield, and working all sorts of miracles ; 
and to demonstrate the power, it is stated as a historical fact that he 
announced that on a certain day he would cause the sun to be darkened. 
By some means he had learned that there would be a total eclipse of the 
sun at a certain hour of a certain day. As the sun was darkened, as he 
predicted, his ignorant and superstitious followers were ever after easily 
controlled by him and his brother, Te-cum-seh, and the final outcome was 
the battle of Tippecanoe, November 7, 181 1, which practically ended the 
Indian warfare in this part of the Northwest Territory. To the thousands 
of converts who had adopted the religion of the Prophet this sacred town 
was as Jerusalem to the Jews, or Mecca to the Mahommedans. 

But Te-cum-seh was in every way superior to his brother, the Prophet, 
and had he been at home at the time of the battle of Tippecanoe (he was 
absent in Kentucky at the timel his good judgment would probably have 
prevented his brother, the Prophet, from precipitating a battle with Gen. 
Harrison at that time after having pledged his word of honor that he would 
not do so, at least until another conference could be held the next day. 

Te-cum-seh is described as a perfect Apollo in form, his face oval, 
his nose straight and handsome, and his mouth regular and beautiful ; his 
eyes were hazel, clear and pleasant in conversation, but like balls of fire 
when excited by anger or enthusiasm. His bearing is said to have been 
of a noble and lofty spirit, a true king of the forest. He was temperate 
in his habits, loving truth and honor better than life. His mind was of a 
high order, and he possessed a genius which must have made him eminent 
in any age or country. Like many other warriors he had failed, yet like 
them he was great in defeat ! His brother, the Prophet, had only one eye, 
and possessed a countenance of which every line revealed craft and decep- 



A friend of the writer, who then lived in the vicinity of Au-be-nau-be 
village, south of Maxinkuckee lake, knew most of the Indians well and 
spoke the Pottawattomie language fluently, said that he was familiar with 
the facts in relation to the tragic end of Aubenaube, and was also at the 
burial of his son at Long point, on the west side of Maxinkuckee lake, not 
a very long time afterwards. The name of this son was Pau-koo-shuck. 
After having killed his father, being the oldest son he inherited his father's 
estate, some thirty-two sections of land, and became the chief of the band 
of Pottawattomies over which his father had for many years presided. Pau- 
koo-shuck entered into a treaty with the government in April, 1836, by which 
all the lands in Au-be-nau-be's reservation was transferred to the govern- 
ment, and he and his band agreed to go to the lands reserved for the Pot- 
tawattomies west of the Mississippi river within two years. As the story 
goes, when the time came he was very much opposed to leaving the land of 
his birth and early exploits. With a great many others who had determined 
that they would not go, he was taken by force by the government soldiers. 
During that fatiguing and cruel march he made several attempts to escape. 
Just before reaching the Mississippi river he made another heroic attempt, 
and in the fight with the officer he was struck in the neck with a knife and left 
on the roadside, all supposing him to be dead. He was not fatally injured, 
however, and finally recovered sufficient strength to enable him to make his 
way back after a long and dangerous journey through an unbroken wilder- 
ness infested with ravenous wild beasts, afoot and alone. He spent the re- 
mainder of his clays, which were few, hunting and fishing along the rivers 
and lakes in the neighborhood where he had formerly lived. His life had 
proven a failure ; his kindred and friends had been dragged from him, and 
lie grew reckless and discontented, drank whisky to excess, and went from 
place to place, getting into frequent quarrels and fights. 

In one of these disturbances, which occurred at or near Winamac, he 
was so badly hurt that disease set in and he died. Our informant says he 
was one of the pallbearers, or one of those who assisted in bringing him from 
Winamac to Maxinkuckee lake, where he was buried on Long point along- 
side of an Indian named Whip-poor-will, who had got fast in a hollow of 
a coon tree and was dead when found there ! He says they fastened Pau- 
koo-shuck with hickory bark between two Indian ponies that were tied to- 
gether so they couldn't "spread apart," and, with a number on foot and on 
ponies, the solemn procession wended its weary length along the Indian trail, 
reaching ite destination the second day, having camped over night at the 
Indian village at Bruce's lake. 

But if this son of Au-be-nau-be was buried on Long point, as stated, of 
which there seems to be no doubt, the lapse of time and the march of civili- 
zation during almost sixty years has completely obliterated almost every 
trace of it. 

Many who were about the lake seventy years ago were firmly of the 
opinion that the ghost of the Indian came forth on almost every favorable 
night and skipped about on the water, and floated around among the trees 
and bushes that grew on Long point where he had been buried, like a thing 


of life, "cutting such fantastic tricks before high heaven as made the angels 
weep !" 

Sometimes he would be seen in his little canoe, apparently paddling with 
all his might for the southeast shore, where his father, Au-be-nau-be, had 
formerly owned a reservation, and while the spectator would be gazing the 
ghost would instantly disappear in the rippling waves, and would be lost to 
sight. Turning to the shore again, he would be observed floating about as 
if in search of something, and then, all at once, would disappear in the 
earth, and might not again be seen for several nights. 

The Indians, and nearly everybody else in those days, believed in ghosts 
and goblins, and few doubted that the ghost of this young red man of the 
forest came and went at will, and was endowed with supernatural powers to 
ride upon the waters, float in the air, enter houses, wigwams and cabins 
without let or hindrance and frighten the occupants out of their wits, so 
that "each particular hair on their heads would stand on end like quills on 
the fretful porcupine!" 


The ruling passion among the aborigines of the forest, the Red Men. our 
true Americans, was as strong and was held as sacred as it was among their 
more enlightened neighbors, the white people. 

The Indians had peculiar customs in relation to forming marriage alli- 
ances and the duties of husband and wife, and their offspring until they 
arrived at the age where they were supposed to be able to take care of them- 
selves. Different tribes had different customs, but the difference was only 

in details. When a boy had shown himself to be competent to take care of 
a wife, he decided upon the girl he wanted and prepared himself for the 
interesting love-making ordeal through which, according to custom, he had 
to pass before he could claim the young squaw of his choice as his own. 

In most of the tribes his manner of making love was peculiar from the 
"courting" of the white people away down here at the beginning of the 
twentieth century. Dressing himself in the best manner possible and decor- 


ating himself in the grandest style imaginable he sat around for hours in 
perfect silence about the tent of the girl he sought to capture. Although he 
was as mum as an oyster, uttering not a word, his conduct was perfectly 
well understood by the party of the second part. After a few visits the 
girl's family and friends held a consultation, and if everything was lovely 
and the goose honked high, the girl indicated her willingness by twisting 
the corner of her shawl and casting coquettish glances in the direction of her 
lover. That night he hid near the entrance of her tent. Of course all the 
young Indians and girl squaws knew all about it, but he was supposed to be 
unseen by any one. Presently the girl, having robed herself, rushed out 
of the tent, but was soon captured by her lover. If she resisted he imme- 
diately left her, but if she wilted or swooned and gave up without a struggle, 
he carried her to some neighboring spot and began his courtship in earnest. 
They were shy at first and did little more than stand and look at each other, 
and finally separated, each going their way home. On subsequent evenings 
when they met they remained standing, but if they discovered that they were 
really in love, they locked themselves in each other's arms and — well, you 
must imagine the rest! It would be hardly fair to penetrate further into 
the privacy of these lovers' performances, and we leave them on the bank 
of the beautiful lake with the quiet moonlight peeping through the leaves 
of the spreading forest trees to revel in the ecstatic bliss of youthful court- 
ship known only to those who have realized it by experience. Come away 
and leave them to themselves. 

How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank ; 

Here will we sit and let the sounds of music creep in our ears; 

Soft stillness and the night 

Become the touches of sweet harmony. 

x^t last the young brave coaxed his mother to visit the girl's father, 
who stipulated the number of ponies her son was to bring for his daughter. 
If the price was considered too high, the match was declared ofi ; if not, 
the lover tied the ponies to the door of the wigwam. On the following 
morning, if the ponies were still there he knew his suit had been rejected : 
if not, he took the girl, without further ceremony, to his wigwam which he 
had prepared for her. After that they were considered married and she 
was his property and his servant, to do all the cooking, drudgery, taking care 
of the ponies, raising the corn and potatoes, etc. He had the right to whip 
her and beat her, sell her, or even kill her as he pleased, but, although he 
had these rights, they were seldom if ever exercised. As has been the case 
ever since the dawn of the world's history, woman was the slave of the 
household, or the wigwam, and so long as she did her part reasonably well 
the couple lived in peace and harmony. Although separations took place 
occasionally, such a thing as divorce in a legal way was never known. 

Chief Po-ka-gon's Love Story. 
The love story of Simon Pokagon, written by himself, taken from his 
romantic story, published in book form, entitled "Queen of the Woods," 
being an account of his courtship and marriage with the beloved Lonidaw, 
who became his wife, is probably the most remarkable literary production 
ever produced by a full-blooded Indian. Simon Pokagon was born at what 


was known as Pokagon village, on the Pottawattomie lands in Indiana, in 
1830. He was sent to Xotre Dame L'niversity, where he became a remark- 
able student and graduated with honors. He wrote many articles on the 
Pottawattomies and the Indian race in general, and also gave lectures. He 
died on January 25, 1899, near Hartford, Mich. 

A short time before his death he wrote the story of his courtship and 
marriage to Lonidaw, a fair Pottawattomie maiden. The great charm of the 
story lies in the simplicit}- with which the lover pours forth the passion and 
the grief of his heart. It is the beautiful legend of the princely Hiawatha 
and the fair Minnehaha, or Laughing Water, in real Indian life. 

Pokagon begins his story by telling how he chanced to meet the shv and 
winsome Lonidaw and how he sought her favor, doubting and hoping in turn, 
until she graciously smiled on him and said "Ae," which is "Yes." Then 
he was forced to be absent from her for several months. 

The night before his return he slept in the woods and listened to the 
great spirit Manitou give the tradition of the origin of the trailing arbutus. 
Pokagon concludes the vision : "When he had done the old man slept and 
a maiden passed her hand above his head ; he began to grow small, streams 
of water began to flow from his mouth and very soon he was a small mass 
upon the ground, his clothing turned to withered leaves. The maiden moved 
away through the woods and over the plain and all the birds sang to her and 
wherever she stepped, and nowhere else, grows our tribal flower, the trailing 

And thus the lover with a lover"s enthusiasm paints the scene in the 
morning when he continued his journey to Lonidaw's wigwam : "The sun, 
though yet unseen, had painted the eastern sky a brilliant red. High in the 
air were multitudes of wild pigeons, sweeping the heavens as far as the eye 
could reach and moving in a line, like columns of trained soldiers, southward 
to procure their morning meal. All the twigs and branches of the grand old 
forest were thickly fringed with needled frost, forming a silverv screen 
through which the sunshine was sprinkled down, shedding the glory in the 
tree tops on the ground, filling my youthful soul with love for the divine. 

"Stillness reigned almost supreme along the trail I passed, only broken 
now and then by the woodpecker beating his chiseled bill into some decaying 
wood in search of food, or some partridge on a prostrate tree sounding his 
rolling drum to entertain his lady love of early spring. I paused and listened 
to his oft-repeated drumbeats of love, poured forth in military style, and to 
myself I said : 'Happy lover, no doubts disturb thy trusting heart, while 
fear and sore distrust are warring in my soul.' * * * 

"I reached the wigwam of my bride to be. All was quiet as the morning 
air. My fluttering heart was all the sound I heard, that, like a bird in a 
cage, beat the bars that held it fast. While standing before the door a 
strange feeling held me there in bonds which none but a doubtful lover can 
ever know and which no language can express. 

"While there I stood Lonidaw opened wide the door, bidding me come 
in. The chilling gloom of yesterday had left no impress on her face, but 
instead the fondest smiles of maidenhood were plainly written there. I 
thought perhaps the deer in the night returned, but soon I learned that he 
had not. Then well I knew those smiles so sweet were all for me alone. 

"With mutual hearts we clasped each other round and sealed again the 


marriage vow with concert kisses, imparting a thrill of joy so pure that only 
they who truly love can ever feel and fully understand." 

The wedding followed, a description of which is charmingly given by 
the bridegroom himself. 

'"When the moon of flowers and bloom came," he writes, "and mating 
birds were moving northward and wild flowers were blooming and the trees 
were putting on their robes of green I took the hand of my dear beloved 
Lonidaw and she became my bride. No wedding cardg were passed around, 
no gifts were made, no bells were rung, no feast was given, no priest 
declared us one. We only pledged our sincere faith before her mother and 
the king of heaven. Our hope, our joys were one. Hand in hand along an 
ancient trail we took our course until we reached a land of game. Here we 
paused and like two mated birds that search and find a place to build their 
nest of mud and straw so we, beside an inland lake where towering woods 
embrowed its shore and flags, rushes and wild rice in plenty could be found, 
built our wigwam home of poles and bark. There oft at dawn and eventide 
we fished from out our birch canoe, and that she would have more success 
than I oftimes I would bait well her hook and let my own go bare, then 
wonder why she caught more fish than I. 

"Oft returning from the chase, weary and tired of carrying game, I'd 
follow down the trail upon a narrow neck of land that ran into the open 
shore, and I never failed to see Lonidaw's erect and slender form on hasty 
run. No swan ever faster swam or more elegantly appeared than she when 
bending to the oars, pushing her birch canoe across the swelling bosom of the 
lake. As she would approach me while waiting on the shore I always hailed 
her, 'queen of the woods.' On our return across the lake she would cling to 
the oars and have me steer. I always felt her image in my heart and loved 
to see it in the lake and oft would ask her if her feelings were akin to mine. 
Her only answer was an approving glance and downcast smile. Thus happy 
in each other's love we floated down life's stream, all unprepared for cataracts 
and rocks along the shore. 

"Two years flew quickly by when Olomdaw, our first child, was born. 
The night he came no man of skill or neighbors gathered at our home. Alone 
in the presence of the Great Spirit and myself Lonidaw went down to the 
gateway of death's dark valley and brought forth our darling boy, together 
with a father's and mother's crown, one for her and one for me. As I beheld 
in the first morning light our cherished infant nestling on her breast and 
saw Lonidaw smile in triumph as she gazed on me my love, respect and 
sympathy for her were all a sea without a shore. 

"All about our woodland home wild birds and flowers rejoiced with 
us, and we were richly blessed, feeling the dear boy was sent of heaven to 
our wigwam as a seal to our union, that it might not be broken ; for if there 
is one holy tie of love more sacred than the rest it is that a true-hearted 
husband feels for his dear wife when their first child is born." 

Nearly three years of pleasant life for Pokagon and Lonidaw passed on 
and a second child, a daughter, which was christened Hazeleye, was born. 
These two little papooses grew up together amidst the lakes and forests, the 
pride of their father and mother. At 12 years old the son, Olomdaw, went 
away to school to be gone three years. When he returned at the end of that 
time the curse of the red man was upon him — the drink habit. It was not 


long until he passed away. The father writes : "I do not wish to bleed my 
heart or sadden yours ; suffice to say, as darkness succeeds the meteor's glare, 
so his young life went out and left us in the midnight of despair. Dear little 
Hazele'ye was left us then ; that sweet rosebud just opening into maidenhood, 
the very image of her mother. She was our only hope, and as our hearts 
were bound up in hers we consoled ourselves with the assurance that she was 
far removed from the alluring serpent born of the white man. 

"But such was not the case. One day while Hazeleye was fishing in 
the lake two drunken fishermen rowed their boat with such recklessness they 
ran into her bark canoe, which was crushed and overturned, throwing her 
into the water. Lonidaw, standing on the shore, saw the crash and heard 
her scream. She wildly cried, 'Oh, save my child !' and in her frenzy 
plunged into the flood and swam desperately as none but a mother could to 
save her drowning child. The faithful dog, returning from the hunt, 
rushed into the lake and reached the wrecked canoe just at the time Lonidaw 
did. But Hazeleye had gone to the bottom never to rise again. The mother, 
strangling, struggling, sank beneath the waves, and, rising, she caught hold 
of the dog and he swam with her to the shore." . 

Pokagon, the husband and father, was just returning from the hunt 
when he saw her lying on the beach of the lake, apparently dead. He clasped 
her in his arms and carried her to their wig^vam, and on mats and rushes 
she had lately made he laid her down. She began to gasp and then to 
breathe, and then amid sighs and groans, sobs and tears, she told him the 
sad story of their child. After a lapse of several weeks, which seemed 
stretched into years as he sat beside his dying wife, he heard a sigh. Slower, 
slower she breathed until she ceased. The sun had set. 

"And then," he said, "I pressed my hand close to her side until I felt the 
last pulsation of her heart. Then, oh, then, I knew she was dead." 

Then came the funeral, of which he wrote : "On her funeral day no 
relatives in sable robes appeared. No hearse with ostrich feathers crowned 
bore her form away. But native hunters of the wild, who oft had shared 
the bounties of her home, dug her grave at early morn ; then came the 
fragrant woodland flowers and on her casket they laid them. They came 
with blankets, pure white, about them and with moccasins of deer hide upon 
their feet, while with uncovered heads and muffled tread, slowly they bore 
her from the door away. A Christian teacher and I next to them came, while 
in our rear true-hearted neighbors followed. Tenderly they carried her along 
the winding trail, under lofty archways of giant trees, until they reached her 
last resting place, which she in life had chosen. And there among the 
evergreen trees upon a beautiful headland, near the shore of our forest lake, 
in sight of the waters that covered our dear Hazeleye, we gathered, and thev 
sadly assigned her to the grave, dropping therein modest forest flowers which 
she in life oft wore and much admired, and as we listened in silent prayer 
to the solemn words, 'Earth to earth and dust to dust,' a little dusk}^ maiden 
of our band, who lately had been taught the Savior's love and knew Lonidaw 
well, all unbidden sang : 

Asleep in Jesus, blessed sleep, 
jFrom which none ever wake to weep, 
A calm and undisturbed repose. 
Unbroken by the last of foes. 


"The closing words were scarcely sung, when from the shore across the 
lake, in childlike tenderness, the song was again sung, and again and again 
repeated from shore to shore, weaker and weaker until it died away, mere 
whisper in our ears. 

"In tears of gratitude and with a heart of prayers, I blessed the little 
maiden there. One by one the friends forsook the spot, leaving me there 
alone to commune with the spirit of my departed Lonidaw. Kneeling beside 
her grave I breathed a silent prayer to the Great Spirit that she might be 
received into the arms of Hazeleye in his kingdom beyond. Then I arose 
with a broken heart and sorrowfully wended my way homeward." 

Thus ended the romance and the chief of the Pottawattomies seldom 
smiled thereafter. Since his death five years ago the tribe has been without 
a real chief. There are so few left that the government agents easily manage 
their affairs. 


Pottawattomie Chief, Simon Pokagon, prior to his death, at the request 
of the writer, prepared an address to be delivered at a proposed Fourth of 
July celebration at Menominee village several years ago, which owing to 
unforeseen circumstances was not held. The address was sent to the writer 
and is given here as the recollection of the old chief concerning the chapel 
and the occurrences that took place there about the time of the removal. 
Among other things he said : 

"We enjoyed our church at Menominee village several years, but in 
1837 we received word that our priest wished to meet us at the chapel at 
Twin lakes. Cheerfully we obeyed the summons, but instead of meeting 
there as we supposed, the soldiers of the Cross, we were confronted with 
the soldiers of the United States armed with bayonets and guns. As our 
people entered the church, the door was closed behind them, that none 
without might suspect the fate of those from within, and so we entered as 
lambs to the slaughter for the last time. Some of you perhaps remember 
the sad stories of our wrongs, and how our fathers most solemnly declared 
so long as they lived that the treaty by which that part of the state was 
claimed by the United States was a base forgery on the part of the govern- 
ment agents who were paid large sums of money to procure the title. 
Hence we refused to give up our homes and go to an unknown land. 

"And here the government made a second mistake on the same line by 
letting the job to unscrupulous men to remove us by force, if necessary, 
for which they were to be paid fifty dollars per head. Packed within the 
little church our people were tied and handcuffed. The stoutest braves, 
those who had never known fear, when they thought of the cruelties and 
injustice that was being dealt out to them, gave up in despair and wept 
like children. In vain they begged and prayed not to be forced from the 
home of their childhood. Some were packed into wagons like sheep for 
market, while others were chained as criminals together and marched 
off on double quick, not even being permitted to see friends or relatives 
left at home. 

"As they were marched across the plains, under the hot, blazing sun, 


wolves in the distance followed in the rear, like carrion crows, to feed upon 
the fallen. Some of you must remember from well authenticated reports how, 
on the long and weary march towards the setting sun. from fatigue aiid want 
of water, children, old men and women expiring fell ; how infants untimely 
born, clasped in their mother's arms, together with them died and were left 
half buried on the plains, the prey of vultures and of wolves. 

"Let us look away from the blood-stained trails our fathers and mothers 
trod as they were shamefully pushed into banishment, and consider the 
broken families who were here left behind — robbed, in the house of God, 
of sons, husbands and fathers. These, on hearing the sad news, as aiTrighted 
young partridges hid themselves in thickets and in swamps until all seemed 
quiet, when in the night time, as deer before dogs, they fled from the homes 
of their childhood, beyond the land of freedom, unto the king's land beyond 
the great lakes. Oh, how the hearts of these exiles from kindred homes and 
native land wept as they went forth from the lovely land of game to a place 
they knew not, to return no more ! Think of it ! And all of this was done 
by a people who had declared to the world to enjoy life, liberty and the 
pursuits of happiness is the God-given right of every human being. I won- 
dered in my boyhood days how a Christian people could do such acts of 
cruelty and yet teach that all men are brothers, and that God is the Father 
of all. But in after years I learned that all misunderstanding made in 
contracts made between the two races, and all the wrongs suffered in conse- 
quence, had their origin almost entirely in that accursed drink more to be 
dreaded than a mad dog's and a rattlesnake's bite. In fact, its sting is death ; 
yes, moral death to the red man. I will repeat it : its bite is death to the white 
man too. 

"And now, farewell. Remember the words I have spoken in weakness 
and in soberness and truth, and that, by reason of old age, envy, malice, 
hatred and revenge have long since faded from my heart, and my words 
should be received with as much weight as the confession of a dying man : 
for already with one hand I have pulled the latchstring of time and one foot 
is now passing over the threshold of the open door of the wigwam of life 
into that better land beyond. Soon I will stand in the presence of the Great 
Spirit and shall there plead with Him in heaven as I have pleaded with him 
on earth that he will lead those by the hand who have so bravely fought 
against that old dragon, the destroyer of your children and ours, and lead 
them on to glorious victory." 


There are many traces of the Indian race that once inhabited this countv 
still remaining, and many objects of curious workmanship once belonging 
to them are still picked up, although of late years the numbers have grown 
perceptibly "smaller by degrees and beautifully less." Several residents of 
the county have collections of calumets, stone axes, bows and arrows ; stone 
arrow points of every conceivable shape and make ; wampum, wampum belts, 
stones on which hieroglyphics of various kinds are drawn ; stone tablets, 
scrapers, fishline sinkers, totems, and other Indian trinkets too numerous to 


mention. Some of these archsological specimens are very curious and afford 
an ample theme for the delectation of minds directed in that channel. There 
is in the collection of the public schools of Plymouth a totem found near Fort 
Wayne which probably belonged to the Pottawattomie or the Miami tribe of 
Indians. It is worked out of a solid blue and white stone. Its head is the 
shape of a dog's head, and its back like that of a shell turtle. Underneath 
holes are drilled for the purpose of securing it to the "big Indian" wearing 
it. The Indians believed every animal to have had a great original, or father. 
The first buft'alo, the first bear, the first beaver, the first eagle, and so on, was 
the manatau of the whole race of the different creatures. They chose some 
one of these originals as their special manatau, or guardian, and hence arose 
the custom of having the figure of some animal for the arms or symbols of a 
tribe, called a totem. Hence the buft'alo, the bear and the beaver tribes each 
had their totems, which were represented by rude figures of these animals. 
When they signed treaties with the white men, they sometimes sketched 
outlines of their totems. Wampum, which was in universal use among the 
different tribes of Indians prior to the settlement of the whites among them, 
is yet in use as money among some of the western tribes. It is made of 
various material, that most common being the clear parts of the common clam 
shell. This part being split oft", a hole is drilled in it, and the form is pro- 
duced by friction. They are about half an inch long, and valued, when they 
become a circulating medium, at about 2 cents for three of the black beads, or 
6 of the white. They were strung in parcels to represent a penny, three- 
pence, a shilling, and 5 shillings of white, and double that amount in black. 
A fathom of white was worth about $2.50, and black about $5. 

The most common souvenirs of the Indian race, or more properly the 
Mound Builders, that once inhabited this region, are the flint arrow points. 
They are of every conceivable size and quality of stone, and many of them are 
artistically and elegantly made. Arrow heads are picked up in this vicinity 
in considerable numbers, but how 

The ancient arrow-maker 
Made his arrowheads of sandstone, 
Arrowheads of chalcedony. 
Arrowheads of flint and jasper. 
Smooth and sharpened at the edges. 
Hard and polished, keen and eostly, 

is as much a mystery as it was when our ancestors discovered America. Mr. 
Aaron Greenwalt, of Plymouth, is something of an archaeologist, and has 
some five or six hundred stone arrow points and other Mound Builder and 
Indian trinkets. He has for a long time been studying and experimenting for 
the purpose of discovering the modus operandi of making stone implements, 
and has succeeded in making from flintstone in the rough, several fine speci- 
mens of arrow points, stone awls and the like. From the many researches 
made by antiquarians in the Stone Age it has been definitely ascertained 
that these implements were made by a process unknown to the present gener- 
ation. There were no iron or other metal tools in that age by which stone 
implements could be carved out, and the art of making them has been the 
study of thousands, time out of mind. These stone implements were 
undoubtedly made by a race of people known to us as the Mound Builders, 


who inhabited this country long prior to its occupancy by the Indian race 
found here when America was discovered by Cokmibus. Of what race of 
people the Alound Builders were, whence they came, and whither they went, 
is as much of a mystery now as it was in the beginning of the many investiga- 
tions that have been made down to the present time. In and about all the 
mounds that have been opened and explored, more or less of these implements 
have been found. The Indians found them when they came on to this 
continent, and made use of many of them for such purposes as suited their 
fancy — for use in battle, in securing game for food, for ornament, etc. But 
how they were originally made has been considered one of the "lost arts." 
Mr. Green wait thinks, however, he has solved the problem; at least the 
manner in which he worked out the specimens referred to is as near a 
satisfactorv solution as any that has yet been reported. He uses a piece of 
leather sufficiently large to' cover the inside of the left hand, in which a hole 
is made large enough to insert the thumb. He then lays a piece of obsidian, 
or flintstone in the rough, out of which the arrow point is to be worked. 
He then takes a piece of wire (he thinks a sharpened deer's horn was used by 
those who made the arrow points) about the size of a small lead pencil, the 
end of which is sharpened. Holding the piece of stone firmly in the hand, 
between the thumb and forefinger, he commences chipping of the stone by 
pressing downward. He turns the stone over and reverses it as the work 
progresses until it is completed. This is all there is of it. Whether this was 
the original manner of working out these arrow points or not of course 
cannot be definitely determined, but it is novel, to say the least, and is worthy 
the attention of those whose aesthetic taste runs in that direction. Several 
residents of Marshall county have during the past few years made consider- 
able headway in collecting relics of the Indian race in this locality, and as the 
years go by these collections will become more and more interesting as 
marking the starting point in our civilization three-quarters of a century ago. 


In 1904 the writer of this history was elected a member of the Indiana 
legislature from Marshall county, and in the session of 1905 introduced a bill 
appropriating $2,500 for the erection of a monument to ^Menominee and his 
band of 859"Pottawattomie Indians who were driven away by the state of 
Indiana west of the Missouri river in 1838, and for the rebuilding of the old 
Indian chapel at Twin lakes, in Marshall county. The bill — House Bill No. 
37 — was referred to the committee on ways and means, who, in a spasm of 
reform, recommended it, with five other monument bills, for indefinite post- 
ponement. When the bill came up before the house for action, Mr. McDonald 
delivered an address fully explaining why the provisions of the bill should be 
adopted. As a matter of history, the house of representatives deemed it of 
sufficient importance to order two hundred copies of it printed for the use of 
the house, which was done. Notwithstanding the eloquent appeal made, the 
bill was indefinitely postponed. In noticing this address the "Indiana Quar- 
terly Magazine of History," published by W. E. Henry, state librarian, and 
C. W. Cottman, spoke of it as follows : 


'"This address, written and delivered in support of a bill before our last 
legislature, failed in its immediate object, as the bill did not pass, but as a 
monograph on the Pottawattomie Indians of northern Indiana it is of such 
interest and value as to merit a place in any historical collection. ]\Ir. 
McDonald is regarded as perhaps our best authority on this particular 
subject. He has long been deeply interested, a conscientious and a sympa- 
thetic student of the vanished aboriginees as presented by the records and 
traditions of the locality where he was reared. And a study of this tribe in 
its passing is a study of the Indian question in little. The story has in it much 
that was pathetic and tragic, particularly to a large band located on Twin 
lakes (Marshall county) under a chief called Menominee. Menominee was 
an Indian of unusual character, a friend to the whites, a convert to Chris- 
tianity, and a zealous promoter of good among his people. By a treaty of 
1832 twenty-two sections of land had been reserved to him and three other 
chiefs. When the whites came for the reserved remnants (as they always 
did) jMenominee declined to be tractable and sign away his land. As the 
other chiefs signed it, however, that was held to be sufficient, and at the end 
of the time stipulated by the treaty the recalcitrant chief and his people were 
unceremoniously ousted ; their cabins were torn down, their mission chapel 
dismantled and the whole band, numbering nearly a thousand, put under a 
strong military escort commanded by Gen. John Tipton, to be conveyed to a 
reservation beyond the Jilississippi river. Amid tears and lamentations they 
took their departure. It was in September, the weather hot, the season dry 
and sickly. Suft'ering from the swelter, dust and thirst the hapless Indians 
sickened like sheep and the long route was marked with their graves. Par- 
ticularly was there mortality among the small children ; tlie ailing, jostled 
along under the burning sun in rude army wagons,, suffering for water and 
with no relief from the hard ordeal, stood little chance, and almost every 
day some wronged mother surrendered her offsprings to earth." 

In 1906 Mr. McDonald was reelected a member of the legislature, and 
early in the session of 1907 he again introduced the bill, which, having met 
with many obstructions on its way through the lower house of the general 
assembly, finally passed that body by a vote of J}, to 13. The bill was then 
sent over to the senate, where it also met with delays and obstructions. In 
that body Senator John W. Parks, of Marshall county, introduced and 
secured the passage of the following amendment: 

"Provided, That money herein appropriated shall not be paid until an 
agreement shall be entered into by the board of commissioners of Marshall 
county with the state of Indiana to the satisfaction of the governor, making 
provisions for the control and repair of said monument and chapel." 

On the last day that bills could be passed, the bill finally passed the 
senate with this amendment, which was afterward concurred in by the 
house, and was finally signed by J. Frank Hanly, governor, and became 
a law March 12, 1907. 

The following is the bill as enacted into a law : 

AN ACT entitled an act providing for the purchase of suitable grounds at Menominee 
Village, Marshall County, the erection of a monument thereon, the rebuilding of the 
old Imlian chapel, making appropriations for the same, and providing for the 
appointment of three trustees. 

[H. 37. Approved March 12, 1907.] 


Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That 
there is hereby appropriated out of any funds in the State treasury not otherwise dis- 
posed of, the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars for the purpose of purchasing 
suitable grounds at Menominee Village, in Marshall County, the erection of a monu- 
ment thereon, and the rebuilding of the old Indian chapel. 

Sec. 2. That there sliall be three trustees appointed by the Governor, who shall 
serve without compensation, whose duties it shall be to carry out the pro-iisions of this 
act: Provided, That any sums raised by donations for the purposes herein specified 
may be used in addition to the above appropriation: Pro\aded, That money herein 
appropriated shall not be paid until an agreement shall be entered into by the I5oard of 
Commissioners of Marshall County with the State of Indiana to the satisfaction of the 
Governor, making provision for the control and repair of said monument and chapel; 
or that some other satisfactory method shall be provided for the control and repair 
of said monument and chapel when completed. 

Sec. 3. That said trustees shall keep an accurate account of all disbursements, 
and make a full report thereof and of the execution of this trust to the Governor not 
later than the fifteenth day of December, 1909. 

The amendment was presented to the board of commissioners of 
Marshall county by the author of the act at its April term, 1907, which 
after a brief consideration was postponed until the May term, when the 
proposition was again postponed until the June term. At this term the 
board of commissioners entered into the agreement as provided in the 
amendment to the bill, ordered it recorded on their records, and a certified 
copy sent to the governor, which was done by the auditor under seal of his 
office. Omitting the preamble, the following is the agreement which the 
commissioners entered upon their records at the June term, 1907 : 

"It is hereby agreed by the board of commissioners of Marshall county' 
with the state of Indiana, that wheii said state of Indiana completes said 
monument and chapel, as provided for in said act, and fully pays all expenses 
connected therewith, the board of commissioners as aforesaid hereby agree 
with the state of Indiana to make provision for the control and repair of 
the same as provided in said act." 

Shortly after this agreement the governor appointed three trustees to 
erect the monument provided for in the act, thereby indicating that he was 
"satisfied" with the agreement entered into by the Marshall county board 
of commissioners. J. S. Kumler, of Peru, one of the trustees appointed by 
the governor, declined to serve. The trustees as finally appointed by the 
governor are as follows: 

Charles T. ]\Iattingly, capitalist, Plymouth. 

Col. A. F. Fleet, superintendent Culver Military Acadeiny, Culver. 

Col. William Hoynes, dean of the Law School, Notre Dame LTniversity. 

Not long after the appointment of the trustees Gov. J. Frank Hanly 
concluded that the agreement filed with him by the commissioners of Mar- 
shall county was not "satisfactory" and sent to Trustee Mattingly an 
agreement written by his attorney-general to be presented to the members 
of the board with a request that each sign it personally. This document 
differed from the original only in phraseology and the manner of executing 
it. Mr. JNIattingly presented it to the board at the September term, when 
it was postponed until the October term, then until the November term, then 
until the December term, and then until the January term, 1908, when the 
board, having been reorganized, took the matter under consideration and 
signed the agreement as prepared by the governor. The members of the 


board who signed the contract which insures the building of the monument 
are WiUiani H. Troup, Joel Anglin and James B. Severns. 

LTp to the time of closing this sketch nothing has been done toward the 
erection of the monument, but it is thought by the trustees having the matter 
in hand that it will be completed some time during the year 1908 or early 
in 1909. 


"A Traveler," writing to the Indiana Republican, Madison, January 7, 
1829, has the following showing the condition of this part of northern 
Indiana, particularly Yellow river, Mix-in-kuk-kee lake, as called, he says, 
by the Pottawattomie Indians, and the Michigan road. His article is well 
worth preserving here as showing the condition of the country in this part 
of the state three score and ten years ago. He says : 

"Mr. Editor : The writer of this has spent some days of the last month 
examining the country on the St. Joseph of Lake Michigan, the Wabash 
and Kankikee. This country, except the Kankikee, is embraced in the pur- 
chase made this fall from the Pottawatamies. 

"We set out from Fort Wayne a northwesterly direction for the St. 
Joseph of the lake. The first twenty miles after leaving the fort the country 
is mostly covered with a heavy forest of timber, but a small portion of the 
soil is of good quality for farming. After passing Blue-grass creek, we 
passed a few miles of country, the land of an inferior quality, thinly timbered 
with oak and hickory, interspersed with a number of small lakes, from 
which flows to the southwest the head branch of the Tippecanoe river; we 
then entered the Elk-heart bottom ; this bottom is about eight miles wide, 
soil and timber of the best quality. Elk-heart creek is a fine, boatable 
stream, running northwest, and the depth of the water (above the knees of 
our horses) affording a sufficiency at the dryest season for all kinds of ma- 
chinery. After crossing this creek we entered the Elk-heart prairie, about 
six miles long and from two to four wide, soil of the best quality. Along 
the southwest margin of this beautiful prairie flows the Elk-heart creek, on 
the north bank of which, and in the prairie, is the site of Five Medals 
village, well known to our soldiers of the late war as the residence of the 
Pottawatamie war chief. Five Medals. This creek unites with the St. 
Joseph a few miles south of the line dividing Indiana and Michigan terri- 
tory, and near this point is also the entrance from the north of a large creek, 
which flows from Pleasant lake in Michigan territory; at the junction of 
these waters is a fine town site, possessing the advantages of being sur- 
rounded by a fine country of good land, and on the bank of the St. Joseph 
river, which is a deep, boatable stream, affording plenty of water for keel- 
boat navigation from this point to the lake at all seasons of the year — 
distance 75 to 100 miles by the river. Twenty miles below the mouth of 
Elk-heart is the southern bend of the St. Joseph. At this place the American 
Fur Company have an establishment to carry on trade with the Indians ; 
it is situated on a high, dry plain, affording a very handsome and extensive 
site for a village ; through this place, the road, as lately laid oft' from Lake 
Michigan to Indianapolis, passes, affording it the advantage of a road south 


to the Wabash, as well as the river northwest to the lake, at all times 
navigable, with a good harbor for the largest lake vessels, and a safe bay 
at its entrance into the lake, and also a high and beautiful site for a town on 
the margin of the lake at the mouth of the river. 

"From the southern bend of the St. Joseph we traveled west to Lake 
MichigaA; the country is dry and beautiful until we arrive within three or 
four miles of the lake, part rich barrens, and part first-rate timber land, 
with a large portion of prairie. We traveled part of the distance on the 
United States road, from Detroit to Chicago, this road which crosses the 
northern boundary of Indiana, about thirty miles east of Lake Michigan, 
and continues parallel with and near the north line of Indiana to the southern 
point of Lake Michigan. The tract of land through which this road passes 
was purchased from the Indians at the treaty of the Wabash, called the ten 
mile purchase, and as embraced between the north line of Indiana and the 
Kankikee river and ponds. This tract of land is perhaps surpassed by no 
other for beauty and fertility of soil. There may be a scarcity of timber 
after it is settled. It is watered with some spring rivulets, and has many 
beautiful lakes from one-fourth to one and one-half miles in circumference, 
with dry banks, sand bottoms, clear, sweet water, that abound with fish of 
various kinds. 

"We traveled from Lake Michigan a southeasterly course, and de- 
scended a hill of more than one hundred feet, and soon found ourselves in 
the neighborhood of these celebrated Kankikee ponds. The river of that 
name rises near the center of Indiana, from east to west, and flows west 
through a low valley, which is from four to eleven miles wide, and in the 
spring is covered with water. After the summer season sets in the quantity 
of water decreases, but there remains a marsh or swamp which is said to 
be sixty miles in length from east to west, and impossible at most places for 
man or horse to pass ; the river crosses the line dividing Indiana and Illinois 
about thirty-five miles south of Lake Michigan and uniting the River Aux- 
plaines from the Illinois river. The ponds above mentioned extend along 
the north side of the river beyond the state line. ]\Iost of the land on this 
river within Indiana is exceedingly poor. We crossed the Kankikee, which 
from its appearance we believed sufficiently 'large for boats to pass down it, 
from a point thirty or forty miles within the state of Indiana, part of the 
year. The trace on which we traveled led us southeast to Yellow river, a 
large branch of the Kankikee, within the country now owned bv the Potta- 
wattomies, and the whole distance between these rivers we saw no land 
suitable for farming, it being mostly wet prairie, or if timbered, with low 
black oak, and the soil of the most inferior quality. After crossing Yellow 
river and traveling about four miles we passed a beautiful lake from seven 
to ten miles in circumference, called by the Pottawattomie Indians Mix-in- 
kuk-kee. It is surrounded with rolling land of good quality and is formed 
from springs, and seems to occupy the highest summit between the Tippe- 
canoe and Kankikee rivers. From it flows to the south a large creek, forming 
one of the principal of the former river, and distant from it about five miles. 
The lake will probably some day supply a feeder for a canal to connect the 
Wabash and Illinois rivers. From this lake we proceeded a short distance 
east and found the line of the ]\Iichigan road, on which we traveled to the 
Wabash at the mouth of Eel river. Most of that country is good and 


susceptible of making a fine road. Should the legislature authorize, as they 
most likely will, the location of the donation of the Michigan road in the 
prairie between the St. Joseph and Lake Michigan, and on the line of the 
United States road from Detroit to Chicago, it will sell for an immense sum 
of money, and within two or three years will form one of the best settlements 
in Indiana. The country lately purchased is susceptible of forming from 
three to five counties, and in five years after it is sold by the United States 
will have sufficient population to send an additional member to congress." 


The following description of a trip from Lafayette to Turkey creek 
prairie, by way of Bennack's village, in Tippecanoe township, Marshall 
county, in 1834, which is copied from "Recollections of the Early Settle- 
ments of the Wabash Valley," published by Sanford C. Cox in i86o, is inter- 
esting as showing the condition of the country and inhabitants here three- 
quarters of a century ago: 

It was on the tenth of January, 1834, that in company with Maj. C , 

whoever he may have been, that Sanford C. Cox, as he relates in the extract 
of his book under consideration, according to previous arrangements, set 
out from Lafayette to explore that portion of northern Indiana comprised 
within the present boundaries of the counties of Fulton, Pulaski, Marshall, 
Stark, Kosciusko and Elkhart, A journey of one or two hundred miles was 
not then, as now, performed in a few hours. The first day they passed 
through Delphi and stayed over night at Lockport. The second day they 
passed through Logansport and stayed all night at a farm house six miles 
farther north on the Michigan road, having ridden leisurely and examined 
lands on Eel river most of the afternoon — being land hunters on the lookout 
for land to enter. Their landlord advised them to go on to the Pottawat- 
tomie mills, erected at the outlet of Manatau lake some twenty miles north, 
and from that point to keep up the Tippecanoe river to its head near the 
Turkey Creek prairie. Continuing, Mr. Cox said: 

"We followed his directions and took up our lonesome journey along 
the frozen Michigan road, which led through a dense, continuous forest. In 
the afternoon we arrived at a Mr. Bozarth's, near the Pottawattomie mills. 
His small, double cabin, which stood near where the town of Rochester 
now stands, was a welcome sight to us, being the only house we had seen 
after we started in the morning. Here we stopped for the night and were 
well entertained by Mr. Bozarth and his pleasant and interesting family, 
who, though domiciled in the wilderness, would have graced the better 
circles of metropolitan life. 

"After earlv breakfast we started on our journey, passing the Potta- 
wattomie mills during the first half hour's ride. We stopped for a short 
time and viewed the celebrated Lake Manitau, or "Devil's lake," where the 
Indians averred a huge monster had been seen in the shape of a serpent, 
which defied all human eft'orts to snare it. There was a tradition existing 
among the Pottawattomie Indians that there was a monster in the shape 


of a serpent existing in this lake long before they crossed the 'hard waters 
of the north.' 

"Their superstitious dread of this lake was such that they would not 
hunt upon its borders nor fish in its waters for fear of incurring the anger 
of the evil spirit that made its home in this little woodland lake, which 
perhaps is some three or four miles in length, with a breadth averaging 
from one-fourth to a half mile, quite irregular, sometimes quite narrow 
for several hundred yards, resembling a narrow, sluggish river, at other 
places widening into bays and more extended sheets of water that reflected 
sky and forest like a mirror. The appearance of the ground- indicated that 
it had originally been much larger and that its waters had gradually receded ; 
which fact was confirmed by some of the earliest settlers of the neighbor- 
hood, who said they had fished years before in portions of the lake which 
had become partially or entirely dry land. 

"When the government officers were about erecting the Pottawattomie 
mills the Indians strenuously objected to the erection of a dam at the outlet 
of the lake, lest its accumulated waters might disturb and overflow the sub- 
terranean chambers of Manitau and the exasperated demon rush forth from 
his watery dominions and take indiscriminate vengeance on all those who 
resided near the sacred lake ; and to convince the government officials of the 
real existence of this monster and his terrible paroxysms of rage, which 
were periodical, they stated that certain seasons of the year the fishes became 
so alarmed that they rushed pellmell to the outlet of the lake in large schools 
or shoals to escape the exasperated monster that threatened their destruction. 
"I have been informed that Austin W. Morris, who completed the survey 
of the lake for the erection of the mills, said that several of his flagmen 
while assisting in its survey had become alarmed and made to shore, 
declaring that they had seen a monster in the water, and for a while it 
was difficult for him to get a man to carry the red flag. Whether they really 
saw anything terrible in the water, or their fears were merely the result of 
an excited imagination after hearing the Indian legends, Mr. Morris never 
pretended to say. 

"In confirmation of the tradition above alluded to, in the year 1837 
there appeared in the columns of the Logansport Telegraph a communica- 
tion, supposed to have been written by our artist George Winter, giving a 
more particular and circumstantial description of the monster from an 
account given to him by a fishing party who said they had seen the serpent, 
which they represented as being about sixty feet long, the frontal bone 
three feet across, with eyes as large as saucers. 

"The correspondent's description of the monster produced quite a 
sensation among the good people of Logansport and the surrounding coun- 
try, and a party of fifteen or twenty daring spirits, including several scientific 
gentlemen, was formed to go to the lake on a certain day, with fishing tackle, 
after the manner of Barry Cornwall's fishermen, harpoons, spears, etc., to 
fish out the leviathan demon, or whatever it might be, that by this time had 
got a character equal to a first-class sea serpent. 

"A sickly season, combined with other circumstances, prevented this 
grand piscatorial enterprise, which had been planned on a magnificent scale 
and publicly advertised throughout the country for weeks ; and his wonderful 
snakeship escaped the leviathan hooks and snares which had been prepared 


to lift him from his watery home and (perhaps) his capacious stuffed skin 
from being exhibited by Barnum all over the world. 

"From Lake Manitau we proceeded on our journey up the Tippecanoe. 
Our trace passed through the timber land of the Yellow river country. We 
were told that we would not see a house after leaving the mills, except that 
of Ben-niack, a half-breed and one of the headmen among the Pottawat- 
tomies, at the crossing of the Tippecanoe river, until we arrived at McCart- 
ney's, an old Indian trader on Turkey Creek prairie; but as examining the 
face of the country with a view of entering land was the object of our trip, 
we had no objection to see it in its primitive grandeur, unmarred and 
unmolested by the hand of man. 

"About 12 o'clock we arrived at the crossing of Tippecanoe, about half 
a mile below Ben-nack's village. Here we alighted and partook of our noon 
lunch, and examined the ford where our road crossed the river. The ice had 
melted away from the shore where we were for more than a rod, while the 
rest of the stream was covered with ice which appeared sufficiently strong 
to bear up our horses provided we could get them upon it. As the horse I 
rode was the lightest, we concluded to lead him in and pass him over first, 
which was done with much difficulty, as the edge of the ice where the horse 
first reached it struck him about the middle of his breast, and he, by much 
urging, sprung upon it with a bound. It bore him up and he was led to the 
opposite shore. With difficulty we got the major's horse to the edge of the 
ice, and after much coaxing and patting him upon his head we got him to 
make a bound — the ice broke ; he made another spring and it broke again ; 
he made one plunge after another until he broke the ford open from one side 
of the stream to the other, the major meanwhile clinging hold of the bridle 
reins on the upper side to prevent the deep strong current from drawing 
the horse under the ice. We mounted our horses shivering with cold and 
rattling with icicles, and hastened to Ben-nack's to warm and dry ourselves 
and horses. Imagine our surprise and chagrin when, calling at his cabin 
door for admittance, he after much delay cautiously opened the door a few 
inches only, and asked what we wanted. We told him our sad plight, and 
that we wished to stop a few minutes to warm by his fire. He made no 
reply, but immediately closed the door in our face. The Indians peeped 
out from their wigwams, which surrounded Ben-nack's cabin, with evident 
surprise and mortification at his want of hospitality. For a moment we 
thought we would stop at a wigwam and warm at the Indians' campfire, 
but changed our mind and rode on along the trace to Turkey Creek prairie, 
wet, cold and slightly out of humor. 

"Late in the evening we arrived at McCartney's, on the south side of 
Turkey Creek prairie, near the cluster of lakes that form the head of Tippe- 
canoe. McCartney had married a daughter of Bennack, and was absent on 
a trip to Washington city to procure a patent, as we were informed, for a 
section of reserve land which he had married with his 'pretty young squaw.' 
Ben Hurst, one of Indiana's oldest lawyers and one of Gen. Harrison's aids 
at the battle of Tippecanoe, resided at McCartney's during his absence at 
Washington to superintend his business, and to guard his wife, Mary, from 
being spirited away by her father, who had become dissatisfied with the 
match and declared the marriage a nullity, having been solemnized by an 


officer of Cass county, on Indian territory, which he insisted was without 
the jurisdiction of the officer. 

"We spent two or three dajs looking at the country surrounding the 
big and little Turkey Creek prairies, and passing over portions of what now 
lies within the limits of Marshall, Elkhart and Kosciusko counties, then a 
wild, uncultivated region which contained fifty Indians for every white man. 
But few white families had penetrated this frontier region, and the major 
and myself concluded that although the land was rich and productive it was 
so remote from schools, churches and other advantages of civilization that 
we did not feel like pitching our tabernacles in that out-of-the-way place. 
Every day we met with Indians who were exceedingly friendly and invariably 
inquired for 'good-ne-tosh' (whisky), offering to exchange moccasins, fur 
skins, or even pay the cash for it. One morning a troop of about twenty 
squaws and papooses mounted on ponies followed us for more than a mile 
beseeching us for whisky, which was a contraband article, prohibited by 
law from being bartered to the Indians. In order to get rid of such an 
escort over the prairies, the major pulled out a pint flask of whisky from his 
saddle bags, which we had taken along with us to doctor our horses in case 
they became sick, and held it up as a prize to whoever could ride and take 
it out of his hand, meanwhile spurring up his horse to a gallop. Helter- 
skelter dashed along the squaws on the ponies to seize the prize, the major 
urging up his horse, and the squaws and papooses goading on their ponies 
to full speed. One old squaw dashed ahead of the rest and seized the bottle. 
The rest soon circled around her. She took out the cork and drank our 
'very good health,' and handed it to another until it passed around, the 
younger women and children touching it but lightly. The major told them 
to pass it around again, which was done, and the empty bottle thrown hi 
the grass. The old squaw thanked us politely for the whisky and a few 
crackers we had given to the children, and invited us to their camp, about a 
mile ofif, which invitation we courteously declined. 

"The liquor soon made the old woman feel like exhibiting her powers of 
horsemanship, and after telling the little urchin that rode behind her to 'hold 
fast,' dashed ofif at full speed of her pony, followed by the rest, the children 
clinging on behind their mothers and aunts, dashed from side to side, up 
and down, as far as we could see them, and their wild halloo rung upon the 
air for several minutes after they turned into the timber where their village 

"While at McCartney's we got sight of his 'handsome young squaw,' 
of whose beauty we had heard so much. She appeared to be about twenty 
years of age, of medium stature, thickset, and was handsomely dressed in 
Indian costume. I have seen many handsomer Indian women, and thought 
at the time that her being Bennack's daughter, and owning a section of land, 
added charms that could not be appreciated by every beholder. 

"A graphic likeness of Bennack may be seen in a group of portraits 
of distinguished chiefs, headmen and warriors of the Pottawattomie nation 
in the studio of our able artist, George Winter, whose paintings are much 
admired by all judges of the fine arts." 



In the earliest settlement of the county what is now known as "hotel" 
or "house," as applied to places of public entertainment, was at that time 
universally called "tavern," every one of which, before the proprietor could 
open up for business, was required to apply to the board of commissioners 
for a license, for which he was charged $io a year, more or less, according 
to the amount of business done. There was no state law at that time gov- 
erning the sale of intoxicating liquors, and the tavern license was in reality . 
a license to sell liquor, as every tavern keeper was supposed to keep a little 
brown jug with something in it for the stomach's sake! 

The first license granted for keeping tavern was to Grove Pomeroy 
for one year from April i, 1836. His tavern was the building on the south- 
west corner of Michigan and La Porte streets. It was built of logs and 
lumber, two stories high. For several years it had quite a run of travel, 
the stage coaches from the north and south on the Michigan road and the 
hacks on the La Porte road stopping there. Mr. Pomeroy does not seem 
to have taken out tavern license after that, and it is likely that Robert Beattie 
succeeded him in 1837, judging from the following petition for license and 
the order for the same. A copy of this is reproduced here to show how the 
tavern business was conducted in those days. 

Now at this time, to-wit: on the 3 day of January 1837 comes Robert Beattie 
and files in open court a certificate for divers freeholders, citizens of Plymouth and 
vicinity for a Tavern License to keep a house of public entertainment in the town of 
Plymouth in the following words and figures towit: 

To the Honorable the Board of Commissioners: The undersigned citizens of 
Plymouth and vicinity certify that Robert Beattie is a man of good moral character 
and well qualified to keep a house of public entertainment, and that we believe a Tavern 
to be highly necessary in the town of Plymouth, Marshall County, Indiana: 

E. B. Hobson Adam Vinnedge William Bishop Daniel Roberts 

Peter Schroeder Silas Morgan Joseph Griffith Thomas A. Packard 

Milburn Coe W. G. Pomeroy Allen Leach Edward R. Parks 

John E. Woodward John Hall G. O. Pomeroy Grove Pomeroy 

E. G. Collins Timothy Barber Tanner Currier Samuel D. Taber 

John Anderson Resin Packard Abner Caldwell David VanVactor 

David Steel Jeremiah Muncy Thomas Erskin 

There was nothing stated in the petition as to where the tavern was 
located, but the fact that Grove Pomeroy, the owner of the building, signed 
the petition, is almost conclusive evidence that it was the Pomeroy building. 

Prior to the organization of the county in July, 1836, the board of 
commissioners granted several "tavern licenses," among which were the 
following : Gustavus A. Cone, tavern license in North township for one year 
from April i, 1836. This was probably the place afterwards owned by the 
Sherlands, and was a regular stopping place for the stage coaches passing 
that way north and south. 

July 19, 1836, Charles Osterhaut was granted license for one year to 
keep tavern. His place was about two miles south of Plymouth, on the 
west side of the Michigan road. He was a member of the board of commis- 
sioners, and the board met at his house until the first courthouse was erected 
after the county was organized, when it began holding its meetings in that 


building. That building is still standing. It is the second house east of 
Michigan street on the north side of Adams street, in Plymouth. 

Sidney Williams was granted tavern license in 1836, his building being 
about where Argos now stands. 

Thomas Singleton was granted license for a tavern on the La Porte 
road between Plymouth and Lemon's bridge. 

Abel C. Hickman was granted tavern license at his home on the Michi- 
gan road near the Fulton county line. 

There were several other taverns in various portions of the county, so 
that wherever people happened to be when night came on, they were pretty 
sure to find a tavern where they could obtain food and shelter for the night, 
although they might have for a bed a quilt on a puncheon floor to sleep on. 

After the Pomeroy tavern the next house of importance was the old 
American House, still standing at the south end of the river bridge on the 
east side of Michigan street. It was built by Adam Vinnedge, Sr., about 
the time of the organization of the county, but its location was not desirable, 
and at no time since it was first erected has it been self-sustaining. 

The Baldwin House was on the southwest corner of Michigan and 
Washington streets. It was kept by Ayers Baldwin for several years, but 
after his death was used as a dwelling house. 

The Doddridge House, also known as the Edwards House, and the 
Parker House, was erected in the early '50s, and for many years was one of 
the most pretentious caravansaries of its kind in this part of the country. 
During its existence it had a great many landlords, among those best re- 
membered being William C. Edwards, O. H. P. Bailey, Joel Parker, U. S. 
Dodge, George B. Steadman, W. K. Swallow and others. In 1858 Mr. 
Steadman, who was then proprietor of the hotel, got into an altercation with 
a man who kept a livery barn near by, and in the melee was so badly stabbed 
that he died not long afterwards. Several years ago it caught fire and was 
partially consumed, after which the remains were purchased and removed 
to the north part of town, where it was worked over into a dwelling, and 
thus ended Plymouth's first real house of entertainment. 

A. Gambrill, or "Gabe" Gambrill as he was familiarly known, erected 
a hotel and eating house on the north side of the Fort Wayne railroad 
opposite the elevator, about 1857-8, which he continued with indifferent 
success for a few years, when it caught fire and was burnt to the ground. 

The Ross House, one of the two principal hotels in Plymouth, was 
erected a quarter of a century ago by Robert H. Cox, long since deceased. 

There are few people in Plymouth who know how the Ross House 
happened to be called by that name. It was built in its present form by Mr. 
Robert H. Cox, who died several years ago. About the time it was ready to 
be opened to the public Mr. Cox was in a quandary as to an appropriate 
name for the new caravansary, not wishing to perpetuate his own name by 
calling it the Cox House, because he was fearful the traveling men would 
nickname it the "Coxey House" after Coxey and his army of "ragamuffins" 
who were just then marching on to Washington. About that time, too, the 
country was greatly excited over the kidnaping of Charley Ross, which is 
still well remembered by the older citizens. One evening Mr. Cox was 
talking to a traveling man about the difficulty he had in selecting a suitable 
name for his hotel, when the gentleman suggested, "Why not call it the 


'Ross House,' in memory of Charley Ross, the kidnaped boy?" It appealed 
to Mr. Cox's sympathy for the bereaved parents of the boy, and from that 
day to the present it has been known as the "Ross House." 

The building is of frame, well arranged, and is supplied with all modern 
improvements. At this time it is managed by Frank D. Lamson. 

The Grand Hotel is owned by Charles Kellison and was erected about 
1890. It is modern in all its equipments and its management is kept up to 
the highest standard. 

George Pomeroy was probably the first tavern keeper in Bremen, as he 
was one among the earliest residents there. In 1859 John Prottsman erected 
the American House, and kept really the first hotel in that place. In 1865 
Jacob Knoblock erected in Bremen a large and commodious hotel which was 
the pride of the town. ]\Ir. Knoblock managed it until 1869, when he died. 
It was afterwards kept by his son-in-law and H. M. Carver until 1879, when 
it caught fire and went up in smoke. 

In Bourbon, so far as is known, Henry H. Baxter was the first tavern 
keeper. That was in the early '50s, and he continued as such for many 
years. In the later '50s, prior to the civil war and after the completion of 
the Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad, Henry Sheets erected a hotel building 
on Main street, near the railroad, which he called the Railroad House and 
later the Sheets House, which he kept for many years. Several years ago it 
was removed and the present splendid brick and stone structure erected by 
Mr. Ringenberger. Prior to this the "Central House," erected one block 
north of the railroad in the center of the town by S. E. O'Brien, was the 
first really first-class hotel structure erected in the town. The American 
House, located on the block north of the railroad, was kept by Andrew Rice 
for many years, and later by M. C. Henshaw. It is now used as a residence. 

In Argos — which was then called Sidney — the first tavern was erected 
by Sidney Williams, and by him sold prior to 1850 to Clark Bliven, who 
continued to keep the tavern until about 1845, when M. L. Smith purchased 
the property and managed the place until his death many years ago. A new 
hotel was then erected on the street leading to the Lake Erie railroad station. 
It is a large and commodious structure, having the modern improvements, 
and in every way is first-class. 


In the summer of 1835 an exploring expedition was formed in the 
southern part of the state for the purpose of visiting the country north of the 
Wabash river, and if they were pleased with "the lay of the land" it was 
understood they were to make selections of homes for themselves and neigh- 
bors who had determined to change their place of abode, and make the proper 
entry in the land office, which was at that time at La Porte. The currency 
of the realm at that time was mostly the good old-fashioned silver dollar of 
the daddies, and it required but ninety of them to purchase the best eighty- 
acre lot of land in Marshall county. These dollars were generally sewed up 
in a belt of cotton shirting, or some goods of that sort, or put into an Indian 


belt made of tanned deerskin, and worn around the waist, underneath the 
coat and vest or ■"wamus." as the case might be. 

These primitive explorers, of course, were provided with rifles with 
which to protect themselves, and also for the purpose of providing game for 
food. These rifles were generally of the flintlock pattern — "percussion caps" 
not having at that time made their appearance this far west. A part of the 
outfit was a pair of bullet molds made of iron. Bar lead was a necessary- 
article of merchandise, and with a wooden ladle to melt it in and pour it 
into the molds a sufficient number of bullets could be made in a short time to 
last several days. If, however, a long journey was to be taken, the molds 
and lead were carried along for use in case of emergency. A gun pouch 
made of dressed deerskin with the hair on, with a turn-over flap at the top, 
was adjusted over the right shoulder and carried at the side under the left 
arm. Ox or cow horns were used to carry powder in. Some of these horns 
were made by the Indians and were really quite artistic. Pictures, rude 
though they might be, of various animals were cut on the horns, and 
frequently they were inlaid with silver. 

Having selected the lands they wished to enter, one of the number would 
be delegated to go to the land office and transact the business for himself 
and all the others, in order to save the time and expense of making the trip. 
The land office was afterwards removed to Winamac, for what particular 
reason the general public never found out, and Amzi L. Wheeler of Plymouth 
appointed receiver. During most of the time Johnson Brownlee was em- 
ployed by Mr. Wheeler as clerk and messenger. All the money received for 
entries of land was either gold or silver coins, mostly silver dollars. This 
money the receiver was required to deposit in a designated bank at Chicago, 
111., and as there were no railroads or express lines it had to be sent by 
special messenger, and it fell to the lot of Mr. Brownlee to perform that 
hazardous duty. As fast as three or four thousand dollars were received 
they would be put up in square boxes containing $500 and $1,000 each of 
silver and double that amount of gold. The boxes were securely fastened 
with screws and plainly directed to the government depository at Chicago. 
Mr. Brownlee had been previously sent to the southern part of the state, into 
Fayette and Rush counties, where he had formerly lived, to purchase a team 
of horses to haul the money between the points. It was a fine team of chest- 
nut sorrels that was secured for the service. A light covered wagon was 
also procured as a part of the outfit. The receiver was allowed $150 for each 
trip in the delivery of the money, and, as there was considerable profit in 
that part of the perquisites, the loads were quite numerous for that reason, 
and for the further reason that if the messenger should be met by highway 
robbers and the money taken away from him the loss would not be so great. 
During the time Mr. Brownlee was connected with the land office at 
Winamac he said he must have made as many as fifty trips to Chicago with 
money. His route was by way of Maxinkuckee lake, through the "prairie" 
as it was then called, where "Uncle Piatt Dickson" and others lived, south- 
west of where Wolf Creek mills formerly were. That neighborhood was 
generally his stopping place the first night out. The next day he would reach 
La Porte, where he would stay all night with Capt. Ely, who was an old-time 
personal friend of the receiver. When Mr. Brownlee retired to bed at night 
he piled the money boxes up in his room, or under his bed if others slept in 


the room with him. The next day he would reach Michigan City by noon, 
and a place now called ^liller's station on the Michigan Central railroad, half 
way between ^Michigan City and Chicago, was reached for the night. The 
next day would take him into Chicago, where he deposited his boxes with 
the bank and drove to his hotel. After the money was counted the next 
morning and he had procured a receipt for the same he started on the return 
trip. In all the numerous trips he made over that very sparsely settled 
country he never met with an accident and was never molested in any 

Chicago became a village of whites in 1833. In 1837 an unofificial census 
showed a population of about 4,000. The official census of 1840 showed 
a population of 4,853, so that about the period of Mr. Brownlee's 
visits there the population was not far from 10,000. Old Fort Dearborn 
was still standing at that time, and the Chicago of today, "the zenith city of 
the unsalted seas," a city of more than two million inhabitants, was a typical 
frontier town. It was reached by the lake by small sailing vessels, and 
overland by stage coaches, etc. There was not at that time a railroad pointing 
in that direction. The telegraph had not been invented ; steamboat navigation 
was an experiment ; such things as reapers and mowers, sewing machines 
and the numerous labor-saving machines that have come into use as if bv 
magic, and electricity and all the marvelous uses to which it has been applied 
were not then dreamed of. No other three score and ten years since the 
world began has witnessed such marvelous inventions and such astounding 
progress in discoveries and the arts and sciences, in civilization, education 
and all that tends to advance civilization. As the poet has well said : 

We are living, n-e are dwelling 

In a grand and awful time. 
In an age on ages telling — 

To be living is sublime. 


^^'hen the pioneers came there was nothing here but a wilderness. No 
evidences of civilization were to be seen anywhere. Telegraphing had not 
then been discovered, and there wasn't a railroad within a thousand miles 
in any direction, and at that time there was not even a stage line within 
forty miles. 

The Indians, their manners and customs and characteristics having 
been quite fully set forth in these sketches, the inquiry may naturally be 
made, who were the pioneers who first settled this region and took the 
places of the Indians after they finally left the country, and what were 
their habits, manners and customs? 

Those who first came here, or their parents, were originally mostly 
from Pennsylvania, Virginia and the coast states, and were of Scotch, 
German, Irish, English and French descent. Upon the opening of the 
great Northwestern Territory, of which this was a part, they began moving 
westward, and, striking the Ohio river at various points, floated down on 
rafts and boats of rude construction to various settlements, such as Marietta, 


Cincinnati and otiier points where they could move out into the country 
both south and north. 

The first settlers here were from southern Ohio and Indiana and 
northern Kentuclc\-. Butler and Preble counties, in Ohio, and Rush, Fay- 
ette, Franklin and Union counties, in southern Indiana, furnished nearlv 
the entire emigration the first eight or ten years. 

Xo better class of people could be found any place than were the first 
settlers in this county. They were the cream of the settlements they had 
left ; resolute and determined ; moral, honest, upright and generally of a 
religious turn of mind, and were social and neighborly in a degree that 
would put to confusion and shame the average of those who make up the 
population in these days. 

Many of them were fairly well educated and all were endowed with 
what is commonly known as "good common sense." Everything goes to 
show that. They laid the foundations of our present county government 
broad and deep, firm and solid. They began at once to build schoolhouses 
and provide places of worship; they built a courthouse and other public 
buildings, and provided an asylum for the helpless poor. They chopped 
down the forests ; plowed and sowed the ground ; erected saw mills and 
grist mills, and brick yards, blacksmith and wagon shops ; cut out and 
bridged, and made the roads passable ; established mail routes and stage 
lines ; opened up facilities for trade and reciprocal intercourse with neigh- 
boring towns and villages ; elected officers who set the legal machinery to 
work, all of which gave us the start that has brought us on and up to 
our present advanced stage of civilization. 

As we review the past, the forms and faces of these early pioneers — 
those who "blazed the way" through the almost impassable wilderness — 
"in shadowy design," come up in vivid remembrance, and in their life's 
history present much that is worthy of admiration and emulation. Leaving 
their early homes, and the scenes of civilization, with ax and gim, they 
wended their lonely way through the unexplored wilderness until they 
reached the place where their future home was to be. Here, among the 
wild men of the forest that were still here when many of them came, the 
wolves and wild beasts of prey that infested the country, a wigwam of 
brush and poles was erected, a campfire built, and "the ax laid at the root 
of the tree." There, in the lonely woods, away from friends and family, 
the original pioneer labored, day in and day out, clearing a little "patch" 
of ground and preparing a rude log cabin for the reception of his wife and 
little ones. Finally they came, thinly clad in "home spun," sick and weary 
from weeks of traveling with ox teams, over roads that had to be made as 
they w'ent, breaking an axle here, a tongue there; sleeping on the ground 
in the night air; fighting myriads of mosquitos and braving the storms 
that overtook them on their journey. 

Here, and in this way, was the battle of life again renewed ; and right 
manfully was it pressed to a glorious victory. How the memory of their 
hardships looms up, as the past, like a panorama, is spread out before us ! 
It is well those who are living here now, gathering the fruits of the toil 
of those early pioneers, cannot realize the sufifering and deprivation they 
passed through in forming and handing down the blessed heritage we now 


Those were days that tested true friendship. The question was never 
asked: "Who is my neighbor?" All were neighbors. All were friends. 
And let us hope that the friendships formed under so many trying circum- 
stances, in those early days, may serve to cement the rising generation with 
the past, and that it may continue for all time to come. 

When the Northwestern Territory was declared opened for settle- 
ment, about 1800, most of them made their way in boats down the Ohio 
river as far as where Cincinnati now stands and settled in Hamilton, Butler 
and adjoining counties, and from there gradually found their way into 
southern Indiana, settling in the river counties. 

Emigration from southern Indiana to Marshall county began in 1835, 
but it did not commence in earnest until 1836. In the spring of that year, 
in the vicinity of iNIaxinkuckee lake and farther north and east in the 
direction of Plymouth, the Logans, \^oreises, Morrises, Thompsons, Dick- 
sons. McDonalds, Brownlees, Houghtons, Blakeleys, Lawsons, and others, 
arrived and made a permanent settlement. From this on, the settlement of 
this region was rapid and permanent. Except that portion of Union town- 
ship known as the "Burr Oak Flats," the land was thickly timbered and 
full of undcr-rnwth. 

The Homo of the Hardy Pioneer. 

Cabins of the roughest kind of logs were erected and covered with 
clapboards, "rived" with an implement called a "fro," out of red oak 
timber, which were held to their places by logs fastened on the laps. Chim- 
neys were built of small poles, and the cracks in the cabin and chimney 
were "daubed" with a very inferior quality of mud. If it was desirable to 
have a window, part of a log was taken out and a rough frame covered 
with white paper greased would be put in. The furniture, except such 
portions as had been transported by wagons when the movers came, was 
of the most primitive workmanship. 

At that time there were no white people nearer than the Michigan 
road, and few there. The Indians outnumbered the whites two to one, and 


it was uncertain whether the treaty entered into between them and the 
government, by which they were to leave the country, could be carried 
out. The average Indian that inhabited this region at that period could 
hardly be made to see the justice of being forced to leave his hunting 
grounds for the accommodation of those he looked upon as being only a 
few white adventurers, and until those untutored savages were driven away 
two years later they were the imaginary terror of timid men, women and 
children. They were peaceable, however, and the anticipations of danger 
were never, in a single instance, realized. No disturbance of any kind 
ever occurred. 

There were no roads or bridges in those days, and he who did the 
milling for the neighborhood blazed his way as he went, and if he suc- 
ceeded in making the trip to Delphi or Logansport, the nearest grist mills, 
and return in a week or ten days he was applauded as having accomplished 
a great feat. Sometimes he would break his wagon, frequently his oxen 
would get stuck in the mire, and other unforeseen accidents would befall 
him by which he would be delayed. Then the rations would run short, 
and those dependent upon his return for bread would have to crack corn 
with such appliances as were at hand, live on lye hominy made out of 
Indian corn, and such wild game as the hunters of the neighborhood could 

If the fire went out at night, which w'as not an uncommon occurrence, 
a chunk of fire had to be brought from the nearest neighbor, or a jack knife 
and a piece of "punk" attached to a flint stone had to be brougtit into 
requisition. In those days these articles were considered essential in all 
well regulated families. People then knew nothing about friction matches, 
nor did they enjoy the luxury of tea, cofifee, pepper, spices or anything 
of that kind. They were not to be had, and if they could have been bought 
there was no money to buy them with. There were no churches then, and 
no schoolhouses, no country stores, no shoe shops, no blacksmith shops, no 
wagon shops, in fact nothing that the people needed. Homespun flax pants 
and shirts of a little finer material, the sleeves and collars fastened with 
a needle and thread, an inferior straw hat made by hand of oats or rye 
straw and boots or shoes made by the shoemaker of the neighborhood, 
generally badly worn, constituted the average Sunday outfit at that period 
and for some time afterwards. 

The country was full of swamps and wet places, and the malaria that 
arose therefrom in the spring and summer was sufficient to prostrate more 
than half the population. Such a time with bilious fever, "ager," and 
other bilious diseases as prevailed for several years was never known before 
nor since. The proper remedies were not to be had for love or money, 
and many died for want of care and proper medical attention. Dr. Thomas 
Logan, who came with those who arrived in 1836, was the first doctor 
who practiced his profession in that section of the county. He was sent 
for far and wide and saved many lives and did much to alleviate the suf- 
fering that was everywhere prevalent. 

People of these days often wonder how it happened that the earliest 
settlers found their way into Marshal! county and into this section of the 
state, which was at that time a howling wilderness inhabited only by Indians 
and wild animals, and what induced them to leave the scenes of their earlv 


childhood and settle in the woods to labor and toil in building up homes 
for themselves and children away from their friends and the influences of 
civilized society? It would be difficult to tell what influenced those who 
first came to locate permanently here. 

Treaties had been made with the Indians by which they were to give 
up their lands and hunting grounds to the whites. Gangs of government 
surveyors had been sent here ; the lands had been surveyed and platted, and 
opened to entry b}^ the government at $1.25 per acre. Through these gov- 
ernment suri'cyors, axmen and chainmen, it soon became noised abroad 
that a most delightful and productive country had been found, with beau- 
tiful lakes and water courses, and every kind of fish and wild game, fruits 
and nuts and roots in abundance. 

Prior to the treaty ceding the lands to the L'nited States by the Pot- 
tawattomie Indians, a scheme had been entered into by some speculators 
looking to the building of a great national thoroughfare between Lake 
JMichigan and the Ohio river, through the center of Indiana, which was, 
in the course of time, built and named bv the legislature, "The Michigan 

It was this JMichigan road that probably induced many of the early 
settlers to come here ; in fact, otherwise they could hardly have found 
their way through the wilderness. Nearly all the pioneers that settled in 
the county up to 1840 came from the south on the line of that road, espe- 
cially the' large colony that settled in Union township in the region of 
Maxinkuckee lake. 

How They Came. 

The first settlers about the lake came in 1836. Several heads of families 
came in 1835 and entered lands, and early in the following spring built log 
cabins, cleared off little patches of ground, planted corn, potatoes, etc., and 
early in the summer returned to bring their families and take up their 
permanent residences in Marshall county. They came in a caravan from 
southern Indiana in wagons drawn by ox teams, on horseback and on foot. 
They started on their long and tiresome journey on the twelfth of July, and 
arrived on the east side of Maxinkuckee lake July 26, 1836, just six days 
after the county had been organized and the county seat located at Plymouth, 
which occurred July 20, 1836. At that time there were only about 600 white 
people in the county and about 1,500 Pottawattomie Indians. The household 
goods of the members of the caravan were carefully packed away in the 
wagons, leaving room for the women and children and the supply of eatables 
prepared for the journey. The wagons were covered with sheeting for 
protection against rain and the hot rays of the sun. Fourteen days were 
occupied in making the journey. The roads most of the way were through 
swamps and over log bridges, and much of the way was but little better 
than Indian trails. From Indianapolis the Michigan road was followed. At 
that time it had only just been opened through this part of the state, and 
that only to such an extent as to make it passable by cutting down the trees 
and bushes along the line and bridging over the worst places with brush, 
poles and logs. 

The country through which the road ran at that time was for the most 
part thickly timbered, and all along was an abundance of wild game and 


fruit? of all kinds, which the hunters of the little band brought into camp. 
The lack of pure water to drink was the most serious difficulty they had to 
contend with. There were seldom any springs along the way and the water 
for drinking and cooking purposes was mostly from stagnant ponds and 
small streams which were not much better. Every night on the way they 
camped wherever darkness overtook them, slept in the wagons and under 
the trees, the cattle and horses browsing about the camp and resting from 
the day's toil as best they could. The mosquitos and flies were terrible pests, 
much more so than people nowadays can imagine. 

It was late in the afternoon of July 26, 1836, when the tired and worn- 
out caravan obtained the first sight of the ever beautiful Maxinkuckee lake. 
The glorious sun was just making its golden setting, "and by the track of his 
fiery car, gave token of a goodly day tomorrow." It was indeed, as our own 
"Hoosier Poet" has so beautifully expressed it, "a pictur' that no painter has 
the coloring to mock." A sunset on JNIaxinkuckee is always beautiful, and. 
no matter how often seen, never loses its charm to the beholder. None of 
them had ever seen a lake before, and the beauty of the scene, the rippling 
water, the rays of the golden sunset, and the shore lines, with their "etchings 
of forest and prairie," left a picture on their memory that lasted during life. 
The final stop was made not far east of the lake, near the residence of the 
late David R. Voreis. It was twilight then. A signal of their arrival in 
the neighborhood had been agreed upon before they started, and as the ox 
teams were halted at the end of the journey, a long, loud blast was given on 
a conch shell, which resounded and echoed and re-echoed through the trees 
and over the hills for miles in every direction. The night birds began to 
carol their sweetest melodies and sing their glad songs of welcome. And then 
the weary travelers listened eagerly for the response. It soon came from 
the residence of Vincent Brownlee, a short distance farther away in the 
wilderness. The echo of that response still rings loud and clear in the ears 
of the few still living who heard it. It was in one sense a most joyous 
occasion. The women who had borne the burden and heat of the long and 
wearisome days and were well nigh exhausted cried for joy, and even the 
stalwart men of the party let fall a silent tear that the hardships of the jour- 
ney to the new country were at an end. Less than half a dozen who came at 
that time are known to be living. All the others have "gone to that undiscov- 
ered country from whose bourne no traveler returns." 

Mill Dams — Grist and Saw Mills. 

The same year that white settlers came, they set about devising ways 
and means by which they could secure the establishing of mills by which they 
could get their corn "cracked" at home, and the little lumber they needed 
for doors and floors to their cabins without being compelled to drive their 
ox-wagons thirty or forty miles and back to procure it. Such a thing as 
steam boilers or steam grist mills were not known then. Mill sites were 
numerous and all that could be desired, but it was hard to find one close by 
a dam-site ! There were few rivers or streams that could be dammed so as 
to hold the necessary amount of water, and with fall sufficient to furnish 
power to run the machinery. The first effort at dam building was across 
the outlet of the lower Twin lake and the erection of a small n'lill known as 
"Barber's Mill," now known as "Zehner's Mill." It was built about 1836, 


by Timothy Barber and others. It proved to be a great convenience all over 
the central', southern and western part of the county in the grinding of corn, 
there being no wheat until several years later. The dam was quite substan- 
tially built, and as the Twin lakes were not affected by the heavy rains and 
floods as were the rivers, the owner was not annoyed by the dam washing out 
every time the heavy rains and flood came. A dam was built across Pine 
creek in Polk township, not far from where Tyner is now located, and a saw- 
mill built there, also about 1836. It furnished lumber for the neighborhood 
round about when there was sufficient water to keep the mill running, but 
when there was a dry season there was not enough water to run the mill. 
It went into retirement more than half a century ago. 

The mill dam across Wolf creek, six miles southwest of Plymouth, was 
built about 1840, by Clark Bliven. Wolf creek was a very small stream at 
that time, being fed by the drainage of the swamp lands through which it 
meandered. A small grist mill was erected on the south side of the dam, and 
later a saw mill was built on the north side. At this mill the lumber for the 
second courthouse was sawed. It was here, too, about 1850, when the creek 
was overflowed by the high water, that ;\Ir. Bliven, the owner of the prop- 
erty, in attempting to save the dam from washing out lost his footing, was 
washed out with the dam and drowned. In backing up the water the dam 
caused much valuable land to be overflowed, and for many years, on this 
account and because it was a breeder of malaria, efforts had been made to 
have the dam removed. Proceedings were instituted in court at various 
times, but "the law's delay" suffered it to remain until the early part of 
1907, when the court ordered the dam to be taken out and the channel of the 
creek dredged, which was done, and this historic spot is now only a memory. 
No wonder it had such a checkered history. The Pottawattomies called it 
"Katam-wah-see-te-wah," the Indian name for Black Wolf. 

In the late '40s a dam was built across the Tippecanoe river at what was 
afterwards, and is now, Tippecanoe town. There was considerable opposition 
to the dam from the first, and as the countiy became more and more thickly 
settled, the feeling that the dam ought to be removed grew stronger and 
stronger. No effort being made to remove it, one night in 1878 the woolen 
mill was set fire to and burned to the ground. An attempt was made to 
burn the grist mill, but it failed. Finally the dam went out, and no one has 
since had the courage to rebuild it, and it is now also a thing of the past. 

A dam was built across Yellow river near the northeast line of 
Plymouth, in 1836, by Milburn Coe, and a saw mill erected nearby. The 
dam was not substantially built, and every time there came a freshet, which 
was about every time it rained, the dam either went out, or was damaged 
so it had to be repaired. Traces of this old dam are still visible, and es- 
pecially the location of the circular mill race, a few hundred feet to the 
northeast of the present Zehner's grist mill. It was not long after this dam 
and mill was abandoned until the present dam, some distance above, was 
commenced on a larger and more substantial scale by Austin Fuller and 
others. This was probably in the later '40s or the early '50s. Notwithstanding 
the dam had been built solidly of large stones, trees and brush, and every 
sort of material to make it permanent, the high water frequently tore it out, 
and damaged it, and it was many years before it solidified itself so that the 
high water had no eff'ect on it. The mills were burned down two or three 


times, and several efforts have been made to compel the owners to remove 
the dam, as it is claimed that the backwater damages by overflow large 
quantities of land. A case looking to this end is now pending in the court 
of Marshall county. This dam and surroundings are also historical. Below 
the dam, and between the race and the river proper to where they unite, is 
a beautiful little park of two or three acres, on which has been sunk a flowing 
well fourteen inches in diameter, from which flows a continuous stream oi 
clear, pure water. In this little park have been held numerous picnics, old 
settlers' society's meetings, soldiers' camp fires, and political meetings. Some 
of the great men of Indiana and elsewhere have walked through this beautiful 
park, and laved their thirst at the flowing well fountain : and it is only the 
truth to say that many a "Robert Burns and his Highland Mary," or a 
"Romeo and Juliet" have sauntered through these most delightful grounds 
under the shade of the umbrageous trees, and by the light of the pale and 
inconstant moon, listening to the music of the flowing well and the gentle 
murmur of the water as it fell in gentle cadences over "The Old Mill Dam." 
It was here that the poet was inspired to write the following: 

(To An Imaginary Sweetheart.) 

Do you remember the old mill dam. 

And the path where we went roaming; 
Where at even-tide when all was calm 

We wandered alone in the gloaming? 

Where the hawthorn bush with ivy clinging, 

Furnished shade from the noonday sun, 
As we listened to music the birds were singing, 

While our own loving hearts beat as one? 

Do you remember the old flowing well 

'Neath the willow tree's long bending boughs. 
Where our story of love we oft did tell. 
And we plighted our marital vows? 

And the dear little park near the old mill race, 

Where we wandered by light of the moon. 
Where you ' ' loved me, ' ' you said, with a smile on your face, 

And vowed you would "be mine alone? 

Alas; that "imaginary sweetheart of mine," 
Disappeared like the mist from the stream, 
For when the old town clock was just striking nine 
I awoke — it was only a dream I 


Marshall county was a part of the territory belonging to the Menominee 
tribe of Indians, and included in the government purchase under the treaty 
of Tippecanoe river made in 1832. It is a timbered region interspersed with 
prairies, formerly regarded as marsh lands and valueless, now held most 
valuable. The heavy timber lies in the shape of a reversed letter 3, the open 


part to the west, the upright body of the letter represented by a tract fifteen 
by twenty-one miles on the east side of the county ; the cross line by a tract 
six to eight miles wide at the south end, with some smaller tracts in the center 
of the west side representing the cross in the middle of the letter. The 
remainder is made up of prairie and "barrens" (not barren land, but light 
timber) and prairies. 

The heavy timber consists of all the hard and soft timbers, except the 
resinous — oak, ash, hickory, maple, beech, elm, walnut, butternut, linn, 
poplar, etc., and in all the varieties of these woods. The barrens are variously 
timbered with white, burr, yellow, and black oak and hickory, and the heavy 
barrens have the heavy timbers scattered without undergrowth, while the 
light barrens are like large orchards. The face of the land is gently undulat- 
ing, with no abrupt elevations or declivities. There is every variety of soil, 
the greater portion being the deep, rich, black loam of the heavy timbered 
lands. The burr oak barrens have rich sandy loam. The white oak barrens, 
clay and sand. The black and yellow oak. light sandy soil with clay bottom. 
The marshes, the richest and finest of alluvium, producing heavy growths 
of the best hay. 

Every kind of farm production is raised in abundance ; crops are 
reasonably certain and the yield remunerative. 

Yellow river rises in the northeast part of the county, and flows through 
it southwesterly. From eighteen to twenty-five miles distant from the 
county seat, on the east and south of the county and partly through it, flows 
the Tippecanoe river ; on the north and west, the Kankakee ; on the northeast 
the St. Joseph, and about forty-two miles northwest and north lies Lake 

Pine creek in the northwestern portion of the county, and Wolf creek 
in the center are the only streams of note. Small streams flow through all 
the wet prairies, and good water is abundant almost everywhere. In almost 
every portion of the county flowing wells of pure artesian water are secured 
at a depth of from fifty to lOO feet. 

Pretty lake, three miles west of the county seat, is a beautiful sheet of 
water about two miles in circumference. Since the organization of the county 
it has of late years become a noted summer resort, and around its beautiful 
shores have been built nearly fifty summer cottages. 

Lake of the JVoods, known also as "Big lake," in the northeast part 
of the county, not far from Bremen, is about five miles in circumference, 
and is famous for fish. 

Tzvin lakes, three in number, extending from the center of the county 
to the west line of West township, are all beautiful sheets of water, and 
good fishing is had in all of them. The middle Twin lake is noted for the 
Menominee Indian village that stood on its north bank, where the old 
Indian chapel formerly stood, and from which place the Pottawattomie 
Indians were driven away in 1838. At the end of the lower Twin lake was 
built the first grist mill in Marshall county, in 1836-37. 

Maxinkuckec lake in the southwest part of the county, is about twelve 
miles in circumference, three miles long and two and one-half wide. It 
is fed entirely by springs that burst up from the bottom, and the natural 
rainfall. In its primitive state, before the forest trees that lined its shores 
were cut down bv the wliite men who settled there, it was the most beautiful 


sheet of water anywhere to be found. In the early times deer and other 
wild animals drank of its rippling waters unmolested. Fish and wild game 
of all kinds were abundant, and it was indeed a most charming spot. 

The Michigan road crosses the county from north to south, starting 
at Michigan city and ending at Madison, Ind. 

The Yellow River Valley. 

Marshall county is in what is known as the '"Yellow River Valley," 
which was beautifully pictured by the late C. H. Reeve, in an address a 
few years before his death, and it is reproduced here as setting forth 
historical facts worthy of being perpetuated. Mr. Reeve said: 

"Those who are residents and read the newspapers should rejoice that 
they live in the safe and beautiful Yellow river valley. I suppose few of 
them ever stop to think that they do live in a valley ; that westward the land 
rises from thirty to fifty or more feet to the mile, until it reaches the 
summit a few miles out, and then slopes away on the great Kankakee plains, 
at only about six to eight inches to the mile to the Kankakee river, and 
then rises again to the high tableland of the prairies ; while on the nortli 
and northeast it rises in like manner to the summit and then slopes away to 
the St. Joseph river; the same on the east, southeast and south to the 
Tippecanoe river. 

"Nor do they regard our inland position and timbered protection, 
where the wild storms sweeping up the valleys of the larger streams above 
named, and from Lake Michigan and the great western prairies are carried 
up by the rising land toward us, and so high over our heads instead of 
tearing us in pieces, while the timber, obstructing the currents, makes 
clouds and rain, and saves us from droughts. As day after day the reports 
of the terrible storms all over the country come to us, and the wailing of 
the victims of pestilence leaving knowledge of the awful desolation in their 
track, our quiet valley is full of peace and safety — no failure of crops, no 
epidemics, no floods or great droughts, with good lands, ready and con- 
venient markets, no public local debts, schools and churches convenient on 
every hand, the farmers of the Yellow river valley should hug themselves 
with delight in their safety and prosperity! We have passed the excitement 
and trials of pioneer life, and are settling into the permanency and stability 
of slow and progressive prosperity in place of the wild and speculative 
rush for wealth that constitute the movements of new localities. But more 
than all we have safety. Here the elements do not war. While we have 
no coal, or iron, or stone, or precious metals in mines, or great waterpower, 
we have nearly 500 square miles of as good land as is in the world, taken 
as a body; we have health, abundance of valuable timber, good and certain 
crops, good water easily obtained ; our lovely and now famous Maxinkuckee 
lake, and our unsurpassed Yellow river valley. 

"The proud and ambitious, the restless and the grumbling, may 
emigrate, but the wise will be content with our quiet valley, where, in fact, 
they have what they caiuiot find elsewhere, with so few discomforts and 
evils, and which should be. if it is not, held at its true value. Sixtv years 
of personal knowledge and half a century of continuous residence should 
enable me to know, and in that belief I pay this brief and truthful tribute 
to one of the fairest spots in all the land." 


There is no more delightful scenery to be found anywhere in this 
country than along the rivers and lakes and over the hills and valleys in 
Marshall county, and especially in the autumn days when the leaves are 
receiving the golden tints that present to view a "picture that no painter 
has the coloring to mock!" The reader will pardon the writer of this 
history, if he pauses a moment from the dry compilation of historical 
information to add a slight tribute to "The Beauties of Autumn," in con- 
nection with his late friend Reeve's beautiful address on "our unsurpassed 
Yellow river valley." As he writes the autumn tints are just beginning 
to give the maple and other forest leaves their farewell kiss, and soon the 
whole country will be a golden picture of rare beauty ! During the golden 
days of which these are typical, the period known as "Indian summer," 
v^^hen the golden rod, the national flower, is adding charm to the scene in 
every direction, it has been the custom of the writer for many years past 
to spend a few days in the country, about the rivers and lakes, through 
the woods and hazelnut patches, among the grape vines and hawthorn 
bushes, and listen to the birds singing in the branches, and watch the 
squirrels as they jump from limb to limb gathering nuts for the winter's 
supply of food, and for the time being get out of sight and hearing distance 
of the petty annoyances that continually confront one in the every-'day 
humdrum of life in the struggle for existence. 

If you do not own a bicycle or an automobile, or a horse and buggy, 
and are too poor to hire one, take your lunch basket and hammock, and a 
kodak, if you have one, and start for the woods. Never mind the traveled 
roads. Climb the fences and tramp through the fields, and so on through 
the woods, following some cowpath, or an old Indian trail, of which there 
are still a few that can be traced. Don't hurry to get to some given point. 
Just take your time. When you get tired, hang your hammock and take 
a rest. Don't take any novels or stories of "the villain still pursued her" 
kind with you. You probably read too much trash of that sort when at 
home. Take out your pencil and scratch book, make rough sketches of the 
beautiful scenes that especially attract your attention, and jot down your 
impressions of the beauties and grandeur of nature that come under your 

You have probably traveled much and visited many places of interest, 
both in your, own country and in foreign lands, and yet, likely you have 
never been outside of the towns and villages in your own county, and some 
of them possibly you have never seen. Around all the lakes, big and little ; 
up and down the rivers and creeks in various parts of the county, and 
through the cultivated and uncultivated regions, the highways and byways, 
the long shaded lanes, over gravel roads, and on an occasional cut-off 
through the w^oods, you will see sights as grand and beautiful as can be 
seen anywhere on the globe. You can spend several days in this way that 
will open your eyes and give you a better opinion of the beautiful Yellow 
river valley and your own county and its possibilities than you ever had 



The United States Department, of Agriculture sent Frank Bennett 
and Charles W. Ely into Marshall county during the year 1905, who made 
a soil survey, giving location and boundaries of the area, climate, physiog- 
raphy and geology, soils, the different loams and agricultural conditions, 
from which the following is reproduced as being of special interest to the 
farming community of the county : 

Prior to the organization of Marshall county this region was inhabited 
almost exclusively by Pottawattomie Indians, who were very numerous 
here. The first cession of lands now embraced in Marshall county was 
made by the Indians at a treaty near Rochester, whereby they gave up a 
strip of land one mile in width through the present limits of the county 
to enable the whites to establish the Michigan road, a highway extending 
from Indianapolis to ]\Iich!gan City via Logansport and South Bend. These 
road lands were offered for sale in 1832, and the proceeds were devoted 
to the building of the ^Michigan road, which extends through the center 
of the county in a north and south direction, following the boundary be- 
tween the level and the rolling topography of the county. 

A few years after the sale of the ^lichigan road lands, most of the 
lands within the present limits of the county were given up by the Indians, 
who, after 1838, ceased to be an important factor in the history of Ma.r- 
shall county. 

At this time emigrants from Ohio, Pennsylvania and other eastern 
states were rapidly coming into the county, and as the Michigan road was 
the first one opened, they naturally established themselves in its vicinity. 
Many of the settlers were Germans, some of whom came direct from the 
mother country. 

The greater part of the county was originally covered with a heavy 
growth of timber, consisting principally of walnut, oak and poplar. This 
timber, except the little that was used for building material, was either 
burned or destroyed in any possible way to clear the land. As the country 
became more thickly settled and transportation facilities improved, the 
lumber business became an important industry in the development of the 
county. The period -from i860 to 1870 was the most prosperous for this 

The first crops grown in Marshall county were corn, wheat, oats, rye, 
and beans. The soil was prepared by what was known as a "jumping 
plow" or "breaking shovel," drawn by several yoke of oxen. Grain was 
sown broadcast and dragged in with a brush. Corn yielded from twenty- 
five to fifty bushels per acre. Wheat was frequently a failure, but in 
favorable years produced from fourteen to eighteen bushels. Oats were 
not a great success. Rye was used principally for feed and pasture, rarely 
being "thrashed. Potatoes gave a large yield, and seemed to be of better 
quality than those produced at the present time. The sandy soils were 
best adapted to this crop. The early settlers grew a little tame hay, but 
depended mostly upon marsh hay or corn fodder for their stock feed. When 


hay was scarce the stock often hved on the buds of the basswood for long 
periods. Fla.x was also grown for many years and manufactured into 
homespun clothing. 

About 1865 the farmers began to realize that the soils were becoming 
less productive,' and began to grow clover to maintain their productiveness. 
Timothy was also introduced about the same time. 

when first settled a large part of the county comprised swampy areas, 
but as it became more thickfy settled some attention was given to drainage, 
though no well-planned system was inaugurated until 1876. Since that 
time more or less drainage work has been in progress every year, and a 
great many open ditches and tile drains have been constructed, while the 
Yellow river, in the northeastern part of the county, has recently been 
dredged. Many open ditches, into which tile drains empty, are seen in 
the eastern and' northeastern parts of the county. Some of the most pro- 
ductive lands in the county have been made available for agricultural pur- 
poses by artificial drainage, and at the present time there is little land that 
is not well drained, aside from the muck areas, and in some of the latter 
drainage work is now in progress. 

There are some small areas where the soil is heavier in texture and 
darker in color than the typical phase, and often extends to a depth of 
eighteen or twenty inches. The subsoil in such places is a yellowish-drab 
sandy clav. A small portion of this phase had to be artificially drained 
before cultivation was a success. 

The Marshall loam occupies the largest and most uniform areas of 
anv soil type in the county, though frequently small areas of the other 
types are found scattered through it. It occupies the greater part of the 
eastern half of the county, while west of the central dividing line it occurs 
in comparativelv small areas, except in the extreme northwestern corner, 
where a spur of the main body of the type extends beyond the line. 

Agricultural Conditions. 

The farmers of Marshall county are in a fairly prosperous condition. 
In the eastern half of the county, which is largely occupied by the Marshall 
loam, nearly every acre of which can be cultivated, the farmers as a rule are 
more prosperous than those living on the sandy soils in the extreme western 
portion. The houses though often small, are nearly always painted, and 
the barns are of sufficient size to shelter all the live stock and machinery. 
Many silos are also seen. As a rule, the houses are smaller and not quite 
so good on the more sandy soils and a good dwelling with no barn is 
frequently seen. 

The value of farm land ranges from $20 to $100 per acre. The Mar- 
shall loam is generally held at from $65 to $100; the Marshall sandy loam 
at from $65 to $75 ; the Marshall sand at from $30 to $40 when in cultiva- 
tion ; and other lands at from $20 to $60 an acre. Muck undrained sells 
at from $20 to $30, and when drained at from $40 to $70 an acre. 

About 75 per cent of the land in this county is under cultivation or in a 
condition to be cultivated. The remainder consists of sand, marshes, timber 
land, and rough broken land, and, aside from the marshes, the greater part 
of this land lies in the western half of the countv. Much of this uncultivated 


land can be used for pasture, so that there is comparatively little land in 
the county from which some return cannot be secured. 

About $2,000,000 in mortgages is held against the farms of Marshall 
county, which is between 15 and 25 per cent of their value. While these 
farm mortgages apply generally throughout the county and are not confined 
to any one soil type, yet they are fewer in proportion to the total number 
in the northern and northeastern parts of the county than in other sections. 
A great many German farmers live in those parts of the area, and, being of 
industrious and prudent habits, they have maintained a better financial 

About 60 per cent of the farms are operated by the owners. The 
remainder are cultivated by tenants, who pay a rental of from two-fifths to 
one-half of the crop made, or, very rarely, a cash rent, which ranges from 
$3 to $4.50 an acre. The proportion of grain paid varies in different sec- 
tions. For corn lands one-half of the crop is more often paid, while for 
wheat and rye either two-fifths or one-half is paid, according to the amount 
of seed furnished and the proportion of the thrashing bill paid by the owner 
and tenant, respectively. 

About ninety acres is the average size of farms in this county. Where 
onions and potatoes are grown the farms are below the average in size, 
but where much live stock is kept they are usually larger. There are several 
farms of 640 or more acres, but as a rule these large holdings are divided 
up and rented in smaller tracts. 

The smaller farms are generally operated by the owner or tenant and 
his family, assisted to some extent by labor hired by the day or week during 
harvest and other pressing seasons. The wealthier farmers usually hire by 
the month, paying from $20 to $25 and board, and employing the men from 
the first of March to the first of November. The harvest season is from 
June 15 to August 15, during which time there is a great demand for 
laborers, and efficient men receive from $1.75 to $2 a day. At other times 
day laborers receive $1.25 a day and dinner. During the corn-husking 
season labor is much in demand, and at times farmers find difficulty ,in 
getting the crop out as fast as they desire. The labor is exclusively white 
and is usually efficient, but the supply is often inadequate. 

Corn and wheat are the principal products of Marshall county. From 
15 to 25 per cent of the cultivated lands is planted to each of these grains. 
The average yield of corn in the county is thirty-five bushels per acre and 
of wheat ten bushels. Winter wheat only is grown. Owing to severe 
damage to wheat by freezing and by the Hessian fly, there has been a 
tendency in recent years to reduce the acreage somewhat and to give more 
attention to the growing of rye, but as yet rye is an unimportant crop. 
The corn is planted in checked rows and cultivated with two-horse ma- 
chinery. A great part of it is cut for fodder, both by hand and by corn 
binders and binders and shockers. The fodder is sometimes shredded, and 
thus prepared it may be substituted for hay. A part of the crop is put into 
the silo and utilized in that way. Wheat is generally sown in drills, and is 
thrashed either in the field or at the barn. Clover is an important crop, 
about 15,000 acres being cut every year. It is generally sown with wheat 
or oats, and produces two crops, one of hay and one of seed, a considerable 


proportion of the seed being shipped out of the county. Timothy is grown 
on all soils except the sand, and will thrive in low, damp places where clover 
or corn does not do well. Both clover and timothy hay are baled and shipped 
to eastern markets. Oats are grown largely for home use, but some are 

Among the minor crops cucumbers are probably the most important. 
They are grown chiefly on the more sandy soils and are sold at the salting 
stations, of which there are seven within the area. The managers of these 
stations contract with the farmers, giving them 60 cents a bushel and pro- 
viding the seed. Cucumbers are rarely grown in large fields, the patches 
ranging from two to five acres. Onions are grown chiefly on the muck 
and potatoes on the more sandy soils. On nearly every farm there is an 
orchard, which supplies the needs of the owner. A great many apples are 
made into cider, to be sold later as vinegar. 

Except on the most sandy land every farmer keeps one or more milch 
cows. A great many sell milk to the creameries, of which there are several 
within the area. According to the census of 1900 the value of dairy products 
in Marshall county was $163,028. A great many beef cattle, hogs, and sheep 
are kept also, this being more particularly true in the eastern lialf of the 
county. The Shorthorns, Angus, and Herefords are the chief breeds of 
cattle, and the Chester Whites, Poland Chinas, and Berkshires are the breeds 
of hogs most in favor. Almost the entire grain crop produced in some 
sections of the Marshall loam is consumed upon the farm. The raising of 
live stock is to be commended, for the more manure produced the more 
productive the lands should become. Increased interest is being shown in 
the live stock industry. 

The farmers of Marshall county have a fair understanding of the 
adaptation of soils to crops. The ]\Iarshall loam is generally recognized 
as the best soil in the county for general farming and the more sandy 
soils are best for the special crops. The possibilities of the Marshall sandy 
loam and the Marshall sand for Irish potatoes, however, are not fully appre- 
ciated, especially in the case of the latter type of soil, which produces fair 
yields of corn and rye, but is excellently adapted to potatoes, which, with 
liberal applications of manure, give very large yields. It is suggested that 
where the type lies near muck areas a dressing of the muck would prove 
very beneficial. 

Marshall county is well supplied with railroad facilities. The Baltimore 
& Ohio crosses the northern part of the county in an east and west direction ; 
the Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago the central part; the New York, 
Chicago & St. Louis, the southern part; the Lake Erie «& Western, the 
western half in a northwest and southeast direction, and the Logansport 
division of the Terre Haute & Indianapolis passes through the south- 
western, central and northern parts of the county. Few points in the area 
are more than seven miles by wagon road from a station. The three east 
and west lines are trunk lines from Chicago to the east, so that all produce 
can be quickly shipped either way from any point in the county. 

Good dirt roads are found on nearly every section line, and many of 
them have been graveled. Except in the most sandy areas there is rarely 
any difficulty in getting products to market. 


Plymouth, the largest town in the county, had a population in 1900 
of 3,65'6. Other smaller towns are Bremen, iSourbon, Argos and Culver. 
Only a comparatively small portion of the produce can be consumed within 
the county, so that "it is necessary to seek larger markets. Plymouth is 
only eighty-four miles from Chicago by rail; but as this large western 
market is supplied with enormous shipments from all over the northern 
part of the Mississippi valley, the farmers of Marshall county find better 
markets elsewhere. Some of the products are shipped to the larger towns 
around the state, while a great deal of live stock, hay, etc., is shipped to 
Buffalo and Pittsburg. Nearly every railroad station in the county has 
an elevator, and the exceptionally good railroad facilities enable the farmers 
to send their products wherever they may desire. 


The soils of Marshall county have been classified into nine types, 
including muck and meadow. They range in texture from sand to clay 
loam, and thus offer opportunity for the production of a diversity of crops. 

The following table shows the extent of each type: 


Soil. Acres. Per cent. 

Marshall loam 121,216 42.7 

Marshall sandy loam 77,184 27.3 

Miami sand 27,840 9.8 

Muck 24,768 8.7 

Marshall sand 20,672 7.4 

Meadow 6,784 2.5 

Miami clay loam 3,392 .8 

Miami black clay loam ^ 1,536 .5 

Miami gravelly sandy loam 1,216 .3 

Total 284,608 

The IMarshaU loam, to a depth of fourteen inches, consists of a brown 
loam containing much sand, underlain to a depth of eighteen inches by a 
yellowish-brown loam, which is slightly more tenacious than the surface soil. 
The subsoil, from eighteen inches to three feet, is a yellow sticky sandy 
loam, often containing some gravel. 

A few bowlders, sometimes measuring three or four feet in diameter, 
and some smaller stones are occasionally scattered over the surface, but the 
greater part of these has been removed. Large piles are often seen in the 
fields, and they are sometimes used in constructing fences. 

The soil is often heavy enough to form clods, but these are easily 
broken by the harrow and roller. When put in a good state of tilth the 
soil becomes a very mellow loam. 


The following table, taken from the records of the Weather Bureau 
stations at Syracuse and South Bend, shows the mean normal monthly and 
annual temperature and rainfall. South Bend is about twenty-four miles 
north and Syracuse twenty-six miles northeast of the center of the county. 


Normal monthly and annual temperature and precipitation. 

— ■ — Syracuse. ■ — South Bend. — 

Tempera- Precipi- Tempera- Precipi- 

ture. lation. ture. tation. 

Month. ° F. Inches. ° F. Inches. 

January 25.2 2.47 29.2 2.99 

February . 24.0 2.32 22.8 2.14 

March 34.2 4.00 35.6 2.99 

April 50.7 1.93 50.4 1.77 

May 62.6 3.77 60.8 3.09 

June 69.3 3.60 70.5 2.45 

July 75.4 4.71 74.1 3.57 

August 72.4 3.19 72.8 3.12 

September 63.8 2.76 65.7 2.90 

October 54.8 3.55 54.2 2.44 

November 40.2 3.74 39.7 3.12 

December 27.4 3.07 27.8 3.07 

Year 50.0 39.11 50.3 33.65 

The figures show a fairly uniform distribution of rainfall throughout 
the year, with the maximum during the growing season. The temperature 
is characterized by sudden changes during the period from October to 
April, and by alternate freezes and thaws, which sometimes seriously 
damage crops. 

The average date of the last killing frost in spring is April 20, and of 
the first in fall October 10, giving a growing season of approximately 172 


Prior to the organization of Marshall county it was a part of the North- 
west Territory, which was ceded by Virginia to the United States as pro- 
vided in the Ordinance of 1787. The government had it surveyed into con- 
gressional townships, six miles square, containing 640 acres. In the course 
of time these townships were divided by the government surveyors into sec- 
tions, half sections and quarter sections. The lands in northern Indiana 
were surveyed under the direction of Jerry Smith, sent out by the govern- 
ment to survey the lands yet unsurveyed, and especially the lands secured 
from the Indians by the various treaties. All of Marshall county was sur- 
veyed by him and liis assistants, as well as the Kankakee reservations in La 
Porte, Starke, Pulaski, Porter and Lake counties. 

Jerry Smith was an educated man, well read in ancient literature and 
the classics, and besides had a large vein of humor running through his 
mental organization. Those who were familiar with the Kankakee swamps 
in the region of the mouth of the Yellow river will appreciate the following 
introduction by him to the report of his survey of this part of the lands 
ceded to the government by the Pottawattomie Indians. He said : 

"The River Sty.v. — That the River Styx is a fabled stream and that 
it never existed except in the brain of ancient poets and priests is a proposi- 
tion which I am now fully prepared to deny and disprove ; that Charon ever 
existed, ever kept a boat and ferry landing; that the drear region of which 


ancient poets speak and through which the souls of the unburied wandered 
for loo years before his majesty of the frail bark would give them passage, 
" and that the Elysian fields, where the souls of the just reveled in never-end- 
ing scenes of pleasure and delight, are imaginary regions, are equally false. 

"The Kankakee, as it slops over Indiana and eastern Illinois, is the 
ancient Acheron, and English lake is the Stygian pool, at the head of which, 
between ranges 3 and 4, still remains indisputable evidence of Charon's 
e-xistence, of the identical spot where he so often landed his boat and took 
on board the souls of the departed, and last, but most of all, as a precious 
relic of antiquity which would make even an ordinary antiquarian leap with 
ecstasy of joy: the very paddle of the old gentleman is in existence. 

"The dreary regions from the mouth of AIarkum"s creek to the head of 
English lake, and particularly about the mouth of Yellow river, is where 
so many poor souls have wandered their 100 years: and, in fact, as the use 
of the magnetic needle was not then known, I am not surprised at it taking 
a poor man so long to get out of that place when he was once fairly sent 
into it without compass, chart, grog or tobacco. 

"The "Door prairie,' and the smaller ones about it, I take to be what 
remains of the Elysian fields ! What has become of its ancient occupants 
and why the order of things has changed, both in the Elysian fields and the 
Stygian pool, neither the present natives along the Kankakee, nor the owners, 
preemptioners and occupants of 'Door prairie' could tell me. I leave this 
to be ferreted out by historical societies and future antiquarians, having 
myself done sufficient to render me immortal by finding the prototype of the 
long-lost Styx, Charon's ferry landing, etc., without telling what has become 
of the old gentleman ! 

"To have a correct idea of the township, the ancient poets should be 
well studied. Everything said by them respecting the nether regions and 
the abode of the wicked should be applied to it. and the whole will make a 
correct, faithful and true description thereof. The very thought of it makes 
my blood run cold !" 

The first meeting of the board of comiuissioners of Marshall county, 
after the organization of the county, was held at the house of Grove Pome- 
roy, on the second day of May, 1836. j\Ir. Pomeroy was then a resident of 
Plymouth and resided in a log house situated on lot No. 42, corner La 
Porte and Michigan streets, the same now being occupied by the Corbin 
brick building. Mr. Pomeroy was a man of robust build, 5 feet 8 in height, 
180 pounds weight; was a man of good business qualifications and strong 
in his convictions in regard to matters of public or private import, and in 
politics held to views in opposition to the Democrats, although he never took 
a very active part in local politics. 

At this meeting Robert Blair, Abraham Johnson and Charles Ouster- 
haute were the commissioners. Mr. Ousterhaute was perhaps the best 
known to the people at that time of any who participated in the preliminary 
organization of the county. He resided on a farm on the west side of the 
jNIichigan road, about one and one-half miles south of Plymouth. He was 
a robust, athletic man, a Canadian by birth, and had seen a great deal of 
the world in his time. He spoke fluently the language of the Pottawattomie 
and ]\Iiami tribes of Indians, also French and German. He was engaged in 
the war of 1812. serving his country as a spy. He was a sort of dare-devil 


and was never satisfied unless he was, so to speak, "at the head of the pro- 
cession." He figured extensively in the politics of his time, and was par- 
tially successful. He died early in his career in this county, of a disease 
known as gangrene of the foot, or "Pott's sore toe." His leg was amputated 
twice, but his system had become so thoroughly inoculated with the disease 
that he lived but a short time after the last operation. 

After appointing Jeremiah Muncy clerk during the term, the board ad- 
journed to meet at the house of Charles Ousterhaute at i o'clock the same 
day. The first business transacted was : 

Ordered by the board, That the seal of said commissioners shall be a wafer with 
a paper placed on it in the shape of a diamond, sealed with a seal in the shape of a 

The board then divided the county into three districts as follows : 

Beginning at the northwest corner of said county, and running a due south course 
with the county line seven miles to the corner of sections 19 and 30, in congressional 
township No. 34 north; thence east with said line to the eastern boundary of said 
county. Said district to be known as District No. 1. 

Ordered, That district No. 2 begin on the western boundary line of said county 
at the corner of District No. 1, and running with the said county line seven miles to the 
corner of sections 30 and 31 in congressional township No. 33 north; thence east on 
the line of said section 21 miles to the eastern boundary line of said county. Said 
district to be known as District No. 2. 

Ordered, That District No. 3 begin at the western boundary line of said county, 
commencing at the south corner of District No. 2, thence south with said county line 
seven miles to the southern boundaiy line of said county, thence east with the line of 
said county twenty-one miles to the eastern boundary line of said county. Said district 
to be known as District No. 3. 

It was also ordered that District No. i be known by the name of North 
township : District No. 2 by the name of Center township, and District No. 3 
by the name of Green township. 

The elections were ordered to be held as follows : 

In North township at the house of Adam Vinnedge. 

In Center township at the house of Charles Ousterhaute. 

In Green township at the house of Sidney Williams. 

It will be observed by reference to the county map that the territory 
embraced in North township was what is now German, North and Polk 
townships; Center township embraced what is now Bourbon, Center and 
West townships, and Green township embraced what is now Tippecanoe, 
Green, Walnut and Union. 

The residence of Adam Vinnedge, the place designated for holding 
elections in North township, was on the Michigan road about six miles 
north of Plymouth. Mr. Vinnedge was the father of Adam Vinnedge, many 
years a resident of Plymouth, some time since deceased. He was a man of 
energy and ability, and took an active part in the preliminary organization 
of the county. 

The residence of Charles Ousterhaut, as previously stated, was on the 
west side of the Michigan road about a mile and a half south of Plymouth, 
it being more convenient for a majority of the voters of the township as 
then constituted to reach that place than Plymouth, it being composed then 
of only about three dwelling houses. 

The election in Green township was held at the residence of Sidney 


Williams, which was at or near where Argos now stands. Air. Williams 
owned the land at that place, and laid out a village which he called Sidney, 
to perpetuate his own name, that bein^ his given name. Mr. Williams sold 
his farm not many years afterwards and went overland to California during 
the gold excitement of '49 and the early '50s. Not many years later addi- 
tions were made to the embryo village, one of which was called Fremont, 
in honor of John C. Fremont, who was about that time the first Republican 
candidate for President. Through some political manipulation the postoffice 
was removed from Sidney to Fremont. Through the efforts of Congress- 
man Schuyler Colfax it was, however, not long afterwards removed back- 
to Sidney, and the name of the postoffice changed from Sidney to Argos. 
With the defeat of Fremont for President, the town of Fremont went out of 
existence, and in course of time the legal name of Sidney was discontinued 
and that of Argos substituted. Once after he went to California Mr. Will- 
iams returned to Marshall county, but he had gone blind and was unable to 
behold the marvelous changes that had taken place during his absence of 
more than a third of a century. He died in Illinois several years ago. 

The first election after the organization of the county was held on the 
first day of August, 1836, for the purpose of electing a senator, representa- 
tive in the state legislature, sheriff, probate judge, county commissioners, 
school commissioner, coroner and justices of the peace. 

In North township there were thirty-seven votes cast. John Johnson, 
James Palmer and Adam Snyder were judges of said election, and James 
Jones and Abraham Johnson clerks. Thomas Packard and Robert Johnson 
were elected justices of the peace of North township. 

In Center township there were eighty-three votes cast. Of these not 
one is living. Samuel D. Taber was inspector of the election, John Ray 
and William Bishop judges, Harrison Metcalf and John Blair clerks. 

In Green township there were nineteen votes cast. Ewell Kendall was 
inspector, Fielding Bowles and Samuel B. Patterson judges, Jeremiah 
Muncy and John A. Boots clerks. 

Act to Organize Marshall County. 

The act passed by the legislature for the organization of Marshall county 
was approved February 4, 1836. By whom it was introduced, and the pre- 
liminaries connected with its passage, nothing is known. 

At that time Marshall county was designated as "unorganized territory," 
and of course it had no members of the legislature to look after its interests 
in the general assembly. St. Joseph and La Porte counties had been organ- 
ized six years previously, and it is probable the members of the legislature 
from those counties secured the passage of the act. 

The act is as follows: 

An Act to Organize the County of Marshall, approved Felruary 4, 1S36 : 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the general assembly of the state of Indiana: That 
from and after the first day of April next, the county of Marshall shall enjoy all the 
rights and jurisdiction which belongs to separate and independent counties. 

Section 2. That Hiram Wheeler and Griffin Treadway, of La Porte county, and 
Samuel C. Sample and Peter Johnson, of St. Joseph county, and John Rohrer, of 
Elkhart county, be and they are hereby appointed commissioners for the purpose of 
fixing the permanent seat of justice for the said county of Marshall agreeable to the 
provisions of "An act to establish the seats of justice in new counties," approved 


January 14, 1S24. The commissioners above named, or a majority of tliem, shall 
convene at the house of Grove Pomeroy in said county on the second Monday of June 
next or as soon thereafter as a majority of them shall agree upon. 

Section 3. It shall be the duty of the sheriff of St. Joseph county to notify the 
commissioners above named, either by person or in writing, of their appointment and 
place appointed for them to convene ; and the board doing county business shall allow 
said sheriff reasonable compensation for his services out of any money in the treasury 
in said county of Marshall. 

Section 4. Circuit and other courts of said county shall be held at the house of 
Grove Pomeroy, or at any other place in said county where said courts may adjourn to, 
until suitable accommodations can be furnished at the seat of justice thereof, after 
which the courts shall be holden at the county seat. 

Section 5. The agent who shall be appointed to superintend the sale of lots at 
the county seat of said county of Marshall shall reserve 10 per cent out of all donations 
to said county, and shall pay the same over to such person or persons as shall be 
authorized to receive the same for the use of a library for said county. 

Section 6. The board doing county business of said Marshall county, when elected 
and qualified, may hold special sessions not exceeding three days the first year after the 
organization of said county, and shall appoint a lister and make all other necessary 
appointments, and do and perform all other business which might have been necessary 
to be performed at any regular session, and take all necessary steps to collect the state 
and county revenue. 

Section 7. The said county of Marshall shall be attached to the Eighth Juiiicial 
circuit of the state for judicial purposes. 

Section 8. The northern boundary line of the county of Marshall! shall be 
extended to an east and west line running through the center of township 35 north. 

County Seat Located. 

On the 20th day of July, 1836, the county seat was located at Plymouth 
by three of the commissioners named by the legislature for that purpose. 
This was done at a special session of the board of county commissioners. 
Their report was as follows : 

"July special session, 1836, of commissioners' court. Now come Peter 
Johnson, Griffin Treadway and Samuel C. Sample, three of the commis- 
sioners appointed by the act entitled 'An Act to organize the county of j\Iar- 
shall, approved the 4th of February,' and make the following report of their 
doings as locating commissioners of the permanent seat of justice of said 
county-to-wit" : 

"To the Honorable the Board of Commissioners of the County of Marshall: The 
undersigned, three of the commissioners appointed by an act of the general assembly 
of the state of Indiana entitled 'An act to organize the county of Marshall, approved 
February 4, 1836,' respectfully report to your honors that by an agreement entered into 
by a majority of the commissioners appointed by said act, the meeting of said commis- 
sioners was agreed to be held at the house of Grove Pomeroy in said county on Monday, 
the 18th day of July, A. D. 1836, to discharge the duties assigned to them by said act. 

' ' Whereupon the undersigned, Peter Johnson, Griffin Treadway and Samuel C. 
Sample, three of said commissioners (Hiram Wheeler and John Eohrer, two of the 
commissioners, having failed to attend), having met at the house of Grove Pomeroy on 
the said 18th day of July, 1836, for the purpose of permanently fijdng the seat of 
justice for the said county of Marshall, then personally examined all the sites proposed 
to them in said county for said seat of justice, and received propositions for donations 
for the same from the different proprietors of lands naming and proposing sites, and 
we after such examination, and seeing and inspecting said propositions, have concluded 
and determined to fix, and by these presents do permanently locate, fix, and establish 
the seat of justice of said county of Marshall at Plymouth. The site for the public 
buildings for said county is designated on a plat of said town as made by James Blair, 
John Sering and William Polk, proprietors of said town, the names being recorded in 


the county of St. Joseph, Indiana, the said site for said public buildings being by said 
proprietors donated among other things to said county. 

' ' And the undersigned do further report that the said Blair, Sering and Polk, in 
consideration of the location of said seat of justice at the place aforesaid, have donated 
to said county, money and lands as follows: One thousand dollars in cash, payable as 
follows: $350 down in hand paid to Peter Schroeder, county agent, in our presence; 
$350 payable in one year from date, and $350 payable two years from date; for the 
payment of which the said proprietors have executed their notes bearing date herewith ; 
and the said proprietors have also donated to said county the following lots in said 
town, to-wit: Lots numbered 1, 6, 10, 13, 18, 22, 28, 33, 37, 45, 48, 52, 57, 60, 63, 65, 
70, 74, 78, 81, 86, 90, 93, 96, 99, 102, 105, 108, 112, 117, 119, 123, 126, 129, 132, 134, 141, 
144, 147, 153, 156, and 159, being corner lots and forty-two in number; and also lots 
numbered 5, 14, 20, 29, 38, 50, 56, 65, 69, 73, 82, 88, 101, 110, 116, 125, 134, 140, 146, 
152 and 158, being twenty-one in number and middle lots, and making in all sixty-three 

' ' And also the said proprietors have donated to said county one acre and 
four-fifths of an acre of land for a public burying ground, lying in the southwest corner 
of the northwest quarter of section 13 of Michigan road lands, the same lying west and 
south of Plum street in said town; also two acres more or less of land for a site for 
a county seminary, bounded as follows: Beginning at the southwest corner of Adams 
and Plum streets in said town; thence southwardly with Plum street 264 feet to the 
northwest corner of Washington and Plum streets; thence west on a line on the south 
with Washington street, and on a line on the north with Adams street, to the west line 
of said section thirteen (13), the said seminary lot to maintain a width of 264 feet 
from east to west, and for which lots said proprietors have executed their deed to the 
county agent of said county, and for which lands for a burial ground and seminary 
they have executed their deed to your honors for the uses aforesaid. 

"And the said proprietors have agreed to build a temporary courthouse, not less 
than thirty by twenty feet, one story high, on lot No. 32 in said town; the county of 
Marshall to have the use of the same for the term of four years from the completion 
thereof, the same to be ready for the use of the county by the spring term of the 
circuit court of 1837; and for the completion of which house and for the use thereof 
as aforesaid the proprietors have executed their bonds payable to the board of commis- 
sioners, in the penal sum of $1,000; and the said proprietors have also agreed to defray 
the expenses of the location of said site, being $45, and which sum thjy have paid to 
the undersigned. All of which deeds and bonds and notes the undersigned herewith 
produce to your honors. All of which is respectfully submitted the 20th of July, 1836. 

' ' Samuel C. Sample, 
"Peter Johnson, 
' ' Griffin Treadway, 

' ' Commissioners. ' ' 

The county having been organized, the board of commissioners, con- 
sisting of Robert Blair, Abraham Johnson and Charles Ousterhaute, ordered 
the clerk of the board, Jeremiah Muncy, to file among the papers of the 
court the deeds for the lands donated, and have the same recorded among 
the deed records of the county. Prior to the organization of Marshall 
county the territory embraced in it was designated "unorganized territory," 
and St. Joseph county, having been organized in 1830, the territory of 
Marshall county was considered under the jurisdiction of St. Joseph county. 
From Judge Howard's "History of St. Joseph County" (1908, page 274) 
the following in regard to "Plymouth township, St. Joseph county," is 
taken as being of rare historical interest: 

"On September i, 1834, the board of coiumissioners of St. Joseph 
county ordered that all the territory of the county lying south of the north 
line of congressional township 35 north, should form a new township to 
be called Plymouth. The township so formed included the south parts 
of the present townships of Madison, Union and Liberty, and all of Lin- 


coin. It also included so much of the present counties of Marshall and 
Starke as then formed a part of St. Joseph county. 

"In the order setting off the township the board provided for an 
election for the choice of two justices of the peace for said township, to be 
held on the 27th of September, 1834. On October 13 of the same year the 
election so held was contested before the board, the contest sustained and a 
new election ordered. Both elections were held at Grove Pomeroy's, in said 
town of Plymouth, in St. Joseph county. Mr. Pomeroy was himself 
appointed inspector of election until the ensuing April election. At the 
May term, 1835, of the county board, Samuel D. Taber was allowed the 
sum of $1.50 for making a return of the election of Plymouth township. 

"The town of Plymouth, now the county seat of Marshall county, was 
situated in and gave its name to the township of Plymouth. We have 
already seen that the plat of this town was filed and recorded in the. office 
of the recorder of St. Joseph county in October, 1834. The records of 
the commissioners show that on December 7, 1835, there 'was reported 
therein the description and plat of the survey of the state road from Goshen, 
in Elkhart county, to Plymouth, in St. Joseph county. 

"By an act of the legislature approved February 7, 1835, the north 
boundary of Marshall county was defined to be the north line of congres- 
sional township 34, leaving all of township 35 in St. Joseph county. This 
congressional township, as we have seen, was included in the civil township 
of Plymouth. The act of February 7, 1835, does not seem to have been 
intended to complete the organization of Marshall county, but by an act 
passed at the next session of the legislature, February 4, 1836, the county 
was finally organized and the north boundary of the county was extended to 
the middle line of congressional township 35, thus leaving in St. Joseph 
county only so much of Plymouth township as was included in the north 
half of congressional township '35. The consequence was that Plymouth 
as a township of St. Joseph county ceased to exist, the territory still 
remaining being attached to the adjacent townships of the county, as their 
boundaries were defined by successive orders of the board of county commis- 

As has been stated elsewhere in this history, the house of Grove 
Pomeroy, where the election referred to in the above extract was held, was 
on the northwest corner of Michigan and La Porte streets, now known 
as the Corbin corner. Samuel D. Taber, also spoken of in the extract, 
resided on the east side of the Michigan road south of Plymouth about 
three miles. He called his place "Pash-po" for an Indian chief of that name. 

For road purposes the whole of Marshall county was attached to St. 
Joseph county and was called Road District No. 19, and Grove Pomeroy 
seems to have been the supervisor. At the first meeting of the board of 
commissioners of Marshall county after its organization in 1836 he made 
a report of his doings as such supervisor, which is as follows : 

"Now comes Grove Pomeroy, supervisor of the nineteenth road district 
for the county of St. Joseph, Plymouth township, for the year 1836, and 
makes return or report. Account of work done by hands liable to work 
on public highways in nineteenth road district in county of St. Joseph, 
Indiana, during year ending the first Monday in April, 1836: Lot Abrams, 


Charles Ousterhaute, John Brown, Grove O. Pomeroy and Joseph Evans 
each worked one day. Twenty-one others paid $i each cash." 

What disposition was made of this $21 the records do not show. At 
that time — April i, 1836 — Marshall county had not yet been organized, 
that important event in our history not occurring until July 20, 1836, nearly 
four months later. 

A few white settlers began to locate here in 1830, and under an unor- 
ganized condition the inhabitants were under the protecting care of St. 
Joseph county, which was organized in 1830. At that time St. Joseph county 
was bounded on the north by Michigan territory ; on the west by La Porte 
and the unorganized territory south of La Porte, on the south by the unor- 
ganized lands, and on the east by the unorganized lands and Elkhart county. 
Its extent was about thirty miles from north to south, and twenty-seven 
miles from east to west, including an area of about 740 square miles, or 
473,600 acres. Its population in 1830 was 287 inhabitants; in June, 1832, 
it was estimated at 1,500, and so great had been the immigration it is said 
that in 1833 the population was estimated at two thousand. 

The legal organization of Marshall county began in May, 1836, by the 
formation of North, Center and Green townships, as previously stated. 

German township was organized May i, 1838, from the northeast part 
of what was then Center, and the east part of North township. It took 
its name from the large number of German people who had settled in that 
part of the county, and naturally the township town was called Bremen. 

Bourbon township was organized January 6, 1840, and was bounded as 
follows : Beginning in the southeast corner of the county and running to 
the German township line, thence west five miles, thence south to the county 
line, thence east to the place of beginning. This territory embraced what 
is now Bourbon and Tippecanoe townships. The petitioners for the organi- 
zation of Bourbon township were: 

James O. Parks, Grayson H. Parks, John F. Parks, Edward R. Parks, 
Thomas H. McKey, Peter Upsell, W. H. Rockhill, Israel Beeber, Wm. 
Taylor, John Greer, William Elder, Jolen Henry, A. H. Buckman, Lyman 
Foote. Samuel Taylor, John F. Dukes, John Fuller, James Taylor, William 
Taylor, Jr., George Taylor and Samuel Rockhill. 

This township is said to have been named after Bourbon county, Ken- 
tucky, from which the Parkses and many of the signers of the petition emi- 
grated. The town of Bourbon received its name in the same way for the 
same reason. 

Union township was organized March i, 1840. The petitioners were 
Vincent Brownlee. William Thompson, John A. Shirley, Lewis Thompson, 
John Dickson. William Hornaday, John M. Morris, James Houghton. Elihu 
Morris, D. C. Hults, Thomas McDonald, John Morris, John H. Voreis, Piatt 
B. Dickson, Elias Dickson, John McDonald, Eleazer Thompson. The 
prayer of the petitioners asked that the township might be called "Union," 
and it was so ordered. The name was probably selected to perpetuate the 
name of "Union" county in southern Indiana, from which some of the resi- 
dents of that county came. 

Tippecanoe township was organized March 9, 1842, embracing seven 
miles square oflf of the south end of Bourbon township. The petitioners 
for the organization of the township were A. H. Buckman, Thomas Irwin, 


William Wagoner, Israel Baker, William Sprout, William H. Rockhill, 
Samuel, Joseph, William and George Taylor, Samuel Rockhill, J. H. 
Cleaver, T. H. IMcKey, James Turner, Jacob Raber, G. H. and J. O. Parks, 
William Elder, Robe'rt Meleny, H. Blakely, Solomon Linn, John Greer, 
Moses Greer, Israel Reed and A. J. Cruzan. This township took its name 
from the Tippecanoe river which runs through it. ■ 

Polk township was organized March 4, 1845. It embraced all that part 
of North township that lies west of sections 23 and 24 in township 35 north, 
range i east, the same being the western portion of North township. This 
township was named in honor of James K. Polk, who was on the date of its 
organization inaugurated President of the United States. 

George M. Dallas was the Vice-President elected on the Democratic 
ticket with James K. Polk, and, believing it to be in accordance with the 
political fitness of things, the board of commissioners was petitioned to 
change the name of North to Dallas, and it was so done. This change 
occurred shortly after the organization of Polk township, but June 3, 1845, 
forty petitioners asked that the name be changed, and the township be 
known as North and it was decreed accordingly. 

North township was one of the original townships. When it was 
first organized, it comprised, in addition to its present limits, the territory 
now embraced in Polk and German townships. German township was 
taken off May 11, 1838, and Polk, March 4, 1845. When Polk was cut 
off from the west part of North, it was a time when political excitement 
was the order of the day. Polk township having been named in honor of 
the newly-elected President, some of the Democratic voters conceived the 
idea that it would be just the thing to change the name of North and call 
it Dallas, in honor of the Vice-President. March i, 1845, the following 
petition was presented to the board of commissioners : "To the Board 
of Commissioners : We, the undersigned petitioners of North township, 
ask for the name of said township to be altered from North to Dallas. 
Signed, S. N. Champlin, James Palmer, Adam Snider, James Sherland, 
Warren Burch, John Kilgore, Charles A. Stilson, John Morris, N. Parmer, 
Hiram Baker, John Trowbridge, John P. Grover, John Irwin, George 
Nitcher, Ale.x M. Vinnedge, George Vinnedge, John Snider, Seymour 
Stilson, John S. Baker, Abraham Baker, Joseph Trowbridge, Josiah White, 
A. Burch, Daniel Nitcher, Orrin Palmer, John Wildey, George W. Ferguson, 
Calvin Burch, J. E. Emerson, W. S. Braum, P. P. Robinson, Sol. Stevens, 
and H. R. Pershing." The board ordered the change to be made as indi- 
cated in the petition. 

At the June term following, the following petition was presented, 
by Robert Johnson on behalf of himself and others: 

"We, the undersigned citizens of now Dallas township, respectfully 
request your honorable body to change the name of Dallas township to 
that of North township. Signed, Robert Schroeder, Jesse Schroeder, Robert 
Johnson, Sr., Seymour Stilson, G. W. Ferguson, C. A. Stilson, Warren 
Burch, Sol. Snyder, James Parmer, D. Cummins, George Murphy, D. Vin- 
nedge, M. Hard, Daniel Nitcher, James Sherland, Sol. Snyder, Wash. 
Morris, George Vinnedge, A. M. Vinnedge, D. Conger, John Schroeder, 
Simon Snyder, M. Robert, B. Gerrard, J. C. Jones, A. Snyder, D. Murphy, 
Sr., R. Johnson, Jr., J. Snyder, W. S. Brown, H. M. Greer, James Murphy, 


C. Sherland, J. Johnson, Thomas Packard, J. P. Grover, G. Nitcher, J. 
Wilder, J. Kilgore, D. Murphy, C. Burch, J. Lampheer, Pleasant Ferguson." 
The prayer of the petitioners was granted, and the distinguished honor 
accorded" to the Vice-President was obhterated by one fell swoop of the 
magic pen of the board of commissioners. 

Menominee Township. — At the March term of the board of county 
commissioners, 1839, being March 5, 1839, the commissioners made the 
following order : 

"Now comes into open court Isaac How and presents a petition of 
divers persons praying for a new township, etc. 

"Whereupon it is Ordered, That all that territory lying west of the range 
line dividing range i and 2 east of the second principal meridian and north 
of Yellow river, including so much of Union township as is north of 
Yellow river and lying in said county not extending north of Center town- 
ship, to be known as Menominee township. 

"Ordered, That all elections be held at the house of William Masons 
in said township. 

"Ordered by said board, That James Nash be and he is hereby appointed 
inspector of elections in said township (of Onondaga) until his successor is 
elected and qualified. 

"Ordered by the board, That an election be held in said township on the 
first Monday in April next for the purpose of electing one justice of the 
peace in said township, and that the sheriff of said county give notice of the 
same according to law." 

As appears by the record' the township had first been named "Onon- 
daga" as appears above enclosed in parentheses, and that word in the first 
paragraph had been erased and the word "Menominee" written in its 
place. In the last paragraph of the record the clerk of the board had evi- 
dently forgotten to erase the name "Onondaga." (See Commissioner's 
Record A, page 224.) 

At the May term, 1839, Record A, page 250, the following order 
appears : 

"Ordered by the board of commissioners of Marshall county, That the 
township in said county formerly known as Menominee township shall be 
known hereafter and designated as Lake township." 

The naming the new township Menominee was undoubtedly in honor 
of the old Indian chief Menominee, who with his band of 859 Pottawattomie 
Indians had been driven away only about seven months before the township 
was organized. Several of the settlers about the Twin lakes, who had 
profited by the removal of Menominee and his band of over 800 Pottawat- 
tomies, undoubtedly did not wish to perpetuate the name of the good old 
Indian chief even by attaching his name to the township which embraced 
much of the reservation of the land of which he was robbed, and induced 
the board of coimnissioners to change the name from "Menominee" to 

The name "Onondaga," spoken of above, was the name of what was 
generally known as "The Old Forge," described elsewhere, situated at the 
end of the lower Twin lake, now called "Sligo." 

West Township was organized March 8, 1854, comprising the terri- 


tory embraced in the above named townships and all that part of Center 
township lying west of the range line dividing ranges i and 2 east, to be 
constituted into a civil township to be known as West township, and no 
change has since been made. 

March 9, 1853, Franklin township was organized by dividing to the 
south by the range line dividing ranges 3 and 4,, and embracing all that 
part of German township lying east of said range line. January 7, 1855, 
the name of Franklin township was changed and it was thereafter ordered 
to be designated on the county records as German township. 

This action was taken about the time of the inauguration of Franklin 
Pierce, and Franklin, the name of the township, was in honor of Franklin 
Pierce, the newly elected President. 

In 1853 a township was organized out of the west portion of Center 
and given the name of Pierce, in honor of President Pierce, just then 
elected President, but for some cause which does not appear the order was 
canceled, and nothing was done to perfect the organization. 

Walnut township was organized June 9, 1859, out of a portion of Tippe- 
canoe and Green townships. About one hundred and fifty inhabitants of 
the territory signed the petition asking for the organization of the town- 
ship. The towns of Sidney and Fremont lay very near each other, and 
the postoiifice of these two places being named Argos, it was ordered that 
Sidney and Fremont be discontinued and thereafter known as Argos. 

These comprise all the townships now organized, and they are classi- 
fied in the following order: Union, Center, Green, Tippecanoe, Bourbon, 
German, North, Polk, West and Walnut. 

March 9, 1842, the board of commissioners ordered that all that part 
of Starke county lying south and east of the Kankakee river be attached 
as follows: All that part lying west of Union township be attached to 
and to constitute a part of Union township; all that part lying west of 
Center be attached to Center, and all that part lying west of North township 
be attached to North township. Previous to this the "territory of Stark" 
had been partially organized into townships by the commissioners of Mar- 
shall county. September 7, 1849, Amzi L. Wheeler, on behalf of himself 
and others, filed petitions for the organization of a new township in Starke 
county, embracing all the territory west of the Kankakee river, and to be 
known as Vanburen township. The prayer of the petitioners was granted. 
Washington and California townships were organized by the commissioners 
of Marshall county before the act organizing Starke county was passed by 
the legislature. 

The foregoing comprises all the proceedings had in relation to the 
organization of the county, and the changes that have been made up to the 
present time. 

Civil. Townships Boundaries. 
The civil townships as now organized are bounded as follows : 
Union. — West by Starke county, south by Fulton county, east by Green 

township, north by West township. 

Center. — West by West township, south by Green township and Walnut 

township, east by Bourbon and Gemian townships, north by German and 

North townships. 


Green. — West by Union township, south by Fulton county, east by 
Walnut township, north by Center township. 

Bourbon. — West by Center township, south by Walnut and Tippecanoe 
townships, east by Kosciusko county, north by German township. 

Tippecanoe. — West by Walnut township, south by Fulton and Kosciusko 
counties, east by Kosciusko county, north by Bourbon township. 

German. — West by North township, south by Center and Bourbon town- 
ships, east by Kosciusko and Elkhart counties, north by St. Joseph county. 

North. — West by Polk township, south by West and Center townships, 
east by Center and German townships, north by St. Joseph county. 

Polk. — West by St. Joseph and Starke counties, east by North township, 
north by St. Joseph county. 

West. — West by Starke county, south by Union township, east by Center 
township, north by Polk and North townships. 

Walnut. — West by Green township, south by Fulton county, east by 
Tippecanoe township, north by Bourbon and Center townships. 


Several years ago the writer obtained from an Indian, Nigo, since de- 
ceased, the last of his race in this part of the country then living, the names 
of some of the lakes and rivers as they were originally known and called by 
the Indians, and, although his knowledge of Indian orthography was quite 
limited, yet it is barely possible the reader can guess the pronunciation from 
the spelling. 

Wolf Creek rises in Tippecanoe township, passes through a portion of 
Walnut and Green, and empties into Yellow river near the northeast corner 
of Union township. In the early times it was skirted on either side for some 
distance with broken lowlands, marshes, cat swamps, etc., and was a safe 
and sure retreat for wild animals of all kinds. Black wolves were numerous 
from one end of the creek to the other, and from this fact it took its name. 
The Indians called it Katam-wah-see-te-wah, the Indian name for black 
wolf. In early times Clark Bliven built a mill dam across the creek a few 
hundred yards above where it enters into Yellow river. A sawmill was 
erected there on which was sawed lumber for the second courthouse, built in 
1850-1. A grist-mill was also erected there about that time and was used 
for milling purposes up to about 1904, when, after much "lawing" in court, 
the dam was ordered removed, the owner, Michael Zehner, receiving five or 
six thousand dollars for the damage sustained. After a year's labor the 
dam was removed and the big ditch that was dug along its bottom was com- 
pleted November i, 1907, and the old mills and the old mill dam that stood 
for more than fifty years are things of the past. Mr. Bliven, about 185 1, 
the original builder of the dam and the sawmill, in attempting to repair a 
break in the dam caused by high water, fell into the current and was drowned. 

Yellour River was called by the Indians, Wi-thou-gan, and very appro- 
priately signifies "yellow water." Another Indian name for it was Wau- 
sau-auk-a-to-meek, probably in the Miami Indian tongue, as their language 
was somewhat different, or it might not have had reference to the color of 


the water. The early settlers called it Yellow river from the peculiar chrome 
color of the water. It has been so known ever since, and will doubtless 
continue to bear that name for all time to come, although in the drainage of 
the swamps and marshes through which it passes the water has become 
almost clear and has lost its yellow color which gave it its name. Y'ellow 
river rises in the swamps and marshes of Elkhart and St. Joseph counties, 
runs through German, Center, West and Union townships, and finally finds 
its way into the Kankakee river, where it is lost forever amid the rippling 
waters of that classic stream ! The north branch of Yellow river near 
Bremen was called Po-co-nack, and means "beechy," from the prevalence 
of beech timber in that region. It is only in wet seasons that it is entitled to 
the name of river. 

In the early period of the settlement of the county a good many people 
were not satisfied with the country, and moved on farther west, but after 
staying a few years the memorj' of Yellow river and the "Yellow river val- 
ley," determined them to return and take up their permanent abode here. 
This gave rise to the adage that if persons got their feet wet in Yellow river 
they could never stay away from it any great length of time. This inspired 
one of the poets of the "Yellow river valley"' to put this thought into dog- 
gerel verse as follows : 

There's a tiny little river 

Not so very far away; 
Water clear and sandy bottom, 

On its banks the muskrats play. 

Grassy brinks with stately cat-tails, 

Pussy-willow, perfume blow; 
Now and then a bull-frog's chatter 

In the swimming hole below-. 

Just the place in sultry August, 

On its banks to idly lie 
In the shade of spreading maple, 

Gaze out at the bright blue sky. 

There's a curious little adage. 

And I know that it is true, 
'Bout this tiny little river 

And I'll whisper it to you. 

If, at any time or season, 

You should venture in its flow ; 
Even though the waters tempt you. 

Wade or swim or fish or row ; 

Should you leave this little river, 

Go a hundred miles away, 
Or a thousand, or a million, 

It's a cineh you'll never stay. 

Piatt's Run is a small stream rising in the west part of Green and the 
east part of Union townships. It wends its winding way through low and 
swampy land until it empties into Y'ellow river a short distance below the 
mouth of Wolf creek. During the rainy seasons it furnishes a sufficient 
supply of water to run a sawmill a portion of the time. A good many years 


ago a dam was built across the stream and a sawmill erected on the farm 
then owned by Dr. Caillat. The milling business did not prove to be a 
paying investment and was abandoned long ago. The creek got its name 
from Piatt B. Dickson, through whose farm it ran. 

Pine Creek and Yellow Branch are both small streams of no special 
note, rising in Polk township and emptying into the Kankakee. Yellow 
Branch was known among the Indians as "Pan Yan." 

Tippecanoe Riz'cr rises in the northeast part of the state, runs through 
Kosciusko county and passes diagonally through Tippecanoe township, 
Marshall county, from northeast to southwest, where it enters Fulton county, 
and so on in the same direction until it empties into the Wabash river. It 
runs through a splendid section of the country and is one of the handsomest 
rivers of its size in the northwest. It abounds in a plentiful supply of fresh 
water fish of various kinds. It was called by the Indians Qui-tip-pe-ca-nuck. 

Deep Creek is a small body of water running from north to south 
through Tippecanoe township until it finds its way into Tippecanoe river. 
It derives its water from the marshes and lowlands through which it passes, 
and is noted for getting "on a high" every time it rains, and the facility with 
which it washes away the small bridges over its banks. 


Max-in-knck-ce is the largest of nine bodies of water called lakes in 
Marshall county. It is in the southwest corner of the county in Union town- 
ship. Its dimensions are about three miles long and two and a half miles 
wide. The eastern banks are high and in places quite abrupt. The northern, 
western and southern banks gradually rise from the water's edge, and the 
cultivated farms, extending in places down to the water, make the scenery 
the finest in the western country. The lake is fed entirely by the natural 
rainfall and the springs which gurgle up from the bottom in every direction. 
Of late years it has become one of the most popular summer resorts in the 
northwest, a fuller description of which will be found elsewhere in this his- 
tory, as well as a paper on the orthography and meaning of the word Max- 

Lake of the Woods, or, as it is sometimes called, Big Lake, is in German 
and North townships in the northeast part of the county. Its dimensions 
are about two miles in length and one mile wide. It takes its name from 
the fact that it is completely surrounded with a thick growth of trees. It is 
a beautiful sheet of water, and is one of the best lakes for fish in the county, 
but, being a considerable distance from the main traveled road, has not yet 
come into public notice as a place of general resort for sportsmen outside 
of the immediate neighborhood. The Indian name for the Lake of the 
Woods was Co-pen-itck-con-bcs. This was the name of a vegetable that 
grew spontaneously in that region in an early day. It was mostly a product 
of mud and water, and was found in the outlet, and in and about the shores. 
It was similar in appearance to the beet, and when properly prepared was 
very nutritious and quite palatable. The Indians cooked them by digging 
deep trenches in the ground, walling up the sides with small stones, leaving 
a small space in the middle into which they placed the co-pen-uck-con-bes, 
and covering them over with bituminous earth and other burning material, 


set fire to them and allowed them to burn four days, when the cooking 
process was completed and they were ready to be served for food. 

Pretty Lake, four miles southwest from Plymouth in West township, 
took its name from the fact that it is the prettiest lake of its size in all the 
region round about. It is three-quarters of a mile long and about half as 
wide. The banks are skirted with beautiful natural shrubbery and timber 
of larger growth. Of late years it has become a fashionable summer resort 
for Plymouth people and others, and about forty summer cottages have been 
built the past dozen years. It is surrounded with well cultivated farms, and, 
from the eminence on the eastern shore, Lake Como in all its glory never 
appeared more beautiful ! 

Tivin Lakes are also in West township, five miles west and a little farther 
south than Pretty lake. These are three small lakes, each connected by a 
small neck of water between two hills. The largest is not to exceed three- 
quarters of a mile in length and a quarter to half a mile in width. An- ' 
other is smaller and almost a perfect circle ; while the third is still smaller, 
and is more what a "Hoosier" would call a marshy pond than a lake. Black 
bass, sun-fish, goggle eyes, perch and blue gills are plenty. There are still 
a few ducks to be found' in the bayous and out of the way places during duck 
season, but since the white man came, they, like the Indians over on the 
north side of the Middle Twin lake, have had to move on and give place to 
"the survival of the fittest." Before the country was settled, ducks congre- 
gated there by the thousand, so much so that the Indians called it "Duck 
lake," in their language, She-ba-ta-ba-uk. 

Flat Lake and Galbraith Lake are in West township. They are both 
quite diminutive, and are growing smaller by degrees and beautifully less 
as the years go by. They were in the early times a favorite asylum for 
ducks and wild geese, and in that region was an Indian camping ground and 
a runway for wild deer, turkeys and other wild fowls. 

Dixon Lake divides the honors between Center and West townships 
two and a half miles southwest of Plymouth. It is perhaps half a mile long 
and half as wide. It empties its surplus water into Yellow river, which 
flows southward half a mile distant to the eastward. It was named in lionor 
of a man by the name of George W. Dixon, who resided in the vicinity of 
the lake in an early day. 

Mud Lake is in Green township, in close proximity to the Fulton county 
line. It is small and will never attain an extensive notoriety. 

Lake Manatau and Lost Lake are in Union township, not far from 
Lake Maxinkuckee. 

Miiekshazv Lake is one mile south of Plymouth, through which the 
Lake Erie & Western railroad passes. As its name indicates, it is mostly 
composed of muck, and the duck hunter, as he goes into the muck up to his 
arm-pits, is apt to ejaculate, "Oh, Pshaw !" Hence the name. This lake 
was immortalized by a continued story, illustrated, published in the Plymouth 
Democrat in 1878, to which the attention of the curious reader is directed. 

The Great Magnetic Flozving Well — There are a large number of flow- 
ing wells in the county, the largest and most important of which is the 
Great Magnetic Flowing Well near where the old Plymouth grist-mill for- 
merly stood, between the mill-race and Yellow river, in the north part of 
town. The proprietors, J. V. Bailey and L. G. Capron, had sunk an iron 


tube pipe for the purpose of operating a turbine water-wheel. When down 
about forty feet, the parties driving the tube suddenly broke through into 
an apparently hollow place, and the water came rushing out at the top of 
the tube. In a short space of time the bright sparkling water spouted two 
feet above the tube with a steady, even flow that was exceedingly refreshing 
to behold on a hot, sultry day. The tube happened to stand perpendicular, 
and the stream parted at the top in liquid, sparkling hemispheres, taking on 
all the tints and colors of the rainbow, and fell to the pool below in a f)lume- 
like cascade, almost hiding the tube itself. 

By experiment it was found that the flow ceased at a height of about 
fifteen feet above the river low-water mark. Accordingly the proprietors 
put down a thirteen-inch tube as an experiment. When the same depth 
was reached as in the first tube sunk, the flow of water came up through 
the enlarged pipe with equal force. The volume of water discharged was 
simply enormous, and it has continued from that time (1875) to the present 
(1907) without any decrease in the flow. It is estimated that the well dis- 
charges 500 gallons per minute, 30,000 per hour and 720,000 gallons every 
twenty-four hours, sufficient to supply a city of 50,000 inhabitants. Tests 
and experiments have conclusively shown that the water is highly magnetic 
and is otherwise possessed of medicinal and other curative properties in an 
eminent degree. It is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable flows of 
water, considering the depth, in the world. 

Since then there have probably been put down in Plymouth 100 inch- 
and-a-half flowing wells, and the city waterworks are supplied with water 
from nine flowing wells which have been sunk from a depth of from fifty to 
100 feet, furnishing an abundant supply of absolutely pure, sparkling water. 

In various parts of the county — especially in the center, northwest, west 
and southwest, flowing wells are found in abundance. 

At and near Teegarden, in Polk township, the same flow of water has 
been secured, and many flowing wells have been put down. 

In the region of Donelson and the country round about, the same flow 
of water is secured, and occasionally it comes to the surface in the form of 

Maxinkuckce Lake is famed for its numerous and splendid flowing 
wells. Almost all the numerous cottages on the east, south and north parts 
of the lake are supplied with water from flowing wells, and the lake itself is 
kept at its normal height by water which comes from the flowing well reser- 
voir at the bottom. 

Bourbon Living Spring — Nearly half a century ago Capt. John C. Hed- 
rick, a veteran of the Mexican war (long since deceased), discovered on his 
farm, a short distance from Bourbon, a vein of water which proved to be a 
living spring. The water is perfectly clear, and very pleasant to the taste. 
The water boils up in twenty-five or thirty different places, and the sur- 
roundings showed that the fountain head is at least sixteen feet below the 
surface of the ground. It is thought that, with proper hydraulic appli- 
ances, water from the spring might be easily carried to the town of Bour- 
bon, and the business and residence houses abundantly supplied with water. 
This great spring evidently comes from the immense reservoir that holds 
the water for the flowing wells all over the countv. 



One of the most beautiful small bodies of water in the Northwest is, 
without doubt, Maxinkuckee lake, a brief description of which will be of 
interest to those who admire the beauties and grandeur of nature. It has 
been truthfully described by the late Jerome Burnett, whose poem is inserted 
here to give the reader a "birdseye view," so to speak, of this charmingly 
delightful body of water: 

Ah, here is a scene for a painter! 

A gleaming and glorified lake, 
With its framing of forest and prairie. 

And its etching of thicket and brake; 
With its grandeur and boldness of headland. 

Where the oaks and the tamaracks grow, 
A league with the sunlight of heaven, 

And the spirit-like shadows below. 

Where the swallows skim over the surface. 

And quaff as they touch the clear wave; 
Where the robins seek out the cool waters. 

And warily venture to lave; 
Where the sand piper toys with the plashes. 

And whistles his passionate note. 
And the water-bugs sail like a navy 

Of fairies for battle afloat. 

Where the blackbirds go noisily over, 

And the mallard wings rapidly by. 
And the heron that flies like a snowflake, 

Comes down from the clouds in the sky; 
Where the bobolink lights on the flag blade, 

And so proudly and prettily sings, 
Or watches askance the swift minnow, 

That out of his element springs. 

Where the lilies abloom on the surface. 

Held down by their cable-like stems. 
And the tints of the bright cardinalis. 

Have the semblance of loveliest gems; 
Where the mosses in festoons are hanging, 

In the richest of fashion and fold. 
To decorate submarine dwellings, 

O 'er pavements of amber and gold. 

Where the spirit of mortal may worship, 

In the freedom of unwritten creeds, 
Hearing many and joyous responses 

In the music that comes from the reeds. 
And where in my fancy I've pictured 

A temple that's builded so high. 
It reaches in grandest proportions 

From the beautiful lake to the sky. 

IMaxinkuckee lake is oblong in shape, about three miles long and two 
and a quarter miles wide, with somewhat irregular shore lines and some 
small bays and undulations. The shores present about ten miles of lake 
front of almost every character of approach; the level beach, the gradual 


slope, the steep incline, the abrupt bluff, the rounded headland, and these of 
various elevations, from the water's edge to nearly fifty feet in places. The 
water is wholly from springs, except the natural rainfall, there being no 
inlet that may be called such, and the springs of delicious water are found 
everywhere along the shores. The banks are bold, clear, shaded, and 
occupied by all sorts of summer 'cottages, mansions, hotels, clubhouses, acad- 
emies, schools of learning, etc. On the west side of the lake a small strip 
of lowland gives outlet to the surplus water into a small lake close by, and 
thence to the Tippecanoe river some miles southwest. There is very little 
grass, weeds, drift, or other unsightly things in or around the lake, and 
but little brush, trees, logs, or other debris along the shores. All is clean, 
pure and healthy. Flowing wells abound on the north, east and south 
sides, and the most delicious cool water rushes up to about eight or ten 
feet above the level of the lake on boring a distance of fifty to lOO or 
more feet. Once on its shores at almost any point, and as long as you remain, 
be it days or years, the surroundings impress you constantly, and if there 
be a particle of love for the beautiful in your composition, that sense is 
called into action at all times and on all occasions, in sunshine or in storm, 
the beauties of spring, the charms of summer, and the glories of autumn. 

Surrounded with unbroken forests as the writer has seen it, with the 
deer drinking of its limpid water without fear of molestation, the wild fowl 
floating on its bosom, the forest songsters noisy amid the otherwise silent 
woods on all sides, and the few hardy pioneers with their new beginnings 
and humble surroundings, scattered here and there within easy reach of it, 
it was a gem of imperishable beauty. 

Again surrounded, as it is now, with fertile and highly cultivated farms, 
charming cottages, and handsome dwellings with white tents amid the trees, 
cozy hamlets on either side, railroad stations and conveniences, its surface 
covered with sailboats, yachts and steamers and hundreds of rowboats, and 
on all sides the pleasure of fashion and those seeking relief from ennui, 
overwork or study ; music, dancing and social gatherings of strangers from 
all quarters and temporarily fraternizing ; to each and all it is still, notwith- 
standing the marvelous changes that have been wrought during the more 
than past half-century, what it was to the Indian — the sparkling water — 
the beautiful Maxinkuckee. Once having come within the witching spell 
of its voiceless charms, in the language of Othello, the beholder can truth- 
fully say : 'Tf heaven would make me such another world of one entire 
chrysolite, I would not give thee for it!" 

Maurice Thompson, one of Indiana's most beloved authors, was state 
geologist, and in his report for 1886 he spoke of the lake as follows: 

'"Max-in-kuck-ee — In many respects this is the most beautiful of the 
multitude of small lakes with which northern and northwestern Indiana 
is studded. Its shores are high, beautifully rounded, and clothed with the 
native forest. The waters are clear and cold. Hundreds of springs flow out 
from the banks, and many more rise from the bottom of the lake. Very few 
weeds grow in the water, and there is far less of moss and peaty formation 
than is common in our Indiana lakes. Here, to a large extent, sand 
gives place to gravel, and the beach is firm and clean. Nowhere in the 
United States is there a lovelier body of pure, cold water. It has become 
a famous summer resort, and deserves all the good praise it has received." 


The construction of the VandaHa railroad's northern branch to South 
Bend by way of Plymouth in 1884, with a station at the northwest shore 
of the lake, so facilitated access that the beautiful groves along the east 
side began to be dotted with cottages; hotels were established; clubhouses 
were erected ; steamers began to pufif about the new buildings, and a fleet 
of little white sailboats blew over the water. The cottagers have shown 
most excellent taste in that they have preserved the natural beauty of the 
groves and green banks, while building large and costly summer homes, 
and the careful ornamentation of lawns and groves has handsomely supple- 
mented without destrcviup- the n^tur^l beauties of the place. 

During the summer of 1900 Prof. B. W. Everman, ichthyologist of the 
United States commission of fish and fisheries, surve\'ed the lake and made 
a complete report of everything connected with it, which is to be published 
by the government, but has not yet made its appearance. The map, how- 
ever, to accompany the report has been printed and a few copies have been 
distributed to those most interested in the future of the lake. The map is 
made from surveys and soundings made by Prof. Everman. The area of 
the lake is shown to be 1,864 acres. The contour lines of the bottom of 
the lake are from soundings taken on section and half-section lines, and 
is the first and only map of "the bottom of the lake" ever published. The 
deepest place in the lake is on a line about half way across between Long 
point and Maxinkuckee landing. At that point it is eighty-eight feet deep. 
In the immediate vicinity the depth ranges from seventy to eighty-five feet 
in several places. The map is a valuable production and undoubtedly the 
most correct one that has yet been made. It is to accompany a full report 
prepared by Prof. Everman, embracing a description of the numerous varie- 
ties of fish found in the lake, together with the fauna, and other matters of 

Orthography of Maxinkuckee. 

The numerous ways of spelling the name of the lake induced the writer 
of these sketches to investigate the question and the result is embraced in 
the following information obtained from various official sources, in reply 
to letters written for that purpose. 

The commissioner of the general land ofiice at Washington replied that 
the name appeared on the records of his office as "Muk-sin-cuck-u." 

The auditor of state at Indianapolis writes that David Hillis, one of the 
surveyors of the land around the lake, spelled it "Alek-in-kee-kee." Jerry 
Smith, another surveyor, spelled it "Muk-sen-cuk-ee." On the field notes in 
the surveyor's office of Marshall county David Hillis spelled it "Max-in- 
kuck-ee," while Jerry Smith, deputy United States surveyor, spelled it 
"Muk-sen-cuck-ee." At a treaty made at the lake March 16, 183S, it is 
spelled "Max-ee-nie-kee-kee." 

From these official sources it is shown that the usual spelling, "Max- 
in-kuck-ee," appears but once and that is on the records of Marshall county, 
which is a copy of the original field notes from the records of the auditor 
of state at Indianapolis, where the auditor says Mr. Hillis spelled it "Mek- 
in-kee-kee." Therefore, whoever transcribed the field notes of Mr. Hillis 
from the records at Indianapolis, for the records of Marshall county, made 
a mistake when he copied it "Max-in-kuck-ee." The record in the depart- 


ment at Washington has it "Muk-sen-cuck-u." At the time the field notes 
were made by the deputy government surveyors, quill pens were used, and 
it is possible — in fact probable — that the final "u" was intended for "ee," 
the top running together and making a letter like "u." The "i" in "sin" 
was probably an "e" with the top run together. This is a reasonable con- 
clusion based on the spelling of Jerry Smith on the Marshall county records 
and at Indianapolis. The correct spelling is undoubtedly "Muk-sen-cuck-ee." 
There is no authority for Max-in-kuck-ee. The word from which it was 
erroneously copied is "]\Iek-in-kee-kee," as is shown in the letter of the 
audtior of state. 

It is no wonder that the name has got badly mixed in the bungling trans- 
lations that were made of it, in the original surveys and in the treaties in 
which the name occurs. In making the treaties, etc., the name was taken 
down by the interpreters, as the Indians knew not how to spell or write, 
and the interpreters spelled it according to the sound as well as they could, 
and it is therefore not strange that it appears in so many diflierent ways. 
But no matter. The present spelling, "Max-in-kuck-ee," has come to stay, 
and no power on earth can change it, even were it desirable to do so. The 
railroad company, the Culver ]\Iilitary Academy, the postoffice department, 
and the people generally about the lake, recognize the present spelling, and 
that fixes it beyond any possibility of change. 

As to the meaning of the word in its present form, it has none. 
Originally it was an Indian word, but what its meaning was no one has 
been able to find out. For a long time it was generally believed to 
be the name of an Indian chief, but the government records, which have 
been diligently searched, fail to show that name or anything like it. The 
late Charles Cook, who lived a few miles north of the lake, and in his early 
days made his home with the Pottawattomie Indians in this region for 
many years and understood their language perfectly, said it was the Indian 
word for moccasin, because the lake was the shape of an Indian moccasin, 
and further, because of the prevalence of moccasin snakes about the lake 
at that time. Simon Pokagon, the last of the Pottawattomie Indians in 
this part of the country, whose death occurred in Michigan in 1900, in 
reply to an inquiry said it meant in the Algonquin language (same as 
Pottawattomie) "There is grass." Pokagon was a graduate of Notre Dame 
University and knew the meaning of words. As his definition has no 
relevance to the lake it is additional evidence that the word as we have it 
is a bungling translation of the original Pottawattomie name, whatever 
it may have been. But notwithstanding the marvelous changes that have 
taken place during the more than two-thirds of a century since its discovery 
by the American, what it was to the Indian, it is yet to the white men of 
today, the sparkling, laughing water, the beautiful Max-in-kuck-ee! That 
is what it means — let it go at that ! 

A few years ago, James Whitcomb Riley, Indiana's famous poet, spent 
some time at the lake, and gave his impressions of it as follows: 

The green below and the blue above — 
The waves caressing the shores they love; 
Sails in haven and sails afar, 
And faint as the water lilies are 
In inlets haunted of willow wands. 


Listless rowers, and trailing hands, 

With spray to gem them and tan to glove — 

The green below and the blue above. 

The blue above and the green below. 
Would that the world was always so — 
Always summer and warmth and light. 
With mirth and melody day and night; 
Birds in the boughs of the beckoning trees, 
Chirr of locusts, and whiffs of breeze — 
World old roses that bud and blow — 
The blue above and the green below. 

The green below and the blue above, 
Heigh, young hearts and the hopes thereof — 
Kate in the hammock and Tom sprawled on 
The sward — like a lover 's picture drawn 
By the lucky dog himself, with Kate 
To moon o "er his shoulder and meditate 
On a fat old purse or a lank young love — 
The green below and the blue above. 

The blue above and the green below, 
Shadows and sunshine to and fro — 
Seasons for dreams — whate'er befall 
Hero, heroine, hearts and all. 
M'ave of wildwood — the blithe bird sings, 
And the leaf-hid locust whets his wings — 
Just as a thousand years ago — 
The blue above and the green below. 

Attention was first attracted to the lake as a summer resort by the erec- 
tion of a chibhouse by a few residents of Plymouth on the east sliore of the 
lake on grounds leased of L. T. Vanschoiack. the same now being owned by 
Mrs. McOuat, of Indianapolis. This was in 1875. The lease was to run 
five years. The club house was a story and a half frame building, with 
sleeping apartments above, and parlor, dining room and kitchen below. It 
became quite a popular place of resort, and many times during the hot sum- 
mer months as many as fifty persons were entertained at one time. The 
officers of the club were Joseph Westervelt, president ; William W. Hill, 
treasurer, and C. H. Reeve, secretary. 

In 1878 a number of those who had been instrumental in organizing 
this club, wishing to have something permanent and more elaborate and com- 
fortable, purchased fifteen acres of eligible lake front on the north bank, 
and erected a large two-story frame building, lathed and plastered, contain- 
ing a large reception and dancing room, and other conveniences. The club 
was furnished with a fine sailing yacht, and five sailboats and as many row- 
boats were owned by the individual members. The organization was named 
"The Lake View Club," and was composed of the following members, all 
residents of Plymouth: William W. Plill, Nathan H. Oglesbee, Henry G. 
Thayer, Chester C. Buck, Joseph Westervelt, Charles E. Toan, Horace Cor- 
bin and Daniel McDonald. Within a few years each of these members, 
except Mr. Westervelt, erected comfortable cottages in which they made 
their homes during the summer seasons, all taking their meals at the club 
house. In 1890, owing to business reverses of some of the members, it be- 
came necessary to disband the club and dispose of the property, which was 
done, the Vandalia railroad company purchasing it for $16,000. 


In 1878-9 Louis B. Fuhviler, IMoses Muhlfield, and others of Peru, 
purchased ground and erected a two-story clubhouse on the northeast bank 
of the lake. 'The ckib in its earlier days was one of the most noted organi- 
zations on the lake, and its disbandment a number of years ago was a dis- 
tinct loss to the cottagers who made their homes around the lake during the 

About the same time several Rochester people formed a club and erected 
a clubhouse on Long point, on the west side of the lake, and occupied it with 
considerable irregularity for several years. The club went out of existence 
many years ago, but the club house still stands and has been remodeled into 
a double cottage, which is occupied by private families during the summer 
seasons. The Rochester people were the pioneers in discovering the beau- 
ties of Long point, being the first to erect a building there. For that reason 
for many years it was called "Rochester point," and even yet many of the 
early comers about the lake call it by that name. 

Since then there have been erected about 150 cottages, and the progress 
made in the improvements about the lake since the coming of the railroad 
is marvelous, a description of which would require more space than the 
limits of this sketch will permit. 

In selecting the names for their cottages around the lake, the owners 
have exercised considerable ingenuity and imagination. Many of the names 
are more than merely fanciful — they describe, in some particular, the char- 
acter or individuality of the surroundings, or some natural feature associated 
with the location, such as Shady Bluff or South View. Others commemorate 
some personal attachment or some sentiment associated with the owner's 
experience, such as Hamewold or The Wigwam. Others are named in a 
vacation spirit, such as Hilarity Hall or The Powwow. The following is a 
list of the cottages as complete as the names can now be recalled: Oak 
Lodge, Oak Dell, Oak Knoll, The Oaks, Two Oaks, The Illinois, Shadv 
Point, Shady Blufif, Portledge, The Tepee, The Wigwam, Grand \"iew. The 
Martin Box^ Squirrel Inn, Manana, Beach Lawn, Cosy Cote, Willow Spring, 
Meadow Lodge, Waupaca Hall, Woodbank, The Roost, Ingleside. Winder- 
mere, Hilarity Hall, Idleden, The Sunset, Cricket Camp, South View, The 
Powwow, Ed'gewater, Fairview, Maple Grove, Pleasant Point, The Buckeye, 
Sleepy Hollow, Kemah, Idlewild, Aubbeenaubbee Park, Cherry \'illa and 
Halcyon Villa. 

A sketch of the town of Culver on the northwest shore of the lake, and 
also of Culver Military Academy on the northeast shore, will be found else- 
where under appropriate heads. 


Plymouth, the County Seat. 

What now constitutes the city of Plymouth was laid ofif and platted as 
a town by John Sering, James Blair and William Polk, and filed for record 
in the recorder's office of St. Joseph county on the twentieth day of October, 
1834, the records of what is now Marshall county being then kept at South 
Bend, which was the seat of justice of St. Joseph county at that time, and. 


as it IS a matter of some importance as a starting point for a brief sketch of 
Plymouth, the county seat, the reference as it appears on the plat is hereby 
copied in full : 

Plymouth is surveyed at right angles with the Michigan road, which runs through 
the town of Plymouth 5 degrees west, variation 6 degrees 10 seconds, platted by a scale 
of eight rods to an inch. Michigan street is 100 feet wide; each of the other streets 
are 66 feet wide and the alleys 12 feet in width; all the lots except fractional ones 
are 88 feet in front by 126 feet in length, containing one-fourth of an acre. The 
square marked "Courthouse Square" is donated by the proprietors for public buildings 
necessary for county purposes. Lot No. 131 on Plum street on the west is given for a 
county seminary, and one acre and a half adjoining Plum street on the west is given 
for a public burying ground; end of lots numbered 49, 50 and 51, and 20 feet off of 
the east end of lots numbered 75, 76 and 77, is added to the width of Center street 
for a market house. 

John Sering, 
James Blair, 
William Polk, 

October 12, 1834. 

In the winter or spring of 1835, Oliver Rose opened the first store in 
Plymouth. His store room was a log building which stood on the ground 
immediately east of the building now known as The Plymouth Inn, on La 
Porte street. Mr. Rose also commenced farming operations on quite an 
extensive scale for those days on what is known as the Goodsell farm, north 
of town, opposite the fair grounds. When he came to the county he was 
accompanied by the late Gilson S. Cleaveland, who assisted him for some 
time as a clerk, afterwards became a partner, and finally sole proprieter, in 
which occupation he continued for many }ears. During the summer of 
1835 Uriah Metcalf and Milburn Coe located here. Mr. Coe afterward 
erected a sawmill which stood a little to the north of the present site of 
Zehner's mill in the northeast part of town. The race is yet visible, and 
where the dam stood can also be seen. This was a poor excuse for a mill, 
but it was better than no mill at all, and was the first sawmill erected in 
the county. It furnished lumber for doors, and door and window casing 
and floors, etc., but it was a long time before it could be made to furnish 
lumber sufficient to justify the erection of frame buildings. The dam was 
not very substantially built, and whenever a heavy rain fell there was nearly 
always a washout, and it was not many years until it was abandoned. 

During the same year Grove Pomeroy erected a frame building, the 
lumber for which was sawed by this mill, on the corner of Michigan and 
La Porte streets, on the ground now occupied by the Corbin block, which 
he called the "Yellow River hotel," afterwards the "Plymouth hotel." Mr. 
Pomeroy was the landlord and carried on an extensive business in enter- 
taining travelers, as the general land sales, which commenced about that 
time, brought many persons into the county from the dififerent parts of the 
country. This hotel was considered the half-way house for the stage line 
from Logansport to Niles, Mich. Ten years later, after the opening of the 
Michigan road, the stage line through this place from south to north was 
considered one of the main thoroughfares of the state, and many who read 
these lines will remember how Old Jake Rhinehart, as he was familiarly 
called, would blow his tin horn, crack his whip, and come dashing into town 


on his four-horse rock-a-way coach ! The whole town would be out to 
greet him and to see who the new arrivals were. A hack also made regular 
trips between Plymouth and La Porte, and both of these lines furnished the 
only means of transportation until the railroads came many years later. 

Plymouth was selected as the county seat of government by the trustees 
appointed to organize the county, which was done July 20, 1836. It was 
several years before it had any organization by which it could be governed. 
There were but two streets in the town, one the i\Iichigan road, now Michi- 
gan street, and the other what was called the "Yellow River" road, which 
meandered from the Yellow River hotel in a northwesterly direction, along 
what is now La Porte street. These streets were only passable wagon roads, 
muddy in rainy weather and dusty in dry weather. There were no side- 
walks then, and the few people who resided here at that time traveled the 
wagon road, leaving the space now occupied by sidewalks to grow up in 
weeds. Cows and horses, hogs and other animals had the freedom of the 
town without let or hindrance. Many of the cows were furnished with 
bells, and after filling themselves with grass during the day from the ranges 
around the suburbs of the town, they would congregate at some convenient 
place in the residence part of the village, lie down in the sand and chew their 
quids, and tinkle, tinkle, tinkle their bells the whole night through, to the 
disgust of nervous people and those whose sleep was easily disturbed. As 
has been the case ever since the beginning of the world, is now, and ever 
shall be, there were numerous dogs — yellow dogs and bull dogs, shepherd 
dogs, bird dogs, average dogs, miscellaneous dogs, good dogs and bad dogs, 
and every kind of dog that the mind of man could conceive of, yelping dogs 
and howling dogs — and just — dogs. They ran the streets at night, and the 
din these dogs raised in these nightly revels has echoed and re-echoed along 
down the corridors of the past until the present time ! To add to this enter- 
tainment, the prairie wolves, which were numerous in various places around 
town, chimed in with a doleful chorus that portended the certain death of 
any innocent sheep that might be wandering about the village. The killing 
of sheep, however, was not confined entirely to the hungry wolves that made 
night hideous with their hungry yelps. Among the numerous dogs that in- 
fested the town there were many that were as expert at killing sheep as the 
worst sheep-killing wolf in the gang. In order to protect the sheep, the 
sheep-killing dogs had to be killed. Those, having guns delegated them- 
selves public executioners and it was not long before the sheep-killing dogs 
were exterminated and schemes set on foot to capture the wolves, so that 
in the course of time the sheep were allowed to run at large without much 
fear of being in danger of being killed. 

The writer has heard a great many people in his time wonder why it 
was that the courthouse was built so far out of town as it is — that is. from 
the business center. That is easily enough explained. Where Michigan 
street crosses the river it was low wet ground as far north as the corner of 
Michigan and La Porte streets, and the proprietors were of the opinion that 
the business would center around the public square, as is usually the case 
in new towns. So they selected the courthouse square in the center of a 
splendid location for business houses in ever\- direction from where the 
courthouse would be erected. But. as is always the case. 


The best laid schemes o' mice and men 

Gang aft agley, 
An ' lea ' us naught but grief and pain 
Por promised joy; 

Immediately after the county had been organized and the comity seat 
located at Plymouth, an enterprising individual, whose name has not been 
handed down for the benefit of present and future posterity, erected a small 
shanty on the west side of the iMichigan road, on the south side of the river, 
where a temporary log bridge crossed that stream, and opened what was in 
those days called a "grocery," but now universally known as "saloon." He 
stocked it with a barrel of whisky which was procured from Kentucky, and 
other necessary fluids to suit the tastes of the few customers who felt that 
it was necessary to "take a little something for the stomach's sake." The 
place came to be known as "Old Kentuck," in honor of the barrel of whisky 
that came from that state, and to this day the older residents, in speaking of 
it, call it "Old Kentuck" ! The first glass of whisky the writer ever saw 
drank was in this place, somewhere in the later forties. It was kept by a 
man at that time well known as one of the prominent men of the town, by 
the name of Anson Shinnebarger. The writer came with his father to town 
that day and accompanied him to the various places where he went on busi- 
ness. Joseph Evans was sheriff of the county at that time, and Air. Shinne- 
barger, being absent from town, had intrusted the key to "Old Kentuck" to 
him. Mr. Evans was a Democratic politician ; so, also, was the writer's 
father, who was at that time a candidate for county auditor. A. L. Wheeler 
was the Democratic political boss, and after the political situation had been 
duly canvassed Mr. Wheeler proposed that the trio adjourn to "Old Ken- 
tuck" for further consultation. As a matter of course, the writer, who was 
then only a "kid," was permitted to accompany them, although very properly 
was not permitted to participate in the several libations which were indulged 
in. He remembers distinctly how Mr. Evans walked behind the little 
counter, took down the old decanter and set it down before them, and how 
they filled up the little glasses to the brim with the distilled juice of the corn 
all the way from "Old Kentuck." They sipped it down leisurely, talking 
the meanwhile about the political conditions in the various townships in the 
county and what ought to be done in order to elect the whole ticket and 
increase the Democratic majority in some localities that had of late shown 
some signs of weakness. It is proper here to say that none of these men 
were habitual drinkers and none of them ever drank to excess. In fact, in 
those days nearly every one took a little something for "their oft infirmities." 
Even the preachers who furnished spiritual food for their parishioners, at 
least many of them, thought it no harm to keep a well-filled decanter on the 
mantelpiece, to be used in case of "snake bites" and other maladies ! During 
harvest time "the little brown jug" was considered as necessary as the 
wooden pail filled with fresh spring water, and generally both of them were 
placed side by side in the fence corner, in the shade of a spreading bush or 
tree. When the harvester had gone across the field and back he always 
took a drink, first sampling the contents of the jug and then washing it 
down with a gourd full of water. He imagined that the liquor invigorated 
and strengthened him and better enabled him to perform the work he had 
to do. But not many years later this was demonstrated to be a fallacy ; 


that instead of assisting nature to do its work, in the long run it liad the 
opposite effect. 

But to return to the subject : Those business men who early came here 
to engage in traffic and trade were not long in determining that the business 
of the new town should not be too far removed from the center, and as lot 
No. I was on the east side of Alichigan street on the north side of the river 
and opposite the Yellow River house on the west side of the street, that was 
thought to be the proper place to begin the erection of shanties and small 
and cheap buildings for the sale of such dry goods, groceries, hardware, etc., 
as the pioneer population needed ; and as the first buildings were erected on 
the north bank of the river, across from the "grocery," and as those who 
came later could not draw the trade with them by building around the court- 
house square, they decided to join with the others and assist in building up 
the commercial center down town not far from the "grocery." The town 
plat at that time was an untouched wilderness, covered with trees and 
bushes, the only vacant space being the blazed La Porte road and the par- 
tially cleared Alichigan road, which had not then been opened more than 
twenty-five feet in width. The courthouse square was covered with trees 
and bushes, and there was not even an Indian trail leading to it, and no one 
could tell where it was without the aid of a surveyor. The little courthouse, 
which the proprietors of the town erected for temporary purposes, was lo- 
cated on the west side of Michigan road, third block north from the little 
"grocery." This courthouse they knew was only temporary, and, as they 
did not know whether they would remain permanently, they concluded to 
build in the vicinity of the others. And that is why the business part of 
Plymouth was not built around the courthouse square. 

Among the first who came here in 1835-6, and for several years later, 
the writer remembers James Bannon, who kept a boot and shoe shop and 
the postofifice in a small wooden building on the east side of Michigan street, 
on the space now occupied by the Humrickhouser brick building. He went 
to California during the gold excitement of 1849, and as he was in middle 
life then, he is probably dead long ago. He was a Democrat in politics, 
and held the postoffice for some time under President Tyler. 

John Cougle kept a "grocery," or saloon, as they are now known, in 
an adjoining building, but later erected a large frame building on the 
corner of Garro and Michigan streets, now the handsome two-story brick 
building owned by C. T. Mattingly, and occupied by the postoffice, which 
he occupied as a dry goods and notion store until his death occurred many 
}'ears ago. He kept liquors for sale and drank heavily, which may have had 
something to do with his untimely taking oft". He was strictly honest and 
straightforward in his business transactions, but entertained some very 
peculiar notions. Before his death he purchased a coffin which he stored 
in his place of business so that it might be on hand when wanted. He was 
the owner of a fine bass drum and almost every pleasant evening gave an 
exhibition of his skill on that detestable misnamed musical instrument in 
front of his place of business. Later he was reinforced by Lorenzo D. 
Matteson, a carpenter and builder, with his snare drum. He was an artist 
on his instrument, and the two made a full band with some to spare. Nearly 
all the people of the little town turned out to hear them, and it was a 


pleasure and recognition to them equal to the musical concerts given by 
more pretentious bands in later days. 

Robert Rusk early opened a tin shop in a small frame building on 
the east side of ^Michigan street. His was the first establishment of that 
kind in Plymouth. His building was burned by the disastrous conflagration 
that destroyed nearly all the business buildings on both sides of ]\Iichigan 
street March 22, 1857. He died many long years ago. Joseph Griffith 
was another early settler well known in his day. He was prosecuting 
attorney at one time, also postmaster. He met death by the accidental 
discharge of his gun, while out hunting, more than half a century ago. He 
was always ready to offer himself as a living sacrifice for the amusement 
of the people. At a circus, once on a time, the clown was going to perform 
the difficult act of balancing a chair containing a man in it, on his chin. 
Joseph offered himself as the victim. The clown turned the chair upside 
down, and Joseph inserted his legs between the rounds in good shape, and 
after being adjusted in front of the audience, the clown left him to his 
fate. The uproar was terrific, and became greater when the victim had 
to throw himself down on the ground, backward, to extricate himself. At 
another time a sleight-of-hand performer came along and one of his tricks 
was that he could break a half-dozen eggs in a silk hat, which was fash- 
ionable in those days, without soiling it. He asked the loan of one to perform 
the trick. Mr. Griffith promptly handed him the one he wore. The per- 
former broke in the hat a half-dozen eggs and with a stick stirred them 
up "good and plenty." When he went to show that the hat was not injured 
he found that the eggs were in reality broken, and the fine silk hat ruined! 
The performer handed the hat back to Mr. Griffith, remarking that he had 
made a mistake in performing the trick, and that he was very sorry indeed 
that he had spoiled his hat. Of course the boys who had quietly got the 
performer to play the trick on him took up a collection and bought Mr. 
Griffith a new "beaver." It was not long after this that he was accidentally 
killed as stated. 

Ply.mouth Org.\nized -^s .a. Town. 

Plymouth was organized as a town corporation under a charter granted 
by the legislature under an act approved February 11, 1851. Prior to the 
adoption of the new constitution the legislature passed special acts for 
almost every conceivable kind of purpose, among which was the incorporation 
of towns. After the taking effect of the new constitution the legislature 
passed a general act which enabled towns of a certain number of inhabitants 
to incorporate under it, thereby saving the legislature the unnecessary 
trouble of passing special acts. 

In 1 85 1 an act was passed by the legislature permitting Plymouth to 
organize as an incorporated town, which was done some time during that 
year, but precisely the date, or who the first officers were is not known, as 
all the records were destroyed in the disastrous fire of 1857. From the 
Plymouth Pilot, which was started here about that time, the following 
information is obtained. The town council, which had just then been created 
by a special act of the legislature, passed an ordinance providing that side- 
walks be built on each side of Michigan, La Porte and Center streets, four 
feet wide, of white oak or yellow poplar plank. These were the first side- 


walks built on these streets. They extended from La Porte street north to 
Garro street. Ordinances were also passed — 

Prohibiting ball playing within the limits of -the town. 

Prohibiting the shooting or firing of guns upon the original plat of said 
town, also 

Prohibiting horse racing in the streets. 

Prior to this there was no town organization whatever and every one 
did as he pleased without let or hindrance. Town ball was a favorite game 
on Michigan street between La Porte and Garro streets, every day when 
enough of idle men and boys were around to iriake the game interesting. 
For a time horse racing was a favorite amusement. Old Jack Smith came 
here as a shoemaker. He was an all-around sport and was the owner of a 
swift little runner which he exercised up and down Michigan street almost 
every day, and occasionally another horse was pitted against his horse. 
The track was on Michigan street from Jefferson to La Porte streets, and 
when the horses got fairly started the way they made the dirt and dust fly 
was a sight to behold. The passage of the ordinances stopped all this, and 
the streets were ever after used for the purposes for which they were 

The editor of the Pilot in the issue of his paper containing this infor- 
mation had this item: "We notice that one of our citizens has been mending 
his ways by putting down a good, substantial pavement opposite his resi- 

In 1853 the population of Plymouth was 670. In the disastrous fire of 
1857, which swept away nearly the entire business portion of the little town, 
all the books and records in relation to the corporation organization were 
desti-oyed, and therefore the particulars in regard thereto cannot be obtained ; 
nor does the oldest inhabitant remember who were the officers at the time 
of the organization. It seems from the report of the board of corporation 
trustees, held January 30, 1855, that a proposition to surrender the charter 
had been presented. After considerable discussion the following resolution 
was adopted : 

Eesolvecl, That surrendering the charter granted by the legislature of this state 
on the 11th of February, 1851, incorporating the town of Plymouth, this corporation 
will and does hereby become incorporated under the general law of the state of 
Indiana for the incorporation of towns, defining their powers, etc., approved June 11, 
1852, as provided by the fifty-fifth section of said act. 

Dr. Rufus Brown was president of the board at that time, and Milo W. 
Smith clerk. Dr. Brown was one among the first practicing physicians who 
settled here in an early day, and was also one of the best. He was one of 
the most genial and agreeable men there was at that time in the town. 
He was a public spirited citizen and was always one of the leaders in every 
enterprise looking to the advancement and well-being of the town. In pol- 
itics he was a whig, later a republican, and at one time was elected and 
served in the Indiana state senate. He was of a military turn of mind 
and during his term of office as senator directed his efiforts principally to 
perfecting the military laws of the state. He was authorized and made an 
effort to organize a regiment of state militia for the ninth congressibnal 
district, but failed to enthuse the people with the military spirit, and after 


meeting with indifferent success he abandoned the eft'ort. He was a member 
of the Presbyterian church, sang in the choir, belonged to about all the tem- 
perance organizations, and about all the other societies and associations in 
existence here at that time ; was prompt and zealous in the discharge of all 
duties imposed upon him, and was, take him all in all, a man whose like 
we shall never look upon again. He died, before his senatorial term expired, 
at his home in Plymouth, July 4, 1859. 

Milo W. Smith was town clerk and was an educated and cultured gentle- 
man. He was not a man of great force, but was methodical and competent 
in the work he had to do, a good citizen, who passed away many years 
ago regretted by all who knew him. 

April 7, 1857, the following resolution appears of record: 

Resolved, That whereas on the 22d Jay of March, 1857, the law office of A. C. 
Capron, the clerk of this corporation, was destroyed by fire, and also the books, records, 
tax duplicates, assessment rolls, maps, orders, vouchers, etc., of the corporation were 
entirely destroyed, the clerk is ordered to replace the same as far as possible. 

The law creating incorporated tovyns was loose and unsatisfactory in 
its workings, and the population being then sufficient to organize under the 
city law, in April, 1873, the writer of this history drafted a petition, and 
he and James W. Maxey secured the requisite number of petitioners, which 
was presented to the board of corporation trustees requesting them to order 
an election of the voters of the town to be held for the purpose of taking the 
sense of the people as to the expediency of changing the government of 
the town from a corporation to a city. The board of town trustees acted 
favorably upon the petition, and ordered an election to be held on the 25th 
day of April, 1873. The election resulted nearly three to one in favor of 
"city," there being 327 votes cast, of which 2j.d were in favor and eighty- 
three against a city form of government. The proper steps were then 
taken, the old corporation dissolved, and the city government set in motion. 
In May, 1873, an election was held for city officers. Prior to the election 3 
conference of the leading citizens of both political parties was held, in which 
it was agreed that in the new organization politics should be left out of the 
question" so far as possible. The politics of the town at that time being 
democratic, the republicans consented that the Democrats should be entitled 
to the candidate for mayor, and the remainder of the officers be alternated 
between the two parties. In this way the two parties were equally repre- 
sented in the new organization, Horace Corbin being the first mayor elect. 
The following is the ticket agreed upon and elected : 

First Second Third Total 

Office and Name. Ward. Ward. Ward. Vote. 

Mayor— Horace Corbin 68 134 74 27fi 

Treasurer — ^D. B. Armstrong 69 141 74 284 

Clerk— A. L. Thomson 69 141 74 284 

Assessor-H. R. Pershing 69 141 74 284 

Marshal— James W. Logan 69 138 74 281 

Council — A. Johnson, First Ward 65 

C. Bergman, First Ward 55 

A. Morrison, Second Ward 135 

S. Maver, Second Ward, 132 

J. Bro'wnlee, Third Ward ... 73 

A. O. Borton, Third Ward ... 74 


The Fourth Ward EmbrogHo. 

The most exciting pohtical fight which ever occurred in Plymouth, or 
even in the county forthat matter, took place in the city council by the intro- 
duction of an ordinance August 27, 1894, by Councilman Reynolds to redis- 
trict the city into four wards instead of three as it had been from the 
organization of the city. The particular reason given for this action was that 
the southwestern portion of the city had always been neglected in its repre- 
sentation in the city council ; that there was street and other work in that 
territory that needed attending to and that it would not be done unless the 
people down there were given a separate ward and two councilmen to 
look after their interests. There was behind it, however, a little bit of 
political maneuvering that did not appear on the surface. During the past 
year the council had been composed of three democrats and three repub- 
licans — George R. Reynolds, Charles R. Hughes and Charles B. Tibbitts, 
democrats, and W. E. Bailey, Z. M. Tanner and Samuel Gretzinger, repub- 
licans, which made the vote on all political questions a tie. Charles P. 
Drummond, democrat, was mayor, and on all questions of a tie voted with 
the democrats. At the spring election Mr. Drummond was defeated by 
Joseph Swindell, republican, who was to enter upon the duties of his ofifice 
the first meeting in September of that year. In order to relieve Mr. 
Swindell of the responsibility of casting his vote to decide a tie, the demo- 
crats conceived the idea of creating another ward, and appointing by reso- 
lution two democratic councilmen from that ward, which would make the 
total number of councilmen eight, five of whom would be democrats. So 
it came to pass at the last meeting before Mayor Drummond's time expired, 
an ordinance looking to that end was introduced as above stated. The 
ordinance was passed, James W. Maxey and William 0"Keefe appointed 
and sworn as councilmen from the Fourth ward, entered upon the discharge 
of their duties and. were recognized by ]\Iayor Drummond during the 
remainder of his term, which expired on the first of September, when 
Joseph Swindell, the republican mayor, entered upon the discharge of his 
duties. Among his first acts was his refusal to recognize Messrs. Maxey 
and O'Keefe as members of the council, alleging as a reason that the ordi- 
nance under which they were appointed was not legally passed. Legal 
proceedings were then instituted and the matter went into court and finally 
to the supreme court. 

But to go back a little, it will be interesting to give the facts as estab- 
lished by the evidence in the record : April 25, 1873, Plymouth was organ- 
ized as a city under the general law, and was immediately districted into 
three wards with two members each, or six in all, and this status remained 
until August 27, 1904, when the Fourth ward was added and the council 
made to consist of four wards and eight members. A fine little parlia- 
mentary battle in the council then ensued as is shown by the record as 
follows : 

"Councilman Reynolds moved that the rules be suspended and that the 
ordinance be placed upon its passage by one reading. The motion was 
seconded by Councilman Hughes, and thereupon Councilman Bailey moved 
to refer the ordinance to the committee on ordinances and police. The 
vote resulted in a tie. The mayor cast his vote in favor of the negative 


and declared the motion lost. Councilman Reynolds then, with the consent 
of his second, withdrew his motion to suspend the rules. Councilman 
Tibbitts then moved that the rules heretofore governing the proceedings 
of the council as printed in the ordinance book be annulled and repealed. 
(This rule provided as follows: 'All ordinances shall be read three times 
before being passed. No ordinance shall pass or be read at the same meeting 
in which it was introduced.') The yeas and nays were taken on this 
motion to repeal the rules and the result was a tie — three for and three 
against. The mayor cast his vote in the affirmative and declared the rules 
repealed. Councilman Reynolds then moved that the ordinance as read be 
placed upon its passage. This vote was a tie and was declared carried by 
the mayor casting his vote for it. Councilman Tibbitts then moved that the 
ordinance as read be passed and adopted upon one reading, and upon the 
passage of the ordinance the ayes and nays were taken with the following 
result : Messrs. Hughes, Reynolds and Tibbitts voted for the ordinance and 
Gretzinger against it, and Bailey and Tanner were recorded as present and 
not voting. The mayor thereupon declared the ordinance passed and 

"Councilman Bailey presented a protest against the action of the council 
and moved that the same be placed upon record. Upon this motion Bailey, 
Gretzinger and Tanner voted in the affirmative and Reynolds, Hughes and 
Tibbitts against it, and the vote being a tie, the mayor voted in the negative 
and declared the motion lost. A resolution was then introduced appointing 
James W. Maxey and William OTveefe councilmen from the new ward. 
Those who voted in favor of the resolution were Hughes, Reynolds and 
Tibbitts, those against it Bailey, Gretzinger and Tanner. The vote being 
a tie, the mayor voted in favor of it and declared it adopted. The new 
councilmen were thereupon sworn and entered upon the discharge of their 

At the first meeting in September Joseph Swindell entered upon his 
duties as mayor, and among his first acts was to refuse to recognize Messrs. 
Maxey and O'Keefe as members of the council, or allow the clerk to call 
their names on roll call. This resulted in the new councilmen bringing 
mandamus proceedings in the circuit court to compel the mayor to recognize 
them, which it did, but on appeal to the supreme court of the state, that 
court decided adversely to the claimants to represent the Fourth ward, on the 
ground that the ordinance under which they held their appointment had been 
passed contrary to the rules governing the introduction and passage of 
ordinances through the council of Plymouth, which it decided the council 
had no right to repeal in the manner in which they declared it done. This 
case created a good deal of ill feeling in the community at the time, but 
as the supreme court has settled it forever, and the three councilmen instru- 
mental in its passage are now all dead, it will only be remembered by our 
people as an episode in our local history. 

Street Lighting. 

For several }ears after Plymouth was legally chosen as the county 

seat there was no street lighting of any kind, and those who had occasion to 

go about at night had to feel their way, as there were no sidewalks and 

darkness prevailed everywhere, except when the fickle moon shed its pale 


and solemn light over the little town with unimproved dirt streets. In 
these days thelittle stores and shops were lighted with tallow candles, and 
lard and tallow lamps, until time to close for the night. Then but little 
business was done after sundown, and seldom 9 o'clock at night found 
many people out of bed. There were no street lights of any kind for more 
than twenty years after the place had grown sufficiently to be known as 
really and truly a town, and when the sun went down preparations were 
begun for the closing up of business for the day. After a while, glass 
standing and hanging lamps with cotton wicks and a burning fluid made of 
alcohol and other dangerous explosives, came into use, and proved to be a 
great improvement over the old system of lighting. Later still coal oil was 
discovered, and was brought to Plymouth for lighting purposes by H. B. 
Pershing, then in the drug business. He kept one of the lamps filled with 
coal oil burning in his store to show the superiority of this oil pumped out 
of the earth over all other lighting fluids that had previously been discov- 
ered. The writer remembers distinctly of his father procuring one of these 
lamps and a can of oil and taking it home with him and trying it as an 
experiment. It made a beautiful, clean light, far superior to anything the 
family had ever seen ; but for some time there was a feeling of insecurity 
pervading the household, that some day an explosion would take place that 
would knock things into smithereens. But the expected did not take place, 
and coal oil rapidly found its way into favor until its use became almost 

The use of coal oil having been fully established, the "town council 
determined to devise a way by which the streets could be lighted, and about 
1876 or 1877, some twelve or thirteen posts were put up at 
places where lights were needed the most, on top of which were 
fastened lamps that would hold about a quart of coal oil. These 
lamps were lighted by contract, Ezra Barnhill having the job the first two 
or three years. He sublet the work to John S. Harsh, who attended to the 
lamps about three years, when Dickson Thompson took the job ofif his 
hands and attended to it about three years, when he resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded by Jonathan Brown, who remained in charge of the "plant" until 
it was discontinued to give place to electricity. 

This old-time system of lamp-lighting the streets was the first eiTort 
in this direction Plymouth had had, and it seems exceeding strange that 
the streets of the town had been in darkness about forty years from the 
date of its organization before the edict had gone forth from the town 
board, "Let there be light," and "there was light !" The people of the town, 
"without regard to race, color, or previous condition of servitude," hailed 
with joy and gladness this new process of bringing them "from darkness 
to light." Of course it was better than no lighting at all, but as com- 
pared with the present splendid electric lighting system it would be consid- 
ered very little better than no light at all. 

In 1888, an electric light plant having been established in Plymouth, 
the city decided to enter into a contract with the company looking to the 
lighting of the principal streets with electric arc lights, and this was done 
without much delay. The streets are now lighted with about thirty arc 
lights, and with the electric signs, and lights in the plate glass windows 


on the business streets, it is as pleasant and easy getting about town in 
the night time as it is in dayhght. 

During the summer of 1907 a gas plant was established in Plymouth, the 
output of which is mostly used for cooking and heating purposes, but when 
added to the electric light, will add greatly in dispelling what little darkness 
there may be left. 

In 1888, after long and patient investigation, the city council deter- 
mined to put in a system of waterworks for use by the citizens of the town 
and especially for fire protection, and that year put in about 18,000 feet 
of pipe, built an engine house, put in the necessary engines and fixtures, 
etc., at a total cost of about $17,000. Since that time several thousand feet 
of pipe have been laid, so that almost every part of the city can easily 
be reached by the fire hose, and since the organization of the fire depart- 
ment to conform to the waterworks system, the fires that have occurred 
have been extinguished with very little loss, whereas those that occurred 
prior to that time were in every case disastrous, so that in every fire in the 
main business part of town since that time enough property has been saved 
in each fire to pay for the entire waterworks system, as is shown by the losses 
in the great fires of 1851, 1857, 1866, 1872, before the waterworks fire 
department was organized. 

The editor of the Plymouth Pilot in his issue of July 18, 1851, paid the 
following glowing tribute to the beauty of the town of Plymouth : 

"Plymouth was always a beautiful town. It never looked so beautiful 
to our e\es as at the present time. Just bathed in refreshing showers, she 
blooms like a garden of roses in the desert. Silvery voices ring upon the ear, 
and bright eyes peep through the damask custains of heat, white Bloomer 
palaces. Yellow river glides on its course, laughing merrily among the 
greenwood shades and inviting us to drink of its limpid waters ! We were 
not aware that Plymouth could gather so bright an array of celestial spirits. 
Many a sigh comes mourning over the green sward from the rosy bowers of 
Love and tears are falling for many a lost Adonis." 

Early Merchants and Landlords. 

For some time after the organization of the county, merchants and 
hotel keepers were required to procure a license from the board of commis- 
sioners. At the May term, 1837, the board fixed the rate of license for these 
and other occupations as follows : 

"Ordered that license for retailing spirituous liquors be taxed at $100 
for the present year. 

"License to vend wooden clocks, $100 per year. 

"Each traveling caravan, menagerie, or other collection of animals or 
show of wax figures, or circus exhibited to the people for money, $50 for 
each day. 

"That license to vend foreign merchandise and foreign and domestic 
groceries be taxed $5 for each $1,000, and $2.50 for each additional $1,000; 
provided that no license shall exceed $20 for one year." 

At the same term of court the following order was made : 

"Ordered that Pomeroy & Muncy, merchants, trading and doing busi- 
ness under the name, firm and style of Pomeroy & Muncv, be granted a 


license to vend foreign merchandise for the term of twelve months from 
this date for the sum of $io. Their capital does not exceed $i,ooo." 

At the same term licenses to vend merchandise were granted to Chester 
Rose, Evan B. Hobson, Wheeler & Gregory, Hobson & Cougle. Jeremiah 
Grover, William ]\L Dunham, Grove Pomeroy were licensed to keep tavern. 

The mercantile business was not very lively in those days. The whole 
county did not contain more than 600 people, not more than half of whom 
were residents of Plymouth and vicinity, and these were generally poor and 
had little use for dry goods and "foreign merchandise," and consequently 
many who engaged in the business failed to realize the profits they had 
anticipated and went out of business. All these old merchants and tavern 
keepers are long since dead — not one is left to tell the story of the pioneer 
days in the wilderness. 

Plymouth Fire Department. 

For a period of twenty-two years Plymouth was without any appliances 
to assist in extinguishing fires. The first efi^ort in that direction was the 
organization of what was called Protection Hook and Ladder Company 
No. I, which perfected its organization under the law by filing its constitu- 
tion in the clerk's office February 24, 1858, about half a century ago. The 
following were the original members as they appear on the constitution : 
Jacob B. N. Klinger, Daniel McDonald, Adam V'innedge, Stephen A. Francis, 
Henry B. Pershing, D. Lindsay, Thomas J. Patterson, Rufus j\L Brown, 
James E. Houghton, J. C. Leonard, L. D. Lamson, Julius Tacke, David 
How, Eli R. Shook, Henry Humrickhouser, John H. Beeber, Nathaniel B. 
Klinger, David Vinnedge, Samuel Freese, John S. Woodward, second, Meyer 
Becker, Adolph Meyers, Henry M. Logan, William W. Hill, S. Vinnedge, 
Matthew Boyd, John M. Shoemaker, George Anderson, Charles G. Tibbitts, 
John Noll, Henry Kuntz, Horatio B. Sellon, W'illiam M. Kendall, Henry 
Botset, Christopher Seitel, Charles Ebel, J. Alexander, M. La Pierre, Homer 
Sluyter, George H. Wilbur, Thomas K. Houghton, Amasa Johnson, John 
W. Patterson, Henry McFarlin, John W. Houghton, Jerry Blain, Daniel B. 
Armstrong, James L. Cleaveland, Joseph Lauer, Henry M. Hilligas, J. N. 
Freese, F. ]\"lullen, D. R. Davidson, William Babington, Michael Stoll and 
William C. Shirley. 

The first officers were : Jacob B. N. Klinger, foreman ; Stephen A. 
Francis, assistant foreman ; William C. Shirley, treasurer ; Daniel McDonald, 
secretary, and Eli R. Shook, steward. 

The formation of this company grew out of the great fire of 1857, 
March 22, which destroyed every business house on both sides of Michigan 
street, between La Porte and Garro streets, entailing a loss estimated at 
between $75,000 and $100,000, with little or no insurance. There was no 
firemen's organization here then, not even a bucket brigade, and no water 
if there had been, except such as could have been drawn from dug wells 
and from Yellow river, a considerable distance away. 

The constitution and by-laws are quite voluminous and contain about 
everything that could possibly be thought of in connection with the duties 
of members of the organization. The hour of meeting was fixed at 7 p. m., 
John ]\L Shoemaker's time being the criterion — he being the town watch- 
maker at that time. Evervthinq- went bv sun time then, which was. and is, 


about fifteen minutes slower than "standard time," which is now in universal 
use in this part of the countr_v, the change having been made some thirty 
years ago. There was a good deal of opposition to abandoning the good 
old-fashioned sun time, but the town clock was set forward to standard 
time, the town schools adopted it at once, the railroads followed suit, and 
it was not long until the business houses, the churches and the citizens gen- 
erally turned their timepieces forward, and everybody began doing business 
on "fast time." The telegraph office at the Pennsylvania station receives 
the exact time every day at 12 o'clock noon; in this way the town clock is 
regulated, as well as the clocks of the watchmakers and others. Each mem- 
ber was required to procure the following uniform : "A black glazed cap, a 
red woolen sack or wamus, with black velvet collar and cuffs, and a black 
leather belt." 

A two-story frame building for the use of the company was erected on 
the bank of the river on the south side of Adams street, the upper story being 
used for meeting purposes and the lower room for trucks, ladders, etc. 
Later the company moved into the Dawes wagon shop, located where John 
W. Parks now has his law office, on the south side of Garro street. 

April 10, 1859, the residence of David How, on the southwest corner 
of the public square, caught fire, and had it not been for the Hook and 
Ladder Company would have been totally destroyed. Speaking of the fire 
the editor of the Republican said : 

"The conduct of the members of Protection Hook and Ladder Company 
No. I, on this occasion, was honorable to them in the highest degree. No 
set of men could have done more efficient service with the same means. Our 
citizens will ever be proud of their firemen so long as they demean them- 
selves in this manner, and will doubtless on all suitable occasions manifest 
a material regard for them." 

With the organization of the old Hand Engine Company, and later the 
Hose Company, the Hook and Ladder Company necessarily had to take a 
back seat, but it was the first organization for the protection of property 
against the ravages of fire in our midst and is entitled to its due meed of 

As near as can be ascertained, the books having been destroyed, Adriatic 
Engine Company No. i and Torrent Hose Company No. i were organized 
in 1865. The first officers of the engine company were : Martin H. Rice, ; D. Emmit Simons, assistant foreman ; Sigmund Mayer, secretary ; 
John W. Palmer, treasurer. 

About that time the department was regularly organized and was com- 
posed of the following companies : Protection Hook and Ladder Company 
No. I ; Adriatic Engine Company No. i ; Torrent Hose Company No. i. 

The records having been destroyed, as stated, it is impossible to get 
any information in regard to the work of the fire department until about the 
first of the year 1876, when the present city building was erected and occu- 
pied by the fire department. From that time up to the present a record of 
all the doings of the department has been kept, from which it appears that 
the companies took possession of the new hall February 21, 1876, and dedi- 
cated it by a grand ball on the same night, which proved to be one of the 
best paying balls ever given in Plymouth, the net proceeds being $165. At 


the regular meeting of the fire department, February 22, 1876, the following 
resolution was unanimously adopted and ordered printed : 

"Resolved, That the members of the fire department of Plymouth take 
great pleasure in returning their sincere thanks to the citizens of Plymouth 
for their liberality in purchasing tickets to the firemen's dedication ball, and 
to the ^IcDonald Brothers, printers, especially, do the firemen feel grateful 
for their unparalleled liberality in donating all the printing for the occasion, 
amounting to $13, consisting of tickets, cards and programs, executed on 
the best of material and in a neat, artistic style." 

Since the organization of the fire department there have been but six 
chiefs, whose names are as follows: James ]\L Confer, Daniel B. Arm- 
strong, Andrew H. Korp, Adam V'innedge, James Moore and Fred H. 
Kuhn, the present incumbent, who has been elected ever}- year since his 
first election, the best endorsement he could possibly have that his work has 
been well and faithfully done. 

The City Hall and Engine House. 

The city hall was completed about the first of January, 1876, by Robert 
McCance and William P. Beaton, contractors, at a cost of $4,200. The 
construction of the building was under the immediate supervision of Alfred 
Morrison, Piatt McDonald and William D. Thompson, all at that time mem- 
bers of the city council. The building is 34 feet w-ide by 50 feet in length. 
The walls are 35 feet high, 18 inches thick to the second story and 12 inches 
from there to the top. The tower is 9 feet square and 59 feet high. The 
first story is in one large room, in which are kept the implements of the fire 
department. The upper story is divided into two rooms — one for the fire 
department and one for the meetings of the city council, and the use of the 
clerk and mayor. The building is one of the best of its kind in northern 
Indiana, and is large enough for the use of the city for many years to come. 

The Town of Bourbon. 

Bourbon township, in which the town of Bourbon is situated as the seat 
of justice, was regularly organized January 6, 1840. The petitioners for 
the organization of the township were James O., Gravson H., John F. and 
Edward R. Parks; Thomas R. McKey, Peter Ups'ell, W. H. RockJiill, 
Israel Beeber, William Taylor, John Greer, William Elder, John Henry, A. 
H. Buckman, Lyman Foote, Samuel Taylor, John F. Dukes, John Fuller, 
James Taylor, William Taylor, Jr., George Taylor and Samuel Rockhill. 

John Greer and John F. and Edwin R. Parks had, a year or so prior to 
the organization of the county, come to the region of where Bourbon now 
is from Bourbon county, Kentucky, and James O. Parks, as the spokesman 
for the others, suggested to the board of commissioners that the new town- 
ship be named Bourbon in honor of his native county in Kentucky, and it 
was accordingly so done. 

The town of Bourbon was not regularly laid out as a town until April 
23, 1853, thirteen years after the organization of the township, although 
prior to that time it had grown to be considerable of a village. Naturally 
enough the town of Bourbon took the name of the township and for the 
same reason. The original proprietors of the town were Samuel Thomas 
and J. S. Neidig. Since then the following additions have been made: 


Martin's first and second ; J. F. Park's addition and continued addition ; 
Linn's addition and continued addition ; Boley's first and second addition : 
Ball's addition ; Davis's addition ; Bailey's addition : Thayer's first, second 
and third and continued addition ; J. W. Thomas's addition ; Borton's addi- 
tion, and Staples's addition. 

In September, 1865, the town of Bourbon was incorporated under the 
state law authorizing the incorporation of towns and villages for municipal 
purposes. The first officers elected after the organization took place were 
as follows: Trustees, Elias Galentine, James H. Porter and Omar Davis; 
Caleb Davis, marshal; George Sears, clerk and treasurer; Lewis Gross, as- 

The first election held in Bourbon township was held at the house of 
Elizabeth Parks. This occurred in April, 1840. The town of Bourbon had 
no existence at that time, and for several years afterwards had but few 
houses. The writer remembers having passed through what is now the 
town of Bourbon in August, 1849, and his recollection is quite vivid to the 
effect that there was not what could be called a town there then. The whole 
country in that region, with few exceptions, was an unbroken wilderness, 
and to follow the road that led to Tippecanoe town, the place he was trying 
to find, without missing the way, required a close look-out for the blazes on 
the trees, the primitive" guide-boards as it were, that enabled the traveler to 
find his way. Notwithstanding these precautions, on his return in the dusk 
of the evening he lost his way, and some time during the night found him- 
self the guest of a pioneer who lived in a log cabin in the woods half way 
between what is now Bourbon and Tippecanoe town. 

Some thirty odd years ago a writer gave the following glowing descrip- 
tion of Bourbon: "The pleasant and beautiful little city of Bourbon is in 
the center border of Marshall county, in the midst of one of the finest, richest 
and most splendidly developed agricultural regions in the entire state. The 
vicinity of the city is beautiful and diversified by old and magnificent forests 
of the loftiest aiid largest timber of every variety ; the finest and cosiest 
country seats, nestled in secluded spots, surrounded by Nature's choicest 
beauties ; the largest and most productive fanns and horticultural planta- 
tions, the peaceful towns and sleepy villages, the schools and churches here 
and there, o'er hill and vale, all in the midst of health, and abundance of all 
that makes life desirable and enjoyable." 

The First College Student. 

The following order appears on the records of the board of commis- 
sioners of Marshall county at the March term, 1837, and that was the first 
order of that kind that had been made since the organization of the county : 

"Now, at this time, to-wit, on the seventh day of March, 1S37, here 
comes in open court James Parks and makes application for the privilege of 
sending a student to the Indiana college at Bloomington, to-wit: John F. 
Parks, which request is granted for the term of two years." 

James Parks was the father of the applicant and of James O. and the 
other Parkses named above. In a paper prepared by Sinclair D. Parks 
many years ago, he speaks of the death of James Parks as follows : 

'"the first death in the new settlement occurred on the twenty-eighth day 
of August, 1839, the deceased being James Parks, at the age of sixty-three 


years. He was buried in the first burying ground laid out in the township, 
which is now known as the Parks or Ganzhorn burying ground, two miles 
east of Bourbon. Considerable astonishment was manifested when it was 
rumored that a gravestone was to be shipped from New York and was to 
be erected at the head of his grave. It was the first gravestone ever brought 
to Marshall county." 

Destructive Fires. 

For several years Bourbon was without adequate fire protection, and 
during that period several destructive fires occurred, but a detailed record 
of them has not been kept. 

On the twelfth of January, 1854, the storeroom of W. E. Thompson 
was consumed, together with its entire contents, including his books. The 
estimated loss on building, goods, etc., was about $2,500, on which there 
was an insurance of $1,600. The adjoining room, occupied by Robert 
Cornwall as a drug store, was also consumed, but a portion of the contents 
was saved. 

January 20, 1854, the dwelling house of James Miner was burned; no 
insurance and nothing saved. 

The most destructive fire of which an account is given occurred October 
3, 1872. The second block north of the railroad, on the west side of Main 
street, was entirely destroyed, resulting in an estimated loss of $10,000 to 
$15,000. Those who suffered bv the fire were Lerov Manville, William 
Sear, A. M. Davis, D. Walmer,' Phil Matz, Thomas 'Banks, Matchette & 
France, W. C. & A. C. Matchette, H. A. Snepp, Mrs. Hess, A. W. Johnson, 
J. Oldfather, Dr. L. Johnson and Tyrrell & Chamberlain. 

January 15, 1878. the residence and ax handle factory of Peter Knisely 
was destroyed. The loss was estimated at $1,500. The house was one of 
the first erected in Bourbon. 

There were several other fires where the loss was considerable, but no 
details have been secured. Among them were the Heller and Galentine flour 
mills, the largest in northern Indiana, and the Odd Fellows building were 
destroyed in 1863; the church and the public school building in 1864; the 
Davis mills in 1865; the Sear block in 1873; the old College building in 
1884; the east side of I\Iain street, including the Ledas block, the IMatchette 
block, Brillhart, Bendell & Pickett block, and the Fort Wayne railroad 
passenger and freight station in 1885. 

For thirty years or more Bourbon has had an efficient fire department, 
which has been the means of saving from burning buildings and property 
worth many times its cost. 

Vigilant Hook and Ladder Company was organized July 5, 1875. The 
cost of apparatus complete was about $385. It started with twenty-five 
members. This company participated in a friendly contest at Warsaw 
during the fair of 1876; also in a friendly contest in Bremen in 1877 and 
July 4, 1877, won the second prize, $50, at the state tournament at Goshen. 
They ran 150 yards and sent a man over the top of a twenty- foot ladder in 
twenty-eight seconds. They also participated in the contest at Fort Wayne, 
July 6, 1880, running the same distance in twenty-four and one-fourth 
seconds, and winning the prize of $75. At that time this company had the 
reputation of being one of the best in the state. 


Red Eagle Engine Company was organized April 7, 1879, and had 
thirty members to start with. James Lilly was the first loreman. 

Red Eagle Hose Company was organized June 15, 1879, with fifteen 
members. T. J. Payne was the first foreman. 

The town authorities have since put in a system of waterworks with 
direct pressure which reduces the losses to the minimum. 

Secret and Benevolent Societies. 

Secret and benevolent societies are well represented in Bourbon. The 
Odd Fellows were the first to organize a lodge in this place, which was done 
in 1858. This was followed by the organization of Bourbon Lodge No. 
227, F. & A. M., in December, 1865. The Knights of Pythias organized 
a lodge in Bourbon in 1889 with thirty members and have since added 
largely to that number. The Improved Order of Red Men organized 
Pottawattomie Tribe No. 16 in 1868. It has continued from that time to 
the present and has a membership of about seventy-five. Attached to it is 
a lodge of the degree of Pocahontas for the benefit of the ladies of the 
male members. It is No. i and was the first organized in Indiana. There 
is also here an organization of the Daughters of Rebecca, and also a chapter 
of the Order of the Eastern Star, an appendant to the Masonic order. There 
is also here a post of the Grand Army of the Republic, whose membership 
is made up entirely of soldiers of the war of the Rebellion. 

Old Uncle Jo Davis, as he was called, father of the older Davises that 
were prominent in the early days of Bourbon's history, came to Bourbon in 
the early sixties, and among the first buildings he erected was a small 
round house that stood on the north side of the railroad near the then 
passenger and freight depot. It was a curious looking structure, and was 
the subject of many inquiries as to what it was used for. Uncle Jo had 
formerly lived in La Porte county, and with Charles W. Cathcart had been 
converted to Spiritualism, and he erected this building to be used for spir- 
itualistic meetings. For some time it was used for that purpose, but Mr. 
Davis, growing old and feeble, its use for that purpose was finally aban- 
doned. For two or three years it was used as a passenger station for the 
railroad, and telegraph and express office. After the railroad company 
vacated it, it went into a state of "innocuous desuetude" and has finally dis- 

Bourbon Cornet Band. 

In 1866, Web Truslow and Charles Jewel, amateur musicians then 
residing in Bourbon, succeeded in organizing the Bourbon Cornet Band, 
comprised of the following members in addition to themselves: Charles 
Rathburn, John W. Parks, Daniel Hartman, Daniel D. Haines, Jerome H. 
Chamberlain, William Johnson, Frank Johnson, and Henry Steinbach, leader. 
The instruments were purchased in Chicago at a cost of $150, of which 
$25 was contributed by the members, $49 donated by the citizens of Bourbon, 
and $76 borrowed from Caleb Davis, which was afterwards returned to 
him. In 1867 some changes took place, George N. Hupp and Gaylord 
brothers being admitted. Mr. Steinbach resigned his leadership in 1872 
and was succeeded by George N. Hupp, who continued as such for several 
years. During the presidential campaign of 1880 the band made $520. 


Owing to change of residence, etc., the organization was disbanded several 
years ago. 

Bourbon's Colleges. 

Along in the seventies the people of Bourbon began the agitation of the 

feasibility of establishing a college of learning in Bourbon, and it finally 

culminated in the adoption of the following agreement between citizens of 

Bourbon and the German Baptist Church of the northern district of Indiana : 

"State of Indiana, Marshall County, Bourbon, May 28, 1871. 

"Articles of Agreement made and entered into between Mathew Erwin, 
Howard Barnaby, A. C. Matchette, Newell Minard, David Wilkins and K. 
Heck-man, of the first part, and Jacob B. Shively, Jesse Calvert and Jacob 
Beiby, of the second part. 

"The party of the first part agrees to make a good and sufficient war- 
ranty deed, or cause the same to be made, of the college property in Bourbon, 
Marshall county, Indiana, to said party of the second part, subject to the 
following conditions, to-wit: That said college property is to be used 
perpetually for college purposes, after the order of Burber college in the 
state of Ohio, except the theological department, and if not so used by the 
party of the second part, revert back to the persons or legal representatives 
who' have subscribed, and to pay the sum of $2,500 in a ratable proportion 
to the amount paid by each person so subscribing. And the party of the 
first part agrees to pay the party of the second part the sum of $1,000 on or 
before the 25th day of May, 1871, the party of the second part to assign 
the above-named subscriptions to the party of the first part for their own 
use upon the conditions that the party of the first part make deed as afore- 
said and become responsible for the $1,000. 

"(Signed) M. Erwin, K. Heckman, H. Barnaby, N. E. Minard, A. C. 
Matchette, Citizens' Committee. 

"Jacob B. Shively, Jacob Beiby, Chairman of Committee." 

The college was incorporated under the laws of the state of Indiana 
in the name of "Salem College" on the 24th day of February, 1871, prior 
to the making of the above agreement. The objects for which said institu- 
tion was established were for the diffusing of useful, religious, moral and 
scientific knowledge, under the control of the German Baptist Church of the 
mother Baptist church of Indiana. 

The first president of the college was C. W. Miller, and the trustees 
were Jacob Shively, Jesse Calvert and David Shively. The amount of 
endowment designed to be reached was $100,000, and that they should 
connect with the college in land, buildings, donations and property to the 
value of $12,000. The work progressed for some time; scholarships were 
sold and the college was opened, and continued for a period of two or three 
years, when the organization became involved in litigation, finally dissolved 
and the property reverted to the original owners. The college was also 
known as the Dunkard College. 

In the years 1875 and 1876 J. A. Reubelt tried to re-establish the 
defunct institution, but failed. He was followed by President Yocum, who 
tried for two years more without success. This ended Salem College. The 
building was destroyed by fire in 1880 and the ground sold to the town of 
Bourbon, on which was erected the present public school building. 


In 1900 the Bourbon College and School of Music was started. Presi- 
dent Marshall labored for one year, followed by Prof. Bish, and then by 
Profs. Steele, Newel and Hahn. The life of the college was four years. 
The building is now vacant, save one room, which is used as a primary 
room for the south side Bourbon school. To erect this building shares 
of $100 each were sold to the amount of $10,000 to farmers and men in 
town who still own the stock. The stockholders have a board of directors, 
but they have nothing to do. 

Bourbon Town Schools. 

Bourbon's first public school building was erected in 1865 and 1866 in 
the south part of town, a short distance west of the residence of Joseph 
W. Davis, at a cost of about $4,000. It was a commodious building, two 
stories in height, comfortably seated and furnished, and generally well 
arranged for the purposes for which it was intended. Reason Shinnebarger 
was the first teacher who occupied the building after it was completed. 
He was followed by Mrs. Hoover, Messrs. Bock, Reefy, Chrouse, W. E. 
Bailey, Prof. Allen, Miss Lou Borton, Mr. James, Mr.- Greenawalt, and 
Byron McAlpine, who prepared the first course of instruction the school 
had ever had, in 1877. ^^r. McAlpine was connected as principal of the 
schools for a period of twelve or more years. Since his death occurred 
several years ago several have occupied the position, among them Mr. 
Reubelt, and the present superintendent. Prof. E. H. Rizer. Some twelve 
or more years ago the old school building was destroyed by fire, whereupon 
a new building was erected on the old Salem college grounds where the 
schools are now taught. 


Prior to the organization of Walnut township, where is now situated the 
town of Argos was in Green township. A meeting of those interested in 
the formation of a new township was held at the schoolhouse near Marquis 
L. Smith's tavern, then in Green township, May 21, 1859, ^or the purpose 
of selecting a name for the new township and recommending a suitable 
person to be appointed trustee. Merrill Williams was president of the meet- 
ing and Samuel B. Corbaley secretary. The names of Argos, Richland 
and Noble were proposed for the new township. Noble was withdrawn, and 
the vote resulted: Argos 13, Richland 8. For some reason not stated the 
commissioners ordered the township to be called Walnut. The names of 
John A. Rhodes and Charles Brown were proposed for trustee. The vote 
resulted: Rhodes 18, Brown 4. Merrill Williams, John A. Rhodes and 
N. E. Manville were appointed a committee to attend to the necessary busi- 
ness before the board of commissioners. The township was organized Jan- 
uary 9, 1859. Immediately after the organization of the township the fol- 
lowing petition was presented to the board : 

Whereas, The town plats of Fremont and Sidney lie very near each other; and 

Whereas, The postofEee of those two places is named Argos; and 

Whereas, We, the undersigned citizens and petitioners, believing that so many 

names are and will continue to be against the interest of citizens of said places, we 

therefore petition your honorable board to change the names of the above-named towns 

ever pray. 

John A. Rhodes, 
M. E. Eichards, 
N. Siple, 
Joseph Rhodes, 
William WorthLn 
Martin Bueher, 


N. E. Manville, 
Joseph Lissinger, 
W. Nichols, 
John Whitacre, 
J. G. Bryant, 
Thomas King, 


and consolidate them into one name, namely, Argos, and thus in duty bound we -nill 

J. W. Harris, 
G. W. Gordon, 
John Tribbey, 
J. A. Haig, 
Joseph Finney, 
J. J. Hough. 

The petition was granted and the consoHdated towns were ordered to 
be known as "Argos." Argos was the name of a city in Greece made 
famous in the Iliad of Homer. This ancient city, according to history, is 
long since in ruins. Her thirty temples, her costly sepulchers, her gym- 
nasiums, and her numerous and magnificent monuments and statues have 
disappeared, and the only traces of her former greatness are some remains 
of her Cyclopean walls, and a ruined theater cut in the rock and of mag- 
nificent proportions. The modern Argos, built on the ruins of the ancient 
city, is nothing more than a straggling village. The plain of the ancient 
Argos is said to be one of the most beautiful to be found. On every side, 
except toward the sea, it is bounded by mountains, and the contrast between 
these mountains and the plain and the sea is strikingly beautiful. The Argus 
spelled with a "u" was the name of a fabulous being of antiquity, said 
to have a hundred eyes, and placed by Juno to guard lo, and hence orig- 
inated the term, "argus-eyed." 

The town of Sidney, of which Argos is the successor, was laid out by 
John Pleak and Marquis L. Smith, January 8, 1851. It was named in honor 
of Sidney Williams, who settled there probably as early as 1835. Mr. Will- 
iams was a prominent citizen and took an active part in the early organiza- 
tion of the county. He served as the first associate judge of the circuit 
court, from 1836 to 1843. He took the "gold fever" and went to California 
in the early fifties, and later returned east and settled in Illinois, where he 
lost the sight of his eyes, and finally died. The town of Sidney was sur- 
veyed and platted by Amasa W. Reed, county surveyor, and contained sixty 

Fremont, adjoining Sidney, was. laid out by Joseph H. Rhodes, Novem- 
ber 6, 1856, and contained twenty-six lots. It was named in honor of Col. 
John C. Fremont, who was on that day voted for as the Republican candi- 
date for president. As he was beaten in his race for president, it was an 
easy matter to get the board of commissioners to change the name to Argos. 
The town of Argos was incorporated under the state law in December, 
1869. The first election was held December 4, 1869, and resulted in the 
election of the following officers : Trustees, Joseph F. Norton, Jonathan 
Pickerel and J. S. Leland ; marshal, James Pickerel ; clerk, George W. 
Krouse ; treasurer, A. Seely ; assessor, W. R. Cook. 

The Marshall County Medical Society was organized at Argos May 13, 
1878, with the following charter members : Drs. Samuel W. Gould, Reason 
B. Eaton, J. H. Wilson, J. S. Leland, F. Stevens and J. T. Doke. The 
objects of the society were stated to be for the purpose of advancing medical 
knowledge and to elevate professional character. 

The cornerstone of the public school building erected in the town of 
Argos was laid under the auspices of the fraternities of Masons, Odd Fel- 
lows and Improved Order of Red IMen, on the sixteenth day of August, 


1873. After the ceremonies of laying the stone, addresses were deHvered by 
Rev. J. L. Boyd, Methodist minister of Plymouth ; Hon. M. A. O. Packard, 
of Plymouth ; P. S. Hoffman, of Richmond, and Prof. M. B. Hopkins, state 
superintendent of public instruction. After the close of the services an ex- 
cellent dinner was served by the ladies of the place, and the occasion was 
one in every way enjoyable. The building is of brick, forty by sixty feet, 
and two stories high, well finished and furnished with the latest improved 
furniture and fixtures. 

Abel C. Hickman, whose death occurred in Argos June 11, 1877, waS 
at the time of his death probably the oldest settler in the county, although 
that honor was disputed by Robert Schroeder, then living in North town- 
ship, who claimed to have settled in the county before Mr. Hickman. From 
his obituary notice the following is taken as being of historical importance : 
He was born in Harrison county, Virginia, September i, 1805. He chose 
the profession of a farmer, emigrated to Indiana in 1832 and settled on the 
Michigan road two miles south of Argos, as the lands belonging to the road 
were the only lands in market. This was four years prior to the organiza- 
tion of the county. As soon as the government lands were surveyed in 
1835 he moved off west of the road and settled on the farm now owned by 
Adam Bixel. Thus he was the first actual settler on state lands after the 
survey in the neighborhood. Three years after, in 1838, the first society for 
religious worship was organized at Mr. Hickman's house by the Rev. Mr. 
Owens, of the Methodist Episcopal church. Thus was Methodism intro- 
duced into Marshall county. His house continued a regular place of wor- 
ship for several years. In 1844 the first house of worship erected in the 
county was built on his farm. In 1875 he took up his residence in Argos 
and engaged in the drug business. As a man he was positive to a fault and 
was a good neighbor. He had been watching the developments of Mar- 
shall county for forty-five years, and with great satisfaction he saw the 
forest give way to the beautiful fields, and the solitude of the wilderness 
broken by the bustle of busy homes. He saw the population of the county 
increase 160 times. In the midst of prosperity, surrounded by friends, like 
a ripe sheaf he was gathered by the harvesters of eternity. 

The Argos Public Schools. 

The Argos public schools have ever been dear to the people of the town. 
Even while Argos was yet a small village, the "little red schoolhouse," 
which, in point of fact, happened to be the natural color of the weather- 
boards, put in its appearance. 

Specific facts relating to this early period are scarce and have but slight 
serial relation. Only a few tangled threads of the warp and woof of the 
history then made now remain, and these are found only in the memories 
of some of the older citizens. These lead hack to the year 1847, when the 
first schoolhouse was built in Argos by Walnut township, on what is now 
the southwest corner of the old cemetery. The land upon which this house 
was built was purchased of Merrill Williams. As showing something of 
the progressive and up-to-date spirit of the people who founded the little 
village, it may be stated that this pioneer schoolhouse supported a bell, a 
thing almost unknown to district houses until a much later period. Among 


the teachers who taught in this first one-room house were Peter D. Lowe, 
Malinda Brown and Wesley Blodgett. 

The second schoolhouse, built also by the township in the early seventies, 
was located on West Cemetery street, where now stands the residence of 
i\lr. Ralph Schlosser. This house, too, was a one-room frame, but, unlike 
the first, it was painted white. It had a double front entrance, similar, in 
this respect, to many country and village churches. In fact, it was used as 
a church by the Christian denomination, which, some years later, when the 
growth of the town made it necessary to build a larger house for school 
purposes, purchased it and devoted it to church use exclusively. 

Of the number of people who taught in this house, the writer of this 

article can name only Mattie Beame, Franks, A. C. North and W. J. 

Benner. Before the next house was built it became necessary to provide 
temporarily for an overflow of pupils, and accordingly Mrs. W. J. Benner 
taught a part of the school in the building on North Michigan street now 
occupied as a residence by Isaiah Hess. These were the days of the "Old 
Masters," men and women, who wielded the birch and, along with very 
valuable lessons in spellin', readin', 'ritin' and 'rithmetic, taught the more 
valuable lessons of honor, honesty, industry, obedience to law, and, without 
any fuss about it. "civic righteousness" in general. 

The third schoolhouse was built in 1873. It was located on Cemetery 
street, between Maple street and Michigan avenue. A presumably correct 
writer has described this house as follows: 

"The school then built was almost square. It had a shingle roof, on 
top of which a belfry, consisting of four posts with cross-pieces, was perched. 
In this hung a common country dinner-bell, destined to call pupils together 
for many years. Across the front of the building, which faced Maple street, 
was a large hall with a cloak-room at each end and a stairway occupying 
the central portion. The house contained six not very large rooms. Each 
of these was heated by a stove, lighted by a few small windows and fur- 
nished with double seats." 

At the time this building was erected Dr. L. L. Barr, Harvey Athinson 
and William Worthington were trustees. The cost of the building is esti- 
mated at $8,000. In the nineteen years of its existence the following named 
teachers are remembered as having served as principals : W. E. Ashcraft, 
L. Q. Martin, E. A. Powles, M. L. Teeples and M. L. Smith. Among the 
grade teachers were A. A. Homes, Goucher, A. C. North, Belle Rich- 
ards, Nora Littleton, Lida Gordon, Mrs. Geo. D. Stevens, Geo. D. Stevens, 
Maggie Campbell, Jacob Martin, J. B. Weimer, J. D. Quivey, Etta Harris, 
S. N. Stevens, Louisa Humphrey, Mrs. L. Alleman, N. E. Barr, Esther 
Foster, R. C. O'Blennis, A. E. Wickizer and Anna Cathcart. 

When the school was established in the new building, but three teachers 
were employed; later, three were added. In 1883, under the supervision of 
W. E. Ashcraft, the school was regraded and a three-years' high school 
course was provided. In 1886, the first class was graduated. It was com- 
posed of Ola Wheatfield, nee Gordon ; Minnie Bose, nee Norris ; Flora Huff, 
Ella Ashcraft, nee Boggs ; Fannie White, nee Bucher. While the school 
remained in this building, or at least before it passed into the next, twenty- 
seven other pupils were graduated. On March 16, 1892, this house was 
destroyed by fire. The schools were in session when the fire broke out, but 


owing to the fact that a systematic fire-drill had been established in the 
several rooms, there was no trouble in marching the pupils out of the 
building unhurt. During the remainder of the school year and all of the 
next the churches of the town gave their auditoriums for school use, and 
thus the schools were maintained until the next building was completed. 

The fourth schoolhouse rapidly arose, Phcenix-like, out of the ashes of 
the former one. More ground was procured adjoining the old site, and the 
present commodious nine-room building, standing in the center of as beauti- 
ful a campus as can be found in the state, was erected. Built on a beautiful 
and substantial foundation of boulder granite and constructed by skillful 
workmen out of the best material obtainable, this elegant edifice promises to 
give acceptable service until the end of the present century. To Dr. D. C. 
Knott, A. T. Slayter and B. C. Schoonover were due the conception, be- 
ginning, completion and location of the building. They built for the future 
rather than for the then immediate necessity, and the growth of the town 
and school has approved their judgment. After the lapse of only fourteen 
years, the necessity of additional room for the near future is plainly ap- 
parent. Since 1893, in addition to the gentlemen just named, Leonard Bock, 
Lsaac Reed, M. L. Corey, Noah Leland, together with the present board, 
Jonathan Pickerel, J. J. Thompson and A. T. Slayter, have served as 

The superintendents have been W. B. Swearingen, 1893; E. C. Peter- 
son, 1895; L. O. Martin, 1896; Otis A. Hoskinson, 1900: C. L. Hottell, 1905. 
The school was commissioned in 1904 to certify its graduates for admission 
to Indiana University, Purdue University and to the State Normal School. 

The present four-years' course of study is in accord with the pedagogy 
of the day, and from the primary room to the high school, inclusive of both, 
the teaching is of high order. The more advanced classes have access to a 
well-selected library and a good working laboratory. Argos high school 
takes just pride in the fact that it has furnished to the county many 
successful teachers, to the colleges and universities of the state many good 
students, and to society many worthy young men and young women, who 
are performing well the duties of life. Her alumni roster contains 162 
names, but these show only a small part of the work she has done. Many 
hundred young people, who, for various reasons, were unable to complete 
the prescribed course of study, have entered her classes and have been in a 
large measure prepared for good citizenship. 


German township, until it was regularly organized in 1838, was a part 
of North township. Some South Bend parties had purchased land in that 
part of North township, believing that in the course of time a town would 
be built in that section of the county. Having this object in view, Lathrop 
M. Taylor and Henry Augustine, of South Bend, located a town plat 
abovit three miles east of the present town of Bremen to which they gave 
the name of Clayton. Its form was a diagonal cut up into gorgeous streets 
and avenues. But when German township was organized by cutting it off 
from the east end of North township, the center of gravity was too far east. 
and the project of building a town there was abandoned. 

The town of Bremen, the present seat of justice of German township, 


was platted an'd laid out by George Beiler October 21, 1851. The original 
plat contained forty-eight" lots. Since then the following additions have 
been made to the original plat: Deitrick's ; Heim's; Ringle's ;• Bauer's, first 
and second; Foltz's continued; Mast's; L. R. Martin's; D. Ringle's; 
Koontz's ; Vanner's, and J. P. Huff's. The town was organized under the 
law authorizing the incorporation of towns, at the March term, 1871, of 
the board of commissioners. It was divided into six districts. The officers 
first elected were: Lewis Theobold, clerk and treasurer; David Guyer, 
marshal; Chris. Seiler, assessor; John Heckaman, Charles Lehr, Chris. 
Hans, John Koontz, Jacob Walter and Chris. Schilt, trustees. In 1872 the 
town was redistricted and the number of trustees reduced to three. The 
officers for that year were: John Heckaman, clerk and treasurer; Robert 
Montgomery, marshal ; Chris. Seller, Jr., assessor. 

The town of Bremen was first called Neiv Bremen, the name being 
given by George Pomeroy and Joseph Guiselman, who thought the name 
appropriate, as it was of German origin and a large portion of the early 
settlers were a German-speaking people. But it was not long until the 
"New" was omitted, and it soon became known as "Bremen" in "German" 
township, which indicated the nationality of the people. The first settlement 
in Bremen was made about 1836, and between that date and 1848 settlement 
was made by several families, among whom were Hardzog, Heim, Weis, 
Beyler, Koontz, Yockey, Ringle, and others who pre-empted government 
lands in the vicinity and here in the wilderness established their home and 
began the rugged toil of pioneers. Other families soon came in, and it was 
not long until a village was formed. In 1846 a postoffice was established 
and named Brothersville, in honor of David Brothers, the first postmaster, 
and on whose premises the office was held by him two years. In 1848 
George Pomeroy and John Bush bought of J\Ir. Brothers one acre of land. 
Mr. Bush took the east half and on it built a log cabin, where for two years 
he resided and followed the cooper's trade, and then sold his possessions to 
John Parker, a Quaker by faith and a shoemaker by trade, and thus it 
happened that Mr. Parker became the first shoemaker of the new village of 
Bremen. He was succeeded by Philip Kenager, who from that time until 
the date of his death in the nineties occupied the old log cabin and worked at 
his trade. George Pomeroy erected upon his half-acre a crude frame in 
which he kept the first store, consisting of a miscellaneous stock of notions, 
dry goods, groceries, etc., and here he held the postoffice, which had been 
changed from Brothersville to Bremen. Mr. Pomeroy was the first notary 
public of the town. In 1848 Joseph Geiselman purchased a lot where is now 
located the dry goods establishment of John R. Deitrich & Co., on which he 
built a log blacksmith shop, the first in Bremen, and where he followed his 
trade several years. In 1850 he erected the first frame building in the new 
town. In 1 85 1 Gotleib Amacher built a log cabin and opened the first tailor 
shop. Ben Shane had built a log cabin which John Soice, coming from Stark 
county, Ohio, in the early fifties, purchased and converted into the first 
harness shop. 

Bremen has an excellent fire department, which was organized Sep- 
tember 8, 1874, at which time there were issued bonds of $2,100 for the 
purpose of purchasing the necessary apparatus and the erection of suitable 
buildings. In the beginning there were eighty-five members of the depart- 


ment, divided into four divisions : An engine compan)-, a hook and ladder 
company, and two hose companies. Hoosier Hook and Ladder Company 
No. I was organized June 5, 1874, and participated in the firemen's tourna- 
ment at Bourbon in September, 1877, taking first prize, running 300 yards, 
stacking ladder and putting man over top in thirty-four and a half seconds. 
September 6, 1877, the engine and hose companies attended the firemen's 
tournament at Goshen, Indiana, where they made the best time, running 
100 yards, laying fifty feet of hose, and throwing water fifty feet in thirty- 
four and one-fourth seconds, receiving the first prize, amounting to $80. 
Hose Company No. 4, in September, 1885, at a tournament at Michigan 
City, won. first prize, receiving $100 and a water service. In August, 
1887, at Plymouth, they received $50 and the championship of Indiana. 
Union Engine Company No. i in 1882 won the state championship as an 
engine company; and it was in 1885, at South Bend, that Ed. Hickeman 
and Theo. Walter, as couplers from the Bremen department, won the 
world's championship in that particular line of firemen's duties. 

Among the most prominent citizens that resided in Bremen in the 
early days was Jacob Knoblock, who was born in Alsace, Germany, in 
1803. He emigrated to America in 1823, settling in Ohio, and moved from 
there to Bremen in 1850. He was a stone and brick mason and plasterer by 
trade, and in 1865 built a hotel in Bremen, which he kept until his death, 
in 1869. He was a zealous member of the Masonic fraternity, and was a 
member of and the first senior deacon of Plymouth Lodge No. 149, which 
was organized in 1853. Many times during his life he had been known to 
ride horseback from his farm east of Bremen to Plymouth to attend the 
meetings of the lodge. Being a stone mason, he cut the headstone that 
marks his last resting place in the Bremen cemetery, and on it he carved 
the square and compasses, the emblems of the Masonic order, to which he 
belonged. He was a worthy and well-respected citizen ; in politics a staunch 
democrat, and held in life several positions of honor and trust in the 

Bremen had an excellent cornet band organized in 1861, Peter Vogli 
leader. It was reorganized in 1866 with Mr. Vogli still retained as leader. 
The members became very skillful on their instruments and the band was 
at one time the best in the county. 

Union Town — Marmont — Culver. 

The present town of Culver has had considerable of a struggle in its 
original survey and in keeping the names that have been given it from time 
to time. Union Town was originally laid out and platted by Bayless L. 
Dickson, who owned a farm bordering on the lake, a part of which 
embraced the territory now covered by the town of Culver. This was on 
the 8th of June, 1844. The following is a copy of the statement made and 
the certificate attached to the original plat of Union Town : 

Union Town is pleasantly situated in the southwest quarter of section 16, town 
32, range 1 east. It is laid out in such a manner that it presents to the eye a view of 
Lake Maxinkuekee, and is surrounded with as good a countiy as can be found in 
northern Indiana. It has the advantage of three state and two county roads running 
through it. The streets are all 66 feet in width and the alleys are 161/2, feet. 

Bayless L. Dickson, Proprietor. 

Witness: G. S. Cleaveland, John L. Westervelt. 
Union Town, June 8, 1844. 


In 1857 Thomas K. Houghton became the owner of the town, and on 
the 9th daV of June. 1857, filed the following certificate attached to what 
purported to be an amended plat of Union Town : 

"Union Town is situated in the southeast corner of section 16, town 32, 
north range i east, Marshall count)-, Indiana. The southeast of said section 
is the commencing point of this town plat; the streets are all of a width, 
being 66 feet; the alleys are i6>4 feet; the lots are 66 feet in front and 99 
feet back ; so planned by the original survey. All lines running north and 
south bare no degrees and ten seconds east, and those that run east and 
west bare south eighty-nine degrees east. The magnetic variation at this 
date is 5° 10' east. I, J. B. N. KHnger, Surveyor of Marshall County, 
certify the above to be correct." 

Prior to this date, to-wit: May 6, 1857, Thomas K. Houghton appeared 
before M. W. Smith, a justice of the peace in Plymouth, and acknowledged 
that the above survey locating and laying off said town of Union Tovvn 
was done by his order and direction for the purpose of locating a town by 
that name and as therein specified by the surveyor thereof. That said 
survey and plat is intended to supply the place of the old survey made by 
Henry B. Pershing, that being inaccurate. 

On the 20th of March, 1890, the following affidavit was filed for record 
in the recorder's office: 

"I, J. B. N. Klinger, ex-surveyor in and for Marshall county, state of 
Indiana, swear that, upon the request of Thomas K. Houghton, then 
owner and proprietor of the town of Union Town, in said county, he em- 
ployed me as surveyor of said county, April 24, 185 1, to resurvey and plat 
said Union Town. In setting out the location I made a clerical error, locating 
it in the southeast corner of section 16, township 32, north, range i east, 
when it should read southwest corner of said section No. 16, township 32, 
north range i east, and the same was part of record, the error being over- 
looked, and further deponent sayeth not." 

February 13, 1884, Peter Allerding filed what he called the "Vandalia 
Addition to said Union Town." The addition is in the west half of the 
south forty acres of section 16, 32, I, except Thomas K. Houghton's cor- 
rected addition ; also except three acres known as Bowles lot, and three 
acres immediately south of the same. Said addition being divided into 
24 lots, and numbered from i to 24 inclusive ; also 5 outlots and numbered 
from I to 5 inclusive. The length and breadth of said lots being indicated 
by figures on said plat; also the width of all the streets and alleys. 

On the 5th day of August, 1886, Albert D. Toner made an addition 
to the Vandalia addition, said addition being laid out of lots Nos. 3, 4 and 5 
of school subdivision of Section 16, 32, i, commencing at the northwest 
corner of said lot No. 3 ; said additions being divided as shown on plat in 
13 lots and numbered from i to 13 inclusive; and also eleven outlots, 
numbered from i to 1 1 inclusive. The length and breadth of said lots being 
indicated by figures on said plat ; also the width of all streets and alleys are 
so indicated, except from this plat outlots 2, 7, 8, 10 and 11. 

Marmont — The name of Union Town was changed to Marmont when 
a resurvey was made in 1851. Dr. G. A. Durr was a resident of Union 
Town at that time. He was of French descent and succeeded in having the 
name changed to ^Marmont in honor of a French general of that name. 


It was many years after the village took the name of Marmont before it 
was incorporated under the law as a town. The first election was held under 
the corporation July 5, 1894; the election board being composed of J. H. 
Koontz, D. G. Walter and E. M. Scates. The following was the result of 
the election : 

Trustees: S. E. Medburn, Marcus F. Mosher and John W. Souder; 
clerk, Fred L. Carl; treasurer, Henry M. Speyer ; marshal, John F. 
Crumley. Crumley did not qualify, and the board appointed Ozias Duddle- 
son, who did not furnish bond. The board then appointed Nathaniel Gandy, 
who qualified and served. On October 4, 1895, the board of commissioners 
changed the name from Marmont to Culver City, on petition of O. A. Rea 
and ninety-nine others, being a majority of the qualified electors of said 
Culver City. 

The first election after the name was changed to Culver City was held 
May 6, 1896, resulted as follows : Trustees : J. H. Castleman, E. W. 
Guiselman, F. B. Harris, of whom Mr. Harris was subsequently chosen 
president of the board ; clerk, Charles Zekiel ; treasurer, Henry Speyer ; 
marshal, Nathaniel Gandy. The proposition to change the name of Mar- 
mont to Culver City met with the unanimous approval of the citizens of the 
town ; but when the matter was presented to the postoffice department at 
Washington it declined to change the name of the postoflice to Culver City 
for the reason there was already a postoffice in Indiana by the name of 
Culver, a village by that name in Tippecanoe county on the line of the Big 
Four railroad, and for the further reason the word "City" had been elimi- 
nated from all towns bearing that annex to the regular name. Henry H. 
Culver, after whom the town had been named, went to the village of Culver 
in Tippecanoe county and at once entered into negotiations with the authori- 
ties of the town of Culver to change the name so that the name of Culver 
in Marshall county could be recognized by the postoflice department and 
thus secure the naming of the postoffice. Culver, the same as the town. 
In the prosecution of his negotiations Mr. Culver found that the town of 
Culver in Tippecanoe county had been named in honor of a man by the 
name of Crane Culver, and the citizens were much opposed to making any 
change. Mr. Henry H. Culver was one of those sort of men that never 
gave up any laudable undertaking, and having for his motto, "Where there 
is a will there is a way," he concluded to use a little financial diplomacy 
and proposed to pay the town authorities all expenses of the change for 
the name of Culver, and suggested that they could honor the name of the 
Culver for whom the town had been named by giving it Mr. Culver's first 
name — -"Crane." These suggestions were agreed upon and the contract 
fully carried out. The papers were properly made out and forwarded to 
the postoffice department at Washington, which recognized the name of 
Crane instead of Culver, and changed the name of Marmont to Culver, 
omitting the word "city," and so Marmont and Culver City became Culver, 
and will probably so remain for all time to come. 

The government census of 1900 gave the population of Culver at 505. 
A census taken January i, 1908, by the editor of the Culver Citizen shows 
the population to be at that date 661. 


Culver Fire Department. 

The Culver fire department was organized January 22, 1903, in accord- 
ance with a resolution of the town board. The charter members were: 
O. M. Byrd, Ed Zekiel, Charles Medburn, F. W. Cook, Al Mawhorter, 
Walter Byrd, Will Cook, M. H. Foss, G. W. Smith, Thomas E. Slattery, 
Arthur Morris, T. O. Saine and J. R. Saine. 

First Officers : Chief, T. O. Saine ; assistant chief, Arthur Morris ; 
secretary, J. R. Saine ; treasurer, Thomas E. Slattery. T. O. Saine held the 
position of chief until he resigned August 9, 1906, when O. A. Gandy was 
elected to fill the vacancy, and was reelected January 10, 1907. March 16, 
1905, the company purchased a building, where it has a permanent home. 

At the time of its organization the company had no equipment save a 
few rubber buckets and three ladders purchased by the town, which were 
so heavy it required the combined efforts of a dozen men to erect them. 
With the installation of waterworks in the fall of 1907 a hose cart and hose 
was provided and the company had some real practice in the art of fire- 
fighting, developing a degree of proficiency surprising in view of their 
unfamiliarity with fire apparatus. In November, 1907, through the gen- 
erosity of Chief Fred H. Kuhn, of the Plymouth fire department, the 
company was presented with a hook and ladder truck, which has been 
thoroughly overhauled and repaired and proves to be ideal for their 

Antiquarian and Historical Society. 

The following notice appeared in the Marshall County Republican of 
February 15, 1858, and indicates that the people of that part of the county, 
even at that early day, were alive to the importance of preserving for future 
generations the early history of the county : 

"Notice — ist. That a meeting will be held at the schoolhouse in Union 
Town on the evening of March 4, 1858, to take into consideration the pro- 
priety of forming a society to be known as the 'Antiquarian and Historical 
Society,' for the purpose of collecting as many of the circumstances and 
incidents relative to the settlement of this region of country from the first 
settlement to the present time, that it may be read by posterity, which we 
believe will be of great interest. 

Union Town, February 15, 1858." 

Who the movers in the matter were, or whether the organization was 
effected, nothing can be ascertained. Bayless L. Dickson, who was the 
founder of Union Town, and one of the earliest settlers in that region, was 
probably the head of it. Isaac N. Morris, who was something of a historian 
and a great reader, and who lived near by, was undoubtedly one of those 
who were interested in preserving the history of that locality, but these 
early pioneers and many others who resided th'ere then have passed away, 
leaving no record to perpetuate the history they helped to make. 

Exchange Bank of Culver. 

Mr. S. C. Shilling is the president of the bank and William Osborn 

cashier. When Mr. Shilling took charge of the bank in 1901 the deposits 

were $18,000, the loans $11,000, and the number of open accounts 100. At 

the present time the deposits are $50,000, the loans $40,000 and the open 


accounts between 250 and 300. The bank recently purchased an ehgible 
corner lot in the center of the town, on which it erected and is now settled 
in a permanent home amid surroundings luxurious enough to place it in the 
front rank with similar institutions anywhere in the northern part of the 
state. The building is the finest in the town of Culver, and in addition to 
the bank, it houses that other leading business factor, the postoffice, besides 
giving space to the Masonic lodge on the second floor, and also three pro- 
fessional men. Not only the owners of the bank are proud of the institu- 
tion, but the community at large are equally gratified that they have in 
their midst so important a factor in the building up of the business of their 
fast-growing town. 


The village of Walnut is situated in Walnut township, about four 
miles south of Argos on the Lake Erie & Western railroad. It was laid out 
and platted by Frederick Stair April 16, 1866, and contained eighty-three 
lots. It was named Fredericksburg, in honor of the proprietor, and that is 
still the legal name of the village. When the railroad was completed 
through that place in 1868, two years after it had been organized, the 
railroad changed the name of the village to Walnut, after Walnut township, 
and by that name it has been known ever since. In the early years of its 
organization it was given the nickname of "Possum Trot," because of the 
number of opossums that were found in that section of the county. Mr. 
Stair was an early settler and one of the prominent men of the county. He 
was a congenial gentleman, a man of more than ordinary ability, and acted 
well his part in whatever he had to do. He died in the nineties respected 
by all who knew him. 


This place was platted and laid out by Isaac P. Shively September 6, 
iS54|t It is situated on the south side of the southeast quarter of the 
northwest quarter of section_4, town 33, range 4 east, on the Plymouth and 
Warsaw state road, about five miles northeast of Bourbon. It did not grow 
as a town as was expected, and a few years later Jacob Pritch and Adam 
Moneysmith purchased timber land there, erected a saw-mill in the later 
fifties and after the completion of the railroad through Bourbon in 1856, 
furnishing them an outlet for their lumber, they carried on an extensive 
business, and with the families connected with the mills the little village for 
a time had quite a boom. For some years there was quite a settlement 
there, and both political parties during exciting campaigns always held 
one or more meetings in that place during the year. But with the sawing 
up of the timber into lumber, the village disappeared, and now it is only the 
center of one of the best farming regions in the county. 


This village is situated about five miles northeast of the county seat, 
in' the southeastern part of North township. The proprietors were Simon 
Stough, M. J. Link and E. J. Mosholder. It was laid out June 9, 1866, and 
contains twelve lots. It is a neighborhood village, conveniently situated 


as to the various parts of the township, and the county seat, as well as on 
the main road to Bremen and Lake of the Woods. 

Was situated five miles north of Plymouth on the Michigan road. In 
an early day Silas Higby erected a building and opened a tavern, and 
called his place Fairmount. It was too close to Plymouth for a tavern to 
do much business, and as there was nothing there to attract people it soon 
disappeared and is now a thing of the past. 


This is the name of a place situated in West township at the outlet of 
Twin lakes, where was situated the first grist-mill built in the county 
about the time it was organized in 1836 by Timothy Barber; and also the 
old iron forge, a description of which will be found elsewhere in this 
history. It had stores and shops and other conveniences of a neighborhood 
village, but it did not have sufficient business attractions to make it grow to 
be a town of any size. It is in the center of a good community of farmers, 
and will always probably remain about as it is at present. 

At the time of the organization of the county this place was known as 
"Onondaga." It had a postoffice of that name, and there was a mail route 
from Plymouth to that point until it was discontinued a few years later. 
It probably got its name from Onondaga county. New York, from which 
place the original proprietors came. 

Wolf Creek. 

This was the name of a place on the creek of that name about five miles 
southwest of Plymouth. A dam was made across the creek and a water 
sawmill erected prior to 1840, and about that time a grist-mill was built. 
Clark Bliven was the original proprietor and during high water a few years 
later was carried over the dam and was drowned. He had named the place 
"Bermingham" for some reason unknown, as is shown in a petition for a 
road filed with the board of commissioners from Samuel D. Taber's on the 
Alichigan road west to Bemiingham across Wolf creek and then west three 
or four miles to Mis-sin-ne-co-quah on Yellow river, etc. Missinnecoqnali 
was a Pottawattomie Indian chieftainess to whom in one of the treaties 
was assigned a section or two of land. When the whites first settled in that 
part of the county she was very old — well on toward one hundred years 
old. She went with those who were driven away in 1838 and was never 
heard of afterwards. 


This village, situated seven miles east of Plymouth on the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad, was, before the railroad was built, called Pearsonville in 
honor of Ezra G. Pearson, who platted and laid out the town December 
29, 1854. Mr. Pearson had located there and built a sawmill. At that place 
and for miles all around it was even difficult for men used to the "thick 
woods" to get through it in places. When the railroad was built through 
that place two years later, the company, looking for a shorter name than 


"Pearsonville," and finding themselves "in the woods," the name of Inwood 
easily suggested itself and from that day to this it has been called Inwood. 

For many years, until the timber was mostly cut otif, it was a fine 
lumber region, and those who purchased land for the timber alone made 
enough out of the timber to pay for both the timber and land and had the 
land left, and much of it is now among the best farming land in the county. 
The following additions have been made to the original plat: Pierson's 
first and second; A. W. Hendrick's ; Croup & Core's first and second; 
Frederickson's, and Lee & Dickinson's. 

This village has a two-story brick schoolhouse, in which is taught a 
graded school. The Methodists have a church building here; there is a 
telegraph office, an express office, and stores and shops of various kinds 
where such articles as the inhabitants need can be purchased. 


Tyner (it was originally called Tyner City), the seat of justice of Polk 
township, was laid ofi" and platted June i8, 1855, by Jacob H. Miller, 
Maynard French and Thomas Tyner. It took its name from the last named 
proprietor. It is located in the west half of section 10, town 34, range i 
east, on the Lake Erie & Western railroad, at that time known as the 
Plymouth & La Porte railroad, about seven miles northwest of Plymouth. 
It is laid off into twelve blocks 315 feet square, including alleys, each lot 
containing twelve lots each 50 by 100 feet. The streets are named Race, 
Vine, Main, Walnut, May, Miller French, Allen and Boyce. The four 
first were named after streets in Cincinnati, where some of the proprietors 
at one time resided, and the remainder were named in honor of railroad 
men who were engaged in building the new railroad which was completed 
the following year, 1856. 

Tyner was incorporated under the state laws for this purpose. A feud 
had sprung up between the people of the town and those who resided 
outside of its limits. It was carried to such an extent that no resident of 
the village could be elected to a township office, and as it was desirable to 
have a justice of the peace a resident of the town, the only way to ac- 
complish it was to organize under a corporation government, tlie law 
providing that where there was such a form of government one of the 
justices should reside within the limits of the corporation. The organization 
had the desired effect. A justice who resided in town was elected and in 
course of time the warring elements having subsided, and there being no 
apparent necessity for a town government, an election was called to vote 
upon the proposition to disband the organization. 

The result of the election is embodied in the following certificate filed in 
the clerk's office : 

I, George E. Leroy, lio hereby certify that at an election held in the town of 
Tyner City on the 29th day of November, 1879, for the purpose of dissolving the 
incorporation, the whole number of votes cast were 33, and that the number of voters 
in the town are 47, and that there were 22 votes cast to dissolve and 11 cast to maintain 
the incorporation. 

George E. Lerot, President. 

Washikgton Wilson, Clerk. 

The incorporation was accordingly dissolved. The people of the town 
were law-abiding and had very little need of a corporation government, and 


during the thirty years that have elapsed since then they have maintained 
order among themselves without being required to pay the expenses of a 
town organization. 

Thomas Tyner, the founder of Tyner City, and from whom it took its 
name, died in that place on the i8th of October, 1880. He was born in 
Kentucky in 1800. He was a worthy and highly respected citizen, and 
during his long life filled many important* positions of trust and honor, 
always in a satisfactory manner to all parties concerned. In the earlier 
portion of his manhood he assisted in moving the archives of the state from 
Corydon to Indianapolis, after the capitol was established there. He was 
one of the old landmarks, not only in Marshall county, but of the state, 
and was well acquainted with many of the prominent citizens of Indiana. 
He was generous, kind and charitable, almost to a fault, and was honored 
and esteemed while living, and died sincerely regretted by all who knew 

Huckleberry jNIarsh. 

A good many years ago there was a huckleberry marsh two or three 
miles west of Tyner which attained considerable notoriety as a frontier 
village, with all that the name implies, during the huckleberry season. 
Hundreds of people from far and near located there during the time of 
gathering berries, giving it more the appearance of a mining camp than 
a temporary village for peaceful pursuits. Huckleberries were gathered 
there by the carload, and the products in favorable seasons were a source 
of considerable revenue to those who engaged in the business. Buyers 
were there every afternoon and evening to buy the day's pickings and the 
road between Tyner and the huckleberry marsh, with the wagons coming 
and going, had the appearance of a Fourth of July procession. The village 
was laid out in systematic order, and the tents and temporary shanties were 
built so as to leave plenty of room for streets and alleys. When the season 
was at its height amusements of every description and kind known to 
temporary places of that kind were indulged in by most of the inhabitants, 
and hundreds of visitors who gathered there out of curiosity, and to see 
what they could see. If one was thirsty and wanted a little "something 
for the stomach's sake," he could find it at the "Alhambra," which could 
be found on a convenient corner in the center of the village. If he wanted 
to indulge in a game of "old sledge" or the more interesting game of 
"poker," the appliances were at hand, and besides these there was roulette 
and all kinds of games of chance ; and it was a rule of the inhabitants of 
the village who conducted that part of it, when a visitor arrived to "take 
him in." And there was a large dancing hall where the "Arkansaw 
Traveler" made music and 

They danced all night till broad daylight. 
And went home with the girls in the morning. 

A great many good citizens of the county went there and camped 
during the season that took no part in the frivolities there indulged in. 
Very little disturbance occurred there. The inhabitants agreed that all would 
unite in maintaining peace and good order, and having all the fun in a 
legitimate way they could get out of it during their short stay. The campers 
united in appointing watchmen who patrolled the village during the night, 


and during the years it flourished no disturbance of any serious nature 
ever occurred. During the past dozen years the drainage of the marshes 
and the fires that have swept over them have destroyed the huckleberry 
bushes to such an extent that there are not enough berries grown there to 
justify the continuance of the village. 

The following is the description of the location of Teegarden, as filed by 
Eli Taylor and Calvin J. Wright, the proprietors, November i8, 1873: 
"Teegarden is located in the southwest corner of the southeast quarter of 
section 23, township 35, north of range i east, in Marshall county, Indiana. 
The south line of said town is the section line, and the west line is the 
center line of said section 23 ; there is fifteen feet left on the north side of 
the section line for half of a street ; also twenty feet on the east side of 
the center section line for half a street, and forty feet on the south of the 
right of way, of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad for a street, called Wright 
street. The south line of Taylor street commenced on the center section 
line — fifty feet north of the center of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, and 
runs east at right angles to the north and south center section line of said 
section 23," etc. The plat contains thirty-three lots, and they are 100 feet 
wide by 144 feet in length. The streets are 60, and the alleys 20 feet wide. 
The Baltimore & Ohio railroad runs through the southern portion of the 
original town. On the 20th day of June, 1874, Lewis Lemert laid out and 
caused to be platted and recorded an addition to Teegarden, joining the 
original plat on the west. The addition comprises fifteen lots of the same 
size as those in the original town. There are two good dry goods, grocery 
and notion stores, a saw-mill, a tile manufactory, coal kiln, blacksmith shop, 
etc. The town is surrounded by a good farming country that is being 
improved by drainage. 


This was a town on paper, located on the La Porte road, twelve miles 
from Plymouth and eighteen miles from La Porte. It was elegantly laid 
out in the shape of a cross. There were twelve blocks, each containing 
twelve lots. It was laid out May 23, 1837, by G. A. Cone. At a time it 
was considered to be an eligible location for the building of a town, being 
about half-way between Plymouth and La Porte. But some way it failed 
to attract any settlers within its limits, and, except the record in the 
recorder's office, from which the foregoing information is derived, nothing 
remains to mark its untimely demise. 


Blissville was a place near the west line of the township, on the 
La Porte road, that attained some celebrity in the early days. It was 
owned and managed by Justice T. F. Stevens, an old gentleman of com- 
manding presence, who supplied the weary traveler that passed that way 
with all the necessaries, comforts and conveniences of life. Upon the com- 
pletion of the I., P. & C. R. R. in 1856, the current of trade centered at 
Tyner, and Air. Stevens found his occupation gone. He has since died. 


La Paz. 

This town was located on section 5, Michigan road lands, six miles 
north of Plymouth, and was laid out and platted by Achilles Hunt, August 
5, 1873. and contained 121 lots. Three years later J\Ir. Hunt was killed 
by the kick of a horse he had been leading to water. 

September 23, 1875, Edson Spencer laid out an addition to the town 
called Spencer's Addition to La Paz, containing eighteen lots which are 
40x120 feet. The streets are forty and the alleys fourteen feet wide. 

December 27, 1881, Moses Thayer laid oif an addition to La Paz con- 
taining thirty-five lots, besides blocks 2, 4 and 5, that were not subdivided. 
The sheets are forty feet wide. This addition is called "Moses Thayer's 
addition to La Paz." On June 10, 1884, Mr. Thayer made another addition, 
containing eleven lots and lying west of his first addition. 

April I, 1885, Leonard Logan and Gideon Logan laid out "Logan's 
addition to La Paz," which contains sixty-four lots of varied length and 
breadth. The addition lies in the southeast part of the town. 

East La Paz. • 
East La Paz is about three-fourths of a mile east of the original 
La Paz at the junction of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad and the Logans- 
port & Terre Haute railroad, and is described as follows by Walter 
Kimble, the proprietor, his plat being filed for record February 14, 1855 : 
"East La Paz is situated in .southeast quarter of northeast quarter of 
section twenty-eight (28), township thirty-five (35) north, range two (2) 
east, at the crossing of the Baltimore & Ohio & Vandalia railroad, is 
bounded on the east by Vandalia railroad, on the south, west and north 
by the boundary line of said southeast quarter of the northeast quarter." 

Burr Oak. 

On the 15th day of December, 1882, the following description of the 
situation of Burr Oak, together with the plat thereof, was filed in the 
office of the recorder of Marshall county : 

"Burr Oak station is situated on the east line of the northwest quarter 
of section 4, township 32, north of range i east, commencing 1,255 ^^^^ 
south of the north quarter-section corner of section 4, township 32, north 
of range i east, the north line of the right of way of the New York, Oii- 
cago & St. Louis railroad; thence north with the center section line 517 
feet, thence west at right angles with center section line 332 feet, thence 
south with the center section line 422 feet, thence east parallel with north 
line 302 feet, thence south 93 feet to north line of right of way of said 
railroad, thence southeastwardly with said line 30 feet to place of beginning. 
^Tovember i, 1882. Michael Bur.n'S. Proprietor." 

The above named plat contains eighteen lots, numbered from i to 18 
consecutively. The streets are fifty feet, the alleys twelve feet wide, and the 
lots are forty feet wide bv 120 feet in length. 

On the '8th day of October, 1885, Franklin Overmyer filed the plat of 
Overmyer's addition to Burr Oak station, properly described and acknowl- 
edged. This addition lies immediately east of the original plat of Burr 
Oak station and contains lots from i to 8 inclusive, the lots being the 


same size as those in the original plat. This village is nearly in the center 
of what is known as the "Burr Oak Flats," which is as beautiful and 
productive a region as can be found anywhere. 

A short distance south and west of Burr Oak station were in the 
early days several mounds which were supposed to have been the work 
of the Mound Builders. Excavations were made into them at different 
times by different persons to see if anything could be found in them that 
would enable the prospectors to determine what they were built for. In one 
or two of them what appeared to be human bones were found, which indi- 
cated that they might have been used by the Indians for burial places, 
although this was not the usual Indian mode of burial. Those who have 
studied the history of the Mound Builders are inclined to the belief that 
these mounds were the work of these dwellers in the ground as they made 
their way from the frozen north to the tropical regions of the sunny south. 

The village of Maxinkuckee is situated half a mile east of Maxinkuckee 
lake, from which it derives its name. From this village on the high bluff 
on which it is built is obtained the finest view of the beautiful lake anywhere 
around the twelve miles of its charming shore line. It has never been 
regularly platted and laid out as a town. It has two streets. The one 
that divides the place, running east and west, is called Lake street, and 
the one running north and south is called Washington street. On the 
north side of Lake street, about half-way from the village to the lake, 
was the wigwam of the good Indian chief Neeswaugee, about opposite 
the residence of Peter Spangler. The street should have been called 
"Nees-wau-gee avenue," to perpetuate the memory of the first owner of 
all the land east and north of the street. The village contains a store, 
blacksmith shop, a church, a lodge of Odd Fellows, and contains a 
population of perhaps 150. For many years it had a postoffice, but 
with the coming of the rural free delivery system it was discontinued 
and the people now receive their mail by free deliver}'. 

North S.-vlem. 
North Salem, according to the plat, consisted of twelve lots laid out 
in the year 185 1 by Barrack Plummer, Basil Roberts and A. G. 
Pumphrey. It was situated some distance southwest of Inwood. Shortly 
after it was platted a very large and elegant church building for those 
days was built, but a few years later it caught fire and was consumed 
and has not since been rebuilt. There being no prospect that a town 
would ever be built there, the plat has been vacated. 


The original plat of Donelson was laid out 25, 1871, by 
D. W. Taft, Cornelius Tuttle and W. J. Richardson. It is located in the 
corners of sections 29, 30, 31 and 32, township 34, north of range i east, 
on the line of the Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago railroad, and is one 
mile east of the Starke county line. It contains twenty-two lots, their size 
being 66 feet wide by 132 feet in length. On the 14th day of September, 
1875, D. W'. Taft laid out "Taft's addition to the town of Donelson," con- 


taining twentv-oiie lots of the same size as the lots in the original plat and 
lyin^ north and west of the original town, and on the 14th day of Sep- 
tember, 1875, Cornelius Tuttle laid off "Tuttle's addition to Donelson," 
comprising twenty-two lots, being of the same size as the original lots. 
It is a quiet little village and probably will always remain so, as most of the 
farm products raised "in its vicinity are marketed elsewhere. It has two 
stores, a drug store, a grain elevator, a blacksmith shop, one doctor, a good 
schoolhouse, church and all the conveniences and evidences of civilization 
common to villages of its size. 

Robert J. Evans ("Jons" Evans, as he is familiarly called), who lives 
near Donelson, is the oldest settler in West township, having settled there 
in 1835, the year before the county was organized, and has lived there 
almost continually ever since. The Pottawattomie Indians were numerous 
there when he came. Of them he says : "Their relations with the settlers 
were of the friendliest character." 

TiPPEc-^NGE Town. 

The original proprietors of this town were Joseph Hall, Daniel C. 
Martin and Joseph Serls. It was platted and surveyed December 12, 1850. 
It is located on the Tippecanoe river, in Tippecanoe township, in section 18, 
town 32, range 4 east, and contains thirty lots. For thirty years this place 
was the only town in Tippecanoe township and during that time it became 
quite a business center for that part of the country. Tippecanoe river, 
which meanders through this township, entering it on the eastern, boundary 
about the center, passing through Tippecanoe Town and veering ofif to the 
south, furnished an excellent waterpower at Tippecanoe Town for milling 
purposes. An excellent flouring mill was erected by N. B. and P. S. 
Alleman, who operated it for many years. During the war of the Rebellion 
they also erected a woolen factory close by the mill, which they also 
operated until 1878, when they sold it to J. F. Van Valkenburg, of 
Plymouth. On the night of October 25, 1878, the woolen mills were fired 
by' an incendiary, and before assistance could reach them were entirely 
destroyed. An attempt was made to set fire to the grist mill the same 
night, but a watchman being in the mill, the attempt was unsuccessful. 
Detectives were put upon the track of the "fire fiends" and in course of time 
a young man in the neighborhood was arrested on suspicion of having 
committed the deed. He was incarcerated in the county jail and soon 
after gave intimation of an intention to confess his guilt and turn state's 
evidence against other parties who he said were implicated. Before the 
meeting of the grand jury, however, he succeeded in making his escape 
from the jail. He concealed himself for some time, but finally concluded to 
return and confess that he fired the property, describing minutely how the 
act was accomplished. He also implicated a large number of old and 
respectable citizens of the neighborhood as being particcps criininis in the 
transaction. He alleged that the object sought to be attained was the 
removal of the mill dam, which it was averred overflowed a large section 
of country, produced stagnant water, causing malaria, resulting in sickness 
and death. He stated that meetings of those in the neighborhood affected 
by the dam had been held at various times, at which the question was 
discussed as to the most expeditious and safest way to get rid of what 


they termed an "intolerable nuisance." According to his statement it was 
finally determined that if the mills were out of the way the dam would soon 
follow. He was selected, he stated, to do the work, the others agreeing to 
save him from arrest and punishment. Several of the parties implicated 
were jointly indicted with him, and after many vexatious delays the cases 
came on for trial. As to all the parties but one a nollc-proscqui was entered, 
and the case went to trial as to the remaining party, mainly on the evidence 
of the party who had confessed that he had been guilty of the burning. 
The trial lasted several days, creating much excitement and ill-feeling among 
neighbors and parties interested, and finally resulted in the jury failing to 
agree. The case was then transferred to another county on a change of 
venue, but the party implicated left the country and has not been heard of 
since, and so the case never came to trial again. 

Tippecanoe Town Station. 
The Nickel Plate railroad having been completed through this township 
from east to west, a town was laid out on the line of that road about three- 
quarters of a mile south of Tippecanoe Town by W. W. Burkett, John 
Kramer, John T. Hardesty, Elizaljeth Lewallen and E. J. Martindale, Feb- 
ruary 8, 1882. It contained sixty-two lots, and on the first of November, 
1882, Kramer, Hardesty and Lewallen laid out an addition, the lots number- 
ing from 62 to 90 inclusive. The town was called "Tippecanoe Town 
Station." At the December term, 1886, of the board of commissioners on 
the petition of G. W. Roberts and others the name of Tippecanoe Town 
Station was changed to Ilion, by which name it was known until the summer 
of 1905 or 1906, when "Tippecanoe" was substituted for Ilion, and by that 
name it is now recognized by the railroad and also the postofifice depart- 
ment. The old Tippecanoe Town, with the coming of the railroad and the 
building up of a station there, lost all its vitality and the halo of the business 
glory that formerly hovered over it is a thing of the past. Sic trmisit 
gloria initndi! 


The first real emigration to Marshall county began in the early spring 
of 1836. Many of those who came early, following the customs of the 
Indians, built temporary domiciles of poles and bark, similar to wigwams, 
into which they moved their household effects, and lived after a fashion, 
until log cabins of more pretentious designs could be erected. 

In a discussion on the subject a number of years ago between two of 
the "oldest inhabitants," it was quite satisfactorily settled that the first log 
cabin built in the county was erected by Abel C. Hickman on the Michigan 
road, two and a half miles south of Argos. It was built of rough, unhewn 
logs, covered with clapboards, had an outside chimney made of sticks and 
"daubed" with mud. 

It wasn't a very palatial residence, but it was fitted and furnished so as 
to keep out the wet and cold, and was considerable of an improvement over 
the Indian wigwams in the neighborhood. 

At that time the Michigan road was not passable. The contractors had 


only coinmeiiced opening the road and only in patches could it be traveled 
over, and there was little or no travel in either direction here at that time. 
Mr. Hickman cleared off a small patch of ground near his cabin, on which 
he raised vegetables in sufficient quantities to supply the wants of his little 

There wasn't a great deal of comfort living there at that time. For 
weeks at a time no human being would be seen. Wild animals of almost 
every kind were numerous, and it was no trick at all for Mr. Hickman to 
take his trusty rifle down out of the pegs from over the door and kill a 
deer, turkey or other animal in an hour or two sufficient to supply food for 
days at a time. 

At night, from the time the sun went down over the treetops until it 
came up again in the morning, the wolves made the night hideous with their 
barking and yelping. When morning came they secreted themselves in 
their dens and hiding places, and during daytime seldom was one seen. In 
that region and for a few miles northwest all along down Wolf creek, which 
took its rise not far from here in Tippecanoe township, wolves were as thick 
as fleas on a dog's back. It passes through a portion of Walnut and Green 
townships and empties into Yellow river near the northeast corner of Union 
township. It is skirted for some distance with broken lowlands, marshes, 
cat swamps, etc., and was a safe and sure retreat for wild animals of all 
kinds. Black wolves were numerous from one end of the creek to the other, 
and from this fact it took its name. The Indians called it Mack-kah-tah- 
mo-may, the Indian name for black wolf. 

In 1835, when the lands were made subject to entry, Mr. Hickman 
secured a piece of land and moved off west of the road to the farm owned 
by Adam Bixel. Here he erected another log cabin of a more pretentious 
order of architecture, taking the trouble to hew the logs and otherwise adorn 
it in more modern style. 

Here, according to the best authority, the first society for religious 
worship was organized by an itinerant preacher of the Methodist Episcopal 
church by the name of Owens. Here the society continued to meet for 
several years, until 1844: it is stated by the same authority, a house of wor- 
ship, or a "meeting house," as it was called, was built on this farm, being 
the first building exclusively for church purposes erected in the county. 

During the year 1835-6 there was quite an addition to the population. 
The first thing the newcomer had to do was to select and enter a piece of 
land, decide on a building location, and without unnecessary delay erect a 
cabin in which to live. There was no lumber or brick here at that time, 
and the only material out of which these dwellings could be built was logs 
chopped from the trees. Axes, adzes, cross-cut saws, hatchets, augers and 
drawing knives were the implements used in their construction. In the 
earlier cabins such articles as nails, door hinges and ironlatches or window 
glass were not known. Everything was made out of wood. 

He who had decided to build a cabin ground his ax, went to the woods 
and, having selected trees of the proper size, proceeded to chop them down. 
He measured off the length of the logs according to the size the house was 
to be, and cut an equal number for the sides and ends. Of course, a yoke 
of oxen was necessary to haul the logs in place, and men enough to assist 
in raising them into the building, so the neighbors were invited, and one of 


them brought along Broad and Berry, and in a few hours a cabin in the 
wilderness had been erected. The rafters on which the roof was to be 
placed were made of small poles fastened to the top logs and the gable 
center rafter by means of wooden pins driven into holes bored with an 
auger. The roof was of clapboards. These were generally "rived" out of 
red oak logs sawed the proper length with a cross-cut saw. A maul and 
wedge were used to split it into small blocks, after which a "froe" and 
mallet properl\- applied by the "horny-handed son of toil" produced a fair 
substitute for shingles that came into use later. These clapboards were 
fastened on by binding them down with heavy poles laid on them along the 
ends where they were joined together. 

Four or five feet in length of as many logs at one end were cut out 
for a fireplace, which was walled up outside with niggerhead stone and 
plastered over with mud. The chimney built of small sticks was continued 
a foot or two above the top of the house. At one side a door was cut out, in 
tiie same way, and a door made out of hewn poplar timber, fastened to- 
gether with oak pins was hung on wooden pegs with rawhid'e straps. The 
latch was of wood which was fastened in the inside in a slot. A leather 
string attached to the latch on the inside hung through a hole on the outside. 
To unlatch the door from without all that was necessary was to pull the 
string, the latch would be raised out of its socket, and the door swung open. 
Locks had not reached this part of the countr)- at that time. There was no 
need of them, anyhow. There were no housebreakers then, probably because 
there wasn't anything in the houses worth carrying off. 

A window was cut out near the door, and, prior to the advent of glass, 
greased paper or white muslin served to admit all the light that was deemed 
necessary. The floor was made of pvmcheons hewn out of small poplar logs. 
As a general thing they were a little rough, but they served to keep the 
pioneer feet off of the ground. There were no brussels carpets in the mar- 
ket then, and so a split broom made out of a small hickory sapling and some 
soft soap and water vigorously applied served to keep it reasonably clean. 

The furniture was scanty and was of the most primitive kind. Bed- 
steads, tables, stands, benches, chairs, shelves, etc., were made by hand 
"on the spot," by the man of the house. Bed clothing, cooking utensils 
and dishes had mostly been brought with the emigrants. In cafee of a young 
married couple, the parents of the bride and groom usually set them up in 
housekeeping by dividing with them their household goods. 

A few years later, after the boys and girls grew up, and the "courting" 
had been gone through with and the marriage ceremony had been performed, 
the young people moved into and began housekeeping in apartments very 
similar to the one above described. 

The household furniture and equipments, except such as the pioneers 
had brought with them, were primitive and rude in the extreme. The 
following is one among many plans for constructing beds which was 
common in those days : "Holes were bored in a log of the wall at the proper 
height from the floor, and into these sticks were driven horizontally, the 
other ends being supported by upright stakes or posts. Upon the framework 
thus provided was woven a bottom of withes or bark or deerskin thongs, 
which formed a support for the bedding. Privacy was sometimes secured 


by making the outer supporting posts high enough to be furnished with a 
conceaHng curtain. 

Hooks on which to liang clothes or other articles were fashioned from 
the forked or crooked branches of trees, and forked sticks with the addition 
of pins inserted in the longer arm made pothooks which were caught over 
a pole or crosstree that was fixed in the fireplace a safe distance above the 
fire, the pots being hung on the pins. An improvement on these was the 
"trammel hook," formed of a f^at bar of iron hooked at one end, while at 
the other an adjustable hook could be raised or lowered as desired and 
seaired by means of an iron pin inserted in the holes that were drilled 
along the bar. With the advent of brick chimneys came swinging cranes 
of iron. These set in iron eyes imbedded in the masonry, could be turned 
freely, the long arm carrying the pots out over the hearth when desired. 

The common cooking utensils were first of all the rotund, bulbous iron 
pot constructed with a flare at the top so the lid would sit in safely. And 
then there was the iron oven for baking pone, not forgetting tlie long- 
handled frying pan. The baking oven was a vessel of perhaps three or 
four inches deep set on legs and provided with an iron lid turned up around 
the edge. In it the thick loaf of corn bread was baked by setting it on a 
bed of coals with more coals piled upon the lid. Many who read this will 
call to mind the long thin slices of corn pone, heavy and clammy, and the 
bowl of sweet milk which was frequently all one had for the "frugal meal." 

In this same iron kettle was also stirred up and cooked the pot of corn- 
meal mush, which with the fresh milk from the family cow was made to 
satisfy the evening repast. 

The "jonnycake" board was also one of the most important cooking 
utensils belonging to the kitchen department of the old log cabin. It was 
usually made out of an oak clapboard, the sides dressed smooth with a 
drawing knife and the ends rounded. Cornmeal was made into dough and 
spread on one side of the board and smoothed along the sides and ends. It 
was then set up before the log fire close enough so the heat would gradually 
bake but not burn it. It was allowed to remain there until it was browned 
and cooked through. Sometimes it was turned over and both sides browned. 
When eaten warm with nice fresh butter and sweet milk it was a dish that 
a king might relish. 

As time wore on other devices were invented, among which the "re- 
flector" oven was considered among the greatest. This utensil consisted of 
a light iron frame, two or three feet in length, mounted upon short legs, to 
hold the baking and roasting pans. To the back part of this frame a flaring 
top was attached by hinges, so that it might be turned back when the cooking 
needed attention. The sides were also enclosed. This flaring top and sides, 
made of bright tin, presented a large opening toward the open fire which 
was supplemented by a bed of live coals drawn out upon the hearth and from 
the hood, sides and back of tin the heat was reflected down upon the cook- 
ing. It served its purpose well, and surely no better light biscuits, bread, 
cakes or pies have ever been eaten anywhere than those our mothers used 
to bake in the old "reflectors" upon the hearth of the old log cabin. 

When the cook stove made its way into the early homes of the pioneers 
it was hailed with delight by a majority of the housewives because it af- 
forded such great relief to their faces, hands and arms, that had been so 


continually blistered by the great open fires, but some adhered to the fireplace, 
the old utensils and the old cooking methods as long as they lived. 

A good many of the more prosperous families used what was called the 
"Dutch ovens." These were made of small boulders or bricks and mortar, 
or else of tough clay, wrought and beaten into shape and burned by slow 
fires built within. They were usually set upon wooden platforms away from 
the house by reason of danger from fire, and were protected by a shed. They 
were principally used in the summertime. In appearance they were rounded 
domes, not unlike the old-fashioned beehive. The fire was built in them 
and then raked out, and the baking set upon the floor, the body of the oven 
retaining enough heat to do the cooking. 

The woodenware of the household was often made by the pioneer him- 
self. Trays, large and small, were made from the soft poplar, buckeye and 
basswood, and these took the place of most of the present-day tin and 
crockery ware. The churn was sometimes a mere trough and paddle. 

The hominy pestle was a solid beech or maple stump with a bowl-shaped 
cavity burned in the top to hold the grain while being pounded, and a similar 
stump cut as smooth as possible made the chopping block for meat. The 
rude trough hollowed out from a short log split in half, that was used to 
catch sap from the sugar trees, is still a familiar relic from the olden time. 

"For drinking and dipping vessels," it has been well said, "the common 
article was the gourd — one of the most adaptable and convenient gifts of 
nature to man. In an age when manufactured conveniences were hard to get 
the gourd was a boon, and in every cabin home it played a conspicuous part. 
Of many sizes and shapes, it served, when properly scraped out and cleaned, 
a variety of purposes. It hung as a dipper beside the spring or the well 
with its long sweep, and in the same capacity it was a companion to the 
cider barrel and whisky jug ; it was used at the table, at the lye kettle or at 
the sugar camp, for soup, soap or sap ; a large one properly halved made a 
wash pan or a milk pan, or, cut with an opening, it became a receptacle for 
the storing of divers things ; a small one was used by the grandmother to 
darn the family socks over ; the boy used one to carry his bait in when he 
went fishing, and the baby used another for a rattle. A veritable treasure 
was the gourd, and it should be celebrated in song." 

There were various curious articles used in the pioneer homes that are 
now quite obsolete. Among these we find metal warming pans which, 
filled with live embers, were used to warm the sheets of a cold night : lanterns 
of perforated tin ; tinder boxes with their contents of flint, steel, little powder 
horns and "punk" from rotten logs used to start the fires; candle molds 
with balls of cotton wicking; long tin horns and conch shells to call the men 
to dinner, and many other conveniences now considered quaint and sought 
for relics. 

One important piece of pioneer furniture, if so it might be called, 
unknown to the modern house, was the loom, which in the days of home- 
made fabrics was almost indispensable. The space this ponderous machine 
occupied in the small cabin made it a serious incumbrance, and hence a period 
would be devoted to the family weaving, after which the loom could be taken 
apart and stowed awav, unless, as sometimes happened, one had a separate 
loom room. The excellence of the work done upon these rude, homemade 
implements is a matter of wonder now, as one examines preserved specimens. 


Not only have those blankets, jeans and various cloths a surpassing dura- 
bility, but some fabrics, such as coverlets and curtains, exhibit a remarkable 
artistic taste and skill, both in the dyeing of the yarns and the weaving of 
complicated figures. 

Complimentary to the loom were the spinning wheels — a big one for 
the wool and the familiar little one for the flax. The skillful use of these 
was a part of the education of every girl and some of the boys, and in the 
ears of many an old man and woman the resonant hum of it still lingers as 
the sweet music of a day that is past. 


In connection with household duties there were things to do that would 
not now be considered in keeping with the way we manage our home affairs 

A great deal of the clothing worn by the heads of families and the 
children was manufactured by and under the supervision of the wife and 
mother. Almost every family owned a few sheep, and the wool, after it 
had been sheared in the spring, was thoroughly washed and dried, and 
picked and carded, and woven, and the cloth cut and made up into garments 
for the various members of the family by the good wife and mother. It 
was a long, tedious, laborious road from the wool on the sheep's back to the 
completion of the "homespun" garment on the person of the wearer. At 
that time the "the tariff on wool" had not begun to cut any figure, and it did 
not matter whether there was a high protective tariff on wool or not, as 
there was no wool imported into the western country at that time, and nobody 
had any use for imported wool anyhow. All the wool was used at home, 
and it was many years after the first settlement before there was a surplus to 
dispose of. 

The fleece of wool was sorted, the fine from the coarse, and carded by 
means of hand cards made of short bent wire thickly fastened into leather, 
which was in turn fastened to a small board about 3 by 4>4 inches thick, to 
which were fastened handles. Two of these cards were used. A small 
amount of wool was placed on one of the cards, and then the carder would 
hold one in his left hand and pull with the other in his right hand until the 
wool had been thoroughly torn to pieces, when it was made into a small 
roll, say, about half or three-quarters of an inch in diameter and five or six 
inches in length. 

Carding was hard work, but after one got used to it, it became easier, 
and in time many became experts and could "roll" off a considerable quantity 
in the course of a day. 

But spinning was the most difficult operation of all. The old spinning 
wheel was an absolutely indispensable piece of furniture in every well- 
regulated cabin. They were of two kinds : the large wheel with the pro- 
jecting spindle, which was used only to spin wool, and the small wheel with 
distaff, which was used mostly for spinning flax, but on which wool was 
sometimes spun. To draw out the roll and turn the wheel just fast enough 
to move the spindle with the proper velocity to make the thread the proper 


size and keep it so, was something that not everyone could do. ^^'hen the 
spool was filled the thread was run off on a reel until it had so many "cuts," 
when they were taken off into "hanks," and then into dozens and hung up 
in bunches for use when needed. 

The yarn was colored red, brown, black, yellow and blue, according to 
the fancy of the manufacturers. This was generally used for "filling." The 
chain was generally of cotton yarn and was either white or of one color, 
black, brown or deep red. 

The loom was generally of domestic manufacture, except the reed and 
shuttles, which were purchased from those who made them for the retail 
trade. The dift'erent colored threads were fastened into as many shuttles 
and passed through the warp from one side to the other as often as was 
necessary to make the stripe desired, when that particular shuttle would be 
laid aside and a shuttle containing another color would be taken up and 
passed through, and so on alternately until all had been used. Some very 
handsome plaids were made in this way and when worked up into "linsy 
woolsy" dresses and other garments for the female portion of the household, 
they were not only handsome, but, for winter wear, warm and comfortable. 

When cloth was to be woven for men's wear the yarn was generally 
colored blue, and to make it variegated, a string would be tied tightly around 
the hank before it was dipped into the coloring kettle, and this would prevent 
the color from taking eft'ect, leaving a white spot in the thread which, when 
woven into cloth, gave it the appearance of "Kentucky jeans." A suit of this 
kind of cloth, when neatly worked up, made a dress that was not to be 
sneezed at. 

For summer wear linen made of flax was generally used, and so almost 
every farmer had a flax patch sufficiently large to supply the supposed 
demand. After the ground was prepared the seed was sown, and nothing 
more was necessary until the stalks had ripened and it was ready to pull. 
It was carefully pulled up by the roots and laid down in swaths to cure, after 
which it was bound in bundles and put under cover for use when wanted. 
A flax break was made having a lever with grooves in it, so that when the 
flax was placed on the break and the lever was pressed down on it with 
sufiicient force the straw inside would be broken, leaving the fiber undis- 
turbed. When the flax was thoroughly broken, in order to get all the 
pieces of straw out from among the fiber it had to be carefully "scutched" 
or "wingled." This was done by setting a board upright and rounding off 
the top, making it even and smooth. An instrument made of hickory wood, 
say about three feet long, much in the shape of a butcher knife, with a 
proper handle, with which to do the scutching, was used. Taking a 
hand full of broken flax in his left hand, close to the lower end, and 
throwing it over the top of the board, and taking the "scutcher" in his 
right hand he beat away, turning it in his hand as often as necessary until 
the broken straw had all been scutched out, and nothing but the fiber, 
which had been beaten into tow, left. Before it could be spun into thread 
it was necessary to run it through a hackle for the purpose of separating 
the coarse part from the fine. When it had been properly hackled it was 
wound tightly on a distaff", which was a necessary attachment to the old 
spinning wheel. Starting a thread from the flax on the distaff, setting 
the wheel in motion and keeping it going by foot power, our ancient and 


amiable mothers would work away from morning until night, day in and 
day out, spinning thread out of which to make husband and children shirts 
and other clothing for the summer. 

The weaving of cloth out of flax was done on the same loom and 
in the same way as woolen cloth was woven. The main garment made 
out of flax cloth was men's and boys' shirts. At first, without under- 
clothing, as may be well imagined, they were a "holy terror" to the skin, 
and as there were no buttons, and the collars and sleeves had to be 
fastened with a needle and thread and tied in a hard knot, there was no 
way of getting them loose so as to relieve one's epidermis by scratching. 
After they were washed and ironed a few times, however, they became 
quite smooth and were more or less endurable. 

The greatest difficulty the writer had in wearing these primitive 
shirts was in getting the cufifs and collar unfastened and properly fastened 
up again when he stole away on Sunday against the express commands 
of his parents and went in swimming. Some of the wicked boys in the 
neighborhood, however, generally managed to secretly carry off the family 
needle and thread, after it had been used for the day, and in that case the 
collar and cufl^s would be fastened, and unless some other evidence of 
truancy appeared, the beech rod above the fireplace would be permitted to 
remain in its place; otherwise, otherwise. 


When the first pioneers came there was nothing here but a wilderness. 
Few evidences of civilization were to be seen anywhere. Telegraphing had 
not then been discovered, and there was not a railroad within a thousand 
miles in any direction, and at that time there was not even a stage line 
within forty miles. With the coming of white people closely followed the 
"pony express mail carrier," once a month, then weekly and triweekly, and 
so on. 

Those who were here then will remember when an occasional New 
York, Philadelphia or Baltimore paper strayed out this way, the picture of 
the pony express would be looked for to see what time the mail was scheduled 
to leave the east for the west, and what time it would be due at Pittsburg, 
Cincinnati and Indianapolis, and the probable date of its arrival here. It 
will be remembered how fast that mail carrier seemed to be going. The 
pony was running at full speed ; the mail carrier was bent forward at an 
angle of 45 degrees, and was heralding his approach by the blasts from his 
tin horn. But he did not make half as rapid headway as he appeared to be 
making. Most of the road he had to travel over was through the wilderness, 
and before he reached the end of his journey he met with many a mishap 
that delayed his arrival for hours and days. 

The letters he brought were written on blue letter paper with goosequill 
pens, folded in the form of our present envelopes, envelopes not having been 
invented then, and sealed with a red wafer or sealing wax, mucilage being a 
discovery of a later date. Letter postage at that time was rated according 
to distance, 25 cents being the rate from the eastern cities, payable in coin on 


delivery, postage stamps not having been invented at that time and for 
many years afterwards. It is easy to be seen that the number of letters that 
failed to reach the parties to whom they were addressed and consequently 
sent to the dead letter office without the postage having been collected was 
an immense loss to the United States. 

There were no roads or bridges in those days, and the neighbors in 
finding their way to the cabins of each other followed the Indian trails, 
which were the first roads in this part of the country. There is more method 
and symbolism in laying out an Indian trail than may be imagined. As 
illustrative of all the Pottawattomie Indian trails in this county and in 
northern Indiana, the writer avails himself of the following truthful and 
elegantly worded description of the Pottawattomie trail as given by Charles 
H. Bartlett in his admirable "Tales of Kankakee Land." The Indian trail, 
he says, was an Indian path with all the features that the term might indicate. 
It never crossed over a hill which it might go around ; it crept through 
the hollows, avoiding, however, with greatest care, those conditions in which 
a moccasin could not be kept dry and clean ; it clung to the shadows of the 
big timber belts, and when an arm of the prairie intervened sought to traverse 
such a place of possible danger by the route which was shortest and least 
exposed. At every step the ancient path tells the story of wilderness fears. 
Yet the travelers of this venerable avenue of the old life had also their own 
peculiar delights. A warm and sheltered path in the winter time ; its fra- 
grant airs were cool and soft in summer days. All the woodland flowers 
crowded to its margin ; the blue violets and the water-cress ; yellow honey- 
suckles ; the fringed gentian ; the roses, the ox-eyed daisies — and where the 
shades were damp and dark, yellow ladies" slippers_ and purple ones. When 
the heavy foliage above parted wide to let the sunshine fall on some gentle 
slope, there was the strawberry bank all white with promise, or growing 
with the ruby red of its luscious sweets, or throwing above the tender leaves 
of its pink stolas to make sure the feasts of coming days. The birds loved 
the red man's path, stationed their homes in the thickets that bordered its 
course, sang their morning songs beneath those rifts where the blue sky 
looked down, and there, while the twilight lingered, warbled their evening 

And then, to the Pottawattomie, this above all others was the ancient 
highway of his people. All the pageant of his life was then in the spring- 
time and in the moon of falling leaves passing before them in living 
remembrance. When these scenes were over the old men loved to wander 
along this path and rehearse the stories of the past and tell the times when 
they with their people in tumultuous throng hurried home from the chase. 
With trembling voice and solemn gesture they pointed out the spot where 
a chief with warriors brave once fell victims to the deadly ambush ; or this 
was the tree where the children had been lured to their death by the mocking 
wail of a panther ; or, in that place the Great Spirit with a countenance of 
light had spoken of his children in a voice of thunder. Then on the old path 
they told off, as on a rosary, the sacred traditions of their people. 

It was a long time after the first settlers came to the county before any 
roads were regularly laid out and opened for travel. Indian trails were 
followed wherever they led in the desired direction. Wherever it was 
thought that a road should be opened the route would be selected by those 


interested and a man sent over the route with an ax to blaze the way. The 
brush and logs were cut out, and the man with the ax would cut the bark 
off of the trees along the line a foot or two long and about five or six feet 
from the roots, on both sides of the trees, that would be seen by those passing 
along the road going and coming. One of the first of these roads was from 
the region of Maxinkuckee lake by way of the Indian trail near Menominee 
village at Twin lakes, and so on to Plymouth. Another branch was by way 
of Wolf Creek and from there by the nearest route through the woods to the 
Michigan road, which had been cleared out and blazed so that it could be 
used after a fashion, and thence on to Plymouth. A road was also early 
cleared and blazed from Plymouth to Bourbon by way of what is now 
Inwood, and on to the Benak Indian village in Tippecanoe township. Short 
roads were opened in the same way in various parts of the county where 
most needed, but without any system or legal authority. The lines of these 
early roads were selected so as to avoid swamps and marshes, and as much 
as possible to avoid the building of corduroy bridges. In this way they were 
like the Indian trails — they meandered around over the county without 
regard to the distance to be traveled and without any regard as to whose 
lands it was that the road was built upon. 

The Michigan road has an interesting history. Several years ago the 
writer of this history made as thorough investigation of this subject as 
possible, procuring the data for such investigation from the Interior 
Department at Washington. The following is the result of that investigation : 

Prior to 1826 numerous treaties had been made with the Pottawattomie 
Indians, the owners and inhabitants of the country embraced in Indiana, 
southern Michigan and northern Illinois, by which they were to give up most 
of their lands and hunting grounds to the United States for the benefit of 
the white population. After these treaties were proclaimed, gangs of govern- 
ment surveyors were sent out to survey and plat the land, which was done, 
and the land opened to entry at $1.25 an acre. Through these government 
surveyors, axmen and chainmen it soon became noised about that a most 
delightful and productive country had been found, with beautiful lakes and 
watercourses, and every kind of fish and wild game, wild fruits, etc., in 
abundance. Many of these surveyors, with Indian traders, land speculators 
and government agents, entered into a scheme to persuade the Pottawat- 
tomie Indians to make a treaty giving to the government a strip of land 100 
feet wide through the entire state from Lake Michigan to the Ohio river, 
with a contiguous section of land through which the road should run which 
should belong to the state of Indiana and by it be given to those who should 
be awarded the contracts to build the road. It was to be a great national 
thoroughfare, the northern terminus of which was the mouth of Trail creek 
at Michigan City, and the southern at Madison, Ind. After the treaty was 
made the Indiana legislature took the matter up, and among other things 
named it the "Michigan road." The treaty by which the Pottawattomies 
granted the land for this road was article 3 of the treaty made October 16, 
1826, concluded near the mouth of the Mississinewa, on the Wabash, Indiana, 
between Lewis Cass of Michigan and James B. Ray and John Tipton of 
Indiana, commissioners on the part of the United States, and the chiefs and 
warriors of the Pottawattomie tribe of Indians. This article of the treaty 
is as follows: 


"Article 3. As an evidence of the attachment which the Pottawattomie 
tribe feel towards the American people, and particularly to the soil of In- 
diana, and with a view to demonstrate their liberality and benefit themselves 
by creating facilities for traveling and increasing the value of their remaining 
country, the said tribe do hereby cede to the United States a strip of land 
commencing at Lake Michigan and running thence to the Wabash river, 100 
feet wide, for a road, and also one section of good land contiguous to the 
said road for each mile of the same, and also for each mile of a road from 
the termination thereof through Indianapolis to the Ohio river for the pur- 
pose of making a road aforesaid from Lake Michigan by way of Indianapolis 
to some convenient point on the Ohio river. And the general assembly shall 
have a right to locate the said road and to apply the said sections or the 
proceeds thereof to the making of the same, or any part thereof, and the 
said grant shall be at their sole disposal." 

As I view it, the wording of the treaty was a cunningly devised arrange- 
ment to swindle the Indians out of an immense amount of the best lands 
belonging to them in the state. The words "good land" enabled the legisla- 
ture to zigzag the road so as to avoid all the bad land and run around through 
all the "contiguous good land" through the entire state. By referring to the 
map of Marshall county it will be seen that from the time the road enters 
the county on the south until it reaches the northern boundary, the Michigan 
road sections are so disjointed on the map that they have the appearance 
of a great big stairway. From Argos north the line of the road angles off 
to the west before it reaches Plymouth, about two miles and a half. The 
object of this "wobbling" was to avoid low or swamp lands and get over 
onto a better quality. Near Benoni Jordan's old farm, now owned by D. E. 
Snyder, four miles south of Plymouth, the angle is so abrupt that the sections 
are barely "contiguous." From La Paz the road zigzags about until it 
reaches South Bend, where it turns abruptly and runs directly west through 
some of the best prairie lands in the state, or anywhere else for that matter, 
and then turns north and finally finds its way into the mouth of Trail creek 
at Michigan City. 

The disjointed manner in which these Michigan road sections appear 
on the map of Indiana is a perpetual verdict against the conspirators who 
defrauded the Indians out of their rights ; and like the blood on the hands 
of Lady McBeth, "the d d spot will not out." 

It was in 1832-3 that this end of the road was ordered to be "cut" and 
"opened" and these are the directions prescribed by the legislature of 1832 
(see pages 124-5, ^cts of that session) : 

"Cut and clear off said part of said road all logs, timber and under- 
brush, leaving no stump more than one foot above the level of the earth, and 
grub thirty feet wide in the center of said road." 

Polk, Blair and Seering were the contractors through this part of the 
state, and the late Robert Schroeder of North township was one of the bosses 
that superintended the job. He told me many times before his death the 
manner in which this great thoroughfare was opened up, and according to 
history, the truth of which cannot be doubted, the work was the merest 
pretext toward complying with the intent of the law. The road was prac- 
tically impassable for much of the way through this part of the state; the 


mud holes, which were numerous, were bridged over with poles and logs 
placed on cross logs without any particular system, the brush cut off and 
piled up by the side of the road, and some of the knobs and high places cut 
down, and that was about all that was done to make it the great thoroughfare 
that the Indians had been made to believe was to be built for their especial 
benefit. Within five or si.x years after this road was declared open, the 
various small reservations still held by the Pottawattomies were secured 
from them by treaty, and those who refused to leave the country were driven 
away, starting from Twin lakes September 4, 1838, in charge of a company 
of soldiers under command of Gen. John Tipton, one of the commissioners 
who secured the making of the treaty. Thus was completed one of the 
darkest pages in the history of Indiana. 

La Porte and Plymouth Mail Route. 

Next in importance to the Michigan road was what was called the La 
Porte road. In the beginning it was little more than an Indian trail and was 
established more as a post road between Plymouth and La Porte than for 
purposes of travel. At first the mail was carried once a week between the 
two places ; later it was increased to three times a week, and finally to a two- 
horse wagon daily, which also carried passengers back and forth. In 
examining some ancient documents over in La Porte county not long ago a 
student of local history came across a contract written by J. H. Bradley with 
a quill pen on an old-fashioned unruled legal folio sheet, which, though the 
paper is yellowed with age and stained by exposure to the weather, is as 
clear and legible as on the day it was written. Following is the wording of 
the contract, as nearly as it can be reproduced in print : 

Memoranclum of an agreement: 

Made this si.xth day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-seven, between John H. Bradley, Mail Contractor, for carrying the United 
States Mail from LaPorte, by Plymouth to Chippewa, once a week and back, of the 
one part, and Erastus Ingersol, of Marshall county, Indiana, of the other part, as 
follows, to-wit, the said Ingersol, agrees and hereby binds himself to carry or have 
carried, the said United States Mail on the said Eoute from LaPorte by Plymouth to 
Chippewa, according to the terms, times and manner prescribed by the postoffice 
department, and in all things to comply, with the directions, and requisitions of the 
law, and the Post Office Department in carrying guarding and delivery of the same, 
for and during the full terms and time of said contract, to commence on the ninth 
day of May, A. D., 1837, and continue until the said contract be ended, for the sum 
price and consideration of three hundred and fifty dollars per annum — and at and for 
that rate and proportion to be paid by the said John H. Bradley in the manner herein- 
after mentioned — and also the said Erastus Ingersol agrees and binds himself to pay 
and satisfy all fines, forfeitures, penalties and amercements, imposed or exacted by the 
said postoffice department, for or on account of any and all failures or delinquencies, 
about the performance of the said contract, while in his hand, or while he is carrying 
the same, and to allow the said John H. Bradley to deduct the same from the amount 
to be paid to the said Ingersol, for his services aforesaid. 

In consideration whereof, the said John H. Bradley agrees and binds himself to 
pay to the said Erastus Ingersol the said sum of money aforesaid, or the rateable 
proportion thereof, as soon as the money shall be received from the department, and 
at no other times or manner whatever, deducting therefrom any and all fines and 
exactions for delinquencies aforesaid — and making from the money due July 1st, 1837, 
the further deduction of seventy-five dollars, the amount of a note held by the said 
John H. Bradley on the said Ingersol — the price of a mare sold to him. 


To the true performance of all which covenants and agreements the said parties 
bind themselves the one to the other in the sum of three hundred dollars. Witness our 
hands and seals May 6th, A. D., 1837. 

John H. Bradley, (Seal). 
Ekastus Ingersoll, (Seal). 
Sealed and delivered in the presence of J. C. Howell. 

This document is a reminder of the days when things at La Porte were 
in their beginnings. In May, 1837, the village was hardly more than four 
years old, Plymouth and Rochester had not yet been laid out a year, the 
Yellow river road from La Porte to Plymouth was little better than a blazed 
trail through the woods and marshes, and the Michigan road, though opened 
three and a half years earlier, was very, very far from being usable as a 
race course. Notwithstanding the fact that Daniel Webster broke dirt in 
La Porte county July 4, 1837, for a railroad, no such commercial artery was 
actually in operation in this section until fifteen years passed by. La Porte 
had a postoffice in 1833, Plymouth not until 1837. Mail routes were just 
being opened up in northwestern Indiana. 

John H. Bradley was one of La Porte's greatest lawyers, his admission 
to the bar being dated October 12, 1835. He was aggressive in politics on 
the Whig side and served repeatedly in the state legislature, besides being 
defeated nearly as often. He was a great orator and a profound student, and 
in his early life as a pioneer in this region he was glad to reach aside from 
the practice of his profession and take a contract to haul the mail, not to 
perform that arduous labor himself but to sublet it at a small profit. 

Erastus Ingersol, the subcontractor and actual post-rider, belongs to 
the history of Marshall county, in which his appearance is very obscure. On 
horseback with his sacks of mail, in all sorts of weather, he followed roads 
that would now be thought impassable, covering the distance in two days, or 
four days for the round trip. About that same time a regular stage line was 
operated from La Porte to Plymouth, connecting there with the Concord 
coaches plying up and down the Michigan road between South Bend and 
Indianapolis, at which latter point connection was made with the lines east 
and west on the National road. J. C. Howell, the witness to the contract, 
was a La Porte merchant. 

The Chippewa named as one of the terminals of the route — called 
Chippe-wa-qua in some of the old records — would be difficult to find now 
save with help from some curious antiquary, but then it was an important 
and a hopeful settlement, well known to every traveler on the Michigan road. 
It was a formidable rival of Rochester for selection as the county seat, and 
even now one can hardly see why it was not chosen because of the beauty, 
healthfulness and availability of its site near the intersection of the great 
northern highway and the Tippecanoe river (then more important than 
now) unless it was too far from the county's center. 

William Poike, Michigan road commissioner, entered the land at that 
place, built his log cabin there in 1832, the first house on the road north of 
the Wabash, moved his family to it from the southern end of the state and 
established there his official headquarters. It was a home of great hospitality. 
The tourist for pleasure, the traveler for business, the Catholic missionary 
priest, the Protestant preacher, the state or government official, the teamster 
and road laborer, the vagrant Indian — for all these the door of that small 
cabin in the woods was opened. Gen. John Tipton, Col. Abel C. Pepper and 


other important functionaries were often there and under the trees close by 
several Indian treaties were concluded. There in 1834 was celebrated the 
marriage of Mary, daughter of William Polke, with John B. Niles, then a 
young lawyer whose brilliant future was but faintly indicated. William 
Niles, born of that union September 27, 1835, is now the oldest living white 
person who was born in La Porte. He and Mrs. Emmet H. Scott are tlie 
present owners of the long-forgotten Chippewa, the terminal point of 
La Porte's earliest southern mail routes and designed to be one of the chief 
cities along the historic Michigan road. The original cabin is still in existence 
and is occupied, as is also the frame house on the adjoining farm, which 
was also built by William Polke and was the first frame house north of the 
Wabash on the Michigan road. 

The Yellow River Road. 

This road was the same as the La Porte and Plymouth mail route above 
referred to. The board of commissioners of Marshall county early took steps 
to open the road and put it in condition for the increasing travel over that 
line to La Porte, and especially to Michigan City, where shipments of grain 
and other produce was made, and where all kinds of merchandise was 
received by lake from New York and Chicago, and hauled overland to 
Plymouth and farther south to Rochester. 

At a special session of the board held in the early part of July (no date 
is given on the record) the following order appears on Order Book A, page 
17, in reference to this road : 

The board of commissioners for the county of Marshall, July special 

Ordered, That Stephen Marsters, commissioner of the three per cent (3) fund 
for said county, is ordered to lay out five hundred dollars ($500) on the road leading 
from Plymouth, in the said county of Marshall, to La Porte, commonly called the 
' ' Yellow Eiver road, ' ' which sum shall be expended on that part of said road which is 
within the bounds of the said county of Marshall, and the said commissioner aforesaid 
shall proceed to lay off the said road in lots of quarter sections as near as may be and 
expend the aforesaid appropriation in the places mostly needing the same. The said 
commissioner shall cause the said road to be cross [word indistinct] with good lasting 
timber, to be eighteen feet in length, in those parts of said road wherein he may deem 
it necessary, and cause the same to be covered with clay, sand or gravel five or sis 
inches in depth; and also cause culverts to be put in said road and said road to be 
ditched so as to cause the water to drain from the same wherein his judgment may 
deem it necessary ; and said commissioner shall proceed to sell the same to the lowest 
bidder at public auction in the town of Plymouth, in said county, after having adver- 
tised the same ten days previous to the day of sale by posting up written advertisements 
at several of the most public places in said county. Contractors to give bond with 
security to be approved by the said commissioner in double the sum of their contracts 
for their faithful performance of said work; said road to be completed by the fifteenth 
(15th) day of November, 1836. Said commissioners to pay one-fourth of the money 
when contractors have their contracts half completed and no more. 

Ordered, That said board adjourn until tomorrow morning, 9 o'clock A. M. And 
said board adjourned. 

Robert Blair, 
Abraham Johnson, 
Charles Osterhaute. 


Test: Jeremiah Munct, Clerk. 

At the September term, 1837, Stephen Marsters, the commissioner of 
the 3 per cent fund, reported that he had expended on the Yellow River road 


a total of $1,107.41, to the contractors — Sidney Williams, Williamson Owens, 
Thomas Singleton and Gustavus A. Cone. For many years afterward much 
work was done on the road before it became fairly passable. 

Plaxk Roads. 

During the year 185 1 the question of how to obtain good roads was 
the all-absorbing topic of conversation and discussion among the people 
of Marshall county. At that time there were very few regularly estab- 
lished wagon roads in the county. The Michigan road, extending through 
the county from south to north, had been opened after a fashion, as had 
also the road between Plymouth and La Porte. Roads leading in other 
directions mostly followed the Indian trails, the brush and logs being 
cleared out and the trees blazed so that those passing along would not 
get lost. The ponds and sink holes, which were numerous, were bridged 
over with logs and poles and covered with a light coating of loose dirt. 
Roads ran wherever it was most convenient, without regard to section 
lines, as there was little cleared land then to be interfered with. In the 
spring and fall of the year, known as the "rainy seasons," the roads 
became almost impassable. Ox teams were mostly used then, and it was 
about all a single yoke of oxen could do to haul even an empty wagon 
any considerable distance. The Michigan and La Porte roads were traveled 
more than any others in the county, but the more they were traveled the 
worse they got. The sub-soil, sand and mud holes were numerous, and 
teaming was the most difficult thing the farmers and business men had to 
do. Naturally enough this deplorable condition of the roads led to an 
effort to improve them, resulting in the attempt to build plank roads over 
the main lines of travel. 

The Plymouth Pilot, which was the only paper in the county at that 
time, took up the discussion of the advisability of building plank roads 
and pursued it with vigor for some time, although it does not appear that 
it resulted in accomplishing much toward the final completion of the roads 
then being built in this direction. i\mong other things the editor said : 

"Here we have a county containing a population of 8,000. We have 
but one town in the county, and no other town within twenty miles of us 
and no good market under forty miles. In order to get to that market we 
have to pass over some most execrable roads at all seasons of the year, 
which are easily bettered and which we fail to make any eifort in, while 
our neighbors around us are all awake to their own welfare and offering 
every assistance to us that we can ask, and that needs only the taking 
advantage of to bring a market to our own door." 

After enumerating the advantages to be derived from plank roads, the 
editor went on to say : 

"The interests of Michigan City and La Porte are identical, and we 
should care nothing for their bickerings. South Bend, twenty-four miles 
north, is on the St. Joseph river, with the Southern railroad through it and 
the Central ten miles distant, and the warehouse of the Central at Misha- 
waka, twenty-four miles from here, prepared to receive produce at Niles 
without additional charge. Boats are running on the river carrying produce 
to St. Joseph to be shipped on the lake. Rochester is twenty miles south; 
Logansport forty-three miles south on the canal and will probably soon 


have a railroad and depot. Now here we have a diagram of our means 
of outlet, and now comes the value of plank roads. Logansport is building 
to Rochester and has completed about fifteen miles. South Bend has built 
about ten miles toward us. La Porte has built about twelve miles toward 
us, and it remains with us whether it comes here or goes through North 
Liberty to South Bend." 

After showing the great advantages to be derived from the building 
of the proposed roads, the editor concluded as follows : 

"Lay down your plank one foot wide, nine feet long, and full two and 
one-half inches thick, and it will stay there. With railroads all around us 
and thoroughfares opening in every direction, we are 'stoning the squirrel 
while the dog is robbing our dinner basket !' Wake up, then, and show us 
the man that says he won't take a share in it and push it through, and we 
will show you the man that goes to mill with the wheat in one end of the 
bag and a stone in the other, 'because his father did.' " 

The road from La Porte, if memory is not at fault, was only completed 
to the Kankakee river, where it connected with a toll bridge across that 
stream known as "Lemon's bridge." Until the completion of the La Porte 
& Plymouth railroad in 1855, "Lemon's bridge" was a popular stopping 
place. Horses were watered and fed there, meals served, and a little some- 
thing for the stomach's sake could be had upon a pinch. Frequently teams 
loaded with wheat for the "port at Michigan City" camped out there over 
night during the summer, starting early the next morning and arriving at 
Michigan City by sundown. 

The plank road was completed most of the way to Plymouth during 
the year 1852. It never paid the expense of construction, and after a few 
years was abandoned. The boards soon began to warp at the ends and as 
no repairs were made the road became almost impassable. The planks 
were finally taken tip and piled at the side of the road and finally rotted 
or were burned up. It was many years before the Michigan road to South 
Bend was fairly passable, and even to this day it might be a good deal 
better than it is. Before the war all the plank roads that had been built 
were abandoned, and that great improvement scheme that promised so 
much in the beginning came to an inglorious end. 


Of course every cabin had to be provided with a well or spring from 
which water for drinking, cooking and washing purposes could be drawn. 
Springs were not very numerous and they were confined to hills and 
gulleys and along the banks of the lakes, rivers and small streams. Places 
where springs could be secured were few and far between, and therefore 
the water supply mostly came from dug wells, and these were supplied 
almost entirely w'ith surface water. A five or six square foot hole would be 
dug in as low ground as could be found near the cabin, to a depth generally 
of from twelve to twenty-five or thirty feet, or until the first surface vein 
of water would be struck, when the digging would cease and a barrel or 
square box would be sunk in the bottom, into which notches would be 


cut, or auger holes would be bored into it to allow the water to seep in 
through the gravel or sand, or, more frequently, blue clay. This "hole in 
the ground" was boarded up with heavy boards split out of red oak logs, 
to prevent the well from caving in. Generally the water was drawn by 
means of a wooden or tin bucket, to which a rope would be tied, or if the 
well wasn't too deep a long, slim pole with a hook and fastener at the 
lower end would be used. These were generally only for temporary use. 
When deeper wells would be dug, and better water would be found, the 
well sweep and the "old oaken bucket," about which so much has been 
said and written, would be erected. These "sweeps" were made by 
erecting a large post in the ground, say twelve or fifteen feet. A long 
pole, heavy at the butt end and tapering until it was quite small at the top 
end, was fastened into the top of the erect pole, in a socket cut for the 
purpose, through which a two-inch auger hole was bored and a hard, 
seasoned hickory pin was inserted. To the top end was fastened a small 
pole or a rope or chain of a length about the depth of the well, to the lower 
end of which the bucket would be attached. The lower end of the sweep 
rested on the ground. When water was needed to be drawn the bucket was 
put over the top of the curbing and let down to the bottom of the well by 
pulling the top of the sweep down. A sinker, a stone or piece of iron, was 
attached to the bail of the bucket, which turned the top of the bucket 
sideways, when the water would run in and fill it, -^hen it would be pulled 
up to the top and emptied into the bucket or other vessel at hand used for 
that purpose. 

This mode of procuring water was almost universal, for the reason 
that there were no pumps to be had here at that time. Up to 1840, and 
probably to 1850, there was not a pump in the county. The Indians who 
were here before that time had no dug wells and got their water from the 
lakes, rivers, branches, creeks and ponds, wherever they might happen to 
be located. 

Tinware was very scarce for a number of years and tin cups for 
drinking or other purposes were hard to get. As a consequence other 
devices were resorted to, many of which were quite unique. Many will 
remember the small gourd cut and cleaned out in the shape of a dipper, 
with a long crooked handle, that used to hang on a bush near the spring, 
or a peg at the well, out of which the thirsty was always welcome to drink 
and refresh himself. It was not uncommon to see the shell of a turnip 
that had been scraped out used for drinking purposes. Many will remember, 
too, of having seen wooden cups and bowls cut out of soft wood by experts 
with jack-knives that were useful, if not very ornamental. It was not 
uncommon for the male portion of the inhabitants when very thirsty to lie 
down on the ground and drink out of the creeks, springs, etc. They some- 
times turned up the rims of their hats, dipped them in the water, and drank 
in that way ; and frequently the large leaves of the pawpaw bushes in their 
season would be plucked off and made into a ladle shape, which made an 
excellent substitute for a dipper to drink out of. 

The lack of good water in the early times was the greatest drawback 
the first settlers had to contend with.- The only pure water and the only 
water fit to drink was the water obtained from springs, but these were 
very rare and but a very small percentage of the people had access to them. 


As a general rule the water obtained from wells was "surface water," full 
of malaria, and during the summer months, when it was drunk in larger 
quantities than at any other season of the year, it was sure to bring on 
ague, bilious fever, typhoid fever, flux and other summer complaints, often 
to an alarming extent, and frequently it was not an uncommon thing for 
entire families to be prostrated with some of these diseases at the same time. 

The ague was the most prevalent of the diiiferent varieties of malarial 
diseases, and it came on every day, every other day, every three days, 
every seven, fourteen and twenty-one days, and was known as the "chills 
and fever," "fever'n ager," "shakes" and the like. To the newcomer it 
was a holy terror, but it was no respecter of persons. It attacked old and 
young alike. In the fall of the year, after all had gone through the summer's 
siege of this hated disease, nearly everybody looked pale and sallow like 
they had been frostbitten. It came on with a chill, which usually developed 
into a shake that would make one's teeth chatter so that the sound could 
be heard for some distance about the cabin. The shaker covered himself 
with blankets and comforters, no matter how hot the weather was, and he 
shook and shook and shook until his bones fairly rattled. In an hour or 
two the chill went ofif and then came on the fever, followed by a thirst for 
water that could not be quenched. After two or three hours the fever 
passed off and the patient began to recuperate sufficiently to get up and 
walk about. But oh, how miserable he did feel! In many cases it was 
impossible to get rid of it and it had to be endured until frost came and 
killed the malaria that produced it. 

The year 1850, when the entire population of the county was only 
about 5,000, more deaths occurred than during any year before or since on 
the basis of population. From the census report which was made on the 
first of June of that year the total number of deaths from the diseases 
named was set down at 133. That was June I. It is quite probable that a 
great many more deaths occurred during July, August, September and 
October, so that it is fair to estimate that not less than 300 souls were 
removed by death caused by malaria, generated through impure water 
during that year! 

A note by the census taker stated that "this year has been remarkable 
for the unusual number of deaths. A very fatal disease known here as 
typhoid fever has prevailed to an alarming extent in the center of the county 
and spread in all directions, reaching to the extreme parts of the county. 
The flux, bilious and scarlet fever have also been prevalent." 

The physicians here at that time were not very well read and were 
scantily supplied with medicines which were supposed to be specifics for 
these diseases and half the time not knowing what the real ailment of the 
patient was, probably a large per cent died for lack of proper medical knowl- 
edge and attention. 

In those days most of the doctors considered "bleeding" necessary to 
get the patient's system in proper condition to receive medical treatment. 
When he arrived he looked wise, felt the patient's pulse, examined the 
tongue, shook his head to indicate that it was a dangerous case and that 
bleeding was necessary ! The clothing was removed from the patient's 
arm, a string tied tightly around it above the elbow to stop the circulation, 
a bowl or pan was procured to catch the blood, the doctor took his lance. 


ripped open the vein, and the blood spurted out two or three feet high. 
Sometimes half a bowl full would be drawn from the patient before the 
flow could be stopped. The next thing was to administer a dose of calomel 
and jalap. As a general thing this would take his insides out and salivate 
him so his gums and teeth would be permanently ruined. If the patient 
recovered under this treatment the physician was considered "the best 
doctor in the country," and his praises were sounded far and wide. If he 
died, his death was attributed to the inscrutable interposition of Divine 
Providence ! 

Driven Wells. 

During the Civil war, or perhaps a little later, driven wells were invented, 
that is, procuring water through hollow pipes driven into the ground to a 
considerable depth, far enough, at least, to go below the surface water. 
As pure water could be procured through these wells they became at once 
very popular. Well drivers became numerous, every neighborhood having 
one or more. Whenever a resident wanted a well on his premises he 
employed one of these well drivers to put one down for him. It happened 
that these driven wells had been patented, that is, the "process" had been 
patented by the United States patent office, and as these well drivers did 
not have permission from the patentees to use their process every well 
driven into the ground was liable to pay a royalty, which was fixed at $id 
by the United States district court. About 1879 the owners of Green's 
patent, having secured the names of all owners of driven wells, sent them 
notices that they were indebted to the patentees for infringement of their 
patent in the well driven on their premises in the sum of $10 and unless 
it was paid within a reasonable time a suit would be brought against them 
in the United States district court to recover the amount. As might be 
expected, this created great excitement among the people owning driven 
wells, as they had paid the well drivers for putting down the wells and they 
supposed that was all there was of it. The excitement increased as it 
extended to every township in the county and finally resulted in the organi- 
zation of an Anti-Driven Well Association to resist the payment of the 
royalty demanded. It was a Plymouth organization, but quite a number of 
members belonged to it from various localities throughout the county. A 
legal opinion as to the probability of successfully resisting the payment of 
the royalty was secured from the law firm of Baker, Hord & Hendricks, of 
Indianapolis, to the effect that similar cases had been brought against the 
patentee and in every case his patent had been sustained, giving him the 
lawful right to collect royalty on all infringers. At the same time the 
agent of the patentee, fearing a long siege of litigation, proposed that he 
would compromise with the members of the association for $5 on each well, 
half the amount originally asked. The legal opinion, together with this 
proposition, was made to the association at a called meeting, and in view 
of the uncertainty of succeeding in the courts, the proposition was accepted, 
each of the members paying $5 for each well, and the association disbanded. 
For a considerable time it created quite a bitter feeling among those who 
wanted to fight it out and those who favored compromising. Finally most 
of those having wells paid up and the matter was dropped. While the 
royalty collected from the people was not far removed from highway 


robbery, yet the wells did more to improve the health of the community by 
furnishing pure water and driving out malaria than anything that ever 


The clearing up of farms was the hardest work the pioneer farmer had 
to do. The land was mostly covered with a heavy growth of timber, which 
had to be cut down and rolled into log heaps, and the limbs, etc., piled into 
what was called "brush heaps" and burned, which, as the timber was green 
and full of sap, was a very slow process, and frequently took several seasons 
before the chunks were all consumed. The slaughter of the very best kind of 
timber in those early days is something fearful to contemplate now by the 
people living away down here three-quarters of a century since then, when 
the country has been almost entirely denuded of some of the finest timber 
that ever grew out of the earth. At that time there was no particular use 
for it, and the only object was how best and the cheapest way to get rid of 
it. The finest stately poplars, the tall oaks, the ash, and above all the dif- 
ferent varieties of walnut, of which the black walnut was afterwards found 
to be the most valuable because particularly adapted to the manufacture of 
furniture, came down by the woodman's ax. In after years the walnut 
timber that grew upon the land was found to be more valuable than the land 

When the timber on a piece of land had been felled and was ready to 
roll, the neighbors for miles around were invited to a "log rolling" and 
with several yoke of oxen to help in hauling the logs together, the work was 
soon done. The ground was generally covered with underbrush and small 
saplings, and the roots had to be taken out with a mattock and grubhoe, and 
this primitive implement had to be operated by main strength, and those who 
know how it is themselves know that it was the hardest kind of work. Stock, 
such as cattle, hogs, sheep and horses, ran at large, and so the clearing had 
to be fenced, and this was done with rails split from the trees near by. An 
iron wedge, a few "gluts," an ax and a maul were the implements used, and 
as in "grubbing," the splitting had to be done by main force. 

To fence a forty-acre lot was a long, tedious job, and many a man ruined 
his health bv long continuance at this kind of labor. But after this work was 
done, there was a harder job still — that of plowing the ground. There were 
no chilled plows in those days, and the first plowing of the ground was nearly 
always done with a large breaking plow and wooden moldboard, to which 
were hitched two or three or more yoke of oxen. When the ground had 
been gone over it had more the appearance of having been rooted up by the 
hogs than having been turned over with a plow. Plows met with roots and 
stones every few rods, and many is the time that he who held the plow 
handles was hit in the side or in'the umbilical region by the handles when 
the plow struck a big root, and had the breath knocked out of him before 
he knew what the matter was. 

Usually the first crop planted was corn, and between the rows was 
planted the old-fashioned "Hoosier punkin." It was worth all that was raised 
to keep the chipmunks, wild squirrels, blackbirds and crows from stealing all 


the seed that was planted. Usually the corn rows near the fence and woods 
would have to be replanted two or three times, and even then if half the hills 
came up it would almost invariably be destroyed while in the roasting-ear 
before it matured. 

The ground was very rich, and it was a race from start to finish between 
the weeds and corn as to which could outgrow the other. The weeds that 
caused the most trouble, and were the greatest annoyance, were the wild 
nettles. To touch them was equal to the sting of a bee, and the more one 
tried to keep clear of them the more one was sure to run into them. 

As soon as the ears of corn turned from the milk into the grain they 
were used by the family for food. They were cooked in various ways, which- 
ever was the most convenient. They were boiled, roasted before the fire, 
the grain cut off the cob and fried, or boiled in a kettle with beans, with a 
piece of pork for seasoning ; and when a fellow was real hungry, with a piece 
of hot corn bread, and a bowl of sweet milk, there was nothing like it in the 
heavens above or in the earth beneath. 

When the corn ripened, and before the frost came, the stocks were 
cut off close to the ground and set up in shocks of the proper size, larger at 
the bottom and small at the top, tied with a band made of smaller stalks 
or of bark or grass. 

It was after the corn had been cut and shocked from one of these fields 
that our own Hoosier poet, James Whitcomb Riley, drew his inspiration for 
that charming bit of poetry that touches a tender chord in the breast of 
every one who has breathed the pure air of country life and the farm, and 
which is inserted here as a fitting conclusion to this brief sketch : 

When the frost is on the punkin and the fodder's in the shock, 
And you hear the kyouck and gobble of the struttin' turkey-cock, 
And the clackin' of the guineys, and the cluekin' of the hens, 
And the rooster's hallylooyer as he tiptoes on the fence; 
O it's then's the time a feller is a-feelin' at his best, 
With the risin' sun to greet him from a night of peaceful rest, 
As he leaves the house, bare-headed, and goes out to feed the stock. 
When the frost is on the punkin and the fodder's in the shock. 

They's something kindo' harty-like about the atmosphere 
When the heat of summer 's over and the coolin ' fall is here — 
Of course we miss the flowers, and the blossoms on the trees, 
And the mumble of the hummin '-birds and buzzin' of the bees; 
But the air's so appetizin', and the landscape through the haze 
Of a crisp and sunny morning of the airly autumn days 
Is a pictur' that no painter has the colorin' to mock — 
When the frost is on the punkin and the fodder's in the shock. 

The husky, rusty rustle of the tossels of the corn. 
And the raspen' of the tangled leaves, as golden as the morn; 
The stubble in the furries — kindo' lonesome-like, but still 
A-preachin' sermons to us of the barns they growed to fill; 
The strawstack in the medder, and the reaper in the shed; 
The hosses in their stalls below — the clover overhead! — 
O it sets my heart a-cUckin' like the tickin' of a clock. 
When the frost is on the punkin and the fodder's in the shock! 

When your apples all is gethered, and the ones a feller keeps 

Is poured around the cellar-floor in red and yeller heaps. 

And your cider-makin's over, and your wommern-folks is through 

With their mince and apple-butter, and their souse and sausage too, — 


I don't know how to tell it — but ef such a thing could be 
As the angel's nantin' boardin, and they'd call around on me- 
I'd want to 'commodate 'em-all, the whole endurin' flock, 
"When the fTost is on the punkin and the fodder's' in the shock! 


James M. Greer. Sr., who came to this coimty with his parents about 
the time of the organization of Marshall county, has lived in Bourbon town- 
ship and vicinity ever since to the present time, has written several articles 
for the county newspapers giving his experiences and recollections of his 
pioneer days, from which the writer of this has permission to make the 
following extracts. ]\Ir. Greer says : 

"I have seen wild deer in the woods where Bourbon now stands. The 
deer was a great help to the pioneer in settling Marshall county, as he could 
have venison the year round. I have seen seventeen deer in one drove. They 
stay behind each other when running, with their hind feet wide apart and 
tail high in the air. The under side of a deer's tail is white, and as they 
jump high in running, their tails present quite a picturesque appearance. 
The young deer (called faw-n) is spotted, the spots being about the size of a 
silver ten-cent piece. The fawn is said to be scentless. It appears that 
nature has provided them with that defense from ferocious animals. A 
neighbor told me he went out one moonlight night to his cornfield to watch 
for deer as they came into the cornfield to eat corn. He said he hid himself 
there to see what the deer would do when they came in the field. When they 
came they went to eating, and when they got done they went to playing. 
They skipped, jumped and ran in a circle, and it looked to him like they 
were playing some kind of a game. He watched them as long as he wanted 
to : then he shot one of them and that ended the game. 

Feeding Cattle. 

"Pioneers had a hard time to live and make ends meet. In the spring 
of the year the stock became poor. I have known men to cut down trees in 
the spring of the year so their stock could get the swelled buds to eat to 
keep them from starving until the grass got started. They put a bell on the 
stoutest one if there was one able to carry it. They would go to the lowland 
and marshes where the grass had started. They would wade into the marshes 
to get the grass and mire down. The owners wound hunt for them, but 
couldn't always find them. I recollect one cow that wasn't found until in 
summer, and then her horns was all that could be seen. In those days some 
of the marshes would almost mire a cat ; there were a good many cows lost 
in that way. There were a good many cow bones that rotted in the marshes 
of Marshall county. 

Going to Church. 

"Going to church in pioneer days was termed 'going to meeting.' I 
will tell a narrative of preaching in pioneer days. Stuart Bailey, father of 
Wellington Bailey, of Plymouth, was a pioneer preacher. He told me that 


he went in west of Plymouth to a pioneer settlement to preach. He said 
that he got to one of the pioneer dwelhngs after following a crooked trail 
through the woods until he was about given out. A boy was dispatched to 
the pioneers of the neighborhood to let them know the preacher had come 
and there would be preaching at his father's house that evening. About dusk 
the pioneers began to come in. The house was soon full. Rev. Stuart 
Bailey told me there had been pumpkins cut into rings and hung on poles 
overhead. He said that he took his stand beside a bed and went to preach- 
ing. He preached and they sang soul-stirring songs. Alost all of them got 
to shouting. He said he was about exhausted and he fell back on the bed and 
looked at them jumping, shouting and knocking the pumpkin rings high 
and low. Religion was free in those days. We had it among us without 
money and without price, and I believe it to have been a far better article 
to that in general use among us at this time. The pioneer preachers of Mar- 
shall county preached because they were devoted to their religion and also 
for the love they had for the people, and not for money ; they were earnest, 
honest, industrious men, and practiced what they preached. When my 
memory reverts to those happy boyhood years my eyes are tilled with tears. 

Corn Planting. 

"The early settlers had to chop all winter to get some ground ready for 
corn in the spring. There would be fifteen or twenty log rollings in each 
neighborhood every spring; some men didn't get in more than four or five 
acres of corn — some ten. When the corn got into roasting ears the black 
and gray squirrels would go to eating it up. They were in great numbers. 
The children had to watch the squirrels out of the corn. At intervals they 
took the dogs and went around the field and drove them into the woods. The 
early settler had from one to three dogs. I think the county could hardly 
have been settled without the noble dog. They were all well trained for 
coon and deer. A good coon dog was considered worth $50. Some hunters 
would catch enough coons in one winter to pay for the dog. There was a 
greater demand for dogs sixty years ago than there is today. 

Pioneer Hogs. 

"When the early settlers first came to Marshall county they brought 
hogs with them. They put them in pens and kept them there until they got 
naturalized to the place, then they would be turned out and taught to come 
to a feeding place. The sows would stray to the woods after the mast and 
farrow ; the pigs would get to be hogs and before found would be wild. The 
only way the owner would know the hogs were his was by the mark on the 
sow ; every man had his sows marked. When the mast was good I have 
known men to kill their hogs of¥ the mast that hadn't had a grain of corn. 
The meat would be soft and spongy. When the mast was scarce the hogs 
would be thin. The neighbors would help each other get their hogs up. 
Five or six men and that many dogs would go into the woods, catch them, 
tie them, haul them home, put them in a pen and feed them until they got fat 
enough to kill. Sometimes they wouldn't fatten ; they would act like so many 
hyenas. They wouldn't eat and would have starved to death. It took a pen 
eight or ten feet high to hold them ; I have known men to let them out because 


they couldn't be fattened ; they were wild hogs for certain. In those days 
the dog was a great friend to his master and an incalculable benefit. 

A Den of Wolves. 
"The timber wolf was of a dark color ; they didn't do much harm. I 
could hear them howling at night in the woods. The dogs kept them away, 
the sheep were always shut up at night. Some men split slabs out of logs 
and set them in the ground and made a kind of fort for their sheep. There 
was a wolf that was called the prairie wolf ; it was smaller than the timber 
wolf and about the color of a fox. They lived in the ground. My father 
found a den of them and I was with him when he dug them out. The old 
wolves were absent. There were five young ones in the den about as large as 
a tomcat. The county paid $3 each in county orders for wolf scalps. They 
would pay taxes. A wolf scalp is the skin off the top of the head with the 
two ears attached. There were wild cats also; their heads were shaped like 
a bulldog's ; they were of a gray color and had a short thick tail. There was 
also an animal that was called a porcupine. Its body was covered with quills ; 
they were very hard and tapered to a sharp point ; when disturbed they would 
turn the sharp points out from the body and when in quietude they lay flat 
on the body. I have known dogs to kill them, but I never knew a dog to 
kill one that didn't have to be made fast and the quills pulled out of his 
mouth with a pair of pincers. 

Beaver Dams. 

"There was also beaver in Marshall county. One day, I don't know 
when, I saw large trees growing on what is said to be a beaver dam. It is 
said the beaver used his tail for a trowel. There were otters here, it is said. 
I never saw one, as they are hard to see. They are an aquatic animal. There 
were plenty of mink here in an early day; they were sought for their fur. 
There are some here yet. There were plenty of wild turkeys here when this 
county was first settled. I have seen good-sized droves of them. When I 
was big enough to handle a gun it was hard to get a shot at a turkey or 
deer. I got to shoot the black and gray squirrels. They finally became extinct 
and the red squirrel and the fox squirrel took their place. The red and fox 
squirrels are more of a domestic nature. When the first settlers came here 
they cut the timber down on a spot of ground big enough that the trees 
wouldn't reach the house. Then they built the house and moved into it. 
They didn't have to haul any wood for a long time. The wild turkey hens, 
not being aware of their new neighbors, would stroll up within a few rods 
of the house with a drove of small turkeys. If you would catch the little 
turkeys, the hen would go through all kinds of monkey-shines. She showed 
to be in distress. 

"In the settling of Marshall county the prairie chickens were plentiful. 
They hatched in the marshes ; they were speckled and about the size of a 
pheasant. I don't think they were as plentiful, though, as the quail around 
Moses' Israelite camp. 

An Indian Doctor. 

"In the early settling of Marshall county snakes, frogs and mosquitoes 
were beyond enumeration. People and stock were bitten by the rattlesnakes. 


There were two kinds of rattlers, a big yellow one and a smaller one — a 
dirty brown. A man got bitten by one of these reptiles. They sent for an 
Indian doctor, and when he came he sat and looked at the sufferer and 
wouldn't do anything. The wife said to the doctor, 'Why don't you do 
something for him?' The doctor said, 'I want pay.' They soon got the 
spondulix and then the old Indian went to work. The Indians claimed there 
was an herb that grew in the woods for every ill that man was heir to. I 
am inclined to believe the Indians had some botanical instinct. There is no 
doubt but what the Indians could stop the effect of rattlesnake virus, but 
how extensive their knowledge was I don't know. 
Pioneer Ague. 

"Ague was prevalent among the early settlers; sometimes half the 
population would have the ague. It wasn't considered dangerous. When a 
man took the ague he would have a chill ; when the chill went off he would 
have a high fever and vomit everything out that was in him. His head 
would ache like it would burst. This occurred every other day until broken 
up ; quinine was the best remedy known to break it up, but in some cases 
it appeared that nothing would do it. I have known men to have it over a 
year before they could get clear of it. In those days quinine fluctuated ; it 
was $4 per ounce at one time ; many people were not able to buy it at any 
price. I think the ditching and driven wells had much to do with the ob- 
literation of the ague. 

Buck Ague. 

"There was another kind of ague that was called buck ague. It would 
come on a man when he was about to get a shot at a buck — a deer, I mean. 
When a man got it bad he would shake so bad he could hardly hold his gun ; 
there was never any fever after the chill went oft". In this kind of an ague 
the man that got it didn't get any venison, as a rule. 

Boot IMakers, Etc. 

"The pioneers, as a rule, made their own shoes. John Gibson, grand- 
father of ]\Irs. Broda Parks, tanned leather for the pioneers for a number 
of years. His son-in-law, Stephen Staley, bought the tannery and tanned 
leather for the pioneers for a number of years. A great many of the 
pioneers owned looms, and they made some beautiful blue cloth with a wool 
front and a cotton back. They wove some flannel cloth, took it to South 
Bend and had it fulled and called it full cloth. I have seen my mother spin 
sewing thread on a little wheel ; she spun it from flax. I said the pioneers 
made their own shoes; it has been said that necessity is the mother of in- 
vention ; I believe that is what invented so many shoemakers. 

"James O. Parks settled on land now owned by Jennie Weaver and Ada 
Parks in 1836 and cleared several farms. He was elected to the legislature 
twice. His first opponent was John L. Westervelt, of Plymouth, and his 
second C. H. Reeve, of Plymouth. 

"James Miner settled on the land now owned by Eli Shafer. The first 
ten acres of land he cleared and fenced he split the rails and carried them 
on his shoulder and built an eight-rail fence around the ten acres. He 
didn't own any team. He was a bachelor at that time, but he was not in- 
vincible, for Sallie Burnett wooed and won him. 


"Andrew Bearinger's house stood on a knoll on the east side of the 
road from Graham Rose's. He had a son, David, who became enthused 
with a girl. He had a rival. The girl was pivotal — the one who got there 
first had an option on her company. One Sunday there was a church in a 
log schoolhouse. David's rival got around first and got the girl's consent 
to let him walk home with her. David walked along behind them for a 
hundred yards or so until he became so jealous that he couldn't stand it any 
longer. He struck his rival, when they went into a dog fight. Some of the 
old pioneers not far off hurried to the scene of the fracas and separated 

"William Elder settled on the land now owned by Ebed Huffer. He 
was an industrious and an honest man and a fine railsplitter. He wore a 
knit cap the year round and was so badly tanned that he had a complexion 
like the red man of the forest. He would occasionally imbibe a little of the 
extract of corn. He said he didn't like the taste of it, but liked the funny 
effects it had on him. 

"There were three of the Taylor brothers : Joseph, William and 
George. They were stout men. Joseph started one morning before day- 
light to help one of his neighbors plant corn. While passing through a 
woods he was attacked by two wolves. He heard them coming and backed 
up against a tree and fought them until daylight, when they left him. He 
was wet with sweat keeping them at bay with an eye hoe, or a 'nigger hoe,' 
as they were sometimes called. James O. Parks and Solomon Linn went to 
the woods one day to locate some land. When night came on they had to 
climb trees and stay there till morning to protect themselves from the wolves. 
I am inclined to think they got lost and couldn't find the road home." 

Getting Lost in the Woods. 

In one of his articles Mr. Greer incorporates a letter which he had re- 
ceived from one of the early pioneers, commending his efforts in preserving 
some of the early history of the county that otherwise would have been lost. 
That part of the letter giving some additional historical information is here- 
with reproduced as follows : 

"My Dear Sir: I have been very much interested in reading your 
sketches of the early pioneers of the eastern portion of the county, and I 
want to thank you for the work you have done in preserving much useful 
and interesting historical matter which otherwise would have been lost to 
future generations. Your sketches are worthy of preservation, and the next 
history of the county, whenever it shall be written, will not be complete 
without at least a portion of them. 

"I remember nearly all the pioneers you name, but until I read your 
articles many of them had been forgotten. I had a little experience in the 
region of country traversed by you in your sketches that came back to me 
vividly as I read the names of many who were living there then and still 
in the prime of early manhood. It was on the day of the August election 
in 1849 that it happened. The county politically was quite evenly divided 
between the Whigs and Democrats, and while the Democrats had a little 
the best of it they did not have a sure thing by any means. There was 
considerable localinterest as to the outcome, and messengers were sent to 
the several polling places in the county to get the vote and carry it to the 


county seat. I was a boy then, and was selected by the Democrats to go 
to Tip Town and bring back the returns of the election with all possible 
speed. I was furnished with a horse to ride and an untanned sheepskin 
in place of a saddle. As you may well remember, the roads were little 
traveled, and at best were but an elaboration of the Indian trails of those 
days, the trees being blazed along the route to guide the weary traveler on 
his way. I passed through Lycurgus, but I do not remember whether your 
father or you lived there then or not. I think there was a blacksmith shop 
there, but who 'the village blacksmith' was I do not remember. 

"I reached Bourbon some time in the afternoon, and I thought it was 
the most dreary-looking place I ever saw. There were but a few log houses 
there then, and they stood in the midst of a wilderness of tall and stately 
forest trees. I remember one of the houses was built of logs and stood on 
the corner where is now the Matchette drug store. It was kept, I believe, 
by Robert Cornwall as a general store of small proportions. The only man 
I remember now of seeing was James O. Parks. He was the big man of 
the town at that time and for many years afterwards. I remember he di- 
rected me how to find my way to Tip Town. I got through all right, but 
owing to the 'red tape' method of the election board I did not get the returns 
until 7 o'clock. I started on the return trip as fast as I could go, but dark- 
ness soon came upon me. I lost the main road and was going I did not 
know where. I could hear the barking of many wolves in the distance in 
almost every direction, and what to do I did not know. I kept going, 
however, and finally came in sight of the smoke from a chimney in the 
woods. I hurried on, and when I reached it I found it was the old Perrin 
homestead. I told the family that I had missed the road to Plymouth and 
wished to be directed how I could find it. They told me it would be dan- 
gerous to attempt to go any farther in the 'pitch darkness' through the 
woods, and it did not take a great deal of coaxing to persuade me to put 
up my horse and stay all night. I did not sleep much that night. The ex- 
citement of the day and evening, the strangeness of the surroundings, the 
yelping of the wolves and the hooting of the night owls, and the thousands 
of mosquitoes that insisted on presenting their bills made sleep almost im- 
possible. I was up and out by break of day next morning, and after travers- 
ing the woods and Indian trails I brought up at the cabin of the elder 
Elliott, 'The Pilgrim,' as he called himself, some place in the region of In- 
wood. He made hickory chairs, I believe, and called his place 'Pilgrim's 
Rest.' He directed me how I could find Plymouth, and I hurried on, ar- 
riving there about noon, much to my own relief and to the relief of my 
parents and friends, who imagined all sorts of calamities had befallen me. 
Before I arrived home the returns already in showed that the Democratic 
ticket was elected, and thus ended my first experience in practical politics." 


"There was a plant that grew in the thick woods in Marshall county that 
covered the ground all over and was called ramps ; some people called them 
leeks. The cows would eat them and the butter couldn't be used. A cow's 
breath would almost vomit a man if he got a full blast of it. The wild 
turkeys would eat them and when a man killed a turkey that was rampy 
it was thrown away. I think the hog was the agent that caused the 


ramps to become extinct ; I think the ramp belongs to the onion or garhc 
family; they grew early in the spring and died in June. I believe. Wild 
onion's grew in Marshall county ; I have gathered them ; they grew up 
slender and the part that grew in the ground was about the size of a lead 

How They Cooked. 

"The pioneers had no cook stoves ; they cooked in front of the fire- 
places in ovens, skillets, pots and on board's, and they baked what they 
called a John-a-cake on a board in front of the fireplaces ; they had what 
they called a reflector, made of tin, and one side was open ; it had an 
inclined top and a grate in it, and they would set a pan of biscuits on the 
grate, set the reflector in front of the fire and the heat would strike the 
inclined top and reflect on the biscuits and cause them to bake. They were 
good, too. 

Cleaning Wheat. 

"I have seen my father and two other men blow the chaff out of wheat 
with a sheet. One man would pour the wheat down in a small stream, 
the other two would furnish the wind with the sheet. That beat having 
no biscuits. Years ago there was a porous substance that grew on decayed 
trees ; it was known as a sweet knot ; it had a fine odor, and could be 
scented, when the wind was favorable, for a considerable distance. This 
knot was inhabited by small insects which made the perfume, so it was 
said by those who claimed to know. 

"George H. Thayer settled on the land now owned by Milton Martin. 
He erected buildings, cleared the land and did blacksmithing. He also 
preached the gospel and was a talented and good man. 

"John Greer settled on land half a mile south. He was a violinist. 
When I was a small boy I heard him play a piece he called 'Sugar in the 
Gourd.' I thought it was delightful. It might have been the sugar that 
made it sound so well. Some of the old pioneers used to keep sugar in a 
gourd. I suppose that is what the song started from. It went something 
like this : 

Sugar in the gourd, 

Sugar all about ; 
It 's hard to get it in 
And hard to get it out. 

"Samuel R. Coons settled on lands that are now owned by Mrs. Vernet. 
He was somewhat of a politician and wanted to be sheriff, but never got 
there. J. B. McFarlin was a very sociable man and loved to sing. He 
compiled the books of the Old and New Testament into song. I have heard 
him sing it. It sounded pretty well. 

"North and northwest of Bourbon John Greer built a house in June. 
1836, on the land where the Bourbon schoolhouse now stands. He moved 
into it in September, and lived there six weeks before a white man came 
to the territory to live. Solomon Linn settled on land half a mile north 
of the main corners of Bourbon on the west side of the road. The front 
is now mostly covered with town. He came here in 1836, erected build- 
ings, cleared a good farm, lived there many years, and there he died." 



It was only a year or two after the clearing off of the ground, and the 
first crop of corn had been raised, until the grounds were sown in wheat. 
There were no drills in those days, and the wheat had to be sown "broad- 
cast." This was done in this way: A bushel and a half or two bushels were 
put in a sack, and thrown over the shoulder of the "sower." Stakes were 
set up at certain distances, at each side, on the top of which a white flag 
was attached. These were generally fifteen or twenty feet apart. The 
sower threw the sack over his left shoulder, the grain divided equally 
in the middle, with the front end partially opened so as to admit the right 
hand. The sower then started on his journey across the field, stepping 
about three feet at a stride and at every step taking out a handful of grain 
and sowing it "broadcast" before him. After a little experience, nearly all to 
whom that part of the farm work was assigned became quite expert, and 
the wheat came up very evenly all over the field. The ground was gen- 
erally dragged with a wooden harrow drawn by a yoke of oxen. Some- 
times the grain was "brushed" in; that is, the top limbs of small trees 
were pulled over the ground, which was an excellent substitute where 
harrows were not obtainable. 

After the grain had grown and ripened, the next thing was to harvest 
it, and this was done in this part of the country, at the time of which we 
write, almost entirely with what was called a "sickle," an agricultural 
implement almost entirely unknown to the present generation of farmers. It 
was a small implement made of steel in a crescent shape, and having a 
handle fitted to a tang. It had one side of the blade notched so as always 
to sharpen with a serrated edge so that when inserted into the grain it 
would be easily cut off, the reaper holding the stocks by the tops with the 
left hand, and pulling steadily, but firmly, with the right hand. 

Harvesting grain in this way was something that had to be learned, and 
without an exception those who first attempted it were sure to cut the lower 
part of the left little finger, which always left a scar by which he could 
ever after prove that he belonged to the great army of reapers. The writer 
has a "certificate" that he is one of 'em. Half an acre, or three-quarters, 
at most, was as much as the average reaper could cut and bind in a day. 
The swath was generally, according to the size of the man, and the reach 
of his arms, from three and a half to four feet in width. 

The operation has been described by a writer as follows : "The first 
movement was to cast the sickle into the standing grain, compelling it to 
lean somewhat toward the reaper, and then dexterously throwing forward 
the left leg, the grain was further led into the desired position ; then by 
throwing around it the right leg and the left arm and hand, it was in a 
position to be cut off by the sickle, ten or twelve inches above the ground, 
and dropped from the left hand of the reaper into piles. On the return, 
to rest his back, the reaper, carrying the sickle on his shoulder, properly 
twisted into his suspender so as to hold it there, he bound into sheaves 
the grain he had cut through the field and started in again. Usually five to 
ten persons composed these bands of reapers, one man following another, 
and their gyratory movements at cutting a half acre each per day would 
be a sight to the driver of the present stately harvesters. 


"Previous to 1840 the grain was thrashed, either with the flail or was 
tramped out with horses. Two men could flail out and winnow about twelve 
bushels per day, and two men and a boy, with horses, could tramp out and 
winnow about twenty bushels a day. The winnowing, or separating the 
grain from the chaf¥, was done by the hand sieve, pouring the mixed chaff 
and grain from above, two men at the ends of a bed sheet so vibrated it 
as to make a current of air which blew the chafi" to one side, while the 
heavier grain fell in a pile at their feet." 

The "flails" referred to above were a very awkward implement to 
handle, and if it so happened that he who used it was himself awkward, he 
would frequently get a knock on the head that would make him see stars. 
The handle part was about three and a half feet long, somewhat larger than 
an ordinary hoe handle. At the upper end a small auger hole was bored, 
through which a rope or cord was run. The upper part of the flail was a 
round piece of wood, larger than the handle, about a foot and a half 
long. An auger hole was bored through one end, and it was securely tied 
to the handle, leaving the rope a play of two or three inches. The operator 
raised the flail high above his head and brought it down with all the strength 
he could command. He kept on beating the heads of the sheaves until the 
grain was all loosened, when it was cleaned as above stated. 

It was probably in the '40s that the "cradle" began to be introduced 
here. It was a wonderful improvement over the sickle, and the man 
who owned a cradle and knew how to use it was considered to have a for- 
tune within his grasp. The scythe, up to that time, had been used solely 
to cut hay, which was cured on the ground and stacked in heaps without 
binding. In using these scythes, some one caught the idea that a frame with 
fingers that would hold the stalks of wheat and enable the cutter to lay it 
down with the heads together in one direction for binding, attached to the 
ordinary mowing scythe would be just the thing, and so it came to pass 
that the wheat cradle was invented. It was quite a nack to handle these 
cradles, and besides it was very laborious work. Usually a man could cut 
a swath four or five feet wide as rapidly as an expert could bind it in 

It was about this time that wooden wind mills for cleaning wheat, that 
is, separating the chaff from grain, began to make their appearance, and 
this was a most valuable improvement over the old primitive method of 
manipulating a bed quilt or sheet for the purpose of producing wind to 
drive out the chaff. 



It was hard "scratching," you may be sure, the first few years, to get 
enough wholesome food to live on after the pioneers settled near Maxin- 
kuckee lake. Corn, at first, was the staple product, as its growth was rapid 
and it could be used from the time it was in the milk stage imtil it ripened, 
about the time when "the frost was on the 'punkin' an' the fodder's in the 
shock." As soon as the ears began to "blister" they began to be plucked 
for use by roasting before the fire, by cutting the corn from the cob and 


frying and boiling, and cooking in various other ways. When the beans 
began to mature, a favorite dish was a pot of boiled corn and beans with a 
piece of fat pork to give the proper flavor. Potatoes and turnips, rutabagas, 
pumpkins and squashes, peas and onions, beets, cucumbers, lettuce, radishes, 
and all kinds of garden vegetables among which were all varieties of melons, 
were planted and grew in abundance, and of the very best quality. The 
woods, too, were full of a great variety of wild fruits, such as huckleberries, 
blackberries, raspberries, gooseberries, cranberries, wild cherries, paw paws, 
black and red haws, crab apples and plums, and other fruits in their season. 

And there was also an abundance of all kinds of wild game used for 
food, such as deer, turkeys, quails, ducks, prairie chickens, wild geese, 
pheasants, squirrels, and fish by the barrel whenever the big seine was drawn 
in the lake, so that, although it was quite different from what it is in 
these days of fancy dishes, the menu was sufficiently palatable and nutritious 
for all practical purposes. 

Buckwheat was a favorite crop, as it matured rapidly and required less 
labor to produce it than other grains. Hot buckwheat cakes for breakfast, 
with a plentiful supply of wild honey or maple molasses made a meal fit for 
a king. 

Almost every farm had a sufficient number of maple trees to open a 
sugar camp. Sugar troughs were made out of small poplar trees chopped 
out with an ax and adz and placed near the tree which was to be "tapped." 
"Spiles," as they were called, were made out of the branches of elder 
bushes. They were made about one foot in length, split in half, lengthwise, 
after which the pith was removed, thus forming a channel for the water 
to run into the trough. Holes were bored into the trees, into which the 
spile was inserted. The trough was placed under the end of the spile 
through which the water, as it ran from the tree, was carried and emptied. 
A sugar camp was established at a convenient place on the grounds, a 
furnace was made of "niggerheads" arranged so that large kettles could be 
set in and heated from below. Sometimes a pole held in the forks or 
crotches of stakes at each end would be used to hold up the kettles so that 
fire could be kept burning underneath. Large wooden barrels or tanks were 
kept standing near by, into which the sugar water would be emptied as it 
was drawn in on sleds or carried by hand in wooden buckets as fast as 
the troughs were filled. LTsually it was made the duty of the women and 
girls of the family to boil the water down to the molasses or sugar point, 
while the "old man" and the boys chopped and hauled the wood for fuel, 
and looked after the taking care of the water. There was a good deal 
of work about these primitive sugar camps, and it required a good deal 
of experience to ascertain just where the molasses point ended and the 
graining, or sugar point began. Frequently when the "stirring off" time 
came the young people of the neighborhood for miles around would congre- 
gate at a favorite camp, have a molasses pulling and make a night of 
it and the "boys would go home with the girls in the morning." These 
were joyful times for the young people of those primitive days. Sugar 
making time was always in the spring of the year when the flowers were 
just budding into bloom and making the air fragrant with their sweetness; 
when the woodlands were clothed in their habiliments of living green ; 
when the bird songsters sang joyously in the rich foliage, and all nature 


joined in the glad anthem. Really the people were very happy then. They 
were the children of nature and knew nothing of the annoyances and per- 
plexities of the break-neck world in which we are now living. 

Canned fruits were not known in those days. Peaches and apples, 
after they began to be raised, were cut into pieces, and strung on a thread 
to dry. All kinds of wild cherries were spread out on a cloth and dried in 
the sun. When sufficiently cured they were put in a sack and hung up 
on a, peg handy for use when wanted. Pumpkins and squashes were cut 
into thin rings, peeled and hung up on a pole to dry. 

When deer were killed, the saddles, or the hams, were partially dried, or 
"jerked," as it was called, as in this way it could be kept longer for use 
and was more palatable than when salted and preserved in brine. The 
hides were neatly dressed and trimmed, and tacked up to the gable end 
of the house to dry. 

The common American deer was the only variety found here when this 
county was first settled by the whites. This graceful animal was the most 
useful of all the wild game found here at that time. Its flesh was a very 
palatable and easily digestible article of food, its skin was made into various 
articles of clothing, and especially for moccasins, both for the Indian and 
the white man. Its horns were useful for handles for dififerent kinds of 
cutlery, and its sinews for bow ■ strings and other uses. During the day 
they usually retired to thickets and swamps, coming out to feed and drnik 
by night, although they were frequently seen in daylight. In the winter 
they lived on buds of the wild rose, brambles, and various berries and 
leaves, and in spring and summer on the tenderest leaves and grasses. Some- 
times when the males would meet tremendous battles would ensue, resulting 
often in the death of one or both of the combatants. In January their 
horns would drop off, after which they would live peaceably, as if conscious 
of their weak and defenseless condition. The young were generally bokn 
in May or June. They were carefully concealed, and were visited by 
their mother by day only occasionally, as at morning, noon and night. These 
fawns were easily domesticated, but they were troublesome pets, and were 
seldom kept any great length of time. The mother was much attached to 
her young and the imitation of their cry was often practiced by the Indians 
to bring the mother within reach of their weapons. The young, until 
about the age of four months, were bright reddish brown, with irregular 
white spots; after that age the spots disappeared and they resembled the 
old ones. Preferring to roam at night in search of food, they frequented 
the banks of lakes and water courses and salt licks, where they were easily 
destroyed. In walking, the deer carried his head low, the largest animal 
usually leading the herd, which went in single file. When alarmed it gave 
two or three high and exceedingly graceful springs, and if he saw any 
danger, he rushed off with the speed of a race horse, running low with the 
head in line with the body. They took to water readily, -and could swim 
with their bodies deeply submerged, and so rapidly that nothing but an 
Indian canoe could easily overtake them. 

There were expert hunters and fishermen in those days, those who knew 
where the runways of the deer were, who knew all about their peculiarities 
and habits, and those who were familiar with the best fishing holes in the 


lake and river, and what sort of fishing tackle was the best to use to capture 
the various kinds of fish that were the most numerous at that time. 

The guns used then in hunting deer and other wild animals were rifles 
loaded wi'th a single ball, instead of the double barrelled shot gun now in 
almost universal use, so that the hunter, if he missed his aim, or failed 
to hit his game the first time, before he could load and fire again the fleet 
footed skipper would be a mile or so away in the woods and underbrush. 
If the shot happened to strike the deer and wound him, not so severely, 
however, as to prevent him from running, sometimes a long chase would 
ensue before he was finally tired out and exhausted by the "hounds" that 
were sent after him. If it happened to be a big buck with horns like an 
elk, after his fright was over he would occasionally turn and fight his pur- 
suers. The barking of the dogs would frequently hold him at bay until the 
hunter could overtake him and fire another shot which would almost always 
bring him to his knees and finally result in his capture. 

The animal was usually skinned, and only the hide and saddles and 
tallow carried home, unless it was a small animal and there was more than 
one hunter, in that case the legs of the deer would be tied together, a pole 
passed between them, and it would be carried home on the men's shoulders. 

There were pretty good marksmen among the old pioneer hunters, those 
who could pick a squirrel out of the tops of the highest trees, and had no 
trouble in hitting wild turkeys and other wild fowl, that couldn't hit a 
deer one time in a dozen. The sight of a deer within shooting distance 
would invariably give him what was called the "buck ager," that is, his 
nerves would become unstrung and he would shake and tremble like an 
aspen leaf, making it impossible for him to hold his gun steady enough to 
get a focus on the animal, and so, if he fired and happened to hit hini it 
was by accident. Those who were afflicted with this annoying disease seldom 
overcame it. It was a chronic ailment from which there seemed to be no 

Deer were very plenty in the region of Maxinkuckee lake. They went 
in families, or droves, and had regular runways from their feeding grounds 
to the lake and river where they went to drink. Near these watering 
places salt would sometimes be scattered, and these cunning animals soon 
cultivated a taste for this saline substance, and could be frequently found 
at these "licks" if the hunter could secrete himself so as not to be seen. 

It was not an unusual sight to see eight or ten deer running through the 
prairies or woods, and the writer, when a small boy, remembers of having 
seen a drove of twenty, running tandem through an open stretch of 
ground about one-half mile from his father's house. They were running 
in a leisurely lope, with their short white tails erect. It was an exciting 
and beautiful sight, one that will never be forgotten. 

Many hunting stories are still remembered, some of which, although 
strictly true in every way, will be hard to be believed by the present gen- 

Sidney Williams, who settled in the territory now known as Walnut 
township, in the vicinity of Argos, was an expert rifleman, and if he had 
half a chance he was sure to bring down his game every time, and in many 
of his hunting tours he frequently brought in from one to half a dozen 
deer. On one occasion he saw a large buck feeding on an island in a 


marsh not far away. He told the hunter who was with him that he would 
have that animal, and perhaps three or four others that were grazing in 
the bushes near by. The buck on the island was a sentinel to give warning 
to those in the bushes of approaching danger, for, it should be known 
that these animals have a system of signals to enable them to flee from 
danger as have other noncombatants. Williams prepared himself for his 
trip across the marsh by cutting a willow bush and sticking the stem under 
his coat collar and letting the branches hang over his head while he crept 
on his hands and knees about forty rods until he got within shooting distance. 

The deer looked in astonishment at the moving bush, but before he could 
make out what it was, Williams had leveled his gun, taken aim, pulled the 
trigger and the deer fell dead, the ball having passed through its heart. 
Two other fat sleek fellows came out of the bushes to see what the matter 
was. One of them was killed, but the gun failing to "go oft" the other 
escaped by running away as fast as his legs could carry him. 

At another time he started after a gang of nine deer early in the morn- 
ing. At first he commenced firing light charges. He followed them up, 
increasing the charges until they became used to it and did not appear to 
be disturbed by the sound of the gun. He succeeded in shooting the leader, 
after which the balance of the gang becam.e confused so that they did not 
know what to do or where to go. Williams continued to drop one every 
shot until at four o'clock in the afternoon he had the entire gang of nine 
deer scattered around so near together that in less than two hours he had 
secured a wagon and -a man to help him, and had them loaded and ready 
to start for home ! 

At another time, another hunter of the neighborhood, with a pack of 
dogs started up five deer which were chased to the bluff on Maxinkuckee 
lake. It was in the winter season of the year and the lake was frozen over 
with a coating of smooth ice. The deer went down the bank, struck the 
ice and fell perfectly helpless. An ax was secured and all five of the deer 
were knocked in the head and killed. 

If the reader has any doubt about the truthfulness of this story, a blank 
affidavit will be secured, properly filled out and affirmed to, and filed as 
an evidence of good faith in the archives of the Ananias club. 

There were fur traders all through this region at that time, who 
visited the various settlements periodically and paid good prices for all 
kinds of hides. 

Raccoons were plenty all through the woods, and coon hunting by the 
light of the moon was a favorite amusement for the boys, and even the 
old men occasionally enjoyed the exciting sport. A good coon dog was a 
necessity. Without a dog that could scent the track of a coon, run him 
down, tree him and hold him there, and bark so you could follow him up 
and find "where he was at," it would be next to impossible to catch any of 
these night prowlers. 

Sometimes two or three coons would be run up the same tree. They 
usually went as near the top as possible and hid in the forks. If the moon 
shone bright enough they could sometimes be brought down by a rifle shot, 
but this did not often happen. If some of the boys could climb the tree 
and had courage enough to do so, his coonship might be punched oft of his 
perch with a stick, and if he fell to the ground he was sure to be caught. If 


the dog understood his business. Usually, however, to secure the game 
the tree had to be chopped down. The dog watched which way it was 
falUng and by the time it was down he was at the top, among the Hmbs. 
ready to catch his victim if he had not been killed or crippled in the fall 
of the tree. Then a fight for life would ensue, for these raccoons were 
warriors from away back. If the dog could hold them until the hunters 
could get to his assistance the tragedy was ended and the defenseless 
animal was knocked in the head with an ax and killed. If there was 
more than one, the others would generally get away and climb the nearest 
tree, when, if they were captured, the same operation would be gone through 

Sometimes in the race after coons, the dogs would scare up a polecat, 
and, pressed too close, he would open his perfume sack and the sickening 
stench he would emit was enough to knock a strong man down. There is 
probably no smell on earth so deathly nauseating as that of this spunky 
little animal, if you happen to be in close proximity to him when he decides 
to give you an illustration of the manner in which he defends himself. 
He is provided with a small sack in which the fluid is deposited. When 
closely pressed the fluid is emitted and "switched" into the face of the 
enemy from the end of his long bushy tail. It is an efficient weapon, for the 
odor is so exceedingly strong that even animals turn and run to get away 
from it. They are of the weazel family, and live mostly on fowls of various 
kinds. In the early days the woods were full of them, but of late years 
they have become almost extinct, for which — thanks ! 

There was another little animal, quite numerous about that time, that 
also had a peculiar but very effective way of defending himself — the porcu- 
pine. He was furnished with quills upon his body covered with sharp 
prickles, some of which were as much as twelve inches long, and capable of 
being erected at pleasure. When attacked he rolled his body into a round 
form, in which position the prickles were presented in every direction to 
the enemy. The ends of the quills were as hard and sharp as the points 
of steel darning needles, and no animal could touch him without being 
severely punished. He would remain rolled up in a round form until the 
danger had passed, when he would undo himself and go about his business. 

At that time there were also panthers and catamounts lurking about 
through the woods, and an occasional black bear was seen between 1835-40, 
but these animals being dangerous to the inhabitants were soon killed and 
driven otit by the white hunters and Indians who were still in that region. 


The splendidly cultivated farms, the substantial brick and frame houses 
with their elegant and comfortable furnishings, the large and well filled 
bank barns, with sheds and buildings in which all kinds of farm machinery 
is housed ready. for use when wanted, are in striking contrast with the 
dwellings and general outfit of the pioneers who were here at the begin- 
ning of the settlement of the county and for many years afterwards. 


Prior to 1850 there was probably not, outside of Plymouth, half a dozen 
houses built of any other material than logs. Up to that time, at least, 
there was no steam saw mills, and only two or three water mills where 
lumber was sawed. There was one of these mills at Wolf creek and one at 
Plymouth. This latter mill was located on Y'ellow river about half way 
between Zehner's flouring mill and the dam a short distance above. Evi- 
dences of the old dam and race are still visible. Alilburn Coe was the 
pioneer who had the courage to establish this early enterprise. Each of 
these mills was operated with a single upright saw, and the amount of 
lumber manufactured did not begin to supply the demand for doors, 
window frames, floors, etc., and was too expensive to put into houses. 

The water power by which these mills were operated was very uncer- 
tain. The dams were constructed of brush, limbs and logs, dirt and stone, 
and for many years, every time there was a freshet these dams would gen- 
erally go out with a rush and a roar. In 1850 a heavy rain and sudden 
rise of water in Wolf creek carried away the dam. Robert C. Bliven, who 
happened to be out about the center of the dam, was caught in the break, 
carried ofi" in the great rush of water and drowned. It took a long time to 
repair broken dams, and in the meantime the mills stood idle, often for many 
months, and so the supply of lumber was at no time for many years equal 
to the demand. 

Before these mills were built there was some lumber sawed with what 
was called "whip saws," and the first sawed boards the writer ever remem- 
bers to have seen were manufactured in this way. It was a very slow 
process, this cutting lumber with a whip saw, but it supplied boards for 
doors, sash, casings, etc., and therefore was a step in advance of the broad 
axe. A platform ten or twelve feet high was erected, on to which small 
poplar logs were "skidded" up poles placed in a slanting position. The 
saw was about six feet in length, with long handles, and was operated by 
two men, one on top of the platform, and the other underneath, on the 
ground. The top man pulled the saw up and the man on the ground, with 
a bandanna tied over his eyes to keep the sawdust out pulled it down. 
It was very slow and very hard work, and beyond the actual w^ants for the 
purposes named, no lumber was sawed. The size of the boards was very 
irregular. If, when the saw started in, the board was an inch and a 
quarter, or an inch and a half, there was no telling what it would be in 
the middle, or at the end when it came out. When the saw got a start 
in one direction it was hard to get it turned back, and then it was likely 
to go as far the other way before it could be checked and brought into 
the line marked out for it to follow. If any of these boards are still in 
existence they ought to be preserved as relics of the beginning of our civ- 
ilization. They would be a great curiosity to the present generation. 

There being no lumber, brick, or other materials out of which houses 
could be built, the next best thing was to construct them out of logs. But 
before attempting a description of these early cabins, it will be interesting 
to many to give a brief pen picture of the Indians found here, their wig- 
wams, and the mode of living at the time the first white settlement was 

The Indians that were here then, estimated to be about 1,500 in the 
entire county, lived in what is generally known as "wigwams." They were 


made out of poles set in the ground some distance apart, and coming 
together five or six feet at the lop where they were securely tied together 
with strings made of rawhide, hickory or other bark. They were enclosed 
with limbs and brush, outside of which was a covering of hides of deer, fox, 
and other animals to shed the rain and snow, and to keep out the cold in 
winter. In front of the wigwam was an opening for passage in and out, 
which had for a door skins of animals fastened together, and tied to the 
poles at the top, from which it hung loose to the bottom. 

The furnishings of these primitive dwellings were very few, plain, and 
simple. They had no chairs, stands, bedsteads, tables, cupboards or bureaus. 
The beds were of grass, leaves and mosses spread out on the ground and 
covered with the skins of animals dressed with the hair on. These hides 
were also sometimes used for covering, but the principal article of covering, 
however, was coarse woolen, or partly woolen colored blankets, furnished 
by the government, or purchased of traders who early found their way 
among the Indians in this part of the country. 

These wigwams were generally located near the lakes and water courses, 
so that those who lived in them could easily supply themselves with water 
for drinking and cooking purposes, and fish, frogs and water fowl for food. 
They were supplied with very few cooking utensils, and, as a consequence, the 
provisions on which they lived were mostly eaten without cooking. Venison, 
fowl and fish were broiled over fires made of logs and limbs. They were 
cut into convenient pieces and held over the fire on the end of short sticks. 
They had no salt or pepper and their food was prepared without seasoning. 

During the spring and summer the squaws cultivated small patches of 
ground with sharp sticks, stone shovels, and sinall iron hoes and picks, on 
which they raised Indian corn, potatoes, and other vegetables in small quan- 
tities. The male Indians supplied the wigwams with wild meats and fish, 
and this constituted the food supply of these early inhabitants. 

Except in the winter season, when the weather was very cold, they wore 
a very scanty supply of clothing. Their footgear was moccasins made of 
soft tanned deer skin, and some of them were ornamented with a variety 
of colored beads worked into them in fantastic shapes, and they were other- 
wise adorned with colored ribbons, etc. Their shirts and trousers, as 
we call them, were made of tanned buckskin sewed together with strings 
made of hides, and were ornamented in various ways with fringes, beads, 
shells and other things to attract the eye of the beholder. All were provided 
with blankets which they wore over their shoulders, folded in their arms 
tightly around their bodies. 

Very few of them wore any sort of head dress. They had no use for 
hats and caps. Their heads were covered with a heavy mass of coarse 
black hair, which, as they never had it cut, was all the protection they 
needed. The big Indians, the chiefs, and High-muck-a-mucks, of course, 
wore feathered headgear to distinguish themselves from the common every- 
day Indian. It is somewhat remarkable that the oldest inhabitant does 
not remember ever having seen an Indian with a bald head, or one with 
a full beard. As a race, they seem to have had an aversion to the beard, 
and occupied their leisure time, of which they had more than they knew 
what to do with, pulling out by the roots the thinly scattered hairs that 
showed themselves on their copper colored physiognomies. 



But there were other things than those which imply the drudgery of 
farming connected with farm life. Those who tell of the pioneer days are 
too apt to present the dark side of the picture — the toils and privations 
and sufferings that all the early settlers were compelled, by force of cir- 
cumstances, to endure. 

As years went by, other industries than chopping down trees and plow- 
ing up and planting the ground, and cultivating and harvesting the crops 
occupied the time of the people, and so it came to pass in the course of 
time that many diversified occupations sprang up that furnished less laborious 
and more congenial employment to many who were unable to do the work 
required in clearing and preparing the thick timbered lands for cultivation. 

Brick making was a necessary industry that was early established in 
two or three places in the county. The first one that is remembered was 
located on what is now the Berlin farm, a short distance north of the 
present village of Rutland. All that region was settled as far back as 
1836, and among the first inhabitants were Piatt B. Dickson, and his sons, 
John, Bayless, Elias and Hugh; William Thompson, and his sons, Lewis, 
John, Eleazer and Ed : Thomas and Samuel McDonald ; Daniel Hults and 
his sons. Joseph and Uriah ; Tivis Porter, Vincent Brownlee, David Voreis, 
Hiram Lish and several others. The brick yard referred to was on the farm 
of Piatt Dickson, to the west, in front of and across the road from the 
present residence of Thomas Berlin. A clay bank had been opened a mile 
west on the farm of John Dickson, out of which it was found fairly good 
bricks could be made. In excavating in this clay bank, when at a depth of 
ten or twelve feet from the surface, in breaking off a large lump of firmly 
cemented clay, a tree toad was found solidly embedded therein. It was 
removed from its imprisonment and placed on a board in the warm sun. In 
less than half an hour it came to life and hopped off as lively as if nothing 
had happened. How it came to be there and how it could retain the life 
principle, possibly for ages, and then again come to active life, is a conun- 
drum which is respectfully referred to those who know more about it than 
the writer. 

The writer has a very vivid recollection of that primitive brick yard. 
He was quite young, only having just entered into his teens, and his employ- 
ment there — off-bearing bricks — was the first labor, other than doing 
"chores" around the house, he had ever performed. About an eighth of an 
acre of ground was scraped off until the soil was removed, and leveled down 
to the smoothness of a floor, when it was given a light coating of fine dry 
sand. The hollow trunk of a large size beech tree, about ten feet in length, 
sawed square off at each end, was procured. A shaft was placed in the 
center, fastened at the top in a hole made in two cross-bars, and at the 
bottom in a wooden socket. At the bottom of this shaft were four iron 
paddles shaped something like the screw paddles of a steam propeller, for 
the purpose of grinding the clay into mortar. On the top was fastened a 
crooked beam, which projected out and down a sufficient distance so that 
a horse could be handily hitched to the lower end. Into this beech gum 
hopper the dry clay was thrown until it was partly full when water was 
thrown upon it to give it the proper consistency, when the horse was 


started to grinding. A square hole and a pit was made at the bottom, into 
which the mud was forced, and from here it was taken on wheelbarrows 
up a gang plank, and dumped on a large square table, where it was worked 
up by the molder into bricks and carried off in molds by the "off-bearer" 
and laid down on the yard in rows to dry. 

It was considerable of a trick to fill the molds properly and expedi- 
tiously. An expert could usually fill up the molds as rapidly as three or four 
men or boys could carry them away and deposit them on the yard. Each 
mold was made to hold three bricks, the weight of which would probably 
be six or eight pounds. The molder stood at the table, mud before him, 
and a pile of sand near by. Before laying his mold on the table the oft'- 
bearer sanded it by dipping it into water and then into a box containing 
dry sand, so that the mud would not stick to the molds. The molder cut 
off with his right hand a chunk of mud which he supposed was sufficiently 
large to fill one apartment of the mold, rolled it in the sand to the shape 
of an old-fashioned "corn dodger," and slammed it into the mold with 
sufficient force to fill the apartment and make a perfect brick. The other 
apartments were filled in the same way. The surplus mud on top was 
cut off with a sharp, smooth wooden knife, and the mold was ready to be 
carried oft" by the oft"-bearer. The first were carried to the farthest part 
of the yard, the mold laid down on the lower edge and, with a quick 
motion, turned over and the mold removed, leaving the bricks to their 
fate. And so the process was continued until the yard was full of green 
bricks laid out in the sun to dry. 

It was a very easy thing for one who couldn't get the hang of off- 
bearing to spoil more bricks in a day than his wages would come to. If 
he laid his mold down too close, he was sure to spoil the bricks in front 
by turning his mold over on them, and mashing them out of shape. In 
that event they had to be removed, and that took time in addition to 
spoiling them. 

If the weather was warm and dry, a yard full of bricks could be made 
and taken care of in two or three days. After drying the first day, all hands 
had to help turn them bottomside up to the sun to dry. Sometimes a 
gathering cloud would indicate a sudden rain and then every one went 
to work carrying in the dry or partly dry bricks and piling them up in 
ricks under sheds built for that purpose. Frequently the rain would come 
up so suddenly that a whole yard full of green bricks would be drenched 
and entirely spoiled. Then the mud would have to be shoveled up and 
carted away to the dump, the yard scraped off and resanded, and work 
commenced again as before. 

The most difficult task in connection with brickmaking in the olden 
times, and even yet, was placing them in a kiln in such a way as to permit 
the heat to penetrate all parts of the structure so that the bricks would be 
burned evenly throughout. Arches every three or four feet, extending 
through the kiln from one side to the other, into which it was necessary 
that fire should be kept constantly burning, had to be carefully con- 
structed, and after the whole was completed it was tightly incased with 
bricks, and plastered over with soft mud all around. Air holes, and smoke 
holes were made in the top to regulate the smoke and heat, and when 
all was ready, fire was started in the arclics, and the burning process was 


begun. The heating was gradual at first, until the bricks were sufficiently 
hot to prevent breaking or cracking. Then the poplar rails and kindlings 
of various kinds were shoved into" the arches the full length and every- 
thing was kept red hot for a fortnight when the fires were allowed to go 
gradually out. and the burning process was at an end. 

It was necessary to keep the fires up night and day, and so the brick 
yard hands were divided oft into two gangs, one to work in the day time, 
and the other to worry through the night. If the fires were allowed to 
go down, the effect was to injure the quality of the bricks : or, if they were 
made too hot. it was liable to result in making clinkers of those near the 
arches, twist them out of shape, and thus render them unfit for use. 

The writer was left in charge of the red hot kiln one night, and directed 
to keep the fires going steadily. Between two and three o'clock in the 
morning, overcome by exhaustion and many nights of broken rest, he sat 
down by a post near one of the arches, and in spite of every eft'ort to 
keep awake he dropped over, sound asleep. As good luck would have it. 
one of the proprietors, living near by, happening to awaken earlier than 
usual, came on the scene in time to prevent the fires from going out. When 
the sleeper awoke about seven o'clock in the morning, he found himself 
lying flat on the ground, his trousers legs full of straw, and a bouquet of 
dogfennel adorning his manly bosom. To say that he was frightened on 
account of the probability that, by his failure to keep awake, he had more 
than likely ruined the whole summer's work, and that he was ashamed 
of the sorry plight in which he found himself, would not half express the 
utter ridiculousness of the situation. After ascertaining, however, that no 
serious damage had been done, he gradually regained his equilibrium and all 
went well thereafter. 

Those who composed the night forces during the burning of kilns were 
generally reinforced during the evenings by some of the neighboring boys, 
and a detail was usually designated to forage the chicken roosts, apple 
and peach orchards, corn fields and melon patches in the neighborhood, 
for provender for the night's meal. If the family dog did not make too 
much noise and arouse the lord of the household, but little trouble was 
ever encountered in securing everything necessary to provide a banquet 
fit for a king. 

It sometimes happened, however, that old bowser, a little more wakeful 
than usual, kept up such a yelping as to arouse the man of the house, and 
in that event the foragers took to their heels and ran away as fast as ever 
they could go. They didn't always get away without the discovery being 
made as to who they were, and in that event it didn't require much of an 
effort to effect a compromise, it being generally understood in all the country 
round about that the brick burners were privileged characters. On one 
occasion the dog caught the forager by the coat tail just as he was climbing 
the fence. The struggle was sharp, short and decisive. The forager tore 
himself loose and made his escape, but left a large section of his coat tail 
on the other side of the fence. 

The chickens were killed, dressed and roasted by holding them on sharp 
sticks before the red hot arches, and those who were detailed to do the 
cooking soon learned the art of roasting them to perfection, and, with the 
other articles which went to make up the bill of fare, a supper was spread 


such as is seldom provided in these days of advanced civihzation. One that 
is remembered consisted of roast chicken, roast squirrel, baked sweet and 
Irish potatoes, old-fashioned corn pone, baked green apples, "roastin' ears," 
new cucumbers and onions, sweet milk, new sweet cider, hot coffee, cherry 
pie and fried cakes. After that came the soothing corncob pipe and the 
delicious chew of pigtail tobacco. More relishable banquets at $50 a plate 
may have been partaken of at Delmonico's, but it wouldn't be believed by 
any of those who sat down to that midnight banquet nearly fifty years ago. 
It was while here that the typhoid fever prostrated the writer to such 
an extent as to come near sending him to the sweet by and by. The 
summer was hot, the surface water full of malaria, and medicines and 
medical aid v/as almost impossible to be had. Dr. White, a long, lean, lank, 
cadaverous looking specimen of the genus homo, who had but recently 
located in Plymouth, was sent for. Of course he felt the pulse, looked at 
the tongue, and the first thing he did was to administer a dose of "calomel 
and jollup," strong enough to have killed an elephant. He said it was 
intended to do divers and sundry mysterious and marvelous things. It 
was to act as a purgative, and by producing salivation, would break up the 
disease and cure the patient. It did pretty much everything he said it would 
do, and a good man\ more, except cure him. It salivated him beautifully. 
His gums became a canker sore; his teeth loosened, and some of them fell 
out ; he was parched and burning up with fever, but not a drop of water 
would they give him to drink. For several days his life hung on a very 
slender thread, and the doctor, looking wise and dignified, said he didn't 
believe he would ever recover. One night, however, after he had gained a 
little strength in spite of the doctor, when the watcher had dropped to sleep 
from exhaustion, he managed, in some way, to get out of bed and crawl to 
the water pail where he drank three or four tin cup fulls of water as fast 
as he could pour them down. When the watcher awoke and found what 
had happened, he aroused the household and immediately sent for the man 
of the saddle-bags, supposing, of course, that the patient would die within 
a short time. But he didn't. From that very minute the fever was 
broken, and in less than a week he was up and around, and in a short time 
had fully recovered. 


The old time disciples of Izaak Walton were not provided with silver 
and nickle-plated reels, silk lines and silver jointed poles as the fishermen are 
in these flubdub days of fine things. Those who fished with hook and line 
had to put up with a hickory pole, a line half as big as your little finger, 
and hooks — if big fish were to be caught, large enough to pull in a small 

On Maxinkuckee lake, boats or canoes made of sawed boards were not 
known. The water craft in use then were made out of medium sized poplar 
trees. They were made much the shape of the modern fancy canoes so 
numerous on that beautiful lake at the present time. They were rounded 
off at the ends to a sharp point, dressed at the sides and bottom, and 


dug out with an ax and adz so as to leave the sides and bottom the proper 
thickness. We have seen many of these "dug outs" that were, really, "a 
thing of beauty and a joy forever." Oar locks and oars were not known 
here then. A long pole was used to propel the boat, especially in the rivers, 
and also in the lakes until deep water was reached, when a single paddle 
was substituted. 

Spearing, or "gigging," as everybody then called it, was the favorite 
mode of fishing for many years. This kind of fishing had to be mostly 
done at night with a light made of shell bark from hickory trees carried in 
an iron holder on the front of the boat, or in hand by an assistant. The 
glare of the light seemed to blind the fish, and also enable the fishermen to 
see large fish at a considerable distance. It required a good deal of practice 
and excellent judgment as to how far away he was to hit a fish, even if he 
happened to be only a short distance from the boat. An inexperienced 
"gigger" was a good deal more apt to strike under or over, than to hit 
where he intended. An expert with the spear, however, seldom missed his 
aim, and before morning generally went to shore with as many fish as 
could be carried safely in the boat. 

Among the most expert "giggers" was Charley Logan. If he got sight 
of a fish he seldom ever failed to take him in out of the wet. It was a 
common saying among the people in those days that, when he took his 
boat and "gig," and started out on the river or lake, the fish were so sure 
their last days had come that they actually jumped into the boat and 
gave up. 

The lake and river was, at that period, as the saying was, full and 
running over with all kinds of the finest fish imaginable, such as grass pike, 
black, yellow and rock bass, river salmon, cat fish, besides all the different 
varieties still making these waters their home. 

Seining was followed to considerable extent for many years. A com- 
pany was formed and a seine over one hundred feet long was made, for use, 
mostly, in Maxinkuckee. It was a good deal of work to draw the seine, but 
the labor was generally rewarded with a bairel or two of fish at each 
drawing. It was more difficult to catch fish with a seine in the rivers than 
in the lakes, on account of the roots, logs and limbs. But fish were very 
plentiful in the deep holes, and it required but a short time to catch all 
that were needed for food, and that was all they were caught for, there 
being no sale for them. A great many fished with hook and line, generally 
using frogs for bait. 

Another way of catching fish in the rivers was by building a fish. trap 
from one bank to the other. One that is remembered was built across 
Yellow river below what was then called the "Shirley Ford." Several 
fishermen went up stream half or three-quarters of a mile, and with sticks 
and clubs drove the fish down into the trap. Among the lot caught the 
first drive were about forty pike, not one of which weighed less than five 
pounds, many of them would weigh as much as ten pounds, and a few of 
them even more than that. 

Among the numerous varieties of fish that were caught at that time 
were fresh water eels. They were all the way from one to two and a half 
feet in length, and resembled a very large black snake. They had no fins 
or scales and propelled themselves through the water by a "wiggling" 


motion, something like the movement of tadpoles. In dressing them the 
skin was peeled off, and they have been known to show signs of life for 
some time after that operation was performed, and it has been declared 
by those who professed to know, that pieces of eels placed in a frying pan 
to cook have been known to jump out into the fire, and this, it is believed, 
is how originated the expression, "out of the frying pan into the fire." 
The writer does not vouch for the truth of this statement, but if old Bill 
Jones was alive he would swear to it. This species of fish has become 
almost extinct. Only now and then one is caught, and a few years more 
and all will be gone. 

The gar was another fish quite numerous then. There are still some 
left, but they have greatly decreased in numbers during the past half cen- 
tury. They are said to be the oldest species of fish now in existence, having 
come on down through the ages from the earliest times to the present. 
They are from one to five feet in length, and the body is covered with 
smooth enameled scales, arranged in oblique rows, and they are so hard 
that it is impossible to pierce them with a spear. This enamel is like that 
of teeth, and the scales contain the ordinary properties of bone structure. 
It has a long mouth or snout, the upper and lower jaw being provided 
with numerous fine teeth. They are beautiful fish, but are not fit to eat. 
They frequent shallow, reedy places, basking in the sun like the pike and 
devouring living prey with great voracity. They are often seen apparently 
sleeping on the surface of the water, and some have been picked up with 
dip nets and other fishing tackle on Maxinkuckee lake by fishermen passing 
near by in boats. In this way the writer caught one with a troll line a 
number of years ago that measured exactly four feet. A string was tied 
around his gills and fastened to the boat, and while still fishing without 
being anchored, the fish began to pull, and having succeeded in getting 
the boat in motion actually pulled it more than half a mile to the shore, 
as "witness my hand and seal this day of 189. .." 


Wild honey was one of the table comforts in the early days. Bee trees 
were numerous everywhere through the thick woods, and it was no trick 
at all for an expert bee hunter to find enough bee trees to keep the neigh- 
borhood in honey the year round. 

Wild bees made their home in the hollow limbs of trees, or in the hollow 
places in the trunks of trees, if they were not too large and were properly 
protected from the sun and the inclemency of the weather. 

By watching the direction of the working bee, after he had secured his 
load of honey extracted from the flowers, it was not much trouble to find 
the tree, as the bee, after arising from the flower beds a short distance in the 
air, circled around a time or two as if to find his bearing, when he would 
fly away in a straight direction as if he had been shot out of a gun. After 
starting he never varied in the least from his course, and this is how orig- 
inated the saying, "as straight as a bee line." If the bee hunter could 
follow a straight line he could usually find the tree. If he lost his course 


all he had to do was to go back and try it over again. If he was careful 
he could keep i^i the direction by getting two or three trees some distance 
apart in line and continuing in this way until the tree was found, or until 
he had given up the hunt. 

Often bee trees could be found by walking through the woods on bright 
sunny days and looking into the tops of the trees and watching for the bees 
coming and going. 

When a bee tree was found it was marked and the way to it blazed so 
that it might be found when the time came to cut it down. When the tree 
was felled it wasn't quite safe to go near where the bees were until they 
recovered from their fright and settled down to business again. 

Securing the honey was, so far as the innocent, industrious bees were 
concerned, a cruel piece of business. About sunset, after the bees had all 
returned from their daily labor, the entrance to the hive, generally a small 
knot hole, was fastened securely except a small space into which the stem of 
a common clay or cob pipe was inserted. The bowl of the pipe was gen- 
erally filled with pulverized home-grown tobacco leaves and lighted. A 
thin piece of cloth was fastened over the bowl and the "robber" blew the 
smoke in among the bees, which, within a short time, had the effect of 
making them deathly sick so that they were unable to offer resistance. The 
limb was then chopped into and the honey comb removed, deposited in 
wooden buckets and carried home. 

Sometimes most of the bees would die from the efifects of the smoke, 
but many of them, after the effects passed ofif, would recover, and if there 
was a sufficient number with the necessary officers, a king, queen, etc., they 
would congregate, hold a consultation, and generally fly away in search 
of another home to begin life over again. 

Sometimes the bees would get after the robbers with their "business 
end" and sting them severely. To some the sting of a bee was rank poison, 
and if inflicted on the face, frequently the eyes would be swollen shut in a 
few minutes. It was also, in most cases, the death of the bee. 

The sting which is found at the end of the abdomen, is a very formid- 
able weapon. It consists of a sheath enclosing two needle shaped darts of 
exceeding fineness, placed side by side. Toward the end they are armed 
with minute teeth like those of a saw, whence it happens that it is frequently 
unable to withdraw the sting from the enemy it has pierced, causing its 
own death. When the sting enters the flesh the poison is squeezed into the 
wound from a bag near its base by a powerful muscular action. It is 
of so active a character that, it is said by those who profess to know, a 
single sting will kill a bee or other insect within a very short time. Animals 
have been known to be killed, and men nearly so by enraged swarms of 
bees whose hives had been accidentally knocked over. 

With the possible exception of the ant, no other insect shows such won- 
derful knowledge and skill in the orderly manner in which they prepare 
their hives with honeycomb cells, fill them with honey extracted from flowers, 
and hermetically seal them for use when wanted. 

The bee has been a prolific subject for poets and authors time out of 
mind, and has been pointed to as an example of industry for the young to 
follow. You remember, of course, when you first began going to school 
"in yander," when you didn't get your lessons, how the teacher told you that 


you were lazy and good for nothing, like the drone in the bee hive that 
couldn't be made to work, and how he complimented the busy bees by 
repeating for your edification these well remembered lines : 

How doth the little busy bee, 

Improve each shining hour. 
Gathering honey all the day. 

From every fragrant flower! 

Shakespeare, who seems to have had knowledge of almost everything, 
has this to say on the subject: 

"Bees, by a law of nature, teach the art of order to a peopled kingdom. 
They have a king and officers of sorts ; where some, like magistrates ccyrect 
at home ; others, like merchants, venture trade abroad ; others, like soldiers, 
armed in their stings, make boot upon the summer's velvet buds ; which 
pillage they, with merry march, bring home to the tent royal of their 
superior ; who, buried in his majesty, surveys the singing masons building 
roofs of gold ; the civil citizens kneading up the honey ; the poor mechanic 
porters crowding in their heavy burdens at his narrow gate; the sad-eyed 
justice with his surly hum, delivering o'er to executor's pale the lazy yawn- 
ing drone." 

Those who have made a study of the habits of bees have ascertained 
that a hive consists of three kinds, females, males and workers. The females 
are called queens, not more than one of which can live in the same hive, 
the presence of one being necessary for its establishment and maintenance. 
The males are called drones and may exist by hundreds in a hive. The 
workers, or neuters, as they have been called, from the supposition that 
they belonged to neither sex, are the most numerous. The queen lays the 
eggs from which the bees are perpetuated. After impregnation takes place, 
she is capable of laying eggs within thirty-six hours. Before depositing 
an egg she examines whether the cell is prepared to receive it and adapted 
for its future condition, for queens, males and workers have cells specially 
constructed for them. When the cells are ready, the queen goes from one 
to another, with scarcely any repose, laying about 200 eggs daily. The 
eggs first laid are said to be workers for ten or twelve days, then follows 
the laying of male eggs from ten to twenty days, less numerous than the 
workers in the proportion of about one to thirty. When the cells for queens 
are constructed she deposits a single egg in each, and her work is done. 
When the bees are hatched the queen departs with a swarm, and a new queen 
is liberated to take her place. The males do not work and are of no 
use except in the performance of their duties in procreation, after which 
they soon die, or are killed. The workers collect the honey, secrete the 
wax, build the cells, and feed and protect the young. 


As long ago in the mystic mazes of the past as the writer can remember 
there was what was called a pigeon roost in a tamarac swamp not far from 
Wolf creek mills. There were thousands of pigeons then where there are 
only dozens now. 


The history of the bird now called pigeon is ven.- interesting, and in 
many of its details is quite wonderful. The pigeon is very gentle and 
peaceable, entirely harmless and even timid by nature. 

Accurate and experienced "birdologists" who have made the history of 
the pigeon usually found on this continent a careful study, give accounts 
of vast flocks covering many square miles of territory in various places in 
the United States which occurred about this time. During the mating 
season they describe vast breeding places in western and southern forests, 
many miles in extent, where as many as ninety nests were counted on one 
tree.' In these breeding places, which were different from the roosting 
places, thousands and hundreds of thousands of nests were built on the limbs 
of the trees wherever one could be fastened. The nests were carelessly 
made of sticks and grass and twigs ; sometimes some of them were so 
porous that, when empty, one could see through them from the bottom. 

Only one egg is usually hatched at a time, never more than two, but they 
make up any deficiency in that respect by repeating the operation several 
times during the season. The male and female take turns in covering the 
eggs until they are hatched. At first, and until they are ready to leave the 
nest and- take care of themselves, they are fed on a sort of milk from the old 
birds which they "belch up" and feed to the young by inserting their bills 
into their open mouths. They grow rapidly and soon fly away, leaving the 
old birds to raise another and probably several more during the season. 

The pigeon roost in question was in a dense growth of tamarac trees, 
and for some distance away from the swamp, oak and other trees were 
nightly full of these birds. They moved in immense droves or swarms, and 
looking in the direction from which they came they had the appearance of a 
heavy dark cloud coming up. As they flew through the air they made a 
great noise, reminding one of a hard gale passing through the limbs of 
the trees. 

After the roost had been established, and its location had become 
generally known, the people for miles around turned out in great numbers 
to see the almost miraculous wonder and secure what birds they needed 
for food. They were provided with torches, poles, sticks and guns, and 
sacks and baskets in which to carry them home, and camp fires were built 
at different places around the roost which embraced several acres of ground. 
The birds began to arrive about sundown, and all did not get in until several 
hours later. As darkness came on many of them flew against the trees 
and limbs and were knocked down, crippled and killed. As they passed 
over where our camp was located they produced, with the motion of their 
wings in their flight, a very strong current of air that was remarkable. 
The birds came in by thousands and alighted everywhere, side by side, 
one above another until solid masses were formed on every tree in all 
directions. Here and there the limbs gave way under the heavy weight 
with a crash, and falling to the ground, destroyed hundreds of the birds 
beneath, forcing down the dense groups with which every limb was loaded. 

It was a scene of the utmost uproar and confusion. Talking was out 
of the question, and only the sound of the gims could be heard above the 
great noise. Men and boys with long poles knocked the birds from the lower 
limbs and struck and killed many as they came flying in low down in great 
numbers to the roost. 


Our party remained until well on towards morning. After midnight the 
noise subsided to some extent, but in the early morning long before objects 
were at all distinguishable, the pigeons began to move off, in a different 
direction from that in which they had come the evening before. By sunrise 
all that was able to fly had disappeared. Hundreds were unable to get 
away, from having been hurt flying against trees, by the falling of trees 
and limbs, from exhaustion and other causes. A circuit was made by our 
party around and through this wonderful roost, and everywhere, from the 
lowest limbs to the highest, the view through the timber presented a per- 
petual tumult of crowding and fluttering multitudes of pigeons, their wings 
roaring like thunder, mingled with the frequent crash of falling timber. It 
was dangerous to walk under these flying and fluttering millions from the 
frequent fall of large branches broken down by the weight of the multitudes 
above, and which in their descent often destroyed large numbers of the 
birds themselves, while the clothes of those who made the excursion were 
completely covered with the excrement of the pigeons falling like snow 
flakes upon them. 

A week or so after the roost had been established, the pigeons had 
broken camp and gone, no one knew whither. During the time they 
remained, where they went for food during the day no one could tell. 
They may have gone ten or twenty miles away, or even one or two hundred, 
as it is thought by those who have investigated the matter that they can- 
fly for many hours at the rate of a mile a minute. Their power of flight 
enables them to survey and pass over an astonishing extent of country in 
a very short time. An instance is recorded of pigeons having been killed 
in New York with their crops full of rice which they must have collected 
in the fields of Georgia or Carolina, these states being the nearest in which 
they could possibly have procured that kind of food. As their power of 
digestion is so great that they will decompose food entirely in twelve hours, 
they must, in this case, have traveled between 300 and 400 miles in six 

After they left the roost it presented a scene of desolation and destruc- 
tion hard to picture. Many of the limbs on all the trees were broken, hun- 
dreds of trees had been felled by the weight of the pigeons roosting on them, 
and the ground was covered completely with the excrement of the birds, 
as were also the trees and limbs. Vegetation was killed, and even to this 
day evidences of the destruction of the multitudes of pigeons that roosted 
there at that time are still visible. 


Of course, in order to keep up the population, it was necessary to 
marry and be given in marriage that the earth might be multiplied and 
replenished, and therefore there was "courting" among the young folks, and 
when a wedding was announced, until it finally came off the country for 
miles around was on the tip-toe of expectation, for everybody of respecta- 
bility knew that they would be invited to the wedding and "infair." 

Before the wedding occurred, to the high contracting parties the most 


important feature in connection with the interesting event was — getting 
ready, or in other words, "courting," or "sparking," as it was generally 
called in those days. Spelling schools, singing schools, corn huskings, quilt- 
ing bees and the like through the week furnished opportunities for meetings 
when the expectant groom would accompany his best girl home through the 
woods along the Indian trail. 

Don't you remember those evening strolls with her who was to be 
your partner for life leaning gently on your arm, her face upturned, 
wreathed in smiles of perfect satisfaction, her pouting cherry red lips ready 
for the osculatory greeting that was sure to be forthcoming? Of course 
you do. On one of these occasions, after the first part of the night had been 
nearly spent in arranging the details for the wedding, if our information is 
correct, about the time the roosters were crowing for the midnight hour, 
the expectant groom bade his fiancee good night at the gate and started 
home alone through the woods. After leaving the cabin and getting into 
the dark forest he was not long in becoming convinced that he had made 
one of the greatest mistakes of his life. The night was in the darkest 
hours, and soon the angry, howling wolves were collecting in large numbers. 
He knew his life was in danger, but he took his chances and went along 
blundering and stumbling over brush, stumps and logs, until he came in 
sight of a cabin a half mile or so in the distance, and on arriving there 
he climbed up on the shed for horses and cattle. The pack of wolves were 
but a few rods behind him. Finding they were unable to capture the 
fugitive, they gave up the chase and apparently retreated back into the woods. 
He climbed down and resumed his journey through the woods with all pos- 
sible speed. He had not gone far, however, until he heard the wolves 
coming again. They were a considerable distance away, and he hurried 
on as fast as his legs would carry him until he reached another cabin. Here 
a new trouble confronted him. Two or three savage dogs came out of their 
kennels and seemed to be determined to tear him to pieces, but the wolves 
coming within hearing distance they started after them, leaving our hero 
to make the remainder of his way home unmolested. 

One Sunday morning he had occasion to visit some friends on the 
other side of Yellow river. He was the owner of a dugout canoe in which 
he paddled himself across to the other shore, where he tied it to the limb 
of a projecting tree. That evening he had an engagement to visit his 
girl, and having been detained longer than he expected, it was nearly dark 
when he started back. When he reached the river he found his canoe had 
been untied and was nowhere to be found. What to do he did not know. 
The river was pretty well up, and quite deep, and he was not sure whether 
he could wade across or not. He walked up and down the bank for some 
distance and finally found a place where the water appeared not to be so 
deep as at the ford where he had crossed with his boat. Here he made up 
his mind he would make an attempt to cross. He, therefore, removed his 
shoes and clothing, and, rolling them up into a convenient bundle, started in 
to wade across. The further he went the deeper he found the water 
until he was into it up to his armpits. He held his clothing above his head 
and felt his way carefully, the water getting deeper every step. Finally, 
when he was sure he had reached the deepest place, he unfortunately stum- 
bled against a rock and fell headlong over into the water. When lie came 


to the surface, his bundle of clothing was gently floating off down stream. 
Being a good swimmer he started after his bundle, and, overtaking it a few 
rods distant, with it swam to shore. When he landed on the bank he was 
thoroughly exhausted; his clothes were dripping wet, and what to do he 
didn't know. Finally he wrung the water out as well as he could, and 
began the task of putting them on. How he ever succeeded in this under- 
taking will never be known. It was an hour before the task was ended, and 
as he started on his way home through the woods two or three miles 
distant, he was the most miserable, forlorn individual it is possible to 
imagine. He found his way home all right, but too late to re-dress and 
fulfill his engagement with his best girl. 

He was the owner of a fine young horse which his father had given 
him as a birthday present on the occasion of his becoming "his own man." 
He was neatly caparisoned with saddle, bridle and martingales, and the 
rider provided with spurs and a rawhide whip. One Sunday afternoon 
he dressed in his best suit of clothes, which included a pair of white linen 
trousers, and started on his famous charger to see his girl. It was late when 
he got to his destination, and he unbridled and unsaddled his horse and 
turned him loose in a convenient clover field. It was after midnight when 
he bade his girl good night and started to go home. A heavy dew had 
fallen, and the clover, about two feet high, was thoroughly wet, which 
meant ruin to his white linen pants. So he concluded to take them off 
and hang them on the fence until he could go and catch his horse and 
saddle and bridle him ready for riding home. As he approached, the 
horse saw him coming. It was in ine gray of the morning, and the animal 
took fright at the ghostly appearance of his master and ran away as fast 
as his legs could carry him. Our hero took after him and tried to head him 
off. Round and round the field they went, but he couldn't overtake the 
thoroughly frightened horse. Daylight was now approaching, and what to 
do was the all important question uppermost in his mind. There seemed 
to be no hope of catching him, and so he concluded to let down the bars 
and permit the horse to escape and go home. The poor horse, worse 
frightened than ever, jumped over the bars and away he went, head and tail 
erect, as though the old scratch was after him. The bars were put up, 
but when our hero went to get his pants he found a calf had got hold of 
them and chewed them so badly, tearing them into shreds, as to completely 
spoil them. The horse was gone, his pants were torn to pieces and spoiled. 
What was to be done under the circumstances? As it was then daylight, 
after mature deliberation he concluded to take to the woods and await 
results. The horse arriving home in such a sorry plight naturally alarmed 
the family, and they immediately started in search of the unfortunate 
young man. The neighborhood was aroused and on examination of the 
field they found pieces of his white pants, and supposing he had been 
foully murdered or eaten up by some ravenous wild beast, armed parties 
were sent in every direction through the woods to see if any trace of him 
could be found. The women of the neighborhood, including his heart- 
broken best girl, followed at a distance and the most intense excitement 
prevailed. Finally the lost young man was found concealed in a brush heap 
awaiting the coming of night so he could reach home without exposing 
his nakedness. 


After the courting was done, and the all important "question" had 
been "popped," and the party of the second part had said "yes" and vowed 
eternal fidelity to the party of the first part; and the old man and old 
woman had been consulted in regard to the all important matter, and had 
willingly given their consent to the union, and the day had been fixed, 
then arranging the details for the interesting event was begun. 

The marriage was generally celebrated at the house of the bride, and 
she was always accorded the privilege of choosing the officiating clergyman, 
or preacher, as the case might be. A wedding, however, engaged the atten- 
tion of the whole neighborhood. It was anticipated with the liveliest 
interest by both old and young. Everybody, great and small, in the whole 
neighborhood knew all about it long before it was to come off. 

In those days they didn't have any printed invitations to send around. 
Whenever there was to be any inviting done a small boy would be put 
on a bareback horse and he would ride all around the neighborhood 
delivering as loud as he could speak it, a message like this : 

"Say, there's to be a weddin' down to the old man's next Tuesday 
and they want all you'uns to come !" 

That was all there was to it, and then he rode off on a canter to the 
n€xt house. And everybody went, too. There was no holding back for 
fear of not having been invited the right way. 

Marrying wasn't done then as it is now. Everybody had to be 
married by a preacher. They were generally itinerants, or circuit riders, 
and they were few and far between; didn't get around sometimes oftener 
than once in two or three months, and so the boys and girls had to make 
calculations about popping the question and winding up their courting so 
as to be ready, as it might be a long time between chances. 

On the morning of the wedding day the groom and his intimate 
friends assembled at the house of his parents and after due preparation 
departed en masse for the house of his bride. The journey was sometimes 
made on horseback, sometimes on foot, and sometimes in farm wagons 
and carts. It was always a merry journey, and to insure merriment the 
"little brown jug" was occasionally one of the invited guests. On reaching 
the house of the bride the ceremony took place. The young folks stood 
up and the preacher required them to join their right hands, and after 
making them promise to love, honor and obey each other until death parted 
them they were pronounced duly and truly married, and thus 

Two souls with but a single thought, 
Two hearts that beat as one, 

were tied up into a double-bow knot, thus to remain forever and a day. 
Then came the kissing of the bride by the preacher and invited guests. 

The young folks didn't wear the fine clothes they do now, because 
there were no such fine clothes to be had. But they were as good looking 
and better than the average young people nowadays. Tall and straight, 
and healthy and happy they were, and they loved each other and no mistake. 

After the ceremony was over they all sat down to dinner, as many as 
could find places, and the table, which was a big one, just groaned with 
wild turkey, and venison, and bear meat, roasted and stewed, and honey, 
and potatoes, and beans, and the Lord knows what all. Those that couldn't 


find room at the table sat around out of doors and told jokes and nursed 
their appetites till the guests at the first table got through, when they had 
a chance to go and do likewise. 

After dinner there were some presents to be given to the newly married 
couple. There were no stoves in the settlement then, and there was no 
finery to be bought, and so the people gave of just what they had, and it 
was generally something good to eat or useful to wear, or that would come 
handy when they set up housekeeping. 

When dinner was over the dancing commenced. There was only one 
fiddle within a dozen miles, and it was there, and its owner was the biggest 
man in the house as soon as he began to tune up. 

The figures of the dances were three and four-handed reels, "down 
outside and up the middle," or square sets and jigs. The commencement 
was always a square four, which was followed by what was called in those 
days "jigging ;" that is, two of the four would single out for a jig and were 
followed by the remaining couple. The jigs were often accompanied with 
what was called "cutting out," that is, when either of the parties became 
tired of the dance, on intimation the place was supplied by someone of 
the company without interruption of the dance. In this way the reel was 
often continued until the fiddler was exhausted. 

About 9 or lo o'clock in the evening a bevy of young girls stole ofiF 
the bride and put her to bed. In doing this they had to ascend a ladder 
from the kitchen to the upper floor, which was made of loose boards. Here, 
in this pioneer bridal chamber, the young, simple-hearted girl was put to 
bed by her enthusiastic friends. This done, a deputation of young men 
escorted the groom to the same apartment and placed him snugly by the 
side of his bride. The dance still continued, and if seats were scarce, which 
was generally conveniently the case, every young man when not engaged 
in the dance was obliged to ofl^er his lap as a seat for one of the girls. 

The "infair," which was held at the home of the groom's parents, took 
place on the following afternoon and evening, and generally the same 
program was substantially carried out. The young married folks soon settled 
down to the stern realities of life in a log cabin in the woods, provided with 
a few articles of home-made furniture, and many who have grown old since 
then look back upon those early scenes as the happiest days of their lives. 


Not long ago the writer visited the site of an early saw mill which 
few of the residents of Marshall county at this time know anything about 
and fewer still ever heard of. It was what was known as the "Hupp Saw 
Mill" and was located on Yellow river about three or four miles southwest 
of Plymouth and about two miles east of the old Menominee Indian village 
on the north of the middle Twin lake. The mill was built by Jacob K. 
Hupp, about 1840. for the purpose of sawing lumber for the floors and 
doors of the settlers who were building log cabins in the country round 
about at that time. Later a corn-cracker was added and cornmeal ground 
out from the grists carried there on horseback. The dam across the river 


is yet much of it plainly visible, about loo feet of it on the east side of the 
river having been washed out, leaving a deep channel through which all 
the water that flows down the river easily passes. The mill race, which is 
probably eighty rods in length, is still there, at least the greater portion of 
it, much as it was when the mill was abandoned just before the beginning 
of the Civil war, except that the sides and bottom have grown up with vines 
and weeds and bushes. The mill, which was a very primitive affair, stood at 
the foot of the race near the river. Not a trace of it is left, the timbers 
having doubtless been carried away and used in building a bridge across the 
river not far below, which in turn has given away to a modern iron 
structure. Jacob K. Hupp, who settled there about the time of the organi- 
zation of the county and who erected the mill, was an enterprising, dashing, 
go-ahead man of considerable ability. In politics he was a democrat, 
always taking an active part in the hotly contested political campaigns that 
were' the rule even in those early days. He was elected sherifi" on the 
democratic ticket in August, 1846, and reelected in 1848, serving two terms, 
ending in August, 1850. He died in 1856, and like the old mill, nothing 
remains of him or his family except old time memories. 

Polke's Cemetery. 

Col. William Polke was one of the most distinguished men in northern 
Indiana and was the first to blaze the way to civilization in this part of the 
state. He was one of the original proprietors of the town of Plymouth, 
and was appointed by the governor to take charge of the Pottawattomie 
Indians at Danville, Illinois, whemthey were removed from Twin Lakes in 
1838 by Gen. John Tipton. He was buried three and one-half miles north 
of the south Marshall county line and one-half mile east of the Michigan 
road. Before he died he requested that his remains be buried at a place 
he designated on his farm, and his wishes were carried out by those who 
had the burial in charge. Other interments occasionally followed, and the 
place is still in use as a burial ground and is known as "Polke's Cemetery." 

Plymouth was undoubtedly given its name by Col. Polke, who seems 
to have been the moving spirit in securing the location of the county seat. 
Why the town was called "Plymouth" the writer has never been able to 


In the early days, before the completion of the railroads and telegraph 
lines, when only the primitive stagecoach attracted the attention of the 
people three times a week, and when merchants and business men generally 
had but a few hours' work to do each day, games of all kinds suited to the 
different turns of mind and the physical capacity of the individual were 
improvised, and many were the amusing scenes and incidents that occurred 
in all the towns and villages in the county. 

When Plymouth was a village of three or four hundred inhabitants, 
the complicated and entertaining game of marbles was the one mostly 
indulged in. Ministers, lawyers and doctors, merchants and others, all had 
their pockets full of "white alleys," and it was not an uncommon occurrence 


to see tliese potent, grave and reverend seniors "knuckling down" as the 
final performance indicated the end of the game. 

The mania for playing any game of chance is generally contagious, and. 
if it is not too difficult to learn, it is only a question of time as to the whole 
population becoming infected. Enthusiasts have been known to become so 
much interested in the game of marbles that lamps and lanterns had to be 
provided for the accommodation of the players in the street as the shades of 
evening drew on. 

"Town Ball" was also a favorite amusement for those who delighted 
in -violent exercise of that kind. And there were many who became exceed- 
ingly expert players. They could throw a ball as straight as a bullet and 
almost as swift, and there were others who could catch them if they were 
thrown in catching distance. And woe be to the runner who was found 
between the "by's" when one of these balls was thrown at him ! If he 
escaped being hit the surgeon might have lost a job setting a broken limb. 
"Bull Pen" was another favorite game much the same as town ball, and 
many remember even to this day the hard knocks they received in trying to 
escape the tortures of that classically named enclosure. 

Pitching horseshoes was also one of the favorite outdoor games, and 
he who could oftenest "ring the peg" was considered the champion pitchist. 
This was a great Sunday game, and there are some yet living who became 
experts by practicing on the holy Sabbath day. They have probably for- 
gotten it by this time and have turned their attention to higher and holier 
things as the day of rest weekly rolls around, and these early indiscretions 
shall not be laid up against them. 

And there were foot races in those days and they sometimes occurred in 
the middle of the street, and there were occasions when great preparations 
were made for these feats of rapid pedestrianism. And to vary the monotony 
there was an occasional horse race, and when these occurred there was 
generally betting and drinking and an occasional knockdown to wind up with. 
And there were jumping matches, too. Run and jump, stand and jump, 
hop, step and jump, and a jump backward and forward. There were wheel- 
barrow races in which the contestants were blindfolded, and bag races, and 
every other conceivable kind of races the mind of man could think of. And 
there was "snipe hunting" with greenies to hold the bag; mock trials, and 
debating societies, and country dances, and social parties and the like, enough 
to make one's head swim to relate them all. 

And as the years went on and society became more cultured, most of 
these amusements were abandoned, and then came the more refined games 
of checkers and backgammon, and euchre, and all sorts of games with cards, 
and chess, and the like ; and all kinds of puzzles and problems and curious 
contrivances to test the ingenuity and capacity of those who delight to 
spend their time in working out abstruse and difficult problems. 

These things take hold of the people like any other epidemic, and, 
having spent their fury, the patient recovers much in the same way as do 
people who have had the smallpox, whooping cough, measles, or any other 
disease that suddenly takes hold and subsides when the fever "goes down !" 
Among the most remarkable instances of this kind was what was known as 
the 13-15-14 craze. Nothing like it was ever known before and probably 
never will be again. It originated in Boston and within a few weeks spread 


like wildfire all over the L'nited States and probably found its way across the 
sea. The people of Marshall county had a very bad case of it. It was so 
simple and looked so easy of solution that everyone who looked at it a 
minute made up his mind that he could do it in a short time without much 
difficulty. The solution of the puzzle consisted simply in getting the 15 on 
the place where the 14 stood, and the 14 where the 15 stood, by moving the 
blocks without taking them from the board so that the numbers would all 
stand in regular order, the last row reading 13-14-15. The little joker was 
simply fifteen square blocks made to fit a box holding sixteen blocks, the 
last a blank, so that the blocks could be moved to suit the fancy of the 

Large rewards were offered to anyone who would furnish the correct 
solution, and as it had the appearance of being so easy of accomplishment, 
almost everybody went at it — lawyers, doctors, merchants, clerks, laboring 
men, preachers, women and children, "old men and maidens and them that 
stooped for age," all joined in the general panic, and so intense became the 
excitement that for a week or two business was almost entirely suspended. 
In the course of a short time, however, it was ascertained that the thing 
"couldn't be did," and one by one the little boards and blocks were laid aside, 
and the monomaniacs, who had almost gone crazy on the subject, resumed 
their regular occupations, and the excitement in the community generally 
disappeared as rapidly as it came. 


In the early days of Marshall county every farmer who used tobacco, 
and some who did not, raised a small patch every year as regularly as they 
did lettuce and onions and beets and cabbage and other garden truck. At 
that time there was very little of what was called "boughten tobacco" to be 
had, and what there was, was known as "Kentucky pig-tail." It was soaked 
in licorice, was as black as tar, and was altogether villainous stuff. Some 
of the tobacco raised here then was of fairly good quality, and after having 
the habit of using it firmly fixed it answered the purpose, and was as good — 
or more properly, bad — as much of the imported stuff' in use nowadays. 

It was a dreadful ordeal one had to go through with to accustom 
himself to the use of tobacco, and it was equally as hard to rid himself of 
the habit after it had been acquired. 

The writer remembers as vividly as if it were only yesterday his first 
effort at learning to chew tobacco. It was the home grown weed. Nearly 
every boy in those days deemed it necessary to use tobacco. The boy who 
couldn't chew the stuff and squirt the "ambier" — to use a word coined for the 
purpose — didn't amount to a ■ ! 

It was on a summer day. He was resting from the day's labor in a fence 
corner in the shade of a tree when the man who was with him asked him 
to take a chew of tobacco. He concluded that was as good a time as any to 
begin and bit off a large mouthful and went at it. For a time all went well, 
but presently a sickly feeling came over him and it was not long until he 


heaved up Jonah to beat the band ! Sick ! Well ! Don't talk ! A sicker 
child you never saw ! He parted with everything from the top of his head to 
the soles of his feet ! He saw all the stars in the heavens above ; the aurora 
borealis quivering in the northern hemisphere, and felt several distinct 
shocks of earthquake! Finally he managed to get to the house, where his 
mother almost went beside herself, being sure he had the cholera ! The true 
state of aiTairs was divulged, and after sassafras and sage tea had been 
administered and the proper antidotes applied, life began to return, and by 
the next morning he had fully recovered. 

The reader may think that this experience ended his efforts to learn to 
use the filthy stuiT ! Not so ! The neighboring boys had mastered the art 
and were squirting the tobacco juice with as much gusto as the biggest man 
in the neighborhood ! So he determined to learn to chew tobacco or die in 
the attempt. And he did, and after a while the habit became so firmly fixed 
on his system that when he wanted to quit it he found it was almost impos- 
sible to do so. He determined, however, not to be a slave to tobacco or 
anything else, and long ago quit it entirely, forever and a day. 


The bloomer costume for ladies, which created much excitement 
throughout America during the year 185 1, was just then being introduced 
in the then backwoods town of Plymouth. On this topic the editor of the 
Pilot delivered himself as follows : 

"New Dress. — ^The bloomer costume is decidedly an improvement 
upon the dress of the female portion of the community. It is light, graceful 
and seraphic, well suited to the female figure. It will be welcomed by 
all the lovers of taste and refinement in the fashionable world. The 
orientals have long been celebrated for their beauty, polished manners 
and splendid attire. Our rivers will now be the 'Golden Horn' ; our 
valleys the 'Valley of Sweet Waters,' and our seas the Bosphorus of the 
Turkish capitol. A voyage to Constantinople will be useless. We may 
now take our siesta in the gay kiosq, and glide over the moonlit waters in 
the light caique ! Come, ladies, step forth in your gorgeous apparel, decked 
with rose of gold and leaves of silver, and gladden our hearts with sweet 
smiles !" 

Evidently that was a facetious way the editor had of poking fun at 
the "costume" and killing it before the fad got a fair start. At any rate, 
that was the result of it. Only one or two Plymouth ladies had the courage 
to procure bloomer suits and attempt to introduce them by wearing them 
as they would other female apparel. When they appeared on the streets 
they were objects of as much curiosity as if they had been the untamed 
animal from Borneo. There is no easier way to kill anything the people 
do not take very kindly to than to make fun of it just as the editor of the 
Pilot did in his hifalutin' article above quoted. At least that was what 
happened the bloomer costume. It disappeared from the social horizon like 
the morning mist before the rays of the rising sun. 


Fourth of July Celebration. 

A grand celebration of the Fourth of July was indulged in on that 
day, 1851, and that was probably the first public celebration that had 
occurred in Plymouth or in the county. Those taking part in the celebra- 
tion were as follows: Rev. George H. Thayer, chaplain; C. H. Reeve, 
orator; Thomas Sumner, reader; J. S. Dodridge, standard bearer; Joseph 
McElrath, marshal; John C. How, assistant marshal. 

The citizens were ordered to meet in front of the Dunham House at 
10 a. m. and form in the following order of procession: 

I, military music; 2, standard bearer; 3, soldiers of the Revolution 
and last war; 4, military companies; 5, thirty-one ladies in uniform; 6, 
chaplain, reader and orator; 7, committee of arrangements; 8, Daughters 
of Temperance; 9, Odd Fellows; 10, Sons of Temperance; 11, Cadets of 
Temperance; 12, Sundayschools ; 13, Washingtonians and citizens generally. 

All that took part in that, the first celebration of Independence Day, 
are long since dead. From the order of procession it seems that there were 
at that time still some Revolutionary soldiers living, as well as some 
Mexican war soldiers. Now there are no Revolutionary soldiers living 
and only one Mexican war soldier still living in Plymouth — Nelson 
McLaughlin — and probably not more than one or two others in the entire 
county. The thirty-one ladies in uniform — what kind of uniform is not 
stated — were to represent the number of states then composing the United 
States. The Dunham House, where the procession was to start from, was 
the old Plymouth hotel on the corner of Michigan and La Porte streets, 
kept at that time by Wni. M. Dunham. 

The patriotic editor of the Pilot introduced a lengthy article on the 
celebration of the Fourth of July in the following grandiloquent style: 

"Fottrth of July. — Glorious day. The bright-winged bird of liberty 
ushers in the moon with songs of triumph. Shades of our forefathers 
appear and guide us on the true spirit of love and praise in freedom's 
cause. What sweet, hallowed associations cluster around the brow of this 
sacred day! Myriads of joyous hearts are gathering around the altar of 
liberty to lay their offerings upon her shrine. Clarion note and trumpet 
blast echo through the vales, greeting the rising sun as • he mounts the 
eastern wave." 

That settled the whole matter. The celebration was reported to have 
been a grand affair, and, from the ability of those having charge of it, 
there is no doubt that it was. An editorial item in connection with the 
celebration said: "A melancholy accident occurred at Rochester on the 
Fourth. A Mr. Perry, while in the act of loading a cannon, had both of 
his hands blown off by a tender-fingered knight of the touch-hole." 


Amzi L. Wheeler was born and spent his early boyhood in New 
York state, and in the early '30's settled in La Porte county, where he 
taught a country school two or three winters. In 1835 he came to Marshall 
county, and determining to locate permanently, purchased lot No. i in 


Plymouth, upon which he erected a small frame building for a storeroom. 
Early in the spring of 1836 he brought his family and a small stock of dry 
goods and groceries and became a permanent resident of Plymouth. 
Thomas McDonald also came from southern Indiana in the fall of 1835 
and bought a piece of land near Maxinkuckee lake, upon which he built 
a log cabin, and in the spring of 1836 brought his family and began the 
labor of a pioneer in a new country. These men soon became acquainted 
and in time became warmly attached to each other. They were both demo- 
crats in politics and worked together in making the new county democratic. 
Not only in politics did they work together, but in furthering the organiza- 
tion of the county on lines that would make it one of the best in the state. 
Mr. Wheeler was very fond of the game of politics, and as he had in 
W. G. Pomeroy and others representing the Whig party antagonists worthy 
of his "steel," the game was more fascinating than it otherwise would have 
been. In the beginning of the organization of the county ]\Ir. Wheeler 
was accorded the leadership of the democratic party without a dissenting 
voice. Naturally he was made the candidate of his party for representative 
in the state legislature in the early days, was elected several terms, and 
when a constitutional convention was called in 1850 he was chosen as the 
democratic delegate to represent Marshall county and was elected. During 
his services in the constitutional convention frequent correspondence was 
kept up between these two pioneers, among which the following, found 
among the papers of Mr. McDonald after his death, is worthy of repro- 
duction here as containing much of historical interest : 

Indianapolis, Nov. 13, 1850. 

Dear Mac: 1 have tiioiight it my duty for some time to advise you of the doings 
of this grave body. You have doubtless kept yourself posted up to the present time by 
reading the newspapers, but to realize it fully you must be present; for I assure you in 

all sincerity that some of the speeches you read in the papers are made by the in 

this convention and are then revised and improved by some one having a little more 

We are novp six weeks in the session, and if vre make a calculation by the rule of 
three, we mil not be able to complete the labor for which we were sent here before the 
Fourth of July, 1851. Indeed, I think that would be too early. 

The following section is now under consideration, and, judging from the feeling 
manifested, it can be carried through without much, if any, alteration: 

' ' The general assembly, at its first session under the amended constitution, shall 
pass laws prohibiting negroes and mulattos from coming into or settling in this state; 
and prohibit any negro or mulatto from purchasing, or otherwise acquiring, real estate 
hereafter. ' ' 

This section has only been under debate half a day, yet during that short debate 
we have had a foretaste of what may be expected before it is closed. It may become 
necessary, and I shall be very much mistaken if it does not become necessary, to read the 
riot act every morning, instead of calling in a minister of the gospel to pray for us! 

The section above I look upon as an outrage, because the negro would never 
have been here if we had not stolen his father and brought him here, but the words 
"otherwise acquiring" I regard as the climax of this outrage and unworthy of its dis- 
tinguished author, Robert Dale Owen. If that is ingrafted in our constitution, you will 
observe that negro children could not hold the real estate their father died possessed of. 

A portion" of this convention (respectable in point of numbers as well as talent) 
do certainly entertain sentiments on this subject that would make a South Carolinian 
blush. I hope it will be made more acceptable, but I doubt it. 

The state bank i)arty are more numerous than I expected to find them ; only about 
twenty-five or thirty who will vote the true democratic doctrine — no bank at all. 

The cholera is again in this city, and two deaths have already occurred in one 


house, and one of our members — Vanbenthusen, from Shelby — is not expected to live 
another day. The citizens generally deny that it is cholera, but physicians who are 
not interested in the prosperity of this wooden-legged city declare that it is. 

I am homesick as a dog, and I am not certain but I may take it into my head 
to leave this mob and go home. From thirty to fifty are gone all the time, and I am 
not certain that we would not be just as well off if they would stay away until we 
adjourn. If I could be certain that the vote would not be taken on any very important 
measure, such as the bank or grand jury, I would certainly go home. 

I have had the pleasure of listening to two sermons of the distinguished divine 
Alexander Campbell. He is certainly a great man and understands his trade, possessing 
as much vigor but not qpite as much fire as I expected. He disappointed a great many, 
however, because most people in such cases anticipate too much. 

Thomas, I would like to pay five cents for a letter from you. Give my compli- 
ments to Jlrs. Mac and family, and believe me to be 

Truly your friend, A. L. Wheelek. 

Since the above letter was written, the writer of it and the one to 
whom it was written, have both died and their bodies have turned to the 
dust from whence they came. J\lr. McDonald was taken with gangrene 
of the foot in 1875 and after lingering in great pain about six months died 
in that year. About 1883 Mr. Wheeler was stricken with paralysis of his 
entire right side, rendering him almost entirely helpless and affecting his 
vocal organs so he was unable to speak. After lying in this condition three 
years he suffered another stroke of paralysis, from which he died almost 


The first business failure of consequence that occurred in Plymouth 
was in 1852-53. The firm of Pomeroy, Houghton & Barber were exten- 
sively engaged in the dry goods, grocery and general mercantile business, 
and also conducted for a time a slaughterhouse at the bend of the river 
opposite where the Novelty Works are now located. They did an extensive 
business, but the country was new at that time, and the collapse of the 
free banks so numerous in Indiana in that day carried them down with 
many others, and they were forced to make an assignment. They carried 
the largest stock of any firm doing business here then and their failure 
had the effect of unsettling local trade for some time. 

The firm of Barber, Hutchinson & Co., hardware merchants, being 
composed of two members of the firm of Pomeroy, Houghton & Barber, 
was also compelled to suspend, and it also went into the hands of a receiver. 
An incident in connection with this last assignment, personal to the writer 
of this history, has never been told, and it is known to but few, if any, 
of those living here now, and as it is of general application it may not be 
considered out of place to speak of it in this connection. 

The Plymouth Banner of December 21, 1854, in speaking of the new 
advertisers in that issue of the paper, among other things said : "Daniel 
McDonald, in this county known from childhood, has commenced business. 
Encourage him." 

The advertisement to which this referred was partly as follows : 
"Sevastopol is in Russia, but here are cook stoves, tinware, sheet iron and 


copper ware of every variety, parlor stoves, a good assortment, etc., for 
sale cheap." 

While the advertisement was signed by the writer and the business 
conducted in his name, as a matter of fact he had nothing to do with it. 
It happened in this way : When the firm of Barber, Hutchinson & Co. 
failed the writer was appointed assignee to wind up the affairs of the firm. 
Eugene Hutchinson, of the firm, was a young man, a personal friend of 
the assignee, and a tinner by trade. In the final settlement of the affairs 
of the company the assignee managed to save the tinner's tools for his 
friend Hutchinson, but as he was badly involved and could not do business 
in his own name, he was permitted to open a tin and stove store in the 
writer's name. A letter from A. L. Wheeler, a well known capitalist, 
recommending the writer to a hardware firm in Chicago as honest and 
trustworthy, enabled Mr. Hutchinson to purchase on credit all the goods 
he needed and they were accordingly charged to the account of the writer. 
Having opened up his shop and commenced business, the advertisement 
appeared in the writer's name as above quoted. After a year or two Mr. 
Hutchinson's wife became an invalid and finally died. Mr. Hutchinson's 
health began to fail and he passed away not long afterwards. When the 
writer came to settle his estate and the business which had been transacted 
by Hutchinson in his name, he found the indebtedness charged to his 
account to be about $350 more than the assets. The writer was an inex- 
perienced boy then, without any available means of his own, or without 
any employment by which he could earn anything. What to do he did not 
know, but as his financial reputation was at stake he resolved to pay it if 
such a thing were possible. He therefore entered into correspondence with 
the firm to whom he was indebted, explaining fully the situation, and pro- 
posing that whatever he earned above a bare living he would remit from 
time to time; that he would pay it if he lived, and that he did not wish the 
firm to call on ^Ir. Wheeler, who had recommended him for credit. The 
firm therefore agreed to hold the account open until the writer could pay it> 
no matter how long it might be. In 1856 he was appointed deputy 
recorder under Johnson Brownlee at $1 per day. On this salary he sup- 
ported himself and in two years saved enough to pay ol¥ the indebtedness, 
although at the end of that time he did not have a cent left out of his two 
years' work after paying the account in full. The following letter 
acknowledging the receipt of the last payment is self-explanatory : 
Vincent, Himrod & Co., 
Wholesale Dealers in Hardware, Stoves, Etc. 

Chicago, 111., March 12, 1858. 
Daniel McDonald, Esq., Plymouth, Indiana. 

Dear Sir: Your favor of the 9th inst., inclosing a cheek for $50 to be credited 
to your account and asking that a statement of the balance due with interest be sent 
to you, is received. 

We have placed the amount you sent ($50) to your credit in full of principal and 
interest of your indebtedness to us, and the account is finally closed. 

Allow us to thank you for the honorable and upright manner in which your 
dealings with us have been conducted, and to assure you that at no time during the 
pendency of this matter has our confidence in your honesty and integrity wavered in the 
least. Your credit with us is fully established for any amount you may hereafter wish 
to purchase in our line. 

Wishing you health, peace and prosperity, we are. 

Sincerely yours, Vincent, Himrod & Co. 


It is nearly half a century since the foregoing occurred, and being the 
first business experience the writer ever had, he looks upon the course he 
pursued under adverse circumstances as being one of the brightest pages 
in his life's history. To Rockefeller or Morgan, or any of the numerous 
multi-millionaires it would have been but as a drop of mist in the ocean, 
but to a boy just starting in the world with nothing and without occupation 
it seemed like as great a task to cancel the indebtedness as to attempt to 
remove the rock of Gibraltar! 


Courts of law and equity are a public necessity in every well regulated 
community. A brief sketch of the courts of Marshall county and those 
who have presided over them will therefore be of historical interest. The 
first term of court held in the county was at Plymouth in October, 1836. 
It was known as the circuit court, and under the law as it then existed 
there were three judges, one called the president judge, who sat on the 
bench in the center, and two associate judges, who sat on each side of the 
president judge. The associate judges did not have much to do. They 
occupied their seats on the bench, looked solemn and dignified, and when 
the president judge had decided a point or a case he would turn to one of 
the associates and ask him if he agreed with him in that opinion; he would 
nod his head in assent, when he would turn to the other associate, who 
would also give his consent, and that was all the duties they had to perform. 
The associate judge part of the system was so nearly a farce that the 
constitutional convention of 1850 abolished it entirely. 

The following in regard to the first term of court is taken from the 
first record book of the court: 

"At the October term of the Marshall circuit court for the year 1836, 
there were present the Hon. Samuel C. Sample, president judge of the 
eighth judicial circuit of the state of Indiana, who produced in open court 
his commission as such, by his Excellency, Noah Noble, governor of the 
state of Indiana ; also Peter Schroeder, one of the associate judges of the 
county of Marshall ; also Jeremiah Muncy, clerk of said court, and Abner 
Caldwell, sherifi^ of said county, and also Joseph L. Jernegan, the attorney 
prosecuting the pleas of the state of Indiana for the eighth judicial circuit, 
and court was opened in due form of law. The sheriff returned into court 
the venire heretofore issued with the following panel of grand jurors to 
serve during the present term, to-wit : John Houghton, who was sworn as 
foreman; Grove O. Pomeroy, Samuel B. Patterson, John Benson, John 
Moore, William Johnson, Jacob Crisman, Abel C. Hickman, George Owens, 
William Bishop, Enos Ward, William Blakeley, Milborn Coe, John Kilgore, 
John Johnson — in all fifteen in number, who retired to discharge their duty, 
under the charge of Joseph Griffith, a sworn bailiff' of the court." 

The grand jury, composed of fifteen members, proved to be bungle- 
some and expensive, and it was not many years until it was reduced to 
twelve, and in the last score or two years has been reduced to six. Of 
late years prosecuting attorneys have been given so much power in drafting 


informations that there is Httle use for the grand jury except in case of 

The first term of the ^Marshall circuit court was held in a frame 
building erected for that purpose by the proprietors of the town as a part 
of the contract for fixing the seat of justice at Plymouth, October 25, 1836, 
with Samuel C. Sample, judge of the eighth judicial circuit of said state, 
presiding. Giistavus A. Everts, William O. Ross, John H. Bradley, Joseph 
L. Jernegan and Jonathan A. Liston were the first attorneys admitted to 
practice law in the court. Mr. Sample served as judge until October 19, 
1843. He was an excellent penman, and his signature to the last court 
record on Order Book A, page 673, is equal to the famous signature of 
John Hancock to the Declaration of Independence, and more enduring to 
commemorate his name than a tablet cut in marble. 

At the October term, 1843, there were present the Hon. John B. Xiles 
of La Porte, president judge of the ninth judicial circuit, and David Steel 
and Samuel D. Taber of Marshall county, associate judges. 

At the April term, 1844, Ebenezer M. Chamberlain, of Goshen, 
appeared as president judge. Mr. Taber was succeeded as associate judge 
by Elias Jacoby. At the November term, 185 1, owing to the taking effect 
of the new constitution, the associate judges were abolished and do not 
appear after that time. J\Ir. Chamberlain closed his official career during 
the May term, 1852, and at the same term Thomas S. Stanfield took his 
seat as judge of the court. Mr. Stanfield continued to preside as judge 
until February 8, 1858, when he was succeeded by Andrew L. Osborne, of 
La Porte, who served as judge until the close of the February term, 1871. 
Thomas S. Stanfield was elected and again became judge, and served as 
such until the beginning of the April term, 1873, when the act redistricting 
the state for judicial purposes took effect, and Elisha V. Long was appointed 
judge of the new district, composed of the counties of Marshall, Kosciusko 
and Fulton. Judge Long served from April 28, 1873, to January, 1875, 
when the district having again been divided and a new district having been 
created composed of the counties of Marshall and Fulton, Horace Corbin 
was appointed and served until the election in 1876, when he was succeeded 
by Sydney Keith, of Rochester. Judge Keith served one term of six years, 
when he was succeeded by Jacob Slick, of Rochester, December, 1882. He 
served until March 5, 1883, when he resigned to accept the appointment as 
railroad attorney for one of the great trunk lines. The vacancy was filled 
by the appointment of William B. Hess, who served until the November 
election, 1884, when he was succeeded by Isaiah Conner, who served one 
term of six years, when he was succeeded by Albertus C. Capron, who 
served two terms, twelve years in all, ending November, 1902, when he 
was succeeded by Harry Bernetha, the present judge. 

No person was sent from Marshall county to the penitentiary until 
1840. In September of that year Noah PI. Simmons was tried and convicted 
for passing counterfeit money, and sent to Jeffersonville for the period of 
five years. 

Probate Court. 

in the early history of the state, Indiana had a probate system of trans- 
acting the business pertaining to estates and guardianships. Grove Pomeroy 


was the first judge who presided in that capacity in Marshall county. The 
first term at which Mr. Pomeroy was present and presented his commission 
from Gov. Noah Noble with his oath of office attached was held November 
14, 1836. After adopting a seal for the use of the court an adjournment 
was taken until February 13, 1837, when the court was again opened, as the 
record states, "in due form of law, by the sheriff, at the house formerly 
occupied by Grove Pomeroy, in Plymouth." No business was transacted, 
and court adjourned until court in course to meet at the courthouse in 
Plymouth. Court assembled again in May in "the new courthouse," then 
completed, but there being no business, court adjourned until court in course. 
No business was transacted at the August term. At the November term, 
1*^37. a seal was adopted by the court as follows : "A circular scrawl, which 
may be seen standing on the left margin, with the words, 'Indiana, Marshall 
County Probate Court,' written within the said scrawl." The scrawl is an 
artistic piece of goose quill penmanship, and may be seen by reference to 
Order Book A, page 4, in the clerk's office. Thomas B. Ward was the first 
one admitted as an attorney. Thomas Robb was the first guardian appointed 
by the court and Nancy Robb the first ward. The first administrator was 
Adam Vinnedge, to whom letters were issued on the personal estate of 
Daniel Pattingale. Samuel D. Taber and Charles Ousterhaute were accepted 
as bondsmen. The same term of court Daniel Roberts was appointed 
special guardian of Nancy M. Catney, a minor and foreigner, who was 
charged with the protection of her person and property. Grove Pomeroy 
served as judge until November, 1843, when Austin Fuller was elected and 
qualified. On the thirteenth day of the November term, 1843, the following 
«ntry appears : 

"The court now devise and adopt a seal for this court, a description of 
-which is as follows, to-wit : In the center of the seal is engraved a square 
and compasses (in the center of which is the letter G). The words in the 
margin of the seal are 'Marshall County Probate Court,' an impression of 
which seal is made on the margin of the record (Probate Order Book A, 
page 158) opposite this order." 

How this Masonic symbol came to be adopted is a mystery that cannot 
be solved. There was no Masonic lodge in the north part of the state at 
that time, and none of the officers of the court, so far as can be learned, 
were members of the fraternity. The seal continued to be used until 
November, 1850, when James A. Corse was elected and served until October 
6, 1852, when the probate court was abolished. 

The Common Pleas Court 

Was established in 1852. Elisha Egbert was elected judge of this 
court, composed of the counties of Marshall. St. Joseph and Starke, and 
presided at the first term held in October, 1852, and retained the position 
uninterruptedly until the fourth of November, 1870, the date of his death. 
Edward J. Wood was then appointed and served until the election in October, 
1872, when he was defeated for reelection by Daniel Noyes, of La Porte, 
who served until the act abolishing the court was passed. March 6, 1873, 
and the business transferred to the circuit court. 


Commissioners' Court. 

The commissioners' court was the first court organized in the county. 
This occurred in May, 1836. Robert Blair, the first commissioner, was one 
of the original proprietors of Plymouth. He served but one year. He and 
Abraham Johnson and Charles Ousterhaute, who composed the first board, 
are all long since dead. 

Brief Sketches of Prominent Judges. 

Samuel C. Sample, the first circuit judge, was a resident of South Bend, 
having settled there in 1833. He became president judge of his circuit, 
which embraced Logansport and Fort Wayne, and all the territory in the 
state north, in 1835, and continued on the bench until 1843, when he was 
elected to congress. He was a very exemplary man, and in all his business 
transactions, whether in public or private capacity, he ever exhibited the 
most sterling integrity, totally uninfluenced by the least unworthy or selfish 
motive. He died December 2. 1855. 

Ebenezer M. Chamberlain was a resident of Goshen and came to Indiana 
from Maine in 1832. Fie was a man of more than ordinary intelligence, of 
sterling integrity, and firm and decided in character. In personal appear- 
ance he was tall and slender, with a solemn cast of countenance. On the 
bench he was quite dignified and rendered his decisions very deliberately. 
After his retirement from the bench he was elected to congress one term, 
and died in 1859. 

John B. Niles resided in La Porte and was, until his death in 1879, 
considered one of the ablest lawyers in the state. He was born in Vermont 
in 1808, and settled in La Porte in 1832. He was a member of the consti- 
tutional convention in 1850, and was later a member of the state senate. 
He was quite slender and had been in feeble health for a number of years 
prior to his death. He was very precise in his speech, always clothing his 
language in the most elegant terms ; for instance, in speaking of a dirty 
little building, he would say, "it is an exceedingly untidy little edifice." He 
was a bad penman and there were few who could readily read his hiero- 
glyphics. Notwithstanding this defect he was an excellent business man 
and left a reputation that anyone might envy. 

Thomas S. Stanfield is perhaps better and more favorably known to the 
people of Marshall county than any of the other judges that have presided 
in our courts. He was born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1814, and settled in 
South Bend in 1831, where he continued to reside until he died several years 
ago. He served several years in the legislature and was a candidate for 
lieutenant governor on the whig ticket in 1849, but failed of election. He 
had a Websterian appearance, made an excellent judge, and was a gentleman 
against whom the breath of scandal had never been blown. 

Andrew L. Osborn, of La Porte, was another judge who will be long 
remembered. He was born in Connecticut in 1814 and settled in Michigan 
City in 1836. He was a diligent student, a man of remarkable memory, 
quick in his perceptions, and an excellent judge. He served a term as one 
of the supreme judges of the state, and at the time of his death several years 
ago was principal attorney of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad 


Elisha V. Long resided at Warsaw, and some time after his term as 
judge expired he was appointed United States district judge of New 
Mexico, in which position he served several years. He still resides in Las 
Vegas, New Mexico. 

Horace Corbin, William B. Hess and Albertus C. Capron were the only- 
judges residing in Plymouth who presided as judge of the Marshall circuit 
court. Judges Corbin and Capron are both dead. Judge Hess is still a 
resident here, engaged in the active practice of law. He has been prose- 
cuting attorney and consul general to Constantinople. 

Sidney Keith, Isaiah Conner, Jacob Slick and Harry Bernetha, the 
present incumbent, resided at Rochester. Of these Judges Keith and Slick 
are dead. 

Common Pleas Judges. 

Elisha Egbert was our judge of the common pleas court for a period of 
about twenty years. He was born in New Jersey in 1806 and died at his 
home in South Bend, November 4, 1870. He discharged all his duties as 
an impartial and upright judge. 

Edward J. Wood, of Goshen, succeeded Judge Egbert, by appointment. 
He had no special fitness for the position, never having made the legal 
profession a study. He was a bright, genial, convivial gentleman. In a fit 
of despondency he killed himself with a pistol, somewhere in Michigan, in 

Daniel Noyes succeeded Judge Wood, but served but one term of court, 
at the end of which time the court was abolished. He resides in La Porte, 
and for a number of years afterwards was the judge of the circuit court of 
South Bend and La Porte. He was considered the most prompt and efficient 
judge in the state. He was never a minute late, and required the same 
promptness on the part of all others with whom he was associated in 

Attorneys at Law. 

Lawyers are officers of the court, and without them the machinery of 
justice would hardly be able to move. The first term of the Marshall circuit 
court was held in Ph'mouth in the new courthouse erected by the proprietors 
of the town on the northwest corner of Michigan and Adams streets, and 
the first business after the court was declared opened was the admission of 
the following named persons to practice law at the bar of the court: 
Gustavus A. Evarts, William O. Ross, John H. Bradley, Joseph L. Jernegan 
and Jonathan A. Liston. None of these old-time lawyers resided in 
Plymouth or afterwards for any length of time. They all lived either at 
La Porte or South Bend, but for several years were the principal lawyers 
here. For a good while there was not much law business to do, and the 
first three or four years about all the court had to do was to meet, listen 
to a few stories by the lawyers, and adjourn. 

The First Permanent Lawyer. 
Hon. Charles H. Reeve was probably the first real lawyer to locate 
permanently in the county for the purpose of practicing law. In a copy 
of the Indiana Tocsin, published at La Porte, dated February 5, 1847, 


the law card of Mr. Reeve appears as follows: "Charles H. Reeve, 
Attorney and Counsellor at Law, and Solicitor in Chancery. Plymouth, 
Marshall County, Indiana, December i, 1846." But Mr. Reeve had 
located in Plymouth two years prior to that time and was deputy for 
County Clerk Isaac How during most of his term — 1844 to 1848. It was 
while acting in this capacity that he became acquainted with Mr. How's 
oldest daughter, Miss Abby Jane How, whom he afterwards married. 
He entered the law office of James Bradley, of La Porte, when eighteen 
years old, read law under him, and later under Judge Samuel C. Sample 
and Jonathan A. Liston, of South Bend, and was admitted to the bar in 
1842, just before he became of age. Coming to Plymouth when every- 
thing was in a crude and unorganized condition, he had ample opportunity 
to develop his ability to assist in building up everything looking to a 
systematic form of government. In his early days he was the life of the 
young society of the town. He was a splendid violinist, could play the 
guitar, and sing negro melodies equal to the best minstrels traveling; 
understood the flute and clarinet, and could play the piano ; could call all 
the figures, and when it came to dancing himself, he was a perfect French 
dancing master in his movements. He was pretty near the whole thing 
at singing and spelling schools, corn huskings and barn raisings. He 
could make an offhand speech or tell a story better than any of them, and 
sing a comic song to "beat the band !" As he grew older and the cares 
of a busy life pressed harder and harder upon him, he drifted away from 
what might be called "frivolities of life" and turned his attention, outside 
the practice of law, to writing on various subjects for the newspapers and 
magazines, and later to book and pamphlet work on the subject of prison 
reform. His most pretentious work on this subject was a book of 200 
pages, in 1890, entitled, "The Prison Question — A Philosophical Review." 
Another important work was "Dependent Children — A Report Before the 
International Penitentiary Congress at St. Petersburg, Russia, 1890." For 
this report he was awarded an international medal, which was sent to him 
by the Czar of Russia through thi? United States government. Since the 
death of ]\Ir. Reeve the medal has been in the possession of his son, Mr. 
C. A. Reeve. Mr. Reeve had unusual command of language, and as a 
fluent and rapid talker he had few equals. As the leading attorney, for 
many years he easily commanded the first place at the bar of the court. 
He was rapid and methodical in his work and went into the trial of every 
case thoroughly prepared to meet every point of his opposing counsel. 
He was not a politician as that word has come to be understood, but 
served his county as prosecuting attorney, and was elected as a democrat 
and served four years as state senator. In both of these positions he 
discharged the duties with zeal, industry and fidelity, according to his best 
judgment. He died at his home in Plymouth about the first of the vear 

James O. Parks was a resident of Bourbon, twelve miles east of the 
county seat, where he had lived since his settlement here, in 1835, to the 
time of his death several years ago. His early life was engaged in farming 
and civil engineering and surveying. He served a term as justice of the 
peace in 1844-47, and in 1852 was admitted to practice law in the courts 
of Marshall county, which he continued until the time of his death. Mr. 


Parks' practice was mostly devoted to matters originating in the locality 
where he lived. He was associated with his two sons, Sinclair D. and 
John W., both of whom had taken a course of study in the law department 
of Michigan University, and for many years the three made a strong 
team in the management of their business. 

John G. shorn came to Plymouth in 1852 as minister for the 
Methodist church. In 1854 he abandoned the ministry and engaged in 
the practice of the law in the courts of Marshall county, in which he 
continued until the time of his death in the '70's. He was for two or 
three years, during the war, editor of the Plymouth Democrat, and later 
left the Methodist denomination and united with the Episcopalians. For 
many years prior to his death he was a great sufiferer from inflammatory 
rheumatism, which finally resulted in his death. He was a pleasant talker 
and his addresses before the jury were logical and generally convincing. 

Charles Hiigus located in Plymouth in the practice of law about 
1855, having formed a partnership with Judge James S. Frazier, of War- 
saw. Mr. Hugus was a sprightly young man and was quite a prominent 
figure in the local affairs of the town during his stay here. In 1856 he 
united with the new republican party just then forming, and was the first 
to call a "ratification meeting" as soon as the news came that Fremont 
had been nominated as the republican candidate for president. The 
meeting was held at the courthouse, and Mr. Hugus was pretty much the 
whole thing. He called the meeting to order, announced the object of it, 
proposed three cheers for "the next President of the United States," the 
"Path Finder," John Charles Fremont; but there were not very many 
people there, and what there were did not know much about Fremont or 
the republican party at that time, and so the cheering was a failure. Mr. 
Hugus addressed the meeting, giving a brief outline of the principles of 
the republican party, and a sketch of the life of Mr. Fremont, which 
pleased the audience, as none of them knew anything about him. Within 
a year from that time J\Ir. Hugus was taken sick with typhoid fever and 
died at the Dodridge hotel, which stood on the northeast corner of 
Michigan and Washington streets. 

Albcrtus C. Capron came from New York state in 1852 and located 
in Plymouth, forming a- partnership with C. H. Reeve in the practice of 
the law, and continued in the practice either as a lawyer or judge of the 
court until his death, ]\Iay 13. 1905. During his career he was considered 
one of the best lawyers at the bar of the court. As a pleader he was not 
considered equal to many other members of the bar, but in his addresses 
before the court and jury he was deliberate, conversational and persuasive. 
In 1890 he was elected as a democratic judge of the district composed of 
Marshall and Fulton counties, and reelected in 1896, and served in all 
twelve years as judge of the circuit court. It was as judge of the court, 
more than as a lawyer, that his judicial mind shone with peculiar splendor. 
As judge on the bench he was always calm and deliberate, treating the 
members of the bar, litigants and witnesses with a courtesy and affability 
that made him friends with all with whom he came in contact. Both as 
a lawyer and a judge he was incorruptible. He was no "grafter," as that 
word is now understood, and no taint rests upon his memory in connection 
with his dealings with the public. He was well educated, a studious 


reader, and a profound thinker. During the later years of his hfe he 
occupied his leisure time in the preparation of many papers on abstruse 
subjects that were of a high order of literary merit and were worthy of 
being preserved in book form, but his modesty would not permit him to 
consent to give them to the public. He was peculiar in this respect, doing 
all this laborious work apparently for his own satisfaction and those of 
the few friends who were privileged to read them. He never sought public 
notoriety and was always averse to having his name appear in the news- 
papers except where some public end was to be subserved. He was a well 
matured, intellectual, manly man, who under all circumstances never 
allowed himself to forget to be a gentleman. He had a pleasant word for 
all with whom he came in contact, and went in and out among the people 
for more than half a century scattering sunshine in his path wherever he 

Horace Corbin came to Marshall county about 1852, and settled in 
Plymouth and began the practice of law. He was born and reared in New 
York state and was a schoolmate of United States Senator Thomas C. 
Piatt, of New York. When he came here he was a young man without 
money or friends, but he had ability and plenty of energy, and determined 
to succeed in his chosen profession if such a thing was possible. It was 
not long until he built up a living practice, and, having happily married 
into a wealthy family, the remainder of his life was one of ease and comfort. 
In politics he was a democrat, and in 1862, at the beginning of the war of 
the Rebellion, he secured the democratic nomination for state senator from 
the counties of St. Joseph and Marshall, and although it was naturally 
and largely a republican locality, he surprised everyone by carrying the dis- 
trict by a considerable majority. He served in the state senate from 1863 
to 1867, and was regarded as one of the strongest men in that body. The 
circuit court district was changed in 1875, creating a vacancy in the new dis- 
trict of Marshall and Fulton, and Mr. Corbin was appointed judge to fill the 
vacancy, serving as such until December 18, 1876, having been defeated for 
reelection by Sidney Keith, of Rochester, republican. 

IVilliam J. Burns settled in Plymouth about 1852, having removed here 
from LaFayette. Indiana, where he had studied and practiced law, and had 
also while there been engaged in the newspaper business. When he located 
in Plymouth he "hung out his shingle" as attorney and counsellor at law. 
It was not long, however, until he was induced to purchase the old 
Plymouth Banner, and become its editor and publisher. His experience in 
that line of business will be found under the head of "'Newspapers." He 
was a man more than ordinarily bright and was a much better editor than 
he was a lawyer. He went from here during war times to Knox, where 
he started the Starke County Democrat, which he conducted for a few 
years, when it passed into other brands, and he finally died in that place 
many years ago. 

William G. Pomcroy was one of the earliest residents of Marshall 
county, having come here with his parents in 1834, and took an active 
part from the first in helping to build up the organization of the county 
and the business interests of the county seat. Prior to 1850 he had served 
as auditor and clerk of the county, a member of the state .senate and a 
member of the house of representatives. He engaged largely in mercantile 


business, and in the buying and slaughtering of cattle. During the panic 
of 1857 he failed and went into the hands of a receiver. He engaged in 
the practice of the law for some time, but he could not secure business to 
justify him in continuing it, and finally removed to Rolla, Missouri, where 
he died many years ago. During his residence here he was one of the 
brightest men that took an active part in public affairs, and left his impress 
for good in the matters with which he had to do to a greater extent than 
the people of his time were inclined to give him credit for. 

John S. Dodridgc came to Plymouth between 1850 and 1855. Just 
what in particular he came for he hardly knew himself, but he rented an 
ofiice and hung up his sign as a lawyer. There was not much law business 
in the county at that time and the business mostly went to those lawyers 
who had located here before him. But he was not lazy and while waiting 
for court cases he engaged in other business. He purchased the lot on the 
northeast corner of Alichigan and Washington streets, on which he erected 
the Dodridge hotel, afterwards known as the Edwards House, and later 
the Parker House. He was a man of good character, pleasant and afifable. 
He never made any particular reputation as a lawyer and left here many 
years ago to find a home elsewhere. 

Among many others who resided here and became somewhat promi- 
nent as attorneys, and have either died or gone elsewhere, may be men- 
tioned D. Rench Sample, Judge R. D. Logan, A. B. Capron, John Darnell, 
D. T. Phillips, G. R. Chaney, B. D. Crawford, V. P. Kirk and R. B. 

Among those who practiced law here for many years, and have long 
since retired or gone into business here or elsewhere, may be mentioned 
M. A. O. Packard, Amasa Johnson, J. D. McLaren, Samuel Parker, C. P. 
Drummond, O. M. Packard, C. B. Tibbitts and John S. Bender. 

Among those who still reside here and constitute the active attorneys 
are Wm. B. Hess, John W. Parks, Charles Kellison, Leo 'M. Lauer, E. C. 
Martindale, S. N. Stevens, H. A. Logan, Adam E. Wise, J. S. Reeve, 
H. L. Unger, J. A. Molter, W. H. Mathew and Perry O. Jones. 

Those who have practiced law here, but reside in towns outside of 
the county seat, may be mentioned Joseph W. Davis, Z. D. Boulton, S. D. 
Parks, Jesse Chaplain. James L. Cook, John D. Thomas, Bourbon ; R. C. 
O'Blenis, W. J. Benner, George W. Paul, M. L. Smith, Argos ; Samuel J. 
Hayes, Bremen. 

A large number of the names of persons admitted to practice law at 
the bar of the courts of the county appear on the records of the court, 
many of whom never had any business to transact in the court — in fact, 
about two-thirds of the 160 names which appear as lawyers were admitted 
and sworn as attorneys because all they had to do to be admitted was to 
prove that they were men of good moral character. The names of all the 
lawyers from the surrounding counties, when having business in the court, 
were also sworn and admitted to practice, although many never had more 
than one case in the court. From the long list are given the following 
names of some of the lawyers residing here, whose names do not appear 
in the sketch above made : 

Beadaker Adolph, John C. Blue, K. F. Brooke, F. W. Boss, Gideon W. 
Blain, John C. Capron, Edwin H. Corbin, Wm. H. Conger, John G. Davis, 


William Everly, Ed Fish, Herbert E. Hess, John R. Jones, James A. 
Marshall. Daniel McDonald, David McDuffie, Iden S. Romig, David E. 
Snyder, D. A. Snyder, Otto H. Weber, Charles M. Walker and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Christian. This lady was the wife of Mr. R. D. Christian, who 
was associated with John S. IBender in the law practice for a short time. 
She has the distinction of being the only woman ever admitted to the bar 
of the court as a lawyer. She never appeared in court in that capacity, 
and after a few months' stay here she and her husband removed elsewhere. 

Early Jury System. 
The grand and petit jury system existing under the law in force at the 
time of the organization of the county was exceedingly cumbersome. At 
the special session of the board of commissioners' court, September, 1836, 
the following grand and petit jury were drawn, as follows : 

' ' Ordered, that the persons whose names are entered in the panels below sen-e as 
grand and petit jurors: 

Enos Ward. , 
William Blakely. 
Wm. C'oe. 
John Gibson. 
David VanVactor. 
Oliver Eose. (21) 


Abner Caldwell. 
John Woodward. 
John Compton. 
Ephraim Goble. 
Daniel Roberts. 
George Dixon. 
Fielding Bowdes. 
Robert Johnson. 
Benjamin C'ruzan. 


Eli Morris. 
John Benson. 
Samuel Patterson. 
Chester Rose. 
John Moore. 
William Johnson. 
John A. Boots. 
John Kilgore. 
Jacob Cressena. 
Abel C. Hickman. 
George Owens. 
Grove O. Pomeroy. 
William Bishop. 
John Houghton. 
John Johnson. 

Thomas Packard, Sr. 
Grove Pomeroy. 
James Murphy, Sr. 
Uri Metealf. 
Jesse Roberts. 
David Cummins. 
Joseph Evans. 
Vincent Brownlee. 
David Hill. 
James Jones. 
Silas Morgan. 
Adam Snider. 
Geo. Murphy. 
Chas. Henderson. 
George Vinnedge. 
J. B. Tedraw. 
Alf. Vinnedge (26). 

The first commissioners who drew this jury were Robert Blair, 
Abraham Johnson and Charles Osterhaute. 

Since that time the jury system has been greatly changed. The grand 
jury has been reduced from twenty-one to six, and the petit jury from 
twenty-six to twelve. At the time these juries were drawn it required 
a large proportion of the male residents of the county who possessed the 
necessary qualifications to fill up the number for each jury. At that time, 
too, there was practically nothing for either of the juries to do, and for a 
long time the jurors were empaneled, sworn, paid oft' and discharged for 
the term. 


Samuel C. Sample, October 25, 1836, to October 16, 1843. 
John B. Niles, October 16, 1843, to April, 1844. 
Ebenezer M. Chamberlain, April, 1844, to I\Iav 15, 18^2. 
Thomas S. Stanfield, May 15, 1852, to February 8, 1858. 
Andrew L. Osborn, February 8, 1858, to February 6, 187] 


Thomas S. Stanfield, February 6, 1871, to April 23, 1S73. 
Elisha V. Long, April 28, 1873, to January 28, 1875. 
Horace Corbin, January 28, 1875, to December 18, 1876. 
Sidney Keith, Decembe'r 18, 1876, to December, 1882. 
Jacob Slick, December, 1882, to March 5, 1883. 

Wm. B. Hess (appointed by governor), March 5, 1883, to November, 

Isaiah Conner, November, 1884, to November, 1890. 

Albertus C. Capron (two termsj, November, 1890, to November, 1902. 

Harry Bernetha, November, 1902, to November 1908. 

Judges of Common Pleas Court. 

Elisha Egbert, October 26, 1852, to (died) November, 1871. 
Edward J. Wood (appointed), November 13, 1871, to November 4, 

Daniel Noyes, November 4, 1872, to March 6, 1873. (Court abolished.) 

Associate Judges. 
Peter Schroeder, October 25, 1836, to October 16, 1843. 
Sidnev Williams, October 25, 1836, to October 16, 1843. 
Samuel D. Taber, October 16, 1843, to October 28, 1851. 
David Steele, October 16, 1843, to April 19, 1851. 
Elias Jacoby, April 19, 1850, to October 28, 185 1. 
The new state constitution of 1850 abolished the associate judge 

Probate Judges. 

Grove Pomeroy, November 14, 1836, to November 13, 1843. 
Austin Fuller, November 13, 1843, to November 18, 1850. 
James A. Corse, November 18, 1850, to October 26, 1852. 
This court was abolished by the new state constitution of 1850. 

Prosecuting Attorneys in Marshall County. 

Those who have acted as prosecuting attorneys for Marshall county 
were in the earlier history of the county residents of other counties in the 
judicial district. They qualified in the county in which they resided, and 
so their names do not appear on the register of officers in this county. 
The following are the names of those prosecuting attorneys who were 
elected from and resided in this county: 

Amasa Johnson, November, 1858, to November, i860. 

David T. Phillips, November, i860, to November, 1864. 

William B. Hess, common pleas, October, 1870, to 1872. 

P. O. Jones, November, 1874, to 1878. 

B. D. Crawford, November, 1878, to 1882. 

Elijah C. Martindale, November, 1882, to November, 1886. 

C. P. Drummond, November, 1886, to 1890. 

S. N. Stevens, November, 1890, to November, 1894. 

James K. Houghton, November, 1894, to 1896. 

Samuel J. Hayes, November, 1896, to 1898. 

Andrew J. Molter, November, 1896, to December 31, 1908. 


State Senators From 1S35 to 1908. 

1835 — David H. Colerick, from the counties of Allen, Wabash, Hunt- 
ington, Elkhart, La Grange, St. Joseph, and the territory thereto attached. 
1836 — Jonathan A. Listen, St. Joseph, Marshall, Kosciusko and Stark. 
1837-39 — Thomas D. Baird, St. Joseph, Marshall, Kosciusko and Stark. 
1842-44 — John D. Defrees, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1845-49 — Wm. G. Pomeroy, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1849-50 — Norman Eddy, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1853 — A. P. Richardson, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1855 — A. P. Richardson, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1857 — Hugh Miller, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1858 — Rufus Brown, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1861— John F. jMiller, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1863-67 — Horace Corbin, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1867-69 — John Reynolds, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1869-72 — Lucius Hubbard, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1873-75 — Milo R. Smith, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1876-80 — Charles H. Reeve, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1880-84— W. H. Davidson, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1884-88 — Valentine Zimmerman, St. Joseph, Marshall and Fulton. 
1888-92 — Perry O. Jones, Marshall and Fulton. 
1892-96 — Samuel Parker, Marshall and Fulton. 
1896-1900 — C. P. Drummond, Marshall and Fulton. 
1901-09 — John W. Parks, Marshall and Kosciusko. 

Representatives in the Indiana Legislature From Marshall County. 
1836-37 — Joel Long, Marshall and Kosciusko. 
1839 — Amzi L. Wheeler, Marshall, Kosciusko and Stark. 
1840 — Peter L. Runyan, Marshall, Kosciusko and Stark. 
1 841 — William Rannels, Marshall and Fulton. 
1842 — Amzi L. Wheeler, Marshall and Fulton. 
1843 — Joseph Robbins, Marshall and Fulton. 
1844 — William G. Pomeroy, Marshall and Fulton. 
184s — Anthony F. Smith, Marshall and Fulton. 
1846 — James O. Parks, Marshall and Fulton. 
1847 — John R. Shryock, Marshall and Fulton. 
1848— Enos S. Tuttlc, Marshall and Fulton. 
1849 — Hugh Miller, Marshall and Fulton. 
1850 — Wm. M. Patterson, Marshall and Fulton. 
1852 — Thomas Sumner, Marshall and Stark. 
1853 — Eli Brown, Marshall and Stark. 
1855 — Amzi L. Wheeler, Marshall and Stark. 
1857 — Eli Brown, Marshall and Stark. 
1859 — James O. Parks, Marshall and Stark. 
1861— M. A. O. Packard, Marshall and Stark. 
1863— M. A. O. Packard, Marshall and Stark. 
1865 — Lloyd Glazebrook, Marshall and Stark. 
1867— D. E. Van Valkenburgh, Marshall and Stark. 
i86g — Amasa Jolmson, joint, St. Joseph and Marshall. 


1869— Daniel McDonald, Marshall. 

1869 — Daniel McDonald, Marshall, special election. 

1871— Milton M. Galentine, Marshall. 

1873 — Reason B. Eaton, Marshall. 

1875 — Designy A. Snyder, Marshall. 

1877 — Joseph W. Davis, Marshall. 

1877 — John W. Houghton, joint, Marshall and St. Joseph. 

1879 — ^James M. Confer, Marshall. 

1 88 1 — Thomas Sumner, Marshall. 

1883— William Shaw, Marshall. 

1885 — ^Charles Kellison, Marshall. 

1887 — Charles Kellison, Marshall. 

1889— Jacob W. Eidson, Marshall. 

1891 — Arthur L. Thomson, Marshall. 

1893— John W. Baugher, Marshall. 

1895— Millard W. Simons, Marshall. 

1897 — Adam E. Wise, Marshall. 

1899 — Adam E. Wise, Marshall. 

1901 — Clay W. Metsker, Marshall. 

1903 — H. W. Lemert, ]\Iarshall. 

1905 — Daniel McDonald, Marshall. 

1907 — Daniel McDonald, Marshall. 

Clerks of Marshall County. 

Jeremiah Muncy, May 22, 1836, to February 23, 1839. 

William G. Pomeroy, February 23, 1839, to April 17, 1843. 

Oscar F. Norton, April 17, 1843, to February 10, 1844. 

William G. Pomeroy, February 10, 1844, to !NIarch, 1844. 

Isaac How, March 14, 1844, to January 7, 1848. 

Rufus Hewett, January 8, 1848, to March 29, 1849. 

James Bufifum, March 29, 1849, to September 4, 1849. 

Richard Corbaley, September 4, 1849, to April 30, 1855. 

Richard Corbaley, appointed April 30, 1850, to September 24, 1850. 

Richard Corbaley, elected September 24, 1850, to November i, 1855. 
(This was occasioned by the adoption of the new state constitution of 1850.) 

Newton R. Packard, November i, 1855, to November i, 1859. 

Hezekiah R. Pershing, November i, 1859, to November i, 1863. 

John C. Cushman, November i, 1863, to April 3, 1871. (Resigned on 
account of being a member of the building committee of the new court- 

Daniel McDonald, appointed April 3, 1871, to November i, 1871. 

Daniel McDonald, elected November i, 1871, to November i, 1875. 

Daniel McDonald, elected November i, 1875, to November i, 1879. 

Oliver P. Klinger, November i, 1879, to November i, 1883. 

Oliver P. Klinger, November i, 1883, to November i, 1887. 

Designy A. Snyder, November i, 1887, to November i, 1891. 

Designy A. Snyder, November i, 1891, to 1895. 

John W. Wiltfong, November i, 1895, to November i, 1899. 

Keim Franklin Brooke, November i, 1899. to December 31, 1903. 


John R. Jones, January i, 1904, to December 31, 1907. 
Joseph E. Whitesell, January i, 1908, to . 

Auditors of Marshall County. 
Jeremiah Muncy, May 2, 1836, to February, 1839. 
William G. Pomeroy, February 23, 1839, to June 29, 1844. 
William M. Dunham, June 29, 1844, to March 4, 1859. 
Thomas McDonald, March 4, 1850, to March 7, 1859. 
Austin Fuller, March 7, 1859, to March 14, 1863. 
Alexander C. Thompson, March 14, 1863, to March 14, 1871. 
Hiram C. Burlingame, March 14, 1871, to March 14, 1875. 
Alexander C. Thompson, March 14, 1875, to March 14, 1879. 
Keim K. Brooke, March 14, 1879, to March 14, 1883. 
Morgan Johnson, March 14, 1883, to March 14, 1887. 
Charles H. Lehr, March 14, 1887, to March 14, 1891. 
Peter Hahn, March 14, 1891, to March 14, 1895. 
Oscar R. Porter, March 14, 1895, to JMarch 14, 1899. 
Henry H. Miller, March 14, 1899, to December 31, 1903. 
H. L. Singery, January i, 1904, to December 31, 1907. 
Charles M. Walker, January i, 1908, to December 31, 191 1. 

Treasurers of Marshall County. 
John Houghton, May, 1836, to August 5, 1850. 
Joseph Evans, August 5, 1850, to December 6, 1854. 
David Vinnedge, December 5, 1854, to December 6, 1858. 
Nathan H. Oglesbee, December 6, 1858, to December 6, 1862. 
Daniel O. Ouivey, December 6, 1862', to August 12, 1867. 
Michael WrDowney, August 12, 1867, to August 10, 1871. 
John Soice, August 10, 1871, to August 10, 1875. 
Arthur L. Thomson, August 10, 1875, to August 10, 1879. 
Frederick Tescher, August 10, 1879, to August 10, 1883. 
John K. Lawrence, August 10, 1883, to August 10, 1887. 
Ohver G. Soice, August 10, 1887, to August 10, 1891. 

A. D. Senour, August 10, 1891, to (died) . 

Chas. C. Vink, appointed to fill vacancy to August 10, 1895. 
William J. Rankin, August 10, 1895, to August 10, 1897. 
Chas. C. Vink, August 10, 1897, to December 31, 1901. 
Wilham O'Keefe, January i, 1902, to December 31, 1905. 
Jones Grant, January i, 1906, to December 31, 1907. 
Fred Myers, January i, 1908, to . 

Sheriffs of Marshall County. 
Adam Vinnedge, March 16, 1836, to August 31, 1836. 
Abner Caldwell, August 31, 1836, to August 17, 1838. 
Patrick Logan, August 17, 1838, to August 17, 1842. 
Joseph Evans, August 20, 1842, to August 26, 1846. 
Jacob K. Hupp, August 26, 1846, to August 26, 1850. 
Seth Hussey, August 30, 1850, to February 25, 1852. 
William C. Edwards, February 28, 1852, to November 10, 1852. 
John L. Thompson, November 10, 1852, to May 5, 1856. 


J. F. Van Valkenburgh, May 25, 1856, to November 10, 1858. 
Obed M. Barnard. November 12, 1858, to November 12, 1862. 
Henrv ]\L Logan. November 19. 1862. to November 12. 1866. 
David How. \ovember 21, 1866, to November 19, 1870. 
Daniel K. Harris, November, 1870. to November 19. 1874. 
L. C. Fink, November 19, 1874, to November 19, 1878. 
John A". Astlev, November 19, 1878, to November 19, 1882. 
William B. Kyle. November 19, 1882, to November 19, 1886. 
John N. Wilson, November 19, 1886, to November 19, 1890. 
Henry L. Jerrell, November 19, 1890, to November 19, 1894. 
David C. Smith, November 19, 1894, to November, 1896. 
Joseph E. Marshall. November 19. 1896, to November 19, 1900. 
Clinton A. Bondurant, November 19, 1900, to December 31, 1904. 
Monroe Steiner, January i, 1905, to December 31, 1906. 
Daniel C. Voreis, January i, 1907, to December 31, 1908. 

Recorders of Marshall County. 
Silas Morgan, April 29, 1836, to May i, 1837. 
Evan B. Hobson, August 15, 1837. to September 13, 1838. 
Isaac Crocker. September 13. 1838, to November 14, 1839. 
Gilson S. Cleveland, November 14, 1839, to August 21, 1854. 
Johnson Brownlee, August 21, 1854, to August 21, 1858. 
Thomas K. Houghton. August 21. 1858, to August 21, 1866. 
John W. Houghton, August 21, 1866, to October 26, 1874. 
J. B. N. Klinger, October 26, 1S74, to October 26. 1878. 
John L. Place, October 26. 1878, to December 4. 1882. 
Theodore Cressner, December 4, 1882, to November 11, 1892. 
Thomas M. Walker, November 11, 1892, to February 15, 1900. 
Frank M. Walker, February 15, 1900, to April, 1900 (to fill vacancy; 
died in office). 

L. G. Harley. appointed April 9, to November 14, 1900. 

L. G. Harley, elected November, 1904. to November 19, 1904. 

Alvin L. Porter, November, 1904, to December 31, 1908. 

Surveyors of Marshall County. 

Daniel Roberts, November 9, 1836, to , 1840. 

Grove Pomeroy, appointed 1840, to , 1841. 

Henry B. Pershing, November 9, 1841, to January 3, 1848. 
A. W. Reed, January 3, 1848, to December, 1850. 
Jacob B. N. Klinger, December, 1850, to November 29, 1854. 
Oliver W. Morris, November 29, 1854, to November 16, 1856. 
Jacob B. N. Klinger, November 29, 1856, to November 29, 1858. 
Oliver W. Morris, November 29, 1858, to November 12, i860. 
J. S. Crampton, November 13, i860, to June, 1861 (died). 
Fred H. Hall, June 6, 1861, to November 12, 1863. 
Jerry I^L Klinger, November 12, 1863, to November 12, 1867. 
Martin H. Rice, November 12. 1867, to November 12, 1871. 
Morgan Johnson, April 17, 1872, to November 12, 1872. 
Jerry M. Klinger, November 12, 1872, to November 12, 1876. 
Achilles North, November 12, 1876. to November 12, 1880. 


E. O. Boyce, ■ , 1880, to November 12, 1880. 

Achilles North, October 21, 1881, to November 11, 1884. 
J. M. Klmger, October 21, 1884, to November 11, 1886. 
John C. Buttler, November 11, 1886, to November 11, 1890. 
Achilles North, November 11, 1890, to 1894. 
William Warnes, November 21, 1894, to November 21, 1896. 
William H. English, November 21, 1896, to November 21, 1900. 
Harry E. Griibe, November, 1900, to December 31, 1904. 
David E. Van Vactor, January i, 1905, to December 31, 1906. 
Percy J. Troyer, January 1, 1907, to December 31, 1908. 

Coroners of Marshall County. 
The early records of the coroners of this county were so imperfectly 
kept that only the names have been procured. They are as follows: 
John Johnson, 1836. 
James Bannon. 
Lyman H. Andrews. 
John K. Brooke. 
William Bailey. 
James Logan. 
Isaac Shadel. 
Robert McFarlin. 
Lorenzo Matteson. 
Keim K. Brooke. 
Adam Vinnedge. 
Henry M. Logan. 
Eli R. Shook. 
John Bauer, Jr. 

A. C. Holtzendorff, November, 1878, to November, 1886. 
John H. Johnson, November, 1886, to (died) 1887. 
Jacob W. Eidson, appointed 1887, to November, 1888. 
J. J. Hamilton, November, 1888, to November, 1894. 
Jacob Kaiser, November, 1894, to December, 1896. 
W. C. Sarber, November, 1896, to November, 1900. 
J. H. Kiser, November, 1900, to November, 1905. 
R. C. Stephens, December, 1905, to December, 1907. 
J. H. Kiser, January i, 1907, to December 31, 1908. 

Marshall County Commissioners. 
Robert Blair, May, 1836, to May, 1837. 
Abraham Johnson, Alay, 1836, to September, 1840. 
Charles Osterhaut, J\Iay, 1836, to July, 1836. 
John Gibson, September, 1836, to September, 1839. 
Andrew Roberts, May, 1837, to August, 1837. 
Ewell Kendall, August, 1837. to March, 1838. 

Abel C. Hickman. May, 1838, to September, 1838. * 

Thomas McDonald, November, 1838, to September, 1840. 
James Nash, September, 1839, to September, 1842. 
Joseph Evans, September, 1840, to June, 1842. 
John B. Dickson, September, 1840, to August, 1841. 


Ira Allen, August, 1841, to December, 1844. 
Abraham Johnson, June, 1842, to September, 1842. 
Ransom Barber, September, 1842, to September, 1851. 
George Metcalf, September,' 1842, to September, 1843. 
Charles Palmer, September, 1843, to December, 1845. 
Enos S. Tuttle, December, 1844, to September, 1847. 
Hiram A. Ranck, December, 1845, to March, 1847. 
Designey S. Conger, March, 1847, to September, 1847. 
Hiram A. Ranck, September, 1847, to December, 1849. 
Tyra Jones, September, 1847, to March, 1851. 
Robert Schroeder, December, 1849, to December, 1851. 
Sanford Gordon, March, 185 1, to June, 1857. 
David Van Vactor, September, 1851, to December, 1857. 
H. A. Ranck, December, 1851, to March, 1853. 
Robert Johnson, March, 1853, to March, 1855. 
Jacob Knoblock, March, 1855, to March, 1856. 
S. N. Champlin, March, 1856, to December, 1856. 
William Hughes, June, 1857, to December, 1859. 
Robert S. Piper, December, 1857, to December, 1859. 
Moses Keyser, December, 1858, to December, 1861. 
Isaac N. jklorris, December, 1859, to December, 1862. 
J. L. Westervelt, December, 1859, to September, i860. 
Elijah Boley, September, i860, to September, 1863. 
Thomas Tyner, December, 1861, to March, 1865. 
John H. Voreis, December, 1862, to June, 1863. 
Leonard- Alleman, June, 1863, to December, 1868. 
William Garrison, September, 1863, to December, 1868. 
Hiram A. Ranck, March, 1865, to December, 1867. 
Jonas Miller, December, 1867, to September, 1877. 
Henry Krause, December, 1868, to December, 1874. 
James Abrams, December. 1874, to December, 1883. 
H. Barnaby, September, 1875, to June, 1880. 
William Sear, June, 1880, to September, 1881. 
H. A. Ranck, June, 1877, to December, 1879. 
Philip Duraph, December, 1879, to December, 1882. 
Peter Holem, September. 1881, to September, 1887. 
Ferdinand Sparr, December, 1882, to December, 1885. 
Pulaski Wickizer, December, 1883, to December, 1889. 
John P. Huff, December term. 1885. 

G. M. Richardson, appointee, 1886 ; same short term, December, 1886, 
to December, 1888. 

Milton Kleckner, September, 1887, to October, 1889. 
Marion A. Bland, October, 1889, to September, 1890. 
Benjamin Snyder, December, 1889, to 1894. 
Marion A. Bland, October, 1889. to December, 1896. 
Daniel W. Marks, December, 1889, to December, 1892. 
William Voreis, December, 1892, to December, 1895. 
A. W. Dolph, December, 1894, to December, 1897. 
William Shunk, December, 1895, to December, 1898. 
Fred Seider, December, 1896, to 1899. 


Henry L. Jarrell, December, 1897, to 1903. 

Henry Snyder, December, 1902, to December, 1905. 

Joel Anglin, December, 1903, to December, 1908. 

Wm. H. Troup, 1904, to December, 1910. 

Wm. L. Yantiss, December, 1905, to December, 1907. 

James B. Severns, December, 1907, to December, 1910. 


Since the organization of the county in 1836, Marshall county has had 
eight representatives in the state senate, viz: Wm. G. Pomeroy, Dr. Rufus 
Brown, Horace Corbin, Charles H. Reeve, Perry O. Jones, Samuel Parker, 
C. P. Drummond and John W. Parks. The first four are dead, the remainder 
are living. Of these, Pomeroy and Brown were whigs, and Parks repub- 
lican ; Corbin, Reeve, Jones, Parker and Drummond were democrats. 

David Colerick, who represented the greater portion of northern Indiana 
in the senate in 1835 — a territory sufficiently large to make a good sized 
state, — was a resident of Fort VVayne, and was an intelligent man, an 
enterprising citizen, and respected by all who knew him. 

Jonathan A. Liston was a resident of South Bend, a lawyer by profes- 
sion, and was looked upon as being one of the foremost men of his time. 
He practiced law in the courts of this county for many years and was well 
known to most of the early settlers here. 

John D. Defreese was one of the early pioneers of northern Indiana, 
and from the beginning took an active part in politics in opposition to the 
democrats. He was a resident of Goshen. 

Norman Eddy was a resident of South Bend, and was perhaps as well 
and favorably known as any man in the state. His career as a citizen, a 
politician and a soldier in the war of the Rebellion is without blemish. At 
the time of his death in 1871 he was holding the office of secretary of state. 

John F. Miller also resided in South Bend. He was elected to fill the 
vacancy occasioned by the death of Rufus Brown. The Rebellion coming 
on, he went into the army and was promoted to the rank of general. 
After the close of the war he received an appointment from the government 
and removed to California. In 1881 he was elected United States senator 
from the state of California, and died while holding that office a few years 

A. P. Richardson resided in St. Joseph county, and served one term in 
the senate, after which he removed to McGregor, Iowa, where he estab- 
lished the McGregor Times, which was, under his editorial management, 
one of the spiciest local papers in the west. He was of Irish descent, and 
was familiarly known as "Pat Richardson." He died at his home in Mc- 
Gregor several years ago, lamented by all who knew him. 

Of Pomeroy, Brown, Corbin and Reeve, all of whom served with 
distinction in the' senate, historical reference will be found in various places 
in this work, and it is therefore unnecessary to repeat it here. Of those that 
are living. Senators Jones and Parks reside in Plymouth, and Senators 
Parker and Drummond are residents of South Bend. All of these public 


officials served with distinction in the upper branch of the general assembly, 
and are all so well and favorably known that special mention of them is 

House of Representatives. 

Ahhough prior to 1869 Marshall county had been attached to other 
counties for representative purposes, it has had its full share of members 
of the lower branch of the legislature. Of the personal history of those who 
have represented Marshall county, residents of other counties, it is not 
necessary to speak at length. 

Joel Long, the first representative after the county was organized, 
was a resident of Kosciusko county. He is said to have owned a large 
farm on a beautiful prairie about midway between Warsaw and Milford. 
He passed off the stage of action many years ago, and sleeps with the 
innumerable throng who passed on before him. 

Peter L. Runyan was also a resident of Kosciusko county, but little 
of his history is known. 

Enos S. Tuttle was born near New Haven, Connecticut, in 1796, 
removed to the southwestern part of Indiana in 1817, and settled in Mar- 
shall county in 1841. He was elected and served one term as county com- 
missioner in 1845-46. In 1848 he was elected representative from the 
counties of Marshall and Fulton, and served during the session of that 
year. He died in Marshall county in 1850, aged 54 years. 

James O. Parks was a native of Kentucky, born March 20, 1813. He 
came to Marshall county in 1836, and settled in what is now the town of 
Bourbon. He was twice elected to the legislature, in 1846 from Marshall 
and Fulton, and in 1859 from Marshall and Starke. He made an efficient 
member. He died at his home in Bourbon several years ago. 

William M. Patterson was born in Cincinnati, February 10, 1807. 
From there he moved with his parents in an early day to Lexington, Indiana, 
where he was married in 1824. He took a liking to politics in his youth, 
and was an active participant in all the campaigns that followed until 
the day of his death. He was a democrat of the Jeffersonian school, and 
any one who disputed his democracy was sure to hear from him in the most 
emphatic language. He was elected and served as sherifif of Scott county, 
Indiana, in 1832, and moved with his family and settled in La Porte in 
1836, where he resided until the fall of 1847, when he became a resident 
of Plymouth. In 1850 he was elected a member of the legislature from 
the counties of Marshall, Fulton and Starke, served one term, was defeated 
for reelection by Thomas Sumner in 1851, and as a slight recompense he 
was elected doorkeeper of the state senate in 1851, and the same year 
was appointed appraiser of canal lands ; in 1856 he was appointed receiver 
of the land office in Winamac ; was appointed deputy United States marshal 
in i860, and died at his home in Plymouth, August 9, 1871. 

Since 1869 Marshall county has been entitled to a representative alone. 
Of the seventeen who have been elected since that time the following are 
dead: Reason B. Eaton, Joseph W. Davis, James M. Confer, Thomas 
Sumner, William Shaw, Arthur L. Thomson, Millard W. Simons. Of those 
still living it is unnecessary here to speak. 


The Clerk's Office. 

The clerk's office is, if one office may be said to be of more importance 
than another, the most important office in the county. Here the judge of 
the court sits as arbiter of the disputes between man and man, and here 
the jury sits and determines the law and the evidence and the facts in matters 
of great import to the people, even the life or death of the individual ; and 
all these decisions are recorded on the records of the clerk's office, and are 
binding on all the people for all time to come. Therefore a brief sketch 
of a few of the earliest clerks who opened the books and without any plans 
of procedure to guide them did their work so well that it has stood the 
test of three-quarters of a century without any errors of consequence having 
happened, is in place here. 

Jeremiah Muncy, the first clerk, held the office by appointment from 
the board of county commissioners. They were in session July 20, 1836, 
at the time the commissioners designated to organize the county were 
assembled, and as soon as they had made their report that the county had 
been legally organized, the board of county commissioners immediately 
appointed Mr. Muncy clerk of the court, it being the first business transacted 
by them after the county was organized. Those who knew Mr. Muncy then 
will remember him to have been a sprightly business man about forty years 
old, not very tall and somewhat heavy built, and somewhat handsome in 
appearance. His court records are clean and perfectly legible, and show- 
plainly the traces of the now almost forgotten goose quill pen. The office 
at that time was more honorable than profitable, and having extracted all 
the honor there was in it, he went off with the Indians about February, 
1839, locating in Clay county, Missouri, where he undoubtedly passed away 
many years ago. 

William G. Pomeroy followed Mr. Muncy by appointment of the asso- 
ciate judges of the circuit court, as appears from the following entry on 
the order book of the court: 

"At a meeting held at the house of David Steel in Plymouth, Marshall 
county, Indiana, on the twenty-third day of February, 1839, there were 
present Peter Schroeder and David Steel, the associate judges of the Mar- 
shall county circuit court. As Jeremiah Muncy, clerk of the same, had 
vacated said office by removing from said county, thereupon said judges, 
according to the statute in such case made and provided, proceeded to fill said 
vacancy, and thereupon appointed William G. Pomeroy clerk of the Marshall 
circuit court pro tempore." 

Mr. Pomeroy resigned the office April 17, 1843, and was succeeded by 
Oscar F. Norton, who held the office until he died, and Mr. Pomeroy was 
again appointed February 10, 1844, to fill the vacancy. He held the office 
until March 14th, of the same year, when he resigned. i\Ir. Pomeroy was 
a man of more than ordinary capabilities, being competent to conduct the 
clerk's office, act as justice of the peace, practice law, keep a hotel, run a 
slaughter house, keep a dry goods store, a hardware store, and do anything 
else that happened to come in his way all at the same time. He removed to 
Rolla, IMissouri, where he died many years ago. He was succeeded as clerk 
by the appointment of Isaac How, March 14, 1844. He served under the 
appointment until he was elected at the August election following. He died 


in January, 1848, and, being one of the early pioneers, was well known to 
the people of the county at the time of his death. 

Charles Palmer was appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
death of Mr. How. He very quickly determined that he would not serve 
as clerk, for the next day the following entry appears on the records : 

Plymouth, Ind., January 7, 1848. 
To The Honorable Associate Judges of the Marshall Circuit Court: 

I hereby resign the office of clerk of said circuit court into your hands from 
whence it came. Eespectfully, 

Charles Palmer. 

At that time Mr. Palmer was a dry goods merchant. In conversation 
with him as to the reason he declined the appointment he said on the day 
of the appointment he went to the clerk's office to look over the condition 
of things, and finding it locked, returned to his place of business. The next 
day he went to the office, and made an examination of the work the clerk 
was required to do, and the pay he was to receive for it, and at once 
decided that there was nothing in it for him, and within a few minutes after 
he had entered the office he took up a pen and wrote the above declination. 
Mr. Palmer was one of the early business men of Plymouth, and was one 
of the most substantial and reliable citizens of his time. He died many 
years ago. 

Rufus Hewett was then appointed and served until March 26, 1849, 
when he died. Mr. Hewett was engaged in merchandising with Norman 
Woodward, in the firm name of Hewett & Woodward. He was in every 
way a splendid man. 

James Buffum was appointed to fill the vacancy and served until 
September, when he went to California. He was followed by Richard 
Corbaley, by election, who served six years in all, ending November i, 
1855. He died in the state of Washington about 1895. 

Since the organization of the county there have been eighteen clerks, 
all of whom but seven are dead. 

The Early Auditors. 

The auditor's office is one of the most important parts of the machinery 
of the county government. Here is made out the tax duplicate from which 
the taxes are collected to keep the machinery moving. Here are recorded 
the transactions of the board of county commissioners and here are made 
out the orders on the treasurer for the allowances made by the board ; here 
the accounts of the township trustees are audited ; here all the roads, public 
buildings, bridges, and many other matters too numerous to mention are 
authorized and provided for ; and as the auditor has charge of all the 
records, and is supposed to be fully conversant with the details of everything 
connected with the office, the men who had charge of the office for the first 
quarter of a century are entitled to mention here as being important factors 
in starting the machinery of that part of the county government in such 
a manner as to reflect honor and credit upon them and the county as well. 

Jeremiah Muncy served as auditor and clerk, the two offices being 
combined in one, or rather under one management, until June, 1844. He 
left the auditor's office in the same unceremonious manner that he vacated 
the clerk's office. The county was in its infancy at that time, and the 


emoluments accruing by virtue of his two official positions were hardly 
sufficient to support himself and family. Nevertheless the records now in 
the auditor's office made by him seem to have been thoroughly made and 
well kept during his stay in the office. He is represented to have been a 
man of the world, and kept himself up to if not a little ahead of the age 
in which he lived. He left in 1839, and is probably dead long ago. 

William G. Pomeroy w^as appointed auditor in 1839, and discharged 
the duties of the office until June 29, 1844. At that date the offices of 
auditor and clerk were separated and the business of each office since that 
time has been performed by one officer appointed or elected for each. Mr. 
Pomeroy was an excellent business man, wrote a fine hand and left the 
office in good shape when his term expired. 

William M. Dunham was appointed first auditor after the two offices 
were separated, June 29, 1844. Mr. Dunham had served as justice of the 
peace, and was one of the leading men of the county at that time. He was 
small in stature, but was "wide enough out" to make up for the deficiency 
in height. He delighted in smoking a white clay pipe, and if there was 
any comfort he did not derive from it it was not because he did not make 
an honest effort to patiently distil it out. He wrote a peculiar up and 
down hand, and his records are uniform, clean and perfectly legible. He 
died in Plymouth, February 25, 1855. 

Thomas McDonald succeeded Mr. Dunham March 4, 1850, and owing 
to the change made in the commencement of the term of that office by the 
adoption of the new constitution of Indiana, and a reelection when his 
first term expired, he served in all nine years. He was one of the pioneers 
of the county, having arrived here six days after the county had been 
organized. He was attentive to business, and prided himself on the facility 
and correctness with which he could add up a row of figures, his knowledge 
of the description of lands, and the number of people he was personally 
acquainted with. During his life he served as justice of the peace ; assessed 
the property of the county for taxable purposes ; was elected county com- 
missioner; appointed county school examiner; and was the first county 
superintendent of schools after the law was passed creating that office, which 
office he was holding at the time of his death, March 26, 1875. He also 
established the Plymouth Democrat November 15, 1855. 

Rev. Austin Fuller was elected in 1859 ''"d served four years. He 
came here in an early day, and managed the Plymouth water mills, which 
were then known as "Fuller's Mills." He was a preacher of the gospel 
according to the Wesleyan view of Methodism for many years, and on 
several occasions had taken an active part in politics — always in opposition 
to the democracy. He died in Plymouth in the later eighties. 

Of those who have had charge of the office since Mr. Fuller's term it 
is not necessary to speak in detail. All discharged the duties of the office 
with credit to themselves and satisfaction to all concerned. 

Treasurer's Office. 

This office, like all the other offices, since its existence has been excep- 
tionally well managed. John Houghton was the first treasurer. He was 
appointed by the board of commissioners May 3, 1836. He was elected in 
August, 1836, qualified September 5th, and held the office under the election 


until August, 1839, when he was again reelected, and, having served out 
the term, was again reelected and held the office until 1850. His first report 
as county treasurer is inserted here as a matter of historical interest: 

FIRST treasurer's REPORT. 

John Houghton, treasurer, in account with Marshall county from April 
I, 1836, to May I, 1837: 

Received for license to this date $ 98.98 >i 

Received of Peter Schroeder, county agent, as part dona- 
tion to county seat 300.00 

Received of A. Vinnedge, collector for 1836 466.40J/2 

Total $865.38^ 


By amount orders redeemed April i, 1836, to May i, 

1837, as appears by vouchers $802.03^ 

To balance in treasury as per contra, $63.3534 ; deduct 
the treasurer's commission on $502.03^^ since April 
I, 1836, to May I, 1837, at 3 per cent, making $15.07; 
commission on $300, 2 per cent, $6, making 21.07 

Balance in treasury up to this date 42.28^4 

Total $865.38% 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

John Houghton, County Treasurer. 

Mr. Houghton was an Englishman, having been born near Southamp- 
ton, England, in 1790. He learned the shipwright carpenter trade and 
worked in the King's navy yard during the reign of George IV. at Ports- 
mouth. He came to America in 1820, and to Marshall county in 1835, and 
remained here continuously until his death in 1877. 

Joseph Evans, the second treasurer, was one of the early settlers in 
Marshall county. He was an affable, pleasant gentleman, and a straight- 
forward citizen, of whom nothing but good could be said. In addition to his 
services as treasurer, during his life he had served two terms as sheriff and 
one term as county commissioner, and other official positions of less import- 
ance. He died in the eighties. 

David Vinnedge was the third treasurer. He came from Butler county, 
Ohio, where he was born, to Marshall county in 1846, settling in North 
township, where he resided until he was elected treasurer, when he removed 
to Plymouth, where he remained until his death, October 14, 1859. He made 
an excellent treasurer; was kind-hearted, liberal to a fault and peculiarly 
jovial and social. 

Nathan H. Oglesbee was twice elected treasurer, coming in on the 
tidal wave of the newly organized Republican party, which was assisted 
by the American party, commonly known as the Know Nothings. He was 
a gentleman of good business qualifications, pleasant manners, attended 
strictly to business, and performed the duties of his office with honor to 
himself and satisfaction to the people. He died several years ago. 


Daniel O. Ouivey was a young man of more than ordinary experience 
in business matters, and, being honorable and upright in all his dealings 
with mankind, he was well liked and very popular with all who knew him. 
His peculiar fitness for political positions attracted the attention of the 
voters of the county holding to the Democratic faith, and he was elevated 
to the office of county treasurer from among a large number of aspirants. 
He held the office two terms and transacted the business in a satisfactory 
manner to the people. His health began to fail during his term of office, 
and finally culminated m a paralytic stroke, from the effects of which he 
died at his home in this place July ii, 1869. 

Of those who have served in that office since that time it is unneces- 
sary to speak. The office from the beginning has been well kept, no short- 
ages or scandals of any kind ever having occurred. Nathan H. Oglesbee, 
Frederick Tescher, William J. Rankin and Jones Grant were republicans ; 
all the others were democrats. 

The Sheriff's Office. 
Adam Vinnedge, the first sheriff, held the office by appointment of the 
board of commissioners immediately after the county was organized. An 
election was held in August following 1836, at which a successor was elected, 
and he seems to have dropped out of politics entirely, as his name does not 
appear as an official after that time. 

Abner Caldwell was the first sheriff elected after the organization of 
the county. He was a resident of what is now Walnut township, — then 
Green township. He resided with Sidney Williams or near his farm, which 
is now the town of Argos. When his first term expired the political ele- 
ments began to work and the race for reelection was spirited and hotly 
contested. He was defeated by seven majority out of between three and 
four hundred votes in the county. 

Patrick Logan was elected in August, 1838, over Abner Caldwell by 
a bare majority of seven votes. The race for sheriff was an exciting one 
and was conducted more on personal considerations than on political prin- 
ciples, although the candidates were members and representatives of their 
respective parties, Mr. Caldwell being a Whig and Mr. Logan a Democrat. 
Mr. Logan served two years and was reelected. His second election was 
contested by Silas Morgan, as appears by the records in the auditor's office. 
The office, however, was awarded to Mr. Logan and he served out his full 
term. In 1852 he removed with his family to Montgomery county, Indiana, 
where he died about i860. 

Jacob K. Hupp was one of the pioneers of the county and built and 
operated a sawmill on Yellow river, four or five miles southwest of Ply- 
mouth. He was twice elected and served four years as sheriff. From an 
accident which happened to him in his sawmill he died March 7, 1856. 

Seth Hussey was elected in August, 1850, and served until February 
25, 1852, when he resigned. He was a shoemaker by trade, and some time 
before his election to the office of sheriff he accidentally cut one of his 
arms with a shoe knife, producing a severe wound. He suffered great 
pain for a long time, and finally amputation became necessary. He died 
shortly after he vacated the office. 

William C. Edwards, a half brother of Seth Hussey's, was appointed 


to fill the vacancy and served until November of the same year. He made 
a good officer. A few years before he died his mind failed him and he 
became demented, so much so that he was unable to take care of himself. 

John L. Thompson, a Republican in politics, was one of the early settlers 
and resided on a farm near Wolf Creek mills until he was elected sheriff, 
when he took up his residence in Plymouth, where he remained until his 
death, which occurred in ]May, 1856, five months before his second term 
expired. He was a kind-hearted social man and made an acceptable officer. 

James F. Van Valkenburg was appointed to fill the vacancy of Mr. 
Thompson, and was elected at the election following. He served as post- 
master a short time under Pierce's administration and also under a portion 
of Buchanan's. He died at Walnut station, this county, December 15, 1880. 

The others who have filled the office since that time have all performed 
their duties well, nothing having occurred worthy of special historical note. 

Recorders of Marshall County. 

Silas Morgan, first recorder, served one year and then resigned. He 
was a dignified-appearing gentleman, about six feet tall and of slender 
build. He was a carpenter by trade and built the first bridge across Yellow 
river at Plymouth. He was also architect and builder of the first seminary 
building on the grounds where the Washington school building now stands. 
His health declined rapidly during the last year of his life and he died 
December 19, 1863. 

Evan B. Hobson served less than one year. Outside his services as 
recorder, nothing of importance concerning him is known. He seems to 
have been a fair business man and kept the books in good shape. He died 
before his term expired in 1838. 

Gilson S. Cleaveland held the office about fifteen years. His wife, who 
was Caroline Rose, daughter of Oliver Rose, one of the first merchants 
in Plymouth, was an excellent penman and a bright, intelligent business 
woman. She assisted him in the discharge of his duties, in fact had charge 
of the office most of the time, thus giving Mr. Cleaveland an opportunity to 
attend to his mercantile business. Both Mr. and Mrs. Cleaveland are now 

Johnson Brownlee came to Plymouth in 1840 and engaged in the mer- 
cantile business. He was a working Democrat and endeared himself to 
his party to such an extent that without his asking for it they gave him 
the nomination for recorder, and he was elected. He did not attend to 
the office in person, but employed deputies to do the work. Samuel B. 
Corbaley took charge of the office the first two years, and Daniel McDonald 
the remainder of his term of four years. He was a very industrious man. 
He had not a lazy bone in his body, and during his business career had 
done as much or more to advance the general prosperity of Plymouth as 
any other man in it. He died of heart failure sitting in a chair at his home 
in Plymouth, January 12, 1898. 

Thomas K. Houghton and John W. Houghton were brothers, one a 
Republican and the other a Democrat. They were the sons of John Hough- 
ton, the first treasurer of the county. They came to the county in 1835 
and had resided here to the time of their deaths a few years ago. They 


both made good officers, and were highly esteemed in the community in 
which they lived. 

Jacob B. N. Klinger served one term as recorder after having served 
six years as county surveyor. He left Preble county, Ohio, where he resided 
in 1 84 1 and settled in Bourbon township a short distance north of the town 
of Bourbon. He came west in 1835 and footed it from La Porte to Plymouth 
on his return home. The country from Lemon's bridge across the Kankakee 
to Plymouth was "one vast wilderness," with only a few. houses to mark 
the commencement of civilization ; prairie wolves were numerous ; Indians 
were still prowling around seeking whom they might devour, and a journey 
on foot and alone through the swamps and marshes, brush and tree tops 
under such circumstances was not calculated to inspire him with the most 
agreeable assurances of safety. Nevertheless he reached home without 
meeting with any serious mishaps and returned five years later to Mar- 
shall county, where he resided until the date of his death. Mr. Klinger was 
an excellent citizen in all the walks of life, and all his work as a public 
official was performed conscientiously, faithfully and well. 

From the time the office was opened for business in 1836 to the present 
time the records have been well and correctly kept, few mistakes ever having 
been made that were discovered and had to be corrected through the courts. 

The Surveyor's Office. 

The county surveyor is, in a way, one of the most important officers 
in the county. He fixes the corners and subdivisions of all the lands in 
the county, lays out the roads, fixes the abutments to all the bridges, surveys 
and superintends the construction of ditches, etc., a record of which is made 
on the books of his office. 

Daniel Roberts, the first surveyor, served as such four years. The 
records are .somewhat imperfect, owing probablv to the lack of proper books 
and materials. He left the county many years ago and died in or near 

Grove Pomeroy, who was appointed in 1840 and served until 1841, was 
among the first settlers in Marshall county, and was well known to the people 
up to the time of his death. He was the first resident of Plymouth, and 
built the first "tavern" in the then village, which he named "The Yellow 
River House," but which was afterward changed to the "Plymouth Hotel." 
It stood on the northeast corner of Michigan and La Porte streets. For 
many years this tavern was the stopping place for the stage lines passing 
between Logansport, Indiana, and Niles, Michigan, and to and from La 
Porte. There were no sawmills in those days, and the lumber for the 
"tavern" was made with a "whip-saw." Roll your log up on a frame si.x 
feet high, with one man on top and one below, and push and pull your 
"whip-saw" alternately, and you will have a practical illustration of the 
modus operandi of making lumber hereway three score years ago. Mr. 
Pomeroy was judge of the probate court, being the first who held that 
office, from 1836 to 1843, and took an active part in the organization of 
the county, and in everything looking to its prosperity. He died in Plymouth 
in 1854. 

Henry B. Pershing was also one of the earliest pioneers, and when 
he first settled here was engaged in the tailoring business. Later he engaged 


in the drug business for a long time, and while so engaged discovered "Dr. 
Leibig's Ague Cure." which was warranted to take the chill out of every- 
thing animate and inanimate. He also discovered what he called "The 
Philosopher's Stone." He claimed to manufacture stone by a chemical 
process by which it was made so hard that a "nigger's head" could not 
break it. He made a good surveyor ; at least that was the verdict of those 
who professed to know, and there in no reason to doubt it. He died in 
South Bend about 1899. 

Jacob B. N. Klinger served as surveyor six years in all, and was said 
by those who were informed on the subject to understand the intricacies 
of county surveying better than any other of the distinguished gentlemen 
who carried the tripod before or since his time. (See under Recorder.) 

Achilles North served as surveyor eleven years; Jerry AT Klinger 
served ten years. 


With the advancement of civilization' and the increase of population 
came the necessity for the organization of societies for mutual benefit and 
social enjoyment. The oldest of all the numerous secret organizations, of 
which there are scores now in existence, is that known as "Free and Accepted 
Masons." It being the oldest, and from which all other secret orders have 
sprung, it is proper to speak of it first in this historical review. The 
traditions in regard to the history of Masonry are numerous, and, so far 
as is now known, its origin was in the builders' associations of ancient times, 
which attained their greatest perfection at the building of King Solo- 
mon's temple. Since that time, perhaps about 200 years ago, it was changed 
into a speculative science, still retaining the working tools of operative 
masonry, and giving them a symbolic meaning, illustrating the erection of a 
human temple, complete in all its parts. 

The first lodge of any kind after the county was organized was a 
lodge of Odd Fellows in Plymouth, March 4, 1851, but it continued to work 
only until July 22, 1855, when it ceased to exist by the surrender of its 

Plymouth Lodge No. 149, F. & A. M., was organized under dispensation 
April 2, 1853, and chartered May 23, 1853. Freemasonry was introduced 
into Plymouth mainly through the efforts of Rev. John G. Osborn, who died 
in this place thirty odd years ago. He was a preacher of the gospel, and 
came to Plymouth as the pastor of the Methodist congregation, occupying 
the little frame church building which stood on Center street, on the lot 
second door south of the Lutheran church. This was the second church 
building in Plymouth, the Presbyterian house of worship having been erected 
some time previous. At the time the dispensation was asked for there were 
but seven Masons in the jurisdiction, just enough to form a lodge, and two 
of these resided in Bremen, fourteen miles away, namely, George Pomeroy 
and Jacob Knoblock. The other five petitioners were John G. Osix)rn, Henrv 
B. Pershing, Y. T. Moore, Greenville P. Oierry and David Steel. The dis'- 
pensation was granted and the lodge organized on the afternoon and evening 
of April 15, 1853. The first business transacted after the lodge was organ- 


ized was the election to membership of the following Masons who had 
settled in Plymouth after the petition had been forwarded : John Coleman, 
William J. Burns, John Hall and Wm. D. Moore. The lodge then elected 
the following officers for the ensuing year : Master, John G. Osborn ; senior 
warden, G. P. Cherry; junior warden, H. B. Pershing; treasurer. George 
Pomeroy ; secretary, Wm. J. Burns ; senior deacon, Jacob Knoblock ; junior 
deacon, Y. T. Moore : tyler, Wm. K. Logan. All these ancient workmen 
on the spiritual temple have laid down their working tools and gone to 
their eternal rest. 

June 26, i860, the lodge had a public installation of officers in a grove 
near town. After the ceremonies were concluded, Mr. Osborn, master elect, 
delivered a masonic address, after which the members of the lodge and 
visiting brethren from Warsaw. La Porte, Valparaiso and Columbia City 
were marched to the Edwards House, where a banquet was served ; at the 
conclusion of which the lodge returned to the lodge room. The lodge was 
chartered May 23, 1853, as Plymouth Lodge No. 149, F. & A. ]\L 

In 1871 another lodge was organized called Kilwinning Lodge No. 435, 
F. & A. M., Daniel McDonald being first master. This lodge continued 
until 1888 when, by mutual agreement, the two lodges were consolidated 
in the name of Plymouth-Kilwinning Lodge No. 149, and has continued 
as such to the present time. In 1902 the masonic lodges of the city erected 
a masonic temple at a cost of about $6,000, which they now occupy, on the 
corner of Michigan and Garro streets. 

Each of the lodges above named furnished a grand master, grand high 
priest and illustrious grand master, viz. : Alartin H. Rice and Daniel Mc- 
Donald. Henry G. Thayer served as grand commander Knights Templar 
of Indiana, and all three were honored by being elected grand patrons of 
the Order of the Eastern Star. 

The most noted event of a local nature the masonic fraternity of 
Plymouth took part in was the laving of the corner stone of the present 
courthouse, August 25, 1870, a full description of which will be found 
under the article headed "Public Buildings." 

The appendant order of ^Masonry are all represented in Plymouth. 

Plymouth CImpfer, Royal Arch Masons No. 4Q, was organized Feb- 
ruary 15, 1864, Abraham Reeves first high priest. 

Plymouth Council No. 18. Royal and Select }Fasters, was organized 
May 22, 1864, Martin H. Rice, first illustrious master. 

Plymouth Conimandery No. 26. Knights Templar, was organized under 
dispensation April 8. 1875, and under charter May 13, 1875, H. G. Thayer, 
eminent commander; Horace Corbin, generalissimo, and Daniel McDonald, 
captain general. The conimandery now has a membership of 100, and is 
considered one among the best in the state. 

Plymouth Chapter No. 26, Order Eastern Star, whose membership is 
made up of Master ]\Iasons, their wives, widows, mothers, sisters and 
daughters, was organized October 4, 1875. and under charter May 12, 1876. 
It now has over 200 members, and is the fifth largest chapter in the state. 

Bremen Lodge No. 414. F. & A. M., was organized under the dispensa- 
tion issued by the grand master of Masons in Indiana, March 2, 1869, with 
the following as the first officers: Lewis Theobold, master; Jacob Schilt, 
senior warden; Moses Keyser, junior warden. A charter was granted at 


the May session of the masonic grand lodge, the number attached to it 
being 414. Under this charter it was regularly organized June 16, 1870, 
by Eli R. Shook of Plymouth lodge, acting as deputy grand master. Since 
then it has continued to work without interruption ; it has a splendid lodge 
room of its own and a membership of sixty, composed of among the best 
men in the community. 

Argos Lodge No. jpp, F. & A. M., was organized at Argos with ten 
charter members in October, 1869, and was given a charter at the May 
session of the grand lodge, 1870. It has gone along steadily and now has 
a splendid membership of about sixty. Within the last few years it has 
erected a lodge hall of its own, which is furnished with all the necessary 
comforts and conveniences for masonic work. It is one of the prominent 
organizations in that place, and of which the membership are justly proud. 

Bourbon Lodge No. 22/, F. & A. M., was organized under a dispensa- 
tion January 9, 1866. John W. Hagan, who had been master of Goshen 
lodge and had then recently located in Bourbon in the boot and shoe trade, 
was the moving spirit in the organization, and was selected to be the first 
master. Others who assisted were Rev. George H. Thayer, Lucius Caul, 
Milton M. Galentine, A. C. Matchett, Daniel McDonald and N. E. Man- 
ville. At the May meeting of the grand lodge in 1866 a charter was 
granted and the lodge given the number 227. the number of a lodge whose 
charter had been surrendered. Since then the grand lodge has ceased to 
assign the vacant numbers to new lodges. If this rule had been observed 
when the charter was granted its number would have been about 375. 
Mr. Hagan, the master during the first year under charter, failed in busi- 
ness, and removed from the town, leaving the lodge without a master. 
The members, however, went to work with a will, and the lodge moved 
along satisfactorily. 

In the earlier years of the organization of this lodge several fine enter- 
tainments were given. On one occasion, the Rev. A. Merine, then of War- 
saw, delivered an address which was spoken of in the highest terms of 
praise. On another occasion Rev. Wm. Lusk, of Plymouth, perfonned the 
oratorical part of the program. A glee club furnished the music and the 
P>ourbon band the instrumental music. Two banquets were spread at the 
American House, then kept by M. C. Henshaw, and one in the masonic 
hall. These enjoyable occasions are recollected by all who participated in 
them with a great deal of pleasure. 

Several years ago the masonic hall was destroyed by fire, in which 
the lodge lost most of its furniture and fixtures, which cast a gloom over 
the members, and for a few years the lodge did but little work. New 
life and new blood has been infused into the lodge, and during the past few 
years it has regained its former vigor, and the rapid increase in member- 
ship has placed it as one among the most substantial lodges in this section 
of the state. 

Henry H. Culver Lodge No. 61 /, F. & A. M. — A dispensation for the 
formation of this lodge was issued by the grand master November 10, 1897, 
in the name of Culver lodge. It worked under that name until the meeting 
of the grand lodge May 24, 1898, when a charter was granted and the 
name changed to Henry H. Culver lodge, and as such it was given number 
617. The first officers named in the dispensation and also in the charter 


were as follows : Samuel C. Loring, master ; John F. Behmer, senior 
warden, and Foster Groves, junior warden. The lodge was instituted 
under charter, by Daniel McDonald, past grand master, June 8, 1898. The 
name was given to the lodge in honor of Henry H. Culver, the founder of 
Culver Military Academy, on the northeast shore of the lake, and for 
whom the town of Culver had been named, and for the further reason 
he was a member of the Masonic fraternity. Since its organization the 
following have served as worshipful masters : Samuel C. Loring, under 
dispensation, 1897; under charter, 1898 and 1899; Monroe C. McCormick, 
1900; Al N. Bogardus, 1901-1904; Foster Groves, 1902; O. A. Rhea, 1903; 
George W. Voreis, 1905, 1906, 1907. The lodge has a total membership of 
fifty, and is in every way in a prosperous condition. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

There is quite a similarity in the work and teachings of this order to 
that of the masonic organization. It differs mainly in the ceremonial ritual, 
the qualification of candidates for membership, and the manner of dispensing 
its charities. Each member disabled by sickness or bodily injury receives 
a stipulated amount per week, and in case of death a specific amount is 
appropriated for funeral expenses. Thomas Wildy, whose -mortal remains 
lie buried in the city of Baltimore, was the founder of the order in America, 
about 1817. Within the past half century it has grown quite rapidly, its 
regulation for the admission of candidates being more liberal than that 
of some other orders. In Indiana it has about 700 subordinate lodges, and 
a membership in the state of over 50,000. Its motto is F. L. & T., signify- 
ing friendship, love and truth, and its badge is three links, linked together, 
and worn on the breast or on the left lapel of the coat or vest. 

AmcricHS Lodge No. pi was the first Odd Fellows' lodge organized in 
Plymouth, and also the first lodge of any kind in the county. It was insti- 
tuted March 4, 185 1. The petitioners were Wesley Gregg, W. G. Pomeroy, 
Gilson S. Cleaveland, William C. Edwards, Grove O. Pomeroy and Joshua 
W. Bennett. These were all prominent men in their day. They are now 
all dead. As the lodge worked along, discordant elements crept in and 
on July 22, 1855, the charter was surrendered and it- ceased to e.xist. In 
the meantime a masonic lodge having been organized, naturally enough it 
absorbed much of the material that would otherwise have gone to the Odd 
Fellows' lodge. The lodge was again resuscitated July 14, 1859, t»"t the 
trouble that had formerly existed soon showed itself again, and after con- 
tinuing three years with indififerent success the charter was again sur- 
rendered July 18, 1862. After remaining dormant six years, on April 16, 
1868, the charter was again restored. In the meantime those that had 
caused the disturbance had either died or removed, and peace and harmony 
has since prevailed within the walls of the lodge room, and the lodge has 
continued uninterruptedly to the present time. 

A branch of the order is represented in what is called an "Encamp- 
ment." It is composed of fifth degree members, and occupies the same 
position toward the Odd Fellows that the Knights Templar does to the 
masonic lodges. Plymouth Encampment No. 113 was organized under 
charter May 24, 1872. Robert McCance, John C. Kuhn. John A. Palmer, 
Simon Becker, Sigmund Meyer, Henry Speyer, A. L. Reeves, and others, 


eighteen in all, were the charter members. The encampment prospered 
and continued for several years, when for various reasons the interest 
flagged and the charter was surrendered. 

Attached to the Order of Odd Fellows is a woman's department called 
"The Daughters of Rebecca." This degree was originated by the Hon. 
Schuyler Colfax many years ago, and has become quite popular among the 
wives, mothers, sisters and daughters of Odd Fellows, and the Odd Fellows 
themselves, who alone are entitled to receive it. Plymouth has a branch of 
this order, also Bourbon and Argos, all of which are in a healthy condition. 

Bourbon Lodge No. 203, Order of Odd Fellozvs, was organized Decem- 
ber 13, 1858, with six charter members as follows: R. S. Gordon, D. O. 
Beeman, B. G. Cosgrove, W. M. Cosgrove, R. Richard and J. R. Dodge. 
All these are long since dead. The organization, being the only secret 
benevolent order in that place for several years, was prosperous from the 
beginning, among the best citizens of the town uniting with it. No dis- 
cordant elements crept into it, and so friendship, love and truth have pre- 
vailed to the present time. In 1867 the lodge purchased a building for its 
use, for which $882 was paid. In 1877 ground was purchased for an 
Odd Fellows' cemetery at a cost of over $1,000. The lodge has, during its 
existence, had a number of festivals and social entertainments, and the large 
amount paid for benevolent purposes shows that it has accomplished great 
good within the circle of its work. 

Bremen Lodge No. 421, Odd Fellozvs, was organized November 20, 
1873, with the following charter members : A. C. Holtzendorff, Andrew 
Berger, John Bauer, Gotlieb Rosenbaum and Jacob Walter. This organiza- 
tion continued its existence until about 1888, when it surrendered its charter 
and has not since reorganized. 

Argos Lodge No. 26J, L 0. O. F. — The dispensation to organize this 
lodge was issued August 2, 1866, and on the twenty-first of November, 
1866, a charter was granted to the following members : Hugh Bowman, 
Henry Krause, Gideon Wolf, James M. Wickizer, Thompson Cannon, W. 
H. Tuttle and Finley Stevens. This lodge has pursued the even tenor of its 
way for forty odd years, and during that time has contributed aid to many 
in need of assistance, and in the sphere of its work has been a controlling 
influence for good. 

Ma.vinkuckee Lodge No. S73, I- 0. 0. F., was organized at the village 
of Maxinkuckee, on the east of Maxinkuckee lake, in the '70s, and has 
kept up its organization with regularity ever since. Mr. Eli Parker, the 
principal business man in the village for many years, was one of the peti- 
tioners and charter members, and it was mainly through his influence during 
his life that the lodge grew and prospered to the present time. The lodge 
owned the building adjoining Mr. Parker's business building where the 
meetings were held for several years, when it caught fire and was destroyed. 
It then was moved across the street, where rooms for the meetings were 
procured, and later the lodge erected a hall and furnished it with all the 
necessary paraphernalia necessary to do the work, and for comfort and 
convenience, in which their meetings are now held. 

Ilion Lodge No. 715, L 0. O.F., was instituted at Tippecanoe June 15, 
1895, by Henry G. Thayer, of Plymouth, district deputy, assisted by 
brethren from the surrounding lodges. After the lodge was instituted 


the following officers were elected and installed : Noble grand, M. A. 
Dilley; vice grand, Joseph H. Taylor; recording secretary, John Weber; 
financial secretary, George W. Taylor ; treasurer, W. H. Taylor. In the 
evening twenty members were initiated into the order, Rochester lodge 
doing the work. 

Foster Rebecca Lodge No. 546, I. 0. 0. F., Ilion, was instituted July 
12, 1897, by E. J. Pascal, of Bourbon. The following officers- were elected: 
Noble grand, Delilah Taylor; vice grand, Catharine Taylor; secretary, 
M. A. Dilley ; treasurer, Amanda Taylor. 

Knights of Pythias. 

Lucidlus Lodge No. .'j?, Knights of Pythias, was organized at Bour- 
bon, December 18, 1889, with the first officers and charter members as 
follows: Past chancellor, W. J. Van Vactor; chancellor commander, J. W. 
Eidson; vice chancellor, J. H. JNIatchett ; prelate, Wm. H. Biggs; master 
of exchequer, George D. Ettinger ; master of finance, Edward Brillhart ; 
keeper of records and seal, H. D. Thayer ; master at arms, A. G. Pouts ; 
inner guard, J. F. Martin ; outer guard, H. T. Steinbach. Other charter 
members: S. E. O'Brien. L. A. Minard, J. E. Erwin. B. S. Hamler, 
Wm. Bristol, H. F. Bowman, F. E. Bristol, J. W. Foster, Grant Beltz, 
M. W. Zerkle, C. W. Shakes, O. M. Unger, twenty-two in all. 

The officers for 1907 are as follows: R. E. Cox, chancellor com- 
mander ; Norman McKinzie, vice commander ; C. E. Rivers, master of 
works ; Wm. Biggs, master at arms ; W. D. Parks, prelate ; E. C. Shaffer, 
keeper of records and seal; S. C. Ferguson, master of finance; Wm. Bristol, 
master of exchequer ; T. C. Dilley, inner guard ; Bert Ames, outer guard. 

The total membership at the close of 1907 is eighty-seven. The lodge 
does not own a hall, but has interest in some valuable real estate and a 
balance of nearly $700 belonging to the lodge. The lodge is especially proud 
of its membership, being from among Bourbon's best citizens. The death 
rate is very low, only three deaths having occurred in eighteen years. 

Hyperion Lodge No. iij, Knights of Pythias, was organized in Ply- 
mouth May 13, 1884, by Grand Chancellor E. G. Herr, of Goshen, assisted 
by Knights from Warsaw, Columbia City, Fort Wayne, La Porte and 
Michigan City, the total number of visiting knights present being about one 
hundred. In the afternoon the visiting knights, together with the new 
brethren of Plymouth, gave a parade headed by the Warsaw band, with th<" 
Plymouth band at the head of the new lodge. The work of initiation 
commenced at half past five, and was kept up continuously the greater part 
of the night, with the exception of an interval of one hour, which was 
devoted to the refreshment of the inner man, speeches, songs, etc. The lodge 
started out with twenty-nine charter members, all being first class, energetic 
young men. After the work of instituting the lodge was finished, the fol- 
lowing, being the first officers of the lodge, were installed by the grand 
chancellor : Past chancellor, Ira D. Buck ; chancellor commander. Will A. 
Bray; vice-chancellor, O. S. Covert; prelate, Jas. Vangilder; keeper of 
records and seal, David McDuffie ; master of finance, Calvin P. Klinger ; 
master of exchequer, Burt J. Gilmore ; master at arms, Fred H. Kuhn ; 
inside guard, Samuel Rosenfeld ; outer guard, Ed H. Soice. Since its 
organization nearly a quarter of a century ago the lodge has prospered in 


membership and financially. During this time it has built and paid for an 
elegant hall of its own in the main part of town. 

Marmont Lodge No. 2^i, Knights of Pythias. This lodge was organ- 
ized November 29, 1889, with twenty-two charter members. The first 
officers were as follows : O. A. Rea, chancellor commander ; F. L. Carl, 
vice-chancellor; Ed Morris, prelate; W. H. Porter, master of exchequer; 
M. F. Mosher, master of finance ; J. H. Koontz, keeper of records and 
seal ; G. A. Williams, master at arms ; A. J. Kimball, inner guard ; William 
Swigart, outer guard ; trustees, L. C. Dillon, H. M. Speyer and D. G. 
Walter. The lodge has a present membership of fifty-eight. 

The lodge some years ago erected a two-story brick and stone building 
in the center of the town for its own use, the lower story being used for 
commercial purposes. The money was raised by a stock company composed 
of members of the lodge, the lodge itself subscribing for a large share of 
the stock. 

Improved Order of Red Men. 

This organization gained a foothold in Indiana about the time of the 
breaking out of the war of the Rebellion. The ceremonial ritual of the order 
is founded on the old Indian customs of adoption and aims to bring the 
novitiate from a supposed low and degraded state to an improved and 
perfect condition of manhood. Its system of fees, dues and benefits is 
similar to the Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, etc. It has a system of 
dates peculiar to itself. The months beginning with January are called 
Cold, Snow, Worm, Plant, Flower, Hot, Buck, Sturgeon, Corn, Traveling, 
Beaver and Hunting moons. A day is called a Sun ; a year a Great Sun ; a 
night a Sleep. Money is called Wampum, and is divided into fathoms, feet, 
and inches. The officers are designated sachem, senior and junior saga- 
more ; chief of records, keeper of wampum, prophet and sanaps. 

The first tribe organized in the county was Pottazvattomic Tribe No. 
16, at Bourbon, May 22, 1870, with twenty charter members, by P. S. 
lioft'man, of Richmond. It has continued to the present time, and has a 
membership of about fifty. 

Shaimee Tribe No. ip was shortly after organized at Argos, but was 
afterward removed to Walnut, where it flourished for a time, but finally 
ceased to exist. 

Aubbecnaubbee Tribe, under dispensation, was organized at Plymouth 
October 30, 1871. Daniel McDonald, who was great sachem of the state at 
that time, in his report to the great council in 1872 made the following 
mention of its condition : 

"The gentlemen w'ho procured the names of the petitioners for this 
tribe selected for the most part members of the Order of Odd Fellows 
and Masons who were actively engaged as officers of those bodies. Before 
the tribe was organized the prime mover in getting it up left for the west 
and has not since returned. The tribe lingered along for some time, but, 
notwithstanding the efl:orts put forth by myself and a few others, it finally 
ceased to work at all and in the early part of January I arrested its charter, 
and took possession of its books and papers, which I have placed in the 
hands of the great chief of records subject to the order of the great 


There is a ladies' degree belonging to the Red Men called the Poca- 
hontas degree. Bourbon has the distinction of having organized the first 
Pocahontas council in Indiana, No. i. There are now in this state about 150 
councils, and a total membership of over 10,000. 

Massasoit Tribe No. 206, Improved Order of Red Men, was instituted 
at Tippecanoe, May 27, 1895, with the following officers for the first term: 
Sachem, L. D. Eley ; senior sagamore, J. H. Patch; junior sagamore, C. A. 
Smith; prophet, Charles M. Walker; chief of records, C. E. Shoemaker; 
keeper of wampum, Benjamin Harmon. 

AUatah Couneil No. 75, Degree of Pocahontas, was instituted in Tippe- 
canoe, January 25, 1896, with the following chiefs : Pocahontas, Mrs. C. E. 
Shoemaker ; weona, Mrs. J. H. Patch ; prophetess, Mrs. L. D. Eley ; pow- 
hatan, Mrs. C. E. Shoemaker; keeper of records, Miss Grace Eley; keeper 
of wampum, Mrs. C. M. Walker. 

The Sons of Malta. 
This was the name of a secret order organized in Plymouth in the 
summer of 1858. The mission of the order was to "sell" all who applied 
for membership, and in doing so those who had previously been initiated 
into this ancient and honorable order invariably had a good time at the 
expense of the candidate. The order sprang up suddenly prior to i860, 
and spread like wild fire until there was not a city or town of any consid- 
erable size in the LTnited States where there was not a lodge, or at least 
a number of members to be found. It was simply a burlesque on the 
initiatory ceremonies of the secret societies then in existence, particularly 
the Masons and Odd Fellows, and the candidate was initiated into the 
several degrees in the most solemn manner possible, and invariably before 
the ceremonies were concluded he was most egregiously "sold." It was 
full of fun from beginning to end, and that was all there was of it. Plymouth 
had a large and prosperous lodge of near one hundred members, in fact 
about all the prominent men in town at that time were "sold." It was 
made a part of the duty of every candidate after he was initiated, whenever 
he found a friend desirous of becoming a member, to "take him in," and 
as a matter of course the membership increased very rapidly. Plymouth 
lodge was organized by John W. Dawson, editor of the Fort Wayne Times, 
and for many years territorial governor of Utah, and about twenty other 
"sons'" of Fort Wayne who came along to see the fun, and George Moon, 
of Warsaw, as grand chancellor. Col. O. H. P. Bailey, Alf Morrison, and 
Seth Edwards, of Plymouth, were the charter members, having previously 
taken the degrees at Fort Wayne. The party came with fife and drums 
and maltese banners flying, and a more dignified and solemn looking set 
of men it would be hard to find. They preserved their dignity exceedingly 
well under the circumstances, and left the impression on the people who 
thronged the streets as they marched from the railroad station to the lodge 
room (in the second story of the building on the east side of Michigan street, 
on the corner across the street opposite the then Edwards House) that 
they belonged to one of the most ancient and honorable orders the world 
had ever seen ! The charter members had been busy several days getting 
the lodge room prepared for the reception of candidates, and when the 
grand conclave arrived everything was in readiness, even to "the wet 



sponge" and "the grand tank !" Twelve candidates were "taken in" that 
evening, and the visiting brethren, being "of sound mind and in good con- 
dition" made a night of it and had more fun than they knew what to do 

A year or so after Plymouth lodge was organized, Frank Leslie's New 
Y'ork Illustrated Weekly published the ritual in full, illustrating the scenes 
through which the candidate seeking to penetrate the arcana of mysteries, 
or "powers of numbers," had to pass, giving all the signs, grips and pass- 
words and everything else connected with its secret workings. This was the 
death knell of the order, and the members of Plymouth lodge decided to 
surrender the "charter," and close up the affairs of the lodge. There was 
in the treasury about $150, and it was decided to invest it in provisions and 
other useful articles and distribute them to the needy of the town. The 
money was so invested and the membership was ordered by the lodge to 
appear at midnight on a certain evening named, and go in solemn procession 
to the houses of the dift'erent families where provisions, etc., were to be 
left. The matter was kept a profound secret from all in town except the 
members. At midnight the members quietly assembled at the lodge room 
and clothed themselves in the regulation uniform — black cambric gowns, 
with a cap of the same material that covered the face, holes being cut for 
the mouth and eyes. The officers wore shields and helmets of extensive 
dimensions and elaborate workmanship, with swords and bucklers and other 
claptrap to give them a military appearance. The profession was led by Dr. 
T. A. Lemon (long since deceased), mounted on a white steed. He wore a 
long, flowing white beard and wig of long white hair, and carried a huge 
torch. Then followed the martial music — fifes and drums. Then came 
the members in single file, to the number of about fifty, each carrying 
some of the articles to be distributed. No member was allowed to open 
his mouth and not a word was spoken, except by the commander, who 
gave directions as to the movement of the procession. The time of night, 
the dress, and the "awful mystery" surrounding the procession gave it 
a solemnity never to be forgotten by those who witnessed it. The pro- 
cession had not gone far until the whole town was aroused, and such an 
exciting time was never seen in Plymouth before or since. The goods 
were all finally distributed and about three o'clock in the morning "The 
Ancient and Honorable Order of the Sons of j\Ialta" in Plymouth was 
disbanded, and the members, after securing such pieces of furniture and 
fixtures as they could lay their hands on to be kept as relics, in solemn 
reverence bowed their heads and "departed." 

Marshall County Watchmen. 
Organizations for various purposes, as occasion seemed to require, 
have been effected in Plymouth and at various places throughout the 
county from time to time. Of course it is impossible to remember all or 
to give the particulars in all cases of those that are now remembered. 

From the early settlement of the count}- up to about i860 the people 


were very much annoyed with horse thieves. When a horse was put in 
a stable at night it was barely possible that it would be there in the 
morning. This condition of affairs led to the formation of a society for 
the detection of horse thieves. The Plymouth Banner of December 8, 
1853, contained the following : 

"In accordance with previous notice, a number of the citizens of this 
county have organized themselves into a society for the detection of horse 
thieves and others committing similar depredations under the title of 
'The Marshall County Watchmen.' The officers are: Amzi L. Wheeler, 
president ; Thomas Sumner, vice-president ; Rufus Brown, secretary, and 
John G. Osborne, treasurer." 

How long this organization continued to do business, is not known. 
However, before it ceased to exist it succeeded in accomplishing one good 
thing — the arrest and conviction of a horse thief by the name of Richard 
Eno. Eno was a desperado of the worst type, and, although he had many 
times been behind the bolts and bars, somehow he always succeeded in 
making good his escape. At one time he was confined in the jail of Fulton 
county. The sheriff' went into the cell to take him his meal, when Eno 
shoved him into one corner, took the key away from him, locked him in 
the jail and leisurely walked out. Subsequently he was tried in Berrien 
county, Michigan, for horse stealing, convicted and sent to the state prison 
for a period of ten years. On the way to prison he jumped from the 
train, which was running at a rapid rate, and although he was strongly 
handcuffed he succeeded in making good his escape. Some time after this 
occurrence, in passing through this county he stole three horses from the 
stable of Benoni Jordan, who then resided on the farm now owned by 
David E. Snyder, president of the Plymouth State bank, on the Michigan 
road, si.x miles south of Plymouth. Mr. Jordan was a member of the 
"]\Iarshall County Watchmen" and started at once in pursuit of the thief. 
It was some time before he overtook the thief, but finally succeeded in 
capturing him and the horses, when the thief turned out to be none other 
than Richard Eno. At the August term, 1854, of the circuit court an 
indictment was found against Eno for the commission of the theft, of 
which the following is a copy: 

State of Indiana, Marshall County, ss. 

The grand .iury of the eoirnty of Marshall charge that Richard Eno on the six- 
teenth (lay of November, 1853, at the county of Marshall aforesaid, did feloniously 
steal, take, drive and lead away one bay mare seven years old of the value of $75, one 
iron-gray mare of the value of $100, one colt of the value of $30, the personal goods 
of Benoni Jordan. D. J. Woodward, Prosecuting Attorney. 

The indictment is remarkable for its brevity, and is in pleasing con- 
trast with the lengthy documents of a similar nature generally returned 
into court nowadays. Eno was taken back to Michigan and probably 
served out the remainder of the sentence pronounced against him. He 
was never returned here, and the indictment still stands against him untried. 
Marshall County Library. 

Early in the history of the county steps were taken by some of the 
enterprising citizens of the county seat and county looking to the education 
and enlightenment of the people. The first of these efforts was the organi- 


zation of the ]\Iarshall County Library Association, October 7, 1837, by 
the election of the following trustees: Oliver Rose, Grove Pomeroy, 
W. N. Bailey, Evan B. Hobson, James Murphy, W. G. Pomeroy and 
Stephen Marsters. Subsequently Oliver Rose was elected president; 
William Bishop, treasurer: E. B. Hobson, secretary, and William G. 
Pomeroy, librarian. The regulations adopted required persons drawing 
books to give bonds for the proper return of the books, each volume to be 
returned as follows: 100-page book in one week, 200-page book in two 
weeks, and same ratio for larger books. The Library fund amounted to 
$601. In 1845 the county commissioners took charge of its management. 
In 1846 330 volumes were purchased, for which $275 was paid. Some 
years later, by operation of law, the clerk, auditor and recorder were made 
to constitute a board of managers. The recorder was made the librarian, 
and he kept it in his ofifice, where any citizen of the county who cared to 
avail himself of the privilege could have access to the books, etc., free of 
charge, subject to the regulations adopted by the board. It was conducted 
in this way from year to year until about 1900, when, the books having 
disappeared by having been taken out and never returned until there were 
less than fifty volumes left and no funds to replenish them with, and the 
cost of taking care of these being $50 per year, the board of commissioners 
ordered the library to be discontinued, and the few books on hand sold 
for whatever they would bring. In the later '50's the writer for four years, 
as deputy recorder, had charge of this library. The books were mostly of 
a historical and scientific nature, such as the "old timers" cared to read. 
Except "Gulliver's Travels," "^sop's Fables," or the "Arabian Knights," 
the younger portion of the community never called for a book. 

The Young Men's Library Association. 

During the year 185 1 an effort was made by a few enterprising citi- 
zens to organize a Young Men's Library Association in Plymouth, as is 
learned from the issues of the Pilot newspapers of that period. The 
editor gave the proposition his hearty support, and in one issue of his 
paper grew eloquent, as witness the following: 

"Come, fathers, mothers and guardians ! Rouse up ! Pull down the 
dark curtain of ignorance and you will see the bright and beautiful Temple 
of Knowledge, fading and sparkling with crowns, wreaths and jewels in 
the groves of science! See you not upon the marble terraces the distin- 
guished scholars of all ages, crowned with triumphal wreaths? Does not 
the sight fill your breast with elysian joys? Intelligent fathers and 
mothers, we hear your quick response! 'I will lead my son with tender 
care to the portals of the temple to receive an immortal crown.' We bless 
thee, mother ; you also shall receive a crown." 

Diligent search through the subsequent files of his paper fails to 
discover any notice where the sons and the mothers received the promised 
crowns. The writer was here at that time and he has personal knowledge 
that the "Young Men's Library Association" never came to maturity. 

The McClure Library Association. 
What was known as a McClure Working Men's Library Association 
was organized in Plymouth some time in 1858. A man bv' the name of 


McCliire died in southern Indiana some time previous, leaving a large 
estate and providing in his will for the donation of $500 to each county 
where an association should be formed and the incorporators would start 
it with 100 volumes and procure a seal. Where this library was located, 
who had charge of it and what became of it no one now living seems to 

The Township Library. 

During war times, or shortly after the close of the war of the Rebel- 
lion, a system of township libraries was created by act of the legislature, 
by which the township trustees were authorized to purchase books and 
provide for their keeping and distribution. The books were selected more 
for the benefit of the school children than for the general reading public. 
At first these libraries gave promise of being quite popular, but as time 
went on interest in them ceased, and one by one they were moved around 
and boxed up, and finally disappeared from public view, and now none of 
them are in existence so far as is known. 

Public School Library. 

The Public School Library of the city of Plymouth, which was organ- 
ized about twenty-five years ago by Prof. R. A. Chase, superintendent of 
the city public schools, is the only library of a public nature in the county 
at the' present time. It is under the management of the superintendent 
and the board of education, who employ a librarian to wait on those desiring 
to obtain books. A small tax is levied on the taxable property within the 
city limits, which is used to purchase new books, magazines, maps, etc., 
and in this way a library of choice books has been obtained, numbering 
in all probably from three to five thousand volumes. These books are 
open free of charge, not only to the pupils of the public schools, but to 
the citizens of Plymouth as well. 

The collection of funds for the beginning of this library was begun 
in April. 1880, by the efl'orts of several ladies and gentlemen who presented 
the comic opera of "H. M. S. Pinafore." The amount thus raised was 
increased by two concerts given by the teachers and pupils of the primary 
rooms, the total amount thus raised being $170.95. The intention in the 
first inception of the scheme was to make it purely a school library wliich 
should not be open to the public, but a law having been passed about that 
time authorizing towns and cities to levy and collect a small amount of tax 
each year which should be applied to the purchase of books and the 
building up of libraries which should be open to the public, the plan was 
changed to make it not only a school library but a library which should 
be open to the public as well, and in this way the tax collected from year 
to year could be secured for the benefit of this library. The plan has worked 
well, and the library is a credit to the school and the people of Plymouth 
who have assisted in the way of taxation in building it up. 

Agricultural Fairs. 
Not long after the organization of the county the question of the 
organization of agricultural fairs began to be agitated, and in less than 
twenty years thereafter the Marshall County Agricultural Fair was organ- 


ized. This occurred in 1855, with James A. Corse, president; Grove O. 
Pomeroy, treasurer, and Samuel B. Corbaley, secretary. It was organized 
under the law authorizing voluntary associations, and its permanent mem- 
bers were those who paid $3 or more. The organization was also entitled 
under the law to the show licenses which yearly generally amounted to 
about $50. The first fair was held in the old courthouse, the live stock- 
being corraled in the courthouse yard. It was not much of a fair, to be 
sure, but then it was creditable as a beginning, taking into consideration 
that the society owned no property and had no money of consequence to 
pay premiums, and its officers were totally inexperienced in the business. 
The condition of the society for the following year, 1856, was shown to be 
as follows: 

Casb on hand last year $ 33.00 

Eeeeived for membership 70.00 

Received from county treasurer 30.00 

Eeeeived for interest 2.60 

Total $135.60 

Paid fixtures ^ $ 16.47 

Paid premiums 128.50 

Total paid $144.97 

Deficit * 9-37 

This amount was made up by donations, as follows: A. L. Wheeler, 
$3 ; D. S. Conger, $5 ; Joel Parker, $3 ; D. L. Gibson, $2 ; John Cleaveland, 
$1 ; A. G. Armstrong, $1 ; Johnson Brownlee, $1 : Rufus Hewett, $1 ; I. B. 
Halsey, 50 cents; Wm. J. Hand, 36 cents; Grove O. Pomeroy, $5; total, 
$26.36, leaving a balance of $13.49 in the treasury. 

The officers for 1857 were then elected as follows: D. S. Conger, 
president; I. B. Halsey, vice-president; David Vinnedge, treasurer; Samuel 
B. Corbaley, secretary. I. Mattingly and Thomas McDonald, editors of 
the Republican and Democrat, presumably for free printing and free adver- 
tising in their respective papers, were voted honorary members of the 

Some time afterwards the society purchased from David Vinnedge 
what is known as the fair grounds, adjoining Plymouth on the north. 
Lack of money prevented the improvement of the grounds to any great 
extent. A few temporary exhibition buildings were erected, a few stalls 
for horses and some pig pens, and a quarter-mile track grubbed out and 
leveled down to show horses and cattle and other animals, but beyond this 
for a long time nothing was done. 

The society labored faithfully for fifteen years to build up first-class 
exhibitions, but met with indifferent success for various reasons. About 
1873 it was concluded by the management that as the fair exhibitions during 
its existence had never paid out, that it would be financial wisdom to change 
the plan of organization as an experiment and see what would come of it — 
at least, they reasoned, it could not be much worse than it had been. So 
it was organized on the joint stock plan ; additional grounds were pur- 
chased ; a new half-mile track made and the organization established on a 
strictly business basis. There was some opposition to the plan of organi- 


zation, but notwithstanding this the second year the fair proved the most 
successful, financially, of any previously held, and the society closed the 
year with the floating debt and premium list fully paid and some money in 
the treasury. A change of officers the next year brought a change of 
management, and the people failing to give it that support it deserved, 
the officers were unable to pay the mortgage held on the grounds for 
purchase money, buildings, track, etc., and it was foreclosed and sold at 
sheriflf's sale to William Scofield and John Seltenright, who held fairs on 
their own account in October, 1879 and 1880. The exhibitions were about 
up to the average of those before held, but the receipts fell a few dollars 
short of the expenditures on the first and a few dollars more on the last. 
The proprietors became discouraged and decided not to attempt to hold 
any more fairs. They leased the grounds and race track to some Plymouth 
men fond of trotting races, who kept the track in good condition and held 
a race meet for a few years, after which a stock company was formed 
which purchased the grounds and race track and provided trotting races 
for a few years, when, not proving a success, they were abandoned, since 
which time nothing has been done with the grounds and buildings, and 
owing to the lack of interest which has always been manifest in supporting 
agricultural fairs at the county seat during a period of half a century, it is 
not likely that another fair will be held at the county seat. 

Bremen Agricultural Society. 

The Bremen Agricultural Society was organized June 28, 1889. Its 
objects are the promotion of the agricultural and mechanical interests of 
Bremen and German township and the surrounding country. The first 
officers elected were as follows : Morgan D. Fink, president ; John Huft, 
vice-president; Henry H. Miller, secretary; John R. Deitrich, treasurer; 
directors : Jacob Carbiener, Jacob Volmer, Jacob C. Kaufmann, E. J. 
Thompson, P. E. Deitrich, A. H. Fries and Samuel Leeper. 

Under the above management a fair was held during the fall of 1889, 
which was an entire success, the receipts, entries and attendance being 
much greater than was anticipated by the most sanguine members and 
friends of the organization. The society owns real estate with improve- 
ments thereon, and race track, amounting to an estimated value of from 
six to eight thousand dollars. 

The officers and directors elected for the second year were very nearly 
the same as for the first year, and those elected from year to year since 
that time have so managed the financial affairs of the society that its 
yearly exhibitions have uniformly been a success, the trotting races attracting 
the most noted trotters and pacers in the circuit of which the society is a 
member. The people of Bremen and German township and the surrounding 
country patronize it liberally, and it has now come to be one of the perma- 
nent enterprises of that locality. 

The Bourbon Fair. 

This fair has been a great success from the beginning. The initial 
organization dates back to 1872, when under the name of the "Pioneer 
Farmers' Club," with Harrison Sparrow president and Washington Iden 
secretarv, the first fair was held at the schoolhouse, one and one-half miles 


east of Bourbon, in October. No entry fee was charged and no premiums 
paid, ribbons serving to designate the animal or article. All the records 
are not available, but Jahu Iden, Jeptha Disher and others served in various 
capacities, and William E. Gay was secretary for thirteen years. The fair 
grew in popular favor, and for want of room was moved from place to 
place to accommodate the increasing attendance. As a result eight acres 
of land was bought and buildings erected and a small fee charged for 
admittance. Thisproved to be too small, and on August i6, 1891, an asso- 
ciation was formed under the law of the state, with a paid-up capital of 
$5,000. Thirty-five acres of suitable ground was purchased, and by Octo- 
ber I, 1891, a fine half-mile track was completed and a grandstand, an art 
hall, a fruit house, grain and vegetable buildings, stables, pens and fences 
were erected, involving a debt oi $2,000, all of which has been paid, and 
the association is still making permanent improvements for the accommo- 
dation of increasing exhibits. No intoxicants are sold, no gambling allowed 
and no immoral show tolerated. The aim is to please and entertain the 
best element of society, and the attendance of over 12,000 on Thursday of 
last year proves that that policy is correct. A clean fair is a specialty. 

The officers for 1907-08 are : G. D. Ettinger, president ; C. W. Shakes, 
vice-president; H. F. Bowman, treasurer; B. W. Parks, secretary. 

Plymouth Commandery Drum Corps. 
A drum corps attached to Plymouth Commandery, Knights Templar, 
was organized in 1876 and continued for a year or two. It was composed 
of the following then young men : George H. Thayer, tenor drum ; C. S. 
Sutphen, tenor drum ; Frank Smith, tenor drum ; Fred W. Hill, tenor 
drum; Will W. Davenport, bass drum. This drum corps was organized 
through the efforts of Henry G. Thayer, who was then eminent commander 
of the commandery. 

Plymouth String Band. 

Was organized in 1876 and was composed of the following members: 
George H. Thayer, flute; Charles S. Sutphen, first violin; Will W. Daven- 
port, second violin; Charles Haslanger, cornet; James M. Confer, baritone; 
Fred W. Hill, violoncello ; Charles S. Sutphen, leader. The life of this 
organization was of short duration, several of the young men having gone 

Boating and Fishing Club. 

This club was organized by several Plymouth people at Alaxinkuckee 
lake, June 15, 1875, the following being the names of the members: Joseph 
Westervelt, president ; John R. Losey, treasurer ; Charles H. Reeve, secre- 
tary ; Jerry Blain, W. N. Bailey, C. R. Cooper, H. G. Thaver, William M. 
Kendall, William W. Hill, C. C. Buck, C. E. Toan, Horace Corbin, U. S. 
Dodge, T. A. Borton, Daniel McDonald, Hiram V. Reed, M. W. Simons, 
Piatt McDonald, A. C. Capron, N. H. Oglesbee. The club leased a piece 
of lake front on the east shore from L. T. Van Schoiack, on which a 
clubhouse was erected which was occupied for five years. It is now owned 
by Mrs. McLfat, of Indianapolis, and was the first place of summer resort 
on the lake. 


Fishing and Game Club 

was organized in 1875 for the purpose of the propagation of game fish 
and the enforcement of the game laws. The club had quite a number of 
boats on three of the nicest lakes in the county and also owned three acres 
of land, including a beautiful grove, on the banks of Pretty lake. After a 
few years the grounds were sold to various persons in small lots and the 
club disbanded. It was composed of David How, John Seltenright, Lewis 
C. Fink, David Berkey, Ed R. Edwards, Noah Lauderman and S. A. 
Hoglan, most of whom are dead, and the remainder removed from the 

The Plymouth Glee Club. 

This was a musical society which came into existence in 1873, mainly 
for the purpose of giving entertainments for the benefits of the needy poor 
of Plymouth and vicinity. It was composed of five gentlemen of some 
musical talent, residents of Plymouth. The first entertainment under its 
management was given in Balcony hall, Plymouth, January i, 1873. The 
program embraced an opening address by the late Charles H. Reeve, twelve 
vocal and instrumental selections, a charade, "Wayward," and two recita- 
tions, "Shamus O'Brien, the Brave Boy of Glingall," and "Over the Hills 
to the Poorhouse." The opening quartet by the Glee Club took the large 
audience by storm. The music was an arrangement of "Maryland, My 
Maryland," and the words by Mr. Reeve. They were so highly spoken of 
at the time and were so appropriate to the objects of the entertainment 
that they are worthy of being perpetuated by being inserted here. The 
words are as follows : 

Dread Winter spreads his icy pall, 

Chilling blasts around us roar, 
Before him Autumn's beauties fall — 

Earth's green face is seen no more. 
While frosts congeal the rolling tide, 
Disease and want move side by side; 
And desolation far and wide 

Face the weak and helpless poor. 

Health, strength and plenty on us wait, 

Peacefully our days go by ; 
Shall thosu crushed down by hapless Fate, 

Vainly raise to us their cry? 
Shall thirst and hunger ceaseless craVe, 
Shall death come near — beyond the grave — 
Shall we stand by with power to save. 

While the sick and needy die'? 

No, no! The Lord has given us Love 

And Faith and Hope! It must not be. 
Our Faith and Hope by works will prove 

Daily works of Charity. 
Haste then — bring forth from out your store 
Wherewith to clothe and feed the poor ; 
Bring consolation to the door 

Of destitute humanity. 


Two entertainments were given during that winter, the net proceeds 
of which were $142.32. This was distributed to the deserving needy by a 
committee of one selected from each of the church organizations then 
existing in the city. 

The 13 Club. 

The 13 Club, the most noted organization Plymouth or Marshall 
county ever had, came into existence on Christmas eve, December 24, 1897, 
the gentlemen composing the club assembling at the office of Dr. G. R. 
Reynolds in response to the following invitation written by the doctor: 

Mister: — Yu ar herby speeialy — (an owin to views peculer to yurself) pertioularly 
invited to be present at a meetin to be assembled at the ofis of doctor Eeynolds on the 
cvenin of dec. 24th 1897, betwixt the hours of 8 an 11 p. m. Tu air further notifyed 
that this is to be no soshal swel duins, wher dandyfide close with nice smellin bokase an 
things on 'em (for cos) cut a grate figer; as no wimin will be present at this meetin, 
•Hhieh is suniwhat for organisashun ; an wimin ain 't much on organisashim, eept in their 
peeulyer way. Won of the numerus objex of this meetin is for the purpus uv findin out 
why things ar as tha bee, an how cum tha so ; an as on this thar wil be readin from 
Titers as think tha have a sinch, all present air xpected to hav there thinkin caps with 
them; further this meetin may bee called upon to xpres whether it wil meet agin, an 
if so in this world or the neeks. In number this meetin will be a baker's duzen, by 
axual kount eelected on the darwin idee, owin to kinder like trates, uv not spekin unles 
tha sa sumthin. 

Therby it is hoped this meetin may evoloot into sumthin' worthy of crisenin (tho 
uv corse that kud be later). Lite consumptives wil be fre as water, eonsistin uv meller 
sider, shel barks, appels, donuts, an sich. As to order, the darwin idee wil prevale, to 
the end that all reedin an listenin an absorbin an digestin uv the orthers idees, shuld 
be dun quietly, thotfuly, an farely; as the orthers wil not bee present fisicaly to fite for 
therselves. This order wil last til all ar wilin to call from laber to refreshment 
when the lite consumptives may be diskusseil at which time the hylarites that may 
evoloot will be in order. An it may be aded here that this line uv doin may bare 
repeatin etc etc. 

After al the reedin an speekin an evolootin is exausted the burnin uv terbacker wU 
be indulged in which may pervoke further diskussion uv the survivul uv the fittest. 

p. s. now be shure an kum an if yu kan't kum send yur argymenta as regrets ain't 
sientifick. by order uv the inventers. 

(Dr. G. E. Eeynolds.) 

The "baker's dozen" (13) invited responded to the call. The evening 
was spent in reading and commenting on the writings of Huxley, Darwin, 
Spencer and others, which proved to be a most enjoyable "evolution" from 
the conventional conversation that usually makes up the program on such 
occasions. The refreshments were sweet cider, doughnuts, Northern Spy 
apples, hickory nuts and cigars. During this part of the program some 
laughable stories were told, and at the hour of midnight the assembly 
disbanded to meet a week later for permanent organization. 

When the next meeting was held two of those who had been present 
at the first meeting concluded not to continue in the organization, whether 
on account of the "unlucky number 13" or for other good and sufficient 
reasons, and so the organization was continued as the 13 Club with eleven 
members, whose names follow : Charles H. Reeve, A. C. Capron, Samuel 
Parker, Harry Swindell, Daniel McDonald, George R. Reynolds, Leopold 
M. Lauer, Charles P. Drummond, Rosco A. Chase, M. W. Simons, Rollo B. 

Ex-Senator C. H. Reeve was unanimously elected president of the 


club as long as lie and it lived. It was decided that the meetings of the 
club should be held on Saturday nights at the offices or houses of the 
members in rotation, if convenient, the entertainer to provide the refresh- 
ments to be served on the occasion. The president was authorized to notify 
the members from time to time to be prepared to present papers or topics 
to the club for discussion. It was also decided that no further rules or 
regulations or by-laws be adopted — that anyone wishing to discuss or cuss 
a question should have the privilege of doing so to his heart's content. 
Meetings were held during the fall, winter and spring months for a period 
of five years, at the end of which time, owing to the removal from town 
of several members, the club was disbanded. No deaths or other mishaps 
took place to the members of the club until after it formally disbanded in 
1902. Dr. Reynolds, who had organized the club and had taken a lively 
interest in its welfare from the beginning, was the first to go. Driving 
home from visiting a patient one Sunday evening in 1903, in attempting to 
drive his horse across the track of the Pennsylvania railroad a mile east of 
town he was caught by a fast passenger train and instantly killed. The 
next year Mr. Reeve passed away suddenly from heart failure, and in Mav, 
1905, Judge Capron died suddenly at his cottage at Ma.xinkuckee lake, 
and the next year Mr. Simons became insane at his home in Denver, Colo- 
rado, and died not long afterwards. Of the remaining members Mr. 
Chase is publishing a newspaper at St. Charles, Missouri ; Mr. Oglesbee is 
deputy auditor of state at Indianapolis ; Mr. Drummond and Mr. Parker 
are practicing law at South Bend ; Harry Swindell is in the butter and egg 
business at Kalamazoo, Michigan ; and the remaining three, Mr. Stevens, 
Mr. McDonald and Mr. Lauer, still reside in Plymouth. Notwithstanding 
no accident happened to any member of the club during their connection 
with it, yet there are those who firmly believe that the horrible deaths of 
Dr. Reynolds and Mr. Simons were occasioned by belonging to an organiza- 
tion having for its name the unlucky number "13." 

Old Settlers' Society. 

In a work of this kind it must be apparent to all that nothing could 
be more appropriate than a paper devoted to the old folks generally. Any- 
thing that tends to perpetuate the early history and the scenes and incidents 
of the early days is not only interesting to those who participated in them, 
but will be to those who shall take their places in the future. 

The formation of an Old Settlers' Society had been talked of for many 
years, but for one cause or another no active steps were taken until 1878. 
Prior to July 4 of that year a circular was issued requesting the attendance 
on that day at the fair grounds near Plymouth of all interested in the 
movement. In obedience to the call a large number were present. Robert 
Schroeder, the oldest settler at that time in the county, was selected chair- 
man of the meeting ; John W. Houghton, secretary, and Rev. Austin Fuller, 
chaplain. A lengthy constitution and by-laws were adopted ; speeches and 
songs indulged in, and an old-fashioned picnic dinner partaken of under the 
shade of the trees. The following resolution was adopted : 

"Resolved, That the annual meetings of this society shall, after the 
current year, be held on the 20th day of July in each year, that being the 
day of the month on which the county seat was located and the county 


organized, except when the said 20th day of July occurs on Sunday ; in 
that case the annual meeting shall be held on the 19th day of July in each 

The following officers were then elected for the year ending July 20, 
1879: President, Robert Schroeder; first vice-president, David L. Gibson; 
second vice-president, Joseph Evans ; chaplain, Rev. George H. Thayer ; 
treasurer ; Ahijah Hawley ; secretary, Daniel McDonald. About 300 names 
were appended to the constitution, after which the society adjourned until 
Saturday, July 19, 1879. 

The first meeting after the organization was held in Plymouth July 19, 
1879, and was largely attended. Daniel McDonald, who had been selected 
orator of the day, delivered an address appropriate to the occasion, and 
other addresses were delivered as follows: 

"The Pioneers of Marshall County," by A. C. Thompson ; 

"Our Country and Its Progress," by M. L. Smith ; 

"Our Successors and Their Trusts," by Elder S. A. Chaplin ; 

"Our Life — Its Clouds and Sunshine; May Its Remaining Labors Be 
Worthy of the Heritage Left Us by the Pioneers," by Rev. G. H. Thayer. 

Copious extracts from all these addresses may be found in the history 
of Marshall county published in 1881. The third (and last) meeting of the 
Old Settlers' Society was held July 20, 1880, in ^Magnetic park, Plymouth, 
Indiana. There was a large turnout and all seemed to have a good old- 
fashioned time. Elder Richard Corbaley, of Healdsburg, Cal., a former 
old resident, delivered an acceptable address, after which the following 
officers were elected for the year of 1881 : President, Rev. George H. 
Thayer; vice-president, Joseph Evans; chaplain, Elder Hugh Barnhill ; 
treasurer, Ahijah Hawley; secretary, Thomas K. Houghton. 

The officers for one reason or another failed to arrange for the 
meeting in 1881, and it was allowed to go by default, and that society, the 
only one extending over the entire county, went to pieces and has never 
since been revived. 

The Marshall and St. Joseph County Old Settlers' Society. 
During the past ten years old settlers' meetings have been held annually 
in the grove near the town of La Paz, in North township, the above caption 
being the name of the organization. The organization was first suggested 
by Rev. M. L. Peter, of La Paz. who has been the real life of it ever since, 
the two first meetings being held in Longaker's grove, on the countv line 
in St. Joseph county, one and a half miles west of La Paz. The remainder 
of the meetings have been held in Wilson's grove, south of La Paz. Jerry 
Hildebrand, residing at Lakeville, St. Joseph county, has presided at all 
the meetings, which, when the weather has been favorable, have been 
largely attended. The first officers were : President, Percy J. Trover ; 
secretary, J. Edward Cook; treasurer. W. Lester Hoover. The present 
officers are: President, William M. Sherland ; secretary, John W. Hilde- 
brand; treasurer, W. Lester Hoover. At each annual meeting speakers 
have been secured who have delivered addresses appropriate to the occasion. 
At all the old meetings old and rare relics have been on exhiitbion, mostly 
old and rare volumes of the Bible. H. Y. Shirk exhibited a German Bible- 
Luther's translation— printed in Basle, Switzerland, in 1665, which has 


been in the Shirk family since the volume left the press. Rev. M. L. Peter 
exhibited Luther's first volume, printed in Jena, Germany, in 1555. As far 
as known it is the only volume of the kind in America. It was exhibited 
at the World's Fair, Chicago, in 1893. Other volumes, old and rare, 
printed in Germany, England, France and Ireland, owned by citizens of 
La Paz and vicinity, have been exhibited at all the meetings of the society, 
and also an English work on chemistry printed in London in 1545, owned 
by Dr. Albert Wagner, of La Paz. In addition to these rnany curious and 
rare specimens of que^nsware, fancy work, guns, spinning wheels, dinner 
horns, etc., have annually been exhibited. 

The following have been the orators of the day at the meetings so far 
held: Charles H. Reeve, Daniel McDonald, Adam E. Wise, Charles Kelli- 
son, S. N. Stevens, H. G. Thayer and J. N. Wilson, of Plymouth ; Thompson 
Turner, of Walkerton ; J. B. Stoll, F. E. Herring, C. P. Drummond and 
Mr. Woodward, South Bend. Short addresses were also made at the 
various meetings by J. F. Langenbaugh, Meyer AUman, Peter Grube, of 
Plymouth, and Rev. W. W. Summers, South Bend; Rev. Samuel Gettie, 
North Liberty: Rev. M. L. Peter, La Paz; Jerry Hildebrand, Allen RamSby, 
Walkerton, and A. W. Dolph, Teegarden. 


Since its organization seventy-five years ago Plymouth has had several 
what were called "literary societies," none of which, however, survived any 
great length of time, or accomplished anything of importance during their 
existence. The first that gained any particular attention was what was 
called "The Shakespearean Literary Society," organized in the early 
eighties. Those who took part in the organization were readers and students 
of literature who believed that in numbers and concert of action the mem- 
bers would be brought closer together and a new impetus would be given 
which would result in a more thorough study of literature in all its 
various phases. Those who became members and perfected the organiza- 
tion, if memory is not at fault, were M. A. O. Packard, Mr. and Mrs. 
O. M. Packard; J\Iiss Stella Packard, Miss Kittie McDonald, Mr. and Mrs. 
W. A. Bray, Louis McDonald, Judge and Mrs. Isaiah Connor, of Rochester, 
Bert J. Gilmore, Miss Hattie Boeckling, Daniel McDonald, O. P. Klinger 
and Will Funk, the humorist. The object of the society was particularly to 
read, discuss and analyze the plays of Shakespeare, but other famous 
authors were considered at almost every meeting. At each meeting a 
member was selected to write a report of the proceedings, to be read and 
considered at the next meeting. This proved to be a ver\' interesting 
feature of the proceedings. Some of them were considered sufficiently 
meritorious for publication in the local paper. From the report of the first 
meeting, as showing the trend of the program, the following extracts are 
herewith reproduced : 

"The meeting of the Shakespearean Literary Society, though the 
initial one, with the machinery so new and untried that there was necessarily 
a good deal of friction to overcome, was nevertheless full of interest. One 


important feature of the society was by no means neglected, and that was 
the social amenities. If men and women would only understand that the 
highest and most satisfying conditions of happiness — that leaves no sting 
behind, that enlarges and ennobles our common nature, that quickens our 
sensibilities and inspires our better thoughts and impulses — is the cultiva- 
tion of our social faculties, there would certainly be more attention paid 
to it. It would become more of a business than an incident of our lives. 

"The literary exercises of the evening, though not as extensive as it is 
hoped they will be when we get into better training, were full of interest. 
One of our members recited that wonderful piece of human philosophy, 
'The Soliloquy of Hamlet.' It can never be read or studied too much. 
Like a grand painting, each new study and inspection disclosed some 
brilliant part before concealed. Nowhere penned by man can be found in 
the same number of words such a boundless sweep of thought, or such a 
rich coinage of language. It is not too unfrequently criticised as presenting 
a too morbid and melancholy view of life. It would not be Hamlet if it 
were less so. And after all, though I speak it sadly, is it not a pretty fair 
average type of life's voyage, with its toisterous billows to encounter, its 
adverse winds, its counter currents, its rayless nights, its shoals and 
dangerous reefs. 

' ' Who would fardels bear 
To grunt and sweat under a weary life, 
But that the dread of something after death — 
The undiscovered country from whose bourne 
No traveler returns — puzzles the will. 
And makes us rather bear those ills we have. 
Than fly to others we know not of. 

"He also read a choice selection from Richard III, in which are 
depicted the terrors of a horrid nightmare — the fruit of a guilty conscience. 
So vivid and startling is the wonderfullv wrought vision that the recital 
of it 

"Makes each particular hair stand on end 
Like quills upon the fretful porcupine. 

"And then with what easy grace and exquisite tact he drops into 
moralizing over the condition of princes. It were as if liquid thought had 
been modeled in vessels fashioned from gems of the Golconda! Mark it: 

"Sorrow breaks seasons and reposing hours. 
Makes the night morning and the noontide night; 
Princes have but their titles for their glories, 
An outward honor for an inward toil, 
And, for unfelt imaginations. 
They often feel a world of restless cares. 
So that, between their titles and low name, 
There's nothing differs but the outward fame! 

"All hail Shakespeare, prince of bards! He stands as preeminently 
above all others who ever wrote a thought as Mont Blanc towers above 
the little hills in the quiet vale of the Chamonni. Having compassed all 
the range of thought, there is no new world for a second Columbus to 
discover or a second Alexander to conquer." 

This club, owing to the removal of several of the members and for 


one cause or another, lasted only about two years. But its influence resulted 
in infusing into the minds of those of a literary turn of mind a desire to 
know more of the hidden mysteries of literature lying dormant here and 
there and everywhere. And so shortly afterwards several ladies of Plymoutli 
organized a literary society which is now known as 

The Saturday Club. 
Thirteen ladies constituted the membership at its first organization 
This was in the year 1886. On her return from Germany during thf 
summer of that year, Miss Mary Arnold, a cousin of the late Senato/ 
Reeve and formerly a teacher in the Plymouth schools, organized twe 
classes for the purpose of studying English literature, Taine's Englisl. 
Literature being used as a text in both classes. The following named 
ladies composed the two classes : In the first were Mesdames Katherine 
Corbin, Harriet E. Blain, Olive Blain, Ella J\I. Veits, Carrie Reeve, Sarah 
R. Toan, IMary E. Thayer, Mary Buck, Mary L. M. Thayer and Miss 
Celesta Simons. In the second. Misses Charlotte Armstrong, Lou Ella K. 
Houghton, Jeanne Oglesbee and Katherine McDonald. In February, 1887, 
the two classes united, the joint meeting being held at the home of Miss 
Jeanne Oglesbee, at which meeting Miss Phebe Thompson joined the 
class. During this year two delightful open evenings were held. The work 
under Miss Arnold's instruction had been so profitable and enjoyable that 
at her urgent request the members decided to form a permanent class. At 
the last meeting of the class, held at the home of Mrs. Carrie Reeve, it 
was decided to organize a literary society as the most efficient means of 
continuing the work. The society was named the "Mary Arnold Literary 
Society," the first officers being: President, Mrs. Katharine Corbin; vice- 
president. Miss Phebe Thompson, and secretary, Mrs. Harriet E. Blain. 
The charter members were thirteen in number, to which two more were 
added at the beginning of the work in the fall of 1887. "Miss Maertz' 
Outlines" were adopted as a foundation for study and followed for three 
years. During these years the whole realm of literature was traversed, 
from the highways of the great masters to the by-ways of our own local 
contributors. The same officers were retained and the work pursued in 
the same quiet way until 1890-91, when a number of ladies became inter- 
ested and desired to take up the work. The membership was enlarged to 
twenty-eight, the year being devoted to a special study of Milton, Pope, 
Dryden and other respective periods as treated in Taine's literature. With 
the increase in membership several new features were introduced, among 
which was a series of evening entertainments in which the active members 
were assisted by fifteen associate members. These ladies were privileged 
to attend the regular meetings, but were not required to take part in the 
program and did not vote. The first of these openings was held at the 
home of Mrs. Mary Marble, December 9, 1890, to celebrate Milton's birth- 
day. A paper was read by Phebe Thompson, and the Hymn of the Nativity 
recited by Anna Combs. About 100 guests were present. The second 
open evening was held with Mrs. Ellen Simons. Mrs. Eva L. LInderwood 
gave a resume of the Augustan period in literature. It being St. Valen- 
tine's day, the remainder of the evening was devoted to the reading and 
distribution of original valentines, in which the guests had been invited to 


participate. Miss L. A. Borton became secretarj' in 1891. During June 
of this year Rev. Mr. Smith, of Evanston, lUinois, gave a most delightful 
course of six lectures on early English and Scotch literature. Tickets 
were sold and the public gave the society generous support. The work 
closed with but one event to mar the pleasure of the year. Death had 
entered the ranks for the first time, taking from our midst Mrs. Mary 
Buck, one of the thirteen charter members. She was a lovable character, 
whose sweetness of disposition and unselfishness endeared her to all who 
knew her. She was followed a. year later by the death of Mrs. Olive 
Blain, another charter member, whose quiet, gentle ways had endeared her 
to every member. The season of 1892 and 1893 was crowded with good 
things. A new feature was added. "A Tourist Social," by means of which 
the ladies gave pleasure to themselves and friends by a series of addresses 
from their fellow townsmen who had journeyed abroad in the more remote 
parts of our country.. The first of these was held at the home of Mrs. 
Marble, where H. G. Thayer delivered an address on "The Environment 
of London." The next was at the home of Mrs. Lattimore, at which Daniel 
McDonald gave a very interesting description of "Yellowstone Park." At 
the third "Tourist Social," which was held at the home of Mrs. Eva 
Underwood, Rev. W. W. Raymond read a most charming paper on "Haw- 
thorn and His Works." In 1891 the society reorganized under the name 
of the "Ladies' Literary Society," with Mrs. Katharine Corbin, president; 
Mrs. Elizabeth Lattimore, vice-president ; Miss Lou A. Borton, secretary. 
The study of American and continental literature was pursued until May, 
when the study of Shakespeare's plays was taken up for the summer work. 
October 22, 1892, Mrs. Elizabeth Lattimore was elected president; Mrs. 
Sarah R. Toan, vice-president ; Miss Borton, secretary. At this time a 
new ofifice was created, by which Miss Phebe Thompson became leader 
and general director of the program. During March, 1893, the society 
was fortunate in securing the services of Prof. Boon, who delighted everyone 
with his lecture on Richard Raelf, the soldier-poet. In October, 1893, 
Mrs. Lattimore was reelected president; Mrs. Sarah R. Toan, vice-presi- 
dent, and Estelle Chase, secretary. A series of ten open meetings was 
arranged for the year 1893-94, which were held at the home of the several 
members, at which time the following subjects were presented: "An 
Evening in the White City," by Mrs. Mary Thayer, hostess ; "One of My 
Favorite Books," Mrs. Bessie Baker, hostess; "An Evening With Dickens," 
Mrs. Corbin, hostess. The program consisted of a pantomime procession of 
characters taken from Dickens. "Our Hoosier Poet, Riley," Mrs. H. E. 
Blain, hostess. Phebe Thompson and Florence Agnew gave a critical 
analysis of Riley's work, the former taking a favorable view, the latter an 
unfavorable view of his output. A spirited discussion followed, in which 
extempore battle of wit Judge Corbin took the lead in behalf of the poet, 
while H. G. Thayer led the opposition. The next open meeting was held 
at the home of Mrs. Estella Drummond, at which Judge Corbin read a 
paper on "Westminster Abbey," which was followed by fifty literary conun- 
drums which were distributed among the people. The answers were to be 
the names of noted authors, which furnished Senator Reeve, who presided 
over this part of the program, opportunity to show his readiness in repartee. 
Miss Celeste Simons was hostess March' 6th. The entertainment consisted 


of stereopticon views of "The Twelve Great World Pictures," shown by 
D. Frank Redd and Jacob Martin. One hundred and fifty were present at 
this meeting. It brings back pleasant memories to those present on account 
of the spontaneous song service at the close, in which "Auld Lang Syne," 
"Old Oaken Bucket," and other songs of yesterday were participated in by 
all present. In April, 1894, an evening was devoted to Indiana authors, in 
which all the numbers were original productions of the members. In 
February, 1893, the society joined the "Indiana Union of Literary Clubs." 
The officers for 1894-95 were Mrs. Corbin, president; Miss Phebe Thomp- 
son, leader and vice-president; Mrs. Mary Kinsey, secretary. Two of the 
valued members of the society, Mrs. Jennie IBorton and Mrs. Fannie 
Portmess-Work, died this year. The year 1895-96 was memorable for the 
society. Miss Celeste Simons was able to realize a dream of years in being 
able to furnish the society with a convenient and beautifully furnished club- 
room, which was used by the society for several years. The officers for 
1895-96 were : Mrs. Mary W. Kinsey, president ; Miss Angelica Thayer, vice- 
president; Miss Florence Agnew, secretary. The first meeting was held 
for the first time October 5, 1895, in the new clubroom. At this meeting 
the name was changed to "Saturday Club," which name it still retains. 
This year Mrs. Julia Blain became secretary. Printed programs were given out 
for the year's work, the subject being, "Primitive American Races and 
Early American History." The social events of this year were a lecture 
by Mrs. Ford, of Chicago, on "Shakespeare's Women," followed by a recep- 
tion ; and a reception given in honor of Mrs. Virginia Meredith, of Con- 
norsville, president of the Indiana Union of Literary Clubs. For the year 
1896-97, Mrs. Julia Blain, president; Mrs. Ida E. R. Smith, vice-president; 
Miss Alice C. Klinger, secretary. The study for the year was confined to 
South America, Central America and Mexico. The social events of the 
year were confined to a club tea at the clubroom and a banquet on Wash- 
ington's birthday. Colonial costumes were worn and each lady took her 
own supply of dishes. Old-fashioned souvenir dishware taken and a 
description of them and the historical events with which they were con- 
nected proved of great interest. January 16, 1897, Mrs. Elizabeth Latti- 
more, former member and president of the club, died at Crown Point, 
Indiana. Memorial services were held in her honor on the day of her 
burial. Officers 1897-98: Miss Simons, president; Mrs. Corbin, vice- 
president; Mrs. Mary Morrison, secretary. Program for the year, Ameri- 
can History, etc. In February, 1898, occurred one of the most enjoyable 
evenings the club had experienced. Mrs. Elizabeth Armstrong Reed, of 
Chicago, delivered her famous lecture on "Mythology." The lecture was 
followed by a reception and supper given in her honor, to which a large 
number of guests had been invited. During the year 1898-99 Miss Simons, 
owing to failing health, resigned, and Mrs. Toan presided the remainder 
of the year. The social events of this year were the usual celebration of 
Washington's birthday, a lecture by Mrs. Ford, entitled "Eugene Field and 
James AA^hitcomb Riley," and a farewell party at the close of the year. At 
"this party Mr. Rotzein took a picture of the club seated at the table. The 
officers for 1900 were: Mrs. Toan, president; Mrs. Underwood, vice- 
president ; Mrs. ]\Iary L. M. Thayer, secretary, and Miss Thompson, leader. 
The club was plunged in gloom September i6th of this year by the death 


of Mrs. Katharine Corbin, the first president of the club. She had been 
one of the most active and devoted members from the beginning. This 
year was devoted to Bible study, as literature and history. The first meeting 
of the vear 1900 was held in' October, with Mrs. Underwood, president ; 
Mrs. ^I. L. M. Thayer, vice-president ; Mrs. Ada B. Butler, secretary, and 
Miss Klinger, leader. The study of the Bible was continued and several 
social meetings for the members' held. A called meeting was held August 
i6th at the home of Mrs. Thayer in honor of Mrs. Phebe Thompson- 
Willey on her return from Australia. Mrs. Mary L. M. Thayer, president ; 
Mrs. 'Ida E. R. Smith, vice-president; Alice C. KUnger, secretary. The 
year was devoted to the consideration of current events, banquets, sleigh- 
ride parties, etc. No change of officers was made in 1905. England, 
Shakespeare and American History furnished the theme for the year. A 
special meeting was held January 12th at Mrs. Underwood's, for the study 
of the art collection of the Union Literary Clubs. The carnation was adopted 
as the club flower. The year closed with a social afternoon and supper 
with Miss Olive Thompson. Mrs. Butler became president; Mrs. Win- 
nings, vice-president, and Annie Morrill, secretary. The chief feature of 
the gala day was a burlesque exhibit of works of art. The attempts of 
the ladies at sculpture in the form of clay modeling were very classic in 
resuhs. The officers at the close of 1907 are: President, Airs. Phebe 
Thompson-Wiley; vice-president, Mrs. Jesse Toan-Brooks ; secretary, Mrs. 
Mary K. Hitchcock. 

The club began "A Journey Through the United States" last Septem- 
ber, starting from Plymouth, and to arrive at the national capitol in May, 
1908. There have always been the strongest ties of friendship and affection 
between the members of the club. Very few have resigned except from 
sickness and absence from town. All feel that the influence of the Saturday 
Club is for good only. The members have not desired to place themselves 
conspicuously before the public. Their aim has been to broaden their own 
lives by this close contact with others of like tastes and aspirations. They 
feel that their influence has been more far-reaching than had they been less 
conservative. While the membership is at present limited to thirty-five for 
convenience in management, it is not the intention to exclude any who may 
wish to take up active work. The club is a most remarkable one. It is 
composed entirely of women and has been in existence continuously without 
interruption for well on towards a quarter of a century. In the sphere of 
its work it has accomplished great good in elevating the standard of 
knowledge and right thinking, and generally in cultivating the ethics of 
right living. 


On the evening of September 13, 1898, twenty ladies of Plymouth met 
at the home of Mrs. James McDonald to organize a class in vocal music. 

For a number of years the vocal chorus music of Plymouth had been 
in rather backward shape and the various church choirs felt the effect in a 
marked degree. A number of ladies had talked the matter over and this 
meeting was held with a view to organize a society with the object of 


creating a sentiment in the city thdt would encourage music of a high class 
and take the place of the so-called "rag time" trash that was rooting out all 
classical music. 

The Mozart Musical Club was a success from the start. Mrs. Stella 
Drummond was the first president, serving until her removal to South 
Bend. Mrs. Olive Soice then served a term of years, and Mrs. Eva L. 
Underwood has since been at the head of the society. Mrs. James McDonald 
was the first director, and since then they have had Prof. Franks, of South 
Bend, and Prof. McHenry, and now Prof. H. W. Owens, of Chicago, has 
just commenced his fourth year with this club. 

Each year since the organization the club has given one or two con- 
certs, which have been well received by those who heard them. No attempt 
has been made to amass money by these performances, the object only 
being to give to the public an exhibition of the progress made and to bring 
in noted soloists who could be heard here in no other way. When San 
Francisco was destroyed by earthquake this club sent the entire proceeds 
of one concert to the relief of the sufferers. 

During these years this club has given, among others, the "Holy Citv," 
by Gaul ; "Rose Maiden," by Covven ; "Messiah," by Handel ; and this year 
the work is "Creation," by Haydn. That this club, started by a small com- 
pany of ladies who were simply bent on self-improvement and an earnest 
desire to elevate the taste of the community for the highest class of music, 
should successfully give Handel's "Messiah," which is acknowledged to be 
one of the very best and most difficult of the standard oratorios, speaks well 
for the individual membership and the directors they have had. Prof. 
Owens, who drills the club once each week, has lately returned from Eng- 
land, where he went the past summer to get what was new and useful for 
his work, and under his supervision the work on "Creation" is being enthu- 
siastically pushed, and when the club is ready to give this oratorio it is 
expected to be the finest musical production the club has ever given. 

For several years this club was composed entirely of ladies, but now 
the gentlemen are taken into full membership, and the future of the club 
looks very bright. 


While it may be true that Marshall county, or any portion of it, has 
not produced in the literary, musical or oratorical field of human action 
anyone, either male or female, whose excellence has attracted the attention 
and admiration of the world at large, yet it is true that there have risen 
up from among the people those who have made their mark in the liberal 
arts and occupy a sphere as high as their surrounding neighbors. 

In a work of this kind it will be impossible to give more than a brief 
reference to those who have done sufficient in the literary field to make 
them a reputation that will be more or less enduring. The first who wrote 
to greater purpose than any of his contemporaries, the late Charles H. 
Reeve, stands easily at the head. During the last two decades of his life 
he wrote numerous books and pamphlets, mostly on crime and criminals, 


and criminal law reform, etc. His most pretentious work was "The Prison 
Question," a book of 200 pages, which had a large sale both in this and 
foreign countries among those interested in prison reform. He was a 
smooth and graceful writer and in descriptive composition had few equals 
anywhere. From an address of welcome to the Northern Indiana Teachers' 
Association held at Maxinkuckee lake, June 29, 1886, the following charm- 
ing description of the "Beautiful Maxinkuckee," by Mr. Reeve, is inserted 
as a rare literary gem — a classic in its way. Addressing the assembled 
teachers, he said in part: 

"Many years ago, near where we are now located, I came in sight of 
the lovely lake yonder for the first time. When I first saw it the primeval 
forest around it was almost untouched. Some settlers were near it but 
mainly the forest came to the margin. Some rushes grew in the shallow 
spots. A log canoe rocked on the shore near me as the light waves pulsated 
to and fro. The sunlight glinted from the surface of the water and the 
whole space above was filled with a kind of glowing haze I have seen 
nowhere else. The undulations of the shores and the deep green of the 
trees were reflected in black shadows from the water below. Near me 
a robin was caroling his liquid song. The red-winged blackbird flew 
chirping across the narrow bends, alighting now and then on the limber 
twig of a bush, or some stout bulrush that bent to the water and allowed 
him to seize something he saw and wanted. The lazy gulls rose and fell 
and turned from side to side as they crossed and recrossed above the water. 
Here and there in some still spot a fish would spring out and leave a circlet 
of tiny waves following each other in growing circles, soon broken by 
others made in like manner near by them. Some wild ducks arose from 
near the shore with a cry of alarm and winged a rapid flight around the 
bends to light in some obscure place. Away near the opposite shore a figure 
sat in a dugout holding a pole that would occasionally rise to the perpen- 
dicular and then come down to the horizontal, and it looked as completely 
alone as if it were the only being in its form alive. These trifling incidents 
attracted momentary notice only. But the lights and shades, the outlines 
and the undulations, the glittering and shimmering of sun and water and 
shadowy reflections, the life and motion and stillness, the strange mellow 
haze, like an invisible veil, yet obstructing no light, that was above and over 
it all like a halo, the something indescribable and seen nowhere else, were 
before me in the fullness of Nature's most perfect work. I reined in my 
horse and sat still on him, almost entranced by the indescribable feelings 
created by the scene. There are no words I know to describe it. It could 
only be felt — a glow of pleasure and wonder mingled with awe — a sense of 
beauty with a glow of exaggeration that went beyond words for comparison. 

"I had met an Indian only a few moments before seeing the lake, just 
up yonder on the road coming through the woods. He was bareheaded, 
had on a calico shirt, deerskin leggings and moccasins, and carried a gun ; 
and he had told me in broken English with short pauses between the words 
about the road I desired to follow. 'Go so,' he said, pointing the direction; 
'see — big— trail. Mabbe — go — so,' pointing another direction; 'see — 
chemoke — man's — wigwam. Yes.' That is, I would soon come to the 
main wagon road, and following that would come to a white man's house. 
I followed the first direction, and soon after the weird and beautiful 


glamor of the wonderful Max-in-kuck-ee was before me. I shall see it 
always. You can never see it as I did then. 

"But it has another beauty now that you gaze on. I have them both 
before me, and year by year have seen the changes as they grew in it and 
in the country regions round and about it. How many can go back to that 
log canoe as, half filled with water, it oscillated upon the shore yonder, and 
step by step follow the changes down to the graceful hulls and sails that 
daily skim the surface of the lake, or the shapely little steamers that 

"Walk the water like a thing of life,' 
while the echoes on the shore awake the throbs of their fiery, imprisoned 
hearts, as the pulsations evolve the forces of their artificial life? 

"To me there is a strange blending of the sights and sounds here now 
with the memory of those of long ago. The carol of the robin and the 
bell of the steamer; the whistle of the blackbirds and the scream of the 
locomotive; the grace of the waterfowl and its rapid flight and the white- 
sailed yachts ; the presence of the lonely fisherman and the silent Indian ; 
the knowledge of the fewer wants and fewer means of gratifying them then, 
and the many needs and boundless resources of the present ; of the lighter 
burdens that rested then and the mighty ones that rest now; all pass 
before me like 'the cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palaces and solemn 
temples created by the baseless fabric of some weird vision.' " 

Judge Albcrtus C. Capron. Judge Capron was one of Marshall county's 
most accomplished writers. For many years he owned a cottage on the 
shore of the beautiful Maxinkuckee lake, and no one enjoyed more than he 
the delightful breezes and charming scenery that met his view, no matter 
which way he looked. He was especially fond of fishing, and probably the 
last article he prepared was on the subject of "Fish and Fishing in Lake 
Maxinkuckee," published in a history of tlie lake in 1905, the year he died. 
The closing paragraphs are reproduced here to show the beauty of his 
style of composition, and the delightful picture he draws of good and bad 
fishing days. The judge's peroration is as follows: 

"To be even moderately successful one must be fairly well acquainted 
with the 'lay of the land' in the lake. There are considerable areas that 
are absolutely barren of fish at all seasons, where one may fish for a week 
and not get a nibble. Where the water is sixty, seventy or eighty feet deep 
there are no fish, unless it be a few gars swimming near the surface in a 
migration from one side of the lake to the other. 

"And there are days when the lake appears absolutely without fish 
of any kind, when the experienced fisherman with both live and artificial 
bait may search the bars and gullies of the very best fishing grounds, from 
'morn 'till dewy eve,' with not a single strike. But even such a day is not 
without its recompense to the genuine fisherman, for he is always a lover 
of nature in her various moods. After a fruitless pull of a couple of hours, 
and he realizes that the fish are hugging the bottom among the lake weeds 
and grasses and beyond the temptation of his alluring baits, he can drop his 
oars and drift idly in the summer breeze that brings to him, across the lake, 
the odor of the woods, the fields or the new-mown hay, and watch the 
changing colors of the lake as the shadows of the fleecy clouds creep slowly 
over the surface; or, looking shoreward, beyond the line where land and 
water meet, his eyes will rest upon a sylvan picture of wooded bluff and 


shady beach with their bright tinted cottages nesthng among the trees, 
wordless invitations to the weary to come and find rest therein, and, as the 
evening comes on and the winds are hushed, and all the west, both sky and 
water, is painted in gorgeous colors by the glorious sunset, there comes 
creeping over the glassy lake a tinkling music as of water bells touched by 
the sparkling streams that gush from the flowing wells and splash upon 
the margin of the lake. And, as his boat glides to his landing place, the 
joy and sweetness of life fills his being with a new and thrilling sense of 
pleasure, and as he picks up his creel and saunters slowly toward his cottage 
he feels in his heart more than half glad that it is an empty creel — with noth- 
ing dead in it. Surely such a day is not a lost day, not a day to be regretted. 

"And there are other days, red-letter days for the fisherman ; days 
when every good-sized fish in the lake appears to have awakened up hungry 
from a two or three days' snooze in the grass, and every one of them seems 
to be hunting the fisherman's bait; and, whether anchored on the edge of a 
bar or trolling deep among the gullies, the time between strikes is little 
more than enough to adjust a new bait and get the lines well out again. 
On these days the catch of a couple of hours half fills the creel with three 
or four varieties of goodly sized fish — all the small ones discarded and 
thrown into the lake. On these days the fisherman finds no time to watch 
the shadows on the lake ; no matter how gorgeous the sunset, he sees it not. 
The winds may waft the odor of the spices of Araby across the lake — he 
perceives it not; the music of the rippling streams that gush from the 
flowing wells is drowned by the chirr of his reel, and the cottage-lined 
shores are simply a landing place, where he will beach his boat and step 
proudly upon the shore, holding up to the gaze of family and friends his 
wonderful catch on this his lucky day. Well, it's only human nature to 
enjoy success, and these are the days the fisherman loves to talk and think 
of — the days he remembers best." 

John S. Bender, who still resides in Plymouth at the age of eighty, is 
the author of a book entitled "A Hoosier's Experience in Western Europe," 
being a description of scenes and incidents that impressed him while making 
the tour of western Europe in the winter of 1874-75. He also wrote and 
published a small book entitled "Money," from the "Greenback" theory of 
the financial question. 

Elder S. A. Chaplin, during many years' residence in Marshall county, 
wrote much on literary and religious subjects. All his writings had a 
religious tendency and a high moral tone, and were intended to make his 
readers better, wiser, and happier. The series of articles written by him 
and published in the Plymouth Democrat shortly before his death, entitled 
"The Return of the Jews to Jerusalem," and "Sketches of the Early Settle- 
ment of the Northwest Territory," were of a high order of merit and 
contained valuable information not elsewhere to be found. 

M. A. 0. Packard wrote copiously, fluently and well. His articles 
"From Over the Sea," published in the Plymouth Democrat while making 
the tour of Europe on two occasions, and his letters descriptive of a tour 
across the continent to the Pacific coast, and return by way of the southern 
states, were models of descriptive writing rarely excelled, and worthy of 
permanent preservation. His style is smooth and polished, and he has the 
faculty of taking the reader with him and showing him the beauty and 


grandeur of nature almost as vividly as if he were beholding them with 
his own eyes. 

Henry G. Thayer, while on a tour of Europe several years prior to 
his death, wrote a series of letters, which were published in the Plymouth 
Democrat, that were more than ordinarily meritorious, containing as they 
did a vast amount of useful information. From these letters Mr. Thayer 
compiled a lecture entitled, "Paul's Journey to Rome," which he delivered 
in most of the towns and cities in northern Indiana. 

Le Roy Armstrong was born and reared in Marshall county, a short 
distance northwest of Pretty lake. His father and mother dying when he 
was a boy in his teens, he drifted into a printing office, and there received 
the first inspiration that led him to take up the literary part of newspaper 
work as a calling. It was not a great while until he was employed on the 
editorial stafif of the Chicago Herald, and while thus engaged employed 
his spare time in writing a novel entitled "An Indiana Man." It was a 
love story, picturing practical politics as he had observed them in Marshall 
county, the principal scenes being located at Plymouth, and at the old 
church and the schoolhouse near his old home, and the country about 
Pretty lake. To the old settlers it was interesting, as the characters were 
all genuine, although they bore fictitious names. Since then he has written 
several books, none of which, however, have attained to any considerable 


Marshall county has had its full share of those who have made for them- 
selves favorable reputations in vocal and instrumental music. 

Miss Clare Osborne, born and reared here, now Mrs. Dr. Reed, of 
Chicago, was the first to graduate from the Chicago Musical College with 
the honors of her class a score of years ago. She was later employed as 
one of the faculty of the college, and is at present the owner and manager 
of the Columbia School of Music, Chicago. She is considered one of the 
finest pianists in that place. 

Miss Stella Packard, now Mrs. C. P. Drummond, of South Bend, who 
was born and reared in Plymouth, graduated from the Chicago School of 
Music with the honors of her class many years ago. She is a fine pianist 
and was the first president of the Plymouth Mozart Musical Club. 

Miss Helen Elizabeth McDonald, born and reared here, now Mrs. 
T. W. Gilmore, Chicago, graduated with high honors from the Chicago 
Musical College, being awarded the Board of Trade gold medal for the best 
pianist that year. She has been one of the faculty of the Columbia School of 
Music, and lias written several musical compositions that have been published, 
among which are "V^enetian Serenade," "Love's Confidence," "Evening 
Song," "When Thou Art Nigh," etc. The words to these songs were 
written by Mrs. Bertha Reynolds-McDonald, wife of Louis McDonald, now 
of Chicago. The words to an "Evening Song" are as follows : 

Over the hilltop a moonbeam peeps. 
Over the meadow a dark shadow creeps. 
Far in the crimson west daylight is dying, 
Through the trees the wind is sighing — 
Sighing a soft good-night. 


Stars glitter bright in the sky overhead, 
Birds twitter low in their pretty green bed, 
'Way over yonder I hear the kine lowing, 
Soft the breeze, rare fragrance is blowing — 
Blowing good-night — good-night. 


An orator is one who delivers an oration ; or, one who is skilled in 
public speaking. To a considerable extent it is a gift — the gift of knowing 
what to say, and how to say it. The orator must understand thoroughly the 
science of rhetoric, for, as it has been well said, "it teaches him to speak 
copiously and fluently on any subject, not merely with propriety alone, but 
with all the advantages of force and elegance ; wisely contriving to cap- 
tivate the hearer by strength of argument and beauty of expression whether 
it be to entreat or exhort, to admonish or applaud." Closely allied with 
this is logic, without a thorough knowledge of which he can never expect 
to become an accomplished orator, because it "teaches us to guide our 
reason discretionally in the general knowledge of things, and directs our 
inquiries after truth. It consists of a regular train of argument, whence 
we infer, deduce and conclude, according to certain premises laid down, 
admitted or granted ; and in it are employed the faculties of conceiving, 
judging, reasoning and disposing; all of which naturally leads on from 
one gradation to another until the point in question is finally determined." 
What constitutes genuine oratory has never yet been definitely determined. 
Certain it is that it is not frantic gesticulations of the arms, head or body. 
Marshall county has produced its average share of orators, who have been 
trained in the courts of justice, in the pulpit, and on the political rostrum. 
Among those who have made their mark in these lines above their fellows 
may be mentioned C. H. Reeve, M. A. O. Packard, John G. Osborne, of 
the older practitioners, and later Samuel Parker, C. P. Drummond, Charles 
Kellison, and several others who are still with us, who, when warmed up to 
the subject, are considered more than ordinary speechmakers. 

Henry G. Thayer, several years before his death, was the first to bring 
the subject of oratory before the school authorities, by oflfering $50 in 
gold yearly as a reward of merit for the one who should be considered the 
best orator in a competitive, contest. This was continued a number of 
years, when for various reasons it was discontinued. 

About 1903 an oratorical contest between picked pupils of the La Porte 
and Plymouth high schools took place in the auditorium of the Plymouth 
high school building, which stood on the site of what was a beautiful 
grove in the early times where all the public political meetings of all parties 
were held, and where many noted orators had made "the welkin ring 
with their eloquence." The gentleman who was selected to preside over the 
meeting, on taking the chair, delivered a short address, in part as follows : 

"The entertainment provided for in the program of the evening is some- 
thing new along educational lines here, and in the outset it is hoped that 
the results of this coming together may be the means of forming an asso- 
ciation which shall embrace the northern part of the state. 

"Right here, on the grounds where this school building now stands, 
something over forty years ago occurred a series of among the greatest 
political debates in the history of the United States. Schuyler Colfax, sev- 


eral times elected a member of congress from this district, also speaker 
of the United States house of representatives, and later vice-president of 
the United States, and David Tnrpie, afterwards three times elected to 
the senate of the United States from Indiana, were the contestants for 
congressional honors. No more brilliant display of forensic oratory was 
ever heard than was shown in these memorable joint political debates. 

"The faint rumbling of the coming storm of the great rebellion was 
just then beginning to be heard in the southern horizon, and the eyes of 
the whole country were turned toward these political gladiators, the trend of 
the discussion being national in its bearing. 

"These debates became the most widely known, and have been the 
longest remembered of any political discussions, excepting, always the never- 
to-be-forgotten debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas 
in Illinois in 1858. 

"Here, also in these beautiful grounds and in sight of them, have been 
heard such superb Indiana orators as Gov. Ashbel P. Willard ; Senator, 
Gov. and Vice-Pres. Thomas A. Hendricks ; Gov. Isaac P. Gray, Gov. 
James D. Williams, Senators D. W. Voorhees and Joseph E. McDonald, 
Senator and Pres. Benjamin Harrison, Stephen A. Douglas, Benj. F. 
Shively, Gen. and Lieut. -Gov. M. D. Manson, and the most polished orator 
of them all, William Jennings Bryan. 

"All can call to mind sublime oratorical efforts that almost moved the 
world and became immortal. As illustrations I need only refer to 'Paul's 
Appeal to King Agrippa,' and in our own time to 'Lincoln's Gettysburg 
Address,' which stands singly and alone as the oratorical gem of the age." 


Not until after the adoption of the new constitution of the state, in 
1850, was there any real progress made in the organization of the public 
school system as we have it now. 

Until 1851 the schools were under the jurisdiction of the township 
trustees, although by the school law at that time in force their jurisdiction 
was almost entirely nominal, their school duties being little more than to 
make a donation to the teacher of the morsel of interest coming from the 
school fund. The usual custom seems to have been to apply the public 
fund to the benefit of any teacher who chose to start a school, he making 
up the deficiency by tuitions from the pupils. 

During the session of the legislature in 1871, an act was passed author- 
izing the appointment, by the board of county commissioners, of a county 
superintendent, whose duty it should be to visit the schools, make examina- 
tions, and issue certificates to teachers, examine the public records and 
enforce the payment of all fines and forfeitures belonging to the school 
fund into the treasury, and report the condition of the public schools once 
in each year to the superintendent of public instruction. 

The duties of the county superintendent had, until the act of 1871, been 
performed by a school examiner, whose duties were to examine applicants, 
make the proper examinations and report the condition of the schools 


annually to the state superintendent, and perform such other duties as were 
thought for the best interest of the schools. Mark Cummings was the 
first regularly appointed examiner under the revised school law of 1851, 
and served as such until his death in 1868. The law creating county 
superintendent of schools was the creation of Prof. I\Iilton B. Hopkins, 
who was then state superintendent of the public schools. He was a demo- 
crat, and resided at Kokomo. He drafted the bill, and through his efforts 
its passage through the general assembly was secured. For some time 
there was considerable opposition to the measure, and in 1874 and 1876 
it was something of an effort to keep it from being injected into the political 
campaigns of those years. Better counsels prevailed, however, and, as the 
good work of the county superintendents began to show itself, opposition 
naturally ceased, and before he died, Prof. Hopkins had the pleasure of 
seeing his system of county superintendents of schools as one of the most 
useful auxiliaries in the management of the public school system of the state 
firmly and permanently established. 

Mark Cummings, the first school examiner under the old law, was one 
of the early residents of the county, having taken up his residence in 
Plymouth as a school teacher prior to 1850. He died in 1868. A. C. Capron 
was appointed examiner to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Mr. 
Cummings. In the September term of the board of commissioners, 1868, 
Thomas McDonald was appointed examiner, and served as such until the 
act creating countv superintendents was passed in 1871, when he was 
appointed the first county superintendent under that act, which position he 
held until his death, which occurred March 28, 1875. 

Early Schools and School Teachers. 

It should be remembered that at the time the school question first 
began to be agitated the country was almost a wilderness. Except the 
Michigan road, the La Porte road and the Winamac road, there were no 
regularly laid out roa'ds in the county ; and these were only passable. A 
surveyor and ax-man had gone through the lines of these contemplated 
roads, the trees had been "blazed" so the traveler could keep in the direction 
in which he wanted to go, but as there were few inhabitants on the way, 
but little work had been done on any of them. Trees and brush and logs 
had been cut out, and "corduroy" bridges had been built across the impassable 
mudholes and streams, otherwise these public roads were little better than 
the Indian trails through the woods. 

At that time special laws were passed by the legislature for the benefit 
of the people residing in each county, and Marshall county, having been 
organized but a short time, was without the benefit of special legislation. 
Except in a general way the people were a law unto themselves. But it 
was just as well. The inhabitants needed very few laws. They were of the 
better class of men and women, and were law-abiding. Christian people who 
had left civilization and the scenes of their childhood behind them, and had 
settled here to carve out homes in the wilderness for themselves and chil- 
dren, and to assist in building up a new civilization. 

Among the first things they did, after clearing ofT a patch of ground 
and building a little cabin home in the wilderness, was to organize as best 
they could a system of schools for the education of their children. As 


has been stated, there was no law in relation to education, and no public 
funds with which to build schoolhouses and for the pay of teachers. The 
material for the support of schools was very limited and widely scattered, 
and in looking back over the events of more than the past half century 
it seems almost miraculous that these early pioneers, under the adverse 
circumstances and conditions they had to overcome, were able to accomplish 
as much as they did. 

In 1840 the census report showed that Alarshall county had forty school 
children, twenty-five of whom attended school, and that there were but three 
schoolhouses in the county at that time. There were, however, more schools 
taught in the county than the number of schoolhouses would indicate. Log 
cabins that had been vacated for more commodious dwellings were frequently 
used for a winter's term of school, in the absence of a building erected 
especially for that purpose. No records of any of the schools were then 
made, and it is impossible to arrive at anything definite in regard to them. 

In 1848 the question of "free schools" was submitted to the voters of 
the state for adoption or rejection. The question was voted on in Mar- 
shall county August 7, 1848, with the following result: 

Township. For. Against. 

North 41 12 

Green 93 12 

Center .300 21 

Union 38 21 

Bourbon 44 3 

Tippecanoe 47 16 

German 06 1 

Totals 619 .S(5 

Polk, West and Walnut townships had not then been organized. The 
vote on this question taken throughout the state was for the purpose of 
feeling the educational pulse of the people to be incorporated into the new 
state constitution to be actoptcd by a constitutional convention to be held in 
1850. Amzi L. Wheeler was the member of the convention for Marshall 
county, and, as he had been a "country school master" prior to his settle- 
ment here in 1836, it is fair to presume that he used his influence in favor 
of free schools. The convention was held, and after a long discussion and 
mature deliberation Article VIII of our present state constitution was 
inserted, and it has undergone no change since that time. 

The preamble sets forth that knowledge and learning, generally diffused 
throughout the community, being essential to a free government, the general 
assembly was commanded to encourage by all suitable means moral, intel- 
lectual, scientific and agricultural improvement, and to provide by law for 
a general and uniform system of common schools wherein tuition should be 
without charge and equally open to all. 

It further provided that the common school fund should consist of 
the congressional township funds and lands belonging thereto ; the bank 
tax fund, and the fund arising from the 1 14th section of the charter of 
the state bank of Indiana : the fund to be derived from the sale of county 
seminaries, and the monies and property theretofore held for such seminaries ; 
from the fines assessed for breaches of the penal laws of the state, and 
from all forfeitures which might accrue: all lands and other estate which 


might escheat to the state for want of heirs or kindred entitled to inheritance; 
all lands belonging to the state, including swamp lands after deducting 
expenses of draining the same, and taxes that might be assessed by the 
general assembly for school purposes. 

It also provided that the principal of the school fund shall remain a 
perpetual fund which may be increased but shall never be diminished ; and 
the income thereof shall be inviolably appropriated to the support of the com- 
mon schools, and to no other purpose whatever. 

Under these provisions of the constitution the proper legislation to carry 
into effect the public school system has been had from time to time. The 
school fund provided for has accumulated from year to year at the rate of 
about $100,000 per year, and is now more than $11,000,000, probably the 
largest school fund of any state in the Union. 

The First Schools. 

It has been almost impossible to arrive at anything definite in regard 
to the first schools taught in the county. As stated there were no school- 
houses, and the schools taught for many years occupied vacated cabins, and 
in some cases the "sitting room" in the cabin where a family resided. In 
the winters of 1836 and 1837 there were several attempts at teaching school 
in various parts of the county where enough children in the sparsely settled 
neighborhoods could be got together to justify a teacher to spend his time 
in that way. Among the first of these early schools was one taught by 
Thomas McDonald, in the winter of 1836, in a log house which had been 
occupied as a temporary residence on the farm then owned by Vincent 
Brownlee near Lake Maxinkuckee. Between this time and 1840 a hewed 
log schoolhouse was built about half a mile east of where this school was 
taught. It was the first attempt at building a house especially for school 
purposes in Union township, and possibly in the county. Those who taught 
in this house at the first were William E. Thompson, H. B. Dickson and 
Hugh Brownlee. All of these old time "country school masters" are now 
dead, and, with two or three exceptions, all the boys and girls that went 
there then and made the woods ring at noontime with their shouts of joy and 
laughter have passed over to the unknown beyond. 

During the winter of 1837 ^ school was taught about two miles west 
of Plymouth on the La Porte road by William N. Bailey. About this time, 
although it may have been a year afterward, a school was taught on or 
near the farm of Adam Snyder, in North township, by Abraham Johnson. 
There was also a school taught in the Roberts neighborhood, four miles 
southeast of Plymouth, and one at the residence of Charles Ousterhaut, on 
the Michigan road, two miles south of Plymouth, and one about where the 
town of Argos now stands, about the same time. These were taught by 
Miss Catharine Logan, afterward Mrs. John B. Dickson, and a man by 
the name of Erskine. In German township the first school was taught in 
an old log cabin about one mile north of the present town of Bremen, in 
the year 1837, by a man by the name of Bemas. The average number of 
children present was about fifteen. 

The first school in Bourbon township was taught in a log cabin which 
stood on ground owned by John Greer, in the south part of the present town 
of Bourbon, shortly after a settlement was made there, probably about 


1837-38, by Edward Parks. John Greer also taught school there one or two 
terms in those early days. 

In Tippecanoe township the first school was taught in the summer of 
1842, by Esther Jane Birney, at what is now District No. 3, or Summit 
chapel. She taught three successive terms of three months each for about 
$9 per month. The schoolhouse was built of logs and had a cabin roof; 
two small windows, both on the same side of the house, and a standing 
board was near the windows. The pupils all went to this board to do their 
writing, and when they had finished they returned to their seats again. 
The seats were made of hewed logs. The door was hung with wooden hinges, 
and had a wooden latch on the inside to which was attached a string, which 
was passed to the outside through a hole in the door, so that the latch 
could be raised from the outside by pulling the string; hence the old saying: 
"The latch string is out." The floor was made of puncheon to fit tightly 
together; and the building was further furnished with a mud stick chimney. 
From this early and small beginning the township has now ten comfortable 
school buildings, all paid for, and furnished with every convenience for 
efficient school work. 

Several attempts in the past have been made to gather the facts in 
regard to the early schools of Plymouth, but with indifferent success. In 
1836 there were very few residents of Plymouth, and there were not enough 
children to support a school, and so far as has been ascertained no school 
was taught here that year. The first school in Plymouth is said to have 
been taught by Oscar F. Norton, in the winter of 1837. Whether he taught 
more than that term is not known. The building used for this school was 
the first courthouse, which was built by the original proprietors of the 
town, and stood on the west side of Michigan street, corner of Adams. A 
few years ago the writer was informed by Mrs. Sarah A. Smith, formerly 
Miss Sarah A. Bannon, that she was a pupil under the tutelage of a teacher 
by the name of G. Parsons in the old courthouse during the winters of 
1840 and 1841. She exhibited a reward of merit given to her by him, a 
copy of which is as follows: 

Keward of Jlerit 


Miss Sarah A. Bannon 

for Good Behavior 

in School. 

G. Parsons, Inst. 

Plymouth, June 17, 1841. 

Mrs. Smith says Mr. Parsons was from New York state ; was a short, 
heavy built man, and during his stay here boarded at the house of her 
father, who then lived on the south side of Yellow river, in a building known 
as the "American House." She said the only peculiarity she could remember 
about him was that he was very fond of soup ! Her father, James Bannon, 
was the first shoemaker here, and was postmaster of Plymouth under the 
administration of James K. Polk. 

Our free school system had not then been established, and those who 
went to school paid for their own tuition. According to the census of 1840 
there were but forty children of school age in Marshall county, not more 
than fifteen of whom resided in Plymouth and not more than half of these, 


Mrs. Smith thought, attended the school taught by Air. Parsons in 1841. 
The census of 1840 also stated that there were but three schoolhouses in 
the county. Airs. Erskine is said to have erected a schoolhouse on Center 
street, on the second block north of the courthouse, in which she taught 
school a few years — how long is not known. Rev. Austin Fuller, Mrs. 
Smith said, taught school several terms in the old courthouse between 1841 
and 1846, in addition to marrying people and preaching the gospel as 
occasion required. 

A frame school building was erected about 1846-47-48 on the corner 
of the lot west of the Lutheran church building on Adams street. A young 
man by the name of Clark taught school there about 1850. He was fol- 
lowed by .Willoughby AI. McCormick in 1851 and 1852'. He was not much 
of a teacher, but he made the most out of the material he had to work 
upon, among his pupils being such unruly boys as Jim Westervelt, Abe 
Crum, Jack Bannon, Lloyd Hard, Sherm Wheeler, Jim Bannon, Hank 
Cougle and the writer of this sketch. Mr. McCormick went from Plymouth 
to Knox about 1853, where a few years later he was elected clerk of the 
court of Stark county, and was serving as such at the time of his death. 

Our schoolhouses of nearly three-quarters of a century ago did not 
possess great attractions externally or internally. They were almost invari- 
ably small log buildings, cold and very deficient in regard to windows ; a 
fireplace at one end, and a few rough benches without backs for seats, and 
a board or two which served for writing desks, were the sum total of the 
internal arrangements of the building. During those days pupils who 
occupied seats at the back part of the house would often suffer with the 
cold, while those who were near the fire would suft'er as much from the other 
extreme. Not unfrequently the smoke would drive both pupils and teacher 
out of the building for pure air. But pupils of studious habits would make 
rapid progress, even under these disadvantages. Many graduates of these 
unsightly and uncomfortable schoolhouses now sustain excellent reputations 
as teachers and business men and women in other walks of life. 

The first genuine agitation of the school question in Plymouth was in 
1853. April i6th, a meeting was called to consider the propriety of employ- 
ing Mr. and Mrs. Etter, of Rochester, who were mentioned as being teachers 
of a diii'erent grade from that with which the citizens had been afflicted thus 
far. At the same meeting the advisability of building a schoolhouse was dis- 
cussed. The population of Plymouth was given as 670. 

May 26th an election was held upon the proposition to levy taxes for the 
support of schools, at which the vote stood five in favor of and eight against 
such tax. June 23d a township election was held for the same purpose, at 
which the vote stood thirteen opposed to seven in favor. About this time 
Mr. and Mrs. Etter, Mr. James Thrawls, James M. Wickizer and others 
taught private schools. 

In March, 1854, the lot donated to the county for seminary purposes 
was sold to the town for the nominal sum of $100, and on the thirtieth of 
the same month, contract for building a schoolhouse was entered into with 
Silas Alorgan. This building was completed in December of the same year. 
It contained three school rooms and one recitation room, and was a credit 
to the town, ^^"hen the present building was erected it was sold to Toseph 
Westervelt. and by him removed to the river bank on the east end of 'Wash- 


ington street, where it was overhauled and made into a flouring mill, known 
as "The Euxeka Mills." It was used as such for several years, when one 
morning it caught fire and was entirely destroyed. William J. Moir, who 
had then just retired as cashier of the Marshall County bank, was chosen 
principal of the schools, and had as assistants the first term Mrs. E. Crum 
and Miss E. Adams. The attendance was at first about 150. The text- 
books used were Sanders' spellers, Parker's readers, Davies' arithmetic, 
Mitchell's geography and Clark's grammar. 

Of all the teachers of former times Mr. Moir has left behind him the 
most pleasant recollections. He is uniformly mentioned with great respect 
by those who were his pupils, and there can be no doubt that he inaugurated 
a new era in school matters. 

Mr. Moir was succeeded by C. H. Blair, who was principal but part of 
one year, when he was followed by Hiram C. Burlingame, who had for- 
merly resided in La Porte county. He retired from the management of 
the schools in 1861, concluding that he had done his share of missionary 
work, and that he would seek some less "promising" but more lucrative 

Mark Cummings, who was for many years county school examiner, 
then took charge of the schools. Mr. Cummings was succeeded by D. D. 
Luke, who remained as principal until August, 1870, when he was elected 
superintendent of the Goshen schools. Upon his retirement Rosco A. Chase 
was chosen superintendent, and served as such continuously until 1903, a 
period of thirty-three years. He at once set about reorganizing the schools 
on a business and educational basis, introducing many changes in the admin- 
istration of the schools. A systematic course of study was adopted ; the 
schools were graded ; a more exact discipline was introduced, and from a 
state of comparative confusion, as regards any settled policy of action, 
the business of the schools was as completely systematised as any business 
firm in town. 

In 1874 a new school building of brick, two stories, with a basement 
story divided into school rooms, was built. About 1890 an addition to the 
main building was erected, with an auditorium having a seating capacity 
of 600, with other conveniences for the proper management of the schools 

What was known as the "Ward School Building" was erected on the 
south side in 1868. It was a two-story frame structure, and was used fo) 
the accommodation of first-grade pupils for several years. With the growth 
of the town the need of better facilities made it necessary to erect a more 
commodious building, which was done in the '90s, and now there is ample 
room and every facility for the education of the entire school population 
of the town. The high school was organized in 1874, and the first graduating 
class was in 1876. 

Mr. Chase was succeeded as superintendent by R. A. Randall, of 
Goshen, in 1903. Some changes have been made since Mr. Randall took 
charge of the schools, which were deemed necessary for the advancement 
of our school interests. 

The following statistics for the school year 1907 will afford some idea 
of the height to which the schools of Plymouth have attained : 

Number of school rooms in use, 21 ; total number of teachers and prin- 
cipals, 23 ; number of pupils enrolled, 973 ; per cent of attendance, high 


school, 97.5 ; grades, 96.8: promoted to high school, 51 : graduates from high 
school, 38. 

St. Michael's Academy. 
This is the name of a Catholic institution of learning established in 
Plymouth in 1870. The building stands on Center street near the court- 
house square, is of brick, substantially built, well arranged for the purposes 
for which it is used, and cost about $12,000. The management of the school 
is under the immediate supervision of the Sisters of The Holy Cross, 
from St. Mary's, St. Joseph county, who have spared no eftorts during the 
past thirty-seven years of its existence to make it what it is. a first-class 
academy of learning, an honor to the town and the denomination through 
whose liberality it was founded. 



Brick. Frame. Total. 

Bourbon township 1-5 . . 15 

Center township 3 13 19 

German township 1 14 15 

Green township 1 9 10 

North township 2 11 13 

Polli township 6 5 11 

Tippecanoe township 1 10 11 

ijnion township 4 5 9 

Walnut township 3 7 10 

West township 4 8 12 

Total 40 82 132 


Male. Female. Total. 

Bourbon township 9 5 14 

Center township 5 14 19 

German township 5 8 13 

Green township 5 5 10 

North township 8 8 16 

Polk township 9 6 15 

Tippecanoe township 6 5 11 

Union township 2 9 11 

Walnut township 7 4 11 

West township 5 8 13 

Total 61 72 133 


Center township Inwood 

North township La Paz 

Polk township Tyner 

Tippecanoe township Tippecanoe 

West township West 

Walnut township Walnut 


Male. Female. Total. 

Township schools 1,951 1,889 3,840 

Towns, 634 718 1,352 

City 382 415 797 

Total 2,967 3,022 5,989 


When the first settlers came to Marshall county, Indiana had no school 
system, and such schools as were taught were conducted, according to the 
will and pleasure of the school master, who was employed by those of the 
neighborhood having children to send to him. There were no county school 
superintendents then ; no school officers ; no schoolhouses, and no public 
school funds. There was then, as there are now, a large proportion of the 
population that believed in education, and it was this element of the early 
pioneers whose labors and influence have been the means of giving us our 
present unexcelled public school system. There were others, as there are 
some now, who believed with Dogberry, that "education should cum by 
nature !" They are of that class who believe with one of Shakespeare's 
characters when he said to an educator of the olden time: 

"Thou hast most traitorously corrupted the youth of the realm in erect- 
ing a grammar school, and, whereas before, our forefathers had no other 
books but the score and tally, thou hast caused printing to be used ; and, 
contrary to the king, his crown and dignity thou hast built a paper mill. 
It will be proved to thy face that thou hast men about thee that usually 
talk of a noun, and a verb, and such abominable words as no Christian ear 
can endure to hear !" 

It was thought by these men that to learn to read and write and "cipher" 
was the chief end of man. When there were in a neighborhood a sufficient 
number of children large enough to find their way through the woods to 
the schoolhouse, preparations were made for the winter's term. The building 
of a schoolhouse was the first thing in order. The neighbors got together 
and selected a suitable location, as convenient as possible for all concerned. 
A plan was drawn for the building, and everybody interested agreed to 
meet on the grounds at the time designated for the work to be begun. 
Chopping axes to fell the trees, broad axes with which to hew the logs, 
yokes of oxen to haul the timber to the place where the building was to be 
erected, inch augers to bore holes where needed to pin together joists and 
rafters, and such other tools as were necessary and could be secured were 
provided. It didn't take long for the "horny-handed sons of toil" of the 
neighborhood to get out the material and erect a building twenty by thirty 
feet, and complete it for occupancy. The school building of which we 
speak was of the dimensions named, and was erected on a high rise of ground 
on the farm then owned by Vincent Brownlee, half a mile east of where 
he and his family resided, a mile or so from Lake Maxinkuckee. It was 
provided with a "puncheon" floor, and a clapboard roof. A chimney of 
"nigger-heads" and oak slats daubed with mud, was built on the outside of 
one end, and a puncheon door hewn out of poplar timber, fastened together 
with wooden pins and hung on leather hinges, was placed in the other end 
of the building. The latch was made of wood, fastened on the inside of 
the door, to which was attached a leather string which was passed through 
a small hole an inch or so above, so that when the string was pulled from 
the outside the latch would be raised up out of the slot on the cheek of 
the door, the door would open and the pupil would walk in. These were 
the door fastenings in universal use at that time. And this is how originated 
the saying "come and see us ; you will find the latch string out." The 
latch string hanging through a hole on the outside was an emblem of hos- 
pitality, such as only the pioneers of those days knew so well how to dispense. 


There were no locks and keys on the doors in those days. The latch string 
was always out. All you had to do was to pull it, walk right in and make 
yourself at home. 

The cracks between the logs were chinked and pinned and filled up 
with mud to keep the cold out. A log on each side of the schoolhouse 
and at the end opposite the fireplace at the proper height, was cut out a 
short distance from the corners and served as windows to furnish light 
for the room. There was little or no glass in this part of the country at 
that time, and, whether there was or not, it was too expensive and money 
was too scarce to think of indulging in such a modern invention as that; 
and so a sort of rough wooden frame was put in with slats upright to 
which w-ere pasted old newspapers, after which they were greased so as 
to make them as transparent as possible. In front of these windows, on 
the inside, were placed long "puncheon" (there was no lumber then) writing 
desks, in front of which were high seats for the accommodation of such as 
might be advanced to the writing grade. There were rough benches without 
backs for the children to sit upon ; and how the little fellows' spinal columns 
did ache before school was "let out" for the day no one who has never 
gone through such an experience will ever know. 

Auger holes were bored in the logs in convenient places and wooden pins 
driven in on which to hang hats, bonnets and clothing. 

The grounds about the building were nicely cleared up, the logs and 
brush burned, and the play-ground for jumping, foot-races, wrestling 
matches, bull pen, and town ball was properly laid out, and a good big 
pile of wood cut and piled up a convenient distance from the door to la-^it 
during the winter term. 

A well was dug and curbed up with red oak boards, a "well sweep" 
was added to which was attached at the lower end of a long hickory pole 
which was fastened to the top end of the "sweep," and old-fashioned wooden 

How that well and the sweep "and e'en the rude bucket which hung in 
the well" is remembered; and how vividly comes back the memory of that 
good old song : 

How dear to my heart are the scenes of my childhood 

When fond recollection presents to my ^■iew 
The orchard, the meadow, the deep tangled wild-wood, 

And every loved spot which my infancy knew. 
The wide spreading pond and the mill that stood by it, 

The bridge and the rock where the cataract fell; 
The cot of my father, the dairy house nigh it. 

And e'en the rude bucket which hung in the well. 
The old oaken bucket, the iron-bound bucket. 

The moss-covered bucket which hung in the well. 

The buildings and grounds and other necessary conveniences having 
been provided, the next thing in order was to "blaze" the way to the school- 
house from the homes of the parents having children to send to school. At 
that time there were no roads except "trails" made by the Indians, of whom 
there were still quite a number in the county. These "trails" were by-paths 
through the woods leading from one Indian village to another, and to the 
various lakes and rivers in the northern part of the state. Indians, you must 
know, always went "tandem," that is one after the other, and in this way 


the trail was sometimes worn down several inches. They wound around 
through the woods, avoiding swamps, hills and fallen timber as much as 
possible. Some of these trails are still in existence — one through a section 
of unimproved land near Twin lakes, that we have seen, and there are 
doubtless others about Maxinkuckee lake, and in the vicinity of Tippecanoe 
river, both of which were favorite" resorts for the noble red man, from whom 
the lands here were stolen, after which he was driven by the government 
out west to grow up with the country. The nearest route to the schoolhouse 
was selected, when the trees at convenient places were "blazed," that is, a 
man with an a.xe chipped the bark ofif about as high as his head on both sides 
of the tree so it could be seen both going and coming. Logs and brush 
were removed, and by following these blazed trees the young "scholar," as 
he was called, had no difficulty in finding his way to the seat of learning. 

The schoolhouse and grounds having been duly and truly prepared, 
the next step was for those having children to send to school to select by 
common consent, a "master" to take charge of the children who 
were to compose the school. There were no "professors" or super- 
intendents of schools, or instructors or teachers then. Those early 
educators were always known as "schoolmasters" until Edward Eggle- 
ston changed the name to "Hoosier Schoolmaster" in his charming story 
of that name, written in the early history of the state. There were 
no professional schoolmasters then. Those who taught school simply did 
so to pass away the long winter months when there was very little work 
on the farm to do. He was generally a resident of the neighborhood who 
was supposed to have attained to a higher grade of educational knowledge 
than his neighbors, and whose skill in manipulating the birch rod was 
known to be all that the most enthusiastic advocate of corporal punishment 
could desire. It was also deemed necessary that he should be provided 
with a pen-knife and that he should be able to make a quill pen, for, be it 
known, at that time steel and gold pens had not fouixl their way into this 
part of the country, and it is possible that pens made of metals had not 
then been invented ; at any rate, all the records in the various offices in this 
county, all the bookkeeping in commercial transactions, and all the letters, 
both of a business and .social nature, at that time were written with a quill 
pen, and it was considered quite an accomplishment to be able to make, 
out of a goose quill, a pen that would enable the writer to do his work in a 
satisfactory manner. 

Some of the finest penmanship we have ever seen can be found on some 
of the early records of Marshall county made with quill pens. In the 
auditor's office some of the records made by the then auditor are equal to any 
ever made since with gold or steel pens. In the clerk's office William G. 
Pomeroy left some fine quill pen records. Samuel C. Sample was one of 
the three commissioners who organized the county June 20, 1836. He after- 
wards served as judge of the circuit court until October 19, 1843. He was 
an excellent penman, and his signature to the last court record on Order 
Book A, page 673, written with a quill pen, is equal to the famous signature 
of John Hancock to the Declaration of Independence. 

Most of the ink used in those days was of domestic manufacture. A 
solution of pokeberry juice boiled down was sometimes used. Black walnut 
bark boiled in water until it became as thick as syrup was the basis for 


much of the ink used in the country schools. A sohition of copperas was 
added, after which it was reduced to the proper thickness by pouring into 
the whole a quantity of hot water. 

After a consultation had been held and an agreement reached as to 
who should be the schoolmaster, and how much salary he ought to have 
for the quarter's term, a subscription paper was circulated through the 
neighborhood to ascertain how many children would be "subscribed" to 
attend during the winter. The amount it was decided each one should pay 
was determined by dividing the total amount the master was to receive 
by the number of "scholars" subscribed. The amount generally agreed 
upon was from $15 to $20 per month, and the master was to "board around" 
among his scholars, dividing the time as nearly equal as convenient. 

The first day of school was a day long to be remembered. The nearest 
resident to the schoolhouse was on hand early and had the building well 
warmed with a great big crackin' fire long before the appointed hour for 
school to "take up." By nine o'clock the scholars were all on hand ready 
for the opening of the crusade against the citadel of ignorance. No record 
of attendance was kept, and so, of course, there were no tardy marks 
recorded against any of those composing the school. There were very few 
school books to be had, and those in use had been transmitted through 
several generations. Webster's Elementary spelling book. Pike's or Smith's 
arithmetic, the Columbian Orator, Weem's Life of Washington, and the 
Life of Francis ^Marion, Lindly Murray's or Kirkham's grammar, com- 
prised the books used in the curriculum of those days, and at no time were 
there enough to go around. 

Each pupil in attendance was permitted to study such branches as he 
saw fit, or all of them if he thought he could master them. The Jarger 
number, as a rule, were in what was called the ABC class, and special 
efiforts were put forth that the members of this class mastered this part 
of the course of study, and advanced and gained some insight into spelling 
in words of one syllable before the last day of school. 

The reading class was arranged so that all those who were able to read 
could be accommodated whether they were provided with books or not. 
The class was seated on a long bench, and the lesson was so arranged that 
half a dozen of the scholars could use the same book. The head of the 
class would rise to his or her feet, read the first paragraph and hand the 
book to the next in line. Thus progress was made without unduly disturb- 
ing his neighbor, and was continued until all had "read around" and until 
the lesson for the day had been fully mastered. 

Then came the class in arithmetic, the members of which had been 
laboring to commit to memory the rules laid down by Pike, Smith, or Talbott, 
each in his day renowned for the great labor through which he had attained 
fame by puzzling his brains in making what to the scholars seemed to be 
impossible rules by which to work more impossible problems. 

Then the class in writing took their places at the long writing desk in 
front of the windows. They attempted to follow the copy "set'" by the 
master, and with the new-beginner the master would find it necessary to 
stand at his back and hold his hand while he directed its motion so as to 
shape the letters attempted to be made. During the lesson the master had 


to answer many questions aside from making and mending numerous goose 
quill pens, that were continual!}' in need of repairs. 

When the sun's rays cast a shadow straight into the schoolroom through 
the south door, indicating that it was noon, then came from the master the 
welcome announcement, "You are dismissed." Such scrambling as there 
was, and such tumbling over benches to get out into the open air, and to 
the play grounds, was a performance not permitted nowadays. The noon 
hour was spent by the master in eating his dinner, which, like the children, 
he had brought with him, and in setting copies and blocking out a line of 
procedure for the following day. The dinner baskets were quickly emptied, 
and then came the play, that best of all things to teach the complicated 
study of human nature. Among the boys was soon heard the call "bull 
pen," "town ball," or "base ball,' and other games, while the girls chose 
other amusements. Of these the more athletic games and sports were gen- 
erally preferred by the vigorous young fellows of the woods, and a royster- 
ous, boisterous hour it was, from which memory recalls many a happy inci- 
dent. Why can't our schools of the present day get out of their confined 
limits where space compels that the lives of the helpless, innocent, prattling 
children whom we love be risked in tucked-up rooms and their noon hour 
be lost to the first lessons of the study of nature, human and physical, in 
healthful outdoor play? 

The afternoon was a repetition, generally, of the forenoon exercises, 
except that "spelling down" ended the day's doings. The school was 
divided into two classes, those that could spell in words of two syllables, 
and those who could stand up under such words as "Con-stan-ti-no-ple" and 
"val-e-tu-di-na-ri-an." When the spelling class was called to its place the 
members stood up in a straight line the long way of the room, while the 
master gave out the words, beginning at the head of the class or number 
one, who had one trial at spelling and pronouncing the word, which if 
missed, was quickly taken by the next, who if successful, went up to the 
head of the class. It sometimes happened that the word was not properly 
spelled till at or near the foot of the class, when the one who spelled it right 
went clear up to the head of the class. This was the custom every day until 
Friday afternoon, when the week's exercises were closed with a "spelling 
bee." The master selected two of the best spellers as captains of the forces, 
one of whom threw up a stick which was caught by the other, and so on 
until the one who held the top of the stick was awarded first choice, and 
then they would choose alternately until all were on one side or the other. 
The master gave out the words, and when a scholar missed, under the 
rule, he was required to take his seat, and so it went on until all were spelled 
down but one, and he and the side he was on were declared the victor. 

There is a very wide difference between the education of the children 
of the early pioneers and those of the present day. The one had only 
the rudiments embraced in the three R's instilled into his mind, while the 
student of the present day, even in the common schools, is thoroughly drilled 
in orthography, reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, grammar. United 
States history, physiology, literature, etc., and a system of graduation has 
been devised under which it is possible for all who complete the course of 
study pursued to secure a certificate that they have mastered the various 
branches named. 


Nowadays to enable one to attain any considerable degree of success 
in life it is deemed essential that he should be at least fairly well educated 
in the common branches. In the pioneer days the small amount of business 
transacted was of such a nature that beyond reading, writing and arithmetic, 
education was not required. If all had been graduates of Harvard, Cornell 
or any of the great universities of the country, they could not have made 
any use of their surplus knowledge, and that being the case it was not 
deemed necessary to waste time in acquiring it. The men of Marshall 
county who have left their impress for good on her institutions and who 
were identified with its organization, and the building up of society gen- 
erally, were blessed with but limited education. Some of them could barely 
write their names, and a few that we have in mind who attained to dis- 
tinction and wealth could neither read nor write. On the other hand, many 
of those who have come on the stage of existence long since those pioneer 
days who have had the benefits of' high schools, seminaries and colleges, and 
hold certificates of graduation, have dropped into kinds of business requiring 
little education, and with all their acquired knowledge have been impotent 
to make their mark in the world to any considerable extent. It is a serious 
question whether, in this progressive age, we are not cramming the beads 
of many children who go to school too full of the knowledge of branches 
that they can't understand, aiid which will do them no good in fighting the 
battle of life before them. The theory seems to be that children's heads 
are hollow, and so they 

Earn it in, cram it in. 

Children's heads are hollow; 
Slam it in, jam it in, 

Still there's more to follow. 
Hygiene and history. 
Astronomic mystery, 
Algebra, histology, 
Latin, etymology, 
Botany, geometry, 
Greek and trigonometry — 
Bam it in, cram it in, 

Children's heads are hollow. 

Eap it in, tap it in — 

What arc teachers paid for? 
Bang in it, slap it in — 

What were children made for? 
Ancient archaeology, 
Aryan philology. 
Prosody, zoology, 
Physics, clinietology. 
Calculus and mathematics, 
Ehetorics and hydrostatics — 
Hoax it in, coax it in. 

Children's heads are hollow! 

There was another kind of education in the early days that was deemed 
as essential to the well-being of the community as the branches usually taught 
in the schools. That was a knowledge of the science of vocal music. 

Education in this branch of learning was taught in what was called 


singing schools, usually held in the school houses in the evening. They 
were patronized mostly by the young people as a sort of meeting place to 
visit and have a good time, but there were also a considerable number of 
married people wlio had mastered the mysteries of the old "buckwheat" 
notes, who attended and assisted in helping to "carry the parts." 

The singing master, as a rule, didn't know much about the science 
of music beyond what was contained in the "rudiments" printed in the intro- 
duction to the old "Missouri Harmony," the only vocal music book then 
known in this part of the country. If he had been asked what was a 
musical sound, or what was meant by "concert pitch," and how it happened 
that the letter A on the second space from the first line below had been 
settled upon as the sound, or pitch, to which all human voices, and all 
musical instruments all over the world must be adjusted, he would have fallen 
f^at on the floor in a spasm of surprise. He could no more have told how 
many vibrations per second were necessary to produce a sound fixed by all 
the musical congresses of the \^orld known as "concert pitch," or the sound 
from which every other musical sound in every musical composition that has 
ever been written must be in harmony, than he could have told by a 
mathematical process how many drops of water there were in the ocean. 

He arranged the singers so that all with voices fitted to one part would 
be together such as bass, counter, tenor and treble, as the parts were then 
called, and then he commenced teaching them the notes and how to run 
the "gamut." The pupils soon learned the names of the notes by their 
"buckwheat" shape and their position on the staff, and as the master knew 
all the pieces in the book "by heart," it didn't take very long drilling for 
the whole school to become familiar with the favorite tunes selected for 
practice, although they knew nothing absolutely about the science of music 
or the culture of the voice. At the close of the term a concert was usually 
given for the benefit of the people in the locality where the school was 
taught. No admission fee was charged, and of course the room was jammed 
full, while many remained outside in hearing distance. Those who may 
have lived in those days, and who may have attended any of those exhibitions 
of musical culture, will call to mind with what feeling and pathos those old 
singers executed "Lenox," "Old Hundred," "Schenectady," "Solitude New," 
"Portuguese Hymn," "Pastoral Elegy" and other familiar pieces which they 
will readily call to mind. "Heavenly Vision" was reserved for the grand 
closing anthem. When the master had "bit" his tuning fork and placed it to 
his ear, and had given the key note to the several parts, then the trouble 
began. The "counter," always composed of a goodly number of strong 
voices, broke forth with : "I beheld and lo ! A great multitude, which no man 
could number." And then the "bass" took it up : "Thousands and thousands, 
and ten times thousands, stood before the Lamb," and then the tenors came 
to the rescue with : "And they ceased not day nor night crying." And 
here the trebles joined in the fray and the four parts raised the roof when 
they sang "Holy, Holy, Lord, God Almighty, which was and is, and is to 
come !" and so on over a dozen pages occupying more than half an hours' 
time in its rendition. That was a grand anthem, indeed, that "Heavenly 
\'ision." Since then we have heard the finest instrumental bands in this 
countrv, have heard the best opera companies in existence, have heard famous 


Brignoli. Patti, Xilsson and all the famous singers since Jennie Lind's day, 
and at the opening of the World's Fair, listened to the grand chorus 
of five thousand voices under the direction of Theodore Thomas, but the 
music of all these, to us, was "flat, stale and unprofitable," as compared 
with the charms of "Heavenly Vision" as sung by our old time pioneer 
friends, nearly all of whom have long since gone, it is hoped, to participate in 
a realization of that dream of bliss prophesied in that grand old anthem 
of long ago. 

It must have been about 1847-48 that the "round notes" by the names of 
"do, ra, mi, fa, sol, la, si, do," began to take the place of the old style flat 
notes, or buckwheat notes, as they were called, known as "faw, sol, law, 
faw, sol, law, mi, faw." All the singer had to do was to learn the shape 
of the note and then he was prepared to master anything in the book. "Faw" 
was half a square cut diagonally. "Sol" was round, "law" was square, "mi" 
in shape was a hexagon. In the different keys sol, law and faw doubled 
up so as to fill up the "gamut." Lewis A. Joseph was the pioneer who 
introduced the round note innovation at the Pisgah meeting house a mile 
northeast of Wolf creek mills. It was something new, and those who 
had mastered the buckwheat notes took hold of tlie new system with con- 
siderable zeal, and it was not long until the round notes were all the go. 

Among the leaders in the movement were the Lelands, Hands, Logans, 
Dicksons, Thompsons, McDonalds, and others who lived in that neighbor- 
hood at the time. 

"Pisgah" was a noted place for meetings, spelling and singing schools, 
and other social gatherings, from the time it was built until a dozen or more 
years ago, when having outlived its usefulness it was abandoned. It was 
built by James Logan ("Carpenter Jim"), and was considered one of the 
finest frame buildings of the kind in the county at the time. It was given 
the name of "Pisgah" by Thomas McDonald, deceased, who was mainly 
instrumental in securing its erection. 



Bourbon township 231 

Center township 479 

German township 329 

Green township 167 

Xorth township 255 

Polk township 301 

Tippecanoe township 194 

Union township 268 

Walnut township 205 

West township 212 

Argos town 142 

Bourbon town 148 

Bremen town 218 

Culver town 90 

Plymouth City 336 

Grand total 3,575 
































Almost immediately after the settlement of the county began, the relig- 
ious spirit of the people began to manifest itself. There were no expensive 
church buildings with towering steeples, or even ordinary meetinghouses 
or schoolhouses then in which public services could be held, and so, when an 
itinerant preacher came through the neighborhood, an appointment for a 
meeting on Sunday would be decided upon to be held at a convenient house, 
and the news would be carried around to all the families far and near. 

The first of these meetings that the writer remembers, which may be 
taken as typical of all that followed for many years, was held at the log 
cabin of Elder William Thompson, about two miles northeast of Lake 
Maxinkuckee, who was something of a preacher, or, more properly an 
"exhorter," as he and his class were designated in those days. Logs and 
puncheons were placed around in front of the house under the luxuriant 
shade trees that had not yet fallen under the well directed blows of the 
woodman's axe. It was a beautiful day in the early summer. The trees 
were full of blossoms, and birds and squirrels, and that little spot in the 
wilderness seemed like God's own temple on an enchanted island in a vast 
ocean. The music of the birds and the humming bees amidst the fragrance 
of the wild flowers, was a thousand times sweeter and more enchanting than 
the tones of the $10,000 organ in the gallery or loft of a $100,000 church 
building is, in these days of aristocracy and $5,000 preachers. It was indeed 
a place 

Where the spirit of mortal might worship. 
In the freedom of unwritten creeds, 

Hearing many and joyous responses. 
In the music that came from the trees. 

Early in the morning the ox wagons began to arrive. Some came on 
horseback, and many on foot. The audience was not very finely dressed. 
Nearlv all wore homespun clothing. Some were without coats, merely in 
their shirt sleeves, and even some were bare footed. That made no differ- 
ence. It was not dress that made the man in those days. It was not the 
external, but the internal qualifications of a man that recommended him 
as worthy of consideration among his neighbors. Well, when the hour 
arrived for the services to begin, the people, who were scattered about in 
groups under the trees, talking and visiting among each other, took their 
places on the seats provided, and the preacher, who, on this occasion was 
Elder Thompson, opened the meeting by invoking the Divine blessing on 
those present. Then he lined the hymn, line at a time, and those who could 
sing joined in the song of praise. There were very few hymn books in those 
days, and so the preacher read a line at a time so the audience could remem- 
ber the words. When the line had been sung, the singing ceased until the 
preacher had read another line when the singing would be resumed where 
it had been discontinued, and this program would be continued to the end, no 
matter how long the hymn might be. Of course there wasn't very much 
music in that kind of singing as we look upon church music nowadays, but it 
answered the purpose then, and as there were many good voices among the 
singers and a sufficient variety to carry all the parts, if the harmony wasn't 


as full and round and smooth as it has since been heard, it made the 
"welkin ring," and the echo has reverberated all the way along down the 
crooked path of life until the present time. Those who have never heard 
this way of conducting church music would be surprised at tlie religious 
enthusiasm that can be worked up. Before the close of the hymn, everybody, 
saint and sinner, who could open his mouth, was sure to "be singing with 
all the lung power at his command. 

At the meeting referred to the preacher "gave out" 
From all that dwell below the skies— 

and then some one was requested to "raise the tune." He didn't quite get 
the right "pitch," and after struggling through the first line without assist- 
ance from any of the congregation, he knew what the matter was, and when 
the preacher gave out the second line — 

Let the Creator's praise arise — 

he cleared his throat and took a fresh start. This time he was more suc- 
cessful, and by the time the end of the second line was reached several 
voices had come to his assistance, and when the preacher had read with a 
loftier and more devout tone of voice : 

Let the Kedeemer 's aame be sung — 

half of the congregation had joined in the song and by the time the last 
line had been given out — 

Through every land by every tongue, 

the entire congregation had become enthused, and joining in the glad refrain, 
the woods rang with a melody that can never be forgotten. 

There was very little ceremony connected with these early religious 
gatherings. There was a prayer ; then singing as related ; reading of a te.xt 
from scripture, and then preaching from the text. The text generally 
had reference to "hell-fire and brimstone," "the lake of fire," "the unquench- 
able fire," "the eternal and everlasting punishment of the wicked." At that 
time "conversions" were made by holding up to the sinner the most horrid 
and ghastly pictures of torment that the "inspired" preacher could conjure 
up. That was the entire stock in trade, and many"s the convert that was 
made solely from fear that if he did not "profess religion" he would be cast 
into "the lake of fire and brimstone," and would there roast and bake 
and boil and stew and writhe and wriggle in the most intense agony through 
all eternity. The preachers of all the various shades of belief were in perfect 
accord in regard to the question of the future punishment of the wicked, 
and everybody was considered "wicked," no matter how exemplary his life 
might be, if he was not "converted," and declared that he "believed" all 
that they told him to believe as necessary to salvation. He was expected 
to believe in the incomprehensible doctrine of the "Trinity" — that there 
are three Gods in one ; in the "Immaculate Conception," the "Atonement," 
the "Immortality of the Soul," "Original Sin," "Baptism as a Saving Ordi- 
nance," that the Christian flew away to glory as soon as the spirit left the 
tenement of clay in which it was housed, that there would be a general 
resurrection, and somehow, the body would be raised and united with the 


spirit, and would forever after walk the golden streets of the New Jerusalem, 
while the wicked would go away into everlasting punishment. Of course the 
average convert knew nothing about the metaphysical and finespun theories 
except what the "inspired" preacher told him, and so he accepted them, 
nolens volcns, as gospel truth. 

The denominations that had representatives among the people were the 
Baptists, the New Lights, Christians, Campbellites, ]\Iethodists, Presby- 
terians, etc. It was many years, however, before any of these denomina- 
tions succeeded in forming a local organization. Along in the '40s the 
followers of Alexander Campbell began to make considerable of a stir, 
and for a time those who were converted to that belief were more numerous 
than those of any of the other denominations. 

Alexander Campbell was an Irishman, having been born in Ireland in 
1786, and was educated in Glasgow. He came to America in 1809, and 
took up his residence in Washington county. Pa., where, at that time, many 
of the early pioneers of Marshall county resided. Afterwards he removed 
to Bethany, West Virginia, which became his home. For a short time he 
was pastor of a Presbyterian church, from which denomination he soon 
separated, on the ground that the Bible should be the sole creed of the 
church. In 1810, he and his father organized a new society, and two years 
later he became convinced that immersion was the only mode of baptism; 
and in accordance with this belief, he and his entire congregation were 
immersed. They united with the Baptist association, but still protested 
against all human creeds as a bond of union in the churches. He and his 
followers were in time excluded from fellowship with the Baptist churches, 
and in 1827 began to form themselves into a separate organization which 
extended rapidly into Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee and Indiana, and in 
1864 it numbered 350,000. He published the Millennial Harbinger, which at 
one time had an immense circulation, and in 1840 established Bethany 
college, of which he was president at the time of his death. He had numer- 
ous debates, among the most noted of which was that with Archbishop 
Purcell in 1836, on The Infallibility of the Church of Rome. 

In 1843 the coming of Christ and the end of the world was predicted. 
Those who remember back that far will recollect what a wonderful excite- 
ment this prediction created. Even those who had no faith couldn't help 
being interested in it, and until the predicted time had passed, the whole 
country was in a frenzy of excitement. About that time Ephraim Miller 
and E. Hoyt, Second Adventists (not Seventh Day) came along with charts 
upon which were painted the "Beast with seven heads and ten horns ;" 
"the man of clay, brass and iron," etc., etc., with an array of figures pointing 
to the year 1843 as the winding up of all things, and drawing such inspira- 
tion from the Book of Revelation as "made each particular" hair stand on 
end like quills on the fretful porcupine." This excitement passed away, 
but was renewed again in 1847. Miller and Hoyt again returned with a 
revised chart showing wherein mistakes had been made in calculations, and 
confidently predicting the end of the world about that time. It didn't come, 
however, and fixing a definite time for the coming of Christ and the end of 
the world was abandoned. But out of it grew what is now known as the 
"Christian Adventists.' 

They believe in the personal coming of Christ to the earth, and that 


that great and important event is not far distant and may occur at any 
time, but they do not believe it is possible to fix any definite date. They 
do not believe in man-made creeds, and take the Bible as it reads as the 
only bond of union. They believe that the Bible teaches that man is a 
mortal being ; that immortality is a thing to be sought after, and can only be 
attained by complying with the conditions prescribed in the Bible; that 
immersion' is the only mode of baptism; in the doctrine of the unconscious 
state of the dead, and that, when Christ comes to the earth again there will 
be a general resurrection and judgment in which the righteous shall be 
rewarded by being clothed with immortality and eternal life, that the finally 
impenitent shall not attain to immortality, but will be destroyed, "burnt up 
root and branch," and when the wicked are cut off, and the earth is reno- 
vated and purified and brought back to its Eden state before "the alleged fall 
of man," then the earth is to be Christ's kingdom ; he is to be the king and 
ruler, and the righteous are to be his children and subjects forever. 

The Campbellites all, or nearly all, easily drifted into this new organiza- 
tion, being in accord with the most important points of belief. Some of 
the members of the old Christian church, and also some of the Baptists, 
became converts to the new organization. About this time the IMethodists, 
Wesleyans, and Presbyterians began to organize societies in various parts 
of the county, but the reminiscence related above was, probably, the most 
important and striking event in its results of anything of a religious nature 
that has ever occurred in the county. 

Organization of First Religious Societies. 

It would naturally be supposed that it would be an easy matter to gather 
the statistics of the churches, and trace the rise and progress of religious 
matters since the organization of the county, but such is not the case. Like 
everything of a secular nature, the records, such as have been made at all, 
have been poorly kept, and an examination, for information, of such as are 
at hand, is of a very indefinite and unsatisfactory nature. Rev. Warren 
Taylor, an itinerant of the Wesleyan persuasion, attempted before his death 
many years ago to place upon record such reliable information as he was 
able to gather at that time concerning the introduction and progress of 
religion in the county up to the time he wrote. Such portions of his sketches 
as are applicable to the subject under consideration are herewith appended. 
He said: 

"Ministers of the gospel of different denominations appear to have 
preached to our earliest settlers almost immediately after the latter located 
themselves in the county. These religious meetings, however, at the first, 
were like angel's visits — few and far between. In 1836 Rev. Stephen 
Marsters was, by the Indiana conference of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
appointed to a mission which embraced the counties of Marshall, Fulton and 
Kosciusko. In Marshall county he had four appointments, one at the house 
of Stephen Farnsworth. about six miles northwest of Plymouth ; one at the 
house of George \'innedge in North township ; one at the house of Sidney 
Williams, where Argos now stands, and one at his own residence, which 
was then on the Michigan road, about one mile north of the Fulton county 
line. In Fulton county he had four appointments, and in Kosciusko two. 
During the year he organized societies at the most or all of these appoint- 


ments, except at George Vinnedge's, where a society had been previously 
organized by a minister from St. Joseph county. Mr. Marsters was suc- 
ceeded in the circuit or mission by Rev. Wm. Fraley." 

Mr. Taylor being unacquainted with the talents or the labors of this 
gentleman, passed him by without comment. 

"The successor of Mr. Fraley," says Mr. Taylor, "was Rev. Thomas 
Owens, who probably commenced laboring on his work in the fall of 1838. 
Mr. Owens, with a pleasing demeanoi', possessed also fine natural abilities, 
and gave strong indications of rising to eminence as a minister of the gospel, 
both in talents and usefulness. But his career was short. Possessing a 
constitution that predisposed him to consumption, his disease was, in all 
probability, accelerated by the hardships of an itinerant life, and in two or 
three years after closing his labors on this circuit he sank into the grave, 
lamented by all who knew him. Mr. Owens was succeeded by Rev. Boroughs 
Westlake. He was at this time an elderly man, somewhat illiterate, but 
possessing much energy, and was, apparently, a devout Christian. He 
afterwards became presiding elder and died at Logansport about 1847. 
His successor was Rev. J. B. Mershon, who commenced his labors on 
the circuit probably in the spring of 1840, or possibly in the fall of 1839. 
Mr. Mershon was not at that time distinguished for his abilities as a speaker, 
being young in the ministry, but the excellence which his character exhibited 
secured to him great esteem. Many who peruse these lines will recollect 
his affectionate and winning manner. Among those who followed Mr. 
Mershon for several years afterwards were Revs. L M. Stagg, William J. 
Forbs, Erastus Doud, L. Monson, A. Bradley, J. C. Robbins, Z. Hancock, 
E. Hall. Since those days many noted preachers have labored in the Meth- 
odist vineyard, but, except those of later days, all have passed away and 
taken their places in the silent halls of death, leaving behind them pleasant 
memories of "well done, good and faithful servants." 

The first Methodist church building erected in Plymouth was built in 
the later '40s, on the middle of the lot on the west side of Center street, 
between Washington and Adams streets. It was used for the regular meet- 
ings of the congregation until about 1868, when the present brick structure 
on the corner of Center and La Porte streets was erected, and the old build- 
ing was sold and removed to the old fairgrounds north of Plymouth, where 
it still remains in a "fair" state of preservation. There are many pleasant 
recollections clustering around this old church building. At that time there 
were no halls in Plymouth suitable for public gatherings and so the Metho- 
dist congregation kindly allowed the use of their auditorium for concerts, 
lectures and social gatherings having a high moral tone. In the '40s 
and early '50s what was known as the "Old Continental 'Vocalists" 
made annual concert tours through the west, and Plymouth was one 
of their yearly stopping places. There was no railroad here then, 
and the vocalists had to come through from La Porte, South Bend or 
Logansport by stage or private conveyance. They secured the Methodist 
church for their concerts. Their program was made up of the old-time 
patriotic songs, such as "Hail Columbia," "Star Spangled Banner," "Red, 
White and Blue," etc., and familiar melodies, including "Blue Bells of 
Scotland," "Annie Laurie" and many others. They carried with them 
an old-fashioned church organ, an instrument no one here had ever seen 


or heard, as they had only about then been invented, and had not found 
their way so far west as Plymouth. The performers were all dressed in 
the old Continental uniform, with knee buckles and cocked hats, and when 
they came to the front of the platform and took their places, and the organ 
and the singers broke forth in one grand burst of harmony as they sang, 

Maxwelton's banks are bonnie, 

Where early fa's the dew, 
And 'twas there that Annie Laurie 

Gave me her promise true ; 

the thrill of the melody charmed with ecstacy the entire audience, and like 
the fire that came down from heaven once upon a time as recorded in the 
Bible, "the glory of the Lord filled the whole house." To those still living 
who heard these concerts, they are yet fresh and green in their memories, 
and will linger while life shall last. 

Mr. Taylor continues: 

"During the winter of 1836-37 the Christian church was organized in 
the neighborhood between Lake Maxinkuckee and what is now Wolf creek 
mills. This church embraced from the first a large membership, among 
whom were several ministers of the gospel, viz. : Elders William Thompson, 
Henry Logan and Abram Voreis. These Christian fathers were among the 
first settlers of L'nion township, who came in July, 1836. They were the 
first who brought Christianity into this region. They were not only Chris- 
tians in name but Christians in fact. They preached in the "wilderness" 
without money and without price, and left behind them when death ended 
their labors an unblemished record of unselfish labor in the interest of 
humanity, well and faithfully done. 

"Several of the earliest settlers before they came here were members 
of the Presbyterian church. In [May. 1838, a Presbyterian church was 
organized in Plymouth, which at the first numbered twenty-two members, 
and several others joined soon afterward. Of the meeting which was held 
at the formation of this organization Rev. W. K. Marshall, of La Porte, 
was moderator. About the commencement of 1839 Rev. E. W. Wright 
became the pastor of this church and acted in that capacity about one year. 
Mr. Wright possessed excellent abilities as a preacher, and was apparently 
a worthy young man. For several years after J\lr. W'right left the church 
was without a pastor. During the year of 1843-44. Rev. William Westervelt 
preached in Plymouth for a few months with much acceptability, and then 
returned to Oberlin college, Ohio, of which institution he was at that time a 
student. In 1845 the Presbyterian church of Plymouth obtained a pastor 
in the person of Rev. John %L Bishop, who had just then graduated from 
Lane seminary. Mr. Bishop possessed learning, fine abilities, and other 
characteristics that were calculated to make him highly useful in the min- 
istry. His stay of two years is remembered by many with great pleasure. 
The successors of Mr. Bishop came to Plymouth about in tlie following 
order: Revs. D. C. Meeker, N. L. Lord. J. B. L. Soule, Mr. Campbell, 
J. H. Spellman, N. Armstrong, William Porter, William Lusk, J. E. Chapin, 
A. Taylor, George A. Little." 

After the organization of this church its meetings were held for several 
years in a one-story frame building which stood on the ground now occupied 


by the Plymouth city hall. It was also occupied during the week for public 
gatherings of one kind or another, principally for Washingtonian temperance 
meetings, which for a number of years about that time were held always 
weekly, and often two or three times a week, just as the spirit moved them, 
or when some of the enthusiastic members concluded it was time to get 
up a temperance revival. The city of Plymouth purchased the lot and 
also the house in 1876, and sold the house to Arthur L. Thomson, who 
removed it to his lot across the street east of the Vandalia station. On the 
lot the city erected the present engine house and city hall. But prior to 
this time, probably as far back as 1853, the Presbyterian congregation had 
built a large and commodious church building on the lot immediately south 
of the court house square on Center street. It was provided with a choir 
loft, splendid pulpit and seats, and was the finest room for public services 
in town at that time. This the Presbyterians used for church purposes 
until February 18, 1886, at 2:30 p. m., when it caught fire and, the city 
having no waterworks then, before assistance could reach it, it was entirely 
destroyed. Later another lot was purchased, and the present handsome 
church structure erected thereon, since which time the congregation has 
worshiped there. 

The Baptists have had two or three congregations since the settlement 
of the county, but at present no organization of that kind exists so far as 
is known. Elders Ewal Kendall and Moses Leland preached the doctrines 
of that faith in an early day in the southern part of the county. Several 
Baptist ministers, besides the two whose names are mentioned, preached in 
these parts to a greater or less extent since their day, prominent among 
whom was Elder James Maxwell. This gentleman lived in Plymouth for 
several years, during which time he was actively engaged in his ministerial 
duties, preaching at numerous appointments, the most of which were at a 
considerable distance from each other. He was very industrious as a min- 
ister, his preaching was well received, and his labors were ci owned with 
considerable success. 

The IVcslcyans in 1843 organized a church numbering fourteen persons 
in the neighborhood of Plymouth. Rev. i\Ir. Rains, the first pastor of 
this church, came to this field of labor in 1844-45. His immediate suc- 
cessors were Rev. William Gladden, Amos Finch and Elias Marsters. Since 
that time several organizations and a few church buildings have been 
erected in various places throughout the county, the particulars of which 
the writer has been unable to obtain. There is an organization in Plymouth 
owning a church building, but does not employ a minister regularlv. 

The Mormons. In Polk township the first religious organization has 
been 'said to have been the Mormon belief. This was in a very early day, 
and the writer after diligent inquiry has been unable to trace the statement 
to any satisfactory conclusion. If there ever was such an organization 
there, the society did not hold together as a church organization and has 
long since passed away. At that time the Mormons had not embraced 
polygamy in their creed, and it was considered one of the coming popular 
church organizations of the country. 

The next church organized in Polk township was the United Brethren, 
in 1850, but where it was located is not known ; this was followed the same 


year by the organization of a Methodist church, both of which were not 
long afterwards abandoned. 

The United Brethren church was organized in Tyner, in 1858, by David 
Ross, with twelve members. It has continued uninterruptedly to the present 
time, and has a large and growing membership. A Methodist church was 
also organized in Tyner, in i860, with nine members. It has continued to 
the present time and has substantial and growing membership. In i860 
Rev. Warren Taylor organized a Wesleyan congregation with a few 
members, but it is now extinct. 

The Church of God organized a society in 1870 at Morris' schoolhouse 
with a membership of about twenty. There was organized many years 
ago, at Blissville and West York, a society of Dunkards, but no informa- 
tion has been obtained as to whether it is still in existence or not. 

In West township there is one German Reformed church, having an 
estimated membership of over 100. There is also a large Dunkard con- 
gregation, numbering over 150 members, and a large church building 
capable of seating 200 or 300 people, surrounded by beautiful shade trees, 
with temporary shelter for man and beast in case of storm. It is situated 
about the center of the township on the road leading from Plymouth to 

The United Brethren have a congregation and a handsome brick 
church building with all modern conveniences at Donelson. The Wes- 
leyans also have an organization in this township, but no particulars in 
regard to it have been received. 

In Center township there are several church organizations, most of 
which are in Plymouth, as follows: Methodist, Presbyterian, United 
Brethren, Episcopalian, Catholic, Reformed, Wesleyan, Church of God, 
Christian. All these own church buildings and are out of debt. 

St. Michael's Catholic congregation was organized in Plymouth in 
1862, a little after the beginning of the war of the Rebellion. Up to this 
time Plymouth was only a missionary station, visited from Valparaiso 
and South Bend. In 1862 the congregation purchased an eligible location 
on Center street, near the courthouse square, and in 1863 built on it a sub- 
stantial frame church. The members being few and of the poorer class, 
the progress of the congregation was slow for some years until a new 
impetus was given in 1870 by the erection of a new brick schoolhouse, 
which was christened "St. Michael's Academy." It was placed in charge 
of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, from St. Mary's, at Notre Dame, who 
have greatly assisted in the prosperity of the congregation. Good, respect- 
able and well-to-do Catholics, farmers and business men have since taken 
up their residence here, and increased the numbers to such an extent that 
the church building is almost too small to hold its members. The number 
of Catholic families in Plymouth and vicinity is about 140. There are 
some Catholics in almost every town and village in the county. 

The German Lutheran congregation was organized in Plymouth about 
1864, at which time or shortly after it erected a large and commodious 
brick church building on the northeast corner of Center and Adams streets. 
It has a membership estimated at about 100. 

St. Thomas' Episcopal Church. Prior to about 1863 there was not an 
Episcopalian organization in Marshall county. About the date named 


cottage services were held in Plymouth by rectors from La Porte and other 
places, especially Rev. Mr. Gregory, of La Porte, who, during the war 
period, and later, held services at the home of Mr. Joseph Westervelt, 
whose wife was a devout member of that organization. Bishop Upfold 
made an occasional visit to Plymouth, and he, with the assistance of Rev. 
Mr. Gregory and Mrs. Westervelt, John C. Cushman, M. A. O. Packard, 
G. S. Cleaveland, and the few other members of that denomination residing 
at Plymouth at that time formed an organization which was called St. 
Thomas' Episcopal Church. A lot on Center street was purchased and a 
small frame church building erected, in which services were held until the 
summer of 1907, when a large and commodious stone structure was erected 
through the untiring exertions of the rector. Rev. W. S. Howard, on the 
south part of the lot adjoining the old building. This is the finest church 
structure in Plymouth, as well as in the county. From a small beginning 
the congregation has grown until it is one of the strongest in the county. 
The first rector regularly stationed here in charge of the congregation was 
Rev. Louis Phillip Tschiffely, or at least he was one among the first. 
He was intellectually bright. He was a young man, just married, and 
St. Thomas was his first charge as a rector. He remained here a few 
years, when he was called to a large church in Louisville, Kentucky, where 
after a brilliant career as rector of a few years he died suddenly. He was 
followed, not in regular order perhaps, by Rev. J. E. Portmess, Rev. A. 
Youndt, Rev. William Lusk, Rev. J. N. Hume, Rev. J. J. Faude and 
several others, among whom is well remembered Rev. W. W. Raymond, 
who was succeeded by the present rector. Rev. W. S. Howard. 

The Methodists, Presbyterians, Catholics and United Brethren have 
church buildings in Bourbon, and each except the Catholics have large and 
flourishing Sundayschools. 

The United Brethren commenced missionary work in and about 
Bourbon in 1849 and 1850. Rev. B. S. Clevenger, H. M. Hicker, J. D. 
Plummer, P. Coons, John S. Todd and H. A. Snepp were the first to 
preach the gospel according to that faith in that region. One of the places 
where meetings were held was a log schoolhouse that stood near the resi- 
dence of the late James O. Parks, now within the corporate limits of 
Bourbon. These missionary efforts resulted in the organization of the 
United Brethren church, which has continued to the present time. A few 
years afterwards the town of Bourbon was located where it now stands. 
A larger and more commodious schoolhouse was erected, which was occu- 
pied by the church until 1857 or i860. About this time the congregation 
built their first meetinghouse at a cost of $2,500 — a very good building for 
the times and circumstances of the people. But it did not stand long. A 
few years later it was fired by some enemy (it was thought) and entirely 
destroyed. This sad calamity cast a gloom over the entire congregation, 
but they rallied again and erected a building on the ruins in 1864 at a cost 
of $3,500. Since that time the organization has gone on fulfilling its 
mission without anything occurring to mar its onward progress. 

The Rev. George H. Thayer, one of the earliest itinerant Methodist 
preachers in Marshall county, long a resident of Bourbon and vicinity, 
furnished the editor of this work with the following historical sketch of the 


introduction of religion into that part of the county, some time before his 
death several years ago. He said : 

"To write the religious history of any township in almost any county 
in the West is a difficult matter, mixed, as it necessarily is. with that of 
other townships in the same county. Usually religious organizations are 
commenced at the county seat, and from thence radiate out to the different 
parts of the county. Enterprising men of marked religious character 
usually enter these new fields and lay the foundation of future churches 
and religious associations, and they are usually pushed forward with the 
more energy on that account, and hence the way is soon opened for the 
more regular operation of the churches. 

"The history of religion in Marshall county, or of Bourbon township, 
furnishes no exception to this rule. Private enterprises or missionary 
eft'ort took the lead here. But denominational enterprise was soon apparent, 
which, though usually operating in harmony and with friendly feelings, 
yet. from that ambition and preference which each has for his own, devel- 
oped considerable activity. Hence Presbyterians, W'esleyans. Methodists, 
Baptists, Disciples and L'nited Brethren sprang up in rapid succession, and 
the fields were soon white for the har^'est, of which each gathered its share. 
In Bourbon township, Methodists first broke ground in 1839 ; the United 
Brethren organized in 1849, the Presbyterians in i860, German Baptists a 
few years earlier, Albrights a few years later, and Lutherans. Catholics and 
Disciples brought up the rear. There may be fragmentary portions of other 
churches, but no organized bodies except Seventh Day Adventists, who 
efifected an organization in 1865. A Baptist church had an organization in 
Center township and the minister in charge preached occasionally in 
Bourbon, but had no organization there. It had one organization in 
Bourbon township eft'ected in 1851. All these churches have held their 
ground with more or less firmness, and with their usual and characteristic 
activity have done much toward humanizing society, and enlightening and 
evangelizing the people among whom they are laboring, and there is a healthy 
tone to religious society. Intelligence, as it always does, keeps even pace 
with moral improvement, and society in Bourbon compares favorably with 
any other part of the state." 

L'nion township has about six churches and a total membership in the 
township of about 300. The Evangelical Association has two churches, 
German Reform. Methodist Episcopal two, Methodist Protestant, etc. 

Green township has two Methodist, one Christian and one Presbyterian 
church, with a total membership of about 200. 

Walnut township has six church organizations with a total member- 
ship of about 300, two Methodist, one Christian, one Church of God 
(Advent), one Wesleyan, one Dunkard. 

In German township the German Evangelical church, organized in 
1849 by Rev. C. Plotz with sixteen members, now has over 200 members 
and a large Sunday-school. The Evangelical Emanuel church was organ- 
ized by Rev. P. Wagner, in 1857, with fifteen members. The Evangelical 
church, Bremen, was organized by Rev. Earnst Kent, of Michigan City, 
April 12, 1874, with ten members. The United Brethren in Christ, organ- 
ized by Rev. Amsly Lamb, December, 1849. with eleven members. "The 
Evangelical Lutheran St. Paul's C. U. A. Confession, organized in the vear 


1846 with eight memebrs by Rev. G. K. Shuster, who presided as pastor 
of the church twenty-three years. The Church of God has also an organi- 
zation with a number of members. There are a numben of CathoHcs here 
who own a church building, but do not hold regular services. 

In Tippecanoe township, about 1850, a schoolhouse was built at Tippe- 
canoe town, which was also used as a place of worship and is being used 
as such at the present time. Here the first church was built in 1850 by 
the United Brethren denomination on the lot that is now occupied as a 
cemetery. It was afterwards torn down and the timber used in building 
the schoolhouse at that place. The Wesleyan Methodists now use the school- 
house as a place of worship. The next church building was erected on the 
farm of Daniel R. Wood, three miles south of Bourbon. It was a union 
church when built, but is now owned and controlled by the Wesleyan 
Methodists. The next church building was erected in 1886, at Tippecanoe, 
by the Methodist Protestant denomination, which owns and controls it at 
this time. The next church was built at Summit Chapel, and the next at 
Tippecanoe by the Dunkards in igoo, making in all four churches in the 

Religious Discussion. 

A religious discussion was indulged in between two writers of con- 
siderable force in the Pilot of August and September, 1851. One assumed: 

First — That the mind is not immaterial. 

Second — That the mind becomes unconscious at what we call death — 
the death of the body. 

Third — That immortality is conditio"al, '.■•\d that the wicked are not 

The other disputant propounded these questions : 

First — Will both the righteous and the wicked be resurrected? 

Second — Will the same identical body which was laid in the grave be 
raised up at the resurrection? 

Third — Will the same mind which ceased to exist when the body died 
be reunited again to this body at the resurrection ? 

Fourth — What will become of the righteous? 

Fifth — What will become of the wicked? 

After the lapse of more than half a century the questions and assump- 
tions are still unanswered. 


The doctors who came with the pioneers about the time of the organiza- 
tion of the county, and for a few years thereafter, poorly equipped as 
they were with medical supplies, had all they could do to attend to the calls 
that were made upon them for assistance. In 1838 five persons were engaged 
in the practice of medicine in Plymouth. These were Drs. Peter Cfum, 
Lyman Griffin, Alvord, Jones and Jeroloman. The latter, however, who 
had been sent out from Logansport as doctor to the Indians, remained 
but a short time, as the Indians were all driven away in the fall of 1838, 


and, as he was in the employ of the government, when they left his occupa- 
tion was gone and he returned home. Dr. Griffin was a carpenter by trade, 
but had studied medicine and made himself useful in the early days both in 
building houses and curing the sick. Dr. Crum came in 1836, and had been 
practicing for some time prior to the date above named. During this time 
he had immortalized himself by the discovery of a "pill" that took his name 
and was warranted to kill or cure in twenty-four hours. 

The summer and fall of 1838 will long be remembered by those still 
living as the first sickly season after the settlement of the county, and 
these doctors, poor and inexperienced as they were in the practice of 
medicine, had more than they could properly attend to. The spring of 
that year was very wet, cold and backward. About the first of June, when 
the marshes were filled with water, the weather became dry and oppressively 
hot. The swamps and marshes began to dry up, and the malaria that arose 
therefrom poisoned the air, and the whole population felt its effects more 
or less. Cases of sickness began to appear about the first of July, and 
the number of these increased as the season advanced. Entire families 
were prostrated. Not more than one person out of fifty was perfectly well, 
and many suffered for want of proper attention. The most common 
disease was fever and ague, but other and more violent forms of fever 
and malarial diseases were also prevalent. Almost ever}'body had the ague 
and they would chill and shake for an hour or two, then a burning fever 
would set in, and the patient would become so thirsty that he could hardly 
hold enough to quench it, and the water he got to drink at that time was 
surface water — from dug wells not more than twelve to twenty feet deep, 
and as the season progressed the seepings into the wells became less and 
less, and what little water there was to be had was full of malaria and 
only made matters worse. 

The disease was a peculiar one. It was not considered fatal in any 
stage of it. It affected diiTerent people in dififerent ways. Some would 
have it every day; some every other day; others every three days, every 
seven days, and so on. There was little quinine to be had at that time, and 
it was considered the only sure enough remedy then known that would kill 
it. This year the ague lasted until frost came and the weather became cool. 
There was typhoid fever mixed with the ague, and several deaths occurred 
from it, among whom were some of the prominent business men of Plymouth 
— Oliver Rose, Julius Hutchinson, E. B. Hobson, Hugh Galbraith, Simeon 
Taylor, Jacob Shoemaker and several others. This sickness seriously 
retarded the growth of the town and county for many years, people being 
fearful that it would be an annual occurrence. Many already here became 
discouraged and left for other parts as soon as their health and circum- 
stances would permit. 

The Sickly Season of 1850. 
The year 1850 takes its place in the history of the county as being 
"the sickly season." More deaths occurred within that year than during 
any .year before or since that time on the basis of population. From the 
detailed census report made by George Pomeroy for that year we take a 
footnote made by him, as follows : "This year has been remarkable for the 
unusual number of deaths. A very fatal disease known here as the typhoid 


fever has prevailed to an alarming extent in the center of the county, and 
spread from the county seat (Plymouth) in all directions, reaching some-- 
times to the extreme parts of the county, although the disease was mostly 
confined within a few miles of Plymouth. The flux and scarlet fever have 
been prevalent mostly in the northeast parts of the county." There were 
133 deaths during that year, and taking into consideration that there were 
not over 600 population in Plymouth, and that most of the deaths were from 
that place, it will be seen that the death rate was the largest in the history 
of the county up to the present time. 

At that time the whole country was covered over to a greater or less 
extent with swamps and marshes and standing ponds, and when the dry 
season came round and evaporation took place the air was filled with the 
germs of malarial diseases ; in addition to this, as the wells were filled with 
surface water and there was no pure water to drink or cook with, it is a 
wonder that the entire population was not swept away by death. The 
drainage of the wet lands and the discovery of driven wells, and thus the 
procuring of pure water, drove all malarial diseases out of the county, and 
for more than a quarter of a century only in very rare instances has there 
been known such a thing as typhoid, or scarlet fever, ague, flux or malarial 
diseases of any kind. 

The Smallpox. 

In the spring and summer of 1858 Plymouth was alflicted with a 
severe siege of the smallpox. It was brought here by a young doctor who 
had been taking lectures at a medical college. On his way home he stopped 
at a farmhouse where there was a case of smallpo.x. A red flag was hung 
outside to indicate danger, but he said he was a physician and wished to see 
a genuine case of smallpox, and so he was permitted to enter the house. 
He returned home and without changing his clothes took his young child 
in his arms, and in due time it was taken sick. A neighboring woman — 
Mrs. Elizabeth McDonald, wife of Thomas McDonald — called to see it, as 
she had had much experience with sick children, and held it in her arms 
for a considerable time". In the course of a short time she was taken sick. 
Several doctors were called and they could not agree as to what the cause 
of her sickness was, some saying it was smallpox and others saying it was 
not. Physicians from La Porte were sent for and they pronounced it small- 
pox, and later it became so general there was no doubt about it being the 
genuine smallpox. Mrs. McDonald died on the thirteenth of May, 1858, 
being the first victim to be stricken down with that dreadful disease. During 
the prevalence of the disease there were over forty cases and many deaths. 
The town was quarantined for over three months, and during that time 
business of all kinds was practically suspended. 

The Principal Physicians 
that came to Plymouth after the old doctors above named were Drs. 
Harlow Hard. J. W. Bennett, Nehemiah Sherman, Rufus Brown, Samuel 
Higginbotham, Theodore A. Lemon, Dr. White, T. A. Borton, J. E. Brooke, 
J. J. Vinall and Thomas Logan, the latter settling in the Wolf creek neigh- 
borhood in 1836, and many others whose names cannot now be recalled. 
Since their time many physicians have settled here who failed to secure 


patronage sufficient to justify them in remaining, and they removed to 
other and more inviting localities. 

Among all of the old doctors above named, but two are still living — ■ 
T. A. Borton and Dr. J. E. Brooke. Dr. Brooke long since retired from 
active practice, and at the age of more than four score years lives a quiet 
life in his home in Plymouth. Dr. Borton still is in active practice in 
Plymouth at the age of more than three score and ten. 

Thomas Logan was one among the first doctors to permanently settle 
in the county, having located here in the summer of 1836. Like most of 
the doctors of his time he had never had the opportunity of thorough med- 
ical training, and the knowledge he had on the subject of materia mcdica 
was mostly such as he had acquired through the medium of practical experi- 
ence. There was one fortunate thing for the doctors in the early settlement 
and that was, most of the sickness was occasioned by malarial troubles 
which were brought on by the clearing up of the new country and the 
evaporation of the swamps and marshes, and they early learned the rem- 
edies to apply to cure them. Very few of these early doctors knew anything 
about surgery, and when they had a case of this kind that was very difficult 
they sent a messenger for Dr. Fitch at Logansport, or Dr. Teegarden 
or some other surgeon of La Porte. Bleeding was a favorite remedy in 
those days for nearly all the diseases prevalent. Frequently half a pint 
of blood would be taken from a patient, and sometimes more, and it is a 
wonder that death did not result more often than it did. "Cupping"' was 
also frequently resorted to, for what particular reason the laity never was 
informed. Certain it was that the good expected never materialized, and 
in the course of time the practice was abandoned. When these remedies 
failed then "calomel and jalap"' were resorted to, and the patient was 
salivated, his gums became cankered, and often the teeth would get loose 
and frequently drop out, and in many such cases the remedy was worse 
than the disease. But after all "the old time doctor" filled his place and 
filled it well. The very presence of the doctor in the sickroom brought con- 
solation to the patient and family that was often as efficacious as the rem- 
edies he prescribed. He placed his soft hand on the forehead ; examined 
the tongue, felt the pulse, made many inquiries in relation to the patient"s 
previous physical condition, and with a smile on his face would say: "You 
are not in a dangerous condition ; don"t be alarmed ; I will give you some 
medicine that will bring you out all right in a short time." And frequently 
the patient would begin to get better as soon as the doctor had gone. As 
this tribute is written — 

The old time doctor rises into view, 
A well read man lie was; and much he knew, 
For he was college bred; and in the eyes 
Of simple folks no man could be more wise. 
He had a sheep-skin in his office hung. 
Which, like a banner to the breezes flung. 
Proclaimed to all the world his wondrous lore, 
^ Endorsed by learned men full half a score. 

His modest sign that hung above the gate, 
Failed not his many virtues to relate: 
' ' Physician, Surgeon, Accoucheur, ' ' in one ; 
And yet with these the list is but begun. 
He knew and numbered all the human bones; 


And well he knew all geologic stones ; 

He knew how blood coursed swiftly through the vc 

He knew the cause of summer drought and rains; 

He cured his patients of each threatening ill, 

And matched the parson in polemic skill; 

In politics, philosophy and art. 

He never failed to take a ready part. 

The master of the village school, his power 

In argument acknowledged ; and so, hour 

By hour, they sat in hot dispute; the crowd. 

Meanwhile, each disputant applauded loud. 

But these were byplays in the doctor's life, 

With other conflicts he was daily rife; 

For fell disease and death rode on the air, 

And found their ready victims everywhere. 

Against these foes, there was no known defense 

Except the Doctor 's wise omnipotence. 

And so, what 'er his patients might befall, 

He ready stood to answer every call. 

On ambling horse he rode the country o 'er, 

And carried hope and help from door to door. 

Wher'er he went, to gentle babe or sire, 

Pain fled away, and fever cooled its fire. 

Of modern healing art he little knew. 

His work was' plain, and what he had to do 

His trusting patients quietly endured. 

Though oft uncertain if he killed or cured. 

His lancet was his faithful right-hand man; 

For, at its touch, the crimson current ran. 

Till blood, like water, flowed on every side. 

And every cabin was in crimson dyed. 

His massive saddle-bags with drugs o'er ran; 

But calomel and jalap led the van. 

His dose the palate <Ud not always please; 

liis pills were large, and bitter were his teas; 

His drastic mixtures were no idle play. 

And his emetics brooked no long delay. 

In short, his victims, like some luckless craft. 

Were driven amain and swept afore and aft. 

And if at last they died, there was no one 

Dared say, ' ' They died from having nothing done. 

He promptly, bravely, took his part and place; 

And every station did his genius grace. 

Heroic man! He did his duty well; 

He fought for others till at last he fell. 

Above his grave we need no column raise, 

He lives immortal in our love and praise! 


The exact date of the organization of the Marshall Comity Medical 
Society cannot be ascertained, as no records are in existence so far as is 
known. There was, however, a medical society in Marshall county as early 
as 1855, and probably earlier than that. In the Marshall County Democrat 
of April 3, 1856, appears the medical fee bill, which it was stated was 
adopted December 5, 1855. The rates of medical services were compared 


with the fees charged by the La Porte Medical Society of 1852. The fol- 
lowing, so far as it relates to ]\larshall county, is given as a matter of local 
history : 

The Fee Bill of the Marshall County Medical Society, Adopted December 5, 1855. 

Mr. Editor: — ^As this society has adopted a uniform system of charges, and be- 
lieves it a duty to the public and themselves to acquaint the citizens of Marshall county 
with the fee bill, and lest an erroneous opinion should be entertained, we would state 
that the charges are about the same as they have been in this locality for the last three 
years, and about the same as the La Porte fee bill, adopted June 26, 1852, when every- 
thing was very cheap in comparison to the present prices. 

We give a few of the leading items which cover most of the practice in this locality, 
referring the reader to the fee bill for specific diseases and surgery: 


Advice and medicine at office $1 and $3.00 

Extracting tooth 50 

Visit and medicine in town 1.00 

When more than one, by request, each 1.00 

Night visits after 9 p. m 1.50 

!Xight visits in the country, one mile 2.00 

>;ight visits in country, per mile after first. 75 

Visits, per mile, day time, from 6 a. m. to 9 p. m 1.00 

Every additional mile 50 

Consultation in town $5 and 10.00 

Jlidwif ery — natural case in town 5.00 

Detention after six hours, per hour 50 

Cases requiring forceps, turning or extracting with 

crotchet $10 to 30.00 

Delivering placenta 5.00 

Attending case of abortion $5 to 10.00 

Twin cases 7.50 

Mileage in obstetric cases and consultation half that of ordinary visits. 
Published by order of the Society, 

Samuel Higginboth.a.m, Secretarv. 
Plymouth, April 7, 1856. 

Only the name of Dr. Higginbotham appears to the advertisement, 
and it is not known who the members were. There were in Plymouth at 
that time the following practicing physicians: Theodore A. Lemon. Rufus 
Brown, Samuel Higginbotham, Joshua W. Bennett, Joshua D. Gray, John J. 
Vinall, Charles West, Xehemiah Sherman, Jared E. Brooke. Dr. Brooke is 
still a resident of Plymouth, but has long since retired from active practice. 
He is the only one of those named that is living. Dr. West was an 
"Eclectic" and not being recognized as "regular" was not eligible to mem- 
bership. Dr. Vinall, being a homeopathist and a new arrival, did not prob- 
ably belong to the society. All the others named were probably members. 
Dr. Vinall, who was a very prominent citizen and physician for more than 
a third of a century prior to his death, located in Plymouth about the 
first of April, 1856. The Democrat of April 3, 1856, announcing his arrival, 

"Dr. J. J. Vinall, homeopathic physician, has located among us. Home- 
opathy has established itself as a very successful fact in the cure of 'ills 
that flesh is heir to,' and the merits of cold water treatment admit of no 


doubt. The two combined have shaken the faith of some of the most 
eminent old school physicians of the present day, and many of them are 
using the cold water freely in their practice. Dr. Vinall comes to us well 
recommended, and he looks and talks like a gentleman who makes no false 
pretensions. We hope that he will meet with the success that his school of 
practice and his own merits deserve." 

Dr. Vinall was the first physician of the school of medicine which he 
practiced who had the courage to "hang out his shingle" at the county seat. 
He met with a good deal of ridicule from those who had no faith in a 
few little pills dissolved in two glass tumblers of water and two or three drops 
taken alternately as many times a day. The "little pills" were hooted at as 
having little or no medical merit. Dr. Lemon, the oldest practitioner here 
then, in order to test the statement that there was no merit in the system, 
proposed to swallow a whole vial full of the pills at one time, and if he 
felt any serious effects from it he would acknowledge he was wrong and 
go out of the practice. This of course was a "bluff," and the test was 
never tried. For a considerable time after the doctor located in Plymouth 
he was called "Dr. Little Pills," but without attempting retaliation he 
pursued the even tenor of his way, and finally built up a large and lucrative 

Dr. T. A. Borton located in Plymouth, Indiana, in the fall of 1858, 
and began at once the practice of medicine, which he has continued without 
intermission to the present time, now about fifty years. He is the oldest 
physician in continuous practice, and easily takes his place as the Nestor 
of the medical profession in Marshall county. 

In a historical sketch of Argos, 1890, appears this item: 

"The Marshall County Medical Society was organized at Argos, May 
13, 1878, with the following charter members: Drs. Samuel W. Gould, 
Reason B. Eaton, J. H. Wilson, J. S. Leland, F. Stevens and J. T. Doke. 
The objects of the society were stated to be for the purpose of advancing 
medical knowledge, and to elevate professional character." 

Whether this was the basis and foundation of the present Marshall 
County jMedical Society the historian has been unable to find out. 

The following are the officers and members of the jMarshall County 
Medical Society at the close of 1907: 

Officers — J. W. Eidson, president; H. P. Preston, vice-president; 
Novetas B. Aspinall, secretary ; L. D. Elv, treasurer. 

Censors— F. E. Radclitf, H. H. Tallman, O. A. Rea, Novetas B. 
Aspinall, delegate. 

Members — Novetas B. Aspinall, Plymouth ; T. Artemas Borton, Ply- 
mouth ; Lorenzo D. Ely, Plymouth ; A. C. Holtzendorfi^, Plymouth ; C. F. 
Holtzendorfl:', Plymouth ; D. C. Knott, Plymouth ; S. C. Loring, Plymouth ; 
H. P. Preston, Plymouth ; R. C. Stevens, Plymouth ; J. W. Eidson, Bour- 
bon ; Luther Johnson, Bourbon ; F. E. Radcliff , Bourbon ; Samuel W. Gould, 
Argos; C. E. Nusbaum, Bremen; G. F. Wahl, Bremen; E. E. Parker, 
Culver ; O. A. Rea, Culver ; B. W. S. Wiseman, Culver ; Samuel R. Ritchie, 
Donelson; H. H. Tallman, La Paz; A. A. Thompson, Tyner. 



Nothing has added so much to the building up of the county and the 
perpetuity of its history as the newspapers of the county. Without them 
it would have been impossible to have preserved the most important events in 
its history. It is, therefore, entirely proper that they should have a promi- 
nent place in this history. 

The Plymouth Journal. 

It has been stated that the first newspaper published in Marshall county 
was called The Plymouth Journal. Although diligent search and inquiry has 
been made, no reliable information has so far been obtained. A correspond- 
ent writing to the Plymouth Pilot, over the signature of "Allen," in Novem- 
ber, 185 1, who after congratulating the editor on his success that far in 
the publication of the Pilot, incidentally refers to the Journal as follows: 

"Many have doubted your success, but before me is the forty-first 
number of the first volume of the Pilot, and from the catalogue of adver- 
tisements, as well as the general appearance of the paper, I should think 
your prospects good. The Plymouth Journal survived but for a day, as 
it were ; whig in politics, it died in time to be buried by the proper political 
party in 1845. I am informed since that day the county has been demo- 
cratic. I trust- she will so remain, always selecting men for office who are 
honest, temperate in all things (teetotallers J and prompt in the discharge 
of their official duties." 

Several years ago the writer made inquiry of all the pioneers of Ply- 
mouth in regard to the Journal, but no one could remember anything 
about it. If there was such a paper it must have been, what few numbers 
were issued, published about 1844-45, "^ which latter year the correspondent 
says it died. 

The first paper the writer has any account of as having been pub- 
lished, or rather circulated here, in 183Q and 1840, was Tlie La Porte Whig, 
and Porter, Lake and Marshall Counties Advertiser. It was published by 
A. P. Andrew, Jr., at $2.50 per year. The only advertiser in Plymouth 
whose business card appeared in the paper was the following: 

"R. L. Farnsworth, attorney and counsellor at law, Plymouth, Marshall 
county, Indiana, November 3, 1838." 

Another advertisement appeared in which Samuel Burson of La Porte, 
March 18, 1840, advertised "that large and commodious tavern, known as 
'the Yellow River House,' in the town of Plymouth, Marshall county, 
Indiana." The hotel was stated to be one of the best stands in the state. 
Frank Daws was then the tavern keeper. The paper contained but little 
local news. Its pages were almost entirely filled with matter relating to 
the presidential campaign. It advocated the claims of Gen. Harrison, and 
kept standing at its masthead a cut of log cabin, which the editor stated 
had been engraved by Leonard Wilcox, the gunsmith. Mr. Wilcox shortly 
after that date moved to Plymouth, where he lived until his death many 
vears ago. 


The Plymouth Pilot. 

The first number of the Plymouth Pilot, the first paper regularly estab- 
lished in Marshall county, was" issued April i6, 1851, by John O. Howell, 
editor and proprietor, who brought the material to Plymouth from Roch- 
ester, where he had published a paper for three months called The Rochester 
Republican. The first issue of the Pilot was numbered 13, and the editor 
gave the following as the reason why it was made No. 13 instead of No. I, 
as it should have been : 

"The reader will perceive that our paper is marked No. 13. This is 
done to preserve the connection regularly on with the numbers we published 
in Rochester, a great many continuing to take the Pilot who subscribed 
for our paper when it was called The Rochester Republican, the last num- 
ber of which was No. 12." 

In giving his reasons for removing from Rochester he said: 

"First. One-third of our patronage was in jNIarshall county, which 
would have been withdrawn from us, preparations having been made to 
establish a press here. 

"Second. The telegraph affords us facilities Rochester did not possess. 

"Third. Our subscription list is larger and steadily increasing. The 
county printing is more valuable here than in Fulton county, as well as job 
work and advertising." 

The Pilot was a six-column folio, was neatly printed, and was alto- 
gether a very creditable publication, mechanically, for those days, before 
the printers art had arrived at its present state of perfection. Electrotype 
plates had not then been invented, neither had type setting machines, and all 
the type on the paper had to be set by hand. 

in his salutatory the editor said: 

"The Plymouth Pilot is before you. How do you like it? It comes to 
you not on mammoth wings like some of its cotemporaries, but brings you, 
we trust, although not so much, at least a history of passing events as 
welcome to your taste as those furnished you by its longer brethren. But, 
says one stranger, what's your politics? We reply: They are democratic, 
of the Jeffersonian and Jackson school. Our democracy is not to be 
appealed, corrupted or compromised. It knows no baseness, it cowers to no 
danger; it oppresses no weakness; destructive only of despotism; it is the 
sole conservator of liberty, labor and property. It is the sentiment of free- 
dom, of equal rights, of equal obligations — the law of nature pervading the 
law of the land." 

Mr. Flowell was young and vigorous then, and it was hard for him to 
settle down to the realities of life and content himself with the monotonous 
routine of newspaper work so far as it was then developed. In an inter- 
view with the writer of these sketches a few years ago, he said he came 
from Wabash to Rochester about 1849, where later he established the Roch- 
ester Republican (not republican politically, as the republican party was 
not then in existence, but in the broader sense). The Republican did not 
prosper very well, he said, and some Plymouth people, he had forgotten 
who, offered him $200 to move his office to Plymouth and he accepted the 
offer and located here. The office was opened in the basement of the 
east room of a building owned by A. L. Wheeler, on lot No. i, corner of 


Michigan and La Porte streets. When the present brick structure was 
erected on that lot in 1865, the frame building in which the printing office 
was located was moved to the east end of the lot, where it stood for some 
time. The room in which the paper was printed was still there, but in a 
very dilapidated condition. The editor's sanctum sanctorum had been 
deserted, and it looked as though the printer's devil had been left in charge 
and had played the devil with the furniture and fixtures generally. Mr. 
Howell while here on a visit while it remained there, with the writer went 
down to take a look at it. "Ah me," said he, "nearly half a century gone 
and here is the old room still. How many strange and curious stories of 
bygone days could that old room tell if it could only talk. The old friends 
that used to visit me there — where are they all ? Where is Dr. T. A. Lemon, 
John S'. Doddridge, Dick Rudd, Doc Brown, Ed Lewis and W. G. Pomeroy ?" 

"All dead," he was told. 

"You don't say so," he replied. "And where is Jake Klinger and Jons 
Brownlee, Greenville P. Cherry, Dave Vinnedge and Enoch Belangee?" 

"They are all dead, too." 

"Well, well! And where are Drs. Bennett and Sherman and Lyman 
Griffin and Higginbotham, and Levi Barber and old John Cougle, A. L. 
Wheeler, H. B. Pershing and Uncle Billy Patterson?" 

"They have all passed away and gone to dust, too." 

"Well, it beats all ! Is there anybody living around here that I used 
to know when I came in 185 1?" 

"Not more than half a dozen who were doing business here at the 
time you came," he was informed, "are still here, and even they have laid 
down the burdens of life and are waiting for the end to come." 

"Well," he said, "it beats all what havoc the scythe of time has made 
among my old friends of more than half a century ago. 
I feel like one ■nlio treads alone 
Some banquet hall deserted, 
MTjose garlands dead, whose lights are shed, 
And all but he departed. ' ' 

He was a fanciful writer on occasion, but drew mostly on his vivid 
imagination for his facts. After publishing a notice entitled "Cupid's 
Market," he addressed the following appeal to the single men to join the 
marriage feast: 

"Our readers will learn that 'Cupid's Market' is an invitation to the 
marriage feast, and that they cannot get a glimpse of the Elysian shades 
except through the golden network of the marriage altar. W'omen are by 
nature a great deal better than men. They come to us at morn with rose 
and perfume to gladden our hearts ; and eve is ushered in with sweet strains 
from their golden harps. In the hour of sickness and death they hover 
around us the angels of love and mercy, to sooth our parting hour and 
prepare our souls for eternal rest. Choose, then, a happy and virtuous life 
— a woman of high literary and religious attainments. She will be the 
brightest star of your destiny — a perpetual sunshine in your pathway. 
Your daily walks will be through the flowery arcades of virtue and sacred 
temples of unrivaled beauty. At eve your prayers will mingle with hers, 
and pearly-faced angels will surround your coach and soothe you to sleep 
with celestial strains." 


The foregoing is given to show what Plymouth's first editor could do 
if he needed two or three sticks full to fill up with. His description of 
married life was simply a day dream, that realization would cause to vanish 
like mist before the rising sun. As he was not married at that time but 
took unto himself a wife not long afterwards, it is quite likely if he had 
continued in the editorial chair it would not have been very long until he 
could have written in an entirely different strain on "the beauties of mar- 
ried life." 

The editor closed his editorial career at Rochester preparatory to moving 
to Plymouth by inserting the following under the head of "Wanted :" 

' ' I wish I had a little wife, 
A little stove and fire, 
I 'd hug her like a lump of gold, 
And let no one come nigh her. 

I 'd spend my days in happiness, 

I 'd vegetate in clover, 
And when J died I 'd shut my eyes, 

Lie down and roll right over. ' ' 

The Plymouth Banner. 

The Pilot did not prove a paying investment, and Mr. Howell deter- 
mined to get rid of it on the best terms he could. He succeeded in selling 
it to Richard Corbaley, March i, 1852. Mr. Corbaley changed the name 
of the paper and sent out Vol. i. No. i, of The Plymouth Banner, and also 
changed its politics from democrat to whig. Mr. Corbaley had no literary 
training, and his time being occupied with other matters he made no attempt 
at writing anything of a literary nature, or anything outside of the usual 
routine of country newspaper work. 

Mr. Corbaley was clerk of the court at the time, had no practical knowl- 
edge of the printing business, and the work of publishing the paper was 
done by journeyman printers, of whom Wallace Stout was the foreman. 
The "rollers" always worked poorly, the type was badly worn and bruised, 
the tympan sheets were always out of fix, and as a matter of course when 
the paper made its appearance it was not the most perfect specimen of 
newspaper printing. All this time Mr. Corbaley was looking for a purchaser 
for his paper, whom he found in William J. Burns, of La Fayette, to whom 
he sold it July 28. 1853, having occupied the "dizzie heights of editorial 
greatness" about one year and three months. 

Mr. Burns continued as editor and publisher one year and four months. 
He was an educated newspaper man, having been engaged in the business 
most of his life. He told what he had to say in an easy, off-hand way, and 
all in all published a fair local paper. In reply to an article extolling Schuyler 
Colfax, published in an exchange, he was moved to say, "During his whole 
life, Schuyler Colfax has served in one, and only one legislative body — the 
constitutional convention. He is simply a newspaper made article, and 
principally superintended the job himself." This sounds very strangely 
now since Mr. Colfax served six terms as a member of congress, speaker 
of the house of representatives, and vice-president of the United States. 
After Mr. Colfax retired from political life, he engaged in lecturing, and 


in one of his lecturing tours in Minnesota, in hurrying to the railroad sta- 
tion to catch his train, died of heart failure from over-exertion. 

December 4, 1854, the Banner passed into the hands of Thomas B. 
Thompson. ]\Ir. Thompson was deputy sherifif at the time, and became 
interested in its management on political grounds. Two or three weeks 
later James M. Wickizer became associated with Mr. Thompson, and Wm. 
G. Pomeroy was announced as the editor. None of these men had any 
knowledge of the newspaper business, and having made a failure in its pub- 
lication, after owning it about four months again sold it to 

William J. Burns, March 22, 1855, who continued as its editor one year 
and four months. On the fifteenth of November, 1855, his paper contained 
the following item: "The Marshall County Democrat will make its first 
appearance today." 

July 28, 1856, Mr. Burns sold the office to John Greer, representing 
the republican central committee. With several others connected with 
him, he managed to keep the paper going until October 9, 1856, when it was 
sold to Ignatius Mattingly, of Harrison county. Mr. Mattingly changed 
the name of the paper to the 

Marshall County Republican 
and issued the first number as No. i. Vol. i. At the time he took editorial 
charge of the paper the Buchanan-Fremont presidential campaign was on in 
full blast, and it was not long until the Democrat and Republican were 
indulging in a hot political wrangle, which, however, soon passed away. 

Of all those who have conducted papers in Marshall county, Ignatius 
Mattingly was undoubtedly the one who will the longest be remembered of 
the score of editors who have acted in that capacity during the past half 
century. He was sensible, dignified, conservative, educated, a smooth and 
polished writer, and an editor who had mastered the art of knowing what 
to leave out of his paper as well as what to put in it. 

Mr. Mattingly's sons, Wm. H. H. and Moses B. Mattingly, became con- 
nected with the Republican as local editors during war times, as did also D. 
T. Phillips and John D. Devor. Mr. Mattingly left the Republican June 
4, 1868. He was succeeded by D. Porter Pomeroy. John S. Bender 
became associated in the editorial management of the Republican August 
13, 1868. April I, 1869, Mr. Pomeroy left the paper and nothing appeared 
in it to show what the cause of his leaving was. Mr. Bender then became 
"sole proprietor," and continued its publication until July, 1869, when 
Charles F. Belangee and William M. Nichols purchased the ofiice of Mr. 
Bender and secured the services of D. T. Phillips as associate editor. Mr. 
Belangee died September 10, 1869, only two months after he had become 
connected with the paper. The entire management of the office then fell 
upon Mr. Nichols. D. T. Phillips severed his editorial connection with the 
paper November 10, 1870, and Mr. H. L. Phillips became associated with 
Mr. Nichols as one of the publishers. March 21, 1871. Mr. Nichols retired 
from the paper, leaving H. L. Phillips in full control. He continued its 
publication until April 20, 1871, when the press and material reverted to 
John S. Bender. January 4, 1872, Air. Bender sold the office to John 
Millikan, who published it until June 17, 1875, when he sold it to Jasper 
Packard. Mr. Packard, being a resident of La Porte and editor of the 


La Porte Chronicle, placed W. W. Smith in charge, who became business 
manager and local editor. He severed his connection with the paper October 
I, 1875, upon the purchase by Mr. Packard of the Mail and Magnet, who 
then became manager and local editor. During a portion of Mr. Packard's 
editorial career, Henry D. Stevens was connected with the paper. December 
28, 1876, David E. Caldwell purchased the paper and published it until 
February 21, 1878, when he disposed of it to J. \V. Siders and Walter 
L. Piper, both of IHinois. i\Ir. Piper left the paper October 10, 1878. and 
was succeeded by Howard Brooke. Mr. Brooke retired in October, 1879, 
and was succeeded by his brother, Ed S. Brooke, who, in connection with 
Mr. Siders, continued the publication of the paper until July 18, 1890, when 
Air. Siders disposed of his interest to Ed S. Brooke and William G. Hen- 

In May, 1897, Ed S. Brooke sold his interest to Rollo B. Oglesbee, who, 
with W. G. Hendricks, continued the publication of the paper until May, 
1898, when R. B. Oglesbee sold out to W. G. Hendricks, who then became 
.sole owner. Mr. Hendricks, October 10, 1901, changed the name from the 
Plyvwuth Republican to the Flyinouth Tribune, under which name it has 
since been published. 

The first daily newspaper published in Plymouth was issued by Ed S. 
Brooke, from the office of the Plymouth Republican, in April, 1896. It was 
called The Pl\mouth Evening Nezvs, and was continued until the name 
of the weekly Republican was changed to the Plymouth Weekly Tribune. 
when the daily was changed to The Plymouth Daily Tribune, and as such 
it is issued at the present time. 

The Alarshall County Democrat. 
The Marshall County Democrat, an eight-column folio, weekly, demo- 
cratic in politics, was established by Thomas McDonald and his two sons, 
Daniel and Piatt McDonald, the 'first number being issued November 15, 
1855. with the senior proprietor as editor. The office was located in the 
building on the east half of lot 46, in the original plat of Plymouth, now 
owned and occupied by Dr. Ely, immediately west of the State bank build- 
ing. The building had formerly been occupied as a carriage house, and 
was built by A. L. Wheeler, who owned the lot on which it stood. The 
material for the office was purchased in Cincinnati, and transported in 
wagons from Peru, the then nearest railroad station. November 13, 1856, 
A. C. Thompson and Piatt McDonald leased the office and published the 
paper, Thomas McDonald continuing as editor until November 12. 1857. 
Daniel McDonald became local editor February 5, 1857, and continued as 
such until November 12, 1857. At this date Thomas McDonald gave the 
office to his sons, after which the paper was published in the name of 
McDonald & Brother. November 26. 1857, upon retiring from the editorial 
chair, Thomas McDonald said : "With an entire democratic government ; 
with the wounds of 'Bleeding Kansas' healed and the people about to 
make their own government ; with success everywhere of the principles we 
have advocated ; with the worst of financial crashes past and the current 
of trade setting in in our favor; with universal peace and unlxjunded pros- 
perity around us, we shall leave our patrons and readers to the care of 
younger heads and more ready hands, and hope their bairns' bairn may 


see no check to our nation's onward movement, nor clouds overshadow the 
brightness around us/' 

McDonald & Brother ended their connection with the paper August 
II, 1859. William J. Burns purchased the office and, being unable to pay 
for it, transferred it to A. C. Thompson January 26, i860. No paper was 
published from December i, 1859, to January 26, i860. Mr. Thompson 
changed the name from The Marshall County Democrat to The Plymouth 
Weekly Democrat, Vol. i, No. i, and said: "We make our hasty bow 
and consider ourselves in." April 11, 1861, he sold the office to Thomas 
and Piatt McDonald, and in his valedictory the spirit moved him to solilo- 
quise as follows : "Coming events are casting their shadows before, and 
the country stands amazed, confounded, and paralyzed. God only knows 
what is in store for us ; but whatever it may be, it is certainly of such a 
nature that it will puzzle the brain and grieve the heart of all philanthropists 
and patriots. May the God of our fathers save us from the horrors of civil 

That was a remarkably correct forecasting of coming events. Fort 
Sumter was fired on about that time, and "the horrors of civil war" were 
immediately upon us. Everyone knows the death and destruction that 
occurred during the next five years, and the disastrous effects of the Civil 
war which are felt even to this day, now nearly half a century since. 

April 18, 1861, the paper appeared with Thomas and Piatt McDonald 
proprietors, Piatt McDonald editor, and John McDonald local editor. 

July 17, 1862, D. E. \'an \'alkenburgh purchased the office, and John 
G. Osborne became associated with the paper as editor-in-chief, the propri- 
etor acting as local editor. Mr. Osborne left the paper November 13, 1862, 
and Mr. Van Valkenburgh became editor as well as proprietor. The war 
excitement was still raging with unabated fury ; martial law, or what was 
about the same thing, had been declared in Indiana ; "drafting into the 
army" had become what was declared to be a necessary war measure, and 
a public man, and especially an editor who criticised in any way the acts 
of the military authorities, hardly knew whether his soul was his own or 
not. In April, 1863, Gen. Milo B. Hascall, of Goshen, had been appointed 
to command the "district" of Indiana, and as such commander issued what 
was called "Order No. 9," virtually taking away the freedom of the press 
and subjecting the people to military rule. As the editor of the Democrat, 
Mr. Van Valkenburgh gave the order the benefit of his circulation and 
commented on the general in the following language : 

"Brig.-Gen. Hascall is a donkey — an unmitigated, unqualified donkey, 
and his bray is loud, long and harmless; merely offensive to the ear; 
merely tends to create a temporary irritation !" 

This was more than Gen. Hascall could stand, and not long afterwards 
he sent a squad of soldiers to Plymouth and one morning, about 4 o'clock, 
Mr. Van Valkenburgh was found in his sleeping apartment, arrested and 
taken to Indianapolis, and from thence was ordered before Gen. Burnside 
at Cincinnati, who after a few minutes' examination decided that the offense 
was not very serious, and discharged Mr. Van \'alkenburgh with the 
admonition never to call Gen. Hascall a donkey again. 

Mr. Van Valkenburgh continued as editor until October 22, 1863, when 
he disposed of the office to John G. Osborne, who controlled it until May 


9. 1865, when he sold it to S. L. Harvey, but still remained on the paper 
as one of the editors. Mr. Harvey sold it to John McDonald October 31, 
1867, who conducted it until July 2, 1868, when failing health compelled 
him to abandon the business. He sold to Michael W. Downey, A. C. 
Thompson and D. E. Van Valkenburgh. Mr. Van Valkenburgh took 
charge of the paper J^Iarch 25, 1869, when Piatt McDonald again purchased 
an interest, and the new firm kept it going until June 12, 1873, when Mr. 
AIcDonald made the following announcement : 

"Our connection with the Democrat, editorially and proprietary, ceases 
today. Let not the suddenness with which an editorial light has been 
snuffed shock your nerves, dear reader, for the thing has been done before 
and may be done again. We go with no grumblings and few complaints, 
conscious of having labored with good intentions toward our fellow man, 
and in turn of being the recipient of kind treatment from all with whom 
our business has brought us in contact. We bequeath whatever of good 
name we have to our family ; our fortune to our creditors, and our pencil, 
scissors and paste-pot to our successor." 

Mr. Van Valkenburgh continued to edit the paper until October 9, 
1873, when he sold an interest in the office to William Geddess. Messrs. 
Van Valkenburgh and Geddess continued the publication until July 2, 1874, 
when Piatt ^McDonald again purchased the interest of Mr. Van \'alkenburgh, 
who then retired from the editorial chair and to private life. Mr. Geddess 
sold his interest to Mr. McDonald, In 1874 Mr. McDonald sold one-half 
interest to his brother, Daniel McDonald, June sth. Xew material was 
added, including a cylinder press, steam boiler, and other fi.xtures, and on 
September 23, 1875, the following announcement was made: 

"This issue of the Democrat is printed on a cylinder press by steam 
power — the first newspaper ever printed in the county with the best and 
latest improved machinery. Our new steam engine, manufactured expressly 
for us by William J. Adams, machinist, of this city, was put in position last 
Saturday, and on Alonday the first side of the Democrat was printed. To 
say that we are proud of this new addition